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The Mythology of ancient Greece and Italy

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Title:
The Mythology of ancient Greece and Italy for the use of schools
Added title page title:
Keightley's mythology
Creator:
Keightley, Thomas, 1789-1872
Brooke, William Henry, 1772-1860
Whittaker & Co ( Publisher )
Taylor & Francis
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London
Publisher:
Whittaker and Co.
Manufacturer:
Taylor and Francis
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Language:
English
Edition:
7th ed.
Physical Description:
xii, 232, [8] p., [1] leaf of plates : ill. ; 15 cm.

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Textbooks -- 1852 ( rbgenr )
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non-fiction ( marcgt )
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England -- London
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juvenile ( marctarget )

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General Note:
"The Frontispiece etched, and the Woodcuts from Drawings, by W. H. Brooke, F.S.A." -- t.p. verso
General Note:
Includes index: p. 223-232.
General Note:
Publisher's advertisement: <8> p. at end.
Funding:
Brittle Books Program
Statement of Responsibility:
by Thomas Keightley.

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THE

MYTHOLOGY

OF

ANCIENT GREECE AND ITALY:

FOR THE USE OF SCHOOLS,

BY

THOMAS KEIGHTLEY,

AUTHOR OF

HISTORIES OF GREECE AND ROME; OUTLINES OF HISTORY,
ETC. ETC.

SEVENTH EDITION.

| LONDON :
WHITTAKER AND CO., AVE MARIA LANE. ©
1852.





The Frontispiece etched, and the Woodcuts from Drawings,
by W. H. Brooxg, F.S.A.



PREFACE.

LAAAADAAASASBFAY

THERE are things, which, though they may
not come under the head of Useful Know-
ledge, require to be known.—Such are the
renowned histories of Whittington and his
Cat, Jack the Giant-killer, Bluebeard, Tom
Thumb, and other heroes of the nursery.
Every one is supposed to be familiar with
them, and they are frequent subjects of al-
lusion both in writing and in conversation.
The legends of Grecian Mythology have
at least this mimor claim to attention. We
cannot open a Poet, ancient or modern, with-
out meeting them, or allusions to them; and
the moment we enter a picture-gallery, we
find ourselves in the midst of the gods and



vl PREFACE.

heroes of Greece.—It is surely, then, not need-
less to know something about them.

But Mythology has higher claims. It is
closely connected with History and Philoso-
phy; and an acquaintance with its principles
is indispensable to a philosophic historian or
critic, and useful even to the theologian.

And the study of Mythology is not with-
out its attractions. As it is in the works
of the Poets that its legends have chiefly
been preserved, the search after them is one
of the most agreeable occupations in which
we can engage; and as very few of them are
devoid of meaning, the tracing out their sense
and origin yields adequate employment to the
very highest powers of the mind. Surely no
one will venture to say that the early theology
and history of such a people as the Greeks is
unworthy the attention of any, however ele-
vated in genius and in intellect. To me, the

study of Mythology is a source of high grati-



PRERACE. vii

fication, and I cheerfully devote my humble
abilities to its cultivation and diffusion.

In my larger work I have endeavoured to
exhibit Mythology in this its more dignified
form, and thither I must refer those who are
curious to know the real origin and signifi-
cation of its various legends. The present
little volume is purely narrative and intro-
ductory ; for explanations, unless when given
orally, prove in general rather irksome to
young persons :—the proofs of everything
advanced in it will be found in my other
work.

One advantage, and that no inconsiderable
one, I think I may venture to promise those
who will derive their first mythological ideas
from this little book—they will have nothing
to unlearn in their future progress. Every
thing is given on the best authority.

As the following pages are chiefly designed
for those who have not commenced reading



Vill PREFACE.

Greek, I have employed the Latin names of
the Deities; placing, however, the Greek
names beside them; and I have frequently
followed Ovid in preference to the Greek
Poets. As a further aid, I have given the
translation of such names as are significant ;
out when the meaning is only conjectural, it
is intimated by a mark of interrogation (?). I
have also accented the proper names through-
out. It may be remarked as a general rule,
that in proper names the final e and es are
to be sounded; thus, Danae and Pleiades are
words of three syllables.

But I have a higher object in view. Ladies
often complain that they are deterred from
the study of Mythology by the dread of
having their delicacy offended. In my wri-
tings on this subject, I can assure them, they
will have nothing to apprehend; and few
things could afford me higher gratification;
than the consciousness of having enabled my



PREFACE. ix

fair countrywomen to view pictures, and read
our own Poets and those of other countries,
with greater knowledge and consequently with
greater pleasure.

The Woodcuts are partly taken from An-
tiques, and partly from the classic designs of
Flaxman. The Frontispiece represents a resto-
ration of the Temple of Theseus at Athens,
with the Acropolis and the Parthenon in the
background.

Two chapters have been added in this
Second Edition, and all the errors in the pre-
ceding one corrected. It is now as perfect
as I believe I could make it. It has been
objected that I have not given explanation
enough. This I regard as the chief merit
of the book; for I should have explained on
some system, and it is not fair to pre-occupy
the youthful mind with any. My own system
will be found in my large work; here I give



xX PREFACE.

only the narratives and ideas of the ancient
poets, and each reader or teacher can apply
the system he deems best.



No change of consequence has been made in
the Third Edition. A different account of the
Titans will be found in the Second Edition of
my large Mythology; but I have thought it
best to retain the common account here.

7;
London, Oct. 7, 1838.



CONTENTS.





Part I.—THE GODS.

Chap, Page
hie ~epsieccane ace Me SEL ALORALE 1
II. The Grecian Gods in PEE then nncebincsnduncnaa 2

III. Grecian Ideas of the World .......... reiwiecnniol oo

Pee. MINN sisceticsiidicer secvivelinacisy tous, teiaciae 9
Di I setae a. ee psnkspviinabinesh 12

VI. The Titans SID cittivienvececctanieane 2 14

er NNN acide fac ce ee 20

VILL. Neptune—Poseidon .......0....cesseeceee00...5-.., 28

Te IN csc co i nr ae cee 31
ee MMM nisiaiescesisctosiocssicicuc cue 36

ee MU i inscictintiostsrenicuse 39

AIF. Vulcan— Hephaestus ....ccsccccccccssssseosse... 41

UE, NE ITD Sos sosrrécsscnccececsacccaen ot 43
Bs TU MOONEE ss. .0s.0ccessessvscossvoveces, 50
RV. Venus—Aphrodite ..............cccccceceseses..... 53
ne eS 56
XVII. Minerva—Pallas Athéne....0..................... 58
XVIII. Mercury—Hermes .............006.... i énabibiaiaiil 6]
XIX. Ceres and Préserpine—Demeter and Persé.
IE Mais hibit csdnkensupasepecranwissaas cane 64
XX. Bacchus—Diony’sus .....cecccccccsssocecceseeee, . 69
XXI. Sister-Goddesses ............00..c0000... sxeneiiinne 72



Xll CONTENTS.



Cha
XXII. Themis, Iris, Hebe, Peon, and other Deities .. a
SS WH GUE EPUIINOD Sats cvtckccic\ overs scorteccucns oe
ig a so vvced ccanemamnelee 86
XXV. The Water-Deities ...... peek lend delddees diceneees 89
RT EEE SHUI 6, 0nd cienctcccaeveceetnesceboscssacn 92
XXVII. Italian Deities ...... deci sectuberegueeuenteia i ae
Part II1.—THE HEROES.

Chap. Page
ee SO Ge OEE concce ns cscengcosedensspessnennia 101
SPOUT ili ceils snerseinireieiatiienelidineindauiin 102
III. Deucdlion and Pyrrha..........cccscccscoosseses we. 105
Pe PE tichichnstescrscsdecverees onnesbeinentseonnaminails 107
Pek IND cacenescinerecesstcotserss hattinusnedeaiivest 113
Th PIR: op esscc00scce08 intdenenen tee besdnsenened w» 116
in TED. asisconcecubinamssdiehaienahbaieswaiemieeiih oe 136

VIII. Procne and Philoméla. Cephalus and Procris,
Nisus and Scylla ........ nonetcensiadihescnns 143
IX. A’acus, Pelops, and their Posterity ..... nagoes 146
X. The Calydonian Hunt...... ila nenditnsetebeitiols «. 150
XI. The Argonautic Expedition ..............s0c000, 152
ee TI TE cancun sadiunnnsawuaiibiceimnal 163
i ee NE WE b,c eueipionsonssaneben soaceees 173
XIV. The Return of the Greeks .........000...scesevees 187
XV. The Voyage of Ainéas .......... edie chesicemialagaaalil 211

Es cis ssa seiea bia alii tai 223



MYTHOLOGY

OF

GREECE AND ITALY.

Part I.—THE GODS.

-

CHAPTER I.
INTRODUCTION.

POLYTHEISM, or the belief in many gods,
was the religion of most ancient nations, and it
may still be witnessed in its full vigour in India.
Learned and ingenious as the Greeks and Romans
were, they were far removed from the purity and
simplicity of faith which distinguished the Israel-
ites; and in their days of greatest refinement they
still worshiped at the altars of many gods.

It is not necessary at present to seek to trace
the origin and causes of the polytheism of man-
kind ; that such was the religion of the ancient
Greeks is a simple fact. The description of the

B



2 INTRODUCTION.

objects of their worship, and the narration of the
principal adventures which they invented for their
deities, are the points to which we shall direct
our attention.

As the Greeks were a remarkably ingenious
people, who abounded with imagination, and were
passionately fond of poetry, which in its early ages
was chiefly narrative, they devised numerous tales
of the adventures of their gods; for their vene-
ration for them was not of that awful character
which precludes all falsehood and fiction when
speaking of beings superior to man.

These tales or fables of the adventures and ac-
tions of the Grecian gods are called Mythes, from
a Greek word signifying fable; and the science
which treats of them is termed Mythology.

CHAPTER II.

Tue Grecian Gops IN GENERAL.

Tue ancient Greeks believed their gods to be of
the same shape and form as themselves, but of far
greater beauty, strength and dignity. They also
regarded them as being of much larger size than



THE GRECIAN GODS IN GENERAL, 3

men ; for in those times great size was esteemed
a perfection both in man and woman, and conse-
quently was supposed to be an attribute of their
divinities, to whom they ascribed all perfections.
A fluid named Ichor supplied the place of blood
in the veins of the gods. They were not capable
of death, but they might be wounded or otherwise
injured. They could make themselves visible or
invisible to men as they pleased, and assume the
forms of men or of animals as it suited their fancy.
Like men, they stood in daily need of food and
sleep. The meat of the gods was called Am-
brosia, their drink Nectar. The gods when they
came among men often partook of their food and
hospitality.

Like mankind, the gods were divided into two
sexes,—namely, gods and goddesses. ‘They mar-
ried and had children, just like mortals. Often a
god became enamoured of a mortal woman, or a
goddess was smitten with the charms of a hand-
some youth, and these love-tales form a large por-
tion of Grecian mythology.

To make the resemblance between gods and
men more complete, the Greeks ascribed to their
deities all human passions, both good and evil.
They were capable of love, friendship, gratitude

B2



4 THE GRECIAN GODS IN GENERAL.

and all the benevolent affections :—on the other
hand, they were frequently envious, jealous, and
revengeful. They were particularly careful to
exact all due respect and attention from mankind,
whom they required to honour them with temples,
prayers, costly sacrifices, splendid processions, and
rich gifts ; and they severely punished insult or
neglect.

The abode of the gods, as described by the
more ancient Grecian poets, such as Homer and
Hesiod, was on the summit of the snow-clad
mountain of Olympus in Thessaly. A gate of
clouds, kept by the goddesses named the Seasons,
unfolded its valves to permit the passage of the
Celestials to earth, or to receive them on their
return. The city of the gods, as we may term it,
was regulated on the same principle as a Grecian
city of the heroic ages. The inhabitants, who
were all the kindred or the wives and children of
the king of the gods, had their separate dwellings ;
but all when summoned repaired to the palace of
Jupiter, whither also came, when called, those dei-
ties whose usual abode was the earth, the waters,
or the under-world. It was also in the great hall
of the palace of the Olympian king that the gods
feasted each day on ambrosia and nectar; which



THE GRECIAN GODS IN GENERAL, 5

last precious beverage was handed round by the
lovely goddess Hebe ( Youth), —maid-servants being
the usual attendants at meals in the houses of the
Grecian princes in early times. Here they con-
versed of the affairs of heaven and earth; and as
they quaffed their nectar, Apollo the god of music
delighted them with the tones of his lyre, to which
the Muses sang in responsive strains, When the
sun was set, the gods retired to sleep in their re-
spective dwellings.

The Dawn, the Sun, and the Moon, who drove
each day in their chariots drawn by celestial steeds
through the air, gave light to the gods as well as
to men.

With the exception, perhaps, of the robes and
other parts of the dress of the goddesses, which
were woven by Minerva and the Graces, every-
thing on Olympus appertaining to the gods was
formed of the various metals, especially brass or
copper, the metal which was in the greatest abun-
dance in Greece ; for we must always recollect,
that the gods being the mere creation of fancy,
everything relating to them was framed according
to the ideas and state of manners in the early ages
of Greece.

Vulcan was architect, smith, armourer, chariot-



6 THE GRECIAN GODS IN GENERAL.

builder, and everything in Olympus. He built of
brass the houses of the gods; he made for them
the golden shoes, with which they trod the air or
the water, and moved from place to place with the
speed of the wind or even of thought ; he also,
as some think, shod with brass the celestial steeds,
which whirled the chariots of the gods through
the air, or along the surface of the sea. This di-
vine artist was able to bestow on his workman-
ship automatism, or the power of self-motion: the
tripods which he formed could move of themselves
in and out of the celestial hall. He even endowed
with intelligence the golden handmaidens whom he
framed to wait on himself.

CHAPTER III.
GRECIAN IDEAS OF THE WORLD.

‘In order clearly to understand the mythology of
the Greeks, it is necessary to have an adequate
conception of their notions of the world and its
different parts. This is called Cosmology.

The ancient Greeks believed the earth to be flat
and circular: their own country they conceived to



GRECIAN IDEAS OF THE WORLD. 7

occupy the centre of it; the central point being
either Mount Olympus the abode of the gods, or
Delphi so renowned for its oracle.

The circular disk of the earth was crossed from
west to east, and divided into two equal parts, by
the Sea, as they called the Mediterranean, and
its continuation the Euxine,—the only seas with
which they were acquainted.

Around the earth flowed the river Ocean. Its
course was from south to north on the western
side of the earth. The steady equable current
of the Ocean compassed the earth, unmoved by
storm or tempest; and hence it was called soft-
flowing: it was also termed back-flowing, on ac-
count of its circular course. The sea and all the
springs and rivers on earth derived their origin
from it.

The Ocean had a further bank: but only that
portion of it which lay to the west is spoken of
by the poets. Homer places there a people whoin
he calls Kimmérians: he also makes it the abode
of the dead.

In the remoter part of the northern half of the
earth dwelt a people named Hyperbdreans, sacred
to the god Apollo, who bestowed on them wealth
and happiness in abundance. The coast of the



8 GRECIAN IDEA OF THE WORLD.

Ocean on the eastern and southern side was in-
habited by the swarthy Ethiopians. The islands
and coasts of the western portion of the Mediter-
ranean Sea were the abode of the various tribes
visited by Ulysses in his wanderings: its eastern
part was inhabited by the Libyans, Egyptians, and
other nations well known to the Greeks. |

On the western extremity of the southern half
of the terrestrial disk was a happy place named
Elysium, whither the king of the gods transported
his favourites among men, to dwell in an eternity
of bliss. )

It would appear that according to the ideas of
the ancient Greeks, the world was a hollow sphere
or globe, divided internally into two equal portions
by the flat disk of the earth, with the Ocean and
its further bank running round it on the outside
like a rim:—the common armillary sphere will
serve to give an idea of it. The poets called the
external shell of the sphere drazen, and iron, to
express its solidity. The part above the earth
was called Heaven, and was illuminated by the
sun, moon, and stars. The portion beneath the
earth was named Tartarus: here perpetual dark-
ness reigned, and the vanquished or rebellious gods
were confined within its murky regions.



GRECIAN IDEAS OF THE WORLD. 9

The Dawn, the Sun, and the Moon, rose out of
Ocean on the eastern side, and drove through the
air, giving light to gods and men. The stars also,
except those forming the Wain or Bear, rose out
of and sank into the stream of Ocean.

Such were the ideas of the universe entertained
by the Greeks in the time of Homer and Hesiod.
With the progress of physical and geographical
knowledge many of these erroneous notions were
corrected ; but the poets still retained most of the
ideas of their predecessors. +

CHAPTER IV.
THEOGONY.

Tue origin of the world and its various parts and
inhabitants, was represented by the ancient Greeks
as the birth of animated beings. The gods whom
they worshiped formed a part of the series of beings
who gradually came into existence ; and hence the
account of it is called Theogony or Birth of the
Gods.

Chaos, or empty space, they said, existed first :
then came into being Earth, Tartarus, and Love.



10 THEOGONY.

Erebus (Darkness?) and N ight were the chil-
dren of Chaos; Night bore to Erebus, Day and
Aather.

Night was, without a father, the parent of the
Hespérides, or Maidens who kept the golden ap-
ples on the shore of Ocean; of Momus, and of
Woe ; of Death, Sleep, and Dreams; of Némesis,
of Old-age, and Discord.

Earth brought forth Uranus or Heaven, the
Sea (Pontus), and the Mountains. She bore to
Heaven six sons, Océanus, Coeus, Crius, Hype-
rion, Jdpetus, and Saturn; and six daughters,
Thea, Rhea, Themis, Mnemésyne, Phoebe, and
Tethys: and these twelve were called the Titans.
Earth and Heaven were likewise the parents of
the three Cyclépes,—Brontes, Stéropes, and Ar-
ges; and of the three Hundred-handed,—Cottus,
Bridreos, and Gyes or Gyges.

These children were hated by their father; and
as soon as they were born he hid them in a cavern
of Earth ; who indignant at his conduct, produced
the metal named steel, and forming from it a sickle,
gave it to her son Saturn, who, lying in wait for
his father, mutilated him. The drops of blood
which fell on the earth gave origin to the Giants,
the Erinnyes or Furies ; and the Melian nymphs ;



THEOGONY. 11

from what fell into the sea sprang Venus, the
goddess of love and beauty.

By her other son Pontus (the Sea), Earth was
the mother of Thaumas (Wonder), Nereus, Phor-
cys, and a daughter named Ceto (Huge, or Sea-
monster). ‘Thaumas married Electra (Brightness)
a daughter of Océanus, who bore him Iris (Rain-
bow) and the Harpies or Wind-goddesses. Nereus
had by Doris, also a daughter of Océanus, the
fifty sea-nymphs called the Neréides. Phorcys
was, by his sister Ceto, father of the Greese, the
Gorgons, and the Serpent which with the Hespé-
rides watched the golden fruit.

When here and elsewhere we read of gods mar-
ried to their sisters, we must recollect, in excuse
of the old bards who relate such things, that in
the East, and among the Ionian Greeks, where
the female part of the family were kept secluded,
such marriages were not prohibited. We thus find
the patriarch Abraham married to his half-sister
Sarah ; and Cimon the great Athenian stood in a
similar relation to his wife Elpinice. In theogony
we must also allow for the necessity of the case ;
just as we are obliged to suppose that the children
of Adam and Eve espoused each other.



12 THE TITANS.

CHAPTER V.



Tue Tirans. Saturn.

Océanus married his sister Tethys, who gave birth
to the Ocednides, or Ocean-nymphs, and all the
rivers and springs. He and his wife and daughters
dwelt in a grotto-palace in the western part of the
stream, over which he ruled, and which was named
from him.

Ceeus and his sister Phoebe (Brightness) had two
daughters, Laténa (Night?) and Astéria (Starry).

The offspring of Crius and Eurfbia (Wide-
Sorce) were, Astreeus (Starry), Pallas (Shaker ?),



THE TITANS. 13

and Perses (Bright?). Astreeus had by Auréra
(Dawn), the daughter of his brother Hyperion,
the winds, Zéphyrus (West), Béreas (North), and
Notus (South). Pallas had by the Ocean-nymph
Styx, Envy and Victory, Strength and Force.
Perses was, by Asteria, father of Hécate (Far-
caster) a goddess of the night.

Hyperion (Over-going) married his sister Thea
(Swift?) ; their offspring were Hélius (Sun), Se-
léne (Moon), and Auréra (Dawn).

Japetus and one of the Ocednides had four sons,
Atlas, Prométheus, Epimé¢theus, and Mencetius.

Saturn espoused his sister Rhea. They had
three sons and three daughters ; namely, Pluto,
‘Neptune, J upiter, and Vesta (Hestia), Ceres and
Juno. The last-born of these was Jupiter. Heaven
and Earth having told Saturn that he was fated to
be deprived of his kingdom by one of his sons,—
to prevent the calamity he devoured his children
as fast as they were born. Rhea, when about to
become the mother of Jtipiter, advised with her
parents on the means of saving him. Earth di-
rected her to give a stone swathed in linen to Sa-
turn instead of the child. She did so; and Saturn,
unsuspicious of the deceit, swallowed it. Jupiter
in the mean time was reared by the Nymphs in a

Cc



14 THE TITANS.

cavern of Crete. When grown up he espoused
Metis (Prudence), who administered a draught to
Saturn, which caused him to cast up the stone and
his other children.

The children of Saturn, headed by Jupiter, now
rebelled against their father, who was aided by
the other Titans, his brothers. The war, of which
Théssaly was thé scene,—the sons of Saturn fight-
ing from Mount Olympus, the Titans from Mount
Othrys,—lasted ten years. At length Jiépiter re-
leased the Hundred-handed, and with their aid
gained the victory. The vanquished Titans were
confined in the gloomy region of Tartarus, and the
Hundred-handed were set to guard them. Jitipiter
now assumed the empire of the world.



CHAPTER VI.
Tue Tirans (continued).
Tue Titans, however, were not all consigned to

Tartarus. The following are to be found still in
office, or employed under the reign of Jupiter.

| At.as, the son of Japetus, had the task (a pu-
nishment inflicted on him for his share in the war)



THE TITANS. 15

of supporting the heavens on his shoulders. We
shall find the hero Hercules relieving him for a
time of his burden. He was married to one of
the daughters of Oceanus, by whom he had seven
daughters, called the Pleiades or Atléntides : their
names were Maia, Electra, Taygete, Astérope,
Mérope, AlcYone, and Celeeno. They form the
constellation of the Pleiades in the sign of the Bull.
Atlas was also the father of the beautiful nymph Ca-
lypso, who entertained Ulysses in her isle Ogygia.

PromETuHEUvs is by some said to have been the
creator of man, whose benefactor he certainly was.
He stole fire from heaven, and gave it to the new-
formed race, whose life might have passed away
in misery if left destitute of that element. J Uipi-
ter, to punish him for this or some other offence,
chained him to a rock on Mount Caucasus where
an eagle evermore preyed on his liver. At length
Hercules, coming to the place of his punishment,
shot the eagle with his arrows, and delivered the
suffering Titan.

The remaining Titans were more fortunate than
Atlas and Prométheus.

Océanvs still abode in his circling stream, and
c 2



16 THE TITANS.

was treated with the utmost respect by Jupiter,
Juno, and the other gods.

Aurora, or Eos, the goddess of the Dawn,
dwelt in a palace on the east side of the earth,
whence every morning she went forth in her yel-
low chariot drawn by four steeds of brilliant white,
before her brother the Sun, and drove through the
sky, shedding light abroad. In the evening she sank
in the west before him, and they were conveyed
together round to the east during the night.

Auréra was by Astreeus mother of the winds
Zéphyrus, Boreas, and Notus. She bore him also
Eésphorus (Dawn-bearer) or Morning-star, and the
Stars of Heaven.

The goddess of the Dawn was at times inspired
with the love of mortals. She carried off Orion,
and kept him in the isle of OrtYgia till Didna
slew him with her arrows. She also carried off
Céphalus, the son of Mercury by Hersa (Dew),
daughter of Cecrops king of Attica, and had by
him a son named Phdéthon (Gleaming), whom
Venus, on account of his beauty, set to keep her
temple. Her greatest favourite, however, was
Tithdénus, son of Ladmedon king of Troy, whom,
after her usual fashion, she ran away with. She



THE TITANS. 17

prevailed on Jupiter to grant him immortality ;
but forgetting to have youth joined in the gift, to
her great mortification she began, after some time,
to discern the symptoms of advancing old age and
decrepitude. When his hair was grown white she
left his society ; but he still had the range of her
palace, lived on ambrosial food, and was clad in
celestial raiment. At length he lost the power of
moving his limbs, and then she shut him up in his
chamber, whence his feeble voice might at times
be heard. It is also said that she turned him into
the noisy insect called by the Greeks Tettix (Ci-
edda), or Tree-hopper.

- Auréra and Tithdénus had two children ; sti
non, a renowned hero slain at the siege of Troy ;
and another son named Aimathion, who was killed
by Hercules.

Héutvus, or Son, the Sun-god, the brother of
Auréra, dwelt like her on the eastern side of the
earth. He drove after her each day in his four-
horse chariot along the sky. At evening they all
went down into a golden cup or vessel, made by
Vulcan, which carried them during the night along
the ocean round the northern part of the earth, so
as to be in time to set out again in the morning.



18 THE TITANS.

By Persa, or Pers¢is (Brightness’), a daughter
of Océanus, the Sun was the father of Circe
(Hawk), the great enchantress, and her brother
Aiétes king of Colchis. Persa also bore him Pa-
siphaé (All-bright), who married Minos king of
Crete. The Sun was also the sire of Atigeas
(Bright) king of Elis, renowned for his wealth in
flocks and herds.

Helius, and the Oceanide Clymene, had a son
named Phaéthon (Gleaming), whose claims to a
celestial origin being denied by Epaphus the son
of Jupiter and Io, he journeyed to the palace of
his reputed sire, from whom he drew an unwary
oath that he would grant him whatever he desired.
His request was the guidance of the solar chariot
for one day, that all might thereby be convinced
that he was the offspring of its lord. Helius, aware
of the consequences, made every effort to induce
the thoughtless youth to content himself with
some less perilous proof. His arguments and en-
treaties were in vain; and at length, with a mourn-
ful heart, he circled his head with the glittering
diadem of rays, and committed the reins to his
hand. In the midst of his directions the impatient
youth lashed on the horses, who sprang along the
celestial way ; but soon aware of the feeble hand



THE TITANS. 19

which guided them, they ran out of the course,
and the world was enveloped in flames. At the
prayer of Earth, Jupiter launched his thunder, and
hurled Phdééthon from his seat. He fell into the
river Eridanus and was drowned, and his sisters
the Heliades (Swn-maidens), weeping for his death,
were turned as they stood on the river’s bank into
the trees which drop amber into its waves.

SELENE, or Luna, the moon-goddess, drove
along the sky in her chariot to give light, while
her brother and sister were reposing after the toils
of the day.

By Jupiter, Selene was the mother of a daughter
named Hersa (Dew). The god Pan gained her
love under the form of a beautiful white ram.
There was a youth named Endfmion, on whom
Jupiter had bestowed the gift of perpetual youth,
but united with perpetual sleep: a cavern of Mount
Latmos in Caria was the place of his repose; and
here Seléne used to descend each night, and please
herself by gazing on his charms as he slumbered.

HécateE was highly honoured by Jtipiter, who
gave her extensive power. She was a goddess
of the night, and was worshiped by men as the



20 THE TITANS.

averter of evil and bestower of increase. In after-
time she was held to be the patroness of magic.
There is little doubt but that Hécate was origin-
ally regarded, by a portion of the people of Greece,
as a moon-goddess like Seléne. ,

CHAPTER VII.



JUPITER—Zeus.

Ju'prrer, the son of Saturn and Rhea, when born
was concealed by his mother in a cave of Mount
Ida in Crete. Here he was fed by the bees and



JUPITER. 21

the doves, and drank the milk of the goat Amal-
théa. To prevent his cries reaching the ears of
his father, the Curétes danced their war-dances,
clattering their arms around his cradle.

On the dethronement of Saturn, Jupiter divided
his dominions with his brothers Neptune and Plu-
to; the portion which he reserved for himself was
the Heaven; Earth and Olympus were common
property. Jupiter was king of gods and men;
the thunder was his weapon ; and he bore a shield
called gis, made for him by Vulcan, which
when shaken, sent forth storm and tempest. The
eagle was his favourite bird, the oak his sacred
tree.

The king of the gods had a numerous progeny
both by mortal and immortal mothers. Themis
(Law) bore him the Fates, the Seasons, and
Peace, Order, and Justice ; Eurfnome (Wide-
dispensing), the Graces; Mnemdsyne (Memory),
the Muses; the nymph Maia, Mércury ; by Ceres
he had Prdserpine ; by Didne, Venus ; by Latdna,
Apollo and Diana; by Juno, who was his queen
and lawful wife, he was the father of Mars, Vul-

can, Hebe (Youth), and the Ilithyfee.

“~The terrestrial loves of this god gave rise to a
variety of adventures, and produced a copious list



22 JUPITER.

of gods and heroes.—The following are a few of
them.

Aleména the daughter of Eléctryon was be-
trothed to her cousin Amphitryon, but refused
to acknowledge him as a husband until he had
avenged the death of her father on the Teléboans,
During his absence in the war against them, Ju-
piter, who had fallen in love with Alcména, as-
sumed his form, and by narrating a tale of victory
to the maiden, obtained admission to her chamber.
The celebrated hero Hércules was the son of Ju-
piter and Alcména.

Antiope, daughter of Nycteus and niece of
Lycus king of Thebes, was surprised by Jtipiter in
the form of a satyr. Dreading the anger of her
father, she fled to the town of Sicyon, where she
married Epdpeus. Nycteus put an end to his life,
charging his brother to take vengeance on Antiope
and her husband. Soon afterwards Lycus slew
Epépeus, and led Antiope back captive to Thebes,
On the way she brought forth twins, whom her
uncle exposed on the mountains, where they were
found by a shepherd, who reared them, naming
the one Zethus, the other Amphion. Antiope, who
was treated with the utmost cruelty by Dirce
the wife of Lycus, fled for protection to her sons



JUPITER, 23

when they were grown up. They attacked and
slew Lycus, and tying Dirce by the hair to a wild
bull, let him drag her till she expired. They
seized on the government of Thebes, which they
surrounded with walls, the stones moving of them-
selves to the sound of the lyre which Mércury had
given to Amphion.

Enamoured of the beauty of Leda the wife of
TYndareus, Jupiter took the form of a swan, and
gained her love. She brought forth two eggs, from
one of which came Pollux and Helen, the chil-
dren of Jupiter; from the other Castor and Cly-
teemnestra, the mortal offspring of her husband.

A flame of fire concealed the god from Aigina
the daughter of the river-god Asépus, and she
became the mother of AZ/acus, so renowned for his
justice that he was made one of the judges of the
under-world. A shower of gold was the form
in which Jupiter penetrated the brazen chamber
where Acrisius king of Argos had shut up his
daughter Danae, who bore to the god a son named
Perseus.

Io, the daughter of the river I'nachus, was seen
and loved by Jupiter. She rejected the suit of
the god; but as she fled from him, he checked
her flight by spreading a dense cloud around her.



24 JUPITER.

Juno, looking down from heaven, and seeing the
cloud, and also missing her husband, suspected
mischief. She sprang to earth; but Jupiter, aware
of her approach, had turned Io into a white cow.
When Juno admired the animal, and asked him
to give it to her, he could not refuse her request.
The goddess, who knew well who the cow was,
set the hundred-eyed Argus to watch her ; and as
only two of his eyes slept at a time, there was
little hope of deceiving his vigilance. At length
Jupiter desired Mércury to kill him, as the only
mode of liberating Io. | Mércury, taking the guise
of a shepherd, came and sat by Argus, and by
playing on his pipe lulled all his eyes to slumber,
and then cut off his head with his harpe or crooked
sword. Juno placed the eyes of Argus in the tail
of her favourite bird the peacock, and sent a Fury
to torment Io, who fled all through the world till
she came to Egypt, where Jupiter restored her
to her original form, and she bore a son named
Epaphus. /

Callisto, the daughter of Lycdon king of Arca-
dia, was one of the companions of Diana. Jupiter,
taking the form of that goddess, violated the mo-
desty of the maiden ; and Diana, on learning what
had happened, drove the guiltless offender from



JUPITER. 25

her society. Callisto was mother of a son named
Arcas. Juno, then giving loose to her vengeance,
turned her into a bear. Her son, when he grew
up, meeting her in the woods, was on the point of
killing her with his darts, when Jupiter, transport-
ing both mother and son to the skies, made them
the constellations of the two bears. Juno obtained
from Océanus and Tethys that they should never
be permitted to sink into their waves.

As Eurdpa, the daughter of Agénor king of
Sidon, was one day amusing herself with her com-
panions and gathering flowers in the meads on the
shore of the sea, Jiipiter approached her in the
form of a beautiful white bull. The maiden ca-
ressed him, and at length ventured to mount upon
his back: the god immediately bounded on the
surface of the sea, and ran with his lovely burden
along it till he reached the isle of Crete, where he
resumed his proper form. Eurdpa became the
mother of Minos, Rhadamanthus, and Sarpédon.

Adventures more becoming a king are related
of Jupiter. Such are those of his descent to earth
to look into the conduct of men.

Hearing of the enormous wickedness of man-
kind, Jupiter came down to earth to ascertain if
what had reached his ears was true. The reality

D



26 JUPITER.

exceeded the report. He came to the palace of
Lycaon king of Arcadia, and made himself known,
Lycdon derided his pretensions, and to try him
set human flesh before him for food. The god in
indignation destroyed the house with lightning, and
turned its impious master into a wolf.

Jupiter, accompanied by Neptune and Mercury,
came down one time to earth. It was late in the
evening when they passed by the house of a peasant
named HYrieus. Seeing that they were wayfarers,
Hyrieus pressed them to enter and partake of his
hospitality. The gods accepted the kind invitation ;
and, pleased with their entertainment, they re-
vealed to him their rank, and asked if he had any
wish to gratify. The wife of the kind host was
dead, and he had sworn never to marry another,
yet he wished to have a child. The gods took
the hide of his only ox, which he had offered in
sacrifice to them, and buried it in the earth. Ten
months afterwards a child came to light, which he
named Orion, who became a mighty hunter; and
was at last slain by Didna. |

Jupiter and his son Mércury once came in the
evening to a village, where they sought hospitality ;
but every door was closed against them. At length
they reached a cottage, where dwelt an ancient



JUPITER. 27

couple named Philémon and Baucis. By these
they were received and entertained as well as their
humble means would allow. Charmed with the
good old pair, the gods revealed their rank, and
desired them to accompany them to the summit of
a neighbouring hill. On looking down towards
their village, Philémon and his wife saw nothing
but a lake, with their cottage standing on its side.
As they gazed, it became a temple; and on the
gods asking them what was their desire, they said
to serve them in that temple, and to die at the
same moment. Their wish was granted ; and one
day as they were standing before the temple and
talking over the wonderful tale, they were turned
into trees where they stood, ,



28 NEPTUNE.

CHAPTER VIII.



Neprunr— Poseidon.

NEPTUNE was the son of Saturn and Rhea. The
sea fell to his lot on the division of the dominions
of his father. As god of the sea he bore the three.
pronged spear or trident used by fishermen, and
dolphins and other marine animals usually attended
him.

The queen of Neptune was Amphitrite, one of
the daughters of Nereus and Doris. In his suit
to her he was aided by a Dolphin, whom in gra-
titude he placed among the stars. Their children



NEITUNE. 29

were Triton, whom he made his trumpeter ; and a
daughter named Rhoda, who was married to the
Sun-god.

Like his brother Jupiter, Neptune was not
strictly faithful to his wife; but Amphitrite seems
to have been less prone to jealousy than Juno. It
is said that Neptune became enamoured of the
goddess Céres, when one time she had taken the
form of a mare. The goddess gave birth toa foal,
which was named Arion. He was reared by the
Neréides, who used to yoke him to his father’s
chariot, which he drew along the surface of the
sea. Arion became the property of Adrastus king
of Argos, who owed his life to his fleetness in the
first Theban war.

Tyro, the daughter of Salmdneus, loved the
river Enipeus. Neptune, who was enamoured of
her, took the form of the river-god, and she bore
two sons, named Pélias and Neleus, which last was
the father of Nestor.

Neptune took the form of a dolphin to deceive
Melantho: as a ram he gained the love of Thed-
phane, who bore the gold-fleeced ram which car-
ried Phrixus and Helle to Colchis. By Iphimedeia
Neptune was the father of Otus and Ephialtes,
who were of such gigantic size and strength, that



30 NEPTUNE.

when but nine years old, they attempted, by piling
the Thessalian mountains on each other, to scale
Heaven. The Cyclops Polyphémus was the son
of Neptune and the sea-nymph Thod’sa; and many
renowned heroes likewise claimed Neptune for their
sire.

The origin of the horse was ascribed to Nep-
tune. It is said that when he and Minerva con-
tended for the right of naming the city built by
Cecrops in Attica, the gods declared that they
would decide in favour of the one who should
produce what would be most useful to mankind.
Neptune struck the earth with his trident, and
forth sprang the first horse ; Minerva caused an
olive to shoot up. The gods gave judgment in
favour of the emblem of Peace, and the goddess
called the town Athens, from her own name
Athéna, /



PLUTO. 31

CHAPTER IX.



PLutro—-Hades.

/ PxiuTo, the son of Saturn and Rhea, became lord
of the under-world on the dethronement of his
father. All the dead of mankind were under the
rule of this deity, who is described as gloomy and
imexorable ; for from the realm of Pluto there is no
return ; and the ancient Greeks believed it to be
dark and cheerless.

The queen of Pluto was Préserpine, the daughter
of Ceres, whom he carried off, as will be presently
related.

The souls of the dead were conducted down to



32 PLUTO.

the realm of Pluto by Mércury. On reaching the
river which surrounded it, they found Charon with
his boat waiting to receive them. His fare was a
small piece of money, which was always for that
purpose placed in the mouth of the deceased.
Having disembarked on the further bank, they
went on till they came to the palace of Pluto, which
was guarded by Cérberus, a dog with three heads
and with serpents along his back. This monster
lay quiet in his den, only gazing at those who en-
tered; but if any of them turned back and attempt-
ed to make their escape, he flew out of his cavern
and seized them. The dead were now brought be-
fore the tribunal of the judges, Minos, Rhadaman-
thus, and /B/acus, and their dooms were assigned
according to the life which they had led on earth.
The virtuous were sent to the enjoyment of the
blissful region uamed Elysium, the wicked were
consigned to the endless torments of Tértarus.
According to the poets, the following five ri-
vers were to be seen in the dominions of Pluto.
Styx (Dread), whose waters were piercing cold,
When there was any dispute on Olympus, Jupiter
sent Iris to fill a cup with the water of Styx, and
bring it thither. On this the contending parties
swore ; and if any swore falsely, he was banished



PLUTO. 33

for nine years from the table of the gods. Ache-
ron (Grief), the stream over which Charon ferried
the dead. Cocytus (Lamentation); and Pyriphle-
gethon (Fire-flaming), or Phiégethon (Flaming),
which last rolled with waves of torrent flames,
Finally, the quiet placid stream of Lethe (Odii-
vion) flowed through the fragrant valleys of Ely-
sium; and the souls of the good, which were
destined to animate other bodies on earth, were
led to its side to quaff oblivion of their present
bliss, before they departed to taste once more of
the bitterness of life beneath the sun.

The proper name of the realm of Hades or Pluto
was Erebus (Darkness?). We term it the under-
or nether-world, as to modern ears the words Hell
and the Infernal Regions, by which it is usually
designated, suggest ideas of punishment alone,
whereas Erebus was the abode of the virtuous as
well as the wicked. The attentive reader will
also perceive that in the days of Homer Elysium
and Tértarus did not form parts of Erebus, and
that their transference thither was the = of a
later age.

The principal criminals who were punished in
Erebus were the following.

Tityus, the son of Jupiter and Elara, was slain



34 PLUTO.

by Apollo and Didna for attempting to offer vio-
lence to their mother Laténa. In Erebus his huge
body covered nine acres of land, and an enormous
vulture preyed without ceasing on his liver.

Tantalu§ was so highly honoured by the gods
as to be admitted to partake of the nectar and
ambrosia on which they feasted in the halls of
Olympus. At an entertainment given by him to
them, he had the cruelty and impiety to kill his
own son Pelops, and serve his flesh up to the Im-
mortals. All shrunk back from the horrid viands
but Ceres, who incautiously ate one of the shoul-
ders. Pelops was restored to life by Clotho, and
‘the missing shoulder was replaced by an ivory one.
To punish Tantalus for his atrocious deed, the
gods placed him up to his chin ina lake in Erebus,
with trees laden with luscious fruits suspending
their boughs above his head: but when he assays
to quench the thirst with which he is tormented,
the water flies from his lips ; and when he would
pluck the fruit to satisfy his hunger, the winds
scatter it abroad.

Sisyphus, king of Corinth, so renowned for his
craft, having contrived to outwit Pluto, was by
him condemned to roll a huge stone up a hillin Ere-
bus. His toil is unceasing ; for as soon as he has



PLUTO. 35

worked it up to the summit, it rolls back in spite
of him, and thunders down again into the plain.

Phlégyas, on learning that his daughter Cordénis
had been seduced by Apollo, burnt out of revenge
the temple of the god at Delphi. For this offence
he was placed in Erebus, where a stone, hanging
over his head, and evermore threatening to fall,
keeps him in a perpetual state of terror.

Ixfon the son of Phlégyas was admitted to the
society of the gods on Olympus. He here had
the audacity to aspire to the love of the celestial
queen ; and Jupiter, to punish him, precipitated
him to Erebus, and fixed him on an ever-revol-
ving wheel.

Salmoneus, king of Elis, asserted himself to be
Jupiter, and claimed divine honours. Fastening
dried hides and brazen kettles to his chariot, he
called their clatter thunder ; and flinging lighted
torches against the sky, he affected to lighten like
the king of the gods. Jvipiter hurled him to Ere-
bus ; but his punishment there is not described.

The fifty maidens called Bélides from their
grandfather Belus, and Dandides from their father
Danaiis, having fled from Egypt to escape the
persecution of their cousins the sons of Egyptus,
came to Argos in Greece. They were followed



36 PLUTO.

thither by their cousins, to whom Dénaiis con-
sented to give them in marriage : but on the wed-
ding night he gave a dagger to each of the brides,
directing her to plunge it into the bosom of her
husband. All obeyed but Hypermnestra, who
spared the life of Lynceus. For this crime the

Dandides were sentenced in Eyebus to fill a per-
forated tub with ~~ e

CHAPTER X.



JuNo— Hera.

Juno was a daughter of Saturn and Rhea. Her
brother Jupiter; falling in love with her, raised a



JUNO. 37

storm, and taking the shape of a cuckoo fled to her
bosom for shelter and gained her love. When
he had dethroned his father, Juno became his
queen, and shared in all his honours. Her own
character was irreproachable ; but, as we have al-
ready seen, she could ill brook his infidelities ; and
Laténa, Aleména, Sémele, and others, paid dear for
their intimacy with the monarch of the gods,

The attendant assigned to Juno by the poets
was Iris, the swift goddess of the rainbow. Her
favourite birds were the peacock and the cuckoo,
Of flowers, she was most partial to the dittany,
the poppy, and the lily. It is said that the lily was
once yellow, but that the infant Hércules being
put to the breast of the goddess as she slept, on
waking she thrust the babe indignantly from her
with such precipitation that a part of her milk
was spilt. What fell on the heaven produced the
Galaxy, or Milky Way ; the portion which reached
the earth tinged the lilies white.

_ At the nuptials of Peleus and Thetis, which

the gods honoured with their presence, Discord,

who was uninvited, flung a golden apple in among

them, on which was inscribed, For the fairest. The

claims of all were obliged to give way to those of

Juno, Minerva, and Venus; and the decision was
E



38 JUNO.

left to Paris, son of Priam king of Troy, who was
at that time keeping herds on Mount Ida. Mer-
cury led the goddesses thither. Juno proffered
the young herdsman power, if he would award
the prize to her; Minerva, fame in war; Venus,
the fairest of women. The queen of beauty was
awarded the apple, and Paris soon afterwards
carried off Helen the wife of Menelaiis, king of
Sparta. The revengeful Juno never rested till
Troy was taken and destroyed by the Greeks, to
punish the crime of Paris 7



MARS. 39

CHAPTER XI.



Mars—/res.

Mars was the son of Jupiter and Juno. He was
the god who presided over war. The war god-
dess Enfo or Belldéna, his sister Strife, and his
sons Terror and Fear, were his companions when
he went to the field of battle.

It was said by some that Mars was the son of
Juno without a father. This goddess, angry at the
birth of Minerva from the head of Jupiter, took
a journey towards the dwelling of Océanus and
Tethys to make a complaint to them. On the

E 2



40 MARS.

way she stopped to rest at the abode of Flora the
goddess of flowers. She told the tale of her griefs
to her kind hostess, who, pointing to a flower which
grew in her garden, desired her to touch it. Juno
did so, and became the mother of Mars.

The beautiful goddess Venus, who was married
to Vulcan, the lame smith, carried on an intrigue
with the god of war. The Sun gave information
to the artist, who forged an invisible net, and dis-
posed it in such a manner as to catch the lovers.
He then called all the gods to behold the captives,
and would not release them till Neptune had passed
his word for the compensation to be made by Mars.

Terror and Fear, and Harmony, who was mar-
ried to Cadmus, are said to be the children of
Mars and Venus.

Mars had by Agraulos, daughter of Cecrops,
king of Athens, a daughter named Alcippe (Strong-
mare). Halirrhdthius (Sea-wave), a son of Nep-
tune, having offered violence to the maiden, was
killed by her father. Mars was prosecuted for
the murder by Neptune. Twelve gods sat as
judges on the hill at Athens named Aredpagus
(Mars’ Hill). The votes being equal, he was ac-
quitted, and such became the rule of the court

which in after times held its sittings on this hill.



VULCAN. 41

CHAPTER XII.



Vutcan—Hephastus.

Vutcan, the celestial artist, was the son of Ju-
piter and Juno,—some said of Juno alone. He
was born lame; and his mother was so displeased
at the sight of him, that she flung him out of hea-
ven. He was saved by the nymphs Thetis and
Eurfnome, who kept him for nine years in a
cavern under the ocean; during which time he
fashioned for them a great variety of trinkets and
ornaments.

All the houses, chariots and armour, and other
articles in Olympus, were made by Vulcan. He



42 VULCAN.

also made various wonderful things for his own
favourites, or those of Jupiter and the other gods,
among men. Alcinoiis king of the Pheeacians had
golden dogs, which guarded his house ; and Ai¢tes
king of Colchis brass-footed bulls, which guarded
the Golden Fleece,—all made by Vulcan. Vulcan
formed for Minos king of Crete a brazen man
named Talos, who compassed the isle three times
a day to guard it from invasion. Talos’ mode of
destroying people was to make himself red-hot in
the fire and then embrace them.

The servants assigned to Vulcan by the poets
are the three Cyclépes, Brontes (Thunder), Sté-
ropes (Lightning), and Arges (Flame). His wife
was Venus the goddess of beauty. K |



PHBUS APOLLO. 43

CHAPTER XIII.

wu

pes tas. a
ii B ee) A
LA Le < Gey

ae Ai

)
PX



Pua@svus APOLLO.

Puasvs Apo.to was the god of archery, prophe-
cy, and music. He was the son of Jupiter and the
Titaness Laténa, and brother of Diana.

Laténa, ere she gave birth to the twins Apollo’
and Didna, was persecuted in a most cruel manner
by Juno, who menaced with her wrath any coun-
try or island on earth which should give shelter to
the goddess. It was in vain that Latdna implored
them to take pity on ‘and relieve her; all feared
too much the vengeance of the Queen of heaven.



44 PHBUS APOLLO.

At length, the isle of Delos, which at that time
floated among the CÂ¥clades, offered her an asy-
lum ; and she brought forth her children in that
island, which thenceforth remained fixed, and
where Apollo had one of his principal temples.

When Apollo was grown up he went to Pytho
or Delphi, where he killed the enormous serpent
Python, which infested the surrounding country.
He here built a magnificent temple; and Delphi
became celebrated for its oracle, by which the god
of prophecy announced the future to mankind.

As Phoebus Apollo was a remarkably handsome
and accomplished god, he had many love adven-
tures. -

The muse Calliope (Fair-voice) bore him a son
named Orpheus, who became so skilful a musician
that the very trees and rocks moved to the tones
of his lyre. Orpheus was married to Eurydice,
whom he tenderly loved ; but a snake biting her
foot as she ran through the grass to escape the
pursuit of Aristeeus, she died of the wound. Her
disconsolate husband formed the bold resolution
of descending to the under-world, and imploring
its rulers to let her return to the light of day. He
struck the chords of hjs lyre, and drew forth tones
which softened the heart of the stern monarch ot



PH@BUS APOLLO. 45

Erebus; and Eurfdice was restored on condition
that her husband should not look back till they
had reached the upper-world. They journeyed on
through the gloomy regions of Erebus, and were
now on the confines of light, when Orpheus, fear-
ing that Eurfdice might not be following, looked
back. By this imprudent act all his labour was
undone, and Eurfdice lost for ever. He now
shunned all human society; and, despising the
rites of Bacchus, was torn to pieces by the women
of Thrace.

Shortly after his victory over the Python, Apollo,
seeing the little Cupid bending his bow, mocked
at his efforts. Cupid, to punish him, shot him in
the heart with his golden arrow of love ; and. at the
same time discharged his leaden arrow of aversion
into the bosom of Daphne, the daughter of the
river-god Pendiis. Apollo seeing the nymph, pur-
sued her ; but she fled from him with all her speed.
He had nearly overtaken her, when she reached
the bank of her father’s stream. She cried to
Penéiis for aid; and when Apollo thought to
grasp her, he found that his arms encircled a
bay-tree, into which she had been changed.

Cassandra, a daughter of Priam king of Troy,
attracted the love of Apollo; and in return she



46 PHC@BUS APOLLO.

demanded the gift of prophecy. The god readily
granted it; but the princess broke her word when
become a prophetess. Unable to recall his gift,
Apollo rendered it useless by depriving her of
credit; for though she always announced the
truth, no one believed her.

Apollo also loved Marpessa the daughter of
Evénus. Her father wished her to hearken to the
god; but her heart was devoted to another. The
favoured lover, whose name was Idas, having ob-
tained a fleet chariot from Neptune, carried her
off. Apollo meeting the fugitives, seized Mar-
pessa: the dispute was referred to Jupiter, who
allowed the maid to choose for herself; and she
gave her hand to her mortal lover.

Having seen one day Cyréne the grand-daughter
of the river-god Pendiis engaged in combat with a
lion, in defence of her father’s flocks, Apollo be-
came enamoured of her. He carried her off in his
golden chariot over the sea, to that part of Libya
afterwards named from her; and she gave birth
to a son named Aristeeus, who discovered the cul-
ture of the olive and the mode of managing bees.

Cordénis, the daughter of Phiégyas king of the
Lapithee, had yielded to the suit of Apollo. She
however did not continue faithful to him ; and the



PHGBUS APOLLO. 47

raven, having witnessed her infidelity, informed the
god of it, who discharged one of his inevitable
arrows into the bosom of Corénis. She died, de-
ploring, not her own fate, but that of her unborn
babe. Apollo repented when too late : he laid her
on the funeral pyre, and taking the babe, gave
him to Chiron the Centaur to rear. To punish
the raven, he changed his colour from white,
which till that time it had been, to black.



ZESCULA PIUS.

This son of Apollo by Coronis was named Aiscu-
lapius. He became a celebrated physician ; and
his skill was such, that he was able even to restore



48 PH@BUS APOLLO.

the dead to life. Pluto complaining to J upiter of
him, the king of the gods struck him with thun-
der; and Apollo in revenge shot with his arrows
the Cyclépes who had forged the thunderbolts.
For this act he was banished from heaven. Coming
down to earth he hired as a herdsman with Admé-
tus king of Pherze in Thessaly, and fed his flocks
on the banks of the river Amphrysus. The prince
treated his illustrious servant with the utmost
kindness ; and Apollo out of gratitude aided him
to gain the hand of the beautiful Alcestis, the
daughter of Pélias. He also obtained of the Fates,
that when the appointed period of the life of Ad-
métus should arrive, it might be deferred by one
of his family dying in his stead. When the fatal
time was come, Admé¢tus besought in vain his
aged father and mother to prolong his days. The
affection of his wife now shone forth, and she
magnanimously offered to descend to the tomb in
his place. When Death came to fetch her, Apollo
made fruitless efforts to prevail upon him to forego
his prey, and Alcestis was taken from her weeping
husband and children. But Hercules, happening
to come at that time to the house of Admétus,
engaged and overcame Death, and restored the
queen to her family.



PHBUS APOLLO. 49

Hyacinthus, a beautiful youth, was loved by
Apollo. As the god and his favourite were one
day playing with the discus, it rebounded, and
struck the youth so violently as to kill him. The
mourning deity changed him into the flower named
from him—the Hyacinth.

Cyparissus, another youth whom Apollo loved,
pined away with grief for the loss of a favourite stag
which he had killed by accident, and was changed
into a tree of his own name—the Cypress.

The satyr Marsyas, having found the pipe which
Minerva had flung away, and learned to play on
it, challenged Apollo to a musical contest. The
god accepted the challenge; Mount Tmolus was
chosen judge, and he decided in favour of the
music of the lyre. All acquiesced in the justice of
the sentence except Midas king of the country ;
and as a reward for his bad taste, Apollo bestowed
upon him the ears of an ass: the unhappy Mar-
syas he flayed alive. Midas sought to conceal the
altered form of his ears; but he could not hide
the secret from his barber. He strictly enjoined
him secrecy ; but silence was almost impossible to
one of that loquacious fraternity. Bursting with
the secret, he went, and digging a hole in the earth,
whispered into it, “King Midas has got asses’ ears.”

F



50 PHBUS APOLLO.

Lo! soon afterwards a crop of rushes sprang up
from this hole ; and as they waved in the wind, the
words, “ King Midas has got asses’ ears’’ were
plainly heard.

The hawk, raven, and swan, were birds sacred
to Apollo. The bay or laurel was his favourite
tree. y

CHAPTER XIV.

ed

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Dia'nNA—A'rtemis.

Dia'na was twin sister of Apollo, and daughter of
Jupiter and Laténa. She was, according to some



DIANA. 51

accounts, born before her brother, and aided the
labour of her mother. This goddess presided over
the chase ; she loved to follow with bow and arrows
the flying game over the mountains, attended by
her train of huntress-nymphs. Didna was never
married ; and she was renowned for her unblemish-
ed chastity. As we have seen in the instance of
Callisto, she punished severely the breach of this
virtue in her nymphs.

Acteeon, one of the grandsons of Cadmus,
chanced, as he roamed through the woods during
the heat of the day, to approach the cave and
fount in the vale of Garg4phia, whither Diana was
in the habit of retiring to bathe with her nymphs.
Unfortunately for the youth the goddess was there
at the time: ashamed of being surprised in this
situation by a mortal, and incensed at the unin-
tentional intrusion, she took up some water in her
hand, and flinging it on Acteeon, turned him into
a stag. His own dogs happening to catch a sight
of him, gave chase, and running him down, tore
him to pieces.

Chione, the daughter of Deedalion, was loved
by both Apollo and Mercury. Her son by the
former god was Philammon, a celebrated musician ;
to the latter she bore Autdlycus, the notorious

F 2



52 DIANA.

cattle-stealer. Far from being ashamed, Chfone
gloried in having gained the love of two gods;
and she presumed to speak disparagingly of the
beauty of Didna compared with her own. The
goddess, to punish her, shot her through the tongue
with one of her arrows.

Niobe, the daughter of Tdntalus and wife of
Amphion, being the mother of seven sons and as
many daughters, proudly set herself above Laténa,
who had borne but two children. The goddess
complained to her bow-bearing offspring; and
soon the seven sons of Amphion lay slain by the
arrows of Apollo, and his daughters by those of
Diana. Niobe, stiffening with grief, was turned
into stone.

(Eneus, king of Calydon, having neglected to
make offerings to Diana along with the other
gods at the termination of harvest, she sent in
revenge a monstrous boar to ravage the fields of
Calydon. This gave occasion to the celebrated
Calydonian Hunt, hereafter to be related.

The huntress-goddess was in process of time
identified with the moon-goddess, Seléna or Luna;
with Heécate, the goddess of the night; with Ili-
thyia, who assisted at births ; and with Proserpine,
the queen of Erebus. Apollo was in like manner



DIANA. 53

made one with the Sun. It is, however, highly
probable that Apollo was originally a sun-god,
md his sister a moon-goddess.

CHAPTER XV.



Venus—Aphrodite.

Venus, the goddess of love and beauty, was the
daughter of Jupiter and Didne. Others say that
Venus sprang from the foam of the sea ; the gentle
Zephyr wafted her along the waves to the isle of



54 VENUS.

Cyprus, where she was received and attired by the
Seasons, and then led to the assembly of the gods.

Venus possessed an embroidered girdle, called
Cestus (embroidered), which had the gift of in-
spiring love. Her favourite birds were swans,
doves, and sparrows, teams of which drew her
chariot. The plants sacred to her were the rose
and the myrtle.

The husband of this lovely goddess was the
lame artist Vulcan; but conjugal fidelity was not
her virtue. Her intrigue with Mars has been al-
ready noticed; and Bacchus and Mercury could,
it is said, also boast of her love.

Mortals, too, enjoyed the love of Venus. Smit-
ten with the charms of Anchises, a handsome
Trojan youth, she visited him among the sheep-
cots on Mount Ida, and became the mother of
the renowned Ainéas.

Offended with Myrrha daughter of king Cinyras,
Venus inspired her with love for her own father.
Cinyras, to punish the guilt of his daughter, pur-
suing her with his drawn sword, she was changed
by the gods into a myrrh-tree. In course of time
the tree opened, and gave birth to a babe who was
named Adénis. Venus gave him to Prdserpine to
rear, who, delighted with his beauty, refused to



VENUS. bd

part with him. The matter was referred to Ju-
piter, who directed that he should spend a part
of the year with each goddess. Adénis was at
length gored by a wild boar, and died of the
wound, and Venus turned him into the flower
called Anémone.

The fair maid Atalanta was warned by the oracle
to abstain from marriage, as it would be fatal to
her. Being pressed by many suitors, to get rid
of them she proposed a race, and that whoever
surpassed her in fleetness should have her hand,
but those who were vanquished should be put to
death. As the speed of Atalanta was unrivalled,
numerous youths had paid the penalty of their
rashness, when Hippémenes, a son of Neptune,
challenged her to a trial of swiftness. Atalanta
warned him in vain; he persisted; and invoking
the aid of Venus, was given by the goddess three
golden apples. In the race, he threw from time
to time an apple on the ground ; Atalanta ran out
of the course to pick them up, and Hippdémenes
first reached the goal. The victorious youth for-
got to sacrifice to the goddess to whom he owed
his success. Venus inspired him and his fair bride
with sudden passion as they passed the cavern of
Cybele, who turned them into lions for profaning it. x



56 CUPID.

CHAPTER XVI.



Cur1ip—Eyos.

Cuptp, the god of love, was the son of Venus. He
was her constant companion; and, armed with a
bow and arrows, he shot the darts of desire into
the bosoms of both gods and men.

This god was usually represented as a plump
rosy-cheeked boy, with light hair hanging on his
shoulders.

The god of love did not escape the influence
of the passion which it was his office to inspire.
Enamoured of a beautiful maid called Psyche
(the Soul), he sent a Zephyr to convey her to a

splendid palace, where he became her husband ;



CUPID. 57

but never let her behold his form. Her sisters,
who were jealous of her happiness, persuading her
that he must be some odious monster, the impru-
dent Psyche took a lamp to gaze upon him as he
slept. She let a drop of the oil fall upon him:
the god awoke and flew away, leaving her in de-
spair. After undergoing a long persecution from
Venus, who had also imprisoned Cupid, Psyche is
found by her lover, who had made his escape. He
interests Jupiter in her favour, and Venus is at
length prevailed on to lay aside her resentment.
The marriage of Cupid and Psyche is celebrated
in the palace of Jupiter, and Psyche bears a son
who is named Pleasure.

Hymenzus, the god of marriage, was said to
be the son of Venus and Bacchus. He was re-
presented crowned with roses or marjoram (amd-
racus), with the nuptial torch in his hand, and a
flame-coloured veil on his head.



rt

58 MINERVA.

CHAPTER XVII.



Minerva—FPallas Athéna..

Minerva, the goddess of wisdom, who presided
over the arts, and was the patroness of scientific
warfare, was the offspring of Jupiter without a
mother. It is said that he had espoused Metis
(Prudence), a daughter of Océanus, but that when
she was about to give birth to her first child, he
devoured her; for Heaven and Earth had told him
that the infant about to be born would equal him

_ in power and wisdom, and that her next born would



MINERVA. 59

be king of gods and men. Some time afterwards
he felt his head afflicted with violent pains, and
calling Vulcan, ordered him to open it with an
axe. The fire-god obeyed, and forth sprang Mi-
nerva completely armed.

Like Didna and Vesta, Minerva was a maiden-
goddess ; her virtue was respected by all. Vulcan
once paid dear for an attempted breach of pro-
priety.

The favourite bird of Minerva was the solemn
contemplative owl; the olive, which she caused
to shoot up from the earth, was the plant sacred
to her.

This goddess was always represented armed :
on her shield or on her breastplate was the terrific
Gorgon’s head, which was given to her by Perseus,
as will be related in the sequel.

Minerva was the guardian and aider of eminent
heroes. She accompanied Perseus and Hercules
in their adventures ; was the constant protector
and adviser of Ulysses; and, under the form of a
man named Mentor, travelled with Telémachus,
the son of this hero, in search of his father.

It was with the aid of Minerva that Argus built
the Argo for Jason, and Epéiis the wooden horse
by means of which Troy was taken. She excelled



60 MINERVA.

in female accomplishments, and wove and em-
broidered her own robe and that of Juno. She
instructed her favourites among women in this
art.

Arachne, a Meeonian maid whom Minerva had
taught, was so ungrateful as to deny the obligation,
and to challenge the goddess to a trial of skill.
Having in vain sought to make her relinquish
her mad project, Minerva accepted the challenge.
Each wove a web adorned with various actions of
the gods. That of Minerva displayed in its centre
her own contest with Neptune for the naming of
the city of Cecrops; the four corners contained
the transformations of those who had dared to con-
tend with the Celestials ; olive-leaves formed its
- border. The web of Arachne was filled with the
love-transformations of the gods; its border was
flowers and ivy. Unable to find fault with the
work, Minerva struck the artist several blows on
the forehead with her shuttle. Arachne hung her-
self, and the goddess turned her into a spider,
which in Greek is called Arachne.

As Minerva was one day bathing at the fount
of Helicon with Chariclo, one of her favourites,
Tirésias, the son of Chariclo, approached the fount
_ to drink, and thus unwittingly beheld the goddess.



MINERVA. 61

As it was a law of the Celestials that whoever saw
one of them unpermitted should never look upon
another object, Tirésias was struck with blindness.
To alleviate his misfortune, the goddess gave him
the gift of prophecy. , .

CHAPTER XVIII.



Mercury— Hermes.

Mercury was the son of Jupiter by the nymph
Maia, one of the daughters of Atlas. He was the
| G



62 MERCURY.

god who presided over commerce, eloquence,
wrestling, and the other exercises of the palestra,
or gymnastic school; even over thieving, and
everything in short which required skill and in-
genuity. He was the messenger of Jupiter ; and
he had also the office of conducting the souls of
the dead to the under-world.

Mercury was usually represented with a winged
hat on his head, and winged shoes called ¢aldria
on his feet; he bears a rod entwined by two ser-
pents, and named cadiceiis, in his hand.

A cavern of Mount Cylléne in Arcadia was the
birth-place of this god. Scarcely was he born, when
he set forth to steal some of the cattle of the gods
which fed in Piéria at the foot of Mount Olympus
under the care of Apollo. At the door of the ca-
vern he met a tortoise, which he killed, and formed
a lyre of its shell. Arriving in Piéria, he drove
off fifty cows, and brought them to Arcadia, un-
seen by any but a man named Battus. Apollo
pursuing, came to the cave of the nymph Maia,
and threatened the babe severely if he did not
restore the oxen. Mercury denied all knowledge
of them ; but the matter being referred to Jupiter,
he ordered the young thief to make restitution.

The two sons of the Olympian king then became



MERCURY. 63

excellent friends. Mercury gave his lyre to Apollo,
who presented him in turn with the rod, which
afterwards became the caduceus.

It is said that Mercury gave Battus one of the
heifers as the price of his secrecy. Curious to
know if he would be true to his word, he changed
his form, and coming to him inquired if he had
seen any one driving cattle that way: on his
offering a cow as the reward of information, the
covetous Battus told all he knew; and the god to
punish him turned him into the Index or Touch-
stone.

As Mercury was flying one day over the city of
Athens, he beheld Hersa, the daughter of Cecrops,
walking in the procession which was returning
from the temple of Minerva. The god was in-
stantly smitten with love, and only stopping to
arrange his dress, he entered the dwelling of Ce-
crops. He here met Aglauros the sister of Hersa,
who asked him his business: the god informed
her of his rank, and entreated her good offices
with her sister. The price she set on her mediation
was a large sum of gold, and she made him leave
the house till he should have brought it. Minerva,
to punish Aglauros for this and other offences, sent
Envy to fill her bosom with her venom. Aglauros,

G 2



64 MERCURY.

jealous of her sister, sat at the door of Hersa’s
chamber, determined not to suffer the god to enter.
Having assayed prayers and entreaties in vain, anger
at length got the better of Mercury, and he turned
her into a black stone.



CHAPTER XIX.



CERESAND PrOSERPINE. Deméter and Perséphone.

Ceres was a daughter of Saturn and Rhea. She
had by Jupiter a daughter named Proserpine, and



CERES AND PROSERPINE. 65

by Neptune was mother of the fleet steed Arion :
Plutus, the god of wealth, was the son of Ceres
and a mortal named Jasion.

Ceres was the goddess who presided over corn
and agriculture; and hence the allegory of the god
of wealth being her son, for agriculture is the true
source of wealth. She was usually represented
holding poppies in her hand, or with a garland of
them on her head; long yellow locks waved on
her shoulders, to denote the goddess who ripened
the corn.

The principal circumstances in the history of
Ceres are to be found in the tale of her search for
her daughter Prdéserpine when she was carried off
by Pluto.

As the god of the under-world was once driving
in his chariot through the isle of Sicily, Venus, who
beheld him from the summit of Mount Eryx,
desired her son to shoot an arrow into his bosom.
Cupid obeyed, and transfixed the heart of the
subterranean god. As Pluto drove near the
town of Henna, he saw Préserpine, the daughter
of Ceres, gathering flowers with her playfellows
in the meads by the transparent lake of Pergos.
Soon as he beheld he loved her; and snatching
her up into his chariot carried her off, while she



66 CERES AND PROSERPINE.

vainly called to her mother and her companions
for aid. The water-nymph Cfane (Dark-blue)
essayed, but fruitlessly, to stop the god; he hurled
his sceptre into her fount, and the earth opening
gave him passage to his gloomy domains.

Meantime Ceres sought her daughter in all parts
of the earth. She rested not day or night ; for ha-
ving lighted two torches at Aitna, she searched for
her by their light. One day overcome with thirst,
she approached a cottage to request something to
drink. An old woman, its mistress, gave her some
gruel; and as the thirsty goddess swallowed it
eagerly, a boy who was standing by laughed at
her, and called her greedy. Ceres flung in his
face what remained in the vessel, and he was
changed into the spotted lizard called Stéllio
(Starry).

The goddess beheld on the surface of the fount
of Cyane the zone of her daughter, but the nymph
of the fount having been turned into water, was
unable to give the information she possessed. At
length Arethtisa, whose stream ran from Elis to
Sicily under the sea, told her that she had seen
Prdserpine in the nether-world. Ceres immedi-
ately repaired to Olympus; and Jupiter, on her

remonstrance, directed that her daughter should



CERES AND PROSERPINE. 67

return to heaven, provided she had eaten nothing
while in the palace of Pluto. The goddess de-
parted, quite assured of recovering her child; but
unfortunately, Prdéserpine, while walking in the
garden of Erebus, had plucked a pomegranate,
and swallowed seven of the seeds. Ascalaphus,
the son of Océanus by Orphna (Darkness) a nymph
of the nether-world, who had seen her, giving in-
formation, disappointed the confident expectations
of the goddesses ; and Prdserpine, as a punishment,
turned him into a Screech-owl (Budo): Jupiter
finally awarded her to spend one half of the year
with her husband, the other half with her mother.

Ceres gave her chariot drawn by dragons to
Triptdlemus (Thrice-plough), son of Celeus king
of Eleusis in Attica, and sent him to distribute
corn through the earth. It is said that when Ceres
was roaming in search of her lost daughter she
came to Eleusis, where she undertook the nursing
of Triptédlemus the infant son of Celeus. Design-
ing to make him immortal, she fed him on am-
brosia, and laid him every night in the fire. The
imprudent curiosity of his mother, who watched
the goddess and rushed into the room, deprived
him of the intended blessing.

Erysichthon, an impious man, once cut down a



68 CERES AND PROSERPINE.

stately oak-tree which was sacred to Ceres. As
its Hamadrfad expired with the tree, the other
nymphs besought Ceres to punish the author of
her death. The goddess inflicted him with insa-
tiate hunger; and to procure the means of ap-
peasing it, he sold all his substance, and finally his
only daughter. As Neptune had bestowed on this
maiden the power of changing her form, she al-
ways escaped from the purchaser in the shape of
some animal, and returning to her father was sold
by him again. Finally, even this means not suf-
ficing, Erysichthon devoured his own flesh and
died. y/



BACCHUS. 69

CHAPTER XxX.



Baccnus—Diony'sus.

Baccuvs, the god of wine, was the son of Jupiter
and a mortal mother Sémele, the daughter of Cad-
mus king of Thebes.

Juno, taking the form of Sémele’s nurse, and
affecting to disbelieve that her lover was what he
gave himself out to be, induced her to require of
him to visit her in the same manner as he visited
Juno. Sémele followed the insidious counsel ; and
without naming her request, exacted a promise
from the god, which he voluntarily confirmed by



70 BACCHUS.

an oath. She then made known her wishes. Ju-
piter, unable to turn her from her purpose, came
surrounded with thunder and lightning, and the
hapless Sémele perished by the celestial flames.
Jupiter, taking the unborn babe, sewed him up in
his thigh, where he remained till the due time of
birth. He was then given to Ino, the sister of
Sémele, and afterwards to the Nyseian nymphs to
rear; and was finally educated by Rhea in Lydia.

When Bacchus was grown up, his father sent
Iris to excite him to make war on Deriades, the
haughty king of India. Numerous nations and
peoples and warriors marched beneath the banner
of the son of Jupiter. The Indians made a gallant
resistance. The war was continued for seven years
with various success, and finally terminated in the
death of the Indian monarch, and the complete
victory of Bacchus.

Having made a triumphal progress through
Arabia and other parts of the East, Bacchus at
length came to his native city of Thebes, where
all the family of Cadmus and the greater part of
the inhabitants acknowledged him as the son of
Jupiter, and received the sacred rites which he
introduced. But Pentheus, another grandson of

- Cadmus, who then governed the country, derided



cela ree ee

BACCHUS. 71

his pretensions to a celestial origin, and opposed
his worship. To witness with his own eyes the mad
orgies which Bacchus had brought into Greece,
Pentheus went to Mount Citheeron, where his
mother Agave and the other Theban women were
celebrating them; and there the art of Bacchus
making him appear as a wild beast, he was torn
to pieces by his mother and his aunts.

Bacchus was one time found by some Tyrrhe-
nian mariners on the shore of the isle of Dia. Sup-
posing him to be a mortal youth, they carried him
away, resolved to sell him fora slave. The pilot,
who suspected his quality, urged them in vain to
set him free. Suddenly the vessel stood as if rooted
in the open sea; ivy and vines twined round the
oars, masts and sails, and the god appeared sur-
rounded by the forms of tigers, lynxes, and pan-
thers. In terror the crew jumped into the sea,
where they were changed into dolphins. The
pilot was spared, and became a follower of the
god.

Bacchus, finding Ariadne the daughter of Minos,
king of Crete, in the isle of Naxos, where she had
been abandoned by Theseus, made her his spouse.
He gave her a splendid golden crown, which was
afterwards set among the stars.



72 BACCHUS.

The god of wine was usually represented as
an effeminate youth crowned with ivy and vine-
leaves. y,

~

2 A eeacanene nee

CHAPTER XXI.

SistER-GODDESSES.

Tux Muszs were the daughters of J upiter and the
Titaness Mnemdsyne (Memory). They presided
over song, and prompted the memory. At the
banquets in Olympus they sang to Apollo’s lyre.

These goddesses were nine in number, to each
of whom was assigned the precedence over some
particular department of literature, art or science.

Their nanies were,— |

Calliope (Fair-voice), who presided over Epic
Poetry. She held in her hand a roll of parchment,
or a trumpet.

Clio (Illustrious) presided over History. She
held a roll half open.

Melpémene (Singing) was the muse of Tragedy.
She leaned on a club, and held a tragic mask.

Eutérpe (Well-pleasing), the patroness of Mu-
sic, held two flutes. ’



SISTER-GODDESSES. 73

Erato (Loving) presided over marriage festivals.
She played on a nine-stringed lyre.

Terpsichore (Dance-loving), as Muse of the
Dance, appeared dancing, and holding a seven-
stringed lyre.

Urania (Celestial), the Muse of Astronomy,
held a globe, and traced mathematical figures with
a wand.

Thalia (Gay), the Muse of Comedy, held in one
hand a comic mask, in the other a crooked staff.

Polfmnia, or Polyh¥mnia (Song-full), presided
over Eloquence. She held her fore-finger on her
lips, or carried a roll.

The Muses are said to have been born in Piéria,
at the foot of Mount Olympus. Many hills and
fountains were sacred to them, whence they de-
rived appellations. Thus they were called Piérides
from Pi¢ria, Libéthrides from Libéthron a fountain
in Macedénia, Aganippides from the fount Aga-
nippe, Castdlides from that of Castalia. Hippo-
créne (Horse-fount), said to have been produced
by the hoof of the winged steed Pégasus, was sa-
cred to these goddesses ; and the mountains Pin-
dus, Hélicon, and Parnassus, were their favourite
haunts.

The nine daughters of Pierus, we are told, once

H



74 SISTER-GODDESSES.

challenged the Muses to sing. The Nymphs were
chosen judges.. The challengers sang the war of
the Gods and the Giants. Calliope was appointed
by her sisters to reply; her theme was the carry-
ing off of Prdserpine by Pluto, and the search of
Ceres after her through the world. The Nymphs
decided in favour of the Muses. The vanquished
singers vented their rage in abuse, and the god-
desses turned them into magpies. |

As the Muses were going to their temple on
Parnassus, a man named Pyréneus invited them to
shelter in his house from an approaching tempest.
The goddesses accepted the proffered hospitality ;
and when the storm was over they were preparing
to depart. Their host shut the doors, and pro-
hibited their departure ; but the Muses, taking
wing, flew from the roof; and Pyréneus, attempt-
ing to follow them, was dashed to pieces.

Callfope was the mother of the poets Orpheus
and Linus, and the Sirens were the offspring of
Melpémene and the river-god Achaea s,

The Seasons or Hovas were three in number ;
Eundmia (Good-order), Dike (Justice), and Iréne
(Peace). They were the daughters of Jupiter and
Themis, }



SISTER-GODDESSES. 75

- These goddesses presided over the seasons of
the year and the hours of the day, and over law,
justice, and peace.

The Cua'rites or GRACES were goddesses pre-
siding over the banquet, the dance, and all social
enjoyments and elegant arts. They were three in
number, the daughters of Jupiter and Eurynome
(Wide-law) a daughter of Océanus. Their names
were, Agldia (Splendour), Euphrdésyne (Joy), and
Thalfa (Pleasure). .They were represented as
three sisters dancing together.

- The Fares were also three in number: Clo-
tho (Spinster), Lachesis (Allotter), and A'tropos
(Unchangeable). They were the daughters of
Jupiter and Themis, or, as some say, of Night.
Their office was to spin and allot the destinies of
men.

- The Inituy1' were the daughters of Jupiter

' and Juno. It was their office to aid women in the
pains of labour. Their number is by most writers
reduced to one.

The Keres were the daughters of Night: they
H 2



76 SISTER-GODDESSES.

loved battles and slaughter, and used to glut them-
selves with the blood of the slain and the wounded.

The Eri'nnyes or Furtes were three goddesses
who sprung from the blood of Uranus when he was
mutilated by his son Saturn. Their names were,
Alecto (Unceasing), Megeera (Envious), and Tisi-
phone (Blood-avenger). They punished by their
secret stings the crimes of those men who escaped
or defied public justice. The heads of the Furies
were wreathed with serpents, and their whole ap-
pearance was terrific and appalling.

One of the names bestowed on these tenrilile
goddesses was that of Euménides (Gracious), under
which they were worshiped at Athens. This title
was placatory, and intended to soothe them, and
make them mild towards the Athenian people. y



THEMIS, IRIS,HEBE,PZON,ANDOTHER DEITIES. 77

CHAPTER XXII.



THEMIS, Iris,Hese, Paon, AND OTHER DEITIES.

TueEmis was one of the daughters of Heaven and
Earth. Her name, which signifies Law, denotes
her office. She was one of the wives of Jupiter,
to whom she bore the Fates, and the three Sea-
sons, Peace, Order, Justice.

Iris was the daughter of Thaumas (Wonder)
and Electra (Brightness). She was goddess of the
rainbow, which is called in Greek Iris. Iris was
originally the messenger of Jupiter; but her office



78 THEMIS, IRIS, HEBE, PZON,AND OTHER DEITIES.

being afterwards bestowed on Mércury, she became
appropriated to the service of Juno. There is a
pleasing fiction, which says, that Iris and Zephyrus
were the parents of Love, intimating that spring,
when zephyrs breathe and rainbows appear, is the
season of love.

HeEseE (Youth) was a daughter of Jupiter and
Juno. She handed round the nectar at the feasts
of the gods. When Hércules was admitted to Olym-
pus she became his spouse. Her office of cup-bearer
fell to Ganymédes son of the king of Troy.

Pzxon, a god of unknown origin, was the phy-
sician of the gods on Olympus. His name and
office were afterwards bestowed on Apollo.

Momvs, the god of wit and ridicule, was the son
of Night without a father.
- It is said that Neptune, Minerva, and Vulcan,
once disputed about their respective powers as
artists. It was agreed that each should produce
a specimen of their skill, and Momus was chosen
judge. Neptune then made a bull, Minerva a
house, and Vulcan a man. The arbiter declared

himself dissatisfied with all. He said that the



THEMIS, IRIS,HEBE,PZON,ANDOTHERDEITIES. 79

horns of the bull should have been set in his fore-
head, that he might butt with the greater force ;
Minerva’s house ought to have been made move-
able, so that one might be able to get out of a bad
neighbourhood ; as for Vulcan, he had shown the
greatest want of sense of all, by not putting a win-
dow in the breast of his man, that his thoughts
might be seen.

NEmeEsIs was a daughter of Night. This god-
dess distributed to men rewards and punishments,
according as their works were good or evil. She
was called Adrastéa (Inevitable). She was also
named Rhamnisia, from Rhamnus a town in Attica,
where she had a celebrated temple.

Deatu and SLEEP were twin-brothers, the child-
ren of Night.

When Alcestis, the affectionate wife of Admétus
king of Thessaly, offered to die instead of her hus-
band, Death came to his palace to fetch her away.
Apollo sought in vain to mollify him ; but Hércules
pursued him and rescued his captive.

The abode of Sleep was placed near the country
of the Kimmerians, in a silent cave, on which the
beams of the sun never shone. His chief ministers



80 THEMIS, IRIS, HEBE,PZON,AND OTHER DEITIES.

were, Morpheus (Shape), who took the form of
men in dreams; I'celos (Likeness), who took that
of beasts, birds, and other animals; and Phantasos
(Appearance), who appeared in the likeness of in-
animate objects.

There were two gates of Sleep,—one of ivory,
through which the false deceptive dreams passed ;
the other was of transparent horn, .at which such
dreams as were true came forth to go among
men.

'



¢

THE RURAL DEITIES, Sl

CHAPTER XXIII.



THe Rurau DEITIES.

Pan, the god who presided over the country, was,

according to the most ancient account, the son of
Mércury by an Arcadian nymph, the daughter of
Dryops. Others say, that as Penélope, who was
afterwards married to Ulysses, was tending in her
youth her father’s flocks on Mount Tay'getus,
Mércury taking the form of a goat gained her love,
and she became the mother of this god of herds-
men.



82 THE RURAL DEITIES.

Pan had goats’ feet and a shaggy skin: he had
also goats’ horns, with a wrinkled face, a matted
beard, and a flat nose. It is said, that when he
was born, the nurse on beholding him fled away
in affright ; but Mercury, wrapping him up in a
hare-skin, carried him to Olympus, where al/ the
gods were delighted with him.

Deficient as he was in beauty, Pan was not
without his love-adventures. He gained the affec-
tion of Seléna, the beautiful goddess of the night,
under the form of a white ram. Another of his
loves was the nymph Echo, whose adventure with
Narcissus shall presently be narrated. The nymph
Pitys also listened to his love; and Boreas, the
god of the north wind, who was his rival, blew
the nymph down from a rock and killed her. Pan,
unable to save, changed her into a Pine-tree—in
Greek Pitys. |

As the nymph Syrinx was one day returning
from the chase, she passed by Mount Lycéum.
Pan, happening to see her, fell in love with her.
The nymph fled from him; he pursued her till
she found her course impeded by the river Ladon.
She implored the aid of her sister-nymphs; and
when Pan thought to seize her, he found his arms

filled with reeds, into which she had been changed.



THE RURAL DEITIES. 83

He stood sighing at his disappointment, when the
wind agitating the reeds, they made a low musical
sound. Pan, taking the hint, cut seven of them,
from which he made the instrument called oyaam
or Pandean pipes.

Pan was the author of what are called Panic
terrors. In this way he aided the Athenians at
Marathon, and terrified the Gauls when they were
approaching to plunder the temple of Delphi,

Arcadia was the country in which Pan was most
honoured.

_ Sriinus, a rural deity, was said to be the foster-
father of Bacchus, whom he usually accompanied,
riding on a broad-backed ass. He was generally
intoxicated, and was rarely seen without his can
(céntharus) in his hand.

Silénus was noted for his wisdom: we find him
in Virgil lecturing very learnedly on the origin
of the world. One of his sayings has been pre-
served, Being asked,.we are told, what was best
for man,—after musing some time, he replied,
“It is best never to be born; next. to that, to die
quickly.”

Some Phrygian shepherds once found Silénus
in one of his drunken fits, and brought him to



84 THE RURAL DEITIES.

king Midas, who kept and entertained him for ten
days, and then restored him to Bacchus. The god
desired Midas to ask a reward; the king, like
many other fools, thinking there was nothing like
money, requested that whatever he touched might
be turned to gold. The gift was bestowed. Midas
laid his hand on a stone, it became a mass of gold ;
he touched the ears of corn, they waved in golden
lustre ; he washed his hands, the water became
like the shower of gold in which Jupiter descend-
ed into the bosom of Danae. Midas was in rap-
tures. But Midas sat down to eat, and his teeth
could not penetrate the golden bread: fish, flesh,
and fowl,—all was gold. He mingled some wine
and water, it became pure aurum potdbile, and
would not discharge the vulgar office of quenching
the thirst. In despair he turned him to the god,
acknowledging his error, and praved to be relieved
from the ruinous gift. Bacchus took pity, and
directed him to bathe in the river Pactdélus. He
bathed, and lost the power of making gold; the
river began to roll over golden sands.

© The Saryrs were another part of the retinue of
Bacchus. 'They were conceived to be bald, with
short sprouting horns like those of kids, and goat-



THE RURAL DEITIES. 85

footed. They were of a lively frolicsome dispo-
sition.

Pria'pus was the god who presided over gar-
dens. He was said to be the son of Bacchus and
Venus. Lampsacus, on the Héllespont, was the
chief seat of his worship. He usually bore a sickle
and a horn of plenty. xv

CHAPTER XXIV.

Tur NymMpus.

Tue Nymphs were beautiful female deities, who
were supposed to inhabit all the regions of earth
and water. They were divided into various classes,
according to their abodes and their offices. Thus
the Mountain-nymphs, or Oréades, haunted the
mountains ; the Dale-nymphs, or Napee, the val-
leys; the Mead-nymphs, or Limoniades, the mea-
dows ; the Wood-nymphs, or Dryades, the woods ;
the Tree-nymphs, or Hamadrfades, were born
and died with the trees; the Flock-nymphs, or
Meliades, watched over flocks of sheep ; the Water-
nymphs, or Ndides, dwelt in the springs and rivers;
I



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THE

MYTHOLOGY

OF

ANCIENT GREECE AND ITALY:

FOR THE USE OF SCHOOLS,

BY

THOMAS KEIGHTLEY,

AUTHOR OF

HISTORIES OF GREECE AND ROME; OUTLINES OF HISTORY,
ETC. ETC.

SEVENTH EDITION.

| LONDON :
WHITTAKER AND CO., AVE MARIA LANE. ©
1852.


The Frontispiece etched, and the Woodcuts from Drawings,
by W. H. Brooxg, F.S.A.
PREFACE.

LAAAADAAASASBFAY

THERE are things, which, though they may
not come under the head of Useful Know-
ledge, require to be known.—Such are the
renowned histories of Whittington and his
Cat, Jack the Giant-killer, Bluebeard, Tom
Thumb, and other heroes of the nursery.
Every one is supposed to be familiar with
them, and they are frequent subjects of al-
lusion both in writing and in conversation.
The legends of Grecian Mythology have
at least this mimor claim to attention. We
cannot open a Poet, ancient or modern, with-
out meeting them, or allusions to them; and
the moment we enter a picture-gallery, we
find ourselves in the midst of the gods and
vl PREFACE.

heroes of Greece.—It is surely, then, not need-
less to know something about them.

But Mythology has higher claims. It is
closely connected with History and Philoso-
phy; and an acquaintance with its principles
is indispensable to a philosophic historian or
critic, and useful even to the theologian.

And the study of Mythology is not with-
out its attractions. As it is in the works
of the Poets that its legends have chiefly
been preserved, the search after them is one
of the most agreeable occupations in which
we can engage; and as very few of them are
devoid of meaning, the tracing out their sense
and origin yields adequate employment to the
very highest powers of the mind. Surely no
one will venture to say that the early theology
and history of such a people as the Greeks is
unworthy the attention of any, however ele-
vated in genius and in intellect. To me, the

study of Mythology is a source of high grati-
PRERACE. vii

fication, and I cheerfully devote my humble
abilities to its cultivation and diffusion.

In my larger work I have endeavoured to
exhibit Mythology in this its more dignified
form, and thither I must refer those who are
curious to know the real origin and signifi-
cation of its various legends. The present
little volume is purely narrative and intro-
ductory ; for explanations, unless when given
orally, prove in general rather irksome to
young persons :—the proofs of everything
advanced in it will be found in my other
work.

One advantage, and that no inconsiderable
one, I think I may venture to promise those
who will derive their first mythological ideas
from this little book—they will have nothing
to unlearn in their future progress. Every
thing is given on the best authority.

As the following pages are chiefly designed
for those who have not commenced reading
Vill PREFACE.

Greek, I have employed the Latin names of
the Deities; placing, however, the Greek
names beside them; and I have frequently
followed Ovid in preference to the Greek
Poets. As a further aid, I have given the
translation of such names as are significant ;
out when the meaning is only conjectural, it
is intimated by a mark of interrogation (?). I
have also accented the proper names through-
out. It may be remarked as a general rule,
that in proper names the final e and es are
to be sounded; thus, Danae and Pleiades are
words of three syllables.

But I have a higher object in view. Ladies
often complain that they are deterred from
the study of Mythology by the dread of
having their delicacy offended. In my wri-
tings on this subject, I can assure them, they
will have nothing to apprehend; and few
things could afford me higher gratification;
than the consciousness of having enabled my
PREFACE. ix

fair countrywomen to view pictures, and read
our own Poets and those of other countries,
with greater knowledge and consequently with
greater pleasure.

The Woodcuts are partly taken from An-
tiques, and partly from the classic designs of
Flaxman. The Frontispiece represents a resto-
ration of the Temple of Theseus at Athens,
with the Acropolis and the Parthenon in the
background.

Two chapters have been added in this
Second Edition, and all the errors in the pre-
ceding one corrected. It is now as perfect
as I believe I could make it. It has been
objected that I have not given explanation
enough. This I regard as the chief merit
of the book; for I should have explained on
some system, and it is not fair to pre-occupy
the youthful mind with any. My own system
will be found in my large work; here I give
xX PREFACE.

only the narratives and ideas of the ancient
poets, and each reader or teacher can apply
the system he deems best.



No change of consequence has been made in
the Third Edition. A different account of the
Titans will be found in the Second Edition of
my large Mythology; but I have thought it
best to retain the common account here.

7;
London, Oct. 7, 1838.
CONTENTS.





Part I.—THE GODS.

Chap, Page
hie ~epsieccane ace Me SEL ALORALE 1
II. The Grecian Gods in PEE then nncebincsnduncnaa 2

III. Grecian Ideas of the World .......... reiwiecnniol oo

Pee. MINN sisceticsiidicer secvivelinacisy tous, teiaciae 9
Di I setae a. ee psnkspviinabinesh 12

VI. The Titans SID cittivienvececctanieane 2 14

er NNN acide fac ce ee 20

VILL. Neptune—Poseidon .......0....cesseeceee00...5-.., 28

Te IN csc co i nr ae cee 31
ee MMM nisiaiescesisctosiocssicicuc cue 36

ee MU i inscictintiostsrenicuse 39

AIF. Vulcan— Hephaestus ....ccsccccccccssssseosse... 41

UE, NE ITD Sos sosrrécsscnccececsacccaen ot 43
Bs TU MOONEE ss. .0s.0ccessessvscossvoveces, 50
RV. Venus—Aphrodite ..............cccccceceseses..... 53
ne eS 56
XVII. Minerva—Pallas Athéne....0..................... 58
XVIII. Mercury—Hermes .............006.... i énabibiaiaiil 6]
XIX. Ceres and Préserpine—Demeter and Persé.
IE Mais hibit csdnkensupasepecranwissaas cane 64
XX. Bacchus—Diony’sus .....cecccccccsssocecceseeee, . 69
XXI. Sister-Goddesses ............00..c0000... sxeneiiinne 72
Xll CONTENTS.



Cha
XXII. Themis, Iris, Hebe, Peon, and other Deities .. a
SS WH GUE EPUIINOD Sats cvtckccic\ overs scorteccucns oe
ig a so vvced ccanemamnelee 86
XXV. The Water-Deities ...... peek lend delddees diceneees 89
RT EEE SHUI 6, 0nd cienctcccaeveceetnesceboscssacn 92
XXVII. Italian Deities ...... deci sectuberegueeuenteia i ae
Part II1.—THE HEROES.

Chap. Page
ee SO Ge OEE concce ns cscengcosedensspessnennia 101
SPOUT ili ceils snerseinireieiatiienelidineindauiin 102
III. Deucdlion and Pyrrha..........cccscccscoosseses we. 105
Pe PE tichichnstescrscsdecverees onnesbeinentseonnaminails 107
Pek IND cacenescinerecesstcotserss hattinusnedeaiivest 113
Th PIR: op esscc00scce08 intdenenen tee besdnsenened w» 116
in TED. asisconcecubinamssdiehaienahbaieswaiemieeiih oe 136

VIII. Procne and Philoméla. Cephalus and Procris,
Nisus and Scylla ........ nonetcensiadihescnns 143
IX. A’acus, Pelops, and their Posterity ..... nagoes 146
X. The Calydonian Hunt...... ila nenditnsetebeitiols «. 150
XI. The Argonautic Expedition ..............s0c000, 152
ee TI TE cancun sadiunnnsawuaiibiceimnal 163
i ee NE WE b,c eueipionsonssaneben soaceees 173
XIV. The Return of the Greeks .........000...scesevees 187
XV. The Voyage of Ainéas .......... edie chesicemialagaaalil 211

Es cis ssa seiea bia alii tai 223
MYTHOLOGY

OF

GREECE AND ITALY.

Part I.—THE GODS.

-

CHAPTER I.
INTRODUCTION.

POLYTHEISM, or the belief in many gods,
was the religion of most ancient nations, and it
may still be witnessed in its full vigour in India.
Learned and ingenious as the Greeks and Romans
were, they were far removed from the purity and
simplicity of faith which distinguished the Israel-
ites; and in their days of greatest refinement they
still worshiped at the altars of many gods.

It is not necessary at present to seek to trace
the origin and causes of the polytheism of man-
kind ; that such was the religion of the ancient
Greeks is a simple fact. The description of the

B
2 INTRODUCTION.

objects of their worship, and the narration of the
principal adventures which they invented for their
deities, are the points to which we shall direct
our attention.

As the Greeks were a remarkably ingenious
people, who abounded with imagination, and were
passionately fond of poetry, which in its early ages
was chiefly narrative, they devised numerous tales
of the adventures of their gods; for their vene-
ration for them was not of that awful character
which precludes all falsehood and fiction when
speaking of beings superior to man.

These tales or fables of the adventures and ac-
tions of the Grecian gods are called Mythes, from
a Greek word signifying fable; and the science
which treats of them is termed Mythology.

CHAPTER II.

Tue Grecian Gops IN GENERAL.

Tue ancient Greeks believed their gods to be of
the same shape and form as themselves, but of far
greater beauty, strength and dignity. They also
regarded them as being of much larger size than
THE GRECIAN GODS IN GENERAL, 3

men ; for in those times great size was esteemed
a perfection both in man and woman, and conse-
quently was supposed to be an attribute of their
divinities, to whom they ascribed all perfections.
A fluid named Ichor supplied the place of blood
in the veins of the gods. They were not capable
of death, but they might be wounded or otherwise
injured. They could make themselves visible or
invisible to men as they pleased, and assume the
forms of men or of animals as it suited their fancy.
Like men, they stood in daily need of food and
sleep. The meat of the gods was called Am-
brosia, their drink Nectar. The gods when they
came among men often partook of their food and
hospitality.

Like mankind, the gods were divided into two
sexes,—namely, gods and goddesses. ‘They mar-
ried and had children, just like mortals. Often a
god became enamoured of a mortal woman, or a
goddess was smitten with the charms of a hand-
some youth, and these love-tales form a large por-
tion of Grecian mythology.

To make the resemblance between gods and
men more complete, the Greeks ascribed to their
deities all human passions, both good and evil.
They were capable of love, friendship, gratitude

B2
4 THE GRECIAN GODS IN GENERAL.

and all the benevolent affections :—on the other
hand, they were frequently envious, jealous, and
revengeful. They were particularly careful to
exact all due respect and attention from mankind,
whom they required to honour them with temples,
prayers, costly sacrifices, splendid processions, and
rich gifts ; and they severely punished insult or
neglect.

The abode of the gods, as described by the
more ancient Grecian poets, such as Homer and
Hesiod, was on the summit of the snow-clad
mountain of Olympus in Thessaly. A gate of
clouds, kept by the goddesses named the Seasons,
unfolded its valves to permit the passage of the
Celestials to earth, or to receive them on their
return. The city of the gods, as we may term it,
was regulated on the same principle as a Grecian
city of the heroic ages. The inhabitants, who
were all the kindred or the wives and children of
the king of the gods, had their separate dwellings ;
but all when summoned repaired to the palace of
Jupiter, whither also came, when called, those dei-
ties whose usual abode was the earth, the waters,
or the under-world. It was also in the great hall
of the palace of the Olympian king that the gods
feasted each day on ambrosia and nectar; which
THE GRECIAN GODS IN GENERAL, 5

last precious beverage was handed round by the
lovely goddess Hebe ( Youth), —maid-servants being
the usual attendants at meals in the houses of the
Grecian princes in early times. Here they con-
versed of the affairs of heaven and earth; and as
they quaffed their nectar, Apollo the god of music
delighted them with the tones of his lyre, to which
the Muses sang in responsive strains, When the
sun was set, the gods retired to sleep in their re-
spective dwellings.

The Dawn, the Sun, and the Moon, who drove
each day in their chariots drawn by celestial steeds
through the air, gave light to the gods as well as
to men.

With the exception, perhaps, of the robes and
other parts of the dress of the goddesses, which
were woven by Minerva and the Graces, every-
thing on Olympus appertaining to the gods was
formed of the various metals, especially brass or
copper, the metal which was in the greatest abun-
dance in Greece ; for we must always recollect,
that the gods being the mere creation of fancy,
everything relating to them was framed according
to the ideas and state of manners in the early ages
of Greece.

Vulcan was architect, smith, armourer, chariot-
6 THE GRECIAN GODS IN GENERAL.

builder, and everything in Olympus. He built of
brass the houses of the gods; he made for them
the golden shoes, with which they trod the air or
the water, and moved from place to place with the
speed of the wind or even of thought ; he also,
as some think, shod with brass the celestial steeds,
which whirled the chariots of the gods through
the air, or along the surface of the sea. This di-
vine artist was able to bestow on his workman-
ship automatism, or the power of self-motion: the
tripods which he formed could move of themselves
in and out of the celestial hall. He even endowed
with intelligence the golden handmaidens whom he
framed to wait on himself.

CHAPTER III.
GRECIAN IDEAS OF THE WORLD.

‘In order clearly to understand the mythology of
the Greeks, it is necessary to have an adequate
conception of their notions of the world and its
different parts. This is called Cosmology.

The ancient Greeks believed the earth to be flat
and circular: their own country they conceived to
GRECIAN IDEAS OF THE WORLD. 7

occupy the centre of it; the central point being
either Mount Olympus the abode of the gods, or
Delphi so renowned for its oracle.

The circular disk of the earth was crossed from
west to east, and divided into two equal parts, by
the Sea, as they called the Mediterranean, and
its continuation the Euxine,—the only seas with
which they were acquainted.

Around the earth flowed the river Ocean. Its
course was from south to north on the western
side of the earth. The steady equable current
of the Ocean compassed the earth, unmoved by
storm or tempest; and hence it was called soft-
flowing: it was also termed back-flowing, on ac-
count of its circular course. The sea and all the
springs and rivers on earth derived their origin
from it.

The Ocean had a further bank: but only that
portion of it which lay to the west is spoken of
by the poets. Homer places there a people whoin
he calls Kimmérians: he also makes it the abode
of the dead.

In the remoter part of the northern half of the
earth dwelt a people named Hyperbdreans, sacred
to the god Apollo, who bestowed on them wealth
and happiness in abundance. The coast of the
8 GRECIAN IDEA OF THE WORLD.

Ocean on the eastern and southern side was in-
habited by the swarthy Ethiopians. The islands
and coasts of the western portion of the Mediter-
ranean Sea were the abode of the various tribes
visited by Ulysses in his wanderings: its eastern
part was inhabited by the Libyans, Egyptians, and
other nations well known to the Greeks. |

On the western extremity of the southern half
of the terrestrial disk was a happy place named
Elysium, whither the king of the gods transported
his favourites among men, to dwell in an eternity
of bliss. )

It would appear that according to the ideas of
the ancient Greeks, the world was a hollow sphere
or globe, divided internally into two equal portions
by the flat disk of the earth, with the Ocean and
its further bank running round it on the outside
like a rim:—the common armillary sphere will
serve to give an idea of it. The poets called the
external shell of the sphere drazen, and iron, to
express its solidity. The part above the earth
was called Heaven, and was illuminated by the
sun, moon, and stars. The portion beneath the
earth was named Tartarus: here perpetual dark-
ness reigned, and the vanquished or rebellious gods
were confined within its murky regions.
GRECIAN IDEAS OF THE WORLD. 9

The Dawn, the Sun, and the Moon, rose out of
Ocean on the eastern side, and drove through the
air, giving light to gods and men. The stars also,
except those forming the Wain or Bear, rose out
of and sank into the stream of Ocean.

Such were the ideas of the universe entertained
by the Greeks in the time of Homer and Hesiod.
With the progress of physical and geographical
knowledge many of these erroneous notions were
corrected ; but the poets still retained most of the
ideas of their predecessors. +

CHAPTER IV.
THEOGONY.

Tue origin of the world and its various parts and
inhabitants, was represented by the ancient Greeks
as the birth of animated beings. The gods whom
they worshiped formed a part of the series of beings
who gradually came into existence ; and hence the
account of it is called Theogony or Birth of the
Gods.

Chaos, or empty space, they said, existed first :
then came into being Earth, Tartarus, and Love.
10 THEOGONY.

Erebus (Darkness?) and N ight were the chil-
dren of Chaos; Night bore to Erebus, Day and
Aather.

Night was, without a father, the parent of the
Hespérides, or Maidens who kept the golden ap-
ples on the shore of Ocean; of Momus, and of
Woe ; of Death, Sleep, and Dreams; of Némesis,
of Old-age, and Discord.

Earth brought forth Uranus or Heaven, the
Sea (Pontus), and the Mountains. She bore to
Heaven six sons, Océanus, Coeus, Crius, Hype-
rion, Jdpetus, and Saturn; and six daughters,
Thea, Rhea, Themis, Mnemésyne, Phoebe, and
Tethys: and these twelve were called the Titans.
Earth and Heaven were likewise the parents of
the three Cyclépes,—Brontes, Stéropes, and Ar-
ges; and of the three Hundred-handed,—Cottus,
Bridreos, and Gyes or Gyges.

These children were hated by their father; and
as soon as they were born he hid them in a cavern
of Earth ; who indignant at his conduct, produced
the metal named steel, and forming from it a sickle,
gave it to her son Saturn, who, lying in wait for
his father, mutilated him. The drops of blood
which fell on the earth gave origin to the Giants,
the Erinnyes or Furies ; and the Melian nymphs ;
THEOGONY. 11

from what fell into the sea sprang Venus, the
goddess of love and beauty.

By her other son Pontus (the Sea), Earth was
the mother of Thaumas (Wonder), Nereus, Phor-
cys, and a daughter named Ceto (Huge, or Sea-
monster). ‘Thaumas married Electra (Brightness)
a daughter of Océanus, who bore him Iris (Rain-
bow) and the Harpies or Wind-goddesses. Nereus
had by Doris, also a daughter of Océanus, the
fifty sea-nymphs called the Neréides. Phorcys
was, by his sister Ceto, father of the Greese, the
Gorgons, and the Serpent which with the Hespé-
rides watched the golden fruit.

When here and elsewhere we read of gods mar-
ried to their sisters, we must recollect, in excuse
of the old bards who relate such things, that in
the East, and among the Ionian Greeks, where
the female part of the family were kept secluded,
such marriages were not prohibited. We thus find
the patriarch Abraham married to his half-sister
Sarah ; and Cimon the great Athenian stood in a
similar relation to his wife Elpinice. In theogony
we must also allow for the necessity of the case ;
just as we are obliged to suppose that the children
of Adam and Eve espoused each other.
12 THE TITANS.

CHAPTER V.



Tue Tirans. Saturn.

Océanus married his sister Tethys, who gave birth
to the Ocednides, or Ocean-nymphs, and all the
rivers and springs. He and his wife and daughters
dwelt in a grotto-palace in the western part of the
stream, over which he ruled, and which was named
from him.

Ceeus and his sister Phoebe (Brightness) had two
daughters, Laténa (Night?) and Astéria (Starry).

The offspring of Crius and Eurfbia (Wide-
Sorce) were, Astreeus (Starry), Pallas (Shaker ?),
THE TITANS. 13

and Perses (Bright?). Astreeus had by Auréra
(Dawn), the daughter of his brother Hyperion,
the winds, Zéphyrus (West), Béreas (North), and
Notus (South). Pallas had by the Ocean-nymph
Styx, Envy and Victory, Strength and Force.
Perses was, by Asteria, father of Hécate (Far-
caster) a goddess of the night.

Hyperion (Over-going) married his sister Thea
(Swift?) ; their offspring were Hélius (Sun), Se-
léne (Moon), and Auréra (Dawn).

Japetus and one of the Ocednides had four sons,
Atlas, Prométheus, Epimé¢theus, and Mencetius.

Saturn espoused his sister Rhea. They had
three sons and three daughters ; namely, Pluto,
‘Neptune, J upiter, and Vesta (Hestia), Ceres and
Juno. The last-born of these was Jupiter. Heaven
and Earth having told Saturn that he was fated to
be deprived of his kingdom by one of his sons,—
to prevent the calamity he devoured his children
as fast as they were born. Rhea, when about to
become the mother of Jtipiter, advised with her
parents on the means of saving him. Earth di-
rected her to give a stone swathed in linen to Sa-
turn instead of the child. She did so; and Saturn,
unsuspicious of the deceit, swallowed it. Jupiter
in the mean time was reared by the Nymphs in a

Cc
14 THE TITANS.

cavern of Crete. When grown up he espoused
Metis (Prudence), who administered a draught to
Saturn, which caused him to cast up the stone and
his other children.

The children of Saturn, headed by Jupiter, now
rebelled against their father, who was aided by
the other Titans, his brothers. The war, of which
Théssaly was thé scene,—the sons of Saturn fight-
ing from Mount Olympus, the Titans from Mount
Othrys,—lasted ten years. At length Jiépiter re-
leased the Hundred-handed, and with their aid
gained the victory. The vanquished Titans were
confined in the gloomy region of Tartarus, and the
Hundred-handed were set to guard them. Jitipiter
now assumed the empire of the world.



CHAPTER VI.
Tue Tirans (continued).
Tue Titans, however, were not all consigned to

Tartarus. The following are to be found still in
office, or employed under the reign of Jupiter.

| At.as, the son of Japetus, had the task (a pu-
nishment inflicted on him for his share in the war)
THE TITANS. 15

of supporting the heavens on his shoulders. We
shall find the hero Hercules relieving him for a
time of his burden. He was married to one of
the daughters of Oceanus, by whom he had seven
daughters, called the Pleiades or Atléntides : their
names were Maia, Electra, Taygete, Astérope,
Mérope, AlcYone, and Celeeno. They form the
constellation of the Pleiades in the sign of the Bull.
Atlas was also the father of the beautiful nymph Ca-
lypso, who entertained Ulysses in her isle Ogygia.

PromETuHEUvs is by some said to have been the
creator of man, whose benefactor he certainly was.
He stole fire from heaven, and gave it to the new-
formed race, whose life might have passed away
in misery if left destitute of that element. J Uipi-
ter, to punish him for this or some other offence,
chained him to a rock on Mount Caucasus where
an eagle evermore preyed on his liver. At length
Hercules, coming to the place of his punishment,
shot the eagle with his arrows, and delivered the
suffering Titan.

The remaining Titans were more fortunate than
Atlas and Prométheus.

Océanvs still abode in his circling stream, and
c 2
16 THE TITANS.

was treated with the utmost respect by Jupiter,
Juno, and the other gods.

Aurora, or Eos, the goddess of the Dawn,
dwelt in a palace on the east side of the earth,
whence every morning she went forth in her yel-
low chariot drawn by four steeds of brilliant white,
before her brother the Sun, and drove through the
sky, shedding light abroad. In the evening she sank
in the west before him, and they were conveyed
together round to the east during the night.

Auréra was by Astreeus mother of the winds
Zéphyrus, Boreas, and Notus. She bore him also
Eésphorus (Dawn-bearer) or Morning-star, and the
Stars of Heaven.

The goddess of the Dawn was at times inspired
with the love of mortals. She carried off Orion,
and kept him in the isle of OrtYgia till Didna
slew him with her arrows. She also carried off
Céphalus, the son of Mercury by Hersa (Dew),
daughter of Cecrops king of Attica, and had by
him a son named Phdéthon (Gleaming), whom
Venus, on account of his beauty, set to keep her
temple. Her greatest favourite, however, was
Tithdénus, son of Ladmedon king of Troy, whom,
after her usual fashion, she ran away with. She
THE TITANS. 17

prevailed on Jupiter to grant him immortality ;
but forgetting to have youth joined in the gift, to
her great mortification she began, after some time,
to discern the symptoms of advancing old age and
decrepitude. When his hair was grown white she
left his society ; but he still had the range of her
palace, lived on ambrosial food, and was clad in
celestial raiment. At length he lost the power of
moving his limbs, and then she shut him up in his
chamber, whence his feeble voice might at times
be heard. It is also said that she turned him into
the noisy insect called by the Greeks Tettix (Ci-
edda), or Tree-hopper.

- Auréra and Tithdénus had two children ; sti
non, a renowned hero slain at the siege of Troy ;
and another son named Aimathion, who was killed
by Hercules.

Héutvus, or Son, the Sun-god, the brother of
Auréra, dwelt like her on the eastern side of the
earth. He drove after her each day in his four-
horse chariot along the sky. At evening they all
went down into a golden cup or vessel, made by
Vulcan, which carried them during the night along
the ocean round the northern part of the earth, so
as to be in time to set out again in the morning.
18 THE TITANS.

By Persa, or Pers¢is (Brightness’), a daughter
of Océanus, the Sun was the father of Circe
(Hawk), the great enchantress, and her brother
Aiétes king of Colchis. Persa also bore him Pa-
siphaé (All-bright), who married Minos king of
Crete. The Sun was also the sire of Atigeas
(Bright) king of Elis, renowned for his wealth in
flocks and herds.

Helius, and the Oceanide Clymene, had a son
named Phaéthon (Gleaming), whose claims to a
celestial origin being denied by Epaphus the son
of Jupiter and Io, he journeyed to the palace of
his reputed sire, from whom he drew an unwary
oath that he would grant him whatever he desired.
His request was the guidance of the solar chariot
for one day, that all might thereby be convinced
that he was the offspring of its lord. Helius, aware
of the consequences, made every effort to induce
the thoughtless youth to content himself with
some less perilous proof. His arguments and en-
treaties were in vain; and at length, with a mourn-
ful heart, he circled his head with the glittering
diadem of rays, and committed the reins to his
hand. In the midst of his directions the impatient
youth lashed on the horses, who sprang along the
celestial way ; but soon aware of the feeble hand
THE TITANS. 19

which guided them, they ran out of the course,
and the world was enveloped in flames. At the
prayer of Earth, Jupiter launched his thunder, and
hurled Phdééthon from his seat. He fell into the
river Eridanus and was drowned, and his sisters
the Heliades (Swn-maidens), weeping for his death,
were turned as they stood on the river’s bank into
the trees which drop amber into its waves.

SELENE, or Luna, the moon-goddess, drove
along the sky in her chariot to give light, while
her brother and sister were reposing after the toils
of the day.

By Jupiter, Selene was the mother of a daughter
named Hersa (Dew). The god Pan gained her
love under the form of a beautiful white ram.
There was a youth named Endfmion, on whom
Jupiter had bestowed the gift of perpetual youth,
but united with perpetual sleep: a cavern of Mount
Latmos in Caria was the place of his repose; and
here Seléne used to descend each night, and please
herself by gazing on his charms as he slumbered.

HécateE was highly honoured by Jtipiter, who
gave her extensive power. She was a goddess
of the night, and was worshiped by men as the
20 THE TITANS.

averter of evil and bestower of increase. In after-
time she was held to be the patroness of magic.
There is little doubt but that Hécate was origin-
ally regarded, by a portion of the people of Greece,
as a moon-goddess like Seléne. ,

CHAPTER VII.



JUPITER—Zeus.

Ju'prrer, the son of Saturn and Rhea, when born
was concealed by his mother in a cave of Mount
Ida in Crete. Here he was fed by the bees and
JUPITER. 21

the doves, and drank the milk of the goat Amal-
théa. To prevent his cries reaching the ears of
his father, the Curétes danced their war-dances,
clattering their arms around his cradle.

On the dethronement of Saturn, Jupiter divided
his dominions with his brothers Neptune and Plu-
to; the portion which he reserved for himself was
the Heaven; Earth and Olympus were common
property. Jupiter was king of gods and men;
the thunder was his weapon ; and he bore a shield
called gis, made for him by Vulcan, which
when shaken, sent forth storm and tempest. The
eagle was his favourite bird, the oak his sacred
tree.

The king of the gods had a numerous progeny
both by mortal and immortal mothers. Themis
(Law) bore him the Fates, the Seasons, and
Peace, Order, and Justice ; Eurfnome (Wide-
dispensing), the Graces; Mnemdsyne (Memory),
the Muses; the nymph Maia, Mércury ; by Ceres
he had Prdserpine ; by Didne, Venus ; by Latdna,
Apollo and Diana; by Juno, who was his queen
and lawful wife, he was the father of Mars, Vul-

can, Hebe (Youth), and the Ilithyfee.

“~The terrestrial loves of this god gave rise to a
variety of adventures, and produced a copious list
22 JUPITER.

of gods and heroes.—The following are a few of
them.

Aleména the daughter of Eléctryon was be-
trothed to her cousin Amphitryon, but refused
to acknowledge him as a husband until he had
avenged the death of her father on the Teléboans,
During his absence in the war against them, Ju-
piter, who had fallen in love with Alcména, as-
sumed his form, and by narrating a tale of victory
to the maiden, obtained admission to her chamber.
The celebrated hero Hércules was the son of Ju-
piter and Alcména.

Antiope, daughter of Nycteus and niece of
Lycus king of Thebes, was surprised by Jtipiter in
the form of a satyr. Dreading the anger of her
father, she fled to the town of Sicyon, where she
married Epdpeus. Nycteus put an end to his life,
charging his brother to take vengeance on Antiope
and her husband. Soon afterwards Lycus slew
Epépeus, and led Antiope back captive to Thebes,
On the way she brought forth twins, whom her
uncle exposed on the mountains, where they were
found by a shepherd, who reared them, naming
the one Zethus, the other Amphion. Antiope, who
was treated with the utmost cruelty by Dirce
the wife of Lycus, fled for protection to her sons
JUPITER, 23

when they were grown up. They attacked and
slew Lycus, and tying Dirce by the hair to a wild
bull, let him drag her till she expired. They
seized on the government of Thebes, which they
surrounded with walls, the stones moving of them-
selves to the sound of the lyre which Mércury had
given to Amphion.

Enamoured of the beauty of Leda the wife of
TYndareus, Jupiter took the form of a swan, and
gained her love. She brought forth two eggs, from
one of which came Pollux and Helen, the chil-
dren of Jupiter; from the other Castor and Cly-
teemnestra, the mortal offspring of her husband.

A flame of fire concealed the god from Aigina
the daughter of the river-god Asépus, and she
became the mother of AZ/acus, so renowned for his
justice that he was made one of the judges of the
under-world. A shower of gold was the form
in which Jupiter penetrated the brazen chamber
where Acrisius king of Argos had shut up his
daughter Danae, who bore to the god a son named
Perseus.

Io, the daughter of the river I'nachus, was seen
and loved by Jupiter. She rejected the suit of
the god; but as she fled from him, he checked
her flight by spreading a dense cloud around her.
24 JUPITER.

Juno, looking down from heaven, and seeing the
cloud, and also missing her husband, suspected
mischief. She sprang to earth; but Jupiter, aware
of her approach, had turned Io into a white cow.
When Juno admired the animal, and asked him
to give it to her, he could not refuse her request.
The goddess, who knew well who the cow was,
set the hundred-eyed Argus to watch her ; and as
only two of his eyes slept at a time, there was
little hope of deceiving his vigilance. At length
Jupiter desired Mércury to kill him, as the only
mode of liberating Io. | Mércury, taking the guise
of a shepherd, came and sat by Argus, and by
playing on his pipe lulled all his eyes to slumber,
and then cut off his head with his harpe or crooked
sword. Juno placed the eyes of Argus in the tail
of her favourite bird the peacock, and sent a Fury
to torment Io, who fled all through the world till
she came to Egypt, where Jupiter restored her
to her original form, and she bore a son named
Epaphus. /

Callisto, the daughter of Lycdon king of Arca-
dia, was one of the companions of Diana. Jupiter,
taking the form of that goddess, violated the mo-
desty of the maiden ; and Diana, on learning what
had happened, drove the guiltless offender from
JUPITER. 25

her society. Callisto was mother of a son named
Arcas. Juno, then giving loose to her vengeance,
turned her into a bear. Her son, when he grew
up, meeting her in the woods, was on the point of
killing her with his darts, when Jupiter, transport-
ing both mother and son to the skies, made them
the constellations of the two bears. Juno obtained
from Océanus and Tethys that they should never
be permitted to sink into their waves.

As Eurdpa, the daughter of Agénor king of
Sidon, was one day amusing herself with her com-
panions and gathering flowers in the meads on the
shore of the sea, Jiipiter approached her in the
form of a beautiful white bull. The maiden ca-
ressed him, and at length ventured to mount upon
his back: the god immediately bounded on the
surface of the sea, and ran with his lovely burden
along it till he reached the isle of Crete, where he
resumed his proper form. Eurdpa became the
mother of Minos, Rhadamanthus, and Sarpédon.

Adventures more becoming a king are related
of Jupiter. Such are those of his descent to earth
to look into the conduct of men.

Hearing of the enormous wickedness of man-
kind, Jupiter came down to earth to ascertain if
what had reached his ears was true. The reality

D
26 JUPITER.

exceeded the report. He came to the palace of
Lycaon king of Arcadia, and made himself known,
Lycdon derided his pretensions, and to try him
set human flesh before him for food. The god in
indignation destroyed the house with lightning, and
turned its impious master into a wolf.

Jupiter, accompanied by Neptune and Mercury,
came down one time to earth. It was late in the
evening when they passed by the house of a peasant
named HYrieus. Seeing that they were wayfarers,
Hyrieus pressed them to enter and partake of his
hospitality. The gods accepted the kind invitation ;
and, pleased with their entertainment, they re-
vealed to him their rank, and asked if he had any
wish to gratify. The wife of the kind host was
dead, and he had sworn never to marry another,
yet he wished to have a child. The gods took
the hide of his only ox, which he had offered in
sacrifice to them, and buried it in the earth. Ten
months afterwards a child came to light, which he
named Orion, who became a mighty hunter; and
was at last slain by Didna. |

Jupiter and his son Mércury once came in the
evening to a village, where they sought hospitality ;
but every door was closed against them. At length
they reached a cottage, where dwelt an ancient
JUPITER. 27

couple named Philémon and Baucis. By these
they were received and entertained as well as their
humble means would allow. Charmed with the
good old pair, the gods revealed their rank, and
desired them to accompany them to the summit of
a neighbouring hill. On looking down towards
their village, Philémon and his wife saw nothing
but a lake, with their cottage standing on its side.
As they gazed, it became a temple; and on the
gods asking them what was their desire, they said
to serve them in that temple, and to die at the
same moment. Their wish was granted ; and one
day as they were standing before the temple and
talking over the wonderful tale, they were turned
into trees where they stood, ,
28 NEPTUNE.

CHAPTER VIII.



Neprunr— Poseidon.

NEPTUNE was the son of Saturn and Rhea. The
sea fell to his lot on the division of the dominions
of his father. As god of the sea he bore the three.
pronged spear or trident used by fishermen, and
dolphins and other marine animals usually attended
him.

The queen of Neptune was Amphitrite, one of
the daughters of Nereus and Doris. In his suit
to her he was aided by a Dolphin, whom in gra-
titude he placed among the stars. Their children
NEITUNE. 29

were Triton, whom he made his trumpeter ; and a
daughter named Rhoda, who was married to the
Sun-god.

Like his brother Jupiter, Neptune was not
strictly faithful to his wife; but Amphitrite seems
to have been less prone to jealousy than Juno. It
is said that Neptune became enamoured of the
goddess Céres, when one time she had taken the
form of a mare. The goddess gave birth toa foal,
which was named Arion. He was reared by the
Neréides, who used to yoke him to his father’s
chariot, which he drew along the surface of the
sea. Arion became the property of Adrastus king
of Argos, who owed his life to his fleetness in the
first Theban war.

Tyro, the daughter of Salmdneus, loved the
river Enipeus. Neptune, who was enamoured of
her, took the form of the river-god, and she bore
two sons, named Pélias and Neleus, which last was
the father of Nestor.

Neptune took the form of a dolphin to deceive
Melantho: as a ram he gained the love of Thed-
phane, who bore the gold-fleeced ram which car-
ried Phrixus and Helle to Colchis. By Iphimedeia
Neptune was the father of Otus and Ephialtes,
who were of such gigantic size and strength, that
30 NEPTUNE.

when but nine years old, they attempted, by piling
the Thessalian mountains on each other, to scale
Heaven. The Cyclops Polyphémus was the son
of Neptune and the sea-nymph Thod’sa; and many
renowned heroes likewise claimed Neptune for their
sire.

The origin of the horse was ascribed to Nep-
tune. It is said that when he and Minerva con-
tended for the right of naming the city built by
Cecrops in Attica, the gods declared that they
would decide in favour of the one who should
produce what would be most useful to mankind.
Neptune struck the earth with his trident, and
forth sprang the first horse ; Minerva caused an
olive to shoot up. The gods gave judgment in
favour of the emblem of Peace, and the goddess
called the town Athens, from her own name
Athéna, /
PLUTO. 31

CHAPTER IX.



PLutro—-Hades.

/ PxiuTo, the son of Saturn and Rhea, became lord
of the under-world on the dethronement of his
father. All the dead of mankind were under the
rule of this deity, who is described as gloomy and
imexorable ; for from the realm of Pluto there is no
return ; and the ancient Greeks believed it to be
dark and cheerless.

The queen of Pluto was Préserpine, the daughter
of Ceres, whom he carried off, as will be presently
related.

The souls of the dead were conducted down to
32 PLUTO.

the realm of Pluto by Mércury. On reaching the
river which surrounded it, they found Charon with
his boat waiting to receive them. His fare was a
small piece of money, which was always for that
purpose placed in the mouth of the deceased.
Having disembarked on the further bank, they
went on till they came to the palace of Pluto, which
was guarded by Cérberus, a dog with three heads
and with serpents along his back. This monster
lay quiet in his den, only gazing at those who en-
tered; but if any of them turned back and attempt-
ed to make their escape, he flew out of his cavern
and seized them. The dead were now brought be-
fore the tribunal of the judges, Minos, Rhadaman-
thus, and /B/acus, and their dooms were assigned
according to the life which they had led on earth.
The virtuous were sent to the enjoyment of the
blissful region uamed Elysium, the wicked were
consigned to the endless torments of Tértarus.
According to the poets, the following five ri-
vers were to be seen in the dominions of Pluto.
Styx (Dread), whose waters were piercing cold,
When there was any dispute on Olympus, Jupiter
sent Iris to fill a cup with the water of Styx, and
bring it thither. On this the contending parties
swore ; and if any swore falsely, he was banished
PLUTO. 33

for nine years from the table of the gods. Ache-
ron (Grief), the stream over which Charon ferried
the dead. Cocytus (Lamentation); and Pyriphle-
gethon (Fire-flaming), or Phiégethon (Flaming),
which last rolled with waves of torrent flames,
Finally, the quiet placid stream of Lethe (Odii-
vion) flowed through the fragrant valleys of Ely-
sium; and the souls of the good, which were
destined to animate other bodies on earth, were
led to its side to quaff oblivion of their present
bliss, before they departed to taste once more of
the bitterness of life beneath the sun.

The proper name of the realm of Hades or Pluto
was Erebus (Darkness?). We term it the under-
or nether-world, as to modern ears the words Hell
and the Infernal Regions, by which it is usually
designated, suggest ideas of punishment alone,
whereas Erebus was the abode of the virtuous as
well as the wicked. The attentive reader will
also perceive that in the days of Homer Elysium
and Tértarus did not form parts of Erebus, and
that their transference thither was the = of a
later age.

The principal criminals who were punished in
Erebus were the following.

Tityus, the son of Jupiter and Elara, was slain
34 PLUTO.

by Apollo and Didna for attempting to offer vio-
lence to their mother Laténa. In Erebus his huge
body covered nine acres of land, and an enormous
vulture preyed without ceasing on his liver.

Tantalu§ was so highly honoured by the gods
as to be admitted to partake of the nectar and
ambrosia on which they feasted in the halls of
Olympus. At an entertainment given by him to
them, he had the cruelty and impiety to kill his
own son Pelops, and serve his flesh up to the Im-
mortals. All shrunk back from the horrid viands
but Ceres, who incautiously ate one of the shoul-
ders. Pelops was restored to life by Clotho, and
‘the missing shoulder was replaced by an ivory one.
To punish Tantalus for his atrocious deed, the
gods placed him up to his chin ina lake in Erebus,
with trees laden with luscious fruits suspending
their boughs above his head: but when he assays
to quench the thirst with which he is tormented,
the water flies from his lips ; and when he would
pluck the fruit to satisfy his hunger, the winds
scatter it abroad.

Sisyphus, king of Corinth, so renowned for his
craft, having contrived to outwit Pluto, was by
him condemned to roll a huge stone up a hillin Ere-
bus. His toil is unceasing ; for as soon as he has
PLUTO. 35

worked it up to the summit, it rolls back in spite
of him, and thunders down again into the plain.

Phlégyas, on learning that his daughter Cordénis
had been seduced by Apollo, burnt out of revenge
the temple of the god at Delphi. For this offence
he was placed in Erebus, where a stone, hanging
over his head, and evermore threatening to fall,
keeps him in a perpetual state of terror.

Ixfon the son of Phlégyas was admitted to the
society of the gods on Olympus. He here had
the audacity to aspire to the love of the celestial
queen ; and Jupiter, to punish him, precipitated
him to Erebus, and fixed him on an ever-revol-
ving wheel.

Salmoneus, king of Elis, asserted himself to be
Jupiter, and claimed divine honours. Fastening
dried hides and brazen kettles to his chariot, he
called their clatter thunder ; and flinging lighted
torches against the sky, he affected to lighten like
the king of the gods. Jvipiter hurled him to Ere-
bus ; but his punishment there is not described.

The fifty maidens called Bélides from their
grandfather Belus, and Dandides from their father
Danaiis, having fled from Egypt to escape the
persecution of their cousins the sons of Egyptus,
came to Argos in Greece. They were followed
36 PLUTO.

thither by their cousins, to whom Dénaiis con-
sented to give them in marriage : but on the wed-
ding night he gave a dagger to each of the brides,
directing her to plunge it into the bosom of her
husband. All obeyed but Hypermnestra, who
spared the life of Lynceus. For this crime the

Dandides were sentenced in Eyebus to fill a per-
forated tub with ~~ e

CHAPTER X.



JuNo— Hera.

Juno was a daughter of Saturn and Rhea. Her
brother Jupiter; falling in love with her, raised a
JUNO. 37

storm, and taking the shape of a cuckoo fled to her
bosom for shelter and gained her love. When
he had dethroned his father, Juno became his
queen, and shared in all his honours. Her own
character was irreproachable ; but, as we have al-
ready seen, she could ill brook his infidelities ; and
Laténa, Aleména, Sémele, and others, paid dear for
their intimacy with the monarch of the gods,

The attendant assigned to Juno by the poets
was Iris, the swift goddess of the rainbow. Her
favourite birds were the peacock and the cuckoo,
Of flowers, she was most partial to the dittany,
the poppy, and the lily. It is said that the lily was
once yellow, but that the infant Hércules being
put to the breast of the goddess as she slept, on
waking she thrust the babe indignantly from her
with such precipitation that a part of her milk
was spilt. What fell on the heaven produced the
Galaxy, or Milky Way ; the portion which reached
the earth tinged the lilies white.

_ At the nuptials of Peleus and Thetis, which

the gods honoured with their presence, Discord,

who was uninvited, flung a golden apple in among

them, on which was inscribed, For the fairest. The

claims of all were obliged to give way to those of

Juno, Minerva, and Venus; and the decision was
E
38 JUNO.

left to Paris, son of Priam king of Troy, who was
at that time keeping herds on Mount Ida. Mer-
cury led the goddesses thither. Juno proffered
the young herdsman power, if he would award
the prize to her; Minerva, fame in war; Venus,
the fairest of women. The queen of beauty was
awarded the apple, and Paris soon afterwards
carried off Helen the wife of Menelaiis, king of
Sparta. The revengeful Juno never rested till
Troy was taken and destroyed by the Greeks, to
punish the crime of Paris 7
MARS. 39

CHAPTER XI.



Mars—/res.

Mars was the son of Jupiter and Juno. He was
the god who presided over war. The war god-
dess Enfo or Belldéna, his sister Strife, and his
sons Terror and Fear, were his companions when
he went to the field of battle.

It was said by some that Mars was the son of
Juno without a father. This goddess, angry at the
birth of Minerva from the head of Jupiter, took
a journey towards the dwelling of Océanus and
Tethys to make a complaint to them. On the

E 2
40 MARS.

way she stopped to rest at the abode of Flora the
goddess of flowers. She told the tale of her griefs
to her kind hostess, who, pointing to a flower which
grew in her garden, desired her to touch it. Juno
did so, and became the mother of Mars.

The beautiful goddess Venus, who was married
to Vulcan, the lame smith, carried on an intrigue
with the god of war. The Sun gave information
to the artist, who forged an invisible net, and dis-
posed it in such a manner as to catch the lovers.
He then called all the gods to behold the captives,
and would not release them till Neptune had passed
his word for the compensation to be made by Mars.

Terror and Fear, and Harmony, who was mar-
ried to Cadmus, are said to be the children of
Mars and Venus.

Mars had by Agraulos, daughter of Cecrops,
king of Athens, a daughter named Alcippe (Strong-
mare). Halirrhdthius (Sea-wave), a son of Nep-
tune, having offered violence to the maiden, was
killed by her father. Mars was prosecuted for
the murder by Neptune. Twelve gods sat as
judges on the hill at Athens named Aredpagus
(Mars’ Hill). The votes being equal, he was ac-
quitted, and such became the rule of the court

which in after times held its sittings on this hill.
VULCAN. 41

CHAPTER XII.



Vutcan—Hephastus.

Vutcan, the celestial artist, was the son of Ju-
piter and Juno,—some said of Juno alone. He
was born lame; and his mother was so displeased
at the sight of him, that she flung him out of hea-
ven. He was saved by the nymphs Thetis and
Eurfnome, who kept him for nine years in a
cavern under the ocean; during which time he
fashioned for them a great variety of trinkets and
ornaments.

All the houses, chariots and armour, and other
articles in Olympus, were made by Vulcan. He
42 VULCAN.

also made various wonderful things for his own
favourites, or those of Jupiter and the other gods,
among men. Alcinoiis king of the Pheeacians had
golden dogs, which guarded his house ; and Ai¢tes
king of Colchis brass-footed bulls, which guarded
the Golden Fleece,—all made by Vulcan. Vulcan
formed for Minos king of Crete a brazen man
named Talos, who compassed the isle three times
a day to guard it from invasion. Talos’ mode of
destroying people was to make himself red-hot in
the fire and then embrace them.

The servants assigned to Vulcan by the poets
are the three Cyclépes, Brontes (Thunder), Sté-
ropes (Lightning), and Arges (Flame). His wife
was Venus the goddess of beauty. K |
PHBUS APOLLO. 43

CHAPTER XIII.

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Pua@svus APOLLO.

Puasvs Apo.to was the god of archery, prophe-
cy, and music. He was the son of Jupiter and the
Titaness Laténa, and brother of Diana.

Laténa, ere she gave birth to the twins Apollo’
and Didna, was persecuted in a most cruel manner
by Juno, who menaced with her wrath any coun-
try or island on earth which should give shelter to
the goddess. It was in vain that Latdna implored
them to take pity on ‘and relieve her; all feared
too much the vengeance of the Queen of heaven.
44 PHBUS APOLLO.

At length, the isle of Delos, which at that time
floated among the CÂ¥clades, offered her an asy-
lum ; and she brought forth her children in that
island, which thenceforth remained fixed, and
where Apollo had one of his principal temples.

When Apollo was grown up he went to Pytho
or Delphi, where he killed the enormous serpent
Python, which infested the surrounding country.
He here built a magnificent temple; and Delphi
became celebrated for its oracle, by which the god
of prophecy announced the future to mankind.

As Phoebus Apollo was a remarkably handsome
and accomplished god, he had many love adven-
tures. -

The muse Calliope (Fair-voice) bore him a son
named Orpheus, who became so skilful a musician
that the very trees and rocks moved to the tones
of his lyre. Orpheus was married to Eurydice,
whom he tenderly loved ; but a snake biting her
foot as she ran through the grass to escape the
pursuit of Aristeeus, she died of the wound. Her
disconsolate husband formed the bold resolution
of descending to the under-world, and imploring
its rulers to let her return to the light of day. He
struck the chords of hjs lyre, and drew forth tones
which softened the heart of the stern monarch ot
PH@BUS APOLLO. 45

Erebus; and Eurfdice was restored on condition
that her husband should not look back till they
had reached the upper-world. They journeyed on
through the gloomy regions of Erebus, and were
now on the confines of light, when Orpheus, fear-
ing that Eurfdice might not be following, looked
back. By this imprudent act all his labour was
undone, and Eurfdice lost for ever. He now
shunned all human society; and, despising the
rites of Bacchus, was torn to pieces by the women
of Thrace.

Shortly after his victory over the Python, Apollo,
seeing the little Cupid bending his bow, mocked
at his efforts. Cupid, to punish him, shot him in
the heart with his golden arrow of love ; and. at the
same time discharged his leaden arrow of aversion
into the bosom of Daphne, the daughter of the
river-god Pendiis. Apollo seeing the nymph, pur-
sued her ; but she fled from him with all her speed.
He had nearly overtaken her, when she reached
the bank of her father’s stream. She cried to
Penéiis for aid; and when Apollo thought to
grasp her, he found that his arms encircled a
bay-tree, into which she had been changed.

Cassandra, a daughter of Priam king of Troy,
attracted the love of Apollo; and in return she
46 PHC@BUS APOLLO.

demanded the gift of prophecy. The god readily
granted it; but the princess broke her word when
become a prophetess. Unable to recall his gift,
Apollo rendered it useless by depriving her of
credit; for though she always announced the
truth, no one believed her.

Apollo also loved Marpessa the daughter of
Evénus. Her father wished her to hearken to the
god; but her heart was devoted to another. The
favoured lover, whose name was Idas, having ob-
tained a fleet chariot from Neptune, carried her
off. Apollo meeting the fugitives, seized Mar-
pessa: the dispute was referred to Jupiter, who
allowed the maid to choose for herself; and she
gave her hand to her mortal lover.

Having seen one day Cyréne the grand-daughter
of the river-god Pendiis engaged in combat with a
lion, in defence of her father’s flocks, Apollo be-
came enamoured of her. He carried her off in his
golden chariot over the sea, to that part of Libya
afterwards named from her; and she gave birth
to a son named Aristeeus, who discovered the cul-
ture of the olive and the mode of managing bees.

Cordénis, the daughter of Phiégyas king of the
Lapithee, had yielded to the suit of Apollo. She
however did not continue faithful to him ; and the
PHGBUS APOLLO. 47

raven, having witnessed her infidelity, informed the
god of it, who discharged one of his inevitable
arrows into the bosom of Corénis. She died, de-
ploring, not her own fate, but that of her unborn
babe. Apollo repented when too late : he laid her
on the funeral pyre, and taking the babe, gave
him to Chiron the Centaur to rear. To punish
the raven, he changed his colour from white,
which till that time it had been, to black.



ZESCULA PIUS.

This son of Apollo by Coronis was named Aiscu-
lapius. He became a celebrated physician ; and
his skill was such, that he was able even to restore
48 PH@BUS APOLLO.

the dead to life. Pluto complaining to J upiter of
him, the king of the gods struck him with thun-
der; and Apollo in revenge shot with his arrows
the Cyclépes who had forged the thunderbolts.
For this act he was banished from heaven. Coming
down to earth he hired as a herdsman with Admé-
tus king of Pherze in Thessaly, and fed his flocks
on the banks of the river Amphrysus. The prince
treated his illustrious servant with the utmost
kindness ; and Apollo out of gratitude aided him
to gain the hand of the beautiful Alcestis, the
daughter of Pélias. He also obtained of the Fates,
that when the appointed period of the life of Ad-
métus should arrive, it might be deferred by one
of his family dying in his stead. When the fatal
time was come, Admé¢tus besought in vain his
aged father and mother to prolong his days. The
affection of his wife now shone forth, and she
magnanimously offered to descend to the tomb in
his place. When Death came to fetch her, Apollo
made fruitless efforts to prevail upon him to forego
his prey, and Alcestis was taken from her weeping
husband and children. But Hercules, happening
to come at that time to the house of Admétus,
engaged and overcame Death, and restored the
queen to her family.
PHBUS APOLLO. 49

Hyacinthus, a beautiful youth, was loved by
Apollo. As the god and his favourite were one
day playing with the discus, it rebounded, and
struck the youth so violently as to kill him. The
mourning deity changed him into the flower named
from him—the Hyacinth.

Cyparissus, another youth whom Apollo loved,
pined away with grief for the loss of a favourite stag
which he had killed by accident, and was changed
into a tree of his own name—the Cypress.

The satyr Marsyas, having found the pipe which
Minerva had flung away, and learned to play on
it, challenged Apollo to a musical contest. The
god accepted the challenge; Mount Tmolus was
chosen judge, and he decided in favour of the
music of the lyre. All acquiesced in the justice of
the sentence except Midas king of the country ;
and as a reward for his bad taste, Apollo bestowed
upon him the ears of an ass: the unhappy Mar-
syas he flayed alive. Midas sought to conceal the
altered form of his ears; but he could not hide
the secret from his barber. He strictly enjoined
him secrecy ; but silence was almost impossible to
one of that loquacious fraternity. Bursting with
the secret, he went, and digging a hole in the earth,
whispered into it, “King Midas has got asses’ ears.”

F
50 PHBUS APOLLO.

Lo! soon afterwards a crop of rushes sprang up
from this hole ; and as they waved in the wind, the
words, “ King Midas has got asses’ ears’’ were
plainly heard.

The hawk, raven, and swan, were birds sacred
to Apollo. The bay or laurel was his favourite
tree. y

CHAPTER XIV.

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Dia'nNA—A'rtemis.

Dia'na was twin sister of Apollo, and daughter of
Jupiter and Laténa. She was, according to some
DIANA. 51

accounts, born before her brother, and aided the
labour of her mother. This goddess presided over
the chase ; she loved to follow with bow and arrows
the flying game over the mountains, attended by
her train of huntress-nymphs. Didna was never
married ; and she was renowned for her unblemish-
ed chastity. As we have seen in the instance of
Callisto, she punished severely the breach of this
virtue in her nymphs.

Acteeon, one of the grandsons of Cadmus,
chanced, as he roamed through the woods during
the heat of the day, to approach the cave and
fount in the vale of Garg4phia, whither Diana was
in the habit of retiring to bathe with her nymphs.
Unfortunately for the youth the goddess was there
at the time: ashamed of being surprised in this
situation by a mortal, and incensed at the unin-
tentional intrusion, she took up some water in her
hand, and flinging it on Acteeon, turned him into
a stag. His own dogs happening to catch a sight
of him, gave chase, and running him down, tore
him to pieces.

Chione, the daughter of Deedalion, was loved
by both Apollo and Mercury. Her son by the
former god was Philammon, a celebrated musician ;
to the latter she bore Autdlycus, the notorious

F 2
52 DIANA.

cattle-stealer. Far from being ashamed, Chfone
gloried in having gained the love of two gods;
and she presumed to speak disparagingly of the
beauty of Didna compared with her own. The
goddess, to punish her, shot her through the tongue
with one of her arrows.

Niobe, the daughter of Tdntalus and wife of
Amphion, being the mother of seven sons and as
many daughters, proudly set herself above Laténa,
who had borne but two children. The goddess
complained to her bow-bearing offspring; and
soon the seven sons of Amphion lay slain by the
arrows of Apollo, and his daughters by those of
Diana. Niobe, stiffening with grief, was turned
into stone.

(Eneus, king of Calydon, having neglected to
make offerings to Diana along with the other
gods at the termination of harvest, she sent in
revenge a monstrous boar to ravage the fields of
Calydon. This gave occasion to the celebrated
Calydonian Hunt, hereafter to be related.

The huntress-goddess was in process of time
identified with the moon-goddess, Seléna or Luna;
with Heécate, the goddess of the night; with Ili-
thyia, who assisted at births ; and with Proserpine,
the queen of Erebus. Apollo was in like manner
DIANA. 53

made one with the Sun. It is, however, highly
probable that Apollo was originally a sun-god,
md his sister a moon-goddess.

CHAPTER XV.



Venus—Aphrodite.

Venus, the goddess of love and beauty, was the
daughter of Jupiter and Didne. Others say that
Venus sprang from the foam of the sea ; the gentle
Zephyr wafted her along the waves to the isle of
54 VENUS.

Cyprus, where she was received and attired by the
Seasons, and then led to the assembly of the gods.

Venus possessed an embroidered girdle, called
Cestus (embroidered), which had the gift of in-
spiring love. Her favourite birds were swans,
doves, and sparrows, teams of which drew her
chariot. The plants sacred to her were the rose
and the myrtle.

The husband of this lovely goddess was the
lame artist Vulcan; but conjugal fidelity was not
her virtue. Her intrigue with Mars has been al-
ready noticed; and Bacchus and Mercury could,
it is said, also boast of her love.

Mortals, too, enjoyed the love of Venus. Smit-
ten with the charms of Anchises, a handsome
Trojan youth, she visited him among the sheep-
cots on Mount Ida, and became the mother of
the renowned Ainéas.

Offended with Myrrha daughter of king Cinyras,
Venus inspired her with love for her own father.
Cinyras, to punish the guilt of his daughter, pur-
suing her with his drawn sword, she was changed
by the gods into a myrrh-tree. In course of time
the tree opened, and gave birth to a babe who was
named Adénis. Venus gave him to Prdserpine to
rear, who, delighted with his beauty, refused to
VENUS. bd

part with him. The matter was referred to Ju-
piter, who directed that he should spend a part
of the year with each goddess. Adénis was at
length gored by a wild boar, and died of the
wound, and Venus turned him into the flower
called Anémone.

The fair maid Atalanta was warned by the oracle
to abstain from marriage, as it would be fatal to
her. Being pressed by many suitors, to get rid
of them she proposed a race, and that whoever
surpassed her in fleetness should have her hand,
but those who were vanquished should be put to
death. As the speed of Atalanta was unrivalled,
numerous youths had paid the penalty of their
rashness, when Hippémenes, a son of Neptune,
challenged her to a trial of swiftness. Atalanta
warned him in vain; he persisted; and invoking
the aid of Venus, was given by the goddess three
golden apples. In the race, he threw from time
to time an apple on the ground ; Atalanta ran out
of the course to pick them up, and Hippdémenes
first reached the goal. The victorious youth for-
got to sacrifice to the goddess to whom he owed
his success. Venus inspired him and his fair bride
with sudden passion as they passed the cavern of
Cybele, who turned them into lions for profaning it. x
56 CUPID.

CHAPTER XVI.



Cur1ip—Eyos.

Cuptp, the god of love, was the son of Venus. He
was her constant companion; and, armed with a
bow and arrows, he shot the darts of desire into
the bosoms of both gods and men.

This god was usually represented as a plump
rosy-cheeked boy, with light hair hanging on his
shoulders.

The god of love did not escape the influence
of the passion which it was his office to inspire.
Enamoured of a beautiful maid called Psyche
(the Soul), he sent a Zephyr to convey her to a

splendid palace, where he became her husband ;
CUPID. 57

but never let her behold his form. Her sisters,
who were jealous of her happiness, persuading her
that he must be some odious monster, the impru-
dent Psyche took a lamp to gaze upon him as he
slept. She let a drop of the oil fall upon him:
the god awoke and flew away, leaving her in de-
spair. After undergoing a long persecution from
Venus, who had also imprisoned Cupid, Psyche is
found by her lover, who had made his escape. He
interests Jupiter in her favour, and Venus is at
length prevailed on to lay aside her resentment.
The marriage of Cupid and Psyche is celebrated
in the palace of Jupiter, and Psyche bears a son
who is named Pleasure.

Hymenzus, the god of marriage, was said to
be the son of Venus and Bacchus. He was re-
presented crowned with roses or marjoram (amd-
racus), with the nuptial torch in his hand, and a
flame-coloured veil on his head.
rt

58 MINERVA.

CHAPTER XVII.



Minerva—FPallas Athéna..

Minerva, the goddess of wisdom, who presided
over the arts, and was the patroness of scientific
warfare, was the offspring of Jupiter without a
mother. It is said that he had espoused Metis
(Prudence), a daughter of Océanus, but that when
she was about to give birth to her first child, he
devoured her; for Heaven and Earth had told him
that the infant about to be born would equal him

_ in power and wisdom, and that her next born would
MINERVA. 59

be king of gods and men. Some time afterwards
he felt his head afflicted with violent pains, and
calling Vulcan, ordered him to open it with an
axe. The fire-god obeyed, and forth sprang Mi-
nerva completely armed.

Like Didna and Vesta, Minerva was a maiden-
goddess ; her virtue was respected by all. Vulcan
once paid dear for an attempted breach of pro-
priety.

The favourite bird of Minerva was the solemn
contemplative owl; the olive, which she caused
to shoot up from the earth, was the plant sacred
to her.

This goddess was always represented armed :
on her shield or on her breastplate was the terrific
Gorgon’s head, which was given to her by Perseus,
as will be related in the sequel.

Minerva was the guardian and aider of eminent
heroes. She accompanied Perseus and Hercules
in their adventures ; was the constant protector
and adviser of Ulysses; and, under the form of a
man named Mentor, travelled with Telémachus,
the son of this hero, in search of his father.

It was with the aid of Minerva that Argus built
the Argo for Jason, and Epéiis the wooden horse
by means of which Troy was taken. She excelled
60 MINERVA.

in female accomplishments, and wove and em-
broidered her own robe and that of Juno. She
instructed her favourites among women in this
art.

Arachne, a Meeonian maid whom Minerva had
taught, was so ungrateful as to deny the obligation,
and to challenge the goddess to a trial of skill.
Having in vain sought to make her relinquish
her mad project, Minerva accepted the challenge.
Each wove a web adorned with various actions of
the gods. That of Minerva displayed in its centre
her own contest with Neptune for the naming of
the city of Cecrops; the four corners contained
the transformations of those who had dared to con-
tend with the Celestials ; olive-leaves formed its
- border. The web of Arachne was filled with the
love-transformations of the gods; its border was
flowers and ivy. Unable to find fault with the
work, Minerva struck the artist several blows on
the forehead with her shuttle. Arachne hung her-
self, and the goddess turned her into a spider,
which in Greek is called Arachne.

As Minerva was one day bathing at the fount
of Helicon with Chariclo, one of her favourites,
Tirésias, the son of Chariclo, approached the fount
_ to drink, and thus unwittingly beheld the goddess.
MINERVA. 61

As it was a law of the Celestials that whoever saw
one of them unpermitted should never look upon
another object, Tirésias was struck with blindness.
To alleviate his misfortune, the goddess gave him
the gift of prophecy. , .

CHAPTER XVIII.



Mercury— Hermes.

Mercury was the son of Jupiter by the nymph
Maia, one of the daughters of Atlas. He was the
| G
62 MERCURY.

god who presided over commerce, eloquence,
wrestling, and the other exercises of the palestra,
or gymnastic school; even over thieving, and
everything in short which required skill and in-
genuity. He was the messenger of Jupiter ; and
he had also the office of conducting the souls of
the dead to the under-world.

Mercury was usually represented with a winged
hat on his head, and winged shoes called ¢aldria
on his feet; he bears a rod entwined by two ser-
pents, and named cadiceiis, in his hand.

A cavern of Mount Cylléne in Arcadia was the
birth-place of this god. Scarcely was he born, when
he set forth to steal some of the cattle of the gods
which fed in Piéria at the foot of Mount Olympus
under the care of Apollo. At the door of the ca-
vern he met a tortoise, which he killed, and formed
a lyre of its shell. Arriving in Piéria, he drove
off fifty cows, and brought them to Arcadia, un-
seen by any but a man named Battus. Apollo
pursuing, came to the cave of the nymph Maia,
and threatened the babe severely if he did not
restore the oxen. Mercury denied all knowledge
of them ; but the matter being referred to Jupiter,
he ordered the young thief to make restitution.

The two sons of the Olympian king then became
MERCURY. 63

excellent friends. Mercury gave his lyre to Apollo,
who presented him in turn with the rod, which
afterwards became the caduceus.

It is said that Mercury gave Battus one of the
heifers as the price of his secrecy. Curious to
know if he would be true to his word, he changed
his form, and coming to him inquired if he had
seen any one driving cattle that way: on his
offering a cow as the reward of information, the
covetous Battus told all he knew; and the god to
punish him turned him into the Index or Touch-
stone.

As Mercury was flying one day over the city of
Athens, he beheld Hersa, the daughter of Cecrops,
walking in the procession which was returning
from the temple of Minerva. The god was in-
stantly smitten with love, and only stopping to
arrange his dress, he entered the dwelling of Ce-
crops. He here met Aglauros the sister of Hersa,
who asked him his business: the god informed
her of his rank, and entreated her good offices
with her sister. The price she set on her mediation
was a large sum of gold, and she made him leave
the house till he should have brought it. Minerva,
to punish Aglauros for this and other offences, sent
Envy to fill her bosom with her venom. Aglauros,

G 2
64 MERCURY.

jealous of her sister, sat at the door of Hersa’s
chamber, determined not to suffer the god to enter.
Having assayed prayers and entreaties in vain, anger
at length got the better of Mercury, and he turned
her into a black stone.



CHAPTER XIX.



CERESAND PrOSERPINE. Deméter and Perséphone.

Ceres was a daughter of Saturn and Rhea. She
had by Jupiter a daughter named Proserpine, and
CERES AND PROSERPINE. 65

by Neptune was mother of the fleet steed Arion :
Plutus, the god of wealth, was the son of Ceres
and a mortal named Jasion.

Ceres was the goddess who presided over corn
and agriculture; and hence the allegory of the god
of wealth being her son, for agriculture is the true
source of wealth. She was usually represented
holding poppies in her hand, or with a garland of
them on her head; long yellow locks waved on
her shoulders, to denote the goddess who ripened
the corn.

The principal circumstances in the history of
Ceres are to be found in the tale of her search for
her daughter Prdéserpine when she was carried off
by Pluto.

As the god of the under-world was once driving
in his chariot through the isle of Sicily, Venus, who
beheld him from the summit of Mount Eryx,
desired her son to shoot an arrow into his bosom.
Cupid obeyed, and transfixed the heart of the
subterranean god. As Pluto drove near the
town of Henna, he saw Préserpine, the daughter
of Ceres, gathering flowers with her playfellows
in the meads by the transparent lake of Pergos.
Soon as he beheld he loved her; and snatching
her up into his chariot carried her off, while she
66 CERES AND PROSERPINE.

vainly called to her mother and her companions
for aid. The water-nymph Cfane (Dark-blue)
essayed, but fruitlessly, to stop the god; he hurled
his sceptre into her fount, and the earth opening
gave him passage to his gloomy domains.

Meantime Ceres sought her daughter in all parts
of the earth. She rested not day or night ; for ha-
ving lighted two torches at Aitna, she searched for
her by their light. One day overcome with thirst,
she approached a cottage to request something to
drink. An old woman, its mistress, gave her some
gruel; and as the thirsty goddess swallowed it
eagerly, a boy who was standing by laughed at
her, and called her greedy. Ceres flung in his
face what remained in the vessel, and he was
changed into the spotted lizard called Stéllio
(Starry).

The goddess beheld on the surface of the fount
of Cyane the zone of her daughter, but the nymph
of the fount having been turned into water, was
unable to give the information she possessed. At
length Arethtisa, whose stream ran from Elis to
Sicily under the sea, told her that she had seen
Prdserpine in the nether-world. Ceres immedi-
ately repaired to Olympus; and Jupiter, on her

remonstrance, directed that her daughter should
CERES AND PROSERPINE. 67

return to heaven, provided she had eaten nothing
while in the palace of Pluto. The goddess de-
parted, quite assured of recovering her child; but
unfortunately, Prdéserpine, while walking in the
garden of Erebus, had plucked a pomegranate,
and swallowed seven of the seeds. Ascalaphus,
the son of Océanus by Orphna (Darkness) a nymph
of the nether-world, who had seen her, giving in-
formation, disappointed the confident expectations
of the goddesses ; and Prdserpine, as a punishment,
turned him into a Screech-owl (Budo): Jupiter
finally awarded her to spend one half of the year
with her husband, the other half with her mother.

Ceres gave her chariot drawn by dragons to
Triptdlemus (Thrice-plough), son of Celeus king
of Eleusis in Attica, and sent him to distribute
corn through the earth. It is said that when Ceres
was roaming in search of her lost daughter she
came to Eleusis, where she undertook the nursing
of Triptédlemus the infant son of Celeus. Design-
ing to make him immortal, she fed him on am-
brosia, and laid him every night in the fire. The
imprudent curiosity of his mother, who watched
the goddess and rushed into the room, deprived
him of the intended blessing.

Erysichthon, an impious man, once cut down a
68 CERES AND PROSERPINE.

stately oak-tree which was sacred to Ceres. As
its Hamadrfad expired with the tree, the other
nymphs besought Ceres to punish the author of
her death. The goddess inflicted him with insa-
tiate hunger; and to procure the means of ap-
peasing it, he sold all his substance, and finally his
only daughter. As Neptune had bestowed on this
maiden the power of changing her form, she al-
ways escaped from the purchaser in the shape of
some animal, and returning to her father was sold
by him again. Finally, even this means not suf-
ficing, Erysichthon devoured his own flesh and
died. y/
BACCHUS. 69

CHAPTER XxX.



Baccnus—Diony'sus.

Baccuvs, the god of wine, was the son of Jupiter
and a mortal mother Sémele, the daughter of Cad-
mus king of Thebes.

Juno, taking the form of Sémele’s nurse, and
affecting to disbelieve that her lover was what he
gave himself out to be, induced her to require of
him to visit her in the same manner as he visited
Juno. Sémele followed the insidious counsel ; and
without naming her request, exacted a promise
from the god, which he voluntarily confirmed by
70 BACCHUS.

an oath. She then made known her wishes. Ju-
piter, unable to turn her from her purpose, came
surrounded with thunder and lightning, and the
hapless Sémele perished by the celestial flames.
Jupiter, taking the unborn babe, sewed him up in
his thigh, where he remained till the due time of
birth. He was then given to Ino, the sister of
Sémele, and afterwards to the Nyseian nymphs to
rear; and was finally educated by Rhea in Lydia.

When Bacchus was grown up, his father sent
Iris to excite him to make war on Deriades, the
haughty king of India. Numerous nations and
peoples and warriors marched beneath the banner
of the son of Jupiter. The Indians made a gallant
resistance. The war was continued for seven years
with various success, and finally terminated in the
death of the Indian monarch, and the complete
victory of Bacchus.

Having made a triumphal progress through
Arabia and other parts of the East, Bacchus at
length came to his native city of Thebes, where
all the family of Cadmus and the greater part of
the inhabitants acknowledged him as the son of
Jupiter, and received the sacred rites which he
introduced. But Pentheus, another grandson of

- Cadmus, who then governed the country, derided
cela ree ee

BACCHUS. 71

his pretensions to a celestial origin, and opposed
his worship. To witness with his own eyes the mad
orgies which Bacchus had brought into Greece,
Pentheus went to Mount Citheeron, where his
mother Agave and the other Theban women were
celebrating them; and there the art of Bacchus
making him appear as a wild beast, he was torn
to pieces by his mother and his aunts.

Bacchus was one time found by some Tyrrhe-
nian mariners on the shore of the isle of Dia. Sup-
posing him to be a mortal youth, they carried him
away, resolved to sell him fora slave. The pilot,
who suspected his quality, urged them in vain to
set him free. Suddenly the vessel stood as if rooted
in the open sea; ivy and vines twined round the
oars, masts and sails, and the god appeared sur-
rounded by the forms of tigers, lynxes, and pan-
thers. In terror the crew jumped into the sea,
where they were changed into dolphins. The
pilot was spared, and became a follower of the
god.

Bacchus, finding Ariadne the daughter of Minos,
king of Crete, in the isle of Naxos, where she had
been abandoned by Theseus, made her his spouse.
He gave her a splendid golden crown, which was
afterwards set among the stars.
72 BACCHUS.

The god of wine was usually represented as
an effeminate youth crowned with ivy and vine-
leaves. y,

~

2 A eeacanene nee

CHAPTER XXI.

SistER-GODDESSES.

Tux Muszs were the daughters of J upiter and the
Titaness Mnemdsyne (Memory). They presided
over song, and prompted the memory. At the
banquets in Olympus they sang to Apollo’s lyre.

These goddesses were nine in number, to each
of whom was assigned the precedence over some
particular department of literature, art or science.

Their nanies were,— |

Calliope (Fair-voice), who presided over Epic
Poetry. She held in her hand a roll of parchment,
or a trumpet.

Clio (Illustrious) presided over History. She
held a roll half open.

Melpémene (Singing) was the muse of Tragedy.
She leaned on a club, and held a tragic mask.

Eutérpe (Well-pleasing), the patroness of Mu-
sic, held two flutes. ’
SISTER-GODDESSES. 73

Erato (Loving) presided over marriage festivals.
She played on a nine-stringed lyre.

Terpsichore (Dance-loving), as Muse of the
Dance, appeared dancing, and holding a seven-
stringed lyre.

Urania (Celestial), the Muse of Astronomy,
held a globe, and traced mathematical figures with
a wand.

Thalia (Gay), the Muse of Comedy, held in one
hand a comic mask, in the other a crooked staff.

Polfmnia, or Polyh¥mnia (Song-full), presided
over Eloquence. She held her fore-finger on her
lips, or carried a roll.

The Muses are said to have been born in Piéria,
at the foot of Mount Olympus. Many hills and
fountains were sacred to them, whence they de-
rived appellations. Thus they were called Piérides
from Pi¢ria, Libéthrides from Libéthron a fountain
in Macedénia, Aganippides from the fount Aga-
nippe, Castdlides from that of Castalia. Hippo-
créne (Horse-fount), said to have been produced
by the hoof of the winged steed Pégasus, was sa-
cred to these goddesses ; and the mountains Pin-
dus, Hélicon, and Parnassus, were their favourite
haunts.

The nine daughters of Pierus, we are told, once

H
74 SISTER-GODDESSES.

challenged the Muses to sing. The Nymphs were
chosen judges.. The challengers sang the war of
the Gods and the Giants. Calliope was appointed
by her sisters to reply; her theme was the carry-
ing off of Prdserpine by Pluto, and the search of
Ceres after her through the world. The Nymphs
decided in favour of the Muses. The vanquished
singers vented their rage in abuse, and the god-
desses turned them into magpies. |

As the Muses were going to their temple on
Parnassus, a man named Pyréneus invited them to
shelter in his house from an approaching tempest.
The goddesses accepted the proffered hospitality ;
and when the storm was over they were preparing
to depart. Their host shut the doors, and pro-
hibited their departure ; but the Muses, taking
wing, flew from the roof; and Pyréneus, attempt-
ing to follow them, was dashed to pieces.

Callfope was the mother of the poets Orpheus
and Linus, and the Sirens were the offspring of
Melpémene and the river-god Achaea s,

The Seasons or Hovas were three in number ;
Eundmia (Good-order), Dike (Justice), and Iréne
(Peace). They were the daughters of Jupiter and
Themis, }
SISTER-GODDESSES. 75

- These goddesses presided over the seasons of
the year and the hours of the day, and over law,
justice, and peace.

The Cua'rites or GRACES were goddesses pre-
siding over the banquet, the dance, and all social
enjoyments and elegant arts. They were three in
number, the daughters of Jupiter and Eurynome
(Wide-law) a daughter of Océanus. Their names
were, Agldia (Splendour), Euphrdésyne (Joy), and
Thalfa (Pleasure). .They were represented as
three sisters dancing together.

- The Fares were also three in number: Clo-
tho (Spinster), Lachesis (Allotter), and A'tropos
(Unchangeable). They were the daughters of
Jupiter and Themis, or, as some say, of Night.
Their office was to spin and allot the destinies of
men.

- The Inituy1' were the daughters of Jupiter

' and Juno. It was their office to aid women in the
pains of labour. Their number is by most writers
reduced to one.

The Keres were the daughters of Night: they
H 2
76 SISTER-GODDESSES.

loved battles and slaughter, and used to glut them-
selves with the blood of the slain and the wounded.

The Eri'nnyes or Furtes were three goddesses
who sprung from the blood of Uranus when he was
mutilated by his son Saturn. Their names were,
Alecto (Unceasing), Megeera (Envious), and Tisi-
phone (Blood-avenger). They punished by their
secret stings the crimes of those men who escaped
or defied public justice. The heads of the Furies
were wreathed with serpents, and their whole ap-
pearance was terrific and appalling.

One of the names bestowed on these tenrilile
goddesses was that of Euménides (Gracious), under
which they were worshiped at Athens. This title
was placatory, and intended to soothe them, and
make them mild towards the Athenian people. y
THEMIS, IRIS,HEBE,PZON,ANDOTHER DEITIES. 77

CHAPTER XXII.



THEMIS, Iris,Hese, Paon, AND OTHER DEITIES.

TueEmis was one of the daughters of Heaven and
Earth. Her name, which signifies Law, denotes
her office. She was one of the wives of Jupiter,
to whom she bore the Fates, and the three Sea-
sons, Peace, Order, Justice.

Iris was the daughter of Thaumas (Wonder)
and Electra (Brightness). She was goddess of the
rainbow, which is called in Greek Iris. Iris was
originally the messenger of Jupiter; but her office
78 THEMIS, IRIS, HEBE, PZON,AND OTHER DEITIES.

being afterwards bestowed on Mércury, she became
appropriated to the service of Juno. There is a
pleasing fiction, which says, that Iris and Zephyrus
were the parents of Love, intimating that spring,
when zephyrs breathe and rainbows appear, is the
season of love.

HeEseE (Youth) was a daughter of Jupiter and
Juno. She handed round the nectar at the feasts
of the gods. When Hércules was admitted to Olym-
pus she became his spouse. Her office of cup-bearer
fell to Ganymédes son of the king of Troy.

Pzxon, a god of unknown origin, was the phy-
sician of the gods on Olympus. His name and
office were afterwards bestowed on Apollo.

Momvs, the god of wit and ridicule, was the son
of Night without a father.
- It is said that Neptune, Minerva, and Vulcan,
once disputed about their respective powers as
artists. It was agreed that each should produce
a specimen of their skill, and Momus was chosen
judge. Neptune then made a bull, Minerva a
house, and Vulcan a man. The arbiter declared

himself dissatisfied with all. He said that the
THEMIS, IRIS,HEBE,PZON,ANDOTHERDEITIES. 79

horns of the bull should have been set in his fore-
head, that he might butt with the greater force ;
Minerva’s house ought to have been made move-
able, so that one might be able to get out of a bad
neighbourhood ; as for Vulcan, he had shown the
greatest want of sense of all, by not putting a win-
dow in the breast of his man, that his thoughts
might be seen.

NEmeEsIs was a daughter of Night. This god-
dess distributed to men rewards and punishments,
according as their works were good or evil. She
was called Adrastéa (Inevitable). She was also
named Rhamnisia, from Rhamnus a town in Attica,
where she had a celebrated temple.

Deatu and SLEEP were twin-brothers, the child-
ren of Night.

When Alcestis, the affectionate wife of Admétus
king of Thessaly, offered to die instead of her hus-
band, Death came to his palace to fetch her away.
Apollo sought in vain to mollify him ; but Hércules
pursued him and rescued his captive.

The abode of Sleep was placed near the country
of the Kimmerians, in a silent cave, on which the
beams of the sun never shone. His chief ministers
80 THEMIS, IRIS, HEBE,PZON,AND OTHER DEITIES.

were, Morpheus (Shape), who took the form of
men in dreams; I'celos (Likeness), who took that
of beasts, birds, and other animals; and Phantasos
(Appearance), who appeared in the likeness of in-
animate objects.

There were two gates of Sleep,—one of ivory,
through which the false deceptive dreams passed ;
the other was of transparent horn, .at which such
dreams as were true came forth to go among
men.

'
¢

THE RURAL DEITIES, Sl

CHAPTER XXIII.



THe Rurau DEITIES.

Pan, the god who presided over the country, was,

according to the most ancient account, the son of
Mércury by an Arcadian nymph, the daughter of
Dryops. Others say, that as Penélope, who was
afterwards married to Ulysses, was tending in her
youth her father’s flocks on Mount Tay'getus,
Mércury taking the form of a goat gained her love,
and she became the mother of this god of herds-
men.
82 THE RURAL DEITIES.

Pan had goats’ feet and a shaggy skin: he had
also goats’ horns, with a wrinkled face, a matted
beard, and a flat nose. It is said, that when he
was born, the nurse on beholding him fled away
in affright ; but Mercury, wrapping him up in a
hare-skin, carried him to Olympus, where al/ the
gods were delighted with him.

Deficient as he was in beauty, Pan was not
without his love-adventures. He gained the affec-
tion of Seléna, the beautiful goddess of the night,
under the form of a white ram. Another of his
loves was the nymph Echo, whose adventure with
Narcissus shall presently be narrated. The nymph
Pitys also listened to his love; and Boreas, the
god of the north wind, who was his rival, blew
the nymph down from a rock and killed her. Pan,
unable to save, changed her into a Pine-tree—in
Greek Pitys. |

As the nymph Syrinx was one day returning
from the chase, she passed by Mount Lycéum.
Pan, happening to see her, fell in love with her.
The nymph fled from him; he pursued her till
she found her course impeded by the river Ladon.
She implored the aid of her sister-nymphs; and
when Pan thought to seize her, he found his arms

filled with reeds, into which she had been changed.
THE RURAL DEITIES. 83

He stood sighing at his disappointment, when the
wind agitating the reeds, they made a low musical
sound. Pan, taking the hint, cut seven of them,
from which he made the instrument called oyaam
or Pandean pipes.

Pan was the author of what are called Panic
terrors. In this way he aided the Athenians at
Marathon, and terrified the Gauls when they were
approaching to plunder the temple of Delphi,

Arcadia was the country in which Pan was most
honoured.

_ Sriinus, a rural deity, was said to be the foster-
father of Bacchus, whom he usually accompanied,
riding on a broad-backed ass. He was generally
intoxicated, and was rarely seen without his can
(céntharus) in his hand.

Silénus was noted for his wisdom: we find him
in Virgil lecturing very learnedly on the origin
of the world. One of his sayings has been pre-
served, Being asked,.we are told, what was best
for man,—after musing some time, he replied,
“It is best never to be born; next. to that, to die
quickly.”

Some Phrygian shepherds once found Silénus
in one of his drunken fits, and brought him to
84 THE RURAL DEITIES.

king Midas, who kept and entertained him for ten
days, and then restored him to Bacchus. The god
desired Midas to ask a reward; the king, like
many other fools, thinking there was nothing like
money, requested that whatever he touched might
be turned to gold. The gift was bestowed. Midas
laid his hand on a stone, it became a mass of gold ;
he touched the ears of corn, they waved in golden
lustre ; he washed his hands, the water became
like the shower of gold in which Jupiter descend-
ed into the bosom of Danae. Midas was in rap-
tures. But Midas sat down to eat, and his teeth
could not penetrate the golden bread: fish, flesh,
and fowl,—all was gold. He mingled some wine
and water, it became pure aurum potdbile, and
would not discharge the vulgar office of quenching
the thirst. In despair he turned him to the god,
acknowledging his error, and praved to be relieved
from the ruinous gift. Bacchus took pity, and
directed him to bathe in the river Pactdélus. He
bathed, and lost the power of making gold; the
river began to roll over golden sands.

© The Saryrs were another part of the retinue of
Bacchus. 'They were conceived to be bald, with
short sprouting horns like those of kids, and goat-
THE RURAL DEITIES. 85

footed. They were of a lively frolicsome dispo-
sition.

Pria'pus was the god who presided over gar-
dens. He was said to be the son of Bacchus and
Venus. Lampsacus, on the Héllespont, was the
chief seat of his worship. He usually bore a sickle
and a horn of plenty. xv

CHAPTER XXIV.

Tur NymMpus.

Tue Nymphs were beautiful female deities, who
were supposed to inhabit all the regions of earth
and water. They were divided into various classes,
according to their abodes and their offices. Thus
the Mountain-nymphs, or Oréades, haunted the
mountains ; the Dale-nymphs, or Napee, the val-
leys; the Mead-nymphs, or Limoniades, the mea-
dows ; the Wood-nymphs, or Dryades, the woods ;
the Tree-nymphs, or Hamadrfades, were born
and died with the trees; the Flock-nymphs, or
Meliades, watched over flocks of sheep ; the Water-
nymphs, or Ndides, dwelt in the springs and rivers;
I
86 THE NYMPHS.

and the Lake-nymphs, or Limniades, frequented
the lakes and pools.

The Nymphs formed an intermediate clase be-
tween gods and men. They were more powerful
than mortals, and less so than the dwellers of
Olympus. They often had the charge of rearing
gods and heroes, and even Jupiter himself was
nursed by them.

Many stories are told of the Nymphs. Such are
the following. ~

Arethtisa, a nymph of Arcadia, was one day re-
turning from the chase. Coming to the river Al-
phéiis, she was tempted by the appearance of its
cool translucent waters to bathe in it. While
she was in the water she heard a murmuring
sound, and in terror sprang to land. The river-
god rose and pursued her. She ran all through
Arcadia: as evening came on she felt her strength
to fail, and saw her pursuer close at her heels,
She prayed to Diana for aid, and was instantly
turned into a fountain. Alphéiis, resuming his
watery form, sought to unite himself to her. Are-
thiisa fled under the land and sea, and rose in the
isle of Ort¥gia near Sicily. Alphdiis pursued her,
and rose in the same place.

Echo, another of the Nymphs, was of a very los
THE NYMPHS. 87

quacious character. When Jtipiter had any love-
affair on his hands, he used to get her to keep Juno
in conversation. Juno, discovering the artifice,
told the nymph that she should in future have but
little use of her tongue: and Echo in fact re-
tained only the power of repeating what she heard.
There was a beautiful youth named Narcissus,
with whom every nymph or maiden who saw him
was sure to fall in love. Echo beheld him one
time as he was at the chase, and she shared the
general fate. She followed him wherever he went,
but was unable to accost him, as she had lost the
power of conversing. At length one day, having
lost his comrades in a wood, he called out, Js
any one here? Echo instantly answered Here.
Come, cried he ; Come, replied she. Why dost thou
fly? said he. Why dost thou fly’? returned the
nymph. Let us meet here, cried Narcissus, and
Echo joyfully repeating the words ran to embrace
him. But Narcissus fled, and the nymph out of
shame and grief pined away till she became nothing
but bones and voice: the former the gods turned
into stones; the latter may still be heard among
the hills.

Narcissus, however, suffered for his cruelty to
her and others. Happening to see his own beau-
88 THE NYMPHS.

tiful face in a clear fountain, he fell in love with it,
and pined away, unable to leave the spot. The
gods, in compassion, changed him into the flower
which bears his name.

A man named Rheecus, happening to see an oak-
tree ready to fall, directed his slaves to prop it up.
The Hamadryad of the oak, who had been on the
point of losing her existence with the tree, came
to him, and expressing her gratitude for his kind-
ness in thus preserving her life, made him ask what
reward he would. The mind of Rhcecus was aspi-
ring, and he desired her love; the nymph readily
agreed to grant it, but she told him he must give
up the society of all other females, and devote
himself to her alone. A bee was to be her mes-
senger whenever she wished to see him. It haps
pened one time that the bee came when Rheecus
was deeply engaged in playing draughts ; and, oc-
cupied with his game, he made a rude reply to the
winged envoy. The nymph was so incensed at
his behaviour that she deprived him of sight.
THE WATER DEITIES. 89

CHAPTER XXV.

Tue WATER DEITIES.

Tue Ocea'nipes or Ocean-nymphs, were three
thousand in number; they dwelt with their pa-
rents Océanus and Tethys in their grotto-palace
beneath the waves of the Ocean-stream. The best
known of their names are A’sia, Clymene, Electra,
Eurynome, Metis, Styx, and Doris.

Ture Nertipves, or Sea-nymphs, were fifty in
number. They were the children of Nereus by the
Ocean-nymph Doris. They dwelt in the sea. The
principal Neréides were Amphitrite, who was mar-
ried to Neptune and became queen of the sea;
Thetis, the mother of Achilles; and Galatéa, who
was loved, but in vain, by the huge Cyclops Poly-
phémus.

Nerevs, the father of the Nerdides, was one of
the children of Earth by her son Pontus. He was
distinguished for his wisdom and his love of truth,
and was endowed with the gift of prophecy.

Puorcys was also a son of Earth by Pontus.
90 THE WATER DEITIES.

He was father of the Gorgons, the Greeee, Echidna,
and the serpent which guarded the Golden Fruit.

TRiToN was a son of Neptune and Amphitrite.
He was his father’s trumpeter: a conch-shell was
his instrument. At the time of Deucalion’s Flood,
the waters, we are told, retired from the land when
by his father’s orders he sounded the retreat for
them.

Prorevs, another son of Neptune, had the of-
fice of keeping the seals, or sea-calves, whom he
drove up every day from the bottom of the sea to
sleep on the rocks and shores. Like the marine-
gods in general, he was renowned for knowledge.
When the Nymphs, to punish Aristeeus for having
caused the death of Eurydice, had destroyed all his
bees, Proteus instructed him in the best means of
recovering them. He also, as we shall see in the
sequel, instructed Meneldiis how to obtain a fa-
vourable wind for his return to Greece. Proteus
on these occasions always assumed a variety of
forms, in order to make his escape, if possible,
without giving the required information. Me

Giaucus was said to have been originally a
THE WATER DEITIES. 91

fisherman of the town of Anthédon in Beeotia.
One day he saw the fish which he had caught and
thrown on the grass bite it, and instantly jump
back into the water. Out of curiosity he tasted the
grass, and it so affected him that he followed their
example.. ()n the prayer of the sea-gods, Océanus
and Tethys made him a god of the sea.

There was a beautiful maiden named Scylla,
who delighted in conversing on the margin of the
sea with the Nerdides. Glaucus happening to see
her fell deeply in love; but as Scylla would not
give ear to his addresses, he besought the great
enchantress Circe to exercise her magic art in his
favour. Circe, however, wished him to transfer his
affections to herself; and filled with rage at his
refusal, she made the innocent Scylla her victim ;
for infecting the water in which she was wont to
bathe with noxious juices, she turned her into the
monster hereafter to be described.

LevcérHEeA (White-goddess) and PALZMON
(Champion), like Glaucus, had been mortals. Ino
the daughter of Cadmus, flying from’ the rage of
her husband Athamas, with her little son Meli-
certes in her arms, sprang from a cliff into the sea.
The gods in pity made them both deities of the
Y2 THE WATER DEITIES.

sea, under the above names. They were invoked
by sailors to save them from shipwreck.

. The River-cops also claimed the homage of
men, for each river had its presiding deity, who
dwelt within it and directed its waters. These
gods, with their wives and children, resided in
grottos beneath the water. The most celebrated
of them were I’nachus, Pendéiis, Alphéis, and
Acheldiis, whose own adventures, or those of their
children, we have already related, or shall relate
in the sequel. These deities were all children of
Océanus and Tethys.

CHAPTER XXVI.

Fore1Gn Deiries.

Tue preceding deities, nearly all of whom are men-
tioned in the poems of Homer and Hesiod, the
most ancient portions of Grecian literature, may
be regarded as the original objects of Grecian
worship. But when the Greeks settled their co-
lonies on the coast of Asia, they found other
FOREIGN DEITIES. 93

deities, whom they identified with some of their
own, and whose worship they adopted. These
were Cybele and Diana of Ephesus.

Cy'BELE, called also the Great Mother, was a
deity worshiped by the Phrygians. She was re-
garded by them as the goddess of nature or of the
earth. Her temples stood on the summits of hills,
from some of which, such as Ida, Dindyméne, and
Berecynthus, she derived appellations.

The worship of CÂ¥bele, unlike that of the Gre-
cian deities in general, was what is termed enthu-
siastic,—that is, of a noisy, extravagant, and wild
character. Her priests, when celebrating it, ran
about yelling and howling, clashing cymbals,
beating on drums, and cutting themselves with
knives.

Cybele was usually represented crowned with
towers, and sitting in a chariot drawn by lions.
She is beating a drum, or holds a sceptre in her
hand. —

The Romans, as well as the Greeks, adopted
the worship of this goddess. Under the direction
of their Sibylline books, and the oracle of Apollo
at Delphi, they sent a solemn embassy to Attalus
king of Pérgamus, to request the statue of the
94 FOREIGN DEITIES.

goddess, which was kept at Pessinus. The king
hesitated to comply ; but CÂ¥bele herself spoke in
audible tones from the interior of her teraple, de-
claring that it was her will to depart and take her
permanent abode in Rome. Attalus feared to dis-
obey the goddess: the statue was embarked; and
the vessel which conveyed it safely reached the
mouth of the river Tiber, whither the senate and
people advanced to receive the goddess. The
ship was here grounded on a sand-bank, and all
the efforts of the people were unable to move it.
There was a maiden of the illustrious family of
the Claudii, whose chastity was suspected on ac-
count of the gaiety of her manners and her dress.
She boldly seized the present occasion of appeal-
ing to the goddess for her vindication. Having
sprinkled herself with water from the river and
prayed aloud, she laid hold on the rope at which
the men had been so long pulling in vain. The
ship was instantly in motion, amidst the joyful
acclamations of the people. On arriving at Rome,
the statue of Cybele was committed, till a temple
should be erected for its reception, to the care of
Scipio Nasica, as being by general consent the
best and most virtuous man in the city.

_ The Greeks esteemed CÂ¥bele to be the same
FOREIGN DEITIES. 95

with Rhea, the spouse of their god Kronus (Sa-
turn). The Romans identified her with their Ops,
the female deity of the earth, who was usually
joined with Saturnus.

Dra’na or Epnesuswas a goddess of nature, like
CÂ¥bele, or else the moon-goddess of the people of
Ephesus. The Greeks considered her to be the
same as their own ‘Artemis or Didna. Her statue
was covered with breasts and the heads of beasts,
to denote the fecundity and nutritive power of the
earth.

Isis was an Egyptian goddess, similar to the
Deméter or Ceres of the Greeks, She was the
wife of Osiris, the principal deity of Egypt. Her
worship was introduced into Greece in the time
of the Ptolemies.

CHAPTER XXVII.

ITALIAN DEITIES.

Tuovau the deities worshiped in Italy differed in
general but little from those of Greece, we yet find
96 ' YPTALIAN DEITIES.

some beings adored by the Romans which seem
to have been unknown to the Greeks. Such were
most of the following.

JANUS was most probably the Sun in the ancient
Italian religion. By some he was thought to re-
present the year. He had two faces, and held a
key in his hand. Doors (Janue) were sacred to
him. His temple at Rome was open during war,
and shut in times of peace: it is said to have been
closed but three times, so insatiable of war were
the Romans.

Vesta, the same as the Hestia of the Greeks,
was a goddess presiding over the hearth, or fire-
place, the symbol of social and domestic union.
Her temple at Rome was round, and within it
blazed a perpetual fire, tended. by six virgins,
named Vestals. If they let the fire go out, they
were severely punished, and the flame was re-
kindled by the rays of the sun. There was no
statue of this goddess.

QuirRI'Nus was a god of war, similar to Mars,
with whom he is sometimes identified. When the
fable was devised of Rémulus having been taken
ITALIAN DEITIES. 97

up into heaven and made a god, he was called
Quirinus.

Beixiéna was a war-goddess, like the Enfo
of the Greeks. Her priests used to gash them-
selves with knives, and offer to her the blood which
flowed from the wounds.

Lisiti/na was the goddess who presided over
funerals. She was by some thought to be the same
with Venus,—a goddess who differed very much
from the Aphrodite of the Greeks.

VERTUMNUS, whoge name appears to come from
verto (to change), seems to have been a god pre-
siding over the seasons, or changes of the year.
He is thought by some to have been like Mercury,
a god of commerce.

TéRMINUs presided over boundaries. His statue
was a rude stone or post set in the ground asa
land-mark. When the different chapels which oc-
cupied the Capitoline Hill were removed to make
room for the splendid temple of Jupiter, the con-
sent of the gods to whom they belonged was sought
by the augurs. Términus and Youth alone refused

K
98 ITALIAN DEITIES.

it, There was always therefore an altar of this
god on the Cépitol. The roof of the temple was
open over it,

Stiva/nus was the god who presided over the
woods ; and Faunvs was a rural deity similar to
the Grecian Pan.

PaEs was the goddessof cattle and of pasturage.
Her festival, called the Palflia, was celebrated on
the 21st of April, and was regarded as the birth-
day of Rome, |

Frora was the goddess of flowers. Her fes-
tival, the Flordlia, was of a very indecorous cha-
racter.

FErénta was said to be a goddess of the woods.
There was a fountain sacred to her about three
miles from Anxur.

Pomona was the goddess of fruit-trees. It is
said that she was wooed in vain by all the rural
deities. At length Vertumnus became enamoured
of her, and taking the form of an old woman, and
representing the advantages of the married over
ITALIAN DEITIES. 99

the single life, he produced such a change in her
sentiments, that when he resumed his own form
she responded to his love.

The Pena'res and Lares were domestic dei-
ties. The former presided over the interior of the
house, where their statues were placed. The sta-
tues of the Lares stood on the hearth, where small
offerings were made to them every day.
tee

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MYTHOLOGY

OF

GREECE AND ITALY.

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Part I].—THE HEROES.

a ee

CHAPTER I.

AGES OF THE WORLD.

THE first inhabitants whom the gods placed on
the earth was the Golden race. This was in the time
when Saturn reigned in heaven. Astreea, or Jus-
tice, lived familiarly among them, teaching them
what was right and good. They enjoyed the
greatest abundance of everything ; eternal spring
spread the earth with fruits and flowers for them ;
and when they died,.they became good spirits to
watch over mortal men.

The silver race next succeeded. They were
far inferior. to the preceding one, but not utterly:
102 AGES OF THE WORLD.

wicked. In their time the division of the seasons
took place. Justice did not yet altogether aban-
don mankind ; but she retired to the mountains,
whenee she used to come down in the evenings,
and approaching their dwellings upbraid them
with their evil doings. Jtipiter, who now had the
supremacy of Heaven, destroyed this race.

The Brazen race came next. They fed on the
flesh of the labouring ox, and they forged deadly
arms, and earth now first saw war and battles.
Justice, wearied of their wickedness, flew up to
heaven ; and there became the sign of the Virgin.
This race perished by each others’ hands, and left
no fame behind them.

The Iron race was last. As Justice was no
longer on earth, they were under no restraint, and
gave loose to every species of crime. Incensed at
their wickedness, Jupiter destroyed them by a flood
of water.

CHAPTER II.

PANDORA.

Ju'PITER, angry at the theft of fire from heaven
committed by Prométheus for the sake of man-
PANDORA. 103

kind, resolved to give them a corresponding evil.
Hitherto men had lived happy and contented
without any women among them. All evils were
inclosed in a jar which stood in the house occu-
pied by Prométheus (Forethought) and his brother
Epimétheus (Afterthought), who were careful
never to raise the lid and let them escape. This
blissful state, however, was not long to continue.
Jupiter, calling Vulcan to him, directed him to
take some earth and knead it into a form resem-
bling that of the immortal goddesses, and endow |
it with speech. . Minerva was desired to inspire
it with the knowledge of female works; Venus to
bestow on it beauty and desire; and Mércury an
artful disposition.

When formed and endowed with these gifts of
the gods, the new creature was named Pandéra
(All-gifted); and being attired by the Graces, and
crowned with flowers by the Seasons, she was led
by Mércury to the house of Epimétheus. Though
warned by his brother to be on his guard, and to
receive no presents from Jupiter, Epimétheus could
not resist the charms of Pandéra. He received
her into his house, and made her his wife. The
jar soon caught the attention of the bride: she
burned with curiosity to know its contents ; she
104 PANDORA.

raised the lid and instantly evils of every species
flew forth, and spread over the earth. Terrified at
what she had done, Pandéra clapped down the lid,
but only in time to prevent the escape of Hope,
who thus remained in the abode of men.

Such is the more correct account of the manner
in which Pandéra was the introducer of evil into
the world. According to the more usual one, she
brought the evils from heaven with her, shut up
ina box. But this last supposition has been shown
to be clearly at variance with the original narrative,
as it is given by the poet Hesiod.

It is said, that when Prométheus stole the ce-
lestial fire for the use of mankind, they were so
ungrateful as to inform Jupiter of the theft. As
a reward, the god bestowed on them a remedy
against old-age. It being summer-time, and the
gift a little heavy, they put it on the back of an
ass, and let him trot on before them. The ass
being thirsty, went up to a spring to drink; but
a snake who was there refused to permit him to
approach it unless he gave him the burden which
he was carrying. The ass was forced to comply ;
and thus the cunning snake became possessed of
the precious gift of Jupiter: but by way of punish-
ment: he got with it the thirst of ‘the ass. Hence
PANDORA. 105

snakes renew their youth by casting their skins,
while men are oppressed with all the evils of old
age: and the malignant snakes, moreover, com-~
municate their thirst to men by biting them when-
ever they have an opportunity.



CHAPTER III.
Devca'LION AND PyRRBA.

Devca'tron, the son of Prom¢theus, who was mar-
ried to Pyrrha, the daughter of Epimétheus and.
Pandéra, reigned over the southern part of Thés-
saly at the time when Jupiter resolved to destroy
mankind by a flood. Warned by his father, he
made an ark, and having filled it with provisions,
he and his wife went into it. The flood imme-
diately came on ; all the land was under water,
and the tops of the highest mountains alone were
visible. For nine days and nights the ark was
carried along by the waves: at length it rested
on Mount Parnassus. The rain had now ceased
to fall, and Deucdlion and his wife came out of
their ark and offered a sacrifice to Jupiter. When
they looked around and saw the earth desolate
106 DEUCALION AND PYRRHA.

and devoid of inhabitants, they were filled with
grief and sorrow. There was an ancient oracle
of the goddess Themis at that time on Mount
Parnassus ; and thither they repaired, in the hope
of obtaining advice and consolation. On entering
the solitary temple, and imploring the aid of the
gods, they received the following response :—
“ From the fane depart,

And veil your heads, and loose your girded clothes,
And cast behind you your great parent’s bones ! ”
Horror-struck at the seeming impiety which they
were ordered to commit, they gazed on each other
in silence. At length it occurred to Deucdlion
that it must be stones, which may be called the
bones of the earth, the great parent of all, that
were meant by the oracle. They therefore flung
stones behind their backs; and those cast by
Deucdlion became men, those thrown by his wife

rose up women from the ground.

The more distinguished persons of the race
which occupied Greece after the restoration of
mankind by Deucdlion and Pyrrha, were named by
posterity the Heroes. Our remaining pages shall be
devoted to the narrative of their most remarkable
deeds and adventures.
PERSEUS. - 107

CHAPTER IV.
PERSEUS.

Acri'srvs, one of the ancient kings of Argos, had
but one child, a daughter, named Danae. Anxious
for male issue, he consulted the oracle of Apollo ;
the god told him that he himself should never
haye a son, but that he was fated to perish by the
hand of the son whom his daughter should bear.
To escape the fate which menaced him, Acri-
sius resolved that his daughter should never be-
come a mother; and having constructed a brazen
subterranean chamber, he shut her up in it along
with her nurse. But vainly does man seek to shun
his fate: the king of the gods had become en-
amoured of Danae, and under the form of a shower
of gold he poured through the roof of the cham-
ber. The daughter of Acrisius brought forth a
son, whom she reared in her brazen dwelling till
he had attained his fourth year. At this period
her father chanced one day to hear the voice of
the child at his play. Filled with rage, he called
forth his daughter and her nurse, and putting the
latter instantly to death, drew the former to the
altar of Jupiter, and interrogated her on oath re-
108 PERSEUS.

specting the child. Danae related the whole truth,
but was unable to obtain credence with her father ;
and to punish her for the danger and dishonour
she had brought on him, he inclosed her and her
innocent child in a coffer, which he cast into the
sea to the mercy of the winds and waves.

The chest containing the mother and child was
carried along the sea to the little island of Seri-
phus, where a man named Dictys, brother to the
king of the place, drew it out in his nets. On
opening it he found to his surprise Danae and her
son, whom he took out, and treated with the utmost
kindness.

When Perseus—for so the child was named—
was grown up, Polydectes, the brother of Dictys,
having seen Danae, fell in love with her. Finding
in her son an obstacle to his wishes, he planned
removing him from the island, and if possible
preventing his return. Accordingly, feigning an
intention of becoming a suitor to Hippodamia,
daughter of CEndmaiis king of Pisa, whose hand
was to be the reward of the victor in a chariot-
race with her father, he invited his vassals to a
banquet, and there disclosing to them his inten-
tions, asked them to contribute towards the ac-
‘complishment of his object. Perseus, who was
PERSEUS. 109

present, asked what it was he required. On being
told horses, he said he would bring him even the
head of the Gorgon if he desired it. Next day
each guest brought his horse; all the others were
accepted, but the king insisted on Perseus’ fulfil-
ling his promise.

The Gorgons were three sisters, daughters of
Phoreys and Ceto. They dwelt by the Ocean-
stream. Their looks turned all who beheld them
to stone; and their heads were covered with
snakes.

_ Filled with terror and grief at the prospect of
such a perilous adventure, Perseus retired to the
extremity of the island to bemoan his hard fate.
Here he was met by Mércury, who bade him be
of good courage, for that he and Minerva would
be his guides and advisers. The young hero
therefore set forth; and Mércury having con-
ducted him to the coast of the Ocean, brought
him to the fair Greeee, or Old Maids, sisters of
the Gorgons, who were gray from their births,
and had but one eye and one tooth between them.
Perseus, by the direction of Méreury, contrived
to get the eye and tooth as they were handing
them from one to the other, and would only re-

store them on condition of their directing him
I,
110 PERSEUS.

(which they alone could do) to the abode of the
Nymphs who possessed the winged shoes, the ma-
gic wallet, and the helmet of Pluto, which made
its wearer invisible. The Greeee were obliged to
comply ; and the Nymphs readily agreed to lend
their precious possessions to the protégé of the
gods. Perseus slung the wallet over his shoulder,
placed the helmet on his head, and the shoes on
his feet ; then mounting into the air, and accom-
panied by the protecting deities, he flew to where
the Gorgons dwelt. He found the three sisters
lying fast asleep : and fearing to gaze on their petri-
fying visages, he turned towards them the brilliant
shield which he bore, and looking on the head of
Mediisa (the only mortal of the sisters) as it was
reflected in it, and Minerva guiding his hand, he
cut it off with the adamantine scimitar which Mér-
cury had given him. The blood spouted high
from the body of the slain Gorgon, and with it
sprang forth the winged steed Pégasus (Mount-
horse), and Chrystor (Gold-sword), who became
the father of the three-bodied Géryon. The Gor-
gons awaking, pursued Perseus, who was carry-
ing off the head of their sister in his wallet, but
the helmet of Pluto enabled him to elude their
view.
PERSEUS. 111

Perseus pursued his journey through the air
till he came to the country of the AAthiopians,
where he beheld a beautiful maiden, naked, and
chained to a rock overhanging the sea. This was
Andrémeda, daughter of Cépheus and Cassiopéa,
king and queen of the country. Vain of her beauty,
the Aithiopian queen had presumed to set herself
above the Neréides. The sea-maidens complained
to Neptune of the insult, and he sent a huge sea-
monster to ravage the realm of Cepheus. The
oracle of Ammon being consulted, declared that
the evil was only to be removed by giving the
daughter of Cassiopéa as food to the monster.
The paternal affection of Cepheus was obliged to
give way to the determination of his subjects, and
Andrémeda was exposed on a rock. Perseus on
beholding her was smitten with love; and he
offered to Cepheus to attempt her deliverance on
condition of receiving her for his wife in the event
of success. The proposal was accepted with joy ;
and the winged warrior engaged and slew the
monster. Andrémeda was cheerfully bestowed
upon him ; but her uncle Phineus, to whom she
had been betrothed, entering the hall where the
wedding-feast was held with a train of warriors,
attempted to destroy his triumphant rival. Per-

L 2
112 PERSEUS.

seus displayed the head of Mediisa, and Phineus
and his friends stiffened into stone.

Perseus now proceeded to Seriphus, where he
found that his mother and Dictys had been obliged
to seek refuge at the altar from the violence of
Polydectes. He proceeded to the palace, where
the king and his friends were assembled; and
displaying the formidable Gorgon’s head, each
person present was converted into a statue. He
now returned to Mércury the shoes, the wallet,
and the helmet, by whom they were brought back
to the Nymphs; and he gave the Gorgon’s head
to Minerva, who set it in the middle of her shield.

Having made Dictys king over the island, Per-
seus, taking with him his mother and his wife, set
out for Argos. Acrisius, fearing the fulfilment of
the oracle, retired to Larissa in Thessaly, leaving
the throne to be occupied by his grandson. Some
time afterwards, funereal games being proclaimed
in honour of the king of Larissa, Perseus went
thither to contend at them. As he was throwing
the discus, it happened to fall on and bruise the
foot of an old man among the spectators. The
old man was Acrisius, who died of the injury ;
and thus Perseus unwittingly accomplished the
prediction of the oracle. Having buried his grand-
PERSEUS. ~ 113

father with all due honour, he returned to Argos,
and thence removed to Tiryns, where he reigned
many years, and became the father of a line of
princes.



CHAPTER V.

BELLEROPHON.

A cranpson of Sisyphus king of Corinth, named
Bellérophon, having had the misfortune to kill one
of his relatives, fled, as was usual in such cases,
and sought’ refuge with Proetus king of Argos.
He was purified from the guilt of the homicide
by his host, and abode for some time at his house.
Bellérophon being handsome, and accomplished in
all martial exercises, Sthenobcea the wife of Proetus
fixed her love upon him. But the virtuous youth
refusing to meet her amorous advances, her bosom
was filled with rage, and she accused him to her
husband of an attempt on her honour, ‘The cre-
dulous king gave ear to what she said, and re-
solved to take vengeance on the ungrateful stran-
ger. But as Bellérophon was his guest and his
suppliant, he feared to violate the rights of ho-
114 BELLEROPHON.

spitality by putting him to death. He therefore
sent him to his father-in-law Jobates king of Ly-
‘cia, giving him sealed tablets for that monarch, in
which his wishes were expressed.

Under the guidance of the gods, Bellérophon
reached the banks of the Xanthus in Lycia. The
king feasted him for nine days, and slew an ox
each day. On the tenth he asked to see the tablets
of which he was the bearer. Finding that Proetus
demanded the death of his guest,’ he resolved,
without breach of hospitality, to comply with his
wishes, and to destroy him by engaging him in
perilous expeditions. .

The first task enjoined by the Lycian king was
to destroy the Chimeera, a monster born of Typhon
and Echidna, which had the upper part of a lion,
the lower of a serpent, with the body of a goat,
and belched forth flaming fire. Bellérophon,
having had recourse to a prophet named Polyides
(Much-knowing) for advice, was directed by him
to go and sleep in the temple of Minerva. He
obeyed; and as he lay, the goddess appeared to
him, and, giving him a bridle, directed him to sa-
crifice a bull to Neptune, and then to repair to a
certain spring at which the winged steed Pégasus
‘was wont to drink, to approach him boldly, and
BELLEROPHON. 115

put the bridle on his head. Bellérophon did as de-
sired; and mounting the steed rode him through
the air, and by his aid overcame the monster.

Jobates next sent him to combat a people named
the Sdlymi: these also he vanquished, though with
difficulty. He was then sent to make war on the
race of female warriors named Amazons, over
whom he likewise proved victorious. As he was
returning, a band of Lycian warriors fell on him
from an ambush, where they had been placed ;
but not one of them returned to tell the tale of
the fight, for they all fell by the hand of the hero.
Jobates, perceiving by such evident signs that he
was akin to the gods, gave him his daughter in
marriage, and shared with him his royal dignity.
Sthenobcea, hearing of his good fortune, hung her-
self in rage and despair. Bellérophon lived for a
long time happily, till at length he conceived the
insane project of ascending to heaven by means of
Pégasus. Jupiter, incensed at his boldness, sent
an insect to sting the steed, who flung his rider to
the earth, where he roamed in melancholy the re-
mainder of his life. ‘The winged horse flew up to
heaven, where his office was to bear the thunders
of Jupiter.
116 - HERCULES.

CHAPTER VI.



HERCULES.

Hercuxes was the son of Alcména, the wife of
Amphitryon: his sire was the king of the gods,
His twin-brother was I’phicles the son of Amphi-
tryon, The city of Thebes had the honour of his
birth, as has been already related.

Juno, who hated all the illegitimate offspring of
her lord, determined to destroy the two babes in
their cradle. With this design she sent two mon-
-strous serpents into the chamber where they lay,
HERCULES. 117

Aleména, terrified at the sight of them, shrieked
out to her husband for aid. I'phicles screamed
aloud with fear, but Hércules raised himself up
on his feet, caught the two monsters by the throat,
and strangled them. —

As he grew up, Amphitryon had him instructed
in the various exercises and accomplishments of
the heroic age. He himself taught him to drive
the chariot. The celebrated Linus was his master
of music; but chancing one day to correct his
pupil rather severely, he was killed by him with
a blow of the lyre. For this act Amphitryon sent
him away into the country, where his flocks and
herds were feeding; and while here, the future
hero achieved his first adventure.

On Mount Citheeron abode an enormous lion,
who frequently fell upon and destroyed the herds
of Amphitryon and of Théstius king of Théspiee.
Hércules resolved to engage and if possible de-
stroy this formidable animal; and accordingly
seeking his lair on the mountain, he attacked, and
after a severe struggle succeeded in killing him-
He stript off his hide, which he wore ever after-
wards by way of armour, the skin of the head
forming his helmet. The gods gave him arms:
he cut for himself a huge club in the woods.
118 HERCULES,

Soon afterwards he freed the Thebans from a
tribute which they paid to the king of the Mi-
nyans, a neighbouring people. As a reward for
this action Creon king of Thebes gave him his
daughter Mégara in marriage, and he gave her
younger sister to I’phicles. But Juno, still hostile
to the son of Jiipiter, caused him to fall into a fit
of insanity, during which he flung his own three
children, and two of his brother I'phicles’, into the
fire, where they perished. For this deed he went
into voluntary exile. Thestius, on his coming to
Thespie, purified him, and he then proceeded to
Delphi to consult the oracle as to what he should
further do in expiation of his guilt, The Pythia,
or priestess, directed him to go to Tiryns in the
Peloponnese, where he was to serve king Eury-
stheus for a space of twelve years, and perform
twelve tasks which should be imposed by him,
She added, that after accomplishing these he would
be made immortal,

This service to Eurystheus was the accomplish-
ment of the fate which had been destined for the
son of Jupiter from his birth, On the day on
which Alcména was to give birth to him, Jupiter
announced to the gods that a man of his race was
- that day to be born who should rule over all his
HERCULES, 119

neighbours. Juno, exacting from him an oath that
it should be so, went down to Argos, where she
caused the premature delivery of the wife of
Sthénelus the son of Perseus; and Eurystheus
was born; while she checked the parturition of
Aleména. Heércules was therefore fated to be the
servant of the son of Sthénelus.

The first task which Eurystheus imposed on the
son of Jtipiter, was to bring him the skin of the
Nemeean lion. This animal, the progeny of Typhon
and Echidna, was of huge size and strength, and
moreover invulnerable by any weapon. He dwelt
in aden of the Nemeean wood on the way from
Argos to Corinth. On reaching the wood the hero
sought his formidable enemy, and as soon as he
discovered him began to ply him with his ar-
rows; but finding that these took no effect, he
assailed him with his club and forced him to fly
to his den, whither he pursued him. The den was
pervious, so that escape was easy to the lion.
Hércules therefore collecting stones, built up one
of the entrances, and then going in at the other
grasped the lion by the throat, and held him till
he was suffocated. He then placed the dead lion
on his shoulder and set out for Mycénee. LEury-
stheus, on seeing this convincing proof of his enor-
120 HERCULES.

mous strength, was so terrified that he prohibited
his entrance in future into the town, directing that
he should announce the accomplishment of his
tasks before the gates. His terror of the hero was
so great, that he had a brazen vessel made, in
which he used to conceal himself under-ground,
while his herald Copreus, the son of Pelops, set
him his tasks.

The second task imposed by Eurystheus was to
destroy the Hydra or Water-snake which infested
the marsh of Lerna, whence she used to come forth
on the land and ravage the country, and destroy
the cattle. This monster had a huge body with
nine heads, eight of which were mortal; but the
ninth, which was in the middle, was immortal.
Hércules mounted his chariot, which was driven
by his nephew Ioldiis the son of I'phicles, and
proceeded towards Lerna. On arriving there he
dismounted and went in quest of the hydra, which
he found on a rising ground near the spring of
Amyméne, where her hole was. He shot fiery
arrows into the cavern until he made her come out ;
and he then grasped and held her fast. She twined
her tail round his legs, and a huge crab which
aided her kept biting at his feet. Hercules killed
' the crab, and crushed several of the heads of the
HERCULES. 121

hydra with his club ; but to no purpose, for as fast
as one was crushed two others sprang up in its
stead. Seeing no end to his toil, he called his
charioteer to his assistance. Iolaiis immediately
set fire to the neighbouring wood, and with the
flaming brands searing the necks of the hydra as
the heads were cut off, effectually checked their
growth. Heércules then cut off the immortal head,
which he buried under a large stone. The body
of the hydra he cut in pieces, and he dipped his
arrows in her poisonous gall. When the adven-
ture was narrated to Eurystheus, he refused to
allow this task to be reckoned as one of the twelve,
alleging that Hércules had not succeeded in
destroying the hydra without the assistance of
Tolaiis.

The third task was to catch and bring alive to
Mycénee the Horned Hind, an animal sacred to
Digna, which had horns of gold, and was of sur-
passing fleetness. During the space of an entire
year the hero pursued her through the hills and
dales of Arcadia. At length he had nearly tired
her out; and as she was crossing the river Ladon
he struck her with an arrow, which so impeded
her flight that he came up with and caught her.
He flung her over his shoulders, and was proceed-

M
122 HERCULES.

ing towards Mycéne with his burden, when he
met Diana and her brother Apollo. The goddess,
incensed at seeing her sacred animal treated in
such a manner, took her from him, and reproached
him severely with his conduct: but Hércules ex-
cusing himself on the plea of necessity, Didna was
mollified, and allowed him to carry his prize to
Mycénee and exhibit it to Eurystheus. vy

As a fourth task, the hero was to bring to Eu-
rystheus the Erymanthian boar, also alive. This
animal haunted Mount Erymanthus, and ravaged
the surrounding country. On his way thither Hér-
cules was entertained in his cavern by Pholus, one
of the Centaurs. After making an abundant re-
past,—for Heércules had an appetite in proportion
to his strength,—he asked his host if he could sup-
ply him with wine. Pholus said that he had but
one jar, which being the common property of the
Centaurs he feared to open; but Hércules urged
him, till at length he overcame his fears and un-
closed the vessel. The fragrant smell of the wine
immediately spread over the mountain, and the
Centaurs were soon seen hastening to the cave of
Pholus, armed with stones and pine-sticks. The
first two who entered were driven back by Hér-
cules with the burning brands which he snatched
HERCULES, 123

up from the hearth. Then seizing his bow and
arrows he shot at them, killing some and wounding
others, till he had put them to flight. They sought
refuge at Malea, where Chiron the Centaur, the
son of Saturn and the nymph Phillyra, dwelt. The
hero, however, pursued, and still plied them with
his arrows. Unfortunately one of the poisoned
darts, having gone through the arm of a Centaur,
wounded Chiron in.the knee. All remedies were
in vain, and retiring to his cave he lay groaning
with agony, and wishing in vain to die,—for as the
offspring of the gods he was immortal. Returning
to Phéloe, Hércules found his host also lying among
the dead; for Pholus having drawn an arrow out
of one of the slain Centaurs, let it fall on his foot,
and died instantly of the wound. The hero buried
him, and then set forth to hunt the boar. He
roused him from his lair, and pursuing him with
loud shouts, drove him into a snow-drift, where
he caught and bound him, and then carried him
to Mycénee. )

The Centaurs thus destroyed by Hércules were
a savage race, the offspring of Ixion by the cloud
which Jupiter had sent to him in place of Juno.
Their upper parts were those of a man, their lower
those of a horse. They had originally dwelt on

M 2
124 HERCULES.

Mount Pélion in Thessaly, but being invited to
the wedding of Pirithoiis, prince of their neigh-
bours the Lapiths, they had, when heated with
wine, attempted to offer violence to the bride.
Several of them were slain, and the rest driven
from Pélion.

For his fifth task, Hércules was ordered to clean
out in one day the stables of Avigeas king of Elis.
This prince, who was son to the Sun-god, exceeded
all the men of his time in the number of his flocks
and herds, and many years had passed since his
stables had been cleansed. Hercules on arriving
at Elis offered, if the king would give him a tenth
of his herds, to clean out all his stables in one day.
Avigeas thinking the thing impossible readily as-
sented, and his son Phyleus witnessed the agree-
ment. Heéreules then broke down a part of the
stable wall, and turning in the rivers Pendiis and
Alphéiis, swept away all the collected filth before
evening. But Atgeas refused to stand to his
agreement ; and when his son Phyleus honestly
bore testimony in favour of Hércules, he drove him
out of the country. Eurystheus also refused to
allow for this task, alleging that it had been done
for hire.

The siwth task, was to drive away the birds which
HERCULES. 125

haunted lake Stymphdlis in Arcadia, whither they
had fled to seek refuge from the wolves. The lake
lay embosomed in woods, and the hero knew not
how he should get within reach of the birds. While
he stood deliberating, Minerva, his protectress,
brought him a pair of brazen clappers made by
Vulcan. He took his stand under a neighbouring
hill and rattled them: the birds terrified at the
unusual sound rose, and when they were on the
wing, he shot them with his arrows. |
All the difficulties which the Peloponnésus
afforded being thus overcome, the hero was en-
joined, for his seventh task, to fetch to Mycénee the
Cretan bull, This animal had been sent up out
of the sea by Neptune at the desire of Minos king
of Crete; but when Minos neglected to sacrifice
it, as he had vowed, Neptune caused it to run
wild, Minos gave Hércules permission to catch
the bull if he could ; and the animal was soon on
ship-board and conveyed to Eurystheus, who turned
him foose : he roamed on to Attica, where he fixed
himself at Marathon, and became the plague of
the.country.
His eighth task, was to bring to Mycéne the
mares of Diomédes, king of the Bistonians in
\ ‘Thrace, These mares devoured human flesh, and
126 HERCULES,

were exceedingly fierce. Hércules collected a
band of volunteers, and sailed to Thrace; and
having overcome the grooms of Diomédes, and
the Bistonians who came to their aid, carried off
the mares. Eurystheus, having seen them, turned
them loose; and they strayed on to Mount
Olympus, where they were devoured by the wild
beasts. W

To procure for the daughter of Eurystheus the
belt of Hippdlyta queen of the A'mazons was the
ninth task assigned by that prince. The A’mazons
were a nation of female warriors who dwelt on the
banks of the river Thermddon, near the Black Sea;
and allowed no men to live among them. They
reared only female children, and cut off their right
breasts that they might not impede them in draw-
ing the bow-string. When Hércules, and the heroes
who accompanied him, arrived at the mouth of the
Thermédon, Hippdlyta came down to the port to
inquire the cause of their appearance; and it being
explained to her she readily consented to give her
belt. But Juno, taking the form of an A'mazon,
persuaded the others that the strangers were car-
rying off their queen. They mounted their horses,
and came down in arms to the port: a battle en-
-sued, in which the A’mazons were worsted ; and
HERCULES, 127

Hércules, suspecting treachery on the part of
Hippélyta, slew her, and sailed away with her
girdle.

On his return he passed by Troy, whose king,
Ladémedon, he found in great affliction; for having
agreed with Neptune and Apollo to build a wall
round his town, when the work was completed he
refused to pay them. To punish him, Apollo sent
a pestilence, and Neptune a huge sea-monster,
which carried off the people. The oracle, being
consulted, declared that the plague would never
cease till Ladmedon had given his daughter He-
sione for food to the monster. The hapless prin-
cess had just been exposed on a rock when Heér-
cules arrived. He offered to deliver her on con-
dition of receiving from Ladémedon the horses
which Jupiter had given to his grandfather Tros.
The king consented: Hércules killed the mon-
ster ; but Ladmedon broke his word, and the hero
departed vowing vengeance.

The tenth task of Hercules, was to cross the
Ocean-stream and bring from the isle of Erythéa
(Ruddy-isle) the purple oxen of Géryon the son
of Chrysdor (Gold-sword), and the ocean-nymph
Callirrhoe (Fair-flowing), who had the bodies of
three men which were united above and divided
128 HERCULES,

below. Géryon had also the strength of three men
of mortal birth.

When Hercules was come to the extremities of
Europe and Africa, he set up two pillars, one on
each side of the strait. Being here greatly an-
noyed by the heat of the sun, he shot his arrows
against the Sun-god, who admiring his courage
lent him his golden cup to cross the Ocean-stream,
As he was passing over, Océanus rose, and agita-
ting ‘his waters and tossing the cup, endeavoured
to frighten him and make him return. But the
hero bent his bow at him, and he retired in terror,
It being evening when he arrived at Erythéa, he
passed the night on a hill called Mount Abas.
Next morning, on his attempting to drive off the
cattle, he was furiously attacked by Géryon’s dog
Orthrus: the herdsman Eurftion came to the
assistance of his dog, but both were slain by the
hero, who drove off the purple oxen. Géryon,
having been informed by Pluto’s herdsman of what
had taken place, pursued the robber, and came up
with him as he was driving the cattle along the
banks of the river Anthemus (Flowery), where
attacking him he was slain by his arrows. Hér-
cules then placing the oxen in the cup, sailed with
. them over to Tartessus, where. he returned his

Y

me
HERCULES. 129

vessel to the Sun-god. He drove his cattle through
Spain and Italy, and at length delivered them to
Eurystheus.

The eleventh task, was to fetch the apples of the
Hespérides, which grew in the country of the
Hyperbéreans, where they were guarded by an
enormous serpent, and by the Hespérides (West-
ern Maids), the daughters of Night. These apples
were of gold; they had been given by Earth to
Juno on her wedding-day.

Heércules, uncertain in what country the golden
apples were to be found, roamed on till he came
to the river Eridanus, where he met the nymphs, .
who were the daughters of Jiipiter and Themis.
By them he was directed to the sea-god Nereus,
and told how to proceed in order to obtain an
answer from him. He found Nereus asleep, and
bound him as he lay. On awaking, the Sea-god
changed himself into a variety of forms ; but Hér-
cules held him fast, and would not let him go till
he had told himwhere the appleswere. His journey
lay through Libya (Africa), and as he was pur-
suing it he came to the country over which An-
teeus, a son of Neptune and Earth, reigned. He
was challenged to wrestle by Anteeus, whom he
threw several times ; till finding that he rose each
130 HERCULES.

time from the ground with renewed vigour (reno-
vated by the touch of his mother), he held him in
his arms and squeezed him to death. |

He came next to Egypt, where a king named
Busiris, who sacrificed all strangers that arrived
in the country, then reigned. Hércules let him-
self be seized and led to the altar; then bursting
the cords which held him, he slew Busiris, his son
and his herald.

In Arabia he killed Améthion the son of Au-
réra and Tithdénus; when he came to the eastern
extremity of Libya the Sun-god again lent him his
radiant cup, in which he sailed to where Promé-
theus lay chained on the rock. He shot with his
arrows the vulture which preyed on the Titan’s
liver, and set him at liberty. At length he arrived
at the country of the Hyperbdreans; and by the
advice of Prométheus he went to Atlas, and offered
to support the heavens for him if he would go and.
pluck the apples. Atlas did as required; and Hér-
cules then pretending that he wanted to make a
pad to put on his head, Atlas threw down the
apples and resumed his burden. The hero picked
up the apples and went away. Eurystheus, having
seen them, gave them back to him, and he pre-
sented them to Minerva.
HERCULES. 131

The twelfth and last task, was to bring to the
light Cérberus the dog of Pluto. Before under-
taking this most perilous adventure, Hércules
went to Eleusis, and was initiated in the mysteries
by Eumolpus. He then proceeded to Tee’narum
in Laconia, where there was an entrance to the
under-world and went down. At the sight of him
all the shades fled away in terror. Arrived at the
gate of Pluto’s palace, he found Theseus and his
friend Pirithoiis sitting on the enchanted rock,
where they had been placed by Pluto. They im-
plored his aid, and he took Theseus by the hand
and raised him up; but when he would do the same
for his friend, the earth quaked, and he left him.

As it was requisite that he should give the
shades blood to drink, he killed one of Pluto’s
oxen for that purpose. Mencetius their keeper
immediately began to wrestle with him ; but Hér-
cules flung him and broke his ribs, and would have
killed him but for the entreaties of Prdserpine.
Pluto then gave him leave to take Cérberus if he
could without wounding or injuring him ; and the
hero, grasping him in his arms, carried him after
a long struggle to the upper-world. After having
shown the dog to Eurystheus, he a him
back to his master.
132 HERCULES.

His tasks being all accomplished, he now re-
turned to Thebes. But soon afterwards he again
fell into madness, and in a paroxysm killed one of
his friends named I'phitus. Being seized with sick-
ness in consequence of this deed, he consulted the
oracle, and was told that it could only be removed
by his suffering himself to be sold as a slave
for three years. Accordingly Mércury, leading
him to Lydia, sold him to O'mphale, queen of that
country. Itis said that the Lydian queen clad her
illustrious slave in female habiliments, and set him
to spin with the distaff and spindle, while she
arrayed herself in the lion’s skin and carried the
club. \\

After the expiration of his servitude he col-
lected a fleet, and took his long-threatened ven-
geance on Ladmedon king of Troy. He took the
town, killed the king and all his sons but Priam,
and gave Hesfone to his comrade Télamon,
Shortly afterwards he took a similar vengeance on
Adgeas king of Elis, and set his friend Phyleus on
the throne,

Hercules, after his expedition to Troy, went, at
the call of Minerva, to aid the Gods in their pe-
rilous conflict with the Giants on the plain of Phle-
gra (Burning).
HERCULES, 133

Earth, it is said, incensed at the defeat of the
Titans, brought forth the Giants. They were of
enormous size, with terrific visages, and snake-
feet. In the battle they hurled huge rocks and
burning trees against heaven. The gods believing
that they could not destroy them without the aid
of a mortal, Jupiter summoned Hercules to his
assistance. The hero slew Halcyoneus, the great-
est of the Giants, with his arrows, and despatched
the others as fast as they were wounded by the
Gods. The Giants were put to flight; and as
Encéladus, one of the principal among them, was
flying, Minerva flung the isle of Sicily a-top of
hin.

But Earth now mingled with Tartarus, and
produced the monstrous Typhon, the direst of her
offspring. His stature reached the stars; with
one hand he touched the East, with the other the
West; his feet were snakes; feathers covered his
body; his hair and beard streamed in the blast ;
fire flashed from his eyes. The Gods in dismay
fled into Egypt, and concealed themselves under
the forms of various animals. Jupiter however at
length vanquished the monster, and whelmed him
beneath Mount Aitna, which thenceforth emitted
flames.

N
134 HERCULES.

Hearing of the beauty of Deianeira, daughter of
(Eneus king of Célydon, Hércules resolved to seek
her hand. His rival was the river-god Acheldiis,
with whom he was to contend for the maiden. In
the combat between them, Acheldiis changed him-
self into a variety of forms ; and while he was under
that of a bull, the hero tore off one of his horns,
and he had to redeem it by giving him that of
Amalthéa, called the Horn of Plenty, which pro-
duced everything that its owner desired.

As he was departing from Cdlydon with hig
bride, he came to the river Evénus, which was
deep and rapid. The Centaur Nessus, who had
taken up his abode there, and used to carry people
across, offered to take Deianeira over. Heércules
consented ; but when he had reached the other
side, he heard the screams of his wife, to whom
the Centaur was offering volence. He drew his
bow, and shot Nessus; who, when dying, told
Deianeira to keep the blood which flowed from
his wound, as a charm by which she could always
recover the affection of her husband.

Hercules had long meditated vengeance on Eii-
rytus king of Cichalia, who had refused to give

him his daughter I'ola after he had won her by
‘ shooting with the bow. He now collected an
HERCULES. 135

army and invaded his country. Eurytus and his
sons were slain, and Iola was made a captive.
Wishing to offer a sacrifice, Hércules sent to his
wife for a splendid tunic to wear; and Deianeira,
hearing of the beauty of I'ola, tinged the one which
she sent with the blood of Nessus. Heércules
arrayed himself, and prepared to sacrifice; but
as the tunic warmed, the effect of the hydra’s
blood began to appear. He endeavoured to tear
it off, but the flesh came with it. In his rage he
seized Lichas, who had brought it to him, by the
foot, and flung him into the sea. Finding death
inevitable, he caused himself to be conveyed from
the isle of Eubcea, where he then was, over to
Mount (Eta. Deianeira, when she perceived what
she had done, hanged herself; and the hero,
causing a pyre to be constructed, lay down upon
it, and desired his friends to set fire to it. All
refused to obey: but Poeas, the father of Philo-
ctétes, happening to come that way in search of his
cattle, did as Hércules desired, and received his
bow and arrows as a reward. While the pyre was
flaming, a thunder-cloud conveyed the sufferer to
heaven, where he was endowed with immortality,
and espoused Hebe the daughter of Juno, who
was at length reconciled to him. | |
136 THESEUS.

CHAPTER VII.
THESEUS.

Tuxsevs was the son of Egeus king of Athens,
by Athra daughter of Pittheus king of Trcezen,
in the Peloponnese. When taking leave of Aithra,
Aigeus put his sword and shoes under a large stone,
and told her if her child should be a boy, to send
him to Athens as soon as he was able to roll away
the stone and take them from under it.

When Theseus had nearly attained manhood,
his mother led him to the stone, and he lifted it
with ease. He was now to set out for Athens ;
and his grandfather counselled him, as the land-
journey was dangerous, to go by sea; but the
young hero was not to be daunted by perils, and
he persisted in going by land.

The first danger he encountered was at Epi-
daurus, where a man called from his weapon the
Club-bearer resided: he was the terror of all
passengers, as he lived by robbery. Seeing The-
seus approach, he advanced to attack him: but
he fell beneath the blows of the hero, who ever
afterwards bore the club as a memorial of his first
. Victory.
THESEUS, 137

At the Isthmus of Corinth he found a man named
Sinis, called also the Pine-bender, from being able
to take pine-trees by the head and bend them to
the ground. He obliged all passers-by to attempt
the same feat ; and if they failed, hung them upon
the trees. Theseus bent down the pines with ease,
and then hung Sinis from the boughs. In this
neighbourhood he also killed a huge sow which
did great mischief to the inhabitants.

On the narrow road overhanging the sea, on the
way to Mégara, dwelt a man named Sciron. His
practice was to make strangers wash his feet on
the edge of the pass, and while thus engaged to
give them a kick into the sea, where .a huge tor-
toise waited to devour them. Theseus, however,
threw Sciron himself down, and made the passage
free.

At Eleusis dwelt Cércyon the son of Neptune,
who forced all strangers to wrestle with him, and
killed them when vanquished. Theseus paid him
in his own coin.

- On the banks of the Cephissus he met a man
named Damastes, called the Stretcher (Procrustes)
on the following account :—He had two iron bed-
steads, one long and the other short. When a
stranger came to him who happened to be short,
138 THESEUS.

he took him to the long bed, and pulled him to
make him fit, he said, till life had left him. If
the stranger should be tall, he gave him the short
bed, and cut so much off him as reduced him to
the same length with it. Theseus also punished
him as he deserved. |

All the perils of the road being surmounted, he
arrived at Athens, where Medéa the Colchian en-
chantress was living with Ageus. By her insi-
nuations the king conceived such suspicions of the
young stranger, that he was handing him a cup of
poison when the sword which he bore attracted
his attention, and he recognised and acknowledged
his son. Medéa fled to Colchis in her winged
chariot. |

The Marathonian bull was at this time com-
mitting great ravages, and Theseus resolved to
deliver the country of him. He went to Mara-
thon, caught the bull, and having exhibited him
in chains to the astonished people, offered him in
sacrifice to his protecting goddess Pallas-Athéna.

The Athenians were at this time in great afflic-
tion on account of the annual tribute which they
were obliged to pay to Minos king of Crete. The
cause of it was this:—Andrdgeiis, son of Minos,
' having come to the public games at Athens, where
THESEUS. 139

he vanquished all his competitors, Migeus, jealous
of his success, laid an ambush for him as he was
going to Thebes, and had him slain. To avenge
his son, Minos invaded Attica with a large fleet
and army. Athens was reduced by famine ; and
the terms imposed by Minos were, that seven
youths and as many maidens of the most beautiful
which Athens contained should be sent every seven
years to Crete, to be devoured by a monster named
the Minotaur, the offspring of Pasiphae, Minos’s
queen, and the bull sent out of the sea by Nep-
tune.

The third year was now arrived, and the youths
and maids were departing amid the tears of their
parents and friends, when Theseus resolved to go
and either be one of the victims or deliver his
country from the odious tribute. Ageus, having
vainly attempted to prevent his departure, charged
him, if successful, to change to white on his return
the black sails under which the ship departed.
On arriving in Crete, the Athenian youths and
maidens were, as usual, led before the king, whose
daughter, Ariadne, instantly conceived a violent
affection for Theseus. She furnished the hero
with a clue of thread, which enabled him to trace
with safety the mazes of the labyrinth in which
140 THESEUS,

the Minotaur lay; and having slain the monster,
he and his companions made their escape from
it and got on ship-board. Ariadne accompanied
their flight; but in the isle of Naxos, Minerva
appeared to Theseus in a dream, and desired him
to set sail and leave the princess asleep on the
Shore. Onawaking and finding herself abandoned,
Ariadne was filled with despair and wept bitterly ;
but Venus appeared and consoled her: Bacchus
soon after made her his bride, and Jupiter be-
stowed on her immortality,

Theseus pursuing his voyage arrived off the
coast of Attica; but having forgotten to change
his sails, his anxious father, who spent each day
upon a cliff looking out to sea, thinking that his
son had perished, flung himself down from it into
the sea, which was named from him the Aigéan.

Theseus was at the Calydonian hunt and on the
Argonautic expedition, and he accompanied Hér-
cules to the country of the A'mazons. In the
engagement with these female-warriors, Theseus
distinguished himself so much that Héreules gave
him Antiope, the sister of Hippdlyta, by whom
he had a son named Hippdlytus, a youth of the
fairest promise and most virtuous mind,

The Athenian hero was the intimate friend ot
THESEUS. 14]

Pirithous, king of the Lapiths; yet their friend-
ship had commenced in the midst of arms. Piri-
thoiis once made an irruption into the plain of
Marathon, and drove off the herds of the king of
Athens. Theseus, hearing of what had happened,
hastened to the rescue; but the moment Pirt-
thoiis beheld the Athenian prince, he was seized
wih secret admiration: he stretched out his hand
as a token of peace, and cried, “ Be judge thyself
—What satisfaction dost thou require?” ‘ Thy
friendship,” replied the Athenian: and they swore
inviolable fidelity. Their deeds corresponded to
their professions, and they ever continued true
brothers in arms. Each of them wished to
espouse a daughter of Jupiter. Theseus fixed
his choice on Helen, then but a child; and with
the aid of his friend he carried her off. Pirithoiis
aspired to the wife of the monarch of Erebus;
and Theseus, though aware of the danger, ac-
companied the ambitious lover in his descent to
the under-world; but Pluto seized and set them
on an enchanted rock at his palace-gate, where
they remained till Hércules arrived and liberated
Theseus.

Theseus was married to Pheedra, the sister of
Ariadne; and Venus inspired this princess with
142 THESEUS.

an unhappy passion for the son of the Amazon.
During the absence of her husband she made
known her feelings to their object, but the vir-
tuous youth repelled her advances with indig-
nation. Filled with fear and hate, on the return
of Theseus she accused his innocent son of an
attempt on her honour. Without inquiry, the
blinded prince banished his son; and calling to
mind that Neptune had promised him the accom-
plishment of any wish he should form, implored
the god to destroy him. As Hippdlytus, on lea-
ving Troezen, where they then were, was driving
his chariot along the shore of the sea, there issued
from it a huge monster, which terrified his horses so
that he lost all command over them. They dashed
the chariot to pieces against the rocks, and dragged
their hapless master along entangled in the reins,
till life abandoned him. Theseus, when too late,
learned the innocence of his son,—and Pheedra
ended her days by her own hand.

In his old days Theseus was banished from
Athens. He retired to the isle of Scyros, where
his friend Lycomédes reigned. Here, as he one
day mounted a lofty rock, with his host, to take
a view of the island, he either fell or was pushed
down by his companion, and lost his life in the fall.
PROCNE AND PHILOMELA. 143

CHAPTER VIII.

PrRocNE AND PHILOMELA. CEPHALUS AND
Procris. Nisus AND SCYLLA.

In the time of Pandion, one of its early kings,
Attica was invaded by a fleet and army of barba-
rians. Tereus, the son of Mars and king of Thrace,
came to aid the Athenians, and by their united
arms the invaders were put to flight. Pandion
bestowed his daughter Procne in marriage on his
valiant ally; and Tereus departed with his bride,
and returned to Thrace.

After five years, Procne felt an earnest longing
to see her sister Philoméla; and she prevailed on
her husband to make a voyage to Athens, and en-
deavour to persuade her father to let her come
and spend some time in Thrace. ‘Tereus, on
beholding the beauty of his sister-in-law, fell
violently in love with her; and on their arriving
in Thrace, instead of conveying her to his palace,
brought her to a remote farm-house in the woods,
and there gratified his wicked passion. To pre-
vent her disclosing what had happened, he cut out
the tongue of his innocent victim. His wife he
deceived by a false tale of the death of her sister,
144 PROCNE AND PHILOMELA.

Procne put on mourning for her whom she be-
lieved to be dead, and Tereus deemed his secret
secure.

The hapless Philoméla meantime employed her-
self in weaving a web, in which she pictured her
story. This web she sent to her sister, who at
once understood what it was designed to tell. It
was now the season when the triennial rites of
Bacchus were celebrated by the women of Thrace,
to whose cries the mountains resounded as they
ran about covered with fawn-skins, crowned with
ivy, and swinging their ¢hyrst or vine-wreathed
spears. Procne, taking advantage of the season,
went to the place where her sister was confined,
and putting on her the ivy and fawn-skin of a
Bacchante, brought her to the palace. She then
killed her own son Itys, and served up the flesh
for his father to feed on. When Tereus had con-
cluded his meal he called for his son; Philoméla
then rushed from an adjoining room, and flung
down the head of Itys before his face. The two
sisters fled pursued by Tereus with his drawn
sword. All three were changed by the Gods into
birds ;—Procne became a swallow, Philoméla a
nightingale, and Tereus a hoopoe.
CEPHALUS AND PROCRIS. 145

Erechtheus, the successor of Pandion, gave his
daughter Procris in marriage to Céphalus, a Thes-
salian prince. They long lived in perfect concord
and happiness. At length Procris, hearing that
her husband, who was passionately fond of the
chase, was in the habit of retiring, when exhausted
by heat and fatigue, to the shady covert of the
woods, and crying aloud ‘Come, Aura (dir) !”
she fancied that Aura must be the name of some
nymph with whom he was enamoured. Filled
with jealousy she went to the designated spot, and
concealed herself in a thicket ; and when Cépha-
lus as usual cried “‘ Come, Aura!” Procris made a
rustling among the leaves. Céphalus, thinking it
must be some wild beast, flung his never-failing
dart—a gift of Procris herself—and pierced the
bosom of his beloved wife. Procris, when too
late, learned her error; and she died, leaving her
husband overwhelmed with grief.

Procris had also given to her husband a dog of
marvellous fleetness, named Leelaps (Whirlwind).
Thebes being at this time infested by a fox which
nothing could overtake, Céphalus went thither
with his wonderful dart and dog. Leelaps soon ran
the fox down ; but just as he was about to seize
the animal, Jupiter turned them both into stone. -

Oo
146 NISUS AND SCYLLA.

In the war waged by Minos of Crete against
Aigeus king of Athens, to avenge the death of his
son Andrégeiis, the Cretan monarch laid siege to
Mégara, then governed by Nisus, the brother of
Aigeus. On the head of Nisus grew a purple lock
of hair, and as long as it remained uncut, so long
would Mégara be impregnable. The siege had
continued for some time, when Scylla, the daugh-
ter of Nisus, who had become enamoured of Minos,
treacherously stole in the night to her father’s
chamber, and shore him of his strength. She
hastened to the camp of Minos, and boasting of
what she had done, demanded his love; but the
Cretan repelled her with abhorrence, and granted
favourable terms to the town. The gods changed
Scylla into the bird named Ciris, and Nisus into
a sea-eagle, and the father evermore pursues the
daughter to punish her crime.



CHAPTER IX.
Macvus, PeLors, anv THEIR Posteriry.

#'acus was the son of Jupiter by Agina the
daughter of the river-god Asdpus. He abode in
the isle named from his mother. A pestilence
EZACUS, PELOPS, AND THEIR POSTERITY. 147

having swept away all his people, ZE/acus preferred
his prayer to his celestial sire, and the god changed
the ants which abode under an oak-tree into men,
who were thence called Myrmidons, from myrmez
the Greek term for ‘ant.’ After his death, AS'acus
was for his uprightness made one of the judges of
Erebus.

The children of A‘acus were Télamon, Peleus,
and Phocus. The two former having killed their
brother were banished from the island by their
father. Télamon retired to the neighbouring
isle of Sdlamis, the daughter of whose king he
married. He assisted Hercules against Troy, and
was engaged in most expeditions of the time.

Peleus went to Thessaly, where he married the
daughter of Eurftion the son of Actor. At the
Calydonian Hunt he killed his father-in-law
by accident; he was purified of the guilt by
Acastus son of Pélias. The wife of Acastus
having seen him fell in love with him, and when
he rejected her advances she accused him to her
husband of an attempt on her honour. Acastus,
believing her, took him to hunt on Mount Pélion ;
and when Peleus fell asleep, he hid his sword and
left him there, hoping that the Centaurs would slay
him. He was saved from them by Chiron, who

02
148 AACUS, PELOPS, AND THEIR POSTERITY.

then taught him how to win the sea-nymph
Thetis.

Peleus, as instructed, lay in wait for the nymph
and seed her. She in vain changed herself suc-
cessively into fire, water, and a wild beast: he
held her fast, and she was forced to marry him.
The gods honoured the wedding with their pre-
sence, and bestowed their gifts on Peleus.

When Thetis brought forth her first child, the
renowned Achilles, she wished to render him im-
mortal. Every night she placed him in the fire ;
by day she anointed him with ambrosia., But
Peleus, happening to see the babe panting in the
flames, cried out, and the goddess returned to the
sea. She had however made Achilles invulne-
rable, except in the heel, by dipping him in the
river Styx.

Pelops, the son of Tantalus, when the gods, as
has been already related, had restored him to life,
became the favourite of Neptune, who gave him
a chariot and fleet horses to win Hippodami{a,
daughter of CEndmaiis king of Pisa, who had pro-
-mised her in marriage to him who could beat him
in the chariot race. Pelops bribed Myrtilus that
prince’s charioteer to leave out one of the linch-
EACUS, PELOPS, AND THEIR POSTERITY, 149

pins, and CEndémaiis was in consequence flung out
and killed. When Pelops had thus gained the prize,
he sought to defraud Myrtilus of the promised re-
ward, and when he urged him he threw him into
the sea.

The most distinguished of the sons of Pelops
were Pittheus, renowned for wisdom, Atreus, and
Thyestes. Thyestes seduced the wife of Atreus,
who to be revenged, affected to have forgiven him,
and invited him to a feast. The food set before
him was the flesh of his own children, whom Atreus
had slain, and when he had finished his meal the
heads and hands were shown him. The Sun stopt
his chariot in mid-day at this atrocious deed. Thy-
estes fled from his brother to Thesprotia.

Some time afterwards Thyestes violated, with-
out knowing her, his own daughter Pelopia. She
drew his sword and kept it. Atreus soon after
married Pelopfa, and the son whom she had by her
father was given to be exposed; but the herds-
men took pity on him, and reared him on the milk
of a goat (ex), whence he was called Agisthus.
Atreus, hearing he was alive, sent for him, and
acknowledged him for his son.

Having made a prisoner of Thyestes, Atreus
sent Agisthus to put him to death. The sword
150 MACUS, PELOPS, AND THEIR POSTERITY.

he bore was that which Pelopia had taken from
her father. Thyestes recognised it. Pelopia at his
desire came; the deed of darkness was revealed,
and Pelopia in horror plunged the sword into her
own bosom. Aigisthus brought it covered with
blood to Atreus, who thinking the blood to be
that of Thyestes offered a sacrifice to the gods,
and while thus engaged was fallen on and slain by
Thyestes and his son. .

Atreus left two sons, Agamemnon and Mene-
laiis.

CHAPTER X.
Tue Catyponian Hunt.

CEnEus (viny) king of Cdlydon was a prince
greatly devoted to agriculture. At the conclu-
sion of every harvest he made due offerings to
the gods as the authors of his prosperity. On
one of these occasions he inadvertently neglected
Diana; and the goddess, to punish him, sent a
monstrous boar to ravage the lands of Célydon.
As the lands could not be cultivated as long as
the monster lived, Meledger, the gallant son of
the king, proclaimed a general hunt, and invited
HE CALYDONIAN HUNT. 151

to it the most famous heroes of the age. At his
call came Castor and Pollux, the sons of Leda;
and their cousins, Idas renowned for fleetness,
and Lynceus for piercing sight; Télamon and
Peleus, the sons of A’acus; Jason the son of
JEson; Amphiaraiis, the renowned soothsayer ;
Admétus, whom Apollo had served ; Theseus and
his friend Pirithoiis; Laertes, the father of Ulys-
ses ; Nestor of Pylos, and many others. With these
came Atalanta, a fair huntress-maid, from Arcadia.

The hunters, provided with dogs, nets and
spears, proceeded to a densely wooded valley, the
usual haunt of the boar. Having roused him
from his lair, the hunt began. Loud was the
shouting of the men, the baying of the dogs: the
boar rushed like a thunderbolt, and scattered his
foes ; some were wounded, and others killed by his
tusks : Nestor escaped only by climbing a tree. At
length Atalanta drew the first blood, having pierced
the boar in the ear with an arrow. Meledger
transfixed his back with a spear, and then follow-
ing up his success despatched him. He presented
the head and hide of the slain monster to the Ar-
cadian maid of whom he was secretly enamoured.
His uncles, the two sons of Thestius, insolently
took the prize from her, which so incensed Mele-
152 THE CALYDONIAN HUNT,

ager, that he slew them both, and restored the
spoils to the maiden.

At the birth of Meledger, the Fates had come
to the chamber of his mother Althea, and casting
a billet into the fire which burned on the hearth,
said, ‘We give, new-born babe, the same dura-
tion to thee and to the wood.” Altheea instantly
snatched the brand from the flames, and quench-
ing it with water laid it up carefully. But now,
filled with grief and anger for the fate of her bro-
thers, she brought it forth and cast it into the fire.
As it burned, the vigour of Meledger wasted away,
and when it was consumed he lay a corpse. Great
was the grief which overwhelmed the king and
people at the hapless fate of their hero. Altheea
repented when too late, and put an end to her
life; and the sisters of Meledger, grieving without
ceasing, were by the compassion of Didna changed
into birds.

CHAPTER XI.
Tue ArGonavutic ExpepitIon.

Hison, king of Iolcos, in Thessaly, having been
driven from his throne by his half-brother Pélias,
THE ARGONAUTIC EXPEDITION. 153.

committed his infant son Jason to the care of the
Centaur Chiron. Pélias, having consulted the
oracle, was directed to beware of the one-sandaled
man.

Time flowed on, and there was no appearance
of the oracle being fulfilled. At length, Jason,
having arrived at his twentieth year, secretly left
the mountain-cave of the Centaur, and proceeded
to Iolcos to claim his rights. As he was crossing
the rapid river Anauros, he lost one of his sandals,
and was obliged to proceed without it. He ar-
rived at length in the market-place of Iolcos,
where all the people gazed on him with amaze-
ment, doubting whether he was not a god; and
Pélias, who happened to come by at the time,
shuddered when he saw that he had but one san-
dal. Jason went to the house of his father, and
thither his uncles and cousins came to meet him ;
and after feasting for the space of five days, they
accompanied him to the dwelling of Pélias, who
agreed to resign the kingdom to him, on condition
that he would sail to Colchis and fetch home the
Golden Fleece.

The story of the Golden Fleece was this.—.
Athamas, a prince of Beétia, was married to
Néphela (Cloud), by whom he had two children,
154 THE ARGONAUTIC EXPEDITION.

named Phrixus and Helle. On the death of Né-
phela he married Ino the daughter of Cadmus,
who, jealous of her step-children, resolved to de-
Stroy them. She accordingly persuaded the wo-
men to parch the seed-corn unknown to their
husbands, The land consequently yielded no
increase ; and when the oracle was consulted, Ino
bribed the messengers to say that the evil could
only be removed by sacrificing Phrixus to J upiter,
Athamas reluctantly placed his son before the
altar; but Néphela suddenly snatched away both
her son and daughter, and placing them on a gold-
fleeced ram, which had been given her by Hermes,
and which, like the celestial steeds, could run
through the air or along the water, directed them
to fly to Colchis. They reached in safety the strait
between Europe and Asia; but here Helle, through
fright or giddiness, fell off and was drowned, and
the sea was named from her, Héllespont (Helle’s
Sea). Phrixus pursued his journey till he arrived
at Colchis, where he was kindly received by king
Aiétes, who gave him his daughter Calciope in
marriage. Phrixus sacrificed his ram to J upiter,
and Ai¢tes nailed the Golden Fleece to an oak in
the grove of Mars, where it was guarded by a
serpent,
THE ARGONAUTIC EXPEDITION. 195

Jason undertook the adventure ; and Argus the
son of Phrixus built for him, with the aid of
Minerva, a fifty-oared ship, named from himself,
the Argo. In her prow Minerva placed a plank
cut from the speaking oak at Doddéna.

The expedition was proclaimed throughout
Greece, and every hero who panted for fame has-
tened to share in it. The number of the heroes was
fifty ; the most distinguished among whom were
Hercules, Theseus, Castor and Pollux, Télamon
and Peleus, Admétus, Idas and Lynceus, Laertes,
Amphiaraiis, Zetes and Calais, Polyphémus, Aii-
geas, Poeas, Meledger, and the fair maid Atalanta.
Orpheus was soothsayer, Aisculdpius surgeon, and
Tiphys pilot. The heroes were named Argonauts
from their ship.

All things being prepared, and the sacrifices
having proved favourable, they got on board
and put to sea. The first land at which they
touched was the isle of Lemnos, where the women
had lately murdered all the men, Hypsipyla their
queen having alone saved her father Thoas. The
Argonauts were hospitably entertained by the
Lemnian women, and after stopping a few days
they again put to sea.

On arriving at the coast of Mysia they went
156 THE ARGONAUTIC EXPEDITION.

ashore ; and here a beautiful youth named Hylas,
a favourite of Hercules, having gone toa spring to
draw water, was seized, as he stooped to dip his
urn, by its nymphs, who were enamoured of his
beauty, and dragged down into it. Polyphémus,
hearing his cries, and thinking he was assailed by
robbers, drew his sword and went to his aid. Her-
cules followed, but Hylas was nowhere to be found,
and while they were engaged in searching for him,
the Argo departed, leaving them behind.

The Argonauts next arrived at Bebrfcia, where
A'mycus, a son of Neptune, reigned. It was the
custom of this prince to make all strangers who
arrived in his country engage with him in the
combat of the cestus. On perceiving the Argo,
he came down to the shore, and challenged the
heroes. Pollux, who was renowned as a pugilist,
was deputed by his companions to act as their
champion, and he terminated the combat by the
death of the Bebrycian prince. The subjects of
Amycus fell on the victor; but his companions
came to his aid, and the Bebrycians were repelled
with great loss.

Sailing thence they came to Salmydessus, on
the European coast, where Phineus the prophet
prince dwelt in blindness and in misery. He had
THE ARGONAUTIC EXPEDITION. 157

married the daughter of the wind-god Béreas and
Oreithyia, who bore him two sons. On her death
he married Idea, the daughter of Dardanus, who,
jealous of her step-sons, maligned them fo their
father. The credulous prince, believing the ca-
lumny, deprived his innocent children of sight ;
and the gods, to punish him, struck him blind,
and sent the Harpies to torment him. These were
monsters, with the faces of women, and the bodies,
wings and tails of birds, greedy, ravenous, and
filthy. As soon as food was set before the un-
happy prince, the Harpies came on the wing,
snatched and devoured a portion of the viands,
and so defiled the remainder, that no mortal could
endure to touch them.

The heroes, having gone on shore, proceeded
to the palace of Phineus, to consult him as to
their further course. He promised to give them
ample directions, provided they would deliver him
from the Harpies. They undertook the task: the
tables were spread forthwith, and the viands laid
as for a banquet: instantly the clapping of wings
was heard, and the Harpies descended and began
their usual work of destruction. Zetes and Calais,
the winged sons of Béreas, drew their swords, and
attacked the feathered monsters; the Harpies

P
158 THE ARGONAUTIC EXPEDITION.

rose in the air, the sons of the Wind-god spread
their pinions, and pursued them; the chase con-
tinued, over the sea and Greece, to the islands
named Strdéphades, beyond the Peloponnésus.
Here at length the Béreads came up with the
Harpies and seized them; but on their swearing
never more to molest Phineus, the captors gave
them their liberty and returned to join their com-
panions. .

Phineus now joyfully instructed his deliverers
how to pursue their course in safety to Colchis,
and they once more put to sea. They soon reached
the entrance of the Euxine; and here they en-
countered the greatest danger they had to meet.
This was the rocks named Symplégades (Knockers-
together), which floated about, and as they were
driven by the wind crushed everything that came
between them: they were always enveloped in
mist ; dreadful was the crush when they met ;
and even the birds could not then pass through.
Phineus had told the Argonauts to let fly a pi-
geon, and to mark if she came safely through, for
in that case the Argo might venture to follow.
They did as directed; the pigeon passed through
with the loss of her tail; as the rocks receded,
the Argo, urged by oar and sail, and aided by
THE ARGONAUTIC EXPEDITION. 159

Juno, boldly rushed on, and escaped with some
damage to her stern-works. The rocks now be-
came fixed, for so it was fated to be when a ship
had passed through uninjured.

After a prosperous course along the Asiatic
coast, the Argo entered the river Phasis in Col-
chis. Jason lost no time in informing king Ai¢tes
of the cause of his coming; and that monarch
readily consented to his taking the Golden Fleece
back to Greece, provided he could perform the
necessary conditions. These were, to yoke to a
plough the brass-footed fire-breathing bulls which
Vulcan had given to Aiétes; to plough with them
a piece of land; to sow in it the teeth of the ser-
pent slain by Cadmus, a part of which Minerva
had brought to Aiétes ; and, finally, to overcome
the armed crop which would spring up.

Jason was in great perplexity when he found
the dangers and difficulties which he had to en-
counter ; but Juno and Fortune stood his friends.
Medéa, the daughter of the king, a potent en-
chantress, fell in love with him the instant she
beheld hims and on his promising to marry her,
and take her with him to Greece, engaged to
give him her assistance. She accordingly gave
him a salve to rub his body, shield and spear,

P 2
160 THE ARGONAUTIC EXPEDITION.

which would preserve them against fire during an
entire day. Thus prepared he boldly entered the
grove of Mars, where the bulls were feeding :—~
uninjured by the flames which they respired, he
seized and yoked them. He ploughed the field
and sowed the serpent’s teeth: up sprang. a crop
of armed men, who with protruded spears ad-
vanced to attack him. Following the advice of
Medéa, he threw stones among them ; they turned
their arms against each other; and as they were
fighting, the hero fell upon and slew them. The
tasks were thus accomplished ; but Ai¢tes refused
to give the Fleece, and even formed a plan for
burning the Argo and slaughtering her crew. But
Medéa led Jason by night to the oak on which
hung the Golden Fleece: with her magic drugs
she charmed to sleep the serpent which guarded
it; then taking her little brother Absyrtus with
her, ascended the Argo with Jason, and the ship
was soon at sea.

With morning dawn Aiétes, finding the Argo
gone, and at the same time missing his daughter,
was filled with rage. He instantly got on ship-
board and pursued the fugitives. When Medéa
saw him approaching, she laid hold on her brother,
killed him, cut his body into pieces, and scattered
THE ARGONAUTIC EXPEDITION, 161

them on the waves; and while Aidtes was engaged
in collecting them the Argo escaped. The king
returned to bury his son. He sent a part of his
subjects in pursuit of his unnatural daughter,
threatening to inflict on them the punishment due
to her if they returned without her.

It is uncertain in what manner the Argonauts
came round to the Mediterranean, through which
they returned to Greece. Some say they sailed up
the Phasis, down the Ocean-stream to the coast
of Libya, over which they carried the Argo to the
Mediterranean ; others, that they went from the
Ocean up the Nile. Others, again, hold, that
they went up the Tanais, and so into the north-
ern part of the Ocean, and round by the straits
of Gades. Another set of writers maintain, that
their course was up the Ister or Danube, an@ that
they carried the Argo overland to the Eridanus,
down which they sailed into the Keltic or Tyrrhe-
nian sea. |

As the Argonauts were sailing by the Absyrtian
islands they were assailed by a storm ; and the
Argo spoke, and told them that the wrath of Ju-
piter would not be appeased till they went to
Ausonia and were purified by Circe from the guilt
of the murder of Absyrtus.
162 THE ARGONAUTIC EXPEDITION.

By Circe, who was aunt to Medéa, they were
kindly received. Leaving her island they passed
by that of the Sirens, against whom Orpheus sang.
They escaped Scylla and Charybdis, and at length
reached Scheria, the isle of the Pheeacians. Here
Jason married Medéa. They sailed thence to
Crete, where their landing was opposed by Talos
the brazen man, but Medéa by her art caused his
death. After an absence of four months, the
Argo at length arrived safely at Tolcos.

During the absence of Jason, Pélias had caused
the death of his father and mother and their re-
maining child. Jason concealed his resentment
for the time, and delivered to him the precious
Fleece ; but he secretly committed his vengeance
to his potent wife. Medéa used every art to in-
gratifte herself with the daughters of Pélias, whom
she assured that she possessed the secret of re-
storing youth tothe aged. To convince them, she
cut up an old ram, put him into a pot with some
magic herbs, and forth came a bleating lamb.
The silly maidens at her persuasion killed their
father in order to renovate his youth; but their
treacherous adviser deserted them, and thus Pélias
perished.

For this deed, both Jason and Medéa were
THE ARGONAUTIC EXPEDITION. 163

forced to go into exile. They retired to Corinth,
where they lived happily, till Jason, falling in love
with Creii’sa the daughter of the king, put Medéa
away and espoused that princess. Medéa dissem-
bled her rage, and sent a splendid robe as a pre-
sent to the bride; but the robe was poisoned, and
caused the death of both Creii'sa and her father.
She then put to death the two children whom she
had borne to Jason; and mounting her chariot
drawn by serpents fled to Athens, where she mar-
ried Ageus, to whom she bore a son named Medus.
Having failed in an attempt on the life of Theseus
she fled to Colchis, and her son became the con-
queror of the country, which he named from him-
self Media.

CHAPTER XII.
Tur THeBan Wars.

WueEn his daughter Eurdpa had been carried off
by Jupiter, Agénor despatched his son Cadmus
in quest of her, ordering him never to return till
he had found her. Having searched in vain over
land and sea, Cadmus went to inquire of the
oracle at Delphi. The god directed him to give
164 THE THEBAN WARS,

over the search, to follow a cow as his guide, and
build a town where she should lie down. Quitting
the temple he went through Phocis, and meeting
there a cow followed her along the valley. His
guide went on through the future Boedtia, and at
length lay down. Cadmus prepared to offer her
in sacrifice to Minerva, his protecting deity, and
sent some of his companions to a neighbouring
fount to draw water for that purpose. The fount
was guarded by a serpent sacred to Mars, who
killed the greater part of them. Cadmus then
went himself, and after a severe conflict destroyed
the serpent. By the direction of Minerva he
sowed in the ground the teeth of the dead mon-
ster, and instantly there arose a crop of armed
men, who prepared to attack him. Minerva de-
sired him to fling stones among them :—they in-
stantly turned their arms against each other, and
all perished but five. These joined with Cadmus
to build the town which was named Thebes, and
their posterity were called the Sparti, i.e. the
Sown.

Cadmus espoused Harmdnia the daughter of
Mars and Venus. The gods honoured the wed-
ding with their presence. He presented his bride
with a robe, and a golden collar the work of Vul-
THE THEBAN WARS. 165

can; and she became the mother of four daugh-
ters, Sémele, Agave, Ino, and Autdnoe, whose fates
have been already related; and of a son named
Polyddorus.

In his old age, Cadmus, in consequence of the
- misfortunes of his family, abandoned Thebes, and
he and his wife retired to the country of the En-
chéleans near Illyria. Here Jupiter turned them
both into serpents, and finally sent them to the
Elysian Plain to enjoy an eternity of bliss.

Laius, the third in descent from Cadmus, on
mounting the throne married Jocasta the daughter
of Menceceus, one of the Sparti. The oracle, on
being consulted, told him he should meet his
death from the hand of his own son. Accordingly,
when a child was born to him, he took the inno-
cent babe, and piercing its heels gave it to one of
his herdsmen to expose on Mount Citheron; but
the herdsman, moved to compassion, gave it to the
neatherd of Pélybus king of Corinth, who brought
it to his master. Pdélybus, who was childless,
reared the infant as his son, and named it CE’dipus,
2. e. Swoln-foot.

When Ci'dipus was grown up, it chanced one
day that at a banquet some one reproached him
with being a supposititious child. He besought
166 THE THEBAN WARS.

his mother to inform him of the truth, but she
would give him no satisfaction. To clear his
doubts, he had recourse to the oracle of Apollo;
and the god directed him to shun his native coun-
try, or he should be the slayer of his father and
the husband of his mother. He forthwith re-
solved never to return to Corinth, where as he
thought such crimes awaited him, and he directed
his course through Phocis. Here in a narrow road
he chanced to meet an old man and a herald dri-
ving in a chariot, and on his refusing to make way
for them the herald killed one of his horses.
Filled with rage he slew both the strangers, and
then pursued his journey.

(E'dipus some time afterwards came to Thebes,
where, Laéius being now dead, the throne was
occupied by Creon the son of Menceceus. The
Thebans were at this time greatly afflicted by a
monster called the Sphinx. She had the face of a
woman, the breast, feet and tail of a lion, and the
wings of a bird. She sat on a hill, and proposed a
riddle to the people; and when they failed to an-
swer it, she carried off and devoured one of them.
Her riddle was this : ‘‘ What is that which has one
voice, is four-footed, two-footed, and at last three-
footed ?’? Creon offered his throne and the hand
THE THEBAN WARS. 167

of his sister Jocasta to whoever could solve it.
(E'dipus, hearing of such a reward, came forward
and told the Sphinx that it was a man ; who when
an infant creeps on all-fours, when a man goes on
two feet, and when old uses a staff—a third foot.
The Sphinx cast herself down from the rock and
was killed; and (E'dipus became the husband of
Jocasta and king of Thebes. Jocasta bore him
two sons, Etéocles and Polynices ; ; and two
daughters, Antigone and Isméne. Ye

After some years Thebes was afflicted with
famine and pestilence; and the oracle, on being
applied to, directed the land to be purged of the
blood that defiled it. Inquiry was set on foot;
and a variety of concurring circumstances proved
that CE'dipus was the child of Laius which had
been exposed, that the old man whom he had
killed was Laius, and that thus unwittingly he
had committed the two great crimes allotted to
him by Fate. On this discovery being made, Jo-
casta terminated her existence by a cord, and her
wretched son and husband in his despair put out
his own eyes. He was banished from Thebes, and
accompanied by his daughters wandered about till
he came to the grove of the Euménides at Cold-
168 THE THEBAN WARS.

nos, near Athens, and here his unhappy life ter-
minated in a miraculous manner.

The sons of Ci’dipus agreed to reign year and
year about. Etéocles, as the elder, first ascended
the throne; but at the expiration of the year he
refused to resign it to his brother. Polynices,
taking with him the robe and collar of Harmonia,
fled to Argos to seek the aid of its king Adrastus.
It was night when he arrived before the palace-
gate; and there he met another stranger, Tydeus
the son of Eneus, from AStolia. A quarrel arose
between them ; the noise brought forth Adrastus,
who when he looked on the strangers beheld the
accomplishment of an oracle which had been given
him—namely, that he should marry his daughters
to a lion and a bear ; for such were the ensigns on
the shields of the combatants. He gave them his
daughters in marriage, and engaged to restore
each of them to his country.

The Theban expedition was the first resolved
on, and all the valiant chiefs of the country were
invited to share in it, One of the most important
persons was Amphiardiis, the brother-in-law of
Adrastus, and a celebrated soothsayer ; but know-
ing by his art that Adrastus alone would escape
THE THEBAN WARS. 169

from the war, he refused to share in it. It having
been agreed between him and Adrastus, that when-
ever there should be a difference in their opinions,
he would be decided by the advice of his wife
Eriphyle, Polynices was advised, if possible, to
gain her over to his side. He presented her with
the collar of Harmonia, and Amphiardiis with a
sorrowing heart led forth his troops. Ere he de-
parted, he charged his sons to avenge his death, if
it should occur, on their mother.

The army marched under the conduct of seven
chiefs, Adrastus, Amphiaraiis, Capaneus, and Hip-
pomedon, Argives; the Arcadian Parthenopzeus
the son of Atalanta; the Atolian Tydeus, and
the Theban Polynices. They passed the Isthmus
and encamped on the banks of the Asdpus at the
foot of Mount Citheron. Here they despatched
Tydeus as an envoy to Thebes, to demand the
restitution of the rights of Polynices. He chal-
lenged the Thebans to a trial of skill and strength,
and vanquished them with ease. As he returned,
they laid an ambush of fifty men for him, all of
whom save one he slew.

The Argive host appeared before Thebes. Each
chief chose one of its seven gates as the object of
his attack ; Etéocles set as many in number to op-

Q
170 THE THEBAN WARS,

pose them. Tirésias the Theban seer declared
that victory would fall to Thebes, if Menceceus
the son of Creon offered himself a voluntary vic-
tim ; and the heroic youth slew himself before one
of the gates. The fight began, and the Thebans
were driven back into the town. Cdpaneus placed
a ladder against the wall, and was mounting it, when
Jupiter to punish his impious language, struck him
with a thunderbolt. The Argives fell back, and
many were slain. It was now agreed that the two
brothers should decide their quarrel by single
combat. They joyfully accepted the proposal, and
fought with such animosity that they perished by
mutual wounds. On their fall the battle was re-
newed, and victory declared for the Thebans.
The Argive leaders were all slain except Adrastus,
who escaped by the fleetness of his steed Arion.
Tydeus being wounded, Minerva was hastening
with a medicine to his relief; but Amphiaraiis, who
hated him as a chief cause of the war, cut off the
head of Melanippus the Theban, who had given
him his wound, and brought it tohim. The savage
warrior opened it and devoured the brain, and the
goddess withdrew in disgust. As Amphiardiis fled
in his chariot along the banks of the Isménus,
Jupiter launched a thunderbolt; and the ground
THE THEBAN WARS, 171

opening engulphed him, his chariot, and his cha-
rioteer.

Creon, who was now king, forbade the bodies of
the Argives to be buried. Antigone, despising his
menaces, gave sepulture to the remains of Polyni-
ces; and the ruthless monarch entombed her alive.
Adrastus flying to Athens sought aid of Theseus,
who led an army to Thebes, and compelled Creon
to give up the bodies of the slain. Evadne the
wife of Capaneus flung herself amid the flames of
the pyre on which his remains were consumed, and
perished.

Ten years afterwards, the Epigoni, i. ¢. the sons
of the chiefs who had fallen before Thebes, re-
solved to avenge the fate of their sires. The oracle
being consulted, said they would be victorious if
led by Alcmeeon the son of Amphiardiis; and
Thersander the son of Polynfces giving to Eriphyle
the robe of Harmonia, she induced Alemezeon not
only to abandon his design of punishing her for
the death of his father, but to take the command
of the expedition. Diomédes the son of Tydeus,
and Sthénelus the son of Cépaneus, were the most
distinguished of the other chiefs.

The Thebans were defeated in the first engage-
ment, and by the advice of Tirésias they abandoned

Q2
172 THE THEBAN WARS,

the city and fled away during the night. The
aged soothsayer, who had now lived through seven
generations, and had seen the rise, the fortunes
and the fall of Thebes, was not fated to outlive the
city, and that very night he expired at the fount
of Tilphussa. The Argives plundered the town,
and placed Thersander on the throne.

Alemeeon now consulted the oracle of Apollo, to
know how he should punish his mother for her
cupidity and her treachery to his father and him-
self; and he was directed by the god to put her
to death. He obeyed, but was instantly assailed
by her Erinnys. He roamed in madness through
Arcadia, and at length was purified by Phegeus
of Psophis, who gave him his daughter Arsinoe in
marriage ; and he presented his bride with the
fatal robe and collar of Harmonia. But a dearth
oppressed the land on his account ; and the oracle
directed him to go and build a town on the river
Acheldiis. Alcmzeon set forth, and at the springs
of the Acheldiis was purified by the river-god
himself, who gave him in marriage his daughter
Callirrhoe (Fair-flowing), and he built his town on
the soil deposited by the stream at its mouth.

Callirrhoe now longed for the robe and collar
of Harmonia; and Alcmeeon returning to Ar-
THE THEBAN WARS. 173

cadia, and telling Phegeus that his madness would
never depart till he had deposited them in the
temple of Apollo at Delphi, obtained them from
him. But his servant betrayed his secret ; and
the sons of Phegeus, by the direction of their
father, lay in wait and slew him. Callirrhoe, on
learning the fate of her husband, prayed to Jupi-
ter that her two young sons might at once attain
to manly age, Her prayer was granted, and the
youths hastened to avenge their sire. They met
and slew the sons of Phegeus who were on their
way to dedicate the robe and collar to Apollo at
Delphi, and then went to Psophis and killed Phe-
geus and his wife. They brought to their mother
the fatal treasures, and by the direction of Ache-
Idiis the robe and collar were deposited in the
temple of the Delphian god. .



CHAPTER XIII.
Tue Troyan War.

Execrra the daughter of Atlas bore to Jupiter a
son named Dardanus. He dwelt in Samothrace,
but afterwards passed over to the adjoming coast
174 THE TROJAN WAR.

of Asia, where Teucer the son of the river-god
Scamander reigned. Teucer gave him his daugh-
ter in marriage, and left him his throne.

Tros the grandson of Dardanus had three sons,
Tlus, Assaracus, and Ganymédes. The last was
for his beauty carried off by the gods to be the
cup-bearer of Jupiter, who gave Tros in recom-
pense some horses of the Olympian breed. Assd-
racus married a daughter of the river-god Simois,
and had a son named Capys, who was the father
of Anchises, to whom the goddess Venus bore a
son named Ainéas.

Ilus was directed by the oracle to follow a
spotted cow, and build a town where she should
lie down. The cow led him to a hill called the
Hill of Mischief (Ate), where he built a town
named from himself Thon, and Troy from his
father. On the prayer of Ilus, Jupiter sent him
from heaven an image of Minerva called the Pal-
ladium. It was three ells long: in one hand it held
a spear, in the other a distaff and spindle. The
safety of Troy depended on its preservation.

Ladémedon succeeded his father Ilus. He had
several children by his queen, the daughter of the
river-god Scamander, of whom the principal were,
Tithdénus, who was carried off by Auréra; Priam,
THE TROJAN WAR. 175

who succeeded his father; and Hesione, whom
Hercules delivered from the sea-monster.

Priam married Hécuba the daughter of Cisseus.
Their children were Hector, Paris or Alexander,
Dei'phobus, Hélenus, Tréilus, Cassandra, Creiisa,
Polyxena, and others. The entire number of
Priam’s children, legitimate and illegitimate, was
fifty.

When Hécuba was about to give birth to Paris
she had a dream, in which it appeared to her that
she brought forth a torch which set all Ilion in
flames. Priam sent for his son A®/sacus, who had
been taught the interpretation of dreams by his
grandfather Merops, in order to learn what this
might portend; and At’/sacus declared that the child
about to be born would be the destruction of his
country. He recommended that it should be ex-
posed ; and accordingly the babe as soon as it came
into the world was given to a servant to be left
upon Mount Ida. The man obeyed his orders ; but
curiosity leading him back to the place five days
afterwards to see what was become of the babe,
he found a bear engaged in suckling it. Struck
with the sight he took it home and reared it as his
own, and named it Paris. When Paris grew up,
he distinguished himself by his strength and cou-
176 THE TROJAN WAR.

rage in repelling robbers from the flocks, and the
shepherds called him Alexander (Man-aider). He
married the nymph (indne, daughter of the river-
god Kebren, whom Rhea had taught prophecy. It
was while Paris was in the mountains that the three
goddesses chose him as the judge of their beauty ;
and being shortly afterwards recognised by his
father, he at the mstigation of Venus sailed to
Greece and carried off Helen. (£ndne warned him
in vain of the fatal consequences of his enterprise.
Jupiter, it is said, had under the form of a
beautiful white swan, gained the love of Leda the
wife of Tyndareus. She produced from two eggs
four children ; of whom Pollux and Helen were of
celestial, Castor and Clyteemnestra of mortal de-
scent. Clyteemnestra was married to Agamemnon
king of Mycenze; and to Helen, who was unrivalled
in beauty, all the princes of Greece came a-wooing.
Tyndareus was uncertain what to do, fearing to
make a choice. At length, Ulysses, one of the
suitors, thinking he had but a slender chance of
success, told him, that if he would engage to obtain
for him the hand of his niece Penélope, he would
relieve him from his embarrassment. Tyndareus
gladly consented ; and Ulysses then told him, that
he had only to exact an oath from all the suitors,
THE TROJAN WAR. 177

that in case of any violence or injury being offered
to the fortunate candidate they would all aid in
procuring him satisfaction. They readily swore ;
and then TYyndareus declared that he accepted Mene-
laiis the brother of Agamemnon for his son-in-law.

Paris, the son of Priam king of Troy, came
some time afterwards to the house of Meneldiis in
Laconia. He was received with the greatest kind-
ness,—a hospitality which he ungenerously repaid
by seducing the affections of the wife of his host.
Helen fled with him to Troy; and Meneliiis in-
stantly calling on his former rivals to aid him in
the recovery of his wife, they began to assemble
men in all parts of Greece. Menelaiis himself and
Ulysses were sent to Troy to demand the restitu.
tion of Helen; but Priam, swayed by his affection
for Paris, refused to give her up, and the Greeks
prepared to invade his dominions.

The troops assembled at Aulis in Beeotia. The
principal chiefs were the venerable Nestor king of
Pylos, and his sons Antilochus and Thrasymédes ;
Ulysses son of Laertes king of Ithaca; Diomédes
son of Tydeus, and his friend Sthénelus the son
of Capaneus, came from Argos; Ajax and Teucer,
the sons of Télemon, from the isle of Salamis ;
Achilles son of Peleus, and his friend Patréclus,
178 THE TROJAN WAR,

from Phthia in Thessaly; Protesildtis also from
Thessaly ; Philoctétes the son. of Poeas (to whom
his father had given the bow and arrows of Her-
cules), from Meliboea in the same country; Ma-
chéon and Podalirius the sons of Aisculapius, re-
nowned for their skill in treating wounds, led the
troops of Tricca and Ithéme; Tdémeneus, those
of Crete. Many other valiant chiefs were present
from all parts of Greece. Calchas was the sooth-
sayer. The chief command was given to Aga-
memnon king of Mycéne ; and the number of
ships collected exceeded a thousand.“

While the Greeks were preparing to set sail,
Agamemnon chanced, when hunting, to kill a hind
sacred to Didna. The goddess in her wrath sent
an adverse wind, and the fleet was unable to stir
Calchas declaring that the goddess could only be
appeased by the blood of one of the children of
the offender, Agamemnon was obliged to send
for his daughter Iphigenia, under the pretence
of marrying her to Achilles. When the innocent
maiden arrived at the camp, she was led as a vic-
tim to the altar of Didna: she knelt down, and the
priest struck her with his knife ; but found to his
surprise that it was a hind he had slain; for the
goddess relenting, had snatched Iphigenia away,
THE TROJAN WAR. 179

and substituted a hind in her place. She carried
her off to the Tauric Chersonese, and there set
her to officiate at her altars, on which were sacri-
ficed all the strangers who arrived on the coast.

All impediments being now removed, the fleet
set sail, and a favouring wind carried it to the isle
of Lemnos. Here Philoctétes in displaying his
skill in archery chanced to let one of the arrows
fall upon his foot ; and the stench of the wound and
his horrible cries were so annoying to the Greeks
that they sailed away, leaving him alone in the
island.

The Trojans led by Hector came down to op-
pose their landing ; and Protesilaiis, the first who
leaped ashore, fell by his spear. The landing,
however, was effected; and the Greeks drew up
their ships on the beach, and erected huts and
booths for themselves along the shore.

The war continued for the space of ten years,
for the Trojans were powerfully assisted from
Thrace, and from Mysia, Lycia, Phrygia, and the
surrounding countries. In the tenth year Apollo
sent a plague among the Greeks, in punishment of
the insult offered to his priest Chryses by Aga.
memnon, who refused to restore to him his daugh.
ter for ransom. This produced a quarrel between
180 THE TROJAN WAR:

Agamemnon and Achilles, the bravest chief in
the Grecian host. Achilles refusing to take any
further part in the war, success was on the side of
the Trojans. At length his friend Patréclus being
slain by Hector, he resumed his arms, and the
Trojan chief fell by his might. He ungenerously
fastened the body of the noble Hector to his cha-
riot, and dragged him round the walls of Troy in
sight of his afflicted parents and kindred. Moved
at length by the supplications of Priam, who came
in person to his tent, he restored the body for a
ransom; and the Trojans celebrated with mourn-
ing hearts the obsequies of him who had been the
hope and stay of Troy.

Shortly after the funeral of Hector, Penthesiléa
daughter of Mars, the warlike queen of. the Ama-
zons, arrived at Troy with a troop of her female
warriors. Her appearance raised the hopes of the
dispirited Trojans ; the chief command was con-
ferred upon her, and victory was once more taking
the side of Troy, when Achilles coming into the
field slew the Amazonian queen, and her com-
panions fell by the hand of Ajax. Achilles, struck
with her beauty as she lay sunk in death, lamented
his deed and restored her body to the Trojans.

An illustrious ally now appeared on the side of
THE TROJAN WAR. 181

Troy. Scarcely had the funeral flames consumed
the remains of Penthesiléa, when Memnon, the son
of Tithdnus and the goddess of the Dawn, arrived
from the eastern shore of Ocean with an army of
his swarthy Ethiopians to assist the kindred of his
father. Memnon was received with the greatest
honours by king Priam, who listened with admi-
ration to his narrative of the wonders of the shore
of Ocean, and the perils of the road thither; and
the aged monarch felt hope revive in his bosom
as he viewed the numbers and the strength of the
AKthiopian warriors.

The very day after his arrival, Memnon, impa-
tient of repose, led his troops to the field. Anttf-
lochus the brave son of Nestor fell by his hand,
and the Greeks were put to flight, when Achilles
appeared and restored the battle. A long and du-
bious conflict ensued between him and the son of
Auréra: at length victory declared for the son of
Thetis; Memnon fell, and the Trojans fled in
dismay.

Auréra, who from her station in the sky had
viewed with apprehension the danger of her son,
when she saw him fallen directed his brothers the
Winds to convey his body to the banks of the river
Aisépus in Paphlagénia. The troops of Memnon

R
182 THE TROJAN WAR,

vanished, to the amazement of both Greeks and
Trojans, and shrouded in mist followed the corpse
of their prince through the air. In the evening
Auréra came accompanied by the Hours and the
Pleiades, and wept and lamented over her son:
Night, in sympathy with her grief, spread the hea-
ven with clouds,—all nature mourned for the off-
spring of the Dawn. The Aithiopians raised his
tomb on the banks of the stream in the grove of
the Nymphs, and the goddess then turned them
into the birds named Memnons, which fight con-
tinually over the tomb of their master.-}”.

The days of Achilles himself now drew to their
close. He had been given the choice of a long and
inglorious life in Phthia, or a glorious death before
Troy, and he had magnanimously chosen the latter.
He had pursued the flying Trojans to the Sceean
Gate, when Apollo descended from heaven and
warned him to retire. He replied with threats,
and the god in anger shot him in the heel with one
of his arrows. Although thus mortally wounded,
he continued to slay the Trojans; but at length
he fell lifeless to the earth. A furious conflict
arose for the possession of his body, but the
Greeks brought it off, chiefly through the prow-
ess of Ajax the son of Télamon. Thetis, accom-
THE TROJAN WAR. 183

panied by the Muses and the Neréides, came and
mourned over her son, and his obsequies were
performed as became those of the bravest of the
Greeks. Funeral games were celebrated at the
desire of Thetis, in which the principal heroes
contended. The goddess then proposed the arms
which Vulcan had made for Achilles as the prize
of him who should be judged to have been most
instrumental in saving his body, and to be the
bravest warrior. The claimants were Ulysses, and
Ajax son of Télamon. Some captive Trojans were
appointed to sit as judges ; each chief pleaded his
cause before them, and the celestial arms were
awarded to the son of Laértes. Ajax lost his
senses with rage; and in his frenzy taking a flock
of sheep for the Greeks, he fell upon and slaugh-
tered them. On recovering his reason and seeing
what he had done, he slew himself with his own
hand.

The Greeks having now lost their two bravest
chiefs, began to despair of taking Troy; but Cal-
chas reminding them that Achilles had left a son,
advised that they should invite him to the war:
for Thetis, anxious to keep her son from going to
Troy, where he was fated to perish, had concealed
him in female apparel at the court of Lycomédes

R2
184 THE TROJAN WAR.

king of the isle of Scyros, and here he espoused
the princess Deidamia the daughter of his host.
Ulysses, hearing he was there, went disguised as a
merchant to the palace, and offered for sale female
ornaments, among which he had placed some
arms. These last drew the attention of Achilles:
the fictitious merchant recognised him, and by his
arguments induced him to accompany the Greeks
to Troy. It was now determined to send Ulysses
and Diomédes to fetch Neoptdlemus the son of
Achilles to the aid of the Greeks.

Meantime Eurypylus, son of Télephus and
grandson of Hércules, had arrived in Troy with
an army of Mysians. In the first engagement the
Greeks were routed, and the Trojans and their
allies encamped before the ships. After a truce
for burying the dead the conflict was renewed ; and
while it was raging, the ship which bore Neoptd-
lemus arrived. The chiefs arrayed him instantly
in the arms of his father, and his deeds proclaimed
his origm. Night put a period to the conflict.
Next morning the two hosts engaged anew: Eury-
pylus fell by the arms of Neoptdélemus: the Tro-
jaus were routed, and the Greeks assailed the
town; but Jtipiter, at the prayer of ——
spread a cloud over it, and they retired,
THE TROJAN WAR. 185

Still Troy could not be taken without the ar-—
rows of Hercules, for so it was decreed by the
Fates. By the advice of Calchas, Ulysses and
Diomédes were sent to fetch Philoctétes from the
isle of Lemnos. On his arriving at the camp his
wound was cured by Podalirius, and the chiefs
apologised for their former ill-treatment of him.
Philoctétes when restored to vigour was eager for
war. The Trojans on their side come boldly forth
to meet their enemies.

In the battle which ensues, Paris is wounded
by one of the fatal arrows of Philoctétes. Re-
collecting the words of his deserted Cndéne,—
that she alone could cure him,—he causes himself
to be borne to her dwelling on Mount Ida. He
implores her compassion ; but she is deaf to his en-
treaties, and he returns to Ilion to die. But when
(Enéne heard that he was dead, her tenderness
revived; and secretly quitting her abode, she tra-
velled in the night through the mountains. With
morning she reached Troy; and beholding the
burning pyre of Paris, flung herself into the flames,
and was consumed with him whom she had loved.

The fatal day of Troy was now at hand. The
Greeks, by the advice of Ulysses, and with the
aid of Minerva, construct a huge horse of wood
186 THE TROJAN WAR.

within which the bravest of their warriors conceal
themselves. Then feigning to depart, they burn
their huts and booths, and sail away for the isle of
Ténedos. A Greek named Sinon remained be-
hind ; and throwing himself in the way of the Tro-
jans when they came forth next morning from the
city, told them that the horse was sacred to Mi-
nerva, and would be the preservation of the city,
if admitted into it. Ladécoén maintained that Si-
non was an impostor, and advised to burn the
horse. Minerva struck him with blindness; but
he still persisted in his remonstrances, when two
enormous serpents came out of the sea and de-
voured his two children. Struck by these prodi-
gies, the Trojans drew the horse into the town.
In the night Sinon displayed a lighted torch (the
appointed signal), and opened the fatal horse. The
warriors descend, the fleet returns, the - gates are
opened, the Trojans massacred in their sleep, and
the city taken. Deiphobus, the bravest of the re-
maining sons of Priam, who had married Helen
after the death of Paris, is slain by Meneldiis.
The aged monarch himself perishes by the hand
of Neoptdlemus, at the altar of Jupiter. AstYanax
the orphan child of Hector is flung from the sum-
mit of a tower, and his mother Andrémache re-
THE TROJAN WAR. 187

duced to slavery: the same fate befalls Hécuba
and her daughters. Troy is no more x

CHAPTER XIV.
Tue RETURN OF THE GREEKS.

WueEwn Troy was burned, and the booty and cap-
tives collected and divided, the Grecian chiefs
began to prepare for their return to their long-left
homes. While they were thus engaged, the ghost
of Achilles appeared on his tomb, and menacing
them with his wrath in case of refusal, demanded
the sacrifice of Polyxena one of the daughters of
king Priam. The hapless virgin was torn from the
arms of her aged mother, and immolated at the
tomb of the ruthless Achilles. Heécuba, losing her
senses with grief, was turned into a bitch, and
finally changed by the gods into a stone.

All being now ready, the Greeks set sail in dif-
ferent divisions. They encountered tremendous
tempests on their voyage, and but few of them
reached their homes in safety. They had also an
enemy in their own country, who contributed all
in his power to their destruction. This was Nat-
188 THE RETURN OF THE GREEKS.

plius, the son of Neptune and father of Palamédes.
The cause of his enmity was this :—

When the Grecian army was assembling for the
war with Troy, Ulysses to avoid sharing in it
feigned madness; he ploughed the ground with a
horse and an ox, and sowed it with salt. Palamé-
des, one of the Grecian chiefs, taking Telémachus,
the infant son of Ulysses, placed him in the way
of the plough, and Ulysses turned aside to avoid
injuring him. It being now evident that his mad-
ness was not real, he was obliged to follow to the
war. He resolved to be revenged on Palamédes,
and during the siege he secretly caused gold to be
buried in his tent, and then accused him of being
bribed by the Trojans. The Grecian chiefs be-
lieving the calumny put Palamédes to death.

Natiplius out of revenge now kindled fires on
the heights during the storm, and thus caused
several of the Grecian ships to run ashore and be
wrecked.

The venerable Nestor reached his native land
in safety. Diomédes on arriving in Argos found
that his wife had proved faithless to him, and he
was obliged to retire and form a settlement in
Italy. Philoctétes also established himself in that
country. Iddémeneus vowed during the tempest
THE RETURN OF THE GREEKS. 189

that if he escaped he would offer as a victim to
the gods whatever first met him on his arrival in
Crete. His own son was the first he met: he
fulfilled his vow, and the Cretans in indignation
drove him from their island; and he too retired
to Italy. Teucer the son of Télamon was driven
from Salamis by his father, for not having avenged
the death of his brother Ajax. He went to the
isle of Cyprus and built a town, which he named
Sdlamis. Ajax Oileus the Locrian, having in
the capture of Troy profaned the temple of
Minerva, the goddess struck his ship with light-
ning; and as he grasped a rock to save himself,
Neptune split it with a blow of his trident, and pre-
cipitated him into the waves, where he perished.
Neoptdlemus, to whose share of the captives Hé-
lenus the son of Priam, and Andromache the wi-
dow of Hector, had fallen, reached his home in
safety ; but having married Hermione, the daugh-
ter of Meneldiis, he was slain at Delphi by Ores-
tes the son of Agamemnon, to whom she had been
engaged.

Agamemnon accompanied by his captive Cas-
sandra reached his native realm in safety. But
during his absence his wife Clyteemnestra had
190 THE RETURN OF THE GREERS.

lost sight of her conjugal duties, and had trans-
ferred her affection to Mgisthus the son of his
uncle Thyestes. The guilty pair had resolved on
the death of the injured monarch, whom Cassan-
dra had warned in vain of his impending fate.

On his arrival Agamemnon was received with
all the marks of respect and affection by his faith-
less spouse. But at the banquet held in the even-
ing to celebrate his safe return, he and his com-
panions were fallen on by Aigisthus and his con-
federates, and all after a bloody contest were
massacred. Cassandra also shared their fate.
Aigisthus now espoused the partner of his crime,
and took possession of the throne.

Their guilt, however, did not go unpunished.
Orestes the young son of Agamemnon had been
saved by his sister Electra, and conveyed to the
house of Stréphius king of Phocis. As he grew
up he formed a strict friendship with Pylades the
son of his protector. The two friends, urged by
the messages of Electra and by the oracle of
Delphi, proceeded secretly to Mycénee and slew
Aigisthus and his wife. When Orestes had slain
his mother, he was assailed by the Furies, whose
office it is to punish guilt. In frenzy he roamed
over yarious countries, accompanied by the faith-
THE RETURN OF THE GREEKS, 191

ful PÂ¥lades. Happening to arrive in the Tauric
Chersonese, they were seized, and led to be sacri-
ficed at the blood-stained altar at which Iphigenia
officiated ; but having recognised her brother, she
fled to Greece with him and his friend, carrying
with her the image of the goddess. Orestes at
length went by the advice of Apollo to Athens,
and stood his trial before the court of Aredépagus.
A sentence of acquittal being pronounced, the
Furies left him ; and he returned to Mycénee and
occupied the throne of his fathers. His sister
Electra became the wife of Pylades.

Menelaiis, having become reconciled to Helen,
embarked his share of the booty and set sail home-
wards in company with Nestor. They reached in
safety the promontory of Stinium in Attica. Here
the pilot of Menelaiis’ ship died, and he was
obliged to stay and bury him. Having performed
the funeral rites he again put to sea; but as he
was doubling Cape Malea in Laconia, a violent
storm arose which dispersed his fleet; one part
was driven to Crete,—five ships, one of which
was Menelaiis’ own, were carried by the winds to

Egypt.
Meneldiis spent eight years in these parts;
192 THE RETURN OF THE GREEKS.

sailing from place to place and collecting wealth.
Besides Egypt, he visited Cyprus and Phenicia,
and the countries of the Erembians and ithio-
pians. He also was in Libya, the land westward
of Egypt, where the sheep yean three times a-year,
and the lambs are born horned, and milk, cheese,
and flesh are in abundance, for king and shepherd
alike.

He now began to think of returning home ; and
sailing from Egypt, he reached the island of Pha-
ros, which was a day’s sail distant. But he had
neglected offering sacrifices to the gods, who, to
punish him, sent an adverse wind, which detained
them at this island. They had been there now
twenty days, their provisions were nearly ex-
hausted, and they were obliged to pass the day in
endeavouring to catch fish for their support,—
when, as Meneldiis was wandering about by him-
self, he met the sea-nymph Eidéthea the daugh-
ter of Proteus, who told him that from her father
alone he could learn what he was to do to obtain
a favourable wind. But as Proteus never gave
his information unconstrained, she brought him
fresh-stript seal-skins, and directed him to dis-
guise himself and three of his companions in them,
and lying in ambush, to seize the sea-god when
THE RETURN OF THE GREEKS. 193

he came ashore, and holding him fast, never to let
him go till he had revealed the means of escape.

Menelaiis did as desired by the nymph; and in
the heat of the day he saw the marine herds rising
up out of the sea, and lying to sleep on the rocks
and shores. Proteus having counted them lay
down also to repose. As soon as he was asleep,
Menelaiis rushed from his ambush and seized him.
The god changed himself successively into a lion,
a serpent, a pard, a boar, water and a tree,—but
in vain; the hero still held him fast. Finding he
could not escape, he resumed his own form, and
told Menelaiis to return to Egypt and offer sacri-
fices to the gods. The hero obeyed his direc-
tions ; and a southerly wind sprang up, which
carried him home; and he arrived in Greece the
very day that Orestes was giving the funeral feast
for his mother and gisthus.

All that befell the other Grecian chiefs was as
nothing in comparison with the wonderful adven-
tures of Ulysses, the prudent son of Laértes, on
his return to his native isle of Ithaca.

On leaving Troy, Ulysses directed his course to
the coast of Thrace ; and landing in the country of
the Cicgnians, he took and burnt their town of

s
194 THE RETURN OF THE GREEKS,

I'smaras. But as the Greeks stayed on the coast
feasting, they were attacked by the Cicdnians, and
driven to their ships with loss. Sailing thence,
they were assailed by a storm, from which they
took refuge on shore. On the third day they
again put to sea, and reached the formidable Cape
Malea; when a violent north-east wind rose, and
drove them for nine days along the sea, till they
reached the country of the Lotus-eaters westward
of Libya.

Being ignorant of the country, Ulysses sent
three of his men to examine it. These, on meet-
ing the inhabitants, were very kindly treated by
them, and given some of their own food, the lotus,
to eat. But the effect of this fruit was such, that
those who had once tasted of it lost all thoughts
of home, and desired to remain for ever in that
country. Ulysses found it necessary to drag
these men away by main force, and to tie them
under the benches of his ship.

Leaving the country of the Lotus-eaters, they
sailed on further, and came to that of the Cycld-
pes. These were a wild savage race of gigantic
beings, inhabiting a rich fertile country, but un-
acquainted with agriculture and commerce, and
ignorant of laws and social institutions. They
THE RETURN OF THE GREEKS. 195

had but one eye, which was in the middle of their
forehead.

In front of their land lay an islet well-wooded and
stocked with goats. Here Ulysses landed; and
then leaving there the rest of his ships, sailed with
his own to the opposite coast. He found the cave
of one of the Cyclépes named Polyphémus, a son
of Neptune; and going into it, saw that it was
abundantly supplied with milk and cheese, the
shepherd’s wealth. The Greeks remained there
awaiting the return of its master. In the evening
they heard the approach of the flocks, and looking
out were terrified to death when they beheld the
huge monster who.was driving them. It was now
too late to think of escape, and they therefore en-
deavoured to conceal themselves in the cavern.
Polyphémus having closed the door with a rock
which twenty-two teams could not remove, milked
his sheep and goats, and then kindled a fire. By
its light he discerned the trembling Greeks, and
demanded who they were. Ulysses, coming for-
ward, said that they were Greeks who had been
shipwrecked, and implored his compassion and
hospitality. The answer of the Cyclops was his
seizing two of them and dashing out their brains.
He dressed and ate them for his supper, and then

$2
196 THE RETURN OF THE GREEKS.

went to sleep. Ulysses was about to kill him, but
recollecting the rock which closed the door, he
refrained.

Next morning the Cyclops drove out his flocks,
and shut his captives up in the cave. During the
day, Ulysses taking the staff of the Cyclops, which
was as large as the mast of a ship, cut a piece off
it, which he made sharp at one end, and then con- -
cealed it. When Polyphémus returned, he dressed
two more of the Greeks for supper. Ulysses then
came forward with askin of wine which he had
brought with him, and offered it to the Cyclops.
Polyphémus, who was ignorant of that liquor, was
in raptures with it; and to show his gratitude, be-
nignantly promised that the donor of it should be
the last whom he would devour. The wine soon
took effect, and overcome by its fumes he fell fast
asleep.

Ulysses now prepared for action. He took the
piece of the giant’s staff, and made the sharp end
of it red-hot in the fire ; then, aided by four of his
companions, he bored out with it the eye of the
sleeping Cyclops. Polyphémus roared aloud with
pain, and the other Cyclépes came to inquire what
had befallen him. He told them that Nobody
(Outis, the name Ulysses had given himself) was
THE RETURN OF THE GREEKS. 197

killing him ; and they, thinking it was some dis-
ease, went away advising him to pray to his
father.

The next morning Polyphémus opening the
door turned out his flocks, and sitting in the door-
way felt them with his hands, that his prisoners
might not escape. But Ulysses had tied his com-
panions under the bellies of the sheep, and then
himself grasping the wool of the leader-ram, held
fast under his belly. Having thus escaped from
the cave they went on board of their ship; and
Ulysses then calling out his real name, the Cy-
clépes flung huge rocks, which nearly sunk the
vessel.

Quitting the inhospitable country of the Cy-
clépes, Ulysses and his companions sailed still on-
wards, and came to the floating island in which
dwelt AM'olus, to whom Jupiter had given rule
over the winds. This island was surrounded by a
wall of brass: and AÂ¥/olus, his wife, and his six
sons and six daughters, lived in continual joy and
festivity. He entertained Ulysses for an entire
month, and at his departure gave him all the
winds, except the West, tied up in a bag made
of ox-hide. The ships ran merrily before the
wind for nine days and nights: on the tenth they
198 THE RETURN OF THE GREEKS.

were within sight of I'thaca ; when Ulysses, who
had hitherto held the helm himself, falling asleep,
his companions, fancying that Ai/olus had given
him treasure in the bag, opened it to see what it
contained. Instantly the winds rushed out, and
swept them back to Holia. The director of the
winds drove them with reproaches from his isle,
deeming them to be odious to the gods.

During six days and nights they sailed on still
westwards, till they came to the country of the
Lestrygénians, where findmg a well-sheltered
harbour, they brought into it all the ships except
that of Ulysses, who, suspicious of danger, kept
his vessel without. They sent a herald with two
others into the country, who meeting the daughter
of the king Antiphates at a fountain, were by her
directed to the abode of her father. On entering
it, they beheld to their dismay the queen, who was
as huge as the top of a mountain. She instantly
called her husband from the market-place ; and
he, seizing one of them, dressed him for dinner.
The other two fled, pursued by the Lestrygénians,
who hurling huge rocks at their ships, destroyed
them, and all the crews perished of those which
were in the harbour. Ulysses cutting his cables
got out to sea and escaped.
THE RETURN OF THE GREEKS. 199

Ulysses and his surviving companions sailed on
till they reached the isle of Heea. They remained
two days in the harbour where they had landed,
fearing to quit the shore. On the third day
Ulysses ventured to make a short excursion of dis-
covery, and ascending an eminence he had a view
over the whole island. It was small, and covered
with wood, out of the midst of which he saw a
smoke ascending. Returning to his companions
he selected twenty-two of them by lot, whom he
sent, under the command of Eurflochus, to ascer-
tain who inhabited the place. They found in the
wood a mansion built of hewn stone, around which —
were troops of wolves and lions, which came and
fawned upon them. Within the building they
heard the voice of a woman singing at the loom.
They stood and called aloud: the mistress of the
house, who was Circe the daughter of the Sun,
instantly threw open the doors, and invited them
in; they all entered but Eurflochus ; and Circe
set food before them, of which as soon as they
had partaken, she struck them with her wand,
and changing them into swine drove them into a
sty. . 7

Eurflochus returned in dismay to the ship ;
and Ulysses, on learning the fate of his friends,
200 THE RETURN OF THE GREEKS.

resolved to liberate them or perish in the attempt.
He set out alone. On the way Mercury met him,
and giving him a plant, called in the language of
the gods Moly, which would preserve him from
the enchantments of Circe, directed him how to
act. The hero then proceeded to the abode of
Circe, and standing at the door called aloud. The
goddess came forth, and invited him to enter ;
she placed food before him; and. when he had
tasted of it, striking him with her wand, desired
him to go and join his comrades in the sty. But
Ulysses declined the civility, and drawing his
sword threatened to kill her. The goddess in
terror grasped his knees, and prayed him to spare
her and become her husband. He consented, on
her taking a solemn oath not to do him any in-
jury. At his desire she then restored his com-
panions to their former state, and the hero
having brought up the remainder of his crew from
the ship, they all abode in the house of Circe.

At the end of the year they became impatient to
return home, and at their desire Ulysses asked
the consent of the goddess to their departure.
She yielded to his request ; but told him he must
previously visit the domains of Pluto and Prdser-
pine, and consult the spirit of the Theban prophet
THE RETURN OF THE GREEKS. 201

Tirésias. The hero was overwhelmed with dis-
may at the intelligence: but the goddess re-as-
sured him, and gave him ample instructions for
his conduct.

Embarking early in the morning, Ulysses and
his companions sailed with a favouring wind along
the sea; and entering the Ocean-stream crossed to
its further shore, which lay enveloped in perpetual
darkness. Here they landed, and proceeded to
the place which Circe had described; where
Ulysses, digging a hole with his sword, poured
into it mead, wine, water and flour, and the blood
of alamb anda black ewe; and with his sword
drawn sat down beside it. Instantly the dead
came trooping around: but the hero kept them
off with his sword, although he discerned among
them his own mother, whom he had left alive in
I'thaca. At length Tirésias drew near, and ha-
ving tasted of the blood, instructed the hero re-
specting his return.

Tirésias having retired, Ulysses permitted the
other ghosts to approach. His mother, when she
tasted the blood, recognised him, and gave him
tidings of his family. In vain he essayed to em-
brace her,—the spirit eluded his grasp, like a
shadow or a dream. The shades of the heroines
202 THE RETURN OF THE GREEKS.

of former days now advanced; and as each tasted
of the blood, she acquired the power of conversing
with the living man. He there saw Tyro and
Antiope, and Aleména and Leda, and Pheedra and
Ariadne, and Procris and Eriphfle, and other
women famous in times of old.

The heroes now came forward. Ulysses saw
and conversed with Agamemnon, and cheered the
gloom of Achilles by telling of the fame of his
son. The shade of Ajax stood aloof, and would
not listen to the excuses of his former rival. He
now beheld Minos judging, Orion hunting, Her-
cules bending his bow, Tityus, Tdntalus and Sisy-
phus suffering the penalty of their crimes. Terror
at last came over him ; he hastened away, and get-
ting on board his ship returned to the island of
Circe.

Having stayed one day with Circe, and re-
ceived ample information from her respecting his
homeward voyage, Ulysses departed, taking a final
leave of the goddess, who sent a favouring wind
after the ship.

The wind carried them merrily along till they
came near the island of the Sirens: it then fell ;
and Ulysses, as directed by Circe, stopped the ears
of his companions with wax, and had himself
THE RETURN OF THE GREEKS. 203

bound hand and foot to the mast. They then
rowed the ship along the shore of the isle, on
which lay whitening the bones of men; for who-
ever landed there, seduced by the melodious song
of the Sirens, never again saw his home. The
Sirens, when they heard the dashing of the oars,
raised their song in praise of Ulysses, inviting
him to land, and promising him knowledge. The
hero struggled to get free ; but his comrades bound
him still faster, and he alone heard the song of the
Sirens and escaped. {;

They now heard the roaring of the waves, and
beheld the smoke ascending from the Wander-
ing Rocks, which no ship but the Argo had ever
escaped. To avoid these it was necessary to pass
between two cliffs; in one of which dwelt Seylla,
a monster with twelve feet and six heads, each of
which took a man out of every ship that passed.
Beneath the other was a whirlpool, which three
times a day absorbed and regorged the water,
The ship went through with the loss of six men,
whom Scylla seized; and in the evening they
came to the island of Thrindkia, which belonged
to the Sun, and where his flocks and herds fed,
under the charge of his daughters Phaéthiisa
(Gleaming) and Lampétia (Shining).
204 THE RETURN OF THE GREEKS.

Ulysses had been warned both by Tirésias and
Circe to shun this island. He therefore urged his
companions to row on and pass; but they in-
sisted on landing for the night, promising to put
to sea again early in the morning. Their chief
was obliged to content himself with their oath
that they would on no account violate the sacred
cattle.

During the night there came on a tempest, and
the wind changed. They were detained an entire
month in the island: their provisions were all con-
sumed ; and they lived on what fish and birds they
could catch. One day when Ulysses had gone
apart to pray to the gods for relief, and had fallen
asleep, Eurylochus proposed to the rest to sacri-
fice some of the sacred oxen to the Gods, and vow
a splendid temple to the Sun. Instantly they
slaughtered some of the best of them. Lampétia
brought the tidings to her father, on whose com-
plaint Jupiter promised to punish the trans-
gressors. The hides meantime, to their dismay,
crept along the ground, and the flesh lowed on
the spits. |

Six days they fed on the oxen of the Sun. On
the seventh the storm ceased, and they put to sea.
But scarcely were they out of sight of land, when
THE RETURN OF THE GREEKS. 205

Jtipiter sent a tempest which destroyed the ship
and drowned all the crew. Ulysses, fastening to-
gether the mast and keel, got astride on them.
A south wind sprung up, which carried him along
during the whole night, and in the morning he
found himself at Scylla and Charybdis. This last
absorbed his raft; but he caught hold of a wild
olive-tree, and held by it till his raft re-appeared.
He then mounted upon it, and was carried along
for nine days; and on the tenth night he landed
on the isle of Ogygia.

Ogygia was the abode of the goddess Calypso,
the daughter of Atlas, who received the wanderer
with great kindness, but would never consent to
his departure. She wished to bestow immortality
upon him, and make him her husband; but he
longed to return to his wife Pendlope, and passed
all his days mourning on the sea-shore. At length,
after seven years, at the prayer of Minerva, Ji-
piter sent Mercury to command Calypso to permit
the hero to depart. The nymph gave a reluctant
consent, and furnished him with tools to build a
light bark or raft. In four days he had built,
rigged, and launched his vessel. Calypso gave
him clothes and provisions; and having taken a
last leave of him, sent a favouring gale to convey

T
206 THE RETURN OF THE GREEKS,

him homewards. On the eighteenth day he came
within sight of Schéria, the island of the Pheed-
cians. Neptune, who was returning through the
air from the country of the Aithiopians, happen-
ing to perceive him, and being resolved to avenge
on him the blinding of his son Polyphémus, raised
a tremendous storm. The raft went to pieces ;
but the sea-goddess Leucdthea had during the
tempest given her veil to Ulysses, to tie around
his waist as a means of safety ; and after floating
about for two days and nights, he at last entered
the mouth of a river in Schéria and got to shore.
He threw the veil of the goddess, as desired, into
the water; and then making himself a bed of leaves
in a thicket, he fell asleep.

During the night Minerva appeared in a dream
to Nausicaa, the daughter of Alcinoiis king of
the island, advising her to take her clothes duwn
to the river in the morning, and wash them pre-
paratory to her wedding. Her father, at her re-
quest, gave her a mule-cart, and she and her maids
drove to the spot where Ulysses had landed.
Having washed their clothes, and hung them to
dry, they began to play at ball; their joyous cla-
mour awoke the sleeping hero, and coming forth,
he implored the protection of the princess, Nau-
THE RETURN OF THE GREEKS. 207

sicaa gave him both food and clothes, and directed
him to follow her to the town. Minerva met him
on the way, and spread a shroud of mist around
him, that he might reach the royal abode unper-
ceived.

The beauty and splendour of the palace and
garden of Alcinoiis fill the stranger with amaze-
ment. He craves the protection of the queen
Aréte, and is promised by Alcinoiis a ship to con-
vey him home. At a banquet which is given, he
relates to the Pheedcians all his preceding adven-
tures. They give him a great number of rich pre-
sents, and put him on board one of their wonderful
ships, which moved with the velocity of the birds,
and required not a pilot. The hero takes leave,
and embarks in the evening. Ere dawn, the vessel
is at I'thaca. The Pheedcians, taking out Ulysses,
who is fast asleep, lay him and his property on
the shore, and depart.

On awaking, the hero recognises not his own
island. As he is bemoaning his fate, Minerva
comes in the form of a young shepherd and in-
forms him where he is. She then discovers herself
to him; and Ulysses having by her direction con-
eealed his treasures in a cave, she touched him
with her wand, and gave him the appearance of an

, T2
208 THE RETURN OF THE GREEKS.

old beggar-man. She then directed him to go to
the house of his swine-herd Eumeeus, and remain
there till the arrival of his son Telémachus.

During the long absence of Ulysses, his wife
Penélope had been harassed by the solicitations of
the noblest men of I'thaca and the adjacent islands,
who sought her in marriage. In daily banquets
they consumed all the substance of the absent
prince, and they menaced the life of his son. Pe-
nélope employed various artifices to free herself
from them, but in vain. Among other devices,
she feigned to be weaving a burial dress for La-
értes, and declared that as soon as it was finished
she would make a choice among them ; but every
night she undid what she had done in the day.
One of her maids betrayed her, and she was now
reduced to extremity. Telémachus had, at the
suggestion of Minerva, who accompanied him
under the form of a man named Mentor, gone to
Pylos and Sparta, to try if Nestor or Menelaiis
could give him any tidings of his father; and the
suitors had placed a ship to intercept him on his
return.—Such was the state of things when Ulysses
arrived in Ithaca.

Ulysses on reaching the dwelling of Eumeeus
is attacked by the dogs; but Eumeeus saves and
THE RETURN OF THE GREEKS. 209

entertains him. He spends the remainder of the
day and the night there; and next morning Telé-
machus arrives from Pylos. Eumeeus goes to the
town to inform Penélope of the safe arrival of her
son; and Ulysses is then restored to his former
shape by Minerva: he discovers himself to Telé-
machus, and they plan the death of the suitors.
Toward evening, when the return of Eumeeus is
expected, Minerva again gives Ulysses the ap-
pearance of a mendicant.

The next day Ulysses accompanies Eumzus to
the town. As he enters his own house, his faith-
ful dog Argus recognises and fawns upon him
and then expires. When the hour of repast ar-
rives, Ulysses goes round begging food from his
son and the suitors, one of whom, Antinoiis,
treats him with great brutality. A public beggar
named Irus attempts to drive him away, but
Ulysses challenges him to box; the suitors force
him to accept the challenge, and he is half-killed
by the disguised hero.

During the night, Ulysses and his son remove
all the arms from the hall. Penélope sends for
him, and he gives her a fictitious account of him-
self. His ancient nurse Eurycléa is directed to
wash his feet, and she discovers him by the sear
210 THE RETURN OF THE GREEKS.

upon his leg of a wound which he received in his
youth from a boar, when hunting on Mount Par-
nassus; but he enjoins her secrecy. Pendlope
then tells him that it is her design to propose to
the suitors a feat of archery, which Ulysses was in
the habit of performing ; and he approves of it.
In the morning Penélope brings forth the bow
of Ulysses, and tells the suitors that she will
marry the one who, like Ulysses, can drive an
arrow from it through twelve iron axes. They
essay their strength in vain; no one can even
bend the bow. Ulysses goes out, and reveals him-
self to Eumeeus and his neatherd Philcetius ; and
directing them to fasten the doors, returns to the
hall. He now prays to be allowed to try to bend
the bow; the suitors deride him ; but Telémachus
interferes, and it is handed to him by Eumeeus.
Instantly the arrow flies through the axes. He
then transfixes Antinoiis, shouting out who he is.
Telémachus having neglected to shut fast one of the
doors, the suitors get arms and fight with despe-
ration against Ulysses, his son, and his two herds-
men; but at length they are all slain. He then
punishes his goatherd Melanthius, who had been
faithless to him, and hangs the twelve maid-ser-
vants who had been the mistresses of the suitors.
THE RETURN OF THE GREEKS. 211

At length he discovers himself to his wife, and
the night passes away in the narration of his
adventures.

The next morning Ulysses goes into the coun-
try to see his aged father Laertes. While he is
absent an a.sembly of the people is held; and
Eupithes, the father of one of the slain suitors,
stimulates them to avenge their death. A part
of them take arms and follow him, but Eupithes
js slain by Laértes. Minerva, under the form of
Mentor, aids the hero. At length Jupiter thun-
ders, and ends the conflict, and Minerva esta-
blishes peace between Ulysses and his subjects.



CHAPTER XV.

Tar VoyvAGE oF AINEAS.

On the night that Troy was taken by the Greeks,
Fnéas the son of the goddess Venus, one of the
bravest of the Trojan warriors, departed from the
city, by the direction of his divine mother, carry-
ing on his shoulders his father Anchises, now old
and blind, and leading his little son Ivilus, or Ascé-
nius, by the hand. Anchises bore the Penates
212 THE VOYAGE OF ZANEAS,

and the sacred things of Vesta, the pledges of the
safety of Troy. Ainéas sought refuge in the re-
cesses of Mount Ida, where he remained till the
Greeks had departed.

The following summer, having built a fleet, he
embarked with such of the Trojans as were willing
to go in search of new settlements. They first
directed their course to Thrace, and were preparing
to build a city, when as Ainéas went to pluck some
twigs from a myrtle that was growing on a mound,
to his horror blood gushed forth and a voice
came from the myrtle which told him that it was
Polydérus, a son of Priam, whom Polymnestor
king of Thrace, to whose care he had been com-
mitted, had put to death for the sake of the gold
which Priam had sent with him.

Appalled by this prodigy, the Trojans quitted the
coast of Thrace and directed their course to the isle
of Delos. Here Ainéas consulted the oracle of
Apollo, and the god directed them to seek their
original country. This Anchises declared to be the
isle of Crete, whither they sailed; and landing
there, they began to build a town ; but a pestilence
soon broke out among them, and while they were
in perplexity, the Pendtes appeared one night to
Ainéas, and told him that Hespéria, or Italy, was
THE VOYAGE OF :NEAS, 213

the ancient country which the god had meant.
Anchises called to mind an old tradition anda
prophecy of Cassandra relating to that country,
and it was resolved to sail for it without delay.

Scarcely were the Trojans out of sight of land
when they were assailed by a storm. After
being driven about for three days, they came at
last to the islands named Stréphades, which were
then the abode of the Harpies. They found the
islands abounding in cattle, some of which they
killed, and were preparing to feast on them, when
the Harpies came flying and seized and defiled all
the meats. Again they spread the feast in another
place, and again the foul virgin-birds came on the
wing. The Trojans drew their swords on them in
vain; their feathers were impervious to steel; but
they fled, and Celzeno, one of them, perching on a
lofty rock, foretold that though they would reach
Italy, they would not be able to found a city till
famine should have forced them to eat the very
tables off which they fed.

They sailed thence northwards till they came to
Epirus, where, landing at Buthrétum, they learned
that Hélenus one of the sons of king Priam was
ruling over that part of the country, and was
married to Andrémache the widow of his brother
214 THE VOYAGE OF ZNEAS.

Hector, whom Pyrrhus had given to him when he
himself sought the hand of the daughter of Mene-
laiis. The Trojans naturally met a most hospitable
reception from the prophetic son of Priam, and
when they were about to depart he loaded them
with gifts; and telling Ainéas the part of Italy he
was to sail for, he gave him ample directions how
to proceed.

Leaving Buthrétum, they sailed across the Adri-
atic to Italy, along the coast of which they di-
rected their course southwards. They landed at
the foot of Mount Aitna in Sicily, where the Cy-
clopes dwelt, and here meeting one of the com-
panions of Ulysses, who had been left behind and
had led a most wretched life during more than two
months in the woods, they took him on board, and
sailing thence went round Sicily. They landed
at Drépanum, on the west coast of the island, and
here Anchises died.

When they put to sea again, a violent tempest,
sent forth by Aolus at the request of Juno, who
hated the Trojans, scattered them over the sea.
Some of the ships were lost; the remainder were
driven to the coast of Africa, where Dido was then
building the city of Carthage. This princess was
sister to Pygmalion king of Tyre, who had secretly
THE VOYAGE OF ANBAS. 215

murdered her husband Sicheeus for his wealth ; but
the ghost of Sichzeus had appeared to her and re+
vealed the deed and counselled flight. She was
joined by her friends, and by those who feared or
hated the tyrant, and she founded the future rival
city of Rome.

Jupiter, at the request of Venus, had sent Mér-
cury to predispose Dido and her subjects in fa:
vour of the Trojans. Their reception therefore
was kind in the extreme, and Dido conceived a
passion for the Trojan prince which proved to her
a source of woe; for Fame having divulged the ti-
dings through Africa, they reached the ears of Iar-
bas king of Mauritania, one of her rejected suitors.
Jupiter, his sire, sent Mércury at his prayer once
more to Carthage to reproach Ainéas with his
delay and to urge his departure for Italy. In obe-
dience to the god Ainéas secretly prepared to de-
part. When it came to the ears of Dido, she em-
ployed prayers and reproaches in vain to detain
him, and when she found that he finally had gotten
on board and sailed away in the night, she ascended
a funeral pyre which she previously had con-
structed, and slew herself with a sword he had
left behind him.

Ainéas returned to Drépanum, and as it was
216 THE VOYAGE OF ZNEAS.

now exactly a year since his father had died, he
celebrated in his honour funeral games, consisting

+ of a ship-race, a foot-race, boxing with the cestus,
shooting with the bow, and a sham fight of Trojan
boys on horseback. But while the games were
going on, the Trojan women, instigated by Iris, set
fire to the ships in order to compel the men to stay
and settle in Sicily; and, but for a storm of rain
sent by Jupiter at the prayer of Ainéas, the whole
fleet would have been consumed. In the night the
spirit of his father appeared to Ainéas, and telling
him of the wars that awaited him in Italy, directed
him to leave with Acestes, a Trojan prince who
reigned in that part of the island, the women, the
aged and the useless part of his people.

This was done, and the remaining ships put to
sea, and by the favour of Neptune the Trojans ar-
rived in safety at Cumee in Italy, the abode of one
of the prophetic women named Sibyls. Hélenus had
directed Ainéas to consult her, and Anchises had
told him that she would conduct him down to the
under world, where he was abiding in bliss. The
Sibyl, inspired by Apollo, foretold to the hero the
wars he had to wage, and added that his safety
would first come from a Grecian town. She di-
rected him to procure a golden bough, the gift to
THE VOYAGE OF ZNEAS. 217

Préserpine, in the neighbouring wood. His mo-
ther’s doves lead him to the bough, which he plucks
with ease—a sign that he was called by Destiny to
visit the realm of Pluto alive. The Sibyl offers
the appointed sacrifices, the ground rocks, the
howling of dogs announces the presence of the god-
dess of the night, Aineas draws his sword ; they
enter the dark descent, and proceed in gloom till
they come to Acheron over which they are fer-
ried by Charon. The Sibyl throws to Cérberus a
medicated cake prepared for the purpose, and he
falls asleep when he has swallowed it. They enter
the gate and come to where Minos sits judging :
they pass through the abode of those who had
died by their own hand, and here Ainéas sees Dido,
but she flies from him. They next come to the
abode of the heroes, and leaving Tértarus, round
which Phlégethon flows, on the left, they at length
reach the blissful plains of Elysium, the abode of
the peculiar favourites of the gods. Here, in a fra-
grant valley, Aindas finds his father, who shows
him the souls which were to return to earth to ani-
mate the bodies of the future great of Rome, and
tells the deeds they were to perform. He finally
dismisses him and the Sibyl through the ivory gate
of dreams, and they return to Cume. |
U
218 THE VOYAGE OF ZNEAS.

The Trojans now pursued their voyage along the
Italian coast, and at length they reached the mouth
of the river Tiber, in Latium, the country in which
they were to settle. Here, as they made their first
meal on shore, they used their cakes for trenchers,
and when all the other food was consumed they
began to eat up themalso. ‘ Ho!” cried out Tilus
in sport, “we are eating our tables too.” Ainéas
caught the words, which so well explained the
direful prophecy of the Harpy. He worshiped
Jupiter and the other gods, and the king of Hea-
ven thundered aloud and shook a glittering cloud
in the sky to assure them of his favour.

The country around was at this time governed
by a prince named Latinus, the son of Faunus
and the nymph Marfca. He had only one child
living, a daughter named Lavinia, who was sought
in marriage by all the neighbouring princes. The
queen Amdta was urgent in behalf of Turnus
prince of the Rutulians, but prodigies sent by the
gods deterred the king from giving his assent.
In his perplexity he sought counsel of his prophe-
tic sire, whose oracle was the guide of Italy. He
slew a hundred sheep, and lay upon their fleeces,
as was the custom, in the grove of Albtinea, and
in the gloom of the night he heard the voice of
THE VOYAGE OF ZNEAS. 219

his sire from the depths of the wood telling him
that his son-in-law was to come from afar, and
was to be no Italian. Fame soon spread the re-
port, and all the country was in expectation at
the time when the Trojans landed.

The envoys whom Ainéas sent to Latinus, re-
questing permission to settle in the country, were
received with the greatest favour; the king told
them the response of the oracle, and expressing his
belief that Aunéas was his destined son-in-law, in-
vited him to his palace. But as the envoys were
joyously returning, mounted on the horses which
Latinus sent to Aunéas, Juno, who was passing
over Sicily in her way from Argos, beheld the
Trojan fleet at anchor in the Tiber. Filled with
rage, she summoned the Fury Alecto from Ere-
bus, and charged her to break the peace and stir
up war.

Alecto first seeks the palace of Latinus, where
she casts one of her snakes into the bosom of
Amita, and fills her with rage. She then en-
ters the palace of Turnus at A’rdea, in the form
of an old woman, the priestess of Juno, and telling
him the news, flings her torch into his bosom and
excites him to war. Then mounting on her dusky
wings she comes to where lilus and his com-

v2
220 THE VOYAGE OF £NEAS.

panions are hunting, and inspiring the dogs with
a sudden madness, makes them hunt a pet stag be-
longing to Silvia the daughter of Tyrrheus, chief
herdsman of king Latinus. Tilus wounds the stag,
which flies home and dies at the feet of its mistress.
Tyrrheus with his sons and friends attack the Tro-
jans; and Alecto, having completed her task, re-
turns to her native gloom.

War against the Trojans was now resolved on,
Latinus in vain opposing it. All the tribes and
peoples south of the Tiber, as far as the Vulturnus,
joined by allies from Etruria and the Apennines,
took arms. Envoys were even sent to invite
Diomédes, who had settled in Apulia, to come and
assist in the war.

As AEnéas, anxious about the approaching war,
lay asleep one night on the banks of the Tiber, the
god of the river appeared to him, and bade him not
to fear. As a sign, he told him that he would find
next morning, lying beneath the trees on the banks
of the stream, a white sow and thirty white young
ones. He informed him that higher up the rivera
colony led by Evander from Arcadia had settled,
whom he advised him to visit and seek to gain
their alliance.

In the morning Ainéas found the white sow and’
THE VOYAGE OF ZNEAS. 221

her young, which he sacrificed to Juno. He then
sailed with two ships up the river to Pallantéum,
the city of Evander, which stood on one of the hills
(the Palatine) where Rome afterwards rose. The
Arcadian prince receives him most kindly, and
promises to aid him with four hundred horsemen
led by his son Pallas. He also tells him that there
was at that moment a large army of Tuscans as-
sembled, eager to take vengeance on Mezentius
their tyrannical prince, who had sought refuge with
Turnus ; but that a soothsayer detained them, de-
claring that they could only be victorious if led
by a foreigner. Ainéas repairs to the camp of the
Tuscans, and they joyfully embark on the Tiber;
deeming themselves now certain of victory.

Meantime Turnus had made a furious attack on
the camp of the Trojans, and he was preparing to
burn the fleet, when at the request of the mother
of the Gods, of whose pines they were built, Jupiter
changed the ships into nymphs. In the midst of
the conflict, Aunéas and the Tuscans arrive, the
battle is renewed with vigour, Pallas is slain by
Turnus, and Mezentius falls by the hand of Ainéas,
who is clad in armour forged for him by Vulcan at
the request of his mother Venus.

After the funeral rites of the slain had been
222 THE VOYAGE OF ANEAS.

performed, AEnéas led his army against the Latin
capital. A battle is fought under its walls, in
which the female warrior Camilla, who led a troop
of Volscian horse, is slain, and the Latins are
defeated.

Turnus now challenges Ainéas to a single com-
bat. The Trojan warrior joyfully accepts his in-
vitation ; the truce is made by king Latinus in
person ; but ere the heroes engage, the Latins, in-
cited by the goddess Juturna, Turnus’ sister, who
comes among them at Juno’s instigation in the
form of a man, break the truce. Ainéas, who is
unarmed, is wounded, but he is miraculously cured
by the aid of his mother, and then encountering
Turnus in the fray, slays him and ends the war.

/Enéas espoused Lavinia, and from him were
descended the founders of Rome.

THE END.
INDEX.



Arsyrtvs, 160, 16].

Acastus, 147.

Acestes, 216.

Acheldiis, 74, 92, 134.

A’cheron, 33, 217.

Achilles, 148, 177, 180, 182,
187, 202.

Acrisius, 23, 107, 112.

Actzeon, 51.

Admétus, 48, 155.

Adénis, 54.

Adrastus, 168, 169.

H’acus, 23, 32, 146.

Aiea, 199.

Aétes, 18, 42, 154, 159.

Aigeus, 136, 138, 139, 146.

Aegina, 23, 146.

Agis, 21.

Agisthus, 149, 190, 193.

AKmiathion, 17, 130.

Rnéas, 54, 174, 211-222.

F’olus, 197, 214.

J’sacus, 175.

Asculdpius, 47, 199.

Asépus, 181.

JEson, 152.

Ather, 10. :

Athiopians, 8, 181, 182.

Atthra, 136.

Agamemnon, 150, 176, 178,
180, 189, 202.

Agave, 71, 165.

Aganippides, 73.

Agénor, 25, 163.

Ages of the World, 101.

Aglaia, 75.

Aglauros, 63.

Ajax Oileus, 189.

Ajax Télamon, 177, 182, 202.

Alcestis, 48, 79.

Alcinoiis, 42, 207.

Alemzeon, 171, 172.

Aleména, 22, 116, 117, 202.

Alecto, 76, 219.

Alphéiis, 86, 92, 124.

Altheea, 152.

Amalthéa, 21.

Amata, 218.

Amazons, 115, 126, 180.

Ambrosia, 3.

Amphiaraiis, 151, 159, 168,
169, 170.

Amphion, 23, 52.

Amphitrite, 28, 89, 90.

_ Amphitryon, 22, 116.
_ A’mycus, 156,
224

Anchises, 54, 174, 211, 214,
216,

Andrégeiis, 138.

Andrémache, 186, 189, 213.

Andrémeda, 111.

Anémone, 55.

Antzeus, 129.

Antigone, 167, 171.

Antilochus, 177, 181.

Antinoiis, 210.

Antiope, 22, 140, 202.

Antiphates, 198.

Aphrodite, 53.

Apollo, 21, 34, 43, 53, 182.

Arachne, 60.

Aredpagus, 40.

Ares, 39.

Aréte, 207.

Arethisa, 66, 86.

Arges, 10, 42.

Argo, 155.

Argonautic Expedition, 152.

Argus, 24, 155, 209.

Ariadne, 71, 139, 140, 202.

Arion, 29, 65.

Aristzus, 90.

Arsinoe, 172.

A’rtemis, 50.

Ascalaphus, 67.

A’sia, 89. :

Assaracus, 174.

Astéria, 13.

Astrea, 101.

Astrzus, 12.

Astyanax, 186.

Atalanta, 55, 151, 155.

A’thamas, 153.

Athens, 30.

Atlas, 13, 14, 129, 130.

INDEX.

Atreus, 149,

A'tropos, 75.

Atigeas, 18, 124, 132, 155.
Auréra, 13, 16, 17, 181, 182.
Autélycus, 51.

Auténoe, 165.

Bacchus, 69, 85.
Battus, 62.
Bellérophon, 113.
Belléna, 39, 97.
Boreas, 13.
Brazen Race, 102.
Bridreos, 10.
Brontes, 10, 42.
Busiris, 130.

Cadmus, 163.

Calais, 155, 157.

Calchas, 178, 183, 185.

Calliope, 44, 72, 74.

Callirrhoe, 172.

Callisto, 24.

Camilla, 222.

Calydonian Hunt, 52, 150.

Calypso, 205.

Capaneus, 169, 170, 171.

Capys, 174,

Cassandra, 45, 175, 189, 190,
213.

Cassiopéa, 111.

Castalides, 73.

Castor, 23, 151, 155, 176.

Celzno, 213..

Céleus, 67.

Centaurs, 122, 123,

Céphalus, 16, 145.

Cepheus, 111. ~

Cérberus, 32, 131, 217.
INDEX.

Céreyon, 137.

Ceres, 13, 21, 34, 64.

Cestus, 54.

Ceto, 11, 109.

Chaos, 9.

Chariclo, 60.

Charites, 75.

Charon, 32, 217.

Charybdis, 162, 205.

Chimera, 114.

Chione, 51.

Chiron, 47, 123, 147, 153.

Chrysévr, 110, 127.

Ciconians, 193.

Circe, 18, 91, 161, 162, 199,
202, 204.

Citheron, 71, 117.

clio, 72.

Clotho, 34, 75.

Club-bearer, 136.

Clymene, 89.

Clytamnestra, 23, 176, 189.

Cocftus, 33.

Coeus, 10, 12.

Colchis, 154.

Copreus, 120.

Corénis, 35, 46.

Cosmology, 6.

Cottus, 10.

Creon, 118, 166.

Cretan Bull, 125.

Creiti’sa, 163, 175.

Crius, 10, 12.

Cume, 217.

Cupid, 45, 56.

Curétes, 21.

Cyane, 66.

Cybele, 55, 93, 94.

Cyclépes, 10, 42, 48, 194.

Cylléne, mount, 62.
Cyparissus, 49.
Cyréne, 46.

Damastes, 137.

Danae, 23, 107.

Danaiis, 35.

Danaides, 35.

Daphne, 45.

Dardanus, 173.

Day, 10.

Death, 10, 48, 79.

Deianeira, 134.

Deidaimia, 184.

Dei’phobus, 175, 186.

Deméter, 64.

Deriades, 70.

Deucalion, 105.

Didna, 16, 21, 24, 26, 34, 50,
150, 178.

Diana of E’phesus, 95.

Dictys, 108, 112.

Dido, 214, 217.

Dike, 74.

Diomédes, 171,177, 184, 185,
188, 220.

Diomédes of Thrace, 125.

Didne, 21.

Dionfsus, 69.

Dirce, 22, 23.

Discord, 37.

Doris, 11, 28, 89.

Dreams, 10, 80.

Dryades, 85.

Earth, 8, 11, 77, 89, 129, 133.
Echidna, 90, 114.
Echo, 82, 86.

| Eidéthea, 192.
226

Electra, 11, 15, 77, 89, 173,
190, 191.

Elysium, 8, 32, 33, 217.

Encéladus, 133.

Endymion, 19.

Envy, 13.

Enyo, 97.

Eésphorus, 16.

Epaphus, 18, 24.

Epéiis, 59.

Epimétheus, 13, 103.

Erato, 73.

Erebus, 9, 33, 147.

Erechtheus, 145.

Erinnyes, 76.

Eriphyle, 169, 202.

Eros, 56.

Erymanthian Boar, 122.

Erymanthus, mount, 122.

Erysichthon, 67.

Eryx, mount, 65.

Etéocles, 167, 168.

Evadne, 171.

Evander, 220.

Eumeus, 208, 209, 210.

Euménides, 76.

Eundmia, 74.

Euphrésyne, 75.

Eupithes, 211.

Eurépa, 25, 163.

Eurybia, 12.

Eurycléa, 193, 209.

Eurfdice, 44.

Eurflochus, 199, 204.

Eurynome, 21, 75, 89.

Eurspylus, 184.

Eurystheus, 118.

Eurftion, 128, 147.

Earytus, 134.

INDEX.

Euterpe, 72.

Fates, 48, 75, 77, 152.
Faunus, 98.

Ferénia, 98.

Flora, 40, 98.

Floralia, 98.

Force, 13.

Furies, 76, 190, 191.

Galatéa, 89.
Ganymédes, 78, 174, 184.
Géryon, 127.

Giants, 10, 132, 133.
Glaucus, 90.

Gods, description of, 2.
Golden Race, 101.
Golden Fleece, 153.
Gorgons, 11, 90, 109.
Graces, 21, 75, 103.
Gree, 11, 90, 109.
Gyges, 10.

Hades, 31.

Halcyoneus, 133.
Halirrhéthius, 40.
Hamadrfades, 85.
Harmonia, 40, 164.

Harpies, 11, 157, 213.
Heaven, 10, 77.

Hebe, 5,21, 78, 135,
Hécate, 13, 19, 52.

Hector, 175, 179, 180.
Hécuba, 175, 187.

Helen, 23, 141, 176, 177, 191.
Hélenus, 175, 189, 213, 216.
Hélicon, 73.

Hélius, 13, 17.

| Helle, 29, 154.
INDEX. 927

Hepheestus, 41. Io, 23.
Hera, 36. l’ola, 134.
Hércules, 15, 22, 37, 116, | Iolais, 120, 121.

135, 155, 202. I’phicles, 116.
Hermes, 61. Iphigenia, 178, 191.
Hermione, 189. Iphimedeia, 29.
Hersa, 19, 63. I’phitus, 132.
Hesione, 127, 132, 175. Iréne, 74.
Hespérides, 10, 129. Iris, 11, 37, 77.
Hestia, 13. Iron Race, 102.
Hippocréne, 73. Irus, 209.
Hippodamfa, 108, 148. Isis, 95.
Hippdlyta, 126. Isméne, 167.
Hippdélytus, 140, 142. | Itys, 144.
Hippémedon, 169. Talus, 211, 218, 219.
Hippémenes, 55. Ixion, 35, 123.
Horned hind, 121.
Hours, 74, 182. Janus, 96.
Hundred-handed, 10, 14. Jason, 59, 151, 153.
Hyacinthus, 49. Japetus, 10, 13.
Hydra of Lerna, 120. Jobates, 114, 115.
Hylas, 155. Jocasta, 165.
Hymenzus, 57. Juno, 13, 36, 219.
Hyperbéreans, 7, 130. Jupiter, 13, 20.
Hyperion, 10, 13. Justice, 77.
Hypsipyla, 155. Juturna, 222.
Hyrieus, 26.

Keres, 75.

larbas, 215. Kimmérians, 7, 79.
I’celus, 80. Kronus, 95.
Ichor, 3.
Idea, 157. Lachesis, 75.
Ida, mount, 54. Laertes, 151, 155, 208, 211.
Idas, 46, 151, 155. Lestrygonians, 198.
Idémeneus, 188. Laius, 165.
llithyiz, 75. Lampétia, 203, 204.
Tlus, 174. Lampsacus, 85.
['nachus, 92. Laécoén, 186.

Ino, 70, 91, 165. Laémedon, 127, 132, 174.
228

Lapiths, 124.

Lares, 99.

Latinus, 218, 219, 222.
Laténa, 12, 21, 34, 43.
Lavinia, 218, 222.
Leda, 23, 176, 202.
Lethe, 33.

Leucothea, 91, 206.
Libéthrides, 73.
Libitina, 97.

Lichas, 135.
Limnfades, 86.
Limoniades, 85.
Linus, 74, 117.
Lotus-eaters, 194.
Love, 9.

Lycéon, 24, 26.
Lycomédes, 142, 183.
Lynceus, 36, 151, 155.

Machaon, 178.
Maia, 15, 21, 61.
Marathonian Bull, 138.
Marpessa, 46.
Mars, 21, 39.
Marsyas, 49.
Medéa, 138, 159.
Medisa, 110.
Megeera, 76.
Mégara, 118.
Melanippus, 170.
Melanthius, 210.
Melantho, 29.
Meleager, 150, 155.
Melfades, 85.
Melpémene, 72, 74.
Memnon, 17, 181.
Memnons, 182.

Menelaiis, 150, 177,186, 191.

{

ee ee

INDEX.

Menee’tius, 13, 131.

Mentor, 59, 208.

Mércury, 21, 23, 24, 32, 61.

Metis, 14, 58, 89.

Mezentius, 221.

Midas, 49, 84.

Milky Way, origin of, 37.

Minerva, 5, 30, 58, 78, 185.

Minos, 18, 25, 32, 42, 139,
146, 202, 217.

Minotaur, 139.

Mnemésyne, 10, 21, 72.

Moly, 200.

Momus, 10, 78.

Morpheus, 80.

Muses, 5, 21, 72, 183.

Mjrmidons, 147.

Myrrha, 54.

Myrtilus, 148.

Mysians, 184.

Mythology, 2.

Naiades, 85.

Napee, 85.

Narcissus, 87.

Nauplius, 187, 188.
Nausicaa, 206.

Nectar, 3.

Neleus, 29. .

Nemezan Lion, 119.
Némesis, 10, 79.
Neuptélemus, 184, 186, 189.
Néphela, 153.

Neptune, 13, 28, 78.
Nereus, 11, 28, 89, 129.
Neréides, 11, 89, 111, 183.
Nessus, 134,

Nestor, 151, 177, 188, 191.
Night, 10, 79.
INDEX.

Niobe, 52.
Nisus, 146.
Notus, 13.
Nycteus, 22.
Nymphs, 85.

Océanus (Ocean), 7-12, 15,
25, 58, 89, 128.

Oceanides, 12, 89.

(E’dipus, 165-168.

(Eneus, 52, 134, 150.

(Endémaiis, 149.

(Enéne, 176, 185.

Ogygia, 205.

Olympus, mount, 4, 7, 14.

O’mphale, 132.

Order, 77.

Oréades, 85.

Orestes, 190, 191, 193.

Orion, 16, 26, 202.

Orpheus, 44, 74, 1595.

Orphna, 67.

Osiris, 95.

Othrys, mount, 14.

Otus and Ephialtes, 29.

Peon, 77.
Palemon, 91.
Palamédes, 188.
Pales, 98.

Palilia, 98.
Palladium, 174.
Pallas, 12, 13, 221.
Pallas Athéne, 58. _
Pan, 81.

Pandora, 102.
Paris, 38, 175, 176, 177, 185.
Parnassus, 73, 105.
Parthenopeeus, 169.

229

Pasiphae, 18, 139.
Patréclus, 177, 180.
Peace, 77.
Pégasus, 110, 114.
Peleus, 37, 147, 151, 155.
Pélias, 29, 152, 153.
Pélion, 124.
Pelopia, 149.
Pelops, 34, 148.
Penates, 99, 211, 212.
Penélope, 81,176, 208, 210.
Penéiis, 92, 124.
Penthesiléa, 180.
Pentheus, 70.
Persa, 18.
Perséphone, 64.
Perses, 13.
Perseus, 23, 107.
Pheeacians, 206.
Pheedra, 141, 202.
Phééthon, 16, 18.
Phaéthiasa, 203.
Phantasos, 80.
Pharos, 192.
Phegeus, 172.
Philammon, 51.
Philémon and Baucis, 26.
Philoctétes, 178, 179, 185,
188.

Philcetius, 210.
Philoméla, 143.
Phineus, 111, 156.
Phlégethon, 33, 217.
Phlégyas, 35, 46.
Phocus, 147.
Phoebe, 10, 12.
Pholus, 122.
Phorcys, 11, 89, 109.
Phrixus, 29, 154.

x
220

Phthia, 182.

Phyleus, 124, 132.

Pieria, 62, 73.

Piérides, 73.

Pindus, 73.

Pirithoiis,
151.

Pittheus, 149.

Pitys, 82.

Pleasure, 57.

Pleiades, 15, 182.

Pluto, 13, 31, 141.

Plutus, 65.

Podalirius, 178, 185.

Poeas, 135, 155.

Pollux, 23, 150, 155, 156,
176.

Polydectes, 108, 112.

Polydérus, 212,

Polyides, 114.

Polymnestor, 212.

Poly’mnia, 73.

Polynices, 167-170.

Polyphémus, 30, 89,
156, 195.

Polytheism, 1.

Polfyxena, 175, 187.

Poména, 98.

Pontus, 10, 11, 89.

Poseidon, 28.

Priam, 174.

Priapus, 85.

Procne, 143.

Procris, 145, 202.

Procrustes, 137.

Preetus, 113.

Prométheus, 13, 15, 102, 130.

- Préserpine, 21, 31, 64, 65,

217.

124, 131, 140,

155,

INDEX.

Protesilaiis, 178, 179.
Proteus, 90, 192, 193.
Psyche, 56.
Pygmalion, 214.
Pylades, 190, 191.
Pyréneus, 74.
Pyriphlégethon, 33.
Pyrrha, 105.

Python, 45.

Quirinus, 96.

Rhadamanthus, 25, 32.—
Rhea, 10, 13, 28, 64, 95.
Rhoda, 29.

Rheecus, 88.

River-gods, 92.

Salméneus, 25, 39.

Sarpédon, 25.

Saturn, 10, 13, 64.

Satyrs, 84,

Scean gate, 182.

Schéria, 162,

Sciron, 137.

Scylla, 91, 146, 162, 203,
205.

Sea (the Mediterranean), 7.

Seasons, 4, 21, 74, 103.

Seléna, 13, 19, 82.

Sémele, 69, 165.

Sichzeus, 215.

Sibyls, 216, 217.

Silénus, 83.

Silvanus, 98.

Silver Race, 101.

Silvia, 220.

Sinis, 137.

Sinon, 186.
INDEX.

Sirens, 74, 162, 202, 203.
Sisiphus, 34, 202.
Sleep, 10, 79.
Sélymi, 115.

Sphinx, 166.

Stéllio, 66.

Stéropes, 10, 42.
Sthénelus, 171, 177.
Sthenobeea, 113, 115.
Strength, 13.
Stréphius, 190.
Stymphalis, 125.
Styx, 13, 32.
Sun-god, 128, 130.
Symplégades, 158.
Syrinx, 82.

Talos, 42, 162.

Tantalus, 34, 52, 202.

Tartarus, 8, 9, 32, 33, 133,
217.

Taygetus, mount, 81.

—" 132, 147, 151, 155,

Telémachus, 59, 188, 208.

Tereus, 143.

Términus, 97.

Terpsichore, 73.

Tethys, 10, 25, 89.

Teucer, 174, 177, 189.

Thalia, 73, 75.

Thaumas, 11, 77. .

Thea, 10, 13.

Theban Wars, 163.

Themis, 10, 21, 74, 77.

Thersander, 171, 172.

Theogony, 9.

Thedphane, 29.

Theseus, 131, 136, 151, 155.

231

Théstius, 117, 118.

Thetis, 37, 89, 148, 182.

Thoo’sa, 30.

Thrinakia, 203.

Thyestes, 149.

Tiphys, 155.

Tirésias, 60, 170, 171, 201,
204.

Tisiphone, 76.

Titans, 10, 12, 14.

Tithénus, 16, 17, 174.

Tityus, 33, 202.

Tmolus, mount, 49.

Touchstone, 63.

_ Triptélemus, 67.

Triton, 29, 90.
Tréilus, 175.

Tros, 174.

Trojan War, 173.
Troy, 174.

Turnus, 218, 221.
Tydeus, 168, 169, 170.
Tyndareiis, 23, 176.
Typhon, 133.

Tyro, 29, 202.
Tyrrheus, 220.

Ulysses, 176, 183, 184, 185,
188, 193-211.

Urania, 73.

U’ranus, 10, 76.

Venus, 10, 21, 53, 85.
Vertumuus, 97, 98.
Vesta, 13, 96, 212.
Victory, 13.

Vulcan, 5, 21, 41, 54, 78.

Wandering Rocks, 203.
2x
232 INDEX.
Water-Deities, 89. Zéphyrus, 13.
Winds, 13. Zetes, 155, 157.
Zethus, 22.
Youth, 97. Zeus, 20.
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