Front Cover
 Title Page
 Back Cover

Group Title: Costumes of Europe : with descriptions of the people, manners, and customs
Title: Costumes of Europe
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00002242/00001
 Material Information
Title: Costumes of Europe with descriptions of the people, manners, and customs
Alternate Title: Costumes of Europe
Physical Description: 128 p., 16 p. : ill. (some col.) ; 15 cm.
Language: English
Creator: C.G. Henderson, & Co ( Publisher )
Smith & Peters ( Printer )
Publisher: C.G. Henderson
Place of Publication: Philadelphia
Manufacturer: Smith & Peters
Publication Date: 1852
Subject: Costume -- Juvenile literature -- Europe   ( lcsh )
National characteristics -- Juvenile literature   ( lcsh )
Social life and customs -- Juvenile literature -- Europe   ( lcsh )
Hand-colored illustrations -- 1852   ( local )
Publishers' advertisements -- 1852   ( rbgenr )
Pictorial cloth bindings (Binding) -- 1852   ( rbbin )
Bldn -- 1852
Genre: Hand-colored illustrations   ( local )
Publishers' advertisements   ( rbgenr )
Pictorial cloth bindings (Binding)   ( rbbin )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
Spatial Coverage: United States -- Pennsylvania -- Philadelphia
Statement of Responsibility: by a traveller through Europe.
General Note: Publisher's catalogue: 16 pages at end.
General Note: Baldwin Library lacks pages 15-16.
General Note: Some ill. are hand colored.
General Note: Illustrated with 24 engravings.
Funding: Brittle Books Program
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00002242
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: aleph - 002224781
oclc - 07423745
notis - ALG5049
 Related Items
Other version: Alternate version (PALMM)
PALMM Version

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front page i
        Front page ii
    Title Page
        Front page iii
        Front page iv
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 18
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
        Page 30
        Page 31
        Page 32
        Page 33
        Page 34
        Page 35
        Page 36
        Page 37
        Page 38
        Page 39
        Page 40
        Page 41
        Page 42
        Page 43
        Page 44
        Page 45
        Page 46
        Page 47
        Page 48
        Page 49
        Page 50
        Page 51
        Page 52
        Page 53
        Page 54
        Page 55
        Page 56
        Page 57
        Page 58
        Page 59
        Page 60
        Page 61
        Page 62
        Page 63
        Page 64
        Page 65
        Page 66
        Page 67
        Page 68
        Page 69
        Page 70
        Page 72
        Page 73
        Page 74
        Page 75
        Page 75
        Page 76
        Page 77
        Page 78
        Page 79
        Page 80
        Page 81
        Page 82
        Page 83
        Page 84
        Page 85
        Page 86
        Page 87
        Page 88
        Page 89
        Page 90
        Page 91
        Page 92
        Page 93
        Page 94
        Page 95
        Page 96
        Page 97
        Page 98
        Page 99
        Page 100
        Page 101
        Page 102
        Page 103
        Page 104
        Page 105
        Page 106
        Page 107
        Page 108
        Page 109
        Page 110
        Page 111
        Page 112
        Page 113
        Page 114
        Page 115
        Page 116
        Page 117
        Page 118
        Page 119
        Page 120
        Page 121
        Page 122
        Page 123
        Page 124
        Page 125
        Page 126
        Page 127
        Page 128
        Page 129
        Page 130
        Page 131
        Page 132
        Page 133
        Page 134
        Page 135
        Page 136
        Page 137
        Page 138
        Page 139
        Page 140
        Page 141
        Page 142
        Page 143
        Page 144
        Page 145
    Back Cover
        Page 146
        Page 147
Full Text













No. 164 CHESTNUT 8' *
1852. ..


Entered according to Act of Congress, in the year 1852,
in the Clerk's Office of the District Court of the United States,
in and for the Eastern District of Pennsylvania.

FF&rkliuZ Dui'dinta. Sixth Stred below Am,). Phaladletbm



THESE people are remarkable, both for
their manners and their costume. They
live in a part of Scotland called the High-
lands, or mountain districts. The scenery
in these parts is rude and wild. Craggy
rocks are piled upon each other in the
greatest confusion, and so as to admit no
footway between them. Down these, ra-
pid torrents, swelled by rain and mel1td
snow, rush with great noise, and-a
times carry away the flocks, veget:4

*' .'-*
* Voj


and even the houses of the. inhabitants.
The winters in the Highlands are very
severe. Sometimes during several days
snow falls so fast and thick, that the air
seems like a thick white cloud, through
which nothing can be seen. It covers
rocks and trees, and buries oxen and
sheep beneath it. If any traveller loses
his way among these wild mountains dur-
ing a snow storm, he is sure to perish.
On one occasion seven young men were
overwhelmed in this manner. Two of
them were brothers. When the younger
brother sunk in the snow, the other
stooped down and felt him. He became
convinced that it was his own brother;
and raising him upon his shoulders, he
travelled on with him, hoping to reach



some house before he would fall. One after
another of his companions sunk down;
but still he went on, carrying his brother
on his back. At last he reached a house;
but was so much exhausted, that when
the people came out he sank down a4
died. The younger brother had revived..
from the heat imparted to him by his
brother's body; and he alone of all the
seven was saved. Afterwards the six
bodies were dug out of the snow, and
buried in one grave.
Yet the Highlanders love their cold
country, and are rarely known to leave
it. They are a brave and hardy people,
and in war, make some of the best soldiers
in the world. They delight in dancing,
hunting the stag, reciting stories of t e r
-. A .. '
V 7", W



old warriors, and playing on a kind of a
musical instrument called the bagpipe.
Their dress is the coarse worsted cloth,
called Scotch plaid, which they fashion
in various ways; and on the head they
wear a bonnet or turban of the same
material, ornamented with a large feather.






FINLAND is a cold country belonging to
Russia. In some parts it contains many
rocks, and a few high .mountains; in
others it is flat, sandy, and marshy.
There_ are many lakes in the southern
and eastern districts, all of which con-
tain excellent fish. In general the aoi
is not fit for cultivation; the best p1o-
tions of it produce grain, potatoes, and
flax. Cattle, sheep, and horses are fed
in the pastures. The woods are large
and gloomy, affording a place of refuge
for wolves, bears, and other wild animals.
The hunting of these forms a chi -


pation of the inhabitants. Fishing is
also a favorite as well as a lucrative
The Finns are small in stature, but
stout. Their countenances are generally
flat, their cheeks sunken, and their com-
plexion swarthy. They have gray eyes,
and yellow hair. Some of them till the
soil, others lead a wandering life-hunt-
ing, fishing, or tending cattle. The bet-
ter part of the nation are a sober indus-
trious people, inured to hardship, fear-
less and brave. To strangers they are
kind and hospitable; but apt to be ob-
stinate when opposed. They are fond
of poetry and music, and learn rapidly.
The picture shows that they are not
waiting in taste, with respect to dressing.





i 1





savage as the wolves and bears, which
roam through the vast Russian forests.
But the Russians do not depend upon
their warm dress as much as we do to
shield them from the cold. They are
inured to it from infancy. One of their
children ten years old would laugh and
play in the open air without hat* coat,
on, in weather that would make an Ame-
rican numb. It is said that their infants
are every morning plunged into icy cold
water, so that in a few years they can
endure the most severe weather. The
children at school often amuse themselves
by building snow-houses and snow-frts,
some of them are so large that they re-
main standing until spring. The Rus- *
sians are fond of holidays-especially
X. &


Christmas, when they enjoy themselves
fully as much as the people of England
or America do.
In that part of the Russian dominions
called Siberia, the inhabitants hunt the
sable, the martin, and various kinds of
foxes, and other wild animals, whose furs
9are purchased by the Russian nobles at
a very high price. Below is a Siberian


. 4



PERHAPS you have all heard of Switzer-
land, the country where the Alps, the
highest mountains in Europe are situated.
This is a picture of the people and theif
mode of dress. One may know by ob-
serving their countenance that they are
an open-hearted, kind, and intelligent
people. They are likewise very brave.
During a period of more than five hun-
dred years, they have maintained their
freedom, often in. spite of the efforts of
great countries to subdue them. When
pursued by the armies of their enemies,
they went to the tops of high mountains


and rolled great stones upon the masses
of troops that were pursuing them.
William Tell, the brave patriot, who was
condemned by the tyrant Gesler to shoot
an apple from his child's head, and who
afterwards delivered his country from
Gesler's authority, was a Swiss. There
are many shepherds in Switzerland.
They lead a peaceful life, conducting
their flocks from one pasture to another,
without meddling with the noise and
bustle of city, life. Their flocks may
often be seen feeding beside the quiet
lakes, which are embosomed among the
tall mountains. Some of the Swiss live
by hunting the chamois. This is a dan-
gerous business, and the poor hunters
sometimes fall from great heights, and



re dashed to pieces on the rocks below.
it is dangerous to live among the moun-
tains of Switzerland; for masses of ice,
called avalanches, often roll from their
tops, sweeping away every thing that
opposes them. In this manner, men,
flocks, barns, and houses have been de-
stroyed. The Swiss are famous for their
skill in making watches, and ornamental
machinery. They are a religious people;
and none of their villages is without a
church and schools for religious instruc-
tion. It is pleasing to see these people
on a Sabbath morning, issuing fiom
their peaceful cottages, and moving to-
ward the venerable village church, whose
well known bell is ringing and echoing
among the quiet hills. The Swiss are



devoted to their country, and rarely
known to leave it.
Below are some Swiss hunting the
chamois, a species of wild goat that in-
habits the Alps.

7. awl;2

v: `





r f


I "jI "' If'I I':I
,I i r 'i I''1" il '''i ,,:
i r lii'
\ \ I\\

BUun H /-

\ \ z

K .\



THE Greeks are a remarkable people.
Once their nation:Was the greatest in
the world, and ruled over two-thirds of
the known world. Ancient history is full
of their wars, their conquests, and their
greatness. But this is not all that
makes their history wonderful. -Learn-
ing of every kind flourished among them.
Some of their poets, their sculptor! their
philosophers, have never been equal-d.
Greece taught all other nations. learned men knew more than these of ;
the people around. But a sad change
came over this beautiful land.' It was
4 '

conquered by barbarians, its learning
was gradually suppressed, nothing was
left of its former glory except the deserted
temples, and the statues which the
people had erected in the days of free-
dom. These still excite the wonder of
all nations. For many hundred years
the Greeks were slaves to the Turks.
Sometimes their masters would burn
their villages, murder the men, and sell
the women and their children into bond-
age in other lands. Then came a change.
The Greeks resolved to be free. Rising
upon their Turkish masters, they fought
as the old Greeks had fought more than
two thousand years ago. Other nations
helped them, for they pitied the poor
women who had been sold for slaves.




They drove the Turks from the country,
so that the Greeks were once more
The Greeks are a handsome people.
They have regular features, full dark
eyes, and elegantly rounded limbs. Ob-
serve in the picture how handsome, and
yet noble they appear. Their country
is one of the finest in the world. The
beauty of their moonlight nights, sur-
passes any thing of the kind ever seen
in this country. At this time the Greeks
love to be in the open air, and frequent-
ly spend the whole night in singing,
reciting stories, or dancing. But it is
sad to think that these people once so
great, have few learned men among then
-that the common peasantry of Greece




move as strangers among the marble
columns and sculptured temples raised
by their ancestors.
When the Greeks revolted from the
Turkish government, the Turks cruelly
massacred the inhabitants of Scio, one
of the beautiful islands inhabited by
Greeks. Below is a picture of the Mas-
sacre of Scio.







ITALY enjoys a delicious climate, and
abounds in the finest grapes, figs, prunes,
and other fruits. For this reason it has
been named the garden of Europe. Dur-
ing the summer, the sky is remarkable
for its clear deep blue color, and the air
for its softness. The Italians spend
much of their time out of doors, dancing-
playing on instruments of music, and
,singing. They are famous for their love
of music, and by many persons their
singers are considered the best in the 1
world. Very often Italian singers visit
our country, and earn large sums of



money by singing at concerts and operas.
There is another class of Italian musi-
cians whom we occasionally see in the
streets. They are called organ grinders.
I suppose every child has seen one of
these individuals, performing under the
window of some large house in the city.
The noise they make is intolerable except
to those who know nothing of music
Below is an Italian shepherd.



\ i\



HEmE is a picture of Spaniards danc-
ing the fandango,-for this is the name
they give to their favorite dance. We
would think people mad who would dance
in such style here; but the Spaniards
find so much enjoyment in it, that they
generally dance all night in the open
air. They are a singular people. Gene-
rally they appear grave and solemn, so
that you might suppose they never en-
joyed a pleasant hour; yet the Spaniard
can sing and play the guitar as merrily
as the Frenchman or the Italian. He is
fond of games of all kinds-I am sorry


to say that he delights especially in bull
fights. At these cruel exhibitions thous-
ands of spectators are sometimes pre-
sent, including rich people, nobles, and
even the king or queen. Pride is another
quality of the Spanish character. It has
caused many a quarrel between one gen-
tleman and another, and resulted in the
loss of many lives.
Spain was once a powerful country.
Its soldiers were dreaded throughout Eu-
rope, and its ships sailed in every sea.
It was from Spain that Columbus sailed
to discover America. Afterwards it con-
quered almost all of South America, and
and many parts of North America. But
these great possessions have long since
departed from her.




THIS is a picture of some Turks, You
perceive at once that their dress, their
manners, and their whole appearance
are different from ours. Their robes are
loose and flowing, and they wear pieces
of cloth, called turbans, instead of hats.
When sitting, their feet are doubled tn-
der them in a manner that would give
great pain to an American. They sit
on mats or low sofas instead of chairs,
eat without using forks, knives, or spoons,
place their cups of coffee on thie fl~r,
and smoke pipes three yards long. ITeir


laws, their customs, and their religion are
as singular as their habits.
Turkey enjoys a fine climate, and
abundance of the productions of the earth;
but the government is despotic. The
Turks were once a powerful people, but
they are now weak and contemptible.
They are fond of smoking opium, and
will sit whole days with a pipe in their
mouths, puffing, drinking coffee, and
sleeping. They do not allow their wo-
men to appear in public, or to speak
without permission in the presence of










GERMANY is an extensive region, di-
vided into many small countries, whose
inhabitants differ from each other in
dress, language, and other particulars.
The picture shows the dress of a few.
None of the Germans are so fond of dress
as the Spaniards and Italians are. Their
wish is to be comfortable; and when
this is gratified they are not anxious
about elegance or beauty.
The German people are kind, open-
hearted, and generous. They do not
boast of their honor like the Spaniard;
nor carry daggers to defend their good


name like the Italian; yet they have
far more true honor than either Spaniards.
or Italians have. Pride is no part of the
German character; but their great men
labor harder and acquire more honors
than those who look upon them with
contempt. There are many great scholars
in Germany; and the German artists,
especially those who labor in fine and
delicate instruments, are the best in the
world. Wherever they go they are sure
to obtain employment; because they
form not only useful but quiet citizens.
S Germany is famous for its strong cas-
tles, its wide, gloomy forests, and its
many noble churches. Some of the cas-
Stles are very old. They were built by
chieftains who lived a thousand years



families were protected
walls and massy gates. In
rests many deer, bears, and wild
rs once lived. These the old Germans
fond of hunting; and many stories
till told of the danger incurred while
i1g the wild boar, through mountain
e thick forests, and along the bor-
of rivers. Now these animals are
often met with in Germany; so that
oar hunt is no longer an amusement
'olg s and nobles.
i*any produces some of the ft.
w in the world. The vineyards 'an
the s of the Rhine are particular
celebta d, producing what is called tbe
Rhine Wnes. The wine which is pro-
duced on the estate of Prince Metternich



is called Johannisberg; and commands
an enormous price. Below is a company
of peasants gathering grapes for tlhe


~-tzj-- -# _




rV y


~/;~ /;r


THE Gipsies have no national home
They wander through the countries
of Europe in small parties, leading the
lives of beggars and vagrants,. they
are not white like European people, but
of a sallow complexion. It is not known
where they first came from. When
travelling they carry their tents and fur-
niture with them, and the mothers have
their children strapped in sacks on their
backs. They generally pass.the night
near hills or on a wide plain, ap erj
the dwellings of other people. iRach
times they spread their tents across


poles, cook their victuals in the open air,
and if the weather is not cold, spend
three or four hours telling tales or sing-
ing songs. Most people in Europe are
afraid of Gipsies; and the truth is that
these people are great thieves, neglecting
no opportunity to pilfer food or property,
They have been known to carry young
children from the cradle, and afterwards
bring them up as their own. Often they
have done so much mischief throughout
a particular country, that severe measures
were taken against all who could after-
wards be found in it.
The Gipsies are especially famous for
telling fortunes.








HERE0 are some very rough looking
characters. It would be hard to describe
their dress, since no two of them appear
to be dressed alike. These are Cossacks .
-a people who in battle are among Ate
most terrible horsemen of any know *-: ,
the present day. They live on the Wi.; '
ders of Russia and Turkey, and are g : '
rally regarded as forming a part of 1.6
Russian army in time of war. Beming
almost constantly on horseback, they are
the best riders in the world; and when
five or six thousand of them swoep dow,
against an enemy's army nothing can


withstand the shock. Sometimes they
ride without any saddle, and with no-
thing but a rope for a bridle. When
roving about from one place to another,
they often eat and sleep on horseback.
They are barbarous in peace and cruel
in war. In battle they give no quarter,
riding down those who flee or those who
Stand, and spearing the wounded that
may be lying on the ground. If they
take any prisoners they murder them
without mercy. A party of Cossacks
will sometimes enter a Turkish vil-
lage, tie the inhabitants, and carry
away every thing valuable that they can
find. In the wars of Russia with diffe-
rent nations they have been found more
efficient than even the Russian cavalry.

* '4


I 1C



HUNGARY was.once an independent na-
tion. It was ruled by its own king, and its
nobleswere brave and warlike. The people
were open-hearted, generous,- and brave.
Now Hungary is subject to Austria, and
its people are oppressed by the Austrian
soldiers. Yet they are still brave and
generous. The men are proud of their
descent from the old nobles who once
fought against the Austrians, and watch
for an opportunity to deliver themselves
from the yoke of their masters. They
have tried to do so several times, but ad


yet without success. Perhaps a time
will come when Hungary will be free.
These people like the Austrians are
fond of dress. The men generally wear
coats in the military style, with high
boots, and an ornamented cloak. The
women dress in various ways, but usually
with taste and elegance. They -are fond
of martial music and dancing.
There are many high mountains in
Hungary. To these the people retire
when the country is invaded by an
enemy. In some places the road between
the rocks is so narrow, that a few men
could drive back or destroy an army that
would attempt to pass through. In this
manner a small party of Hungarians has
sometimes defeated the Austrian forces


which were sent to enslave them. But
then in revenge, the enemy would deso-
late their fields, and burn their villages.
Hungary is at present much oppressed
by Austria. Her great men have been
shot or hanged, the peasantry have been
plundered, and many parts of the land
made desolate. Hundreds of these op-
pressed people driven from their homes
are now wandering through the different
countries of Europe seeking a place of
Some of them have come to our own
country, and have been received with
very cordial welcome. Among the rest
was the veteran general who had com-
manded the Hungarians during their long
and obstinate defence of the city of Co-


morn, which was beseiged by the Aus-
trian forces. Another interesting Hun-
garian exile is Mademoiselle Jagello, who
served as a lieutenant in the recent
struggle against the Austrian power.






iii '
-c-~~ ~'Y3sl


AtrTIIA is a large country in the sbuth-
ern part of Enrope. Its pe le are fond
of holidays, parades, and gCy dress. The
men wear clothes of very btig~t colors,
with feathers in their hats, and long
swords by their sides. The women deck
themselves ih a variety of ways. All
strive to appear as fine as they can, and
to wear the richest clothes they can 4a
ford. Some have their hair hangitt
round their shoulders in curls oi~
plaits; others place roses or other
in it; and many tie it with lon~g :ten
ribbons which hang down and fluttes in
5 (65)


the wind. Women as well as men learn
to smoke at a very early age.
Austria is a fine country. The climate
in most parts is warm and healthful.
There are long thick forests, noble rivers,
and high mountains. The soil produces
in abundance, grains, fruits, vegetables,
and useful trees. The people of such a
country would be happy if'they had
good rulers. But the Austrian rulers do
not care for the people. The nobles, as
they are called, despise the poor peasants
and laborers, and treat them cruelly.
They are obliged to pay many taxes to
support the emperor, the army, and the
rich clergy.
But though badly governed the Aus-
trians are generally cheerful. They deo



light to hear music and to dance. While
gathering their harvest or their vintage,
they make the fields resound with their
loud laughter and merry songs. The
children of the poorer classes have to
work when they are quite young; and
the women labor in the fields, ploughing,
reaping, and mowing, like the men. The
nobles are those who own great castles,
extensive fields, and much money.
The capital of Austria is Vienna. Here
the emperor and the court reside. It is
a very ancient and splendid city, aid
contains a great number of fine buildings
and beautiful works of art. Here they
have large and splendid opera houses,
and the finest music in the world may
be heard in them. The emperor has



several palaces in Vienna and its neigh-
borhood, and these palaces are adorned
with beautiful pictures and statues.







~-r 2~ r


SCLAVONIA is a small province in the
south-eastern part of the empire of Aus-
tria. It produces grain,fruits, and nuts
in great abundance. In the thick forests,
wild honey is found in large quantities;
while the mountain districts contain
valuable plants and minerals, many of
which are used in medicine. Excellent
fish are caught in the rivers.
The people of this country are called
Sclavonians. They are brave and cheer-
ful, and greatly attached to their own
land. Most of them are engaged in the
tending of cattle They roam with their


large flocks from place to place; but are
generally fond of the pasture at the bot-
tom of mountains, or near streams of
water. These people fight bravely for
their land, and will not allow the Aus-
trians to exercise much dominion over
them. But they have not much educa-
tion, There are few schools or learned
men in the country. The children in-
stead of being engaged with books until
they are twelve or fifteen years old,
learn to watch flocks of sheep to give
notice if a wolf approaches, to hunt for
honey in the woods, and to climb from
rock to rock of their high mountains.
Thus they become strong and healthy,
and-afterwards make able soldiers. Scla-
vonia is divided into a number of tribe.,


each of which has its own chief, and is
independent of the others. Our picture
shows the dress in one of these tribes.
You observe that the people are tall and
handsome, and look somewhat like Hun-
garians. The shepherds and mountaineers
dress very differently.
In Sclavonia, a good deal of excellent
wine is made. Fruit is very plentiful,
and there are vest orchards of plums,
from which a favorite liquor, called Sli-
volitza, is distilled The people breed
immense herds of live stock; and have
large flocks of hogs feeding wild in the
forests. They export cattle, hogs, hides,
skins, rye, wheat, honey, wax, timber,
and other articles, to the most distant
provinces of the Austrian empire.



The wealth derived from this exten-
sive internal commerce is great; and
many of the Sclavonians are quite rich.






.\i --


J^h ?



THESE people inhabit a province of
Austria, which joins Hungary. A por-
tion of it is fertile, possessing fine rivers
and extensive plains. The remainder
has high mountains in its northern dis-
tricts. The climate is mild and health-
ful. The soil produces maize and grain
.of various kinds, fruits, vegetables, and
forest trees. Mines of iron, copper, and
sulphur abound. Battle, sheep horses,
and swine are raise; the woods abound
with game, and the rivers with fish.
The Coats .re a fierce and warlike
people. In battle they rush forward with


loud shouts upon the enemy, as though
they delighted in scenes of death and
misery. Their war songs are said to be
lively and powerful, stirring the blood of
those who hear them. The Croatian wo-
men labor in the fields, tend cattle and
horses, engage in hunting parties, and
carry heavy burdens from one place to
another.- The Croats lead a rude life,
mostly as husbandmen or shepherds;
for among them, many of the trades
which flourish in civilized countries are
unknown. Yet they are honest, indus-
trious, and contented.
The picture, which represents a Croa-
tian dance, will serve, e t ki the half-
barbarous manners people.







SERVI is a large province belonging
to Turkey. It is covered by thick fo-
rests; but the population is small on
account of the wars, which for many
years past have desolated the country.
The Servians are a b ie people. They
fought long and well against the Turks;
who ond favored to reducethem to slavery.
During a in~ber of years, the Turkish
armies buned their villages, murdered
the men iad carried the women and
children into slavery. The Servians ld
to the mountains, and there ~oght hard
for. their liberty. The Russianshelped
6 (81)


them. They drove out the Turks and
established a government of their own.
This the Sultan of Turkey would not
agree to; so he began another war. But
he could not subdue the Servians, and
was forced to consent that they should
have a government of their own, and
only pay him a sum of money. This
they have continued to do ever since.
Many of the Servians are very poor.
They live in small huts and have to
work very hard to support their children.
The picture exhibits the dress and ap-
pearance of a Servian shepherd. He is
generally a contented and happy being,
leading a peaceful life with his flocks
among the mountains and green pastures
of his country.












TYROL is a beautiful country, situated
among some of the highest mountains in
Europe. The prospect from the summit
of these mountains is very grand.. Stretch-
ing over the country or dotting its our-
face, may be seen, fields of corn waving
with their golden harvests, well planted
orchards, with the fruit peeping from
their covering of leaves, thick forests,
dark and gloomy; small lakes fom
whose still waters the sun shines as from
polished glass, little cottages near the
hill sides, with the smoke curling from
their chimneys. The people are brave,


cheerful, honest, and industrious. They
delight in music. In the evenings, when
their labor is over, little groups of six or
ten assemble under the olive trees, and
spend many hours in singing and dancing.
Many years ago the people fought hard
to maintain their freedom against other
nations, whose armies entered their terri-
tory. If overpowered by numbers, they
retired to the highest rocks and hurled
down large stones upon the enemy. In
this manner they several times destroyed
the greater part of the invading army.
The Tyrolese are very skilful in mak-
ing tops, watches, delicate machinery,
and household wares. Sometimes one
a of their number leaves his own country
and travels to Germany, England, or



America, to sell his goods. After re-
maining for several years in his new
home, he returns to Tyrol with his hard
earned fortune, and passes the remainder
of his life among the lakes and moun-
tains where he stood in childhood.
The picture represents the usual dress
of these people. Sometimes, instead of
a coat, they wear a cloak thrown grace-
fully around the shoulders. In their ap-
pearance as well as their habits and
disposition they closely resemble the
The music of the Tyrolese is very pe-
culiar in its character, and is greatly ad-
mired for ,its sweet melody and its sinj
gularly wild and abrupt changes, suited
to the heroic disposition of the people,




and the romantic beauty of the mountain
scenery which abounds in Tyrol.
The Tyrolese are not less remarkable
for patriotism and love of domestic plea-
sures than for their heroic courage in
war. Hofer, the patriot, who resisted
the French in the time of Napoleon, is
called the William Tell of the Tyrol.
After bravely defending his native land,
he was finally captured and barbatrogsi
put to death by the French.


I -
( .. '




HERE is a fine picture of a bold and
hardy race of people. Their country is
covered with high mountains, wide fo-
rests and deep lakes.-. Wolves and bears
are found among the forests, and in many
places the climate even in the summer
is quite cold. To all these difficulties the
shepherds are exposed. But at an:early
age they learn to endure the cold; to'
wander with the flocks amid the wJdest.
scenery, and to hear, without exhibiing
signs of fea, the howling of wild beasts.
Most of them go armed, generallygt.
knives, guns, and pistols. Some of the


ways in which they dress are shown in
the engraving.
In time of war these shepherds often
leave their flocks to the care of their fa-
milies, and join their countrymen in driv-
ing off the enemy. Being good marks-
men, they are useful as skirmishers and
sharp shooters; and after enduring the
hardships of a shepherd's life, they are
well fitted to sustain the labors of a
Transylvania is a large country, sub-
ject to the Emperor of Austria. It is
wild and rocky, possessing many streams
of water, but destitute of large plains.
The climate is cold, but grainvegetables,
and fruit are raised in considerable
abundance. The people, like those in



other parts of Austria ae .divided into
nobles and peasants. Many ,f the latter
are treated no better tha- slaves; while
the nobles possess most of the wealth
and property of the country. The Tran-
sylvanians are much oppressed by the
government of Austria; though among
the mountains small tribes are found,
which do not a~lkwledge the authority
of that oontry.
The rmmling of horses and other live
stock is oe of the ; a t ,important
sources 'fgIBhi~ msal Their
horses :we B.il lit Air :sit and
speed. T hey ive l:, tong-wled and
curly-hor~n :heep of Wallachia; and
immense herds of swine feed in their
"great forests of oak and beech trees.



Transylvania has rich mines of gold
and silver, and the sands of her rivers
are mingled with gold dust. Iron, lead,
copper, antimony, arsenic, tellurium, and
coal are also found in this country.





ALBANIA is a province of Turkey. It
contains many high mountains, which
render the climate colder than that of
most other provinces of that country.
Some thick forests extend through the
northern parts; while the middle and
southern portions are watered by the
branches of large rivers. The people
are fierce and warlike. Some of them
attend flocks upon the sides of the moun-
tains; some hunt wolves and other wild
animals, for killing which they receive a
reward; many search among the noun9-
tains for valuable minerals,* which they
6 (97)


sell to traders; and others, uniting in
small bands, roam about the country,
attacking travellers aid plundering the
houses into which they are able to force
their way, Thus they lead a wandering
life, full of dangerous adventure. Some-
times a party consisting of several hun-
dreds, with their wives, children, cattle,
and goods, leave their country, and settle
in one of the neighboring provinces. The
. emigrations, as they are called, have
been so frequent during some years, as
to greatly lessen the poplllation. in much
the same manner, a gang of robbing Al-
banians, occasionally wander into other
countries, and commit much mischief
before they can be taken.
You may'readily suppose, that siib



people do not care much for either books
or schools. Among the greater part of
the Albanians such things are unknown.
They are more anxious that their children
should become strong hunters and har-
dy shepherds, than that they should
know how to read and write. Hence,
from the time that their boys and girls
can walk, until they can take care of
themselves, they are inured to cold,
hunger, toil, and hardship of every kind.
By this means their limbs and bodies
become strong and powerful, and they
are able to. sustain much more fatigue
than thase who have been educated in
civilized countries.
The Albanians, in consequence of this
course of education, have always ben a



very courageous, patriotic, and -valiant
people. Their king, George Castriot,
surnamed Scanderberg, was the great
hero of the fifteenth century; and for
twenty-four years he maintained a per-
petual war with the Turks, under their
famous sultans, Amurath and Mahomet
II. Scanderberg was at that time justly
considered the bulwark of Christian Eu-
rope against the Mahometan power. The
Albanians are still a very warlike people,
and fond of liberty and the wild inde-
pendence of their mountain life.




University of Florida Home Page
© 2004 - 2010 University of Florida George A. Smathers Libraries.
All rights reserved.

Acceptable Use, Copyright, and Disclaimer Statement
Last updated October 10, 2010 - - mvs