Front Cover
 Title Page
 Table of Contents
 Games with Marbles
 Games for Cold Weather
 Dangerous Games
 Keeping Poultry
 Reviews and Literary Notices
 Back Cover

Group Title: Darton's holiday library
Title: The book of sports
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00002185/00001
 Material Information
Title: The book of sports containing out-door sports, amusements and recreations, including gymnastics, gardening & carpentering, for boys and girls
Series Title: Darton's holiday library
Alternate Title: Outdoor sports
Physical Description: 144, 35 p. : ill. ; 15 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Martin, William, 1801-1867
J. Wertheimer and Co ( Printer )
Darton & Co ( Publisher )
Publisher: Darton and Co.
Place of Publication: London
Manufacturer: J. Wertheimer and Co.
Publication Date: 1852
Edition: 2nd ed.
Subject: Sports -- Juvenile literature   ( lcsh )
Amusements -- Juvenile literature   ( lcsh )
Embossed cloth bindings (Binding) -- 1852   ( rbbin )
Bldn -- 1852
Genre: Embossed cloth bindings (Binding)   ( rbbin )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
Spatial Coverage: England -- London
Statement of Responsibility: by William Martin.
General Note: "Reviews and literary notices, with the opinions of the London & Provincial Press on the Rev. T. Wilson's popular school Catechisms." follows text.
Funding: Brittle Books Program
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00002185
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: aleph - 002233933
oclc - 45758958
notis - ALH4350
 Related Items
Other version: Alternate version (PALMM)
PALMM Version

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front page 1
        Front page 2
        Front page 3
        Front page 4
    Title Page
        Page iii
        Page iv
    Table of Contents
        Page v
        Page vi
        Page vii
        Page viii
    Games with Marbles
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
    Games for Cold Weather
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
        Page 30
        Page 31
        Page 32
        Page 33
        Page 34
        Page 35
        Page 36
    Dangerous Games
        Page 37
        Page 38
        Page 39
        Page 40
        Page 41
        Page 42
        Page 43
        Page 44
        Page 45
        Page 46
        Page 47
        Page 48
        Page 49
        Page 50
        Page 51
        Page 52
        Page 53
        Page 54
        Page 55
        Page 56
        Page 57
        Page 58
        Page 59
        Page 60
        Page 61
        Page 62
        Page 63
        Page 64
        Page 65
        Page 66
        Page 67
        Page 68
        Page 69
        Page 70
        Page 71
        Page 72
        Page 73
        Page 74
        Page 75
        Page 76
        Page 77
        Page 78
        Page 79
        Page 80
        Page 81
        Page 82
        Page 83
        Page 84
        Page 85
        Page 86
        Page 87
        Page 88
        Page 89
        Page 90
        Page 91
        Page 92
        Page 93
        Page 94
        Page 95
        Page 96
        Page 97
        Page 98
        Page 99
        Page 100
        Page 101
        Page 102
        Page 103
        Page 104
        Page 105
        Page 106
        Page 107
        Page 108
        Page 109
        Page 110
        Page 111
        Page 112
        Page 113
        Page 114
        Page 115
        Page 116
        Page 117
        Page 118
        Page 119
        Page 120
        Page 121
        Page 122
    Keeping Poultry
        Page 123
        Page 124
        Page 125
        Page 126
        Page 127
        Page 128
        Page 129
        Page 130
        Page 131
        Page 132
        Page 133
        Page 134
        Page 135
        Page 136
        Page 137
        Page 138
        Page 139
        Page 140
        Page 141
        Page 142
        Page 143
        Page 144
    Reviews and Literary Notices
        Reviews Page 3
        Reviews Page 4
        Reviews Page 5
        Reviews Page 6
        Reviews Page 7
        Reviews Page 8
        Reviews Page 9
        Reviews Page 10
        Reviews Page 11
        Reviews Page 12
        Reviews Page 13
        Reviews Page 14
        Reviews Page 15
        Reviews Page 16
        Reviews Page 17
        Reviews Page 18
        Reviews Page 19
        Reviews Page 20
        Reviews Page 21
        Reviews Page 22
        Reviews Page 23
        Reviews Page 24
        Reviews Page 25
        Reviews Page 26
        Reviews Page 27
        Reviews Page 28
        Reviews Page 29
        Reviews Page 30
        Reviews Page 31
        Reviews Page 32
        Reviews Page 33
        Reviews Page 34
        Reviews Page 35
        Reviews Page 36
        Reviews Page 37
    Back Cover
        Reviews Page 38
        Reviews Page 41
Full Text

The Baldwin Library

T gUniveity

L i



- -- ----- --------~--- i- I, ----r~~- ----I----:~-------

(-v- \.~S9



L r






,fr Vnq asn irds.








Ring Taw .
Lag Out or Knock Out
Three Holes .
Arches ..
Sun and Planet Taw
Prisoners' Base
Stag Out
Mouse in the Corner
King of the Castle
Hippas .
Thread the Needle.
Touch ..
Bowls. .
Quoits .
Why and Because
Bombardment of a Snow Castle
Bandy Ball or Golf
Foot Ball .
Follow my Leader
Blindman's Buff .
Tip-Cat. .
Jingling .
French and English
Heap the Bushel .
Drawing the Oven
Hop-Scotch .
Basting the Bear .
Buck, Buck .
A 3

S vii

S 12
S 13
S 15
S 19

. 23
S 24
S 35

S 38
S 38


Walking .44
Running 45
Leaping .. 46
Climbing 49
Rope Ladder 50
Slant Board 50
Vaulting 50
Balancing 5
Laws of the Game of Double Wicket 59
The Bowler 61
The Striker. 62
The Wicket-Keeper 64
Laws for Single Wicket 65
Bets 67
Preliminary Exercises in Swimming 78
Bernardi's System 83
How to keep a Garden all the year round, with
directions for each month 105
Uses of the various Tools:-Plane, Chisel Gim-
let, Mallet, Hammer, Files and Nails 116
Stuff and Labour 121
Nature and Situation of Fowl-House 124
TheVarious Breeds of Fowl 126
Choice of Stock 128
Food and Feeding 128
Laying .129
Preservation of Eggs 129
Hatching Chickens . 130
X. BEES 131
Queen Bee.-Drone.-Construction of Nests.-
How to get a Stock of Bees.-Hiving 134


THE prime object of this book is to induce and to
teach boys and girls to spend their hours out of
school in such a manner, as to gain innocent
enjoyment while they promote their own health
and bodily strength. The Author has never lost
sight of this object, considering it to be what
properly belongs to a Book of Sports.
He has, however, in many instances, had in
view, in a subordinate degree, the intellectual im-
provement of his young readers. He hopes that
several of the games, now described in print for
the first time, will be found, if not royal roads,"
at least delightful ones, to the knowledge of many

scientific facts. There seems to be no good
reason why the utile (considered intellectually as
well as bodily) should not find its place in the
sports of young people, if it be so skilfully com-
bined with the dulce as not to convert pleasure
into toil.
To those who assent to what has been stated,
the introduction of a chapter on gardening will
need no apology.







SONE of the best games with marbles is

This is played in the following manner :-A circle should
be drawn about four feet in diameter, and an inner
circle of about six inches being also marked out in its
centre, into this each boy puts a marble. Now then,


boys, knuckle down at the offing, which is in any part
of the outer circle. Now, whoever shoots a marble out
of the ring is entitled to go on again: so mind your
shots; a good shot may clear the ring. After the first
shot, the players do not shoot from the offing, but from
the place where the marble stops after it has been shot
from the knuckle. Every marble struck out of the ring
belongs to the party who hits it; but if the taw remains
in the inner ring, either after it has struck a marble or
not, the player is out, and must put in all the marbles
he has won. If one player strike another player's taw,
the player to whom the taw belongs is out; and he must
give up all the marbles he has won to the player whose
taw struck his."

THIs gpme is played by throwing a marble against the
wall, which rebounds to a distance. Others then follow;
and the boy whose marble strikes against any of the
others is the winner. Some boys play the game in a
random manner; but the boy who plays with skill
judges nicely of the law of forces, that is, he calculates
exactly the force of the rebound, and the direction of it.
The first law of motion is, that everything preserves
a state of rest, or of uniform rectilineal (that is, straight,
motion), unless affected by some moving force.
Second law.-Every change of motion is always pro-
portioned to the degree of the moving force by which
it is produced, and it is made in the line of direction in
which that force is impressed.


Third law.-Action and reaction are always equal and
contrary, or the mutual action of two bodies upon each
other are always equal and directed to contrary parts.
To illustrate the first of these laws,-a marble will
never move from the ground of itself, and once put in
motion, it will preserve that motion until some other
power operates upon it in a contrary direction.
With regard to playing Lag Out so as to win, you
must further understand the principle of reflected mo-
tion. If you throw your marble in a straight line against
the wall, you find that it comes back to you nearly in a
straight line again. If you throw it ever so slightly on
one side, or obliquely, it will fly off obliquely on the
opposite side. If you throw the marble from the point
c to the point B, it will fly off in the direction of the
point A, and if a marble lay there it would hit it; but
if you threw it from the point D, you would stand no

In science, the angle c, B, D, is called the angle of
incidence, and D, B, A, is called the angle of reflection.




THREE HOLES is not a bad game. To play it, you must
make three small holes about four feet apart: then the
first shot tries to shoot a marble into the first hole. If
he gets in, he goes from that to the second, and then
to the third hole, after which he returns, and having
passed up and down three times, he thus wins the game.
If he cannot get in the first hole, the second player
tries; and when he stops short at a hole, the third, and
so on. After any player has shot his marble into a
hole, he may fire at any adversary's marble to drive him
away, and, if he hits him, he has a right to shoot again,
either for the hole or any other player. The game is
won by the player who gets first into the last hole and
works his way back again to the first, when he takes all
his adversaries' marbles.




To play arches, the players must be provided with a
board of the following shape, with arches cut therein;
each arch being a little more than the diameter of a
marble, and each space between the arches the same?

8 6 5 3 1 2 4 7 9
The boy to whom the bridge belongs receives a marble
from each boy who shoots, and gives to each the number
of marbles over the arches should they pass through

BONCO-EYE is played by each player putting down a
marble within a small ring, and dropping from the eye



another marble upon them so as to drive them out,
those driven out being the property of the Boncer.
The law of falling bodies may be well illustrated by
this game. It is one of the laws of motion, that the
velocities of falling bodies are in proportion to the space
passed over; and the space passed over in each instant
increases in arithmetical progression, or as the numbers
1, 3, 5, 7, 9.
By the annexed dia-
gram it will be seen,
that if a marble fall
from the hand at A, A
when it reaches B it
has only the quantity
of velocity or force ex- .
pressed in the angle ; 5
butewhen it passes to
C, it has the quantity D
expressed in the three 7
angles 3; when it pas- 7 7 7
ses to D, it has the -
quantity expressed in
the angle 5; when it passes to E, it has the quantity
expressed by the seven angles marked 7. Thus we
may understand why a tall boy has a better chance at
Bonce-Eye than a short one.
It is found by experiment, that a body falling from a
height moves at the rate of 16-& feet in the first second;
and acquires a velocity of twice that, or 32k feet, in a
second. At the end of the next second, it will have
fallen 64-1 feet; the space being as the square of the
time. The square of 2 is 4; and 4 times 16T is 64+;



by the same rule, it will be found, that in the third
second it will fall 1442 feet; in the fourth second, 2571;
and so on. This is to be understood, however, as re-
ferring to bodies falling where there is no air. The air
has a considerable effect in diminishing their velocity of


TaHs is an entirely new game, and consists of the Sun
ih the centre, which may be represented by a bullet,
because the sun is the most ponderous body of the


system, and will in this game be required to move
slowly. The planets moving round him, with their
satellites, I represent by marbles. Now, each boy must
take the place of a planet; and having taken it, he is
required to put down as many marbles as there are
satellites belonging to it. The boy who plays Mercury,
puts down only one for his planet; the boy who plays
Venus does the same; he who plays the Earth, has to
put down one for the Earth, and one for the Moon, its
satellite; the boy who plays Mars puts down Mars and
the four satellites that lie between the orbits of Mars
and Jupiter ; the boy who plays Saturn puts down one
for the planet, and draws a ring round it, outside of
which he puts the seven satellites in any position he
chooses; the boy who plays the planet Herschel, puts
down one for the planet, and six for the satellites.
Each boy, having taken his place in this manner, lays
down his taw on any part of the orbit of his planet
he pleases, being the point from which he must make
his first shot.
The rules of the game are very easy; but it is
necessary to be perfectly acquainted with them, as it
saves much trouble, and prevents disputes; and no one
ought to play till he understands them tolerably well.
1. The players must each put his marble into a hat,
and turn down the hat over the sun; then, as the mar-
bles fall near or far from the sun, the planets are taken.
2. The player who puts in Mercury has the first shot.
3. No planet can be taken till the Sun has been
struck beyond the orbit of Mercury.
4. The player who strikes the Sun beyond the orbit
of Mercury, receives from the person who holds the


orbit, as many marbles as there are planets or satellites
in the orbit in which it stops.
5. The orbits are,-for Mercury, all the space be-
tween the Sun and him; for Venus, the space between
Venus and Mercury; for the Earth, the space between
the Earth and Venus; for Mars, the space between Mars
and the Earth; for Jupiter, the space between Jupiter
and Mars; for Saturn, the space between Saturn and
Jupiter; for Herschel, the space between Herschel and
6. If a player succeeds in knocking the Sun on the
line of his own orbit, he receives one from every shooter
so long as it remains there.
7. If the Sun is knocked against a planet, the player
doing so has to pay two to the owner of the planet.
8. If the Sun be struck within the orbit of a planet,
the player striking it receives one if for Herschel, two
for Saturn, three for Jupiter, four for Mars, five for
the earth, six for Venus, and seven for Mercury.
9. The player who succeeds in knocking the Sun
beyond the orbit of Herschel, wins the game; that is,
he receives one from each player, and all the marbles
on the stake in the inner circle.

10. When a planet is knocked out of the outer ring
(the orbit of Herschel), it belongs to him who strikes it
out: the loser must replace it by putting a marble down
in its original place.
11. When a planet is struck within the orbit of any
other planet, the player striking it there has to pay him



to whom the orbit belongs, as many marbles as there
are satellites.
12. Should a player's taw, after it has struck another
taw, a planet, or a satellite, fall into its own orbit, he
has to put one in the inner ring as stakes for the winner
of the game.
13. If a player gets his taw within the inner ring, it
must remain there for the winner, and he cannot play
any more.
14. If a player has all his satellites taken, he then
becomes a Comet, and can shoot from any part of any
of the orbits every time the Sun is struck.
15. No player can shoot at his own planet or satellite.
16. Any player who strikes a planet or satellite
within Saturn's ring, forfeits three to the inner circle.,
If he strikes the Sun, then he may take up Saturn and
all his satellites remaining within his orbit.
17. After the first shot, every player must shoot from
the place at which his taw rests.

Such are the laws of Sun and Planet Taw, and it will
be found that in playing the game, some degree of
thought is requisite, and. a little calculation respecting)
the moves. It may be judicious for a good shooter to
keep the Sun within the orbits as long as possible ; or
till such time as the inner ring gets fat with the for-
feitures, or he may drive him from orbit to orbit where
the forfeitures are large. He will endeavour to place him
on the line of his own orbit. He may also strive to
place his adversaries' taws within the inner ring, and to
be careful in striking planets that they fall into the
orbits where the forfeitures are small. By thus thinking



of what he is about and exercising forethought and
prudence, he will soon become expert, and by paying
attention to the game he will make it his own.


To play Pyramid, a small circle of about two feet in
diameter should be made on the ground, in the centre
of which is a pyramid formed by several marbles,-nine
being placed as the base, then a layer of four, and one
on the top; and the Pyramid keeper asks his playmates
to shoot. Each player gives the keeper one for leave
to shoot at the Pyramid, and all that he can strike out
of the circle belong to him.




ONE of the best of these is called

To play this, there must be a number of boys, not
less than eight or ten, and as many more as can be got
together. To commence it, two semicircles are drawn
against a wall or hedge at the opposite sides of the
playground. These are called the BOUNDS.
Two other spaces are then marked out a little away


from these to the right or to the left. These places
are called the PRIsoNS.
The game is commenced by a player from one side
running out midway between the bounds or prisons, a
player from the other side immediately following to
capture him; one from the other side follows after the
second to capture him, and so on, both parties sending
out as many as they think fit. The object of each player
is to intercept and touch any player of the opposite side
who has left his bounds before him, but he is not at liberty
to touch any that have started after him; it being their
privilege, if they can, to touch him before he gets back
to his own bounds. A player must touch only one
person each time he leaves bounds, and cannot be
touched by another after he has taken a prisoner. Every
player who is touched, must go to the prison belonging
to his adversaries, where he must remain until one of
his own side can touch him; and prisoners can neither
touch nor be touched in their return to their own bounds
again. The game is won by that side which has taken
all the other party prisoners.


IN this game, one boy personates the Stag, and with
his hands closed together, starts from his bounds after
the other players. When he succeeds in touching one
who is called the Ass, the first who gets to him rides
him back to the bounds. The two then go out in the
same manner, then three, and so on, till the whole are




THIs game is something similar to another very good
game called "WARNING," which may be played by any
number of players. One begins the game in the same
manner as in Stag Out," repeating the following
words,--" Warning once, warning twice, warning thrice
-A bushel of wheat, and a bushel of rye, when the
cock crows, out jump I-Cock a doodle doo." He then
runs out and touches the first he can overtake, who
returns to bounds with him. The two then join hands
and sally forth, and touch a third, who joins hands with
the other two : again they sally hand-in-hand, the two
outside ones touching as many as they can. Immedi-
ately a player is touched, they must break hands and
run back to the bounds. If any of the out-players can
catch any of those who held hands, they may ride them
back to their bounds. When three are touched, he who
first begins the game has the privilege of joining the
out-players, whose object is always to break the line.


IN this game, one of the players takes the part of Puss,
and places himself in the centre, and the others playing
take up their positions in the four corners of the play-
ground. Each of the players calls out, "Puss, puss,
puss, pretty puss, -how do you do pussy," and en-
deavour to pass from corner to corner. The players are
at liberty to change corners in all directions, and if Puss
can touch one when he is away from his corner, the one



so touched, after giving Puss a ride round the ground,
becomes Puss, or if Puss can take a vacant corner, the
player without a corner must do the same,-give Puss
a ride round and become Puss.

THIs is not a bad game. One player, called King of
the Castle, places himself on a little rising mound; the
other players endeavour to push or pull him from his
elevation, and whoever succeeds in this, takes his place.

THIS game is something like the
preceding, only that one boy
mounts on the back of another,
who is called his Horse, another
boy does the same, and the two
4 mounted boys endeavour to pull
each other from the saddle. This
play is harmless when a soft piece
of turf is chosen, but dangerous
on the stones or hard ground.

Tais is a good game,-any number of boys may play
it. It is begun by joining hands; and the two outside
players at each end commence the game by the following
dialogue: -



How many miles to Babylon?
Three score and ten.
Can I get there by candle-light?
Yes, and back again.
Then open the gates without more ado,
And let the king and his men go through.
The player who stands at the opposite end of the
line, now elevates his hand, joined in that of the player
next him, to form the needle's eye, and the other outside
player approaches running, and the whole line fellow
him through, if possible, without breaking. This is
continued, each end holding up their hands successively,
till the players are tired of the sport.

THIS is a game of speed. One volunteers to be Touch,
and he pursues the other players till he comes up with
one of them and touches him; unless the player so
touched can say, I touch iron," or, I touch wood,"
before he is touched, he becomes Touch, and must give
the player who touched him a ride home. A player is
liable to be touched only when running from one piece
of wood or iron to another.
There is another and a better game of Touch, called
"Cross Touch," which is played thus:-One volunteers
to be Touch, and sallies forth from his bounds. While
he is pursuing one of the players, a third player runs
between him and the player pursued, and touch must
then follow the one who crosses till another crosses
them, and so on, till at length the whole playground
will become a scene of activity and sport.


I will play at Bowls with the sun and moon."-Byron.
"He who plays Bowls must expect rubbers."-Bowles.
THIS is one of the best of games for hot or cold weather,
for it is excellent exercise, and requires skill and judg-
ment. Few requisites are required for it, but a level
lawn, or tolerably level field, is indispensable, as are the
bowls, the Jack, and the players.
It playing bowls, partners may be chosen, if there
are many players, or the game may be played by two
persons. When, however, there are three or four of a
side, there is more interest attached to the game. The
best player of my time was the good old schoolmaster,
Mr. Fenn, from whom I obtained all the particulars
concerning Bowls.
The bowls used at this game are of wood, loaded
with lead, or biassed, as it is called, namely, there is
one side thicker than the other, which is marked, and
this may be held either near or away from the thumb
as it may be required to lay the ball. No writer in a
book can teach this, as it depends upon the nature of the
ground, and the situation of the balls already bowled.
Before commencing the game, the first player leads
out a small white ball, called a Jack; he then lays his
own balls as near to it as possible; the players then
follow in succession, but no partners follow each other
till the whole balls are delivered, and those who obtain
the nearest points to the Jack score one for each ball.
The number making the game is arbitrary, but eleven
is generally fixed upon. Of course it would be more
were there a great number of bowlers. The sport of
the game consists in driving your opponent's ball from



the Jack, and putting your own near it. When one
side scores eleven before their opponents get five, it is
called a lurch. The players at Bowls change the Jack
from one side of the green to the other after the whole
of each side have bowled once.

Quoit me down, Bardolph."-Shakspeare.
THA game of Quoits resembles Bowls. It is played
with flat rings of iron of various weights. At a certain
number of paces apart (to be agreed upon), two circular
pins of iron are driven into the ground. The players
beginning the game stand at one of these pins, called
the Hob, and pitch the quoits to the other, each person
having two. When all the quoits are cast from one
Hob, the players walk to the other and pitch to the
first, and so on in succession.
Those who get nearest to the Hob, are, of course,
nearest to the game, and each pair of quoits counts two,
-each single quoit, one; but if a quoit belonging to A
lies nearest to the Hob, and a quoit belonging to B the
second, A can claim but one towards the game, although
all his other quoits may be nearer to the Hob than all
those of B, as the quoit of B is said, technically, to have
cut them out.
THIS is also a new game, and one of those that combine
amusement and instruction. To play it, a king must
be chosen, who is called King of the Shy,"' who sets
up a brick on its end and puts a stone upon it, as a
mark for the players to bowl their stones at, which they


do successively. When a player has bowled, if he knocks
the stone off the brick, he may take up his own stone
and run back to his bounds, if he can do so before the
king sets his brick and stone up again; but if the King
can touch the player after having set his brick up, he is
obliged to answer a "Why," or be King instead of him.
The "Why" must be proposed by the King, and it
may either be a conundrum, or it may contain the
reason of any thing, as, "Why does a stone fall to the
ground ? "What makes the smoke go up the chimney?"
If the player cannot answer the Why," he is obliged
to mind the shy and let the others bowl. Sometimes
it will happen, that of all the boys who have bowled at
the shy, not one has thrown it down; the King then
looks sharply at each one who tries to take up his stone,
to touch him. It generally happens, that whilst the
King is pursuing one, who has taken up his stone, to
touch him, all the rest take to their stones, and make
off home. But it should have been said, that by the
place from which they bowl, a string is stretched for a
leap, over which a player running from the King is
obliged to jump before he is considered home.
(Some good Conundrum Questions for this game will be
found in the "BOOK OF SPORTS," on In-Door Amusements.).



THERE is no game like this for promoting warmth and
exercising the ingenuity. To play this, a Snow Castle,
Tower, and Fort must be constructed, and a Bombard-
ment got up.
When the snow is on the ground, let a party go into
a meadow and divide themselves into two companies,
and appoint a general to each. Each company then
takes up its respective position, and proceeds to build a
fort and castle, fbr defence, on each side; the dexterity
with which the work is performed, and the celerity with
which it is accomplished, being much in favour of those
who play. During the building of the castle, some
must be employed as sharp-shooters, who must annoy
the builders on each side with snow balls, and some
must be employed in making a store of snow balls for
the magazine. When the castle is commenced, the first
the first thing to be done is, for several of the builders
to make a roll of snow about eighteen inches in length,
and as thick as his arm, and to roll this on the snow,
which will attach itself to it till it forms a large ball as
high as the builders's shoulders. This must be turned
over on its flat side, and as many more as can be arranged
in the following manner, for a fort (supposing the other
side to be erecting a castle). The foundation thus being
laid, other balls not quite so large must be rolled up and
laid on the former, so as to make the rampart about
four feet high. Behind this, a single line of snow balls
must be placed, about one foot in height, on which the
attacking party may mount to discharge their balls to
the castle opposite. On elevated parts of the forts,



long sticks with pocket-handkerchiefs, as flags, must be
raised, and in the centre, a larger flag should be placed,
and it must be the object of the opposite party to de-
molish them with their balls. When a player wishes to
throw a ball, he mounts upon one of the inner partings
of snow, discharges his shot, and jumps down behind
the parapet for more shot. The party on the opposite
side may build their castle as they please; but each
party should watch each other's movements, and build
their different places of defence or annoyance in such a
manner as to defend themselves and annoy the enemy in
the most effective manner. It may be observed, that
the fort must be so constructed with reference to the
castle, that it is brought to bear on every point of it. The
two ends are towers, which should be a foot higher than
the ramparts, and should be made by three snow balls
laid one upon the other,-the last one being turreted,
with room for one boy to mount to the top, if necessary,
to discharge his shots. The highest place of all, is the
keep, and should be at least six feet high, with room
and steps behind for two boys to mount. Convenient
places should be left behind, where the ammunition
should be piled up.
When the fort or castle is built, each party uses its
best efforts for the demolition of the other, but no one
is allowed to make use of his hands in the demolition of
either castle or fort; battering-rams may alone be em-
ployed. In ancient times, battering-rams were large
beams, hooped and shod with iron; but the moderns do
things better, and the way in which it may be done is as
follows :-A boy who volunteers to be battering-ram has
his legs tied and then two other boys take him up, and,


swinging him by the arms and legs, force his feet against
the walls of the castle or fort to batter it down, the op-
posite party pouring on them, all the while, snow balls
heated to a white heat from the ramparts above. Parties
also may go out from one side to the other, as in playing
" Hippas," mounted, and may meet in the open space
and endeavour to pull each other from their horses. If
a player on either side can break over the fort and cap-
ture one of the flags without being touched, he may
bring it off and place it on his own ramparts as a trophy,
and the party from whom the flag is captured must not
replace it; but if in this act he is touched, he becomes
a prisoner, and must make snow-balls for his adversaries.
Every one who is thrown down, either from his horse
or by any other means, is considered a dead man, and
can donothing but make snow-balls for theopposite party.
When the flags are all struck on either side by being
shot away, or when the men are all taken prisoners or
slain, or when the ramparts are demolished, the victors
may sing, Old Rose and burn the Bellows."

THIS game is played with a bat and a small ball; and
the game consists in driving the ball into certain holes
made in the ground. Sometimes these holes from first to
last, are at the distance of half a mile or even more from
each other. There are many intervening holes. Those
who drive the ball into the greatest number of holes, of
course win the game; but the ball must never be driven
beyond a hole without first going iqto it. If the ball
passes in the way beyond a hole, the player is out.


FOOT BALL is a very simple game. A large soft ball is
procured (which is now made of Gutta Percha), and the
players having assembled and taken sides, a line is
drawn across the playground, and the play commences.
The object of the play is, for each party to kick the ball
across the goal of the other, and to prevent it from
passing their own. The party into whose bounds the
ball is kicked, loses the game.

THIs is an excellent game. In some places it is called
"Cock Fighting." To play it, two players must be
matched against each other, and one is sometimes
called Black Cock," and the other White Cock."
They are seated on a carpet, or, what is better, the
floor of the play-room, and undergo the operation
of "trussing." This is performed as follows:-The
hands are first tied with a handkerchief at the wrists.
The ancles are tied in the same manner. The Cock
then has his hands brought to his instep, while his
knees pass between his arms, and a short stick is thrust
in under the knees and over the joints of the elbow, and
secured in this situation. The fight now begins by each
Cock advancing towards his enemy, and when they
come close to each other, each endeavours, by inserting
his toes under the other's feet, to capsize him and
throw him over on the side; and whoever does this, is
entitled to crow, and is winner of the game. There is
often a good deal of fun in this game, and the players
can rarely hurt each other.



FOLLOW MY LEADER is a very good game; and when
the Leader is a droll boy, causes much fun and laughter.
The leader starts off at a moderate pace, and all the
other boys, in a line, one after the other, follow him.
They are not only bound to follow him, but do exactly
what he does. If he hops on one leg, or crawls on the
ground, or coughs, or sneezes, or jumps, or rolls, or
laughs, all must do the same. If any ]oy fail to follow
his Leader, he is called the Ass," and must be ridden
by the boy next hinm. Sometimes the Leader will leap
a ditch, climb a tree, or run into a river. But boys
should be careful of very mad pranks in this sport.

IN this game, a person is blindfolded, and endeavours
to catch any one of the players, who, if caught, is blind-
folded and takes his place.
There is another Game something resembling it,



called SHADOW BUFF. A piece of white linen is thrown
over a line across the room; between this screen and
close to the wall on one side, a candle is placed, and
on the other side, Buffy is obliged to stand, while the
players moving between the candle and linen show
their shadows through it, and Buffy has to distinguish
each person by his shadow. When he does this, the
player so found out becomes Buffy and takes his place.

FoR this game a piece of wood must be procured about
six inches in length and two inches thick, of the follow-
ing shape:-

that is, of a double curve. It will be seen by the shape
of this, that it will fly up as easily as a ball when it is
laid in the trap, for the striker has only to tap one end
of it, and up it flies, making many a summerset as it
rises; while it is performing this turn-over motion,
which philosophers call the rotatory, the striker makes
a blow at it and sends it whither he pleases.
The proper way to play the game, is as follows:-A
large ring is made on the ground, in the middle of
which the striker takes his station; he then tips the cat
and endeavours to strike it out of the ring; if he fail in
this, he is out, and another player takes his place. If
he strike the Cat out of the ring, he judges with his
eye the distance the Cat is driven from the centre o


the ring, and calls for a number, at pleasure, to be
scored towards the game. The place is now measured
by the stick with which the Cat is struck, and if the
number called be found to exceed the same number of
lengths of the cudgel, he is out, but if it does not, he
obtains his call. Another method of playing, is to make
four, six, or eight holes in the ground in a circular
direction, at equal distances from each other, and at
every hole is placed a player with his cudgel. One of
the party who stands in the field, tosses the Cat to the
batsman who is nearest to him, and every time the Cat
is struck, the players must change their situations and
run over from one hole to another in succession. If
the Cat be driven to any great distance, they continue
to run in the same order, and claim a score towards
their game every time they quit one hole and run to
another. But if the Cat be stopped by their opponents,
and thrown across between any two of the holes before
the player who has quitted one of -them can reach the
other, he is out.

THIS game is common to the West of England, and is
called a Jingling Match." It is played by a number
of players being blindfolded within a ring formed for the
game, and one or two others, termed the "' Jinglers,"
not blindfolded, with a bell fastened to their elbow, also
enter the ring. The blinded players have to 'catch the
Jingler, who moves about rapidly from place to place.
He who catches the Jingler wins the game; but if after
a certain time, agreed upon previously by the players
the Jingler is not caught, he is declared the victor.





FRENCH AND ENGLISH is another good game. A rope
being provided, two players stand out, and after having
cleeped for first choice, select the partners. After an
equal number has been selected for each side, one party
attaches itself to one end of the rope, and the other
party lays hold of the other: a line is then made on
the ground, and each party endeavours to pull the other
over this line. The party succeeding in this, wins the



AND now that we have given a description of some
good games, it may be as well to warn our readers of
some bad or foolish ones, which are either calculated to
spoil their clothes, make them very dirty, or are dan.
gerous to their limbs.

THas is a very dangerous game, if it can be called a
game. Should one boy happen to fall, it is the practice
of other boys to fall upon him and to "Heap the
Bushel," as it is called, all the other boys leaping on
the one already down. It sometimes happens, that
those underneath are seriously injured; and the sport
is seldom engaged in without quarrelling among the
. players, and sometimes it leads to a fight.

THIs is another dangerous game. It consists of several
players being seated on the ground in a line, clasped by
each other round the waist: when all are thus united,
two others take the foremost one, and endeavour by
pulling and tugging to break him of from the rest. Thus
the united strength of several boys before, and as many
behind, is made to act upon the one in front, and an
arm may be dislocated by a sudden jerk, not to say any-
thing about a broken neck.


THIS is a silly game. It is calculated to wear out the

Tins is another silly game. A boy, who is called the
"Bear," kneels down on the ground in a ring marked
out, to let the other boys beat him with their twisted or
knotted handkerchiefs. The master of the Bear, who
holds him by the rope, endeavours to touch one of the
assailants; if he succeeds in doing this, without pulling
the Bear out of his circle, or letting go the rope, the
player touched becomes Bear in his turn. But it is
calculated to spoil the clothes of the Bear, and some-
times, should he kneel on a sharp stone, may do him
much injury.

S" Bucx, Buck, how many horns do I hold up ?" is also
a stupid game. It neither requires speed, nor agility,
nor wit. The game is played by one boy resting his
head against a wall and making a back, upon which the
other jumps, who, when seated, holds up as many of
his fingers as he pleases, and cries, "' Buck, Buck, how
many horns do I hold up ?" The player who is leaped
upon, now makes a gues.; if he guesses correctly, it is
his turn to leap, if not, the leaper leaps again. But
there is little good in all this, and it- ought not to be



ALL boys, and girls too, ought to train themselves to
habits of ag1ity, and nothing is more calculated to do
this than Gymnastics, which may be rendered a source
of health and amusement.
In all playgrounds, a piece of ground should be laid
out; and there should be erected thereon, a couple of
posts, about twenty feet apart, and sixteen feet high,
which should support a plank, about a foot wide, and
six inches thick; on the underside of this might be
affixed a hook, from which a triangle might be swung,
-this is capable of being used in a variety of ways.
Two more hooks, about a foot apart; might be used for
two ropes, so that the more advanced pupils could climb
to the top by means of grasping a rope in each hand,
and without the assistance of the feet. A pole may
rise from the ground to the cross piece about midway :
the pupils will be able to climb up this without the
assistance of the feet. A wood ladder and rope ladder
may occasionally be fastened to the beam, but may,
when necessary, be taken down. A board about a foot
broad may also be set up against the beam, inclining
four feet from the perpendicular: the climber will grasp
the sides with his hands, and placing his feet mostt
flat against the board, will proceed to the top: this is
an advanced exercise. Another board may be set u,

4 45 ~3'

40 THR BOOK or sPORTb.,

which should be three feet broad, at least, and should
slant more than the other: the pupil will run up this
to the top of the beam easily, and down again. The
middle of this, up to the top, should be perforated with
holes about four inches apart, in which a peg may be
placed: this may be in the first hole to begin with
The pupil will run up and bring this down, and then
run up and put it in the second, and so on, till he has
arrived at the top: then two or more pegs may be
used, and it may be varied in many ways. A pole,
twenty-five or thirty feet high should be erected, rather
thin towards the top : at distant intervals of this, three
or four pegs, as resting places, should be fastened;
another pole, thicker, from about sixteen to twenty feet
high, should be erected; on the top of which should be
placed four projecting hooks turning on a pivot: to
these hooks four ropes should be attached, reaching to
within two feet from the ground. This is called the
" Flying Course," from an individual taking hold of the
peg at the end of each rope.
One person may cross a rope under the one in pos-
session of another, and by pulling round hard, make the
other fly over his head. Care should be taken to make
the hooks at the top quite secure, for otherwise many
dangerous accidents might ensue. A cross pole might
also be set up, but most of the exercises for which this
is used, may be performed by the triangle. On the
parallel bars, several beneficial exercises may be done,
and also on the bridge. This is a pole thick at one end,
thin at the other, and supported at three or four feet from
the ground bya post at one end and another in the middle,
so that the thin end vibrates with the least touch. This, it

OtYNAeSTZt. 41

will be evident, is an exercise for the organ of equilibrium,
and exercises the muscles of the calf, of the neck, and
anterior part of the neck, and those of the back, very
gently. On this bridge a sort of combat may be instituted,
-two persons meeting each other, giving and parrying
strokes with the open hands. The string.for leaping is
also another very pleasing exercise. It is supported by
a couple of pegs on two pasts fastened in the ground.
The string may be heightened and lowered at pleasure,
-it may be raised as high as the leaper's head when a
leaping-pole is used. Besides these arrangements, a
trench about a foot and a half deep should be dug, and
widening gradually from one foot to seven, for the
purpose of exercising the long leap either with or with-
out the aid of the pole. ~BSuch are the general arrange-
ments of a gymnasium, but before the youth enters
upon regular exercises, he may commence with a few
preliminary ones.

EXERCISE 1. The pupil should hold out his hand at
arm's length, until he can hold it out ito longer, and
repeat it until he has power in the muscles, to continue
it, without fatigue, for a considerable length of time.
2. Stand on one foot till he is tired, and repeat this
for a similar period.
3. Hold out both arms parallel with his chin, letting
the thumbs and fliers touch each other.
4. Hold the hands behind the back in a similar
manner, the arms being stretched as far backward as
possible, and hold the hands high.


5. Hold up the right foot by the
rght hand, extending the leg and arm
by degrees.
6. Hold up the left foot in the
same manner.
7. Stand with the knees bent, and
exercise them towards the ground,
until he can kneel on both knees at
once without supporting himself as
he drops.
8. Raise himself from this position without the aid of
his hands, by springing back on his toes.
9. Endeavour to touch both his toes, with the back
straight, the legs close together, and the head down.
10. Take a piece of wood, three inches broad, and
twenty long, that will not bend, and hold it across the
back, the three first fingers touching the wood.
11. Endeavour to sit, but not
touch the ground, nor let any
part of his body touch his heels,
with his arms stretched out in
a line with his chin.
12. Stand with his arms and
legs extended, so as to form
the letter X.

Let the pupil:-
13. Lie down on his back, and raise his body from
an horizontal to a vertical position, without any assistance
from the hands or elbows.



14. Draw up the legs close to the posterior prt at
the thighs, and rise without other assistance. .
15. Extend himself on
his back again, and walk
backwards with the palms
of his hands and his feet.
16. Sustain the weight
of the whole body upon the
palms and the toes, the face being towards the ground.
17. Lie on his back, and take
hold of each foot in his hands,
and throw himself on his face by
rolling over.
18. Lie with the face down, _
and take hold of his toes while in
that position.
19. With his ched down-
ward, drag his body along
by walking only with his
20. Place himself on his back, and endeavour to
advance by means of the propulsion of the feet.
21. Place his body on his hands and feet, with the breast
upwards, and-endeavour to bring the lips to the ground.
22. Lean on the breast and palms of the hands, and
throw the legs over towards the back of the head.
23. Stretch himself on the back, and extending the
hands beyond the head, at the utmost stretch, touch
the ground, and, if possible, bring up a piece of money,
previously to be placed there.
24. In the same manner, endeavour to seize a ball
by the toes at full length.



Tubsu preliminary exercises having been practised,
'tle young pupil will commence a course of more ad-
vanced exercises, such as walking, running, leaping,
balancing, vaulting, and climbing. Walking is common
to all, but few persons have a good walk, and nothing
exhibits the person to so much disadvantage as a
slovenly bad gait. It is true, that the walk of a person
will indicate much of his character. Nervous people
walk hurriedly, sometimes quick, sometimes slow, with
a tripping and sometimes a running step; phlegmatic
people have a heavy, solid, and loitering step; the san-
guine man walks rapidly, treads somewhat briskly and
firmly; while the melancholic wanders, and seems almost
unconscious of touching the ground which he seems to
slide over. But the qualities of thb mind itself manifest
themselves in the gait. The man of high moral prin-
ciple and virtuous integrity, walks with a very different
step to the low sensualist, or the cunning and unprin-
cipled knave; therefore the young pupil will be sure
that even the art of walking, which seems to be an
exertion purely physical, will not be acquired properly
Sif his mind has taken a vicious and unprincipled bias:
it will either indicate his pride or his dastardly humility,
his haughty self-sufficiency, or his mean truckling to
the opinion of others, his honest independence, or his
cringing servility. But he who has been blessed with
the full use of his muscular powers, in proportion as he
is virtuous, will, with a very little attention, indicate by
his bearing, step, and carriage, the nobility of his mind
In walking, the arms should move freely by the side



--they act like the fly-wheel of an engine, to equalise
the motion of the body, and to balance it One hand
in the breeches pocket, or both, indicates the sot, and
has a very bad appearance. The head should be up-
right, without, however, any particular call being made
upon the muscles of the neck to support it in that posi-
tion, so that it may move freely in all directions. The
body should be upright, and the shoulders thrown
moderately backwards, displaying a graceful fall. When
the foot reaches the ground, it should support the body,
not on the toe or heel, but on the ball of the foot.
This manner of walking should be practised daily,
sometimes in a slow, sometimes in a moderate walk,
and sometimes in a quick pace, until each is performed
with elegance and ease. -

IN RUNNING, as the swiftness of the motion steadies
the body in its course, without the aid of the oscilla-
tions of the arms, they are naturally drawn up towards
the sides, and, bent at the elbows, form a right angle.
Their motion is almost suspended in very swift running.
In moderate running, a gentle oscillation is observed,
increasing in proportion as the body approaches to the
walking pace. The knees are now more bent,-the
same part of the foot does not touch the ground, the
the body being carried forward more by the toes. The
degree of velocity is acquired in proportion to the
length and quickness of the steps. The person should
therefore endeavour to ascertain whether long or short
steps suit his muscular powers best; generally speaking


a moderately short step, quickly repeated, accelerates
motion most. In learning to run, the pupil should
first endeavour to improve his breath by degrees: he
must try his speed first in short distances, to be gradu-
ally increased: the distance will vary according to the
age and strength of the runner. The first exercises in,
running should commence at a gentle trot over a dis-
tance of a hundred and fifty yards, at the rate of about
six feet to a second: this should be varied up to eight
feet in a second, for the first three or four days, and the
distance increased from one hundred and fifty to two
hundred and fifty yards. On following days, the dis-
tance may be increased to five hundred yards, and
afterwards gradually, until a mile can be performed in
ten minutes, which is tolerably good running. After-
wards, six miles may be tried in an hour, which will be
easily accomplished.
As regards rapid running, from one hundred feet to
one hundred yards may be attempted at full speed, and
when the constitution is good, the body not too fat, the
muscular developments fine, and the lungs sound, a
quarter of a mile a minute may be accomplished, and a
mile in five minutes, which is seldom done even in very
good running. Ten miles an hour, which is the average
speed of the mail, may, however, be easily performed
with judicious and proper training.

IN LEAPING, that with the run, is the most common
and the most useful. The object of the run is to impart


to the nerves of the body a certain quantity of motion
which may carry it onwards after the propelling power
has ceased to act when the body leaves the ground.
The run need not exceed twelve or fifteen paces: in
this the steps are small and rapid. When the body
leaves the ground, the legs are drawn up, one foot
generally a little more than the other; and a great thing
to be avoided, is coming to the ground on the heels.
When springing, the height of the leap must be calcu-
lated, the breath held, the body pressed forward, and
the fall should be upon the toes and the ball of the foot,
although in an extended leap this is impossible. Leaping
must, like running, be practised gradually; in the high
leap, a person may easily accomplish the height of his
own body, and should practise with the bar, which may
be made of two upright posts bored, through which
ropes should be placed according to the height required
for the leap: on these should be hung a string with
weights attached to each end to keep it straight.
Should the leaper touch it with his feet as he takes his
leap, it will be thrown off the pegs, thus showing that
he did not make a clean leap.
The deep leap may be acquired from the top of a
bank into a hollow, and is useful in leaping from the top
of a house or wall in a moment of danger. It may be
practised from a flight of steps, ascending a step at a
time to increase the height, till the limbs can bear the
shocks, to break which, the body must be kept in a
bent position, so that its gravity has to pass through
many angles. The leaper should always take advantage
of any rivulet that has one bank higher than the other,
to practise himself.



In the long leap, a person ought to be able to clear
with a run, three times the length of his body.
The high leap, the deep leap, and the long leap, may
be all practised with the pole. For the high leap, the
pole should be taken with the right hand, about the
height of the head, and with the left hand, about the
height of the hips; when put to the ground, the leaper
should spring with the right foot, and pass by the left of
the pole, and swing round as he alights, so as to face
the place he leaped from. In the deep leap, the pole

being placed the depth you have to leap, the body
should be lowered forward, and then, the feet being
cast off, swing round the pole in the descent. The

long leap, with the pole, is performed much in the same

IN climbing the rope, the hands are to be
moved one above the other alternately; the
feet should be crossed, and the rope held
firmly by their pressure: sometimes the
rope may be made to pass along the right
thigh just above the knee, and wind round
the thigh under the knee.
In climbing the upright pole, the feet,
legs, knees, and hands touch the pole.
Taking a high grasp of the pole, the climber
raises himself ly bending his body, drawing up and
holding fast by the legs, and so on alternately.




THE climber must keep the body stretched out, and
upright, so as to prevent the steps, which are loose,
from being bent forward.
The oblique rope must be climbed with the back
turned towards the ground, the legs crossed and thrown
over, so that the rope passes under the calf, and thus
he must work himself up by raising his hands one above
the other alternately.
The exercises on the ladder are:-1. To ascend and
descend rapidly. 2. To ascend and descend with one
hand. 3. Without using the hand. 4. Passing another
person on the ladder, or swinging to the back to let
another pass.
THIS should be seized with both
Hands, the feet being placed in the
middle. The board should be con.
siderably aslant when first attempted,
and gradually brought towards the

THIs exercise may be practised on that part of the
balancing bar between the posts. It may be performed
with or without running: it should, however, be com-
menced with a short run. The height should be, to
commence, about the pit of the stomach, which should
be increased to the height of the individual,



THERE are two kinds of balancing to which we shall
allude; namely, the balancing of other bodies, and the
balancing of our own.
All feats of balancing depend upon the centre of
gravity being uniformly preserved in one position. The
centre of gravity is that point, about which all the other
parts exactly balance each other. If a body be freely
suspended upon this point, it will rest with security,
and as long as this point is supported, it will never
fall, while in every other position it will endeavour
to desced to the lowest place at which it can arrive.
If a pelidicular line were drawn from the centre of
gravity of a body to the centre of the earth, such a line
would be termed the line of direction, along which
every body supported endeavours to fall. If this line
fall within the base of a body, such a body will be sure
to stand.
When the line of direction is thrown beyond its
centre, unless the base be enlarged to counterbalance
it, the person or body will fall. A person in stooping
to look over a deep hole, will bend his trunk forward;
the line of direction being altered, he must extend his
base to compensate for it, which he does by putting his
foot a step forward. A porter stoops forward to prevent
his burthen from throwing the line of direction out of
the base behind, and a girl does the same thing in car-
rying a pail of water, by stretching out her opposite
arm, for the weight of the pail throws the centre of
gravity on one side, and the stretching out of'the oppo-
site arm brings it back again, and thus the two are



balanced. The art of balancing, therefore, simply con-
sists in dexterously altering the centre of gravity upon
every new position of the body, so as constantly to pre-
serve the line of direction within the base. Rope-dan-
cers effect this by means of a
long pole, held across the rope;
and when the balancing-rail
is mounted, it will be found
necessary to hold out both the
arms for the same purpose;
nay, even when we slip or
stumble with one foot, we in
a moment extend the opposite
arm, making the same use of
it as the dancer does of his
A balancer finds that a body to be balanced, is the
best for his purpose if it have a loaded head, and a
slender or pointed base, for although the higher the
weight is placed above the point of support, the more


readily will the line of direction be thrown beyond the
base, yet he can more easily restore it by the motion of
his hand,-narrowly watching with his eyes its deviations.
Now the same watchfulness must be displayed by the
gymnastic balancer: he first uses the balancing pole,-
he then mounts the balancing bar without it. On
mounting the bar, the body should be held erect, and
the hands must be extended. He must then learn to
walk firmly and steadily along the bar, so as to be able
to turn round, aRd then he should practise going back-
wards. Two balancers should then endeavour to pass
each other on the bar; afterwards, to carry each other,
and bodies of various weights, in various positions.
Walking on stilts is connected with balancing. A
person can walk with greater security upon high than
on low stilts. In some parts of France, the peasantry,
in looking after their sheep, walk generally on stilts,
and it only requires practise to make this as easy as
common walking. Some few years ago, several of these
stilt-walkers were to be seen in London, and they could
run, jump, stoop, and walk with ease and security, their
legs seeming quite as natural to them as those of the





CRICKET is the king of games. Every boy in England
should learn it. The young prince of Wales is learning
it, and will some day be the prince of cricket-players,
as I trust he will some day, a long while hence,. how-
ever, let us hope, be king of merry England. I shall,
therefore, be very particular concerning this noble game.
It is played by a bat and ball, and consists of double
and single wicket. The wicket was formerly two straight
thin batons, called stumps, twenty-two inches high,
which were fixed in the ground perpendicularly, six


inches apart, and over the top of both was laid a small
round piec6 of wood, called the bail, but so placed as to
fall off readily if the stumps were touched by the ball.
Of late years the wicket consists of three stumps and
two bails; the middle stump is added to prevent the
ball from passing through the wicket without beating it
down; the external stumps are now seven inches apart,
and all of them three feet two inches high. Single
wicket requires five players on each side, and double
wicket eleven; but the number in both instances may
be varied at the pleasure of the two parties. At single
wicket the striker with his bat is the protector of the
wicket; the opponent party stands in the field to catch
or stop the ball; and the bowler, who is one of them,
takes his place by the side of a small baton or stump,
set up for that purpose, twenty-two yards from the
wicket, and thence delivers the ball with the intention
of beating it down. It is now usual to set up two
stumps with a bail across, which the batsman, when he
runs, must beat off before he returns home. If the
bowler prove successful, the batsman retires from the
play and another of his party succeeds; if, on the 'on-
trary, the ball is struck by the bat, and driven into the
field beyond the reach of those who stand out to stop
it, the striker runs to the stump at the bowler's station,
which he touches with his bat, and then returns to his
wicket. If this be performed before the ball is thrown
back, it is called a run, and a notch or score is made
upon the tally towards the game; if, on the contrary,
the ball be thrown up and the wicket beaten down by
the opponent party before the striker is home or can
ground his bat within three feet ten inches of the


wicket (at which distance a mark is made in the ground,
called the popping crease), he is declared to be out, and
the run is not reckoned He is also out if he strike the
ball into the air and it is caught by any of his antago-
nists before it reaches the ground, and retained long
enough to be thrown up again. When double wicket is
played, two batsmen go in at the same time,-one at
each wicket: there are also two bowlers, who usually
bowl four balls in succession alternately. The batsmen
are said to be in as long as they remain at their wickets.
and their party is called the in-party; on the contrary,
those who stand in the field with the bowlers, are called
the out-party. Both parties have two innings, and the
side that obtains the most runs in the double contest,
claims the victory. These are the general outlines, of
this noble pastime, but there are many particular rts
and regulations by which it is governed, and these rules
are subject to frequent variations.

SINGLE wicket may be played with any number of
players, and is better than double wicket for any num.
ber of players under seven. At double wicket, a small
number of players would get so fatigued with running
after the ball, that when it came to the last player's
turn, he would find himself too tired, without resting a
while. The first innings in single wicket must be deter-
mined by chance. The bowler should pitch the wickets,
and the striker measure the distance for the bowling-
stump. Measure a distance of the length of the bat,
and then one of the striker's feet, from the middle




stump in a direction towards the bowling stump: there
make a mark, which is the same as the popping-crease,
and this will show when you are on the ground; place
your bat upright on the mark at the place where the
measure came to, and ask the bowler whether your bat
is before the middle of your wicket; here make a mark
on the ground, which is generally called the blocking-
The bowler now begins to bowl, and the striker
should endeavour to hit any ball which comes within his
compass, or if the ball given be not favourable for that
purpose, he may block it; but in blocking he must be
careful never to let the tip of the bat come before the
handle, as the ball in such a case will probably rise in
the air towards the bowler, and he will be caught out.
Inrunning, the striker must touch the bowling-stump
with his bat or person, or it is no run, and he may be
put out if he do no put his bat or some part of his
person on his ground before the ball touches his wicket.
With three players, the bowler and striker will be
the same as when two are at play; the second player
will be fieldsman, who, when the ball be hit nearer to
him than to the bowler, will pick it up, or catch it if he
can, and return it to the bowler. If the striker should
attempt to run, the bowler should immediately run to
the wicket, and the f7ildsman should throw the ball to
him, so that he may catch it, and touch the wicket with
it to get the striker out. When the first striker is out,
the fieldsman will take his place, the striker will bowl,
and the bowler will take the field. When four players
are engaged, the fourth should stand behind the wicket;
and when five or more play, the additional players



should take the field. The rule in such a case is simply,
that as soon as a striker is out he becomes bowler, then
he becomes wiCket-keeper, and then he takes his place
in the field on the left of the bowler, and afterwards
the other places in regular progression, until it is his
turn to have a new innings.

"LAw, is law," said Evergreen; laws must be rigidly
obeyed, and, therefore, I will read the articles of war
for your edification. The first article of war is said to
be, 'That it shall be death t stop a cannon-ball with
your head.'" Cricketers mhst be cautious also how
they stop cricket-balls with this part of the body : but
Imprimis, the BALL must be in weight between five
ounces and a half and five ounces and three quarters,
and must be between nine inches and nine inches and
one-eighth in circumference.
2. The BAT must ngkbe more than thirty-eight inches
in length, nor exceed four inches and a quarter in its
widest part.
3. The STUMPS, which are three to each wicket, mus*-
be twenty-seven inches out of the ground, and placed
so closely as not to allow the ball to pass through. The
bails must be eight inches in length.
4. The BOWLING-CREASE must be in.a line with the
stumps, and six feet eight inches in length, the stumps
in the centre, with a return-crease at each end towards
the bowler at right angles.
5. The POPPING CREASE must be three feet ten inches


from the wicket, and parallel to it, unlimited in length,
but not shorter than the bowling-crease.
6. They must be opposite to each other, twenty-two
yards apart.
7i It is not lawful for either party,' during a match,
without the other party gives consent, to make any
alteration in the ground by rolling, watering, covering,
mowing, or beating.
This rule is not meant to prevent the striker from
beating the ground with his bat near to the spot where
he stands during the innings, nor to prevent the bowler
from filling up holes with sawdust, &c., when the ground
is wet.
8. After rain, the wickets may be changed with the
consent of both parties.



9. The bowler must deliver the ball with one foot
behind the bowling-crease, and bowl four bowls before
he changes wickets, which he is permitted to do, once
only, in the same innings.
10. The ball must be bowled; if it be thrown or
jerked, or if the hand be above the shoulder in the de-
livery, the umpire must call "no ball" (this being
reckoned as one of the four balls).
11. In some matches, the bowler may give six balls
where the parties are agreed. The bowler may order the
striker at the wicket from which he bowls, to stand on
which side of it he pleases.
12. Should the bowler toss the ball over the striker's
head, or bowl it so wide that it shall be out of distance
to be played at, the umpire, although the striker attempt
it, shall adjudge one run to the parties receiving the
innings, either with or without an appeal from them,
which shall b put down to the score of wide balls, and
such balls not be reckoned as any of the four balls.
When the ipire shall have calle"wide ball," one
run only shall be reckoned, and the ball shall be con-
sidered dead.
13. If "no ball" be called by the umpire, the hitter
may strike at it, and is allowed all the runs he can
make, and is not be considered out except by running
out. Should no run be obtained by any other means,
then one run shall be scored.
14. When a fresh bowler takes the ball, only two
balls shall be allowed for practice; he must, however,


continue the next four in the game before he can change
for another better approved. If six balls are agreed to
be bowled, then he must continue the six instead of four.
15. No substitute in the field shall be allowed to
bowl, keep wicket, STAND AT THE POINT or MIDDLE
WICKET, except by mutual agreement of the parties.

Is OUT, if either of the bails be struck off by the ball,
or either of the stumps struck out of the ground.
He is OUT, if the ball, from a stroke of the bat or
hand below the wrist, be held by his adversary before
it touches the ground, although hugged or caught be-
tween the arms and breast of the catcher.
He is OUT, if in striking, or at any other time while
the ball is in play, both his feet be over the popping-
crease, and his wicket put down, except his bat be
grounded within it.
He is OUT, if in striking at the ball, he either with
his bat, clothes, or person, hits down his wicket.
He is OUT, if under pretence of runni a notch, or
otherwise, eitherof the strikers prevent a ball from
being caught, or if the ball be struck up and he wilfully
strikes it again.
He is OUT, if in running a notch the wicket be struck
down by a throw, or with the hand or arm with ball in
hand, before his bat is grounded over the popping-crease.
If the bails should happen to be off, a stump must be
struck out of the ground.
He is OUT, should he take up or touch the ball while
in play, unless at the request of the opposite party.



He is OUT, if with a part of his person he stop the
ball, which the bowler, in the opinion of the umpire at
the bowler's wicket, has pitched in a straight line with
the wicket,
If the players have crossed each other, he that runs
for the wicket that is put down, is out; and if they have
not crossed, he that has left the wicket which is put
down, is out.
When a ball is caught, no run is to be reckoned.
When a striker is run out, the notch they were run-
ning for is not to be reckoned.
If "lost ball" shall be called, the striker is allowed
the runs; but if more than six shall have been run
before "lost ball" shall have been called, then the
striker shall have all that have been run.
When the ball has been lodged in the wicket-keeper's
or bowler's hands, it is considered dead, that is, no
longer in play, and the striker need not keep within
ground, till the umpire has called "play;" but if the
player goes off his ground, with intent to run, the
bowler may put him out.
Should the striker be hurt, he may retire from his
wicket and return to it any time during that innings.
Some other person may stand out for him, but not go in.
If any person stop the ball with his bat, the ball is to
be considered as DEAD, and the opposite party to add
five notches to their score.
If the ball be struck up, the striker may guard his
wicket with his bat or any part of his body except his
If the striker hit the ball against his partner's wicket
when he is off his ground, he is out, should it previously


have touched the bowler or any of the fieldmen's hands,
but not otherwise.

The wicket-keeper should not take the ball for the
purpose of stumping, until it have passed the wicket.
He shall stand at a proper distance behind the wicket.
and shall not move till the ball be out of the bowler's
hand. He shall not by any noise, incommode the striker,
and if any part of his person be over or before the wicket,
although the ball hit it, he shall not be out.

The umpires are the sole judges of fair and unfair
play, and all disputes are determined by them, each at
his own wicket. They shall not stand more than six
yards from the wicket. In case of a catch, which the
umpire at the wicket cannot see sufficiently to decide
upon, he may apply to the other umpire, whose opinion
is conclusive.
The umpires shall pitch fair wickets, and the parties
shall toss up for the choice of innings.
They shall allow two minutes for the striker to come
Sin, and fifteen minutes between each innings. When
the umpires shall call "play," the party who refuses
shall lose the match.
They are not to order a player out unless assented to
by the adversaries.
If the bowler's foot be not behind the bowling-crease
and within the return crease when he delivers the ball,


they must, unasked, call no ball;" if the striker run
a short run, the umpire must call "no run." 4
If in running either of the strikers shall fail to ground
his bat, in hand, or some part of his person, over the
popping crease, the umpire, for every such failure, shall
deduct two runs from thejnumber intended to have
been run, because such striker, not having run in the
first instance, cannot have started in the second from
the proper goal.
No umpire is allowed to bet.
No umpire to be changed during a match, unless with
the consent of both parties, except in case of a violation
of the last law, then either party may dismiss the trans-
After the delivery of four balls, the umpire should
call over," but not until the ball shall be lodged and
definitely settled in the wicket-keeper's or bowler's
hand; the ball shall then be considered dead. Never-
theless, if an idea be entertained that either of the
strikers is out, a question may be put previously to, but
not after the delivery of the next ball.
The umpire must take especial care to call "no ball"
instantly upon delivery, and "wide ball," as soon as
ever it shall pass the striker.


1. When there shall be less than four players on a
side, bounds shall be placed, twenty-two yards each, in
Sa line from the off and leg stump.


2. The ball must be hit before the bounds to entitle
, the striker to a run, which run cannot be obtained un-
less he touch the bowling-stump or crease, in a line with
it, with his bat or person, or go beyond them, returning
to the popping-crease, as in double wicket, according to
the law.
8. When the striker shall hit the ball, one of his feet
must be on the ground behind the popping-crease, other-
wise the umpire shall call "no hit."
4. When there shall be less than five players of a side,
neither byes nor overthrows shall be allowed, nor shall
the striker be caught out behind the wicket, nor stumped
5. The fieldsman must return the ball so that it shall
cross the space between the wicket and the bowling
stump, or between the bowling stumps and the bounds;
the striker may run till the ball be so returned.
6. After the striker has made one run, he must touch
the bowling stump, and run before the ball shall cross
the play, to entitle him to another.
7. The striker shall be entitled to three runs for lost
ball, and the same number for ball stopped with bat.
8. When there shall be more than four players to a
side, there shall be no bounds; all hits, byes, and over.
throws, will then be allowed.
9. The bowler is subject to the same laws as at
double wicket.
10. No more than one minute shall be allowed be.
tween each ball.




1. No bet is payable in any match unless it be played
out or given up.
2. If the runs of one player be betted against those
of another, the bet depends on the first innings, unless
otherwise specified.
3. If the bet be made upon both innings, and one
party beats the other in one innings, the runs in the
first innings shall determine it.
4. If the other party go in a second time, then the
bet must be determined by the number in the second.


CRICKET is played by twenty-two persons, eleven on
each side, and two umpires, with two persons to score
and count the innings. Thirteen players play at one time,
viz., two strikers, one bowler, one wicket-keeper, long-
stop, short-stop, point, cover, middle-wicket, long-field,
off-side, on-side, and leg; of these the two strikers are
the inside, or have their innings. The object of the
game is to get the greatest number of runs, and this
is to be done by the strikers. Each side having been
in once and out once, the first innings is concluded,
and, we might say, a complete game has been played,
but in most matches another innings is played. The
scorers keep the account of runs to each striker sepa.
lately for each innings. The side that has obtained the



greatest number of runs, wins the game. The arrange.
ment of the players in the field is as follows :-



1. Striker.
2. Bowler.
3. Wicket-keeper.
4. Long-stop.
5. Short-stop.
6. Long-slip.

7. Point.
8. Cover.
9. Middle-wicket.
10. Long-field, off-side.
11. Long-field, on-side.
12. Leg.




No boy should be unable to swim, because it is essential
to the preservation of life; but the attainment of the
art has been held to be difficult, and the number of good
swimmers is very small. The whole science of swimming
consists in multiplying the surface of the body by ex-
tensive motions, so as to displace a greater quantity of
liquid. As the first requisite of oratory was said to be
action; the second, action; and the third, action; so the


first, second, and the third requisite in learning to swim,
is COURAGE. Now there is a vast difference between
courage and temerity; courage proceeds from confidence,
temerity,from carelessness; courage is calm and collected,
temerity is headstrong and rash; courage ventures into
the water carefully, and throws himself off with a firm
and vigorous lounge forward, and a slow and equable
stroke; temerity begins to dive before he knows whether
he can swim or sink, and after floundering about for a
minute or two, finds that he can swim farthest where it
is deepest. Therefore, let the young swimmer mark
the distinction between courage and temerity, and he
will speedily become a swimmer.
Before, however, we proceed to offer any remarks on
swimming as an art, we cannot refrain from calling the
attention of our young friends to the observations of a
'celebrated medical doctor who has thought profoundly
on the subject. "Immersion in cold water," says he,
is a custom which lays claim to the most remote an-
tiquity; indeed it must be coeval with man himself,
The necessity of water for the purpose of cleanliness,
and the pleasure arising from its application in hot
countries, must have very early recommended it to the
human species; even the example of other animals was
sufficient to give the hint to man; by instinct many of
them are led to apply cold water in this manner, and
some, when deprived of its use, have been known to
languish, and even to die."
The cold bath recommends itself in a variety of cases,
and is peculiarly beneficial to the inhabitants of populous
cities who indulge in idleness and lead sedentary lives:
it accelerates the motion of the blood, promotes the



different secretions, and gives permanency to the solids.
But all these important purposes will be more easily
answered by the application of salt water; this also
ought not only to be preferred on account of its superior
gravity, but also, for its greater power of stimulating
the skin, which prevents the patient from catching cold."
It is necessary, however, to observe, that cold bathing
is more likely to prevent than to remove obstructions
of the glandular or lymphatic system; indeed, when
these have arrived at a certain height, they are not to
be removed by any means; in this case, the cold bath
will only aggravate the symptoms, and hurry the un-
happy patient into an untimely grave. It is, therefore,
of the utmost importance, previously to the patient en-
tering upon the use of the cold bath, to determine
whether or not he labours under any obstinate obstruc-
tion of the lungs or other viscera, and when this is the
case, cold bathing ought strictly to be prohibited.
In what is called a plethoric state, or too great fulness
of the body, it is likewise dangerous to use the cold bath
without due preparation. In this case, t ere is danger
of bursting a blood-vessel, or occasioning an inflammation.
The ancient Romans and Greeks, we are told, when
covered with sweat and dust, used to plunge into rivers
without receiving the smallest injury. Though they
might escape danger from this imprudent conduct, yet
it was certainly contrary to sound reason ; many robust
men have thrown away their lives by such an attempt.
We would not, however, advise patients to go in the
cold water when the body is chilled; as much exercise
at least ought to be taken as may excite a gentle glow
all over the body, but by no means so as to overheat it.


To young people, and particularly to children, cold
bathing is of the utmost importance; it promotes their
growth, increases their strength, and prevents a variety
of diseases incident to childhood.
It is necessary here to caution young men against too
frequent bathing, as many fatal consequences have re-
sulted from the daily practice of plunging into rivers,
and continuing there too long.
The most proper time of the day for using the cold
bath is, no doubt, the morning, or at least before dinner,
and the best mode, that of quick immersion. As cold
bathing has a tendency to propel the blood to the head,
it ought always to be a rule to wet that part as soon as
possible. By due attention to this circumstance, there
Sis reason to believe that violent head-aches, and other
complaints which frequently proceed from cold bathing,
might be often prevented.
The cold bath, when too long continued, not only
occasions an excessive flux towards the head, but chills
the blood, cramps the muscles, relaxes the nerves, and
wholly defeats the intention of bathing; hence expert
swimmers are often injured, and sometimes lose their
lives. All the beneficial purposes of cold bathing are
answered by one immersion at a time, and the patient
ought to be rubbed dry the moment he comes out of
the water, and should continue to take exercise some
time after.
Doctor Franklin, who was almost always a practical
man, says. that the only obstacle to improvement in
this necessary and life-preserving art, is fear; and it is
only by overcoming this timidity, that you can expect to
become a master of the following acquirements It is



very common for novices in the art of swimming, to
make use of corks or bladders to assist in keeping the
body above the water; some have utterly condemned
the use of them. However, they may be of service for
supporting the body while one is learning what is called
the stroke, or that manner of drawing in and striking
out the hands and feet that is necessary to produce pro-
gressive motion; but you will be no swimmer till you
can place confidence in the power of the water to support
you. I would therefore advise the acquiring that con-
fidence in the first place, as I have known several who,
by a little practice necessary for that purpose, have in-
sensibly acquired the stroke, taught as if it were by
nature. The practice I mean, is this-choosing a place
where the water deepens gradually, walk coolly in it
until it is up to your breast, then turn your face towards
the shore and throw an egg into the water between you
and the shore, it will sink to the bottom and will easily
be seen there if the water is clear; it must lie in the
water so deep that you cannot reach to take it up with-
out diving for it. To encourage yourself to do this,
reflect thatfyour progress will be from deep to shallow
water, and that at any time you may, by bringing your
legs under you and standing on the bottom, raise your
head far above the water; plunge under it with your
eyes open, which must be kept open before going under,
as you cannot open your eyelids from the weight of
water above you, throw yourself towards the egg and
endeavour by the action of your feet and hands against
the water, to get forward till within reach of it. In this
attempt you will find that the water buoys you up against
your inclination, and that it is not so easy to sink as


you imagine, and that you cannot, but by active force,
get down to the egg. Thus you feel the power of water
to support you, and learn to confide in that power, while
your endeavours to overcome it and to reach the egg,
teach you the manner of acting on the water with your
feet and hands, which action is afterwards used in swim-
ming to support your head higher above the water, or
to go forward through it.
S"I would the more earnestly press upon you the trial
of this method, because, though I think I shall satisfy
you that your body is lighter than water, and that you
might float for a long time with your mouth free for
breathing, if you would put yourself into a proper pos-
ture, and would be still and forbear struggling, yet till
you have obtained this experimental confidence in the
water, I cannot depend upon your having the necessary
presence of mind to recollect the posture and the direc-
tions I gave you relating to it; the' surprise may put
all out of your mind.
Though the legs, arms, and head of a human body,
being solid parts, are specifically somewhat heavier than
fresh water, yet the trunk, particularly the upper part,
from its hollowness, is so much lighter than water, as
that the whole of the body, taken altogether, is too light
to sink wholly under water, but that some parts will
remain above until the lungs become filled with water,
which happens from drawing water to them instead of
air, when a person in the fright attempts breathing while
the mouth and nostrils are under water.
The legs and arms are specifically lighter than salt
water, and will be supported by it, so that a human body
cannot sink in salt water, though the lungs were filled


as above, but for the greater specific gravity of the head.
Therefore, a person throwing himself on his back in salt
water, and extending his arms, may easily lie so as to
keep his mouth and nostrils free for breathing, and by
a small motion of the hand may prevent turning if he
should perceive any tendency to it.
'* In fresh water, if a man throw himself on his back
near the surface, he cannot continue in that situation but
by proper action of his hands in the water; if he have
no such action, the legs and lower part of the body will
gradually sink till he comes into an upright position, in
which he will continue suspended, the hollow of his
breast keeping the head uppermost.
But if in this erect position, the head be kept upright
above the shoulders, as when we stand on the ground,
the immersion will, by the weight of that part of the
head that is out of the water, reach above the mouth and
nostrils, perhaps a little above the eyes, so that a man
cannot long remain suspended in the water with his head
in that position.
The body continuing suspended, as before, and up-
right, if the head be leaned quite back, so that the face
look upward, all the back part of the head being under
water, and its weight consequently being in a great
measure supported by it, the face will remain above
water quite free for breathing, will rise an inch higher
at every inspiration, and sink as much at every expira-
tion, but never so low that the water may come over the
If, therefore, a person unacquainted with swimming,
falling into the water, could have presence of mind suf-
ficient to avoid struggling and plunging, and to let the


body take this natural position, he might continue long
safe from drowning, till, perhaps, help should come; for
as to the clothes, their additional weight, when immersed,
is very inconsiderable, the water supporting them, though
when he comes out of the water he would find them very
heavy indeed.
But, as I said before, I would not advise you or any
one to depend on having this presence of mind on such
an occasion, but learn fairly to swim, as I wish all men
were taught to do in their youth: they would on many
occasions be the safer for having that skill, and on many
more, the happier, as being free from painful apprehen-
sions of danger, to say nothing of the enjoyment in so
delightful and wholesome an exercise. Soldiers, par-
ticularly, should all be taught to swim; it might
be of particular use either in surprising an enemy or
saving themselves, and if I had any boys to educate, I
would prefer those schools in which an opportunity was
afforded for acquiring so advantageous an art, which
when once learned, is never forgotten.
I know by experience, that it is a great comfort to
a swimmer who has a great distance to go, to turn him-
self sometimes on his back, and to vary in other respects
the means of procuring a progressive motion.
When he is seized with the cramp in the leg, the
method to drive it away, is to give the parts affected a
sudden, vigorous and violent shock, which he may do in
the air as he swims on his back.
During the great heats in summer, there is no danger
in bathing, however warm he may be, in rivers which
have been thoroughly warmed by the sun; but to throw
one's-self into cold spring water when the body has been



heated by exercise in the sun, is an imprudence which
may prove fatal. I once knew an instance of four young
men, who, having worked at harvest in the heat of the
day, with a view of refreshing themselves, plunged into
a spring of cold water; two died upon the spot, a third
next morning, and the fourth recovered with great dif-
ficulty. A copious draught of cold water, in similar
circumstances, is frequently attended with the same effect
in North America.
"When I was a boy, I amused myself one day with
flying a paper kite, and approaching the bank of a lake
which was near a mile broad, I tied the string to a stake,
and the kite ascended to a very considerable height
above the pond while.I was bathing. In a little while,
being desirous of amusing myself with my kite and en-
joying at the same time the pleasure of swimming, I
returned, and loosening from the stake the string with
the little stick which was fastened to it, went again into
the water, where I found, that by lying on my back
and holding the stick in my hand, I was drawn along
the surface of the water in a very agreeable manner.
Having thus engaged another boy to carry my clothes
round the pond to a place which I pointed out to him
on the other side, I began to cross the pond with my
kite, which carried me quite over without the least fa-
tigue and with the greatest pleasure imaginable. I was
only obliged occasionally to halt a little in my course
and resist its progress, when it appeared that by following
too quick I lowered the kite too much; by doing thus
occasionally, I made it rise again. I have never since
that time practised this singular mode of swimming,
though I think it not impossible to cross in this manner



from Dover to Calais. The packet boat is, however,

WE have shown that much of the art of swimming de-
pends upon having confidence, and that that confidence
is speedily dissipated upon the swimmer coming in con-
tact with the water. Besides this, a great deal in the
art of swimming depends upon the degree of ease with
which the swimmer can use his hands and feet. Now
this sort of exercise may in part be acquired on land,
and it would be of great usefulness to the learner were
he to enter upon some preliminary practice which would
give him the use of his hands and feet, in the manner
required in swimming. To do this, he should provide
himself with two ropes, which should be fastened up in
the manner of two swings, at about sixteen inches apart
from each other, and one a little higher than the other;
these should be joined together with two or three cords
passing from the one to the other, and on the rack thus
made, a pillow or cushion should be placed; upon this,
the learner will throw himself on his breast, as upon the
water, and supporting himself in this position, and having
his hands and feet perfectly at liberty, he will move them
to and fro in the same manner as in swimming; this he
should repeat several times a day, until he finds that he
has got a complete mastery over the action required.
The head must be drawn back, the chin raised, the fin-
gers must be kept close, and the hands slightly concave
on the inside,-they must be struck out in a line with
the breast; the legs must then be drawn up and struck



out, not downwards, however, but behind, in such a man-
ner, that they may have a good hold upon the water.
These directions being followed for a few days, will give
the learner so much assistance, that when he enters the
water he will find little more requisite than calmness
and confidence in striking out.
In proceeding to take water, the first thing the youth
should do, is to make himself thoroughly convinced that
the spot is safe, that there are no holes in it, that no
weeds are at the bottom, that it does not contain any
stones likely to cut the feet. He must also be cautious
that he does not enter a stream whose eddy sweeps round
a projecting point, or hollow; the bank should slope off
gradually, so that he may proceed for ten or twelve yards
from the shore, before the water rises to the level of his
armpits. With regard to the use of bladders and corks,
although it may perhaps be better to learn to keep our-
selves afloat without their aid, yet they may be used with
advantage, if used sparingly. The pupil, in using them,
places his breast across the rope
which unites them, so that when C _
he lays himself over them in the
water, they float above him, and thus
assist in buoying him up; thus sus-
tained, he strikes out and propels
himself with his hands and feet. -
In striking out when in the water, the fingers are to be
perfectly straight, and the thumb kept close to the hand;
the hands are then to be brought forward, palm to palm,
and to be thrust out in a direction on a level with the
chin; when at their fullest reach, they are to be parted
and swept slowly and regularly with the palms in a



horizontal position, the full stretch of the arms backwards,
they are then brought up from the hips and struck out
forward, as before. While the hands are near the hips,
is the time for the legs to perform their part; they are
to be drawn up as near to the body as possible, and the
soles of the feet struck against the water with moderate
force, immediately the hands are again thrust forward.
Now all this is very easily performed with a little prac-
tice, but will be very difficult if the learner have not
coolness and self-possession. A slow long stroke, the
hand thrust forward with energy, and the legs brought
up and struck out with a regular and even stroke, is the
whole art of simple swimming. The swimmer must,
however, be careful to draw his breath at the time when
his hands are descending towards his hips; if he attempt
it when he strikes out his legs, his head will partially
sink, and his mouth will fill with water. The breath
should accordingly be expired while the body is sent
forward by the action of the legs.
The young swimmer will find
much use in having a plank, ten
feet long, two inches thick, and a
foot broad, which he may take
hold of at one of its ends, and his
body being thus supported he will
perfect himself in the action of the
legs, and will, by striking them out, drive the plank
before him : he must, however, take care to hold it fast,
for if he should let go his hold, he will find himself
sinking over head and ears in the water. A rope may
4lso be so fixed as to reach over the water, by which
the swimmer may support himself while learning to


strike out with his legs; but he should be careful always
in performing this exercise, to keep his legs near the
surface, as, if the legs drop down, he will make very little
way in the water. One of the best kinds of assistance, how-
ever, the young swimmer can have, is the hand of some
one who is willing to teach him, and is superior to any
other methods for very young swimmers. If a grown
person will take the trouble to take the little learner out
with him till he is breast high in the water, and sustain
him with one hand under the breast, and occasionally
hold him up by the chin, at the same time directing and
encouraging him, and occasionally letting him loose that
he may support himself by striking out, the little learner
will soon reach that triumphant period when he floats
alone on the water.
After this triumph, however, the young swimmer must
be exceedingly cautious, though he may feel conscious of
his own power, he must venture only a few strokes out
of his depth: should he be in a broad river, he must be
careful not to do so where there is a strong curling eddy
or flood: in a small river, the breadth of which is only
a few yards, he may venture across with a few bold and
regular strokes; but should he become flurried and lose his
time, he will most assuredly be in danger of sinking. Let
him then obtain such perfect command over his limbs,
and also over himself, that when he ventures out of his
depth, he may be able to keep afloat in the water, plea-
santly to himself, and without hazard.
A most important branch in
art of swimming, is floating, as
the swimmer may frequently
rest himself when fatigued, and
otherwise engage himself in the




water. To do this, he must turn himself as gently as
possible on the back, put his head back, so that his eyes,
mouth, and chin, only, are above the water, elevate his
breast, and inflate his chest as much as possible: the
arms may be brought towards the hips, and the hands
should be paddled in a horizontal kind of sweep, which
will sustain the body. Should the learner wish to swim,
he must strike out with his legs, taking care not to lift
his legs too high; in this position the arms may occa-
sionally be folded across the breast.
To tread water, the legs must be suf-
fered to drop in the water till the swim-
mer finds himself upright, he then treads
downwards with his feet, occasionally
paddling with the palms of his hands.
The swimmer, when long in the water,
will soon find himself tired, changes of
action are therefore necessary; there are
many which are highly advantageous
to learn, such as swimming like a dog,
porpoise, etc. To swim like a dog, he must strike with
each hand and foot alternately, beginning with the right
hand and foot, he must draw the hand towards the chin.
and the foot towards the body, at the same time; he then
must kick backwards with the foot, and strike out in a
right line with the hand, and the same with the left hand
and foot: the palms of the hands must be hollow, and
the water pulled towards the swimmer. In swimming
like a porpoise, the right arm is lifted entirely out of the
water, the shoulder is thrust forward, and while the
swimmer is striking out with his legs, he reaches for-
ward with his hand as far as he can; his hand then falls,



a little hollowed, in the water, which it grasps or pulls
towards him in a transverse direction towards the other
armpit. While this is going on, the legs are drawn up
for another effort, and the left arm and shoulder are raised
and thrust forward, as the right had previously been.
When the swimmer feels tired, he may change these
positions for swimming on the side. To do this, he must
lower his left side and elevate his right, striking forward
with his left hand, and sideways with his right, the back
of the hand being in front instead of upward, the thumb
side of the hand being downward so as to serve as an
oar. Should the swimmer wish to turn on his back, he
must keep one leg still, and embrace the water beside
him with the other, and he will turn to that side. To
shew the feet, he must turn himself on his back, and bend
the small of it downwards, supporting himself by his
hands to and fro immediately above his breast, and hold
his feet above the water. Swimming under water is per-
formed by the usual stroke, the head being kept a little
downwards, and the feet struck out a little higher than
when swimming on the surface.


Upright swimming.-This is a new mode of swimming,
introduced by Bernardi, a Neapolitan, and consists in
adoptg the accustomed motion of the limbs in walking.
It gives great freedom to the hands and arms, affords a
greater facility of breathing and of sight. It is true, that
a person swimming in an upright position, advances more
slowly, but as the method is more natural, the person is



able to continue his course longer, and can remain with
greater safety in the water.
The first object with Bernardi, is to enable the pupil
to float in an upright position, and in this the head is
made the great regulator of all the motions. After having
been by practice familiarised to keep his equilibrium, a
variety of motions are gradually practised, until the
swimmer is enabled at every stroke to urge himself for-
ward a distance equal to the length of his body, and to
travel, without fatigue, at least three miles an hour, and
to continue this without great fatigue for many hours.
Bernardi, speaking of the success of his practice, says,
" Having been appointed to instruct the youths of the
Royal Naval Academy at Naples in the art of swimming,
a trial of the pupils took place in the presence of a num-
ber of persons assembled on the shore, and under the
inspection of authorities appointed to witness and report
upon the experiment. A twelve-oared boat attended the
progress of the pupils, from motives of precaution. They
awam so far out in the bay, that at length the heads of
the young men could with difficulty be discerned with
the naked eye; and the Major-General of Marine, Fort-
guerri, for whose inspection the exhibition was attended,
expressed serious apprehensions for their safety. Upon
their return to the shore, the young men, however, as-
sured him that they felt so little exhausted, as to be
willing immediately to repeat the exertion."
After devoting a month to the investigation gf Ber-
nardi's plan, the Neapolitan government state in their
official report-
"That it has been established by the experience of
more than a hundred persons of different bodily consti-

tutions, that the human body is lighter than water, and,
consequently, will float by nature, and that the art of
swimming must be acquired to render that privilege
"That Bernardi's system is new, in so far as it is
founded on the principle of husbanding the strength,
and rendering the power of recruiting it easy."
The speed, according to the new method, is no doubt
diminished, but security is much more important than
speed, and the new plan is not exclusive of the old when
occasions require great effort.
Little more need be said on the subject of swimming,
except giving a few directions in diving and plunging,
which require to be performed with caution and elegance.
When the swimmer prepares to dive, he must take a full
inspiration of air, the eyes must be kept open, the back
made round, and the head bent forwards on the breast;
the legs must be thrown out with force, and the arms
and hands, instead of being struck forward as in swim-
ming, must move backward. When the swimmer would
ascend, the chin must be held up, the back bent inwards,
the hands struck out high and brought sharply down,
and the body will immediately rise to the surface of the
Plunging.--There are two different
modes of plunging to be acquired, name-
ly, the flat plunge, which is necessary in
shallow water, and the deep plunge, which
is usedwhere there is considerable depth
of water. For the latter, the arms must
be outstretched, the knees bent, and the
body leant forward till the head descends




nearly to the feet when the spine and knees are extended.
In the flat plunge, the swimmer must fling himself for-
ward in an inclined direction, according to the depth
or shallowness of the water; when he touches the
bottom, he must rise in the same manner as after

After all these necessary motions and movements have
been acquired in the water, there is one thing of which
the swimmer must beware, and against which art and
precaution can do but little-this is the CRAMP. When
this seizes the swimmer, he must endeavour, as much as
possible, to avoid being alarmed, as he will reflect, that
as the body is lighter than water, a very little exertion
in it will keep his body afloat. Of course his first thoughts
will be towards the shore, but he must not forget, that
the cramp being only a muscular contraction, may be
thrown off by proper muscular exertion. He must strike
out the limb violently, and bringing the toes towards the
shin-bone, thrust his feet out, which will probably restore
the muscles to their proper exercise; but if the cramp
still continue, he can easily keep himself afloat wft his
hands, and paddle towards the shore, till some assistance
comes to him. If one leg is only attacked, he may drive
himself forward with the other, and for this purpose, in



an emergency, the swimmer should frequently try to
swim with one hand, or one leg and one hand, or by two
hands alone, which will be easily acquired.
Should a companion be in danger of drowning, it is
our duty to use every exertion to save his life; and, in-
deed, not to use the utmost exertion is a high degree of
moral guilt, but in doing this, we must not rashly hazard
our own life, nor put ourselves into a position in which
the swimmer can cling to us or grasp any part of our
body, or the loss of both will be inevitable. It will be
better in all cases where bathing is practised, that there
should be ropes and planks at hand, and young swimmers
should never venture far into the water without such
means of rescue are available. In conclusion, we would
caution all who go into the water, against remaining in
it too long, as nothing can be more dangerous; and we
would further advise that the practice of bathing and
swimming be not only common to boyhood, but be
continued in after life, as few things tetd more to the
preservation of HEALTH.



WE read in the sacred records, that when man was
created, he was placed in a "Garden,"-the Garden of
Eden, to dress it and to keep it; and we may infer
therefrom, first, that the occupation of gardening was
one pre-eminently fitted for the happiness of man, and
secondly, that industry, and even labour, was also a
part of man's duty, even in a state of innocence.
There is not a more innocent amusement than gar-
dening. Nothing can be more lovely than to be afnong
buds and fruits and flowers; nothing is more conducive
to health and peace of mind, and few things are better
calculated to inspire religious feelings than gardening.
Every little boy or girl should have a garden, and
should be shown how to manage it. There is a great
deal in management and in method at all times, but es-
pecially in gardening. Much attention is also necessary,
-great care and much forethought; all of which qualities
of the mind it is in the highest degree proper to train
and exercise. Whoever, therefore, begins gardening,
must not look upon it as an idle sport, to be taken up
and thrown aside with the whim of the moment, but
as an occupation for leisure hours, that the mind must
be brought to bear upon, and which must engage him
from day to day, from month to month, from spring to
summer, from autumn to winter, and so through all the
changes of the varied year.


To begin gardening, a little boy must have some ground,
which is quite indispensable; and a boy of from ten to
fourteen years old ought to have, at least, a piece large
enough for him to divide and subdivide, and arrange
with neatness and Sr.vds.
order. A piece of
about forty yards 0o c
long by thirty wide o
willbelargeenough ,
to commence with, .-
and this should be :: *
set out in the '
subjoined manner. ~1f 1 5 *s *
This will allow of a A. Bed Bed
path three feet wide
in the centre, and .
of one two feet six .
inches round the
sides, leaving the o o o o
beds twenty-twor "


and a half feet wide. The paths should be gravelled with
a good red binding gravel, and to look nice, the borders
should be edged with box or edging tiles. At each corner
of the two parallelograms, might be planted a tree, say,
one apple, one pear, one plum, and one cherry,that is, eight
in all; and at distances of about a yard, might be planted,
all round, a foot from the paths, alternately, gooseberry-
bushes, currant-trees, and raspberry-trees, and between
them, various kinds of flowers, to come into blossom at
different seasons. At one end, the south end if possible,
should be erected a small arbour, with a couple of seats
in it, and at the two opposite corners should be two
small manure pits,-one for the reception of well-rotted
manure, to be quickly used, and the other for the
reception of all weeds, leaves, and rubbish, which will
make manure, and which should be mixed up from time
to time with the spade. These pits should be used
alternately. As soon as one has its contents well rotted,
it should be emptied from time to time on the land,
while the other pit should be used to hold the fresh
matter newly collected. By the time this is full, the
other will be empty, and then that may be used as a
collector and the other as a decomposer, and so on,

IT is of no use whatever to think of getting things to
grow without manure. This is the life and soul of all
garden operations. Almost everything can be con-
verted into manure. The grass from lawns, fallen leaves,
weeds, and all vegetable matter, afford good light


manure. Strong manures are prepared from horse, cow,
sheep, and goat dung. The dung of fowls and rabbits
is also most excellent; and where fowls or rabbits are
kept, their dung should be preserved with great care,
and put by itself into a rotting-pit, or into a tank, and
kept wet. The juicy part can then be used as a liquid
manure, and will be found of a highly fertilizing pro-
perty, and the more solid may be spread over the land.
The best time for putting manure on the land is in dry
or frosty weather, and it should be dug in as soon as
spread. It is a very unwise plan to spread manure on
the land and let it lie, as in such cases, much of the
strength of he manure is lost. Young gardeners should
be very careful in preparing and collecting manure, and
also when they are moving it from the pits to the
ground, they should take care and not soil their paths.

IT is quite necessary that a young gardener should have
proper tools. He should have a small but strong spade,
a small but strong rake, a digging fork, a hoe, a trowel,
a good pruning-knife, a box for seeds, a little wheelbarrow,
a line, and above all, a little gardener's apron, and a
straw hat with a broad brim. Thus equipped, he may
commence his gardening operations with great comfort
to himself and some chance of success.

THE young gardener should practise digging, with a
view to digging well. In beginning to dig a piece of


ground, he should first clear it of all sticks, stalks, or
stones, that might impede his labor. He should then
commence at one end of the ground, with his back to
the sun, if possible, and, beginning from the left-hand
corner, dig one line all the way to the right-hand corner,
either one or two spades deep, as may be required.
The ground should be turned over, evenly laid up at
the top, nice and level, and the weeds completely buried.
The operator should dig carefully when near the roots
of gooseberry, currant, raspberry, or fruit trees, and
more carefully still, among flowers. If digging early in
the season, he must mind he does not dig into his bulbs;
such as lilies, tulips, snow-drops, crocuses, or daffodils,
and cut them to pieces.
In the latter part of the year, in November and
December, it is a good plan to dig up any unoccupied
ground into ridges, and leave it in that state during the
winter, that the frost may act upon it. The effect of
frost upon the ground so prepared is very beneficial, as
it breaks the clods and pulverizes the more cloggy por-
tions, which fall down in a thaw as a fine soft mould.
When manure is dug into the ground, it should not be
dug in too deeply, about four or five inches being quite
sufficient in most cases.

GARDENS will always produce a great deal more than is
wished for, in the shape of various herbs, shrubs, and
plants, called weeds; such as dandelions, couch-grass,
cow-parsley, chick-weed, and many other plants, which
go by the general name of weeds. These, if left to



their own natural growth, would soon cover the ground,
and take away from the garden plants the nutriment
in the soil designed for them, besides entangling their
roots, stems, and leaves; therefore, weeding is as in-
dispensable as digging. The young gardener should
make up his mind before he sets foot in his garden to
have no weeds in it; for however assiduous he may have
been in other respects, however he may have planted,
watered, dug, or attended to his garden, if it show a
crop of weeds, he is a bad gardener, and will be sure to
get laughed at. Weeds may either be pulled up by the
hand or cut up by the hoe. In both cases, the roots
must be eradicated. They must not be plucked from
the stem, or cut from the level ground by the edge of
the hoe, but hoed or plucked up, root and all; and
after they are got up, they are not be left about in
the ridges to take root and grow again, but must be
cleared away and safely put into the pit, never again to
rise, but in the chemistry of good manure.

EVERYTHING in a garden must be planted in some way
or other, and there are many ways of planting and
sowing. Sowing relates more particularly to seeds, and
planting to the setting of plants that have been raised
from seed in the first instance. The sowing of seeds is a
very important work, and before seeds can be sown with
a prospect of their springing up properly, the prepara-
tion of the soil, the time of the year, and even the time
of day, must be taken into consideration. Some seeds
perish in particular kinds of soil, while others thrive


luxuriantly in them. Onions like a rich soil, as do
cauliflowers and asparagus. Carrots and parsnips like
a loose or sandy soil, as do sea-kale and many other
plants. Some plants will only grow in bog earth; and
some thrive, such as strawberries, best in a clayey loam.
Attention to such matters must be given by the young
gardener, if he wish to have his garden what it ought
to be.

BEFORE we can sow many kinds of qeeds in this country
in the open ground, it is necessary to raise them first in
a hot-bed, and for this reason,-many flowers common
in our gardens are not natives of our cold and variable
climate, but of one much warmer; and if we delay to
sow the seed of such plants and flowers till the warm
days of summer are fully set in, the plant has scarcely
time to grow into perfection before the chills of autumn
come on, and they perish before their blossoms, fruit,
or seeds come to perfection. But this may be obviated
by means of a frame and hot-bed, which every young
gardener ought to have, however
small it may be. One of the
simplest is the common garden or
cucumber frame, which may be
bought for a few shillings. This,
if about a yard square, should be
set upon a low framework of bricks,
within which a pit is dug, and filled with good manure'
over which some fine mould is placed, to the depth of
about six inches. Upon this mould the more delicate



kinds of flower-seeds may be sown at an early period of
the year,-varieties of all those found in the gardening
books under the head of tender annuals,--balsams,
French marigolds, tobacco, stocks, marigolds, gourds,
and sun-flowers. The seed must be sown carefully,-
not too thick, and occasionally looked at. In mild, open
weather, the glass should be raised a little, but in cold
weather kept down. The giving of water should be
managed with care, and the plants as they appear should
not be suffered to grow too rapidly, but be kept under,
or they will not bear to be transplanted when the time
comes for doing so.
In transplanting, care should always be taken not to
transplant too early, or in improper weather ; for if the
weather happens to be cold or wet, the tender plants
will suffer very much, and probably fail. This would
be the case, not only with flowers, but with all the tender
kinds of plants, such as cauliflowers, and, therefore, the*
young gardener must keep his "weather eye" open, as
the sailors say, and not be too much in a hurry, as
young gardeners generally are.

IN the sowing of open crops, care should also be taken
to sow at the proper time. Very early sowing is gene-
rally hazardous, but yet, if you would have your crops
come in soon, a little risk must be run. When seed is
sown in the open ground, it requires watching, and this
particularly applies to such crops as early potatoes or
beans. Sometimes potatoes are sown in February, with
the view to an early crop; and in April the young tender



sprouts appear above the ground. One night's frost,
however, settles them,-down they go, black and jelly-
like to the earth; but if the weather be doubtful, the
thoughtful young gardener takes care to cover up the
tender shoots with dry leaves or straw, to break the icy
tooth of the frost, and save his crop. The same care
should be also bestowed upon any other vegetable of a
tender kind, and without this care, gardening would
come to nothing.
After seeds are sown, they have many natural ene-
mies. The slug, the snail, the wire-worm, the impudent
sparrow, and the most impudent and insolent chaffinch,
who all seem to have an idea that the seed is put into
the ground entirely for their benefit. As soon as the
pea-shoot comes above the earth, the slug has a mouthful
in its tenderest moments; after the shoot has in part
recovered from the gentle nibble, Master Sparrow swoops
down and picks off, as quick as he can, all the delicate
little sprouts by mouthfuls: to make a fit ending to
what*is so well begun, the chaffinch descends in the
most impudent manner, close to your face, and pulls up
stalk and pea both together, and flies away as uncon-
cerned as can be. Now it is of no use to stand with a
gun or a pair of clappers in your hand all the day after
these intruders, and the only protection is by a net, or
rows of twine strung with feathers, stretched over the
bed in rows, and a few other pieces of white twine cross-
wise in their immediate vicinity. Birds do not like the
look of any threads drawn across the ground, and they
will rarely fly where there appears danger of entangle-
ment; and this method is the best that can be adopted
for seed-beds. A Guy is also good; and there are few



boys who do not know how to construct one. A Guy
is also particularly appropriate for the early Warwick
peas. As to slugs and caterpillars, they must be hunted
for and picked off; and if they abound in a garden, the
line of shooting peas, beans, or other seed, must be
dredged with a little slacked lime, which is an infalli-
able mode of protection. But mind the lime does not
blow into your eyes; for, if it does, you will be worse
off than the caterpillars.

WHEN seeds are sown, the beds should be nicely raked.
Some seeds, such as carrot and parsnip seeds, should
be beaten down with the flat part of the spade, and
laid very evenly and nicely. The edges of the little
cross-paths should be sharp and straight, and the whole
put into a ship-shape order. The stones should be
raked off into the cross-paths, and may remain there
until the land is dug up in the autumn or winter,, when
they may be removed. There is a good deal to be done
with the rake in many ways, besides the raking of beds.
It is a very useful tool to job over a bed when some
kinds of seeds are sown: it also makes a very good
drill, and is especially useful in getting leaves from the
paths and borders; but it should be used with a light
hand, and care taken not to scratch the ground into
holes with it, as many young gardeners do.

THE hoe is of very great use, both to hoe up weeds and
to form drills. We have spoken about its former use,


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