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HO MANNB 0 BL STTINGI OUT, HI DANGEmOUS JOvOUw
AND SAn ABRIVAL AT THE DESIRED O0UMqT.
BY JOHN BUNYAN.
gf fm Ic f baE Iuix
"I )wve sMd dmltioade.--He xl. i0.
AMERICAN BAPTIST PUBLICATION SOCIETY.
Tan Pilgrim's Progress, as Dr. Johnson remarks, is one of the
few books, which we wish were longer. As if in prophetic antici-
pation of this feeling, Bunyan himself wrote two other volumes,
one as the counterpart, and the other as the companion, of his
Pilgrim, riz., THa SINNEt's PRooGB ss and THs HOLr Waa.
Both these have been issued by the American Baptist Publication
Society, in corresponding size and type, and the three together
make up the series of BUNYAN'S ALLEGORICAL WORKS.
They are stamped with the impress of the same inimitable genius,
and in different methods seek to accomplish the same great end
-the salvation of lost sinners by Jesus Christ.
The Society has also issued BUNYAN'S PRACTICAL WORKS,
classified and arranged in eight volumes, with original Introduo.
tons and Notes. The several volumes, according to the nature
of the suan ts, are styled AwAKENIna, Ix rrnro, DIvOTrIOAw,
DImacrTr, SlnCHINo, CONsoLnuo, DocTInraL, and ExPlrn
MuTmA. These volumes contain forty distinct toorks of Bunyan,
and the whole together form a body of the richest and sound-
est practical divinity. Each volume is complete in itself, and
is sold separately for seventy-five cents. Bound in a beautiful uni.
form style, the whole eight volumes containing 8,474 pages, are
placed by the Society at the very low price of five dollars What
Christian family will not wish to possess them ?
No writer has succeeded so well as Bunyan in presenting the
deepest and sublimest truths of the Gospel in a familiar and en-
gaging style. They have already been a blessing to thousands
and will be yet to hundreds of millions.
PEiADLpEmA, Sptember 28, 1852.
Ten celebrated author of the Pilgrim's Proress wa
born A. D. 1628, at Elstow, a small village near Bedford.
His father earned his bread by the occupation of a tinker,
but he bore a fair character, and took care that his son, whom
he brought up to the same business, should be taught torad
and write. Though he appeared to forget this instruetioc
and became extremely profligate, it is probable he retained
enough to be of essential advantage to him when his cous
of life was changed. He seems from his earliest youth to
have been greatly addicted to gross vice and impiety, but be
was frequently checked by alarms and convictions of oont
science, which however produced no abiding impression.
He has given the fullest account of these, as well as of his
subsequent conversion, in a short treatise entitled, Grace
abounding to the chief of Sinners." During this part of
his life he was twice preserved from the most imminent
danger of drowning: and being a soldier in the parliament's
army at the siege of Leicester, in 1645, he was drawn out
to stand sentinel; but one of his comrades having, by his
This short sketch of the celebrated author of the Pilgrim's
Progress, has been compiled from a brief memoir, prefixed to a
splendid London edition, published 1840, by 1. & f. 8eely.
THE LIFE OF
own desire, taken his place, was shot through the head at
his post, and thus Bunyan was preserved by God for better
purposes. His wicked course was considerably checked
by his marriage with the daughter of a man who had been
very religious, and remarkably bold in reproving vice, though
he was then dead. His wife's conversation induced him to
go regaarly to church, and as her whole portion was "The
practice of Piety," and "The plain man's pathway to
Heaven," he was often engaged in reading these books.
This new attention to religion probably rendered him more
susceptible of conviction, and his impressions were so vivid
and pungent, that he was never able to remove them alto-
gether from his mind. His exercises were so strong, that
m his waking hours he seemed to hear the denunciations of
wrath against him; and while sleeping, in his dreams he
was led to contemplate the awful circumstances of the judg-
ment day. He was tempted to conclude that it was too late
for him to repent, or seek salvation, and under this impres-
sion he indulged his corrupt inclinations without restraint,
imagining that this was his only hope of pleasure. While
pursuing this course he received a severe reproof for pro-
fane swearing from a woman of very bad character, which
induced him to break off from that odious habit. He was
reluctant, however, to part with his irreligious associates and
vain pleasures, until the conversation of a poor man with
whom he met, induced him to read the Bible. This led
him so to reform his conduct, that his neighbours were
greatly astonished at the change. He thus continued for
about a year, at some times satisfied with himself, and at
others distressed with fears and conscious guilt.
While in this state of mind he went to Bedford to attend
to his trade, as a tinker, where he overheard some women
discoure about regeneration, and though he did not undeu
stand them, he was greatly affected by obsei ving the eur.
estness, cheerfulness, and humility of their behaviour; and
he was also convinced that his own views of religion were
very defective. Under this new influence, such a change
took place in hib views and feelings, and his mind was so
deeply engaged in contemplating the great concerns of eter
nity and the things pertaining to the kingdom of God, that
he could with difficulty think about his secular affairs. He
was however not delivered from many temptations of the
adversary. He was assailed by terrorists, and led to read
their books, but being unable to judge of their eorrestawes,
he wisely referred the subject to the Lord, and prayed a
follows: "0 Lord, I am a fool, and not able to know truth
from error; Lord, leave me not to my own blindness, eith
to approve or condemn this doctrine. If it be of God, let
me not despise it; if it be of the devil, let me not embrae
it. Lord, I lay my soul in this matter only at thy feet; let
me not be deceived, I humbly beseech thee." He, who
has invited us to seek wisdom from Himself, and has pro-
mised to give it liberally, and not to upbraid, answered his
request, and led him to see through the delusion.
He now read with great attention Paul's Epistles, and
he did not fully understand them, he was assailed by many
sore temptations. He did not comprehend the meaning of
hith, of which the apostle says so much, nor could he dis-
cover whether he was a believer or not. He was tempted,
under a misapprehension of the words oC Chrit, Matt.
xxii. 20, to solve the difficulty, by trying to work a mirade
He concluded to pray before he made the attempt, and was
thus prevented from making the vain experiment, though
his difficulties still remained. On another occasion he wae
delivered from great perplexities about the doctrine of ds*
ion, by reflecting that none ever trusted in God and wa
TH7i LIFE OF
confounded, and that therefore it would be best for him to
trust in God and leave this difficulty as a secret thing"
with the Lord to whom it belonged. And the general invi.
stations of the gospel, and the assurance that "yet there is
room," assisted him to repel the temptation to conclude that
the day of grace was past.
After some time, Mr. Bunyan became acquainted with
Mr. Gifford, a Baptist minister at Bedford, whose conversa-
tion was very useful to him; yet in some respects he was
more discouraged than ever by fuller discoveries of the
evils of his heart; and by doubts concerning the truth of
the Scriptures, which his ignorance of the evidences by
which they are so completely authenticated, rendered dura
bly perplexing to him. He was, however, at length relieved
by a sermon that he heard on the love of Christ; and soon
after, obeying the plain injunction of the Saviour to all his
followers, he was immersed by the Rev. Mr. Gifford, and
admitted a member of the Baptist church of which he was
pastor in the year 1655, being then twenty-seven years old
After a short time he was earnestly requested by the church
to expound or preach, but feeling his incompetency, he re-
sisted their importunity for some time. He was at length
prevailed upon to speak in a small company, which he did
greatly to their satisfaction and edification. Having been
thus proved for a considerable time, he was at length called
forth, and set apart by fasting and prayer to the ministerial
office, which he executed with faithfulness and success
during a long course of years, though frequently with great
trepidation and inward disquietude.
As he was baptized in 1655, and imprisoned in 1660, he
could not have been very long engaged in the ministry be.
fore the latter event took place, and it is not known cer,
mainly whether he was engaged stately in the duties of the
ministry, or whether he only preached occasionally, and
worked at his trade for his support. Previous to the re-
storation of Charles II., when the churches were princi-
pally filled by those who afterwards were distinguished as
non-conformists, Mr. Bunyan was expected to preach in a
church near Cambridge, when a student of that University,
not remarkable for sobriety, was induced by curiosity to
hear the tinker prate." The discourse made an unex-
pected impression on his mind, and he embraced every op-
portunity of hearing him afterwards, and at length became
an eminent preacher in Cambridgeshire.
When the restoration took place, the laws were framed
.nd executed with great severity against every man who
scrupled the least tittle of the doctrine, liturgy, discipline,
or government of the established church. Mr. Bunyan
was one of the first sufferers by these iniquitous laws. He
was courageous and unreserved, and did not hesitate to con-
tinue his ministerial duties without any disguise. On the
12th of November, 1660, he was apprehended by a war-
rant from Justice Wingate, at Harlington, near Bedford,
with sixty other persons, and committed to the county jail.
Security for his appearance was refused, because his sure-
ties would not consent that he should be restricted from
preaching. He was accordingly confined until the Quarter
Sessions, when his indictment stated that John Bunyan,
of the town of Bedford, labourer, had devilishly and perni-
ciously abstained from coming to church to hear divine ser-
vice; and was a common upholder of several unlawful
meetings and conventicles, to the great disturbance and dis.
traction of the good subjects of this kingdom, contrary to
the laws of our sovereign Lord the King." No witnesses
were produced to substantiate any of the absurd charges
made against him, but his own confession that he was a
THE LIFE OF
dissenter and had preached, was considered equivalent to a
conviction, and was recorded against him; and he was sen-
tenced to perpetual banishment for persisting to preach and
refusing to conform. This sentence was not executed, but
he was most iniquitously detained a prisoner in Bedford
jail more than twelve years, notwithstanding several efforts
nade to obtain his deliverance.
During this tedious imprisonment, or at least a part of it
he had no books except a Bible, and Fox's Martyrology.
There were confined in the same prison, however, about
sixty other dissenters, taken at a meeting in Kaistoe, in
Bedfordshire, among whom were two preacfers, Mr.
Wheeler and Mr. Dunn. As some of these were dis-
charged, others were committed during the time of his im-
prisonment. He did not, in this trying season, neglect the
opportunities thus furnished him to do good, but preached
to his fellow-prisoners, and others who came to hear him,
with good effect. He learned also to make tagged thread
laces in the intervals of his other labours, and by this em-
ployment he provided, in the most unexceptionable manner,
for himself and his family. He was sometimes distressed
about his family, especially his eldest daughter, who was
blind, but he received comfort from meditating on the pro.
y mises of God's word. In the midst of all his trials, and
under so many disadvantages, he wrote the Pilgrim's Pro-
gress, and many other treatises. He was sometimes favoured
by the jailors, and permitted to see his family and friends,
and was once allowed to go to London, probably to see
whether any legal redress might be obtained, according to
some intimation given by Sir Matthew Hale, when petitions
in his favour were laid before the judges. These indulgences
exposed the keeper of the jail to danger, and Mr. Bunyan
was afterwards more closely confined. This has given tim
to an opinion that he was imprisoned at different times, but
he seems never to have been set at liberty and then re-com-
mitted; though his hardships and restraints were greater at
*-, time than another. In the last year of his imprison-
ment (1671) he was chosen pastor of the dissenting church
at Bedford; though it does not appear what opportunity
he could have had of exercising his pastoral office, except
within the precincts of the jail. He was, however, libe-
rated soon after, through the good offices of Dr. Barlow,
bishop of Lincoln, and others. Thus terminated his tedious,
severe, and even illegal imprisonment, which had given
him abundant opportunity for the exercise of patience and
meekness, and which was overruled to the furtherance of
the gospel and his own spiritual improvement. He formed
habits of close reflection, and accurate investigation of va-
rious subjects in order to pen his several treatises; when
probably he would neither have thought so deeply, nor
written so well, had he been more at ease and at liberty.
A short time after he was set at liberty, the voluntary con.
tributions of his hearers enabled him to build a meeting-house
at Bedford, where he preached to large congregations. He
visited London every year and preached among the non-
conformists with great acceptance, and it is said that Dr.
Owen frequently attended on these occasions, and expressed
his approbation in decided language. He likewise made
stated visits to other parts of England, and animated his
brethren to bear the cross patiently, to obey God rather than
m;:n, and leave all consequences with Him. He was at the
same time peculiarly attentive to the temporal waTts of those
who suffered for conscience sake, and of the sick and the
afflicted; and he employed his influence very successfully
wn reconciling differences among professors of the gospde
THE LIF OF
and thus preventing disgraceful and expensive litigtions.
He was very exact in family religion, and the instruction of
his children; being principally concerned for their spiritual
interests, and comparatively indifferent about their temporal
prosperity. He therefore declined the liberal proposal of a
wealthy citizen of London to take his son apprentice without
any premium, saying, God did not send me to advance my
family, but to preach the gospel," probably disliking the
business, or situation, as unfavourable to piety.
Nothing material is recorded concerning him between his
enlargement in 1672 and his death in 1688. It is said'that
he clearly saw through the designs of the court in favour of
popery, when the indulgence was granted to dissenters by
James I., in 1687: but that he advised his brethren to avail
themselves of the "sunshine" by diligent endeavours to
spread the gospel, and to prepare for an approaching storm
by fasting and prayer. The next year he took a journey in
very bad weather from London to Reading, Berks, to make
up a breach between a father and son, with whom he had
some acquaintance, and having happily effected his last work
and labour of love, he returned to his lodgings on Snow Hill
very wet with the rain that was then falling, and was soon
after seized with a fever, which in ten days terminated his
Useful life. He bore this, as he had done his other sufferings,
with great patience and submission to the will of God, and
died in a triumphant manner August 31, 1688, aged sixty
years. He lies buried in Bunhill Fields, where it is said, a
tombstone to his memory may still be seen. Thus termi.
nated the pilgrimage of this Christian traveller, and having
crossed the river of death, he has gone to the enjoyment of
the celestial city.
lie was twice married: by his first wife he had fowr
children, one of which, his daughter Mary, who was blind,
died before him. He was married to his second wife in
1658, two years before his imprisonment: by her he seems
not to have had any children. She survived him about four
Mr. Bunyan was tall and broad set, but not corpulent:
he had a ruddy complexion, with sparkling eyes, and hair
inclining to red, though in his old age, sprinkled with grey.
His appearance was plain, and his dress always simple and
unaffected. He published sixty tracts, which equalled the
number of years he lived. The Pilgrim's Progress had
passed through more than fifty editions in 1784. The
celebrated Dr. Johnson ranks this among a very few books
indeed, of which the reader, when he comes to the conclu-
sion, wishes they had been longer, and allows it to rank
high among the works of original genius.
His character was uniformly good from the time when he
became acquainted with the blessed gospel of Christ: and
though his countenance was rather stern, and his manner
rough, he was very mild, modest and affable in his be-
haviour. He was backward to speak much, except on
particular occasions, and remarkably averse to boasting;
ready to submit to the judgment of others, disposed to for-
give injuries, to follow peace with all men, and to employ
himself as a peace maker; yet he was steady to his princi-
plex, and bold in reproving sin without respect to persons
Many slanders were spread concerning him, during the
course of his ministry, which he refuted. They have all
now died away; and no one pretends to lay any thing to
his disadvantage, except as a firm attachment to his creed
and practice as a Calvinist, a dissenter, and an anti-pedo-
baptist, has been called bigotry. This judgment is usually
Z1 THE LIFE OF JOHN BUNYAN.
passed on all, who like him had rather follow Jesus Christ
than the traditions of men; and the denomination to which
he belonged, is now, as it was then, and for is same cause
a steadfast attachment to the whole truth sect every
where spoken against."
AUTHOR'S APOLOGY FOR HIS BOOK.
Wxus at the first I took my pen in hanA*
Thus for to write, I did not understand
That I at all should make a little book
In such a mode; nay, I had undertook
To make another; which, when almost done,
Before I was aware I this began.
And thus it was: I writing of the way
And race of saints, in this our gospel-day,
Fell suddenly into an allegory
About their journey, and the way to glory,
In more than twenty things which I set down t
This done, I twenty more had in my crown;
And they again began to multiply,
Like sparks that from the coals of fre do fly
Nay, then, thought I, if that you breed so fat
FIl put you by yourselves, lest you at last
Should prove ad inRlnitum, and eat out
The book that I already am about.
Well, so I did; but yet I did not think
To show to all the world my pen and ink
In such a mode; I only thought to make
I knew not what: nor did I undertake
Thereby to please my neighbour: no, not I
I did it my own se.f to gratify
TrnZ AUTOro'r APOLOOr.
Neinas did I but vacant seasons spend
In this my scribble: nor did I intend
But to divert myself in doing this,
From worser thoughts, which make me do amiss.
Thus I set pen to paper with delight,
And quickly had my thoughts in black and whita
For having now my method by the end,
till as I pulled, it came; and so I penn'd
It down: until it came at last to be,
For length and breadth, the bigness which you sea
Well, when) had thus put mine ends together,
I showed them others, that I might see whether
They would condemn them, or them justify:
And some said, Let them live; some, Let them die
Some said, John, print it; others said, Not so;
Some said, It might do good; others said, No.
Now was I in a strait, and did not see
Which was the best thing to be done by me:
At last I thought, Since ye are thus divided,
I print it will; and so the case decided.
For, thought I, some I see would have it done,
Though others in that channel do not run:
To prove, then, who advised for the best,
Thus I thought fit to put it to the test.
I further thought, if now I did deny
Those that would have it, tnub to gratify;
I did not know, but hinder them I might
Of that which would to them be great delight.
For those which were not for its coming forth,
I said to them, Offend you I am loth:
Yet since your brethren pleased with it be,
Forbear to judge, till you do further see.
TrH AUTHOtn' APOL( oT.
If that thou wilt not read, let it alone;
Some love the meat, some love to pick the boes
Yea, that I nmght them better palliate,
I did too with them thus expostulate:
May I not write in such a style as this I
In such a method too, and yet not miss
My end-thy good 1 Why may it not be done t
Dark clouds bring waters when the bright bring me m
Yea, dark or bright, if they their silver drops
Cause to descend, the earth, by yielding crops,
Gives praise to both, and carpeth not at either, .
But treasures up the fruit they yield together;
Yea, so commixes both, that in their fruit
None can distinguish this from that; they suit
Her well when hungry; but if she be flol,
She spews out both, and makes their blessing nulL
You see the ways the fisherman doth take
To catch the fish; what engines doth he make I
Behold how he engageth all his wits;
Also his snares, lines, angles, hooks, and sets;
Yet fish there be, that neither hook nor line
Nor snare, nor net, nor engine can make thinq:
They must be grop'd for, and be tickled too,
Or they will not be catch'd, whatever you do.
How does the fowler seek to catch his game
By divers means all which one cannot narae:
His guns, his nets, his lime-twigs. light, and bell
He creeps, he goes, he stands; yea, who can tell
Of all his postures 1 Yet there's none of these
Will make him master of what fowls he please.
Yea, he must pipe and whistle, to catch this;
Yet if he does so, that bird he will miss.
If that a pearl may in a toad's head dwell,
And may be found too in an oyster shell;
If things that promise nothing do contain
What better is than gold; who will disdain,
THE AUTHOR'S APOLOGY.
That have an inkling* of it, there to look,
That they may find it 1 Now my little book,
(Though void of all these paintings that may make
It with this or the other man to take,)
Is not without those things that do excel,
What do in brave, but empty notions dwell
SWell, yet I am not fully satisfied
That this your book will stand when soundly tried."
Why, what's the matter I It is dark." What though
SBut it is feigned." What of that? I trow
Some men by feigned words, as dark as mine,
Make truth to spangle, and its rays to shine.
"But they want solidness." Speak, man, thy mind,
"They drown the weak; metaphors make us blind."
Solidity, indeed, becomes the pen
Of him that writeth things divine to men
But must I needs want solidness, because
By metaphor I speak? Were not God's laws,
His gospel laws, in olden time held forth
By types, shadows, and metaphors I Yet loth
Will any sober man be to find fault
With them, lest he be found for to assault
The highest wisdom! No, he rather stoops,
And seeks to find out by what pins and loops,
By calves and sheep, by heifers and by rams,
By birds and herbs, and by the blood of lambs,
God speaketh to him; and happy is he
That finds the light and grace that in them be.
Be not too forward therefore to conclude
That I want solidness-that I am rude:
All things solid in show not solid be;
All things in parable despise not we.
Hint, whisper, mtimatiom.
THE AUTHOR V APOLOGY.
Lest things most hurtful lightly we receive,
And things that good are of our souls bereave.
My dark and cloudy words they do but hold
The truth, as cabinets inclose the gold.
The prophets used much by metaphors
To set forth truth: yea whoso considers
Christ, his apostles too, shall plainly see,
That truths to this day in such mantles be.
Am I afraid to say, that holy writ,
Which for its style and phrase puts down all wiJl
Is every where so full of all these things,
Dark figures, allegories I Yet there springs
From that same book, that lustre, and those ray
Of light that turns our darkest nights to days.
Come, let my carper to his life now look,
And find there darker lines than in my book
He findeth any; yea, and let him know,
That in his best things there are worse lines too.
May we but stand before impartial men,
To his poor one I durst adventure ten,
That they will take my meaning in these line
Far better than his lies in silver shrines.
Come, truth, although in swaddling clothes, I ad
Informs the judgment, rectifies the mind;
Pleases the understanding, makes the will
Submit, the memory too it doth fll
With what doth our imagination please.
Likewise it tends our troubles to appease.
Sound words, I know, Timothy is to use.
And old wives' fables he is to refuse;
But yet grave Paul him no where doth forbid
The use of parables; in which lay hid
That gold, those pearls, and precious stones that weM
Worth digging 'or, and that with greatest care,
THE AUTHOR'S APOLOGY.
Let me add one word more. 0 man of Go
Art thou offended ? Dost thou wish I had
Put forth my matter in another dress 1
Or, that I had in things been more express I
Three things let me propound; then I submit
To those that are my betters, as is fit.
1. Ifind not that I am denied the use
Of this my method, so I no abuse
Put on the words, things, readers, or be rude
In handling figure or similitude,
In application; but all that I may
Seek the advance of truth this or that way.
Denied did I say 1 Nay, I have leave,
(Example too, and that from them that have
God better pleased, by their words or ways,
Than any man that breatheth now-a-days,)
Thus to express my mind, thus to declare
Things unto thee that excellentest are.
2. I find that men as high as trees will wr'
Dialogue-wise: yet no man doth them slight
For writing so: indeed if they abuse
Truth, cursed be they, and the craft they use
To that intent; but yet let truth be free
To make her sallies upon thee and me,
Which way it pleases God: for who knows how
Better than he that taught us first to plough,
To guide our minds and pen for his design
And he makes base things usher in divine.
3. I find that holy'writ, in many places,
Bath semblance with this method, where the cauw
Do call for one thing, to set forth another:
Use it I may then, and yet nothing smother
Truth's golden beams: nay, by this method may
Make it cast forth its rays as light as day.
THE AUTHOR'S APOLOGY.
And now, before I do put up my pen,
Ill show the profit of my book : and then
Commit both thee and it unto that hand
That pulls the strong down, and makes weak ones stand
This book it chalketh out before thine eyes
The man that seeks the everlasting prize:
It shows you whence he comes, whither he goes,
What he leaves undone; also what he does:
It also shows you how he runs and runs
Till he unto the gate of glory comes.
It shows, too, who set out for life amain,
As if the lasting crown they would obtain;
Here also you may see the reason why
They lose their labour, and like fools do die.
This book will make a traveller of thee
If by its counsel thou wilt ruled be;
It will direct thee to the Holy Land,
If thou wilt its directions understand:
Yea, it will make the slothful active be;
The blind also delightful things to see.
Art thou for something rare and profitable t
Or wouldst thou see a truth within a fable
Art thou forgetful 1 Wouldst thou remember
From New-Year's-day to the last of December ?
Then read my fancies; they will stick like burs,
And may be, to the helpless, comforters.
This book is writ in such a dialect,
As may the minds of listless men affect:
It seems a novelty, and yet contains
Nothing but sound and honest gospel strains.
Wouldst thou divert thyself from melancholy 1
Wouldst thou be pleasant, yet be far from folly ?
Wouldst thou read riddles, and their explanation
Oi else be drowned in thy contemplation 1
g0 THE AUTHOR'S APOLOGY.
Dost thou love picking meat Or wouldst thou see
A man i' the clouds, and hear hirz speak to thee I
Wouldst thou be in a dream, and yet not sleep 1
Or wouldst thou in a moment laugh and weep
Wouldst thou lose thyself and catch no harm,
And find thyself again without a charm 1
Wouldst read thyself, tnd read thou knowest not what,
And yet know whether" thou art blest or not,
By reading the same nes 1 0 then come hither,
And lay my book, th head, and heart together
IN THE SIMILITUDE OF A DREAM.
As I walked through the wilderness of this world, I
lighted on a certain place where was a den,* and laid me
down in that place to sleep; .and as I slept, I dreamed a
dream. I dreamed, and behold, I saw a man clothed with
rags standing in a certain place, with his face from his own
house, a book in his hand, and a great burden upon his
back, Isaiah, lxiv. 6; Luke, xiv. 83; Psalm xxxviii. 4. I
looked, and saw him open the book, and read therein;
ind as he read, he wept and trembled; and not being able
onger to contain, he brake out with a lamentable cry,
saying, "What shall I do Acts, ii. 37; xvi. 80; Ha,
bakkuk, i. 2, 3.
In this plight, therefore, he went home, and restrained
himself as long as he could, that his wife and children
should not perceive his distress; but he could not be silent
long, because that his trouble increased. Wherefore at
length he brake his mind to his wife and children, and
-thus he began to talk to them: "0 my dear wife," said
he, and you the children of my bowels, I, your dear
Bedford jail, in which the author was a prisoner for con
2 THE PILGRIM S DEPLORABLE CONDITION.
friend, am in myself undone by reason of a burden tha
lieth hard upon me; moreover, I am certainly informed
that this our city will be burnt with fire from heaven; in
which fearful overthrow, both myself, with thee my wife,
and you my sweet babes, shall miserably come to ruin,
except (the which yet I see not) some way of escape can
be found whereby we may be delivered." At this his re-
lations were sore amazed; not for that they believed that
what he had said to them was true, but because they
thought that some phrenzy distemper had got into his
head; therefore, it drawing toward night, and they hoping
that sleep might settle his brains, with all haste they got
him to bed. But the night was as troublesome to him as
the day; wherefore, instead of sleeping, he spent it in sighs
and tears. So when the morning was come, they would
know how he did. He told them Worse and worse:"
he also set to talking to them again; but they began to be
hardened. They also thought to drive away his distemper
by harsh and surly carriage to him: sometimes they would
deride, sometimes they would chide, and sometimes they
would quite neglect him. Wherefore he began to retire
himself to his chamber to pray for and pity them, and also
to condole his own misery; he would also walk solitarily
in the fields, sometimes reading, and sometimes praying,
and thus for some days he spent his time.
Now I saw, upon a time, when he was walking in the
fields, that he was (as he was wont) reading in his book,
and greatly distressed in his mind; and as he read, he burst
out, as he had done before, crying, "What shall I do to be
saved ?" Acts, xvi. 30, 81.
I saw also that he looked this way, and that way, as if
he would run; yet he stood still, because (as I perceived)
he could not tell which way to go. I looked then, and
tVANGOLIUT DIRZCTI HIM ARIONT.
aw a man named Evangelist coming to him, and he asked,
"Wherefore dost thou cry ?"
He answered, "Sir, I perceive, by the book in my hand,
that I am condemned to die, and after that to come to judg-
ment, Hebrews, ix. 27; and I find that I am not willing
to do the first, Job, x. 21, 22; nor able to do the second."
Ezekiel, xxii. 14.
Then said Evangelist, Why not willing to die, since
his life is attended with so many evils The man an*
swered, Because I fear that this burden that is upon my
back will sink me lower than the grave, and I shall fal
into Tophet, Isaiah, xxx. 33. And, sir, if I be not fit to
go to prison, I am not fit to go to judgment, and from
thence to execution; and the thoughts of these things make
Then said Evangelist, "If this be thy condition, why
standest thou still ?" He answered, "Because I know not
whither to go." Then he gave him a parchment roll, and
there was written within, "Fly from the wrath to come."
Matthew, iii. 7.
The man therefore read it, and, looking upon Evangelist
very carefully, said, "Whither must I fly Then said
Evangelist, (pointing with his finger over a very wide
field,) "'Do you see yonder wicket-gate Matthew, vii.
13, 14. The man said, No." Then said the other, Do
you see yonder shining light?" Psalm cxix. 105: 2 Peter
i. 19. He said, I think I do." Then said Evangelist,
Keep that light in your eye, and go up directly thereto,
so shalt thou see the gate; at which, when thou knockest,
it shall be told thee what thou shalt do." So I saw in my
dream that the man began to run. Now he had not run
far from his own door when his wife and children, per.
eeiving it, began to cry after him to return; but the man
84 OBIrNATE AND PLIABLE PURSUE HeX
put his fingers in his ears, and ran on, crying, "Lfe life
eternal life I" Luke, xiv. 26. So he looked not behind
him, Genesis, xix. 17; but fled toward the middle of the
The neighbours also came out to see him run, Jeremiah,
xx. 10; and as he ran some mocked, others threatened,
and some cried after him to return; and among those that
did so, there were two that resolved to fetch him back by
force. The name of the one was Obstinate, and the name
of the other Pliable. Now by this time the man was got
a good distance from them; but however they were re-
solved to pursue him, which they did, and in a little time
they overtook him. Then said the man, Neighbours,
wherefore are ye come ?" They said, "To persuade you
to go back with us." But he said, That can by no means
be: you dwell," said he, in the city of Destruction, the
place also where I was born: I see it to be so; and dying
there, sooner or later you will sink lower than the grave,
into a place that burns with fire and brimstone: be content,
good neighbours, and go along with me."
OawT. What! said Obstinate, and leave our friends and
our comforts behind us ?
Cm. Yes, said Christian, (for that was his name,)
because that all which you forsake is not worthy to be
compared with a little of that I am seeking to enjoy, 2
Corinthians, iv. 18; and if you will go along with me,
and hold it, you shall fare as I myself; for there, where I
go, is enough and to spare, Luke, xv. 17. Come away,
and prove my words.
Ossr. What are the things you seek, since you leave all
the world to find them ?
Cai. I seek an inheritance incorruptible, undefied, and
that fadeth not away, 1 Peter, i. 4; and it is laid up in
DIALOGUE WITH )OBTINATE AND PLIABLE.
heaven, and safe there, Hebrews, xi. 16, to be bestowed
at the time appointed, on them that diligently seek it. Read
it so, if you will, in my book.
OssT. Tush, said Obstinate, away with your book; will
you go back with us or no ?
CHR. No, not I, said the other, because I have laid my
hand to the plough, Luke, ix. 62.
OBST. Come then, neighbour Pliable, let us turn again,
and go home without him: there is a company of these
crazy-headed coxcombs, that when they take a fancy by
the end, are wiser in their own eyes than seven men that
can render a reason.
PLI. Then said Pliable, Don't revile; if what the good
Christian says is true, the things he looks after are better
than ours: my heart inclines to go with my neighbour.
OBsT. What! more fools still! Be ruled by me and go
back; who knows whither such a brain-sick fellow will lead
you ? Go back, go back, and be wise.
CHR. Come with me, neighbour Pliable; there are such
things to be had which I spoke of, and many more glories
beside. If you believe not me, read here in this book; and
for the truth of what is expressed therein, behold, all is
confirmed by the blood of Him that made it, Hebrews, ix.
PLI. Well, neighbour Obstinate, said Pliable, I begin to
come to a point; I intend to go along with this good man,
and to cast in my lot with him: but, my good companion,
do you know the way to this desired place ?
CHR. I am directed by a man, whose name is Evangelist,
to speed me to a little gate that is before us, where we shall
receive instruction about the way.
PLI. Come then, good neighbour, let us be going. Then
they went both together.
OBSTINATE GOES BACK.
OBST. And I will go back to my place, said Obstinate,
I will be no companion of such misled fantastical fellows.
Now I saw in my dream, that when Obstinate was gone
back, Christian and Pliable went talking over the plain;
and thus they began their discourse.
CHR. Come, neighbour Pliable, how4o you do ? I am
glad you are persuaded to go along with me. Had even
Obstinate himself but felt what I have felt of the powers
and terrors of what is yet unseen, he would not thus lightly
have given us the back.
PLI. Come, neighbour Christian, since there are none
but us two here, tell me now farther, what the things are,
and how to be enjoyed, whither we are going.
CHR. I can better conceive of them with my mind, than
speak of them with my tongue: but yet since you are de-
sirous to know, I will read of them in my book.
PL. And do you think that the words of your book are
CHR. Yes, verily; for it was made by Him that cannot
lie, Titus, i. 2.
PL. Well said; what things are they I
CaR. There is an endless kingdom to be inhabited, and
everlasting life to be given us, that we may inhabit that
kingdom for ever, Isaiah, xlv. 17; John, x. 27, 29.
PLI. Well said; and what else ?
CHR. There are crowns of glory to be given us; and
garments that will make us shine like the sun in the firmao
ment of heaven, 2 Timothy, iv. 8; Revelations,.xxii. 5;
Matthew, xiii. 43.
PLI. This is excellent: and what else?
CHRI. There shall be no more crying, nor sorrow, for he
that is owner of the place will wipe all tears from our eyes,
Isaiah. xxv. 8; Revelations, vii. 16, 17, xxi. 4
DIALOGUE BETWEEN CHRISTIAN AND PLIABLE. 27
PLI. And what company shall we have there?
CHR. There we shall be with seraphims and cherubims,
Isaiah, vi. 2; 1 Thessalonians, iv. 16, 17; Revelations, v.
11; creatures that will dazzle your eyes to look on them.
There also you shall meet with thousands and ten thousands
that have gone bere us to that place; none of them are
hurtful, but loving and holy; every one walking in the
sight of God, and standig in his presence with acceptance
forever. In a word, there we shall see the elders with
their golden crowns, Revelations, iv. 4; there we shall see
the holy virgins with their golden harps, Revelations, xiv.
1, 5; there we shall see men, that by the world were cut
in pieces, burnt in flames, eaten of beasts, drowned in the
seas, for the love they bare to the Lord of the place, John,
xii. 25; all well, and clothed with immortality as with a
garment, 2 Corinthians, v. 2, 3, 5.
PLI. The hearing of this is enough to ravish one's heart.
But are these things to be enjoyed ? How shall we get to
be sharers thereof?
CHn. The Lord, the governor of the country, hath
recorded that in this book, Isaiah, Iv. 1, 2; John, vi. 37;
viii. 37; Revelations, xxi. 6; xxii. 17; the substance of
which is, If we be truly willing to have it, he will bestow it
upon us freely.
PLI. Well, my good companion, glad am I to hear e
these things: come on, let us mend our pace.
CHR. I cannot go so fast as I would, by reason of this
burden that is on my back.
Now I saw in my dream, that just as they had ended
this talk, they drew nigh to a very miry slough that was
m the midst of the plain: and they, being heedless, did
both fall suddenly into the bog. The name of the slough
was Despond. Here, therefore, they wallowed for a time
28 THE SLOUGH OF DESPOND.-PLIABLE GOES BACK.
being grievously bedaubed with dirt; and Christian, because
of the burden that was on his back, began to sink in the
PLI. Then said Pliable, Ah, neighbour Christian, where
are you now?
CHR. Truly, said Christian, I do noaknow.
P]LI. At this Pliable began to be offended, and angrily
said to his fellow, Is this the happiness you have told me
all this while of? If we have such ill speed at our first
setting out, what may we expect between this and our
journey's end? May I get out again with my life, you
shall possess the brave country alone for me. And with
that he gave a desperate struggle or two, and got out of the
mire on that side of the slough which was next to his own
house: so away he went, and Christian saw him no more.
Wherefore Christian was left to tumble in the Slough
of Despond alone: but still he endeavoured to struggle to
that side of the slough that was farthest from his own
house, and next to the wicket-gate; the which he did, but
could not get out because of the burden that was upon his
back: but I beheld in my dream, that a man came to him,
whose name was Help, and asked him "What he did
CHR. Sir, said Christian, I was bid to go this way by a
man called Evangelist, who directed me also to yonder gate,
that I might escape the wrath to come. And as I was going
thither I fell in here.
HELP. But why did not you look for the steps.
CHR. Fear followed me so hard, that I fled the next way,
and fell in.
HELP. Then said he, give me thine hand; so he gave
him his hand, and he drew him out, Psalm xl. 2, and he
set him upon sound ground, and bid him go on his way
TIME SJOUOH DESCRIBED.
Then I stepped to him that plucked him out, and said
"Sir, wherefore, since over this place is the way from
the city of Destruction to yonder gate, is it, that this plat
is not mended, that poor travellers might go'thither with
more security ?" And he said unto me, This miry slough
is such a place as cannot be mended: it is the descent
whither the scum and filth that attends conviction for sin
doth continually run, and therefore it is called the Slough
of Despond; for still as the sinner is awakened about his
lost condition, there arise in his soul many fears and doubts,
and discouraging apprehensions, which all of them get
together, and settle in this place: and this is the reason of
the badness of this ground.
"It is not the pleasure of the King that this place should
remain so bad, Isaiah, xxxv. 3, 4. His labourers also
have, by the direction of his Majesty's surveyors, been for
above these sixteen hundred years employed about this
patch of ground, if perhaps it might have been mended:
yea, and to my knowledge," said he, "here have been
swallowed up at least twenty thousand cart-loads, yea, mil-
lions, of wholesome instructions, that have at all seasons
been brought from all places of the King's dominions, (and
they that can tell, say, they are the best materials to make
?ood ground of the place,) if so be it might have been
mended; but it is the Slough of Despond still, and so will
oe when they have done what they can.
True, there are, by the direction of the Lawgiver, cer-
tain good and substAntial steps, placed even through the very
midst of this slough; but at surh time as this place doth
much spew out its filth, as it doth against change of weather,
these steps are hardly seen; or if they be, men, through
the dizziness of their heads, step beside, and then they are
Iemiled to purpose, notwithstanding the steps be there; but
80 CHRISTIAN MEETS MR WORLDLY WISEMAN.
the ground is good when they are once got in at the gate,"
1 Samuel, xii. 23.
Now I saw in my dream, that by this time Pliable was
got home to his house. So his neighbours came to visit
him; and some of them called him wise man for coming
back, and some called him fool for hazarding himself with
Christian; others again did mock at his cowardliness; say
ing, Surely, since you began to venture, I would not have
been so base to have given out for a few difficulties:" so
Pliable sat sneaking among them. But at last he got more
confidence, and then they all turned their tales, and began
to deride poor Christian behind his back. And thu4 much
Now as Christian was walking solitarily by himself, he
espied one afar off, come crossing over the field to meet
him; and their hap was to meet just as they were crossing
the way of each other. The gentleman's name that met
him was Mr. Worldly Wiseman; he dwelt in the town of
Carnal Policy, a very great town, and also hard-by from
whence Christian came. This man then, meeting with
Christian, and having some inkling* of him, (for Christian's
setting forth from the city of Destruction was much noised
abroad, not only in the town where he dwelt, but also it
began to be the town talk in some other places,)-Mr.
Worldly Wiseman, therefore, having some guess of him, by
beholding his laborious going, by observing his sighs and
groans, and the like, began thus to enter into some talk with
WoRLD. How now, good fellow, whither away after this
burdened manner ?
Cam. A burdened manner indeed, as ever I think poo
* Slight knowledge.
MB. WORLDLY WISEMAN.
create had And whereas you ask me, Whither away I
I tell y sir, I am going to yonder wicket-gate before me;
for then as I am informed, I shall be put into a way to be
rid of m, heavy burden.
WORLD. Hast thou a wife and children !
CHR. Yes; but I am so laden with this burden that I
cannot take that pleasure in them as formerly: raethinks 1
am as if I had none, 1 Corinthians, vii. 29.
WORLD. Wilt thou hearken to me if I give thee counsel
CHR. If it be good, I will; for I stand in need of good
WORLD. I would advise thee, then, that thou with all
speed get thyself rid of thy burden: for thou wilt never
be settled in thy mind till then: nor canst thou enjoy the
benefits of the blessings which God hath bestowed upon
thee, till then.
CHR. That is that which I seek for, even to be rid of
this heavy burden: but get it off myself I cannot, nor is
there any man in our country that can take it off my shoul-
ders; therefore am I going this way, as I told you, that I
may be rid of my burden.
WORLD. Who bid thee go this way to be rid of thy bur
CHR. A man that appeared to me to be a very great and
honourable person: his name, as I remember, is Evan-
WORLD. I beshrew* him for his counsel I there is not a
more dangerous and troublesome way in the world tl an is
that into which he hath directed thee; and that thou shalt
find, if thou wilt be ruled by his counsel. Thou lhab met
with something, as I perceive, already; for I see the dirt of
Wish a curse to.
the Slougu of Despond is upon thee; but that slough is the
beginning of the sorrows that do attend those that go in
that way. Hear me; I am older than thou: thou art like
to meet with, in the way which thou goest, wearisomeness,
painfulness, hunger, perils, nakedness, swords, lions, dragons,
darkness, and, in a word, death, and what not. These
things are certainly true, having been confirmed by many
testimonies. And why should a man so carelessly cast
away himself, by giving heed to a stranger ?
CHR. Why, sir, this burden upon my back is more ter-
rible to me than all these things which you have men-
tioned : nay, methinks I care not what I meet with in the
way, if so be I can also meet with deliverance from my
WORLD. How camest thou by thy burden at first ?
CHR. By reading this book in my hand.
WORLD. I thought so; and it has happened unto thee
as to other weak men, who, meddling with things too high
for them, do suddenly fall into thy distractions; which dis-
tractions do not only unman men, as thine I perceive have
done thee, but they run them upon desperate ventures, to
obtain they know not what.
CHR. I know what I would obtain; it is ease from my
WORLD. But why wilt thou seek for ease this way,
seeing so many dangers attend it? especially since (hadst
thou but patience to hear me) I could direct thee to the
obtaining of what thou desirest, without the dangers that
thou in this way wilt run thyself into. Yea, and the
remedy is at hand. Besides, I will add, that instead of
those dangers, thou shalt meet with much safety, friendship
CHR. Pray, sir, open this secret to me.
MI. WORLDLY WISEMAN'S COUNSEL!
WORLD. Why, in yonder village (the village is named
Morality) there dwells a gentleman whose name is Legal-
ity, a very judicious man, and a man of very good name,
that has skill to help men off with such burdens as thine
is from their shoulders; yea, to my knowledge, he hath
done a great deal of good this way; ay, and besides, he
hath skill to cure those that are somewhat crazed in their
wits with their burdens. To him, as I said, thou mayst
go, and be helped presently. His house is not quite a
mile from this place; and if he should not be at home him
self, he hath a pretty young man to his son, whose name
is Civility, that can do it (to speak on) as well as the old
gentleman himself; there, I say, thou mayst be eased of
thy burden; and if thou art not minded to go back to thy
former habitation, (as indeed I would not wish thee,) thou
mayst send for thy wife and children to thee to this village,
where there are houses now standing empty, one of which
dhou mayst have at a reasonable rate: provision is there
also cheap and good; and that which will make thy life the
more happy is, to be sure there thou shalt live by honest
neighbours, in credit and good fashion.
Now was Christian somewhat at a stand; but presently
he concluded, If this be true which this gentleman hath said,
my wisest course is to take his advice: and with that he
thus farther spake.
CHR. Sir, which is my way to this honest man's
WORLD. Do you see yonder high hill ?
CHR. Yes, very well.
WORLD. By that hill you must go, and the first house
you come at is his.
So Christian turned out of his way to go to Mr. Legal-
ity's house for help: but, behold, when lie was got now hard
34 CHRISTIAN AFRAID OF MOUNT SINAI.
by the hill, it seemed so high, and also that side of it that
was next the way-side did hang so much over, that Chris-
tian was afraid to venture further, lest the hill should fall
on his head; wherefore there he stood still, and wotted
not what to do. Also his burden now seemed heavier to
him than while he was in his way. There came also
flashes of fire, Exodus xix. 16, 18, out of the hill, that
made Christian afraid that he should be burnt: here there-
,ofore he did sweat, and quake for fear, Hebrews, xii. 21.
And now he began to be sorry that he had taken Mr.
Worldly Wiseman's counsel; and with that he saw Evan-
gelist coming to meet him, at the sight also of whom he
began to blush for shame. So Evangelist drew nearer and
nearer; and coming up-to him, he looked upon him with a
severe and dreadful countenance, and thus began to reason
EVAN. What dost thou here, Christian? said he: at
which words Christian knew not what to answer; where-
fore at present he stood speechless before him. Then said
Evangelist farther, Art not thou the man that I found crying
without the walls of the city of Destruction ?
CHR. Yes, dear sir, I am the Vnn.
EvAN. Did not I direct thee the way to the little wicket
CHR. Yes, dear sir, said Christian.
EvAN. How is it, then, that thou art so quickly turned
aside ? For thou art now out of the way.
CHR. I met with a gentleman so soon as I had got over
the Slough of Despond, who persuaded me that I might, in
the village before me, find a man that could take off my
EvAN. What was he ?
CRa. He looked like a gentleman, and talked much to
CONVERSATION WITH EVANGELIST.
me, and got me at last to yield: so I came hither; but when
I beheld this hill, and how it hangs over the way, I mid-
denly made a stand, lest it should fall on my head.
EvAN. What said that gentleman to you ?
CHR. Why, he asked me whither I was going; and
EvAN. And what said he then ?
CHR. He asked me if I had a family: and I told him.
But, said I, I am so laden with the burden that is on my
back that I cannot take pleasure in them as formerly.
EVAN. And what said he then ?
CHR. He bid me with speed get rid of my burden, and
I told him it was ease that I sought: And said I, I am
therefore going to yonder gate, to receive further direction
how I may get to the place of deliverance. So he said
that he would show me a better way, and short, not so
attended with difficulties as the way, sir, that you set me
in; which way, said he, will direct you to a gentleman's
house that hath skill .to take off these burdens: so I be-
lieved him, and turned out of that way into this, if haply 1
might be soon eased of my burden. But when I came to
this place, and beheld things as they are, I stopped, for
fear (as I said) of danger; but I now know not what to
EvAN. Then said Evangelist, Stand still a little, that I
may show thee the words of God. So he stood trembling.
Then said Evangelist, See that ye refuse not Him that
speaketh: for if they escaped not who refused him that
spake on earth, much more shall not we escape, if we turn
away from Him that speaketl from heaven." Hebrews,
xii. 25. He said, moreover, Now the just shall live by
faith; but if any man draw back, my soul shall have no
pleasure in him." Hebrews, x 38. He also did thus apply
36 EVANGELIST CONVINCES HIM OF HIS ERROR.
them; Thou art the man that art running into misery; thou
hast begun to reject the counsel of the Most High, and to
draw back thy foot from the way of peace, even almost to
the hazarding of thy perdition.
Then Christian fell down at his feet as dead, crying,
Wo is me, for I am undone! At the sight of which
Evangelist caught him by the right hand, saying, "All
manner of sin and blasphemies shall be forgiven unto
men," Matthew, xii. 31. "Be not faithless, but believ-
ing," John, xx. 27. Then did Christian again a little
revive, and stood up trembling, as at first, before Evan-
Then Evangelist proceeded, saying, Give more earnest
heed to the things that I shall tell thee of. I will now
ehow thee who it was that deluded thee, and who it was
also to whom he sent thee. That man that met thee is
one Worldly Wiseman; and rightly is he so called: partly
because he savoureth only of the doctrine of this world, 1
John, iv. 5; (therefore he always goes to the town of
Morality to church;) and partly because he loveth that
doctrine best, for it saveth him from the cross, Galatians,
vi. 12, and because he is of this carnal temper, therefore
he seeketh to pervert my ways though right. Now there
are three things in this man's counsel that thou must utterly
1. His turning thee out of the way.
2. His labouring to render the cross odious to thee
3. And his setting thy feet in that way that leadeth unto
the administration of death.
First, Thou must abhor his turning thee out of the way;
yea, mid thine own consenting thereto, because this is to
reject the counsel of God for the sake of the counsel of a
Worldly Wiseman The Lord says, "Strine to enter in
YvANGELIST CONVINCES EHM OF MS ERROR.
at the strait gate," Luke, xiii. 24, the gate to which I send
thee; for strait is the gate that leadeth unto life, and few
there be that find it." Matthew, vii. 13, 14. From this
little wicket-gate, and from the way thereto, hath this wicked
man turned thee, to the bringing of thee almost to destruc-
tion: hate, therefore, his turning thee out of the way, and
abhor thyself for hearkening to him.
Secondly, Thou must abhor his labouring to render the
cross odious unto thee; for thou art to prefer it before the
treasures of Egypt, Hebrews, xi. 25, 26. Besides, the
King of glory hath told thee, that he that will save his life
shall lose it. And he that comes after him, and hates not
his father, and mother, and wife and children, and brethren,
and sisters, yea, and his own life, also, he cannot be my dis-
ciple, Mark, viii. 38; John, xii. 25; Matthew, x. 39; Luke,
xiv. 26. I say, therefore, for man to labour to persuade thee
that that shall be thy death, without which, the truth hath
said, thou canst not have eternal life: this doctrine thou
Thirdly, Thou must hate this setting of thy feet in the
way that leadeth to the ministration of death. And for
this thou must consider to whom he sent thee, and also,
how unable that person was to deliver thee from thy
He to whom thou wast sent for ease, being by name
Legality, is the son of the bond-woman which now is, and
is in bondage with her children, Galatians, iv. 21, 27, and
is, in a mystery, this Mount Sinai, which thou hast feared
will fall on thy head. Now if she with her children are
in bondage, how canst thou expect by them to be made
free ? This Legality, therefore, is not able to set thee free
from thy burden. No man was as yet ever rid of his
burden by him; no, nor ever is like to be: ye cannot be
a8 EVANGELIST CONVINCES HIM OF HIS ERROLI
justified by the works of the law; for by the deeds of the
law no man living can be rid of his burden. Therefore
Mr. Worldly Wiseman is an alien, and Mr. Legality is a
cheat; and for his son, Civility, notwithstanding his sim-
pering looks, he is but a hypocrite, and cannot help thee.
Believe me, there is nothing in all this noise that thou hast
heard of these sottish men, but a design to beguile thee of
thy salvation, by turning thee from the way in which I had
set thee. After this, Evangelist called aloud to the heavens
for confirmation of what he had said; and with that there
came words and fire out of the mountain under which poor
Christian stood, which made the hair of his flesh stand up.
The words were thus pronounced, As many as are of the
works of the law are under the curse; for it is written
Cursed is every one that continueth not in all things which
are written in the book of the law to do them." Galatians,
Now Christian looked for nothing but death, and began
to cry out lamentably; even cursing the time in which he
met with Mr. Worldly Wiseman; still calling himself a
thousand fools for hearkening to his counsel. He also was
greatly ashamed to think that this gentleman's arguments,
flowing only from the flesh, should have the prevalency with
him so far as to cause him to forsake the right way. This
done, he applied himself again to Evangelist in words and
sense as follows:
CHR. Sir, what think you Is there any hope T May I
now go back, and go up to the wicket-gate ? Shall I not be
abandoned for this, and sent back from thence ashamed ? I
am sorry I have hearkened to this man's counsel; but may
my am be forgiven ?
EvAN. Then said Evangelist to him, Thy sin is very
gret, for by it thou hast committed two evils; thou hast
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CHRISTIAN ENCOURAGED BY EVANGELIST.
forsaken the way that is good, to tread in forbidden paths.
Yet will the man at the gate receive thee, for he has good
will for men; only, said he, take heed that thou turn not
aside again, lest thou "perish from the way, when his
wrath is kindled but a little," Psalm ii. 12. Then did
Christian address himself to go back; and Evangelist, after
he had kissed him, gave him one smile, and bid him God
speed: so he went on with haste, neither spake he to any
man by the way; nor if any asked him, would he vouch-
safe them an answer. He went like one that was all the
while treading on forbidden ground, and could by no means
think himself safe, till again he was got into the way which
he had left to follow Mr. Worldly Wiseman's counsel. So,
in process of time, Christian got up to the gate. Now, over
the gate there was written, Knock, and it shall be opened
unto you," Matthew, vii. 7.
He knocked, therefore, more than once or twice, saying,
May I now enter here 1 Will he within
Open to sorry me, though I have been
An undeserving rebel ? Then shall I
Not fail to sing his lasting praise on high.
At last there came a grave person to the gate, named Good
will, who asked who was there, and whence he came, and
what he would have.
CHR. Here is a poor burdened sinner. I come from the
city of Destruction, but am going to Mount Zion, that I may
be delivered from the wrath to come: I would, therefore,
sir, since I am informed that by this gate is the way thither,
know if you are willing to let me in.
GooD. I am willing with all my heart, said he; and with
that he opened the gate.
40 CHRISTIAN ENTERS IN AT THE GATE.
So when Christian was stepping in, the other gave him
a pull. Then said Christian, What means that? The
other told him, A little distance from this gate there is
erected a strong castle, of which Beelzebub is the captain;
from thence both he and they that are with him shoot
arrows at those who come up to this gate, if haply they
may die before they can enter it. Then said Christian, I
rejoice and tremble. So when he was got in, the man of
the gate asked him who directed him thither.
CHR. Evangelist bid me come hither and knock, as I did:
and he said, that you, sir, would tell me what I must do.
GooD. An open door is set before thee, and no man can
Can. Now I begin to reap the benefit of my hazards.
GooD. But how is it that you came alone ?
CHa. Because none of my neighbours saw their danger,
as I saw mine.
GooD. Did any of them know of your coming?
CHR. Yes, my wife and children saw me at the first, and
called after me to turn again; also, some of my neighbours
stood crying and calling after me to return; but I put my
fingers in my ears, and so came on my way.
GooD. But did none of them follow you, to persuade
you to go back ?
CHR. Yes, both Obstinate and Pliable: but when they
saw that they could not prevail, Obstinate went railing back,
but Pliable came with me a little way.
Goon. But why did he not come through?
CHa. We indeed came both together until we came to
the Slough of Despond, into the which we also suddenly
fell. And then was my neighbour Pliable discouraged, and
would not venture farther. Wherefore, getting out again
on the side next to his own house, he told me I should
TALK WITH GOODWILL.
possess the brave country alone for him; so he went his
way, and I came mine: he after Obstinate, and I to this
GooD. Then said Goodwill, Alas, poor man! is the
celestial glory of so little esteem with him, that he counteth
it not worth 'inning the hazard of a few difficulties to
obtain it ?
CHR. Truly, said Christian, I have said the truth of
Pliable; and if I should also say the truth of myself, it
will appear there is no betterment betwixt him and my-
self. 'Tis true, he went back to his own house, but I
also turned aside to go into the way of death, being per-
suaded thereto by the carnal argument of one Mr. Worldly
GooD. Oh did he light upon you ? What! he would
have had you seek for ease at the hands of Mr. Legality !
They are both of them a very cheat. But did you take his
counsel ? *
CHR. Yes, as far as I durst. I went to find out Mr
Legality, until I thought that the mountain that stands by
his house would have fallen upon my head; wherefore
there I was forced to stop.
GooD. That mountain has been the death of many, and
will be the death of many more; it is well you escaped
being by it dashed to pieces.
CHR. Why truly I do not know what had become of me
there, had not Evangelist happily met me again as I was
musing in the midst of my dumps; but it was God's mercy
that he came to me again, for else I had never come hither.
But now I am come, such a one as I am, more fit indeed
for death by that mountain, than thus to stand talking with
my Lord. But, oh what a favour is this to me, that yet I
nm admitted entrance here I
TALK WITH GOODWILL.
Go)D. We make no objections against any, not withstand-
ing all that they have done before they came hither: they
in no wise are cast out, John, vi. 37. And therefore, good
Christian, come a little way with me, and I will teach thee
about the way thou must go. Look before thee; dost thou
see this narrow way That is the way thou must go. It
was cast up by the patriarchs, prophets, Christ, and his
apostles, and it is as straight as a rule can make it; this is
the way thou must go.
CHR. But, said Christian, are there no turnings nor wind-
ings, by which a stranger may loqe his way.
GooD. Yes, there are many ways butt down upon this;
and they are crooked and wide; but thus thou mayst dis-
tinguish the right from the wrong, the right only being
straight and narrow, Matthew, vii. 14.
Then I saw in my dream, that Christian asked him
further, if he could not help him off with his burden that
was upon his back. For as yet he had not got rid thereof,
nor could he by any means get it off without help.
He told him, As to thy burden, be content to bear it
until thou comest to the place of deliverance; for there it
will fall from thy back of itself."
Then Christian began to gird up his loins, and to address
himself to his journey. So the other told him, that by that
he was gone some distance from the gate, he would come
to the house of the Interpreter, at whose door he should
knock, and he would show him excellent things. Then
Christian took his leave of his friend, and he again bid him
Then he went on till he came to the house of the Inter-
preter,* where he knocked over and over. At last one
came to the door, and asked who was there.
*The Holy Spirit.
CHRISTIAN REACHES THE INTERPRETER'S HOUSE. 48
CHR. Sir, here is a traveller, who was bid by an ac-
quaintance of the good man of this house to. call here for
my profit; I would therefore speak with the master of the
So he called for the master of the house, who, after a
little time, came to Christian, and asked him what he would
CaR. Sir, said Christian, I am a man that am come
from the city of Destruction, and am going to Mount Zion;
and I was told by the man that stands at the gate at the
head of this way, that if I called here you woild show me
excellent things, such as would be helpful to me on my
INTER. Then said the Interpreter, Come in; I will show
thee that which will be profitable to thee. So he com-
manded his man to light the candle, and bid Christian fol-
low him; so he had him into a private room, and bid his
man open a door; the which when he had done, Christian
saw the picture of a very grave person hang up against the
wall; and this was the fashion of it; it had eyes lifted up
to heaven, the best of books in its hand, the law of truth
was written upon its lips, the world was behind its back; it
stood as if it pleaded with men, and a crown of gold did
hang over its head.
CHR. Then said Christian, What meaneth this?
INTER. The man whose picture this is, is one of a thou-
sand. Whereas thou seest him with his eyes lift up to
heaven, the best of books in his hand, and the law of truth
writ on his lips, it is to show thee, that his work is to
know, and unfold dark things to sinners; tven as also
thou seest him stand as if he pleaded with men. And
whereas thou seest the world as cast behind him, and
that a crown hangs over his head; that is to show thee,
THE INTERPRETERS HOUSE
that slighting and despising things that are present, for the
love that he hath to his Master's service, he is sure in the
world that comes next to have glory for his reward. Now,
said the Interpreter, I have showed thee this picture first,
because the man whose picture this is, is the only man
whom the Lord of the place whither thou art going hath
authorized to be thy guide in all difficult places thou
mayst meet with in the way: wherefore take good heed to
what I have showed thee, and bear well in thy mind what
thou hast seen, lest in thy journey thou meet with some
that pretend to lead thee right, but their way goes down to
Then he took him by the hand, and led him into a very
large parlour that was full of dust because never swept;
the which after he reviewed it a little while, the Interpreter
called for a maq to sweep. Now, when he began to sweep,
the dust began so abundantly to fly about, that Christian
r.ad almost therewith been choked. Then said the Inter,
peter to a damsel that stood by, Bring hither water and
sprinkle the room; the which when she had done, it was
swept and cleansed with pleasure.
CHR. Then said Christian, What means this ?
INTER. The Interpreter answered, This parlour is the
heart of a man that was never sanctified by the sweet
grace of the gospel. The dust is his original sin, and
inward corruptions, that have defiled the whole man. He
that began to sweep at first, is the law; but she that
brought water, and did sprinkle it, is the gospel. Now
whereas thou sawest, that as soon as the first began to
sweep, the dust did so fly about that the room could not
by him be cleansed, but that thou wast almost choked
therewith; this is to show thee, that the law, instead of
cleansing the heart (by its working) from sin, doth revive,
THE INTERPRETERII HOUSE.
Romans, vii. 9; put strength into, 1 Corinthians, xv. 56;
and increase it in the soul, Romans, v. 20; even as it doth
discover and forbid it; for it doth not give power to subdue
it. Again, as thou sawest the damsel sprinkle the room
with water, upon which it was cleansed with pleasure; this
is to show thee, that when the gospel comes in the sweet
and precious influences thereof to the heart, then, I say,
even as thou sawest the damsel lay the dust by sprinkling
the floor with water, so is sin vanquished and subdued,
and the soul made clean, through the faith of it, and conse.
quently fit for the King of glory to inhabit, John, xv. 8;
Ephesians, v. 26; Acts, xv. 9; Romans, xvi. 25, 26;
John, xv. 13.
I saw moreover in my dream, that the Interpreter took
him by the hand, and had him into a little room, where sat
two little children, each one in his chair. The name of the
eldest was Passion, and the name of the other Patience.
Passion seemed to be much discontented, but Patience was
very quiet. Then Christian asked, What is the reason
of the discontent of Passion f The Interpreter answered,
rhe governor of them would have him stay for his best
things till the beginning of next year; but he will have all
now ? but Patience is willing to wait.
Then I saw that one came to Passion, and brought him a
bag of treasure, and poured it down at his feet: the which
he took up and rejoiced therein, and withal laughed Patience
to scorn. But I beheld but a while, and he had lavished all
away and had nothing left him but rags.
CHa. Then said Christian to the Interpreter, Expound
this matter more fully to me.
INTEn. So he said, These two lads are figures; Passion,
of the men of this world, and Patience, of the men of that
which is to come: for as here thou seest, Passion wil
THE INTERPRETER'S HOUSE
Lave all now, this year, that is to say, in this world; se
are the men of this world; they must have all their good
things now; they cannot stay till the next year, that is, until
the next world, for their portion of good. That proverb,
" A bird in the hand is worth two in the bush," is of more
authority with them than are all the divine testimonies of
the good of the world to come. But as thou sawest that he
had quickly lavished all away, and had presently left him
nothing but rags, so will it be with a such men at the end
of this world.
CHR. Then said Christian, Now I see that Patience has
the best wisdom, and that upon many accounts. 1. Be-
cause he stays for the best things. 2. And also because he
will have the glory of his, when the other has nothing but
INTER. Nay, you may add another, to wit, the glory of
the next world will never wear out; but these are suddenly
gone. Therefore Passion had not so much reason to laugh
at Patience, because he had his good things first, as Pa-
tience will have to laugh at Passion, because he had his
best things last; for first must give place to last, because
last must have his time to come; but last gives place to
nothing; for there is not another to succeed; he therefore
that hath his portion first, must needs have a time to spend
it; but he.that hath his portion last, must have it lastingly;
therefore it is said of Dives, "In thy lifetime thou re-
ceivedest thy good things, and likewise Lazarus evil things;
but now he is comforted and thou art tormented." Luke,
CHR. Then I perceive it is not best to covet things that
are now, but to wait for the things to come.
INTER. You say truth: for the things that are seen are
temporal, but the things that are not seen are eternal.
THE INTERPRETER'S HOUSE.
Cor. iv. 18. But though this be so, yet since things
present, and our fleshy appetite, are such near neighbours
one to another; and again, because things to come and
carnal sense are such strangers one to another; therefore
it is, that the first of these so suddenly fall into amity, and
that distance is so continued between the second, Romans,
Then I saw in my dream, that the Interpreter took
Christian by the hand, and led him into a place where
was a fire burning against a wall, and one standing by it
always casting much water upon it, to quench it; yet did
the fire bum higher and hotter.
Then said Christian, What means this ?
The Interpreter answered, This fire is the work of grace
that is. wrought in the heart; he that casts water upon it to
extinguish and put it out, is the devil: but in that thou seest
the fire notwithstanding bur higher and hotter, thou shalt
also see the reason of that. So he had him about to the
other side of the wall, where he saw a man with a vessel
of oil in his hand, of the which he did also continually cast
(but secretly) into the fire.
Then said Christian, What means this ?
The Interpreter answered, This is Christ, who con
tinually, with the oil of Ms grace, maintains the work
already begun in the heart; by the means of which, not-
withstanding what the devil can do, the souls of his people
prove gracious still, 2 Corinthians, xii. 9. And in that
thou sawest that the man stood behind the wall to main,
tain the fire; this is to teach thee, that it is hard for the
tempted to see how this work of grace is maintained in
I saw also, that the Interpreter took him by the hand,
and led him into a pleasant place, where was built a
THE INTERPRETER'S HOUSE.
stately palace, beautifid to behold; at the sight of which
Christian was greatly delighted. He saw also upon the
top thereof certain persons walking, who were clothed all
Then said Christian, May we go in thither ?
Then the Interpreter took him and led him up toward
the door of the palace; and behold, at the door stood a
great company of men, as desirous to go in, but durst not.
There also sat a man at a little distance from the door, at
a table-side, with a book and his ink-horn before him, to
take the names of them that should enter therein; he saw
also that in the doorway stood many men in armour to keep
it, being resolved to do to the men that would enter what
hurt and mischief they could. Now was Christian some-
what in amaze. At last, when every man started back for
fear of the armed men, Christian saw a man of a very
stout countenance come up to the man that sat there to
write, saying, Set down my name, sir; the which when
he had done, he saw the man draw his sword, and put a
helmet upon his head, and rush toward the door upon the
armed men, who laid upon him with deadly force; but
the man, not at all discouraged, fell to cutting and hacking
most fiercely. So after he had received and given many
wounds to those that attempted to keep him out, Mat-
thew, xi. 12; Acts xiv. 22; he cut his way through
them all, and pressed forward into the palace; at
which there was a pleasant voice heard from those that
were within, even of those that walked upon the top
of the palace, saying,
Come in, come in,
Eternal glory shalt thou win.
THE INTERPRETER'S HOUST.
So he went in, and was clothed with such garments as
they. Then Christian smiled, and said, 1 think verily I
know the meaning of this.
Now, said Christian, let me go hence. Nay, stay, said
the Interpreter, until I have showed thee a little more, and
after that thou shalt go thy way. So he took him by the
hand again, and led him into a very dark room, where there
sat a man in an iron cage.
Now the man, to look on, seemed very sad; he sat with
his eyes looking down to the ground, his hands folded
together, and he sighed as if he would break his heart.
Then said Christian, What means this ? At which the In-
terpreter bid him talk with the man.
Then said Christian to the man, What art thou ? The
man answered, I am what I was not once ?
CHR. What wast thou once ?
MAN. The man said, I was once a fair and flourishing
professor, Luke, viii. 13; both in mine eyes, and also in
the eyes of others; I was once, as I thought, fair for the
celestial city, and had even joy at the thoughts that I should
CHR. Well, but what art thou now I
MAN. I am now a man of despair, and am shut up in
it, as in this iron cage. I cannot get out; Oh I now I can-
CHR. But how earnest thou into this condition ?
MAN. I left off to watch and be sober: I laid the reins
upon the neck of my lusts; I sinned against the light of
the word, and the goodness of God; I have grieved the
Spirit, and he is gone; I have tempted the devil, and he is
come to me; I have provoked God to anger, and he has
left me; I have so hardened my heart that I cannot .re
THE INTERPRETER 8 BOUS.
Then said Christian to the Interpreter, but are there ne
honoe for such a man as this ? Ask him, said the Inter.
CRn. Then said Christian, Is there no hope, but yoa
mum t be kept in the iron cage of despair ?
MAN. No, none at all.
CHR. Why, the Son of the Blessed is very pitiful.
MAN. I have crucified him to myself afresh, Hebrews,
vi. 6. I have despised his person, Luke, xix. 14. I have
despised his righteousness; I have counted his blood an
unholy thing: I have done despite to the Spirit of grace,
Hebrews, x. 28, 29; therefore I shut myself out of all
the promises, and there now remains to me nothing but
there tenings, dreadful threatening, fearful threatening of
certin judgment and fiery indignation, which shall devour
me as an adversary.
CHR. For what did you bring yourself into this con-
MAN. For the lusts, pleasures, and profits of this world;
in the enjoyment of which I did then promise myself much
delight; but now every one of those things also bite me,
and gnaw me, like a burning worm.
CHR. But canst thou not now repent and turn ?
MAN. God hath denied me repentance. His word gives
me no encouragement to believe; yea, himself hath shut
me up in this iron cage: nor can all the men in the world
let me out. Oh, eternity oh, eternity! how shall I grapple
with the misery that I must meet with in eternity.
INTER. Then said the Interpreter to Christian, Let this
man's misery be remembered by thee, and be an everlasting
caution to thee.
CHR. Well, said Christian, this is fearful God help
me to watch and to be sober, and to pray that I may shus
THE INTERPRETER'S HOUmB.
.he cause of this man's misery. Sir, is it not time for me
to go on my way now
INTER. Tarry till I shall show thee one thing more, and
then thou shalt go on thy way.
So he took Christian by the hand again, and led him
into a chamber where there was one rising out of bed; and
as he put on his raiment, he shook and trembled. Then
said Christian, Why doth this man thus tremble t The
Interpreter then bid him tell to Christian the reason of his
so doing. So he began and said, This night, as I was
in my sleep, I dreamed, and behold the heavens grew ex-
ceeding black; also it thundered and lightened in most
fearful wise, that it put me into an agony. So I looked
up in my dream, and saw the clouds rack, at an unusual
rate; upon which I heard a great sound of a trumpet, and
saw also a man sitting upon a cloud, attended with the
thousands of heaven; they were all in flaming fire; also
the heavens were in a burning flame. I heard then a great
voice, saying, "Arise, ye dead, and come to judgment."
And with that the rocks rent, the grave opened, and the
dead that were therein came forth; some of them were
exceeding glad, and looking upward; and some sought to
hide themselves under the mountains. Then I saw the
man that sat upon the cloud, open the book and bid the
world draw near. Yet there was, by reason of a fierce
flame which issued out and came before him, a convenient
distance betwixt him and them, as betwixt the judge and
the prisoners at the bar, 1 Corinthians, xv.; 1 Thessa-
lonians, iv. 16; Jude, 15; John, v. 28, 29; 2 Thessa-
lonians, i. 8, 10; Revelation, xx. 11, 14; Isaiah, xxvi.
21; Micah, vii. 16, 17; Psalms, v. 4 : 1. 1, 3; Malachi,
iii. 2, 3; Daniel, vii. 9, 10. I heard it also proclaimed to
them that attended on the man that sat on the claod,
THE INTERPRETER S HOUS8.
" Gather together the tares, the chaff, and tubble, and cast
then into the burning lake," Matthew, iii. 12; xiii. 30:
xxiv. 33; Malachi, iv. 1. And with that the bottomless
pit opened, just whereabouts I stood; out of the mouth of
which there came, in an abundant manner, smoke, and coals
of fire, with hideous noises. It was also said to the same
persons, Gather my wheat into the garner," Luke, iii.
17. And with that I saw many catched up and carried
away into the clouds; but I was left behind, 1 Thessa-
lonians, iv. 16, 17. I also sought to hide myself, but I
could not; for the man that sat upon the cloud still kept his
eye upon me: my sins also came into my mind; and my
conscience did accuse me on every side, Romans, ii. 14, 15
Upon this I awakened from my sleep.
Can. But what was it that made you so afraid of this
MAN. Why, I thought that the day of judgment had
come, and that I was not ready for it: but this affrighted
me most, that the angels gathered up several, and left me
behind: also the pit of hell opened her mouth just where 1
stood. My conscience too afflicted me; and, as I thought,
the Judge had always his eye upon me, showing indigna-
ton in his countenance.
Then said the Interpreter to Christian, Hast thou con-
sidered all these things ?
CHR. Yes, and they put me in hope and fear.
INTER. Well, keep all things so in thy mind, that they
may be as a goad in thy sides, to prick thee forward in the
way thou must go. Then Christian begma to gird up his
loins, and to address himself to his journey. Then said the
Interpreter, The Comforter be always with thee, good
Christian, to guide thee in the way that leads to the city
Bo Christian went on his way, saying,
'r 8 l ei ~ L)~ ~ ~ g
r ;I ~ '
-~ -, 'Th-: -* c
A -1., 1 1004
CHRISTIAN LOSES HIS BURDEN AT THE CROSS. W S
Here have Lseen things rare and profitable,
Things pleasant, dreadful, things to make me stable
In what I have begun to take in hand;
Then let me think on them, and understand
Wherefore they showed me were, and let me be
Thankful, 0 good Interpreter, to thee.
Now I saw in my dream, that the highway which Chris-
d.an was to go was fenced on either side with a wall, and
that wall was called Salvation, Isaiah, xxvi. 1. Up this way
therefore did burdened Christian run, but not without great
difficulty, because of the load on his back.
He ran thus till he came at a place somewhat ascending;
and upon that place stood a cross, and a little below, in the
bottom, a sepulchre. So I saw in my dream, that just as
Christian came up with the cross, his burden loosed from
off his shoulders, and fell from off his back, and began to
tumble, and so continued to do till it came to the mouth of
the sepulchre, where it fell in, and I saw it no more.
Then was Christian glad and lightsome, and said with a
merry heart, He hath given me rest by his sorrow, and
life by his death." Then he stood still a while to look
and wonder; for it was very surprising to him that the
sight of the cross should thus ease him of his burden. He
looked therefore, and looked again, even till the springs
that were in his head sent the waters down his cheeks,
Zechariah, xii. 10. Now as he stood looking and weep-
ing, behold, three Shining Ones came to him, and saluted
him with "Peace be to thee." So the first said to him,
"Thy sins be forgiven thee," Mark, ii. 5, the second
stripped him of his rags, and clothed him with change of
raiment, Zechariah, iii. 4, the third also set a mark on his
forehead, Ephesians, i. 13, and gave him a roll with a seal
upon it, which he bid him look on is he ran, ard that he
SIMPLE, SLOTH, AND PRESUMPTION.
should give it in at the celestial gate; so they went their
way. Then Christian gave three leaps for joy, and went
Thus far did I come laden with my sin;
Nor could aught ease the grief that I was in,
Till I came hither; what a place is this!
Must here be the beginning of my bliss I
Must here the burden fall from off my back?
Must here the strings that bound it to me crack I
Blest cross! blest sepulchre! blest rather be
The man that there was put to shame for me t
I saw then in my dream, that he went on thus, even until
he came at the bottom., where he saw, a little out of the
way, three men fast asleep, with fetters upon their heels.
The name of the one was Simple, of another Sloth, and of
the third Presumption.
Christian then, seeing them lie in this case, went to them,
if peradventure he might awake them, and cried, You are
like them that Aeep on the top of a mast, Proverbs, xxiii.
84, for the dead sea is under you, a gulf that hath no bot-
tom: awake, therefore, and come away; be willing also,
and I will help you off with your irons. He also told them,
If he that goeth about like a roaring lion, 1 Peter, v. 8,
comes by, you will certainly become a prey to his teeth.
With that they looked upon him, and began to reply in this
sort: Simple said, I see no danger; Sloth said, Yet a little
more sleep; and Presumption said, Every tub must stand
upon its own bottom. And so they lay down to sleep again,
and Christian went on his way
Yet was he troubled to think, that men in that danger
should so little esteem the kindness of him that so freely
offered to help them, both by awakening of them, counsel*
ling of them, and prefering to help them off with their
FORMALIST AND HYPOCRISY.
irons. And as he as troubled thereabout, he espied two
men come tumbling over the wall on the left land of the
narrow way; and they made up apace to him. The name
of the one was Formalist, and the name of the other Hy-
pocrisy. So, as I said, they drew up unto him, who thus
entered with them into discourse.
CHa. Gentlemen, whence came you, and whither do you
FoRM. and HYP. We were born in the land of Vain-glory,
and are going for praise to Mount Zion.
CHR. Why came you not in at the gate which standeth at
the beginning of the way ? Know ye not that it is written,
that he that cometh not in by the door, but climbeth up
some other way, the same is a thief and a robber ?" John,
FoRm. and HYP. They said, that to go to the gate for
entrance was by all their countrymen counted too far about;
and that therefore their usual way was to make a short cut
of it, and to climb over the wall as they had done.
CHa. But will it not be counted a trespass against the
Lord of the city, whither we are bound, thus to violate his
Foam. and HYP. They told him, that as for that, ho
needed not to trouble his head thereabout: for what they
did they had custom for, and could produce, if need were,
testimony that would witness it, for more than a thousand
CHR. But said Christian, will your practice stand i trial
at law ?
Fonm. and HYP. They told him, that custom, it being
of so long standing as above a thousand years, would
doubtless now be admitted as a thing legal by an impartial
judge: and besides, said they, if we get into the way, what
FORMALIST AND HYPOCRISY.
matter is it which way we get in ? If ware in, we are in:
thou art but in the way, who, as we perceive, came in at
the gate: and we also are in the way, that came tumbling
over the wall: wherein now is thy condition better than
CHR. I walk by the rule of my Master: you walk by
the rude working of your fancies. You are counted thieves
already by the Lord of the way : therefore I doubt you will
not be found true men at the end of the way. You come
in by yourselves, without his direction, and shall go out by
yourselves without his mercy.
To this they made him but little answer; only they bid
him look to himself. Then I saw that they went on every
man in his way, without much conference one with
another; save that these two men told Christian, that as
to laws and ordinances, they doubted not but that they
should as conscientiously do them as he. Therefore, said
they, we see not wherein thou different from us, but by the
coat that is on thy back, which was, as we trow, given
thee by some of thy neighbours, to hide the shame of thy
CUR. By laws and ordinances you will not be saved,
since you came not in by the door, Galatianp, ii. 16.
And as for this coat that is on my back, it was given me
by the Lord of the place whither I go; and that, as you
say, to cover my nakedness with. And I take it as a token
of his kindness to me; for I had nothing but rags before.
And, besides, thus I comfort myself as I go. Surely, think
I, when I come to the gate of the city, the Lord thereof
will know me for good, since I have his coat on my back;
a coat that he gave me freely in the day that he stript me
of my rags. I have, moreover, a mark in my forehead, of
which perhaps you have taken no notice, which one of my
CHRISTIAN REACHES THE HILL DIFFICULTY.
Lord's most intimate associates fixed there in the day that
my burden fell otny shoulders. I will tell you, more-
over, that I had then given me a roll sealed, to comfort me
by reading as I go in the way; I was also bid to give it in
at the celestial gate, in token of my certain going in after it;
all which things I doubt you want, and want them because
you came not in at the gate.
To these things they gave him no answer; only they
looked upon each other, and laughed. Then I saw that
they went on all, save that Christian kept before, who
had no more talk but with himself, and that sometimes
sighingly, and sometimes comfortably: also he would be
often reading in the roll that one of the Shining Ones gave
him, by which he was refreshed.
I beheld, then, that they all went on till they came to the
foot of the hill Difficulty, at the bottom of which there was
a spring. There were also in the same place two other
ways besides that which came strait from the g.,i; one
turned to the left hand and the other to the rights, at the
bottom of the hill; but the narrow way lay right up the
hill, and the name of the going up the side of the hil is
called Difficulty. Christian now went to the spring Isaiah,
xlix. 10; and drank thereof to refresh himself, and tem
began to go up the hill, saying,
The hill, though high, I covet to ascend;
The difficulty will not me offend:
For I perceive the way to life lies here:
Come, pluck up heart, let's neither faint nor tear.
Better, though difficult, the right way to go,
Than wrong, though easy, where the end is woe.
The other two also came to the foot of the hill. Bu
b6 HE CLIMBS IHE HILL.--THE ARBOUR.
*herr they saw the hill was steep and high, and that there
were too other ways to go; and suptsing also that these
two ways might meet again with that up which Christian
went on the other side of the hill; therefore they were re-
solved to go in those ways. Now the name of one of thosb
ways was Danger, and the name of the other Destruction.
So the one took the way which is called Danger, which
led him into a great wood; and the other took directly up
the way to Destruction, which led him into a wide field,
full of dark mountains, where he stumbled and fell, and
rose no more.
I looked then after Christian, to see him go up the hill,
where I perceived he fell from running to going, and from
going to clambering upon his hands and his knees, because
of the steepness of the place. Now about midway to the
top of the hill was a pleasant arbour, made by the Lord of
the hill for the refreshment of weary travellers. Thither,
therefore, Christian got, where also he sat down to rest
him: then he pulled his roll out of his bosom, and read
therein to his comfort; he also now began afresh to take a
review of the coat or garment that was given him as he
stood by the cross. Thus pleasing himself awhile, he at
last fell into a slumber, and thence into a fast sleep, which
detained him in that place until it was almost night; and in
his sleep his roll fell out of his hand. Now as he was
sleeping, there came one to him, and awaked him, saying,
*' Go to the ant, thou sluggard; consider her ways, and be
wise," Proverbs vi. 6. And with that Christian suddenly
started up, and sped him on his way, and went apace till
he came to the top of the hill.
Now, when he was got up to the top. of the hill, there
came two men running to meet him amain; the name of
the one was Timorous, and of the other Mistrur*: to whor
HE MISSES HIS ROLL.
Christian said, Sirs, what's the matter? you run the wrong
way. Timorous answered, that they were going to the city
of Zion, and had got up that difficult place: but, said he,
the farther we go the more danger we meet with; where-
fore we turned, and are going back again.
Yes, said Mistrust, for just before us lie a couple of lions
in the way, whether sleeping or waking we know not, and
we could not think, if we came within reach, but they would
presently pull us to pieces.
CHa. Then said Christian, You make me afraid; but
whither shall I fly to be safe? If I go back to my own
country, that is prepared for fire and brimstone, and I
shall certainly perish there; if I can get to the celestial
city, I am sure to be in safety there: I must venture. To
go back is, nothing but death: to go forward is fear of
death and life everlasting beyond it: I will yet go forward.
So Mistrust and Timorous ran down the hill, and Chris-
tian went on his way. But thinking again of what he
heard from the man, he felt in his bosom for his roll, that
he might read therein, and be comforted; but he felt, ani
found it not. Then was Christian in great distress, and
knew not what to do; for he wanted that which used to
relieve him, and that which should have been his pass into
the celestial city. Here, therefore, he began to be much
perplexed, and knew not what to do. At last he bethought
himself that he had slept in the arbour that is on the side
of the hill; and falling down upon his knees, he asked God
forgiveness for that his foolish act, and then went back to
look for his roll. But all the way he went back, who can
sufficiently set forth the sorrow of Christian's heart
* Sometimes he sighed, sometimes he wept, and oftentimes
he chid himself for being so foolish to fall asleep in that
place, which was erected only for a little refreshment from
80 HE GOES TO THE ARBOUR AND FINDS HIS ROLL.
his weariness. Thus, therefore, he went back, carefully
looking on this side and on that, all the way as he went,
if happily he might find his roll that had been his comfort
so many times in his journey. He went thus till he came
within sight of the arbour where he sat and slept; but that
sight renewed his sorrow the more, by bringing again
even afresh, his evil of sleeping unto his mind, Revela-
tion, ii. 4; 1 Thessalonians, v. 6-8. Thus, therefore, he
now went on, bewailing his sinful sleep, saying, 0
wretched man that I am, that I should sleep in the day-
time that I should sleep in the midst of difficulty! that I
should so indulge the flesh as to use that rest for ease to
my flesh which the Lord of the hill hath erected only for
the relief of the spirits of pilgrims! How many steps have
I taken in vain! Thus it happened to Israel; for their
sin they were sent back again by the way of the Red Sea;
and I am made to tread those steps with sorrow, which I
might have trod with delight had it not been for this sinful
sleep. How far might I have been on my way by this
time I am made to tread those steps thrice over, which I
needed not to have trod but once : yea, now also I am like
to be benighted, for the day is almost spent. 0 that I had
not slept !
Now by this time he was come to the arbour again,
where for a while he sat down and wept; but at last (as
Providence would have it) looking sorrowfully down under
the settle, there he espied his roll, the which he with
trembling and haste catched up, and put it into his bosom.
But who can tell how joyful this man was when he had
gotten his roll again ? For this roll was the assurance of
his life, and acceptance at the desired haven. Therefore
he laid it up in his bosom, gave thanks to God for direct.
ing his eye to the place where it lay, and with joy and
THE PALACE CALLED BEAUTIFUL.
tear betook himself again to his journey. But oh how
nimbly now did he go up the rest of the hill! Yet, before
he got up, the sun went down upon Christian; and this
made him again recall the vanity of his sleeping to his re-
membrance; and thus he again began to condole with
himself: 0 thou sinful sleep how for thy sake am I like
to be benighted in my journey! I must walk without the
sun, darkness must cover the path of my feet, and I must
hear the noise of the doleful creatures, because of my sin-
ful sleep Now also he remembered the story that Mis-
trust and Timorous told him, of how they were frighted
with the sight of the lions. Then said Christian to him-
self again, These beasts range in the night for their prey,
and if they should meet with me in the dark, how should
I shift them ? how should I escape being by them torn in
pieces? Thus he went on his way. But while he was
thus bewailing his unhappy miscarriage, he lift up his
eyes, and behold there was a very stately palace before
him, the name of which was Beautiful, and it stood just by
the highway-side, Revelation, iii. 2; 1 Thessalonians, v.
So I saw in my dream, that he made haste, and went
forward, that if possible he might get lodging there. Now
before he had gone far he entered into a very narrow pas-
sage, which was about a furlong off the Porter's lodge;
and looking very narrowly before him as he went, he espied
two lions in the way. Now, thought he, I see the dangers
that Mistrust and Timorous were driven back by. (The
lions were chained, but he saw not the chains.) Then he
was afraid, and thought also himself to go back after them;
for he thought nothing but death was before him. But the
Porter at the lodge, whose name is Watchful, perceiving
that Christian made a halt, as if he would go back, cried
82 THE LIONS.-CONVERSATION WITH THE PORTER.
unto him, saying, Is thy strength so small ? Mark, iv.
Fear not the lions, for they are chained, and are placed there.
for trial of faith where it is, and for discovery of those that
have none; keep in the midst of the path and no hurt shall
come unto thee.
Then I saw that he went on trembling for fear of the
,ions; but taking good heed to the directions of the Porter,
he heard them roar but they did him no harm. Then he
clapped his hands, and went on till he came and stood before
the gate where the Porter was. Then said Christian to the
Porter, Sir, what house is this? and may I lodge here to-
night? The Porter answered, This house was built by the
Lord of the hill, and he built it for the relief and security
of pilgrims. The Porter also asked whence he was, and
whither he was going.
CHR. I am come from the city of Destruction, and am
going to Mount Zion; but because the sun is now set, I
desire, if I may, to lodge here to-night.
PORT. What is your name?
CHR. My name is now Christian, but my name at the
first was Graceless; I came of the race of Japheth, whom
God will persuade to dwell in the tents of Shem, Genesis,
PORT. But how doth it happen that you come so late?
The sun is set.
CHR. I had been here sooner, but that, wretched man as
I am, I slept in the arbour that stands on the hill side!
Nay, I had, notwithstanding that, been here much sooner,
but that in my sleep I lost my evidence, and came without
it to the brow of the hill; and then feeling for it, and find-
ing it not, I was forced with sorrow of heart to go back to
the place where I slept my sleep, where I found it; and
S now I am come
CONVERSATION WITH DISCRETION.
Poi Well, I will call out one of the virgins of this
place, who will, if she likes your talk, bring you in to the
rest of the family, according to the rules of the house. So
Watchful the Porter rang a bell, at the sound of which came
out of the door of the house a grave and beautiful damsel,
named Discretion, and asked why she was called.
The Porter answered, This man is on a journey from the
city of Destruction to Mount Zion, but being weary and
benighted, he asked me if he might lodge here to night; so
I told him I would call for thee, who, after discourse had
with him, mayest do as seemeth thee good, even according
to the law of the house.
Then she asked him whence he was, and whither he
was going; and he told her. She asked him also how he
got into the way; and he told her. Then she asked him
what he had seen and met with in the way, and he told her.
And at last she asked his name. So he said, It is Chris-
tian; and I have so much the more a desire to lodge here
to-night, because, by what I perceive, this place w's built
by the Lord of the hill for the relief and security of pil-
grims. So she smiled, but the water stood in her eyes;
and after a little pause she said, I will ball forth two or three
more of the family. So she ran to the door, and called out
Prudence, Piety, and Charity, who, after a little more dis
course with him, had him into the family; and many of
them meeting him at the threshold of the house, said, Come
in, thou blessed of the Lord; this house was built by the
Lord of the hill on purpose to entertain such pilgrims in.
Then he bowed his head, and followed them into the house.
So when he was come in and sat down, they gave him
something to drink, and consented together that, until supper
was ready, some of them should have some particular dis-
course with Christian, for the best improvement of time;
TALK WITH PIETY,
and they appointed Piety, Prudence, and Charity, dis-
course with him; and thus they began.
PIETY. Come, good Christian, since we have been so
loving to you to receive you into our house this night, let
us, if perhaps we may better ourselves thereby, talk with
you of all things that have happened to you in your pil-
CHR. With a very good will; and I am glad that you
are so well disposed.
PIETY. What moved you at first to betake yourself to a
pilgrim's life ?
CHR. I was driven out of my native country by a dread-
ful sound that was in mine ears: to wit, that unavoidable
destruction did attend me, if I abode in that place where I
PIErT. But how did it happen that you came out of your
country this way ?
CHR. It was as God would have it; for when I was
under the fears of destruction I did not know whither to
go; but by chance there came a man, even to me, as I was
trembling and weeping, whose name is Evangelist, and he
directed me to the Wicket-Gate, which else I should never
have found, and so set me in the way that hath led me
directly to this house.
PITY. But did you not come by the house of the Inter-
CHR. Yes, and did see such things there, the remem.
brance of which will stick by me as long as I live, especially
three things; to wit, how Christ, in despite of Satan, main-
tains his work of grace in the heart; how the man had
sinned himself quite out of hopes of God's mercy, and also
the dream of him that thought in his sleep the day of judg-
ment was come.
PRUDENCE, AND CHARITY.
PIETY. Why, did you hear him tell his dream t
CHR. Yes, and a dreadful one it was, I thought; it made
my heart ache as he was telling of it; but yet I am glad I
PIErY. Was this all you saw at the house of the Inter-
CHa. No; he took me, and had me where he showed
me a stately palace, and how the people were clad in gold
that were in it; and how there came a venturesome man,
and cut his way through the armed men that stood in the
door to keep him out; and how he was bid to come in, and
win eternal glory. Methought those things did ravish my
heart. I would have stayed at that good man's house a
twelvemonth, but that I knew I had farther to go
PIETY. And what saw you else in the way ?
CHR. Saw? Why I went but a little farther, and I saw
one, as I thought in my mind, hang bleeding upon a tree;
and the very sight of him made my burden fall off my
back; for I groaned under a very heavy burden, but then
it fell down from off me. It was a strange thing to me,
for I never saw such a thing before: yea, and while I
stood looking up, (for then I could not forbear looking,)
three Shining Ones came to me. One of them testified
that my sins were forgiven me, another stripped me of my
rags, and gave me this broidered coat which you see; and
the third set the mark which you see in my forehead, and
gave me this sealed roll, (and with that he plucked it out of
PIETY. But you saw more than this, did you not?
CHR. The things that I have told you were the best;
yet some other matters I saw, as namely, I saw three
men, Simple, Sloth, and Presumption, lie asleep, a little
out of the way, as I came, with irons upon their heels:
TALK WITH PIETY,
but do you think I could awake them? I also saw For*
mality and Hypocrisy come tumbling over the wall, to go,
as they pretended, to Zion; but they were quickly lost,
even as I myself did tell them, but they would not believe.
But, above all, I found it hard work to get up this hill, and
as hard to come by the lions' mouths; and truly, if it had
not been for the good man, the Porter, that stands at the
gate, I do not know but that, after all, I might have gme
back again, but I thank God I am here, and thank you for
Then Prudence thought good to ask him a few questions,
and desired his answer to them.
PR. Do you not think sometimes of the country from
whence you came ?
CHR. Yea; but with much shame and detestation.
Truly, if I had been mindful of that country from whence
I came out, I might have had opportunity t nave returned,
but now I desire a better country, that is, a heavenly one,
Hebrews, xi. 15, 16.
Pa. Do you not yet bear away with you some of the
things that then you were conversant withal?
CHR. Yes, but greatly against my will; especially my
inward and carnal cogitations, with which all my country-
men, as well as myself, were delighted. But now all those
things are my grief; and might I but choose mine own
things, I would choose never to think of those things more;
but when I would be a doing that which is best, that which
is worst is with me, Romans, vii. 15, 21.
Pa. Do you not find sometimes as if those things were
vanquished, which at other times are your perplexity ?
CHR. Yes, but that is but seldom; but they are to me
golIen hours in which such things happen to me
PRUDENCE, AND CHARITY.
PR. Can you remember by what means yor find your
annoyances at times as if they were vanquished I
CHR. Yes; when I think of what I saw at the cross,
that will do it; and when I look upon my broidered coat,
that will do it; and when I look into the roll that I carry in
my bosom, that will do it; and when my thoughts wax
warm about whither I am going, that will do it.
PR. And what is it that makes you so desirous to go to
Mount Zion ?
CHR. Why, there I hope to see him alive that did hang
on the cross ; and there I hope to be rid of all those things
that to this day are in me an annoyance to me : there they
say there is no death, Isaiah, xxv. 8; Revelation, xxi. 4 ;
and there I shall dwell with such company as I like best.
For, to tell you the truth, I love Him because I was by him
eased of my burden; and I am weary of my inward sick
ness. I would fain be where I shall die no more, and with
the company that shall continually cry, Holy, Holy, Holy.
Then said Charity to Christian, Have you a family, are
you a married man ?
CHR. I have a wife and four small children.
CHAR. And why did you not bring them along with
CHR. Then Christian wept, and said, Oh, how willingly
would I have done it! but they were all of them utterly
averse to my going on pilgrimage.
CHAR But you should have talked with them, and have
endeavoured to have shown them the danger of staying
CHR. So I did; and told them also what God had shown
to me of the destruction of our city ; but I seemed to them
as one that mocked, and they believed me not, Genesia,
TALK WITH PIETY,
CHRa. And did you pray to God that he would bless
your counsel to them ?
CHR. Yes, and that with much affection; for you must
think that my wife and poor children were very dear to
CHAR. But did you tell them of your own sorrow, and
fear of destruction ? for I suppose that destruction was visi-
ble enough to you.
CHR. Yes, over, and over, and over. They might also
see my fears in my countenance, in my tears, and also in
trembling under the apprehension of the judgment that did
hang over our heads; but all was not sufficient to prevail
with them to come with me.
CHAR. But what could they say for themselves why they
came not ?
CHR. Why, my wife was afraid of losing this world, and
my children were given to the foolish delights of youth;
so, what by one thing, and what by another, they left me to
wander in this manner alone.
CHAR. But did you not with your vain life damp all that
you, by words, used by way of persuasion to bring them
away with you ?
CHR. Indeed I cannot commend my life, for I am con
scious to myself of many failings therein. I know also,
that a man, by his conversation, may soon overthrow what
by argument or persuasion he doth labour to fasten upon
others for their good. Yet this I can say, I was very
wary of giving them occasion, by any unseemly action, to
make them averse to going on pilgrimage. Yea, for this
very thing, they would tell me I was too precise, and that
I denied myself of things (for their sakes) in which they
saw no evil. Nay, I think I may say, that if what they
vMw in me did hinder them. it was my great tanderness in
PRUDENCE, AND CHARITY.
sinning against God, or of doing any wrong to my neigh'
CHAR. Indeed, Cain hated his brother, 1 John, iii. 12;
-,ase his own works were evil, and his brother's right
ous; and if thy wife and children have been offended with
thee for this, they thereby show themselves to be implaca
ble tor good ; thou hast delivered thy soul from their blood,
Ezekiel, iii. 19.
Now I saw in my dream, that thus they sat talking to.
gether until supper was ready. So when they had made
ready they sat down to meat. Now the table was furnished
with fat things, and wine that was well refined; and all their
talk at the table was about the Lord of the hill; as namely,
what he had done, and wherefore he did what he did, and
why he had builded that house; and by what they said, I
perceived that he had been a great warrior, and had fought
with and slain him that had the power of death, Hebrews
ii. 14, 15; but not without great danger to himself, which
made me love him the more.
For, as they said, and as I believe, said Christian, he did
it with the loss of much blood. But that which put the
glory of grace into all he did, was, that he did it out of pure
love to this country. And besides, there were some of them
of the household that said they had been and spoke with
him since he did die on the cross; and they have attested,
that they had it from his own lips, that he is such a lover
of poor pilgrims, that the like is not to be found from the
east to the west. They, moreover, gave an instance of
what they affirmed, and that was, he had stripped himself
of his glory that he might do this for the poor; and that
they had heard him say and affirm, that he would not dwell
in the mountain of Zion alone. They said, moreover, that
he had made many pilgrims princes, though by nature theV
70 THE WONDERS SHOWN TO CHRISTIAN.
were beggars born, and their original had been the unghill,
1 Samuel, ii. 8; Psalm, cxiii. 7.
Thus they discoursed together till late at night: and
.bfter they had committed themselves to their Lord for
their protection, they betook themselves to rest. The pil-
grim they laid in a large upper chamber, whose window
opened toward the sun-rising. The name of the chamber
was Peace, where he slept till break of day, and then he
awoke and sang,
Where am I now I Is this the love and care
Of Jesus, for the men that pilgrims are,
Thus to provide that I should be forgiven,
And dwell already the next door to heaven t
So in the morning they all got up; and after some more
discourse, they told him that he should not depart till they
had showed him the rarities of that place. And first they
had him into the study, where they showed him records of
the greatest antiquity; in which, as I remember my dream,
they showed him the pedigree of the Lord of the hill, that
he was the Son of the Ancient of days, and came by that
eternal generation. Here also was more fully recorded the
acts that he had done, and the names of many hundreds that
he had taken into his service; and how he had placed them
in such habitations, that could neither by length of days,
nor decays of nature, be dissolved.
Then they read to him some of the worthy acts that
some of his servants had done; as how they had subdued
kingdoms, wrought righteousness, obtained promises, stopped
the mouths of lions, quenched the violence of fire, escaped
the edge of the sword, out of weakness were made strong,
waxed valiant in fight, and turned to flight the armies of the
aliens, Hebrews, xi. 33, 34.
THE WONDERS SHOWN TO CHRJTIAN.
Then they read again another part of the records of the
house, where it was shown how willing their Lord was to
receive into his favour any, even any, though they in time
past had offered great affronts to his person and proceed-
ings. Here also were several other histories of many other
famous things, of all which Christian had a view; as of
things both ancient'and modern, together with prophecies
and predictions of things that have their certain accomplish
ment, both to the dread and amazement of enemies, and the
comfort and solace of pilgrims.
The next day they took him, and had him into the ar-
mory, where they showed him all manner of furniture
which their Lord had provided for pilgrims, as sword, shield,
helmet, breastplate, all-prayer, and shoes that would not
wear out. And there was here enough of this to harness
out as many men for the service of their Lord as there be
stars in the heaven for multitude.
They also showed him some of the engines with
which some of his servants had done wonderful things.
They showed him Moses' rod; the hammer and nail with
which Jael slew Sisera; the pitchers, trumpets, and lamps,
too, with which Gideon put to flight the armies of
Midian. Then they showed him the ox's goad where-
with Shamgar slew six hundred men. They showed him
also the jaw-bone with which Samson did such mighty
feats. They showed him, moreover, the sling and stone
with which David slew Goliath of Gath, and the sword
also with which their Lord will kill the man of sin, in the
day that he shall rise up to the prey. They showed him
besides many excellent things, with which Christian
was much delighted. This done, they went to their rest
Then I saw in my dream, that on the morrow he got ap
R cnarITIN i ARMED AND PURSUES HS JOURNEY.
to go forward, but they desired him to stay till the next day
also; and then, said they, we will, if the day be clear, show
you the Delectable Mountains; which, they said, would yet
farther add to his comfort, because they were nearer the
desired haven than the place where at present he was; so
he consented and stayed. When the morning was up, they
had him to the top of the house, and bid him look south.
ISo he did, and behold, at a great distance, he saw a most
pleasant, mountainous country, beautified with woods, vine-
yards, fruit of all sorts, flowers also, with springs and
fountains, very delectable to behold, Isaiah, xxxiii. 16, 17.
Then he asked the name of the country. They said it
was Immanuel's land; and it is as common, said they, as
this hill is, to and for all the pilgrims. And when thou
comest there, from thence, said they, thou mayest see to the
gate of the celestial city, as the shepherds that live there
will make appear.
Now he bethought himself of setting forward, and they
were willing he should. But first, said they, let us go
again into the armory. So they did, and waien he came
there they harnessed him from head to foot with what was
of proof, lest perhaps he should meet with assaults in the
way. He being therefore thus accoutred, walked out
with his friends to the gate; and there he asked the Por-
ter if he saw any pilgrim pass by. Then the Porter an-
CHR. Pray, did you Know him ? said he.
PORT. I asked his name, and he told me it was Faithful.
CHR. 0, said Christian, I know him; he is my towns*
man, my near neighbour; he comes from the place where
I was born. How far do you think he may be before t
PORT. He is got by this time below the hill.
CHI. Well, said Christian, good Porter, the Lord be
CHRISTIAN MEETS APOLLYON.
with thee, and add to thy blessings much increase for the
kindness thou hast shown to me.
Then he began to go forward; but Discretion, Piety,
Charity, and Prudence would accompany him down to the
foot of the hill. So they went on together, reiterating
their former discourses, till they came to go down the
hill. Then said Christian, As it was difficult coming up,
so, so far as I can see, it is dangerous going down. Yes,
said Prudence, so it is; for it is a hard matter for a man
to go down into the valley of Humiliation, as thou art
now, and to catch no slip by the way; therefore, said they,
are we come out to accompany thee down the hill. So he
began to go down, but very warily; yet he caught a slip or
Then I saw in my dream, that these good companions,
when Christian was got down to the bottom of the hill,
gave him a loaf of bread, a bottle of wine, and a cluster of
raisins; and then he went his way.
But now, in this valley of Humiliation, poor Christian
was hard put to it; for he had gone but a little way before
he espied a foul fiend coming over the field to meet him:
his name is Apollyon. Then did Christian begin to be
afraid, and to cast in his mind whether to go back, or to
stand his ground. But he considered again that he had no
armour for his back, and therefore thought that to turn the
back to him might give him greater advantage with ease to
pierce him with his darts; therefore he resolved to venture,
and stand his ground; for, thought he, had I no more i
mine eye than the saving of my life, it would be the best
way to stand.
So he went on, and Apollyon met him Now the
monster was hideous to behold; he was clothed with
74 APOLLYON INTERROGATES CRAISTIAN.
scales like a fish, and they are his pride; he had wings
like a dragon, and feet like a bear, and out of his belly
came fire and smoke; and his mouth was as the mouth
of a lion. When he came up to Christian he beheld him
with a disdainful countenance, and thus began to question
APOLLYON. Whence come you, and whither are you
CHR. I am come from the city of Destruction, which is
the place of all evil, and I am going to the city of Zion.
APoL. By this I perceive that thou art one of my sub-
jects ; for all that country is mine, and I am the prince and
god of it. How is it, then, that thou hast run away from
thy king? Were it not that I hope that thou mayest do me
more service, I would strike thee now at one blow to the
CHR. I was, indeed, born in your dominions, but your
service was hard, and your wages such as a man could not
live on: for the wages of sin is death, Romans, vi. 23;
therefore when I was come to years, I did, as other con-
siderate persons do, look out, if perhaps I might mend
APOL. There is no prince that will thus lightly lose his
subjects, neither will I as yet lose thee; but since thou
complainest of thy service and wages, be content to go
back, and what our country will afford I do here promise
to give thee.
CHn. But I have let myself to another, even to the
King of princes; and how can I with fairness go back with
APOL. Thou hast done in this according to the proverb,
"changed a bad for worse;" but it is ordinary for those
APOLLYON 8 DECEITFUL DISCOURSE.
that have professed themselves his servants, after a while to
give him the slip, and return again to me. Do thou so too,
an'] all shall be well.
CIIR. I have given him my faith, and sworn my alle-
giance to him; how then can I go back from this, and not
be hanged as a traitor ?
APOL. Thou didst the same to me, and yet I am willing
to pass by all, if now thou wilt yet turn again and go back.
CHR. What I promised thee was in my nonage;. and
besides, I count that the Prince, under whose banner now
I stand, is able to absolve me, yea, and to pardon also what
I did as to my compliance with thee. And besides, 0 thou
destroying Apollyon, to speak truth, I like his service, his
wages, his servants, his government, his company, and
country, better than thine; therefore leave off to persuade
me farther; I am his servant, and I will follow him.
APOL. Consider again, when thou art in cool blood,
what thou art like to meet with in the way that thou goest.
Thou knowest that for the most part his servants come to
an ill end, because they are transgressors against me and my
ways. How many of them have been put to shameful
deaths I And besides, thou contest his service better than
mine; whereas he never came yet from the place where he
is, to deliver any that serve him out of my hands; but as
for me, how many times, as all the world very well knows,
have I delivered, either by power or fraud, those that have
faithfully served me, from him and his, though taken by
them And so I will deliver thee.
CHR. His forbearing at present to deliver them, is on pur-
pose to try their love, whether they will cleave to him to
the end; and as for the ill end thou sayest they come to,
that is most glorious in their account. For, for the present
deliverance, they do not much expect it; for they stay for
76 CHRISTIAN REFUTES HIS SUGoErTIONS.
their glory; and then they shall have it, when their Prince
comes in his, and the glory of the angels.
APOL. Thou hast already been unfaithful in thy service
to him; and how dost thou think to receive wages of him.
CHR. Wherein, 0 Apollyon, have I been unfaithful to
APOL. Thou didst faint at first setting out, when thou
wast almost choked in the Gulf of Despond. Thou didst
attempt wrong ways to be rid of thy burden, whereas thou
shouldst have stayed till thy Prince had taken it off. Thou
didst sinfully sleep, and lose thy choice things. Thou
wast almost persuaded to go back at the sight of the lions.
And when thou talkest of thy journey, and of what thou
hast seen and heard, thou art inwardly desirous of vaiiglory
in all that thou sayest or doest.
CHR. All this is true, and much more which thou hast
left out; but the Prince whom I serve and honour is merci-
ful and ready to forgive. But besides, these infirmities pos-
sessed me in thy country; for-there I sucked them in, and
I have groaned under them, been sorry for them, and have
obtained pardon of my Prince.
APOL. Then Apollyon broke out into a grievous rage,
saying, I am an enemy to this Prince; I hate his person,
his laws, and people; I am come out on purpose to with-
CHR. Apollyon, beware what you do, for I am in the
king's highway, the way of holiness; therefore take heed
APOL. Then Apollyon straddled quite over the whole
breadth of the way, and said, I am void of fear in this mat-
ter. Prepare thyself to die; for I swear by my infernal
den, that thou shalt go no farther; here will I spill thy soul.
And with that he threw a flaming dart at his breast: but
CONFLICT BETWEEN CHRISTIAN AND APOLLYON. 77
C.ristian had a shield in his hand, with which he caught it,
and so prevented the danger of that.
Then did Christian draw, for he saw it was time to bestir
him; and Apollyon as fast made at him, throwing darts as
thick as hail; by the which, notwithstanding all that Chris-
tian could do to avoid it, Apollyon wounded him in his head,
his hand, and foot. This made Christian give a little back:
Apollyon, therefore, followed his work amain, and Christian
again took courage, and 'resisted as manfully as he could.
This sore combat lasted for about half a day, even till Chris-
tian was almost quite spent. For you must know, that
Christian, by reason of his wounds, must needs grow weaker
Then Apollyon, espying his opportunity, began to close
to Christian, wrestling with him, gave him a dreadful fall;
and with that Christian's sword flew out of his hand.
Then said Apollyon, I am sure of thee now. And with
that he had almost pressed him to death; so that Christian
began to despair of life. But, as God would have it, while
Apollyon was fetching his last blow, thereby to make a
full end of this good man, Christian nimbly reached out
his hand for his sword, and caught it, saying, Rejoice not
against me, 0 mine enemy; when I fall I shall arise, Mtcah,
vii. 8; and with that gave him a deadly thrust, which
made him give back, as one that had received his mortal
wound. Christian perceiving that, made at him again,
saying, Nay, in all these things we are more than conquer-
ors through Him that loved us, Romans, viii. 37. And
with that Apollyon spread forth his dragon's wings, and
sped him away, that Christian saw him no more, James,
In this combat no man can imagine, unless he had seen
and hean as I did, hat yelling and hideous roaring Apol-
CHRISTIAN S VICTORY.
lyon made all the time of the fight; he spake like a dragon:
and on the other side, what sighs and groans burst from
Christian's heart. I never saw him all the while give so
much as one pleasant look, till he perceived he had wounded
Apollyon with his two-edged sword; then, indeed, he did
smile, and look upward; but it was the dreadfulest fight
that I ever saw.
So when the battle was over, Christian said, I will here
give thanks to Him that hath delivered me out of the mouth
of the lion; to Him that did help me against Apollyon
And so he did, saying,
Great Beelzebub, the captain of this fiend,
Designed my ruin; therefore to this end
He sent him harness'd out, and he with rage,
That hellish was, did fiercely me engage:
But blessed Michael helped me, and I,
By dint of sword, did quickly make him fly.
Therefore to Him let me give lasting praise,
And thank and bless his holy name always.
Then there came to him a hand, with some of the leaves
of the tree of life, the which Christian took and applied to
the wounds that he had received in the battle, and was
healed immediately. He also sat down in that place to eat
bread, and to drink of the bottle that was given to him a lit-
tle before; so being refreshed, he addressed himself to his
journey, with his sword drawn in his hand; for, he said, I
know not but some other enemy may be at hand. But he
met with no other affront from Apollyon quite through the
Now at the end of this valley was another, called the
Valley of the Shadow of Death; and Christian must needs
go through it, because the way to the Celestial City lay
through the midst of it. Now this valley is a very solitary
THE VALLEY OF THE SHAD3W OF DEATH.
place: the prophet Jeremiah thus describes it: "A wider-
ness, a land of deserts and pits, a land of drought, and of
the Shadow of Death, a land that no man" (but a Christian)
"passeth through, and where no man dwelt," Jeremiah,
Now here Christian was worse put to it than in his fight
with Apollyon, as by the sequel you shall see.
I saw then in my dream, that when Christian was got to
the borders of the Shadow of Death, there met him two
men, children of them that brought up an evil report of the
good land, Numbers, xiii. 32; making haste to go back; to
whom Christian spake as follows.
CHR. Whither are you going?
MEN. They said, Back, back, and we would have you do
so too, if either life or peace is prized by you.
CHR. Why, what's the matter, said Christian?
MEN. Matter? said they; we were going that way as
you are going, and went as far as we durst: and indeed
we were almost past coming back; for had we gone a
little further, we had not been here to bring the news to
CHR. But what have you met with ? said Christian.
MEN. Why, we were almost in the Valley of the Sha-
dow of Death, but that by good hap we looked before us,
and saw the danger before we came to it; Psalm xliv. 19,
CHR. But what have you seen ? said Christian.
MEN. Seen! why the valley itself, which is as dark as
pitch: we also saw there the hobgoblins, satyrs, and dra-
gons of the pit: we heard also in that valley a continual
howling and yelling, as of a people under unutterable misery,
who there sat bound in affliction and irons; and over that
valley hangs the discouraging clouds of confusion: death
90 THE HOBROR8 OF THIS VALLEY.
also doth always spread his wings over it. In a word, it is
every whit dreadful, being utterly without order, Job, iii. 5;
CHR. Then, said Christian, I perceive not yet, by what
you have said, but that this is my way to the desired haven,
Psalm xliv. 18, 19; Jeremiah, ii. 6.
MEN. Be it thy way, we will not choose it for ours.
So they parted, and Christian went on his way, but still
with his sword drawn in his hand, for fear lest he should
I saw then in my dream, so far as this valley reached,
there was on the right hand a very deep ditch; that ditch is
it, into which the blind have led the blind in all ages, and
have both there miserably perished. Again, behold, on the
left hand there was a very dangerous quag, into which, if
even a good man falls, he finds no bottom for his foot to
stand on: into that quag king David once did fall, and had
no doubt therein been smothered, had not He that is able
plucked him out, Psalm lxix. 14.
The pathway was here also exceeding narrow, and there-
fore good Christian was the more put to it; for when he
sought, in the dark, to shun the ditch on the one hand, he
was ready to tip over into the mire on the other: also, when
he sought to escape the mire, without great carefulness he
would be ready to fall into the ditch. Thus he went on,
and 1 heard him here sigh bitterly; for beside the danger
mentioned above, the pathway was here so dark, that oft-
times, when he lifted up his foot to go forward, he knew
not where, or upon what he should set it next.
About the midst of this valley I perceived the mouth of
hell to be, and it stood also hard by the way side. Now,
thought Christian, what shall I do? And ever and anon
the flame and smoke would come out in such abundance,
CHRISTIAN'S TERROR AND PERPLEXITY.
with sparks and hideous noises, (things that cared not for
Christian's sword, as did Apollyon before,) that he was
forced to put up his sword, and betake himself to another
weapon, called All-prayer, Eph. vi. 18; so he cried, in my
hearing, 0 Lord, I beseech thee, deliver my soul, Psalms,
cxvi. 4. Thus he went on a great while, yet still the flames
would be reaching toward him; also he heard doleful voices,
and rushing to and fro, so that sometimes he thought he
should be torn in pieces, or trodden down like mire in the
streets. This frightful sight was seen, and these dreadful
noises were heard by him for several miles together; and
coming to a place where he thought he heard a company
of fiends coming forward to meet him, he stopped, and be-
gan to muse what he had beat to do. Sometimes he had
half a thought to go back; then again he thought he might
be half way through the valley. He remembered, also,
how he had already vanquished many a danger; and that
the danger of going back might be much more than for to
go forward. So he resolved to go on; yet the fiends seemed
to come nearer and nearer. But when they were come
even almost at him, he cried out with a most vehement
voice, I will walk in the strength of the Lord God. So
they gave back, and came no farther.
One thing I would not let slip. I took notice that now
poor Christian was so confounded that he did not know
his own voice; and thus I perceived it. Just when he
was come over against the mouth of the burning pit, one
of the wicked ones get behind him, and stepped up softly
to him, and whisperingly suggested many grievous blas-
phemies to him, which he verily thought had proceeded
from his own mind. This put Christian more to it than
any thing that he met with before, even to think that he
should now blasph eme Him that he loved so much before.
82 A FELLOW TRAVELLER OVERHEAD ID--MORNING DAWNl
Yet if he could have helped it, he would not have done it
but he had not the discretion either to stop his ears, or to
know from whence these blasphemies came.
When Christian had travelled in this disconsolate condi-
tion some considerable time, he thought he heard the voice
of a man, as going before him, saying, Though I walk
through the Valley of the Shadow of Death, I will fear no
evil, for thou art with me, Psalm, xxiii. 4.
Then was he glad, and that for these reasons.
First, Because he gathered from thence, that some who
feared God were in this valley as well as himself.
Secondly, For that he perceived God was with them,
though in that dark and dismal state. And why not, thought
he, with me ? though by reason of the impediment that
attends this place, I cannot perceive it, Job ix. 11.
Thirdly, For that he hoped (could he overtake them) to
have company by and by. So he went on, and called to
him that was before; but he knew not what to answer, for
that he also thought himself to be alone. And by and by
the day broke: then said Christian, "He hath turned the
shadow of death into the morning," Amos, v. 8.
Now morning being come, he looked back, not out of
desire to return, but to see, by the light of the day, what
hazards he had gone through in the dark. So he saw more
perfectly the ditch that was on the one hand, and the quag
that was on the other; also how narrow the way was which
led betwixt them both. Also now he saw the hobgoblins,
and satyrs, and dragons of the pit, but all afar off; for after
break of day they came not nigh, yet they were discovered
Io him according to that which is written, He discovereth
ieep things out of darkness, and bringeth out to light the
hadow of death," Job, xii. 22.
Now was Christian much affected with this deliverance
THE GIANTS, POPE AND PAGAN, OF THE VALLEY. 83
from all the dangers of his solitary way; which dangers,
though he feared them much before, ye he saw them mon;
clearly now, because the light of the tay made them con-
spicuous to him. And about this time the sun was rising,
and this was another mercy to Christian; for you must
note, that though the first part of the Valley of the Shadow
of Death was dangerous, yet this second part, which he
was yet to go, was, if possible, far more dangerous; for,
from the place where he now stood, even to the end of the
valley, the way was all along set so full of snares, traps,
gins, and nets here, and so full of pits, pitfalls, deep holes,
and shelvings down there, that had it now been dark, as it
was when he came the first part of the way, had he had a
thousand souls, they had in reason been cast away; but, as
I said, just now the sun was rising. Then said he, His
candle shineth on my head, and by his light I go through
darkness," Job xxix. 3.
In this light, therefore, he came to the end of the valley.
Now I saw in my dream, that at the end of the valley lay
blood, bones, ashes, and mangled bodies of men, even of
pilgrims that had gone this way formerly; and while I
was musing what should be the reason, I espied a little
before me a cave, where two giants, Pope and Pagan,
dwelt in old time; by whose power and tyranny the men,
whose bones, blood, ashes, &c., lay there, were cruelly
put to death. But by this place Christian went without
much danger, whereat I somewhat wondered; but I have
learnt since, that Pagan has been dead many a day; and
as for the other, though he be yet alive, he is, by reason
of age, and also of the many shrewd brushes that he met
with in his younger days, grown so crazy and stiff in his
joints, that he can now lo little more than sit in his cave's
84 SONG OF DELIVERANCE-CHRISTIAN SEES FAITHFUL.
mouth, grinning at pilgrims as they go by, and biting his
nails because he cannot come at them.
So I saw that Christian went on his way; yet, at the
sight of the old man that sat at the mouth of the cave, he
could not tell what to think, especially because he spoke to
him, though he could not go after him, saying, You will
never mend till more of you be burned. But he held his
peace, and set a good face on it, and so went by, and catched
no hurt. Then sang Christian,
Oh world of wonders, (I can say no less,)
That I should be preserved in that distress
That I have met with here! 0 blessed be
That hand that from it hath delivered me!
Dangers in darkness, heaven, hell, and sin,
Did compass me, while I this vale was in;
Yea, snares, and pits, and traps, and nets did he
My path about, that worthless, silly I
Might have been catch'd, entangled, and cast down,
But since I live, let Jesus wear the crown.
Now as Christian went on his way, he came to a little
ascent, which was cast up on purpose that pilgrims might
see before them up there, therefore, Christian went; and
looking forward, he saw Faithful before him upon his jour-
ney. Then said Christian aloud, Ho, ho; so-ho; stay, and
I will be your companion. At that Faithful looked behind
him; to whom Christian cried again, Stay, stay, till I come
up to you. But Faithful answered, No, I am upon my life,
and the avenger of blood is behind me.
At this Christian was somewhat moved, and putting to
all his strength, he quickly got up with Faithful, and did
also overrun him ; so the last was first. Then did Chris-
DISCOURSE OF CHRISTIN AND FAITHI UL.
tian vain-gloriously smile, because he had gotten the start
of his brother; but not taking good heed to his feet, he
suddenly stumbled and fell, and could not rise again until
Faithful came up to help him.
Then I saw in my dream, they went very lovingly on
together, and had sweet discourse of all things that had
happened to them in their pilgrimage; and thus Christian
CHR. My honoured and well-beloved brother Faithful, I
am glad that I have overtaken you, and that God has so
tempered our spirits that we can walk as companions in this
so pleasant a path.
FAITH. I had thought, dear friend, to have had your com
pany quite from our town; but you did get the start of me,
wherefore I was forced to come thus much of the way
CHR. How long did you stay in the City of Destruction
before you set out after me on your pilgrimage?
FAITH. Till I could stay no longer; for there was great
talk presently after you were gone out, that our city would,
in a short time, with fire from heaven, be burnt down to the
CHR. What did your neighbours talk so ?
FAITH. Yes, it was for a while in every body's mouth.
CHR. What! and did no more of them but you come out
to escape the danger ?
FAITH. Though there was, as I said, a great talk there-
about, yet I do not think they did firmly believe it. For in
the heat of the discourse, I heard some of them deridingly
speak of you, and of your desperate journey; for so they
called this your pilgrimage. But I did believe, and do still,
that the end of our city will be with fire and brimstone from
above; and therefore I have made my escape
66 DISCOURSE OF CHRISrIA% AND FAI THrL.
CHR. Did you hear no talk of neighbour Pliable ?
FAITH. Yes, Christian, I heard that he followed you till
he came to the Slough of Despond, where, as some said,
he fell in; but he would not be known to have so done;
but I am sure he was soundly bedabbled with that kind of
CHR. And what said the neighbours to him ?
FAITH. He hath, since his going back, been had greatly
in derision, and that among all sorts of people: some do
mock and despise him, and scarce will any set him on work.
He is now seven times worse than if he had never gone out
of the city.
CHR. But why should they be so set against him, since
they also despise the way that he forsook ?
FAITH. O, they say, Hang him; he is a turncoat; he
was not true to his profession! I think God has stirred
up even His enemies to hiss at him, and make him a pro-
verb, because he hath forsaken the way, Jeremiah, xxix.
CHR. Had you no talk with him before you came
FArTH. I met him once in the streets, but he leered away
on the other side, as one ashamed of what he had done; so
I spake not to him.
CHR. Well, at my first setting out I had hopes of that
man; but now I fear he will perish in the overthrow of the
city. For it has happened to him according to the true
proverb, The dog is turned to his vomit again, and the
sow that was washed to her wallowing in the mire," 2
Peter, ii. 22.
FA~ra. These are my fears of him too; but who can
kinder that which will be ?
CYr. Well. neighbour Faithful, said Christian, let us
DUCOVRSM OF CHRInSTAN AND FAITrFUL
leave him, and talk of things that more immediately con.
cern ourselves. Tell me now what you have met with in
the way as you came; for I know you have met with some
things, or else it may be writ for a wonder.
FArrH. I escaped the slough that I perceive you fell into,
and got up to the gate without that danger; only I met with
one whose name was Wanton, who had like to have done
CHR. It was well you escaped her net; Joseph was hard
put to it by her, and he escaped her as you did; but it had
like to have cost him his life, Gen. xxxix. 11, 13. But what
did she do to you ?
Farm. You cannot think (but that you know some-
thing) what a flattering tongue she had; she lay at me
nard to turn aside with her, promising me all manner of
CHR. Nay, she did not promise you the content of a
FArrH. You know that I mean all carnal and fleshly
CHR. Thank God you have escaped her; the abhorred
of the Lord shall fall into her ditch, Prov. xxii. 14.
FAITH. Nay, I know not whether I did wholly escape
her or no.
CHR. Why, I trow, you did not consent to her
FAITH. NO, not to defile myself; for I remembered an
old writing that I had seen, which said, Her steps take
hold on hell," Prov. v. 5. So I shut mine eyes because I
would not be bewitched with her looks, Job, xxxi. 1. Then
she railed on me, and I went my way.
CHR. Did you meet with no other assault as you came t
FATrr. When I came to the foot of the hill called
88 DISCOURSE OF CHRISTIAN AND FAITHFUL.
Difficulty, I met with a very aged man, who asked me
what I was, and whither bound. I told him that I was a
pilgrim, going to the Celestial City. Then said the old
man, Thou lookest like an honest fellow; wilt thou be
content to dwell with me, for the wages that I shall give
thee ? Then I asked him his name, and where he dwelt.
He said that his name was Adam the first, and that he
dwelt in the town of Deceit, Eph. iv. 22. I asked him
then, what was his work, and what the wages he would
give. He told me, that his work was many delights;
and his wages, that I should be his heir at last. I further
asked him, what house he kept, and what other servants he
had. So he told me, that his house was maintained with
all the dainties of the world, and that his servants were
those of his own begetting. Then I asked him how many
children he had. He said that he had but three daughters,
the Lust of the Flesh, the Lust of the Eyes, and the Pride
of Life, 1 John, ii. 16; and that I should marry them, if
I would. Then I asked, how long time he would have
me live with him; and he told me, as long as he lived
CHR. Well, and what conclusion came the old man and
you to at last?
FAITH. Why, at first I found myself somewhat inclinable
to go with the man, for I thought he spake very fair; but
looking in his forehead, as I talked with him, I saw there
written, Put off the old man with his deeds."
CHR. And how then?
FAITH. Then it came burning hot into my mind, what-
ever he said, and however he flattered, when he got me
home to his house he would sell me for a slave. So I bid
him forbear to talk, for I would not come near the door of
ni. house. Then he reviled me, and told me he would
DISCOUTSE OF CHRISTIAN AND FAITHFUL.
send such a one after me that should make my way better
to my soul. So I turned to go away from him; but just
as I turned myself to go thence I felt him take hold of my
flesh, and give me such a deadly twitch back, that I thought
he had pulled part of me after himself; this made me cry,
" Oh wretched man," Rom. vii. 24. So I went on my way
up the hill.
Now when I had got about half way up, I looked behind
me, and saw one coming after me, swift as the wind; so he
overtook me just about the place where the settle stands.
CHR. Just there, said Christian, did I sit down to rest
me; but being overcome with sleep, I there lost this roll
out of my bosom.
FAITH. But, good brother, hear me out. So soon as the
man overtook me, he was but a word and a blow; for down
he knocked me, and laid me for dead. But when I was a
little come to myself again, I asked him wherefore he
served me so. He said, because of my secret inclining to
Adam the first. And with that he struck me another deadly
blow on the breast, and beat me down backward; so I lay
at his foot as dead as before. So when I came to myself
again, I cried him mercy: but he said, I know not how to
show mercy; and with that he knocked me down again
He had doubtless made an end of me, but that one came by,
and bid him forbear.
CHR. Who was that that bid him forbear ?
FAITH. I did not know him at first; but as he went by.
I perceived the holes in his hands and his side; then I con-
cluded that he was our Lord. So I went up the hill.
CHR. That man that overtook you was Moses. He
spareth none; neither knoweth he how to show mercy to
those that transgress his law.
FAITH. I know it very well; it was not the first time
90 DISCOURSE OF CHRISTIAN AND FAITHFUL.
that he has met with me. 'Twas he that came to me when
I dwelt securely at home, and that told me he would burn
my house over my head if I stayed there.
CHR. But did not you see the house that stood there, on
the top of the hill on the side of which Moses met you ?
FAITH. Yes, and the lions too, before I came at it. But
for the lions, I think they were asleep, for it was about
noon; and because I had so much of the day before me, 1
passed by the Porter, and came down the hill.
CHR. He told me, indeed, that he saw you go by;
but I wish that you had called at the house, for they
would have showed you so many rarities, that you would
scarce have forgot them to the day of your death. But
pray tell me, did you meet nobody in the Valley of Hu-
FArrH. Yes, I met with one Discontent, who would
willingly have persuaded me to go back again with him: his
reason was, for that the valley was altogether without honour.
He told me, moreover, that to go there was the way to dis-
oblige all my friends, as Pride, Arrogancy, Self-Conceit,
Worldly Glory, with others, who he knew, as he said,
would be very much offended if I made such a fool of my-
self as to wade through this valley.
CHR. Well, and how did you answer him ?
Far I told him, that although all these that he named
might claim a kindred of me, and that rightly, (for indeed
they were my relations according to the flesh,) yet since I
became a pilgrim they have disowned me, and I also have
rejected them; and therefore they were to me now nq more
than if they had never been of my lineage. I told him,
moreover, that as to this valley, he had quite misrepresented
the thing: for before honour is humility, and a haughty
spirit before a fall. Therefore, said I, I had rather go
DISCOURSE OF CHRISTIAN AND FAITHFUL. 01
through this valley to the honour that was so accounted by
the wisest, than choose that which he esteemed most worth
CHR. Met you with nothing else in that valley t
FAITH. Yes, I met with Shame; but of all the men that
I met with on my pilgrimage, he, I think, bears the wrong
name. The other would be said nay, after a little argu-
mentation, and somewhat else: but this bold-faced Shame
would never have done.
CHa. Why, what did he say to you t
FAITH. What ? why he objected against religion itself.
He said it was a pitiful, low, sneaking business for a man
to mind religion. He said, that a tender conscience was
an unmanly thing; and that for a man to watch over his
words and ways, so as to tie up himself from that hectoring
liberty that the brave spirits of the times accustom them-
selves unto, would make him the ridicule of the times.
He objected, also, that but few of the mighty, rich, or
wise, were ever of my opinion; nor any of them neither,
before they were persuaded to be fools, and to be of a
voluntary fondness to venture the loss of all, for nobody
else knows what, 1 Cor. i. 26; iii. 18; Phil. iii. 7-0;
John, vii. 48. He, moreover, objected the base and low
estates and condition of those that were chiefly the pilgrims
of the times in which they lived; also their ignorance and
want of understanding in all natural science. Yea, he did
hold me to it at that rate also about a great many more
things than here I relate; as, that it was a shame to sit
whining and mourning under a sermon, and a shame to
come sighing and groaning home; that it was a shame to
ask my neighbour forgiveness for my petty faults, or to
make restitution where I have taken from any. He said
also, that religion made a man grow strange to the gret.t
92 DISCOURSE OF CHRISTIAN AND FAITHFUL.
because of a few vices, (which he called by finer names,)
and made him own and respect the base, because of the
same religious fraternity; and is not this, said he, a shame ?
CHR. And what did you say to him ?
FAITH. Say! I could not tell what to say at first.
Yea, he put me so to it, that my blood came up in my
face; even this Shame fetched it up, and had almost beat
me quite off. But at last I began to consider, that that
which is highly esteemed among men, is had in abomina-
tion with God, Luke, xvi. 15. And I thought again, This
Shame tells me what men are; but he tells me nothing
what God, or the word of God, is. And I thought, more-
over, that at the day of doom we shall not be doomed to
death or life, according to the hectoring spirits of the world,
but according to the wisdom and law of the Highest.
Therefore, thought I, what God says is best, is best,
though all the men in the world are against it. Seeing,
then, that God prefers his religion; seeing God prefers a
tender conscience; seeing they that make themselves fools
for the kingdom of heaven are wisest, and that the poor
man that loveth Christ is richer than the greatest man in
the world that hates him; Shame, depart, thou art an
enemy to my salvation. Shall I entertain thee against my
sovereign Lord ? how, then, shall I look Him in the face
at his coming ? Mark, viii. 38. Should I now be ashamed
of His ways and servants, how can I expect the bless-
ing ? But, indeed, this Shame was a bold villain; I could
scarcely shake him out of my company; yea, he would
be haunting of me, and continually whispering me in the
ear with some one or other of the infirmities that attend
religion. But at last I told him 'twas but in vain to at*
tempt further in this business; for those things that he dis.
dained, in those did I see most glory: and so at last I got