Front Cover
 Title Page
 Table of Contents
 The Journey
 The Question
 Sober John
 The Prevarication Story
 Going to Court
 The Trial
 Two Ways to Go to Sea - Jack's...
 Two Ways to Go to Sea - John's...
 An Experiment
 Back Cover

Group Title: Jonas's stories : related to Rollo and Lucy
Title: Jonas's stories
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00002006/00001
 Material Information
Title: Jonas's stories related to Rollo and Lucy
Physical Description: 180, 16 p. : ill. ; 16 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Abbott, Jacob, 1803-1879
Ticknor, Reed, and Fields ( Publisher )
Publisher: Ticknor, Reed, and Fields
Place of Publication: Boston
Publication Date: 1851, c1839
Copyright Date: 1839
Subject: Boys -- Conduct of life -- Juvenile fiction   ( lcsh )
Conduct of life -- Juvenile fiction   ( lcsh )
Publishers' catalogues -- 1851   ( rbgenr )
Embossed cloth bindings (Binding) -- 1851   ( rbbin )
Bldn -- 1851
Genre: Publishers' catalogues   ( rbgenr )
Embossed cloth bindings (Binding)   ( rbbin )
novel   ( marcgt )
Spatial Coverage: United States -- Massachusetts -- Boston
Statement of Responsibility: by the author of Rollo and Lucy.
General Note: Publisher's catalogue: 16 p. at end.
Funding: Brittle Books Program
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00002006
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: aleph - 002220857
oclc - 45662207
notis - ALG1069
 Related Items
Other version: Alternate version (PALMM)
PALMM Version

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front page i
        Front page ii
        Front page iii
        Front page iv
    Title Page
        Front page v
        Front page vi
        Front page vii
    Table of Contents
        Front page viii
    The Journey
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
        Page 30
        Page 31
        Page 32
        Page 33
        Page 34
        Page 35
        Page 36
        Page 37
        Page 38
        Page 39
        Page 40
        Page 41
        Page 42
        Page 43
    The Question
        Page 44
        Page 45
        Page 46
        Page 47
        Page 48
        Page 49
        Page 50
        Page 51
        Page 52
        Page 53
        Page 54
    Sober John
        Page 55
        Page 56
        Page 57
        Page 58
        Page 59
        Page 60
        Page 61
        Page 62
        Page 63
        Page 64
        Page 65
        Page 66
        Page 67
        Page 68
        Page 69
    The Prevarication Story
        Page 70
        Page 71
        Page 72
        Page 73
        Page 74
        Page 75
        Page 76
        Page 77
        Page 78
        Page 79
        Page 80
        Page 81
        Page 82
    Going to Court
        Page 83
        Page 84
        Page 85
        Page 86
        Page 87
        Page 88
        Page 89
        Page 90
        Page 91
    The Trial
        Page 92
        Page 93
        Page 94
        Page 95
        Page 96
        Page 97
        Page 98
        Page 99
        Page 100
        Page 101
        Page 102
        Page 103
        Page 104
        Page 105
        Page 106
        Page 107
        Page 108
        Page 109
        Page 110
        Page 111
        Page 112
        Page 113
        Page 114
        Page 115
        Page 116
    Two Ways to Go to Sea - Jack's Way
        Page 117
        Page 118
        Page 119
        Page 120
        Page 121
        Page 122
        Page 123
        Page 124
        Page 125
        Page 126
        Page 127
        Page 128
        Page 129
        Page 130
        Page 131
        Page 132
        Page 133
        Page 134
        Page 135
        Page 136
        Page 137
        Page 138
        Page 139
        Page 140
        Page 141
    Two Ways to Go to Sea - John's Way
        Page 142
        Page 143
        Page 144
        Page 145
        Page 146
        Page 147
        Page 148
        Page 149
        Page 150
        Page 151
        Page 152
        Page 153
        Page 154
        Page 155
        Page 156
        Page 157
        Page 158
        Page 159
        Page 160
        Page 161
    An Experiment
        Page 162
        Page 163
        Page 164
        Page 165
        Page 166
        Page 167
        Page 168
        Page 169
        Page 170
        Page 171
        Page 172
        Page 173
        Page 174
        Page 175
        Page 176
        Page 177
        Page 178
        Page 179
        Page 180
        Advertising page 1
        Advertising page 2
        Advertising page 3
        Advertising page 4
        Advertising page 5
        Advertising page 6
        Advertising page 7
        Advertising page 8
        Advertising page 9
        Advertising page 10
        Advertising page 11
        Advertising page 12
        Advertising page 13
        Advertising page 14
        Advertising page 15
        Advertising page 16
        Advertising page 17
    Back Cover
        Advertising page 18
        Advertising page 19
        Advertising page 20
Full Text

The Baldwin Library

4* ."

,.(\..r ** & '- 1

f I Ii/

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Entered according to Act of Congress, in the year 1839,

In the Clerk's Office of the District Court of Massachusetts.



THESE Stories of Jonas, having been
related to Rollo and Lucy together, are
intended both for boys and girls. It is
hoped that, in all of them, the parent or
teacher, who may run his eye over the
book, will find a useful tendency. The
aim of the writer has been to cultivate
habits of clear discrimination, sound
reasoning, and correct judgment on the
common subjects of interest to childhood,
and to develop the gentle and amiable
feelings of the heart.


THE JOURNEY.............................. ....... ... 9
THE FISHERMAN'S BOY.................................. 15

fHE QUESTION ......................................... 44
SOBER JOHN ............................................:. 55
THE PREVARICATION STORY ......................... 70
GOING TO COURT........................................ 83
THE TRIAL................. .............................. 92
AN EXPERIMENT ........................................ 162
PENCES................................................... 1



ONE summer, when Rollo was about eight
years old, his father and mother concluded
to take a long journey through the interior
of the country. A good deal of the road
over which they were to travel lay in a
wild, solitary region of forests and moun-
tains, through which it would be necessary
to travel very slowly. Rollo had learned
the art, which children are generally very
slow to learn, of not being troublesome
when riding: and so his mother inquired if
there was not some way of taking him with
them. After some consultation and planning,
they finally determined to enlarge their
original design, and take the whole family,
except little Nathan.
Rollo's father accordingly procured what,


in that part of the country, was called a
carryall. It was a light, four-wheeled ve-
hicle, with two seats. It had a large glass
in the upper part of the door on each side,
and leather curtains all around except in
front, so that it could be shut in very se-
curely, in case of bad weather. Jonas was
to drive the wagon behind, with two or
three trunks, and the other baggage. Rol-
lo's father adopted this plan for three
reasons. He wanted Jonas's help about
the business for which he undertook the
journey; he thought also that they should
travel more conveniently by having the
baggage go in a separate conveyance, and
then it would often be of advantage to have
Jonas's services on the way, in looking after
the horses, the baggage, &c., and in waiting
upon them all at the inns.
Rollo and his sister Mary were to ride in
the carryall with their father and mother;
and as Rollo was small, and did not take up
more than half a seat, they concluded to
invite his cousin Lucy to go too. She was
very glad to accept the invitation.
The arrangements were all made accord-
ingly, and one pleasant morning in June,


the carryall and the wagon came to the door;
the baggage was put in, and snugly stowed
by Jonas in the wagon, all but a few light
articles, which he put under the seats in the
carryall. Presently all the party took their
seats, Jonas locking the door last, and
putting the key in his pocket, that he might
leave it at one of the neighbors' until they
should return. Rollo and Lucy were in
high glee; and in fact Rollo was rather noisy
in his joy, until his mother spoke to him,
and then he was more quiet.
They went on very prosperously; and
sometimes Rollo and Lucy used to go and
ride in Jonas's wagon. They liked this
better than riding in the carryall, because
they could see out better; for the wagon was
not covered at all. In such cases, Jonas let
them sit upon the seat, which had a buffalo
skin spread over it in place of a cushion;
and he himself would sit upon the end of a
leather trunk, which was placed under the
seat, in such a manner that one end projected
just far enough in front of it to make a
good cricket for Jonas to sit upon and drive.
So the children had good accommodations
in the wagon, and they liked it very much,



and Rollo's father liked to have them ride
there sometimes, for it divided the load
better, as he said, between the horses.
Now it happened that Jonas was a capital
hand to tell stories; and he had a little
time before agreed to tell some stories to
Rollo, at some drawing lessons which they
were going to take together; but on trying
it, they found they needed all their attention
for their drawing; and now it was concluded
that Jonas should tell stories on this journey
instead. So, whenever it was convenient
for Rollo and Lucy to ride in his wagon, he
beguiled the way in this manner, as they
slowly toiled up the hills and through the
forests, or pursued their solitary way among
the rough defiles of the mountains. Jonas's
first story was THE FISHERMAN'S BOY.



"ONCE there was a fisherman. He lived
in a little hut which was built against tho
rocks in a small bay near the sea-shore.
There was a small, sandy beach right before
his house, a very smooth and pretty beach,
where the fisherman used to draw up his
little boat when he came in from fishing."
Did he have more than one boat ?" said
Yes," replied Jonas, "he had two, one
pretty large boat with a mast, and one
smaller one. The large one he always an-
chored off in the bay, a little way from
shore, and then came to the beach in his
little boat, which he then drew up out of
the way of the tide."
"How high did the tide rise?" asked
0, so' as almost to cover the beach.
When it was high tide, as it was twice
every day, there was only a narrow strip
of sand between the water and the grass.


When the tide was down, the beach was
very broad, and the lower edge of it was
very wet, and rather stony; and then little
Jock couldn't sail his boats very well."
Little Jock ?" said Rollo and Lucy both
at once; who was little Jock ? "
O, little Jock was the fisherman's boy.
He was about seven years old, and he was
a capital little fellow too. One pleasant
morning, he asked his father to let him go
out a-fishing with him.
"'Go out a-fishing ?' said his father;
'what good could you do ? '
S' 0, father,' said Jock, 'I can catch
fishes. I can pull 'em up.' And here he
began to make signs as if he was pulling a
fishing-line out of water, hand over hand.
'If you will just get 'em hooked on for me,
I'll pull 'em up.'
His father laughed a little at this, and
finally he said he might go. So Jock ran
capering down to the little boat, which was
almost afloat, with its bows just resting a
little upon the beach."
But I thought you said he always pulled
his little boat out of the water ? said Lucy.
So he did; that is, he always pulled ;


up so high that they could get into it at
nigh tide. It was high tide now, and so the
boat was almost afloat. But the painter was
fastened to a stake farther still upon the
shore; so it was secure."
"What is the painter ? said Lucy.
"A rope fastened to a ring in the bows of
the boat. They always call it the painter."
What a funny name! said Rollo.
"Jock," continued Jonas, "got into the
little boat, and took up the boat-hook. Do
you know what a boat-hook is? said he.
"No," said Lucy.
"It is a long pole, with a spike and a hook
in one end of it, to push against the bottom,
or to fend off from the rocks, when they
come too near the shore; or to hook up any
thing which has fallen overboard, or which
is found floating in the water. A boat-hook
is a very handy thing on board a boat."
Yes," said Rolo ; "well, what did Jock
do with his boat-hook ? "
O, he began pushing against the bottom,
and that made the stern of the boat, that is,
the after part, move in the water from side to
side. Jock had often done this before, when
the tide was up so as to float e boat. He



called it sailing; but he could not sail so
long, for the tide would soon ebb away, and
leave him hard aground."
What time in the day was it high
tide ?" said Lucy.
0, different times, on different days. It
was high tide an hour later every day. Well,
as I was saying, Jock was pushing his boat
about, waiting for his father; and presently
he called- out,
"' Come, father, come; I'm sailing. If
you don't come quick, I shall be gone.'
His father laughed, and came along with
some lines in one hand, and a sort of a bag
in the other."
"What was in the bag ? said Rollo.
"Some bread and cheese, and a little keg
of water to drink. They always have to
carry water on the sea, for the sea-water is
salt, and not good to drink.
"So the fisherman came down, and put
his lines and his bag into the boat, and then
cast off the painter from the stake, and after
giving the boat a slight shove off from the
land, he stepped in himself, and Jock began
to shove off with his boat-hook.
Now, father,' says Jock, 'you sit still,


and I will navigate you out to the Blue-
bird.' "
"The Bluebird? said Rollo.
"Yes," said Jonas, "that was the name
of the fisherman's large boat, which was
floating out in the little bay, a few fathoms
from the shore. The little boat was only
fit to paddle about in near the shore; but
the Bluebird had a mast and sail, and was
pretty large and strong, and could bear up
against pretty heavy waves.
So Jock tried to shove the little boat out
to the Bluebird; but it only went round and
round, this way and that, until his father
took up an oar, and putting it out behind,
began to scull."
Scull ? said Rollo; what is that?"
O, it is working the oar back and forth
in a curious way, so as to send the boat
ahead. When they got pretty near the
Bluebird, the fisherman told Jock to take in
his boat-hook; and then he brought the boat
up handsomely alongside the Bluebird, to
Jonas pronounced the word leeward as if it
had been spelled loo-ard, which is the proper
way to pronounce it.



You have so many sea phrases in your
story, Jonas, that I can't understand it very
well," said Lucy.
"Can't you ? said Jonas. "But I don't
see how I can tell this story very well with-
out the sea phrases; though I can explain
them as I go along; and it will be useful for
you to understand them."
"Very well," said Lucy, "go on; but
what do you mean by leeward ? "
"Why, when a vessel or a boat is out
upon the water, there is one side that the
wind blows upon, and the waves, if there
are any, dash up on that side; but round on
the opposite side it is sheltered, and there
the water is smoother. The side towards
the wind is called to windward, and the other
to leeward. Now, here in this wagon,"
continued Jonas, pointing out on one side,
the wind is blowing in upon us here, and
this is to windward; and here, on the
other side, it is to leeward. It makes no
difference on which side you get into a
wagon; but it is generally much easier to
get into a vessel from the leeward.
"The Bluebird was moored to a buoy
which the fisherman had fixed there in the


water. This buoy was a small, round beam
of wood, with a rope fastened to one end.
The other end of this rope was tied strong
round a stone,-a large stone which was
sunk to the bottom; and so the buoy could
not get away; but there it floated, lifting its
head high out of water."
Why, how could it do that?" said
"Why, you see, the rope was made a
little too short to reach to the top of the
water, and that drew the lower end of the
buoy under, and raised the other end. The
fisherman painted the upper end of the buoy
white, so that he could see it more easily in
the dark ; and he cut the shape of a dog's
head on the end, and called it his watch-
dog LooKOUT, to watch the tides."
"To watch the tides? said Rollo.
"Yes," said Jonas, "he would watch the
tides, and tell when it was high or when it
was low."
"How could he ? asked Lucy.
"Why, you see the rope was short, and
drew one end of the buoy under water; and
so, when the tide rose high, it made the
rope a good deal too short, and that drew the



lower end a good deal under the water, and
made the other end lift up higher. Then,
when the tide went down, old Lookout would
gradually lie down again too. So that they
could always tell, by looking at the old watch
dog, how high the tide was. Besides that,
he would tell them whether it was ebb or
Ebb or flood? inquired Lucy.
"Yes; that is, whether the tide was coming
in or going out. When the tide is flowing
in, it is called flood tide, all the time from
when it first begins to come in, until the
bay is full: then it is high tide. Very soon
it begins to ebb, that is, to run out again; and
it is called ebb tide until it is all out, and
then it is low tide again."
"But how could the buoy tell," said
Rollo, whether the tide was coming in or
going out ? "
Why, it was confined, you see, only at
one end, and so the tide, when it was coming
in, or going out, carried off the upper end of
the buoy, so as to make old Lookout's head
pint the way the tide was going. When
the tide was coming in, old Lookout turned
his head towards the head of the bay; and

11 It

~i~t1It t

in III'






then, when it ebbed, he would lean over
towards the sea, and look off as if he wanted
to go out too.
There was a small iron ring fastened to
Lookout, just under one of his ears. The
Bluebird was fastened to this ring, by means
of a rope. The fisherman helped Jock up
into the large boat, and then cast off from
the ring. Jock sat down upon one of the
thwarts, near the mast."
Thwarts ? said Rollo.
"Yes ; seats, placed across the boat
from side to side. Jock sat down upon on "
of these seats, and the fisherman began t4
make sail."
Make sails? said Rollo; were not his
sails made yet?"
I did not say make his sails," said Jonas,
"but make sail; that is, hoist his sails. They
always call it making sail. The fisherman
then went to the stern of the boat, and took
the helm, and as soon as the sails filled, and
she got a little way on her, he put her head
round, and stood out to sea.
It was a fine summer's day, and there'
were a pleasant breeze and a smooth sea.
The Bluebird glided along beautifully ovb
.. 3



the water, heeling a little to port, for the
wind was on the starboard beam."
0 dear me!" said Lucy, with a long
sigh; "I can't understand one word you say."
Can't you ?" said Jonas. What,
haven't you understood the story so far?"
"Why, yes," said she, "so far; but it
grows harder and harder to understand."
"Well, perhaps I had better leave off this
story, and try to tell another."
0 no," said Rollo, "I went to hear the
rest of this very much. You can explain it
to us as you go along."
You will understand it better pretty
soon," said Jonas, "for I was going to tell
you how the fisherman explained about the
boat to Jock. After they had sailed along a
little way, 'Jock,' said he, 'while we ar,
making our offing, I think I will give yod
a talk about boat-service. It will be worth
a day's schooling, if you listen well.'
"' Well,' said Jock, I should like to hear.'
"Then the fisherman, after trimming his
sails a little more exactly, and taking a good
lookout ahead, began thus: -
The forward part of the boat is called
the bows, and the hind part here, where I am


sitting, is called the stern. That you knew
"' Yes, father.'
"'The sides of the boat are named, as
well as the ends,' continued the fisherman.
'This side on the right is called the star-
board side, and this one on the left is called
the larboard side. Remember that, will you,
"'Yes, father, I'll try. Starboard is right,
and larboard is left.'
'Ay, ay, Jock, that is it exactly. The
larboard side of the boat, near the bows, is
called the larboard bow; near the stern, it is
called the larboard quarter; and so on the
other side, it is called the starboard bow, and
starboard quarter. So, if you look out of a
boat, or a vessel, nearly forward, but a little
to the left, and should see any thing there,
you would say it was on the larboard bow.'
"Here Jock looked out in the direction
which his father had named, and said, 'I do
see something on the larboard bow, father.'
'What is it ? said his father.
"'A gull.'
"The fisherman looked, and saw it.N 0
"Just at that moment, the gull was frigi



ened at seeing the boat coming on, and he
flapped his wings, and rose slowly from the
water. Jock watched him. He wheeled
around in the air over their heads, and then
finally went down again towards the water,
and lighted in the bay away behind them,
and yet not exactly behind them, but con-
siderably to the left.
"' There, where is he now?' said the
'He is on the larboard quarter,' said Jock.
"'Right,' said the fisherman. 'You're
a pretty good scholar. If he had lighted on
one side of us here, to the left, about off op-
posite to us, we should call that on the lar-
board beam; because it is where the beams
of a vessel point, which go across from side
to side.'
"'And off on the other side is on the
starboard beam, I suppose,' said Jock.
Yis,' said the fisherman; 'and if any
thing is right before us, it is ahead, and if
it is right behind us, it is astern. Now, Jock,
you stand up, and take a look all around,
and tell me what you see, in all these di-
Where shall I begin ? said Jock.



"' Begin right ahead,' said his father.
"So Jock stood up on the thwart, and
began to look forward, and described what
he saw, thus: -
There is nothing right ahead but water.'
Then he turned a little to the left, and said,
' On the larboard bow, I see some rocks and a
point of land. On the larboard beam is the
shore. Then next comes the larboard quar-
ter, where I see our house and the beach.
S"' Directly behind us '-
'No, not behind us; astern, you mean,'
said the fisherman.
"'Yes, astern, I see the buoy, and our
little boat fastened to it, and the land beyond.
On the starboard quarter, there is water and
land beyond; on the starboard beam, the
same; on the starboard bow, there are rocks;
and that brings me round to right ahead
again, where I began, and where there is
nothing but water. Yes, there is,' he con-
tinued, after a moment's pause; 'I see a
sail-boat out in the offing, right ahead.'
Let me see,' said the fisherman; and he
leaned his head to one side, to see clear of
the mast and sail.
"It was a large ship, instead of a sail-boat;



but it was so far off, that it looked very
small, and so Jock thought it was a boat.
The fisherman knew that it was a ship sail-
ing along the coast, and he knew also that
she was going in such a direction, that the
wind was ahead to her, though to the Blue-
bird it was on the starboard beam."
"Now I remember you told. us so some
time before," said Lucy, "and I did not
understand it then; but now I know from
what the fisherman said."
"Yes, it means that the wind blew right
across the boat, from the starboard side, and
I told you that made her heel to port."
"Heel to port!" said Lucy, laughing,
"what is that ?"
"Heel? that is lean over ; and to port is
to larboard."
"Why don't they say to larboard then? "
said Rollo.
"No, why don't they say to the left, and
done with it?" said Lucy, "and then we
should understand. If you would tell us
plainly that the wind blew on the right side,
and made the boat lean over to the left side,
then we should understand; but instead of
that you tell us the wind was on the star-


board beam, and that made her heel to
Here Rollo and Lucy burst into a loud fit
of laughter at the absurdity of sea language.
Jonas smiled, and waited patiently until they
had become still; and then he said,
"All I know about it is, that is the way
the sailors do talk."
"How do you know?" said Lucy.
"0, I have been to sea," said Jonas.
"When was it ?" asked Lucy.
"Never mind that now," said Rollo; "I
want to hear the rest of this story."
"Well," said Jonas, "they went on pros-
perously until they came to the fishing-
ground and began to fish. They anchored
the boat, and fished for some time, and the
fisherman let Jock pull up some of the fishes.
They were a good many miles from the land;
but Jock was not afraid, for the water was
very smooth and still. In fact the wind all
died away; and in consequence of it the ship
could not get along, but she lay still upon
the water, about two miles from them, out to
sea, the great sails hanging idly against the
masts. Jock asked his father how they were
going to get home without any wind; and his



father told him that he had no doubt there
would be a breeze before night.
The afternoon passed away, however,
with scarcely a breath of air. The ship
grew gradually smaller and smaller during
the middle of the day, because she gradually
worked off from the land; but in the after-
noon the tide set in towards shore, and she
slowly drifted back again, until at length
she approached within half a mile of the
boat. When the sun was about two hours
high, the fisherman drew in his lines, and
hoisted his sail again to go home,-the
bottom of his boat being filled with fishes.
"As the boat came round, Jock had the
ship in full view on the starboard beam.
The ship had three masts, and a great many
ropes and sails; and as the wind, what little
there was, was blowing in new towards the
shore, she was to windward of the boat. Jock
had time to look at her leisurely, for the boat
moved very slowly; and presently he heard
a loud voice, calling out from the ship,
." 'Boat ahoi !' "
The fisherman rose in the stern of the
boat, and answered to the call. He found
that they wanted him to go on board the


ship, and sell them some fish. The fisher-
man was very glad to sell some of his fish,
because he wanted the money; but the ship
was some distance off, and as she lay dead
to windward, he could not think of sailing
there; so he took in his sail, and put out a
couple of oars, one on each side, and began
to pull for the ship.
Jock and his father had now exchanged
seats; for the fisherman himself took his
place upon one of the thwarts, to row, and
so Jock went to the helm. He sat down
and took hold of the tiller."
What is the tiller ? asked Rollo.
"It is the handle of the rudder, that you
steer by. So Jock took hold of the handle
of the rudder, and asked his father if he
might steer."
"'Yes,' said the fisherman. 'Look out
well, and keep her head exactly towards the
"So Jock took the helm, and began to
steer; he found if he put the helm one way,
the head of the boat immediately went the
other; and so he soon learned to put the
helm the contrary way to that which he
wished to turn the boat to. By and by he



Father, we are coming up pretty near
the ship; how shall I stop? or we shall
run against her.'
"The fisherman looked over his shoulder,
-for you know, in rowing, a man sits back-
wards, -and then said,
I'll tell you when you get near enough,
and then you must put the helm hard a-port,
and that will carry the head of the boat
round, and bring us up alongside.'
So they went on, the fisherman looking
over his shoulder occasionally, and at last,
just as they were coming up to the ship, he
called out to Jock,
'Helm a-port; hard a-port.'
So Jock crowded the tiller hard a-port,
and his father, at the same moment, drew in
his oars, and rose from his seat, and stepped
to the bows. The boat came rapidly round,
and swept finely up alongside of the ship.
"'Well done, my little pilot,' said the
men in the ship. 'You brought the boat up
alongside like an old sailor.'
"'My father told me how,' said Jock.
'That's right, my boy,' said onle of the
snen; 'always obey your father; especially
when he's captain to boot.'


"'He is not captain,' said Jock.
Isn't he ?' said the sailor. Who
commands that craft you sail in, then?
Do you ?'
"The sailors laughed heartily at this, and
Jock looked somewhat confused. The fish-
erman himself smiled. He was busy all
this time fastening the painter to some part
of the ship, and then he began to trade with
the sailors for his fish. They bought a good
many of them, and the fisherman put the
money in his pocket: still he had an abun-
dant store left besides. He was very glad
of this sale, for he did not very often get so
good an opportunity to sell his fish so well.
Finally, when the sailors had bought all
they wanted, the fisherman said he must put
off, or he should be very late home, there
was so little wind.
"' There is more wind coming,' said one
of the sailors, in a red cap, who stood lean-
ing over the bulwark towards the boat.
'We are going to have a squall off from the
You know what a squall is," said Jo'as,
"I suppose."
"Not exactly," said Rollo.


"It is a gust of wind, that comes up suds
denly, and blows very hard."
What made the sailor think there was
going to be a squall ?" asked Rollo.
O, he saw some clouds over the land in
the west, and thought a thunder gust was
coming up. The fisherman looked that
way, and thought so too. But there was
now quite a pretty little breeze springing up,
which blew towards the land, and so they
made all sail for the shore."
"If the wind was blowing towards the
shore," said Rollo, it would blow the
clouds all away from them."
One would think so," said Jonas; "but
squalls and thunder-clouds very often come
up against the wind.
They moved along very slowly, and by
the time they had gone on a mile, there was
a broad, black cloud, rising in the west. The
sun went behind it, and it began to look as
if night was pretty near. Still they went
on, for the breeze was fair, as it blew directly
in towards shore, though the cloud kept
rising higher, and coming out more and
more over the water. Jock eyed the cloud
for some time, and at last he saw a faint


flash of lightning behind it. Then he heard
a sound of distant thunder; and a minute
after he said,
"'Father, isn't there going to be a
storm ?'
"'A squall; but that won't do any
harm. It may make us a little later
The cloud came swelling on, and it
lightened and thundered more and more.
Presently the wind all died away, and left
the sail of the boat hanging idly at the mast.
They were now not very far from the mouth
of the bay, and the fisherman thought he
could pull in with his oars. So he furled
his sail, and got out his oars again, looking
occasionally over his shoulder to see how he
got along.
Presently he stopped rowing, and looked
steadily a few minutes at the land, as if he
saw something singular."
What did he see ? said Rollo.
'He saw the trees waving, and dust fly-
ing, which made him think there was going-
to be a heavy squall. So he said he must
put the boat's head the other way ; and he
just had time to get her round, and his oars


in, when the squall struck them with great
The boat begun to scud before it pretty
rapidly, when Jock said, 'Why, father, you
are going right away from home.'
Yes,' said his father; 'but this will not
last long.'
"' Why don't you anchor, father,' said
Jock, 'and so stop the boat till the squall
blows over?'
"'It is too deep to anchor here,' said he.
"'How do you know it is too deep? '
said Jock; and he tried at the same time to
look over the side.
'Take care,' said his father, very quickly;
'there goes your cap;' and before Jock had
time to put his hand to his head, away went
his cap flying through the air; and at length
it fell into the water, at some distance ahead
of them. The wind was blowing almost a
hurricane, roaring over the water, and howl-
ing and whistling among the ropes of the
boat. The boat was scudding very rapidly
on, and soon overtook the cap; and the fish-
erman hooked it up with the boat-hook, and
took it in.
"The cap was of course completely


drenched with water; but this was of no
great consequence, for it soon began to rain
in torrents, and as there was very little
shelter, they were both soon pretty well wet
through. But this was not the worst of it;
for it became so thick with the rain falling,
and the mist and spray, that they began to
be afraid they should lose sight of the shore,
as they were going farther and farther away
from it. But fortunately the wind soon
lulled, so that the fisherman thought he
might get up his sail again, and head to-
wards the shore."
Yes, but the wind was blowing off of
the shore," said Rollo; "and so he could
not sail back home."
"Yes, he could," said Jonas. "They
have a curious way of fixing the sail so as
to go towards the land, even when the wind
is blowing off from it. They can't go ex-
actly against the wind, but nearly against
it; they call it sailing near the wind.
"So the fisherman got his sail up, and
brought the head of the boat up to the wind,
and began to edge along towards the shore,
in a slanting direction. But it now began
to grow dark pretty fast, and very soon he



lost sight of the land entirely. Then he did
not know what to do."
Why, keep on straight," said Lucy,
"and he would come to the land by and
"He could not tell whether he was going
straight or not," said Jonas; he could not
see any thing but water all around him; so
he had nothing to judge by but the wind,
and he soon began to suspect the wind was
shifting. The lightning and thunder grad-
ually ceased, and so did the violence of the
wind and rain. In fact, the thunder shower
seemed to turn into a steady rain storm.
The fisherman beat about for an hour or
more, but could not find any signs of land.
And now he began to feel pretty seriously
alarmed about little Jock; for he was very
wet and cold, and he feared that they must
stay out all night; and though he knew that
he could stand it, himself, very well, he was
afraid that Jock would perish from cold and
In the mean time, the winds and waves
increased, and the water began to dash over
the bows of the boat, and come aboard.
After a while so much had come in, that the


fisherman began to bale it out, and he set
Jock to baling too, thinking that the exercise
might help to keep him warm. Jock baled
industriously a long time, but at length he
got almost exhausted; and as the waves in-
creased, the water came in rather faster than
they both could bale it out. It was now
very dark; and all the hope the fisherman
had of saving their lives was, that they might
be pretty near the land, and might suddenly
come to it."
"And were they pretty near?" asked
"No," said Jonas, "they were more than
ten miles from land, and going farther and
farther away."
dear me!" said Rollo; "then poor
little Jock was drowned."
No," said Jonas, "for just as they were
about giving up in despair, Jock, who was
looking out forward, cried out suddenly,
"'Why, father, what is here ?'
"The fisherman looked out eagerly, and
saw, just before them, on the larboard bow,
a large, dark mass; and a moment after, as
they were rapidly approaching it, he per-
ceived that it was the hull of a vessel. He


called out immediately, as loud as he could,
" 'Ship, ahoy! '
"Immediately a man in a red cap ap-
peared at the bulwarks, and answered.
The fisherman soon perceived that it was
the same ship that he had visited some hours
before. He brought his boat alongside, and
secured it, and he and Jock went aboard.
"The ship was at anchor. They found
that the wind had shifted soon after the squall,
and blew so heavily that they thought it
most prudent to come to anchor. They
were very glad to receive the fisherman, and
especially little Jock, safe on board. The
sailors were very kind to the little pilot, as
they called him. They rigged him up in
their own trousers and jackets. They were
a great deal too big, it is true; but then they
were warm and dry, and Jock was very glad
to get them on, in exchange for his own wet
and cold clothes. He cut a very comical
figure down in the forecastle, with a great
shaggy pea-jacket over him, the long sleeves
hanging down his sides. After the sailors
had done laughing at him, they put him into
a berth, and it was not long before he was
sound asleep.


The next morning, very early, he put
on his own clothes, which his father had
taken care to dry, and then went up on
deck. On looking over the side of the ship,
he found that his father had just finished
baling out his boat and getting ready to set
sail. The sky was clear, and the wind fair.
The sailors wanted to buy some more of his
fish, but the fisherman would not take any
pay for them. When he had given them as
much as they wanted, he thanked them for
taking such good care of him and Jock ; and
then, both getting into their boat, they put
off from the ship, and made sail for the
shore. They had a rapid run, and got into
the bay just after sunrise. The tide was
going in, and that helped them on the faster;
and just as the fisherman's wife had got her
breakfast ready, and came to the door to see
if she could see any thing of them, she found
them, to her great joy, just fastening the
boat to old Lookout."

Here Jonas paused, and, drawing up the
reins, began to drive the horse a little faster.
Is that all ? said Rollo.
"Yes," said Jonas, "that is all."




JONAS finished his story just as they
reached the foot of a long, winding hill.
The road was smooth, and not very steep;
but there was a forest on both sides, and as
it was now towards evening, the road was
very shady and still. Now and then the
children caught a glimpse of the carryall,
which was far in advance of them, going
slowly up the hill. Jonas said that as he
had a pretty heavy load, he believed he
would walk up; and so he put the reins into
Rollo's hands, and then stepping down care-
fully upon the thill, he leaped off to the side
of the road.

It was a pretty good story, after all,"
said Lucy to Rollo, when they were alone.
So it was," said Rollo.
If there hadn't been so many sea
phrases," continued Lucy.
"But then it is very useful for us to un-


derstand the sea phrases, because you know,
Lucy, we may go to sea some day our-
"I never shall, if I can help it," said
"I mean to," said Rollo; "I should like
to go to sea very much."
"Perhaps you will," said Lucy; and it
may be very well for a boy to learn about
sea phrases; but I don't think it will be of
any use to a girl."
In fact, Rollo and Lucy got quite into a
discussion about the desirableness or unde-
sirableness of going to sea, and understand-
ing sea customs and phrases; and before they
got to the top of the hill, they determined
to refer the questions to Rollo's father. As
it happened, they had an opportunity to do
this pretty soon; for when they arrived
near the summit of the hill, they saw that
the carryall was waiting for them. Rollo's
father had turned a little out of the road, so
as to allow the wagon to come up alongside,
as the fisherman would have said. When
they came up, he called to Jonas, and pointed
forward, and asked him if he saw a spire of
a church away off there several miles.




Jonas looked a minute in the direction
indicated, without answering, when Rollo
suddenly exclaimed,
"I see it, Jonas, right on the larboard
Jonas smiled, and then said that he saw it.
Close by that church," said Rollo's
father, "is the tavern where we want to
stop to-night. Rollo and Lucy may now
get in with us, and you may drive on be-
fore us, and tell them we are coming, so
that they may be getting ready for us."
This change was accordingly made, and
very soon Jonas was trotting briskly on,
down the long slope before them; the rest
following at a more moderate pace, in the
carryall. They had come out of the forest
at the top of the hill, and now were travel-
ling through a pleasant country of fields,
and orchards, and farm-houses.
"Jonas has been telling you about ships
and the sea, I suppose," said Rollo's father.
Yes, father; and Lucy and I had a ques-
tion whether it is useful for girls to know
any thing about such things."
"You know girls don't go to sea," said


"Yes, they do, sometimes," said Rollo.
Well, if they do," said Lucy, they have
nothing to do with managing the ship."
"I am afraid you don't, either of you,
want to know what my opinion is," said
Rollo's father.
( Why, yes, we do," said they both.
"It seems to me, on the other hand, that,
instead of wishing to get my opinion, you
are each endeavoring to make me adopt your
The children were silent. They per-
ceived that it was as Rollo's father had rep-
resented: what each really wanted was the
victory, not the truth.
"Now," continued Rollo's father, "I am
rather in a delicate situation; for I should
like very well to talk with you about this
subject; but if I should say I thought such
knowledge was useful for a girl, that would
be giving you a triumph, Rollo, and it would
hurt Lucy's feelings; and on the other hand,
if I say it is not useful, it will give her a
triumph, and hurt yours."
The children were silent. In fact they
did not know what to say.
"It is not polite or kind for friends to get



into such a condition, in respect to each other,
where one or the other must be made to
Here he paused, and the children were
silent and thoughtful.
"Well, uncle," said Lucy, "I give up.
Rollo is right, I know; for all knowledge is
There, that is a good girl," said her
uncle; that relieves me of all my diffi-
culty. I think Rollo is right myself; for
though ladies never have actually to man-
age a ship, and seldom take long voyages,
yet they sail in boats and ships, and still
more frequently they are on the sea coast,
or in seaport towns, where they see or hear
of them. Then there is another advantage
more important still."
"What is that ? said Lucy.
"In your general reading, you will be
very often meeting with the more common
sea phrases, and allusions to the more im-
portant and striking evolutions of a ship;
and sometimes the whole interest of a de-
scription will depend upon your understand-
ing them. For instance, you are reading a
book of voyages, and perhaps it gives a4


account of a peculiar difficulty the ship got
into upon a savage coast. Now, unless you
know something about the movements of a
ship, you cannot understand the difficulty at
Here Rollo's mother said she should like
to understand about a ship very much; and
she wished his father would get a little
model of one, some time, all rigged complete,
and explain all the parts to them.
O, I wish you would, father," said Rollo.
"Can you ? "
Perhaps I can," said his father. "Sail-
ors make such models sometimes on long
voyages, and then sell them, when they
get ashore. Perhaps Jonas could rig one for
Rollo determined to ask him, and then,
after riding on a little farther, he asked his
father to tell them something more about
"Very well," said his father, "I will.
"Jonas told you that the side that the
wind blows from is called the windward side,
and the other the leeward."
"Yes, sir," said Rollo.
"The windward side is also called the



weather side, because that is most exposed
to the weather. The bow on the weather
side is called the weather bow. And so
they say the weather beam, and the weather
quarter. So the parts on the other side are
called the lee bow, the lee beam, and the
lee quarter."
Now, suppose you were sailing in a ship
at sea, and were to come in sight of rocks,
which would be the most dangerous place
for them, on the lee bow, or the weather
bow, do you think ? "
I'm sure I don't know," said Rollo.
"The lee bow would be the most dan-
gerous place, because, as the ship was moving
on, the wind would blow right towards
them; but if the rocks were any where on
the weather side, there would be scarcely
any danger, because the wind would blow
from them, towards the ship, and so she could
easily go away from them."
Yes, sir," said Lucy, I understand."
"You often hear of a lee shore, in books
of voyages: it means a shore to leeward of
the ship, and of course the wind tends to
blow the ship towards it; and if the wind
is heavy, a ship, in such a case, is in great


danger. It is a terrible thing to get upon a
lee shore in a heavy gale of wind."
Can't they anchor ?" said Rollo.
Sometimes they can; but then there is
great danger that the wind and sea will be
so powerful as to drag the anchor along the
bottom, or part, that is, break, the cable; and
then the ship goes inevitably on to the rocks,
and is dashed to pieces by the tremendous
waves. I have seen pictures of ships upon
a lee shore."
So have I," said Lucy; but I did not
understand what it meant, only I saw there
was a ship, and some waves and rocks."
"And I suppose you did not take much
interest in it. But now, if you were to see
one, you would examine it with great care.
You would be interested to notice that the
wind was actually blowing towards the
shore, and that the ship was in great danger
of going upon it. You would look to see if
they had an anchor out, and if so, whether
the cable was strained tight, so as to be in
danger of breaking by the force of the winds
and waves."
"I should like to see one again, very
much," said Lucy.



That is one great advantage of knowl-
edge; it enables you to take a great deal
more interest and pleasure in any thing you
see. There is no object so dull and unin-
teresting that, if you knew hll about it, you
would not take a pleasure in seeing it."
O, father said Rollo.
"It is true," said his father. "If you
don't think so, you may name any object
you think entirely uninteresting, and let me
tell you something about it, and then see if
you don't take an interest in looking at it."
Well," said Rollo, looking around, -
" a fence."
"Very well, a fence. I will tell you
about fences, and see if it does not awaken
an interest in seeing fences, and examining
"0, father," said Rollo, I don't believe
it will."
We will try to-morrow; but we shall not
have time to-night; for we are now pretty
near the tavern."

In the mean time, Jonas had gone on, as
he had been directed, and had reached the
little church. Just beyond it, he saw a


small house, neatly painted, and with green
blinds, and having a small tavern-sign hang-
ing from a great elm in front of it. Across
the road was a large stable, with a shed
attached to it.- He drove his wagon into
the shed, and a man came out of the stable
and took his horse.
Jonas told him that a gentleman and
lady and two children were coming on, and
wanted to stop there for the night, and
asked him if they could have chambers.
The tavern-keeper said he should be very
glad to accommodate them.
SWhat is his name ? said he.
"Mr. Holiday," said Jonas.
A great many children, who have read
these books, have wanted very much to
know the name of Rollo's father; but I do
not know when or how they would have
found out, if the tavern-keeper had not
happened to ask Jonas. .
The tavern-keeper said he should be very
glad to entertain Mr. Holiday, and accord-
ingly went in and gave directions for having
some rooms opened and aired, and also asked
his wife in the kitchen to begin to get tea.



That evening, after tea, the children
amused themselves in drawing the shape of
a ship upon a small piece of paper, and
waiting opposite the several parts the va-
rious names, according to the information
Which Jonas had given them.



SOBER JOHN," said Jonas, when they got
all ready for a story the next day, "lived at
his father's house, which was about half a
mile from the village. He had several
brothers and sisters, some older, and some
younger than himself. His father's house
was large and pleasant, with trees on each
side of it, and a garden behind. Beyond the
garden was a field, and in one part of *e
field was a long hill, descending to a smill.
pond at the bottom. They used to s0il
boats upon this pond in summer, and skate)
upon it in winter.
John was not much of a hand at play.
He preferred staying in the house, reading,
or drawing, or working about something or
other at his desk. He had a little room,
which he had fixed for himself up stai s,
where his father used to let him have a lit-
tle fire Wednesday and Saturday afternoons,
when there was no school, because he pre-


ferred staying there to going out to play
with his brothers and cousins. Did I tell
you about his cousins? "
"iNo," said Rollo, not a word."
"He had some cousins, who lived in the
next house, at a short distance through the
trees. And his cousins and his brothers used
to play together a great deal; but it was very
seldom that they could get John to play
with them, and so they called him Sober
John. But they liked him very much,
Why? said Rollo.
"Because he was always very kind to
them; and then he often contrived plays for
the other boys, and helped them plan a great
S' many things they never would have thought
of without him. He was excellent in plan-
. ning and calculating. He learnt it out of
Shis books.
"The boys often came to him, when they
Sgot tired of all their plays, for some new
amusement, and he generally contrived
something for them."
SWhat kind of plays did he contrive ?
asked Lucy.
< O, I don't know," said Jonas, "all kinds.


For instance, one night all his cousins were
at his father's house, to spend the evening
together in play. He staid with them a
short time after tea, and then went off to his
room. By and by they had played every
thing they could think of, and so they sent
two of his cousins up to his room, to ask
him what they should do next. He told
them to go and get all the lamps in the
house, and light them, and give each boy
and girl one, and then let them walk about
the room, and each one try to blow the others'
lamps out, and to see who could keep his
lamp burning the longest ; only every one
must go and sit down as soon as his own
lamp was blown out. They went and got
the lamps, and tried it, and found it excellent
fun. They afterwards asked John what
made him think of that play, and he said he
found an account of it in a book of travels
in Italy. In fact, he had all sorts of ways
of helping them in their plays. He made
their kite frames, and told them how to rig
their ships, and covered their balls, and
drew little pictures for them, and did a
thousand things; and so they liked him very
well, although they did call him Sober John.



When he did any thing for them, how-
ever, he was very strict in his conditions."
"Conditions ?" said Rollo. "What con-
ditions ?"
Why, he never allowed them to play in
his room, or talk loud there. When they
came in to see him, he always made them
be still, and stand quietly, and talk one at a
time. Then he was very particular about
their obeying his directions exactly, when-
ever he gave them any thing to do."
"Why, did he make them work?" said
Rollo, with a tone of some surprise.
"No," said Jonas; I mean when he
undertook to plan any amusement for them.
he was very particular in having each do
just what he said, in executing it. If they
made any objections or complaints, or if any
one did not like to do his part, he would
stop at once, and leave them to find their
own amusement.
"But I must come to my story. One
winter evening, the boys came in from their
play about dark, and as it was a little before
tea-time, they sat down in a corner by the
fire. John was sitting on the other side
telling a story to his little sister, about two


years old, who was sitting in his lap. After
he had finished his story, the boys wanted
him to tell them what to do the afternoon of
the next day; because it was Wednesday,
and there was to be no school. John told
them they had better slide down hill, for it
was now capital sliding, he said, on the hill
side beyond the garden. The boys said
they had not sleds enough. Their cousins
were coming over to see them, and there
were only two good sleds among them all.
John then said he would think, and he took
his pencil out of his pocket, and got a small
piece of paper, and began to make calcula-
tions and drawings; but he would not let the
boys see what he was doing. At last, when
the supper was coming in, he told them he
had contrived a plan, but it would cost some
money, perhaps two dollars, though it would
last a long time. 'Now,' said he, 'there are
you four, and your four cousins make eight;
that is a quarter of a dollar apiece. Now,
if you have a mind to put in a quarter of a
dollar apiece, and obey my instructions, I
will see what I can do.'
The boys were very eager to know what
the plan could be ; but John said he couldn't



tell them, but that they might go over the
next morning, and see if their cousins were
willing to furnish a quarter of a dollar apiece.
They agreed to do so; and just before
school they came over each with a quarter
of a dollar in his hand. The way they got
their money was this: The boys used to
work sometimes, and their fathers paid
them, and thus they had all laid up quite a
sum of money; and they used to take from
this whenever they wanted any money to
carry into execution any of John's plans.
Their fathers allowed them to spend it in
any way that John recommended, for they
had confidence in him; but in other cases
they were not allowed to expend any of it,
without their father's or mother's leave.
"When they went to school that morning,
they found that John had gone on before
them; and, watching him, they observed that
he went into a carpenter's shop, with a paper
in his hand. So they supposed that he was
going to get the carpenter to make some-
thing, and that the paper was a drawing of
it; for John had learned to draw, and al-
ways made a drawing of any curious thing
he wanted to have made.


"At noon, after dinner, John went out in
the shed, and took down a rope which he
had prepared, about ten feet long, and with
short cross-pieces of wood curiously spliced
into it, at equal distances, about two feet
apart, for handles to take hold of. He let
the two smallest boys take hold of the one
at the end, and the others came along in
pairs, at the other handles. When he had
done, he said, There! there is a fine team
of horses! Now trot off to the carpenter's,
and hook on to the jolly-boat he has got
made for you.'
"The boys started off in high glee.
When they got to the carpenter's, they found
there 5 very long sled, with thin plank run-
ners, and a curious contrivance at the end
"What was it ? said Rollo, eagerly.
"A kind of a rudder," said Jonas.
A rudder! said Rollo; what, to steer
by ? "
"Yes," said Jonas. "It was a single
runner reaching out behind, in the middle.
It was fastened to a round bar which came
up through the end of a sled, and had a kind
a handle at the top, so that it could move



one way or the other, and so steer the sled
like a rudder.
The boys hooked on to their jolly-boat,
as John had called it, and trotted home with
it. It went smoothly and beautifully over
the ice and snow.
When they came home, John came
down to look at the jolly-boat. He ex-
amined the rudder some time thoughtfully,
and then said, Yes, I think that will steer.
Now, boys, who'll be pilot ?'
S"'I,' 'I,' I, said Arthur, and James, and
Samuel; and 'I,' and 'I,' said Frank and
Thomas. In fact, they all said 'I,' except
little George, who found that there were
so many candidates for the office, that he
stood quietly by, keeping hold of one end
of the rope, as if he thought it was useless
to put in his claim.
"'You must take turns being pilot,' said
John, 'and we will begin with the young-
est. George, you shall be pilot first.'
"' I!' said George; and he began to clap
his hands in high glee.
'Now I suppose,' said John, I had better
go out and shgpv you how to steer.' So
he very deliberately took his seat upon


the sled, and told the boys to haul him
The boys grasped the string again, and
began to pull and prance like so many
young ponies. They trotted through the
garden gate, which was always open in the
winter, and down through the great pear-
tree alley, until at length, out through the
back gate, they came to the top of the hill.
The coast, as the boys called their sli-
ding place, was well worn and smooth, and
there had been, just before, a rain and a frost
after it, which had made the road almost as
hard and smooth as ice, and the pond was
covered with ice from one end to the other.
John stopped the jolly-boat at the top of the
hill, and drew back the rope. He placed him-
self at the stern, and took hold of the tiller.
'Now,' said John, 'who takes passage
with me to the Mediterranean ? '
Some of the boys were at first afraid to
get on; but at length they all concluded to
venture, and they arranged themselves one
before the other, little George behind, so
that he might learn how to steer. When
all was ready, they tried to start it off, the
boys all working their heels in the snow, to



get it a-going, like so many legs of a centi-
pede. Presently the jolly-boat began to
move of itself, though at first slowly. It,
however, soon began to gather headway, and
at length went bounding along over every
swell and hollow, like a ship in a gale of
wind. John kept her exactly in the track,
until at length they reached the bottom of
the hill, and then it came down upon the
pond like an arrow. But now, as the ice
was perfectly smooth, the rudder could not
get any hold, and so the jolly-boat gradually
broached to "
"0 dear !" said Lucy; "there are all yoir
old sea-phrases again."
"0, I forgot," said Jonas, smiling. "I
did nct mean to give you any more sea-
phrases, but, somehow or other, telling
about the fisherman has brought them all
into my head. But, Lucy, I will try, in my
next story, not to have a single sea-phrase
from beginning to end."
no matter about it," said Lucy.
"Well, the jolly-boat slewed round, and
went sideways, the boys all hanging back,
and expecting every minute that it would
go over.


"'Steer! steer, John! cried out Arthur;
'why don't you steer ?'
Just at that moment the jolly-boat had
wheeled almost entirely around, and had
arrived at the opposite side of the pond.
The end of one of the runners struck the
snow of the shore gently, and it stopped,
and the boys all jumped off, laughing hear-
tily, and all eager to go up and try it again.
They accordingly hooked on the rope again,
and pulled away, and were soon ready for
another slide. John then said he would
leave them to manage for themselves.
'You won't steer very well,' said he, 'at fir.,
and, in fact, you may get some capsizings;
but you must be all the merrier for it.'
"And now I must have some sea-phrases -
to tell the rest," said Jonas.
"Very well," said Lucy.
"The next time they tried it, George took
the helm, and they went on very correctly
half way down; but then they began to run
off the track to the left.
Take care take care!' said James.
"' Hi- yi, hi- yi!' said Thomas, half
screaming, half laughing.
"' Steer, George, steer!' said Frank. 3


"'Helm a-port! George, hard a-port!'
cried Arthur.
"But George, in his confusion, instead
of putting the helm a-port, only crowded
it harder and harder a-starboard, and this
carried the jolly-boat short about to the
left. It balanced itself a moment upon the
edge of a knoll, and then went over, tum-
bling the boys head over heels down .the
"Did it hurt them ?" said Rollo.
Not much; they soon had the jolly-boat
to the top of the hill again, and before night
they got to have such skill in steering that
they could keep her exactly in the track
until they got to the bottom of the hill, and
strike the ice upon the pond so exactly true,
that they would shoot across from shore to
shore, as straight as an arrow."
Here Jonas stopped, as if the story was
ended. Rollo then asked him what made
SSober John think of such a plan as that.
"Why," said he, "he had been reading
about an ice-boat that day, which sails about
on the ice, with three runners, the hinder
one movable like a rudder."

I Il I i


~ "















"Why would not the jolly-boat Iteer, then,
on the ice ? "
"Because," said Jonas, "her rudder was
of wood. In an ice-boat the rudder is of
iron, and so takes hold of the ice better, like
a skate-iron."
Yes," said Rollo ; "I understand it



ONE day, as Jonas and the children were
riding along, they observed upon one side
of the road, among some trees at a little
distance, a small farm-house, with several
sheds and small barns near it, and among
the rest a large barn which rose above all
the other buildings.
"What a great barn said Rollo.
"Yes," said Jonas; that barn makes me
think of the Prevarication story."
"O, tell it to us," said Lucy; "come, we
are all ready for another story."
"Very well," said Jonas, I will.

"There was once a farmer who had two
boys, and it gave him a great deal of trouble
to make them come home in season, when
he sent them away of errands. Like many
other boys, they had a sad habit of loitering
and playing by the way. Sometimes he
would send them off a short distance, for


something which he wanted very much, and
they would get to playing by the way, and
keep their father waiting for it two hours.
So, when their mother sent them to the
store, in the afternoon, they would be gone
till night, and sometimes not get home until
it was so late and dark, that she began to be
afraid that some accident had happened to
them. Then, when they came home, and
she asked them what made them so late,
they would say that they went 'as soon as
they could.' That was what they almost
always said, that they went as soon as they
And so they told a lie, as well as dis-
obeyed," said Rollo.
"Why, not exactly; for they loitered in
such a way that they hardly knew them-
selves how much time they wasted. They
would go along very briskly a few steps, and
then stop to talk about something which
they picked up in the street, or to sit down
by the side of the road, or to talk with boys;
and then the time slipped away a great deal
faster than they supposed. Sometimes they
really stopped to play, and then they gener-
ally acknowledged it, if their father ques-


tioned them closely; for they would not tell
an absolute lie.
At last, their father had to punish them,
and he did so once or twice, and determined
to do it more and more severely until this
bad habit was broken up. While things
were in this state, their father told them, one
day, he wanted theri to go over to a neigh-
bor's house at some distance, and lead a
heifer there. A heifer, you know, is a young
cow. The farmer had fastened a halter
around the heifer's neck, and then put the
end of the halter into the boys' hands, for
them to lead her by. He charged them not
to stop to play, but to come directly home,
and to bring the halter with them. So, one
of the boys took hold of the halter and led
the heifer along, and the other walked by
his side.
"They did not stop to play by the way
as they went, but led the heifer on directly.
When they got to the house, they turned
the heifer out, and took the halter to return
home. But, unfortunately, there were some
boys there, and they asked them to go out
into the barn yard with them. The boys
thought they would go a few minutes, and



so they laid down the halter, and went.
They played in the barn yard some time,
amusing themselves particularly with a ram
which was there. The time passed away
very fast, and though they had a secret feel-
ing all the time that they were doing wrong,
they kept staying a little longer, and a little
longer. After some time, they caught the
ram, and then they thought it would be
capital fun to put the halter on him, and
lead him about as they had done the heifer.
So, one of the boys went and got the halter,
and then came the task of putting it on.
Some of them held the ram, grasping his
woolly sides with their hands; others slipped
the halter over his head, and contrived to
buckle it up, though it was a great deal too
big for him. The poor ram did not know
what to make of this usage, and he pulled
and struggled, and did his best to get free.
First, he drew back; then, he sprang for-
ward, the boys shouting around him, and
holding on to his sides, and to the halter.
Presently he shot ahead, the boys after him;
but he succeeded in getting clear, and with
a bound jerked away the halter from the
boy's hand who held it, escaped from the



barn yard, and the next moment he was
galloping off away into the field, the halter
dangling by his side, and the boys after him
in full cry.
They soon gave up the pursuit, and then
the two boys who had been sent with the
heifdr began to be seriously alarmed. They.
had already staid a long time, and now they
had lost the halter, and they did not dare to
go home and face their father, without ob-
taining it again. They had got themselves
into serious trouble, and they felt really
anxious and unhappy about it. It is bad
enough to get into trouble in doing right;
but it is ten times worse when it comes by
doing wrong.
"They now set themselves to catching
the ram again; but it was hard work.'
"How did they do it? said Rollo.
"I don't know," said Jonas.
Don't know ?"
No; I only know they tried to catch him
some time, and finally they succeeded, and
got the halter. Perhaps they drove him
gradually up into a corner of the field, and
there surrounded him; or they may have
all gone out beyond him, and drove him

" liii"r li

I';i' I' E
Iiiir; I iiiI a




back into the barn yard, and so penned him
up, and caught him there. At any rate, they
caught him somehow or .other, and got the
halter; and then the two boys, feeling guilty
and miserable, set out on their return home.
They began to consider what they must
tell their father, and after some plotting and
planning, they concluded that they could
make out a' tolerably good excuse, without
absolutely telling a lie. The story which
they concluded to tell was this, that they led
the heifer to the place as they were directed,
and that there some boys got the halter, and
put it upon a ram, and then that the ram got
away, and it took them a long time to catch
him again.
"This story, now, was all true; that is,
every thing stated in it was according to fact;
and yet the whole was meant to deceive,
and that is what they call prevarication."
(" But how could it deceive, if it was all
true?" asked Lucy.
Why, you see," said Jonas, in reply,
"that they said some boys got the halter,
and that was true; but then they them-
selves proposed it, and helped put it on.
And then they said it took them a good


while to catch the ram, and that was true
too; but then they meant their father tq un-
derstand, that that was the reason why they
did not come home sooner; but the truth was,
they had stopped to play a long time before
the ram got away with their halter. The
story was intended to make their father
believe that they were not much to blame ;
whereas they had been. very much to blame
"Yes, I see," said Rollo.
It is very easy for boys to give a false
idea by telling what is, in itself, true; and
this is prevarication."
"Is prevarication as bad as to tell a lie, up
and down ?" asked Rollo.
"I think it is very bad," replied Jonas.
"But is it as bad as lying?" persisted
"Some folks think it is," said Jonas.
"But I want to know what you think,"
said Rollo.
"I don't know," said Jonas; "you had
better ask your father."
"I think it is just as bad," said Lucy.
"I will ask my father," said Rollo.
"But go on, Jonas,"


"In the mean time the boys' father, after
waiting and waiting, and finding that night
was coming on, and they did not return,
went out into the barn to do the work there,
necessary to be done before night, and which
the boys ought to have been at home to do.
While he was there, and doing their work, they
arrived, feeling very anxious and unhappy.
They went first into the house; there they
found their mother, and told her their story.
She was not satisfied with it, but said they
must go to their father in the barn. They
went accordingly into the barn, and there
repeated the excuse they had agreed upon."
"And what did their father say ?" asked
Rollo, eagerly.
He did not say any thing. The boys
observed that he looked displeased when
they first came in; but after they had told
their story, he seemed satisfied, and said no
more about it. He knew his boys would
not tell a lie, and he thought they were
honest in heart as well as in tongue, and did
not think of such a thing as their artfully
putting together a story, true in all its parts,
and yet false in the whole. So he believed
them, and by and by, when they went into



the house, their mother said,'Well, it seems
the boys have staid again, when sent on an
errand; and he answered, 'Yes; but this
time they appear to have a good excuse.'
So the boys saw that their plan succeeded."
"And so they did not get punished?"
said Rollo.
"Yes, they did get punished."
"How? said Rollo.
By the wretched feelings they endured
for a long time in thinking that they had
not only disobeyed their father, but had
abused the confidence he placed in their
honesty, and ungratefully and wickedly
deceived him. Suppose you had done so,
don't you think you would suffer more from
thinking of it, than from any punishment
your father would have been likely to have
inflicted ? "
Why, yes," said Rollo.
"These boys did. They could not help
thinking of it, and they felt very wretched
about it for a long time. They determined
that they would never be guilty of prevari-
cation again, for it seemed to them just as
bad as lying."
"I mean to ask my father if it was," said


Rollo, "now; so whip up, Jonas, and let us
overtake him."
The carryall was at this time a quarter
of a mile ahead of the wagon, and Jonas, at
Rollo's request, drove on to overtake it. The
back curtain of the carryall was up, and
Rollo's mother, who happened to hear the
wagon wheels behind them, looked back,
and saw Rollo waving his hat for them to
stop. His father accordingly drew up by
the side of the road, and Rollo asked him to
let him and Lucy get into the carryall, for
he wished to ask him a question.
After they were seated, Rollo related the
story to his father, as Jonas had told it to
him; and then, in conclusion, he asked his
father if he thought prevarication was just
as bad as lying. Lucy thinks it is," said he.
"What does Jonas say ? said his father.
"He won't tell us what he thinks: he
says we must ask you."
"Lucy," said Rollo's father, "do you
mean that you think it is fully as bad as
direct lying, or only nearly so ? "
Why, I think it is fully as bad; it seems
to me it is just the same thing."
"It is much the same thing, in its nature,



I admit; but yet suppose those boys had
come home, and had said directly that the
other boys took away the halter from them
forcibly, notwithstanding all they could do
to prevent it, immediately after they had got
to the house, -thus had told a deliberate
and positive lie, would not that have been a
little worse ? "
Why, yes, sir," said Lucy; "it would
have been, certainly."
I think it would have been a little worse,
myself. But prevarication is a very great
sin, and must make any one miserable who
is guilty of it; and yet, wicked as it is,
wilful and deliberate lying is one step be-
yond it, in the career of depravity."



A SHORT time after that story was finished,
the whole party arrived at a small village, and
stopped at a pleasant-looking tavern, where
they were going to have dinner. Rollo
went out into the stable with Jonas to see
them take care of the horses. The stable was
on the other side of the street, and as Rollo
walked across he looked up. and down, and
saw that it was a very pretty village, though
it was very small. There was but one street;
but that had pleasant houses on each side.
There was one store at a little distance, with
POST-OFFICE, in large letters over one of
the windows. Opposite the store was a
singular-looking building, in appearance be-
tween a meeting-house and a school-house.
It had a small cupola on the top, with a bell
in it. Rollo asked Jonas what it was; and
Jonas said he thought it might be an academy.
When they got into the barn, the ostler
took the horses out of their harness, and led


them to a great tub, nearly full of water,
which stood there. He then took down a
great sponge, almost as big as Rollo's head,
and began washing down one of the horse's
legs and breast.
"Is his breast tender ?" said Jonas.
"No," said the man, feeling of the flesh on
each side, where the collar pressed upon it;
no, it seems perfectly well. You must have
taken good care of these horses, if you have
travelled far."
"I've watched them pretty closely," said
Jonas. This is a pleasant village of yours
Why, it is not much of a place," said the
ostler, taking up another great sponge full
of water out of the tub; but it is a shire
town, and that brings us a little business in
court time."
O, then that building with the cupola is
the court-house ? "
Yes," said the ostler; "did not you see
the jail beyond it ?"
"No," said Jonas, "I did not observe it.
Is court sitting now ?"
"No, it rose last week," said the ostler.
In a short time the horses were both


washed and put into their places, and well
supplied with hay and oats. Jonas asked
Rollo if he should like to walk over and see
the court-house while they were getting
dinner ready. Rollo said 'yes,' of course,
and after obtaining his father's leave, they
went along.
"What is a shire town, Jonas?" said
It is a county town; that is, the one that
has the court-house of the county in it,"
said Jonas.
"I should not think this town was big
enough to have a court-house," replied
Rollo. I have seen a good many bigger
towns than this, that had no court-house."
The court-house does not belong to the
town," said Jonas; "it belongs to th6
County! said Rollo; "what is a
county ? "
It is a good many towns united together,
and they have one court for all."
"Which town do they have the court
in ? said Rollo.
"In some one near the middle, where
they can all come conveniently; so that it


very often happens that there are other towns
in the county larger than the one which has
the court-house in it."
"What do they do in a court-house ?"
said Rollo.
"0, they try criminals, and they settle
disputes about land and money, and debts,
and all other disputes; and they keep a reg-
ular account of various things, such as all
the land that is sold, and all the wills, and
attend to making roads through the county,
and all such things. They have a jail near
to keep the prisoners safe in."
Just then they came pretty near to the
court-house, and they saw a small stone
building behind it, with grated windows.
At one of the windows Rollo thought he
saw something moving, behind the grating.
It was rather dark in there, and they could
not see very well at first; but, on looking
more attentively, they saw it was the face
of a man. He looked haggard and fierce,
with bushy hair and rough beard; after
looking out a minute or two, he disappeared.
"Perhaps he is a murderer," said Rollo,
looking alarmed.
"No," said Jonas, "I don't think there



have been any murders committed here for
a long time; -but he may be a thief, wait-
ing for his trial; or perhaps he is tried and
condemned, and is shut up there for pun-
The boys walked on, and entered the
court-house, the front door being open.
They found themselves, when they had
entered, in a large entry, with several doors
on each side, leading to the several rooms,
and a large staircase in front. Over one
of the doors was a sign in large letters,
REGISTER OF DEEDS; over another, PRO-
BATE OFFICE; and there was a third,
with COUNTY COMMISSIONERS over it. Rollo
asked Jonas what these all meant; but Jonas
'said he did not understand very well.
I never was in a court-house but once
before," said Jonas, "and I do not under-
stand county business very well; but let us
go up stairs."
Will they let us ? said Rollo, timidly,
and hanging back.
Yes," said Jonas, "I guess so: at any
rate we will try."
Rollo, seeing that Jonas was going up,
boldly concluded to follow. The flight of



stairs turned at right angles once or twice,
and then conducted them to a landing where
there was a large double door.
This is the court-room, I suppose," said
Jonas, taking hold of the latch of the door.
But he could not open it; it was locked.
The boys peeped through the key-hole,
and saw a sort of low, long pulpit at the
opposite end. In front of the pulpit was a
desk, with a seat behind it.
O, what a long pulpit!" said Rollo.
"Pulpit! said Jonas; "that is not the
pulpit. That is the bench, where the judges
"Is it ?" said Rollo; and what is that
desk before it? "
That is where the clerks sit, and write
down every thing that is done in court."
"Do they ? said Rollo; "what, every
thing ?"
Pretty much, I believe," said Jonas.
Rollo could see some seats in the middle
of the floor of the court-house, through the
key-hole; but he could not see at all, at the
sides, the key-hole was so small. Presently,
Jonas proposed that they should go up
another flight of stairs still, for there was


one leading to the story above. They did
so, and here they found a door which Jonas
opened, and he and Rollo walked in, and
found themselves in a little gallery of the
court-room, from which they could look
down upon the whole floor. They could
see the bench, and the desks, and the seats
for the lawyers in -front. These lawyers'
seats occupied almost the whole of the
middle of the court-room, and all of them
had little desks before them. Behind these
lawyers' seats was a curious-looking sort of a
pew, with iron pickets all around the top of
it. Jonas said that was called the bar, where
they put the criminals when they were tried,
and that a man with a long pole stood at the
door of the pew, whenever prisoners were
there, to keep them from getting away.
Rollo found four more pews, as he called
them, in looking around the room. Two
were on each side, opposite to the lawyers'
desks, back against the wall. There was
an aisle between them and the lawyers' seats.
They fronted in, towards the middle of the
room, so that those who sat in them would
face the lawyers, and almost face the judge.


Rollo asked what these were for, and Jonas
told him for the jury.
"What do the jury do ?" said Rollo.
O, they hear the evidence, and decide
whether the man is guilty or not."
"But I thought the judge decided," said
"No, the judge decides about the law,
and he sees that the poor criminal has a fair
trial; but the jury decide whether he is guilty
or innocent. There are twelve men in a
jury. One jury sits in the seats on one side,
and the other on the other."
What do they want two juries for?"
said Rollo.
Why, while one has gone out to consider
one case, and decide it, the judge and the
lawyers can be going on with another."
But the new jury might take the same
"No," said Jonas, "it is more convenient
to have other seats, and then they can be
getting together before the others go out."
Here the boys paused, and looked around
for some time ; and at length Rollo espied a
little platform near the jury seats, one on
each side, with a sort of railing in front of


it, as if for a person to lean upon. Jonas told
him that was the stand where the witnesses
stood while they were telling their stories.
"How curious it is! said Rollo. I
should like to hear a court."
1" Hear a trial, you mean," said Jonas. I
did, once."
Did you ? "said Rollo. "Tell me about it."
Not now," said Jonas; "it is time for
us to go home; but perhaps I will this after-
noon, in the wagon."
Well," said Rollo, "that will be capital;
and I will tell Lucy all about the court-room
beforehand, and then she will understand the
story better."
When they got back to the tavern, Rollo,
finding that dinner was not quite ready,
took Lucy to the window, and showed her
the court-house; and then he explained to
her all about the arrangement of the interior
of the court-room. He made a drawing
upon a piece of paper, and marked down
the judges' bench, the clerk's desk, the law-
yers' seats, the jury seats, and the stand -
all in their proper places. Lucy was very
glad that Jonas was going to tell them a
story of a trial that afternoon.




"ONE day, as I was travelling through the
country with a horse and wagon of your
father's, Rollo, it was this very wagon, but
another horse, -I found the horse went
lame a little, about the middle of the fore-
noon. I drove on carefully, until I came to
a blacksmith's shop, by the side of the road.
The blacksmith examined the horse's foot,
and said it was nothing but some gravel that
had got under his shoe. So he took off the
shoe, and put it on again, and I drove on.
The horse went very well for an hour or
two, but then began to go lame again, and
his lameness increased very fast, until I
arrived at a pretty large village, where I
expected to stop to dinner.
I drove directly to a blacksmith's shop in
the village. It was quite a large shop, and
the master blacksmith seemed to be a very
good workman. He looked at my horse's
foot, and said the shoe was not put on


properly, but that he could easily fix it.
He told me, however, that the foot was quite
tender in one place, and that I had better
not drive him any farther that day, but let
him rest until the next morning.
I was in haste to get home; but still I
knew it was wrong to run the risk of doing
injury to the horse, and so I concluded to
wait there until the next day. I accord-
ingly drove to the tavern, put up the wagon,
and then led the horse back to the black-
smith's, and left him there. When I returned
to the tavern, I asked them what time they
should have dinner. They told me, 'Imme-
diately after the court rises.' What court ? '
said I. 'I don't know,' said the girl who
was telling me; 'it is the court that sits
in this place, every now and then.' I asked
her where the court-house was, and she
pointed out to me a building with a cupola
upon it, in a little square among some trees
across a little common, opposite to the
tavern door.
I sat down on a small bench under the
piazza before the front door, watching the
court-house. I saw people standing about
the doors, and sometimes one going in or



coming out; but before long a great crowd
came pouring out together, and so I knew
the court had risen. The people went
away in different directions, though a con-
siderable number of them came across the
common, towards the tavern. At the same
time I heard a bustle in the house behind
me, and looking in at the entry, I saw them
carrying in the dinner, and going busily to
and fro.
A minute or two after these people
reached the house, a bell rang in the entry,
and we all went in to dinner. The dinner-
table was very long. I never saw such a
long dinner-table. It reached through two
rooms, with great double doors between
them, which were opened-so as to throw the
two rooms into one. I went in with the rest,
and took my seat. As I did not know any
body there, I did not talk much, but listened
to hear what the rest said. I could not
understand very well what they were talk-
ing about all the time; but just before the
dinner was ended, one man opposite to me
asked another man, whom he called Mr.
Sparr, whether there was not a criminal case
coming on that afternoon. Mr. Sparr said


there was a man to be tried for stealing, he
believed. They talked a little more about
it, and I wanted very much to go and hear
the trial; but I did not know whether they
would let me in.
"After dinner, I saw the man who said
there was going to be a trial, standing at the
door, and I asked him if any body might go
and hear the trial. 0, yes,' said he, 'you can
go if you wish to.' I then asked him what
it was that the man stole. He laughed, and
said that he did not know that he stole any
thing, but he believed he was accused of
stealing some spoons."
What did he laugh for ?" said Rollo.
Why, I suppose, because I spoke as if
the man was certainly guilty, when he had
not been tried. I asked him how soon the
court would begin, and he said in about half
an hour.
1 I then went over to see how the black-
smith was getting along with my horse. I
found him ready, and led him back to the
stable. Just as I had seen him comfortably
fixed there, with his oats and his hay before
him, I heard a bell tolling in a very curious



How ? interrupted Rollo.
"0, it went ding-ding-ding-ding-ding-
ding, almost as fast as it could go. I ran
out to see what was the matter, and found
all the people going to court. I followed on.
We went across the common, and thence into
the court-house. I went in with the rest,
and stood near the door. After the judges,
and the clerks, and the lawyers were all
seated, and the room was pretty still, the
judge ordered the prisoner to be brought in.
Then the sheriff went out for him. The
sheriff had a stout, painted pole in his hands,
and he had a little box or pew, where he sat
near the prisoner, when he had brought him
in, and put him at the bar."
"Is that the sheriff's business ?" said Rollo.
"Yes," replied Jonas. He has the care
of the prisoners, and brings them in, and
takes them out; and he keeps order in the
court, and does other things which the judge
wants to have done. The sheriff went out,
and presently came in at a side door with
the prisoner. He put him to the bar, and
then took his own place.
"The prisoner was a poor-looking man;
his name was Eben Daniell, and I thought


he looked guilty before they began to try
him. However, they began soon; for pres-
ently a man, who sat pretty near the judge,
rose and read the indictment."
The indictment said Lucy; what is
that ?"
"That is the accusation. It was quite a
long paper, accusing the man of breaking
into a house, and stealing six silver spoons."
Did he ?-break into a house!" said
Rollo, in a tone of surprise.
That was what he was accused of doing,
in the indictment."
"How did you know they called it an
indictment? asked Lucy.
O, I didn't know then. I asked a man
in the evening, at the tavern, and he told me
all about it, and so a good many things which
I shall explain to you, as I go along, I did
not understand exactly, when I was in the
court, but learned about them afterwards."
SVery well," said Rollo, go on."
"After the indictment was read, a lawyer,
who was sitting at one of the desks before
the judge, got up, and began to tell what the
criminal had done. He said he stole the
spoons, and carried them into another town



to sell, and that he was going to prove it ah
by witnesses."
Who was he ? asked Lucy; and what
had he to do with it ? "
He was the state's attorney. You see
the government of the state choose a lawyer
to accuse criminals, and have them tried in
the courts, and then they find the witnesses,
and have them brought into court, and ask
them questions, so as to show the jury what
the man has done; and this man is called
the state's attorney. So, you see, he first got
up and told the jury what his witnesses were
going to prove.
After he had done, the judge told him
to bring his witnesses on, and he said his
first witness was Richard Stone. So a cer-
tain officer of the court called Richard Stone,
and a man came forward and took his place
on the witness's stand. Before he began,
the judge asked who was counsel for the
prisoner, and as the prisoner had none, the
judge appointed one for him."
What was that for ? asked Rollo.
"Why, common men don't understand
courts, and would not know how to defend
themselves if they were accused there


unjustly. So they generally get a law-
yer, who knows all about it, to manage
their cause for them. The lawyer they em-
ploy is called their counsel. And when
they are poor, and cannot employ a lawyer,
or are so ignorant that they don't know
any thing about it, the judge appoints some
one there to be their counsel. So the judge
appointed a counsel for the prisoner this time."
What was his name ?"
Mr. Sparr," said Jonas.
"L What, the same man that you saw at
the tavern ?"
Yes," said Jonas, "the very same man.
I forgot to tell you that I saw him sitting
among the lawyers. When he came in, he
found me standing near the door, and he
showed me where I might sit. It was a
little behind the prisoner, a very good place,
where I could see and hear very well. But
it seems to me, now, that the judge appointed
him before, when the trial first began. And
then Mr. Sparr came to the prisoner, and
talked with him a little while in a low voice,
and then sent somebody out. I did not
know what for till afterwards.
Now, you see, it was the duty of the



state's attorney tq bring forward every thing
that went to prove the prisoner guilty, and it
was Mr. Sparr's duty to show all the evi-
dence there was that he was innocent, and
then the jury were to judge between them.
Well, as I was saying, Mr. Richard Stone
was the first man that was called. The
state's attorney asked him to tell the jury
about his house being broken open. So he
told his story, and it was this: He said
that Eben Daniell, the prisoner, lived in his
neighborhood, and had been at his house
one day the last winter to saw wood.
'The next day,' said he, 'I was going out
of town with my whole family, to take a
sleigh-ride, and so I shut up the house, fast-
ening all the windows, and locking all the
doors. When we came home in the even-
ing of the next day, and had built a fire, my
wife went into the parlor-closet, and called
out to me to say that the window was brok-
en. I went in, and saw that a pane of glass
was broken, and very near the place where
the window was fastened. I saw also that
the fastening was taken out, and so I sus-
pected that somebody had been breaking in.
I told her to look around, and see if she


missed any thing. She immediately looked
for her spoons, and cried out that they were
all gone, -every one of them. I imme-
diately suspected Daniell, and, in fact, the
next morning Captain James told me' -
Here Mr. Sparr suddenly called upon Mr.
Stone, the Witness, to stop. He said he must
not tell what he heard other people say."
"Why not?" said Lucy.
Because they don't allow a witness to
tell what he heard other people say, in
"I don't see why," said Lucy.
"Why, there are so many false stories
told, that they could not tell what to be-
lieve; so they make each man come into
court, and tell what he himself saw, and
then he can be cross-examined."
"What does that mean ?" said Rollo.
"Why, have questions asked him by the
other side, to find out whether he is honest
and fair. When the lawyer that brings a
witness forward has done asking him ques-
tions, they always let the lawyer on the
other side ask him questions too, to see
whether he will not contradict himself, or
else to get more information."



Did they cross-examine Mr. Richard
Stone? "
"Yes," said Jonas. "After he had done
telling his story, the judge said that Mr.
Sparr might ask him any questions he
wished to ask; and he asked him how his
window was fastened, and he said, by a nail
put into a hole over the top of it. Then he
asked him if he was positively sure that he
put the nail into that window the morning
before he went away, and he said he was;
he was particular to fasten that closet win-
dow, for all his wife's silver spoons were in
that closet.
Then Mr. Richard Stone stepped down
from the stand, and walked away."
I wish they had let him tell what Cap-
tain James said," said Rollo.
You will hear presently," said Jonas,
for Captain James was the next witness
called. You see it is a great deal better to
have him come himself upon the stand, and
tell his own story there, for then they get it
more direct, and they also can question him
very closely about it, if it is necessary. So
Captain James took his place upon the stand,

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