Front Cover
 Front Cover
 Title Page
 List of Illustrations
 Class Mammalia
 Class Aves
 Class Reptilia
 Class Insecta
 Class Annelida
 Class Mollusca
 Back Cover

Group Title: Popular Scripture zoology : containing a familiar history of the animals mentioned in the Bible
Title: Popular Scripture zoology
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00001952/00001
 Material Information
Title: Popular Scripture zoology containing a familiar history of the animals mentioned in the Bible
Physical Description: 360, 8 p. <16> leaves of plates : col. ill. ; 17 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Catlow, Maria E
Taylor, John Edward, fl. 1840-1855 ( Printer )
Westleys & Co ( Binder )
Reeve and Co ( Publisher )
Publisher: Reeve and Co.
Place of Publication: London
Manufacturer: John Edward Taylor
Publication Date: 1852
Subject: Animals in the Bible -- Juvenile literature   ( lcsh )
Zoology -- Juvenile literature   ( lcsh )
Pictorial cloth bindings (Binding) -- 1852   ( rbbin )
Westleys & Co -- Binders' tickets (Binding) -- 1852   ( rbbin )
Mullens -- Armorial bookplates (Provenance) -- 1852   ( rbprov )
Publishers' catalogues -- 1852   ( rbgenr )
Hand-colored illustrations -- 1852   ( local )
Bldn -- 1852
Genre: Pictorial cloth bindings (Binding)   ( rbbin )
Binders' tickets (Binding)   ( rbbin )
Armorial bookplates (Provenance)   ( rbprov )
Publishers' catalogues   ( rbgenr )
Hand-colored illustrations   ( local )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
Spatial Coverage: England -- London
Statement of Responsibility: by Maria E. Catlow.
General Note: Publisher's catalogue follows text.
General Note: Illustrations are hand-colored.
Funding: Brittle Books Program
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00001952
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: aleph - 002223524
oclc - 04961345
notis - ALG3773
lccn - a 18001136

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front cover 1
    Front Cover
        Front cover 2
        Frontispiece 3
    Title Page
        Title page 4
        Title page 5
        Dedication 6
        Page v
        Page vi
        Page vii
        Page viii
        Page ix
        Page x
        Page xi
        Page xii
        Page xiii
        Page xiv
    List of Illustrations
        Page xv
        Page xvi
        Page 1
        Page 2
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
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        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
    Class Mammalia
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
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        Page 40a
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        Page 118a
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        Page 128a
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        Page 152
        Page 153
        Page 154
        Page 155
        Page 156
        Page 156a
    Class Aves
        Page 157
        Page 158
        Page 159
        Page 160
        Page 161
        Page 162
        Page 163
        Page 164
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        Page 198a
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        Page 230
        Page 231
        Page 232
        Page 233
        Page 234
        Page 235
        Page 236
    Class Reptilia
        Page 237
        Page 238
        Page 239
        Page 240
        Page 241
        Page 242
        Page 242a
        Page 243
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        Page 255
        Page 256
        Page 257
        Page 258
        Page 259
        Page 260
        Page 261
    Class Insecta
        Page 262
        Page 263
        Page 264
        Page 265
        Page 266
        Page 267
        Page 268
        Page 269
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        Page 313
        Page 314
        Page 315
        Page 316
        Page 317
    Class Annelida
        Page 318
        Page 319
    Class Mollusca
        Page 320
        Page 321
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        Page 323
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        Advertising page 1
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    Back Cover
        Back cover 1
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Full Text


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THE little work now offered to the attention of the young
Biblical student, has been undertaken in the hope of ren-
dering some assistance in the elucidation of one, and not
the least interesting, branch of the Natural History of the
Scriptures. Leaving difficult points of doctrine to the
theologian; critical research into antiquities, manners,
customs, and history, to the antiquary and historian; there
is still abundant interest and instruction to be found, in
the too-often neglected field of Natural History, opened to
our view in the pages of the Bible;-the history of those
animated beings, which were created by the same Almighty
hand as ourselves, and are the objects of the same Al-
mighty care; with inferior powers indeed to those of man,


but equalling, and even surpassing him, in some of his
most boasted endowments: in quickness of sight, as in
the eagle; in swiftness, as in the antelope; and in keenness
of scent and hearing. In constructive power, too, what
architect, after a life of toil and study, can surpass the bee
and the ant, in the perfect adaptation of their edifices
to the wants and the comfort of their inhabitants, or the
beauty and regularity of their structures? Surely, then, if
our Heavenly Father has not disdained to bestow on the
inferior animals, faculties so worthy of our admiration, we
ought not to neglect or despise the study of so large a
part of His creation. That the observation of the works
of Nature was not neglected by the prophets, poets, and
historians, whose writings form the Scriptures, almost
every page of those interesting and valuable records amply
testifies; the allusions are numberless, and, for the most
part, not only eminently beautiful and poetical, but correct
and graphic in the highest degree.
The book of Psalms and that of Job are replete with


imagery derived from animated nature; and the writers of
the New Testament draw abundantly from the same source.
This familiarity with the wild inhabitants of the forest and
the desert, as well as with the more domesticated tribes,
may be easily accounted for, by the wandering life, and the
simple, pastoral habits of the Eastern nations of antiquity,
which would naturally bring them into frequent contact
with animals, forming either objects of the chase, or the
chief sources of their wealth and distinction. Nor do the
Scriptures alone, testify to the knowledge of the ancients
on this interesting subject; the painting and sculpture of
Egypt, the emblematical and other remains from Nineveh
and Babylon, show, not only that the outward forms of
various animals were well known, but that the distinguish-
ing characteristics bestowed on them by their Creator were
highly and correctly appreciated. Amongst the various
animals delineated in the Nimroud sculptures, are the
Indian elephant, rhinoceros, lion, tiger, wild boar, Bactrian
or two-humped camel, antelope, ibex or mountain goat,


fallow deer, horse, monkey, ape, eagle, ostrich, and many
birds, crabs, turtles, and fish of various kinds; cattle of
two species "being distinguished in the sculpture by
horns curved towards the back of the head, and horns
projecting in front;" also a "wild ox, once inhabiting the
Assyrian plains, and long since extinct, as neither tradi-
tion nor history records its existence in this part of Asia.
It is distinguished from the domestic ox by a number of
mall marks covering the body, and apparently intended
to denote long and shaggy hair*." The oryx, supposed to
be the wild ox of Deuteronomy xiv., is white, spotted with
yellow and red. The sheep also appear to have been of
two species: that with the broad tail, referred to in Leviticus
ix., is still found in the country.
The emblematic figures in these most interesting and valu-
able remains are thus described by Layard, and illustrate in a
remarkable manner several passages in the Scriptures, par-
ticularly in Ezekiel. The eagle or vulture-headed figures,
Lyard's 'Nineveh.'


which probably typified, by their mythic form, the union
of certain divine attributes, may perhaps be identified with
the god Nisroch, in whose temple Sennacherib was slain by
his sons, after his return from his unsuccessful expedition
against Jerusalem; the word Nier signifying in all Semitic
languages an eagle." The form of this deity was conjec-
tured to be an eagle, long before the discovery of the As-
syrian sculptures. "The winged, human-headed lions were
types, to embody the conception of the wisdom, power,
and ubiquity of the Supreme Being: they could find no
better type of intellect and knowledge than the head of the
man; of strength, than the body of the lion; of ubiquity,
than the wings of a bird. These winged human-headed
lions were not idle creations, the offspring of mere fancy;
their history was written upon them, they had awed and in-
structed races, three thousand years ago."
The human-headed and eagle-winged bull evidently
bears some analogy to the Egyptian Sphynx, and is sup.
posed, like the lion, to be typical of the union of physical


strength with intellectual power, the addition of the wings
denoting swiftness or ubiquity. The sphynx is always
represented in a sitting posture; the Nimroud bull, on the
contrary, is figured standing. "A human figure with the
wings and tail of a bird, enclosed in a circle, is the type of
Ormuzd, the great God of the Zoroastrian system."
"The thrones or arm-chairs supported by animals and
human figures, resemble those of the ancient Egyptians.
They also remind us of the throne of Solomon, which had
'stays (or arms) on either side, on the place of the seat, and
two lions stood beside the stays, and twelve lions stood
there, on the one side and on the other, upon the six steps.'"
The prophet Ezekiel, who had beheld the Assyrian sculp-
tures, when seeking to typify certain divine attributes, chose
the forms that were not only familiar to himself, but to
those whom he addressed. "He chose the four living
creatures, with four faces, four wings, and the hands of a
man under their wings on four side&, the faces being those
of a man, a lion, an ox, and an eagle-the four creatures


continually introduced on the sculptured walls; and by them
was a wheel, the appearance of which 'was as a wheel
in the middle of a wheel' (Ezekiel i.) May not this wheel
have been the winged circle or globe, which, hovering
above the heads of the kings, typifies the Supreme Deity
of the Assyrians P"
Compare these descriptions with the following lines, in
Mr. Salt's account of the imagery on the walls of the Egyp-
tian temples:-

And of such mystic fancies, in the range
Of those deep cavern'd sepulchres are found
The wildest images, unheard of, strange,
Striking, uncouth, odd, picturesque, profound,
That ever puzzled antiquarian's brain;
Prisoners of different nations, bound and slain,
Genii with heads of birds, hawks, ibis, drakes,
Of lions, foxes, cat, fish, frogs, and snakes,
Bulls, rams, and monkeys, hippopotami,
With knife in paw, suspended from the sky;
Vast scarabeei, globes by hands upheld,
From chaos springing, 'mid an endless field
Of forms grotesque-the sphynx, the crocodile,
And other reptiles from the slime of Nile."


And also with the passage in Ezekiel viii., describing the
"chambers of imagery" at Jerusalem, in which the Jews
had imitated their neighbours, the Egyptians and Baby-
lonians :-" So I went in and saw, and behold every form
of creeping things, and abominable beasts, and all the idols
of the house of Israel, portrayed upon the wall."
"I have already," continues Mr. Layard, "described my
feelings, when gazing for the first time on these majestic
figures. Those of the reader would probably be the same,
particularly if caused by the reflection that, before these
wonderful forms, Ezekiel, Jonah, and others of the pro-
phets stood, and Sennacherib bowed; and that even the
patriarch Abraham may possibly have looked upon them."
These brief extracts will suffice to show the interesting
nature of the discoveries made; and for further information
the student is referred to the valuable work from which
they are gleaned, which will amply repay an attentive
Considering it, then, an established point, that the study


of the Natural History of the Sacred Writings tends to
throw much light on the character of the people who are
there brought under our notice; that such study, earnestly
and lovingly engaged in, strengthens our belief in the ex-
istence of God, and in His goodness and wisdom, which
adapted each animal, from man to the minutest insect, to
fill the place they occupy, the author hopes this unpretend-
ing volume may, by calling the attention of the young
readers of the Bible to this subject, add, in a slight degree,
to the interest of their studies, assisting them in forming a
more accurate knowledge of the animals there mentioned,
and thus paving the way to the study of Nature, and,
consequently, of Nature's God, in a more extended form.
Notwithstanding the research bestowed on this subject by
many able and learned men, there is still much uncertainty
with regard to some of the species mentioned, and, doubt-
less, some errors, arising from the vagueness of the allu-
sions, or the ignorance of translators; but these are of
minor importance, and do not detract materially from the


interest of the study. The author has availed herself of
the aid given by the notes of the 'Pictorial Bible,' which
throw so great and valuable a light on the subjects which
they illustrate, and has endeavoured to simplify the infor.
mation given, so as to adapt it to the general reader, and
interest not the naturalist alone, but those who have yet to
learn that,
"Wondertil, indeed, are His works:
Pleasant to know, and worthiest to be all
Had in remembrane, always with delight."


Syrian Bear, Prov. xvii. 1S
Jackal, Judges xv. 4 ....
Jerboa, Iaaiah Jxvi. 17 ..
Coney, Proerbs xxx. 26..
Hippopotamus, Job xl. 15 .
Rhinoceros, Deut. xxxiii. 17

Syrian Wild Boar, Psalm
lxx 18 ............
Camel, Genesis xii. 16 ...
Wild Ass, Job xxxix. 5 ..



Wild Ox, Isaiah li. 90 ...
Syrian Ox, Genesi xii...
Wild Goats, Deut. xiv. 5,
1 &amel xxiv. ......

74 Giraffe, Det. xiv. 5...... 119
79 Gazelle, Palm xlii. 1.... 118
Asiatic Sheep, Geesis iv. 2 138
81 PLAT X.
Bearded Vulture, Jo xxxix. 157
106 Osprey, Leitiwu xi. 18 .. 164
97 GriffonVulture,Joxxviii.7 159


Barn Owl, Leviticus xi. 17 168
Screech Owl, Isa. xxxiv. 14 172
Quails, Eodus xvi. 18... 198
Oriental Partridges, ere-
mia xvii. 11 ........ 195
Syrian Dove, Geesei viii. 8 200
Hoopoe, Leviicus xi. 19.. 855

Stork, Leiicus xi. 19.... 218
Crane, Jremia viii. 7.... 211
Ostrich, Job xxxix. 18.... 908

Cormorant, Leritici xi. 17 229
Ibis, Levitics xi. 17 .... 222
Pelican, Palm cii. 6 .... 224
Lizards, Leitius xi. 80 .. 243




THOUGH the intention of this little volume is merely to give
an account of such members of the animal kingdom as are
mentioned in the Sacred Writings, together with interesting
facts relative to their localities, the habits of the genera to
which they belong, and the various uses to which they
were applied, particularly by the Hebrews; it is considered
that the work will be rendered far more useful to the
student, as well as more interesting to the general reader,
by being arranged in a somewhat scientific manner; by
having a concise generic description of the various animals,
and by the introduction (more particularly where the species
is doubtful) of two or more species, in order to supply a


greater amount of instruction relative to the habits and
peculiarities of the genus.
Our knowledge of Biblical Zoology is, and must remain
in a great degree, uncertain and imperfect; the references
being in most cases so vague, as to render it impossible
to define the species alluded to, and sometimes even the
genus is involved in the same degree of obscurity. Very
little light is thrown on the subject by modern travellers in
the Holy Land, as the wilder animals, it is said, have mostly
disappeared from Palestine. Hasselquist, a pupil of Lin-
neus, who visited the Holy Land in 1750, mentions, as the
only animals he saw, the porcupine, the jackal, the fox, the
rock goat, and the fallow deer. Captain Mangles describes
an animal of the goat species, "as large as an ass, with long,
knotty, upright horns; some specimens bearded, and their
colour resembling that of the gazelle." The former writer
also enumerates the following birds as coming under his
own observation:-" Two species of vulture, one seen near
Jerusalem, the other near Cana of Galilee; the falcon near
Nazareth; the jackdaw in great numbers in the oak woods
of Galilee; the bee-catcher in the groves and plains
between Acra and Nazareth; the nightingale among the
willows of the Jordan and the olive-trees of Judea; the


field lark everywhere; the goldfinch in the gardens near
Nazareth; the red partridge and other species; the quail,
the turtle-dove, and ring-dove; wild geese, ducks, widgeons,
snipes, and water-fowl of every description abound in some
situations. The Holy Land is at present infested with
lizards, different kinds of serpents, vipers, scorpions, and
various insects; flies of many species are extremely annoy-
ing; and ants are so numerous in some parts, that one
traveller describes the road to Jaffa, from El Arisch, as, for
three days' journey, one continued ant-hill."*
It would be, however, as unnecessary to look for, as im-
possible to find, even one-half of the animals named in the
Scriptures, in Palestine, or its immediate vicinity. Very
many were brought into the country either for domestic
use, or, in the case of Solomon, as objects of enlightened
curiosity, ornament, and luxury; others are expressly de-
scribed as the productions of foreign lands; and many would
be familiar to the Jews from their residence in Egypt and
their captivity in Babylon, thereby furnishing that poetical
people with the variety of similes with which their figura-
tive language so abounds, and accounting for the numerous
animals mentioned. Thus, speaking of the desolation of
Modern Traveller-Palestine.


Babylon, the prophet says, it has become a possession for
the bittern and the wild ass of the desert;" and Job, speak.
ing of the wicked man, compares his house to that of the
moth, and his meat to the gall of asp*. The lion affords
abundance of metaphors; and no one can read without ad-
miration the magnificent description of the war-horse in the
book of Job, or that of the leviathan, the latter of which,
is an example of the difficulty that exists in identifying
many of the animals alluded to. All the writings of the
Old Testament abound in allusions to animal life, showing
a knowledge of the habits and peculiarities of the crea-
tures named, such as is only acquired by accurate and
close observation. Solomon is said to have spoken "of
beasts, of creeping things, and of fishes." His Proverbs
are replete with proofs of the wise king's knowledge of, and
delight in, the inferior animals, and he constantly presents
them as examples of good, or as types of bad qualities; for
warning and for reproof. "Look not upon the wine when
it is red:" "it biteth like a serpent and stingeth like an
adder." "Riches make to themselves wings; they fly away
as an eagle towards heaven." "Let a bear robbed of her
whelps meet a man, rather than a fool in his folly." "Go
to the ant, thou sluggard; consider her ways and be wise."


David, in the Psalms, is almost equally profuse in his allu-
sions:-" I am like a pelican in the wilderness; I am like
an owl in the desert." "Yea, the sparrow hath found an
house, and the swallow a nest for herself, where she may
lay her young, even thine altars, 0 Lord of Hosts, my King
and my God."
Quotations might be multiplied from the book of Job,
from the Prophets, and, indeed, from every part of the Old
Testament, evincing the deep interest taken from the earliest
times in the living works of the Great Creator; and surely
the research into, and contemplation of, the beautiful, won-
derful, and ever-interesting pages of the book of Nature,
which has been so profusely and benevolently spread before
us, is an acceptable offering of our intellect to the Giver of
all things, and a pursuit tending more than any other, to
direct our minds and hearts to "Him in whom we live, and
move, and have our being."
The New Testament is by no means deficient in similar
indications, and our Saviour himself, in his discourses,
makes many, and frequently touching allusions to natural
objects, both animate and inanimate. "The foxes have
holes, and the birds of the air have nests, but the Son of
Man hath not where to lay his head." "I am the good


shepherd: the good shepherd giveth his life for the sheep;
but he that is an hireling, and not the shepherd, whose own
the sheep are not, seeth the wolf coming, and leaveth the
sheep and fleeth; and the wolf catcheth them, and scattereth
the sheep." Many more examples might be brought, but
these will amply suffice to show the frequency of the allu-
sions to, and the use made of, the animal kingdom by the
sacred writers, in the glowing imagery of their magnificent
poems, in their promises, and in their threatening.
Nor are the poets of profane antiquity behindhand in their
use of animated nature, for description and for metaphor,-
frequently, as will be seen in the following pages, assisting
greatly to throw a light on the obscurity of those passages
which have tasked the profoundest research.
Homer is particularly happy in illustrating his descriptive
passages by the aid of the habits of animals. Thus, he
compares a warrior, reluctantly leaving the field of battle, to
the king of beasts:-
"So turns the lion from the nightly fold,
Though high in courage, and with hunger bold;
Long gall'd by huntsmen, and long vex'd by hounds,
Stiff with fatigue, and fretted sore with wounds;
The darts ly round him from a hundred hands,
And the red terrors of the blazing brands;


Till late, reluctant, at the dawn of day,
Sour he departs, and quite th' untasted prey."
Here is almost the natural history of the animal in a few
lines. His nightly prowling, his courage undaunted by
hounds and huntsmen, only giving way under the attack
of fire, and, lastly, his retreat at the dawn of day, are all
admirably true to nature, and agree perfectly with the scat-
tered notices in Scripture. Again, he compares a proud
chief to an eagle:-
"As the bold bird, ended with sharpest eye
Of all that wing the mid aerial sky,
The sacred eagle, from his walks above,
Looks down, and sees the distant thicket move,
Then stoops, and sousing on the quivering hare,
Snatches his life amid the clouds of air."
And again:-
"So the strong eagle, from his airy height,
Who marks the swans' or cranes' embodied flight,
Stoops down impetuous while they light for food,
And, stooping, darkens with his wings the flood."
We may observe here that Homer calls the bird the
sacred eagle, elsewhere the bird of Jove; and it is interest-
ing to find that in Ezekiel this bird is used as a symbol of
sovereignty, the king of Egypt being described as a great
eagle with great wings and many feathers," and the monarch


of Babylon, under the image of "a great eagle with great
wings, long-winged, full of feathers, which had divers
colours." Job's description is almost identical with that
of the Greek poet: "Doth the eagle mount up at thy
command, and make her nest on high? She dwelleth and
abideth on the rock, upon the crag of the rock, and the
strong place. From thence she seeketh her prey, and her
eyes behold afar off."
Homer's description of the dove is a beautiful illustration
of the gentle bird so often used as a type in the Scriptures.
"The mast, which late a frst-rate galley bore,
The hero xes in the sandy shore;
To the tall top a milk-white dove they tie,
The trembling mark at which their arrow fly.

The dove, in aiiry cirle as she wheels,
Amid the clouds, the piercing arrow feels;
Quite thro' and thro' the point its passage found,
And at his feet fell bloody to the ground.
The wounded bird, ere yet she breathed her last,
With lagging wings alighted on the mast;
A moment hung, and spread her pinions there,
Then sudden dropped, and left her life in air."

Poets of all ages have celebrated the flight of the dove as
peculiarly graceful. Virgil says:-


"Her pinions poised, through liquid air she springs,
And smoothly glide, nor moves her levelled wing."
The Psalmist's beautiful aspiration will occur to every
mind: "Oh, that I had wings like a dove! for then would
I fly away, and be at rest."
Sculpture and painting also lend their aid, not only in
marking the estimation in which animals were held by the
ancients, but also throwing a light on many of the more
obscure allusions of the Scripture writers. From the an-
cient sculptures of Egypt we learn much of the manners of
these people, who were too closely connected with the
Hebrews, not to have imbued them with their customs.
And accordingly, these records form interesting commen-
taries on many expressions used in the Bible: for instance,
the chase was a favourite pastime among the Egyptians,
and from the monuments found in Upper Egypt it seems
that the animals of the desert were taken for the menagerie
as well as for food; for the traps are made with the greatest
care, to prevent the prey from being injured. The animals
are also represented as being led alive, quite as often as
carried after being slain, and the sportsmen use blunt
arrows, to stun, rather than kill; the hounds, too, are
taught to hold their prey without injury: in the preserves


may be recognized the wild goat, oryx, gazelle, hare, and
porcupine. It is evident that the Jewish monarchs had
adopted the custom of keeping beasts of chase, as well as
cattle, in enclosures; for we read that the daily provisions
for Solomon's household were "ten fat oxen, and twenty
oxen out of the pasture, and an hundred sheep, besides
harts, and roebucks, and fallow deer, and fatted fowl."
The antelope is frequently figured, and these graceful crea-
tures appear to have been great favourites with the Egyp-
tian ladies; the Egyptian princess, in Solomon's Song, is
accordingly represented making use of the following ex-
pression:-"I charge you, 0 ye daughters of Jerusalem,
by the roes and by the hinds of the field, that ye stir not
up, nor awake my love, till he please." Fowling was evi-
dently a favourite sport with the people of Egypt, as may
be gathered from numerous paintings: the birds were caught
with different kinds of nets; and how many allusions there
are to this practice in the Scriptures.-" For man also
knoweth not his time: as the fishes that are taken in an
evil net, and as the birds that are caught in the snare, so
are the sons of men, snared in an evil time, when it falleth
suddenly upon them." And again: "As a bird hasteth to
the snare, and knoweth not that it is for his life." The


prophet Hosea also refers to the timidity of the Egyptian
birds, caused by the prevalence of this amusement: "They
shall tremble as a bird out of Egypt, and a dove out of
Assyria." The only domestic birds found on the Egyptian
monuments are geese; the ostrich is frequently figured;
large herds of cattle are also very common, and the ox
was evidently used, as in Palestine, both for food and for
agricultural purposes.
The ruins of most ancient cities furnish their quota of
illustration to our subject, either presenting us with the
sculptured forms of the animals mentioned in Holy Writ,
or some representation of the uses to which they were ap-
plied, agreeing with and explaining the allusions; and these
are continually multiplying as fresh discoveries are made.
Nineveh and Babylon, Luxor, Thebes, and the more modern
Herculaneum, have all contributed to our knowledge, and
thrown new lights on the difficulties which beset the earnest
inquirer into the truths of Scripture.
The Natural History of the Bible may and will be con-
sidered by many as of minor importance; but is it really so,
when every animated being, from the highest to the most
insignificant, ought to be looked upon as a manifestation of
Divine Power, and a medium of that happiness which the


Creator has designed for all His creatures Do we honour
a painter, when despising, or looking with perfect indiffer-
ence on, his works Do we show our admiration of a
poet or a musician, by turning with apathy from the noble
thoughts of the one, and the sublime strains of the other?
Do we consider it sufficient to pay them a few unmeaning
compliments ? Assuredly not; we study their works, and
learn still more to admire the painter, the poet, and the mu-
sician. Study, then, the works of God, from the firmament
which showeth His handiwork, to the drop of water teeming
with the life He has bestowed, nor consider those creatures
unworthy of regard, which are honoured by the notice of the
wisest men of ancient times;-by David, the sweet Psalmist
of Israel; by Solomon, the wise king of the Hebrews; by
prophets, and by moralists, and, above all, by the great
teacher Jesus Christ, who illustrated His sublime and
beautiful Sermon on the Mount with allusions both to
animals and plants. "Give not that which is holy unto
the dogs, neither cast ye your pearls before swine." Be-
hold the fowls of the air; for they sow not, neither do they
reap, nor gather into barns; yet your heavenly Father
feedeth them." "Consider the lilies of the field, how they
grow; they toil not, neither do they spin; and yet I say


unto you, that even Solomon in all his glory was not
arrayed like one of these." The adoption, by our Saviour,
of the lamb as a type of Himself, and that of the dove for
the Spirit of God, are too well known to need comment;
but that of the Hind of the Morning," which is the title
of the pathetic and beautiful 22nd Psalm, so generally
supposed to be typical of Christ's sufferings, is not so com-
monly known, but is not improbably applied to him, as the
Arabian poets frequently gave to the un the name of the
gazelle; and the Sun of Righteousness" is a well-known
designation of Christ. Cowper probably had this in view
when writing those beautiful lines:-
"I was a stricken deer that left the herd
Long since. With many an arrow, deep inixed,
My panting side was charged, when I withdrew,
To seek a tranquil death in distant shades.
There I was found by one who had himself
Been hurt by the archer. In his side he bore,
And in his hands and feet, the cruel ear."
The animals noticed in the following pages are arranged
systematically, according to the modern classification, in
order to facilitate reference, and to give the reader a ge-
neral idea of the animal kingdom, from the highest class,
Mammalia, down to the Badiata, which make so near an


approach in their habits and formation to the vegetable
kingdom. These kingdoms were formerly considered so
completely separated from each other, as to preclude the
possibility of their being confounded together; but later
discoveries have proved that these apparently impassable
barriers were not raised by the hand of Nature, and that
there are connecting links so fine and delicate, as to render
very difficult the question of where each begins and ends.
Mr. Rymer Jones thus beautifully expresses this uncer-
tainty with regard to the animal and vegetable kingdoms:-
"Light and darkness are distinct from each other, and no
one possessed of eyesight would be in danger of con-
founding night with day; yet he who, looking upon the
evening sky, would attempt to point out precisely the line
of separation between the failing day and the approaching
night, would have a difficult task to perform. Thus it is
with the physiologist, who endeavours to draw the boundary
between these two great kingdoms of Nature; for so gra-
dually and imperceptibly do their confines blend, that it is
at present utterly out of his power to define exactly where
vegetable existence ceases and animal life begins."
In Maunder's 'Treasury of Natural History' (a most valu-
able assistant to the student) the animal kingdom is thus


described:-" The possession of a nervous system being
supposed to be indispensable to the power of motion, it
has been considered the distinguishing characteristic of the
animal kingdom; but in one division (Acrita, comprehend-
ing Polypes, Infusoria, Animalcules, Sponges, &c.) no traces
of nerves have hitherto been discovered. The best charac-
teristic of the animal kingdom is the possession of a mouth
or aperture, through which food is received, and a stomach
by which it is digested; and this would include all the
organized beings which have ever been considered by na-
turalists to belong to the animal kingdom, except the various
kinds of sponges."
No species of the large.and useful class Fishes (Pisces) is
mentioned in Scripture, though the references to fish and
fishing are by no means uncommon. In Exodus vii. it is
related, in speaking of the Nile, that "the fish that was in
the river died;" and there is great interest in this statement,
when it is known that fish formed a considerable part of the
subsistence of the Egyptians. They ate them either fresh,
salted, or dried in the sun. Diodorus says fish was a
great article of export, and that from the time of King
Meris many persons found occupation in salting the fish
caught in the lake made by that prince, and called by his


name. In the complaints made by the Israelites against
Moses in the desert, they particularly regret the fish of the
land of bondage: We remember the fish that we did eat
in Egypt freely." Isaiah also, when denouncing divine
vengeance upon the Egyptians, dwells strongly on the ruin
of those who subsisted on the fish and other productions of
the Nile:-" And the waters shall fail from the sea, and
the rivers shall be wasted and dried up. And they shall
turn the rivers far away; and the brooks of defence shall
be emptied and dried up; the reeds and flags shall wither.
The paper-reeds by the brooks, by the mouth of the brooks,
and everything sown by the brooks, shall wither, be driven
away, and be no more. The fishers also shall mourn, and
all they that cast angle into the brooks shall lament, and they
that spread nets upon the waters shall languish. Moreover,
they that work in fine flax, and they that weave net-works,
shall be confounded. And they shall be broken in the
purposes thereof, all that make sluices and ponds for fish."
Diodorus says, that twenty-two kinds of fish were found in
Lake Mceris.
From the representations of this subject on Egyptian
monuments, we gather, that the fishermen were of an in-
ferior class to the agricultural population, and this is con-


firmed by history. This was also the case in Palestine, and
hence the surprise evinced, when Christ selected two of his
apostles from this despised race. "Now as he walked by
the sea of Galilee, he saw Simon, and Andrew his brother,
casting a net into the sea, for they were fishers. And Jesus
said unto them, Come ye after me, and I will make you to
become fishers of men; and straightway they forsook all and
followed him." The sea of Galilee still abounds in excellent
fish, though from the poverty of the country they are un-
molested, but by the storks and diving birds which frequent
its shores.
In Leviticus, the permission to eat of the inhabitants of
the waters is limited to such as have both fins and scales:
" These shall ye eat, of all that are in the waters; whatsoever
hath fins and scales in the waters, in the seas, and in the
rivers, them shall ye eat." The shark, the ray, and the
sun-fish are examples of those fish destitute of scales, while
the seal and the walrus, though living in the waters, have
neither scales nor fins; these latter animals are also am-
phibious, which was another reason for their being regarded
as unclean. The same prohibition was in force in Egypt,
and the people of that country ate no fish brought from the
sea, under an idea that all marine productions were impure


for this reason, their fish was cured with fossil salt, found
in the African desert. The priests refused all fish, according
to Plutarch, thinking they might possibly have had some
communication with the sea. Fishing with nets is illus-
trated profusely in Egyptian antiquities, and so constantly
referred to in the Bible, that it must also have been the
habit in Palestine. Our account will be appropriately closed
by the description of this employment, given by the Evan-
gelist St. John.
"After these things Jesus showed himself again to the
disciples at the sea of Tiberias; and on this wise showed he
himself. There were together, Simon Peter, and Thomas
called Didymus, and Nathanael of Cana in Galilee, and the
sons of Zebedee, and two other of his disciples. Simon Peter
saith unto them, I go a-fishing; they say unto him, We also
go with thee. They went forth and entered into a ship im-
mediately; and that night they caught nothing. But when
the morning was now come, Jesus stood on the shore, and
said unto them, Children, have ye any meat ? They answered
him, No. And he said unto them, Cast the net on the right
side of the ship, and ye shall find. They cast therefore, and
now they were not able to draw it for the multitude of fishes."


SIMmDa .-Apes, Baboons, and Monkeys.
Apes chiefly inhabit the forests of Asia and Africa; they
also abound in Malacca and the islands of the Indian Ocean,
congregating on trees and feeding on fruit, leaves, and
insects. They generally live in troops, sometimes construct-
ing a kind of hut as a defence against the weather: their
disposition is often fierce and intractable, though some
species are, on the contrary, grave and gentle; their arms
are so long as nearly to touch the ground when the animal
stands upright; the fingers and toes are very flexible, being
thus adapted for clinging to the branches of trees, and even
when carrying their young they spring from tree to tree
with wonderful facility. As no particular species is alluded
to in the Scriptures, an example of each division will be


given; and the Orang Outan (Pithecus satyrua), being the
most remarkable, will serve as a type of the first. It is a
native of the forests in the interior of Borneo, Sumatra, &c.,
and lives chiefly on fruits, though occasionally eating eggs,
insects, and reptiles. These animals approach the height of a
man, and are covered with coarse, reddish hair, the lips are
thin and projecting, the ears small, the nose very flat, and
the face has a bluish tinge; their arms are so long that the
tips of the fingers can touch the ground when the animal
is erect. Dr. Abel, in the Asiatic Researches,' thus gra-
phically describes the capture of one of these creatures:-
" He was discovered by the company of a merchant ship, at
a place called Ramboon: on the approach of the boat's crew
he came down from a tree, and made for a clump at some
distance, gaining by one spring a very lofty branch, and
bounding from one to another with the swiftness of a
common monkey. After receiving five balls, his exertions
relaxed, and he reclined exhausted against a branch: the
ammunition of the hunters being by this time exhausted,
they were obliged to fell the tree in order to obtain him.
But what was their surprise to see him, as the tree was
falling, effect his retreat to another, with seemingly undi-
minished vigour I In fact they were forced to cut down all


the trees before they could oblige him to combat his enemies
on the ground; and when finally overpowered by numbers,
and nearly in a dying state, he seized a spear, which would
have withstood the strength of the stoutest man, and broke
it like a reed. It was said by those who aided in his death,
that the human-like expression of his countenance, and his
piteous manner of placing his hands over his wounds, dis-
tressed their feelings so much, as to make them question the
nature of the act they were committing."
Baboons comprise a large and fierce tribe, very common
in parts both of Asia and Africa. They are less like man in
conformation, and far more disgusting in habits and cruel
in disposition, than the other tribes; it is said that they can
never be completely tamed, and as they advance in years
they increase in fierceness and brutality. In their native
haunts they live on berries, roots, eggs, and insects, but
often do much mischief in the more cultivated districts, by
depredations on the fruit and grain of gardens and fields,
congregating in troops for these predatory excursions. It
is said that "a troop of them will sometimes form a long
chain, extending from the vicinity of their ordinary habita-
tion, to that of the garden or field they are engaged in
plundering, and that the produce of their theft is pitched


from hand to hand till it reaches its destination in the
mountains." There are many genera and species.
The Derrias (Cynocephalus hamadryas) inhabits the moun-
tains of Arabia and Abyssinia. Maunder says, that "this
was probably the species known to the ancients, and figured
on Egyptian monuments:" and from the localities in which it
is found, it may claim to be the ape mentioned in Scripture,
if, indeed, the species can be named with any degree of
certainty. It is about four feet high, the face extremely
long, of a dirty flesh-colour, having a light ring round the
eyes: the hair of the head and neck forms a long mane
falling on the shoulders: the general colour is a mixture of
light grey with cinereous (white with a shade of brown) : a
dark brown line extends down the back, the hands are
almost jet-black, and the feet rusty-brown. The Derrias is
gentle and playful when young, but afterwards becomes
sullen and malicious.
The next tribe (Monkeys) are generally distinguished by
having long tails, and cheek-pouches for the temporary re-
ception of food. They are the smallest of the Old-world
Quadtrmana, and inhabit India, Malacca, &c., and Africa.
The latter may, indeed, be considered as their head quarters.
They are generally gregarious, associating in large troops


always composed of one species; their great enemies are
serpents, as they can escape other animals by their superior
agility. Monkeys subsist principally on fruit and succulent
roots; they are very fond of sweets, but when this food fails
they eat insects and worms, and even descend to the sea-
shore to feast on oysters and crabs: they are said to watch
the former until they open their shells, when they put in a
stone to prevent their closing, and then eat the fish at their
leisure; to entice the crabs from the holes in which they are
concealed, they put in their thin tails, and when the crab
fastens on it, the artful monkey suddenly withdraws the
bait, and thus drags its prey to shore. As parents they are
extremely affectionate; both the male and female being in-
defatigable in fondling and caressing their offspring.
A few species must suffice as examples, for they are very
numerous, and they will be selected from those which in-
habit localities probably visited by Solomon's fleet.
The Diana Monkey (Crcopithecus Diana). This species
is a native of Congo and Guinea. It has a long white beard;
the body is of a reddish colour, shading into white under-
neath, with a white crescent on the brow: the tail is very
long. It has a playful and lively disposition. .
The Green Monkey (CercopitAec Sabewu) is' of a fine


olive-green colour, variegated with grey; the cheeks are
covered with long, pale yellow hair. It is a native of
several parts of Africa.
The Moustache Monkey (Cercopithecus clepA) is a na-
tive of Western Africa. It has two tufts of yellow hair on
the cheeks, whence its name is derived; the face is bare, and
of a bluish-black colour; the hair on the head yellow, varied
with black, that on the body and limbs red and ash-colour,
the under part being rather paler.
Having thus given a slight sketch of this tribe of ani-
mals, including only those species which, from the countries
they inhabit, were probably known to the Hebrews, we will
endeavour to collect and simplify the opinions of various
authors, with regard to those members of the family which
are named in the Sacred Writings.
In the 1st book of Kings, x. 22, is the following passage:
-"For the king had at sea a navy of Tharshish, with the
navy of Hiram; once in three years came the navy of Thar-
shish, bringing gold and silver, ivory, and apes, and pea-
cocks." Apes are again mentioned, in nearly similar words,
in 2 Chron. ix. 21. Now it will be evident to the reader,
that from this vague notice no certainty can be arrived at
with regard to species, the original word kopA being quite


as indefinite as the translation; it is also an unsettled and
disputed point, what was the exact locality from which the
animal in question was brought.
The situation both of Tarshish, and Ophir so often men-
tioned in connection with it, is greatly disputed by the
learned. The latter has been variously placed on the western
coast of Arabia, the eastern coast of Africa, the Persian
Gulf, and the coast and islands of Asia; but the general
conclusion seems to be in favour of Sofala, partly from a
similarity in name, and also that all the articles mentioned
could be procured on the coast, or in the interior. Purchas
says that "ivory, apes, gems, and precious woods (which
grow in the wild places of Tebe, within Sofala), and much
fine black wood (ebony) grows on that coast, and is thence
carried to India. As for peacocks, I saw none there, but
there must needs be some, for I have seen the Cafers wear
their plumes on their heads. As there is a store of fine
gold, so also is there of fine silver, in Chicona, where are
rich mines." It seems much in favour of this idea that the
coast of Africa below the Gulf was the nearest country where
the fleet of Solomon could procure, as native produce, the
commodities with which it was freighted; accordingly this
opinion has many supporters; but there are yet two alterna.


tives, the Persian Gulf, in some of whose islands Ophir has
been placed, and India, which has a large majority of ad-
vocates, as affording all the commodities sought for, and,
by its greater distance, accounting for the three years said
to have been spent on the voyage. Ceylon has the greatest
number of votes amongst those who think it necessary to fix
on one particular spot in the Indian territories.
The dispute with regard to Tarshish is equally intricate,
most writers considering Tartessus in Spain (a most im-
portant settlement of the Phenicians, at the mouth of the
Guadalquiver, and not far from Cadiz) to be the place indi-
cated. Its situation in the west is inferred from Genesis
x. 4, where the name is mentioned with Elishab, Chittim,
and Dodaim, as being one of the descendants of Japheth, to
whom were given the countries of the west. In Psalm lxxii.
10, it is connected with "the islands," which expression,
amongst the Jews, signified any country beyond the Medi-
terranean. Passages in Ezekiel show it to have been a
place of great trade; and in Isaiah it is mentioned as an
important Phenician colony. But supposing this to be
really the situation of Tarshish, it involves another difficulty,
in connection with that of Ophir, as it necessitates a voyage
round the Cape of Good Hope to include both places in one


expedition, and this voyage, though not considered impos-
sible, involves many and serious difficulties. Herodotus
describes such a voyage as having been for the first time
undertaken by the Phoenicians, under the orders of Pharaoh
Necho, king of Egypt, four hundred years after the time of
Solomon, and these people would surely have known from
their public records (in which circumstances of much less
importance are noted) that the voyage had been frequently
made by their ancestors.
The matter being involved in so much uncertainty, we
shall give the reader the advantage of the deductions made
by the authors of the notes to the 'Pictorial Bible,' in which
a full and interesting account of the various opinions on this
intricate point may be found.
"The reader will by this time begin, perhaps, to question
whether any particular places are denoted by the words Tar-
shish and Ophir. We have already explained that 'ships
of Tarshish' were probably so called from being like those
which went from Phoenicia to the Atlantic, especially
adapted to a long voyage. Now, by an obvious transition
of ideas among a people whose notions of distant places
were very indefinite, when ships that made long voyages
were called ships of Tarshish, the name may, in process of


time, have been transferred, so as to denote any distant
place to which such ships went. This would adequately
explain how it happens that the ships which went to Ophir
are called ships of Tarshish in the book of Kings, but in
the later book of Chronicles are not so called, but are said
to have gone to Tarshish, that is, went a distant voyage.
Heeren applies a somewhat similar explanation to Ophir.
He says, 'It is very probable that this name, like those of
Thule and others, did not designate any fixed place, but
simply stood as a general name for the rich south country,
including the shores of Arabia, Africa, and India.' In con-
firmation of this, he observes that the word Ophir signifies
in Arabia 'the rich countries.' In these explanations, as
respecting the names of Tarshish and Ophir, we entirely
acquiesce. They enable us to conclude that the fleet may
have gone trading to various places, collecting the different
commodities which were required, and relieve us from the
necessity of finding everything in one place."
The mention of various animals being brought to Solomon
is very interesting when we consider it in connection with
his known attachment to the study of natural history:
He spake of trees, from the cedar-tree that is in Lebanon,
unto the hyssop that springeth out of the wall; he spake


also of beasts, and of creeping things, and of fishes." We
can understand that he commissioned his navigators to bring
home living specimens of the more remarkable foreign ani-
mals, that he might be enabled to acquaint himself with
their peculiar habits and characteristics by actual study and
observation. Thus we find that although trade was the
primary object of his navigation, the wise Hebrew king was
not insensible to the advantages which it offered him, in
acquiring a larger knowledge of God's creation; and, as
every one would be anxious to gratify the king in his
favourite pursuit, we may readily imagine that he must
have formed a noble collection of animals, many of which
probably had never before been seen in western Asia. The
writings in which his observations are recorded would have
been of great interest at the present day, but now the only
evidence we possess of his peculiar taste for such studies,
beyond the bare historical statement of the fact, is in the
circumstance that his existing writings contain more nume-
rous and striking allusions to the characteristics of animals
and plants than are to be found in any other sacred writer.


These animals are characterized by having the faculty of
sustained flight, owing to their anterior limbs being formed
like wings, the fingers being extremely long and connected
by a membrane, which in most species extends between the
hind legs, and embraces the tail, where this member is not
wanting. They all possess four large canine teeth; the
other teeth vary considerably. Cheiroptera are divided into
two families. Istiophori are distinguished by the peculiar
construction of the nose, the skin being expanded into leaf-
like appendages. The second family, Anistiophori, have
the nose simple. These are again divided into sub-families,
those of the first division being distinguished by the more
or less complicated structure of the nose, those of the latter
by the form of the wings.
There are about twenty species of these interesting little
animals in England; and Mr. Bell rightly observes that
"it is, perhaps, difficult to account for the prejudices
which have always existed against them: that the ancient
Greek and Roman poets, furnished with exaggerated ac-
counts of the animals infesting the remote regions with


which their commerce or their conquests made them ac-
quainted, should have caught eagerly at these marvellous
stories and descriptions, and rendered them subservient to
their fabulous but highly imaginative mythology, is not won-
derful; and it is probable that some of the Indian bats, with
the strange combination of the character of beast and bird,
which they were believed to possess, gave to Virgil the
idea, which he has so poetically worked out, of the harpies
which fell on the tables of his hero and his companions,
and polluted, whilst they devoured, the feast from which
they had driven the affrighted guests." But that the harm-
less little bats of our own climate, whose habits are so
innocent and amusing, should be connected in the mind
with anything mysterious or alarming, is rather incompre-
The original word used in Isaiah, ch. ii. ver. 20, is ateli-
pkim, which is supposed to mean "fliers in darkness," a
very suitable name for bats, which only quit their retreats
when night comes on. They are mentioned also in the
books of Leviticus and Deuteronomy; and in the latter are
very correctly connected with "every creeping thing that
flieth." Nothing can now be ascertained relative to the
species alluded to, and, indeed, in all probability, no defi-


nite species was intended, the allusion being simply to bats
in general. There are no very large or remarkable kinds
in Palestine, the most common species being little larger
than those found in England. When examined, it is seen
to be a very delicate and beautiful creature, covered with
fine fur of a pale yellow colour, while the wings are, when
expanded, ribbed with bright red lines. Bats were forbidden
as food by the Mosaic law, but they are considered delicate
eating in some parts of Southern Asia, where they are of a
large size.
The bats of the Holy Land, as usual, live in caves and
deserted buildings, but they also swarm in the towns. Many
of the windows are only latticed, for greater coolness; con-
sequently they harbour in the rooms, clinging in consi-
derable numbers to the high ceilings: the lightness of their
colour, the loftiness of the apartments, and the perfect state
of repose maintained by them during the day, preventing
them from being very conspicuous; but in the evening,
if unable to quit their asylum, they occasion much trouble
and annoyance by flying about the room. They, however,
prefer underground cellars, and there they may be found
by hundreds.
Bats feed chiefly on insects, such as gnats, moths, and


beetles, the wide mouth and formidable teeth with which
they are provided being an excellent trap for their capture.
Thus they are of great service to vegetation even in our
temperate climate; and in those tropical regions where
insects exist in myriads, many localities would not be habi-
table without this useful family. In this country they
disappear in autumn, and, clustering together in the closest
crannies they can find, remain dormant, until the warm
suns of spring induce them to venture from their retreat.
The female has generally two young ones at a time,
which are naked and helpless at their birth, and constantly
cling to their mother until capable of flight. The ears of
bats are generally very large, so that the sense of hearing
is probably acute. The eyes, on the contrary, are remark-
ably small, and being deeply seated like those of the mole,
they do not seem to be essentially necessary to the animal
in finding its way. The experiments made by Spallanzani
proved that, when blinded, they could find their way be-
tween obstacles of which they had no previous knowledge.
He suspended willow rods in the room into which he turned
the blind bats, and though he moved these, so as to make
the passages as varied as possible, the animals never struck
one of them, though they flew in all directions. It is


supposed that they feel a different resistance in the air in
time to avoid the obstacle, but by what sensation, or by
what means, it is very difficult to determine: the existence
of such a faculty in this and many other nocturnal animals
is, however, a proof of the wisdom and goodness of the
Bats are very numerous on the banks of the Nile, where
insects abound: in India also, they swarm in the stupen-
dous caves, which have been hewn with so much care and
labour into temples, now almost deserted, and abandoned to
bats and reptiles; in New Holland they are also very nume-
rous, and in the South Sea Islands species of a large size are
found in profusion. The vampire, of which so many exag-
gerated accounts have been published, is found in South
America. It is accused, not only of sucking the blood of
single individuals, or animals, but of destroying whole herds
of cattle, when these were first introduced by the mission-
aries. Many of the stories related are no doubt based on
truth, though going much beyond it in details, for notwith-
standing that bats are, on the whole, far more useful than
hurtful to man, they have, from their peculiar appearance,
dismal habitations, and the time of their flight, been
creatures to which poets have frequently had recourse, to


excite feelings of dread and loathing. As the peacock was
sacred to Juno, queen of heaven, so the bat was dedicated
to Proserpine, the empress of hell.*

TALPA.--The Mole.
These animals are admirably qualified for the subterra-
neous life they are destined to lead. They are five or six
inches in length, the body thick, the head much prolonged,
the nose projecting greatly, and formed for conveying food
to the mouth; they have no external ears, though the sense
of hearing is very acute; and the small eyes are so nearly
concealed by the fur, as to have given rise to the belief that
they were entirely wanting; the legs are very short and the
fore feet strong, broad, and furnished with large stout claws,
thus enabling the animal to work through the ground with
great rapidity. The food of moles consists chiefly of worms
and the larvae of insects, but in summer they appear on the
surface in search of other prey, such as birds, mice, frogs,
and snails; in these nocturnal excursions, they are often, in
British Cyclopedi: art. BAT.


their turn, preyed upon by the owl. Moles are exceedingly
voracious, and it is said they die of starvation if kept twelve
hours without food; if two are confined together, the
strongest will, if hungry, devour the weakest, even to the
bones. Farmers are no friends to these little creatures, as
by turning up the earth they expose the roots of plants,
or overthrow them by burrowing; but many agriculturists
think they make ample amends, by the destruction of earth-
worms and other noxious animals.
The fur of the mole is very soft and thick. "Fur of
every kind may be regarded as a species of organ of what is
called touch, not in the mere pile of the fur, but in the
sensation which is instantly communicated to its roots, as
we find in many instances, especially in those whiskers of
nocturnal animals which guide them in their rambles.
Upon the same principle, there is no question that the ex-
quisitely delicate fur of the mole, which yields to a touch
quite imperceptible to us, is one of the finest organs of
feeling in the whole animal kingdom. Nor is there any
doubt, that this fur communicates to the owner the slightest
concussion of the earth over its nest or its gallery."* This
quick sense of touch makes ample amends to the mole for
Britih Cyclopedis: art. MoZ.


the deficiency in that of sight, which, indeed, would be a
useless gift to an animal destined to a subterraneous ex-
istence. But even this deficiency is not so great as has been
supposed; the idea of the total blindness of the common
mole is an error, which has been handed down from one
naturalist to another since the time of Aristotle, who, in all
probability, took his opinion from the species living in
Italy, Greece, and other parts of the south of Europe, in
which the eyes are merely rudimental, not larger than a
grain of mustard-seed, and with no opening in the lids.
There is a passage in Shakspeare's Romeo and Juliet,'
which has been quoted by almost every describer of the
mole, since the time Shakspeare wrote. But notwithstand-
ing the number of times this short passage has been alluded
to, we shall quote it again for the purpose of doing justice
both to the mole and to the poet. The passage to which
we allude is as follows:-
"Pray you tread softly, that the blind mole may not
Hear a foot fall."
The scene of this passage is laid in the neighbourhood of
Venice, and the mole of that country is the blind one, but
whether Shakspeare was aware that the moles of that
country have the eyelids unopened, is a question which we


cannot solve. The probability is, that, like most others, he
had taken his notions of the animal from the description of
Aristotle, or rather from the popular opinion grounded on
that description; and that Aristotle described this blind or
southern mole, for our mole has not only eyes, but very
brilliant ones, though they are very small. The difference
in the eyes of these two species is supposed to be owing to
the greater abundance of under-ground food at the dis-
posal of the mole of southern latitudes, which prevents the
necessity of their seeking it on the surface, where the eyes of
the English mole are valuable to them. How remarkable
is the constant adaptation of means to the end required, in
every part of the creation I
The mole is usually a solitary animal, each having its own
habitation, which is constructed with great care, generally
near a wall or the roots of a tree, which form a shelter: it
is dome-shaped so as to drain off the water, and sufficiently
hard and firm to prevent the rain penetrating through; the
interior consists of two galleries and a circular dwelling,
which are all connected by means of sloping passages. This
habitation is formed in the latter part of the summer, and
is used by the mole as a resting-place from the time the
autumnal rains commence, until the return of summer.


The mole is mentioned in our translation of the Scriptures
in the following verse:-Isaiah ii. 20 : In that day a man
shall cast his idols of silver and his idols of gold, which
they made each one for himself to worship, to the moles
and to the bats." The original word has been very variously
rendered. In the Septuagint it is translated vanities; in other
versions, pit, or Aoles; but it is more generally understood
to mean some one of those animals which burrow in the
ground; and it is probable that the word rendered mole"
did not define any particular animal of this class, but was
intended to intimate that the idols should be cast into dark
and secret places, such as are inhabited by the mole and the
bat, or by animals possessing similar habits.
The old English name of the mole, of which the present
is merely a contraction, was mouldiwarp, or mouldwarp,
which simply means that which casts up the soil. In some
parts of Scotland this is changed into moudiewark, or
moudie; all containing allusions to the mode in which the
animal works in the mould. There is a species existing at
the Cape of Good Hope called the golden mole, from the
extreme brilliancy of its hue. That of England is called
Talpa Europaa; the blind mole, Talpa caca.


Uns s.-The Bear. (Plate I., the Syrian Bear.)
These well-known animals are remarkable for their
massive limbs, and clumsy, heavy appearance. They have
five-toed feet, armed with strong claws, more calculated for
digging in the ground and climbing trees than for tearing
their prey. They are omnivorous in their diet, some
living entirely on vegetable food; others being carnivorous:
though they will rarely attack man, unless extremely pressed
by hunger, when they are very formidable antagonists.
Honey is said to be a favourite repast with many species,
and they will climb high trees for the sake of plundering
the nest of the wild bee; they also eat the eggs and young
of birds, small animals, carrion, and fish, as in the case of
the polar bear, who must depend chiefly on what is thrown
up by the sea for his somewhat precarious subsistence.
From the peculiar formation of the shoulder-bones, which
are not kept apart by clavicles as in most other animals,
the bear is enabled to grasp and hug between the fore legs,
much more powerfully than would have otherwise been the
case, thus strangling any unfortunate animal that falls into
its power by strong compression of the chest: this peculiarity

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also enables it to climb without difficulty. The teeth of the
bear are comparatively small and blunt, consequently not
well adapted for feeding on flesh in its fresh state; and this
agrees with the known fact, that the bear never attacks
living animals, if it can find food more easily managed.
Bears of some species or other are to be met with in
every latitude. In Europe, Asia, and America, they are
pretty widely diffused, but are rarely found in Africa: in-
deed they appear more suited to the cold or temperate
climates, and here accordingly they are seen in their greatest
vigour and perfection. They do not seem to extend to the
southern hemisphere, excepting perhaps in the Andes, where
there is a great variety of climate; none have been dis-
covered in New Holland. Bears live chiefly in dens and
caves, or in hollow trees: they hybernate according to the
climate, and during the period of torpor of course cease to
eat, living on the accumulation of fat they have acquired
during the time of activity, and making their reappearance
in a very lean and exhausted condition.
The Brown Bear (Ursus Areto.) is so called from its pre-
vailing colour, but this colour varies through every shade,
from sooty black to dirty white. It is found in almost
every climate, from the shores of the Frozen Ocean to the


burning deserts of Libya and Numidia, and is, without
doubt, the animal referred to in the Scriptures. It is
still found in Western Asia, and, though but rarely, in
the wildernesses bordering on Palestine. This species is
found in so many places, and varies so much in size and
colour, that it has frequently been divided and subdivided
into species and varieties; but from the perfect resemblance
in the skeleton, and in the habits, of the bear inhabiting the
Pyrenees, the Alps, and the mountains of Lapland, the range
of the Himalaya, and the shores of the Polar sea, it seems
probable that the difference in colour and appearance is
merely the result of climate, and the brown, black, cinna-
mon, and white bears, instead of being distinct species, are
probably not even distinct varieties, the colour merely
changing from one generation to another, as well as in dif-
ferent individuals.
The Ursw Arctos feeds on wild honey, fruit, &c., and
those of Siberia, being well fed, are by no means formidable;
women and children ranging about with perfect safety, even
in the forests where they abound. "As they are not much
disturbed except towards the close of the season, when they
begin to get fat, they are not timid any more than forward,
and it is possible to pas them as closely and as safely as if


they were sheep. The sudden appearance of a person in an
unwonted dress alarms them, and makes them take flight;
but it is said that the most efficient bugbear is an umbrella,
the expanding of which makes them roar and run with
all their might; an umbrella is, indeed, an object of more
dread to most wild animals than the most efficient weapon
that man can brandish. A fierce bullock is more certainly
turned by flashing an umbrella open in his face, than by
any other means; and there are recorded instances of the
tiger being put to flight in the same way."*
The abundance of these bears in the mountains of Swit-
zerland in former times, gave the name of Berne to one of
the Swiss cantons, and at that place bear-pits are still kept
up in honour of the name; the inmates being fed on vege-
tables and bread; all unripe fruit brought to the market
is also confiscated for their use.
The intense affection shown by the female bear for its
young, is illustrated by many interesting anecdotes in
voyages and travels. In Lord Mulgrave's narrative of a
voyage for the discovery of the North-west Passage, is a very
interesting account of a bear, whose young had been killed
by a shot from the ship. Though wounded herself, she
British Cyclopedia art. Bza.


would not leave her young behind; not understanding they
were dead, she placed food before them, and by every affec-
tionate motion tried to induce them to eat; she then en-
deavoured to raise them, withdrew to a short distance, and
looked back, expecting them to follow, but seeing them still
motionless, she returned, and with inexpressible fondness
walked round, licking their wounds and moaning bitterly.
At last, as though convinced that they were indeed dead, she
uttered a fierce and bitter growl, which was answered by
another and more merciful shot, laying the affectionate
animal dead beside her young.
So fine a trait in the character of the bear was not lost on
the sacred writers, and consequently it occurs as a simile in
many parts of the Bible. In Proverbs xvii. 12, "Let a
bear robbed of her whelps meet a man, rather than a fool in
his folly;" and again, 2 Samuel xviii. 8, "They be chafed
in their minds as a bear robbed of her whelps." There is a
similar expression in Hoses.
The narrative related in 2 Kings ii. 28, where bears were
made the instrument of punishment to the profane despisers
of Elisha, is another proof that the Syrian bear (U. Syriacus,
Plate I.) was then a common inhabitant of the country. It
will not be deemed out of place, in connection with this


subject, to explain the term "little children" as used in
this chapter, which has often given rise to animadversion.
"The term is the same which Solomon applied to himself
when not much, if anything, less than twenty years of age,
and which is elsewhere applied to young but full-grown
men. The translation 'little children' is, therefore, cal-
culated to give a wrong impression of this transaction.
They were, doubtless, profane young men, of the city where
the golden calf was worshipped, well enough able to know
what they were about; but who, nevertheless, poured forth
not merely, or principally, expressions of personal contempt
to Elisha, but of derision at the translation of Elijah, when
they thus abusively told him to 'go up'after his master.
Their act, therefore, did not incur the fearful punishment
which followed, merely as an act of disrespect to the prophet,
but also as a grievous insult to the power and majesty of
To the use of the bear, either as food, or of its fur in
clothing, we find no allusions in the Scriptures. It was cer-
tainly not eaten by the Jews, being included amongst those
animals which, from their conformation, were considered
unclean, and were forbidden to them; the fur would also
Pictorial Bible-2 King ii.


be more esteemed in colder climates. To the Kamtschat-
kadales it is most valuable in various ways. They make of
it beds, coverlets, caps, gloves, and collars for 'their sledge-
dogs, also soles for their shoes, which have the advantage of
not slipping; the flesh is reckoned a great dainty, and they
usually invite friends to partake; window-panes are made
of the intestines, which are as clear and transparent as
Muscovy glass. A light black bear-skin is one of the most
costly articles in the winter wardrobe of a gentleman in
Russia, and the ladies wear very large bear muffs, half-con-
cealing their elegant shape.
MELEs.-The Badger.
This animal has very short nails, the toes very much
covered by skin, and a pouch from which issues a strong
and fetid smell. The nails are powerful and formed for
digging; the body thick, and legs short. The colour is
generally brownish-grey, with a black baud on each side of
the head. Badgers are easily tamed when treated with
kindness, becoming playful and familiar. They burrow in
the ground, the entrance to their habitation being usually
placed in concealment, under tangled herbage or shrubs.
There are only two species, Melee vulgaris, the common
badger, and Meles Labradorica, the American badger. The


former measures about two feet and a half in length, and
the tail, which is clothed with long hair, half a foot more.
The hair of the body is long, close, and fine; the skin, with
the hair on, is employed in making Highland pouches, and
the hair is used for painters' brushes. The common badger
is very generally distributed over the colder parts of the
temperate portion of Europe and Asia. It does not seem
to have been known to the Greek naturalists, but the
Romans were acquainted with it under two names, Meles
and Takzs. At that time the locality of the badger was
probably in a more southern latitude; for it is certain that
the climate of Europe has much changed in character. It
seems, however, very doubtful whether the badger extended
so far to the south-east as to be known to the Hebrews
when wanderers in the desert, which would, too, have been
an unnatural haunt for this animal; consequently, the ex-
pression used in Exodus xxv. 5, when describing the erection
of the Tabernacle, is probably one of those which must be
considered as not giving strictly the sense of the original:
an error, consequent on the very imperfect knowledge of
natural history at the time when the translation of the
Bible was made.
The following explanation of this difficulty is from the


' Pictorial Bible :'-" It is uncertain what is intended by the
word rendered badger.' Some take it to mean a prepara-
tion of leather, as morocco; all the ancient versions regard
it as a colour of leather or skin, and point out crimson or
different shades of blue. The Jewish traditions concur in
this view with some exceptions, and it is supported by the
analogy of the third covering next beneath this, which was
of 'sheep-skins dyed red.' Many, however, with our trans-
lators, regard the tahash as the name of an animal, but
differ greatly as to the species. As Gesenius remarks, the
construction favors this interpretation, and he adds, that
several Hebrew interpreters explain it by the weasel or
martin; others by the badger. But in Arabic tahas, sig-
nifies the dolphin, with which the ancients, in common life,
classed the seal. 'Seal-skins' would certainly make a good
sense, and would be tolerably applicable to all the passages
in which the word tahash occurs. But we are still in-
clined to think, that to understand it as a colour, perhaps
purple, is the better alternative."
PUToRlus (Mustela) vuLGAIs.-The Weasel.
This is the smallest of its tribe, measuring eight inches
in length and two and a half in height. The colour varies
in different climates, but generally the upper parts and legs


are pale brown, the under parts white; the eyes are small
and black. It is very generally distributed over the cold
and temperate regions of the world, and is remarkably agile
in its movements, possessing an extraordinary degree of
flexibility, which enables it to make its way through an
almost incredibly small space. The weasel lives on small
animals, leverets, young rabbits, mice, &c., seizing its prey
by the neck, when its bite very speedily causes death: it
then sucks the blood, and keeps the flesh till it has become
sufficiently "high" for its taste. The female makes a bed
of leaves and moss for her brood, feeding them with fresh
eggs and small animals; she has only one litter in the year.
This little creature is very bold for its small size, and
often attacks animals much larger than itself. The fol-
lowing curious story is told of one in Scotland, by Mrs.
Lee, in her useful 'Elements of Natural History.' "An
eagle was seen by some haymakers, rising in the air with a
peculiar fight; he flapped his wings with violence, as if
much alarmed and agitated, and rapidly ascended; in a
short time, however, he descended with still greater ra-
pidity, tumbling down like a shot bird. When he reached
the earth, the party observing him ran to ascertain the cause
of this occurrence, when a large weasel ran from the body,


stood upon its hind legs for a few moments to survey its
enemies, and then went into the neighboring wood. On
examining the eagle, it was dead, having been killed by a
wound in its throat, supposed to have been made by the
weasel. This supposition was confirmed by a similar attack
having been made by a weasel on a grouse, which flew away
with the animal hanging to it."
The weasel is mentioned in the list of unclean animals
in the 11th chapter of Leviticus, verse 39, and is there
classed with the reptiles; but the word in the Syriac sig-
nifies a creeping movement, which is very applicable to the
weasel. The Vulgate and Septuagint agree with our version.
The name was very probably given also to some of the lizard
tribe, and in this case one of these might be meant.
MusTELA PURo.-The Ferret.
This little animal measures about thirteen inches, ex-
clusive of the tail, which is about five more; it has a sharp
nose, red and fiery eyes, and round ears; the colour is pale
yellow, sometimes mixed with white, black, and brown. In
its wild state it is a native of Africa, whence it was brought
into Spain, and has gradually been introduced into other
European countries. It sleeps almost continually during
the cold weather, our climate being, in fact, too severe for it,


except in a domesticated state, and it is necessary to keep
it in a box lined with wool; its favourite food is the blood
of small animals, and it is naturally an enemy to rabbits,
which circumstance man has turned to account, by making
it the instrument of their capture. When sent into the
burrows of rabbits, the ferret is always muzzled, that he may
not kill them in their holes, but only drive them out, to be
caught in the nets prepared for the purpose. If the ferret
becomes unmuzzled, he is often lost, for after sucking the
blood of his victim he frequently falls asleep in the burrow;
and there, in the midst of abundance, he remains till the
severity of the winter cold destroys him. The ferret is of
an irritable nature, emitting a very disagreeable odour when
provoked, and its bite is difficult to cure. The female has
two broods in the year, each consisting of from six to nine.
Though this little animal has been introduced into Europe
at least two thousand years, it has never become sufficiently
inured to the climate to pass into the wild state.
The ferret is included in the list of unclean animals
mentioned in the 11th chapter of Leviticus; but it seems
much more probable that the translation is an incorrect
one, than that this native of Africa should have been
known so commonly to the Hebrews, as to render its inter-



diction as an article of food necessary. The alternative
seems to be some species of lizard, "perhaps the Lacerta
gecko, a species found in countries bordering the Mediterra-
nean; of a reddish-grey, spotted with brown. It is thought
at Cairo to poison food over which it passes, and especially
salt provisions, of which it is very fond. It has a voice
somewhat resembling that of a frog, which is intimated by
the Hebrew name, importing a sigh or groan."*
This well-known and most useful animal would, from its
familiarity to every one, seem to need little description, and
the number of the species, supposed to amount, with varie-
ties, to a hundred, would render it impossible to enter into
any detail respecting it. The dog is arranged by Cuvier in
three divisions, depending on the length of the muzzle:
the long-muzzled dogs include those most nearly in a
state of nature, such as the wild dog of Nepal, Canis pri-
m&rvus, considered by Mr. Hodgson to be the original stock
of all the domestic varieties; those which have this part of a
moderate length, including those species which are the most
serviceable to man, of which the shepherd's dog is an ex-
ample; and the third division, which embraces the short-
Pictorial Bible.


muzzled dogs, many of which are large and ferocious. The
half-wild dogs of India, Africa, and Australia, the numerous
tribe of hounds, terriers, spaniels, and sporting dogs, all
belong to the first division. The second boasts of the noble
Newfoundland, the useful and sagacious shepherd's dog,
without whose invaluable assistance, the Scotch mountain
pastures would be almost useless; the cur, and the turn-
spit, whose labours in the kitchen are superseded by the
march of invention. The third includes the bull-dog and
mastiff, which, though in many ways serviceable to man,
have neither the swift motion nor the affectionate and
playful disposition of the first two divisions, being gene-
rally surly in temper, and snappish to all but their imme-
diate protectors. That the ferocity of the most savage dogs
is mixed with much that is amiable and intelligent, is
proved by an anecdote which has recently appeared in the
public prints. In consequence of an alarm of fire near
Drury Lane, a poor woman contrived to get on the top of
a chapel, and was making her way across the adjoining roof,
when she fell through a skylight into a factory in which was
kept a ferocious dog of the bull-terrier species. Guided by
her groans, several men went to her rescue, but, fearing the
dog, they hesitated. At length fourteen of them rushed in,


when, to their astonishment, they found the usually savage
animal licking the woman, as if to console her, and, instead
of rushing upon them, evinced the most lively joy that they
had come to succour her. No species of this third division
are ever found in a wild state.
The dog is considered old at fifteen, and few attain the
age of twenty. A small terrier was given to the author's
family, as being too aged for use, and said to be seventeen;
at all events, she had lost most of her teeth, and her hair
was turning grey; but "Fan" so attached herself to the
family, and particularly to one member of it, who was then
an invalid, and so endeared herself by her intelligence and
extreme affection, that every care was taken of her, and she
lived eight years after her introduction into the family,
when her sufferings from a bad cough made it necessary to
have her destroyed, to the great regret of her friends; for
"poor old Fan" was a universal favourite. Her bright
black-and-tan coat was thickly besprinkled with grey, and
her head nearly white some years before she died.
The English reader of the Bible is often surprised at the
contemptuous manner in which these interesting and af-
fectionate animals are mentioned in the Sacred Writings;
but the disposition of the dog, as known to us, is in a great


degree the result of domestication and kind treatment. In
the East they have neither of these advantages, and are
therefore fierce, cruel, and greedy, a character they main.
tain to this day; for Mohammedanism proscribes them as
unclean, and hence, though they are very numerous in the
towns of Western Asia, they belong to no one, and, sub-
sisting on any chance food they may pick up, become fero-
cious and savage to a degree unknown to us. Indeed, in
many places it would be very dangerous to go into the
streets alone, or unarmed at night; and even powerful and
resolute men are sometimes prevented from entering the
gates, unless under the guidance of an inhabitant to over-
awe the dogs. This quality renders them very serviceable
to the Arabs and other nomade tribes, in the care of their
flocks; but still they will not bear any comparison with
our faithful and sagacious shepherd's dog.
Bloodhounds were formerly trained for the chase, and for
warlike purposes. These dogs were very dangerous, and the
Psalmist probably alludes to them when he says, Deliver my
soul from the sword, and my darling from the power of the
dog." And in the Book of Proverbs is the following adage:
"He that paaseth by, and meddleth with strife belonging
not to him, is like one that taketh a dog by the ears."

. 55


The texts in proof of the generally contemptuous opinion
entertained of dogs in the eastern countries, are very nume-
rous, such as in Psalm xxii. 16: "For dogs have compassed
me about; the assembly of the wicked have enclosed me."
In 1 Samuel xvii. 43, Goliath says, "Am I a dog, that thou
comest to me with staves ?" And Job declares, "But now
they that are younger than I, have me in derision, whose
fathers I would have disdained to have set with the dogs of
my flock." Many other instances might be mentioned, but
hese will suffice. In the New Testament the expressions
are of a like character, investing our beautiful and interest-
ing favourite with the most hateful qualities; though Christ,
in his beautiful parable of the rich man and Lazarus, records
an affecting proof of their gentleness. In many profane
authors similar feelings are testified; even "Homer's heroes
call each other dogs with great spirit;" but modern poets
are more just to the character of this faithful animal. A
short extract from Byron's well-known lines on a New-
foundland dog will prove his sense of its worth; and many
other passages will probably recur to the memory of the
poetic reader.
But the poor dog, in life the firmest friend,
The first to welcome, foremost to defend;


Whose honest heart is still his master's own,
Who labours, fights, lives, breathes for him alone;
Unhonoured falls, unnoticed all his worth,
Denied in heaven the soul he held on earth;
While man, vain insect! hopes to be forgiven,
And claims himself a sole exclusive heaven."

These last lines agree in feeling with the belief enter-
tained by the Indian warrior, who thinks that his favourite
dog will bear him company to the "happy hunting grounds,"
a feeling beautifully expressed in the well-known lines-

"Lo, the poor Indian I whose untutored mind
Sees God in clouds, or hears him in the wind;
His soul proud science never taught to stray
Far as the solar walk, or milky way;
Yet simple nature to his hope has given,
Behind the cloud-topt hill, a humbler heaven;
Some safer world, in depth of woods embraced,
Some happier island in the watery waste,
Where slaves once more their native land behold,
No fiends torment, no Christian thirsts for gold;
But thinks, admitted to that equal sky,
His faithful dog shall bear him company."

The numerous anecdotes which might be related, to illus-
trate every interesting point of the dog's character, would
fill a volume, and, though greatly tempted to record some
of them, I must refrain. There is an amusing and well-


chosen collection in Chambers's Miscellany,' a work which
ought to be accessible to all young readers.
Caxs Lupus.-The Wolf.
SThough nearly allied to the dog, we lose in this animal
all the affectionate and endearing qualities of its domesticated
relative, and though now entirely free from its ravages in
England, it is still the scourge of many of the European
countries during the severe weather, which, by curtailing
the supply of food in the forests, emboldens it to attack tra-
vellers, and prowl about the villages, in large troops, whose
savage ferocity is only equalled by the perseverance with
which they track and follow their victims, whether man,
horses, or sheep.
The first mention of the wolf in the Bible gives the same
idea of stealthy ferocity to its character which it possesses
in the present day. In Genesis xlix. 27, "Benjamin shall
ravin as a wolf; in the morning he shall devour the prey,
and at night he shall divide the spoil," intimating that day
and night its delight is to seize and tear its prey; which
agrees with the description given it by travellers, as con-
stantly on the prowl, with apparently an insatiable appe.
tite; most commentators agree in referring the comparison
here made, to the fierce and unjust contest in which the


tribe of Benjamin engaged with the other tribes, and in
which it was almost exterminated. The prophet Habakkuk
makes use of the expression, more fierce than the evening
wolves;" and in Zephaniah a similar text may be found;
showing that the savage character of this animal was well
known to the ancient writers, and that it must have been
pretty common in Palestine at the time they wrote: at the
present time but few of the wilder animals are found in
that country.
CAns VULPES (or Fulpes rvugari*).-The Fox.
This animal, as well as the wolf, is now considered as be-
longing to the extensive genus Canis, dog, from which the
fox differs but little in organization; the formation of the
teeth is very similar, the feet and toes are also alike. The
distinguishing characteristics seem to lie in the somewhat
different form of the eye, the superior length and greater
thickness of fur on the tail, and the nose being more elon-
gated and pointed. The fox differs essentially in habit from
other canine animals: it is more decidedly a dweller in the
ground, making holes or excavations, technically called
"earths," for its dwelling-place; and another peculiarity is
its never joining in bands for any common purpose, but
being quite solitary in its operations,-in this respect differ.


ing greatly from the wolf, jackal, and probably the dog in
a state of nature.
Foxes are found in most parts of the world, but are far
more abundant in the temperate and cold climates: from
the severity of the latter, their thick warm fur forms an
adequate protection. They live on small animals, such as
hares and rabbits, the latter of which they dig from the
warren, and game of all kinds, which they destroy in great
quantities; when these are scarce, they make war on
rats, field-mice, serpents, lizards, toads, and moles; roots
and insects do not come amiss to them when pressed by
hunger, and grapes and other sweet fruits are considered a
dainty, as well as honey, for which they will attack and
ransack the nests of the wild bee. The female fox makes
her nest of leaves and hay; the young ones, from three to
eight in number, are born blind, and much resemble young
puppies. The skin of the fox, being furnished with a soft
warm fur, is much used for muffs, boas, and other similar
purposes; great numbers are, therefore, taken in the alpine
districts of Switzerland, and imported from Newfoundland
and the countries round Hudson's Bay. The flesh of the
fox is coarse and rank, but is eaten by the natives of the
latter countries, and even in some parts of Europe, where


the animals are fattened on the spoils of the vineyard
during the vintage.
The common fox of England (Cani Fulpes) is fawn-
coloured, intermixed with black and white. The arctic
species (C. lagopue) is usually of a bluish-grey colour,
though sometimes found entirely white; it inhabits the cold
regions of the polar circle, particularly in Kamtchatka, sub-
sisting on young wild geese and other water-fowl. Steller
relates, that when he was travelling, he met with great
numbers of these little animals. "When we made a halt by
the way," he writes, "they gathered round us, and played a
thousand tricks in our view. When we sat still they ap-
proached us so closely, that they gnawed our shoe-strings;
if we lay down, as if intending to sleep, they came and
smelt at our noses, to ascertain whether we were dead or
alive." There are various other species in both the Old
and New Worlds.
The common fox was, and still is, of frequent occurrence
in Palestine; but as the original word Shual was equally
used by the Hebrews to signify the Jackal (Plate I.), it
is believed by commentators, that this latter animal is, in
most cases, meant. It is the Canis aureus of naturalists,
about the size of the fox, the colour dirty yellow above and


white beneath, with a dark mark on the back and sides.
Jackals associate together like wolves, forming large packs,
often amounting, in Palestine, to two or three hundred,
thus differing from the fox, which is not gregarious; their
howlings are fearful, hence their Hebrew name ayim,
"howlers," which is improperly rendered, in Isaiah xiii. 22,
xxxiv. 14, and Jeremiah ii. 39, "wild beasts of the islands."
Jackals, like foxes, live in holes in the ground, and are very
numerous in ruined towns, from which circumstance, the
prophets, in describing the future desolation of a city, say
it shall become the habitation of jackals; a prediction
verified by the actual condition of the towns to which the
prophecies apply. It is evident that this animal, and not
the fox, is alluded to in the account of the marriage of
Samson in the 15th chapter of Judges, as the latter would
have been very difficult to find in so great a number, while
with the former it would be comparatively easy, from their
being found in large packs. This obviates the difficulty
which has often been felt with regard to this incident, par-
ticularly as it is not necessary to suppose that Samson
caught the whole number himself, or at one time. The
animals being tied together in pairs, was, no doubt, intended
to prevent them from retreating to their holes, before the


brands had effectually set fire to "the standing corn of the
Philistines, and burnt up both the shocks and also the
standing corn, with the vineyards and olives." The idea of
such conflagrations being caused by foxes, seems to have
been prevalent with the ancients. "Thus Lycophron makes
Cassandra represent Ulysses as a cunning and mischievous
man, the 'man for many wiles renowned,' of Homer, and
styles him a fox with a firebrand at his tail. And in
Leland's 'Collectanea,' there is an engraving representing
a Roman brick found below a pavement in London, in
1675, on which is exhibited, in basso-relievo, the figure of a
man driving into a field of corn two foxes, with fire fastened
to their tails."*
FELUS LEo.-The Lion.
This well-known animal is the most formidable of the
carnivorous tribe. It is distinguished from the rest by its
flowing mane, tufted tail, and the absence of all those
markings which characterize the feline race. The lion prin-
cipally inhabits the wilds of Africa, for though found in the
hotter regions of Asia, it is far less plentiful in that lo.
cality. A full-grown lion sometimes measures eight feet
from the nose to the tail, which is itself about four feet in
Pictoral Bibl.a


length; the general colour tawny, inclining to white beneath;
the head is very large; the ears rounded; the face covered
with short hair, while the upper part of the head, the neck,
and shoulders are coated with long shaggy hair, which forms
a mane; the tail is tufted with black. Neither the mane
nor the tuft on the tail are fully developed, till the animal
is six or seven years old. The female is smaller, destitute
of a mane, and whiter underneath.
The lion, like the rest of the feline tribe, sleeps during the
day, his eyes not being formed for strong light. As night
sets in, he rouses from his lair, and begins his search for
prey, when his roar resembles distant thunder, putting to
flight every animal within hearing. His strength is pro-
digious, enabling him to carry off a buffalo or antelope with
the greatest ease, and his teeth are so strong, that he
breaks their bones without difficulty; the tongue, as in
other feline animals, is covered with reversed prickles, which,
in the lion, are strong enough to tear the skin; and the
muscles belonging to the jaw, as well as those which support
the head, are very strongly developed. The lioness has only
one brood in the year, generally from two to four in number,
which she nurses with great care and assiduity. The usual
period of a lion's life is supposed to be about twenty-two


years, but instances are recorded of their attaining a much
greater age.
Many naturalists contend that there is a distinction be.
tween the African and Asiatic lion, but this is denied by
Buffon and Cuvier, though many modern writers state that
the African lion is larger, more graceful in form, of a darker
colour, and with a less abundant mane. It was from Africa
that the Romans procured the prodigious numbers of these
noble animals, which they exhibited in their public spec-
tacles. Quintus Scsevola is said by Pliny to have shown a
combat of lions for the first time in Rome; Sylla, the dic-
tator, exhibited a hundred; Pompey the Great no less than
six hundred, in the grand circus; and Cesar four hundred.
Mark Antony appeared in the streets of Rome in a chariot
drawn by these noble but dangerous creatures. The con-
querors of the world seem truly to have held a control over
the king of beasts, with which we cannot compete, for the
miserable exhibitions of modern times appear generally to
have a fatal termination.
It is very evident that the lion formerly abounded in
Palestine, some places, indeed, deriving their name from
these animals, such as Lebaoth and Beth-lebaoth; that they
are not now met with is no matter of surprise, as many wild


animals have entirely disappeared from localities where they
formerly abounded; but lions are still found in many parts
of western Asia, particularly near the rivers Tigris and Eu-
phrates. The lion is mentioned in various parts of the
Bible. In the 14th chapter of Judges one is slain by Sam-
son, and is afterwards found inhabited by a swarm of bees,
thus giving rise to his famous riddle, "Out of the eater
came forth meat, and out of the strong came forth sweet-
ness." Again in 2 Samuel, ch. xvii., the lion is made the
symbol of strength and courage: He that is valiant, whose
heart is as the heart of a lion." This metaphor is by no
means peculiar to the Bible, and it is frequently used in the
poetry of Greece and Rome : we also use the same compari-
son, considering the term applicable to our lion-hearted King
Richard. In the 12th chapter of the first book of Chroni-
cles occurs the singular expression, "Men of war, fit for the
battle, that could handle shield and buckler, whose faces
were like the faces of lions." This is a forcible comparison,
for few things in the animal creation are more terrible than
the appearance of an enraged lion. The 'Pictorial Bible' has
the following remark on this text:-" We are inclined to
suspect that the sacred historian had also in view the strong
resemblance which the face of the lion bears to that of man.


Aristotle thought this resemblance greater than existed in
any other animal, and we are not aware that our acquaint-
ance with a great number of animals not known to him has
tended to weaken this conclusion. There is no other animal,
the face of which is compared to the human, in Scripture."
The allusions to the "king of beasts" are too numerous
to particularize, but there is an interesting parable in the
prophet Ezekiel, in which a lamentation for the princes of
Israel is expressed under the figure of lions' whelps taken
in a pit, to which I would call the attention of my readers,
as a specimen of oriental imagery, showing that the habits
of the lion were well understood by the prophet. The first
lion's whelp is supposed to signify Jehoahaz, who was car-
ried prisoner into Egypt by Pharaoh Necho; the second,
Jehoiakim, or his son Jeconiah, in all probability the former,
as it is said in 2 Chron. xxxvi. that Nebuchadnezzar bound
him in fetters, to carry him to Babylon.
The hunting of the lion, as well as other wild animals,
formed a great amusement in most oriental countries, and
this practice, no doubt, gave rise to much of the imagery
the language of the prophets, in which are frequent allusions
to nets, snares, and pits, showing the manner in which the
denizens of the forest were subdued by the art of man.


Thus, in Psalms, "The sorrows of hell compassed me
about; the anares of death prevented me." "The proud
have hid a snare for me, and cords; they have spread a
set by the wayside; they have set gins for me." In the
sculptures on a rock at Takt-i-Bostan, in Persia, is repre-
sented a -large enclosure, formed of poles and nets, into
which the animals are being driven by hunters on elephants
or horses, who are engaged in slaughtering them with spears
and arrows. Plutarch mentions hunting nets belonging to
the Macedonian conquerors, capable of enclosing a space
measuring a hundred furlongs.
"The lion, as an ancient Christian symbol, is of frequent
recurrence, more particularly in architectural decorations.
Antiquarians are not agreed as to the exact meaning at-
tached to the mystical lions placed in the porches of so many
old Lombard churches, sometimes with an animal, some-
times with a man in their paws. But we find that the lion
was an ancient symbol of the Redeemer, 'the lion of the
tribe of Judah;' also of the resurrection of the Redeemer,
because, according to an Oriental fable, the lion's cub was
born dead, and in three days its sire licked it into life. In
this sense it occurs in the windows of the cathedral at
Bourges. The lion also typifies solitude-the wilderness,


and in this sense is placed near St. Jerome, and other saints
who did penance or lived as hermits in the desert, as in
the legends of St. Paul the hermit, St. Mary of Egypt, St.
Onofrio. Further, the lion is an attribute denoting death
in the amphitheatre, and with this signification is placed
near certain martyrs, as St. Ignatius, St. Euphemia. The
lion, as the type of fortitude and resolution, was placed at
the feet of those martyrs who had suffered with singular
courage, as St. Natalia. When other wild beasts, as wolves
and bears, are placed at the feet of a saint attired as a
bishop or abbot, it signifies that he cleared waste lands, cut
down forests, and substituted Christian culture and civiliza-
tion for paganism and the lawless hunter's life; such is the
signification in pictures of St. Magnus, St. Florentius, and
St. Germain of Auxerre."*
FEI s LEOPADUUS.-The Leopard.
The Leopard is about four feet in length, to the tail,
which measures two and a half; the colour is pale yellow,
with black spots, formed of a cluster of smaller ones. This
animal is often confounded with the panther, from which it
may, however, be distinguished by its lighter colour, and
the comparatively small size of the markings, which are also
Mr. Jameson's' Legendary Art.'


less distinct. The leopard is an active, graceful animal,
fierce and rapacious, like most of its tribe, and is generally
captured by means of snares or pitfalls. One species seems
to have been of frequent occurrence in Palestine, as several
places bear its name; there seems to be no question that the
leopard was meant, as the word used denotes this aninial
in the Chaldee, Syriac, and Ethiopian languages; and in
Jeremiah xiii. there is an allusion to its spotted skin : Can
the Ethiopian change his skin, or the leopard his spots ?"
The leopard is still met with in Syria and Arabia, though
by no means abundantly; its swiftness is proverbial in all
countries where it is known, and suggested the idea of
taming and using it in the chase. In Habakkuk, ch. i., is
the following expression:--"Their horses also are swifter
than the leopards." Harmer suggests that the figure here
employed may have been more striking to the people, from
their having seen the prodigious feats of leopards used in
the royal chase. They were certainly thus employed in
ancient Egypt, as is shown by their paintings; but it is
rarely that they are used for this purpose in Western Asia
at the present day, the practice being still common in the
East. In India the cheetah is most frequently employed,
and there seems little doubt that the species known to the


Proverbs 30.26

21ate 2.

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ancients, and common in Palestine, was Felie jubata, the
hunting leopard (thus agreeing with the frequent allusions
to its swiftness); this species being now found in those
countries known to the ancients, while the Feli Leopardue
is principally obtained from the Eastern Archipelago, with
which they had little communication.

DIPUs sAGrrrA.-The Jerboa. (Plate II.)
There is no animal mentioned by this name in the Scrip-
tures, but it is supposed that wherever the word mouse oc-
curs, a species of Dipus is intended. The singular genus to
which it belongs is a connecting link between the squirrel
and the rat, while the enormous size of the hind legs and
tail give it a great general resemblance to the kangaroo.
The body of the most common species measures about eight
inches, and the tail no less than ten, terminated by a tuft of
black hair; the colour is a tawny yellow; the head is short,
the ears thin, broad, upright, and rounded; the eyes large
and dark; the fore legs about an inch in length, the hind
legs extremely long, and greatly resembling those of a bird;


on each side the nose are several long hairs. This little
animal generally stands on its hind feet, and leaps to a great
distance; it employs the fore feet in feeding, putting to its
mouth the corn and various vegetable substances on which
it lives. Jerboas burrow in dry and clayey ground, making
holes of considerable length, leading to large nests, which
have generally only one opening, though there is commonly
a passage to within a short distance of the surface, as a
means of escape from danger; in these holes they sleep
during the day, coming out at sunset. They are very
abundant in Egypt and Syria; the flesh, though eaten by
the natives of the East, is unsavoury. Mice are mentioned
amongst those animals which were interdicted to the Jews
as food by the laws of Moses, in Leviticus xi., and again
in 1 Samuel vi., as "mice that mar the land:" this expres-
sion is particularly applicable to the jerboa, as its food being
entirely vegetable, great numbers would indeed "mar the
land," and prove very injurious to cultivation.
LEPus.-The Hare.
The Common Hare, Lepus timidu, presents all the cha-
racters of the genus in so great a degree, as to form its
most perfect type. Its sight and hearing are the most acute;
its timidity is unequalled; and its swiftness is surpassed by


none. The usual length of the hare is about two feet, the
colour reddish-grey above and white beneath; the upper lip
is divided; the eyes large and prominent, and said to be
constantly open even during sleep; the tail is very short,
and turned up. It lives principally in dry and flat grounds;
feeds at night on various kinds of herbage, preferring those
of a milky and succulent nature; and often does great in-
jury to wheat and young plantations. The female produces
three or four young ones at a time, and has several broods
in a year: they seldom exceed the age of seven or eight
years, and many enemies besides man contribute to thin
their numbers, which would otherwise multiply to an in-
convenient degree.
There are many known species, such as Lepus varia-
bili, which is found only in mountainous districts in cold
countries, changing its colour from black or dark grey to
white, according to locality and climate, and even to the
different seasons. Lep.u Capen8si is peculiar to the country
near the Cape of Good Hope; it very much resembles
L. timidue in colour. Lepus Tolai is rather larger than
the common hare; it inhabits the plains of Mongolia and
Tibet. Many varieties occur in different parts of Asia;
and to one or more of these, reference is made in the llth


chapter of Leviticus, where they are included with those
animals forbidden by the legislator to be used as food by
the Hebrews. "And the hare, because he cheweth the
cud, but divideth not the hoof, he is unclean to you."
The statement that the hare does chew the cud, has been
disputed by naturalists; but Cowper, who domesticated
three of these animals, says, "they chewed the cud all
day;" thus confirming the decision of Moses. The hare
is pursued and eaten by the Bedouin Arabs and other
Mahomedan nomades, as they are found in great numbers
in western Asia. They are not forbidden by the Koran
as articles of food, but are classed by Moslem doctors as
"abominable," though legally allowed.

HIPPOPoTAMUs AMPHnIIUs. The River Horse. (Plate III.)
This gigantic animal is in bulk little inferior to the ele-
phant, but its legs being much shorter, give it a more di-
minutive as well as more clumsy appearance. The head is
immensely large, the mouth very wide, provided with large
strong teeth, the tusks often measure two feet, and are


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curved forwards; the lips are very thick, the nostrils and
eyes small; the ears small and slightly pointed; the tail
short, thick, and sparingly clothed with hair; the feet are
large, and have four toes, terminated in separate hoofs.
The general colour is dark brown, lighter underneath. The
hippopotamus walks about at the bottom of rivers, raising
its head at intervals for the purpose of respiration: at night
it leaves its watery residence to eat the herbage that grows
on the banks and in the neighboring pastures; it also
destroys trees, and commits great havoc in the maize, rice,
and sugar plantations. The female produces only one at
a birth, which she nurses with great care; the flesh is eaten
by the Africans, and for this purpose the animal is taken
by pitfalls.
The hippopotamus was formerly known in the lower
regions of the Nile, but is at present seldom found in
Egypt, though continuing to inhabit the rivers of Africa
and the lakes of Abyssinia and Ethiopia. The word "hip-
popotamus" is not mentioned in the Bible, but the Beke-
moth, named in Job, ch. xl., is now generally supposed to
be that animal, and, indeed, the description is singularly
applicable. "Behold now Behemoth, which I made with
thee, he eateth grass as an ox: lo, now his strength is in


his loins, and his force in the navel of his belly. He
moveth his tail like a cedar. .'. His bones are as strong
pieces of brass, his bones are like bars of iron. He
lieth under the shady trees, in the covert of the reed and
the fens. The shady trees cover him with their shadow,
the willows of the brook compass him about. Behold, he
drinketh up a river and hasteth not, he trusteth that he
can draw up Jordan into his mouth."
The word Behemoth is a very remarkable one; it is plural,
and yet denotes one animal; whereas the singular of the
same word is a noun of multitude, properly rendered by
cattle or beasts. The plural form is applied to one animal
to express its pre-eminence: what animal was intended has
caused much discussion. All the alterations which have
been suggested are limited to the animals belonging to
Cuvier's class Packydermata-thick-skinned. To this class
equally belong the elephant, the hippopotamus, and some
extinct species of enormous animals, as the mastodon,
mammoth, and others. The determination in favour of
the elephant has found some distinguished advocates, but
if that remarkable animal had been intended, we should
have scarcely failed, in so precise a description, to recognize
some reference to its more peculiar characteristics,-its pro.


boscis, its tusks, its docility, and sagacity. It is possible
that the creature here alluded to is extinct, but certainly
the description agrees remarkably well with the hippopota-
mus, and still more so in the original than in our trans-
lation. The Jews have a curious and absurd notion on
this subject. They hold that Behemoth is a large animal
which has subsisted since the creation, and which is re-
served to be fattened, for the feast to be enjoyed by pious
Jews in the days of the Messiah. Every day he eats up all
the grass of a thousand hills, and at each draught swallows
as much water as the Jordan yields in the course of
six months. Such is or has been their opinion*.
"He eateth grass as an ox." This seems to have been
considered and noticed as something remarkable; and it
certainly is so in the case of the hippopotamus, which, being
an inhabitant of the water, still eats the produce of the
land. The last verse is in our translation very obscure,
but that of Boothroyd agrees very well with an amphibious
animal, such as the river-horse :-
"Lo, should a river overflow, he hasteneth not;
He is secure, though Jordan rush to his mouth."

* Notes to the Pictorial Bible.'


HnRAx SYm cus.-The Daman. (Plate II.)
This little animal, supposed by many writers to be "the
coney" of Scripture, belongs to a curious genus of small
rabbit-like animals, which chiefly inhabit Africa and Syria,
living in rocky and mountainous districts, and leaping with
great agility from one crag to another. They resemble rab-
bits both in size and colour; the limbs are short, and they are
destitute of a tail; the head is rather small, the ears short
and round, the eyes large and black. They subsist on
grain, fruit, roots, herbs, and grass; are easily tamed, and
prove lively, active, and docile when domesticated. "It is
on the sole authority of the Rabbinical writers that the
akaphan has been identified with the coney, or rabbit. That
this conclusion cannot be correct is very evident, for the
rabbit is not an Asiatic animal, and it is far from being
solicitous of a rocky habitation, which is the distinguish-
ing characteristic by which the saphan is here denoted.
Some, therefore, who reject this explanation, suppose the
Jerboa to be intended; and this opinion has the sanction
of Bochart, probably from his being unacquainted with the
Daman, or Hyrax Syriacus, which corresponds far better
than any other animal that has been found, to the brief
intimations which the Scriptures convey. Daman is the


Syrian name of the animal; the Arabs call it Nabr, and the
Abyssinians skkoko."* Its colour is grey, mixed with
reddish-brown, and white underneath.
RuHIocEBOS.-(Plate III. Rinsoceros African.)
This uncouth-looking animal is supposed to be the Uni-
corn of the Scriptures; it inhabits the hotter regions of
Asia and Africa: that of Asia is usually about twelve feet
long, and seven in height; the head is rather large, having
a very protruding upper lip, which is extremely pliable,
and answers the purpose of a small proboscis; the ears are
moderately large, and pointed; the eyes small, and half-
closed; from the bones on the nose rises a slightly curved,
solid, sharp-pointed horn, which sometimes measures three
feet in length, though more usually about eighteen inches.
The skin is thick and coarse, with a granulated surface, suf-
ficiently impenetrable on the body and limbs to resist the
claws of the lion or tiger, and the sword or shot of the
hunter; the tail is slender; the legs short, strong, and thick,
and the feet divided into three large hoofs. The rhinoceros
is naturally of a quiet, peaceful disposition, but very dan-
gerous when provoked, trampling down or ripping with its
horn any animal which attacks or opposes it. It leads a
Pictorial Bible.

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