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Catechetical theology, for youth

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Title:
Catechetical theology, for youth especially of Bible-classes and Sabbath-schools
Creator:
Ford, John, 1787-1872
Dodd, Moses Woodruff, 1813-1899 ( Publisher )
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New York
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M.W. Dodd
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English
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159 p. : ; 16 cm.

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Presbyterian Church -- Catechisms, English -- Juvenile literature ( lcsh )
Sunday school literature ( lcsh )
Children's questions and answers ( lcsh )
Catechisms -- 1851 ( rbgenr )
Embossed cloth bindings (Binding) -- 1851 ( rbbin )
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Catechisms ( rbgenr )
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non-fiction ( marcgt )
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United States -- New York -- New York
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juvenile ( marctarget )

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Funding:
Brittle Books Program
Statement of Responsibility:
by John Ford.

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CATECHETICAL THEOLOGY,

FOR YOUTH;

ESPECIALLY OF

Pible-Classes aut Sobboth-Sebouls,

BY

JOHN FORD,

PASTOR OF THE PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH_AT PARSIPPANY,
NEW JERSEY.

NEW-YORK:
PUBLISHED BY M. W. DODD,
BRICK CHURCH CHAPEL, OPPOSITE THE CITY HALL,
1851.



Entered, according to Act of Congress, in the year 1851, by
M. W. DODD,

in the Clerk’s Office of the District Court of the Southern District of
New-York.



PREFACE.

On the importance of catechetical instruction, a single page
or paragraph would be superfluous. The public sentiment as
to this mode of instruction for youth, ie settled ; and has been
for centuries : as the various catechetical treatises, both sacred
and profane, from Socrates down to the present day, demon-
strate. But if any thing be considered prerequisite, as intro-
ductory of another catechetical essay, it will probably be an
apology for adding another to the heavy burdens of the same
or similar species of publications, under which the shelves of
our booksellers are already groaning. And yet the author of
the following knows of none who would claim any apology
unless the special friends of the Westminster Divines. But
amongst these friends he claims place; for he verily believes
that the Westminster Catechism is the richest book of its size
in the world, and ought to be studied and committed ; this, or
any others that have been, are, or may be hereafter, notwith-
standing.

“But if that be so good why publish any thing else?” We
might about as well say, now that we have so many good ser-
mons already printed, why publish any more, or any more
religious essays, tracts, or volumes? The question answers
itself: and the answer is, that even if no new ideas should be
presented, the different modes of illustration, adapting them-
selves to the ever varying postures, circumstances, and edu-
cations of the human mind, seem highly important to the
production of the best results.

But another, and the chief reason for the appearance of the
following pages, is that the author knows of no book adapted



4 PREFACE.

to fill the place of this: and he has long found the subjoined
course of instruction necessary, for his own Bible classes; and
from what brethren in the ministry of highest standing in the
churches have said, as well as from convictions in his own
closet, he ventures to hope it may be useful to others: not to
supersede the Union questions, nor the Westminster Cate-
chism, nor any others of kindred character ; but as an humble
aid and addition to them all.

As this was originated and is now intended, chiefly for
Bible classes, it will not be thought strange that so many of
the answers are simply softptural language, and especially on
controverted points.

The theology contained, which will of course be denomi-
nated Calvinistic, it is hoped will not be found offensive to
any; and although neither this book nor any other will be
considered Orthodox by ai the multiformed and multifaced
and ever-shifting Calvinism of the present day, yet it ishoped
that the conservative character of this will preserve it from
violent assault from any; for if Calvinists ever hold together
as a body, they must consent to permit those that say Sibbo-
leth and those that say Shibboleth to walk the heavenly way
together. On one point toward the close, on which so much
has beeri said and printed and published on both sides, espe-
cially of late, the author hopes that, for obvious reasons, he
may be excused for saying so little, Commending the fore-
going pages to God and the prayers of his people, his prayer
is that they may be conducive to the instruction, sanctification,
and salvation of thousands of our beloved youth. JF,



THEOLOGICAL CATECHISM

FOR YOUTH.
———

1. What is man?

A being with soul and body.

2. What is the soul or mind ?

That which thinks.

3. What kind of a being is man?

A free moral agent.

4. What is a free agent?

One that acts from choice; like the birds of the
air, or the beasts on the mountains.

5. What ts it to choose?

Of different things offered, to decide which to

e.

6. What is a moral agent ?

A free agent that has reason and conscience.

7. What ts reason?

The power of inferring one truth from another.

8. What ts conscience?

That faculty which approves what it deems right
and feels bound to do it; condemns what it deems
wrong, and feels bound to avoid it.

\*



6 THEOLOGICAL CATECHISM FOR YOUTH.

9. Is conscience an infallible guide?

No; Paul’s conscience deemed it right to per-
secute and slaughter men for being Christians.

10. Whatis necessary to keep conscience free from
mistakes ?

Bible knowledge; and freedom from all bias to
evil.

11. What is the difference between ricut and
WRONG?

Doing our duty is Right. Violating or neglect-
ing duty is Wrong.

12. What is duty?

Whatever we are under obligation to do.

13. From what does moral obligation arise?

From characters, contracts and reiations.

14. How from characters ?

Excellence in character deserves and therefore
demands our love; wickedness in character our
abhorrence.

15. How does moral obligation arise from rela-
tions and contracts?

All lawful contracts or engagements we are
bound to fulfil; and the mutual relations between
Creator and creature; parent and child; ruler and
subject, &c., &e., create mutual obligations which
all are in duty bound to perform.

16. Can any one be under obligation to fulfil a
wicked promise or contract ?

No; never; but to break it immediately.

17. To whom are we in duty bound ?

To God, our fellow creatures, and ourselves.

18. How far does the subject of right and wrong,
or of moral obligation, extend ?

To the whole field of morality and religion.



THEOLOGICAL CATECHISM FOR YOUTH. 7

19. What ts Religion ?

Obeying God.

20. What ts sin?

Disobeying God.

21. But does not religion embrace also love, faith,
submission, &c., as well as obedience ?

- Yes; but as God commands all these and all

other duties, obeying God would embrace them all.

22. Are some things right because God com-
mands them, and others wrong because he forbids
them ? ,

No (except in positive institutions); but he com-
mands certain things because they are right; and
forbids others because they are wrong

23. Have you any Scripture proof of this?

Yes; “children obey your parents in the Lord,
for this is right.” Eph. 6: 1.

24. If nothing be right or wrong in itself, and
God’s command alone make a thing right, then
what can be meant by saying that God's law is
right, and that God himself is right ?

Nothing. Neither God nor his law could have
any moral character.

25. What is the fundamental principle of right?
Moral Virtue? or Goodness ?
Love, or Benevolence.

‘26. How do you prove that?
Reason teaches that love to God and man would
lead to every duty to both.

27. Do the Scriptures, too, make love the funda-
mental principle ?

Yes; for they tell us that “God is love ;” that
“love is the fulfilling of the law;” and that “on



8 THEOLOGICAL CATECHISM FOR YOUTH.

this hang all the law and the prophets.” Jno. 4:
8 Rom. 13: 10; Matt. 2: 40.

28. What is morality?
Duty done to man, without regard to God.

29. What is the difference between morality and
religion?

Religion is duty done to both God and man,
because commanded of God; morality, duty done
to man only, without respect to God.

30. Is that all the difference?

No; for morality seeks man’s temporal interests
only; religion, both his temporal and eternal in-
terests.

31. Can the same action or course of action be
religion in one case and mere morality in another ?

Yes; honest dealing, done from obedience to
God’s commands, is Religion: done irrespectively
of God, it is mere morality.

32. May some of the commendable actions of re-
ligious men be mere morality ?

Yes, many; and none save those done from obe-
dience to God have any religion in them.

33. Is there any difference between religion and
moral excellence?

Yes; religion is morally excellent, because it is
obedience to God’s excellent commands: but true
benevolence is moral excellence and our duty, were
there no law, and no God to command it.

34. Which may ue predicate of God, religion
or moral excellence ?

Moral excellence; for as religion consists in
obeying God, it can pertain to his creatures only.



THEOLOGICAL CATECHISM FOR YOUTH. 9

35. Which existed first, religion or moral ex-
cellence? . °

Moral excellence existed in God, from all eter-
nity; but religion has existed only since the exist-
ence of his law and his creatures.

36. Is there any difference between sin and wick-
edness?

Yes; sin is always wicked, because a violation
of God’s excellent law; but malice is wickedness ;
and we are bound to shun it, even were there no
law and no God in the universe to forbid it.

37. Are such distinctions of any use or benefit?

Yes; for it is of great importance for us to un-
derstand that there is an intrinsic, total, and eter-
nal difference between right and wrong in them-
selves ; independently of all law or command ; and
uncreated even by the will of God himself.

38. What further good may such distinctions do?

Enable us to understand the Scriptures when
they tell us that “God is good;” and his “law
good; and to see and-feel that every rational crea-
ture in the world and in the universe, with law or
without law, is under absolute and eternal obliga-
tion to do right; and to see the inexcusable wick-
edness of doing any thing that is wrong in itself.

39. What is false religion ?

Devotion to false gods; or to false views and
practices in regard to the true God,

40. How many kinds of false religions are in the
world ?
_ Four; polytheism, pantheism, atheism, and de-
ism.

41. What is polytheism ?

A belief in many gods.



10 THEOLOGICAL CATECHISM FOR YOUTH.

42. In how many gods have men believed ?

The ancient Greeks and Romans had tens of
thousands; the present Hindoos hundreds of mil-
lions.

43. What is pantheism ?

The belicf that every thing is God.

44. What 1s atheism ?

The belief that there is no God.

45. What ts deism ?

Belief in a God, but not in the Bible.

46. What ts theology ?

That science which treats of God.

47, How many kinds of theology are there?

Two; natural and revealed.

48. What is the difference ?

Natural theology teaches what may be known of
God from the mere light of nature; Revealed, that
which the Bible teaches concerning Him.

49, What is discoverable by the hght of nature?

The existence, the character, and the will of God ;
man’s duty, and a future state of rewards and pun-
ishments.

50. But if all this be discoverable from the mere
light of nature, what need of a revelation ?

Though discoverable, it is not discovered, and
never would be by the light of nature alone; be-
cause sinful man loves darkness rather than light,
and never would seek for truth or duty as he ought.

51. Is there any important truth man never could
Jind out from the light of nature, however faithful in
study he might be ?

Yes; one. important above all others, and that
is the way of pardon and salvation through Christ.



THEOLOGICAL CATECHISM FOR YOUTH. 11

This man never could learn without a revelation
from God. :

52. Who is God ?

The creator of the universe.

53. What is the universe ?

All worlds, and all creatures.

54. How can you prove from the mere light of na-
ture that the universe ever was created? How do
you know it has not existed always, and the crea-
tures come down from sire to son, without any be-
ginning ?

Because that would be an infinite series; and
an infinite series is an impossibility.

55. What do you mean by an infinite series?
A chain with an infinite number of links would
be an infinite series.

56. Why would an infinite series be impossible ?

Because each link in a chain is a finite thing;
and no number of finites can make an infinite. As
every link has its end, so must every chain like-
wise; but an infinite chain would be an endless
chain.

57. How else do you know that an endless series
ts impossible ?

Because subtracting one link would shorten the
chain; and continuing to shorten, would of course
come to an end. Besides; an infinite number of
ages would contain a greater infinite of years, days,
&c., and thus one infinite be greater than another,
which is absurd.

58. Suppose there could be an infinite series,
would every link in the chain, or every creature in
the whole series, furnish in itself unanswerable de-



12 THEOLOGICAL CATECHISM FOR YOUTH.

monstration that the universe had a maker,and that
there is a God?

Yes ; just as unanswerable demonstration as does
a timepiece or steamship that it had a maker, and
far greater still.

59. How do you know they had a maker ?

By the design and contrivance they exhibit.

60. What do you mean by design ?

The purpose or end to be attained. The design
of the timepiece is to carry the hours of the day.

61. What do you mean by contrivance ?

The means to accomplish anend. All the wheels
and machinery in a timepiece are the contrivance to
accomplish the design for which it was made.

62. What renders theargument from design and
contrivance so strong and unanswerable?

This; that there cannot be contrivance without a
contriver, nor design without a designing mind.

63. Do you find design and contrivance in the
works of nature?

Yes, both.

64 Is there as much of design and contrivance in
the works of nature as in a watch or steamer ?

Yes; thousands and millions to one.

65. In what world or creature do you find design
and contrivance ?

In every world, and every creaturé, and every
part of every creature, world, and atom.

66. Mention any part of any creature wherein you
find design and contrivance.

The eye, the ear, the hand, the foot, the fin, the
wing, the tooth, the stomach, &., &c., &c.

67. What is the design of the eye?

To see.



THEOLOGICAL CATECHISM FOR YOUTH. 18

68. What its contrivance ?

All the various machinery within ; its fluids, len-
ses, &c., to answer its design. _

69. Are there other instances of design in other
parts of animals ?

Yes; every part of every animal exhibits design
and skill far surpassing all the works of art to-
gether.

70. In what creature do you find exhibitions of
the most consummate skill and design ?

In man.

71. Do, then, every limb and organ, of the being
who denies the existence of a God furnish unan-
swerable evidence that there is one ?

Most certainly.

72. Do the worlds themselves furnish evidence
decisive of the being of a God?

Yes; the whole frame of nature is one great
clockwork—one vast machinery of matchless skill
and power. .

73. Do the movements of nature prove the existence
of a God ?

Yes ; for there cannot be motion without a mover ;
and none but power great enough to create the uni-
verse is great enough to perform all the mighty
movements within and around us.

74. Do the powers of the soul also prove a crea-
tor ?

Yes; for such noble powers of mind never could
have come into existence without a cause.

75. Is the very being, then, who denies the exist-
ence of a God a double demonstration of the truth
that he denies?

Yes; both his body and his soul, and especially

2



14 THEOLOGICAL CATECHISM FOR YOUTH.

do those very powers of soul which argue against
the being of a God unanswerably prove there is
one.

76. What kind of a being, then, is he that denies
his God ?

It is “the fool that saith in his heart, There is
no God.”

77. Have you any other arguments to prove the
existence of a God, and the foolishness of atheism ?

Yes; but the argument from design and contri-
vance is enough without any more.

78, What ts practical Atheism ?

Believing in the existence of a God, and yet liv-
ing as if there were none.

79. Are there any practical Atheists in Christian
lands?

Yes, millions.

80. Are you one of that number ?

81. Can any one fully believe there ts a God and
yet live as uf there were none?

82. Do you beleve the Bible ?

83. Do u live as if you believed rt 2

84. How,do you know that the Bible is true?

We have many proofs of its truth.

85. Mention a few.

We have tavo preliminary arguments; the first is
the great probability that a revelation has been

iven, and the certainty that no book but the Bible
eserves the name.

86. Why is 2% probable that a revelation has been
given?

Because man stands in perishing need of a reve-
lation; and God is too good to leave him perishing
for what he could so easily supply.



THEOLOGICAL CATECHISM FOR YOUTH. 15

87 Wherein appears man's perishing need of a
revelation ?

In his utter and awful ignorance of his God, and
his Saviour; his duty and his destiny ; and in the
degradation and barbarity of his nature where no
gospel influence has ever reached him.

88. How great, then, is the probability that a re-
velation has been given?

Just about as great as that God is good, and that
he desires the welfare of his creatures, present and
eternal.

89. But does not the light of nature which God
has set before us, and the knowledge thereby set with-
in man’s reach, if that light were duly studied, vindi-
cate God's goodness, even though no further light
were given?

The light of nature alone leaves man without ex-
cuse; but it could never save, however faithfully
improved, because it never could lead to the know-
ledge of the Saviour, and, therefore, without a reve-
lation man must perish at last.

90. But would not man be saved, even without the
knowledge of the Saviour, if he faithfully studied
and fully obeyed the light and law of nature?

Yes, if he believed without error, and obeyed
without fault, from the beginning to the end of life ;
but no man does it, or ever will; and, therefore,
without a Saviour revealed, we perish.

91. How then stands the question at last as to the
probability that a revelation has been given ?

It is just as probable as that a God of infinite
goodness would give us effectual means of know-
ledge and happiness here; and the possebility of
eternal happiness hereafter.



16 THEOLOGICAL CATECHISM FOR YOUTH.

92. Does it then need any very strong argument
to prove what ts in itself so probable as to be almost
certain, prior to any direct argument on the sub-

rect ?
7 No; but we have arguments strong and all-suf-
ficient.

93. Would arguments such as to force conviction
be proper on moral subjects ?

No; only enough to satisfy a candid, and patient,
and prayerful mind ; for in forced belief there could
be no moral character, good or evil. Evidence on
moral subjects must be so left as to try the honesty
of the heart.

94. What is your second preliminary argument ?

This: that by the mere light of nature we know
that almost all the Bible is true—all its great and
leading doctrines.

95. What great and leading doctrines do we
know, or might we know, from the mere light of na-
ture, of faithfully and prayerfully studied ?

The being and attributes of God; our duties to
God and one another ; the soul’s immortality ; future
rewards and punishments; that we are in perish-
ing need of pardon’and deliverance from sin, but
that in the light of nature there is no hope of par-
don and salvation for a sinner, consistently with the
law and justice or holiness of God.

96. What one doctrine of the Bible ws there, then,
not proved by the light of nature?

That there is hope for man, and a way of pardon
and salvation opened ‘for sinners through Jesus
Christ.

97. How can any one, then, deny and resist that
blessed book, for giving man his only hope?



THEOLOGICAL CATECHISM *oR YOUTH. 17

Because man’s wicked heart hates a book and a
God so holy; and therefore it is that the most con-
elusive arguments leave many infidels still.

98. What are the four principal and direct proofs
of the truth of the Bible?

Its miracles and prophecies, its object and ef-
fects.

99. What is a miracle?

A counteraction of the laws of nature ; like stop-
ping the sun; dividing the sea; raising the dead, &c.

100. How do miracles prove the truth of the
Scriptures?

As none but the power of God can work a miracle,
miracles wrought in proof of the Scripture must
prove it came from God.

101. But have not miracles been wrought by ma-
gic or satanic power ?

No; no magician or evil spirit ever wrought
any miracle, unless by power given of God, and
given to prove not disprove the truth of the Bible
religion.

102. Jf, then, we can prove that the Scripture
miracles were really wrought, will that be decisive evi-
dence that the Bible is from God ?

Yes, absolutely unanswerable ; because no power
but that which created the laws of nature can re-
verse or control them.

103. How then can you prove that miracles were
ever really wrought in proof of Scripture?

We have many proofs.

104. Mention a few of them.

One is, that the Bible says so, and says it with
all apparent simplicity and sincerity of style and
manner, descending to all the particulars of time,

Q*



18 § THEOLOGIC#L CATECHISM FOR YOUTH.

place, and circumstance, as no counterfeiters would
dare to do.

105. Why would not counterfeiters dare descend
to particulars ?

Because descending to particulars always endan-
gers false men to detection.

106. What is your second proof?

The memorials of the miracles set up at the time,
and continued to the present day.

107. What memorials ?
Such as Circumcision, the Passover, the Christian
Sabbath, &c.

108. Of what miracle was Curcumcision the memo-
rial?

That of God's appearance to Abraham, and enter-
ing into covenant with him.

109. How far and how long has Cireumcision
been practised ?

Amongst all the descendants of Abraham, Isaac,
and Ishmael, Jews, Arabians, and Mohammedans,
from Abraham to the present hour.

110. Of what miracle is the Passover a memorial ?

That of the destroying angel’s passing by the
first-born of Israel, and slaying all the first-born of
the Egyptians.

11. Of what miraclers the Christian Sabbath
the memorial ?

The miracle of Christ’s rising from the dead on
the first day of the week.

112. How do these memorials prove that the mir-
acles were really wrought ?

Just as our fourth of July celebration of inde-
pendence proves that on that day independence
was really declared.



THEOLOGICAL CATECHISM @OR YOUTH. i9

113. Have we any other memorials besides the
three above mentioned ?

Yes; all our Bibles, and churches, and church
services; indeed the whole existence, operations
and progress of the Bible religion, based on mira-
cles from the beginning, are standing memorials of
the truth of those miracles on which our religion
was founded.

114. Whats your third proof of the fact that
the miracles were really wrought ?

The Jews adopting, obeying. and continuing in
the law of Moses.

115. How does their adopting and obeying Mo-
ses’ law prove the reality of the miracles ?

Because Moses appealed to the miracles as the
support of his law: and his law required sacrifices
they never would have submitted to, if they had
not known the truth of the miracles by which it
was attested.

116. What sacrifices did the law of Moses re-
quire ?

At least one fifth of all their annual incomes,
Numb. 18: 21, Deut. 14: 22, 28, besides all their
stated and occasional offerings; in addition to all
their bloody rites and burdensome ceremonies ; and
the self-loving and money-loving Jews, never would
have sacrificed so much of money, toil and blood, to
follow aleader they knew to be false; and to obey
laws they knew to be falsely imposed.

"117. But how would they know Moses to be false
and his law falsely imposed?
Because he appealed to their own eyes and ears
for the truth of the miracles; and if they had not
been performed, they would of course have known



20 THEOLOGICAL CATECHISM FOR YOUTH.

that Moses was an impostor and his law falsely
palmed upon them.

118. Where do you find any such appeals?

One of many is in Deut. 11: 2, 3, “I speak not
with your children, who have not seen his miracles,
but your eyes have seen all the great works of the
Lord.— Therefore, shall ye keep all his com-
mandments” Also, Deut. 7: 10 and 5: 34, &e.

119. Does the same argument apply with equal
Jorce in proof of the New Testament ?

Yes, and far greater.

120. Why greater ?

Because to follow Christ and his religion, still
greater sacrifices were required; and required on
the ground of the miracles: for the truth of which
their eyes and ears were appealed to, as in the case
of Moses. .

121. What sacrifices did the New Testament re-
quire?

To give up all, and even life itself, whenever the
interests of religion demanded.

122. Did any of the early disciples suffer the loss
of all things for Christ's sake ?

Yes; of property, friends. home, country, and
even life itself, by the sword or at the stake, in the
assertion or propagation of their religion.

123. How do you know they did?

Christ himself declares they should thus suffer;
and the best histories, both sacred and profane, de-
clare they did.

124. What does Christ foretell that his disciples
should suffer ?

“ Behold I send you forth as sheep in the midst
of wolves ; they will deliver you up to councils, and



THEOLOGICAL CATECHISM FOR YOUTH. 21

scourge you in their synagogues;” “The brother
shall deliver up the brother to death, and the fa-
ther the child; the children shall rise up against
their parents and cause them to be put to death ;”
“ Ye shall be hated of all men for my name’s sake.”
“Yea, the time cometh, that whosoever Ail/eth you,
will think that he doeth God service.” Matt. 10:
16,22. Jn. 16: 2

125. But how did Christ’s foretelling that they
should thus suffer, prove that they did ?

Because, if what he foretold did not come to
pass, he and his cause would have been forsaken as
false.

126. Did Christ too like Moses base his demand
for their faith and obedience on his miracles ?

Yes; for he says, “If I do not the works of my
Father believe me not.” Jn. 10: 37.

127. Does Christ ike Moses appeal to their own
eyes and ears for the truth of his miracles?

Yes; “ Ye do hear and see the blind receive their
' sight; the deaf hear; the dead are raised.” Matt. -
11: 5. Jn. 10. 37.

128. Do the appeals then of both Moses and
Christ, to the eyes and ears of those around them,
furnish decisive evidence that the miracles were
really wrought ?

Yes ; entirely decisive ; for if their eyes and ears
had not witnessed the miracles alleged, the laws
and sacrifices required by either Moses or Christ,
would never have been submitted to, but both have
been forsaken as false prophets, and their religion
have perished in the bud.

129. But might they not have been decetved—



Q2 THEOLOGICAL CATECHISM FOR YOUTH.

have thought the miracles really wrought, and yet
have been mistaken ?

No; it is impossible for them to have believed
they passed through the sea dry shod; fed on man-
na forty years; saw the dead raised; and that
themselves understood and spoke unknown tongues
unless it were true; and especially men of the
mind they possessed.

130. How do you know they were men of mind ?
Their writings prove it.

131. Have you any other argument in proof of
the miracles ?

Yes; the enemies of the cause themselves ad-
mitted the fact; such as Celsus, Julian, Por-
phyry, &e.

132. How many'miracles wrought in proof of the
Bible, would prove the Bible true?

One ; because none but God could work one real
miracle.

133. How many miracles were wrought in proof
of the Scriptures?

Tens of thousands.

134. When and where?

Tens of thousands in the gift of manna alone, for
forty years.

135. What is the second direct proof of the truth
of Scripture ?

Prophecy.

136. What is the argument from prophecy?

That no man, unless inspired of God, can utter
one clear independent prediction.

137. What do you mean by an independent pre-
diction ?



THEOLOGICAL CATECHISM FOR YOUTH. 23

One that does not depend on any known law of
nature. Any one can predict the rising of the sun;
the tides, eclipses, &c., for they depend on previ-
ously known laws of nature.

138. How many clear independent predictions
would prove the Scriptures to be true?

One; because none but God can foresee the
events of a single hour.

139. How many does the Bible contain ?

The Bible is one great system of prophecy from
beginning to end.

140. Give a few specimens of particular prophe-
cies.

The predictions concerning Ishmael and Esau ;
the four great kingdoms of antiquity; particulars
of the coming, the character, and death of Christ;
the destruction of Nineveh, of Babylon, Tyre,
Egypt, and Jerusalem; the dispersion and fate of
the Jews; the rise and progress of the man of sin,
&e., &e.. Gen. 16. Deut. 28. Ezek. 26th, 27th,
28th, 29th and 30th chapters. Isa. 23. Isa. 13th,
19: 22; also 14th and 5ist. Gen. 49: 10. Dan. 7th,
Isa. 53. 2. Thes. 2d, &e.

141. What is the third proof of the truth of
Scripture?

Its object.

142. What is the grand object of the sacred
Scriptures?

To make men holy and happy here and here-
after.

143. What does that prove?

It proves that the men who wrote and preached
a book so holy must be good men; for wicked men
would never toil and travel and suffer as they did,



24 THEOLOGICAL CATECHISM FOR YOUTH.

to put down wickedness, and make the world
holy.

144. But what of they were good men?

Good men would not utter falsehoods.

145. But might they not have been mere enthu-
stasts or fanatics?

No; a fanatic, is a wild-brained man; but there
is no wildness in them, or extravagance, but the
calmest reason.

146. What is your fourth great argument for the
truth of the Scriptures?
The effects of the Bible.

147. What are tts effects ?

It changes the whole face of the world where it
goes; revolutionizes all the usages of society ; en-
lightens, civilizes, elevates, purifies, and blesses the
nations for this world; and regenerates and saves
the soul for the next.

148. How do you know it regenerates the soul?

We have testimony such as is regarded by all
enlightened and candid courts as ample proof,
in any cause however great the stake at issue.

149. What kind of testimony have we?

First, that of many of the most enlightened, cool
and candid men, who would testify, if necessary,
that their minds have undergone a radical change
as to their highest affection, their highest aim ;
and their highest happiness.

150. But can a man testify as to what he feels?

Yes; just as well as to what he sees, provided
his feelings be strong and distinct. The sufferer
knows as well when he feels the thrills of pain, as
when he sees men or mountains before him.



THEOLOGICAL CATECHISM FOR YOUTH. 25

151. What other proof of regeneration ?

That of observation. We see men, and some-
times those who were once very wicked, radically
changed in their whole life and character: ready
to give, and sometimes actually giving up for the
cause of Christ, property, friends, home, and coun-
try; exiling themselves; and wearing out life in
some far distant and barbarous clime; and when
death comes, meeting it with a calmness, a joy,
yea, a glorious triumph, to which unregenerated
nature, even in its noblest forms, is an utter stran-
ger.

152. What further testimony ?

That of God Himself: for He declares that the
Christian is “born again ;” “a new creation ;” that
“old things are passed away and all things become
new.” 1 Pet. 1: 23. 2 Cor. 5: 17.

153, But do not many professors of religion ex-
hibit.a lifeand death of very inconsistent character?

Yes: because all are imperfect, and many have
no religion. "

154. How do you know that the Bible, coming
down through so many hands and so many ages,
has not been altered ; so altered that we cannot now
tell what tt was at first, giving perhaps statements
of miracles and prophecies, &c., §c., now, when no
such things were affirmed in the original copies ?

That is impossible: for the various translations
from the earliest centuries of Christianity, and the
various and jarring sects of nominal Christians,
watching each other, have kept the New Testa-
ment pure and unadulterated since the days of the
apostles: and then, all the Christian sects on the
one hand, and the Jews on the other, have kept
watch of the Old Testament, back to the days of

3



26 THEOLOGICAL CATECHISM FOR YOUTH.

Jesus Christ: thence the Septuagint translation
of the Old Testament into Greek bears witness to
the Hebrew for two hundred years further back;
and the Samaritan and Chaldean copies, and in-
deed the original Hebrew itself, proves its own pu-
rity back to the days of the prophets themselves;
and even to the days of the captivity; for no pure
Hebrew has been given to the world since then.

155. But have not the Bible and the Christian re-
ligion been the cause of more war and bloodshed in
the world than any and all other causes together ?

No; the want of religion, in those that bore the
Christian name, has often caused war and blood;
but not religion itself; for the religion of the Bi-
ble is love; and it is impossible that love should
produce hatred and war, but the contrary.

156. Where then must we go to find what the
religion of the Bible is? To wits abuses in the
world or to the Bible rtself ?

To the Bible itself.

157. In what way were the Sacred Scriptures im-
parted to mankind ?

By men inspired of God.

158. What do you mean by inspiration?

Divine teaching by supernatural influence.

159. How do you prove that the Scripture writers
were inspired of God ?

By their own declaration, confirmed by all the
miracles they wrought, and the prophecies they ut-
tered.

160. What do they affirm in regard to the inspi-
vation of the Old Testanvent ?



THEOLOGICAL CATECHISM FOR YvuUTH. 27

That “all Scripture is given by inspiration of
God.” 2 Tim. 3: 16. “Holy men of old spake as
they were moved by the Holy Ghost.” 2 Peter
1: i.

161. How do you know that that declaration refer-
red ta the Old Testament only or chiefly ?

The New Testament writings were not then col-
lected and added to the Old.

162. What affirmation or proof-that the New
Testament was also inspired ?

Christ promised the twelve apostles that his spirit
should guide them “into all truth ;” and we have
the testimony of Peter, one of the twelve, to the in-
spiration of Paul, who wrote more than all the rest.
John 16:13. 2 Peter 3: 16.

163. How many kinds of inspiration are there?

There are generally reckoned three—the inspi-
ration of elevation, superintendence, and sugges-
tion.

164. What is meant. by the inspiration of eleva-
tion ?

That of raising the mind to a sublimity of style
and sentiment entirely above what it could ever
reach unaided from on high.

165. What is the inspiration of superintendence ?

That guidance from God which taught the Scrip-
ture writers what facts, of those they knew, to re-
cord, and how to record them free from error.
John 21: 25.

166. What is the inspiration of suggestion?

Direct communications from God, like the Law on
Sinai, and the visions of the prophets.



28 THEQLOGICAL CATECHISM FOR YOUTH.

REVEALED THEOLOGY.

167. What do the Scriptures principally teach ?

The existence, the attributes, the agency, and the
will of God; the character, duty and destiny of
man.

168. Do the Scriptures assert the existence of

God ?

Yes; “There is one God." 1 Tim. 2:5.

169. What is God ?

“God is a spirit.” John 4: 24.

170. What is a spirit 2

A being without a body, like the soul after death.

171. Ave there more Gods. than one?

There is but one true God.

172. How do you prove that 2

From both Scripture and reason.

173. Give a Scripture proof.

“The Lord our God is one Lord.” Deut. 6: 4,
“God is one.” Gal. 3: 20.

174, How does reason prove the Divine unity ?

As one cause is sufficient to account for all things,
philosophy forbids us to suppose more. Besides,
the oneness of design in the whole creation indi-
cates that all is from one creator.

175. But did not the ancient Persians suppose
there were two different and opposite designs, indi-
cating two opposite and antagonistic deities—one
good, the other evil—one the author of all good, the
other of all evil—one of all joy, the other of all
sorrow—one the maker of the lamb, the other of the
wolf to devour the lamb—one the author of sick



THEOLOGICAL CATECHISM FOR YOUTH. 29

ness, the other of medicine to heal the sickness? And
how would you answer their arguments? Is the
same being the author of both good and evil, right-
eousness and wickedness ?

No; but it belongs to the same being who makes
free agents, with full power to choose, to give them
their choice between good and evil, and when they
choose good or choose evil, to treat them accordingly.

176. How can it belong to the same being to cre-
ate the lamb and the dove, and then to create wolves
and vultures to devour them? to send sickness, and
medicines to heal it ?

Because it is incumbent on the same being who
creates any animal, to create food for its supply ;
and for the same God, who has revolted subjects
under probation, to send both judgments and mer-
cies to discipline them for their eternal destiny.

177. But how can the Unity of God be consistent
with the Trinity 2 Can three be one, and one three ?

Not in the same sense; yet they may be in dif-
ferent senses. A human being is but one man, and
yet he is two, in one sense, for he consists of soul and
body.

178 What then is the proper statement of the doc-
trine of the Trinity 2

That there are three persons in one God.

179. What do you mean by persons? Beings?

No; not three beings, else there would be three
Gods ; but three distinctions, existing in a mysteri-
ous manner, incomprehensible to us.

180. Is this a doctrine of both Scripture and rea-
son, or of Scripture only ?

Of Scripture only; though it is not contrary to
reason, but adove it.

3*



30 THEOLOGICAL CATECHISM FOR YOUTH.

181. Where do you find three Divine persons re-
cognized in Scripture ?

1 John 5: 7, “ There are three that bear record in
heaven, the Father, the Word, and the Holy Ghost,
and these three are one ;” but more especially in the
apostolic benediction, and in the form of baptism—
baptizing “in the name of the Father, and of the
Son, and of the Holy Ghost.” 2 Cor. 12: 13, 14,
and Matt. 28: 19.

182. What additional proof of the divinity of the
three persons ?

This ; that each person is separately declared to
be divine.

183. What passages prove the Father divine ?

So many we will not repeat them, nor need we,
for none deny it.

184. What proof that the Son is God ?

Four classes of texts; first, applying to him the
attributes; second, the works; third, the wor-
ship; and fourth, the names of God.

185. Mention some that impute to Him the at-
tributes of God.

In a single verse He is styled both eternal and
omnipotent ; in another, eternal and immutable.
In Rev. 1: 8, He is declared to be “the beginning,
and the ending, the Almighty.” In Heb. 13: 8,
“the same yesterday, to-day, and for ever.”

H 186 Where are the works of God affirmed of

‘am ?

Col. 1: 16, * All things were created dy Him and
Jor Him ;” and Heb. 1: 3,“ Upholding all things by
the word of his power.”

187. But was not Christ's power delegated power ?
Does He not say, ‘ All power is given me in heaven



THEOLOGICAL CATECHISM FOR YOUTH. 31

and. in earth??? Matt. 18: 18; and “ Of mine
own self I can do nothing ?” John 5: 30.

As man he could do nothing of himself, any
more than we; and Christ was man as well as God.
As Mediator, both his power and himself were dele-
gated; for “God sent his Son (Gal. 4: 4); buta
son being sent of a father does not prove him to be
of an inferior nature.

188. Besides, can we suppose all power in heaven
and earth given to a mere creature ?
No; that is absurd.

189. Is the Son as well as the Father a proper ob-
ject of worship ?

Yes. “When he bringeth in the first begotten
into the world, he saith, Let all the angels of God
worship Him.” Heb. 1: 6, and Rev. 5: 11-13.

190. Is the name of God also applied to Christ ?

Yes. “In the beginning was the Word, and the
Word was God.” 1 John 1: 1, 2.

191, But is not the term God sometimes used in an
inferior sense, as when the Psalmist says, “ I have
said, Ye are gods ?’’ Ps. 82: 6; and is there any
proof that Christ ts called God in the highest sense in
this passage in the first of John?

Yes; for it is immediately added that “all things
were made by Him,” and surely all things were not
made by an inferior god, or mere creature.

192. But is it not said that “ God created all
things by Jesus Christ?” KEph.3: 9.

Yes; for it was by the second person of the Deity
that creating power was exerted.

193. Are there any other passages in which Christ
is called God in the highest:sense ?

Yes; Rom. 9: 5, Christ is said to be “over all



32 THEOLOGICAL CATECHISM FOR YOUTH.

God,” or “God over all;” and 1 John 5: 20, the
apostle says, “ This is the true God and eternal life ;
and in Isa., where the seraphim cried, “ Holy, holy,
holy is Jehovah of hosts.” John says, “ These
things Esaias said when he saw is glory, and spake
of him” (Christ). Isa. 6:1. John 12: 41. And
thus Christ is the real Jehovah.

194. But does not Christ himself say,“ The Father
is greater than I ?”

Yes; and Christ as man was inferior in his na-
ture, and acted a subordinate part as God’s messen-
ger; but in his divine nature, “He thought it not
robbery to be equal with God.” Philip. 2: 6.

195. Do the Scriptures any uhere affirm that
the Holy Ghost is God?

Yes; for “to lie unto the Holy Ghost is to lie
unto God.” Acts 3: 5.

196. But is not the term Spirit sometimes used
in Scripture asimplying merely a divine power or
influence, as in Joel 2: 28, “I will pour out my
Spirit upon all flesh ?”

Yes; but in others, the Spirit is expressly spo-
ken of as a person; for he is represented as speak-
ing, teaching, &e.—The Holy Ghost sazh, “ To-
day if ye will hear his voice,” and “ He shall teach
you,” using the personal and masculine pronoun,
although the word (wvedya) spirit is neuter.

197. But is not the doctrine of the Trinity a mys-
tery ; something incomprehensible ; and are we bound
to believe what we cannot understand?

Yes; for it is a mystery how the soul and body
are united ; how the mind acts upon the body ; how
God acts on all the universe; how God came to
exist; and in short almost every thing is a mys-
tery.



THEOLOGICAL CATECHISM FOR YOUTH. 3s

198. What kind of a being is God ?

An infinite Being.

199. What do you mean by infintte?

Without bounds or limits.

200. In what respects is God infinite?

Infinite in all his attributes.

201. What do you mean by the attributes of
God?

The qualities of his nature.

202. How are his attributes divided ?

Into two classes ; NATURAL and MORAL.

203. Which ts the first of his natural attributes?

His erernirty.

204. What do you mean by the eternity of God ?

His existence without beginning or end.

205. How do you know that God has existed
Sor ever without any beginning ?

Something must have existed without any be-
ginning; because if there had ever been a period
when nothing existed; no thing ever could have
existed; because something never could spring up
out of nothing; and as the worlds and creatures
did not exist without beginning, God did.

206. How do you know that God will exist for
ever without end ?

Because He has existed for ever without beginning.

207. Do the Scriptures affirm the eternity of
God ?

Yes; “From everlasting to everlasting thou art
God.” Ps. 90: 2.

208. What ts the second natural attribute of God?

His 1nDEPENDENT EXISTENCE.

209. What do you mean by his independent ex-
tstence ?



34 THEOLOGICAL CATECHISM FOR YOUTH.

That his existence is uncaused; and depending
on no one but himself alone.

210. How do you know that God's existence is
uncaused? How do you know that He had not a
cause before Him; and that another; and the
third ; a fourth and so on for ever?

Because that would be an infinite series again ;
which is impossible. There must be a first link in
every chain however long; and a first cause. in eve-
ry series of causes; and the first cause could have
no cause.—Besides, God could have had no cause,
because He had no beginning.

211. What should such wondrous attributes as
the eternal and independent existence of Jehovah
teach us ?

The deepest reverence and awe.

212. On what does our existence depend ?

On God every moment.

213. What is the third natural attribute of God?

His oMNIPRESENCE.

214. What do you mean by his omnipresence?

His being always every where present.

215. How do you prove the omnipresence of God ?

God is every where, because He acts every
where.

216. He acts only throughout the unirerse ; how
do you know He is present through infinite space
beyond ?

Because He who fills so vast a universe can find
no limit any where.

217. What is the Scripture testimony on this sub-
ject ?

“Tf I ascend up to heaven, thou art there; if I
make my bed in hell, behold thou art there; if 1



THEOLOGICAL CATECHISM FOR YOUTH. 35

take the wings of the morning and dwell in the
uttermost parts of the sea, even there shall th
hand lead me and thy right hand shall hold me.”
Ps. 139: 8-10.

218. But if always present with us, why do we
not see Him?

Because “God is a Spirit;” and spirit is invis-
ible.

219. Does God always see us, though we do not
Him?

Yes ; “ All things are naked and opened unto
the eyes of Him with whom we have to do.”
Heb. 4: 13.

220. Does not the darkness hide from God ?

No ; “ the darkness and the light are both alike to
him.” Ps. 139: 12.

221. What should that teach us?

Never to do any thing we should be unwilling
God should see.

222. What is the fourth natural attribute of God ?

OmNIScIENCE.

223. What do you mean by the omniscience of
God ?

That God knows all things, past, present and
future.

224. What proof from reason that God knews.all
things present, past, and future?

Being always every where present, upholding
and bebolding all things, he must know all things
present ; and he must know all that ever has been,
and all that ever will be, because nothing ever has
been, or ever will or can be without Him.

Ga Do the Scriptures affirrs the omniscience of
?



36 THEOLOGICAL CATECHISM FOR YOUTH.

Yes; Peter says; ‘Lord, thou knowest all
things.” John 16: 30.

226. Does God know all we do?

Yes ; “Thou art acquainted with all my ways.”
Ps. 139: 3.

227. Does God know all we say?

Yes; “ There is not a word in my tongue, but lo,
Q Lord, Thou knowest it altogether.” Ps. 139: 4.

228. Does God know all our thoughts ?

Yes; “ Thou understandest my thought afar off. ”
Bs. 139: 2.

229. If all we do, or say, or think, or feel, is known
ito God, what should that teach us?

Never to say, or do, or think, or feel, any thing
‘save what would please God.

230. What ts the fifth natural attribute of God?

‘Wispom.

(231. What is wisdom ?

‘Bkill to devise what is best to be done; and the
ibest way of doing it.

232. Are wisdom and knowledge the same thing ?

‘No; knowledge isa mere treasury of ideas ; wis-
dom is skill to acquire and apply them. A man
may have great skill and but little knowledge; or
great knowledge, and but little skill to apply it.

233. How great ts the wisdom of God?

His understanding is infinite. Ps. 147: 5.

234. Where isthe wisdom of God seen?

Throughout the whole universe; in every plant
and flower; in every world and creature.

235. Wherein do the things created prove God's
wisdom ? ;

In the unparalleled skill and contrivance dis-



THEOLOGICAL CATECHISM FOR YOUTH. 37

played in their structure; the ends they are de-
signed to accomplish; and the adaptation of every
thing to answer the end designed.

236. Can that be properly called wisdom which
has no good end to answer ?

No. Subtlety without any good end in view, is
mere cunning.

237. What should we learn from that wisdom
which planned, and which directs the whole uni-
verse ?

To admire and adore the wonder-working God.

238. What ts the siath natural attribute of God ?

Omnipotence.

239. What do you mean by Omnipotence ?

Almighty power ; power without limits.

ait. How do you prove the Omnipotence of
God?

He who could do what God has done can do any
thing.

241. What is the Bible testimony on the subject ?

“Tamthe Almighty God." Gen. 17: 1.

242. What can Almighty power do, for, or
against us?
Destroy us in a moment, or preserve and bless
us for ever.
243. What truth, then, does the Omnipotence of
God teach us?
Our safety if his friends, our danger if his ene-
mies.
_ 244. Is the Omnipotence of God a ground of
Joy or grief?
Of great joy to the Christian ; of grief and terror
to the sinner.
4



38 THEOLOGICAL CATECHISM FOR YOUTH.

245. What duty does it teach the Christian, and
what the sinner?

The Christian to confide in his Almighty friend ;
the sinner to flee his wrath and secure his favor.

246. Have you secured his favor yet ?

247, What are you doing to secure ut?

248. Are you not afraid to stand out against a
Power that is Almighty ?

249. What is the seventh natural attribute of God?

Immutability.

250. What is Immutability.?

Unchangeableness.

251. In what respect is God unchangeable?

In his essence, character, and purposes.

252. How do you prove him unchangeable as to
hts essence?

To suppose that any thing can change that has
neither beginning nor end, and that exists inde-
pendently and above the reach of all things that
could produce any change, would be absurd.

253. How do you prove Him unchangeable in his
oharacter ?

Perfect in his nature, and above the reach of all
influences that tend to change character, we can-
not conceive a change in character possible.

254. How do you prove Him unchangeable in his

ur poses ?

With perfection of knowledge, no new views or
circumstances can arise to change his mind; and
with no new views, and an unchangeable character,
a change of purpose is inconceivable.

255. What is the Scripture testimony on the sub-

Jed?



THEOLOGICAL CATECHISM FOR YOUTH. 39

“T am the Lord, I change not.” Mal. 3: 6.

256. Is the Immutability of God a ground of joy
or grief?

Of joy to his friends ; grief and terror to his en-
emies.

257. Why?

Because he will never change from blessing his
friends, or punishing his incorrigible enemies.

258. What do you mean by the Sovereignty of
God ?

His doing what he thinks best, without giving an
account to his creatures of his actions.

259. Does the Sovereignty of God imply his act-
ing from mere caprice, or without any reason?

No; but implies merely his acting from reasons
unknown to us.

260. Have you any proof from nature that God
does act as a Sovereign?

Yes; when one man is born blind or deaf, and
another with perfect sight or hearing, God acts
from reasons unknown to us.

261. Do the Scriptures affirm God's Sovereignty ?

Yes; “ He giveth nt account of any of his mat-
ters.” “He doeth according to his will in the ar-
mies of heaven and amongst the inhabitants of the
earth.” Job 33:13. Dan. 4: 35. Also Eph. 1:
11.

262. Do men here on earth ever act in Sovereign-
ty, or without giving thewr reasons to those under
their authority ?

Yes; masters often do amongst their servants,
and fathers amongst their children.

263 Is tt more proper for God than man to act
as a Sovereign?



40 THEOLOGICAL CATECHISM FOR YOUTH.

Yes; because He knows so much better what is
best, and is so much more inclined to do it.

264. What proof have you that God will do what
as best ?

All the attributes of

HIS MORAL CHARACTER.

265. What is the first attribute of His Moral
character ?

Love, or Goodness.

266. How many kinds of Love are there?

Two ; Benevolence and Complacency.

267. Whatis Benevolence?

Good will; desire of others’ happiness.

268. How do you prove the Benevolence of God ?

In the same way we do his existence; ie. by the
design discoverable in all his works. —

269. How does that appear ?

The original and leading design in all his works,
is to make creatures happy, not miserable,

270. Give an example.

The grand design of the eye, the ear, the tooth,
the stomach, was to contribute to our happiness,
not our misery.

271. Where else in Nature do you find illustra-
tions of the goodness of God ?

In every sun and shower ;

In every plant and flower ;

In every pulse and breath,

And every hour till death.

272. Where else besides in Nature do you find
proofs of the Divine Benevolence?

The best smiles of His face,

Are the gifts of His grace:



THEOLOGICAL CATECHISM FOR YOUTH. 4l

The gift of His Spirit, His Sabbath and Word,
And his gift above all of our crucified Lord.

273. What Scripture proof of the Love or Good-
ness of God ?

“@odis Love.” “The earth is full of the good-
ness of the Lord.” 1 Jn. 48; Ps. 33: 5.

274, But why so much pain in the world if He
who made us desires our happiness ?

We must have nerves sensible to pain, or they
would be insensible to pleasure; and the pain of
the eye, the tooth, or any other organ, is incidental,
and not the prominent and primary object of its
formation; and often the pain our nerves occasion,
is sent to warn and save us from greater evils :—
the pain from cold, to warn us against freezing,
&e., &e.

275. Have you any other reason why there is so
much pain and distress in the world ?

Yes; the chief reason of all is si.

276 If there wereno’ sin in the world, would
there be no sorrow ?

No; neither sorrow nor death.

277. Have you any proof of this from Reason ?

Yes; fora Benevolent Being would not afflict
his children without cause.

278. Have you any proof from Scripture ?

Yes; The curse, causeless shall not come ;” and
«Death is the wages of sin.” Prov. 26: 2. ’ Rom.
6: 21. ;

279. What is Complacency ?

Delight in Character.

280. Towards whom does God exercise the Love
of Complacency ?



42 THEOLOGICAL CATECHISM FOR YOUTH.

Towards the righteous only.

281. Has He any Complacency then in you?

282. Towards whom does God feel the Love of
Benevolence ?

Towards all, both good and evil.

283. What duty do you infer from the infinite
love and goodness of God ?

Obligation to love him supremely in return. “The
goodness of God leadeth to repentance.” Rom. 2: 4.

284. Has His love ever yet won yours, or you ?

285. What is the second Moral Attribute of God?

Justice.

286. What is Justice ?

In its general sense, it means mere righteousness
in general; but in its strict and specific import, it
means disposition to render to every one his due.

287. How do you prove the justice of God?

By our own consciences and the Divine benevo-
lence.

288. How by our own consciences ?

God would never have created us with conscien-
ces to approve of justice and scorn injustice, if
Himself unjust.

289. How do you prove the justice of God by His
benevolence 2

Benevolence would, of course, desire the promo-
ter of good rewarded, and the destroyer of good
punished; and that is what justice herself de-
mands.

290. What say the Scriptures as to the justice of

?

“T the Lord am a just God.” Isa. 45: 21.



THEOLOGICAL CATECHISM FOR YOUTH. 48

291. What truth do you infer from the justice of

That if God be just, there must be tremendous
retribution in store for the impenitent sinner.

292. If God be just, what will become of you?

293. What ts the third moral attribute of God ?

Veracity.

294. What do you mean by Veracity?

Disposition to tell the truth.

293. What is Truth ?

Representation corresponding to reality.

296. Give an illustration.

The exact picture of a man is a true likeness ;
and language that represents things as they are, is
truth.

297. How many kinds of truth are there?

Two: Natural and Moral.

298. What 1s the difference?

Moral truth refers to right and wrong; Natural
truth, to all other subjects.

299. How do you prove that the Lord is a God
of truth ?

From both reason and Scripture.

wor” What proof of the Veracity of God from rea-

orto one ever falsifies without some motive of gain
or gratification. God could have no motive, and,
of course, never falsifies. The same is proved also
by the greatness and goodness of God.

301. How from these?

A God so great, would not be guilty of the mean-
ness of falsehood; nor a God so good, of the mea-
sureless mischiefs that falsehood occasions.



44 THEOLOGICAL CATECHISM FOR YOUTH.

302. What do the Scriptures teach in regard to
the Veracity of God ?

That “ it is impossible for God to lie.” Heb. 6: 18.

303. What is the fourth moral attribute of God?

Ho.ivess,

304. What is Holiness ?

Purity, freedom from, and hatred of, all that is
wrong or wicked ; love of, and devotion to, all that
is right or righteous.

305. How do you prove the Holiness of G'od ?

From all the three moral attributes preceding—
love, justice, and veracity ; for each one requires it;
and true holiness comprises them all.

306. What ts the Scripture testimony ?

* Holy, holy, holy is the Lord of hosts.” Isa. 6: 3.

307. To what duty should the consideration of a
holy and sin-hating God lead us ?

To be pure and holy ourselves.

308. What is the fifth moral attribute of God ?

Patience.

309. What do you mean by the Patience of God ?

His slowness to anger, and long-suffering dispo-
sition.

210. How do you prove His Patience ?

By His daily forbearance, exercised towards the
guilty children of men; and by Scripture.

311. What ts the Scripture testimony ?

The Scriptures declare Him to be, “ the God of
patience ;” “slow to anger,” “long-suffering.”
Rom. 15: 5; Ex. 34:6; Neh.9: 17.

312. What practical inference from the Patience
of a long-suffering God ?

The duty of great gratitude to God for his long-



THEOLOGICAL CATECHISM FOR YOUTH. 45

suffering, towards us; and the duty of great for-
bearance on our part, towards our offending fellow-
creatures.

313. What tf God were as quick to anger and re-
tribution as men are, or would be, if they had full

for vengeance?

The earth would long ago have been emptied of
its inhabitants.

314. What is the sixth moral attribute of God?

Compassion.

315. What do you mean by his Compassion?

Pity towards sufferers.

316. How do you prove the Compassion of God ?

Benevolence, of course, leads to pity the dis-
tressed ; and the Scriptures say, “ Thou art a God
full of compassion.” Ps. 86: 15.

317. What practical inference does the Compassion
of God yield us?

Great consolation to ourselves in distress; and
our great duty to compassionate our suffering fel-
low-creatures.

318. What is the seventh moral attribute of
God?

Mercy.

319. What ts Mercy?

In a general sense, it means mere compassion.
“He was neighbor that showed mercy.” Luke
10: 36, 37.

320. What ts the meaning of Mercy in its strict
gospel sense ?

Disposition to pardon and forgive.

321. What ts it to forgive?
To lay aside anger.



46 THEOLOGICAL CATECHISM FOR YOUTH.

322. What is it to pardon ?

To lay aside punishment.

323. Whose prerogative is it to pardon? and
whose to forgive ?

It belongs to the ruder to pardon ; to the private

_ individual to forgive.

324. Which is it our duty to extend to our of-
Sending fellow-creatures ?

Forgiveness: pardon is not our prerogative,

325. Which may we seek from God ?

Both.

325. What is the difference between Mercy and
Grace?

Mercy is an attribute of God; Grace is not, but
refers to mere favors shown, and the terms on which
favor is granted.

327. Give an wllustration.

Grace is mere unmerited favor, like a gift to a
beggar; but Mercy is disposition to pardon the
guilty.

328. How do you prove the Mercy of God?

By both Scripture and reason

829. What is the Scripture testemony ?

“The Lord is of great mercy, forgiving iniquity,
transgression and sin.” Num. 14: 8.

330. How does reason prove the mercy of God ?

His benevolence would, of course, desire, if con-
sistent, the happiness of all, even the most wicked.

331. Can reason prove it consistent with the law
and justice of God to pardon the guilty? and in
what way consistent, if at all ?

No; nothing but a revelation from God can show
in what way it might be consistent, or whether it
could be consistent at all.



THEOLOGICAL CATECHISM FOR YOUTH. 47

332 Does this add another proof that a revelation
has been given ?

Yes; for infinite goodness would certainly lead
him to reveal what is indispensable to the happi-
ness of his creatures to know.

333, What then is the greatest reason of all why a
revelation has been given to mankind ?

To teach the fact, and the way, of Salvation
through Christ.

334. From what originated the plan of Salva-
tion ?

From the love, the wisdom, and

THE PURPOSES OF GOD.

335. What do you mean by the Purposes of
God?

That God from eternity planned all things, for
the best. .

336. How do you prove this ?

By His goodness and wisdom.

337. How from these?

God could not be infinitely good without desir-
amg what was best; nor infinitely wise without de-
vising a plan for its accomplishment.

338. Did any man ever start to build any thing
without any desire, or design, as to what has builds
ang should be?

Never. Much lesscould an infinitely wise God
be guilty of such folly.

339. Can you prove the being of a God without
proving his Purposes ?

No; because the main argument that proves his



48 THEOLOGICAL CATECHISM FOR YOUTH.

existence, is the argument from design or pur-
pose.

340. Do the Scriptures teach the doctrine of the
Divine Pur poses?

Yes. “He worketh all things after the counsel
of his own will.” Eph. 1: 11.

341. Do not the Purposes of God take away our
freedom ?

No; for they do not touch us.

342. How is it that His Purposes do not touch
us?

Because purposing to touch, touches nothing;
purposing to do, does nothing.

343. What, then, does touch us ?

The hand or agency of God.

344. Can thehand or agency of God, then, reach
and govern our actions, and yet leave us free?

Yes; for we reach and govern each others’ ac-
tions, day by day, and yet leave each other free;
and surely God can do what we can.

345. When do we govern our neighbor's actions
and yet leave him free?

In every offer or invitation that we give and he
accepts.

346. Does God exert no other kind of agency over
us but that of motive?

No, except in regeneration ; nor then save in view
of motive.

347. Do. then, neither his agency, nor his pur-
poses, disturb our freedom?

Neither the one nor the other.

348. How far, then, may the purposes of Giod ex-
tend and yet leave us free ?



THEOLOGICAL CATECHISM FOR YOUTH. 49

To every thing.

349. How far do the Scriptures teach, that his
Purposes do extend ?

“He worketh all things, after the counsel of his
own will.” Eph. 1: 11.

350. Do the Purposes of God extend to the time of
man's existence on the earth ?

Yes. “There is an appointed time for man up-
on the earth.” Job7: 1.

351. Do the Purposes of God extend to the place
of our abode?

Yes. “He hath determined the place of their
habitation.” Acts 17: 26.

352. Do the Purposes of God extend to the time of
our death ?

Yes; “his days are determined ; the number of
his months are with thee; Thou hast appointed his
bounds that he cannot pass.” Job 14: 5.

353. But does not David say that “men of deceit
and blood shall not live out half their days?” Pa,
55:23. (Original.)

Yes; for God has purposed they shall not live
out half the days he would have allowed them,
were it not for their sins.

354. What then comes under the Purposes of
God?

All worlds; allcreatures; and all events. “He
worketh all things after the counsel of his own
will.” Eph. 1: 11.

355. Did the Purposes of God extend to the ex-
astence of sin?

Yes; for Repemprion was the first grand object
of Creation. “All things were created—for Hum.”

5



50 THEOLOGICAL CATECHISM FOR YOUTH.

(Christ): i. e. for the display of the Meditorial glo-
ry.

356. Did the Agency of God extend to the en-
trance of sin?

Yes; so far as to arrange all the circumstances
necessary for the trial of a being under probation ;
such as the garden, the apple, the appetite, &e.:
and so in regard to our own sin; but not so far as
at all to necessitate or compel its commission ; nor
at all to impair the most perfect freedom of choice
in our actions.

357. Did both God's purpose and agency com-
prise the existence of sorrow in the world and the
universe ?

Yes; as the punishments or consequent of sin.

358. Is there uny difference between the Purposes
of God and the Sovereignty of God ?

Yes ; His purposes respect His designs and plans ;
His sovereignty, the reasons of His actions. His
plans purpose all things for the best, we know; but
in following out His plans, He does many things
from reasons entirely unknown to us; and His act-
ing from reasons all His own, is what we mean by
His sovereignty.

359. How does God execute His Purposes?

In Creation, Providence, Redemption, and final
Retribution.

CREATION.

360. Does the Bible teach that God ts the Crear
tor or first Cause of all things?

Yes ; “ All things were created by Him.” Col.
1: 16,



THEOLOGICAL CATECHISM FOR YOUTH. 51

361. How did God create all things?

By the word of His power. “He spake and it
was done:” He commanded and it stood fast: He
said, “Be light, and light was.” (Original.) Ps.
33: 9. Gen. 1:3.

362. When did God create all things ?

“Tn the beginning God created the heavens and
the earth.” Gen. 1: |.

363. How long ago was that beginning ?

We do not know; the Bible does not tell us.

364. In how long time did God create the world ?

“In six days the Lord made heaven and earth,
the sea, and all that inthem is.” Exodus 20: 11.

365, How long since the creation of Man?

About six thousand years.

366. For whom were all things created ?

“The Lord made all things for Himself” Prov.
16; 4.

367. For whom then were you made ?

For God.

368. For whom ought you to live ?

For God.

369. For whom are you living ? for God? or

Sor yourself ?

370. For what were all things made?

To please God. “For His pleasure all things
were created.” Rev. 4: 11.

371. For what then ought you to live?

To please God.

372. How can we please God ?

By doing His will.

373. Whish is your highest aim and dearest ob-

ject? Todo God's will, or your own?



52 THEOLOGICAL CATECHISM FOR YOUTH.

374. For what special purpose did God create
man tn particular ?

“ T have created him for my glory.” Isa. 43: 7.

375. What then ought to be the great aim of all
our actions ?

To glorify God. “ Whether ye eat or drink, or
whatsoever ye do, do all to the glory of God.” 1
Cor. 10: 21.

376. What is tt to glorify God?

To love Him and keep His commandments.

377. What then is the chief end for which we
were created ?

To love and serve the Lord.

378. Have you ever yet begun to answer the end
for which you were created ?

379. Man destroys that which does not answer
the end for which it was made, and will not God
destroy the soul that will not answer the end for
which tt was created ?

He will.

380. What then will become of you ?

381. When God had completed the great work of
Creation to what did he next proceed ?

PROVIDENCE.

382. Of how many parts does Providence con-
sist ?

Two: Upholding and Governing the Universe.

383. But when any thing is brought into exist-
ence will ut not contunue to exist, of itself, unless
something destroys it?



THEOLOGICAL CATECHISM FOR YOUTH. 53

No; it requires the same power to uphold that it
did to create. It was the word of God’s power that
created; and Paul tells us that “ He upholds all
things by the word of his power.” Heb. 1: 3.

384. What then would become of the world and
the creatures, were God to withhold his supporting
power for a single moment ?

That moment we should sink into non-existence.

385. Could we not draw a single breath without
God ?

Not one; nor could another pulse beat unless
God were there to send it.

386. What proof of this?

“In Him we live, and move, and have our being.”
Acts 17: 28.

387. Have you any proof from Reason?

‘Yes; Nothing can move without a mover—the
pulse, no more than a world.

388. How far does the ProvipentiaL Govern-
MENT of God extend ?

To His Puysicaz, Menta, and Morat Govern-
ment, especially to the Physical and Mental.

389. What do you mean by Physical Govern-
ment ?

Government over matter.

390. What do mean by Mental Government ?

Government over mind.

391. How does God govern matter ?

By force.

392. How does He govern mind ?

By motive.

393. Give an instance of His governing matter
by force.
5*



54 THEOLOGICAL CATECHISM FOR YOUTH.

Moving the winds, and waves, and worlds in their
courses.

394. Give an instance of His governing mind by
seolive ?

By books He moves the scholar, and by appetite
the animal, to desire, to choose, and to enjoy.

395. How far does God's Physical Government
extend ?

Over the whole empire of matter.

396. How far does the Mental Government of
God extend ?

Over the whole empire of created mind.

397. Does the Physical Government of God cause
our existence?

Yes; “ Thy hands have made me.” Job. 10: 8.
Ps. 13: 9, 16.

398. Does God provide food for all His crea-
tures, both brute and human?

Yes; He causeth grass to grow for cattle, and
herb for the service of man. “ Thou openest Thy
hand and satisfiest the desire of every living thing.”
Ps. 104: 14, and 145: 15, 16.

399. But does not man provide his own food
and raiment ?

- No; man’s agency is necessary as means; but
no agency nor effort of man can bring one drop of
rain from heaven, or cause one lamb or seed to
grow.

400. For how much, then, are we indebted to God ?

For every crumb, and thread, and breath, and
blessing.

401. And what ought we to render in return to
God for all His blessings ?

All we are and have, for ever.



THEOLOGICAL CATEOHISM FOR YOUTH. 55

402. Does the Providence of God extend to the
smallest, as well as the greatest matters ?

Yes ; “ Not a sparrow falleth on the ground with-
out your heavenly Father ;” and “ the very hairs of
your head are all numbered.” Matt. 10: 29, 30.

403. Does the Providence of God extend to what
men term matters of chance ?

Yes; “The lot is cast into the lap, but the whole
disposal thereof, is of the Lord.” Prov. 16: 33. 1
Kings 22: 34, .

404, Js there any such thing then as chance or ac-
cident ?

No. Nothing happens without God.

405. Does the Providence of God extend to all
our afflictions ?

Yes ; “Affliction cometh not forth of the dust;
neither doth trouble spring out of the ground.”
Job 5: 6.

406. Does God's Providence extend to all our
mercies ?

Yes ; “ Every good and perfect gift is from above,
and cometh down from the Father of lights.” Jas.
1:17.

407. Wherein does the Mental Government of
God appear in the Providential ?

In God’s Providential government over the em-
pire of mind.

408. Does the Providential Government of God
extend to the hearts of men, and even to their lips?

Yes ; “ The heart of the King is in the hand of
the Lord as the rivers of waters; He turneth it
whithersoever He will ;” and “ The preparations of
the heart and the answer of the tongue are from the
Lord.” Prov. 16: 1, and 21:1.



56 THEOLOGICAL CATECHISM FOR YOUTH.

409. Does the Providential Government of God
extend to the ordinary actions of men ?

Yes ; “Except the Lord build the city, they labor
in vain that build it: Except the Lord keep the
city the watchman waketh but invain.” Ps. 127: 1.

410. Does it extend to the actions of good men ?

Yes; “The steps of a good man are ordered by
the Lord.” Ps. 37: 23.

411. Does ut extend to the actions of bad men?

Yes ; for God calls the sinner His “rod,” His
“saw,” His “axe ;” and says I will send him against
a hypocritical nation.” Isa. 10. Again, “It was
not you that sent me hither, but God.” Gen. 45: 8.

412. Does it extend to the actions of devils ?
Yes; The Lord said to Satan, “ Behold he is in
thine hand; but save his life.” Job 2: 6.

413. Does the Providence of God extend to the
revolutions of empires?

It does. “I will overturn, overturn, overturn,
till He come whose right it is.” “Promotion com-
eth neither from the east nor from the west, nor
from the south, but God is judge; he putteth down
one and setteth up another.” Ez. 21,7. Ps. 75:
6; 7.

414. Does the Providential Government of God
decide the earthly condition of men, as to wealth or
poverty, elevation or depression in life?

Yes; “The Lord maketh poor and maketh rich:
He bringeth low and lifteth up.” 1 Sam. 2: 7.

415. Does God govern the actions of the brute
creation?

Yes ; “T will appoint over them the dogs to tear,
and the fowls of heaven and the beasts of the field.”
“T will send hornets before thee.”—“ He spake and



THEOLOGICAL CATECHISM FOR YOUTH. 57

locusts came and caterpillars."—“ Against Israel
shall not a dog move his tongue." I have com-
manded the ravens to feed thee.” Jer. 15:3. Ps.
105: 34. Exod. 23:28. |! Kings 17: 4.

416. Does the Providential extend to

THE MORAL GOVERNMENT OF GOD?

It does.

417. What do you mean by His Moral Govern-
ment ?

Government by moral influences on the mind.

418. Give an example of Moral Government.

That of a parent over his child; or of a ruler over
his subjects.

419. What ts the difference between Mental and
Moral Government?

All Moral is Mental government; but all Mental
is not Moral. The controlling influence of all mo-
tive on mind is mental government; but the influ-
ence of noue but moral motives is moral govern-
ment

420. Where do we see the difference?

The minds of all animals are governed by motive,
yet none but the minds of moral agents areruled by
moral influences.

421. Amongst men are there any instances of
motive influence, that is not also moral influence?

Yes; one mind is drawn by an argumentative,
another by a florid style; one by the sublime. an-
other by the beautiful. The influence is mental,
but not moral. It rules the mind or choice, but
has no moral character for good or evil.



58 THEOLOGICAL CATECHISM FOR YOUTH.

422. But donot mere natural influences, like that
of taste or appetite, sometimes assume a moral char-
acter ; a merely mental, become a moral motive?

Yes; it did in the case of Eve’s transgression ;
and always does when the divine command reaches
the question of animal indulgence.

423. Into how many parts is the Moral Govern-
ment of God divided?

Four; Providential, Legal, Mediatorial and Spir-
itual.

424. How is the Providential a part of God's
Moral Government ?

Because the events of the Providential Kingdom
are so ordered as to bear a moral influence on the
minds of men.

425. Do the Scriptures affirm this ?

Yes; “The Lord thy God hath led thee these
forty years in the wilderness, to humble thee, and
to prove thee, and to know what was in thine heart,
‘whether thou wouldst keep the commandments of
God or not.” Deut. 8: 2.

426. What are the three grand requisites for a
Moral Government ?

1 A moral governor, moral agents, and a moral
aw.

427. What are the three grand requisites in a
Moral Governor ?

Character, Capacity, and Authority.

428. Why these?

Because without character no one is fit to reign ;
without capacity, no one is qualified to reign; and
without authority, no one has a right to reign.

429. Has God these three requisites ?

Yes, in infinite perfection. Infinite goodness is



THEOLOGICAL CATECHISM FOR YOUTH. 59

‘His character ; infinite wisdom and power His capa-
city ; and His claims as our Creator, Preserver, and
Redeemer, give Him infinite authority over us all.

430. What is Moral Agency?
A course of action, either right or wrong.

431. Who are Moral Agents?
God, and all His rational creatures.

432. Are all Moral Agents accountable beings ?
No; none but created moral agents. God is not
an accountable Being.

433. What is the difference between a Moral
Agent and an Accountable Being ?

Both have duties to perform ; but the one-ts un-
der law, the other is not; one is bound to give an
account of his actions, the other is not. God is a
Moral Agent, but is not accountable to any; but
man is both a moral agent, and an accountable be-
ing likewise.

434. Has God duties to perform ?

Yes; to love Himself, and His law, and His glo-
ry; and to maintain His righteous government over
His creatures, are duties He owes to Himself.

435. What is necessary to Moral Agency ? -

Capacity to understand what is right, and power
(possessed or accessible) to do it.

436. What is necessary to Accountability ?

Righteous moral law, proclaimed, by rightful au-
thority, with capacity to understand, and power to
obey.

437. Why ts righteous law necessary; and that
proclaimed or published ?

Because a wicked law no one is bound to obey ;
nor any law unless published.



60 THEOLOGICAL CATECHISM FOR YOUTH.

438, But is no one bound by any law unless he
know what vis?
Not unless the law has been duly published.

439. What proof that capacity to understand,
and power to obey, are necessary to accountability ?

Common sense decides that a brute creature with
no capacity to understand, nor power to obey moral
law, can be accountable.

440. What are the capacities and powers necessa-
ry to moral agency or accountability ?

Reason, Conscience, Liberty of Choice, and Moral
Sensibility.

441. What do you mean by Moral Sensibility ?

Sensibility of mind to moral objects.

442. What is the difference between Conscience
and Moral Sensibility ?

Conscience is that power of the mind which
merely approves or disapproves; but Moral Sensi-
bility, that attribute of the heart, which Joves or
hates the right or the wrong, the good or evil pre-
sented.

443, What do you mean by the Liberty of Choice
necessary to Moral Agency ?

The power of choosing or refusing, when good or
evil is set before us.

444. But is ut not essential to Freedom to have
not only the power of choosing, but of doing as we
choose ?

No: itis to Physical, but not to Moral freedom
—for if a man choose or desire to kill his neighbor,
heis in God's sight a murderer, even though he is
lying in adungeon and in chains.

445. How do you know that we possess all these



THEOLOGICAL CATECHISM FOR YOUTH. 61

powers and faculties that are necessary to Moral
Agency ? ,
By our consciousness.
446. Is there any power above our own accessible
to help us to perform our duttes ?
Yes; the power of God; for me may come to God
and “ find grace to help in time of need.” Heb. 4: 16.
447. What constitutes

THE LEGAL PART OF GOD'S MORAL
GOVERNMENT?

The government by his moral law.

448. What is the Law Book of God's Moral
Government ?

The Bible. ;

449. Where in that Book do you find God's
Moral Law?

Chiefly in the Ten Commandments. Ex. 20.

450. What is the great fundamental principle of
God's Moral Law?

Love to God and our fellow-creatures.

451. Does G'od claim this as the sum of all Es
requirements ?

Yes; Christ tells us that “on these two hang all
the law and the prophets.” Luke 10: 27.

452. Which kind of love are we bound to exercise
towards God ; Benevolence, or Complacency ?

Both.

453. What must be the measure or amount of our
love to God ?

“ With all our heart, and soul, and strength, and
mind.” Luke 10: 27.

6



62 THEOLOGICAL CATECHISM FOR YOUTH.

454, What are we to understand by that ?

That we are to love God more than all other ob-
jects; and as much more as our utmost capacity
admits.

455. Why?

Because God is infinitely greater and better than
all, and deserves to be loved in proportion to His
excellence.

456. Do you love Him so much more ?

457. Do you love Him as much as you do self?

458. Do you love Him at all?

459. What is the second branch of the law of love?

Thou shalt love thy neighbor as thyself.

460. What is meant by neighbor ?

All other men, whether friend or foe: whether of
our own nation, or any other.

461. How do you prove that ?

The good Samaritan regarded and treated as his
neighbor, the Jew he found in distress, although
the Jews and Samaritans were different nations,
and deadly enemies to each other; and this case
Christ quotes to show that we must love as our
neighbors, all men, of every clime and color, friend
and foe. Luke 10: 33-37.

462. But why should we love others as our-
selves ?

Because our fellow-creatures are of as much
value in the scale of being as ourselves.

463. Does the command to love our neighbor as
ourselves require the father to feel the same natural
affection towards others’ children as for his own?
or to leave his own children or interests to take care
of others ?



THEOLOGICAL CATECHISM FOR YOUTH. 63

No; but it requires us to desire as much good
to others as to ourselves; and to do all for them
that m like circumstances we should like others to
do for us. “ Whatsover ye would that men should
do to you, do ye even so to them.” Matt. 7 : 12.

464. What is the preface to the Ten Command-
ments, otherwise called tne Decalogue ?

The preface to the Ten Commandments is, “I
am the Lord thy God which brought thee out of
the land of Egypt and out of the house of bondage.”
Ex. 20: 10.

465. What does the preface to the Ten Command-
ments teach us?

That those who are God’s own people by special
covenant and by special favor are bound above all
others to keep His commandments.

446. And are we now as specially bound to God
on these grounds as were Israel of old ?

Yes, and more so; for we, as a nation, above all
others, have been adopted into their place, and have
been more, and far more, blest than they.

467. What is the first commandment?

“ Thou shalt have no other gods before me.” Kx,
20: 3.

468. What is the leading object of the Jirst com-
mandment?

To forbid all outward idolatry like that of the
heathen, and all the inward idolatry of the
heart.

469 What do you mean by the inward idola-
try of the heart?

Allowing to any other object the highest place in
the heart—that place which of right belongs to God
alone.



64 THEOLOGICAL CATECHISM FOR YOUTH.

470. Is there any idolatry in Christian lands?

Yes; sinners in Christian lands are as deep in
idolatry as the heathen, though not addicted to
image worship.

471. How can men be as deep in idolatry here as
an heathen lands?

Because all sinners in Christendom, as well as
heathendom, allow to other objects that place in
their hearts which of right belongs to God only.

472. Which, then, is the real idolatry of the hea-
then world—their image uorship, or the alienation
of their hearts from God to other olyects?

Their alienation of heart to other objects; the
same as the idolatry in Christian lands.

473. What, then, are in reality the religious rites
and idolatrous worship of the heathen ?

Mere superstitious observances, adopted to qui-
et the demands of the religious principle in
man.

474. Has any religious prineiple survived the
fall in the heart of man?

Yes; a religious principle, but no principle of
religion. Conscience is still alive to the duty of
religion, though the heart is dead against it.

475. What, then,is the true philosophy or cause
of the heathen worship and religion?

It is the wicked heart’s attempt to quiet and
compromise with conscience. Conscience urges
the duty of religion and religious worship ; but the
heart, hating a holy God and a holy worship, con-
trives deities that will allow their votaries to wor-
ship and yet to sin on undisturbed.

476. What, then, are the grand oljects of the



THEOLOGICAL CATECHISM FOR YOUTH. 65

heart's idolatry here and every where? what the
trinity of idols that the wicked world adore ?

Wealth, Honor, and Pleasure.

477. Do the Scriptures consider devotion to these
as real idolutry ?

They do: they tell us that “ eovetousness (i. e. the
love of gold) is idolatry ;” and, of course, the same
is true in regard to the others. Col. 3: 5.

478. But why do wealth. honor and pleasure hold
the highest place in the sinful heart ?

Because they tend to self-gratification.

479. What, then, at last is the real and the only
idol of the sinful heart ?

Self: self-love is always highest till love to God
takes the throne, and puts down self into subordi-
nation.

480. Are you, then, an idolater ?

481. Are you a worshipper of the true God? or
do you worship nothing ?

482. If you worship nothing, then what compromise
does your heart make with your conscience ? how
manage to stifle the voice within, which tells you that
every rational being in every world oughé to love and
worship the God that made. him ?

483. When the first commandment forbids idola-
try, what opposite duty does it require ?

Tkat we choose the Lord alone for our God.

484. What do you mean by choosing the Lord for
our God ?

Yielding to him the highest place in our hearts,
and devoting our hearts and lives to his service.

485. What, then, is the sum and substance of what
the first commandment both forbids and requires ?

6*



.

66 THEOLOGICAL CATECHISM FOR YOUTH.

That we must have no God but the Lord, but
must have the Lord for our God ?

486. Have you ever yet renounced every idol, and
chosen the Lord for your God ?

487. What ought to be the object of your highest
love ?

488. What is your highest and dearest object ?
self or God ?

489. Is it a small sin, or a heinous crime, to cast
the love and fear of God away, and to allow sinful
self to be your God ?

490. Why is the command against idolairy made
the first commandment ?

Because idolatry is the most universal and the
greatest sin.

491. What is the second commandment ?

“Thou shalt not make unte thee any graven
image, or any likeness of any thing that is in heaven
above, or that is in the earth beneath, or that is in
the waters under the earth: Thou shalt not bow
down thyself to them, nor serve them: for I the
Lord thy God am a jealous God, visiting the ini-
quity of the fathers upon the children unto the
third and fourth generation of them that hate me.”
Ex. 20: 4,5.

492. What is the difference between the second com-
mandment and the first ?

The first forbids all idols, the second all images ;
the first forbids having any idols in the heart, the
second all images before the eye. The sin forbid-
den in the first is the cause, the sin denounced in
the second the effect: yet both refer to the same
great and wide-spread species of wickedness.



THEOLOGICAL CATECHISM FOR YOUTH. 67

493. What, then, is té the main object of the second
commandment to forbid and require ?

To forbid all image worship, and all that would
tend thereunto; and to require all men to worship
God in spirit and in truth.” John 4: 2, 3.

494. Do you worship God in spirit and in truth ?

495. What reasons are given for obeying this com-
mand ?
The first is, “that the Lord is a jealous God.”

496. Whatts meant by His being a jealous God ?

That God watches the first wanderings of the
heart, and is angry whenever any of that glory and
honor that are due to Him alone, are given to any
other object.

497. What is the second reason ?

That God visits the iniquities of the fathers upon
the children to the third and fourth’ generations of
them “that hate Him.”

498. Is it just to visit the iniquities of fathers
upon children ?

Yes ; when children followin the wicked footsteps
their fathers trod, and hate and disobey God them-
selves.

499. What is the third reason for keeping the
second commandment ?

That God shows mercy to thousands (of genera-
tions) that love Him and keep His commandments.

500. Does the Bible add the word generations
after the word thousands, making the text read
thousands of generations ?

No; nor does the Hebrew text add it after the
third and fourth; and if it may be added in the one
case, it may also in the other.

501. Suppose tt then added to both, what must



68 THEOLOGICAL CATECHISM FOR YOUTH.

we then understand by God's visiting the iniquities
of the fathers upon the children to the third and
fourth generation of them that hate Him.and show-
ing mercy to thousands of generations of them that
love Him and keep His commandments?

That God will follow far down with judgments
those who hate and rebel against Him; and very
much further still, with mercies, those who love
Him and keep His commandments.

502. What loud warning does this passage sound
in the ears of sinners?

Immediately to cease their career of iniquity,
lest they entail their own character and curse upon
generations yet unborn.

503. What great encouragement does this afford
to men toa life of mrety?

That their characters and blessings may flow
down to generations unnumbered, when themselves
are dead.

504. Are your life and example such as you
would wish those who come after you to copy?

505. What is the third commandment ?

Ex. 20:7. “Thou shalt not take the name of
the Lord thy God in vain, for the Lord will not
hold him guiltless that taketh his name in vain,”

506. What is u to take the name of Godin
vain?

To use it irreverently.

507. Can men violate the spirit of this command
even when they do not use the name of God at all?

Yea ; by speaking irreverently of His works, His
word, His worship, His ordinances, His Provi-
dences, His people, or His religion.



THEOLOGICAL CATECHISM FOR YOUTH, 69

508. What penalty does God threaten against
all who take his name in vain?
That He will not hold them guiltless.

509. What is meant by not holding them guilt-
less?

That He will hold and treat them as guilty, and
inflict condign punishment.

510. What then will befall those who not only take
His name in vain, but are guilty of profane swear-
ing and blasphemy ?

A still more terrible doom.

511. What is Christ's rule as to profane or irrev-
erent language of every kind ?

“Let your communication be yea, yea, and nay,
nay, for whatsoever is more than these cometh of
evil.” Matt. 5: 37.

512. Is profaneness the most inexcusable of all
sins ?

Yes; the thief pleads his hunger, and the mur-
derer the abuses he has received, or the gain he is
going to reap; but the profane swearer has neither
the one excuse nor the other for breaking the third
commandment.

518. Does God regard the words we utter, the
language we use, as a true index of our hearts?

“Yes; “for out of the abundance of the heart the
mouth speaketh.” Matt. 12: 34.

514. Will our words come up in remembrance
at the last day?

Yes; for every idle word we must give account
in the Day of Judgment. Matt. 12: 36.

515. Will our words have an influence in fizing
our eternal destiny ?

Yes; “ By thy words thou shalt be justified, and



70 THEULOGICAL CATECHISM FOR YOUTH.

by thy words thou shalt be condemned.” Matt. 12:
37.

516. What influence is brought to bear upon the
tongue ?
“ Tt is set on fire of hell.” Jas. 3:6.

517. What kind of sin is that for which there is
no forgiveness, neither in this lifenor that which is
to come ?

A sin of the tongue. “Whosoever speaketh a
word against the Holy Ghost it shall not be forgiv-
en, neither in this world nor in the world to come.”
Matt. 12: 32.

518. Is your tongue ever “ set on fire of hell?”

519. Have you any idle words to give an ac-
count of at the Day of Judgment ?

520. Are you sufficiently cautious and prayerful
as to the language of your lips?

521. What ts the fourth commandment?

“Remember the Sabbath day to keep it holy.
Six days shalt thou labor and do all thy work :
But the seventh day is the Sabbath of the Lord thy
God; in it thou shalt not do any work, thou, nor
thy son, nor thy daughter, thy man-servant, nor
thy maid-servant, nor thy cattle, nor thy stran-
ger that is within thy gates: for in six days the
Lord made heaven and earth, the sea and all that
in them is, and rested the seventh day: wherefore
the Lord blessed the Sabbath day, and hallowed it.”
Ex. 20: 8-11.

522. What is the first precept of the fourth com-
mandment ?

“ Remember the Sabbath day.”

523. Why are we commanded to remember the
Sabbath Day ?



THEOLOGICAL CATECHISM FOR YOUTH. 71

Because so much is said and read, and done on
the Sabbath, without remembering what day it is.

524. Do you not sometimes forget it?

525. Has the Sabbath become entirely forgotten
and lost by any portion of mankind ?

Yes; by whole nations; even where the septen-
ary division of time continues.

526. Is there no danger of its being lost here?

527. What is the second precept of the fourth
commandment? b
“To keep the Sa bath holy.”

528. What is ut to keep the Sabbath holy?

To devote our thoughts, words and actions, ail
that day to heavenly, not to worldly things.

529. What is the third precept of the fourth
commandment ?

“Six days shalt thou labor.”

530. Is it every one's duty to labor siz days in
the week ?

Yes; in some useful employment of body or
mind.

531. But may not wealth excuse a man for idle-
ness ?

No; nothing but weakness, or disease of mind or

dy.

532. What evils does idleness engender ?

Crime, disease, death, perdition.

533. But what shall a man do who has already
all the wealth he needs for his support ?

Labor for God and the salvation of souls; gain
and give to the cause of humanity and religion, at
home and abroad, over all the world.



72 THEOLOGICAL CATECHISM FOR YOUTH.

534. What is the fourth precept of the fourth
commandment ?

To finish all our secular business witbin the six
secular days. “Six days shalt thou labor and do
all thy work.”

535. But have not some men more secular busi-
ness than they can perform in the six secular days ?

Yes; but they have no right to more. God al-
lows no man to take more on his hands than he
can do in the six.

536. How do you prove that ?

God would never have commanded us to do all
in six days if he allowed us to take more than we
could complete in six.

537. By the month or year together, could a man
do as much in the whole seven days of the week us
an the six?

No. No man can do so much, or travel so far.

538. What motive ts here presented for finish-
ing our works within the siz days ?

God's own example; “for in six days the Lord
made heaven and earth, the sea, and all that in
them is.”

539. What is the fifth injunction (or series of in-
Junctions) of the fourth commandment ?

“In the Sabbath of the Lord thy God thou shalt
not do any work ; thou, nor thy son, nor thy daugh-
ter, nor thy man-servant, nor thy maid-servant, nor
thy cattle, nor the stranger that is within thy
gates.”

540. Is any man, then, held to be a Sabbath
breaker tf he set his servants, or chidren, or cattle
at work, even though he do not work himself?

Yes ; cr if he permzt either a child or a domestic



THEOLOGICAL CATECHISM FOR YOUTH. 73

or even a stranger that is sheltered beneath his
roof to labor, or otherwise violate the day of God.

541. But suppose he has not power to prevent his
son or servant, or the stranger from violating the
Sabbath ?

He must prevent it. God will take no excuse at
his hands. The head of every house is in God's
sight bound to be its master, and actually to pre-
vent Sabbath-breaking in his house; or banish the
Sabbath-breaker from his establishment.

542. But which ts the easy and the right way to
prevent, without resort to severity ?

To begin early, and to teach and train every soul
in the mansion to reverence the Lord’s day from
the very beginning. ,

543. What will God do to those parents or guar-
dians or masters, who let go the reins of govern-
ment, till those they are bound to govern are above
and beyond them ?

He will task them to a dread account hereafter.

544. When God says thou shalt not do any
work, thou, nor thy son nor thy daughter, nor thy
man servant, &c., are not only all kinds of work,
but all other worldly occupations or engagements
forbidden, such as travelling, studying, reading,
writing, and conversation on worldly sudgects ?

Yes; and all worldly visiting, amusements, and
self-gratification. God’s words are, “ Not doing
thine own ways, nor finding thine own pleasure, nor
speaking thine own words.” Isa. 58: 13.

545. Do you not sometimes seek your own plea-
sure or speak your own words on the day of God?

546. What was the penalty in former days for
violating the Sabbath ?
7



74 THEOLOGICAL CATECHISM FOR YOUTH.

“ Hvery one that defileth it shall surely be put to
death : whosoever doeth (any) work therein, that
soul shall be cut off from his people.” Ex. 31:
14; and 35: 2.

547. Is God as angry now as ever against the
Sabbath-breaker ?

Just the same now, and always will be.

548. Is there any kind of work a man may do
on the day of God?

Yes; works of mercy—to man or beast. Luke
13: 10; and 14: 15. Matt. 12: 1. We may im-
part food to the hungry, or relief to the distress of
man or beast on the Sabbath day.

549. By what motives ts the duty of keeping the
Sabbath here enforced ?

That “God rested on the seventh day; blessed
the Sabbath day and hallowed it.”

550. How long did the seventh day continue to
be the Sabbath ?

More than four thousand years. The seventh
day was set apart for a Sabbath in the garden of
Eden, twenty-five hundred years before this fourth
commandment was given on Mount Sinai.

551. How does that appear?

Because we are told immediately on the comple-
tion of the creation, that “ God blessed the seventh
day and sanctified it” (Gen. 2: 3); and because it
was needed before the law as much as since; and
it commemorated God’s rest then as now.

552. What reason have we for supposing that
the first day has been kept as the Sabbath since the
days of Christ?

Because it is called in the New Testament,
“The Lord’s day ;” and on this day the disciples



THEOLOGICAL CATECHISM FOR YOUTH. 75

met for worship. Rev. 1: 10; Acts 20: 7; 1
Cor. 16: 2. And it was kept by the early Chris-
tians as a Sabbath.

553. What is meant by God’s blessing the Sab-
bath day?

His making it a blessing to all who keep it.

554. Is the Sabbath a real blessing to the world ?

Yes; it is the guardian of all the dearest -in-
terests of mankind ; the great promoter of learning,
liberty, peace, prosperity, morality, religion, and
salvation.

555. What is the condition of the nations where
no Sabbath is foand ?

They are all sunk in barbarian or heathen degra-
dation.

556. Does every nation then and every individual
that turns his back on this day of God, shut him-
self off from the richest blessings of Heaven ?

Yes; and brings himself under the curse.

557. What is meant by God's “hallowing the
Sabbath day ?”
Setting it apart from a common to a sacred use.

558. Does God regard it as a great sin for man
wilfully to profane what he has hallowed ?
Yes; and punishes accordingly.

559. Do you recollect any cases where men have
wilfully desecrated this day that God hath so so-
lemnly consecrated ?

Yes; the man in the wilderness, who in contempt
of God's law gathered sticks on the Sabbath day;
and the case of the French nation in the day of
their great revolution, when they wilfully biotted
out the day of God from their calendar, and even



76 THEOLOGICAL CATECHISM FOR YOUTH.

abolished the seventh day division of time for de-
cades, or divisions of ten days each.

560. What were the consequences ?

The man in the wilderness was stoned to death
by express command of God. Numb. 15: 35.
And the French nation was deluged in blood.
(See French Revolution.)

561. Do you know of any other cases of the sore
Judgments of God, though less severe, on nations or
indwiduals for Sabbath-breaking, either in former
or tater days ?

Yes; the whole nation of Israel was carried and
kept captive for seventy years, that the land might
enjoy her Sabbaths of which they had despoiled it.
Ley. 26: 34-35; and 2d Chron. 36: 21.

And in our own days the destruction of pleasure
riders on land and water on the Sabbath day, is of
appalling frequency.

562. As a general rule, are men gainers or losers
in their temporal interests, by breaking the Sabbath
for gain?

Great losers in their temporal, and infinite losers
in their eernad/ interests; and therefore all who
would be happy in the world to come, or even pros-
per in this world, must keep holy the Sabbath day.

563. What division of the ten commandments ts
supposed to end here with the fourth ?

That part which was written on the first table of
stone, containing our duties to God; the remaining
six, containing our duties to man, being written on
the second table.

564. What is the fifth commandment ?

“Honor thy father and mother, that thy days
may be long in the land that the Lord thy God
giveth thee.” Ex. 20: 12.



THEOLOGICAL CATECHISM FOR YOUTH. 77

565. What ts i to honor parents ?

To love, reverence, and obey them.

566. What peculiar kind of love or affection are
children bound to exercise towards their parents ?

Kindred and grateful affection.

567. Is kindred affection the duty of chikiren
towards thewr parents ?

Yes; and of parents towards their children ; and
of brothers and sisters, and of all other kindred, one
towards another.

568. How does that appear? Is not kindred af-
Section a mere animal instinct, common both to the
brute and human race ?

Yes; and therefore the want of itis worse than
brutish; and henee to be “without natural affec-
tion” is rated in Scripture as the lowest stage of
human depravity. 2 Tim. 3: 3.

569. Is gratitude one part of that love which
children owe to their parents ?

Gratitude and love are not the same thing: for
love refers to persons, gratitude to favors shown;
yet love and gratitude, like benefactor and benefits,
are closely connected together.

570. For what is gratitude due from children to
parents? —

For all their countless favors ;

Their counsels and cares;

Their pains and their prayers ;

Their toils and their tears,

From first to latest years.

571. Why ought children to honor their parents?

Because of the parents’ superiority in age; and
the respect naturally due to the parental relation.

572. Are children bound by this commandment

7*



78 THEOLOGICAL CATECHISM FOR YOUTH.

to honor or reverence parents who, by their charac-
ter or conduct, merit nothing but contempt ?

Yes; children are always bound to honor, who-
ever else may despise them.

573. Are children bound to do every thing that
parents may command ?

Yes; unless what they command be impracticable
or wicked.

574. What ts the Bible rule on this subject ?

“Children, obey your parents in the Lord.”
Eph. 6: 1.

575, What 1s meant by “ obeying in the Lord 2”

Obeying in all that the Lord approves.

576. What did God in ancient times command
to be done with a son that would not obey his father
or mother, after they had chastened him theniselves
tn vain ?

God's command was, “ All the men of his city
shall stone him that he die.” Deut. 21: 21.

577. What if a child cursed his father or
mother ?

“ Every one that curseth his father or his mother
shall surely be put to death.” Lev. 20: 9.

578. Is God as angry now as ever against dis-
obedient children ?

Yes, the same.

579. Do you always obey the fifth command-
ment ?.

580. What promise does this command contain
for all who obey i ?

“That thy days may be long in the land which
the Lord thy God giveth thee.”

581. Is thes a promise that the nation of Israel, if



THEOLOGICAL CATECHISM FOR YOUTH. 79

obedient, should remain long in the land of Ca-
naan, the land the Lord gave them? or that all
men who obey shail live long on the earth, or both?

Both. Primarily it was a promise to that nation ;
inferentially, “it is a promise of long life and pros-
perity, so far as shall subserve God’s glory and their
own highest good, to all such as keep this command-
ment.”

582. Why does Paul call this the first command-
ment with promise?” Eph. 6: 2,3. Does not
every commandment of God contain a promise ex-
pressed or implied to all who keep it?

Yes; and Paul does not say that this is the first
commandment with promise, but the first command-
ment with this particular promise; “that it may be
well with thee, and that thou mayest dwell long in
the earth or the land.” Ephes. 6: 2,3. Original.

583. Why the earth or the land ?
Because the Greck word means either.

584. But have we a right to put those two verses
together, and to read tt, “ the first commandment
with the promise that it may be well with thee, and
that thou mayest dwell long in the land 2?"

Yes; because the verses never ought to have
been divided ; their sense and truth require them to
be joined together.

585. But are not the divisions of chapters and
verses inspired divisions ?

No. The original Scriptures had neither chapter
nor verse.

586. Who then divided the Bible into chapters
and verses ?

Chiefly the monk Hugo, 1240; Robert Stephens,
1551; and the Jew, Mordecai Nathan.



80 THEOLOGICAL CATECHISM FOR YOUTH.

587. Does the fifth command imply also the duty of
subjection to rulers and all others in authority, as
well as parents ?

Yes; “Let every soul be subject to the powers
that be; for there is no power but of God. The
powers that be are ordained of God. Whosoever
therefore resisteth the power, resisteth the ordi-
nance of God; and they that resist, shall receive to
themselves damnation.” Rom. 13: 1, 2.

588. If rulers make wicked laws are we bound to
obey them?

No; for “we ought to obey God rather than
men.” Acts5: 29.

589. But who is to judge whether a law be wick-
ed, and onethat it would be wicked to obey ?
The Bible, or the principles it lays down.

590. But who is to interpret the Bible?

Every individual for himself, after patient and
prayerful investigation, as he shall answer it at the
Last Day.

591. But what must men do if masters, magis-
trates, or monarchs attempt to compel them to obey
wicked laws?

Doas Shadrach, Meshach, Abednego and Daniel
did in Babylon; go into the furnace or lion’s den,
rather than sin against God. Dan. 3d and 6th
chapter.

592. What is the sixth commandment ?
“Thou shalt not kill” Ex. 20: 13.

593. Does this commandment forbid taking the
life of u fellow creature in any case?

No; it is the duty of the Zaw to take “life for
life.’ “ Whoso sheddeth man’s blood, by man shall
his blood be shed.” Gen. 9: 6.



THEOLOGICAL CATECHISM FOR YOUTH. 81

594. But was not this precept merely one of the
enactments of the Levitical Law, now abrogated and
done away?

No; for this precept was given six hundred years
before Levi was born; and more than eight hun-
dred before the Levitical Law was enacted.

595. If the sixth commandment does not forbid
taking life for life, what does it forbid?

It forbids all murder. Matt. 19: 18. “Thou
shalt do no murder.”

596. What ts murder ?

Killing a man intentionally, without the com-
mand or authority of law.

597. Is there any difference between the command
of the law, and the authority of law ?

Yes; the legal executioner who executes the
murderer on the scaffold, does it by regular com-
mand of the law: but he who kills the man who is
in the act or effort to murder him, or his family, is
acting by the authority of the law against murder,
provided the law could in no other way afford pro-
tection.

598. Has the law itself a right to take life for any
thing but life?

No.

599. Is “malice aforethought,” always esssential
to murder ?

No; a man may murder his neighbor for money ;
or himself for grief, with no malice against either.

600. What else besides murder does the law
against murder forbid ?

Every thing that would lead or tend to murder
of any kind; whether murder for malice, or money,
or grief



82 THEOLOGICAL CATECHISM FOR YOUTH.

601. Can a man bea murderer without taking
life?

Yes; “whosoever hateth his brother is a mur-
derer.” 1 Jn. 3: 15.

602. Ave you, then, one in heart?

603. Whence do all murders proceed ?

From within; “out of the heart proceed evil
thoughts, murders.” Matt. 15: 19.

604. What then does the sixth commandment en-
join in regard to the spirit of our mind?

To avoid every thing that would lead or tend to-
wards murder: hatred, envy, jealousy and avarice;
and to cultivate the opposite spirit of loving our
neighbors as ourselves, and of entire submission to
the will of God.

605. What does the sizth commandment enjoin
as the rule of our practice in regard to life?

To avoid every thing that might endanger our
own or our neighbor’s life or health; and to use “all
lawful endeavors to preserve our own life, and the
life of others.” West. Catech.

606. What ts the first part of the punishment
that God denounces against the murderer ?

“The murderer shall surely be put to death.”
Num. 35: 17.

607. What is the second part ?

“ Murderers shall have their part in the lake
that burneth with fire and brimstone.” Rev. 21:

8.

608. Is there any other kind of murder besides
that of the body ?

Yes; soul-murder.

609. In what way may souls be murdered ?

By being tempted into sin.



THEOLOGICAL CATECHISM FOR YOUTH. 83

610. What sort of sin?
Unbelief, or any open, or secret sin.

611. Who is guilty of soul-murder ?

Satan; for “he was a murderer from the begin-
ning.” Jn.8: 44.

612. Who else besides Satan may be guilty of soul-
murder ?

The infidel, who leads the soul to reject God’s
truth; the seducer, who leads the soul into any
open or secret sin; the mere moralist, whose influ-
ence stops the soul this side of Christ ; and the pro-
erastinator, who leads the sinner to put off for a
more convenient season.

613. May a person be guilty of the blood of souls,
without any of these or any other overt transgres-
stons against them ?

Yes; by neglecting the instructions and warn-
ings, the prayers and efforts that God requires for
the salvation of all we can reach or influence.

614. Who are in special danger of becoming
guilty of the blood of souls in this way?

Parents, of the blood of their children ; teachers,
of the souls of their pupils; ministers, of the souls
of their people; and all that have or might have in-
fluence over others, are in danger of their blood by
neglect.

615. Which ts worse, to be guilty of the blood of
the soul, or that of the body ?

That of the soul is as much worse, as the soul is
more important than the body.

616. If the murderer of the body be doomed to
death in this world, and eternal misery in the next,
what does the soul-murderer deserve ?

A far sorer death, both temporal and eternal.



84 THEOLOGICAL CATECHISM FOR YOUTH.

617. Of which are there the greater numbers,
murderers of the body, or of the soul?
Of sowd-murderers, incomparably more.

618. Are you one of the number, either by leading
them to sin, or by neglecting efforts for their salva-
tion, or your own?

619. May a person destroy the souls of others by
neglecting his own?

Yes; for he thus influcnces others to the same
fatal neglect.

620. Is there any kind of soul-murder besides
that against a fellow-creature ?

Yes; there is soul suicide, or destroying one’s
own soul.

621. How maya man be guilty of destroying his
own soul?

By doing any thing that God forbids, or neglect-
ing any thing that God requires ; especially by ne-
glecting or delaying to repent and believe ; and give
the heart to God.

622. How much need you do then, to be a destroyer
of your own soul?

Nothing; for to do nothing when God requires
us to do something, yea, and to do much, is certain
self-destruction.

623. But may we not do something, and yet
perish ?

Yes; much. We may give punctual attention
to the Bible, the Sabbath, the closet, and even the
communion, and yet perish by neglecting to lay
hold on Christ, and give the heart and life to God.

624. Are you daily perilling your own soul now
by such neglect, or in any other way ?



THEOLOGICAL CATECHISM FOR YOUTH. 85

625. Which is the greater crime, self-murder or
the murder of others ?—to destroy your own soul, or
the soul of your fellow-creature ?

Suicide is the worst sort of murder; because
our own life is put more entirely under our own
care than the life of any other.

626. May a man be guilty of both kinds of mur-
der at the same time ; destroying his own soul, and
that of his fellow-creatures ?

Yes; many a man is guilty of the blood of his
own soul, and that of hundreds of his fellow-
creatures.

627. And are those hundreds then guiltless them-
selves because led on by others ?

No; but the tempter who leads, is guilty of the
blood of the souls he leads; and those who are led
are guilty of self-murder for consenting to go.

628. What then must we do to in order to avoid
the guilt of soul-murder of every sort?

Do all we can for the salvation of our own souls,
and the souls of all our fellow-creatures.

629. What is the seventh commandment ?

“Thou shalt not commit adultery.” Ex. 20:
14,

630. What does the seventh commandment for-
id ?

“ All unchaste thoughts, words, and actions.”

631. What does it require?

“ Our best endeavors to preserve our own and
our neighbor’s chastity in heart, speech, and be-

avior.” West. Catech.

632. What is the eighth commandment?

“Thou shalt not steal.” Ex. 20: 15.

8



86 THEOLOGICAL CATECHISM FOR YOUTH.

633. What is it to steal?

To take what belongs to another, without his
knowledge or consent, and without compensation.

634. What is robbery ?

Taking what belongs to another with his know-
ledge, but without his consent, and without com-
pensation.

635. Which of these does this command forbid ?
Both ; and all fraud, gambling, over-reaching, and
extortion in our dealings with our fellow-men, as
individuals, or with the government under which
we live.
636. What does the eighth commandment re-
ware ?
All that conduct towards our neighbor’s inter-
ests that we should desire from him towards our
own.

637. Is the common. course of the world in vila-
tion of the spirit of the eighth commandment ?

Yes; the common principle and practice of get-
ting the most possible from our fellow-ereature for
the least possible in return, is the very spirit of
robbery itself; and, of course, all extortion of pro-
perty or labor for less than its value is robbery.

638. What will the day of judgment reveal in
the light of this command ?

That a great portion of mankind that stood high
in the world, were in God’s sight mere thieves and
robbers.

639. Do you in all business transactions aim to
make your neighbor's side fully equal to your own?

640. Do you deal with him as you would wish
him in like circumstances to deal with you ?



THEOLOGICAL CATECHISM FOR YOUTH. 87

641. Is not a contrary course robbery in the sight
of God ?

642. Do you not deem ihe contrary robbery when
agatnst you?

643. Is there any other sort of robbery besides that
against man?

Yes; robbery of God. “Ye have robbed me,
even this whole nation.” Mal. 3: 9.

644. Wherein may a man rob God ?
“In tithes and offerings.” Mal. 3: 8.

645. How are we to understand that ?

That withholding from the cause of religion a
full tenth of all their annual incomes God con-
sidered, in the days of Israel. decided robbery of
Himself; and he is the same God still.

646. Which was the more costly command, theirs
to maintain the Levitical ceremonies, or ours to give
the gospel to every creature,and which is the more
wnportant ?

Our duty to give the gospel to every creature is
far more expensive, and likewise far more import-
ant.

647. Which'then were the greater robbers of God,
those who withheld their tenth from the Levitical
ceremonial, or those who will not give now the pro-
portion necessary to sustain the gospel at home, and
to send it over the world to every creature abroad ?

648. Is there a still worse way of robbing God ?
Yes; withholding our hearts is worse than with-
holding our money.

649. Ave you doing both ?

650. What did God say to those who withheld
their tenth from the support of religion?



88 THEOLOGICAL CATECHISM FOR YOUTH.

“ Ye are cursed with a curse.” Mal. 3: 9.

651. What will He then. soon say to you if you
withhold from Him your money, or your heart, or
both ?

652. What is the ninth commandment ?

Thon shalt not bear false witness against thy
neighbor. Ex. 20: 16.

653. What is meant by false witness ?

Testifying falsely under oath.

654. Does this command forbid no false testimo-
ny, save that which ts against your neighbor? May
we bear false witness in our neighbor's favor ?

No; nomore in his favor, than against him; but
no one bears false testimony, unless to operate
against some other ; or to promote some selfish end.

655. Does this command forbid our bearing true
witness against our neighbor ?

No.

656. Does tt forbid any other kind of falsehood,
but false testimony, and that before the courts ?

Yes; every kind of falsehood, and lying every-
where.

657. What ts it to le, or commit falsehood ?

Intentionally to deceive.

658. In how many different ways may a person
be guilty of lying, or falschood ?

y the tongue, or the pen, or the press; by ac-
tions, or by silence itself, when truth requires us to
speak.

659. Does this command forbid both slander and
flattery ?

Yes, both; for both are falsehoods; flattery is
false praise ; slander, false dispraise.



THEOLOGICAL CATECHISM FOR YOUTH. 89

660. Does this eommand forbid speaking either
Jalsehood or truth against any fellow-creature ?

The spirit of the command forbids our saying
any thing, whether truc or false, against a fellow-
creature, unless absolutely necessary.

661. Where ts this commandment daily and
howrly broken?

In the chase of gain, fame, pleasure and revenge.

662. Giveone instance from the pursuers of gain.

In the constant practices of the business-world
extolling things to be sold, above their value, and
decrying things to be bought, beneath it; and
amongst the pursuers of gain, pleasure or power in
every sort of false representation and misrepresen-
tation to carry a point.

663. Is thes a false world ?

Yes; so false that David said “all men are li-
ars.” Ps. 116: 11.

664. What is the evil tendency of falsehood ?

Its tendency is to embitter and embroil all the
relations of life; to take away peace and send mal-
ice and war through hearts and houses, neighbor-
hoods and nations; to render useless all testimony
and all courts of justice ; all books, even the Bible
itself; and thus the tendency of falsehood is to de-
stroy all our earthly ang all our eternal interests to-
gether.

665. What punishment has God denounced
against lars and deceivers ?

“ All liars shall have their part in the lake that
burns with brimstone and fire.” Rev. 2: 8.

666. What is the tenth commandment?

“ Thou shalt not covet thy neighbor's house, thou
shalt not covet thy neighbor’s wife, nor his man-

8*



90 THEOLOGICAL CATECHISM FOR YOUTH.

servant, nor his maid-servant, nor his ox, nor his
ass, nor any thing that is thy neighbor’s.” Ex. 20:
17.

667. What 1s it to covet ?

To desire.

668. But is i wrong to desire, and to purchase
any thing that is our neighbor's ?

No; but it is wrong to desire what he is unwil-
ling to impart ; or what we have no right or power,
or providential permission, to possess.

669. What does this command forbid in spirit
and in practice ?

In spirit, it forbids all avarice, and envy, and dis-
contentment with our own condition; and in practice,
all gambling, and lotteries; and not only all un-
righteous or extreme efforts to gain wealth, but
even to make the attainment of wealth the aim and
object of our life and our pursuit.

670. What does it require?

Entire submission to the will of God, and the al-
lotments of His Providence ; that we love our neigh-
bor as ourselves, and his happiness as our own;
choose God for our portion and happiness; to set
our affection on things above, and to lay up our trea-
sure there,

671. Does God consider copetousness a great sin?

Yes; He declares it to be “ Ldolatry ;” and sets
down as His first command on the first table of
stone, and the first precept ever written by the fin-
ger of God, his law against idolatry, as the front
and leading transgression of all human depravity.

672. How does God feel towards the covetous ?

“The covetous, the Lord abhorreth.” Ps. 10: 3.

673. What will be their final destiny ?



THEOLOGICAL CATECHISM FOR YOUTH. 91

“No man who is an idolater shall inherit the
kingdom of God.” Eph. 5:5.

674. What did Paul find out by the study of the
tenth commandment ?

That the law of God reaches the heart, and even
the heart's desires, forbidding the first start of wrong
emotions; requiring not only that all our words
and actions, but that all our feelings, should be such
as God approves.

675. Does any mere man then since the Fall per-
fectly keep the commandments of God?

“No; “there is not a just man upon earth that
doeth good and sinueth not.” Eccles. 7: 20.

676. What is the character of all impenitent
men ?

Totally depraved.

677. What do you mean by Total Depravity ?
Does it mean that there ts no truth nor honesty, nor
amiableness in man, in his natural state?

No; there is often much of them all; so much so
that the young man in the Gospel, though totally de-
praved, was beloved of Christ Himself. Mk. 10: 21.

678. In what then does Total Depravity consist,
especially as to its elementary principle?

In supreme love to self; with no love to God, and
no holiness.

679. Does the Bible affirm the total depravity of
all natural men?

Yes ; it declares them to be “lovers of their own
selves ;” and adds, “In me, i. e., in my flesh, dwell-
eth no good thing.” I know you that ye have not the
love of Godin you.” “The carnal mind is enmity
against God.” “Every imagination of the thought
of the heart is only evil, and that continually.” 2



92 THEOLOGICAL CATECHISM FOR YOUTH.

Tim. 3:2; Jn. 5: 42; Rom. 7: 18, and8: 7, and
Gen. 6:5.

680. Is man’s depravity a mere incident derwed
from circumstances, or temptations, or is tt by na-
ture ?

“We are by nature children of wrath, even as
others.” Eph. 2: 3.

681. How early does mankind go astray?

“They go astray as soon as they are born.”—
“ Death hath passed upon all men, for that all have
sinned.” Ps 58: 3; Rom. 5: 12.

682, But how can man go astray, or be depraved,
as soon as hers born?

Because self-love is as really on the throne of the
heart, at first, as ever afterwards.

683. How came the mind of man in that depraved
condition ?
By his being a fallen creature.

684. What do you mean by a fallen creature?

One from the throne of whose heart the love of
God has departed, and self-love taken the throne in
its place.

685. Was love to God on the throne as the high-
est affection, in the heart of Adam?

Yes; before his fall; and self-love was entirely
subordinate.

686. How do you know that munis a fallen crea-
ture?

The Bible declares it; “God made man upright,
but they have sought out many inventions.” Kiel.
7:29. “In the day thou eatest thereof thou shalt
surely die.” Gen. 2: 17. “I had planted thee a
noble vine, wholly a right seed; now then art thou



THEOLOGICAL CATECHISM FOR. YOUTH. 93

turned into the degenerate plant of a strange vine ?”
Jer. 2: 21.

687. How did man's fall occur ?

By Adam’s eating the forbidden fruit. Gen. 3:
6, 7.

688. How came he toeat it ?

By being left to the freedom of his own will, and
to the temptation of the devil. Gen. 3d chapter.

689. How came we to be fallen creatures ?
It is by reason of our covenant connection with

Adam.

690. What do you mean by a covenant ?
Amongst men, itis a mere voluntary compact, or
agreement, between contracting parties,

691. What do you mean by a voluntary com-
act ?
One like a deed or a mortgage, or marriage con-
tract, in which either party may engage or not, as
he pleases.

692. Of what kinds, ts the covenant of God?

God had four different kinds of covenants.

693. What are they ?

One is a mere promise or decree, like the rain-
bow covenant, which consisted in a mere promise or
decree that the earth should never be destroyed
by a deluge again. Gen. 9: 15.

694. Mention another.

The Covenant of Redemption, for the Redemp-
tion of man ; a compact between the Persons of the
Trinity ; voluntary, like the covenants between man
and man.

695. But are not the covenants of God with men



94 THEOLOGICAL CATECHISM FOR YOUTH.

voluntary in like manner, leaving it optional with
man to enter into them or not ?

No; God does indeed make proposals or over-
tures to man, and promises reward in case of com-
pliance ; yet He does not leave it to man to comply
or not, but commands compliance, and denounces
terrible penalty against xon-compliance.

696. If, then, all God's overtures or proposals to
us come in the form of commands, is there any real
difference between the covenant of God, and the law
of God?

The law of God on Sinai is very often styled his
covenant. Ex. 24:7; Heb. 3:8 Yet there isa
difference between a covenant of God and Jaw, as
understood amongst men.

697. What is the difference?

God’s covenants with men consist of four things :
requirement and promise, prohibition and penalty :
human law of but two things, prohibition and
penalty.

698. Give an illustration of the two things only
in human law.

The law of man forbids murder, and threatens
death against the man who commits it; but it makes
no promise to the man who does not commit mur-
der.

699. Give an illustration of the four things eom-
prised in a covenant of God.

(ist) If ye be willing and obedient (2d) ye shall
eat of the good of the land; (3d) but if ye refuse
and rebel (4th) ye shall be devoured with the sword,
for the mouth of the Lord hath spoken it.” Isa.
1: 19,20. Such is the substance of all God’s com-
mandments,



THEOLOGICAL CATECHISM FOR YOUTH. 95

700. How many covenants has God made with
man?

The principal are two: the covenant of works and
the covenant of grace.

701. What was the Covenant of Works?
That made with Adam in Eden before the fall.

702. What was the purport or substance of that
Covenant ?
Do and live,

703. How much is comprised in do and live ?

It means, obey Me perfectly during the whole
time of thy probation, then shalt thou be, and con-
tinue, holy and happy, now and for ever.

704. How do you prove that God made such a
covenant with Adam ?

When God said to Adam, “In the day thou
eatest thou shalt surely die,” it implies, that if he
had not eaten there would have been no death:
and when he says, after Adam had sinned, “ Lest
he put forth his hand and take also of the tree of
life, and eat and live for ever,” it implies that, if
Adam had not sinned, he might have taken of the
tree of life, and eaten and lived for ever. Gen.
2:17, and 3: 22.

705. Was this covenant made with Adam for
himself only ?

No; it was made with Adam for man, including
himself and all his posterity.

706. How do you prove that?

Our depraved condition proves it; for we cannot
suppose creatures to come out of the hands of a

ure and benevolent God so depraved as man, un-

ess some dire lapse or catastrophe had passed over
his nature in some former state or period.



96 THEOLOGICAL CATECHISM FOR YOUTH.

707. What Scripture proofs have you that the
covenant with Adam included the race ?

“In Adam all die.” “By one man sin entered
into the world, and death by sin.” “ By one man’s
disobedience many were made sinners.” “By the
offence of one, judgment came upon all men to con-
demnation,” &c. 1 Cor. 11: 22; Rom. 5: 12; 18: 19.

708. Does that same covenant still exist, and still
reach us? and is it still binding on us?

Yes; it still reaches us with tremendous power,
or the whole race would not come into the world
fallen, depraved, suffering, and dying creatures.
And its commands are still as binding as ever;
for God’s moral law never commanded any thing
but what is morally right; and moral right is bind-
ing for ever.

709. Are the promises or proposals of that cove-
nant still extended to us?—does tt still present ttself
to us as acovenait of life, saying to us, asto Adam,
obey, and live ?

Tt still says to us, “Ye shall keep my statutes
and my judgments, which, if aman do, he shall live
in them ;” and that “The man' which doeth these
things shall live by them.” Lev. 18:5; Rom.
10: 5. Yet all this is no promise to sinners.

710. Why not?

Because those promises are made to nothing short
of sinless perfection, from the first breath to the
last; and of course every past transgression or
failure cuts off all hope by that old covenant of

aw.

711, What proof of this ?

“Tt is written, cursed is every one that continu-
eth not in all things written in the law to do them.”
Gal. 3: 10.



THEOLOGICAL CATECHISM FOR YOUTH. 97

712. What then is our present relation to the old
law covenant ?

Its promises are dead to us, because we are sin-
ners; but its commands still lie upon us, and its
curse too is on us as its violators.

718. But is the old requirement of sinless perfec-
tion made upon Adam in the first covenant stil
binding upon us ?

Yes; even Christ himself commands it, saying,
“ Be ye therefore perfect, as your Father in heaven
is perfect ;” Matt. 5 : 48 ; and he could not command
less without commanding us to sin.

714. But if sinless perfection be. commanded in
this life, then is it not possible ?

Yes; naturally or physically possible; for God
requires no physical impossibility of His creatures.

715. But if possible in itself, and commanded of
God, then is not the doctrine that some men attain
sinless perfection in this life, true?

No; because men are not what they ought to be.
God commands many things which man never
obeys; the command to be perfect, especially.

716. Suppose we could and should be perfectly ho-
ly and obedtent the rest of our days, would that save
us?

No ; past transgressions would forever debar us ;
“yea, any one of all our past transgressions; for
cursed is every one that continueth not in all
things.”

717. Is there any hope or possibility of relief or
salvation by the Old, or “ First Covenant ?”

None.

718. But why could not the Law Covenant af-
ford any hope or relief ?

9



98 THEOLOGICAL CATECHISM FOR YOUTH.

Because we are sinners needing pardon ; and Law
knows nothing of pardon; all it has to say to man
or angel is, obey and live; disobey and die.

719. Is thereany hope then anywhere for sinful
man?

Yes, there is hope in the New Covenant;

THE COVENANT OF GRACE.

720. What is the Covenant of Grace?

Its brief purport or substance is, Believe and
live. The covenant of works, Do and live ; the cov-
enant of grace, Believe and live,

721. What proof of thas ?

“ He that believeth and is baptized shall be saved ;
but he that believeth not shall be damned.” Mark
16: 16.

722. Where is this new covenant revealed to us?

In the Gospel.

723. What is the Gospel?

The good news of salvation for awordd of sinners.

724. What is the difference between the Law and
the Gospel ?

The Law isa Rule; the Gospel a Remedy.

725. What is the leading difference between the
teachings of the Law and those of the Gospel ?

The Law teaches what we must do, to do right;
the Gospel, what we must do to be saved.

726. But does not the Gospel teach us also to do
right ?

Yes; but its teachings of right are the echoes or
enlargements of the principles of right, before es-
tablished by the divine law.



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CATECHETICAL THEOLOGY,

FOR YOUTH;

ESPECIALLY OF

Pible-Classes aut Sobboth-Sebouls,

BY

JOHN FORD,

PASTOR OF THE PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH_AT PARSIPPANY,
NEW JERSEY.

NEW-YORK:
PUBLISHED BY M. W. DODD,
BRICK CHURCH CHAPEL, OPPOSITE THE CITY HALL,
1851.
Entered, according to Act of Congress, in the year 1851, by
M. W. DODD,

in the Clerk’s Office of the District Court of the Southern District of
New-York.
PREFACE.

On the importance of catechetical instruction, a single page
or paragraph would be superfluous. The public sentiment as
to this mode of instruction for youth, ie settled ; and has been
for centuries : as the various catechetical treatises, both sacred
and profane, from Socrates down to the present day, demon-
strate. But if any thing be considered prerequisite, as intro-
ductory of another catechetical essay, it will probably be an
apology for adding another to the heavy burdens of the same
or similar species of publications, under which the shelves of
our booksellers are already groaning. And yet the author of
the following knows of none who would claim any apology
unless the special friends of the Westminster Divines. But
amongst these friends he claims place; for he verily believes
that the Westminster Catechism is the richest book of its size
in the world, and ought to be studied and committed ; this, or
any others that have been, are, or may be hereafter, notwith-
standing.

“But if that be so good why publish any thing else?” We
might about as well say, now that we have so many good ser-
mons already printed, why publish any more, or any more
religious essays, tracts, or volumes? The question answers
itself: and the answer is, that even if no new ideas should be
presented, the different modes of illustration, adapting them-
selves to the ever varying postures, circumstances, and edu-
cations of the human mind, seem highly important to the
production of the best results.

But another, and the chief reason for the appearance of the
following pages, is that the author knows of no book adapted
4 PREFACE.

to fill the place of this: and he has long found the subjoined
course of instruction necessary, for his own Bible classes; and
from what brethren in the ministry of highest standing in the
churches have said, as well as from convictions in his own
closet, he ventures to hope it may be useful to others: not to
supersede the Union questions, nor the Westminster Cate-
chism, nor any others of kindred character ; but as an humble
aid and addition to them all.

As this was originated and is now intended, chiefly for
Bible classes, it will not be thought strange that so many of
the answers are simply softptural language, and especially on
controverted points.

The theology contained, which will of course be denomi-
nated Calvinistic, it is hoped will not be found offensive to
any; and although neither this book nor any other will be
considered Orthodox by ai the multiformed and multifaced
and ever-shifting Calvinism of the present day, yet it ishoped
that the conservative character of this will preserve it from
violent assault from any; for if Calvinists ever hold together
as a body, they must consent to permit those that say Sibbo-
leth and those that say Shibboleth to walk the heavenly way
together. On one point toward the close, on which so much
has beeri said and printed and published on both sides, espe-
cially of late, the author hopes that, for obvious reasons, he
may be excused for saying so little, Commending the fore-
going pages to God and the prayers of his people, his prayer
is that they may be conducive to the instruction, sanctification,
and salvation of thousands of our beloved youth. JF,
THEOLOGICAL CATECHISM

FOR YOUTH.
———

1. What is man?

A being with soul and body.

2. What is the soul or mind ?

That which thinks.

3. What kind of a being is man?

A free moral agent.

4. What is a free agent?

One that acts from choice; like the birds of the
air, or the beasts on the mountains.

5. What ts it to choose?

Of different things offered, to decide which to

e.

6. What is a moral agent ?

A free agent that has reason and conscience.

7. What ts reason?

The power of inferring one truth from another.

8. What ts conscience?

That faculty which approves what it deems right
and feels bound to do it; condemns what it deems
wrong, and feels bound to avoid it.

\*
6 THEOLOGICAL CATECHISM FOR YOUTH.

9. Is conscience an infallible guide?

No; Paul’s conscience deemed it right to per-
secute and slaughter men for being Christians.

10. Whatis necessary to keep conscience free from
mistakes ?

Bible knowledge; and freedom from all bias to
evil.

11. What is the difference between ricut and
WRONG?

Doing our duty is Right. Violating or neglect-
ing duty is Wrong.

12. What is duty?

Whatever we are under obligation to do.

13. From what does moral obligation arise?

From characters, contracts and reiations.

14. How from characters ?

Excellence in character deserves and therefore
demands our love; wickedness in character our
abhorrence.

15. How does moral obligation arise from rela-
tions and contracts?

All lawful contracts or engagements we are
bound to fulfil; and the mutual relations between
Creator and creature; parent and child; ruler and
subject, &c., &e., create mutual obligations which
all are in duty bound to perform.

16. Can any one be under obligation to fulfil a
wicked promise or contract ?

No; never; but to break it immediately.

17. To whom are we in duty bound ?

To God, our fellow creatures, and ourselves.

18. How far does the subject of right and wrong,
or of moral obligation, extend ?

To the whole field of morality and religion.
THEOLOGICAL CATECHISM FOR YOUTH. 7

19. What ts Religion ?

Obeying God.

20. What ts sin?

Disobeying God.

21. But does not religion embrace also love, faith,
submission, &c., as well as obedience ?

- Yes; but as God commands all these and all

other duties, obeying God would embrace them all.

22. Are some things right because God com-
mands them, and others wrong because he forbids
them ? ,

No (except in positive institutions); but he com-
mands certain things because they are right; and
forbids others because they are wrong

23. Have you any Scripture proof of this?

Yes; “children obey your parents in the Lord,
for this is right.” Eph. 6: 1.

24. If nothing be right or wrong in itself, and
God’s command alone make a thing right, then
what can be meant by saying that God's law is
right, and that God himself is right ?

Nothing. Neither God nor his law could have
any moral character.

25. What is the fundamental principle of right?
Moral Virtue? or Goodness ?
Love, or Benevolence.

‘26. How do you prove that?
Reason teaches that love to God and man would
lead to every duty to both.

27. Do the Scriptures, too, make love the funda-
mental principle ?

Yes; for they tell us that “God is love ;” that
“love is the fulfilling of the law;” and that “on
8 THEOLOGICAL CATECHISM FOR YOUTH.

this hang all the law and the prophets.” Jno. 4:
8 Rom. 13: 10; Matt. 2: 40.

28. What is morality?
Duty done to man, without regard to God.

29. What is the difference between morality and
religion?

Religion is duty done to both God and man,
because commanded of God; morality, duty done
to man only, without respect to God.

30. Is that all the difference?

No; for morality seeks man’s temporal interests
only; religion, both his temporal and eternal in-
terests.

31. Can the same action or course of action be
religion in one case and mere morality in another ?

Yes; honest dealing, done from obedience to
God’s commands, is Religion: done irrespectively
of God, it is mere morality.

32. May some of the commendable actions of re-
ligious men be mere morality ?

Yes, many; and none save those done from obe-
dience to God have any religion in them.

33. Is there any difference between religion and
moral excellence?

Yes; religion is morally excellent, because it is
obedience to God’s excellent commands: but true
benevolence is moral excellence and our duty, were
there no law, and no God to command it.

34. Which may ue predicate of God, religion
or moral excellence ?

Moral excellence; for as religion consists in
obeying God, it can pertain to his creatures only.
THEOLOGICAL CATECHISM FOR YOUTH. 9

35. Which existed first, religion or moral ex-
cellence? . °

Moral excellence existed in God, from all eter-
nity; but religion has existed only since the exist-
ence of his law and his creatures.

36. Is there any difference between sin and wick-
edness?

Yes; sin is always wicked, because a violation
of God’s excellent law; but malice is wickedness ;
and we are bound to shun it, even were there no
law and no God in the universe to forbid it.

37. Are such distinctions of any use or benefit?

Yes; for it is of great importance for us to un-
derstand that there is an intrinsic, total, and eter-
nal difference between right and wrong in them-
selves ; independently of all law or command ; and
uncreated even by the will of God himself.

38. What further good may such distinctions do?

Enable us to understand the Scriptures when
they tell us that “God is good;” and his “law
good; and to see and-feel that every rational crea-
ture in the world and in the universe, with law or
without law, is under absolute and eternal obliga-
tion to do right; and to see the inexcusable wick-
edness of doing any thing that is wrong in itself.

39. What is false religion ?

Devotion to false gods; or to false views and
practices in regard to the true God,

40. How many kinds of false religions are in the
world ?
_ Four; polytheism, pantheism, atheism, and de-
ism.

41. What is polytheism ?

A belief in many gods.
10 THEOLOGICAL CATECHISM FOR YOUTH.

42. In how many gods have men believed ?

The ancient Greeks and Romans had tens of
thousands; the present Hindoos hundreds of mil-
lions.

43. What is pantheism ?

The belicf that every thing is God.

44. What 1s atheism ?

The belief that there is no God.

45. What ts deism ?

Belief in a God, but not in the Bible.

46. What ts theology ?

That science which treats of God.

47, How many kinds of theology are there?

Two; natural and revealed.

48. What is the difference ?

Natural theology teaches what may be known of
God from the mere light of nature; Revealed, that
which the Bible teaches concerning Him.

49, What is discoverable by the hght of nature?

The existence, the character, and the will of God ;
man’s duty, and a future state of rewards and pun-
ishments.

50. But if all this be discoverable from the mere
light of nature, what need of a revelation ?

Though discoverable, it is not discovered, and
never would be by the light of nature alone; be-
cause sinful man loves darkness rather than light,
and never would seek for truth or duty as he ought.

51. Is there any important truth man never could
Jind out from the light of nature, however faithful in
study he might be ?

Yes; one. important above all others, and that
is the way of pardon and salvation through Christ.
THEOLOGICAL CATECHISM FOR YOUTH. 11

This man never could learn without a revelation
from God. :

52. Who is God ?

The creator of the universe.

53. What is the universe ?

All worlds, and all creatures.

54. How can you prove from the mere light of na-
ture that the universe ever was created? How do
you know it has not existed always, and the crea-
tures come down from sire to son, without any be-
ginning ?

Because that would be an infinite series; and
an infinite series is an impossibility.

55. What do you mean by an infinite series?
A chain with an infinite number of links would
be an infinite series.

56. Why would an infinite series be impossible ?

Because each link in a chain is a finite thing;
and no number of finites can make an infinite. As
every link has its end, so must every chain like-
wise; but an infinite chain would be an endless
chain.

57. How else do you know that an endless series
ts impossible ?

Because subtracting one link would shorten the
chain; and continuing to shorten, would of course
come to an end. Besides; an infinite number of
ages would contain a greater infinite of years, days,
&c., and thus one infinite be greater than another,
which is absurd.

58. Suppose there could be an infinite series,
would every link in the chain, or every creature in
the whole series, furnish in itself unanswerable de-
12 THEOLOGICAL CATECHISM FOR YOUTH.

monstration that the universe had a maker,and that
there is a God?

Yes ; just as unanswerable demonstration as does
a timepiece or steamship that it had a maker, and
far greater still.

59. How do you know they had a maker ?

By the design and contrivance they exhibit.

60. What do you mean by design ?

The purpose or end to be attained. The design
of the timepiece is to carry the hours of the day.

61. What do you mean by contrivance ?

The means to accomplish anend. All the wheels
and machinery in a timepiece are the contrivance to
accomplish the design for which it was made.

62. What renders theargument from design and
contrivance so strong and unanswerable?

This; that there cannot be contrivance without a
contriver, nor design without a designing mind.

63. Do you find design and contrivance in the
works of nature?

Yes, both.

64 Is there as much of design and contrivance in
the works of nature as in a watch or steamer ?

Yes; thousands and millions to one.

65. In what world or creature do you find design
and contrivance ?

In every world, and every creaturé, and every
part of every creature, world, and atom.

66. Mention any part of any creature wherein you
find design and contrivance.

The eye, the ear, the hand, the foot, the fin, the
wing, the tooth, the stomach, &., &c., &c.

67. What is the design of the eye?

To see.
THEOLOGICAL CATECHISM FOR YOUTH. 18

68. What its contrivance ?

All the various machinery within ; its fluids, len-
ses, &c., to answer its design. _

69. Are there other instances of design in other
parts of animals ?

Yes; every part of every animal exhibits design
and skill far surpassing all the works of art to-
gether.

70. In what creature do you find exhibitions of
the most consummate skill and design ?

In man.

71. Do, then, every limb and organ, of the being
who denies the existence of a God furnish unan-
swerable evidence that there is one ?

Most certainly.

72. Do the worlds themselves furnish evidence
decisive of the being of a God?

Yes; the whole frame of nature is one great
clockwork—one vast machinery of matchless skill
and power. .

73. Do the movements of nature prove the existence
of a God ?

Yes ; for there cannot be motion without a mover ;
and none but power great enough to create the uni-
verse is great enough to perform all the mighty
movements within and around us.

74. Do the powers of the soul also prove a crea-
tor ?

Yes; for such noble powers of mind never could
have come into existence without a cause.

75. Is the very being, then, who denies the exist-
ence of a God a double demonstration of the truth
that he denies?

Yes; both his body and his soul, and especially

2
14 THEOLOGICAL CATECHISM FOR YOUTH.

do those very powers of soul which argue against
the being of a God unanswerably prove there is
one.

76. What kind of a being, then, is he that denies
his God ?

It is “the fool that saith in his heart, There is
no God.”

77. Have you any other arguments to prove the
existence of a God, and the foolishness of atheism ?

Yes; but the argument from design and contri-
vance is enough without any more.

78, What ts practical Atheism ?

Believing in the existence of a God, and yet liv-
ing as if there were none.

79. Are there any practical Atheists in Christian
lands?

Yes, millions.

80. Are you one of that number ?

81. Can any one fully believe there ts a God and
yet live as uf there were none?

82. Do you beleve the Bible ?

83. Do u live as if you believed rt 2

84. How,do you know that the Bible is true?

We have many proofs of its truth.

85. Mention a few.

We have tavo preliminary arguments; the first is
the great probability that a revelation has been

iven, and the certainty that no book but the Bible
eserves the name.

86. Why is 2% probable that a revelation has been
given?

Because man stands in perishing need of a reve-
lation; and God is too good to leave him perishing
for what he could so easily supply.
THEOLOGICAL CATECHISM FOR YOUTH. 15

87 Wherein appears man's perishing need of a
revelation ?

In his utter and awful ignorance of his God, and
his Saviour; his duty and his destiny ; and in the
degradation and barbarity of his nature where no
gospel influence has ever reached him.

88. How great, then, is the probability that a re-
velation has been given?

Just about as great as that God is good, and that
he desires the welfare of his creatures, present and
eternal.

89. But does not the light of nature which God
has set before us, and the knowledge thereby set with-
in man’s reach, if that light were duly studied, vindi-
cate God's goodness, even though no further light
were given?

The light of nature alone leaves man without ex-
cuse; but it could never save, however faithfully
improved, because it never could lead to the know-
ledge of the Saviour, and, therefore, without a reve-
lation man must perish at last.

90. But would not man be saved, even without the
knowledge of the Saviour, if he faithfully studied
and fully obeyed the light and law of nature?

Yes, if he believed without error, and obeyed
without fault, from the beginning to the end of life ;
but no man does it, or ever will; and, therefore,
without a Saviour revealed, we perish.

91. How then stands the question at last as to the
probability that a revelation has been given ?

It is just as probable as that a God of infinite
goodness would give us effectual means of know-
ledge and happiness here; and the possebility of
eternal happiness hereafter.
16 THEOLOGICAL CATECHISM FOR YOUTH.

92. Does it then need any very strong argument
to prove what ts in itself so probable as to be almost
certain, prior to any direct argument on the sub-

rect ?
7 No; but we have arguments strong and all-suf-
ficient.

93. Would arguments such as to force conviction
be proper on moral subjects ?

No; only enough to satisfy a candid, and patient,
and prayerful mind ; for in forced belief there could
be no moral character, good or evil. Evidence on
moral subjects must be so left as to try the honesty
of the heart.

94. What is your second preliminary argument ?

This: that by the mere light of nature we know
that almost all the Bible is true—all its great and
leading doctrines.

95. What great and leading doctrines do we
know, or might we know, from the mere light of na-
ture, of faithfully and prayerfully studied ?

The being and attributes of God; our duties to
God and one another ; the soul’s immortality ; future
rewards and punishments; that we are in perish-
ing need of pardon’and deliverance from sin, but
that in the light of nature there is no hope of par-
don and salvation for a sinner, consistently with the
law and justice or holiness of God.

96. What one doctrine of the Bible ws there, then,
not proved by the light of nature?

That there is hope for man, and a way of pardon
and salvation opened ‘for sinners through Jesus
Christ.

97. How can any one, then, deny and resist that
blessed book, for giving man his only hope?
THEOLOGICAL CATECHISM *oR YOUTH. 17

Because man’s wicked heart hates a book and a
God so holy; and therefore it is that the most con-
elusive arguments leave many infidels still.

98. What are the four principal and direct proofs
of the truth of the Bible?

Its miracles and prophecies, its object and ef-
fects.

99. What is a miracle?

A counteraction of the laws of nature ; like stop-
ping the sun; dividing the sea; raising the dead, &c.

100. How do miracles prove the truth of the
Scriptures?

As none but the power of God can work a miracle,
miracles wrought in proof of the Scripture must
prove it came from God.

101. But have not miracles been wrought by ma-
gic or satanic power ?

No; no magician or evil spirit ever wrought
any miracle, unless by power given of God, and
given to prove not disprove the truth of the Bible
religion.

102. Jf, then, we can prove that the Scripture
miracles were really wrought, will that be decisive evi-
dence that the Bible is from God ?

Yes, absolutely unanswerable ; because no power
but that which created the laws of nature can re-
verse or control them.

103. How then can you prove that miracles were
ever really wrought in proof of Scripture?

We have many proofs.

104. Mention a few of them.

One is, that the Bible says so, and says it with
all apparent simplicity and sincerity of style and
manner, descending to all the particulars of time,

Q*
18 § THEOLOGIC#L CATECHISM FOR YOUTH.

place, and circumstance, as no counterfeiters would
dare to do.

105. Why would not counterfeiters dare descend
to particulars ?

Because descending to particulars always endan-
gers false men to detection.

106. What is your second proof?

The memorials of the miracles set up at the time,
and continued to the present day.

107. What memorials ?
Such as Circumcision, the Passover, the Christian
Sabbath, &c.

108. Of what miracle was Curcumcision the memo-
rial?

That of God's appearance to Abraham, and enter-
ing into covenant with him.

109. How far and how long has Cireumcision
been practised ?

Amongst all the descendants of Abraham, Isaac,
and Ishmael, Jews, Arabians, and Mohammedans,
from Abraham to the present hour.

110. Of what miracle is the Passover a memorial ?

That of the destroying angel’s passing by the
first-born of Israel, and slaying all the first-born of
the Egyptians.

11. Of what miraclers the Christian Sabbath
the memorial ?

The miracle of Christ’s rising from the dead on
the first day of the week.

112. How do these memorials prove that the mir-
acles were really wrought ?

Just as our fourth of July celebration of inde-
pendence proves that on that day independence
was really declared.
THEOLOGICAL CATECHISM @OR YOUTH. i9

113. Have we any other memorials besides the
three above mentioned ?

Yes; all our Bibles, and churches, and church
services; indeed the whole existence, operations
and progress of the Bible religion, based on mira-
cles from the beginning, are standing memorials of
the truth of those miracles on which our religion
was founded.

114. Whats your third proof of the fact that
the miracles were really wrought ?

The Jews adopting, obeying. and continuing in
the law of Moses.

115. How does their adopting and obeying Mo-
ses’ law prove the reality of the miracles ?

Because Moses appealed to the miracles as the
support of his law: and his law required sacrifices
they never would have submitted to, if they had
not known the truth of the miracles by which it
was attested.

116. What sacrifices did the law of Moses re-
quire ?

At least one fifth of all their annual incomes,
Numb. 18: 21, Deut. 14: 22, 28, besides all their
stated and occasional offerings; in addition to all
their bloody rites and burdensome ceremonies ; and
the self-loving and money-loving Jews, never would
have sacrificed so much of money, toil and blood, to
follow aleader they knew to be false; and to obey
laws they knew to be falsely imposed.

"117. But how would they know Moses to be false
and his law falsely imposed?
Because he appealed to their own eyes and ears
for the truth of the miracles; and if they had not
been performed, they would of course have known
20 THEOLOGICAL CATECHISM FOR YOUTH.

that Moses was an impostor and his law falsely
palmed upon them.

118. Where do you find any such appeals?

One of many is in Deut. 11: 2, 3, “I speak not
with your children, who have not seen his miracles,
but your eyes have seen all the great works of the
Lord.— Therefore, shall ye keep all his com-
mandments” Also, Deut. 7: 10 and 5: 34, &e.

119. Does the same argument apply with equal
Jorce in proof of the New Testament ?

Yes, and far greater.

120. Why greater ?

Because to follow Christ and his religion, still
greater sacrifices were required; and required on
the ground of the miracles: for the truth of which
their eyes and ears were appealed to, as in the case
of Moses. .

121. What sacrifices did the New Testament re-
quire?

To give up all, and even life itself, whenever the
interests of religion demanded.

122. Did any of the early disciples suffer the loss
of all things for Christ's sake ?

Yes; of property, friends. home, country, and
even life itself, by the sword or at the stake, in the
assertion or propagation of their religion.

123. How do you know they did?

Christ himself declares they should thus suffer;
and the best histories, both sacred and profane, de-
clare they did.

124. What does Christ foretell that his disciples
should suffer ?

“ Behold I send you forth as sheep in the midst
of wolves ; they will deliver you up to councils, and
THEOLOGICAL CATECHISM FOR YOUTH. 21

scourge you in their synagogues;” “The brother
shall deliver up the brother to death, and the fa-
ther the child; the children shall rise up against
their parents and cause them to be put to death ;”
“ Ye shall be hated of all men for my name’s sake.”
“Yea, the time cometh, that whosoever Ail/eth you,
will think that he doeth God service.” Matt. 10:
16,22. Jn. 16: 2

125. But how did Christ’s foretelling that they
should thus suffer, prove that they did ?

Because, if what he foretold did not come to
pass, he and his cause would have been forsaken as
false.

126. Did Christ too like Moses base his demand
for their faith and obedience on his miracles ?

Yes; for he says, “If I do not the works of my
Father believe me not.” Jn. 10: 37.

127. Does Christ ike Moses appeal to their own
eyes and ears for the truth of his miracles?

Yes; “ Ye do hear and see the blind receive their
' sight; the deaf hear; the dead are raised.” Matt. -
11: 5. Jn. 10. 37.

128. Do the appeals then of both Moses and
Christ, to the eyes and ears of those around them,
furnish decisive evidence that the miracles were
really wrought ?

Yes ; entirely decisive ; for if their eyes and ears
had not witnessed the miracles alleged, the laws
and sacrifices required by either Moses or Christ,
would never have been submitted to, but both have
been forsaken as false prophets, and their religion
have perished in the bud.

129. But might they not have been decetved—
Q2 THEOLOGICAL CATECHISM FOR YOUTH.

have thought the miracles really wrought, and yet
have been mistaken ?

No; it is impossible for them to have believed
they passed through the sea dry shod; fed on man-
na forty years; saw the dead raised; and that
themselves understood and spoke unknown tongues
unless it were true; and especially men of the
mind they possessed.

130. How do you know they were men of mind ?
Their writings prove it.

131. Have you any other argument in proof of
the miracles ?

Yes; the enemies of the cause themselves ad-
mitted the fact; such as Celsus, Julian, Por-
phyry, &e.

132. How many'miracles wrought in proof of the
Bible, would prove the Bible true?

One ; because none but God could work one real
miracle.

133. How many miracles were wrought in proof
of the Scriptures?

Tens of thousands.

134. When and where?

Tens of thousands in the gift of manna alone, for
forty years.

135. What is the second direct proof of the truth
of Scripture ?

Prophecy.

136. What is the argument from prophecy?

That no man, unless inspired of God, can utter
one clear independent prediction.

137. What do you mean by an independent pre-
diction ?
THEOLOGICAL CATECHISM FOR YOUTH. 23

One that does not depend on any known law of
nature. Any one can predict the rising of the sun;
the tides, eclipses, &c., for they depend on previ-
ously known laws of nature.

138. How many clear independent predictions
would prove the Scriptures to be true?

One; because none but God can foresee the
events of a single hour.

139. How many does the Bible contain ?

The Bible is one great system of prophecy from
beginning to end.

140. Give a few specimens of particular prophe-
cies.

The predictions concerning Ishmael and Esau ;
the four great kingdoms of antiquity; particulars
of the coming, the character, and death of Christ;
the destruction of Nineveh, of Babylon, Tyre,
Egypt, and Jerusalem; the dispersion and fate of
the Jews; the rise and progress of the man of sin,
&e., &e.. Gen. 16. Deut. 28. Ezek. 26th, 27th,
28th, 29th and 30th chapters. Isa. 23. Isa. 13th,
19: 22; also 14th and 5ist. Gen. 49: 10. Dan. 7th,
Isa. 53. 2. Thes. 2d, &e.

141. What is the third proof of the truth of
Scripture?

Its object.

142. What is the grand object of the sacred
Scriptures?

To make men holy and happy here and here-
after.

143. What does that prove?

It proves that the men who wrote and preached
a book so holy must be good men; for wicked men
would never toil and travel and suffer as they did,
24 THEOLOGICAL CATECHISM FOR YOUTH.

to put down wickedness, and make the world
holy.

144. But what of they were good men?

Good men would not utter falsehoods.

145. But might they not have been mere enthu-
stasts or fanatics?

No; a fanatic, is a wild-brained man; but there
is no wildness in them, or extravagance, but the
calmest reason.

146. What is your fourth great argument for the
truth of the Scriptures?
The effects of the Bible.

147. What are tts effects ?

It changes the whole face of the world where it
goes; revolutionizes all the usages of society ; en-
lightens, civilizes, elevates, purifies, and blesses the
nations for this world; and regenerates and saves
the soul for the next.

148. How do you know it regenerates the soul?

We have testimony such as is regarded by all
enlightened and candid courts as ample proof,
in any cause however great the stake at issue.

149. What kind of testimony have we?

First, that of many of the most enlightened, cool
and candid men, who would testify, if necessary,
that their minds have undergone a radical change
as to their highest affection, their highest aim ;
and their highest happiness.

150. But can a man testify as to what he feels?

Yes; just as well as to what he sees, provided
his feelings be strong and distinct. The sufferer
knows as well when he feels the thrills of pain, as
when he sees men or mountains before him.
THEOLOGICAL CATECHISM FOR YOUTH. 25

151. What other proof of regeneration ?

That of observation. We see men, and some-
times those who were once very wicked, radically
changed in their whole life and character: ready
to give, and sometimes actually giving up for the
cause of Christ, property, friends, home, and coun-
try; exiling themselves; and wearing out life in
some far distant and barbarous clime; and when
death comes, meeting it with a calmness, a joy,
yea, a glorious triumph, to which unregenerated
nature, even in its noblest forms, is an utter stran-
ger.

152. What further testimony ?

That of God Himself: for He declares that the
Christian is “born again ;” “a new creation ;” that
“old things are passed away and all things become
new.” 1 Pet. 1: 23. 2 Cor. 5: 17.

153, But do not many professors of religion ex-
hibit.a lifeand death of very inconsistent character?

Yes: because all are imperfect, and many have
no religion. "

154. How do you know that the Bible, coming
down through so many hands and so many ages,
has not been altered ; so altered that we cannot now
tell what tt was at first, giving perhaps statements
of miracles and prophecies, &c., §c., now, when no
such things were affirmed in the original copies ?

That is impossible: for the various translations
from the earliest centuries of Christianity, and the
various and jarring sects of nominal Christians,
watching each other, have kept the New Testa-
ment pure and unadulterated since the days of the
apostles: and then, all the Christian sects on the
one hand, and the Jews on the other, have kept
watch of the Old Testament, back to the days of

3
26 THEOLOGICAL CATECHISM FOR YOUTH.

Jesus Christ: thence the Septuagint translation
of the Old Testament into Greek bears witness to
the Hebrew for two hundred years further back;
and the Samaritan and Chaldean copies, and in-
deed the original Hebrew itself, proves its own pu-
rity back to the days of the prophets themselves;
and even to the days of the captivity; for no pure
Hebrew has been given to the world since then.

155. But have not the Bible and the Christian re-
ligion been the cause of more war and bloodshed in
the world than any and all other causes together ?

No; the want of religion, in those that bore the
Christian name, has often caused war and blood;
but not religion itself; for the religion of the Bi-
ble is love; and it is impossible that love should
produce hatred and war, but the contrary.

156. Where then must we go to find what the
religion of the Bible is? To wits abuses in the
world or to the Bible rtself ?

To the Bible itself.

157. In what way were the Sacred Scriptures im-
parted to mankind ?

By men inspired of God.

158. What do you mean by inspiration?

Divine teaching by supernatural influence.

159. How do you prove that the Scripture writers
were inspired of God ?

By their own declaration, confirmed by all the
miracles they wrought, and the prophecies they ut-
tered.

160. What do they affirm in regard to the inspi-
vation of the Old Testanvent ?
THEOLOGICAL CATECHISM FOR YvuUTH. 27

That “all Scripture is given by inspiration of
God.” 2 Tim. 3: 16. “Holy men of old spake as
they were moved by the Holy Ghost.” 2 Peter
1: i.

161. How do you know that that declaration refer-
red ta the Old Testament only or chiefly ?

The New Testament writings were not then col-
lected and added to the Old.

162. What affirmation or proof-that the New
Testament was also inspired ?

Christ promised the twelve apostles that his spirit
should guide them “into all truth ;” and we have
the testimony of Peter, one of the twelve, to the in-
spiration of Paul, who wrote more than all the rest.
John 16:13. 2 Peter 3: 16.

163. How many kinds of inspiration are there?

There are generally reckoned three—the inspi-
ration of elevation, superintendence, and sugges-
tion.

164. What is meant. by the inspiration of eleva-
tion ?

That of raising the mind to a sublimity of style
and sentiment entirely above what it could ever
reach unaided from on high.

165. What is the inspiration of superintendence ?

That guidance from God which taught the Scrip-
ture writers what facts, of those they knew, to re-
cord, and how to record them free from error.
John 21: 25.

166. What is the inspiration of suggestion?

Direct communications from God, like the Law on
Sinai, and the visions of the prophets.
28 THEQLOGICAL CATECHISM FOR YOUTH.

REVEALED THEOLOGY.

167. What do the Scriptures principally teach ?

The existence, the attributes, the agency, and the
will of God; the character, duty and destiny of
man.

168. Do the Scriptures assert the existence of

God ?

Yes; “There is one God." 1 Tim. 2:5.

169. What is God ?

“God is a spirit.” John 4: 24.

170. What is a spirit 2

A being without a body, like the soul after death.

171. Ave there more Gods. than one?

There is but one true God.

172. How do you prove that 2

From both Scripture and reason.

173. Give a Scripture proof.

“The Lord our God is one Lord.” Deut. 6: 4,
“God is one.” Gal. 3: 20.

174, How does reason prove the Divine unity ?

As one cause is sufficient to account for all things,
philosophy forbids us to suppose more. Besides,
the oneness of design in the whole creation indi-
cates that all is from one creator.

175. But did not the ancient Persians suppose
there were two different and opposite designs, indi-
cating two opposite and antagonistic deities—one
good, the other evil—one the author of all good, the
other of all evil—one of all joy, the other of all
sorrow—one the maker of the lamb, the other of the
wolf to devour the lamb—one the author of sick
THEOLOGICAL CATECHISM FOR YOUTH. 29

ness, the other of medicine to heal the sickness? And
how would you answer their arguments? Is the
same being the author of both good and evil, right-
eousness and wickedness ?

No; but it belongs to the same being who makes
free agents, with full power to choose, to give them
their choice between good and evil, and when they
choose good or choose evil, to treat them accordingly.

176. How can it belong to the same being to cre-
ate the lamb and the dove, and then to create wolves
and vultures to devour them? to send sickness, and
medicines to heal it ?

Because it is incumbent on the same being who
creates any animal, to create food for its supply ;
and for the same God, who has revolted subjects
under probation, to send both judgments and mer-
cies to discipline them for their eternal destiny.

177. But how can the Unity of God be consistent
with the Trinity 2 Can three be one, and one three ?

Not in the same sense; yet they may be in dif-
ferent senses. A human being is but one man, and
yet he is two, in one sense, for he consists of soul and
body.

178 What then is the proper statement of the doc-
trine of the Trinity 2

That there are three persons in one God.

179. What do you mean by persons? Beings?

No; not three beings, else there would be three
Gods ; but three distinctions, existing in a mysteri-
ous manner, incomprehensible to us.

180. Is this a doctrine of both Scripture and rea-
son, or of Scripture only ?

Of Scripture only; though it is not contrary to
reason, but adove it.

3*
30 THEOLOGICAL CATECHISM FOR YOUTH.

181. Where do you find three Divine persons re-
cognized in Scripture ?

1 John 5: 7, “ There are three that bear record in
heaven, the Father, the Word, and the Holy Ghost,
and these three are one ;” but more especially in the
apostolic benediction, and in the form of baptism—
baptizing “in the name of the Father, and of the
Son, and of the Holy Ghost.” 2 Cor. 12: 13, 14,
and Matt. 28: 19.

182. What additional proof of the divinity of the
three persons ?

This ; that each person is separately declared to
be divine.

183. What passages prove the Father divine ?

So many we will not repeat them, nor need we,
for none deny it.

184. What proof that the Son is God ?

Four classes of texts; first, applying to him the
attributes; second, the works; third, the wor-
ship; and fourth, the names of God.

185. Mention some that impute to Him the at-
tributes of God.

In a single verse He is styled both eternal and
omnipotent ; in another, eternal and immutable.
In Rev. 1: 8, He is declared to be “the beginning,
and the ending, the Almighty.” In Heb. 13: 8,
“the same yesterday, to-day, and for ever.”

H 186 Where are the works of God affirmed of

‘am ?

Col. 1: 16, * All things were created dy Him and
Jor Him ;” and Heb. 1: 3,“ Upholding all things by
the word of his power.”

187. But was not Christ's power delegated power ?
Does He not say, ‘ All power is given me in heaven
THEOLOGICAL CATECHISM FOR YOUTH. 31

and. in earth??? Matt. 18: 18; and “ Of mine
own self I can do nothing ?” John 5: 30.

As man he could do nothing of himself, any
more than we; and Christ was man as well as God.
As Mediator, both his power and himself were dele-
gated; for “God sent his Son (Gal. 4: 4); buta
son being sent of a father does not prove him to be
of an inferior nature.

188. Besides, can we suppose all power in heaven
and earth given to a mere creature ?
No; that is absurd.

189. Is the Son as well as the Father a proper ob-
ject of worship ?

Yes. “When he bringeth in the first begotten
into the world, he saith, Let all the angels of God
worship Him.” Heb. 1: 6, and Rev. 5: 11-13.

190. Is the name of God also applied to Christ ?

Yes. “In the beginning was the Word, and the
Word was God.” 1 John 1: 1, 2.

191, But is not the term God sometimes used in an
inferior sense, as when the Psalmist says, “ I have
said, Ye are gods ?’’ Ps. 82: 6; and is there any
proof that Christ ts called God in the highest sense in
this passage in the first of John?

Yes; for it is immediately added that “all things
were made by Him,” and surely all things were not
made by an inferior god, or mere creature.

192. But is it not said that “ God created all
things by Jesus Christ?” KEph.3: 9.

Yes; for it was by the second person of the Deity
that creating power was exerted.

193. Are there any other passages in which Christ
is called God in the highest:sense ?

Yes; Rom. 9: 5, Christ is said to be “over all
32 THEOLOGICAL CATECHISM FOR YOUTH.

God,” or “God over all;” and 1 John 5: 20, the
apostle says, “ This is the true God and eternal life ;
and in Isa., where the seraphim cried, “ Holy, holy,
holy is Jehovah of hosts.” John says, “ These
things Esaias said when he saw is glory, and spake
of him” (Christ). Isa. 6:1. John 12: 41. And
thus Christ is the real Jehovah.

194. But does not Christ himself say,“ The Father
is greater than I ?”

Yes; and Christ as man was inferior in his na-
ture, and acted a subordinate part as God’s messen-
ger; but in his divine nature, “He thought it not
robbery to be equal with God.” Philip. 2: 6.

195. Do the Scriptures any uhere affirm that
the Holy Ghost is God?

Yes; for “to lie unto the Holy Ghost is to lie
unto God.” Acts 3: 5.

196. But is not the term Spirit sometimes used
in Scripture asimplying merely a divine power or
influence, as in Joel 2: 28, “I will pour out my
Spirit upon all flesh ?”

Yes; but in others, the Spirit is expressly spo-
ken of as a person; for he is represented as speak-
ing, teaching, &e.—The Holy Ghost sazh, “ To-
day if ye will hear his voice,” and “ He shall teach
you,” using the personal and masculine pronoun,
although the word (wvedya) spirit is neuter.

197. But is not the doctrine of the Trinity a mys-
tery ; something incomprehensible ; and are we bound
to believe what we cannot understand?

Yes; for it is a mystery how the soul and body
are united ; how the mind acts upon the body ; how
God acts on all the universe; how God came to
exist; and in short almost every thing is a mys-
tery.
THEOLOGICAL CATECHISM FOR YOUTH. 3s

198. What kind of a being is God ?

An infinite Being.

199. What do you mean by infintte?

Without bounds or limits.

200. In what respects is God infinite?

Infinite in all his attributes.

201. What do you mean by the attributes of
God?

The qualities of his nature.

202. How are his attributes divided ?

Into two classes ; NATURAL and MORAL.

203. Which ts the first of his natural attributes?

His erernirty.

204. What do you mean by the eternity of God ?

His existence without beginning or end.

205. How do you know that God has existed
Sor ever without any beginning ?

Something must have existed without any be-
ginning; because if there had ever been a period
when nothing existed; no thing ever could have
existed; because something never could spring up
out of nothing; and as the worlds and creatures
did not exist without beginning, God did.

206. How do you know that God will exist for
ever without end ?

Because He has existed for ever without beginning.

207. Do the Scriptures affirm the eternity of
God ?

Yes; “From everlasting to everlasting thou art
God.” Ps. 90: 2.

208. What ts the second natural attribute of God?

His 1nDEPENDENT EXISTENCE.

209. What do you mean by his independent ex-
tstence ?
34 THEOLOGICAL CATECHISM FOR YOUTH.

That his existence is uncaused; and depending
on no one but himself alone.

210. How do you know that God's existence is
uncaused? How do you know that He had not a
cause before Him; and that another; and the
third ; a fourth and so on for ever?

Because that would be an infinite series again ;
which is impossible. There must be a first link in
every chain however long; and a first cause. in eve-
ry series of causes; and the first cause could have
no cause.—Besides, God could have had no cause,
because He had no beginning.

211. What should such wondrous attributes as
the eternal and independent existence of Jehovah
teach us ?

The deepest reverence and awe.

212. On what does our existence depend ?

On God every moment.

213. What is the third natural attribute of God?

His oMNIPRESENCE.

214. What do you mean by his omnipresence?

His being always every where present.

215. How do you prove the omnipresence of God ?

God is every where, because He acts every
where.

216. He acts only throughout the unirerse ; how
do you know He is present through infinite space
beyond ?

Because He who fills so vast a universe can find
no limit any where.

217. What is the Scripture testimony on this sub-
ject ?

“Tf I ascend up to heaven, thou art there; if I
make my bed in hell, behold thou art there; if 1
THEOLOGICAL CATECHISM FOR YOUTH. 35

take the wings of the morning and dwell in the
uttermost parts of the sea, even there shall th
hand lead me and thy right hand shall hold me.”
Ps. 139: 8-10.

218. But if always present with us, why do we
not see Him?

Because “God is a Spirit;” and spirit is invis-
ible.

219. Does God always see us, though we do not
Him?

Yes ; “ All things are naked and opened unto
the eyes of Him with whom we have to do.”
Heb. 4: 13.

220. Does not the darkness hide from God ?

No ; “ the darkness and the light are both alike to
him.” Ps. 139: 12.

221. What should that teach us?

Never to do any thing we should be unwilling
God should see.

222. What is the fourth natural attribute of God ?

OmNIScIENCE.

223. What do you mean by the omniscience of
God ?

That God knows all things, past, present and
future.

224. What proof from reason that God knews.all
things present, past, and future?

Being always every where present, upholding
and bebolding all things, he must know all things
present ; and he must know all that ever has been,
and all that ever will be, because nothing ever has
been, or ever will or can be without Him.

Ga Do the Scriptures affirrs the omniscience of
?
36 THEOLOGICAL CATECHISM FOR YOUTH.

Yes; Peter says; ‘Lord, thou knowest all
things.” John 16: 30.

226. Does God know all we do?

Yes ; “Thou art acquainted with all my ways.”
Ps. 139: 3.

227. Does God know all we say?

Yes; “ There is not a word in my tongue, but lo,
Q Lord, Thou knowest it altogether.” Ps. 139: 4.

228. Does God know all our thoughts ?

Yes; “ Thou understandest my thought afar off. ”
Bs. 139: 2.

229. If all we do, or say, or think, or feel, is known
ito God, what should that teach us?

Never to say, or do, or think, or feel, any thing
‘save what would please God.

230. What ts the fifth natural attribute of God?

‘Wispom.

(231. What is wisdom ?

‘Bkill to devise what is best to be done; and the
ibest way of doing it.

232. Are wisdom and knowledge the same thing ?

‘No; knowledge isa mere treasury of ideas ; wis-
dom is skill to acquire and apply them. A man
may have great skill and but little knowledge; or
great knowledge, and but little skill to apply it.

233. How great ts the wisdom of God?

His understanding is infinite. Ps. 147: 5.

234. Where isthe wisdom of God seen?

Throughout the whole universe; in every plant
and flower; in every world and creature.

235. Wherein do the things created prove God's
wisdom ? ;

In the unparalleled skill and contrivance dis-
THEOLOGICAL CATECHISM FOR YOUTH. 37

played in their structure; the ends they are de-
signed to accomplish; and the adaptation of every
thing to answer the end designed.

236. Can that be properly called wisdom which
has no good end to answer ?

No. Subtlety without any good end in view, is
mere cunning.

237. What should we learn from that wisdom
which planned, and which directs the whole uni-
verse ?

To admire and adore the wonder-working God.

238. What ts the siath natural attribute of God ?

Omnipotence.

239. What do you mean by Omnipotence ?

Almighty power ; power without limits.

ait. How do you prove the Omnipotence of
God?

He who could do what God has done can do any
thing.

241. What is the Bible testimony on the subject ?

“Tamthe Almighty God." Gen. 17: 1.

242. What can Almighty power do, for, or
against us?
Destroy us in a moment, or preserve and bless
us for ever.
243. What truth, then, does the Omnipotence of
God teach us?
Our safety if his friends, our danger if his ene-
mies.
_ 244. Is the Omnipotence of God a ground of
Joy or grief?
Of great joy to the Christian ; of grief and terror
to the sinner.
4
38 THEOLOGICAL CATECHISM FOR YOUTH.

245. What duty does it teach the Christian, and
what the sinner?

The Christian to confide in his Almighty friend ;
the sinner to flee his wrath and secure his favor.

246. Have you secured his favor yet ?

247, What are you doing to secure ut?

248. Are you not afraid to stand out against a
Power that is Almighty ?

249. What is the seventh natural attribute of God?

Immutability.

250. What is Immutability.?

Unchangeableness.

251. In what respect is God unchangeable?

In his essence, character, and purposes.

252. How do you prove him unchangeable as to
hts essence?

To suppose that any thing can change that has
neither beginning nor end, and that exists inde-
pendently and above the reach of all things that
could produce any change, would be absurd.

253. How do you prove Him unchangeable in his
oharacter ?

Perfect in his nature, and above the reach of all
influences that tend to change character, we can-
not conceive a change in character possible.

254. How do you prove Him unchangeable in his

ur poses ?

With perfection of knowledge, no new views or
circumstances can arise to change his mind; and
with no new views, and an unchangeable character,
a change of purpose is inconceivable.

255. What is the Scripture testimony on the sub-

Jed?
THEOLOGICAL CATECHISM FOR YOUTH. 39

“T am the Lord, I change not.” Mal. 3: 6.

256. Is the Immutability of God a ground of joy
or grief?

Of joy to his friends ; grief and terror to his en-
emies.

257. Why?

Because he will never change from blessing his
friends, or punishing his incorrigible enemies.

258. What do you mean by the Sovereignty of
God ?

His doing what he thinks best, without giving an
account to his creatures of his actions.

259. Does the Sovereignty of God imply his act-
ing from mere caprice, or without any reason?

No; but implies merely his acting from reasons
unknown to us.

260. Have you any proof from nature that God
does act as a Sovereign?

Yes; when one man is born blind or deaf, and
another with perfect sight or hearing, God acts
from reasons unknown to us.

261. Do the Scriptures affirm God's Sovereignty ?

Yes; “ He giveth nt account of any of his mat-
ters.” “He doeth according to his will in the ar-
mies of heaven and amongst the inhabitants of the
earth.” Job 33:13. Dan. 4: 35. Also Eph. 1:
11.

262. Do men here on earth ever act in Sovereign-
ty, or without giving thewr reasons to those under
their authority ?

Yes; masters often do amongst their servants,
and fathers amongst their children.

263 Is tt more proper for God than man to act
as a Sovereign?
40 THEOLOGICAL CATECHISM FOR YOUTH.

Yes; because He knows so much better what is
best, and is so much more inclined to do it.

264. What proof have you that God will do what
as best ?

All the attributes of

HIS MORAL CHARACTER.

265. What is the first attribute of His Moral
character ?

Love, or Goodness.

266. How many kinds of Love are there?

Two ; Benevolence and Complacency.

267. Whatis Benevolence?

Good will; desire of others’ happiness.

268. How do you prove the Benevolence of God ?

In the same way we do his existence; ie. by the
design discoverable in all his works. —

269. How does that appear ?

The original and leading design in all his works,
is to make creatures happy, not miserable,

270. Give an example.

The grand design of the eye, the ear, the tooth,
the stomach, was to contribute to our happiness,
not our misery.

271. Where else in Nature do you find illustra-
tions of the goodness of God ?

In every sun and shower ;

In every plant and flower ;

In every pulse and breath,

And every hour till death.

272. Where else besides in Nature do you find
proofs of the Divine Benevolence?

The best smiles of His face,

Are the gifts of His grace:
THEOLOGICAL CATECHISM FOR YOUTH. 4l

The gift of His Spirit, His Sabbath and Word,
And his gift above all of our crucified Lord.

273. What Scripture proof of the Love or Good-
ness of God ?

“@odis Love.” “The earth is full of the good-
ness of the Lord.” 1 Jn. 48; Ps. 33: 5.

274, But why so much pain in the world if He
who made us desires our happiness ?

We must have nerves sensible to pain, or they
would be insensible to pleasure; and the pain of
the eye, the tooth, or any other organ, is incidental,
and not the prominent and primary object of its
formation; and often the pain our nerves occasion,
is sent to warn and save us from greater evils :—
the pain from cold, to warn us against freezing,
&e., &e.

275. Have you any other reason why there is so
much pain and distress in the world ?

Yes; the chief reason of all is si.

276 If there wereno’ sin in the world, would
there be no sorrow ?

No; neither sorrow nor death.

277. Have you any proof of this from Reason ?

Yes; fora Benevolent Being would not afflict
his children without cause.

278. Have you any proof from Scripture ?

Yes; The curse, causeless shall not come ;” and
«Death is the wages of sin.” Prov. 26: 2. ’ Rom.
6: 21. ;

279. What is Complacency ?

Delight in Character.

280. Towards whom does God exercise the Love
of Complacency ?
42 THEOLOGICAL CATECHISM FOR YOUTH.

Towards the righteous only.

281. Has He any Complacency then in you?

282. Towards whom does God feel the Love of
Benevolence ?

Towards all, both good and evil.

283. What duty do you infer from the infinite
love and goodness of God ?

Obligation to love him supremely in return. “The
goodness of God leadeth to repentance.” Rom. 2: 4.

284. Has His love ever yet won yours, or you ?

285. What is the second Moral Attribute of God?

Justice.

286. What is Justice ?

In its general sense, it means mere righteousness
in general; but in its strict and specific import, it
means disposition to render to every one his due.

287. How do you prove the justice of God?

By our own consciences and the Divine benevo-
lence.

288. How by our own consciences ?

God would never have created us with conscien-
ces to approve of justice and scorn injustice, if
Himself unjust.

289. How do you prove the justice of God by His
benevolence 2

Benevolence would, of course, desire the promo-
ter of good rewarded, and the destroyer of good
punished; and that is what justice herself de-
mands.

290. What say the Scriptures as to the justice of

?

“T the Lord am a just God.” Isa. 45: 21.
THEOLOGICAL CATECHISM FOR YOUTH. 48

291. What truth do you infer from the justice of

That if God be just, there must be tremendous
retribution in store for the impenitent sinner.

292. If God be just, what will become of you?

293. What ts the third moral attribute of God ?

Veracity.

294. What do you mean by Veracity?

Disposition to tell the truth.

293. What is Truth ?

Representation corresponding to reality.

296. Give an illustration.

The exact picture of a man is a true likeness ;
and language that represents things as they are, is
truth.

297. How many kinds of truth are there?

Two: Natural and Moral.

298. What 1s the difference?

Moral truth refers to right and wrong; Natural
truth, to all other subjects.

299. How do you prove that the Lord is a God
of truth ?

From both reason and Scripture.

wor” What proof of the Veracity of God from rea-

orto one ever falsifies without some motive of gain
or gratification. God could have no motive, and,
of course, never falsifies. The same is proved also
by the greatness and goodness of God.

301. How from these?

A God so great, would not be guilty of the mean-
ness of falsehood; nor a God so good, of the mea-
sureless mischiefs that falsehood occasions.
44 THEOLOGICAL CATECHISM FOR YOUTH.

302. What do the Scriptures teach in regard to
the Veracity of God ?

That “ it is impossible for God to lie.” Heb. 6: 18.

303. What is the fourth moral attribute of God?

Ho.ivess,

304. What is Holiness ?

Purity, freedom from, and hatred of, all that is
wrong or wicked ; love of, and devotion to, all that
is right or righteous.

305. How do you prove the Holiness of G'od ?

From all the three moral attributes preceding—
love, justice, and veracity ; for each one requires it;
and true holiness comprises them all.

306. What ts the Scripture testimony ?

* Holy, holy, holy is the Lord of hosts.” Isa. 6: 3.

307. To what duty should the consideration of a
holy and sin-hating God lead us ?

To be pure and holy ourselves.

308. What is the fifth moral attribute of God ?

Patience.

309. What do you mean by the Patience of God ?

His slowness to anger, and long-suffering dispo-
sition.

210. How do you prove His Patience ?

By His daily forbearance, exercised towards the
guilty children of men; and by Scripture.

311. What ts the Scripture testimony ?

The Scriptures declare Him to be, “ the God of
patience ;” “slow to anger,” “long-suffering.”
Rom. 15: 5; Ex. 34:6; Neh.9: 17.

312. What practical inference from the Patience
of a long-suffering God ?

The duty of great gratitude to God for his long-
THEOLOGICAL CATECHISM FOR YOUTH. 45

suffering, towards us; and the duty of great for-
bearance on our part, towards our offending fellow-
creatures.

313. What tf God were as quick to anger and re-
tribution as men are, or would be, if they had full

for vengeance?

The earth would long ago have been emptied of
its inhabitants.

314. What is the sixth moral attribute of God?

Compassion.

315. What do you mean by his Compassion?

Pity towards sufferers.

316. How do you prove the Compassion of God ?

Benevolence, of course, leads to pity the dis-
tressed ; and the Scriptures say, “ Thou art a God
full of compassion.” Ps. 86: 15.

317. What practical inference does the Compassion
of God yield us?

Great consolation to ourselves in distress; and
our great duty to compassionate our suffering fel-
low-creatures.

318. What is the seventh moral attribute of
God?

Mercy.

319. What ts Mercy?

In a general sense, it means mere compassion.
“He was neighbor that showed mercy.” Luke
10: 36, 37.

320. What ts the meaning of Mercy in its strict
gospel sense ?

Disposition to pardon and forgive.

321. What ts it to forgive?
To lay aside anger.
46 THEOLOGICAL CATECHISM FOR YOUTH.

322. What is it to pardon ?

To lay aside punishment.

323. Whose prerogative is it to pardon? and
whose to forgive ?

It belongs to the ruder to pardon ; to the private

_ individual to forgive.

324. Which is it our duty to extend to our of-
Sending fellow-creatures ?

Forgiveness: pardon is not our prerogative,

325. Which may we seek from God ?

Both.

325. What is the difference between Mercy and
Grace?

Mercy is an attribute of God; Grace is not, but
refers to mere favors shown, and the terms on which
favor is granted.

327. Give an wllustration.

Grace is mere unmerited favor, like a gift to a
beggar; but Mercy is disposition to pardon the
guilty.

328. How do you prove the Mercy of God?

By both Scripture and reason

829. What is the Scripture testemony ?

“The Lord is of great mercy, forgiving iniquity,
transgression and sin.” Num. 14: 8.

330. How does reason prove the mercy of God ?

His benevolence would, of course, desire, if con-
sistent, the happiness of all, even the most wicked.

331. Can reason prove it consistent with the law
and justice of God to pardon the guilty? and in
what way consistent, if at all ?

No; nothing but a revelation from God can show
in what way it might be consistent, or whether it
could be consistent at all.
THEOLOGICAL CATECHISM FOR YOUTH. 47

332 Does this add another proof that a revelation
has been given ?

Yes; for infinite goodness would certainly lead
him to reveal what is indispensable to the happi-
ness of his creatures to know.

333, What then is the greatest reason of all why a
revelation has been given to mankind ?

To teach the fact, and the way, of Salvation
through Christ.

334. From what originated the plan of Salva-
tion ?

From the love, the wisdom, and

THE PURPOSES OF GOD.

335. What do you mean by the Purposes of
God?

That God from eternity planned all things, for
the best. .

336. How do you prove this ?

By His goodness and wisdom.

337. How from these?

God could not be infinitely good without desir-
amg what was best; nor infinitely wise without de-
vising a plan for its accomplishment.

338. Did any man ever start to build any thing
without any desire, or design, as to what has builds
ang should be?

Never. Much lesscould an infinitely wise God
be guilty of such folly.

339. Can you prove the being of a God without
proving his Purposes ?

No; because the main argument that proves his
48 THEOLOGICAL CATECHISM FOR YOUTH.

existence, is the argument from design or pur-
pose.

340. Do the Scriptures teach the doctrine of the
Divine Pur poses?

Yes. “He worketh all things after the counsel
of his own will.” Eph. 1: 11.

341. Do not the Purposes of God take away our
freedom ?

No; for they do not touch us.

342. How is it that His Purposes do not touch
us?

Because purposing to touch, touches nothing;
purposing to do, does nothing.

343. What, then, does touch us ?

The hand or agency of God.

344. Can thehand or agency of God, then, reach
and govern our actions, and yet leave us free?

Yes; for we reach and govern each others’ ac-
tions, day by day, and yet leave each other free;
and surely God can do what we can.

345. When do we govern our neighbor's actions
and yet leave him free?

In every offer or invitation that we give and he
accepts.

346. Does God exert no other kind of agency over
us but that of motive?

No, except in regeneration ; nor then save in view
of motive.

347. Do. then, neither his agency, nor his pur-
poses, disturb our freedom?

Neither the one nor the other.

348. How far, then, may the purposes of Giod ex-
tend and yet leave us free ?
THEOLOGICAL CATECHISM FOR YOUTH. 49

To every thing.

349. How far do the Scriptures teach, that his
Purposes do extend ?

“He worketh all things, after the counsel of his
own will.” Eph. 1: 11.

350. Do the Purposes of God extend to the time of
man's existence on the earth ?

Yes. “There is an appointed time for man up-
on the earth.” Job7: 1.

351. Do the Purposes of God extend to the place
of our abode?

Yes. “He hath determined the place of their
habitation.” Acts 17: 26.

352. Do the Purposes of God extend to the time of
our death ?

Yes; “his days are determined ; the number of
his months are with thee; Thou hast appointed his
bounds that he cannot pass.” Job 14: 5.

353. But does not David say that “men of deceit
and blood shall not live out half their days?” Pa,
55:23. (Original.)

Yes; for God has purposed they shall not live
out half the days he would have allowed them,
were it not for their sins.

354. What then comes under the Purposes of
God?

All worlds; allcreatures; and all events. “He
worketh all things after the counsel of his own
will.” Eph. 1: 11.

355. Did the Purposes of God extend to the ex-
astence of sin?

Yes; for Repemprion was the first grand object
of Creation. “All things were created—for Hum.”

5
50 THEOLOGICAL CATECHISM FOR YOUTH.

(Christ): i. e. for the display of the Meditorial glo-
ry.

356. Did the Agency of God extend to the en-
trance of sin?

Yes; so far as to arrange all the circumstances
necessary for the trial of a being under probation ;
such as the garden, the apple, the appetite, &e.:
and so in regard to our own sin; but not so far as
at all to necessitate or compel its commission ; nor
at all to impair the most perfect freedom of choice
in our actions.

357. Did both God's purpose and agency com-
prise the existence of sorrow in the world and the
universe ?

Yes; as the punishments or consequent of sin.

358. Is there uny difference between the Purposes
of God and the Sovereignty of God ?

Yes ; His purposes respect His designs and plans ;
His sovereignty, the reasons of His actions. His
plans purpose all things for the best, we know; but
in following out His plans, He does many things
from reasons entirely unknown to us; and His act-
ing from reasons all His own, is what we mean by
His sovereignty.

359. How does God execute His Purposes?

In Creation, Providence, Redemption, and final
Retribution.

CREATION.

360. Does the Bible teach that God ts the Crear
tor or first Cause of all things?

Yes ; “ All things were created by Him.” Col.
1: 16,
THEOLOGICAL CATECHISM FOR YOUTH. 51

361. How did God create all things?

By the word of His power. “He spake and it
was done:” He commanded and it stood fast: He
said, “Be light, and light was.” (Original.) Ps.
33: 9. Gen. 1:3.

362. When did God create all things ?

“Tn the beginning God created the heavens and
the earth.” Gen. 1: |.

363. How long ago was that beginning ?

We do not know; the Bible does not tell us.

364. In how long time did God create the world ?

“In six days the Lord made heaven and earth,
the sea, and all that inthem is.” Exodus 20: 11.

365, How long since the creation of Man?

About six thousand years.

366. For whom were all things created ?

“The Lord made all things for Himself” Prov.
16; 4.

367. For whom then were you made ?

For God.

368. For whom ought you to live ?

For God.

369. For whom are you living ? for God? or

Sor yourself ?

370. For what were all things made?

To please God. “For His pleasure all things
were created.” Rev. 4: 11.

371. For what then ought you to live?

To please God.

372. How can we please God ?

By doing His will.

373. Whish is your highest aim and dearest ob-

ject? Todo God's will, or your own?
52 THEOLOGICAL CATECHISM FOR YOUTH.

374. For what special purpose did God create
man tn particular ?

“ T have created him for my glory.” Isa. 43: 7.

375. What then ought to be the great aim of all
our actions ?

To glorify God. “ Whether ye eat or drink, or
whatsoever ye do, do all to the glory of God.” 1
Cor. 10: 21.

376. What is tt to glorify God?

To love Him and keep His commandments.

377. What then is the chief end for which we
were created ?

To love and serve the Lord.

378. Have you ever yet begun to answer the end
for which you were created ?

379. Man destroys that which does not answer
the end for which it was made, and will not God
destroy the soul that will not answer the end for
which tt was created ?

He will.

380. What then will become of you ?

381. When God had completed the great work of
Creation to what did he next proceed ?

PROVIDENCE.

382. Of how many parts does Providence con-
sist ?

Two: Upholding and Governing the Universe.

383. But when any thing is brought into exist-
ence will ut not contunue to exist, of itself, unless
something destroys it?
THEOLOGICAL CATECHISM FOR YOUTH. 53

No; it requires the same power to uphold that it
did to create. It was the word of God’s power that
created; and Paul tells us that “ He upholds all
things by the word of his power.” Heb. 1: 3.

384. What then would become of the world and
the creatures, were God to withhold his supporting
power for a single moment ?

That moment we should sink into non-existence.

385. Could we not draw a single breath without
God ?

Not one; nor could another pulse beat unless
God were there to send it.

386. What proof of this?

“In Him we live, and move, and have our being.”
Acts 17: 28.

387. Have you any proof from Reason?

‘Yes; Nothing can move without a mover—the
pulse, no more than a world.

388. How far does the ProvipentiaL Govern-
MENT of God extend ?

To His Puysicaz, Menta, and Morat Govern-
ment, especially to the Physical and Mental.

389. What do you mean by Physical Govern-
ment ?

Government over matter.

390. What do mean by Mental Government ?

Government over mind.

391. How does God govern matter ?

By force.

392. How does He govern mind ?

By motive.

393. Give an instance of His governing matter
by force.
5*
54 THEOLOGICAL CATECHISM FOR YOUTH.

Moving the winds, and waves, and worlds in their
courses.

394. Give an instance of His governing mind by
seolive ?

By books He moves the scholar, and by appetite
the animal, to desire, to choose, and to enjoy.

395. How far does God's Physical Government
extend ?

Over the whole empire of matter.

396. How far does the Mental Government of
God extend ?

Over the whole empire of created mind.

397. Does the Physical Government of God cause
our existence?

Yes; “ Thy hands have made me.” Job. 10: 8.
Ps. 13: 9, 16.

398. Does God provide food for all His crea-
tures, both brute and human?

Yes; He causeth grass to grow for cattle, and
herb for the service of man. “ Thou openest Thy
hand and satisfiest the desire of every living thing.”
Ps. 104: 14, and 145: 15, 16.

399. But does not man provide his own food
and raiment ?

- No; man’s agency is necessary as means; but
no agency nor effort of man can bring one drop of
rain from heaven, or cause one lamb or seed to
grow.

400. For how much, then, are we indebted to God ?

For every crumb, and thread, and breath, and
blessing.

401. And what ought we to render in return to
God for all His blessings ?

All we are and have, for ever.
THEOLOGICAL CATEOHISM FOR YOUTH. 55

402. Does the Providence of God extend to the
smallest, as well as the greatest matters ?

Yes ; “ Not a sparrow falleth on the ground with-
out your heavenly Father ;” and “ the very hairs of
your head are all numbered.” Matt. 10: 29, 30.

403. Does the Providence of God extend to what
men term matters of chance ?

Yes; “The lot is cast into the lap, but the whole
disposal thereof, is of the Lord.” Prov. 16: 33. 1
Kings 22: 34, .

404, Js there any such thing then as chance or ac-
cident ?

No. Nothing happens without God.

405. Does the Providence of God extend to all
our afflictions ?

Yes ; “Affliction cometh not forth of the dust;
neither doth trouble spring out of the ground.”
Job 5: 6.

406. Does God's Providence extend to all our
mercies ?

Yes ; “ Every good and perfect gift is from above,
and cometh down from the Father of lights.” Jas.
1:17.

407. Wherein does the Mental Government of
God appear in the Providential ?

In God’s Providential government over the em-
pire of mind.

408. Does the Providential Government of God
extend to the hearts of men, and even to their lips?

Yes ; “ The heart of the King is in the hand of
the Lord as the rivers of waters; He turneth it
whithersoever He will ;” and “ The preparations of
the heart and the answer of the tongue are from the
Lord.” Prov. 16: 1, and 21:1.
56 THEOLOGICAL CATECHISM FOR YOUTH.

409. Does the Providential Government of God
extend to the ordinary actions of men ?

Yes ; “Except the Lord build the city, they labor
in vain that build it: Except the Lord keep the
city the watchman waketh but invain.” Ps. 127: 1.

410. Does it extend to the actions of good men ?

Yes; “The steps of a good man are ordered by
the Lord.” Ps. 37: 23.

411. Does ut extend to the actions of bad men?

Yes ; for God calls the sinner His “rod,” His
“saw,” His “axe ;” and says I will send him against
a hypocritical nation.” Isa. 10. Again, “It was
not you that sent me hither, but God.” Gen. 45: 8.

412. Does it extend to the actions of devils ?
Yes; The Lord said to Satan, “ Behold he is in
thine hand; but save his life.” Job 2: 6.

413. Does the Providence of God extend to the
revolutions of empires?

It does. “I will overturn, overturn, overturn,
till He come whose right it is.” “Promotion com-
eth neither from the east nor from the west, nor
from the south, but God is judge; he putteth down
one and setteth up another.” Ez. 21,7. Ps. 75:
6; 7.

414. Does the Providential Government of God
decide the earthly condition of men, as to wealth or
poverty, elevation or depression in life?

Yes; “The Lord maketh poor and maketh rich:
He bringeth low and lifteth up.” 1 Sam. 2: 7.

415. Does God govern the actions of the brute
creation?

Yes ; “T will appoint over them the dogs to tear,
and the fowls of heaven and the beasts of the field.”
“T will send hornets before thee.”—“ He spake and
THEOLOGICAL CATECHISM FOR YOUTH. 57

locusts came and caterpillars."—“ Against Israel
shall not a dog move his tongue." I have com-
manded the ravens to feed thee.” Jer. 15:3. Ps.
105: 34. Exod. 23:28. |! Kings 17: 4.

416. Does the Providential extend to

THE MORAL GOVERNMENT OF GOD?

It does.

417. What do you mean by His Moral Govern-
ment ?

Government by moral influences on the mind.

418. Give an example of Moral Government.

That of a parent over his child; or of a ruler over
his subjects.

419. What ts the difference between Mental and
Moral Government?

All Moral is Mental government; but all Mental
is not Moral. The controlling influence of all mo-
tive on mind is mental government; but the influ-
ence of noue but moral motives is moral govern-
ment

420. Where do we see the difference?

The minds of all animals are governed by motive,
yet none but the minds of moral agents areruled by
moral influences.

421. Amongst men are there any instances of
motive influence, that is not also moral influence?

Yes; one mind is drawn by an argumentative,
another by a florid style; one by the sublime. an-
other by the beautiful. The influence is mental,
but not moral. It rules the mind or choice, but
has no moral character for good or evil.
58 THEOLOGICAL CATECHISM FOR YOUTH.

422. But donot mere natural influences, like that
of taste or appetite, sometimes assume a moral char-
acter ; a merely mental, become a moral motive?

Yes; it did in the case of Eve’s transgression ;
and always does when the divine command reaches
the question of animal indulgence.

423. Into how many parts is the Moral Govern-
ment of God divided?

Four; Providential, Legal, Mediatorial and Spir-
itual.

424. How is the Providential a part of God's
Moral Government ?

Because the events of the Providential Kingdom
are so ordered as to bear a moral influence on the
minds of men.

425. Do the Scriptures affirm this ?

Yes; “The Lord thy God hath led thee these
forty years in the wilderness, to humble thee, and
to prove thee, and to know what was in thine heart,
‘whether thou wouldst keep the commandments of
God or not.” Deut. 8: 2.

426. What are the three grand requisites for a
Moral Government ?

1 A moral governor, moral agents, and a moral
aw.

427. What are the three grand requisites in a
Moral Governor ?

Character, Capacity, and Authority.

428. Why these?

Because without character no one is fit to reign ;
without capacity, no one is qualified to reign; and
without authority, no one has a right to reign.

429. Has God these three requisites ?

Yes, in infinite perfection. Infinite goodness is
THEOLOGICAL CATECHISM FOR YOUTH. 59

‘His character ; infinite wisdom and power His capa-
city ; and His claims as our Creator, Preserver, and
Redeemer, give Him infinite authority over us all.

430. What is Moral Agency?
A course of action, either right or wrong.

431. Who are Moral Agents?
God, and all His rational creatures.

432. Are all Moral Agents accountable beings ?
No; none but created moral agents. God is not
an accountable Being.

433. What is the difference between a Moral
Agent and an Accountable Being ?

Both have duties to perform ; but the one-ts un-
der law, the other is not; one is bound to give an
account of his actions, the other is not. God is a
Moral Agent, but is not accountable to any; but
man is both a moral agent, and an accountable be-
ing likewise.

434. Has God duties to perform ?

Yes; to love Himself, and His law, and His glo-
ry; and to maintain His righteous government over
His creatures, are duties He owes to Himself.

435. What is necessary to Moral Agency ? -

Capacity to understand what is right, and power
(possessed or accessible) to do it.

436. What is necessary to Accountability ?

Righteous moral law, proclaimed, by rightful au-
thority, with capacity to understand, and power to
obey.

437. Why ts righteous law necessary; and that
proclaimed or published ?

Because a wicked law no one is bound to obey ;
nor any law unless published.
60 THEOLOGICAL CATECHISM FOR YOUTH.

438, But is no one bound by any law unless he
know what vis?
Not unless the law has been duly published.

439. What proof that capacity to understand,
and power to obey, are necessary to accountability ?

Common sense decides that a brute creature with
no capacity to understand, nor power to obey moral
law, can be accountable.

440. What are the capacities and powers necessa-
ry to moral agency or accountability ?

Reason, Conscience, Liberty of Choice, and Moral
Sensibility.

441. What do you mean by Moral Sensibility ?

Sensibility of mind to moral objects.

442. What is the difference between Conscience
and Moral Sensibility ?

Conscience is that power of the mind which
merely approves or disapproves; but Moral Sensi-
bility, that attribute of the heart, which Joves or
hates the right or the wrong, the good or evil pre-
sented.

443, What do you mean by the Liberty of Choice
necessary to Moral Agency ?

The power of choosing or refusing, when good or
evil is set before us.

444. But is ut not essential to Freedom to have
not only the power of choosing, but of doing as we
choose ?

No: itis to Physical, but not to Moral freedom
—for if a man choose or desire to kill his neighbor,
heis in God's sight a murderer, even though he is
lying in adungeon and in chains.

445. How do you know that we possess all these
THEOLOGICAL CATECHISM FOR YOUTH. 61

powers and faculties that are necessary to Moral
Agency ? ,
By our consciousness.
446. Is there any power above our own accessible
to help us to perform our duttes ?
Yes; the power of God; for me may come to God
and “ find grace to help in time of need.” Heb. 4: 16.
447. What constitutes

THE LEGAL PART OF GOD'S MORAL
GOVERNMENT?

The government by his moral law.

448. What is the Law Book of God's Moral
Government ?

The Bible. ;

449. Where in that Book do you find God's
Moral Law?

Chiefly in the Ten Commandments. Ex. 20.

450. What is the great fundamental principle of
God's Moral Law?

Love to God and our fellow-creatures.

451. Does G'od claim this as the sum of all Es
requirements ?

Yes; Christ tells us that “on these two hang all
the law and the prophets.” Luke 10: 27.

452. Which kind of love are we bound to exercise
towards God ; Benevolence, or Complacency ?

Both.

453. What must be the measure or amount of our
love to God ?

“ With all our heart, and soul, and strength, and
mind.” Luke 10: 27.

6
62 THEOLOGICAL CATECHISM FOR YOUTH.

454, What are we to understand by that ?

That we are to love God more than all other ob-
jects; and as much more as our utmost capacity
admits.

455. Why?

Because God is infinitely greater and better than
all, and deserves to be loved in proportion to His
excellence.

456. Do you love Him so much more ?

457. Do you love Him as much as you do self?

458. Do you love Him at all?

459. What is the second branch of the law of love?

Thou shalt love thy neighbor as thyself.

460. What is meant by neighbor ?

All other men, whether friend or foe: whether of
our own nation, or any other.

461. How do you prove that ?

The good Samaritan regarded and treated as his
neighbor, the Jew he found in distress, although
the Jews and Samaritans were different nations,
and deadly enemies to each other; and this case
Christ quotes to show that we must love as our
neighbors, all men, of every clime and color, friend
and foe. Luke 10: 33-37.

462. But why should we love others as our-
selves ?

Because our fellow-creatures are of as much
value in the scale of being as ourselves.

463. Does the command to love our neighbor as
ourselves require the father to feel the same natural
affection towards others’ children as for his own?
or to leave his own children or interests to take care
of others ?
THEOLOGICAL CATECHISM FOR YOUTH. 63

No; but it requires us to desire as much good
to others as to ourselves; and to do all for them
that m like circumstances we should like others to
do for us. “ Whatsover ye would that men should
do to you, do ye even so to them.” Matt. 7 : 12.

464. What is the preface to the Ten Command-
ments, otherwise called tne Decalogue ?

The preface to the Ten Commandments is, “I
am the Lord thy God which brought thee out of
the land of Egypt and out of the house of bondage.”
Ex. 20: 10.

465. What does the preface to the Ten Command-
ments teach us?

That those who are God’s own people by special
covenant and by special favor are bound above all
others to keep His commandments.

446. And are we now as specially bound to God
on these grounds as were Israel of old ?

Yes, and more so; for we, as a nation, above all
others, have been adopted into their place, and have
been more, and far more, blest than they.

467. What is the first commandment?

“ Thou shalt have no other gods before me.” Kx,
20: 3.

468. What is the leading object of the Jirst com-
mandment?

To forbid all outward idolatry like that of the
heathen, and all the inward idolatry of the
heart.

469 What do you mean by the inward idola-
try of the heart?

Allowing to any other object the highest place in
the heart—that place which of right belongs to God
alone.
64 THEOLOGICAL CATECHISM FOR YOUTH.

470. Is there any idolatry in Christian lands?

Yes; sinners in Christian lands are as deep in
idolatry as the heathen, though not addicted to
image worship.

471. How can men be as deep in idolatry here as
an heathen lands?

Because all sinners in Christendom, as well as
heathendom, allow to other objects that place in
their hearts which of right belongs to God only.

472. Which, then, is the real idolatry of the hea-
then world—their image uorship, or the alienation
of their hearts from God to other olyects?

Their alienation of heart to other objects; the
same as the idolatry in Christian lands.

473. What, then, are in reality the religious rites
and idolatrous worship of the heathen ?

Mere superstitious observances, adopted to qui-
et the demands of the religious principle in
man.

474. Has any religious prineiple survived the
fall in the heart of man?

Yes; a religious principle, but no principle of
religion. Conscience is still alive to the duty of
religion, though the heart is dead against it.

475. What, then,is the true philosophy or cause
of the heathen worship and religion?

It is the wicked heart’s attempt to quiet and
compromise with conscience. Conscience urges
the duty of religion and religious worship ; but the
heart, hating a holy God and a holy worship, con-
trives deities that will allow their votaries to wor-
ship and yet to sin on undisturbed.

476. What, then, are the grand oljects of the
THEOLOGICAL CATECHISM FOR YOUTH. 65

heart's idolatry here and every where? what the
trinity of idols that the wicked world adore ?

Wealth, Honor, and Pleasure.

477. Do the Scriptures consider devotion to these
as real idolutry ?

They do: they tell us that “ eovetousness (i. e. the
love of gold) is idolatry ;” and, of course, the same
is true in regard to the others. Col. 3: 5.

478. But why do wealth. honor and pleasure hold
the highest place in the sinful heart ?

Because they tend to self-gratification.

479. What, then, at last is the real and the only
idol of the sinful heart ?

Self: self-love is always highest till love to God
takes the throne, and puts down self into subordi-
nation.

480. Are you, then, an idolater ?

481. Are you a worshipper of the true God? or
do you worship nothing ?

482. If you worship nothing, then what compromise
does your heart make with your conscience ? how
manage to stifle the voice within, which tells you that
every rational being in every world oughé to love and
worship the God that made. him ?

483. When the first commandment forbids idola-
try, what opposite duty does it require ?

Tkat we choose the Lord alone for our God.

484. What do you mean by choosing the Lord for
our God ?

Yielding to him the highest place in our hearts,
and devoting our hearts and lives to his service.

485. What, then, is the sum and substance of what
the first commandment both forbids and requires ?

6*
.

66 THEOLOGICAL CATECHISM FOR YOUTH.

That we must have no God but the Lord, but
must have the Lord for our God ?

486. Have you ever yet renounced every idol, and
chosen the Lord for your God ?

487. What ought to be the object of your highest
love ?

488. What is your highest and dearest object ?
self or God ?

489. Is it a small sin, or a heinous crime, to cast
the love and fear of God away, and to allow sinful
self to be your God ?

490. Why is the command against idolairy made
the first commandment ?

Because idolatry is the most universal and the
greatest sin.

491. What is the second commandment ?

“Thou shalt not make unte thee any graven
image, or any likeness of any thing that is in heaven
above, or that is in the earth beneath, or that is in
the waters under the earth: Thou shalt not bow
down thyself to them, nor serve them: for I the
Lord thy God am a jealous God, visiting the ini-
quity of the fathers upon the children unto the
third and fourth generation of them that hate me.”
Ex. 20: 4,5.

492. What is the difference between the second com-
mandment and the first ?

The first forbids all idols, the second all images ;
the first forbids having any idols in the heart, the
second all images before the eye. The sin forbid-
den in the first is the cause, the sin denounced in
the second the effect: yet both refer to the same
great and wide-spread species of wickedness.
THEOLOGICAL CATECHISM FOR YOUTH. 67

493. What, then, is té the main object of the second
commandment to forbid and require ?

To forbid all image worship, and all that would
tend thereunto; and to require all men to worship
God in spirit and in truth.” John 4: 2, 3.

494. Do you worship God in spirit and in truth ?

495. What reasons are given for obeying this com-
mand ?
The first is, “that the Lord is a jealous God.”

496. Whatts meant by His being a jealous God ?

That God watches the first wanderings of the
heart, and is angry whenever any of that glory and
honor that are due to Him alone, are given to any
other object.

497. What is the second reason ?

That God visits the iniquities of the fathers upon
the children to the third and fourth’ generations of
them “that hate Him.”

498. Is it just to visit the iniquities of fathers
upon children ?

Yes ; when children followin the wicked footsteps
their fathers trod, and hate and disobey God them-
selves.

499. What is the third reason for keeping the
second commandment ?

That God shows mercy to thousands (of genera-
tions) that love Him and keep His commandments.

500. Does the Bible add the word generations
after the word thousands, making the text read
thousands of generations ?

No; nor does the Hebrew text add it after the
third and fourth; and if it may be added in the one
case, it may also in the other.

501. Suppose tt then added to both, what must
68 THEOLOGICAL CATECHISM FOR YOUTH.

we then understand by God's visiting the iniquities
of the fathers upon the children to the third and
fourth generation of them that hate Him.and show-
ing mercy to thousands of generations of them that
love Him and keep His commandments?

That God will follow far down with judgments
those who hate and rebel against Him; and very
much further still, with mercies, those who love
Him and keep His commandments.

502. What loud warning does this passage sound
in the ears of sinners?

Immediately to cease their career of iniquity,
lest they entail their own character and curse upon
generations yet unborn.

503. What great encouragement does this afford
to men toa life of mrety?

That their characters and blessings may flow
down to generations unnumbered, when themselves
are dead.

504. Are your life and example such as you
would wish those who come after you to copy?

505. What is the third commandment ?

Ex. 20:7. “Thou shalt not take the name of
the Lord thy God in vain, for the Lord will not
hold him guiltless that taketh his name in vain,”

506. What is u to take the name of Godin
vain?

To use it irreverently.

507. Can men violate the spirit of this command
even when they do not use the name of God at all?

Yea ; by speaking irreverently of His works, His
word, His worship, His ordinances, His Provi-
dences, His people, or His religion.
THEOLOGICAL CATECHISM FOR YOUTH, 69

508. What penalty does God threaten against
all who take his name in vain?
That He will not hold them guiltless.

509. What is meant by not holding them guilt-
less?

That He will hold and treat them as guilty, and
inflict condign punishment.

510. What then will befall those who not only take
His name in vain, but are guilty of profane swear-
ing and blasphemy ?

A still more terrible doom.

511. What is Christ's rule as to profane or irrev-
erent language of every kind ?

“Let your communication be yea, yea, and nay,
nay, for whatsoever is more than these cometh of
evil.” Matt. 5: 37.

512. Is profaneness the most inexcusable of all
sins ?

Yes; the thief pleads his hunger, and the mur-
derer the abuses he has received, or the gain he is
going to reap; but the profane swearer has neither
the one excuse nor the other for breaking the third
commandment.

518. Does God regard the words we utter, the
language we use, as a true index of our hearts?

“Yes; “for out of the abundance of the heart the
mouth speaketh.” Matt. 12: 34.

514. Will our words come up in remembrance
at the last day?

Yes; for every idle word we must give account
in the Day of Judgment. Matt. 12: 36.

515. Will our words have an influence in fizing
our eternal destiny ?

Yes; “ By thy words thou shalt be justified, and
70 THEULOGICAL CATECHISM FOR YOUTH.

by thy words thou shalt be condemned.” Matt. 12:
37.

516. What influence is brought to bear upon the
tongue ?
“ Tt is set on fire of hell.” Jas. 3:6.

517. What kind of sin is that for which there is
no forgiveness, neither in this lifenor that which is
to come ?

A sin of the tongue. “Whosoever speaketh a
word against the Holy Ghost it shall not be forgiv-
en, neither in this world nor in the world to come.”
Matt. 12: 32.

518. Is your tongue ever “ set on fire of hell?”

519. Have you any idle words to give an ac-
count of at the Day of Judgment ?

520. Are you sufficiently cautious and prayerful
as to the language of your lips?

521. What ts the fourth commandment?

“Remember the Sabbath day to keep it holy.
Six days shalt thou labor and do all thy work :
But the seventh day is the Sabbath of the Lord thy
God; in it thou shalt not do any work, thou, nor
thy son, nor thy daughter, thy man-servant, nor
thy maid-servant, nor thy cattle, nor thy stran-
ger that is within thy gates: for in six days the
Lord made heaven and earth, the sea and all that
in them is, and rested the seventh day: wherefore
the Lord blessed the Sabbath day, and hallowed it.”
Ex. 20: 8-11.

522. What is the first precept of the fourth com-
mandment ?

“ Remember the Sabbath day.”

523. Why are we commanded to remember the
Sabbath Day ?
THEOLOGICAL CATECHISM FOR YOUTH. 71

Because so much is said and read, and done on
the Sabbath, without remembering what day it is.

524. Do you not sometimes forget it?

525. Has the Sabbath become entirely forgotten
and lost by any portion of mankind ?

Yes; by whole nations; even where the septen-
ary division of time continues.

526. Is there no danger of its being lost here?

527. What is the second precept of the fourth
commandment? b
“To keep the Sa bath holy.”

528. What is ut to keep the Sabbath holy?

To devote our thoughts, words and actions, ail
that day to heavenly, not to worldly things.

529. What is the third precept of the fourth
commandment ?

“Six days shalt thou labor.”

530. Is it every one's duty to labor siz days in
the week ?

Yes; in some useful employment of body or
mind.

531. But may not wealth excuse a man for idle-
ness ?

No; nothing but weakness, or disease of mind or

dy.

532. What evils does idleness engender ?

Crime, disease, death, perdition.

533. But what shall a man do who has already
all the wealth he needs for his support ?

Labor for God and the salvation of souls; gain
and give to the cause of humanity and religion, at
home and abroad, over all the world.
72 THEOLOGICAL CATECHISM FOR YOUTH.

534. What is the fourth precept of the fourth
commandment ?

To finish all our secular business witbin the six
secular days. “Six days shalt thou labor and do
all thy work.”

535. But have not some men more secular busi-
ness than they can perform in the six secular days ?

Yes; but they have no right to more. God al-
lows no man to take more on his hands than he
can do in the six.

536. How do you prove that ?

God would never have commanded us to do all
in six days if he allowed us to take more than we
could complete in six.

537. By the month or year together, could a man
do as much in the whole seven days of the week us
an the six?

No. No man can do so much, or travel so far.

538. What motive ts here presented for finish-
ing our works within the siz days ?

God's own example; “for in six days the Lord
made heaven and earth, the sea, and all that in
them is.”

539. What is the fifth injunction (or series of in-
Junctions) of the fourth commandment ?

“In the Sabbath of the Lord thy God thou shalt
not do any work ; thou, nor thy son, nor thy daugh-
ter, nor thy man-servant, nor thy maid-servant, nor
thy cattle, nor the stranger that is within thy
gates.”

540. Is any man, then, held to be a Sabbath
breaker tf he set his servants, or chidren, or cattle
at work, even though he do not work himself?

Yes ; cr if he permzt either a child or a domestic
THEOLOGICAL CATECHISM FOR YOUTH. 73

or even a stranger that is sheltered beneath his
roof to labor, or otherwise violate the day of God.

541. But suppose he has not power to prevent his
son or servant, or the stranger from violating the
Sabbath ?

He must prevent it. God will take no excuse at
his hands. The head of every house is in God's
sight bound to be its master, and actually to pre-
vent Sabbath-breaking in his house; or banish the
Sabbath-breaker from his establishment.

542. But which ts the easy and the right way to
prevent, without resort to severity ?

To begin early, and to teach and train every soul
in the mansion to reverence the Lord’s day from
the very beginning. ,

543. What will God do to those parents or guar-
dians or masters, who let go the reins of govern-
ment, till those they are bound to govern are above
and beyond them ?

He will task them to a dread account hereafter.

544. When God says thou shalt not do any
work, thou, nor thy son nor thy daughter, nor thy
man servant, &c., are not only all kinds of work,
but all other worldly occupations or engagements
forbidden, such as travelling, studying, reading,
writing, and conversation on worldly sudgects ?

Yes; and all worldly visiting, amusements, and
self-gratification. God’s words are, “ Not doing
thine own ways, nor finding thine own pleasure, nor
speaking thine own words.” Isa. 58: 13.

545. Do you not sometimes seek your own plea-
sure or speak your own words on the day of God?

546. What was the penalty in former days for
violating the Sabbath ?
7
74 THEOLOGICAL CATECHISM FOR YOUTH.

“ Hvery one that defileth it shall surely be put to
death : whosoever doeth (any) work therein, that
soul shall be cut off from his people.” Ex. 31:
14; and 35: 2.

547. Is God as angry now as ever against the
Sabbath-breaker ?

Just the same now, and always will be.

548. Is there any kind of work a man may do
on the day of God?

Yes; works of mercy—to man or beast. Luke
13: 10; and 14: 15. Matt. 12: 1. We may im-
part food to the hungry, or relief to the distress of
man or beast on the Sabbath day.

549. By what motives ts the duty of keeping the
Sabbath here enforced ?

That “God rested on the seventh day; blessed
the Sabbath day and hallowed it.”

550. How long did the seventh day continue to
be the Sabbath ?

More than four thousand years. The seventh
day was set apart for a Sabbath in the garden of
Eden, twenty-five hundred years before this fourth
commandment was given on Mount Sinai.

551. How does that appear?

Because we are told immediately on the comple-
tion of the creation, that “ God blessed the seventh
day and sanctified it” (Gen. 2: 3); and because it
was needed before the law as much as since; and
it commemorated God’s rest then as now.

552. What reason have we for supposing that
the first day has been kept as the Sabbath since the
days of Christ?

Because it is called in the New Testament,
“The Lord’s day ;” and on this day the disciples
THEOLOGICAL CATECHISM FOR YOUTH. 75

met for worship. Rev. 1: 10; Acts 20: 7; 1
Cor. 16: 2. And it was kept by the early Chris-
tians as a Sabbath.

553. What is meant by God’s blessing the Sab-
bath day?

His making it a blessing to all who keep it.

554. Is the Sabbath a real blessing to the world ?

Yes; it is the guardian of all the dearest -in-
terests of mankind ; the great promoter of learning,
liberty, peace, prosperity, morality, religion, and
salvation.

555. What is the condition of the nations where
no Sabbath is foand ?

They are all sunk in barbarian or heathen degra-
dation.

556. Does every nation then and every individual
that turns his back on this day of God, shut him-
self off from the richest blessings of Heaven ?

Yes; and brings himself under the curse.

557. What is meant by God's “hallowing the
Sabbath day ?”
Setting it apart from a common to a sacred use.

558. Does God regard it as a great sin for man
wilfully to profane what he has hallowed ?
Yes; and punishes accordingly.

559. Do you recollect any cases where men have
wilfully desecrated this day that God hath so so-
lemnly consecrated ?

Yes; the man in the wilderness, who in contempt
of God's law gathered sticks on the Sabbath day;
and the case of the French nation in the day of
their great revolution, when they wilfully biotted
out the day of God from their calendar, and even
76 THEOLOGICAL CATECHISM FOR YOUTH.

abolished the seventh day division of time for de-
cades, or divisions of ten days each.

560. What were the consequences ?

The man in the wilderness was stoned to death
by express command of God. Numb. 15: 35.
And the French nation was deluged in blood.
(See French Revolution.)

561. Do you know of any other cases of the sore
Judgments of God, though less severe, on nations or
indwiduals for Sabbath-breaking, either in former
or tater days ?

Yes; the whole nation of Israel was carried and
kept captive for seventy years, that the land might
enjoy her Sabbaths of which they had despoiled it.
Ley. 26: 34-35; and 2d Chron. 36: 21.

And in our own days the destruction of pleasure
riders on land and water on the Sabbath day, is of
appalling frequency.

562. As a general rule, are men gainers or losers
in their temporal interests, by breaking the Sabbath
for gain?

Great losers in their temporal, and infinite losers
in their eernad/ interests; and therefore all who
would be happy in the world to come, or even pros-
per in this world, must keep holy the Sabbath day.

563. What division of the ten commandments ts
supposed to end here with the fourth ?

That part which was written on the first table of
stone, containing our duties to God; the remaining
six, containing our duties to man, being written on
the second table.

564. What is the fifth commandment ?

“Honor thy father and mother, that thy days
may be long in the land that the Lord thy God
giveth thee.” Ex. 20: 12.
THEOLOGICAL CATECHISM FOR YOUTH. 77

565. What ts i to honor parents ?

To love, reverence, and obey them.

566. What peculiar kind of love or affection are
children bound to exercise towards their parents ?

Kindred and grateful affection.

567. Is kindred affection the duty of chikiren
towards thewr parents ?

Yes; and of parents towards their children ; and
of brothers and sisters, and of all other kindred, one
towards another.

568. How does that appear? Is not kindred af-
Section a mere animal instinct, common both to the
brute and human race ?

Yes; and therefore the want of itis worse than
brutish; and henee to be “without natural affec-
tion” is rated in Scripture as the lowest stage of
human depravity. 2 Tim. 3: 3.

569. Is gratitude one part of that love which
children owe to their parents ?

Gratitude and love are not the same thing: for
love refers to persons, gratitude to favors shown;
yet love and gratitude, like benefactor and benefits,
are closely connected together.

570. For what is gratitude due from children to
parents? —

For all their countless favors ;

Their counsels and cares;

Their pains and their prayers ;

Their toils and their tears,

From first to latest years.

571. Why ought children to honor their parents?

Because of the parents’ superiority in age; and
the respect naturally due to the parental relation.

572. Are children bound by this commandment

7*
78 THEOLOGICAL CATECHISM FOR YOUTH.

to honor or reverence parents who, by their charac-
ter or conduct, merit nothing but contempt ?

Yes; children are always bound to honor, who-
ever else may despise them.

573. Are children bound to do every thing that
parents may command ?

Yes; unless what they command be impracticable
or wicked.

574. What ts the Bible rule on this subject ?

“Children, obey your parents in the Lord.”
Eph. 6: 1.

575, What 1s meant by “ obeying in the Lord 2”

Obeying in all that the Lord approves.

576. What did God in ancient times command
to be done with a son that would not obey his father
or mother, after they had chastened him theniselves
tn vain ?

God's command was, “ All the men of his city
shall stone him that he die.” Deut. 21: 21.

577. What if a child cursed his father or
mother ?

“ Every one that curseth his father or his mother
shall surely be put to death.” Lev. 20: 9.

578. Is God as angry now as ever against dis-
obedient children ?

Yes, the same.

579. Do you always obey the fifth command-
ment ?.

580. What promise does this command contain
for all who obey i ?

“That thy days may be long in the land which
the Lord thy God giveth thee.”

581. Is thes a promise that the nation of Israel, if
THEOLOGICAL CATECHISM FOR YOUTH. 79

obedient, should remain long in the land of Ca-
naan, the land the Lord gave them? or that all
men who obey shail live long on the earth, or both?

Both. Primarily it was a promise to that nation ;
inferentially, “it is a promise of long life and pros-
perity, so far as shall subserve God’s glory and their
own highest good, to all such as keep this command-
ment.”

582. Why does Paul call this the first command-
ment with promise?” Eph. 6: 2,3. Does not
every commandment of God contain a promise ex-
pressed or implied to all who keep it?

Yes; and Paul does not say that this is the first
commandment with promise, but the first command-
ment with this particular promise; “that it may be
well with thee, and that thou mayest dwell long in
the earth or the land.” Ephes. 6: 2,3. Original.

583. Why the earth or the land ?
Because the Greck word means either.

584. But have we a right to put those two verses
together, and to read tt, “ the first commandment
with the promise that it may be well with thee, and
that thou mayest dwell long in the land 2?"

Yes; because the verses never ought to have
been divided ; their sense and truth require them to
be joined together.

585. But are not the divisions of chapters and
verses inspired divisions ?

No. The original Scriptures had neither chapter
nor verse.

586. Who then divided the Bible into chapters
and verses ?

Chiefly the monk Hugo, 1240; Robert Stephens,
1551; and the Jew, Mordecai Nathan.
80 THEOLOGICAL CATECHISM FOR YOUTH.

587. Does the fifth command imply also the duty of
subjection to rulers and all others in authority, as
well as parents ?

Yes; “Let every soul be subject to the powers
that be; for there is no power but of God. The
powers that be are ordained of God. Whosoever
therefore resisteth the power, resisteth the ordi-
nance of God; and they that resist, shall receive to
themselves damnation.” Rom. 13: 1, 2.

588. If rulers make wicked laws are we bound to
obey them?

No; for “we ought to obey God rather than
men.” Acts5: 29.

589. But who is to judge whether a law be wick-
ed, and onethat it would be wicked to obey ?
The Bible, or the principles it lays down.

590. But who is to interpret the Bible?

Every individual for himself, after patient and
prayerful investigation, as he shall answer it at the
Last Day.

591. But what must men do if masters, magis-
trates, or monarchs attempt to compel them to obey
wicked laws?

Doas Shadrach, Meshach, Abednego and Daniel
did in Babylon; go into the furnace or lion’s den,
rather than sin against God. Dan. 3d and 6th
chapter.

592. What is the sixth commandment ?
“Thou shalt not kill” Ex. 20: 13.

593. Does this commandment forbid taking the
life of u fellow creature in any case?

No; it is the duty of the Zaw to take “life for
life.’ “ Whoso sheddeth man’s blood, by man shall
his blood be shed.” Gen. 9: 6.
THEOLOGICAL CATECHISM FOR YOUTH. 81

594. But was not this precept merely one of the
enactments of the Levitical Law, now abrogated and
done away?

No; for this precept was given six hundred years
before Levi was born; and more than eight hun-
dred before the Levitical Law was enacted.

595. If the sixth commandment does not forbid
taking life for life, what does it forbid?

It forbids all murder. Matt. 19: 18. “Thou
shalt do no murder.”

596. What ts murder ?

Killing a man intentionally, without the com-
mand or authority of law.

597. Is there any difference between the command
of the law, and the authority of law ?

Yes; the legal executioner who executes the
murderer on the scaffold, does it by regular com-
mand of the law: but he who kills the man who is
in the act or effort to murder him, or his family, is
acting by the authority of the law against murder,
provided the law could in no other way afford pro-
tection.

598. Has the law itself a right to take life for any
thing but life?

No.

599. Is “malice aforethought,” always esssential
to murder ?

No; a man may murder his neighbor for money ;
or himself for grief, with no malice against either.

600. What else besides murder does the law
against murder forbid ?

Every thing that would lead or tend to murder
of any kind; whether murder for malice, or money,
or grief
82 THEOLOGICAL CATECHISM FOR YOUTH.

601. Can a man bea murderer without taking
life?

Yes; “whosoever hateth his brother is a mur-
derer.” 1 Jn. 3: 15.

602. Ave you, then, one in heart?

603. Whence do all murders proceed ?

From within; “out of the heart proceed evil
thoughts, murders.” Matt. 15: 19.

604. What then does the sixth commandment en-
join in regard to the spirit of our mind?

To avoid every thing that would lead or tend to-
wards murder: hatred, envy, jealousy and avarice;
and to cultivate the opposite spirit of loving our
neighbors as ourselves, and of entire submission to
the will of God.

605. What does the sizth commandment enjoin
as the rule of our practice in regard to life?

To avoid every thing that might endanger our
own or our neighbor’s life or health; and to use “all
lawful endeavors to preserve our own life, and the
life of others.” West. Catech.

606. What ts the first part of the punishment
that God denounces against the murderer ?

“The murderer shall surely be put to death.”
Num. 35: 17.

607. What is the second part ?

“ Murderers shall have their part in the lake
that burneth with fire and brimstone.” Rev. 21:

8.

608. Is there any other kind of murder besides
that of the body ?

Yes; soul-murder.

609. In what way may souls be murdered ?

By being tempted into sin.
THEOLOGICAL CATECHISM FOR YOUTH. 83

610. What sort of sin?
Unbelief, or any open, or secret sin.

611. Who is guilty of soul-murder ?

Satan; for “he was a murderer from the begin-
ning.” Jn.8: 44.

612. Who else besides Satan may be guilty of soul-
murder ?

The infidel, who leads the soul to reject God’s
truth; the seducer, who leads the soul into any
open or secret sin; the mere moralist, whose influ-
ence stops the soul this side of Christ ; and the pro-
erastinator, who leads the sinner to put off for a
more convenient season.

613. May a person be guilty of the blood of souls,
without any of these or any other overt transgres-
stons against them ?

Yes; by neglecting the instructions and warn-
ings, the prayers and efforts that God requires for
the salvation of all we can reach or influence.

614. Who are in special danger of becoming
guilty of the blood of souls in this way?

Parents, of the blood of their children ; teachers,
of the souls of their pupils; ministers, of the souls
of their people; and all that have or might have in-
fluence over others, are in danger of their blood by
neglect.

615. Which ts worse, to be guilty of the blood of
the soul, or that of the body ?

That of the soul is as much worse, as the soul is
more important than the body.

616. If the murderer of the body be doomed to
death in this world, and eternal misery in the next,
what does the soul-murderer deserve ?

A far sorer death, both temporal and eternal.
84 THEOLOGICAL CATECHISM FOR YOUTH.

617. Of which are there the greater numbers,
murderers of the body, or of the soul?
Of sowd-murderers, incomparably more.

618. Are you one of the number, either by leading
them to sin, or by neglecting efforts for their salva-
tion, or your own?

619. May a person destroy the souls of others by
neglecting his own?

Yes; for he thus influcnces others to the same
fatal neglect.

620. Is there any kind of soul-murder besides
that against a fellow-creature ?

Yes; there is soul suicide, or destroying one’s
own soul.

621. How maya man be guilty of destroying his
own soul?

By doing any thing that God forbids, or neglect-
ing any thing that God requires ; especially by ne-
glecting or delaying to repent and believe ; and give
the heart to God.

622. How much need you do then, to be a destroyer
of your own soul?

Nothing; for to do nothing when God requires
us to do something, yea, and to do much, is certain
self-destruction.

623. But may we not do something, and yet
perish ?

Yes; much. We may give punctual attention
to the Bible, the Sabbath, the closet, and even the
communion, and yet perish by neglecting to lay
hold on Christ, and give the heart and life to God.

624. Are you daily perilling your own soul now
by such neglect, or in any other way ?
THEOLOGICAL CATECHISM FOR YOUTH. 85

625. Which is the greater crime, self-murder or
the murder of others ?—to destroy your own soul, or
the soul of your fellow-creature ?

Suicide is the worst sort of murder; because
our own life is put more entirely under our own
care than the life of any other.

626. May a man be guilty of both kinds of mur-
der at the same time ; destroying his own soul, and
that of his fellow-creatures ?

Yes; many a man is guilty of the blood of his
own soul, and that of hundreds of his fellow-
creatures.

627. And are those hundreds then guiltless them-
selves because led on by others ?

No; but the tempter who leads, is guilty of the
blood of the souls he leads; and those who are led
are guilty of self-murder for consenting to go.

628. What then must we do to in order to avoid
the guilt of soul-murder of every sort?

Do all we can for the salvation of our own souls,
and the souls of all our fellow-creatures.

629. What is the seventh commandment ?

“Thou shalt not commit adultery.” Ex. 20:
14,

630. What does the seventh commandment for-
id ?

“ All unchaste thoughts, words, and actions.”

631. What does it require?

“ Our best endeavors to preserve our own and
our neighbor’s chastity in heart, speech, and be-

avior.” West. Catech.

632. What is the eighth commandment?

“Thou shalt not steal.” Ex. 20: 15.

8
86 THEOLOGICAL CATECHISM FOR YOUTH.

633. What is it to steal?

To take what belongs to another, without his
knowledge or consent, and without compensation.

634. What is robbery ?

Taking what belongs to another with his know-
ledge, but without his consent, and without com-
pensation.

635. Which of these does this command forbid ?
Both ; and all fraud, gambling, over-reaching, and
extortion in our dealings with our fellow-men, as
individuals, or with the government under which
we live.
636. What does the eighth commandment re-
ware ?
All that conduct towards our neighbor’s inter-
ests that we should desire from him towards our
own.

637. Is the common. course of the world in vila-
tion of the spirit of the eighth commandment ?

Yes; the common principle and practice of get-
ting the most possible from our fellow-ereature for
the least possible in return, is the very spirit of
robbery itself; and, of course, all extortion of pro-
perty or labor for less than its value is robbery.

638. What will the day of judgment reveal in
the light of this command ?

That a great portion of mankind that stood high
in the world, were in God’s sight mere thieves and
robbers.

639. Do you in all business transactions aim to
make your neighbor's side fully equal to your own?

640. Do you deal with him as you would wish
him in like circumstances to deal with you ?
THEOLOGICAL CATECHISM FOR YOUTH. 87

641. Is not a contrary course robbery in the sight
of God ?

642. Do you not deem ihe contrary robbery when
agatnst you?

643. Is there any other sort of robbery besides that
against man?

Yes; robbery of God. “Ye have robbed me,
even this whole nation.” Mal. 3: 9.

644. Wherein may a man rob God ?
“In tithes and offerings.” Mal. 3: 8.

645. How are we to understand that ?

That withholding from the cause of religion a
full tenth of all their annual incomes God con-
sidered, in the days of Israel. decided robbery of
Himself; and he is the same God still.

646. Which was the more costly command, theirs
to maintain the Levitical ceremonies, or ours to give
the gospel to every creature,and which is the more
wnportant ?

Our duty to give the gospel to every creature is
far more expensive, and likewise far more import-
ant.

647. Which'then were the greater robbers of God,
those who withheld their tenth from the Levitical
ceremonial, or those who will not give now the pro-
portion necessary to sustain the gospel at home, and
to send it over the world to every creature abroad ?

648. Is there a still worse way of robbing God ?
Yes; withholding our hearts is worse than with-
holding our money.

649. Ave you doing both ?

650. What did God say to those who withheld
their tenth from the support of religion?
88 THEOLOGICAL CATECHISM FOR YOUTH.

“ Ye are cursed with a curse.” Mal. 3: 9.

651. What will He then. soon say to you if you
withhold from Him your money, or your heart, or
both ?

652. What is the ninth commandment ?

Thon shalt not bear false witness against thy
neighbor. Ex. 20: 16.

653. What is meant by false witness ?

Testifying falsely under oath.

654. Does this command forbid no false testimo-
ny, save that which ts against your neighbor? May
we bear false witness in our neighbor's favor ?

No; nomore in his favor, than against him; but
no one bears false testimony, unless to operate
against some other ; or to promote some selfish end.

655. Does this command forbid our bearing true
witness against our neighbor ?

No.

656. Does tt forbid any other kind of falsehood,
but false testimony, and that before the courts ?

Yes; every kind of falsehood, and lying every-
where.

657. What ts it to le, or commit falsehood ?

Intentionally to deceive.

658. In how many different ways may a person
be guilty of lying, or falschood ?

y the tongue, or the pen, or the press; by ac-
tions, or by silence itself, when truth requires us to
speak.

659. Does this command forbid both slander and
flattery ?

Yes, both; for both are falsehoods; flattery is
false praise ; slander, false dispraise.
THEOLOGICAL CATECHISM FOR YOUTH. 89

660. Does this eommand forbid speaking either
Jalsehood or truth against any fellow-creature ?

The spirit of the command forbids our saying
any thing, whether truc or false, against a fellow-
creature, unless absolutely necessary.

661. Where ts this commandment daily and
howrly broken?

In the chase of gain, fame, pleasure and revenge.

662. Giveone instance from the pursuers of gain.

In the constant practices of the business-world
extolling things to be sold, above their value, and
decrying things to be bought, beneath it; and
amongst the pursuers of gain, pleasure or power in
every sort of false representation and misrepresen-
tation to carry a point.

663. Is thes a false world ?

Yes; so false that David said “all men are li-
ars.” Ps. 116: 11.

664. What is the evil tendency of falsehood ?

Its tendency is to embitter and embroil all the
relations of life; to take away peace and send mal-
ice and war through hearts and houses, neighbor-
hoods and nations; to render useless all testimony
and all courts of justice ; all books, even the Bible
itself; and thus the tendency of falsehood is to de-
stroy all our earthly ang all our eternal interests to-
gether.

665. What punishment has God denounced
against lars and deceivers ?

“ All liars shall have their part in the lake that
burns with brimstone and fire.” Rev. 2: 8.

666. What is the tenth commandment?

“ Thou shalt not covet thy neighbor's house, thou
shalt not covet thy neighbor’s wife, nor his man-

8*
90 THEOLOGICAL CATECHISM FOR YOUTH.

servant, nor his maid-servant, nor his ox, nor his
ass, nor any thing that is thy neighbor’s.” Ex. 20:
17.

667. What 1s it to covet ?

To desire.

668. But is i wrong to desire, and to purchase
any thing that is our neighbor's ?

No; but it is wrong to desire what he is unwil-
ling to impart ; or what we have no right or power,
or providential permission, to possess.

669. What does this command forbid in spirit
and in practice ?

In spirit, it forbids all avarice, and envy, and dis-
contentment with our own condition; and in practice,
all gambling, and lotteries; and not only all un-
righteous or extreme efforts to gain wealth, but
even to make the attainment of wealth the aim and
object of our life and our pursuit.

670. What does it require?

Entire submission to the will of God, and the al-
lotments of His Providence ; that we love our neigh-
bor as ourselves, and his happiness as our own;
choose God for our portion and happiness; to set
our affection on things above, and to lay up our trea-
sure there,

671. Does God consider copetousness a great sin?

Yes; He declares it to be “ Ldolatry ;” and sets
down as His first command on the first table of
stone, and the first precept ever written by the fin-
ger of God, his law against idolatry, as the front
and leading transgression of all human depravity.

672. How does God feel towards the covetous ?

“The covetous, the Lord abhorreth.” Ps. 10: 3.

673. What will be their final destiny ?
THEOLOGICAL CATECHISM FOR YOUTH. 91

“No man who is an idolater shall inherit the
kingdom of God.” Eph. 5:5.

674. What did Paul find out by the study of the
tenth commandment ?

That the law of God reaches the heart, and even
the heart's desires, forbidding the first start of wrong
emotions; requiring not only that all our words
and actions, but that all our feelings, should be such
as God approves.

675. Does any mere man then since the Fall per-
fectly keep the commandments of God?

“No; “there is not a just man upon earth that
doeth good and sinueth not.” Eccles. 7: 20.

676. What is the character of all impenitent
men ?

Totally depraved.

677. What do you mean by Total Depravity ?
Does it mean that there ts no truth nor honesty, nor
amiableness in man, in his natural state?

No; there is often much of them all; so much so
that the young man in the Gospel, though totally de-
praved, was beloved of Christ Himself. Mk. 10: 21.

678. In what then does Total Depravity consist,
especially as to its elementary principle?

In supreme love to self; with no love to God, and
no holiness.

679. Does the Bible affirm the total depravity of
all natural men?

Yes ; it declares them to be “lovers of their own
selves ;” and adds, “In me, i. e., in my flesh, dwell-
eth no good thing.” I know you that ye have not the
love of Godin you.” “The carnal mind is enmity
against God.” “Every imagination of the thought
of the heart is only evil, and that continually.” 2
92 THEOLOGICAL CATECHISM FOR YOUTH.

Tim. 3:2; Jn. 5: 42; Rom. 7: 18, and8: 7, and
Gen. 6:5.

680. Is man’s depravity a mere incident derwed
from circumstances, or temptations, or is tt by na-
ture ?

“We are by nature children of wrath, even as
others.” Eph. 2: 3.

681. How early does mankind go astray?

“They go astray as soon as they are born.”—
“ Death hath passed upon all men, for that all have
sinned.” Ps 58: 3; Rom. 5: 12.

682, But how can man go astray, or be depraved,
as soon as hers born?

Because self-love is as really on the throne of the
heart, at first, as ever afterwards.

683. How came the mind of man in that depraved
condition ?
By his being a fallen creature.

684. What do you mean by a fallen creature?

One from the throne of whose heart the love of
God has departed, and self-love taken the throne in
its place.

685. Was love to God on the throne as the high-
est affection, in the heart of Adam?

Yes; before his fall; and self-love was entirely
subordinate.

686. How do you know that munis a fallen crea-
ture?

The Bible declares it; “God made man upright,
but they have sought out many inventions.” Kiel.
7:29. “In the day thou eatest thereof thou shalt
surely die.” Gen. 2: 17. “I had planted thee a
noble vine, wholly a right seed; now then art thou
THEOLOGICAL CATECHISM FOR. YOUTH. 93

turned into the degenerate plant of a strange vine ?”
Jer. 2: 21.

687. How did man's fall occur ?

By Adam’s eating the forbidden fruit. Gen. 3:
6, 7.

688. How came he toeat it ?

By being left to the freedom of his own will, and
to the temptation of the devil. Gen. 3d chapter.

689. How came we to be fallen creatures ?
It is by reason of our covenant connection with

Adam.

690. What do you mean by a covenant ?
Amongst men, itis a mere voluntary compact, or
agreement, between contracting parties,

691. What do you mean by a voluntary com-
act ?
One like a deed or a mortgage, or marriage con-
tract, in which either party may engage or not, as
he pleases.

692. Of what kinds, ts the covenant of God?

God had four different kinds of covenants.

693. What are they ?

One is a mere promise or decree, like the rain-
bow covenant, which consisted in a mere promise or
decree that the earth should never be destroyed
by a deluge again. Gen. 9: 15.

694. Mention another.

The Covenant of Redemption, for the Redemp-
tion of man ; a compact between the Persons of the
Trinity ; voluntary, like the covenants between man
and man.

695. But are not the covenants of God with men
94 THEOLOGICAL CATECHISM FOR YOUTH.

voluntary in like manner, leaving it optional with
man to enter into them or not ?

No; God does indeed make proposals or over-
tures to man, and promises reward in case of com-
pliance ; yet He does not leave it to man to comply
or not, but commands compliance, and denounces
terrible penalty against xon-compliance.

696. If, then, all God's overtures or proposals to
us come in the form of commands, is there any real
difference between the covenant of God, and the law
of God?

The law of God on Sinai is very often styled his
covenant. Ex. 24:7; Heb. 3:8 Yet there isa
difference between a covenant of God and Jaw, as
understood amongst men.

697. What is the difference?

God’s covenants with men consist of four things :
requirement and promise, prohibition and penalty :
human law of but two things, prohibition and
penalty.

698. Give an illustration of the two things only
in human law.

The law of man forbids murder, and threatens
death against the man who commits it; but it makes
no promise to the man who does not commit mur-
der.

699. Give an illustration of the four things eom-
prised in a covenant of God.

(ist) If ye be willing and obedient (2d) ye shall
eat of the good of the land; (3d) but if ye refuse
and rebel (4th) ye shall be devoured with the sword,
for the mouth of the Lord hath spoken it.” Isa.
1: 19,20. Such is the substance of all God’s com-
mandments,
THEOLOGICAL CATECHISM FOR YOUTH. 95

700. How many covenants has God made with
man?

The principal are two: the covenant of works and
the covenant of grace.

701. What was the Covenant of Works?
That made with Adam in Eden before the fall.

702. What was the purport or substance of that
Covenant ?
Do and live,

703. How much is comprised in do and live ?

It means, obey Me perfectly during the whole
time of thy probation, then shalt thou be, and con-
tinue, holy and happy, now and for ever.

704. How do you prove that God made such a
covenant with Adam ?

When God said to Adam, “In the day thou
eatest thou shalt surely die,” it implies, that if he
had not eaten there would have been no death:
and when he says, after Adam had sinned, “ Lest
he put forth his hand and take also of the tree of
life, and eat and live for ever,” it implies that, if
Adam had not sinned, he might have taken of the
tree of life, and eaten and lived for ever. Gen.
2:17, and 3: 22.

705. Was this covenant made with Adam for
himself only ?

No; it was made with Adam for man, including
himself and all his posterity.

706. How do you prove that?

Our depraved condition proves it; for we cannot
suppose creatures to come out of the hands of a

ure and benevolent God so depraved as man, un-

ess some dire lapse or catastrophe had passed over
his nature in some former state or period.
96 THEOLOGICAL CATECHISM FOR YOUTH.

707. What Scripture proofs have you that the
covenant with Adam included the race ?

“In Adam all die.” “By one man sin entered
into the world, and death by sin.” “ By one man’s
disobedience many were made sinners.” “By the
offence of one, judgment came upon all men to con-
demnation,” &c. 1 Cor. 11: 22; Rom. 5: 12; 18: 19.

708. Does that same covenant still exist, and still
reach us? and is it still binding on us?

Yes; it still reaches us with tremendous power,
or the whole race would not come into the world
fallen, depraved, suffering, and dying creatures.
And its commands are still as binding as ever;
for God’s moral law never commanded any thing
but what is morally right; and moral right is bind-
ing for ever.

709. Are the promises or proposals of that cove-
nant still extended to us?—does tt still present ttself
to us as acovenait of life, saying to us, asto Adam,
obey, and live ?

Tt still says to us, “Ye shall keep my statutes
and my judgments, which, if aman do, he shall live
in them ;” and that “The man' which doeth these
things shall live by them.” Lev. 18:5; Rom.
10: 5. Yet all this is no promise to sinners.

710. Why not?

Because those promises are made to nothing short
of sinless perfection, from the first breath to the
last; and of course every past transgression or
failure cuts off all hope by that old covenant of

aw.

711, What proof of this ?

“Tt is written, cursed is every one that continu-
eth not in all things written in the law to do them.”
Gal. 3: 10.
THEOLOGICAL CATECHISM FOR YOUTH. 97

712. What then is our present relation to the old
law covenant ?

Its promises are dead to us, because we are sin-
ners; but its commands still lie upon us, and its
curse too is on us as its violators.

718. But is the old requirement of sinless perfec-
tion made upon Adam in the first covenant stil
binding upon us ?

Yes; even Christ himself commands it, saying,
“ Be ye therefore perfect, as your Father in heaven
is perfect ;” Matt. 5 : 48 ; and he could not command
less without commanding us to sin.

714. But if sinless perfection be. commanded in
this life, then is it not possible ?

Yes; naturally or physically possible; for God
requires no physical impossibility of His creatures.

715. But if possible in itself, and commanded of
God, then is not the doctrine that some men attain
sinless perfection in this life, true?

No; because men are not what they ought to be.
God commands many things which man never
obeys; the command to be perfect, especially.

716. Suppose we could and should be perfectly ho-
ly and obedtent the rest of our days, would that save
us?

No ; past transgressions would forever debar us ;
“yea, any one of all our past transgressions; for
cursed is every one that continueth not in all
things.”

717. Is there any hope or possibility of relief or
salvation by the Old, or “ First Covenant ?”

None.

718. But why could not the Law Covenant af-
ford any hope or relief ?

9
98 THEOLOGICAL CATECHISM FOR YOUTH.

Because we are sinners needing pardon ; and Law
knows nothing of pardon; all it has to say to man
or angel is, obey and live; disobey and die.

719. Is thereany hope then anywhere for sinful
man?

Yes, there is hope in the New Covenant;

THE COVENANT OF GRACE.

720. What is the Covenant of Grace?

Its brief purport or substance is, Believe and
live. The covenant of works, Do and live ; the cov-
enant of grace, Believe and live,

721. What proof of thas ?

“ He that believeth and is baptized shall be saved ;
but he that believeth not shall be damned.” Mark
16: 16.

722. Where is this new covenant revealed to us?

In the Gospel.

723. What is the Gospel?

The good news of salvation for awordd of sinners.

724. What is the difference between the Law and
the Gospel ?

The Law isa Rule; the Gospel a Remedy.

725. What is the leading difference between the
teachings of the Law and those of the Gospel ?

The Law teaches what we must do, to do right;
the Gospel, what we must do to be saved.

726. But does not the Gospel teach us also to do
right ?

Yes; but its teachings of right are the echoes or
enlargements of the principles of right, before es-
tablished by the divine law.
THEOLOGICAL CATECHISM FOR YOUTH. 99

727. Give an instance.

The grand principle of right as taught by the
Gospel is, to dove God with all the heart, and our
neighbor as ourselves; Luke 10: 37; but this is
only an echo of the same lesson, taught in Moses’s
law, Deut. 6: 5; and Lev. 19: 18.

728. But was not the Gospel taught in the Old
Testament as well as the New ?

Yes; but whether in the Old Testament or the
New, those instructions which teach us what to do,
to do right, belong specially to the Law ; those which
teach what to do to be saved, belong exclusively to
the Gospel.

729. On what different principles are the Law
and the Gospel founded ?

The Law is founded on Justice; the Gospel on
Mercy.

730. Is the Gospel of Christ in conflict or collt-
sion with the Justice of God?

No; it takes great care not to invade the rights
of Justice; but still its great plan and provisions
are built, not on the justice of God, but His mer-
cy.

731. What different treatment would Justice and
Mercy give to a world of sinners?

Justice would give them all their desert, their
terrible desert; but the plan of mercy is to forego
their desert; to go entirely above it; and to open
for them a door of pardon and eternal life.

732. Through whom does the Gospel reveal tts
mercy?

Through the Lord Jesus Christ.

733. In what way does Christ propose his mercy
to mankind ?
100 THEOLOGICAL CATECHISM FOR YOUTH.

In the various offices He sustains.

734. What are the offices of Christ ?
The office of Prophet, Priest, and King.

735. What is it to execute the office of a Prophet ?

To proclaim God’s truth, man’s duty, and events
to come.

736. Was Christ a Prophet ?

Yes ; “A Prophet shall the Lord your God raise
up unto you like unto me.” Acts 3: 22,

737. Did Christ come as the Herald of God's
truth ?

Yes; for He says, “To this end was I born, and
for this cause came [ into the world, that I should
bear witness tothe truth. Jn. 18: 37.

738. Where and what ts the truth that Jesus
Christ revealed ?

The whole Bible was given by inspiration of His
Spirit.

Peter says of them that wrote the Scriptures,
that “ The spirit of Christ was in them.” 1 Peter
Lit.

739. What great and speciai truth did Christ
proclaim to the world ?

He brought Life and Immortality to light through
the Gospel. 2 Tim. 1: 10.

740. Was man’s immortality unknown till
Christ broughé tt to light 2

Not entirely; yet it was but faintly revealed in
the Old Testament.

741. Is there proof of a future state from reason,
asule from revelation ?

Yes ; the justice of God proves it.

742. How does the justice of God prove a future
state ?
THEOLOGICAL CATECHISM FoR youTH. 101

Justice does not take place in this world, and
therefore there must be another where it will.

743. Wherein does not Justice take place in this
world ?

The righteous are often persecuted and oppressed
by the wicked ; and sometimes even put to death at
the stake, while their wicked persecutors prosper
and triumph to the end. This is not justice; and
as justice does not take place in this world, there
must be another where it will.

744, But if justice does not take place in this
world, how do you know it will in any other ?

Because we know from reason, aside from Scrip-
ture, that God is just.

745. Does this argument prove immortality
strictly, or merely a future state of rewards and
punishments?

Simply a future state of rewards and punish-
ments; though every presumption favors the idea
that our future being will be actually endless.

746. How far has the opinion of man’s immor-
tality extended in the world ?

Very nearly over the entire race. The excep-
tions are so few, and amongst savages so wild, that
they are scarcely an exception.

747. What does this very general sentiment in
favor of man’s immortality prove ?

It proves that the sentiment is derived either
from reason or revelation, and in either case it must
be true.

748. Why have not the rest of mankind believed
ua?

Because so degraded by ignorance, and so blind-
and stupefied by sin.

Q*
102 THEOLOGICAL CATECHISM FOR YOUTH.

749. Do the Scriptures affirm our tmmortahty ?

Yes; they tell us that Christ brought “life and
immortality to light;” and all the Scripture declara-
tions in regard to future rewards and punishments
represent them as endless.

750. Are the instructions of Christ's prophetical
office still continued ?

Yes ; all Bibles and religious publications in the
world, and all the teachers and preachers of right-
eousness, are Christ’s agents or instruments, ap-
pointed of him to carry out the instructions of his
prophetical office.

751. In what does the most prominent chapter of
the instructions of Christ's prophetical office consist ?

In showing forth the hope of the world in

CHRIST’S PRIESTLY OFFICE.

752. In what daes the work of Christ's Priestly
office consist ?

In his Atonement, Righteousness and Interces-
sion.

753. What do you mean by Tur Atonement ?

The Propitiatory influence of Christ’s death for
the sins of men.

754. What do you mean by Propitiatory ?

Adapted to appease wrath and regain favor.

755. What proof that thts 1s the true meaning ?

The Scriptures declare it. “Whom God hath
set forth as (fAaorgjgroy) a propitiation,” or propi-
tiatory sacrifice. Rom. 3: 25.

756. But why not say that the Atonement is in
uself a propitiation, or reconciliation completed
rather than “a Propitiatory influence ?”
THEOLOGICAL CATECHISM FOR youTH. 103

Because the Scriptures teach us that there is no
propitiation completed ; no real reconciliation with
God, till there is “ Faith” in Christ. “Whom God
hath set forth as a propitiation through faith in
his blood.” Rom. 3: 25.

757. How did Christ make the Atonement ?

By dying on the cross for the sins of men. “It
is the blood that maketh the atonement.” Lev.
WW: 1.

758. How do you know that His death on the cross
-was intended as an offering for sin, or was any thing
more than that of an ordinary martyr for the truth ?

The Bible declares that he died “the just, for
the unjust ;” that “He bore our sins in His own
body on the tree ;” and that “the Lord hath laid on
Him the iniquities of us all” 1 Peter 3: 18, and
2:24; and Isa. 53: 6.

759. What was the grand design of the Atone-
ment ?

To make it consistent for God to pardon sin—~
“That He might be just, (or righteous.) and yet
the justifier of him that believeth in Jesus.” Rom.
3: 26.

760. But why could not God pardon without blood ?
Cannot man forgive his fellow-man, if he come peni-
tentand ask his forgivenness, without demanding his
blood ? ‘

Yes; but it is not forgiveness merely, but par-
don, that man needs from God. Forgiveness is
the mere act of a private individual laying aside an-
ger; but pardon is the act of the Ruler laying aside
punishment.

761.Why then as public Ruler could not God par-
don without an atonement ?
104 THEOLOGICAL CATECHISM FOR YOUTH.

His law and His character stood in the way.
Both would have sunk if God had passed by sin
without showing His displeasure, and without de-
manding satisfaction.

762. But can either the character or the govern-
ment of God be satisfied by the innocent suffering for
the guilty ?

Yes; if the substitute be as great an offering to
the law as the criminal, and die for the criminal of
his own free choice.

763. For how many was the Alonement of Christ
made ?

“He is the propitiation for our sins, and not
ours only, but for the sins of the whole world.” 1
Jn. 2:2. “He tasted death for every man.” Heb. 2: 9.

764. Will any perish for whom Christ died 2

Yes; there shall be false teachers, denying the
Lord that bought them, and bringing on themselves
swift destruction. 2 Peter 2: 1.

765. Is any reward given to Christ for his suffer-
ings and death ?

Yes; one portion of the human family is given
and secured to Christ, in reward of his suffering
and dying for all.

766. What proof of this 2

“T will divide Him a portion with the great, and
He shall divide the spoil with the strong, because
He hath poured out His soul unto death.” Isa.
53: 12. “ All that the Father giveth me, shall come
unto me.” “ This is the Father's will, that of all
He hath given me I should lose nothing.” Jn. 6:
37, 39.

767. How and when were these given to Christ 2
THEOLOGICAL CATECHISM FOR youTH. 105

In the Covenant of Redemption before the world
began.

768. What do you mean by
THE COVENANT OF REDEMPTION?

That compact made from Eternity, wherein the
Son agreed to die for the world; and the Father to
give Him a portion of the race for His reward, to
praise their Redeemer for ever in Heaven. Jn. 17;
2; Isa. 53: 12.

769. Is the salvation of that portion of the human
family certain ?

Yes ; “ Thou hast given Him power over all flesh,
that He should give eternal life to as many as
Thou hast given Him.” “ This is the Father’s will,
that of all He hath given me I should lose nothing,
but should raise it up at the last day.” Jn. 17: 2;
and 6: 39.

770. What is the condition of the rest of mankind,
that were not given to Christ ?

They belong to the Father still; the door of mer-
cy is wide open for them all; all are invited to.
enter in and be savedif they will; and if any stay
away and will not come to Christ, they perish by
their own fault.

771. Is God willing they too should come and be
saved ?

Yes; “ He is not willing that any should perish,
but that all should come to repentance.” 2 Peter
3: 9.

772. Are all invited to come?

Yes, and commanded too; for He says,“ Come,
106 THEOLOGICAL CATECHISM FOR YOUTH.

for all things are now ready.” “Look unto me all
the ends-of the earth and be yesaved.” Luke 14:
7; Isa. 45: 22.

773. But how do you know that the invitation,
“Come, for ail things are now ready,” is given to
any that perish ?

Because Christ says to those first invited, “ They
that were bidden shall not taste of my supper.”—
Luke 14; 24.

774. Do the Scriptures charge the destruction of
sinners to their being so wicked they could not be for-
given? or there being no atonement for them ? or no
door open ‘for them to enter? or to their having no
power to enter it? or to there being no power ready
to help them? or to their own refusal alone ?

To their own refusal alone. “Because I have
called and ye refused ; I have stretched out m
hand and no man regarded ; therefore will I laugh
at your calamity, and mock when your fear cometh.”
“Ye will not come to me that ye might have life.”
“ How often would I have gathered you, as a hen
gathereth her chickens under her wings, but ye
would not.” Prov. 1: 24; Jn. 5: 40; Matt. 23: 37.

775. Are you refusing still the offers of eternal
mercy sent to you ?

776. What will become of you if you continue re-
fusing alittle longer? Luke 14: 24.

777. Which is the greatest of all sins, breaking
the law, or rejecting the Gospel of Christ ?

Christ says, “If I had not come and spoken to
them, they had not had sin,” and “ This is the con-
demnation, that light is come into the world, and
men loved darkness rather than light.” Jn. 3:19;
and 15: 22.
THEOLOGICAL CATECHISM FOR youTH. 107

778. Are you guilty of both ?

779. Did Christ, in his priestly office, work out for
man any thing more than atonement ?

Yes; He worked out for us, likewise, a perfect
righteousness.

780. What proof of this?

“ Christ is the end of the law for righteousness
to every one that believeth.” “By the obedience
of one shall many be made righteous.”

781. What favor does the atonement of Christ
tend to procure ?

Pardon. “ Without the shedding of blood there
is no remission.” “ The priest shall make atonement
and it shall be forgiven him.” Heb. 9: 22; Ley.
4:31.

782. What favor does the righteousness of Christ
tend to procure?

Justification. “By the righteousness of one, the
free gift came upon all men to justification of life.”
Rom. 5: 18.

783. What do you mean by justification ?
Acceptance with God; reception to favor and
eternal life.

784. What is the difference between pardon and
Justification ?

Pardon only releases from punishment; justifi-
cation re-entitles to reward. Pardon rescues from
hell ; justification receives the soul to heaven.

785. Do the Scriptures make a difference between
pardon and justification ?

Yes; when they tell us that Abraham was justi-
fied for offering up Isaac, they do not mean that
Abraham was pardoned for that splendid action;
but accepted, received to favor. Jas. 2:21. When
108 THEOLOGICAL CATECHISM FOR YOUTH.

they tell us that Rahab was justified for recceiving
the spies, they do not mean that she was pardoned
for receiving and entertaining these men of God;
but that she was accepted—received to favor ; and
wherever the Bible speaks of being justified “by
the law,” and justified by works,” it does not mean
pardoned for doing good works, but accepted, re-
ceived to favor and reward. Gal. 2: 15; Jas, 2:
22.

786. If Adam had never sinned how would he
have been justified ?

By works ; not pardoned for his good works.

787. What would hove been the condition of his
Justification or acceptance ?

Perfect obedience to the law of God, from the
commencement to the close of his probation.

788, Is that the condition now ?

No; but now “ we are justified by faith.” Gal.
2: 16.

789. But how are we justified by faith ?

“ Faith is counted for righteousness.” Rom. 4:
5, 9.

790. What is meant by faith's being counted or
reckoned for righteousness ?

That faith is accepted instead of that perfect
righteousness for which Adam was to have been
accepted.

791. Why ts it so accepted ?

Because it accepts of Christ, and rests on His
righteousness, instead of our own, for salvation.

792. Is the perfect obedience the law required of
Adam as the ground of his acceptance, given up of
God?

No; but “Christ is the end of the law for right-
THEOLOGICAL CATECHISM FOR YOUTH. 109

eousness to every one that believeth ;” and therefore
we are said to be justified by Christ. Gal. 2: 17.

793. How is Christ the end of the law for right-
eousness ?

Christ’s perfect righteousness comes in the place
of that perfect righteousness which the law demand-
ed through Adam of man, as the condition of man’s
acceptance.

794. But how 1s it that in one place we are said
to be justified by Christ, and in others, justified by
Faith?

Because Faith is the term or condition of our ac-
ceptance; Christ’s righteousness, the meritorious
cause.

795. Why do you say Christ’s righteousness re-
entitles to reward and to eternal life?

Because by the fall our title to heaven was lost,
and so continues till through the righteousness of
Christ it is restored.

796. But if justified by, or on the ground of His
righteousness, why are we said in Rom. 7: 9, to be
“justified by his blood ?”

Because Christ’s atoning blood is the foundation,
not only of our pardon, but of all the blessings that
follow in time or eternity.

797. Is the righteousness of Christ designed to
supersede, or render unnecessary our own personal
righteousness or holiness ?

No; for “without holiness no man shall see the
Lord.” Heb. 12: 14.

798. What kind of Faith is that ly which man
ts to be justified ?

An active, living faith. “Faith without works is

10
‘110 «THEOLOGICAL CATECHISM FOR YOUTH.

degd.” “ By works, Faith is made perfect.” Jas.
2: 24, and 22.
799. Did Christ's work here on earth complete
all that was necessary for our justification ?
No; for “ He is risen again for our justification.”
Rom. 4: 5. .
800. What work is He now doing in heaven to
complete our justification or acceptance with God ?
The great work of

HIS INTERCESSION.

801. What do you mean by the Intercession of
Christ ?

His appearing and pleading before His Father’s
throne in behalf of His people.

802. What Scripture proof of this ?

“Tf any man sin, we have an advocate with the
Father, Jesus Christ the righteous.” ‘He ever
liveth to make intercession for us.” 1 Jn. 2: 1.
Heb. 7: 25.

803. Do you intercede for yourself ?

804. Does Christ intercede for you, if you do not
tntercede for yourself?

“He is able to save to the uttermost all that come
to God by him.” Heb. 7: 25.

805. How long will the intercession of Christ
continue ?

Forever. “He ever liveth to make intercession
for them.” Heb. 7: 25.

806. What is the third office of Christ? .

The Orricz of a Kine. “He is King of kings.”
Rey. 7: 14.
THEOLOGICAL CATECHISM FOR YouTH. {fll

807. Where and how does Christ exercise His
kingly office ?
In his

MEDIATORIAL GOVERNMENT.

808. Wherein consists the Mediatorial Govern-
ment of Christ ?

In His ruling all worlds, all creatures, and all
events, to promote the display, the triumph, and
glory of Redeeming Love.

809. What proof of this ?

“He hath put all things under his feet, and gave
him to be head over all things to the church.” Eph.
1: 20, 22.

810. What ts the difference between the Mediato-
rial, and the various other forms of the Govern-
ment of God ?

The Mediatorial Government embraces all others.
It is the ordering of all things for the furtherance
and glory of the Redemption cause.

811. How long will Jesus reign, or how long will
Christ’s Mediatorial reign continue ?

“ He must reign till he hath put all things under
his feet.” 1 Cor. 15: 25.

812. What will become of His kingdom then ?

“When all things shall be subdued unto him,
then shall the Son also be subject to him that put
all things under him, that God may be all in all.”
1 Cor. 15: 28.

813. Of all the kingdoms embraced within the
Mediatorial, which is that which Jesus calls His
own above all others ?
112 ‘THEOLOGICAL CATECHISM FOR YOUTH.

HIS SPIRITUAL KINGDOM.

814. What Scripture proof of thas ?

“ My kingdom is not of this world.” “ The king-
dom of God is within you.” Jn. 8: 36, Luke 17:
31.

815. In what does Christ's spiritual kingdom, or
reign over and in behalf of His people, consist ?

In ruling and defending them; comforting and
edifying; ordering and conducting all things for
their highest temporal and eternal good.

816. How many creatures, worlds, and events
does Christ promise to bring into co-operation for
the good of His people?

« All things shall work together for good to them
that love God.” Rom. 2: 28.

817. How great is the wealth that Christ has
made over to His people ?

“ All things are yours, whether Paul, or Apollos,
or Cephas, or the world—or things present, or
things to come, all are yours. 1 Cor. 3: 22.

818. Can any Christian, then, be poor ?

819. Which ws the richer, the Christian beggar,
or the impenitent king or emperor ? 1 Cor. 3: 22.

820. Which is the real owner of this world’s
wealth ; the sinner who holds it by deeds and mort-
gages? or the Christian who has no earthly title to
an acre ora dollar? 1 Cor. 3: 22.

821. Are you poor, or rich, in the highest sense
of the terms?

822. Have you a title to any thing beyond the
grave?
THEOLOGICAL CATECHISM FOR rouTH. 113

823. How poor will you be if you die without
Christ ?

824. Are all things working together for your
good, or working out your destruction ?

825. Will any, or all the offices of Christ save us
if we do nothing for ourselves ?

No; they will only sink us into deeper condemna-
tion, unless we do what God requires as the condi-
tion of our salvation.

826. What must we do to be saved ?
Repent, and believe in the Lord Jesus Christ ?

827. What is it to repent ?

To reform in heart and life. To “turn from sin
to God.” West. Catech. “Turn ye, turn ye, for
why will ye die?” Ez. 33: 11.

828. But did not Judas repent? Matt. 27:3.

No; werapedowce, the Greek word there used,
means merely to vegret.

829. Is not godly sorrow, or sorrow for sin, re-
pentance ?

No; godly sorrow is the cause ; Repentance, the
effect. Godly sorrow worketh or causeth Repent-
ance gr Reformation not to be regretted. 2 Cor.
7:10. (Original.)

830. Is Repentance indispensable to salvation ?

It is. “Except ye repent ye shall all likewise
perish.”

831. But why? Is there any reason, aside from
the command of God ?

Yes; God could not, consistently with His honor
or His law or government, receive a rebel into heay-

10*
114 THEOLOGICAL CATECHISM FOR YOUTH.

en; and the rebel would be wretched there, if He
should.

832. Why would the impenttent sinner be wretch-
ed in heaven?

Because “the carnal mind is enmity against
God” and holiness ; and of course against all things
in that holy world.

833. Have you ever laid down the arms of your
rebellion yet ?

834. With the heart you now possess could you
be happy in that holy world ?

835. What will become of you then if you do not
repent ?

836. To what does true Repentance lead ?

To love and obedience.

837. Would perfect love and obedience of them-
selves save the soud ?

No; not the love and obedience of an angel.

838. Why not?

Because sinful man needs something angels do
not.

839. What do we need that angels do not ?

Faith in the Lord Jesus Christ.

840. What is Faith ?

Belief in another’s word. .

841. What is saving Faith ?

A cordial and obedzent Faith; and one that re-
ceives and rests on Christ alone for salvation.

842. What do you mean by a cordial Faith?

Faith from the heart, as well as the head ; a lov:
ing, trusting Faith.

843. How do you know it is a cordial, affection-
ate Faith?
THEOLOGICAL CATECHISM FoR yrouTu. 115

Because “it is with the heart man believeth un-
to righteousnes ;” and because “it isa Faith in-
wrought by love;” Gal. 5: 6 (Original) ; and be-
cause coupled with enmity, it would be the mere
faith of devils. Rom. 10:10, Jas. 2: 19.

844. How do you know it is an obedient or ac-
tive Futth ?

Because “ Faith without works is dead ;” and be-
cause “by works Faith is made perfect.”” Jas. 2: 20,
22; and because we cannot be justified by any oth-
er than a working Faith. Jas. 2: 24.

845. But does not Paul say that “we are justt-
fied by Faith, without the deeds of the Law?” Rom.
3: 28.

Yes; but James says, “ By works a man is justi-
fied ; not by Faith only. Jas. 2: 24.

846. How then can we reconcile Paul and James
with each otner ?

Paul means that Justification and Salvation are
by the New Covenant of Faith, not the Old Cove-
nant of works of the law. James, that though jus-
tified and saved through Faith, itis not by a dead,
but by a diving Faith; a Faith that works, and
“ works by love.”

847. How do you know that Saving Faith ts a
Faith that receives Christ ?

John says, “To as many as received him, to them
gave he power to become the sons of God, even to
them that believe on hisname.” Jn. 1:12; where
believing and receiving Christ, are interchanged as
meaning the same thing.

848. How does the soul receive Christ ?

As our Prophet to teach ; our King to rulein and
reign over us; and as our Great High Priest, on
116 THEOLOGICAL CATECHISM FOR YOUTH.

whose blood and righteousness alone we rest for
pardon and acceptance with God.

849. Have you ever received Him so; or are you
rejecting Him, even to this hour ?

850. How should a sinner proceed that would
turn to God by true Repentance?

Come down into the dust of humiliaticn and sor-
row for sin; and with uplifted eye, trusting in the
strength of God alone, renounce every sin, and de-
vote his heart and life to the service of God for
ever.

851. Have you ever thus come to God by a true
repentance ?

852. How should a sinner proceed that would
come to the Lord Jesus Christ by Faith?

Come down into the dust of humiliation and sor-
row for sin; and with uplifted eye, trusting in the
strength of God alone, renounce every sin, and cast
himself on Christ alone for salvation ; on His atone-
ment for pardon, and His righteousness for justifi-
cation and eternal life.

853. Will any sinner of himself ever turn to
God?

Never; for Christ says, “ Ye will not come to me
that ye might have life ;” and the carnal mind says,
“Depart from us, for we desire not the knowledge
of thy ways.” “ We will not have this man to reign
over us.” Rom. 8:7. Job 2i:14. Luke 19: 14.
Jn. 5: 40.

854. What more then ts necessary to bring men
to God ?
THEOLOGICAL CATECHISM FoR YOUTH. 117

THE WORK OF THE SPIRIT.

855. What ts the work of the Holy Spirit ?

The work of the Spirit consists in Awakening,
Convicting, Regenerating, Sanctifying, Comforting,
and Saving the soul.

856. What evidence that the Spirit Awakens ?

“The Lord opened the heart of Lydia that she
attended to the things spoken of Paul.” Acts 16:
14,

857. What proof that He Convicts, or convinces of
sin ?

‘“‘He shall reprove (or convince) the world of
sin, of righteousness, and of judgment to come.”
Jn. 16: 8.

858. What evidence that the Spirit Regenerates ?

We are “born of the Spirit." “We are his
workmanship, created in Christ Jesus unto good
works.” Jn. 3:6; and 1:13. Eph. 2: 10.

859. What is Regeneration?

Restoring the love of God to the throne of the
heart.

860. What do you mean by the throne of the
heart ?

The highest place in the affections; the ruling
power over the whole mind and man.

861. What by restoring that love to the throne?

Bringing back to the throne that love to God,
which was lost from it at the fall.

862. What proofs, that this is the right view of
Regeneration ?
118 THEOLOGICAL CATECHISM FOR YOUTH.

Ist. The fact that “God is love ;” and that all the
change we need, is to be made like God. 1 Jn. 4: 8.

2d. The Apostle declares that “he that doveth is
born of God.” 1 Jn. 4: 7.

3d. As “the carnal mind is enmity,” the new
mind or heart must be /ove. Rom. 7: 8.

4th. As love is the foundation of all moral vir-
tue, “ the fulfilling of the law, the principle on which
hang all the law and the prophets,” the restoration
of that, as the ruling affection, must be the Regen-
eration of the soul to God.

863. But is the mere restoration of that affection
to the throne, all the change? Does not the Bible
declare that “old things must pass away, and all
things become new?” 2 Cor. 5: 17.

Yes; but a new monarch on the throne, changes
the whole empire.

864. Is Regeneration prerequisite to any good
thing?

Yes; because till the love of God is restored,
Self possesses the throne ; holds the whole soul in
subjection to it; and all its movements under Sef
as the ruling monarch of the mind, instead of God,
are sin.

865. Is Regeneration indispensable to salvation ?

Yes ; “ Excepta man be born, again he cannotsee
the kingdom of God.” Jn. 3: 3.

866. Why can he not?

Because the “carnal mind is enmity against God ;”
and no enemy can enter heaven; and he would be
wretched if he should. (See ques. 832 on Repent-
ance.)

867. What 1s the difference between Regeneration
and Repentance?
THEOLOGICAL CATECHISM FOR rouTH. 119

Repentance is the act of man turning from sin;
Regeneration, the act of God turning him. “Turn
thou me and I shall be turned ; draw me, and we
will run after thee.” Jer. 31:18. Cant. 1: 4.

868. Do the Scriptures represent Regeneration
as the act of God, or of man?

“We are his workmanship created in Christ Je-
sus unto good works.” “Born, not of the will of
the flesh, nor of the will of man, but of God.” “A
new heart will I give you; a new spirit will J put
within you; J will take away the stony heart out of
your flesh, and J will give you a heart of flesh.”
“Tt is not of (man) willing, nor of (man) running,
but of God showing mercy.” Eph.2: 10. Jn.3:8.
Ez. 36: 26. Jn. 1:8 Rom. 9:16. (Original.)

869. But if Regeneration be the act of God ; and
af, it be the work of God to give a new heart, why
ws man called upon to make to himself anew heart ;
and threatened with death eternal in case of refusal ?
Ezek. 33: 11.

Because, as the carnal mind is enmity, the new
mind or heart must be love; and beginning to love
God is both the duty and the act of man.

870. What then 1s the difference between God's
giving a new heart and man's making a new
heart ?

Man’s making a new heart, is his beginning to
love God; God's giving him a new heart, is causing
him to begin.

871. Is there any difference in time between man’s
act in beginning to love,and God's act causing
him to begin ?

No; both occur in the same transaction: like
every breath ; both God’s agency and our own.
120 THEOLOGICAL CATECHISM FOR YOUTH.

872. Is man active in the first act or exercise of
love to God ?

Yes, just as active as in any exercise afterward,
in this world or the next.

873. What is the motive to the sinner's love?

It is the excellence of God’s character that wins
the heart; just as it is excellence of character in
our fellow-men, that enkindles our love or affection
for them.

874. But the excellency of God's character lay
before the eye of the soul, always before the change :
why did tt never enkindle love to Giod before?

Because the Regenerating power never reached
the heart before.

875. Has the power of the Holy Ghost never
reached the heart before ?

Yes, often.

876. Why then have sinners never before expe-
rienced regenerating grace?

Because they have “always resisted the Holy
Ghost.” Acts 7:51. And God has not seen fit be-
fore to conquer them.

877. Has God then brought them in at last
against their wills?

No; but He has “ made them willing in the day
of his power.” Ps. 110: 3.

878. Is the renewing power af the Holy Ghost
necessary to our Regeneration ?

It is. “Without me ye can do nothing.” Jn. 15:
5. “Neither circumcision availeth any thing—but
a new creation.” Gal. 6: 15. (Original.)

879. Is the renewing grace of the Holy Spirit
within the reach of every man?

Yes; “If ye that are evil know how to give good
THEOLOGICAL CATECHISM FOR YOUTH. 121

gifts to your children, how much more shall your
Heavenly Father give the Holy Spirit to them that
ask him.” Luke 11: 13.
880. What are the four great directions or requisi-
ttons of the sinner, commanding his return to God?
To repent of sin; to believe in Jesus; to make
a new heart; and to give his heart and life to God.
881. Where and what is the fourth requisition?
Prov. 23: 26, “My son, give me thy heart.”
Rom. 6: 13, “ Yield yourselves to God.”

882. What is meant by giving our lgarts and
yielding ourselves to God?

It is, to surrender the whole heart, to God ; for
Him to enter in, and oceupy, and rule, and own for
ever: and to surrender all we are and have to God
and his service for evermore.

883. How should a sinner proceed who desires to
give his hear: and lifeto God ?

To come di wn into the dust of humiliation and
sorrow for sir and with uplifted eye, trusting in the
strength of God alone, enter into solemn covenant,
and cry: Lord, by thy help I yield, I yield my
heart, myself, my life, my all to Thee, and thy ser-
vice ; to be no more my own, but thine only, and
thine for ever.

“ Welcome, blessed God and Saviour,
Welcome to this heart of mine ;”
Now I make a full surrender,
Every power and thought be thine:
Thine entirely, to eternal ages thine.”

884. Is there any difference between thus giving
up the heart and life to God, and making to our-
selves a new heart, and repenting or turning from
sin to God?

li
122 THEOLOGICAL CATECHISM FOR YOUTH.

None, essentially ; yet it is the most brief and ob-
vious way of putting both these into practice.

885. How soon ought every sinner thus to yield
his heart and life to God?

Immediately.

886. Have you ever done it yet ?
887. Why have you not?

888. Is this the very way to go out and meet the
Bridegroom; and to meet Regenerating grace?
Mat. 25: 6.

It is’ “ Return unto me, and I will return unto
you.” Mal 3: 7.

889. Is it not infinitely dangerous to put off for
aday or an hour thus making our peace with God?

It is. “Thou knowest not what a day may bring
forth.”

890. But what shall the sinner do, who feels the
weakness of his alienated heart, for so great a work?

“Let him ¢ake hold of my strength, that he ma
make peace with me, and he sha/d make peace with
me.” Isa. 27: 5.

891. Which are some of the best evidences of Re-
generation, and of our having given our hearts to
God ?

The first is that of love to God, above every oth-
er, and all other objects. ‘“ He that loveth is born
of God: ”-—* Lovest thou me more than these?”
1.Jn. 4: 3. Jn. Qi: 15. “If any man hate not
father and mother, and wife and children, and breth-
ren and sisters, yea, and his own life also, he can-
not be my disciple.” Luke 14: 26.

892. But does Christ mean that we ought to hate
our dearest friends, and our own life also?
THEOLOGICAL CATECHISM FOR YOUTH. 123

No; but that we must love God so much more
than all other objects, as to make our love to them
appear like hatred in comparison.

893. How shall we apply this test?

If we love God above all other objects, we shall
prefer the society, the books, the conversation, the
enjoyments and employments which God prefers to
all others ; therefore the questions to our own hearts
will be, Whom do I love most; Self or God?
Whose will do I prefer; His or my own? Which
stand highest in my thoughts, affections and pur-
suits; my own gain, glory, pleasure, or the cause
and kingdém and glory of God? Which kind of
company, conversation, employment, and enjoy-
ment do I prefer; those of an earthly, or those of
a heavenly character? Where is my highest enjoy-
ment? in God, or in the world? and what is my
greatest grief; my sins, or my misfortunes ?

894. What is the second great evidence ?

Faith in the Lord Jesus Christ.

895. How shall we apply this test ?

‘ In the questions, Can I, with a deep sense and
hatred of my sins, so rest on Christ's atoning blood
for pardon, his righteousness for acceptance, and his
invitations and promises to all who come and trust
Him, as to feel safe and happy in the view of every
affliction; yea, and of death itself, and judgment,
and eternity ?

896. What isthe third great evidence of Regene-
ration ?

A holy life; or loving and keeping the command-
ments of God. “ He that hath my commandments
and keepeth them, he it is that loveth me.” “ Not
every one that saith unto me, Lord, Lord, but he
124 THEOLOGICAL CATECHISM FOR YOUTH.

that doeth the will of my Father that is in heaven.”
Matt. 7:21. Jn. 14:27. “I dove thy commands
above gold” Ps. 119: 127.

897. What is the fourth great evidence ?

Submission to the will of God.

898. What do you mean by submission? “ Hav-
ing no will of our own,” or, “having our wills
swallowed up in the will of God ?”

No; there is no such thing in earth or heaven as
creatures having no will of their own. Christ had
a will of his own, when he said on the cross, “ If it be
possible, Ict this cup pass from me.” _Also, when
he said, “ Not my will, but thine be done.”

899. In what then does it consist ?

In preferring God’s will to our own; and when
they come in collision, saying cheerfully and by pre-
ference, as Christ did upon the cross, “ Not my will,
but thine be done.” Luke 22: 42.

900. How then shall we apply this test?

In questions like these: Do we, in view of the
deepest sorrows of life, or the death of our dearest
friends, or ourselves, say, and say with calm and
peaceful hearts, not my will, but thine be done?

901. What ts the fifth evidence of the genuineness
of our picty ?

The fact that it is enduring in its very nature.
“We are made partakers of Christ if we hold the
beginning of our confidence steadtast to the end.”
Of course, if our confidence is not of the kind that
holds steadfast to the end, then we are not Chris-
tians, not partakers of Christ at all. Again :—
“ Whose house are we, if we hold fast the confidence
and rejoicing of hope steadfast to the end.” And
of course we are not of Christ’s house, not of his
THEOLOGICAL CATECHISM FOR YOUTH. 125

people, unless we have a hope that endureth to the
end. Heb.3: 14, 16.

902. Have we any other assurance that all true
Christians will hold fast unto the end ?

Yes; we have the promise of Him who cannot
lie, saying that He who hath begun a good work in
you will perform it until the day of Jesus Christ.
“My sheep hear my voice, and I know them, and
they follow me: and I give unto them eternal life ;
and they shall never perish, neither shall any
pluck them out of my hand.” Phil. 1:6, Jn. 10:
28.

903. But do not many professors of religion give
up all, and go back to the world ?

Yes; but “they went out from us because they
were not of us; for if they had been of us, they
would no doubt have continued with us; but they
went out, that they might be made manifest that
they were not all of us.” 1 Jn. 2: 19.

904. Is the salvation of the. Christian made cer-
tain, irrespective of any action or caution of his own?

No; but “he must be faithful unto death, that
Christ may give him a crown of life” “He must
hold fast that he hath, that no man take his crown.”
Rey. 2:10; 3:11. The Christian mst persevere,
or the doctrine of perseverance falls.

905. But how do you know he will persevere ?

Because “He that begun a good work in them
will perform it until the day of Jesus Christ.”—
Phil. 1:6; and “The Lord upholdeth him with
his hand.” Ps. 37: 24.

906. Does the certainty of an event render means
to its attainment unnecessary ?

No; for Paul said, “ Except these abide in the

11*
126 ‘THEOLOGICAL CATECHISM FOR YOUTH.

ship ye cannot be saved,” though an angel had be-
fore assured them that they all should be. Acts
27: 31. And although the salvation of the Chris-
tian is as certain as that of the men on board that
vessel, yet he can no more be saved than they could,
without using the means of salvation.

907. Does the doctrine of the Saint's Perseverance
then tend to sloth, and inaction, and to supersede the
use of means ?

No; no more than did Paul’s doctrine, in the case
of his shipmates.

908. Is Assurance attainable in this life ?

Yes, the full assurance of Understanding; the
full assurance of Faith, and the full assurance of
Hope, are all represented as our duty. Col. 2: 2.
Heb. 6: 2, and 10: 2.

909. What do you mean by the full assurance of
Understanding ?

A full confidence that we understand God’s truth
and love it.

910. What by the full assurance of Faith?

A sweet confidence in Christ’s truth and power
and willingness to save; and of our acceptance with
Him as our Saviour and our God

911. What by the full assurance of Hope?

An unwavering confidence of a glorious Immor-
tality through the merits of Christ as the founda-
tion; and of our acceptance of Him as the means.

912. Huve you the assurance, either of Under-
standing, Furth, or Hope?

913. Isit not on the contrary more probable, from
all you know of yourself, and the way you have
THEOLOGICAL CATECHISM FOR YouTH. 127

treated God and his religion hitherto, that you will
be lost ?

914. Can you live in such a state and reflect on
your condition without distress ? ,

915. Why do you continue in such a state any
longer ?

916. How can a full assurance of Understand-
ing, Faith, and Hope be attained ?

By diligence in every duty ; and growth in every
grace. “(tive diligence to make your calling and
election sure.” 2 Pet. 1: 10, and 3: 18.

917. What do you mean by
GROWTH IN GRACE?

Advancing in holiness.

918. How is a Christian to grow in grace?

By a diligent improvement of all the means of
grace; and of all the proffered aid of the Spirit for
his sanctification.

919. What is Sanctification ?

The progressive worth of purifying the soul and
preparing it for heaven.

920. By whom is ut effected ?

“Sanctified by the Holy Ghost.” Rom. 15: 16.

921. Is man also active in this great work?

Yes; “Ye have purified your souls in obeying
the truth through the Spirit.” 1 Pet. 1: 2. “He
that hath this hope in him purifieth himself, even
as He is pure.” | Jn. 3: 3.

922. What are the means of Sanctification ?
128 THEOLOGICAL CATECHISM FOR YOUTH.

All the Providences of God, and all the means of
Grace.

923. What proof that God has appointed his
Providences for the souls sanctification ?

“The Lord thy God hath led thee these forty
years in the wilderness, to humble thee, and to
prove thee, and to know what was in thy heart.”

eut. 8: 2. :

924. Have we any specific declaration that these
merciful Providences are designed for our sanctifi-
cation?

Yes; “The goodness of God leadeth thee to Re-
pentance.” Rom. 2: 14.

925. Any that afflictions are so intended ?

Yes; we have had fathers of our flesh who correct-
ed us after their own pleasure; “ He for our pro-
fit, that we might be partakers of his holiness.”
Heb. 12: 10.

926. Are mercies winning, or afflictions driving
you to God? or are you growing harder under

? e

927. What are the

MEANS OF GRACE?

God’s Word and Providences; his Church and
its Ordinances ; Watchfulness; Prayer; and Dili-
gence in every duty.

928. What proof that the word of God 1s de-
signed asa means of Grace,and of Sanctification ?

“Sanctify them through thy truth, thy word is
truth.” Jn. 17: 17.

929. Is the word of God a means of Regenera-
tion?
THEOLOGICAL CATECHISM FOR YouTH. 129

Yes ; “The word of the Lord is perfect, convert-
ing the soul.” “ Born again, not of corruptible seed,
but of incorruptible, by the word of God.” Ps.
19: 7. 1 Pet. 1: 23.

930. How does it become the means ?

The transforming power of the Spirit on the
heart renders God’s character and claims, and
Christ and his salvation, the motives that win the
soul; and all these motives the word of God pre-
sents to the mind.

931. What proof that the word of God is the
means of Sanctification ?

“Sanctify them through thy truth: thy word is
truth ;” and again, “ Ye have purified your souls in
obeying the truth through the Spirit.” Jn. 17: 17.
1 Pet. 1: 22.

932. In what way does the word avail to our
Sanctification ?

By pouring light, pressing motive, and serving as
the medium of the agency of the Spirit of God up-
on the mind.

933. How is the word of God brought before the
mind ?

By Reading and Preaching.

934. What proof that the reading of the Scrip-
tures tends to conversion and sanctification ?

“The Bereans were more noble than those in
Thessalonica, in that they searched the Scriptures
daily ; and therefore many of them believed.”
Acts 17: 11, 12.

935. What proof that the preaching of the word
ts a means of Sanctification ?

“Tt hath pleased God, by the foolishness of
preaching. to save them that believe.” 1 Cor. 1: 21.
130 THEOLOGICAL CATECHISM FOR YOUTH.

936. What then must we think of those who des-
pise or neglect the preaching of the Gospel when
brought within their reach ?

They “reject the counsel of God against them-
selves ;” and exclude themselves from Eternal
Life. Luke 7: 30.

937. How ought we to feel and act towards the
word of God, that ut may become a means of grace
and of growth in grace, and salvation to our souds?

“ As new-born babes, desire the sincere milk of
the word, that we may grow thereby ;” and we must
pray over, read, study, hear, understand, believe
and love it; and above all “Be doers of the word
and not hearers only.” Jas. 1: 22.

938. How often ought we to read the Bible ?

At least a chapter morning and evening. Acts
27: 11,12 “They searched the Scriptures daily.”
“Therefore many of them believed.”

939. Do you search them daily? Do you pray
over, and love and obey them, as the words of ever-
lasting life ?

940. What is
THE CHURCH OF GOD?

God’s covenant people.

941. What proof of this?

“Ye are the children of the covenant God made
With your fathers.” “ Come and let us join ourselves
to the Lord in a perpetual covenant that shall not
be forgotten.” Acts 3:25, Jer. 50:5.

942. What ts the Visible Church ?

All those who are in covenant with God, whether
THEOLOGICAL CATECHISM FOR YoutH. 131

real Christians or not. All professors of religion,
as “The Church in the wilderness ;” and “The
Church of the Laodiceans.” Rev.3: 14. Acts 7:
38.

943. What ts the Church Invisible ?

All true Christians. “The Church of the first-
born, which are written in heaven.” “Christ is the
Head of the Body, the Church.” Heb. 12: 23. Col.
1: 18, 24.

944. When was the Church of God first organ
tized, and with whom ?

With Abraham.

945. What is the proof of this ?

“T will establish my covenant between me and
thee, and thy seed after thee, in their generations, for
an everlasting covenant, to be a God to thee and
to thy seed after thee.” Gen. 17: 7.

946. How do you know that the covenant or
church organization established with Abraham, is
stul in force?

Because Paul assures us that “the covenant
which was confirmed before of God in Christ, the
law, which was four hundred and thirty years after,
could not disannul;” and that, “if we be Christ’s,
then are we Abraham’s seed, and heirs according
tothe promise.” And the promise was to be a God
to Abraham and his seed after him, in their genera-
tions, for an everlasting covenant. And further,
that the Gentiles, who are “the wild olive-tree, are
grafted into the good olive-tree.” Rom. 11.

947. What is meant by the good olive-tree ?

The church, or covenant of God with his people;
and all the ordinances and blessings that covenant
contains.
132 THEOLOGICAL CATECHISM FOR YOUTH.

948. How does the Church of God become a
means of grace to the soul?
By its instruction, supervision, and sacraments.

949. How many Sacraments are there?

Two ; Baptism, and the Lord’s Supper.

950. What is Baptism ?

Emblematically washing away sin. “ Arise, and
be baptized, and wash away thy sins.” Acts 22: 16.

951. But does not Paul imply, Col. 2: 11, 12,
and Rom. 6: 4, that Baptism means a moral cru-
cifizton, death and burial to sin; and a resurrection
to a new life of holiness? And if so, would not that
contradict the definition above given ?

No; the Bible does not contradict itself; and a
death to sin and a new life to holiness are not at
all different from being washed from sin, and made
morally clean or holy.

952. What proof that Baptism is intended as a
means of sanctification ?

“Christ loved the church and gave himself for
it, that he might sanctify and cleanse it with the
washing of water by the word.” Eph. 5: 25, 26.

953. But how does it become a means ?

Covenanting either ourselves or our children
away to God, is drawing nearer to the Most High
than in any other transaction in this world; espe-
cially in connection with those solemn duties to
which we therein bind ourselves to God in the bap-
tismal covenant.

954. What is the Lorn’s Suprrr 2?
A memorial of Christ's death and a renewal of
our covenant engagement to be the Lord’s.

955. What proof of its being a memorial ?
THEOLOGICAL CATECHISM FOR YOUTH. 133

“This do in remembrance of me.” 1 Cor. 11: 24.

956. What evidence of us being a renewal of the
covenant between Christ and our souls ?

“This cup is the new covenant in my blood.” 1
Cor. 11: 25. (Original.)

957. What things are prerequisite to an accepta-
ble approach to the Lord's table?

Kuowledge,Penitence, Faith, Loveand Gratitude.

958. What Knowledge is necessary ?

Knowledge “to discern the Lord’s body ;” or
to understand the nature and design of the ordi-
nance.

959. What do you mean by Penitence? and why
as 1 indispensable ?

True Penitence implies godly sorrow, and hatred
of sin; with solemn purpose and prayer for entire
deliverance.

960. Why is the spirit of Penwtence necessary ?

Because coming to the cross with a heart insensi-
ble to sin, or still in love with it, would be a mock-
ery of the ordinance, and a provocation to the Most -
High.

961. Why is Faith a prerequisite ?

Because coming to partake of the memorials of a
Saviour crucified for us, and yet with no confidence
in Him, or trust in His atoning blood, would be a
contradiction to the very nature and design of the
ordinance.

962. Why is Love a necessary preparation ?

Because the communion table is no place for his
enemies; but a scene, which, above all others, de-
mands our love.

963.) Why is Gratitude necess.ury,?

12
134 THEOLOGICAL CATECHISM FOR YOUTH.

Because ingratitude, when approaching the me-
morials of the greatest and most costly favor ever
shown in the universe, indicates aheart that has
“no part nor lot in this matter.”

964. Does Giod regard tt as wicked to come with-
out a suitable preparation of mind 2

Yes; for “He that eateth and drinketh unwor-
thily, eateth and drinketh judgment to himself.”
1 Cor. 11: 29.

965. What isi to eat and drink unworthily 2

To eat and drink in a profane or irreverent man-
ner; or while indulging in habits of kpown sin.
The Corinthians did it by making the communion
a scene of feasting and intoxication; “One is hun-
gry, and another drunken.” 1 Cor. 11: 21.

966. Did they eat and drink judgment to them-
selves? and if so, what judgment ?

They did; and the judgments God sent were
disease and death. “ For this cause many are weak
and sickly among you, and many sleep:” i. e., the
sleep of death. 1 Cor. 11: 30.

967. Do all eat and drink unworthily who feel
their own unworthiness ?

No; but those who most deeply feel their own
unworthiness, are generally the most proper per-
sons to come; and without a sense of unworthiness,
no one ought to come.

968. Is it always a sin to stay away from the ta-
ble of Christ ?

Yes; and always a sin to come wickedly.

969. If a person have doubts of his own piety, but
no doubts as to his desiring to obey every command
of God, ought he to come, or to stay away ?

He ought to come without hesitation ; for this is
THEOLOGICAL CATECHISM FOR YOUTH. 135

one of God’s express commands: and he must obey
this as well as any other; for should he keep the
whole law and yet offend in one point he would be
guilty of all. Jas. 2: 10.

970. What other special duties did Christ enjoin
on his disciples as allimportant to growth of grace?

Watchfulness and Prayer. “Watch and pray
that ye enter not into temptation.” Matt. 26: 41.

971. From how many scources may temptations be
Seared ?

From the Heart, the World, and Satan; for the
devil goeth about like a roaring lion, seeking whom
he may devour. | Pet. 5: 8.

972. From which of the three is the greatest dan-
ger to be apprehended ? _

From the wicked heart; neither of the others
could harm us, unless we yielded them a place in
our hearts.

973. How do you prove that?

Neither the world nor Satan succeeded to draw
Christ into sin, because he would yield no room in
his heart for their temptations.

974. Which has the most important interests to
guard, he who is set to watch for the life of a City,
of an Empire, or of a Soul ?

The Soul is an infinitely more important inter-
est than a City, an Empire, or a World.

975. Do you watch for your soul, as if you felt
as value; keeping the door of your heart carefully
closed against the temptations of Satan and a wick-
ed world?

976. And do you pray as well as watch against
every sin?
136 THEOLOGICAL CATECHISM FOR YOUTH.

977. Why is there any necessity for prayer ?

Because God has commanded it; and made it the
channel through which all the blessings he has to
bestow on the world must descend.

978. Of how many principal parts does prayer
consist ?

Four; Adoration, Thanksgiving, Confession, and
Petition.

979. What do you mean by Adoration?

Pouring forth our hearts in deepest reverence
and awe; in view of the infinite greatness and glo-
ry of God, and of our guiltiness and insignificancy
in his sight.

980’ Why place Adoration first ?

Because Christ does in the Lord’s Prayer, “ Hal-
lowed be thy name;” and because we ought first of
all to obtain suitable views of the greatness of that
Being we address; and to address Him with that
reverence which He demands, and which so Great
a Being is so adapted to inspire.

981. Have you any other Scripture examples of
Adoration besides that in the Lord’s Pruyer?

Yes, many. The seraphim before the throne
ery, “ Holy, Holy, Holy is the Lord of Hosts; the
whole earth is fullof his glory.” “And every crea-
ture which is in heaven, and on the earth, and un-
der the earth, and such as are in the sea, heard I
saying, Blessing, and honor, and glory, and pow-
er be unto Him that sitteth upon the throne, and
unto the Lamb forever.” See Isa 6: 3. Rev. 4: 8;
and 5: 11,13; and 7: 11, 12.

982. Does your heart ever expand and your lips
ever break out in such strains of exalted adoration ?
THEOLOGICAL CATECHISM FOR YouTH. 137

983. Can you ever enter heaven without a heart
to join in their worship ?

984. What is the second part of prayer ?

Thanksgiving.

985. What is the Scripture direction us to thanks-
giving ?

Giving thanks to God always, for all things. —
Eph. 5: 20.

986. How near do you come to this?

987. How do the number and greatness of your
thanks compare with the number and greatness of
the mercies you receive at God's hand?

988. What is the third part of prayer ?

Confession.

989. What ts the Scripture rule for Confession?

Every tongue shall confess to God. “If we con-
fess our sins, He is faithful and just to forgive us
our sins.” Rom. 14:11. 1dn.1:9.

990. Is Confession of itself sufficient ?

No; “but whoso confesseth and forsaketh sin shall
find mercy.” Prov. 28: 13.

991. Is the practice of confessing to the priest re-
quired in Scripture?

No more than for the priest to confess to the
people; for the Bible law is, “ Confess your faults
one to another.” Jas. 5: 16.

992. What is the use of Confession either to God
or man ?

To lead our eyes to our own sins, to bewail them,
and to watch and pray, and strive against them in
time to come.

993. Do you confess daily, and feel that you have
much daily to confess ?

12*
138 THEOLOGICAL CATECHISM FOR YOUTH.

994. Are you ready to forsake as to confess
sin?

995. Do you ever confess without much grief for
the past, or much resolve for the future?

996. What is the fourth part of Prayer ?

Petition.

997. What are the Scripture requirements and
promises on this subject ?

“ Ask and it shall be given you; seek and ye shall
find; knock and it shall be opened unto you; for
every one that asketh receiveth ; and he that seek-
eth, findeth; and to him that knocketh it shall be
opened.” “ Whatsoever we ask we receive of him.”
Matt. 7:7,8. 1 Jn. 3: 22.

998. Does that mean that God grants every peti-
tion, whatever be the thing requested, or whatever
the spirit in which the petition 1s made ?

No; there is no promise unless the prayer be
right, both as to the things sought, and the spirit
and the time of seeking them.

999. What then is the rule as to the matter of
the prayer, or the things sought for ?

We must ask for things agreeable to God to
give, or we have no promise of receiving. “ What
man is there of you whom if his son ask bread, will
he give him astone? or if he ask a-fish will he give
him a serpent?” But “if we ask any thing accord-
ing to his will, he heareth us.” “Ye ask and re-
ceive not, because ye ask amiss, that ye may con-
sume it upon your lusts.” Matt.7: 9,10. 1 Jn.
5:4. Jas. 4:3.

1000. What is meant by asking that we may
consume it upon our lusts ?

Asking for any thing to promote our own plea-
THEOLOGICAL CATECHISM FOR YOUTH. 139

sure, gain or glory, regardless of the will and the
glory of God.

1001. What ts requisite to acceptable prayer, as
to tts spirit?

First of all, we must come with the spirit of dove,
the Abba Father spirit of a child, and say, as Jesus
taught us, “Our Father.” Matt. 6: 9.

1002. What is the second grand requisite?

The spirit of humiliation and penitence for sin.
Like Ezra, when he cried, “O my God, I am
ashamed, and blush to lift up my face to thee, my
God; for our iniquities are increased over our head,
and our trespass is grown up unto the heavens.”
Or like the Publican, who durst not so much as
lift up his eyes to heaven, but smote upon his
breast, crying, God be merciful to me a sinner.
Then like him shall we find mercy.

1003. What is the third great requisite?

Faith. “Whatsoever ye ask in prayer, believing,
ye shall receive.” “Without faith it is impossible to
please him; for he that cometh to God must come
believing that he is, and that he isa rewarder of them
that diligently seek him.” Matt. 21: 22. Heb.
11:6.

1004. What ts the fourth requisite?

That we ask all in the name of Christ. “If ye
ask any thing in my name, I will doit.” Jn. 14:
14,

1005. How are we to ask in Christ's name ?

As a pauper would a banker for money; not
in his own name, but in the name and with the
check of a wealthy friend. So must we come to
God, feeling that we are poor and guilty, with no
140 THEOLOGICAL CATECHISM FOR YOUTH.

right and no claim to any good, in ourselves ; ask-
ing nothing in our own name, but all in the name,
and alone on account of the merits of Christ.

1006. What is the fifth great requistte?

Importunity. “Because of his importunity he
will arise and give him as many as he needeth.”
“ Ye shall seek me and find me, when ye search
for me with all your heart.” Luke 11:8. Jer.
29: 13.

1007. What is the sixth requtsite ?

Perseverance. “There wrestled with him a man
till the breaking of the day; and he said, Let me go,
for the day breaketh; and he said, 1 will not let
thee go, except thou bless me.” Gen. 32: 24, 26.

1008. What is the seventh requisite to the right
spirit of prayer ?

Submission. We may say, with Christ, “If it
be posside let this cup pass from me ;” but we must
elose all with Christ’s own conclusion, “ Neverthe-
less, not as J will, but as chow wilt ;” not my will,
but thine be done. Matt. 26:39. Luke 22: 42,

1009. What ts the eighth requisite ?

That our conduct be consistent with our prayers.
“ Not every one that saith unto me, Lord, Lord,
but he that doeth the will of my Father who is in
heaven.” “He that turneth away his ear from
hearing the law, even his prayer shall be abomina-
tion.” Matt. 7: 21, 46. Prov. 28: 9.

1010. Does God ever hear the prayers of a sin-
mer, or of one who prays without the right spirit?
Yes ; He sometimes hears the cry of distress, al-
though not offered with the spirit of piety. He
heard and respited Ahab, though one of the most
THEOLOGICAL CATECHISM FoR youtH. 141

wicked of men. And he hears the young ravens
which ery. 1! Kgs. 21:29. Ps, 147: 9.

1011. Do you refrain from prayer from lack of
the right spirit ?

1012. Which will be the more likely way to ob-
tain the right spirit, going to God to seek it,
or staying away from God entirely, and in viola-
tion of His command to come?

1013. To which of the three Persons of the Trint-
ty is prayer ordinarily to be addressed ?

Generally to the Father. “When ye pray, say,
Our Father.” “Whatsoever ye shall ask the Fa-
ther in my name, he will give it you.” Luke 11: 2.
Jn. 16: 20.

1014. What help do we need in prayer to enable
us to pray aright ?

The aid of the Spirit. “The Spirit helpeth our
infirmities ; for we know not what we should pray
for as we ought; but the Spirit maketh intercession
for us.” Rom. 8: 26.

1015. How could you briefly express the way of
access to God ?

Through the Son; by the Spirit; to the Father.
Eph. 2: it.

1016. Has that way become a plain and beaten
path to you?

1017. How frequent should be our stated times or
seasons of prayer ?

The soul needs food as often as the body does.
“ Evening, morning, and at noon will I pray.” Ps.
55:17. Also Dan. 6: 13.

1018. What is virtually the prayer of careless tm-
penitent sinners?
142 THEOLOGICAL CATECHISM FOR YOUTH.

“ They say unto God, Depart from us, for we de-
sire not the knowledge of Thy ways.” Job. 21: 14.

1019. Does God ever hear and answer that
prayer ? and tf so,in what way ?

First, by departing from them Himself, as they
requested; and then by causing them to depart
from Him, forever. Saul answered, I am sore dis-
tressed, for God 1s departed from me, and answer-
eth meno more.” “Then shall Christ say to them
on his left hand, Depart from me, ye cursed, into
everlasting fire, prepared for the devil and his an-
gels.” 1 Sam. 28:15. Matt. 25: 41.

1020. Though your lips do not, does your heart
ever say to God, * Depart from me, for T desire not
the knowledge of thy ways ?”

1021. What is the final requisite to acceptable
prayer ?
That it be made in season.

1022. Ls prayer ever made too late?

Yes, “Then shall they call upon me, but I will
not answer; they shall seek me early, but they shall
not find me.” “Afterwards came also the other
virgins, saying, Lord, Lord, open unto us; but he
answered and said, Verily I say unto you, I know
you not.” “ Many shall seek to enter in, and shall
not be able, when once the master of the house hath
risen up and shut tothe door.” Prov. 1: 28. Matt.
25:2. Luke 13: 24, 25. (Original.)

1023. fs there not danger that you will never be
tn earnest till it is too late for you to pray?

1024. Why will not God hear the prayer of the
soul after it rs cast off ?
Because the day allotted for preparation has
THEOLOGICAL CATECHISM FOR YouTH. 143

been sinned away, and the Saviour and Spirit grieved
away for ever.

1025. Are you not sinning away your day of
grace now, and every day grieving the Spirit and
provoking the Saviour to depart from you for ever ?

1026. What is the next great direction of Christ
to inquiring souls ? .

Self-denial and taking up the cross. “If any
man will come after me, let him deny himself, and
take up his cross daily, and follow me.” Luke 9: 23.

1027. Is this duty indispensable ?

Yes; “Whosoever doth not bear his cross and
come after me, cannot be my disciple.”

1028. Wherein is self-denial necessary ?

In resisting the world, the flesh, and the devil;
standing fast for the truth and cause of God, against
a scoffing and persecuting world; and in yielding
up our time, our money, our friends, or ourselves,
for its promotion, whenever and wherever its in-
terests demand.

1029. What besides or in conjunction with self-
denial is requisite ?

Great energy and activity in every duty that the
commands or cause of God requires.

1030. Whither do our duties call us? or where is
our field of action?

In our hearts, our closets, our families, the pray-
er meeting, the church, the state, and the world ;
wherever and to whatever the Word and Providence
of God point out. “The field is the world.” Mat.
13: 38. -

1031. What should be the great aim of our ac-
tions, and object of our lives?

To promote the glory of God and the salvation
144 THEOLOGICAL CATECHISM FOR YOUTH.

of souls, at home and abroad, to the utmost ends of
the earth; to fulfil or to have fulfilled the com-
mand, “Go ye into all the world and preach the
gospel to every creature.” Mark 16: 15.

1032. What good should we thereby accomplish ?

We should obey and please God; remove dark-
ness ang doubts, and bring joy to our own souls ;
prove a blessing to our neighbors; and hasten the
millennium and the salvation of the world.

1033. Is a the duty of alt not only to practise,
but to enjoy religion ?

Yes; “Rejoice in the Lord always ; and again I
say, rejoice.” Phil. 4: 4,

1034. Have we any right to any joy if we have’
no religion, and are still the enemies of God ?

No, none at all; for Christ says to such, “ Wo to
you that laugh now, for ye shall mourn and weep.”
“Let your laughter be turned to mourning, and
your joy to heaviness.” “ Weep and howl for your
miseries that shall come upon you.” Luke 6: 25.
Jas.4:9; 5:1.

1035. Have you any right yet to a single joy ?

1036. Js growth in grace our duty?

Yes; “Grow in grace, and in the knowledge of
our Lord and Saviour Jesus Christ.” 2 Pet. 3: 18.

1037. What are the means of growth in grace?

The same as those of Sanctification.

1038 What is the difference between growth in
grace and progress in Sanctification ?

Growing in grace is all the act of the creature;
while progressive sanctification always includes the
act of the Spirit training the soul for heaven.

1039. What else does the Spirtt accomplish for
the soul besides renewing and sanctifying ut?
THEOLOGICAL CATECHISM FOR YOUTH. 145

He imparts spiritual comfort. “I will pray the
Father, and he shall give you another Comforter,
that he may abide with you for ever.” John 14:
16.

1040. How does the Spirt impart Hs comfort?

By His indwelling and soul-cheering presence
and communion with us in prayer; the word, and
ordinances of religion, and by all the means of
grace.

1041. How long do His consolations to His people
continue ?
Through all the sorrows of life and of death.

- 1042. What comfort do the people of God expert-
ence in death ?

Grace to enable them to say, “ Though I walk
through the valley of the shadow of death I will
fear no evil, for thou art with me.” “Thanks be
to God, who giveth us the victory, through our Lord
Jesus Christ.” “IT am ina strait betwixt two, hav-
ing a desire to depart and be with Christ, which is
far better.” Ps. 23:4. 1 Cor. 15:57. Phil. 1:
23.

1043. Can you say that? or is death still the
king of terrors to you?

1044. If such a terror to you now, while you view
wt as so far off, what will it be when you come to
meet tt?

1045. What becomes of the Christian at death ?
He enters immediately into heaven. “To-day
shalt thou be with me in Paradise.” Luke 23: 43.

1046. What kind of a place ts heaven?
A place of perfect holiness and happiness.

13
146 THEOLOGICAL CATECHISM FOR YOUTH.

1047. What say the Scriptures as to the holiness
of henven ?

There shall in no wise enter therein, any thing
that defileth ; neither worketh abomination or a lie.”
“T beheld, and lo, a great multitude, which no man
could number, before the throne and before the
Lamb, clothed with white robes, and palms in their
hands.” Rev. 21: 27, also 7: 9.

1048. What is the scriptural testumony as to the
happiness of heaven ?

“God shall wipe away all tears from their
eyes; and there shall be no more death, neither
sorrow nor crying; neither shall there be any more
pain.” “They shall hunger no more, neither thirst
apy more. The Lamb which is in the midst of the
throne shall feed them, and shall lead them unto
living fountains of waters.” Rev. 7: 16, 17; 21:3,4.
‘In thy presence is fulness of joy; and at thy right
hand there are pleasures for evermore.” Ps. 16: 11

1049. Are you on the way to that blessed world ?

1050. What becomes of the wicked at death? -

They are sent immediately into hell.

1051. What kind of a place is hell?

A place of awful and endless sin and misery.

1052. How do you know wt will bea place of sin?

We are told “the wicked is driven away 77 his
wickedness :” not from it. “He that is filthy shall
be filthy still.” Prov. 14:32. Rev. 22: 11.

1053. In what consists the misery of hell?

A great portion of it consists in its wickedness.

1054. But will sin itself make tts possessors
aniserable ?
THEOLOGICAL CATECHISM FOR YouTH. 147

Yes; it does, even in this world. “The wicked
are like the troubled sea when it cannot rest:
whose waters cast up mire and dirt. There is no
peace, saith my God, to the wicked.” Isa. 57:
20,21. And if so in this world, much ‘more rest-
less and wretched will sin make them in hell.

1055. Why will sin be a greater torment there?
Because sinners will there be given over to its
unrestrained power and dominion.

1056. What two items of hell’s miseries inflicted
by sin, does the Bible mention as holding an auful
preeminence there?

Remorse and rage.

1057. Where and how does i represent the re-
morse of hell?

Remorse is the worm that never dies; and their
rage is shown in their gnashing teeth. Matt. ch.
8, 13, 22, 24, 25, &e.

1058. Against whom is their rage aroused ?

Against God, themselves, and one another.

1059. Why against God?

For sending them to hell, and holding them there
by omnipotent power.

1060. Why their rage against themselves ?

Because they have brought all that misery on
themselves, by daring to rebel against the blessed
law and government of God, and then rejecting
the only Saviour.

1061. Why rage against one another ?

Because they tempted each other to sin and
ruin in this world ; and because they are let loose
in everlasting war upon each other in the next.

1062. Do the Scriptures represent the lost as en-
148 THEOLOGICAL CATECHISM FOR YOUTH.

during any other kinds of suffering, save those they
inflict upon themselves and one another ?

Yes; they are represented as being cast into
“outer darkness,” one of the most gloomy the mind
can conceive. Matt. ch. 8, 22,25. As cast into a
lake of devouring fire. The rich man died, and in
hell lifted up his eyes, being in torments;—and he
cried “I am tormented in this flame.” Again:
“ The fearful, and unbelieving, and murderers, and
whoremongers, and all liars, shall have their part
in the lake that burneth with fire and brimstone.”
Luke 16: 24; 21: 8.

1063. Are we to understand the darkness there
spoken of, and the worm, and the fire and brimstone,
as figures, or literally ?

If figures, they must mean intense distress; for
a wise and holy God would not use such awful lan-
guage unless to indicate awful suffering.

1064. How long are the sufferings of the lost to
continue?

For ever, without end.

1065. How does that appear ?

God declares it. “ Except a man be born again,
he cannot see the kingdom of God” “He that
believeth not the Son, shall not see life, but the
wrath of God abideth on him.” “The smoke of
their torment ascendeth up for ever and ever.”
Jn. 3:3, 36. Rev. 14: 11.

1066. But are not the words, ever, and for ever,
sometimes used in a limited sense, as indicating
merely a long time, but not absolutely endless ?

Yes, when applied to things of this world; but
never in reference to the world to come. There,
it always means endless.
THEOLOGICAL CATECHISM FOR youTH. 149

1067. Js the doctrine of endless punishment here-
after taught in any other phraseology ?

Yes: Christ teaches it in still stronger language:
“Tt is better to enter halt into life, than having two
feet to be cast into hell; into the fire that never shall
be quenched.” And again he teaches that the pun-
ishment of the wicked is to continue as long as the
happiness of the righteous; for the Greek has the
same word: “ These shall go away into everlasting
punishment; the righteous into life everlasting.”
Of course, if the miseries of the lost cease, the
happiness of heaven will also. Mark 9: 45. Matt.
24: 48.

1068. But how can it be just in God to punish
Sor ever, for the sins of this short life, and that life
sometimes but a span? .

The greater and better the being, and the greater
and better the law and government, and the greater
the good that is assailed, the greater the wicked-
ness: but as God is infinitely great and good, and
his law, and authority, and government likewise;
and the good of the universe for time and eternity
also; sin assails them all, is an infinite evil, and de-
serves an infinite punishment: but as no finite
creature can receive a punishment infinite in inten-
sity, it must be made infinite in duration.

1069. Have you any still stronger wlustration
of the propriety of endless punishment ?

Yes; it is perfectly just that creatures should
continue to suffer, as long as they continue to sin ;
but as all finally impenitent sinners will continue
sinning for ever, they ought to continue suffering
for ever; or else justice is not done them.

1070. But what proof have we that souls cast off
will continue for ever sinning ?

13*
150 THEOLOGICAL CATECHISM FOR YOUTH.

The Bible declares that the wicked are driven
away im their wickedness; not driven from it;
and that he that is unjust shall be unjust still, and
he that is filthy shall be filthy still, Prov. 14: 32.
Rey. 22: 11.

1071. But how can souls sin after they are cast
off in hell? Is there binding on them there any —
taw to transgress? Does God's law, with iis com-
mands and obligations, follow them into the world
of the lost ?

Yes, just as much as into the world of the saved.
It is impossible to place any moral agent, in any
world or any circumstances, such that he is not
bound to love right and do right, and to hate wrong
and avoid doing it. Of course every rational crea-
ture in all worlds and in all circumstances is bound
to love God and obey him for ever; and all in hell
are bound to love God, even for sending them thi-
ther; for sending them thither was so perfectly
just and right, and the good of the universe impe-
ratively demanded it.

1072. But will not the sufferings of the damned,
wn process of the ages of eternity, ultimately bring
them to repentance, and thus deliverance finally
come in that way? Does not the father im this
world reform his child by correction sometimes ?

Sometimes ; and sometimes not: but punishment
on sinners given up of God, only makes them
worse. So even in this world. When the fourth
angel poured out his vial upon the sun, and men
were scorched with great heat, they d/asphemed the
name of God, who had power over these plagues,
and they repented not.” And when the fifth angel
poured out his vial upon the seat of the beast, and
his kingdom was full of darkness, they gnawed
THEOLOGICAL CATECHISM For rYoutH. 151

their tongues for pain, and Blasphemed the God of
heaven because of their pains and sores, and 7e-
pented not of their deeds.” Rev. 16: 8,11. And
if suffering lead sinners abandoned of God to blas-
pheming God, instead of repenting, for the pains
even of this world, how much more will it in the
world to come ?

1073. Do the Scriptures give the sinner any
ground to hope that there will be another opportu-
nity for repentance—another place of probation be-
sides this, beyond the grave?

No, but the contrary. They teach us that there
is no work, nor device, “nor knowledge, nor wis-
dom” (of that sort), in the grave “whither we go”
Eccles. 9: 10. And therefore, that whatsoever our
hand findeth to do, by way of repentance and pre-
paration, must be done with our might now.

1074. But will sinners in hell continue at the
same grade of wickedness as when first cast off ?

Probably not: they will probably be increasing
in wickedness for ever.

1075. How does that appear ?

As they are “ driven away 72 their wickedness,”
all restraints removed, and they given over to the
full power of the wickedness of their own hearts,
continually exasperated by all around them, their
wickedness will probably be for ever increasing, as
a matter of course.

1076. If their wickedness be for ever increasing,
how will ut be with their punishment ?

Increasing for ever with the increase of their sin.

1077. Which are the most awful and terrific
ideas in the universe ?

Endless misery, and endless misery for ever
152 THEOLOGICAL CATECHISM FOR YOUTH.

increasing. The first is infinite misery ; the second
is infinite misery for ever growing greater ! !

1078. And are you now right on the road to that
twofold infinity of wo ?

1079. What shall we say of sinners who are
travelling that road without an effort, or without
all possible effort to escape ?

“ Madness is in their heart while they live, and
after that they go to the dead.” LEecles. 9: 3.

1080. What efforts are you making to escape
that terrific doom ?

1081. Wil the dead ever be recalled from heaven
or hell ?

Yes; at the Resurrection and the day of Judg-
ment.

1082. What do you mean by

THE RESURRECTION?

The rising of the dead from their graves at the
Last Day.

1083. What arguments have you in favor of a
General Resurrection?

Some encouraging a hope, and some demanding
unqualified delef in the doctrine.

1084. Give a specumen of the arguments encou-
raging the hope that we shall be raised from the
grave.

The analogies in nature. The return of the
spring is a resurrection of the year: the resurrec-
tion of the silk-worm from its coffined state: and
THEOLOGICAL CATECHISM FOR YOUTH. 153

of millions of other worms in a similar way; and
the rising again of the locust, after so many long
years in the grave, inspire the hope that God’s no-
blest creature, man, may arise in like manner, if
righteous, to a new and nobler state of being here-
after.

1085. What arguments command our unqualt-
jied belief ?

The positive declarations of Scripture. “There
shall be a Resurrection of the dead, both of the
just and the unjust.” Acts 24: 15. 1 Cor. 15, &e.

1086. But as the bodies of the dead nungle with
the earth, and thence with its productions, and
thence pass into the bodies of other men, or pass
into the bodies of other men who have fed on fishes
that have fed on the dead ; how can any one, at the
Resurrection, claim to himself the particles that
have made up a part of so many other bodves be-
sides his own? In other words: how can the
same bodies that were buried ever rise again?

“Thou fool. Thou sowest not that body which
shall be, but bare grain; it may chance of wheat or
some other grain. But God giveth it a body as it
hath pleased him, to every seed his own body.
So also is the resurrection of the dead. It is sown
in corruption: it is raised in incorruption. It is
sown a natural body, it is raised a spiritual body.”
“Flesh and blood cannot inherit the kingdom of
God.” 1 Cor, 15 : 37-44, 50.

1087. What, then, is the difference between ‘the
body that goes down to the grave and that which is
ratsed from tt ?

As different as the dry kerne] that is sown, from
the grecn blade that comes up. Nay; it goes down
154 THEOLOGICAL CATECHISM FOR YOUTH.

to the grave “a natural body,” “ flesh and blood ;”
it rises from the grave “a spiritual body,” with “no
fiesh nor blood,’ nor bone about it.- 1 Cor. 15:
44, 50.

- 1088. Well the dead be all raised in the same
company, or in different companies ?

In two different companies. “The dead in
Christ shall rise first. Then we who are alive and
remain shall be caught up together with them in
the clouds, to meet the Lord in the air.” 1! Thes. 4:
16,17. Then next the wicked will, of course, be
raised, and appear together in their own company.

1089. In which of those companies will you stand
in that awful hour ?

1090. What will unmediately follow the Resur-
rection, or attend it ?
The Day of Judgment.

1091. What do you mean by the Day of Judg-
ment ?

A day at the end of time, when God shall de-
stroy the world, and call before him all men and
devils, to stand their final trial, and receive their
eternal destinies. “God hath appointed a day, in
which he will judge the world.” Acts 17: 31.

1092. Are we to understand this as an ordinary
day of twenty-four hours, or is the word day to be
understood in a wider sense, as embracing a much
longer period ?

Probably a much longer period.

1093. Will all men then be judged ?

Yes ; “ Before him shall be gathered all nations.”
Matt. 25: 30. “I saw the dead, small and great,
stand before God.” Rev. 20: 12.
THEOLOGICAL CATECHISM FOR YOUTH. 155

1094. What proof that the angels will then be
judged?

“The angels which kept not their first estate,
but left their own habitation, he hath reserved in
everlasting chains, under darkness, against the judg-
ment of the great day.” Jude 6. Probably the
good angels, also. Perhaps 1 Cor. 6: 3 refers to
them.

1095. Will that judgment be strict ?

Yes; God shall bring every work into judgment,
with every seerct thing, whether it be good, or whe-
ther it be evil. Eccles. 12: 14.

1096. Will it be a righteous judgment ?

Yes; “God will judge the world in righteous-
ness.” Acts 17: 31.

1097. Will it be final?

Yes; there can be no appeal from the decisions
of that dread day; but the decisions of the omni-
potent Jehovah will fix the destinies of the soul
for ever.

1098. Which person of the Trinity will preside
at that august tribunal?

We must all appear before the judgment-seat of
Christ. “God hath appointed a day, in which he
will judge the world in righteousness, by that Man
whom he hath ordained.” 2 Cor. 5: 10. Rom.
14: 10.

1099. Why will Christ preside ?

His possession of both natures, the divine and
human, and his abode and partnership in both
worlds, render him the peculiarly appropriate per-
son to decide for both.

1100. What standards of judgment will there
be employed in forming the decision ?
156 THEOLOGICAL CATECHISM FOR YOUTH.

God's books of judgment. “I saw the dead,
small and great, stand before God, and the books
were opened; and the dead were judged out of
those things which were written in the books, ac-
cording to their works.” Rev. 20: 12.

1101. What may we understand those books to
?

Reason, Conscience, the Law, the Gospel, and
our own solemn vows and resolutions.

1102. How do you know that Reason will be a
standard of judgment and a ground of condem-
nation to the wicked ?

Because Reason makes known the Being, the
attributes, and the will of God ; the reasonableness
of God’s claims upon us, and the consequences of
compliance and of refusal. To the eye of Rea-
son, “the invisible things of God from the creation
of the world are clearly seen, being understood by
the things that are made, even his eternal power
and Godhead; so that they are without excuse.
Because that when they knew God, they glorified
Him not as God.” Rom. 1 : 20, 21.

1103. How do you know that Conscience, in
that day, will be one of the standards of decision,
or Books of judgment ?

Because “ As many as have sinned without
(written) law shall perish without (written) law; for
they show the work of the law written in their
hearts; their Conscience also bearing witness, and
their thoughts the meanwhile accusing or else ex-
cusing one another, in the day when God shall
judge the secrets of men by Jesus Christ.” Rom.
2:15, 16.

1104. How do you know that the Law of God
will be another standard or Book of judgment?
THEOLOGICAL CATECHISM FOR youTH. 157

Because “As many as have sinned 77 the Law
shall be judged dy the Law.” Rom. 2: 12.

1105. What proof that the Gospel will constitute
another Book or standard ?

The Bible declares it. Paul says, “In that day
God shall judge the secrets of men according to
my Gospel, by Jesus Christ.” (Original.)

1106. How do you know that our Vows will
come up as a separate or distinct criterion at the
judgment ?

Because God has said, “ That which has gone out
of thy lips shalt thou keep and perform. according as
thou hast vowed unto the Lord thy God.” Deut.
23 : 28. And, of course, in that great Day, God
will call on us to answer as to the engagements we
have made with Him.

1107. Will you be able to stand the test when
all these five Books shall be opened ? Will you be
able io stand either? Will you be able to stand
when the Book of Conscience is opened, showing
that you knew your duty but would not do tt?

1108. Can you, when the Book of Reason is
opened, showing that you knew your God,and His
will, and the consequences both of obeying and of
disobeying, but that you would not heed ?

1109. Can you, when the Book of the Law is
opened, which is nothing but the Law of Love, and
you would not keep even that ?

1110. Can you, when the Book of the Gospel is
opened, and it shall therein appear that a dear,
dying Saviour was often brought before you, and
urged on your acceptance; but that you declined,
and rejected even Him?

14
158 THEOLOGICAL CATECHISM FOR YOUTH.

L111. Or can you meet and answer even to your
own solemn Vows and promises, so often made to
God, and as often broken ?

1112. Will there be any other Book opened on
that eventful trial ?

Yes: the Book of the hestory of every man's
Life ; his instructions. opportunities, calls, warnings,
mercies, judgments, Sabbaths, revival seasons, striv-
ings of the Spirit; and then his life, thoughts,
words and actions, and neglects and sins—in view
of them all.

1113. What will you do when all these six Books
are opened, and bring out every secret thing, and
you stand condemned by them all, and yet have no
Saviour ?

1114. What shadl be the aspect and order and
assue of that great Day?

“ Our God shall come—a fire shall devour before
him, arfd it shall be very tempestuous round about
him. He shall call to the heavens from above,and to
the earth, that he may judge his people.” “ They shall
see the Son of Man coming in the clouds of heaven,
with power and great glory.” “He shall descend
from heaven with a shout, with the voice of the
archangel and the trump of God." “The heavens
shall pass away with a great noise, and the elements
shall melt with fervent heats: the earth also, and
the works that are therein, shall be burned up.”
“ Before him shall be gathered all nations ; and he
shall separate them one from another as a shepherd
divideth his sheep from the goats.” Ps. 50: 3, 4;
Matt. 24: 30. 1 Thes.4: 16. Matt. 25: 31,32, 33.

1115. And what shall He say to those different
and opposite companies ?
THEOLOGICAL cdrecuism FoR youtu. 159

*Then shall the King say to them on his right
hand, Come, ye blessed of my Father, inherit the
kingdom prepared for you from the foundation of
the world.”

1116. What will He say to those on Hts left
hand?

“ Depart, ye cursed, into everlasting fire, prepared
for the devil and his angels.” Matt. 25: 41

1117. And are you now right on the road to
everlasting fire ?

1118. And can you dwell with the devouring
Jire? Can you dwell with everlasting burnings ?
Isa. 33: 14.

1119. Will you then, dear youth, now stop, and
turn, and flee for refuge, and lay hold on the hope,
the only hope set before you in the Gospel, and not
rush unbidden, undesired, into that world of wo. pre-
pared not for you, but for the devil and has angels?

God grant it for His name’s sake.—Amen.


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12/15/2014 12:42:50 PM 00002.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:42:50 PM 00003.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:42:50 PM 00003.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:42:50 PM 00004.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:42:50 PM 00004.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:42:50 PM 00005.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:42:50 PM 00005.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:42:50 PM 00006.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:42:50 PM 00006.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:42:50 PM 00007.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:42:51 PM 00007.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:42:51 PM 00008.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:42:51 PM 00008.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:42:51 PM 00009.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:42:51 PM 00009.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:42:51 PM 00010.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:42:51 PM 00010.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:42:51 PM 00011.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:42:51 PM 00011.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:42:51 PM 00012.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:42:51 PM 00012.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:42:51 PM 00013.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:42:51 PM 00013.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:42:51 PM 00014.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:42:51 PM 00014.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:42:51 PM 00015.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:42:51 PM 00015.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:42:51 PM 00016.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:42:51 PM 00016.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:42:51 PM 00017.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:42:51 PM 00017.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:42:51 PM 00018.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:42:51 PM 00018.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:42:51 PM 00019.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:42:51 PM 00019.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:42:51 PM 00020.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:42:51 PM 00020.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:42:51 PM 00021.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:42:51 PM 00021.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:42:51 PM 00022.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:42:51 PM 00022.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:42:51 PM 00023.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:42:51 PM 00023.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:42:51 PM 00024.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:42:51 PM 00024.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:42:51 PM 00025.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:42:51 PM 00025.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:42:51 PM 00026.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:42:51 PM 00026.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:42:51 PM 00027.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:42:51 PM 00027.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:42:51 PM 00028.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:42:51 PM 00028.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:42:51 PM 00029.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:42:51 PM 00029.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:42:51 PM 00030.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:42:51 PM 00030.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:42:51 PM 00031.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:42:51 PM 00031.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:42:51 PM 00032.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:42:51 PM 00032.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:42:51 PM 00033.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:42:51 PM 00033.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:42:51 PM 00034.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:42:51 PM 00034.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:42:51 PM 00035.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:42:51 PM 00035.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:42:51 PM 00036.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:42:51 PM 00036.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:42:51 PM 00037.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:42:51 PM 00037.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:42:51 PM 00038.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:42:51 PM 00038.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:42:51 PM 00039.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:42:51 PM 00039.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:42:51 PM 00040.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:42:51 PM 00040.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:42:51 PM 00041.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:42:51 PM 00041.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:42:51 PM 00042.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:42:51 PM 00042.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:42:51 PM 00043.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:42:51 PM 00043.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:42:51 PM 00044.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:42:51 PM 00044.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:42:51 PM 00045.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:42:51 PM 00045.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:42:51 PM 00046.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:42:51 PM 00046.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:42:51 PM 00047.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:42:51 PM 00047.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:42:51 PM 00048.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:42:51 PM 00048.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:42:51 PM 00049.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:42:51 PM 00049.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:42:51 PM 00050.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:42:51 PM 00050.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:42:51 PM 00051.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:42:51 PM 00051.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:42:51 PM 00052.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:42:52 PM 00052.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:42:52 PM 00053.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:42:52 PM 00053.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:42:52 PM 00054.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:42:52 PM 00054.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:42:52 PM 00055.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:42:52 PM 00055.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:42:52 PM 00056.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:42:52 PM 00056.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:42:52 PM 00057.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:42:52 PM 00057.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:42:52 PM 00058.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:42:52 PM 00058.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:42:52 PM 00059.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:42:52 PM 00059.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:42:52 PM 00060.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:42:52 PM 00060.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:42:52 PM 00061.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:42:52 PM 00061.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:42:52 PM 00062.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:42:52 PM 00062.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:42:52 PM 00063.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:42:52 PM 00063.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:42:52 PM 00064.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:42:52 PM 00064.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:42:52 PM 00065.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:42:52 PM 00065.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:42:52 PM 00066.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:42:52 PM 00066.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:42:52 PM 00067.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:42:52 PM 00067.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:42:52 PM 00068.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:42:52 PM 00068.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:42:52 PM 00069.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:42:52 PM 00069.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:42:52 PM 00070.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:42:52 PM 00070.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:42:52 PM 00071.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:42:52 PM 00071.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:42:52 PM 00072.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:42:52 PM 00072.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:42:52 PM 00073.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:42:52 PM 00073.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:42:52 PM 00074.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:42:52 PM 00074.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:42:52 PM 00075.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:42:52 PM 00075.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:42:52 PM 00076.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:42:52 PM 00076.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:42:52 PM 00077.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:42:52 PM 00077.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:42:52 PM 00078.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:42:52 PM 00078.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:42:52 PM 00079.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:42:52 PM 00079.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:42:52 PM 00080.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:42:52 PM 00080.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:42:52 PM 00081.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:42:52 PM 00081.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:42:52 PM 00082.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:42:52 PM 00082.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:42:52 PM 00083.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:42:52 PM 00083.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:42:52 PM 00084.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:42:52 PM 00084.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:42:52 PM 00085.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:42:52 PM 00085.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:42:52 PM 00086.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:42:52 PM 00086.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:42:52 PM 00087.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:42:52 PM 00087.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:42:52 PM 00088.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:42:52 PM 00088.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:42:52 PM 00089.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:42:52 PM 00089.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:42:52 PM 00090.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:42:52 PM 00090.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:42:52 PM 00091.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:42:52 PM 00091.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:42:52 PM 00092.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:42:52 PM 00092.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:42:52 PM 00093.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:42:52 PM 00093.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:42:52 PM 00094.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:42:52 PM 00094.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:42:52 PM 00095.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:42:53 PM 00095.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:42:53 PM 00096.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:42:53 PM 00096.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:42:53 PM 00097.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:42:53 PM 00097.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:42:53 PM 00098.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:42:53 PM 00098.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:42:53 PM 00099.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:42:53 PM 00099.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:42:53 PM 00100.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:42:53 PM 00100.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:42:53 PM 00101.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:42:53 PM 00101.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:42:53 PM 00102.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:42:53 PM 00102.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:42:53 PM 00103.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:42:53 PM 00103.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:42:53 PM 00104.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:42:53 PM 00104.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:42:53 PM 00105.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:42:53 PM 00105.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:42:53 PM 00106.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:42:53 PM 00106.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:42:53 PM 00107.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:42:53 PM 00107.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:42:53 PM 00108.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:42:53 PM 00108.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:42:53 PM 00109.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:42:53 PM 00109.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:42:53 PM 00110.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:42:53 PM 00110.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:42:53 PM 00111.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:42:53 PM 00111.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:42:53 PM 00112.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:42:53 PM 00112.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:42:53 PM 00113.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:42:53 PM 00113.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:42:53 PM 00114.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:42:53 PM 00114.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:42:53 PM 00115.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:42:53 PM 00115.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:42:53 PM 00116.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:42:53 PM 00116.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:42:53 PM 00117.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:42:53 PM 00117.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:42:53 PM 00118.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:42:53 PM 00118.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:42:53 PM 00119.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:42:53 PM 00119.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:42:53 PM 00120.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:42:53 PM 00120.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:42:53 PM 00121.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:42:53 PM 00121.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:42:53 PM 00122.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:42:53 PM 00122.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:42:53 PM 00123.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:42:53 PM 00123.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:42:53 PM 00124.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:42:53 PM 00124.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:42:53 PM 00125.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:42:53 PM 00125.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:42:53 PM 00126.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:42:53 PM 00126.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:42:53 PM 00127.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:42:53 PM 00127.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:42:53 PM 00128.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:42:53 PM 00128.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:42:53 PM 00129.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:42:53 PM 00129.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:42:53 PM 00130.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:42:53 PM 00130.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:42:53 PM 00131.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:42:53 PM 00131.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:42:53 PM 00132.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:42:53 PM 00132.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:42:53 PM 00133.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:42:53 PM 00133.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:42:53 PM 00134.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:42:53 PM 00134.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:42:53 PM 00135.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:42:53 PM 00135.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:42:53 PM 00136.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:42:53 PM 00136.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:42:53 PM 00137.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:42:53 PM 00137.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:42:53 PM 00138.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:42:53 PM 00138.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:42:53 PM 00139.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:42:53 PM 00139.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:42:53 PM 00140.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:42:53 PM 00140.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:42:53 PM 00141.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:42:53 PM 00141.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:42:53 PM 00142.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:42:53 PM 00142.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:42:54 PM 00143.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:42:54 PM 00143.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:42:54 PM 00144.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:42:54 PM 00144.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:42:54 PM 00145.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:42:54 PM 00145.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:42:54 PM 00146.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:42:54 PM 00146.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:42:54 PM 00147.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:42:54 PM 00147.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:42:54 PM 00148.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:42:54 PM 00148.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:42:54 PM 00149.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:42:54 PM 00149.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:42:54 PM 00150.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:42:54 PM 00150.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:42:54 PM 00151.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:42:54 PM 00151.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:42:54 PM 00152.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:42:54 PM 00152.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:42:54 PM 00153.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:42:54 PM 00153.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:42:54 PM 00154.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:42:54 PM 00154.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:42:54 PM 00155.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:42:54 PM 00155.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:42:54 PM 00156.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:42:54 PM 00156.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:42:54 PM 00157.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:42:54 PM 00157.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:42:54 PM 00158.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:42:54 PM 00158.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:42:54 PM 00159.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:42:54 PM 00159.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:42:54 PM 00160.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:42:54 PM 00160.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:42:54 PM 00161.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:42:54 PM 00161.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:42:54 PM 00163.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:42:54 PM 00163.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:42:54 PM 00164.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:42:54 PM 00164.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:42:54 PM 00165.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:42:54 PM 00165.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:42:54 PM