Front Cover
 Title Page
 Table of Contents
 Chapter I
 Chapter II
 Chapter III
 Chapter IV
 Chapter V
 Chapter VI
 Chapter VII
 Chapter VIII
 Chapter IX
 Chapter X
 Chapter XI
 Chapter XII
 Chapter XIII
 Chapter XIV
 Chapter XV
 Chapter XVI
 Chapter XVII
 Chapter XVIII
 Chapter XIX
 Chapter XX
 Chapter XXI
 Chapter XXII
 Chapter XXIII
 Chapter XXIV
 Chapter XXV
 Chapter XXVI
 Chapter XXVII
 Chapter XXIX
 Chapter XXX
 Chapter XXXI
 Chapter XXXII
 Chapter XXXIII
 Chapter XXXIV
 Back Cover

Title: Travels of Rolando, or, A tour round the world
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00001803/00001
 Material Information
Title: Travels of Rolando, or, A tour round the world
Alternate Title: Tour round the world
Physical Description: xii, 506 p., <7> leaves of plates : ill. ; 17 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Jauffret, L. F ( Louis François ), 1770-1840
Harvey, William, 1796-1866 ( Illustrator )
Aikin, Lucy, 1781-1864 ( Translator )
Dalziel Brothers ( Engraver )
C.S. Francis & Co.
Stewart and Murray ( Printer )
Publisher: C.S. Francis & Co.
Place of Publication: New York
Publication Date: 1852
Edition: Newly corrected and revised .
Subject: Voyages around the world -- Juvenile fiction   ( lcsh )
Voyages and travels -- Juvenile fiction   ( lcsh )
Pictorial cloth bindings (Binding) -- 1852   ( rbbin )
Travelogue storybooks -- 1852   ( local )
Bldn -- 1852
Genre: Pictorial cloth bindings (Binding)   ( rbbin )
Travelogue storybooks   ( local )
novel   ( marcgt )
Spatial Coverage: England -- London
United States -- New York -- New York
Statement of Responsibility: translated by Miss Aiken (i.e. Aikin) ; illustrated by William Harvey.
General Note: "New York : Printed by C.S. Francis & Co."--T.p. verso; "London : Printed by Stewart and Murray"--The end of text.
General Note: Ill. engraved and signed: Dalziel.
Funding: Brittle Books Program
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00001803
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: aleph - 002232146
oclc - 45805529
notis - ALH2538
 Related Items
Other version: Alternate version (PALMM)
PALMM Version

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front Cover
    Title Page
        Page i
        Page ii
        Page iii
        Page iv
        Page v
        Page vi
    Table of Contents
        Page vii
        Page viii
        Page ix
        Page x
        Page xi
        Page xii
    Chapter I
        Page 1
        Page 2
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
    Chapter II
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
    Chapter III
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
    Chapter IV
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
        Page 30
        Page 31
        Page 32
        Page 32a
        Page 33
        Page 34
        Page 35
        Page 36
        Page 37
    Chapter V
        Page 38
        Page 39
        Page 40
        Page 41
        Page 42
        Page 43
        Page 44
        Page 45
        Page 46
        Page 47
        Page 48
        Page 49
    Chapter VI
        Page 50
        Page 51
        Page 52
        Page 53
        Page 54
        Page 55
        Page 56
        Page 57
        Page 58
        Page 59
    Chapter VII
        Page 60
        Page 61
        Page 62
        Page 63
        Page 64
        Page 65
        Page 66
        Page 67
        Page 68
        Page 69
        Page 70
        Page 71
        Page 72
        Page 73
    Chapter VIII
        Page 74
        Page 75
        Page 76
        Page 77
        Page 78
        Page 79
        Page 80
        Page 81
    Chapter IX
        Page 82
        Page 83
        Page 84
        Page 84a
        Page 85
        Page 86
        Page 87
        Page 88
        Page 89
        Page 90
        Page 91
        Page 92
        Page 93
    Chapter X
        Page 94
        Page 95
        Page 96
        Page 97
        Page 98
        Page 99
        Page 100
        Page 101
    Chapter XI
        Page 102
        Page 103
        Page 104
        Page 105
        Page 106
        Page 107
        Page 108
        Page 109
        Page 110
        Page 111
        Page 112
        Page 113
    Chapter XII
        Page 114
        Page 115
        Page 116
        Page 117
        Page 118
        Page 119
        Page 120
        Page 121
        Page 122
        Page 123
        Page 124
    Chapter XIII
        Page 125
        Page 126
        Page 127
        Page 128
        Page 129
        Page 130
        Page 131
        Page 132
        Page 133
        Page 134
        Page 135
        Page 136
        Page 137
        Page 138
        Page 139
        Page 140
        Page 141
        Page 142
        Page 143
        Page 144
        Page 145
        Page 146
    Chapter XIV
        Page 147
        Page 148
        Page 148a
        Page 149
        Page 150
        Page 150a
        Page 151
        Page 152
        Page 153
        Page 154
        Page 155
        Page 156
        Page 157
        Page 158
        Page 159
        Page 160
    Chapter XV
        Page 161
        Page 162
        Page 163
        Page 164
        Page 165
        Page 166
        Page 167
        Page 168
    Chapter XVI
        Page 169
        Page 170
        Page 171
        Page 172
        Page 173
        Page 174
        Page 175
        Page 176
        Page 177
        Page 178
        Page 179
    Chapter XVII
        Page 180
        Page 181
        Page 182
        Page 183
        Page 184
        Page 185
        Page 186
        Page 187
    Chapter XVIII
        Page 188
        Page 189
        Page 190
        Page 191
        Page 192
        Page 193
        Page 194
        Page 195
        Page 196
        Page 197
        Page 198
        Page 199
        Page 200
        Page 201
        Page 202
        Page 203
        Page 204
        Page 205
        Page 206
        Page 207
        Page 208
    Chapter XIX
        Page 209
        Page 210
        Page 211
        Page 212
        Page 213
        Page 214
        Page 214a
        Page 215
        Page 216
        Page 217
        Page 218
        Page 219
        Page 220
        Page 221
        Page 222
        Page 223
        Page 224
        Page 225
        Page 226
        Page 227
        Page 228
        Page 229
        Page 230
    Chapter XX
        Page 231
        Page 232
        Page 233
        Page 234
        Page 235
        Page 236
        Page 237
        Page 238
        Page 239
        Page 240
        Page 241
        Page 242
        Page 243
        Page 244
        Page 245
        Page 246
        Page 247
        Page 248
        Page 249
        Page 250
        Page 251
    Chapter XXI
        Page 252
        Page 253
        Page 254
        Page 255
        Page 256
        Page 257
        Page 258
        Page 259
        Page 260
        Page 261
        Page 262
        Page 263
        Page 264
        Page 265
        Page 266
        Page 267
        Page 268
        Page 269
        Page 270
        Page 271
        Page 272
        Page 273
        Page 274
        Page 275
    Chapter XXII
        Page 276
        Page 276a
        Page 277
        Page 278
        Page 279
        Page 280
        Page 281
        Page 282
        Page 283
        Page 284
        Page 285
        Page 286
    Chapter XXIII
        Page 287
        Page 288
        Page 289
        Page 290
        Page 291
        Page 292
        Page 293
        Page 294
        Page 295
        Page 296
        Page 297
        Page 298
        Page 299
    Chapter XXIV
        Page 300
        Page 301
        Page 302
        Page 303
        Page 304
        Page 305
        Page 306
        Page 307
        Page 308
        Page 309
        Page 310
        Page 311
        Page 312
        Page 313
        Page 314
        Page 315
    Chapter XXV
        Page 316
        Page 317
        Page 318
        Page 319
        Page 321
    Chapter XXVI
        Page 322
        Page 323
        Page 324
        Page 325
        Page 326
        Page 327
        Page 330
        Page 331
        Page 332
        Page 333
        Page 334
    Chapter XXVII
        Page 335
        Page 336
        Page 353
        Page 354
        Page 355
        Page 356
        Page 357
        Page 359
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        Page 363
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        Page 366a
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        Page 376
        Page 377
        Page 378
        Page 379
        Page 380
    Chapter XXIX
        Page 381
        Page 382
        Page 383
        Page 384
        Page 385
        Page 386
        Page 387
        Page 388
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        Page 400
        Page 401
        Page 402
        Page 403
        Page 404
        Page 405
    Chapter XXX
        Page 406
        Page 407
        Page 408
        Page 409
        Page 410
        Page 411
        Page 412
        Page 413
        Page 414
        Page 415
        Page 416
        Page 417
        Page 418
        Page 419
        Page 420
        Page 421
        Page 422
        Page 423
        Page 424
        Page 425
        Page 426
        Page 427
        Page 428
    Chapter XXXI
        Page 429
        Page 430
        Page 431
        Page 432
        Page 433
        Page 434
        Page 435
        Page 436
        Page 437
        Page 438
        Page 439
        Page 440
        Page 441
        Page 442
        Page 443
        Page 444
    Chapter XXXII
        Page 445
        Page 446
        Page 447
        Page 448
        Page 449
        Page 450
        Page 451
        Page 452
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        Page 461
        Page 462
        Page 463
        Page 464
    Chapter XXXIII
        Page 465
        Page 466
        Page 467
        Page 468
        Page 469
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    Chapter XXXIV
        Page 488
        Page 489
        Page 490
        Page 491
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    Back Cover
        Back Cover
Full Text

t 1.












New York:
Pointed by C. S. FBANCIS & Co.


A NEW edition of the deservedly popular u TRAVaLS
OF ROLANDO" has long been called for. The demand
is now met; and in a style of accuracy and beauty, as
regards typography and illustration, far superior to
that of any former edition.
It has been said that "there is no royal road to the
acquisition of knowledge." This position is palpably
incorrect. By the improved methods of instruction
which have been progressively and successively adopted
within the last twenty or thirty years, every art and
every science may now be acquired in less than half
the time, and with less than half the labour, that were
formerly exacted; and, moreover, the labour itself, in-
stead of being irkome, is now a pleasure. It is not
in accordance with the present enlightened modes of
tuition and of study, to sacrifice seven of the most de-


lightful years of mortal existence to the (often fruitless)
poring over a Latin grammar. Within that period,
any intelligent youth, with the aid of competent
teachers, may make himself master, not only of two or
three of the dead languages, but of most of the living
dialects of Europe, to say nothing of the practical
sciences. We hazard nothing in asserting, that there
are at this moment, in- our own incomparable island,
thousands and tens of thousands of boys-ay, and of
girls, too-whq are in possession of more available
knowledge than ever were any of their grandparents,
although the said grandfathers and grandmothers
might, in their day, have enjoyed every advantage
that the then limited system of education was capable
of affording.
In no other branch of science, perhaps, has so great
an advance been made, within a given term, as in
Geography. This was formerly considered a "dry
study": it is now one of the most exciting and most
delightful of youthful pursuits. To what may this be
owing ? To the strong interest which every intelligent
individual feels in personal adventure. Whether this
adventure be real or fictitious, matters not. Truth
is not less truth because it may chance to be pro-
pounded under the guise of fiction. Thus, in the
TRAVELS OF ROLANDO," combined with the most
vivid descriptions, we find the liveliest, most varied,



most extraordinary, and most impressive personal ad-
ventures that imagination is capable of conceiving,
or pencil of portraying.
It was justly observed, in the Preface to a former
edition of these Travels, that "in the person of the
Antiquary, the Naturalist, the Geographer, and the
Sportsman, who compose a part of the company whose
wanderings he relates, our Author informs his young
readers of the particulars most calculated to attract
their attention in the countries through which they
pass, whilst an agreeable variety of characters, and a
rapid succession of incidents, relieve the dryness of
instructive detail."
Nor are the moral reflections of M. Jaufret less
entitled to praise: they are generous, honourable,
high-minded. In his performance "he has shewn
himself at least equally solicitous to instil good princi-
ples, and awaken right feelings in the heart, as to
inform the understanding and entertain the fancy;
and the eventful and chequered life of his hero affords
abundant opportunity to convey lessons of courage,
fortitude, humanity, filial piety, moderation in pro-
sperity, and contentment in adversity-lessons which
lose none of their effect on his youthful readers by
arising almost imperceptibly out of the story itself,
and being aimed, as it were, obliquely at their

It require to be added, only, that, in the present
corrected and improved edition of Rolando's Travels,"
much novel information has been interspersed in the
form of notes, down even to the close of the first half
of the ninteenth century.


London, January 1, 1852.


Origin of the family ef bokando-Birth of Don Alphonso-Hi
early taste for travelig-Reasons which induce Jacques
BoladUo to sma his son from home.................. 1

first journey of Blado--Terrible effets of a passion for
gamin.............................................. 11

Rolando travels with a botanist and an antiquary-His arrival
at Marseilles-He embarks, and is taken by an Algerine
corsair........................... ................... 17

Slavery of Rolando among the Moors-Chase of the lon--
Account of the panther, hyana, leopard, jackal, buffalo, and
other animms of that part of Africa. .................... a

Rolando and his companions removed to Morocco-The em-
peror has a tooth drawn by Dr. Codonel-Result of this
operation..... *.....*.................. ........ 88

Great influence of Dr. Codonel at the eourt of Morocco-The
emperor wishes to detain Rolando and his companions i his
dominions-Plan of a journey along the coast of Africa-
Debates on this subject--Departure for Algiers .......... 0


An accident happens to Montval and the Abb6 Doloni-Descrip-
tion of some animals of Morocco-Productions of the country
-Stratagem employed by Rolando and his companions to
cross the mountains of Trara in safety.................. 60

Antiquities of the kingdom of Algiers-Arrival in this capital-
One of the travellers accused of having profaned the great
mosque-Departure from Algiers-Continuation of the journey
along the coast of Africa-Ruins of Utica and Carthage....... 74

Rolando and his companions visit the bey of Tunis-Description
of some animals of Barbary-The French consul at Tunis
sends for Rolando, and gives him some intelligence of his
father-Rolando and his friends disgraced at the court of
Morocco-The emperor, enraged at the flight of Dr. Codonel,
requests all the other governments to have his countrymen
arrested-Their departure for Alexandria................ 82

Arrival in Egypt-Ruins of the ancient city of Alexandria
-Cleopatra's obelisk-Pompey's column-Modern Alex-
andria................................................ 94

The Abb6 Doloni, Montval, and Ingardin, think of separating-
Rolando persuades them to change their intention-Account
of the catacombs of Alexandria, and of some Egyptian ani-
mals-The jerboa and ichneumon-Departure for Rosetta-
Description of that city and its neighbourhood........... 102

Arrival at Cairo-Description of that city-Anecdote character-
istic of the manners of the country-Account givenby Segnier
of his travels in the Thebaid-Coptish monks-Red Sea or
Arabian Gulf-Isthmus of Suez....................... 114

Public ovens established at Cairo for hatching chickens-
Rising of the Nile-The travellers are informed that the



plague is at Alexandria-They take measures for avoiding it,
and leaving Egypt-As they are waiting to depart, a party of
the travellers go and visit the pyramids and catsoombs of
SakharaAn accident happens to Segnier in the interior of
the great pyramid-Descent of the Abb Doloni into a cata
comb.....................**...*..* ** .************ 125

Praise of the Egyptian asses-A wind, in consequence of which
the travellers are attacked with an inflammation in the eyes-
Singular treatment which they undergo-General insurree
tion-Rolando returns to his companions, and brings back Dr.
Codonel with him-History of the latter since his flight from
Morocco-Departure for Upper Egypt ................17

Sail up the Nile-Ruins of the Labyrinth-Lake Mmris-Ruins
of Arsinoe-Of the city of Thebes-General view of Egypt-
Crocodiles-Rolando and his companions surprised by the
Arabs-Battle-The Arabs put to flight-Rolando appointed
chief of the caravan--His train--They take the way to
Abyssinia ...................................... 181

Proposal of Martin de la Bastide to go to Abyssinia by sea-
Reasons of its rejection-Description of the Oases, or islands
in the sand-The Abb6 Doloni wishes to discover the Temple
of Jupiter Ammon-Conditions on which Montval consents to
accompany him-An adventure befalls Chiousse........ 189

Rolando and his companions set out from the great Oasis, and
penetrate into the desert- Columns of moving sand-Simoom
-Terror of the travellers-History of an Arab who attempts
to carry off the camels of the caravan during the night-
Arrival at Selima .................................. 180

The caravan leaves Selima, and passes through Dongola and
Gerry-Hunt of the hippopotamus on the banks of the Nile-
Arrival at Sennaar-Dr. Codonel is shut up in the gardens of
the palace; how he gets out-Tempest in the desert-Syphon
-Village of the Nubas--ising of the moon .......... 188


Stay at Teawa-Conduct of the sheik-Chace of the elephant
and rhinoceros-The sheik discovers himself, and attempts
to rob the caravan-Gallant resistance of Rolando-Departure
from Teawa- How Rolando and his companions escape a
new danger on the frontiers of Abyssinia-Plot of the shiek
detected by Segnier ............................... 209

Arrival at Gondar-Manners and customs of the Abyssinians-
Bolando and his companions introduced to the king-Em-
bassy of the prince of Shoa, and of the chief of the Gallas-
Digression describing a journey to the sources of the Nile-
Project of the king for giving a grand entertainment to the
ambassador of the Gallas -Brilliant preparations for this
purpose *....0................................... 231

Bad success of the fire-works-Description of the accident they
occasion-Rolando and his companions arrested by order of
the King of Abyssinia-Their departure in the middle of the
night-They take the road to Masuah; cross the Red Sea,
and penetrate into Arabia ........................ 252

Rolando and his companions find an asylum at the house of
an Arab-Dr. Codonel sent for by the dola, who abandons his
prejudices, and forces the custom-house officers to restore the
goods-He invites the travellers to spend some days at his
country-house--Description of it-Plants and birds of Arabia
-Change of fortune--The travellers seized at the dola's house,
and carried to Sana, by order of the prince of Yemen... 276

Particulars relative to the office and power of the imam-Route
from Mocha to Jerim, and from Jerim to Damar-Arrival at
Sana-Train of the imam coming out of the great mosque-
Description of the capital of Yemen-The travellefs thrown
into prison-Historical digression concerning the latter revo-
lutions of Arabia Felix .............................. 287

Bolando and his companions brought before the tribunal of the
kadis-Revolution at Sana-The kadis besieged in the hall


of audience-Death of the imam-Rolando defends the kadis,
and becomes their protector-Khassem and El Hammer order
a prosecution against the murderer of the imam-Ali-Kija,
son of Elmansor, named his successor-The travellers e
great favour-Orders given to seize the dola of Mocha-How
Ingardin procures information relative to the administration
of Yemen ...................... ............... 800
Seizure of the dola of Mocha-He is conveyed to the palace of
the imams-How Rolando and his companions received him
-Trial of the dola--His condemnation-Rolando quiets his
fears-Grand festival given to him-Concert .......... 810
Account of the manners of the Arabians-Pilgrimage of Mecca
-Description of that city and of Medina-Tomb of Mahomet
-The wandering Arabs, or Bedouins-Particulars relative
to the Arabic language and writing-New system of taxation
presented by Ingardin to the council of state-Trial of it in
the city of Sans-The travellers obliged to quit Arabia in
haste ............................................ 8
Storm in the channel of Mozambique-Shipwreck of the travel-
lers on the coast of Africa--Their forlorn condition-Means
which they take for its melioration-Chiousse, Ingardin, and
several others sent to make discoveries-Departure for the
country of the Houtniquas-Violent tempest-Montval car-
ried off by the Caffres-Resolution taken by Bolando and his
companions-Assemblage of all the Hottentots in the neigh-
bourhood-Description of their persons and dress...... 885

Arrival of different troops of Hottentots-Description of their
dress and arms-Nation of the Gonaquas-Rolando and
the Hottentots pursue the Caffres-Meet with a porcupine
-River of Elephants-The Caffres routed-What happens
to Montval after his rescue-Rolando and his friends take
the road to the Cape............................ 868

Rolando and his companions, in their journey from Cafaria to
the Cape, come to the assistance of a traveller in danger of a
tragical death-History of the traveller-Account of some
savage animals-Chase of the elephant and cameleopard-
Natural history of these animals............ ....... 881



Journey from the frontiers of Cafraria to the Cape-Montval
lies in wait for a bird called the Secretary, or Serpent-Eater-
What befalls him-How he escapes from great danger-Me-
morable combat with two lions-Arrival at the Cape of Good
Hope-Description of the Cape and its vicinity ....... 406

Rolando receives news of his family-His father has equipped
three vessels to sail in search of him into different seas--
Arrival of the ship Sirius at the Cape, commanded by Captain
Bramapan-Rolando makes acquaintance with some new
companions-Departure for Batavia, the place fixed for the
rendezvous of the three vessels, where Rolando is to meet
his father, mother, and brothers, Don Juan and Don Pedro
-Account of the voyage-Description of the isle of Java-
Manners and customs of its inhabitants............ 429

Rolando and some of his companions invited to dine with a
naturalist near Batavia-Their reception-Description of the
Ouran Outang, an ape from the island of Borneo-Long dis-
sertation of the naturalist on the various dishes on the table
-Arrival of the ship Pelican at Batavia-Return of Rolando
to that city-Digression descriptive of Bengal ......... 445

Further digression respecting Bengal-Cocoanut-trees-Opium-
gathering-Tempest-Don Juan, the brother of Rolando, cast
on shore in Java-Unfortunate voyage of the elder Rolando-
Burning of the Centaur at sea-How the family of Rolando
made their escape-New dangers-The Rolandos escape, and
take refuge with the king of the Maldives............. 465

Conclusion of Don Juan's narrative-Present of the naturalist
Boufftar to Rolando-Description of the cassowary-Rolando
and his companions leave Batavia for the island of Ceylon-
How they succeeded in procuring cowries there-The money
of the Maldives-Departure for these islands-Meeting with
a ship-Digressive account of Madagascar-New misfortunes
-Resolution taken by Rolando ..................... 488




ROLANDO was born in a valley of Upper Provence,
near the village of Peounes, which is surrounded by
the Alps, and where winter reigns during nine months
of the year. Fields encrusted with frost, and moun-
tains covered from their bases to their summits with
snow of a dazzling whiteness, were the objects that
first struck his sight. It appears certain that his
family was of Spanish origin; that one of his ancestors,
Rolando de Fabricii, had possessed a distinguished
office at the court of Madrid, in the time of Charles V.
and that he followed this prince into Italy, a short
time after his resignation of the empire. If we may
believe a historian of that period, it was for voting in
the council against this resignation, that Philip II.
banished him to the mountains of Piedmont. It was
in this banishment that he purchased the estate of
Peounes, with the wreck of his fortune, for he had
ruined himself by his long journeys in the train of the
eis descendants enjoyed this estate till the begin-
ning of the 17th century: at this period, one Jerome
Maria Rolando came to Paris, in search of some mili-
tary employment, with permission of the court of Turin,
of which he was a vassal. This Jerome Maria, desert-
ing the principles which he had inherited from his
fathers, soon contracted a habit of expense which he


could not support without utter ruin. It is easier to
dissipate a large fortune, than to raise a small one by
honourable means. Jerome Maria Rolando accord-
ingly was soon reduced to poverty. He could not
obtain anything from the French ministry, and was
obliged to sell his estate of PWounes to satisfy his cre-
ditors. It was then that, after making serious reflec-
tions on his past conduct, he took the laudable resolu-
tion of going to reside upon a farm, the only one which
still belonged to him, two leagues distant from Peounes,
in the French territory. His experience of the world
taught him to quit it without regret, and solitude
became daily more dear to him.
His education had made him acquainted with all the
detail of a country life: he did not disdain its labours,
and his farm soon became one of the most fertile of the
district in corn and flocks. But in vain did he adorn
the condition of a husbandman by his talents and ac-
knowledged probity; he lost, with his estate of P6ounes,
all his consequence among the neighboring gentle-
men. He took care to visit them after his return from
Paris, and to inform them that he was about to become
a cultivator of the earth, after the manner of the
ancients; but meeting only with a cool reception, or
empty expressions of pity, he began to make some
rather melancholy reflections on the slightness of those
ties by which the majority of persons are connected;
and he concluded that men have few friends, but that
rank has many, and wealth still more. He separated
himself thenceforth from the society of his proud neigh-
bours; and, wrapped up in the cares of domestic eco-
nomy, he thought of nothing further than to procure
himself happiness in the society of a young companion,
who might bring him new means of enlarging his
flocks and increasing his harvests.
A good farmer, informed of his design, and wishing
for the honour of his alliance, offered him his daughter,
with a hundred sheep, two cows, a sheep-cot, and
twenty-five acres of cultivated land. Jerome Maria



Rolando accepted the offer with joy, and Theresia be-
came his wife. She joined to singular beauty all the
other gifts of nature that Rolando, as a farmer, could
desire m a wife. He was happy with her, and owed his
happiness to the mediocrity of his station. Content-
ment, so rare in great cities, is still common among the
Alps, in those valleys defended by their ruggedness
from the approach of corruption. The inhabitant of
the Alps is poor but satisfied. Nature has allotted him
a hard and stony soil, but his plough opens it, and his
seeds spring up. A long winter encroaches upon his
tardy spring, and his cool valleys are surrounded with
eternal ice; but the purity of his manners repairs the
cruelty of fate, and even the contests of the elements
turn to his advantage.
Jerome Rolando had only one child by Donna
Theresia, Jaques Antonio, who afterwards became the
father of Alphonso Sebastian, whose adventures we
propose to relate. Should any one be surprised to hear
us call Theresia, the farmer a wife, Donna, he must
have forgotten that the Rolandos were of Spanish race,
and that, notwithstanding his seclusion from the so-
ciety of the gentlemen his neighbours, and his con-
tempt for riches and honours, Jerome Maria Rolando,
grandfather of Alphonso Sebastian, paid tribute to
human frailty in several instances which we must not
omit to mention; for these little anecdotes are often of
more importance to the knowledge of the human mind
than the most prominent traits of history. He affected,
then, to call his wife Donna Theresia, that people
might not be ignorant that he was a Spanish gentle-
man by birth; for at this period the title was confined
to the wives of persons of that rank. He called him-
self Don Rolando, contrary to the custom of his ances-
tors, who in Piedmont had taken the title of Signor,
and in France that of Monsieur. He placed his arms
over the humble entrance of his farm, and thd walls of
his sheep-cots were adorned with battlements. He
never appeared at his parish church on festival days


without a laced hat, and a long sword, which he said
was the same that his grandfather, Jaques Jerome
Alphonso, had wielded at the famous battle of Pavia,
in which Francis I. was taken prisoner by Charles V.
He even added, that the emperor owed his life to the
bravery of this trusty knight, and the victory to his
counsels. No stranger came to visit him without
hearing him enumerate the Roman consuls who, like
himself, held the plough with one hand, whilst they
gained victories with the other.
This was the only tribute that Don Jerome Maria
Rolando was observed to pay to Castilian pride: in
every other respect we cheerfully propose him as a
model to all farmers to come. He was a good husband,
a good father, a good friend, and a good neighbour.
He, as well as Donna Theresia his wife, attained to a
very advanced age, and tears of sincere regret were
shed at the death of each.
The son of Jerome Maria did not derogate from the
virtues of his father; but he was less fortunate in the
cultivation of his farms.
It appears that private persons, like empires, have
their moments of favour, and moments of disgrace;
days of elevation, and days of decline. Jerome Ro-
lando had carried the producer-ofhis sheep-cots, his
meadows, and corn lands, to its highest pitch. He
was not contented with ordinary exertions; he had
cleared several uncultivated lands on the declivities of
the mountains: and what ought to have increased its
revenues was destined one day to cause the destruction
of his farm. Two years after his death, excessive rains,
brought on by a south wind, falling on the mountains
which were still covered with snow (it was about the
end of May), torrents were formed upon them, which,
meeting with no obstacle in land newly cleared and de-
spoiled of the roots of trees, those natural bonds which
serve to fasten down the soil to the rock on lofty moun-
tains, rushed furiously down into the valleys, carrying
away with them the soil and fragment of rock, and


depositing in the meadows and corn-fields below, such
a heap of sand and gravel, as entirely to rob the unfor-
tunate owner of every hope of harvest.
Jaques Rolando was on the eve of marriage with
the daughter of a rich farmer when this misfortune
happened. But as the flood had made the same
ravages on the land of the latter, his honour was not
even put to the trial. The marriage was completed
without any obstacle, but with this difference, that
instead of riches and honour, poverty was the dowry
of the young couple.
It is said that three things are equally necessary
for success in the management of a farm : knowledge,
power, and will. Now, our young couple understood
the art of agriculture perfectly well, and they wished
to succeed in it: but they wanted the power; and,
notwithstanding they led a most laborious life, they
in vain endeavoured to raise themselves to that happy
mediocrity which the wise man himself makes the
object of his desires.
In the mean time, their family was increasing, and
their income was insufficient for its support. One
day, when Jaques Rolando had been calculating the
deficiency of his means, he called his wife, and
addressed her in the following manner:-" Donna
Maria, when you allied yourself to the noble blood
of Rolando, it behoved you to raise yourself above the
thoughts and sentiments of a vuloar woman. I ask
of you a sacrifice painful to the Yeart of a mother;
but it is one that I have a right to expect." Donna
Maria testifying her entire devotion to his will, he
continued-" I desire that you will not oppose my
intentions, should it become necessary that Don
Alphonso, our eldest child, should be separated
from us."
Donna Maria could not restrain her tears at these
words. Her son Don Alphonso had completed his
sixteenth year. His precocious and active genius
anticipated the lessons of his father, and he passed



the greater part of the day in the library. This
library had belonged to his grandfather. His curi-
osity was peculiarly excited by books of voyages and
travels: the discovery of the Cape de Verd islands,
by Antonio de Noli; that of the passage to the East
Indies by the Cape of Good Hope, by Vasco de
Gama; and that of America, by Columbus, raised his
enthusiasm more than all the rest. If his father com-
plained to him of the bad soil of his farm: Why,"
e would exclaim, do you not carry your labour and
your industry to New Holland or Canada ? Is there
no good land in the world to be cultivated? It is
your own fault, if you remain in these ungrateful
valleys." Jaques Rolando loved to receive from his
son these reproaches, which announced grand ideas
and a noble emulation. It was easy to foresee, from
remarking the nascent tastes of Don Alphonso, that
his destiny would one day lead him across the sea.
The childhood of man is a mirror, in which, with
more observant eyes, we might see his whole future
life in miniature. Gassendi, whilst yet a child, amused
himself with throwing little stones and leaves from
the top of a steeple. He already studied, as it were
instinctively, the laws of the falling bodies. The
astronomer, Tycho Brahe, in his childhood read
nothing but almanacks. He would sigh after an
eclipse of the moon several months before it was to
happen; and almost all celebrated men furnish us
with some similar anecdote.
Jaques Rolando, in order to spare the sensibility of
Donna Maria, would not at first communicate to her
the full extent of the sacrifice that he required, and
he deferred till another day to disclose the remainder
of a secret which the anxiety of maternal love had
already penetrated.
He sought for an opportunity of sounding the incli-
nation of his son; and wishing to explain himself to
him with regard to his future destiny, with all the
freedom and sincerity of a father, he joined him as


he was employed in pruning some trees near the farm.
"Follow me, Rolando," said he, approachin him.
The young man immediately suspended his labour,
with a smiling air, and followed his father.
Jaques Rolando walked on in silence, and seemed
meditating what he ought to say to his son. The
latter, divided between the curiosity so natural to his
age, and that filial respect which the ancient manners
impressed with more force than modem ones on the
minds of children, wished at every step to begin the
conversation, but was continually prevented by the
fear of appearing inquisitive.
They crossed in silence a little solitary wood, and
climbed the summit of a hill gilt by the rays of the
setting sun. There Jaques Rolando invited his son to
sit down by his side, r iade him admire for a moment
the vast and magnificent spectacle which was unfolded
before their eyes, tenderly pressed his hand, and with
an air of mingled gentleness and gravity, began as
follows:-" Rolando, so long as I preserved the hope
of keeping you with me, and leaving you at my death
a small but assured fortune, I left you in ignorance of
a secret, the knowledge of which might have rendered
less pleasant to you the mode of life for which you
were destined by your parents. Persuaded, as I am,
that riches do not suffice to render their possessors
happy, I wished still to conceal from your young eyes
the road which may one day conduct you to them:
but my situation is growing worse, and I am the
father of several children. A great sacrifice is imposed
on me. The ungrateful soil that I cultivate, will no
longer suffice for our support-we must part. Let
not these words trouble you. There are circumstances
in life in which a man has occasion to exercise the
virtues of firmness and courage. The separation I
propose will indeed be painful, but it is necessary. It
is distressg to nature; but reason commands it, and
I ought to obey her voice.
"You have learned something from the accounts

of historians and travellers, of that celebrated country
of the new world where gold is almost as common
as iron; that country, the discovery of which would
have done honour to the Spaniards, had not their
cruel avarice deluged it with blood. One of the
brothers of your grandfather went, at the beginning
of this century, to settle there. He succeeded to his
wishes; and, rapidly acquiring a large fortune, he
died, leaving an only son. This son, seeing himself
possessed of so rich an inheritance, immediately
quitted Peru, and came to Europe with the design
of settling there. But soon regretting his native
country, and bearing about with him that ennui
which appears preferably to attach itself to the rich,
to lessen the envy that attends them, he announced
his intention of returning to Lima, the capital of
Peru, and proposed that I should accompany him.
SNo,' said I, 'my wishes are as humble as the farm
that I inherit from my fathers. I was born among
these mountains, and I will not leave them.' 'Peru,'
eplied he, has also its mountains, which rival the
Ips, and gold is concealed in their bosoms. If you
love a rustic life, I will make you a present of a fine
estate in the neighbourhood of Cusco. You will there
Spas your days pleasantly; and the sight of our
happiness will lessen my disgust for life.' Tese
proposals were tempting, and I was on the point of
accepting them: but wishing to recollect myself a
little before I took a final resolution, I turned my
steps towards the pine-wood which borders on our
dwelling. There, abandoned to my own thoughts,
measuring with my mind's eye the immense space
that I was invited to pass over, weighing in the
balance of reason the advantages of fortune against
those of independence, and endeavouring to penetrate
the two futurities which offered themselves to me, I
felt my perplexity increase every moment: it ceased
at once, when, leaving the wood, I cast my eyes over
the horizon that is now spread before us. 'Humble


dwelling of my father,' cried I, melting into tears, 'can
I resolve to quit you ? No gold, indeed, is concealed
in the rocks which surround you, but herbs suffcient
for my flocks grow on the summits of these mountains.
This farm is equal to my wants; I will never leave it.'
Having taken my resolution, it remained to impart
it to my kinsman. I did this with all the caution and
gentleness I was able; but, accustomed as he had been
from his birth to see every will bend to his, it was
impossible for him to receive my refusal without ex-
treme vexation. 'I see,' said he, in a terrible voice,
'that my person is displeasing to you: you renounce
the gifts of fortune because I offer them; it is self-love
that ruins you. Remain, then, since you choose it,
remain at the feet of these arid mountains: bury in
this obscure retreat the splendour of the family of
Rolando; snatch with difficulty a scanty subsistence
from an ungrateful soil. For my part, I am returning
to Lima: perhaps, for want of a relation, I shall fnd
some stranger who will accept of my benefits.' At
these words he left me, without permitting me to
embrace him. My endeavours to see him once more
were fruitless. He embarked a short time afterwards;
but as he was quitting Marseilles he left with a merchant
of my acquaintance a letter to me, conceived in the
following terms:-
"' I wished to have adopted you for my son, and
loaded you with benefits: if you could have foreseen
the pain that your refusal hath given me, you would
perhaps have spared it me. However this may be, I
am departing, and for a long time. May you be happy
in the midst of your mountains! Mayyou sometimes
think of the relation whom you have rendered unhappy!
If you should one day be the father of a numerous
family, and one of your children should consent to take
a voyage to Lima, perhaps, forgetting your unkindness,
and delighted to cultivate a branch of the stock of the
Rolandos, I may determine to do for him what I pro-
posed to do for you.'"



0 my father!" cried young Rolando, "dispose of
me as you please. I will go to Lima; I wil paint
your wretchedness to our friend, whose heart appears
naturally so good; and I shall certainly persuade him
to relieve you. I will remain with our benefactor till
his death; but as soon as I shall be no longer detained
by duty in that distant climate, I will return to enjoy
your society, and the day that I see you again will be
the most delightful of my life."
Jaques Rolando, touched with the willing obedience of
his son, would not conceal from him any of the obstacles
that might oppose the success of his mission. "It is
some years," said he, since I have received news of
Don Philip. Does he still live? Has he not bestowed
his benefits on some adopted son ? If he be dead, in
whose favour has he disposed of his property?"
Young Rolando, impatient to fulfil his destiny, offered
to go to Marseilles to gain information concerning Don
Philip; and his father consented.
The day of his departure having arrived, Jaques
Rolando led his son to a very high mountain, on whose
summit stands a column to Victory, a work of the old
Romans, which has hitherto resisted the scythe of
Time. The young man was ignorant of his father's
design in bringing him to this pace; but the latter was
convinced that there are solemn epochs in life when it
is good to take some natural or artificial monument to
witness a great truth, the memory of which is to be
deeply engraved on the heart of a young person. "See,
my son," said he, how all nature appears to listen in
silence to the words of your father ? I am about to
lose sight of you for the first time. You are, first in
your life, leaving your native farm. The information
you will receive from the merchant to whom I shall
send you at Marseilles will, in all probability, lead
you to set sail for Lima; but whatever may be the
result of this step, whether Providence destine you to
remain in Europe, or lead you to Peru, may you always
hold sacred the principles in which I have educated



your childhood 1 Promise me in the sight of Heaven to
be always faithful to them; and should you ever be
tempted to become perjured, recall to your mind the
column of Victory, and your father, who at the foot of
that column received the vow of your heart." Moved
by these affecting words, young Rolando raised his
hand and fell on the neck of his father, who pressed
his son in his arms, and bathed him with his tears.
"With these resolutions," said he, "I promise you
victory over your own passions, and a happy destiny.
Fortune will m vain exhaust her whole quiver on you:
you will vanquish her in the end, and bring her into
subjection by showing yourself superior to her malice."
As he spoke these words, they descended the moun-
tain in solemn meditation; and as everything was
prepared for his departure, Rolando determined that
his son should set out at midnight, without taking
leave of his mother, that she might be spared the
anguish of such a parting.
He accompanied him to the next town; and had the
satisfaction, before he left him, of giving him into the
care of a merchant of his acquaintance who was going
post to Marseilles.

WHILsT young Rolando had his father still by his side,
no painful reflections had mingled with his transports.
He did not yet seem to have quitted the bosom of his
family. But when he was, for the first time in his life,
entirely abandoned to himself; when his eyes no longer
met those of his father; when his hand no longer
held that of the author of his days, he was moved,
and his eyes filled with tears. The remembrance of the
past took strong possession of his fancy. He thought



of the pleasures of his childhood, of the sweet caresses
that he had received from his mother, and the little
plays that he had invented with his brother and sister.
SI have left happiness behind me among the moun-
tains," said he; I have left all those who love me,
and am going to seek my fortune at a distance. Ah!
if I ever become rich, what a pleasure will it be to me
to bring my parents those comforts that they stand in
need off!"
It was in the post-chaise which was carrying him to
Marseilles that young Rolando thus abandoned himself
to reflections. His travelling companion, being a friend
of his father, had readily taken charge of him; but he
was a very silent man, with whom young Rolando
could not venture to begin a conversation. His name
was Dorinval. As soon as he got into the chaise he
covered his head with a cotton night-cap, and fell
asleep. He scarcely roused himself from his lethargy
for a moment when they stopped to change horses,
though, as he was charged with the common expense,
and the father of Rolando had entrusted him for this
purpose with his son's money, he was obliged at every
stage to open his purse, and to make a little memo-
randum of the travelling charges, to be divided upon
their arrival at Marseilles. He acquitted himself very
well of this employment; but he showed little inclina-
tion to converse with his young companion, or to give
him any information with respect to the country and
its productions. Like many other persons, he disdained
children, and was therefore sparing of his words. But
the young and interesting Rolando paid his court to
the postilions, asked them many questions, and learned
from them everything that he desired to know. If he
saw at a distance a mountain, a city, a village, or a
river, he immediately informed himself of its name,
which he never forgot after he had once heard it: so
true it is that the desire of knowledge is ingenious in
satisfying itself, and that he who wishes for informa-
tion will always find means to obtain it.


Dorinval, desirous of hastening his arrival at Mar-
illes, had intended to travel day and night without
topping; and at St. Maximin he went into an inn,
esigmnn only to sup. "One travels more pleasantly
with a fllstomach' said he: do not you think so,
young man?" and he went in without waiting for an
answer. Rolando followed him. They waited for the
repast, Dorinval employed in smoking his pipe, and
his young companion turning his observant glances on
everything around him.
They soon sat down to a noisy supper, as suppers
always are at inns where travellers of many different
countries, ranks, and ways of thinking, meet together.
Rolando was the only one who kept silence. His
father had recommended to him to speak little, and to
listen much; and he recollected this lesson. They
were still at table when Dorinval desired him to get
the horses put to, that they might be gone. e
wished for nothing better. He ran to tell his posti-
lion to get ready, and did not leave him till the horses
were harnessed to the chaise.
During this time a dispute had risen among the
guests on the subject of gaming. "The best piquet
player of the town of Draguignan is here," said one,
" and my neighbour is he. He fears nobody, but is
himself so much dreaded, that no person is sufficiently
rash to measure his strength against him." "Beg-
ing your pardon," said Dorinval, you exaggerate a
tte in his praise. Your neighbour is not unrivalled;
and I know those who would measure their strength
against him." "Who are they? name them!"
"Myself, perhaps." "You? what madness!" "Yes,
I myself. Learn that I am Dorinval; the name,
perhaps, is known to you. I have also some repu-
tation." Dorinval did, in fact, pass for a very
skilful player. The cards were brought, and the
two rivals sat down together. The other travellers
gathered round them, and betted, some on the side
of Dorinval, others on that of the player from


Draguignan. The game was about to begin. Hope
and fear were in every heart and every countenance.
Young Rolando came running to Dornval. "Mot
sieur Dorinval," said he, "the horses are put tot
carriage." Stay a moment," he replied, "I sh
have done immediately." A quarter of an hour passed
away, and the postilion began to be impatient. RoI
lando came in again. Come, Monsieur Dorinval"
said he, we are waiting only for you; the postilion
will be angry if you do not come." "Hold youru
tongue, and let me alone," was the answer. Another
quarter of an hour passed, and the impatience of the
postilion was raised to the utmost pitch. He dis-
mounted, and walking with difficulty in his enormous
boots, came himself into the room to call Dorinval,
and to swear at him. Dorinval, absorbed in calcula-
tions of the game, did not answer him. The postilion
then suffered all his ill-humour to break out, and
threatened to put his horses in the stable again. "Do:
what you please," said Dorinval, in a sharp toi
"but do not disturb me any longer." Great were
surprise and vexation of Rolando when he saw thel
postilion putting his threat in execution. In vai
did he conjure him to have a little patience. The pos-
tilion was inexorable. "Your companion," said he,
"is set down to gaming, which will hold him all
night." "All night!" exclaimed Rolando: "no,
that is impossible ? I will make him come to a resolu-
tion;" and he crept softly up to Dorinval. "The
horses are going to be taken off," said he, in a timid
voice: shall we not go, then ?" "Get you gone, you
disturb me," replied Dorinval, angrily. Go to bed,
we will set off to-morrow. Landlady, show the young
man to a bed." And he had nothing better to do than
to go to bed and fall asleep.
In the middle of the night, while he was sleeping
soundly, Dorinval came into the chamber, and, vio-
lently clapping to the door, broke into horrible impre-
cations. Rolando woke with a start. Observing the



convulsive motions of Dorinval, he thought that he
was ill, and ran to his assistance. Dorinval became
calm for a moment: he threw himself into a chair and
kept a mournful silence of some minutes-then a new
fit of desair seized him; he rose, pouring forth a tor-
rent of blasphemies; he cursed his existence, gnashed
his teeth, and resolved to kill himself. Rolando no
longer recognized in this frantic man the phlegmatic
sleepy Dorinval of the preceding day. Ignorant of
the cause of his fury, and not imagining that the loss
of a game could have such serious consequences, he
still supposed these transports of rage to be the effect
of some violent malady, and approaching him he en-
deavoured to persuade him to take some repose. But
Dorinval pushed him back with such force that he
fell down at the foot of his bed. Trembling and
affrighted, he dressed himself in haste, and ran down
to inform the landlady of the situation of his com-
panion, and to ask what assistance he stood in need of
m such a condition. Is Mr. Dorinval your father?"
asked the landlady. No; I should be sorry if he were.
What a difference there is between my father and
him My father is gentleness itself. His countenance
is as calm as a fine day. But this man's is like a
stormy day with thunder and lightning. He frightens
me." "This is owing to the vexation he suffered
to-night-he lost at play." That is a pretty reason:
when I play and lose, I am not vexed." "Perhaps
you would be as much distressed as he, if you were to
lose as much." "How much has he lost?" "All
his money." "All the money he had in his purse?
Then he must take some out of his trunk to-morrow!"
Alas, there is none left in it! He has opened his
trunk, and lost all that it contained." But he had
my money there too." "So much the worse: you
run a risk of losing it all." Ah, but I kilow how to
obtain justice, and even though his carriage should be
sold." "You speak of his carriage, but---" "Yes,
the carriage that we travel in." But it is no longer



his." How?" He has staked and lost it." 0
come, I see you are joking; you say too much for me
to believe you." Alas, I wish indeed, young gentle-
man, that these things had not happened, but---"
Here a terrible explosion was heard. The whole
house was shaken. Dreadful screams and cries of rage
succeeded. In an instant every person in the house
was on foot; the noise directed them to Dorinval's
apartment, and he was found stretched on the ground,
and weltering in his blood. He had attempted to
destroy himself; but the pistol which his desperate
hand had discharged at his head had deceived his aim,
and had only carried away a part of the lower jaw.
His wound was one that might be healed, indeed, but
he was disfigured for life. He was put to bed notwith-
standing his resistance, and everything was removed
out of his reach that might induce him to repeat his
rash attempt. A surgeon was sent for to dress the
wound, who answered for the cure. At the same time
a messenger was despatched to his family, to inform
them of the melancholy event that had taken place,
and of its cause. The messenger soon returned with
the brother of Dorinval, who hastened to defray the ex-
penses and losses which he had incurred. One of the
first cares of this estimable brother was to call Rolando
to him in private, to testify his sorrow for the interrup-
tion that he had suffered in his journey, and to reim-
burse him the sum with regard to which Dorinval had
so unworthily abused his trust. Furnished with this
money, Rolando took the road to Marseilles alone and
on foot, making by the way a thousand reflections on
the fate of Dorinval, and on the dreadful effects of a
passion for gaming.
How shocking is gaming!" said he. He who
plays loses in an instant, according to the caprice of for-
tune, the fruit of several years of labour. Dorinval, pos-
sessed of greater treasures would have dissipated them
all in an evening; the whole fortune of Don Philip at
Lima,inhis hands,would have melted awayinaninstant."



ROLANDO, born on a farm, and early accustomed to
support the most violent fatigue, had acquired a degree
of strength which is never attained by those who re-
main plunged in sloth and inaction. Tall and robust,
he determined to finish his journey on foot, for a distance
of several leagues was to him no more than a pleasant
walk. He had been travelling on for some hours,
abandoned to his own reflections, when two travellers,
slowly drawn along by a pair of hired horses, perceived
him, and, struck by his pleasing appearance, offered
him a place in their carriage. Rolando at first de-
clined; but, pressed by the travellers, he at length
accepted their offer.
These travellers by various questions soon got out
his history, and began to feel an interest in his fate.
One of them promised him, in case he should embark
for Peru, a letter of recommendation to a celebrated
botanist there. The other engaged to introduce him
to an academician of his acquaintance, who had under-
taken a voyage to Lima for the purpose of examining
the Peruvian antiquities. Rolando thanked them, and
in his turn asked several questions which rendered
him still more interesting to his companions. His
questions, dictated by an ardent desire of knowledge,
turned some on geography, and some on natural history.
Notwithstanding my desire to go to Lima," said
he, I feel some regret at quitting my native country
without knowing more of it. I should have wished to
travel through all the districts of Provence, to study
its climate and productions, in order to compare them
with those of Peru." Dr. Gerard, one of the tra-
vellers, replied, that if he had known him sooner, he
would have taken him with him in his botanizing expedi-
tions: For, some years ago," added he, I was in-
duced to travel all over this country for the purpose of


becoming thoroughly acquainted with its plants. Pro.
vence offers to the lover of botany an abundant harvest
of rare and curious species. Its southern situation;
the surface of the country, rugged in some places with
raggy rocks, adorned in others with picturesque and
smiling valleys; its temperature, torrid in its southern
parts, and almost frozen in its northern, cause it to
produce the vegetables both of the north and south.
The lofty Alps, which bound it on the north-east, bear,
besides the plants common to Switzerland, the Valais,
and Savoy, others peculiar to themselves, which were
unknown to the botanists till they were gathered by
my hand on these cold ridges. This chain of moun-
tains, which stretches from the east towards the south,
and bears the name of the maritime Alps, placed under
a lofty sky, produces and nourishes a great number of
plants which would languish, or would not spring up,
under a more severe cold. Those mountains situated
towards the south, which run from east to west, defend
the land near the sea-shore from the northerly winds;
and on these lands, whose southern exposure is so
favourable to vegetation, almost all those plants that
love a warm climate grow naturally. A perpetual
spring reigns there, and oranges and lemons embalm
the air with the delicious odour of their flowers.
How attractive is the study of Nature! I have
climbed the crags of all those mountains, and pene-
trated the depth of all their valleys. I have alter-
nately supported the excess of heat and cold; and
when I call to mind those laborious expeditions, I still
regret that they are past."
Here Dr. Gerard made Rolando remark the various
trees which offered themselves to their view on the
road they were travelling. Observe these banks,"
said he, adorned with rosemary and flowering broom.
Everybody knows the rosemary, and it would be much
more valued if it were a little less common. The
broom is a native of Spain: but it now grows naturally
in our woods. Those fine olive-trees that cover the


plain; the fig-tree planted in those smiling vineyards;
those almond-trees which adorn the hills; those mul.
berry-trees that you see here and there in long avenues;
and many other trees and shrubs which are now the
ornaments of this province, and which one is tempted
to believe natives of the country, have been successively
imported hither." "What cried Rolando, "has not
the olive been always cultivated in Provence? and are not
the almond, fig, and mulberry, natives of this region ?"
No, my friend," replied Dr. Gerard, the olive is a
native of Syria, Palestine, and the islands of the Archi-
pelago. We owe this tree to the ancient Marseillais,
who brought it from Greece. The fig-tree is now
naturalized in Provence, since it springs up in the clefts
of rocks where it has never been planted, multiplied in
this manner by seed: but we are also indebted to the
ancient Marsellais for this tree, which they must have
brought from the Levant, where it grows naturally, and
has been known from time immemorial. The almond
has been observed in several countries of Asia and
Africa, at Aleppo, at Tripoli, and throughout Barbary.
As to the mulberry, it is originally from China: thence
it has been brought to Europe without suffering any
injury; far from degenerating, its qualities seem even
to have improved."
When Dr. Gerard had pointed out to Rolando a part
of the remarkable plants of Provence, the other tra-
veller, the Abbe Doloni, spoke to him of the antiquities
of this province. Its history," said he, begins
with the foundation of Marseilles by a Phocean colony,
six hundred years before Christ. Prior to this epoch,
the country was only inhabited by rude tribes, who
lived near the coast by fishing, and in the inland parts
by hunting. The Phoceans taught the inhabitants to
assemble together in cities, and to cultivate the vine
and the olive, and a number of other fruit-trees, with
several kinds of legumes brought from Greece.
Desirous of searching out the traces of Roman
antiquities, even on the highest summits of mountains.



I have travelled throughout all Provence, and made a
most abundant harvest of medals, and Latin and Greek
inscriptions. Not far from St. Maximin (formerly
Villalata), on the steep declivity of Mount Aurelian, I
have discovered the vestiges of the Roman military
road which was founded upon it. At the foot of
this mountain I visited the wide plain of Pourribre,
in which Marius gained over the Ambroni and Teu-
tones that famous victory in which they lost two
hundred thousand men according to Livy, and a hun-
dred and fifty thousand according to Velleius Pater-
culus. The foundations of the triumphal arch which
Marius caused to be raised on the field of battle
still exist; and it was I who had the good fortune to
discover them on the left bank of the river Arc, not far
from great Pegibre. I have made very extensive re-
searches into the antiquities of Aix, the oldest city
possessed by the Romans in Gaul. It was built by
the Salluvii, a barbarous people, hostile to the Mar-
seillais, who calling in the Romans to their assistance,
the Salluvii were by them defeated 123 years before
Christ. The consul Sextius Calvinius, after the defeat
of the Salluvii, pitched his camp on the field of battle.
The soldiers lodged at first in wooden cabins; they
afterwards built houses, and the town was already
formed, when Caesar sent a colony thither."
These details, and others too long to relate, so in-
terested Rolando, that he never once felt the distance
of the way. They arrived at Marseilles about sunset,
and the view of this grand city made his heart beat.
As he did not wish to separate from his two travelling
companions, he engaged a lodging with them at their
inn; but impatient to gain some information with
regard to Don Philip, he got a person to conduct him
to the house of his father's correspondent. He lived
at the port. Rolando admired the striking sight of
the ships which were collected there from all parts of
the globe: in this place he saw an epitome of the
whole world, with its various customs, manners, and


languages, and he felt his maritime taste confirmed.
He always assured those who have known him since,
that in all his travels by sea and land, no impression
ever effaced that which he received at this period, and
he loved, to the end of his days, to recall the recollec-
tion of it.
The sentiment of astonishment and pleasure that
Rolando had just experienced from. the animated scene
of the port, soon gave place to a painful one, when he
learned that the correspondent of his father and Don
Philip, that correspondent who was to give him news
from Lima, had embarked the day before for Cadiz.
This disappointment was like a thunder-stroke to him.
He returned mournfully to his inn, and his air of con-
sternation soon informed his travelling companions that
his hopes had been disappointed.
Occupied in considering the course which he ought
to take, he left the city the next day, and directed his
steps to the solitary sea-shore. Arriving at a wild
and insulated spot, he sat down at the foot of a rock
from which a pine-tree started out, forming a shade
with its dark foliage from the heat of the sun. He
cast his eyes over the vast expanse of waters. He saw
waves urged by waves rolling on and breaking against
the sands of the beach with an awful sound; and this
sound, broken by intervals of silence, moved all the
faculties of his soul. He saw at a distance vessels
with their spread sails proceeding towards the east, or
returning. Fishing-boats were floating along the
shore, and the gulls (a kind of sea-birds somewhat like
pigeons) were proudly soaring above the troubled
waves. Old hulks of ships were moored along the
shore, and little shoals of fish were playing in the
bosom of the blue waves near the sandy beach. Ro-
lando enjoyed the prospect for some time, forgetful of
his misfortunes. But soon the subject of his grief
aganm presented itself, and the view of the surrounding
objects redoubled the feeling. As the agitated waves
rapidly succeeded one another, so the most opposite

projects swelled successively in his romantic imagina-
tion. Shall I return to the foot of the Alps," said
he, or shall I immediately prepare to embark for
Peru ? Shall I wait here for my father's correspondent,
or join him at Cadiz ?" Rolando returned to the town
without having formed any determination. Doctor
Gerard and the Abbe Doloni advised him to write to
his father for advice, and to wait at Marseilles for his
answer, which would certainly prescribe the course he
ought to follow. He wrote accordingly, and felt
easier after he had done so.
In the mean time, some of the travellers lodging at
the same inn were preparing to go by sea to the fair
of Beaucaire, with a very rich cargo. As they were
all supping together, these men announced their inten-
tion of embarking the next day, and, in a friendly
manner, invited their fellow-lodgers to join an expedi-
tion which did not threaten the least danger, and would
be, in fact, nothing more than a party of pleasure.
The proposal was accepted by some of the guests with
acclamations so noisy, that the voices of the others
were overpowered, and, willing or unwilling, they were
obliged, glass in hand, to engage in this little voyage.
Dr. Gerard was the only one who got himself excused
on account of business; in vain did Rolando plead
want of money; his apology was not admitted: the
others charged themselves with his expense. This
determined him to try the sea; and he took this reso-
lution with the more pleasure, as the Abb6 Doloni was
to be one of the party. The tartan on which our
voyagers embarked, was newly built, and belonged to
a merchant named Jerome Duvel. Several private
persons of his acquaintance had contributed to its
loading, and were themselves going to Beaucaire to
dispose of their merchandise. The hope of the profit
they were about to make, gave them all a sprightly
gaiety, which sparkled in their eyes, and animated
their conversation. The fair of Beaucaire assembles
in that city a crowd of merchants from all parts of


France, and even from the neighboring countries
The facility of approaching it from the sea, by sailing
up the Rhone, or from the interior of France, by sail-
ing down the same river, makes it a general emporium
of commerce; but the rich cargoes that come to this
city, especially by sea, sometimes awake the daring
rapacity of the Barbary corsairs.
These pirates have often been known preferably to
select this time for exercising their depredations on the
coast. They conceal themselves in the most private
recesses of the shore, and, favoured by the solitude
and darkness of night, fall upon boats sailing alone,
carrying off the merchandise contained in them, fetter
the sailors and passengers, and sell them for slaves on
the coast of Africa.
One of these corsairs, lying in ambush under shelter
of a rock, unfortunately perceived the tartan carrying
our voyagers, bore down upon her, and commenced
the attack with such impetuosity, that the crew had
not time even to recollect themselves. Imagine their
terror and surprise! Imagine the consternation of
Rolando, when he found himself on board an Algerine
vessel; saw himself thrown with the rest into the
hold, and anticipated the dreadful futurity which
awaited him. The Abb6 Doloni was accidentally
placed near him, and, after lamenting with him their
common fate, attempted to raise his courage by telling
him that almost all the great men of antiquity had
suffered similar reverses of fortune.
Delighted with so rich a capture, the corsairs made
for the coast of Algiers under sail, calculating, by
anticipation, the sums they should receive by the safe
of their slaves. Their ship sailed swiftly on; but
after two days navigation, the wind, which till then
had favoured them, became contrary. A furious tem.
pest arose: the sea, shaken as it were from its very
foundations, wore the most threatening aspect. Its
black mountainous billows dashed against each other
with horrid roarings, and clouds of snowy foam sprang



from their shock. The vessel was rocked in the most
frightful manner; it became impossible to steer her.
For some hours she was the sport of the tempest: at
length, in the darkness of the night, she ran aground,
and struck upon a rock on the coast of Morocco.

ROLANDO having written some time afterwards an
account of his slavery among the Moors, in order to
send it to his father, we shall let him speak for
himself: the adventures of a traveller are always most
interesting when he is his own historian.
At the break of day," says Rolando, "the cor-
sairs, wishing to save themselves by making a sacrifice
of us, put out their boat, and, all getting aboard, left
us in a vessel about to be swallowed up by the
waves. We were standing on deck, hopeless of escap-
ing destruction, when we became witnesses of that of
our enemies. The waves were still furious; the boat
overset, and they were all drowned. Then, consulting
only my own courage, and wishing to seize the sole
remaining hope of safety, I threw myself into the
water, and, by the assistance of a plank which had
been torn off the ship, I was enabled to gain the land;
whence I made a sign to my companions in misfortune
to follow my example; which they all did, with more or
less readiness, according to the degree of their courage.
It was noon when we were all assembled together;
and whilst we were deliberating what course to take,
we were surprised by a troop of wandering Moors, who,
seeing a vessel wrecked, had hastened down from the
mountains, in order to take the crew prisoners.
These barbarians, after collecting us in a body,
and dancing around us, uttering cries of savage joy,
divided us into several parties, and carried us away
into separate tents. It was easy to perceive from this



ceremony that our fate was decided; that the Moors
had proceeded to a partition of their booty, and that
we had fallen to different masters; which would give
us the pain of a separation. Happily, the Moor who
had seized me had seized also some of the captives in
whom I was most interested. Martin de la Bastide,
an excellent geographer; the Abb6 Doloni, a learned
antiquary; Dr. Codonel, a distinguished surgeon
Chiousse, a great hunter; Ingardin, a farmer and
merchant, were joined with me, and carried into the
same tent.
The Moors lead a very wandering life. They live
sometimes in one place, sometimes in another, accord-
ng as they find it more or less fertile. As their
principal riches consist in their flocks, they shift their
abitation as soon as they have exhausted the pas-
urage of a district. They have nothing to do when
they change their place of abode but to take down
eir tents, which serve them for houses. These tents
are made of thick black cloth, woven of the hair of
the goat or camel. It is made about eighteen inches
wide: several breadths of it are sewn together to
enclose the tent, and two sticks set across to support
it. All their furniture consists in some straw ropes
to fasten their cattle; an earthen pot to heat milk or
dress corn; a mat, a knife, a pike, and a large flint,
that serves them for a hammer with which to drive
in their tent-pins. The men employ themselves in
hunting and keeping their flocks; the women in spin.
ning and preparing food.
"We passed two days without being put to any
kind of labour. Had my situation been less afflicting,
the figure which my companions and I made among
the Moors, whose language was unintelligible to us,
would have afforded me great amusement.
Immediately after we had been taken, we were
stripped of all our clothes, but the Moor to whose
share we had fallen, restored us a part of them at our
earnest entreaty. The venerable Dr. Codonel, how-


ever, in vain entreated to have his large cocked hat
returned, which the heat of the sun would have ren-
dered very useful. Ignorant of the Moorish language,
and not knowing how to make himself understood, he
gesticulated in a very pathetic manner. He laid his
hand on his head; then with both his hands he pre-
tended to put on his wig, to shew that he wanted his
wig as well as his hat. He pointed to the sun, and
then touched his eyes, to shew that its burning rays
injured his sight, already weak from age, and that
he wanted a hat: but it was in vain; the Moors did
not understand him. The doctor persisted; and still
striking his head with his hand, he pointed it out to
a Moor to shew him its baldness. To this expressive
sign he added the names of a hat and wig in several
languages, which were not understood. To explain
himself in a more intelligible manner, he imitated with
his two hands a triangle, the point of which was
placed on his forehead. But this sign, instead of
rendering his demand intelligible, only puzzled them
the more; and he had despaired of success, when he
perceived a troop of children who came playing with
his wig, which they passed, laughing, from hand to
hand. They had amused themselves with it all day:
they had hung it upon a tree, and exercised them-
selves in shooting at it with arrows; and the child
who had been skilful enough to shoot it down, had
received the honour of carrying it about on the end
of a stick, amid the acclamations of his companions.
They had first employed it to frighten the younger
children, who took it for a dangerous animal, from
its hair and its tail wound round with riband. At
length, as they were returning home in the evening,
the doctor suddenly recognized his beloved wig; and
taking it from the hands of the astonished little
Moors, he put it on. At this sight, the children
thought that he meant to play with them; and after
dancing round him and singing, they left it with him.
He contrived to recover his great cocked hat too; so



that, even in slavery, Dr. Codonel managed to be
dressed exactly in the same manner as in his own
"The first labour imposed upon us was togo and
fetch wood for the tent. For this purpose an ill-made
cord was given us, and a child went with us to shew us
what we were to take.
Although the country is quite covered with bushes,
these people take the greatest care to preserve them.
They never touch green wood, and sometimes we were
two hours together seeking for some that was dead. It
is difficult to express the pain that we endured in this
labour, easy as it seems: my companions especially,
who were older and more delicate than I, groaned
bitterly under the fatigues to which they were
"Some days afterwards our labours were divided.
Two of us were to continue to make a daily provision
of wood, another was to keep the camels, another to
churn the butter, and the rest to go in pursuit of a lion
who had, for some days past, committed ravages in the
"My companions were not very impatient to solicit
this latter employment. Dr. Codonel, as the eldest, had
the liberty of choosing first; for this the Moor had
left to us. He said that, loving repose and meditation,
he should be glad to have the keeping of the camels;
and that all his pleasure would be to sit under the
shade of some tree or rock, and think at his ease upon
the miseries of human life. Ingardin was to choose
next, and he said to us : My dear friends, I would will-
ingly go to the woods, but Iam afraid of losing myself.
My companion Codonel will do much better; the
camels will be his guides. He will have nothing to do
but to follow them at night in order to return to the
tent. But I should be alone with my faggot and
should infallibly lose myself. I would readily go to
hunt the lion; but, between ourselves, I should frighten
him much less than he would frighten me. Instead of


bringing back his spoils, I should certainly leave him
mine; m fact, the chances would be too much against
me in this chase. Nothing then remains for me but to
churn the butter. This task is not so glorious; but I
submit to it. By talking with the women of the house
I may perhaps learn the language of the country, and
find some means for our escape.'
"' And I,' said the geographer, Martin de la Bastide,
'will go to search for wood with the Abbe Doloni;
when we can make together some observations on the
topography of the country. I shall discover which will
be the shortest way to Algiers. If I can once gain
admission to the presence of the dey or the pacha, our
liberty is secured. My project of the junction of the
northern and southern seas by the lake of Nicaragua
must interest all potentates. I will demand, by the
right of nations, a conveyance for us to the court of
Madrid, to communicate this original scheme, the
advantages of which will be incalculable.'
"Thus spoke my companions nothing therefore
remained for me but the dangerous honour of going
with Chiousse in pursuit of the lion. I took my resolu-
tion, however, with so much courage, as to obtain a
compliment from my three companions, as well as from
the Moor. Dr. Codonel only said in a whisper, Go
and distinguish yourself; but as you are hunting the
lion, do not forget that I am going to keep the camels.
Pray do not drive him towards me. His presence
would frighten me very much, and exceedingly disturb
my reveries.' I satisfied him in the best manner I
was able, and we parted.
Before I speak of my chase, and how I contrived
to finish it successfully, I must give you some particu-
lars respecting the animal which was its object.
The pride and boldness of this formidable creature
are well known. His intrepidity is such that he never
appears terrified by the number of his enemies whether
men or beasts. If he do not meditate an attack, he
disdainfully passes by, and slowly continues his march.


If pressed by hunger, he throws himself indifferently
on any animal that offers, and resistance only increases
his rage. It is therefore very dangerous to wound
without killing him. When compelled to retreat, he
moves slowly backwards, with his face towards the foe,
till he gains a place of safety.
SA Florentine gentleman had a mule so vicious,
that his grooms and servants could hardly approach it
without receiving a bite or a kick. Its master, after
employing in vain every means to render it more tract-
able, resolved to expose the creature to the wild beasts
in the menagerie of the grand duke. A lion was
accordingly let loose, whose roaring would have fright-
ened any other animal; but the mule wisely retired,
without shewing any signs of fear, to a corner of the
court, in which it couldbe attacked only from behind,
where its greatest strength lies, and in this situation
awaited the attack of its enemy, observing him all the
while from the corer of its eye, and presenting its
crupper. The lion, who appeared sensible of the diffi-
culty of the assault, employed all his address to catch
his foe at a disadvantage. At length the mule found
an opportunity to give im so violent a kick that nine
or ten of his teeth were broken, the fragments of which
flew up into the air. The king of beasts perceived
that he was no longer in fighting condition, and retreated
backwards to his den, leaving the mule master of the
The lion is capable of supporting thirst for a long
time; it is said that he drinks only once in three or
four days, but then takes a large quantity of water.
It is a vulgar error to believe that he dreads the
crowing of the cock; it has been found, on the con-
trary, that he pays little attention to birds; but it is
no less true that he is fearful of serpents. The resource
of a Moor, when pursued by a lion, is to take off his
turban and move it before him in the form of a serpent:
this sight is sufficient to compel the enemy to hasten
his retreat.


As the same people often meet with lions in
hunting, it is remarkable that their horses, though
celebrated for swiftness, are seized with such terror at
the sight, that they become motionless, and that the:
dogs, with equal timidity, come creeping to the feet
of their master or his horse. The only expedient for;
the Moor is to dismount, and abandon as a prey what
he cannot defend. But if the spoiler be too near, so!
that he has not time to light a fire to frighten him
away, nothing remains but to lie down on the ground
in profound silence. The lion, when not tormented
by hunger, passes gravely on, as though satisfied with
te respect shewn to his presence. The lion is of a large
size, supple, and well made. That of Africa is not less
than a barb horse. Though the lioness has only two
teats, she often brings four whelps, and sometimes
more. When the Moors find any n a cave, they do
not fail to carry them to the Europeans, who frequently
buy them. If the lioness be near enough to pursue
the robbers, they throw her one of her little ones; and
while she carries it to her den, they lose not a moment
in escaping with the others.
My courageous look, and that of my companion, in-
duced two slaves of the Moor to beg leave to accom-
pany us to the chase. The following day we armed
ourselves, and mounted our horses a little before sun-
rise. We had with us twelve dogs trained to the
pursuit of wild beasts, and accustomed to measure
their strength against them. We had hardly got into
the plain when we thought we heard at a distance the
roanng not of one lion, but several. This was the first
time had heard that sort of music, which had some-
thing terrific in it.
STo describe in the best manner I am able, the roar-
ing of the lion, I shall say that it is a hoarse, inarticu-
late noise, in which may be distinguished a deep hollow
note resembling that of a speaking trumpet. The
sound is between the o and u prolonged, and appearing
to proceed from under ground. I listened to it for a


long time with great attention, that I might discover
exactly from which side it proceeded.
"The voice of the lion has not the least resemblance
to thunder, as some travellers pretend: it appeared to
me that its roaring was in itself neither extremely
piercing, nor particularly terrible. However, its pro-
longed note, joined to the idea naturally formed of the
animal, makes a person shudder, even when he hears it
without any danger.
Our horses on hearing this distant roaring, gave
tokens of a certain uneasiness and dread, which would
have been much stronger had they not been already
trained and inured to the chase of the lion. Horses,
dogs, oxen, and generally all animals, experience at
the approach of this formidable creature a horror which
they cannot conceal. They sigh, draw back, throw
themselves on the ground, and fall into an agony re-
sembling that of death.
"It is a wonderful thing that Nature should thus
have taught other animals to dread the lion: and it
cannot be doubted that this fear is in them perfectly
instinctive; for horses and oxen, which have lived in
places where they could never know this terrible enemy
of their kind, experience the same feeling.
It might be thought that the roaring of the lion
would be a useful warning to other animals to flee his
approach: but as, according to the report of all travel-
lers, he puts his mouth to the ground when he roars,
his voice spreads equally all around, so that it is im-
possible to distinguish the quarter from which it pro-
ceeds. The animals, therefore, run this way and that,
not knowing what direction to take. In this disorder,
it may easily happen that some among them should
run towards the very place whence proceeds that ter-
rible voice from which they are endeavouring to flee.
We proceeded, however, with a steady countenance,
well prepared to give the lion a proper reception, should
he choose to come and meet us. Our resolution was
supported by the goodness of our arms and horses, the



strength and vigour of our dogs, and our own courage.
We had a wood on our left, in which we did not choose
to entangle ourselves, and let loose our dogs in hopes
of their harassing the lion and driving him out. As
there were four of us, we hoped to be able to succour
each other, in case the first or second shot should prove
When this animal sees the hunters still at a distance,
everybody agrees that he flies at full speed till he has
lost sight of them: if, on the contrary, he perceives
them near him, he then walks on with a gloomy aspect,
without any appearance of trouble or precipitation. It
seems as though he thought it beneath him to shew any
signs of fear. It is said also, that,a vigorous pursm
of horsemen soon provokes his resistance, or, at least,
that he disdains to flee for any length of time. He
alackens his pace, and soon does no more than put one
foot slowly before the other, always looking sideways
on his pursuers. He stops at length. and casting a
look all around him, he gives himself a shake, and
utters a sharp roar; which announces his indignation
and readiness to fall on the hunters and tear them to
pieces. This is the precise instant when the latter
ought to be at their post, or to draw back quickly to a
certain distance, without, however, separating too far
from each other.
"The one who happens to be nearest, or most advan-
tageously posted for piercing the lion to the heart,
should first dismount from his horse. He takes care
to secure his bridle, by passing it round his arm, and
fires his gun. Then, hastily remounting, he guides
his horse obliquely between two of his companions. If
he have only wounded the animal, or missed entirely,
he should give his horse the rein, and remount himself
with all possible speed from the pursuit of the savage;
but, in this case, one of the others always finds a
favourable opportunity to dismount and aim his stroke
with more coolness and certainty. Should he also fail,
which very seldom happens, the third pursues the lion,



who runs after the first or second shooter: and when
he comes within shot, he seeks an opportunity to fire
obliquely, the most favourable position when the ani-
mal is running. Should this third, too, fail, and the
animal turn upon him, the two others, who during
their flight have had time to load again, return quickly
to his assistance.
It is a rare thing for any one to perish in hunting
the lion on horseback; at least so the Moor assured
me. I also learned from him, that the lion is by no
means difficult to be killed with fire-arms. When he
receives a shot in the belly, he immediately begins to
vomit, and can run no further.
"We now found ourselves on the eve of making the
experiment. The roarings approached nearer, and we
expected every moment to see this formidable animal.
However, the dogs barked also with a terrible voice,
and we observed that they did not advance. They
seemed to have surrounded the lion, and to be holding
him at bay. This conjecture did not appear to us
very probable. But, an instant after, the shrill bark-
ings of the dogs, mingled with the tremendous roarngs
of the lion, assured us that the combat was begun,
that the dogs had fallen upon the lion, and that the
fate of this bloody strife was not yet decided. This
attack of the lion by trained dogs has almost always
the happiest success. The latter acquit themselves
wonderfly. When the lion sees them approaching,
his pride will not let him go any further. He sits
down and waits for them; the dogs then surround
him, and almost instantaneously tear him to pieces.
They seldom give him time to make more than two or
three strokes with his paws, each of which is a swift
and certain death to two or three of the assailants.
We had posted ourselves ready to fire on the lion
and avenge the death of our dogs, should he by chance
issue victorious from -the wood: but, to our great
surprise, the barking of the dogs and the roarngs of
the wild beast were still continued. It seemed srge

that the battle should be so long and obstinate: we
knew not what to conjecture, nor what part to take.
After having waited some time, more and more
astonished still to hear the same cries and clamour,
I proposed to my companions that we should pene-
trate into the wood to discover their cause. There
might, perhaps, be a little rashness in this step, but
we could not withstand our impatience. We directed
our course towards the field of battle; and great was
our surprise on perceiving our dogs barking round a
deep foss6, into which a monstrous lion had been
heedless enough to fall. It was a new sight to me,
to behold a lion taken in a trap: the king of beasts
was roaring with shame and despair.
It is said that at the moment when a lion is first
taken in a snare, he is so confounded that he easily
suffers himself to be chained; but here the presence
of the dogs had so irritated him, that his fury was
raised to its highest pitch of violence. We might
have killed him, but ingloriously. We knew, besides,
that the Moors are very desirous of taking lions alive,
for the purpose of selling them to the Europeans, who
sometimes pay a high price for them. We therefore
returned to the Moor to inform him of the capture,
and ask him how we should proceed. This conduct
of ours excited his anger. He sent us back imme-
diately to kill the lion, and bring back the spoils;
which we were obliged to do.
"We saw by the way various animals, which 1
knew only from the accounts of travellers; but,
unhappily, they fled in haste as soon as they per-
ceived us. We distinguished at a distance a panther,
remarkable for its beautiful spotted skin. It is about
the size and shape of a large dog, with this difference,
that its legs are not so long. Its air is fierce, its
eye restless, its look cruel, its motion quick, and its
cry like that of a dog when angry, only stronger
and more hoarse. The Moors sometimes endeavour
to tame panthers for the purposes of the chase. But


much care is necessary in training, and still more
precaution in guiding and employing them. They
are taken out on a cart, shut up in a cage, the door
of which iA opened when the game appears. The
panther darts out upon the beast, catches it generally
in three or four leaps, throws it down, and strangles
it. But if it happens to miss its aim it becomes
furious, and sometimes falls upon its master; who
usually prevents his danger by carrying with him
pieces of meat or live animals, such as lambs or kids,
one of which is thrown to it, to calm its fury.
"It is in the southern part of Africa, especially,
that panthers or leopards are tamed for the chase.
In these hot climates door's are exceedingly scarce.
There are very few but those which are imported;
besides, neither the panther nor leopard can endure
dogs: they appear to seek them out, and attack them
in preference to all other animals. The leopard and
panther often climb trees to lie in wait for animals
passing under, and leap down upon them.
"We had also a distant view of the dubbak
which is thought to be the same with the hyena.
It is about the size of a wolf, and of so savage a
nature that, though taken quite young, it seldom
becomes tame. It lives by rapine, ike the wolf, but
is stronger and more daring: it sometimes attacks
men and herds, closely follows the flocks, and often
breaks by night into stables and sheep-folds: its eyes
shine in the dark, and it is pretended that it sees
better by night than by day. Its cry, which we
heard across the wood, somewhat resembles the lowing
of a calf.
"The hyena defends itself from the lion, and does
not fear the panther. When prey is scarce, it digs
up the earth with its feet, and pulls out in fragments
the carcasses of beasts and men, which in the countries
where it inhabits are equally buried in the fields.
"We met with a jackal, an animal common in
Barbary, and all the parts inhabited by the lion and

panther. It, too, lives by hunting; but, being smaller
and much weaker, it has more trouble in procuring a
subsistence. It seems to have only what the others
leave it; and is often obliged to be contented with
their refuse. It shuns the panther, which exercises
its cruelty even when its hunger is appeased, but
follows the lion, who, as soon as he is satisfied, injures
nothing. The jackal profits by the remains of his
table: it sometimes even accompanies him very close,
because it can climb a tree and be secure from the
lion, who cannot follow it as the panther might. It
is for these reasons that the jackal has been said to
be the lion's provider or guide; and that the latter,
whose smell is not quick, was reported to make use
of it to smell out at a distance the other animals,
whose spoil he afterwards divided with it.
The jackal is about the size of a fox, but much
stronger and fiercer. It has been known to assail,
tear, and put to death in a few moments, a dog of
large size, who, fighting for his life, defended himself
with all his might. It cannot be tamed without great
difficulty; yet, when it is taken very young, and
educated with care, it may be trained to the chase,
of which it is naturally fond, and in which it succeeds
very well, provided it be never let loose but against
animals inferior to it in strength, and unable to make
resistance. Otherwise it is discouraged, and refuses
its services as soon as there appears to be any danger.
It is said to be used in India to catch hares, rabbits,
and even large birds; which it surprises with singular
"We were returning from our expedition; and, to
vary our route, were crossing a valley which lay a
little further towards the west, when we heard cries.
They proceeded from the slope of a neighboring hill,
and appeared to be those of a man imploring assist-
ance. As we approached the solitary spot whence
issued these cries of terror and alarm, we soon recog-
nised the voice of Dr. CodoneL He was at the top


of a tree, and was crying out with all his might,
Help, help! I am lost! 0, help, help I imme-
diately suspected that he was threatened by some
savage beast; and I was not mistaken. At the foot
of the very tree on which he had climbed we saw
an enormous buffalo, who was watching him with
very hostile intentions, and had already devoured
him with his eyes.
The buffalo, or wild ox, is another of the animals
of Africa, and is very common in Barbary. His
deep-set eye, placed near horns which hang down a
little over his pendant ears, with the custom of
holding his head on one side, gives him a ferocious
and treacherous aspect. The character of the animal
answers to his appearance. He may be called
treacherous; for he is accustomed to hide himself
among the trees, and lie concealed there till some
man or other animal passes near him, when he sud-
denly starts out, and sometimes catches him. He
also deserves to be called ferocious and cruel; for,
not content with throwing down and killing the man
or beast, he gets upon his body, tramples him under
his feet, rubs him with his knees, tears him with his
horns and teeth, and strips off his skin with licking
him. He does not exercise all his acts of cruelty
without some intervals; he goes away, from time to
time, to a certain distance, and then returns and
begins again. The buffalo, however, sometimes suffers
himself to be put to flight; but, turning again, he
frequently pursues in his turn the hunter, who has
then no resource but in the swiftness of his flight.
"Our arrival was a piece of unhoped-for good
fortune to poor Codonel. We fired upon the buffalo,
and brought him to the ground with the first shot.
Codonel was still so terrified, that he dared not believe
his own eyes. 'Is he quite dead?' cried he. 'May
I come down ? Do you answer for it that he is dead '
He came down at length; his face still pale. We
embraced him by turns, and led him back m triumph


to the Moor, who was beginning to be impatient.
The camels entrusted to the care of Codonel had taken
to flight; but they soon returned, and everybody was

WE had lived in slavery about a month without any
hope of escape. The degrading nature of our employ.
ments was less grievous to us than their melancholy
uniformity. We all secretly deplored our destiny, but
Dr. Codonel lamented his aloud. 'How much am I
to be pitied!' said he. 'You are young: you may
see an end to your miseries; but I shall never see an
end to mine. I am growing old; for ten years past I
have been tormented by a rheumatic gout, and the
voyage has awakened all my pains. Though the rigour
of slavery should not complete the ruin of a constitu-
tion already weakened, the change of climate, and the
fatigue of the voyage, cannot fail to do it.'
It was late at night when the good doctor made
us the depositaries of his reflections and complaints.
We listened to them till sleep, the repairer of the ills of
fortune, and friend of the unhappy, came to close our
heavy eyelids, and to soothe us with smiling images.
The doctor, drawn on by example, at length fell into
a slumber himself, and tasted, in sleep, at least, that
happiness of which he thought himself deprived for
One night, whilst the Moor was, like us, buried in
a deep sleep, some armed men made a sudden irruption
into our tent, and awoke us with a start. Alarmed at
the sight, we knew not what their arrival announced;
but the Moor guessed too well, and his first impulse
was to throw himself at the feet of the officer who

commanded them. 'You are unworthy of pardon,'
cried the officer. 'You have taken a prize: you have
furnished yourself with slaves, without declaring it to
the officer of the emperor; without paying him his
dues. Your infringement of the laws of the State has
been made known, and you shall serve as an example
to all those who shall be tempted to violate them in
future.' At these words the terrified Moor attempted
to justify his conduct, but he was not listened to. The
emperor of Morocco had given orders that he and his
slaves should all be carried off, and brought into his
presence. We were put in chains, and sent off.
We crossed many sandy deserts before we arrived
at the place of our destination. Dr. Codonel groaned,
Martin de la Bastide, and the Abb6 Doloni, gave
themselves up to the most flattering hopes. Ingardin,
who in his own country had the character of being a
little avaricious, behaved with firmness. 'The most
vexatious thing in this adventure,' said he, 'is, that
we shall not be able to recover our liberty without
paying enormous sums of money. Gain is their object:
if we could all pay a large ransom, we might be free
in a day. But it is better to submit to the chance of
After a journey of several days, we arrived at the
city of Morocco, where the emperor then was, though
he usually resides at Mequinez. I was contented and
satisfied. It appeared to me that we had nothing to
fear; that our master alone could have incurred the
penalty of breaking the laws, and that the result of the
audience we were about to have of the emperor, could
not but be very favourable to us.
"Scarcely had we dismounted at a kind of inn at
the entrance of the city, when I was recognized by a
merchant of Marseilles, with whom I had made an
acquaintance during the few days which I had passed
in that city, who had come to Morocco on business,
and was much surprised at seeing me there. By
means of applications and presents, he obtained permis-

sion from our conductors to speak with me in private.
I related to him my deplorable adventure. He ap-
peared touched by it; and my situation seemed to him
much more critical and dangerous than it did to
myself. You are going,' said he, 'to appear before
the emperor. Your fate depends on his caprice, and
ou hazard everything in presenting yourself before
im. As his judgments are extremely arbitrary, and
are executed on the spot, I will not conceal from you
that you are about to incur the greatest danger. The
government of the emperor Mohammed Ben Abdallah
is the more absolute, because the people believe him
descended from Mohammed. Many instances of
shocking cruelty are related of his predecessors, and
the present emperor has the same power in his hands.
I consider the condemnation of the Moor, who made
you slaves without the knowledge of the government,
as certain; and I tremble lest, in a start of rage, the
emperor should involve you in the same punishment.'
From these words, and still more from the terrified
air of my countryman, I saw that we had, indeed,
been wrong in feeling so secure, and I asked him for
more particulars; which he gave me. He related
several instances of the cruelty of the emperors of
Morocco, which made me shudder with horror. I
shall here mention some of them, to shew to what a
pitch of depravity the human heart may attain when
abandoned to its passions, and how these sanguinary
princes sport with the lives of men.
An emperor of Morocco, named Archi, had gone
upon an expedition against a dependent people who
had revolted. Having arrived at a certain town, he
commanded the citizens to prepare barracks for the
soldiers of his guard: on his return, finding the work
but little advanced, he took this negligence in the light
of criminal disobedience, and resolved to punish it.
Boiling with rage and fury, he caused two hundred
of the richest inhabitants to be brought, had them
bound to two hundred orange-trees which surrounded


the court of his palace, and exercised himself in
making a cruel butchery of these wretches; cutting
off, with his own hands, the heads of some, and the
legs or arms of others. He would in this manner
have massacred all these unfortunate people, had not
his murderous rage been calmed by an Arabian
grandee, whose daughter he had married. All those
whose life he spared were condemned to pay a large
fine. Muley Ismael, who succeeded him, was not less
inhuman; for barbarity is a kind of inheritance
transmitted by the emperors of Morocco to their suc-
As he was one day sitting, observing his labourers
at work, a negro slave came and threw himself at his
feet, complaining that he had not eaten for two whole
days. 'That is well,' replied the emperor, 'and I
know a secret by which you will be enabled to do
without bread for the rest of your days.' He then
caused the poor creature to be seized, and had all his
teeth pulled out in his presence, taking great pleasure
in this scene of cruelty.
"This same Ismael gave one of his wives a stroke
with a poniard for having heedlessly walked over some
meal; but soon repenting of having treated with such
cruelty a woman whom he loved, he sent for a Moorish
surgeon, and ordered him to cure her, upon pain of
being strangled. As the wound was mortal the efforts
of the surgeon to cure it were vain, and he suffered
the punishment with which he had been menaced.
"This prince had so strong a passion for building,
that he obliged all the citizens of the town of Me-
quinez, the captives, the soldiers, and even the lords
and princes of the blood royal, to labour at his edifices.
He set them the example, by carrying bricks and
mortar himself, and pricking on the workmen with
quick strokes of his lance. Few days passed in which
he did not kill some of these artificers. Often, too,
when he was very busy in any work, and very im-
patient to see it finished, he had a basin brought to



him filled with conscousou, a sort of porridge made of
rice and meal, and sitting down on the ground, ate it
in the most slovenly manner. Those weie highly
favoured, however, to whom he sent the remains of
this conscousou. Whenever he went from one place
to another, he was followed by several negroes, one of
whom carried his pipe, another his tobacco, a third a
brass vessel filled with warm water to wash his hands,
and others little short sticks, which he threw at the
heads of his workmen when they were too far off to
be reached by his lance.
SThe government of Morocco is the most rigorous
despotism, and the caprice of the monarch is the
supreme law. Everything belongs to him, both per-
sons and property, and no rank is exempted from his
servitude. There are pashas and alcaides who govern
provinces and cities with different degrees of power,
according to the pleasure of the emperor. The policy
of this prince, or rather his continual distrust of his
subjects, leads him to choose, for the government of
places at a distance from court, none but people little
conversant in affairs, and of small capacity, who are
incapable of forming plots prejudicial to his interest.
He grants them the enjoyment of some estates, which
return to his domain when he pleases. In a word, it
may be said that in this empire there is only one law,
which embodies all the rest; and that is, that every
one must, without delay or restriction, obey the com-
mands of the emperor, howsoever unjust or unrea-
"The monarch comes every day to a place of
assembly, where he administers justice. He gives
audience to everybody; subjects or foreigners, men or
women, rich or poor; all have a right to appear before
him, and to plead their causes, of which he is the
sovereign judge. He comes to the audience at eight
or nine o clock, surrounded by a great number of
soldiers. They who have any complaint to bring,
make him a present; without which preliminary no



one can speak to him. This present is proportionate
to the rank and fortune of the person. The smallest,
even down to two eggs, is accepted. Should a person
betray the least degree of timidity in speaking to the
emperor, he is reputed guilty, and is certain to lose his
"The governors of provinces have persons about
them to put in execution the orders of the prince, or
rather their own. They continually abuse the name
of their master, to enrich themselves, but they rarely
enjoy the fruit of their rapine. If they learn from
their spies that an individual has amassed any treasure
by pillage, or in the operations of commerce, they
demand of him a part, which the poor man is obliged
to give up, in order to save the rest. Should he refuse,
or deny having the sum demanded, they accuse him
before the emperor. At a moment when he suspects
nothing, orders arrive; all his property is taken posses-
sion of, and he is imprisoned, or sent before the
emperor, who rarely shows him any mercy.
"When the man is wise enough to foresee the
storm, he avoids the loss of his life and property by
procuring a retreat among a neighboring people, who
are always at war with the emperor of Morocco.
Should the Moor be fortunate enough to gain this
country, he is there in safety, and has nothing to fear
from the resentment of the emperor.
It is customary, when the emperor has condemned
a person to death for any crime to leave the body of
the criminal in the place where he has been executed,
till it may please the monarch to grant him a pardon.
The friends or relations then go to the body, announce
to it the pardon, and bestow on it the honours of
burial. They surround with walls the place of inter-
ment, and the memory of the deceased is then held in
great respect. If the emperor do not grant a pardon,
the Jews carry away the corpse; it remains unburied,
and becomes the prey of animals that live on carrion.
It must be confessed, that such information, with



regard to the characters of the emperors of Morocco,
and the customs of this barbarous people, were not
likely to raise our spirits. My countryman trembled
for us; and his zeal for our preservation was so great,
that he proposed to us to attempt an escape, by
gaining over the soldiers appointed to guard us.
"'Do you see mount Atlas?' said he to me,
shewing me, at the verge of the horizon, some moun-
tains covered with snow: 'thither you must carefully
direct your steps. If you once reach that chain of
mountains, you are safe. I will send in pursuit of
you; and causing you to be stopped by some Moors,
who will make you slaves, I will pretend to redeem
you out of their hands by paying your ransom.'
"We secretly called together my companions in
misfortune, to propose to them this daring step; but
they were terrified at the thought. The dangers of
the escape appeared to them much greater than those
of a judgment which might prove favourable. For my
part, I at first regarded the flight as a measure of
prudence; but seeing that my companions refused to
accompany me, I felt ashamed to leave them. I com-
mitted myself therefore to Providence, and, after
thanking my countryman for his good advice, quitted
him, to rejoin our guards, and make our entrance into
the city.
This city has been neither so rich nor so populous
since it has ceased to be the residence of the emperors;
it is still, however, a considerable place, and is defended
by a large and handsome fortress, in which is a superb
mosque. The castle which the emperors formerly
inhabited, and where the reigning prince then was is
reckoned the finest in all Africa. The streets are
narrow, the windows of the houses are all at the back,
and the roofs are flat.
We were advancing towards the castle, when a
troop of margarine, or armed guards, preceded by a
pacha, came towards us, and commanding our escort
to stop, demanded of our conductors, by authority of


the emperor, the names and professions of their pri-
soners. As I knew that in all barbarous countries,
men skilled in the healing art are held in great esteem,
I did not fail to make known that we had in our com-
pany Dr. Codonel, a French surgeon, who was also a
botanist, oculist, and dentist, and whose skill was
very celebrated. Martin de la Bastide announced
himself as a geographer, the Abbe Doloni, as an anti-
quary; and when we had all declared our profession,
the pacha ordered the masgarines to put us into a
meteore (a sort of prison), to await the further orders
of the emperor, which were to be notified in the course
of the day. He then went to inform the emperor of
our names and qualities: and in order to make his
court, he took care to say that among the captives
was a surgeon and dentist, one of the ablest in France.
The pacha well knew that this intelligence would please
the emperor, who had been for a long time tormented
with so violent a tooth-ache, that all applications had
been ineffectual to relieve it. The evil could only be
cured by the extraction of the tooth; but the emperor
had not the courage to submit to this painful operation,
and no Moorish surgeon had been found rash enough
to undertake it.
"At the moment when the pacha was speaking to
the emperor, of the French surgeon and dentist, the
shootings of the pain were so tormenting, that the
emperor immediately ave orders to have Dr. Codonel
brought to the castle, intending to put himself entirely
under his care.
The pacha, pleased to have been able to offer his
master a means of relief, returned quickly to the prison,
followed by several negroes carrying a complete dress
for Dr. Codonel. The orders of the emperor were
signified to him; and, without being yet informed of
the cause of this change of fortune, he was requested
to suffer himself to be dressed. He was stripped of
his great coat, and richly dressed in the Moorish
fashion. For his cocked hat and wig a turban was



substituted, of studied elegance. He was perfumed
with all sorts of essences, and unable to inform his
companions, because unable to guess himself, the pur-
port of all this ceremony; he saw himself carried away
in a very honourable manner, and conducted to the
palace of the emperor, through a crowd of courtiers,
who were already informed of his good fortune.
Everybody prayed for the happy success of the
means to be employed by the French dentist; for the
emperor, since he had suffered so severely, had become
very savage and untractable. He often condemned to
death persons who, but for his toothache, would cer-
tainly have obtained a pard jn. To cure, or at least
to relieve him would be a benefit to the whole empire
of Morocco.
"The pacha introduced the doctor into a hall of
the castle; and making him repose himself in a chair
of honour, he told him to wait a moment, for he was
going to announce his arrival to the emperor, who
would soon pay him a visit.
Dr. Codonel remained alone, not knowing what to
think. The idea of a visit from the emperor excited
in him a certain shuddering of awe and terror, which
would be difficult to describe. In what will all these
ceremonies end?' said he to himself. 'Have they
dressed me in this manner only to perish with more
distinction?' He had not, however, much time for
reflection before the emperor presented himself, with
an interpreter. The surgeon, confounded at the sight,
rose and made an obeisance: he was invited to sit
down; the emperor seated himself also; supporting his
jaw with his hand, and making terrible grimaces. The
interpreter began to speak, and held this discourse in
French with Dr. Codonel:-' The august emperor of
Morocco, Mohammed Ben Abdallah, descendant of the
great prophet, having heard of you as an able surgeon
and dentist, gives you your liberty from this moment,
and the title of his surgeon in ordinary; and if you
shall succeed in curing the pain in his teeth, he engages


himself by oath to grant you any request you shall
make, let it be what it may.' Figure to yourself the
astonishment of Dr. Codonel at these words! He did
not suffer himself to be dazzled, however: he deeply
felt all the danger of the honour offered him; and
prudently distrusting himself, and still more the
courage of the emperor, he loudly protested against
the flattering report that had been made of him against
his own consent; he protested that he had never been
either an oculist or a dentist, but only a surgeon, and
a surgeon in a village. He would much rather have
been sent back to prison: but the more he disclaimed
the reputation of skill, the more confidence he inspired;
and all that he said of his want of science was attri-
buted to modesty alone.
"At length, as he persisted in refusing the honour
offered him, the emperor, who was in great pain, arose,
making a shocking contortion of countenance, spoke a
word in the ear of his interpreter, and retired. The
interpreter transmitted this message to Dr. Codonel;
it was rather imperious. The emperor ordered him
to relieve his malady, on pain of being strangled on
the spot. After this severe command was notified to
him, he was left alone for some minutes to consider of
the matter, and to take his resolution. Put yourself
a moment in his place, and think how critical was his
situation! It was no time to hesitate, as the wretched
Codonel well perceived. 'If I obstinately refuse,' said
he, 'it is clear that I am a dead man. If I undertake
an operation above my skill, and which my natural
timidity will render still more difficult, I certainly run
a great risk of perishing. To draw the tooth of a
private person is a delicate operation; but to draw one
of an emperor, and an emperor of Morocco, is of all
things the most hazardous: but since death is pre-
sented to me on all sides, let me examine this fatal
tooth; happen what may, at least I will not die with-
out having extracted it.' When he had taken this
laudable resolution, he recommended his soul to God,



and resigned himself entirely to the will of Heaven.
Then, when they came to know his intentions, he said
that he was ready to do all that they desired of him.
The emperor at this news felt a momentary joy in
the midst of his pain. He came to the dentist, and,
placing himself properly, begged him to examine the
seat of the evil. The emperor was of a figure capable
of intimidating the boldest operator. His breath was
infected, and his teeth were in a terrible state. Dr.
Codonel, after examining with the utmost attention
the lower jaw, of which the emperor particularly
complained, discovered a decayed tooth, and, unfor-
tunately, a very large one, the removal of which
would be extremely difficult and painful. He begged
for a delay of two days before he extracted it, to
recover a little courage, and to make some experiments
on animals, and to have an instrument made proper
for the purpose.
The two days passed quickly, and the fatal hour at
length arrived when the operation was to be performed.
The necessary preparations were made, and the
emperor presented himself, still suffering the most
acute pain. The doctor inwardly trembled, but endea-
voured to conceal his apprehension. He had already
got the dreaded instrument in his hand, when he
thought fit to address a short discourse to the emperor
by means of the interpreter. August emperor,' said
he, 'since you have permitted me to extract this tooth
which causes you such severe suffering, I beg one
thing of you, which is, that you will order six of your
slaves, under pain of death, to obey me during four
minutes, in whatever I may command them with regard
to your person.' The emperor consented. Dr. Codonel
then ordered six strong negroes to seize the limbs of
the emperor, and hold them so fast that he should not
be able to make any resistance during the operation.
The emperor submitted, from his earnest desire to
obtain relief.
Then Dr. Codonel, arousing all his courage, fas-



tened the instrument on the suspected tooth; and
when he was sure that he had got hold, he exerted
all his strength. I shall probably lose my life,' said
he to himself, 'but the tooth shall come out: however
fast it may be, I will not quit my hold.' He pulled
indeed; and notwithstanding the rmness of the
tooth, notwithstanding the cries of the struggling
emperor, he had the courage to drag him forcibly all
round the hall; and he would have pulled longer, if
the large tooth had not atlength yielded, and been
torn, with its monstrous roots, out of the bleeding jaw.
SHere it is!' cried he in a transport of joy. But
the emperor was still furious and almost frantic with
paim. In his rage he gave orders for strangling the
dentist, the slaves, the pacha, the masgarines, and all
his court. Fortunately the pain soon became less
violent, and then ceased entirely; so that the de-
lighted emperor, not only revoked the cruel orders he
had given the moment after the operation, but sent
for Dr. Codonel, and publicly testified his gratitude to
him. He paid him a large sum, and made him several
presents of very great value. Dr. Codonel received
the same day, two fine horses, a camel, a cloak and
turban of very rich stuff, a gold-hilted sabre, and a
pair of horse pistols; beside which, the emperor gave
hm apartments in his palace, and told him to ask that
favour to which he attached the highest value.
The generous Codonel had no diffculty in deciding
what this favour should be; he asked, and imme-
diately obtained, the liberty of his companions in mis-
fortune. A pacha was quickly sent to inform us that
we were free; and you may easily imagine the delight
with which we received the intelligence.



WE passed some time at the emperor's palace, and
were present at all the festivals given on occasion of
his recovery. The hundred tongues of fame having
soon spread over the whole empire of Morocco, and
the neighboring countries, the news of the happy
result of the difficult operation attempted by Dr.
Codonel on the person of the emperor, there was such
crowding to the palace during some time, that it was
impossible for us to obtain the permission we solicited
to leave Morocco, and embark on our return to
The emperor was overwhelmed with the visits of
courtiers, pachas, alcaides, envoys from neighbour-
ig powers, consuls, and foreign merchants. All those
who had favours to ask, and who, during the emperor's
illness, had prudently deferred their solicitations, came
in crowds to present their requests. Never had the
descendant of the great prophet been so generous or so
"Wishing to profit by this favourable circumstance,
and strong in the protection of Dr. Codonel, who had
become all powerful at the court, we resolved to pre-
sent ourselves before the emperor, and inform him
of our desire of leaving Morocco. This resolution
was executed, notwithstanding the objections of the
Abb6 Doloni, who opposed it. The emperor gave us
a favourable reception. 'You shall go, said he: 'it
is enough that you are protected by my dentist, he
shall never experience a refusal. I will give orders to
the marine of Tangiers to equip you a vessel, of which
I make you a present.' At these words, we made an
obeisance to show our gratitude, and went to inform
the Abbe Doloni that he must prepare for his depar-
S"' What!' cried he with generous indignation,



'will you then let slip this only opportunity of visit-
ing the coast of Africa-that coast on which was built
the city of Carthage, formerly rendered so flourishing
by science, letters, and arts ? Why should we not defer
for a month, or two months, if necessary, our return
to France ? Why should we not .profit by the favour
of our countryman with the emperor, to obtain per-
mission to travel at his expense along the coast as far
as Tunis ? Do you not blush to leave Africa without
having seen the curiosities that it offers, the traces of
antiquity which it still preserves ? Can you be insen-
sible to the pleasure of searching among the ruins of
Carthage, and discovering the situation of Hippo, of
which St. Augustine was bishop; or that of Utica,
the memory of which has been immortalized by Cato ?
For my part, I confess to you that a zeal for antiquity
transports me; and were I to remain alone in Africa,
I would seize the opportunity now offered me. I shall
solicit and obtain a recommendation from the emperor
of Morocco, to travel in the kingdom of Algiers and
Tunis. I will then return into my own country, rich
in'the observations I shall have collected, and rich too,
perhaps, in presents received from the'pachas, or the
emperor himself, on occasion of my journey.' While
the Abb6 Doloni spoke thus, the council of the sm-
peror was occupied about us, and entered, without
suspecting it, into his views.
Information had some time since been received,
that the neighboring countries meditated an alliance,
and were secretly preparing to attack, under different
pretexts, the territories of Morocco. It was the interest
of Mahommed Ben-Abdallah, to send into all the
surrounding nations skilful and intelligent men, who
might not only dissipate the storm by their address,
but also examine the state of the frontiers, prepare
plans of fortifications, and study the topography of
the country, should the war approach, and become
"The other pachas, jealous of him who had first


spoken pf Dr. Codonel to the emperor, wished also to
give themselves consequence, by mentioning the com-
panions of the dentist as men who appeared to them
well qualified to enter into the views of the council
relative to the projected embassy. They spoke of
Martin de la Bastice as the first geographer on earth,
and insinuated to the emperor that no one was better
qualified than this able man to make a general and
particular map of his dominions; that it was absolutely
necessary to have such a map, and that it would be
equally honourable and advantageous to proceed in it
immediately. They fixed on Ingardin as a man singu-
larly expert in agriculture and commerce; and who
might be of the greatest service in drawing up a
general account of the productions of the empire.
They designated me as a man of courage, capable,
in case of war, of serving successfully in the cause
of the emperor. In short, they insisted so strongly
on the use we might be of, that his majesty of Mo-
rocco wished he had never authorized our departure.
He objected, however, to the pachas and sheriffs who
were present, that, having given his word, he could
not retract; that his dentist interested himself in us,
and had solicited our departure; and that to detain us
agamst our will would be to disoblige him.
One sheriff discerned, amidst the uncertainty of
the emperor, his desire to detain us. 'August
emperor,' said he, you have, it is true, given your
word to these Frenchmen to suffer them freely to
depart, and even to furnish them with an imperial
vessel to effect their return to France. This word is
sacred, without doubt, and we do not wish you to
retract it; we only wish that, for your advantage and
that of the empire, you would suspend its effect. That
the companions of the dentist should go, is a thing
resolved on; but you may desire them to stay a month
or two, which cannot offend them, or disgrace you.
This opinion gained all the suffrages; and the
emperor, well satisfied, had risen to depart, as well

as the pachas and sheriffs, when a memorial was
brought, addressed to the emperor, and signed by
the Abb6 Doloni.
"It was read, and thus it began:--' August
emperor of the ancient Mauritania, successor of N epl
tune, Atlas, and Antaeus; of the Vandals and Alga.
bites; venerable descendant of the sheriffs! the
desire of travelling along the coasts subject to your
dominion, and even those of the bordering countries,
emboldens me to make a humble solicitation to your
august majesty. If you deign to cast your eyes
over this memorial, you will see at the end, that it
is counter-signed by your dentist, my much-honoured
countryman. His recommendation was of so much
consequence, that I have hastened to avail myself
of it. I have formed the plan of a tour in Africa;
and I shall be the happiest of men if you deign to
recommend me to the government of Algiers and
Tunis, and to furnish me the passports necessary to
prevent interruption on my journey. I am composin
a history of the primitive people of Barbary, which
will certainly give you some pleasure. I prove that
these people owe their origin to colonies of Canaanites,
Phoenicians, Egyptians, and Arabs, who established
themselves successively in this part of Africa. I also
prove, that the Neptune who, in mythology, is made
the god of the sea, was one of your predecessors, a
sovereign of the two Mauritanias, and a considerable
part of Libya, who was well skilled in the art of
navigation, and to whom we owe the invention of
sails. I establish the fact, that the Atlas who has
given his name to the craggy mountains covered with
snow, which bound your horizon, was also one of your
predecessors, who was well versed in astronomy, and
passes for the inventor of the sphere. I shew that it
was about the year 428 that the Vandals, who had
just conquered a part of Spain, entered Africa, under
the conduct of their king Genseric, a man of great
courage and consummate skill in war; that they


several times defeated the Romans, and took from
them Carthage, and all the places they possessed in
the northern part of this country. I fix to the
period of a century, the existence of the Vandals in
Africa. At that epoch Belisarius exterminated them,
and re-took their possessions: so that the northern
part of Africa remained under the eastern empire till
the year 647, the era of the invasion of the Saracens.
"'This is not the time for entering into further
particulars with regard to the history I am writing;
your majesty shall be informed of all its contents as
soon as it appears. But the sketch I have just given
is enough to shew the utility of the researches in
which f am about to employ myself; and, perhaps,
may justify my request for permission to undertake
a journey in Africa, under your august auspices.'
You see, 0, Mohammed!' cried the counsellors,
'that some among the companions of the dentist are
found willing to undertake a journey in Africa.
Profit by the willingness of some, and command the
obedience of the others.'
Orders were immediately given to delay our
voyage, for which we were already hastening our
Imagine our astonishment when a pacha came to
notify to us this resolution of the council! Those of
us who were most distressed by it, ran to Dr. Codonel,
and conjured him to solicit its revocation. The doctor
took some steps to this purpose, but without effect .
The emperor replied, with an appearance of kindness,
that our return to France should take place; that it
was only deferred; and that the journey in Africa to
which we were destined, would be very advantageous
to us.
Seduced and intimidated by this answer, the
doctor came and told us that we were wrong to
complain; that the emperor, far from being angry
with us, wished to heap benefits upon us. 'It is I
who am to be pitied, added he. 'Consider my



situation I am more a slave than when I was with
the Moor. The negroes who surround me, constrain
more than they serve me. Since I drew that tooth
for the emperor, all the people are coming to me to
examine theirs. I have already been obliged to
inspect the jaws of a hundred sherifs, anid as many
pacas. The ladies of the court send for me at all
hours. I have not a moment's rest. I would most
willingly dispense with all the honours I receive;
for I foresee that they will chain me to a barbarous
country, where I shall die of melancholy. And what
troubles me the most, is the fear that all the teeth
of the emperor should successively decay. I have
succeeded once; I may be less fortunate a second
time, and in this case I am a ruined man.'
It was necessary then that we should make up our
minds to obey the emperor. That very day we went
into one of the halls of the palace to read a second
time the resolution of the council, to regulate the order
of our journey, and confer together concerning the road
we should take. We had been assembled an hour,
and the Abbe Doloni, notwithstanding the zeal that
transported him, was not yet come. His absence sur-
prised us; but suddenly the door of the hall opened,
and two men entered in warm debate, of whom the
Abbe was one. 'I tell you,' cried one, 'that if you
make a journey in Africa, you should go through it
entirely, and not content yourself with s rating along
the coast.' I say,' cried the other in a still louder
voice, 'that the interior of Africa is nothing but a
desert, and that I have no desire to be devoured by the
hyenas and leopards.' Do you think nothing of ex-
amining the Niger, that river which flows through so
great a part of Africa, and which is still so little known,
that some make it run to the east and others to the
west?' And do you think nothing of searching
among the ruins of Carthage?' 'Yes; it is very
glorious, no doubt, to take a journey which has been
taken before by so many others.' But you, who



would have us cross Africa from Senegal to the Red
Sea, can you secure us from burning sands and a
scarcity of water? Can you save us from the lims,
the serpents, the nations of Moorish robbers, and those
of cannibal negroes?' 'Exaggerations all those
Means may be taken to ensure success, and the ad-
vantao-es resulting from the journey will be immense.'
Could any one resolve to cross a whole country in
which he should not find the ruins of one ancient city?'
SWho has told you that you should not? Besies,
would it be nothing to find at every step new species
of animals and plants ? Do you not know that it is in
the heart of Africa, in the centre of the torrid zone,
that the most gigantic animals must be found ? Should
we not all be immortalized if we were to enrich natural
history with some colossal species like the hippooo-
tamus and cameleopard?' We should take a much
surer road to immortality, by clearing up some obscure
points of ancient history. For my part, I confess that
I would readily give all the new animals in Africa or
one Carthaginian medal.' 'What blasphemy! Can
a man thus insult the productions of nature It b
you who presume to degrade the monuments of his*
tory.' Let us break off-the emperor will decide.'
Let him decide, I consent.' Tell me, tell me,' said
the Abbe, turning to us, 'if this is not enough to
provoke the meekest man in the world? Being in-
formed that at my solicitation the emperor had granted
us leave to travel in his dominions and the neighboring
states, M. Montval begs me to obtain the same favour
for him. I go with him to the emperor. He is per-
mitted to be one of the party, and scarcely is he ad-
mitted among us, when he wants to disarrange every-
thing? Speak, my dear friends, would you not be
more pleased to travel over the coasts of Africa, which
have been inhabited from time immemorial, than to
undertake a journey into the deserts ?'
"To this question of the Abbe Doloni we replied, that
we would follow the road marked out by the emperor;



and that if he knew it he might inform us of it. He
observed that the emperor had referred it to us.
SAnother reason,' cried Montval, 'for immortalizing
ourselves, by performing the most memorable journey
that has ever been undertaken; one across all Africa,
from the western coast to the Red Sea. There are in
the interior of Africa, from the Senegal to the Nile,
about eight hundred leagues, where Europeans have
never been, and of which absolutely nothing is known.
What honour should we acquire, had we the courage
to penetrate into this tract! The English have already
made trials to this purpose; but might not we perform
what they have only attempted? Might not we at
length discover the course of the Niger, a river which
crosses Africa in its broadest, most curious, and least
known part? What a wide field for the most im-
portant discoveries does this river open to the curiosity
of geographers and naturalists! I do not deny that
such a journey would be attended with difficulty; but
it would be so much the more glorious. With courage,
too, many obstacles may be surmounted. Certainly,
the route I propose to you is not impracticable, as may
be proved by a number of testimonies.' At those
words the Abbe Doloni could not conceal his vexation,
and, addressing himself to Montval, Madman,' said
he, 'have you read Strabo ? are you ignorant that this
author has expressly said that the interior of Africa is
nothing but a vast arid desert? Do you despise the
authority of this prince of geographers? But, if you
please, present your project to the emperor; mine is,
to travel along the coast, and to visit, by turns, the
ancient habitations of the Getulians, the Numidians, the
Pharusians, the Marmarides, and the Garamantians.
Near ancient Carthage we shall endeavour to discover
the ruins of Cirtha, the city in which Massinissa and
his successors formerly resided. On the same bay
where Carthage was built, we shall seek for some ves-
tiges of Utica, a famous city near which flowed the
river Bagrada. In a word, we shall push further than



any of our predecessors, our researches into the anti.
quities of these parts.'
"It was not difficult for the Abb6 Doloni to gain
our suffrages. We were far, indeed, from revering
equally with him the vestiges of antiquity; but the
journey that he proposed was much less dangerous
than that in which the naturalist Montval would have
engaged us. We therefore entered into his views, and
it was determined that, quitting Morocco, we should
take the road to Algiers.
"Our departure took place some days afterwards.
Never was a train more brilliant than ours; the sheriff
who accompanied us had orders to oblige the governors
of all the provinces through which we should pass,
to furnish the necessary supplies. We had several
masgarines in our suite. Martin de la Bastide had
not forgotten his instruments. Montval had recon-
ciled himself to our route, and accompanied us,
furnished with a box to preserve the rare plants he
should meet with, and a gauze net destined to catch
the butterflies of the regions he was about to pass
through. As to the Abbe Doloni, he carried with
him a copy of Strabo's geography in Greek and Latin,
of which a missionary at Morocco had made him a
We set out, and, injustice to Dr. Codonel, I ought
to say that our departure affected him greatly. He
would most willingly have gone with us; but his office
of surgeon in ordinary to the emperor deprived him of
all hope of this kind. He had tears in his eyes at our
parting, and this separation was to him a real calamity.
He then saw himself left alone in the midst of a bar-
barous court, with no person to whom he might con-
fide his thoughts. Struck with his mournful situation,
he fell into so deep a melancholy, that his health would
undoubtedly have suffered, had he not taken the cou-
rageous resolution of addressing himself directly to the
emperor, to obtain his permission for trying a change
of air.


"One day, as the emperor was coming out of his
council, Dr. Codonel threw himself at his feet accord.
ing to custom, and presented to him this request in a
pathetic tone: Great emperor I the care of my health
requires that I should quit the court for some time,
and go to breathe the air of the country. If your
orders will not permit me to absent myself from time
to time from your palace I must soon sink under
"The emperor, in a fit of generosity, raised his
dentist, and immediately promised him an imperial
farm in the neighbourhood of Morocco. 'I will give
you the pleasure, added he, 'of going to take posses-
sion this very day.' Orders were instantly given. A
palanuin was brought superbly decorated: the doctor
was placed in it upon rich cushions; four negroes car-
ried im on their shoulders, and two others, mounted
on camels, rode by his side, holding parasols, that the
heat of the sun might not fatigue the doctor's eyes.
This train, preceded by an alcaide, cross.l the streets
of Morocco, and all the inhabitants werd mounted on
their roofs to see it pass. It arrived at length at the
estate of Shambuck, which contained within itself mea-
dows, woods, orchards, spacious gardens, fruits in
abundance, a little stream shaded with orange and
palm trees, and vines, and an elegant house. A fine
menagerie was attached to this imperial farm, in which
were assembled several curious animals, natives of Mo-
rocco, and other parts of Africa. There were the lion
of Sahara, the ounce, the panther, the leopard, the
jackal, and various species of apes and monkeys,
particularly the Barbary ape, the baboon, and the
mona, called monina in the Moorish language. Dif-
ferent species of antelopes were running wild, and feed-
ing in the woods. In a word, the farm granted to Dr.
Codonel united every beauty and convenience. He
made the tour of it three times in his palanquin; but
the more delightful he found this estate, the more he
regretted inhabiting it without his wife and children."


"WE had entered Morocco chained two and two, like
criminals led to punishment; we left it loaded with
honours, mounted on Arabian horses, and followed by
a numerous troop of masgarines. We gave ourselves
up without fear to the pleasure of admiring the beauti-
ful plain, in the midst of which the city is built, and
the majestic appearance of mount Atlas, which bounds
the horizon to the east. Palm-trees and olives cover
this plain, and more than two thousand springs gush
from mount Atlas to refresh and water it.
SAfter three days travelling, we arrived about sunset
at a village where we resolvedto stay two days, to give
an opportunity to Montval and Doloni of making some
observations on the natural history and antiquities of
the country.
SDuring supper, Montval related to us his own hi-
tory, and the motives which had brought him to Africa.
SI had long studied in books,' said he, 'the produc-
tions of nature. At length I felt a desire to study
nature herself, and observe her with my own eyes. I
began by travelling over most of the provinces of
France, and I had the satisfaction of discovering in
my way a species of bat till then unknown by natural-
ists; but the desire of increasing my reputation by
multiplying my discoveries, soon led me to project
travels in Africa, a country yet unexplored, and in
which the most rare and singular species of animals
might be found. I wanted nothing but money; and
that I might be enabled to travel at the expense of the
State, I was three years soliciting the office of French
consul at Morocco, making it a condition, at the same
time, that the person who then occupied that place
should be provided for by another. Unfortunately, my
endeavours were ineffectual. All that I could obtain
was a letter of recommendation from the minister to



the consul, begging him to procure me the means of
travelling in safety over the territories of Morocco.
Furnished with this letter, I sold my cabinet and em-
barked for Tangiers. Thence I proceeded to Morocco:
but the consul, who had received secret intelligence of
the steps I had taken to supplant him at Paris, re-
ceived me very coldly; and instead of protecting me
from oppression, he was the first to draw it upon me.
I was too sensible of my wrong conduct with respect to
him to complain. On this account I should have left
the country, had not your arrival at the court revived
my hopes. When I was informed, by public rumour,
of the influence you had obtained over the emperor, I
sought to make acquaintance with you, which a mis-
sionary, of the order of St. Lazarus, soon procured me
the means of doing. He sometimes saw the Abb6
Doloni, to whom he was so kind as to mention me in
favourable terms. Thanks to him, I have become a
companion of your travels; but I persist in thinking
that our journey would have been far more memorable
had we dared to penetrate into the heart of Africa.'
Thus spoke Montval. His conclusion displeased the
Abb6, who was preparing to attack him, when the
party broke up to retire to rest, and the debate was
We arose with the dawn, and each arranged his
plan of the day according to his own particular taste.
Martin de la Bastide informed us that he was going to
climb the summit of a steep mountain, to learn the
topography of the country. Ingardin said that as he
intended, if possible, to speculate on some of the com-
modities of Morocco, he should ride through all the
neighboring plantations, and contract for the crops of
dates and olives. The Abb6 Doloni had learned that
the ruins of an ancient monument were to be found at
the foot of a neighboring mountain, and declared his
intention of going to examine them. Montval took his
way through the fields, totally engrossed by the idea
of making zoological discoveries. For my part, being



neither a surveyor, a naturalist, nor an antiquary, I
determined to go with Chiousse, on a hunting expedi-
tion, in the woods. I wished to distinguish myself by
the attack of some formidable animal, but we saw
nothing except foxes, which we disdained to pursue.
Towards the middle of the day we found ourselves in a
very pleasant valley, where fig-trees, planted on the
brink of a stream, offered us a thick shade under their
dark-polished leaves. We were reposing on the turf,
and making a frugal dinner, when we were alarmed by
cries proceeding from a neighboring tree: I ran to my
musket, but the brave Chiousse held me back, and
went alone to face the danger. He advanced silently,
holding his gun in one hand, and making me signs
with the other not to follow him. I watched his mo-
tions with secret uneasiness, and never took my eyes
off him. Suddenly a new cry was heard. Chiousse,
guided by his ear, discovered the spot whence it pro-
ceeded; aimed his piece, and brought down to the foot
of the tree a hideous ape, of middling size, which he
hastily picked up, and brought to me in triumph.
See, said he, this is something to excite the admi-
ration of our companion Montval. It would certainly
have been better to have taken this ape alive; but, as
it is, he will still examine it with pleasure, and compli-
ment us on the success of our chase.' I arose. Chi-
ousse took the monkey by its long tail and laid it
across his shoulder. We again crossed the forest, and
no savage beast offered itself to our view. I had, how-
ever, the good fortune to kill a roebuck; and the
pleasure which this gave me made me forget all the
fatigues of the day. We returned to the village, ex-
pecting to find our companions enjoying a degree of
cheerfulness, which we were ready to increase by our
own. Great was, therefore, our surprise and distress,
on finding two among them suffering acute pain, and a
crowd of Moors pressing eagerly around to give them
My first care was to question one of these Moors,



who had learned a little French in the service of a Mo-
godore merchant. 'Tell me,' said I, what has hap-
pened to my unfortunate companions '-' They must
both of them,' replied he, 'have been bitten or stung
by some venomous animal.' 'Good heaven! and how
can we relieve them?' 'Nobody,' rejoined he, 'but
the Maraboos know how to cure these bites. There is
one of these men at Alcazar Quiber, who enjoys a high
reputation, and happens now to be in a neighboring
village, whither he was sent for to perform a very difi-
cult cure. A masgarine set off immediately on horse-
back to command him, in the emperors name, to come
hither; and we expect him every minute.'
I now pierced the crowd, and approached my un-
happy companions, who appeared to suffer the most
violent pain. They did not at first recognize me; but
at the sound of my voice the Abbe Doloni looked at
me with a dejected air, and shewed me his hand, pro-
digiously swelled. My dear friend,' said he, 'I have
this day made the most brilliant discovery-but it
costs me dear. Not far hence-in a village-as I was
getting my horse shod-I saw the capital of a Corin-
thian column-in Parian marble. Admire the vicissi-
tudes of human affairs! It served as a pedestal to the
anvil! I instantly drew near-I examined it-I knew
it for a Roman capital. Joy sparkled in my eyes. I
informed the astonished farrier that I intended to
carry it away. But when I would have paid for it,
from a spirit of contradiction, or through interested mo-
tives, the man at first refused to sell it me, and said he
might do as he pleased with his own. I insisted-he
grew angry-I still insisted-he became furious-the
neighbours ran in at his call-the cadi was sent for to
secure my person-he came and examined me-I
shewed him the emperor's warrant. At the sight of
this everything gave way, and the cadi declared that
I might, if I thought fit, take away both the capital,
the anvil, and the farrier himself. Ravished, trans-
ported, I gave orders to have it packed up-I chose to



overlook the packing myself-I raised the capital with
my own hands,-that it might be done more carefully
-alas! in lifting it, I disturbed a scorpion, which
stung me, and made me utter a dismal cry. I still
feel dreadful shooting pains. What comforts me, how-
ever, amidst my sufferings is, that the sting of a scor-
pion is not mortal; and that I at length possess the
Corinthian capital.'
Montval did not suffer with nearly so much resig-
nation as the Abb6 Doloni, though his pain appeared to
be much less acute. 'Why,' cried he, did we stop
at this miserable village ? It seems to be out of favour
with nature. I have seen none but very common ani-
mals in its neighbourhood; and I have had the humi-
liation to be bitten by a squirrel. This squirrel does,
indeed, form a peculiar species. It has two or three
longitudinal bars on its back, which the common
squirrels have not. But the pain of the bite prevented
me fiom observing exactly the number of these bars;
which will leave me in perpetual ignorance whether the
animal that bit me was the palm or the Barbary
squirrel. If it had four bars on the back, it must have
been the Barbary, but if it had only three, it must
have been the palm squirrel. Certainly I should have
been less unfortunate, if I could have seized upon my
squirrel as the Abb6 Doloni has seized upon his Corin-
thian capital.'
As he spoke these words, we saw his faithful
servant Dominic, who cried out from a distance-
Comfort yourself, my dear master, I am bringing the
animal that bit you, in a bag! I have caught him.
'Heaven be praised!' said the naturalist, 'I may then
write a particular description of it. Let it be put care-
fully in a cage, and brought to me.' It was imme-
diately put in an iron cage, and brought to him. I
thought so,' cried he, looking at it; 'it is the Barbary
squirrel, the Scirus getulw of Linnaeus.' 'The Scirtu
egtuls I' said the AbbA Doloni, interrupting him; 'it
must be confessed that Linnaeus had a little more



respect for antiquity than you. He gave this animal
the name of Getulian squirrel, in consideration of the
ancient Getulia, of which it is an inhabitant.'
"Hitherto Chiousse had modestly held back: he
had not thought it a proper time to present to Montval
the monkey he had killed. But, encouraged by the
example of Dominic, he now broke through the crowd,
and laid it down at the feet of the naturalist. 'I could
have wished,' said he, to have brought it to you alive:
excuse me, if I offer it to you in this state.
Ah! my good friend,' cried Montval, you have
done very well to kill it. In its present state it cannot
hurt: but these animals, when living, bite still harder
than squirrels.' 'In my country,' rejoined Chiousse,
this creature is called the mounina.' Well,' answered
Montval, that is nearly the same name that this long
tailed monkey bears in Barbary. It is called the
mona: it is a native of the empire of Morocco, and is,
of all the monkeys, that which most easily accommo-
dates itself to the climate of France. It is of a docile
disposition; and though in a state of nature it is much
inclined to bite, it is not very difficult to soften its
manners, and render it susceptible of attachment. I
confess, however, that I would not trust it. I should
put still less confidence in two others of the genus, the
arbary ape, and the baboon, which must also be
found in the woods in this neighbourhood. Dominic,'
continued Montval, turning to his servant, take away
this mona. When the pain of this bite is over, I wll
examine its skin.' Cannot I carry it away myself?'
asked Chiousse. 'Tell me, M. Montval, what would
you have me do with it?' 'Oh! Dominic will tell
you, and assist you. You must flay it, stuff its skin
with straw, and pack it up.' Chiousse and Dominic
then retired with the monkey.
They were scarcely gone when the Moors announced,
by acclamations, the arrival of the Maraboo from
Alcazar-Quibir. He had immediately set out to at-
tend Montval and the AbbB Doloni, upon the orders



communicated to him by the masgarine. He entered,
preceded by a young Moor carrying a flag, on which
was written in Arabian characters, 'The Maraboo of
Alcazar-Quibir.' All the Moors bowed their heads
before him. They held him in the more veneration
because he had made the pilgrimage to Mecca, in order
to which it is necessary to cross the whole of Africa,
especially the deserts of Barca, which are formed all of
loose sand, and burnt by the heat of the sun. The
difficulties of the way draw so much respect to the
pilgrims who return, and assure them so many advan-
tages, that even the camels who have once made this
journey are no longer subjected to any labour, and
obtain freedom of pasturage.
The Maraboo, after saluting the Moors, begged
them to retire: he chose to be alone with his patients
and us. He examined the wounds in silence, and de-
clared them to be in a good state. He dressed them,
one with oil of achrab (the name of a scorpion in Bar.
bary), the other with the leaves of a certain plant; and
he assured us that the swelling would be much abated
after the following day.
Wishing to make a further acquaintance with him,
I invited him to pass the rest of the evening with us,
which he readily agreed to. As we were settling this
matter, in came Martin de la Bastide and Ingardin,
whom I informed of the events of the day, and intro-
duced to the Maraboo of Alcazar-Quibir. When supper
was ready we seated ourselves, and assigned to the
Maraboo the place of honour. This person informed
us, after supper, that he knew ten languages, and that
had we been English, Spaniards, or Italians, he should
not have found any difficulty in holding conversation
with us. 'I was born at Alcazar-Quibir,' said he,
'but I passed my youth at Tangiers and Salee, where
I met with merchants of all nations, whose languages I
made it a rule to study and to speak successively.' I
know the geographical situation of your city, said
Martin de la Bastide to the Maraboo. Very likely,'


replied he, but you are perhaps.ignorant of the his.
tory of its oriin: it deserves, however, to be known,
and I shall relate it with the more interest, as the poor
fisherman whose humanity caused its foundation, was
one of my ancestors.
"' Alcazar-Quibir is a little town nine miles to
the east of Larrache, on the river Lucos. This town,
which was built in the twelfth century of your era,
owes its origin to the following remarkable event:-
The emperor, Jacob Almanzor, who extended his
power through Africa, even to the Mohammedan
states of Spain, was encamped in the plains where
this town now stands, to take the diversion of the
chase. One night, having lost his way, he was
awaiting the return of day at the foot of a tree, when
he saw a fisherman who was returning to his cabin.
The king announced himself to him as an attendant
of the prince, said he had lost his way, and begged
him to conduct him to the camp. The fisherman
excused himself, on account of the bad weather, and
the danger of falling into the marshes, and begged
the stranger to partake, without ceremony, of his
lodging and humble repast. The king consented, and
followed the fisherman. The next morning they set
out for the camp; but meeting the guards who were
in search of him, Almanzor made himself known, and
asked his host what recompense he desired.
Prince,' said the fisherman, Ishould wish to
have a house instead of a cabin, to offer to a bewildered
traveller, if an opportunity should occur.' The emperor
caused to be built in the same place a beautiful palace.
where he used to pass the hunting season, and of which
the fisherman was the keeper. The great men of the
court were eager to have houses near it, and it soon
became a little town. It now contains nearly twelve
hundred families.'
The narrative of the Maraboo had interested us,
and we did not listen with less pleasure to the account
which Ingardin gave us of the manner in which he


had passed the day. I remarked, that of all the
persons at table, no one ate with so much avidity as
he. I was curious to ask him the cause of this. At
first he only answered by a few monosyllables, that he
might not lose a single mouthful; but at the dessert,
when he was at length satisfied, he said: 'DIo you
wish to know how I came to be so hungry to-night?
The reason is very simple: I had nothing for dinner
but locusts.' Locusts!' cried I. 'Yes,' replied
Ingardin; 'the people in the cottage where I was,
gave me nothing but locusts; and they thought, too,
that they were giving me a treat.' But could you
eat them?' 'I felt some disgust at such food, I
confess; but for fear of disobliging my hosts I swal-
lowed a few.' Notwithstanding the testimony ot
Ingardin, I felt rather incredulous with regard to
this fact, when the Maraboo, who observed our
astonishment, removed all our doubts by giving us
the following account: You know,' said he,' that
locusts sometimes commit dreadful ravages in the
empire of Morocco. They come from the south,
spread themselves over the fields, and multiply innu-
merably when the spring rains are not sufhciently
abundant to destroy the eggs that they deposit on
the earth. The devastations of the locusts augment
the price of provisions, and often occasion famine;
but the Moors make themselves amends in some
degree, by feeding on these insects themselves. Pro-
digious numbers of them are brought to the markets
salted and smoked like red herrings. They have an
oily and rancid taste, to which a stranger does not
easily become accustomed; but the people of the
country eat them with great relish.'
S"'I must confess,' resumed Ingardin, 'that, if I
were displeased with my dinner, I have been very
well satisfied, however, with the soil of Morocco,
which appears to me to be very fruitful. The riches
of this empire consist in the fertility of the land. Its
corn, fruits, flocks, hemp and flax, wax and gums, not



only suffce for its own wants, but the residue might
also be a great object of commerce and exchange with
other nations. Corn in Morocco often yields sixty-
fold. When it yields only thirty, it is but a middling
harvest. As the exportation of this article is checked
by the laws of the kingdom, each individual sows only
in proportion to his wants. Consequently, when the
harvests fall short through the ravages of the locusts,
these countries are exposed to a degree of want
unknown in Europe, where the government obviates
every want by foresight.
"'The Moors, naturally indolent, take little pains
in the cultivation of their fruits. Oranges, lemons,
and shell-fruits, whose trees do not require much care,
grow in the open fields; and there are noble planta-
tions of them. The vines produce very good grapes;
the figs are excellent. Olives abound, and form very
pleasant avenues, as the trees are large, spreading, and
proportionably high. They are carefully watered, that
they may preserve their fruits the better. There are
no good dates but in the province of Sus, and toward
After supper, the Maraboo again dressed the
wounds of Montval and the Abbe Doloni, and already
perceived a sensible diminution in the unpleasant
symptoms. He left us the next day, assuring us
that his presence was no longer necessary. We were
sorry to lose him, for this Maraboo was not ignorant,
as these hermits usually are. He was a man of
information, and of a gentle and amiable disposition.
He had a chaplet almost always in his hand, and
alternately recited the attributes of the Deity, as
' God is good, God is omnipotent, God is just, God
is infinite!' but he did this without any affectation,
and appeared to pray less in obedience to his order
than to the dictates of his heart.
SWe set off some time after to continue our
journey, and after several days' route, which afforded
us no interesting event, and during which we were



chiefly occupied by the particular object of our mission,
visiting the strong places on our road, we arrived at
the foot of the lofty mountains of Trara, which divide
the empire of Morocco from the territories of Algiers.
It was absolutely necessary for us to cross these
mountains, in order to enter some lands which, as the
Abbe Doloni informed us, had formerly made part of
Numidia, and which he was the more eager to travel
over, as, according to the reports of the antiquaries his
predecessors, the most remarkable ruins here offered
themselves at every step. But the difficulty was, to
travel through this steep pass without being stopped
by the Brebes, a people less civilized than the Moors,
and still more addicted to rapine, who live in an
independent state among the mountains; where, from
necessity as much as inclination, they are apt to
lighten the traveller of his baggage. Numerous as
was our escort, we were warned that the robbers
might be still more numerous, and that we should
incur the greatest danger.
"The case was urgent. There were not two ways
to choose; the pass must be forced. But how should
we do it without danger? how avoid meeting with
the Brebes, and how elude their insatiate rapacity?
how should we come off victorious if they attacked us
with superior numbers? Each of us endeavoured to
answer these questions in the best manner he was able.
The most prudent would have had a general summons
of all the Moors in the neighbourhood, and not have
scaled the mountain till we should have been attended
by five hundred men well armed. The most timid
were not even satisfied with the idea of this powerful
escort, and dreading the issue of the combat, they
proposed to avoid it, by skirting along the mountains
as far as the sea, and there freighting a vessel in which
we might safely pursue our course. The bravest of the
party were determined to confront the danger, and trusted
to their own courage for the overthrow of a handful of
banditti. The wiser ones did not wish on this occa-



sion to expose those whose courage might serve them
more usefully hereafter. We had deliberated for two
whole hours without being able to come to any resolu-
tion. Chiousse and Dominic had retired into a corner,
and were whispering, not venturing, through timidity,
to raise their voices. We were curious to know their
opinions, and pressed them to explain themselves.
After a hesitation of some minutes, Chiousse was
about to speak, but he stopped suddenly, and made a
sign to Dominic to speak for him. You must know,'
said the latter, 'that we have invented a method
to make the robbers more afraid of us than we can
ever be of them. We want neither arms nor escort;
if you will permit us, we will charge ourselves with
everything, and answer for the success of our scheme.'
"These few words greatly excited our curiosity.
'What is this method ?' we all cried. 'It is a strata-
gem,' replied Dominic, 'which will succeed much the
est during the night. We must set out to-morrow
evening.' But the stratagem,' interrupted Montval:
'explain yourself, Dominic.'
The idea of crossing the mountains of Trara by
night was very alarming to the timid members of the
company, and inspired them with a strong prejudice
against a project with which they were not yet
acquainted. Murmurs of disapprobation were even
heard on this account which so much intimidated
Dominic, that he dared not go on with his discourse.
He only whispered a few words to Montval, hastily
explaining his design, and retired. 'You have done
wrong in discouraging him,' said Montval. 'The
project he has just imparted to me cannot fail of
success, and may be easily executed. It will dispel
the fears of the most timid, and may be considered
as a fair stratagem of war, an innocent deceit, which
we may in future have recourse to more than once.
Chiousse and Dominic had been acquainted in their
youth at Naples. They were both, when boys, at the
house of Signior Petardini, the most celebrated artificer



in his way, th ht Italy has ever produced. They learned
at this famous school, all the most laboured and difficult
parts of the art of making fireworks, and if they have
once the proper materials, they can employ them in a
manner capable of dazzling the eye, stunning the ear,
and alarming the imagination. You easily perceive
all the advantages that we may derive on this occasion
from this almost magnificent art. Instead of being
frightened ourselves by the Brebes, we shall spread a
panic among them, and make them flee to their deepest
caverns. We must all put our hands to the work, that it
may advance more rapidly. Two days will be sufficient
to prepare everything. The day after to-morrow we
may set out in the evening by torch-light.'
Montval's speech was received with universal
applause. Dominic and Chiousse were recalled, and
received the compliments of the whole company.
Orders were instantly given. We caused search to
be made through all the neighbourhood for gunpowder,
which was indispensable necessary. Ten Moors were
employed in pounding charcoal; ten others in pre-
paring paper tubes to contain the fulminating mat-
ter. Chiousse and Dominic, animated by an inde-
scribable zeal, appeared to be multiplied. Continually
in action, they sometimes hastened the work of others
by their presence, and sometimes met together, to
recall more perfectly the lessons which they had
formerly received in the work-rooms of Signior
At the end of two days everything was ready,
and, as soon as night came to favour our departure,
we set out.
A young Moor, seated on the hump of a drome-
dary, and holding a lighted torch in his hand, went
before, and served us as a guide. Immediately after
followed Chiousse on a horse accustomed to stand fire.
He wore a complete armour, like that of the ancient
knights-errant. His head was covered with a large
pasteboard cap in the shape of a sugar-loaf, and his



hand, like Don Quixote's, was armed with a long
lance, which was to serve him for a magic wand. He
was followed by a covered cart, containing all the most
formidable artillery of fire-works. Dominic was the
driver. We all followed the cart on horseback; taking
care, however, to keep a respectful distance. Each
of us had in his hand a very large torch; and two
Moors followed with a lantern to light them when it
should be necessary. A troop of masgarines closed
the march.
"We soon found ourselves in the passes of the
mountains of Trara. A profound silence reigned
around. It was not till towards midnight that we
began to hear before us whistlings, which seemed to
answer each other, and warned us that the robbers
were not far distant; and, in fact, our van-guard soon
perceived some Brebes advancing through the wood
to reconnoitre. Chiousse stood his ground, and gave
them time to approach. The Brebes examined him
with astonishment. He remained on his horse un-
moved as a statue: but when he saw that the attack
was about to begin, he spurred on his horse, and
brought the point of his lance in contact with the
lighted torch carried by the guide. Instantly a loud
explosion was heard. The fire radiated as it exploded
to the very top of the lance, and thence communicated
itself to the armour of Chiousse, which suddenly shone
forth like a meteor in the midst of the darkness. A
thousand radiated stars sprang forth from every part
of the armour, fluttered in the air, and were at length
extinguished with a noise resembling a discharge of
musketry. The sugar-loaf cap took fire, and dazzling
rays proceeded from its summit, which divided them-
selves on all sides, and fell at a distance in a shower
of fire. Chiousse continued his march, and the covered
cart succeeded. Dominic set fire to it, and retired
towards us. Immediately the air was filled with the
repeated explosions of petards. Flames of all colours
arose towards the sky, representing the mwst terrific



figures. Fulminating bombs burst forth, and the
cart, like Vesuvius in an eruption, poured forth
waves of fire.
As for us, we marched after with our lighted torches,
which sometimes shot out scintillating stars, and some-
times exploded. The Brebes, who had been seized
with terror from the beginning of a scene so new to
them, fled in great haste to the depth of their woods,
and had no desire to return and disturb us. We
marched on all the rest of the night without seeing
one of them, and at sunrise entered the territory of

STHE Abbe Doloni, delighted to travel over the plains
of ancient Numidia, endeavoured to make us share in
his enthusiasm. He never failed in the evening to
collect all the observations of the day, and every day
furnished him with at least twenty subjects for dis-
During our passage to Arzew, a seaport, called by
the Moors the port of Beni-Zeian, he proved to us
that this town is incontestibly the one described by
Pliny under the name of Arsenaria. The country
behind the town is a rich and beautiful plain several
miles in length; but on the side towards the sea there
are steep precipices, forming a natural fortification to
the city. In the neighbourhood are found the ruins of
several monuments of antiquity. The Abbe Doloni
would willingly have carried away, or at least made
drawings of them all; but what interested him most
was a hypogeain, or sepulchral chamber, in which he
found six inscriptions. Four of these were still entire;
the others, half devoured by time, resembled bouts-
rims not yet filled up.



As we passed by Masagran and Musty Gannim,
two towns situated a few miles from the river Scheliff,
which is the largest in the kingdom, the Abbe Doloni
would positively stop two days to determine whether
these two towns, remarkable for the beauty of their
site, were not the Cartenna of the old Romans. He
searched diligently through the neighbourhood for
some ruins which might authorize his conjectures.
His endeavours were fruitless; but he remained no
less convinced that the Romans must have inhabited
this place. 'It is too fertile,' said he, 'and offers too
remarkable a prospect, to allow us to believe that the
Romans could have neglected to establish themselves
in so advantageous a situation.'
When we had passed the river Scheliff, the Abbe
told us that this name is only a corruption of the
ancient name Chinalaph. 'Perhaps so,' replied Martin
de la Bastide; but I attend chiefly to modern geo-
graphy, and I had rather know in what part a river
rises, and what direction it follows in its course, than
what name it bore in the time of the Romans.'-' One
part of knowledge does not exclude another,' replied
the Abbe; 'and you will be but half a geographer
unless you possess them both.'-' I but half a geogra-
pher!' cried Martin de la Bastide; I who have con-
ceived a project for joining the northern and southern
seas by the lake of Nicaragua. I who only wait to be
authorized by the court of Spain to execute this project,
the most astonishing, perhaps, ever conceived by a
geographer!'-' Very well; but why do you blame
me for teaching you what perhaps you did not know
before, that the river Scheliff is the Chinalaph of the
ancients.'-' I did not blame you. Every man has his
own taste. Mine is to occupy myself exclusively with
modern geography: I will now, in my turn, inform
you, if you do not know it, that the river Scheliff
flows out of the district of Sahra, and that its springs,
which, on account of their number and contiguity, are
called Sebbeine Aine or the seventy springs, no sooner



join than they fall into the Nah'r Wassel, a little
stream which then loses its name and assumes that of
Scheliff; that the Scheliff flows eastward till its juno-
tion with the brook of Midroe, a village of Sahra,
thirty miles from the seventy springs; that it then
runs from south to north, and that, receiving at length
the river Harbene, it turns its course towards the west.'
This dispute had no unpleasant consequences. The
Abbe Doloni was so well pleased with travelling over
a country so fertile in ruins, that he was not affected
by the invectives of his fellow-traveller. Some days
after, he even said to him, laughing, 'My dear friend,
no more disputes: let us keep up a good understand-
ig; and to complete our reconciliation, let us visit
together the ruins of Julius Caesarea, which, according
to my calculations, cannot be far distant. This city,
as you know, was very magnificent, and almost as
large as Carthage. It was utterly destroyed by an
earthquake. Geographers are divided in opinion with
regard to the true situation of this city; I prove, how-
ever, that the Julia Caesarea of the ancients is neither
Algiers, as Dapper pretends, nor another city called
Tniss, as Sanson believed; but the city at present
called Sher-Shell, as has been fully established by Dr.
They set out accordingly to their visit to these ruins,
and found among the wrecks of an old monument
several medals, bearing on one side the head of King
Juba, and on the reverse a horse or a palm-tree. The
Abbe Doloni on this occasion informed us that Mauri-
tania, Numidia, and the territory of Carthage, had
formerly assumed the horse for their arms, as being a
strong and warlike animal: and, perhaps, because the
Lybians had been the first to tame it. 'The Numi-
dians,' added he, 'have at all periods had the reputa-
tion of being the best of horsemen, and of applying
themselves more than any other nation to the manage-
ment of horses.'
"We were now approaching Algiers, that city so



famous for its piracies, and which is the residence of
the Dey. We arrived there some days afterwards.
This city is washed on the north by the Mediterranean.
It is about three miles in circumference, and is situated
on the slope of a hill, forming towards the sea a large
and beautiful amphitheatre. The free and open view
over the sea from the terrace-roofs of the houses is
highly agreeable; and the uniform whiteness of these
roofs gives the city, when viewed from a distance, the
appearance of a large bleaching-ground.
We immediately informed the Dey of our arrival,
and sent him an exact list of our names, with a letter
from the emperor of Morocco. He soon sent us a
dozen spahis to mount guard at our door during the
whole time that we should stay at Algiers, and caused
us to be informed that we should be admitted to his
presence as often as we wished it.
We were obliged to use this privilege the follow-
ing day, but on a very disagreeable account: for it
was on the complaint of the mufti, who accused one of
us of an attempt to profane the great mosque, on which
the Dey had issued strict orders for the apprehension
of the culprit. A Moorish chiaoux came to arrest him,
and everything is obliged to yield before this passive
and dreadful instrument of the will of the Dey. The
accused was torn from our arms; he passed the night
in prison, and sentence was the next day to be pro-
nounced upon him.
This sentence was of importance to anticipate. The
person accused was dear to us; he was the Abbe Do-
loni. Carried away by his zeal for antiquities, he had
hastened, the very day after his arrival, to visit every
thing curious in this way that the city afforded. Ie
had not been satisfied with his discoveries; but on the
same day, having learned from one of those mission-
aries who came to Algiers to redeem slaves, that on
the tower of the great mosque there were several Latin
inscriptions very difficult to be deciphered, he could not
rest till he had examined and deciphered them, and



their sense. Trusting in the protection of the Dey
against the consequences of an inconsiderate step, he
went straight to the great mosque, mounted the tower,
eagerly sought for the inscriptions, and found them,
but covered with mortar, for the tower had been white-
washed more than once. Naturally enough, but very
thoughtlessly, he then took out his knife, and began
scratching the wall, to make the inscriptions shew more
plainly. The mufti saw him, and cried out profana-
tion. Upon this the Abbe recollected himself, and
took to flight. He returned to us in great alarm,
related the danger he had incurred, and we soon saw
the Moorish chiaoux come to seize his person.
"We appeared accordingly before the Dey to justify
our companion, and obtain his release. The Dey never
leaves his palace but on certain days of ceremony. It
is in the palace that all the business of the State is
transacted, and all the courts of justice are held. The
Dey, placed on a throne at the end of a large hall, is
daily occupied in hearing and judging the complaints
of his subjects, and his decisions are executed without
"The throne from which he dispenses justice is built
partly of brick and partly of stone, and covered on the
top with lion-skins. The Dey places himself there
after the first prayer, which is at daybreak, and re-
mains there till the time of the second prayer, which is
about noon. He then dines alone, or with some of his
intimates; after which he returns to his post till the
prayer which is offered up, all the year round, before
the approach of night. During the time that he ad-
ministers justice, four secretaries remain seated at a
table to despatch his orders. They have each a reois-
ter, in which they write the decisions of the Dey. ehe
chiaoux must also be present whilst he is on his
Tho chiaoux are divided into two classes; the
chiaoux properly so called, and the Moorish chiaoux.
The first are twelve Turks, remarkable for their size


and strength. Their dress is green, with a red belt,
and a white cap ending in a point. They are charged
with the execution of all the orders proceeding from
the mouth of the Dey himself. They are not allowed
to carry any sort of arms, not even a knife or a stick.
There is no example, however, of a Turk resisting a
chiaoux, though certain of approaching death. The
most resolute and mutinous Turk, even though of the
first rank, is seized with a fear as soon as he is arrested
by a chiaoux in the name of the Dey. He suffers
hunself to be led like a sheep before the military aaga,
who has often already received orders with regard to
the kind of death to be inflicted on the culprit. These
chiaoux are never employed but against Turks. It
would dishonour them to lay their hands on a Jew or a
Moor. There are Moorish chiaoux destined to this
"On entering the judgment-hall, where the Dey
pronounces so many rigorous and arbitrary sentences,
we experienced a shuddering of dread. After announc-
inw ourselves as persons protected by the emperor of
Morocco; after pleading the cause of our friend in the
most eloquent manner; after exhorting the Dey to
shew himself great and generous; we were obliged to
wait six whole hours for his decision. He then declared
to us that he would still grant us the same protection,
in consideration of his ally the emperor of Morocco;
that out of respect to this prince he was willing to
pardon our companion, who had dared to profane the
great mosque, by scratching the wall of the tower with
his knife; but that, for his own safety, he should be
obliged to order him to leave Algiers in twenty-four
"The Abb6 Doloni was immediately sent for, and
restored to liberty. We retired together, and prepared
to set out with him the next day for Tunis, and to visit
the famous ruins of Carthage, in its neighbourhood.
S' It is to be hoped,' said Martin de la Bastide,
'that we shall be better treated at Tunis than we have


been at Algiers. Its government is much milder, and
its inhabitants are more courteous; but nevertheless, it
is desirable that the Abbe Doloni should not scratch
the walls of mosques again to make out the inscrip-
"We left Algiers as we had promised, and, direct-
ing our course towards Tunis, we passed by the city
of Constantina, the capital of the eastern province of
the kingdom of Algiers. The Abb6 Doloni informed
us, that it received the name of Constantina from a
daughter of the emperor of that name, who caused it
to be rebuilt in a magnificent style. This place is
well fortified, and its grand ruins suggest an elevated
idea of its ancient splendour. Under Caligula, the
Abb6 said, it was the capital of Caesarean Mauritania.
"We thought it long before we arrived at Tunis;
but when at length we approached this town, the Abb6
Doloni, yielding to his impatient curiosity, persuaded
us all to deviate several miles from our road, to visit
the ruins of one of the most celebrated cities of anti-
quity, those of Carthage.
"We first arrived at a place called Boo-Shatter,
which the Abbe informed us was the ancient Utica.
Utica,' said he, 'was, indeed, formerly a sea-port;
but the sea has since retired three or four miles fiom
it, and filled up its harbour. Carthage has suffered as
great a change with respect to its situation near the
sea. The site of its now ruined port still retains the
name of El Mersa, or the harbour. Coasting along
the sea-side, ruins are found in several places of com-
mon sewers, the masonry of which is so solid that they
are in no respect injured. The public cisterns are in
equally good preservation.' Near the cistern are found
the principal ruins of the aqueduct which furnished the
city with water. We examined them attentively, con-
ducted by the Abbe Doloni, who, after shewing us the
ruins of Carthage in the utmost detail, made us ascend
a neighboring hill to view them all together.
"'(Cast your eyes along this shore,' said he. How



striking is the picture it presents, and the moral it
affords! This city, which carried the renown of its
name through the whole world; this city, which was
so long the rival of Rome, and brought it to the brink
of destruction; now offers only a heap of shapeless
ruins, which scarcely enable the observer to discover
the spot that it occupied. All the pompous edifices it
contained within its walls have been swept away by
the hand of time, and, except some fragments of
columns and half-destroyed cisterns, nothing remains
of Carthage. Thus cities crumble into dust, and em-
pires pass away. Like men, they have but an epheme-
ral existence, and their vices accelerate their destruction.
Carthage was flourishing. Luxury, and with it all
kinds of disorder, were introduced into her bosom, and
hastened her fall. Whilst her inhabitants consumed
their days in sloth, and gave themselves up to the most
shameful irregularities, the Vandals, led by Genseric
their king, made an irruption into Africa in 427, took
possession of the three Mauritanias, and besieged this
city, so celebrated for its corruption and its immense
riches. Already,' says a contemporary historian,
'already Carthage is invested. The barbarians form
the siege; already they batter the walls, and nothing
is heard around this wretched city but the noise of
arms: and what are the Carthaginians doing all this
time ? Seated quietly at the circus, they taste the in-
sensate pleasure of seeing furious athletes slaughter
each other. The clamour of the combatants, and the
applause of the circus-the sad accents of the dying,
and the noisy transports of the spectators-mingled
together; and amidst this strange confusion, scarcely
can the cries of the wretched victims sacrificed on the
field of battle, be distinguished from the acclamations
of the rest of the people resounding through the
"When the capital of an empire has attained this
poit of depravity, it cannot but dissolve and be anni-



TH sight of the ruins of Carthage, and the discourse
pronounced by the Abb6 Doloni as he shewed them to
us, suggested some serious reflections on the rapid
flight of time, and the inanity of human affairs. We
descended silently into the valley, and, with heavy
hearts, directed our steps towards Tunis.
This city is built in a marsh on the slope of a hill.
Its walls are sixty feet high, and flanked by several
towers. Though the air is far from pure, and the
water is so bad that the inhabitants are obliged to fetch
all they drink from a distance of two or three miles, a
hundred and fifty thousand of the least barbarous
people in Africa are collected within the walls of Tunis.
"The Bey, to whom we paid a visit the day after
our arrival, resides in the neighbourhood of the city, at
a palace called Bardo, where he administers justice
every morning to all who present themselves, but
chiefly to the Moors and Arabs from the country. The
person condemned pays him a duty proportioned to the
importance of the cause, and the rank of the parties. We
were present, but only as spectators, at one of these
audiences. Nothing is more singular and striking than
the confident air with which the Arabs of both sexes
come forward, and the animated and bold eloquence
displayed in their speeches. They crouch down on the
ground, pleading their cause with the happiest choice
of words, and a vehemence of action, which cannot be
sufficiently admired in men whose countenances are
naturally mean and stupid. Their posture, their ges-
tures, the motion of their eyes, and the touching inflec-
tions of their voice, are all inspired by that natural
eloquence which makes distant objects present, and
paints them to the life without the assistance of art.
Out of respect to the emperor of Morocco, in whose
name we travelled, the Bey thought himself obliged to



invite us to dinner. We thankfully accepted the
honour. The table was covered with a hundred dshes,
filled with rice, legumes, pastry, boiled meats, fruits,
confectionary, and other aliments; but as the law pro-
hibits the people of Tunis from having any utensil of
gold or silver, we were served without splendour. The
Bey alone had a spoon made of mother-of-pearL At
one end of the table was laced an iron vessel, out of
which we were all obliged to drink by turns, water
being the only liquor allowed at the repast: the Bey,
however, as a mark of distinction, drank out of a chin
cup. After dinner, Montval inquired of the Bey
whether his menagerie were well furnished, and might
be visited without danger. He answered in the afir
mative; and Montval invited us to accompany him.
'Let us go,' said he, 'and make acquaintance with the
animals that inhabit the deserts of the coasts of Africa.
I have great pleasure in examining and describing them
when I can do it with the tranquillity which a sense of
perfect safety confers.'
The Bey then ordered us to be conducted to his
menagerie, where we saw several remarkable animals;
and Montval delighted in giving us all the particulars
we could desire respecting them. I Do you see,' said
he, 'that fawn-coloured animal in the grated den,
with such fierce-looking eyes, which is something like
a wolf? It is the Cant aureus of Linnaus, which we
call the jackal. It has been called the golden wolf by
some, from its red-brown hair. It hides itself among
woods and mountains during the day; but under the
favour of night it issues from its retreat, and roams on
all sides in search of prey. Its note is mournful, and
resembles the smothered cries of a person perishing
under the strokes of an assassin. The jackal rarely
goes alone. It unites, like other animals of its species,
m troops of two hundred, according to Linneus, or of
thirty or forty, according to Bufton. The jackal is
common on all the northern coasts of Africa, but this
part of the world is not its only abode. It is also



found in great numbers in Natolia, Syria, Persia,
Armenia, Arabia, Hindostan, and Bengal.
Here Montval was interrupted by Dominic, who
cried out, My dear master, come and look in this
den, here is a tiger.' You are mistaken, Dominic,'
said Montval, examining the animal; what you see is
an ounce. The ounce, like the tiger, is one of the
feline or cat genus. It is a cat of very large size,
which, like the tiger, panther, and leopard, is ferocious
in the highest degree. Observe the colour of its skin.
It is less tawny than that of the leopard and panther.
It approaches to white, and the spots with which it is
varied are irregular, instead of being ocellated or
round.' 'In this country,' said the keeper of the
menagerie, 'we call this animal the jacmh.' 'I know,'
replied Montval, we call it ounce : Uncia is the Latin
name, Felis Uncia the Linnean, and jaadh the
Barbary name.
"' Now observe this animal, the hair of whose neck
stands upright. What a savage look it has! It seems
as though it were about to devour its prey. Linneus
comprehends it, as well as the wolf, in the dog genus;
and indeed there are dogs which perfectly resemble it
in shape and many other characters. This cruel ani-
mal is the hyana. Look at its face: it is like that of
a wild boar. It lives in the caverns of mountains, and
occupies a wide domain in Africa and Asia.
"' Here is the lion. Observe his thick mane, and
the motions of his tail, with which he lashes his side.
He is the most terrible and powerful of all animals. I
have long sought to discover the causes of the decrease
of the species, but have not been able to satisfy myself.
Buffon attributes it to an increase in the numbers of
men. But it is certain, on the contrary, that the coast
of Africa was much more populous formerly, than it is
now under the dominion of the Turks.'
"' I can solve your difficulty,' replied the Abb6
Doloni, and you must for once, at least, confess that
the study of antiquities is good for something. Think



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