Front Matter
 Half Title
 Title Page
 Table of Contents
 Far off

Title: Far off, or, Asia and Australia described
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00001779/00001
 Material Information
Title: Far off, or, Asia and Australia described with anecdotes and illustrations
Alternate Title: Asia and Australia described
Physical Description: 327 p. <10> leaves of plates : ill. ; 18 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Mortimer, Favell Lee, 1802-1878
Howland, William ( Engraver )
Robert Carter & Brothers ( Publisher )
Publisher: Robert Carter & Brothers
Place of Publication: New York
Publication Date: 1852
Subject: Christian life -- Juvenile literature   ( lcsh )
National characteristics -- Juvenile literature   ( lcsh )
Juvenile literature -- Asia   ( lcsh )
Juvenile literature -- Australia   ( lcsh )
Embossed cloth bindings (Binding) -- 1852   ( rbbin )
Publishers' advertisements -- 1852   ( rbgenr )
Bldn -- 1852
Genre: Embossed cloth bindings (Binding)   ( rbbin )
Publishers' advertisements   ( rbgenr )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
Spatial Coverage: United States -- New York -- New York
Statement of Responsibility: by the author of "The Peep of Day."
General Note: Added title page, engraved.
General Note: Publisher's advertisements precede text.
General Note: Illustrations engraved by Howland.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00001779
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: aleph - 002234586
oclc - 45784992
notis - ALH5018
 Related Items
Other version: Alternate version (PALMM)
PALMM Version

Table of Contents
    Front Matter
        Page i
        Page ii
        Page iii
        Page iv
        Page v
    Half Title
        Page vi
    Title Page
        Page vii
        Page viii
        Page ix
        Page x
        Page xi
        Page xii
    Table of Contents
        Page xiii
        Page xiv
        Page xv
        Page xvi
    Far off
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Full Text




Blossoms of Childhood.
By the author of the Broken Bud." 16mo. 75 cents.
Glory, Glory, Glory, and other Narratives. 25 cents.
The Farmer's Daughter. Illustrated. 30 conts.
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By the author of "The Week," &c. Illustrated. 75 cents.
Duncan, Henry.
Tales of the Scottish Peasantry. 18mo. 50 cents.
The Cottago Fireside. 40 cents.
Duncan, Mary Lundie.
Rhymes for my Children. 25 cents.
Far Off in Asia and Australia.
Described by the author of the "Peep of Day," &c. Illustrated.
Fry, Caroline.
The Listener. Illustrated. $1 00.
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Or, the Talisman. Illustrated. 16mo.
Infant's Progress.
By the author of Little Henry and his Bearer." Illustrated, 75 cts
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Or, the Orphan. Illustrated. 75 cents.
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Jessy Allan. 18mo. 25 cents.
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"0 ma'am that's sweet! Jesus Christ is oTC Redeemer."

p. :


t~~~~5"- ~


O R,

hiia nb t5atralia 1trrihdW.







IN the Frontispiece may be seen an English lady, who
went to live upon Mount Sion to teach little Jewesses and
little Mahomedans to know the Saviour. That lady has
led three of her young scholars to a plain just beyond the
gates of Jerusalem; and while two of them are playing to-
gether, she is listening to little Esther, a Jewess of eight
years old. The child is fond of sitting by her friend, and
of hearing about the Son of David. She has just been

"Glory, honor, praise, and power,
Be unto the Lamb forever,
Jesus Christ is our Redeemer,
Hallelujah, praise the Lord;"

and now she is saying, "0, ma'am, that's sweet! Jesus
Christ is our Redeemer, our Redeemer: no man can redeem
his brother, no money,-nothing-but only the precious
blood of Christ."


4~vr fte

THIS little work pleads for the notice of
parents and teachers on the same grounds as
its predecessor, Near Home."
Its plea is not completeness, nor compre-
hensiveness, nor depth of research, nor splen-
dor of description; but the very reverse,-its
simple, superficial, desultory character, as
better adapted to the volatile beings for
whom it is designed.
Too long have their immortal minds been
captivated by the adventures and achieve-
ments of knights and princesses, of fairies and
magicians; it is time to excite their interest
in real persons, and real events. In child-
hood that taste is formed which leads the
youth to delight in novels, and romances; a
taste which has become so general, that every


To form great and good characters, the
mind must be trained to delight in TRUTI,-
not in comic rhymes, in sentimental tales, and
skeptical poetry. The truth revealed in God's
Holy Word, should constitute the firm basis
of education ; and the works of Creation and
Providence the superstructure while the Di-
vine blessing can alone rear and cement the
Parents, train up your children to serve
God, and to enjoy his presence forever; and
if there be amongst them-an EXTRAORDINARY
child, train him up with extraordinary care,
lest instead of doing extraordinary good he
should do extraordinary evil, and be plunged
into extraordinary misery.
Train up-the child of imagination-not to
dazzle, like Byron, but to enlighten, like
Cowper: the child of wit-not to create pro-
fane mirth, like Voltaire, but to promote holy
joy, like Bunyan : the child of reflection-
not to weave dangerous sophistries, like IIume,
but to wield powerful arguments, like Chal-
mers: the child of sagacity-not to gain ad-





vantages for himself, like Cromwell, but for
his country, like Washington: the child of
eloquence-not to astonish the multitude, like
Sheridan, but to plead for the miserable, like
Wilberforce: the child of ardor--not to be
the herald of delusions, like Swedenbourg,
but to be the champion of truth, like Luther:
the child of enterprise-not to devastate a
Continent, like the conquering Napoleon,
but to scatter blessings over an Ocean, like
the missionary Williams :-and, if the child
be a prince,-train him up-not to reign in
pomp and pride like the fourteenth Louis,
but to rule in the fear of God, like our own
great ALFRED.

dn u n nts.

ASIA ................... ..................... 17
THE HOLY LAND ................. .............. 17
Bethlehem .................................. 18
Jerusalem .................... ............. 20
The Dead Sea ....... ......... ......... 26
Samaria .................................. 27
Galilee..................... ........ ........ 28
SYRIA .................. ........................ 31
Damascus................................. 33
ARABIA................ ... .................. 38
TURKEY IN ASIA................ ................ 61
Armenia................................ 54
Kurdistan ................................. 568
Mesopotamia............................... 59
PERSIA... .................................... 62
Teheran ........ ... ... ...... .............. 70
CHINA ...... .......... ...... ........... ......... 72
CocHIN CHINA ................. ............... 100
Tonquin .......... ........ .... ............. 102
Cambodia................................... 102


UI NDOSTAN................ ... ......... ...... 103
The Ganges............... .... ... .. ....... 116
The Thugs............................... .122
The Hindoo W omen ....................... .. 124
The English in India........................... 133
C RCASSIA ................ ................... 142
G EORGIA.......... .. .......... ..... .............. 157
Tiflis....................................... 158
TARTARY ...................... ............. .. 160
Astracan ................... ................ 172
Bokhara.................... ............... 172
The Toorkman Tartars........................ 181
CHINESE TARTARY........... ...... ..... ......... 185
AFFGIIANISTAN ............ ... ......... 187
BELOOCIIISTAN ..................... ............ 194
BURMAH ..................... .............. 200
The Karens................. ............... 208
Ava.............. ..... ................ 210
Maulmain .................................. 210
The Missionary's babe ............... ........ 211
SIAM............... ........ ................ 222
Bankok ................. ................. 226
MALACCA............. .. ........... ..... 228
Singapore.................... .......... 230
The Christian school-girls...................... 231
SIBERIA... ... ..... ............ .. .. 238
The Samoyedes................. ............. 246
The Banished Russians ....................... 249
The Ural Mountains......................... 251


KAMKATKA............ ........................... 252
THIBET......................... .............. ..... 257
Lassa.................. ... ................ 260
CEYLON ........................................... 262
Kandy....... ............................. 268
Colombo ................... ................ 269
BORNEO.............. ........ .......... ....... 273
Bruni............... ................... .... 275
The Dyaks ................................. 276
JAPAN................. ....... .................. 284
A USTRALIA....................................... 291
The Colonists or Settlers ...................... 298
Botany Bay ................................ 305
Sydney....................... ............. 306
Adelaide ................................... 307
VAN DIEMAN'S LAND ......... ....... ............. 308
The Young Savages.......................... 308
Little Mickey.................. ... ... ........ 323



OF the four quarters of the world-Asia is the most
There the first man lived.
There the Son of God lived.
There the apostles lived.
There the Bible was written.
Yet now there are very few Christians in Asia:
though there are more people there than in any
other quarter of the globe.

C64 konlq Laut.

OF all the countries in the world which would you
rather see ?
Would it not be the land where Jesus lived ?

_ _


He was the Son of God: He loved us and died
for us.
What is the land called where He lived ? Ca-
naan was once its name: but now Palestine, or the
Holy Land.
Who lives there now ?
Alas! alas! The Jews who once lived there are
cast out of it. There are some Jews there; but the
Turks are the lords over the land. You know the
Turks believe in Mahomet.
What place in the Holy Land do you wish most
to visit ?
Some children will reply, Bethlehem, because Je-
sus was born there; another will answer, Nazareth,
because Jesus was brought up there; and another
will say, Jerusalem," because He died there.
I will take you first to


A good minis visited this place, accompanied by
a train of servants, and camels, and asses.
It is not easy to travel in Palestine, for wheels are
never seen there, because the paths are too steep, and
rough, and narrow for carriages.

Bethlehem is on a steep hill, and a white road of
chalk leads up to the gate. The traveller found the
streets narrow, dark, and dirty. He lodged in a con-
vent, kept by Spanish monks. He was shown into
a large room with carpets and cushions on the floor.
There he was to sleep. He was led up to the roof
of the house to see the prospect. He looked, and
beheld the fields below where the shepherds once
watched their flocks by night: and far off he saw the
rocky mountains where David once hid himself from
But the monks soon showed him a more curious
sight. They took him into their church, and then
down some narrow stone steps into a round room be-
neath. Here," said they, Jesus was born." The
floor was of white marble, and silver lamps were
burning in it. In one corner, close to the wall, was
a marble trough, lined with blue satin. "There,"
said the monks, "is the manger where Jesus was
laid." Ah !" thought the traveller, it was not in
such a manger that my Saviour :ested his infant
head; but in a far meaner place."
These monks have an image of a baby, which they
call Jesus. On Christmas-day they dress it in swad-
dling-clothes and lay it in the manger: and then fall
down and worship it.




The next day, as the traveller was ready tomjount
his camel, the people of Bethlehem came with little
articles which they had made. But he would not
buy them, because they were images of the Virgin
Mary and her holy child, and little white crosses of
mother-of-pearl. They were very pretty: but they
were idols, and God hates idols.


Here our Lord was crucified.
Is there any child who does not wish to hear about
The children of Jerusalem once loved the Lord,
and sang his praises in the temple. Their young
voices pleased their Saviour, though not half so
sweet as angels' songs.
Which is the place where the temple stood ?
It is Mount Moriah. There is a splendid building
there now.
Is it the temple ? O no, that was burned many
hundreds of years ago. It is the Mosque of Omar
that you see; it is the most magnificent mosque in
all the world. How sad to think that Mahomedans
should worship now in the very spot where once the


Son of God taught the people. No Jew, no Chris-
tian may go into that mosque. The Turks stand
near the gate to keep off both Jews and Christians.
Every Friday evening a very touching scene takes
place near this mosque. There are some large old
stones there, and the Jews say they are part of their
old temple wall : so they come at the beginning of
their Sabbath (which is on Friday evening) and sit
in a row opposite the stones. There they read their
Hebrew Old Testaments, then kneel low in the dust,
and repeat their prayers with their mouths close to
the old stones: because they think that all prayers
whispered between the cracks and crevices of these
stones will be heard by God. Some Jewesses come,
wrapped from head to foot in long white veils, and they
gently moan and softly sigh over Jerusalem in ruins.
What Jesus said has come to pass, Behold, your
house is left unto you desolate." The thought of this
sad day made Jesus weep, and now the sight of it
makes the Jews weep.
But there is a place still dearer to our hearts than
Mount Moriah. It is Calvary. There is a church
there: but such a church a church full of images
and crosses. Roman Catholics worship there-and
Greeks too: and they often fight in it, for they hate
one another, and have fierce quarrels.

That church is called "The Church of the Holy
Sepulchre." It is pretended that Christ's tomb or
sepulchre is in it. Turks stand at the door and make
Christians pay money before they will let them in.
When they enter, what do they see ?
In one corner a stone seat. "There," say the
monks, "Jesus sat when He was crowned with
thorns." In another part there is a stone pillar.
" There," say the monks, Ie was scourged." There
is a high place in the middle of the church with
stairs leading up to it. When you stand there the
monks say, This is the top of Calvary, where the
cross stood." But we know that tle monks do not
speak the truth, for the Romans destroyed Jerusalem
soon after Christ's crucifixion, and no one knows the
very place where He suffered.
On Good Friday the monks carry all round the
church an image of the Saviour as large as life, and
they fasten it upon a cross, and take it down again,
and put it in the sepulchre, and they take it out again
on Easter Sunday. How foolish and how wrong are
these customs! It was not in this way the apostles
showed their love to Christ, but by preaching his
Mount Zion is the place where David brought the
ark with songs and music. There is a church where



the Gospel is preached and prayers are offered up in
Hebrew, (the Jew's language.) The minister is called
\the Bishop of Jerusalem. He is a Protestant. A
few Jews come to the church at Mount Zion, and
some have believed in the Lord Jesus.
And there is a school there where little Jews and
Jewesses and little Mahomedans sit side by side,
while a Christian lady teaches them about Jesus. In
the evening, after school, she takes them out to play
on the green grass near the city. A little Jewess once
much pleased this kind teacher as she was sitting on
a stone looking at the children playing. Little Esther
repeated the verse-

Glory, honor, praise and power
Be unto the Lamb forever; '
Jesus Christ is our Redeemer,
Hallelujah, praise the Lord!

and then she said very earnestly, "0, ma'am, how
sweet to think that Jesus is our Redeemer. No man
can redeem his brother: no money-no money can
do it-only the precious blood of Jesus Christ." Lit-
tle Esther seemed as if she loved Jesus,. as those chil-
dren did who sang his praises in the temple so many
years ago.
But there is pother place-very sad, but very
sweet-where you must come. Go down that valley



-cross that small stream-(there is a narrow bridge)
-see those low stone walls-enter: it is the Garden
of Gethsemane. Eight aged olive-trees are still stand-,
ing there; but Jesus comes there no more with his
beloved disciples. What a night was that when He
wept and prayed-when the angel comforted Him-
and Judas betrayed Him.
The mountain just above Gethsemane is the Mount
of Olives. Beautiful olive-trees are growing there still.
There is a winding path leading to the top. The Sa-
viour trod upon that Mount just before he was caught
up into heaven. His feet shall stand there again, and
every eye shall see the Saviour in his glory. But will
every eye be glad to see Him ?
O no; there will be bitter tears then flowing from
many eyes.
And what kind of a city is Jerusalem ?
It is a sad and silent city. The houses are dark
and dirty, the streets are narrow, and the pavement
rough. There are a great many very old Jews there.
Jews come from all countries when they are old to
Jerusalem, that they may die and be buried there.
Their reason is that they think that all Jews who are
buried in their burial-ground at Jerusalem will be
raised first at the last day, and vill be happy for-
ever. Most of the old Jews are very poor: though




money is sent to them every year from the Jews in
There are also a great many sick Jews in Jerusalem,
because it is such an unhealthy place. The water in
the wells and pools gets very bad in summer, and
gives the ague and even the plague. Good English
Christians have sent a doctor to Jerusalem to cure the
poor sick people. One little girl of eleven years old
came among the rest-all in rags and with bare feet:
she was an orphan, and she lived with a Jewish
washerwoman. The doctor went to see the child in
her home. Where was it? It was near the mosque,
and the way to it was down a narrow, dark passage,
leading to a small close yard. The old woman lived
in one room with her grandchildren and the orphan:
there was a divan at each end, that is, the floor was
raised for people to sleep on. The orphan was not
allowed to sleep on the divans, but she had a heap of
rags for her bed in another part. The child's eyes
glistened with delight at the sight of her kind friend
the doctor. lie asked her whether she went to school.
This question made the whole family laugh : for no
one in Jerusalem teaches girls to read except the kind
Christian lady I told you of.

--- --


THE most gloomy and horrible place in the Holy
Land is the Dead Sea. In that place there once stood
four wicked cities, and God destroyed them with fire
and brimstone.
You have heard of Sodom and Gomorrah.
A clergyman who went to visit the Dead Sea rode
on horseback, and was accompanied by men to guard
him on the way, as there are robbers hid among the
rocks. Hie took some of the water of the Dead Sea in
his mouth, that lie might taste it, and he found it salt
and bitter; but he would not swallow it, nor would
he bathe in it.
He went next to look at the River Jordan. Iow
different a place from the dreary, desolate Dead Sea!
Beautiful trees grow on the banks, and the ends of the
branches dip into the stream. The minister chose a
part quite covered with branches and bathed there,
"nd as the waters went over his head, he thought,
" My Saviour was baptized in this river." But he did
not think, as many pilgrims do who come here every
year, that his sins were washed away by the water:
no, he well knew that Christ's blood alone cleanses
from sin. There is a place where the Roman Catho-




lics bathe, and another where the Greeks bathe every
year; they would not on any account bathe in the
same part, because they disagree so much.
After drinking some of the sweet soft water of Jor-
dan, the minister travelled from Jericho to Jerusalem.
He went the very same way that the good Samaritan
travelled who once found a poor Jew lying half-killed
by thieves. Even to this day thieves often attack
travellers in these parts : because the way is so lonely,
and so rugged, and so full of places where thieves can
hide themselves.
A horse must be a very good climber to carry a
traveller along the steep, rough, and narrow paths,
and a traveller must be a bold man to venture to go
to the edge of the precipices, and near the robbers'


In the midst of Palestine is the well where the Lord
spoke so kindly to the woman of Samaria. In the
midst of a beautiful valley there is a heap of rough
stones : underneath is the well. But it is not easy to
drink water out of this well. For the stone on the
top is so heavy, that it requires many people to re-
move it: and then the well is deep, and a very long

rope is necessary to reach the water. The clergyman
(of whom I have spoken so often) had nothing to
draw with ; therefore, even if he could have removed
the stone, he could not have drunk of the water. The
water must be very cool and refreshing, because it lies
so far away from the heat. That was the reason the
Samaritan woman came so far to draw it: for there
were other streams nearer the city, but there was no
water like the water of Jacob's well.
The city where that woman lived was called Sychar.
It is-still to be seen, and it is still full of people. You
remember that the men of that city listened to the
words of Jesus, and perhaps that is the reason it has
not been destroyed. The country around is the most
fruitful in all Canaan; there are such gardens of
melons and cucumbers, and such groves of mulberry-


How different from Sychar is Capernaum That
was the city where Jesus lived for a long while, where
he preached and did miracles. It was on the borders
of the lake of Genesareth. The traveller inquired of
the people near the lake, where Capernaum once
stood; but no one knew of such a place: it is utterly




destroyed. Jesus once said, Woe unto Capernaum."
Why ? Because it repented not.
The lake of Genesareth looked smooth as glass *
when the traveller saw it; but he heard that dreadful
storms sometimes ruffled those smooth waters. It
was a sweet and lovely spot; not gloomy and horri-
ble like the Dead Sea. The shepherds were there
leading their flocks among the green hills where once
the multitude sat down while Jesus fed them.
Not very far off is the city where Jesus lived when
he was a boy.
NAZARETH.-All around are rugged rocky hills.
In old times it was considered a wicked city; perhaps
it got this bad name from wicked people coming here
to hide themselves: and it seems just fit for a hiding-
place. From the top of one of the high crags the
Nazarenes once attempted to hurl the blessed Saviour.
There is a Roman Catholic convent there, where
the minister lodged. He was much disturbed all day
by the noise in the town; not the noise of carts and
wagons, for there are none in Canaan, but of scream-
ing children, braying asses, and grunting camels.
One of his servants came to him complaining that he
had lost his purse with all his wages. He had left it
in his cell, and when he came back it was gone.
Who could have taken it ? It was clear one of the

1 I-~--



servants of the convent must have stolen it, for one
of them had the key of the room. The travellers
went to the judge of the town to complain; but the
judge, who was a Turk, was asleep, and no one was
allowed to awake him. In the evening, when he did
awake, he would not see justice done, because he said
he had nothing to do with the servants at the con-
vent, as they were Christians. Nazareth, you see, is
still a wicked city, where robbery is committed and
not punished.
There is much to make the traveller sad as he
wanders about the Holy Land.
That land was once fruitful, but now it is barren.
It is not surprising that nu one plants and sows in the
fields, because the Turks would take away the harvests.
Once it was peaceful land, but now there are so many
enemies that every man carries a gun to defend himself.
Once it was a holy land, but now Mahomet is
honored, and not the God of Israel.
When shall it again be fruitful, and peaceful, and
holy ? When the Jews shall repent of their sins and
turn to the Lord. Then, says the prophet Ezekiel,
(Xxxvi. 35,) They shall say, This land that was deso-
late is become like the garden of Eden."*

Taken chiefly from "A Pastor's Memorial," by the
Rev. George Fisk.



$ 4ri a.

THOSE who love the Holy Land will like to hear
about Syria also; for Abraham lived there before he
came into Canaan. Therefore the Israelites were
taught to say when they offered a basket of fruit to
God, "A Syrian was my father." It was a heathen
land in old times; and it is now a Mahomedan land;
though there are a few Christians there, but very
ignorant Christians, who know nothing of the Bible.
Syria is a beautiful land, and famous for its grand
mountains, called Lebanon. The same clergyman who
travelled through the Holy Land went to Lebanon
also. He had to climb up very steep places on
horseback, and slide down some, as slanting as the
roof of a house. But the Syrian horses are very sure-
footed. It is the custom for the colts from a month
old to follow their mothers; and so when a rider
mounts the back of the colt's mother, the young crea-
ture follows, and it learns to scramble up steep places,
and to slide down; even through the towns the colt



trots after its mother, and soon becomes accustomed
to all kinds of sights and sounds: so that Syrian
horses neither shy nor stumble.
The traveller was much surprised at the dress of the
women of Lebanon: for on their heads they wear sil-
ver horns sticking out from under their veils, the
strangest head-dress that can be imagined.
There are sweet flowers growing on the sides of
Lebanon; but at the top there are ice and snow.
The traveller ate some ice, and gave some to the
horses; and the poor beasts devoured it eagerly, and
seemed quite refreshed by their cold meal.
The snow of Lebanon is spoken of in the Bible as
very pure and refreshing. "Will a man leave the
snow of Lebanon, which cometh from the rock of the
field ?"-Jer. xviii. 14.
The traveller earnestly desired to behold the cedars
of Lebanon : for a great deal is said about them in the
Bible; indeed, the temple of Solomon was built of
those cedars. It was not easy to get close to them;
for there were craggy rocks all around: but at last the
traveller reached them, and stood beneath their shade.
There were twelve very large old trees, and their
boughs met at the top, and kept off the heat of the
sun. These trees might be compared to holy men,
grown old in the service of God : for this is God's


p. 32.

promise to his servants,-" The righteous shall flourish
like the palm-tree: he shall grow like a cedar in
Lebanon."-Psalm xc. 11, 12.


This is the capital of Syria.
It is perhaps the most ancient city in the world.
Even in the time of Abraham, Damascus was a city;
for his servant Eliezer came from it.
But Damascus is most famous, on account of a great
event which once happened near it. A man going
towards that city suddenly saw in the heavens a light
brighter than the sun, and heard a voice from on
high, calling him by his name. Beautiful as the city
was, he saw not its beauty as he entered it, for he had
lteen struck blind by the great light. That man was
the great apostle Paul.
Who can help thinking of him among the gardens
of fruit-trees surrounding Damascus ?
The damask rose is one of the beauties of Damas-
cus. There is one spot quite covered with this lovely
red rose.
I will now give an account of a visit a stranger
paid to a rich man in Damascus. He went through




dull and narrow streets, with no windows looking into
the streets. Hie stopped before a low door, and was
shown into a large court behind the house. There
was a fountain in the midst of the court, and flower-
pots all round. The visitor was then led into a room
with a marble floor, but with no furniture except scar-
let cushions. To refresh him after his journey, he
was taken to the bath. There a man covered him
with a lather of soap and water, then dashed a quan-
tity of hot water over him, and then rubbed him till
he was quite dry and warm.
When he came out of the bath, two servants
brought him some sherbet. It is a cooling drink
made of lemon-juice and grape-juice mixed with water.
The master of the house received the stranger very
politely: he not only shook hands with him, but
afterwards he kissed his own hand, as a mark of re-
spect to his guest. The servants often kissed the visi-
tor's hand.
The dinner lasted a long while, for only one dish
was brought up at a time. Of course there were no
ladies at the dinner, for in Mahomedan countries they
are always hidden. There were two lads there, who
were nephews to the master of the house; and the
visitor was much surprised to observe that they did
not sit down to dinner with the company; but that

they stood near their uncle, directing the servants what
to bring him; and now and then presenting a cup of
wine to him, or his guests. But it is the custom in
Syria for young people to wait upon their elders;
however, they may speak to the company while they
are waiting upon them.
Damascus used to be famous for its swords: but
now the principal things made there, are stuffs'em-
broidered with silver, and boxes of curious woods, as
well as red and yellow slippers. The Syrians always
wear yellow slippers, and when they walk out they
put on red slippers over the yellow. If you want
to buy any of the curious works .of Damascus, you
must go to the bazaars in the middle of the town;
there the sellers sit as in a market-place, and dis-
play their goods.
SCHOOLS.-It is not the custom in Syria for girls to
learn to read. But a few years ago, a good Syrian,
named Assaad, opened a school for little girls as well
as for boys.
It was easy to get the little boys to come; but the
mothers did not like to send their little girls. They
laughed, and said, Who ever heard of a girl going
to school ? Girls need not learn to read." The first
girl who attended Assaad's school was named Angoul,
which means Angel." Where is the child that de-



serves such a name? Nowhere; for there is none
righteous, no, not one. Angoul belonged not to Ma-
homedan parents, but to those called Christians; yet
the Christians in Syria are almost as ignorant as
Angoul had been taught to spin silk; for her father
had a garden of mulberry-trees, and a quantity of silk
worms. She was of so much use in spinning, that her
mother did not like to spare her: but the little maid
promised, that if she might go to school, she would
spin faster than ever when she came home. How
happy she was when she obtained leave to go! See
her when the sun has just risen, about six o'clock,
tripping to school. She is twelve years old. Her
eyes are dark, but her hair is light. Angoul has not
been scorched by the sun, like many Syrian girls, be-
cause she has sat in-doors at her wheel during the
heat of the day. She is dressed in a loose red gown,
and a scarlet cap with a yellow handkerchief twisted
round it like a turban.
At school Angoul is very attentive, both while she
is reading in her Testament, and while she is writing
on her tin slate with a reed dipped in ink. She re-
turns home at noon through the burning sun, and
comes to school again to stay till five. Then it is cool
and pleasant, and Angoul spins by her mother's side

__ _




in the lovely garden of fruit-trees before the house.
Has she not learned to sing many a sweet verse about
the garden above, and the heavenly husbandman ?
As she watches the budding vine, she can think now
of Him who said, I am the true vine." As she sits
beneath the olive-tree, she can call to mind the words,
" I am like a green olive-tree in the house of my God."
Angoul is growing like an angel, if she takes delight
in meditating on the word of God.*

Extracted chiefly from the Rev. George Fisk's Pastor's
Memorial." and Kinnear's Travels.


THIS is the land in which the Israelites wandered
for forty years. You have heard what a dry, dreary,
desert place the wilderness was. There is still a wil-
derness in Arabia; and there are still wanderers in it;
not Israelites, but Arabs. These men live in tents,
and go from place to place with their large flocks of
sheep and goats. But there are other Arabs who live
in towns, as we do.
Do you know who is the father of the Arabs ?
The same man who is the father of the Jews.
What, was Abraham their father ?
Yes, he was.
Do you remember Abraham's ungodly son, Ish-
He was cast out of his father's house for mocking
his little brother Isaac, and he went into Arabia.
And what sort of people are the Arabs ?
Wild and fierce people.
Travellers are afraid of passing through Arabia, lest


the Arabs should rob and murder them ; and no one
has ever been able to conquer the Arabs. The Arabs
are very proud, and will not bear the least affront.
Sometimes one man says to another, The wrong side-
of your turban is out." This speech is considered an
affront never to be forgotten. The Arabs are so un-
forgiving and revengeful that they will seek to kill a
man year after year. One man was observed to carry
about a small dagger. HIe said his reason was, he
was hoping some day to meet his enemy and kill
Of what religion are this revengeful people ? The
Mahomed was an Arab. It is thought a great
honor to be descended from him. Those men who
say Mahomed is their father wear a green turban, and
very proud they are of their green turbans, even
though they may only be beggars.
THE AHABIAN WYOMEN.-They are shut up like the
women in Syria when they live in towns, but the
women in tents are obliged to walk about; therefore
they wear a thick veil over their face, with small holes
for their eyes to peep out.
The poor women wear a long shirt of white or
blue; but the rich women wrap themselves in mag-
nificent shawls. To make themselves handsome, they

blacken their eyelids, paint their nails red, and wear
gold rings in their ears and noses. They delight in
fine furniture. A room lined with looking-glasses,
and with a ceiling of looking-glasses, is thought
AsAB TENTS.-They are black, being made of the
hair of black goats. Some of them are so large that
they are divided into three rooms, one for the cattle,
one for the men, and one for the women.
ARAB CUSTOMS.-The Arabs sit on the ground,
resting on their heels, and for tables they have low
stools. A large dish of rice and minced mutton is
placed on the table, and immediately every hand is
thrust into it; and in a moment it is empty. Then
another dish is brought, and another; and sometimes
fourteen dishes of rice, one after the other, till all the
company are satisfied. They eat very fast, and each
retires from dinner as soon as he likes, without wait-
ing for the rest. After dinner they drink water, and
a small cup of coffee without milk or sugar. Then
they smoke for many hours.
The Arabs do not indulge in eating or drinking
too much, and this is one of the best parts of their




1 0 CAMELS p. 41


The first evil is want of water. There is no river
in Arabia: and the small streams are often dried up
by the heat.
The second evil is many locusts, which come in
countless swarms, and devour every green thing.
The third evil is the burning winds. When a tray- .
eller feels it coming, he throws himself on the ground,
covering his face with his cloak, lest the hot sand
should be blown up his nostrils. Sometimes men and
horses are choked by this sand.
These are the three great evils; but there is a still
greater, the religion of Mahomed: for this injures the
soul; the other evils only hurt the body.


The animals for which Arabia is famous are ani-
mals to ride upon.
Two of them are oftep seen in England; though
here they are not nearly as fine as in Arabia; but the
third animal is never used in England. Most English
boys have ridden upon an ass. In Arabia the ass is
a handsome and spirited creature. The horse is
strong and swift, and yet obedient and gentle. The
camel is just suited to Arabia. His feet are fit to



tread upon the burning sands; because the soles are
more like India-rubber than like flesh: his hard
mouth, lined with horn, is not hurt by the prickly
plants of the desert; and his hump full of fat is as
good to him as a bag of provisions: for on a journey
the fat helps to support him, and enables him to do
with very little food. Besides all this, his inside is so
Made that he can live without water for three days.
A dromedary is a swifter kind of camel, and is just
as superior to a camel as a riding-horse is to a cart-


These are coffee, dates, and gums.
For these Arabia is famous.
The coffee plants are shrubs. The hills are cov-
ered with them; the white blossoms look beautiful
among the dark green leaves, and so do the red
The dates grow on the palm-trees; and they are
the chief food of the Arabs. The Arabs despise those
countries where there are no dates.
There are various sweet-smelling gums that flow
from Arabian trees.


I -




You see from what I have just said that there are
plants and trees in Arabia. Then it is clear that the
whole land is not a desert. No, it is not; there is
only a part called Desert Arabia ; that is on the north.
There is a part in the middle almost as bad, called
Stony Arabia, yet some sweet plants grow there; but
there is a part in the south called Happy Arabia,
where grow abundance of fragrant spices, and of well-
flavored coffee.


Arabia has long been famous for three cities, called
Mecca, Medina, and Mocha.
Mecca is considered the holiest city in the world.
And why ? Because the false prophet Mahomed was
born there. On that account Mahomedans come from
all parts of the world to worship in the great temple
there. Sometimes Mecca is as full of people as a hive
is full of bees.
Of all the cities in the East, Mecca is the gayest, be-
cause the houses have windows looking into the
streets. In these houses are lodgings for the pilgrims.
And what is it the pilgrims worship ?

_ ____



A great black stone, which they say the angel
Gabriel brought down from heaven as a foundation
for Mahomed's house. They kiss it seven times, and
after each kiss they walk round it.
Then they bathe in a well, which they say is the
well the angel showed to Hagar in the desert, and
they think the waters of this well can wash away all
their sins. Alas! they know not of the blood which
can wash away all sin.
Medina contains the tomb of Mahomed; yet it is
not thought so much of as Mecca. Perhaps the Ma-
homedans do not like to be reminded that Mahomed
died like any other man, and never rose again.
Mocha.-This is a part whence very fine coffee is
sent to Europe.


Of all places in Arabia, which would you desire
most to see ? Would it not be Mount Sinai ? Our
great and glorious God once spoke from the top of
that mountain.
I will tell you of an English clergyman who travelled
to see that mountain. As he knew there were many
robbers on the way, he hired an Arab sheikh to take
care of him. A sheikh is a chief, or captain. Sulei-



man was a fine-looking man, dressed in a red shirt,
with a shawl twisted round his waist, a purple cloak,
and a red cap. His feet and legs were bare. His
eyes were bright, his skin was brown, and his beard
black. To his girdle were fastened a huge knife and
pistols, and by his side hung a sword. This man
brought a band of Arabs with him to defend the
travellers from the robbers in the desert.
One day the whole party set out mounted on camels.
After going some distance, a number of children were
seen scampering among the rocks, and looking like
brown monkeys. These were the children of the
Arabs who accompanied the Englishman. The wild
little creatures ran to their fathers, and saluted them
in the respectful manner that Arab children are taught
to do.
At last a herd of goats was seen with a fine boy of
twelve years old leading them. He was the son of
Suleiman. The father seemed to take great delight
in this boy, and introduced him to the traveller. The
kind gentleman riding on a camel, put down his hand
to the boy. The little fellow, after touching the
traveller's hand, kissed his own, according to the Ara-
bian manner.
The way to Mount Sinai was very rough; indeed,
the traveller was sometimes obliged to get off his




camel, and to climb among the crags on hands and
knees. How glad he was when the Arabs pointed to
a mountain, and said, "That is Mount Sinai." With
*Nhat fear and reverence he gazed upon it Iere it
was that the voice of the great God was once heard
speaking out of the midst of the smoke, and clouds,
and darkness!
How strange it must be to see in this lonely gloomy
spot, a great building! Yet there is one at the foot
of the mountain. What can it be? A convent. See
those high walls around. It is necessary to have high
walls, because all around are bands of fierce robbers.
It is even unsafe to have a door near the ground.
There is a door quite high up in the wall; but what
use can it be of, when there are no steps by which to
reach it ? Can you guess how people get in by this
door ? A rope is let down from the door to draw the
people up. One by one they are drawn up. In the
inside of the walls there are steps by which travellers
go down into the convent below. The monks who
live there belong to the Greek church.
The clergyman was lodged in a small cell spread
with carpets and cushions, and he was waited upon
by the monks.
These monks think that they lead a very holy life
in the desert. They eat no meat, and they rise in

_ _

the night to pray in their chapel. But God does not
care for such service as this. He never commanded
men to shut themselves up in a desert, but rather tc
do good in the world.
One day the monks told the traveller they would
show him the place where the burning bush once
stood. How could they know the place ? However,
they pretended to know it. They led the way to the
chapel, then taking off their shoes, they went down
some stone steps till they came to a round room
under ground, with three lamps burning in the midst.
There," said the monks, is the very spot where the
burning bash once stood."
There were two things the traveller enjoyed while
in the convent, the beautiful garden full of thick trees
and sweet flowers; and the cool pure water from the
well. Such water and such a garden in the midst
of a desert were sweet indeed.
The Arabs, who accompanied the traveller, enjoy-
ed much the plentiful meals provided at the convent;
for the monks bought sheep from the shepherds
around, to feed their guests. After leaving the con-
vent, Suleiman was taken ill in consequence of having
eaten too much while there. The clergyman gave
him medicine, which cured him. The Arabs were
very fond of their chief, and were so grateful to the



stranger for giving him medicine, that they called
him the good physician." Suleiman himself show-
d his gratitude by bringing his own black coffee-
ot into the tent of the stranger, and asking him to
drink coffee with him; for such is the pride of an
Arab chief, that he thinks it is a very great honor in-
deed for a stranger to share his meal.
But the traveller soon found that it is dangerous to
pass through a desert. Why ? Not on account of
wild beasts, but of wild men. There was a tribe of
Arabs very angry with Suleiman, because he was
conducting the travellers through their part of the
desert. They wanted to be the guides through that
part, in hopes of getting rewarded by a good sum of
money. You see how covetous they were. The
love of money is the root of all evil.
These angry Arabs were hidden among the rocks
and hills; and every now and then they came sud-
denly out of their hiding-places, and with a loud
voice threatened to punish Suleiman.
How much alarmed the travellers were! but none
more than Suleiman himself. He requested the cler-
gyman to travel during the whole night, in order
the sooner to get out of the reach of the enemy.
The clergyman promised to go as far as he was able.
What a journey it was I No one durst speak aloud




to his companions, lest the enemies should be hid-
den among the rocks close by, and should overhear
them. At fnidnight the whole company pitched their
tents by the coast of the Red Sea. Early in the
morning the minister went alone to bathe in its
smooth waters. After he had bathed, and when he
was just going to return to the tents, he was startled
by hearing the sound of a gun. The sound came
from the midst of a small grove of palm-trees close
by. Alarmed, he ran back quickly to the tents:
again he heard the report of a gun: and again a
third time. The travellers, Arabs and all, were gath-
ered together, expecting an enemy to rush out of the
grove. But where was Suleiman ? He had gone
some time before into the grove of palm-trees to talk
to the enemies.
Presently the traveller saw about forty Arabs leave
the grove and go far away. But Suleiman came
not. So the minister went into the grove to search
for him, and there he found-not Suleiman-but his
dead body !
There it lay on the ground, covered with blood.
The minister gazed upon the dark countenance once
so joyful, and he thought it looked as if the poor
Arab had died in great agony. It was frightful to
observe the number of his wounds. Three balls had

been shot into his body by the gun which went off
three times. Three great cuts had been made in his
head ; his neck was almost cut off from his head, and
his hand from his arm! How suddenly was the
proud Arab laid low in the dust! All his delights
were perished forever. Suleiman had been promised
a new dress of gay colors at the end of the journey;
but he would never more gird a shawl round his ac-
tive frame, or fold a turban round his swarthy brow.
The Arabs wrapped their beloved master in a loose
garment, and placing him on his beautiful camel, they
went in deep grief to a hill at a little distance. There
they buried him. They dug no grave; but they
made a square tomb of large loose stones, and laid
the dead body in the midst, and then covered it with
more stones. There Suleiman sleeps in the desert.
But the day shall come when the earth shall dis-
close her blood, and shall no more cover her slain :"
and then shall the blood of Suleiman and his slain
body be uncovered, and his murderer brought to

Extracted chiefly from "The Pastor's Memorial," by
the Rev. G. Fisk. Published by R. Carter & Brothers.

-- ~---------



'tirkr in 1sia.

Is there a Turkey in Asia as well as a Turkey in
Europe ?
Yes, there is; and it is governed by the same sul-
tan, and filled by the same sort of persons. All the
Turks are Mahomedans.
You may know a Mahomedan city at a distance.
When we look at a Christian city we see the steeples
and spires of churches; but when we look at a Ma-
homedan city we see rising above the houses and trees
the domes and minarets of mosques. What are domes
and minarets ? A dome is the round top of a mosque:
and the minarets are the tall slender towers. A min-
aret is of great use to the Mahomedans.
Do you see the little narrow gallery outside the
minaret. There is a man standing there. He is
calling people to say their prayers. He calls so loud
that all the people below can hear, and the sounds he
utters are like sweet music. But would it not make
you sad to hear them when you remembered what he

was telling people to do ? To pray to the god of
Mahomet, not to the God and Father of the Lord
Jesus Christ; but to a false god: to no God. This
man goes up the dark narrow stairs winding inside the
minaret five times a day : first he goes as soon as the
sun rises, then at noon, next in the afternoon, then at
sunset, and last of all in the night. Ascending and
descending those steep stairs is all his business, and it
is hard work, and fatigues him very much.
In the court of the mosque there is a fountain.
There every one washes before he goes into the
mosque to repeat his prayers, thinking to please God
by clean hands instead of a clean heart. Inside the
mosque there are no pews or benches, but only mats
and carpets spread on the floor. There the worship-
pers kneel and touch the ground with their foreheads.
The minister of the mosque is called the Imam. He
stands in a niche in the wall, with his back to the
people, and repeats prayers.
But he is not the preacher. The sheikh, or chief
man of the town, preaches; not on Sunday, but on
Friday. He sits on a high place and talks to the peo-
ple-not about pardon and peace, and heaven and
holiness-but about the duty of washing their hands
before prayers, and of bowing down to the ground, and
such vain services.



In the mosque there are two rows of very large wax
candles, much higher than a man, and as thick as his
arm, and they are lighted at night.
It is considered right to go to the mosque for pray-
ers five times a day; but very few Mahomedans go so
often. Wherever people may be, they are expected
to kneel down and repeat their prayers, whether in
the house or in the street. But very few do so.
While they pray, Mahomedans look about all the time,
and in the midst speak to any one, and then go on
again; for their hearts are not in their prayers; they
do not worship in spirit and in truth.
There are no images or pictures in the mosques,
because Mahomet forbid his followers to worship idols.
There are Korans on reading stands in various parts
of the mosque for any one to read who pleases.
The people leave their red slippers at the door,
keeping on their yellow boots only; but they do not
uncover their heads as Christians do.
Was Christ ever known in this Mahomedan land ?
Yes, long before he was known in England. Turkey
in Asia used to be called Asia Minor, (or Asia the
less,) and there it was that Paul the apostle was born,
and there he preached and turned many to Christ.
But at last the Christians began to worship images,
and the fierce Turks came and turned the churches



into mosques. This was the punishment God sent the
Christians for breaking his law. In some of the
mosques you may see the marks of the pictures which
the Christians painted on the walls, and which the
Turks nearly scraped off.
How dreadful it would be if our churches should
ever be turned into mosques! May God never send
us this heavy punishment.


One corner of Turkey in Asia is called Armenia.
There are many high mountains in Armenia, and one
of them you would like to see very much. It is the
mountain on which Noah's ark rested after the flood.
I mean Ararat.*
It is a very high mountain with two peaks; and
its highest peak is always covered with snow. People
say that no one ever climbed to the top of that peak.
I should think Noah's ark rested on a lower part of
the mountain between the two peaks, for it would
have been very cold for Noah's family on the snow-

It is remarkable that this mountain lies at the point
where three great empires meet, namely, Russia, Persia,
and Turkey.

- --~ --~I- -L'




covered peak, and it would have been very difficult
for them to get down. How pleasant it must be to
stand on the side of Ararat, and to think, Here my
great father Noah stood, and my great mother, Noah's
wife; here they saw the earth in all its greenness,
just washed with the waters of the flood, and here
they rejoiced and praised God."
I am glad to say that all the Armenians are not
Mahomedans. Many are Christians, but, alas! they
know very little about Christ except his name. I will
tell you a short anecdote to show how ignorant they
Once a traveller went to see an old church in Ar-
menia called the Church of Forty Steps, because there
are forty steps to reach it: for it is built on the steep
banks of a river.
The traveller found the churchyard full of boys.
This churchyard was their school-room. And what
were their books ? The grave-stones that lay flat upon
the ground. Four priests were teaching the boys.
These priests wore black turbans; while Turkish Im-
ams wear white turbans. One of these Armenian
priests led the traveller to an upper room, telling him
he had something very wonderful to show him. What
could it be ? The priest went to a niche in the wall
and took out of it a bundle; then untied a silk hand-

~4~ awr ----

kerchief, and then another, and then another; till he
had untied twenty-five silk handkerchiefs. What
was the precious thing so carefully wrapped up ? It
was a New Testament.
It is a precious book indeed: but it ought to be
read, and not wrapped up. The priest praised it, say-
ing, This is a wonderful book; it has often been laid
upon sick persons, and has cured them." Then a
poor old man, bent and tottering, pressed forward to
kiss the book, and to rub his heavy head. This was
worshipping the book, instead of Him who wrote it.
An Armenian village looks like a number of mole-
hills : for the dwellings are holes dug in the ground
with low'stone walls round the holes; the roof is
made of branches of trees and heaps of earth. There
are generally two rooms in the hole-one for the
family, and one for the cattle.
A traveller arrived one evening at such a village;
and he was pleased to see fruit-trees overshadowing
the hovels, and women, without veils, spinning cotton
under their shadow. But he was not pleased with
the room where he was to sleep. The way lay
through a long dark passage under ground; and the
room was filled with cattle: there was no window nor
chimney. How dark and hot it was! Yet it was too
damp to sleep out of doors, because a large lake was




near; therefore he wrapped his cloak around him,
and lay upon the ground ; but he could not sleep be-
cause of the stinging of insects, and the trampling of
cattle: and glad he was in the morning to breathe
again the fresh air.
Rich Armenians have fine houses. Once a traveller
dined with a rich Armenian. The dinner was served
up in a tray, and placed on a low stool, while the
company sat on the ground. One dish after another
was served up till the traveller was tired of tasting
them. But there was not only too much to eat;
there was also too much to drink. Rakee, a kind of
brandy, was handed about; and afterwards a musi-
cian came in and played and sang to amuse the com-
pany. In Turkey there is neither playing, nor sing-
ing, nor drinking spirits. The Turks think themselves
much better than Christians. For," say they, we
drink less and pray more." They do not know that
real Christians are not fond of drinking, and are fond
of praying; only they pray more in secret, and the
Turks more in public.





The fiercest of all the people in Asia are the
They are the terror of all who live near them.
Their dwellings are in the mountains; there some
live in villages, and some in black tents, and some in
strong castles. At night they rush down from the
mountains upon the people in the valleys, uttering a
wild yell, ahd brandishing their swords. They enter
the houses, and begin to pack up the things they find,
and to place them on the backs of their mules and
asses, while they drive away the cattle of the poor
people; and if any one attempts to resist them, they
kill him. You may suppose in what terror the poor
villagers live in the valleys. They keep a man to
watch all night, as well as large dogs; and they build
a strong tower in the midst of the village where they
run to hide themselves when they are afraid.
The reason why the Armenians live in holes in the
ground is because they hope the Kurds may not find
out where they are.
Those Kurds who live in tents often move from
place to place. The black tents are folded up and
placed on the backs of mules; and a large kettle is
slung upon the end of the tent-pole. The men and




women drive the herds and flocks, while the children
and the chickens ride upon the cows.
The Kurds have thin, dark faces, hooked noses, and
black eyes, with a fierce and malicious look.
They are of the Mahomedan religion, and the call
to prayers may be heard in the villages of these rob-
bers and murderers.


This country is part of Turkey in Asia. It lies
between two very famous rivers, the Tigris and the
Euphrates, often spoken of in the Bible. The word
Mesopotamia means "between rivers." It was be-
tween these rivers that faithful Abraham lived when
God first called him to be his friend. Should you not
like to see that country ? It is now full of ruins.
The two most ancient cities in the world were built on
the Tigris and Euphrates.
Nineveh was on the Tigris.
What a city that was at the time Jonah preached
there! Its walls were so thick that three chariots
could go on the top all abreast.
But what is Nineveh now? L6ok at those green
mounds. Under those heaps of rubbish lies Nineveh.

A traveller has been digging among those mounds,
and has found the very throne of the kings of Nineveh,
and the images of winged bulls and lions which
adorned the palace. God overthrew Nineveh because
it was wicked.
There is another ancient city lying in ruins on the
Euphrates, it is Babylon the Great.
There are nothing but heaps of bricks to be seen
where once proud Babylon stood. Where are now
the streets fifteen miles long ? Where are the hang-
ing gardens ? gardens one above the other, the won-
der of the world? Where is now the temple of
Belus, (or of Babel, as sonle think,) with its golden
statue? All, all are now crumbled into rubbish.
God has destroyed Babylon as he said.
There are dens of wild beasts among the ruins. A
traveller saw some bones of a sheep in one, the re-
mains, he supposed, of a lion's dinner; but he did not
like to go further into the den to see who dwelt there.
Owls and bats fill all the dark places. But no men
live there, though human bones are often found scat-
tered about, and they turn into dust as soon as they
are touched.
There is now a great city in Mesopotamia, called
Bagdad. In Babylon no sound is heard but the how-
lings of wild beasts; in Bagdad men may be heard




screaming and hallooing from morning to night. The
drivers of the camels and the llules shout as they
press through the narrow crooked streets, and even the
ladies riding on white donkeys, and attended by black
slaves, scream and halloo.
In summer it is so hot in Bagdad that people
during the day live in rooms under ground, and sleep
on their flat roofs at night.
It is curious to see the people who have been sleep-
ing on the roof get up in the morning. First they roll
up their mattresses, their coverlids, and pillows, and
put them in the house. The children cannot fold up
theirs, but their mothers olblack slaves4o it for them.
The men repeat their prayers, and then drink a cup
of coffee, which their wives present to them. The
wives kneel as they offer the cup to their lords, and,.
stand with their hands crossed while their lords are
drinking, then kneel down again to receive the cup,
and to kiss their lords' hand. Then the men take
their pipes, and lounge on their cushions, while the
women say their prayers. And when do the children
say their prayers? Never. They know only of Ma-
homnet; they know not the Saviour who said, "Suffer
little children to come unto me."

^r Ti a.

Is this country mentioned in the Bible ? Yes; we
read of Cyrus, the king of Persia. Isaiah spoke of
him before he was born, and called him by his name.
See chapter klv.
Persia is now a Mahomedan country. The Turks,
you rememb are Mahomedans too. Perhaps you
think those two nations, tfe Turks and the Persians,
must agree well together, as they are of the same reli-
gion. Far from it. No nations hate one another
wpre than Turks and Persians do; and the reason is,
that though they both believe in Mahomet, they disa-
gree about his son-in law, Ali. The Persians are very
fond of him, and keep a day of mourning in memory
of his death; whereas the Turks do not care for Ali
at all.
But is this a reason why they should hate one
another so much ?
Even in their common customs the Persians differ
from the Turks. The Turks sit cross-legged on the


ground; the Persians sit upon their heels. Which
way of sitting should you prefer ? I think you would
find it more comfortable to sit like a Turk.
The Turks sit on sofas and lean against cushions;
the Persians sit on carpets and lean against the wall.
Know you would prefer the Turkish fashion. The
Turks drink coffee without either milk or sugar; the
Persians drink tea with sugar, though without milk.
The Turks wear turbans; the Persians wear high caps
of black lamb's-wool.
Not only are their customs different; but their char-
acters. The Turks are grave and the Persians lively.
The Turks are silent, the Persians talkative. The*
Turks are rude, the Persians polite. Now I am sure
you like the Persians better than the Turks. But wait
a little-the Turks are very proud; the Persians are
very deceitful. An old Persian was heard to say,
We all tell lies whenever we can." The Persians
are not even ashamed when their falsehoods are found
out. When they sell they ask too much; when they
make promises they break them. In short, it is im-
possible to trust a Persian.
The Turks obey Mahomet's laws; they pray five
times a day, and drink no wine. But the Persians
seldom repeat their prayers, and they do drink wine,
though Mahomet has forbidden it. In short, the Per-


_ .__j__ I


sian seems to have no idea of right and wrong. The
judges do not give right judgment, but take bribes.
The soldiers live by robbing the poor people, for the
king pays them no wages, but leaves them to get food
as they can; and so the poor people often build their
cottages in little nooks in the valleys, where they hop#
the soldiers will not see them.
THE COUNTRY.-Persia is a high country and a dry
country. There are high mountains and wide plains;
but there are very few rivers and running brooks, be-
cause there is so' little rain. However, in some places
the Persians have cut canals, and planted willow-trees
by their side. Rice will not grow well in such a dry
country, but sheep find it very pleasant and whole-
some. The bills are covered over with flocks, and the
shepherds may be seen leading their sheep and carry-
ing the very young lambs in their arms. This is a
sight which reminds us of the good Shepherd : for it
is written of Jesus, He gathered the lambs in his
The sweetest of all flowers grows abundantly in
'ersia-I mean the rose. The air is filled with its
fragrance. The people pluck the rose leaves and dry
them in the sun, as we dry hay. How pleasant it
must be for children in the spring to play among the
heaps of rose-leaves. Once a traveller went to break-


fast with a Persian Prince, and he found the company
seated upon a heap of rose-leaves, with a carpet spread
over it. Afterwards the rose-leaves were sent to the
distillers, to be made into rose-water.
Persian cats are beautiful creatures, with fur as soft
as silk.
The best melons in the world grow in Persia.
The three chief materials for making clothes are all
to be found there in abundance. I mean wool, cotton,
and silk. You have heard already of the Persian
sheep; so you see there is wool. Cotton trees also
abound. Women and children may be seen picking
the nuts which contain the little pieces of cotton.
There are mulberry-trees also to feed the numerous
silk worms.
POOR PEOPLE.-The villages where the poor live
are miserable places. The houses are of mud, not
placed in rows, but straggling, with dirty narrow paths
winding between them.
In summer the poor people sleep on the roofs; for
the roofs are flat, and covered with earth, with low
walls on every side to prevent the sleepers falling off.
Here the Persians spread their carpets to lie upon at
Winter does not last long in Persia, yet while
it lasts it is cold. Then the poor, instead of sleeping

on their roofs, sleep in a very curious warm bed. In
the middle of each cottage there is a round hole in the
floor, where the fire burns. In the evening the fire
goes out, but the hot cinders remain. The Persians
place over it a low round table, and then throw a
large coverlid over the table, and all round about.
Under this coverlid the family lie at night, their heads
peeping out, and their feet against the warm fire-
place underneath. This the Persians call a comfort-
able bed.
The poor wear dirty and ragged clothes, and the
children may be seen crawling about in the dust, and
looking like little pigs. Yet in one respect the Per-
sians are very clean; they bathe often. In every vil-
lage there is a large bath.
The poor people have animals of various kinds-a
few sheep, or goats, or cows. In the day one man
takes them all out to feed. In the evening he brings
them back to the village, and the animals of their own
accord go home to their own stables. Each cow and
each sheep knows where she will get food and a place
to sleep in. The prophet Isaiah said truly, The ass
knoweth his owner, and the ox his master's crib; but
Israel doth not know, my people doth not consider."
THE PERSIAN LADIEs.-They wrap themselves up
in a large dark blue wrapper, and in this dress they




walk out where they please. No one who meets them
can tell who they are.
And where do these women go ? Chiefly to the
bath, where they spend much 'of their time drinking
coffee and smoking. There too they try to make them-
selves handsome by blackening their eyebrows and
dyeing their hair. Sometimes the ladies walk to the
burial-grounds, and wander about for hours among
the graves. When they are at home they employ
themselves in making pillau and sherbet. Pillau is
made of rice and butter; sherbet is made of juice
mixed with water.
The ladies have a sitting-room to themselves. One
side of it is all lattice-work, and this makes it cool.
At night they spread their carpets on the flot to sleep
upon, and in the day they keep them in a lumber-
PERSIAN INNS.-They are very uncomfortable
places. There are a great many small cells made of
mud, built all round a large court. These cells are
quite empty, and paved with stone. The only com-
fortable room is over the door-way of the court, and
the first travellers who arrive are sure to settle in the
room over the door-way.
Once an English traveller arrived at a Persian inn
with his two servants. All three were very ill and in

great pain, from having travelled -far over burning
plains and steep mountains.
But as the room over the door-way was occupied,
they were forced to "go into a little cold damp cell.
As there was no door to the cell, they hung up a rag
to keep out the chilling night air, and they placed a
pan of coals in the midst. Many Persians came and
peeped into the cell; and seeing the sick men looking
miserable as they lay on their carpets, the unfeeling
creatures laughed at them, and no one would help
them or give them anything to eat. The travellers
bought some bread and grapes at the bazaar, but
these were not fit food for sick men, but it was all
they could get. At last a Persian merchant heard of
their distress; and he came to see them every day,
bringing them warm milk and wholesome food: when
they were well enough to be moved, he took them to
his own house, and nursed them with the greatest
Who was this kind merchant? Not a Mahom-
edan, but of the religion of the fire worshippers, or
Parsees. Was he not like the good Samaritan of
whom we read in the New Testament ? O that Bah-
ram, the merchant, might know the true God !
PILGRIMS AND BEGGARS.-Very often you may
see a large company of Pilgrims, some on foot, and




some mounted on camels, horses, and asses. They
are returning from Mecca, the bii-th-place of Mahomet.
What good have they got by their pilgrimage ? None
at all. They think they are grown very holy, but
they make such an uproar at the inns by quarrelling
and fighting when they are travelling home, that no
one can bear to be near them.
There is a set of beggars called dervishes. They
call themselves very holy, and think people are bound
to give money to such holy men. They are so bold
that sometimes they refuse to leave a place till some
money has been given.
Once a dervish stopped a long while before the
house of the English ambassador, and refused to go
away. But a plan was thought of to make him go
The dervish was sitting in a little niche in the wall.
The ambassador ordered his servants to build up
bricks to shut the dervish in. The men began to
build, yet the dervish would not stir, till the bricks
cnme up as high as his chin: then he began to be
frightened, and said he would rather go away.
THE KING OF PERSIA.-He is called King of
Kings. What a name for a man! It is the title of
God alone. The king sits on a marble throne, and
his garments sparkle with jewels of dazzling bright-


ness. The walls of his state-chamber are covered with
looking-glasses. One side of the room opens into a
court adorned with flowers and fountains. Great part
of his time is spent in amusements, such as hunting
and shooting, writing verses, and hearing stories. iHe
keeps a man called a story-teller, and he will never
hear the same story repeated twice. It gives the man
a great deal of trouble to find new stories every day.
The king keeps jesters, who make jokes; and he has
mimics, who play antics to make him laugh. Hie dines
at eight in the evening from dishes of pure gold. No
one is allowed to dine with him ; but two of his little
boys wait upon him, and his physician stands by to
advise him not to eat too much.
Do you think he is happy in all his grandeur?
Judge for yourself.
All his golden dishes come up covered and sealed.
Why ? For fear of poison. There is a chief officer
in the kitchen who watches the cook, to see that he
puts no poison into the food: and he seals up the
dishes before they are taken to the king, in order that
the servants may not put in poison as they are car-
rying them along. In what fear this great king lives!
He cannot trust his own servants.
TEHERAN.-This is the royal city. It is built in a
barren plain, and is exceedingly hot, as the hills



around keep off the air. It is a mean city, for it is
chiefly built of mud huts.
The king's palace is called the "Ark," and is a very
strong as well as grand place.*

Extracted chiefly from Southgate's Travels.


THERE is no country in the world like China.
How different it is from Persia, where there are so
few people; whereas China is crowded with inhab-
itants !
How different it is from England, where the people
are instructed in the Bible, whereas China is full of
China is a heathen country; yet it is not a savage
country, for the people are quiet, and orderly, and
It would be hard for a child to imagine what a
great multitude of people there are in China.
If you were to sit by a clock, and if all the Chinese
were top pass before you one at a time, and if you
were to count one at each tick of the clock, and if you
were never to leave off counting day or night-how
long do you think it would be before you had counted
all the Chinese ?
Twelve years. O what a vast number of people

there must be in China! In all, there are about three
hundred and sixty millions! If all the peo n the
world were collected together, out of every three one
would be a Chinese. How sad it is to think that this
immense nation knows not God, nor his glorious Son!
There are too many people in China, for there is
not food enough for them all; and many are half-
FoOD.-The poor can get nothing but rice to eat
and water to drink; except now and then they mix a
little pork or salt fish with their rice. Any sort of
meat is thought good; even a hash of rats and
snakes, or a mince of earth-worms. Cats and dogs'
flesh are considered as nice as pork, and cost as much.
An Englishman was once dining with a Chinaman,
and he wished to know what sort of meat was on his
plate. But he was not able to speak Chinese. How
then could he ask ? He thought of a way. Looking
first at his plate, and then at the Chinaman, he said,
Ba-a-a," meaning to ask, Is this mutton ?" The
Chinaman understood the question, and immediately
replied, Bow-wow," meaning to say, "It is puppy-
dog." You will wish to know whether the English-
man went on eating; but I cannot tell you this.
While the poor are in want of food, the rich eat a
great deal too much. A Chinese feast in a rich man's



house lasts for hours. The servants bring in one
course* another, till a stranger wonders when the
last course will come. The food is served up in a
curious way; not on dishes, but in small basins-for
all the meats are swimming in broth. Instead of a
knife and fork, each person has a pair of chop-sticks,
which are something like knitting-needles; and with
these he cleverly fishes up the floating morsels, and
pops them into his mouth. There are spoons of
china for drinking the broth.
You will be surprised to hear that the Chinese are
very fond of eating birds' nests. Do not suppose that
they eat magpies' nests, which are made of clay and
sticks, or even little nests of moss and clay; the nests
they eat are made of a sort of gum. This gum comes
.out of the bird's mouth, and is shining and transpa-
rent, and the nest sticks fast to the rock. These nests
are something like our jelly, and must be very nour-
The Chinese like nothing cold ; they warm all their
food, even their wine. For they have wine, not made
of grapes, but of rice, and they drink it, not in glasses,
but in cups. Tea, however, is the most common drink;
for China is the country where tea grows.
The hills are covered with shrubs bearing a white
flower, a little like a white rose. They are tea-plants.



The leaves are picked; each leaf is rolled up with
the finger, and dried on a hot iron plate.
The Chinese do not keep all the tea-le W they
pack up a great many in boxes, and send them to dis-
tant lands. In England and in Russia there is a tea-
kettle in every cottage. Some of the Chinese are.so
very poor that they cannot buy new tea-leaves, but
only tea-leaves which are sold in shops. I do not
think in England poor people would buy old tea-
leaves. Some very poor Chinese use fern-leaves in-
stead of tea-leaves.
The Chinese do not make tea in the same way that
we do. They have no teapot, or milk-jug, or sugar-
basin. They put a few tea-leaves in a cup, pour hot
water on them, and then put a cover on the cup till
the tea is ready. Whenever you pay a visit in China
a cup of tea is offered.
APPEARANCE.-The Chinese are not at all like the
other natives of Asia. The Turks and Arabs are fine-
looking men, but the Ch`Ae are poor-looking crea-
tures. You have seen thdn" pictures on their boxes
of tea, for they are fond of drawing pictures
selves. '
Their complexion is rather yellow, but many of the
ladies, who keep in doors, are rather fair. They have
black hair, small dark eyes, broad faces, flat nose, and

_~ __-__----------




high oheek-bones. In general they are short. The
men be stout; and the rich men are stout:
the f ley are, the more they are admired : but
the women like to be slender.
A Chinaman does not take off his cap in company,
and he has a good reason for it: his head is close
shaven : only a long piece behind is allowed to grow,
and this grows down to his heels, and is plaited. He
wears a long dark blue gown, with loose hanging
sleeves. His shoes are clumsy, turned up at the toes
in an ugly manner, and the soles are white. The
Chinese have more trouble in whitening their shoes
than we have in blacking ours.
A Chinese lady wears a loose gown like a China-
man's; but she may be known by her head-dress, her
baby feet, and her long nails. Her hair is tied up,
and decked with artificial flowers; and sometimes a
little golden bird, sparkling with jewels, adorns her
forehead. Her feet are n4 bigger than those of a
child of five years old ; cause, when she was five,
they were cruelly boun d.p to prevent them from
growing. She suffered much pain all her childhood,
and now she trips about a! if she were walking on
tiptoes. A little push wovd throw her down As
she walks she moves from side to side like a shliipj
the water, for she cannot walk firmly with such small



feet. The Chinese are so foolish as to a thes
small feet, and to call them the "golden As
for her finger-nails, they are seldom seen, or a Chi-
nese lady hides her hands in her long sleeves; but
the nails on the left hand are very long, and are like
bird's claws. The nails on the right hand are not so
long, in order that the lady may be able to tinkle on
her music, to embroider, and to weave silk.
The gentlemen are proud of. having one long nail
on the little finger, to show that they do not labor
like the poor, for if they did, the nail would break.
Men in China wear necklaces and use fans.
What foolish customs I have described. Surely
you will not think the Chinese a wise people, though
very clever, as you will soon find.
Men and women dress in black, or in dark colors,
such as blue and purple; the women sometimes dress
in pink or green. Great people dress in red, and
the royal family in yellow. When you see a person
all in white, you may know he is in mourning. A
son dresses in white for three years after he has lost
one of his parents.
HoUSEs.-See that lantern hanging over the gate.
The light is rather dim, because the sides are made
of silk instead of glass. What is written upon the
lantern ? The master's name. The gateway leads

into into which many rooms open. There are
not all the rooms; to some there are only
curtains. Curtains are used instead of doors in
many hot countries, because of their coolness; but
the furniture of the Chinese rooms is quite different
from the furniture of Turkish and Persian rooms.
The Chinese sit on chairs as we do, and have high
tables like ours : and they sleep on bedsteads, yet their
beds are not like ours, for instead of a mattress there
is nothing but a mat.
Instead of pictures, the Chinese adorn their rooms
with painted lanterns, and with pieces of white satin,
on which sentences are written : they have also book-
cases and china jars. But they have no fire-places,
for they never need a fire to keep themselves warm :
the sun shining in at the south windows makes the
rooms tolerably warm in winter; and in summer the
weather is very hot. The Chinese in winter put on
one coat over the other till they feel warm enough.
In the north of China it is so cold in winter that
the place where the bed stands (which is a recess in
the wall) is heated by a furnace underneath, and the
whole family sit there all day crowded together.
The Chinese houses have not so many stories as ours;
in the towns there is one floor above the ground floor,
but in the country there are no rooms up stairs.





It would amuse you as a Chinese country
house. There is not one large house, bual mber
of small buildings like summer-houses, and long gal-
leries running from one to another. One of these
summer-houses is in the middle of a pond, with a
bridge leading to it. In the pond there are gold and
silver fish; for these beautiful fishes, often kept in
glass bowls in England, came first from China. By
the sides of the garden walls large cages are placed;
in one may be seen some gold and silver pheasants,
in another a splendid peacock; in another a gentle
stork, and in another an elegant little deer. There is
often a grove of mulberry-trees in the garden, and in
the midst of the grove houses made of bamboo, for
rearing silk-worms. It is the delight of the ladies to
feed these curious worms. None but very quiet
people are fit to take care of them, for a loud noise
would kill them. Gold and silver fish also cannot
bear much noise.
In every large house in China there is a room called
the Hall of Ancestors. There the family worship their
dead parents and grand-parents, and 'great-grand-pa-
rents, and those who lived still further back. There
are no images to be seen in the Hall of Ancestors, but
there are tablets with names written upon them. The
family bow down before the tablets, and burn incense



and gold paper What aioolish service What good
can inc and paper do to the dead ? And what
good can the dead do to their children ? How is it
that such clever people as the Chinese are so foolish ?
RELIGION.-You have heard already that the Chi-
nese worship the dead.
Who taught them this worship ?
It was a man named Confucius, who lived a long
while ago. This Confucius was a very wise man.
From his childhood he was very fond of sitting alone
thinking, instead of playing with other children.
When he was fourteen he began to read some old
books that had been written not long after the time
of Noah. In these books he found very many wise
sentences, such as Noah may have taught his children.
The Chinese had left off reading these wise books, and
were growing more and more foolish.* Confucius,

These are some of the sentences written in the old books:
"Never say, There is no one who sees me, for there is a
wise Spirit who sees all."
Man no longer has what he had before the fall, and he
has brought his children into his misery. Heaven, you
only can help us. Wipe away the stains of the father, and
save his children."
Never speak but with great care. Do not say, It is only
a single word. Remember that no one has the keeping of
your heart and tongue but you."
These sentences are like some verses in the Psalms and

when he was grown up, tried to persuade his country-
men to attend to the old books. There w*ie a few
men who became his scholars, and who followed him
about from place to place. They might be seen sit-
ting under a tree, listening to the words of Confucius.
Confucius was a very tall man with a long black
beard and a very high forehead.
Had he known the true God, how much good he
might have done to the Chinese; but as it was he
only tried to make them happy in this world. He
himself confessed that he knew nothing about the
other world. He gave very good advice about respect
due to parents; but he gave very bad advice about
worship due to them after they were dead.
Was he a good man ? Not truly good; for he did
not love God; neither did he act right: for he was
very unkind to his wife, and quite cast her off. Yet
he used to talk of going to other countries to teach the
people. It would have been a happy thing for him,
if he had gone as far as Babylon; for a truly wise
man lived there, even Daniel the prophet. From
him he might have learned about the promised Sa-

Proverbs; and, it may be, they were spoken first by some
holy men of old.
Here is one more remarkable than all:-
God hates the proud, and is kind to the huddle."


- -~------



viour, and life everlasting. But Confucius never left
He was ill-treated by many of the rich and great,
and he was so poor that rice was generally his only
food. When he was dying he felt very unhappy, as
well he might, when he knew not where he was going.
He said to his followers just before his death, "The
kings refuse to follow my advice; and since I am of
no use on earth, it is best that I should leave it." As
soon as he was dead, people began to respect him
highly, and even to worship him. At this day, though
Confucius died more than two thousand years ago,
there is a temple to his honor in every large city, and
numbers of beasts are offered up to him in sacrifice.
There are thousands of people descended from him,
and they are treated with great honor as the children
of Confucius, and one of them is called kong or duke.
There is another religion in China besides the re-
ligion of Confucius, and a much worse religion. About
the same time that Confucius lived, there was a man
called La-on-tzee. He was a great deceiver, as you
will see. He pretended that he could make people
completely happy. There were three things he said
he would do for them: first, he would make them rich
by turning stone into gold; next, he would prevent
their being hurt by swords or by fire through charms




N 'o '-


p. 83.


he could give them; and, last of all, he could save
them from death by a drink he knew how to pre-
What an awful liar this man must have been I
Yet many people believed in him, and still believe in
him. There are now priests of La-on-tzee, and once a
year they rush through hot cinders and pretend they
are not hurt. You will wonder their tricks are not
found out, seeing they cannot give any one the drink
to keep them from dying. It is indeed wonderful that
any one can believe these deceitful priests.
Their religion is called the Taou" sect. Taou
means reason. The name of folly would be a better
title for such a religion.
There is a third religion in China. It is the sect
of Buddha.* This Buddha was a man who once

The means by which the Buddhist religion entered
China are remarkable. A certain Chinese emperor once
read in the book of Confucius this sentence, The true saint
will be found in the West." IHe thought a great deal about
it; at last he dreamed about it. He was so much struck by
his dream that he sent two of his great lords to look for the
true religion in the West. When they reached India, they
found multitudes worshipping Buddha. This Buddha was
a wicked man who had been born in India a thousand years
before. The Chinese messengers believed all the absurd
histories they heard abont Buddha, and they returned to
China with a book which had been written about him. Ah f -
had they gone as far as Canaan they might have heard Paul


pretended to be turned into a god called Fo. You see
he was even worse than La-on-tzee.
Buddha pretended that he could make people happy;
and his way of doing so was very strange. He told
them to think of nothing, and then they would be
happy. It is said that one man fixed his eyes for
nine years upon a wall without looking off, hoping to
grow happy at last. You can guess whether he did.
There are many priests of Buddha, always busy in
telling lies to the people. They recommend them to
repeat the name of Buddha thousands and thou-
sands of times, and some people are so foolish as to
do this; but no one ever found any comfort from this
The priests of Buddha say that thtr souls, when
they leave their bodies, go into other bodies. This
idea is enough to make a dying person very misera-
ble. One poor man, when he was dying, was in
terror because he had been told his soul would go into
one of the emperor's horses. Whenever he was drop-
ping off to sleep, he started up in a fright, fancying
that he felt the blows of a cruel driver hurrying him
along: for he knew how very fast the emperor's horses

and Peter preaching the Gospel. Alas! why did they go
no further, and why did they go so far, only to return to
China with idols!

were made to go. How different are the feelings of
a dying man who knows he is going to Jesus.
He can say with joy,-
For me my elder brethren stay,
And angels beckon me away,
And Jesus bids me come."
The Buddhists are full of tricks by which to get
presents out of the people.
Once a year they cause a great feast to be made,
and for whom? For the poor? No. For beasts?
No. For children? No. For themselves? No.
You will never guess. For ghosts! The priestsede-
clare that the souls of the dead are very hungry, and
that it is right to give them a feast. A number of
tables are set out, spread with all kinds of dishes. No
one is seen to eat, nor is any of the food eaten ; but
the priests say the ghosts eat the spirit of the food.
When it is supposed the ghosts have finished dinner,
the people scramble for the food, and take it home,
and no doubt the priests get their share.
The dead are supplied with money as well as with
food, and that is done by burning gilt paper; clothes
are sent to them by cutting out paper in the shape of
clothes, (only much smaller,) and by burning the ar-
ticle; and even houses are conveyed to the dead by
making baby-houses and burning them.

^ U




As an instance of the deceits of the priests, I will
tell you of two priests who once stood crying over a
poor woman's gate. "What is the matter ?" inquired
the woman. Do you see those ducks ?" the priests
.replied; "our parents' souls are in them, and we are
afraid lest you should eat them for supper." The
foolish woman out of pity gave the ducks to the cun-
ning priests, who promised to take great care of the
precious birds; but, in fact, they ate them for their
own supper.
The Buddhist priests may be known by their heads
close shaven, and their black dress. The priests of
Taou have their hair in a knot at the top of their
heads, and they wear scarlet robes. There are no
Sriests of Confucius ; and this is a good thing.
All the religions of China are bad, but of the three
the religion of Confucius is the least foolish.
There can be no doubt which of the three religions
of China is the least absurd.
The religion of Taou teaches men to act like mad-
The religion of Buddha teaches them to act like
The religion of Confucius teaches them to act like
wise men, but without souls.
THE EMPEROR.-There is no emperor in the world


who has as many subjects as the Emperor of China:
he has six times as many as the Emperor of Russia.
Neither is it possible for any man to be more hon-
ored than this emperor; for he is worshipped by his
people like a god. IIe is called The Son of Heaven,"
and Ten Thousand Years ;" yet lie dies like every
other child of earth. His sign is the dragon, and this
is painted on his fl(gs, a fit sign for one who, like
Satan, makes himself a god.
Yet the emperor is also styled "Father of his peo-
ple," and to show that he feels like a father, when
there is a famine or plague in the land, he shuts him-
self up in his palace to grieve for his people; and by
this means he gets the love of his subjects.
Once a year, too, this great emperor tries to encour-
age his people to be industrious by ploughing part of
a field and sowing a little corn ; and the empress sets
an example to the women, by going once a year to
feed silk worms and to wind the balls of silk.
The emperor wears a yellow dress, and all his rela-
tions wear yellow girdles.
But the relations of the emperor are not the most
honorable people in the land : the most learned are
the most honorable. Every one in China who wishes
to be a great lord studies day and night. One man,
that he might not fall asleep over his books, tied his


long plaited tail of hair to the ceiling, and when his
head nodded, his hair was pulled tight, and that woke
But what is it the Chinese learn with so much
pains ?
Chiefly the books of Confucius, and a few more;
but in none of them is God made known : so that,
with all his wisdom, the Chinaman is foolish still.
The words of the Bible are true.
"The world by wisdom knew not God." Yet to
know God is better than to know all beside.
There is a great hall in every town where all the
men who wish to be counted learned meet together
once a year. They are desired to write, and then to
show what they have written; and then those who
have written well, and without a mistake, have an
honorable title given to them; and they are allowed
to write another year in another greater hall; and at
last the most learned are made mandarins.
What is a mandarin ? lie is a ruler over a town,
and is counted a great man. The most learned of the
mandarins are made the emperor's counsellors. There
are only three of them, and they are the greatest men
in all China, next to the emperor.
There are many poor men who study hard in hopes
to be one of these three.


This is the greatest honor a Chinaman can obtain.
But a Christian can obtain a far greater, even the
honor of a crown and a throne in the presence of the
Lord Jesus Christ at his coming.
The mandarins are all of the religion of Confucius,
and despise the poor who worship Buddha.
ANIMALS AND TREEs.-Once there were lions in
China, but they have all been killed; there are still
bears and tigers in the mountains and forests on the
borders of the land.
There are small wild-cats, which are caught and
fastened in cages, and then killed and cooked. There
are tame cats, too, with soft hair and hanging ears,
which are kept by ladies as pets.
There are dogs to guard the house, and they too
are eaten; but as they are fed on rice only, their flesh
is better than the flesh of our dogs. The dogs are so
sensible that they know when the butcher is carrying
away a dog that he is going to kill him, and the poor
creatures come round him howling, as if begging for
their brother's life.
The pig is the Chinaman's chief dish ; for it can be
fed on all the refuse food, and there is very little food
to spare in China.
There are not many birds in China, because there
is no room for trees. Only one bird sings, and she


builds her nest on the ground; it is a bird often heard
singing in England floating in the air,-I mean the lark.
In most parts of China men carry all the burdens,
and not horses and asses.
A gentleman is carried in a chair by two men : and
a mandarin by four. Yet the emperor rides on


Pekin on the north.
Nankin in the middle.
Canton on the south.

Pekin is the grandest.
Nankin is the most learned.
Canton is the richest.

At Pekin is the emperor's palace. The gardens are
exceedingly large, and contain hills, and lakes, and
groves within the walls, besides houses for the empe-
ror's relations.
At Nankin is the China tower. It is made of China
bricks, and contains nine rooms one over the other.
It is two hundred feet high, a wonderful height.
Of what use is it ? Of none-of worse than none.
It is a temple for Buddha, and is full of his images.
At Canton there are so many people that there is



not room for all in the land; so thousands live on the
water in boats. Many have never slept a single night
on the shore. The children often fall overboard, but
as a hollow gourd is tied round each child's neck, they
float, and are soon picked up.
For a long while the Chinese would not allow for-
eigners to come into their cities. A great many for-
eign ships came to Canton to buy tea and silk; but
the traders were forbidden to enter the town, and they
lived in a little island near, and built a town there
called Macao.
But lately the Chinese emperor has agreed to per-
mit strangers to come to five ports, called Shang-hae,
Ning-po, Foo-choo, Amoy, and Hong-Kong.
This last port, Hong-Kong, is an island near Can-
ton, and the English have built a city there and called
it Victoria.
TIE Two RIVERs.-There is one called Yeang-te-
sang, or the Son of the Ocean." It is the largest in
The other is the Yellow River, for the soft clay
mixed with the water gives it a yellow color.
LAKEs.-There are immense lakes, covered with
boats and fishermen.
But the best fishers are the tame cormorants, who
catch fish for their masters.





is a wonder. It joins the two rivers; so that a Chi-
nese can go by water from Canton to Pekin.
The great WALL is a greater wonder, but not nearly
as useful as the canal.
This wall was built at the north of China to keep
the Tartars out. It is one thousand five hundred
miles long, twenty feet high, and twenty-five broad.
But there were not soldiers enough in China to keep
the enemies out, and the Tartars came over the wall.
The Emperor of China is a Tartar.
The Empress does not have small feet, like the
It is the Tartars who forced the Chinese to shave
their heads, for they used to tie up their hair in a knot
at the top of their heads. Many of the Chinese pre-
ferred losing their heads to their hair. Was it not
cruel to cut off their heads, merely because they would
not shave them ? But the Tartars were very cruel to
the Chinese.
that the Chinese are very clever. They found out
how to print, and they found out how to make gun-
powder, and they found out the use of the loadstone.
What is that? A piece of steel rubbed against the
loadstone will always point to the north. The Chi-

nese found out these three things, printing, gunpow-
der, and the use of the loadstone, before we in Europe
found them out. But they did not teach them to us;
we found them out ourselves.
But there are two arts that the Chinese did teach
us: how to make silk, and how to make china or
porcelain. And yet I should not say they taught us;
for they tried to prevent our learning their arts; but
we saw their silk and their porcelain, and by degrees
we learned to make them ourselves. A sly monk
brought some silk-worm's eggs from China hidden in
a hollow walking-stick.
LANGU AGE.-There is no other language at all like
the Chinese. Instead of having letters to spell words,
they have a picture for each word. Icall it a picture,
but it is more like a figure than a picture. The Chi-
nese use brushes for writing instead of pens ; and they
rub cakes of ink on a little marble dish, first dipping
them in a little water, as we dip cakes of paint. There
is a hollow place in the marble dish, to hold the water.
What do you think the Chinese mean by the four
precious things ?" They mean the ink, the brush, the
marble dish, and the water. They call them precious
because they are so fond of writing. Schoolmasters
are held in great honor in China, as indeed they ought
to be everywhere. Yet schools in China are much



like those in Turkey, more fit for parrots than chil-
dren; only Chinese boys sit in chairs with desks before
them, instead of sitting cross-legged on the ground, as
in Turkey. They learn first to paint the words, and
next to repeat lessons by heart. This they do in a
loud scream ; always turning their backs to their mas-
ters while they are saying their lessons to him.
The first book which children read is full of stories,
with a picture on each page. Would you like to hear
one of these stories ?
There was a boy of eight years old, named Um-
wen. His parents were so poor that they could not
afford to buy a gauze curtain for their bed, to keep
off the flies in summer. This boy could not bear that
his parents should be bitten by the flies; so he stood
by their bedside, and uncovered his little bosom and
his back that the flies might bite him, instead of his
parent,. For,' said he,' if they fill themselves with
my blood, they will let my parents rest.'"
Would it be right for a little boy to behave in this
way ? Certainly not; for it would grieve kind pa-
rents that their little boys should be bitten. Poor
little Chinese boys They do not know about Him
who was bitten by the old serpent that we might not
be devoured and destroyed.
PUNISIIMENT.-TiTe Chinese are very quiet and or-




derly; and no wonder, because they are afraid of the
great bamboo stick.
The mandarins (or rulers of towns) often sentence
offenders to lie upon the ground, and to have thirty
strokes of the bamboo. But the wooden collar is
worse than the bamboo stick.. It is a great piece of
wood with a hole for a man to put his head through.
The men in wooden collars are brought out of their
prisons every morning, and chained to a wall, where
everybody passing by can see them. They cannot
feed themselves in their wooden collars, because they
cannot bring their hands to their mouths ; but some-
times a son may be seen feeding his father, as he
stands chained to the wall. There are men also whose
business it is to feed the prisoners. For great crimes
men are strangled or beheaded.
CHARACTEIt.-A Chinaman's character cannot be
known at first. You might suppose from his way of
speaking that a Chinaman was very humble; because
he calls himself the worthless fellow," or the stupid
one," and he calls his son "the son of a dog ;" but if
you were to tell him he had an evil heart, he would
be very much offended; for he only gives himself
these names that he may seem humble. He calls his
acquaintance venerable uncle," honorable brother."
This he does to please them. The Chinese are very



proud of their country, and think there is none like it.
They have given it the name of the Heavenly or
Celestial Empire." They look upon foreigners as
monkeys and devils. Often a woman may be heard
in the streets saying to her little child, There is a
foreign devil (or a Fan Quei"). The Chinese think
the English very ugly, and called them the "red-
haired nation."
It must be owned that the Chinese are industrious:
indeed, if they were not, they would be starved. A
poor man often has to work all day up to the knees
in water in the rice-fieW, and yet gets nothing for
supper but a little rice and a few potatoes.
The ladies who can live without working are very
idle, and in the winter rise very late in the morning.
Men, too, play, as children do here; flying kites is
a favorite game. Dancing, however, is quite unknown.
The Chinese are very selfish and unfeeling. Beg-
gars may be seen in the middle of the town dying,
and no one caring for them, but people gambling close
The Chinese have an idea that after a man is dead
the house must be cleansed from ghosts;. so to save
themselves this trouble, poor people*often cast their
dying relations out of their hovels into the street to

But in general sons treat their parents with great
respect. They often keep their father's coffin in the
house for three months, and a son has been known to
sleep by it for three years. Relations are usually kind
to each other, because they meet together in the Hall
of Ancestors" to worship the same persons. To save
money they often live together, and a hundred eat at
the same table.
The Chinese used to be temperate, preferring tea to
wine. There are tea-taverns in the towns. How
much better than our beer-shops! But lately they
have begun to smoke opium. This is the juice of the
white poppy, made up into dark balls. The Chinese
are not allowed to have it; but the English, sad to
say, sell it to them secretly. There are many opium
taverns in China, where men may be seen lying on
cushions snuffing up the hot opium, and puffing it out
of their mouths. Those who smoke opium have sun-
ken cheeks and trembling hands, and soon become
old, foolish, and sick. Why, then, do they take
opium ? Many of them say they wish to leave it off,
but cannot.
MISSIONARIES.-Are there any in China? Yes,
many; and moe are going there. But how many
are wanted for so many people! Missionaries travel
about China to distribute Bibles and tracts. One of




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