Citation
Far off, or, Asia and Australia described

Material Information

Title:
Far off, or, Asia and Australia described with anecdotes and illustrations
Portion of title:
Asia and Australia described
Creator:
Mortimer, Favell Lee, 1802-1878
Howland, William ( Engraver )
Robert Carter & Brothers ( Publisher )
Place of Publication:
New York
Publisher:
Robert Carter & Brothers
Publication Date:
Language:
English
Physical Description:
327 p. <10> leaves of plates : ill. ; 18 cm.

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Christian life -- Juvenile literature ( lcsh )
National characteristics -- Juvenile literature ( lcsh )
Juvenile literature -- Asia ( lcsh )
Juvenile literature -- Australia ( lcsh )
Embossed cloth bindings (Binding) -- 1852 ( rbbin )
Publishers' advertisements -- 1852 ( rbgenr )
Bldn -- 1852
Genre:
Embossed cloth bindings (Binding) ( rbbin )
Publishers' advertisements ( rbgenr )
non-fiction ( marcgt )
Spatial Coverage:
United States -- New York -- New York
Target Audience:
juvenile ( marctarget )

Notes

General Note:
Added title page, engraved.
General Note:
Publisher's advertisements precede text.
General Note:
Illustrations engraved by Howland.
Statement of Responsibility:
by the author of "The Peep of Day."

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
This item is presumed to be in the public domain. The University of Florida George A. Smathers Libraries respect the intellectual property rights of others and do not claim any copyright interest in this item. Users of this work have responsibility for determining copyright status prior to reusing, publishing or reproducing this item for purposes other than what is allowed by fair use or other copyright exemptions. Any reuse of this item in excess of fair use or other copyright exemptions may require permission of the copyright holder. The Smathers Libraries would like to learn more about this item and invite individuals or organizations to contact The Department of Special and Area Studies Collections (special@uflib.ufl.edu) with any additional information they can provide.
Resource Identifier:
026882744 ( ALEPH )
45784992 ( OCLC )
ALH5018 ( NOTIS )

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Full Text







ATTRACTIVE AND INTERESTING
FUVENITLE BOOKS,

PUBLISHED BY

ROBERT CARTER & BROTHERS.
eens epi ates

Blossoms of Childhood.

By the author of the “ Broken Bud.” 16mo. 75 cents.
Bunbury.

Glory, Glory, Glory, and other Narratives. 25 cents.
Cameron.

The Farmer’s Daughter. Mlustrated. 30 cents.
Commandment with Promise.

By the author of “The Week,” &c. Illustrated. 75 cents.
Duncan, Henry.

Tales of the Scottish Peasantry. 18mo. 50 cents.

The Cottage Fireside. 40 cents.
Duncan, Mary Lundie.

Rhymes for my Children. 25 conts.
Far Off in Asia and Australia.

Described by the author of the “ Peep of Day,” &c. Mlustrated.

i6mo.

Fry, Caroline.
The Listener. Illustrated. $1 00.
Frank Netherton.
Or, the Talisman. Illustrated. 16mo.
Infant’s Progress.
By the author of “ Little Henry and his Bearer.” Illustrated, 75 cts
Jamie Gordon.
Or, the Orphan. Illustrated. 75 cents.
Kennedy, Grace.
Jessy Allan. 18mo. 25 cents.

Decision, or Religion must be all or nothing. 25 cents.
Anna Ross. Illustrated. 30 cents.

Michael =ntp.

The Happy Farmer’s Lad. Illustrated. 40 cents.
My School Boy Days.

Illustrated. 18mo. 30 cents.
My Youthful Companions.

A Sequel to the above. Illustrated. 30 cents.





CARTERS’ JUVENILE PUBLICATIONS.

My Grandfather Gregory.

Iustrated. 25 cents.

My Grandmama Gilbert.

By the same author. 25 cents.

New Cobwebs
To Catch Young Plies. Illustrated. Square. 50 cents.

Opie, Amelia,

Tules and Illustrations of Lying. I8mo. 40 cents.

Old Humphrey’s
Addresses—Observations—Thoughts—Walks in London—Homely
Hints—Country Strolls—Sea Captain—Grandparents—Isle of
Wight—Pithy Papers— Pleasant Tales—North American Indians.
12 volumes. Each 40 cents.

Osborne, Mrs. David.
The World of Waters. Illustrated. 75 cents.

Pastor’s Daughter.
By Mrs. L. P. Hopkins. Tlustrated. 40 cents.

Peep of Day,
and * Line upon Line,” and “Precept on Precept.” 3 volumes.
Each 30 cents.

Pollok, Robert.
Tales of the Scottish Covenanters. 16mo. 75 cents.
Helen of the Glen. 18mo. 25 cents.
The Persecuted Family. 18mo. 25 cents.
Ralph Gemmell. 18mo. 25 cents.

Stories on the Lord’s Prayer.
By the author of * Edward and Miriam.”

Sigourney, Mrs. L. H.
Water Drops. 1l6mo. 75 cents.
Letters to my Pupils. Portrait. 75 cents.
Olive Leaves. Illustrated. 75 cents.
Boys’ Book. 40 cents.
Girls’ Book. 40 cents.
Child’s Book. 35 cents.

Sinclair, Catherine.
Charlie Seymour. 18mo. 30 cts.

Taylor, Jane.
Hymns for Infant Minds. 40 cents.
Limed Twigs. Colored plates. 50 cents.
Contributions of Q.Q. Illustrated. $1.
Original Poems. LUlustrated. 40 cents.

Tucker, S.
The Rainbow in the North. Illustrated. 75 cents.

Week, The.

By the author of the “ Commandment with Promise.” 75 cents.

Wilson, Professor.
Lights and Shadows of Scottish Life. 75 cents.







‘*O ma’am thats sweet! Jesus Christ is our Redeemer.”’ p.3







FAR OFF:

Gain and Aunstralio Dexerthen.

WITH

ANECDOTES AND ILLUSTRATIONS.

BY THE
AUTHOR OF “THE PEEP OF DAY,”

ETC. ETC. ETC.

ROBERT CARTER & BROTHERS,

|
|
|
|
Row YORK:
| 285 BROADWAY.



1852.



epee





Iv the Frontispiece may be seen an English lady, who
went to live upon Mount Sion to teach little Jewesses and
little Mahomedans to know the Saviour. That lady has
led three of her young scholars to a plain just beyond the
gates of Jerusalem ; and while two of them are playing to-
gether, she is listening to little Esther, a Jewess of eight
years old. The child is fond of sitting by her friend, and
of hearing about the Son of David. She has just been
singing,

“Glory, honor, praise, and power,
Be unto the Lamb forever,

Jesus Christ is our Redeemer,
Hallelujah, praise the Lord ;”

and now she is saying, “O, ma’am, that’s sweet! Jesus
Christ is ovr Redeemer, our Redeemer: no man can redeem
his brother, ao money,—nothing—but only the precious
blood of Christ,”

”





Preface.

Tus little work pleads for the notice of
parents and teachers on the same grounds as
its predecessor, ‘‘ Near Home.”

Its plea is not completeness, nor compre-
hensiveness, nor depth of research, nor splen-
dor of description; but the very reverse,—its
simple, superficial, desultory character, as
better adapted to the volatile beings for
whom it is designed.

Too long have their immortal minds been
captivated by the adventures and achieve-
ments of knights and princesses, of fairies and
magicians; it is time to excite their interest

in real persons, and real events. In child-
hood that taste is formed which leads the
youth to delight in novels, and romances; a
taste which has become so general, that every





sn npemeenanninnndtiiassiill in Ee

x PREFACE,







——

To form great and good characters, the
mind must be trained to delight in rrurm,—
not in comic rhymes, in sentimental tales, and
skeptical poetry. The truth revealed } n God’s
| Holy Word, should constitute the firm basis !
| of education ; and the works of Creation and |
| Providence the superstructure while the Di- |
| vine blessing can alone rear and cement the |

edifice. |
| Parents, train up your children to serve |
| God, and to enjoy his presence forever; and |
| if there be amongst them—an EXTRAORDINARY |
| child, train him up with extraordinary care, |

lest instead of doing extraordinary good he |

should do extraordinary evil, and be plunged |

into extraordinary misery. |
| Train up—the child of imagination—not to
| dazzle, like Byron, but to enlighten, like
| Cowper: the child of wit—not to create pro-
| fane mirth, like Voltaire, but to promote holy
|



joy, like Bunyan: the child of reflection—
not to weave dangerous sophistries, like Hume,
but to wield powerful arguments, like Chal-
mers: the child of sagacity—not to gain ad-







sey

PREFACE. xl

vantages for himself, like Cromwell, but for
his country, like Washington: the child of
eloquence—not to astonish the multitude, like
Sheridan, but to plead for the miserable, like
Wilberforce: the child of ardor——not to be
the herald of delusions, like Swedenbourg,
but to be the champion of truth, like Luther:
the child of enterprise—not to devastate a
Continent, like the conquering Napoleon,
but to scatter blessings over an Ocean, like
the missionary Williams :—and, if the child
be a prince,—train him up—not to reign in
pomp and pride like the fourteenth Louis,
but to rule in the fear of God, like our own
great ALFRED.



|
|
|







Cuntents.

PAGE

BIER co csccvccvesecccccccecccesioveacscvenivinwens 17
Tue Hoty LAND. ..... 0... cece ccc cence eee eecs 17
Bethlohbem ,...,..6cccccccctsccccavevdevecwen 18
Jerusalem... . 2... cece ce cee cece ee eneeees 20
The Dead Sea... ... 0... ccc cece cece cee eee es 26
SaMaria.. oe eee eee cece ee ce eee aes 27
Galilee... cece ce cece cece eee eceees 28
SYRIA. eee ec ce cece ec eee cece eecennceeues 31
Damascus... 2... 0. cee cece ec ee cece cceeeaees 33
ARABIA. Loe ccc cece cece e cence eeeeeceereuees 88
TURKEY IN ASIA... 00.0... ccc cc es cee ccaececucuee 51
AIMCNIA.. Lek ec cee cee eee cece uecees 54
Kurdistan... 0... 0... ccc cece eee cence eeeuuees 58
Mesopotamia. ........... 0.0 cc cece cece eee ees 59
PERSIA... ce cee cece ccc cece cece cceecs enccecsgad 62
OE 70
CHINA, Lee cece cece cece cence eececteueeeuceus 72
CocuIn CHINA. . 6... ccc cece cece ccc cc enneeees .--. 100
Tonquin... .. cc ccc cece cece cece ceeactcceseus 102





AFFGHANISTAN
BELOOCHISTAN

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eT RE ee ee eee ee ee eee eee ee tee e acne eena







CONTENTS. XV
ha ddliacliincnieii caitae eeh Eu igt DA yh
PAGE
KAMKATEKA.. 6... eee cece cece cere ce eeecccecey 252
SMM voice eke cee cecenceesvaneceneose foi et 257
Lassa... . cece cc cen cece ccc c enc ecc cece 260
WEYLON.. . 1 .. ccc ccc n cece ec eeccccccceccece, 262
Kandy... .... 0... cece ccc c cece cece ee ceee cues 268
Colombo... 6... eee ccc cece ccuceeecccen 269
BORNEO... eee cece eee ee ec eceececccece, 273
Bruni... eee cee ec eee cee ceec cece. 275
The Dyaks... 6... 0... cece cece cece ee cecccues 276
JAPAN. eee ee eke cece ect e cece een ccectecccccee 284
AUSTRALIA... eee ee eee c cece ce ee cece ce cceccee 291
The Colonists or Settlers...................... 298
Botany Bay..... 0... ec cece cee eee. 305
| Sydney... ... eee ec eee cece ee. 306
Adelaide... .. ec ce eee c cece ecee. 307
| Van Dremay’s LAND... 6... eee eee cece ec eeecee ee, 308
The Young Savages..............0.0.0-...... 308
Little Mickey... 0.0... eee eee, 323
,
|
|
|

ee



SS eee enenteeesiesesoan-iiisesennpainisciSsshcais Snsincue









FAR OFF.











Asia.

Or the four quarters of the world—Asia is the most
glorious.
There the first man lived.
There the Son of God lived.
| There the apostles lived.
| There the Bible was written.
Yet now there are very few Christians in Asia:



though there are more people there than in any
other quarter of the globe.

Che Baly anv.




Or all the countries in the world which would you



rather see ?
Would it not be the land where Jesus lived ?
2



























FAR OFF.

He was the Son of God: He loved us and died
for us.

What is the land called where He lived? Ca-
naan was once its name: but now Palestine, or the
Holy Land.

Who lives there now ?

Alas! alas! The Jews who once lived there are
cast out of it. There are some Jews there; but the
Turks are the lords over the land. You know the
Turks believe in Mahomet.

What place in the Holy Land do you wish most
to visit ?

Some childrem will reply, Bethlehem, because Je-
sus was born there; another will answer, Nazareth,
because Jesus was brought up there; and another
will say, “ Jerusalem,” because He died there.

I will take you first to

BETHLEHEM.

“y ed

A good minister visited this place, accompanied by
a train of servants, and camels, and asses.

It is not easy to travel in Palestine, for wheels are
never seen there, because the paths are too steep, and
rough, and narrow for carriages.



. BETHLEHEM. 19

Bethlehem is on a steep hill, and a white road of
chalk leads up to the gate. The traveller found the
streets narrow, dark, and dirty. He lodged in a con-
vent, kept by Spanish monks. He was shown into
a large room with carpets and cushions on the floor.
There he was to sleep. He was led up to the roof
of the house to see the prospect. He looked, and
beheld the fields below where the shepherds once
watched their flocks by mght: and far off he saw the
rocky mountains where David once hid himself from
Saul.

But the monks soon showed him a more curious
sight. They took him into their church, and then
down some narrow stone steps into a round room be-
neath. “ Here,” said they, “Jesus was born.” The
floor was of white marble, and silver lamps were
burning in it. In one corner, close to the wall, was
a marble trough, lined with blue satin. “ There,”
said the monks, “is the manger where Jesus was
laid.” “ Ah!” thought the traveller, “it was not in
such a manger that my Saviour tested his infant

head ; but in a far meaner place.”

These monks have an image of a baby, which they
eall Jesus. On Christmas-day they dress it in swad-
dling-clothes and lay it in the manger: and then fall
down and worship it.





20 FAR OFF. ,
The next ncn, shee teangle meee willy Shannen as the traveller was ready to_mount

his camel, the people of Bethlehem came with little
articles which they had made. But he would not
buy them, because they were images of the Virgin
Mary and her holy child, and little white crosses of
mother-of-pearl. They were very pretty: but they
were idols, and God hates idols.

JERUSALEM.

Here our Lord was crucified.

Is there any child who does not wish to hear about
it?

The children of Jerusalem once loved the Lord,
and sang his praises in the temple. Their young
voices pleased their Saviour, though not half so
sweet as angels’ songs.

Which is the place where the temple stood ?

It is Mount Moriah. There is a splendid building
there now.

Isit the temple? O no, that was burned many
hundreds of years ago. It is the Mosque of Omar
that you see; it is the most magnificent mosque in
all the world. How sad to think that Mahomedans
should worship now in the very spot where once the












JERUSALEM. 21
ee ___..mreiininmerinnennetniae tumnsinettetaimanensonascersoaiaititeeiiaiesinsinks
Son of God taught the people. No Jew, no Chris-
tian may go into that mosque. The Turks stand
near the gate to keep off both Jews and Christians.

Every Friday evening a very touching scene takes
place near this mosque. There are some large old
stones there, and the Jews say they are part of their
old temple wall: so they come at the beginning of
their Sabbath (which is on Friday evening) and sit
in a row opposite the stones. There they read their
Hebrew Old Testaments, then kneel low in the dust,
and repeat their prayers with their mouths close to
the old stones: because they think that all prayers
whispered between the cracks and crevices of these
stones will be heard by God. Some Jewesses come,
wrapped from head to foot in long white veils, and they
gently moan and softly sigh over Jerusalem in ruins.

What Jesus said has come to pass, “ Behold, your
house is left unto you desolate.” The thought of this
sad day made Jesus weep, and now the sight of it
makes the Jews weep.

But there is a place still dearer to our hearts than
Mount Moriah. It is Calvary. There is a church
there: but such a church! a church full of images
and crosses. Roman Catholics worship there—and
Greeks too: and they often fight in it, for they hate
one another, and have fierce quarrels.









22 FAR OFF.



That church is called “The Church of the Holy
Sepulchre.” It is pretended that Christ’s tomb or
sepulchre is in it. Turks stand at the door and make
Christians pay money before they will let them in.

When they enter, what do they see?

In one corner a stone seat. “There,” say the
monks, “Jesus sat when He was crowned with
thorns.” In another part there is a stone pillar.
“ There,” say the monks, “ He was scourged.” ‘There
is a high place in the middle of the church with
stairs leading up to it. When you stand there the
monks say, “ This is the top of Calvary, where the
cross stood.” But we know that the monks do not
speak the truth, for the Romans destroyed Jerusalem
soon after Christ’s crucifixion, and no one knows the
very place where He suffered.

On Good Friday the monks carry all round the
church an image of the Saviour as large as life, and
they fasten it upon a cross, and take it down again,
and put itin the sepulchre, and they take it out again
on Easter Sunday. How foolish and how wrong are
these customs! It was not in this way the apostles
showed their love to Christ, but by preaching his
word.

Mount Zion is the place where David brought the
atk with songs and music. There is a church where

te eo ratinnn ye te ee - eneeenieneinetaatinetnad





JERUSALEM. 23



the Gospel is preached and prayers are offered up in
Iebrew, (the Jew’s language.) The minister is called
the Bishop of Jerusalem. He is a Protestant. A
few Jews come to the church at Mount Zion, and
some have believed in the Lord Jesus.

And there is a school there where little Jews and
Jewesses and little Mahomedans sit side by side,
while a Christian lady teaches them about Jesus. In
the evening, after school, she takes them out to play
on the green grass near the city. A little Jewess once
much pleased this kind teacher as she was sitting on
a stone looking at the children playing. Little Esther
repeated the verse—

Glory, honor, praise and power
Be unto the Lamb forever ;

Jesus Christ is our Redeemer,
Hallelujah, praise the Lord!

and then she said very earnestly, ““O, ma’am, how
sweet to think that Jesus is our Redeemer. No man
can redeem his brother: no money—no money can
do it—only the precious blood of Jesus Christ.” Lit-
tle Esther seemed as if she loved Jesus, as those chil-
dren did who sang his praises in the temple so many
years ago.

But there is apother place—very sad, but very
sweet—where you must come. Go down that valley

a
|
}





24 FAR OFF.



—cross that small stream—(there is a narrow bridge)
—see those low stone walls—enter : it is the Garden
of Gethsemane. Eight aged olive-trees are still stand-,
ing there; but Jesus comes there no more with his
beloved disciples. What a night was that when He
wept and prayed—when the angel comforted Him—
and Judas betrayed Him.

The mountain just above Gethsemane is the Mount
of Olives. Beautiful olive-trees are growing there still.
There is a winding path leading to the top. The Sa-
viour trod upon that Mount just before he was caught
up into heaven. His feet shall stand there again, and
every eye shall see the Saviour in his glory. But will
every eye be glad to see Him ?

O no; there will be bitter tears then flowing from
many eyes.

And what kind of a city is Jerusalem ?

It is a sad and silent city. The houses are dark
and dirty, the streets are narrow, and the pavement
rough. ‘There are a great many very old Jews there.
Jews come from all countries when they are old to
Jerusalem, that they may die and be buried there.
Their reason is that they think that all Jews who are
buried in their burial-ground at Jerusalem will be
raised first at the last day, and will be happy for-
ever. Most of the old Jews are very poor: though



JERUSALEM. _ 25
eli
money is sent to them every year from the Jews in
Europe.

There are also a great many sick Jews in Jerusalem,
because it is such an unhealthy place. The water in
the wells and pools gets very bad in summer, and
gives the ague and even the plague. Good English
Christians have sent a doctor to Jerusalem to cure the
poor sick people. One little girl of eleven years old
came among the rest—all in rags and with bare feet:
she was an orphan, and she lived with a Jewish
washerwoman. The doctor went to see the child in
her home. Where was it? It was near the mosque,
and the way to it was down a narrow, dark passage,
leading to a small close yard. The old woman lived
in one room with her grandchildren and the orphan:
there was a divan at each end, that is, the floor was
raised for people to sleep on. The orphan was not
allowed to sleep on the divans, but she had a heap of
rags for her bed in another part. The child’s eyes
glistened with delight at the sight of her kind friend
the doctor. He asked her whether she went to school.
This question made the whole family laugh: for no
one in Jerusalem teaches girls to read except the kind
Christian lady I told you of.





26 FAR OFF.



THE DEAD SEA.

Tue most gloomy and horrible place in the Holy
Land is the Dead Sea. In that place there once stood
four wicked cities, and God destroyed them with fire
and brimstone.

You have heard of Sodom and Gomorrah.

A clergyman who went to visit the Dead Sea rode
on horseback, and was accompanied by men to guard
him on the way, as there are robbers hid among the
rocks. He took some of the water of the Dead Seain
his mouth, that he might taste it, and he found it salt
and bitter; but he would not swallow it, nor would
he bathe in it.

He went next to look at the River Jordan. How
different a place from the dreary, desolate Dead Sea!
Beautiful trees grow on the banks, and the ends of the
branches dip into the stream. The minister chose a
part quite covered with branches and bathed there,
and as the waters went over his head, he thought,
“ My Saviour was baptized in this river.” But he did
not think, as many pilgrims do who come here every
year, that his sins were washed away by the water:
no, he well knew that Christ’s blood alone cleanses

from sin. There is a place where the Roman Catho-





pissed itdiseleeditccscenishtee es

SAMARIA. 27



‘
( cacitenéas aa aoeeaaies @

lics bathe, and another where the Greeks bathe every

|
i year; they would not on any account bathe in the
| same part, because they disagree so much.
| After drinking some of the sweet soft water of Jor-
| dan, the minister travelled from Jericho to Jerusalem.
_ He went the very same way that the good Samaritan
travelled who once found a poor Jew lying half-killed
by thieves. Even to this day thieves often attack
travellers in these parts: because the way is so lonely,
and so rugged, and so full of places where thieves can
hide themselves.
A horse must be a very good climber to carry a

and a traveller must be a bold man to venture to go
to the edge of the precipices, and near the robbers’

caves.

|

|

traveller along the steep, rough, and narrow paths,
| SAMARIA.

In the midst of Palestine is the well where the Lord
spoke so kindly to the woman of Samaria. In the
midst ofa beautiful valley there is a heap of rough


stones : underneath is the well. But it is not easy to
drink water out of this well. For the stone on the
top is so heavy, that it requires many people to re-
move it: and then the well is deep, and a very long









28 FAR OFF.



rope is necessary to reach the water. ‘The clergyman
(of whom I have spoken so often) had nothing to
draw with ; therefore, even if he could have removed
the stone, he could not have drunk of the water. The
water must be very cool and refreshing, because it lies
so far away from the heat. That was the reason the
Samaritan woman came so far to draw it: for there
were other streams nearer the city, but there was no
water like the water of Jacob’s well.

The city where that woman lived was called Sychar.
It is still to be seen, and it is still full of people. You
remember that the men of that city listened to the
words of Jesus, and perhaps that is the reason it has
not been destroyed. The country around is the most
fruitful in all Canaan; there are such gardens of
melons and cucumbers, and such groves of mulberry-

trees.

GALILEE.

How different from Sychar is Capernaum! That
was the city where Jesus lived for a long while, where
he preached and did miracles. It was on the borders
of the lake of Genesareth. The traveller inquired of
the people near the lake, where Capernaum once
stood ; but no one knew of such a place: it is utterly









GALILEE. 29
a
destroyed. Jesus once said, “ Woe unto Capernaum.”
Why? Because it repented not.

The lake of Genesareth looked smooth as glass
when the traveller saw it; but he heard that dreadful
storms sometimes ruffled those smooth waters. It
was a sweet and lovely spot; not gloomy and horri-
ble like the Dead Sea. The shepherds were there
leading their flocks among the green hills where once
the multitude sat down while Jesus fed them.

Not very far off is the city where Jesus lived when
he was a boy.

Nazarera.—All around are rugged rocky hills.
In old times it was considered a wicked city ; perhaps
it got this bad name from wicked people coming here
to hide themselves: and it seems just fit for a hiding-
place. From the top of one of the high crags the
Nazarenes once attempted to hurl the blessed Saviour.

There is a Roman Catholic convent there, where
the minister lodged. He was much disturbed all day
by the noise in the town; not the noise of carts and
wagons, for there are none in Canaan, but of scream-
ing children, braying asses, and grunting camels.
One of his servants came to him complaining that he
had lost his purse with all his wages. He had left it
in his cell, and when he came back it was gone.
Who could have taken it? It was clear one of the









30 FAR OFF.

sspears eae maaan
servants of the convent must have stolen it, for one
of them had the key of the room. The travellers
went to the judge of the town to complain; but the
judge, who was a Turk, was asleep, and no one was
allowed to awake him. In the evening, when he did
awake, he would not see justice done, because he said
he had nothing to do with the servants at the con-
vent, as they were Christians. Nazareth, you see, is
still a wicked city, where robbery is committed and
not punished.

There is much to make the traveller sad as he
wanders about the Holy Land.

That land was onee fruitful, but now it is barren.
It is not surprising that nv one plants and sows in the
fields, because the Turks would take away the harvests.

Once it was a peaceful land, but now there are so many
enemies that every man carries a gun to defend himself.

Once it was a holy land, but now Mahomet is
honored, and not the God of Israel.

When shall it again be fruitful, and peaceful, and
holy? When the Jews shall repent of their sins and
turn to the Lord. Then, says the prophet Ezekiel,
(xxxvi. 35,) “ They shall say, This land that was deso-
late is become like the garden of Eden.”*

* Taken chiefly from ‘‘A Pastor’s Memorial,” by the
Rev. George Fisk.





Syria.

THosE who love the Holy Land will like to hear
about Syria also; for Abraham lived there before he
came into Canaan. Therefore the Israelites were
taught to say when they offered a basket of fruit to
God, “ A Syrian was my father.” It was a heathen
land in old times; and it is now a Mahomedan land ;
though there are a few Christians there, but very
ignorant Christians, who know nothing of the Bible.

Syria is a beautiful land, and famous for its grand
mountains, called Lebanon. The same clergyman who
travelled through the Holy Land went to Lebanon
also. He had to climb up very steep places on
horseback, and slide down some, as slanting as the
roof of a house. But the Syrian horses are very sure-
footed. It is the custom for the colts from a month
old to follow their mothers; and so when a rider
mounts the back of the colt’s mother, the young crea-
ture follows, and it learns to scramble up steep places,
and to slide down ; even through the towns the colt



ee a

32 FAR OFF.



trots after its mother, and soon becomes accustomed
to all kinds of sights and sounds: so that Syrian
horses neither shy nor stumble.

The traveller was much surprised at the dress of the
women of Lebanon: for on their heads they wear sil-
ver horns sticking out from under their veils, the
strangest head-dress that can be imagined.

There are sweet flowers growing on the sides of
Lebanon ; but at the top there are ice and snow.

The traveller ate some ice, and gave some to the
horses; and the poor beasts devoured it eagerly, and
seemed quite refreshed by their cold meal.

The snow of Lebanon is spoken of in the Bible as
very pure and refreshing. “ Will a man leave the
snow of Lebanon, which cometh from the rock of the
field ?”—Jer. xviii. 14.

The traveller earnestly desired to behold the cedars
of Lebanon: fora great deal is said about them in the
Bible ; indeed, the temple of Solomon was built of |
those cedars. It was not easy to get close to them ;
for there were craggy rocks all around: but at last the
traveller reached them, and stood beneath their shade.
There were twelve very large old trees, and their
boughs met at the top, and kept off the heat of the
sun. These trees might be compared to holy men,

grown old in the service of God: for this 1s God’s



one







p. 32.

E
LE,

E

A CEDA2 TR



DAMASCUS. 33

promise to his servants,—“ The righteous shall flourish
like the palm-tree: he shall grow like a cedar in
Lebanon.”—Psalm xe. 11, 12.

DAMASCUS.

This is the capital of Syria.

It is perhaps the most ancient city in the world.
Even in the time of Abraham, Damascus was a city ;
for his servant Eliezer came from it.

But Damascus is most famous, on account of a great
event which once happened near it. A man going
towards that city suddenly saw in the heavens a light
brighter than the sun, and heard a voice from on
high, calling him by his name. Beautiful as the city
was, he saw not its beauty as he entered it, for he had

Keen struck blind by the great light. That man was

the great apostle Paul.

Who can help thinking of him among the gardens
of fruit-trees surrounding Damascus ?

The damask rose is one of the beauties of Damas-
cus. There is one spot quite covered with this lovely
red rose.

I will now give an account of a visit a stranger
paid to arich man in Damascus. He went through

8





a rege ace a A LE

34 FAR OFF.

dull and narrow streets, with no windows looking into
the streets. He stopped before a low door, and was
shown into a large court behind the house. There
was a fountain in the midst of the court, and flower-
pots all round. The visitor was then led into a room
with a marble floor, but with no furniture except scar-
let cushions. To refresh him after his journey, he
was taken to the bath. There a man covered him
with a lather of soap and water, then dashed a quan-
tity of hot water over him, and then rubbed him till
he was quite dry and warm.

When he came out of the bath, two servants
brought him some sherbet. It is a cooling drink
made of lemon-juice and grape-juice mixed with water.

The master of the house received the stranger very
politely: he not only shook hands with him, but
afterwards he kissed his own hand, as a mark of re-
spect to his guest. ‘The servants often kissed the visi-
tor’s hand.

The dinner lasted a long while, for only one dish
was brought up at atime. Of course there were no
ladies at the dinner, for in Mahomedan countries they
are always hidden. ‘There were two lads there, who
were nephews to the master of the house; and the
visitor was much surprised to observe that they did

not sit down to dinner with the company; but that







DAMASCUS, 385

they stood near their uncle, directing the servants what
to bring him; and now and then presenting a cup of
wine to him, or his guests. But it is the custom in
Syria for young people to wait upon their elders;
however, they may speak to the company while they
are waiting upon them.

Damascus used to be famous for its swords: but
now the principal things made there, are stuffs‘em-
broidered with silver, and boxes of curious woods, as

well as red and yellow slippers. The Syrians always

wear yellow slippers, and when they walk out they
put on red slippers over the yellow. If you want
to buy any of the curious works of Damascus, you
must go to the bazaars in the middle of the town;
there the sellers sit as in a market-place, and dis-
play their goods.

ScHoois.—lt is not the custom in Syria for girls to
learn to read. But a few years ago, a good Syrian,
named Assaad, opened a school for little girls as well
as for boys.

Tt was easy to get the little boys to come; but the
mothers did not like to send their little girls. They
laughed, and said, “ Who ever heard of a girl going
to school? Girls need not learn to read.” The first
girl who attended Assaad’s school was named Angoul,
which means “ Angel.” Where is the child that de-

SUE RESNenenenneeeeee es |

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i



36 FAR OFF.



serves such a name? Nowhere; for there is none
righteous, no, not one. Angoul belonged not to Ma-
homedan parents, but to those called Christians; yet
the Christians in Syria are almost as ignorant as
heathens.

Angoul had been taught to spin silk; for her father
had a garden of mulberry-trees, and a quantity of silk
worms. She was of so much use in spinning, that her
mother did not like to spare her: but the little maid
promised, that if she might go to school, she would
spin faster than ever when she came home. How
happy she was when she obtained leave to go! See
her when the sun has just risen, about six o’clock,
tripping to school. She is twelve years old. Her
eyes are dark, but her hair is light. Angoul has not
been scorched by the sun, like many Syrian girls, be-
cause she has sat in-doors at her wheel during the
heat of the day. She is dressed in a loose red gown,
and a scarlet cap with a yellow handkerchief twisted
round it like a turban.

At school Angoul is very attentive, both while she
is reading in her Testament, and while she is writing
on her tin slate with a reed dipped in ink. She re-
turns home at noon through the burning sun, and
comes to school again to stay till five. Then it is cool
and pleasant, and Angoul spins by her mother’s side





DAMASCUS. 37

in the lovely garden of fruit-trees before the house.
Has she not learned to sing many a sweet verse about
the garden above, and the heavenly husbandman ?
As she watches the budding vine, she can think now
of Him who said, “I am the true vine.” As she sits
beneath the olive-tree, she can call to mind the words,
“Tam like a green olive-tree in the house of my God.”
Angoul is growing like an angel, if she takes delight
in meditating on the word of God.*



* Extracted chiefly from the Rev. George Fisk’s “ Pastor’s
Memorial.” and Kinnear’s Travels.



Arabia.

Tuis is the land in which the Israelites wandered
for forty years. You have heard what a dry, dreary,
desert place the wilderness was. ‘There is still a wil-
derness in Arabia; and there are still wanderers in it;
not Israelites, but Arabs. These men live in tents,
and go from place to place with their large flocks of
sheep and goats. But there are other Arabs who live
in towns, as we do.

Do you know who is the father of the Arabs

The same man who is the father of the Jews.

What, was Abraham their father ?

Yes, he was. |

Do you remember Abraham’s ungodly son, Ish-

He was cast out of his father’s house for mocking
his little brother Isaac, and he went into Arabia.

And what sort of people are the Arabs ?

Wild and fierce people.

Travellers are afraid of passing through Arabia, lest

mael ? |
|
|
|

a



b

ference ee
ARABIA, 39
the Arabs should rob and murder them; and no one
has ever been able to conquer the Arabs. The Arabs
are very proud, and will not bear the least affront.
| Sometimes one man says to another, “The wrong side
| of your turban is out.” This speech is considered an
| affront never to be forgotten. The Arabs are so un-
| forgiving and revengeful that they will seek to kill a
| man year after year. One man was observed to carry
| about a small dagger. He said his reason was, he
| was hoping some day to meet his enemy and kill
him.

Of what religion are this revengeful people? The
Mahomedan.

Mahomed was an Arab. It is thought a great
honor to be descended from him. Those men who
say Mahomed is their father wear a green turban, and
| very proud they are of their green turbans, even
though they may only be beggars.
| Tur Arastan Women.—They are shut up like the
women in Syria when they liye in towns, but the
Women in tents are obliged to walk about; therefore
they wear a thick veil over their face, with small holes
| for their eyes to peep out.

The poor women wear a long shirt of white or



blue; but the rich women wrap themselves in mag-
nificent shawls. To make themselves handsome, they





40 FAR OFF.

een ee
blacken their eyelids, paint their nails red, and wear
gold rings in their ears and noses. They delight in
fine furniture. A room lined with looking-glasses,
and with a ceiling of looking-glasses, is thought
charming.

AraB Trnts.—They are black, being made of the
hair of black goats. Some of them are so large that
they are divided into three rooms, one for the cattle,
one for the men, and one for the women.

AraB Customs.—The Arabs sit on the ground,
resting on their heels, and for tables they have low
stools. A large dish of rice and minced mutton is
placed on the table, and immediately every hand is
thrust into it; and in a moment it is empty. Then
another dish is brought, and another; and sometimes
fourteen dishes of rice, one after the other, till all the
company are satisfied. They eat very fast, and each
retires from dinner as soon as he likes, without wait-
ing for the rest. After dinner they drink water, and
a small cup of coffee without milk or sugar. Then
they smoke for many hours.

The Arabs do not indulge in eating or drinking
too much, and this is one of the best parts of their
character.





p. 41.

CAMELS







ARABIA. 4]



THE THREE EVILS OF ARABIA,

The first evil is want of water. There is no river
in Arabia: and the small streams are often dried up
by the heat.

The second evil is many locusts, which come in
countless swarms, and devour every green thing.

The third evil is the burning winds. When a trav-
eller feels it coming, he throws himself on the ground,
covering his face with his cloak, lest the hot sand
should be blown up his nostrils. Sometimes men and
horses are choked by this sand,

These are the three great evils; but there is a still
greater, the religion of Mahomed: for this injures the
soul; the other evils only hurt the body.

THE THREE ANIMALS OF ARABIA.

The animals for which Arabia is famous are ani-
mals to ride upon. |
Two of them are often seen in England; though

~ here they are not nearly as fine as in Arabia; but the

third animal is never used in England. Most English
boys have ridden upon an ass. In Arabia the ass is
a handsome and spirited creature. The horse is
strong and swift, and yet obedient and gentle. The
camel is just suited to Arabia. His feet are fit to





42 FAR OFF.

tread upon the burning sands; because the soles are
more like India-rubber than like flesh: his hard
mouth, lined with horn, is not hurt by the prickly
plants of the desert; and his hump full of fat is as
good to him as a bag of provisions: for on a journey
the fat helps to support him, and enables him to do
with very little food. Besides all this, his inside is so
made that he can live without water for three days.

A dromedary is a swifter kind of camel, and is just
as superior to a camel as a riding-horse is to a cart-
horse.

THE THREE PRODUCTIONS OF ARABIA,

These are coffee, dates, and gums.

For these Arabia is famous.

The coffee plants are shrubs. The hills are cov-
ered with them; the white blossoms look beautiful
among the dark green leaves, and so do the red
berries.

The dates grow on the palm-trees; and they are _
the chief food of the Arabs. The Arabs despise those
countries where there are no dates.

There are various sweet-smelling gums that flow
from Arabian trees.












ARABIA,

THE THREE PARTS OF ARABIA.

You see from what I have just said that there are
plants and trees in Arabia. Then it is clear that the
whole land is not a desert. No, it is not; there is
only a part called Desert Arabia ; that is on the north.
There is a part in the middle almost as bad, called
Stony Arabia, yet some sweet plants grow there ; but
there is a part in the south called Happy Arabia,
where grow abundance of fragrant spices, and of well-
flavored coffee.

THE THREE CITIES OF ARABIA.

Arabia has long been famous for three cities, called
Mecca, Medina, and Mocha.
Mecca is considered the holiest city in the world.



And why? Because the false prophet Mahomed was
born there. On that account Mahomedans come from
all parts of the world to worship in the great temple
there. Sometimes Mecca is as full of people as a hive
is full of bees.

Of all the cities in the East, Mecca is the gayest, be-
cause the houses have windows looking into the
streets. In these houses are lodgings for the pilgrims.
And what is it the pilgrims worship


















44 FAR OFF.

aeration emcee AAD

A great black stone, which they say the angel
Gabriel brought down from heaven as a foundation
for Mahomed’s house. They kiss it seven times, and
after each kiss they walk round it.

Then they bathe in a well, which they say is the
well the angel showed to Hagar in the desert, and
they think the waters of this well can wash away all
their sins. Alas! they know not of the blood which
can wash away al sin.

Medina contains the tomb of Mahomed; yet it is
not thought so much of as Mecca. Perhaps the Ma-
homedans do not like to be reminded that Mahomed
died like any other man, and never rose again.

Mocha.—This is a part whence very fine coffee is
sent to Europe.

TRAVELS IN THE DESERT.

Of all places in Arabia, which would you desire
most to see? Would it not be Mount Sinai? Our
great and glorious God once spoke from the top of
that mountain.

I will tell you of an English clergyman who travelled
to see that mountain. As he knew there were many
robbers on the way, he hired an Arab sheikh to take
care of him, A sheikh is a chief, or captain. Sulei-

sears eee



ARABIA. 45
Soho Preece encom tianmemcemmemeneepetpiesdthatasoniiomesiaaamimaianbenniuntipiiiies
man was a fine-looking man, dressed in a red shirt,
with a shawl twisted round his waist, a purple cloak,
and a red cap. Tis feet and legs were bare. His
eyes were bright, his skin was brown, and his beard
black. To his girdle were fastened a huge knife and
pistols, and by his side hung a sword. This man
brought a band of Arabs with him to defend the
travellers from the robbers in the desert.

One day the whole party set out mounted on camels,
After going some distance, a number of children were
seen scampering among the rocks, and looking like
brown monkeys. These were the children of the
Arabs who accompanied the Englishman. The wild
little creatures ran to their fathers, and saluted them
in the respectful manner that Arab children are taught
to do.

At last a herd of goats was seen with a fine boy of
twelve years old leading them. He was the son of
Suleiman. The father seemed to take great delight
in this boy, and introduced him to the traveller. The
kind gentleman riding on a camel, put down his hand
to the boy. The little fellow, after touching the
traveller’s hand, kissed his own, according to the Ara-
bian manner.

The way to Mount Sinai was very rough ; indeed,
the traveller was sometimes obliged to get off his



iy ®




























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46 FAR OFF.

seersessieccsessscsameaahampuanaar tacts tee ee Ee TL LEIA LLL

camel, and to climb among the crags on hands and
knees. How glad he was when the Arabs pointed to
a mountain, and said, “ That is Mount Sinai.” With
“what fear and reverence he gazed upon it! WHereit |



was that the voice of the great God was once heard
speaking out of the midst of the smoke, and clouds, |
and darkness ! |
How strange it must be to see in this lonely gloomy |
spot, a great building! Yet there is one at the foot |
of the mountain. Whatcan it be? Aconvent. See |
those high walls around. It is necessary to have high |
walls, because all around are bands of fierce robbers.
It is even unsafe to have a door near the ground.
There is a door quite high up in the wall; but what
use can it be of, when there are no steps by which to
reach it? Can you guess how people get in by this
door? A rope is let down from the door to draw the
people up. One by one they are drawn up. In the |
inside of the walls there are steps by which travellers |
go down into the convent below. ‘The monks who |
live there belong to the Greek church.
The clergyman was lodged in a small cell spread
with carpets and cushions, and he was waited upon
by the monks.
These monks think that they lead a very holy life
in the desert. They eat no meat, and they rise in







ARABIA. 47

the night to pray in their chapel. But God does not
care for such service as this. He never commanded
men to shut themselves up in a desert, but rather tog:
do good in the world. %

One day the monks told the traveller they wou-d
show him the place where the burning bush once
stood. How could they know the place? However,
they pretended to know it. They led the way to the
chapel, then taking off their shoes, they went down
some stone steps till they came to a round room
under ground, with three lamps burning in the midst.
“There,” said the monks, “is the very spot where the
burning bnish once stood.”

There were two things the traveller enjoyed while
in the convent, the beautiful garden full of thick trees
and sweet flowers ; and the cool pure water from the
well. Such water and such a garden in the midst
of a desert were sweet indeed.

The Arabs, who accompanied the traveller, enjoy-
ed much the plentiful meals provided at the convent;
for the monks bought sheep from the shepherds
around, to feed their guests. After leaving the con-
vent, Suleiman was taken ill in consequence of having
eaten too much while there. The clergyman gave
him medicine, which cured him. The Arabs were
very fond of their chief, and were so grateful to the

oe ne ee ne ee + a a Se ny ge step



|
















48 FAR OFF.



a







stranger for giving him medicine, that they called
him “the good physician.” Suleiman himself show-
- his gratitude by bringing his own black coffee-
“pot into the tent of the stranger, and asking him to
drink coffee with him; for such is the pride of an
Arab chief, that he thinks it is a very great honor in-
deed for a stranger to share his meal.

But the traveller soon found that it is dangerous to
pass through a desert. Why? Not on account of
wild beasts, but of wild men. There was a tribe of
Arabs very angry with Suleiman, because he was
conducting the travellers through their part of the
desert. They wanted to be the guides through that
part, in hopes of getting rewarded by a good sum of
money. You see how covetous they were. The
love of money is the root of all evil.

These angry Arabs were hidden among the rocks
and hills; and every now and then they came sud-
denly out of their hiding-places, and with a loud
voice threatened to punish Suleiman.

How much alarmed the travellers were! but none
more than Suleiman himself. He requested the cler-
gyman to travel during the whole night, in order
the sooner to get out of the reach of the enemy.
The clergyman promised to go as far as he was able.
What a journey it was! No one durst speak aloud







ARABIA. 49

to his companions, lest the enemies should be hid-

den among the rocks close by, and should overhear
them. At fnidnight the whole company pitched their
tents by the coast of the Red Sea. Early in the
morning the minister went alone to bathe in its
smooth waters. After he had bathed, and when he
was just going to return to the tents, he was startled
by hearing the sound of a gun. The sound came
from the midst of a small grove of palm-trees close
by. Alarmed, he ran back quickly to the tents:
again he heard the report of a gun: and again a
third time. The travellers, Arabs and all, were gath-
ered together, expecting an enemy to rush out of the
grove. But where was Suleiman? He had gone
some time before into the grove of palm-trees to talk
to the enemies.

Presently the traveller saw about forty Arabs leave
the grove and go far away. But Suleiman came
not. So the minister went into the grove to search
for him, and there he found—not Suleiman—but his
dead body !

There it lay on the ground, covered with blood.
The minister gazed upon the dark countenance once
so joyful, and he thought it looked as if the poor
Arab had died in great agony. It was frightful to
observe the number of his wounds. ‘Three balls had

4





50 FAR OFF.



been shot into his body by the gun which went off
three times. Three great cuts had been made in his
head ; his neck was almost cut off from his head, and
his hand from his arm! How suddenly was the
proud Arab laid low in the dust! All his delights
were perished forever. Suleiman had been promised
a new dress of gay colors at the end of the journey ;
but he would never more gird a shawl round his ac-
tive frame, or fold a turban round his swarthy brow.
The Arabs wrapped their beloved master in a loose
garment, and placing him on his beautiful camel, they
went in deep grief to a hill at a little distance. There
they buried him. They dug no grave; but they
made a square tomb of large loose stones, and laid
the dead body in the midst, and then covered it with
more stones. There Suleiman sleeps in the desert.
But the day shall come when “the earth shall dis-
close her blood, and shall no more cover her slain :”
and then shall the blood of Suleiman and his slain
body be uncovered, and his murderer brought to
judgment.*

* Extracted chiefly from “The Pastor’s Memorial,” by
the Rev. G. Fisk. Published by R. Carter & Brothers.





Gurkey in Asia.

Is there a Turkey in Asia as well as a Turkey in
Europe?

Yes, there is; and it is governed by the same sul-
tan, and filled by the same sort of persons. All the
Turks are Mahomedans,

You may know a Mahomedan city at a distance.
When we look at a Christian city we see the steeples
and spires of churches; but when we look at a Ma-
homedan city we see rising above the houses and trees
the domes and minarets of mosques. What are domes
and minarets? A dome is the round top of a mosque:
and the minarets are the tall slender towers. A min-
aret is of great use to the Mahomedans.

Do you see the little narrow gallery outside the
minaret. There is a man standing there. He is
calling people to say their prayers. He calls so loud
that all the people below can hear, and the sounds he
utters are like sweet music. But would it not make
you sad to hear them when you remembered what he

'
|
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'
ST ELA EC Nt ttre ianaaassstttica aetna: tists Alia a



52 FAR OFF.

eine enn
was telling people to do? To pray to the god of
Mahomet, not to the God and Father of the Lord
Jesus Christ; but to a false god: to no God. This
man goes up the dark narrow stairs winding inside the
minaret five times a day: first he goes as soon as the
sun rises, then at noon, next in the afternoon, then at
sunset, and last of all in the night. Ascending and
descending those steep stairs is all his business, and it
is hard work, and fatigues him very much.

In the court of the mosque there is a fountain.
There every one washes before he goes into the
mosque to repeat his prayers, thinking to please God
by clean hands instead of a clean heart. Inside the
mosque there are no pews or benches, but only mats
and carpets spread on the floor. There the worship-
pers kneel and touch the ground with their foreheads.
The minister of the mosque is called the Imam. He
stands in a niche in the wall, with his back to the
people, and repeats prayers.

But he js not the preacher. The sheikh, or chief
man of the town, preaches; not on Sunday, but on
Friday. He sits on a high place and talks to the peo-
ple—not about pardon and peace, and heaven and
holiness—but about the duty of washing their hands
before prayers, and of bowing down to the ground, and
such vain services.

ee



TURKEY IN ASIA. 53



In the mosque there are two rows of very large wax
candles, much higher than a man, and as thick as his
arm, and they are lighted at night.

It is considered right to go to the mosque for pray-
ers five times a day; but very few Mahomedans go so
often. Wherever people may be, they are expected
to kneel down and repeat their prayers, whether in
the house or in the street. But very few do so.
While they pray, Mahomedans look about all the time,
and in the midst speak to any one, and then go on
again; for their hearts are not in their prayers; they
do not worship in spirit and in truth.

There are no images or pictures in the mosques,
because Mahomet forbid his followers to worship idols.
There are Korans on reading stands in various parts
of the mosque for any one to read who pleases.

The people leave their red slippers at the door,
keeping on their yellow boots only; but they do not
uncover their heads as Christians do.

Was Christ ever known in this Mahomedan land ?
Yes, long before he was known in England. Turkey
in Asia used to be called Asia Minor, (or Asia the
less,) and there it was that Paul the apostle was born,
and there he preached and turned many to Christ.
But at last the Christians began to worship images,
and the fierce Turks came and turned the churches

Sissies sess isiasesstis-sssussinosssane-enias-=niinaaene





54 FAR OFF.



into mosques. This was the punishment God sent the
Christians for breaking his law. In some of the
mosques you may see the marks of the pictures which
the Christians painted on the walls, and which the
Turks nearly scraped off.

How dreadful it would be if our churches should
ever be turned into mosques! May God never send
us this heavy punishment.

ARMENIA.

One corner of Turkey in Asia is called Armenia.
There are many high mountains in Armenia, and one
of them you would like to see very much. If is the
mountain on which Noah’s ark rested after the flood.
I mean Ararat.*

It is a very high mountain with two peaks; and
its highest peak is always covered with snow. People
say that no one ever climbed to the top of that peak.
I should think Noah’s ark rested on a lower part of
the mountain between the two peaks, for it would
have been very cold for Noah’s family on the snow-

* It is remarkable that this mountain lies at the point
where three great empires meet, namely, Russia, Persia,
and Turkey.

ne ae ne ney





” ae ARMENIA. 55
covered peak, and it would have been very difficult
for them to get down. How pleasant it must be to
stand on the side of Ararat, and to think, “ Here my
great father Noah stood, and my great mother, Noah’s
wife; here they saw the earth in all its greenness,
just washed with the waters of the flood, and here
they rejoiced and praised God.”

I am glad to say that all the Armenians are not
Mahomedans. Many are Christians, but, alas! they
know very little about Christ except his name. I will
tell you a short anecdote to show how ignorant they
are.

Once a traveller went to see an old church in Ar-
menia called the Church of Forty Steps, beeause there
are forty steps to reach it: for it is built on the steep
banks of a river. |

The traveller found the churchyard full of boys.
This churchyard was their school-room. And what
were their books? The grave-stones that lay flat upon
the ground. Four priests were teaching the boys.
These priests wore black turbans; while Turkish Im-
ams wear white turbans. One of these Armenian
priests led the traveller to an upper room, telling him
he had something very wonderful to show him. What
could it be? The priest went to a niche in the wall
and took out of it a bundle; then untied a silk hand-

tm a ee








56 FAR OFF.



kerchief, and then another, and then another; till he
had untied twenty-five silk handkerchiefs. What |
was the precious thing so carefully wrapped up? It
was a New Testament.

It is a precious book indeed: but it ought to be
read, and not wrapped up. The priest praised it, say-
ing, “ This is a wonderful book; it has often been laid
upon sick persons, and has cured them.” Then a
poor old man, bent and tottering, pressed forward to
kiss the book, and to rub his heavy head. This was
worshipping the book, instead of Him who wrote it.

An Armenian village looks like a number of mole-
hills: for the dwellings are holes dug in the ground
with low’stone walls round the holes; the roof is
made of branches of trees and heaps of earth. There
are generally two rooms in the hole—one for the
family, and one for the cattle.

A traveller arrived one evening at such a village;
and he was pleased to see fruit-trees overshadowing
the hovels, and women, without veils, spinning cotton
under their shadow. But he was not pleased with
the room where he was to sleep. The way lay
through a long dark passage under ground; and the

SN LAE LIEN ON
———

|
room was filled with cattle: there was no window nor |
chimney. How dark and hot it was! Yet it was too |

damp to sleep out of doors, because a large Jake was

cee aC ROE ano ane — an - Re ae mene oe



ae.
e ARMENIA. 57

rtm eg Sigs ene
near; therefore he wrapped his cloak around him,
and lay upon the ground; but he could not sleep be-
cause of the stinging of insects, and the trampling of
cattle: and glad he was in the morning to breathe
again the fresh air,

Rich Armenians have fine houses. Once a traveller
dined with a rich Armenian. The dinner was served
up in a tray, and placed on a low stool, while the
company sat on the ground. One dish after another
was served up till the traveller was tired of tasting
them. But there was not only too much to eat ;
there was also too much to drink, Rakee, a kind of
brandy, was handed about; and afterwards a musi-
cian came in and played and sang to amuse the com-
pany. In Turkey there is neither playing, nor sing--
ing, nor drinking spirits. The Turks think themselves
much better than Christians, « For,” say they, “we
drink Jess and pray more.” - They do not know that
real Christians are not fond of drinking, and are fond
of praying ; only they pray more in secret, and the
Turks more in public,

ee eee



58 FAR OFF.









KURDISTAN.

The fiercest of all the people in Asia are the
Kurds.

They are the terror of all who live near them.

Their dwellings are in the mountains ; there some
live in villages, and some in black tents, and some in
strong castles. At night they rush down from the
mountains upon the people in the valleys, uttering a
wild yell, ahd brandishing their swords. They enter
the houses, and begin to pack up the things they find,
and to place them on the backs of their mules and
asses, while they drive away the cattle of the poor
people ; and if any one attempts to resist them, they
kill him. You may suppose in what terror the poor
villagers live in the valleys. They keep a man to
watch all night, as well as large dogs ; and they build
a strong tower in the midst of the village where they
run to hide themselves when they are afraid.

The reason why the Armenians live in holes in the
ground is because they hope the Kurds may not find
out where they are.

Those Kurds who live in tents often move from
place to place. The black tents are folded up and
placed on the backs of mules; and a large kettle is
slung upon the end of the tent-pole. The men and



a a. 3 amreeasntneames ti aaisati



MESOPOTAMIA. 59
women drive the herds and flocks, while the children
and the chickens ride upon the cows,

The Kurds have thin, dark faces, hooked noses, and
black eyes, with a fierce and malicious look.

They are of the Mahomedan religion, and the call
to prayers may be heard in the villages of these rob-
bers and murderers.

MESOPOTAMIA.

This country is part of Turkey in Asia. It lies.

between two very famous rivers, the Tigris and the
Euphrates, often spoken of in the Bible. The word
Mesopotamia means “between rivers.” It was be-
tween these rivers that faithful Abraham lived when
God first called him to be his friend. Should you not
like to see that country? It is now full of ruins.
The two most ancient cities in the world were built on
the Tigris and Euphrates.

Nineveh was on the Tigris.

What a city that was at the time Jonah preached
there! Its walls were so thick that three chariots
could go on the top all abreast.

But what is Nineveh now? Léok at those green
mounds. Under those heaps of rubbish lies Nineveh.

ee nr aa ey

i



60 FAR OFF,

A traveller has been digging among those mounds,
and has found the very throne of the kings of Nineveh,
and the images of winged bulls and lions which
adorned the palace. God overthrew Nineveh because
it was wicked.

There is another ancient city lying in ruins on the
Euphrates, it is Babylon the Great.

There are nothing but heaps of bricks to be seen
where once proud Babylon stood. Where are now
the streets fifteen miles long? Where are the hang-
ing gardens? gardens one above the other, the won-
der of the world? Where is now the temple of
Belus, (or of Babel, as sonie think,) with its golden
statue? All, all are now crumbled into rubbish.
God has destroyed Babylon as he said.

There are dens of wild beasts among the ruins. A
traveller saw some bones of a sheep in one, the re-
mains, he supposed, of a lion’s dinner; but he did not
like to go further into the den. to see who dwelt there.
Owls and bats fill all the dark places. But no men
live there, though human bones are often found scat-
tered about, and they turn into dust as soon as they
are touched.

There is now a great city in Mesopotamia, called
Bagdad. In Babylon no sound is heard but the how-
lings of wild beasts; in Bagdad men may be heard
























MESOPOTAMIA, 61

ne ieee vanes snenenesenatspenngeslaemses «

screaming and hallooing from morning to night. The
drivers of the camels and the =ules shout as they
press through the narrow crooked streets, and even the
ladies riding on white donkeys, and attended by black
slaves, scream and halloo.

In summer it is so hot in Bagdad that people
during the day live in rooms under ground, and sleep
on their flat roofs at night.

It is curious to see the people who have been sleep-
ing on the roof get up in the morning. — First they roll
up their mattrasses, their coverlids, and pillows, and
put them in the house. The children cannot fold up
theirs, but their mothers OL black slavesido it for them.
The men repeat their prayers, and then drink a cup
of coffee, which their wives present to them. The
wives uta! as they offer the cup to their lords, and:
stand with their hands crossed while their lords ate ,
drinking, then kneel down again to receive the cup,
and to kiss their lords’ hand. Then the men take
their pipes, and lounge on their cushions, while the
women say their prayers. And when do the children
say their prayers? Never. They know only of Ma-
homet; they know not the Saviour who said, “Suffer
little children to come unto me.”



Persia.

Is this country mentioned in the Bible? Yes; we
read of Cyrus, the king of Persia. Isaiah spoke of
him before he was born, and called him by his name.
See chapter xlv.

Persia is now a Mahomedan country. The Turks,
you remember, are Mahomedans too. Perhaps you
think those two nations, the Turks and the Persians,
must agree well together, as they are of the same reli-

_gion. Far from it. No nations hate one another



|
|
|
more than Turks and Persians do; and the reason is, |
that though they both believe in Mahomet, they disa-
gree about his son-in law, Ali. The Persians are very
fond of him, and keep a day of mourning in memory |
of his death ; whereas the Turks do not care for Ali
at all. |

But is this a reason why they should hate one
another so much ?

Even in their common customs the Persians differ
from the Turks. The Turks sit cross-legged on the





¢





PERSIA,
terete teenctennnentnnennennenennngsintsingeaitrnsiteonsttassnisamaieat’
ground; the Persians sit upon their heels. Which
way of sitting should you prefer? I think you would
find it more comfortable to sit like a Turk.

The Turks sit on sofas and lean against cushions ;
the Persians sit on carpets and lean against the wall.
kknow you would prefer the Turkish fashion. The
Turks drink coffee without either milk or sugar; the
Persians drink tea with sugar, though without milk,
The Turks wear turbans; the Persians wear high caps
of black lamb’s-wool.

Not only are their customs different, but their char-
acters. The Turks are grave and the Persians lively.

The Turks are silent, the Persians talkative. The

Turks are rude, the Persians polite. Now I am sure
you like the Persians better than the Turks. But wait

a little—the Turks are very proud; the Persians are

very deceitful. An old Persian was heard to say,
“We all tell lies whenever we can.” The Persians
are not even ashamed when their falsehoods are found
out. When they sell they ask too much ; when they
make promises they break them. In short, it is im-
possible to trust a Persian.

The Turks obey Mahomet’s laws; they pray five
times a day, and drink no wine. But the Persians
seldom repeat their prayers, and they do drink wine,
though Mahomet has forbidden it, In short, the Per-



See
.



64 FAR OFF.
pep



a ce eesti tse

sian seems to have no idea of right and wrong. The
judges do not give right judgment, but take bribes,
The soldiers live by robbing the poor people, for the
king pays them no wages, but leaves them to get food
as they can; and so the poor people often build their
cottages in little nooks in the valléys, where they hopé
the soldiers will not see them.

Tue Counrry.—Persia is a high country and a dry
country. There are high mountains and wide plains ;
but there are very few rivers and running brooks, be-
cause there is so’ little rain. However, in some places
the Persians have cut canals, and planted willow-trees
by their side. ~ Rice will not grow well in such a dry
country, but sheep find it very pleasant and whole-
some. The hills are covered over with flocks, and the
shepherds may be seen leading their sheep and carry-
ing the very young lambs in their arms. This is a
sight which reminds us of the good Shepherd : for it
is written of Jesus, “ He gathered the lambs in his
arms.”

Lhe sweetest of all flowers grows abundantly in
Persia—I mean the rose. The air is filled with its
fragrance. The people pluck the rose leaves and dry
them in the sun, as we dry hay. How pleasant. it
must be for children in the spring to play among the
heaps of rose-leaves. Once a traveller went to break-

eee aoreeentaeianentnintnertepiegecdiamnienenen



~ ee ee eg





PERSIA.



fast with a Persian Prince, and he found the company
seated upon a heap of rose-leaves, with a carpet spread
over it. Afterwards the rose-leaves were sent to the
distillers, to be made into rose-water.

Persian cats are beautiful creatures, with fur as soft
as silk.

The best melons in the world grow in Persia.

The three chief materials for making clothes are all
to be found there in abundance. I mean wool, cotton,
and silk, You have heard already of the Persian
sheep; so you see there is wool. Cotton trees also
abound. Women and children may be seen picking
the nuts which contain the little pieces of cotton.
There are mulberry-trees also to feed the numerous
silk worms.

Poor Prortz.—tThe villages where the poor live
are miserable places. The houses are of mud, not
placed in rows, but straggling, with dirty narrow paths
winding between them.

In summer the poor people sleep on the roofs; for
the roofs are flat, and covered with earth, with low
walls on every side to prevent the sleepers falling off.
Here the Persians spread their carpets to lie upon at
night.

Winter does not last long in Persia, yet while
it lasts it is cold. Then the poor, instead of sleeping





66 FAR OFF,

eee
on their roofs, sleep in a very curious warm bed. In
the middle of each cottage there is a round hole in the

floor, where the fire burns. In the evening the fire
goes out, but the hot cinders remain. The Persians
place over it a low round table, and then throw a
large coverlid over the table, and all round about.
Under this coverlid the family lie at night, their heads
peeping out, and their feet against the warm fire-
place underneath. This the Persians call a comfort-
able bed.

The poor wear dirty and ragged clothes, and the
children may be seen crawling about in the dust, and
looking like little pigs. Yet in one respect the Per-
sians are very clean; they bathe often. In every vil-
lage there is a large bath.

The poor people have animals of various kinds—a
few sheep, or goats, or cows. In the day one man
takes them all out to feed. In the evening he brings
them back to the village, and the animals of their own
accord go home to their own stables. Each cow and
each sheep knows where she will get food and a place
to sleep in. The prophet Isaiah said truly, “The ass
knoweth his owner, and the ox his master’s crib; but
Israel doth not know, my people doth not consider.”

THe Persian Lapirs.—They wrap themselves up

in a large dark blue Wrapper, and in this dress they

St te sSisenettiensneenneenesteaseeses eee an ec i

ee Re Te





PERSIA, 67
inne secee o
walk out where they please. No one who meets them
can tell who they are.

And where do these women go? Chiefly to the
bath, where they spend much ‘of their time drinking
coffee and smoking. There too they try to make them-
selves handsome by blackening their eyebrows and -
dyeing their hair. Sometimes the ladies walk to the
burial-grounds, and wander about for hours among
the graves. When they are at home they employ
themselves in making pillau and sherbet. Pillau is
made of rice and butter; sherbet is made of juice
mixed with water.

The ladies have a sitting-room to themselves, One
side of it is all lattice-work, and this makes it cool.
At night they spread their carpets on the flodt to sleep
upon, and in the day they keep them in a lumber-
room. ae

Persian Inns,—They are very uncomfortable
places. There are a great many small cells made of
mud, built all round a large court. These cells are
quite empty, and paved with stone. The only com-
fortable room is over the door-way of the court, and
the first travellers who arrive are sure to settle in the
room over the door-way.

Once an English traveller arrived at a Persian inn
with his two servants. All three were very ill and in







68 FAR OFF.

great pain, from having travelled -far over burning
plains and steep mountains.

But as the room over the door-way was occupied,
they were forced to ‘go into a little cold damp cell.
As there was no door to the cell, they hung up a rag
to keep out the chilling night air, and they placed a
pan of coals in the midst. Many Persians came and
peeped into the cell; and seeing the sick men looking
miserable as they lay on their carpets, the unfeeling
creatures laughed at them, and no one would help
them or give them anything to eat. The travellers
bought some bread and grapes at the bazaar, but
these were not fit food for sick men, but it was all
they could get. At last a Persian merchant heard of
their distxess ; and he came to see them every day,
bringing them warm milk and wholesome food: when
they were well enough to be moved, he took them to
his own house, and nursed them with the greatest
care.

Who was this kind merchant? Not a Mahom-
edan, but of the religion of the fire worshippers, or
Parsees. Was he not like the good Samaritan of
whom we read in the New Testament? O that Bah-
ram, the merchant, might know the true God!

Piterims AnD Beccars.—Very often you may

see a large company of Pilgrims, some on foot, and







PERSIA. 69



some mounted on camels, horses, and asses. ‘They
are returning from Mecca, the birth-place of Mahomet.
What good have they got by their pilgrimage ? None
at all. They think they are grown very holy, but
they make such an uproar at the inns by quarrelling
and fighting when they are travelling home, that no
one can bear to be near them.

There is a set of beggars called dervishes. They
call themselves very holy, and think people are bound
to give money to such holy men. They are so bold
that sometimes they refuse to leave a place till some
money has been given.

Once a dervish stopped a long while before the
house of the English ambassador, and refused to go

| away. Buta plan was thought-of to make him go

| away. |

| The dervish was sitting in a little niche in the wall.

| The ambassador ordered his servants to build up
bricks to shut the dervish in. The men began to
build, yet the dervish would not stir, till the bricks

came up as high as his chin: then he began to be

frightened, and said he would rather go away.

Tue Kine or Persta—He is called King of
Kings. What a name fora man! It is the title of
God alone. The king sits on a marble throne, and
his garments sparkle with jewels of dazzling bright-

eee ae erin testator taomemsresrevensiiestiin seiainnnatlititsttenttasiimaniaieanmnasls





70 FAR OFF.

a IO



ness. The walls of his state-chamber are covered with
looking-glasses. | One side of the room opens into a
court adorned with flowers and fountains. Great part
of his time is spent in amusements, such as hunting
and shooting, writing verses, and hearing stories. He
keeps a man called a story-teller, and he will never
hear the same story repeated twice. Itgives the man
a great deal of trouble to find new stories every day.
The king keeps jesters, who make jokes; and he has
mimics, who play antics to make him laugh. He dines
at eight in the evening from dishes of pure gold. No
one is allowed to dine with him; but two of his little
boys wait upon him, and his physician stands by to
advise him not to eat too much.

Do you think he is happy in all his grandeur ¢
Judge for yourself.

All his golden dishes come up covered and sealed.
Why? For fear of poison. There is a chief officer
in the kitchen who watches the cook, to see that he
puts no poison into the food: and he seals up the
dishes before they are taken to the king, in order that
the servants may not put in poison as they are car-
rying them along. In what fear this great king lives |
He cannot trust his own servants.

TeHERAN.—This is the royal city. It is built in a

barren plain, and is exceedingly hot, as the hills

‘
—— aa



rere rnp menercmetee



PERSIA. 7)



around keep off the air. It is a mean city, for it is
chiefly built of mud huts.

The king’s palace is called the “ Ark,” and is a very
strong as well as grand place.*

|

|

|

|

| * Extracted chiefly from Southgate’s Travels,



China.



THERE is no country in the world like China.

How different it is from Persia, where there are so
few people; whereas China is crowded with inhab-
itants !

How different it is from England, where the people
are instructed in the Bible, whereas China is full of
idols.

China is a heathen country; yet it is not a savage
country, for the people are quiet, and orderly, and
mdustrious.

It would be hard for a child to imagine what a
great multitude of people there are in China.

If you were to sit by a clock, and if all the Chinese
were tw pass before you one ata time, and if you
were to count one at each tick of the clock, and if you
were never to leave off counting day or night—how
long do you think it would be before you had counted
all the Chinese ?

Twelve years. O what a vast number of people







CHINA, 73

there must be in China! In all, there are about three
hundred and sixty millions! If all the peoffiin the
world were collected together, out of every three one
would be a Chinese. How sad it is to think that this
immense nation knows not God, nor his glorious Son !

There are too many people in China, for there is
not food enough for them all; and many are half.
starved.

Foov.—The poor can get nothing but rice to eat
and water to drink; except now and then they mix a
little pork or salt fish with their rice. Any sort of
meat is thought good; even a hash of rats and
snakes, or a mince of earth-worms. Cats and dogs’
flesh are considered as nice as pork, and cost as much.

An Englishman was once dining with a Chinaman,
and he wished to know what sort of meat was on his:
plate. But he was not able to speak Chinese. How
then could he ask? He thought of a way. Looking
first at his plate, and then at the Chinaman, he said,
“Ba-a-a,” meaning to ask, “Is this mutton?” The
Chinaman understood the question, and immediately
replied, “ Bow-wow,” meaning to say, “It is puppy-

dog.

You will wish to know whether the English-
man went on eating; but I cannot tell you this.
While the poor are in want ef food, the rich eat a

great deal too much. A Chinese feast in arich man’s




















74 FAR OFF.





house lasts for hours. ‘The servants bring in one
cour er another, till a stranger wonders when the
last course will come. The food is served up in a
curious way ; not on dishes, but in small basins—for
all the meats are swimming in broth. Instead of a
knife and fork, each person has a pair of chop-sticks,
which are something like knitting-needles ; and with
these he cleverly fishes up the floating morsels, and
pops them into his mouth. There are spoons of
china for drinking the broth.

You will be surprised to hear that the Chinese are
very fond of eating birds’ nests. Do not suppose that
they eat magpies’ nests, which are made of clay and
sticks, or even little nests of moss and clay ; the nests
they eat are made of a sort of gum. This gum comes
out of the bird’s mouth, and is shining and transpa-
rent, and the nest sticks fast to the rock. These nests
are something like our jelly, and must be very nour-
ishing.

The Chinese like nothing cold ; they warm all their
food, even their wine. For they have wine, not made
of grapes, but of rice, and they drink it, not in glasses,
butincups. Tea, however, is the most common drink ;
for China is the country where tea grows.

The hills are covered with shrubs bearing a white
flower, a little like a white rose. They are tea-plants.

ice ELL LLL LEELA a











CHINA. : 75
screen eisnciinnchaitnaenstnsiacsiniatiii sienna ee tale cel
The leaves are picked; each leaf is rolled_up with

the finger, and dried on a hot iron plate.

The Chinese do not keep all the tea-le , they
pack up a great many in boxes, and send them to dis-
tant lands. In England and in Russia there is a tea-
kettle in every cottage. Some of the Chinese aré,so
very poor that they cannot buy new tea-leaves, but
only tea-leaves which are sold in shops. I do not
think in England poor people would buy old tea-
leaves, Some very poor Chinese use fern-leaves in-
stead of tea-leaves.

The Chinese do not make tea in the same way that
we do. They have no teapot, or milk-jug, or sugar-
basin. They put a few tea-leaves in a cup, pour hot
water on them, and then put a cover on the cup till
the tea is ready. Whenever you pay a visit in China
a cup of tea is offered.

APPEARANCE.—The Chinese are not at all like the
other natives of Asia. The Turks and Arabs are fine-
looking men, but the Chimgse are poor-looking crea-
tures. You have seen théir pictures on their boxes
of tea, for they are fond of drawing pictures oft
selves. ; .
Their complexion is rather yellow, but many of the
ladies, who keep in doors, are rather fair. They have
black hair, small dark eyes, broad faces, flat noses, and





El ee |



76 FAR OFF.



high cheek-bones. In general they are short. The
men be stout; and the rich men are stout:
the iey are, the more they are admired: but
the women like to be slender.

A Chinaman does not take off his cap in company,
and he has a good reason for it: his head is close
shaven : only a long piece behind is allowed to grow,
and this grows down to his heels, and is plaited. He
wears a long dark blue gown, with loose hanging
sleeves. His shoes are clumsy, turned up at the toes
in an ugly manner, and the soles are white. The
Chinese have more trouble in whitening their shoes
than we have in blacking ours.

A Chinese lady wears a loose gown like a China-
man’s ; but she may be known by her head-dress, her
baby feet, and her long nails. Her hair is tied up,
and decked with artificial flowers ; and sometimes a
little golden bird, sparkling with jewels, adorns her

forehead. Her feet are n bigger than those of a



child of five years old ;@ificause, when she was five,

they were cruelly boundip to prevent them from
growing. She suffered much pain all her childhood,
and now she trips about as if she were walking on
tiptoes. A little push wogjd throw her down# As
she walks she moves from side to side like a ship. jn

the water, for she cannot walk firmly with such small





CHINA.









feet. The Chinese are so foolish as to adm hese
small feet, and to call them the “ golden As
for her finger-nails, they are seldom seen, for a Chi-
nese lady hides her hands in her long sleeves ; but
the nails on the left hand are very long, and are like
bird’s claws. The nails on the right hand are not so
long, in order that the lady may be able to tinkle on
her music, to embroider, and to weave silk.

The gentlemen are proud of. having one long nail
on the little finger, to show that they do not labor
like the poor, for if they did, the nail would break.
Men in China wear necklaces and use fans.

What foolish customs I have described. Surely
you will not think the Chinese a wise people, though





very clever, as you will soon find.

Men and women dress in black, or in dark colors,
such as blue and purple ; the women sometimes dress
in pink or green. Great people dress in red, and
the royal family in yellow. When you see a person
all in white, you may know he is in mourning, A

| son dresses in white for three years after he has lost
one of his parents.

Hovsrs.—See that lantern hanging over the gate.
The light is rather dim, because the sides are made
of silk instead of glass. What is written upon the
lantern? The master’s name. The gateway leads

a





78 FAR OFF.

ee UeU EEE RRR onan

into into which many rooms open. There are

not




all the rooms; to some there are only
curtains. Curtains are used instead of doors in
many hot countries, because of their coolness ; but
the furniture of the Chinese rooms is quite different
from the furniture of Turkish and Persian rooms.
The Chinese sit on chairs as we do, and have high
tables like ours: and they sleep on bedsteads, yet their
beds are not like ours, for instead of a mattrass there
is nothing but a mat.

Instead of pictures, the Chinese adorn their rooms
with painted lanterns, and with pieces of white satin,
on which sentences are written : they have also book-
eases and china jars. But they have no fire-places,
for they never need a fire to keep themselves warm :
the sun shining in at the south windows makes the
rooms tolerably warm in winter; and in summer the
weather is very hot. The Chinese in winter put on
one coat over the other till they feel warm enough.
In the north of China it is so cold in winter that
the place where the bed stands (which is a recess in
the wall) is heated by a furnace underneath, and the
whole family sit there all day crowded together,

The Chinese houses have not so many stories as ours;
in the towns there is one floor above the ground floor,
but in the country there are no rooms up stairs.









CHINA.





It would amuse you £8" s a Chinese country
house. There is not one large house, b lumber
of small buildings like summer-houses, and long gal-
leries running from one to another. One of these
summer-houses is in the middle of a pond, with a
bridge leading to it. In the pond there are gold and
silver fish ; for these beautiful fishes, often kept in
glass bowls in England, came first from China. By
the sides of the garden walls large cages are placed ;
in one may be seen some gold and silver pheasants,
in another a splendid peacock; in another a gentle
stork, and in another an elegant little deer. There is
often a grove of mulberry-trees in the garden, and in
the midst of the grove houses made of bamboo, for
rearing silk-worms. It is the delight of the ladies to
feed these curious worms. None but very quiet
people are fit to take care of them, for a loud noise
would kill them. Gold and silver fish also cannot
bear much noise.

In every large house in China there is a room called
the Hall of Ancestors. There the family worship their
dead parents and grand-parents, and ‘great-grand-pa-
rents, and those who lived still further back. There
are no images to be seen in the Hall of Ancestors, but
there are tablets with names written upon them. The
family bow down before the tablets, and burn incense






80 FAR OFF. |

and gold paper! What a’foolish service! What good
can incéiBe and paper do to the dead? And what
good can the dead do to their children? How is it
that such clever people as the Chinese are so foolish }

ReL1gion.—You have heard already that the Chi-
nese worship the dead.

Who taught them this worship ?

It was a man named Confucius, who lived a long
while ago. This Confucius was a very wise man.
From his childhood he was very fond of sitting alone
thinking, instead of playing with other children,
When he was fourteen he began to read some old
books that had been written not long after the time
of Noah. In these books he found very many wise


















sentences, such as Noah may have taught his children.
The Chinese had left off reading these wise books, and
were growing more and more foolish.* . Confucius,

* These are some of the sentences written in the old books:

“Never say, There is no one who sees me, for there is a
wise Spirit who sees all.”

‘‘ Man no longer has what he had before the fall, and he
has brought his children into his misery. O! Heaven, you
only can help us. Wipe away the stains of the father, and
save his children.”

‘ Never speak but with great care. Do not say, It is only
a single word. Remember that no one has the keeping of
your heart and tongue but you.”

These sentences are like some verses in the Psalms and





CHINA. 81
seat teoa re ht a ee ee
when he was grown up, tried to persuade his country-
men to attend to the old books. There wére a few
men who became his scholars, and who followed him



about from place to place. They might be seen sit-
ting under a tree, listening to the words of Confucius,

Confucius was a very tall man with a long black
beard and a very high forehead.

Had he known the true God, how much good he
might have done to the Chinese; but as it was he
only tried to make them happy in this world. He
himself confessed that he knew nothing about the
other world. He gave very good advice about respect
due to parents; but he gave very bad advice about
worship due to them after they were dead.

Was hea good man? Not truly good ; for he did
not love God; neither did he act right: for ‘he was
very unkind to his wife, and quite cast her off Yet.
he used to talk of going to other countries to teach the
people. It would have been a happy thing for him,
if he had gone as far as Babylon ; for a truly wise
man lived there, even Daniel the prophet. From
him he might have learned about the promised Sa-

Proverbs; and, it may be, they were spoken first by some
holy men of old.

Here is one more remarkable than all :—

“God hates the proud, and is kind to the huuitible,” .



——



82 FAR OFF.

Tp ee ee
viour, and life everlasting. But Confucius never left
China.

He was ill-treated by many of the rich and great,
and he was so poor that rice was generally his only
food. When he was dying he felt very unhappy, a8
well he might, when he knew not where he was going.
He said to his followers just before his death, “ The
kings refuse to follow my advice ; and since I am of
no use on earth, it is best that I should leave it.” As
soon as he was dead, people began to respect him
highly, and even to worship him. At this day, though
Confucius died more than two thousand years ago,
there is a temple to his honor in every large city, and
numbers of beasts are offered up to him in sacrifice.
There are thousands of people descended from him,
and they are treated with great honor as the children
of Confucius, and one of them is called kong or duke.

There is another religion in China besides the re-
ligion of Confucius, and amuch worse religion. About
the same time that Confucius lived, there was a man
called La-on-tzee. He was a great deceiver, as you
will see. He pretended that he could make people

i

completely happy. There were three things he said
he would do for them: first, he would make them rich
by turning stone into gold; next, he would prevent
their being hurt by swords or by fire through charms

cheesey DRI ONL EO eee rhapentiennspnleeipeiper eGR LAE LOLI,

2




























THE PRIKSTS OF LA-ON-TZEE. p. 8&3.



83



he could give them; and, last of all, he could save
them from death by a drink he knew how to pre-
pare. 7
What an awful liar this man must have been!
Yet many people believed in him, and still believe in
him. ‘There are now priests of La-on-tzee, and once a
year they rush through hot cinders and pretend they
‘ are not hurt. You will wonder their tricks are not
found out, seeing they cannot give any one the drink
to keep them from dying. It is indeed wonderful that
any one can believe these deceitful priests. le
Their religion is called the “ Zaou” sect. Taou }, ©
means reason. The name of folly would be a better ee



title for such a religion.
There is a third religion in China. It is the sect
of Buddha.* This Buddha was a man who once

* The means by which the Buddhist religion entered
China are remarkable. A certain Chinese emperor once
read in the book of Confucius this sentence, “ The true saint
will be found in the West.” He thought a great deal about
it; atlast he dreamed about it. He was somuch struck by
his dream that he sent two of his great lords to look for the
true religion in the West. When they reached India, they
found multitudes worshipping Buddha. This Buddha was
a wicked man who had been born in India a thousand years
before. The Chinese messengers believed all the absurd
histories they heard abont Buddha, and they returned to
China with a book which had been written about him. Ah! age
had they gone as far as Canaan they might have heard Paul







a ee

84 FAR OFF,
Senet tit ing tes oes BL
pretended to be turned into a god called Fo. You see
he was even worse than La-on-tzee.

Buddha pretended that he could make people happy ;
and his way of doing so was very strange. He told
them to think of nothing, and then they would be
happy. It is said that one man fixed his eyes for
hine years upon a wall without looking off, hoping to
grow happy at last. You can guess whether he did.
There are many priests of Buddha, always busy in
telling lies to the people. They recommend them to
repeat the name of Buddha thousands and thou-
sands of times, and some people are s0 foolish as to
do this; but no one ever found any comfort from this
plan.

The priests of Buddha say that their souls, when
they leave their bodies, go into other bodies, This
idea is enough to make a dying person very misera-
ble. One poor man, when he was dying, was in
terror because he had been told his sou] would go into
one of the emperor's horses, Whenever he was drop-
ping off to sleep, he started up in a fright, fancying
that he felt the blows of a cruel driver hurrying him
along: for he knew how very fast the emperor’s horses

and Peter preaching the Gospel. Alas! why did they go
no further, and why did they go so far, only to return to
China with idols !


















CHINA. 85





were made to go. How different are the feelings of
a dying man who knows he is going to Jesus.
He can say with joy,—

“For me my elder brethren stay,

And angels beckon me away, Be

And Jesus bids me come.”

The Buddhists are full of tricks by which to get
_ presents out of the people.

Once a year they cause a great feast to be made,
aud for whom? For the poor? No. For beasts?
No. For children? No. For themselves? No.
You will never guess. For ghosts! The priests’ de-
clare that the souls of the dead are very hungry, and
that it is right to give them a feast. A number of
tables are set out, spread with all kinds of dishes. N 0
one is seen to eat, nor is any of the food eaten ; but
the priests say the ghosts eat the spirit of the food.
When it is supposed the ghosts have finished dinner,
the people scramble for the food, and take it home,
aud no doubt the priests get their share.

The dead are supplied with money as well as with
food, and that is done by burning gilt paper; clothes
are sent to them by cutting out paper in the shape of
clothes, (only much smaller,) and by burning the ar-
ticle; and even houses are conveyed to the dead by
making baby-houses and burning them.





SUE

—————— ee

2

——+- —- ate it sn ssgstisichnennssienashlidlisis ise tht ene pce. intensssutidomslpapgiomntinsneminiiain

86 FAR OFF. |
eee

As an instance of the deceits of the priests, I will
tell you of two priests who once stood crying over a
poor woman’s gate. “ What is the matter 2” inquired
the woman. “Do you see those ducks 2” the priests

!
veplied ; “our parents’ souls are in them, and we are |
afraid lest you should eat them for supper.” The |
foolish woman out of pity gave the ducks to the cun- |
ning priests, who promised to take great care of the
precious birds; but, in fact, they ate them for ther
own supper,

The Buddhist priests may be known by their heads
close shaven, and their black dress. The priests of
Taou have their hair in a knot at the top of their
heads, and they wear scarlet robes. ‘There are no
| riests of Confucius ; and this is a good thing.

All the religions of China are bad, but of the three
the religion of Confucius is the least foolish. |

There can be no doubt which of the three religions
of China is the least absurd.

The religion of Taou teaches men to act like mad- |



men.
The religion of Buddha teaches them to act like
idiots.



The religion of Confucius teaches them to act like |
wise men, but without souls.
Tue Empreror.—There is no emperor in the world



CHINA. 87
annette civeliniihiniaieanemabatiopaeaiecie is.
| who has as many subjects as the Emperor of China:

he has six times as many as the Emperor of Russia.

Neither is it possible for any man to be more hon-
ored than this emperor; for he is worshipped by his
people like a god. He isealled “ The Son of ILeaven,”
and “Ten Thousand Years ;” yet he dies like every
other child of earth. His sign is the dragon, and this
is painted on his flags, a fit sign for one who, like
Satan, makes himself a god.

Yet the emperor is also styled “Father of his peo-

ple,” and to show that he feels like 2 father, when



there is a famine or plague in the land, he shuts him-
| self up in his palace to grieve for his people; and by
__ this means he gets the love of his subjects,

| Once a year, too, this great emperor tries to encour-
age his people to be industrious by ploughing part of
a field and sowing a little corn; and the empress sets
an example to the women, by going once a year to
| feed silk worms and to wind the balls of silk.

The emperor wears a yellow dress, and all his rela-
tions wear yellow girdles,

But the relations of the emperor are not the most
honorable people in the Jand: the most learned are
the most honorable. Every one in China who wishes
to be a great lord studies day and night. One man,
that he might not fall asleep over his books, tied his

Epi then nett oy nkpcitatngice na Sl

Sy,



8§ FAR OFF.



——~.

long plaited tail of hair to the ceiling, and when his
head nodded, his hair was pulled tight, and that woke
him.

But what is it the Chinese learn with so much
pains ?

Chiefly the books of Confucius, and a few more ;
but in none of them is God made known: so that,
with all his wisdom, the Chinaman is foolish. still.
The words of the Bible are true.

“The world by wisdom knew not God.” Yet to
know God is better than to know all beside.

There is a great hall in every town where all the
men who wish to be counted learned meet together
once a year. They are desired to write, and then to
show what they have written; and then those who

_ have written well, and without a mistake, have an
honorable title given to them; and they are allowed



to write another year in another greater hall ; and at
last the most learned are made mandarins.

What is a mandarin? He is a ruler over a town,
| and ts counted a great man. The most learned of the
| mandarins are made the emperor’s counsellors. There
are only three of them, and they are the greatest men
in all China, next to the emperor,

There are many poor men who study hard in hopes
to be one of these three.

Ww ee ere eernespriesipienns







CHINA. 89
=nersoeneeinynimntetngenntinnensusinedinien ripen anmsteatetiiemameeritetis in lu

This is the greatest honor a Chinaman can obtain.



But a Christian can obtain a far greater, even the
honor of a crown and a throne in the presence of the
Lord Jesus Christ at his coming,

The mandarins are all of the religion of Confucius,
and despise the poor who worship Buddha.

ANIMALS AND TrrES.—Once there were lions in
China, but they have all been killed; there are still
bears and tigers in the mountains and forests on the
borders of the land.

There are small wild-cats, which are caught and
fastened in cages, and then killed and cooked. There
are tame cats, too, with soft hair and hanging ears,
which are kept by ladies as pets.

There are dogs to guard the house, and they too
are eaten; but as they are fed on rice only, their flesh
is better than the flesh of our dogs. The dogs are so
sensible that they know when the butcher is carrying
away a dog that he is going to kill him, and the poor
creatures come round him howling, as if begging for
their brother’s life.

The pig is the Chinaman’s chief dish ; for it can be
fed on all the refuse food, and there is very little food
to spare in China.

There are not many birds in China, because there
is No room for trees. Only one bird sings, and she

6 ne cneenen en











90 FAR OFF.
builds her nest on the ground; it is a bird often heard
singing in England floating in the air,—I mean the lark.
In most parts of China men carry all the burdens,
and not horses and asses.
A gentleman is carried in a chair by two men: and
a mandarin by four. Yet the emperor rides on
horseback.

THE THREE GREAT CITIES.

Pekin on the north.
Nankin in the middle.
Canton on the south.

Pekin is the grandest.
Nankin is the most learned.
Canton is the richest.

At Pekin is the emperor’s palace. The gardens are
exceedingly large, and contain hills, and lakes, and
groves within the walls, besides houses for the empe-
ror’s relations.

At Nankin is the China tower. It is made of China
bricks, and contains nine rooms one over the other.
It is two hnndred feet high, a wonderful height.

Of what use is it? Of none—of worse than none.
It isa temple for Buddha, and is full of his images.

At Canton there are so many people that there is





CHINA.



not room for all in the land; so thousands live on the
water in boats. Many have never slept a single night
on the shore. The children often fall overboard, but
as a hollow gourd is tied round each child’s neck, they
float, and are soon picked up.

For a long while the Chinese would not allow for-
eigners to come into their cities. A great many for-
eign ships came to Canton to buy tea and silk; but
the traders were forbidden to enter the town, and they
lived in a little island near, and built a town there
called Macao.

But lately the Chinese emperor has agreed to per-
mit strangers to come to five ports, called Shang-hae,
Ning-po, Foo-choo, Amoy, and Hong-Kong.

This Jast port, Hong-Kong, is an island near Can-
ton, and the English have built a city there and called
it Victoria.

Tux Two Rtvers.—There is one called Yeang-te-
sang, or “the Son of the Ocean.” It is the largest in
Asia.

The other is the Yellow River, for the soft clay
mixed with the water gives it a yellow color.

Laxrs.—There are immense lakes, covered with
boats and fishermen.

But the best fishers are the tame cormorants, who
catch fish for their masters.









| 92 FAR OFF.











ee

Tue Two Great Wonprers.—The great cANAL
is a wonder. It joins the two rivers; so that a Chi-
nese can go by water from Canton to Pekin.

The great WALL is a greater wonder, but not nearly
as useful as the canal.

This wall was built at the north of China to keep
the Tartars out. It is one thousand five hundred
miles long, twenty feet high, and twenty-five broad.
But there were not soldiers enough in China to keep
the enemies out, and the Tartars came over the wall.

The Emperor of China is a Tartar.

The Empress does not have small feet, like the
Chinese.

It is the Tartars who forced the Chinese to shave
their heads, for they used to tie up their hair in a knot
at the top of their heads. Many of the Chinese pre-
ferred losing their heads to their hair. Was it not
cruel to cut off their heads, merely because they would
not shave them? But the Tartars were very cruel to
the Chinese,

KNowLepGe and InveNntIONS—We must allow
that the Chinese are very clever. They found out
how to print, and they found out how to make oun-
powder, and they found out the use of the loadstone.
What is that? A piece of steel rubbed against the
loadstone will always point to the north. The Chi-



a ce



CHINA. 93
pie nnn ini
nese found out these three things, printing, gunpow-

der, and the use of the loadstone, before we in Europe

found them out. But they did not teach them to us;
we found them out ourselves.

But there are two arts that the Chinese did teach
us: how to make silk, and how to make china or
porcelain. And yet I should not say they taught us;
for they tried to prevent our learning their arts; but
we saw their silk and their porcelain, and by degrees
we learned to make them ourselves. A sly monk
brought some silk-worm’s eggs from China hidden in
a hollow walking-stick.

Laxeuacr.—There is no other language at all like
the Chinese. Instead of having letters to spell words,
they have a picture for each word. Teall ita picture,
but it is more like a figure than a picture. The Chi-

| nese use brushes for writing instead of pens; and they
| rub cakes of ink on a little marble dish, first dipping
them in a little water, as we dip cakes of paint. There
is a hollow place in the marble dish, to hold the water.
What do you think the Chinese mean by “ the four
marble dish, and the water, They call them precious
because they are so fond of writing. Schoolmasters
are held in great honor in China, as indeed they ought

precious things 7” They mean the ink, the brush, the
to be everywhere. Yet schools in China are much

ne re ree Se pssst ser ny snp



94 FAR OFF.







_ ae _— — ne

like those in Turkey, more fit for parrots than chil-
dren ; only Chinese boys sit in chairs with desks before
them, instead of sitting cross-legged on the ground, as
in Turkey. They learn first to paint the words, and
next to repeat lessons by heart. This they do ina
loud scream ; always turning their backs to their mas-
ters while they are saying their lessons to him.

The first book which children read is full of stories,
with a picture on each page. Would you like to hear
one of these stories ?

“There was a boy of eight years old, named Um-
wen. His parents were so poor that they could not
afford to buy a gauze curtain for their bed, to keep
off the flies in summer. This boy could not bear that
his parents should be bitten by the flies; so he stood
by their bedside, and uncovered his little bosom and
his back that the flies might bite him, instead of his
parents. ‘ For,’ said he, ‘ if they fill themselves with
my blood, they will let my parents rest.”

Would it be right for a little boy to behave in this
way? Certainly not; for it would grieve kind pa-
rents that their little boys should be bitten. Poor
little Chinese boys ! They do not know about Him
who was bitten by the old serpent that we might not
be devoured and destroyed.

Ponisument.—The Chinese are very quiet and or-





sete ree ee See









derly ; and no wonder, because they are afraid of the
great bamboo stick.

The mandarins (or rulers of towns) often sentence
offenders to lie upon the ground, and to have thirty
strokes of the bamboo. But the wooden collar is
worse than the bamboo stick.. It is a great piece of
wood with a hole for a man to put his head through.
The men in wooden collars are brought out of their
prisons every morning, and chained to a wall, where
everybody passing by can see them. They cannot
feed themselves in their wooden collars, because they
cannot bring their hands to their mouths ; but some-
times a son may be seen feeding his father, as he
stands chained to the wall. There are men also whose
business it is to feed the prisoners. For great crimes
men are strangled or beheaded,

Cuaracter.—A Chinaman’s character cannot be
known at first. You might suppose from his way of
speaking that a Chinaman was very humble; because
he calls himself “ the worthless fellow,” or “ the stupid
one,” and he ealls his son “the son of a dog ;” but if
you were to tell him he had an eyil heart, he would
be very much offended; for he only gives himself
these names thatthe may seem humble. He calls his
acquaintance “ venerable uncle,” “ honorable brother,”
This he does to please them. The Chinese are very

CHINA. 95





LS ET ttl Ri te Cl a heatinstenenastnw: sunen--sgh-entne nt



— ti tt ttt i eT
[ a — ota

|



96 FAR OFF. °

proud of their country, and think there is none like it.
They have given it the name of the “ Heavenly or
Celestial Empire.” They look upon foreigners as
monkeys and devils. Often a woman may be heard
in the streets saying to her little child, “There is a
foreign devil (or a Fan Quei”). The Chinese think
the English very ugly, and called them the “ red-
haired nation.”

It must be owned that the Chinese are industrious :
indeed, if they were not, they would be starved. A
poor man often has to work all day up to the knees
in water in the rice-field, and yet gets nothing for
supper but a little rice and a few potatoes.

The ladies who can live without working are very
idle, and in the winter rise very late in the morning.

Men, too, play, as children do here; flying kites is
a favorite game. Dancing, however, is quite unknown.

The Chinese are very selfish and unfeeling. Beg-
gars may be seen in the middle of the town dying,
and no one caring for them, but people gambling close
by.

The Chinese have an idea that after a man is dead
the house must be cleansed from ghosts; so to save
themselves this trouble, poor people*often cast their
dying relations out of their hovels into the street to
die !







CHINA. 97



But in general sons treat their parents with great
respect. They often keep their father’s coffin in the
house for three months, and a son has been known to
sleep by it for three years. Relations are usually kind
to each other, because they meet together in the “ Hall
of Ancestors” to worship the same persons. To save
money they often live together, and a hundred eat at
the same table.

The Chinese used to be temperate, preferring tea to
wine. There are tea-taverns in the towns. How
much better than our beer-shops! But lately they
have begun to smoke opium. This is the juice of the
white poppy, made up into dark balls. The Chinese
are not allowed to have it; but the English, sad to
say, sell it to them secretly. There are many opium
taverns in China, where men may be seen lying on
cushions snuffing up the hot opium, and puffing it out
of their mouths. Those who smoke opium have sun-
ken cheeks and trembling hands, and soon become
old, foolish, and sick. Why, then, do they take
opium? Many of them say they wish to leave it off
but cannot.

Misstonaries.—Are there any in China? Yes,
many; and more are going there. But how many
are wanted for so.many people! Missionaries travel
about China to distribute Bibles and tracts, One of

4"







Full Text

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‘*O ma’am thats sweet! Jesus Christ is our Redeemer.”’ p.3

FAR OFF:

Gain and Aunstralio Dexerthen.

WITH

ANECDOTES AND ILLUSTRATIONS.

BY THE
AUTHOR OF “THE PEEP OF DAY,”

ETC. ETC. ETC.

ROBERT CARTER & BROTHERS,

|
|
|
|
Row YORK:
| 285 BROADWAY.



1852.
epee





Iv the Frontispiece may be seen an English lady, who
went to live upon Mount Sion to teach little Jewesses and
little Mahomedans to know the Saviour. That lady has
led three of her young scholars to a plain just beyond the
gates of Jerusalem ; and while two of them are playing to-
gether, she is listening to little Esther, a Jewess of eight
years old. The child is fond of sitting by her friend, and
of hearing about the Son of David. She has just been
singing,

“Glory, honor, praise, and power,
Be unto the Lamb forever,

Jesus Christ is our Redeemer,
Hallelujah, praise the Lord ;”

and now she is saying, “O, ma’am, that’s sweet! Jesus
Christ is ovr Redeemer, our Redeemer: no man can redeem
his brother, ao money,—nothing—but only the precious
blood of Christ,”

”


Preface.

Tus little work pleads for the notice of
parents and teachers on the same grounds as
its predecessor, ‘‘ Near Home.”

Its plea is not completeness, nor compre-
hensiveness, nor depth of research, nor splen-
dor of description; but the very reverse,—its
simple, superficial, desultory character, as
better adapted to the volatile beings for
whom it is designed.

Too long have their immortal minds been
captivated by the adventures and achieve-
ments of knights and princesses, of fairies and
magicians; it is time to excite their interest

in real persons, and real events. In child-
hood that taste is formed which leads the
youth to delight in novels, and romances; a
taste which has become so general, that every


sn npemeenanninnndtiiassiill in Ee

x PREFACE,







——

To form great and good characters, the
mind must be trained to delight in rrurm,—
not in comic rhymes, in sentimental tales, and
skeptical poetry. The truth revealed } n God’s
| Holy Word, should constitute the firm basis !
| of education ; and the works of Creation and |
| Providence the superstructure while the Di- |
| vine blessing can alone rear and cement the |

edifice. |
| Parents, train up your children to serve |
| God, and to enjoy his presence forever; and |
| if there be amongst them—an EXTRAORDINARY |
| child, train him up with extraordinary care, |

lest instead of doing extraordinary good he |

should do extraordinary evil, and be plunged |

into extraordinary misery. |
| Train up—the child of imagination—not to
| dazzle, like Byron, but to enlighten, like
| Cowper: the child of wit—not to create pro-
| fane mirth, like Voltaire, but to promote holy
|



joy, like Bunyan: the child of reflection—
not to weave dangerous sophistries, like Hume,
but to wield powerful arguments, like Chal-
mers: the child of sagacity—not to gain ad-




sey

PREFACE. xl

vantages for himself, like Cromwell, but for
his country, like Washington: the child of
eloquence—not to astonish the multitude, like
Sheridan, but to plead for the miserable, like
Wilberforce: the child of ardor——not to be
the herald of delusions, like Swedenbourg,
but to be the champion of truth, like Luther:
the child of enterprise—not to devastate a
Continent, like the conquering Napoleon,
but to scatter blessings over an Ocean, like
the missionary Williams :—and, if the child
be a prince,—train him up—not to reign in
pomp and pride like the fourteenth Louis,
but to rule in the fear of God, like our own
great ALFRED.



|
|
|

Cuntents.

PAGE

BIER co csccvccvesecccccccecccesioveacscvenivinwens 17
Tue Hoty LAND. ..... 0... cece ccc cence eee eecs 17
Bethlohbem ,...,..6cccccccctsccccavevdevecwen 18
Jerusalem... . 2... cece ce cee cece ee eneeees 20
The Dead Sea... ... 0... ccc cece cece cee eee es 26
SaMaria.. oe eee eee cece ee ce eee aes 27
Galilee... cece ce cece cece eee eceees 28
SYRIA. eee ec ce cece ec eee cece eecennceeues 31
Damascus... 2... 0. cee cece ec ee cece cceeeaees 33
ARABIA. Loe ccc cece cece e cence eeeeeceereuees 88
TURKEY IN ASIA... 00.0... ccc cc es cee ccaececucuee 51
AIMCNIA.. Lek ec cee cee eee cece uecees 54
Kurdistan... 0... 0... ccc cece eee cence eeeuuees 58
Mesopotamia. ........... 0.0 cc cece cece eee ees 59
PERSIA... ce cee cece ccc cece cece cceecs enccecsgad 62
OE 70
CHINA, Lee cece cece cece cence eececteueeeuceus 72
CocuIn CHINA. . 6... ccc cece cece ccc cc enneeees .--. 100
Tonquin... .. cc ccc cece cece cece ceeactcceseus 102


AFFGHANISTAN
BELOOCHISTAN

a

BurMaun

a

a 2 2 Cee em ee wm wwe en ee eevee

i

he

i) ee ee

eT RE ee ee eee ee ee eee eee ee tee e acne eena




CONTENTS. XV
ha ddliacliincnieii caitae eeh Eu igt DA yh
PAGE
KAMKATEKA.. 6... eee cece cece cere ce eeecccecey 252
SMM voice eke cee cecenceesvaneceneose foi et 257
Lassa... . cece cc cen cece ccc c enc ecc cece 260
WEYLON.. . 1 .. ccc ccc n cece ec eeccccccceccece, 262
Kandy... .... 0... cece ccc c cece cece ee ceee cues 268
Colombo... 6... eee ccc cece ccuceeecccen 269
BORNEO... eee cece eee ee ec eceececccece, 273
Bruni... eee cee ec eee cee ceec cece. 275
The Dyaks... 6... 0... cece cece cece ee cecccues 276
JAPAN. eee ee eke cece ect e cece een ccectecccccee 284
AUSTRALIA... eee ee eee c cece ce ee cece ce cceccee 291
The Colonists or Settlers...................... 298
Botany Bay..... 0... ec cece cee eee. 305
| Sydney... ... eee ec eee cece ee. 306
Adelaide... .. ec ce eee c cece ecee. 307
| Van Dremay’s LAND... 6... eee eee cece ec eeecee ee, 308
The Young Savages..............0.0.0-...... 308
Little Mickey... 0.0... eee eee, 323
,
|
|
|

ee



SS eee enenteeesiesesoan-iiisesennpainisciSsshcais Snsincue



FAR OFF.











Asia.

Or the four quarters of the world—Asia is the most
glorious.
There the first man lived.
There the Son of God lived.
| There the apostles lived.
| There the Bible was written.
Yet now there are very few Christians in Asia:



though there are more people there than in any
other quarter of the globe.

Che Baly anv.




Or all the countries in the world which would you



rather see ?
Would it not be the land where Jesus lived ?
2
























FAR OFF.

He was the Son of God: He loved us and died
for us.

What is the land called where He lived? Ca-
naan was once its name: but now Palestine, or the
Holy Land.

Who lives there now ?

Alas! alas! The Jews who once lived there are
cast out of it. There are some Jews there; but the
Turks are the lords over the land. You know the
Turks believe in Mahomet.

What place in the Holy Land do you wish most
to visit ?

Some childrem will reply, Bethlehem, because Je-
sus was born there; another will answer, Nazareth,
because Jesus was brought up there; and another
will say, “ Jerusalem,” because He died there.

I will take you first to

BETHLEHEM.

“y ed

A good minister visited this place, accompanied by
a train of servants, and camels, and asses.

It is not easy to travel in Palestine, for wheels are
never seen there, because the paths are too steep, and
rough, and narrow for carriages.
. BETHLEHEM. 19

Bethlehem is on a steep hill, and a white road of
chalk leads up to the gate. The traveller found the
streets narrow, dark, and dirty. He lodged in a con-
vent, kept by Spanish monks. He was shown into
a large room with carpets and cushions on the floor.
There he was to sleep. He was led up to the roof
of the house to see the prospect. He looked, and
beheld the fields below where the shepherds once
watched their flocks by mght: and far off he saw the
rocky mountains where David once hid himself from
Saul.

But the monks soon showed him a more curious
sight. They took him into their church, and then
down some narrow stone steps into a round room be-
neath. “ Here,” said they, “Jesus was born.” The
floor was of white marble, and silver lamps were
burning in it. In one corner, close to the wall, was
a marble trough, lined with blue satin. “ There,”
said the monks, “is the manger where Jesus was
laid.” “ Ah!” thought the traveller, “it was not in
such a manger that my Saviour tested his infant

head ; but in a far meaner place.”

These monks have an image of a baby, which they
eall Jesus. On Christmas-day they dress it in swad-
dling-clothes and lay it in the manger: and then fall
down and worship it.


20 FAR OFF. ,
The next ncn, shee teangle meee willy Shannen as the traveller was ready to_mount

his camel, the people of Bethlehem came with little
articles which they had made. But he would not
buy them, because they were images of the Virgin
Mary and her holy child, and little white crosses of
mother-of-pearl. They were very pretty: but they
were idols, and God hates idols.

JERUSALEM.

Here our Lord was crucified.

Is there any child who does not wish to hear about
it?

The children of Jerusalem once loved the Lord,
and sang his praises in the temple. Their young
voices pleased their Saviour, though not half so
sweet as angels’ songs.

Which is the place where the temple stood ?

It is Mount Moriah. There is a splendid building
there now.

Isit the temple? O no, that was burned many
hundreds of years ago. It is the Mosque of Omar
that you see; it is the most magnificent mosque in
all the world. How sad to think that Mahomedans
should worship now in the very spot where once the









JERUSALEM. 21
ee ___..mreiininmerinnennetniae tumnsinettetaimanensonascersoaiaititeeiiaiesinsinks
Son of God taught the people. No Jew, no Chris-
tian may go into that mosque. The Turks stand
near the gate to keep off both Jews and Christians.

Every Friday evening a very touching scene takes
place near this mosque. There are some large old
stones there, and the Jews say they are part of their
old temple wall: so they come at the beginning of
their Sabbath (which is on Friday evening) and sit
in a row opposite the stones. There they read their
Hebrew Old Testaments, then kneel low in the dust,
and repeat their prayers with their mouths close to
the old stones: because they think that all prayers
whispered between the cracks and crevices of these
stones will be heard by God. Some Jewesses come,
wrapped from head to foot in long white veils, and they
gently moan and softly sigh over Jerusalem in ruins.

What Jesus said has come to pass, “ Behold, your
house is left unto you desolate.” The thought of this
sad day made Jesus weep, and now the sight of it
makes the Jews weep.

But there is a place still dearer to our hearts than
Mount Moriah. It is Calvary. There is a church
there: but such a church! a church full of images
and crosses. Roman Catholics worship there—and
Greeks too: and they often fight in it, for they hate
one another, and have fierce quarrels.






22 FAR OFF.



That church is called “The Church of the Holy
Sepulchre.” It is pretended that Christ’s tomb or
sepulchre is in it. Turks stand at the door and make
Christians pay money before they will let them in.

When they enter, what do they see?

In one corner a stone seat. “There,” say the
monks, “Jesus sat when He was crowned with
thorns.” In another part there is a stone pillar.
“ There,” say the monks, “ He was scourged.” ‘There
is a high place in the middle of the church with
stairs leading up to it. When you stand there the
monks say, “ This is the top of Calvary, where the
cross stood.” But we know that the monks do not
speak the truth, for the Romans destroyed Jerusalem
soon after Christ’s crucifixion, and no one knows the
very place where He suffered.

On Good Friday the monks carry all round the
church an image of the Saviour as large as life, and
they fasten it upon a cross, and take it down again,
and put itin the sepulchre, and they take it out again
on Easter Sunday. How foolish and how wrong are
these customs! It was not in this way the apostles
showed their love to Christ, but by preaching his
word.

Mount Zion is the place where David brought the
atk with songs and music. There is a church where

te eo ratinnn ye te ee - eneeenieneinetaatinetnad


JERUSALEM. 23



the Gospel is preached and prayers are offered up in
Iebrew, (the Jew’s language.) The minister is called
the Bishop of Jerusalem. He is a Protestant. A
few Jews come to the church at Mount Zion, and
some have believed in the Lord Jesus.

And there is a school there where little Jews and
Jewesses and little Mahomedans sit side by side,
while a Christian lady teaches them about Jesus. In
the evening, after school, she takes them out to play
on the green grass near the city. A little Jewess once
much pleased this kind teacher as she was sitting on
a stone looking at the children playing. Little Esther
repeated the verse—

Glory, honor, praise and power
Be unto the Lamb forever ;

Jesus Christ is our Redeemer,
Hallelujah, praise the Lord!

and then she said very earnestly, ““O, ma’am, how
sweet to think that Jesus is our Redeemer. No man
can redeem his brother: no money—no money can
do it—only the precious blood of Jesus Christ.” Lit-
tle Esther seemed as if she loved Jesus, as those chil-
dren did who sang his praises in the temple so many
years ago.

But there is apother place—very sad, but very
sweet—where you must come. Go down that valley

a
|
}


24 FAR OFF.



—cross that small stream—(there is a narrow bridge)
—see those low stone walls—enter : it is the Garden
of Gethsemane. Eight aged olive-trees are still stand-,
ing there; but Jesus comes there no more with his
beloved disciples. What a night was that when He
wept and prayed—when the angel comforted Him—
and Judas betrayed Him.

The mountain just above Gethsemane is the Mount
of Olives. Beautiful olive-trees are growing there still.
There is a winding path leading to the top. The Sa-
viour trod upon that Mount just before he was caught
up into heaven. His feet shall stand there again, and
every eye shall see the Saviour in his glory. But will
every eye be glad to see Him ?

O no; there will be bitter tears then flowing from
many eyes.

And what kind of a city is Jerusalem ?

It is a sad and silent city. The houses are dark
and dirty, the streets are narrow, and the pavement
rough. ‘There are a great many very old Jews there.
Jews come from all countries when they are old to
Jerusalem, that they may die and be buried there.
Their reason is that they think that all Jews who are
buried in their burial-ground at Jerusalem will be
raised first at the last day, and will be happy for-
ever. Most of the old Jews are very poor: though
JERUSALEM. _ 25
eli
money is sent to them every year from the Jews in
Europe.

There are also a great many sick Jews in Jerusalem,
because it is such an unhealthy place. The water in
the wells and pools gets very bad in summer, and
gives the ague and even the plague. Good English
Christians have sent a doctor to Jerusalem to cure the
poor sick people. One little girl of eleven years old
came among the rest—all in rags and with bare feet:
she was an orphan, and she lived with a Jewish
washerwoman. The doctor went to see the child in
her home. Where was it? It was near the mosque,
and the way to it was down a narrow, dark passage,
leading to a small close yard. The old woman lived
in one room with her grandchildren and the orphan:
there was a divan at each end, that is, the floor was
raised for people to sleep on. The orphan was not
allowed to sleep on the divans, but she had a heap of
rags for her bed in another part. The child’s eyes
glistened with delight at the sight of her kind friend
the doctor. He asked her whether she went to school.
This question made the whole family laugh: for no
one in Jerusalem teaches girls to read except the kind
Christian lady I told you of.


26 FAR OFF.



THE DEAD SEA.

Tue most gloomy and horrible place in the Holy
Land is the Dead Sea. In that place there once stood
four wicked cities, and God destroyed them with fire
and brimstone.

You have heard of Sodom and Gomorrah.

A clergyman who went to visit the Dead Sea rode
on horseback, and was accompanied by men to guard
him on the way, as there are robbers hid among the
rocks. He took some of the water of the Dead Seain
his mouth, that he might taste it, and he found it salt
and bitter; but he would not swallow it, nor would
he bathe in it.

He went next to look at the River Jordan. How
different a place from the dreary, desolate Dead Sea!
Beautiful trees grow on the banks, and the ends of the
branches dip into the stream. The minister chose a
part quite covered with branches and bathed there,
and as the waters went over his head, he thought,
“ My Saviour was baptized in this river.” But he did
not think, as many pilgrims do who come here every
year, that his sins were washed away by the water:
no, he well knew that Christ’s blood alone cleanses

from sin. There is a place where the Roman Catho-


pissed itdiseleeditccscenishtee es

SAMARIA. 27



‘
( cacitenéas aa aoeeaaies @

lics bathe, and another where the Greeks bathe every

|
i year; they would not on any account bathe in the
| same part, because they disagree so much.
| After drinking some of the sweet soft water of Jor-
| dan, the minister travelled from Jericho to Jerusalem.
_ He went the very same way that the good Samaritan
travelled who once found a poor Jew lying half-killed
by thieves. Even to this day thieves often attack
travellers in these parts: because the way is so lonely,
and so rugged, and so full of places where thieves can
hide themselves.
A horse must be a very good climber to carry a

and a traveller must be a bold man to venture to go
to the edge of the precipices, and near the robbers’

caves.

|

|

traveller along the steep, rough, and narrow paths,
| SAMARIA.

In the midst of Palestine is the well where the Lord
spoke so kindly to the woman of Samaria. In the
midst ofa beautiful valley there is a heap of rough


stones : underneath is the well. But it is not easy to
drink water out of this well. For the stone on the
top is so heavy, that it requires many people to re-
move it: and then the well is deep, and a very long






28 FAR OFF.



rope is necessary to reach the water. ‘The clergyman
(of whom I have spoken so often) had nothing to
draw with ; therefore, even if he could have removed
the stone, he could not have drunk of the water. The
water must be very cool and refreshing, because it lies
so far away from the heat. That was the reason the
Samaritan woman came so far to draw it: for there
were other streams nearer the city, but there was no
water like the water of Jacob’s well.

The city where that woman lived was called Sychar.
It is still to be seen, and it is still full of people. You
remember that the men of that city listened to the
words of Jesus, and perhaps that is the reason it has
not been destroyed. The country around is the most
fruitful in all Canaan; there are such gardens of
melons and cucumbers, and such groves of mulberry-

trees.

GALILEE.

How different from Sychar is Capernaum! That
was the city where Jesus lived for a long while, where
he preached and did miracles. It was on the borders
of the lake of Genesareth. The traveller inquired of
the people near the lake, where Capernaum once
stood ; but no one knew of such a place: it is utterly






GALILEE. 29
a
destroyed. Jesus once said, “ Woe unto Capernaum.”
Why? Because it repented not.

The lake of Genesareth looked smooth as glass
when the traveller saw it; but he heard that dreadful
storms sometimes ruffled those smooth waters. It
was a sweet and lovely spot; not gloomy and horri-
ble like the Dead Sea. The shepherds were there
leading their flocks among the green hills where once
the multitude sat down while Jesus fed them.

Not very far off is the city where Jesus lived when
he was a boy.

Nazarera.—All around are rugged rocky hills.
In old times it was considered a wicked city ; perhaps
it got this bad name from wicked people coming here
to hide themselves: and it seems just fit for a hiding-
place. From the top of one of the high crags the
Nazarenes once attempted to hurl the blessed Saviour.

There is a Roman Catholic convent there, where
the minister lodged. He was much disturbed all day
by the noise in the town; not the noise of carts and
wagons, for there are none in Canaan, but of scream-
ing children, braying asses, and grunting camels.
One of his servants came to him complaining that he
had lost his purse with all his wages. He had left it
in his cell, and when he came back it was gone.
Who could have taken it? It was clear one of the






30 FAR OFF.

sspears eae maaan
servants of the convent must have stolen it, for one
of them had the key of the room. The travellers
went to the judge of the town to complain; but the
judge, who was a Turk, was asleep, and no one was
allowed to awake him. In the evening, when he did
awake, he would not see justice done, because he said
he had nothing to do with the servants at the con-
vent, as they were Christians. Nazareth, you see, is
still a wicked city, where robbery is committed and
not punished.

There is much to make the traveller sad as he
wanders about the Holy Land.

That land was onee fruitful, but now it is barren.
It is not surprising that nv one plants and sows in the
fields, because the Turks would take away the harvests.

Once it was a peaceful land, but now there are so many
enemies that every man carries a gun to defend himself.

Once it was a holy land, but now Mahomet is
honored, and not the God of Israel.

When shall it again be fruitful, and peaceful, and
holy? When the Jews shall repent of their sins and
turn to the Lord. Then, says the prophet Ezekiel,
(xxxvi. 35,) “ They shall say, This land that was deso-
late is become like the garden of Eden.”*

* Taken chiefly from ‘‘A Pastor’s Memorial,” by the
Rev. George Fisk.


Syria.

THosE who love the Holy Land will like to hear
about Syria also; for Abraham lived there before he
came into Canaan. Therefore the Israelites were
taught to say when they offered a basket of fruit to
God, “ A Syrian was my father.” It was a heathen
land in old times; and it is now a Mahomedan land ;
though there are a few Christians there, but very
ignorant Christians, who know nothing of the Bible.

Syria is a beautiful land, and famous for its grand
mountains, called Lebanon. The same clergyman who
travelled through the Holy Land went to Lebanon
also. He had to climb up very steep places on
horseback, and slide down some, as slanting as the
roof of a house. But the Syrian horses are very sure-
footed. It is the custom for the colts from a month
old to follow their mothers; and so when a rider
mounts the back of the colt’s mother, the young crea-
ture follows, and it learns to scramble up steep places,
and to slide down ; even through the towns the colt
ee a

32 FAR OFF.



trots after its mother, and soon becomes accustomed
to all kinds of sights and sounds: so that Syrian
horses neither shy nor stumble.

The traveller was much surprised at the dress of the
women of Lebanon: for on their heads they wear sil-
ver horns sticking out from under their veils, the
strangest head-dress that can be imagined.

There are sweet flowers growing on the sides of
Lebanon ; but at the top there are ice and snow.

The traveller ate some ice, and gave some to the
horses; and the poor beasts devoured it eagerly, and
seemed quite refreshed by their cold meal.

The snow of Lebanon is spoken of in the Bible as
very pure and refreshing. “ Will a man leave the
snow of Lebanon, which cometh from the rock of the
field ?”—Jer. xviii. 14.

The traveller earnestly desired to behold the cedars
of Lebanon: fora great deal is said about them in the
Bible ; indeed, the temple of Solomon was built of |
those cedars. It was not easy to get close to them ;
for there were craggy rocks all around: but at last the
traveller reached them, and stood beneath their shade.
There were twelve very large old trees, and their
boughs met at the top, and kept off the heat of the
sun. These trees might be compared to holy men,

grown old in the service of God: for this 1s God’s



one




p. 32.

E
LE,

E

A CEDA2 TR
DAMASCUS. 33

promise to his servants,—“ The righteous shall flourish
like the palm-tree: he shall grow like a cedar in
Lebanon.”—Psalm xe. 11, 12.

DAMASCUS.

This is the capital of Syria.

It is perhaps the most ancient city in the world.
Even in the time of Abraham, Damascus was a city ;
for his servant Eliezer came from it.

But Damascus is most famous, on account of a great
event which once happened near it. A man going
towards that city suddenly saw in the heavens a light
brighter than the sun, and heard a voice from on
high, calling him by his name. Beautiful as the city
was, he saw not its beauty as he entered it, for he had

Keen struck blind by the great light. That man was

the great apostle Paul.

Who can help thinking of him among the gardens
of fruit-trees surrounding Damascus ?

The damask rose is one of the beauties of Damas-
cus. There is one spot quite covered with this lovely
red rose.

I will now give an account of a visit a stranger
paid to arich man in Damascus. He went through

8


a rege ace a A LE

34 FAR OFF.

dull and narrow streets, with no windows looking into
the streets. He stopped before a low door, and was
shown into a large court behind the house. There
was a fountain in the midst of the court, and flower-
pots all round. The visitor was then led into a room
with a marble floor, but with no furniture except scar-
let cushions. To refresh him after his journey, he
was taken to the bath. There a man covered him
with a lather of soap and water, then dashed a quan-
tity of hot water over him, and then rubbed him till
he was quite dry and warm.

When he came out of the bath, two servants
brought him some sherbet. It is a cooling drink
made of lemon-juice and grape-juice mixed with water.

The master of the house received the stranger very
politely: he not only shook hands with him, but
afterwards he kissed his own hand, as a mark of re-
spect to his guest. ‘The servants often kissed the visi-
tor’s hand.

The dinner lasted a long while, for only one dish
was brought up at atime. Of course there were no
ladies at the dinner, for in Mahomedan countries they
are always hidden. ‘There were two lads there, who
were nephews to the master of the house; and the
visitor was much surprised to observe that they did

not sit down to dinner with the company; but that




DAMASCUS, 385

they stood near their uncle, directing the servants what
to bring him; and now and then presenting a cup of
wine to him, or his guests. But it is the custom in
Syria for young people to wait upon their elders;
however, they may speak to the company while they
are waiting upon them.

Damascus used to be famous for its swords: but
now the principal things made there, are stuffs‘em-
broidered with silver, and boxes of curious woods, as

well as red and yellow slippers. The Syrians always

wear yellow slippers, and when they walk out they
put on red slippers over the yellow. If you want
to buy any of the curious works of Damascus, you
must go to the bazaars in the middle of the town;
there the sellers sit as in a market-place, and dis-
play their goods.

ScHoois.—lt is not the custom in Syria for girls to
learn to read. But a few years ago, a good Syrian,
named Assaad, opened a school for little girls as well
as for boys.

Tt was easy to get the little boys to come; but the
mothers did not like to send their little girls. They
laughed, and said, “ Who ever heard of a girl going
to school? Girls need not learn to read.” The first
girl who attended Assaad’s school was named Angoul,
which means “ Angel.” Where is the child that de-

SUE RESNenenenneeeeee es |

SS Sn as lipesetiemeinpoen!
oie

i
36 FAR OFF.



serves such a name? Nowhere; for there is none
righteous, no, not one. Angoul belonged not to Ma-
homedan parents, but to those called Christians; yet
the Christians in Syria are almost as ignorant as
heathens.

Angoul had been taught to spin silk; for her father
had a garden of mulberry-trees, and a quantity of silk
worms. She was of so much use in spinning, that her
mother did not like to spare her: but the little maid
promised, that if she might go to school, she would
spin faster than ever when she came home. How
happy she was when she obtained leave to go! See
her when the sun has just risen, about six o’clock,
tripping to school. She is twelve years old. Her
eyes are dark, but her hair is light. Angoul has not
been scorched by the sun, like many Syrian girls, be-
cause she has sat in-doors at her wheel during the
heat of the day. She is dressed in a loose red gown,
and a scarlet cap with a yellow handkerchief twisted
round it like a turban.

At school Angoul is very attentive, both while she
is reading in her Testament, and while she is writing
on her tin slate with a reed dipped in ink. She re-
turns home at noon through the burning sun, and
comes to school again to stay till five. Then it is cool
and pleasant, and Angoul spins by her mother’s side


DAMASCUS. 37

in the lovely garden of fruit-trees before the house.
Has she not learned to sing many a sweet verse about
the garden above, and the heavenly husbandman ?
As she watches the budding vine, she can think now
of Him who said, “I am the true vine.” As she sits
beneath the olive-tree, she can call to mind the words,
“Tam like a green olive-tree in the house of my God.”
Angoul is growing like an angel, if she takes delight
in meditating on the word of God.*



* Extracted chiefly from the Rev. George Fisk’s “ Pastor’s
Memorial.” and Kinnear’s Travels.
Arabia.

Tuis is the land in which the Israelites wandered
for forty years. You have heard what a dry, dreary,
desert place the wilderness was. ‘There is still a wil-
derness in Arabia; and there are still wanderers in it;
not Israelites, but Arabs. These men live in tents,
and go from place to place with their large flocks of
sheep and goats. But there are other Arabs who live
in towns, as we do.

Do you know who is the father of the Arabs

The same man who is the father of the Jews.

What, was Abraham their father ?

Yes, he was. |

Do you remember Abraham’s ungodly son, Ish-

He was cast out of his father’s house for mocking
his little brother Isaac, and he went into Arabia.

And what sort of people are the Arabs ?

Wild and fierce people.

Travellers are afraid of passing through Arabia, lest

mael ? |
|
|
|

a
b

ference ee
ARABIA, 39
the Arabs should rob and murder them; and no one
has ever been able to conquer the Arabs. The Arabs
are very proud, and will not bear the least affront.
| Sometimes one man says to another, “The wrong side
| of your turban is out.” This speech is considered an
| affront never to be forgotten. The Arabs are so un-
| forgiving and revengeful that they will seek to kill a
| man year after year. One man was observed to carry
| about a small dagger. He said his reason was, he
| was hoping some day to meet his enemy and kill
him.

Of what religion are this revengeful people? The
Mahomedan.

Mahomed was an Arab. It is thought a great
honor to be descended from him. Those men who
say Mahomed is their father wear a green turban, and
| very proud they are of their green turbans, even
though they may only be beggars.
| Tur Arastan Women.—They are shut up like the
women in Syria when they liye in towns, but the
Women in tents are obliged to walk about; therefore
they wear a thick veil over their face, with small holes
| for their eyes to peep out.

The poor women wear a long shirt of white or



blue; but the rich women wrap themselves in mag-
nificent shawls. To make themselves handsome, they


40 FAR OFF.

een ee
blacken their eyelids, paint their nails red, and wear
gold rings in their ears and noses. They delight in
fine furniture. A room lined with looking-glasses,
and with a ceiling of looking-glasses, is thought
charming.

AraB Trnts.—They are black, being made of the
hair of black goats. Some of them are so large that
they are divided into three rooms, one for the cattle,
one for the men, and one for the women.

AraB Customs.—The Arabs sit on the ground,
resting on their heels, and for tables they have low
stools. A large dish of rice and minced mutton is
placed on the table, and immediately every hand is
thrust into it; and in a moment it is empty. Then
another dish is brought, and another; and sometimes
fourteen dishes of rice, one after the other, till all the
company are satisfied. They eat very fast, and each
retires from dinner as soon as he likes, without wait-
ing for the rest. After dinner they drink water, and
a small cup of coffee without milk or sugar. Then
they smoke for many hours.

The Arabs do not indulge in eating or drinking
too much, and this is one of the best parts of their
character.


p. 41.

CAMELS




ARABIA. 4]



THE THREE EVILS OF ARABIA,

The first evil is want of water. There is no river
in Arabia: and the small streams are often dried up
by the heat.

The second evil is many locusts, which come in
countless swarms, and devour every green thing.

The third evil is the burning winds. When a trav-
eller feels it coming, he throws himself on the ground,
covering his face with his cloak, lest the hot sand
should be blown up his nostrils. Sometimes men and
horses are choked by this sand,

These are the three great evils; but there is a still
greater, the religion of Mahomed: for this injures the
soul; the other evils only hurt the body.

THE THREE ANIMALS OF ARABIA.

The animals for which Arabia is famous are ani-
mals to ride upon. |
Two of them are often seen in England; though

~ here they are not nearly as fine as in Arabia; but the

third animal is never used in England. Most English
boys have ridden upon an ass. In Arabia the ass is
a handsome and spirited creature. The horse is
strong and swift, and yet obedient and gentle. The
camel is just suited to Arabia. His feet are fit to


42 FAR OFF.

tread upon the burning sands; because the soles are
more like India-rubber than like flesh: his hard
mouth, lined with horn, is not hurt by the prickly
plants of the desert; and his hump full of fat is as
good to him as a bag of provisions: for on a journey
the fat helps to support him, and enables him to do
with very little food. Besides all this, his inside is so
made that he can live without water for three days.

A dromedary is a swifter kind of camel, and is just
as superior to a camel as a riding-horse is to a cart-
horse.

THE THREE PRODUCTIONS OF ARABIA,

These are coffee, dates, and gums.

For these Arabia is famous.

The coffee plants are shrubs. The hills are cov-
ered with them; the white blossoms look beautiful
among the dark green leaves, and so do the red
berries.

The dates grow on the palm-trees; and they are _
the chief food of the Arabs. The Arabs despise those
countries where there are no dates.

There are various sweet-smelling gums that flow
from Arabian trees.









ARABIA,

THE THREE PARTS OF ARABIA.

You see from what I have just said that there are
plants and trees in Arabia. Then it is clear that the
whole land is not a desert. No, it is not; there is
only a part called Desert Arabia ; that is on the north.
There is a part in the middle almost as bad, called
Stony Arabia, yet some sweet plants grow there ; but
there is a part in the south called Happy Arabia,
where grow abundance of fragrant spices, and of well-
flavored coffee.

THE THREE CITIES OF ARABIA.

Arabia has long been famous for three cities, called
Mecca, Medina, and Mocha.
Mecca is considered the holiest city in the world.



And why? Because the false prophet Mahomed was
born there. On that account Mahomedans come from
all parts of the world to worship in the great temple
there. Sometimes Mecca is as full of people as a hive
is full of bees.

Of all the cities in the East, Mecca is the gayest, be-
cause the houses have windows looking into the
streets. In these houses are lodgings for the pilgrims.
And what is it the pilgrims worship















44 FAR OFF.

aeration emcee AAD

A great black stone, which they say the angel
Gabriel brought down from heaven as a foundation
for Mahomed’s house. They kiss it seven times, and
after each kiss they walk round it.

Then they bathe in a well, which they say is the
well the angel showed to Hagar in the desert, and
they think the waters of this well can wash away all
their sins. Alas! they know not of the blood which
can wash away al sin.

Medina contains the tomb of Mahomed; yet it is
not thought so much of as Mecca. Perhaps the Ma-
homedans do not like to be reminded that Mahomed
died like any other man, and never rose again.

Mocha.—This is a part whence very fine coffee is
sent to Europe.

TRAVELS IN THE DESERT.

Of all places in Arabia, which would you desire
most to see? Would it not be Mount Sinai? Our
great and glorious God once spoke from the top of
that mountain.

I will tell you of an English clergyman who travelled
to see that mountain. As he knew there were many
robbers on the way, he hired an Arab sheikh to take
care of him, A sheikh is a chief, or captain. Sulei-

sears eee
ARABIA. 45
Soho Preece encom tianmemcemmemeneepetpiesdthatasoniiomesiaaamimaianbenniuntipiiiies
man was a fine-looking man, dressed in a red shirt,
with a shawl twisted round his waist, a purple cloak,
and a red cap. Tis feet and legs were bare. His
eyes were bright, his skin was brown, and his beard
black. To his girdle were fastened a huge knife and
pistols, and by his side hung a sword. This man
brought a band of Arabs with him to defend the
travellers from the robbers in the desert.

One day the whole party set out mounted on camels,
After going some distance, a number of children were
seen scampering among the rocks, and looking like
brown monkeys. These were the children of the
Arabs who accompanied the Englishman. The wild
little creatures ran to their fathers, and saluted them
in the respectful manner that Arab children are taught
to do.

At last a herd of goats was seen with a fine boy of
twelve years old leading them. He was the son of
Suleiman. The father seemed to take great delight
in this boy, and introduced him to the traveller. The
kind gentleman riding on a camel, put down his hand
to the boy. The little fellow, after touching the
traveller’s hand, kissed his own, according to the Ara-
bian manner.

The way to Mount Sinai was very rough ; indeed,
the traveller was sometimes obliged to get off his



iy ®

























sii I A LILO ALE

46 FAR OFF.

seersessieccsessscsameaahampuanaar tacts tee ee Ee TL LEIA LLL

camel, and to climb among the crags on hands and
knees. How glad he was when the Arabs pointed to
a mountain, and said, “ That is Mount Sinai.” With
“what fear and reverence he gazed upon it! WHereit |



was that the voice of the great God was once heard
speaking out of the midst of the smoke, and clouds, |
and darkness ! |
How strange it must be to see in this lonely gloomy |
spot, a great building! Yet there is one at the foot |
of the mountain. Whatcan it be? Aconvent. See |
those high walls around. It is necessary to have high |
walls, because all around are bands of fierce robbers.
It is even unsafe to have a door near the ground.
There is a door quite high up in the wall; but what
use can it be of, when there are no steps by which to
reach it? Can you guess how people get in by this
door? A rope is let down from the door to draw the
people up. One by one they are drawn up. In the |
inside of the walls there are steps by which travellers |
go down into the convent below. ‘The monks who |
live there belong to the Greek church.
The clergyman was lodged in a small cell spread
with carpets and cushions, and he was waited upon
by the monks.
These monks think that they lead a very holy life
in the desert. They eat no meat, and they rise in




ARABIA. 47

the night to pray in their chapel. But God does not
care for such service as this. He never commanded
men to shut themselves up in a desert, but rather tog:
do good in the world. %

One day the monks told the traveller they wou-d
show him the place where the burning bush once
stood. How could they know the place? However,
they pretended to know it. They led the way to the
chapel, then taking off their shoes, they went down
some stone steps till they came to a round room
under ground, with three lamps burning in the midst.
“There,” said the monks, “is the very spot where the
burning bnish once stood.”

There were two things the traveller enjoyed while
in the convent, the beautiful garden full of thick trees
and sweet flowers ; and the cool pure water from the
well. Such water and such a garden in the midst
of a desert were sweet indeed.

The Arabs, who accompanied the traveller, enjoy-
ed much the plentiful meals provided at the convent;
for the monks bought sheep from the shepherds
around, to feed their guests. After leaving the con-
vent, Suleiman was taken ill in consequence of having
eaten too much while there. The clergyman gave
him medicine, which cured him. The Arabs were
very fond of their chief, and were so grateful to the

oe ne ee ne ee + a a Se ny ge step



|













48 FAR OFF.



a







stranger for giving him medicine, that they called
him “the good physician.” Suleiman himself show-
- his gratitude by bringing his own black coffee-
“pot into the tent of the stranger, and asking him to
drink coffee with him; for such is the pride of an
Arab chief, that he thinks it is a very great honor in-
deed for a stranger to share his meal.

But the traveller soon found that it is dangerous to
pass through a desert. Why? Not on account of
wild beasts, but of wild men. There was a tribe of
Arabs very angry with Suleiman, because he was
conducting the travellers through their part of the
desert. They wanted to be the guides through that
part, in hopes of getting rewarded by a good sum of
money. You see how covetous they were. The
love of money is the root of all evil.

These angry Arabs were hidden among the rocks
and hills; and every now and then they came sud-
denly out of their hiding-places, and with a loud
voice threatened to punish Suleiman.

How much alarmed the travellers were! but none
more than Suleiman himself. He requested the cler-
gyman to travel during the whole night, in order
the sooner to get out of the reach of the enemy.
The clergyman promised to go as far as he was able.
What a journey it was! No one durst speak aloud




ARABIA. 49

to his companions, lest the enemies should be hid-

den among the rocks close by, and should overhear
them. At fnidnight the whole company pitched their
tents by the coast of the Red Sea. Early in the
morning the minister went alone to bathe in its
smooth waters. After he had bathed, and when he
was just going to return to the tents, he was startled
by hearing the sound of a gun. The sound came
from the midst of a small grove of palm-trees close
by. Alarmed, he ran back quickly to the tents:
again he heard the report of a gun: and again a
third time. The travellers, Arabs and all, were gath-
ered together, expecting an enemy to rush out of the
grove. But where was Suleiman? He had gone
some time before into the grove of palm-trees to talk
to the enemies.

Presently the traveller saw about forty Arabs leave
the grove and go far away. But Suleiman came
not. So the minister went into the grove to search
for him, and there he found—not Suleiman—but his
dead body !

There it lay on the ground, covered with blood.
The minister gazed upon the dark countenance once
so joyful, and he thought it looked as if the poor
Arab had died in great agony. It was frightful to
observe the number of his wounds. ‘Three balls had

4


50 FAR OFF.



been shot into his body by the gun which went off
three times. Three great cuts had been made in his
head ; his neck was almost cut off from his head, and
his hand from his arm! How suddenly was the
proud Arab laid low in the dust! All his delights
were perished forever. Suleiman had been promised
a new dress of gay colors at the end of the journey ;
but he would never more gird a shawl round his ac-
tive frame, or fold a turban round his swarthy brow.
The Arabs wrapped their beloved master in a loose
garment, and placing him on his beautiful camel, they
went in deep grief to a hill at a little distance. There
they buried him. They dug no grave; but they
made a square tomb of large loose stones, and laid
the dead body in the midst, and then covered it with
more stones. There Suleiman sleeps in the desert.
But the day shall come when “the earth shall dis-
close her blood, and shall no more cover her slain :”
and then shall the blood of Suleiman and his slain
body be uncovered, and his murderer brought to
judgment.*

* Extracted chiefly from “The Pastor’s Memorial,” by
the Rev. G. Fisk. Published by R. Carter & Brothers.


Gurkey in Asia.

Is there a Turkey in Asia as well as a Turkey in
Europe?

Yes, there is; and it is governed by the same sul-
tan, and filled by the same sort of persons. All the
Turks are Mahomedans,

You may know a Mahomedan city at a distance.
When we look at a Christian city we see the steeples
and spires of churches; but when we look at a Ma-
homedan city we see rising above the houses and trees
the domes and minarets of mosques. What are domes
and minarets? A dome is the round top of a mosque:
and the minarets are the tall slender towers. A min-
aret is of great use to the Mahomedans.

Do you see the little narrow gallery outside the
minaret. There is a man standing there. He is
calling people to say their prayers. He calls so loud
that all the people below can hear, and the sounds he
utters are like sweet music. But would it not make
you sad to hear them when you remembered what he

'
|
t
'
ST ELA EC Nt ttre ianaaassstttica aetna: tists Alia a
52 FAR OFF.

eine enn
was telling people to do? To pray to the god of
Mahomet, not to the God and Father of the Lord
Jesus Christ; but to a false god: to no God. This
man goes up the dark narrow stairs winding inside the
minaret five times a day: first he goes as soon as the
sun rises, then at noon, next in the afternoon, then at
sunset, and last of all in the night. Ascending and
descending those steep stairs is all his business, and it
is hard work, and fatigues him very much.

In the court of the mosque there is a fountain.
There every one washes before he goes into the
mosque to repeat his prayers, thinking to please God
by clean hands instead of a clean heart. Inside the
mosque there are no pews or benches, but only mats
and carpets spread on the floor. There the worship-
pers kneel and touch the ground with their foreheads.
The minister of the mosque is called the Imam. He
stands in a niche in the wall, with his back to the
people, and repeats prayers.

But he js not the preacher. The sheikh, or chief
man of the town, preaches; not on Sunday, but on
Friday. He sits on a high place and talks to the peo-
ple—not about pardon and peace, and heaven and
holiness—but about the duty of washing their hands
before prayers, and of bowing down to the ground, and
such vain services.

ee
TURKEY IN ASIA. 53



In the mosque there are two rows of very large wax
candles, much higher than a man, and as thick as his
arm, and they are lighted at night.

It is considered right to go to the mosque for pray-
ers five times a day; but very few Mahomedans go so
often. Wherever people may be, they are expected
to kneel down and repeat their prayers, whether in
the house or in the street. But very few do so.
While they pray, Mahomedans look about all the time,
and in the midst speak to any one, and then go on
again; for their hearts are not in their prayers; they
do not worship in spirit and in truth.

There are no images or pictures in the mosques,
because Mahomet forbid his followers to worship idols.
There are Korans on reading stands in various parts
of the mosque for any one to read who pleases.

The people leave their red slippers at the door,
keeping on their yellow boots only; but they do not
uncover their heads as Christians do.

Was Christ ever known in this Mahomedan land ?
Yes, long before he was known in England. Turkey
in Asia used to be called Asia Minor, (or Asia the
less,) and there it was that Paul the apostle was born,
and there he preached and turned many to Christ.
But at last the Christians began to worship images,
and the fierce Turks came and turned the churches

Sissies sess isiasesstis-sssussinosssane-enias-=niinaaene


54 FAR OFF.



into mosques. This was the punishment God sent the
Christians for breaking his law. In some of the
mosques you may see the marks of the pictures which
the Christians painted on the walls, and which the
Turks nearly scraped off.

How dreadful it would be if our churches should
ever be turned into mosques! May God never send
us this heavy punishment.

ARMENIA.

One corner of Turkey in Asia is called Armenia.
There are many high mountains in Armenia, and one
of them you would like to see very much. If is the
mountain on which Noah’s ark rested after the flood.
I mean Ararat.*

It is a very high mountain with two peaks; and
its highest peak is always covered with snow. People
say that no one ever climbed to the top of that peak.
I should think Noah’s ark rested on a lower part of
the mountain between the two peaks, for it would
have been very cold for Noah’s family on the snow-

* It is remarkable that this mountain lies at the point
where three great empires meet, namely, Russia, Persia,
and Turkey.

ne ae ne ney


” ae ARMENIA. 55
covered peak, and it would have been very difficult
for them to get down. How pleasant it must be to
stand on the side of Ararat, and to think, “ Here my
great father Noah stood, and my great mother, Noah’s
wife; here they saw the earth in all its greenness,
just washed with the waters of the flood, and here
they rejoiced and praised God.”

I am glad to say that all the Armenians are not
Mahomedans. Many are Christians, but, alas! they
know very little about Christ except his name. I will
tell you a short anecdote to show how ignorant they
are.

Once a traveller went to see an old church in Ar-
menia called the Church of Forty Steps, beeause there
are forty steps to reach it: for it is built on the steep
banks of a river. |

The traveller found the churchyard full of boys.
This churchyard was their school-room. And what
were their books? The grave-stones that lay flat upon
the ground. Four priests were teaching the boys.
These priests wore black turbans; while Turkish Im-
ams wear white turbans. One of these Armenian
priests led the traveller to an upper room, telling him
he had something very wonderful to show him. What
could it be? The priest went to a niche in the wall
and took out of it a bundle; then untied a silk hand-

tm a ee





56 FAR OFF.



kerchief, and then another, and then another; till he
had untied twenty-five silk handkerchiefs. What |
was the precious thing so carefully wrapped up? It
was a New Testament.

It is a precious book indeed: but it ought to be
read, and not wrapped up. The priest praised it, say-
ing, “ This is a wonderful book; it has often been laid
upon sick persons, and has cured them.” Then a
poor old man, bent and tottering, pressed forward to
kiss the book, and to rub his heavy head. This was
worshipping the book, instead of Him who wrote it.

An Armenian village looks like a number of mole-
hills: for the dwellings are holes dug in the ground
with low’stone walls round the holes; the roof is
made of branches of trees and heaps of earth. There
are generally two rooms in the hole—one for the
family, and one for the cattle.

A traveller arrived one evening at such a village;
and he was pleased to see fruit-trees overshadowing
the hovels, and women, without veils, spinning cotton
under their shadow. But he was not pleased with
the room where he was to sleep. The way lay
through a long dark passage under ground; and the

SN LAE LIEN ON
———

|
room was filled with cattle: there was no window nor |
chimney. How dark and hot it was! Yet it was too |

damp to sleep out of doors, because a large Jake was

cee aC ROE ano ane — an - Re ae mene oe
ae.
e ARMENIA. 57

rtm eg Sigs ene
near; therefore he wrapped his cloak around him,
and lay upon the ground; but he could not sleep be-
cause of the stinging of insects, and the trampling of
cattle: and glad he was in the morning to breathe
again the fresh air,

Rich Armenians have fine houses. Once a traveller
dined with a rich Armenian. The dinner was served
up in a tray, and placed on a low stool, while the
company sat on the ground. One dish after another
was served up till the traveller was tired of tasting
them. But there was not only too much to eat ;
there was also too much to drink, Rakee, a kind of
brandy, was handed about; and afterwards a musi-
cian came in and played and sang to amuse the com-
pany. In Turkey there is neither playing, nor sing--
ing, nor drinking spirits. The Turks think themselves
much better than Christians, « For,” say they, “we
drink Jess and pray more.” - They do not know that
real Christians are not fond of drinking, and are fond
of praying ; only they pray more in secret, and the
Turks more in public,

ee eee
58 FAR OFF.









KURDISTAN.

The fiercest of all the people in Asia are the
Kurds.

They are the terror of all who live near them.

Their dwellings are in the mountains ; there some
live in villages, and some in black tents, and some in
strong castles. At night they rush down from the
mountains upon the people in the valleys, uttering a
wild yell, ahd brandishing their swords. They enter
the houses, and begin to pack up the things they find,
and to place them on the backs of their mules and
asses, while they drive away the cattle of the poor
people ; and if any one attempts to resist them, they
kill him. You may suppose in what terror the poor
villagers live in the valleys. They keep a man to
watch all night, as well as large dogs ; and they build
a strong tower in the midst of the village where they
run to hide themselves when they are afraid.

The reason why the Armenians live in holes in the
ground is because they hope the Kurds may not find
out where they are.

Those Kurds who live in tents often move from
place to place. The black tents are folded up and
placed on the backs of mules; and a large kettle is
slung upon the end of the tent-pole. The men and
a a. 3 amreeasntneames ti aaisati



MESOPOTAMIA. 59
women drive the herds and flocks, while the children
and the chickens ride upon the cows,

The Kurds have thin, dark faces, hooked noses, and
black eyes, with a fierce and malicious look.

They are of the Mahomedan religion, and the call
to prayers may be heard in the villages of these rob-
bers and murderers.

MESOPOTAMIA.

This country is part of Turkey in Asia. It lies.

between two very famous rivers, the Tigris and the
Euphrates, often spoken of in the Bible. The word
Mesopotamia means “between rivers.” It was be-
tween these rivers that faithful Abraham lived when
God first called him to be his friend. Should you not
like to see that country? It is now full of ruins.
The two most ancient cities in the world were built on
the Tigris and Euphrates.

Nineveh was on the Tigris.

What a city that was at the time Jonah preached
there! Its walls were so thick that three chariots
could go on the top all abreast.

But what is Nineveh now? Léok at those green
mounds. Under those heaps of rubbish lies Nineveh.

ee nr aa ey

i
60 FAR OFF,

A traveller has been digging among those mounds,
and has found the very throne of the kings of Nineveh,
and the images of winged bulls and lions which
adorned the palace. God overthrew Nineveh because
it was wicked.

There is another ancient city lying in ruins on the
Euphrates, it is Babylon the Great.

There are nothing but heaps of bricks to be seen
where once proud Babylon stood. Where are now
the streets fifteen miles long? Where are the hang-
ing gardens? gardens one above the other, the won-
der of the world? Where is now the temple of
Belus, (or of Babel, as sonie think,) with its golden
statue? All, all are now crumbled into rubbish.
God has destroyed Babylon as he said.

There are dens of wild beasts among the ruins. A
traveller saw some bones of a sheep in one, the re-
mains, he supposed, of a lion’s dinner; but he did not
like to go further into the den. to see who dwelt there.
Owls and bats fill all the dark places. But no men
live there, though human bones are often found scat-
tered about, and they turn into dust as soon as they
are touched.

There is now a great city in Mesopotamia, called
Bagdad. In Babylon no sound is heard but the how-
lings of wild beasts; in Bagdad men may be heard





















MESOPOTAMIA, 61

ne ieee vanes snenenesenatspenngeslaemses «

screaming and hallooing from morning to night. The
drivers of the camels and the =ules shout as they
press through the narrow crooked streets, and even the
ladies riding on white donkeys, and attended by black
slaves, scream and halloo.

In summer it is so hot in Bagdad that people
during the day live in rooms under ground, and sleep
on their flat roofs at night.

It is curious to see the people who have been sleep-
ing on the roof get up in the morning. — First they roll
up their mattrasses, their coverlids, and pillows, and
put them in the house. The children cannot fold up
theirs, but their mothers OL black slavesido it for them.
The men repeat their prayers, and then drink a cup
of coffee, which their wives present to them. The
wives uta! as they offer the cup to their lords, and:
stand with their hands crossed while their lords ate ,
drinking, then kneel down again to receive the cup,
and to kiss their lords’ hand. Then the men take
their pipes, and lounge on their cushions, while the
women say their prayers. And when do the children
say their prayers? Never. They know only of Ma-
homet; they know not the Saviour who said, “Suffer
little children to come unto me.”
Persia.

Is this country mentioned in the Bible? Yes; we
read of Cyrus, the king of Persia. Isaiah spoke of
him before he was born, and called him by his name.
See chapter xlv.

Persia is now a Mahomedan country. The Turks,
you remember, are Mahomedans too. Perhaps you
think those two nations, the Turks and the Persians,
must agree well together, as they are of the same reli-

_gion. Far from it. No nations hate one another



|
|
|
more than Turks and Persians do; and the reason is, |
that though they both believe in Mahomet, they disa-
gree about his son-in law, Ali. The Persians are very
fond of him, and keep a day of mourning in memory |
of his death ; whereas the Turks do not care for Ali
at all. |

But is this a reason why they should hate one
another so much ?

Even in their common customs the Persians differ
from the Turks. The Turks sit cross-legged on the


¢





PERSIA,
terete teenctennnentnnennennenennngsintsingeaitrnsiteonsttassnisamaieat’
ground; the Persians sit upon their heels. Which
way of sitting should you prefer? I think you would
find it more comfortable to sit like a Turk.

The Turks sit on sofas and lean against cushions ;
the Persians sit on carpets and lean against the wall.
kknow you would prefer the Turkish fashion. The
Turks drink coffee without either milk or sugar; the
Persians drink tea with sugar, though without milk,
The Turks wear turbans; the Persians wear high caps
of black lamb’s-wool.

Not only are their customs different, but their char-
acters. The Turks are grave and the Persians lively.

The Turks are silent, the Persians talkative. The

Turks are rude, the Persians polite. Now I am sure
you like the Persians better than the Turks. But wait

a little—the Turks are very proud; the Persians are

very deceitful. An old Persian was heard to say,
“We all tell lies whenever we can.” The Persians
are not even ashamed when their falsehoods are found
out. When they sell they ask too much ; when they
make promises they break them. In short, it is im-
possible to trust a Persian.

The Turks obey Mahomet’s laws; they pray five
times a day, and drink no wine. But the Persians
seldom repeat their prayers, and they do drink wine,
though Mahomet has forbidden it, In short, the Per-



See
.
64 FAR OFF.
pep



a ce eesti tse

sian seems to have no idea of right and wrong. The
judges do not give right judgment, but take bribes,
The soldiers live by robbing the poor people, for the
king pays them no wages, but leaves them to get food
as they can; and so the poor people often build their
cottages in little nooks in the valléys, where they hopé
the soldiers will not see them.

Tue Counrry.—Persia is a high country and a dry
country. There are high mountains and wide plains ;
but there are very few rivers and running brooks, be-
cause there is so’ little rain. However, in some places
the Persians have cut canals, and planted willow-trees
by their side. ~ Rice will not grow well in such a dry
country, but sheep find it very pleasant and whole-
some. The hills are covered over with flocks, and the
shepherds may be seen leading their sheep and carry-
ing the very young lambs in their arms. This is a
sight which reminds us of the good Shepherd : for it
is written of Jesus, “ He gathered the lambs in his
arms.”

Lhe sweetest of all flowers grows abundantly in
Persia—I mean the rose. The air is filled with its
fragrance. The people pluck the rose leaves and dry
them in the sun, as we dry hay. How pleasant. it
must be for children in the spring to play among the
heaps of rose-leaves. Once a traveller went to break-

eee aoreeentaeianentnintnertepiegecdiamnienenen



~ ee ee eg


PERSIA.



fast with a Persian Prince, and he found the company
seated upon a heap of rose-leaves, with a carpet spread
over it. Afterwards the rose-leaves were sent to the
distillers, to be made into rose-water.

Persian cats are beautiful creatures, with fur as soft
as silk.

The best melons in the world grow in Persia.

The three chief materials for making clothes are all
to be found there in abundance. I mean wool, cotton,
and silk, You have heard already of the Persian
sheep; so you see there is wool. Cotton trees also
abound. Women and children may be seen picking
the nuts which contain the little pieces of cotton.
There are mulberry-trees also to feed the numerous
silk worms.

Poor Prortz.—tThe villages where the poor live
are miserable places. The houses are of mud, not
placed in rows, but straggling, with dirty narrow paths
winding between them.

In summer the poor people sleep on the roofs; for
the roofs are flat, and covered with earth, with low
walls on every side to prevent the sleepers falling off.
Here the Persians spread their carpets to lie upon at
night.

Winter does not last long in Persia, yet while
it lasts it is cold. Then the poor, instead of sleeping


66 FAR OFF,

eee
on their roofs, sleep in a very curious warm bed. In
the middle of each cottage there is a round hole in the

floor, where the fire burns. In the evening the fire
goes out, but the hot cinders remain. The Persians
place over it a low round table, and then throw a
large coverlid over the table, and all round about.
Under this coverlid the family lie at night, their heads
peeping out, and their feet against the warm fire-
place underneath. This the Persians call a comfort-
able bed.

The poor wear dirty and ragged clothes, and the
children may be seen crawling about in the dust, and
looking like little pigs. Yet in one respect the Per-
sians are very clean; they bathe often. In every vil-
lage there is a large bath.

The poor people have animals of various kinds—a
few sheep, or goats, or cows. In the day one man
takes them all out to feed. In the evening he brings
them back to the village, and the animals of their own
accord go home to their own stables. Each cow and
each sheep knows where she will get food and a place
to sleep in. The prophet Isaiah said truly, “The ass
knoweth his owner, and the ox his master’s crib; but
Israel doth not know, my people doth not consider.”

THe Persian Lapirs.—They wrap themselves up

in a large dark blue Wrapper, and in this dress they

St te sSisenettiensneenneenesteaseeses eee an ec i

ee Re Te


PERSIA, 67
inne secee o
walk out where they please. No one who meets them
can tell who they are.

And where do these women go? Chiefly to the
bath, where they spend much ‘of their time drinking
coffee and smoking. There too they try to make them-
selves handsome by blackening their eyebrows and -
dyeing their hair. Sometimes the ladies walk to the
burial-grounds, and wander about for hours among
the graves. When they are at home they employ
themselves in making pillau and sherbet. Pillau is
made of rice and butter; sherbet is made of juice
mixed with water.

The ladies have a sitting-room to themselves, One
side of it is all lattice-work, and this makes it cool.
At night they spread their carpets on the flodt to sleep
upon, and in the day they keep them in a lumber-
room. ae

Persian Inns,—They are very uncomfortable
places. There are a great many small cells made of
mud, built all round a large court. These cells are
quite empty, and paved with stone. The only com-
fortable room is over the door-way of the court, and
the first travellers who arrive are sure to settle in the
room over the door-way.

Once an English traveller arrived at a Persian inn
with his two servants. All three were very ill and in




68 FAR OFF.

great pain, from having travelled -far over burning
plains and steep mountains.

But as the room over the door-way was occupied,
they were forced to ‘go into a little cold damp cell.
As there was no door to the cell, they hung up a rag
to keep out the chilling night air, and they placed a
pan of coals in the midst. Many Persians came and
peeped into the cell; and seeing the sick men looking
miserable as they lay on their carpets, the unfeeling
creatures laughed at them, and no one would help
them or give them anything to eat. The travellers
bought some bread and grapes at the bazaar, but
these were not fit food for sick men, but it was all
they could get. At last a Persian merchant heard of
their distxess ; and he came to see them every day,
bringing them warm milk and wholesome food: when
they were well enough to be moved, he took them to
his own house, and nursed them with the greatest
care.

Who was this kind merchant? Not a Mahom-
edan, but of the religion of the fire worshippers, or
Parsees. Was he not like the good Samaritan of
whom we read in the New Testament? O that Bah-
ram, the merchant, might know the true God!

Piterims AnD Beccars.—Very often you may

see a large company of Pilgrims, some on foot, and




PERSIA. 69



some mounted on camels, horses, and asses. ‘They
are returning from Mecca, the birth-place of Mahomet.
What good have they got by their pilgrimage ? None
at all. They think they are grown very holy, but
they make such an uproar at the inns by quarrelling
and fighting when they are travelling home, that no
one can bear to be near them.

There is a set of beggars called dervishes. They
call themselves very holy, and think people are bound
to give money to such holy men. They are so bold
that sometimes they refuse to leave a place till some
money has been given.

Once a dervish stopped a long while before the
house of the English ambassador, and refused to go

| away. Buta plan was thought-of to make him go

| away. |

| The dervish was sitting in a little niche in the wall.

| The ambassador ordered his servants to build up
bricks to shut the dervish in. The men began to
build, yet the dervish would not stir, till the bricks

came up as high as his chin: then he began to be

frightened, and said he would rather go away.

Tue Kine or Persta—He is called King of
Kings. What a name fora man! It is the title of
God alone. The king sits on a marble throne, and
his garments sparkle with jewels of dazzling bright-

eee ae erin testator taomemsresrevensiiestiin seiainnnatlititsttenttasiimaniaieanmnasls


70 FAR OFF.

a IO



ness. The walls of his state-chamber are covered with
looking-glasses. | One side of the room opens into a
court adorned with flowers and fountains. Great part
of his time is spent in amusements, such as hunting
and shooting, writing verses, and hearing stories. He
keeps a man called a story-teller, and he will never
hear the same story repeated twice. Itgives the man
a great deal of trouble to find new stories every day.
The king keeps jesters, who make jokes; and he has
mimics, who play antics to make him laugh. He dines
at eight in the evening from dishes of pure gold. No
one is allowed to dine with him; but two of his little
boys wait upon him, and his physician stands by to
advise him not to eat too much.

Do you think he is happy in all his grandeur ¢
Judge for yourself.

All his golden dishes come up covered and sealed.
Why? For fear of poison. There is a chief officer
in the kitchen who watches the cook, to see that he
puts no poison into the food: and he seals up the
dishes before they are taken to the king, in order that
the servants may not put in poison as they are car-
rying them along. In what fear this great king lives |
He cannot trust his own servants.

TeHERAN.—This is the royal city. It is built in a

barren plain, and is exceedingly hot, as the hills

‘
—— aa
rere rnp menercmetee



PERSIA. 7)



around keep off the air. It is a mean city, for it is
chiefly built of mud huts.

The king’s palace is called the “ Ark,” and is a very
strong as well as grand place.*

|

|

|

|

| * Extracted chiefly from Southgate’s Travels,
China.



THERE is no country in the world like China.

How different it is from Persia, where there are so
few people; whereas China is crowded with inhab-
itants !

How different it is from England, where the people
are instructed in the Bible, whereas China is full of
idols.

China is a heathen country; yet it is not a savage
country, for the people are quiet, and orderly, and
mdustrious.

It would be hard for a child to imagine what a
great multitude of people there are in China.

If you were to sit by a clock, and if all the Chinese
were tw pass before you one ata time, and if you
were to count one at each tick of the clock, and if you
were never to leave off counting day or night—how
long do you think it would be before you had counted
all the Chinese ?

Twelve years. O what a vast number of people




CHINA, 73

there must be in China! In all, there are about three
hundred and sixty millions! If all the peoffiin the
world were collected together, out of every three one
would be a Chinese. How sad it is to think that this
immense nation knows not God, nor his glorious Son !

There are too many people in China, for there is
not food enough for them all; and many are half.
starved.

Foov.—The poor can get nothing but rice to eat
and water to drink; except now and then they mix a
little pork or salt fish with their rice. Any sort of
meat is thought good; even a hash of rats and
snakes, or a mince of earth-worms. Cats and dogs’
flesh are considered as nice as pork, and cost as much.

An Englishman was once dining with a Chinaman,
and he wished to know what sort of meat was on his:
plate. But he was not able to speak Chinese. How
then could he ask? He thought of a way. Looking
first at his plate, and then at the Chinaman, he said,
“Ba-a-a,” meaning to ask, “Is this mutton?” The
Chinaman understood the question, and immediately
replied, “ Bow-wow,” meaning to say, “It is puppy-

dog.

You will wish to know whether the English-
man went on eating; but I cannot tell you this.
While the poor are in want ef food, the rich eat a

great deal too much. A Chinese feast in arich man’s

















74 FAR OFF.





house lasts for hours. ‘The servants bring in one
cour er another, till a stranger wonders when the
last course will come. The food is served up in a
curious way ; not on dishes, but in small basins—for
all the meats are swimming in broth. Instead of a
knife and fork, each person has a pair of chop-sticks,
which are something like knitting-needles ; and with
these he cleverly fishes up the floating morsels, and
pops them into his mouth. There are spoons of
china for drinking the broth.

You will be surprised to hear that the Chinese are
very fond of eating birds’ nests. Do not suppose that
they eat magpies’ nests, which are made of clay and
sticks, or even little nests of moss and clay ; the nests
they eat are made of a sort of gum. This gum comes
out of the bird’s mouth, and is shining and transpa-
rent, and the nest sticks fast to the rock. These nests
are something like our jelly, and must be very nour-
ishing.

The Chinese like nothing cold ; they warm all their
food, even their wine. For they have wine, not made
of grapes, but of rice, and they drink it, not in glasses,
butincups. Tea, however, is the most common drink ;
for China is the country where tea grows.

The hills are covered with shrubs bearing a white
flower, a little like a white rose. They are tea-plants.

ice ELL LLL LEELA a








CHINA. : 75
screen eisnciinnchaitnaenstnsiacsiniatiii sienna ee tale cel
The leaves are picked; each leaf is rolled_up with

the finger, and dried on a hot iron plate.

The Chinese do not keep all the tea-le , they
pack up a great many in boxes, and send them to dis-
tant lands. In England and in Russia there is a tea-
kettle in every cottage. Some of the Chinese aré,so
very poor that they cannot buy new tea-leaves, but
only tea-leaves which are sold in shops. I do not
think in England poor people would buy old tea-
leaves, Some very poor Chinese use fern-leaves in-
stead of tea-leaves.

The Chinese do not make tea in the same way that
we do. They have no teapot, or milk-jug, or sugar-
basin. They put a few tea-leaves in a cup, pour hot
water on them, and then put a cover on the cup till
the tea is ready. Whenever you pay a visit in China
a cup of tea is offered.

APPEARANCE.—The Chinese are not at all like the
other natives of Asia. The Turks and Arabs are fine-
looking men, but the Chimgse are poor-looking crea-
tures. You have seen théir pictures on their boxes
of tea, for they are fond of drawing pictures oft
selves. ; .
Their complexion is rather yellow, but many of the
ladies, who keep in doors, are rather fair. They have
black hair, small dark eyes, broad faces, flat noses, and





El ee |
76 FAR OFF.



high cheek-bones. In general they are short. The
men be stout; and the rich men are stout:
the iey are, the more they are admired: but
the women like to be slender.

A Chinaman does not take off his cap in company,
and he has a good reason for it: his head is close
shaven : only a long piece behind is allowed to grow,
and this grows down to his heels, and is plaited. He
wears a long dark blue gown, with loose hanging
sleeves. His shoes are clumsy, turned up at the toes
in an ugly manner, and the soles are white. The
Chinese have more trouble in whitening their shoes
than we have in blacking ours.

A Chinese lady wears a loose gown like a China-
man’s ; but she may be known by her head-dress, her
baby feet, and her long nails. Her hair is tied up,
and decked with artificial flowers ; and sometimes a
little golden bird, sparkling with jewels, adorns her

forehead. Her feet are n bigger than those of a



child of five years old ;@ificause, when she was five,

they were cruelly boundip to prevent them from
growing. She suffered much pain all her childhood,
and now she trips about as if she were walking on
tiptoes. A little push wogjd throw her down# As
she walks she moves from side to side like a ship. jn

the water, for she cannot walk firmly with such small


CHINA.









feet. The Chinese are so foolish as to adm hese
small feet, and to call them the “ golden As
for her finger-nails, they are seldom seen, for a Chi-
nese lady hides her hands in her long sleeves ; but
the nails on the left hand are very long, and are like
bird’s claws. The nails on the right hand are not so
long, in order that the lady may be able to tinkle on
her music, to embroider, and to weave silk.

The gentlemen are proud of. having one long nail
on the little finger, to show that they do not labor
like the poor, for if they did, the nail would break.
Men in China wear necklaces and use fans.

What foolish customs I have described. Surely
you will not think the Chinese a wise people, though





very clever, as you will soon find.

Men and women dress in black, or in dark colors,
such as blue and purple ; the women sometimes dress
in pink or green. Great people dress in red, and
the royal family in yellow. When you see a person
all in white, you may know he is in mourning, A

| son dresses in white for three years after he has lost
one of his parents.

Hovsrs.—See that lantern hanging over the gate.
The light is rather dim, because the sides are made
of silk instead of glass. What is written upon the
lantern? The master’s name. The gateway leads

a


78 FAR OFF.

ee UeU EEE RRR onan

into into which many rooms open. There are

not




all the rooms; to some there are only
curtains. Curtains are used instead of doors in
many hot countries, because of their coolness ; but
the furniture of the Chinese rooms is quite different
from the furniture of Turkish and Persian rooms.
The Chinese sit on chairs as we do, and have high
tables like ours: and they sleep on bedsteads, yet their
beds are not like ours, for instead of a mattrass there
is nothing but a mat.

Instead of pictures, the Chinese adorn their rooms
with painted lanterns, and with pieces of white satin,
on which sentences are written : they have also book-
eases and china jars. But they have no fire-places,
for they never need a fire to keep themselves warm :
the sun shining in at the south windows makes the
rooms tolerably warm in winter; and in summer the
weather is very hot. The Chinese in winter put on
one coat over the other till they feel warm enough.
In the north of China it is so cold in winter that
the place where the bed stands (which is a recess in
the wall) is heated by a furnace underneath, and the
whole family sit there all day crowded together,

The Chinese houses have not so many stories as ours;
in the towns there is one floor above the ground floor,
but in the country there are no rooms up stairs.






CHINA.





It would amuse you £8" s a Chinese country
house. There is not one large house, b lumber
of small buildings like summer-houses, and long gal-
leries running from one to another. One of these
summer-houses is in the middle of a pond, with a
bridge leading to it. In the pond there are gold and
silver fish ; for these beautiful fishes, often kept in
glass bowls in England, came first from China. By
the sides of the garden walls large cages are placed ;
in one may be seen some gold and silver pheasants,
in another a splendid peacock; in another a gentle
stork, and in another an elegant little deer. There is
often a grove of mulberry-trees in the garden, and in
the midst of the grove houses made of bamboo, for
rearing silk-worms. It is the delight of the ladies to
feed these curious worms. None but very quiet
people are fit to take care of them, for a loud noise
would kill them. Gold and silver fish also cannot
bear much noise.

In every large house in China there is a room called
the Hall of Ancestors. There the family worship their
dead parents and grand-parents, and ‘great-grand-pa-
rents, and those who lived still further back. There
are no images to be seen in the Hall of Ancestors, but
there are tablets with names written upon them. The
family bow down before the tablets, and burn incense



80 FAR OFF. |

and gold paper! What a’foolish service! What good
can incéiBe and paper do to the dead? And what
good can the dead do to their children? How is it
that such clever people as the Chinese are so foolish }

ReL1gion.—You have heard already that the Chi-
nese worship the dead.

Who taught them this worship ?

It was a man named Confucius, who lived a long
while ago. This Confucius was a very wise man.
From his childhood he was very fond of sitting alone
thinking, instead of playing with other children,
When he was fourteen he began to read some old
books that had been written not long after the time
of Noah. In these books he found very many wise


















sentences, such as Noah may have taught his children.
The Chinese had left off reading these wise books, and
were growing more and more foolish.* . Confucius,

* These are some of the sentences written in the old books:

“Never say, There is no one who sees me, for there is a
wise Spirit who sees all.”

‘‘ Man no longer has what he had before the fall, and he
has brought his children into his misery. O! Heaven, you
only can help us. Wipe away the stains of the father, and
save his children.”

‘ Never speak but with great care. Do not say, It is only
a single word. Remember that no one has the keeping of
your heart and tongue but you.”

These sentences are like some verses in the Psalms and


CHINA. 81
seat teoa re ht a ee ee
when he was grown up, tried to persuade his country-
men to attend to the old books. There wére a few
men who became his scholars, and who followed him



about from place to place. They might be seen sit-
ting under a tree, listening to the words of Confucius,

Confucius was a very tall man with a long black
beard and a very high forehead.

Had he known the true God, how much good he
might have done to the Chinese; but as it was he
only tried to make them happy in this world. He
himself confessed that he knew nothing about the
other world. He gave very good advice about respect
due to parents; but he gave very bad advice about
worship due to them after they were dead.

Was hea good man? Not truly good ; for he did
not love God; neither did he act right: for ‘he was
very unkind to his wife, and quite cast her off Yet.
he used to talk of going to other countries to teach the
people. It would have been a happy thing for him,
if he had gone as far as Babylon ; for a truly wise
man lived there, even Daniel the prophet. From
him he might have learned about the promised Sa-

Proverbs; and, it may be, they were spoken first by some
holy men of old.

Here is one more remarkable than all :—

“God hates the proud, and is kind to the huuitible,” .
——



82 FAR OFF.

Tp ee ee
viour, and life everlasting. But Confucius never left
China.

He was ill-treated by many of the rich and great,
and he was so poor that rice was generally his only
food. When he was dying he felt very unhappy, a8
well he might, when he knew not where he was going.
He said to his followers just before his death, “ The
kings refuse to follow my advice ; and since I am of
no use on earth, it is best that I should leave it.” As
soon as he was dead, people began to respect him
highly, and even to worship him. At this day, though
Confucius died more than two thousand years ago,
there is a temple to his honor in every large city, and
numbers of beasts are offered up to him in sacrifice.
There are thousands of people descended from him,
and they are treated with great honor as the children
of Confucius, and one of them is called kong or duke.

There is another religion in China besides the re-
ligion of Confucius, and amuch worse religion. About
the same time that Confucius lived, there was a man
called La-on-tzee. He was a great deceiver, as you
will see. He pretended that he could make people

i

completely happy. There were three things he said
he would do for them: first, he would make them rich
by turning stone into gold; next, he would prevent
their being hurt by swords or by fire through charms

cheesey DRI ONL EO eee rhapentiennspnleeipeiper eGR LAE LOLI,

2

























THE PRIKSTS OF LA-ON-TZEE. p. 8&3.
83



he could give them; and, last of all, he could save
them from death by a drink he knew how to pre-
pare. 7
What an awful liar this man must have been!
Yet many people believed in him, and still believe in
him. ‘There are now priests of La-on-tzee, and once a
year they rush through hot cinders and pretend they
‘ are not hurt. You will wonder their tricks are not
found out, seeing they cannot give any one the drink
to keep them from dying. It is indeed wonderful that
any one can believe these deceitful priests. le
Their religion is called the “ Zaou” sect. Taou }, ©
means reason. The name of folly would be a better ee



title for such a religion.
There is a third religion in China. It is the sect
of Buddha.* This Buddha was a man who once

* The means by which the Buddhist religion entered
China are remarkable. A certain Chinese emperor once
read in the book of Confucius this sentence, “ The true saint
will be found in the West.” He thought a great deal about
it; atlast he dreamed about it. He was somuch struck by
his dream that he sent two of his great lords to look for the
true religion in the West. When they reached India, they
found multitudes worshipping Buddha. This Buddha was
a wicked man who had been born in India a thousand years
before. The Chinese messengers believed all the absurd
histories they heard abont Buddha, and they returned to
China with a book which had been written about him. Ah! age
had they gone as far as Canaan they might have heard Paul




a ee

84 FAR OFF,
Senet tit ing tes oes BL
pretended to be turned into a god called Fo. You see
he was even worse than La-on-tzee.

Buddha pretended that he could make people happy ;
and his way of doing so was very strange. He told
them to think of nothing, and then they would be
happy. It is said that one man fixed his eyes for
hine years upon a wall without looking off, hoping to
grow happy at last. You can guess whether he did.
There are many priests of Buddha, always busy in
telling lies to the people. They recommend them to
repeat the name of Buddha thousands and thou-
sands of times, and some people are s0 foolish as to
do this; but no one ever found any comfort from this
plan.

The priests of Buddha say that their souls, when
they leave their bodies, go into other bodies, This
idea is enough to make a dying person very misera-
ble. One poor man, when he was dying, was in
terror because he had been told his sou] would go into
one of the emperor's horses, Whenever he was drop-
ping off to sleep, he started up in a fright, fancying
that he felt the blows of a cruel driver hurrying him
along: for he knew how very fast the emperor’s horses

and Peter preaching the Gospel. Alas! why did they go
no further, and why did they go so far, only to return to
China with idols !















CHINA. 85





were made to go. How different are the feelings of
a dying man who knows he is going to Jesus.
He can say with joy,—

“For me my elder brethren stay,

And angels beckon me away, Be

And Jesus bids me come.”

The Buddhists are full of tricks by which to get
_ presents out of the people.

Once a year they cause a great feast to be made,
aud for whom? For the poor? No. For beasts?
No. For children? No. For themselves? No.
You will never guess. For ghosts! The priests’ de-
clare that the souls of the dead are very hungry, and
that it is right to give them a feast. A number of
tables are set out, spread with all kinds of dishes. N 0
one is seen to eat, nor is any of the food eaten ; but
the priests say the ghosts eat the spirit of the food.
When it is supposed the ghosts have finished dinner,
the people scramble for the food, and take it home,
aud no doubt the priests get their share.

The dead are supplied with money as well as with
food, and that is done by burning gilt paper; clothes
are sent to them by cutting out paper in the shape of
clothes, (only much smaller,) and by burning the ar-
ticle; and even houses are conveyed to the dead by
making baby-houses and burning them.


SUE

—————— ee

2

——+- —- ate it sn ssgstisichnennssienashlidlisis ise tht ene pce. intensssutidomslpapgiomntinsneminiiain

86 FAR OFF. |
eee

As an instance of the deceits of the priests, I will
tell you of two priests who once stood crying over a
poor woman’s gate. “ What is the matter 2” inquired
the woman. “Do you see those ducks 2” the priests

!
veplied ; “our parents’ souls are in them, and we are |
afraid lest you should eat them for supper.” The |
foolish woman out of pity gave the ducks to the cun- |
ning priests, who promised to take great care of the
precious birds; but, in fact, they ate them for ther
own supper,

The Buddhist priests may be known by their heads
close shaven, and their black dress. The priests of
Taou have their hair in a knot at the top of their
heads, and they wear scarlet robes. ‘There are no
| riests of Confucius ; and this is a good thing.

All the religions of China are bad, but of the three
the religion of Confucius is the least foolish. |

There can be no doubt which of the three religions
of China is the least absurd.

The religion of Taou teaches men to act like mad- |



men.
The religion of Buddha teaches them to act like
idiots.



The religion of Confucius teaches them to act like |
wise men, but without souls.
Tue Empreror.—There is no emperor in the world
CHINA. 87
annette civeliniihiniaieanemabatiopaeaiecie is.
| who has as many subjects as the Emperor of China:

he has six times as many as the Emperor of Russia.

Neither is it possible for any man to be more hon-
ored than this emperor; for he is worshipped by his
people like a god. He isealled “ The Son of ILeaven,”
and “Ten Thousand Years ;” yet he dies like every
other child of earth. His sign is the dragon, and this
is painted on his flags, a fit sign for one who, like
Satan, makes himself a god.

Yet the emperor is also styled “Father of his peo-

ple,” and to show that he feels like 2 father, when



there is a famine or plague in the land, he shuts him-
| self up in his palace to grieve for his people; and by
__ this means he gets the love of his subjects,

| Once a year, too, this great emperor tries to encour-
age his people to be industrious by ploughing part of
a field and sowing a little corn; and the empress sets
an example to the women, by going once a year to
| feed silk worms and to wind the balls of silk.

The emperor wears a yellow dress, and all his rela-
tions wear yellow girdles,

But the relations of the emperor are not the most
honorable people in the Jand: the most learned are
the most honorable. Every one in China who wishes
to be a great lord studies day and night. One man,
that he might not fall asleep over his books, tied his

Epi then nett oy nkpcitatngice na Sl

Sy,
8§ FAR OFF.



——~.

long plaited tail of hair to the ceiling, and when his
head nodded, his hair was pulled tight, and that woke
him.

But what is it the Chinese learn with so much
pains ?

Chiefly the books of Confucius, and a few more ;
but in none of them is God made known: so that,
with all his wisdom, the Chinaman is foolish. still.
The words of the Bible are true.

“The world by wisdom knew not God.” Yet to
know God is better than to know all beside.

There is a great hall in every town where all the
men who wish to be counted learned meet together
once a year. They are desired to write, and then to
show what they have written; and then those who

_ have written well, and without a mistake, have an
honorable title given to them; and they are allowed



to write another year in another greater hall ; and at
last the most learned are made mandarins.

What is a mandarin? He is a ruler over a town,
| and ts counted a great man. The most learned of the
| mandarins are made the emperor’s counsellors. There
are only three of them, and they are the greatest men
in all China, next to the emperor,

There are many poor men who study hard in hopes
to be one of these three.

Ww ee ere eernespriesipienns




CHINA. 89
=nersoeneeinynimntetngenntinnensusinedinien ripen anmsteatetiiemameeritetis in lu

This is the greatest honor a Chinaman can obtain.



But a Christian can obtain a far greater, even the
honor of a crown and a throne in the presence of the
Lord Jesus Christ at his coming,

The mandarins are all of the religion of Confucius,
and despise the poor who worship Buddha.

ANIMALS AND TrrES.—Once there were lions in
China, but they have all been killed; there are still
bears and tigers in the mountains and forests on the
borders of the land.

There are small wild-cats, which are caught and
fastened in cages, and then killed and cooked. There
are tame cats, too, with soft hair and hanging ears,
which are kept by ladies as pets.

There are dogs to guard the house, and they too
are eaten; but as they are fed on rice only, their flesh
is better than the flesh of our dogs. The dogs are so
sensible that they know when the butcher is carrying
away a dog that he is going to kill him, and the poor
creatures come round him howling, as if begging for
their brother’s life.

The pig is the Chinaman’s chief dish ; for it can be
fed on all the refuse food, and there is very little food
to spare in China.

There are not many birds in China, because there
is No room for trees. Only one bird sings, and she

6 ne cneenen en








90 FAR OFF.
builds her nest on the ground; it is a bird often heard
singing in England floating in the air,—I mean the lark.
In most parts of China men carry all the burdens,
and not horses and asses.
A gentleman is carried in a chair by two men: and
a mandarin by four. Yet the emperor rides on
horseback.

THE THREE GREAT CITIES.

Pekin on the north.
Nankin in the middle.
Canton on the south.

Pekin is the grandest.
Nankin is the most learned.
Canton is the richest.

At Pekin is the emperor’s palace. The gardens are
exceedingly large, and contain hills, and lakes, and
groves within the walls, besides houses for the empe-
ror’s relations.

At Nankin is the China tower. It is made of China
bricks, and contains nine rooms one over the other.
It is two hnndred feet high, a wonderful height.

Of what use is it? Of none—of worse than none.
It isa temple for Buddha, and is full of his images.

At Canton there are so many people that there is


CHINA.



not room for all in the land; so thousands live on the
water in boats. Many have never slept a single night
on the shore. The children often fall overboard, but
as a hollow gourd is tied round each child’s neck, they
float, and are soon picked up.

For a long while the Chinese would not allow for-
eigners to come into their cities. A great many for-
eign ships came to Canton to buy tea and silk; but
the traders were forbidden to enter the town, and they
lived in a little island near, and built a town there
called Macao.

But lately the Chinese emperor has agreed to per-
mit strangers to come to five ports, called Shang-hae,
Ning-po, Foo-choo, Amoy, and Hong-Kong.

This Jast port, Hong-Kong, is an island near Can-
ton, and the English have built a city there and called
it Victoria.

Tux Two Rtvers.—There is one called Yeang-te-
sang, or “the Son of the Ocean.” It is the largest in
Asia.

The other is the Yellow River, for the soft clay
mixed with the water gives it a yellow color.

Laxrs.—There are immense lakes, covered with
boats and fishermen.

But the best fishers are the tame cormorants, who
catch fish for their masters.






| 92 FAR OFF.











ee

Tue Two Great Wonprers.—The great cANAL
is a wonder. It joins the two rivers; so that a Chi-
nese can go by water from Canton to Pekin.

The great WALL is a greater wonder, but not nearly
as useful as the canal.

This wall was built at the north of China to keep
the Tartars out. It is one thousand five hundred
miles long, twenty feet high, and twenty-five broad.
But there were not soldiers enough in China to keep
the enemies out, and the Tartars came over the wall.

The Emperor of China is a Tartar.

The Empress does not have small feet, like the
Chinese.

It is the Tartars who forced the Chinese to shave
their heads, for they used to tie up their hair in a knot
at the top of their heads. Many of the Chinese pre-
ferred losing their heads to their hair. Was it not
cruel to cut off their heads, merely because they would
not shave them? But the Tartars were very cruel to
the Chinese,

KNowLepGe and InveNntIONS—We must allow
that the Chinese are very clever. They found out
how to print, and they found out how to make oun-
powder, and they found out the use of the loadstone.
What is that? A piece of steel rubbed against the
loadstone will always point to the north. The Chi-
a ce



CHINA. 93
pie nnn ini
nese found out these three things, printing, gunpow-

der, and the use of the loadstone, before we in Europe

found them out. But they did not teach them to us;
we found them out ourselves.

But there are two arts that the Chinese did teach
us: how to make silk, and how to make china or
porcelain. And yet I should not say they taught us;
for they tried to prevent our learning their arts; but
we saw their silk and their porcelain, and by degrees
we learned to make them ourselves. A sly monk
brought some silk-worm’s eggs from China hidden in
a hollow walking-stick.

Laxeuacr.—There is no other language at all like
the Chinese. Instead of having letters to spell words,
they have a picture for each word. Teall ita picture,
but it is more like a figure than a picture. The Chi-

| nese use brushes for writing instead of pens; and they
| rub cakes of ink on a little marble dish, first dipping
them in a little water, as we dip cakes of paint. There
is a hollow place in the marble dish, to hold the water.
What do you think the Chinese mean by “ the four
marble dish, and the water, They call them precious
because they are so fond of writing. Schoolmasters
are held in great honor in China, as indeed they ought

precious things 7” They mean the ink, the brush, the
to be everywhere. Yet schools in China are much

ne re ree Se pssst ser ny snp
94 FAR OFF.







_ ae _— — ne

like those in Turkey, more fit for parrots than chil-
dren ; only Chinese boys sit in chairs with desks before
them, instead of sitting cross-legged on the ground, as
in Turkey. They learn first to paint the words, and
next to repeat lessons by heart. This they do ina
loud scream ; always turning their backs to their mas-
ters while they are saying their lessons to him.

The first book which children read is full of stories,
with a picture on each page. Would you like to hear
one of these stories ?

“There was a boy of eight years old, named Um-
wen. His parents were so poor that they could not
afford to buy a gauze curtain for their bed, to keep
off the flies in summer. This boy could not bear that
his parents should be bitten by the flies; so he stood
by their bedside, and uncovered his little bosom and
his back that the flies might bite him, instead of his
parents. ‘ For,’ said he, ‘ if they fill themselves with
my blood, they will let my parents rest.”

Would it be right for a little boy to behave in this
way? Certainly not; for it would grieve kind pa-
rents that their little boys should be bitten. Poor
little Chinese boys ! They do not know about Him
who was bitten by the old serpent that we might not
be devoured and destroyed.

Ponisument.—The Chinese are very quiet and or-





sete ree ee See






derly ; and no wonder, because they are afraid of the
great bamboo stick.

The mandarins (or rulers of towns) often sentence
offenders to lie upon the ground, and to have thirty
strokes of the bamboo. But the wooden collar is
worse than the bamboo stick.. It is a great piece of
wood with a hole for a man to put his head through.
The men in wooden collars are brought out of their
prisons every morning, and chained to a wall, where
everybody passing by can see them. They cannot
feed themselves in their wooden collars, because they
cannot bring their hands to their mouths ; but some-
times a son may be seen feeding his father, as he
stands chained to the wall. There are men also whose
business it is to feed the prisoners. For great crimes
men are strangled or beheaded,

Cuaracter.—A Chinaman’s character cannot be
known at first. You might suppose from his way of
speaking that a Chinaman was very humble; because
he calls himself “ the worthless fellow,” or “ the stupid
one,” and he ealls his son “the son of a dog ;” but if
you were to tell him he had an eyil heart, he would
be very much offended; for he only gives himself
these names thatthe may seem humble. He calls his
acquaintance “ venerable uncle,” “ honorable brother,”
This he does to please them. The Chinese are very

CHINA. 95





LS ET ttl Ri te Cl a heatinstenenastnw: sunen--sgh-entne nt
— ti tt ttt i eT
[ a — ota

|



96 FAR OFF. °

proud of their country, and think there is none like it.
They have given it the name of the “ Heavenly or
Celestial Empire.” They look upon foreigners as
monkeys and devils. Often a woman may be heard
in the streets saying to her little child, “There is a
foreign devil (or a Fan Quei”). The Chinese think
the English very ugly, and called them the “ red-
haired nation.”

It must be owned that the Chinese are industrious :
indeed, if they were not, they would be starved. A
poor man often has to work all day up to the knees
in water in the rice-field, and yet gets nothing for
supper but a little rice and a few potatoes.

The ladies who can live without working are very
idle, and in the winter rise very late in the morning.

Men, too, play, as children do here; flying kites is
a favorite game. Dancing, however, is quite unknown.

The Chinese are very selfish and unfeeling. Beg-
gars may be seen in the middle of the town dying,
and no one caring for them, but people gambling close
by.

The Chinese have an idea that after a man is dead
the house must be cleansed from ghosts; so to save
themselves this trouble, poor people*often cast their
dying relations out of their hovels into the street to
die !




CHINA. 97



But in general sons treat their parents with great
respect. They often keep their father’s coffin in the
house for three months, and a son has been known to
sleep by it for three years. Relations are usually kind
to each other, because they meet together in the “ Hall
of Ancestors” to worship the same persons. To save
money they often live together, and a hundred eat at
the same table.

The Chinese used to be temperate, preferring tea to
wine. There are tea-taverns in the towns. How
much better than our beer-shops! But lately they
have begun to smoke opium. This is the juice of the
white poppy, made up into dark balls. The Chinese
are not allowed to have it; but the English, sad to
say, sell it to them secretly. There are many opium
taverns in China, where men may be seen lying on
cushions snuffing up the hot opium, and puffing it out
of their mouths. Those who smoke opium have sun-
ken cheeks and trembling hands, and soon become
old, foolish, and sick. Why, then, do they take
opium? Many of them say they wish to leave it off
but cannot.

Misstonaries.—Are there any in China? Yes,
many; and more are going there. But how many
are wanted for so.many people! Missionaries travel
about China to distribute Bibles and tracts, One of

4"




ee
nr a ee a a

98 FAR OFF.

them hired a rough kind of chair with two bearers.
In this he went to villages among the mountains,
where a white man had never been seen. ‘The chil-
dren screaming with terror ran to their mothers. The
men came round him to look at his clothes and his
white skin. They were much surprised at the white-
ness of his hands, and they put their yellow ones close
to his to see the difference. These mountaineers were
kind, and brought tea and cakes to refresh the stranger

An English lady went to China to teach little girls;
for no one teaches them. She has several little crea-
tures in her school that she saved from perishing : be-
cause the Chinese are so cruel as to leave many girl-

sn stress sis sus stesesisrsseensisitsnssestehneereenscens

babies to die in the streets; they say that girls are not
worth the trouble of bringing up.

One cold rainy evening, Miss Aldersey heard a low
wailing outside the street-door, and looking out she
saw a poor babe, wrapped in coarse matting, lying on
the stone pavement. She could not bear to leave it
there to be devoured by famished dogs; so she kindly
took it in, and brought it up.

It is a common thing to stumble over the bodies of

dead babies in the streets. In England it is counted
murder to kill a babe, but it is thought no harm in
China. Yet the Chinese call themselves good. But
when you ask a poor man where he expects to go

Fa arrears er lire ennetnasspetareapusenentedai-peneipenestacignuninanaiaginnensite
|

'
|

|
|
ln



CHINA. 99



when he dies, he replies, “To hell of course ;” and he
says this with a loud laugh. His reason for thinking
he shall go to hell is, because he has not money enough
to give to the gods; for rich people all expect to go
to heaven. Mandarins especially expect to go there.
It they were to read the Bible, they would see that
God will punish kings, and mighty men, and great
captains, and all who are wicked.


Corbin Ching.



Any one on hearing this name would guess that
the country was like China; andsoitis. If you were
to go there you would be reminded of China by many
of the customs. You would see at dinner small ba-
sins instead of plates, chop-sticks instead of knives
and forks; you would have rice to eat instead of
bread ; and rice wine to drink instead of grape wine.

But you would not find ad/ the Chinese customs in
Cochin-China : for you would see the women walk-
ing about at liberty, and with large feet, that is, with
feet of the natural size, and pot cramped up like the
“golden lilies” of China. Neither would you see the
people treated as strictly in Cochin-China as in China,
Beatings are not nearly as common there, and beha-
vior is not nearly as good as in China.

The people are very different from the Chinese ;
for they are gay and talkative, and open and sociable,
while the Chinese are just the contrary. However,
they resemble the Chinese in fondness for eating.

They are very fond of giving grand dinners, and

ae




——_———

COCHIN CHINA. 101



sometimes provide a hundred dishes, and invite a
hundred guests. A man is thought very generous
who gives such grand dinners. No one in Cochin-
China would think of eating his morsel alone, but
every one asks those around to partake; and if any
one were not to do so, he would be counted very
mean. Yet the people of Cochin-China are always
begging for gifts ; and if they cannot get the things
they ask for, they steal them. Are they generous ?
No, because they are covetous. It is impossible to be
at the same time - generous and covetous; for what
goodness is there in giving away our own things, if
we are wishing for other people’s things ?

And now let us leave the people and look at the
land. It is fruitful and beautiful, being watered abun-
dantly by fine rivers: but these rivers, flowing among
lofty mountains, often overflow, and drown men and”
cattle. The grass of such a country must be very rich ;
and there are cows feeding on it ; yet there is no milk
or butter to be had. Why? Because the people
have a foolish idea that it is wrong to milk cows.

In no country are there stronger and larger ele-
phants; so strong and so large that one can carry
thirteen persons on his back at once.

The land is full of idols : for Buddha or Fo is wor-
shipped in Cochin-China, as he is in China.


102 FAR OFF.



The idols are sometimes kept in high trees, and
priests may be seen mounting iadders to present of-
ferings.

But the people are not satisfied with idols in trees ;
they have pocket idols, which they carry about with
them everywhere.

TONQUIN.—CAMBODIA.

These two kingdoms belong to the king of Cochin-
China ; yet all three, Tonquin, Cambodia, and Cochin-
China, pay tribute to China, and therefore they must
be cdnsidered as conquered countries.

They are all very much like China in their customs.
There are large cities in them all, and multitudes of

eMBeople, but very little is known about them in Eng-
land.


Bindostan.

Tu1s word Hindostan means “ black place,” for in-
the Persian language “ hind” is “ black,” and “stan” -
is “place.” You may guess, therefore, that the peo-
ple in Hindostan are very dark ; yet they are not
quite black, and some of the ladies are only of a light
brown complexion. ,

What a large country Hindostan is! Has it an
emperor of its own, as China has? No: large as it
is, it belongs to the little country called England.

How did the English get it ? a3

They conquered it by little and little. When first
they came there, they found there a Mahomedan peo-
ple, called the Moguls. These Moguls had conquered
Hindostan : but by degrees the English conquered
them, and became masters of all the land.

There is only one small country among the moun-
tains which has not been conquered by tie English,
and that place is Nepaul. It is near the Himalaya
mountains, See that great chain of mountains in the






104 FAR OFF,

north: they are the Himalaya—the highest moun-
tains in the world” The word “him,” or “ hem,”
means snow—and snowy indeed are those mountains.

There is a great river that flows from the Himalaya
called the Ganges. It flows by many mouths into the
oceah ; yet of all these mouths only one is deep
enough for large ships to sail in; the other mouths
are all choked up with sand. The deep mouth of the
Ganges is called the Hoogley.

It was on the banks of the Hoogley that the first
English city was built. It was built by some. English
merchants, and is called Calcutta. That name comes
from the name of a horrible idol called Kalee, of
which more will be said hereafter.

Calcutta is now a very grand city; there is the

governor’s palace, and there are the mansions of many

rich Englishmen. It has been called “the city of

palaces.”

There is another great river on the other side of
Hindostan called the Indus. It was from that river
that Hindostan got the name of India, or the East
Indies. .

Vittaces.—Caleutta is built on a large plain called
Bengal. Dotted about this plain are many villages.

, At a distance they look prettier than English villages,

~ for they are overshadowed with thick trees; but they


HINDOSTAN. 105
~eenreneptinctiinnp ennai taegsameesilsdea
are wretched places to live in. The huts are scarcely
big enough to hold human creatures, nor strong
enough to bear the pelting of the storm. When you
enter them you will find neither floor nor window, and
very little furniture; neither chair, nor table, nor bed
—nothing bnt a large earthen bottle for fetching wa-
ter, a smaller one for drinking, a basket for clothes, a
few earthen pans, a few brass plates, and a mat.

A Hindoo is counted very rich who has procured
a wooden bedstead to place his mat upon, and a
wooden trunk, with a lock and key, to contain his
clothes; such a man is considered to have a well-fur-
nished house.

As you pass through the villages, you may see
groups of men sitting under the trees smoking their
pipes, while children, without clothes, are rolling in
the dust, and sporting with the kids. Prowling about
the villages are hungry dogs and whining jackalls,
seeking for bones and offal; but the children are too
much used to these creatures to be afraid of them.

Hovering in the air are crows and kites, ready to se-

cure any morsel they can see, or even to snatch the

| food, if they can, out of the children’s little hands.
What a confused noise do you hear as you pass

along ! barking, whining, and squalling, loud laugh-

ing, and incessant chattering. It is a heathen village,

ere hntpatstsaanngsnegiereee


ee eetieeneatteereetnees. Seat tet ete reeasenenseans tee sei

106 FAR OFF.

and the sweet notes of praise to God are never sung



there.

Yet in every village there is a little temple with an
idol, and a priest to take the idol, to lay it down to
sleep, and to offer it food, which he eats himself

The poor people bring the food for the idol with
flowers, and place it at the door of the temple.

APPEARANCE.—The Hindoos are pleasing in their
appearance, for their features are well-formed, their
teeth are white, and their eyes have a soft expression.
The women take much pains to dress their long black
hair, which is soft as silk : they gather it up in a knot
at their heads, and crown it with flowers. They have
no occasion for a needle to make their dresses, as they
are all in one piece. They wind a long strip of white
muslin (called a saree) round their bodies, and fold it
over their heads like a veil, and then they are full
dressed, except their ornaments, and with these they
load themselves ; glass rings of different colors on
their arms, silver rings on their fingers and toes, and

gold rings in their ears, and a gold ring in their nose.

The men wear a long strip of calico twisted closely
round their bodies, and another thrown loosely over
their shoulders ; but this last they cast off when they
are at work: it is their upper garment. On their
heads they wear turbans, and on their feet sandals,

witch thaanteicinas tl

bee
net ae tect a aaa a tl

|





i
Serenata bi nenninctieseesitl



HINDOSTAN, 107
eri ha sae ea aces
The clothes of both men and women are generally
white or pink, or white bordered with red.

Foop.—The most common food is rice; and with
this curry is often mixed to give it a relish, What is
curry? Itis a mixture of herbs, spices, and oil.

Very poor people cannot afford to eat either rice or
curry ; and they eat some coarse grain instead. A
lady who made a feast for the poor provided nothing
but rice, and she found that it was thought as good as
roast beef and plum pudding are thought in England.
The day after the feast some of the poor creatures
came to pick up the grains of rice that were fallen
upon the ground.

The rich Hindoos eat mutton and venison, but not
beef; this they think it wicked to eat, because they
worship bulls and cows.

A favorite food is clarified butter, called “ghee,”
white rancid stuff, kept in skin bottles to mix with
curry,

Water is the general drink, and there could not be
a better. Yet there are intoxicating drinks, and
some of the Hindoos haye learned to love them, from
seeing the English drink too much. What a sad
thing that Christians should set a bad example fo
heathens !

Propucrions.—There are many beautiful trees in

*
-
~



|
|
|
|

~———— i a me
eee a rn ti a ery

108 FAR OFF,

Lt te lesen





India never seen in England, and many nice fruits
never tasted here.
The palm-tree, with its immense leaves, is the glory

of India. These leaves are very useful; they form the
roof, the umbrella, the bed, the plate, and the writing-
paper of the Hindoo.
The most curious tree in India is the banyan, be-
cause one tree grows into a hundred. How is that?
| The branches hang down, touch the ground, strike
| root there, and spring up into new trees—joined to
the old. Under an aged banyan there is shade for a
| large congregation. Seventy thousand men might sit
| beneath its boughs,

There is a sort of grass which grows a hundred feet
high, and becomes hard like wood. It is called the
bamboo. The stem is hollow like a pipe, and is often
used as a water-pipe. It serves also for posts for
| houses, and for poles for carriages,

There are abundance of nice fruits in India; and
of these the mangoe is the best. You might mistake
it for a pear when you saw it, but not when you
tasted it. Pears cannot grow in India; the sun is



too hot for grapes andl oranges, excepting on the hills,

The chief productions of India are rice and cotton ;
rice is the food, and cotton is the clothing of the Hin-
doo: and quantities of these are sent to England, for

-——__—-



|
|
|
|

|
|

ee eee a aH
HINDOSTAN. 109

though we have wheat for food, we want rice too; and
though we have wool for clothing, we want cotton too.

Revicion.—There is no nation that has so many
gods as the Hindoos. What do you think of three
hundred and thirty millions! There are not so many
people in Hindostan as that. No one person can
know the names of all these gods; and who would
wish to know them? Some of them are snakes, and

some are monkeys !
The chief god of all is called Brahm. But, strange

to say, no one worships him. There is not an image
of him in all India.

And why not? Because he is too great, the Hin-
doos say, to think of men on earth. He is always
in a kind of sleep. What would be the use of wor-
shipping him ?

Next to him are three gods, and they are part of
Brahm.

Their names are—

I. Brahma, the Creator.

II. Vishnoo, the Preserver.

III. Sheeva, the Destroyer.

Which of these should you think men ought to
worship the most? Not the destroyer. Yet itis him
they do worship the most. Very few worship Brahma
the creator. And why not? Because the Hindoos







110 FAR OFF.
eS
think he can do no more for them than he has done;
and they do not care about thanking him.

Vishnoo, the preserver, is a great favorite; because
it is supposed that he bestows all manner of gifts.
The Hindoos say he has been nine times upon the
earth ; first as a fish, then as a tortoise, a man, a lion,
a boar, a dwarf, a giant; twice as a warrior, named
Ram, and once as a thief, named Krishna, They say
he will come again as a conquering king, riding on a
white horse. Is it not wonderful they should say
that? It reminds one of the prophecy in Rey. xix.
about Christ’s second coming. Did the Hindoos hear
that prophecy in old time ? They may have heard
it, for the apostle Thomas once preached in India, at
least we believe he did.

Why do the people worship Sheeva the destroyer ?
Because they hope that if they gain his favor, they
shall not be destroyed by him. They do not know
that none can save from the destroyer but God.

The Hindoos make images of their gods. Brahma
is represented as riding on a goose; Vishnoo on a
creature half-bird and half-man; and Sheeva on a
bull.

Sheeva’s image looks horribly ferocious with the
tiger-skin and the necklace of skulls and snakes ; but
Sheeva’s wife is far fiercer than himself. Her name is








+0

“ wOWLAND

’
‘

er

p. Lit.

THE SWING

lee


HINDOSTAN. | 11]
eee
Kalee. Her whole delight is said to be in blood.
Those who wish to please her, offer up the blood of
beasts; but those who wish to please her still more,
offer up their own blood.

Her great temple, called Kalee Ghaut, is near Cal-
cutta. There is a great feast in her honor once a
year at that temple. Early in the morning crowds
assemble there with the noise of trumpets and kettle-
drums. See those wild fierce men adorned with flow-
ers. They go towards the temple. A blacksmith is
ready. Lo! one puts out his tongue, and the black-
smith cuts it: that is to please Kalee: another chooses
rather to have an iron bar run through his tongue.
Some thrust iron bars and burning coals into their
sides. The boldest mount a wooden scaffold and
throw themselves down upon iron spikes beneath, stuck
in bags of sand. It is very painful to fall upon these
spikes; but there is another way of torture quite as
painful—it is the swing. Those who determine to
swing, allow the blacksmith to drive hooks into the
flesh upon their backs, and hanging by these hooks
they swing in the air for ten minutes, or even for half
an hour. And why all thesé cruel tortures? To
please Kalee, and to make the people wonder and ad-
mire, for the multitude around shout with joy as they
behold these horrible deeds.



a ne
112 FAR OFF.



Tue Castes.—The Hindoos pretend that when
Brahma created men, he made some out of his mouth,
some out of his arms, some out of his breast, and some
out of his foot. They say the priests came out of
Brahma’s mouth, the soldiers came out of his arm, the
merchants came out of his breast, the laborers came out
of his foot. You may easily guess who invented this '
history. It was the priests themselves: it was they
who wrote the sacred books where this history is
found.

The priests are very proud of their high birth, and
they call themselves Brahmins.

The laborers, who are told they come out of Brah-
ma’s foot, are much ashamed of their low birth. They
are called sudras.

You would be astonished to hear the great respect
the sudras pay to the high and haughty Brahmins.
When a sudra meets a Brahmin in the street, he
touches the ground three times with his forehead,
then, taking the priest’s foot in his hand, he kisses his
toe.

The water in which a Brahmin has washed his feet
is thought very holy. It is even believed that such
water can cure diseases.

A Hindoo prince, who was very ill of a fever, was
advised to try this remedy. He invited the Brahmins







HINDOSTAN. 113



from all parts of the country to assemble at his palace.
Many thousands came. Each, as he arrived, was re-
quested to wash his feet in a basin. This was the
medicine given to the sick prince to drink. It cost a
great deal of money to procure it ; for several shillings
were given toeach Brahmin to pay him for his trouble,
and a good dinner was provided for all. It is said
that the prince recovered immediately, but we are
quite certain that it was not the water which cured
him.

In the holy books, or shasters, great blessings are
promised to those who are kind to a Brahmin. Any
one who gives him an umbrella will never more be
scorched by the sun; any one who gives him a pair
of shoes will never have blistered feet ; any one who
gives him sweet spices will never more be annoyed by
ill smells; and any one who gives him a cow will go
to heaven.

You may be sure that, after such promises, the
Brahmins get plenty of presents; indeed, they may
generally be known by their well-fed appearance, as
well as by their proud manner of walking. They al-
ways wear a white cord hung round their necks,

But we must not suppose that all Brabmins are
rich, and all sudras poor; for it is not so. There are .
so many Brahmins that some can find no employment


114 FAR OFF.
eS
as priests, and they are obliged to learn trades. Many
of them become cooks.

There are sudras as rich as princes ; but still a sudra
can never be as honorable as a Brahmin, though the
Brahmin be the cook and the sudra the master.

But the sudras are not the most despised people.
Far from it. It is those who have no caste at all who
are the most despised. They are called pariahs.
These are people who have lost their caste. It isa
very easy thing to lose caste, and once lost it can never
be regained. A Brahmin would lose his caste by eat-
ing with a sudra; a sudra would lose his by eating
with a pariah, and by eating with you—yes, with you,
for the Hindoos think that no one is holy but them-
selves. It often makes a missionary smile when he
enters a cottage to see the people putting away their
food with haste, lest he should defile it by his touch.

Once an English officer, walking along the road,
passed very near a Hindoo just going to eat his din-
ner; suddenly he saw the man take up the dish and
dash it angrily to the ground. Why? The officer's
shadow had passed over the food and polluted it.

If you were to invite poor Hindoos to come to a
feast, they would not eat if you sat down with them:
nor would they eat unless they knew a Hindoo had
cooked their food. Even children at school will not
HINDOSTAN. 115
ee eC
eat with children of a lower caste,—or with their
teachers, if the teachers are not Hindoos.

There was once a little Hindoo girl named Rajee.
She went to a missionary’s school, but she would not
eat with her schoolfellows, because she belonged to a
higher caste than they did. Asshe lived at the school,
her mother brought her food every day, and Rajee sat
under a tree to eat it. At the end of two years she
told her mother that she wished to turn from idols,
and serve the living God. Her mother was much
troubled at hearing this, and begged her child not to
bring disgrace on the family by becoming a Christian.
But Rajee was anxious to save her precious soul. She
cared no longer for her caste, for she knew that all
she had been taught about it was deceit and folly ;
therefore one day she sat down and ate with her
schoolfellows. When her mother heard of Rajee’s
conduct, she ran to the school in a rage, and seizing
her little daughter by the hair of the head, began to
beat her severely. Then she hastened to the priests
to ask them whether the child had lost her caste for-
ever. The priests replied, “ Has the child got her new
teeth?” “No,” said the mother. “Then we can
cleanse her, and when her new teeth come she will
be as pure as ever. But you must pay a good deal #].


116 FAR OFF.
ig eee
of money for the cleansing.” Were they not cunning
priests ? and covetous priests too ?

The money was paid, and Rajee was brought home
against her will. Dreadful sufferings awaited the poor



child. The cleansing was a cruel business. The
priests burned the child’s tongue. This was one of
their cruelties. When little Rajee was suffered to go
back to school, she was so ill that she could not rise
from her bed.

The poor deceived mother came to see her. “Iam
going to Jesus,” said the young martyr. The mother
began to weep, “ O Rajee, we will not let you die.”

“ But I am glad,” the little sufferer replied, “ be-
cause I shall go to Jesus. If you, mother, would love
him, and give up your idols, we should meet again in
heaven.”

An hour afterwards Rajee went to heaven; but I
have never heard whether her mother gave up her
idols.

Tur Ganexs.—This beautiful river waters the sul-
try plain of Bengal. God made this river to be a
blessing, but man has turned it into a curse. The
Hindoos say the River Ganges is the goddess Gunga;
and they flock from all parts of India to worship her.
When they reach the river they bathe in it, and fancy
they have washed away all their sins. They carry

a eee —


HINDOSTAN. 117

away large bottles of the sacred water for their friends
at home.

But this is not all; very cruel deeds are committed
by the side of the river. It is supposed that all who
die there will go to the Hindoo heaven. It is there-
fore the custom to drag dying people out of their beds,
and to lay them in the mud, exposed to the heat of
the broiling sun, and then to pour pails of water over
their heads.

One sick man, who was being carried to the water,
covered up as if he were dead, suddenly threw off the
covering, and called out, “I am not dead, I am only
very ill” He knew that the cruel people who were
carrying him were going to cast him into the water
while he was still alive: but nothing he could say
could save him: the cruel creatures answered, “ You
may as well die now as at any other time;” and so
they drowned him, pretending all the while to be very
kind. id

It is thought a good thing to be thrown into the J
river after death. The Ganges is the great burying
place ; and dead bodies may be seen floating on its ~
waters, while crows and vultures are tearing the flesh
from the bones. There would be many more of these
horrible sights were it not that many bodies are burn-
ed, and their ashes only cast into the river.
118 FAR OFF.





Some foolish deceived creatures drown themselves
in the Ganges, hoping to be very happy hereafter as
a reward. The Brahmins are ready to accompany
such people into the water. Some men were once
seen going into the river with a large empty jar fast-
ened to the back of each. The empty jar prevented
them from sinking ; but there was a cup in the hands
of each of the poor men, and with these cups they
filled the jars, and then they began to sink. One of
them grew frightened, and tried to get on shore; but
the wicked Brahmins in their boats hunted him, and
tried to keep him in the water; however, they could
not catch him, and the miserable man escaped. There

are villages near the river whither such poor creatures
flee, and where they end their days together ; for
their old friends would not speak to them if they were
to return to their homes.

Breeears.—As you walk about Hindostan, you will
sometimes meet a horrible object, with no other cov-
ering than a tiger’s skin, or else an orange scarf; his
body besmeared with ashes, his hair matted like the

shaggy coat of a wild beast, and his nails like birds’

because he is considered as one of the holiest of men.
W bo is he ?

claws. The man is a beggar, and a very bold one,
| A sunnyasee. Who is he ?

|

L


HINDOSTAN. 119
‘Git Ritintctentecenbpmnenemainnnstntngieyatieipeigiriaigi Chie at
A Brahmin, who wishing to be more holy than



other Brahmins (holy as they are), has left all and
become a beggar. As a reward, he expects, when he
dies, to go straight to heaven, without being first born
again in the world. It is wonderful to see the tor-
tures which a sunnyasee will endure. He will stand
for years on one leg, till it is full of wounds, or, if he
prefers it, he will clench his fist till the nails grow
through the hands.

These holy beggars are found in all parts of India,
but they are particularly fond of the most desolate
spots. Near the mouth of the Ganges there are
some desert places, the resort of tigers, and there
many of the sunnyasees live in huts. They pretend
not to be afraid of the tigers, and the Hindoos think

| that tigers will not touch such holy men; but it is
certain that tigers have been seen dragging some of
these proud men into the woods.

There is another kind of begyars called fakirs ; they
| are just as wicked and foolish as the sunnyasees ;
| but they are Mahomedans and not Brahmins.
| Animats.—Some of the fiercest and most disagree-
| able animals are highly honored in India.
| The monkey is counted as.a god; the consequence
| is, that the monkeys, finding they are treated with

respect, grow very bold, and are continually scram- j

ene eee eye Se ep hen etarmeaeenetenemnens



aaa a I eateries india ncn ita a a ie i




120 FAR OFF.

bling upon the roofs of the houses. In one place
there is a garden where monkeys riot about at their
pleasure, for all in that garden is for them alone, the
delicious fruits, the cool fountains, the shady bowers,
all are for the worthless, mischievous monkeys.

But if it be strange for men to worship monkeys, is
it not stranger still to worship snakes and serpents ?
Yet there is a temple in India where serpents crawl
about at their pleasure, where they are waited upon
by priests, and fed with fruits and every dainty.
How much delighted must the old serpent be with
this worship !

Kites also, those fierce birds, are worshipped. There

is meat sold in shops on purpose for them; and it is

bought and thrown up in the air to the great greedy
creatures.

There are splendid peacocks flying about in the
woods, but the Hindoos do not worship them; they
shoot and eat them.

Of all the animals in India there is none which ter-
rifies man so much as the tiger. The Bengal tiger is
a fine and fierce beast. Woe to the man or woman
on whom he springs! What then do you think must
become of the man who falls into his den? These dens
are generally hid in jungles, which are places covered
with trees, and overgrown with shrubs and tall grass.




HINDOSTAN. 121

A gentleman was once walking through a jungle,
when he felt himself sinking into the ground, while a
cloud of dust blinded his eyes. Soom he heard a low
growling noise. Ile fancied that he had sunk into a
den, and so he had. Beside him lay some little tigers,
too young indeed to hurt him; but these tigers had a
mother, and she could not be far off, though she was
not in the den when the stranger fell in. The aston-
ished man felt there was no time to be lost, for the ti-
gress, he knew, would soon return to her cubs. How
could he prepare to meet her? He had neither gun
nor sword, nor even stick in his hand. But a
thought came into his head. Snatching a silk hand-
kerchief from his neck, and taking another from his
pocket, he bound them tightly round his arm up to
his elbow ; and thus prepared to meet his enemy. She
soon appeared, crouching on the ground, and then
with a spring leaped upon the stranger. At the same
moment the brave man thrust his arm between her
‘ open jaws, and seizing hold of her rough tongue,
twisted it backwards and forwards with all his might.
The beast was now unable to close her mouth, and to
bite with her sharp fangs ; but she could scratch with
her sharp claws; and scratch she did, till the clothes
were torn off the man’s body, and the flesh from his
bones. But the brave man wonld not loose his hold ;









122 FAR OFF.



and the tigress was tired out first: alarmed,—with a
sudden start backward, she jerked her tongue out of
the man’s hand, and rushed out of the den and out of
the jungle.

How glad was the man to escape from a horrible
fate! his body was faint and bleeding; but his life
was preserved, and his heart overflowed with gratitude
to God for his wonderful deliverance. He who deliy-
ered Daniel from the lion’s den delivered him from
the tiger’s den. The tiger’s mouth, indeed, had not
been shut; but his open mouth had not been suffered
to devour the Lord’s servant.

THE THUGS.

There is a set of people in India more dangerous
than wild beasts. They are called Thugs, that is, de-
ceivers ; and well do they deserve the name ; for their
whole employment is to dececve that they may destroy.
Yet they are not ashamed of their wickedness; for
they worship the goddess Kalee, and they know that
she delights in blood. Before they set out on one of
their cruel journeys, they bow down before the image
of Kalee, and they ask her to bless the shovel and the
cloth that they hold in their hands.




| ;

JHE THUGS.
sairherenipangnttindnestitnmtantcentneetitininenmsenssptinpaniicages

What are they for ?
The cluth is to strangle poor travellers, and the

shovel tu dig their graves.

A Hindoo family were once travelling when they
| overtook three men on the way. These men seemed
| very civil and obliging ; and they soon got acquainted

with the family, and accompanied them on their jour-
| ney. Who were these men? Alas! they were

Thugs. It was very foolish of the family to be so

ready to go with strangers. At last they came up to

three other men, who were sitting under the shade of
a tree, eating sugared rice. These men also were
Thugs; and they had agreed with the other Thugs to
help them in their wicked plans. But the family
thought they were kind and friendly men, and con-
sented to sit down with them in the shade, and to
partake of their food. They did not know that with
the rice was mixed a sort of drug to cause people to
fall asleep. The family ate and fell asleep: and when
they were asleep, the Thugs strangled them all with
their cloths,—the father, the mother, and the five
young people,—and then with their shovels they dug



ped them of their garments and their jewels ; for it
was to get their precious spoils they had committed
these dreadful murders. The Thugs went afterwards

riot patentee tenennentneeatntenpiasasaneplrantasttiipeieeeeanatininine-ammcersnsesigll



their graves. But before they buried them they strip- .

%
124 FAR OFF.

to the priests of Kalee to receive a blessing, and they
rewarded the priests by giving them some of their
stolen treasures.

But, after all, these wicked men did not escape
punishment ; for the English governors heard of their
crimes, and caught them, and brought them to justice.
Then these murderers confessed the wicked deed just
related: but this was not their only crime; for it had
been the business of their lives to rob and to destroy.

Do not these Thugs resemble him who is always
walking about seeking whom he may devour? Only
he destroys the soul as well as the body. He is the
great Deceiver, and the great Destroyer. None but
God can keep us from falling into his power: there-
fore we pray, “ Deliver us from evil,” or from the evil
one. ‘

THE HINDOO WOMEN,

It isa miserable thing to be a Hindoo lady. While
she is a very little girl, she is allowed to play about,
but when she comes to be ten or twelve years old, she
is shut up in the back rooms of the house till she is
married ; and when she is married she is shut up still.
She may indeed walk in the garden at the back of the
house, but nowhere else.






THE HINDOO WOMEN. 125



Hindoo ladies are not taught even those trifling ac-
complishments which Chinese ladies learn: they can
neither paint, nor play music; much less can they
read and write. They amuse themselves by putting
on their ornaments, or by making curries and sweet-
meats to please their husbands: but most of their time
they spend in idleness, sauntering about and chatter-
ing nonsense. As rich Hindoos have several wives,
the ladies are not alone; and being so much together,
they quarrel a great deal.

Some English ladies once visited the house of a rich
Hindoo. They were led into the court at the back
of the house, and shown into a little chamber. One
by one some women came in, all looking very shy and
afraid to speak; yet dressed very fine in muslin sarees,
worked with gold and silver flowers, and they were
adorned with pearls and diamonds. At last they ven-
tured to admire the clothes of their visitors, and even
to touch them. Then they asked the English ladies
to come and see their jewels; and they took them
into a little dark chamber with gratings for windows,
and displayed their treasures. They talked very loud,
and all together and so foolishly, that the ladies re-
proved them. The poor creatures replied, “ We should
like to learn to read and work like the English ladies ;
but we have nothing to do, and so we are accustomed




126 FAR OFF.

to be idle, and to talk foolishly. Do come again, and
bring us books, and pictures, and dolls.”

You see what useless, wearisome lives the Hindoo
ladies lead. Now hear what hard and wretched lives
the poor women lead. The wife of a poor man rises
from her mat before it is day, and by the light of a
lamp spins cotton for the family clothing. Next she
feeds the children, and sweeps the house and yard,
and cleans the brass and stone vessels. Then she
washes the rice, bruises, and boils it. By this time it
is ten o’clock, when she goes with some other women
to bathe in the river, or if there be no river near, in a
great tank of rain-water. While there, she often
makes a clay image of her god, and worships it with
prayers, and bowings, and offerings of fruit and flow-
ers, for nearly an hour. On her return home she
prepares the curry for dinner: her kitchen is a clay
furnace in the yard, and there she boils the rice.
When dinner is ready, she dares not sit down with
her husband to eat it: no, she places it respectfully
before his mat, and then retires to the yard. Her
little boys eat with their father; but her little girls
dine with her upon the food that is left.

It is not the busy life she leads that makes a poor
woman unhappy: it is the ill-treatment she endures,
A kind word is seldom spoken to her: but a hard





THE HINDOO WOMEN. 127

blow is often given. Her own boys are encouraged to

insult her because she is only a woman. She is
taught to worship her husband as a god, however bad
he may be. There is a proverb which shows how
much women are despised in India. “ How can you
place the black rice-pot beside the golden spice-box !”
By the rice-box a woman is meant: by the spice-box
aman: and the meaning of the proverb is that a wife
is unworthy to sit at the same table with her husband.

In this manner a wife is treated: a widow is still
more despised. However young she may be, she is
not allowed to marry again; but is obliged to live in
her father’s house, or (if she has no father) in her
brother’s house, to do the hardest work, and never to
eat more than one meal a day, and that meal of the
coarsest food. Widows used to burn themselves in a
great fire with their husbands’ dead bodies ; but the
English government has forbidden them to do so any
more ; but their hard-hearted relations make them as
miserable as possible.

Mission Arres.—There are hundreds of missionaries
in India; but not nearly enough for so many millions.
of people. The Hindoos call them Padri-Sahibs, which
means “Father-Gentlemen,” and they give them this
name to show their love, as well as respect.

Once a missionary who had been long in India was









128 FAR OFF.
ee
going back to England for a little while. It was from
Calcutta that he set sail. The Christian Hindoos
stood in crowds by the river-side to bid him farewell.
Among the rest was a little girl with her parents.
She was a gracious child, who had turned from idols
to serve the living God. The missionary said to her,
“ Well, my child, you know I am going to England.
What shall I bring you from that country ?”

“TI do not want anything,” she modestly replied.
“JT have my parents, and my brother, and the Padri-
Sahibs, and my books, what can I want more ?”

“But,” said the missionary, “you are only a little
girl, and surely you would like something from Eng-
land. Shall I bring you some playthings ?”

“No, thank you,” said the child; “I do not want
playthings—I am learning to read.”

“ Come, come,” said the missionary, “ shall I bring
you a playfellow, a white child from England ”

“No, no,” answered the little girl, “it would be
taking her from her parents.”

“ Well then,” said her friend, “is there nothing I
can bring you #”

“ Well, if you are so kind as to tealat 0 on bringing
me something, ask the Christians in England to send
me a Bible-book and more Papri-Saniss.”

This was a good request indeed, but to get Padri-
















































NS re ey “

DIRS Bid a

MISSIONARYS




HOUSE.

p Lee.

it


THE HINDOO WOMEN. 129



Sahibs is a hard thing to do. Who can tell how
~ much good they have done already! There are
many Christian villages in India, and they are as dif-
ferent from heathen villages as a dove’s nest is differ-
ent from a tiger’s den.

Some very wicked men have been converted. You
have heard of those proud and hateful beggars, the
Sunnyasees and the Fakirs.

One day a missionary, who had gone for his health
to the Himalaya Mountains, was walking in the ve-
randah of his house, when he was surprised by a man
suddenly throwing himself down at his feet, and em-
bracing his knees. The missionaary could not tell
who this man was, for a dark blanket covered the
man’s head and face. But soon the covering was
lifted up, and a swarthy and withered countenance
was shown ; the missionary knew it to be that of an
old Fakir he once had known, as the chief priest of
a gang of robbers, but now the Mahomedan was be-
come a Christian ; and he had travelled six hundred
miles, hoping to see once more the face of his teacher ;
and lo! he had seen it at last.

ScHoois.—The Hindoos have schools of their own,
but only for boys. The scholars sit in a shed, cross-
legged upon mats, and learn to scratch letters with
iron pins upon large leaves. But what can they

9


130 FAR OFF.




learn from Brahmin teachers but foolish tales about
false gods ?

Missionaries have far better schools, where the Bible
is taught ; and missionaries’ wives have schools for
girls ; and sometimes they take pity on poor orphans,
and receive them into their houses.

One evening as a Christian lady was returning
home, she saw a Hindoo woman lying on the ground,
and a little boy sitting by her side. The lady spoke
kindly to the sick woman, and then the little boy
looked up and said, with tears in his eyes, “My
mother is sick, and has nothing to eat; I fear she
will die.” The lady had compassion on the mother
and the child, and hastening home, she sent her ser-
vant to fetch them both. They were soon put to
rest on a nice clean mat, with a blanket to cover them ;
but the mother died next morning. The little boy
was left an orphan, but not forlorn, nor friendless, for
the Christian lady took care of him. He was five
years old, thin and delicate, and much fairer than
most Hindoo children. He had many winning ways ;
but he had a proud heart. He was proud of his
name, “ Ramchunda,” because it was the name of a
great false god : but when he had learned about the
true God, he asked for a new name, and was called

“John.” His wishing to change his name was a good




THE HINDOO WOMEN. 131





sion: and there were other good signs in this little
° orphan; and before he died,—for he died soon,—he
showed plainly that he had not a new name only, but
anew nature.

Little Phebe was another child received by a mis-
sionary’s wife. She was not an orphan, yet she was
as much to be pitied as an orphan; for her mother
told the missionaries that if they did not take the
child, she would throw her to the jackals. It was a
happy exchange for the infant to leave so cruel a
mother to be reared by a Christian lady, who, instead
of throwing her to jackals, brought her to Jesus.

She died when only five years old by an accident:
when washing her hands in the great tank she fell in,
and was drowned.

But some Hindoo children, though carefully in-»

structed, do not grow gentle and loving, like John
and Phebe.

The tents of some English soldiers were pitched in
a lonely part of India; and the night was dark, when
an officer’s lady thought she heard the sound of a child
crying. The lady sent her servants out to look, and
at last they brought in a little girl of four years old.
And where do you think they had found her?
Buried up to her throat in a bog, her little head alone
peeping out. And who do you think had put her



”


132 FAR OFF.

there? Her cruel mother. Yes, she had left her
there to die. ”

This child gave a great deal of trouble to the kind
lady who had saved her, nor did she show her any
love in return for her kindness; and after keeping her
about two years, the lady sent her to a missionary’s
school.

You see how cruelly mothers in India sometimes
treat their children. Their religion teaches them to
be cruel.

A mother is taught to believe that if her babe is
sick, an evil spirit is angry. ¢° please this evil spirit,
she will put her babe in a basket, and hang it up in a
tree for three days. She goes then to look at it, and
if it be alive, she takes it home. But how seldom
does she find it alive! Either the ants or the vultures
have eaten it, or it is starved to death.

When there is a famine in the land, many mothers
will sell their children for sixpence each: and if they
cannot sell them, they will leave them to perish.

One missionary received fifty-one poor starving chil-
dren into his house: they were always crying, “ Sahib,
roti, roti;” that is, “ Master, bread, bread.” But the
bread came to late too save their lives ; for all died ex-
cept one.

Yet these sick children were very wicked.





a LD A LL A

THE ENGLISH IN INDIA. 133
sarc intescncctmatsepcncitnanstccenscsesietaiaibaisisenstioalitenitb talib
| One of them stole a brass basin, and sold it for
~ gweetmeats. Though very kindly treated, some of
them wished to escape; and to prevent it, the mis-
sionary tied them together in strings of fifteen.

There is a tribe in India called Khunds; and they
sprinkle their fields with children’s blood, and they
say this is the way to make the corn grow. The Eng-
lish government once rescued eighty poor children
from the Khunds, and sent them to a Christian school.
What miserable little creatures they were when they
arrived! but they were soon clothed and comforted ;
and taught to hold a needle, and to know their let-
ters ; and, better still, to pronounce the name of Jesus.
Like these poor little captives, we were all condemned
to die, till Jesus rescued us, and promised everlasting
life to those who believe.

THE ENGLISH IN INDIA.

There are many rich English gentlemen living in
India: some are judges, and some are merchants, and
some are officers in the army. They dwell in large
and grand houses, with many windows down to the
ground, and a wide verandah to keep off the sun. In-
stead of glass, there is grass in the windows: the


FAR OFF.



blinds are made of sweet-scented grass, and servants.
outside continually pour water on the grass to make
the air cool. Instead of fires, they have fans. These
fans are like large screens hanging from the ceiling,
and waving to and fro to refresh the company. In-
stead of carpets there are mats on the floor; and
round the beds gauze curtains are drawn to keep out
the insects.

The servants are all Hindoos, and a great number
are kept; and this is necessary, because each servant
will only do one kind of work.

Each horse has two servants, one to take care of it,
and the other to cut grass: even the dog has a boy
to look after it alone. The servants do not live in
their master’s house, but in small huts near. The
place where they live is called “ the compound.”

When English people travel they do not go in car-
riages, but in palanquins. A palanquin is like a
child’s cot, only larger; and there a traveller can sleep
at his ease.

The men who carry the palanquins are called
“ Bearers.” The nurses are called Ayahs. Babies are
carried out of doors by their ayahs, but children of
three or four are taken out by the bearers.

There was once a little girl of three years old who
taught her bearer to fear God.

eee re a A ST SS

i

























| THE ENGLISH IN INDIA. 185 *





Little Mary was walking out in a grove with her
heathen bearer. She observed him stop at a small
Hindoo temple, and bow down to the stone image be-
fore the door.

The lisping child inquired,—‘ Saamy, what for, you
do that?”

| “QO, mmissy,” said he, “that is my god !”

“Your god!” exclaimed the child, “your god,
Saamy! Why your god can no see, no can hear, no
can walk—your god stone! My God make you,
inake me, make everything!” Yet Saamy still, when-



ever he passed the temple, bowed down to his idol:
and still the child reprgved him. Though the old
man would not mind, yet he loved his baby teacher. »
Once when he thought she was going to England he
said to her,—* What will poor Saamy do when missy
go to England? Saamy no father, no mother.”

“QO Saamy!” replied the child, “if you love God
| he will be your father, and mother too.”



The poor bearer promised with tears in his eyes that
he would love God. “Then,” said she, “you must
learn my prayers ;” and she began to teach him the
Lord’s Prayer. Soon afterwards Mary’s papa was
surprised to see the bearer enter the room at the time
of family prayers, and still more surprised to see him
take off his turban, kneel down, and repeat the Lord’s

Se
















136 FAR OFF.

Prayer after his master. The lispings of the babe had,
brought the old man to God: Saamy did not only
bow the knee, he worshipped in spirit and in truth,
and became a real Christian.

CHIEF CITIES.

There are three great cities which may be called
English cities, though in India: because Englishmen
built them, and live in them, and rule over them.
Their names are Calcutta, Madras, and Bombay.

The capital city is Calcutta. There the chief gover-
nor resides. Part of Calcutta is called the Black
Town, and it is only a heap of mud huts crowded
with Hindoos. The other part of Calcutta is called
the English town ; and it consists of beautiful houses
by the river-side, each house surrounded by a charm-

|
ing garden and a thick grove.

Madras is built on a plain by the sea, and is adorned
by fine avenues of trees, amongst which the English
live in elegant villas and gardens. Here also there is
a Black town. It is very hard to land at Madras, be-
cause there is no harbor.

Bombay has one of the best harbors in the world.
It is built on a small island covered with cocoa-nut
groves.

Now let us compare these places with each other.



a la

bie

CHIEF CITIES. £4387

eR

. Calcutta boasts of her fine river, but then the ground
is flat and marshy ; and therefore the air is damp and
unhealthy, and there are no grand prospects.

Madras is very dry, and sandy, and dusty; but
then there is the sea to enliven and refresh it.

Bombay has the sea also, besides the groves, and
at a little distance, high mountains, which look beauti-
ful, and which it is delightful to visit. There are no
such mountains near Calcutta or Madras. .

These are the chief English cities. I must now
speak of the favorite city of the Hindoos.

It is Benares on the Ganges.

You might go from Calcutta in a boat, and after
sailing four hundred miles, you would reach Benares.
The Hindoos say that it was built by their god
Sheeva, of gold and precious stones; but that, as we
are living in a bad time, it appears to be made of
bricks and mud, though really very different. They
say that Benares is eighty thousand steps nearer
heaven than any other city, and that whoever dies
there (even though he eat BzEF!) will go to heaven.

A missionary once reproved a Hindoo for telling
lies. The answer was, “Why, what of that? dol
not live at Benares?” The man thought he was quite
safe, however wicked he might be.

-In walking about Benares a stranger might be sur-









138 FAR OFF.

eng

prised to meet every now and then a white bull, with
a hump on its back, without a driver or a rider, or
any one to keep it in order. You must know that a
white bull is said to belong to the chief god of Be-
nares, and it is considered a sacred animal, and is al-
lowed to do as it pleases.

And how does it behave ?

It behaves much in the same manner as a child
would who had its own way. The white bull helps
itself to the fruit and vegetables sold in the streets, and
even to the sweetmeats. It has a great taste for flow-
ers; and it cunningly hides itself near the doors of the
temples, to watch for the people coming out with their
garlands of marigolds round their necks. At these
the bull eagerly snatches with its tongue, and swallows
them in a moment. Finding it is petted by every
one, it grows so bold, as to walk into the houses, and
even to go up the stone stairs on to the roof, where it
seems to enjoy the cool air, as it quietly chews the
cud.

In the spring the white bulls like to wander out in
the fields to eat the tender green grass. A farmer
finding one of these bulls in his fields, made him get
into a boat, and sent him by a man across the river
Ganges. But the cunning creature came back in the
evening; for he watched till he saw some people set-


|







CHIEF CITIES. 139

ting out in a boat, and then jumped in; and though
the passengers tried to turn him out, he would stay
there. In this way he got back to the cornfields.

So much respected are these bulls that a Hindoo
would sooner lose his own life than suffer one of them
to be killed. An English gentleman was just going
to shoot one that had broken into his garden, when
his Hindoo servant rushed between him and the bull,
saying, “Shoot me, sir, shoot me, but let him go.”
You may be sure that the gentleman did not shoot
the servant, and I think it probable he spared the
bull’s life.

There is one more city to be noticed.

Dent was once the grandest city in India, and the
seat of the great Moguls, those Mahomedans who con-
quered India before the British came. The ancient
palace is still to be seen: it is built of red stone; but
its ornaments are gone; where is now the room lined
with crystal, the golden palm-tree with diamond
fruits, and the golden peacock with emerald wings,
overshadowing the monarch’s throne ?

The Persians have stripped the palace of all its
gorgeous splendor.



140



FAR OFF.



We have now described the two most numerous

nations in the world, China and Hindostan.

They

contain together more than half the world. In some

respects they are alike, and in some respects they are

different. In these respects they are different.

IN CHINA.

There is one emperor.

There is one language.

They use chairs, and tables,
and beds.

They eat with chop-sticks.

They wear shoes.

The men shave their heads
except one lock.

They seldom wash them-
selves,

They eat pigs more than
any other meat.

They are grave and silent.

They are industrious.

The most learned rise to be
great men.

They mind the laws.

The land is well cultivated.

IN HINDOSTAN,

There is no emperor, and
the English govern the coun-
try.

There are many.

They sit and sleep on mats.

They eat with their fingers.

They go barefoot, and wear
sandals.

The men twist up their
hair with a comb.

They bathe often.

They abhor pigs.

They are merry and talka-
tive.

They are idle.

Every one is high and low
according to his caste.

They care not for laws.

There is much waste land,
and many jungles.

Now let us consider in what respects they are alike.


HINDOSTAN AND CHINA. 141



China and Hindostan are alike in these respects.
They are both very populous, though China has
twice as many inhabitants as Hindostan.

In both rice is the chief food.

In both large grown-up families live together.

In both the women are shut up.

In both foreigners are hated.

In both conjurers are admired.

In both many idols are worshipped.

In both there are ancient sacred books.

In both the people are deceitful, unmerciful to the
poor, and in the habit of destroying their own little
girls when babies.

In both it is believed that the soul after death goes
into another body, and is born over and over again
into this world.

Is it not mournful to think that more than half the
people in the world have no bright hope to cheer a
dying bed? One poor Hindoo was heard to exclaim
as he was dying, “ Where shall I go dast of all?” He
asked a wise question. He wanted to know where.
after having been born ever so many times, he should
be put for ever and ever. That is the great point
we all want to know. But the Hindoo and the

Chinaman cannot know this: they have never heard

of everlasting happiness.






Cirrassig. |
| |
Tuts is not a vast country like China, or Hindostan.

It may be called a nook, it is so small compared with |
some great kingdoms: but it is famous on account

of the beauty of the people. They are fair, like Eu-
ropeans, with handsome features, and fine figures.
But their beauty has done them harm, and not good ;

for the cruel Turks purchase many of the Circassian
women, because they are beautiful, and shut them up

hear that the young Circassians think it a fine thing
to go to Turkey—to live in fine palaces and gardens,
instead of remaining in their own simple cottages.
But I think that when they find themselves confined
between high walls, they must sigh to think of their



flocks and their farms at home, and more than all, of
the dear relations they have left behind.

Circassia is a pleasant country, situated near the
noble mountains of Caucasus. The snow on the

in their houses. Perhaps you will be surprised to

mountains cools the air, and makes Circassia as pleas-

eabesshanememmomtingy
|



CIRCASSIA. 148

eT

ant to live in as our own England. Indeed, if you
were suddenly to be transported into Circassia, you
would be ready to exclaim, “Is not this England ?
Here are apple-trees, and pear-trees, and plum-trees,

like those in my father’s garden : those sounds are like

the notes of the blackbird and thrush, which sing
among the hawthorns in English woods.”

But look again, you will see vines interlacing their
fruitful branches among the spreading oaks. You do
not see such vines in England. But hark! what do
I hear? It isasound never heard in England. It is
the yell of jackals.

Manners oF THE Propie.—There is no country
in the world where the people are as kind to strangers
as in Circassia. Every family, however poor, has a
guest-house. There is the family-house, with its orch-
ard, and stables, and at a little distance, another house
for strangers. This is no more than a large room,
with a stable at one end, The walls are made of
wicker-work, plastered with clay. There is no ceiling
but the rafters, and no floor but the bare earth. Yet

there is a wide chimney, where a blazing fire is kept

up with a pile of logs. And there is a sofa or divan,
covered with striped silk, and many neat mats to
serve as beds for as many travellers as may arrive.

The wind may whistle through the chinks, and the


eo tte Se A TNL A PR A RP A A RR CS A A At CN

144 FAR OFF.



warmed, and comfortably lodged ; and above all, he
has the host to wait upon him with more attention
than a servant. The supper is served as soon as the
sun sets.

But where is the table? There is none. Is the
supper placed on the floor? Not so. It is brought
in on stools with three legs. They answer the pur-
pose of tables, trays, and dishes, all in one. What is
the fare served up? ‘This is the sort of dinner pro-
vided. On the first table is placed a flat loaf; the
gravy in the middle, and the meat all round. When
this is taken away, another table is brought in with
cheese-cakes ; a third with butter and honey; a |
fourth with a pie; a fifth with a cream; and last of
all, a table, with a wooden bowl of curdled milk.
The company have no plates; but each Circassian

rain come through the roof, but the stranger is well
|
|
|
|
|

carries a spoon and a knife in his girdle, and with
these he helps himself. The servants who stand by,

are not forgotten: a piece of meat or of pie-crust is

often given to one of them; it is curious to see the
men take it into a corner to eat it there. There are ~
many hungry poor waiting at the door of the guest-
house, ready to help the servants to devour the re-
mains of the feast; and there is often a great deal of
food left ; for there are generally ten tables, and some-

Cnn a a


CIRCASSIA. 145

times there are forty tables. The guests are expected
to taste the food on each, however many there may
be.

Instead of wine, there is a drink called shuat hand-
ed to the guests: it is distilled from grain and honey.

Vegetables are not much eaten in Circassia: for greens

are considered fit only for beasts: and there are no
potatoes. Pies, and tarts, and tartlets of various
kinds are too well liked, and the finest ladies in the
land are skilful in making them.

The family live in a thatched cottage, called “the
family-house.” It is not divided into rooms. If a
man wants several rooms, he builds several houses.

As you approach the dwelling of a Circassian, you
hear the barking of dogs, and upon coming nearer,
you see women milking cows, and feeding poultry,
and boys tending goats, and leading horses.

If you go into the farm-yard, you will see among
the animals, the buffalo—but no pig. There are,
however, wild boars in the woods.

CircasstAN Women.—They are not shut up as
Hindoo, and Chinese, and Turkish ladies are. They
do not indeed go into the guest-house to see stran-
gers ; but strangers are sometimes invited into the
family-house to see them.

An Englishman, who visited a family-house, was in-




146 FAR OFF.

eS

troduced to the wife and daughter. They both rose
up when he entered: nor would they sit down, till he
sat down; and this respect ladies show not only to
gentlemen, but even to the poorest peasants. The
only furniture in the house was the divan, on which
the ladies sat; a pile of boxes, containing the beds,
which were to be spread on the floor at night; and a
loom for weaving cloth, and spindles for spinning.

The daughter, who was sixteen, was dressed in a
skirt of striped silk, with a blue bodice, and silver
clasps; and she wore a cap of scarlet cloth, adorned
with silver lace—her light hair flowing over her shoul-
ders: yet though so finely arrayed, her fect were
bare ; for she only put on her red slippers when she
walked out. The mother was covered with a loose
calico wrapper, and her face was concealed by a thick
white veil. The visitor laid some needle-cases at the
ladies’ feet, for it is not the custom for them to receive
presents in their hands.

The needle-cases greatly delighted the young Hatfiza,
and her mother. The present was well chosen, be-
cause the Circassian women are very industrious, sup-
plying their husbands and brothers with all their
clothes, from the woollen bonnet to the morocco shoe.
The wool, the flax, and the hemp, are all prepared at
home by the mothers, and made into clothes by the






CIRCASSIA.. 147
citation tetneaietatnhinttnititcimii
eirls, who first spin the thread, then weave the cloth,
nud iinish by sewing the seams. Some girls are very
clever in knitting silver lace for trimming garments.
A girl named Dussepli was famous for her skill in this
art, indeed her name signifies, “ Shining as lace.”

An Englishman went to the place where she lived
to buy some of her lace. He was shown into the
guest-house, and he soon saw Dussepli approaching in
a pair of high pattens. At first sight there was
nothing pleasing in Dussepli, but when she spoke she
seemed so kind, and so true, that it was impossible
not to like her. By her industry in knitting lace, and
dyeing cloth, she helped to support her father, who
was poor.

Tur Crrcassran Mey.—War is their chief occupa-
tion. Working in the fields is left to the women, and
the little boys, and the slaves. There is, alas! great
occasion for the men to fight, as the land has long
been infested with many dangerous enemies.

The Russians are endeavoring to conquer the Cir-
cassians: but the Circassians declare they will die sooner
than yield. Long ago the enemies must have tri-
umphed, had it not been for the high mountains which
afford hiding-places for the poor hunted inhabitants.
Every man carries a gui, a pistol, a dagger, and a

sword; and the nobles are distinguished by a bow, and


























FAR OFF.





a quiver of arrows. The usual dress is of coarse dark
cloth, and consists of a tunic, trowsers, and gaiters.
The cap or bonnet is of sheepskin, or goatskin.

The boys are taught from their infancy to be hardy
and manly. They are brought up in a singular way.
Instead of remaining at home, they are given at three
years old, into the care of a stranger: and the reason
of this custom is, that they may not be petted by their
parents. The stranger is called “ foster-father,” and
he teaches any boy under his care to ride well, and to
shoot at a mark. ‘The boy follows his foster-father
| over the mountains, urging his horses to climb tremen-
| dous heights, and to rush down ravines ; and appeas-
| ing his hunger with a mouthful of honey from the
| bag, fastened to his girdle. Such is the life he leads,
| till he is a tall and a strong youth; and then he re-
| turns home to his parents. His foster-father presents
| him with a horse, and weapons of war, and requires
| no payment in return for all his care.
| Men brought up in this manner must be wild, bold,
| restless, and ignorant. Such are the Circassians.
| They care not for learning, as the Chinese do, but
only for bravery. We cannot wonder at this, when
we remember what enemies they have in their land.
The Russians have built many strong towers, whence

they shoot at all who come near. But, not satisfied



gj;

Z >



p. 149.

”

Guz Beg the “ Lion of Circassia.











\
|
|
|
\

CIRCASSIA.
sce eenninaunnncttpamnstinenmnscnstitiiiituisinitinsisasseitiiian
with this, they often come forth and rob the vil-
lages.

There vas a Circassian, (and he may be still alive,)
called Gui Beg; and he gained for himself the name
of the “Lion of Circassia.” He was always leading
out little bands of men to attack the Russians. One
day he found some Russian soldiers reaping in the
fields, and when he came near they ran away in terror,
leaving tvo hundred seythes in the field, which he
seized. Mut a great calamity befel this Lion. He
had an valy son. When he first led the boy to the
wars, ho charged him never to shrink from the enemy,
but to urb his way through the very midst. One day
Guz Eez had ridden into the thick of the Russian
soldiers, when suddenly a ball pierced his horse, and
he was thrown headlong on the ground. There lay
the Lion among the hunters. In another moment he
would have been killed, when suddenly a youthful
warrior flew to his rescue ;—it was his own son. But
what could one do among so many ! A troop of Cir-
cassiau horse rushed to the spot, and bore away Guz
Beg; but they were too late to save his son. They
bore away the body only of the brave boy. Guz Beg
was deeply grieved ; but he continued still to fight for
his country.

See those black heaps of ashes. In that spot there


150 FAR OFF.



once lived a prince named Zefri Bey, with his four
hundred servants; but his dwellings were burned to
the ground by the Russians. That prince fled to
Turkey to plead for help. What would have become
of his wife, and little girls, if a kind friend had not
taken them under his care? This friend was hump-
backed, but very brave. Some English travellers went
to visit him, and were received in the guest-house and
regaled with a supper of many tables. Next day
the little girls came to the guest-house and kissed
their hands. The daughter of the hump-backed
man accompanied them. The children were delighted
with some toys the traveller gave them, and the kind
young lady accepted needles and scissors. But where
was the wife of Zefri Bey? A servant was sent to in-
quire after her, and found her in rags, lying on a mat,
without even a counterpane, and weeping bitterly.
Had no one given her clothes, and coverings? Yes,
but she gave everything away, for she had been used,
as a princess, to make presents, and now she cared for
nothing. Such are the miseries which the Russians
bring upon Circassia.

Tue Government.—There is no king of Circassia ;
but there are many princes.

The people pay great respect to these princes, stand-
ing in their presence, and giving them the first place

a
CIRCASSIA. 151

at feasts, and in the battle-field. But though the peo-
ple honor them, they do not obey them.

There is a parliament in Circassia, but it does not
meet in a house, but in a grove. Every man who
pleases may come, but only old men may speak. . If
a young man were to give his opinions, no attention
would be paid. The warriors sit on the grass, and
hang up their weapons of war on the boughs above
their heads, while they fasten their horses to the stems
of the trees.

The speakers are gentle in their tones of voice and
behavior, The Circassians admire sweet winning
speeches. They say there are three things which
mark a great man; a sharp sword, a sweet tongue,
and forty tables. What do they mean by these? By
a sharp sword they mean bravery, by a sweet tongue
they mean soft speeches, and by forty tables they mean
giving plentiful suppers to neighbors and to strangers.
Are the Circassians right in this way of thinking ?
No—for though bravery is good, and speaking well is
good, and giving away is good, these are not the great-
est virtues: and people may be brave, and speak well,
and give away much, and yet be wicked : for they may
be without the love of God in their hearts. What
are the greatest virtues? These three, Faith, Hope, and
Charity. These are graces which come from God.




sti A SACS

they were really the brothers of the master.



152 FAR OFF.



Srervants.—There are slaves in Circassia, called
serfs. But they are so well treated, that they are not
like the slaves of other countries. They live in huts

round their master’s dwelling ; they work in the fields, |
and wait upon the guests, and share in the good fare
ou the little tables. |

When a Circassian takes a Russian prisoner, he |
makes him a slave, and gives him the hardest work
to do. Yet the Russians are much happier with their
Circassian masters than in their own country. |

Once a Circassian said to his Russian slave, “ I am |
going to send you back to Russia.” The man fell at |
his master’s feet, saying, “ Rather than do so, use me |
as your dog; beat me, tie me up, and give me your
bones to pick.” The master then told him that he had
not spoken in earnest, and that he would not send him
away, and then the poor fellow began to shout, and
to jump with joy.

BrorHErRHoops.—There is a very remarkable plan
in Circassia, unlike the plans in other countries. A
certain number of men agree to call themselves
“brothers.” These brothers help each other on every
occasion, and visit at each other’s houses frequently.
They are not received in the guest-house, but in the
family-house, and are treated by all the family as if







CIRCASSIA. 153

A brotherhood sometimes consists of two thousand,

but sometimes of only twenty persons.

Retigion.—Circassia, though beautiful, is an un-
happy country. The Russians keep the people in
continual fear; this is a great evil. But there is
another nation who have done the Circassians still
greater harm. ‘I mean the Turks. And what have
they done to them? They have persuaded them to
turn Mahomedans. The greatest harm that can be
done to any one, is to give him a false religion. There
are no grand mosques in Circassia, because there are
no towns: but in every little village there is a clay
cottage, where prayers are offered up in the name of
Mahomet. There can be no minaret to such a misera-
ble mosque: so the man who calls the hours of
prayer, climbs a tall tree, by the help of notches, and
getting into a basket at the top, makes the rocks and
hills resound with his cry. How different shall be the
sound one day heard in every land; when all people
shall believe in Jesus. ‘Then shall the inhabitants
of the rocks sing—then shall they shout from the top
of the mountains, and give glory unto the Lord,” and
not to Mahomet. (Is. xli. 11, 12.)

But though the Circassians call themselves Ma-
homedans, they keep many of their old customs, and
these customs show that they once heard about Christ.


154 FAR OFF.

It is their custom to dedicate every boy to God: but
not really to God, for in truth they dedicate him to
the cross. Let me give you an account of one of the
feasts of dedication.

The place of meeting was a green, shaded by
spreading oak-trees. In the midst stood a cross.
Each family who came to the feast, brought a little
table, and placed it before the cross; and on each
table, there were loaves, and a sort of bread called
“pasta.” There was a blazing fire on the green, round
which the elder women sat, while the younger pre-
ferred the shade of a thicket. The priest took a loaf
of bread in one hand, and in the other, a large cup of
shuat, (a kind of wine) and holding them out towards
the cross, blessed them. While he did this, men,
women, and children, knelt around, and bowed their
heads to the ground. Afterwards, the shuat and the
bread were handed about amongst the company. But
this was only the beginning of the feast. Afterwards,
a calf,a sheep, and two goats were brought to the
cross to be blessed. Then a little of their hair was
singed by a taper, and then they were taken away to
be slaughtered. Now the merriment began: some
moved forward to cut up the animals, and to boil their
flesh in large kettles on fires kindled on the green;
many young men amused themselves with racing,
CIRCASSIA. 155

leaping, and hurling stones, while the elder people sat
and talked. When the meat was boiled, it was dis-
tributed among the sixty tables, and then the priest
viessed the food. And then the feasting began. Does
it not seem as if the Circassians must once have
learned about Jesus crucified, and about his supper of
bread and wine, and about the Jewish feasts and
sacrifices? Once, perhaps, they knew the true re-
ligion, but they soon forgot it, and though they still
remember the Cross, they have forgotten Christ ;
and though they still bless the bread and the cup,
they know nothing of redeeming love. Do you not
long to send missionaries to Circassia? Well, some
good Scotch missionaries went there some years ago,
but alas! the Russians sent them away. Their thatched
cottages may still be seen, and their fruitful orchards,
but they themselves are gone. There are, however, a
few German Christians in Cireassia. They are not
missionaries, but only farmers, therefore the Russians
allow them to remain. They have a little church,
where the Bible is read, and God is worshipped.
You will be glad to hear a few Circassians may be
seen amongst the congregation; they were converted
by the Scotch missionaries, and they have remained
faithful amongst their heathen neighbors.

Circassia is situated between two seas :—

ee |





|
|
aR NRCS aN
156 FAR OFF.



The Black Sea, and

The Caspian Sea.

What a wonderful place is the Caspian Sea. It is
like a lake, only so immensely large, that it is called a
sea. The waters of lakes are fresh, like those of
rivers; but the waters of the Caspian are salt, but not
so salt as the salt sea. The shores of the Caspian are
flat, and unwholesome. You might think as you
stood there, that you were by the great ocean, for
there are waves breaking on the sands, and water as
far as the eye can reach, but there is no freshness in
the air as by the real sea.

The mountains of Caucasus run through Circassia.
They are quite low compared to the Himalaya; they
are about the height of the Alps, and the tops are
covered with snow. But the valleys between these
mountains, are not like the Swiss valleys, which are
broad and pleasant ; but these valleys are narrow, and
dark, and not fit to live in, yet they are of great use
as hiding-places for the Circassians. When pursued
by a Russian, a Circassian will urge his horse to dash
down the dark valley, and lest his horse should be
alarmed by the sight of the dangerous depth below,
he will cover the animal’s eyes with his cloak. Thus,
many a bold rider escapes from a cruel soldier.




Grurgiq.

Wuen you hear of Circassia, you will generally
hear of Georgia too, for the countries lie close together,
and resemble one another in many respects. But
though so near, their climate is different ; for Circas-
sia lies beyond the mountains of Caucasus, and is
therefore, exposed to the cold winds of the north. But
Georgia lies beneath the mountains, and is sheltered
from the chill blasts. Georgia is, therefore, far more
fruitful than Circassia, the people, too, are less fair,
and less industrious. The sides of the hills are
clothed with vines, and houses with deep verandahs
are scattered among the vineyards, and women wrap-
ped in long white sheets may be seen reposing in the
porticoes, enjoying the soft air, and lovely prospect.
While Circassian ladies are busy weaving and milk-
ing, the Georgian ladies loll upon their couches, and
do nothing. Which do you think are the happier ?
These Georgian ladies, too, though very handsome,
are much disfigured by painted faces, and stained eye-


FAR OFF,





brows. Their countenances, too, are lifeless, and silly,
as might be expected, since they waste their time in
idleness. Over their foreheads, they wear a kind of
low crown, called a tiara.

There is no country where so much wine is drank
as in Georgia, even a laborer is allowed five bottles a
day. The grapes are exceedingly fine, quite different
from the little berries called grapes in Circassia. The
casks are very curious, they are the skins of buffaloes,
and as the tails and legs are not cut off, a skin filled
with wine looks like a dead, or a sleeping buffalo.

And what is the religion of Georgia? It is the
Russian religion, because the Russians have conquered
the country. They cannot conquer the brave, and
active Circassians, but they have conquered the soft,
and indolent Georgians. The Georgians are called
Christians, but the Greek Church, which is the Rus-
sian religion, is a Christianity, laden with ceremonies
and false doctrines.

TIFLIS.

There is but one town in Georgia. It is beautifully
situated on the steep banks of a river, with terraces of
houses, embosomed in vineyards. So little do the

a —s nn re es ee


TIFLIS. 159

en in

people care for reading, that there is nota bookseller’s

shop in the town, and it is very seldom that a book-
case Is seen in a house; for the Georgians love show,
and entertainments, and idleness, but not study.


Gartary.

Tus is one of the largest countries in the world,
yet it does not contain as many people as the small
land of France. How is this? You will not be sur-
prised that many people do not live there, when you
hear what sort of a country it is.

Fancy a country quite flat, as far as eye can see,
except where a few low sand-hills rise ; a country quite
bare, except where the coarse grass grows ;—a country
quite dry, except where some narrow muddy streams
run. Such is Tartary. What is a country without
hills, without trees, without brooks? Can it be pleas-
ant? This flat, bare, dry plain, is called the steppes
of Tartary. In one part of Tartary, there is a chain of
mountains, and there are a few towns, and trees, but
very few. You may travel a long while without see-
ing one. .

Nothing can be so dreary as the steppes appear in
winter time. The high wind sweeping along the
plain, drives the snow into high heaps, and often


TARTARY. 161



hurls the poor animals into a cold grave. Sledges
cannot be used, because they cannot slide on such
uneven ground. But if the whzte ground looks dreary
in winter, the black ground looks hideous in summer ;
for the hot sun turns the grass black, and fills the air
with black dust, and there are no shady groves, no
cool hills, no refreshing brooks. There must, indeed,
be a little shade among the thistles, as they grow to
twice the height of a man; but how different is such
shade from the shade of spreading oaks like ours!
Instead of nice fruit, there is bitter wormwood growing
among the grass, and when the cows eat it, their milk
becomes bitter.

Witp Anmmats.—The most common, is a pretty
little creature called the sooslik. It is very much like
a squirrel.

But can it live where squirrels live-—in the hollows
of trees? Where are the trees in the steppe? The
sooslik makes a house for itself by digging a hole in
the ground, just as rabbits do in England. Wilf it
not surprise you to hear that wolves follow the same
plan, and even the wild dogs? The houses the dogs
make are very convenient, for the entrance is very
narrow, and there is plenty of room below.

‘There are some very odious animals on the steppe.
Snakes and toads. Yes, showers of toads sometimes

1]
162 FAR OFF.



EN

fall. But neither snakes nor toads are as great a
plague as locusts. These little animals, not bigger
than a child’s thumb, are more to be dreaded than a
troop of wolves. And why? Because they come in
such immense numbers. The eggs lie hid in the
ground all the winter. O if it were known where
they were concealed, they would soon be destroyed.
But no one knows where they are till they are hatched.
In the first warm days of spring the young animals
come forth, and immediately they begin crawling on
the ground in one immense flock, eating up all the
grass as they pass along; in a month they can fly,
and then they darken the air like a thick cloud;
wherever any green appears, they drop down and set-
tle on the spot. The noise they make in eating can
be heard to a great distance, and the noise they make
in flying is like the rustling of leaves in a forest.
They cannot be destroyed: but there are two things
they hate,—smoke and noise,—and by these they are
sometimes scared and induced to fly away.

PropLE AND Customs.—Besides the wild animals,
there are tame animals, who inhabit the steppe with
men and women who take care of them. They are
all wanderers, both men and beasts. You can easily
guess why they wander. It is to find sufficient grass

for the cattle.


TARTARY. 163



Every six weeks the Tartars move to a new place.
Yet one place is so like another, that no place appears
new ;—there is always the same immense plain—
without a cottage, or an orchard, a green hill, or run-
ning brook, to make any spot remembered. It is
great labor to the ‘lartar women to pack up the tents
and to place them on the backs of the camels, and
then to unpack and to pitch the tents. It is a great
disgrace to the men to suffer the women to work as
hard as they do: but the men are very idle, and like
to sit by their tents smoking and drinking, while their
wives are toiling and striving with all their might.
The women have the care of all the cattle: and the
men attend only to the horses. Perhaps they would
not even do this, were it not that they are very fond
of riding; and such riders as the Tartars are seldom
seen.

To give you an idea how they ride, I will describe
one scene that took place on the steppe.

Some travellers from Europe were on a visit to a
Tartar prince: (for there are princes in the desert, )
and they were taken to see a herd of wild horses.
The prince wished to have one of these wild horses
caught. It is not easy to do this. But Tartars know
the way. Six men mounted a tame horse, and rushed
into the midst of the wild horses, Each of the men






164 FAR OFF.



had a great noose in his hand. They all looked at
the prince to know which horse he would have caught.
When they saw the prince give a sign, one of the
men soon noosed a young horse. The creature |
seemed terrified when it found that it was caught: |
his eyes started out, his nostrils seemed to smoke. |
Presently a man came running up, sprang upon the

back of the wild horse, and by cutting the straps
round his neck, set him at liberty. In an instant the |
| horse darted away with the swiftness of an arrow ; yet |
the man firmly kept his seat. The animal seemed
greatly alarmed at his strange burden, and tried every
plan to get rid of it ;—now suddenly stopping,—now

| crawling on the grass like a worm,—now rolling,—
now rearing,—now dashing forward in a fast gallop
through the midst of the herd; yet all would not do;
the rider clung to the horse as closely as ever.

But how was the rider ever to get off his fiery
steed? ‘That would be difficult indeed; but help was
sent to him by the prince. Two men on horseback
rode after him, and between them they snatched away
the man from the trembling and foaming horse. The



stupefied fora moment, and then darted off to join
his companions. What this man did,—many Tar-

animal, surprised to find his load suddenly gone, stood
tars can do: and even /ittle boys will mount wild



——
TARTARY, 165
nnn nee
horses, and keep on by clinging to their manes:
women, too, will gallop about on wild horses.

In Cireassia the customs are very different; for
though men ride so well, women there never ride at
all; and surely it is far better not to ride than to be
as bold as a Tartar woman.

Foop.—What can be the food of the Tartars ? Not
bread, (for there is no corn,) nor fruit, nor vegetables.
The flocks and herds are the food. The favorite meat
is horse-flesh ; though mutton and beef are eaten also.
Then there is plenty of milk—both cow’s milk and
sheep’s milk. As there is milk, there is butter and
cheese. But it is very unwholesome to live on meat
and milk without bread and vegetables. The water,



too, is very bad; for it is taken from the muddy riy-
ers, and not from clear springs. It is a comfort for
the Tartar that he can procure tea from China. Their
tea is indeed very unlike the tea brought to England ;
for it comes to Tartary in hard lumps, shaped like

bricks. Itis boiled in a saucepan with water, and then

mixed with milk, butter, and salt. Thus you see the —
Tartar needs neither tea-kettle, teapot, nor sugar basin.

It would be well if tea and milk were the only
drinks in Tartary ; but a sort of spirit is distilled by
the Tartars from mare’s milk: and brandy also is
brought from Russia,


| 166 FAR OFF.



Tents.—A Tartar tent is very unlike an Arab tent.

It is in the shape of a hut, for the sides are upright,
and the roof only is slanting, and there is a small hole
at the top to let the smoke escape. Neither is it made
of skins, but of thick woollen stuff, called felt, which
keeps the cold out. At night the entrance is closed,
and the family sleep on mats around the fire in the
midst.

ApPEARANCE.—The Tartars are not handsome like
the Turks and Circassians. They are short and thick ;
their faces are broad and bony, their eyes very small,
and only half open; their noses flat, their lips thick,
their chins pointed, their ears large and flapping, and
their skin dark and yellow.

Their dress is warm, and well suited for riding in
the desert. Different tribes have different dresses :
this is the dress of the Kalmuck Tartar. He wears a
yellow cloth cap trimmed with black lamb-skin ; wide
trowsers, a tight jacket, and over all a loose tunic, fas-
tened round the waist. His boots are red, with high
heels. The women dress like the men; but they let
their hair grow in two long tresses, while the men
shave part of their heads, and keep only one lock of
hair hanging on their shoulders.

You see that the Tartars are much like the Chinese

in their persons and dress; but they are a much


- f. )



TARTAR TENTS
TENTS p. 166.
TARTARY. 167
i Sip nnpnestnninetdngeest
stronger, bolder people, and much more ignorant. No
| wonder, therefore, that many years ago the Tartars got
over the Chinese wall. and took possession of the Chi-
nése.throne. You must not forget that the Emperor

of China is a Tartar.
| GovernMEeNtT.—To whom does Tartary belong ¢
Has it a king of its own? No. Once it had many
kings, called khans; but now the khans have lost
their power, and are only called khan to do them
honor. Now Tartary belongs to the great empires on
each side of it,—Russia and China. Part of Tartary
is called Russian Tartary, and part—Chinese Tartary.
There is only a small part that is not conquered; and

et

it is called Independent Tartary.

| There are many different tribes, and each tribe keeps
to a certain part of the land, and never ventures to
wander beyond its own bounds.

| Rticion.—tThe religion is the same as that which
is so common in China,—the religion of Buddha ; but
in some parts of Tartary there is the religion of Ma-



homet. It is sad to think that far more people in
the world worship Buddha, the deceiver, than Jesus,
the Son of God. The Tartars think to please their
false god by making a loud noise. It would astonish



a stranger to hear their jingling bells, shrill horns,
squeaking shells, bellowing trumpets, and deafening

Re eae TNE AN es ince ge cca

Os eareet stems on teentteee ene ee




168 FAR OFF.
drums. How unlike is their senseless noise to the
sweet sound of a Christian hymn!

The Tartars think also to please their gods by
glaring colors; so their priests dress in red and yel-
low, and bear flags, adorned with strips of gay silk.
A band of priests looks something like a regiment of
soldiers.

The chief priest is called the Lama, and he is wor-
shipped as a god; but his situation is not very pleas-
ant; for he is not allowed to walk without help.
Whenever he attempts to walk, he is held up by a
man on each side, as if he were an infant; and usually
he is drawn in a car, or carried ina palanquin. From
want of exercise, he becomes very weak and helpless.
When he dies, his body is burned, and the ashes are
gathered up and made into an idol. Thus he con-
tinues to be a god after he is dead. Another Lama
is chosen by one of the princes. There are many La-
mas in Tartary for the various tribes.

As the Tartars are always moving about, a tent
serves for a temple; and the idols are carried in great
chests. They cannot walk, therefore they must be
carried, What use are such gods ?

The Tartars have found out a way of praying with-
out any trouble; and it is a way that suits idols very
well. They get some prayers written, and place them

Aa ene a eee ee a ct np eaaaeactiiaialiita

ey



_




TARTARY. 169



_-—_—

in a drum, and then turn the drum round and round



with a string. This they call praying; and while
they are thus praying, they can be chattering, smok-
ing, and even quarrelling. The princes have a still
easier way of offering up prayers. They write pray-
ers upon a flag, and then place it before their tents for
the wind to blow it about.

This is their way of praying to their gods.

And what, my dear child, is your way of praying
to your God ?

Have missionaries visited the Tartars ?

Yes; I will tell you of two German missionaries,
who tried to convert a tribe of Tartars called the Kal-
mucks, living near the Caspian Sea and the river
Volga. These good men were treated with great
contempt by the Tartars. The missionaries translated
the Gospel of St. Matthew into the Tartar language.
One of the Tartars, instead of thanking them, ob-
served, “I wonder you should take so much trouble to
prepare a book that we shall never read.” When
the precious books were given to the Tartars, some of
them returned the books ; and when it was read to
them, they scornfully said, as they turned away, “It
is only the history of Jesus.”

At last one Tartar, named Sodnom, believed in
Jesus. He said to the missionaries, “Now the Tar-












tars, from my example, may turn to the Lord: for as,
when sheep are to be washed, each is afraid to enter
the water till one has been in, so it may be with my
countrymen.”

Sodnom read every evening in the Testament to his
family in the tent.. At first his wife was displeased,
and said that her husband wasted the fire-wood in

making a light to read a book that was of no use.

170 FAR OFF.
|
|

|
But afterwards she listened, and made the children |
| keep quiet. ‘The neighbors also listened, and twenty- |
| two turned to the Lord!
| Then the prince and the priests grew angry, and
| said the Christians must leave the camp. Where
_ could the Christians go { There wasa village called |
| Sarepta, where some Germans lived. There they de- |
| termined to go, though it was two hundred miles off
One of the missionaries led the way on horseback;

the Tartars followed on foot: then came camels bear-

ing the tents and the women, while a bullock-cart
contained the young children. The flocks and herds
were driven by the bigger children. |
The good Germans in Sarepta received the Tartars

with great joy. One gray-headed man of eighty-
three came to meet them, leaning upon his staff. He

| said he had been praying that he might see a Chris-
tian Tartar before he died. He heard these Tartars


TARTARY. 171

sing hymns to the praise of Jesus, and he felt his
prayers were answered. ‘Two days afterwards he died.
Like old Simeon, he might have said, “ Lord, now
lettest thou thy servant depart in peace, for mine
eyes have seen thy salvation.”

The Christians went to live in a small island in the
river Volga. When the river was frozen, the Ger-
mans went over the ice to visit them. Sodnom gave
them tea mixed with fat in a large wooden bowl; and
to please him, the kind Germans drank some, though
they did not like it. Many Tartars assembled in
Sodnom’s tent, and seated on the ground smoking
their pipes, talked together about heavenly things ;
and before they parted, they put away their prtpes,
and folding their hands, sang hymns in their own lan-
guage. The Germans, in taking leave, divided a
large loaf among the company; for bread is consid-
ered quite a dainty by the Tartars.

The change that had taken place in these Tartars
filled the Germans with joy; and more missionaries
would have gone to teaeh-the heathen Kalmucks, had
not the Emperor of Russia forbidden them.
FAR OFF.

ASTRACAN.

This city is on the Caspian Sea. It is very un-
pleasant, on account of the heat and the gnats.

Not only Tartars dwell there, but many people of

all nations, Russians, Hindoos, and Armenians. The
chief trade of Astracan is in the fish of the sea, and in
the salt on the shores.

BOKHARA (IN TARTARY).



This is a kingdom in the midst of Tartary. It lies
at the south of the Caspian Sea. It is not like the
rest of Tartary, for it is a sweet green spot. Travellers
have said that it is the most beautiful spot in the world,
but that is not true. The reason that travellers have
said so, is that, after passing through a great desert,
they have been charmed at seeing again running
streams, and shady groves.

But though Bokhara is a beautiful place, it is a
wicked place.

The king is one of the greatest tyrants in the world.
He is called the Amir.

The city where he dwells is called Bokhara (which
is also the name of the whole country). His palace is














BOKHARA, IN TARTARY. 178

on a high mound, in the midst of splendid mosques,



and mansions. Amongst these grand buildings is the
prison, a place of horrible cruelty. There the pris-
oners lie in the dark, and the damp. One use of the
prison is to keep water cool for the king in summer ;
it feels therefore just like a cellar.

But the worst dungeon, is filled with stinging in-
sects, called “ ticks,” reared on purpose to torment
prisoners. In order to keep the ticks alive when no
prisoners are there, raw meat is thrown into the place.
There is also a deep pit into which men are let down
with ropes ; as once the holy Jeremiah was in Jerusa-
lem.

Once a fortnight the prisoners are judged by the
Amir. Even when the ground is covered with snow
they stand with -bare feet, waiting for hours till the
Amir appears.

Can so cruel a monarch be happy? No. He lives
in constant fear of his life.

He is afraid of drinking water, lest it should be
poisoned, All that he drinks is brought from the
river in skins, and sealed, and guarded by two officers ;
it is then taken to the chief counsellor, called the
Vizier, and tasted by him, and his servants; it is then
sealed again, and sent to his majesty.

The Amis dinner when it is ready, is not placed






174 FAR OFF.

on the royal table, but locked up in a box, and taken
to the Vizier to be tasted, before it is served up in the
palace.

But it is not the Amir only who is afraid of poison.
No one will accept fruit from another, unless that
other tastes it first. It must be very terrible to live

in the midst of such murderers as the people of Bok-

hara seem to be.

The Amir is so much afraid of people making plans
to destroy him, that he chooses to see all the letters
that are written by his subjects; if a husband write
to his wife, the letter must first be shown to the Amir.
There are boys, too, going about the city listening to
all that is said, that they may let the Amir know, if
any one speak against him.

But while the Amir is watching his people, they are
watching hem ; for his chief officers hire men to listen
to the Amir’s conversation, that they may know if he
intends to kill them. Yet every person appears to
approve all the Amir does, saying on every occasion,
“Tt is the act of a king; it must be good.” They
are such people as Jeremiah describes in the Bible.
“ Their tongue is as an arrow shot out, it speaketh de-
ceit; one speaketh peaceably to his neighbor, but in
his heart he lieth his wait.”—(Jer. ix. 8.)

APPEARANCE.—The people in Bokhara are much






BOKHARA, IN BARTARY. © 175



handsomer than other Tartars; their complexions are
fairer, and their hair is of a lighter color. They wear
large white turbans, and several dark pelisses with high-
ueeled- boots, “hese high heels prevent their walking
well, and most people, both men and women, ride ;
but the ladies always hide their faces with a veil of
black hair cloth.

The large court of the palace is filled from morning
to night with a crowd of noisy people, most of them
mounted on horses and donkeys.

In the midst of the court is the fruit market. It
is wonderful to behold the quantity, and beauty of the
fruits. The same fruits grow in Bokhara as in Eng-
land, only they are much finer. Such grapes, plums,
and apricots, mulberries, and melons, are never seen
in Europe, and they are made more refreshing by
being mixed with chopped ice. Large piles of ice
stand all the summer long in the market-place, and
even beggars drink iced water. But hot tea is pre-
ferred before any other drink. In every corner of the
market there are, large urns of hot tea, and small
bowls of rich milk, surrounded all day by a thirsty
crowd. How much better is this sight than the gin
palaces of London !

But there is one great inconvenience in Bokhara,
for which all its fruits can scarcely make amends.





176 FAR OFF.



There is bad water. For Bokhara is not built on
the banks of a river, or among running brooks: all
the water is brought by canals, from a small stream
near the town, and when the canals are dried up by
the heat, there is no water, except in the tanks where
itis kept. This stagnant water produces a disease
called the Guinea worm. In this complaint the skin
is covered with painful swellings, and when they burst,
a little flat worm is discovered in each, which must be

drawn out before the poor sufferer can recover.

|

|

|

|

|

|

|

| Reticion.—It is the Mahomedan. The Amir is a

| strict observer of his religion. Every Friday he may

| be seen going to prayers in his great mosque. The

| Koran is carried before him, and four men with
golden staves accompany him, crying out, “ Pray to
Giod that the Commander of the Faithful may act
justly.” As he passes by, his people stroke their

| beards to show their respect. Bokharais reckoned by

| Mahomedans a very religious city ; for in every street
there is a mosque; every evening people may be seen

| crowding to prayers; and if boys are caught asleep

| during service, they are tied together, and driven round
the market by an officer, who beats them all the way
with a thick thong.

There is a school, too, in almost every street of Bok-

hara, and there the poor boys sit from sunrise, till an


BOKHARA, IN TARTARY. 177



hour before sunset, bawling out their foolish lessons
from the Koran; and during all that time they are
never allowed to go home, except once for some bread.
They have no time for play, except in the evening,
and no holiday, except on Friday. Seven years they
spend in this manner, learning to read and write.
When they leave school, if they wish to be counted
very wise, they go to one of the colleges; for there
are many in Bokhara. Some spend all their lives in
these colleges, living in small cells, and meeting in a
large hall to hear lectures about the Mahomedan re-
ligion. It is a happy thing, however, that in summer
the students go out to work in the fields; for how
much better is it to work with the hands, than to fill
the head with the wicked inventions of Mahomed.

The Mahomedans, however, are very proud of their
religion, because they say, they do not worship idols ;
(yet they do worship at Mecca, a black stone, and other
like things in other places). They imagine that all
Christians are idolaters, for they know that the Rus-
sians bow down to pictures.

Once the Vizier of Bokhara conversed a long while
with two Englishmen about their religion.

He asked them, “ Do you worship idols ?”

The Englishmen replied, “ No.”

The Vizier would not believe them, but said, “I

12

San reassess


178 FAR OFF.



am sure you have images and crosses hung round your
necks.”

Upon which, they opened their vests to show there
was nothing hidden.

Then the Vizier smiled, and said to his servants,
“They are not bad people.”

As the servants were preparing tea, the Vizier took
acup, and said to the travellers, “ You must drink
with us, for you are people of the Book,” meaning
the Bible.

Yet you must not suppose because the Vizier seem-
ed to approve these Christians, that he, and the Amir,
would allow missionaries to settle in the kingdom.

It is dangerous for Englishmen to visit Bokhara.
When they do come, they must be very careful not
to give offence, or they will lose their lives. English-
men are more dreaded than any other people, because
it is known in Bokhara, that they have conquered
Hindostan, and therefore the Amir fears lest they
should conquer his kingdom also. As soon as an
Englishman enters Bokhara, he is forbidden to write
a letter, for fear he should contrive some plan to
bring enemies there. Neither is he allowed to ride in
the streets; none but Mahomedans are allowed to ride
in them, though any one may ride owéside the city,

Some years ago two Englishmen came to Bokhara,
SS ESSE Sat ties Ss ptt iting lass teiibapsesbensantens sd abana, n

BOKHARA, IN TARTARY. 179

a

named Colonel Stoddart, and Captain Conolly. ‘They
acted foolishly in writing letters, and trying to send
them secretly to their friends. They were found out,
and shut up.

Colonel Stoddart behaved very wickedly in one
respect; he pretended to be a Mahomedan! Was
not this wicked? Soon he grew sorry, and declared
himself a Christian. At last both Stoddart and Conolly
were sentenced to die. They were led with their
hands tied behind them to a place near the palace,
to be executed. Conolly as he went along, cried out,

|
|
|
|
| “ Woe, woe to me, for I have fallen into the hands of
a tyrant.” At the place of execution the two Eng-
lishmen kissed each other.
| Stoddart said to the king’s minister, (for the Amir
| was not present,) “ Tell the Amir that I die a disbe-
| liever in Mahomed, but a believer in Jesus. I ama
| Christian, and a Christian I die.”
! Then Conolly said to his friend, “ We shall see
| each other in paradise near Jesus.”
| These were their last words. Immediately after-
wards their heads were cut off with a knife.

Some time after this cruel murder, a clergyman,
named Joseph Wolff, arrived at Bokhara. He had
travelled all the way from England, and all alone, on

purpose to inquire after Conolly, who had been his

eS + eS = a





"a4

Lie
180 FAR OFF.



dear friend. The Amir was surprised at his coming,
and said, “I have taken thousands of Persians and
made them slaves, and no one came from Persia to
inquire what was become of them; but assoon as I
take two ENGLISHMEN prisoners, behold a man comes
all this long way to inquire after them /”

The Amir did not know how precious are the lives
of Englishmen in the eyes of their countrymen.

Joseph Wolff found it hard to get away from Bok-
hara. He was kept a long while in prison, and he
feared he should be slain; for when he asked the
Amir to give him the bones of Stoddart and Conolly
to take to England, this was the Amir’s answer: “I
shall send your bones!” Yet, after all, he was per-
mitted to leave Bokhara, the Lord graciously inclining
the tyrant to let him go.

How can Missionaries be sent to such a country !

Bokhara is the only large town in the kingdom.

The sea of Aral lies to the north of the kingdom:
it is an immense lake, but not nearly so large as the
Caspian Sea.

The river Oxus flows into the Caspian. It is famous
for its golden sands.

The great trade of Bokhara is in black woolly
lamb-skins, to make caps for the Persians: the younger
THE TOORKMAN TARTARS. 181

a



the lamb the more delicate the wool. Thus many a
pretty lambkin dies to adorn a Persian noble.
The best raisins in the world come from Bokhara.*

THE TOORKMAN TARTARS.

You have heard a great deal of the Tartars, and
you have been told that they are a quiet and peace-
able nation. But not all; there is a tribe of Tartars
called the Toorkmans, of a very different character.
They wander about in the country between Bokhara
and Persia, and their chief employment is to steal
men from Persia, and to sell them in Bokhara as
slaves. A whole troop, mounted on horses, rush
sword in hand upon a Persian city, and return to the
camp with hundreds of beasts and human creatures as
their captives.

Some English travellers once met five men chained
together, walking with sad steps in the deep sands of
the desert. They were Persians just caught by the
Toorkmans, and on their way to Bokhara. When the
Englishmen saw these poor captives, they uttered a
sorrowful cry, and the Persians began to weep. One

* Taken from Sir Alexander Burnes, and from Kanikoff,
the Russian, and from Rev. Joseph Wolff,



|

|
es scams cE LALO AL essential aa DADA AEN

182 FAR OFF,
—tnnpeaneeanenatintensetnssteennntesnansslpm
of the travellers stopped his camel to listen to their
sad tale; and he heard that a few weeks before, while
working in the fields, they had been seized and carried
off. They were hungry and thirsty ; for the Toork-
mans cruelly starve their slaves, in order that they
may be too weak to run away. The-traveller gave
them all he had, which was a melon, to quench their
thirst.
| But the worst part of the Toorkmans’ conduct re-
mains yet to be told. When they have taken many
captives, they usually Azd2 the old people, because they
would not get much money for them in Bokhara; and
they choose one of their captives to offer up as a
thank-offering to their god!! Who is their god?
| The god of Mahomed. But though they are Ma-
homedans, they have no mosques, and are too ignorant
to be able to read the Koran.
Robbery is their whole business. For this purpose
they learn to ride and to fight. They understand
| well how to manage a horse, so as to make him strong
and swift. They do not let him eat when he pleases,
but they give him three meals a day of hay and bar-
ley, and then rein him up that he may not nibble the
| grass, and grow fat ; and sometimes they give him no
food at all, and yet make him gallop many miles.

By this management the horses are very thin, but






THE TOORKMAN TARTARS. 183



very strong, and able to bear their masters eighty
miles in a day when required; and they are so swift
that they can outrun their pursuers.

It is not surprising that the Toorkmans do not eat
these thin horses, though other Tartars are so fond of
horseflesh. They prefer mutton. When they invite
a stranger to dinner, they boil a whole sheep in a
large boiling-pot; then tear up the flesh,—mix it
with crumbled bread, and serve it up in wooden bowls.
Two persons eat from one bowl, dipping their hands
into it, and licking up their food like dogs. The meal
is finished by eating melons.

These coarse manners suit such fierce and wild
creatures as the Toorkmans. It is their boast that
they rest neither under the shadow of a Treg nor of a
KING ; meaning that they have neither trees nor kings
to protect them in the desert.

The men wear high caps of black sheep-skin, while
the women wear high white turbans. The tents are
adorned with beautiful carpets, not only the floors,
but the sides, and it is the chief employment of the
women to weave them. As for the men, they spend
most of their time in sauntering about among the
tents; for the fierce dogs guard the flocks. But
when their hands are idle, their thoughts are still busy
in planning new robberies and murders.


184 FAR OFF.

NN



It was by such men that the earth was inhabited
when God sent the flood to destroy it. It is written,
“ The earth was filled with vioLENCE.”

Is there any man brave enough to go to these men
to warn them of the judgment to come, and to tell
| them of pardon for the penitent, through the blood of
| Jesus ?*
|
|
|
|
|

* Extracted from Sir Alexander Burnes’ “ Bokhara,”

ee


Chinese Cartary.

















Very little is known in Europe of this part of Tar-
tary; and why? Because the Emperor of China,
who reigns over it, does not like travellers to go
there.

It is divided by high and snowy mountains from
the rest of Tartary. When a traveller has passed
over these mountains, he finds on the other side Chi-
_ hese officers, who inquire what business he has come
' upon. If he have come only to wander about the
| country, he is desired to go home again; because the
| Chinese are afraid lest strangers should send spies,
and then ARMIES—to conquer their empire.

One traveller, because he stayed too long in Tar-
| tary, was imprisoned for three months; and before he
| was let go, a picture of him was taken. What was
| done with this picture? It was copied, and the copies
| were sent to various towns on the borders of Chinese
Tartary, with this command, “If the man, who is like

{

this picture, enter the country, his head is the Em-
186 FAR OFF.



peror’s, and his property is yours.” Happily the
traveller heard of this command, and was never seen
again in the country. You see how cunning it was
of the Chinese to allow any one who killed the trav-
eller to have his property; for thus they made it the
interest of all to kill him.

There is one city in Chinese Tartary where many
strangers come to trade with the people. It is called
Yarkund. There caravans arrive from Pekin, laden
with tea, after a journey of five months over the wilds
of Tartary. ‘Then merchants come from Bokhara to
buy the tea, and to carrv it home, where it is so much
liked.




Afighoniston.

Turis land is not a desert. Yet there are but few
trees, and because there is so little shade, the rivulets
are soon dried up. Yet it might be a fruitful land,
if the inhabitants would plant and sow. But they
prefer wandering about in tents, and living upon plun-
der, to settling in one place and living by their labor.
The Tartar has good reason for roaming over his
plains, because the land is bad; but the Affghan has
no reason, but the dove of roaming.

The plains of Affyhanistan are sultry, but the
mountains are cool; for their tops are covered with
snow. The shepherds feed their flocks on the plains
during the winter; but in the spring they lead them

to the mountains to pass the summer there. Then
the air is filled with the sweet scent of clover and
violets. The sheep often stop to browse upon the
fresh pasture; but they are not suffered to linger long,
The children have the charge of the lambs; an old

goat or sheep goes before to encourage the lambs to






eee

188 FAR OFF.



proceed, and the children follow with switches of
green grass. Many a little child who can only just
run alone, enjoys the sport of driving the young
lambs. The tents are borne on the backs of camels.
The men are terrible-looking creatures, tall, large,
dark, and grim, with shaggy hair and long black
beards. They wear great turbans of blue check and
handsome jackets, and cloaks of sheep-skin; they
carry in their girdles knives as large as a butcher's ;
and on their shoulders a shield and a gun.

Besides these wild wanderers, there are some Aff-
ghans who live in houses.

Cabool, the capital, is a fine city, and the king
dwells in a fine citadel. The bazaar is the finest in all
Asia. It is like a street with many arches across it;
and these people sell all kinds of goods.

But what is a fine bazaar compared to a beautiful
garden ? Cabool is surrounded by gardens : the most
beautiful is the king’s. In the midst is an octagon
summer-house, where eight walks meet, and all the
walks are shaded by fruit-trees. Here grow, as in
Bokhara, the best fruits to be found in an English
garden, only much larger and sweeter. The same
kind of birds, too, which sing in England sing among
its branches, even the melodious nightingale. It is

the chief delight of the people of Cabool to wander in
AFFGHANISTAN.



the gardens: they come there every evening, after
having spent the day in sauntering about the bazaar ;
for they are an idle people, talking much and working
little.

The noise in the city is so great that it is difficult
to make a friend hear what you say: it is not the
noise of rumbling wheels as in London, for there are no
wheeled carriages, but the noise of chattering tongues.

The Affehans are a temperate people; they live
chiefly upon fruit with a little bread; and as they are
Mahomedans, they avoid wine, and drink instead iced
sherbets, made of the juice of fruits. In winter ex-
cellent dried fruits supply the place of fresh.

But the Affyhan, though living on fruits, is far from
being a harmless and amiable character; on the con-
trary, he is cruel, covetous, and treacherous. Much
British blood has been shed in the valleys of Affyhan-
istan.

We cannot blame the Affghans for defending their
own country. It was natural for them to ask, “ What
right has Britain to interfere with us ?”

A British army was once sent to Affghanistan to
force the people to have a king they did not like,
instead of one they did like.

I will tell you of a youth who accompanied his
father to the wars. This boy looked forward with de-




FAR OFF.

light to going as a soldier to a foreign land, and his
heart beat high when the trumpet sounded to summon
the troops to embark. Joyfully he quitted Bombay,

crossed the Indian Ocean, and landed near the mouth

of the Indus. When the army began its march

towards Affghanistan, he rode on a pony by his
father’s side.

At first 1t seemed pleasant to pitch the tent ina
new spot every day, to rest during the heat, and to
travel in the dead of the night, till the sun was high
in the sky. But soon this way of life was found
fatiguing, for the heat was great, and the water scarce.
The air, too, was clouded by the dust the troops raised
in marching; and green grass was seldom seen, or a
shady tree under which to rest. The food, too, was
dry and stale, and no fresh food could be procured, for
the Affyhans, before they fled, destroyed the corn and
fruit growing in the fields, that their enemies might
not eat them. The camels, too, which bore the bag-
gage of the British army, grew ill from heat and
thirst; fur it is not true that camels can live long
without water; in three or four days they die. Besides
this, the hard rocks in the hilly country hurt their
feet, and hastened their death. Many a camel died
as it was seeking to quench its thirst at a narrow
stream in the valley, and its dead body falling into



|
|
|
|
AFFGHANISTAN.



the water, polluted it. Yet this water the soldiers
| drank, for they had no other, and from drinking it
they fell ill. The father of the youthful soldier was
| one of these, and he was compelled to stop on the way
for several weeks ; and because the heat of a tent was
too great, he took shelter in a ruined building. Here
his son nursed him with a heavy heart. Where was
the delight the youth had expected to find in a sol-
dier’s life ?

At last the British army reached a strong fort built



and gates were so strong that it seemed impossible to

|
|
on the top of a hill; Guznee was its name. Its walls
|
did not, they must die either by the Affghan sword, |

|
| get into the city; yet the British knew that if they

or by hunger and thirst among the rocks. Forsome |
time they were much perplexed and distressed. At |
last a thought came into the mind of a British cap- |
tain, “ Let us blow up the gates with gunpowder.”
The plan was good; but how to perform it,—there
was the difficulty. Soon all was arranged. In the
night some sacks of gunpowder were laid very softly



against the gates; but as no one could set fire to the

sacks when close to them, a long pipe of cloth was |



filled with gunpowder, and stretched like a serpent
| upon the ground; one end of the pipe touched the
| sack, and the other end was to be set on fire. But

mr ne es pa enema linen a ee ee ee oe tne










FAR OFF.



before the match was applied, a British officer peeped
through a chink in the gates to see what the Affghans
were doing within. Behold! they were quietly smok-
ing, and eating their supper, not suspecting any dan-
ger! The match was applied—the gunpowder ex-
ploded, and the strong gates were shattered into
a thousand pieces; the army rushed in sword in hand,
and the Affghans fled in wild confusion.

Where was our young soldier? He was running
into the fort between two friendly soldiers, who kindly
helped him on; each of them was holding one of his
arms, and assisting him to keep up with the troops,
as they rushed through the gates. As he ran, he
heard horrible cries, but the darkness hindered him
from seeing the dying Affghans rolling in the dust,
only he felt their soft bodies as he hastily passed over
them. He heard his fellow-soldiers shouting and firing
on every side. Some fell close beside him, and others
were wounded, and carried off on the shoulders of their
comrades, screaming with agony.

Half an hour after the gates were fired, the city was
taken. The news of the victory spread among the

Affghans on the mountains, and the plains, and the

' whole country submitted to the British.

The army soon marched to Cabool, that proud city.

No one opposed their entrance, and the bazaar, and



AFFGHANISTAN,.
the king’s garden, and the royal citadel were visited
by our soldiers.

After spending two months in beautiful Cabool,
resting their weary limbs and feasting on fine fruits,
the army was ordered to return home. They began
to march again towards the coast, a distance of fifteen
hundred miles, over cragged rocks, and scorching plains.

In the course of this terrible journey, the father of
the young soldier again fell ill, and was forced to stop
by the way. His affectionate son nursed him night
and day ; closed his eyes in death, and saw him laid

in a lowly grave in the desert. With a bleeding heart.

the youth embarked to return to Bombay.

During the voyage, a furious storm arose, and all
on board despaired of life. Zhen it was the youth
remembered the prayers he had offered up by his
dying father’s bed; then it was he felt he had not
turned to God with all his heart, and then it was he
vowed, that if the Lord would spare him this once, he
would seek his face in truth. God heard and spared.

And did the youth remember his prayers and vows ?
He did, though not at first,—yet after a little while
he did. We read the word of God, he prayed for the
Spirit of God, and at length he enjoyed the peace of
God; and now he neither fears storm nor sword, be-
cause Christ is his shelter and his shield.









a a ese

PHeloorhistan.

Just underneath Affghanistan, lies Beloochistan, by
the sea coast. It is separated from India by the river
Indus. You may know a Beloochee from an Affghan
by his stiff red cotton cap, in the shape of a hat with-
out a brim; whereas, an Affyhan wears a turban.
Yet the religion of the Beloochee is the same as that
of the Affghan, namely, the Mahomedan, and the
character is alike, only the Beloochee is the fiercer of
the two: the country also is alike, being wild and
rocky.

Beloochistan has not been conquered by the Brit-
ish: it has a king of its own; yet the British have
fought against Beloochistan. On one occasion a
British army was sent to punish the king of Beloo-
chistan for not having sent corn to us, as he had
promised.

The army consisted of three thousand men, and
amongst them was the young soldier, of whom you
have heard so much already. His father was ill at
BELOOCHISTAN. 195



— nr



the time, and could not fight; but the youth came
upon his pony, with a camel to carry his tent, and all
his baggage.

‘The troops as usual marched in the night. In the
morning, about eight o’clock, they first caught sight

|

|

|

| of iKelat, the capital of Beloochistan. It was a grand
sight, for the city is built on a high hill, with a citadel

| at the t8p. The dark Beloochees were seen thronging

about the walls and the towers, gazing at the British

army, but not daring to approach them.

|

Our soldiers, when they first arrived, were too much
tired to begin the attack, and therefore they rested on

| the grass for two hours. At ten o’clock the word of

| command was given, and the attack was made. The

| British planted their six cannons opposite the gates,

and began to fire.

Where was the young soldier? He was com-
manded to run with his company close up to the wall,
and there to remain. As he ran, he was exposed to
| the full fire of the enemy. The youth heard bullets
| whizzing by as he passed, and he expected every mo-
| ment that some ball would lay him low; but through
the mercy of God he reached the wall in safety.
Close underneath the wall was not a dangerous post,
for the bullets passed over the heads of those standing
there. |





196 FAR OFF.

About noon, the British cannons had destroyed the
gates. Then the British soldiers rushed into the
town. Amongst the first to enter was the young sol-
dier ; because when the gates fell he was standing
close by. As he passed along the streets, he saw no
one but the dead and the dying; for the Beloochees
had fled for refuge to their citadel on the top»of the
hill. The king himself was there.

The citadel was a place very difficult for an enemy
to enter; for the entrance was through a narrow dark
passage underground. Into this passage the British
soldiers poured, but soon they came to a door, which
they could not get through, for Beloochee soldiers
stood there, sword in hand, ready to cut down any one
who approached. “Look at my back,” said one sol-
dier to his fellow. The other looked, and beheld the
most frightful gashes gaping wide and bleeding freely.
Such were the wounds that each soldier, who ventured
near that door, was sure to receive.

At this momeat a cry was heard, saying, “ Another
passage is found.” When the Beloochees heard this
cry, they gave up all hopes of keeping the enemy out of
the citadel; so they left off fighting, and cried “ Peace.”

But their king was already dead; he had fallen on
the threshold of the passage last found. The /irst
man who tried to get in by that way the hing had

gel































‘ did object even in death ; his long dark ringlets were

BELOOCHISTAN. 197
$i
killed; but the second had killed the king. The
British, as they rushed in by this new way, trampled
on the body of the fallen monarch. He was a splen-

flowing over his glittering garments, and his sharp —
sword, with its golden hilt, was in his hand. The
British hurried by, and climbed the steep and narrow
stairs leading to the top of the citadel, and the enemy
no longer durst oppose their course.

On the terrace at the top of the citadel, in the open...
air, stood the nobles of Beloochistan. ="
princes too from the countries all around. “It was a
magnificent assembly. These men were the fest of
a fine race. Some were clad in shining armor, and
others in flowing garments of green and gold. Thus
they stood@for a moment, and the next—they were
rolling on the ground! ! P |
» How was this? Had not peace been agreed upon -
on both sides? Yes, but a British soldier had at-
tempted to take away the sword of one of the princes.
The prince had resisted, and with his sword, had
wounded the soldier; and instantly every British gun
on that spot had been pointed at the nobles of Beloo-
chistan. |
* This was why the nobles were lying in the agonies
of death.


198 S OFF.

Our young soldier was not one of those who slew



the nobles. He was standing on another part of the
terrace, when, hearing a tremendous volley of guns, he
exclaimed to a friend, “ What can that be?” Going
forward, he beheld heaps of bleeding bodies, turbans,
and garments—in one confused mass. The dying
were calling for water, and the very soldiers who had
shot them, were holding cups to their quivering lips,
though themselves parched with thirst. But water
could not save the lives of the fallen nobles: one by
‘one theyygeased to cry out, and soon—all were silent
—and_all were still. The VICTORY was WON!
But how awful had been the last scene! How cru-
elly, how unjustly, had the lives of that princely as-
sembly been cut short! &

_ The conquerors returned that evening tdtheir camp.
On their way, they passed through the desolate streets
of the city; the mud cottages on each side were
empty, and blood flowed between. The young officer,
as he marched at the head of his company, was struck

by seeing a row of his own fellow-soldiers lying dead
upon the ground. They had been placed there ready
for burial on the morrow. Their ghastly faces, and
gaping wounds were terrible to behold. The youth
remembered them full ‘of life and spirits in the morn-
ing, unmindful of their dismal end; then he felt how






ee 199

merciful God had been in sparing his life; and when
he crept into his little tent that night, he returned him
thanks upon his knees ; though he did not love him
then as his Saviour from eternal death. Wearied, he
soon fell asleep, but his sleep was broken by dreadful
dreams of blood and death. |

The next day he walked through the conquered
town, and saw the British soldiers dragging the dead

——

bodies of their enemies by ropes fastened to their
feet. They were dragging them to their grave,
which was a deep trench, and there they cast them in
and covered them up with earth.

Such is the history of the conquest of Kelat.* How
many souls were suddenly hurled into eternity! How
many unprepared to meet their Judge, because their
sins were unpardoned, and their souls unwashed !
But in war, who thinks of souls and sins! 0 horrible
war! How hateful to the Prince of Peace!

* September 13, 1839.


PBurmay.
Or all the kings in Asia, the king of Burmah is
| the greatest, next to the emperor of China. He has
| not indeed nearly as large a kingdom, or as many
subjects as that emperor; but like him, he is worship-
| ped by his people. He is called “Lord of life and
| death,” and the “Owner of the sword,” for instead of
holding a sceptre in his hand, he holds a golden
sheathed sword. A sword indeed suits him well, for
| he is very cruel to his subjects. Nowhere are such
severe punishments inflicted. For drinking brandy
the punishment is, pouring molten lead down the
throat; and for running away from the army, the
punishment is, cutting off both legs, and leaving the
poor creature to bleed to death. A man for choosing
to be a Christian was beaten all over the body with a
wooden mallet, till he was one mass of bruises; but
before he was dead, he was let go.
Every one is much afraid of offending this cruel
king. The people tremble at the sound of his name ;


BURMAH. 201

and when they see him, they fall down with their
heads in the dust. The king makes any one a lord
whom he pleases, yet he treats even his lords very
rudely. When displeased with them, he will hunt
them out of the room with his drawn sword. Once
he made forty of his lords lie upon their faces for sev-
eral hours, beneath the broiling sun, with a great
beam over them to keep them still. It was well for
them that the king did not send for the men with
spotted faces. Who are those men? The execution-
ers. Their faces are always covered with round marks
tattooed in the skin. The sight of these spotted faces
fills all the people with terror. Every one runs away
at the sight of a spotted face, and no one will allow a
man with a spotted face to sit down in his house. In
what terror the poor Burmese must live, not knowing
when the order for death will arrive. Yet the king
is so much revered, that when he dies, instead of say-
ing, “He is dead,” the people say, “ He is gone to
amuse himself in the heavenly regions ”

The king has a great many governors under him,
and they are as cruel as himself. A missionary once
saw a poor creature hanging on a cross. He inquired
what the man had done, and finding that he was not
a murderer, he went to the governor to entreat him to

pardon the man. For a long while the governor re-








202 FAR OFF. |



fused to hear him: but at last he gave him a note,
desiring the crucified man to be taken down from the
cross. Would you believe it?—the Burmese officers
were so cruel that they would not take out the nails,
till the missionary had promised them a piece of cloth
as a reward! When the man was released, he was
nearly dead, having been seven hours bleeding on the
cross; but he was tenderly nursed by the missionary,
and at last he recovered. Yet all the agonies of a
cross had not changed the man’s heart, and he re-
turned to his old way of life as a thief. Had he be-
lieved in that Saviour who was nailed to a cross for
his sins, he would, like the dying thief, have repented.
Though the Burmese are so unfeeling to each other,
they think it wrong to kill animals, and never eat any
meat, except the flesh of animals who have died of
themselves. Even the fishermen think they shall be
punished hereafter for catching fish ; but they say,
“We must do it, or we shall be starved.” You may
be sure that such a people must have some false and
foolish religion; and so they have, as you will see.
Retreron.—It is the religion of Buddha. This
Buddha was a man who was born at Benares, in In-
dia, more than two thousand years ago; and people
say, that for his great goodness was made a boodh, or
agod. Yet the Burmese do not think he is alive




IDOL CAR AND PAGODA.


BURMAH. ~ 208

now ; they say he is resting as a reward for his good+
ness. Why then do they pray to him, if he cannot
hear them? They pray because they think it ig very
good to pray, and that they shall be rewarded for it
some day. What reward do they expect? It is this
—to rest as Buddha does—to sleep forever and ever.
This is the reward they look for. Every one in Bur-
mah thinks he has been born a great many times into
| the world,—now as an insect,—now as a bird,—now
as a beast, and he thinks that because he was very
* good,—as a reward he was made aman. Then he
thinks that if he is very good as a poor man, he shall
| be born next time to be a rich man; and at last, that
“he will be allowed to rest like Buddha himself. What
is it to be good? The Burmese say that the greatest
goodness is making an idol, and next to that, making
a pagoda. You know what an idol is, but do you
know what a pagoda is? It is a house, with an idol
|
|

hidden inside, and it has no door, nor window, there-

fore no one can get into a pagoda. Some pagodas
are very large, and others very small. As it is thought
so very good to make idols and pagodas, the whole

of AN Te TY EE EN a eee es 2 EOS RS YA ae Se Se Sen te

land is filled with them; the roads in some places are
lined with them ; the mountains are crowned with them.

Next to saaking idals, and building pagodas, it is
considered good to make offerings. You may see the
204 FAR OFF.



father climbing a steep hill to reach a pagoda, his little
one by his side, and plucking green twigs as he goes.
He rgaches the pagoda, and strikes the great bell, then
enters the idol-house near the pagoda, and teaches his
young child how to fold its little hands, and to raise
them to its forehead, while it repeats a senseless pray-
er; then leaving the green twigs at the idol’s feet, the
father descends with his child in his arms. How many
little ones, such as Jesus once took in his arms, are
taught every day to serve Satan. :

The people who are thought the best

mah, are the priests. Any one that pleases may" a

a priest. The priests pretend to be poor, and “go
out begging every morning with their empty dishes
in their hands; but they get them well filled, and
then return to the handsome house, all shining with
gold, in which they live together in plenty and in
pride. They are expected to dress in rags, to show
that they are poor; but not liking rags, they cut up
cloth in little pieces, and sew the pieces together to
make their yellow robes; and this they call wearing
rags. They pretend to be so modest, that they do not
like to show their faces, and so hide them with a fan,
even when they preach ; for they do preach in their
way, that is, they tell foolish stories about Buddha.
The name they give him is Guadama, while the Chi-








BURMAH. 205

nese call him Fo. They have five hundred and fifty ,
stories written in their books about him; for they say
he was once a bird, a fly, an elephant, and all manner
of creatures, and was so‘ good whatever he was, that
at last he was born the son of a king.
Cuaracter.—The Burmese are a blunt and rough
people. They are not like the Chinese and the Hin-
doos, ready to pay compliments to strangers. When
a Burmese has finished a visit, he says, “I am going,”
and his friend replies, “Go.” This is very blunt be-
havior. But all blunt people are not sincere. The
Burmese are very deceitful, and tell lies on every occa-
sion ; indeed, they are not ashamed of their falsehoods.
They are also very proud, because they fancy they
were so good before they were born into this world.
All the kind actions they do are in the hope of getting
more merit, and this bad motive spoils all they do.

They are kind to travellers. In every village there is

a pretty house, called a Zayat, where travellers may
rest. As soon as a guest arrives, the villagers hasten
to wait upon him ;—one brings a clean mat, another
a jug of water, and a third a basket of fruit. But why
is all this attention shown? In the hope of getting
merit. The Burmese resemble the Chinese in their
respect to their parents. They are better than the
Chinese in their treatment of their children, for they





206 FAR OFF.



Tn camaseerecinasiassinicninssnaty atte eta Aenea

are kind to the girls as well as to the boys; neither
do they destroy any of their infants. They are tem-
perate also, not drinking wine,—having only two
meals in the day, and then not eating too much. In
these points they are to be approved. ‘They are, how-
ever, very violent in their tempers ; it is true they are
not very easily provoked, but when they are angry,
they use very abusive language. Thus you see they

















are by no means an amiable people.



Apprarance.—In their persons they are far less
pleasing than the Hindoos ; for instead of slender
faces and figures, they have broad faces and thick







figures. But they have not such dark complexions as
the Hindoos.
They disfigure themselves in various ways. To







make their skins yellow, they sprinkle over them a



yellow powder. They also make their teeth black,



because they say they do not wish to have white



teeth like dogs and monkeys. They bore their ears,



and put bars of gold, or silver, or marble through the
holes.
The women wear a petticoat and a jacket. The







men wear a turban, a loose robe, and a jacket; they
tie up their hair in a knot behind, and tattoo their
legs, by pricking their skin, and then putting in black







oil. They have the disagreeable custom of smoking,





BURMA. 207

and of chewing a stuff called “ coon,” which they carry
in a box.

Every one (except the priests) carries an umbreila
to guard him from the sun; the king alone has a
white one; his nobles have gilded umbrellas; the
next class have red umbrellas; and the lowest have
green.

Foopv.—Burmah is a pleasanter country than Hin-
dostan, for it is not so hot, and yet it is as fruitful.
The people live chiefly upon rice ; but when they can-
not get enough, they find abundance of leaves and
roots to satisfy their hunger.

AnimAts.—There are many tigers, but no lions.
The Burmese are fond of adorning their houses with
statues of lions, but never having seen any, they make
very strange and laughable figures. The pride of
Burmah is her elephants ; but they all belong to the
king, and none may ride upon one but himself, and
his chief favorite. Carriages are drawn by bullocks,
or buffaloes ; and there are horses for riding, so the
Burmese can do very well without the elephants.
The king thinks a great deal too much of these noble
animals. There was a white elephant that he de-
lighted in so much, that he adorned it with gold, and
jewels, and counted it next to himself in rank, even
above the queen.
208 FAR OFF.
nnn

Hovuses.—The Burmese build their houses on posts,
so that there is an empty place under the floors.
Dogs and crows may often be seen walking under the
houses, eating whatever has fallen through the cracks
of the floor.

The king allows none but the nobles to build houses
of brick and stone ; the rest build them of bamboos.
This law is unpleasant; but there is another law
which is a great comfort to the poor. It is this ;—
any one may have land who wishes for it. A man
has only to cultivate a piece of spare land, and it is
counted his, as Jong as he continues to cultivate it;
therefore all industrious people have gardens of their
own.

THE KARENS.

Among the mountains of Burmah, there are a wild
people called the Karens, very poor and very ignorant ;
yet some have attended to the voice of the mission-
aries. They are not so proud as the Burmese ; for
they have no gods at all, and no books at all: they
have not filled their heads with five hundred and fifty
stories about Gaudama ; therefore they are more ready
to listen to the history of Jesus.

The Karens live in houses raised from the ground,


THE KARENS. 209

and so large is the place underneath, that they keep

poultry and pigs there. Every year they move to a
new place, and build new houses, clear a new piece
of ground, by burning the weeds, dig it up, and sow
rice. Thus they wander about, and they number
their years by the number of houses they have lived
in.

Of all the Eastern nations, they sing and play the
most sweetly, and when they become Christians, they
sing hymns, very sweetly indeed.

There is one Christian village among the moun-
tains, called Mata, which means love; and every
morning the. people meet together in the Zayat, or
travellers’ house, to sing and pray. Before they were
Christians, the Karens were in constant fear of the
Nats ; (not nsects, but evil spirits), and sometimes in
order to please their Nats, they were so cruel as to
beat a pig to death. The Christian Karens have left
off such barbarous practices, and have become kind
and compassionate. When the missionaries told them
that they ought to love one another, some of them
went secretly the next day to wait upon a poor leper,
and upon a woman covered with sores. Another day,
without being asked, they collected some money and
brought it to the missionaries, saying, they wished to
set free a poor Burman who had been imprisoned for

14


‘

210 FAR OFF.
a nee
Christ’s sake. It is cheering to the missionaries to
see them turning from their sins.*

AVA.

This city was once the capital of Burmah, and then
it was called the “golden city.” But now the king
lives in another city, and the glory of Ava has passed
away.

MAULMAIN.

This city, though in Burmah, may be called a Brit-
ish city, because the British built it; for they have
conquered great part of Burmah. There are mission-
aries there. One there is, named J udson, who has
turned more than a hundred Burmese to the Lord.
But he has known great troubles. His wife and his
little girl shared in these troubles.

I will now relate the history of the short life of little
Maria Judson.

* Taken from “ Travels in Eastern Asia,” by Rev. How-
ard Malcolm.
MISSIONARY’S BABE. 211

THE MISSIONARY’S BABE.

The missionary’s babe, little Maria, was born in a
cottage by the side of a river, and very near the walls
of the great city of Ava, where the king dwelt.

It was a wooden cottage, thatched with straw, and
screened by a verandah from the burning sun. It was
not like an English cottage, for it was built on high
posts, that the cool air might play beneath. It con-
tained three small rooms all on one floor. The coun-
try around was lovely; for the green banks of the
river were adorned with various colored flowers and
with trees laden with fine fruits.

In this pretty cottage, the infant Maria was lulled
in her mother’s arms to sleep, and often the tears roll-
ing down the mother’s cheeks, fell upon the baby’s fair
face. Why did the mother weep? It was for her
husband she wept. He was not dead, but he was in
prison. He was a missionary, and the king of Ava had
imprisoned him in the midst of the great city. Was
his wife left all alone with her babe in her cottage?
No, there were two little Burmese girls there. They
were the children of heathen parents, and they had
been received by the kind lady into her cottage, and
now they were learning to worship God. Their new
names were, Mary, and Abby. There were also two

2
oe

239 FAR OFF. |

men servants, of dark complexion, dressed in white
cotton, and wearing turbans. It was a sorrowful little
household, because the master of the family was ab-
sent, because he was in distress, and his life was in
danger. Every day his fond wife visited him in his
prison. She left her babe under the care of Mary,
and set out with a little basket in her hand. After
walking two miles through the streets of Ava, she
came to some high walls—she knocked at the gate—
a stern-looking man opened it. The lady, passing
through the gates, entered a court. In one corner of
the court, there was a little shed made of bamboos,
and near it, upon a mat, sat a pale, and sorrowful man.
lis countenance brightens when he perceives the lady
enter. She refreshes him with the nice food she has
brought in her basket, and comforts him with sweet
and heavenly words :—then hastens to return to her
babe. As soon as she enters her cottage, she sinks
back, half fainting, in her rocking-chair, while she folds
again her little darling in her arms. Happy babe!
thy parents are suffering for Jesus—and they are
blessed of the Lord, and their baby with them.
Greater sorrows still, soon befell the little family.

One day, a messenger came to the cottage, with the
sad tidings that the bamboo hut had been torn down,
the mat, and pillow taken away, and the prisoner,


MISSIONARY’S BABE. 213



laden with chains, thrust into the inner prison. The
loving wife hastened to the governor of the city to ask
for mercy ; but she could obtain none, only she was
permitted to see her husband. And what a sight!
He was shut up in a room with a hundred men, and
without a window // Though the weather was hot
no breath of air reached the poor prisoners, but through
the cracks in the boards. No wonder that the mis-
sionary soon fell ill of a fever. His wife, fearing he
would die, determined to act like the widow in the par-
able, and to weary the unjust judge by her entreaties,
She left her quiet cottage, and built a hut of bamboos
at the governor’s gate, and there she lived with her
babe, and the little Burmese e The prison was
just opposite the governor's gate, 86*that the anxious
wife had now the comfort of being near her suffering
husband. The governor was wearied by her impor-
tunity, and at last permitted her to build again a
bamboo hovel for the prisoner in the court of the
prison. The sick man was brought out of the noisome
dungeon, and was laid upon his mat in the fresh air,
Ue was supplied with food and medicine by his faith-
ful wife, and he began to recover.

But in three days, a change occurred. Suddenly
the poor wife heard that her beloved had been dragged
from his prison, and taken, she knew not where. She
ne



214 FAR OFF.

inquired of everybody she saw, “ Where is he gone 2”
but no answer could she obtain. At last the governor
told her, that his prisoner was taken to a great city,
named A-ma-ra-poora. This city was seven miles from
Ava. The wife decided in a moment what to do.
She determined to follow her husband. Taking her
babe in her arms, and accompanied by the Burmese
children, and one servant, she set out. She went to
the city up the river in a covered boat, and thus she
was sheltered from the scorching sun of an Indian
May. But when she arrived at Amarapoora, she heard
that her husband had been taken to a village six miles
off. To this village she travelled in a clumsy cart
drawn by oxen. Overcome with fatigue, she arrived
at the prison, and aw her poor husband sitting in the
court chained to another prisoner, and looking very
ill. He had neither hat, nor coat, nor shoes, and his
feet were covered with wounds he had received, as he
had been driven over the burning gravel on the way
to the prison: but his wounds had been bound up by
a kind heathen servant, who had torn up his own
turban to make bandages.

When the missionary saw his wife approaching
with her infant, he felt grieved on her account, and ex-
claimed, “ Why have you come? You cannot live
here?” But she cared not where she lived, so that





“Se ae



MISSIONARY’S BABE. 215
she could be near her suffering husband. She wished
to build a-bamboo hut at the prison gate: but the
jailor would not allow her. However, he let her live
ina room of his own house. It was a wretched room,
with no furniture but a mat. Here the mother and
the children slept that night, while the servant, wrap-
ped in his cloth, lay at the door. They had no supper
that night. Next day, they bought food in the
village, with some silver that the lady kept carefully
concealed in her clothes.

A new trouble soon came upon them. Mary was
seized with a small-pox of a dreadful sort. Who now
was to help the weak mother to nurse the little
Maria? Abby was too young. The babe was four
months old, and a heavy burden for feeble arms ; yet
all day long the mother carried it, as she went to and
fro from the sick child to the poor prisoner. Some-
times, when it was asleep, she laid it down by the side
of her husband. He was able to watch a sleeping
babe, but not to nurse a babe awake, owing to his
great weakness, and to his mangled feet. Soon the
babe herself was attacked by the small-pox, and con-
tinued very ill for three months. This last trial was
too much for the poor mother. Her strength failed
her, and fur many weeks she lay upon her mat unable
to rise. She must have perished, if it had not been


216 FAR OFF.

do esetisnene tng anneamaneciennegeibtnsssonnssamisoctshatitiecinmeeenssn tat
for the faithful servant. He was a native of Bengal,
and a heathen. Yet he was so much concerned for
his sick mistress and imprisoned master, that he would
sometimes go without food all day, while he was
attending to their wants; and he did all without ex-
pecting any wages.

The poor little infant was in a sad case, now its
mother was lying on the mat. It cried so much for
milk, that once its father got leave to carry it round
the village to ask the mothers who had babes, to give
some milk to his. By this plan, the little creature
was quieted in the day, but at night its cries were
most distressing.

The time at length arrived, when these trials were
toend. The king sent for the missionary, not to put
him to death, as he had once intended, but to ask for
his help. What help could he render to the king ?
The reason why the missionary had been imprisoned
so long was, that a British army had attacked Burmah.
The king had feared, lest the missionary should take
part with the enemy, and therefore he had shut him
up. Now there were hopes of peace, and an inter-
preter was wanted to help the Burmese to speak with
the British. The missionary knew both the English
language and the Burmese, and he could explain to
the king what the English general would say.
MISSIONARY’S BABE. 217

For this purpose he was brought to Ava. He was
not driven along the road like a beast, but relieved
from his chains, and treated with less cruelty than
formerly. Yet he was still a prisoner.

The mother was now well enough to make a jour-
ney, though still very weak. She returned to her
cottage by the river-side, and soon she had the delight
of seeing her husband enter it. It was seventeen
months since he had been torn from it by the king’s
officers, and ever since, he had been groaning in irons.
But he was not now come to remain in his cottage,
but only to obtain a little food and clothing to take
with him to the Burmese camp. His wife felt cheered
on his account, hoping that as an interpreter he would
be well treated.

No sooner was he gone, than she was seized with
that deadly disease, called spotted fever. What now
would become of little Maria? Through the tender
mercy of God, on the very day the mother fell ill, a

Burmese woman offered to nurse the babe. Every

day the mother grew worse, till at last the neighbors
came in to sce her die. As they stood around, they
exclaimed, in their Burmese tongue, “She is dead,
and if the king of angels should come in, he could not
recover her.” Zheir king of angels could not, but
her Kine of anaxts could, for he can raise the dead.






218 FAR OFF.



But this dear lady was not dead, though nearly
dead. ;

The Lord of life showed her mercy. A friend
entered the sick chamber. It was Dr. Price, a mis-
sionary and a prisoner, but who had obtained leave
from the king to visit the sick lady. He understood
her case, and he ordered her head to be shaved, and
blisters to be applied to her feet. From that time,
she began to recover, and in a month, she had strength
to stand up. The governor, who had once been so
slow to hear her complaints, now sent for her to his
house. He received her in the kindest manner.
What was her joy, when she fourd her husband there,
not as a prisoner, but as a guest. Many prayers had
she offered up, during her long illness, and they were
now answered. ‘The promise she had trusted in was
fulfilled. This was that promise: “Call upon me in
the day of trouble, and I wiILL DELIVER THER, and
thou shalt glorify me.”

But still brighter days were at hand. The King
of Burmah had peace with the British, and had
agreed to deliver the missionaries into their hands.
Glad, indeed, were they to escape from the power of
the cruel monarch. Little Maria and her parents, as
well as Mary and Abby, were conveyed in a boat
down the river to the place where the English army


* MISSIONARY § BABE. 219
had encamped. The English general received them
with fatherly kindness, and gave them a tent to dwell
in near his own. What a fortnight they spent in that
tent. It was a morning of joy, after a night of weep-
ing. Little Maria was now, for the first time, dwell-
Jing with both her parents.

Soon afterwards she was taken to a new home in a
town in Burmah, built by the English. It was called
Ambherst.* Here the missionary might teach the
Burmese to know their Saviour, without being under
the power of the cruel Burmese king.

It seemed as if the little family, so long afflicted,
were now to dwell in safety, and to labor in comfort.
But there is a rest for the people of God, and to this
rest one of this family was soon removed.

The missionary determined to go to Ava, to plead
with the king for permission to teach his subjects.
He parted from his beloved wife, little thinking he
should never see her again.

During her husband’s absence, she watched with
deep anxiety over her little Maria. The child was
pale, and puny, yet very affectionate and intelligent.
Whenever her mamma said, “ Where is dear papa
gone?” the little creature started up, and pointed to

Me

* Amherst is only thirty miles from Maulmain.

hss ess ee ee |





220 FAR OFF.



NR

the sea. She could not speak plainly, for she was
only twenty months old.

Not long did she enjoy her mother’s tender care.
The poor mother, worn with her past watching, and
weeping, was attacked by fever. As she lay upon
the bed, she was heard to say, “The teacher is long
in coming, I must die alone, and leave my little one ;
but as it is the will of God, I am content.”

She grew so ill, that she took no notice of anything
that passed around her; but even then she called for
her child, and charged the nurse to be kind to it, and
to indulge it in everything till its father returned.
This charge she gave, because she knew the babe was
sick, and needed the tenderest care. At last the .
mother lay without moving, her eyes closed, and her
head resting on her arm. Thus she continued for
two days, and then she uttered one cry, and ceased to
breathe. Her illness had lasted eighteen days. Then
she rested from her labors, and slept in Jesus.

What now became of little Maria? The wife of an
English officer received her in her house for a few
weeks, and then a missionary and his wife came to
Maria’s home, and took charge of the child. Maria
was pleased to come back to her own home, and she
fancied that kind Mrs, Wade was her own mother.

What a day it was when the poor father returned

°
*





MISSIONARY’S BABE. 221



home! No wife to meet him, with love and joy;
only a sickly babe, who had forgotten him, and
turned from him with alarm. Where could he go,
but to the grave to weep there? then he returned to
the house to look at the very spot where he had knelt
with his wife in prayer, and parted from her in hope
of a happy return.

Little Maria was nursed with a mother’s care,
though not ina mother’s arms; but her delicate frame
had been shaken by her infant troubles, and care and
comforts came Too LATE. After drooping day by
day, she died at the age of two years and three
months, exactly six months after her mother. Her
father was near to close her faded eyes, and fold her lit-
tle hands on her cold breast, and then to lay her in a lit-
tle grave, close beside her mother’s, under the Hope Tree.

The words of the poet would suit well the case of
this much tried infant :—

‘Short pain, short grief, dear babe, were thine,
Now, joys eternal and divine.”

Like Maria’s are the sufferings of many a mission-
ary’s babe, and many lie in an early tomb. But they
are dear to the Saviour, for their parents’ sakes, and

their deaths are precious in his sight, and their spirits
and their dust are safe in his hands.


Aigm.

Cross a river, and you pass from Burmah to Siam.
These two countries, like most countries close together,
have quarrelled a great deal, and now Britain has got
in between them, and has parted them; as a nurse
might come and part two quarrelsome children. Brit-
ain has conquered that part of Burmah which lies
close to Siam, and has called it British Burmah ; so
Siam is now at peace.

But though these two countries have been such ene-
mies, they are as like each other as two sisters. Siam
is the little sister. Siam is a long narrow slip of a
country, having the sea on one side, and mountains on
the other.

The religion of Siam is the same as that of Bur-
mah, the worship of Buddha, But in Siam he is not
called Buddha: the name given him there is
“Codom.” You see how many names this Buddha
has; in China he is Fo; in Burmah he is Gaudama;
in Siam, he is Codom. Neither is he honored in Siam

i ns




SIAM. 223



_—_—_—_——



in exactly the same way as in Burmah. Instead of
building magnificent pagodas, the Siamese build mag-
nificent image houses or temples.

The Siamese resemble the Burmese in appearance,
but they are much worse looking. Their faces are
very broad, and flat; and so large are the jaws under
the ears, that they appear as if they were swollen.
Their manner of dressing their hair does not improve
their looks ; for they cut their hair quite close, except
just on the top of their heads, where they make it
stand up like bristles; nor do they wear any covering
on their heads, except when it is very hot, and then
they put on a hat, in the shape of a milk pan, made
of leaves. They do not disfigure themselves, as the
Burmese do, with nose-rings, and ear-bars; but they.
love ornaments quite as much, and load themselves
with necklaces and bracelets, Their dress consists of
a printed cotton garment, wound round the body.
This is the dress of the women as well as of the men ;
only sometimes the women wear a handkerchief over
their necks.

In disposition the Siamese are deceitful, and cow-
ardly. It has been said of them, that as Jriends they
are not to be trusted, and as enemies not to be Seared :
they cannot be trusted because they are deceitful :
they need not be feared because they are cowardly.







cities LOL — i





















224 FAR OFF.





eee

This is indeed a dreadful character; for many wicked
people are faithful to their friends, and brave in resist-
ing their enemies. .

No doubt the manner in which they are governed
makes them cowardly ; for they are taught to behave
as if they were worms. Whoever enters the presence
of the king, must creep about on hands and knees.
The great lords require their servants to show them
the same respect. Servants always crawl into a room,
pushing in their trays before them; and when wait-
ing, they walk about on their knees. How shocking
to see men made like worms to gratify the pride of
their fellow-men! ‘The rule is never to let your head
be higher than the head of a person more honorable
than yourself; if he stand, you must sit; if hesit, you
must crouch.

The Siamese are like the Burmese in cruelty.
When an enemy falls into their hands, no mercy is
shown.

A king of a small country called Laos, was taken
captive by the Siamese. This king, with his family,
were shut up in a large iron cage, and exhibited as a
sight. There he was, surrounded by his sons and
grandsons, and all of them were heavily laden with
chains on their necks and legs. Two of them were
little boys, and they played and laughed in their




—

SIAM. 225



cage !—so thoughtless are children! But the elder
sons looked very miserable; they hung down their
heads, and fixed their eyes on the ground; and well
they might; for within their sight were various hor-
rible instruments of torture ;—spears with which to
pierce them ;—an iron boiler, in which to heat oil to
scald them ;—a gallows on which to hang their bodies,
and—a pestle and mortar in which to pound the
children to powder. You see how Satan fills the
heart of the heathen with his own cruel devices. The
people who came to see this miserable family, rejoiced
at the sight of their misery: but they lost the delight
they expected in tormenting the old king, for he died
of a broken heart; and all they could do then, was to
insult his body; they beheaded it, and then hung it
upon a gibbet, where every one might see it, and the
beasts and birds devour it.

What became of his unhappy family is not known.

But though so barbarous to their enemies, the Sia-
mese in some respects are better than most other
heathen nations, for they treat their relations more
kindly. They do not kill their infants, nor shut up
their wives, nor cast out their parents. Yet they
show their cruelty in this:—they often sell one
another for slaves. They also purchase slaves in great
numbers ; and there are wild men in the mountains

15


226 FAR OFF.

who watch Burmans and Karens to sell them to the
great chiefs of Siam. It is the pride of their chiefs to

have thousands of slaves crawling around them.

BANKOK.

This city is built on an island in a broad river, and
part of it on the banks of the river. It ought there-
fore to be a pleasant city, but it is not, owing to its
extreme untidiness. The streets are full of mud, and
overgrown with bushes, amongst which all the refuse is
thrown; there are also many ditches with planks
thrown across. ‘There is only one pleasant part of the _
town, and that is, where the Wats are built. The
Wats are the idol-houses. Near them are shady

walks and fragrant flowers, and elegant dwellings for

the priests. The people think they get great merit
by making Wats, and therefore they take so much
trouble : for the Siamese are very idle. So idle are
they that there would be very little trade in Bankok,



if it were not for the Chinese, who come over here in
crowds, and make sugar, and buy and sell, and get
money to take back to China. You may tell ina mo-

ment a Chinaman’s garden from a Siamese garden;






BANKOK. . 227

one is so neat and full of flowers ;—the other is over-
grown with weeds and strewn with litter.

The most curious sight in Bankok, is the row of
floating houses. These houses are placed upon posts
in the river, and do not move about as boats do; yet
if you wish to move your house, you can do so; you
have only to take up the posts, and float to another
place.

Besides the floating houses, there are numerous
boats in the river, and some so small that a child can
row them. ‘There are so many that they often come
against each other, and are overset. A traveller once
passed by a boat where a little girl of seven was row-
ing, and by accident his boat overset hers. The child
fell out of her boat, and her paddle out of her hand ;
yet she was not the least frightened, only surprised ;
and after looking about for a moment, she burst out
a laughing, and was soon seen swimming behind her
boat (still upside down), with her paddle in her hand.
These little laughing rowers are too giddy to like
learning, and they are not at all willing to come to
the missionaries’ schools; but some poor children,
redeemed from slavery, are glad to be there, and have
been taught about Christ in these schools.

2

SsEsEEEEeeemeeemeememmetiemmmmemmnmmmemnemee eee ee ee




Malacca.



Tus is a peninsula, or almost an island, for there
‘s water almost all round it. In shape it is something
like a dog’s leg, even as Italy is like a man’s leg.

The weather in Malacca is much pleasanter than
in most parts of India, because the sea-breezes make
the air fresh. There is no rainy season, as in most
hot countries, but a shower cools the air almost every
day. The country, too, is beautiful, for there are
mountains, and forests, and streams.

Yet it is a dangerous country to live in, for the
people are very treacherous. There are many pirates
among them. What are pirates? Robbers by sea.
If they see a small vessel, in a moment the pirates in
their ships try to overtake it, seize it, take the crew
prisoners, and sell them for slaves. The governors of
the land do not punish the pirates ; far from punish-
ing them, they share in the gains. Thatis a wicked
land indeed, where the governors encourage the peo-
ple in their sins.




MALACCA. 229

Malacca has no king of her own; the land belongs
to Siam, except a very small part. The inhabitants
are called Malays. They are not like the Siamese in
character; for instead of being cowardly, they are
fierce. Neither have they the same religion, for in-
stead of being Buddhists, they are Mahomedans.
Yet they know very little about the Koran, or its
laws. One command, however, they have learned,
which is—to hate infidels, They count all who do
not believe in Mahomet to be infidels, and they say
that it is right to hunt them. They are proud of
taking Christian vessels, and of selling Christians as
slaves.

There are some valuable plants in Malacca. There
is one which has a seed called “pepper.” There is
a tree which has in the stem a pith called sago.
Who collects the pepper and the sago? There are
mines of tin. Who digs up the tin? The idle Ma-
lays will not take so much trouble, so the industrious
Chinese labor instead. The Chinese come over by
thousands to get rich in Malacca. As there is not
room for them in their own country, they are glad to
settle in other countries. But though the Chinese
set an example of industry, they do not set an ex-
ample of goodness ; for they gamble, and so lose their
money, they smoke opium, and so lose their health,




230 FAR OFF.



and they commit many kinds of wickedness by which
they lose their sow/s.

As for the Malays, they are so very idle, that when
trees fall over the river, and block up the way, they
will not be at the trouble of cutting a way through for
their boats,—but will sooner creep under or climb over
the fallen trees.

The capital of Malacca is Malacca, and this city be-
longs to the English ; but it is of little use to them,
because the harbor is not good.

SINGAPORE.

This city also belongs to the English, and it is of
great use to them, because the harbor is one of the
best in the world. Many ships come there to buy,
and to sell, and amongst the rest, the Chinese junks.
The city is built on a small island, very near the coast.
There are many beautiful country houses perched on
the hills, where English families live, and there are
long flights of stone steps leading from their houses to
the sea.

But many of the Malays have no home but a boat,
hardly large enough to lie down in. There they gain
a living by catching. fish, and collecting shells, and


THE CHRISTIAN SCHOOL-GIRLS. 231



coral, to exchange for sago, which is their food. These
men are called “ Ourang-lout,” which means “ Man"of
the water.” Does not this name remind you of the
apes called “ Ourang-outang,” which means “ Man of
the woods?” There are Ourang-outangs in the for-
ests of Malacca, and they are more like men, and are
more easily tamed than any other ape. Yet still how
different is the tamest ape from the wildest man; for
the one has an immortal soul, and the other has none.

The Malay language is said to be the easiest in the
world, even as the Chinese is the most difficult. The
Malay language has no cases or genders, or conjuga-
tions, which puzzle little boys so much in their Latin
Grammars. It is easy for missionaries to learn the
Malay language. When they know it, they can talk
to the Chinese in Malacca in this language.

I will tell you of a school that an English lady has

opened at Singapore for poor Chinese girls.

THE CHRISTIAN SCHOOLGIRLS.



The two elder girls were sisters, and were called
Chun and Han. Both of them, when they heard
| about Jesus, believed in him, and loved him. Yet

their characters were very different, Chun being of a


232 FAR OFF.



joyful disposition, and Han of a mournful and timid
temper. They had no father, and their mother was
employed in the school to take care of the little chil-
dren, and to teach them needle-work; but she was a
heathen.

When Chun and Han had been three years in the
school, their mother wanted them to leave, and to
come with her to her home. The girls were grieved
at the thought of leaving their Christian teacher, and
of living in a heathen home; yet they felt it was their
duty to do as their mother wished. But they were
anxious to be baptized before they went, if they could
obtain their mother’s consent. Their kind teacher,
Miss Grant, thought it would be of no use to ask leave
long before the time, lest the mother should carry her
girls away, and lock them up. So she waited till the
very evening fixed for the baptism. Miss Grant had
been praying all day for help from God, and the two
sisters had been praying together; and now the bell
began to ring for evening service. Now the time was
come when the mother must be asked.

“Do you know,” said Miss Grant to the mother,
“that the children are going to church with me ?”
“Yes,” replied the mother, “ wherever Missie pleases
to take them.” Then the lady told her of the baptism,
and entreated her consent. At last the heathen
THE CHRISTIAN SCHOOL-GIRLS. 233

mother replied, “If you wish it, I will not oppose
you.” Miss Grant, afraid lest the mother should
change her mind, hastened into her palanquin, and
the sisters hastened into theirs. Looking back, the
lady perceived the mother was standing watching the
palanquins. Seeing this, she stopped, saying, “ Nomis,
why should not you come, and see what is done ?”
To the lady’s surprise, the mother immediately con-
sented to come; and so this heathen mother was
present at the baptism of her daughters. Their teacher,
(who was their mother in Christ,) rejoiced with ex-
ceeding joy to see her dear girls give themselves to
the Lord, and to hear them answer in their broken
English, “ All des I do steadfastly believe.”

Soon after their baptism, the girls went to live in
their mother’s house. To comfort them, Miss Grant
promised to fetch them every Sunday, to spend the
day with her. She came for them at five o’clock in
the morning, before it was light, and took them back
at nine, when it was quite dark. If she had not
fetched them herself, they would not have been allowed
to go.

After awhile, they were not allowed to go. The
reason was, that the heathen mother wanted Chun to
marry a heathen Chinaman. Chun refused to commit
such a sin. Then her mother was angry, mocked her,








FAR OFF.



and prevented her going to see Miss Grant. Still
Chun refused. She saw her mother embroidering her
wedding-dresses, but she still persisted that she would
not marry a heathen, especially as she would have to
bow down before an idol at her marriage. Chun
grew very unhappy, and looked very pale, she wrote
many letters to her kind friend, and offered up many
prayers to her merciful God. And did the Lord hear
her, and did He deliver her? He did. A Christian
Chinaman, who had been brought up by a missionary,
heard of Chun, and asked permission to marry her.
He had never seen her, for it is not the custom in
China for girls to be seen.

Miss Grant was delighted at the thought of her
darling Chun marrying a Christian, and she helped
to prepare for the wedding. There was no bowing
down before an idol at that wedding, but an English
clergymen read the service. Chun’s face, according
to the custom, was covered with a thick veil, and even
her hands and feet were hidden. A few days after
the wedding, Miss Grant, according to the custom,
called on the newly married. She found the room
beautifully ornamented, like all Chinese rooms at such
times, but there were two ornaments seldom seen in
China—two Bibles lying open on the table.

Chun long rejoiced that she had so firmly refused



caer A I SS SA AC
pa AN i tN tt tte
















THE CHRISTIAN SCHOOL-GIRLS. 235



to marry a heathen. One day, Miss Grant said to
her, playfully, “ Has your husband beaten you yet ?”
(for she knew that Chinamen think nothing of beating
their wives.) Chun replied, with a sweet look, “O
no! he often tells me, that first he thanks God, and
then you, Miss, for having given me to him as his
wife,”

There was another girl at Miss Grant’s school,
named Been. Sometimes she was called Beneo, which
means Miss Been, just as Chuneo means Miss Chun.
Miss Grant hoped that Been loved the Saviour, and
hated idols, but she soon lost her, for her parents took
her to their heathen home.

After Been had been home a short time her mother
died. The neighbors were astonished to find that
Been refused to worship. her mother’s spirit, and to
burn gold paper, to supply her with money in the
other world. “While her relations were busily occupied
in their heathen ceremonies, Been sat silent and alone.




Soon afterwards, her father, who cared not for her, sold




her to a Chinaman to be his wife, for forty dollars.




Miss Grant heard her sad fate, and often longed to




see her, but did not know where to find her. One




evening, as she was paying visits in her palanquin, she
saw a pair of bright black eyes looking through a
hedge, and she felt sure that they were her own «| .




236 FAR OFF.

Been’s. She stopped, and calling the girl, saluted her
affectionately. She was glad she had found out where
Been lived, as she would now be able to pay her a
Visit.

Soon she called upon her, in her own dwelling ;—a
poor little hut in the midst of asugar plantation. She
brought as a present, a New Testament in English,
and in large print. Been appeared delighted.

“Do you remember how to read it?” inquired Miss
Grant.

“Yes, how could I forget ?” Been sweetly replied.

“ Well then, read,” said Miss Grant.

Been read, “I am the good shepherd, and know my
sheep.”

“Do you understand ?” inquired the lady-

“ Yes,” said Been, and she translated the words into
Malay.

As Miss Grant was rising to depart, she observed a
hen gathering her brood under her wings.

“Of what does that remind you, Been ?”

“I know,” said the poor girl; “I remember what I
learnt at school ;” and then in her broken English, she
repeated the words: “As a hen gaderet her chickens
under her wings, so would I have gaderd de, but dou
wouldest not.”

At this moment, Been’s husband came in. The
THE CHRISTIAN SCHOOL-GIRLS. 237
eect cnet AL A LCA LON
girl was glad, for she wanted Miss Grant to ask him
as a great favor, to allow her to spend next Sunday at
the school. The husband consented. There was a
joyful meeting indeed, on that Sunday, between Been,
and Chun, and Han; nor was their affectionate teacher
the least joyful of the company.

—_—— eee iceman
—_—_ a
Siheria.

Tuts is a name which makes people shzver, because
it reminds them of the cold. It is a name which
makes the Russians tremble, because it reminds them
of banishment, for the emperor often sends those who
offend him to live in Siberia.

Yet Siberia is not an ugly country, such as Tartary.
It is not one dead flat, but it contains mountains, and
forests, and rivers. Neither is Siberia a country in
which nothing will grow ; in some parts there is wheat,
and where wheat will not grow barley will, and where
barley will not grow turnips will. Yet there are not
many cornfields in Siberia, for very few people live
there. In the woods you will find blackberries, and
wild roses, like those in England; and red berries, as
well as black berries, and lilies as well as roses.

Still it must be owned that Siberia is a very cold
country; for the snow is not melted till June, and it
begins to fall again-in September; so there are only

two whole months without snow ; they are July and
August.




SIBERIA. iss 239

InnaBITANts.—The Russians are the masters of
Siberia, and they have built several large towns there.
But these towns are very far apart, and there are
many wild tribes wandering about the country.

One of these tribes is the Ostyaks. Their houses
are in the shape of boxes, for they are square with
flat roofs. There is a door, but you must stoop low
to get in at it, unless you are a very little child; and
there is a window with fish-skin instead of light.
There is a chimney, too, and a blazing fire of logs in
a hole in the ground. There is a trough, too, instead
of a dining-table, and out of it the whole family eat,
and even the dogs sometimes. The house is not
divided into rooms, but into stalls, like those of a
stable; and deer-skins are spread in the stalls, and
they are the beds; each person sits and sleeps in his
own stall, on his own deer-skin, except when the fam-
ily gather round the fire, and sitting on low stools,
warm themselves, and talk together.

In one of these snug corners, an old woman was
seen, quite blind, yet sewing all day, and threading
her needle by the help of her tongue. She wore a
veil of thick cloth over her head, as all the Ostyak
women do, and as she did not need light, she hid her
head completely under it.

But though the Ostyaks are poor, they possess a

—— ———————————— 0 008— EY






wk FAR OFF.

great treasure in their dogs, for these creatures are as
useful as horses, and much more sensible. They need
no whip to make them go, and no bridle to turn them
the right way; it is enough to ted? them when to set
out, and to stop, or to turn, to move faster, or more
slowly. These dogs are white, spotted with black ;
the hair on their bodies is short, but long on their
handsome curling tails. They draw their masters in
sledges, and are yoked in pairs. There are some
large sledges, in which a man can lie down in com-
fort: to draw such a sledge twelve dogs are necessary ;
but there are small sledges in which a poor Ostyak
can just manage to crouch, and two dogs can draw it.
When the dogs are to be harnessed, they are not
caught, as horses are, but only called. Yet they do
not like work better than horses like it, and when they
first set out they howl, but grow quiet after a little
while.

The driver is sometimes cruel to these poor dogs,
and corrects them for the smallest fault, by throwing
a stone at them, or the great club he holds in his
hand, or at least a snow-ball: if a hungry dog but
stoop down to pick up a morsel of food on the road,
he is punished in this manner. Yet it must be owned,
that the dogs have their faults; they are greedy, and
inclined to thieving. To keep food out of their way,






























SIBERIA. 241




the Ostyaks build store-houses, on the tops of very
high poles. The dogs are always on the watch"t6
slip into their master’s houses. If the door be left
open ever so little, a dog will squeeze in, if he can;
but he does not stay dong within, for he is soon thrust
out with blows and kicks; the women scream at the
sight of a dog in the hut, for they fear lest he will
find the fish-trough. Yet after long journeys, the
dogs are brought into the hut, and permitted to lie
down by the fire, and to eat out of the family trough.
At other times they sleep in the snow, and eat what-
ever is thrown to them. When they travel, bags of
dried fish are brought in their sledges, to feed them
by the way. The puppies are tenderly treated, and
petted by the fire; yet many are killed for the sake
of their fleecy hair, which is considered a fine orna-
ment for pelisses.

The Ostyaks have another, and a greater treasure
than dogs; they have reindeer. . Those who live by
fishing have dogs only, but those who dwell among
the hills, have deer as well as dogs. Reindeer are
like dogs in one respect, they can be driven without
either a whip or a bit, which are so necessary for
horses. But though they do not need the lashing of
a whip, they require to be gently poked with a long
pole; and: though they do not need a bit, they re-

16


242 FAR OFF.

.

Be
g



quire to be guided by a rein, fastened to their heads;
because they are not like dogs, so sensible as to be
managed by speaking.

But deer are very gentle, and are much more easily
driven than horses. To drive horses four-in-hand is
very difficult, but to drive four reindeer is not. The
four deer are harnessed to the sledge all in a row, and
a rein is fastened to the head of one; when he turns
all the rest turn with him. Usually they trot, but
they can gallop very fast, even down hill. When
they are out of breath the driver lets them stop, and
then the pretty creatures lie down, and cool their
mouths with the snow lying on the ground.

Men ride upon reindeer; not upon their backs, but
on their necks; for their backs are weak, while their
necks are strong. Riders do not mount reindeer as
they do horses,—by resting on their backs, and then
making a spring, for that would hurt the poor animals ;
they lean on a long staff, and by its help, spring on
the deer’s neck. But it is not easy, when seated, to
keep on; you would certainly fall off, for all strangers
do, when they try to ride for the first time. The
Ostyak knows how to keep his balance, by waving
his long staff in the air, while the deer trots briskly
along. But these reindeer have some curious fan-
cies ; they will not eat any food but such as they


sc RN - ances eats pei s exiannna: eo Siana

SIBERIA. © 243

Pa
pluck themselves from the ground. It would be of

no use at the end of a long journey, to put them ima
stable ;—they would not eat; they must be let loose

to find their own nourishment, which is a kind of moss

that grows wild among the hills.

The reindeer, after he is dead, is of as mnch use to
the Ostyak, as when he was alive; for his skin is his
master’s clothing. Both men and women dress alike,
in a suit that covers them from head to foot; the
seams are well joined with thread, made of reindeer
sinews, and the cold is kept well out. The Ostyak
lets no part of his body be uncovered but just his face,
and that would freeze, if he were not to rub it often
with his hands, covered over with hairy reindeer
gloves. The women cover their faces with thick veils.
The Ostyak wears a great-coat made of the skin of a
white deer; this gives him the appearance of a great
white bear. He carries in his hand a bow taller than
himself. His arrows are very long, and made of wood,
pointed with iron. With these he shoots the wild
animals. He is very glad when he can shoot a sable;
because the Russian emperor requires every Ostyak to
give him yearly, as a tax, the skins of two sables.
The fur of the sable is very valuable, and is made into
muffs and tippets, and pelisses for the Russian nobles.

But without his snow-shoes, the Ostyak would not

ail

deere a ne nee ne


244 * FAR OFF.





a

be able to pursue the wild animals, for he would sink
in the snow. ‘These shoes are made of long boards,
turned up at the end like a boat, and fastened to the
feet. What a wild creature an Ostyak must look,
when he is hunting his prey, wrapped in his shaggy
white coat,—his long dark hair floating in the wind,
—his enormous bow in his hand, and his enormous
shoes on his feet!

What is the character of this wild man? Ask what
is his religion, and that will show you how foolish and
fierce a creature he must be. The Ostyak says, that
he believes in ONE God who cannot be seen, but he
does not worship him alone ; he worships other gods.
And such gods! Dead men! When aman dies, his
relations make a wooden image of him, and worship it
for three years, and then bury it. But when a preest
dies, his wooden image is worshipped more than three
years; sometimes it is never buried ; for the priests

who are alive, encourage the people to go on worship-



ping dead priests’ images, that they may get the offer-
ings which are made to them.

But what do you think of men worshipping DEAD
Breasts? Yet this is what the Ostyaks do. When
they have killed a wolf or a bear, they stuff its skin
with hay, and gather round to mock it, to kick it, to
spit upon it, and then—they stick it up on its hind

nO TE AO LEE LEL AL A CO ere ge


SIBERIA.

legs in a corner of the hut, and worsuip it! Alas!
how has Satan blinded their mind!

And in what manner do they worship the beasts ?
With screaming,—with dancing,—with swinging their
swords,—by making offerings of fur, of silver and gold,
and of reindeer. These reindeer they kill very cru-
elly, by stabbing them in various parts of their bodies,
to please the cruel gods, or rather cruel devils whom
they worship.

Has no one tried to convert the Ostyaks to God?
The emperor of Russia will not allow protestant mis-
sionaries to teach in Siberia. He wishes the Ostyaks
to belong to the Greek church, and he has tried to
bribe them with presents of cloth to be baptized ; and
a good many have been baptized. But what good
can such baptisms do to the soul ?

The Russians do much harm to their subjects, by
tempting them to buy brandy. There is nothing
which the Ostyaks are so eager to obtain, as this dan-
gerous drink. On one occasion, a traveller was sur-
rounded by a troop of Ostyaks, all begging for brandy,
and when they could get none, they brought a large
heap of frozen fish, and laid it at the traveller's feet,
saying, “ Noble sir, we present you with this.” They
did get some brandy in return, Then, hoping for

more, they brought a great salmon, and a sturgeon, as




246 FAR OFF.

long as aman. They seemed ready to part with all
they had, for the sake of brandy.

Thus you see how much harm the Ostyaks have
learned from their acquaintance with the Russians.
The chief good they have got, has been learning to
build houses ; for once they lived only intents.

THE SAMOYEDES.

This tribe lives so far to the north, that they see
very little of the Russians, though they belong to the
emperor of Russia. They live close by the Northern
Sea. Imagine how very cold it must be. The Sa-
moyedes inhabit tents made of reindeer skins, such as
the Ostyaks used to live in. They are a much wilder
people than the Ostyaks. The women dress in a
strange fantastic manner; not contented with a rein-
deer dress, as the Ostyaks are, they join furs and skins
of various sorts together; and instead of veiling their
faces, they wear a gay fur hat, with lappets; and at
the back of their necks a glutton’s tail hangs down, as
well as long tails of their own hair, with brass rings
jingling together at the end.

But if their taste in dress is laughable, their taste
in food, is horrible, as you willsee. A traveller went


THE SAMOYEDES. 247



with a Samoyede family for a little while. They were
drawn by reindeer, in sledges, and other reindeer
followed of their own accord. When they stopped
for the night, they pitched the tent, covering the long
poles with their reindeer skins, sewed together. The
snow covered the ground inside the tent, but no one
thought of sweeping it away. It was easy to get
water to fill the kettle, as a few lumps of snow soon
melted. Some of the men slept by the blazing fire,
while others went out, armed with long poles, to de-
fend the deer from the wolves. There was in the
party a child of two years old, with its mother. The
child was allowed to help himself to porridge out of
the great kettle. The traveller offered him white
sugar; but at first he called it snow, and threw it
away ; soon, however, he learned to like it, and asked
for some whenever he saw the stranger at tea. At
night, the child was laid in a long basket, and was
closely covered with furs; in the same basket also, he
travelled in the sledge.

One day the waveller saw a Samoyede feast. A
reindeer was brought, and killed before the tent door ;
and its bleeding body was taken into the tent, and
devoured, all raw as it was, with the heartiest appe-
tite. It was dreadful to see the Samoyedes gnawing
the flesh off the bones; their faces all stained with


248 FAR OFF. |

npn einen tenements
blood, and even the child had his share of the raw
meat. Truly they looked more like wolves than
men.

I might go on to tell you of many other tribes;
but I must be content just to mention a few.

There is a tribe who live in the eastern part of Si-
beria, called the Yakuts, and instead of deer, and dogs,
they keep horses, and oxen, and strange to say, they
ride upon the oxen; and eat the horses. A_horse’s
head is counted by them a most dainty dish. The

Stennett

cows live in one room, and the family live in the next,

Sanne

with the calves, which are tied to posts by the fire,

and enjoy the full blaze. You may suppose that the
calves need the warmth of the fire, when I tell you
that the windows of the house are made of ice, but
that the cold is so great, that the ice does not melt.
There is a large tribe called the Buraets. They
dwell in tents. They are Buddhists. At one time
the Russians allowed missionaries to go to them.
There was an old man named Andang, who used to
attend the services very regularly.e His wife accom-
panied him. One Sunday the preacher spoke much
of heaven and its glories. The old woman, on return-
ing to her tent, said to her husband, “Old man, I am
going home to-night.” Her husband did not under-
stand her meaning: then she said, “I love Jesus


THE BANISHED RUSSIANS. 249

Christ, and I think I shall be with him to-night.”
She Jay down in her tent that night, but rose no
more. In the morning, the old man found her stiff
and cold. He saddled his horse, and set off to tell
the missionary. ‘O sir,” said he, with tears, “my
wife is gone home.” When the missionary heard the
account of her death, he felt cheered by the hope that
the old woman, though born a heathen, had died a
Christian, and had left her tent to dwell in a giorious
mansion above; for how was it that she felt no fear
of death, and how was it that she felt heaven was her
home? Was it not because Jesus loved her, and
because she loved Jesus?

THE BANISHED RUSSIANS.

Siberia is the land to which the emperor sends

many of his people, when they displease him. In

passing through Siberia, you would often see wagons
full of women, children, and old men, followed by a
troop of young men, and guarded by a band of sol-
diers on horseback. You might know them to be
the banished Russians. What is to become of them ?
Some are to work in the mines, and some are to work
in the factories. Some are to have a less heavy pun-


250 FAR OFF.

i A



ishment ; they are to be set free, in the midst of Si-
beria, to support themselves in any way they can.
Gentlemen and ladies have a small sum of money
allowed them by the emperor, and they live in the

towns.

These people are called in Siberai, “‘ the unfortu-
nates.” Some of them have not deserved to be ban-
ished ; but some have been guilty of crimes.

CITIES.

There are a few cities in Siberia, but only a few, and
they have been built by the Russians.

The three chief cities are,—

Tobolsk, on the west, on the river Oby.

Irkutsk, in the midst, on the lake Baikal.

Yarkutsk, on the east, on the river Lena.

OF THESE CITIES,

Irkutsk is the pleasantest.
Yarkutsk is the coldest.

|
|
|
Tobolsk is the handsomest.
It is not surprising that Tobolsk should be the
handsomest, for there the governor of Siberia resides.
A great many Chinese come to Irkutsk to trade,

and they bring quantities of tea.


CS

THE URAL MOUNTAINS. 251
Yarkutsk is the coldest town in the world; there
may be others nearer the north, but none lie exposed
to such cold winds. The inhabitants scarcely dare
admit the light, for fear of increasing the cold; and
they make only one or two very small windows in
their houses. Yet in summer vegetables grow freely
in the gardens.

The Ostyaks live near the Oby.
The Buraets live near lake Baikal.
The Yakuts live near the Lena.

THE URAL MOUNTAINS.

They are full of treasures ; gold, silver, iron, copper,
and precious stones. They are dug up by the banish-
ed Russians, and sent in great wagons to Russia, to

increase the riches of the emperor.

2


Kamkatka.




Ir is impossible to look at Siberia, without being
struck with the shape of Kamkatka, which juts out
like a short arm. It is a peninsula. A_ beautiful
country it is; full of mountains, and rivets, and woods,
and waterfalls, and not as cold as might be expected.
But there are not many people dwelling in it; for
though it is larger than Great Britain, all the inhabi-
tants might be contained in one of our small towns.
And why are there so few in so fine a country? Be-
cause the people love brandy better than labor. They
have been corrupted by the Russian soldiers, and
traders, and convicts, and they are sickening and dying
away.

A traveller once said to a Kamkatdale, “ How
should you like to see a ship arrive here from China,
laden with tea and sugar?” “TI should like it well,”
replied the man, “ but there is one thing I should like
better—to see a ship arrive full of men; it is men we
want, for our men are sick; of the twelve here, six
are too weak to hunt or fish.”









KAMKATKA. 253



But the ship that would do the most good to Kam-
katka, is a missionary ship. The Greek church is the
religion; but no religion is much thought of in Kam-
katka ; hunting and fishing only are cared for. Yet
I fear if missionaries were to go to Kamkatka, the
empcror of Russia would send them away.

Where there are few men, there are generally many
beasts and birds; this is the case in Kamkatka.

One of the most curious animals in Siberia, is the
Argalis, or mountain sheep. It is remarkable for its
enormous horns, curled in a very curious manner.
Think not it is like one of our quiet, foolish sheep ;
there is no animal at once so strong and so active.
It is such a climber, that no wolf or bear can follow
it to the high places, hanging over awful precipices,
where it walks as firmly as you do upon the pavement.
Sometimes a hunter finds it among the mountains,
and just as he is going to shoot it, the creature dis-
appears :—it has thrown itself down a precipice! Is
it dashed to pieces? No, it fell unhurt, and has es-
caped without a bruise ; for its bones are very strong,
and its skin very thick.

The bears of Kamkatka live chiefly upon fish and
berries, and seldom attack men. Yet men hunt them
for their skins, and for their fat. The skins make

cloaks, and the fat is used for lamps; but their flesh

i ve -
254 FAR OFF.

is thrown to the dogs. Many of the bears are very
thin. It is only fat bears that can sleep all the
winter in their dens without food : thin bears cannot
sleep long, and even in winter they prowl about for
food. Dogs are very much afraid of them. A large
party of travellers, who were riding in sledges, drawn
by dogs, observed the dogs suddenly begin to snuff
the air, and lo! immediately afterwards, a bear at
full speed crossed the road, and ran towards a forest.
Great confusion took place among the dogs ; they set
off with all their might; some broke their harness,
others got entangled among the trees, and overturn-

ed their sledges. But the bear did not escape ; for

the travellers shot him through the leg, and after- _

wards through the body; and the dogs feasted on
his flesh, instead of the bear feasting on thers.
Hunting seals is one of the occupations of the Kam-
katdales. Three men in sledges, each sledge drawn
by five dogs, once got upon a large piece of ice, near
the shore. They had killed two seals upon the ice,
when they suddenly perceived that the ice was moy-
ing, and carrying them out to sea. They were al-
ready too far from land, to be able to get back. They
knew not what would become of them, and much they
feared they should perish from cold and hunger. The
ice was so slippery that they were in great danger of






a A

KAMKATKA. 255





sliding into the sea. ‘To prevent this, they stuck their
long poles deep into the ice, and tied themselves to
the poles. They were driven about for many days ;
but one morning,—to their great joy, they found they
were close to the shore. ‘They did not forget to
praise God for so mercifully saving their lives; though
they were so weak from want of food, as scarcely to be
able to creep ashore.

Cuaracter.—The Kamkatdales are generous and
grateful. A poor family will sometimes receive another
family into the house for six weeks; and when the
food is nearly gone, the generous host, not liking to
tell his visitors of it, serves up a dish of different sorts
of meat and vegetables, mixed together; the vis-
itors know this is a sign that the food is almost ex-
hausted, and they take their leave.

Did I say the Kamkatdales are grateful? I will
give you an instance of their gratitude. A traveller
met a poor boy. He remembered his face, and said,
“T think I have seen you before.” “You have,” said
the boy ; “I rowed you down the river last summer, '
and you were so kind as to give me a skin, and some
flints; and now I have brought the skin of a sable as
a present for you.” The traveller, perceiving the boy
had no shirt, and that his skin dress was tattered, re-

fused the present; but seeing the boy was going away



i
256 FAR OFF.



in tears, he called him back, and accepted it. A Chi-
nese servant, who was standing by, pitied so much
the ragged condition of the boy, that he gave him one
of his own thin nankin shirts.




CGChibet.

I cannor tell you much about Thibet; and the
reason is, that so few travellers have been there. And
why have so few been there? Is it because the moun-
tains are so steep and high, the paths so narrow and
dangerous? All this is true; but it is not mountains
that keep travellers out of Thibet; it is the Chinese
government; for Thibet belongs to China, and you
know how carefully the emperor of China keeps stran-
gers out of his empire.

How did the Chinese get possession of Thibet? A
long while ago, a Hindoo army invaded the land, and
the people in their fright sent to China for help. The
Chinese came, drove away the Hindoos, and stayed
themselves. They are not hard masters, they govern
very mildly ; only they require a sum of money to be
sent every year to Pekin, as tribute.

But though Thibet belongs to China, the Chinese
language is not spoken there.

The people are like the Tartars in appearance ; they

17
258 FAR OFF.



have the same bony face, sharp black eye, and straight
black hair; but a much fresher complexion, owing to
the fresh mountain air they breathe.

The Himalaya mountains, the highest in Asia, lie
between Thibet and Hindostan. Their peaks are al-

ways covered with snow, and rapid streams pour down

the rugged sides. The snow on the mountain-tops
makes Thibet very cold; but there are warm valleys
where grapes, and even rice flourish.
| The people build their houses in the warmest spots
they can find; they try to find a place sheltered from
the north wind, by a high rock, and lying open to the
south sun, Their dwellings are only made of stones,
heaped together, and the roofs are flat. Their riches
consist in flocks of sheep and goats. They have,
another animal, which is not known in England, and
yet a very useful creature, because, like a cow, it yields
rich milk, and like a horse, it carries burdens. This
animal is called the Yak, and resembles both a horse
and a cow. Its chief beauty is its tail, which is much
finer than a horse’s tail, and is black, and glossy, soft
and flowing. Many of these tails are sent to India,
where they are used as fly-flappers.
The sheep and goats of Thibet are more useful than
ours ; for they are taught to carry burdens over the
mountains. They may be seen following each other


RR ee

THIBET. 259



in long trains, with large packs fastened on their little

backs, and climbing up very narrow and steep paths.
And what is in these packs? Wool: not sheep’s

wool, but goat’s wool: for the goats of Thibet have

| very fine wool under their hair. No such wool is
found on any other goats. But though the people
of Thibet can weave common cloth, they cannot weave
this beautiful wool, as it deserves to be woven. There-
fore they send it to a country the other side of the
| Himalaya mountains, called Cashmere; and there it is
| woven into the most beautiful shawls in all the world.
|

But wool is not the only riches of Thibet. There

SEES

is gold to be found there; some in large pieces, and
some in small dust. There are also large mines of
copper. And what use is made of these riches ? “The
worst in the world. With the gold and copper many
ipots are made; for Thibet is a land of idols. The
religion is the same there as in China,—the Buddhist ;
—and that is a religion of idols.

But there is an idol in Thibet, which there is not
in China. It is a Living mon. He is ealled the
Grand Lama. There are Lamas in Tartary, but the
Granp Lama is in Thibet. He is looked up to as
the greatest being in the world, by all the Lamas
in Tartary, and by all the people of the Buddhist

religion. There are more people,—a great many






sce peeeteeteept EL ELCLELOLLADA

260 FAR OFF.

———

more,—who honor him, than who honor our GREAT
Gop.

But this man leads a miserable life. When one
Lama dies, another is chosen ;—some little baby,—
and he is placed in a very grand palace, and worship-
ped as a god all his life long. Ihave heard of one
of these baby Lamas, who, when only eighteen months
old, sat up with great majesty on his pile of cushions.
When strangers entered, he looked at them kindly,
and when they made a speech to him, he bowed his
little head very graciously. What a sad fate for this
poor infant! ‘To be set up as a god, and taught to
think himself a god—while all the time he is a help-
less, foolish, sinful, dying creature !

LASSA.

This is the chief city of Thibet. Here is the palace
of the Grand Lama. It is of enormous size. What
do you think of reN wHousanD rooms? Did you
ever hear of so large a house? Neither did you ever
hear of so high a house. It is almost as high as the
pinnacle of St. Paul’s church. There are seven sto-
ries, and on the highest story are the state apartments
of the Grand Lama. It is no matter to him how

many flights of stairs there may be to reach his
LASSA, 26]



rooms; for he is never allowed to walk; but it is fa-
tiguing for his worshippers to ascend so high. I sup-
pose the priests make their Grand Lama live so high
up, that he may be like our God who dwells in the
highest heavens. Who occupy the ten thousand
rooms of the palace? Chiefly idols of gold and silver.
The house outside is richly adorned, and its roof glit-
ters with gold.

There are many magnificent houses in Thibet,
where priests live. No one could live with them,
who could not bear a great noise: for three times a
day the priests meet to worship, and each time they
hollo with all their might, to do bonor to Buddha.
The noise is stunning, but they do not think it loud
enough; so on feast days, they use copper instru-
ments, such as drums and trumpets, of the most enor-
mous size, and with them they send forth an over-
whelming sound.

This unmeaning noise may well remind us of a
sound—louder far—that shall one day be heard; so
loud that ald the world will hear it. It is the sound
of the LAst rRuMpPeT! It will wake the dead. Stout
hearts will quail; devils will tremble; but all those
who love the Lord, will rejoice and say, “ Lo, this is
our God; we have waited for Him, and He will save
us.”—(Is. xxv. 9.)


—

Cryloa.

Tus is one of the most beautiful islands in the
world. Part of it indeed is flat—that part near Hin-
dostan; but in the midst—there are mountains; and
streams running down their sides, and swelling into
lovely rivers, winding along the fruitful valleys. Such
scenes might remind you of Switzerland, the most
beautiful country in Europe.

The chief beauty of Ceylon is her TREES.

I will mention a few of the beautiful, curious, and
useful trees of this delightful island. The tree for
which Ceylon is celebrated, is the cINNAMON tree.
For sixty miles along the shore, there are cinnamon
groves, and the sweet scent may be perceived far off
upon the seas. If you were to see a cinnamon-tree,
you might mistake it for a laurel ;—a tree so often
found in English gardens. The cinnamon-trees are
never allowed to grow tall, because it is only the
upper branches which are much prized for their bark.

The little children of Ceylon may often be seen sitting


CEYLON. 263



in the shade, peeling off the bark with their knives;
and this bark is afterwards sent to England to flavor
puddings, and to mix with medicine.

There are also groves of cocoa-nut trees on the
shores of Ceylon. A few of these trees are a little
fortune to a poor man; for he can eat the fruit, build
his house with the wood, roof it with the leaves, make
cups of the shed/, and use the oil of the kerned instead
of candles.

The sAck-TrEE bears a larger fruit than any other
in the world ;—as large as a horse’s head,-—and so
heavy that a woman can only carry one upon her head
to market. This large fruit does not hang on the tree
by a stalk, but grows out of the trunk, or the great
branches. This is well arranged, for so large a fruit
would be too heavy for a stalk, and might fall off, and
hurt the heads of those sitting beneath its shade.
The outside of this fruit is like a horse-chestnut, green,
and prickly; the inside is yellow, and is full of ker-
nels, like beans. The wood is like mahogany,—hard
and handsome. oe

But there is a tree in Ceylon, still more curious
than the jack-tree. It is the TALPoT-TREE. This is a
very tall tree, and its top is covered by a cluster of
round leaves, each leaf so large, that it would do for a
carpet, for a common-sized room; and one single

a a I A tt etait atta catatatil ae



a
ee —_—_—————_— eer

264 FAR OFF.

—_———— ee





LEAF, cut it in three-cornered pieces, will make a TENT!
When cut up, the leaves are used for fans and books.
But this tree bears no fruit till just before it dies,—
that is till it is fifty years old: THEN—an enormous
bud is seen, rearing its huge head in the midst of the
crown of leaves;—the bud bursts with a loud noise,
and a yellow flower appears,—a flower so large, that
it would fill a room! The flower turns into fruit.
THAT SAME YEAR THE TREE DIES !

Prorte.—And who are the people who live in this
beautiful land ?

In the flat part of the island, towards the north, the
people resemble the Hindoos, and speak and think
like them; and they are called Tamuls.

But among the mountains of the south a different
kind of people live, called the Cingalese. They do
not speak the Tamul language, nor do they follow the
Hindoo religion. They follow the Buddhist religion.
You know this is the religion of the greater part of
the nations. Ceylon is full of the temples of Buddha.
In each temple there is an inner datk room, very
large, where Buddha’s image is kept,—a great image
that almost fills the room.

The priests in their yellow cloaks, with their shaven
heads and bare feet, may be seen every morning
begging from door to door; but proud beggars they
‘Y

YYW

\2
Pg
«
4
z

Q



DEVIL PRIESTS









CEYLON. 265



ave,—not condescending to speak,—but only standing
with their baskets ready to receive rice and fruit; and
the only thanks they give—are their blessings.

There is another worship in Ceylon, and it 1s more
followed than the worship of Buddha, yet it is the
most horrible that you can imagine. It is the worship
of the peviz! Buddha taught, when he was alive,
that there was no God, but that there were many
devils: yet he forbid people to worship these devils ;
but no one minds what he said on that point.

There are many devil priests. When any one is
sick, it is supposed that the devil has caused the sick-
ness, and a devil priest is sent for. And what can the
priest do? He dances,—he sings,—with his face paint-
ed,—small bells upon his legs,—and a flaming torch
in each hand; while another man beats a loud drum.
He dances, he sings—all night long,—sometimes
changing his white jacketsfor a black, or his black for
a white,—sometimes falling down, and sometimes
jumping up,—sometimes reeling, and sometimes run-
ning,——and all this he does to please the devil, and to
coax him to come out of the sick person. This is
what he pretends ;—but in reality, he seeks to get
money by his tricks. The people are very fond of
these devil-dancers; it tives them to listen to the
Buddhist priests, mumbling out of their books, the five


266 FAR OFF.





hundred and fifty histories of Buddha; but it de-
lights them to watch all night the antics of a devil
priest.

What is the character of these deceived people ?
They are polite, and obliging, but as deceitful as their
own priests. They are not even s¢ncere in their wrong
religion, but are ready to pretend to be of any religion
which is most convenient. The Portuguese once
were masters of Ceylon, and they tried to make the
people Roman Catholics. Then the Dutch came, who
tried to force them to be Protestants. Many infants
were baptized, who grew up to be heathen priests.
Now the English are masters of Ceylon; they do not
oblige the people to be Christians, yet many pretend
to be Christians who are not.

A man was once asked, “Are you a Budd-
hist ?”

“No,” he replied.

“ Are you a Mahomedan ?”

6c No.”

“ Are you a Roman Catholic ?”

66 No.”

“ What is your religion ?”

“ Government religion.”

Such was his answer. This man had no religion at
al!—he only wished to obtain the favor of the gov-




a

CEYLON. 267





ernor. But will he obtain the favor of the Governor
of the world, the King of kings ?

We have said nothing yet about the appearance
of the Cingalese. Both men and women wear a piece
of cloth wound round their waists, called a comboy ;
but they do not, like the Hindoos, twist it over their
shoulders; they wear a jacket instead. Neither do
the men wear turbans, as in India, but they fasten
their hair with a comb, while the women fasten theirs
with long pins. The Cingalese ladies and gentlemen
imitate the English dress, especially when they come
to a party at the English Governor’s house. Then
they wear shoes and stockings instead of sandals ;
the gentlemen contrive to place a hat over their long
hair, by first taking out the combs; yet they still
wind a comboy over their English clothes. The Hin-
doos do not thus imitate the English, for they are too
proud of their own customs. Hindoo ladies never go
into company ; but Cingalese ladies may be seen at
parties, arrayed in colored satin jackets, and adorned
with golden hair-pins, and diamond necklaces.

You have heard of the foolish ideas the Hindoos
entertain about castes. It is the Brahmin priests
who teach them these opinions. The Buddhist priests
say nothing about castes; yet the Cingalese have
eastes of their own ; but not the same castes as the









268 FAR OFF.



Hindoos. There are twenty-one castes in all; the
highest caste consists of thé husbandmen, and the
lowest of the mat-weavers.

Below the lowest caste, are the ourcasts! The
poor outcasts live in villages by themselves, hated by
all. When they meet any one, who are not outcasts,
they go as near to the hedye as they can, with their
hands on the top of their heads, to show their respect.
These poor creatures are accustomed to be treated
as if they were dogs. What pride there is in man’s
heart! How is it one poor worm can lift himself up
so high above his fellow-worm, though both are made
of the same dust, and shall lie down in the same dust
together !

KANDY.

This town is built among the high mountains. It
was built there for the same reason that the eagle
builds her nest on the top of a tall rock,—to get out
of the reach of enemies. But the proud king, who
once dwelt there, has been conquered, and now Eng-
land’s Queen rules over Ceylon. No wonder that the
proud king had enemies, for he was a monster of
cruelty. His palace is still to be seen. See that
high tower, and that open gallery at the top! There

















COLOMBO. 269




the last king used to stand to enjoy the sight of his
subjects’ agonies. Those who had offended him were
killed in the Court below,—killed not in a common
manner, but in all kinds of barbarous ways,—such as
by being cut in pieces, or by swallowing melted lead.
At length the Cingalese invited the English to come
and deliver them from their tyrant ; the English came
and shut him up in prison till he died, and now an
English governor rules over Ceylon.

The greatest curiosity to be seen at Kandy is a
rooTH! a tooth that the people say was taken out
of the mouth of their Buddha. It is kept in a splen-
did temple on a golden table, in a golden box of great
size. There are seven boxes one inside the other,












and in the innermost box, wrapped up in gold, there
is a piece of ivory, the size of a man’s thumb,—that
is the tooth of Buddha! Every day it is worshipped,
and offerings of fruit and flowers are presented.

COLOMBO.




This is the chief Hnglish town of Ceylon, as
Kandy is the chief Cingalese town. The English
governor lives here, but he has a house at Kandy too,
where he may enjoy the cool mountain air. There
270 FAR OFF.

is a fine road from Colombo to Kandy, broader and
harder than English roads; yet it is out through
steep mountains, and winds by dangerous precipices.
But there are laborers in Ceylon stronger than any in
England. I mean the ELEPHANTS. It is curious to
see this huge animal meekly walking along with a
plank across its tusks, or dragging wagons full of
large stones. Among the mountains there are herds
of wild elephants, sometimes a hundred may be seen
in one herd. There are no elephants in the world as
courageous as those of Ceylon, yet they are very obe-
dient when tamed. If you wished to visit the moun-
tains, you might safely ride upon the back of the
sure-footed elephant, and all your brothers and sisters,
however many, might ride with you.

MissionARIES.—There are some in Ceylon, and
some of the heathens have obeyed their voice.

There was once a devil priest. Having been de-
tected in some crime, he was imprisoned at Kandy,
and while in prison he read a Christian tract, and was
converted. Thus (like Onesimus, of whom we read in
the Bible,) he escaped from Satan’s prison, while shut
up in man’s prison. When he was set free, he was
baptized by the missionary at Kandy, and he chose to
be called Abraham. What name did he choose for
COLOMBO. 271
his son, a boy of fourteen? Isaac. He buried his
conjuring books, though he might have sold them for
eight pounds. His cottage was in a village fifteen
miles from Kandy. He had left it—a wicked man;
he returned to it a good man.

After some time, a missionary went to visit Abraham
in his cottage. A good Cingalese was his guide.
The walk there was beautiful, along narrow paths,
amidst fields of rice, through dark thickets, and long
grass. Noone in Abraham’s village had ever seen the
fair face of an Englishman; and the sight of the mis-
sionary alarmed the inhabitants. Abraham’s family
was the only Christian family in that place. How
glad Abraham felt at the sight of the missionary,—
almost as glad as the first Abraham felt at the sight
of the three angels. When the missionary entered,
Abraham was teaching his wife, for she was soon to
be baptized. By what name? By the name of Sarah.
There were seven children in the family. How hard
it must be for Abraham to bring them up as Chris-
tians, in the midst of his heathen neighbors. Even
his brothers hate him, wound his cattle, and break
down his fences. Once they pointed a gun at him,
but it did not go off. Abraham’s comfort is to walk
over to Kandy every Saturday, to worship God there
2772 FAR OFF.

ncn

on Sunday with the Christians ; and he does not find
fifteen miles too far for his willing feet. May the :

Lord preserve Abraham, faithful in the midst of the
wicked.


Por ue g.

Tuis is the largest island in the world, except one.
Borneo is of a different shape from our Britain, but if
you could join Britain and Ireland in one, both
together would not be as large as Borneo. Yet how
unlike is Borneo to Britain! Britain is a Christian
island. Borneo is a heathen island. Yet Borneo is
not an island of ¢dols, as Ceylon is. Ald heathens do
not worship idols. I will tell you who live in Borneo,
and you will see why there are so few idols there.

Many people have come from Malacca, and settled
in Borneo; so the island is full of Malays. These
people have a cunning and cruel look, and no won-
der ;—for many of them are pirares! It is a com-
mon custom in Borneo to go out in a large boat,—to
watch for smaller boats,—to seize them—to bind the
men in chains, and to bring them home as slaves.
There are no seas in the world so dangerous to sail in,
as the seas near Borneo, not only on account of the
rocks, but on account of the great number of pirates.
What is the religion of Borneo? It is Mahomedanism.

om

: » 18
274 FAR OFF.




























ee

But the Malays do not follow the laws of Mahomet
as the Turks do. They do not mind the hours of
prayer, nor do they attend regularly at the mosque.
This is not surprising, for they do not understand the
Koran. Mahomet wrote in Arabic, and the Malays
do not understand Arabic. Why do they not get the
Koran translated? Mahomet did not wish the book
to be translated. Why then do not the Malays learn
Arabic? I wonder they do not, but I suppose they
are too idle, and too careless. The boys go to school

and learn to read and write their own easy language

-—the Malay; and they learn also to repeat whole
chapters of the Koran, but without understanding a
word. Still they think it a great advantage to know
these chapters, because they imagine that by repeat-
ing them, they can drive away evil spirits.

‘The Malays observe Mahomet’s law against eating
pork; but many of them drink wine, though Mahomet
forbids it. However, they follow Mahomet in not
having dancing at their feasts; indeed, their behavior

at feasts is sober and orderly, for they amuse them-



selves chiefly by singing, and repeating poems. They
have only two meals a day, and they live chiefly upon
rice, which they eat, sitting cross-legged on the floor.
They get tea from China, and drink many cups dur-
ing the day, in the same way as the Chinese.




2

BRUNI, 275

The ladies are treated like the ladies of Turkey, and
shut up in their houses, to spend their time in folly
and idleness.

The men scarcely work at all, but employ the slaves
they have stolen at sea, to labor in their fields. Their
houses are not better than barns, and not nearly as
strong ; for the sides and roof are generally made only
of large leaves. They are built upon posts, as in Siam.
It is well to be out of the reach of the leeches, crawl-
ing on the ground.

The Malays dress in loose clothes, trowsers, and
jacket, and broad sash ; the women are wrapped in a
loose garment, and wear their glossy black hair flow-
ing over their shoulders. The rich men dress mag-
nificently, and quite cover their jackets with gold,
while the ladies delight to sparkle with jewels.

BRUNI.

This is the capital. It is often called Borneo, and
it is written down in the maps by this name. It is
one of the most curious cities in the world; for most
of the houses are built in the river, and most of the
streets are only water. Every morning a great mar-
ket is held on the water. The people come in boats

a



ae pecipechceecaneecieciaragesnemeesnnenesensi napaianai




276 FAR OFF.



from all the country round, bringing fruit and vege-
tables to sell, and they paddle up and down the city |



till they have sold their goods.




The Sultan’s palace is built upon the bank, close to




the water; and the front of his palace is open; so




that it is easy to come in a boat, and to gaze upon




him, as he sits cross-legged on his throne, arrayed in



purple satin, glittering with gold.




There is a mosque in Bruni; but it is built only of




brick, and has nothing in it but a wooden pulpit ; and



hardly anybody goes there, though a man stands out-




side making a loud noise on a great drum, to invite




people to come in.



THE DYAKS.





°
These are a savage people who inhabit Borneo.



They lived there before the Malays came, and they










have been obliged to submit to them. They are sav-
ages indeed. They are darker than the Malays; yet
they are not black; their skin is only the color of cop-
per. Their hair is cut short in front, but streams
down their backs; their large mouths show a quan-
tity of black teeth,"made black by chewing the betel-
nut. They wear very little clothing, but they adorn


THE DYAKS. 277

their ears, and arms, and legs, with numbers of brass
rings. Their looks are wild and fierce, but not cun-
ning like the looks of the Malays. They are not Ma-
homedans; they have hardly any religion at all.
They believe there are some gods, but they know
hardly anything about them, and they do not want
to know. They neither make images to the gods,
nor say prayers to them. They live like the beasts,
thinking only of this life; yet they are more unhappy
than beasts, for they imagine there are evil spirits
among the woods and hills, watching to do them
harm. It is often hard to persuade them to go to
the top of a mountain, where they say evil spirits
dwell. Such a people would be more ready to listen
to a missionary than those who have idols, and tem-
ples, and priests, and sacred books.

Their wickedness is very great. It is their chief
delight to get the heads of their enemies. There are
a great many different tribes of Dyaks, and each tribe
tries to cut off the heads of other tribes. The Dyaks
who live by the sea are the most cruel; they go out
in the boats to rob, and to bring home, not slaves,
but neaps! And how do they treat a head when
they get it? They take out the brains, and then
they dry it in the smoke, with the flesh and hair still
on; then they put a string through it, and fasten it


278 FAR OFF.

Ce



to their waists. The evening that they have got some
new heads, the warriors dance with delight,—their
heads dangling by their sides ;—and they turn round
in the dance, and gaze upon their heads,—and shout,
—and yell with triumph! At night they still keep
the heads near them; and in the day, they play with
them, as children with their dolls, talking to them,
putting food in their mouths, and the betel-nut be-
tween their ghastly lips. After wearing the heads
many days, they hang them up to the ceilings of
their rooms.

No English lord thinks so much of his pictures, as
the Dyaks do of their heads. They think these heads
are the finest ornaments of their houses. The man
who has most heads, is considered the g7veatest man.
A man who has no HEADS is despised! If he wishes
to be respected, he must get a head as soon as he can.
Sometimes a man, in order to get a head, will go out
to look for a poor fisherman, who has done him no
harm, and will come back with his head.

When the Dyaks fight against their enemies, they
try to get, not only the heads of men, but also the
heads of women and canprex. How dreadful it
must be to see a poor BABY’s HEAD hanging from the
ceiling! There was a Dyak who lost all his property

by fire, but he cared not for losing anything, so much




———_—

THE DYAKS. 279
as for losing his Precious HEADS; nothing could con-
sole him for rH1s loss; some of them he had cut off
himself, and others had been cut off by his father, and
left to him!

People who are so bent on killing, as these Dyaks
are, must have many enemies. The Dyaks are always
in fear of being attacked by their enemies. They are
afraid of living in lonely cottages; they think it a
better plan for a great many to live together, that they
may be able to defend themselves, if surprised in the

night. Four hundred Dyaks will live together in one
house. The house is very large. To make it more
safe, it is built upon very hegh posts, and there are
ladders to get up by. The posts are sometimes forty
feet high ; so that when you are in the house, you find
yourself as high as the tall trees. There is one very
large room, where all the men and women sit, and
talk, and do their work in the day. The women

pound the rice, and weave the mats, while the men



-| make weapons of war, and the little children play about.

_ There is always much noise and confusion in this
| room. ‘There are a great many doors along one side of
the long room; and each of these doors leads into a
| small room where a family lives; the parents, the babies,

|
i

and the girls sleep there, while the boys of the family

sleep in the large room, that has just been described.




280 FAR OFF.



i

————_

You know already what are the ornaments on
which each family prides itself—the Heaps hanging
up in their rooms! It is the Sea Dyaks who live in
these very large houses.

The Hitt Dyaks do not live in houses quite so
large. Yet several families inhabit the same house.
In the midst of their villages, there is always one
house where the boys sleep. In this house all the
HEADS of the village are kept. The house is round,
and built on posts, and the entrance is underneath
through the floor. As this is the best house in the
village, travellers are always brought to this house to
sleep. Think how dreadful it must be, when you
wake in the night to see thirty or forty horrible heads,
dangling from the ceiling! The wind, too, which
comes in through little doors in the roof, blows the
heads about; so that they knock against each other,
and seem almost as if they were still alive. This is
the HEAD-HOUSE.

These Hill Dyaks do not often get a new head;
but when they do, they come to the Head-House at
night, and sing to the new head, while they beat upon
their loud gongs. What do they say to the new
head ?

“Your head, and your spirit, are now ours. Per-
suade your countrymen to be slain by us. Let them




THE DYAKS, 281
nn
wander in the fields, that we may bring the heads of

your brethren, and hang them up with your heads.”

How much Satan must delight in these prayers.
They are prayers just suited to that great MURDERER
and DESTROYER!

The Malays are enemies to all the Dyaks ; and
they have burnt many of their houses, cut down their
fruit trees, and taken their children captives. The
Dyaks complain bitterly of their sufferings. Some of
them say, “ We do not live like men, but like mon-
keys; we are hunted from place to place; we have no
houses ; and when we light a fire, we fear lest the
smoke should make our enemies know where we are.”

They say they live like monkeys. But why do
they behave like tigers?

An English gentleman, named Sir James Brooke,
has settled in Borneo, and has become a chief of a —
large tract of land. His house is near the river Sara-
wak. He has persuaded the Sultan of Borneo, to give
the English a very Lirr.e island called the Isle of
Labuan. It is a desert island. Of what use can this
small island be to England? English soldiers may
live there, and try to prevent pirates infesting the
seas. If it were not for the pirates, Borneo would be
able to send many treasures to foreign countries. It
is but a little way from Borneo to Singapore, and




282 FAR OFF.



there are many English merchants at Singapore, ready
to buy the precious things of Borneo. Gold is found
in Borneo, mixed with the earth. But I don’t know
who would dig it up, if it were not for the industrious
Chinese, who come over in great numbers to get
money in this island. Diamonds are found there, and
a valuable metal called antimony.

The sago-tree, the pepper plant, and the sugar-cane,
and the cocoa-nut tree are abundant.

The greatest curiosity that Borneo possesses are the
eatable nests. These white and transparent nests are
found in the caves by the sea-shore, and they are the
work of a little swallow. The Chinese give a high
price for these nests, that they may make soup for
their feasts.

Animats.—Borneo has. very few large animals.
There are, indeed, enormous alligators in the rivers,
but there are no lions or tigers; and even the bears
are small, and content to climb the trees for fruit and

honey. The majestic animal which is the pride of
Ceylon, is not found in Borneo : I mean the elephant.

Yet the woods are filled with living creatures.
Squirrels and monkeys sport among the trees. The
leaps of the monkeys are amazing ; hundreds will
jump one after the other, from a tree as high as a
house, and not one will miss his footing; yet now and




THE DYAKS. 283

then a monkey has a fall. The most curious kind of
monkey is found in Borneo—the Ourang-outang ; but
it is one of the least active; it climbs carefully from
branch to branch, always holding by its hands before
it makes a spring. These Ourang-outangs are not as
large as a man, yet they are much stronger. All the
monkeys sleep in the trees; in a minute a monkey
makes its bed by twisting a few branches together.

Beneath the trees—two sorts of animals, very unlike
each other, roam about,—the clumsy hog, and the
graceful deer. As the largest sort of monkeys is found
in Borneo, so is the smadlest sort of deer. ‘There is a
deer that has legs only eight inches long. There is
no more elegant creature in the world than this bright-
eyed, swift-footed little deer.




|



3afau.

Tuts is the name of a great empire. There are
three principal islands. One of these is very long, and
very narrow; it is about a thousand miles long,—
much longer than Great Britain, but not nearly as
broad. Yet the three islands ¢ogether are larger than
our island. There is a fourth island near the Japan
islands, called Jesso, and it is filled with Japanese
people.

You know it is difficult to get into China; but it is
far more difficult to get into Japan. The emperor
has boats always watching round the coast, to prevent
strangers coming into his country. These boats are
so made, that they cannot go far from the shore. No
Japanese ship is ever seen floating in a foreign harbor.
If it be difficult to get into Japan, it is also difficult to
get out of her. There is a law condemning to death
any Japanese who leaves his country. The Chinese
also are forbidden to leave their land; but they do not

mind their laws as well as the Japanese mind thezrs.


JAPAN. 285





I shall not be able to tell you much about Japan ;
as strangers may not go there, nor natives come from
it. English ships very seldom go to Japan, because
they are so closely watched. The guard-boats surround
them night and day. When it is dark, lanterns are
lighted, in order the better to observe the strangers.
One English captain entreated permission to land, that
he might observe the stars with his instruments, in
order afterwards to make maps; but he could only
get leave to land on a little island where there were
a few fishermen’s huts; and all the time he was there,
the Japanese officers kept their eye upon him. He
was told that he must not measure the land. Itseems
that the Japanese were afraid that his measuring the
land would be the beginning of his taking it away.
However, he had no such intention, and was content
with measuring the sEA.

He asked the Japanese to sell him a supply of fruit
and vegetables for his crew, and a supply was brought;
but the Japanese would take no money in return.
He wanted to buy bullocks, that his crew might have
beef, but the Japanese replied, “ You cannot have
them ; for they work hard, and are tired, they draw
the plough ; they do their duty, and they ought not
to be eaten ; but the hogs are lazy ; they do no work,

you may have them to eat, if you wish it.” The

—— —-


. — sccm aan OE A AON
pene PE A ELODIE - -

286 FAR OFF.



Japanese will not even milk their cows, but they allow
' the calves to have all the milk.

If you wish to know why the Japanese will not al-
low strangers to land, I must relate some events which
happened three hundred years ago.

Some Roman Catholic priests from Spain and Por-
tugal settled in the land, and taught the people about
Christ, but they taught them also to worship the cross,
and the Virgin Mary. Thousands of the Japanese
were baptized, and were called Christians. After some
| years had passed away, the emperor began to fear that
the kings of Spain and Portugal would come, and

take away his country from him, as they had taken



away other countries ; so the emperor began to per-
secute the priests, and all who followed their words.
One emperor after another persecuted the Christians.
There is a burning mountain in Japan, and down its
terrible yawning mouth many Christians were thrown.
One emperor commanded his people instead of wor-
| Shipping the cross, to trample upon it. To do either
| —4s wicked ; to do either is to-insult Christ.

| All Christians are now hated in Japan. The Dutch
| tried to persuade the emperors to trust them ; but
| they could only get leave to buy and sell at one place,
| but not to settle in the land.

There are many beautiful things in Japan, especially












ees enema a eg

JAPAN. 287

boxes, and screens, and cabinets, varnished and orna-
mented in a curious manner, and these are much
admired by great people in Europe. There is silk,
too, and tea, and porcelain in Japan; but they are
not nearly as fine as China, There is gold also.

There are as many people in Japan, as. there are in
Britain ; for the Japanese are very industrious, and
cultivate abundance of rice, and wheat. Oh! how
sad to think that so many millions should be living
and dying in darkness ; for the chief religion is the
false, and foolish religion of Buddha, or, as he’is called
in Japan, “ Budso.” How many names are given to
that deceiver! Buddha in Ceylon; Fo, in China;
Gaudama, in burmah ; Codom, in Siam—and Budso
in Japan !

What sort of people are the Japanese ?

They are a very polite people—much politer than
the Chinese, but very proud. They are a learned na-
tion, for they can read and write, and they understand
geography, arithmetic, and astronomy. ‘There is a
college where many languages are taught, even Eng-
lish. The dress of the gentlemen is elegant ;——the
loose tunic and trowsers, the sash, and jacket, are
made of a kind of fine linen, adorned with various
patterns; the stockings are of white jean; sandals
are worn upon the feet, but no covering upon the


ny

|

———— a ameeceert an LOLA ALI ——_>

288 FAR OFF.





—



head, although most of the hair is shaven, and the |
little that remains behind, is tied tightly together; an
umbrella or a fan is all that is used to keep off the
sun ;——except on journeys, and then a large cap of oiled
paper, or of plaited grass 1s worn. The great mark by

which a gentleman is known, Is wearing two swords.

a

The Japanese houses are very pretty. In the win-
dows—flower-pots are placed ; and when real flowers

| cannot be had, artificial flowers are used. In great

| houses, the ladies are shut up in one part ; while in
the other, company is received. The house is divided
into rooms by large screens, and as these can be moved,

the rooms can be made larger, or smaller, as the

master pleases. There are no chairs, for the Japanese,
‘though so much like the Chinese, do not sit like then
on chairs, but on mats beautifully woven. The em-
peror’s palace is called, “ The Hall of the Thousand |
Mats.” Every part of a Japanese house is covered
with paper, and adorned with paintings, and gold, and
silver flowers; even the doors, and the ceilings, are
ornamented in this manner. Beautiful boxes, and
porcelain jars, add to the beauty of the rooms.

The climate is pleasant, for the winter is short, and |
the sun is not as hot as in China; so that the ladies, |
and gentlemen, are almost as fair as Europeans, |
though the laborers are very dark. : |

| |
| ee




JAPANESE GENTLEMAN p- 289.
a a ee

JAPAN,





But Japan is exposed to many dangers, from wind,
from water, and from fire—three terrible enemies !
The waves dash with violence upon the rocky shores ;
the wind often blows in fearful hurricanes; while
earthquakes and hot streams from the burning moun-
tains, fill the people with terror.

But more terrible than any of these—is wickedness 5
and very wicked customs are observed in Japan. It
is very wicked for a man to kill himself, yet in Japan
it is the custom for all courtiers who have offended
the emperor, to cut open their own bodies with a
sword. The little boys of five years old, begin to
Jearn the dreadful art. They do not really cut them-
selves, but they are shown how to do it, that when
they are men, they may be able to kill themselves in
an elegant manner. How dreadful! Every great
man has a white dress, which he never wears, but
keeps by him, that he may put it on when he is go-
ing to kill himself: and he carries it about with him
wherever he goes, for he cannot tell how suddenly

he may want it. When a courtier receives a letter

and at the end of it, his sentence is read aloud by the
emperor’s officer; then he takes his sword, and makes
a great gash across his own body; at the same moment,
a servant who stands behind him, cuts off his head.

sentencing him to die, he invites his friends to a feast ;
. 19
|

290 FAR OFF.



This way of dying is thought very fine, and as a
reward, the emperor allows the son of the dead man
to occupy his father’s place in the court. But what a
place to have, when at last there may be such a fear-
ful scene! Missionaries cannot come into Japan to
teach the. people a better way of dying, and to tell
them of a happy place after death.

a nen ns






—_—— i
ae + + ee a enna a OE ae

ce en a LS 0 . tee ntact: are eee te sb bs ene AS DARE SEL Ae ERO DLA nny
s .

@ustrolia.

Tus is the largest island in the world. Itis as
large as Europe (which is not an island, but a conti-
nent). But how different is Australia from Europe!
Instead of containing, as Europe does, a number of
grand kingdoms, it has not one single king. Instead
of being filled with people, the greater part of Aus-
tralia is a desert, or a forest, where a few haif naked
savages are wandering.

A hundred years ago, there was not a town in the
whole island; but now there area few large towns
near the sea-coast, but only a very few. It is the
English who built these large towns, and who live in
them.

Australia is not so fine a land as Europe, because it
has not so many fine rivers; and it is fine rivers that
make a fine Zand. Most of the rivers in Australia do
not deserve the name of rivers; they are more like a
number of water-holes, and are often dried up in the
summer ; but there is one very fine, broad, long, deep

—_—_—






a a A a a ot

292 FAR OFF,

river, called the Murray. It flows for twelve hundred
miles. Were there several such rivers as the Murray,
then Australia would be a fine land indeed.

Why is there so little water? Because there is so
little rain. Sometimes for two years together, there
are no heavy showers, and the grass withers, and the
trees turn brown, and the air is filled with dust. I
believe the reason of the want of rain is—that the
mountains are not high; for high mountains draw
the clouds together. There are no mountains as high
as the Alps of Europe ; the highest are only half as
high.*

Tue Natives.—The savages of Australia have
neither god, nor king. Some heathen countries are
full of idols, but there are no idols in the wilds of
Australia. No,—like the beasts which perish, these
savages live from day to day without prayer, or
praise, delighting only in eating and drinking, hunt-
ing and dancing.

Most men build some kind of houses; but these
savages are satisfied with putting a few boughs to-
gether, as a shelter from the storm. There is just
room in one of these shelters for a man to creep into
it, and lie down to sleep. They do not wish to learn

* The Australian mountains are about seven thousand
feet high.





ere
——





The women are the most ill-treated creatures in the

AUSTRALIA. 293



— ne

to build better huts, for as they are always running
about from place to place, they do not think it worth
while to build better.

A native was once sitting in the corner of a white
man’s hut, and looking as if he enjoyed the warmth.
The white men began to laugh at him, for not build-
ing a good hut for himself. For some time the black
man said nothing, at last he muttered, “ Ay, ay, white
fellow think it best that-a-way. Black fellow think it
best that-a-way.”. A white man rudely answered,
“Then black fellow is a fool.” Upon hearing this,
the black fellow, quite affronted, got up, and folding
his blanket round him, walked out of the hut. How
much pride there is in the heart of man! Even a
savage thinks a great deal of his own wisdom, and
cannot bear to be called a fool.

Sometimes the natives build a house strong enough
to last during the whole winter, and large enough to
hold seven or eight people. They make it in the
shape of a bee-hive.

Their reason for moving about continually, is that
they may get food. They look for it, wherever they
go, digging up roots, and grubbing up grubs, and
searching the hollows of the trees for opossums. (Of

these strange animals more shall soon be mentioned.)

een A LL LAL A



> #
294 FAR OFF.

world. The men beat them on their heads whenever
they please, and cover them with bruises. A gentle-
man once saw a poor black woman crying bitterly.
When he asked her what was the matter, she told him
that her husband was going to beat her for having
broken his pipe. The gentleman went to the hus-
band, and entreated him to forgive his “ gin” (for that
is the name for a wife or woman). But the man de-
clared he would not forgive her, unless a new pipe was
given to him. The gentleman could not promise one
to the black man, as there were no pipes to be had in
that place. The next morning the poor gin appeared
with a broken arm, her cruel husband having beaten
her with a thick stick.

The miserable gins are not beaten only ; they are
half starved ; for their husbands will give them no
food, and they—poor things—cannot fish or hunt, or
shoot; they have nothing but the roots they dig up,
and the grubs, and lizards, and snakes they find on the
ground. Their looks show how wretchedly they fare ;
for while the men are often strong and tall, the women
are generally thin, and bent, and haggard.

Yet the woman, weak as she is, carries all the bag-
gage, not only the babe slung upon her back, but the
bag of food, and even her busband’s gun and pipe;
while the man stalks along in his pride, with nothing


AUSTRALIA. 295
emcee senntainnnutnntanisentaltnntesneatstvintaiisciiaheigian
but his spear in his hand, or at most a light basket
upon his arm; for he considers his wife as his beast
of burden. At night the woman has to build her own
shelter, for the man thinks it quite enough to build
one for himself.

Such is the hard lot of a native woman, while she
lives ; and when she dies, her body is perched in a
tree, as not worth the trouble of burying.

I have already told you, that the natives have no
cop; yet they have a DEVIL, whom they call Yakoo,
or debbil-debbil. Of him they are always afraid, for
they fancy he goes about devouring children, When
any one dies, they say, “ Yakoo took him.” How
different from those happy Christians who can say of
their dead, “ God took them !”

People who know not God, but only the devil, must
be very wicked. ‘These savages show themselves to
be children of debbil-debbil by their actions. They
kill many of their babes, that they may not have the
trouble of nursing them. Old people also they kill,
and laugh at the idea of making them “ tumble down.”
One of the most horrible things they do, is making
the skulls of their friends into drinking-cups, and they
think that by doing so, they show their AFFECTION !
They allow the nearest relation to have the skull of
the dead person. They will even EAT a little piece of
i

296 FAR OFF.



————— seceneeenecet A eee LA a

the dead body, just as a mark of love. But generally
| speaking, it is only their enemies they eat, and they
| do eat them whenever they can kill them. ‘There are
| a great many tribes of natives, and they look upon one
another as enemies. If a man of one tribe dare to
come, and hunt in the lands of another tribe, he is
immediately killed, and his body is eaten.

The bodies of dear friends—are treated with great

honor, placed for some weeks on a high platform, and
then buried. Mothers prize highly the dead bodies
of their children. A traveller met a poor old woman
wandering 1n search of roots, with a stick for digging
- her hand, and with no other covering than a little
| grass mat. On her back she bore a heavy load.
| What was it? The dead body of her child,—a boy
| of ten years old ; this burden she had borne for three
| weeks, and she thought she showed her love, by keep-
| ing it near her for so long a time. Alas! she knew
nothing of the immortal spirit, and how, when washed
‘n Jesus’ blood, it is borne by angels into the presence
of God.

But though these savages are S80 wicked, and so
wild, they have their amusements. Dancing is the
chief amusement. At every full moon, there is a
grand dance, called the Corrobory. It is the men who

| dance, while the women sit by and beat time. Nothing

Lo


AUSTRALIA. 297



















can be more horrible to see than a Corrobory. It is
held in the night by the light of blazing fires. The
men are made to look more frightful than usual, by
great patches, and stripes of red and white clay all
over their bodies; and they play all manner of strange
antics, and utter all kinds of strange yells; so that
you might think it was a dance in HELL, rather than
on earth.

have a turn both for music and drawing. ‘There are
figures carved upon the rocks, which show their turn
for drawing. The figures represent beasts, fishes, and
men, and are much better done than could have been
supposed. There are few savages who can sing as
well as these natives; but the words of their songs are
very foolish. These are the words of one song,

‘Eat great deal, eat, eat, eat;
Eat again, plenty to eat;
Eat more yet, eat, eat, eat.”

fancy. How sad to think a man who is made to
praise God forever and ever, should have no higher
joy than eating ! |

And what is the appearance of these people ?

They are ugly, with flat noses, and wide mouths,



It may surprise you to hear these wild creatures —

If a pig could sing, surely this song would just suit its |

ee
’




oe ay

298 FAR OFF.

(ernest te te seman —

but their teeth are white, and their hair is long, glossy,
and curly. They adorn their tresses with teeth, and
feathers, and dogs’ tails; and they rub over their
whole body with fish oil and fat. You may imagine,
therefore, how unpleasant it must be to come near
them.

~

THE COLONISTS OR SETTLERS.

Once there were only black people in Australia, and
no white; now there are more white than black; and
it is probable, that soon, there will be no black people,
but only white. Ever since the white people began
to settle there, the black people have been dying away
very fast; for the white people have taken away the
lands where the blacks used to hunt, and have filled
them with their sheep and cattle.

There are two sorts of white people who have come
to Australia. They are called “ Convicts,” and “ Col-
onists.”

Convicts are some of the worst of the white people ;
—thieves, who instead of being kept in prison, were
sent to Australia to work hard for many years. It is
asad thing for Australia, that so many thieves have
been sent there, because after their punishment was






——_——___——_—_—_---------

———

THE COLONISTS OR SETTLERS. 299
over, and they were set at liberty, somie remained in
the land, and did a great deal of harm.

Colonists are people who come of their own accord
to earn their living as best they can.

It is acommon sight when travelling in Australia,
to meet a dray drawn by bullocks, Jaden with furni-
ture, and white people. It is a family going to their
new farm. In the dray there are pigs, and you may
hear them grunting ; there are fowls, too, shut up in
a basket; and besides, there are plants and tools.
When the family arrive at the place where they mean
to settle, they find no house, nor garden, nor fields,
only a wild forest. Immediately they pitch a tent for
the mother and her daughters to sleep in, while the
father, his sons, and his laborers, sleep by the fire in
the open air. The next morning, the men begin to
fell trees to make a hut, and they finish it in a week;
—not a very grand dwelling, it is true, but good
enough for the fine weather; the floor is made of the
hard clay from the enornfous ant hills; the walls—of _
great slabs of wood; the roof—of wooden tiles, and
the windows——of calico. When the but is finished, a
hen-house, and a pig-sty are built, and i ~ also
underground. A garden is soon planted, and therg,
the vines, and the peach-trees bear beautiful rll

The daughters attend to the rearing of the fowls, and





800 FAR OFF.




the milking of the cows, and soon have a plentiful
supply of eggs and butter. The men clear the ground




of trees, in order to sow wheat and potatoes. Thus




the family soon have all their wants supplied; and




they find time by degrees to build a stone house, with























| eight large rooms; and when it is completed, they

give up their wooden hut to one of the laborers, This

is the way of life in the “ Bush ;” for such is the name
given to the wild parts of Australia.

Some settlers keep large flocks of sheep, and gain
| money by selling the wool and the fat, to make cloth
and tallow. A shepherd in Australia leads a very
lonely life among the hills, and he is obliged to keep
ever upon the watch against the wild dogs. These
voracious animals prowl about in troops, and cruelly
bite numbers of the sheep, and then devour as many
as they can. Happily there are no /arge wild beasts,

such as wolves, and bears, lions, and tigers; for these

would devour the shepherd as well as the sheep.

But there are men, called bush-rangers,” as fierce
as wild beasts. ‘These are convicts who have escaped
nishment. They often come to the settlers’



Hd murder the inhabitants.
The natives are not nearly as dangerous as these
Barca white men; indeed they are generally very

harmless, unless provoked by ill-treatment. They are
THE COLONISTS OR SETTLERS. 301
willing to make themselves useful, by reaping corn,
and washing sheep ; and a little reward satisfies them,
such asa blanket, or an old coat. When some of the
flock have strayed, the blacks will take great pains to
look for them, and seem as much pleased when they
have found them, as if they were their own sheep.
The black women can help in the wash-house, and in
the farm-yard; but they are too much besmeared with
grease to be fit for the kitchen. It is wise never to
give a good dinner to a black, till his work is done;
because he always eats so much, that he can work no
more that day.

Some of these poor blacks are very faithful and _ af-
fectionate. ‘There was one who lived near a settler’s
hut, and he used to come there every morning before
the master was up; he would enter very gently for
fear of waking him,—light the fire by rubbing two
pieces of wood together, and set the kettle on to boil;
then he would approach the bed, and putting his hand
affectionately on the hagd of the sle would whis-
per in his ear, till he saw him open hi s, when he

would greet him with a kind and smili

attentions were the mark of his atta

white man.
This black was as faithful, as he was
Once he was sent by a farmer on a message. It was


802 FAR OFF.



this, “ Take this letter to my brother, and he will give
you sixpence, and then spend the sixpence in pipes
for me.” The black man took the letter, and went
towards the place where the brother lived. He met
him on horseback. The brother after reading the
letter, rode away without giving the sixpence to the
bearer. What was the poor black man todo? “Shall
I go back,” thought he, “without the pipes? No.
I will try to get some money.” He went to a house
that he knew of, and offered to chop some wood for
sixpence, and with that sixpence he bought the pipes.
Was not this being a good servant? This was not
eye-service; it was the service of the heart. But
there are not many natives like this man. They are
generally soon tired of working. For instance, a boy
called Jackey, left a good master who would have
provided for him, to live again wild in the woods, and
went away with the blanket off his bed. .
AnimAts.—There are few of our animals in Aus-
tralia, or of thesr animals in ingland. There is no
hare, no rabbit, no nightingale, no thrush, in Australia.
Once there"were no horses, nor cows, nor sheep, nor
Wi there are a great many. Much terrified
fives at the sight of the first horse which
e from England ; for they had never seen such a
large animal before.



a a i a — an
tentactnheieFiocerei Sencidieeuntie

(
(

THE COLONISTS OR SETTLERS. 303

The largest beast in Australia is the Kangaroo, re-
markable for its short fore-legs, and its great strong
hind-legs, and for the pocket in which it shelters its
little one. It 1s a gentle creature, and can be easily
tamed. A pet kangaroo may often be seen walking
about a settler’s garden, cropping the grass upon the
lawn. But though easily tamed, a wild kangaroo is
not easily caught ; for it makes immense springs in
the air, far higher than a horse could leap, though it
is not as big as asheep. When hunted by dogs, it
gets, when it can, into the water, and turning round,
and standing still, dips the dogs, one by one, till it
drowns them.

There is another beast, called the opossum, not
much bigger than a large cat, and it also has a
pocket for its young ones. But instead of cropping
the grass, it eats the leaves of trees. It has a gentle
face like a deer, and a long tail like a monkey. It
hides itself, as the squirrel does, in the hollows of
trees. Like the owl, it is never seen in the day,

but at night it comes out to feed. The blacks are
very cunning in finding out the holes where the



their sharp teeth. With the skin of the oposgym
the natives make a cloak. .
304 FAR OFF.



The wild dogs, or dingoes, are odious animals.
They may be heard yelling at night to the terror of
the shepherd, and the farmer. They are bold enough
to rush into a yard, and to carry off a calf, or a pig;
and when they have dragged it into the woods, they
crueily eat the legs first, and do not kill it for a long
while.

These three—the kangaroo, the opossum, and the
dingo,—are the principal beasts of Australia.

Among the birds, the emu is the most remarkable.
It is nearly as tall as an ostrich, and has beautiful
soft feathers, though not as beautiful as the ostrich’s.
But the most curious point in the emu is,—it has
no tongue. You may suppose, therefore, that it is
neither a singing bird, nor a talking bird; it only
makes a little noise in its throat. But if z¢ is silent,
there are numbers of parrots, and cockatoos, to fill the
air with their screams. In England, these birds are
thought a great deal of, but in Australia, they are
killed to make into pies, or into soup. Parrot-pie and
cockatoo-soup, are common dishes there. However,
many of the parrots and cockatoos, are caught by
the blacks, and sold to the English, who send them to
England in the ships.

There are not such singing birds in Australia, as
there are here. ‘Though there is a robin red-breast
BOTANY BAY. 305

there, he does not sing as sweetly as he does here,
But there are laughing birds in Australia. There is
_@ bird called the “laughing jackass.” He laughs

very loud three times a day. He begins in the
morning ;—suddenly a hoarse loud laugh is heard,—
then another, then another,—till a whole troop of
birds seem laughing all together, and go on laughing
for a few minutes ;—and then they are all quiet
again. Such a noise must awaken many a sleeper on
his bed. At noon the laugh is heard again. At
evening there is another general fit of laughter. These
birds are not like children, who laugh at no particular
hour, but often twenty times a day. The laughing
jackass is almost as useful as a clock, and it is called,
“the bushman’s clock.”

BOTANY BAY.

This is a famous place, for here the English first
settled, and here it was thieves were sent from Eng-
land as a punishment. Some were sent there for
fourteen years, and some for twenty-one years, and
some for life. How did the place get the beautiful
name of Botany? which means “the knowledge of
flowers.” Because there were so many beautiful flow-
ers seen there, when Captain Cook first. beheld it.

20
306 FAR OFF.

Yet the name Botany Bay, does not seem beautiful to
us ; for it reminds us not of roses, but of rogues ; not
of violets, but of violent men; not of lilies, but of
villains,

SYDNEY.

This town is close to Botany Bay. It is the largest
town in Australia. It is a very wicked city, because
so many convicts have been sent there. Many of the
people are the children of convicts, and have been
brought up very ill by their parents. Of course there
are many robberies in such a city, far more than there
are in London. Who would like to live there! yet it
is a fine city, and by the sea-side, with a harbor, where
hundreds of ships might ride,—safe from the storm.
It is plain, too, that Sydney is full of rich people, for
the streets are thronged with carriages, driving rapidly
along. The convicts often become rich, after their
time of punishment is over, by keeping public-houses,
and when rich they keep carriages.

If you were in Sydney, you would hardly think
you were in a savage island; for you would see no
savages in the streets. What is become of those who
once lived in these parts? They are all dead, or gone
to other parts of the island. The last black near Syd-
(ne ee








ADELAIDE. 3807




ney, used to talk of the old times, and say, “ When I




was a pick-a-ninny, plenty of black fellow then. Only




one left now, mitter.”






ADELAIDE.

It is much better to live here than in Sydney, be-




cause convicts have never been sent here. Numbers




of honest poor people are leaving England and Ire-




land, every year, to go to Adelaide. When they ar-




rive at the coast, they get into cars, and are driven




seven miles, passing by many pretty cottages, and




gardens, till they arrive at Adelaide. There they find




themselves in the midst of gardens; for the houses




are not crowded together, as in our English towns, but




are placed in the midst of trees, and flowers, and grass;




because there is plenty of room in Australia,




But there is one great evil both in Sydney and in
Adelaide, which is the dust blown from the desert,
and which almost chokes the inhabitants. If there





were more rain in Australia, there would be less dust.




Australia is divided into three parts :—
I. New South Wales. Capital, Sydney.
II. Western Australia. Capital, Perth.
III. South Australia. Capital, Adelaide.





Vou Dieman’s Land.

Tuis island is as cool as Great Britain; yet it is
not a pleasant land to live in; for it is filled with con-
victs. There are no natives there now; they died
away gradually, except a few, who were taken by the
English to a small island near, called “ Flinder’s
Island.” They were taken there that they might be
safe; yet they never ceased to sigh, and to cry after
their native land.

THE YOUNG SAVAGES.

Many travellers have tried to see the land in the
midst of Australia, but hitherto they have not suc-
ceeded. After going a little way, they have been
obliged to return, and why? Because they have found
no water.

I will give you an account of the journey of Mr.
Eyre. ‘This traveller wished to go into the midst of
THE YOUNG SAVAGES. 309

the land, but finding he could not, he travelled along
the coast, at that part called the Great Bight (or the
Great Bay).

He set out from Adelaide with a large party, but
various accidents occurred by the way, and at last he
found himself with only one Englishman, and three
native boys. The eldest was almost a man. His
name was Wylie, and he was a good-tempered, lively
youth. ‘The second was named Neramberein. I shall
have nothing good to relate of him, but a great deal
of evil; for he was indeed a very wicked boy. The
youngest was called Cootachah—a boy who was easily
induced to follow bad examples.

Mr. Eyre was the chief person in the party, and his
English companion was Mr. Baxter. en horses
carried the packages, aud six sheep were made to
follow, that they might be killed one by one for food.

All these poor animals suffered terribly from want
of water. Sometimes they went a hundred miles
without a refreshing draught. The horses became so
weak, that the travellers were unwilling to mount
their backs ; and as for the sheep, they could scarcely
crawl along.

Many ways of getting water were tried. One way
was digging up the roots of trees. little, water may often be squeezed out of the end of


—



-assiitidttstniAEEETALLALLALLALALTE

310 FAR OFF.























a root; because the root is the mouth of the tree, and
sucks up water from the ground. Another way of
getting water was by gathering up the dew in a
sponge. Enough dew to make a cup of tea might
sometimes be obtained; but not enough for the poor
beasts to have any. When the travellers, by digging,
could make a well, then they were glad indeed; for
then the beasts could be refreshed as well as themselves.

The whole party were become so weak from fatigue
and thirst, that they could not get on fast, and they
found it necessary to save their food as much as possi-
ble, that it might last to the end of the long journey.
They took a little flour every day out of their bag, and
made it into a paste. Sometimes they caught a fish,
or shot a bird or beast, and then they had a hearty
meal. When they killed one of their sheep, then they
had plenty of mutton. At last, all the sheep were
killed but one.

It happened at this time, that one of the horses
was so sick that he*eould not move. It was plain he
would soon die; therefore the travellers determined to
kill him, and eat ‘his flesh. Mr. Eyre was grieved at
the thought of killing his horse, neither could he bear
the idea of eating horse flesh ; but then he feared, that
if the horse were not killed, the whole party would be

starved.




THE YOUNG SAVAGES. * 31]





The native boys were delighted when they knew
the horse was to be eaten; for they had long been
fretting for more food. They would like to have
devoured it ald on the spot; but they were not allowed
to do so; the greater part of the flesh was cut off in
thin slices, dipped in salt water, and then hung up in
the sun to dry, to serve as provision for many days to
come. The boys were permitted to devour the rest
of the carcase.

With what haste they prepared the feast! They
made a fire close to the carcase, and then cut off lumps
of flesh, which they roasted quickly, and then ate.
They spent the whole afternoon in this manner, look-
ing more like ravenous wolves than human creatures.
When night came, they were not willing to leave their
meat, but took as much as ever they could carry into
their beds, that they might eat whenever they awoke.
Next day, they returned to the roasting and eating, and
the next night again they took meat with them to bed.
d he thought
food, instead

Mr. Eyre wondered at their glu 7



it necessary to give them an allow
of letting them eat as much as they liked. He gave
five pounds of meat to each boy every day. Five
pounds is as much as a shoulder of mutton—and ten
English boys would think it quite enough for dinner ;

but the Australian boys were not satisfied.

=f
312 * FAR OFF

Mr. Eyre began to suspect that in the night they
stole some of the meat hanging up to dry on the trees.
Therefore one night he weighed the meat, and in the
morning weighed it again. He found that four pounds
were gone. He thought it was very ungrateful of
boys, to whom he gave so much, to steal from his

* small stock. As a punishment he gave them less
meat next day than usual.

He entreated the boys to tell him who was the
thief. The eldest and youngest declared that they had
not stolen any meat; but Neramberein would not ah-
swer at all, and looked sulky and angry, and muttered
something about going away, and taking Wylie with
him. Mr. Eyre replied, that he might go if he pleased,
while at the same time he warned him of the dangers
of the way. - Ve

The next morning, as soon as breakfast was over,
the three boys all rose up and walked away. Mr.
Eyre called back,the youngest, as he felt he was mis-
led by his e ut he let the others go. They *
had stayed witht till the horse was all eaten up, ex- é
cept the dried #pieces—but now they hoped to get |
more food, when travelling alone, than with Mr. Eyre.

As soon as the boys were gone, Mr. Eyre determined
to stop some time longer where he was, that he might

not overtake them. There was one sheep still remain-


THE YOUNG SAVAGES. 813

ing, and which’ seemed very restless all by: itself.
This sheep was killed for food, and in that place there
was plenty of water; so that the little company fared
well that day and the next; especially as Mr. Baxter
had the good fortune to kill an eagle, which made an
excellent stew.

Just as the travellers had finished their evening
meal, they were astonished to see the two runaway
boys approaching. Wylie came running up, declaring
that both he and his companions were sorry for their
bad behavior, dnd were anxious to be received again,
not being able to get enough to eat. But though
Wylie acted in this frank manner, his companion was
very sulky. He said nothing, but seated himself by
the fire, pouting and frowning, and evidently much
vexed at beiny obliged to come back. Mr. Eyre
thought it well to give the boys a lecture on their bad
conduct, especially upon their thefts; for they now
owned that they had stolen meat from the trees,
though they had before denied it. But though Mr.
Eyre reproved the boys, he treated them very kindly,
for he gave them some tea, and bread and meat for
supper.

The next day the whole party continued their
journey. They were obliged to be very sparing
of their food, lest when it was gone they should get

Avie


314 FAR OFF.



no more. But their greatest trial was the want of
water.

After travelling during four days, they stopped one
evening in a rocky place at the top of high cliffs, ho-
ping that if any rain should fall, some might be caught
in the hollow places among the rocks. That evening
they ate no supper; for having had dinner, they
might do without supper.

Before they lay down to sleep, they made them-
selves places to sleep in, by setting up boughs, as shel-
ters from the wind. They also piled up their goods
in a great heap, and covered it with oil skin, to keep
out the damp. Mr. Eyre did not sleep when the rest
did, for he undertook to watch the hoses till eleven
at night, and then he agreed to change places with
Mr. Baxter.

The hour was almost come, and Mr. Eyre was be-
ginning to lead the horses towards the sleeping place,
when he was startled by hearing a gun go off. He
called out,—but receiving no answer, he grew alarmed,
and leaving the horses, ran towards the spot, whence
the noise had come.

Presently he met Wylie, running very fast, and
erying out, “Oh! Massa, Oh! Massa, come here.”

“What is the matter ?” inquired Mr. Eyre.

Wylie made no answer.



a ae re le a ee een een mie ot


THE YOUNG SAVAGES. 315

With hurried steps, Mr. Eyre accompanied him to-
wards the camp. Whatasight struck his eyes! His
friend Baxter, lying on the ground, weltering in his
blood, and in the agonies of DEATH.

The two younger boys were not there, and the goods
which had been covered by the oil-skin, lay scattered
in confusion on the ground. It was too clear that one
of the boys had x1LLep poor Baxter. No doubt it was
Neramberein who had done it!

It seems that the boys had attempted to steal some
of the goods, and that while they were gathering them
together, Baxter had awaked, and had come forth from
his sleeping place, and that then one of the boys had
shot him.

Mr. Eyre raised the dying man from the ground
where he was lying prostrate, and he then found that
a ball had entered his left breast, and that his life was
fast departing. In a few minutes he expired!

What were the feelings of the lonely traveller!
Here he was in the midst of a desert, with no compan-
ion but one young savage, and that young savage was
not one whom he could trust; for he knew not what
part Wylie had taken in the deeds of the night. Hesus-
pected that he had intended to go away with the other
boys, but that when Baxter was murdered, he had
grown alarmed. Wylie indeed denied that he had

—eemeains — reenter

a a


316 FAR OFF.



known anything of the robbery, but then he was not
a boy whose word could be believed.

The remainder of that dreadful night was passed
by Mr. Eyre, in watching the horses. Anxiously he
waited for the first streak of daylight. He then drove
the horses to the camp, and once more beheld the
body of his fellow-traveller. How suddenly had_ his
soul been hurried into eternity, and into the presence
of his God!

It was Wylie’s business to light the fire, and prepare
the breakfast: Meanwhile, Mr. Eyre examined the
baggage to see how much had been stolen. These
were the chief articles he missed. All the bread, con-
sisting of five loaves, some mutton, tea and sugar, to-
bacco and pipes, a small keg of water, and two guns.
And what was left for the traveller? A large quanti-

ty of flour, a large keg of water, some tea and sugar,

| a gun, and pistols. But would these have been left,
had the ungrateful boys been strong enough to carry
them away ?
Mr. Eyre desired before leaving the fatal spot to
| bury the body of his friend; but the rocks around
| were so hard, that it was impossible to dig a grave.
| All he was able to do, was to wrap the corpse in a
| blanket before he abandoned it forever. |

Slowly and silently he left the sorrowful spot, lead-















THE YOUNG SAVAGES. 317

ing one horse, while Wylie drove the others after it.
During the heat of the day, they stopped to rest. It
was four in the afternoon, and they were soon going
to set out again, when they perceived at a distance—
TWO WHITE FIGURES! two white figures! and soon
knew them to be the two guilty boys, wrapped in
their blankets.

Mr. Eyre had some fear lest the young murderer
should shoot him also; yet he thought it wise to ad-
vance boldly towards him, with his gun in his hand,
He perceived that each of the wicked youths held a
gun, and seemed ready toshoot. But as he approached,
they drew back. He wished to speak to them in order
to persuade them not to follow him on his journey,
but to go another way; however le could not get
near them; but he heard them cry out, “O Massa, we
don’t want you; we want Wylie.” The boys repeated
the name of Wylie over and over again; yet Wylie
answered not, but remained quietly with the horses.
At length Mr. Eyre turned away, and continued his
journey. The boys followed at some distance, calling
out for Wylie till the darkness came on.

Mr. Eyre was so anxious to get beyond the reach
of these wicked youths, that he walked eighteen miles
that evening. And he never saw them again! I do
not know whether he had ever told them of the true










318

i ln

FAR OFF.

God, of that rye which never SLEEPS, of that EYE
which beholds ROBBERS and MURDERERS in the night ;
—but whether he had told them or not of this great
God, they must have Known that they were acting
wickedly when they robbed their benefactor, and mur-
dered his friend; and they must have felt very MISER-
ABLE after they had done those deeds.

Alone with Wylie, Mr. Eyre pursued his journey
along the high cliffs of the Great Bight, or Bay.

For five days they were without water for the
horses; at last they dug some wells in the sand. But
by this time one of the horses was grown so weak, that
he could scarcely crawl along. This horse, Mr. Eyre
determined to kill for food. Wylie, delighted with
the idea, exclaimed, “Massa, I shall sit up, and eat
the whole night.” And he kept his word. While
his master was skinning the poor beast, he made a
fire close by, and soon began tearing ‘off bits of flesh,
roasting, and eating them, as fast as he could. Mr.
Eyre, after cutting off the best parts of the flesh to
dry, allowed Wylie to eat the rest. See the young
glutton, with the head, the feet, and the inside, per-
mitted to devour it as best hecould! He hastened to
make an oven, in which to bake about twenty pounds
to feast upon during the night. It is not wonderful,
if during that night he was heard to make a dismal
THE YOUNG SAVAGES. 319
So
groaning, and to complain that he was very ill. He
said, indeed, that it was working too hard, had made
him ill, but his master thought it was eating too much,
for whenever he woke, he found the boy gnawing a
bone. -

Next day, Wylie was not able to spend his whole
time over the carcase, for he had to go, and look fora
lost foal; but the day after, it was hard to get him
away from the bones.

For some time the travellers lived upon dried horse
flesh, with a kangaroo, or a fish, as a little change.
Wylie continued to eat immoderately, though often
rolling upon the ground, and crying out, “ Mendyat,”
or ill.

One night he appeared to be in a very ill-humor,
and Mr. Eyre tried to find out the reason. At last
Wylie said in an angry tone, “The dogs have eaten
the skin.’ It seems he had hung the skin of a kanga-
roo upon a bush, intending to eat it by-and-bye, and
the wild dogs had stolen the dainty morsel. Wylie
was restored to his usual good-humor by the sight of
some fine fishes his master had caught. Next time
the boy shot a kangaroo, he took good care of the skin,
folding it up, and hiding it.

One day he was so happy as to catch two opossums
in a tree. His master determined to see how Wylie


320 FAR OFF.





would behave, if left entirely to himself. He sat si-
lently by the fire, while Wylie was cooking one opos-
sum. The boy, having got it ready for his supper,
took the other to his sleeping place. His master
inquired what he intended to do with it. Wylie re-
plied, “I shall be hungry in the morning, and I am
keeping it for my breakfast.” Then Mr. Eyre perceived
that the greedy boy intended to offer him neither sup-
per nor breakfast. Accordingly he took out his bag
of flour, and said to Wylie, “ Very well, we will each
eat our own food; you eat the opossums you shot, and
1 eat the flour I have; and I will give you no more.”
In this manner, Mr. Eyre hoped to show the.boy the
folly of his selfishness. Wylie was frightened at the
idea of getting no more flour, and immediately offered
the smaller opossum to his master, and promised to
cook it himself. What a selfish, and ungratefnl boy !
Wylie had a wicked heart by nature, and so have we.
Only he had not been taught what was right, as we
have been. This is a prayer which would suit well
every child, and every man in the world, “ Create in
me a clean heart, O God, and renew a right spirit
within me.”

Mr. Eyre continued to be kind to Wylie, though he
saw the boy did not really love him.

But the troubles of the journey were nearly at an
THE YOUNG SAVAGES. 321



end. At last the travellers saw a ship a few miles
from the shore. Oh! how anxious they were that
the sailors should see them! What could they do?
They kindled a fire on a rock, and they made a great
deal of smoke come out of the fire. Soon a boat was
seen approaching the shore. How great was the joy
of the weary travellers. The sailors in the boat were
Frenchmen, but they were not the less kind on that
account. They invited Mr. Eyre and Wylie to ac-
company them to their ship.

When the young savage found himself on board,
he was almost wild with delight, for he had now as
much to eat as he could desire, and he began eating
biscuits so fast, that the sailors began to be afraid lest
he should eat them all; and they were glad to give
him fishes instead, as they could catch plenty of them.

For twelve days Wylie and his master lived in the
ship, and then left it, laden with provisions, and dress-
ed in warm clothes.

They had still many miles to go along the shore,
but they suffered no more from want of food and
water.

Great was their rapture when they first caught
sight of the hills of St. George’s Sound ; for then they
knew their journey would soon end. But they had
rivers to cross on the way, and in trying to get the

21


322 FAR OFF.








horses over, they nearly lost the poor beasts, and
their own lives too. For three days their clothes
were dripping with wet, and the last night was one
of the worst; but then they knew it was the LAST,
and that thought enabled them to bear all. So does
the Christian feel when near the end of his journey.
He is in the midst of storms, and wading through
deep waters, even the deep waters of DEATH; but he
knows that he jg near HOME.

It was in the midst of a furious storm, that these
travellers arrived at their journey’s end. Though
| they were now close to the town of Albany, neither
man nor beast were to be seen; for neither would
venture out At last, a native appeared, and he
knew Wylie, and greeted him joyfully, telling him at
the same time that his friends had given him up for
dead a long while ago. This native, by a loud shrill
| ery, let his countrymen know that Wylie was found;
| and presently a multitude of men, women, and chil-

dren, came rushing rapidly from the town, and up
the bill to meet him. His parents and brethren
folded him in their arms, while all around welcomed
him with shouts of joy. His master was kindly re-
ceived at the house of a friend; but he did not meet
with so warm a welcome as Wylie, for he was not like
him in the midst of his family.






LITTLE MICKEY. 3238

The kind master overlooked all Wylie’s faults dur-
ing the journey, and remembered only his kindness
in keeping with him to the end. He even spoke in
his favor to the government, requesting that Wylie
might have a daily allowance of food as a reward
for his good conduct. What great reason had this
young savage to rejoice that he had not listened
to the enticements of his wicked comrades, when
they called him so often by his namie, and tried to
induce him to forsake his kind master !

LITTLE MICKEY.

Mickey was born in the wilds of Australia; yet he
was a highly favored boy; for he became servant to
a missionary. This was far better than being, like
Wylie, the companion of a traveller.

Mickey was a merry and active little fellow, and
was a great favorite with his master’s children. The
older ones taught him to read, and the little ones
played with him. During the day, Mickey took care
of the cattle, and at night he slept in a shed close by
his master’s house. He might have been a happy
boy, but he soon fell into sin and sorrow.

One evening he was in the cooking-house, eating


3824 FAR OFF.

his supper with another native boy, his fellow-servant.
The oven was hot, and the bread was baking. Mickey
opened the door of the oven, and looked in. That
was wrong; it was the first step towards evil.
Mickey had eaten a good supper, and ought to have
been satisfied ; but, like his countrymen, he had an
enormous appetite, and was always ready to eat too
much when he could. He took some of the hot
bread, and gave some to his fellow-servant. How like
was his conduct to that of Eve, when she took the
fruit, and gave some to Adam !

That night Mickey was nowhere to be found, nor
his little fellow-servant either. Where could they be?
Their master sent people to search for them; but no
ene had seen them. It seemed strange indeed, that
a boy who had been so kindly treated, and who had
seemed as happy as Mickey, should run away. The
good missionary and his children were in great grief,
fearing that some accident bad befallen the lads.

But when the time came to take the bread out of
the oven, they began to suspect why Mickey had gone
away. They saw some one had stolen large pieces
of bread. They said, “Perhaps it was Mickey who
stole the bread, and perhaps he is ashamed, and so
he has run away.” What a pity it was that Mickey
did not come, and confess his fault; he would have


LITTLE MICKEY. 325



been pardoned and restored to favor. Even a good
boy miay fall into a great sin; but then he will own
it, and ask forgiveness, both of God and man. Still
Mickey was not like those hardened boys who robbed
Mr. Eyre, for he was ashamed.

Month after month passed away, but no Mickey
appeared. The missionary feared that the boy would
never return, but live and die amongst his heathen
countrymen.

One day, however, he was told that a man was at
the door, who wanted to speak to him.

“Who is he?” inquired the missionary.

“ A schoolmaster, sir,” replied the servant.

“ And what does he want %”

“ He has brought with him some native boys, and
he wants you to come out and see them, and speak a
few words to them about their Saviour.”

The missionary gladly consented to go out to be-
hold so pleasing a sight, as a school of native boys.
As soon as he appeared, several young voices called
out, “ Mickey no come.”

The missionary was surprised, and inquired of the
boys, “ What do you mean ? where is Mickey ?”

“ Mickey no come,” repeated the boys. “ He too

much frightened.”
“ ‘Why is he afraid ?” asked the missionary.


eM:

SE

326 FAR OFF.

——————————

“ Because he steal de bread,” replied the boys.

The missionary now began to look around, and
soon espied Mickey, trying to hide himself behind a
fence. He called him; but Mickey, instead of coming,
went further off. Two or three boys then ran to-
wards him, and attempted to bring him back, but
Mickey resisted. °

The missionary then went into the house hoping
that the trembling culprit, seeing he was gone, would
come out of his hiding-place.

Very soon he was told, that Mickey was standing
with the other boys at the door. Then the good
missionary appeared again. Looking kindly at Mickey, |
he said, “ Why did you run rway ?”

pm
ee

“ Because me steal de bread; me very sorry.” |
The missionary held out his hand to thesorrowful |
offender, saying, “I forgive you, Mickey.” The boy |
eagerly seized the kind hand, and holding it fast,
and looking earnestly up in the missionary’s face, he |

said, “ When me steal again, you must whip me—and

whip me—and whip me—very—very much.” Again
the missionary assured the boy he had entirely for-
given him—and then Mickey began to jump about
for joy.

How glad Mickey would have been to return to
the service of his old master!, But that could not








LITTLE MICKEY. 327



rr





be; for that master was just going to set sail for
England, to visit his home and friends, and he could
not take Mickey with him. Just before he went, he
provided a feast for many of the native children, and
gave them a parting address. Mickey was there—
no longer afraid—but glad to look up in the face
of his beloved friend ; for now he knew he was for-
given.

When the moment came to say “ Farewell,” the
children ran forward, eager to grasp the missionary’s
hand—but none pressed that hand so warmly and so
sorrowfully, as the little runaway.

I know not whether that generous master, and that
penitent servant ever again met upon earth; but I
have much hope they will meet in heaven ; for
Mickey seems to have been sorry for his sin; and we
know the promise: “If we confess our sins, God is
faithful and just to forgive us our sins.” And why ?
Becanse the blood of Christ cleanseth from all sin.
There are many sinners who were once as much afraid
of God, as Mickey was of his master ; but who have
been pardoned, and who will be present at his HEAY-

ENLY FEAST.

THE END.





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12/15/2014 12:02:57 PM 00043.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:02:57 PM 00043.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:02:57 PM 00044.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:02:57 PM 00044.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:02:57 PM 00045.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:02:57 PM 00045.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:02:57 PM 00046.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:02:57 PM 00046.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:02:57 PM 00047.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:02:57 PM 00047.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:02:57 PM 00048.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:02:57 PM 00048.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:02:57 PM 00049.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:02:57 PM 00049.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:02:57 PM 00051.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:02:57 PM 00051.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:02:57 PM 00052.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:02:57 PM 00052.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:02:57 PM 00053.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:02:57 PM 00053.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:02:57 PM 00054.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:02:57 PM 00054.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:02:57 PM 00055.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:02:57 PM 00055.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:02:57 PM 00056.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:02:57 PM 00056.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:02:57 PM 00057.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:02:57 PM 00057.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:02:57 PM 00058.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:02:57 PM 00058.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:02:57 PM 00059.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:02:57 PM 00059.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:02:57 PM 00060.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:02:57 PM 00060.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:02:58 PM 00061.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:02:58 PM 00061.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:02:58 PM 00062.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:02:58 PM 00062.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:02:58 PM 00063.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:02:58 PM 00063.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:02:58 PM 00064.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:02:58 PM 00064.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:02:58 PM 00065.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:02:58 PM 00065.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:02:58 PM 00066.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:02:58 PM 00066.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:02:58 PM 00067.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:02:58 PM 00067.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:02:58 PM 00068.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:02:58 PM 00068.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:02:58 PM 00069.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:02:58 PM 00069.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:02:58 PM 00070.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:02:58 PM 00070.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:02:58 PM 00071.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:02:58 PM 00071.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:02:58 PM 00072.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:02:58 PM 00072.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:02:58 PM 00073.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:02:58 PM 00073.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:02:58 PM 00074.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:02:58 PM 00074.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:02:58 PM 00075.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:02:58 PM 00075.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:02:58 PM 00076.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:02:58 PM 00076.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:02:58 PM 00077.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:02:58 PM 00077.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:02:58 PM 00078.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:02:58 PM 00078.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:02:58 PM 00079.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:02:58 PM 00079.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:02:58 PM 00080.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:02:58 PM 00080.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:02:58 PM 00081.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:02:58 PM 00081.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:02:58 PM 00082.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:02:58 PM 00082.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:02:58 PM 00083.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:02:58 PM 00083.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:02:58 PM 00084.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:02:58 PM 00084.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:02:58 PM 00085.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:02:58 PM 00085.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:02:58 PM 00086.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:02:58 PM 00086.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:02:59 PM 00087.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:02:59 PM 00087.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:02:59 PM 00088.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:02:59 PM 00088.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:02:59 PM 00089.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:02:59 PM 00089.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:02:59 PM 00090.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:02:59 PM 00090.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:02:59 PM 00091.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:02:59 PM 00091.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:02:59 PM 00092.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:02:59 PM 00092.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:02:59 PM 00093.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:02:59 PM 00093.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:02:59 PM 00095.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:02:59 PM 00095.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:02:59 PM 00096.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:02:59 PM 00096.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:02:59 PM 00097.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:02:59 PM 00097.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:02:59 PM 00098.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:02:59 PM 00098.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:02:59 PM 00099.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:02:59 PM 00099.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:02:59 PM 00100.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:02:59 PM 00100.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:02:59 PM 00101.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:02:59 PM 00101.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:02:59 PM 00102.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:02:59 PM 00102.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:02:59 PM 00103.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:02:59 PM 00103.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:02:59 PM 00104.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:02:59 PM 00104.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:02:59 PM 00105.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:02:59 PM 00105.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:02:59 PM 00106.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:02:59 PM 00106.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:02:59 PM 00107.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:02:59 PM 00107.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:02:59 PM 00108.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:02:59 PM 00108.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:02:59 PM 00109.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:02:59 PM 00109.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:02:59 PM 00110.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:02:59 PM 00110.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:02:59 PM 00111.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:02:59 PM 00111.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:02:59 PM 00112.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:02:59 PM 00112.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:02:59 PM 00113.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:02:59 PM 00113.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:02:59 PM 00114.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:02:59 PM 00114.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:02:59 PM 00115.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:02:59 PM 00115.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:02:59 PM 00116.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:02:59 PM 00116.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:02:59 PM 00117.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:02:59 PM 00117.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:02:59 PM 00118.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:02:59 PM 00118.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:02:59 PM 00119.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:02:59 PM 00119.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:02:59 PM 00120.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:02:59 PM 00120.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:02:59 PM 00121.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:02:59 PM 00121.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:02:59 PM 00122.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:02:59 PM 00122.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:02:59 PM 00123.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:03:00 PM 00123.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:03:00 PM 00125.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:03:00 PM 00125.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:03:00 PM 00126.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:03:00 PM 00126.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:03:00 PM 00127.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:03:00 PM 00127.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:03:00 PM 00128.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:03:00 PM 00128.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:03:00 PM 00129.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:03:00 PM 00129.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:03:00 PM 00130.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:03:00 PM 00130.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:03:00 PM 00131.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:03:00 PM 00131.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:03:00 PM 00132.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:03:00 PM 00132.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:03:00 PM 00133.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:03:00 PM 00133.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:03:00 PM 00134.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:03:00 PM 00134.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:03:00 PM 00135.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:03:00 PM 00135.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:03:00 PM 00136.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:03:00 PM 00136.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:03:00 PM 00137.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:03:00 PM 00137.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:03:00 PM 00138.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:03:00 PM 00138.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:03:00 PM 00139.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:03:00 PM 00139.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:03:00 PM 00140.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:03:00 PM 00140.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:03:00 PM 00141.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:03:00 PM 00141.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:03:00 PM 00142.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:03:00 PM 00142.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:03:00 PM 00143.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:03:00 PM 00143.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:03:00 PM 00144.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:03:00 PM 00144.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:03:01 PM 00146.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:03:01 PM 00146.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:03:01 PM 00147.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:03:01 PM 00147.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:03:01 PM 00148.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:03:01 PM 00148.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:03:01 PM 00149.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:03:01 PM 00149.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:03:01 PM 00150.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:03:01 PM 00150.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:03:01 PM 00151.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:03:01 PM 00151.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:03:01 PM 00152.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:03:01 PM 00152.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:03:01 PM 00153.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:03:01 PM 00153.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:03:01 PM 00154.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:03:01 PM 00154.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:03:01 PM 00155.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:03:01 PM 00155.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:03:01 PM 00156.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:03:01 PM 00156.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:03:01 PM 00157.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:03:01 PM 00157.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:03:01 PM 00158.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:03:01 PM 00158.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:03:01 PM 00159.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:03:01 PM 00159.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:03:01 PM 00160.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:03:01 PM 00160.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:03:01 PM 00161.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:03:01 PM 00161.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:03:01 PM 00162.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:03:01 PM 00162.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:03:01 PM 00163.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:03:01 PM 00163.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:03:01 PM 00164.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:03:01 PM 00164.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:03:01 PM 00165.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:03:01 PM 00165.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:03:01 PM 00167.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:03:01 PM 00167.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:03:01 PM 00168.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:03:01 PM 00168.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:03:01 PM 00169.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:03:01 PM 00169.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:03:01 PM 00170.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:03:01 PM 00170.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:03:01 PM 00171.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:03:01 PM 00171.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:03:01 PM 00172.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:03:01 PM 00172.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:03:01 PM 00173.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:03:01 PM 00173.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:03:01 PM 00174.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:03:01 PM 00174.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:03:01 PM 00175.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:03:01 PM 00175.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:03:01 PM 00176.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:03:01 PM 00176.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:03:01 PM 00177.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:03:01 PM 00177.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:03:01 PM 00178.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:03:01 PM 00178.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:03:01 PM 00179.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:03:01 PM 00179.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:03:01 PM 00180.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:03:01 PM 00180.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:03:02 PM 00181.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:03:02 PM 00181.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:03:02 PM 00182.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:03:02 PM 00182.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:03:02 PM 00183.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:03:02 PM 00183.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:03:02 PM 00184.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:03:02 PM 00184.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:03:02 PM 00185.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:03:02 PM 00185.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:03:02 PM 00186.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:03:02 PM 00186.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:03:02 PM 00188.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:03:02 PM 00188.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:03:02 PM 00189.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:03:02 PM 00189.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:03:02 PM 00190.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:03:02 PM 00190.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:03:02 PM 00191.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:03:02 PM 00191.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:03:02 PM 00192.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:03:02 PM 00192.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:03:02 PM 00193.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:03:02 PM 00193.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:03:02 PM 00194.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:03:02 PM 00194.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:03:02 PM 00195.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:03:02 PM 00195.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:03:02 PM 00196.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:03:02 PM 00196.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:03:02 PM 00199.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:03:02 PM 00199.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:03:02 PM 00200.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:03:02 PM 00200.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:03:02 PM 00201.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:03:02 PM 00201.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:03:02 PM 00202.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:03:02 PM 00202.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:03:02 PM 00203.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:03:02 PM 00203.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:03:02 PM 00204.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:03:02 PM 00204.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:03:02 PM 00205.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:03:02 PM 00205.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:03:02 PM 00206.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:03:02 PM 00206.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:03:02 PM 00207.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:03:02 PM 00207.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:03:02 PM 00208.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:03:02 PM 00208.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:03:02 PM 00209.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:03:02 PM 00209.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:03:02 PM 00210.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:03:02 PM 00210.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:03:02 PM 00211.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:03:02 PM 00211.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:03:02 PM 00212.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:03:02 PM 00212.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:03:02 PM 00213.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:03:02 PM 00213.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:03:02 PM 00214.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:03:02 PM 00214.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:03:02 PM 00215.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:03:02 PM 00215.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:03:02 PM 00216.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:03:02 PM 00216.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:03:02 PM 00217.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:03:02 PM 00217.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:03:02 PM 00218.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:03:02 PM 00218.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:03:02 PM 00219.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:03:02 PM 00219.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:03:02 PM 00220.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:03:02 PM 00220.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:03:03 PM 00221.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:03:03 PM 00221.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:03:03 PM 00222.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:03:03 PM 00222.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:03:03 PM 00223.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:03:03 PM 00223.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:03:03 PM 00224.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:03:03 PM 00224.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:03:03 PM 00225.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:03:03 PM 00225.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:03:03 PM 00227.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:03:03 PM 00227.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:03:03 PM 00228.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:03:03 PM 00228.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:03:03 PM 00229.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:03:03 PM 00229.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:03:03 PM 00230.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:03:03 PM 00230.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:03:03 PM 00231.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:03:03 PM 00231.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:03:03 PM 00232.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:03:03 PM 00232.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:03:03 PM 00233.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:03:03 PM 00233.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:03:03 PM 00234.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:03:03 PM 00234.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:03:03 PM 00235.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:03:03 PM 00235.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:03:03 PM 00236.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:03:03 PM 00236.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:03:03 PM 00237.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:03:03 PM 00237.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:03:03 PM 00238.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:03:03 PM 00238.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:03:03 PM 00239.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:03:03 PM 00239.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:03:03 PM 00240.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:03:03 PM 00240.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:03:03 PM 00241.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:03:03 PM 00241.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:03:03 PM 00242.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:03:03 PM 00242.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:03:03 PM 00243.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:03:03 PM 00243.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:03:03 PM 00244.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:03:03 PM 00244.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:03:03 PM 00245.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:03:03 PM 00245.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:03:03 PM 00246.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:03:03 PM 00246.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:03:03 PM 00247.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:03:03 PM 00247.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:03:03 PM 00248.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:03:03 PM 00248.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:03:03 PM 00249.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:03:03 PM 00249.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:03:03 PM 00250.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:03:03 PM 00250.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:03:03 PM 00251.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:03:03 PM 00251.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:03:03 PM 00252.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:03:03 PM 00252.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:03:03 PM 00253.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:03:03 PM 00253.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:03:03 PM 00254.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:03:03 PM 00254.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:03:03 PM 00255.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:03:03 PM 00255.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:03:03 PM 00256.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:03:03 PM 00256.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:03:03 PM 00257.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:03:03 PM 00257.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:03:03 PM 00258.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:03:03 PM 00258.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:03:03 PM 00259.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:03:04 PM 00259.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:03:04 PM 00260.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:03:04 PM 00260.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:03:04 PM 00261.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:03:04 PM 00261.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:03:04 PM 00262.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:03:04 PM 00262.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:03:04 PM 00263.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:03:04 PM 00263.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:03:04 PM 00264.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:03:04 PM 00264.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:03:04 PM 00265.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:03:04 PM 00265.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:03:04 PM 00266.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:03:04 PM 00266.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:03:04 PM 00267.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:03:04 PM 00267.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:03:04 PM 00268.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:03:04 PM 00268.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:03:04 PM 00269.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:03:04 PM 00269.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:03:04 PM 00270.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:03:04 PM 00270.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:03:04 PM 00271.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:03:04 PM 00271.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:03:04 PM 00272.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:03:04 PM 00272.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:03:04 PM 00273.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:03:04 PM 00273.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:03:04 PM 00274.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:03:04 PM 00274.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:03:04 PM 00275.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:03:04 PM 00275.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:03:04 PM 00276.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:03:04 PM 00276.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:03:04 PM 00277.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:03:04 PM 00277.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:03:04 PM 00278.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:03:04 PM 00278.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:03:04 PM 00279.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:03:04 PM 00279.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:03:04 PM 00280.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:03:04 PM 00280.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:03:04 PM 00281.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:03:04 PM 00281.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:03:04 PM 00282.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:03:04 PM 00282.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:03:04 PM 00283.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:03:04 PM 00283.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:03:04 PM 00284.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:03:04 PM 00284.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:03:04 PM 00285.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:03:04 PM 00285.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:03:04 PM 00286.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:03:04 PM 00286.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:03:04 PM 00287.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:03:04 PM 00287.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:03:04 PM 00288.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:03:04 PM 00288.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:03:04 PM 00289.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:03:04 PM 00289.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:03:04 PM 00291.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:03:04 PM 00291.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:03:04 PM 00292.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:03:04 PM 00292.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:03:04 PM 00293.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:03:04 PM 00293.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:03:04 PM 00294.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:03:04 PM 00294.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:03:04 PM 00295.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:03:04 PM 00295.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:03:04 PM 00296.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:03:04 PM 00296.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:03:04 PM 00297.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:03:04 PM 00297.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:03:04 PM 00298.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:03:04 PM 00298.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:03:04 PM 00299.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:03:04 PM 00299.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:03:05 PM 00300.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:03:05 PM 00300.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:03:05 PM 00301.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:03:05 PM 00301.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:03:05 PM 00302.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:03:05 PM 00302.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:03:05 PM 00303.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:03:05 PM 00303.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:03:05 PM 00304.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:03:05 PM 00304.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:03:05 PM 00305.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:03:05 PM 00305.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:03:05 PM 00306.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:03:05 PM 00306.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:03:05 PM 00307.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:03:05 PM 00307.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:03:05 PM 00308.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:03:05 PM 00308.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:03:05 PM 00309.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:03:05 PM 00309.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:03:05 PM 00310.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:03:05 PM 00310.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:03:05 PM 00311.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:03:05 PM 00311.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:03:05 PM 00312.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:03:05 PM 00312.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:03:05 PM 00313.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:03:05 PM 00313.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:03:05 PM 00314.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:03:05 PM 00314.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:03:05 PM 00315.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:03:05 PM 00315.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:03:05 PM 00317.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:03:05 PM 00317.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:03:05 PM 00318.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:03:05 PM 00318.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:03:05 PM 00319.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:03:05 PM 00319.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:03:05 PM 00320.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:03:05 PM 00320.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:03:05 PM 00321.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:03:05 PM 00321.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:03:05 PM 00322.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:03:05 PM 00322.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:03:05 PM 00323.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:03:05 PM 00323.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:03:05 PM 00324.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:03:05 PM 00324.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:03:05 PM 00325.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:03:05 PM 00325.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:03:05 PM 00326.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:03:05 PM 00326.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:03:05 PM 00327.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:03:05 PM 00327.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:03:05 PM 00328.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:03:05 PM 00328.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:03:05 PM 00329.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:03:05 PM 00329.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:03:05 PM 00330.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:03:05 PM 00330.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:03:05 PM 00331.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:03:05 PM 00331.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:03:05 PM 00332.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:03:05 PM 00332.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:03:05 PM 00333.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:03:05 PM 00333.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:03:05 PM 00334.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:03:05 PM 00334.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:03:05 PM 00335.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:03:05 PM 00335.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:03:05 PM 00336.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:03:05 PM 00336.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:03:06 PM 00337.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:03:06 PM 00337.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:03:06 PM 00338.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:03:06 PM 00338.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:03:06 PM 00339.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:03:06 PM 00339.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:03:06 PM 00340.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:03:06 PM 00340.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:03:06 PM 00341.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:03:06 PM 00341.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:03:06 PM 00342.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:03:06 PM 00342.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:03:06 PM 00343.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:03:06 PM 00343.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:03:06 PM 00344.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:03:06 PM 00344.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:03:06 PM 00345.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:03:06 PM 00345.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:03:06 PM 00346.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:03:06 PM 00346.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:03:06 PM 00347.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:03:06 PM 00347.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:03:06 PM 00348.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:03:06 PM 00348.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:03:06 PM 00349.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:03:06 PM 00349.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:03:06 PM 00350.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:03:06 PM 00350.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:03:06 PM 00351.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:03:06 PM 00351.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:03:06 PM 00352.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:03:06 PM 00352.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:03:06 PM 00353.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:03:06 PM 00353.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:03:06 PM 00354.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:03:06 PM 00354.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:03:06 PM 00355.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:03:06 PM 00355.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:03:06 PM 00356.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:03:06 PM 00356.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:03:06 PM