Citation
The world of waters, or, A peaceful progress o'er the unpathed sea

Material Information

Title:
The world of waters, or, A peaceful progress o'er the unpathed sea
Portion of title:
Peaceful progress o'er the unpathed sea
Creator:
Osborne, David ( Fanny )
Craighead, Robert ( Printer, Stereotyper )
Howland, William ( Engraver )
Robert Carter & Brothers ( Publisher )
Place of Publication:
New York
Publisher:
Robert Carter & Brothers
Manufacturer:
R. Craighead, printer and stereotyper
Publication Date:
Language:
English
Physical Description:
<2>, 363 p. <7> leaves of plates : ill. ; 18 cm.

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Geography -- Juvenile literature ( lcsh )
Voyages and travels -- Juvenile literature ( lcsh )
National characteristics -- Juvenile literature ( lcsh )
Embossed cloth bindings (Binding) -- 1852 ( rbbin )
Bldn -- 1852
Genre:
Embossed cloth bindings (Binding) ( rbbin )
non-fiction ( marcgt )
Spatial Coverage:
United States -- New York -- New York
Target Audience:
juvenile ( marctarget )

Notes

General Note:
Author's name listed as Fanny Osborne on preface.
General Note:
Added title page, engraved.
General Note:
Some illustrations engraved by Howland.
Statement of Responsibility:
by Mrs. David Osborne.

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University of Florida
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This item is presumed to be in the public domain. The University of Florida George A. Smathers Libraries respect the intellectual property rights of others and do not claim any copyright interest in this item. Users of this work have responsibility for determining copyright status prior to reusing, publishing or reproducing this item for purposes other than what is allowed by fair use or other copyright exemptions. Any reuse of this item in excess of fair use or other copyright exemptions may require permission of the copyright holder. The Smathers Libraries would like to learn more about this item and invite individuals or organizations to contact The Department of Special and Area Studies Collections (special@uflib.ufl.edu) with any additional information they can provide.
Resource Identifier:
026897412 ( ALEPH )
24198126 ( OCLC )
ALH5644 ( NOTIS )

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Full Text
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A TROPICAL SCENE









WORLD OF WATERS,



OR,




A Proreful Progress wer the Gupather Sra.





BY MRS. DAVID OSBORNE.

SBHith Llustrations.





NEW YORK :
ROBERT CARTER & BROTHERS,
No. 285 BROADWAY.




1852.






——_—

R. Craighead, Printer and Stereotyper,
112 Fulton Street,





Cuutents.

CHAPTER L

PAGE
The Wilton Family.—Story of Frederic Hamilton, ec .

CHAPTER II.

The Wiltons.—Dora Leslie.—Charles Dorning.—The Mediterra-
nean.—Corsica.—Candia.—Rhodes.—Malta.—Valetta.—The Cale-
donia.—A Story by Krummacher.-—Adriatic Sea.—Venice.—
Turkish Rowers.—Elgin Marbles.—Isle of Wight.—Thunder
Storm. — Jersey. — Romaine’s Journal. — Slave Ship. — Horrible
Cruelty.—Slave Trade.—Wreck of the Royal George.—Eddystone
Lighthouse, 6 ee beta n ert « ae 4 Baten @

CHAPTER III.

The Wiltons.—A great Naval Victory.— Monster Fish.—The Downs.
—St. Augustine.—Yarmouth.—Brock the Swimmer and Yar-
mouth Boatman.—The North Sea.—The Bell Rock.—Mr. Bar-
raud.—Jock of Jedburgh.—Wreck of the Forfarshire.—Remark-
able Providence.—Denmark.—The Baltic.—Journey to the Gulf
of Finland.—Reindeer and Sledge.—Reval.—Superstitions.—
Strange Fashions.—Ungern Sternberg.—Gulf of Bothnia.—Islands
of the Baltic —Lapland.—Aurora Borealis.—Russia.—Odessa.—
Reflections, . . . é ° . e . ° . « 81





a

CONTENTS.

CHAPTER IV.
























PAGE
Stanzas by Mrs. Howitt.—Caspian Sea.—Astracan.—Droll Legend.

—Yellow Sea.—The Japanese.—Monsoons.—Trade Winds.—Des-
cription of a Monsoon.—Asia.—The Red Sea.—Isthmus of Suez.—
An Interesting Locality —The Arabs.—Sea of Aral.—Chinese I[s-
lands.—Fishing for Mice.—The Typhon.—Fishing Birds.—Cinna-
mon Forests.—Eating Birds’ Nests.—Bible Lands.—The Sea of
Galilee—The Dead Sea.—The Slave Merchant.—A Japan
Puzzle, . . © 28 ee. “© ¢« .p..8 - «© oH



CHAPTER V.

Story of Eva.—Assistance of Good will.—Madeira.—Man-of-War.—
Dinner on Ship-board.—Computing Latitude.—Pipe to Dinner.—
The Azores.—Newfoundland.—Newfoundland Dogs.—Greenland.
—Whale Fishing.—Flying Fish.—A Ship in the Polar Regions.—
An Awful Sight.—The Geysers.—Icelanders.—Spitzbergen.—The
Ferroe Islands.—Maelstrom.—The Norwegian Mouse.—Hudson’s
Bay.—Hudson’s Straits—Nova Scotia.—Henry May.—The An-
cient Mariner.—Cuba.—Jamaica.—Beauty of Jamaica.—A Hurri-
cane.—Devastation.—Ruins of Yucatan.—Indians of Mexico.—
The American Lakes.—Niagara.—The Caribbean Sea.—Panama.
—Gala Days.—Diving for Pearls—The See-Boy’s Grave.—The
Funeral.—Gulf of Trieste.—Guiana.—Brazil.—Rio de Janeiro.—
Montevideo.—Patagonia.—Cape Horn.—Depth of the Atlantic, .

Z

CHAPTER VI.

The Separation.—Deception Isle—The Gulf of Penas.—Island of
Chiloe.—Juan Fernandez.—Alexander Selkirk.—The Ladies of
Lima.—The Peruvians.—Columbia.—Catching Wild Fow!.—The
Two Oceans.—A Singular Funeral.—Magellan.—Guatemala.—
Ladies Smoking.—Christian Indians.—California—San Fran-

cisco.—Novtka Sound.—Story of Boone and the Bear.—Cleave-

oa



| CONTENTS, Vv

PAGE
land and the Infant.—United States’ Navy.—Cannibals.—K ams-

| chatka.—Polynesia.—The Sandwich Islands.—Captain Cook.—

| A Contest.—Adventure of Kapiolani.—A Delightful Anecdote.—

| Spanish Missionaries.—Philippine Islands.—The Pelew Islands.

| —Birds of Paradise—The Friendly Islands.—Otaheite.—The So-
ciety Islanders.—Pitcairn’s Islands.—Shocking Barbarity—Nobb’s
Letter.—Marquesas.—The Low Islands.—New Caledonia.—New
Zealand.—The Bay of Islands.—Captain Cook’s Story.—A Curi-
ous Idea.—Aranghie.—Cannibalism.—New Holland.—Story of
Mr. Meredith.—Australian Barbarism.—Australian Lakes.—Van
Diemen’s Land.—Coral Reefs.—Story of Kemba,. . . . 223

CHAPTER VII.

Packing up.—Letter from Mr. Stanley.—Mr. Stanley.—Celebes.—
Dress of the Alfoors.—Curious Hospitality.—Java.— Whimsical
Superstition.—Productions of Java.—Sumatra.—Water Spouts.—
Burman Despotism.—The White Elephant.—Sir James Brooke.
—Borneo.—Isle of Bourbon.—Isle of France.—Madagascar.—The
Four Spirits.—The Missionaries.—Horrible Custom.—The Pirates’
Retreat.—Malagassy Fable.—Kerguelen’s Land.—Isle of Des-
olation.—Story of a Sailor.—Morocco.—A Moorish Beauty.—Al-
giers.—Egypt.—Abyssinia.—Abyssinian Customs.—Religion.—
African Coast.—Seychelle Isles.—Mozambique.—Smoking the
Hubble-Bubble.—Caffraria.—Story of the Little Caffre.—Algoa
Bay.—Graham’s Town.—-Cape of Good Hope.—Cape Town.—
Ovunstantia.—The Boschmen.—A Transformation.—Dressing in
Skins.—The Slave Trade.—Fish Bay.—St. Helena.—Kabenda.—
Black Jews.—Ferdinand Po.—The Ape and the Oven.—The
Slave-Coast.—Dahomey.— Ashantee.—King Opocco.—A Singular
Belief.—The Ashantee Wife.—Liberia——A Bowchee Mother.—
Sierra Leone.—The Lakes of Africa.—Bornou.—The Sultan of
Bornou.—African Wedding.—The Deluge.—The Telescope.—
The End, . © e+. e ox ¢ “ek . . 6 7















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My DEAR YOUNG FRIENDS,

It is not my purpose to detain you with
a long preface, because I am aware that long
prefaces are seldom read; but I wish to in-
form you that I have written this book, in the
humble hope of being useful to those in whom
I am so anxiously interested. I am myself
happy in acknowledging the endearing appel-
lation of “Mother,” and I love ail children,
and regard them as priceless treasures, entrusted
to the care and guidance of parents and teach-
ers; with whom it rests in a great measure to
render them blessings to their fellow-creatures,
and happy themselves, or contrariwise.
Should the perusal of this little volume im-
bue you with a taste for the beautiful and
ennobling science of Geography, ‘my object
will be gained; and that such may be the re-
sult of these humble endeavors is the sincere
wish of
Your affectionate Friend,
FANNY OSBORNE.





ON me




















Che Warlh of Waters.



CHAPTER I.

Oh ye seas and floods,
Bless ye the Lord:
Praise him, and magnify him forever.

“On! what beautiful weather,” exclaimed George
Wilton, as he drew his chair nearer the fire. “This
sort of evenings is so suitable for story-telling, that
I regret more than ever the disagreeable necessity
which has taken Mr. Stanley to foreign countries,
and broken up our delightful parties. But yet,
there are enough of us remaining at home to form
a society ; we might manage without him. JDo not
you remember, papa, you said, when Julia Manvers
was with us last summer, we were to examine into
the particulars respecting the seas and oceans of
the world ; and not once was the subject mentioned
while we were at Herne Bay, although the sea was
continually before us to remind us of it. Are we
ever to have any more of those conversations? I
liked them amazingly, and I am sure J learned a

tata





10 THE WILTON FAMILY.

great deal more geography by them than I ever did
out of Goldsmith, or any other dry lesson-book, which
compels one to learn by rule. I wish, dear papa,
you would settle to have these meetings again ; we
would write down all the particulars, and enclose
them ina letter to Mr. Stanley: Iam surehe would
be quite pleased.”

“JT think he would, George,” replied Mr. Wilton,
“and I also think that we have been rather care-
less in this matter ; but, at the same time, you must
remember that the fault does not rest solely with
us, for when we appointed certain times during our
sojourn at Herne Bay for these same geographical
discussions, on every occasion something occurred
to prevent the meeting, and all our arrangements
fell to the ground. Since then, the illness of your
sister,—which, thank God, has terminated so hap-
pily,—the departure of Mr. Stanley, and the removal
to our present abode; all these circumstances con-
spired to render ineffectual any attempt at regular-
ity, and precluded the possibility of an occasional
quiet chat on this really important subject. The
past, present, and future, in the history of man, are
so connected with the positions of the great seas of
the globe, and the navigation of them, that I do re-
gard the study of geography as one of the most wm-
portant branches of a Christian education; and,
now that all impediments are removed, I think we
may venture to propose the re-establishment of our
little society ; and as we are deprived of the valuable
services of Mr. Stanley, we must endeavor to sup-
ply his place by procuring the aid of another dearned





i eters





THE WILTON FAMILY. 11

friend, who will not consider it derogatory to as-
sist in our edifying amusement. And, in order to
render these meetings more extensively beneficial
and interesting, I further propose that we increase
our number by admitting two new members, to be
selected by you, my dear children, from amongst
your juvenile acquaintances ; but we must not ad-

mit any except on the original terms, which were,.

‘that each member add his or her mite of informa-
tion to the general fund.’ What saysmamma about
it? Suppose we put it to the vote 2?”

“ Oh! dear papa,” exclaimed Emma, “I am quite
sure that will be unnecessary. Grandy has often
talked of the meetings held last year, and regretted
that there seemed no disposition to renew them ;
therefore, we are sure of her vote. Mamma was so
useful with her descriptions, that she is not likely
to object. Then you know, dear papa, how very
much J enjoyed these conversations ; and, as far as
any one else is concerned, I am convinced that
my candidate will be glad to prepare a portion of
the subject as her admission fee, and will be as
much interested in the welfare of the society as
we old members are, who have already felt the ad-
vantages arising from it. May we decide now,
papa ?”

All hands were raised in reply, and the resolu-
tion carried unanimously.

“T have a question to ask,” said George. “May
we have the meetings twice during the month, in-
stead of once, as before? It will induce us to be
more industrious, as we shall be obliged to work to

r ee a gh as Ea eal Aiea el ws, ee








12 THE WILTONS.






get up the information. I can share the labor with
Emma now, because I can write easily, and quick-
ly ; besides, it will be such pleasant employment
for the half-holidays.”
* “Very well, my dear,” said Mr. Wilton ; “then
once a fortnight it shall be ; and take care, as the
time will be short, that you are thoroughly prepared :
do not reckon on me, for I cannot assist you as Mr.
Stanley did, so you must be, in a great measure, de-
pendent upon your own resources. My library is
at your disposal, and I hope you will have suffi-
cient perseverance to investigate each point care-
fully, before you come to a decision. Should you
require assistance in the preparation of any particu-
lar part of the subject, of course, I shall have no ob-
jections to render it; but remember, I do not prom-
ise to be an active member, as [ wish you to exert
yourselves, and be in some degree independent. It
will thus be more advantageous to you: it will not
only impress all you learn effectually on your
mind, but improve your reasoning faculties, and en-
able you to understand much that the most careful
explanation might fail to render intelligible.”

“ And when shall we begin, papa?” asked Emma.

Mr. Witton. “My engagements until the 7th
of February are so numerous as to preclude the
possibility of my presence at a meeting before that
time; but after the 7th inst. I shall be more at
liberty, and we will, if you please, commence our
voyage, and (wind and weather permitting) travel
on regularly and perseveringly until we have cir-
cumnavigated the globe.”













13



THE WILTONS.



“ Agreed! agreed!” merrily shouted the chil-
dren.

“ T know which of my friends I shall ask,” said
George; “and I fancy I can guess who will be
Emma’s new member.”

“T fancy you cannot,” returned Emma: “I do
not intend to tell any one, either, until I hear
whether or not she can come ; therefore check your
inquisitiveness, Master George, and wait patiently,
for you will not know before the 7th, when I will
introduce my friend.”

“ Now,” said Grandy, “ having settled the most
important part of the business, I have a few words
to say. You must all be aware, that in the ac-
counts of seas and oceans, there cannot possibly be
so much time disposed of in descriptive facts as
there was in our former conversations concerning
the rivers of the world, which are so numerous, and
require so many minute particulars in tracing their
courses, that they positively (although occupying a
smaller portion of the globe,) take more time to sail
over in our ship ‘ The Research, than the bound-
less ocean, which occupies two thirds of our world;
it will, under these circumstances, be advisable to
illustrate our subject largely, and to lose no oppor-
tunity of extending it for our benefit. We need not
fear to exhaust the topic; for do not the vast waters
encompass the globe ; and can we contemplate these
great works of our Creator, without having our
hearts filled with wonder and admiration? This,
my children, will lead us to the right source ; to the
Author of all the wonders contained in ‘ heaven
?












rn rn nS

14 FREDERIC HAMILTON,

and earth, and in the waters under the earth ;’ and,
if we possess any gratitude, our hearts will be raised
in thankfulness to Him who ‘hath done all things
well;’ and we shall bless him for giving us powers
of discernment and reasoning faculties, which not
only enable us to see and appreciate the goodness
of God, but also, by his grace assisting us, to turn
our knowledge to advantage for our temporal and
eternal good.”

“ We may now,” said Mr. Wilton, “leave these
resolutions to be acted upon at a proper time; and,
as we have two hours’ leisure before supper, if you,
dear mother, will tell us one of your sweet stories
of real life, it will be both a pleasant and profitable
way of passing the evening. We have all employ-
ment for our fingers, and can work while we listen ;
George and [ with our pencils, and you ladies with
your sewing and knitting.”

Granpy. “ Well, what must it be? Something
nautical, I suppose; for as we are about to set sail
in a few days, it will be appropriate, will it not?”

Grorce. “Qh yes! dear Grandy, a nautical
story, if you please.”

Story of Frederic WMamilton.

“ Tue first time I saw Frederic Hamilton was
on board the ‘ Neptune,’ outward bound for Jamaica:
he was then a lad of twelve or fourteen years: I
cannot be sure which; but I remember he was tall
for his age, and extremely good-looking.

“There were so many circumstances during the



ac eas



FREDERIC HAMILTON.

>

15

voyage, which brought me in contact with this boy,
and so many occasions to arouse my sympathies in
his behalf, (for he was evidently in delicate health,
and unfit for laborious work.) that in a short time
I became deeply interested concerning him, and I
determined as soon as I had recovered from sea-
sickness, to watch for an opportunity of inquiring
into the particulars of his earlier history.

“T must first tell you, before proceeding with the
story of my hero, that the captain of the ‘ Neptune’
was a very harsh, cruel man, and made every one
on board his vessel as uncomfortable as he could by
his violent temper, and ungentlemanly conduct. I
was the only lady-passenger; and had it not been
for the kindness of my fellow-travellers, I scarcely
think I could have survived all the terrors of that
dreadful voyage. The sailors, without one dissen-
tient voice, declared they had never sailed with such
a master, and wished they had known ‘a trifle of the
rough side of his character before they engaged with
him, and then he would have had to seek long enough
to make up a crew, for not one of them would have
shipped with him.’ They even went so far as to
say, that if at any time they could escape from the
vessel, they would not hesitate a moment, but would
get away, and leave the captain to work the ship
by himself. I could not take part with the captain,
because I saw too much of his tyranny to entertain
a particle of respect for him, and I confess I was
not in the least surprised at the language of the ill-
used sailors. He had no good feature in his charac-
ter that I could discover ; for he was mean, vulgar,

ee







16 STORY OF

discontented, and brutal. He never encouraged the
men in the performance of their duty, by kind ex-
pressions; on the contrary, he never addressed them
on the most simple matter without oaths and im-
precations, and oftentimes enforced his commands
with a rope’s end or his fist.

“We had yet other causes of discomfort besides
these continual uproars. Contrary winds, constant
gales, and violent storms, made our hearts fail from
fear. We knew the captain could not expect fits
blessing, whose laws he openly set at defiance ; in-
deed, by his life and conversation, he proved that
he ‘cared for none of these things.’

“T believe he was a clever seaman: he had cer-
tainly had much experience, having been upwards
of fifty times across the Atlantic: so that we felt at
ease with regard to the management of the ship.
But we did not put our trust in the skill of the
captain alone; for of what avail would that be if
the Lord withheld his hand, and left us to perish ?
No! my dears, we saw that the captain never prayed,
and we felt there was a greater necessity for us to
be diligent in the duty; and daily, nay hourly, we
entreated the forbearance and assistance of Almighty
God to conduct us in safety to land.

“ After a time, the men became very unmanage-
able; for they hated the captain: he treated them like
slaves, and imposed upon them on every occasion ;
so that at length, goaded to desperation by his cru-
elty, they positively refused to handle a rope until
he agreed to the terms they intended to propose. |

“ The captain, fierce as he was, felt it would be







SA a —

FREDERIC HAMILTON. 17

useless to contend with twenty angry men, and he
knew the passengers would not befriend him: he
therefore deemed it expedient to endeavor to con-
cilixte them by promises he never intended to per-
form, and, after a few hours’ confusion, all was
again comparatively quiet.

“I could tell you much more about the quarrels
and disturbances of which we unfortunate passen-
gers had to be the passive witnesses, and which, ac-
customed as we were to them in the day-time, filled
me with greater horror than I can describe, break-
ing upon the stillness of the night, when all was
quiet but the troubled ocean, whose murmurs, in-
stead of arousing, served to lull us into a deeper
repose. Yes, often, when no other sound but the
low splashing of the waves against the side of the
ship was to be heard, and we were all either sleep-
ing quietly, or thinking deeply of home and friends,
loud cries and shouts would reach us, and, in an
instant, we would all be gathered together to in-
quire into the cause of the disturbance. It was
always the captain and some of the men fighting ;
and on one occasion, the battle was so close to us,
actually in the cabin, between the captain and the
steward, that I screamed aloud, and do not remem-
ber ever to have been so much alarmed.

“ But as my principal object is to make you ac-
quainted with Frederic Hamilton, and not with
my adventures, I will say no more about Captain
Simmons, and his ship, than is necessary in the
course of my tale.

! “I was just getting over the unpleasant sensa-
Ag







18 STORY OF

tions of sea-sickness, when, one morning as I was
dressing in my berth, a noise of scuffling on the
quarter-deck, over my head, interrupted my opera-
tions. [ laid my brush on the table, and listened.
At first I could distinguish nothing, and, thinking
it was the captain and a sailor disputing, I con-
tinued my toilet; when, suddenly, a piercing cry
reached me, and I knew the voice to be Frederic’s.
At the same time the sound of heavy blows fell on
my ear, and again I reeognized his voice: he called
out so loudly, that I heard him distinctly say, ‘ Oh,
sir! have mercy. Pray, pray do not kill me! Oh,
sir! think of my mother, and have pity upon me.
I wil try to please you, sir; indeed, indeed, [ will.
Oh, mercy! mercy!’ His cries became fainter and
fainter, while the blows continued, accompanied oc-
casionally by the gruff voice of the captain, until,
my soul shrinking with horror, I could endure it
no longer. I rushed out of my cabin, and there on
the poop beheld a sight I can never forget. Poor
Frederic was lashed to the shrouds with his hands
above his head, which was then drooping on his
shoulder; his back bare and bleeding. The brutal
captain wes standing by with a thick rope in his
grasp, which, by the crimson stains upon it, suffi-
ciently proved the vile purpose for which its services
had just been required.

“T called out hastily and angrily to the captain
to cease beating the boy, and declared I would
fetch out the gentlemen to interfere if he did not
stop his unmanly behavior. He glared on me
with the fiercest expression imaginable (for he was

aii










FREDERIC HAMILTON. 19



in a towering rage,) and told me I had better not
meddle with him in the performance of his duty,
for he would do as he liked; he was master of the
ship and nobody else, and he would like to see
anybody else try to be. Then he made use of such
fearful language, that I dreaded to approach him;
but my fear lest he should again attack the boy,
overcame my fear for him in his anger; and I
ascended the ladder. He desired, nay commanded,
me to retire to my cabin; but I said, ‘ No, captain,
I will not stir hence until you release Frederic, and
if you strike him again I will be a witness of your
cowardly behavior towards a poor boy whose only
fault is want of strength to do the work assigned
him. Iam quite sure, whatever you may say on
board-ship, you will not be able to justify your con-
duct on shore.’

“ He did not again address me; but, muttering
curses loud and deep, he untied the fainting boy,
and, giving him a savage push, laid him prostrate
on the deck: he then walked forward, and began to
shout aloud his orders to the men on the main-deck.

“The man at the helm, pitying the poor boy,
called to the boatswain, who was standing on the
forecastle, and begged him to send some water to
throw over the lad, and some dressing for his
wounded back. I stayed by him for a short time,
and when he was somewhat recovered, I went
below.

“T fancied, when I met the captain at the dinner-
table, that he looked rather ashamed; for I had
related the whole affair to the other passengers, and







































ne

20 STORY OF

he could perceive, by their indifference towards him,
that they despised him for his cowardice. He tried
to be jocular, but could not succeed in exciting our
risibility: we did not even encourage his jokes by
the shadow of a smile, and he seemed uneasy dur-
ing the remainder of the time we sat at table.

“ I now feit more than ever interested in the fate
of Frederic Hamilton, and was not sorry I had said
so much in the morning. Prudence might have
dictated milder language certainly ; but my indig-
nation was aroused; and when I found that my
remonstrance had the desired effect, I did not re-
pent of my impetuosity.

“ About a week after this unhappy occurrence,
as I was leaning over the rail on the quarter-deck,
watching the shoals of porpoises (for we were then
in a warm latitude) playing in the bright blue sea
at the vessel’s side, the boatswain, who was a fine
specimen of a sea-faring man, came up, and, seating
himself on a fowl-coop near me, commenced sorting
rope-yarns for the men to spin. Presently Frederic
walked up the ladder with a bucket of water to
pour inte the troughs for tlie thirsty poultry, who
were stretching their necks through the bars and
opening their bills, longing for the refreshing
draught: the heat was overpowering, and the
poor things were closely packed in their miserable
coops.

“T remarked to Williams how pale the boy look-
ed, and how thin, and said, I feared he was not
only badly treated, but had not proper nourish-
ment.

a





FREDERIC HAMILTON. 21

“« Why, ma’am,’ said he, ‘to say the truth, the
lad’s not been used to this kind of living, and it
was the worst thing as ever happened to him to be
brought on board the “ Neptune,” with our skipper
fora master. You see, madam,’ he continued, ‘ his
father was a parson; but he is dead, and the
mother tried hard to persuade the lad (for, poor
thing, he is her only boy,) to turn parson too, when
his father died. But no. The boy had set his
mind on going to sea; and as he had no friends
who could help him to go to school or college, and
his godfather, Captain Hartly, offered to pay the
apprenticeship fees if his mother would let him
learn navigation, she at last, though much against
her will, consented that he should be bound ap-
prentice to our skipper here. But it pretty nigh
broke her heart to part with the child; and she
begged the captain to use him gently and bear
with him a little, for he was not so hardy as many
boys of his age; and, moreover, had been accus-
tomed to kindness and delicate treatment. The
lad is a fine noble-hearted lad, but he is not strong;
and it is my opinion that the master wants to get
rid of him to have the fee for nothing, and he’s
trying what hard living, hard work, and hard
usage will do towards making him go the faster.
But he had better mind what he is about. There’s
many a man on board that can speak a good word
for Frederic when he gets ashore ; and, if all comes
out, it will go hard with the master. The poor lad
cries himself to sleep every night, and when he is
asleep he has no rest, for in his dreams he talks of





rare





22 STORY OF

his mother and sister, and often sobs loud enough to
wake the men whose hammocks swing near him.
I am very sorry to see all this, for he is a fine boy,
as I said before, and we are all fond of him; but
he’s not fit for this kind of work, leastwise not yet.
I am glad you have taken notice of him, madam ;
for, though you cannot do any good while we’re at
sea, may be when you come ashore you won't for-
get poor Frederic Hamilton.’

“ When the boatswain left me, I walked up and
down the deck pondering on these things, and con-
triving all sorts of schemes for the relief of my
young friend, and wondering how I could manage
to have some conversation with him on the subject;
when a circumstance occurred, which at once en-
abled me not only to Jearn all I was anxious to
know, but also in a great measure to improve his
condition on board the ‘ Neptune.’

“T knew that Frederic must have been trained
up in the fear of the Lord, for his daily conduct
testified that he not only knew what was right, but
tried to perform it also; and notwithstanding the
severe trials he had to undergo, while with us on
the voyage to Jamaica, yet I never heard a harsh
or disrespectful expression fall from his lips; but
he would attribute all the captain’s unkind treat-
ment of him to something wrong in himself, and
he every day tried beyond his strength to obtain a
look of approbation from his stern master. But,
alas! he knew not to whom he looked ; although
he was cuff-d and kicked about whenever he tried
to be brisk in the task allotted to him, he was al-



FREDERIC HAMILTON. ZO

ways the same patient, melancholy little fellow,
throughout the voyage.

“Sometimes during the night watch, I have
caught the musical tones of his voice, as he walked
the quarter-deck; when, the captain being in his
berth fast asleep, the boy was comparatively happy;
and as the ship sailed quietly along in the pale
moonlight, his thoughts would wander back to the
home of his beloved mother and sister, and, the
buoyancy of youthful spirits gaining the ascend-
ency over more melancholy musings, he would for
a while forget his present sorrows, and almost in-
voluntarily break out in singing some of the sweet
hymns in which he had been accustomed to join
when the little family assembled for devotional ex-
ercises.

“Tt was then I used to open my cabin window,
and breathlessly listen to the clear voice of my
gentle protégé; and not unfrequently could even
distinguish the words he sang; now loud—now
soft, as he approached or retreated. One hymn in
particular seemed to be a special favorite, and was
so applicable to his situation, that I have remem-
bered several of the verses.

“* Jesus, I my cross have taken,

All to leave and follow thee:
Destityte, despised, forsaken,

Thou from hence my all shall be.
Perish every fond ambition,

All Ive sought, and hoped, and known;
Yet how rich is my condition —

God and heaven are still ny own!





a ree neg
; 24 STORY OF
“ «Man may trouble and distress me;
’*T will but drive me to thy breast.
Life with trials hard may press me;
Heaven will bring me sweeter rest.
Oh! ’tis not in grief to harm me,
While thy love is left to me!
Oh! ’twere not in joy to charm me,
Were that joy unmixed with Thee.

“ «Take, my soul, thy full salvation ;

Rise o’er sin, and fear, and care;

Joy to find in every station
Something still to do or bear !

Think what Spirit dwells within thee ;
What a Father’s smile is thine ;

What thy Saviour did to win thee,—
Child of Heav’n, should’st thou repine %

“* Haste then on from grace to glory,
Armed by faith, and winged by prayer;
Heaven’s eternal day’s before thee ;
Heaven’s own hand shall guide thee there.
Soon shall close thy earthly mission ;
Swift shall pass thy pilgrim days;
Hope soon change to glad fruition,
Faith to sight, and prayer to praise.’ ”

Evma. “ What a beautiful hymn, grandmamma.
I should like to learn those words. But I want to
hear how you got Frederic away from that horrid
man, and what became of him afterwards, because
I cannot understand why you are telling us this
story. I know you never tell us anything for
amusement only.”

Granpy. “No, my dear child; this story is not
solely for your amusement. This morning I ob-





FREDERIC HAMILTON. 25

served a strangeness in George’s behavior, when he
was requested to put up his microscope, and assist in
laying the cloth, because John was out, and he was
aware that Hannah had sprained her foot, and could
not walk up and down stairs. He said such ex-
traordinary things about being ill-used, and worked
hard, and never having an hour to amuse himself,
that I am desirous of convincing him that it is
quite possible (with God’s assistance) not only to
bear all this, without thinking it a shame, as George
termed it, but even to praise God for the troubles
and trials which may fall to your lot; and I also
wish to inform him, that there ave some boys more
patient and grateful than himself. But I see, by
the color mounting to his cheeks, that my boy is
sorry for his past behavior; nevertheless, I will
continue my story. And now for the zncident, as
I presume you will call it, Emma.

“ We were about a week’s voyage from Jamaica.
The wind was favorable, but light, the sky clear, the
sun directly overhead ;—we were all beginning to feel
the effects of a warm climate; the sailors were
loosely clad in canvass trousers, striped shirts, and
straw hats, and went lazily about their work ;—
the ship moved as lazily through the rippling waves ;
—the man at the helm drew his hat over his eyes, to
shade them from the glare of the sun, and lounged
listlessly upon the wheel ;—-the captain was below
taking a nap, to the great relief of men and boys ;—
some of the passengers were sitting on the poop, under
an awning, drowsily perusing a book or old news-
paper; some leaning on the taffrail, watching the

3





—626 STORY OF

many-colored dolphin, and those beautiful, but spite-
ful, little creatures, the Portuguese men-of-war, which
look so splendid as they sail gently on the smooth
surface of the blue ocean, every little ripple causing
a change of color in their transparent sails. I was
admiring these curious navigators, as I stood with
two or three friends, who, like myself, felt idle, and
cared only to dispose of the time in the most agree-
able manner attainable in such a ship, with such a
commander ; and I said, rather thoughtlessly, con-
sidering Frederic was at my side, ‘How I should
like to possess one of those little creatures; I sup-
pose they can be caught ?’

“ Frederic moved from me, and an instant after
he was on the forecastle ; presently, I heard a splash
in the water, and, leaning over the rail, I saw him
swimming after a fine specimen, which shone in
all the bright and varied colors of the rainbow, as
it floated proudly by. He had no sooner reached
the treasure, and made a grasp at it, than he gave
a loud scream, for the creature had encircled the
poor boy’s body with its long fibrous legs, or, as
they are properly called, ‘ tentacula.’. He struggled
violently, for he was in great agony; at length he
escaped, and was helped on deck by one of the men,
who said, he wished, ‘he had known what the
youngster had in his head, and he would have pre-
vented him attempting to catch such a thing,’ for
he was aware of the extraordinary peculiarities of
these singular little creatures. When he came on
deck, he looked exactly as if he had been rolled in
a bed of nettles, and the steward had to rub him



FREDERIC HAMILTON.



with oil, and give him medicine to reduce the fever
caused by the pain of the sting.

“You may be sure, that directly the captain
heard of this affair, he'was more disposed to chastise,
than to pity, our friend Frederic; but I interfered,
and begged he would leave him to me, as I had
been the cause of the disaster, and must now make
amends by attending him, until he was well enough
to return to his duty. The captain was very much
displeased, and I regretted extremely that a foolish
wish of mine should have caused so much annoyance,
and felt it my duty to endeavor to alleviate the boy’s
sufferings as muchas possible. Poor Frederic! he
was laid up three or four days, and had experienced
enough to caution him against ever again attempt-
ing to capture a ‘ Portuguese man-of-war.”*

“Tused to sit by his hammock for hours talking
and reading to him; when one day, as I closed my
book to leave him, he said with a sigh, while tears
filled his eyes, ‘1 am very grateful to you, madam,

* The ancients are said to have derived the art of naviga-
tion from these animals, which, in calm weather, are seen
floating on the surface of the water, with some of their ten-
tacula extended at their sides, while two arms that are fur-
nished with membranaceous appendages serve the office of
sails, These animals raise themselyrs to the surface of the
sea, by ejecting the sea-water from their shells ; and on the
approach of danger, they draw their arms, and with them a
quantity of water, which occasions them to sink immediately,
By possessing this power, they are but rarely taken perfect,
as the instant they are disturbed they disappear. They are
more frequently caught in the nets of fishermen than any
other way, or found left dry on rocks,



oT

;

4

3

: i




































28 STORY OF

for your kindness to me: you have been a friend
when I most needed one; how my dear mother
would love you if she knew what you had done for
her boy. But I donot deserve that any one should
love me; I have been wilful and disobedient, and
my sorrows are not half so great as, in justice for
my wickedness, they ought to be; but every day
proves to me that God is long-suffering and merci-
ful, and doeth us good continually. I have thanked
him often and often for making you love me, and I
feel so happy that in the midst of my trials, God
has raised me up a friend to cheer me in the path
of duty ; to teach me how to correct my faults ; and
to sympathize with me in my daily sorrows. God
will bless you for it, madam,’ he continued: ‘he
will bless you for befriending the orphan in his
loneliness ; and my mother will bless you, and pray
God to shower his mercies thick and plenteous on
you all the days of your life.’ He paused, and,
burying his face in the scanty covering of his bed,
he wept unrestrainedly. I was hastening away,
for my heart was full, and the effort to check my
tears almost choked me; when he raised his head,
and, stretching his hand towards me, said, ‘I want
to tell you something more, madam, if you will not
think me bold; but my heart reproaches me every
time I see your kind face; I feel as if I were im-
posing upon you, and fancy that, did you know
more about me, you would deem me unworthy of
your interest and attention. May I relate to you
all I can remember of myself before I came here ?
It will be such a comfort to have some person near







FREDERIC HAMILTON. 29

me, who will allow me to talk of those I love, with-
out ridiculing me, and calling me “ home-sick.” ?
“This was the very point at which I had been
for some time aiming, as I did not wish to ask him
for the particulars, not knowing whether the ques-
tion might wound his feelings; but now that he of.
fered to tell me, I was delighted, and readily an-
swered his appeal, assuring him nothing would give
me greater pleasure than to hear an account of him-
self from his own lips: ‘But, I added, ‘I cannot
wait now, for they are striking “ eight bells:” I
must go in to dinner: after dinner I will come to
you again, and listen to all you have to say ; so
farewell for the present, my dear boy, in an hour’s
time I will be with you.’ )
“As soon as dinner was over, I returned to
Frederic: he looked so pleased, I shall never forget
the glow that overspread his fair face, as I entered
the berth, for he was really handsome ; his eyes
were bright hazel, his hair auburn, and waving
over his head in the most graceful curls, while his
complexion was the clearest and most beautiful I
had ever seen. I found a seat on a chest near his
hammock, and, telling him I was ready to attend
to his narrative, he began :—
“The first impression I have of home was when
I was about five years old, and was surrounded by
a little troop of brothers and sisters, for I can re-
member when there was seven healthy, happy chil-
dren in my “boyhood’s home.” We lived at Fel-
tham, Middlesex, inthe pretty parsonage-house. It
was situated at the end of a long avenue of elm-
Q*








380 STORY OF

trees, whose arching boughs, meeting over our
heads, sheltered us from the mid-day glare. Here
in the winter we used to trundle our hoops; and in
the summer stroll about to gather bright berries
from the hedges to make chains for the adornment
of our bowers. But death came to our happy
home, and made sad the hearts of our good parents:
the whooping-cough was very prevalent in the vil-
lage, and a child of one of the villagers, who oc-
casionally came to my father for relief, brought the
contagion amongst us, and in a short time we were
all seized with it. Two sisters died in one day,
and the morning they were laid in the grave, sweet
baby breathed his last. Then my mother fell sick,
and she was very ill indeed; my brother and I
were placed in a cot by her bedside, and when pain
has prevented me sleeping, I have been comforted
by hearing this dear, kind mother beseeching God
to spare her boys. She seemed regardless of her
own sufferings, and only repined, when she thought
how useful she might have been to us, had she too
not been laid on a bed of sickness. But fever and
delirium came on, and we were removed from her
chamber. The next day poor Frank died, and was
buried by the side of Clara and Lucy. The fune-
ral service was read by my dear father, who was
enabled to stand under all these trials of his faith,
for God sustained him ; and, having trained us up
in the fear and admonition of the Lord, he did not
grieve as one without hope, when his darlings were
taken from him, for he knew they were gone toa
better world, and were happy in the bosom of their











81

heavenly Father. His greatest trial was the illness
of my mother ; but before we were all quite well,
she was able to leave her chamber, and once again
kneel with us at our family altar, to return thanks
to God for his many mercies. There were only
three of her seven children left to her, and when my
father blessed God that they were not rendered
childless, my mother’s feelings overpowered her,
and she was borne fainting from the room.

“* But I fear I am tiring you with these melan-
choly accounts,madam. You know not how deep-
ly I enjoy the recollection of those days, for through
this wilderness of sorrow there was a narrow stream
of happiness placidly gliding, to which we could
turn amidst the troubles of the world, and refresh -
our fainting souls; and, though we grieved at the
remembrance of the loved ones now gone from us,
yet we would not have recalled them to these scenes
of woe, to share future troubles with us. Oh no!
my dear father was a faithful follower of Christ ; he
used to show us so many causes for thankfulness in
our late afflictions, which he said were “ blessings
in disguise,” that happiness and tranquillity were
soon restored to our home.

“ «Two or three years glided by, and when I was
eleven years old, my father, one day, called me into
his study, and, looking seriously at me, said, “ Fred-
eric, my child, God has been very good to you; he
has spared your life through many dangers; you,
of all my sons, only remain to me, and may your
days be many and prosperous! N ow, what can you
render unto the Lord for all his mercies towards

FREDERIC HAMILTON.








————

32 STORY OF

you; ought not the life God has so graciously spared
be in gratitude consecrated to his service? Tell
me what you think in this matter. I speak thus
early, my dear Frederic, because I wish you to con-
sider well, before you are sent from home, what are
to be your future plans ; for as life is uncertain, and
none of us know the day nor the hour in which the
summons may arrive, I should feel more happy,
were I assured that you would tread in my footsteps
when I am gone; that you, my only boy,” and he
clasped me in his armsas he spoke, “ that you would
be a comfort to your mother and sisters, when my
labors are ended, and would carry on the work
which I have begun in this portion of the Lord’s
vineyard, and His blessing and the blessing of a
fond father will ever attend your steps.”

“¢T raised my eyes to my father’s face, and, for
the first time, noticed how pale and haggard he
looked ; all the bright and joyous expression of his
countenance when in health had given place toa
mild and melancholy shade of sadness, which af-
fected me painfully ; for the thought struck me that
my father was soon to be called away.

“:JT evaded answering his question, and when
he found I did not reply, he said, “ My son, let us
ask the direction of Almighty God in this great
work.” I knelt with him, and was lost in admira-
tion. I could not remove my eyes from his face
during the prayer; his whole soul seemed absorbed
in communion with God, and as I gazed, I wonder-
ed what the glorious angels must be like, when the
face of my beloved father, while here on earth,









83



FREDERIC HAMILTON.



looked so exquisitely lovely, glowing in the beauty
of holiness.

“ ¢ For several days, the conversation in the study
was continually in my mind; I could think of
nothing else. I did not like the profession well
enough to have chosen it myself, for I disliked re-
tirement; but after an inward struggle, betwixt
my inclination and my duty, I resolved, that, to
please my father, I would study for the church.
One day, my godfather, Captain Hartly, came to
see us, and he took great notice of me. He asked
me if I should like to go to sea? Then he told me
such fine things about life in the navy, and on
board ship, that my wavering mind fired at his
descriptions, and I determined to be a sailor, for
such a life would be more congenial to my feelings
than the quiet life of a country clergyman. I did
not mention this to my father, for he was ill, and I
feared to grieve him; nevertheless, had he asked
me, I should certainly have opened my heart to
him without dissimulation. I often fretted when I
thought how sorry he would be to hear that I did
not care to be engaged in the service of his Master;
when one morning, as I was lying in bed, a servant
came into my room, and desired me to hasten to
my father’s chamber, to receive his blessing, for he
was dying.

“*T did hasten. I know not how I got there.
I rushed into his arms, I threw myself on his neck,
and felt as if I too must die. He was too much
exhausted to speak ; but he placed his hand on my
head, and, slightly moving his lips, the expression






84 STORY OF

of his features told, in plain language, that his heart
was engaged in prayer. He was praying, and for
me,—me, his unworthy son, and when I considered
that I could not comply with his wishes without
being a hypocrite, [ thought my heart would burst.
For several minutes, was my dear father thus occu-
pied; then, turning to my weeping mother, who
was kneeling by the bedside, he softly uttered her
name. Alas! it was with his parting breath, for
gently, as an infant falls asleep on the bosom of
its nurse, did my revered parent fall asleep in the
arms of that Saviour who had been his guide and
comforter through life, and who accompanied him
through the dark valley, and by his presence made
bright the narrow path which leads to the abode
of the redeemed.

“¢Jhe only earthly friend we had to look to, in
our bereavement, was Captain Hartly; and he
could only promise to assist me if I would enter
the navy, or go on board a merchant-ship. My
poor mother objected to this, and I remained at
home another twelvemonth, and again mourned
the loss of a dear relative. My sister Bertha fell a
victim to consumption, exactly nine months after the
death of my lamented father. It was cruel to leave
my mother under such circumstances, particularly
as she remonstrated with me so earnestly on my
project of going to sea, and offered to make any
sacrifice, if I would consent to go to college, and
follow out my father’s plans. But my heart was
fixed; and every visit from my godfather tended
to inflame me still more with a longing for a sea-



Pa ee
Â¥

FREDERIC HAMILTON. 85

faring life; and, at length, I told him I was willing
to be bound apprentice to a captain of a merchant-
ship, rather than lose the chance of going to sea.
He eagerly embraced the offer, and in a few weeks
the affair was settled satisfa torily for all parties
but my dear mother and sister. Marian wept
bitterly when the letter came which concluded the
arrangements, and informed me what day to be on
board. My mother went to see the captain, and
entreated him to be kind to me. But she knew
not the disposition of the man to whose care I was
entrusted, or Iam sure nothing would have induced
her to consent to my plans. I dare say it is all for
the best. I shall, perhaps, learn my duty better
with Captain Simmons than I should have done
with a kinder master. It is well my mother knows
nothing of this; for, even believing I should be
treated with the utmost kindness, the separation
was almost more than she had fortitude to bear,
and she bade me farewell nearly heart-broken. I
have never ceased to regret that I preferred my
own will to the authority of my parents; I deserve
all I suffer, and much more, for my rebellion against
them. This, madam, is all I have to tell you. I
hope you will not cast me off, because I have been
so self-willed ; for here I have no friend to aid me,
and I still feel the same desire for my present mode
of life. I am quite sure I am not suited for a
clergyman; but I do not think I could live long
with ¢hzs captain. If I could get shipped in another
vessel, with a master not quite so severe, in a little
time I should be able to work for money, and assist





86 STORY OF

my dear mother; and if she saw me occasionally,
and knew I was well and happy, she would be con-
tent and thankful.’

“ Such was Frederic’s simple account of himself.
In five days we came in sight of Port Royal, and
anchored off there during the night: the next day
we went ashore, and my brother Herbert, who was
a merchant in Kingston, was ready to receive me,
and welcome me to his house.

“T took the earliest opportunity of speaking to
him concerning Frederic: he promised to make
some arrangement for the boy’s advantage, and he
fulfilled his promise. He got him transferred to
the ‘ Albatross,’ Captain Hill, a kind, gentlemanly
man. There Frederic remained for several years,
and gained such approbation by his exemplary con-
duct, that, at length, he became first mate, and
afterwards (on the death of Captain Hill) master.

“ A few years back, Captain Hartly died; leav-
ing him considerable property. He made it his
first business to settle his mother comfortably, and
she is now residing with Marian (who married a
surgeon,) in St. John’s Wood. He next purchased
a ship, and has already made six voyages in her to
the West Indies; so that you see all things have
prospered with Frederic Hamilton, because ‘he
feared the Lord always.’ I hear from him after
every voyage, and have seen him several times
since he became a great man and a ship-owner;
but he is not altered in one respect, for he is still
the same grateful, affectionate creature as when I
first met him on board the ‘Neptune.’ His story







Te RT et ER a Le re EE Te ee

FREDERIC HAMILTON. 87

proves the truth of the text, ‘I have never seen the
righteous forsaken, nor his children begging their
bread.’ ”

Mr. and Mrs. Wilton were as much pleased as
the children with this little story of Grandy’s re-
miniscences. “ And now, George,” said Mr. Wilton,
“carry my drawings into the study, for I hear John
coming up-stairs with the supper.”

George collected his papa’s pencils and paper.
Emma folded up the cotton frock she had been
making for one of her young pupils in the Sunday-
school, locked her work-box, cleared the table of all
signs of their recent occupation, and took her seat
by the side of her brother.

The children were not allowed, except on particu-
lar occasions, to sit up after ten o'clock ; but as it
was Mr. Wilton’s wish that they should be present
night and morning at family prayers, he always
had supper about nine o'clock, to give them time
for their devotions before retiring to rest.

Supper over, the domestics were summoned, and,
having humbly petitioned for pardon and grace,
they besought the protection of Almighty God dur- ,
ing the night season ; then, with hearts filled with
love to God, and good-will towards all men, they
retired to their’ several apartments, and silence
reigned throughout the house.

3



CHAPTER II.

Beautiful, sublime and glorious 5
Mild, majestic, foaming, free ;—

Over time itself victorious,
Image of eternity.

Every day throughout the following week the
young folks were busily engaged. It is need-
less to specify the nature of their occupations, or
the reason of their untiring industry: it will be
sufficient for their credit to mention that they did
not work with the foolish desire of ostentatiously dis-
playing a larger portion of information than the rest
of the party, but really because they were fond of
study; and as they advanced in knowledge, they
became more sensible of their own comparative
ignorance, and more anxious to learn. They made
_ no parade of their own abilities ; were equally grati-
fied at the meetings, whether they were required to
speak, or be silent; and no evil passions disturbed
their repose, when they heard other members more
praised than themselves. ‘To prove this, the young
lady to whom Emma had decidedly given the pref- —
erence amongst her companions, was three years
her senior, had nearly completed her education,
and was a clever intelligent girl; consequently, it
was very probable that she would far surpass her



aM oy

i oe, oh x 5 wT ae et, AP oe ee
SE ee ee ee, ee Pee ee ae ee We hese
> " :

THE WILTONS. 89

in knowledge. and be in fact more serviceable to the
society than Emma ever had been, or could hope to
be, for some time to come. But Emma’s heart was
a stranger to the wicked feeling of jealousy; it was
overflowing with kindness; and she was delighted
that she knew a person so agreeable, and so effi-
cient to introduce, and thought how admirably they
would travel “o’er the glad waters of the bright
blue sea,” if all the new members were as well quali-
fied as Dora Leslie. ,

Day after day passed, and every day added to
their stores, for they devoted at least two hours of
their recreation to the pleasant and profitable occu-
pation of making discoveries in the great oceans and
smaller seas ; and when they closed their books, it
was with a sigh, that they were obliged to leave
this interesting study to attend to other business of
equal importance.

On the evening of the 7th instant, the large round
table in the front drawing-room presented a formida-
bly learned appearance, covered with maps, papers,
and books, and surrounded with chairs placed at
convenient distances for the accommodation of the
members of the Geographical Society.

They were to take tea in another apartment that
evening, to give them an opportunity of arranging
the requisite documents before the party assembled,
and thereby prevent much trouble and confusion.

George’s blue eyes sparkled with Joy, as he care-
fully folded his Jarge paper of notes, and placed it
in an Atlas; and then, for the first time, he confessed
that he felt very curious to see the “new members.”

—



40 THE WILTONS.

They had scarcely concluded their arrangements,
when there was a knocking at the hall-door, and,
seizing his sister's hand, George hurried down
stairs.

The arrivals were shortly announced ; for, strange
to say, the two young friends arrived at the same
instant. John opened the par'or door, and ushered
in “ Miss Dora Leslie,”—“ Master Charles Dorning.”

These young people never having previously met
at Mr. Wilton’s house, as members of his Geo-
graphical Society, it seemed necessary that there
should be a formal introduction,—at least,so thought
George; and as he proposed it, they required him
to perform the ceremony, which he did in a most
facetious way, affixing the initials M. G. S. after
every name.

They were all seated around the cheerful fire,
laughing heartily, when again John threw open the
door, and announced “ Mr. Barraud.” Immediately
their mirth was checked, for to the younger folks
this gentleman was a total stranger. Mr. Wilton
advanced to greet his friend, and Mrs. Wilton and
Grandy both appeared delighted to see him: they
conversed together some time, until tea was ready,
when the conversation became more general, and
our little friends were occasionally required to give
an opinion. 3

Before I proceed any farther, I should like to
make you acquainted with Charles Dorning and
Dora Leslie. Perhaps if I give you a slight sketch
of their personal appearance, you could contrive to
form a tolerably correct estimate of their characters





DORA LESLIE. 41

from the conversations in which they both figured
to such advantage at the evening meetings held in
the drawing-room of Mr. Wilton’s hospitable man-
sion.

Charles Dorning—No! We ought to describe
the lady first. Dora Leslie was fourteen years of
age; a gentle, quiet girl, with a meek yet intelligent
countenance, which spoke of sorrow far beyond her
years; and a decided expression of placidity, which
none but the people of God wear, was stamped upon
her delicate features and glowing in her mild blue
eye. She had been in early childhood encompassed
by the heavy clouds of worldly sorrow: she had
wept over the tomb of both her parents; but now
that she could think calmly of her afflictions, she
could kiss the rod which chastened her, and praise
God for thus testifying his exceeding love towards
a sinful child. Her trials had indeed been sanctified
to her; they had changed, but not saddened, her
heart; for she was at the time of her visit to the
Wiltons a cheerful, happy girl, delighting in the
innocent amusements suitable to her age, though
ever ready to turn all events to the advantage of her
fellow-creatures, and the glory of her God. But
I am telling you more than I intended. I was
only to describe her person, and here I am giving
a full, true, and particular account of the beauties
of her mind also. Well, I trust you will excuse me;
for the mind and the body are so nearly connected,
that it is impossible to give a just idea of the graces
of one without in some degree touching upon the
merits of the other. I will now turn to Charles

4*







42

Dorning, as I think I have said enough of Dora
Leslie to induce you to regard her with friendliness.

Charles Dorning was a fine romping boy of eleven
years ; he had no bright flaxen curls like our friend
_ George, but straight dark hair, which, however,
was so glossy and neat that no person thought it
unbecoming. His eyes were the blackest I ever
saw, and so sparkling when animated with merri-
ment, that it was impossible to resist their influence,
and maintain a serious deportment if he were in-
clined to excite your risibility. Charles was a
merry boy, but so innocent in his mirth, that Mr.
Wilton was always pleased to have him for his son’s
companion, knowing by observation that his mirth
was devoid of mischief, and that he possessed a
most inquiring mind, which urged George on to the
attainment of much solid knowledge that would be
greatly serviceable to him in after years.

I flatter myself you will, from this slight sketch,
be able to form some idea of the “new members,”
and regard them as old acquaintances, as you al-
ready do Emma and George.

While they were drinking tea, there was an ani-
mated conversation, which still continued when the
meal was over, until the tray had disappeared, and
John had brushed the crumbs from the table ; when
Mrs. Wilton said, “Suppose we adjourn into the
next room, and commence business.”

There was a general move, and in a few moments
the table was surrounded, and each person prepar-
ing to enjoy the evening’s occupation. Miss Leslie
seated George next to her, because she could assist

CHARLES DORNING.








Pe ee ae ee oe, ee

DORA. 43

him considerably in finding places on the maps ;
and Charles Dorning was gallant enough to offer
to point out the localities for Emma. Thus they
were arranged. Grandy only was away from the
table : she was in her customary seat by the fire, with ,
the pussy at her feet, and her fingers nimbly en-
gaged on a par @ téte, which she was knitting with
extraordinary facility considering her age and im-
paired vision.

‘ Who is to commence?” inquired Mr. Wilton.
“ Emma, what have you prepared ?”

Emma. “Dora is to begin, papa, and my paper
will be required presently.”

Mr. Witton. “Very well. We are all ready,
Dora, and most attentive. I think, as we have
hitherto commenced with our own quarter of the
world, it would be more systematic to do so now.
Are you prepared for the seas of Kurope ?”

Dora. “I will readily impart all Zhave prepar-
ed, sir, and be thankful to listen to the rest.

“ Europe is bounded on the north by the frozen
ocean, south by the Mediterranean sea, east by Asia,
and west by the Atlantic ocean. Seas being small-
er collections of water than oceans, I have selected
them for our first consideration, and, thinking the
Mediterranean the most important of Europe, I have
placed it at the head of my list. This sea separates
Europe from Africa, and is the largest inland sea in
the world. It contains some beautiful islands, and
washes the shores of many countries planted with
the myrtle, the palm, and the olive, and famous
both in history and geography as scenes of remark-





44 THE MEDITERRANEAN.

able adventures, warfares, and discoveries. Nu-
merous rivers from Italy, Turkey, Spain, and
France empty their waters into this great sea. Af-
rica sends a contribution from the mighty Nile,

ethat valuable river which is of such inestimable
benefit to the Egyptians.

“ The principal islands in the Mediterranean are
Sicily, Sardinia, Corsica, Candia, Cyprus, Rhodes,
Majorca, Minorca, and Iviza. There are scores of
smaller isles, such as Malta, Zante, Cephalonia (the
two latter are included in the Ionian isles) ; but it
would be endless work to particularize each spot of
earth fertile or otherwise, inhabited or uninhabited
in every sea, unless there be something positively
interesting connected with them, or something im-
portant to be known concerning them. [ believe
Mrs. Wilton undertakes to supply the particulars
of which we are in need with respect to the various
islands already specified. Therefore I close my
paper for the present.”

Mrs. Witton. “Sicily, formerly called Trina-
cria, from its triangular shape, is separated from
Italy by the Straits of Messina, which are seven
miles across. In these straits were the ancient
Scylla and Charybdis, long regarded as objects of
terror ; but now, owing to the improved state of nav-
igation, they are of little consequence, and have
ceased to excite fears in the hearts of the poor mar-
iners. The chief towns of Sicily are Messina,
Palermo, and Syracuse. In the middle of this
island stands the famous burning mountain Etna.

“Of Sardinia, the chief town is Cagliari.





CORSICA—-CANDIA. 45

“ Corsica is a beautifully wooded country: its
capital is Bastia. The great Napoleon Bonaparte
was borne at Ajaccio. a sea-port in this island.”

Mr. Barraup. “There are two interesting as-
sociations with Napoleon to be seen in the Mediter-
ranean off Toulon. One is an old dismantled frig-
ate, which is moored just within the watergates of
the basin, and carefully roofed over and painted.
She is the ‘Muiron, with an inscription in large
characters on the stern, as follows :—*‘ Cette frégate
prise a Venise est celle qui ramena Napoleon
d’Egypte.” Every boat which passes from the men
of war to the town must go immediately under the
stern of the Muiron. The hold of the Muiron is at
present used as a dungeon for the forgats or galley-
slaves who misbehave.

“ The next association with the Emperor is a state-
ly frigate in deep mourning, painted entirely black,
which claims the distinction of having brought the
remains of Napoleon to France. ‘ La belle Poule’
is the pride of French frigates.”*

Mrs. Witton. “Candia is the ancient Crete: it
is a fine fertile island, about 160.miles long, and 30
broad. The famous mount Ida of heathen mythol-
ogy (now only a broken rock) stands here, with
many other remains of antiquity; and through
nearly the whole length of this island runs the chain
of White Mountains, so called on account of their
snow coverings. The island abounds with cattle,
sheep, swine, poultry, and game, all excellent ; and
the wine made there is balmy and delicious. The

* Vide Sketches of Travel by Francis Schroeder,



46 RHODES—MALTA.

people of Candia were formerly celebrated for their
want of veracity; St. Paul alludes to their evil
habits in the first chapter of his epistle to Titus,
where he says, ‘ The Cretians are always liars.’
There are some remarkably ugly dogs in Candia,
which seem to be a race between the wolf and the
fox.

“Cyprus contains the renowned Paphos: it is
not quite so long an island as Candia, but it is ten
miles broader.

“Rhodes is fifty miles long, and twenty-five
broad. At the north of the harbor stood the cele-
brated colossus of brass, once reckoned one of the
wonders of the world. It was placed with a foot
on either side of the harbor, so that ships in full
sail passed between its legs. This enormous statue
was 130 feet high; it was thrown down by an
earthquake, and afterwards destroyed, and taken to
pieces in the year a. p. 653.

“ Of Majorca I have little to say: its chief town
is Majorca.

“ Port Mahon is the capital of Minorca; and Iviza
is the principal town in the island of that name.

“ Malta ”

Georce. “ Excuse me for interrupting you, dear
mamma; but I wish Grandy to tell me if Malta is
the same island as the Melita mentioned in the
28th chapter of the Acts of the Apostles, where St.
Paul was shipwrecked ?”

Granpy. “Yes, my dear; it is commonly sup-
posed to be the same. It is a very rocky island,
inhabited by a people whom most modern travel-





me

, nh



SS PS
S\ Hy
ins i
\ Oy) 1S

i |
ASSN
YA Shy

VALETTE.



VALETTA, 47

lers describe as very selfish, very insincere, and
very superstitious. The population amounts to up-
wards of 63,000. In the days of St. Paul, the in-
habitants were, without doubt, an uncivilized race,
for he calls them a barbarous people! ‘And the
barbarous people showed us no little kindness: for
they kindled a fire, and received us every one, be-
cause of the present rain, and because of the cold.’
Here it was that from the circumstance of St. Paul
experiencing no evil effects from the viper clinging
to his hand, that the people concluded him to be a
god; here too he was allowed to perform many
mighty works, such as healing the sick, &c., which
caused him to be ‘honored with many honors ;’ and
‘when they departed, they were laden with the
bounty of the people.’ Can any one of you young
folks tell me the name of the chief town in this
little island ?”

“Yes, madam,” replied Charles, “I know it; it
is Valetta, so named from the noble Provencal Va-
lette, who, after vainly endeavoring to defend the
holy sepulchre from the defilements of the infidels,
was by them driven with his faithful Christian
army from island to island, until he ultimately
planted the standard of the cross on this sea-girt
rock, and bravely and successfully withstood the
attacks of his enemies. Malta was given to the
Knights of St. John of Jerusalem in 1530 by the
Emperor Charles V., when the Turks drove them
out of Rhodes. They have since been called
‘Knights of Malta.’ The island is in possession
of the English.”





48

Dora. “And so are the Ionian Islands, which
include Zante, Cephalonia, and St. Maura: they
are all pretty spots near the coast of Greece.”

Mr. Witton. “In the Mediterranean Sea lays
the largest ship in the world, the ‘Mahmoud °’ it is
floating off Beyrout.”

“T can tell you, papa,” said George, “the size of
the largest ship in the time of Henry VIII. ; it was
called the ‘ Henri Grace a Dieu,’ and was of 1000
tons burthen; it required 349 soldiers, 301 sailors,
and 50 gunners to man her.”

Mr. Witton. “That was the first double-decked
ship built in England ; it cost £14,000, and was
completed in 1509. Before this, twenty-four gun-
ships were the largest in our navy; and these had
no port-holes, the guns being on the upper decks
only. Port-holes were invented by Descharges, a
French builder at Brest, in the year 1500.”

Cuartes. “That was a useful and simple in-
vention enough: it must have been very incon-
venient to have all the guns on the upper decks ;
besides, there could not be Space for so many as
the vessels of war carry now. Pray what is the
size of a first-rate man-of-war, and how many guns
does she carry 2”

Mr. Barravup. “The ‘ Caledonia,’ built at Ply-
mouth in 1808, is 2616 tons burthen. carries 120
guns, and requires 875 men without officers. You
can imagine the size of a vessel that could contain
so many men. But all are not so large: that isa
first-rate: there are some sixth-rate, which only
carry twenty guns, are not more than 400 tons

THE CALEDONIA. .






























—





THE CALEDONIA. 49

burthen, and their complement of men is only 155.
The intermediate ships, 2d, 3d, 4th, and 5th rate,
vary in every respect according to their size, and
are classed according to their force and burthen.
Only first and second-rate men-of-war have three
decks. Ships of the line include all vessels up to
the highest rate, and not lower than the frigate.”

GrorGE. “ on I should like to have a fleet of
ships. Will you buy me more, dear papa, when I
have rigged the ‘Stanley?’ I am getting on very
fast with her; Emma has stitched all the sails,
and only three little men remain to be dressed ;
while I have cut the blocks, and set the ropes in
order. It will look very handsome when it is quite
finished ; but a miniature fleet would be beautiful
to launch on the lake at Horbury next summer.
If I rig this vessel properly, may I have some oth-
ers of different sizes, with port-holes to put cannon
in? The ‘Stanley,’ you know, is a merchantman ;
but zxow I want some men-of-war.”

Mr. Witton. “ My dear, when your friend sent
you the ‘Stanley,’ do you remember how delighted
you were, and the remark you made at the time?
I have not forgotten your exclamation— Now I am
a ship-owner! I should be quite satisfied if I were
a man to possess one vessel to cross the great ocean,
and bring all sorts of curiosities from foreign lands.
I should not care to have half a dozen, because
they would be a great deal of trouble to me, and
would make me anxious and unhappy.” How
quickly you have changed your opinion. I fear
that if you had a little fleet, your desires would not

5











50 A STORY



be checked, for you would, after a while, be wish-
ing for large ships, and real men, and, instead of
being a contented ship-owner, would not be satis-
fied with any station short of the Lord High Ad-
miral. Ido not think it would be wise in me to
gratify your desires in this matter, for then I should
be like the foolish father of whom Krummacher
relates a story.”

“Oh! what is it, papa,” inquired George: “ will
you tell us?”

Mr. Witton. “A father returned from the sea-
coast to his own home, and brought with him, for
his son, some beautiful shells, which he had picked
up on the shore. The delight of the boy was great. |
He took them. and sorted them, and counted them
over. He called all his playfellows, to show them
his treasures; and they could talk of nothing but
the beautiful shells. He daily found new beauties,
and gave each of them a name. But in a few
months, the boy’s father said to himself, ‘I will
now give him a still higher pleasure; I will take
him to the coast of the sea itself; there he will sce
thousands more of beautiful shells, and may choose
for himself’ When they came to the beach, the
boy was amazed at the multitude of shells that lay
around, and he went to and fro and picked them
up. But one seemed still more beautiful than an-
other, and he kept always changing those he had
gathered for fresh shells. In this manner he went
about changing, vexed, and out of humor with him-
self. At length, tired of stooping and comparing,
and selecting, he threw away all he had picked up,









BY KRUMMACHER. 51

and, returning home weary of shells, he gave away
all those which had afforded him so much pleasure.
Then his father was sorry, and said, ‘I have acted
unwisely ; the boy was happy in his small pleas-
ures, and I have robbed him of his simplicity, and
both of us of a gratification.” Now, my boy, does
not this advise you to ‘ be content with such things
as youhave?’ King Solomon says, ‘ Better is a little
with the fear of the Lord, than great treasure and
trouble therewith ;’ and surely your trouble would
be largely increased were you to have a whole fleet
of ships to rig and fit up against next summer ; and
I rather think Emma would be bringing forward
various objections, as her time would be required
to prepare the sails and dress the sailors.”

“ Indeed, dear papa,” said Emma, “I have had
quite enough trouble with his ‘merchantman,’ for
George is so very particular. I am sure I could
not dress the marines for a man-of-war: they re-
quire an immense deal of care in fitting their clothes :
loose trousers and check shirts are easy to make,
but tight jackets and trousers, with al! the other e¢
ceteras required to dress a marine, would be more
than I should like to undertake, as I feel convinced
I could not do it to the admiral’s satisfaction.”

Cuartes. “George, shall I give you the dic-
tionary definition of an adiniral ?”

Greorce. “I know what an admiral is. He is
an officer of the first rank; but I do not know what
the dictionary says.”

Cuartes. “Then I will tell you how to dis-
tinguish him: according to Falconer, an admiral











52 ADRIATIC SEA.





may be distinguished by a flag displayed at his
main-top-gallant-mast-head.”

This caused a burst of merriment, when Emma
exclaimed, “ That sounds very droll, Charles, but I
understand it: it refers to the admiral’s ship, does
it not, papa ?”

Mr. Witton. “ Yes, my dear. The Sicilians
were the first by whom the title was adopted in
1244: they took it from the Eastern nations, who
often visited them. Well, George, do not you think
you had better be content with your merchant-ship,
because, then, you can reckon on Emma’s services 2”

Grorce. “TI will try, papa, to exercise my pa-
tience on the ‘Stanley,’ and be satisfied to read of
the men-of-war. Now, dear papa, I want to know
if the Mediterranean has ever been frozen over like
the Thames ?”

Mr. Witton. “Not exactly like the Thames,
but it has been frozen. In the year 1823, the Medi-
terranean was one sheet of ice; the people of the
south never experienced so severe a winter, or, if
they did, there is no mention made of it in history.”

Emma. “Ought not Venice, being nearly or
totally surrounded by water, to be included in the
islands of the Mediterranean ?”

Mrs. Wirton. “It is not in the Mediterranean,
my dear, but situated to the north of the Adriatic
Sea, which sea is undoubtedly connected with the
Mediterranean, as are many other seas and gulfs ;
for instance, we may include the Archipelago or
Kgean Sea, the Sea of Marmora, the Gulf of Tarento,
and the first-mentioned, the Adriatic Sea, or Gulf





VENICE. 53

of Venice, the mouth of which is also called the
Ionian Sea; and I cannot tell you how many
smaller gulfs, or, more properly speaking, bays,
beside; for in the Archipelago alone there are no
fewer than eleven. However, while we are so near,
it may be of some advantage to take a peep at
Venice, ‘the dream-like city of a hundred isles:’
that expression is a poetical exaggeration, for Venice
is built upon seventy-two small islands. Over the
several canals, are laid nearly five hundred bridges,
most of them built of stone. The Rialto was once
considered the largest single-arched bridge in the
world, and is well known to English readers from
the work of our greatest dramatist, Shakspeare,—
the ‘Merchant of Venice, and from ‘ Venice Pre-
served,’ written by the unhappy poet Otway, who
died of starvation. Although no longer the brilliant
and prosperous city, from whose stories Shakspeare
selected such abundant subjects for his pen, there
is yet much to admire and wonder at. On the
great canal, which has a winding course between
the two principal parts of the city, are situated the
most magnificent of the great houses, or palaces as
they are termed ; some of them of a beautiful style
of architecture, with fronts of Istrian marble, and
containing valuable collections of pictures. The
canals penetrate to every part of the town, so that
almost every house has a communication by a land-
ing-stair, leading directly into the house by one
way, and on to the water by another. The place
of coaches is supplied by gondolas, which are
light skiffs with cabins, in which four or five per-
5*









54 VENICE.



sons can sit, covered and furnished with a door and
glass windows like a carriage. They are propelled
by one man standing near the stern, with a single
oar, which he pushes, moving the boat in the same
direction as he looks. Those persons who are not
rich enough to possess a gondola of their own, hire
them, as we do cabs, when they require to go abroad.
The Venetian territories are as fruitful as any in
Italy, abounding with vineyards, and mulberry
plantations. Its chief towns are Venice (which I
have described), Padua, Verona, Milan, Cremona,
Lodi, and Mantua. Venice was once at the head
of the European naval powers ; ‘her merchants were
princes, and her traftickers the honorable of the
earth, but now—

“‘* Her pageants on the sunny waves are gone,
Her glory lives in memory’s page alone.’

“In a beautiful poem written by the lamented
Miss Landon, there are some very appropriate
lines :—

“* But her glory is departed,
And her pleasure is no more,
Like a pale queen broken-hearted,

Left lonely on the shore.

No more thy waves are cumbered
With her galleys bold and free;
For her days of pride are numbered,
And she rules no more the sea.
Her sword has left her keeping,

Her prows forget the tide,
And the Adriatic, weeping,

Wails round his mourning bride.’
- * * * » * >













TURKISH ROWERS. 56

“¢In those straits is desolation,
And darkness and dismay—
Venice, no more a nation,
Has owned the stranger’s sway.’”

Cuartes. “TI have some scraps belonging to the
‘tideless sea,’ which will come in here very well.
The first is the account of the Bosphorus, now call-
ed the Canal of Constantinople, situated between
the Euxine and the Sea of Marmora. The whole
length of it is about seventeen miles, and most de-
lightful excursions are made on it in pretty vessels
called ‘ Caiques.’ They rest so lightly on the
water, that you are never certain of being ‘safely
stowed.’ The rowers are splendid-looking fellows
from two to four in number, each man with two
light sculls, and they sit lightly on thwarts on the
same level with the gunwale of the caique. Their
costume is beautiful; the head covered with the
crimson tarbouche, and the long silk tassel dang-
ling over the shoulders; a loose vest of striped silk
and cotton, fine as gauze, with wide open collar, and
loose flowing sleeves ; a brilliant-colored shawl en-
velops the waist, and huge folds of Turkish trou-
sers extend to the knee ; the leg is bare, and a yel-
low slipper finishes the fanciful costume. In the
aft part of this caique is the space allotted for the
‘fare,’ a crimson-cushioned little divan* in the bot-
tom of the boat, in which two persons can lounge
comfortably. The finish of the caique is often ex-
traordinary—finest fret-work and moulding, carved

* More properly written “ diwaun.”





56 TURKISH ROWERS,

and modelled as for Cleopatra. The caiques of the
Sultan are the richest boats in the world, and prob-
ably the most rapid and easy. They are manned
by twenty or thirty oarsmen, and the embellish-
ment, and conceits of ornament are superb. Noth-
ing can exceed the delightful sensation of the mo-
tion ; and the skill of the rowers in swiftly turning,
and avoiding contact with the myriads of caiques is
astonishing. My next scrap is about the Helle-
spont,* situated between the Sea of Marmora and
the Archipelago: it is broader at the mouth than at
any other part; about half-way up, the width is not
more than a mile, and the effect is more like a su-
perb river than a strait; its length of forty-three
miles should also give it a better claim to the title
ofariver. In the year 1810, on the 10th of May,
Lord Byron accompanied by a friend, a lieutenant
on board the ‘ Salsette,” swam across the Hellespont,
from Abydos to Sestos, a distance of four miles; but
this was more than the breadth of the stream, and
caused principally by the rapidity of the current,
which continually carried them out of the way, the
stream at this particular place being only a mile in
width. It was here also that Leander is reported
‘to have swam every night inthe depth of winter,
tomeet his beloved Hero; and, alas! for both, swam
once too often.”

Mr. Witton. “Before we sail out of the Medi-
terranean, I wish to mention the singular loss of

* Thus named from Helle, who, according to poetical tra-
dition, perished in these waters, and from Pontus, the Greek
word for sea.

zee



ELGIN MARBLES. 57

the ‘ Mentor, a vessel belonging to Lord Elgin, the
collector of the Athenian marbles, now called by his
name, and to be seen in the British Museum. The
vessel was cast away off Cerigo, with no other car-
go on board but the sculptures: they were, how-
ever, too valuable to be given up for lost, because
they had gone to the bottom of the sea. A plan
was adopted for recovering them, and it occupied a
number of divers three years, before the operations
were completed, for the Mentor was sunk in ten
fathoms water, and the cases of marble were so
heavy as to require amazing skill and good manage-
ment to be ultimately successful. The cases were
all finally recovered, and none of the contents in the
least damaged, when they were forwarded to Eng-
land. The whole cost of these marbles, all expenses
included, in the collecting, weighing up, and con-
veying, is estimated at the enormous sum of
36,0002.”

Cuartes. “ When was this valuable collection
made, sir?”

Mr. Witton. “It was many years in hand. I
believe about the year 1799 investigations com-
menced ; but the ‘Mentor’ was lost in 1802, and
the marbles did not all arrive in England until the
end of the year 1812; since then an immense num-
ber of valuable medals have been added to the col-
lection.”

Dora. “May we now sail through the straits of
Gibraltar into the Atlantic ?”

Mr. Witton. “ We must necessarily pass through
the straits of Gibraltar to get out of the Mediterra-





58 ISLE OF WIGHT.

nean ; but as we proposed to examine into the dif-
ferent situations of the lesser divisions of water, firsé,
we will merely sail through a portion of the At-
lantic, and have a little information concerning the
Bay of Biscay.”

Dora. “* The Bay of Biscay washes the shores
of France and Spain ; but the sea is so very rough
there, that I think, were our voyage read instead
of wmaginary, we should all be anxious to leave
this Bay as quickly as possible: and the next name
on the list is the British Channel.”

Emma. “Ihave that. The British Channel is
the southern boundary of Great Britain, and ex-
tends to the coast of France. The islands in this
channel are the Isle of Wight—capital Newport,
—Guernsey, Jersey, Alderney and Sark.”

Mrs. Witton. “ The Isle of Wight has, from
time immemorial, been eulogized for its beautiful
scenery. It is about twenty-three miles from east
to west, and twelve from north to south. You
have all heard of the Needles, which obtained their
name from a lofty pointed rock on the western
coast, bearing a resemblance to that little imple-
ment; and which, with other pieces of rock, had
been disjointed from the mainland by the force of
the waves. This rock was 120 feet high. About
seventy years ago, it fell, and totally disappeared in
the sea. The height of the cliffs now standing, is
in some places 600 feet, and, when viewed from a_
distance, they are magnificent in the extreme. In
this island her majesty Queen Victoria has a de-
lightful residence.

a te en re ll ttt seta









THUNDER-STORM. 59



“ Guernsey is the most westerly of the Channel
Islands: it is eight miles one way, and six miles
the other, very fertile, with a mild and healthy cli-
mate. A striking object presents itself on approach-
ing Guernsey, called Castle Cornet, situated on a
rock somewhat less than half a mile from the
shore, entirely surrounded by water, supposed to
have been built by the Romans, and formerly the
residence of the governors.”

Mr. Barravup. “I have read a curious descrip-
tion of a most remarkable thunder-storm, which
visited this place in December, 1672. It is as
follows :—

“ On Sunday night, about 12 o'clock, the maga-
zine of the castle was blown up with the powder in
it by the lightning. The night was very stormy
and tempestuous, and the wind blew hard. In an
instant of time, not only the whole magazine con-
taining the bawde: was blown up in the air, but
also the houses and lodgings of the castle, particu-
larly some fair and beautiful buildings, that had just
before been erected at great expense, under the care
and direction of Lord Viscount Matton, (then gov-
ernor,) who was at the same time within the build-
ings of the castle, all which buildings were. with
many others, reduced to a confused heap of stones,
and several persons buried in the ruins. In the
upper part of the castle, at a place called the New
Buildings, was killed by the accident the dowager
Lady Hatton, by the fall of the ceiling of her cham-
ber, which fell in four pieces, one of them upon her
breast, and killed her ou the spot. The Lady Hat-







60 THUNDER-STORM.

ton, wife to the governor, was likewise destroyed
in the following manner:—Her ladyship, being
greatly terrified at the thunder and lightning, in-
sisted (before the magazine blew up.) upon being
removed from the chamber she was in to the nur-
sery; where, having caused her woman to come
also to be with her, in order to have joined in pray-
er, in a few minutes after, that noble lady and her
woman fell a sacrifice, by one corner of the nursery-
room falling in upon them, and were the next
morning both found dead. In the same room was
also killed a nurse, who was found dead, having my
Jord’s second daughter fast in her arms, holding a
small silver cup in her hands, which she usually
played with, and which was all rimpled and bruised.
Yet the young lady did not receive the least hurt.
The nurse had likewise one of her hands fixed
upon the cradle, in which lay my lord’s youngest
daughter, and the cradle was almost filled with
rubbish : yet the child received no sort of prejudice.
A considerable number of other persons were all
destroyed by the same accident.’*

Mrs. Witton., “ What a very remarkable pres-
ervation of those little children. Who could deny
the finger of God, with such wonderful instances of
his Omnipotence before their eyes? Surely such
events must shake the tottering foundations of infi-
delity, and cause the most disbelieving to confess
‘The Lord He is God.’ Jersey is the next island
for consideration ; but I know so little of it, that I

* Vide History of Guernsey, by Dicey.











JERSEY. 61





must refer you to some person better acquainted
with the subject.”

Caries. “I have been to Jersey, madam, and
shall be happy to afford you the trifling information
I have gained respecting its peculiarities. Jersey,
the largest of the Channel Islands, is situated in a
deep bay of the French coast, from which it is dis-
tant twenty miles. Its extreme length from east
to west is twelve miles, its breadth six. The island
is fertile and beautiful, it enjoys a mild and salu-
brious climate; the coast is studded with granite
rocks, and indented by small bays, which add
greatly to the beauty of the scenery. The chief
town is St. Helier’s,—its principal trade is with
Newfoundland: ship-building is carried on exten-
sively. The natives are kind, but thrifty and par-
simonious.”

Mrs. Witton. “ Thank you, Charles; your
description is short, and very much to the purpose.
The Channel Islands, I believe, were attached to
England, as the private property of William the
Conqueror: the French have made several unsuc-
cessful attempts to gain possession of them. The
natives are Norman, and the language Norman-
French. These islands enjoy a political constitu-
tion of their own; exemption from all duties, and
various privileges granted them by Royal Charter;
they are much attached to the English govern-
ment, but entirely averse to the French. We will
now pass over the other islands, and, ‘ putting our
ship about’ we will stop to view the Eddystone
lighthouse.”





6





62 ROMAINES JOURNAL.

Mr. Witton. “Before we quit the shores of
France, I wish to read you an extract from Leigh
Ritchie’s Travelling Sketches. You remember in
our conversations on the Rivers last winter, that
we mentioned the stain that would ever remain on
Havre from the prominent part taken by the inhabi-
tants in the dreadful traffic in slaves. The extract
I am about to read is from the journal of a youth
named Romaine, on board the ‘ Rodeur,’ a vessel
of 200 tons, which cleared out of Havre for Guada-
loupe, on the 15th January, 1819. The boy writes
to his mother, while the vessel lay at Bony in the
river Calabar, on the coast of Africa:—‘ Since we
have been at this place, I have become more ac-
customed to the howling of these negroes. At first
it alarmed me, and I could not sleep. The captain
says if they behave well they will be much better
off at Guadaloupe; and I am sure I wish the
ignorant creatures would come quietly, and have it
over. To-day, one of the blacks, whom they were
forcing into the hold, suddenly knocked down a
sailor, and attempted to leap overboard. He was
caught, however, by the leg, by another of the crew ;
and the sailor, rising in a passion, hamstrung him
with his cutlass. The captain, seeing this, knocked
the butcher flat upon the deck with a handspike.
“TJ will teach you to keep your temper,” said he;
“ he was the best slave of the lot!”’ The boy then
runs to the chains, and sees the slave who was
found to be ‘useless,’ dropped into the sea, where
he continued to swim after he had sunk under the
water, making a red track, which broke, widened,



SLAVE SHIP. 63

faded, and was seen no more. At last they got
fairly tosea. The captain is described as being in
the best temper in the world; walking the deck,
rubbing his hands, humming a tune, and rejoicing
that he had six dozen slaves on board ; men, women,
and children; and all in ‘ prime marketable condi-
tion.” The boy says, their cries were so terrible,
that he dare not go and look into the hold; that at
first he could not close his eyes, the sound so froze his
blood ; and that one night he jumped up, and in hor-
ror ran to the captain’s room ; he was sleeping pro-
foundly with the lamp shining upon his face, calm as
marble. The boy didnot like todisturbhim. The
next day, two of the slaves were found dead in the
hold, suffocated by the foulness of the atmosphere.
The captain is informed of this, and orders them in
gangs to the forecastle to take the fresh air. The
boy runs up on deck to see them; he did not find
them so very unwell, but adds, ‘that blacks are so
much alike that one can hardly tell” On reaching
the ship’s side, first one, then another, then a third,
of the slaves leaped into the sea, before the eyes of
the astonished sailors. Others made the attempt,
but were knocked flat on the deck, and the crew
kept watch over them with handspikes and cutlasses,
until they should receive orders from the captain.
The negroes who had escaped, kept gambolling
upon the waves, yelling what appeared like a song
of triumph, in the burden of which some on deck
joined. The ship soon left the ‘ ignorant creatures’

behind, and their voices were heard more and more
faint; the black head of one, and then another,

ce nn ACA LA



64 | SLAVE SHIP.

disappearing, until the sea was without a spot, and
the air without a sound. The captain, having
finished his breakfast, came on deck, and was in-
formed of the revolt. He grew pale with rage, and,
in dread of losing all his cargo, determined to make
an example. He selects six from those who had
joined in the chorus, has three hanged, and three
shot before their companions. That night the boy
could not sleep. The negroes, in consequence of
the revolt, are kept closer than ever. As a conse-
quence, ophthalmia makes its appearance among
them. The captain is compelled to have them be-
tween decks, and the surgeon attends them ‘just as
if they were white men.’ All the slaves, then the
crew, save one, the captain, surgeon, and mate, the
boy, and at last the solitary one of the crew, are
stone blind. ‘ Mother, says the boy, ‘ your son was
blind for ten days.’

“Some of the crew were swearing from morning
till night, some singing abominable songs, some
kissing the crucifix and making vows to the saints.
The ship in the meanwhile helmless, but with sails
set, driving on like the phantom vessel, is assailed
by astorm, and the canvass bursts with loud reports,
the masts strain and crack, she carrying on her
course down the abyss of billows, and being cast
forth like a log on the heights of the waters. The
storm dies away, when the crew are startled with a
sound which proves to be a hail from another vessel.
They ask for hands, and are answered with a de-
mand for like assistance. The one crew is too few
to spare them, and the other is too blind to go.



HORRIBLE. CRUELTY. 65

‘ At the commencement of this horrible coincidence,’
continues the boy, ‘there was a silence among us
for some moments, like that of death. It was broken
by a fit of laughter in which I joined myself; and
before our awful merriment was over, we could hear,
by the sound of the curses which the Spaniard
shouted against us, that the St. Leo had drifted away.’

“ The captain, crew, and some of the slaves grad-
ually recover; some partially, with the loss of an eye,
others entirely. The conclusion of the journal must
be told in the boy’s-own words :—

«¢This morning the captain called all hands on
deck, negroes and all. The shores of Guadaloupe
were in sight. I thought he was going to return
God thanks publicly for our miraculous escape.
« Are you quite certain,” said the mate, “that the
cargo is insured?” “I am,” replied the captain:
“every slave that is lost must be made good by the
underwriters. Besides, would you have me turn
my ship into a hospital for the support of blind
negroes? They have cost us enough already; do
your duty.” The mate picked out the thirty-nine
negroes who were completely blind, and, with the
assistance of the rest of the crew, tied a piece of
ballast to the legs of each. The miserable wretches
were then thrown into the sea!”

Tears glistened in the eyes of the children dur-
ing the perusal of this melancholy account, and Km-
ma, covering her face with her hands, wept aloud.

“Poor, poor people!” exclaimed George; “ oh!
how glad I am that the English have no slaves ;

6* !



66 SLAVE-TRADE,

those wicked captains and sailors deserve to be
hanged for treating them so cruelly.”

Granvy. “‘ Vengeance is mine, saith the Lord.’
These wicked men will one day be called to an
awful account for the cruelties exercised on their
hapless brethren ; and not ¢hey alone, but also the
purchasers of these wretched slaves, who, when
possessed of them, still caused them to groan in
bondage and misery ; without once considering that
negroes also are the work of God’s hands, and are
made immortal equally with themselves, notwith-
standing their different complexion ; for ‘ God is no
respecter of persons,’ and He takes as much inter-
est in the soul of a poor negro as in that of the
greatest white potentate on the earth.”

Mr. Barravup. “The glory of one of our cele-
brated navigators is tarnished, by not merely a par-
ticipation in, but by being actually the originator
of, the slave-trade in the English dominions. Sir
John Hawkins was the first Englishman who en-
gaged in the slave-trade ; and he acquired such rep-
utation for his skill and success on a voyage to
Guinea made in 1564, that, on his return home,
Queen Elizabeth granted him by patent, for his
crest, a demi-moor, in his proper color, bound with
acord. It was in those days considered an honor-
able employment, and was common in most other
civilized countries of the world: it was the vice of
the age: therefore we must not condemn Sir John
Hawkins individually, for it is probable that he
merely regarded it as a lucrative branch of trade,
and, like the rest of the world at that period, did no*



WRECK OF THE ROYAL GEORGE. 67

consider it as in the slightest degree repugnant to
justice or Christianity. I presume our next halting-
place will be Portsmouth ?”

Dora. “ Yes, sir; we are to anchor in Ports-
mouth harbor, because Charles has an excellent
account of the wreck of the ‘ Royal George,’ which,
being so immediately connected with this naval
town, will be more appropriate here than elsewhere.
Will you read it, Charles ?”

Cuartes. “ Willingly. The narrative is written
by one of the survivors, a Mr. Ingram, who lived
many years after, at Woodford, near Bristol.

She Treck of the Roval Greorge.

“ ¢ The “ Royal George” was a ship of one hun-
dred guns. In August, 1782, she came to Spit-
head in a very complete state, so that there was no
occasion for the pumps to be touched oftener than
once in every three or four days. By the 29th of
August she had got six months’ provisions on
board, and also many tons of shot. The ship had
her top-gallant-yards up, the blue flag of-Admiral
Kempenfeldt was flying at the mizen, and the en-
sign was hoisted on the ensign-staff—and she was
to have sailed in about two days, to join the grand
fleet in the Mediterranean. It was ascertained that
the water-cock must be taken out, and a new one
put in. The water-cock is something like a tap of
a barrel; it is in the hold of a ship on the starboard
side, and at that part of the ship called the well.





68 THE WRECK OF

By turning a handle which is inside the ship, the
sea-water is let into a cistern in the hold, and it is
from that pumped up to wash the decks. In some
ships, the water is drawn up the side in buckets,
and there is no water-cock. To get out the old
water-cock, it was necessary to make the ship heel
so much on her larboard side as to raise the outside
of this apparatus above water. This was done at
about eight o’clock, on the morning of the 27th
August. To do it, the whole of the guns on the
larboard side were run out as far as they would go,
quite to the breasts of the guns, and the starboard
guns drawn in amidships and secured by tackles,
two to every gun, one on each side. This brought
the water- nearly on a level with the port-holes of
the larboard side of the lower gun-deck. The men
were working at the water-cock on the outside of
the ship for near an hour, the ship remaining all
on one side, as I have stated.

“¢ At about nine o’clock, a. m., or rather before,
we had just finished our breakfast, and the last
lighter, with rum on board, had come alongside:
this vessel was a sloop of about fifty tons, and be-
longed te three brothers, who used to carry things
on board the man-of-war. She was lashed to the
larboard side of the “ Royal George,” and we were
piped to clear the lighter, and get the rum out of
her, and stow it in the hold of the “ Royal George.”
I was in the waist of our ship, on the larboard side,
bearing the rum-casks over, as some of our men
were aboard the sloop to sling them.

«“¢ At first no danger was apprehended from the












THE ROYAL GEORGE. 69.

ship being on one side, although the water kept
dashing in at the port-holes at every wave; and
there beng mice in the lower part of the ship,
which were disturbed by the water which dashed
in, they were hunted in the water by the men, and
there had been a rare game going on. - However,
by nine o'clock the additional quantity of rum
aboard the ship, and also the quantity of sea-water
which had dashed in through the port-holes,
brought the larboard port-holes of the lower gun-
deck nearly level with the sea.

«;¢ As soon as that was the case, the carpenter
went on the quarter-deck to the lieutenant of the
watch, to ask him to give orders to “right ship,” as
the ship could not bear it. However, the lieutenant
made him a very short answer, and the carpenter
then went below. This officer was the third lieu-
tenant; he had not joined us long: his name I do
not recollect; he was a good-sized man, between
thirty and forty years of age. The men called him
« Jib-and-stay-sail-Jack ;” for if he had the watch in
the night, he would be always bothering the men
to alter the sails, and it was “up jib” and “down
jib,” and “up foresail” and “down foresail,” every
minute. However, the men considered him more
of a troublesome officer than a good one; and, from
a habit he had of moving his fingers about when
walking the quarter-deck, the men said he was an
organ-player from London: but I have no reason
to know this was the case. The captain’s name
was Waghorn. He was on board, but where he
was I do not know: however, captains, if anything










70 THE WRECK OF

is to be done when the ship is in harbor, seldom
interfere, but leave it all to the officer of the watch.
The Admiral was,either in his cabin, or in the
steerage (I do not know which); and the barber,
who had been to shave him, had just left. The
Admiral was a man upwards of seventy years of
age; he was a thin tall man, and stooped a good
deal.

“¢As I have already stated, the carpenter left
the quarter-deck and went below. In a very short
time he came up again, and asked the lieutenant
of the watch to “right ship,” and said again that
the ship could not bear it. Myself and a good
many more were at the waist of the ship and at the
gangways, and heard what passed, as we knew the
danger, and began to feel aggrieved ; for there were
some capital seamen aboard, who knew what they
were about quite as well or better than the officers.

“¢Tn a very short time, ina minute or two, I should
think, Lieutenant (now Admiral Sir P. H.) Durham
ordered the drummer to be called to beat to “right
ship.” The drummer was called in a moment, and
the ship was then just beginning tosink. I jumped
off the gangway as soon as the drummer was call-
ed. There was no time for him to beat his drum,
and I do not know that he had even had time to
get it. I ran down to my station, and, by the time
I had got there, the men were tumbling down the
hatchways one over another, to get to their stations
as quick as possible to “right ship.” My station
was at the third gun from the head of the ship, on
the starboard side of the lower gun-deck close by





THE ROYAL GEORGE. 71

where the cable passes. I said to the second cap-
tain of our gun whose name was Carrell, (for every
gun has a first and second captain, though they are
only sailors,) “Let us try to bouse our gun out,
without waiting for the drum, as it will help to
‘right ship.” We pushed the gun, but it ran back
upon us, and we could not start him. The water
then rushed in at nearly all the port-holes of the
larboard side of the lower gun-deck, and I directly
said to Carrell, “ Ned, lay hold of the ring-bolt, and
jump out of the port-hole; the ship is sinking, and
we shall all be drowned.” He laid hold of the
ring-bolt, and jumped out at the port-hole into the
sea: I believe he was drowned, for I never saw
him afterwards. I immediately got out at the
same port-hole, which was the third from the head
of the ship on the starboard side of the lower gun-
deck, and when I had done so, I saw the port-hole
as full of heads as it could cram, all trying to get out.

“ was just above me, to prevent falling back again
into the port-hole, and seized hold of a woman
who was trying to get out of the same place. I
dragged her out. The ship was full of Jews, wo-
men, and people, selling all sorts of things. I threw
the woman from me, and saw all the heads drop
back again in at the port-hole, for the ship had got
so much on her larboard side, that the starboard
port-holes were as much upright as if the men had
tried to get out of the top of a chimney, with noth-
ing for their legs and feet to act upon. I threw
the woman from me, and just after that moment,





72

the air that was between decks, drafted out at the
port-holes very swiftly. It was quite a huff of
wind, and it blew my hat off The ship then sunk
in a moment. I tried to swim, but I could not, al-
though I plunged as hard as I coul1, both hands
and feet. The sinking of the ship drew me down
so: indeed, I think I must have gone down within
a yard as low as the ship did. When the ship
touched the bottom, the water boiled up a great
deal, and then I felt that I could swim, and began
to rise. 7

«¢ When I was about half-way up to the top of
the water, I put my right hand on the head of a
man who was nearly exhausted. He wore long hair,
as did many of the men at that time; he tried to
grapple me, and he put his four fingers into my
right shoe, alongside the outer edge of my foot. I
succeeded in kicking my shoe off, and, putting my
hand on his shoulder, I shoved him away: I then
rose to the surface of the water.

“¢At the time the ship was sinking, there was
a barrel of tar on the starboard side of her deck,
and that had rolled to the larboard, and staved as
the ship went down, and when I rose to the top of
the water, the tar was floating like fat on the top
of a boiler. I got the tar about my hair and face :
but I struck it away as well as I could, and when
my head came above water, I heard the cannon
ashore firing for distress. I looked about me, and
at the distance of eight or ten yards from me, I saw
the main topsail halyard block above water: the

THE WRECK OF



aaa

































water was about thirteen fathoms deep, and at that |





THE. ROYAL GEORGE. 73
time the tide was coming in. I swam to the main
topsail halyard block, got on it, and sat upon it,
and then I rode. The fore, main, and mizen tops
were all above water, as were a part of the bow-
sprit, and part of the ensign-staff, with the ensign
upon it.

“¢In going down, the mainyard of the “ Royal
George” caught the boom of the rum-lighter, and
sunk her; and there is no doubt that this made the
« Royal George” more upright in the water, when
sunk, than she otherwise would have been, as she
did not lie much more on her beam-ends than small
vessels often do, when left dry on a bank of mud.

«When I got on the main topsail halyard block,
I saw the admiral’s baker in the shrouds of the
mizen-top-mast, and directly after that, the woman,
whom I had pulled out of the port-hole, came roll-
ing by: I said to the baker, who was an Irishman,
named Robert Cleary, “ Bob, reach out your hand,
and catch hold of that woman; that is a woman I
pulled out of the port-hole: I dare say she is not
dead.” He said, “I dare say she is dead enough ;
it is of no use to catch hold of her.” I replied, “I
dare say she is not dead.” He caught hold of the
woman, and hung her head over one of the ratlines
of the mizen shrouds, and there she hung by the
chin, which was hitched over the ratlin; but a
surf came and knocked her backwards, and away
she went rolling over and over. A captain of a
frigate which was lying at Spithead came up in a
boat as fast as he could. I dashed out my left
hand in a direction towards the woman as a sign
Z




































74 THE WRECK OF

to him. He saw it, and saw the woman. His
men left off rowing, and they pulled the woman
aboard their boat, and laid her on one of the thwarts.
The captain of the frigate called out to me, “ My
man, I must. take care of those who are in more
danger than you.” I said,“I am safely moored,
now, sir.” There was a seaman named Hibbs,
hanging by his two hands from the main-stay, and
as he hung, the sea washed over him every now
and then, as much as a yard deep over his head ;
and when he saw it coming, he roared out: how-
ever, he was but a fool for that ; for if he had kept
himself quiet, he would not have wasted his strength,
and he would have been able to take the chance of
holding on so much the longer. The captain of the
frigate had his boat rowed to the main-stay; but
they got the stay over part of the head of the boat,
and were in great danger, before they got Hibbs on
board. The captain of the frigate then got all the
men that were in the different parts of the rigging,
including myself and the baker, into his boat, and
took us on board the “ Victory ;” where the doctors
recovered the woman, but she was very ill for three
or four days. On board the “ Victory,” I saw the
body of the carpenter lying on the hearth before
the galley fire: some women were trying to re-
cover him, but he was quite dead.

“ not swim, was picked up and saved by one of the
seamen. The lieutenant of the watch, I believe, was
drowned. The number of persons who lost their
lives, I cannot state with any degree of accuracy,















THE ROYAL GEORGE. 75

because of there being so many Jews, women, and
other persons on board who did not belong to the
ship. The complement of the ship was nominally
1000 men, but she was not full. Some were ashore ;
sixty marines had gone ashore that morning. |

“ men who were on board, and not drowned, for the
loss of their things. I saw the list, and there were
only seventy-five. A vast number of the best men
were in the hold stowing away the rum-casks: they
must all have perished, and so must many of the
men who were slinging the casks in the sloop.
Two of the three brothers belonging to the sloop
perished, and the other was saved. I have no doubt
that the men caught hold of each other, forty or
fifty together, and drowned one another ; those who
could not swim catching hold of those who could;
and there is also little doubt that as many got into
the launch as could cram into her, hoping to save
themselves in that way, and went down in her al-
together.

“¢ Ina few days after the “ Royal George” sunk,
bodies would come up thirty or forty nearly ata
time. A body would rise, and come up so sudden-
ly as to frighten any one. The watermen, there is
no doubt, made a good thing of it: they took from
the bodies of the men their buckles, money, and
watches, and then made fast a rope to their heels,
and towed them to land.’

Cuartes. “That is all I have copied, as the re-
maining part of the narrative is too full of nautical
terms for us to understand; and, as it only relates







76 _ (HE WRECK OF

to the state of the weather, the condition of the ves-
sel, and the perverseness of the lieutenant, it is of
no particular advantage to us in the explanation of
the wreck, for we already know the why and where-
fore of the disastrous event. But Mr. Ingram does
not precisely state the number of persons lost. Was
it not ascertained soon after ?”

Mr. Witton. “Yes; I believe the number of
persons who perished on this sadly memorable
occasion was upwards of 800, out of whom 200
were women.”

Grorce. “And was the taking out the water-
cock the original cause of the sinking of the ‘ Royal
George’ ?”

Mr. Witton. “No doubt it was, because, to ef-
fect this, the vessel was hove on one side, and while
in that situation, a sudden squall threw her broad-
side into the water, and the lower deck ports not
having been lashed down, she filled, and sunk in
about three minutes.”

Dora. “Dear me! how very sudden; what an
awful scene it must have been, so many poor crea-
tures hurried, with scarcely a moment's warning or
time to cry for mercy, into the presence of their
Creator! Were the bodies all washed ashore? Oh!
what a mourning and lamentation there must have
been at Spithead, when the fatal truth was borne
to their sorrowing friends.”

Mr. Witton. “They were not al washed
ashore, Dora, for the good old Admiral Kempenfeldt
was never found. Vast portions of the wreck have
been recovered, and many of her stores; but they











17

are comparatively worthless when we think of the
widows and orphans left to pine in poverty and
wretchedness.”

Emma. “Cowper has written some touching lines
on this awful calamity, with which we shall wind
up the subject :—

THE ROYAL GEORGE.





























“‘Toll for the brave!
The brave that are no more!

All sunk beneath the wave,
Fast by their native shore !




“« ight hundred of the brave,
Whose courage well was tried,
Had made the vessel heel,
And laid her on her side.

“¢ A land breeze shook the shrouds,
And she was overset ;

Down went the Royal George,

With all her crew complete.




‘* Toll for the brave |
Brave Kempenfeldt is gone ;

His last sea-fight is fought:
His work of glory done.




“«¢ Tt was not in the battle ;
No tempest gave the shock ;

She sprang no fatal leak ;
She ran upon no rock.

“+ His sword was in its sheath-

His fingers held the pen,
When Kempenfeldt went down,

With twice four hundred men!

70





OY, eee eee
aS

eek ee ee oe ee, a ee een 7 eo
* x pee ee oa ee eS ee eT.

78 EDDYSTONE LIGHTHOUSE.

“Weigh the vessel up,
Once dreaded by our foes!
And mingle with our cup
The tear that England owes.

«“* Her timbers yet are sound,
And she may float again,
Full charged with England’s thunder,
And plough the distant main.



“+ But Kempenfeldt is gone,
His victories are oer ;
And he and his eight hundred
Shall plough the main no more !”

Mrs. Witton. “I fear we are prolonging this
evening’s discussion beyond the customary bounds ;
but I should not be satisfied to quit the Channel
without a peep at rocky Eddystone.”

Grorce. “Mamma is very anxious to see the
Lighthouse, and so am I. It appears to me a most
wonderful building, standing as it does, surrounded
by foaming waves, and in constant danger from
winds and storms. Who knows anything about
it?”

Emma. “I do! the Eddystone Lighthouse is
built on a rock in the Channel, about fifteen miles
south-south-west from the citadel of Plymouth. It
is, as George remarked, exposed to winds and waves,
for the heavy swells from the Bay of Biscay and
the Atlantic Ocean send the waves breaking over
the rock with prodigious fury. The first Light-
house erected on these rocks was the work of a gen-
tleman named Winstanley ; it stood four years, when

ye NE) ny ee



EDDYSTONE LIGHTHOUSE. 79

he was so confident of its stability that he determin-
ed to encounter a storm in the building himself. He
paid for his temerity with his life, and found how
vain it was to build houses of brick and stone to re-
sist the mighty waters, which can only be controlled
by the power of the most high God. Three years
afterwards another Lighthouse was built, which sus-
tained the attacks of the sea for the space of forty-
six years, but, strangely enough, was destroyed by
fire in August, 1755. The fire broke out in the
lantern, and burning downwards, drove the men,
who in vain attempted to extinguish it, from cham-
ber to chamber ; until at last, to avoid the falling of
the timber, and the red hot bolts, they took refuge
in a cave on the east side of the rock, where they
were found at low water ina state little short of
stupefaction, and conveyed to Plymouth. The pres-
ent Lighthouse was erected by Mr. Smeaton on an
improved plan: no expense was spared to render it
durable and ornamental ; the last stone was placed
on the 25th of August, 1759, and the first night the
light was exhibited a very great storm happened,
which actually shook the building ; but it stood,—
and it still stands,—a glorious monument of human
enterprise, perseverance, and slill.”

Granpy. “ We have done so much to-night, and
have been so much interested, that I may venture
to offer an apology for not having prepared my por-
tion. It is now time for supper; and I think you
have heard as much to-night as you can well re-
member. Shall I ring the bell, my dear?” Mrs.
Wilton replied in the affirmative, and John quickly



80 EDDYSTONE LIGHTHOUSE.

appeared with the tray. Some nice baked apples
soon smoked on the table, with cakes of Grandy’s
own making, intended expressly for the children,
and which gave universal satisfaction. The meet-
ing dispersed about half-past ten, and all felt the
wiser for their evening’s amusement.





CHAPTER III.

There lives and works
A soul in all things,—and that soul is God!

For a few minutes we will quit the “ Research,”
and take a peep into Mr. Wilton’s drawing-room.
There is a bright, blazing fire ; the crimson curtains
are closely drawn ; pussy is curled up in a circle on
the soft rug; and Grandy, with her perpetual knit-
ting, is still in the old leather chair.

“ But where are all the others?” I fancy I hear
my readers’ inquiries. Look again. Who sits at
the table writing so busily, and every instant turn-
ing over the leaves of a large book ? It is George.
Emma has gone with her papa and mamma to the
Colosseum; but George was obliged to remain a
prisoner at hame, having been much inconvenienced
by a severe cold. He is now working diligently to
create a surprise for his sister on her return ; and
anxiety to please her gives such impetus to his
exertions, that he accomplishes more than he even
ventured to anticipate.

(irandy perseveres in her knitting: she silently
commends her darling for his thoughtful affection,
and occasionally pauses to cast a glance of deep
earnest love, not unmixed with a degree of pride,







82 THE WILTONS.

on the beaming countenance of her favorite grand-
child.

George completes his task, and causes his work-
ing apparatus to vanish before ten o'clock ; then,
twining his arms around the beloved grandmother’s
neck, he quietly whispers all the secret in her ear,
and awaits her approval.

She suggests that he preserve it until the next
evening, and then astonish the assembly by reading
his extensive notes, the result of the last two hours’
labor.

George is delighted, and amuses himself with
imagining Emma’s astonishment when he makes
his grand display ; and, with his mind vigorously
engaged in picturing the pleasures of the surprise,
he retires to rest.

Our young friends, Emma and George, were too
sensible of the value of time to waste it in idleness
or trifling pursuits; consequently, whenever you
called at Mr. Wilton’s, you might be sure to find
them occupied with some work, profitable either
to themselves or their fellow-creatures; and Mrs.
Wilton in her daily instructions had so combined
practice with theory, that her pupils almost uncon-
sciously imitated her in the paths of industry and
perseverance, no longer feeling (as heretofore) the
sad effects of procrastination ; but “ whatsoever their
hands found to do, they did it with their might.”

Continually engaged, with no cares to harass, no
troubles to distress them, their hours and days flew
on the wings of hope,—laden only with fond recol-
lections of the past, glowing with the bright realities



A GREAT NAVAL VICTORY. 83

of the present, and wafting the perfume of a glorious
future crowned with the everlasting garlands of love,
joy, and peace.

There was not much time lost in arranging their
books and papers on the evening of this meeting;
but they were obliged to commence without waiting
Mr. Barraud’s arrival, for the clock had struck seven,
and their business admitted of no delay.

They were soon seated. “ Which way are we to
get out of the British Channel ?” was the first ques-
tion.

Mr. Witton. “ There are two convenient ways
for us to sail out of the Channel: the one through
the Straits of Dover into the German Ocean; the
other past Land's End, Cornwall, into the wide
waters of the North Atlantic. We will take the
former direction, and anchor off Yarmouth while we
examine into the wonders connected with this divi-
sion of the mighty sea.”

Cuartes. “The German Ocean is the eastern
boundary of England, and many of our most beau-
tiful streams fall into its waters. I am not aware
of the existence of any islands in this ocean; and
the only fact I have to state concerning it is, that
here the French first tried their strength with the
English by sea. This happened in the reign of
King John, in the year 1213, and the account is as
follows:—‘ The French had previously obtained
possession of Normandy, and thereby become a
maritime power, which qualified them, as they
thought, to contend with the English: they in-
tended, therefore, to seize the first opportunity









84

of trying their skill; but the English were too
sharp for them, and came upon them when they
were least expected. Five hundred sail were de-
spatched by John to the relief of the Earl of Flan-
ders; and on approaching the port of Daunne, in
Flanders, they saw it crowded with an immense
forest of masts; upon which they sent out some
light shallops to reconnoitre, and bring tidings of
the enemy’s condition. The report was, that the
ships had not hands to defend them, both soldiers
and sailors having gone on shore for plunder. Upon
this the English pressed forward and captured the
large ships without difficulty, while the smaller
ones they burnt after the crews had escaped. Hav-
ing thus mastered the ships outside the harbor, the
English advanced to attack those within it; and
here the full rage of battle commenced. The port
was so narrow, that numbers and skill were una-
vailing, while the dispersed French, perceiving the
tokens of conflict, came running from every quarter
to assist their party. The English upon this, after
grappling with the nearest ships, threw a number of
their forces on land; these arranging themselves on
both sides of the harbor, a furious battle commenced
on land and water at the same instant. In this
desperate m /ée the English were victorious : three
hundred prizes, laden with corn, wine, oil, and other
provisions were sent to England: one hundred
other ships, that could not be carried off, were de-
stroyed ; and the French king, Philip IT. (surnamed
Augustus), during the temporary retreat of the
English, perceiving the impossibility of saving the

A GREAT NAVAL VICTORY.





Page 84





A GREAT VICTORY. 85

rest of his fleet in the event of a fresh attack, set it
on fire, that it might not fall into the enemy’s
hands.’ Thus the first great naval victory of the
English destroyed the /irs¢ fleet that had been pos-
sessed by France.”

Granpy. “ My opinions are no doubt at vari-
ance with the world ; but it does seem to me, that
many of these warfares by sea and land are the
most unjust, wanton sacrifice of life and property,
recorded in the annals of history. I know that
there are times and occasions when it is necessary
to do battle with foreign powers in self-defence, or
to relieve the oppressed and defenceless of other
nations ; such was the glorious object of the battle
of the Nile: but many, many battles are fought with
ambition for their guiding star, and high hopes of
honor and reward in this life to urge on the com-
batants, while their zeal in the performance of the
work of destruction is dignified with the title of
‘Patriotism.’

“We read continually of great victories; that,
related by Charles, is designated a ‘great naval
victory, and throughout, it breathes nothing but
cruelty and unwarranted oppression. It does not ap-
pear that the stratagems used to win a battle are ever
taken into consideration: it is evidently of no con-
sequence how it is won, so long as it 7s won; and
battles are more frequently decided by resorting to
means which are dishonorable, to say the least of
them, than by fair and open trials of strength.
The discomfiture of the French, in this instance,
was most assuredly owing to the cunning exercised







86 A GREAT VICTORY.

by their enemies, and not, as stated, to their supe-
riority of skill or power: they were not permitted
to try either, but were attacked when unprepared,
mercilessly robbed, and slaughtered. And this was
a victory. A victory over people who were not
allowed the chance of defending themselves. ’Tis
true the French had been tyrannizing over the
people of Normandy ; but a bad example ought to
be avoided, not imitated, as in this case. Retalia-
tion is no part of a Christian’s duty, and was not
required at the hands of the English. What right
has any nation, deliberately, and for no other pur-
pose than gain, to invade the territories of another,
to burn their houses, to destroy their inhabitants,
and to plunder them of all their possessions? Is
this a fulfilling of the law? Is this our duty to
our neighbor? Surely not; and yet such are the
principal features in a great victory, from which the
conquerors return to be honored of all men—for
which bonfires blaze, guns are fired, cities are illu-
minated, and every voice is raised to shout victory!
victory! Such victories, my dear children, are
abominations in the sight of God. He bid us live
in love and charity with all men. His Son says,
‘By this I know that ye are my disciples, because
ye have love one toward another;’ and St. Paul
further desires us to ‘love one another with pure
hearts, fervently ;’ adding, ‘ for love is the fulfilling
of the law.’ Much more might be said on this
subject; but I will detain the meeting no longer
than merely to repeat a few verses from a poem of
Southey’s, written on the battle of Blenheim;



A FAMOUS VICTORY. 87



which, as they coincide with my opinions, afford me
much satisfaction, because they testify that I do not
differ in sentiment from all mankind :—

“< With fire and sword the country round
Was wasted far and wide,
And many a childling mother then,
And new-born ‘infant died.
But things like these, you know, must -
At every famous victory !

“«They say it was a shocking sight
After the field was won,
For many thousand bodies here,
Lay rotting in the sun.
But things like that, you know, must be
At every famous victory !

“Great praise the Duke of Marlbro’ won,
And our good Prince Eugene.”
“ Why, ’twas a very wicked thing !”
Said little Wilhelmine.
“Nay, nay, my little girl,” quoth he,
“Tt was a famous victory |”

“<« And everybody praised the Duke,
Who such a fight did win.”
“But what good came of it at last ?”
Quoth Little Wilhelmine.
“ Why that I cannot tell,” said he,
“ But ’twas a famous victory !”’”

Georce. “If I were an admiral, I would never
fight for gain, and I would not allow any of the
men under my command to be cruel to the poor
people in their power.”

“ If you had the opportunity, my-son,” said Mr.



mae

eee Pe ee ey ee eRe Le es Oe ee ne eer

~~

88 MONSTER FISH.

Wilton, “I fear that, like many others, you would
be unable to resist the temptation to show your
authority over the vanquished ; for great and wise
men have often found themselves unequal to the
task of schooling their hearts, to listen to the dic-

tates of humanity, when surrounded by the turmoil

and excitement of a battle. But now, Charles, I
must set you right with respect to the islands, and
inform you that there are two well-known islands
in the German Ocean,—the Isle of Thanet and
Sheppey Isle. I refer you to Mrs. Wilton for their
description.”

Mrs. Witton. “The Isle of Thanet forms the
north-east angle of the county of Kent: from north
to south it is five miles, and rather more than ten
from east to west. It contains many beautiful water-
ing places, Margate, Ramsgate, and Broadstairs
on the sea; St. Lawrence, Birchington, and St.
Peter’s, inland. The whole of the district is ina
very high state of cultivation, and remarkable for
its fertility; the first market-garden in England
was planted in the Isle of Thanet. There is a little
place called Fishness, not far from Broadstairs,
which derived its name from the following circum-
stance:—‘ On the 9th of July, 1574, a monstrous
fish shot himself on sho:e, where, for want of water,
he died the next day; before which time, his roar-
ing was heard above a mile: his length was twenty-
two yards, the nether jaw opening twelve feet; one
of his eyes was more than a cart and six horses
could draw; a man stood upright in the place from
whence his eye was taken; his tongue was fifteen





Te oe.

Se ee a ee ee ee

THE DOWNS. 89

feet long; his liver two cart-loads; and a man
might creep into his nostrils.’ All this, and a great
deal more, is asserted by Kilburne, in his ‘ Survey
of Kent ;’ and Stowe, in his Annals, under the same
date, in addition to the above, informs us, that this
‘whale of the sea’ came on shore under the cliff, at
six o'clock at night, ‘ where, for want of water beat-
ing himself on the sands, it died about the same
hour next morning.’ ”

Cartes. “The size and other particulars seem
probable enough, with the exception of the eye,
which certainly must be an exaggeration; one
such an eye would be large enough for any animal,
were he as monstrous as the wonderful Mammoth
of antediluvian days. Do not you think, madam,
that the account is a little preposterous ?”

Mrs. Witton. “I think it is very likely, my
dear, because there were so few persons to write
descriptions of these wonderful creatures, that those
who undertook the task were seldom content with
the bare truth, no matter how extraordinary, but
generally increased the astonishment of their read-
ers by almost incredible accounts, which they were
quite aware would never be contradicted. We live
in a more inquiring age, and do not so readily give
credence to all we hear, without ascertaining the
probabilities of such descriptions; and exaggerated
accounts are now merely regarded as ‘ travellers’
wonders,’ and only partially believed.

“ About seven miles south of the Isle of Thanet
lies Deal, and immediately opposite Deal is that
part of the sea called the ‘ Downs,’ which has long

Q*





eo ae ny a eh ed
'

90 ‘9T, AUGUSTINE.

been a place of rendezvous for shipping, where as
many as 400 sail have been anchored at one ‘time.
The southern boundary of the Downs is formed by
the Goodwin Sands, so often fatal to mariners.
They were, originally, an island belonging to Earl
Goodwin, when a sudden and mighty inundation
of the sea overwhelmed with light sand, ‘ where-
/ with, as an old writer hath it, ‘it not only remayn-
eth covered ever since, but is become withall a most
dreadful gulfe and shippe swallower.’ |

‘We will now bestow a little consideration on
Sheppey Isle.”

Granvy. “I should like you to be aware, be-
fore quitting this luxuriant Isle of Thanet, that it
was here the precious truths of the Gospel were
first set forth in England: it is supposed, on very
just grounds too, that the apostle Paul was the
preacher, who, in the middle of the first century,
spread the doctrines of Christianity far and wide ;
and, from Rome, travelled to the isles of the “far
west, in which is included this lovely little spot,
where he was received by the noble of the land.
Instead of being persecuted as at Rome, he was
eagerly followed, and the peaceful precepts he en-
deavored to inculcate were willingly obeyed.

“ After St. Paul, came Augustine, who, in 597,
landed in the Isle of Thanet, was welcomed by the
king of Kent, Ethelbert, then holding his court at
Canterbury. He, the second apostle, came to con-
vert the people who were again sunk into barba-
rism and idolatry ; he came in the name of the Most
High, and his mission was successful. Ethelbert










YARMOUTH. 91

‘at once appointed St. Augustine a suitable resi-
dence at Canterbury, and gave him every facility of
effecting his object, by permitting him to hold free
converse with his subjects. Thus you see Canter-
bury thence became the ‘nursing mother’ of reli-
gion throughout the land. The greatest ornament
in the Isle of Thanet is its church at Minster, built
on the site of a convent founded by the princess
Domneva, granddaughter of Ethelbald, king of
Kent. Now we will travel on to Sheppey.”

Mes. Witton. “ We shall not be detained there
long with my description. It is a little island ly-
ing north of Chatham, and separated from the Isle
of Grain by the river Medway. Both these isles
may be considered as situated at the mouth of the
Thames. The principal place in Sheppey is Sheer-
ness.”

Grorce. “Now, dear mamma, I suppose we
have done with the German Ocean ?”

Mrs. Witton. “So far as I am concerned, my
dear; but I have a notion that you are in posses-
sion of some wonderful story which will astonish
us all. Is it so, my boy? Those sparkling eyes
~ and flushed cheeks betray your secret. I am not
deceived. Permit me then to request, in the name
of the assembled members, that you will favor us
with the contents of the paper in your hand.”

“Nay, dear mamma,” said George; “your ex-
pectations are raised too high. My paper only con-
tains an account of a Yarmouth boatman; but it
interested me: and Yarmouth being a seaport on
the shores of the German Ocean, I thought it would




































92 BROCK THE SWIMMER

be an agreeable termination to this part of our voy-
age, and I took the trouble to put it into a moder-
ate compass for the occasion.” George then un-
folded two or three sheets of closely written paper,
while he enjoyed the amazed looks of his sister ;
and so pleased was he at her expressions of aston-
ishment, that he was unable to resist the impulse
of throwing his arms around her neck, and kissing
her affectionately. “ You are surprised, dear Em-
ma,” said he; “I only cared to please you when I
wrote it, but now I will try to please all.” He
then, in a clear distinct tone of voice read the fol-
lowing :—

Narrative of Brock the Swimmer and
Yarmouth Boatman.

“ Amongst the sons of labor, there are none more
deserving of their hard earnings than that class of
persons, denominated Beachmen, on the shores of
this kingdom. To those unacquainted with mari-
time affairs, it may be as well to observe, that these
men are bred to the sea from their earliest infancy,
are employed in the summer months very frequently
as regular sailors or fishermen, and during the au-
tumn, winter, and spring, when gales are most fre-
quent on our coast, in going off in boats to vessels
in distress in all weathers, to the imminent risk of
their lives; fishing up lost anchors and cables, and
looking out for waifs (2. e. anything abandoned or
wrecked), which the winds and waves may have
cast in their way. In our seaports these persons



AND YARMOUTH BOATMAN. 93

are usually divided into companies, between whom
the greatest rivalry exists, in regard to the beauty
and swiftness of their boats, and their dexterity in
managing them: this too often leads to feats of the
greatest daring, which the widow and the orphan
have long to deplore. To one of these companies,
known by the name of ‘ Laytons,’ whose rendezvous
and ‘look-out’ were close to Yarmouth jetty, Brock
belonged ; and in pursuit of his calling, the follow-
ing event is recorded by an acquaintance of Brock’s.

“ About 1 p.m. on the 6th of October, 1835, a
vessel was observed at sea from this station with a
signal flying for a pilot, bearing east distant about
twelve miles: in a space of time incredible to those
who have not witnessed the launching of a large
boat on a like occasion, the yawl, ‘ Increase,’ eigh-
teen tons burden, belonging to Laytons’ gang, with
ten men and a London Branch pilot, was under
weigh, steering for the object of their enterprise.
About 4 o’clock she came up with the vessel, which
proved to be a Spanish brig, Paquette de Bilboa,
laden with a general cargo, and bound from Ham-
burg to Cadiz, leaky, and both pumps at work.
After a great deal of chaffering in regard to the
amount of salvage, and some little altercation with
part of the boat’s: crew as to which of them should
Stay with the vessel, J. Layton, J. Woolsey, and
George Darling, boatmen, were finally chosen to
assist in pumping and piloting her into Yarmouth
harbor: the remainder of the crew of the yaw! were
then sent away. The brig at this time was about
five miles to the eastward of the Newarp Floating







Se ee ee a ek Sys, ee ee Re.

94 BROCK THE SWIMMER

Light, off Winterton on the Norfolk coast, the wea-
ther looking squally. On passing the light in their
homeward course, a signal was made for them to
go alongside, and they were requested to take on
shore a sick man; and the poor fellow being com-
fortably placed upon some jackets and spare coats,
they again shoved off, and set all sail: they had a
fresh breeze from the W. 8. W. ‘There was little
better” said Brock, ‘than a pint of liquor in the
boat, which the Spaniard had given us, and the
bottle had passed once round, each man taking a
mouthful, till about half of it was consumed: we
all had a bit of biscuit each, and while we were
making our light meal, we talked of our earnings,
and calculated that by 10 o’clock we should be at
Yarmouth.

«<¢ Without the slightest notice of its approach a
terrific squall from the northward took the yawl’s
sails flat aback, and the ballast which we had train-
ed to windward, being thus suddenly changed to
leeward, she was upset in an instant.

«“< Our crew and passenger were nine men—’twas
terrible to listen to the cries of the poor fellows, some
of whom could swim, and others who could not.
Mixed with the hissing of the water and the howl-
ings of the storm, I heard shrieks for mercy, and
some that had no meaning but what arose from fear.
I struck out to get clear of the crowd, and in a few
minutes there was no noise, for most of the men had
sunk; and, on turning round, I saw the boat still
kept from going down by the wind having got un-
der the sails. I then swam back to her, and assist-







Full Text


, eae iF
a ie es
lates oh Dacian’ ;
Z

: ; ey. The Baldwin Library |

<< , University
mB vi

Florida | |



A TROPICAL SCENE



WORLD OF WATERS,



OR,




A Proreful Progress wer the Gupather Sra.





BY MRS. DAVID OSBORNE.

SBHith Llustrations.





NEW YORK :
ROBERT CARTER & BROTHERS,
No. 285 BROADWAY.




1852.



——_—

R. Craighead, Printer and Stereotyper,
112 Fulton Street,


Cuutents.

CHAPTER L

PAGE
The Wilton Family.—Story of Frederic Hamilton, ec .

CHAPTER II.

The Wiltons.—Dora Leslie.—Charles Dorning.—The Mediterra-
nean.—Corsica.—Candia.—Rhodes.—Malta.—Valetta.—The Cale-
donia.—A Story by Krummacher.-—Adriatic Sea.—Venice.—
Turkish Rowers.—Elgin Marbles.—Isle of Wight.—Thunder
Storm. — Jersey. — Romaine’s Journal. — Slave Ship. — Horrible
Cruelty.—Slave Trade.—Wreck of the Royal George.—Eddystone
Lighthouse, 6 ee beta n ert « ae 4 Baten @

CHAPTER III.

The Wiltons.—A great Naval Victory.— Monster Fish.—The Downs.
—St. Augustine.—Yarmouth.—Brock the Swimmer and Yar-
mouth Boatman.—The North Sea.—The Bell Rock.—Mr. Bar-
raud.—Jock of Jedburgh.—Wreck of the Forfarshire.—Remark-
able Providence.—Denmark.—The Baltic.—Journey to the Gulf
of Finland.—Reindeer and Sledge.—Reval.—Superstitions.—
Strange Fashions.—Ungern Sternberg.—Gulf of Bothnia.—Islands
of the Baltic —Lapland.—Aurora Borealis.—Russia.—Odessa.—
Reflections, . . . é ° . e . ° . « 81


a

CONTENTS.

CHAPTER IV.
























PAGE
Stanzas by Mrs. Howitt.—Caspian Sea.—Astracan.—Droll Legend.

—Yellow Sea.—The Japanese.—Monsoons.—Trade Winds.—Des-
cription of a Monsoon.—Asia.—The Red Sea.—Isthmus of Suez.—
An Interesting Locality —The Arabs.—Sea of Aral.—Chinese I[s-
lands.—Fishing for Mice.—The Typhon.—Fishing Birds.—Cinna-
mon Forests.—Eating Birds’ Nests.—Bible Lands.—The Sea of
Galilee—The Dead Sea.—The Slave Merchant.—A Japan
Puzzle, . . © 28 ee. “© ¢« .p..8 - «© oH



CHAPTER V.

Story of Eva.—Assistance of Good will.—Madeira.—Man-of-War.—
Dinner on Ship-board.—Computing Latitude.—Pipe to Dinner.—
The Azores.—Newfoundland.—Newfoundland Dogs.—Greenland.
—Whale Fishing.—Flying Fish.—A Ship in the Polar Regions.—
An Awful Sight.—The Geysers.—Icelanders.—Spitzbergen.—The
Ferroe Islands.—Maelstrom.—The Norwegian Mouse.—Hudson’s
Bay.—Hudson’s Straits—Nova Scotia.—Henry May.—The An-
cient Mariner.—Cuba.—Jamaica.—Beauty of Jamaica.—A Hurri-
cane.—Devastation.—Ruins of Yucatan.—Indians of Mexico.—
The American Lakes.—Niagara.—The Caribbean Sea.—Panama.
—Gala Days.—Diving for Pearls—The See-Boy’s Grave.—The
Funeral.—Gulf of Trieste.—Guiana.—Brazil.—Rio de Janeiro.—
Montevideo.—Patagonia.—Cape Horn.—Depth of the Atlantic, .

Z

CHAPTER VI.

The Separation.—Deception Isle—The Gulf of Penas.—Island of
Chiloe.—Juan Fernandez.—Alexander Selkirk.—The Ladies of
Lima.—The Peruvians.—Columbia.—Catching Wild Fow!.—The
Two Oceans.—A Singular Funeral.—Magellan.—Guatemala.—
Ladies Smoking.—Christian Indians.—California—San Fran-

cisco.—Novtka Sound.—Story of Boone and the Bear.—Cleave-

oa
| CONTENTS, Vv

PAGE
land and the Infant.—United States’ Navy.—Cannibals.—K ams-

| chatka.—Polynesia.—The Sandwich Islands.—Captain Cook.—

| A Contest.—Adventure of Kapiolani.—A Delightful Anecdote.—

| Spanish Missionaries.—Philippine Islands.—The Pelew Islands.

| —Birds of Paradise—The Friendly Islands.—Otaheite.—The So-
ciety Islanders.—Pitcairn’s Islands.—Shocking Barbarity—Nobb’s
Letter.—Marquesas.—The Low Islands.—New Caledonia.—New
Zealand.—The Bay of Islands.—Captain Cook’s Story.—A Curi-
ous Idea.—Aranghie.—Cannibalism.—New Holland.—Story of
Mr. Meredith.—Australian Barbarism.—Australian Lakes.—Van
Diemen’s Land.—Coral Reefs.—Story of Kemba,. . . . 223

CHAPTER VII.

Packing up.—Letter from Mr. Stanley.—Mr. Stanley.—Celebes.—
Dress of the Alfoors.—Curious Hospitality.—Java.— Whimsical
Superstition.—Productions of Java.—Sumatra.—Water Spouts.—
Burman Despotism.—The White Elephant.—Sir James Brooke.
—Borneo.—Isle of Bourbon.—Isle of France.—Madagascar.—The
Four Spirits.—The Missionaries.—Horrible Custom.—The Pirates’
Retreat.—Malagassy Fable.—Kerguelen’s Land.—Isle of Des-
olation.—Story of a Sailor.—Morocco.—A Moorish Beauty.—Al-
giers.—Egypt.—Abyssinia.—Abyssinian Customs.—Religion.—
African Coast.—Seychelle Isles.—Mozambique.—Smoking the
Hubble-Bubble.—Caffraria.—Story of the Little Caffre.—Algoa
Bay.—Graham’s Town.—-Cape of Good Hope.—Cape Town.—
Ovunstantia.—The Boschmen.—A Transformation.—Dressing in
Skins.—The Slave Trade.—Fish Bay.—St. Helena.—Kabenda.—
Black Jews.—Ferdinand Po.—The Ape and the Oven.—The
Slave-Coast.—Dahomey.— Ashantee.—King Opocco.—A Singular
Belief.—The Ashantee Wife.—Liberia——A Bowchee Mother.—
Sierra Leone.—The Lakes of Africa.—Bornou.—The Sultan of
Bornou.—African Wedding.—The Deluge.—The Telescope.—
The End, . © e+. e ox ¢ “ek . . 6 7












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My DEAR YOUNG FRIENDS,

It is not my purpose to detain you with
a long preface, because I am aware that long
prefaces are seldom read; but I wish to in-
form you that I have written this book, in the
humble hope of being useful to those in whom
I am so anxiously interested. I am myself
happy in acknowledging the endearing appel-
lation of “Mother,” and I love ail children,
and regard them as priceless treasures, entrusted
to the care and guidance of parents and teach-
ers; with whom it rests in a great measure to
render them blessings to their fellow-creatures,
and happy themselves, or contrariwise.
Should the perusal of this little volume im-
bue you with a taste for the beautiful and
ennobling science of Geography, ‘my object
will be gained; and that such may be the re-
sult of these humble endeavors is the sincere
wish of
Your affectionate Friend,
FANNY OSBORNE.


ON me

















Che Warlh of Waters.



CHAPTER I.

Oh ye seas and floods,
Bless ye the Lord:
Praise him, and magnify him forever.

“On! what beautiful weather,” exclaimed George
Wilton, as he drew his chair nearer the fire. “This
sort of evenings is so suitable for story-telling, that
I regret more than ever the disagreeable necessity
which has taken Mr. Stanley to foreign countries,
and broken up our delightful parties. But yet,
there are enough of us remaining at home to form
a society ; we might manage without him. JDo not
you remember, papa, you said, when Julia Manvers
was with us last summer, we were to examine into
the particulars respecting the seas and oceans of
the world ; and not once was the subject mentioned
while we were at Herne Bay, although the sea was
continually before us to remind us of it. Are we
ever to have any more of those conversations? I
liked them amazingly, and I am sure J learned a

tata


10 THE WILTON FAMILY.

great deal more geography by them than I ever did
out of Goldsmith, or any other dry lesson-book, which
compels one to learn by rule. I wish, dear papa,
you would settle to have these meetings again ; we
would write down all the particulars, and enclose
them ina letter to Mr. Stanley: Iam surehe would
be quite pleased.”

“JT think he would, George,” replied Mr. Wilton,
“and I also think that we have been rather care-
less in this matter ; but, at the same time, you must
remember that the fault does not rest solely with
us, for when we appointed certain times during our
sojourn at Herne Bay for these same geographical
discussions, on every occasion something occurred
to prevent the meeting, and all our arrangements
fell to the ground. Since then, the illness of your
sister,—which, thank God, has terminated so hap-
pily,—the departure of Mr. Stanley, and the removal
to our present abode; all these circumstances con-
spired to render ineffectual any attempt at regular-
ity, and precluded the possibility of an occasional
quiet chat on this really important subject. The
past, present, and future, in the history of man, are
so connected with the positions of the great seas of
the globe, and the navigation of them, that I do re-
gard the study of geography as one of the most wm-
portant branches of a Christian education; and,
now that all impediments are removed, I think we
may venture to propose the re-establishment of our
little society ; and as we are deprived of the valuable
services of Mr. Stanley, we must endeavor to sup-
ply his place by procuring the aid of another dearned





i eters


THE WILTON FAMILY. 11

friend, who will not consider it derogatory to as-
sist in our edifying amusement. And, in order to
render these meetings more extensively beneficial
and interesting, I further propose that we increase
our number by admitting two new members, to be
selected by you, my dear children, from amongst
your juvenile acquaintances ; but we must not ad-

mit any except on the original terms, which were,.

‘that each member add his or her mite of informa-
tion to the general fund.’ What saysmamma about
it? Suppose we put it to the vote 2?”

“ Oh! dear papa,” exclaimed Emma, “I am quite
sure that will be unnecessary. Grandy has often
talked of the meetings held last year, and regretted
that there seemed no disposition to renew them ;
therefore, we are sure of her vote. Mamma was so
useful with her descriptions, that she is not likely
to object. Then you know, dear papa, how very
much J enjoyed these conversations ; and, as far as
any one else is concerned, I am convinced that
my candidate will be glad to prepare a portion of
the subject as her admission fee, and will be as
much interested in the welfare of the society as
we old members are, who have already felt the ad-
vantages arising from it. May we decide now,
papa ?”

All hands were raised in reply, and the resolu-
tion carried unanimously.

“T have a question to ask,” said George. “May
we have the meetings twice during the month, in-
stead of once, as before? It will induce us to be
more industrious, as we shall be obliged to work to

r ee a gh as Ea eal Aiea el ws, ee





12 THE WILTONS.






get up the information. I can share the labor with
Emma now, because I can write easily, and quick-
ly ; besides, it will be such pleasant employment
for the half-holidays.”
* “Very well, my dear,” said Mr. Wilton ; “then
once a fortnight it shall be ; and take care, as the
time will be short, that you are thoroughly prepared :
do not reckon on me, for I cannot assist you as Mr.
Stanley did, so you must be, in a great measure, de-
pendent upon your own resources. My library is
at your disposal, and I hope you will have suffi-
cient perseverance to investigate each point care-
fully, before you come to a decision. Should you
require assistance in the preparation of any particu-
lar part of the subject, of course, I shall have no ob-
jections to render it; but remember, I do not prom-
ise to be an active member, as [ wish you to exert
yourselves, and be in some degree independent. It
will thus be more advantageous to you: it will not
only impress all you learn effectually on your
mind, but improve your reasoning faculties, and en-
able you to understand much that the most careful
explanation might fail to render intelligible.”

“ And when shall we begin, papa?” asked Emma.

Mr. Witton. “My engagements until the 7th
of February are so numerous as to preclude the
possibility of my presence at a meeting before that
time; but after the 7th inst. I shall be more at
liberty, and we will, if you please, commence our
voyage, and (wind and weather permitting) travel
on regularly and perseveringly until we have cir-
cumnavigated the globe.”










13



THE WILTONS.



“ Agreed! agreed!” merrily shouted the chil-
dren.

“ T know which of my friends I shall ask,” said
George; “and I fancy I can guess who will be
Emma’s new member.”

“T fancy you cannot,” returned Emma: “I do
not intend to tell any one, either, until I hear
whether or not she can come ; therefore check your
inquisitiveness, Master George, and wait patiently,
for you will not know before the 7th, when I will
introduce my friend.”

“ Now,” said Grandy, “ having settled the most
important part of the business, I have a few words
to say. You must all be aware, that in the ac-
counts of seas and oceans, there cannot possibly be
so much time disposed of in descriptive facts as
there was in our former conversations concerning
the rivers of the world, which are so numerous, and
require so many minute particulars in tracing their
courses, that they positively (although occupying a
smaller portion of the globe,) take more time to sail
over in our ship ‘ The Research, than the bound-
less ocean, which occupies two thirds of our world;
it will, under these circumstances, be advisable to
illustrate our subject largely, and to lose no oppor-
tunity of extending it for our benefit. We need not
fear to exhaust the topic; for do not the vast waters
encompass the globe ; and can we contemplate these
great works of our Creator, without having our
hearts filled with wonder and admiration? This,
my children, will lead us to the right source ; to the
Author of all the wonders contained in ‘ heaven
?









rn rn nS

14 FREDERIC HAMILTON,

and earth, and in the waters under the earth ;’ and,
if we possess any gratitude, our hearts will be raised
in thankfulness to Him who ‘hath done all things
well;’ and we shall bless him for giving us powers
of discernment and reasoning faculties, which not
only enable us to see and appreciate the goodness
of God, but also, by his grace assisting us, to turn
our knowledge to advantage for our temporal and
eternal good.”

“ We may now,” said Mr. Wilton, “leave these
resolutions to be acted upon at a proper time; and,
as we have two hours’ leisure before supper, if you,
dear mother, will tell us one of your sweet stories
of real life, it will be both a pleasant and profitable
way of passing the evening. We have all employ-
ment for our fingers, and can work while we listen ;
George and [ with our pencils, and you ladies with
your sewing and knitting.”

Granpy. “ Well, what must it be? Something
nautical, I suppose; for as we are about to set sail
in a few days, it will be appropriate, will it not?”

Grorce. “Qh yes! dear Grandy, a nautical
story, if you please.”

Story of Frederic WMamilton.

“ Tue first time I saw Frederic Hamilton was
on board the ‘ Neptune,’ outward bound for Jamaica:
he was then a lad of twelve or fourteen years: I
cannot be sure which; but I remember he was tall
for his age, and extremely good-looking.

“There were so many circumstances during the



ac eas
FREDERIC HAMILTON.

>

15

voyage, which brought me in contact with this boy,
and so many occasions to arouse my sympathies in
his behalf, (for he was evidently in delicate health,
and unfit for laborious work.) that in a short time
I became deeply interested concerning him, and I
determined as soon as I had recovered from sea-
sickness, to watch for an opportunity of inquiring
into the particulars of his earlier history.

“T must first tell you, before proceeding with the
story of my hero, that the captain of the ‘ Neptune’
was a very harsh, cruel man, and made every one
on board his vessel as uncomfortable as he could by
his violent temper, and ungentlemanly conduct. I
was the only lady-passenger; and had it not been
for the kindness of my fellow-travellers, I scarcely
think I could have survived all the terrors of that
dreadful voyage. The sailors, without one dissen-
tient voice, declared they had never sailed with such
a master, and wished they had known ‘a trifle of the
rough side of his character before they engaged with
him, and then he would have had to seek long enough
to make up a crew, for not one of them would have
shipped with him.’ They even went so far as to
say, that if at any time they could escape from the
vessel, they would not hesitate a moment, but would
get away, and leave the captain to work the ship
by himself. I could not take part with the captain,
because I saw too much of his tyranny to entertain
a particle of respect for him, and I confess I was
not in the least surprised at the language of the ill-
used sailors. He had no good feature in his charac-
ter that I could discover ; for he was mean, vulgar,

ee




16 STORY OF

discontented, and brutal. He never encouraged the
men in the performance of their duty, by kind ex-
pressions; on the contrary, he never addressed them
on the most simple matter without oaths and im-
precations, and oftentimes enforced his commands
with a rope’s end or his fist.

“We had yet other causes of discomfort besides
these continual uproars. Contrary winds, constant
gales, and violent storms, made our hearts fail from
fear. We knew the captain could not expect fits
blessing, whose laws he openly set at defiance ; in-
deed, by his life and conversation, he proved that
he ‘cared for none of these things.’

“T believe he was a clever seaman: he had cer-
tainly had much experience, having been upwards
of fifty times across the Atlantic: so that we felt at
ease with regard to the management of the ship.
But we did not put our trust in the skill of the
captain alone; for of what avail would that be if
the Lord withheld his hand, and left us to perish ?
No! my dears, we saw that the captain never prayed,
and we felt there was a greater necessity for us to
be diligent in the duty; and daily, nay hourly, we
entreated the forbearance and assistance of Almighty
God to conduct us in safety to land.

“ After a time, the men became very unmanage-
able; for they hated the captain: he treated them like
slaves, and imposed upon them on every occasion ;
so that at length, goaded to desperation by his cru-
elty, they positively refused to handle a rope until
he agreed to the terms they intended to propose. |

“ The captain, fierce as he was, felt it would be




SA a —

FREDERIC HAMILTON. 17

useless to contend with twenty angry men, and he
knew the passengers would not befriend him: he
therefore deemed it expedient to endeavor to con-
cilixte them by promises he never intended to per-
form, and, after a few hours’ confusion, all was
again comparatively quiet.

“I could tell you much more about the quarrels
and disturbances of which we unfortunate passen-
gers had to be the passive witnesses, and which, ac-
customed as we were to them in the day-time, filled
me with greater horror than I can describe, break-
ing upon the stillness of the night, when all was
quiet but the troubled ocean, whose murmurs, in-
stead of arousing, served to lull us into a deeper
repose. Yes, often, when no other sound but the
low splashing of the waves against the side of the
ship was to be heard, and we were all either sleep-
ing quietly, or thinking deeply of home and friends,
loud cries and shouts would reach us, and, in an
instant, we would all be gathered together to in-
quire into the cause of the disturbance. It was
always the captain and some of the men fighting ;
and on one occasion, the battle was so close to us,
actually in the cabin, between the captain and the
steward, that I screamed aloud, and do not remem-
ber ever to have been so much alarmed.

“ But as my principal object is to make you ac-
quainted with Frederic Hamilton, and not with
my adventures, I will say no more about Captain
Simmons, and his ship, than is necessary in the
course of my tale.

! “I was just getting over the unpleasant sensa-
Ag




18 STORY OF

tions of sea-sickness, when, one morning as I was
dressing in my berth, a noise of scuffling on the
quarter-deck, over my head, interrupted my opera-
tions. [ laid my brush on the table, and listened.
At first I could distinguish nothing, and, thinking
it was the captain and a sailor disputing, I con-
tinued my toilet; when, suddenly, a piercing cry
reached me, and I knew the voice to be Frederic’s.
At the same time the sound of heavy blows fell on
my ear, and again I reeognized his voice: he called
out so loudly, that I heard him distinctly say, ‘ Oh,
sir! have mercy. Pray, pray do not kill me! Oh,
sir! think of my mother, and have pity upon me.
I wil try to please you, sir; indeed, indeed, [ will.
Oh, mercy! mercy!’ His cries became fainter and
fainter, while the blows continued, accompanied oc-
casionally by the gruff voice of the captain, until,
my soul shrinking with horror, I could endure it
no longer. I rushed out of my cabin, and there on
the poop beheld a sight I can never forget. Poor
Frederic was lashed to the shrouds with his hands
above his head, which was then drooping on his
shoulder; his back bare and bleeding. The brutal
captain wes standing by with a thick rope in his
grasp, which, by the crimson stains upon it, suffi-
ciently proved the vile purpose for which its services
had just been required.

“T called out hastily and angrily to the captain
to cease beating the boy, and declared I would
fetch out the gentlemen to interfere if he did not
stop his unmanly behavior. He glared on me
with the fiercest expression imaginable (for he was

aii







FREDERIC HAMILTON. 19



in a towering rage,) and told me I had better not
meddle with him in the performance of his duty,
for he would do as he liked; he was master of the
ship and nobody else, and he would like to see
anybody else try to be. Then he made use of such
fearful language, that I dreaded to approach him;
but my fear lest he should again attack the boy,
overcame my fear for him in his anger; and I
ascended the ladder. He desired, nay commanded,
me to retire to my cabin; but I said, ‘ No, captain,
I will not stir hence until you release Frederic, and
if you strike him again I will be a witness of your
cowardly behavior towards a poor boy whose only
fault is want of strength to do the work assigned
him. Iam quite sure, whatever you may say on
board-ship, you will not be able to justify your con-
duct on shore.’

“ He did not again address me; but, muttering
curses loud and deep, he untied the fainting boy,
and, giving him a savage push, laid him prostrate
on the deck: he then walked forward, and began to
shout aloud his orders to the men on the main-deck.

“The man at the helm, pitying the poor boy,
called to the boatswain, who was standing on the
forecastle, and begged him to send some water to
throw over the lad, and some dressing for his
wounded back. I stayed by him for a short time,
and when he was somewhat recovered, I went
below.

“T fancied, when I met the captain at the dinner-
table, that he looked rather ashamed; for I had
related the whole affair to the other passengers, and




































ne

20 STORY OF

he could perceive, by their indifference towards him,
that they despised him for his cowardice. He tried
to be jocular, but could not succeed in exciting our
risibility: we did not even encourage his jokes by
the shadow of a smile, and he seemed uneasy dur-
ing the remainder of the time we sat at table.

“ I now feit more than ever interested in the fate
of Frederic Hamilton, and was not sorry I had said
so much in the morning. Prudence might have
dictated milder language certainly ; but my indig-
nation was aroused; and when I found that my
remonstrance had the desired effect, I did not re-
pent of my impetuosity.

“ About a week after this unhappy occurrence,
as I was leaning over the rail on the quarter-deck,
watching the shoals of porpoises (for we were then
in a warm latitude) playing in the bright blue sea
at the vessel’s side, the boatswain, who was a fine
specimen of a sea-faring man, came up, and, seating
himself on a fowl-coop near me, commenced sorting
rope-yarns for the men to spin. Presently Frederic
walked up the ladder with a bucket of water to
pour inte the troughs for tlie thirsty poultry, who
were stretching their necks through the bars and
opening their bills, longing for the refreshing
draught: the heat was overpowering, and the
poor things were closely packed in their miserable
coops.

“T remarked to Williams how pale the boy look-
ed, and how thin, and said, I feared he was not
only badly treated, but had not proper nourish-
ment.

a


FREDERIC HAMILTON. 21

“« Why, ma’am,’ said he, ‘to say the truth, the
lad’s not been used to this kind of living, and it
was the worst thing as ever happened to him to be
brought on board the “ Neptune,” with our skipper
fora master. You see, madam,’ he continued, ‘ his
father was a parson; but he is dead, and the
mother tried hard to persuade the lad (for, poor
thing, he is her only boy,) to turn parson too, when
his father died. But no. The boy had set his
mind on going to sea; and as he had no friends
who could help him to go to school or college, and
his godfather, Captain Hartly, offered to pay the
apprenticeship fees if his mother would let him
learn navigation, she at last, though much against
her will, consented that he should be bound ap-
prentice to our skipper here. But it pretty nigh
broke her heart to part with the child; and she
begged the captain to use him gently and bear
with him a little, for he was not so hardy as many
boys of his age; and, moreover, had been accus-
tomed to kindness and delicate treatment. The
lad is a fine noble-hearted lad, but he is not strong;
and it is my opinion that the master wants to get
rid of him to have the fee for nothing, and he’s
trying what hard living, hard work, and hard
usage will do towards making him go the faster.
But he had better mind what he is about. There’s
many a man on board that can speak a good word
for Frederic when he gets ashore ; and, if all comes
out, it will go hard with the master. The poor lad
cries himself to sleep every night, and when he is
asleep he has no rest, for in his dreams he talks of


rare





22 STORY OF

his mother and sister, and often sobs loud enough to
wake the men whose hammocks swing near him.
I am very sorry to see all this, for he is a fine boy,
as I said before, and we are all fond of him; but
he’s not fit for this kind of work, leastwise not yet.
I am glad you have taken notice of him, madam ;
for, though you cannot do any good while we’re at
sea, may be when you come ashore you won't for-
get poor Frederic Hamilton.’

“ When the boatswain left me, I walked up and
down the deck pondering on these things, and con-
triving all sorts of schemes for the relief of my
young friend, and wondering how I could manage
to have some conversation with him on the subject;
when a circumstance occurred, which at once en-
abled me not only to Jearn all I was anxious to
know, but also in a great measure to improve his
condition on board the ‘ Neptune.’

“T knew that Frederic must have been trained
up in the fear of the Lord, for his daily conduct
testified that he not only knew what was right, but
tried to perform it also; and notwithstanding the
severe trials he had to undergo, while with us on
the voyage to Jamaica, yet I never heard a harsh
or disrespectful expression fall from his lips; but
he would attribute all the captain’s unkind treat-
ment of him to something wrong in himself, and
he every day tried beyond his strength to obtain a
look of approbation from his stern master. But,
alas! he knew not to whom he looked ; although
he was cuff-d and kicked about whenever he tried
to be brisk in the task allotted to him, he was al-
FREDERIC HAMILTON. ZO

ways the same patient, melancholy little fellow,
throughout the voyage.

“Sometimes during the night watch, I have
caught the musical tones of his voice, as he walked
the quarter-deck; when, the captain being in his
berth fast asleep, the boy was comparatively happy;
and as the ship sailed quietly along in the pale
moonlight, his thoughts would wander back to the
home of his beloved mother and sister, and, the
buoyancy of youthful spirits gaining the ascend-
ency over more melancholy musings, he would for
a while forget his present sorrows, and almost in-
voluntarily break out in singing some of the sweet
hymns in which he had been accustomed to join
when the little family assembled for devotional ex-
ercises.

“Tt was then I used to open my cabin window,
and breathlessly listen to the clear voice of my
gentle protégé; and not unfrequently could even
distinguish the words he sang; now loud—now
soft, as he approached or retreated. One hymn in
particular seemed to be a special favorite, and was
so applicable to his situation, that I have remem-
bered several of the verses.

“* Jesus, I my cross have taken,

All to leave and follow thee:
Destityte, despised, forsaken,

Thou from hence my all shall be.
Perish every fond ambition,

All Ive sought, and hoped, and known;
Yet how rich is my condition —

God and heaven are still ny own!


a ree neg
; 24 STORY OF
“ «Man may trouble and distress me;
’*T will but drive me to thy breast.
Life with trials hard may press me;
Heaven will bring me sweeter rest.
Oh! ’tis not in grief to harm me,
While thy love is left to me!
Oh! ’twere not in joy to charm me,
Were that joy unmixed with Thee.

“ «Take, my soul, thy full salvation ;

Rise o’er sin, and fear, and care;

Joy to find in every station
Something still to do or bear !

Think what Spirit dwells within thee ;
What a Father’s smile is thine ;

What thy Saviour did to win thee,—
Child of Heav’n, should’st thou repine %

“* Haste then on from grace to glory,
Armed by faith, and winged by prayer;
Heaven’s eternal day’s before thee ;
Heaven’s own hand shall guide thee there.
Soon shall close thy earthly mission ;
Swift shall pass thy pilgrim days;
Hope soon change to glad fruition,
Faith to sight, and prayer to praise.’ ”

Evma. “ What a beautiful hymn, grandmamma.
I should like to learn those words. But I want to
hear how you got Frederic away from that horrid
man, and what became of him afterwards, because
I cannot understand why you are telling us this
story. I know you never tell us anything for
amusement only.”

Granpy. “No, my dear child; this story is not
solely for your amusement. This morning I ob-


FREDERIC HAMILTON. 25

served a strangeness in George’s behavior, when he
was requested to put up his microscope, and assist in
laying the cloth, because John was out, and he was
aware that Hannah had sprained her foot, and could
not walk up and down stairs. He said such ex-
traordinary things about being ill-used, and worked
hard, and never having an hour to amuse himself,
that I am desirous of convincing him that it is
quite possible (with God’s assistance) not only to
bear all this, without thinking it a shame, as George
termed it, but even to praise God for the troubles
and trials which may fall to your lot; and I also
wish to inform him, that there ave some boys more
patient and grateful than himself. But I see, by
the color mounting to his cheeks, that my boy is
sorry for his past behavior; nevertheless, I will
continue my story. And now for the zncident, as
I presume you will call it, Emma.

“ We were about a week’s voyage from Jamaica.
The wind was favorable, but light, the sky clear, the
sun directly overhead ;—we were all beginning to feel
the effects of a warm climate; the sailors were
loosely clad in canvass trousers, striped shirts, and
straw hats, and went lazily about their work ;—
the ship moved as lazily through the rippling waves ;
—the man at the helm drew his hat over his eyes, to
shade them from the glare of the sun, and lounged
listlessly upon the wheel ;—-the captain was below
taking a nap, to the great relief of men and boys ;—
some of the passengers were sitting on the poop, under
an awning, drowsily perusing a book or old news-
paper; some leaning on the taffrail, watching the

3


—626 STORY OF

many-colored dolphin, and those beautiful, but spite-
ful, little creatures, the Portuguese men-of-war, which
look so splendid as they sail gently on the smooth
surface of the blue ocean, every little ripple causing
a change of color in their transparent sails. I was
admiring these curious navigators, as I stood with
two or three friends, who, like myself, felt idle, and
cared only to dispose of the time in the most agree-
able manner attainable in such a ship, with such a
commander ; and I said, rather thoughtlessly, con-
sidering Frederic was at my side, ‘How I should
like to possess one of those little creatures; I sup-
pose they can be caught ?’

“ Frederic moved from me, and an instant after
he was on the forecastle ; presently, I heard a splash
in the water, and, leaning over the rail, I saw him
swimming after a fine specimen, which shone in
all the bright and varied colors of the rainbow, as
it floated proudly by. He had no sooner reached
the treasure, and made a grasp at it, than he gave
a loud scream, for the creature had encircled the
poor boy’s body with its long fibrous legs, or, as
they are properly called, ‘ tentacula.’. He struggled
violently, for he was in great agony; at length he
escaped, and was helped on deck by one of the men,
who said, he wished, ‘he had known what the
youngster had in his head, and he would have pre-
vented him attempting to catch such a thing,’ for
he was aware of the extraordinary peculiarities of
these singular little creatures. When he came on
deck, he looked exactly as if he had been rolled in
a bed of nettles, and the steward had to rub him
FREDERIC HAMILTON.



with oil, and give him medicine to reduce the fever
caused by the pain of the sting.

“You may be sure, that directly the captain
heard of this affair, he'was more disposed to chastise,
than to pity, our friend Frederic; but I interfered,
and begged he would leave him to me, as I had
been the cause of the disaster, and must now make
amends by attending him, until he was well enough
to return to his duty. The captain was very much
displeased, and I regretted extremely that a foolish
wish of mine should have caused so much annoyance,
and felt it my duty to endeavor to alleviate the boy’s
sufferings as muchas possible. Poor Frederic! he
was laid up three or four days, and had experienced
enough to caution him against ever again attempt-
ing to capture a ‘ Portuguese man-of-war.”*

“Tused to sit by his hammock for hours talking
and reading to him; when one day, as I closed my
book to leave him, he said with a sigh, while tears
filled his eyes, ‘1 am very grateful to you, madam,

* The ancients are said to have derived the art of naviga-
tion from these animals, which, in calm weather, are seen
floating on the surface of the water, with some of their ten-
tacula extended at their sides, while two arms that are fur-
nished with membranaceous appendages serve the office of
sails, These animals raise themselyrs to the surface of the
sea, by ejecting the sea-water from their shells ; and on the
approach of danger, they draw their arms, and with them a
quantity of water, which occasions them to sink immediately,
By possessing this power, they are but rarely taken perfect,
as the instant they are disturbed they disappear. They are
more frequently caught in the nets of fishermen than any
other way, or found left dry on rocks,



oT

;

4

3

: i

































28 STORY OF

for your kindness to me: you have been a friend
when I most needed one; how my dear mother
would love you if she knew what you had done for
her boy. But I donot deserve that any one should
love me; I have been wilful and disobedient, and
my sorrows are not half so great as, in justice for
my wickedness, they ought to be; but every day
proves to me that God is long-suffering and merci-
ful, and doeth us good continually. I have thanked
him often and often for making you love me, and I
feel so happy that in the midst of my trials, God
has raised me up a friend to cheer me in the path
of duty ; to teach me how to correct my faults ; and
to sympathize with me in my daily sorrows. God
will bless you for it, madam,’ he continued: ‘he
will bless you for befriending the orphan in his
loneliness ; and my mother will bless you, and pray
God to shower his mercies thick and plenteous on
you all the days of your life.’ He paused, and,
burying his face in the scanty covering of his bed,
he wept unrestrainedly. I was hastening away,
for my heart was full, and the effort to check my
tears almost choked me; when he raised his head,
and, stretching his hand towards me, said, ‘I want
to tell you something more, madam, if you will not
think me bold; but my heart reproaches me every
time I see your kind face; I feel as if I were im-
posing upon you, and fancy that, did you know
more about me, you would deem me unworthy of
your interest and attention. May I relate to you
all I can remember of myself before I came here ?
It will be such a comfort to have some person near




FREDERIC HAMILTON. 29

me, who will allow me to talk of those I love, with-
out ridiculing me, and calling me “ home-sick.” ?
“This was the very point at which I had been
for some time aiming, as I did not wish to ask him
for the particulars, not knowing whether the ques-
tion might wound his feelings; but now that he of.
fered to tell me, I was delighted, and readily an-
swered his appeal, assuring him nothing would give
me greater pleasure than to hear an account of him-
self from his own lips: ‘But, I added, ‘I cannot
wait now, for they are striking “ eight bells:” I
must go in to dinner: after dinner I will come to
you again, and listen to all you have to say ; so
farewell for the present, my dear boy, in an hour’s
time I will be with you.’ )
“As soon as dinner was over, I returned to
Frederic: he looked so pleased, I shall never forget
the glow that overspread his fair face, as I entered
the berth, for he was really handsome ; his eyes
were bright hazel, his hair auburn, and waving
over his head in the most graceful curls, while his
complexion was the clearest and most beautiful I
had ever seen. I found a seat on a chest near his
hammock, and, telling him I was ready to attend
to his narrative, he began :—
“The first impression I have of home was when
I was about five years old, and was surrounded by
a little troop of brothers and sisters, for I can re-
member when there was seven healthy, happy chil-
dren in my “boyhood’s home.” We lived at Fel-
tham, Middlesex, inthe pretty parsonage-house. It
was situated at the end of a long avenue of elm-
Q*





380 STORY OF

trees, whose arching boughs, meeting over our
heads, sheltered us from the mid-day glare. Here
in the winter we used to trundle our hoops; and in
the summer stroll about to gather bright berries
from the hedges to make chains for the adornment
of our bowers. But death came to our happy
home, and made sad the hearts of our good parents:
the whooping-cough was very prevalent in the vil-
lage, and a child of one of the villagers, who oc-
casionally came to my father for relief, brought the
contagion amongst us, and in a short time we were
all seized with it. Two sisters died in one day,
and the morning they were laid in the grave, sweet
baby breathed his last. Then my mother fell sick,
and she was very ill indeed; my brother and I
were placed in a cot by her bedside, and when pain
has prevented me sleeping, I have been comforted
by hearing this dear, kind mother beseeching God
to spare her boys. She seemed regardless of her
own sufferings, and only repined, when she thought
how useful she might have been to us, had she too
not been laid on a bed of sickness. But fever and
delirium came on, and we were removed from her
chamber. The next day poor Frank died, and was
buried by the side of Clara and Lucy. The fune-
ral service was read by my dear father, who was
enabled to stand under all these trials of his faith,
for God sustained him ; and, having trained us up
in the fear and admonition of the Lord, he did not
grieve as one without hope, when his darlings were
taken from him, for he knew they were gone toa
better world, and were happy in the bosom of their








81

heavenly Father. His greatest trial was the illness
of my mother ; but before we were all quite well,
she was able to leave her chamber, and once again
kneel with us at our family altar, to return thanks
to God for his many mercies. There were only
three of her seven children left to her, and when my
father blessed God that they were not rendered
childless, my mother’s feelings overpowered her,
and she was borne fainting from the room.

“* But I fear I am tiring you with these melan-
choly accounts,madam. You know not how deep-
ly I enjoy the recollection of those days, for through
this wilderness of sorrow there was a narrow stream
of happiness placidly gliding, to which we could
turn amidst the troubles of the world, and refresh -
our fainting souls; and, though we grieved at the
remembrance of the loved ones now gone from us,
yet we would not have recalled them to these scenes
of woe, to share future troubles with us. Oh no!
my dear father was a faithful follower of Christ ; he
used to show us so many causes for thankfulness in
our late afflictions, which he said were “ blessings
in disguise,” that happiness and tranquillity were
soon restored to our home.

“ «Two or three years glided by, and when I was
eleven years old, my father, one day, called me into
his study, and, looking seriously at me, said, “ Fred-
eric, my child, God has been very good to you; he
has spared your life through many dangers; you,
of all my sons, only remain to me, and may your
days be many and prosperous! N ow, what can you
render unto the Lord for all his mercies towards

FREDERIC HAMILTON.





————

32 STORY OF

you; ought not the life God has so graciously spared
be in gratitude consecrated to his service? Tell
me what you think in this matter. I speak thus
early, my dear Frederic, because I wish you to con-
sider well, before you are sent from home, what are
to be your future plans ; for as life is uncertain, and
none of us know the day nor the hour in which the
summons may arrive, I should feel more happy,
were I assured that you would tread in my footsteps
when I am gone; that you, my only boy,” and he
clasped me in his armsas he spoke, “ that you would
be a comfort to your mother and sisters, when my
labors are ended, and would carry on the work
which I have begun in this portion of the Lord’s
vineyard, and His blessing and the blessing of a
fond father will ever attend your steps.”

“¢T raised my eyes to my father’s face, and, for
the first time, noticed how pale and haggard he
looked ; all the bright and joyous expression of his
countenance when in health had given place toa
mild and melancholy shade of sadness, which af-
fected me painfully ; for the thought struck me that
my father was soon to be called away.

“:JT evaded answering his question, and when
he found I did not reply, he said, “ My son, let us
ask the direction of Almighty God in this great
work.” I knelt with him, and was lost in admira-
tion. I could not remove my eyes from his face
during the prayer; his whole soul seemed absorbed
in communion with God, and as I gazed, I wonder-
ed what the glorious angels must be like, when the
face of my beloved father, while here on earth,






83



FREDERIC HAMILTON.



looked so exquisitely lovely, glowing in the beauty
of holiness.

“ ¢ For several days, the conversation in the study
was continually in my mind; I could think of
nothing else. I did not like the profession well
enough to have chosen it myself, for I disliked re-
tirement; but after an inward struggle, betwixt
my inclination and my duty, I resolved, that, to
please my father, I would study for the church.
One day, my godfather, Captain Hartly, came to
see us, and he took great notice of me. He asked
me if I should like to go to sea? Then he told me
such fine things about life in the navy, and on
board ship, that my wavering mind fired at his
descriptions, and I determined to be a sailor, for
such a life would be more congenial to my feelings
than the quiet life of a country clergyman. I did
not mention this to my father, for he was ill, and I
feared to grieve him; nevertheless, had he asked
me, I should certainly have opened my heart to
him without dissimulation. I often fretted when I
thought how sorry he would be to hear that I did
not care to be engaged in the service of his Master;
when one morning, as I was lying in bed, a servant
came into my room, and desired me to hasten to
my father’s chamber, to receive his blessing, for he
was dying.

“*T did hasten. I know not how I got there.
I rushed into his arms, I threw myself on his neck,
and felt as if I too must die. He was too much
exhausted to speak ; but he placed his hand on my
head, and, slightly moving his lips, the expression



84 STORY OF

of his features told, in plain language, that his heart
was engaged in prayer. He was praying, and for
me,—me, his unworthy son, and when I considered
that I could not comply with his wishes without
being a hypocrite, [ thought my heart would burst.
For several minutes, was my dear father thus occu-
pied; then, turning to my weeping mother, who
was kneeling by the bedside, he softly uttered her
name. Alas! it was with his parting breath, for
gently, as an infant falls asleep on the bosom of
its nurse, did my revered parent fall asleep in the
arms of that Saviour who had been his guide and
comforter through life, and who accompanied him
through the dark valley, and by his presence made
bright the narrow path which leads to the abode
of the redeemed.

“¢Jhe only earthly friend we had to look to, in
our bereavement, was Captain Hartly; and he
could only promise to assist me if I would enter
the navy, or go on board a merchant-ship. My
poor mother objected to this, and I remained at
home another twelvemonth, and again mourned
the loss of a dear relative. My sister Bertha fell a
victim to consumption, exactly nine months after the
death of my lamented father. It was cruel to leave
my mother under such circumstances, particularly
as she remonstrated with me so earnestly on my
project of going to sea, and offered to make any
sacrifice, if I would consent to go to college, and
follow out my father’s plans. But my heart was
fixed; and every visit from my godfather tended
to inflame me still more with a longing for a sea-
Pa ee
Â¥

FREDERIC HAMILTON. 85

faring life; and, at length, I told him I was willing
to be bound apprentice to a captain of a merchant-
ship, rather than lose the chance of going to sea.
He eagerly embraced the offer, and in a few weeks
the affair was settled satisfa torily for all parties
but my dear mother and sister. Marian wept
bitterly when the letter came which concluded the
arrangements, and informed me what day to be on
board. My mother went to see the captain, and
entreated him to be kind to me. But she knew
not the disposition of the man to whose care I was
entrusted, or Iam sure nothing would have induced
her to consent to my plans. I dare say it is all for
the best. I shall, perhaps, learn my duty better
with Captain Simmons than I should have done
with a kinder master. It is well my mother knows
nothing of this; for, even believing I should be
treated with the utmost kindness, the separation
was almost more than she had fortitude to bear,
and she bade me farewell nearly heart-broken. I
have never ceased to regret that I preferred my
own will to the authority of my parents; I deserve
all I suffer, and much more, for my rebellion against
them. This, madam, is all I have to tell you. I
hope you will not cast me off, because I have been
so self-willed ; for here I have no friend to aid me,
and I still feel the same desire for my present mode
of life. I am quite sure I am not suited for a
clergyman; but I do not think I could live long
with ¢hzs captain. If I could get shipped in another
vessel, with a master not quite so severe, in a little
time I should be able to work for money, and assist


86 STORY OF

my dear mother; and if she saw me occasionally,
and knew I was well and happy, she would be con-
tent and thankful.’

“ Such was Frederic’s simple account of himself.
In five days we came in sight of Port Royal, and
anchored off there during the night: the next day
we went ashore, and my brother Herbert, who was
a merchant in Kingston, was ready to receive me,
and welcome me to his house.

“T took the earliest opportunity of speaking to
him concerning Frederic: he promised to make
some arrangement for the boy’s advantage, and he
fulfilled his promise. He got him transferred to
the ‘ Albatross,’ Captain Hill, a kind, gentlemanly
man. There Frederic remained for several years,
and gained such approbation by his exemplary con-
duct, that, at length, he became first mate, and
afterwards (on the death of Captain Hill) master.

“ A few years back, Captain Hartly died; leav-
ing him considerable property. He made it his
first business to settle his mother comfortably, and
she is now residing with Marian (who married a
surgeon,) in St. John’s Wood. He next purchased
a ship, and has already made six voyages in her to
the West Indies; so that you see all things have
prospered with Frederic Hamilton, because ‘he
feared the Lord always.’ I hear from him after
every voyage, and have seen him several times
since he became a great man and a ship-owner;
but he is not altered in one respect, for he is still
the same grateful, affectionate creature as when I
first met him on board the ‘Neptune.’ His story




Te RT et ER a Le re EE Te ee

FREDERIC HAMILTON. 87

proves the truth of the text, ‘I have never seen the
righteous forsaken, nor his children begging their
bread.’ ”

Mr. and Mrs. Wilton were as much pleased as
the children with this little story of Grandy’s re-
miniscences. “ And now, George,” said Mr. Wilton,
“carry my drawings into the study, for I hear John
coming up-stairs with the supper.”

George collected his papa’s pencils and paper.
Emma folded up the cotton frock she had been
making for one of her young pupils in the Sunday-
school, locked her work-box, cleared the table of all
signs of their recent occupation, and took her seat
by the side of her brother.

The children were not allowed, except on particu-
lar occasions, to sit up after ten o'clock ; but as it
was Mr. Wilton’s wish that they should be present
night and morning at family prayers, he always
had supper about nine o'clock, to give them time
for their devotions before retiring to rest.

Supper over, the domestics were summoned, and,
having humbly petitioned for pardon and grace,
they besought the protection of Almighty God dur- ,
ing the night season ; then, with hearts filled with
love to God, and good-will towards all men, they
retired to their’ several apartments, and silence
reigned throughout the house.

3
CHAPTER II.

Beautiful, sublime and glorious 5
Mild, majestic, foaming, free ;—

Over time itself victorious,
Image of eternity.

Every day throughout the following week the
young folks were busily engaged. It is need-
less to specify the nature of their occupations, or
the reason of their untiring industry: it will be
sufficient for their credit to mention that they did
not work with the foolish desire of ostentatiously dis-
playing a larger portion of information than the rest
of the party, but really because they were fond of
study; and as they advanced in knowledge, they
became more sensible of their own comparative
ignorance, and more anxious to learn. They made
_ no parade of their own abilities ; were equally grati-
fied at the meetings, whether they were required to
speak, or be silent; and no evil passions disturbed
their repose, when they heard other members more
praised than themselves. ‘To prove this, the young
lady to whom Emma had decidedly given the pref- —
erence amongst her companions, was three years
her senior, had nearly completed her education,
and was a clever intelligent girl; consequently, it
was very probable that she would far surpass her
aM oy

i oe, oh x 5 wT ae et, AP oe ee
SE ee ee ee, ee Pee ee ae ee We hese
> " :

THE WILTONS. 89

in knowledge. and be in fact more serviceable to the
society than Emma ever had been, or could hope to
be, for some time to come. But Emma’s heart was
a stranger to the wicked feeling of jealousy; it was
overflowing with kindness; and she was delighted
that she knew a person so agreeable, and so effi-
cient to introduce, and thought how admirably they
would travel “o’er the glad waters of the bright
blue sea,” if all the new members were as well quali-
fied as Dora Leslie. ,

Day after day passed, and every day added to
their stores, for they devoted at least two hours of
their recreation to the pleasant and profitable occu-
pation of making discoveries in the great oceans and
smaller seas ; and when they closed their books, it
was with a sigh, that they were obliged to leave
this interesting study to attend to other business of
equal importance.

On the evening of the 7th instant, the large round
table in the front drawing-room presented a formida-
bly learned appearance, covered with maps, papers,
and books, and surrounded with chairs placed at
convenient distances for the accommodation of the
members of the Geographical Society.

They were to take tea in another apartment that
evening, to give them an opportunity of arranging
the requisite documents before the party assembled,
and thereby prevent much trouble and confusion.

George’s blue eyes sparkled with Joy, as he care-
fully folded his Jarge paper of notes, and placed it
in an Atlas; and then, for the first time, he confessed
that he felt very curious to see the “new members.”

—
40 THE WILTONS.

They had scarcely concluded their arrangements,
when there was a knocking at the hall-door, and,
seizing his sister's hand, George hurried down
stairs.

The arrivals were shortly announced ; for, strange
to say, the two young friends arrived at the same
instant. John opened the par'or door, and ushered
in “ Miss Dora Leslie,”—“ Master Charles Dorning.”

These young people never having previously met
at Mr. Wilton’s house, as members of his Geo-
graphical Society, it seemed necessary that there
should be a formal introduction,—at least,so thought
George; and as he proposed it, they required him
to perform the ceremony, which he did in a most
facetious way, affixing the initials M. G. S. after
every name.

They were all seated around the cheerful fire,
laughing heartily, when again John threw open the
door, and announced “ Mr. Barraud.” Immediately
their mirth was checked, for to the younger folks
this gentleman was a total stranger. Mr. Wilton
advanced to greet his friend, and Mrs. Wilton and
Grandy both appeared delighted to see him: they
conversed together some time, until tea was ready,
when the conversation became more general, and
our little friends were occasionally required to give
an opinion. 3

Before I proceed any farther, I should like to
make you acquainted with Charles Dorning and
Dora Leslie. Perhaps if I give you a slight sketch
of their personal appearance, you could contrive to
form a tolerably correct estimate of their characters


DORA LESLIE. 41

from the conversations in which they both figured
to such advantage at the evening meetings held in
the drawing-room of Mr. Wilton’s hospitable man-
sion.

Charles Dorning—No! We ought to describe
the lady first. Dora Leslie was fourteen years of
age; a gentle, quiet girl, with a meek yet intelligent
countenance, which spoke of sorrow far beyond her
years; and a decided expression of placidity, which
none but the people of God wear, was stamped upon
her delicate features and glowing in her mild blue
eye. She had been in early childhood encompassed
by the heavy clouds of worldly sorrow: she had
wept over the tomb of both her parents; but now
that she could think calmly of her afflictions, she
could kiss the rod which chastened her, and praise
God for thus testifying his exceeding love towards
a sinful child. Her trials had indeed been sanctified
to her; they had changed, but not saddened, her
heart; for she was at the time of her visit to the
Wiltons a cheerful, happy girl, delighting in the
innocent amusements suitable to her age, though
ever ready to turn all events to the advantage of her
fellow-creatures, and the glory of her God. But
I am telling you more than I intended. I was
only to describe her person, and here I am giving
a full, true, and particular account of the beauties
of her mind also. Well, I trust you will excuse me;
for the mind and the body are so nearly connected,
that it is impossible to give a just idea of the graces
of one without in some degree touching upon the
merits of the other. I will now turn to Charles

4*




42

Dorning, as I think I have said enough of Dora
Leslie to induce you to regard her with friendliness.

Charles Dorning was a fine romping boy of eleven
years ; he had no bright flaxen curls like our friend
_ George, but straight dark hair, which, however,
was so glossy and neat that no person thought it
unbecoming. His eyes were the blackest I ever
saw, and so sparkling when animated with merri-
ment, that it was impossible to resist their influence,
and maintain a serious deportment if he were in-
clined to excite your risibility. Charles was a
merry boy, but so innocent in his mirth, that Mr.
Wilton was always pleased to have him for his son’s
companion, knowing by observation that his mirth
was devoid of mischief, and that he possessed a
most inquiring mind, which urged George on to the
attainment of much solid knowledge that would be
greatly serviceable to him in after years.

I flatter myself you will, from this slight sketch,
be able to form some idea of the “new members,”
and regard them as old acquaintances, as you al-
ready do Emma and George.

While they were drinking tea, there was an ani-
mated conversation, which still continued when the
meal was over, until the tray had disappeared, and
John had brushed the crumbs from the table ; when
Mrs. Wilton said, “Suppose we adjourn into the
next room, and commence business.”

There was a general move, and in a few moments
the table was surrounded, and each person prepar-
ing to enjoy the evening’s occupation. Miss Leslie
seated George next to her, because she could assist

CHARLES DORNING.





Pe ee ae ee oe, ee

DORA. 43

him considerably in finding places on the maps ;
and Charles Dorning was gallant enough to offer
to point out the localities for Emma. Thus they
were arranged. Grandy only was away from the
table : she was in her customary seat by the fire, with ,
the pussy at her feet, and her fingers nimbly en-
gaged on a par @ téte, which she was knitting with
extraordinary facility considering her age and im-
paired vision.

‘ Who is to commence?” inquired Mr. Wilton.
“ Emma, what have you prepared ?”

Emma. “Dora is to begin, papa, and my paper
will be required presently.”

Mr. Witton. “Very well. We are all ready,
Dora, and most attentive. I think, as we have
hitherto commenced with our own quarter of the
world, it would be more systematic to do so now.
Are you prepared for the seas of Kurope ?”

Dora. “I will readily impart all Zhave prepar-
ed, sir, and be thankful to listen to the rest.

“ Europe is bounded on the north by the frozen
ocean, south by the Mediterranean sea, east by Asia,
and west by the Atlantic ocean. Seas being small-
er collections of water than oceans, I have selected
them for our first consideration, and, thinking the
Mediterranean the most important of Europe, I have
placed it at the head of my list. This sea separates
Europe from Africa, and is the largest inland sea in
the world. It contains some beautiful islands, and
washes the shores of many countries planted with
the myrtle, the palm, and the olive, and famous
both in history and geography as scenes of remark-


44 THE MEDITERRANEAN.

able adventures, warfares, and discoveries. Nu-
merous rivers from Italy, Turkey, Spain, and
France empty their waters into this great sea. Af-
rica sends a contribution from the mighty Nile,

ethat valuable river which is of such inestimable
benefit to the Egyptians.

“ The principal islands in the Mediterranean are
Sicily, Sardinia, Corsica, Candia, Cyprus, Rhodes,
Majorca, Minorca, and Iviza. There are scores of
smaller isles, such as Malta, Zante, Cephalonia (the
two latter are included in the Ionian isles) ; but it
would be endless work to particularize each spot of
earth fertile or otherwise, inhabited or uninhabited
in every sea, unless there be something positively
interesting connected with them, or something im-
portant to be known concerning them. [ believe
Mrs. Wilton undertakes to supply the particulars
of which we are in need with respect to the various
islands already specified. Therefore I close my
paper for the present.”

Mrs. Witton. “Sicily, formerly called Trina-
cria, from its triangular shape, is separated from
Italy by the Straits of Messina, which are seven
miles across. In these straits were the ancient
Scylla and Charybdis, long regarded as objects of
terror ; but now, owing to the improved state of nav-
igation, they are of little consequence, and have
ceased to excite fears in the hearts of the poor mar-
iners. The chief towns of Sicily are Messina,
Palermo, and Syracuse. In the middle of this
island stands the famous burning mountain Etna.

“Of Sardinia, the chief town is Cagliari.


CORSICA—-CANDIA. 45

“ Corsica is a beautifully wooded country: its
capital is Bastia. The great Napoleon Bonaparte
was borne at Ajaccio. a sea-port in this island.”

Mr. Barraup. “There are two interesting as-
sociations with Napoleon to be seen in the Mediter-
ranean off Toulon. One is an old dismantled frig-
ate, which is moored just within the watergates of
the basin, and carefully roofed over and painted.
She is the ‘Muiron, with an inscription in large
characters on the stern, as follows :—*‘ Cette frégate
prise a Venise est celle qui ramena Napoleon
d’Egypte.” Every boat which passes from the men
of war to the town must go immediately under the
stern of the Muiron. The hold of the Muiron is at
present used as a dungeon for the forgats or galley-
slaves who misbehave.

“ The next association with the Emperor is a state-
ly frigate in deep mourning, painted entirely black,
which claims the distinction of having brought the
remains of Napoleon to France. ‘ La belle Poule’
is the pride of French frigates.”*

Mrs. Witton. “Candia is the ancient Crete: it
is a fine fertile island, about 160.miles long, and 30
broad. The famous mount Ida of heathen mythol-
ogy (now only a broken rock) stands here, with
many other remains of antiquity; and through
nearly the whole length of this island runs the chain
of White Mountains, so called on account of their
snow coverings. The island abounds with cattle,
sheep, swine, poultry, and game, all excellent ; and
the wine made there is balmy and delicious. The

* Vide Sketches of Travel by Francis Schroeder,
46 RHODES—MALTA.

people of Candia were formerly celebrated for their
want of veracity; St. Paul alludes to their evil
habits in the first chapter of his epistle to Titus,
where he says, ‘ The Cretians are always liars.’
There are some remarkably ugly dogs in Candia,
which seem to be a race between the wolf and the
fox.

“Cyprus contains the renowned Paphos: it is
not quite so long an island as Candia, but it is ten
miles broader.

“Rhodes is fifty miles long, and twenty-five
broad. At the north of the harbor stood the cele-
brated colossus of brass, once reckoned one of the
wonders of the world. It was placed with a foot
on either side of the harbor, so that ships in full
sail passed between its legs. This enormous statue
was 130 feet high; it was thrown down by an
earthquake, and afterwards destroyed, and taken to
pieces in the year a. p. 653.

“ Of Majorca I have little to say: its chief town
is Majorca.

“ Port Mahon is the capital of Minorca; and Iviza
is the principal town in the island of that name.

“ Malta ”

Georce. “ Excuse me for interrupting you, dear
mamma; but I wish Grandy to tell me if Malta is
the same island as the Melita mentioned in the
28th chapter of the Acts of the Apostles, where St.
Paul was shipwrecked ?”

Granpy. “Yes, my dear; it is commonly sup-
posed to be the same. It is a very rocky island,
inhabited by a people whom most modern travel-


me

, nh



SS PS
S\ Hy
ins i
\ Oy) 1S

i |
ASSN
YA Shy

VALETTE.
VALETTA, 47

lers describe as very selfish, very insincere, and
very superstitious. The population amounts to up-
wards of 63,000. In the days of St. Paul, the in-
habitants were, without doubt, an uncivilized race,
for he calls them a barbarous people! ‘And the
barbarous people showed us no little kindness: for
they kindled a fire, and received us every one, be-
cause of the present rain, and because of the cold.’
Here it was that from the circumstance of St. Paul
experiencing no evil effects from the viper clinging
to his hand, that the people concluded him to be a
god; here too he was allowed to perform many
mighty works, such as healing the sick, &c., which
caused him to be ‘honored with many honors ;’ and
‘when they departed, they were laden with the
bounty of the people.’ Can any one of you young
folks tell me the name of the chief town in this
little island ?”

“Yes, madam,” replied Charles, “I know it; it
is Valetta, so named from the noble Provencal Va-
lette, who, after vainly endeavoring to defend the
holy sepulchre from the defilements of the infidels,
was by them driven with his faithful Christian
army from island to island, until he ultimately
planted the standard of the cross on this sea-girt
rock, and bravely and successfully withstood the
attacks of his enemies. Malta was given to the
Knights of St. John of Jerusalem in 1530 by the
Emperor Charles V., when the Turks drove them
out of Rhodes. They have since been called
‘Knights of Malta.’ The island is in possession
of the English.”


48

Dora. “And so are the Ionian Islands, which
include Zante, Cephalonia, and St. Maura: they
are all pretty spots near the coast of Greece.”

Mr. Witton. “In the Mediterranean Sea lays
the largest ship in the world, the ‘Mahmoud °’ it is
floating off Beyrout.”

“T can tell you, papa,” said George, “the size of
the largest ship in the time of Henry VIII. ; it was
called the ‘ Henri Grace a Dieu,’ and was of 1000
tons burthen; it required 349 soldiers, 301 sailors,
and 50 gunners to man her.”

Mr. Witton. “That was the first double-decked
ship built in England ; it cost £14,000, and was
completed in 1509. Before this, twenty-four gun-
ships were the largest in our navy; and these had
no port-holes, the guns being on the upper decks
only. Port-holes were invented by Descharges, a
French builder at Brest, in the year 1500.”

Cuartes. “That was a useful and simple in-
vention enough: it must have been very incon-
venient to have all the guns on the upper decks ;
besides, there could not be Space for so many as
the vessels of war carry now. Pray what is the
size of a first-rate man-of-war, and how many guns
does she carry 2”

Mr. Barravup. “The ‘ Caledonia,’ built at Ply-
mouth in 1808, is 2616 tons burthen. carries 120
guns, and requires 875 men without officers. You
can imagine the size of a vessel that could contain
so many men. But all are not so large: that isa
first-rate: there are some sixth-rate, which only
carry twenty guns, are not more than 400 tons

THE CALEDONIA. .






























—


THE CALEDONIA. 49

burthen, and their complement of men is only 155.
The intermediate ships, 2d, 3d, 4th, and 5th rate,
vary in every respect according to their size, and
are classed according to their force and burthen.
Only first and second-rate men-of-war have three
decks. Ships of the line include all vessels up to
the highest rate, and not lower than the frigate.”

GrorGE. “ on I should like to have a fleet of
ships. Will you buy me more, dear papa, when I
have rigged the ‘Stanley?’ I am getting on very
fast with her; Emma has stitched all the sails,
and only three little men remain to be dressed ;
while I have cut the blocks, and set the ropes in
order. It will look very handsome when it is quite
finished ; but a miniature fleet would be beautiful
to launch on the lake at Horbury next summer.
If I rig this vessel properly, may I have some oth-
ers of different sizes, with port-holes to put cannon
in? The ‘Stanley,’ you know, is a merchantman ;
but zxow I want some men-of-war.”

Mr. Witton. “ My dear, when your friend sent
you the ‘Stanley,’ do you remember how delighted
you were, and the remark you made at the time?
I have not forgotten your exclamation— Now I am
a ship-owner! I should be quite satisfied if I were
a man to possess one vessel to cross the great ocean,
and bring all sorts of curiosities from foreign lands.
I should not care to have half a dozen, because
they would be a great deal of trouble to me, and
would make me anxious and unhappy.” How
quickly you have changed your opinion. I fear
that if you had a little fleet, your desires would not

5








50 A STORY



be checked, for you would, after a while, be wish-
ing for large ships, and real men, and, instead of
being a contented ship-owner, would not be satis-
fied with any station short of the Lord High Ad-
miral. Ido not think it would be wise in me to
gratify your desires in this matter, for then I should
be like the foolish father of whom Krummacher
relates a story.”

“Oh! what is it, papa,” inquired George: “ will
you tell us?”

Mr. Witton. “A father returned from the sea-
coast to his own home, and brought with him, for
his son, some beautiful shells, which he had picked
up on the shore. The delight of the boy was great. |
He took them. and sorted them, and counted them
over. He called all his playfellows, to show them
his treasures; and they could talk of nothing but
the beautiful shells. He daily found new beauties,
and gave each of them a name. But in a few
months, the boy’s father said to himself, ‘I will
now give him a still higher pleasure; I will take
him to the coast of the sea itself; there he will sce
thousands more of beautiful shells, and may choose
for himself’ When they came to the beach, the
boy was amazed at the multitude of shells that lay
around, and he went to and fro and picked them
up. But one seemed still more beautiful than an-
other, and he kept always changing those he had
gathered for fresh shells. In this manner he went
about changing, vexed, and out of humor with him-
self. At length, tired of stooping and comparing,
and selecting, he threw away all he had picked up,






BY KRUMMACHER. 51

and, returning home weary of shells, he gave away
all those which had afforded him so much pleasure.
Then his father was sorry, and said, ‘I have acted
unwisely ; the boy was happy in his small pleas-
ures, and I have robbed him of his simplicity, and
both of us of a gratification.” Now, my boy, does
not this advise you to ‘ be content with such things
as youhave?’ King Solomon says, ‘ Better is a little
with the fear of the Lord, than great treasure and
trouble therewith ;’ and surely your trouble would
be largely increased were you to have a whole fleet
of ships to rig and fit up against next summer ; and
I rather think Emma would be bringing forward
various objections, as her time would be required
to prepare the sails and dress the sailors.”

“ Indeed, dear papa,” said Emma, “I have had
quite enough trouble with his ‘merchantman,’ for
George is so very particular. I am sure I could
not dress the marines for a man-of-war: they re-
quire an immense deal of care in fitting their clothes :
loose trousers and check shirts are easy to make,
but tight jackets and trousers, with al! the other e¢
ceteras required to dress a marine, would be more
than I should like to undertake, as I feel convinced
I could not do it to the admiral’s satisfaction.”

Cuartes. “George, shall I give you the dic-
tionary definition of an adiniral ?”

Greorce. “I know what an admiral is. He is
an officer of the first rank; but I do not know what
the dictionary says.”

Cuartes. “Then I will tell you how to dis-
tinguish him: according to Falconer, an admiral








52 ADRIATIC SEA.





may be distinguished by a flag displayed at his
main-top-gallant-mast-head.”

This caused a burst of merriment, when Emma
exclaimed, “ That sounds very droll, Charles, but I
understand it: it refers to the admiral’s ship, does
it not, papa ?”

Mr. Witton. “ Yes, my dear. The Sicilians
were the first by whom the title was adopted in
1244: they took it from the Eastern nations, who
often visited them. Well, George, do not you think
you had better be content with your merchant-ship,
because, then, you can reckon on Emma’s services 2”

Grorce. “TI will try, papa, to exercise my pa-
tience on the ‘Stanley,’ and be satisfied to read of
the men-of-war. Now, dear papa, I want to know
if the Mediterranean has ever been frozen over like
the Thames ?”

Mr. Witton. “Not exactly like the Thames,
but it has been frozen. In the year 1823, the Medi-
terranean was one sheet of ice; the people of the
south never experienced so severe a winter, or, if
they did, there is no mention made of it in history.”

Emma. “Ought not Venice, being nearly or
totally surrounded by water, to be included in the
islands of the Mediterranean ?”

Mrs. Wirton. “It is not in the Mediterranean,
my dear, but situated to the north of the Adriatic
Sea, which sea is undoubtedly connected with the
Mediterranean, as are many other seas and gulfs ;
for instance, we may include the Archipelago or
Kgean Sea, the Sea of Marmora, the Gulf of Tarento,
and the first-mentioned, the Adriatic Sea, or Gulf


VENICE. 53

of Venice, the mouth of which is also called the
Ionian Sea; and I cannot tell you how many
smaller gulfs, or, more properly speaking, bays,
beside; for in the Archipelago alone there are no
fewer than eleven. However, while we are so near,
it may be of some advantage to take a peep at
Venice, ‘the dream-like city of a hundred isles:’
that expression is a poetical exaggeration, for Venice
is built upon seventy-two small islands. Over the
several canals, are laid nearly five hundred bridges,
most of them built of stone. The Rialto was once
considered the largest single-arched bridge in the
world, and is well known to English readers from
the work of our greatest dramatist, Shakspeare,—
the ‘Merchant of Venice, and from ‘ Venice Pre-
served,’ written by the unhappy poet Otway, who
died of starvation. Although no longer the brilliant
and prosperous city, from whose stories Shakspeare
selected such abundant subjects for his pen, there
is yet much to admire and wonder at. On the
great canal, which has a winding course between
the two principal parts of the city, are situated the
most magnificent of the great houses, or palaces as
they are termed ; some of them of a beautiful style
of architecture, with fronts of Istrian marble, and
containing valuable collections of pictures. The
canals penetrate to every part of the town, so that
almost every house has a communication by a land-
ing-stair, leading directly into the house by one
way, and on to the water by another. The place
of coaches is supplied by gondolas, which are
light skiffs with cabins, in which four or five per-
5*






54 VENICE.



sons can sit, covered and furnished with a door and
glass windows like a carriage. They are propelled
by one man standing near the stern, with a single
oar, which he pushes, moving the boat in the same
direction as he looks. Those persons who are not
rich enough to possess a gondola of their own, hire
them, as we do cabs, when they require to go abroad.
The Venetian territories are as fruitful as any in
Italy, abounding with vineyards, and mulberry
plantations. Its chief towns are Venice (which I
have described), Padua, Verona, Milan, Cremona,
Lodi, and Mantua. Venice was once at the head
of the European naval powers ; ‘her merchants were
princes, and her traftickers the honorable of the
earth, but now—

“‘* Her pageants on the sunny waves are gone,
Her glory lives in memory’s page alone.’

“In a beautiful poem written by the lamented
Miss Landon, there are some very appropriate
lines :—

“* But her glory is departed,
And her pleasure is no more,
Like a pale queen broken-hearted,

Left lonely on the shore.

No more thy waves are cumbered
With her galleys bold and free;
For her days of pride are numbered,
And she rules no more the sea.
Her sword has left her keeping,

Her prows forget the tide,
And the Adriatic, weeping,

Wails round his mourning bride.’
- * * * » * >










TURKISH ROWERS. 56

“¢In those straits is desolation,
And darkness and dismay—
Venice, no more a nation,
Has owned the stranger’s sway.’”

Cuartes. “TI have some scraps belonging to the
‘tideless sea,’ which will come in here very well.
The first is the account of the Bosphorus, now call-
ed the Canal of Constantinople, situated between
the Euxine and the Sea of Marmora. The whole
length of it is about seventeen miles, and most de-
lightful excursions are made on it in pretty vessels
called ‘ Caiques.’ They rest so lightly on the
water, that you are never certain of being ‘safely
stowed.’ The rowers are splendid-looking fellows
from two to four in number, each man with two
light sculls, and they sit lightly on thwarts on the
same level with the gunwale of the caique. Their
costume is beautiful; the head covered with the
crimson tarbouche, and the long silk tassel dang-
ling over the shoulders; a loose vest of striped silk
and cotton, fine as gauze, with wide open collar, and
loose flowing sleeves ; a brilliant-colored shawl en-
velops the waist, and huge folds of Turkish trou-
sers extend to the knee ; the leg is bare, and a yel-
low slipper finishes the fanciful costume. In the
aft part of this caique is the space allotted for the
‘fare,’ a crimson-cushioned little divan* in the bot-
tom of the boat, in which two persons can lounge
comfortably. The finish of the caique is often ex-
traordinary—finest fret-work and moulding, carved

* More properly written “ diwaun.”


56 TURKISH ROWERS,

and modelled as for Cleopatra. The caiques of the
Sultan are the richest boats in the world, and prob-
ably the most rapid and easy. They are manned
by twenty or thirty oarsmen, and the embellish-
ment, and conceits of ornament are superb. Noth-
ing can exceed the delightful sensation of the mo-
tion ; and the skill of the rowers in swiftly turning,
and avoiding contact with the myriads of caiques is
astonishing. My next scrap is about the Helle-
spont,* situated between the Sea of Marmora and
the Archipelago: it is broader at the mouth than at
any other part; about half-way up, the width is not
more than a mile, and the effect is more like a su-
perb river than a strait; its length of forty-three
miles should also give it a better claim to the title
ofariver. In the year 1810, on the 10th of May,
Lord Byron accompanied by a friend, a lieutenant
on board the ‘ Salsette,” swam across the Hellespont,
from Abydos to Sestos, a distance of four miles; but
this was more than the breadth of the stream, and
caused principally by the rapidity of the current,
which continually carried them out of the way, the
stream at this particular place being only a mile in
width. It was here also that Leander is reported
‘to have swam every night inthe depth of winter,
tomeet his beloved Hero; and, alas! for both, swam
once too often.”

Mr. Witton. “Before we sail out of the Medi-
terranean, I wish to mention the singular loss of

* Thus named from Helle, who, according to poetical tra-
dition, perished in these waters, and from Pontus, the Greek
word for sea.

zee
ELGIN MARBLES. 57

the ‘ Mentor, a vessel belonging to Lord Elgin, the
collector of the Athenian marbles, now called by his
name, and to be seen in the British Museum. The
vessel was cast away off Cerigo, with no other car-
go on board but the sculptures: they were, how-
ever, too valuable to be given up for lost, because
they had gone to the bottom of the sea. A plan
was adopted for recovering them, and it occupied a
number of divers three years, before the operations
were completed, for the Mentor was sunk in ten
fathoms water, and the cases of marble were so
heavy as to require amazing skill and good manage-
ment to be ultimately successful. The cases were
all finally recovered, and none of the contents in the
least damaged, when they were forwarded to Eng-
land. The whole cost of these marbles, all expenses
included, in the collecting, weighing up, and con-
veying, is estimated at the enormous sum of
36,0002.”

Cuartes. “ When was this valuable collection
made, sir?”

Mr. Witton. “It was many years in hand. I
believe about the year 1799 investigations com-
menced ; but the ‘Mentor’ was lost in 1802, and
the marbles did not all arrive in England until the
end of the year 1812; since then an immense num-
ber of valuable medals have been added to the col-
lection.”

Dora. “May we now sail through the straits of
Gibraltar into the Atlantic ?”

Mr. Witton. “ We must necessarily pass through
the straits of Gibraltar to get out of the Mediterra-


58 ISLE OF WIGHT.

nean ; but as we proposed to examine into the dif-
ferent situations of the lesser divisions of water, firsé,
we will merely sail through a portion of the At-
lantic, and have a little information concerning the
Bay of Biscay.”

Dora. “* The Bay of Biscay washes the shores
of France and Spain ; but the sea is so very rough
there, that I think, were our voyage read instead
of wmaginary, we should all be anxious to leave
this Bay as quickly as possible: and the next name
on the list is the British Channel.”

Emma. “Ihave that. The British Channel is
the southern boundary of Great Britain, and ex-
tends to the coast of France. The islands in this
channel are the Isle of Wight—capital Newport,
—Guernsey, Jersey, Alderney and Sark.”

Mrs. Witton. “ The Isle of Wight has, from
time immemorial, been eulogized for its beautiful
scenery. It is about twenty-three miles from east
to west, and twelve from north to south. You
have all heard of the Needles, which obtained their
name from a lofty pointed rock on the western
coast, bearing a resemblance to that little imple-
ment; and which, with other pieces of rock, had
been disjointed from the mainland by the force of
the waves. This rock was 120 feet high. About
seventy years ago, it fell, and totally disappeared in
the sea. The height of the cliffs now standing, is
in some places 600 feet, and, when viewed from a_
distance, they are magnificent in the extreme. In
this island her majesty Queen Victoria has a de-
lightful residence.

a te en re ll ttt seta






THUNDER-STORM. 59



“ Guernsey is the most westerly of the Channel
Islands: it is eight miles one way, and six miles
the other, very fertile, with a mild and healthy cli-
mate. A striking object presents itself on approach-
ing Guernsey, called Castle Cornet, situated on a
rock somewhat less than half a mile from the
shore, entirely surrounded by water, supposed to
have been built by the Romans, and formerly the
residence of the governors.”

Mr. Barravup. “I have read a curious descrip-
tion of a most remarkable thunder-storm, which
visited this place in December, 1672. It is as
follows :—

“ On Sunday night, about 12 o'clock, the maga-
zine of the castle was blown up with the powder in
it by the lightning. The night was very stormy
and tempestuous, and the wind blew hard. In an
instant of time, not only the whole magazine con-
taining the bawde: was blown up in the air, but
also the houses and lodgings of the castle, particu-
larly some fair and beautiful buildings, that had just
before been erected at great expense, under the care
and direction of Lord Viscount Matton, (then gov-
ernor,) who was at the same time within the build-
ings of the castle, all which buildings were. with
many others, reduced to a confused heap of stones,
and several persons buried in the ruins. In the
upper part of the castle, at a place called the New
Buildings, was killed by the accident the dowager
Lady Hatton, by the fall of the ceiling of her cham-
ber, which fell in four pieces, one of them upon her
breast, and killed her ou the spot. The Lady Hat-




60 THUNDER-STORM.

ton, wife to the governor, was likewise destroyed
in the following manner:—Her ladyship, being
greatly terrified at the thunder and lightning, in-
sisted (before the magazine blew up.) upon being
removed from the chamber she was in to the nur-
sery; where, having caused her woman to come
also to be with her, in order to have joined in pray-
er, in a few minutes after, that noble lady and her
woman fell a sacrifice, by one corner of the nursery-
room falling in upon them, and were the next
morning both found dead. In the same room was
also killed a nurse, who was found dead, having my
Jord’s second daughter fast in her arms, holding a
small silver cup in her hands, which she usually
played with, and which was all rimpled and bruised.
Yet the young lady did not receive the least hurt.
The nurse had likewise one of her hands fixed
upon the cradle, in which lay my lord’s youngest
daughter, and the cradle was almost filled with
rubbish : yet the child received no sort of prejudice.
A considerable number of other persons were all
destroyed by the same accident.’*

Mrs. Witton., “ What a very remarkable pres-
ervation of those little children. Who could deny
the finger of God, with such wonderful instances of
his Omnipotence before their eyes? Surely such
events must shake the tottering foundations of infi-
delity, and cause the most disbelieving to confess
‘The Lord He is God.’ Jersey is the next island
for consideration ; but I know so little of it, that I

* Vide History of Guernsey, by Dicey.








JERSEY. 61





must refer you to some person better acquainted
with the subject.”

Caries. “I have been to Jersey, madam, and
shall be happy to afford you the trifling information
I have gained respecting its peculiarities. Jersey,
the largest of the Channel Islands, is situated in a
deep bay of the French coast, from which it is dis-
tant twenty miles. Its extreme length from east
to west is twelve miles, its breadth six. The island
is fertile and beautiful, it enjoys a mild and salu-
brious climate; the coast is studded with granite
rocks, and indented by small bays, which add
greatly to the beauty of the scenery. The chief
town is St. Helier’s,—its principal trade is with
Newfoundland: ship-building is carried on exten-
sively. The natives are kind, but thrifty and par-
simonious.”

Mrs. Witton. “ Thank you, Charles; your
description is short, and very much to the purpose.
The Channel Islands, I believe, were attached to
England, as the private property of William the
Conqueror: the French have made several unsuc-
cessful attempts to gain possession of them. The
natives are Norman, and the language Norman-
French. These islands enjoy a political constitu-
tion of their own; exemption from all duties, and
various privileges granted them by Royal Charter;
they are much attached to the English govern-
ment, but entirely averse to the French. We will
now pass over the other islands, and, ‘ putting our
ship about’ we will stop to view the Eddystone
lighthouse.”





6


62 ROMAINES JOURNAL.

Mr. Witton. “Before we quit the shores of
France, I wish to read you an extract from Leigh
Ritchie’s Travelling Sketches. You remember in
our conversations on the Rivers last winter, that
we mentioned the stain that would ever remain on
Havre from the prominent part taken by the inhabi-
tants in the dreadful traffic in slaves. The extract
I am about to read is from the journal of a youth
named Romaine, on board the ‘ Rodeur,’ a vessel
of 200 tons, which cleared out of Havre for Guada-
loupe, on the 15th January, 1819. The boy writes
to his mother, while the vessel lay at Bony in the
river Calabar, on the coast of Africa:—‘ Since we
have been at this place, I have become more ac-
customed to the howling of these negroes. At first
it alarmed me, and I could not sleep. The captain
says if they behave well they will be much better
off at Guadaloupe; and I am sure I wish the
ignorant creatures would come quietly, and have it
over. To-day, one of the blacks, whom they were
forcing into the hold, suddenly knocked down a
sailor, and attempted to leap overboard. He was
caught, however, by the leg, by another of the crew ;
and the sailor, rising in a passion, hamstrung him
with his cutlass. The captain, seeing this, knocked
the butcher flat upon the deck with a handspike.
“TJ will teach you to keep your temper,” said he;
“ he was the best slave of the lot!”’ The boy then
runs to the chains, and sees the slave who was
found to be ‘useless,’ dropped into the sea, where
he continued to swim after he had sunk under the
water, making a red track, which broke, widened,
SLAVE SHIP. 63

faded, and was seen no more. At last they got
fairly tosea. The captain is described as being in
the best temper in the world; walking the deck,
rubbing his hands, humming a tune, and rejoicing
that he had six dozen slaves on board ; men, women,
and children; and all in ‘ prime marketable condi-
tion.” The boy says, their cries were so terrible,
that he dare not go and look into the hold; that at
first he could not close his eyes, the sound so froze his
blood ; and that one night he jumped up, and in hor-
ror ran to the captain’s room ; he was sleeping pro-
foundly with the lamp shining upon his face, calm as
marble. The boy didnot like todisturbhim. The
next day, two of the slaves were found dead in the
hold, suffocated by the foulness of the atmosphere.
The captain is informed of this, and orders them in
gangs to the forecastle to take the fresh air. The
boy runs up on deck to see them; he did not find
them so very unwell, but adds, ‘that blacks are so
much alike that one can hardly tell” On reaching
the ship’s side, first one, then another, then a third,
of the slaves leaped into the sea, before the eyes of
the astonished sailors. Others made the attempt,
but were knocked flat on the deck, and the crew
kept watch over them with handspikes and cutlasses,
until they should receive orders from the captain.
The negroes who had escaped, kept gambolling
upon the waves, yelling what appeared like a song
of triumph, in the burden of which some on deck
joined. The ship soon left the ‘ ignorant creatures’

behind, and their voices were heard more and more
faint; the black head of one, and then another,

ce nn ACA LA
64 | SLAVE SHIP.

disappearing, until the sea was without a spot, and
the air without a sound. The captain, having
finished his breakfast, came on deck, and was in-
formed of the revolt. He grew pale with rage, and,
in dread of losing all his cargo, determined to make
an example. He selects six from those who had
joined in the chorus, has three hanged, and three
shot before their companions. That night the boy
could not sleep. The negroes, in consequence of
the revolt, are kept closer than ever. As a conse-
quence, ophthalmia makes its appearance among
them. The captain is compelled to have them be-
tween decks, and the surgeon attends them ‘just as
if they were white men.’ All the slaves, then the
crew, save one, the captain, surgeon, and mate, the
boy, and at last the solitary one of the crew, are
stone blind. ‘ Mother, says the boy, ‘ your son was
blind for ten days.’

“Some of the crew were swearing from morning
till night, some singing abominable songs, some
kissing the crucifix and making vows to the saints.
The ship in the meanwhile helmless, but with sails
set, driving on like the phantom vessel, is assailed
by astorm, and the canvass bursts with loud reports,
the masts strain and crack, she carrying on her
course down the abyss of billows, and being cast
forth like a log on the heights of the waters. The
storm dies away, when the crew are startled with a
sound which proves to be a hail from another vessel.
They ask for hands, and are answered with a de-
mand for like assistance. The one crew is too few
to spare them, and the other is too blind to go.
HORRIBLE. CRUELTY. 65

‘ At the commencement of this horrible coincidence,’
continues the boy, ‘there was a silence among us
for some moments, like that of death. It was broken
by a fit of laughter in which I joined myself; and
before our awful merriment was over, we could hear,
by the sound of the curses which the Spaniard
shouted against us, that the St. Leo had drifted away.’

“ The captain, crew, and some of the slaves grad-
ually recover; some partially, with the loss of an eye,
others entirely. The conclusion of the journal must
be told in the boy’s-own words :—

«¢This morning the captain called all hands on
deck, negroes and all. The shores of Guadaloupe
were in sight. I thought he was going to return
God thanks publicly for our miraculous escape.
« Are you quite certain,” said the mate, “that the
cargo is insured?” “I am,” replied the captain:
“every slave that is lost must be made good by the
underwriters. Besides, would you have me turn
my ship into a hospital for the support of blind
negroes? They have cost us enough already; do
your duty.” The mate picked out the thirty-nine
negroes who were completely blind, and, with the
assistance of the rest of the crew, tied a piece of
ballast to the legs of each. The miserable wretches
were then thrown into the sea!”

Tears glistened in the eyes of the children dur-
ing the perusal of this melancholy account, and Km-
ma, covering her face with her hands, wept aloud.

“Poor, poor people!” exclaimed George; “ oh!
how glad I am that the English have no slaves ;

6* !
66 SLAVE-TRADE,

those wicked captains and sailors deserve to be
hanged for treating them so cruelly.”

Granvy. “‘ Vengeance is mine, saith the Lord.’
These wicked men will one day be called to an
awful account for the cruelties exercised on their
hapless brethren ; and not ¢hey alone, but also the
purchasers of these wretched slaves, who, when
possessed of them, still caused them to groan in
bondage and misery ; without once considering that
negroes also are the work of God’s hands, and are
made immortal equally with themselves, notwith-
standing their different complexion ; for ‘ God is no
respecter of persons,’ and He takes as much inter-
est in the soul of a poor negro as in that of the
greatest white potentate on the earth.”

Mr. Barravup. “The glory of one of our cele-
brated navigators is tarnished, by not merely a par-
ticipation in, but by being actually the originator
of, the slave-trade in the English dominions. Sir
John Hawkins was the first Englishman who en-
gaged in the slave-trade ; and he acquired such rep-
utation for his skill and success on a voyage to
Guinea made in 1564, that, on his return home,
Queen Elizabeth granted him by patent, for his
crest, a demi-moor, in his proper color, bound with
acord. It was in those days considered an honor-
able employment, and was common in most other
civilized countries of the world: it was the vice of
the age: therefore we must not condemn Sir John
Hawkins individually, for it is probable that he
merely regarded it as a lucrative branch of trade,
and, like the rest of the world at that period, did no*
WRECK OF THE ROYAL GEORGE. 67

consider it as in the slightest degree repugnant to
justice or Christianity. I presume our next halting-
place will be Portsmouth ?”

Dora. “ Yes, sir; we are to anchor in Ports-
mouth harbor, because Charles has an excellent
account of the wreck of the ‘ Royal George,’ which,
being so immediately connected with this naval
town, will be more appropriate here than elsewhere.
Will you read it, Charles ?”

Cuartes. “ Willingly. The narrative is written
by one of the survivors, a Mr. Ingram, who lived
many years after, at Woodford, near Bristol.

She Treck of the Roval Greorge.

“ ¢ The “ Royal George” was a ship of one hun-
dred guns. In August, 1782, she came to Spit-
head in a very complete state, so that there was no
occasion for the pumps to be touched oftener than
once in every three or four days. By the 29th of
August she had got six months’ provisions on
board, and also many tons of shot. The ship had
her top-gallant-yards up, the blue flag of-Admiral
Kempenfeldt was flying at the mizen, and the en-
sign was hoisted on the ensign-staff—and she was
to have sailed in about two days, to join the grand
fleet in the Mediterranean. It was ascertained that
the water-cock must be taken out, and a new one
put in. The water-cock is something like a tap of
a barrel; it is in the hold of a ship on the starboard
side, and at that part of the ship called the well.


68 THE WRECK OF

By turning a handle which is inside the ship, the
sea-water is let into a cistern in the hold, and it is
from that pumped up to wash the decks. In some
ships, the water is drawn up the side in buckets,
and there is no water-cock. To get out the old
water-cock, it was necessary to make the ship heel
so much on her larboard side as to raise the outside
of this apparatus above water. This was done at
about eight o’clock, on the morning of the 27th
August. To do it, the whole of the guns on the
larboard side were run out as far as they would go,
quite to the breasts of the guns, and the starboard
guns drawn in amidships and secured by tackles,
two to every gun, one on each side. This brought
the water- nearly on a level with the port-holes of
the larboard side of the lower gun-deck. The men
were working at the water-cock on the outside of
the ship for near an hour, the ship remaining all
on one side, as I have stated.

“¢ At about nine o’clock, a. m., or rather before,
we had just finished our breakfast, and the last
lighter, with rum on board, had come alongside:
this vessel was a sloop of about fifty tons, and be-
longed te three brothers, who used to carry things
on board the man-of-war. She was lashed to the
larboard side of the “ Royal George,” and we were
piped to clear the lighter, and get the rum out of
her, and stow it in the hold of the “ Royal George.”
I was in the waist of our ship, on the larboard side,
bearing the rum-casks over, as some of our men
were aboard the sloop to sling them.

«“¢ At first no danger was apprehended from the









THE ROYAL GEORGE. 69.

ship being on one side, although the water kept
dashing in at the port-holes at every wave; and
there beng mice in the lower part of the ship,
which were disturbed by the water which dashed
in, they were hunted in the water by the men, and
there had been a rare game going on. - However,
by nine o'clock the additional quantity of rum
aboard the ship, and also the quantity of sea-water
which had dashed in through the port-holes,
brought the larboard port-holes of the lower gun-
deck nearly level with the sea.

«;¢ As soon as that was the case, the carpenter
went on the quarter-deck to the lieutenant of the
watch, to ask him to give orders to “right ship,” as
the ship could not bear it. However, the lieutenant
made him a very short answer, and the carpenter
then went below. This officer was the third lieu-
tenant; he had not joined us long: his name I do
not recollect; he was a good-sized man, between
thirty and forty years of age. The men called him
« Jib-and-stay-sail-Jack ;” for if he had the watch in
the night, he would be always bothering the men
to alter the sails, and it was “up jib” and “down
jib,” and “up foresail” and “down foresail,” every
minute. However, the men considered him more
of a troublesome officer than a good one; and, from
a habit he had of moving his fingers about when
walking the quarter-deck, the men said he was an
organ-player from London: but I have no reason
to know this was the case. The captain’s name
was Waghorn. He was on board, but where he
was I do not know: however, captains, if anything







70 THE WRECK OF

is to be done when the ship is in harbor, seldom
interfere, but leave it all to the officer of the watch.
The Admiral was,either in his cabin, or in the
steerage (I do not know which); and the barber,
who had been to shave him, had just left. The
Admiral was a man upwards of seventy years of
age; he was a thin tall man, and stooped a good
deal.

“¢As I have already stated, the carpenter left
the quarter-deck and went below. In a very short
time he came up again, and asked the lieutenant
of the watch to “right ship,” and said again that
the ship could not bear it. Myself and a good
many more were at the waist of the ship and at the
gangways, and heard what passed, as we knew the
danger, and began to feel aggrieved ; for there were
some capital seamen aboard, who knew what they
were about quite as well or better than the officers.

“¢Tn a very short time, ina minute or two, I should
think, Lieutenant (now Admiral Sir P. H.) Durham
ordered the drummer to be called to beat to “right
ship.” The drummer was called in a moment, and
the ship was then just beginning tosink. I jumped
off the gangway as soon as the drummer was call-
ed. There was no time for him to beat his drum,
and I do not know that he had even had time to
get it. I ran down to my station, and, by the time
I had got there, the men were tumbling down the
hatchways one over another, to get to their stations
as quick as possible to “right ship.” My station
was at the third gun from the head of the ship, on
the starboard side of the lower gun-deck close by


THE ROYAL GEORGE. 71

where the cable passes. I said to the second cap-
tain of our gun whose name was Carrell, (for every
gun has a first and second captain, though they are
only sailors,) “Let us try to bouse our gun out,
without waiting for the drum, as it will help to
‘right ship.” We pushed the gun, but it ran back
upon us, and we could not start him. The water
then rushed in at nearly all the port-holes of the
larboard side of the lower gun-deck, and I directly
said to Carrell, “ Ned, lay hold of the ring-bolt, and
jump out of the port-hole; the ship is sinking, and
we shall all be drowned.” He laid hold of the
ring-bolt, and jumped out at the port-hole into the
sea: I believe he was drowned, for I never saw
him afterwards. I immediately got out at the
same port-hole, which was the third from the head
of the ship on the starboard side of the lower gun-
deck, and when I had done so, I saw the port-hole
as full of heads as it could cram, all trying to get out.

“ was just above me, to prevent falling back again
into the port-hole, and seized hold of a woman
who was trying to get out of the same place. I
dragged her out. The ship was full of Jews, wo-
men, and people, selling all sorts of things. I threw
the woman from me, and saw all the heads drop
back again in at the port-hole, for the ship had got
so much on her larboard side, that the starboard
port-holes were as much upright as if the men had
tried to get out of the top of a chimney, with noth-
ing for their legs and feet to act upon. I threw
the woman from me, and just after that moment,


72

the air that was between decks, drafted out at the
port-holes very swiftly. It was quite a huff of
wind, and it blew my hat off The ship then sunk
in a moment. I tried to swim, but I could not, al-
though I plunged as hard as I coul1, both hands
and feet. The sinking of the ship drew me down
so: indeed, I think I must have gone down within
a yard as low as the ship did. When the ship
touched the bottom, the water boiled up a great
deal, and then I felt that I could swim, and began
to rise. 7

«¢ When I was about half-way up to the top of
the water, I put my right hand on the head of a
man who was nearly exhausted. He wore long hair,
as did many of the men at that time; he tried to
grapple me, and he put his four fingers into my
right shoe, alongside the outer edge of my foot. I
succeeded in kicking my shoe off, and, putting my
hand on his shoulder, I shoved him away: I then
rose to the surface of the water.

“¢At the time the ship was sinking, there was
a barrel of tar on the starboard side of her deck,
and that had rolled to the larboard, and staved as
the ship went down, and when I rose to the top of
the water, the tar was floating like fat on the top
of a boiler. I got the tar about my hair and face :
but I struck it away as well as I could, and when
my head came above water, I heard the cannon
ashore firing for distress. I looked about me, and
at the distance of eight or ten yards from me, I saw
the main topsail halyard block above water: the

THE WRECK OF



aaa

































water was about thirteen fathoms deep, and at that |


THE. ROYAL GEORGE. 73
time the tide was coming in. I swam to the main
topsail halyard block, got on it, and sat upon it,
and then I rode. The fore, main, and mizen tops
were all above water, as were a part of the bow-
sprit, and part of the ensign-staff, with the ensign
upon it.

“¢In going down, the mainyard of the “ Royal
George” caught the boom of the rum-lighter, and
sunk her; and there is no doubt that this made the
« Royal George” more upright in the water, when
sunk, than she otherwise would have been, as she
did not lie much more on her beam-ends than small
vessels often do, when left dry on a bank of mud.

«When I got on the main topsail halyard block,
I saw the admiral’s baker in the shrouds of the
mizen-top-mast, and directly after that, the woman,
whom I had pulled out of the port-hole, came roll-
ing by: I said to the baker, who was an Irishman,
named Robert Cleary, “ Bob, reach out your hand,
and catch hold of that woman; that is a woman I
pulled out of the port-hole: I dare say she is not
dead.” He said, “I dare say she is dead enough ;
it is of no use to catch hold of her.” I replied, “I
dare say she is not dead.” He caught hold of the
woman, and hung her head over one of the ratlines
of the mizen shrouds, and there she hung by the
chin, which was hitched over the ratlin; but a
surf came and knocked her backwards, and away
she went rolling over and over. A captain of a
frigate which was lying at Spithead came up in a
boat as fast as he could. I dashed out my left
hand in a direction towards the woman as a sign
Z

































74 THE WRECK OF

to him. He saw it, and saw the woman. His
men left off rowing, and they pulled the woman
aboard their boat, and laid her on one of the thwarts.
The captain of the frigate called out to me, “ My
man, I must. take care of those who are in more
danger than you.” I said,“I am safely moored,
now, sir.” There was a seaman named Hibbs,
hanging by his two hands from the main-stay, and
as he hung, the sea washed over him every now
and then, as much as a yard deep over his head ;
and when he saw it coming, he roared out: how-
ever, he was but a fool for that ; for if he had kept
himself quiet, he would not have wasted his strength,
and he would have been able to take the chance of
holding on so much the longer. The captain of the
frigate had his boat rowed to the main-stay; but
they got the stay over part of the head of the boat,
and were in great danger, before they got Hibbs on
board. The captain of the frigate then got all the
men that were in the different parts of the rigging,
including myself and the baker, into his boat, and
took us on board the “ Victory ;” where the doctors
recovered the woman, but she was very ill for three
or four days. On board the “ Victory,” I saw the
body of the carpenter lying on the hearth before
the galley fire: some women were trying to re-
cover him, but he was quite dead.

“ not swim, was picked up and saved by one of the
seamen. The lieutenant of the watch, I believe, was
drowned. The number of persons who lost their
lives, I cannot state with any degree of accuracy,












THE ROYAL GEORGE. 75

because of there being so many Jews, women, and
other persons on board who did not belong to the
ship. The complement of the ship was nominally
1000 men, but she was not full. Some were ashore ;
sixty marines had gone ashore that morning. |

“ men who were on board, and not drowned, for the
loss of their things. I saw the list, and there were
only seventy-five. A vast number of the best men
were in the hold stowing away the rum-casks: they
must all have perished, and so must many of the
men who were slinging the casks in the sloop.
Two of the three brothers belonging to the sloop
perished, and the other was saved. I have no doubt
that the men caught hold of each other, forty or
fifty together, and drowned one another ; those who
could not swim catching hold of those who could;
and there is also little doubt that as many got into
the launch as could cram into her, hoping to save
themselves in that way, and went down in her al-
together.

“¢ Ina few days after the “ Royal George” sunk,
bodies would come up thirty or forty nearly ata
time. A body would rise, and come up so sudden-
ly as to frighten any one. The watermen, there is
no doubt, made a good thing of it: they took from
the bodies of the men their buckles, money, and
watches, and then made fast a rope to their heels,
and towed them to land.’

Cuartes. “That is all I have copied, as the re-
maining part of the narrative is too full of nautical
terms for us to understand; and, as it only relates




76 _ (HE WRECK OF

to the state of the weather, the condition of the ves-
sel, and the perverseness of the lieutenant, it is of
no particular advantage to us in the explanation of
the wreck, for we already know the why and where-
fore of the disastrous event. But Mr. Ingram does
not precisely state the number of persons lost. Was
it not ascertained soon after ?”

Mr. Witton. “Yes; I believe the number of
persons who perished on this sadly memorable
occasion was upwards of 800, out of whom 200
were women.”

Grorce. “And was the taking out the water-
cock the original cause of the sinking of the ‘ Royal
George’ ?”

Mr. Witton. “No doubt it was, because, to ef-
fect this, the vessel was hove on one side, and while
in that situation, a sudden squall threw her broad-
side into the water, and the lower deck ports not
having been lashed down, she filled, and sunk in
about three minutes.”

Dora. “Dear me! how very sudden; what an
awful scene it must have been, so many poor crea-
tures hurried, with scarcely a moment's warning or
time to cry for mercy, into the presence of their
Creator! Were the bodies all washed ashore? Oh!
what a mourning and lamentation there must have
been at Spithead, when the fatal truth was borne
to their sorrowing friends.”

Mr. Witton. “They were not al washed
ashore, Dora, for the good old Admiral Kempenfeldt
was never found. Vast portions of the wreck have
been recovered, and many of her stores; but they








17

are comparatively worthless when we think of the
widows and orphans left to pine in poverty and
wretchedness.”

Emma. “Cowper has written some touching lines
on this awful calamity, with which we shall wind
up the subject :—

THE ROYAL GEORGE.





























“‘Toll for the brave!
The brave that are no more!

All sunk beneath the wave,
Fast by their native shore !




“« ight hundred of the brave,
Whose courage well was tried,
Had made the vessel heel,
And laid her on her side.

“¢ A land breeze shook the shrouds,
And she was overset ;

Down went the Royal George,

With all her crew complete.




‘* Toll for the brave |
Brave Kempenfeldt is gone ;

His last sea-fight is fought:
His work of glory done.




“«¢ Tt was not in the battle ;
No tempest gave the shock ;

She sprang no fatal leak ;
She ran upon no rock.

“+ His sword was in its sheath-

His fingers held the pen,
When Kempenfeldt went down,

With twice four hundred men!

70


OY, eee eee
aS

eek ee ee oe ee, a ee een 7 eo
* x pee ee oa ee eS ee eT.

78 EDDYSTONE LIGHTHOUSE.

“Weigh the vessel up,
Once dreaded by our foes!
And mingle with our cup
The tear that England owes.

«“* Her timbers yet are sound,
And she may float again,
Full charged with England’s thunder,
And plough the distant main.



“+ But Kempenfeldt is gone,
His victories are oer ;
And he and his eight hundred
Shall plough the main no more !”

Mrs. Witton. “I fear we are prolonging this
evening’s discussion beyond the customary bounds ;
but I should not be satisfied to quit the Channel
without a peep at rocky Eddystone.”

Grorce. “Mamma is very anxious to see the
Lighthouse, and so am I. It appears to me a most
wonderful building, standing as it does, surrounded
by foaming waves, and in constant danger from
winds and storms. Who knows anything about
it?”

Emma. “I do! the Eddystone Lighthouse is
built on a rock in the Channel, about fifteen miles
south-south-west from the citadel of Plymouth. It
is, as George remarked, exposed to winds and waves,
for the heavy swells from the Bay of Biscay and
the Atlantic Ocean send the waves breaking over
the rock with prodigious fury. The first Light-
house erected on these rocks was the work of a gen-
tleman named Winstanley ; it stood four years, when

ye NE) ny ee
EDDYSTONE LIGHTHOUSE. 79

he was so confident of its stability that he determin-
ed to encounter a storm in the building himself. He
paid for his temerity with his life, and found how
vain it was to build houses of brick and stone to re-
sist the mighty waters, which can only be controlled
by the power of the most high God. Three years
afterwards another Lighthouse was built, which sus-
tained the attacks of the sea for the space of forty-
six years, but, strangely enough, was destroyed by
fire in August, 1755. The fire broke out in the
lantern, and burning downwards, drove the men,
who in vain attempted to extinguish it, from cham-
ber to chamber ; until at last, to avoid the falling of
the timber, and the red hot bolts, they took refuge
in a cave on the east side of the rock, where they
were found at low water ina state little short of
stupefaction, and conveyed to Plymouth. The pres-
ent Lighthouse was erected by Mr. Smeaton on an
improved plan: no expense was spared to render it
durable and ornamental ; the last stone was placed
on the 25th of August, 1759, and the first night the
light was exhibited a very great storm happened,
which actually shook the building ; but it stood,—
and it still stands,—a glorious monument of human
enterprise, perseverance, and slill.”

Granpy. “ We have done so much to-night, and
have been so much interested, that I may venture
to offer an apology for not having prepared my por-
tion. It is now time for supper; and I think you
have heard as much to-night as you can well re-
member. Shall I ring the bell, my dear?” Mrs.
Wilton replied in the affirmative, and John quickly
80 EDDYSTONE LIGHTHOUSE.

appeared with the tray. Some nice baked apples
soon smoked on the table, with cakes of Grandy’s
own making, intended expressly for the children,
and which gave universal satisfaction. The meet-
ing dispersed about half-past ten, and all felt the
wiser for their evening’s amusement.


CHAPTER III.

There lives and works
A soul in all things,—and that soul is God!

For a few minutes we will quit the “ Research,”
and take a peep into Mr. Wilton’s drawing-room.
There is a bright, blazing fire ; the crimson curtains
are closely drawn ; pussy is curled up in a circle on
the soft rug; and Grandy, with her perpetual knit-
ting, is still in the old leather chair.

“ But where are all the others?” I fancy I hear
my readers’ inquiries. Look again. Who sits at
the table writing so busily, and every instant turn-
ing over the leaves of a large book ? It is George.
Emma has gone with her papa and mamma to the
Colosseum; but George was obliged to remain a
prisoner at hame, having been much inconvenienced
by a severe cold. He is now working diligently to
create a surprise for his sister on her return ; and
anxiety to please her gives such impetus to his
exertions, that he accomplishes more than he even
ventured to anticipate.

(irandy perseveres in her knitting: she silently
commends her darling for his thoughtful affection,
and occasionally pauses to cast a glance of deep
earnest love, not unmixed with a degree of pride,




82 THE WILTONS.

on the beaming countenance of her favorite grand-
child.

George completes his task, and causes his work-
ing apparatus to vanish before ten o'clock ; then,
twining his arms around the beloved grandmother’s
neck, he quietly whispers all the secret in her ear,
and awaits her approval.

She suggests that he preserve it until the next
evening, and then astonish the assembly by reading
his extensive notes, the result of the last two hours’
labor.

George is delighted, and amuses himself with
imagining Emma’s astonishment when he makes
his grand display ; and, with his mind vigorously
engaged in picturing the pleasures of the surprise,
he retires to rest.

Our young friends, Emma and George, were too
sensible of the value of time to waste it in idleness
or trifling pursuits; consequently, whenever you
called at Mr. Wilton’s, you might be sure to find
them occupied with some work, profitable either
to themselves or their fellow-creatures; and Mrs.
Wilton in her daily instructions had so combined
practice with theory, that her pupils almost uncon-
sciously imitated her in the paths of industry and
perseverance, no longer feeling (as heretofore) the
sad effects of procrastination ; but “ whatsoever their
hands found to do, they did it with their might.”

Continually engaged, with no cares to harass, no
troubles to distress them, their hours and days flew
on the wings of hope,—laden only with fond recol-
lections of the past, glowing with the bright realities
A GREAT NAVAL VICTORY. 83

of the present, and wafting the perfume of a glorious
future crowned with the everlasting garlands of love,
joy, and peace.

There was not much time lost in arranging their
books and papers on the evening of this meeting;
but they were obliged to commence without waiting
Mr. Barraud’s arrival, for the clock had struck seven,
and their business admitted of no delay.

They were soon seated. “ Which way are we to
get out of the British Channel ?” was the first ques-
tion.

Mr. Witton. “ There are two convenient ways
for us to sail out of the Channel: the one through
the Straits of Dover into the German Ocean; the
other past Land's End, Cornwall, into the wide
waters of the North Atlantic. We will take the
former direction, and anchor off Yarmouth while we
examine into the wonders connected with this divi-
sion of the mighty sea.”

Cuartes. “The German Ocean is the eastern
boundary of England, and many of our most beau-
tiful streams fall into its waters. I am not aware
of the existence of any islands in this ocean; and
the only fact I have to state concerning it is, that
here the French first tried their strength with the
English by sea. This happened in the reign of
King John, in the year 1213, and the account is as
follows:—‘ The French had previously obtained
possession of Normandy, and thereby become a
maritime power, which qualified them, as they
thought, to contend with the English: they in-
tended, therefore, to seize the first opportunity






84

of trying their skill; but the English were too
sharp for them, and came upon them when they
were least expected. Five hundred sail were de-
spatched by John to the relief of the Earl of Flan-
ders; and on approaching the port of Daunne, in
Flanders, they saw it crowded with an immense
forest of masts; upon which they sent out some
light shallops to reconnoitre, and bring tidings of
the enemy’s condition. The report was, that the
ships had not hands to defend them, both soldiers
and sailors having gone on shore for plunder. Upon
this the English pressed forward and captured the
large ships without difficulty, while the smaller
ones they burnt after the crews had escaped. Hav-
ing thus mastered the ships outside the harbor, the
English advanced to attack those within it; and
here the full rage of battle commenced. The port
was so narrow, that numbers and skill were una-
vailing, while the dispersed French, perceiving the
tokens of conflict, came running from every quarter
to assist their party. The English upon this, after
grappling with the nearest ships, threw a number of
their forces on land; these arranging themselves on
both sides of the harbor, a furious battle commenced
on land and water at the same instant. In this
desperate m /ée the English were victorious : three
hundred prizes, laden with corn, wine, oil, and other
provisions were sent to England: one hundred
other ships, that could not be carried off, were de-
stroyed ; and the French king, Philip IT. (surnamed
Augustus), during the temporary retreat of the
English, perceiving the impossibility of saving the

A GREAT NAVAL VICTORY.


Page 84


A GREAT VICTORY. 85

rest of his fleet in the event of a fresh attack, set it
on fire, that it might not fall into the enemy’s
hands.’ Thus the first great naval victory of the
English destroyed the /irs¢ fleet that had been pos-
sessed by France.”

Granpy. “ My opinions are no doubt at vari-
ance with the world ; but it does seem to me, that
many of these warfares by sea and land are the
most unjust, wanton sacrifice of life and property,
recorded in the annals of history. I know that
there are times and occasions when it is necessary
to do battle with foreign powers in self-defence, or
to relieve the oppressed and defenceless of other
nations ; such was the glorious object of the battle
of the Nile: but many, many battles are fought with
ambition for their guiding star, and high hopes of
honor and reward in this life to urge on the com-
batants, while their zeal in the performance of the
work of destruction is dignified with the title of
‘Patriotism.’

“We read continually of great victories; that,
related by Charles, is designated a ‘great naval
victory, and throughout, it breathes nothing but
cruelty and unwarranted oppression. It does not ap-
pear that the stratagems used to win a battle are ever
taken into consideration: it is evidently of no con-
sequence how it is won, so long as it 7s won; and
battles are more frequently decided by resorting to
means which are dishonorable, to say the least of
them, than by fair and open trials of strength.
The discomfiture of the French, in this instance,
was most assuredly owing to the cunning exercised




86 A GREAT VICTORY.

by their enemies, and not, as stated, to their supe-
riority of skill or power: they were not permitted
to try either, but were attacked when unprepared,
mercilessly robbed, and slaughtered. And this was
a victory. A victory over people who were not
allowed the chance of defending themselves. ’Tis
true the French had been tyrannizing over the
people of Normandy ; but a bad example ought to
be avoided, not imitated, as in this case. Retalia-
tion is no part of a Christian’s duty, and was not
required at the hands of the English. What right
has any nation, deliberately, and for no other pur-
pose than gain, to invade the territories of another,
to burn their houses, to destroy their inhabitants,
and to plunder them of all their possessions? Is
this a fulfilling of the law? Is this our duty to
our neighbor? Surely not; and yet such are the
principal features in a great victory, from which the
conquerors return to be honored of all men—for
which bonfires blaze, guns are fired, cities are illu-
minated, and every voice is raised to shout victory!
victory! Such victories, my dear children, are
abominations in the sight of God. He bid us live
in love and charity with all men. His Son says,
‘By this I know that ye are my disciples, because
ye have love one toward another;’ and St. Paul
further desires us to ‘love one another with pure
hearts, fervently ;’ adding, ‘ for love is the fulfilling
of the law.’ Much more might be said on this
subject; but I will detain the meeting no longer
than merely to repeat a few verses from a poem of
Southey’s, written on the battle of Blenheim;
A FAMOUS VICTORY. 87



which, as they coincide with my opinions, afford me
much satisfaction, because they testify that I do not
differ in sentiment from all mankind :—

“< With fire and sword the country round
Was wasted far and wide,
And many a childling mother then,
And new-born ‘infant died.
But things like these, you know, must -
At every famous victory !

“«They say it was a shocking sight
After the field was won,
For many thousand bodies here,
Lay rotting in the sun.
But things like that, you know, must be
At every famous victory !

“Great praise the Duke of Marlbro’ won,
And our good Prince Eugene.”
“ Why, ’twas a very wicked thing !”
Said little Wilhelmine.
“Nay, nay, my little girl,” quoth he,
“Tt was a famous victory |”

“<« And everybody praised the Duke,
Who such a fight did win.”
“But what good came of it at last ?”
Quoth Little Wilhelmine.
“ Why that I cannot tell,” said he,
“ But ’twas a famous victory !”’”

Georce. “If I were an admiral, I would never
fight for gain, and I would not allow any of the
men under my command to be cruel to the poor
people in their power.”

“ If you had the opportunity, my-son,” said Mr.
mae

eee Pe ee ey ee eRe Le es Oe ee ne eer

~~

88 MONSTER FISH.

Wilton, “I fear that, like many others, you would
be unable to resist the temptation to show your
authority over the vanquished ; for great and wise
men have often found themselves unequal to the
task of schooling their hearts, to listen to the dic-

tates of humanity, when surrounded by the turmoil

and excitement of a battle. But now, Charles, I
must set you right with respect to the islands, and
inform you that there are two well-known islands
in the German Ocean,—the Isle of Thanet and
Sheppey Isle. I refer you to Mrs. Wilton for their
description.”

Mrs. Witton. “The Isle of Thanet forms the
north-east angle of the county of Kent: from north
to south it is five miles, and rather more than ten
from east to west. It contains many beautiful water-
ing places, Margate, Ramsgate, and Broadstairs
on the sea; St. Lawrence, Birchington, and St.
Peter’s, inland. The whole of the district is ina
very high state of cultivation, and remarkable for
its fertility; the first market-garden in England
was planted in the Isle of Thanet. There is a little
place called Fishness, not far from Broadstairs,
which derived its name from the following circum-
stance:—‘ On the 9th of July, 1574, a monstrous
fish shot himself on sho:e, where, for want of water,
he died the next day; before which time, his roar-
ing was heard above a mile: his length was twenty-
two yards, the nether jaw opening twelve feet; one
of his eyes was more than a cart and six horses
could draw; a man stood upright in the place from
whence his eye was taken; his tongue was fifteen


Te oe.

Se ee a ee ee ee

THE DOWNS. 89

feet long; his liver two cart-loads; and a man
might creep into his nostrils.’ All this, and a great
deal more, is asserted by Kilburne, in his ‘ Survey
of Kent ;’ and Stowe, in his Annals, under the same
date, in addition to the above, informs us, that this
‘whale of the sea’ came on shore under the cliff, at
six o'clock at night, ‘ where, for want of water beat-
ing himself on the sands, it died about the same
hour next morning.’ ”

Cartes. “The size and other particulars seem
probable enough, with the exception of the eye,
which certainly must be an exaggeration; one
such an eye would be large enough for any animal,
were he as monstrous as the wonderful Mammoth
of antediluvian days. Do not you think, madam,
that the account is a little preposterous ?”

Mrs. Witton. “I think it is very likely, my
dear, because there were so few persons to write
descriptions of these wonderful creatures, that those
who undertook the task were seldom content with
the bare truth, no matter how extraordinary, but
generally increased the astonishment of their read-
ers by almost incredible accounts, which they were
quite aware would never be contradicted. We live
in a more inquiring age, and do not so readily give
credence to all we hear, without ascertaining the
probabilities of such descriptions; and exaggerated
accounts are now merely regarded as ‘ travellers’
wonders,’ and only partially believed.

“ About seven miles south of the Isle of Thanet
lies Deal, and immediately opposite Deal is that
part of the sea called the ‘ Downs,’ which has long

Q*


eo ae ny a eh ed
'

90 ‘9T, AUGUSTINE.

been a place of rendezvous for shipping, where as
many as 400 sail have been anchored at one ‘time.
The southern boundary of the Downs is formed by
the Goodwin Sands, so often fatal to mariners.
They were, originally, an island belonging to Earl
Goodwin, when a sudden and mighty inundation
of the sea overwhelmed with light sand, ‘ where-
/ with, as an old writer hath it, ‘it not only remayn-
eth covered ever since, but is become withall a most
dreadful gulfe and shippe swallower.’ |

‘We will now bestow a little consideration on
Sheppey Isle.”

Granvy. “I should like you to be aware, be-
fore quitting this luxuriant Isle of Thanet, that it
was here the precious truths of the Gospel were
first set forth in England: it is supposed, on very
just grounds too, that the apostle Paul was the
preacher, who, in the middle of the first century,
spread the doctrines of Christianity far and wide ;
and, from Rome, travelled to the isles of the “far
west, in which is included this lovely little spot,
where he was received by the noble of the land.
Instead of being persecuted as at Rome, he was
eagerly followed, and the peaceful precepts he en-
deavored to inculcate were willingly obeyed.

“ After St. Paul, came Augustine, who, in 597,
landed in the Isle of Thanet, was welcomed by the
king of Kent, Ethelbert, then holding his court at
Canterbury. He, the second apostle, came to con-
vert the people who were again sunk into barba-
rism and idolatry ; he came in the name of the Most
High, and his mission was successful. Ethelbert







YARMOUTH. 91

‘at once appointed St. Augustine a suitable resi-
dence at Canterbury, and gave him every facility of
effecting his object, by permitting him to hold free
converse with his subjects. Thus you see Canter-
bury thence became the ‘nursing mother’ of reli-
gion throughout the land. The greatest ornament
in the Isle of Thanet is its church at Minster, built
on the site of a convent founded by the princess
Domneva, granddaughter of Ethelbald, king of
Kent. Now we will travel on to Sheppey.”

Mes. Witton. “ We shall not be detained there
long with my description. It is a little island ly-
ing north of Chatham, and separated from the Isle
of Grain by the river Medway. Both these isles
may be considered as situated at the mouth of the
Thames. The principal place in Sheppey is Sheer-
ness.”

Grorce. “Now, dear mamma, I suppose we
have done with the German Ocean ?”

Mrs. Witton. “So far as I am concerned, my
dear; but I have a notion that you are in posses-
sion of some wonderful story which will astonish
us all. Is it so, my boy? Those sparkling eyes
~ and flushed cheeks betray your secret. I am not
deceived. Permit me then to request, in the name
of the assembled members, that you will favor us
with the contents of the paper in your hand.”

“Nay, dear mamma,” said George; “your ex-
pectations are raised too high. My paper only con-
tains an account of a Yarmouth boatman; but it
interested me: and Yarmouth being a seaport on
the shores of the German Ocean, I thought it would

































92 BROCK THE SWIMMER

be an agreeable termination to this part of our voy-
age, and I took the trouble to put it into a moder-
ate compass for the occasion.” George then un-
folded two or three sheets of closely written paper,
while he enjoyed the amazed looks of his sister ;
and so pleased was he at her expressions of aston-
ishment, that he was unable to resist the impulse
of throwing his arms around her neck, and kissing
her affectionately. “ You are surprised, dear Em-
ma,” said he; “I only cared to please you when I
wrote it, but now I will try to please all.” He
then, in a clear distinct tone of voice read the fol-
lowing :—

Narrative of Brock the Swimmer and
Yarmouth Boatman.

“ Amongst the sons of labor, there are none more
deserving of their hard earnings than that class of
persons, denominated Beachmen, on the shores of
this kingdom. To those unacquainted with mari-
time affairs, it may be as well to observe, that these
men are bred to the sea from their earliest infancy,
are employed in the summer months very frequently
as regular sailors or fishermen, and during the au-
tumn, winter, and spring, when gales are most fre-
quent on our coast, in going off in boats to vessels
in distress in all weathers, to the imminent risk of
their lives; fishing up lost anchors and cables, and
looking out for waifs (2. e. anything abandoned or
wrecked), which the winds and waves may have
cast in their way. In our seaports these persons
AND YARMOUTH BOATMAN. 93

are usually divided into companies, between whom
the greatest rivalry exists, in regard to the beauty
and swiftness of their boats, and their dexterity in
managing them: this too often leads to feats of the
greatest daring, which the widow and the orphan
have long to deplore. To one of these companies,
known by the name of ‘ Laytons,’ whose rendezvous
and ‘look-out’ were close to Yarmouth jetty, Brock
belonged ; and in pursuit of his calling, the follow-
ing event is recorded by an acquaintance of Brock’s.

“ About 1 p.m. on the 6th of October, 1835, a
vessel was observed at sea from this station with a
signal flying for a pilot, bearing east distant about
twelve miles: in a space of time incredible to those
who have not witnessed the launching of a large
boat on a like occasion, the yawl, ‘ Increase,’ eigh-
teen tons burden, belonging to Laytons’ gang, with
ten men and a London Branch pilot, was under
weigh, steering for the object of their enterprise.
About 4 o’clock she came up with the vessel, which
proved to be a Spanish brig, Paquette de Bilboa,
laden with a general cargo, and bound from Ham-
burg to Cadiz, leaky, and both pumps at work.
After a great deal of chaffering in regard to the
amount of salvage, and some little altercation with
part of the boat’s: crew as to which of them should
Stay with the vessel, J. Layton, J. Woolsey, and
George Darling, boatmen, were finally chosen to
assist in pumping and piloting her into Yarmouth
harbor: the remainder of the crew of the yaw! were
then sent away. The brig at this time was about
five miles to the eastward of the Newarp Floating




Se ee ee a ek Sys, ee ee Re.

94 BROCK THE SWIMMER

Light, off Winterton on the Norfolk coast, the wea-
ther looking squally. On passing the light in their
homeward course, a signal was made for them to
go alongside, and they were requested to take on
shore a sick man; and the poor fellow being com-
fortably placed upon some jackets and spare coats,
they again shoved off, and set all sail: they had a
fresh breeze from the W. 8. W. ‘There was little
better” said Brock, ‘than a pint of liquor in the
boat, which the Spaniard had given us, and the
bottle had passed once round, each man taking a
mouthful, till about half of it was consumed: we
all had a bit of biscuit each, and while we were
making our light meal, we talked of our earnings,
and calculated that by 10 o’clock we should be at
Yarmouth.

«<¢ Without the slightest notice of its approach a
terrific squall from the northward took the yawl’s
sails flat aback, and the ballast which we had train-
ed to windward, being thus suddenly changed to
leeward, she was upset in an instant.

«“< Our crew and passenger were nine men—’twas
terrible to listen to the cries of the poor fellows, some
of whom could swim, and others who could not.
Mixed with the hissing of the water and the howl-
ings of the storm, I heard shrieks for mercy, and
some that had no meaning but what arose from fear.
I struck out to get clear of the crowd, and in a few
minutes there was no noise, for most of the men had
sunk; and, on turning round, I saw the boat still
kept from going down by the wind having got un-
der the sails. I then swam back to her, and assist-




eee et Pe See
- 1

AND YARMOUTH BOATMAN, 95

ed an old man to get hold of oneof her spars. The
boat’s side was about three feet under water, and for
a few minutes I stood upon her, but I found she
was gradually settling down, and when up to my
chest I again left her and swam away; and now,
for the first time, began to think of my own awful
condition. My companions were all drowned, at
least I supposed so. How long it was up to this
period from the boat’s capsizing I cannot exactly
say ; in such cases, there is no teme; but now L| re-
flected that it was half-past six Pp. m. just before the
accident occurred ; that the nearest land at the time
was six miles distant; and that it was dead low
water, and the flood tide setting off the shore,
making to the southward ; therefore, should I ever
reach the land, it would take me at least fifteen
miles setting up with the flood, before the ebb would
assist me.’

“ While Brock was making these calculations, a
rush horse collar covered with old netting floated
close to him ; he laid holdof it, and getting his knife
out, he stripped off the net-work, and putting his
left arm through, was supported until he had cut
the waist band of his petticoat ‘rouigiers, whichythen
fell off: his striped frock, waistcoat; and neckcloth,
were also similarly got ‘ig of, but he dared not try
tofree himself of his oiled trousers, drawers, or shirt,
fearing that his legs might become entangled in the
attempt; he therefore returned his knife into the
pocket of his trousers, and put the collar over his
head, which, although it assisted in keeping him
above water, retarded his swimming ; and after a



So eae eS eo ee ee eS OTe ae ee hg OL) Oe OR ae Om PRT Lene mee
: ee 4 2 “

eo

ee






96 BROCK THE SWIMMER





few moments’ thinking what was best to be done,
he determined to abandon it. He now, to his great
surprise, perceived one of his messmates swimming
ahead of him; but he did not hail him. The roar-
ing of the hurricane was past; the cries of drown-
ing men were no longer heard; the moonbeams
were casting their silvery light over the smooth
surface of the deep, calm and silent as the grave
over which he floated, and into which he saw this
last of his companions descend without a struggle
or acry,as he approached within twenty yards of
him. Yes, he beheld the last of his brave crew
die beside him; and now he was alone in the cold
silence of night, more awful than the strife of the
elements which had preceded. Perhaps at this
time something might warn him that he too would
soon be mingled with the dead ; but if such thoughts
did intrude, they were but for a moment; andagain
his mental energies, joined with his lion heart and
bodily prowess, cast away all fear, and he reckoned
the remotest possible chances of deliverance, apply-
ing the means,

“¢ Qourage and Hope both teaching him the practice.’

“Upto this time, Winterton Light had served instead
of a land-mark to direct his course ; but the tide had
now carried him out of sight of it, and in its stead
‘a bright star stood over where’ his hopes of safety
rested. With his eyes steadfastly fixed upon it, he
continued swimming on, calculating the time when
the tide would turn. But his trials were not yet
past. As if to prove the strength of human forti-





ee




AND YARMOUTH BOATMAN. 97

tude, the sky became suddenly overclouded, and
‘darkness was upon the face of the deep.’ He no
longer knew his course, and he confessed, that for a
moment he was afraid ; yet he felt, that ‘ fear is but
the betraying of the succors which reason offereth,’
and that which roused him to further exertion,
would have sealed the fate of almost any other hu-
man being. A sudden short cracking peal of thun-
der burst in stunning loudness just over his head,
and the forked and flashing lightning at brief in-
tervals threw its vivid fires around him. . This, too,
in its turn passed away, and left the sea once more
calm and unruffled: the moon (nearly full) again
threw a more brilliant light upon the waters, which
the storm had gone over without waking from their
slumbers. His next effort was to free himself from
his heavy laced boots, which greatly encumbered
him, and in which he succeeded by the aid of his
knife. He now saw Lowestoft’s high Lighthouse,
and could occasionally discern the tops of the cliffs
beyond Garlestone on the Suffolk coast. The
swell of the sea drove him over the Cross Sand
Ridge, and he then got sight of a buoy, which, al-
though it told him his exact position, ‘took him
rather aback,’ as he had hoped he was nearer the
shore. It proved to be the chequered buoy, St.
Nicholas’ Gate, off Yarmouth, and opposite his own
door, but distant from the land four miles. And
now again he held counsel with himself, and the
energies of his mind seem almost superhuman ; he
had been five hours in the water, and here was
something to hold on by ; he could have even got


98 BROCK THE SWIMMER

upon the buoy, and some vessel might come near
to pick him up, and the question was, could he yet
hold out four miles? ‘But, said he, ‘I knew the
night air would soon finish me, and had I stayed
but a few minutes upon it, and then altered my
mind, how did I know that my limbs would again
resume their office?’ He found the tide was broke ;
it did not run so strong; so he abandoned the buoy,
and steered for the land, towards which, with the
wind from the eastward, he found he was now fast
approaching. The last trial of his fortitude was
now at hand, for which he was totally unprepared,
and which he considered (having the superstition
of a sailor) the most difficult of any he had to com-
bat. Soon after he left the buoy, he heard just
above his head a sort of whiffing sound, which his
imagination conjured into the prelude to the ‘rush-
ing of amighty wind, and close to his ear there
followed a smart splash in the water, and a sudden
shriek that went through him,—such as is heard

“ «When the lone sea-bird wakes its wildest cry.’

“The fact was, a large gray gull, mistaking him for
a corpse, had made a dash at him, and its loud dis-
cordant scream in a moment brought a countless
number of these formidable birds together, all pre-
pared to contest for a share of the spoil. These
largé and powerful foes he had now to scare from
their intended prey, and, by shouting and splashing
with his hands and feet, in a few minutes they dis-
appeared.

“ He now caught sight of a vessel at anchor, but
rT





AND YARMOUTH BOATMAN. 99

a great way off and to get within hail of her he must
swim over Carton Sands (the grave of thousands),
the breakers at this time showing their angry white
crests. As he approached, the wind suddenly

‘changed; the consequence of which was that the

swell of the sea met him. Here is hisown descrip-
tion :—‘I got a great deal of water down my throat,
which greatly weakened me. and I felt certain, that,
should this continue, it would soon be all over, and
I prayed that the wind might change, or that God
would take away my senses before I felt what it
was ta drown. In less time than I am telling you,
I had driven over the sands into smooth water ; the
wind and swell cume again from the eastward, and
my strength returned to me as fresh as in the be-
ginning.’ |

“He now felt certain that he could reach the
shore ; but he considered it would be better to get
within hail of the brig, some distance to the south-
ward of him, and the most difficult task of the two,
as the ebb tide was now running, which, although it
carried him towards the land, set to the northward
and to gain the object of his choice would require
much greater exertion. Here, again, are Brock’s
reflections :—‘ If I gained the shore, could I get out
of the surf, which at this time was heavy on the
beach? And, supposing I succeeded in this point,
should I be able to walk, climb the cliffs, and get
to a house? if not, there was little chance of life re-
maining long in me: but if I could make myself
heard on board the brig, then I should secure imme-
diate assistance. I got within two hundred yards of




Pe i Sa eg ee ee ee ee ee Me a ee ee Ce ee LOS Spe OE

ee ARO Tee Tee en a

100 BROCK THE SWIMMER

her, the nearest possible approach, and, summoning
all my strength, I sung out as bravely as if I had
been on shore.’

“
He-was anstvered from the deck; a boat was in-
stantly lowered; and at half-past 1 a.., having
swam seven hours in an October night, he was safe
on board the brig Betsey of Sunderland, coal laden,
at anchor in Corton Roads, fourteen miles from the
spot where the boat was capsized. The captain’s
name was CHRISTIAN |

“ Once safe on board, ‘nature cried enough :’ he
fainted, and continued insensible for some time.
All that humanity could suggest was done for him
by Christian and his crew: they had no spirits on
board, but they had bottled ale, which they made
warm, and by placing Brock before a good fire,
rubbing him dry, and putting him in hot blankets,
he was at length, with great difficulty, enabled to
get a little of the ale down his throat ; but it caused
excruciating pain, as his throat was in a state of
high inflammation from breathing (as a swimmer
does) so long the saline particles of sea and air, and
it was now swollen very much, and, as he says, he
feared he should be suffocated. He, however, after
a little time, fell into a sleep, which refreshed and
strengthened him, but he awoke to intense bodily
suffering. Round his neck and chest he was per-
fectly flayed; the soles of his feet, hands, and other
parts were also equally excoriated. In this state,
at about 9 a. m., the brig getting under weigh with


AND YARMOUTH BOATMAN. 101

the tide, he was put on shore at Lowestoft in Suf.
folk, and immediately despatched a messenger to
Yarmouth, with the sad tidings of the fate of the
yawl and the rest of hercrew. Being safely housed
under the roof of a relative, with good nursing and
medical assistance, in five days from the time of the
accident, with a firm step he walked back to Yar-
mouth, to confirm the wonderful rumors circulated
respecting him, and to receive the congratulations
of his friends. The knife, which he considers as
the great means of his being saved, is preserved
with great care, and in all probability will be shown
a century hence by the descendants of this man.
It is a common horn-handle knife, having one blade
about five inches long. A piece of silver is now
riveted on, and covers one side, on which is the fol-
owing inscription :—

“* Brown, Emerson, Smits, Bray, Bupps, FEnn, RusHMERE,

Boutr :—Brocx, aided by this knife, was saved after being

7 1-2 hours in the sea,
October 6. 1835.

“ relating his story, ‘that I had been without a knife
for some time, and only purchased this two days
before it became so useful to me; and having had
to make some boat’s tholes, it was as sharp as a
razor. Iought to be a good-living chap,’ continued
he, ‘for three times I have been saved by swim-
ming. What I did on this night, I know I could
not have done of myself, but God strengthened me.
I never asked for anything but it was given me.’

“This man had great faith, and he had also other

gx
- ee ee eS —



102 BROCK THE SWIMMER.

good traits in his character. A large subscription
was made for the widows and children of Brock’s
unfortunate companions; and a fund being estab-
lished for théir relief, the surplus was offered to him.
This was his answer: ‘I am much obliged to you,
gentlemen, but, thank God! I can still get my own
living as well as ever, and I could not spend the
money that was given to the fatherless and widow.’
In contemplating the feat of this extraordinary man,
it must appear to every one, that his bodily prow-
ess, gigantic as it is, appears as dust in the balance
compared with the powers of his mind. To think
and to judge rightly under some of the most ap-
palling circumstances that ever surrounded mortal
man, to reject the delusive for the arduous, to re-
solve and to execute, form such a combination of
the best and rarest attributes of our nature, that
where are we to-look for them in the same man?
Brock at the time of this disastrous affair was thir-
ty-one years of age, a fine, stout, athletic man, and
as upright in his life and conversation as he was in
his very handsome person.”

George read all this so clearly and distinctly, that
he really merited the praise bestowed upon him:
even Grandy, generally too partial, did not award
him more than he deserved, for it was a great work
for a boy of his age.

“My dear boy,” said Mr. Wilton, “I am quite
delighted to find you have been so industrious, as
it proves most satisfactorily that you are resolved
to overcome all obstacles of weariness or difficulty
in order to accomplish the great end—the attain-







THE NORTH SEA.



ment of useful knowledge. Iam much, very much,
pleased with you, my dear boy.”

The color mounted to the cheeks of the happy
child, and in those few moments of heartfelt joy he
was amply repaid for the previous evening’s toil.

“Where sail we next 2” inquired Mrs. Wilton.

Emma. “The North Sea is the track, dear mam-
ma. Iam sorry Mr. Barraud bas not come, as he,
having been to Scotland, might have helped us
considerably. However, Dora is prepared with
some particulars, and we need not be idling be-
cause of the absence of one member.”

“No, indeed!” exclaimed Mr. Wilton, “for I
have a few words to say on that subject; so sail
on, Dora, and ‘T’ll give thee a wind.’ ”

“And I another,” added Charles; “for I have
actually been along the coasts that are washed by
the blue waves of the North Sea, and can say a
Jew words after our honored member in the chair.”

Dora. “The North Sea washes the shores of
Scotland, Denmark, and Norway. There are a
great many islands in this sea, many more than I
can enumerate. Near Scotland there are several
little unimportant places of trifling interest, of
which I should be glad to gain some information,
as at present I know nothing more than that they
are there, are inhabited, and tolerably fertile.”

Cuartes. “T believe I can enlighten you to a
certain extent, Dora, at least so far that you may
acknowledge that there are interesting places in the
North Sea near Scotland. Ten leagues, or thirty
geographical miles, north of the ancient castle o




























104 THE BELL ROCK.

Dunglass (once the head-quarters of Oliver Crom-
well) lies the Bell Rock: you can see it in the
map, just off the mouth of the Tay, and close to the
northern side of the great estuary called the Firth
of Forth. Up to the commencement of the present
century, this rock was justly considered one of the
most formidable dangers that the navigators of the
North Sea had to encounter. Its head, merged
under the surface during greater part of the tide,
at no time made much show above the water.
There was nothing for it, therefore, but to keep
well clear of the mischief, or, as seamen express
themselves. to give the rock a wide berth. Ships,
accordingly, bound for the Forth, in their constant
terror of this ugly reef, not content with giving it
ten or even twenty miles of elbow room, must needs
edge off a little more to the south, so as to hug the
shore in such a way, that when the wind chopped
round to the northward, as it often did, these over-
cautious navigators became embayed in a deep
bight to the westward of Fast Castle. If the breeze
freshened before they had time to work out, they
paid dearly for their apprehensions of the Bell
Rock, by driving upon ledges fully as sharp and
far more extensive and inevitable. The conse-
quence was that from three to four vessels, or some-
times half a dozen, used to be wrecked each win-
ter. Captain Basil Hall in speaking of this place
says, ‘Perhaps there are few more exciting specta-
cles than a vessel stranded on a lee-shore, and
especially such a shore, which is fringed with reefs
extending far out and offering no spot for shelter.



























Pe AN, ee Pee ee Bl

THE BELL ROCK. 105

The hapless ship lies dismasted, bilged, and beat
about by the waves, with the despairing crew cling-
ing to the wreck, or to the shrouds, and uttering

“cries totally inaudible in the roar of the sea; while

at each successive dash of the breakers the number
of the survivors is thinned, till at length they all
disappear. The gallant bark then goes to pieces,
and the coast for a league on either side is strewed
with broken planks, masts, boxes, and ruined _por-
tions of the goodly cargo, with which, a few hours
before, she was securely freighted, and dancing
merrily over the waters.’ I am happy to add, in
conclusion, that this fatal Bell Rock, the direct and
indirect cause of so many losses, has been converted
into one of the greatest sources of security that
navigation is capable of receiving. By means of
scientific skill, aided by well-managed perseverance,
with the example of the Eddystone to copy from, a
lighthouse, one hundred and twenty feet high, has
been raised upon this formidable reef, by Mr. Robert
Stevenson, the skilful engineer of the ‘ Northern
Lights ;’ so that the mariner, instead of doing all
he can to avoid the spot once so much dreaded, now
eagerly runs for it, and counts himself happy when
he gets sight of the revolving star on the top,
which, from its being variously colored, he can dis-
tinguish from any other light in that quarter. He
is then enabled to steer directly for his port in per-
fect security, though the night be never so dark.”
Mr. Wilton remarked how much one man, by
the right use of the talents he possessed, might











a, eR Le ee ae, ee ee Re Te ES ROO Age ee ae ek eee eet
"2 . as , . = nna

106 MR. BARRAUD.

benefit his fellow-creatures, when he was interrupt-
ed by the entrance of Mr. Barraud.

A welcome rose to every lip, and Mr. Barraud
apologized for being so late, adding that he had
been detained by a friend who was about to start
for Scotland, and wished to have an hour’s conver-
sation with him before his departure.

“ How singular!” exclaimed Mr. Wilton; “we
have been regretting your absence particularly this
evening, because we are navigating the North Sea,
where you have been so often tossed to and fro, and
we thought it quite possible you might have met
with some amusing or instructive incidents in your
travels along the coast, which would agreeably re-
lieve the tedium of our voyage. Now I see no
reason why you should not accompany your friend
to Scotland, and charm us with a soul-stirring nar-
rative of real life.”

“ Oh! I perceive the state of affairs clearly,” said
Mr. Barraud; “ the young folks are getting weary
of the monotony of a sea voyage, and desire to step
ashore again.”

“ No! no! we are not tired,” anxiously exclaim-
ed the little group.

“ But,” said Charles, “it makes a voyage so
much more pleasant when we drop anchor now
and then, to look around on the beauties of other
lands; and more profitable also, if we learn some-
thing of tiie customs, laws, and peculiarities of the
inhabitants of those lands.”

Mr. Barravup. “ Very true, Charles; and to
gratify you I will relate a story written by Colonel

oe


JOCK OF JEDBURGH. 107

Maxwell, the well-known author of many pleasing
and instructive works, which will serve the purpose
better than any other I can think of just now—be-
sides, to heighten its interest, it is all true.”

Hock of Hevburgh.

“ During a tedious passage to the North, I re-
marked among the steerage passengers a man who
seemed to keep himself apart from the rest. He
wore the uniform of the foot artillery, and sported
a corporal’s stripes. In the course of the afternoon,
I stepped before the funnel, and entered into con-
versation with him; learned that he had been in-
valided and sent home from Canada, had passed
the Board in London, obtained a pension of a
shilling a-day, and was returning to a border vil-
lage, where he had been born, to ascertain whether
any of his family were living, from whom he had
been separated nineteen years. He casually ad-
mitted, that during this long interval he had held
no communication with his relations; and I set
him down accordingly as some wild Scapegrace,
who had stolen from a home whose happiness his
follies had compromised too often. He showed me
his discharge—the character was excellent,—but it
only went to prove how much men’s conduct will
depend upon the circumstances under which they
act. He had been nineteen years a soldier—a man
‘under authority,’—one obedient to another’s will,
subservient to strict discipline, with scarcely a free


108 JOCK OF JEDBURGH.

agency himself, and yet, during that long probation,
he had been a useful member of the body politic,
sustained a fair reputation, and as he admitted
himself, been a contented and happy man. He re-
turned home his own master, and older by twenty
years. Alas! it was a fatal free agency for him,
for time had not brought wisdom. The steward
told me that he had ran riot while his means allow-
ed it, had missed his passage twice, and had on the
preceding evening come on board, when not a shil-
ling remained to waste in drunken dissipation. I
desired that the poor man should be supplied with
some little comforts during the voyage; and when
we landed at Berwick, I gave him a trifling sum
to assist him to reach his native village, where he
had obtained vague intelligence that some aged
members of his family might still be found.

“A few evenings afterwards, I was sitting in
the parlor of one of the many little inns I visited
while rambling on the banks of the Tweed, when
the waitress informed me that ‘a sodger is speerin’
after the colonel.’ He was directed to attend the
presence, and my fellow-voyager, the artilleryman,
entered the chamber, and made his military sa-
laam.

“¢T thought you were now at J edburgh,’ I ob-
served.

“ not been any of my family for many a year resid-
ing in the place. I met an old packman on the
road, and he tells me there are some persons in this
village of my name. I came here to make in-


JOCK OF JEDBURGH. 109

quiries, and hearing that your honor was in the
house I made bold enough to ask for you.’

“* Have you walked over ?’ I inquired.

“* Yes, sir,’ he replied.

“Tis a long walk,’ said I; ‘go down and get
some supper before you commence inquiries.’

“The soldier bowed and left the room, and pres-
ently the host entered to give me directions for a
route among the Cheviots, which I contemplated
taking the following day. I mentioned the sol-
dier’s errand.

“* Sure enough,’ returned the host, ‘ there are an
auld decent couple of the name here. What is the
soldier called ?’

“* William,’ I replied, for by that name his dis-
charge and pension bill were filled up.

“ Boniface, ‘and ask them a few questions.’

“The episode of humble life that followed was
afterwards thus described to me by mine host.

“ He found the ancient couple seated at the fire ;
the old man reading a chapter in the Bible, as was
his custom always before he and his aged partner
retired for the night to rest. The landlord explain-
ed the object of the soldier's visit, and inquired if
any of their children answered the description of
the wanderer.

“‘Tt is our Jock!’ exclaimed the old woman
passionately, ‘and the puir neer-do-weel has cam
hame at last to close his mither’s eyes.’

“*Na, said the landlord; ‘the man’s name is
Wolly.’

10


110 JOCK OF JEDBURGH.

“¢Then he’s nae our bairn,’ returned the old
man with a heavy sigh.

“¢ Weel, weel—His will be done!’ said his help-
mate, turning her blue and faded eyes to heaven ;
‘I thought the prayer I sae often made wad yet be
granted, and Jock wad come hame and get my
blessin’ ere I died.’

“¢He has! he has!’ exclaimed a broken voice ;
and the soldier, who had followed the landlord un-
perceived, and listened at the cottage door, rushed
into the room, and dropped kneeling at his mother’s
feet. For a moment she turned her eyes with a
fixed and glassy stare upon the returned wanderer.
Her hand was laid upon his head—her lips parted
as if about to pronounce the promised blessing—
but no sounds issued, and she slowly leaned for-
ward on the bosom of the long-lost prodigal, who
clasped her in his arms.

“*Mither! mither! speak and bless me!’ cried
he in agony.

“ Alas! the power of speech was gone forever.
Joy, like grief, is often fatal to a worn-out frame.
The spirit had calmly passed ; the parent had lived
to see and bless her lost one; and expire in the
arms of him, who, with all his faults, appeared to
have been her earthly favorite.”

Dora. “What an affecting story! How sorry
Jock must have felt that he came so suddenly into
his mother’s presence; but his father was yet alive
for him to comfort and cheer in his declining age.
T hope he was kind and affectionate to him all his days,
to compensate for the loss of the poor old woman ?”
THE FORFARSHIRE. 111

Me. Barravup. “T trust he was, but our histo-
rian saith no more.”

Mr. Witton. “ There is a little cluster of islands
between Alnwick and Berwick called the Farne
islands, on one of which was situated the light-
house where the heroine Grace Darling spent her
dreary days. These rocky islands have for cen-
turies been respected as holy ground, because St.
Cuthbert built an oratory on one of them, and died
there. At one time there were two chapels on
these rocks; one dedicated to St. Cuthbert, the oth-
er to the Virgin Mary: they are now ruins; anda
square building, erected for the religieux stationed
on these isles, has been put to better use, and con-
verted into a lighthouse. Off these islands occur-

red that dreadful calamity, the wreck of the Forfar-
shire steamer, of which I will give you a brief ac-
count :—

SB reck of the Porfarsbdire.

“Tt appears, that shortly after she left the Hum-
ber her boilers began to leak, but not to such an
extent as to excite any apprehensions; and she con-
tinued on her voyage. The weather, however, be-
came very tempestuous; and on the morning of the
fatal day, she passed the Farnes on her way north-
wards, in a very high sea, which rendered it neces-
sary for the crew to keep the pumps constantly at
work. At this time they became aware that the
boilers were becoming more and more leaky as they
proceeded. At length, when she had advanced as


112 THE WRECK OF

far as St. Abb’s Head, the wind having increased to
a hurricane from N.N. E., the engineer reported the
appalling fact that the machinery would work no
longer. Dismay seized all on board ; nothing now
remained but to set the sails fore and aft, and let
her drift before the wind. Under these circum-
Stances, she was carried southwards, till about a
quarter to four o’clock on Friday morning, when
the foam became distinctly visible breaking upon
the fearful rock ahead. Captain Humble vainly
attempted to avert the appalling catastrophe, by run-
ning her between the islands and the mainland ;
she would not answer her helm, and was impelled
to and fro by a furious sea. In a few minutes
more, she struck with her bows foremost on the
rock. The scene on board became heart-rending.
A moment after the first shock, another tremendous
wave struck her on the quarter, by which she was
buoyed for a moment high off the rock. Falling
as this wave receded, she came down upon the
sharp edge with a force so tremendous as to break
her fairly in two pieces, about ’midships; when,
dreadful to relate, the whole of the after part of the
ship, containing the principal cabin, filled with pas-
sengers, sinking backwards, was swept into the
deep sea, and thus was every soul on that part of
the vessel instantaneously engulfed in one vast and
terrible grave of waters. Happily the portion of
the wreck which had settled on the rock remained
firmly fixed, and afforded a place of refuge to the
unfortunate survivors. At daylight they were dis-
covered from the Longstone; and Grace Darling




ee ee) ae Se ee Teen

THE FORFARSHIRE. 118

and her father launched a boat, and succeeded,
amidst the dash of waters and fearful cries of the
perishing people, in removing the few remaining
sufferers from their perilous position to the light-
house. The heroism of this brave girl, who un.
hesitatingly risked her own life to Save others, was
justly appreciated and rewarded. A large sum of
money was collected for her, and many valuable
presents were despatched to the ‘lonely isle ;’ among
others, a gold watch and chain, which she always
after wore, although homely in her general attire.
Poor Grace Darling! she did not long enjoy the
praises and rewards which she so richly merited
fer her courage and humanity: a rapid consump-
tion brought her to the grave; and her remains
rest in a churchyard upon the mainland, in sight
of that wild rock, on which she earned so great ce-
lebrity. A beautiful and elegant monument is
erected to her memory, which will trumpet forth
her praises to many yet unborn.”

Granpvy. “A curious circumstance occurred on
these shores some years ago, and was related to my
dear husband by an old man at Aberdeen, on whose
veracity he could rely :—

“Three or four boys, one of them the son of a
goldsmith in Dundee, went out in a boat towards
the mouth of the Tay, but rowing farther than was
prudent, they were carried out to sea. Their friends
finding they did not return, made every search for
them, and were at length compelled with sorrowful
hearts to conclude that they had perished.

“ One night a farmer (father of the old man who




























114 REMARKABLE PROVIDENCE.

related the story) was very much disturbed by a
dream ; he awoke his wife, and told her he had
dreamed that a boat with some boys had landed in
a little cove a few miles from his house, and the
poor boys were in a state of extreme exhaustion.
His wife said it was but a dream, and advised him
to go asleep ; he did so, but again awoke, having
had the same dream. He could rest no longer, but
resolved to godown to the shore. His wife now be-
gan to think there was a Providence in it. The
farmer dressed himself, went down to the cove, and
there, true enough, to his horror and amazement,
he found the boat with four boys in it; two were
dead already, and the others so exhausted that they
could not move. The farmer got some assistance,
and had them conveyed to his own home, when he
nourished the survivors until they were quite re-
covered. From them he learned that they had been
carried out to sea, and, notwithstanding their utmost
exertions, the contrary winds had prevented them
returning, and they were drifted along the coast,
until the boat grounded at the place where they
were found. They had been out four days, with-
out provisions of any kind, except some sugar-candy
which one boy had in his pocket ; this they shared
amongst them while it had lasted ; but two sank on
the third day, and probably a few hours might
have terminated the existence of the remaining two,
had they not been providentially discovered by the
farmer. As soon as they were in a condition to be
removed they were taken to Dundee, about fifty
miles from the place where they were found ; and the






DENMARK. 115

grateful parents earnestly besought the generous
farmer to accept a reward, but he magnanimously
refused. The goldsmith, however, whose son was
saved, had a silver boat made, with the names of
the parties anda Latin inscription engraved thereon
recording the event. This was presented to the
farmer, and is still in the possession of his descend-
ants, and no doubt will be long preserved as an
heir-loom in the family of the kind-hearted Scotch-
man.” |

Dora. “Thad no idea there were so many in-
teresting stories concerning the shores of Scotland,
and in my ignorance I should have travelled‘ to the
colder regions of N orway for information and amuse-
ment,

“ Ay,” said Charles; “but we have said nothing
of Denmark yet, and, to get into the Baltic Sea, we
must sail for many miles along the shores of that
curious country. It consists of the peninsula of
Jutland, formerly called Cimbria, and several
islands in the Baltic. The boundaries of Denmark
are, the Skagerac Sea on the North ; the kingdom
of Hanover on the South ; the Baltic, with part of
Sweden, to the Kast, and the North Sea on the
West. I here wish to know if the North Sea and
the German Ocean are names used to designate all
that portion of the ocean which lies to the east of
the British Isles, for I have seen the different names
placed in different maps to signify the same waters,
and have been a little puzzled to ascertain their
boundaries 2”

“I am glad you have asked that question,






























116 DENMARK.

Charles,” said Mr. Wilton; “because I now re-
member that for the convenience of our illustrations
we made a division, but in reality the North Sea
and the German Ocean are the same, and ought
perhaps to have been mentioned thus—German
Ocean or North Sea.” ;

Cuartes. “Jutland, including Holstein, is about
280 miles long and 80 miles broad; the islands, of
various dimensions, are Zealand, Funen, Langland,
Laland, Falster, Mona, Femeren, Alsen, &c. Co-
penhagen, the capital of Denmark, is a large, rich,
and well-fortified town, situated on the island of
Zealand ; the population about 100,000.”

Mr. Barrauv. “Near Copenhagen stands the
little isle of Hawen, now belonging to Sweden,
where Tycho Brahe took most of his astronomical
observations. There are many academies and pub-
lic schools in Denmark, which reflect great honor
on the Danish government. There are fine woods
and forests in Denmark ; indeed the whole country
may be regarded as a forest, which supplies Eng-
land with masts and other large timber. It is for
the most part a flat country.”

Mr. Witton. “The islands west of Jutland
which you observe, viz.: Nordstrand, Fera, Sylt,
Rom, Fanoe, and others, suffer greatly from the fury
of the ocean. Towards the north of Jutland is an
extensive creek of the sea, Lymfiord, which pene-
trates from the Cattegat, within two or three miles
of the German Ocean; it is navigable, full of fish,
and contains many islands.”

Mrs. Witton. “To get into the Baltic, we must













THE BALTIC. 117

go through the Sleeve or Skagerac; through the
Cattegat, passing on our way the little isles of
Hertzholm, Lassoe, Anholt, and Haselov; then,
taking care to keep Kullen’s Lighthouse in view,
enter the sound near Elsinore, sail on past Rugen
Isle, and anchor at Carlscrona, in the Baltic.”

Grorce. “The Baltic! the Baltic! I am so
anxious to hear all about that sea. All J know is
that there are three very large gulfs connected with
it, the Gulf of Bothnia, the Gulf of Finland, and
the Gulf of Riga.”

Mr. Witton. “The two latter wash the shores
of a part of Russia, not generally much noticed in
geographical works ; I mean the two divisions of
the Russian territories, known by the names of
Reveland Livonia. The waters of the Gulf of Fin-
land also extend to the greatest town in this coun-
try of ice and snow, St. Petersburgh, founded by
Peter the Great in 1703, and seated on an island
in the middle of the river Neva, near the bottom of
the gulf, and which, from the singularity in its
buildings, streets, people, and customs, is well worth
a visit. The inconveniences caused by travelling
in such an extreme climate doubtless prevent this
part of Europe from being better known to other
nations.”

Georce. “Is it so very, very cold, then, papa ?”

Mr. Witton. “When our thermometer stands
at 20° we all exclaim, how bitterly cold! every-
thing around is frozen hard, and unless we take
violent exercise, and are well wrapped up, we feel
extremely uncomfortable. Now in this part of




118 JOURNEY TO THE

Russia, the thermometer is often be/ow zero many
degrees; and travellers, be they never so well
clothed, are frequentiy found frozen in their car-
‘Tiages.”

Grorce. “ Their dresses are rather clumsy-look-
ing garments, are they not, and principally made
of fur ?”

Mrs. Witton. “I have an amusing description
of the preparation for a journey in the immediate
neighborhood of the Gulf of Finland, which will
satisfy your inquiring mind, and afford us all pleas-
ing information. ‘On the evening of the 20th of
February, all the juvenile portion of the family
were consigned to rest at an earlier hour than usu-
al; and by six o’clock the next morning, little eyes
were wide awake, and little limbs in full motion,
by the flickering candle’s light; in everybody’s
way as long as they were not wanted, and nowhere
to be found when they were. At length the little
flock were all assembled; and having been well
lined inside by a migratory kind of breakfast, the
outer process began. This is conducted somewhat
on the same principle as the building of a house,
the foundation being filled with rather rubbishy
materials, over which a firm structure is reared.
First came a large cotton handkerchief, then a pe-
lisse three years too short, then a faded comfortable
of papa’s, and then an old cashmere of mamma’s,
which latter was with difficulty forced under the
vanishing arms, and tied firmly behind. Now each
tiny hand was carefully sealed with as many pairs
of gloves as could be gathered together for the oc-
GULF OF FINLAND. 119

casion; one hand (for the nursemaids are not very
particular) being not seldom more richly endowed
in this respect than its fellow. The same process
is applied to the little feet, which swell to mis-
shapen stumps beneath an accumulation of under-
socks and over-socks, under-shoes and over-shoes,
and are finally swallowed up in huge worsted stock-
ings, which embrace all the drawers, short petti-
coats, ends of handkerchiefs, comfortables, and
shawls they can reach, and are generally gartered
in some incomprehensible fashion round the waist.
But mark! this is only the foundation. Now
comes the thickly-wadded winter pelisse of silk or
merino, with bands or ligatures, which instantly
bury themselves in the depths of the surrounding
hillocks, till within the case of clothes before you,
which stands like a roll-pudding tied up ready for
the boiler, no one would suspect the slender skip-
ping sprite that your little finger can lift. Lastly,
all this is enveloped in the little jaunty silk cloak,
which fastens readily enough round the neck on
ordinary occasions, but now refuses to meet by the
breadth of a hand, and is made secure by a worsted
boa of every bright color. Is this all? No—
wait,—I have forgotten the pretty clustering locked
head and rosy dimpled face; and, in truth, they
were so lost in the mountains of wool and wadding
around as to be fairly overlooked. Here a hand-
kerchief is bound round the forehead, and another
down each cheek, just skirting the nose, and allow-
ing a small triangular space for sight and respira-
tion ; talking had better not be attempted; while






































120 THE GULF OF FINLAND.



the head is roofed in by a wadded hat, a misshapen
machine with soft crown and bangled peak, which
cannot be hurt, and never looks in order, over which
is suspended as many veils, green, white, and black,
as mammea’s cast-off stores can furnish, through
which the brightest little pair of eyes in the world
faintly twinkle like stars through a mist. And now
one touch upsets the whole mass, and a man ser-
vant coolly lifts it up in his arms like a bale of
goods, and carries it off to the sledge.

« journey.—It was a lovely morning as we started
with our little monstrosities; ourselves in a com-
modious covered sledge, various satellites of the
family in a second, followed up by rougher vehi-
cles covered with bright worsted rugs, and driven
by the different grades of servants, wherein s:t the
muffled and closely-draped lady’s maids and house-
maids of the establishment ; not to forget the seig-
neur himself, who, wrapped to the ears, sat in soli-
tude, driving a high-mettled animal upon a sledge
so small as to be entirely concealed by his person,
so that, to all appearance, he seemed to be gliding
away only attached to the horse by the reins in his
well-guarded hands. The way led through noble
woods of Scotch and Spruce fir, sometimes catching
sight of a lofty mansion of stone, or passing a low
thatched building of wood with numberless little
sash windows, where some of the nobles still reside,
and which are the remnants of more simple times.
And now “the sun rose clear o’er trackless fields of
snow,” and our solitary procession jingled merrily


REINDEER AND SLEDGE. 121

on, while, yielding to the lulling sounds of the bells,
our little breathing bundles sank motionless and
warm into our laps, and retrieved in happy slum-
bers the early escapades of the day. There is no
such a warming-pan on a cold winter’s journey as
a lovely soft child. After driving thirty wersts, we
stopped at the half-way house of an acquaintance,
for here the willing hospitality of some brother-
noble is often substituted for the miserable road-
side accommodations. This was one of the wooden
houses so common in this part of Russia, and in-
finitely more pleasing within than without; divided
with partitions like the tray of a work-box, fitted
up with every accommodation on a small scale; a
retreat which some unambitious pair might prefer
to the palace we had quitted. After a few hours’
rest we started again with the same horses, which
here perform journeys of sixty wersts in the day
with the utmost ease; and when evening was far
advanced, our little travellers pushed aside their
many-colored veils, and peeped at the lamps with
astonished eyes, as we clattered up the steep hill
which led to our residence in the town of Reval. ”

Kuma. “ Well, George, what think you of that?
You are so partial to cold weather, and are so de
sirous to travel in a sledge, do not you think you
would like to dwell in Russia, and go about always
like a roll-pudding 2?”

Grorce. “To travel in a sledge I should cer-
tainly like, but I would prefer my sledge in Lap-
land, where the beautiful reindeer, fleet as the wind,
scamper over snow and ice, and convey you to your

11


122 REVAL.

friends almost as expeditiously as a railroad; but
the wrapping up would not suit me at all, for I lke
to have the free use of my limbs, more particularly
in cold weather; and for these various reasons
I do not wish to dwell in Russia, but should be
delighted to visit it, and should not even object to
remain there a season. How much is a werst,
papa ?”

Mr. Wirton. “ A Russian werst is nearly two
thirds of an English mile.”

Mr. Barravup. “There are people of almost
every nation living in the government of Reval, the
chief town of which is a port on the Gulf of Fin-
land, of the samename. Within the last few years,
the inhabitants of this place have been making a
growing acquaintance with the Finlanders on the
opposite shores, at a place called Helsingforst, which
is only approachable between a number of rocky
islands. The town of Helsingforst is clean and
handsome, with good shops, containing cheap com-
modities, which are a source of great attraction to
the Esthonians (or natives of Reval) and others
who reside in Reval; consequently, in the fine
weather, parties are made about once a fortnight
for a trip to Helsingforst : these trips are both pleas-
urable and profitable. The voyage occupies six
hours in a little steamboat; and, when landed, the
voyagers procure every requisite at a magnificent
hotel in the town for moderate charges. They then
go shopping, buying umbrellas, India-rubber ca-
loshes, and all descriptions of wearing apparel,
which they contrive to smuggle over, notwithstand-


SUPERSTITIONS. 123

ing the vigilance of the custom-house officers at
Reval.”

Granpy. “TI have read that the fishermen on the
shores of the Baltic are remarkably superstitious,
and careful not to desecrate any of their saints’ days.
They never use their nets between A|l Saints’ and
St. Martin’s. as they would be certain not to take
any fish throughout the year. On Ash Wednes-
day the women neither sew nor knit, for fear of
bringing misfortune upon the cattle. They contrive
so as not to use fire on St. Lawrence’s day: by
taking this precaution, they think themselves secure
against fire for the rest of the year. The Estho-
nians do not hunt on St. Mark’s or St. Catherine’s
day, on penalty of being unsuccessful all the rest
of the year. It is reckoned a good sign to sneeze
on Christmas day. Most of them are so prejudiced
against Friday, that they never settle any impor-
tant business or conclude a bargain on this day ; in
some places they do not even dress their children.
They object to visit on Thursdays, for it is a sign
they will have troublesome guests all the week.
Thus they are slaves to superstition, and must, con-
sequently, be acomplaining, unhappy people. Now
Dora, my dear, proceed.” a

Dora. “In the Baltic, north of the Gulf of Riga,
lies the Isle of Dagen, belonging to Russia, and
containing some fine estates of the Esthonian no-
bility. The dress of the female peasantry in this
island is so remarkable that they deserve a passing
notice. The head-dress is a circular plait of hair,
braided with a red cloth roll, which fastens behind,


124 STRANGE FASHIONS.

and hangs down in long ends tipped with fringe.
The dress is merely a linen shift, high to the throat,
half-way down the leg, crimped from top to bottom,
the linen being soaked in water with as much
strong starch as it can hold, crimped with long laths
of wood, and then put into the oven to dry, whence
it issues stiff and hard as a board. The belt is the
chief curiosity, being made of broad black leather,
studded with massive brass heads, with a fringe of
brass chains. High-heeled shoes and red stockings
complete the attire, and altogether make a fanciful
picture of a pretty maiden bandit.”

Emma. “ Butsuch garments must surely be very
cold ?”

Dora. “The dress I have described is worn in
‘ the summer, for they have a warm season for a short
period during the year; of course, when the cold
sets in, they hide their faces and figures in furs, in
the same fashion as their neighbors.”

Grorce. “ How very uncomfortable to be dressed
so stiffly in warm weather; and then they can
surely never sit in such garments, for to rumple
them would spoil them, I suppose ?”

Mrs. Witton. “It is the fashion in Dagen, my
dear ; and there, as elsewhere, many inconveniences
are submitted to, from an anxiety to vie with other
folks in the style of dress, and from a fear of being
considered old-fashioned. I am sure we English
must not find fault with the dress of other countries,
for some of owr fashions are truly ridiculous.”

“ Yes, mamma,” said Emma; “ but they do not
strike us as being ridiculous, because we are accus-


| UNGERN STERNBERG. 125

tomed to them; and this must be the case with
other nations: they are used to their peculiar
dresses, and have no idea of the astonishment of
strangers when viewing the novel attire, which to
the wearers possesses nothing remarkable to aston-
ish or attract.”

Mr. Barravup. “ Near Dagen the navigation of
the Baltic is very dangerous; and many years ago
the island was principally occupied by men who
wickedly subsisted on the misfortunes of others. A
slight sketch of one will sufficiently inform you of
the general character of these men. ‘ Baron
Ungern Sternberg, whose house was situated on a
high part of the island, became notorious for his
long course of iniquity. He lived in undisputed
authority, never missing an opportunity of display-
ing his false lights to mislead the poor mariners.
No notice was taken of these cruel practices for
some time, for Sternberg was powerful in wealth
and influence; until the disappearance of a ship’s
captain, who was found dead in his room, the exist-
ence of an immense quantity of goods under his
house, and other concurring circumstances, led to his
apprehension. He was tried, condemned to Siberia,
and his name struck off the roll of the nobility.
His family, however, stands as high now as it ever
did; for his descendants were not disgraced; and
they still possess all the daring, courage, enterprise,
and sparkling wit of their pirate ancestor, although
it is but just to say they have not inherited his
crimes. The sensation caused by the dread of this

man reached even to the shores of England, and the
11*


























126 GULF OF BOTHNIA.

streets of London were placarded, “ Beware of
Ungern Sternberg, the Sea Robber !” as a warning
to sailors. This of course was before his seizure,
for when he was taken his accomplices could not
longer continue their vile occupation.’ ”

Cuartes. “TI am anxious to knowif it is from
the shores of the Baltic the Turks procure the
golden-colored amber of which they make the mouth-
pieces for their pipes ?”

Mr. Witton. “ Yes, Charles ; the amber-gather-
ing is carried on extensively there, and is the wealth
of half the inhabitants. The amber is sent to Tur-
key and Greece, and there manufactured into those
splendid mouth-pieces, which it is the pride of these
smoke-loving people to possess. Some of these are
excessively gorgeous and proportionably valuable.
I have heard of one being worth the enormous sum
of 1001. !” |

Grorce. “ Parts of Sweden are entirely separa-
ted by the Gulf of Bothnia. What sort of ships
have they, papa, to cross the water in that cold
country ?”

Mr. Witton. “They do not often cross the
water in ships, but transact nearly all their busi-
ness with the opposite shores, during the four
months when the waters of this sea, which has no
tides, is firmly frozen, and when they can travel
across in sledges, comfortably defended from the
inclemency of the weather. The Baltic being full
of low coasts and shoals, galleys of a flat construc-
tiga are found more serviceable than ships of war,
and great attention is paid to their equipment by


ISLANDS OF THE BALTIC. 127

Sweden as well as Russia. We have neglected to
mention the Islands of the Baltic. There is the
isle of Gisal, remarkable for its quarries of beautiful
marble ; its inhabitants, like those of Dagen Isle,
are chiefly Esthonians: Gothland and (land are
both fertile and productive. In the Gulf of Both-
nia are the Aland Isles, which derive their names
from the largest, forty miles in length and fifteen in
breadth, containing about 9000 inhabitants, who
speak the Swedish language. These isles form al-
most a barrier of real granite rocks stretching to
the opposite shores. In the Gulf of Finland lies
the Isle of Cronstadt, formerly called Retusavi; it
has an excellent haven, strongly fortified, which is
the chief station of the Russian fleet.”

Cuaries. “Is not the chief fleet of Russia that
of the Baltic ?”

Mr. Witton. “Yes; it consists of about thirty-
six ships of the line; but the maritime power of
Russia is trifling.”

Mrs. Witton. “As in leaving the Baltic we
quit the shores of Sweden, we shall have no other
opportunity to view Stockholm, the capital. It oc-
cupies a singular situation between a creek or inlet
of the Baltic Sea and the Lake Meler. It stands
on seven small rocky islands, and the scenery is
truly singular and romantic. This city was found-
ed by Earl Birger, regent of the kingdom, about
the middle of the thirteenth century; and in the
seventeenth century the royal residence was trans-
ferred hither from Upsal. Sweden was forméfly
under the Danish yoke, but Gustavus Vasa deliy-
_

128 LAPLAND.

ered it when he introduced the reformed religion
in 1527. His reign of thirty-seven years was great
and glorious in the annals of Sweden. We will
now proceed on our course: shall we go still further
north, into the White Sea, or are you tired of the
cold, and prefer journeying to the south, and em-
barking on the Black Sea?”

Cuartes. “Oh! the White Sea first, for the
distance is much less, and we shall sooner get
there; but it must be an overland journey.”

Mr. Witton. “Yes; for the Bielse More, or
White Sea, is reckoned, with the Mediterranean
and the Baltic, as one of Europe’s principal inland
seas. The largest gulfs connected with this sea
are the Gulf of Archangel and the Gulf of Canda-
lax; the waters of the latter wash the’ shores of
Lapland, and are filled with numerous small islands.
Archangel is a port on the White Sea; and here
the Russians build most of their men-of-war: be-
fore the reign of Peter the Great, it was the only
port from which Russia communicated with other
countries of Europe.”

Mrs. Witton. “With a few remarks on Lap-
land, we will quit this part of our quarter of the
clobe. Lapland can boast of but few towns. The
people lead wandering lives, and reside greater part
of the year in huts buried in the snow; occasionally
they have warm weather, that is, for the space of
three or four weeks in the year, when the sun has
immense power; so that a clergyman residing at
Erfontekis informed Dr. Clarke that he was able to
light his pipe at midnight with a common burning-
AURORA BOREALIS. 129

glass, and that from his church the sun was visible
above the horizon at midnight during the few weeks
of summer. But the delights of this long day
scarcely compensate for the almost uninterrupted
night which overshadows them with its dark man-
tle for the remainder of the year; one continual
winter, when scarcely for three hours during the
day can the inhabitants dispense with the use of
candles. The climate, although so extremely frigid,
is nevertheless wholesome, and the people are a
hardy race. In Lapland the Aurora Borealis is
seen to perfection; the appearance it exhibits at
times is beyond description magnificent: it serves
to illuminate their dark skies in the long night of
winter; and, although they cannot benefit by it so
continually as the inhabitants of Greenland and
Iceland, yet they never behold the arch of the glo-
rious Northern Lights spread abroad in the starry
heavens but they bless God for the phenomenon
which they cannot comprehend, but know full well
how to appreciate. Here in this wintry region
George might enjoy himself agreeably to his wishes,
for the Laplanders travel in sledges drawn by the
swift reindeer; but I fear he would find it difficult
to keep his seat, as the sledge is but of narrow di-
mensions and easily upset, while the animal re-
quires a great deal of management to guide him
properly. What think you, George? Would you
not be like Frank Berkeley or Paul Preston,
who fancied it must be so easy and delightful to
ride in a pulk or sledge, and found instead, that,
180 RUSSIA.

from inexperience, their journey was one continued
chapter of accidents ?”

Georce. “I dare say I should fare as badly
at first, but I would not be discouraged by one
failure.”

Mr. Witton. “That is right, my boy! Perse-
verance and determination are an extra pair of legs
to a traveller in his journey through life.”

Cuarues. “There appears to be no islands in
the White Sea.”

Mrs. Witton. “ There are islands, but they are
mostly barren uninhabited rocks. Archangel, a
port on this sea, is famous for the manufacture of
linen sheeting. Now quit we these dreary regions
for the bright and enlivening southern climes ; and,
if all parties are agreeable, we will cast our anchor
where we may behold the heights of Caucasus, and
picture to ourselves the situation of still more inter-
esting elevations ; viz. Ararat, Lebanon, and Her-
mon ; mountains mentioned in the Sacred Writings,
and certainly great points of attraction to Christian
travellers in Asiatic Turkey.”

Cuartes. “There are several gulfs; but I do
not know of any islands, in the Black Sea. There
is a peninsula attached to Russia, which contains |
the towns of Kafa, Aknetchet, Sevastopol. and Eu-
patoria: it lies between the Sea of Asof and the
Gulf of Perecop. The principal gulfs are the Gulf
of Baba, the Gulf of Samson, the Gulf of Varna,
and the Gulf of Foros.”

Mr. Barravv. “The peninsula you mention,
Charles, is the Crimea, which possesses a most de-

GC A LN
ODESSA. Bi

licious climate, although lying contiguous to the
Putrid Sea, which bounds it on the north. There
is an island in the Euxine,—the Island Leuce, or
Isle of Achilles, also called the Isle of Serpents.
It is asserted by the ancients to have been present-
ed to Achilles by his mother Thetis. In the Gulf
of Perecop there is also another island, called Ta-
man, which contains springs of naphtha.”

Mr. Witton. “The principal port on the Black
Sea is Odessa. It ranks next in Russia after the
two capitals of the empire, but is not a desirable
residence, being subject to hurricanes and other
evils, of which dust is undoubtedly the greatest.
A learned French writer* Says: ‘Dust here is a
real calamity, a fiend-like persecutor that allows you
not a moment’s rest. It spreads out in seas and
billows that rise with the least breath of wind, and
envelop you with increasing fury, until you are
stifled and blinded, and incapable of a single move-
ment.’ The same writer describes a curious phe-
nomenon he witnessed in Odessa: ‘ After a very
hot day in 1840, the air gradually darkened about
four in the afternoon, until it was impossible to see
twenty paces before one. The oppressive feel of
the atmosphere, the dead calm, and the portentous
color of the sky, filled every one with deep conster-
nation, and seemed to betoken some fearful catas-
trophe. The thermometer attained the height of
104° Fahrenheit. The obscurity was then com-
plete. Presently the most furious tempest imagin-
ation can conceive burst forth; and when the dark-

* Xavier Hommaire de Hell.
aa aaa
| 132 REFLECTIONS.
ness cleared off, there was seen over the sea what
looked like a waterspout of prodigious depth and
breadth, suspended at a height of several feet above
the water, and moving slowly away until it dis-
persed at last at a distance of many miles from the
shore. The eclipse and the waterspout were noth-
ing else than dust ; and that day Odessa was swept
cleaner than it will probably ever be again.’”
Mrs. Witton. “Such a description is quite suf-
ficient to drive the weary traveller to seek shelter ;
and I think we have had enough of other places for
to-night. Let us take our own at the supper-table,
and refresh ourselves after the voyage, for we have
reason to congratulate each other on the success
of our plan; hitherto, there has been no halting for
lack of a finger-post, and I hope we shall be as well
prepared at future meetings, and be enabled to ac-
complish as much as we have this evening.”
Granpy. “I have been silent for the last hour,
principally because I do not feel very well this eve-
ning; but I cannot refrain from speaking a word
or two before we disperse. A good and wise man
says—





‘Full often, too,
Our wayward intellect, the more we learn
Of nature, overlooks her Author more.’

My dear children, let not this be said of you; but
look upward to the Source of light and life, and
_ pray that all knowledge may lead you on to seek
Him who is the author and giver of all good things ;


REFLECTIONS. 133





then will wisdom, heavenly wisdom, illumine your
minds; then will peace, the peace of God, which
passeth all understanding, fill your hearts, and

‘ Reveal truths undiscerned but by that holy light. ”
12





CHAPTER IV.





















O’er the stormy, wide, and billowy deep,
Where the whale, the shark, and the sword-fish sleep ;
And amidst the plashing and feathery foam,

Where the stormy-petrel finds a home.




“GrorcE is to open this meeting, by reciting
some lines written by Mrs. Howitt, which are very
clever, and will most appropriately introduce our
subject.” So saying, Mrs. Wilton proceeded to ar-
range the members in their various places , and,
seating herself, she turned to her son, who by vir-
tue of his office was allowed to remain near Gran-
dy’s chair until the great work was accomplished.
George was hesitating, but an encouraging smile
from this kind mother inspired him with confidence,
and he commenced without further ceremony :—

“¢The earth is large,’ said one of twain ;
‘The earth is large and wide ;
But it is filled with misery
And death on every side !’
Said the other, ‘ Deep as it is wide
Is the sea within all climes,
And it is fuller of misery
And of death, a thousand times !
The land has peaceful flocks and herds,
And sweet birds singing round ;
ea a

: / = AN



ICBBERGS p 135.

ae”
——————

en a ne

STANZAS. 135

But a myriad monstrous, hideous things
Within the sea are found—

Things all misshapen, slimy, cold,
Writhing, and strong, and thin,

And waterspouts, and whirlpools wild,
That draw the fair ship in.

I’ve heard of the diver to the depths
Of the ocean forced to go,

To bring up the pearl and the twisted shell
From the fathomless caves below;

I’ve heard of the things in those dismal gulfs,
Like fiends that hemm’d him round—

I would not lead a diver’s life
For every pearl that’s found.

And I’ve heard how the sea-snake, huge and dark,
In the arctic flood doth roll ;

He hath coil’d his tail, like a cable strong,
All round and round the pole:

And they say, when he stirs in the sea below,
The ice-rocks split asunder—

The mountains huge of the ribbed ice—
With a deafening crack like thunder.

There’s many an isle man wots not of,
Where the air is heavy with groans;

And the bottom o’ th’ sea, the wisest say,
Is covered with dead men’s bones.

I'll tell thee what: there’s many a ship
In the wild North Ocean frore,

That has lain in the ice a thousand years,
And will lie a thousand more ;

And the men—each one is frozen there
In the place where he did stand;

The oar he pull’d, the rope he threw,
Is frozen in his hand.

The sun shines there, but it warms them not ;
Their bodies are wintry cold:

They are wrapp’d in ice that grows and grows,
Solid, and white, and old !


136

STANZAS.

And there’s many a haunted desert rock,
Where seldom ship doth go—

Where unburied men, with fleshless limbs,
Are moving to and fro:

They people the cliffs, they people the caves,—
A ghastly company !—

I never sail’d there in a shin myself,
But I know that such there be.

And oh! the hot and horrid track
Of the Ocean of the Line!

There are millions of the negro men
Under that burning brine.

The ocean sea doth moan and moan,
Like an uneasy sprite ;

And the waves are white with a fiendish fire
That burneth all the night.

Tis a frightful thing to sail along,
Though a pleasant wind may blow,

When we think what a host of misery
Lies down in the sea below !

Didst ever hear of a little boat,
And in her there were three ;

They had nothing to eat, and nothing to drink,
Adrift on the desert sea.

For seven days they bore their pain ;
Then two men on the other

Did fix their longing, hungry eyes,—
And that one was their brother !

And him they killed, and ate, and drank—
Oh me! ’twas a horrid thing!

For the dead should lie in a churchyard green,
Where the pleasant flowers do spring.

And think’st thou but for mortal sin
Such frightful things would be ?

In the land of the New Jerusalem
There will be no more sea !’”


CASPIAN SEA. 137

Mr. Witton. “ Well done! George; very nicely
repeated indeed: you are a most promising mem-
ber of our little society ; and we will drink your
health in some of Grandy’s elder-wine to-night at
supper, and not forget the honors to be added there-
to. Now, is it determined how we are to proceed ;
whether we take the seas of Asia, or enter on the
broad waves of the various oceans which wash
many of the shores of Europe ?”

Cuarues. “ The seas first, sir. I have the list
of those for consideration belonging to this most in-
teresting division of the globe: the Caspian, be-
tween Turkey, Persia, and Tartary; the Whang-
hai, or Yellow Sea, in China; the Sea of Japan;
the Sea of Ochotsh or Lama; the Chinese Sea;
the Bay of Bengal; the Persian Gulf; and the
Arabian Gulf or Red Sea: these are the largest;
but there are numbers of small seas, some of them
so entirely inland that they should more properly
be called lakes; of these, the largest is the Sea of
Aral. The bays and gulfs around Asia are so
numerous that you would be tired of hearing their
names. North, are the Bays of Carskoe and
Obskaia: south, Tonquin, Siam, Cambay, and
Cutch; east, Macao and Petchelee; west, Balkan,
Kindelnisk, and Krasnai Vodi; the latter in the
Caspian.”

Grorce. “ Are those all, Charles? why, from
your preface, I thought you would be at least ten
minutes enumerating the Bays of Asia.”

Cuartes. “ Were I to name al/, I could do it
in less time than ten minutes; but I should incur

12*
138 . ASTRACAN,

too great a liability for my trouble, as I should be
expected to describe the situations of all, and that
would be beyond my capability.”

Dora. “ The Caspian falls to my share: it is
usually called by the Persians, ‘ Derrieh Hustak-
han’ (Sea of Astrachan). It is likewise called the
‘ Derrieh Khizzar.’ The absence of all shipping,
save now and then a solitary Russian craft; the
scarcity of sea-weed, and the want of the refreshing
salt scent of the ocean, together with the general
appearance of the coast, suggest the idea of an im-
mense lake. Numbers of that large fish called
‘sturgeon’ are taken from the waters of the Cas-
pian ; and there is quite a colony of fishermen en-
gaged in this occupation on the Persian coast ; and
during the season they catch thousands of these
useful fish. No part of a sturgeon is wasted: the
roe is taken out, salted, and stowed away in casks;
this is known by the name of ‘ caviare,’ and is es-
teemed a great luxury. From the sound or air-
bladder isinglass is made, simply by being hung
in the sun for a time; and the fish itself is dried,
and exported to various parts of the world. Astra-
can is the chief seat of Caspian commerce.”

Mr. Witton. “ And here the traveller finds
collected into a focus all the picturesque items that
have struck him elsewhere. Alongside of a Tartar
dwelling stretches a great building blackened by
time, and by its architecture and carvings carrying
you back to the middle ages. A European shop
displays its fashionable haberdashery opposite a
caravanserai; the magnificent cathedral overshad-


DROLL LEGEND. 139

ows a pretty mosque with its fountain; a Moorish
balcony contains a group of young European ladies,
who set you thinking of Paris; whilst a graceful
white shadow glides mysteriously under the gallery
of an old palace. All contrasts are here met to-
gether ; and so it happens, that in passing from one
quarter to another you think you have made but a
short promenade, and you have picked up a stock
of observation and reminiscences belonging to all
times and places. The Russians ought to be proud
of this town; for, unlike others in this country, it
is not of yesterday’s formation, and is the only
place throughout the empire where the traveller is
not plagued with the cold monotonous regularity
which meets him at every other city in Russia.
The Caspian Sea covers an extent of 120,000 square
miles, and is the largest salt lake knowing

Mr. Barraup. “ Near a place called decanaen,
not many miles from Asterabad, there formerly
stood a city of Guebres, named Dzedjin, with which
a droll legend is connected :—

“¢ When Semnoon was built, the water with
which it was supplied flowed from the city of the
Guebres, who one day turned the stream, and cut
off the supplies. Sin and Lam (two prophets),
seeing the town about to perish for want of water,
repaired to Dzedjin, and entreated the chiefs of that
place to allow the stream to return to its old chan-
nel. This they at first refused, but finally made
an agreement, that on the payment of a sum equal
to a thousand tomauns, or 5007, the water should
be allowed to flow into the city as long as life re-


140 DROLL LEGEND.

mained in the head of a fly, which was to be cut
off and thrown into a basin of water. This was
done; but, to the great astonishment of the Gue-
bres, the head retained life during thirteen days,
which so exasperated them against Sin and Lam,
whom they perceived to be men of God, that they
sent an armed party to Semnoon to make them
prisoners.

“¢ Meanwhile Sin and Lam had received intelli-
gence of their designs, and fled. The first village
they halted at was called Shadderron, where, hav-
ing rested awhile, they continued their flight,
strictly enjoining the inhabitants not to tell their
pursuers the direction which they had taken.
Shortly afterwards the Guebres arrived, and in-
quired where they had gone. The villagers did
not mention the direction in words, but treacher-
ously indicated it by turning their heads over their
right shoulders, in which position they became im-
movably fixed ; and since then all their descendants
have been born with a twist in the neck towards
the right shoulder.’ ”

Here the boys had some difficulty in repressing
their laughter; for Charles placed his head in the
position of the faithless Shadderrons, and looked so
mischievously at George, that he was obliged to
cover his eyes, or he would have stopped the story
by a boisterous shout of merriment.

Mr. Barravp continued: “ ‘ The fugitives next
arrived at a place called Giorvenon, on quitting
which they left the same injunctions as before. On
the arrival of the pursuers, however, the people


DROLL LEGEND. 141

pointed out the direction of their flight by stretch-
ing their chins straightforward. An awful peal of
thunder marked the divine displeasure; and the
inhabitants of Giorvenon now found themselves
unable to bring their heads back to their proper
position ; and the curse likewise descended to their
posterity, who have since been remarkable for long
projecting chins. After a Jong chase, the Guebres
overtook the prophets at the foot of a steep hill, up
which they galloped into a small plain, where, to
the astonishment and disappointment of their pur-
suers, the earth opened and closed over them. It
was now evening; and the Guebres, placing a
small heap of stones over the spot where Sin and
Lam had disappeared, retired for the night. Early
the next morning the Guebres repaired thither
with the intention of digging out the prophets ; but,
to their confusion, they found the whole plain
covered with similar heaps of stones, so that all
their endeavors to find the original pile were com-
pletely baffled, and they returned to Dzedjin disap-
pointed. There is now a small mosque, said to
cover the exact spot where Sin and Lam sank into
the ground, which is called Seracheh, to which
people resort to pray, and make vows ; and close
by is an almost perpendicular rock, whence (the
inhabitants aver) may be seen the marks of the
feet of the horses ridden by the Guebres !’ ”

This story amused the children much, and they
would gladly have listened to Mr. Barraud while
he related some other extraordinary tradition, but
his reply to their request silenced these wishes,
142 YELLOW SEA.

“ Every place,” said he, “throughout this wild
country has a legend: were I to tell you ai, there
would be no time for business. I merely selected
this because it is concerning a town situated on the
shores of the Caspian Sea, and gives you a tolerable
idea of the superstition of its inhabitants.”

Mr. Wixton. “ The Caspian extends about 700
miles in length, and 200 in breadth. The northern
shores of this sea are low and swampy, often over-
grown with reeds; but in many other parts the
coasts are precipitous, with such deep water that a
line of 450 fathoms will not reach the bottom. The
best haven in the Caspian is that of Baku; that of
Derbent is rocky, and that of Sensili not commodi-
ous, though one of the chief ports of trade.”

Dora. “ The Whang-hai, or Yellow Sea, on the
coast of China, contains several islands,—Tebu-sou,
Lowang, Tsougming, Vun-taichan, Fouma, and
Stanton’s Island. By the Straits of Corea we can
enter the Sea of Japan, sail along by the great Ja-
pan Islands, the principal of which are Niphon,
Kinsin, and Sikokf, and, passing the Jesso Isles,
go through the Channel of Tartary, and enter the
Sea of Ochotsk or Lama.”

Mrs. Witton. “A very good route, Dora, but
rather too expeditious to be advantageous. These
islands and seas are connected with many interest-
ing facts. And why pass the Island of Sagalien
without a glance? I am sure, could you have seen
one of the people, your attention would have been
sufficiently arrested to stay your rapid flight o’er
land and sea. The Sagaliens are similar in many




THE JAPANESE. 143























respects to the Tartar tribes. Their dress is a loose
robe of skins, or quilted nankeen, with a girdle.
They tattoo their upper lip blue. Their huts or
cabins of timber are thatched with grass, with a
fire-place in the centre. The native name of this
large island is Tehoka.

“ Between Japan and Mantchooria is the great
peninsula of Corea, remarkable for the coldness of
its climate, although in the latitude of Italy. We
are told that in the northern parts snow falls in so
large quantities as to render it necessary to dig
passages under it, in order to go from one house to
another. It is supposed that the surface of this
country being so extremely mountainous is the
cause of this curious climate. There are numbers
of ponies here not more than three feet high !”

Grorcre. “Oh what sweet creatures! how very
much I would like to have one ; actually not larger
than a dog: how very pretty they must be.”

Emma. “ Around the three great islands of Ja-
pan, I observe countless numbers of little ones,—
are they in any way connected with Japan?

Mr. Witton. “Yes, my dear; they all belong
to the kingdom of Japan.”

Emma. “And what sort of people are the Ja-
panese ?”

Mr. Witton. “ Very similar in appearance to
their neighbors, the Chinese, with a yellow com-
plexion and small oblique eyes: there is this differ-
ence, however ; their hair is thick and bushy, while
the hair of the Chinese is cultivated in a long tail.
A Japanese is certainly rather ludicrous, in both
































144

manners and appearance. His head half-shaved ;
the hair which is left accumulated on the crown of
his head ; his body wrapped (when travelling) in an
enormous covering of oiled paper, and a large fan
in his hand, he presents an extraordinary figure.
These people are very particular concerning points
of etiquette, and have many books written on the
proper mode of taking a draught of water, how to
give anu receive presents, and all the other minutie
of behavior.” |

Granpy. “The Japanese have curious notions
with regard to the life eternal. They believe that
the souls of the virtuous have a place assigned to
them immediately under heaven, while those of the
wicked wander in the air until they expiate their
offences.”

Cuartes. “Lam very glad that isnot mycreed, |
for I should not at all enjoy life with the continual |
idea of wicked spirits hovering in the air around me. |
They might as reasonably believe in ghosts.”

MONSOONS.



Mrs. Witton. “In the Indian and China Seas,
and in many other parts of the great tropical belt,
the periodical winds called ‘monsoons’ are found.
The south-west monsoon prevails from April to Oc-
tober, between the equator and the tropic of Can-
cer; and it reaches from the east coast of Africa to
the coasts of India, China, and the Philippine
Islands. Its influence extends sometimes into the
Pacific Ocean, as far as the Marcian Isles, or to
longitude about 145° east; and it reaches as far
north as the Japan Islands. The north-east mon-
soon prevails from October to May, throughout |
TRADE-WINDS. 145

nearly the same space, that the south-west mon-
soon prevails in during the former season. But
the monsoons are subject to great obstructions by
land; and in contracted places, such as Malacca
Straits, they are changed into variable winds. Their
limits are not everywhere the same; noredo they
always shift exactly at the same period, but they
are generally calculated upon about the times I
have mentioned.”

Emma. “ Mainma, are not trade-winds something
like monsoons ?”

Mrs. Witton. “So far similar that they are
confined to a certain region, and are tolerably regu-
lar in their operations. The trade-winds blow,
more or less, from the eastern half of the compass
to the western. Their chief region lies between
the tropics from 23}? north to 23° south lati-
tude, although in some parts of the world they ex-
tend farther ; but it is only in the open parts of the
Pacific and Atlantic Oceans that the true trade-
winds blow. These winds shift many degrees of
latitude in the course of the year; but skilful navi-
gators usually know where to catch them, and
make them serviceable in. helping to blow their
richly laden vessels ‘o’er the glad waters of the
bright blue sea’ ”

Grorcr. “ Do you know the cause of these reg-
ular winds, papa? You say learned men try to
discover why such things are so, and generally find
out causes from their effects.”

Mr. Witton. “ Exactly so, my boy ; and learned
women do the same: as an instance, I will quote
146 TRADE-WINDS

the learned Mrs. Somerville on this very subject,
and give you an excellent reply to your question.

“¢The heat of the sun occasions the trade-winds,
by rarefying the air at the equator, which causes
the cooler and more dense part of the atmosphere
to rush along the surface of the earth to the equa-
tor, while that which is heated is carried along the
higher strata to the poles, forming two currents in
the direction of the meridian. But the rotatory
velocity of the air corresponding to its geographical
situation, decreases towards the poles ; in approach-
ing the equator it must therefore revolve more
slowly than the corresponding parts of the earth,
and the bodies of the surface of the earth must strike
against it with the excess of their velocity, and by
its reaction they will meet with a resistance con trary
to their motion of rotation; so that the wind will
appear, to a person supposing himself to be at rest,
to blow in a contrary direction to the earth’s rota-
tion, or from east to west, which is the direction of
the trade-winds.’”

Georcr. “May TI read that to-morrow, papa ?
I do not quite understand it; and if you have the
book, I could read it over and over until I found
out the meaning.”

Mr. Witton. “You will find it in Mrs. Somer-
ville’s ‘ Mechanism of the Heavens.’ If you come
to my study to-morrow morning before I leave
home, I will assist you in the solution of the diffi-
culties.”

Mr. Barravup. “In an account of Cabul I have
read a fine description of the commencement of a


DESCRIPTION OF A MONSOON. 147

monsoon :—‘ The approach is announced by vast
masses of clouds that rise from the Indian Ocean,
advancing towards the north-east, gathering and
thickening as they approach the land. After some
threatening days, the sky assumes a troubled ap-
pearance in the evening, and the monsoon sets in
generally during the night. It is attended by such
a violent thunder-storm as can scarcely be imagined
by those who have only witnessed the phenomenon
in a temperate climate. It generally begins with
violent blasts of wind, which are succeeded by floods
of rain. For some hours lightning is seen without
intermission : sometimes it,only illuminates the sky,
and shows the clouds near the horizon; at others,
it discovers the distant hills, and again leaves all in
darkness ; when, in an instant, it reappears in vivid
and successive flashes, and exhibits the nearest ob-
jects in all the brightness of day. During all this
time the distant thunder never ceases to roll, and is
only silenced by some nearer peal, which bursts on
the ear with such a sudden and tremendous crash,
as can scarcely fail to strike the most insensible
heart with awe. At length the thunder ceases, and
nothing is heard but the continued pouring of the
rain and the rushing of the rising streams.’ ”

Cuarves, “I would much rather live in our
temperate climate than between the tropics; for
everything connected with the elements is so out-
rageously violent, that I should be continually in
a state of alarm, and in constant dread of a hurri-
cane, a tornado, an earthquake, or some such awful
visitation.’ ”
148 ASIA.

Granpy. “Why should you fear, my dear boy ?
Who, or what, can harm you if you follow that
which is good? Is not the arm of the Lord mighty
to save? and is it not stretched forth all the day
long to defend his own children? Has he not
promised to be a stronghold whereunto the faith-
ful may always resort, and to be a house of defence
for his people? Cast thy fear from thee, Charles ;
rely on God’s gracious promises, and pray for faith
to believe in his omnipotence.”

Dora. “The Seaof Ochotsk. This sea is near-
ly land-locked, being in this respect, as well as in
size and general situation, not unlike Hudson’s
Bay. The waters are shallow, not exceeding (about
fifty miles from land) fifty fathoms, and rarely giv-
ing, even in the centre, above four times the depth
just mentioned. There are three gulfs belonging
to this sea, the Gulf of Penjinsk, the Gulf of Giji-
ginsk, and the Gulf of Tanish; but not many
islands of consideration.”

Mr. Witton. “ Although Asia cannot vie with
Europe in the advantages of inland seas, yet, in ad-
dition to a share of the Mediterranean, it possesses
the Red Sea and Gulf of Persia, the Bays of Ben-
gal and Nankin, and other gulfs already mentioned,
which diversify the coasts much more than those
of either Africa or America, and have doubtless
contributed greatly to the early civilization of this
celebrated division of the globe. I wish each of
you young folks to describe the following seas as I
mention their names. Dora, tell me all you have
learnt respecting the Red Sea.”


THE RED SEA. 149

Dora. “The Red Sea, or Arabian Gulf of an-
tiquity, constitutes the grand natural division be-
tween Asia and Africa; but its advantages have
been chiefly felt by the latter, which is entirely des-
titute of inland seas. Egypt and Abyssinia, two
of the most civilized countries in that division, have
derived great benefits from that celebrated sea,
which, from the Straits of Babelmandel to Suez,
extends about 21°, or 1470 British miles, termi-
nating not in two equal branches, as delineated
in old maps, but in an extensive western branch ;
while the eastern ascends little beyond the parallel
of Mount Sinai.”

Granpy. “The Gulf of Suez was the scene of
the most stupendous miracle recorded in Exodus—
the Passage of the Israelites—when God clave in
sunder the waters of the sea, and caused them to
rise perpendicularly, so as to form a wall unto the
Israelites, on their right hand, and on their left.
This is not to be read figuratively, but literally ;
for in Exodus xv. 8, it is said they ‘stood as an
heap, and were ‘ congealed,’ or suspended, as though
turned into ice :—‘ And with the blast of thy nos-
trils, the waters were gathered together: the floods
stood upright as an heap; the depths were con-
gealed in the heart of the sea.’ ”

Mr. Witton. “Emma, I call upon you for the
account of the Persian Gulf; but you seem so in-
tent on the book before you, that I feel a little curi-
ous to know the subject of your meditations,”

Emma. “You shall hear, papa, although per-

haps you may laugh at me afterwards. I was
12*
150 ISTHMUS OF SUEZ.



thinking that it seemed rather absurd for people
who are constantly voyaging to the East Indies to
go such an immense way round Africa, when by
cutting a passage through the Isthmus of Suez they
could arrive at the desired haven in half the time.
What is the width of the isthmus, papa? Would
such a thing be practicable, or am I very foolish ?”

Mr. Witton. “Not at all, my dear, as I will
readily prove. The width is about seventy-five
miles; and there fas been a communication be-
tween the Mediterranean and the Red Sea. Strabo,
the historian, asserts that a canal was built by Se-
sostris, king of Egypt; and in February, 1799,
Napoleon, then General of the French Republic,
accompanied by some gentlemen skilled in such
matters, proceeded from Cairo to Suez with the
view of discovering the vestiges of this ancient ca-
nal. They were successful: they found traces of
it for several leagues, together with portions of the
old great wall of Sesostris, which guarded the east-
ern frontiers of Egypt, and protected the canal from
the sands of the desert. It was a short time since
in contemplation to renew this communication by
the same means as those used by Sesostris ; viz.,
by forming a canal for the advantage of commerce,
&c.; which advantage is well explained by Mr.
Baward Clarkson, in an article on Steam Naviga-
tion, thus: ‘The distadide from the Mediterranean
to the Red Sea by the Suez navigable canal would
be from eighty to ninety miles. The time con-
sumed by a steamboat in this transit might be
averaged at five hours. What is the time now con-


ISTHMUS OF SUEZ, 151

sumed in the transit through Egypt by the voy-
aget from England to Bombay? and what is the
nature of the transit? Passengers, packages, and
letters, after being landed at Alexandria, are now
conveyed by the Mahmoudie Canal forty miles to
Atfeh, on the Nile. This consumes twelve hours,
and is performed by a track-boat, attended by nu-
merous inconveniences. The passengers, goods,
and letters are landed at Atfeh; they are there re-
shipped, and carried by steamboat from Atfeh up
the Nile to Boulac, a distance of 120 miles. This
water transit consumes eighteen hours. At Boulac,
which is the port of Cairo, the passengers, goods,
and letters are again unshipped, and have a land
transit of two miles before they arrive at Cairo.
At that capital a stoppage of twelve hours, which
is considered indispensable to travellers,occurs. A
fourth transit then takes place to Suez from Cairo,
across the Desert. This is performed by vans with
two and four horses, donkey-chairs (two donkeys
carrying a species of litter between them for ladies
and children,) and is often attended, owing to the
scarcity of good horses, with great inconveniences.
The distance of this land transit is eighty-four miles,
and consumes thirty-six hours. The whole dis-
tance by the present line is thus 246 miles; by the
projected line it is 80: the transit by the present
line consumes four days; the transit by the pro-
posed line would not consume more than five hours!
_ “*Tnstead of a land, and river, and desert transit,
with all the obstructions and inconveniences of
track-boats, native steamers, donkey-chairs, and


152 ISTHMUS OF SUEZ.

vans, shipping and unshipping, there will be no
land transit, and the whole passage may be made
by sea from London to Bombay without stoppage.
Instead of four days being consumed in the Egyp-
tian transit, five hours will only be requisite. More-
over, the 2/. 12s. expense caused by the present
transit in Egypt, and charged to each person, will
in future be saved by every passenger.’ ”

Mr. Barravp. “I propose a vote of thanks to
Emma for introducing the subject, as by so doing
we have gained a great deal of information.”

Mr. Witton. “There you see, Emma, you are
not laughed at, but we all thank you, for revealing
your thoughts. Now to the Persian Gulf, if you
have any particulars.”

Emma. “The Persian Gulf is another noted in-
land sea, about half the length of the Red Sea, and
is the grand receptacle of those celebrated rivers,
the Euphrates and the Tigris. The small bays
within this gulf are Katiff Bay, Assilla Bay, Erzoog
Bay. There are various islands and large pearl
banks here; and on the Euphrates, not many miles
from these shores, stands Chaldea. The inhab-
itants are the Beni Khaled Arabs, descendants of
the founders of the ‘Great Babylon.’ ”

Georce. “Qh, papa, I have a discovery: here
is an island nobody has noticed—its name is Da-
halac.”

Mrs. Witton. “That was certainly an omis-
sion, for Dahalac is a large island, sixty miles in
circumference. It contains goats which have long
silky hair, and furnishes gum-lac, the produce of a




153

particular kind of shrub. To this island vessels
repair for fresh water, which, however, is very bad.
being kept in 370 dirty cisterns !”

Mr. Barravup. “This district is especially in-
teresting to Christians, for here are situated the
mounts celebrated in Scripture. In the centre of
Armenia you may observe Mount Ararat, a de-
tached elevation with two summits; the highest
covered with perpetual snow. On this mountain
rested the Ark, when God sent his vengeance over
all the earth, and destroyed every living thing.
Mount Lebanon is in Syria; and not far distant
stands Mount Sinai, an enormous mass of granite
rocks, with a Greek convent at its base, called the
convent of St. Catharine: here was the law deliv-
ered to Moses, inscribed on two tables of stone by
the Most High God.”

Mr. Witton. “The whole coast of Oman, in
South Arabia, which on the north is washed by
the waters of the Persian Gulf, and on the south
by the Sea of Oman, abounds with fish ; and, as
the natives have but few canoes, they generally
substitute a single inflated skin, or sometimes two,
across which they place a flat board. On this con-
trivance the fisherman seats himself, and either
casts his small hand-net, or plays his hook and line.
Some capital sport must arise occasionally, when
the sharks, which are here very numerous and large,
gorge the bait; for, whenever this occurs, unless
the angler cuts his’ line, (and that, as the shark is
more valued by them than any other fish, he is
often unwilling to do,) nothing can prevent his rude

AN INTERESTING LOCALITY.





154 THE ARABS,

machine from following their track ; and the fisher-
man is sometimes, in consequence, carried out a
great distance to sea. It requires considerable dex-
terity to secure these monsters; for when they are
hauled up near to the skins, they struggle a good
deal, and if they happen to jerk the fisherman from
his seat, the infuriate monster dashes at once at
him. Many accidents arise-in this manner; but
if they succeed in getting him quickly alongside,
they soon despatch him by a few blows on the snout.”*

Mrs. Witton. “There are many little circum-
stances of interest connected with the Persian Gulf.
In several parts fresh springs rise in the middle of
the salt water, particularly near the Islands of Ba-
harein. The whole shore of this gulf is lined with
islands; and on its shores are several independent
Arabs, who almost all live in the same manner.
They subsist by maritime trade, and by the peril
and other fisheries. Their food consists of dates,
fish, and dhoura bread. Their arms are muskets,
with matchlocks, sabres, and bucklers. These
tribes, among whom the Houles are the most pow-
erful, all speak the Arabic language, and are ene-
mies to the Persians, with whom they form no al-
liances. Their houses are so wretched, that an
enemy would think it lost labor to destroy them.
As they generally have but little to lose on land,
if a Persian army approaches, all the inhabitants
of the towns and villages go on board their little
vessels, and take refuge in some island in the Per-
sian Gulf until the enemy retires.”

* Vide Lieutenant Wellsted’s Travels in Arabia.


SEA OF ARAL. 155
e

Emma. “Where are the Baharein Isles, mam-
ma ?”

Mrs. Witton. “Near the Arabian shore. They
are remarkable for the pearl fishery, which is car-
ried on in their neighborhood during the months
of June, July, and August; a fishery which, in
the sixteenth century, was estimated at 500,000
ducats.* The name Baharein signifies two seas.”

Mr. Witton. “Well, Charles; what can you
tell us about the little Sea of Aral 2”

Cuartes. “Not much I am afraid, sir. The
Sea of Aral, or Eagles, is situated about 100 miles
east of the Caspian, and is nearly 200 miles in
length and 70 in breadth; it is surrounded with
sandy deserts, and has been little explored; its wa-
ters are not so salt as the Caspian, but there are
many small saline lakes in its vicinity. There is
a remarkable detached sea in Siberia. or Asiatic

Russia, which we have not noticed, called Baikal

Sea; it extends from the 51° to the 55° of north
latitude. This sea is 350 miles in length and only
50 in breadth. The water is fresh and transparent,
yet of a green or sea tinge, commonly frozen in the
latter end of December, and clear of ice in May.
At particular periods it is subject to violent and un-
accountable storms, whence, as terror is the parent
of superstition, probably springs the Russian name
of Svetoie Moré, or the Holy Sea. There are many
seals here, and abundance of fish, particularly a
kind of herring called omuli.”

* A ducat is of the value of nine shillings and threepence
sterling.

. 5 ae ,
Se See ee
156 CHINESE ISLANDS.

Mr. Witton. “Very good, Charles. Now, my
son, try your best memory on the Eastern Sea.”

Grorce. “I am glad you have given me that
sea to describe, for I have been much amused with
the curious names of the islands printed on the map
in these waters. A little group not far from ‘ Tchu-
san’ is called ‘the Bear and Cubs;’ another ‘ Lo-
wang,’ or ‘ Buffalo’s Nose ;’ another ‘ Chutta-than,’ or
‘Shovel-nosed Shark.’ Near the Japan Isles there
is a little cluster called ‘ Asses’ Ears.’ This sea is
called by the Chinese Tong-hai; and in it are the
large islands Formosa and Loo-choo; but I know
nothing of them.”

Mrs. Witton. “TI will aid you there, George,
because you have done well to remember all those |
difficult names. Formosa isa fine fertile island, be-
longing to the Chinese, where oxen are used for
equestrian purposes for want of horses or asses.
The Loo-choo Islands constitute a little civilized
kingdom, tributary to China. There are thirty-six
of them. The capital is Kinching. These isles
were discovered by the Chinese many hundred years
ago. ‘Their products are sulphur, copper, tin, shells,
and mother-of-pearl. The inhabitants vie with the
Japanese in the manufacture of lacquered ware.
Loo-choo itself is one of the most delightful places
in the world, with a temperate climate and great
fertility. All animal creation here is of a diminu-
tive size, but all excellent in their kind. The peo-
ple are amiable and virtuous, though, unhappily,
worshippers of Confucius.”







FISHING FOR MICE. 157

Mr. Witton. “The China Sea falls to Dora’s
share: are you prepared, my dear ?”

Dora. “I think so,sir. It lies south-west of
China, and connected with it are the Gulfs of Siam
and Tonquin. In the former are the Islands Hast-
ings and Tantalem: the latter washes the coast of
Cochin China; a coast that suffers more from the
encroachment of the sea than any other known: in
five years the sea gained 190 feet from east to west.
The low country is exposed toan uncomfortable de-
gree of heat during part of the year, and the rains
are so plentiful, that boats are navigable over the
fields and hedges, and the children go out in small
barks to fish for the mice which cling to the branches
of the trees.”

Emma. “ Poor little mice! I dare say they would
rather be playthings for children than be drown-
ed.”

Cuartes. “They need no fishing-tackle for

their sport; I suppose they catch them in their
hands. Do you know, Dora?”

Dora. “I believe they do—Now what comes
next? Qh! Hainan. It lies in the China Sea; its
capital is Kiang-tchou. In the southern part this
island is mountainous, but towards the north it is
more level, and productive of rice; in the centre
there are mines of gold; and on the shores are
found small blue fish, which the Chinese value
more than we do those known as gold and silver
fish. The blue fish will not survive long after they
are caught, and two days’ confinement to a glass
bowl suffices to end their lives.”



6 i a al a ad OS i an Sa a ot




ot: ae SS
158 THE TYPHON.

Mr. Barravv. “ The*Gulf of Tonquin and the
adjacent seas are remarkable for dreadful whirl-
winds, called ‘typhons.’ After calm weather they
are announced by a small black cloud in the north-
east part of the horizon, which gradually brightens
until it becomes white and brilliant. This alarm-
ing appearance often precedes the hurricane twelve
hours.”

Cuartes. “Pray what is the cause of this dread-
ful ‘ typhon ?”

Mr. Barravup. “They seem to arise from the
mutual opposition of the north-wind coming down
from the mountains of the continent and the south-
wind proceeding from the ocean. Nothing can ex-
ceed their fury. They are accompanied by dread-
ful thunder, lightning, and heavy rain. After five
or six hours a calm succeeds; but the hurricane
soon returns in the opposite directicn with addition-
al fury, and continues for an equal interval.”

Grorcr. “ Papa, there are seas of all colors, for
I have actually found a Blue Sea. Here it 1s, be-
tween Loo-choo and China. Whatdroll people the
Chinese are! they have such odd names for their
places.”

Mr. Witton. “Yes; they call China Tchou-
Koo, or the ‘ Centre of the World ;’ for in their over-
weening pride, they consider other countries as mere
strips surrounding their territory ; and their names
and titles are very grand. At a distance of six
hundred paces from the shore of the ‘ Yang-tse-
Kiang’ is the wonderful Island of Chin-shan, or
‘Golden Mountain.’ This island is covered with

~~
FISHING BIRDS. 159

gardens and pleasure-houses. Art and nature have
united their efforts to give it the most enchanting
aspect. It is in the fields of this isle that the shrub
grows producing the cotton of which the article
known by the name of Nankeen is made. The
fibre is not white like other cotton, but of a delicate
orange color, which it preserves after it is spun and
woven.”

Mr. Barraupv. “There are many noble lakes
in China, particularly in the province of How-
quang, which name signifies ‘ Country of Lakes ;’
and I remember reading of a traveller who often
observed on one near the Imperial Canal, thousands
of small boats and rafts, constructed for a singular
species of fishery. ‘On each boat or raft are ten or
a dozen birds, which, at a signal from the owner,
plunge into the water; and it is astonishing to see
the enormous size of the fish with which they re-
turn grasped within their bills.’ They appeared to
be so well trained, that it did not require either ring
or cord about their throats to prevent them from
swallowing any portion of their prey, except what
the master was pleased to return to them for encour-
agement and food. The boat used by these fisher-
men is of a remarkably light make, and is often
carried to the lake, together with the fishing-birds,
by the fishermen themselves.”

Cuartes. “ What preposterous things people do
in other countries! How strange to train birds to
catch fish !”

“Why, Charles, we have fishing-birds in Eng-
land,” exclaimed George. “The only difference
160 CINNAMON FORESTS.

between them is, that owr birds fish for themselves,
while the Chinese birds fish for their masters. I
have often seen the kingfishers pounce upon their
prey, and I have heard of herons and storks living
on fish caught by themselves.”

Mr. Witton. “Quite true, George; and this
proves that many ‘traveller's wonders’ cease to be
wonderful when we examine into the circumstances
and particulars, or compare their relations with the
commonplace occurrences of everyday life. Now
for the Bay of Bengal, which contains the fine
islands of Andaman, Nicobar, and Ceylon; for the
particulars of these islands I beg to refer the mem-
bers to Mrs. Wilton.”

Mrs. Witton. “ We will describe them accord-
ing to their merits; and by so doing, the last will
be first. Ceylon is considered the finest and rich-
est island in the world: we read that the stones
are rubies and sapphires, that amonium scents the
marshes, and cinnamon the forests, and that the
most common plants furnish precious perfumes.
Its length is about 250 miles, its breadth 150. Its
principal productions are gold, silver, and other
metals ; excellent fruits of all kinds ; delicious spices ;
ivory, cotton, silk, musk, and many varieties of
precious stones. The chief town is Candy, situated
on a mountain in the middle of the island. Trin-
comalé and Columbo are its other great towns. I
forgot to tell you that elephants of the most hand-
some and valuable kind run here in herds, as the
wild boars do in the forests of Europe; while the












EATING BIRD'S-NESTS. 161
brilliant peacock and bird of paradise occupy the
places of our rooks and swallows.

“The Andamans.—The inhabitants are proba-
bly cannibals; their antipathy to strangers is sin-
gularly strong. They possess all the characteristics
of the negro, but scarcely know how to build a boat,
or manage a rope; however, they have acquired a
little more civilization since the foundation of an
English establishment on the Great Andaman, for
the reception of criminals sent from Bengal.

“ The Nicobar Isles are inhabited by a harmless
inoffensive race of people; and here, as also in An-
daman, are found the edible bird’s-nests so much
esteemed in China.” |

Mr. Barrvuap. “These nests form an extensive
article of commerce: they are built by a little bird
called the Jaimalani, black as jet, and very much
like a martin, but considerably smaller. The nests
are made of a slimy gelatinous substance found on
the shore, of the sea-weed called aga/-agal, and of
a soft, greenish. sizy matter, often seen on rocks
in the shade, when the water oozes from above.
The best are found in damp caves, very difficult of
access. They are sold at a high price, and consid-
ered a great luxury, consequently only consumed
by the great people of China, chiefly by the empe-
ror and his court.”

Mr. Witton. “George looks as if he did not
relish the idea of feasting on bird’s-nests. I believe
the Chinese monopolize these delicacies entirely,
and they are quite welcome so to do, as they are not
esteemed elsewhere: so do not look so scornful

14*





162 ‘BIBLE LANDS.

George; the inhabitants of the celestial empire
would not offer you a bird’s-nest for your supper if
you paid them a visit. They cost, I have heard,
their weight in silver! Emma, can you tell me in
what sea to look for the Maldives?”

Emma. “Yes, dear papa. Maldives and Lac-
cadives are both in the Arabian Sea. The first are
small islands, or rocks, just above the water. The
Dutch trade with the natives for cowries, little shells
used as money on some parts of the coasts of Africa
and India. Ships from India sometimes resort
thither to procure sharks’ fins for those epicures the
Chinese, who consider them an excellent seasoning
for soup.

“The Laccadives are about five degrees further
north, and are in themselves larger islands, but not
so numerous as the Maldives. Bombay, which is
the central point of communication between India
and Europe, is on the Arabian Sea. Have we not
devoted sufficient time to Asia, mamma ?”

Mrs. Witton. “TI scarcely think so, my dear ;
we could find subjects for conversation which would
profitably occupy the hours of many meetings in
this delightful quarter of the world. Remember
here were our first parents placed, when in inno-
cence and happiness they were created by Almighty
God; here in the Garden of Eden they dwelt en-
joying the light of His countenance; here they fell
in guilt and misery, and were banished from the
presence of their offended God; here was the pro-
phecy fulfilled, for here was born our Blessed Sa-
viour. By Him was the great and wondrous work








THE SEA OF GALILEE, 168
of redemption accomplished ; He offered Himself a
sacrifice for the sins of the whole world; He gave
us the Everlasting Gospel, and He has become our
mediator with God: by Him wé gain access to the
Father; by His blood only can we be cleansed ;
by His merits only can we hope for salvation; and
only through His Grace assisting us can we per-
form that which is right and well-pleasing in the
eyes of our Heavenly Father: then believing in
Him, trusting in Him, rejoicing in Him, Christ will
be our All in all here, and All in all hereafter.
There are many lakes and small inland seas in
Asia, memorable as having been the scene of our
Blessed Saviour’s labors, trials, and triumphs. Not
the most insignificant on the list is the lake of
Genesareth, sometimes called the Sea of Galilee, or
Sea of Tiberias; for near here is situated N azareth,
the great city of Jesus Christ. About six miles to
the south stands the hill of Tabor, which a venera-
ble tradition assigns as the scene of Christ’s trans-
figuration ; and on the south-west side of the Gulf
of St. Jean d’Acre is Mount Carmel, where, we are
told, the prophet Elijah proved his divine mission
by the performance of many miracles. Thousands
of Christians once lived in caves of the rocks around
this mountain, which then was covered with chapels
and gardens: at the present day naught but scat-
tered ruins remain to prove the truth of these state-
ments.”

Mr. Witton. “A most extraordinary fact re-
lating to this sea is, that its waters are 300 feet
below the level of the Mediterranean: and this re-











164 THE DEAD SEA.

minds me of the Dead Sea, situated in Palestine,
which covers from 450 to 500 square miles; for its
waters are no less than 1300 feet below the Medi-
terranean. We are told by many who have visited
this sea, that neither fish nor shells are to be found
in it, and that its shores, frightfully barren, are
never cheered by the note of any bird. The in-
habitants in its vicinity, however, are not sensible
of any noxious quality in its vapors; and the ac-
counts of birds falling down dead in attempting to
fly over it are entirely fabulous. The water is ex-
ceedingly nauseous, and the effluvia arising from it
unwholesome, but so buoyant, that gentlemen, who
have made the attempt from curiosity, have found
it impossible to sink. An Irishman, named Corti-
gan, some fifteen years ago, conveyed a boat to the
waters of the Dead Sea, and, aided by an old Mal-
tese sailor, rowed nearly all round. He was a week
exploring, and imagined he had made great dis-
coveries; but no one knew what they were, for on
the eighth day he became seriously ill. He was
carried to the shore by his companion, and expired
soon after in the hut of a Bedouin Arab. We are
led to believe that in this place stood the famous
cities of Sodom and Gomorrah, destroyed by the
wrath of God, and utterly buried beneath this bitu-
minous lake.”

Granpy. “We have gone through our toils this
evening with no personal inconvenience ; but that
is owing to our travels being of the mind instead
of the body: for what man journeying through
Arabia but has felt the annoyances of heat, the
THE SLAVE MERCHANT. 165

pangs of thirst, and unutterable anguish from the
horrors of a lingering death? That we stay-at-
home travel'ers may justly appreciate the blessings
of home, I will give you an instance of the suffer-
ings of those who are compelled to wander.

She Slave PAerchant.

“The caravans which carry goods from Bagdat
to Aleppo usually pass by Anah_ They pay trib-
ute to the Arabs, who reckon themselves Lords
of the Desert, even to the east of Euphrates. They
have to encounter the dangers of the suffocating
winds, the swarms of locusts, and the failure of
water, as soon as they depart from the line of the
river. A French traveller* tells us he witnessed.
one of the most appalling scenes of this kind be-
tween Anah and Taibu. The locusts, having de-
voured everything, perished in countless heaps,
poisoning with their dead bodies the ponds which
usually afforded water when no springs were near.

“This traveller saw a Turk running down froma
hillock, with despair in his looks. ‘ [ am, cried he,
‘the most ill-fated man in the world. I have pur-
chased, at an enormous rate, 200 young women,
the finest of Greece and Georgia. I brought them
up with great care, and now, when arrived at the
age of marriage, I have come with them on my
way to Bagdat, thinking to dispose of them to ad-
vantage. Alas! they are all now dying of thirst
in this desert.’ The traveller, going round the hil-

* Maltebrun.




























166

lock, beheld a sight of horror. In the midst of
twelve eunuchs and about a hundred camels, he
saw all these girls, from twelve to fifteen years old,
stretched on the ground in the agonies of a burning
thirst and inevitable death. Some had already
been buried; a larger number had fallen down by
the side of their keepers, who had not sufficient
strength left to bury them. On every hand were
heard the sobs of the dying; and the cries of those
in whom enough of life still remained, begging for
a drop of water. The traveller hastened to open
his flask, in which a little water was left, and was
now offering it to one of these poor victims. ‘You
fool! exclaims his Arabian conductor, ‘would you
have ws also to perish for want of water?’ and with
his arrow he laid the girl dead at his feet; laid
hold of the bottle, and threatened the life of any
one who dared to touch it. He advised the Turkish
merchant to go on to Taibu, where he would find
water. ‘No, said the Turk, ‘at Taibu the robbers
would carry off all my slaves.’ The Arab forced
the traveller to accompany him. At the moment
of their departure, these unfortunates, losing the
last ray of hope, uttered a piercing shriek: the Arab
was affected, he took one of the girls, poured some
drops of water on her burning lips, and placed her
on his camel, intending her as a present for his
wife. The poor girl fainted repeatedly on passing
the dead bodies of her companions. The small
stock of water of the travellers was soon exhausted,
when they discovered a well of fresh clear water.
Here, disconcerted by the depth of the well, and

THE SLAVE MERCHANT.




A JAPAN PUZZLE. 167

the shortness of their rope, they tore their clothes
into strips, which they tied together, and, with this
frail cordage, contrived to take up the water in
small quantities, dreading the loss of their bucket,
and the disappointment of their hopes. Through
such perils and anxieties, they at last found their
way to Syria.”

Mrs. Witton. “ With this we will conclude
the evening’s business; and as we have been so
much in the Hast, I have prepared a little present
for each of you, in the form of a Chinese Puzzle ;
and whenever you exercise your patience on them
(and I assure you they will require it, for they are
most ingenious,) you will think of our travels, and
of the many little facts you learnt while visiting
the lands of other nations. Also, I wish you to
endeavor to gain knowledge, not merely for orna-
ment and reputation, but because your mind isa
rich storehouse, by means of which you may glorify
God, and do much for the happiness of your fellow-
creatures.”

Mrs. Wilton then produced a beautiful Japan
box, and, opening it, displayed to the admiring
gaze of the young party a number of curious con-
trivances to tease and tire impatient folks, exquis-
itely cut in ivory, and mother-of-pearl, and light
woods. Each puzzle was ticketed; and, highly
delighted, they all sat down to partake of the good
things spread on the table, determined to vie with
each other in trials of skill and perseverance on
their curious little toys. We wish them success,
and “ Good night.”




CHAPTER V.

There was an old and quiet man,
And by the fire sat he:
“ And now,” he said, “to you I'll tell
A dismal thing which once befel
To a ship upon the sea.”



‘¢ Ou, mamma, dear mamma,” exclaimed Emma,
bursting into the parlor where Mrs. Wilton was
sitting at work, “everything goes wrong to-day.
Look here, the postman has brought a note from
Dora Leslie: she has been to a party, caught a
cold, and is obliged to remain in the house for I
know not how long. What can we do without
her? I am sure my portion will not be ready ; for,
in the first place, I know not how to begin with
America: the number of seas, gulfs, and bays
quite puzzles me, and I have felt so miserable all
day, because I have no notes prepared for the
meeting.”

Mrs. Wilton continued her sewing while Emma
thus gave vent to her feelings; then quietly taking
her hand, “ My dear little girl,” said she, “sit down
by me and listen.

“ Many years ago there dwelt in a little cot on a
hill’s side an aged matron and her grandchild ;
they were alone, but not lonely, for they were

oo CO ee eee _ ——— S§s


STORY OF EVA. 169

happy in each other’s society; their wants were
few, and their gratitude unbounded. There were
no neighbors near them,—no gossips to drop in
upon them, and fritter away the precious moments.
They subsisted on the produce of their garden,
and labored for their daily bread in gladness of
heart.

‘“ Every morn, almost with the sun, Eva arose,
fed the chickens that fluttered around her, and
went through her business merrily,—richly re-
warded by the approving smile of her aged parent,
when she blessed her darling before retiring to
rest. :

‘“ But ‘man is born to trouble, as the sparks fly
upward, and this happy pair were not exempt
from the curse. One night, the wind blew, the
rain fell in torrents, thunder and lightning rent
the skies, and, in fear and trembling, the aged
woman and her fair grandchild wept and prayed,
until the glorious sun rose above the horizon, and
proclaimed the advent of another day. Then Eva
stepped to the cottage door, and gazed in speechless
agony on the devastation wrought by the fury of
the elements in one single night. The beautiful
path, lately so trim and neat, which led to her
garden, was blocked up with stones borne from the
mountain’s side by the violence of the torrent.
Her vines were crushed and drooping ; and even
the poor birds came not to her side, but remained
crowded together in a corner under the shade of the
cottage roof.

“* Alas! alas!’ cried she, ‘where is the pretty
1A


170 THE ASSISTANCE OF GOODWILL.

path I used to tread,—where are my flowers, my
shrubs,—where all my joys and happiness? Gone!
gone! and left desolation and misery in their stead.
I cannot repair this damage, I shall no longer have
pleasure in my work, for ove storm has undone the
toil of months; and now our cottage must stand
in a wilderness, our garden must be overgrown
with weeds, and my chickens must die of starva-
tion!’ then, wringing her hands, she sank on the
earth and wept.

“ How long she wept I know not, but she was
aroused by a gentle pressure on her shoulder ; and,
raising her eyes, she beheld a beautiful female,
whose cheerful, good-natured countenance put to
shame the tears of despair which bedewed the
cheeks of the fair Eva.

‘“ ¢ Why weepest thou?’ said she; ‘why not be
up and doing? What has been done, can in like
manner be again effected. Arise, and follow me.’

“¢ But I am alone,’ remonstrated the weeping
girl; ‘and without assistance am unable to repair
these ravages.’

“+ T will assist thee,’ replied her beauteous visit-
or; ‘fear not, together we will accomplish much.’
So saying, she led forth the gentle girl, and in a few
hours their voices might be heard in one united
stream of flowing harmony, filling the air with de-
licious sounds, and the heart of the aged woman
with rapture.

“ For many days, Eva worked in company with
her angelic friend, until, at length, Desolation ac-
knowledged her power, and disappeared. Her gar-


Ca



171



ASSISTANJE OF GOODWILL.

den was restored to its pristine beauty,—the path
was cleared.—her favorites flocked around her ; and
again kneeling in thankfulness at her grandmother’s
feet, she read her evening-lesson, and praised Al-
mighty God, who in love and mercy sent ‘ Peace
on earth, Goodwill toward all men.’ Now, my
child, who thinkest thou was Eva’s helpmate ?”

“JT know not, dear mamma, unless it were Per-
severance.”

“No, my dear,” replied Mrs. Wilton ; “ Perse-
verance might have hindered instead of assisting
her ; she might have persevered in her resolution to
await the total destruction of her little property.
No, her heavenly companion was ‘ Goodwill.’ En-
treat her aid, Emma, set about your task with re-
newed energy, and certain I am that you will be
successful.”

Emma Wilton appreciated her mamma’s kind-
ness, and the result of her labors will be seen in
the following pages.

“I see one of our number missing,” said Mr. Wil-
ton, as he opened the large Atlas. “ What has be-
come of Dora Leslie ?”

“She is slightly indisposed, my dear,” replied
Mrs. Wilton; * but Emma will be her substitute.”

“ What an industrious little girl!” exclaimed her
papa; “and you are really going to supply the meet-
ing with information sufficient to prevent us from
feeling the loss of your friend. You are resolved
we Shall not be becalmed, eh?”

“ Ah! papa, you know not what has happened.
I have been nearly becalmed, but, in a lucky mo-













172 MADEIRA.

ment, mamma sent a gentle breeze which filled my
sails, and carried me gaily on my course, or I fear
I should have been ill prepared to supply the defi-
ciencies to-night. If the members approve the fol-
lowing plan, we will act upon it. I propose, that
we start from England, cross the North Atlantic
Ocean, enter Baffin’s Bay by Davis's Straits, and
following the coast, work our way round to the other
waters in America.”

Mr. Witton. “I see not the slightest objection
to the plan; and we will call at all the islands which
lie in our way, beginning with Madeira. This
name is a corruption of Madera,* so called by its
first discoverers on account of the uncommon luxu-
riance of its foliage. It is an exquisitely beautiful
island, with every variety of climate in various
parts: the soil is volcanic, though there has been
no eruption within the memory of man. Madeira
belongs to the Portuguese, and lies north of the Ca-
naries. Madeirais about sixty miles long, and forty
broad : its chief town is Funchal.

“The Canary Isles, formerly called Fortunate
Isles, belong to Spain. The three largest are
Grand Canary, Teneriffe, and Ferro. These islands
are famous for wine, and those pretty little singing
birds called Canaries.

“ Teneriffe, the second in size, is remarkable for
a volcanic mountain, called the Peak.”

Cuartes. “ Are we not going out of our way,
sir, to look at these islands? LBaffin’s Bay is much
more to the north.”

* Madera signifies wooded.
MAN-OF-WAR. 178

Mr. Witton. “ You are right, Charles; but on
voyages of discovery we are permitted to wander
hither and thither at will, so long as it be for the
advantage of all parties.”

Grorcr. “ But ships of war, papa, may not go
out of the way : they are obliged to be very orderly,
are they not?”

Me. Witton. “So long as the winds will allow
them, they keep on their course together, but ad-
verse winds will send them far asunder at times, as
in the case of the destruction of the Spanish Arma-
da. ‘He blew with His winds, and they were scat-
tered,’ was the motto inscribed on the medal Queen
Elizabeth caused to be struck in commemoration
of that great victory.”

Mr. Barraup. “England can never forget the
destruction of the Spanish Armada, for it was the
immediate cause of the acquisition of so many colo-
nies to England. The signal success which attend-

ed Sir Francis Drake and others, induced them

again to sally forth with sanguine hopes of extend-
ing the kingdom of their sovereign. This was prov-
idential; at least, that is my view of it: all this
was wisely arranged that England might, by ob-
taining dependencies, strive to enlighten, moralize,
and spiritualize the people who acknowledged the
same temporal sovereign with herself, that in due
time they might also ee the same spirit-
ual sovereign.”

Grorce. “TI should like to go on board a man-
of-war, and see all the arrangements; because so

15*







174 DINNER ON SHIP-BOARD.

many men on board one ship must need close pack-
ing, I should think.”

Mr. Witton. “You shall be gratified, my boy.
Put on your coat and hat: we will go on board one
of Her Majesty’s ships before the gentlemen have
dined.”

Emma. “ Papa is only joking, George : you may
sit still I can guess what you are going to say,
papa. ‘Is not our voyage imaginary, and should
we not be consistent?’ Am [ right?”

Mr. Witton. “ Very nearly, my dear. You
are very sharp to-night: the extra duty has quick-
ened your discernment.”

Cuartes. “I enjoy this imaginary travelling
very much; but I must confess, if everything con-
nected with it is to be consistent, I shall riot be at
all satisfied with my supper.”

“No! no!” exclaimed the other children ; “ sup-
per is to be real, because we get really hungry.”

“But, papa,” added George, “can you tell me
any of the ways of a man-of-war ?”

Mr. Witton. “ Yes, my dear. I will fulfil my
promise, and initiate you in some of the mysteries
which are enacted at dinner-time on board of one of
these wonderful vessels. As the hour of noon ap-
proaches, the cooks of the messes may be seen com-
ing up the fore and main hatchways with their
mess-kids in their hands, the hoops of which are
kept as bright as silver, and the woodwork as neat
and as clean as the pail of the most tidy dairymaid.
The grog also is now mixed in a large tub, under
the half-deck, by the quarter-masters of the watch










COMPUTING LATITUDE. 175

below, assisted by other leading and responsible
men among the ship’s company, closely superin-
tended, of course, by the mate of the hold, to see
that no liquor is abstracted, and also by the purser’s
steward, who regulates the exact quantity of spirits
and of water to be measured out. The seamen,
whose next turn it is to take the wheel, or heave
the lead, or who have to mount the mast-head to
look out, as well as the marines who are to be _
planted as sentries at noon, are allowed to take both
their dinner and their grog beforehand. These
persons are called ‘seven-bell-men, from the hour
at which they have their allowance served to them.

“Long before twelve o'clock all these and vari-
ous other minor preparations have been so com-
pletely made, that there is generally a remarkable
stillness over the whole ship just before the impor-
tant moment of noon arrives. The boatswain
stands near the break of the forecastle, with his
bright silver call or whistle in his hand, which ever
and anon he places just at the tip of his lips to blow
out any crumbs which threaten to interfere with its
melody, or to give a faint ‘ too-weet, too-weet,’ as a
preparatory note to fix the attention of the boat-
swain’s mates, who being, like their chief, provided
with calls, station themselves at intervals along the
main-deck, ready to give due accompaniment to
their leader’s tune.

“The boatswain keeps his eye on the group of
observers, and well knows when the ‘sun is up’ by
the stir which takes place amongst the astrono-
mers; or by noticing the master working out his








176 PIPE TO DINNER.

latitude with a pencil on the ebony bar of his quad-
rant or on the edge of the hammock railing,—
though, if he be one of your modern, neat-handed
navigators, he carries his look-book for this purpose.
In one way or other the latitude is computed as soon
as the master is satisfied the sun has reached his
highest altitude in the heavens. He-then walks
aft to the officer of the watch, and reports twelve
o’clock, communicating also the degrees and min-
‘utes of the latitude observed. The lieutenant pro-
ceeds to the captain wherever he may be, and re-
ports that it is twelve and that so-and-so is the lati-
tude. ‘The same formal round of reports is gone
through, even if the captain be on deck and has
heard every word spoken by the master, or even if
he have himself assisted in making the observa-
tion.

“ The captain now says to the officer of the watch,
‘Make it twelve!’ The officer calls out to the mate
of the watch, ‘Make it twelve!’ The mate, ready
primed, sings out to the quarter-master, ‘Strike
eight bells.’

“ And lastly, the hard-a-weather old quarter-mas-
ter, stepping down the ladder, grunts out to the
sentry at the cabin door, ‘Turn the glass, and strike
the bell!’

“ By this time the boatswain’s call has been in
his mouth for several minutes, his elbow in the air,
and his finger on the stop, ready to send forth the
glad tidings of a hearty meal. Not less ready, or
less eager, are the groups of listeners seated at their
snow-white deal tables below, or the crowd sur-



PIPE TO DINNER. 177

rounding the coppers, with their mess-kids acting
the part of drums to their impatient knuckles. At
the first stroke of the bell, which, at this particular
hour, is always sounded with peculiar vivacity, the
officer of the watch exclaims to the boatswain, ‘ Pipe
to dinner |’

“These words, followed by a glorious burst of
shrill sounds, ‘long drawn out, are hailed with a
murmur of delight by many a hungry tar and
many a jolly marine. The merry notes are nearly
drowned the next instant in the rattle of tubs and
kettles, the voices of the ship’s cook and his mates
bawling out the numbers of the messes, as well as
by the sound of feet tramping along the decks and
down the ladders with the steaming ample store of
provisions, such as set up and brace the seaman’s
frame, and give it vigor for any amount of physical
action.

“Then comes the ‘joyous grog!’ that nautical
nectar, so dear to the lips of every true-hearted
sailor, with which he washes down Her Majesty’s
junk, as he roughly but good-humoredly styles the
government allowance of beef; and while he quaffs
off his portion, or his whack, as he calls it, he en-
vies no man alive, and laughs to scorn those party
philanthropists who describe his life as one of un-
happy servitude. The real truth is, there is no set
of men in the world, in their condition of life, who
are better taken care of than the sailors and ma-
rines of the navy, or who, upon the whole, are more
content and happy. There, George, what think
you of all that?”


178 THE AZORES.

Grorce. “Why, that they must be a merry
set of fellows, and I should like to be a ‘ Middy’
amongst them.”

Emma. “Oh! George, do not wish to be a sailor:
remember Frederic Hamilton——The next islands
we come in sight of are Cape Verd Islands near
Africa. They were discovered in 1446 by the Por-
tuguese, their present proprietors ; they are remark-
ably fertile. St. Jago is the largest, and is the resi-
dence of the Portuguese viceroy.”

Cuaries. “ May we now steer north, and call
at the Azores or Western Isles? We shall then be
half-way between Europe and America.”

Mr. Witton. “We shall be very willing to ac-
company you, if you will entertain us when there.”

Cuartes. “That might be done at a moderate
expense, for they are delightful islands, with a fine
climate, a spacious harbor, good anchorage, and all
essentials,—but they are subject to earthquakes ;
therefore it is not advisable to prolong our visit.
One remarkable circumstance I had almost forgot-
ten is, that no noxious animal can exist, or is ever to
be found on these islands.”

Mrs. Witton. “The Azores are also called the
Land of Falcons, because when discovered there
were so many of these birds found tame on the
islands. They are 800 miles from the shores of
Portugal, and belong to that kingdom. Nature
appears everywhere smiling; the plains wave with
golden harvests, delicious fruits adorn the sides of
the hills, and the towering summits are covered
with evergreens. But, as Charles observes, they
NEWFOUNDLAND. 179

are volcanic; and many new islands have been
raised from the bottom of the sea by volcanic ac.
tion. In the year 1720 one of these phenomena
took place, on approaching which next day an Eng-
lish captain observes :—‘ We made an island of fire
and smoke. The ashes fell on our deck like hail
and snow, the fire and smoke roared like thunder.’
The inhabitants of the Azores are an innocent, hon-
est race, who prefer peace to conquest, and distinc-
tion in industry rather than in arms.”

Emma. “ My course is now tolerably plain; but
while we are so near Newfoundland, we may as
well look in upon the people. This large island
shuts up the northern entrance into the Gulf of
St. Lawrence ; is for the most part barren and un-
fruitful, and covered with perpetual fogs.”

Mr. Barraup. “These fogs are, no doubt, pro-
duced by the currents that flow from the Antilles,
and remain for a time between the great bank and
the coast before they escape into the Atlantic
Ocean.”

Cuarzes. “Sir, I do not understand how the
currents can cause a fog.”
Mr. Barravup. “It is because these streams,

coming from tropical regions, are warmer than the
water surrounding the banks of Newfoundland, and
necessarily warmer than the atmosphere, conse-
quently they cause a vapor to arise which obscures
the island with a moist and dense air. Newfound-
land was for a long time considered the inhospitable
residence of fishermen ; but of late it has doubled
its population and industry, and the activity of the

ep
re a eee

_ = = a
SRS See
r 180 NEWFOUNDLAND DOGS.
British nation has added another fine colony to the
civilized world.” ,

Mrs. Witton. “Newfoundland is the nearest
to Great Britain of amy of our North American
possessions. It is rather larger than England and
Wales. Its chief town is St. John’s. It was dis-
covered in 1497 by John Cabot. The fisheries
here are the chief wealth of the island, and consist
principally of codfish, herrings, and salmon. The
great Bank of Newfoundland, which appears to be
a solid rock, is 600 miles long, and in some places
200 broad.”

Cuares. “Newfoundland is famous for dogs;
but I find the most numerous there are not like
those we call Newfoundland dogs, which are large
handsome animals, for they are comparatively rare.
The most abundant are creatures with lank bodies,
thin Jegs and tail, and a thin tapering snout. They
are very intelligent though, and would beat the
Chinese birds in catching fish; for Mr. Jukes, a
gentleman who has been to Newfoundland, says of
one of these dogs :—‘ He sat on a projecting rock
beneath a fish-flake, or stage, where the fish are
laid to dry, watching the water, which had a depth
of six or eight feet, and the bottom of which was
white with fish-bones. On throwing a piece of
cod-fish into the water, three or four heavy, clumsy-
looking fish, called in Newfoundland “sculpins,”
with great heads and mouths, and many spines
about them, generally about a foot long, would

swim in to catch it. These he would watch at-
tentively, and the moment one turned his broad-

ge




























GREENLAND. 181



side to him, he darted down like a fish-hawk, and
seldom came up without the fish in his mouth.
As he caught them, he carried them regularly to a
place a few yards off, where he laid them down;
and his owner told us that in the summer he would
sometimes make a pile of fifty or sixty a day, just
at that place. He never attempted to eat them,
but seemed to be fishing purely for his own amuse-
ment. I watched him for about two hours; and
when the fish did not come, I observed he once or
twice put his right foot in the water, and paddled
it about. This foot was white, and my friend said
he did it to “toll” or entice the fish.’ Cunning dog
was he not, George 2”
Georce. “Yes; he would make his master’s
fortune if the fish he caught were worth selling.”
Kuma. “To get into Baffin’s Bay, we must go
through Davis’s Straits, so called from their discov-
erer, John Davis, who sailed through them in
1585; and following the coast on the north side,
we shall pass South-east Bay and Coburg Bay. In
| 1818 Captain Ross completed the circumnavigation
of this oblong bay. The middle of it seems every-
where occupied with impenetrable ice, between
which and the land is the only passage for ships.”
Mrs. Witton. “That portion of the bay you
have just described washes the shores of Green-
land and the Arctic Regions. Greenland is con-
sidered as a peninsula attached to America, wretch-
edly barren, for no trees grow there. But God,
who made man of the dust, also promised to supply
his wants, and most wonderfully is this exemplified
16

eee


182 WHALE FISHING.

with regard to Greenland. To provide the inhab-
itants with the means of warming and nourishing
their bodies, God causes the sea to drive vast quan-
tities of wood from distant shores, and with thank-
fulness the poor Greenlanders regularly gather
these providential supplies from their own coasts.
Some parts of Greenland are nothing more than
huge masses of rocks, intermingled with immense
blocks of ice, thus forming at once the image of
chaos and winter.”

Grorce. “Is it not near Greenland the ships
go to catch whales ?”

Mr. Barraup. “Yes; and, as you have men-
tioned the subject, we may as well stop and inquire
into the particulars of this fishing.”

Grorce. “I remember reading that there are
three sorts of whales—the finback, the right whale,
and the sperm whale; but I should like to hear
how they are caught.”

Mr. Barravp. “A man is stationed at the
mast-head to look out, and as soon as he perceives
a whale, he shouts, ‘There she blows!’ Immedi-
ately all hands are on the move to prepare the
boats: this takes but a short time, and the chase
commences. I will now give you an American
account of such a chase.

“¢The moment of intense excitement now arriv-
ed. We pulled as if for life or death. Not a word
was spoken, and scarcely a sound was heard from
our oars. One of the men sprang to his feet, and
grasped a harpoon. A few more strokes of the oar,
and we were hard upon the whale. The harpooner,
WHALE FISHING. 183

with unerring aim, let fly his irons, and buried
them to the sockets in his huge carcass. “Stern
all!” thundered the mate. “Stern all!” echoed the
crew, but it was too late. Our bows were high
and dry on the whale’s head! Infuriated with the
pain produced by the harpoons, and, doubtless,
much astonished to find his head so roughly used,
he rolled half over, lashing the sea with his flukes
(tail), and in his struggles dashing in two of the
upper planks. “ Boat stove! boat stove!” was the
general cry. “Silence,” thundered the mate as he
sprang to the bow, and exchanged places with the
harpooner; “all safe, my hearties! stern hard!
stern! stern! before he gets his flukes to bear upon
us.” “Stern all!’ shouted we, and in a moment
more we were out of danger. The whale now
“turned flukes,” and dashed off to windward with
the speed of a locomotive, towing us after him ata
tremendous rate. We occasionally slacked line in
order to give him plenty of play. A stiff breeze
had sprung up, causing a rough, chopping sea;
and we Jeaked badly in the bow-planks ; but, not-
withstanding the roughness of the sea, we went
with incredible swiftness. ‘“ Hoorah !” burst from
every lip. We exultingly took off our hats, and
gave three hearty cheers; but while we were skim-
ming along so gallantly, the whale suddenly turn-
ed, and pitched the boat on her beam-ends. Every
one who could grasp a thwart hung on to it, and
we were all fortunate enough to keep our seats.
For as much as a ship’s length the boat flew through
the water on her gunwale, foaming and whizzing
184 WHALE FISHING.

as she dashed onward. It was a matter of doubt
as to which side would turn uppermost, until we
slacked out the line, when she righted. To havea
boat, with all her iron, lances, gear, and oars, piled
on one’s head in such a sea, was rather a startling
prospect to the best swimmer. Meantime, the
whale rose to the surface to spout. The change in
his course enabled another boat to come up, and
we lay on our oars, in order that Mr. D , (the
other mate) might lance him.—He struck him ina
vital part the first dart,as was evident from the
whale’s furious dying struggles; but, in order to
make sure, we hauled up and lanced the back of
his head. Foaming and breaching, he plunged
from wave to wave, flinging high in the air torrents
of blood and spray. The sea around was literally
a sea of blood. At one moment his head was pois-
ed in the air; the next, he buried himself in the
gory sea, carrying down, in his vast wake, a whirl-
pool of foam and slime. But this respite was short;
he rose again, rushing furiously upon his enemies ;
but a slight prick of a lance drove him back with
mingled fury and terror. Whichever way he turn-
ed, the barbed irons goaded him to desperation.
Now and again intensity of agony would cause
him to lash the waters with his huge flukes, till
the very ocean appeared to heave and tremble at
his power. Tossing, struggling, dashing over and
over in his agony, he spouted up the last of his
heart’s blood. Half an hour before, he was free as
the wave, sporting in all the pride of gigantic
strength and unrivalled power. He now lay a life-






























~~

FLYING FISH. 185

less mass; his head towards the sun, his tremen-
dous body heaving to the swell, and his destroyers
proudly cheering over their victory.’ ”

Emma. “It seems very cruel to catch these poor
creatures.”

Mrs. Witton. “ They are tortured as little as
possible; but they are so strong, that it requires
immense skill and bravery to contend with them.
Their usefulness justifies the act, for | know not
what we should do without some of the comforts
produced from these monsters of the deep.”

Emma. “ What part does the oil come from ?”

Mr. Barravv. “ First, from the blubber which
is the outer covering, or, as whalers call it, the
‘blanket-piece :’ this is stripped off by means of an
ingenious contrivance, cut into pieces, and the oil
boiled out. Secondly, from the head, which is
called the ‘case,’ and sometimes contains from ten
to fifteen barrels of oil and spermaceti. A sperm
whale frequently yields as much as 120 barrels of
oil. Forty-five barrels is considered a medium
size.”

Grorce. “I hope, when we go to Jamaica, we
shall see some whales.”

Mr. Witton. “No doubt we shall. I have
often seen them rolling and spouting in the wide
Atlantic: and you will also see the flying fish
skimming in the hollows of the waves: they are
very pretty.”

Granpy. “Yes, they are, poor unfortunates !
for, though possessing the qualifications of a bird
as well as a fish, they are so persecuted by enemies
16*




186
in both elements, that, whether taking their tem-
porary flight through the air, or gliding through
the waters, their double faculty proves insufficient
to defend or secure them from pursuit.”

Cuares. “ What creatures war against these
innocent fish, madam ?”

Granpy. “ While in the air the man-of-war bird
pounces upon them; and they are chased in the
water by the bonito herd albacore: thus constantly
persecuted, they do not become very numerous.”

Cuartes. “Icy Peak, in Greenland, is an en-
ormous mass of ice near the mouth of a river: it
diffuses such a brilliancy through the air, that it is
distinctly perceived at a distance of more than ten
leagues. Icicles, and an immense vault, give this
edifice of crystal a most magic appearance.”

Evma. “Shall we now continue our voyage
through Lancaster Sound ?”

Mrs. Witton. “TI have been considering
whether it would not be better to finish with these
northern latitudes before we proceed on our voyage.
In that case we will test the hospitality of the peo-
ple of Spitzbergen, Iceland, Nova Zembla, Ferroe
Isles, and sundry others in this part of the Atlantic
and Frozen Ocean, and then descend to warmer
climates.”

Mr. Witton. “A very good plan, if we do not
get blocked up by the ice in these dreadful seas.
By-the-by, there is an account of such a calamity
happening to a vessel some years ago.—lIn the
year 1775, Captain Warrens, master of the ‘ Green-
land, a whhledity: was creitattng about in the
El a DP ES ae TET ONO a ee) eS SE Re ee Oe nN se



AN AWFUL SIGHT. 187

Frozen Ocean, when at a little distance he observ-
ed a vessel. Captain Warrens was struck with the
strange manner in which her sails were disposed,
and with the dismantled aspect of her rigging. He
leaped into his boat with several seamen, and
rowed towatds her. On approaching, he observed
that her hull was miserably weather-beaten, and
not a soul appeared on deck, which was covered
with snow to a considerable depth. He then hailed
her crew, but no answer was returned. Previous
to stepping on board, an open port-hole near the
main-chains caught his eye; and, on looking into
it, he perceived a man reclining back in a chair,
with writing materials on a table before him; but
the feebleness of the light made everything very
indistinct. The party went upon deck, and, having
removed the hatchway, descended to the cabin.
They first came to the apartment which Captain
Warrens viewed through the port-hole. A terror
seized him as he entered it: its inmate retained
his former position, and seemed to be insensible to
strangers. He was found to be a corpse! anda
green damp mould had covered his cheeks and
forehead, and veiled his open eyeballs. He hada
pen in his hand, and a log-book lay before him.
The last sentence in its unfinished page ran thus :—
“* Nov. 14th, 1762.

““< We have now been enclosed in the ice seven-
teen days. The fire went out yesterday, and our
master has been trying ever since to kindle it again
without success. His wife died this morning.
There is no relief!’


188 AN AWFUL SIGHT.

“ Captain Warrens and his seamen hurried from
the spot without uttering a word. On entering
the principal cabin, the first object that attracted
their attention was the dead body of a female, re-
clining on a bed in an attitude of deep interest and
attention. Her countenance retained the freshness
of life: but a contraction of the limbs showed that
her form was inanimate. Seated on the floor was
the corpse of an apparently young man, holding a
steel in one hand and a flint in the other, as if in
the act of striking fire upon some tinder which lay
beside him. In the fore-part of the vessel several
sailors were found lying dead in their berths, and
the body of a boy crouched at the bottom of the
gangway stairs. Neither provisions nor fuel could
be discovered anywhere ; but Captain Warrens was
prevented by the superstitious prejudices of his
seamen from examining the vessel as minutely as
he wished to have done. He, therefore, carried away
the log-book, and immediately steered to the south-
ward, impressed with the awful example he had just
witnessed of the danger of navigating the Polar Seas
in high northern latitudes. On returning to Eng-
land, and inquiring and comparing accounts, he
found that this vessel had been blocked up by the
ice for upwards of thirteen years!!! Yes !—

“<«There lay the vessel in a realm of frost,
Not wrecked, nor stranded, yet forever lost;
Her keel embedded in the solid mass;
Her glistening sails appear’d expanded glass.’ ”

Granpy. “A most awful situation to be placed


on Cate
sa?

a,

THE GEYSERS,



Pp 189.




THE GEYSER.

in, surrounded on all sides by impenetrable ice,
which closeth up the water as with a breast-
plate.”

Mrs. Witton. “ Iceland is first in point of dis-
tance. It is situated south-east of Greenland, in
the North Atlantic Ocean, and considered an ap-
pendage to America; although it was known seven

centuries before the time of Columbus. It is truly.

a land of prodigies: where the subterranean fires
of the abyss burst through a frozen soil; where
boiling springs shoot up their fountains, amidst
eternal snows; and where the powerful genius of
liberty and the no less powerful genius of poetry
have given brilliant proofs of the energies of the
human mind at the farthest confines of animated
nature.”

Cuares. “ There are twelve volcanoes in Ice-
land ; the most celebrated of which is Mount Hecla,
situated in the southern part of the island: its ele-
vation is about 4800 feet above the level of the sea.”

Greorcr. “ And there are hot springs, too, in this
island ; but they have not all the same degree of
heat. Mamma, do you know anything of them 2”

Mrs. Winton. “Those springs, whose tepid
waters issue as gently as an ordinary spring, are
called Langers, or baths; others that throw up
boiling water with great noise, are denominated
Caldrons, in Icelandic ‘Hverer.’ The most remark-
able is the Geyser, which is found near Skalholdt,
in the middle of a plain, where there are about forty
springs of a smaller size. It rises from an aperture
nineteen feet in diameter, springing at intervals to






oS a Sa eee
190 ICELANDERS.

the height of fifty or even ninety feet. In these
hot springs, which formerly served to baptize their
Pagan ancestors, the Icelanders boil their vege-
tables, meat, eggs, and other articles of food ; but it
is necessary to cover the pot suspended in these
steaming waters, in order to prevent the volcanic
odor from imparting a taste to their contents. Ice-
land is not so barren as you might imagine from
its extreme cold, for gardening is cultivated through-
out the island : but there are no large trees.”

Mr. Witton. “The present houses of the Ice-
landers differ little from those used by their ances-
tors, who first colonized the island, and are, no
doubt, the best fitted for the climate. They are
only one story high; the stone walls have all the
interstices stuffed with moss, and are about six feet
in thickness. In the better sort of houses, the win-
dows are glazed, in the others, secured by a thin
skin stretched over the frames. They have no
chimney or grates; the smoke escapes through a
hole in the roof. The beds are merely open frames
filled with feathers or down, over which they throw
their blankets, and cover themselves with a coun-
terpane of divers colors. Their seats are, in gene-
ral, the bones of a whale or a horse’s skull. But
much is said and done in these rude huts which
would astonish you.”

Emma. “ Are the Icelanders civilized people: I
mean, at all refined 2”

Mrs. Witton. “ Every Icelander knows how to
read, write, and calculate, which is more than we
can say of the English. They are a grave, honest,
SPITZBERGEN. 191

benevolent people, but not remarkable for their in-
dustry. Their favorite amusements, when assem-
bled together, consist in reading history or poetry,
in singing, or playing at chess, in which game they
take great delight, priding themselves on their skill.
They are refined enough to admire poetry and mu-
sic: I think I need say no more. We will now
visit Spitzbergen.”

Evma. “Spitzbergen is a group of three large
islands, and a number of lesser ones near the North
Pole. The mountains crowned with perpetual
snow, and flanked with glaciers, reflect to a consid-
erable distance a light equal to that of a full moon.
The Icy Sea washes its shores, and abounds with
whales, who love to roll their enormous bodies
among the marine forests of the sea. In the vicini-
ty is found the polar bear, which pursues every-
thing animated with life, devours every animal he
encounters, and then, roaring with delight, seats
himself enthroned on the victorious trophy of muti-
lated carcasses and bones.”

Cuartes. “ The only tree growing in Spitzber-
gen is the dwarf willow, which rises to the vast
height of two inches! towering with great pride
above the mosses, lichens, and a few other cumbent
plants.”

Grorce. “ What a ridiculous littleshrub! We
might just as well dignify mustard and cress with
the title of trees. To whom does this very fertile
island belong ?”

Mrs. Witton. “To the Russians; and it cer-
tainly is not an enviable possession, for the climate

SSS res




192 THE FERROE ISLES.

is most wretched. From the 30th of October, until
the 10th of February, the sun is invisible ; it is as
one long dreary night, and bitterly cold. The in-
habitants sit by dull fires during this season, 1m-
mersed in furs, and endeavor to doze through the
tedious gloom. They are chiefly of Russian ex-
traction, and many of them natives of Archangel.”

Mr.Witton. “ Other animals are found in these
recions besides the bear and whale: for we read
of foxes, reindeer, walruses, and seals being occa-
sionally caught by the people; and many islands
about here (for the Frozen Sea is full of islands,
principally composed of turf hills,) are the dreary
abodes of bears and reindeer.”

Emma. “The Ferroe Isles, belonging to Den-
mark, are seventeen in number ; they produce agate,
jasper, and beautiful zeolites, and export feathers,
eider-down, caps, stockings, tallow, and salted mut-
ton.”

Cuartes. “I donot think that can be very nice:
I wonder who buys it ?” 7

Emma. “It always finds purchasers: therefore
some folks are not so fastidious as Mr. Charles
Dorning.”

Grorce. “ Mamma, let us go back past Nor-
way, and see what are all these little islands on the
coast.”

Mrs. Witton. “ As you please, George ; but most
of the islands are barren, uninhabited spots. Those
worthy of notice are Karen, Bommel, Sartar, Hit-
tern, at the entrance of the Gulf of Drontheim ; the
Victen or Victor Isles, and the Luffoden Isles : the



~ —— = * Te ae ne + ee






MAELSTROM. 193

latter are the most numerous and extensive, and
noted for the whirlpool Maelstrom, which has drawn
so many fine ships into its abyss, and from which
even the bellowing struggles of the great whale
will not suffice to redeem him if once he gets within
the vortex.”

Grorce. “ What causes this whirlpool 2”

Mr. Barravup. “ When two currents of a more
or less contrary direction and of equal force meet in
a narrow passage, they both turn, as it were, upon
a centre, until they unite, or one of the two escapes.
This is what is termed a whirlpool or eddy. There
are three celebrated whirlpools noticed in geogta-
phy—the Maelstrom, the Euripus, near the island
of Kubea, and Charybdis, in the Straits of Sicily.”

Cuartes. “ Bergen, one of the principal towns
of Norway, stands on the North Sea: it is seated in
the centre of a valley, forming a semicircle round a
small gulf of the sea. On the land side it is de-
fended by mountains ; and on the other, by several
fortifications. This city is chiefly constructed of
wood, and has been many times destroyed by fire.
So dreadful was the last conflagration, in 1771, that
it is said the flames were visible in the Isles of
Shetland, or at least the red lurid glare of them in
the sky.”

Mr. Witton. “ There are silver mines in Nor-
way; but the iron mines are the most profitable.
We have to thank Norway for the magnet, of such
inestimable value to the navigator.”

Georce. “Papa, who found out the use of the
magnet ?”

15



194

Mr. Witton. “Flavio Gioia was the author of
the great discovery of the property of the magnet,
about the year 1302. He was a citizen of Amalfi,
a town in Naples.”

Emma. “Is there not a destructive little ani-
mal, native of Norway, called a lemming ?”

Mr. Barravup. “It is called the lemming, or

Norwegian mouse ; it comes from the ridge of Ko-
len; and sometimes spreads desolation, like the lo-
cust. These animals appear in vast numbers, pro-
ceeding from the mountain towards the sea, devour-
ing every product of the soil, and, after consuming
everything eatable in their course, they at last de-
vour each other. These singular creatures are of a
reddish color, and about five inches in length.”

Emma. “We may now return to our station in
Lancaster Sound, pass Croker’s Bay, and enter
Barrow’s Straits which wash the shores of North
Devon.” .

Grorce. “In the New Archipelago, north of
Barrow’s Straits, are the Georgian Isles. They are
numerous, and the principal are Cornwallis, Ba-
thurst, and Melville. The latter is the largest, be-
ing 240 miles long, and 100 miles in breadth.”

Mr. Barravp. “Here is another dreary land |
where no tree or shrub refreshes the eye. The cli-
mate is too cold for any person to live there; and,
from its vicinity to the magnetic meridian, the com-
pass becomes useless, remaining in whatever posi-

tion it is placed by the hand.”

Emma. “Prince Regent’s Inlet will lead us into

Bothnia Gulf, thence through Fury and Hecla

THE NORWEGIAN MOUSE.























HUDSON'S BAY. 195

Straits,* which are between the peninsula of Mel-
ville and Cockburn Island, we can enter Foxes
Channel, pass through Frozen Straits, and launch
on the great waters of Hudson’s Bay.”

Mrs. Witton. “ We enter Hudson’s Bay on
the north, close by Southampton, a large island in-
habited chiefly by Esquimaux. Nothing can ex-
ceed the frightful aspect of the environs of this bay.
To whichsvever side we direct our view, we per-
ceive nothing but land incapable of receiving any
sort of cultivation. and precipitous rocks that rise to
the very clouds, and yawn into deep ravines and
narrow valleys into which the sun never penetrates,
and which are rendered inaccessible by masses of
ice and snow that seem never to melt. The sea in
this bay is open only from the commencement of
July to the end of September, and even then the
navigator very often encounters icebergs, which ex-
pose him to considerable embarrassment. At the
very time he imagines himself at a distance from
these floating rocks a sudden squall, or a tide, or
current, strong enough to carry away the vessel,
and render it unmanageable, all at once hurries him
amongst an infinite number of masses of ice, which
appear to cover the whole bay.” |

Mr. Witton, “Sixty years after the intrepid
navigator Hudson had first penetrated the gulf that
bears his name, the British Government assigned
toa company of traders to those parts (by the title
of the Hudson’s Bay Company) the chartered pos-

* So named because these two vessels were here frozen
up from October 20th, 1822, to August 8th, 1828.

ee
196 HUDSON'S STRAITS.

session of extensive tracts south, and east of Hud-
son’s Bay, to export the productions of the surround-
ing country.”

Grorce. “ Are there any whales in Hudson’s
Bay ?”

Mrs. Witton. “No, all attempts at the whale
fishery have been unsuccessful: indeed, there are
very few fish of any sort here; but in the lakes
around there are plenty, such as pike, sturgeon, and
trout, and their banks are inhabited by aquatic
birds, among which are observed several species of
swans, geese, and ducks.”

Emma. “ James’s Bay is directly in the south of
Hudson’s Bay, and extends a hundred leagues with-
in the country. I believe it is near here that the
Company’s most important establishments are situ-
ated, such as Fort Albany, Fort Moose, and the
factory of East Main. This bay contains many
islands.”

Mrs, Witton. “ What bays must we pass to get
to Hudson’s Straits ?”

Emma. “Mosquito Bay is the only one I can
perceive; but there is Mansfield Isle, and Cape
Diggs to make before we reach the straits; and in
the straits there are several bays, the principal of
which are North Bay and Ungava or South Bay.”

Mrs. Witton. “Quite correct, Emma. The
straits were discovered by Hudson, in his voyage
of 1610. The eastern coast of Hudson’s Bay forms
part of the peninsula of Labrador. Will any mem-
ber vouchsafe some information concerning this
country ?”



a
NOVA SCOTIA. 197

Cuartes. “ All that we know of Labrador is,
that it is a mass of mountains and rocks, intersected
with numerous lakes and rivers, and inhabited by
Esquimaux.”

Mrs. Witton. “ Once more in the Atlantic, the
great highway and thoroughfare of civilized na-
tions. Where sail we next?”

Emma. “Through the Straits of Belle-isle into -
the Gulf of St. Lawrence.”

Mr. Barravup. “This gulf abounds with fish in
a remarkable degree. The bears here combine to-
gether in numerous herds, to catch the salmon near
the cataracts in the rivers, where great numbers
are stopped in their ascent, and are exceedingly
relished by that animal. Some of them plunge
into the water, and pursue their prey, while others
more idle watch them from the banks. There are
only two islands of note in this gulf,—the island of
Anticosti, 90 miles long and 20 broad, covered with
rocks, and wanting the convenience of a harbor ;
and Prince Edward’s Islands, pleasant fertile spots.
The Gulf of St. Lawrence washes the shores of No-
va Scotia and Cape Breton Island.”

Mr. Witton. “ Nova Scotia is about 350 miles
long, and 250 broad: its chief town is Halifax.
This island, with regard to fishing, is scarcely in-
ferior to Newfoundland, which place is connected
with the government of Nova Scotia.”

Mrs. Witton. “Cape Breton, or Sydney Isle,
lies north-east of Nova Scotia, from which it 1s sepa-
rated by a strait only a mile broad. Its length is
100 miles, its breadth 60. A remarkable bed of

LZ
198 HENRY MAY.

coal runs horizontally, at from 6 to 8 feet only, be-
low the surface through a large portion of the island:
a fire was once accidentally kindled in one of the
pits, which is now continually burning. Cape
Breton has been termed the Key to Canada, and is
the principal protection, through the fine harbor of
Louisburg, of all the fisheries in the neighborhood.”

Emma. “ The next important bays in our south-
ward course are Bay of Fundy, Delaware Bay, and
Chesapeake Bay: then we come in sight of the
Bahamas.”

Mrs. Witton. “ Which islands must stand aside
while we examine the Bermudas, which are half-
way between Nova Scotia and the Antilles. They
were so called by Juan Bermudas, who discovered
them in the year 1557, but did not land upon them:
they are of various sizes, the largest being about
twelve miles. The cedar-trees grown there form
the chief riches of the inhabitants, and they esti-
mate a man’s income by the number of trees he
possesses. St. George is the capital, and the islands
belong to the English. They are sometimes called
‘Somers Isles,’ from the circumstance of Sir John
Somers being shipwrecked on the rocks by which
they are surrounded. Previous to this occurrence
Henry May, an Englishman, was cast ashore on
one of the largest, and as the islands abound with
cedar, he contrived, with the assistance of the ma-
terials he obtained from the wreck, to build a small
vessel, in which he returned to England, and was
the first person who gave any account of the group.”

Grorce. “Now for the Bahamas. They are








THE ANCIENT MARINER. 199



300 in number! but only twelve are large. Nas-
sau is the capital. They were the first land dis-
covered by Columbus in the year 1492.”

Mr. Witton. “ And were once a nest of pirates,
but the English expelled them, and established a
colony in 1720.”

Me. Barraup. “Speaking of pirates, have you
ever heard the plan adopted by the Portuguese for
the suppression of piracy ?”

No one had heard it, and Mr. Barraud proceeded.

“The Portuguese, in their early intercourse with
the Indians, had a summary punishment, and ac-
companied it with a terrible example to deter others
from the commission of the crime. Whenever they
took a pirate ship they instantly hanged every man,
carried away the sails, rudder, and everything that
was valuable in the ship, and left her to be buffeted
about by the winds and waves, with the carcasses
of the criminals dangling from the yards, a horrid
object of terror to all who might chance to fall in
with her.”

Cuartes. “Almost as dreadful a vessel to fall
in with as the Phantom Ship in Coleridge’s ‘ An-
cient Mariner.’ I always feel uncomfortable when
I read that poem, and yet I admire it very much.”

Mrs. Witton. “It is replete with such truthful
descriptions, that you are involuntarily borne on
the wings of imagination until all seems reality,
and you identify yourself with the Ancient Mar-
iner.”’

Mr. Witton. “TI anticipate we shall all be an-
cient mariners before we -conclude our voyage, but





_

200 CUBA—JAMAICA.

we must not be idle ones. Lead on, Emma, we
will follow.”

Emma. “I have no more bays yet, and it is
mamma's province to describe the islands.”

Mrs. Witton. “ Well and good: here are the
Antilles. I shall not hasten over them, for they
are our isles, whither we hope shortly to sail in re-
ality; therefore it is highly necessary that we
should be well informed concerning their locality.
They form an arch between the two continents of
America, and extend from the Gulf of Florida to
that of Venezuela. They are divided: into the
greater and the less; Cuba, Jamaica, St. Domingo,

_and Porto Rico are called the Great Antilles, all

the others the Jess Antilles.

“Cuba is the largest and most important: it
commands the windward passage, as well as the
entrance into the gulfs of Mexico and Florida, and
is for that reason sometimes called the Key of the
West Indies It is more than 700 miles in length,
and its medium breadth 70 miles. Havannah is
the capital.

“ Jamaica is a delightful island, endeared to me
by many fond recollections ; it is mountainous, ex-
tremely fertile, and abounding with springs (as its
name signifies) of delicious water, a great luxury
in a warm climate. The top of the highest moun-
tain, Blue Mountain Peak, is 7800 feet above the
level of the sea. Kingston is the chief place for
trade. The island is 150 miles from east to west,
and its breadth is 60 miles in its widest part.

“St. Domingo, capital same name, is a pleasant
BEAUTY OF JAMAICA, 201

fertile country. The first town founded by Euro-
peans in America was St. Domingo. The bones
of Christopher Columbus and his brother Lewis
are deposited in two leaden coffins in the cathedral
of this city.

“ Porto Rico is 100 miles long and 40 broad. It
is beautifully diversified with woods, valleys, and
plains, and extremely fertile.”

Granpy. “The Antilles are lovely islands, and
some of the happiest moments of my life have been
passed in admiring the wonderful works of our
Creator, as shown to such advantage in the bright
lands of the West. Beautiful are the mornings in
Jamaica, when the sun, appearing through a cloud-
less and serene atmosphere, illumines with his rays
the summits of the mountains, and gilds the leaves
of the plantain and orange-trees. The plants are
spread over with gossamer of fine and transparent
silk, or gemmed with dew-drops, and the vivid hues
of industrious insects, reflecting unnumbered tints
from the rays of the sun. The aspect of the richly
cultivated valleys is different, but not less pleasing ;
the whole of nature teems with the most varied
productions. The views around are splendid; the
lofty mountains adorned with thick foliage; the
hills, from their summits to their very borders,
fringed with plants of never fading verdure. The
appearance of the valleys is remarkable: to form
an imperfect idea of it, we must group together the
stately palm-tree, the cocoa-nut, and tamarind trees,
the clustering mango and orange-trees, the waving
plumes of the feathery bamboo, and many others,


202 A HURRICANE.

too numerous to mention. On these plains, too,
you will find the bushy oleander, many varieties
of Jerusalem thorn and African rose, the bright
scarlet of the cordium, bowers of jessamine, vines
of grenadilla, and the silver and silky leaves of the
portlandia. Fields of sugar-cane, houses of the plant-
ers, huts of the negroes, almost hidden by the patches
of cultivated ground attached to them, and the dis-
tant coast with ships, add to the beauty of the West
Indian landscape.”

Mr. Witton. “That is the bright side of the
scene, my dear mother; and lest we should form
wrong impressions, we will let the young folks
hear how all this beauty is sometimes marred by
hurricanes and earthquakes. One specimen will
be sufficient; and I will describe a hurricane, in
order that you may have some slight notion of the
many de/ights attendant on a residence in the West
Indies —A hurricane is generally preceded by an
awful stillness of the elements, the air becomes
close and heavy, the sun is red, and the stars at
night seem unusually large. Frequent changes
take place in the thermometer, which rises some-
times from 80° to 90’. Darkness extends over the
earth; the higher regions gleam with lightning.
The impending storm is first observed on the sea;
foaming mountains rise suddenly from its clear and
motionless surface. The wind rages with unre-
strained fury; its noise may be compared to dis-
tant thunder. The rain descends in torrents ; shrubs
and lofty trees are borne down by the mountain
stream; the rivers overflow their banks, and sub-
DEVASTATION. 203

merge the plains. Terror and consternation seem
to pervade the whole of animated nature: land
birds are driven into the ocean; and those whose
element is the sea, seek for refuge in the woods.
The frighted beasts of the field herd together, or
roam in vain for a place of shelter. All the ele-
ments are thrown into confusion, and nature ap-
pears to be hastening to her ancient chaos. Scenes
of desolation are disclosed by the next morning’s
sun; uprooted trees, branches shivered from their
trunks ; and even the ruins of houses scattered over
the land. The planter has sometimes been scarcely
able to distinguish the place of his former posses-
sions. By these dreadful hurricanes, fertile valleys
may in a few hours be changed into dreary wastes,
covered with the remains of domestic animals and
the fowls of heaven.”

Cuartes. “Ido not envy you the prospect of
an abode in the Antilles, friend George; but I shall
be heartily glad to see you safe back again.”

Granpy. “Every country has an evil; ’tis
right it should be so, or we should like this fair
world and its enjoyments so well, that we should
not care to‘ go up higher.’ There are many evils
’tis true, but there is also so much good to counter-
balance the evil, that we should raise our hearts
with thankfulness, and open our lips with praises
to sing the goodness of our God.

“Emma, my child, where roam we next ?”

Emma. “We cannot quit the Gulf of Mexico
yet, dear Grandy, until we have examined its en-
virons. We entered it through the Gulf of Florida,

ee ——$
Sepceeeter sna
204 RUINS OF YUCATAN.

which is situated between Florida and Cuba. The
Gulf of Mexico almost intersects the two conti-
nents; and is, in fact, an extensive sea. It washes

the shores of Mexico and Yucatan, and contains
many comparatively small bays.”

Mr. Barravv. “This gulf may be considered
as a Mediterranean Sea, which opens a maritime
commerce with all the fertile countries by which it
is encircled. The islands scattered in it are infe-
rior only to those in the Indian Archipelago in
number, in magnitude, and in value.”

Mrs. Witton. “ Mexico is a very rich city; the
shops literally overflowing with gold, silver, and
jewels. The cathedral, in some respects, surpasses
all the churches in the world. The balustrade
which surrounds the altar is composed of massive
silver. A lamp, of the same metal, is of so vast a
size that three men go into it when it has to be
cleaned ; and it is enriched with lion’s heads and
other ornaments of pure gold. ‘The statues of the
Virgin and the saints, are made of solid silver,
richly gilded and ornamented with precious stones.

“ Yucatan is celebrated for beautiful ruins, adorn-
ed with the most striking, imposing, and elegant
decorations, but who were the architects, or when
built, is at present a mystery ; for when discovered
by the Spaniards in the fifteenth century, it was
inhabited by a fierce tribe of Indians, who were
perfectly ignorant of arts and sciences; therefore,
these magnificent erections must have been the
work of civilized men, before Yucatan was pos-

sessed by the Indians. Many attempts were made |


but to no purpose. At length they hit upon the
expedient of sending priests among the people.
Five were found willing to go: they were intro-
duced as men of peace by the Mexicans, were ami-
cably received, and allowed to settle in the country.
Their conduct soon gained them the love and
esteem of the fierce Indians, and they brought
their children to be taught, and were baptized
with their whole families. Every day strengthened
their attachment to the Padres: they built them
houses to live in, and a temple for worship; and at
last, without any compulsion, the chiefs acknowl-
edged the authority of the King of Castile. But
this allegiance was of short duration. Some Span-
ish soldiers went over, and carried fire and sword
into the heart of their country, and soon obliterated
the impression made by the good Padres. The
Indians again waged war with civilized man, and
the priests fled for their lives. Many years after
the Spaniards were the conquerors, and succeeded
in planting their standard in Yucatan, in the year
1537. It is now inhabited by Spaniards and In-
dians: there is an appearance of civilization sur-
rounding many of these desolated places. Villages
and towns have been formed, and lands cultivated
in every direction.”

Kuma. “Through the Bay of Honduras we
enter the Caribbean Sea, and it is the last sea on
this side of the equator.”

| Mr. Barravp. “The Caribbean Sea is, gene-

rally speaking, still and quiet, and in fine weather
| 12

fe so TNDTANS OF 30 MEXICO. "205
! by the Spaniards to obtain a footing in this country,

|

|

|




206 THE AMERICAN LAKES.

the water is so transparent, that the mariner can
discern fish and coral at fifty fathoms below the
surface. The ship seems to float in the air, and
the spectator is often seized with vertigo, while he
beholds through the crystalline fluid, submarine
groves and beautiful shells glittering among tufts
of fucus and sea-weed. Fresh-water springs issue
from the sea on both sides of the Channel between
Yucatan and Cuba. They rush with so much
violence out of the deep, that it is dangerous for
small vessels to approach them; boats have been
dashed to pieces by the force of the surge. Ships
on the coast sail here sometimes for a supply of
fresh water, which the seamen draw from the bot-
tom of the Ocean!”

Emma. “ What extraordinary things we meet
with in our travels! May we, before crossing the
equator, visit the lakes, mamma ?”

Mrs. Witton. “I am quite agreeable. Who
wishes to go to the lakes ?”

Cuartes. “I do, and will start directly I have
prepared the necessary documents. Oh! here they
are; Lakes Superior, Michigan, and Huron, are
considered as forming one large inland sea, dividing
the United States from Canada. There are several
islands in these lakes, particularly in Lake Supe-
rior, which islands the savages believe to be the
residence of the Great Spirit. It is strange that
these lakes are never frozen over, although the en-
trances are frequently obstructed with ice.”

Emma. “Lake Superior is more than 500 leagues
in circumference; its clear waters, fed by forty
NIAGARA. oF

rivers, are contained in extensive strata of rocks,
and their surges nearly equal those of the Atlan-
tic Ocean. Lake Huron is connected with Supe-
rior, by the Straits of St. Mary. Lake Michigan
communicates with Huron by a long strait, and the
country around its banks belongs exclusively to the
United States.”

Cuarues. “ Lake Erie is my favorite, because
it communicates with the river Niagara, and with
those celebrated cataracts of which so much has
been written.”

Georce. “For the same reason then, you should
patronize Lake Ontario. It is 170 miles long, and
60 miles broad, at its widest part, and empties it-
self through the romantic ‘ Lake of a thousand Isles,’
into the St. Lawrence.”

Emma. “Lake Winnipeg is the next near-
est; it is more than sixty leagues in length, by
thirty or forty broad. Its banks are shaded by
the sugar-maple and poplar, and it is surround-
ed by fertile plains, which produce the rice of
Canada.

“The Great Slave Lake is quite north, and the
last of any consequence. It is more than a hun-
dred leagues in length, and sprinkled with islands,
covered with trees resembling the mulberry. Mac-
kenzie found them loaded with ice in the middle
of June.”

Mrs. Witton. “ There is nothing in other parts
of the globe which resembles the prodigious chain

of lakes in North America. They may properly
be termed inland seas of fresh water; and even


208 THE CARIBBEAN SEA.

those of second and third class in magnitude, are
of larger circuit than the greatest lake in the old
continent. They all unite to form one uninterrupt-
ed current of water, extending above 600 leagues
in length. The country around is intersected with
rivers, lakes, and marshes to a greater extent than
any other part of the world: but few mountains
rise above this savage icy plain. One is tempted
to inquire, why do such superb streams waste their
fertilizing waters upon these frozen deserts? We
only know they manifest the Power, and we must
not doubt the Wisdom of their Creator.”

Mr. Witton. “ Now, Emma, return to our for-
mer situation in the Bay of Honduras. What of
that bay ?”

Emma. “Only this, papa, that it washes the
shores of Yucatan, which has already been de-
scribed, and runs into the Caribbean Sea. Mamma
will help me here.”

Mrs. Witton. “ The coast of Honduras was
discovered by Columbus, in his last voyage, but its
verdant beauties (for it is a lovely place,) could not
win him to the shore. Without landing, he con-
tinued on to the Isthmus of Darien, in search of
that passage to India which was the aim of all his
hopes, but which it was destined he should never
see.”

Emma. “The Caribbean Sea contains the Carib-
bee Islands, which are also distinguished by the
names of Windward and Leeward Isles. The only
one we should have to pass near in sailing out of
this sea, is Tobago.”
PANAMA. 209

Mr. Witton. “ But, Emma, are you going to
leave this coast without a visit to Panama?’

Ewa. “My only reason for so doing, dear papa,
is because I know nothing about it, except that it
is situated close to the Isthmus of Darien, and its
chief town is Porto Bello.”

Mr. Witton. “ Panamais itself an isthmus, and
is most luxuriant in vegetable productions, and
could challenge competition with any part of the
world, in the vigor and variety of its woods. There
are known to be growing there, no less than ninety-
seven different qualities of wood. It is famed, as
most woody places are, for snakes and poisonous
reptiles: the country people will scarcely move
abroad after nightfall for fear of them, and always
carry a charm about their person to prevent injury
from their bite. This charm is an alligator’s tooth,
stuffed with herbs, compounded and muttered over
by some old woman.”

Mr. Barravup. “I have heard that toads at
Porto Bello are so numerous, that it is the popular
prejudice that the drops of rain are changed into
toads; and even the more learned maintain that
the eggs of this animal are raised with the vapors
from the adjoining swamps, and being conveyed to
the city hy the succeeding rains, are there hatched.
They are large and frightful, many of them six
inches in breadth ; and after a night of rain, the
streets are almost covered, so that it is impossible
to walk any distance without crushing dozens of
them. The city is so badly situated, and the cli-
mate so unhealthy, that few persons can exist there,

28*


210 GALA DAYS.

and it is justly termed by the Spaniards ‘La Sep-
ultura de los Europeanos.’ ”’

Cuartes, “The people of Porto Bello are not
particularly dainty. I am sure I should starve
there, for I could not consent to eat their food.
What do you think of shovel-nosed sharks being
sold in the markets, and guanas—which you know
are lizards—being considered a special treat? and
then, worse than all, the country folks mostly feed
upon monkeys. How should you fare amongst
them, George? Could you make a dinner off a
roasted monkey ?”

Grorce. “TI do not think I should enjoy it, but
if I were very hungry, I might not be particular:
however, I must own I should even then prefer
beef or mutton to lizards and monkeys.”

Mr. Witton. “Panama is, notwithstanding
their want of taste, a rich country; rich in gold,
silver, and other mines. Commerce is gaining
ground there, and in the present day the people are
more anxious to make their fortunes than to dis-
play their magnificence. Formerly, no family in
Panama ate off anything but plate, almost every
domestic utensil was of the same material, and the
women wore a profusion of chains, pearls, and other
ornaments. But times are altered there as else-
where; most of the gold has passed through the
melting-pot to the Old World.”

Mr. Barravp. “True; but they have still
enough left to make very grand displays on gala
days ; and, on these occasions, the dresses of the
women are peculiarly splendid. A loose chemise























DIVING FOR PEARLS. 211

of beautiful cambric, with innumerable and im-
mense frills richly worked with lace, is, with a pet-
ticoat of the same, fastened at the waist by several
massive chased-gold buttons. Round the neck are
several gold chains, with pearl rosettes, crosses, and
rows of pearls; the ear-rings are of the shape of a
telegraph, and reach nearly to the shoulders; the
fingers are covered with rings: and various combs,
studded with rows of pearl cased in gold, are placed
together with a massive gold bodkin, to great ad-
vantage in beautiful hair, plaited in two tails down
the back. The feet are barely introduced into a
little slipper, turned up very much at the toes, and
also richly ornamented. The whole appearance is
elegant and becoming.”

Mr. Witton. “The pearls thus tastefully dis-
posed around the person of a fair Panamenian, are
procured among the islands of the coast by diving.
The occupation is very laborious, and success most
uncertain ; but the pursuit is a favorite one, and the
divers are very expe t. They generally proceed in
companies of several canoes together, each contain-
ing six or seven men, who dive in succession, armed
with a sharp knife, rather for the purpose of detach-
ing the oysters from the rocks to which they ad-
here, than for defence against danger. Before de-
scending, they repeatedly cross themselves, (for you
must understand, nearly all Central America is in-
habited by Roman Catholics,) and generally bring
up four oysters, one under each arm, and two in the
hand. The usual time of stopping under water is
from fifty seconds to two and a half minutes. Much


212 THE SEABOYS GRAVE.

has been said of the danger of these fisheries, both
from the shark, and another enemy called the
‘ Manta,’ which crushes its victim. But the shark
is ever a coward, and no match for an expert diver
with a knife; and accidents rarely occur.”

Emma. “Oh! how much information I should
have lost, had I gone sailing on by myself. I think
I had better resign my station at the wheel to some
member who is better able to steer. Who will
have it ?”

Mr. Barravuv. “Keep it, Emma, unless you
are weary, and we will direct your course occasion-
ally. Iam sure you have proved yourself so inde-
fatigable on all occasions, that our vessel cannot be
in better hands.”

Emma. “Before proceeding any further, I wish
to read the enclosed account. I received it with
two or three other papers, from our friend Dora, a
few minutes before we assembled. She knew we
should be explaining the Atlantic to-night, and
begged I would introduce this at the meeting.

The Seaboy’s Grave.

“There was a poor little middy on board, so
delicate and fragile, that the sea was clearly no fit
profession for him; but he or his friends thought
otherwise ; and as he had a spirit for which his
frame was no match, he soon gave token of decay.
This boy was a great favorite with everybody ; the
sailors smiled whenever he passed, as they would


THE FUNERAL. 218

have done to a child; the officers patted him, and
coddled him up with all sorts of good things; and
his messmates, in a style which did not altogether
please him, but which he could not well resist, as it
was meant most kindly, nicknamed him, “ Dolly.”
Poor fellow! he was long remembered afterwards.
I forget what his particular complaint was, but he
gradually sank, and at last went out just as a taper
might have done, exposed to such gusts of wind as
blew in that tempestuous region. He died in the
morning, but it was not until the evening that he
was prepared for a seaman’s grave.

“¢]T remember in the course of the day, going to
the side of the boy’s hammock ; and, on laying my
hand upon his breast, being astonished to find it
still warm ; so much so, that I almost imagined I
could feel the heart beat. This, of course, was a
vain fancy; but I was greatly attached to my little
companion, being then not much taller myself,
and I was soothed and gratified, in a childish way,
by discovering that my friend, though many hours
dead, had not yet acquired the usual revolting chil-
liness.

‘“¢ Something occurred during the day to prevent
the funeral taking place at the usual hour; and the
ceremony was deferred until long after sunset. The
evening was extremely dark, and it was blowing a
treble-reefed topsail breeze. We had just sent down
the top-gallant yards, and had made all snug for a
boisterous winter’s night. As it became necessary
to have lights to see what was done, several signal
lanterns were placed on the break of the quarter-


214 THE FUNERAL.

deck, and others along the hammock railing on the
lee-gangway. The whole ship's company and offi-
cers were assembied ; some on the booms, others in
the boats; while the main-rigging was crowded
half-way up to the cat-harpings. Overhead the
mainsail, illuminated as high as the yard by the
lamps, was bulging forwards under the gale, which
was rising every minute, and straining so violently
at the main-sheet, that there was some doubt
whether it might not be necessary to interrupt the
funeral in order to take sail off the ship. The low-
er-deck ports lay completely under water, and seve-
ral times the muzzles of the main-deck guns were
plunged into the sea; so that the ends of the grat-
ing on which the remains of poor “ Dolly” were
laid, once or twice nearly touched the tops of the
waves, as they foamed and hissed past. The rain
fell fast on the bare heads of the crew, dropping also
on the officers during all the ceremony, from the
foot of the mainsail, and wetting the leaves of the
prayer-book. The wind sighed over us amongst
the wet shrouds, with a note so mournful, that
there could not have been a more appropriate
dirge.

“«The ship pitching violently, strained and crack-
ed from end to end ; so that, what with the noise of
the sea, the rattling of the ropes, and the whistling
of the wind, hardly one word of the service could be
distinguished. The men, however, understood by
a motion of the captain’s hand, when the time
came, and the body of our dear little brother was

| committed to the deep.
GULF OF TRIESTE. 215

“¢So violent a squall was sweeping past the ship
at this moment, that no sound was heard of the
usual splash, which made the sailors (naturally su-
perstitious) allege, that their young favorite never
touched the water at all, but was at once carried off
in the gale to his final resting-place !’ ”

Gxrorce. “Oh! how very melancholy. It seems
much more dismal to be buried in the sea than on
the land:

“* For the dead should lie in the churchyard green,
Where the pleasant flowers do spring.’ ”

Emma. “T shall be grateful to Captain Hall if
his pathetic description of the funeral of ‘ Dolly’
checks your desire to become a sailor, George ; for
I cannot bear to think of it. We are now to sail
along the coast of South America, and the first gulfs
in the north of this coast are the gulfs of Maracay-
bo, Coro, Trieste, and Paria, by the island of Trini-
dad, where y

Cuartes. “Stop! stop! Emma. Out of four
gulfs there must be something to be had worth
fishing for, is there not ?”

Mr. Barravup. “ You may fish for melancholy
in the Gulf of Trieste, Charles, if you are so dis-
posed, for it isadreadful place. Here, in the midst
of furious waves, enormous rocks raise their isolated
heads, and scarcely, even with a fair wind, can
ships overcome the strength of the stream.”

Cuarces. “We will not angle in that gulf; but
I have fished up an island in Maracaybo, or Vene-
zuela Gulf. It is called Curacoa, and is arid and




216 GUIANA. |

sterile. There is very little water, and only one
well in the island, and the water is sold at a high
price. Its capital is Williamstadt, one of the neat-
est cities in the West Indies.”

Mrs. Witton. “The entrance to the Gulf of
Paria on the north side is called Dragon’s Mouth,
on the south, Serpent’s Mouth. This culf separates
Trinidad from South America. Trinidad is about
70 miles from east to west, and nearly 50 from north
to south. The most remarkable phenomenon there
isa bituminous lake, situated on the western coast,
near the village of La Brea. It is nearly three
miles in extent, of a circular form, and about 80 feet
above the level of the sea. Small islands, covered
with plants and shrubs, are occasionally observed
on this lake, but it is sabiina to frequent changes,
and the gordinint isles often disappear. Trinidad i is
important on account of its fertility, its extent, and
its position.”

Kuma. “The next bay in our course is the Bay
of Oyapok.”

Mrs. Witton. “And the next country in our
course is Guiana, washed by the Atlantic. This
country is subject to annual inundations. All the
rivers overflow their banks; forests, trees, shrubs,
and parasitical plants seem to float on the water.

and the sea tinged with yellow clay, adds its bil-.

lows to the findhie water s'reams. Quadrupeds are
forced to take refuge on the highest trees ; large
lizards, agoutis, and pecaries* quit their watery

* Animals similar to the wild boar of Europe, but very

|
|
|



'

small, |
BRAZIL. 217



dens and remain on the branches. Aquatic birds
| spring upon the trees to avoid the cayman* and
| serpents that infest the temporary lakes. The fish
forsake their ordinary food, and live on the fruits
and berries of the shrubs through which they swim,
—the crab is found upon trees, and the oyster mul-
tiplies in the forest. The Indian, who surveys
from his canoe this new chaos, this confusion of
earth and sea, suspends his hammock on anelevated
branch, and sleeps without fear in the midst of so
| great*danger.”

Granpy. “ Emma will have more than she can
accomplish to-night, if she wishes to enter all the
bays around South America, for no country in the
world is so famous for its enormous gulfs.”

Mr. Witton. “ Yes; we must make a division
for another meeting. To-night we will sail down
to Cape Horn, and sojourn there until the 21st of
this month. We could not choose a more favorable
time than March for our visit.”
| Euma. “ Very well, then, we will merely men-
tion some of these bays, viz. :—Pinzon, Maripani,
Gurupy, Turiassu, Cuma, Paraiba, All Saints, Ca-
manu, and St. Salvador Bay, near Rio de Ja-
neiro.”

Mr. Witton. “ Well, Emma, you have certain-
ly maneuvred well to bring us over the equator
without the usual visitation of Neptune and Am-
_ phitrite, and we must all thank you for landing us,
without a ducking, in the principal town of Brazil.
So now we will walk about, and see the lions.”

ais of alligator.
19




218 RIO DE JANEIRO.



Grorce. “ Wecan go and fill our pockets, papa;
for it is said that through the whole of this country,
at the depth of twenty-four feet from the surface,
there is a thin vein of gold, the particles of which
are carried by the springs and heavy rains into the
neighboring rivers, from the sands of which they
are gathered by negroes employed for that purpose.
There, too, we might happen to find some dia-
monds ”

Cuartes. “ You would find it not so easy to
collect gold and diamonds as you imagine, and I
expect you would come back poorer than you
went.”

Mrs. Witton. “Rio de Janeiro possesses one of
the finest harbors known, having at its entrance a
bar, at the extremes of which rise two rocks. This
bay is twenty-four leagues in length, and eight in
width, and has in it many islands; some are cul-
tivated and possess sugar-works. The most cele-
brated of them is named De Cobra, off which island
ships cast anchor. On the opposite side of this city,
a natural wall of rocks, called Los Organos, ex-
tends itself as far as the sea, and forms a perfect

line of defence independently of the neighboring _

fortresses.”

Exma. “Paraguay is the adjacent coast, and
derives its name from the Payaguas, a treacherous
and deceitful people, who subsist by fishing. It is
a fertile district, and produces a species of ilex,*
which makes the tea so much used in South Amer-
ica. The laborers, who esteem it vastly more than

* Tlex: a species of oak.









MONTE VIDEO. 219

we do our Chinese tea, will refuse to work if de-
prived of it. The twigs are steeped with the leaves,
and the tea is taken through a silver or glass tube.
The gulfs along here are not very important. I
have no account of them.”

Mrs. Witton. “ Monte Video is the next coast,
and derives its name from a mountain near the
city; it is completely enclosed with fortifications.
The inhabitants are humane and well disposed.
The ladies in general affable and polite, and ex-
tremely fond of dress, and very neat and cleanly
in their persons. ‘They adopt the English costume
at home, but go abroad usually in black, and always
covered with a large veil or mantle. Provisions
here are very cheap; and such is the profusion of
flesh-meat, that the vicinity for two miles round,
and even the purlieus of the town itself, present
filthy spectacles of bones and raw flesh at every
step, which feed immense flocks of sea-gulls, and,
in summer, breed myriads of flies, to the great an-
noyance of the inhabitants, who are obliged, at
table, to have a servant or two continually employ-
ed in fanning the dishes with feathers to drive
away these troublesome intruders.”

Emma. “ Between Monte Video and Buenos
Ayres are many bays: False Bay, Brightman Bay,
and Union Bay are the principal.”

Mrs. Wittox. “ Buenos Ayres was founded in
1535 by Don Pedro de Mendoza, who gave it that
name on account of the salubrity of its climate.
This town is in many respects the most consider-
able of all the commercial towns in South America.



220 PATAGONIA.



Bread is by no means the staff of life here, for
meat and the great variety of roots and grain with
which the country abounds, afford to the poor in-
habitants an equally healthy and even more nu-
tritious substance.”

Emma. “South of Buenos Ayres are Antonio
Bay, Nuevo Gulf, Ergano Bay, Gulf of Vera, and
Gulf of St. George, which last runs into the coun-
try of the gigantic Patagonians.”

Mr. Barravp. “The bays here afford good
anchorage for ships; but there are neither inhab-
itants, wood, nor fresh water in the adjacent coun-
try: a few aquatic birds and sea-wolves remain un-
molested on these dismal shores.”

Mr. Witton. “ Patagonia is inhabited by wan-
dering tribes of Indians. From their extraordinary
size they have given rise to many remarkable tales.
Fernandez de Magalhanes says, that one day, when
the fleet was anchored at Port San Julian, a person
of gigantic stature appeared on the shore. He
sang, he danced, and sprinkled dust on his fore-
head: a sailor was sent to land, with orders to imi-
tate his gestures, which were considered signals of —
peace. The seaman performed his part so well,
that the giant accompanied him to the commandey’s
vessel. He pointed to the sky, wishing to isthe
if the Spaniards had descended from heaven. His
size was such that the sailors’ heads did not come
up to his waist.”

Georce. * But are they really giants, papa?”

Mr. Witton. “Not exactly giants, my dear ;
not men who could travel in seven league boots:

————— a a ee


| CAPE HORN. _- 221






but they are really large people; many of them
seven feet high ; and such men seen through a trav-
eller’s microscope, would be magnified to huge
giants !”

Cuarues. “ Now, here we are in the land of
Fires! and yet it is very cold. Emma, you are
surely not going to name all these little bays ?”

Emma. “Do not be alarmed, Charles: I will
riot so far tax your patience ; but we must see Ter-
ra del Fuego. It is divided into three lerge islands,
—South Desolation, Clarence Island, and King
Charles’s Southland ; besides which there are hun-
dreds of smaller isles, habited and uninhabited.”

Mrs. Witton. “ Having reached the southern
extremity of the American continent, we may take
an excursion to some of the neighboring islands ;
for although they are not all subject to America,
still they are nearer to it than to any other country.
To the south of Patagonia there is a number of
cold, barren, and mountainous islands; volcanoes
which cannot melt, brighten and illumine the per-
petual snow in these dismal regions. Here it was
that the sailors observed fires on the southern shores
of the strait, for which reason the land on that side
was called Terra del Fuego.”

Grorce. “ Mamma, I wish to know why March
is a favorable month for visiting Cape Horn ?”

Mrs. Witton. “Because midsummer takes place
in February, and is the best time of the year. July
is the worst month, for then the sun does not rise
until nine o’clock, and it sets at three, giving eigh-
teen hours night; and then, also, snow and rain,
19*




222 DEPTH OF THE ATLANTIC.

gales and high winds are in abundance. Charles,
will you favor us with some account of the islands 2”

Cuarces. “Staten is a detached island, which
may be considered as forming part of the archipel-
ago of Terra del Fuego. It was discovered by
Lemaire.

“The Falklands are two large islands, separated
from each other by a broad channel of the same
name. We are now nearly out of the Atlantic.”

Mr. Witton. “Yes; we had now better clear
the decks, and pipe to supper.”

Grorce. “One question more, dear papa. Can
any one tell the depth of the Atlantic 2”
Mr. Witton. “The depth is extremely various,

and in many places wholly beyond the power of
man to fathom. The greatest depth that has ever
been reached, was effected by Captain Scoresby in
the sea near Greenland, in the year 1817, and was
7,200 feet. Many parts of the Atlantic are thought
to be three times this depth. How much is that,
my boy ?”

Grorce. “21,600 feet, papa.”

Mr. Witton. “Well done! Now go and dis-
cuss mamma’s vea/ttves, and try and remember as
much as possible of our imaginary wanderings, that
they may prove of read utility to you in your jour-
ney through life.”






The water of the vast ocean,
When it has raged with all its fury, becalms itself again;
This is the course of the world ;—and likewise still to forget.
Kalmuck Song.

CHAPTER VIL

THerRE were no disappointments on the twenty-
first; but there was evidently some cause of uneasi-
ness, for there was a great deal of whispering be-
tween George and his sister, and a great many
significant glances at papa, which plainly indicated
that some important disclosure was about to be
made. But muffins and tea appeared, and disap-
peared, and still not a word. George fidgeted, and
Emma looked uneasy, which Mr. Wilton observ-
ing, he said: “ I apprehend there will be no busi-
ness done to-night, unless I set these anxious little
folks at rest, by informing the present company of
the events which have transpired since our last
meeting. I believe you were aware that it was
my intention shortly to visit Jamaica. During the
past week I have been bringing affairs to a crisis,
and it is now finally arranged, that, should nothing
intervene to the prevention of our plans, we sail for
that island on or about the thirtieth of next month.
This, of course, will preclude the possibility of mect- |

ing many more times ; but I think we may promise |



























THE SEPARATION.

ourselves one farewell debate. I regret our separe-
tion principally on account of our little society, for
it has been the means of passing our evenings, not
only agreeably, but profitably. Should our lives
be spared, I trust we shall again assemble under
the same roof, and again enjoy the advantages of
each other’s researches.”

This news spread a gloom over the little party,
for they could not contemplate a separation from
tueir kind friends without feelings of deep regret,
and there were more tears than smiles in their
usually bright eyes.

Grandy looked from one young face to another:
all wore the same expression. Thoughtful, sorrow-
ful, and silent, they sat around the table where they
had enjoyed so many happy hours; and she, too,
felt that, although it is delightful to possess the af-
fection of friends, yet too often that affection is the
cause of much anxiety and deep enduring sorrow.

A separation of 5000 miles was not a trifling
cause of grief; but it was a pity to tinge the next
month of their existence with unavailing melan-
choly: it had been better that it had remained a
secret, than to have caused such unhappiness to
cloud their serene and cheerful days; and Mrs.
Wilton endeavored to make them view the matter
in a brighter light. “ At all events,” she said, “ we
must not render each other miserable, because we
are called upon to exercise this self-denial. It is
wrong to waste in unavailing regrets the time we

have still to be together, and be gloomy and sad for
a whole month. No! that cannot possibly improve

ee







DECEPTION ISLE. 225

our affairs, and will only unfit us for the perform-
ance of our duty, and increase our misery. Come,
wipe away those glistening tears, my children, or
they will freeze on your cheeks ; for, if I mistake
not, we are supposed to be somewhere about the
sixtieth parallel of south latitude, and the thermom-
eter somewhat below Zero. Come, see who will
find the situation first. George, try what you can
do.”

The children commenced their search, and be-
fore George exclaimed “ South Shetland, dear mam-
ma!” every eye, although still dimmed with tears,
was eagerly in quest of the desired parallel.

Mrs. Witton. “Right, George! I fear it will
not be prudent to venture any further south, as we
may encounter some ice-islands, for there are several
in this vicinity ; but I should like to hear, if any
of you can tell me why Deception Isle (one of the
South Shetland group) is so called ?”

Dora. “It is so called from its very exact re-
semblance to a ship in full sail, and has deceived
many navigators. This island is inhabited only
by penguins, sea-leopards, pintadors, and various
kinds of petrels. It is volcanic, apparently com-
posed of alternate layers of ashes and ice, as if the
snow of each winter, during a series of years, had
been prevented from melting in the following sum-
mer by the ejection of cinders and ashes from some
part where volcanic action is still in progress; and
that such is the case seems probable, from the fact
of there being at least one hundred and fifty holes
from which steam issues with a loud hissing noise,




226 THE GULF OF PENAS.

eee



and which are, or were, visible from the top of one
of the hills immediately above the small cone where
Lieutenant Kendall’s ship was secured, to whom I
am indebted for this information.”

Mrs. Witton. “The only habitable islands
near here are the Sandwich Isles (not Captain
Cook’s) and Georgia; but they are neither large,
numerous, nor important: we will, therefore, round
the Cape and enter the Pacific Ocean.”

Dora. “ According to Emma’s chart we are to
follow the coast, calling at as many of the islands
as are worthy of notice; but, previously, here are
the bays to be enumerated, and such a number of
them! I could scarcely have imagined it possible
for any shores to be so indented.”

Euma. “T need not read all the names, as with
your maps you can each read for yourself; but the
following are the largest: Gulf of Trinidad, Gulf
of Penas, Gulf of Ancud by the Island of Chiloe,
and Conception Bay on the coast of Chili.”

Mrs. Witton. “Here is a part for me to play,
I perceive. The natives of the coast of the Gulf
of Penas are descendauts of the Araucanians, a war-
like people, who, observing the great advantages
the Europeans possessed from the use of gunpow-
der, tried in vain to learn its composition. They
saw negroes among the Spaniards, and because
their color was supposed to resemble that of gun-
powder, they imagined they had discovered the
long-wished-for secret. A poor negro was caught
by them and burnt alive, in the full belief that gun-
powder would be obtained from his ashes.”


ISLAND OF CHILOE. 227



Grorce. “Poor man! what ignorant people
they must be. Are we to stop at the Island of
Chiloe 2”

Mr. Barravup. “Most certainly, as you will
agree when you hear what I have tosay. It lies
near the south coast of Chili: its length is 120
miles, average breadth 40 miles. It is mountain-
ous and covered with cedar, which is exported in
great quantities to Peru and Chili. The climate is
healthy, but damp, as it rains ten months out of the
year. Money is here almost unknown, and traffic
is conducted by barter, or payment in indigo, tea,
salt, or Cayenne pepper.~ All these articles are
much valued, particularly the indigo for dyeing
woollens, for the weaving of which there is a loom
in every house. According to Captain Blankley,
the golden age would seem to be revived in this
part of the world. ‘ Murders, says he, ‘robbery,
or persons being in debt, are never heard of: drunk-
enness is only known or seen when European ves-
sels are in port: not a private dwelling in the towns
or country has a lock on the doors, and the prison
is in disuse. The inhabitants are cheerful, and
passionately fond of music and dancing.” |

Emma. “I think we had better remain at Chiloe:
it must be a delightful place to live in, where all
the inhabitants are so upright and honest.”

Mrs. Witton. “Yes, my dear; but business
must be attended to before pleasure, and we are
bound for Chill.

“ Chili is an independent State, and includes the
country of those same ignorant Araucanians ; who,

‘ - oe eo ee
a
| 228 Sede: = == FERNANDEZ.

notwithstanding their attributed ignorance, have
proved themselves equal in some respects to Kuro-
peans; for they have tried in vain to subdue this
warlike race of men. The shores of Chili are most-
ly high, steep, and rocky. The whole country is
extremely rich in metals: silver is there found
nearer the surface than in any other country. Near-
ly all the rivers wash down gold, and there are cop-
per, lead, and even coal mines. The Chilians are
good potters, and make light, strong, e earthenware
jars, which ring like metal. Chili is specta/ly sub-
ject to earthquakes; shocks are felt in some parts
almost daily, and the country is continually deso-
lated by them.”

Mr. Witton. “The little island of Mocha on
this coast was once celebrated as a resort of buc-
caneers, and thickly peopled; but it was found de-
serted by Captain Strong in 1690; and appears to
have remained uninhabited since. 7

imma. “The most memorable island near our
course is Juan Fernandez, 110 miles from the coast.
I ought rather to have said islands, for there are
two. The largest was discovered by a Spaniard in
1563, and has been so much praised by early navi-
gators, that it has been thought an earthly paradise.
Its chief advantages arises from its being a good
resting-place for ships. This island is called Mas-a-
terra, because nearest the continent. There are
many Spanish settlers there, who have erected a
battery, and built a town. The smaller island is
generally called Mas-a-fuero, because further from
the continent.


beams

ALEXANDER SELKIRK. 229



Mr. Witton. “Juan Fernandez has lately been
taken on lease from the Chilian Government, by an
enterprising American, who has taken thither about
150 families of Tahitians, with the intention of cul-
tivating the land, rearing cattle, and so improving
the port of Cumberland Bay, that it may become
the resort of whalers, and other vessels navigating
the Pacific Ocean.”

Cuartes. “Oh! for the imagination of Daniel
de Foe to conjure up the delightful pictures of his
Robinson Crusoe. The poet Cowper has done
much towards handing the event down to posterity,
in his touching account of the feelings of the poor
outcast when he found himself on the desolate shore.”

Grorcr. “Oh! you mean Alexander Selkirk’s

soliloquy. I think I can remember some of the
verses :—

“¢T am out of humanity’s reach,
I must finish my journey alone,
Never hear the sweet music of speech,
I start at the sound of my own.
The beasts that roam over the plain
My form with indifference see ;
They’re so unaccustomed to man,
Their tameness is shocking to me.’

“ «Religion! what treasure untold
Resides in that heavenly word !
More precious than silver or gold,
Or all that this earth can afford ;
But the sound of the church-going bell,
These valleys and rocks never heard,
Ne’er sigh’d at the sound of a knell,
Or smil’d when a sabbath appear’d?’
20




230 THE LADIES OF LIMA,

“ ¢ Ye winds, that have made me your sport,
Convey to this desolate shore,
Some cordial, endearing report
Of a land I shall visit no more.
My friends—do they now and then send
A wish or a thought after me ?
Oh! tell me I yet have a friend,

Though a friend I am never to see !’”

Emma. “ A life of solitude must be very dreadful :
we cannot conceive such an existence while sur-
rounded by our dear friends, and all the luxuries
of civilized life. How long was Alexander Selkirk
on the island ?”

Cuartes. “Four years and four months, I be-
lieve.”

Dora. “In sailing along the coast of Peru we
must pass close to Lima, its capital, which is a mag-
nificent city. Like other Spanish cities of America
it is laid out in quadras or squares of houses, and
through the centre of nearly all the streets runs a
stream of water three feet wide, which carries away
a good portion of the refuse of the city.”

Mr. Barraup. “The ladies of Lima are cele-
brated for beauty and fineness of figure. They
wear a very remarkable walking dress, peculiar to
this city and Truxillo. It consists of two parts, one
called the saya, the other the munto. The first is
an elastic dress, fitting close to the figure down to
the ankles ; the other is an entire envelope, disclos-
ing scarcely more than one eye to the most scrutin-
izing observer. A rich colored handkerchief or a
silk band and tassel are frequently tied around the
waist, and hang nearly to the ground in front.”



THE PERUVIANS. 231



Mrs. Witton. “The population of Peru con-
sists principally of Indians, Spaniards, and Negroes.
The first are represented by travellers as in the
lowest stage of civilization, without any desire for
the comforts of civilized life, immersed in sloth and
apathy, from which they can rarely be roused, ex-
cept when they have an opportunity of indulging
to excess in ardent spirits, of which they are exces-
sively fond. They are dirty in the extreme, seldom
taking off their clothes even to sleep, and still more
rarely using water. Their habitations are misera-
ble hovels, destitute of every convenience and dis-
gustingly filthy.”

Mr. Witton. “The Peruvians had at one time
a curious contrivance for crossing their rivers.
They did not know how to make a bridge of wood
or stone ; but necessity, the parent of invention, sup-
plied that defect. They formed cables of great
strength, by twisting together some of the pliable
withes or osiers with which their country abounds ;
six of these cables they stretched across the stream
parallel to one another, and made them fast on each
side; these they bound firmly together, by inter-
weaving smaller ropes so close as to form a com-
pact piece of net-work, which being covered with
branches of trees and earth, they passed along it
with tolerable security. Proper persons were ap-
pointed to attend to each bridge, to keep it in repair,
and to assist passengers.”

Grorcr. “ Almostas clevera contrivance as the
bridge of the present day, although neither so strong

nor durable. They were a persevering people.”































282 COLUMBIA,

Emma. “The Gulf of Guayaquil is so called
from a river of this name which is famous for its
shifting sand-banks, on which as the water recedes
alligators are left in great numbers. The Bay of
Choco is on the same coast (Columbia), and is the
scene of continual storms. The greatest riches in
washed gold are deposited in the provinces of Cho
co. The largest piece found there weighed twenty-
five pounds ; but this country, so rich in gold, is at
the same time scourged with continual famine.”

GRanpy. “ Proving that gold is only valuable
as the means of procuring the necessaries of life,
and enabling its possessor to benefit his fellow-
creatures. ‘ Whoso seeth his brother have need,
and shutteth up his compassion, how dwelleth the
love of God inhim? The people here value not
the gold, for it is unable to buy them freedom from
the awful scourge.”

Dora. “Emma, the Bay of Choco is on the
coast of Granada, which, although it is a district of
Columbia, is large enough to be regarded with
some attention, particularly as it is actually one of
the three great divisions of Columbia.”

Cuarres. “Nearly in the same latitude, just
over the equator, are the Galapagos. They are
pretty islands: the cactus and aloe cover the sides
of the rocks. flamingoes and turtle-doves fill the air,
and the beach is covered with enormous turtle.
But no trace whatever indicates the residence of
man,and I believe no man has ever landed on
these lonely shores.”

Mrs, Witton. “Columbia abounds in stupendous

eee






CATCHING WILD-FOWL. 233

natural wonders ; amongst the rest are the natural
bridges of Iconongo, not far from Bogota; the fall
of Tequendama, the loftiest cataract ; and the Silla
de Caracas, the loftiest cliff yet discovered. The
climate is hot and unhealthy, and the country sub-
ject to earthquakes. It is inhabited by Indians,
Spaniards, and Negroes. The Caribs are the ruling
Indian tribe; they are tall, of a reddish copper-
color, with dark intelligent eyes, and a grave ex-
pression of features. They raise the flesh of their
legs and thighs in long stripes, and shave most of
the hair from their heads, but do not flatten the
forehead, as is customary with the other tribes
along the Orinoco. Columbia is a country of great
natural riches, but suffered to lie for the most part
waste, for the people are naturally indolent; and
Captain Hall remarks, that tie Columbian who
can eat beef and plantains, and smoke cigars as he
swings in his hammock, is possessed of almost
everything his habits qualify him to enjoy, or
which his ambition prompts him to attain.”

Me. Barraup. “ Along this coast many of the
inhabitants subsist as fishermen; and the Indians
of Cartago have a singular method of catching
wild-fowl, which may here be noticed :—They leave
calabashes continually floating on the water that
the birds may be accustomed to the sight of them.
When they wish to catch any of these wild-fow],
they go into the water with their heads covered
each with a calabash, in which they make two
holes for seeing through; they then swim towards
the birds, throwing a handful of maize on the
20*
234 THE TWO OCEANS.

water from time to time, the grains of which
scatter on the surface. The birds approach to feed
on the maize, and at the moment the swimmer
seizes them by the feet, pulls them under water,
and wrings their necks before they can make the
least movement, or, by their noise, spread an alarm
among the flock. Many families are supported in
this way by disposing of the birds thus caught at
a low price in the markets.”

Emma. “The next bay is Panama, in which
are the Gulf of St. Michael and Gulf of Parita.
There are several islands here, but the largest is
Rey Isle. The Gulf of Dolce runs into Costa Rica,
and so does the Gulf of Nicoya: and the little bays
about here must not detain us.”

Mrs. Witton. “San José is the capital of Costa
Rica. There are no fine buildings in this city, and
the churches are inferior to many erected by the
Spaniards in the smallest villages. Nevertheless,
the whole place exhibits a business like appearance,
much more so than most cities in this lethargic
part of the world. In Costa Rica is a voleanic
mountain, Cartago (now quiet), from the top of
which the traveller can view the Alantic and
Pacific Oceans at one glance. In a right line over
the tops of the mountains, neither is more than
twenty miles distant, and from the great height
from which they are seen they appear to be almost
at the traveller’s feet. It is the only point in
the world which commands a view of the two
Oceans.”

Granpy. “I remember a touching description


A SINGULAR FUNERAL. 235

of a funeral in San José, which will not be out of
place here:—

«While Mr. Stephens (the author of several
delightful books) was standing in a corridor of his
friend’s house, a man passed with a child in his
arms. He was its father, and with a smile on his
face was carrying it to its grave. He was followed
by two boys playing on violins, and others were
laughing around. The child was dressed in white,
with a wreath of roses around its head; and as it
lay in its father’s arms, it did not seem dead but
sleeping. The grave was not quite ready, and the
boys sat on the heap of dirt thrown out, and played
their violins until it was finished. The father then
laid the child carefully in its final resting-place,
with its head to the rising sun, folded its little
hands across its breast, and closed its fingers
around a small wooden crucifix; and it seemed, as
they thought it was, happy at escaping the troubles
of an uncertain world. There were no tears shed ;
on the contrary, all were cheerful; and though it
appeared heartless, it was not because the father
did not love his child, but because he and all his
friends had been taught to believe, and were firm
in the conviction, that, taken away so young, it
was transferred immediately to a better world. The
father sprinkled a handful of dirt over its face ;
the grave-digger took his shovel; in a few moments
the little grave was filled up, and, preceded by the
boys playing on their violins, they departed.’ ”

Mrs. Witton. “There is a spirit of thankful-
ness evinced in that father’s conduct which requires

To i fin 5 Aig Se cn ia
236 MAGELLAN,

great faith. I fear none of us would be found to
possess as much under such a trial, for the spirit is,
unhappily, at most times under the dominion of the
flesh.”

Grorce. “Is not Papagayo Bay close to the
Lake of Nicaragua 2?”

Emma. “It is only divided from the Ocean by
a portion of the district of Nicaragua. It is a great
lake, ninety-five miles long. and thirty broad, and is
navigable for ships of the largest class.”

Dora. “It is covered with beautiful and popu-
lous islands, and two of them—viz. Tsola and Ma-
deira —contain burning mountains. The largest
volcano—Omotepeque—always continues burning,
and reminds one of Mount Etna rising from the
water's edge, a smooth unbroken cone to the height
of nearly 1000 feet. The waters of this lake de-
scend by the river St. John towards the Atlantic ;
but there is no outlet into the Pacific Ocean.”

Grorce. “T should like to know why the Pa-
cific is so called 2”

Cuartes. “T can tell you, George. In the
year 1520, when Magellan was on his way to the
Spice Islands (the Moluccas, you know), he and
the crew suffered dreadful privations: they were
nearly four months at sea without discovering
land. Their stock of provisions was almost ex-
hausted, the water became putrid, and in conse-
quence the poor men were attacked with that horri-
ble disease the scurvy. The only source of con-
solation, under these troubles, was the uninterrupt-
ed fair weather they enjoyed, and the favorable
Qype

/ >

\
a

=
=

=

AA
Fe
BZ’

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Pp 237.

THE EARTHQUAKE
—




GUATEMALA. 237

winds which wafted them gently onward ; so that
Magellan was induced to call the Ocean Pacific:
hence the origin of its name.”

Georce. “ Thank you, Charles. How pleasant
it is to get all the information we require, without
the trouble of searching in great dusty books.
Now, Emma, will it please you to travel onward 2”

Emma. “ What, George! Have you, too, caught
the mania, that you are in such a hurry to get to
California ?”

Georce. “ Not to go gold-hunting, indeed ; but
the Rocky Mountains are up in the north, and I
have a story about them.”

Emma. “ Well, to oblige you and ourselves too,
we will proceed. The Gulfs of Fonseca and Con-
chagua are deep indentations, about the middle of
the coast of Guatemala, to which country Costa
Rica belongs.”

Mrs. Wirtox. “The city of Guatemala was
founded in 1776. It is situated on table-land, 5000
feet above the sea and enjoys a delicious climate,—
literally, a perpetual spring. Beautiful churches
and buildings adorn this city; but the houses are
built only one story high, in order more effectually
to resist the action of earthquakes ; for you must
know this city has close to it two burning moun-
tains —Fuego and Agua, which prove the volcanic
nature of the earth. Among all the phenomena of
nature few appear to be attended with such horri-
ble consequences as earthquakes. Thousands, who
in one moment are full of busy life, are, the next,
swallowed up as if they had never existed, or


238 LADIES SMOKING.

crushed to death by fragments of falling buildings.
In s¢x minutes, by the great earthquake of Lisbon,
in 1755, sixty thousand souls were launched into
eternity ; and though none in this city have equalled
in destructiveness the great one at Lisbon, yet
Guatemala has been several times nearly destroyed
by earthquakes, combined with the eruptions of the
neighboring volcanoes.”

Mr. Barraup. “The inhabitants are mostly of
Spanish origin ; consequently, mostly Roman Cath-
olics; and a recent traveller says that from the
moment of his arrival, he was struck with the de-
vout appearance of the city of Guatemala. At
matins and vespers, the churches were all open, and
the people, particularly the women, went regularly
to prayers. very house had its figure of the Vir-
gin, the Saviour, or some tutelary saint, and on the
door were billets of paper with prayers. You will
be surprised to hear that nearly all the ladies in
Central Americasmoke. The married ladies smoke
puros, or all tobacco; the unmarried ladies smoke
cigars, or tobacco wrapped in paper or straw.”

Dora. “What an odd indulgence for a lady !
In England, ladies never smoke; although I must
say I have often seen poor women with pipes in
their mouths, and thought what a dirty habit it
was.”

Mrs. Witton. “It is the custom of the country,
and were you a Spanish lady, Dora, I have no
doubt you would enjoy a cigar as much as any of
the sefioritas. We shall next see the shore of Mex-
ico. What gulfs must we pass to accomplish this ?”
CALIFORNIA. 239

Emma. “ Only the Gulf of Tehuantepec which
is worth noticing.”

Mrs. Witton. “ Mexico has been travelled over
already ; so we will pass on to the Gulf of California.”

Grorce. “But is there not a place called New
Mexico ?”

Dora. “ Yes, but not near the coast: however,
I will tell you all I know about it. It is mostly
inhabited by Christian Indians, of whom there are
no fewer than thirty villages. They are of various
tribes, but all trained to industrial habits, and are
in every respect a worthy set of people. Their
clothing is the skin of wild goats; their women
wear mantles of cotton or wool. Their mode of
travelling is on horseback, and the only access to
their huts, which are square, with open galleries on
the top, is by a ladder, which is removed during
the night.”

Cuaries. “ Robinson Crusoe fashion, I pre-
sume ?”

Dora. “Exactly. ‘Now we are in front of the
entrance to San Francisco Bay. The mountains on
the northern side are 3000 feet in height, and come
boldly down to thesea. As the view opens through
the splendid strait, three or four miles in width, the
island rock of Alcatraz appears, gleaming white in
the distance. At last we are through the Golden
Gate—fit name for such a magnificent portal to the
commerce of the Pacific. The Bay is crowded
with the shipping of the world, and the flags of all
nations are fluttering in the breeze.’* Before us

* J. Bayard Taylor's ‘ Eldorado.’


ee.

240 CALIFORNIA,

lies the grand emporium of the Gold Region—a
city which has well nigh realized the extravagance
of the Arabian Nights Entertainments. As if by
the touch of a magic wand, what was five years ago
a little Indian village is now a large and flourish-
ing city, which is increasing at a prodigious rate.
From every nation and people and clime, emigrants
have been pressing to it in pursuit of the precious
metal. The golden sands of California, with their
brilliant glitter, have attracted thousands upon thou-
sands from every land—and there is now arising
on the far distant shores of the Pacific a great
Empire destined to exert a mighty influence in the
affairs of the world. The glowing prospect which
the success of the first adventurers had created, soon
drew to her shores the energy and enterprise of the
nations of both Kurope and America. ‘ Around
the curving shore of the Bay and upon the sides
of three hills, which rise steeply from the water,
the middle one receding so as to form a_ bold
amphitheatre, the town is planted and seems scarcely
yet to have taken root, for tents, canvass, plank,
mud and adobe houses are mingled together with
the least apparent attempt at order and durability.’
However, the appearance of the city is fast im-
proving—for churches and schools and public build-
ings are springing up on every side, and substantial
edifices are fast taking the place of the more tem-
porary erections. ‘The sudden rush of so many
people to one point, and many of them poorly pro-
vided, combined with the abundance of the gold,

caused provision, rents, and labor to rise to enor-




es ee ee eee re









CALIFORNIA.

mous prices. A tent for instance, called Eldorado,
fifteen by twenty feet, occupied mostly by gamblers
brought the enormous yearly rent of $40,000.
‘Miners’ Bank,’ used by Wright & Co., brokers,
about half the size of a fire-engine house, was held
at a rent of $75,000. A gentleman who wished to
find a law office, was shown a cellar in the earth,
about twelve feet square and six feet deep, which
he could have at $250 per month. One of the
common soldiers at the battle of San Pasquale
was reputed to be among the millionaires of the
place, and had an income of fifty thousand dollars
monthly.

“ The prices paid for labor were in proportion to
everything else. The carman of Mellus Howard
& Co., had a salary of $6000 a year, and many
others made from fifteen to twenty dollars daily.
Servants were paid froma hundred to two hundred
dollars a month. This state of things, as might
have been expected, did not long continue, for all
things soon find their level, and the rapid importa-
tion of produce, materials and laborers, had soon
the effect of lowering the prices to a fair and ordi-
nary scale.

“ California territory belongs to the United States
of North America, and will, doubtless, in a short
time, form several distinct states in that already
powerful confederacy.” | |

Mr. Witton. « Now, George, we have arrived
at the Gulf of Georgia ;—you will not have very
far to travel to the Rocky Mountains.”

Cuartes. “The Gulf of Georgia is very consid-







242 NOOTKA SOUND.

erable: it divides Quadra or Vancouver’s Island
from the continent, and communicates with the
Pacific to the south by Claaset’s Straits, and to the
north by Queen Charlotte's Sound. Quadra is a
large island, and I think better known by the name
of Nootka Sound, which is at the south end of the
island, and contains an English establishment.”
Mrs. Witton. “The natives of Nootka Sound
are not an interesting people, and are greatly infe-
rior to the other tribes inhabiting the continent.
They are short, plain-looking people, not unlike the
Esquimaux. Their ordinary dress consists of a
mantle edged with fur at the top, and fringed at the
bottom, which is made out of the bark of the pine,
beaten into fibres. Their food is mostly drawn
from the sea. Large stores of fish are dried and
smoked, and the roes, prepared like caviare, form
their winter bread. They drink fish-oil, and mix
it with their food. The women go fishing occa-
sionally, and are as skilful as the men ; but their
usual occupation is within doors, preparing the fab-
ric of which their garments are composed. Cap-
tain Cook, in speaking of their houses, says: ‘ They
are #s filthy as hog-sties,—everything in and about
them stinking of fish, train-oil, and smoke.’”
Grorce. “I shall have to travel upwards of 600
miles to tell my story; but, as truth is worth seek-
ing, I do not mind the trouble : so here it is :—



























BOONE AND THE BEAR.

Story of Boone and the Bear.



« A young man named Boone, son of the mighty
American hunter, made a settling amongst the
Rocky Mountains, and when his hut was erected
he used to leave it for days, out on hunting expedi-
tions. One night, after returning from one of these
enterprises, he retired to rest on his solitary pallet.
The heat was intense, and, as usual in these coun-
tries during summer, he had left his door wide open.
_ It was about midnight, when he was awakened by
| the noise of something tumbling in the room: he
' rose in a moment. and hearing a short and heavy
| breathing, he asked who it was, for the darkness
| was such that he could not see two yards before
him. No answer being given, except a kind of
halfsmothered grunt, he advanced,—and, putting
out his hand, he seized the shaggy coat of a Bear !
Surprise rendered him motionless ; and the animal,
| giving him a blow on the chest with his terrible
| paw, threw him down outside the door. Boone
could have escaped, but, maddened with the pain
of his fall, he only thought of vengeance,—and,
seizing his knife and tomahawk, which were fortu-
nately within his reach, he darted furiously at the
beast, dealing blows at random. Great as was his
strength, his tomahawk could not penetrate through
the thick coat of the animal, which, having encircled
the body of his assailant with his paws, was press-
ing him in one of those deadly embraces which
| could only have been resisted by a giant like Boone

a

tee ee ee sitll, 3 Lt ah sai Be




944 BOONE AND THE BEAR.

(who was six feet nine inches in height and propor-
tionably strong). Fortunately, the Black bear, un-
like the Grizzly, very seldom uses his claws and
teeth in fighting, contenting himself with smother-
ing his victim. Boone disentangled his left arm,
and with his knife dealt a furious blow upon the
snout of the animal, which, smarting with pain, re-
leased his hold. The snout is the only vulnerable
part in an old black bear. Even at forty yards, the
ball of a rifle will flatten against his skull, and if
in any other part of the body it will scarcely pro-
duce any serious effect. Boone, aware of this, and
not daring to risk another hug, darted away from
the cabin. The bear, now quite angry, followed
and overtook him near the fence. Fortunately, the
clouds were clearing away, and the moon threw
light sufficient to enable the hunter to strike with
a more certain aim: he found also on the ground
one of the rails, made of the blue ash, very heavy,
and ten feet in length; he dropped his knife and
tomahawk, and, seizing the rail, he renewed the
fight with caution, for it had now becomea struggle
for life or death.

“Had it been a bull or a panther, they would
have had their bones shivered to pieces by the tre-
mendous blows which Boone dealt upon his adver-
sary with all the strength of despair; but Bruin is
by nature an admirable fencer, and, in spite of his
unwieldy shape, there is not in the world an ani-
mal whose motions are more rapid in a close en-
counter. Once or twice he was knocked down by
the force of the blows, but generally he would par-






BOONE AND THE BEAR. 245

ry them witha wonderful agility. At last he suc-
ceeded in seizing the other end of the rail, and drag-
ged it towards him with irresistible force. Both
man and beast fell, Boone rolling to the place
where he had dropped his arms, while the bear ad-
vanced upon him. The moment was a critical one ;
but Boone was accustomed to look at and brave
death under every shape,—and, with a steady hand,
he buried the tomahawk in the snout of his enemy,
and, turning round, he rushed to his cabin, believ-
ing he would have time to secure the door. He
closed the latch, and applied his shoulders to it; but
it was of no avail: the terrible brute dashed in head
foremost, and tumbled into the room, with Boone
and the fragments of the door. The two foes rose
and stared at each other. Boone had nothing left
but his knife; but Bruin was tottering and un-
steady, and Boone felt that the match was more
equal. Once more they closed.

“ A few hours after sunrise a friend called at the
hut,—and, to his horror, found Boone apparently
lifeless on the floor, and alongside of him the body
of the bear. Boone soon recovered, and found that
the timely blow which had saved him from being
crushed to death had buried the whole blade of his
knife through the left eye, in the very brain of the
huge animal.”

Cuartes. “That is a spirited story, and very
well told, George. I should not like to have been
Mr. Boone in such a situation, although he was a
‘mighty hunter;’ a bear is an ugly animal to em-
brace.”
21°






ee Le Fe et See ee ae



246 CLEVELAND AND THE INFANT.

Dora. “Yes; and, lest we should meet with
any, we will leave the Rocky Mountains, and go
on to the north of Quadra, where are situated King
George’s Archipelago and the Admiralty Isles.
The inhabitants of the former bear some resem-
blance to the Esquimaux. The women wear an
extraordinary kind of ornament, which gives them
the appearance of having two mouths: it consists of
a small piece of wood, which they force into the
flesh below the under lip.”

Mr. Barraup. “Those are Norfolk Sound peo-
ple; but they are a kindly race, notwithstanding
their outrageous customs; and, to show you how
readily they are affected for good or evil, I will re-
late a circumstance which happened when Captain
Cleveland was trading with them. A canoe con-
taining eleven persons went alongside his vessel, and
raised the screens at the port-holes, to look in on the
deck. Before the captain had time tospeak to them,
the cook (either by accident or design) threw a
ladleful of hot water over them, which causing an
involuntary and sudden motion of their bodies to
the other side of the boat, immediately upset, and
all were immersed in the water. The confusion
was then very great,—as those who at the time
were under the stern, engaged in. traffic, fearing
some treachery, made haste to paddle away, with-
out regarding the distress of their comrades. All
of these, however, appeared to be capable of taking
care of themselves; excepting an infant of about a
year old, whose struggles being observed by one of
the mates, he jumped overboard and saved it. The








UNITED STATES’ NAVY. 247

weather was very raw and chilly: the captain had
the child dried and warmed by the fire, then wrap-
ped it in a blanket, gave it a piece of sugar, and re-
turned it to its parents, who were exceedingly
pleased and grateful; and, as soon as all had re-
covered from the effects of their immersion, their
business (which was trading for skins of various
kinds) was conducted throughout the day to the
mutual satisfaction of all parties.”

Mr. Wutron. “As these islands are near the
coast of Columbia, I wish to inform you that here
there is an excellent harbor and a navy yard, to
which ships of the largest tonnage may ascend.
The yard covers a space of thirty-seven acres, and
in it are made nearly all the anchors, cables, and
blocks required for the service of the United States’
Navy, which, although inconsiderable in point of
numerical strength, is perhaps the best organized
and most effective in the world. The unexpected
success of their frigates in contests with British ves-
sels of the same class has established the reputa-
tion of the American navy for skill and prowess
in the eyes of Europe; and the United States, with
comparatively few ships, already rank high as a
naval power.”

Emma. “We now pass Admiralty Bay, go through
Cook’s Inlet, out by the Straits of Chilogoff, round
by the Aleutian Isles into Bristol Bay.”

Mrs. Witox. “The Aleutian Isles are very
numerous, principally volcanic: the three largest
are Bhering’s, Attoo, and Onolaska. The natives
are of a dark brown complexion, and the women









248 CANNIBALS.

disfigure themselves by cutting an aperture in the
under lip, to which various trinkets are suspended.
Their subsistence is principally obtained by hunt-
ing and fishing. The seal is particularly valuable
to them, affording a constant supply of food and
clothing. Their dwellings are spacious excavations
in the earth, roofed over with turf, as many as 150
individuals sometimes residing in the different di-
visions.”

GreorGe. “ Must we go through Bhering’s Straits:
they will take us into such very cold regions 2”

Ewa. “ We must not mind the cold if we can
learn anything by going; but, as you are afraid of
venturing so far, we will leave you at Point Hope,
while we make our way to Point Barrow.”

Cuaries. “Appear not at Point Hope, George;
for if you do, you must never hope to see us again.
Do you know that the Indians who live in the
mountains not far from the Point are cannibals,
and would seize you for a delicious morsel? They
are not at all particular folks; and when there isa
scarcity of food among them, they cast lots for vic-
tims, and eat their relations without the slightest
remorse.”

Mr. Barravp. “The fierce and savage propen-
sities of these mountain Indians have been circum-
stantially described by an old man, who, while yeta
stripling, fled from the tribe, and joined himself to
another tribe called Dog Ribs, in consequence of
his finding his mother, on his return from a suc-
cessful day’s hunting, employed in roasting the
body of her own child, his voungest brother !”











KAMTSCHATKA. 2



Mrs. Witton. “Oh! horrible! Let us quit
this savage Point, and see what Point Barrow re-
sembles.”

Me. Witton.. “It is a long spit of land com-
posed of sand and gravel. When Captain Simpson
was on an exploring expedition in the Polar Seas,
he landed there, and one of the first objects that
presented itself was an immense cemetery. There,
the miserable remnants of humanity lay on the
ground, in the seal-skin dresses worn when alive.
A few were covered with an old sledge, or some
pieces of wood, but far the greater number were
exposed to the voracity of dogs and wild animals.
The inhabitants of this Point are Esquimaux.”

Emma. “Bhering’s Straits divide the Old from
the New Continent, and the water to the south be-
yond the Gulf of Anadir is called Bhering’s or
Kamtschatka Sea, and washes the shores of Kamt-
schatka.”

Mrs. Witton. “Kamtschatka is a portion of
Asia, about the same size as Great Britain. It is
a cold, foggy country, and subject to sudden storms
of snow and sleet, which the natives call ‘ poorgas,’
and when overtaken by one they do not attempt to
travel through it, but suffer the snow to bury them
and their dogs, and as soon as it is over, they ex-
tricate themselves as well as they can. The natives
comprising the two tribes of the Kamtschatdales
and Koriaks differ principally in their mode of life.
They are all of low stature, and not remarkable
for their beauty. They are shy, averse to strangers,

but honest, and extremely hospitable. They dwell







eo ee ee ee ee

a

250 POLYNESIA.

in fixed habitations, although hunters and fishers;
but their dwellings are low, comfortless, and filthy,
sunk in the ground in the winter months, and rais-
ed on posts during summer to facilitate the curing
of fish, which are hung up on lines to dry. In
travelling, they use dogs harnessed to a sledge in-
stead of horses.’

Dora. “We are now to leave the coasts, and
sail about in search of the islands in the Pacific
Ocean; and, as we happen to be above the equator, we
can more conveniently see those of the North Paci-
fic. We have each selected our favorite isles for
description, and Charles is at the head of the cata-
logue.”

Mrs. Witton. “To make our remarks better
understood, we will, like scientific geographers,
class all these islands under the head of Poly-
nesia, for the term is applied to the numerous
groups, both above and below the equator, in the
Pacific Ocean. The equator forming a dividing
line between North and South Polynesia. Sir
Francis Drake was the first English captain to
whom appertained the honor of sailing on the Pa-
cific Ocean.

“*The fair breeze blew, the white foam flew,
The furrow followed free ;
He was the first that ever burst
Into that silent sea.’ ”’*

Cuartes, “The Sandwich Islands appear to
me one of the most interesting groups, although

* Coleridge
THE SANDWICH ISLANDS. 251

the most isolated of all in North Polynesia. They
are ten in number,—eight inhabited,—and were
named by their discoverer, Captain Cook, in honor
of the Earl of Sandwich, a minister who had warmly
promoted his labors. The island of Owyhee, or
more properly Hawaii, is the largest, being 415
miles in circumference. It obtained a celebrity, as
the scene of Captain Cook’s death, who was killed
by the natives on the 14th of February, 1779. A
celebrity of a different kind now awaits it, as the
focus of civilization in Polynesia. The inhabitants
have, with the assistance of the English and Ammer-
icans, built twenty merchant-ships, with which they
perform voyages to the north-west coast of Ameri-
ca, and even visit Canton. They used to sacrifice
human victims, but were never cannibals; they
tattoo their bodies, and the women tattoo the tips
of their tongues. Hawaii contains a tremendous vol-
cano, the top of which is 16,000 feet above the level
of the sea. The whole island, indeed, is one com-
plete mass of lava. Christianity was introduced
by the American missionaries in 1820, and is now
the religion of the state. Schools have been es-
tablished, and churches built. Honoruru, in the
Island of Cahu, is the capital of the group. Some
of the houses are built of stone; but the natives
still prefer living in their huts, so that the town is
grotesquely irregular. The principal public build-
ing is the English school, where children of both
sexes are taught to read and write. The place is
altogether in a flourishing condition, and so ad-
vanced in the refinements of life, that the news-
[2520S caPTAIN coor. =

APTAIN COOK.

paper, lately established in the town, sets forth the
following articles for sale:—‘ Ladies’ shoes from
Paris, Ices, and Eau de Cologne.’ ”

Granpy. “Itis a great cause for thankfulness,
that religion is spreading her benign influence over
these volcanic isles. The women who, truly speak-
ing, were the most callous and obdurate, have ex-
hibited bright and numerous proofs of that change
of heart, which is the single end and aim of pure
Christianity. Kekupuhe, who in Cook’s days was
one of the wives of the king of Hawaii, evinced the
sincerity of her conversion, which took place in
1828, by learning to read when she was more than
eighty years of age, and by inditing hymns in
honor of the God of her o'd age.”

Grorae. “I cannot understand why they killed
Captain Cook; and I have never read the account
of his first visit to the Sandwich Islands: have you,
Charles ?”

Cuarces. “ Yes, and a very interesting account
it is. On the first appearance of the English ships,
the chiefs and priests, taking them for floating
islands, imagined that their long-expected guardian
spirit, ‘Etuah Orono, was arrived. Hence Cap-
tain Cook was received with honor approaching
to adoration, as they imagined him to be their
‘Orono.’ The king was absent at the time of his
arrival; but the chief priest and his son received
the captain. Scarcely were the ships anchored,
when a priest went on board, and decorating Cook
with a red cloth, such as adorned their deities, of-

fered him a pig in the manner of a sacrifice, and




























Ah. pian eee AAA ALITA LALA

DEATH OF CAPTAIN COOK. 253

pronounced along harangue. They chanted hymns
before him, and priests, bearing wands, preceded
him on his landing, while the inhabitants prostrated
themselves on the ground, as he walked from the
beach to the village.”

Greorce. “ But if they held him in such rever-
ence, how was it they killed him ?”

Mr. Witton. “His own imprudence brought
about his melancholy end. Some time after his
arrival, it appears, that one of his smaller boats
was stolen by some of the natives, for the sake of
the nails in her, and was broken up the very night
it was stolen. Captain Cook, angry at losing his
boat, attempted to get the king on board his ship,
to confine him there, until the boat should be re-
stored. This caused a tumult, and in the tumult,
Captain Cook was slain. There certainly was no
malice in the case,—not the slightest intention of
injuring him; and his body was treated in the same
manner as those of their own chiefs, the bones be-
ing assigned to different Eries (chiefs), who, either
from affection, or from an idea of good luck attend-
ing them, desired to preserve them. Long alter
Captain Cook’s death, the natives believed he would
re-appear, and perhaps punish them for their breach
of hospitality.”

Mr. Barravup. “They are a most interesting
people; and, to prove to you how they have ad-
vanced in civilization, I will give you two instances
of their mode of living and taking their meals.
Forty years ago, the Rev. Mr. Stewart, being then

on a mission, visited a chief, and, when he entered
92,



OP OR Oe te
254 A CONTRAST.

the apartment, one of his queens was seated on the
ground a la Turc, with a large wooden tray in her
lap. Upon this a monstrous cuttle-fish had just
been placed, fresh from the sea, and in all its life
and vigor. The queen had taken it up with both
hands, and brought its body to her mouth, and, by
a single application of her teeth, the black blood
with which it was filled gushed over her face and
neck, while the long sucking arms of the fish, in
the convulsive paroxysm of the operation, were
twisting and writhing about her head, like the
snaky hairs of a Medusa. Occupied as both hands
were, she could only give her visitor a nod. Mr.
Stewart remarks, ‘It was the first time I had seen
her Majesty, and I soon took my departure, leaving
her, as I found her, in the full enjoyment of her
luxurious luncheon.’ Now,—observe the contrast.
In 1841, Sir George Simpson and friends visited a
chief. They were received in an immense apart-
ment: several white persons were there to meet
them: all the rules of etiquette were observed on
going to table. The chiefs were all handsomely
attired, their clothes fitting to a hair’s breadth, for
they had imported a tailor from England to make
them. The dining-room was handsomely fur-
nished, and lighted with elegant lamps. The dinner
was excellent, with fine pastry and preserves from
every country, and the glass and plate on the table
would have been admired even in a London man-
sion. ‘The chiefs, especially the host, were men of
excellent address, and, adds Sir George Simpson,
‘we soon forgot that we were sipping our coffee in
ADVENTURE OF KAPIOLANI. 255

a country which is deemed uncivilized, and among
individuals who are classed with savages. There

-were but few incongruities in the course of the

evening’s entertainment, such as could at all mar
the effect, excepting that one of the chiefs frequently
inquired, with much solicitude, whether or not we
thought his whiskers handsome.’ In conclusion, he
says, ‘After chatting a good deal, and smoking a
few cigars, we took our leave, highly gratified with
the hospitality and courtesy of the governor and his
friends.’ ”

Dora. “It must have been a work of time to
convert these people; for their belief in the power
of their idols was so strong, and had been preserved
through so many generations.”

Granpy. “The work was of God, my dear, and
he made it to prosper. Civilization once introduced,
the way to Christianity was paved ; and the chiefs
with their wives setting the example, the mission
was soon full of hopes for the future. The great
women of the islands, when converted themselves,
endeavored to propagate the truths of the Gospel ;
and amongst them, one of the most justly celebrated
Christians was Kapiolani. She wished to unde-
ceive the natives concerning their false gods; and
knowing in what veneration Peli, the goddess of
the volcano, was held, she detetermined to climb
the mountain, descend into the crater, and by thus
braving the volcanic deities in their very homes,
convince the inhabitants that God is God alone, and
that the false and subordinate deities existed only
in the fancies of their ignorant adorers. Thus de-

me sia

owe

2" es ee ‘s Ja
256 ADVENTURE OF KAPIOLANI

termined, and accompanied by a missionary, she,
with part of her family. and a number of followers,
both of her own vassals, and those of other chiefs,
ascended Peli. At the edge of the first precipice
that bounds the sunken plain, many of her follow-
ers and companions lost courage and turned back :
at the second, the rest earnestly entreated her to de-
sist from her dangerous enterprise, and forbear to
tempt the powerful gods of the fires. But she pro-
ceeded ; and, on the very verge of the crater, caused
a hut to be constructed for herself and people. Here
she was assailed anew by their entreaties to return
home; and their assurances, that, if she persisted
in violating the dwellings of the goddess, she would
draw on herself, and those with her, certain destruc-
tion. Her answer was noble :-—‘I will descend
into the crater, said she; ‘and if I do not return
safe, then continue you to worship Peli; but, if I
come back unhurt, you must learn to adore the God
who created Peli.’ She accordingly went down the
steep and difficult side of the crater, accompanied
by a missionary, and by some whom love or duty
induced to follow her. Arrived at the bottom, she
thrust a stick into the liquid lava, and stirred the
ashes of the burning lake. The charm of supersti-
tion was at that moment broken. Those who had
expected to see the goddess, armed with flames and
sulphurous smoke, burst forth and destroy the dar-
ing heroine who thus braved her, in her very sanc-
tuary, were awe-struck when they saw the fire re-
main innocuous, and the flames roll harmless, as
though none were present. They acknowledged
A DELIGHTFUL ANECDOTE. 5
the greatness of the God of Kapiolani; and from

_




257

that time few indeed have been the offerings, and
little the reverence paid to the fires of Peli.”
Cuarces. “ What delightful anecdotes concern-
ing my island! but I have one reserved for the
conclusion, which illustrates the truth of the asser-
tion, that the women of the Sandwich Islands are
superior to the men in many exercises requiring
skill, and also in their powers of endurance. The
latter quality may, I believe, be fairly adjudged to
the women of all countries. ‘A man and his wife,
both Christians, were passengers in a schooner,
which foundered at a considerable distance from
the land. All the natives on board promptly took
refuge in the sea; and the man in question, who
had just celebrated divine service in the ill-fated
vessel, called his fellows (some of them being con-
verts as well as himself) around him, to offer up
another tribute of praise and supplication from the
deep; exhorting them, with a combination of cour-
age and humility rarely equalled, to worship God
in that universal temple, under whose restless
pavement he and most of his hearers were destined
to find their graves. It was done: they called on
God from the midst of the waves, and then each
struggled to save the life they valued. The man
and his wife had each succeeded in procuring the
support of a covered bucket by way of a buoy ; and
away they struck with the rest for Kahoolawe,
finding themselves next morning alone in the
ocean, after a whole afternoon and night of priva-
tion and toil. To aggravate their misfortunes, the


258 A DELIGHTFUL ANECDOTE.

wife’s bucket went to pieces soon after daylight, so
that she had to make the best of her way without
assistance or relief; and, in the course of the
second afternoon, the man became too weak to pro-
ceed ; till his wife, to a certain extent, restored his
strength by shampooning him in the water. They
had now Kahoolawe in full view, after having been
about four-and-twenty hours on their dreary voy-
age. In spite, however, of the cheering sight, the
man again fell into such a state of exhaustion, that
the woman took his bucket for herself, giving him
at the same time the hair of her head as a towing-
line ; and, when even this exertion proved too much
for him, the faithful creature, after trying in vain
to rouse him to prayer, took his arms round her
neck, holding them together with one hand, and
making with the other for the shore When a very
trifling distance remained to be accomplished, she
discovered that he was dead, and dropping his
corpse she reached the land before night, having
swam upwards of twenty-five miles during an ex-
posure of thirty hours! The only means of resting
from her fatigue being by floating on the top of the
water.”

Mr. Witton. “ Very good, Charles; but if our
notes of all the other islands in Polynesia be as
extensive as those of the Sandwich Isles, I fear
we shall not cross the equator before midnight.”

Emma. “TIT can soon quiet your fears, dear papa;
for the description of the remaining isles in North
Polynesia rests with the elder members, and of course
they are at liberty to abridge them if they please.”






SPANISH MISSIONARIES. 259





Mr. Witton. “In that case I will undertake
to run over the Ladrones, sometimes called the
Marianne Isles. There are twenty of them ; but
only five are inhabited, and they lie in the south
extremity of the cluster. They are so close to-
gether, and so broken and irregular in their form
and position, as to appear like fragments disjointed
from each other, at remote periods, by some sudden
convulsion of nature. The coasts consist for the
most part of dark brown rocks, honey-combed in
many places by the action of the waves. The
islands are fertile, abounding in hogs, cattle, horses,
mules, and many other agreeable things; while in
order that, like other countries in this sublunary
world, they may lay claim to a portion of disagree-
ables, they are infested with mosquitoes and end-
less varieties of loathsome insects; and the fish
that are found around the coasts are not fit for food.
So much for the country—now for the natives:—
They are tall, robust, and active; the men wear
scarcely any covering, and the women only a petti-
coat of matting. Both sexes stain their teeth black,
and many of them tattoo their bodies. The La-
drone Islands were originally discovered by Magel-
lan, who called them ‘las Islas de las Ladrones,’ or
the islands of thieves; because the Indians stole
everything made of iron within their reach. At
the latter end of the seventeenth century, they ob-
tained the name of Marianne from the Queen of
Spain, who sent missionaries thither to propagate
the Christian religion. Guajan is the largest island
of the group. Near the Ladrones lies the famous

=





260 PHILIPPINE ISLANDS.

pyramidal rock called ‘ Lot's wife.’ A sea neither
broken nor interrupted for an immense space
in all directions, here dashes with sublime vio-
lence on the solid mass which rises almost per-
pendicularly to a height of 350 feet. On the south-
east side is a deep cavern, where the waves resound
with a prodigious noise.”

Mr. Barravp. “The Philippine Isles fall to my
share. They are, correctly speaking, in the Kast-
ern Archipelago. Luzon, the most northerly, is
the largest: it is a long narrow island, and, like all
the others, abounding in volcanoes. Gold, iron,
and copper have been found in the mountains, and
rock salt is so abundant in some parts as to be
an article of export. These islands are exceedingly
mountainous and fertile, but from the large swamps
are very unhealthy. There are no beasts of prey,
but numerous herds of cattle; the inhabitants,
however, are too indolent to profit by these gifts of
nature; they are actually too idle to make their
cow’s milk into butter, and throughout the islands
use hog’s lard instead, because they will not be at
the trouble of keeping and milking the cows.
Rice is the chief support of the population. Sugar,
coffee, and many other delightful things grow
here, and cotton shrubs thrive well. Manilla is
the only port of trade in the Philippines: it is a
fortified city inhabited by people from all parts of
the world. This city is entered by six gates. The
streets have carriage ways and footpaths, and are
lighted at night. The houses are solidly cunstruct-
ed, but, on account of earthquakes, seldom more





THE PELEW ISLANDS. 261



than one story above the ground floor. Most of
the houses are furnished with balconies and veran-
dahs ; the place of glass in the windows is supplied
by thin semi-transparent pieces of shell, which
though more opaque repel heat better. In the
year 1762 Manilla was taken by the English; but
ransomed by Spain for 1,000 0002. sterling. There!
who can compete with my islands in value ?”

Mrs. Witton. “ Quantity must compensate for
the loss of quality. Here are the Caroline or New
Philippines,—forty-six groups of them, comprising
several hundred islands. A few of them are high,
rising in peaks, but by far the greater number are
merely volcanic formations. They were discovered
in 1686, by a Spaniard, who named them after
Charles II. of Spain. There are no hogs on these
islands, and the inhabitants subsist chiefly on fish.
They are reputed to be the most expert sailors and
fishermen in Polynesia; and, notwithstanding the
tremendous sea by which they are surrounded,
they have a considerable trading intercourse with
the Ladrone and many other islands.”

Grorcr. “Papa, it is your tura again.—Pelew
Isles.”

Mr. Witton. “They are chiefly known from
the accounts of Captain Wilson, who was wrecked
on them in 1783. He describes the inhabitants as
hospitable, friendly, and humane; and they are a
gay and comparatively innocent people ; but they
do not appear to have any form of religion, although
they conceive that the soul survives the body.
These islands are covered with close woods. Kb-




262 BIRDS OF PARADISE.

ony grows in the forests. Bread-fruit and cocoa-
nut trees are inabundance. Cattle, goats, poultry,
&c., have been sent there and thrive well. The
Pelews have a considerable trade with China.

“ Now it seems to me that we had better cross
the equator with all expedition, for there are so
many islands up here, we cannot possibly go to
all, and I think we have noticed the most impor-
tant.”

Dora. “South Polynesiathen. Papua or New
Guinea is my portion, and it happens to lie near
the Pelew Isles. It is supposed to be the first part
of Australia discovered by Europeans, and is the
favorite residence of the superb and singular birds
of paradise, of which there are ten or twelve kinds.
There are three kinds reckoned the most gorgeous -
viz., the King, which has two detached feathers
parallel to the tail, ending in an elegant curl with a
tuft: the Magnificent, which has also two detached
feathers of the same length with the body, very
slender, and ending in a tuft: the Golden Throat,
which has three long and straight feathers proceed-
ing from each side of the head. These birds are
considered the best, but they are all arrayed in bril-
liant colors, and all superbly magnificent. They
are caught chiefly in the Aroo Isles, either by means
of bird-lime, or shot with blunted arrows. After
being dried with smoke and sulphur, they are sold
for nuts or pieces of iron and carried to Bunda.”

Emma. “The New Hebrides are in my course,
but the Friendly Isles are allotted to me.”

| Mrs. Wirron. “Nevertheless, the New Heb-

—



~~






THE FRIENDLY ISLANDS. 268

rides claim a few words. They were discovered
in 1506, and so named by Captain Cook. They
are considerably hilly, and well clothed with tim-
der. The valleys are extremely abundant, pro-
ducing figs, nutmegs, and oranges, besides the fruits
common to the rest of Polynesia The inhabitants
present the most ugly specimen extant of the Pa-
puan race; the menwear no covering, and the wo-
men, who are used as mere beasts of burden ; wear
only a petticoat, made from the plantain leaf. Their
canoes are more rudely constructed than in most of
the other islands; and, on the whole, these people
seem to be among the most degraded of the island-
ers of the Pacific.”

Emma. “I should not like to live with such
people; therefore we will pass on to my Friendly
Islands. They are low and encircled by danger-
ous coral reefs; the soil is almost throughout ex-
ceedingly rich, producing with very little care, the
banana, bread-fruit,and yam. The population may
amount to about 90,000; but the ‘natives, though
favorably mentioned by Captain Cook, appear to
be as treacherous, savage, and superstitious as any
in the worst parts of Polynesia. The Wesleyan
Missionaries established themselves in these islands
in 1821, and are reported to have met with consid-
erable success. The leading island is that which
is called Tongataboo, or the ‘ consecrated island.’
The name is properly two words ‘Tonga Taboo,
signifying ‘Sacred Island,’ the reason of which ap-
pellative will appear, when | tell you that the priest
of this island, whose name was Diatonga, was rev-

tn

Fae ee ae Se ne ee Ee


aera

264 OTAHEITE.

erenced and resorted to by all the surrounding
islands. Earthquakes are very frequent here ; but
the islands display a spectacle of the most abun-
dant fertility. The foundations of this group are
coral rocks, and there is scarcely any other kind of
stone to be found. ‘Tongataboo has a large and
excellent harbor, which admits of being well forti-
fied.”

Granvy. “ You wisely passed the Feejees, Ein-
ma; and I will explain why I say wisely. They
have the reputation of being cannibals; but they
are industrious, and at times kindly ; and their
islands are tolerably fertile. A missionary ship
was nearly lost here, in broad daylight and calm
weather, by coming in contact with a reef, of which
no previous warning was presented. George, my
child, you are next; what have you selected for
your display ?”

Grorcre. “ The Society Islands, Grandy. They
consist of six large and several smaller islands.
The principal is called Otaheite, or more properly,
Tahiti ; which is often styled the ‘Queen of the Pa-
cific’? The whole circumference of this royal isle
is 180 miles; on all sides, rivers are seen descend-
ing in beautiful cascades, and the entire land is
clothed, from the water’s edge to its topmost heights
with continual verdure, which, for luxuriance and
picturesque effect, is certainly unparalleled.”

Cuarces. “ Excuse me interrupting you, George ;
but how do you contrive to remember all those long
words ?”





a







Mr. Wizton. “I have heard of honorable mem-
THE SOCIETY ISLANDERS. 265

bers being taken to task for ignorance, but never
for possessing superior abilities, and I suggest that
the learned member be allowed to proceed with his
account, without further interruption.”

Grorce. “ There, Charles, you are called to ‘ or-
der,’ and I hope you will not commit yourself again,
by trying to break the thread of my narrative.”

Cuartes. “Iam fullof contrition ; pray proceed,
and I trust you will find no great difficulty in join-
ing your thread again. If you are disposed to re-
taliate, I give you free permission to criticize me
to any extent when my turn comes.”

Georcr. “ Never fear but I will watch for an
opportunity. TheSociety Islanders are light-heart-
ed, merry, and fond of social enjoyment. but, at
the same time, indolent, deceitful, thievish, and ad-
dicted to the excessive use of ardent spirits. The
highest ambition of an Otaheitan is to have a
splendid ‘morai,’ or family tomb. The funerals,
especially those of the chiefs, have a solemn and af-
fecting character. Songs are sung; the mourners,
with sharks’ teeth, draw blood from their bodies,
which, as it flows, mingles with their tears. An
apron, or mavo, of red feathers, is the badge of roy-
al dignity, and great deference is paid to the chiefs.
These people manufacture handsome cloths and
mats; but the commerce consisting of pearl-shells,
sugar, cocoa-nut oil, and arrow-root, in exchange for
European manufactures, is carried on chiefly by
foreigners, as the natives have no vessels larger
than their double canoes. Otaheite is a fine place,
but not so important a commercial station as Oahu,

23

atm ak aiES a oedies $A.

























me a ee ee.

PITCAIRN’S ISLAND.

in the Sandwich Islands. There, Charles, I am at
the end of my thread.” |

Granpy. “And very well you have spun it,
George; but as you have not informed us’on the
subject of the religion of these islanders, I presume
it is unknown to you. They believe in a sort of
deity, that he resides in the palace of heaven, with
a number of other divinities, who are all designated
‘children of the night.’ The forms of Christian
worship are enforced here as rigidly as in the Sand-
wich Islands ; but civilization is considerably less |
advanced ; although I am happy to add, in conclu-
sion, that the people are undergoing a remark-
able change, and Christianity is certainly gaining
ground; for the idols are being destroyed, and the
labors of the zealous missionaries are now sanction- |
ed by the highest authorities. We will make no |
more remarks on the Society Islands; for they |
have formed the subject of more writings, perhaps, |
than many a kingdom of Europe, and the Otahei- |
tans are positively better known to us than the in- |
habitants of Sardinia or Corsica.”

Grorcr. “Thanks, dear Grandy, for winding |
up my subject so beautifully. Now, friend Charles, |
perhaps you will spin your yarn 2”

Cartes, “Most willingly; but it will bea |
short one, as I have very little material. Pitcairn’s |
Island stands alone near the eastern extremity of |
Polynesia. It is chiefly interesting on account of |
its having been the refuge of the mutinous crew of
Captain Bligh’s ship, the ‘Bounty. The muti- |
neers, after having turned their captain and a few ‘
SHOCKING BARBARITY. — 267

of the crew out in an open boat, tried to make a set-
tlement in the Society Islands; but failing, they,
accompanied by some Otaheitans, fixed themselves
| in this isolated spot. They landed here in 1790,
| fifteen men, and twelve women. Nine of the men
were mutineers; all the others were Otaheitans.
Captain Beachey visited the island in 1825, and
found about sixty persons on it, the descendan's of
' Captain Bligh’s men. Pitcairn’s Isle is a little spot
| not more than seven miles in circumference, with
| an abrupt rocky coast. I believe the reason there
| are so few persons on the island, is accounted for by
| the dismal fate of the original settlers. The sailors
| had married Otaheitan women, whose brothers in
| one night murdered them, only one escaping, whose
| name was Adams. On the following night, the
| Otaheitan widows of the English inflicted dreadful
| vengeance, by murdering all their brothers who had
committed the first frightful deed. Their children
| grew up under the fostering care of Adams, who
officiated as a sort of patriarch. The present popu-
| lation comprises about eighty individuals, who form
| an interesting link between the European and Poly-
nesian races.”
Mr. Wittox. “Ina Berinuda paper of August,
1848, there is an interesting letter from a school-
| master named Nobbs, which is so replete with in-
| formation, that I will read it all to you, as it is not
| so remarkable for its length as its interest :—
| “* More than twenty years ago, I left England
| for the express purpose of visiting Pitcairn’s Island,
and to remain there if I could render my talents

Cn


|
|
|

268 —Cizj. NOBBS’ LETTER.

available to the inhabitants. The proprietor of a
small vessel of but eighteen tons’ burthen, hearing
me express my anxiety to obtain a passage to Pit-
catrn’s Island, remarked, it was a spot he had long
desired to visit, and if I wou'd assist him in fitting
out his vessel, he would go with me. I accepted
his proposal, advanced him what money I coul
command, and embarked from Callao de Lima, with
no other person than the owner of the little cutter ;
and in six weeks arrived here (Pitcairn’s Island)
in safety.

“*Five months after my arrival, John Adams
departed this life. After his decease, the superin-
tendence of the spiritual affairs of the island. and
the education of the children, devolved on me chief.
ly ; and from that time to the present (with the ex-
ception of ten months, during which period I was
banished from the island by brute force, and re-
called by letters of penitential apology, I have been
With them, and have lived to see the labor of my
hands prosper ; for there is not a person on the
island, between the ages of six years and twenty-
five, who has not received, or is not receiving, a
tolerable education.

“* There is one untoward but prominent object
on the horizon of paternal affection, and which,
though imperceptibly, yet rapidly approaches our
increasing colony. and that is the imperious neces-
silty of a separation; for so very limited are the
available portions of the island. that some families

who number ten or twelve persons, have not five |
| acres of arable land to divide among them.


NOBBS’ LETTER. 269

“¢ Animal food is a luxury obtained with diffi-
culty once or twice in the week; and though we
have, by dint of very hard labor, been enabled to
obtain cloth and other indispensable necessaries
from whale-ships, in exchange for potatoes, yet this
resource is beginning to fail us; not from scarcity
of visitors, but from inability on our part to supply
them.

“¢This is the exact state of affairs at present:
how much it will be aggravated ten years from this,
may be imagined, but cannot be fully realized even
by ourselves. Whether the British Government
will again interest itself in our behalf, is doubtful ;
if itdoes not, despite the most assiduous industry, a
scanty allowance of potatoes and salt must be the
result, and the “ Tibuta” and “ Maro,” will be the
unchanging food and raiment of the rising genera-
tion.’ ”

GeorcE “What a pity the coral insects have
not been at work there, and enlarged these poor
peoples’ island ; then they could have all remained
together, and brought up their families. As it is,
some must migrate. Charles, you are very inge-
nious; cannot you contrive a plan for overcoming
these difficulties.”

Cuaries. “ Much as I should glory in benefit-
ing mankind, I could not by any effort or sacrifice
ameliorate the condition of these poor people, al-
though I would willingly do anything in my power
to testify my sorrow for their wretched destitution.”

Dora. “I fear none of us can accord them moré
than our sympathy ; so we must needs journey on

23*






970

to the Marquesas, which were discovered by the
Spaniards in 1595. There are thirteen. The larg-
est, Nukahiva, is about seventy miles in circum-
ference, and is the only one generally frequented
by shipping. The coast scenery is neither pictur-
esque nor inviting; its principal features being
black, naked cliffs, or barren hills; but in the inte-
rior are grassy plains and forests filled with birds
of elegant plumage. The inhabitants, with regard
to personal beauty, are superior to most of the Poly-
nesian tribes, some of the women being almost as
fair as a European ; in civilization, however, they
are far behind the Sandwich Islanders. They have
steadily resisted all attempts to convert them to
Christianity, and have practised cannibalism with-
in a very recent period. The tattooing of the Mar-
quesans is remarkable for its regularity and good
taste.”

Cares. “You call them Marquesans, Dora?
I thought they were Kannaks.”

Dora. “So they denominate themselves : but
I have more to tell you yet. They are all excel-
lent swimmers ; men, women, and children. They
throw themselves fearlessly into the water several
times a day, and, although in a state of perspiration,
they suffer no harm. They are also dexterous
climbers of trees; making the ascent like monkeys,
with the hands and feet only. But their treatinent
of their sick is, in the highest degree, cruel and un-
natural. Instead of giving assistance, every one
shuns the invalid; and if he is thought to be at all
in the way, he is taken to some distant spot, whith-

MARQUESAS.
THE LOW ISLANDS. 971





er it is thought sufficient to carry him food at in-
tervals. It is also their custom to prepare the dy-
ing man’s coffin before his eyes; and what is still
more incredible, when they see him about to ren-
der up his last sigh, they place a bit of moistened
‘tapa’* in his mouth, whilst the fingers of some
Jrvend are employed in closing the lips and nostrils!”

Granpy. “ All this appears very unfeeling to
us, my dear; but cruelty is not the intention of the
poor Kannaks. They believe that the soul escapes
with the parting breath, and their desire is to se-
cure the spirit within the body until the body
wastes; when, according to their doctrine, it ani-
mates another body, which, during the process of
decomposition in the old one, has been created in a
far distant island, where all the good things of this
life are found in abundance, and the soul flies
thither as soon as its old habitation is destroyed.”

Emma. “Poor people! What a lamentable
state of ignorance! How I pity them. Are there
any more miserable people to be visjted here ?”

Cuarves. “Well, here are the Low Islands to
the south of the Marquesans; but I have not the
pleasure of an acquaintance with the people, there-
fore I cannot say if they be happy or miserable.
Gambia, Crescent, and Clermont Isles are the prin-
cipal. Gambia contains upwards of a thousand in-
habitants. Crescent Isle is not very fertile, and
occupied by a few natives, who have erected little
huts their, and procure a scanty subsistence.”

* Tapa is a species of stuff made from the inner bark of
the mulberry-tree.




NEW CALEDONIA,

Mr. Barraup. “Those islands were discovered
by the ship ‘ Duff? when on a missionary voyage
in the year 1797. We shall have to retrace our
steps to come to the large islands in our chart; but
Kaster Island is so near, it may be as well to call;
although we may gain nothing by the visit, for
it is a sterile spot inhabited by demi-savages, who
worship small wooden deities. They tattoo them-
selves so as to have the appearance of wearing
breeches. Most of them go naked; some few wear
a maro, which is made either of fine Indian cloth
of a reddish color, of a wild kind of parsley, or of
a species of sea-weed.”’

GreorcGe. “There are more small islands before
we go to New Zealand or Australia, and I have an
account of one,—viz., New Caledonia, lying south-
west of the New Hebrides. It is rather a large
island, rocky for the most part; and there not be-
ing much food for animals, very few are found
there. One, however, must be mentioned. Itisa
spider called a‘nookee,’ which spins a thread so
strong, as to offer a sensible resistance before
breaking. This animal (for I have discovered that
a spider is not an insect.) constitutes part of the
people’s food. The inhabitants are cannibals from
taste. ‘They eat with an air of luxurious pleasure
the muscular parts of the human body, and a slice
of a child is esteemed a great dainty. Horrible
wretches! They wear no clothes; the women
just have a girdle of fibrous bark, and the men
sometimes encircle their heads with a fillet of sew-
ed net-work or leaves, and the hair of the vampire




ws Se eee



NEW ZEALAND. 273



bat. Their houses are in the forin of beehives, and
the door-posts are of carved planks.”

Dora. “New Zealand, almost the antipodes of
England, lies in the South Pacific, and consists of
two large islands, the extreme points of which are
called North and South Cape. Near North Cape
is Norfolk Island, where the English, at one time,
had a flourishing colony, now removed to Van
Diemen’s Land. We must all help to work our
ship round these larger islands, for no individual
can be responsible for the entire management.”

Mrs. Wittoy. “I will set the example. New
Zealand was discovered by Tasman in 1642; but
its extent and character were ascertained by Cook
in his voyage of 1774. It is nowa regularly es-
tablished colony belonging to the British crown.
There is a bishop, several clergymen of the Church
of England, and many other missionaries resident
there. It is a fertile group, but contains several
active volcanoes. In the north island, or New
Ulster, are various cavities, which appear to be ex-
tinct craters; and in their vicinity numerous hot
springs are to be met with; some of them, as they
rise to boiling point, the natives use for cooking.”

Granny. “The New Zealanders belong to the
Malay family: they are a fine handsome race, and
possess fewer of the vices of the savage than almost
any other savage people. The Missionaries have
been eminently successful in the conversion of the
natives to Christianity. The first establishment
formed there, was commenced in the Bay gf Islands,
at a village called Rangiona, in 1814. The per-

Lees nner ae


re



274 THE BAY OF ISLANDS.

sons were sent out by the Church Missionary So-
ciety, and have never relaxed in their endeavors to
promote the laudable work of converting the hea-
then natives from the error of their superstitions, al-
though they have had numerous difficulties to over-
come. They went out, in the strength of the Lord,
resolved to do nothing in strife or vain-glory, but
all in lowliness of mind, esteeming others better
than themselves: and they succeeded notwithstand-
ing the numerous hindrances ; for the work was of
God, and He gave them power to do all things
without murmuring. in order to attain the salvation
of the souls of their fellow-creatures.”

Mr. Barravp. “The Bay of Islands is quite in
the north, and has been for the last thirty years the
favorite resort of whale-ships. Upwards of thirty
vessels have been anchored there at the same time;
and at this bay the chief intercourse between Ku-
ropean vessels and New Zealand has principally
taken place. Numerous islands are sprinkled over
the space. and several creeks or entrances of rivers
penetrate the surrounding country. It is on the
north and west sides of this bay that the principal
territories of Shunghee, the New Zealand chief who
visited this country, are situated; and in these
spots the horrid rites of this superior race of savages
have also been witnessed.”

Mr. Witton. “It is remarkable that when New
Zealand was first discovered, there were no animals
whatever on the islands except a few species of
lizards, which quadrupeds the inhabitants held in
great veneration and terror. Even the rat and dog


ees. nae

CAPTAIN COOK’S STORY. 275

were introduced by Europeans; and the rat is at
present the principal species of game.
many parrots, parroquets, wi'd ducks, pigeons of
large size and fine flavor, inhabit the forests; and
poultry are found to thrive very we'l, though not
yet reared to any great extent. Indeed. if we ex-
cept their prisoners of war, (for the New Zealanders
were cannibals,) almost the only animal food hith-
erto used by them has been fish, which abounds
around their coasts.”

Georce. “They must be right glad that Euro-
peans have visifed them.”

Cuartes. “I understand that when pigs were

first introduced into New Zealand, the natives, not

knowing what animals they were, nor what were
their uses, mounted two, and forthwith rode them
to death! They had seen some horses on board
Captain Cook’s vessel, and supposed the pigs to be
for the same purpose.”

Mrs. Witton. “The New Zealanders are a fine
race, but not exempt from vice. They do not re-
gard lying or stealing as crimes, and are remark-
able for their propensities to male use of these
qualifications on every available occasion. Captain
Cook relates an instance which will give you a
tolerable idea of the native character:—He had
been purchasing a great quantity of fish from the
natives. He says, ‘While we were on the traffic,
they showed a great inclination to pick my pockets;
and to take away the fish with one hand which
they had just given me with the other. This evil,
one of the chiefs undertook to remove, and with


preset pcs ae aia

; 276 A CURIOUS IDEA.

fury in his eyes made a show of keeping the peo-
ple at a proper distance. I applauded his conduct,
but at the same time kept so good a look-out as to
detect him picking my pocket of a handkerchief,
which I suffered him to put in his bosom, before I
seemed to know anything of the matter, and then
told him what I had lost. He seemed quite iguo-
rant and innocent, until I took it from him; then
he put it off with a laugh, acting his part with so
much address, that it was hardly possible to be
angry with him; so we remained good friends, and
he accompanied me on board to dinner.’ ”

Emma. “But they are better now, are they
not ?”

Mrs. Witton. “ Very slightly in these points,
my dear; and still less so as regards their super-
stitions. Generations to come may be free from

| these vices; but at present they are too deeply

| rooted to be discarded altogether. They have some
curious and simple notions peculiar to themselves,
and some extraordinary legends concerning natural
objects of earth, sea, and sky. They account for
the appearance of the face in the moon thus:—
They say,‘ A native girl, named Rona, went with
a calabash to fetch water. The moon hid her pale
beams behind dark and sweeping clouds. The
maid, vexed at this uncourteous behavior, pro-
nounced a curse on the celestial orb; but as a
punishment for so doing, she stumbled and fell.
The moon descended—raised the maid from the
ground, and took her to reside on high, in her
realms of silvery light.’”




























n_—ooo eee

ARANGHIE. 277

Mr. Barravuv. “A curious idea: they have
many such. I remember an anecdote of a chief
who lost a son for whom he grieved greatly; but
one day a European met him, and observed he was
very merry: he accosted him, and inquired the
cause of so sudden a discontinuance of his grief.
The chief replied, he had passed a bush some few
days previously, when his late son, who had in-
serted himself into the body of a little Tikan bird,
whistled to him, and bade him dry up his tears, as
he felt perfectly satisfied with the quarters he then
occupied. ‘ Shall I grieve at his happiness ?’ added
the old man.”

Dora. “There is a sweet simplicity about that
little story which prepossesses me in favor of these
| New Zealanders, although they were once such
| horrible cannibals. Do they not tattoo very
| much 2”
| Mr. Witton. “The art of tattooing has been
| brought to such perfection here, that it actually ex-
| cites admiration. It is looked upon as answering
the same purposes as clothes. When a chief throws
| off his mats, he seems as proud of disp'aying the

beautiful ornaments figured on his skin, as a civil-
ized dandy does of his fashionable attire. Mr.
Earle speaks of a man named Arangbie, a professor
of the art of tattooing, thus:— He was considered
by his countrymen a perfect master in the art, and
men of the highest rank and importance were in
| the habit of travelling long journeys, in order to
put their skins under his skilful hands. Indeed,
| highly were his works esteemed, that I have
24




ee LS ey ae Ae RN eh Aiea ee oY
278 ‘CANNIBALISM.

seen many of his drawings exhibited even after
death. A neighbor of mine very lately killed a
chief who had been tattooed by Aranghie, and ap-
preciating the artist’s work so highly, he skinned
the chieftain’s thighs, and covered his cartouch box
with it!—I was astonished to see with what bold-
ness and precision Aranghie drew his designs upon
the skin, and what beautiful ornaments he pro-
duced: no rule and compasses could be more ex-
act than the lines and circles he formed. So un-
rivalled is he in his profession, that a highly finish-
ed face of a chief from the hands of this artist, is as
greatly prized in New Zealand as a head from the
pencil of Sir Thomas Lawrence is amongst us.’
Such respect was paid to this man by the natives,
that Mr. Earle expresses the gratification he felt,
on seeing the fine arts held in such estimation by
the savages.”

Mr. Barravup. “Ido not doubt but the New
Zealanders are still cannibals in heart; for, so late
as 1832, when Mr. Earle was there, he unfortu-
nately had ocular proof of the fact. He had been
residing with them some months, when a chief
claimed one of his (Mr. Earle’s) servants, stating
she was a runaway slave. He tied her to a tree
and shot her through the heart, and his men pre-
pared an oven and cooked her. Mr. Earle heard
of it, and hastened to the spot. He caught them
in the act of preparing some of the poor girl’s flesh,
and endeavored, in vain, to prevent the horrible
feast; but to no purpose ; for they assembled at

Cy, oe ee

night and devoured every morsel except the head,



































279



NEW HOLLAND.

which he saw a hungry dog run off with to the
woods. The poor girl was only sixteen years of
age, pretty and well-behaved, and her murderer
was one of the aristocracy of New Zealand, and, as
Mr. Earle observes, a remarkably polite savage.”

Cuartes. “ We must bid adieu to these interest-
ing savages, and pass on to the last, but certainly
not the least, of the Pacific islands,—viz. Australia.”

Mr. Witton. “ As all land is surrounded by
water, and continents differ from islands merely in
point of size, and as Australia or New Holland is
in extent as large as Europe, and ten times larger
than either Borneo or New Guinea, it is certainly
more proportionate with continents than with
islands; and it seems reasonable to class Australia
with the former rather than with the latter.”

Mrs. Witton. “With Australia we close our
investigations. To use a nautical expression, it is,
compared with Europe and Asia, almost an iron-
bound coast. It possesses only two large indenta-
tions,— the Gulf of Carpentaria on the north, and
Spencer’s Gulf on the south. Shark’s Bay, on the
west, and Hervey’s Bay, on the east, are the next
in size.”

Mr. Witton. “New Holland was discovered
by Paulmyer de Gonville. That navigator sailed
from Honfleur for the East Indies about the middle
of 1503, and experiened a violent storm off the
Cape of Good Hope, during which he lost his
reckoning, and was driven into an unknown sea.
After sailing for some time, he observed birds fly-
ing from the south, and, directing his course to-


280 STORY OF MR. MEREDITH.

wards that quarter. he soon fell in with Jand. This
was thought to have been New Holland or Aus-
tralia.”

Mr. Barraup. “ It is remarkable how extremely
ignorant the Australians are: they are certainly
the lowest in intellect cf the human creation. The
tribes on the western shores of Spencer’s Bay are
positively ignorant of any method of obtaining fire:
they say that it originally came down from the
north. Like the vestal virgins, the women keep it
constantly lighted, and carry it about with them in
firesticks when they travel: should it happen to go
out, they procure a fresh supply from a neighbor-
ing encampment. Then their manners are so
atrociously savage. Their mode of courtship is
one which I fancy would not become popular
among English ladies. Ifa chief, or any other in-
dividual, be in love, with a damsel of a different
tribe, he endeavors to waylay her; and if she be
surprised in any quiet place, the ambushed lover
rushes upon her, beats her about the head with his
‘waddie’ till she becomes senseless, when he drags
her in triumph to his hut, and thenceforth she is
his lawful wife !”

Granpy. “ After that, you will readily credit
the story I am going to tell you. A Mr. Meredith
went over with his goods to Kangaroo Island,
whence he journeyed across the bay to Yankalilly,
where he built a hut, placed in it a glass window or
two. and made it look snug. As he was a young
man of about twenty-one or twenty-two. his warm,
generous spirit had led him into difficulties; and,

—



USTRALIAN BARBARISM. 281

the friends of his brief sunshine flying from him in
his distress, he contracted a disgust for the world.
He lived some time amongst these people, acquired
their language, and seemed to be beloved by them
all. But volumes might be filled with accounts of
their treachery, and the sequel will sufficiently prove
the malignity of these wretched people. He had
adopted one of their sons, and was endeavoring to
instruct him in a few points of education. He had
also taken a native woman to assist him in house-
hold matters. One day he went out in his boat, and
his favorite boy went with him. When in the boat,
the boy complained of hunger, and Mr. Meredith
gave him a biscuit. The boy commenced eating
it, when Mr. Meredith (who was a religious man)
observed that he had not thanked the Great God
for the food—a practice which he invariably en-
deavored to inculcate. The boy appeared unwilling
to do so: Mr. Meredith insisted, and on his refusal,
he boxed his ears. The boy thereupon leaped out
of the boat, and swam ashore, saying, he should
repent it.

‘In the evening, Mr. Meredith put his boat
ashore, and went to his hut, had his supper, and
was preparing for bed; and taking up a prayer-
book, as was his custom, was reading the prayers
before the fire, with his back to the door, when
some natives looked through the window, saw their
advantage, and opened the door silently. The wo-
man, his attendant, then entered with an axe be-
longing to him in her hand, and several men fol-
lowed her. Sheapproached the unsuspecting youth,

24°






282
and, while his soul was devoutly engaged in prayer,
she raised the fatal axe, and, with one blow, severed
his skull, and the men with their clubs beat his
body into a shapeless mass.”

Emma. “Poor Mr. Meredith! What a frightful
murder !”

Mrs. Witton. “ The Australians thought noth-
ing of it, for they glory in the most atrocious deeds.
I fear it will be long before they will be civilized.
But let us look at their country, of which, in some
respects, but little can be said ; for it is not remark-
able for its fertility, and in many parts exceedingly
barren. But few animals range there, and in the
south-west the natives subsist during the winter
chiefly on opossums, kangaroos, and bandicoots . in
the summer upon roots, with occasionally a few
fish.”

Dora. “Port Adelaide appears to be a neat
town. Its harbor is a deep creek or inlet of the sea,
running out of Gulf St. Vincent: it contains two
spacious wharfs, alongside of which, vessels from
Great Britain, Singapore, Manilla, China, Mauri-
tius, Sydney, Hobart Town, and New Zealand, are
continually discharging their cargoes.”

Mrs. Witton. “There are many lakes in Aus-
tralia, but none of them very large. Lake Alexan-
dria is the largest, but it is very shallow; and
Lake St. George, the second in size, which, in 1828,
was a sheet of water 17 miles long by 7 broad, was
said by an old native female to have been a forest
within her memory, and in 1836 it was dried up to
a grassy plain.”

AUSTRALIAN LAKES.





Oe eT ee

VAN DIEMEN’S LAND. 283

Emma. “Does not Van Diemen’s Land belong
to New Holland, mamma ?”

Mrs. Witton. “Yes, my dear; and the part
nearest to it is New South Wales, from which it is
separated by Bass's Straits, which are 100 miles
broad, and contain a great many small islands. Van
Diemen’s Land was discovered by Tasman, in 1644,
and named by him in honor of the Dutch Governor-
General of the East Indies ; but it is now more ap-
propriately called Tasmania. This island contains
several mountains of considerable elevation. The
highest is ascertained to be 3964 feet in height.
Hobart Town is the capital. The population of
Tasmania has of late years much increased, for,
owing to its eligibility, the tide of emigration has
been strong. For many years, three or four vessels
have annually sailed from Great Britain, laden
with emigrants possessed of more or less capital,
and they have, in most cases, prospered equal to
their expectations.”

George. “ Are there not more coral reefs about
Australia than in any other part of the Ocean ?”

Mr. Witton. “Itis generally supposed so; but,
in asking that question, do you know what coral
reefs are ?”

Greorcre. “ Yes, papa; they are the work of in-
sects, who build them for their habitations; but it
is very wonderful.”

Granpy. “It is wonderful, my dear; and there
are many other marvellous productions of the Most
High God, so infinitely beyond the power of man
to produce, that, in meditating on them, the mind
284 CORAL REEFS.



is lost in wonder and surprise. ‘The most power-
ful, acutest, and holiest mind, says a learned di-
vine, ‘ will eternally be unable fully to find out God,
or perfectly to comprehend Him.’ May these won-
ders then increase our reverence, and humble us be-
fore the mighty Creator of all things.”

Mr. Witton. “Captain Hall examined some
coral reefs during the different stages of one tide,
and gives the following description as the result :—
‘When the tide has left it for some time, it becomes
dry, and appears to be a compact rock, exceedingly
hard and rugged; but as the tide rises, and the
waves begin to wash over it, the coral worms pro-
trude themselves from holes that were before invis-
ible. These animals are of a great variety of shapes
and sizes, and, in such prodigious numbers, that, in
a short time, the whole surface of the rock appears
to be alive and in motion. ‘The most common
worm is in the form of a star, with arms from four
to six inches long, which are moved about witha
rapid motion, in all directions, probabiy to catch
food. Others are so sluggish, that they may be
mistaken for pieces of rock ; and are generally of a
dark color, from four to five inches long, and two or
three round. When the coral is broken about high-
water mark, it is a solid hard stone ; but if any part
of it be detached at a spot where the tide reaches
every day, it is found to be full of worms of differ-
ent lengths and colors, some being as fine as a
thread and several feet long, of a bright yellow, and
sometimes of a blue color; others resemble snails,











STORY OF KUMBA. 285



and some are not unlike lobsters in shape, bv# soft,
and not above two inches long.’”

Dora. “We must be content to see these in im-
agination. But sometimes I feel disposed to regret
that we are not read/y afloat in the ‘ Research ;’ and
at other times I congratulate myself that the voy-
age is only imaginary ; for in Polynesia particular-
ly, we have met with so many ignorant, savage
people, it is well for us that we can, if we choose,
steer clear of them. I suppose it would not be
possible in all Europe to find a country where such
unreasonable things were done from religious su-
perstition ?”

Granpy. “My dear Dora, you are very much
mistaken. Europe has been, and still is in many
parts, a slave to superstition ; and, although not
savages, there are many vices and iniquitous deeds
committed in civilized Europe, which no tempta-
tion would induce the savages of Polynesia to com-
mit. But, toassure your mind that horrible crimes
were perpetrated from zeal in the doctrines of their
religion, I will give you an instance connected with
Sweden in olden time. The story is told by a
slave girl named Kumba, thus :—‘ My mother was
amongst the slaves of Queen Gunnild: she was the
most faithful of her servants. Poor and heavy was
her lot, yet did she wish to live. My father was a
free-born person, who thought little of forsaking the
woman who loved him, and the child she had nursed
for him. I remember a night—that night has
stretched itself over my whole life. Flames arose
froma pile: they ascended high into heaven. It








286 KUMBA’S SUFFERINGS.

was the corpse of the Queen which was burned.
My mother was amongst those who tended the pile:
she with many others was cast alive into the flames.
The Queen, it was said, needed her attendance in
another world. I stood amongst the people, stilla
child, and heard my mother’s cry. and saw her burn !
Fatherless and motherless, I went thence into the
world alone, and wandered in the woods without
knowing whither. There came people who seized
me, and carried me back to the Court of King Atle.
They said that I wished to run away, and [ was
conducted to the presence of the king. I answered
haughtily to his questions, and he caused me to be
whipped till the blood came: in punishment, as he
said, of my disobedience.’ Is not that barbarous
enough for a savage land, Dora ?”

Dora. “Oh yes, madam, that is very shocking.
Poor, unhappy Kumba! What a life of wretched-
ness was hers.”

Mr. Witton. “Grandy’s story must conclude
our conversation to-night. At the next meeting
we will endeavor to explore the coast of Africa, and
visit the islands of the Indian Ocean. Carry away
the books, boys: I am sure you must all be hun-
gry, and tired too, for we have been over an im-
mense space of water.

“ Right gaily our bark’s glided over the ocean,
Bright nature we've viewed in majestic array ;
But our own native shores we greet with emotion,
For the heart of a Briton exults in her sway.”

Rainn

ee


CHAPTER VII.

They journeyed at night
In the pale moonlight,
’Mid sunshine and storm on they sail’d ;
Baffling winds and still calms
Caused our friends no alarms,
For Faith ever fearless prevail'd.

‘Ir is of no use, Emma: I cannot doit. Girls
are certainly a most persevering race of beings, and
you deserve to be at the top of the class; for, if you
determine to accomplish anything, I believe not
even Mr. Stanley’s knock at the door, or, what
would be more to you, Dora Leslie’s loving kiss,
would make you swerve from your purpose. Ah
well! You are quite welcome to the work; and
if you are not tired, I know JZ am, and these very
important articles may remain unpacked for the
trouble I shall take. I wonder you are so particu-
lar about them: what signifies how they are put
in, if you can but shut the box? It can be of no
consequence; and yet you have been on your knees
for the last two hours, arranging and placing, until
I am positively weary with watching you.”

“ George! George! Where is your boasted pa-
tience? Your fellow traveller in your anticipated
voyage? Only see what a trifling exertion makes
you weary and complaining. Now, suppose I act
288 PACKING UP.

according to your sage proposition, and merely fill
the trunk; we can then both jump on the lid, and
make it shut—what think you would be the ef-
fect 2”

Grorce. “ Well, my most patient sister, I think
it very probable that my microscope would be
smashed to atoms. and all your litte knick knacks
reduced to a similar condition. But surely there
is no necessity for such violent means to secure the
lid: let me see, I have no doubt it will shut quite
easily.”

“There, you see it will not shut,” said Emma, as
George in vain endeavored, by moderate pressure,
to bring the lid to its proper place. “Now the
things must be arranged differently ; and, if you
will only help me this once, we shall have done be-
fore Dora or Mr. Stanley or any one else knocks at
the door: come, be my own good brother, and lay
all these parcels carefully on the floor while I find
places for them.”

Emma looked so irresistibly kind and coaxing,
that George once more good-humoredly set to work ;
and presently the carpet was strewed with pack-
ages, apparently sufficient to fill three such trunks,
but which Emma was determined should be snugly
packed into one.

The articles might almost be arranged alphabeti-
cally, there was such a miscellaneous collection ;
but the variety in their size and shape rendered it
actually a puzzle to dispose them so as to allow
space for all, without the hazard of any portion be-

ing crushed.






LETTER FROM MR. STANLEY 289



“ Perseverance overcomes difficulties,” said Em-
ma, as she carefully deposited the last paper, and
turned the key in the lock.

“ Hurrah !” shouted George. “Now we have
done it. Well, really, I did not think it possible:
only imagine the number of parcels in that one
trunk, Emma! What a treat it will be when we
get to Jamaica, to unpack it all again. Oh dear!
how I wish we were there !”

“Miss Emma, you are wanted,” said Hannah,
entering the room ; “ Mistress cannot find the books
that came to-day, and she wants to pack them up.”

| “ Ah! it is nothing but pack up now all day, and

| every room is in confusion,” said George, wearily.
“ Well, I am glad our share is at an end for thes
day, for I am heartily tired of the business, and
shall be thoroughly glad when there is nothing
more left to pack up.”

“Oh! master George, how impatient you are,”

| exclaimed Hannah. “But come, you have no time
to be grumbling now. Only look at your dirty
fingers, and dinner will be ready in five minutes:
why, you will scarcely be washed before the bell
| rings;” and the anxious maid bustled out of the
| room with her weary charge.
| The mention of Mr. Stanley’s name requires an
explanation. On the previous evening, when Mr.
| Wilton returned from his office, he brought with
' him a letter, which he put into George’s hand after
| tea, desiring him to read it aloud. It was from
| Mr. Stanley, and George almost shouted for joy,

| when he read that his dear, dear friend was then at
20 |






MR. STANLEY.

oe



290

Liverpool, and hoped to be with them the next day
to dinner.

“ What a grand muster we shall have to-night,
George,” said Mr. Wilton, while they were waiting
the arrival of their expected guest. ‘“ Why, we
shall not find sufficient subject for so many speak-
ers, shall we 2”

“Oh yes! papa. Emma and I have been too
busy, pucking up, to prepare much. Besides, Mr.
Stanley is sure to have a great deal to tell: he has
been away so long, and seeing strange countries all
the while. But there he is! I saw him pass the
window ;” and away ran George to embrace his
beloved friend.

“ What bright eyes and rosy cheeks!” exclaimed
Mr. Stanley, kissing his pet. “ My boy has indeed
grown since I was here: why you will soon reach
my shoulder. I suppose, when next I come, I
must inquire for Mr. Wilton, junior. But where is
sister Emma, and mamma, and papa, and dear, kind
Grandy ?”

“Oh! they are all in the dining-room,” replied
George: “we were only waiting for you, sir.”

Into the dining-room they went accordingly ;
and the welcome guest was soon engaged, equally
with the rest of the party, in discussing a hearty
meal, and the various events that had taken place
during his absence.

The hours flew like moments; and the arrival
of the other members quite astonished George, who
had no idea it was so near seven o'clock. He was
in high glee, as he assisted Charles in placing the
































MR. STANLEY. 291



chairs and books. But when Mr. Stanley, taking
his hand, requested permission to sit by his side,
the proud and happy boy looked doubtingly into
his face, not thoroughly comprehending the drift
of the request.

“ T am anxious to have the services of an expe-
rienced pilot through the stormy seas,” said Mr.
Stanley; “and if you are by my side, George, to
direct me, I think I can manage to steer clear of
difficulties.”

“ Now, you are joking,” returned George: “ why,
you have positively been to these very countries,
and yet apply to me for directions! But I under-
stand the reason. You intend to make observations
on subjects not geographical, and I expect you will
be keeping a sharp look-out on my observations, to
discover what progress I have made lately.”

Mr. Sranuey. “I perceive already that there is
a decided improvement, my boy; and I candidly
aver that I expect to be edified by these juvenile
discoveries. Now to business—weigh anchor and
start. Who is pilot ?”

Cuarzes. “I have charge of the ‘ Research’ for
the present; but Iam not an experienced naviga-
tor, and if I happen to run you on a shoal, I hope
all hands will help to get the vessel clear off.”

Mr. Barraupv. “We will make due allowance
for your youth and inexperience, Charles. Now
give your orders.”

Cuarues. “The first voyage, we are to navigate
the Indian Ocean, calling on as many Robinson
Crusoes as we can find in the various little islands:






292 CELEBES.

our second voyage is to explore the whole coast of
Africa.

“ Our ship was last at anchor off the coast of
New Holland, and our next stoppage will be at the
Moluccas. The name signifies ‘ Royal Islands,’
and was given by the Arabs in the days of their
maritime prosperity. The principal are Celebes,
Gililo, and Ceram. Dora, Emma, and George have
patronized those isles, and will set forth their vari-
ous qualifications.”

Dora. “Celebes is the largest of the Moluccas,
and is a ragged, irregular-looking island, in shape
similar to a star-fish. The inhabitants are render-
ed active, industrious, and robust by an austere
education. At all hours of the day, the mothers
rub their children with oil or water, and thus assist
nature im forming their constitutions. At the age
of five or six, the male children of persons of rank
are put in charge of a friend, that their courage
may not be weakened by the caresses of relatives,
and habits of reciprocal tenderness. They do not
return to their families until they attain the age at
which the law declares them fit tomarry. Celebes
was first discovered by the Portuguese in 1512;
but the Dutch expelled them in 1660, and it now
belongs to them. Unlike most of the other islands,
it abounds in extensive grassy plains, free from
forests, which are looked upon as the common prop-
erty of the tribes who dwell thereon, and are care-
fully guarded from the intrusion of aliens. The
people are Mohammedans.”

Grorce. “ Gililo is Celebes in miniature, being
| DRESS OF THE ALFOORS. 293













of the same singular shape, and producing similar
fruits. I have little more of its advantages to set
forth. But near here is a portion of the Ocean
called Molucca Sea, which possesses a strange pe-
culiarity. It is the periodical appearance of a cur-
rent of opaque white water, like milk, which, from
June to August or September, covers the surface
of the basin in which the Banda Islands are situ-
ated. During the night it is somewhat luminous,
which makes the spectator confound it with the
horizon. It is dangerous for vessels, for the sea
seems to undergo an inward boiling agitation
wherever it passes. During its prevalence the fish
disappear. This white water is supposed to come
from the shores of New Guinea and the Gulf of
Carpentaria.” |
Me. Sranxuey. “ Youare slightly wrong, George,
in stating this curious sea to be near Gililo. Guililo
is on the equator, and the Molucca Sea is at least
5° below the equator, and directly south of Ceram.”
Emma. “Ceram produces quantities of sago, and
contains large forests of those trees: they are ex-
tremely profitable, for one tree will sometimes yield
as much as five or six hundred pounds of sago!
The original inhabitants were called Alfoors, and,
as some of the race still exist, I will introduce
them. The only dress of the men is a girdle en-
circling the loins. They fix bunches of palm leaves
to their heads, shoulders, and knees, and wear
square bucklers, which they ornament with con-
siderable taste. The eyesight of these people is
uncommonly acute; and their swiftness is such as
25*




294 CURIOUS HOSPITALITY.

to enable them to chase the wild hog with success.
Rats and serpents form part of their food. This
island is equally fertile with the other Moluccas,
and produces spices of all kinds, but particularly
cloves and nutmegs. There are, happily, more
Christians now to be found in Ceram than there
were a few years since: nevertheless the majority
are still Mohammedans, and barbarous in their
habits.”

Mr. Barraupv. “Yes. Very little improvement
has taken place in the manners of the Alfoors.
The young men, even to this day, adhere to the
savage practice of propitiating their intended wives,
by presenting them with the heads of five or six
of their enemies. In order to seize their victims
by surprise, they lie in ambush in the woods, cover
themselves with moss, and hold branches of trees
in their hands, which they shake in a manner so
natural, that they have the appearance of real
trees: they then allow the enemy to pass, assassi-
nate him by coming up behind him, and, cutting off
his head, carry it away as a trophy. These mur-
derers are received by the people of the village with
all the honors of a barbarous triumph.”

Mr. Srantry. “These identical Alfoors have a
singular method of evincing their respect for friends
or visitors: as an instance: One of the kings (for
the nation has ¢hree to share the government) in-
vited a Dutch missionary to an entertainment.
When Mr. Montarnes arrived, he was received with
great demonstrations of joy, and treated by the
king with the most splendid repast that the re-




JAVA. 295

sources of the country could afford. When the

meal was over, the king ordered a number of men

armed with swords to step forward. They per-

| formed a war-dance, and, after a few feats of this
sort, commenced a serious fight: their swords

| clashed, blood flowed, and some of their bodies were

| laid dead on the ground. The peaceful minister
of religion, shocked at the horrid spectacle, entreat-
ed the king to put a stop to it. ‘It is nothing,
was the reply: ‘they are my slaves! it is only the
death of a few dogs! Happy shall I be if this
mark of my high respect convinces you of my eager
desire to please you!’ ”

Granpy. “Astonishing! that people with any
belief in a superior power, should hold life in such
low estimation; and, simply for amusement, de-
prive a fellow-creature of that which their utmost
stretch of power cannot restore. Oh! may God,
in his mercy, soon enlighten these wretched Alfoors,
and write in plain characters on the tables of their
hearts—‘ Thou shalt do no murder.”

Cuartes. “We now come to Java, one of the
finest and most flourishing colonies in the world.
It is about 600 miles in length, and 90 miles ave-
rage breadth ; almost entirely volcanic ; therefore,
metals and precious stones are not to be expected.
Iron is not to be found in Java; indeed, it is ex-
tremely rare in the whole Archipelago ; consequent-
ly it bears a high price, and the art of the black-
smith is held in a sort of reverence. The term for
a son of the anvil signifies ‘ learned.’ The inhabi-
tants of this island trace their origin to a monkey,









296 WHIMSICAL SUPERSTITION.

which they call ‘ woo-woo.’ They are, for the most
part, Mohammedans, but not strict, as they will not
hesitate to drink wine at the religious festivals.”

Mrs. Witton. “The Javanese are remarkable
for their veracity and love of music: their ear is so
delicate, that they readily learn to play the most
difficult and complex airs on any instrument. They
are remarkable also for their superstition, and peo-
ple their forests, caves, and mountains with numer-
ous invisible beings of their own creation. I will
quote two instances of whimsical superstition, which
took place in Java about thirty yearsago. The
skull of a buffalo was conducted from one end of
the island to the other; this skull was to be kept
in constant motion, for a dreadful fate was to await
the individual who detained it in his possession, or
allowed it to rest. After travelling many hundred
miles, it reached Samarang, where the Dutch gover-
nor caused it to be thrown into the sea. No person
could tell how this originated ; but no person re-
fused to obey while the skull was on terra firma.
Again, in 1814, a smooth road, fifty or sixty miles
long. and twenty feet broad, leading to the top of
an inland mountain, called Sumbong, was suddenly
formed, crossing no rivers, but passing in an unde-
viating line through private property of all descrip-
tions. The population of whole districts was em-
ployed in the labor, and all because an old woman
dreamed that a divine personage was to descend on
the mountain !”

“ Oh! how very ridiculous !” exclaimed Charles.
“ Such silly people deserve to be imposed upon, for




PRODUCTIONS OF JAVA. 297

not using the faculties they possess, to greater ad-
vantage.”

GraNnpy. “When once superstition usurps the
throne of reason, Charles, it is a difficult task to
displace her. There are so many pleasing fallacies
connected with her sway over the naturally indo-
lent mind of man, that reason is altogether banish-
ed, and superstition’s authority knows no bounds.”

Me. Stantey. “Java produces, in great abun-
dance, the hirwndo esculenta, a species of swallow,
whose nests are used as an article of luxurious food
among the Chinese. This nest has the shape of a
common swallow’s nest, and the appearance of ill-
connected isinglass. The bird always builds in the
caves of the rocks, at a distance from any human
dwelling. Along the sea-shore, these nests are par-
ticularly abundant, the caverns there being more
frequent. The finest are those obtained before the
nest has been contaminated by young birds. Some
of the caverns are very difficult of access, and dan-
gerous to climb; so that none can collect the nests
but persons accustomed to the trade from their
youth.”

Grorce. “Oh, yes! I remember all the parti-
culars of that business ; we were told at one of our
meetings ; but I do not care to taste them: it is
both rasty and cruel to eat bird’s-nests.”

Cuartes. “Sumatra is, next to Borneo, the
largest island in the Eastern seas. It is situated
in the midst of the torrid zone, is upwards of 1000
miles long, nearly 200 in breadth, and is divided
from Java by the Straits of Sunda.

Ma -
ssleieiaiigintniermaliahiinansinnemansiodets
298 SUMATRA.

“The Sumatrans are a well-made people, with
yellow complexions, sometimes inclining to white.
| They have some of the customs of the South Sea
| Islanders; amongst others, those barbarous prac-
| tices of flattening the noses, and compressing the
heads of children newly-born, whilst the skull is
yet soft or cartilaginous. They likewise pull out
the ears of infants to make them stand at an angle
| from the head. They file, blacken, and otherwise
disfigure the teeth; and the great men sometimes
set theirs in gold, by casing the under row with a
| plate of that metal.”

Georce. “Is Sumatra a gold country ?”

“Why,” said Mr. Wilton, smiling, “have you
never heard of the gold of Mount Ophir? Well,
that is the name of the highest mountain in Suma-
tra.”

Grorce. “Then there is gold in Sumatra, and I
suppose it is washed down by therivers. Is there
any other metal there ?”

Mr. Witton. “Gold is the most abundant; but
saltpetre and naphtha are among the products.
Quantities of rice are grown here, and a singular
method is adopted for separating the grain from
the ear. The bunches of paddy are spread on mats,
and the Sumatrans rub out the grain under their
feet, supporting themselves, for the more easy per-
formance of this labor, by holding with their hands

} a bamboo placed horizontally over their heads.”

Cuaries. “I should hope they wash the rice af-
ter this process: although, as rice is so dry, they
doubtless consider it unnecessary : I find Sumatra




A WATER sPpouT

p 299


ee ET nt + tere eee een ee

WATER-SPOUTS. 299

is a foggy island, and contains only one important
kingdom,—viz., Acheen.”

Mr. Barraup. “ Fogs are not its worst calami-
ties: thunder-storms and water-spouts off the coasts
are very frequent.”

GrorcE. “ What produces water-spouts ?”

Mr. Barravp. “ Dr. Franklin supposed that
water-spouts and whirlwinds proceed from the same
cause. A fluid moving from all parts horizontally
towards a centre, must at that centre either mount
or descend. If a hole be opened in the bottom of
a tub filled with water, the water will flow from
all sides to the centre, and there descend in a whirl ;
but air flowing in or near the surface of land or
water, from all sides towards a centre, must at that
centre ascend, because the land or water will hinder
its descent.”

Mr. Witton. “ As Charles states, Acheen, with
regard to business transactions, is the only place of
note in the island of Sumatra. The inhabitants
have no coin, but make their payments in gold
dust, which they keep in divided parcels, contain-
ed in pieces of bladder, and these are weighed by
the person who takes them in payment. They
have some odd forms about them ; for instance, in
marriage and burial. The bride is bargained for
with the parents, and if settled satisfactorily, the
young couple partake together of two different sorts
of rice, and the ceremony is concluded by the father
of the lady throwing a piece of cloth over them.

‘“When a man of rank dies, his body is kept in
a coffin for several months; the soft parts dissolving

I


800 BURMAN DESPOTISM.



during that interval are conveyed in a fluid state
by a bamboo tube, from the bottom of the coffin
into the earth.”

Eva. “How very disgusting! and how very
unwholesome for the relatives of the deceased, in
such a hot country too. I wonder the inhabitants
do not all die from infection.”

Mr. Stanuey. “These practices do vastly in-
crease the mortality ; but old customs are not easily
abolished. Do you sail as far north as the Bay of
Bengal, Charles ?”

Cartes. “ No,sir, all that portion of the ocean
has been navigated : our next island is Borneo.”

Mr. Srantey. “But I suppose there would be
no objection to my putting in a word on the Bur-
man Empire, which probably you are not much
acquainted with. Parts of it are in the same
longitude as the north of Sumatra; and I mere:
ly wish to mention some peculiarities connected
with the Burmese. The government is entirely
despotic, and the sovereign almost deified. When
anything belonging to him is mentioned, the epi-
thet ‘golden’ is invariably attached to it. When
he is said to have heard anything, ‘it has reached
the golden ears:’ the perfume of roses is described
as grateful to the ‘ golden nose.’ The sovereign 1s
sole proprietor of all the elephants in his dominions ;
and the privilege to keep or ride on one is only
granted to men of the first rank. No honors here
are hereditary. All officers and dignities depend on
the crown. The ‘tsaloé, or chain, is the badge of

ed
me a ne eee ee

eee ne ee a ee ~ ce ee a ae ec cr re Pt

THE WHITE ELEPHANT. 801

nobility, and superiority of rank is signified by the
number of cords or divisions.”

“Grorce. “Is it true that they are a proud,
consequential people ?”

Mr. Sranuey. “ Yes, quite true. Men of rank
have their barges tugged by war-boats, common
watermen not being admitted into the same boat
with them.

« A singularly absurd custom takes place in this
country, in certain forms of political homage shown
to a white elephant—a preternatural animal kept
for the purpose—superbly lodged near the royal
palace, sumptuously dressed and fed, provided with
functionaries like a second sovereign, held next in |
rank to the king, and superior to the queen, and
made the recipient of presents, and other tokens of
respect from foreign ambassadors.” ;

Cuaries. “ Well, that zs an odd superstition.
I am much obliged to you for going out of the track
to tell us these strange ‘ sayings and doings’ of the
Burmese. Are we now to resume our station ?”

Mr. Witton. “ You are pilot, Charles; we rely
on your guidance! Go where you please: we are
not to control your movements.”

Cuarues. “Then. like Sir James Brooke, I
will go to Borneo; but [ do not expect to be made
a rajah for my trouble: indeed, I scarcely know if
I should like to live there, although it is the largest
island in the world, and is very fertile, and contains
diamond mines and vast quantities of gold.”

Mr. Stanuey. “ By-the-by, that reminds me of
the fact that the petty prince of Mattan, in Borneo,

26


802 SIR JAMES BROOKE.

is in possession of one of the largest diamonds in
the world. It was obtained a hundred years ago
from the mines of Landak, and is worth 269,378/.”

Emma. “Which-re the other large diamonds?”

Mr: Witton. “The Great Russian diamond,
which is valued at 304,200/.; and the Great Pitt
diamond, valued at 149,6052. But we are depart-
ing from our subject. Borneo is, next to New Hol-
land, the largest island in the world It is 900
miles long, and 700 broad.”

Dora. “When did Sir James Brooke go to
Borneo, and what was his object in going ?”

Mr. Witton. “In August, 1839, he anchored
off Borneo; and his object was purely philanthro-
pic. He went to spread abroad the glorious truths
of Christianity—to arouse the slumbering energies
of these interesting people—to increase trade—to
suppress piracy,—and to gain information for the
profit of his own native land. Such were his prin-
cipal motives. Particulars of his success, of the
benefits he has conferred on thousands of his fel-
Jow-creatures, and of his travels and adventures,
may be seen in his own published journal, to more
advantage than I can possibly set them before
you.”

Me. Barraup. “Since Sir James Brooke’s visit,
the Dido and several other vessels of war have
cruised in the Asiatic Archipelago, all tending to
suppress piracy, and encourage native trade and
commerce. The island of Labuan, off the north-
west of Borneo, has been ceded to England, and
Sir James Brooke appointed agent for the British
803

| BORNEO.

| Government,—an appointment which confers on
him additional power and influence ; besides which,
the Sultan has nominated him Rajah of Sarawak.
Thus, in the course of a few years, has a complete
revolution been worked in one of the finest portions
of our globe, and a new and better system of things
been established, all through the enlightened and
philanthropic energy of a single individual.”
Cuartes. “Borneo is the chief of the Sunda
group, is extremely fertile, producing all sorts of
tropical fruits, and various spices and drugs. Much
of the interior is covered by immense forests, in-
habited by wild animals, and aboriginal tribes of
human beings almost as wild. It is in Borneo that
the largest of the monkey tribe, the ponga, equal-
ling the human race in stature, is to be found ; also
the ourang-outang, or Simia Satyrus, which comes
nearer to man in his looks, manners, and gait.
Some writers assert that these animals light fires,
at which they broil their fish and rice; but these
accounts are not verified by recent observers. Wild
bees are so numerous here, that their wax forms a
very extensive article of export.”
Mes. Witton. “ Borneo is called, by the na-
tives, Pulo Kalamantan. Borneo was the name of
| a city, the residence of a powerful prince in 1520,
when Magellan went there: hence the Spaniards
concluded that the whole island belonged to this
prince, ard they called it all Borneo. There area
great many tribes of Indians in this large island,
and the sea-coasts are inhabited by Malayans, of
whom Sir James Brooke speaks in the highes




804 ISLE OF BOURBON.

terms, as regards honesty, cleanliness, &c. They
understand the art of cutting, polishing, and setting
their diamonds. Gold and silver filigree works
they excel in ; and they are otherwise ingenious,
but can scarcely be considered industrious.”

Dora. ‘South-west of Sumatra, in latitude 12°
south, longitude 97° east, are the Cocos or Keeling
Islands, which are entirely coralline in their forma-
tion; very fertile, with a salubrious climate. In
1830, Captain Ross and Alexander Hare, Esq., un-
dertook to cultivate these islands, and render them
productive. They succeeded, and they now form a
fine settlement.”

Cuartes. “T shall feel greatly obliged if Mr.
Stanley will take the helm, and steer us across the
Indian Ocean ; for there are such hundreds, I might
almost say thousands, of islands, that I feel con-
vinced I shall run you all ashore, where none of
you are disposed to go.”

Mr. Srantey. “Come, then, I will relieve you
for a while, because it would be most unpleasantly
awkward for the ladies to be cast ashore on a desert
island; and equally so.on an inhabited one, if they
possessed no letters of introduction to the natives.

“In crossing the Indian Ocean, we must sail by
a great many islands; but I do not think it will
be prudent to go ashore until we arrive at the Isle
of Bourbon, and there we can pass a few days very
comfortably before we sail for Madagascar.”

Emma. “Oh, yes! Bourbon is quite a civilized
island. It belongs to the French, does it not,

mamma ?” |
seer i piace ete aaa Ae a AN









ISLE OF FRANCE. 805

Mrs. Witton. “Yes, my dear; but the dis-
covery was not theirs. Mascarenhas. a Portuguese
navigator, claims the credit. He discovered it in
1545, and it bore his name until the French took
possession of it in the next century. When they
first occupied it, the sides of the mountains were
covered with forests, which reached even to the
shores. The whole of the lower lands have since
been cleared; but the centre of this island is still
covered with its primitive vegetation, which affords
forty-one different species of woods serviceable for
arts and manufactures. ‘The coasts abound with
fish and large turtles, and furnish also coral and
ambergris. Bourbon contains a college, and nu-
merous schools, sixteen churches, two hospitals,
two establishments for the relief of the poor, and
two prisons.”

Mr Barnaup. “ Why are we to take no notice
of the fine colony of Mauritius, or Isle of France ?
It is quite as large as Bourbon: moreover itis a
British possession.”

Mr. Srantey. “I see no just cause or impedi-
ment why we should not land there. Let us see,
what is its size?”

Cuarxes. “Its circumference is about 140 miles.
Port Louis is its principal town, and is said to con-
tain 30,000 inhabitants ; it has an excellent harbor,
capable of containing 50 large vessels ; and it is
well protected by nature from the violence of the
weather, and from the attacks of enemies, by strong
fortifications.”

Grorcr. “Now to Madagascar. I am longing
26*


306 _ MADAGASCAR.

to go there ; for I know nothing about either coun-
try or people.”

Mrs. Witton. “Madagascar is a large and
beautiful island, with mountains, valleys, lakes, and
streams, diversifying its whole extent. It is be-
tween 800 and 900 miles long, and between 200
and 300 broad. The metals dug here, are gold,
silver, copper, steel, and iron ; and a great variety of
precious stones are found in the rivers and brooks
of Madagascar. Civet is plentiful, and is taken
from the civet cat; and the natives obtain musk
from the crocodile, and call it tartave. Tanana-
rievo, the capital, stands on the summit of a lofty
hill, and commands an extensive prospect of the
surrounding country. The principal houses are of
wood, and the palace of the king is about the
centre of the town, enclosed in a high palisading of
strong poles.” |

Georce. “Ifthe palace be so homely, what can
the poor folks’ houses be like ?”

Mr. Witton. “Oh! they are of wood too, but
mere huts; they have no chimneys, and the door
and window affording the only means of escape for
the smoke arising from the fires, which are kindled
on the floor of the house, the soot collects on the
inner side of the roofs of their dwellings, where it
is never disturbed by the people, who consider it a
badge of honorable ancestry to have large quanti-
ties of soot hanging in long black shreds from the
roof of their dwelling.”

Emma. “ What a dirty badge! Are they dirty
people?” ... 7 L Se ete ,


A



THE FOUR SPIRITS. 307

Mr. Stanutey. “They are not exactly dirty, but
very slothful; and when not compelled to exert
themselves in husbandry or war, they pass their
time in sleep. They have little thought for the
morrow ; and, in fact, seem to be a thoroughly con-
tented happy race ; and so they ought to be, in one
sense, for they are surrounded by every comfort, and
even luxury, which the hand of nature can pro-
duce. Their characteristic feature is simplicity ;
and they regard the example of their forefathers as
authority for every action.”

Dora. “They are Christians, I believe ?”

Mrs. Witton. “I wish I could say they are,
my dear Dora. Some Christians there certainly are
in Madagascar; but the majority are ruled by su-
perstition. They acknowledge one only true God,
the Creator of heaven and earth, and the Supreme
Ruler of the universe, and they call him ‘ Ungharry,’
or ‘ Zanhare,’ which signify the ‘ Highest God,’ or
‘God above.’ They believe him to possess infi-
nite power ; but they consider him too great a being
to condescend to attend to the concerns of mortals:
they therefore suppose that four inferior spirits are
appointed, to whom are delegated the affairs of the
world. These are denominated the Lords of the
North, South, East, and West. The East is sup-
posed to be the dispenser of plagues and miseries to
maukind, by the command of the Great God. The
other three are employed in the dispensation of
benefits. Besides this, they have faith in a world
of spirits, and believe that every family has its
guardian angel, which is generally supposed to be




[ 808 THE MISSIONARIES.

the soul of a particular ancestor; and, strangely
enough, although they believe in the immortality
of the soul, they deny that there can be a future
punishment, or that the soul can suffer evil after
its separation from the body; but they assert that
bad men will be punished in this world by a com-
plication of misfortunes, and that the good will be
rewarded by health, constancy of friends, increase
of fortune, and obedience of children.”

Granpy. “ There was at one period great hopes
concerning Madagascar. Missionaries went out,
and were cordially welcomed by the authorities, al-
though the people, from ignorance, were hostile.
But, poor creatures! white men had never visited
their shores but to carry away their children and
friends to sell them for slaves in different parts of
the world ; and, of course, they were very suspicious ;
so much so, that when the missionaries first en-
deavored to establish schools in Madagascar, the pa-
rents refused to allow their children to attend. al-
leging that the white men wanted them for no other
purpose than to eat them; for they attributed all
their sorrows to the cannibalism of the white peo-
ple, believing that the slaves they captured were
caught, as wild animals would be, only for food.
They carried their antipathy so far, that, rather
than permit their little ones to enter the schools,
they hid them in rice holes, where they were often
suffocated. King Radama reigned at that time,
and, being a convert himself, he naturally desired
the conversion of his people. He reasoned with
them, and prohibited the secretion of the unfortu-


aa aR LO ——= ee oe



HORRIBLE CUSTOM. 809

nate children, and after a time, by God’s blessing,
the people became aware of the advantage of the
schools, and many were converted from the error
of their ways, and died rejoicing in God their
Saviour. But Radama died also; and there arose
a sovereign who knew not God ; enemies crept into
the fold, and endeavored to destroy the good work
of the pious missionaries. They partially succeed-
ed; and in 1837 these worthy men were obliged to
quit Madagascar, and have never since been able
to revisit it with any prospect of success. We can-
not understand why this great work should be al-
lowed to fall to the ground ; but God in His wisdom
appears to have withheld his blessing for a season,
and we must in patience await the issue.”

-Grorce. “The Malagasses were never canni-
bals, were they ?”

Mr. Witton. “No. Their ordinary food con-
sists of the natural produce of the soil ; principally
rice, dressed in the simplest manner, and seasoned
with pepper; and they usually drink hot water or
broth from the boiled meats ; wines, of which they
make several kinds, are reserved for the entertain-
ments of their friends on occasions of festivity or
ceremony. Their usual dinner hour is ten in the
morning, and that of supper four in the afternoon.”

Mr. Srantey. “Although not cannibals, their
superstition prompts them to many acts of cruelty ;
for instance, one half of the infant population is
murdered by the misfortune of being born on an
unlucky day ; and, to prove the truth of the dogma,
they are deliberately killed. One mode of perpe-






a a

810 THE PIRATES RETREAT.















trating this unnatural deed, is by taking the infant
to a retired spot in the neighborhood of the village,
digging a grave sufficiently large to receive it, pour-
ing in a quantity of water slightly warmed, putting
a piece of cloth upon the infant’s mouth, placing it
in the grave, filling this up with earth, and leaving
the helpless child, thus buried alive, a memorial of
their own affecting degradation, and the relentless
barbarism of their gloomy superstition, and a pain-
ful illustration of the truth of God’s word, which
declares that ‘the dark places of the earth are full
of the habitations of cruelty.’ ”

Mr. Witton. “We cannot enlighten these peo-
ple without help from on high; and their circum-
stances are too melancholy to dwell on. Let us
continue our voyage, and pray for their conversion.
Who can inform me how many bays there are
around this great island ?”

Grorce. “I can, papa. There are fourteen on
my map; and the Bay of Antongil, up in the
north-east, is the largest.”

Mr. Witton. “So it is, George; and near it
lies the Island of St. Mary, which once formed the
principal retreat of the pirates who, in the 17th cen-
tury, infested the Indian Ocean. It is a delightful
island, abounding in every necessary of life. Now,
I have a droll story to tell you, and that will con-
clude our remarks on Madagascar.



























MALAGASSY FABLE, 811




Sranslatfon of a Plalagassy Fable, accounting for the
enmity between the Crocovile and the Wog.

« «A serpent and a young crocodile dwelt in the
same part of the country. The serpent fixed itself
in a tree by the water-side; and underneath the
same tree the young crocodile watched for prey. After
a time a dog came to drink; the crocodile pursued
him; down came the serjent to stop the crocodile.
“What have you to do with me?” said the croco-
dile.—“ Why, you are seeking to eat everybody
that passes this way,” replied the serpent.—“ Be
quiet,’—said the crocodile, “lest I give you a blow
with my tail, and cut you in two.”—‘ And pray
what are you 2” asked the serpent: “ T suppose you
are thinking that, because I have neither hands
nor feet, I can do nothing ; but, perhaps, you have
not looked at my tail, how sharp it is.” —“ Cease
your noise,” replied the crocodile, “ or I'll just break
you in two.” The serpent, then becoming exces-
sively angry, struck the crocodile with his tail, and
wounded his loins, so as nearly to break his body.
All the fish were astonished ; and, addressing the
crocodile, said, “‘ How is this,—you that can con-
quer people and cattle, however large, and anything
else2” The crocodile, ashamed, dived out of sight ;
while the serpent resumed his place on the tree.
The crocodile, however, hoping to repay him, kept
watching for prey. After a time, there came a
goose to the water. The crocodile pursued, and
got hold of him ; when down came the serpent, to


312 ' MALAGASSY FABLE.

stop him, as before. “Where are you going ?” cried
the crocodile.—“ Let that goose alone,” said the
serpent, “lest I kill you.” The crocodile replied
contemptuously, and the serpent, enraged, exclaim-
ed, “ Well. this time, see if you are not the worse
for it;” and then he struck the crocodile. and wound-
ed him on the face, and made him screain again.
So he was conquered that time, and the goose got
off. Then all the little fish came again, and said
to the crocodile, “ How is it that you are beaten by
that foolish serpent? You are wise and powerful,
and that little fellow comes and beats you.” Com-
pletely ashamed, again the crocodile hid himself in
the water, and began to think by what means he
might conquer this serpent upon the tree. After
thinking a long time, the crocodile determined on
boring a hole through the root of the tree; and for
a whole week he kept on boring. Presently, a
dog came to drink; afterwards a goose; also a
man; but, the crocodile keeping at his work, the
serpent exulted in having intimidated his adver-
sary, and said, “ There zs nothing so strong, then,
as Tam.” The crocodile heard him, and labored
with all his might to finish boring at the root, one
branch of which remained to cut. The crocodile
then watched at the water-side a good while, when
down came the dog to drink: the crocodile pursued
him; the serpent, as before, came to oppose him,
calling out, “ Let that dog alone there, lest you get
the worst of it.”——“ You,” said the crocodile, “do not
fear God. Yonder dogs deceive us, and that’s the
reason I pursue them: as to people, I never touch

testing Em me nnn ae re - gp cenereo esieietnenetee atts a
MALAGASSY FABLE. 813

them, unless they are guilty of witchcraft. I only
eat the small things,—so just let me alone.” When
the serpent heard that, he replied, “There 2s no
God; for if there were, I should have had both
hands and feet: there is no God at all. But I will
have your carcass to-day.” Then the dog and the
serpent together made an attack on the crocodile ;
the crocodile got weaker, and dived in the water ;
when all the little fish came again, and expressed
their astonishment, as before, that he should be
conquered by th&t little serpent. “ Wait a little,”
said the crocodile, “and you will see I am not con-
quered by him.” The serpent got up the tree as usual ;
the crocodile watched,—bored the hole completely,
—then looked up, and saw the serpent sound asleep
on a branch overhanging the water; then, cutting
what remained of the root, the tree broke and fell
into the water, the serpent falling with it. Then
all the fishes acknowledged that the crocodile was
superior, for he had got the serpent into the water,
and made him dive in it, and kept him under water
half-an-hour. The serpent, however, survived it,
and repented of what he had done. “Oh! that I
had never opposed you; only let me go, and I will
never attack you again.” Ah!” said the croco-
dile; “‘but as often as I pursued the dog, I was
pursued by you; so you must suffer in your turn.”
Thus the crocodile made him heartily repent before
he let him go. “Then,” said the serpent, “if ever
I touch you again, may I be conquered.” After
that, the crocodile let him go. He was glad to get
off; but he had been beaten, and took an oath not
27


314 KERGUELAN’S LAND.

to renew the attack when the crocodile went to
look out for prey. The crocodile, however, owed
the dog a grudge, because he had attacked him,
and so laid all his family under a curse to devour
the dog whenever opportunity offered. “ Unless
you do that,” said he, “ may you die without pos-
terity ; for yonder dog took part with the serpent
against me.”

Mr. Srantey. “ Well, George, are you like the
serpent? Have you had enough of the water?”

Grorcr. “Oh! no! I shall be very sorry when
the voyages are over.”

Mr. Stranutey. “ You have been on the ocean a
weary while. Have you, like Sir James Ross,
reached either of the Poles ?”

Georce. “No, sir; but we have been very near
the North Pole; have we not, Charles ?”

Cuarues. “ Yes; in the Arctic Ocean we have
been as high as 80° parallel of north latitude to
Spitzbergen; and in the Antarctic as high as the
66° parallel of south latitude, to the New South
Shetland Isles.”

Mr. Stantey. “ Well done! You will not then
start any objections on the score of cold, to accom-
pany me to Kerguelan’s Land?”

“Oh dear, no!” exclaimed the boys. “We do
not mind the cold.”

Mr. Strantey. “ Kerguelan’s land was discovered
in 1772 by Monsieur de Kerguelan, a French navi-
gator, who took it for a continent. and so reported it to
his government. He was sent back the following year
to make critical examination. Three years after this,


ISLE OF DESOLATION. 315

Captain Cook fell in with the island, and, not find-
ing it of any importance, called it Isle of Desola-
tion. But, despite its name, it is not a bad place
by any means. It is a safe and commodious har-
bor, and abundance of fresh water. However, con-
sidering its latitude, it is exceedingly bare of vege-
tation; and there is only one plant which claims
attention, that is the famous cabbage discovered by
Captain Cook. For 130 days his crew enjoyed
the luxury of fresh vegetables, which were served
out with their salt beef and pork, and prevented
sickness among them.”

Grorce. “ Are there any animals on the island ?”

Mr. Barravuv. “Numbers of birds ; penguins,
albatrosses, gulls, ducks, cormorants, &c.; and the
island is the resort of seals and sea-elephants.”

Cuares. “It cannot be a very pretty place ?”

Mr. Stantey. “Here is an idea of it. The
whole island appears to be deeply indented by bays
and inlets, the surface intersected by numerous
small lakes and water-courses. These becoming
swollen by the heavy rains, which alternate with
the frost and snow, accompanied by violent gusts
of wind, rush down the sides of the mountains and
along the ravines in countless impetuous torrents,
forming in many places beautiful foaming cascades,
wearing away the rocks, and strewing the valleys
below with vast fragments”

Cuartes. “That is grand, but decidedly not
conufortable.”

Granvy. “Sailors need great powers of endur-
ance to undergo such hardships as they must con-




816 STORY OF A SAILOR.

tinually encounter on these voyages of discovery.
How grateful we ought to feel towards the brave
men who hazard life, property, everything to ex-
tend our knowledge! for how many happy hours
are we indebted to their researches ! how often have
we perused with delight, the voyages, the discov-
eries, the exciting descriptions of enterprising sail-
ors! and all, perhaps, without reflecting that the
very adventures which have so much amused us,
may have been the ruin of all their hopes, and the
destroyer of all their happiness in this world.
While you are sipping your wine, preparatory to
our last voyage, I will tell you a true

Story of a Satlor as related by phimsellt.

“Four years ago I left the port of Boston, the
master of a fine ship bound for China. I was
worth ten thousand dollars, and was the husband
of a young and handsome wife, whom I married
but six months before. When I left her, I prom-
ised to return to her in less than a twelvemonth.
I took all my money with me, save enough to sup-
port my wife in my absence, for the purpose of trad-
ing when in China, on my own account For a
long time we were favored with prosperous winds ;
but when in the China seas a terrible storm came
upon us, so that in a short time I saw the vessel
must be lost, for we were drifting on the rocks of
an unknown shore. I ordered the men to provide
each for himself in the best possible manner, and

a ese
fe STORY OF A SAILOR. 317











forget the ship, as it was an impossibility to save
her. We struck: a sea laid me upon the rocks
senseless; and the next would have carried me
back to a watery grave, had not one of the sailors
dragged me further up the rocks. There were only
four of us alive; and when morning came, we found
that we were on a small uninhabited island, with
nothing to eat but the wild fruit common to that
portion of the earth; and there we remained sixty
days before we could make ourselves known to any
ship. We were at length taken to Canton; and
there I had to beg, for my money was at the bot-
torn of the sea, and I had not taken the precaution
to have it insured. It was nearly a year before I
had an opportunity of coming home; and then I,
a captain, was obliged to ship as a common sailor.
It was two years from the time I left America
that I landed in Boston. I was walking in a hur-
ried manner up one of its streets, when I met my
brother-in-law. He could not speak nor move, but
he grasped my hand, and tears gushed from his
eyes. ‘Is my wife alive? I asked. He said
nothing. Then I wished that I had perished with
my ship, for I thought my wife was dead; but he
very soon said, ‘She is alive.’ Then it was my
turn to cry for joy. He clung to me and said,
‘Your funeral sermon has been preached, for we
have thought you dead for a long time.’ He said
that my wife was living in our little cottage in the
interior of the state. It was then three o'clock in
the afternoon, and I took a train of cars that would
carry me within twenty-five miles of my wife.
27*







318 STORY OF A SAILOR.

Upon leaving the cars I hired a boy, though it was
night, to drive me home. It was about two o'clock
in the morning when that sweet little cottage of
mine appeared in sight. It was awarm moonlight
night, and I remember how like a heaven it looked
tome. I got out of the carriage and went to the
window of the room where the servant girl slept,
and gently knocked. She opened the window and
asked, ‘ Who is there?’ ‘Sarah, do you not know
me?’ said I. She screamed with fright, for she
thought me a ghost; but I told her to unfasten the
door and let me in, for [ wished to see my wife.
She let me in and gave me a light, and I went up
stairs to my wife’s room. She lay sleeping quietly.
Upon her bosom lay her child, whom I had never
seen. She was as beautiful as when [I left her;
but I could see a mournful expression upon her
face. Perhaps she was dreaming of me. I gazed
for a long time; I did not make any noise, for I
dared not wake her. At length I imprinted a soft
kiss upon the cheek of my little child. While do-
ing it a tear dropped from my eye and fell upon her
cheek. Her eyes opened as clearly as though she
had not been sleeping. I saw that she began to be
frightened, and I said, ‘ Mary, it is your husband !”
and she clasped me about my neck, and fainted.
But I will not describe that scene. She is now the
happy wife of a poor man. I am endeavoring to
accumulate a little property, and then I will leave
the sea forever.”

Mr. Witton. “A vote of thanks for Grandy.
_ That little narrative has agreeably refreshed our








MOROCCO. 319

minds, while the wine and cake has had the like
| effect on our bodies. Now, voyage the last!”

Grorce. “Oh, papa! that sounds so strangely.
| I cannot bear the last of anything ; and now par-
ticularly, it reminds us how soon our happy evening
|

















meetings will be at an end, and naught left but the
bare recollection of them.”

Mrs. Witton. “ Well, my dear, I will not dis-
tress you by repeating the obnoxious word. We
will start anew, and sail round the coast of Africa.
We are a goodly party, and I dare venture to say,
shall not lack for amusement during the voyage.”

| Mr. Srantey. “Then we are not to go so far
| south as Victoria, Land, and see all the wonderful
things Sir James Ross saw ?”

Mr. Witton. “No: we have been in the cold
long enough, and I am rejoiced that we have no
more enormous icebergs to encounter—no more
still ice-fields stretching away in every direction, or
clashing and grinding under the influence of mighty
storms—no more mountains cased in eternal ice ;
but we have really bid adieu to the wintry desola-
tion of those frozen regions that

‘Lie dark and wild, beat with perpetual storms.’ ”

Mr. Stantey. “Iam glad to get into a more
genial climate, and I perceive our next voyage com-
mences in the Mediterranean; that is, if it be the
intention of our young discoverers to call at the
bays on the north of Africa.”

Dora. “It is our intention, sir; and the first
gulf, called Malillih, is on the coast of Morocco.
scat gage ai iia aaa

320 A MOORISH BEAUTY.

Mrs. Wilton has kindly undertaken the land sur-
vey.”

Mrs. Witton. “ Morocco is now only the re-
mains of a state, although at one period, when the
Moors were in the zenith of their power, it was a
splendid country. Still, however, the inhabitants
entertain the loftiest ideas of themselves and their
native land, and half-naked creatures as they are,
they style the Europeans ‘agein,’ or barbarians, and
hold them in contempt.”

Granpy. “ But the Moors, althouch Mohamme-
dans, are not destitute of virtues ; and, as a pecu-
liarly good trait in their character, a Moor never
abandons himself to despair ; neither sufferings nor
losses can extort from him a single murmur ; to
every event he submits as decreed by the will of
God, and habitually hopes for better times. We
might learn something even from the Moors.”

Mr. Srantey. Ay: but we must keep at a dis-
tance if we wish the ladies of our party to learn ;
for the Moors would altogether object to teach them,
as women are there regarded merely as tools—crea-
tures without souls. They would not admire our
ladies either, for their idea of female loveliness is
most singular. Beauty and corpulence are synony-
mous. A perfect Moorish beauty is a load fora
camel; and a woman of moderate pretensions to
beauty requires a slave on each side to support her.
In consequence of this depraved taste for unwieldy
bulk, the Moorish ladies take great pains to ac-
quire it early in life ; and for this purpose, the young
girls are compelled by their mothers to devour a
ALGIERS. 321

great quantity of kous-kous and to drink a large
portion of camel’s milk every morning. It is no
matter whether the girl has an appetite or not, the
kous-kous and milk must be swallowed, and obe-
dience is frequently enforced by blows.”

Dora. “How very disagreeable! I scarcely
know which is the worst stage of the affair, the -
cause or the effect.”

Emma. “I should say the cawse; for the fat
comes by degrees, and cannot inconvenience them
so much as swallowing quantities of food and drink
when they require it not.”

Mr. Witton. “ They have other quaint notions.
Among the points of etiquette which prevail at the
court of Morocco, the following is mentioned :—The
word death is never uttered in presence of the Sul-
tan. When it is unavoidable to mention the death
of any person, it is expressed by such words as,
‘He has fulfilled his destiny ;’ on which the mon-
arch gravely remarks, ‘God be merciful to him !’
Another point of whimsical superstition is, that the
numbers five and fifteen must not be mentioned in
presence of the sovereign.”

Grorce. “TI should be continually saying for-
bidden words if I were there; so we will go on, if
you please, pilot.”

Emma. “I havethe bays. They are Boujanyah,
and Storah, on the coast of Algiers. This state is
inferior to Morocco, both in extent and fertility ; but
the city has a grand harbor, is itself very populous,
and contains some splendid ruins.”

Dora. “I have the gulfs) They are Tunis,

*
822 EGYPT.

velvets, cloth, and red bonnets, which are worn by

5 a























Hammamet, and Khabs, on the coast of Tunis,
which was once the seat of Carthaginian power,
but like the other states, is now reduced to a tithe
of its former greatness, although it is still one of
the finest cities in Africa. It has a good harbor
and fortifications. The manufactures are silks,

the people.”

Mr. Witton. “There is yet another Barbary
State to pass: who has a word for Tripoli ?”

Cuartes. “T[have,madam. Tripoli is the most
easterly, and the most wretched of the Barbary
states. It extends straggling along a great extent
of coast, where may be seen the enormous Gulf of
Sidra or Sert, called by the natives ‘ Djou al Kabit,
or Gulf of Sulphur, and the Gulf of Bombah. Tri-
poli received its name from once containing three
cities of considerable importance, which are now
little else than ruins.”

Mrs. Witton. “ The ‘ Research’ has not tarried
long on that coast, at any rate. Wemust now sup-
pose ourselves authors instead of travellers; and
without thinking of impossibilities, straightway
carry our ship overland, across the Isthmus of Suez,
and launch quietly on the waters of the Red Sea.”

Mr. Barravp. “It is scarcely fair fo pass
Egypt without a recognition : the Egyptians would
sympathize with us in our partiality for the ancient
element. They are special lovers of two things—
gardens and water. Even stagnant water, if sweet,
they consider a luxury ; running water, however
dirty, they hold to be extremely luxurious ;

a


ABYSSINIA. 328

when during the inundation, the canal of Cairo is
full, all the houses on its banks are occupied by
persons, who sit in their leisure hours, smoking by
its muddy waters; but the height of their enjoy-
ment consists in sitting by a fountain—this they
esteem equal to paradise.”

Mrs. Witton. “In the Red Sea there are eleven
gulfs of moderate dimensions, and some small bays:
we will not wait to examine them, as they are not
important; but how are we to sail out of this sea?
George, will you undertake to pilot us?”

GeorGcE. “I know no other way out than through
the Straits of Babelmandeb, by Abyssinia, of which
country I should like to have a description.”

Mrs. Witton. “The country consists of a suc-
cession of hills and valleys, the former for the*most
part well-wooded, and the latter fertile; with the
climate mild upon the whole for so tropical a lati-
tude. For the people and customs I must refer you
to some other more intelligent member.”

Mr. Stantey. “ The present Bishop of Jerusa-
lem* went to Abyssinia some years ago; and he
has sketched a few interesting particulars concern-
ing the people. ‘As soon as a child is born, it is
immediately taught to drink lukewarm butter,
with a little honey. After the age of six or seven
years, the children are considered servants. The
boys are shepherds, till the age of fourteen or fif-
teen, and reside with their parents ; but if their pa-
rents are poor, they leave them, by their own cho ce
at the age of eight or nine years, in order to get

* Right Rev. Samuel Gobat,















| 824 ABYSSINIAN CUSTOMS.



their livelihood by keeping cattle elsewhere. The
girls are occupied in managing the little affairs of
the house; and begin to fetch water, which is al-
ways at a distance, as soon as they can walk steadi-
ly. At the age of eight or nine years they begin
to fetch wood from the mountains. There are some
fathers who send their children into convents to
have them instructed ; but there are many who will
not do this, lest their children should become monks:
on this account many boys desert their parents, in
order to seek instruction for themselves. Some en-
ter the house of a priest as servants during the day,
and they receive instruction at night. Others go,
after the lessons are over, to get food by begging.
There are also many persons in easy circumstan-
ces fvho support those children who seek for in-
struction without the help of their parents. Near-
ly all the great men send their children into con-
vents to learn reading, and to repeat the psalms
from memory ; this is all the instruction they re-
ceive. The daughters of the higher class Jearn no-
thing but spinning and managing the affairs of the
house; there are, however, a few ladies who can
read.’ ”

Mr. Barraup. “ They seem early accustomed
to habits of industry; but in other respects, the
training of the children is not very rigid: almost
the only crime they punish them for, is stealing.
Mr. Stanley’s author, Bishop Gobat, says, he saw a
mother, usually of a very meek temper, and who
would not see a man cause suffering to the smallest
reptile, burn the skin off both the hands and lips


a nt ct a es en ee a RENEE:

THEIR RELIGION. 825
|
|

of her daughter, only nine years of age, for having
dipped her finger into a jar of honey !”

Emma. “ Oh! how extremely cruel! they surely
are not Christians.”

Granpy. “They are—and differ very little from
the Roman Catholics of more civilized countries.
Some of the points of variation in their doctrine
are as follow :—They believe in no separate purga-
tory; but that almost all men go to hell at their
death, and that from time to time, the Archangel
Michael descends into that place of torment, in
order to deliver men’s souls, and to introduce them
to paradise, sometimes for the sake of the prayers
and meritorious works of their relatives and their
priests. They have a great number of tales in sup-
port of this doctrine ; the one they most frequently
make use of, is the story of a man who had done
nothing but evil when on earth, except that he had
always observed the fast on Wednesday and Fri-
day. When he died, he descended into hell, toa
dark place; but had always two lights surrounding
him, by the assistance of which he could go to the
gate which separated hell from paradise. The
Archangel Michael then went to receive him; say-
ing, that the two lamps which had saved him, were
the fasts which he had observed on Wednesdays
and Fridays.”

Mr. Srantey. “ That is one of the fallacies of
the Romish Church. But I am not surprised that
popery acquires such power over the ignorant; for
it assails the mind through every sense ; through
the sight by its pageantry, the hearing by its




326 AFRICAN COAST.

splendid music, the smell by the delicious odor of
the incense, and thus gratifies and soothes its vo-
taries by the application of forms destitute of power.
But enough of this ; if we venture on such a sub-
ject, we are continually reminded, that to speak
evil of other sects is malicious, and that we cannot
disapprove of a man’s doctrine without having an
uncharitable feeling towards the individual. J
most strenuously deny the truth of that assertion ;
for I reckon many amongst my dearest connections,
whose friendship I value extremely, but whose re-
ligious tenets I utterly repudiate. But I fear this
is incomprehensible to the youngsters; we will re-
turn to business.

“The coast of Africa, from the Red Sea to the
River Juba, which is as far as the equator, is in-
habited by a tribe called Somauli, who are reckon-
ed to be descendants from the aborigines of the
country, and were early subjected to the laws of
the Koran, by the Arab merchants trading with
them. They are a mild people, of pastoral habits,
and confined entirely to the coast; the whole of
the interior of this portion being occupied by an
untamable tribe of savages, called Galla, perhaps
the most uncultivated and ferocious people in ex-
istence.”

Emma. “We shall cross the equator before we
enter another bay ; then, in the parallel of 3° south,
lies the Bay of Formosa, on the coast of Zangue-
bar; and 4° nearer south, is the little island of

Zanzibar. Iam a stranger here.”
J

err
ee

Mrs. Witton. “Zanzibar is a most valuabl
|
|
|

SEYCHELLE ISLES. 827

possession of the Imaun of Muscat, on account of
its abundant produce of grain and sugar. The
climate is particularly fatal to Europeans, so that
the crews of vessels trading there are never allowed
to sleep on shore. But there is perhaps no place,
where refreshments are so cheap as in this island:
fowls may be had for two shillings the dozen,
sugar twopence, and rice one penny a pound; and
a large bullock is sold for one sovereign.”

Cuartes. “No great advantage to get food
cheap in a country so unhealthy that you lack the
appetite to eat it.”

Mr. Barravup. “No; we will not go there to
victual owr ship. Here are the Seychelle Isles
almost in the latitude of Formosa Bay; suppose
we ‘’bout ship’ and look in upon them. There
appear to be fifteen, and navigators say they are
composed of granite rocks. Their chief inhabitants
are French Roman Catholics, who have very little
of either religion or morality, but spend the greater
portion of their time in dancing and gambling. All
the blacks resident on these isles are unhappy
slaves, although their owners live in luxurious in-
dolence.”

Grorcr. “They are such small islands, and
some of them so close that, if I lived there, I would
build bridges to go from one island to another.”

Me. Barravup. “ The inhabitants do that with-
out a bridge. They have numerous canoes, built
and fitted with much skill and neatness. In these
they pay their visits, and at the close of a party a
stranger would be surprised at hearing the an-


328 MOZAMBIQUE.

nouncement— Madame le Jeune’s canoe is wait-
ing!’ instead of ‘ Madame le Jeune’s carriage stops
the way.’ But that is the fashion in the Seychelle
Isles. Torches are at hand; the ladies and gentle-
men are lighted to the water, where some stout
negroes almost in a state of nudity, await to trans-
port them to their own island.”

Dora. “That may be very delightful when
you are accustomed to it, but I should prefer a
carriage.

“ There are no more indentations until we enter
Mozambique Channel, where we shall find Pemba
Bay and Sofala Bay.”

Mrs. Witton. “ Pemba Bay is on the coast of
Mozambique, which belongs to the Portuguese.
The harbor of Mozambique is formed by a deep
inlet of the sea. At the entrance are three small
islets, which, together with reefs and shoals, render
the anchorage perfectly safe in the worst weather.
The city stands on an island of the same name,
formed of coral, very low and narrow, and scarcely
one mile and a halfin length. The streets in the
city are narrow, although the houses are mostly
lofty and well constructed ; but the place in itself
is fast sinking into insignificance, and its finest
buildings falling rapidly into decay. Mozambique,
like many other cities of the world, is now reduced
from its ancient wealth and vice-regal splendor, to
the almost forgotten seat of desolation and pov-
erty.”

Mr. Witton. “ Between this island and Sofala
Bay is the slave town Quillimane. It is in a com-
SMOKING THE HUBBLE-BUBBLE. 829

modious situation, and one of the finest countries
in the world; but is continually in a state of tur-
moil, from the different tribes striving by mutual
conflict to obtain prisoners for sale to the Portu-
guese, who wickedly excite the wars and fatten and
grow wealthy on the blood and wretchedness they
produce.”

Granpy. “The port of Sofala, its castle, its
town; in short everything relating to it, is most
interesting ; for in olden time this was the Ophir
of King Solomon, whence his fleets returned laden
with gold, algum-trees, and precious stones.”

Georcr. “Then the Ophir of Sumatra is not
the real Ophir, but only named after the place in
Africa, because it was rich in gold 2”

Mr. Witton. “ Exactly so, George. I did not
then explain it, as I wish you to feel sufficient in-
terest in the subject to inquire into the truth your-
self.”

Dora. “Delagoa Bay. This coast is a contin-
ued tract of land and sand-hills from fifty to five or
six hundred feet high, with a few straggling black
rocks.”

Mr. Witton. “ The inhabitants of this coast are
a harmless race, but have their own little peculiari-
ties ; and one of the greatest luxuries in life in the
opinion of a Delagoan is smoking the ‘ hubble-bub-
ble.’ A long hollow reed, or cane, ending in two
branches, the lower one immersed in a horn of wa-
ter, and the upper one capped by a piece of earthen-
ware, forming a bowl, is held in the hand; they
cover its top, with the exception of a small aperture,

28*









330 CAFFRARIA.

through which by a peculiar action of the mouth,
they draw the smoke through the water below;
they fill the mouth, and after having kept it there
some time, they eject it with violence from the ears
and nostrils. It makes them giddy, half stifles
them, and produces a violent coughing, accompa-
nied by profuse perspiration, and yet these people
consider it highly strengthening and beneficial.”

Cuarzes. “Is not Caffraria near here?”

Mr. Sranuey. “ Yes: but you must go a few
miles inland to see them; for the Caffres have an
extraordinary dislike to water, and will never trust
themselves on it, but from extreme necessity.”

Mr. Barravp. “The Caffres (Kaffirs) are worth
looking at, for they are a fine, handsome race of
men, nearly black, with very good and pleasing
features. Their dress, male and female, is com-
posed principally of softened hides; but the women
are so fond of ornaments as often to wear fifty neck-
laces at one time. Their huts are constructed in
the form of a beehive, and are perfectly water-tight
and warm. In times of peace the men tend the
cattle, the women cultivate the land. The elephant,
rhinoceros, buffalo, hippopotamus, lion, and various
others are hunted in Caffraria with great spirit by
the natives. Of a Divine Being whom they call
‘Uhlanger, or ‘Supreme, they have some idea ;
but as to a state of future rewards or punishments
they are altogether in ignorance. Sorcery and
witchcraft in various forms most extensively pre-
vail, and are the causes of much cruelty.”

Granvy. “To hundreds of the Caffres, however,


STORY OF THE LITTLE CAFFRE. 831

the preaching of the everlasting Gospel has been
productive of much temporal and eternal benefit ;
and an interesting illustration of this occurs in some
of the missionary records, which also exemplifies
the character of the unconverted Caffre.

Story of the little Cafkre.

“A little girl about eight years of age, was re-
clining on the ground, in the cool of the day, when
four wolves rushed upon the place. One of them
seized the child by the head, a second by the shoul-
der, and the other two by her legs. The people of
the kraal with all possible speed flew to her help,
and succeeded in releasing her, but apparently too
late. They tried for a few days to help her with
their medicines ; but finding all hope fail, and as
from the heat and flies she had now become loath-
some, they gave her her choice, either to be put to
death by the youths of the place, or go to the woods
to die or be farther devoured as might happen.
The little girl chose the woods. In this forlorn
condition she determined to cast herself on the
mercy of the missionaries; and although she had
never been at the station, she believed from what
she had heard, that could she reach the place, she
should receive that protection and help which her
unnatural relatives refused to give. With this res-
olution she set out; and although she had to travel
several miles through deep glens, she succeeded in
reaching the station, an awful picture of deformity


332 ALGOA BAY.

and suffering, all but in a state of nudity, covered
with large wounds to the number of fourteen,
among the most ghastly of which was that of the
head and face, where the wolf having endeavored
to grasp the whole head, had torn the mouth open
to the ear, stripping the head of the upper part of
its covering and making a ghastly wound of eight
inches. Through the mercy of God she recovered,
and was scarcely at all deformed; but she refused
ever to return to the cruel people who forced her
into the woods to die. She became a Christian,
and the Rev. Mr. Shaw, who relates the incident,
says, that one day, as he was walking a little dis-
tance from his house, he heard some one engaged
in fervent prayer ; he listened, it was the voice ofa
child; and going towards the place, he beheld in a
secluded spot among the weeds, the young Caffre
girl who had been rescued from the jaws of death,
earnestly pouring out her soul to the God of her
mercies, when she thought no eye saw, and no ear
heard her, but God.”

Mrs. Witton. “ How encouraging for the mis-
sionaries to find that the seed had been sown on
good ground, and was brought to bear the fruit of
righteousness through the blessing of the Almighty
God !”

Dora. “ Algoa Bay is on the coast of that por-
tion of Cape Colony, known by the name of Alba-
ny. It was discovered by Bartholomew Dias. His
sailors becoming discontented with their long voy-
age, hesitated to proceed any further, and he, to
satisfy their scruples, landed with the chief oficers








GRAHAM'S TOWN. 333

and several seamen, on an island in this bay, hop-
ing by the touching solemnities of religion to soften
a decision so discouraging to his adventurous hopes.
He caused the sacrament to be administered at the
foot of a cross, which he then planted with his own
hands, and which has given the name of Santa
Cruz to the island. There, upon this rugged spot,
at present only visited by a few fishermen, and
where European foot had never before trodden, were
the symbols of Christianity first displayed in the
Southern Ocean.”

Mrs. Witton. “Graham’s Town is the empori-
um of these eastern frontier districts of Cape Colo-
ny, and its main streets present a scene of incessant
commercial activity; while almost every article
whether of utility or of ornament, may be as readily
obtained as in most of the provincial towns of the
mother country. There are several good inns,
where visitors may command and receive every
reasonable comfort and attention. Religious ser-
vices are well attended, and numerous schools es-
tablished, in which the children are making encour-
aging progress. The flowers and fruits of most
parts of Europe flourish here, and the climate is
unexceptionable. There are a great many mission-
aries in Graham’s Town; and on the whole it may
be safely averred, that the general intelligence of
the inhabitants is not a whit inferior to that of the
middle and lower classes of any country in the
United Kingdom.”

Emma. “Camtoos or St. Francis Bay, is a few
miles further along the coast, and Plestenburg,



Ee eg ee ee ee ee





334 CAPE OF GOOD HOPE. | |

Mossel, Vaccas, and St. Sebastian’s Bay, are among
those in the south of Cape Colony.

“Cow Bay, or Bahia das Vaccas, it in lati-
tude 34° south, longitude 22° east, and is so called
on account of the vast number of sea-cows which
used to frequent it in former times. The chief
value of these animals is in their ivory tusks, which,
being harder than those of the elephant, and not so
liable to turn yellow, are much more esteemed by
dentists. Their hides are also valuable for harness
leathers; and the skins of the young ones make
handsome coverings for trunks.

“St. Sebastian’s Bay is at the mouth of Breede
River, and is said to possess good holding ground.
It is seldom visited, except by vessels intending to
enter the river; and, as that is not our intention,
we will pass it, and go on until we come to False
Bay, near the Cape of Good Hope.”

Mr. Witton. “False Bay is rather a sound
than a day. It contains within its capacious bosom
several fine and safe inlets, among which Simon’s
Bay is the most important. for there is the naval
arsenal and dépot; but the proximity of the me-
tropolis, and its more convenient bay, distant only
twenty-one miles, diverts the whole of the trade
from this excellent and perfectly land-locked har-
bor.”

Mrs. Witton. ‘“ The Cape of Good Hope is a
crown colony. Its affairs are administered by a
governor and a lieutenant-governor. The first has
his residence at Cape Town; the second, at Gra-
ham’s Town. With much truth we may describe

a ne a a nn ne

Smee





335

the inhabitants of Cape Colony at large, as a seri-
ous and religious people. In the towns and vil-
lages the strictest attention is paid toa close and
regular attendance on public worship ; and in the
country districts, where churches are ‘ few and far
between,’ and the opportunities difficult, the private
altar is every morning and evening duly served by
the head of each family. The Lord's Supper is ad-
ministered four times a year at every town and vil-
lage, when the greater part of the population make
a point of resorting thither with all the members
of their families, though the distance to be traversed
for the purpose often exceeds 200 miles.”

Mr. Barravp. “Cape Town is situated on the
shores of Table Bay, which is the chief harbor of
the Cape of Good Hope, and is exceedingly com-
modious; and close by rises a mountain of the
same name, to the height of 3582 feet, by a decliv-
ity so gradual, that it has been ascended on horse-
back. ~ I do not wish to detract from the general
goodness of the inhabitants of Cape Town, but I
must say they are an eager money-getting race.
On the arrival of a ship from England an auction
is generally held, and the various articles exhibited,
damaged and sound, under the shade of some tree
‘n the centre of the town; where an Englishman
would be amused to see one of the first merchants
shuffling round with a handful of tea, and telling
the audience that it is just upon the rise, and re-
commending that he be allowed to send home a
pound or two.”

Mr. Sranuey. “ When I was there a few months

CAPE TOWN. |










































CONSTANTIA.



since, [ was much struck with the appearance of
the streets. They are broad and handsome; but a
wide ditch, which the townsfolk dignify with the
name of a canal, runs through the centre. There
is generally but little water in this ditch, but mil-
lions of restless mosquitoes, which populate the
whole town, and (I speak from experience) are a
perfect torture. The houses being mostly plaster-
ed, have a stone-like and cleanly appearance, with
their green Venetian blinds, and plantations of
acacias and other Eastern trees, waving gracefully
in front of them. The climate is salubrious, and
provisions of all kinds abundant and cheap. I was
within a very few miles of Constantia, so famous
for its wines. Unfortunately I had no time to visit
it, but a description given by a gentleman,* who
was there much about the same time, will, perhaps,
answer our purpose better than my account. He
says :— The approach to Constantia is as romantic
and beautiful as it is possible to conceive, from the
niixture of the English shrubs and flowers with those
of Southern Africa. Here we passed by a long hedge
of monthly roses, all in full flower. Over our heads
waved the fine foliage of the banana and plantain.
There was a long vineyard loaded with grapes, and
the African negroes employed therein. Now we
pass an avenue of English oaks; and this brings
us to a fine large octagonal building in the Dutch
style, which is the residence of the proprietor of
Lower Constantia.’ Mr. Leigh next describes the

* Mr. Leigh, surgeon of the Australian Company’s ship
“South Australia.”

eg




THE BOSCHMEN. 887



interior of the wine vaults as ‘a long building, 100
yards or more; on either side enormous butts, with
polished oak ribs, kept in the cleanest style. As
I cannot offer you a glass of wine from these cele-
brated butts, I will not detain the party any longer.”

Cuaries. “The finest bay in the world falls to
my share. It is Saldana Bay, which is capable of
containing at safe anchorage the whole British
fleet, during all seasons of the year.”

Mr. Witton. “ But dame Nature, always capri-
cious in her favors, has denied fertility to the adja-
cent soil; and the supply of water is limited, in
consequence of which it is seldom resorted to, ex-
cept by foreign whalers fishing on the coast. Al-
most the same may be said of St. Helena Bay, and
for the same reasons. How many more bays in
Cape Colony ?”

Emma. “Only one, papa, and that is Donkin’s
Bay. We must then sail along the Hottentot coast
until we arrive at Walwisch Bay.”

Grorce. “Papa, are not the Boschmen dwell-
ing somewhere near here ?” |

Mr. Witton. “ Why, they are a wandering peo-
ple, and can scarcely be said to hold any definite
territory of their own; but they are to be found
north of Cape Colony, and are thus designated from
the place of their residence, which is in the bushes
or woods. They are a dirty, wild, savage people,
and make a boast of the most inhuman actions, to
get glory from their companions. They neither
cultivate the ground, nor tend cattle, but are de-
pendent on the chase for animal food.”

29




838 A TRANSFORMATION.

Mr. Stantey. “ Many superstitions and tradi-
tions are entertained by these rude people; among
them there is one related by Sir J. E. Alexander
as follows :—

@& Transformation.

“Tt is believed in the land that some of the
Bosch people can change themselves into wolves
and lions when they like. Once on a time, a cer-
tain Namaqua was travelling in company with a
Bosch woman carrying a child on her back. They
had proceeded some distance on the journey, when
a troop of wild horses appeared ; and the man said
to the woman, ‘I am hungry, and I know you can
turn yourself into a lion: do so now, and catch us
a wild horse, that we may eat.’

“The woman answered, ‘ You'll be afraid.’

“*No, no, said the man; ‘I am afraid of dying
of hunger, but I am not afraid of you.’

“ Whilst he was yet speaking, hair began to ap-
pear at the back of the woman’s neck, her nails
began to assume the appearance of claws, and her
features altered. She set down the child.

“ he man, alarmed at the change, climbed a
tree close by. The woman glared at him fearfully,
and, going to one side, she threw off her skin petti-
coat, when a perfect lion rushed out into the plain.
It bounded and crept among the bushes, towards
the wild horses ; and springing on one of them, it
fell, and the lion lapped its blood. The lion then
came back to where the child was crying, and the



DRESSING IN SKINS. 3839

























man called from the tree, ‘Enough, enough! do
not hurt me! Put off your lion’s shape. I will
never ask to see you thus again.’

“ The lion looked at him and growled. ‘I will
remain here till I die.’ said the man, ‘if you do not
become a woman again.’

“ The mane and tail then began to disappear ; the
lion went towards the bush where the skin petti-
coat lay ; it was slipped on, and the woman, again
in her proper shape, took up the child. The man
descended, partook of the horse’s flesh, but never
again asked the woman to catch game for him.”

Grorce. “This is very droll: but I think they
must be very ignorant people to believe such absur- |
dities.”

Emma. “I have Walwisch Bay. There is a
broad sandy beach around it, and sand-hills heaped
up in various forms inland, and the general aspect
of things here is very wild and Arabian-like. The
climate is healthy and good. It is hot in the be-
ginning of the year; but from May until August it
is cool and pleasant.”

Mrs. Witton. “ About three miles from Wal-
wisch Bay, or Bay of Whales, is a Hottentot vil-
lage, containing nearly 300 inhabitants, who are a
friendly, harmless people, but very indolent and
filthy. Both sexes dress alike, in the skins of ani-
inals sewed together with the sinews of the same
animals, in the form of a blanket, which they throw
over their shoulders, with the hair-side next to their
bodies. ‘The women are only distinguished by the
profusion of their ornaments. These consist of

btn hte tats eee ES SN
340 THE SLAVE-TRADE.

shells, bones, and minerals of different kinds, and
are worn about the neck and wrists. They are all
expert hunters and fishers. They devour their fish
raw, and the small ones without even divesting
them of their entrails; what they cannot eat they
pickle with salt procured at the head of the bay.”

Greorce. “ What nasty disgusting people, to eat
raw fish !”

Mr. Witton. “In appeasing the cravings of
hunger they are, in fact, horribly disgusting, being
actually more fond of the entrails of cattle and sheep
than of any other part; and when an animal is
killed, these people positively devour its entrails
raw, even before they are cold, while they will re-
fuse to partake of the carcass, cooked or otherwise.”

Dora. “Now we pass on to Great and Little
Fish Bays, which are on the coast of that wretched
slave country, Benguela.”

Granpy. “Ah! poor Africa is cursed with evils,
unknown to the rest of the human race in any sec-
tion of the globe—reptiles of the most deadly venom,
beasts of unparalleled ferocity, deserts of sand, and
moral deserts a thousand times more appalling.
But her greatest curse of all is the white man’s cu-
pidity, tearing asunder the tenderest ties of human
nature, and plunging villages and families into
mourning and despair. The hyena, the tiger, the
crocodile, are creatures existing by the will of God ;
the man-stealer is a sin-created monster! ‘The dep-
redations of the foriner are the effects of hunger ;
those of the latter avarice—the meanest passion
that can enter the human breast.”
FISH BAY. 841



Mr. Winton. “It is now sixty years since Great
Britain commenced offensive warfare against the
African slave-trade; but grieved am I to say that
little good has resulted from it; for the slave-trade
is still carried on as extensively as ever. Our
ships, which are continually on the look-out to re-
capture the slave-vessels, scarcely ever take more
than fifteen in the course of twelve months ; and the
cost of maintaining this force to our country is
600,0002. annually. This money, in my humble
opinion, might be more advantageously laid out—
I mean in reference to this degraded and demoral-
ized quarter of the world, Africa. It might be ex-
pended in planting industry, knowledge, and secu-
rity ; in fact, in civilizing the wretched people ; and
surely that would more effectually check the slave-
trade than the occasional capture of one or two car-
goes. For the African slave-trade is not the cause,
but the effect, of African ignorance, as any wretch-
ed creature there will seize and sell his more
wretched neighbor for the paltry sum of a dollar.”

Mrs. Witton. “ This civilization will take years
to effect ; for deep-rooted evils cannot be destroyed
in a day, among an ignorant and prejudiced peo-
ple.”

Emma. “We are at Fish Bay. Dora, will you
continue.”

Dora. “Yes: Fish Bay is one of the finest
places in the world for fishing with a ‘seine,’ by
which thousands of barrels of excellent fish are
caught in the course of the year.”

Grorcr. “ Whatsort of a town is Benguela?”

29*





842 ST. HELENA.

Dora. “Small: it consists of not more than 200
houses, mostly one story high. Everything good
to eat can be procured here; but there is no good
water, except in the rainy season.”

Mr. Srantey. “Then we had better make all
sail, and get away, for it would be sad work to be
becalmed with—




























‘Water, water everywhere, and not a drop to drink.’

While we are in these latitudes, we may as well
visit the two islands, which look so tempting after
a long voyage on the great Atlantic. Come boys:
St. Helena for Charles—Ascension for George.”
Cuarces. “St. Helena was discovered by those
pioneers of navigation, the Portuguese, on Saint
Helen’s day, the 2ist of May, 1501. It is 1200
miles from the continent, in latitude 5° south,
longitude 15° west. It is a beautiful island, in-
habited by about 300 English families, whose an-
cestors took possession of it in 1600. The Portu-
guese stocked it well with cattle and fruit, and the
English now benefit by their forethought. ‘ $4,
Helena, says a clever writer,* ‘is the dark monu-
ment of the most conspicuous man that has arisen
within the period of certain history.’ Of course that
means Napoleon Bonaparte. I have done.”
Grorce. “Ascension Isle hes between Africa
and Brazil: it was discovered in 1508. It is about
39 miles in circumference, and of nearly a circular
form. It has water only in one spot, called the

* Captain Morrell.


KABENDA. - 843

Green Mountain, from the rich verdure with which
it is covered. The natural productions are not nu-
merous. Guinea-fowl have been introduced, and
are now quite wild. Ten head of cattle were like-
wise imported, which have also taken to the woods,
and are hunted by the garrison as required. This
island was at one period overrun with enormous
rats, to destroy which somebody with good intent
imported a cargo of cats, which are now become as
great a plague as their predecessors, keeping the
sportsmen constantly on the alert to destroy them.”

Mr. Srantey. “ Well done, George! I am
clad to hear you not only remember the informa-
tion, but try to retain the phraseology of the geo-
eraphers. That is the right method to improve
your memory ; do not halt at the trouble it cost you,
for you will be abundantly repaid in the end.”

Dora. “We have only one more bay on this
side of the equator to notice. Among the numer-
ous bays on the western coast of Africa, first in rank
stands Kabenda Bay, near Congo. It is a very
fine harbor, and is so agreeable a situation that it
is denominated the ‘Paradise of the Coast.’ The
sea is always smooth, and debarkation easy. The
town of Kabenda stands amidst delightful scenery,
composed of lofty cliffs, verdant hills, and deep lux-
uriant vales ; it is resorted to principally by slavers,
who trade thither for slaves, ivory, and wood. The
poor inhabitants, strange to say, notwithstanding
their oppression, have a great respect for white men,
and believe that they know everything, or, in their
dialect, ‘ sabe ebery ting.”


844 BLACK JEWS.

Mr. Barravpv. “There is a fact worthy the at-
tention of travellers connected with the kingdom of
Loango, which you will perceive lies immediately
north of Congo. It contains amongst its inhabi-
tants numbers of black Jews scattered throughout
the country. They are despised by the negroes,
who do not even deign to eat with them. They are
occupied in trade, and keep the sabbath so strictly
that they do not even converse on that day; they
have a separate burying-ground, very far from any
habitation. The tombs are constructed with ma-
sonry, and ornamented with Hebrew inscriptions,
the singularity of which excites the laughter of the
negroes, who discern in these hieroglyphics only
serpents, lizards, and other reptiles.”

Mrs. Witton. “Crossing the line is no longer
a novelty to such experienced voyagers as We are,
and I think Dora may carry us on to our next sta-
tion without further remark.”

Dora. “The Gulf of Guinea.”

Mr. Witton. “Plenty of sea-room there, Dora ;
but I hope we are to keep along the coast, for with
the exception of Fernando Po and St. Thomas's, [
know of no place where I should feel disposed to
go ashore.”

Mrs. Witton. “Weare on a coasting expedi-
tion, although, for the furtherance of scvence, We Oc-
casionally sail out of the direct track; and as, in
this instance, the mention of your inclination to
visit these.two islands implies some knowledge of
their situation, we expect you will furnish the
meeting with the requisite information.”




FERDINAND PO. 345



Mr. Witton. “ Your mamma is very sharp upon
me, George. Take warning by my case, and do
not interfere with the pilot.”

Grorce. “Ha,capital! Now, papa, Ferdinand
Po!”

Mr. Witton. “Our sojourn there will be very
brief; not because the island is deficient in fertility,
but simply because the society of the natives would
be intolerable to civilized noses. They are the
filthiest people in the whole world. Words cannot
convey an idea of their disgusting nature. They
have long hair matted together with red clay and
palm oil. This composition has a most outrageous
smell, and with it they smear their faces and bodies.
They are, generally speaking, a stout, athletic, well
made race of people, and particularly harmless in
their dispositions, though from their appearance you
would not imagine that to be the case, as each indi-
vidual is always armed with a spear about eight
feet in length, made of hard wood, and barbed at
each end; which, added to their fierce color and
smell, would daunt the courage of a more enlight-
ened savage.

“ St. Thomas’s should have been first, as it is
nearer the equator. It is one of the four Guinea
Islands; Prince’s Island and Anaboa will make
up the number. I know very little of it, except
that it helps to furnish the Portuguese shipping
with provisions and fresh water. Now I have sat-
isfied the demands of the meeting, and will promise
not to interfere again.”

Cuartes. “I shall be rejoiced at your interfer-




346




THE APE AND THE OVEN,



ence, sir, if it always have the effect of bringing out
your stores; and, now I am pilot for a short time,
I beg to state that I shall not require any apology,
should you interrupt me in the discharge of my
duty, but be thankful for the same.

“Fernando Po. It is in the Bight of Biafra, the
coast of which bight is thus described by Dr.
Bayle :—‘ This coast is forbidding in its aspect,
dangerous to approach, repulsive when examined,
and disgusting when known.’ There: that is not
a very inviting account: had we not better sail on ?
Who cries forward ?”

“Forward all,” exclaimed Mr. Stanley; and
Charles was about to proceed, when George inter-
rupted him to inquire if the chimpanzee were not a
native of these parts.

Mr. Sraniey. “Yes, my boy; it is found not
very far from the equator.”

Grorce. “Is it not the largest ape in Guinea ?”

Mr. Stantey. “ Right again. I will tell you
all I know about the gentleman. Its height is
four feet, and there is no appearance of a tail. Mon-
sieur de Grandpié gives an account of one which he
had the opportunity of observing during a voyage.
This animal had learned to heat the oven, and was
particularly careful that no coals should escape to
set fire to the vessel. It perfectly understood when
the oven was sufficiently heated, and never failed
to apprise the baker of the circumstance; while
he in his turn so entirely confided in it, that he
hastened with his bread as soon as the animal went
to fetch him, and was never once led into an error.















































THE SLAVE COAST.



347

When they turned the capstan, it endeavored to as-
sist with all its power, like a sailor. When the
sails were loosened, it mounted the yards of its own
accord. It belaced the shrouds as well as any
sailor ; and observing how the end of the rope was
fastened to prevent its hanging, it did the same to
the rope of which it had possession. It was as clev-
er as many of the men, and much more nimble,
and was treated by the sailors as one of their own
crew. This animal died on the passage, owing to
the brutal treatment of the second mate. It bore
his cruel usage with the greatest resignation, rais-
ing its hands in a suppliant manner to implore a
remission of the stripes he inflicted. From that
moment it refused to eat. and died of hunger and
suffering on the fifth day, almost as much regretted
as one of the crew would have been. The chim-
panzee generally walks upright, supported by the
branch of a tree, after the manner of a walking-
stick. The negroes dread it, and with much rea-
son; for it is powerful, and uses its power with
great harshness whenever they meet. I believe
you may see a chimpanzee in the Zoological Gar-
dens in the Regent’s Park. We will go some day
on speculation, George. Now, Charles, ‘ forward !’”
Cuarces. “ The Bight of Benin washes the coast
of Dahomey and other countries, known also by
the name of the Slave Coast. Dahomey, including
the subjugated districts, extends at least 150 miles
into the interior. The principal town is Abomey,
lying about three degrees east longitude.”
Mrs. Witton, “ Whidah on this coast must be







ae

[ 348 DAHOMEY.
noticed, as it is so connected with Dahomey. It
was once an independent kingdom ; but in the year
1727 was conquered by Guadja Irudo, King of
Dahomey. Its capital contains about 20,000 in-
habitants. In Whidah the religion is pagan; but
for some unaccountable reason they worship their
divinity under the form of a particular species of
snake, called daboa, which is not sufficiently large
to be terrible to man, and is otherwise tamable and
inoffensive. These dadoas are taken care of in the
most pious manner, and well fed on rats, mice, or
birds in their fetish houses or temples, where the
people assemble to pay their adoration, and where
those also who are sick or lame apply for assistance.”

Granpy. “Their creed is an odd mixture. They
believe in two beings, equal in power; the one
doing good, the other evil; and they pray to the
demon to allow them to remain unmolested by the
magicians, who are constantly endeavoring to in-
jure them.”

Mr. Srantey. “In Dahomey the tiger is an
object of religious regard; but the people wisely
deem it the safest mode of worship to perform their
acts of devotion to his skin only, and it is stuffed
for that purpose. The government of this country
is entirely despotic. The sovereign may cut off as
many heads as he likes, and dispose of his subjects’
property as he thinks fit, without being account-
able to any earthly tribunal. He has from three
to four thousand wives, a proportion of whom,
trained to arms under female officers, constitute his
body-guard.”


[ i





ASHANTEE. 3849

Cuarzes. “ Whata royal regiment! all queens;
why the sight of them would strike terror into an
English army. I should throw down my weapons
directly.”

Mr. Stanuey. “ But their enemies are not so
gallant, and hesitate not to fight this female army,
who very often gain the advantage by being so
well disciplined.”

Mr. Barravup. “In Dahomey, at a particular
period of the year, a grand annual festival is held ;
and, amidst feastings and rejoicings, deeds are done
from which the civilized mind recoils with horror.
Numbers of human victims are sacrificed in solemn
form.

“ They are generally prisoners of war set aside for
the purpose ; but as seventy is the required num-
ber, should there not be so many prisoners, the
king makes it up from his own subjects. Their
bodies are thrown to wild beasts, while their heads
are used to decorate the walls of the royal palace!
Still more barbarous is the notion of enjoying the
gratification of trampling on the heads of their
enemies ; and, in order to do this, the King of Da-
homey has the passage leading to his bedchamber
paved with the skulls of his enemies!”

Emma. “QO cruel murderous people! Sail on,
Charles, and leave them far behind. Is not the
next coast Ashantee ?”

Cuartes. “Yes; Ashantee is at present the
most powerful state in all Western Africa, and, in
fact, rules over a considerable portion of it. The
natives are remarkable for oratory, and will dis-

30








850 KING OPOCCO.

course fluently on a given subject for hours. A
taste for music is also extensively cultivated, and
their taste is evidenced by the native band at Cape
- Coast Castle, which plays admirably by ear several
of the most popular English tunes. The Ashantees,
and the natives of the countries contiguous to this
coast, build their houses of mud and sticks, which
composition they call ‘ swish.”

Mr. Witton. “ They are a more civilized set
than the people of Dahomey ; and the Danes have
furnished us with a portrait of one of their kings,
whose name was Opocco. Here is the account :—
‘The monarch was seated on a throne of massive
gold, under the shade of an artificial tree with
golden leaves. His body, extremely lean, and in-
ordinately tall, was smeared over with tallow mixed
up with gold dust. A European hat, bound with
broad gold lace, covered his head; his loins were
encircled with a sash of golden cloth. From his
neck down to his feet cornelians, agates, lazulites,
were crowded in the form of bracelets and chains,
and his feet rested on a golden basin. The grandees
of the realm lay prostrate on the ground, with their
heads covered with dust. A hundred complainers
and accused persons were in a similar posture ; be-
hind them twenty executioners, with drawn sabres
in their hands waited the royal signal, which gene-
rally terminated each cause, by the decapitation of
one or other of the parties.’

“ The Danish envoy was introduced ; and pass-
ing a number of bloody heads, recently separated
from the bodies, approached the throne. The mag-








KING OPOCCO. 351



nificent flaming prince addressed him with the
following most gracious questions :—‘ I would wil
lingly detain thee for some months in my domin-
ions, to give thee an idea of my greatness. Hast
thou ever scen anything to be compared with it?
‘No! lord and king,’ replied the obsequious envoy,
‘thou hast no equal in the world! ‘Thou art
right, said Opocco, ‘God in heaven does not much
surpass me! The king drank some English beer
from a bottle, and then handed it to the Dane; the
latter took a little, and excused himself by saying
that the liquor would intoxicate him. ‘It is not
the beer that confounds thee, said Opocco; ‘it is
the brightness of my countenance which throws
the universe into a state of inebriety This same
king conquered the brave prince Oorsoock, chief of
the Akims, who slew himself. He caused the head
of the vanquished prince to be brought to him,
decked it with golden bracelets, and in presence of
his generals directed to him the following speech:
—‘Behold him laid in the dust, this great mon-
arch, who had no equal in the universe, except God
and me! He was certainly the third. Oh! my
brother Oorsoock, why wouldst thou not acknowl
edge thyself my inferior? But thou hopedst to
find an opportunity of killing me; thou thoughtest
that there ought not to be more than ove great man
in the world. Thy sentiment was not to be blamed ;
it is one in which all mighty kings ought to parti-
cipate.’ ”

Granpy. “What fearful arrogance and presump-
tion! It sufficiently testifies their direful state of


852 A SINGULAR BELIEF.

ignorance, which ignorance, I trust to hear, will
soon be effectually removed; for there are now
missionary establishments on this coast, which,
since the year 1834, have been progressing. At
first, the ministers were much dispirited, owing to
the evil effects of the climate on the European con-
stitution, for after a year or two they were cut off
by death; and, in order to continue the mission,
other pious men and their wives were obliged to
be sent out. Again, these died; but yet the work
prospered ; and now, blessed be God! the few
whose lives have been spared, are enabled to report
that many natives have turned unto the Lord their
God. Every Sabbath morning, public worship 1s
celebrated in the chapel at Cape Coast Town, when
the beautiful liturgy of our Church is read; and
the decorum which is observed by the natives, who
read the responses, appears in striking opposition
to the wild irrational service which they formerly
offered at the temple of their fetish.”

Mrs. Witton. “ The unconverted believe ina
Supreme Being; but they have a curious tradition
respecting the creation, which has prevailed among
them from the earliest period of their history.
They believe that, in the beginning of the world,
God, having created three white and three black
men, with an equal number of women of each
color, resolved, in order that they might be left
without cause of complaint, to allow them to fix
their own destiny. by giving them the choice of
good and evil. A large box or calabash was placed
upon the ground, together with a sealed paper or






THE ASHANTEE WIFE. 358

letter. The black men had the first choice, and
took the calabash, expecting that it contained all
that was desirable; but, upon opening it, they
found only a piece of gold, some iron, and several
other metals of which they did not know the use.
The white men opened the paper, and it told them
everything. All this is supposed to have happened
in Africa, in which country it is believed God left
the blacks, with the choice which their avarice had
prompted them to make, under the care of inferior
or subordinate deities; but conducted the whites
to the water-side, where he communicated with
them every night, and taught them to build a
small vessel, which carried them to another country,
from whence, after a long period, they returned
with various kinds of merchandise to barter with
the blacks, whose perverse choice of gold in prefer-
ence to the knowledge of letters had doomed them
to inferiority.”

Mr. Srantey. “ Affairs would have been better
ordered for the blacks, had they allowed the ladies
to have a voice in the selection; but they never
had a good opinion of the fair sex, and they are no
wiser at the present day as many of their customs
sufficiently testify.—‘ A peculiar provision is made
in Ashantee with reference to the female sex. One
of the king’s sisters is constituted the governess
of the empire, or queen over the females, and all
are said to be placed under her control and direc-
tion: but whatever may be the nature and object
of the training to which she subjects them, it is cer-
tain that it is not intended to make the wife the

30*

whe ae se tak + or Ang
te. Be Die te See
354 LIBERIA.

rational companion and confidential friend of her
husband; for if an Ashantee wife is detected in
listening to a conversation of her husband, her
curiosity is sure to cost her an ear; and if she be-
tray a secret with which she has by any means
become acquainted, her incensed husband punishes
her by cutting off her upper‘lip. The sight of wo-
men who have suffered such inflictions, is common
even in the present day.’ ”

Mr. Barravp. “These are the cruelties of a
barbarous people, but they are not horrified at deeds
of blood; indeed, such is the union of barbarism
and magnificence in this African country, that on
a court day there is invariably in immediate at-
tendance upon the king the royal chief executioner,
a man of gigantic size, bearing a massive gold
hatchet, and having exhibited before him the exe-
cution stool, clotted with human blood and partly
covered with a caul of fat!”

Mrs. Witton. “That is done, no doubt, from
policy, to inure his courtiers to scenes of horror, in
hopes of rendering them callous to human suffering
and courageous in the field of battle. Ah, well!
we have heard enough of them: let us now visit
some other country.”

Dora. “Liberia is the next station and much
more desirable; for the climate is better than most
other parts of the coast, the soil fruitful, and the in-
land population quiet and inoffensive, and more in-
clined to industry than their neighbors.”

Granpy. “ There is a thriving missionary estab-
lishment at Liberia, which I hope will before long
A BOWCHEE MOTHER. 855

exert its benign influence over the Bowchee people,
who are located some few miles distant. They are
a miserable race, entirely devoid of feeling; the
gentle appeals of nature are unknown to them;
parental tenderness dwells not in their bosoms, for
they will sell their children as slaves to the great-
est strangers in the world, with no more remorse
of conscience than if they had been common ar-
ticles of merchandise. I will tell you a story of a
Bowchee mother :—‘ A travelling slave-dealer pass-
ing through the place had purchased several of
their children of both sexes, from the inhabitants,
and amongst others an old woman had an only
daughter, whom she parted with for a necklace of
beads, The unhappy girl, who was about thirteen
or fourteen years of age, on being dragged away
from the threshold of her parent’s hut, clung dis-
tractedly around the knees of her unfeeling mother,
and looking up wistfully in her face burst into a
flood of tears, exclaiming with passionate vehe-
mence:——“ O mother! do not sell me; what will be-
come of me? what will become of yourself in your
old age if you sendgame from you? who will fetch
you corn and milk ? who will pity you when you
die? Have I been unkind to you? O mother!
do not sell your only daughter. I will take you in
my arms when you are feeble and carry you under
the shade of trees. I will repay the kindness you
showed me in my infant years. When you are
weary, I will fan you to sleep; and whilst you are
sleeping, I will drive away flies from you. I will
attend on you when you are in pain; and when


856 SIERRA LEONE.

you die, I will shed rivers of sorrow over your
grave. © mother! dear mother! do not push me
away from you; do not sell your only daughter to
be the slave of a stranger!” Her tears were use-
less—her remonstrances vain. The unnatural pa-
rent, shaking the beads in the face of her only child,
thrust her from her embraces; and the slave-dealer
drove the agonized girl from the place of her na-
tivity.”

Emma. “Oh! how very shocking! Poor girl!
how dreadful to have such cruel, relentless parents.
Oh dear! I hope the work of the missionaries will
be blessed, and that God will soften the hard hearts
of those savage and mercenary people.”

CuarxLes. “ Between Liberia anid Sierra Leone
are Sherboro’ Bay and Yawry Bay. Sierra Leone,
or ‘Mountains of the Lioness,’ is so unhealthy that
we should not live long if we went there.”

Mrs. Witton. “ You are right, Charles. It was
established as a colony in 1787, for the express
purpose of laboring to civilize the Africans. All
the cargoes of the recaptured slavers are taken
there, and every comfort andgonvenience afforded
to the unfortunate negroes. But it is so extremely
unhealthy that Europeans can scarcely carry out
their plans, and death mows them down in the
midst of their usefulness.”

Cuarues. “Then I may conclude that all mem-
bers are desirous of proceeding. Between Sierra
Leone and Cape Verd the bays are immaterial ;
but from Cape Verd, sailing north, we pass four
tolerable-sized indentations — Tindal, Greyhound,


THE LAKES OF AFRICA. 857

Cintra, and Garnet Bays. Then a brisk wind will
speedily waft us to the point from whence we start-
ed, viz. the Straits of Gibraltar.”

Mr. Witton. “ We have nearly come to a con-
clusion then, and without any of the misfortunes
incidental to travellers. We have gone over the
vast extent of waters which encompass our globe,
and been for some months engaged in examining
the wonders of the ocean, without meeting any of —
the monsters of the deep, such as krakens, sea-ser-
pents, &c.; nevertheless, [am not so skeptical as
to disbelieve all I have not the opportunity of view-
ing with my own bodily eyes. I do think that
the sea contains monsters such as Mrs. Howitt de-
scribes :—

‘Things all misshapen, slimy, cold,
Writhing, and strong, and thin,’

which it would be dangerous to observe too near ;
and I shall feel we have gained an advantage by
these little meetings if they lead you young folks
to reflect on the probabilities of different travellers’
assertions, before you either receive or reject them.”

Mrs. Witton. “We have sailed all round the
coast of Africa, but would there be any danger in
going to the lakes of Africa ?”

Mr. Witton. “None that I am aware of; and
as there are only three of any magnitude there, we
shall not be long on the excursion. I will visit
two myself, and report discoveries.

“Lake Ludea is in Tunis, and is scarcely worth
the expense of a journey thither. Lake Maravi is


858 BORNOU.

in the south, near Mozambique, and is rather lar-
ger, but not an agreeable situation, Mr. Stanley,
will you be good enough to conduct the ladies to
the banks of Lake Tchad ?”

Mr. StantEy. “I should be sorry to take the
ladies to such a country; but I will venture alone
and, like you, collect the necessary information, if
that will suit the purpose ?”

Emma. “Qh! yes, sir, that will do quite as
well.”

Mr. Stantey. “ Lake Tchad is the largest in-
land sea in Africa, its circumference about 300
miles, its situation in the country of Bornou. It
contains sweet, fresh, and still water ; is surrounded
by many lakes, both fresh and salt ; and has several
rivers running into it, although it has no outlet,
which is the cause of its occasionally overflowing
the surrounding country. Bornou is not a pleasant
place, it swarms with innumerable creeping hor-
rors, and savage animals; the latter often enter the
villages, and carry off the unfortunate slaves while
at work. Simplicity, good-nature, and ugliness are
the peculiar characteristics of the people; and al-
though the men are not warriors, nor the women
favored by nature, they are certainly a kind, inof-
fensive race. Angornou is the largest and most
populous town of Bornou ; it is situated a few miles
from Lake Tchad, and contains 30.000 inhabitauts.
Major Denham gives a very good account of an in-
terview with the Sultan of Lornou. He writes :—
‘The Sultan received us in an open space in front
of the royal residence: we were kept at a consider-
THE SULTAN OF BORNOU. 3859

able distance, while his people approached to with-
in about 100 yards, passing first on horseback ;
and after dismounting and prostrating themselves
before him, they took their places on the ground in
front, but with their backs to the royal person,
which is the custom of the country. The Sultan
was seated in a sort of cage, of cane or wood, near
the door of his garden, on a seat which, at the dis-
tance, appeared to be covered with silk or satin, and
through the railing looked upon the assembly be-
fore him, who formed a semicircle in front of him.
Nothing could be more absurd and grotesque than
the figures who formed this court. Large stomachs
and large heads are indispensable for those who
serve the court of Bornou, and those who unfortu-
nately possess not the former by nature, make up
the deficiency with wadding. A little to our left,
or nearly in front of the Sultan, was an extempore
declaimer, shouting forth praises of his master, with
his pedigree; and near him one who bore the long
wooden “ frum-frum,” on which he ever and anon
blew a blast, loud and unmusical.’ The major
says, the appearance of these courtiers was ridicu-
lous in the extreme, squatting down in their places,
or tottering under the weight and magnitude of
their turbans and their stomachs, while their thin
legs, that appeared underneath, but ill accorded with
the bulk of the other parts. I see George laughing
at the picture I have drawn of these curious little
men, but you would not dare to laugh in the pres-
ence of the mighty Sultan of Bornou; he would
immediately exclaim, ‘ Off with his head ! if you




AFRICAN WEDDING.



360

so far outraged the rules of Bornouan etiquette. I
will now give you a description of a wedding in
this African country, and we will then bid the peo-
ple a long farewell. The bridegroom's friends, to
the number of 200 or 300, sally forth, dressed in
their best clothes, to meet the bride. Behold her!
mounted on a bullock whose back is covered with
blue and white cloths. She is followed by four fe-
male slaves, laden with straw baskets, wooden
bowls, and earthen pots; after them appear two
other bullocks carrying the remainder of the fazr
bride’s dowry. She is attended by her mother, and
five or six young ladies, who act as bridesmaids.
According to their mode of salutation, we must gal-
lop up to them repeatedly. See! the ladies cover
their faces, and scream their thanks; and as it is
extremely indelicate to gaze upon the bride, we
must cast our eyes on the ground, wheel our horses
round, and gallop back again. You will ask, ‘Is
that all; and where is the bridegroom ” Ah! poor
fellow! he has been parading the streets all the
day, with a crowd after him, dressed in all the fine-
ry he could buy or borrow, while the people blew
horns, beat drums, and cried, ‘May you live for-
ever!’ ‘God prosper you! ‘Gray hairs to you!
There is no further ceremony. The bride is handed
over to her husband in the evening by her mother,
and henceforth they are man and wife.”

Grorcr. “Oh! what very odd things are done
in strange lands! I am so sorry our examinations
are over, and I wish we could begin them all again.
What religion are the people of Bornou ?”

as

a Ee



Seow
oe Ce ee ea ser eesti

THE DELUGE. 861

Mr. Stantey. “They are Mohammedans; and
very superstitious, trusting greatly to their medicine
men.”

Granpy. “T have really enjoyed these meetings
as much as the young folks, for I think there is no
study more delightful, nor more useful, than that
which makes us acquainted with the world and its
inhabitants. As our business has been mostly on
the waters, I consider that we ought not to close
the subject without calling to mind the period when
‘the waters prevailed exceedingly upon the earth,
and ‘all that was in the dry land died.’ Beware,
my dear children, that you forget not the awful
catastrophe from which the family of faithful Noah
alone escaped ; nor that the cause of it was the in-
iquity of men !”

Grorce. “I never see a rainbow, but I think
of the Deluge, because you taught me the texts
concerning God’s covenant, dear Grandy, and the
promise that the earth should no more be destroyed
by a flood: but I have often wondered what could
be the size of the ark to contain so many living
creatures.”

Mr. Witton. “I believe I can inform you some-
what on that head. A scriptural cubit measures
twenty-one inches, and it has been calculated ac-
cording to the dimensions given in the 6th chapter
of Genesis, that the ark must have been of the
enormous burden of 19,530 tons !”

CuaRLes. “ Enormous! why our first-rate men-
of-war are scarcely 3000 tons, and yet how large
they look. How long was it in building ?”

Gece reineeeneiinesienintnmnienpignes


362 THE TELESCOPE.

Mrs. Witton. “ Many authors agree in stating
it to have been one hundred and twenty years in
building.”

Mr. Srantty. “There is now no alternative—
our discussion must come to anend. The last voy-
age has been highly interesting, although, perhaps,

‘not in the most delightful portion of the globe ; but
[ cannot help expressing a sincere wish, that your
real voyage to the West Indies may afford you as
much enjoyment and edification ; and its termina-

ary voyage, which has not only proved us all toler-
able sailors and respectable navigators, but also
testified that the good ship ‘ Research’ has truly
merited her name, and earned many laurels for her-
self and owners.”

Mr. Stanley then presented George with a beau-
tiful telescope, as a reward for his perseverance in
the acquirement of geographical knowledge. He
charged him to make a profitable use of it, for the
benefit of the captain on their voyage to Jamaica;
and, added he, as he placed the valuable gift in the
hands of the delighted boy: “ Keep a sharp look-
out, George; and mind that you are the first to
shout a sail! asail! Then you will see how the
faces of the weather-beaten sailors will brighten as
they run to have a look at her. Then will the cap-
tain call for his speaking trumpet, and some such
questions as these will be put to the stranger.
Where are you bound? Where do you come from ?
Are you all hearty on board? The boatswain will
then hang out the black board, with the latitude

tion be as happy and well-ordered, as this wagin-
|


363 THE END. y
and longitude marked on it; the stranger will do
the same. If they agree, all well and good, they |
each sail on their separate courses, wishing for fair
winds and a prosperous voyage ; suchas [I sincerely |
hope may fall to the share of the members of our
little Socrery.”

We must now leave our young friends, as we
cannot accompany them across the Atlantic for
want of a vessel. The “Research” having be-
haved so well in their late expeditions, she is still
to be honored with their company; and being a
merchant ship, she cannot accommodate many pas-
sengers.

Should my readers be anxious to hear of the safe
arrival of their young friends in the “Land of
Springs,” I must beg to refer them to Lloyd’s for
particulars of “ Research,” A. 1. 400 tons burden,
CommMaNpDER Freperic HamiLTon.

THE END.







xml record header identifier oai:www.uflib.ufl.edu.ufdc:UF0000177200001datestamp 2009-02-13setSpec [UFDC_OAI_SET]metadata oai_dc:dc xmlns:oai_dc http:www.openarchives.orgOAI2.0oai_dc xmlns:dc http:purl.orgdcelements1.1 xmlns:xsi http:www.w3.org2001XMLSchema-instance xsi:schemaLocation http:www.openarchives.orgOAI2.0oai_dc.xsd dc:title The world of waters, or, A peaceful progress o'er the unpathed sea Peaceful progress o'er the unpathed seadc:creator Osborne, David ( Fanny )Craighead, Robert ( Printer , Stereotyper )Howland, William ( Engraver )Robert Carter & Brothers ( Publisher )dc:subject Geography -- Juvenile literature ( lcsh )Voyages and travels -- Juvenile literature ( lcsh )National characteristics -- Juvenile literature ( lcsh )Embossed cloth bindings (Binding) -- 1852 ( rbbin )Bldn -- 1852dc:description b Statement of Responsibility by Mrs. David Osborne.Additional Physical Form Electronic version available on the World Wide Web as part of the PALMM Project "Preservation and Access for American and British Children's Literature, 1850-1869 (NEH PA-23536-00)".Author's name listed as Fanny Osborne on preface.Added title page, engraved.Some illustrations engraved by Howland.dc:publisher Robert Carter & Brothersdc:date 1852dc:type Bookdc:format <2>, 363 p. <7> leaves of plates : ill. ; 18 cm.dc:identifier http://www.uflib.ufl.edu/ufdc/?b=UF00001772&v=00001002235201 (aleph)AAA1906 (ltqf)ALH5644 (notis)24198126 (oclc)dc:source University of Floridadc:language Englishdc:coverage United States -- New York -- New York










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12/15/2014 12:02:32 PM 00098.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:02:32 PM 00099.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:02:32 PM 00099.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:02:32 PM 00100.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:02:32 PM 00100.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:02:32 PM 00101.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:02:32 PM 00101.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:02:32 PM 00102.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:02:32 PM 00102.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:02:32 PM 00103.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:02:32 PM 00103.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:02:32 PM 00104.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:02:32 PM 00104.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:02:32 PM 00105.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:02:32 PM 00105.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:02:32 PM 00106.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:02:32 PM 00106.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:02:32 PM 00107.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:02:32 PM 00107.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:02:32 PM 00108.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:02:32 PM 00108.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:02:32 PM 00109.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:02:32 PM 00109.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:02:32 PM 00110.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:02:32 PM 00110.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:02:32 PM 00111.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:02:32 PM 00111.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:02:32 PM 00112.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:02:32 PM 00112.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:02:32 PM 00113.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:02:32 PM 00113.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:02:32 PM 00114.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:02:32 PM 00114.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:02:32 PM 00115.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:02:32 PM 00115.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:02:32 PM 00116.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:02:32 PM 00116.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:02:32 PM 00117.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:02:32 PM 00117.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:02:32 PM 00118.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:02:32 PM 00118.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:02:32 PM 00119.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:02:32 PM 00119.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:02:32 PM 00120.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:02:32 PM 00120.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:02:32 PM 00121.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:02:32 PM 00121.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:02:32 PM 00122.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:02:32 PM 00122.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:02:32 PM 00123.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:02:32 PM 00123.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:02:32 PM 00124.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:02:32 PM 00124.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:02:32 PM 00125.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:02:32 PM 00125.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:02:32 PM 00126.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:02:33 PM 00126.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:02:33 PM 00127.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:02:33 PM 00127.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:02:33 PM 00128.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:02:33 PM 00128.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:02:33 PM 00129.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:02:33 PM 00129.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:02:33 PM 00130.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:02:33 PM 00130.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:02:33 PM 00131.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:02:33 PM 00131.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:02:33 PM 00132.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:02:33 PM 00132.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:02:33 PM 00133.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:02:33 PM 00133.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:02:33 PM 00134.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:02:33 PM 00134.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:02:33 PM 00135.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:02:33 PM 00135.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:02:33 PM 00136.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:02:33 PM 00136.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:02:33 PM 00137.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:02:33 PM 00137.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:02:33 PM 00138.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:02:33 PM 00138.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:02:33 PM 00139.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:02:33 PM 00139.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:02:33 PM 00140.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:02:33 PM 00140.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:02:33 PM 00141.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:02:33 PM 00141.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:02:33 PM 00142.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:02:33 PM 00142.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:02:33 PM 00143.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:02:33 PM 00143.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:02:33 PM 00144.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:02:33 PM 00144.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:02:33 PM 00145.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:02:33 PM 00145.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:02:33 PM 00147.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:02:33 PM 00147.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:02:33 PM 00148.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:02:33 PM 00148.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:02:33 PM 00149.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:02:33 PM 00149.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:02:33 PM 00150.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:02:33 PM 00150.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:02:33 PM 00151.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:02:33 PM 00151.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:02:33 PM 00152.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:02:33 PM 00152.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:02:33 PM 00153.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:02:33 PM 00153.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:02:33 PM 00154.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:02:33 PM 00154.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:02:33 PM 00155.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:02:33 PM 00155.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:02:33 PM 00156.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:02:33 PM 00156.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:02:33 PM 00157.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:02:33 PM 00157.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:02:33 PM 00158.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:02:33 PM 00158.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:02:33 PM 00159.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:02:33 PM 00159.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:02:33 PM 00160.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:02:33 PM 00160.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:02:33 PM 00161.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:02:33 PM 00161.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:02:33 PM 00162.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:02:33 PM 00162.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:02:33 PM 00163.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:02:34 PM 00163.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:02:34 PM 00164.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:02:34 PM 00164.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:02:34 PM 00165.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:02:34 PM 00165.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:02:34 PM 00166.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:02:34 PM 00166.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:02:34 PM 00167.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:02:34 PM 00167.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:02:34 PM 00168.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:02:34 PM 00168.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:02:34 PM 00169.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:02:34 PM 00169.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:02:34 PM 00170.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:02:34 PM 00170.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:02:34 PM 00171.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:02:34 PM 00171.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:02:34 PM 00172.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:02:34 PM 00172.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:02:34 PM 00173.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:02:34 PM 00173.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:02:34 PM 00174.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:02:34 PM 00174.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:02:34 PM 00175.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:02:34 PM 00175.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:02:34 PM 00176.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:02:34 PM 00176.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:02:34 PM 00177.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:02:34 PM 00177.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:02:34 PM 00178.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:02:34 PM 00178.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:02:34 PM 00179.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:02:34 PM 00179.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:02:34 PM 00180.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:02:34 PM 00180.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:02:34 PM 00181.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:02:34 PM 00181.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:02:34 PM 00182.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:02:34 PM 00182.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:02:34 PM 00183.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:02:34 PM 00183.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:02:34 PM 00184.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:02:34 PM 00184.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:02:34 PM 00185.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:02:34 PM 00185.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:02:34 PM 00186.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:02:34 PM 00186.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:02:34 PM 00187.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:02:34 PM 00187.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:02:34 PM 00188.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:02:34 PM 00188.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:02:34 PM 00189.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:02:34 PM 00189.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:02:34 PM 00190.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:02:34 PM 00190.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:02:34 PM 00191.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:02:34 PM 00191.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:02:34 PM 00192.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:02:34 PM 00192.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:02:34 PM 00193.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:02:34 PM 00193.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:02:34 PM 00194.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:02:34 PM 00194.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:02:34 PM 00195.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:02:34 PM 00195.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:02:34 PM 00196.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:02:34 PM 00196.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:02:34 PM 00197.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:02:34 PM 00197.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:02:34 PM 00198.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:02:34 PM 00198.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:02:34 PM 00199.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:02:34 PM 00199.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:02:34 PM 00200.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:02:34 PM 00200.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:02:34 PM 00201.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:02:35 PM 00201.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:02:35 PM 00203.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:02:35 PM 00203.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:02:35 PM 00204.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:02:35 PM 00204.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:02:35 PM 00205.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:02:35 PM 00205.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:02:35 PM 00206.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:02:35 PM 00206.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:02:35 PM 00207.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:02:35 PM 00207.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:02:35 PM 00208.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:02:35 PM 00208.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:02:35 PM 00209.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:02:35 PM 00209.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:02:35 PM 00210.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:02:35 PM 00210.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:02:35 PM 00211.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:02:35 PM 00211.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:02:35 PM 00212.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:02:35 PM 00212.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:02:35 PM 00213.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:02:35 PM 00213.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:02:35 PM 00214.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:02:35 PM 00214.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:02:35 PM 00215.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:02:35 PM 00215.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:02:35 PM 00216.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:02:35 PM 00216.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:02:35 PM 00217.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:02:35 PM 00217.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:02:35 PM 00218.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:02:35 PM 00218.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:02:35 PM 00219.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:02:35 PM 00219.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:02:35 PM 00220.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:02:35 PM 00220.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:02:35 PM 00221.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:02:35 PM 00221.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:02:35 PM 00222.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:02:35 PM 00222.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:02:35 PM 00223.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:02:35 PM 00223.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:02:35 PM 00224.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:02:35 PM 00224.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:02:35 PM 00225.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:02:35 PM 00225.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:02:35 PM 00226.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:02:35 PM 00226.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:02:35 PM 00227.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:02:35 PM 00227.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:02:35 PM 00228.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:02:35 PM 00228.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:02:35 PM 00229.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:02:35 PM 00229.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:02:35 PM 00230.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:02:35 PM 00230.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:02:35 PM 00231.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:02:35 PM 00231.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:02:35 PM 00232.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:02:35 PM 00232.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:02:35 PM 00233.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:02:35 PM 00233.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:02:35 PM 00234.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:02:35 PM 00234.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:02:35 PM 00235.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:02:35 PM 00235.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:02:35 PM 00236.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:02:35 PM 00236.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:02:35 PM 00237.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:02:35 PM 00237.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:02:35 PM 00238.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:02:35 PM 00238.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:02:35 PM 00239.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:02:35 PM 00239.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:02:35 PM 00240.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:02:35 PM 00240.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:02:35 PM 00241.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:02:35 PM 00241.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:02:35 PM 00242.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:02:35 PM 00242.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:02:36 PM 00243.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:02:36 PM 00243.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:02:36 PM 00244.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:02:36 PM 00244.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:02:36 PM 00245.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:02:36 PM 00245.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:02:36 PM 00246.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:02:36 PM 00246.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:02:36 PM 00247.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:02:36 PM 00247.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:02:36 PM 00248.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:02:36 PM 00248.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:02:36 PM 00249.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:02:36 PM 00249.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:02:36 PM 00250.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:02:36 PM 00250.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:02:36 PM 00251.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:02:36 PM 00251.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:02:36 PM 00253.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:02:36 PM 00253.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:02:36 PM 00254.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:02:36 PM 00254.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:02:36 PM 00255.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:02:36 PM 00255.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:02:36 PM 00256.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:02:36 PM 00256.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:02:36 PM 00257.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:02:36 PM 00257.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:02:36 PM 00258.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:02:36 PM 00258.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:02:36 PM 00259.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:02:36 PM 00259.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:02:36 PM 00260.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:02:36 PM 00260.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:02:36 PM 00261.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:02:36 PM 00261.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:02:38 PM 00262.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:02:38 PM 00262.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:02:38 PM 00263.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:02:38 PM 00263.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:02:38 PM 00264.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:02:38 PM 00264.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:02:38 PM 00265.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:02:38 PM 00265.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:02:38 PM 00266.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:02:38 PM 00266.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:02:38 PM 00267.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:02:38 PM 00267.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:02:38 PM 00268.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:02:38 PM 00268.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:02:38 PM 00269.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:02:38 PM 00269.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:02:38 PM 00270.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:02:38 PM 00270.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:02:38 PM 00271.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:02:38 PM 00271.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:02:38 PM 00272.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:02:38 PM 00272.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:02:38 PM 00273.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:02:38 PM 00273.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:02:38 PM 00274.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:02:38 PM 00274.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:02:38 PM 00275.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:02:38 PM 00275.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:02:38 PM 00276.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:02:38 PM 00276.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:02:38 PM 00277.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:02:38 PM 00277.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:02:38 PM 00278.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:02:38 PM 00278.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:02:38 PM 00279.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:02:38 PM 00279.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:02:38 PM 00280.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:02:38 PM 00280.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:02:38 PM 00281.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:02:38 PM 00281.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:02:38 PM 00282.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:02:38 PM 00282.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:02:38 PM 00283.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:02:38 PM 00283.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:02:38 PM 00284.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:02:38 PM 00284.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:02:38 PM 00285.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:02:38 PM 00285.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:02:38 PM 00286.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:02:39 PM 00286.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:02:39 PM 00287.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:02:39 PM 00287.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:02:39 PM 00288.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:02:39 PM 00288.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:02:39 PM 00289.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:02:39 PM 00289.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:02:39 PM 00290.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:02:39 PM 00290.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:02:39 PM 00291.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:02:39 PM 00291.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:02:39 PM 00292.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:02:39 PM 00292.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:02:39 PM 00293.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:02:39 PM 00293.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:02:39 PM 00294.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:02:39 PM 00294.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:02:39 PM 00295.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:02:39 PM 00295.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:02:39 PM 00296.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:02:39 PM 00296.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:02:39 PM 00297.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:02:39 PM 00297.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:02:39 PM 00298.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:02:39 PM 00298.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:02:39 PM 00299.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:02:39 PM 00299.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:02:39 PM 00300.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:02:39 PM 00300.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:02:39 PM 00301.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:02:39 PM 00301.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:02:39 PM 00302.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:02:39 PM 00302.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:02:39 PM 00303.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:02:39 PM 00303.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:02:39 PM 00304.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:02:39 PM 00304.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:02:39 PM 00305.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:02:39 PM 00305.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:02:39 PM 00306.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:02:39 PM 00306.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:02:39 PM 00307.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:02:39 PM 00307.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:02:39 PM 00308.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:02:39 PM 00308.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:02:39 PM 00309.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:02:39 PM 00309.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:02:39 PM 00310.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:02:39 PM 00310.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:02:39 PM 00311.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:02:39 PM 00311.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:02:39 PM 00312.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:02:39 PM 00312.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:02:39 PM 00313.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:02:39 PM 00313.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:02:39 PM 00314.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:02:39 PM 00314.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:02:39 PM 00315.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:02:39 PM 00315.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:02:39 PM 00317.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:02:39 PM 00317.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:02:39 PM 00318.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:02:39 PM 00318.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:02:39 PM 00319.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:02:39 PM 00319.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:02:39 PM 00320.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:02:39 PM 00320.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:02:39 PM 00321.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:02:39 PM 00321.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:02:39 PM 00322.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:02:39 PM 00322.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:02:39 PM 00323.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:02:39 PM 00323.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:02:39 PM 00324.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:02:39 PM 00324.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:02:39 PM 00325.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:02:40 PM 00325.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:02:40 PM 00326.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:02:40 PM 00326.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:02:40 PM 00327.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:02:40 PM 00327.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:02:40 PM 00328.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:02:40 PM 00328.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:02:40 PM 00329.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:02:40 PM 00329.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:02:40 PM 00330.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:02:40 PM 00330.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:02:40 PM 00331.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:02:40 PM 00331.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:02:40 PM 00332.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:02:40 PM 00332.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:02:40 PM 00333.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:02:40 PM 00333.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:02:40 PM 00334.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:02:40 PM 00334.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:02:40 PM 00335.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:02:40 PM 00335.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:02:40 PM 00336.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:02:40 PM 00336.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:02:40 PM 00337.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:02:40 PM 00337.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:02:40 PM 00338.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:02:40 PM 00338.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:02:40 PM 00339.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:02:40 PM 00339.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:02:40 PM 00340.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:02:40 PM 00340.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:02:40 PM 00341.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:02:40 PM 00341.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:02:40 PM 00342.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:02:40 PM 00342.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:02:40 PM 00343.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:02:40 PM 00343.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:02:40 PM 00344.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:02:40 PM 00344.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:02:40 PM 00345.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:02:40 PM 00345.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:02:40 PM 00346.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:02:40 PM 00346.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:02:40 PM 00347.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:02:40 PM 00347.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:02:40 PM 00348.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:02:40 PM 00348.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:02:40 PM 00349.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:02:40 PM 00349.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:02:40 PM 00350.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:02:40 PM 00350.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:02:40 PM 00351.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:02:40 PM 00351.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:02:40 PM 00352.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:02:40 PM 00352.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:02:40 PM 00353.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:02:40 PM 00353.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:02:40 PM 00354.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:02:40 PM 00354.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:02:40 PM 00355.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:02:40 PM 00355.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:02:40 PM 00356.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:02:40 PM 00356.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:02:40 PM 00357.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:02:40 PM 00357.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:02:40 PM 00358.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:02:40 PM 00358.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:02:40 PM 00359.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:02:40 PM 00359.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:02:40 PM 00360.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:02:40 PM 00360.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:02:40 PM 00361.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:02:40 PM 00361.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:02:40 PM 00362.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:02:41 PM 00362.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:02:41 PM 00363.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:02:41 PM 00363.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:02:41 PM 00364.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:02:41 PM 00364.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:02:41 PM 00365.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:02:41 PM 00365.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:02:41 PM 00366.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:02:41 PM 00366.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:02:41 PM 00367.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:02:41 PM 00367.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:02:41 PM 00368.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:02:41 PM 00368.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:02:41 PM 00369.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:02:41 PM 00369.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:02:41 PM 00370.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:02:41 PM 00370.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:02:41 PM 00371.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:02:41 PM 00371.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:02:41 PM 00372.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:02:41 PM 00372.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:02:41 PM 00373.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:02:41 PM 00373.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:02:41 PM 00374.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:02:41 PM 00374.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:02:41 PM 00375.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:02:41 PM 00375.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:02:41 PM 00376.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:02:41 PM 00376.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:02:41 PM 00377.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:02:41 PM 00377.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:02:41 PM 00378.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:02:41 PM 00378.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:02:41 PM 00379.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:02:41 PM 00379.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:02:41 PM 00380.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:02:41 PM 00380.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:02:41 PM 00381.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:02:41 PM 00381.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:02:41 PM 00382.jpg is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:02:41 PM 00382.jp2 is specified in the METS file but not included in the submission package!

12/15/2014 12:02:41 PM