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To furnish the ingenious youth with the means of relieving
the tediousness of a long winterâ€™s, or a wet summer's
evening,â€”to enable him to provide, for a party of juvenile
friends, instructive as well as recreative entertainment,
without having recourse to any of the vulgar modes of
killing time,â€”to qualify the hero of his little circle to
divert and astonish his friends, and, at the same time, to
improve himself, are the principal objects of the follow-
ing little Work.
The boy whose wonder and curiosity have been excited
by the experiments of the scientific lecturer, the illusions
of the ventriloquist, or the deceptions of the exhibitor of
feats of manual dexterity, will here find many of these
mysteries unveiled, and plain directions for performing them,
divested, as far as possible, of scientific or technical lan-
guage. Many of the descriptions are strictly original, and
now, for the first time, appear in print; and especial care
has been taken to introduce only such Experiments as are
adapted for performance at the parlour or drawing-room
table or fire-side, and such as are practicable without
expensive chemical or mechanical apparatus, and require
no implements beyond those which any ingenious youth
may readily furnish from his own resources, or at a
Another object of these pages is to inform, without
being dryly scientific.â€”by imparting interesting facts, to
stimulate the young experimentalist to inquire into the laws
that regulate them,â€”by aiding him to acquire dexterity
of practice, to smooth the road to the development of
principles,â€”and, above all, to enable him to escape an
imputation which every boy of spirit would consider the
depth of disgrace,â€”that of being â€˜â€œ No Conjuror !â€
TILÂ£ AND BOGUE, FLEET STREET.
The Spectral Lamp .....-+++++
Curious Change of Colours
The Protean Light ........
The Chameleon Flowers ..
To Change the Colours of Flowers...
Changes of the Poppy ....+..++++
To change the Colour of a Rose...
Light changing White into Black
The Visibly growing Acorn ..
Changes in Sap-Green .........
To revive apparently dead Plants.
Singular effect of Tears..
Beauties of Crystalization
To crystalize Camphor ..
Crystalized Tin ........
Crystals in hard Water..
Varieties of Crystals .....
Heat from Crystalization ..
COMPS MAHNNVNNAAAH PPP ww] ww Dw
Wine changed into Water... agate 40!
Two colourless transparent â€˜Liquids
become black and opaque ......... 10
Two colourless Fluids make a co-
loured one ....
Change of colour by colourless
PIUIAS ......000000 serseeeees teas 10
To change a Blue Liquid to â€˜White. . ll
Veritable â€œ Blackâ€ Tea.
Restoration of Colour by Water
The Magic Writing ........
Two Liquids make a Solid ..
Two Solids make a Liquid ............. 12
A solid opaque mass made a trans-
parent Liquid......secssererrsereeeee 12
Two cold Liquids make a hot one ... 12
Quadruple Transmutation ............ 13
Quintuple Transmutation . ise
Combination of Colours..........+++++++
Union of two Metals without heat. Â« 13
Magic Breath ... a
Two Bitters make a Sweet ...
Visible and Invisible .......... iearesesses 14
SIGHT AND SOUND.
Single Vision with two Eyes ......... 17
Two objects sâ‚¬eN 88 ONE Â«seve 17
Only one Te can be seen at a
CME 2... ceecer cee coee
Accuracy of Sight .
Handwriting upon the Wal
Imitative Haloes...... sees
To read a Coin in the asik .
To make @ Prism ....sssee see
Optical Augmentation ....
Gold Fish in a glass Globe . os
Colours produced by the unequal
action of Light upon the _â€” esneee 24
Optical Deception ....0.s.sessereereer eee
Coloured Shadows ..
Colours of Scratches
Beautiful Colours of Mother of
PRE cenccsnerstscesrestsovensincnicnsnsse SB
White Letters seen further than
Artificial Rainbow ..
Fringe about a Candle .......... 0
The Double Coloured Reflection .... 28
Luminous Cross ....scsceserscseseseerene 28
Ring of Colours round a Candle...... 28
Simple and Cheap Opera-glass ....... 29
Multiplying Theatres.......0.s.0e+ 29
Apparatus for Writing in the
Portable Microscope ......ssseeeereeee Sl
The Phenakisticope, or Stoboscope... 32
To look at the Sun without injury... 33
Brilliant Water Mirror .........+.. 33
Optical Illusion under Water 33
The Magic Wheels... 34
Acoustic Rainbow ... . 35
Transmission of Sound oe 35
Progress of Sound ...... ous 37
Sound turning Corners.......... 37
To tell the distance of Thunder ...... 38
Hearing by the Touch ........000+. 38
Conversation for the Deaf. 38
Glass broken by the Voice oo 39
Figures produced by Sound............ 39
Transmitted Vibration ... 40
Double Vibration .......... + 40
Champagne and Sound ...... Â» 40
Music from Palisades ... . . 41
Theory of the Jewâ€™s Harp... . 41
Music of the Snail .......00.s000 . 42
To tune a Guitar without the assist-
ance of the Ear ........sssesssssere 42
Music from Glass or Metal Rods ... 42
The Tuning-fork a Flute-player..
Musical Bottles ........00
Theory of Whispering
Theory of the Voice ...
Sound along a Wall ...
Sounds more audible by Night than
by Day ....c0e0 45
LIGHT AND HEAT.
Flashes of Light upon revolving
Wheels ....... â€œ
Decomposition of Light.
Solar Refraction ....+..0++0++
To imitate the Light of the Sea ......
Instantaneous Lights... 54
To colour the Flame of a Candle .... 55
To divide the Flame of a Candle ... 55
Cane Wick Lamp .........seseeeee
Camphor and Platinum Lamp.
Platinum and Ether Lamp ..
Floating Light ............s0000
Substitute for a Wax Taper.
Phosphorescent Fish ......
The Luminous Spectre ...
Light, a Painter ........ccseccseesesseeeee 58
Effect of Light upon Crystalization . 58
Effect of Light on Plants ... â€˜
Instantaneous Light upon Ice...
White Light from Zine.......0..0.s0s0
Brilliant Light from two Metals...... 59
Brilliant Light from Steel ...
Light from a Flower...
Light from Sugar ....
Light from the Potato
Light from the Oyster ...
Light from Derbyshire Spar
Light from Oyster-shells ....
Rings of Light in Crystal ...
To strike Light with Cane
Tint changed by Thickness ...
Shadows made darker by increased
Miniature Thunder and Lightning... 64
Heat passing through Glass..
Metals unequally influenced %
Spontaneous Combustion .
Inequality of Heat in Fire-ironâ€™
Expansion of Metal by Heat ..
Evaporation of a Metal.....
A Floating Metal on Fire ..
Heat and Cold from Flannel
Ice melted by Air...
To hold a hot Tea-
Incombustible Linen ..
The Burning Circle ...
Water of different Temperatures is
the same Vessel ............000+
Warmth of different Colours
Substitute for Fire.......ccssceereserere 70
CAS AND STEAM.
The Luminous Wand ...
To make Carbonic Acid Gas ...
Carbonic Acid Gas in Wine or Beer
To extinguish Flame with Gas
Effect of Hydrogen on the Voice .
Magic Taper .......
The Gas Candle ...
Gas Bubbles .......
Gas-light in the day-time...........066. 77
Miniature Balloons 77
Miniature Gas-lighting.. 7
Musical Gas .........0000 78
Miniature Will oâ€™-the-wisp
Combustion of Iron in Oxygen Gas. 79
Glow-worm in Oxygen Gas..........
Brilliant Combustion in Oxygen..... 80
Flame from Cold Metale ........0+00.. 81
Phosphorus in Chlorine .... 81
Caoutchouc Balloons .. . 82
To increase the light of Coal Gas . 82
Gas from Indian Rubber ...... . 82
Ether Gas .. . 83
Magic Vapour . . 83
Gas from the Union of Metals . 83
Invisible Gases made Visible . &
Light under Water.......cscesseseseee 84
Coloured Flames 91
Yellow Flame........ 92
Orange-coloured Flame .. 92
Emerald Green Flame. 92
Instantaneous Flame ... - 92
The Cup of Flame........ seve 93
To cool Flame by Metal . 93
Proof that Flame is Hollow . 93
Camphor sublimed by Flame. 93
Green Fire .........s000
Brilliant Red Fire.. 94
Purple Fire 94
Silver Fire ........00. 95
The Fiery Fountain .. 95
The Artificial Conflagration 95
Inflammable Powder .........++++Â« 95
Combustion without Flame .... 96
Combustion of Three Metals ......... 96
To make Paper Incombustible .. 96
Singular ie aR with Glass
Tubes ... 96
Aquatic Bomb .. ven 97
Heat not to be estimated â€œby
Touch..... nierenee (Or
Flame upon Water .. coovee 98
Rose-coloured Flame on Water cere 98
Violet-coloured Gas ..
To collect Gases ...
The Deflagrating Spoon..
What is Steam ?.. ase
The Steam Engine simpli .
To boil Water by Steam .
Distillation in Miniature
Candle or Fire Crackers
Steam from the Kettle ........ssesssress
To set a Mixture on Fire with
Water oosecseovss 98
Waves of Fire on â€˜Water 98
Explosion in Water 99
Water from the Flame ofa Candle... 99
Formation of Water by Fire ......... 99
Boiling upon Cold Water . - 99
Currents in Boiling Water - 100
Hot Water lighter than Cold - 100
Expansion of Water by Cold - 100
The Cup of Tantalus ... - 101
Imitative Diving Bell ... . 101
The Water-proof Sieve... 102
More than full ..........0 - 102
To cause Wine aca Water to
change places ....... see 102
Pyramid of Alum... - 102
Visible Vibration ...... - 103
Charcoal in Sugar ...... 104
Floating Needles + 104
Water in a Sling ... 104
Attraction in a Glass of Water ...... 104
To prevent Cork floating in Water... 105
Instantaneous Freezing ........ Â» 105
To freeze Water with Ether 105
Production of Nitre .....csssseereeeee 106
Curious Transposition .........0+++ ave 106
Animal Barometer . ++ 106
Magic Soap ... 106
Equal Ereanite â€˜of Water. we 107
To empty a Glass under Water...... 107
To empty a Glass of Water without
touching it. Â«. 107
Decomposition of Water. 108
Water heavier than Wine 108
To inflate a Bladder without Air... 108
Air and Water Balloon. - 108
Heated Air Balloon .... . 109
The Pneumatic Tinder-box . 109
The Bacchus Experiment 109
The Mysterious Circles - 110
Prince Rupertâ€™s Drops........++s0e0 112
The Ring and the Handkerchief... 125
The Knotted Handkerchief 126
The Invisible Springs .... 128
The Miraculous Apple. 129
The Self-balanced Pail........... 130
The Phantom at command 130
The Miraculous Shilling... . 132
The Locomotive Shilling. 133
The Penetrative Sixpence 134
The Vanishing Sixpence ... . 134
Tomake a Sixpence balance and aor
on its edge on the point of a Needle 135
The Multiplying Coin wwe 135
The Wonderful Hat.. . 136
To bring a Person down apo a
Feather... poaeeseeseensncee . 136
The netentt Impossibility... . 137
An Omelet Cooked in a Hat | over
the Flame of a Candle ... . 187
The Impossible Omelet ... - 138
Go if you can........06. . 138
The Figure Puzzle .. 138
The Pneumatic Dancer
The Ascending Snake ...
The Pneumatic Phial ......
Moisture of the Atmosphere
Climates of a ROOM .........s+cereee ee
Bubbles in Champagne ...........0. 116
Proofs that Air is a heavy Fluid.... 116
To support a Pea on Air ..........066 117
Pyrophorus, or Air-tinder eas V7
Beauty of a Soap-bubble ... eos 118
Why a Guinea falls more quickly
than a Feather through the Air... 119
Solidity of Air . eves - 120
Breathing and Smelling .. . 120
The Visible Invisible .
The Double Meaning..
Quite tired out ..........
Something out of the Common
To rub one Sixpence into two .
Magic Circle .
The Forcing Feat..
The Nerve Feat ......
The Turn-over Feat. wn
To tell the Name of a Card
thought Of .......rccrccsrcrrrerserereree 144
A Card thought of by one Person, to
be found in a part of the Pack
named by another Person .......... 145
To tell the Names of the Cards by
the Weight .......ccccseserercerseseee 146
The Queens going to dig for
Diamonds .. sone . 148
The Card in the Egg deinaaenesn - 149
The Ingenious Confederacy os 152
The Changeable Cards 153
Hold it Fast!â€ cs. ssseseees
Illusions of Touch .. Â« 161 Glass broken by Sand .....-..seesee 172
IQusion of the Taste .. 162 To bleach Ivory.. . 172
The General Bleacher ... . 162 Vanishing Shells . wwe 172
Influence of coloured Glass on The Magic Egg ....... avoceonce, 0M
Dulbous Roots.....sssscecereerersere 163 The Magic â€” . soosse 178
The Spinning-top â€˜ asleepâ€ . 163 Magic Porcelain... Â«(175
To judge ofgWeights .......+++ . 164 A Galvanic Tongue. i wee 176
Quicksilver and Oil united... . 164 Drinking Porter out of Pewter: vee 176
To dissolve the Soda in Glass. 164 Electric or Galvanic Preservation.. 176
Waterproof Paper... cose we 165 Light from the Diamond.. renee Dee
To dissolve Gold or Platinum denen 165 To break a Stone with a oe of
Colder than Ice .......:::+0 165 iy FAME cssnca vevseaniosees 177
Contra-crystalization . 165 Mimic Frost-work . ae iT
One and one do not make two ...... 166 To melt Lead in a piece of Paper... 178
To copy Writing instantly... 166 Hydrostatic Balance ... we 128
The Rival Dials ...........Â» 166 Metallic Reduction .... ee 179
To spin Indian Rubber . 166 Electrical Attraction and Re-
Indelible Writing .... 167 pulsion ........0+ ens |)
Vegetable Anatomy... eseeees - 167 Alchemical Biectrclty. 180
To tell what oâ€™Clock it is by the The Electric Balls... 1ateceee ee
MOON osesesesoeceseeceeoes - 168 The Electric Dance . cccosscre 163
The Physiognotype coseees
Infinite Divisibility of Matter .
Holding the Breath .......... 170
Sand in the Hour-Glass .... - 170
Resistance of Sand ........seseeeereee 171
Electric Light...........++ we 181
Electric Light from Brown Payer. +. 182
Sudden Production of Light ......... 182
Electricity of the Cat ....sssseesceee 182
Re Af Gxda
THE SPECTRAL LAMP.
yet some common salt with spirit of wine in a
BK platinum or metallic cup; set the cup upon
Â¥ A, 8 wire frame over a spirit-lamp, which should
BS be inclosed on each side, or in a dark-lan-
sNeey ad) tern: when the cup becomes heated, and the
RSS spirit ignited, it will burn with a strong yellow
flame; if, however, it should not be perfectly
yellow, throw more salt into the cup. The lamp being thus pre-
pared, all other lights should be extinguished, and the yellow
lamp introduced, when an appalling change will be exhibited ;
all the objects in the room will be but of one colour, and the com-
plexions of the several persons, whether old or young, fair or
brunette, will be metamorphosed to a ghastly, death-like, yellow ;
whilst the gayest dresses, as the brightest crimson, the choicest
lilac, the most vivid blue or greenâ€”all will be changed into
one monotony of yellow: each person will be inclined to laugh
at his neighbour, himself insensible of being one of the spectral
Their astonishment may be heightened by removing the yellow
light to one end of the room, and restoring the usual or white light
at the other; when one side of each personâ€™s dress will resume
its original colour, while the other will remain yellow; one cheek
may bear the bloom of health, and the other, the yellow of jaundice.
Or if, when the yellow light only is burning, the white light be
introduced within a wire sieve, the company and the objects in the
apartment will appear yellow, mottled with white.
Red light may be produced by mixing with the spirit in the cup
over the lamp, salt of strontian instead of common salt; and the
effect of the white or yellow lights, if introduced through a sieve
upon the red light, will be even more striking than the white upon
the yellow light.
CURIOUS CHANGE OF COLOURS.
Let there be no other light than a taper in the room; then put
on a pair of dark green spectacles, and having closed one eye, view
the taper with the other. Suddenly remove the spectacles, and
the taper will assume a bright red appearance ; but, if the specta-
cles be instantly replaced, the eye will be unable to distinguish
any thing for a second or two. The order of colours will, therefore,
be as follows :â€”green, red, green, black.
THE PROTEAN LIGHT.
Soak a cotton wick in a strong solution of salt and water, dry it,
place it in a spirit-lamp, and, when lit, it will give a bright yellow
light for a long time. If you look through a piece of blue glass at
the flame, it will lose all its yellow light, and you will only per-
ceive feeble violet rays. If, before the blue glass, you place a pale
yellow glass, the lamp will be absolutely invisible, though a candle
may be distinctly seen through the same glasses.
THE CHAMELEON FLOWERS.
Trim a spirit-lamp, add a little salt to the wick, and light it.
Set near it a scarlet geranium, and the flower will appear yellow.
Purple colours, in the same light, appear blue.
TO CHANGE THE COLOURS OF FLOWERS,
Hold over a lighted match, a purple columbine, or a blue
larkspur, and it will change first to pink, and then to black. The
yellow of other flowers, held as above, will continue unchanged.
Thus, the purple tint will instantly disappear from a heartâ€™s-ease,
but the yellow will remain; and the yellow of a wall-flower will
continue the same, though the brown streak will be discharged.
If a scarlet, crimson, or maroon dahlia be tried, the colour will
change to yellow; a fact known to gardeners, who, by this mode,
variegate their growing dahlias.
CHANGES OF THE POPPY.
Some flowers, which are red, become blue by merely bruising
them. Thus, if the petals of the common corn-poppy be rubbed
upon white paper, they will stain it purple, which may be made
green by washing it over with a strong solution of potash in water.
Put poppy petals into very dilute muriatic acid, and the infusion
will be of a florid red colour; by adding a little chalk, it will
become of the colour of port wine; and this tint, by the addition
of potash, may be changed to green or yellow.
TO CHANGE THE COLOUR OF A ROSE.
Hold a red rose over the blue flame of a common match, and
the colour will be discharged wherever the fume touches the leaves
of the flower, so as to render it beautifully variegated, or entirely
white. If it be then dipped into water, the redness, after a time,
will be restored.
LIGHT CHANGING WHITE INTO BLACK.
Write upon linen with permanent ink (which is a strong
solution of nitrate of silver), and the characters will be scarcely
visible; removeÃ©@he linen into a dark room, and they will not
change ; but expose them to a strong light, and they will be inde-
THE VISIBLY GROWING ACORN.
Cut a circular piece of card to fit the top of a hyacinth glass,
so as to rest upon the ledge, and exclude the air. Pierce a hole
} through the centre of the card, and pass
through it a strong thread, having a small
piece of wood tied to one end, which, rest-
ing transversely on the card, prevents its
being drawn through. To the other end of
the thread attach an acorn; and, having
half filled the glass with water, suspend
the acorn at a short distance from the
The glass must be kept in a warm
room; and, in a few days, the steam
which has generated in the glass will
hang from the acorn in a large drop.
Shortly afterwards, the acorn will. burst,
the root will protrude and thrust itself into
the water; and, in a few days more, a stem will shoot out at the
other end, and, rising upwards, will press against the card, in
which an orifice must be made to allow it to pass through. From
this stem, small leaves will soon be observed to sprout; and, in
the course of a few weeks, you will have a handsome oak plant,
several inches in height.
CHANGES IN SAP GREEN.
Sap green is the inspissated juice of the buckthorn berries: if
a little carbonate of soda be dropped into it, the colour will be
changed from green to yellow; it may be reddened by acids, and
its green colour restored by chalk.
TO REVIVE APPARENTLY DEAD PLANTS.
Make a strong solution of camphor in spirit of wine, which
add to soft water, in the proportion of a dram to a pint. If
withered, or apparently dead plants be put into this liquid, and
allowed to remain therein from two to three hours, they will
SINGULAR EFFECT OF TEARS.
If tears are dropped on a dry piece of paper, stained with the
juice of the petals of mallows or violets, they will change the paper
to a permanently green colour,
BEAUTIES OF CRYSTALLIZATION, -
Dissolve alum in hot water until no more can be dissolved in
it; place in it a smooth glass rod and a stick of the same size;
next day, the stick will be found covered with crystals, but the
glass rod will be free from them : in this case, the crystals cling to
the rough surface of the stick, but have no hold upon the smooth
surface of the glass rod. But if the rod be roughened with a file
at certain intervals, and then placed in the alum and water, the
crystals will adhere to the rough surfaces, and leave the smooth
bright and clear.
Tie some threads of lamp-cotton irregularly around a copper
wire or glass rod; place it in a hot solution of blue vitriol, strong
as above, and the threads will be covered with beautiful blue
crystals, while the glass rod will be bare.
Bore a hole through a piece of coke, and suspend it by a
string from a stick, placed across a hot solution of alum; it will
float; but, as it becomes loaded with crystals, it will sink in the
solution according to the length of the string. Gas-coke has
mostly a smooth, shining, and almost metallic surface, which the
crystals will avoid, while they will cling only to the most irregular
and porous parts.
If powdered turmeric be added to the hot solution of alum, the
crystals will be of a bright yellow; litmus will cause them to be
of a bright red; logwood will yield purple; and common writing
ink, black; and â€˜the more muddy the solution, the finer will be
Tokeep coloured alum crystals from breaking, or losing their
colour, place them under a glass shade with a saucer of water ;
this will preserve the atmosphere moist, and prevent the crystals
getting too dry.
If crystals be formed on wire, they will be liable to break off,
from the expansion and contraction of the wire by changes of
TO CRYSTALLIZE CAMPHOR,.
Dissolve camphor in spirit of wine, moderately heated, until the
spirit will not dissolve any more; pour some of the solution into
a cold glass, and the camphor will instantly crystallize in beautiful
tree-like forms, such as we see in the show-glasses of camphor in
Mix half an ounce of nitric acid, six drams of muriatic acid,
and two ounces of water; pour the mixture upon a piece of tin
plate previously made hot, and, after washing it in the mixture, it
will bear a beautiful crystalline surface, in feathery forms. This
is the celebrated moirÃ©e metallique, and, when varnished, is made
into ornamental boxes, &c. The figures will vary according to the
degree of heat previously given to the metal.
CRYSTALS IN HARD WATER,
Hold in a wine-glass of hard water, a crystal of oxalic acid,
and white threads will instantly descend through the liquid, sus-
pended from the crystal.
VARIETIES OF CRYSTALS.
Make distinct solutions of common salt, nitre, and alum; set
them in three saucers in any warm place, and let part of the water
dry away or evaporate ; then remove them to a warm room, The
particles of the salts in each saucer will begin to attract each
other, and form crystals, but not all of the same figure: the
common salt will yield crystals with six square and equal faces,
or sides; the nitre, six-sided crystals; and the alum, eight-sided
crystals; and if these crystals be dissolved over and over again,
they will always appear in the same forms.
HEAT FROM CRYSTALLIZATION.
Make a strong solution of Epsom salts in hot water, and while
warm, bottle it, cork it closely, and it will remain liquid ; draw out
the cork, when the salts will immediately crystallize, and, in the
process, the remaining liquid and the bottle will become very
Put into a flask a small portion of iodine; hold the flask over
the flame of a spirit-lamp, and, from the state of rich ruby crystals,
the iodine, on being heated, will become a ruby-coloured trans-
parent gas ; but, in cooling, will resume its crystalline form.
Mix four ounces of nitrate of ammonia, and four ounces of
subcarbonate of soda, with four ounces of water, in a tin vessel,
and in three hours the mixture will produce ten ounces of ice.
Dissolve oxide of cobalt in acetic acid, to which add a little
nitre ; write with this solution; hold the writing to the fire, and it
will be of a pale rose colour, which will disappear on cooling.
Dissolve equal parts of sulphate of copper and muriate of
ammonia in water ; write with the solution, and it will give a yellow
colour when heated, which will disappear when cold.
Dissolve nitrate of bismuth in water ; write with the solution,
and the characters will be invisible when ~ but will become
legible on immersion in water.
Dissolve, in water, muriate of cobalt, which is of a bluish-green
colour, and the solution will be pink; write with it, and the
characters will be scarcely visible ; but, if gently heated, they will
appear in brilliant green, which will disappear as the paper cools.
Put a small portion of the compound called mineral chameleon
into several glasses, pour upon each water at different tempera-
tures, and the contents of each glass will exhibit a different shade
of colour. A very hot solution will be of a beautiful green colour ;
a cold one, a deep purple.
Make a colourless solution of sulphate of copper; add to it a
little ammonia, equally colourless, and the mixture will be of an
intense blue colour; add to it a little sulphuric acid, and the blue
colour will disappear; pour in a little solution of caustic ammonia,
and the blue colour will be restored. Thus may the liquor be
thrice changed at pleasure.
THE MAGIC DYES.
Dissolve indigo in diluted sulphuric acid, and add to it an
equal quantity of solution of carbonate of potass. If a piece of
white cloth be dipped in the mixture, it will be changed to blue;
yellow cloth, in the same mixture, may be changed to green; red
to purple, and blue litmus paper to red.
Nearly fill a wine-glass with the juice of beet-root, which is
of a deep red colour; add a little lime water, and the mixture will
be colourless ; dip into it a piece of white cloth, dry it rapidly, and
in a few hours the cloth will become red.
WINE CHANGED INTO WATER.
Mix a little solution of subacetate of lead with port wine ;
filter the mixture through blotting paper, and a colourless liquid
will pass through ; to this add a small quantity of dry salt of tartar,
when a spirit will rise, which may be inflamed on the surface of
TWO COLOURLESS TRANSPARENT LIQUIDS BECOME BLACK
Have in one vessel some sulphuric acid, and in another an
infusion of nut-galls; they are both colourless and transparent ;
mix them, and they will become black and opaque.
TWO COLOURLESS FLUIDS MAKE A COLOURED ONE.
Put into a wine-glass of water, a few drops of prussiate of .
potash ; and into a second glass of water, a little weak solution of
sulphate of iron in water: pour the colourless mixtures together
into a tumbler, and they will be immediately changed to a bright
deep blue colour.
Or, mix the solution of prussiate of potash with that of nitrate
of bismuth, and a yellow will be the product.
Or, mix the solution of prussiate of potash with that of sulphate
of copper, and the mixture will be of a reddish brown colour.
CHANGE OF COLOUR BY COLOURLESS FLUIDS.
Three different colours may be produced from the same in-
fusion, merely by the addition of three colourless fluids. Slice
a little red cabbage, pour boiling water upon it, and when cold,
decant the clear infusion, which divide into three wine-glasses :
to one, add a small quantity of solution of alum in water; to the
second, a little solution of potash in water; and to the third, a few
drops of muriatic acid. The liquor in the first glass will assume a
purple colour, the second, a bright green, and the third, a rich
Put a dram of powdered nitrate of cobalt into a phial containing
an ounce of the solution of caustic potass ; cork the phial, and the
liquid will assume a blue colour, next a lilac, afterwards a peach
colour, and lastly a light red.
TO CHANGE A BLUE LIQUID TO WHITE.
Dissolve a small lump of indigo in sulphuric acid, by the aid
of moderate heat, and you will obtain an intense blue colour ; add
adrop of this to half a pint of water, so as to dilute the blue ;
then pour some of it into strong chloride of lime, and the blue will
be bleached with almost magical velocity.
VERITABLE â€œ BLACKâ€ TEA.
Make a cup of strong green tea; dissolve a little green cop-
peras in water, which add to the tea, and its colour will be black.
RESTORATION OF COLOUR BY WATER.
Water being a colourless fluid, ought, one would imagine, when
mixed with other substances of no decided colour, to produce a
colourless compound. Nevertheless, it is to water only that blue
vitriol,â€™ or sulphate of copper, owes its vivid blueness, as will be
plainly evinced by the following simple experiment. Heat a few
crystals of the vitriol in a fire shovel, pulverize them, and the
powder will be of a dull and dirty white appearance. Pour a little
water upon this, when a slight hissing noise will be heard, and at
the same moment, the blue colour will instantly re-appear.
Under the microscope, the beauty of this experiment will be
increased, for the instant that a drop of water is placed in contact
with the vitriol, the powder may be seen to shoot into blue prisms.
If a crystal of prussiate of potash be similarly heated, its yellow
colour will vanish, but re-appear on being dropped into water.
THE MAGIC WRITING.
Dissolve a small portion of green-copperas in water, and soak
in it sheets of writing paper, so as to allow them to be taken out
whole, and then dried; then, cover the paper with very finely
powdered galls, and write on it with a pen dipped in water; when
dry, brush off the galls, and the writing will appear.
TWO LIQUIDS MAKE A SOLID.
Dissolve muriate of lime in water until it will dissolve no more ;
make also a similar solution of carbonate of potash; both will be
transparent fluids ; but if equal quantities of each be mixed and
stirred together, they will become a solid mass.
TWO SOLIDS MAKE A LIQUID,
Rub together in a mortar, equal quantities of the crystals of
Glauberâ€™s salts. and nitrate of ammonia, and the two salts will slowly
become a liquid.
A SOLID OPAQUE MASS MADE A TRANSPARENT LIQUID.
Take the solid mixture of the solutions of muriate of lime and
carbonate of potash, pour upon it a very little nitric acid, and the
solid opaque mass will be changed to a transparent liquid.
TWO COLD LIQUIDS MAKE A HOT ONE.
Mix four drams of sulphuric acid (oil of vitriol), with one
dram of cold water, suddenly, in a cup, and the mixture will be
nearly half as hot again as boiling water.
Dissolve a small piece of nickel in nitric acid, and it will
appear of a fine grass-green colour; add to it a little ammonia,
and a blue precipitate will be formed; this will change to a purple-
red in a few hours, and the addition of any acid will convert it to
Heat potassium over the flame of a spirit-lamp, and the colour
will change from white to a bright azure, thence to a bright blue,
green, and olive.
COMBINATION OF COLOURS.
Cut out a disk or circle of pasteboard, and cover it with paper
half green and half black: cause the disk to be rapidly turned
round (like the shafts of a toy windmill,) and the colours will
combine and produce white.
UNION OF TWO METALS WITHOUT HEAT.
Cut a circular piece of gold leaf, called, â€˜â€œ dentist's gold,â€ about
half an inch in diameter ; drop upon it a globule of mercury, about
the size of a small pea, and if they be left for a short time, the
gold will lose its solidity and yellow colour, and the mercury its
liquid form, making a soft mass of the colour of mercury.
Half fill a glass tumbler with lime water; breathe into it
frequently, at the same time stirring it with a piece of glass. The
fluid, which before was perfectly transparent, will presently become
quite white, and, if allowed to remain at rest, real chalk will be
TWO BITTERS MAKE A SWEET.
It has been discovered, that a mixture of nitrate of silver
with hypo-sulphate of soda, both of which are remarkably bitter,
will produce the sweetest known substance.
VISIBLE AND INVISIBLE.
Write with French chalk on a looking glass; wipe it with a
handkerchief, and the lines will disappear; breathe on it, and
they will re-appear. This alternation will take place for a great
number of times, and after the lapse of a considerable period.
SIGHT AND SOUND.
:HE mirage is an optical phenomenon, produced
eh" Ge) by the refractive power of the atmosphere.
SA PA@ The appearance presented is that of the double
Â®) Cy) NG) 5, image of an object in the air; one of the images.
eee %) being in the natural position, and the other in-
(Oia YIM Fox) verted, so as to resemble a natural object and
its image in the water. The mirage is com-
monly vertical, or upright, that is, presenting the appearance,
above described, of one object over another, like a ship above
its shadow in the water. Sometimes, however, the image is
horizontal, or upon the water, and at other times, it is seen on
the right or left-hand of the real object, or on both sides.
All the effects of the mirage may be represented artificially
to the eye. For this purpose, provide a glass tumbler two-thirds
full of water, and pour spirit of wine upon it; or pour into a
tumbler some syrup, and fill it up with water: as the water and
16 SIGHT AND SOUND.
spirit, or the syrup and water incorporate, they will produce a
refractive power; then, by looking through the mixed or inter-
mediate liquids at any object held behind the tumblers, its inverted
image may be seen. The same effect, Dr. Wollaston has shewn,
may be produced by looking along the side of a red-hot poker at a
word or object ten or twelve feet distant. At a distance less than
three-eighths of an inch from the line of the poker, an inverted
image was seen; and within and without that, an erect image.
The above phenomena may likewise be illustrated, by holding
a heated iron above a tumbler of water, until the whole becomes
changed; then withdraw the iron, and, through the water, the
phenomena of the mirage may be seen in the finest manner.
Or, look directly above the footlights of the stage of a theatre,
the flame of a candle, or over the glass of a lighted lamp, and a tre-
mulous motion may be observed ; because the warm air rises, and its
refracting power being less than that of the colder air, the currents
are rendered visible by the distortion of objects viewed through
them. The same effect is observable over chimney pots, and
slated roofs which have been heated by the sun.
MOTION OF THE EYE.
On entering a room, we imagine that we see the whole side
of it at once, as the cornice, the pattern of the paper-hanging,
pictures, chairs, &c., but we are deceived ; for each object is rapidly,
but singly presented to the eye, by its constant motion. If the
eye were steady, vision would be lost. For example, fix the eye
on one point, and you will find the whole scene become more and
more obscure, till it vanishes. Then, if you change the direction
of the eye ever so little, at once the whole scene will be again
perfect before you.
SIGHT AND SOUND. 17
SINGLE VISION WITH TWO EYES.
As we have two eyes, and a separate image of every external
object is formed in each, it may be asked, Why do we not see
double? The answer is, It is a matter of habit. Habit alone
teaches us, that the sensations of sight correspond to anything
external, and shews to what they correspond. Thus, place a wafer
on a table before you; direct your eyes to it, that is, bring its image
on both retinze to those parts which habit has ascertained to be the
most sensible, and best situated for seeing distinctly, and you will
see only the single wafer. But, while looking at the wafer, squeeze
the upper part of one eye downwards, by pressing on the eyelid
with the finger, and thereby forcibly throw the image on another
part of the retina of that eye, and double vision will be immediately
produced; that is, two wafers will be distinctly seen, which will
appear to recede from each other as the pressure is stronger, and
approach, and finally blend into one, as it is relieved. The same
effect may be produced without pressure, by directing the eyes to
a point nearer to, or farther from them, than the wafer; the optic
axes, in this case, being both directed away from the object seen.
TWO OBJECTS SEEN AS ONE.
On a sheet of black paper, or other dark ground, place two
white wafers, having their centres three inches distant. Vertically
above the paper, and to the deft, look with the right eye, at twelve
inches from it, and so that, when looking down on it, the line
joining the two eyes shall be parallel to that joining the centre of
the wafers. In this situation, close the left eye, and look full with
the right perpendicularly at the wafer below it, when this wafer
only will be seen, the other being completely invisible. But, if it
be removed ever so little from its place, either to the right or left,
18 SIGHT AND SOUND.
above or below, it will become immediately visible, and start, as it Â°
were, into existence. The distances here set down may, perhaps,
vary slightly in different eyes.
Upon this curious effect, Sir John Herschel observes: â€œ It will
cease to be thought singular, that this fact of the absolute invisi-
bility of objects in a certain point of the field of view of each eye,
should be one of which not one person in ten thousand is apprised,
when we learn, that it is nof extremely uncommon to find persons
who have for some time been totally blind with one eye, without
being aware of the fact.â€
ONLY ONE OBJECT CAN BE SEEN AT A TIME.
Look at the pattern of the paper-hanging of a room, a picture,
or almost any other object in it; then, without altering your position,
call to mind the magnificent dome of St. Paulâ€™s Cathedral; the
pattern of the paper-hanging, or the subject of the picture, though
actually impressed on the retina of the eye, will be momentarily
lost sight of by the mind; and, during the instant, the recollected
image of the dome rising from the dingy roofs of London, will be
distinctly seen, but in indistinct colouring and outline. When
the object of the recollection is answered, the dome will quickly
disappear, and the paper-hanging pattern, or the picture, again
resume the ascendancy.
STRAIGHT OBJECTS SEEN CROOKED.
Look through a series of vertical bars, as those of a palisade, or
of a Venetian window-blind, at the wheel of a carriage passing
along the street, and the spokes of the wheel, instead of appearing
straight, as they naturally would do, if no bars intervened, seem to
SIGHT AND SOUND. 19
be of a curved form. The velocity of the wheel must not be so
great as to prevent the eye from following the spokes as they
Again, when the disk of the wheel, instead of being marked by
a number of radiant lines, has only one radius marked upon it, it
presents the appearance, when rolled behind the bars, of a number
of radii, each having the curvature corresponding to its situation,
their number being the same as that of the bars through which you
look at the wheel. It is, therefore, evident that the several por-
tions of one and the same line, seen through the intervals of the
bars, form, on the retina of the eye, so many different radii.
Shut one eye, direct the other to any fixed point, as the head
of a pin, and you will indistinctly see all other objects. Suppose
one of these to be a strip of white paper, or a pen lying upon a
table covered with a green cloth: either of them will disappear
altogether, as if taken off the table; for the impression of the green
cloth will entirely extend itself over that part of the retina which
the image of the pen occupied. The vanished pen will, however,
shortly re-appear, and again vanish; and the same effect will take
place when both eyes are open, though not so readily as with one
Make a pin-hole in a card, which hold between a candle and a
piece of white paper, in a dark room, when an exact representation
of the flame, but inverted, will be seen depicted upon the paper,
and be enlarged as the paper is drawn from the hole ; and if, in a
20 SIGHT AND SOUND.
dark room, a white screen or sheet of paper be extended at a few
feet from a small round hole, an exact picture of all external objects,
of their natural colours and forms, will be seen traced on the screen;
moving objects being represented in motion, and stationary ones
Prick a hole in a card with a needle; place the same needle
near the eye, in a line with the card-hole, look by daylight at the
end of the needle, and it will appear to be behind the card, and
Prick a hole with a pin in a black card, place it very near the
eye, look through it at any small object, and it will appear larger
as itis nearer the eye; while, if we observe it without the card,
it will appear sensibly of the same magnitude at all parts of the
ACCURACY OF SIGHT.
Rule a short line upon a slate, and upon another slate, rule
another line, one-eleventh longer than the first: a person possessing
what is called â€˜â€˜a true eye,â€ may perceive the difference in length,
even though fifty or sixty seconds elapse between looking at the
first and the second lines. If they differ only one-twentieth, then
an interval of thirty-five seconds may elapse without destroying the
judgment; but, if it be longer, the estimate will be incorrect.
When the difference between the lines amounts only to one-fiftieth,
an interval of three seconds between the examination of each, is
the longest that can be allowed without interfering with the cor-
rectness of the comparison.
SIGHT AND SOUND. 21
Let a room be only lit by the feeble gleam of a fire, almost
extinguished, and the eye will see with difficulty the objects in
the apartment, from the small degree of light with which they
happen to be illuminated. The more exertion is made to ascertain
what these objects are, as by fixing the eye more steadily upon them,
the greater will be the difficulty in accomplishing it. The eye will
be painfully agitated, the object will swell and contract, and partly
disappear, but will again become visible when the eye has recovered
from its delirium.
HAND-WRITING UPON THE WALL.
Cut the word or words to be shewn, out of a thick card or
pasteboard, place it before a lighted lamp, and the writing will be
distinctly seen upon the wall of the apartment.
Look at a candle, or any other luminous body, through a plate
of glass, covered with vapour, or dustin a finely divided state, and
it will be surrounded with a ring of colours, like a halo round the
sun or moon. These rings increase with the size of the particles
which produce them ; and their brilliancy and number depend on
the uniform size of these particles.
Or, haloes may be imitated by crystalizing various salts upon thin
plates of glass, and looking through the plate at a candle or the sun.
For example, spread a few drops of a strong solution of alum
over a plate of glass so as to crystalize quickly, and cover it witha
crust scarcely visible to the eye. Then place the eye close behind
22 SIGHT AND SOUND.
the smooth side of the glass plate, look through it at a candle, and
you will perceive three fine haloes at different distances, encircling
TO READ A COIN IN THE DARK.
By the following simple method, the legend or inscription upon
a coin may be read in absolute darkness. Polish the surface of
any silver coin as highly as possible ; touch the raised parts with
aqua-fortis, so as to make them rough, taking care that the parts
not raised retain their polish. Place the coin thus prepared upon
red-hot iron, remove it into a dark room, and the figure and
inscription will become more luminous than the rest, and may be
distinctly seen and read by the spectator. If the lower parts of the
coin be roughened with the acid, and the raised parts be polished,
the effect will be reversed, and the figure and inscription will appear
dark, or black upon a light or white ground.
This experiment will be more surprising if made with an old
coin, from which the figure and inscription have been obliterated ;
for when the coin is placed upon the red-hot iron, the figure and
inscription may be distinctly read upon a surface which had hitherto
This experiment may be made with small coins upon a heated
poker, a flat-iron, or a salamander. The effect will be more perfect
if the red-hot iron be concealed from the eye of the spectator: this
may be done by placing upon the iron a piece of blackened tin,
with a hole cut out, the size of the coin to be heated.
TO MAKE A PRISM.
Provide two small pieces of window-glass and a lump of wax ;
soften and mould the wax, stick the two pieces of glass upon it,
so that they meet, as in the cut, where w is the wax, g and g
SIGHT AND SOUND. 23
the _â€” stuck to it (Fig. 1). The end view (Fig. 2) will
Fig.2. shew the angle, a, at which the
pieces of glass meet; into which
angle put a drop of water.
To use the instrument thus made,
make a small hole, or a narrow
horizontal slit, so that you can see the sky through it, when you
stand at some distance from it in the room: or a piece of paste+
board placed in the upper part of the window-sash, with a slit
cut in it, will serve the purpose of the hole in the shutter. The
slit should be about one-tenth of an inch wide, and an inch or
two long, with even edges. Then hold the prism in your hand,
place it close to your eye, and look through the drop of water, when
you will see a beautiful train of colours, called a spectrum; at one
end red, at the other violet, and in the middle yellowish green.
The annexed figure 3 will better explain the direction in which
Fig. 3. to look : here, e, is the eye of
h the spectator, p, is the prism,
< h h, the hole in the shutter oy |
~ pasteboard, s, the spectrum.
* By a little practice, you will
gee Ge soon become accustomed to
â€œ4 look in the right direction, and
will see the colours very bright
a and distinct.
By means of this simple contrivance, white light may be
analysed, and proved to consist of coloured rays, and several of
its properties be beautifully illustrated.
Take a glass rummer that is narrow at bottom and wide at top,
into which put a half-sovereign, and fill the glass three-fourths
24, SIGHT AND SOUND.
with water; place on it a piece of paper, and then a plate, and
turn the glass upside down quickly, that the water may not escape :
by looking sideways at the glass, you will perceive a sovereign at
the bottom, and, higher up, the half-sovereign floating near the
surface. Fill the glass with water, and the large piece only will
GOLD FISH IN A GLASS GLOBE,
A single gold fish in a globe vase, is often mistaken for two
fishes, because it is seen as well by the light bent through the
upper surface of the water, as by straight rays passing through the
side of the vase.
COLOURS PRODUCED BY THE UNEQUAL ACTION OF LIGHT
UPON THE EYES,
If we hold aslip of white paper vertically, about a foot from the
eye, and direct both eyes to an object at some distance beyond it,
so as to see the slip of paper double, then, when a candle is brought
near the right eye, so as to act strongly upon it, while the left eye
is protected from its light, the left-hand slip of paper will be of a
tolerably bright green colour, while the right-hand slip of paper,
seen by the left eye, will be of a red colour. If the one image
overlaps the other, the colour of the overlapping parts will be white,
arising from a mixture of the complementary red and green. When
equal candles are held equally near to each eye, each of the images
of the slip of paper is white. If, when the paper is seen red and
green by holding the candle to the right eye, we quickly take it to
the left eye, we shall find that the left image of the slip of paper
gradually changes from green to red, and the right one from red
to green, both of them having the same tint during the time that
the change is going on.
SIGHT AND SOUND. 25
Look steadily at a carpet having figures of one colour, green,
for example, upon a ground of another colour, suppose red, and
you will sometimes see the whole of the green pattern as if the
red one were obliterated ; and at other times, you will see the whole
of the red pattern, as if the green one were obliterated. The
former effect takes place when the eye is steadily fixed on the green
part, and the latter, when it is steadily fixed on the red portion.
Provide two lighted candles, and place them upon a table be-
fore a whitewashed or light papered wall: hold before one of the
candles a piece of coloured glass, taking care to remove to a greatey
distance the candle before which the coloured glass is not placed,
in order to equalize the darkness of the two shadows. If you use
a piece of green glass, one of the shadows will be green, and
the other a fine red; if you use blue glass, one of the shadows
will be blue, and the other a pale yellow.
COLOURS OF SCRATCHES.
An extremely fine scratch on a well-polished surface, may be
regarded as having a concave, cylindrical, or, at least, a curved
surface, capable of reflecting light in all directions ; this is evident,
for it is visible in all directions. Hence, a single scratch or furrow
in a surface, may produce colours by the interference of the rays
reflected from its opposite edges. Examine a spiderâ€™s thread in
the sunshine, and it will gleam with vivid colours. These may
arise from a similar cause, or from the thread itself, as spun by
the animal, consisting of several threads agglutinated together, and
thus presenting, not a cylindrical, but a furrowed surface.
26 SIGHT AND SOUND..
One of the most curious affections of the eye is that, in virtue
of which it sees what are called ocular spectra, or accidental
colours. If we place a red wafer on a sheet of white paper, and,
closing one eye, keep the other directed for some time to the
centre of the wafer, then, if we turn the same eye to another part
of the paper, we shall see a green wafer, the colour of which will
continue to grow fainter and fainter, as we continue to look at it.
By using differently coloured wafers, we obtain the following
Black . . . White.
White . . . Black.
Red . . . Bluish Green.
Orange. . . Blue.
Yellow . . . Indigo.
Green . . . Violet, with a little Red.
Blue. . . . Orange Red.
Indigo . . . Orange Yellow.
Violet . . . Bluish Green.
BEAUTIFUL COLOURS OF MOTHER-OF-PEARL.
This substance, obtained from the shell of the pearl oyster, is
much admired for the fine play of its colours. To observe them
accurately, select a plate of regularly formed mother-of-pearl, with
its surface nearly parallel, and grind this surface upon a hone,
or upon a plate of glass, with the powder of slate, till the image of
the candle, reflected from the surfaces, is of a dull reddish white
colour, when it will glow with all the colours of the rainbow. The
SIGHT AND SOUND. 27
colours of mother-of-pearl may be communicated to soft black
wax ; and to clean surfaces of lead and tin by hard pressure, or the
blow of a hammer. Or, dissolve gum arabic, or isinglass, in water,
and allow it to harden upon a surface of mother-of-pearl, when
it will take a perfect impression from it, and exhibit all the colours
in the finest manner. Or, place the isinglass between two finely-
polished surfaces of mother-of-pearl, and you may obtain a film of
artificial mother-of-pearl, which, when seen by the light of a can-
dle, or by an aperture in the window, will shine with the brightest
WHITE LETTERS SEEN FURTHER THAN BLACK.
Paint the same letters of the same size precisely on two boards,
the one white on a black ground, and the other a black on a
white ground; the white letters will appear larger, and be read at
a greater distance than the black.
Observe the various colours which are reflected from the glass
drops usually suspended from a lustre or chandelier, and you will
witness a mimic rainbow. A rainbow may also be made by a
garden engine, if the water be thrown high in the air, and the
spectator stand between it and the sun.
FRINGE ABOUT A CANDLE.
Provide two small pieces of plate glass, moisten two of their
sides with water, and put them together ; then look through them
at a candle, and you will perceive the flame surrounded with
beautifully coloured fringes: these are the effect of moisture,
intermixed with portions of air, and exhibiting an appearance
similar to dew.
28 SIGHT AND SOUND.
THE DOUBLE COLOURED REFLECTION.
Provide a circular piece of coloured glass, and pierce its centre
by means of a common awl, well moistened with oil of turpentine:
encircle the glass with the fingers and thumb, hold it in the sun-
shine or the strong light of a lamp, and the following beautiful
effects will be produced. If the glass be red, the luminous spot in
the centre will be reflected green ; if the glass be green, the spot
will be red; if blue, orange ; and if yellow, indigo.
Place a lighted candle before a looking-glass, and there will
appear a luminous cross radiating from the flame of the candle.
This is produced by the direction of the friction by which the glass
is polished ; the scratches placed in a horizontal direction, exhi-
biting the perpendicular part of the cross, and the vertical scratches
the horizontal part.
RINGS OF COLOURS ROUND A CANDLE,
Look at a candle through a plate of glass, upon which you have
gently breathed, or over which are scattered particles of dust, or
any fine powder, and you will perceive the flame surrounded with
beautiful rings of colours. By using the seed of the lycopodium,
or by placing a drop of blood diluted with water between two
pieces of glass, the rings of colour will be still more finely exhi-
bited. Round the luminous body there will be seen a light area,
terminating in a reddish dark margin; this will be succeeded by a
ring of bluish-green, and then by a red ring ; these two last colours
succeeding each other several times when the particles are of uni-
form diameter, as are the seeds of the lycopodium, each of which
is but the 850th part of an inch in diameter.
SIGHT AND SOUND. 29
SIMPLE AND CHEAP OPERA-GLASS.
In this new instrument, no tubes are necessary, as in the
ordinary opera-glass; their place being supplied by a slender
elastic conical spring of wire, into the upper extre-
mity of which is inserted the eye-glass ; the object-
glass being fixed to the other extremity, as shewn
in the engraving. The two glasses must, of course,
be kept parallel to each other when in use; which
is very easily effected. â€˜
In using this opera-glass, rest the finger and
thumb of one hand on the rim of the object-glass,
B, whilst, with the thumb and finger of the other
hand you hold the rim of the eye-glass, A. The
â€˜spring tube may then be drawn out or shut up to
very minute distances. Thus, the ordinary sliding tubes are super-
seded; nor is any external covering necessary, as the hand in grasp-
ing the instrument serves the purpose. If, however, a covering be
preferred, a piece of silk may be sewn to the spirals of the spring.
This kind of opera-glass may be made very cheaply: it may
be shut into a small space for the pocket, merely by pressing the
object-glass and eye-glass together.
Place two pieces of looking-glass, one at each end, parallel to
one another, and looking over, or by the edge of one of them, the
images of any objects placed on the bottom of the box, will appear
continued to a considerable distance.
Or, line each of the four sides of the box with looking- glass, and
the bottom of the box will be multiplied to an astonishing extent,
30 SIGHT AND SOUND.
there being no other limitation to the number of images but what
is owing to the continued loss of light from reflection. The top
of the box may be almost covered with thin canvas, which will
admit sufficient light to render the exhibition very distinct.
The above experiments may be made very entertaining, by
placing on the bottom of the box some toy, as two persons playing
at cards, sentry soldiers, &c.; and, if these be put in motion, by
wires attached to them, or passing through the bottom or side of
the box, it will afford a still more entertaining spectacle. Or the
bottom of the box may be covered with moss, shining pebbles,
flowers, &c.; only, in all cases, the upright figures between the
pieces of looking-glass should be slender, and not too numerous,
else they will obstruct the reflected light.
In a box with six, eight, or more sides, lined with looking-
glass, as above, the different objects in it will be multiplied to an
almost indefinite extent.
APPARATUS FOR WRITING IN THE DARK.
In this ingenious contrivance, A is a frame of wood, into the
ook and front of which are inserted two thin boards, the front
one, B, reaching about half the height of
the frame, and the back one being movea-
ble, by sliding in grooves, for better fixing
the paper to be written on, C, toa roller at
top, with a handle and ratchet working into
To use the apparatus, the paper is to be
â€”â€” fixed on the roller, and a strip of lead or
other weight, suspended from the bottom of the paper, to keep it
SIGHT AND SOUND. 31
smooth : then, by resting the right hand on the edge of the board,
B, and turning, with the left hand, the ratchet, the distance of the
lines may be regulated by the number of clicks caused by the
spring on the ratchet. D, is a foot to support the apparatus ;
which, however, should be light enough to be held in the hand as
This cheap and useful instrument consists of a handle of hard
wood, a, which is screwed into a brass piece, d, having, at its top,
4 aring, which screws on back and front, into
â€”â€”}/ which are to be screwed two cells with lenses
of different foci. There is also a projecting
piece formed on the side of the brass piece,
d, in which is a hole to receive the screwed
end of a cylindrical rod of brass, c. Upon
this rod, a springing slit socket, e, slides
backwards and forwards, and is also capable
of being turned round. This socket has
affixed to it, on one side, a projecting part,
with a screwed cavity in it, to receive a short screwed tube, with a
small hole in its centre, made to fit the steel stem of the spring
forceps; a corresponding hole being made at the bottom of the
screwed cavity, where is lodged a piece of perforated cork ; which,
being pressed upon by the action of the screw, closes upon the steel
stem of the forceps, and steadies them, and the objects held in
them. The stem of the forceps being removed from its place in the
short tube ; the handles and lenses, and the rod, c, and the sliding
socket upon it, being unscrewed from its place in the handle ;
they can all three be packed in a black paper case, which is only
three and a half inches long, one inch broad, and half an inch
32 SIGHT AND SOUND.
This microscope possesses three different magnifying powers,
namely, those of two lenses separately, and the two in combination,
Microscopes of a still simpler nature are small globules of glass,
formed by smelting the ends of fine threads of glass in the flame of
a candle; and small globular microscopes of great magnifying
power, made of hollow glass about the size of a small walnut, may
be purchased very cheaply at the opticiansâ€™.
THE PHENAKISTICOPE, OR STOBOSCOPE.
This amusing instrument consists of a turning wheel, upon
which figures are seen to walk, jump, pump water, &c. The disk
or wheel should be of stout card-board, upon which should be
painted, towards the edge, figures in eight or ten postures. Thus,
if it is wished to represent a man bowing, the first position is a man
standing upright; in the second, his body has a slight inclination ;
in the third, still more; and so on, to the sixth position, where the
body is most bent: the four following, represent the figure reco-
vering its erect posture, so that the fifth and seventh, the fourth
and eighth, the third and ninth, the second and tenth figures, have
the same posture. Between each of the figures on the wheel,
should be a slit, three-fourths of an inch long, and one-fourth of an
inch wide, in a direction parallel with the radii of the wheel, and
extending to an equal distance from the centre.
To work this instrument, place the figured side of the wheel
before a looking-glass, and cause it to revolve upon its centre ; then
look through the slits or apertures, and you may observe, in the
glass, the figures bowing continually, and with a rapidity pro-
portionate to the rate at which the wheel turns. The illusion
depends on the circumstance, that the wheel between each aperture
SIGHT AND SOUND, 33
is covered, while the figure goes further. That the deception may
be complete, it is necessary that every part of the figures not
bowing shall be at an equal distance from the centre of the wheel,
and from the slits; also that the figures possess equal thickness and _
TO LOOK AT THE SUN WITHOUT INJURY.
Provide a wine-glass filled with plain water, which will keep oft
the heat so effectually, that the brightest sun may be viewed some
time through it without any inconvenience. If a little black ink
be added to the water, the image of the sun will appear through it,
as white as snow; and when the ink is still more diluted, the sun
will be of a purple hue.
BRILLIANT WATER MIRROR.
Nearly fill a glass tumbler with water, and hold it, with your
back to the window, above the level of the
eye, as in the engraving. Then look obliquely,
as in the direction E, a, c, and you will
see the whole surface shining like burnished
silver, with a strong metallic reflection;
and any object, as a spoon, A C B, im-
mersed in the water, will have its immersed
part, CB, reflected on the surface, as in a
mirror, but with a brilliancy far surpassing
: that which can be obtained from quicksilver,
or from the most highly-polished metals.
OPTICAL ILLUSION UNDER WATER.
Procure a large gallipot; place on the bottom, next the side
furthest from you, a sixpence, and next to it, but towards the centre,
34 SIGHT AND SOUND.
a shilling; move to such a distance as will render the coins in-
visible; then let another person pour water gently in, and as
it rises in the gallipot, it will cause both the sixpence and shil-
ling to be seen, without your approaching nearer to the gallipot,
or moving it towards you.
THE MAGIC WIEELS.
Cut out two card-board cog-wheels of equal size; place them
upon a pin, and whirl them round with equal velocity in opposite
directions ; when, instead of producing a hazy tint, as one wheel
would do, or as the two would if revolving in the same direction,
there will be an extraordinary appearance of a fixed wheel. If
the cogs be cut slantwise on both wheels, the spectral wheel, as it
may be called, will exhibit slanting cogs ; but if one of the wheels
beturned, so that the cogs shall point in opposite directions, then
the spectral wheel will have straight cogs. If wheels with radii,
or arms, be viewed when moving, the deception will be similar;
and however fast the wheels may move, provided it be with equal
velocity, the magic of a fixed wheel will be presented.
Or, cut a card-board wheel with a certain number of teeth or
cogs at its edge; a little nearer the centre, cut a series of apertures
resembling the cogs in arrangement, but not to the same number;
and still nearer the centre cut another series of apertures, different
in number, â€˜and varying from the former. Fix this wheel upon
another, with its face held two or three yards from an illuminated
mirror ; spin it round, the cogs will disappear, and a greyish belt,
three inches broad, will become visible ; but, on looking at the glass
through the moving wheel, appearances will entirely change: one
row of cogs, or apertures, will appear fixed, as if the wheel were
not moving, whilst the other two will appear as if in motion ; and,
by shifting the eye, other and new effects appear.
SIGHT AND SOUND. 35
These amusing deceptions were first experimented by Mr.
Faraday. The simple apparatus for their exhibition may be
purchased, for a trifling sum, of any respectable optician.
A sounding-plate, made of brass, nine inches long, and half a
line in thickness, covered with a layer of water, may be employed
to produce a rainbow in a chamber which admits the sun. On
drawing a violin bow strongly across the plate, so as to produce
the greatest possible intensity of tone, numerous drops of water fly
perpendicularly and laterally upwards. The size of the drops is
smaller as the tone is higher. The inner and outer rainbows are
very beautifully seen in these ascending and descending drops, when
the artificial shower is held opposite to the sun. When the eyes
are close to the falling drops, each eye sees its appropriate rainbow;
and four rainbows are perceived at the same time, particularly if
the floor of the room is of a dark colour. The experiment succeeds
best, if, when a finger is placed under the middle of the plate, and
both of the angular points at one side are supported, the tone is
produced ata point of the opposite side, a fourth of its length from
one of its angles. An abundant shower of drops is thus obtained.
TRANSMISSION OF SOUND,
Suspend any sonorous body, as a bell, a glass, a silver spoon,
or a tuning-fork, from a double thread, and put with the finger the
extremities of the thread, one in each ear; if the body be then
struck, the apparent loudness and depth of the sound will be sur-
Again, if you shut your ears altogether, you will yet feel very
36 SIGHT AND SOUND.
sensible of the impression of any sound conveyed through the
mouth, the teeth, or the head: if you put one end of a small stick ,
or rod in the mouth, and touch with the other extremity a watch
lying on the table, the beatings will become quite audible, though
the ears be actually shut. So, also, if a log of wood be scratched
at one end with a pin, a person who applies his ear to the other
end will hear the sound distinctly.
Fogs and falling rain, but especially snow, powerfully obstruct
the free propagation of sound; and the same effect is produced by
a coating of fresh-fallen snow on the ground, though when glazed
and hardened at the surface by freezing, it has no such influence.
Over water, or a surface of ice, sound is propagated with re-
markable clearness and strength. Dr. Hutton relates, that on a
quiet part of the Thames, near Chelsea, he could hear a person
distinctly at 140 feet distance, while on the land the same could
only be heard at 76 feet. Lieutenant Forster, in the third Polar
expedition of Captain Perry, held a conversation with a man
across the harbour of Port Bowen, a distance of 6696 feet, or
about a mile and a quarter. This, however remarkable, falls ~
short of what is related by Dr. Young, on the authority of the
Rev. W. Derham, viz. that, at Gibraltar, the voice has been heard
ten miles, perhaps, across the strait.
The cannonade of a sea-fight between the English and Dutch,
in 1672, was heard across England as far as Shrewsbury, and even
in Wales, a distance of upwards of 200 miles from the scene of
At Carisbrook Castle, in the Isle of Wight, is a_well 210 feet
in depth, and twelve feet in diameter, into which if a pin be
dropped, it will be distinctly heard to strike the water. The
interior is lined with very smooth masonry.
SIGHT AND SOUND. 37
PROGRESS OF SOUND.
A stretched string, as that of a piano-forte, may be made to
vibrate not only from end to end, but in aliquot parts, the portions
being separated by points of rest which interrupt the progress of
the sound. This kind of effect may be shewn by shaking a long
piece of cane in the air, when there will be one, two, or three
points of rest, according to the mode of vibrating it.
An elastic surface has, likewise, some parts in motion and
others at rest; and these parts may be made visibly distinct, by
strewing pieces of bristle over them upon the sounding-board of an
When a bow is drawn across the strings of a violin, the im-
pulses produced may be rendered evident by fixing a small steel
bead upon the bow; when looked at by light or in sunshine, the
bead will seem to form a series of dots during the passage of
SOUND TURNING CORNERS.
Take a common tuning-fork, strike it, and hold it (when set in
vibration) about three or four inches from the ear, with the flat
side towards it, when the sound will be distinctly heard ; let a strip
of card, somewhat longer than the flat of the tuning-fork, be inter-
posed at about half an inch from the fork, and the sound will be
almost entirely intercepted by it; and, if the card be alternately
removed and replaced in pretty quick succession, alternations of
sound and silence will be produced; proving that sound is by no
means propagated with so much intensity round the edge of the card,
as straight forward. Indeed, to be convinced of this fact, you haveâ€™
only to listen to the sound of a carriage turning a corner from the
street, in which you happen to be, into an adjoining one. Even
38 ; SIGHT AND SOUND.
where there is no obstacle in the way, sounds are by no means
equally audible in all directions from the sounding body ; as you
may ascertain, by holding a vibrating tuning-fork or pitch-pipe
near your ear, and turning it quickly on its axis.
TO TELL THE DISTANCE OF THUNDER.
Count, by means of a watch, the number of seconds that elapse
between seeing the ftash of lightning and hearing the report of the
thunder : allow somewhat more than five seconds for a mile, and
the distance may be ascertained. Thus, say the number of seconds is
S miles distant;
or the distance may be estimated by remarking the number of
beats of the pulse in the above interval ; provided, of course, that
we know the rate at which the pulse beats in acertain time. Ina
French work, it is stated that if the pulse beat six times, the.
distance of the thunder will be about 30,000 feet, or fives miles and
a half; thus reckoning 5,000 feet for each pulsation.
In a violent thunder-storm, when the sound instantly succeeds
the flash, the persons who witness the circumstance are in some
danger; when the interval is a quarter of a minute, they are secure.
HEARING BY THE TOUCH.
If a deaf person merely place the tips of his finger-nails on
the window-shutters or door of a room in which instruments are
playing, he may enjoy their concert of harmony.
CONVERSATION FOR THE DEAF.
If two persons stop their ears closely, they may converse with
each other by holding a long stick or sticks between their teeth, or
SIGHT AND SOUND. 39
by resting their teeth against them. The person who speaks may
rest the stick against his throat or his breast ; or he may rest the
stick, which he holds in his teeth, against a glass tumbler or china
basin into which the other speaks. The sound may also be heard
whena thread is held between the teeth by both persons, so as to
be sonewhat stretched.
GLASS BROKEN BY THE VOICE.
On vibrating bodies, which present a large surface, the effects
of sands are very surprising. Persons with a clear and powerful
voice have been known to break a drinking-glass, by singing the
prope fundamental note of their voice close toit. Looking-glasses
are dso said to have been broken by music, the vibrations of the
atoms of the glass being so great as to strain them beyond the
limits of their cohesion.
FIGURES PRODUCED BY SOUND.
Stretch a sheet of wet paper over the mouth of a glass tumbler
which has a footstalk, and glue or paste the paper at the edges.
When the paper is dry, strew dry sand thinly upon its surface.
Place the tumbler on a table, and hold immediately above it, and
parallel to the paper, a plate of glass, which you also strew with
sand, having previously rubbed the edges smooth with emery pow-
der. Draw a violin bow along any part of the edges, and as the
sand upon the glass is made to vibrate, it will form various figures,
which will be accurately imitated by the sand upon the paper ; or,
if a violin or flute be played within a few inches of the paper,
they will cause the sand upon its surface to form regular lines and
40 SIGHT AND SOUND.
Provide a long, flat glass ruler or rod, as in the engraving, and.
cement it with mastic to the edge of a drinking-glass fixed inf a
wooden stand; support the other end of the rod very lightly pn a
2 piece of cork, and strew its
upper surface with sand;
set the glass in vibration by
- a bow, at a point opposite
where the rod meets it, and the motions will be communicated to
the rod without any change in their direction. Ifthe apparatus
be inverted, and sand be strewed on the under side of the rod, the
figures will be seen to correspond with those produced on the
upper surface. ,
Provide two disks of metal or glass, precisely of the same
dimensions, and a glass or metal rod; cement the two disks at
their centres to the two ends of the rod, as
in the engraving, and strew their upper
surfaces with sand. Cause one of the disks,
viz. the upper one, to vibrate by a bow, and
its vibration will be exactly imitated by the
lower disk, and the sand strewed over both
will arrange itself in precisely the same
forms on both disks. But if, separately,
they do not agree in their tones, the figures on them will not
CHAMPAGNE AND SOUND.
Pour sparkling champagne into a glass until it is half full,
when the glass will lose its power of ringing by a stroke upon its
SIGHT AND SOUND. 41
edges, and will emit only a disagreeable and puffy sound. Nor
will the glass ring while the wine is brisk, and filled with air-
bubbles ; but, as the effervescence subsides, the sound will become
clearer and clearer, and when the air bubbles have entirely dis-
appeared, the glass will ring as usual. Ifa crumb of bread be
thrown into the champagne, and effervescence be re-produced, the
glass will again cease to ring. The same experiment will also
succeed with soda-water, ginger wine, or any other effervescing
MUSIC FROM PALISADES.
If a line of broad palisades, set edgewise in a line directed from
the ear, and at even distances from each other, be struck at the
end nearest the auditor,-they will reflect the sound of the blow,
and produce a succession of echoes: these, from the equal distance
of the palisades, will reach the ear at equal intervals of time, and
will, therefore, produce the effect of a number of impulses originat-
ing in one point. Thus, a musical note will be heard.
THEORY OF THE JEWâ€™S HARP.
If you cause the tongue of this little instrument to vibrate, it
will produce a very low sound; but if you place it before a cavity
(as the mouth), containing a column of air, which vibrates much
faster, but in the proportion of any simple multiple, it will then
produce other higher sounds, dependant upon the reciprocation
of that portion of the air. Now, the bulk of air in the mouth
can be altered in its form, size, and other circumstances, so as to
produce, by reciprocation, many different sounds; and these are
the sounds belonging to the Jewâ€™s Harp,
42 SIGHT AND SOUND.
A proof of this fact has been given by Mr. Eulenstein, who
fitted into a long metallic tube a piston, which, being moved, could
be made to lengthen or shorten the efficient column of air within
at pleasure. A Jewâ€™s Harp was then so fixed that it could be
made to vibrate before the mouth of the tube, and it was found that
the column of air produced a series of sounds, according as it was
lengthened or shortened ; a sound being produced whenever the
length of the column was such that its vibrations were a multiple
of those of the Jewâ€™s Harp.
MUSIC OF THE SNAIL.
Place a garden-snail upon a pane of glass, and, in drawing
itself along, it will frequently produce sounds similar to those of
TO TUNE A GUITAR WITHOUT THE ASSISTANCE OF THE EAR.
Make one string to sound, and its vibrations will, with much
force, be transferred to the next string: this transference may be
seen, by placing a saddle of paper (like an inverted 4) upon the
string, at first in a state of rest. When this string hears the
other, the saddle will be shaken, or fall off; when both strings
are in harmony, the paper will be very little, or not at all, shaken.
MUSIC FROM GLASS OR METAL RODS.
Provide a straight rod of glass or metal; strike it at the end in
the direction of its length, or rub it lengthwise with a moistened
finger, and it will yield a musical sound, which, unless its length be
very great, will be of an extremely acute pitch; much more so
than in the case of a column of air of the same length, as in a
SIGHT AND SOUND. 43
flute. The reason of this is the greater velocity with which sound
is propagated in solids than in the air. If the rod be metal, the
friction will be found to succeed best when made with a bit of
cloth, sprinkled with powdered rosin; or, if of glass, the cloth
or the finger may be moistened and touched with some very fine
sand or pumice powder. Â°
Generally speaking, a fiddle-bow, well resined, is the readiest
and most convenient means of setting solid bodies in vibration.
To bring out their gravest or fundamental tones, the bow must be
pressed hard and drawn slowly ; but, for the higher harmonies,
a short, swift, stroke, with light pressure, is most proper.
THE TUNING-FORK A FLUTE PLAYER.
Take a common tuning-fork, and on one of its branches fasten
with sealing-wax a circular piece of card, of the size of a small
sooo wafer, or sufficient nearly
SSS to cover the aperture of a
all pipe, as the sliding of the
upper end of a flute with the mouth stopped: it may
be tuned in unison with the loaded tuning-fork (a
C fork), by means of the moveable stopper or card,
or the fork may be loaded till the unison is perfect.
Then set the fork in vibration by a blow on the unloaded
branch, and hold the card closely over the mouth of the pipe,
as in the engraving, when a note of surprising clearness and
strength will be heard. Indeed, a flute may be made to â€œ speakâ€
perfectly well, by holding close to the opening a vibrating tuning-
fork, while the fingering proper to the note of the fork is at the
same time performed.
44 SIGHT AND SOUND.
Provide two glass bottles, and tune them by pouring water into
them, so that each corresponds to the sound of a different tuning-
fork. Then apply both tuning-forks to the mouth of each bottle
alternately, when that sound only will be heard, in each case,
which is reciprocated by the unisonant bottle, or, in other words,
by that bottle which contains a column of air, susceptible of
vibrating in unison with the fork.
THEORY OF WHISPERING.
Apartments of a circular or elliptical form are best calculated
for the exhibition of this phenomenon. If a person stand near the
wall, with his face turned to it, and whisper a few words, they may
be more distinctly heard at nearly the opposite side of the apart-
ment, than if the listener was situated nearer to the speaker.
THEORY OF THE VOICE.
Provide a species of whistle, common as a childâ€™s toy or a
sportmanâ€™s call, in the form of a hollow cylinder, about three-
fourths of an inch in diameter, closed at both ends by flat circular
plates, with holes in their centres, Hold this toy between the
teeth and lips; blow through it, and you may produce sounds
varying in pitch with the force with which you blow. If the air
be cautiously graduated, all the sounds within the compass of a
double octave may be produced from it; and, if great precaution
be taken in the management of the wind, tones even yet graver
may be brought out. This simple instrument, or toy, has, indeed,
the greatest resemblance to the larynx, which is the organ of voice.
A speaking-machine has been invented in Germany, with which
SIGHT AND SOUND. 45
have been distinctly pronounced the words, mamma, papa, mother,
father, summer. This instrument consists of a pair of bellows, to
which is adapted a tube terminating in a bell, the aperture of
which is regulated by the hand, so as to produce the articulate
SOUND ALONG A WALL.
Whisper along the bare wall of an apartment, and you will be
heard much further than in the middle of the room; for the trough
or angle between the wall and the floor, forms two sides of a square
pipe which conveys the sound.
SOUNDS MORE AUDIBLE BY NIGHT THAN BY DAY,
The experiment with the glass of champagne (page 40) has
been employed by Humboldt, in explanation of the greater
audibility of distant sounds by night than by day. This he attri-
butes to the uniformity of temperature in the atmosphere by night,
when currents of air no longer rise and disturb its equilibrium ;
as the air-bubbles in the champagne interfere with the vibration
within the glass. Again, the universal and dead silence gene-
rally prevalent at night, renders our auditory nerves sensible to
sounds which would otherwise escape them, and which are in-
audible among the continual hum of noises which is always going
on in the day time.
If a noise be made in a narrow passage, or apartment of
regular form, the echoes will be repeated at equal very small
intervals, and will always impress the ear with a musical note.
This is, doubtless, one of the means which blind persons have of
judging of the size and shape of any room they happen to be in.
46 SIGHT AND SOUND.
The main secret of this surprising art simply consists in first
making a strong and deep inspiration, by which a considerable
quantity of air is introduced into the lungs, to be afterwards acted
upon by the flexible powers of the larynx, or cavity situated behind
the tongue, and the trachea, or windpipe: thus prepared, the
expiration should be slow and gradual. Any person, by practice,
can, therefore, obtain more or less expertness in this exercise; in
which, though not apparently, the voice is still modified by the
mouth and tongue; and it is the concealment of this aid, that
much of the perfection of ventriloquism lies.
But the distinctive character of ventriloquism consists in its
imitations being performed by the voice seeming to come from the
stomach: hence its name, from venter, the stomach, and Joquor,
to speak. Although the voice does not actually come from that
region, in order to enable the ventriloquist to utter sounds from
the larynx without moving the muscles of his face, he strengthens
them by a powerful action of the abdominal muscles. Hence, he
speaks by means of his stomach; although the throat is the real
source from whence the sound proceeds. It should, however, be
added, that this speaking distinctly, without any movement of the
lips at all, is the highest perfectionâ€™of ventriloquism, and has but
rarely been attained. Thus, MM. St. Gille and Louis Brabant, two
celebrated French ventriloquists, appeared to be absolutely mute
while exercising their art, and no change in their countenances
could be discovered.
It has lately been shewn, that some ventriloquists have acquired
by practice the power of exercising the veil of the palate in such a
manner, that, by raising or depressing it, they dilate or contract
the inner nostrils. If they are closely contracted, the sound pro-
SIGHT AND SOUND, 47
duced is weak, dull, and seems to be more or less distant; if, on
the contrary, these cavities are widely dilated, the sound will be
strengthened, the voice become loud, and apparently close to us.
Another of the secrets of ventriloquism, is the uncertainty with
respect to the direction of sounds. Thus, if we place a man and a
child in the same angle of uncertainty, and the man speaks with
the accent of a child, without any corresponding motion in his
mouth or face, we shall necessarily believe that the voice comes
from the child. In this case, the belief is so strengthened by the
imagination ; for if we were directed to a statue, as the source from
which we were to expect sounds to issue, we should still be
deceived, and refer the sounds to the lifeless stone or marble.
This illusion will be greatly assisted by the voice being totally
different in tone and character from that of the man from whom
it really comes. Thus, we see how easy is the deception when the
sounds are required to proceed from any given object, and are
such as they actually yield.
The ventriloquists of our time, as M. Alexander and M.
Fitz-James, have carried their art still further. They have not
only spoken by the muscles of the throat and the abdomen,
without moving those of the face, but have so far overcome the
uncertainty of sound, as to become acquainted with modifications
of distance, obstruction, and other causes, so as to imitate them
with the greatest accuracy. Thus, each of these artists has suc-
ceeded in carrying on a dialogue; and each, in his own single
person and with his own single voice, has represented a scene
apparently with several actors. These ventriloquists have likewise
possessed such power over their faces and figures, that, aided
by rapid changes of dress, their personal identity has scarcely
been recognised among the range of personations.
48 SIGHT AND SOUND.
Vocal imitations are much less striking and ingenious than the
feats of ventriloquism. Extraordinary varieties of voice may be
produced, by speaking with a more acute or grave pitch than
usual, and by different contractions of the mouth. Thus may be
imitated the grinding of cutlery on a wheel, the sawing of wood,
the frying of a pancake, the uncorking of a bottle, and the
gurgling noise in emptying its contents.
meter; divide it into sixteen parts, and paint them
alternately red and black. Provide a second
â€œG ) circle or disk of the same size, and paint on it,
oe in large characters, the words â€œ At rest,â€ on a
BS 3) white ground. Connect both disks with the sim-
WLS ple apparatus for causing them to turn round,
used in the construction of a toy windmill. Next fill a basin with
water, and provide a few small pieces of phosphuret of lime:
darken the room, hold the disks over the basin, and turn them
round ; let the phosphuret of lime be put into the water, and bubbles
of light will rise to its surface. If they come up slowly, both disks
will appear stationary during their turning round; but when the
bubbles come up quickly, the black and red spaces will exhibit a
dancing motion, and sometimes two black spaces will seem joined
52 LIGHT AND HEAT.
into one, to the exclusion of the intervening red, and vice versÃ© :
the words on the second disk will also cross each other in various
directions, when the flashes of light interfere; and, in both cases,
confusion will be excited by an impression being made on the
retina before preceding impressions have departed.
DECOMPOSITION OF LIGHT.
Sir Isaac Newton first divided a white ray of light, and found
it to consist of an assemblage of coloured rays, which formed an
image upon a wall, and in which were displayed the following
colours: red, orange, yellow, green, blue, indigo, and violet. Sir
Isaac then shewed that these seven colours, when again put toge-
ther or combined, recomposed white light. This may be proved
by painting a card wheel in circles with the above colours, and
whirling it rapidly upon a pin, when it will appear white.
Light may also be decomposed by the following beautiful
experiment :â€”Form a tube, about ten inches long and one inch in
diameter, of paper, one side of which is of a bright blue colour.
This may be done by wrapping the paper once round a cylinder of
wood, and securing the edges of the paper with paste. The coloured
side of the paper must be the interior of the tube. Apply this
tube to one eye, the other being closed, and on looking at the
ceiling, a circular orange spot will be seen, which is the result of
decomposition: the white light from the ceiling enters the tube,
the blue is retained, and the red and yellow rays enter the eye,
and produce the impression of orange.
â€˜The theory of solar refraction may be beautifully illustrated as
follows: Puta shilling into a basin, and pour some water on it, .
when the silver will be refracted through the medium; and, if the
LIGHT AND HEAT. 53
vessel be filled, you may withdraw to any distance from which the
surface of the water will be visible, and, by the refraction from it,
you can still obserye the shilling.
Dissolve crystals of nitrate of copper in spirit of wine; light
the solution, and it will burn with a beautiful emerald-green flame:
pieces of sponge soaked in this spirit, lighted and suspended by
fine wires over the stage of theatres, produce the lambent green
flames now so common in incantation scenes: strips of flannel
saturated with it, and applied round copper swords, tridents, &c.
produce, when lighted, the flaming swords and fire-forks, bran-
dished by the demons in such scenes: indeed, the chief consumption
of nitrate of copper is for these purposes.
TO IMITATE THE LIGHT OF THE SEA.
It is well known, that on dark, stormy nights, the sea emits a
brilliant light, the effect of which may thus be imitated. Scrape
off four drams of the substance of putrefying fish, es whiting, her-
ring, or mackerel, and put it into a white glass bottle, containing
two ounces of sea-water, or of pure water with two drams of
common salt dissolved in it; set the bottle in a dark place, and in
three days a ring of light will be seen on the surface of the liquid,
and the whole, if shaken, will become luminous, and continue so for
some time. If it be set in a warm place, the light will be brighter ;
if the liquid be frozen, the light will disappear, but will re-appear
on being thawed.
If more salt be added to the solution, the light will disappear,
but instantly burst forth from absolute darkness by dilution with
water. Lime water, common water, beer, acids, even very dilute
5A LIGHT AND HEAT.
alkaline leys, as pearl-ash or soda and water, will permanently
extinguish this spontaneous light.
The oxygenated, or chlorate matches, are first dipped in melted
sulphur, and then tipped with a paste made of chlorate of potass,
sulphur, and sugar, mixed with gum-water, and coloured with
vermilion: frankincense and camphor are sometimes mixed with
the composition, and the wood of the match is pencil-cedar, so that
a fragrant odour is diffused by the matches in burning. To obtain
light, a match is very lightly dipped in a bottle containing a little
asbestos soaked in oil of vitriol.
Lucifers consist of chips of wood tipped with a paste of chlorate
of potass mixed with sulphuret of antimony, starch, and gum-
water: when a match is pinched between the folds of glass-paper,
and suddenly drawn out, a light is instantly obtained.
Prometheans cousist of small rolls of waxed paper, in one end
of which is a minute quantity of vitriol, in a glass bulb, sealed up,
and surrounded with chlorate of potass: when the end thus pre-
pared is pressed so as to break the bulb, the vitriol comes in
contact with the composition, and produces light instantly.
For cigar-smokers, Prometheans are made with touch-paper;
this ignites from the composition, and glows without flame, like a
slow match; and as â€˜the wind will not extinguish it, a dry cigar
may be readily lighted at it.
Lucifers and Prometheans must be used with caution, and
should never be carelessly left about: by letting them fall upon a
sanded floor, and being accidentally trod upon, they may take fire,
and thus do great mischief.
LIGHT AND HEAT. 55
TO COLOUR THE FLAME OF A CANDLE.
Take a piece of packthread, or cotton thread, boil it in clear
water to free it from saline particles, and dry it; wet one end, and
take up on it a little of either of the salts hereafter named, in fine
powder, or strong solution. Then dip the wetted end of the thread
into the cup of a burning wax candle, and apply it to the exterior
of the flame, not quite touching the luminous part, but 90 a6
to be immersed in the cone of invisible but intensely heated air
which envelopes it. Immediately, an irregular sputtering com-
bustion of the wax on the thread will take place, and the invisible
cone of heat will be rendered luminous, with a peculiarly coloured
light, according to the salt employed.
Thus, common salt will give a bright yellow; muriate of
potass will give a beautiful pale violet; muriate of lime will give a
brick red; muriate of strontia will give a magnificent crimson ;
muriate of lithia will give a red; muriate of baryta will give a fine
pale apple green; muriate of copper will give a beautiful bluish
green; and green copperas will give a white light.
TO DIVIDE THE FLAME OF A CANDLE.
Provide about a foot square of brass or iron wire gauze, of the
fineness of thirty meshes to the square inch: lower the gauze upon
the flame of a wax candle, which will not rise through the meshes,
but in its place will be the inflammable smoke of the flame ; apply
to this a piece of lighted paper, and it will be kindled, and the
candle will burn with flame above and beneath the gauze. In
this case, the gauze so cools the flame, as to extinguish it; and
upon this principle is constructed the Davy Safety Lamp, in which
the light is surrounded with wire-gauze.
56 LIGHT AND HEAT.
To vary this experiment, place a chip of camphor in the centre
of a piece of wire-gauze about a foot square, and hold it over the
flame of a candle or lamp; when the vapour of the camphor will
burn brightly upon the lower surface of the gauze, but cannot rise
through it, in consequence of its cooling power. Thus, the
camphor lies upon the gauze in an uninflamed state, though it is
sufficiently heated to yield inflammable vapour to feed a flame
CANE WICK LAMP,
Cut a piece of cane about one inch long; set it upright in
spirit of wine, with a small portion just above the surface: the
spirit will then rise through the tube of the cane, which, being
lighted, will burn as a wick.
CAMPHOR AND PLATINUM LAMP.
Place a small piece of camphor, or a few fragments, upon the
bottom of a glass, and lay upon the camphor a piece of coiled or
pressed up platinum wire, heated in the flame of a lamp; when
the platinum will glow brilliantly as long as any camphor remains,
and frequently light up into flame.
PLATINUM AND ETHER LAMP.
Put into a small hyacinth-glass a tea-spoonful of
ether, and suspend in it, by wire, a coil of fine pla-
tinum wire, first heated in the flame of a spirit lamp;
the wire will then glow with a red heat, and some
of it may become white hot; in the latter case, flame
will be produced by the ether burning.
LIGHT AND HEAT, 57
Cut a chip of camphor; light it, and set it on a basin of water,
when it will continue to burn and float until it is consumed.
SUBSTITUTE FOR A WAX TAPER.
Steep a loosely twisted cotton skein in a solution of nitre; dry
it, and it will readily kindle by the sparks produced from the flint
and steel. If, however, the cotton be further prepared by coating
portions of it, at regular intervals, alternately with sulphur and
white wax, and the sparks be struck upon the sulphur, it will
readily kindle, and as readily light the wax; and the flame will
endure long enough for sealing a letter.
Place a very stale fish in a dark room, and it will give ont
a strong light, because of the numerous animalculz, whose growth
the putrefaction has promoted.
THE LUMINOUS SPECTRE.
Phosphorus in its pure state should be very cautiously han-
dled; as, unless used very moderately, it will burn the skin.
By adding to it, however, six parts of olive oil, it may be employed
with perfect safety. If every part of the face, except the eyes and
mouth, which should be kept shut while applying it, be anointed
with this mixture, it will give the party a most frightful appearance
in the dark. The eyes and mouth will seem black, and all the
other parts of the face will appear lighted with a sickly, pale-bluish
58 LIGHT AND HEAT.
LIGHT, A PAINTER.
Strain a piece of paper or linen upon a wooden frame, and
sponge it over with a solution of nitrate of silver in water; place it
behind a painting upon glass, or a stained window-pane, and the
light, traversing the painting or figures, will produce a copy of it
upon the prepared paper or linen; those parts in which the rays
were least intercepted being the shadows of the picture.
EFFECT OF LIGHT UPON CRYSTALIZATION,
Place a solution of nitre in a small basin of water, in a room
which has the light admitted only through a small hole in the
window-shutter ; crystals will then form most abundantly upon the
side of the basin exposed to the aperture through which the light
enters; and often the whole mass of crystals will turn towards it.
This peculiar effect may also be seen in the crystals in camphor
glasses in druggistsâ€™ windows, which are always most copious upon
the side exposed to the light.
EFFECT OF LIGHT ON PLANTS.
Shut a plant up in a â€˜room into which light is only admitted
through a small hole in the window-shutter, and set the plant out
of the direction of this light; it will, in a short time, turn itself,
and even grow downwards, that it may expose its leaves to the light.
If plants be kept in darkness, they will soon become bleached ;
then, if they be exposed to the sun for three, four, or five hours,
the leaves and stalks will become as intensely green as if the
plants had been reared in the sun. Again, if a lighted lamp be
introduced into a dark room, wherein a plant has been shut up and
LIGHT AND HEAT. 59
bleached, it will become green, and direct itself towards the lamp.
If such a plant be removed from the room, exposed for some time
to the sun, and then returned to darkness, it will no longer support
the privation of light, but will fade and perish.
INSTANTANEOUS LIGHT UPON ICE.
Throw upon ice a small piece of potassium, and it will burst
into flame. In one experiment, the operator pressed the potas-
sium on the ice with a penknife, when the whole length of the ice
WHITE LIGHT FROM ZINC.
As a substance for light, zinc is far superior to any of the
metals. The light which it yields on burning is as bright as that
of the sun, and as white, so that the eye can scarcely endure it ;
and the effect is much increased by the great quantity of silvery
smoke which reflects the fire, and thus widely increases the sphere
of illumination. Zinc may be used in thin sheets, or in filings.
BRILLIANT LIGHT FROM TWO METALS.
Wrap a small piece of platinum in a piece of tin-foil of the
same size, and expose them upon charcoal to the action of the
blow-pipe ; when the union of the two metals will be accompanied.
by a rapid whirling, and by a remarkably brilliant light. If the
globule thus melted be allowed to drop into a basin of water, it will
remain for some time red-hot at the bottom of it.
BRILLIANT LIGHT FROM STEEL.
Pour into a watch-glass a little sulphuret of carbon, and light
it; hold in the flame a brush of steel-wire, and it will burn beauti-
fully. A watch-spring may also be burnt in it.
60 LIGHT AND HEAT.
Place upon a piece of tinfoil a few powdered crystals of nitrate
of copper; moisten it with water; fold up the foil gently, and
wrap it in paper so as to keep out the air; lay it upon a plate, and
the tin will soon inflame.
LIGHT FROM GILT BUTTONS.
Provide a new and highly-polished gilt button, and hold it in a
strong light, closely but obliquely, over a sheet of white paper, when
it will present radiations exactly like the spokes of a carriage-
wheel ; the radiations being sixteen in number, and a little con-
tracted in the centre opposite the eye of the button, and presenting
altogether a beautiful appearance.
LIGHT FROM A FLOWER.
Hold a lighted candle to the flower of the fraxinella, and it
will dart forth little flashes of light. This beautiful appearance is
caused by the essential and inflammable oil contained in small
vessels at the extremities of the flower, which vessels burn at
the approach of any inflamed body, setting at liberty the essential
oil, as that contained in orange-peel is discharged by pressure.
LIGHT FROM SUGAR.
Simply break a bit of lump sugar between the fingers in the
dark, and light will be produced at the moment of fracture.
Or, if powdered loaf sugar be put into'a spoon, fused, and
kindled in the flame of a lamp, it will exhibit a fine jet of flame.
LIGHT AND HEAT. 61
LIGHT FROM THE POTATO.
Place a few potatoes in a dark cellar, and when they become in
a state of putrefaction, they will give out a vivid light sufficient to
read by. A few years since, an officer on guard at Strasbourg
thought the barracks were on fire, in consequence of the light thus
emitted from a cellar full of putrefying potatoes,
LIGHT FROM THE OYSTER.
Open an oyster, retain the liquor in the lower or deep shell, and,
if viewed through a microscope, it will be found to contain multi-
tudes of small oysters, covered with shells, and swimming nimbly
about; one hundred and twenty of which in a row would extend
but one inch. Besides these young oysters, the liquor contains a
variety of animalcule, and myriads of three distinct species of
worms, which shine in the dark like glow-worms. Sometimes their
light resembles a bluish star about the centre of the shell, which
will be beautifully luminous in a dark room.
LIGHT FROM DERBYSHIRE SPAR.
Pound, coarsely, some of the dark blue or the fetid variety of
Derbyshire spar ; heat it in a dark room, in a platinum spoon, over
the low flame of a spirit-lamp, and the spar will shine with a
beautiful purple tint.
Pounded swinestone, calcareous spar, and powdered quartz, will
also give out light, if strewn upon a fire-shovel which has been
heated red-hot, and has just ceased glowing.
"A variety of fluor spar, found in granite in Siberia, will shine
in the dark, when warmed, with a remarkably strong phosphorescent
62 , LIGHT AND HEAT,
light, increasing as the temperature is raised. â€˜The light augments
-when the spar is plunged into water; and in boiling water, the
spar becomes so luminous that the letters of a printed book can be
seen in a dark room near the glass containing it.
Another variety of fluor spar, also found in Siberia, is of a
pale violet colour, and emits a white light merely by the heat of
the hand; and â€˜when put into boiling water, it will give out a
LIGHT FROM OYSTER-SHELLS.
Put oyster-shells into a common fire ; burn them for about half
an hour: then remove them into a dark room, when many of the
shells will exhibit beautiful specimens of prismatic colours.
RINGS OF LIGHT IN CRYSTAL.
This is one of the most striking of optical exhibitions, and may
be thus simply produced. Provide a sheet of clear ice, about an
inch thick, frozen in still weather; let the light fall through . the
ice upon a pane of window-glass, or a polished table, and by placing
a fragment of plate-glass near the eye as a reflector, the most
beautiful rings of light may be observed.
TO STRIKE LIGHT WITH CANE.
Strike a piece of rattan cane with a steel, and it contains so
much silex, or flint, that it will exhibit sparks of light in the dark.
CAUSE OF TRANSPARENCY.
Moisten a piece of paper, and it will appear more transparent
than when in its natural state ; the cause of which is as follows: a,
LIGHT AND HEAT, 63
piece of dry, paper has its pores obstructed with finely interwoven
threads; these are broken by the liquor, which also fills the pores
as so many small tubes, and permits the light to pass through it,
whereas the dry threads had hitherto prevented its passage.
TRANSPARENCY OF GOLD.
All bodies are more or less transparent. Thus, though gold is
one of the densest metals, yet, if a piece of the thinnest gold-leaf
be held up to a candle, the light will pass through it; and that it
passes through the substance of the metal, and not through cracks
or holes too small to be detected by the eye, is evident from the
colour of the transmitted light, which is green.
TINT CHANGED BY THICKNESS,
Provide a piece of plain and polished smalt-blue glass, such as
sugar-basins and finger-glasses are made of. It should be of
unequal thickness. Look through this glass at a strong light, as
that from the crack of a window-shutter in a darkened room, and,
at the thinnest part, the colour will be purely blue. As the thick-
ness increases, a purple tinge will come on, which will become
more and more ruddy ; and, if the glass be very thick, the colour
will pass to a deep red.
SHADOWS MADE DARKER BY INCREASED LIGHT.
Hold a finger between a candle and the wall, and it will cast a
shadow of a certain darkness: then place another candle in the
same line with the other from the wall, andthe shadow will
appear doubly dark, although there will be more light in the room
than before. Then separate the candles, and place them s0 as to
produce two shadows of the finger, one partly overlapping the
other, and that part will be of double darkness, as compared with
64 LIGHT AND HEAT.
MINIATURE THUNDER AND LIGHTNING.
To imitate thunder, provide a thin sheet of iron; hold it by
one corner between the finger and thumb, and allow it to hang
freely by its own weight. Then shake the hand horizontally, so
as to agitate the corner in a direction at right angles to the surface
of the sheet. Thus you may produce a great variety of sounds,
from the deep growl of distant thunder to those loud claps which
rattle in rapid succession immediately over our heads. The same
effect may be produced by sheets of tinned iron, or tin-plate, and
by thin plates of mica; but the sound is shorter and more acute.
Partial flashes of lightning, aurora borealis, &c. may be beauti-
fully imitated by taking in a spoon about a dram of the seeds of
lycopodium, and throwing them against a lighted candle, all other |
light being excluded from the room.
A similar effect may be produced, by laying some powdered
resin on a piece of paper, and fillipping it with the finger against
the flame of a candle.
THE BURNING GLASS.
If, when the sun shines brightly, a piece of paper be held in
the focus of the rays drawn by the burning-glass, it will take fire.
This experiment succeeds best with brown or any dark-coloured
paper; for, though the glass will collect an equal number of rays
upon white as upon coloured paper, the white paper reflects the
rays instead of allowing them to enter it; hence the white is not
so soon burnt as the coloured paper, which absorbing more light
than it reflects, soon becomes heated, and takes fire.
MAGIC OF HEAT.
Melt a small quantity of the sulphate of potass and copper in
a spoon over a spirit-lamp; it will be fused at a heat just below
LIGHT AND HEAT. 65
redness, and produce a liquid of a dark green colour. Remove the
spoon from the flame, when the liquid will become a solid of a
brilliant emerald-green colour, and so remain till its heat sinks
nearly to that of boiling water, when suddenly a commotion will
take place throughout the mass, beginning from the surface, and
each atom, asif animated, will start up and separate itself from the
rest, till, in a few moments, the whole will become a heap of
REPULSION BY HEAT.
Provide two small pieces of glass; sprinkle a minute portion of
sulphur upon one piece, lay thin slips of wood around it, and place
upon it the other piece of glass. Move them slowly over the flame
of a lamp or candle, and the sulphur will become sublimed, and
form grey nebulous patches, which are very curious microscopic
objects. Each cluster consists of thousands of transparent glo-
bules, imitating, in miniature, the nebule which we see figured
in treatises on astronomy. By observing the largest particles, we
shall find them to be flattened on one side. Being very transpa-
rent, each of them acts the part of a little lens, and forms in its
focus the image of a distant light, which gan be perceived even
in the smaller globules, until it vanishes from minuteness. If they
are examined again after a certain number of hours, the smaller
globules will generally be found to have retained their transparency,
while the larger ones will have become opaque, in consequence
of the sulphur having undergone some internal spontaneous change.
But the most remarkable circumstance attending this experi-
ment is, that the globules are found adhering to the upper glass
only; the reason of which is, that the upper glass is somewhat
cooler than the lower one ; by which means we see that the vapour ,
of sulphur is very powerfully repelled by heated glass. The
66 LIGHT AND HEAT.
flattened form of the particles is owing to the force with which
they endeavour to recede from the lower glass, and their consequent
pressure against the surface of the upper one. This experiment is
considered by its originator, Mr. H. F. Talbot, F.R.S., to be a
satisfactory argument in favour of the repulsive power of heat.
HEAT PASSING THROUGH GLASS.
The following experiment is also by Mr. Talbot :â€”Heat a
poker bright-red hot, and having opened a window, apply the
poker quickly very near to the outside of a pane, and the
hand to the inside; a strong heat will be felt at the instant,
which will cease as soon as the poker is withdrawn, and may
be again renewed, and made to cease as quickly as before.
Now, it is well known, that if a piece of glass is so much
warmed as to convey the impression of heat to the hand, it will
retain some part of that heat for a minute or more; but, in this
experiment, the heat will vanish in a moment. It will not, there-
fore, be the heated pane of glass that we shall feel, but heat which
has come through the glass, in a free or radiant state.
METALS UNEQUALLY INFLUENCED BY HEAT.
All metals do not conduct heat at the same rate, as may be
proved by holding in the flame of a candle at the same time, a
piece of silver wire, and a piece of platina wire, when the silver
wire will become too hot to hold, much sooner than the platina. Or,
cut a cone of each wire, tip it with wax, and place it upon a
heated plate (as a fire-shovel), when the wax will melt at different
LIGHT AND HEAT. 67
Mix a little chlorate of potass with spirit of wine in a atrong
saucer ; add a little sulphuric acid, and an orange vapour Â»will
arise and burst into flame.
INEQUALITY OF HEAT IN FIRE-IRONS.
Place before a brisk fire a set of polished fire-irons, and beside
them a rough unpolished poker, such as is used in a kitchen, or
instead of a bright poker. The polished irons will remain for a
long time without becoming warmer than the temperature of the
room, because the heat radiated from the fire is all reflected, or
thrown off, by the polished surface of the irons, and none of it is
absorbed. The rough poker will, however, become speedily hot,
so as not to be used without inconvenience. Hence, the polish of
fire-irons is not merely ornamental but useful.
EXPANSION OF METAL BY HEAT.
Provide an iron rod, and fit it exactly into a metal ring ; heat
the rod red-hot, and it will no longer enter the ring.
Observe an iron gate on a warm day, when it will shut with
difficulty ; whereas, it will shut loosely and easily on a cold day.
EVAPORATION OF A METAL.
Rub a globule of mercury upon a silver spoon, and the two
metals will combine with a white appearance ; heat the spoon care-
fully in the flame of a spirit lamp, when the mercury will volatilize
and disappear, and the spoon may then be polished until it recovers
68 LIGHT AND HEAT.
its usual lustre: if, however, the mercury be left for some time
on the spoon, the solid texture of the silver will be destroyed
throughout, and then the silver can only be recovered by heating
it in a ladle.
A FLOATING METAI. ON FIRE.
Throw a small piece of that marvellous substance, potassium,
into a basin of water, and it will swim upon the surface, and burn
with a beautiful light, of a red colour mixed with violet. When
moderately heated in the air, potassium takes fire, and burns with
a red light.
HEAT AND COLD FROM FLANNEL.
Put a piece of ice into a basin, which wrap up in many folds
of flannel, and the ice may be preserved for some time by the
ICE MELTED BY AIR.
If two pieces of ice be placed in a warm room, one of them
may be made to melt much sooner than the other, by blowing on
it with a pair of bellows.
TO HOLD A HOT TEA-KETTLE ON THE HAND.
Be sure that the bottom of the kettle is well covered with soot;
when the water in it boils, remove it from the fire, and place it
upon the palm of the hand; no inconvenience will be felt, as the
soot will prevent the heat being transmitted, from the water within
and the heated metal, to the hand.
LIGHT AND HEAT. 69
Make a strong solution of borax in water, and steep in it linen,
muslin, or any article of clothing ; when dry, they cannot easily
THE BURNING CIRCLE.
Light a stick, and whirl it round with a rapid motion, when its
burning end will produce a complete circle of light, although that
end can only be in one part of the circle at the same instant.
This is caused by the duration of the impression of light upon
the retina. Another example is, that during the twinkling of the
eye we never lose sight of the object we are viewing.
WATER OF DIFFERENT TEMPERATURES IN THE SAME VESSEL.
Of heat and cold, as of wit and madness, it may be said that
â€œ thin partitions do their bounds divide.â€ Thus, paint one-half of
the surface of a tin-pot with a mixture of lamp-black and size, and
leave the other half, or side, bright; fill the vessel with boiling
water, and by dipping a thermometer, or even the finger, into it
shortly after, it will be found to cool much more rapidly upon the
blackened than upon the bright side of the pot.
WARMTH OF DIFFERENT COLOURS.
Place upon the surface of snow, as upon the window-sill, in
bright daylight or sunshine, pieces of cloth of the same size and
quality, but of different colours, black, blue, green, yellow, and
white : the black cloth will soon melt the snow beneath it, and sink
downwards; next the blue, and then the green; the yellow but
slightly; but the snow beneath the white cloth will be as firm
as at first.
70 LIGHT AND HEAT.
SUBSTITUTE FOR FIRE.
Put into a cup a lump of quick-lime, fresh from the kiln, pour
water upon it, and the heat will be very great. A pailful of
quick-lime, if dipped in water, and shut closely into a box con-
structed for the purpose, will give out sufficient heat to warm a
room, even in very cold weather.
GAS AND STEAM.
RAVE HE above fanciful appellation has been given to
nitrous oxide, from the very agreeable sensa-
) tions excited by inhaling it. In its pure state
. it destroys animal life, but loses this noxious
DX) quality when inhaled, because it becomes
2%) blended with the atmospheric air which it
meets in the lungs. This gas is made byâ€
putting three or four drams of nitrate of ammonia, in crystals,
â€˜into a small glass retort, which being held over a spirit-lamp, the
crystals will melt, and the gas be evolved.
_ Having thus produced the gas, it is to be passed into a large
bladder, having a stop-cock ; and when you are desirous of exhibit-
ing its effects, you cause the person who wishes to experience them,
to first exhale the atmospheric air from the lungs, and then quickly
74 GAS AND STEAM.
placing the cock in his mouth, you turn it, and bid him inhale the
gas. Immediately, a sense of extraordinary cheerfulness, fanciful
flights of imagination, an uncontrollable propensity to laughter,
and a consciousness of being capable of great muscular exertion,
supervene. It does not operate in exactly the same manner on all
persons ; but in most cases the sensations are agreeable, and have
this important difference from those produced by wine or spirituous
liquors, that they are not succeeded by any depression of mind.
THE LUMINOUS WAND.
Cover a long slip of wood, half way, with sulphur, by immer-
sion while in a melted state. Having prepared a jar of nitrous
oxide gas, as in preceding experiments, light the sulphur, and
plunge the wand into the jar. The gas will extinguish the flame.
Withdraw the wand, light it again, and when the flame is very
brilliant, immerse it again in the jar. It will this time burn with
great splendour, and of a beautiful red colour.
TO MAKE CARBONIC ACID GAS.
Put about an ounce of marble in small lumps, into an eight-
ounce phial, with about an equal quantity of water; pour in a
little muriatic acid, and carbonic acid gas will be evolved.
CARBONIC ACID GAS IN WINE OR BEER VESSELS.
The apparently empty or upper part of vessels in which wine
or beer is working, is filled with this deleterious gas; for its
great weight prevents its ascent from the fermenting liquid. A
variety of striking but simple experiments may be made with the
GAS AND STEAM. 75
gas in this condition. Lighted paper, or a candle dipped into it,
will be immediately extinguished ; and the smoke remaining in
the carbonic acid gas will render its surface visible, which may be
thrown into waves by agitation, like water. In consequence of
the great weight of the carbonic acid gas, it may be taken from
a vat of fermenting liquor, in a jug or bottle, and in the latter, if
well corked, it may be conveyed to great distances; or the gas
may be drawn out of a vessel by a cock, like a liquid.
TO EXTINGUISH FLAME WITH GAS,
The effects produced by pouring carbonic acid gas from one
vessel to another, have a very singular appearance; if a lighted
candle be placed in a jar, and the gas be poured upon it, the
_ flame will be extinguished in a few seconds, though the eye is
incapable of distinguishing that anything is poured out.
EFFECT OF HYDROGEN ON THE VOICE.
Make a hole through a wine cork of sufficient size to admit a
smaller cork ; through which make another hole, and fix it into
the larger one. Tie the corks thus fixed into the neck of a
bullockâ€™s bladder, previously exhausted of air; let a tube from a
bottle generating hydrogen pass very tightly through the aperture
in the small cork, and the gas will distend and fill the bladder.
The instant it is full, withdraw the inner cork, and either prevent
the escape of the gas by means of the thumb, or cork it closely, till
the operator is ready to breathe the gas ; to do which, he should
put the open cork into his mouth, and take one inspiration, when,
on immediately speaking, his voice will be remarkably shrill. The
effect will pass off in a few seconds.
76 GAS AND STEAM.
Provide a piece of copper wire, about ten inches long, and fix
at one end of it a piece of wax taper: take a pint bottle of hydro-
gen, and place the mouth downwards ; light the taper, introduce it
into the bottle, and the gas will take fire, and burn slowly towards
the mouth, where it is in contact with the air. If, however, the
taper be passed up into the bottle, it will be extinguished; but, on
gently withdrawing it through the burning hydrogen, the wick will
be rekindled. This may be done several times in succession with
the same portion of gas.
THE GAS CANDLE.
Provide a strong glass bottle which will contain about eight
ONG ounces, or half a pint, into which put a few pieces
= â€˜= of zinc; then mix half an ounce of sulphuric acid
â€œul Â¥ with four ounces of water, and pour it into the bottle
upon the zinc; fit the mouth closely with a cork,
through which put a metal tube which ends upward in
a fine opening: the mixture in the bottle will soon
effervesce, and hydrogen gas will rise through the tube.
When it has escaped for about a minute, apply a lighted
paper to the tube, and the gas will burn like a candle,
but with a pale flame. Its brightness may be increased
to brilliance, by sifting over it a small quantity of mag-
Provide a bladder, fill it with hydrogen gas, to be made as for
the last experiment, and fit the end of a tobacco-pipe closely
into the bladder; dip the bowl of the pipe into soap and water, and,
GAS AND STEAM. 77
by pressing the bladder, soap-bubbles will be formed, filled with
hydrogen gas; which bubbles, or balloons, will rise in the air, and
keep there for some time.
GAS-LIGHT IN THE DAY-TIME.
Light a stream of hydrogen gas, and it will be scarcely visible
in the day-light ; but place in it a small coil of platinum wire, or
project a little oxide of zinc through the flame, and it will become
One of the simplest and most beautiful experiments in aÃ©rosta-
tion, is to take a turkeyâ€™s maw, or stomach, properly prepared,
and to fill it either with pure hydrogen gas, or the carburetted
hydrogen produced from coal. If the balloon be then allowed to
escape in the open air, it will ascend rapidly in the atmosphere :
but the best method of shewing the experiment, is to let the
balloon off a high staircase, and observe it ascend to the cupola or
light, where it will remain near the highest point till the escape
of the gas allow it to descend. The prepared maw for this balloon
may be purchased of any optician.
Bicarburetted hydrogen is the principal constituent of the gas
burned in the streets: it is procured from coal, and the process
may readily be performed on a small scale. Put about two ounces
of pounded coal into an earthen retort, and fix a glass tube into
the neck, terminating in an aperture of one-fifth of an inch in
diameter ; heat the retort red-hot, and apply the flame of a taper
78 GAS AND STEAM.
to the orifice of the tube, when the gas will burn with a bright
white light, very different from that afforded by the combustion of
hydrogen; a circumstance owing to the presence of particles of
carbon in the carburet, which being intensely ignited, are highly
It is no less strange than true, that bicarburetted hydrogen, the
substance which we so largely consume to illuminate our towns, is
ether when united to water in one proportion, and spirit when
combined with it in another ; a fluid which constitutes the strength
of all wines, beer, and fermented liquors.
Into a half-pint glass bottle, -putsome zinc, granulated by
being melted in a ladle, and then poured gradually into water.
- Add some sulphuric acid, diluted with eight parts
by weight of water. Then pass a glass tube with a
capillary bore, through a cork, which you have pre-
viously made to closely fit the bottle, and cork the
bottle well. Ina short time, the atmospheric air will
% be expelled, and hydrogen gas will rise through the
tube ; you then apply a light, and the gas will become
ignited. If you now hold another glass tube, about
eighteen or twenty inches long, over the flame, suffi-
ciently wide to enclose the other tube very loosely (see
engraving), the little speck of flame will sport along
the larger tube, and musical sounds will be produced,
which may be varied by using other tubes of different
dimensions, and made of different materials; the wide
tubes forming the lower, and the narrow tubes the upper notes.
GAS AND STEAM. 79
MINIATURE WILL 0â€™-THE-WISP.
Put 2 small piece or two of the phosphuret of lime into a saucer
of water, when bubbles of phosphuretted hydrogen gas will rise to
the surface, explode into flame, and cause a white smoke ; repre-
senting, on a small scale, the ignis fatuus, or will o'-the-wisp, as
seen over marshy ground, or stagnant pools of water.
A light so brilliant that the eye can scarcely bear to contem-
plate it, is produced by the immersion of phosphorus in oxygen
gas. To perform this experiment, you place a piece of phosphorus
in a copper cup, of the circumference of a sixpence, which is
fastened to a thick piece of iron wire, attached to a cork which fits
a bottle (as in the foregoing experiment) filled with oxygen gas.
Set fire to the phosphorus, and quickly plunge it into the bottle ;
when the splendour of the combustion will be surpassingly beau-
It is necessary to observe, that the heat is so excessive, that if
the piece of phosphorus in this experiment be larger than a small
pea, there will be great danger of breaking the bottle.
COMBUSTION OF IRON IN OXYGEN GAS.
Twist a piece of fine iron wire, such as is used by piano-forte
makers, round a cylindrically-shaped piece of wood or metal, which
will give it a spiral form ; or a broken watch-spring, which may be
bought for a trifle of the watchmakers, will answer the same
purpose. Fasten round one end of it some waxed cotton thread or
twine, and attach the other end to a cork, which fits a glass jar or
bottle that will hold a quart, filled with oxygen gas. Having
made the wire red-hot by setting light to the thread, plunge it into
80 GAS AND STEAM.
the bottle. Do not cork the bottle, but let the cork merely lay on
the mouth, and to prevent its being burned a small piece of lead
should be fastened to the bottom of it. The iron will instantly
begin to burn with great brilliancy, throwing out luminous scin-
To prevent the bottle from being broken by the sparks, a small
quantity of sand should be previously poured into it.
GLOW-WORM IN OXYGEN GAS.
If a glow-worm be placed in a jar of oxygen gas, in a dark
room, it will shine with a far surpassing brilliancy to that which
it exhibits in atmospheric air.
Attach a small piece of charcoal to the end of a copper wire ;
make it red-hot, and immerse it in a jar of oxygen gas. The
charcoal will burn with great brilliance, throwing out splendid scin-
tillations. The bark of the wood converted into charcoal must be
selected, otherwise there will be no scintillations.
BRILLIANT COMBUSTION IN OXYGEN.
Place in a bottle of oxygen â€˜gas a lighted taper, and it will
burn with a flame of increased brilliancy.
Extinguish â€˜the taper immediately ; put it into the same or
another bottle of oxygen, and it will be again lighted, provided a
spark remain on the wick.
Bend a piece of iron wire in a spiral form, and tie on to one
end some cotton or flax; sprinkle some flour of sulphur on it, set
it on fire, dip it into a bottle of oxygen gas, and beautiful corrusca-
tions will be thrown off the wire.
GAS AND STEAM. 81
FLAME FROM COLD METALS.
Provide a bottle of the gas chlorine, which may be purchased of
any operative chemist, and with it you may exhibit some brilliant
For example, reduce a small piece of the metal antimony to a
very fine powder in a mortar ; place some of this on a bent card,
then loosen the stopper of the bottle of chlorine, and throw in the
antimony, it will take fire spontaneously, and burn with much
splendour; thus exhibiting a cold metal spontaneously bursting
If, however, a Jump of antimony be dropped into the chlorine,
there will be no spontaneous combustion, nor, immediate change :
but, in the course of time, the antimony will become incrusted with
a white powder, and no chlorine will be found in the bottle.
Or, provide copper in fine leaves, known as â€œ Dutch metal ;â€
slightly breathe on one end of a glass rod, about ten inches long, and
cause one or two leaves of the metal to adhere to the damp end;
then open a bottle of chlorine, quickly plunge in the leaves, when
they will instantly take fire, and burn with a fine red light, leaving
in the bottle a greenish-yellow solid substance.
A small Jump of copper, or â€œ Dutch metal,â€ will not burn as
above, but will be slowly acted upon, like the antimony.
Immerse gold leaf in a jar of chlorine gas, and combustion with
a beautiful green flame will take place.
PHOSPHORUS IN CHLORINE.
Put into a deflagrating spoon about four grains of phosphorus, "
and let it down into a bottle of chlorine, when the phosphorus will |
82 GAS AND STEAM+
Or, fold a slip of blotting-paper into a match five inches long ;
dip it into oil of turpentine, drain it an instant, drop it into another
bottle of chlorine, when it will burst into a flame, and deposit much
Put a little ether into a bottle of caoutchouc, close it tightly,
soak it in hot water, and it will become inflated to a considerable
size. These globes may be made so thin as to be transparent.
A piece of caoutchouc, the size of a walnut, has thus been ex-
tended to a ball fifteen inches in diameter ; and a few years since, a
caoutchouc balloon, thus made, escaped from Philadelphia, and was
found 130 miles from that city.
TO INCREASE THE LIGHT OF COAL GAS.
Lay apiece of wire-gauze upon the glass chimney of a common
argand gas burner, when the flame will be enlarged to twice its
former dimensions, and its light fully doubled. If the experiment
be made with a common argand oil-lamp, the flame will be often
enlarged, but so discoloured as to yield less light,
GAS FROM INDIAN RUBBER.
Put caoutchoucine, or the spirit distilled from caoutchouc,
or Indian rubber, into a phial, little more than sufficient to cover
the bottom, and the remainder of the phial will be filled with a
heavy yapour; pour this off the spirit into another phial, apply
to it a piece of lighted paper, and the vapour will burn with 4
GAS AND STEAM, 83
Let fall a few drops of ether into a large drinking-glass, and
cover it with a plate for afew minutes; during this time, the glass
' will be filled with vapour from the ether, so that, on removing the
plate, and applying a piece of lighted paper at the mouth of the glass,
the invisible vapour will take fire; thus proving how readily a vola-
tile fluid, such as ether, combines with the air.
Provide a glass tube, about three feet long and half an inch in
diameter, nearly fill it with water, upon the surface of which pour 4
little coloured ether; then close the open end of the tube carefully
with the palm of the hand, invert it in a basin of water, and rest
the tube against the wall: the ether will rise through the water to
the upper end of the tube; pour a little hot water over the tube,
and it will soon cause the ether to boil within, and its vapour may
thus be made to drive nearly all the water out of the tube into the
basin ; if, however, you then cool the tube by pouring cold water
over it, the vaporized ether will again become a liquid, and float
upon the water as before.
GAS FROM THE UNION OF METALS,
Nearly fill a wine-glass with diluted sulphuric acid, and place
in it a wire of silver and another of zinc, taking care that they do
not touch each other; when the zinc will be changed by the acid,
but the silver will remain inert. But, cause the upper ends of
the wires to touch each other, and a stream of gas will issue
84 GAS AND STEAM.
INVISIBLE GASES MADE VISIBLE.
Pour a little sulphuric acid upon some common salt in a saucer.
Into another saucer put a mixture of about two parts of quick-lime
and one of sal ammoniac, both in powder, adding to these a very
small quantity of boiling water. Each saucer apart will yield an
invisible gas; but the moment they are brought closely together,
very visible vapours will be the result.
LIGHT UNDER WATER.
Put into an eau de Cologne bottle two drams of chlorate of
potass, and upon that salt about a dozen chips of phosphorus, and
fill up the bottle with cold water: provide a glass tube which will
reach to the potass, through which pour half-an-ounce, by measure,
of strong sulphuric acid, when a gas will instantly rise, give to the
liquid a deep yellow colour, and inflame the phosphorus in a
Add a tea-spoonful of fuming nitric acid to two tea-spoonfuls
of spirit of wine, in a cup, and the liquids will presently disappear
in the form of vapour.
Put three or four grains of iodine into a small clean Florence
oil flask, and close it with a cork. Warm the flask gently over a
candle, or before the fire, and the iodine will become converted
into a beautiful violet-coloured vapour, which condenses again
into brilliant metallic crystals, when the flask is suffered to become
cold. The experiment may be repeated with the same flask for
any number of times,
GAS AND STEAM. 85
Or, upon a small sheet of any metal, place a few grains of
iodine, and add a chip of dry phosphorus; when the latter will
inflame, and the iodine pass off in a violet vapour.
TO COLLECT GASES,
Provide a moistened bladder, tie a piece of tobacco-pipe firmly
into its neck, twisting it so as to expel the common air. This
may be fitted to any vessel by means of the pipe, which may be
fixed in the cork of a bottle containing gas, and closely luted
with putty or clay, or powdered lime and white of egg.
THE DEFLAGRATING SPOON,
To introduce substances into gases, a deflagrating spoon is
required. It may be bought for half-a-crown ; but an instrument
equally useful may be made as follows: cut a piece of sheet copper
somewhat larger than a sixpence, and bend it into a shallow, cup-
like, form; twist four fine brass wires, each nine inches long,
tightly together, leaving an inch at the extremities, which must be
spread to hold the copper, as the strings or chains of a balance
" gupport the scale-pan. To complete it, take a piece of sheet-lead
the size of a penny-piece; make a hole through the centre large
enough to admit the twisted wires, but, at the same time, retaining
them firmly in their position: then, if the wires will not rest in the
lead by adhesion, the hole may be enlarged, the wire put in, and
secured by a piece of solder. The spoon being then let down
through the mouth of a bottle, the circular piece of lead rests
upon and stops the mouth.
WHAT IS STEAM?
Invert a glass goblet over a cup of hot water, when the vapour
or steam will be seen to rise in it, to condense upon the cold glass,
86 GAS AND STEAM,
and then to run down its inside; thus shewing that steam is
vaporized water, and will, when the heat is abstracted from it,
become water again,
THE STEAM-ENGINE SIMPLIFIED.
The steam-engine is much more intelligible than its name first
suggests. That part by which the machinery is set in motion,
may be compared to a syringe, or squirt, the rod of which is driven
up and down by steam admitted above and below, one end of the
rod being connected with the machinery to be worked. Thus, the
piston is made to turn the wheels of a railway carriage, or the
paddles of a steam-boat.
The elastic force of the steam, or vapour, by which the rod is
driven up and down, may be explained by this simple experiment.
Provide a test tube, put into it a little water, hold the thumb over
the mouth, and cause the water to boil by holding it over a spirit-
lamp. There will soon be felt a pressure against the thumb;
when, if the tube be dipped into cold water, the thumb being still
held at the end, a kind of suction will be felt against it. Now,
the tube resembles the cylinder of the steam-engine, in which the
piston moves up and down ; to imitate which, wrap a little tow
about the end of a piece of stick, grease it with tallow, and fit it
moderately tight into the tube; when the water is made to boil,
the stick will be raised, and when the end is dipped into cold
water, the stick will fall as the piston rises and falls in the
TO BOIL WATER BY STEAM.
Nearly fill a retort with water, and boil it over a lamp; then
immerse the beak into a tumbler of cold water, and the disengaged
GAS AND STEAM. 87
steam will raise the water to the boiling temperature, though it
be at a distance from the source of heat,
DISTILLATION IN MINIATURE.
Fill a kettle with water, and set it on the fire; fix a long
metal tube to the spout, and as soon as the water boils, the steam
will pass into the tube, and being condensed into water, will drip
at the other end of the tube, which corresponds with the worm in
the still; it soon, however, becomes as hot as the water, and then
the condensation will cease: but, were the tube passed through
cold water, as is the worm of the still in a tub, the whole water in
the kettle might be boiled away, but reproduced in the tube, and
collected from it without the loss of a drop. This simple process
resembles distillation, and the kettle and tube the still.
CANDLE OR FIRE CRACKERS.
Provide a number of little glass bulbs, put into each a drop of
water, and seal it up; if it be then put into the flame of a candle,
or the fire, the heat will soon convert the water into steam, and
cause the bulb to burst with a loud report.
STEAM FROM THE KETTLE.
Observe attentively the steam that escapes from the spout of
a tea-kettle, at the moment the water begins to boil, and you will
perceive the steam to be condensed in minute drops on the interior
edges of the spout. A few moments afterwards, provided the
water continue to boil, the spout of the kettle will become per-
fectly dry; and, at the same time, close to it, there will be a
certain space, say from one-half to three-fourths of an inch,
88 GAS AND STEAM.
throughout which not a particle of steam will be perceptible.
This may be easily explained. When the water in the kettle
begins to boil, the spout being cooler than the steam issuing from
it, a portion of that steam is condensed. As more steam escapes,
the metal soon becomes as hot as the steam, will no longer con-
dense it, and the spout becomes dry. By this time, the steam will
displace the air immediately opposite the orifice of the spout,
whence it will issue dry and invisible. As it is cooled by mixing
with the surrounding air, it assumes its well-known cloudy ap-
FIRE, WATER, AND AIR.
variety of rays of light is exhibited by
coloured flames, which are not to be seen in
2a) white light. Thus, pure hydrogen gas will
4, burn with a blue flame, in which many of the
rays of light are wanting. The flame of an oil-
lamp contains most of the rays which are want-
7 ing in sun-light. Alcohol, mixed with water,
when heated or burned, affords a flame with no other rays but
yellow. The following salts, if finely powdered, and introduced
into the exterior flame of a candle, or into the wick of a spirit-
lamp, will communicate to flame their peculiar colours :
Muriate of Soda (common salt) . Yellow.
Muriate of Potash ......... Pale violet.
Muriate of Lime ......... Brick red.
Muriate of Strontia .......Â» Bright crimson.
92 FIRE, WATER; AND AIR.
Muriate of Lithia. ........ Red.
Muriate of Baryta......... Pale apple-green.
Muriate of Copper........- Bluish green.
Borax cece ccc crecs Green.
Or, either of the above salts may be mixed with spirit of wine,
as directed for Red Fire.
Burn spirit of wine on common table salt or saltpetre.
Burn spirit of wine on chloride of calcium, a substance obtained
by evaporating muriate of lime to dryness.
EMERALD GREEN FLAME.
Burn spirit of wine on a little powdered nitrate of copper.
Heat together potassium and sulphur, and they will instantly
burn very vividly.
Heat a little nitre in a fire-shovel, sprinkle on it flour of sul-
phur, and it will instantly burn. If iron filings be thrown upon
red-hot nitre, they will detonate and burn.
Pound, separately, equal parts of chlorate of potash and lump
sugar; mix them, and put upon a plate a small quantity ; dip a
thread into sulphuric acid, touch the powder with it, and it will
burst into a brilliant flame.
FIRE, WATER, AND AIR. 93
Or, put a few grains of chlorate of potashâ€™into a table-spoonful
of spirit of wine ; add one or two drops of sulphuric acid, and the
whole will burst into a beautiful flame.
THE CUP OF FLAME.
Put a little newly calcined magnesia into a tea-cup upon the :
hearth or hob, and suddenly pour in as much concentrated sul-
phuric acid as will cover the magnesia; in an instant, sparks will
be thrown out, and the mixture will become completely ignited.
To prevent accidents, the phial containing the sulphuric acid
should be tied to the end of a long stick.
TO COOL FLAME BY METAL,
Encircle the very small flame of a lamp with a cold iron wire,
which will instantly cause its extinction.
PROOF THAT FLAME IS HOLLOW.
Pour some spirit of wine into a â€˜watch-glass, and inflame it;
place a straw across this flame, â€˜and it will only be ignited and
charred at the outer edge; the middle of the straw will be un-
injured, for there is no ignited matter in the centre of the flame.
Or, introduce into the middle of the flame one end of a glass
tube, when the vapour will rise through it, and may be lighted
at the other end of the tube.
CAMPHOR SUBLIMED BY FLAME.
Set a metallic plate over the flame of a spirit lamp; place
upon it a small portion of camphor under a glass funnel; and the
camphor will be beautifully sublimed by the heat of the lamp, in
an efflorescent crust on the sides of the funnel.
94 FIRE, WATER, AND AIR.
A beautiful green fire may be thus made. Take of flour of
sulphur, thirteen parts; nitrate of baryta, seventy-seven; oxy-
muriate of potassa, five; metallic arsenic, two; and charcoal,
three. Let the nitrate of baryta be well dried and powdered ;
then add to it the other ingredients, all finely pulverized, and
exceedingly well mixed and rubbed together. Place a portion of
the composition in a small tin pan, having a polished reflector
fitted to one side, and set light to it; when a splendid green illu-
mination will be the result. By adding a little calamine, it will
burn more slowly.
BRILLIANT RED FIRE.
Weigh five ounces of dry nitrate of strontia, one ounce and 4
half of finely-powdered sulphur, five drams of chlorate of potash,
and four drams of sulphuret of antimony. Powder the chlorate
of potash and the sulphuret of antimony separately in a mortar,
and mix them on paper; after which, add them to the other
ingredients, previously powdered and mixed. No other kind of
mixture than rubbing together on paper is required. For use, mix
with a portion of the powder a small quantity of spirit of wine, in
a tin pan resembling a cheese-toaster, light the mixture, and it
will shed a rich crimson hue: when the fire burns dim and badly,
a very small quantity of finely-powdered charcoal or lamp-black
will revive it.
Dissolve chloride of lithium in spirit of wine ; and when lighted,
it will burn with a purplish flame.
FIRE, WATER, AND AIR. 95
Place upon a piece of burning charcoal a morsel of the dried
crystals of nitrate of silver (not the lunar caustic), and it will
immediately throw out the most beautiful sparks that can be
imagined, whilst the surface of the charcoal will be coated with
THE FIERY FOUNTAIN.
Put into a glass tumbler fifteen grains of finely granulated
zinc, and six grains of phosphorus cut into very small .pieces
beneath water. Mix in another glass, gradually, a dram of sul-
phuric acid with two drams of water. Remove both glasses into
a dark room, and there pour the diluted acid over the zine and
phosphorus in the glass: in a short time, beautiful jets of bluish
flame will dart from all parts of the surface of the mixture ; it will
become quite luminous, and beautiful luminous smoke will rise in
a column from the glass ; thus representing a fountain of fire.
THE ARTIFICIAL CONFLAGRATION.
Put into a small, narrow-necked earthen bottle, half an ounce
of muriate of ammonia, an ounce of camphor, and two ounces
of highly rectified spirit of wine; set fire to it, and the room will
seem to be in flames. This experiment should be performed in
Heat a small portion of the grey powder of aluminum, and it
will ignite, inflame, and burn with great rapidity. Or, blow a
little of this powder into the flame of a candle, and it will produce
a small shower of sparks, brilliant as those from iron filings.
96 FIRE, WATER, AND AIR.
COMBUSTION WITHOUT FLAME.
Light a small green wax-taper; in a minute or two, blow out
the flame, and the wick will continue red-hot for many hours; and
if the taper were regularly and carefully uncoiled, and the room
kept free from currents of air, the wick would burn on in this
manner until the whole was consumed. The same effect is not
produced when the colour of the wax is red, on which account red
wax-tapers are safer than green; for the latter, if left imperfectly
extinguished, may set fire to any object with which they are in
COMBUSTION OF THREE METALS.
Mix a grain or two of potassium with an equal quantity of
sodium ; add a globule of quicksilver, and the three metals, when
shaken, will take fire, and burn vividly.
TO MAKE PAPER INCOMBUSTIBLE.
Take a smooth cylindrical piece of metal, about one inch and
a half in diameter, and eight inches long; wrap very closely round
it a piece of clean writing paper, then hold the paper in the flame
of a spirit-lamp, and it will not take fire; but it may be held
there for a considerable time, without being in the least affected
by the flame. ;
SINGULAR EXPERIMENTS WITH GLASS TUBES.
A most remarkable phenomenon is produced in glass tubes,
under certain circumstances. When these are laid before a fire
in an horizontal position, having their extremities properly sup-
ported, they acquire a rotatory motion round their axis, and also 8
FIRE, WATER, AND AIR. 97
ive motion towards the fire, even when their supports are
declining from the fire, so that the tubes will move a little way
upwards to the fire. When the progressive motion of the tubes
towards the fire is stopped by any obstacle, their rotation still
â€˜continues. When the tubes are placed in a nearly upright
posture, leaning to the right hand, the motion will be from east
to west; but if they lean to the left hand, the motion will be
from west to east; and the nearer they are placed to the upright
posture, the less will the motion be either way. If the tube
be placed horizontally on a glass plane, the fragment, for instance,
of coach window glass, instead of moving towards the fire, it will
move from it, and about its axis in a contrary direction to what it
had done before; nay, it will recede from the fire, and move a
little upwards, when the plane inclines towards the fire. These
experiments succeed best with tubes about twenty or twenty-two
inches long, which have in each end a pretty strong pin fixed in
cork for their axis.
Drop about two grains of potassium into a saucer of cold
water. It will instantly burst into flame, with a slight explosion,
burn vividly on the surface, and dart about with great violence in
the form of a red-hot fire ball.
HEAT NOT TO BE ESTIMATED BY TOUCH.
Hold both hands in water-which causes the thermometer to rise
to ninety degrees, and when the liquid has become still, you will
be insensible of the heat, and that the hand is touching anything.
Then remove one hand to water that causes the thermometer to
rise to 200 degrees, and the other in water at thirty-two degrees.
98 FIRE, WATER, AND AIR.
After holding the hands thus for some time, remove them, and
again immerse them in the water at ninety degrees; when you
will feel warmth in one hand and cold in the other. To the
hand which had been immersed in the water at thirty-two degrees,
the water at ninety degrees will feel hot; and to the hand which
had been immersed in the water at 200 degrees, the water at
ninety degrees will feel cold. If, therefore, the touch in this case
be trusted, the same water will be judged to be hot and cold at
the same time.
FLAME UPON WATER.
Fill a wine-glass with cold water, pour lightly upon its surface
a little ether; light it by a slip of paper, and it will burn for
ROSE-COLOURED FLAME ON WATER,
Drop a globule of potassium, about the size of a large pea,
into a small cup nearly full of water, containing a drop or two of
strong nitric acid; the moment that the metal touches the liquid,
it will float upon its surface, enveloped with a beautiful rose-
coloured flame, and entirely dissolve.
TO SET A MIXTURE ON FIRE WITH WATER.
Pour into a saucer a little sulphuric acid, and place upon it a
chip of sodium, which will float and remain uninflamed ; but the
addition of a drop of water will set it on fire.
WAVES OF FIRE ON WATER.
On a lump of refined sugar let fall a few drops of phos-
phuretted ether, and put the sugar into a glass of warm water,
FIRE, WATER, AND AIR, 99
which will instantly appear on fire at the surface, and in
waves, if gently blown with the breath. This experiment should
be exhibited in the dark.
EXPLOSION IN WATER,
Throw very small pieces of phosphuret of potassium into a
basin of water, and they will produce separate explosions. The
same substance will also burn with great brilliancy when ex-
posed to air.
WATER FROM THE FLAME OF A CANDLE.
Hold a cold and dry bell-glass over a lighted candle, and
watery vapour will be directly condensed on the cold surface; then
close the mouth of the glass with a card or plate, and turn the
mouth uppermost; remove the card, quickly pour in a little lime-
water, a perfectly clear liquid, and it will instantly become turbid
and milky, upon meeting with the contents of the glass, just as
lime-water changes when dropped into a glass full of water.
FORMATION OF WATER BY FIRE.
Put into a tea-cup a little spirit of wine, set it on fire, and invert
a large bell-glass over it. In a short time, a thick watery vapour
will be seen upon the inside of the bell, which may be collected by
a dry sponge.
BOILING UPON COLD WATER,
Provide a tall glass jar, filled with cold water, and place in it
an air thermometer, which will nearly reach the surface; upon the
surface place a small copper basin, into which put a little live
charcoal: the surface of the water will soon be made to boil,
100 FIRE, WATER, AND AIR. =e
while the thermometer will shew that the water beneath is scarcely
warmer than it was at first.
CURRENTS IN BOILING WATER.
Fill a large glass tube with water, and throw into it a few
particles of bruised amber; then hold the tube, by a handle for the
purpose, upright in the flame of a lamp, and, as the water becomes
warm, it will be seen that currents, carrying with them the pieces
of amber, will begin to ascend in the centre, and to descend
towards the circumference of the tube. These currents will soon
become rapid in their motions, and continue till the water boils.
HOT WATER LIGHTER â€˜THAN COLD.
Pour into a glass tube, about ten inches long, and one inch in
diameter, a little water coloured with pink or other dye; then fill
it up gradually and carefully with colourless water, so as not to
mix them: apply heat at the bottom of the tube, and the coloured
water will ascend and be diffused throughout the whole.
The circulation of warm water may be very pleasingly shewn,
by heating water in a tube similar to the foregoing; the water
having diffused in it some particles of amber, or other light substance
not soluble in water.
EXPANSION OF WATER BY COLD.
All fluids, except water, diminish in bulk till they freeze. Thus,
fill a large thermometer tube with water, say of the temperature of
eighty degrees, and then plunge the bulb into pounded ice and salt,
or any other freezing mixture : the water will go on shrinking in the
tube till it has attained the temperature of about forty degrees; and
then, instead of continuing to contract till it freezes (as is the case
FIRE, WATER, AND AIR. 101
with all other liquids), it will be seen slowly to expand and conse-
quently to rise in the tube until it congeals. In this case, the
expansion below forty degrees, and above forty degrees, seems to
be equal ; so that the water will be of the same bulk at thirty-two
degrees as at forty-eight degrees, that is, at eight degrees above or
below forty degrees.
THE CUP OF TANTALUS.
This pretty toy may be purchased at any opticianâ€™s for two or
three shillings. It consists of a cup, in which is placed a standing
human figure, concealing a syphon, or bent tube, with one end
longer than the other. This rises in one leg of the figure to reach
the chin, and descends through the other leg through the bottom of
the cup to a reservoir beneath. If you pour water in the cup,
it will rise in the shorter leg by its upward pressure, driving out
the air before it through the longer leg; and when the cup is
filled above the bend of the syphon (that is, level with the chin of
the figure), the â€˜pressure of the water will force it over into the
longer leg of the syphon, and the cup â€˜will be emptied: the toy
thus imitating Tantalus of mythology, who is represented by the
poets as punished i in Erebus with an insatiable thirst, and placed
up to the chin in a pool of water, which, however, flowed away
as soon as he attempted to taste it.
IMITATIVE DIVING BELL.
Nearly fill a basin with water, and put upon its surface a floating
lighted wick or taper ; over this place a glass goblet, mouth down-
wards, and push it into the water, which will be kept out, whilst
the wick will continue to float and burn under the goblet; thus
imitating the living inmate of a diving bell, which is merely a
larger goblet, with a man instead of a candle within it.
102 FIRE, WATER, AND AIR.
THE WATER-PROOF SIEVE.
Filla very fine wire-gauze sieve with water, and it will not run
through the interstices, but be retained among them by capillary
MORE THAN FULL.
Fill a glass to the brim with water, and you may add to it
spirit of wine without causing the water to overflow, as the spirit
will enter into the pores of the water.
TO CAUSE WINE AND WATER TO CHANGE PLACES,
Fill a small narrow-necked bulb with port wine, or with water
and coloured spirit of wine, and put the bulb into a tall, narrow
glass jar, which is then to be filled up with cold water: imme-
diately, the coloured fluid will issue from the bulb, and accumulate
on the surface of the water in the jar, while colourless water will
be seen accumulating at the bottom of the bulb. By close inspee-
tion, the descending current of the water may also be observed, and
the coloured and the colourless liquids be seen to pass each other in
the narrow neck of the bulb without mixing. The whole of the
coloured fluid will shortly have ascended, and the bulb will be
entirely filled with clear water.
PYRAMID OF ALUM.
Put a lump of alum into a tumbler of water, and, as the alum
dissolves, it will assume the shape of a pyramid. The cause of
the alum decreasing in this peculiar form is briefly as follows: at
first, the water dissolves the alum very fast, but as the alum
becomes united with the water, the solvent power of the latter
diminishes. The water, which combines first with the alum, be-
FIRE, WATER, AND AIR. 103
comes heavier by the union, and falls to the bottom of the glass,
where it ceases to dissolve any more, although the water which it
has displaced from the bottom has risen to the top of the glass,
and is there acting upon the alum. When the solution has nearly
terminated, if you closely examine the lump, you will find it
covered with geometrical figures, cut out, as it were, in relief,
upon the mass ; shewing, not only that the cohesion of the atoms
of the alum resists the power of solution in the water, but that,
in the present instance, it resists it more in some directions than
in others. Indeed, this experiment beautifully illustrates the
opposite action of cohesion and repulsion.
Provide a glass goblet about two-thirds filled with coloured
water, â€”_ a fiddle-bow against its edge, and the surface of the
water will exhibit a pleasing figure, composed of fans,
four, six, or eight in number, dependant on the di-
mensions of the vessel, but chiefly on the pitch of
the note produced.
Or, nearly filla glass with water, draw the bow
strongly against its edge, the water will be elevated
and depressed ; and, when the vibration has ceased,
and the surface of the water has become tranquil,
these elevations will be exhibited in the form of a curved line,
passing round the interior surface of the glass, and above the sur-
face of the water. If the action of the bow be strong, the water
will be sprinkled on the inside of the glass, above the liquid surface,
and this sprinkling will shew the curved line very perfectly, as in
' the engraving. The water should be carefully poured, so that the
glass above the liquid be preserved dry ; the portion of the glass
104 FIRE, WATER, AND AIR.
between the edge and the curved line, will then be seen partially
sprinkled ; but, between the level of the water and the curved
line, it will have become wholly wetted, thereby indicating the
height to which the fluid has been thrown.
CHARCOAL IN SUGAR.
The elements of sugar are carbon and water, as may be proved
by the following experiment: Put into a glass a table-spoonful of
powdered sugar, and mix it into a thin paste with a little water,
and rather more than its bulk of sulphuric acid; stir the mixture
together, the sugar will soon blacken, froth up, and shoot like a
cauliflower out of the glass: and, during the separation of the
charcoal, a large quantity of steam will also be evolved.
Fill a cup with water, gently lay on its surface small fine
needles, and they will float.
WATER IN A SLING.
Half fill a mug with water, place it in a sling, and you may
whirl it round you without spilling a drop; for the water tends
more away from the centre of motion towards the bottom of the
mug, than towardsâ€™the earth by gravity.
ATTRACTION IN A GLASS OF WATER.
Pour water info a glass tumbler, perfectly dry, and it may be
raised above the edge, in a convex form; because the particles of
the water have more attraction for each other than for the dry
glass: wet the edge, and they will be instantly attracted, and
overflow, and the water will sink into a concave form.
FIRE, WATER, AND AIR. 105
TO PREVENT CORK FLOATING IN WATER.
Place at the bottom of a vessel of water, a piece of cork, so
smoothly cut that no water gets between its lower surface and the
surface of the bottom, when it will not rise, but remain fixed there,
because it is pressed downward by the water from above, and there
is no pressure from below to counter-balance it.
During frosty weather, let a vessel be half filled with water,
cover it closely, and place it in the open air, in a situation where
it will not experience any commotion; it will thereby frequently
acquire a degree of cold more intense than that of ice, without
being frozen. If the vessel, however, be agitated ever so little,
or receive even a slight blow, the water will immediately freeze
with singular rapidity. The cause of this phenomenon is, that
water does not congeal unless its particles unite together, and
assume among themselves a new arrangement. The colder the
water becomes, the nearer its particles approach each other; and
the fluid which keeps it in fusion gradually escapes; but the
shaking of the vessel destroys the equilibrium, and the particles
fall one upon another, uniting in a mass of ice.
Or, provide glass full of cold water, and let fall on its surface
afew drops of sulphuret of carbon, which will instantly become
covered with icy network: feathery branches will then dart from
the sulphuret, the whole contents of the glass will become solidi-
fied, and the globules will exhibit all the colours of the rainbow.
TO FREEZE WATER WITH ETHER.
Fill a very thin glass tube with water. Close it at one end,
and wrap muslin round it: then frequently immerse the tube in
106 FIRE, WATER, AND AIR.
strong ether, allowing what the muslin soaks each time to eva-
porate, and in a short time the water will be frozen.
PRODUCTION OF NITRE.
Dip into the above solution a piece of paper: if its colour be
changed to brown, a drop or two more acid must be cautiously
applied : if, on the contrary, it reddens litmus paper, a small glo-
bule or two of potassium will be required; the object being to
obtain a neutral solution: if it then be carefully evaporated to
about half its bulk, and set aside, beautiful crystals will begin
to form, which will be those of the nitrate of potash, commonly
called nitre, or saltpetre.
Take a glass of jelly, and placeit, mouth downwards, just under
the surface of warm water in a basin: the jelly will soon be
dissolved by the heat, and, being heavier than the water, it will
sink, while the glass will be filled with water in its stead.
Keep one or two leeches in a glass bottle nearly filled with
water; tie the mouth over with coarse linen, and change the
water every two or three days. The leech may then serve for a
barometer, as it will invariably ascend or descend in the water as
the weather changes from dry to wet; and it will generally come
to the surface prior to a thunder-storm.
Pour into a phial a small quantity of oil, with the same of
water, and, however violently you shake them, they cannot be
FIRE, WATER, AND AIR. 107
mixed, for the water and oil have no affinity for each other; but,
if a little ammonia be added, and the phial be then shaken, the
whole will be mixed into a liquid soap.
EQUAL PRESSURE OF WATER.
Tie up in a bladder of water, an egg and a piece of very soft
wax, and place it in a box, so as to touch its sides and bottom ;
then, lay loosely upon the bladder a brass or other metal plate,
upon which place a hundred pounds weight, or more; when the
egg and the wax, though pressed by the water with all its weight,
being equally pressed in all directions, will not be in the least
either crushed or altered in shape.
TO EMPTY A GLASS UNDER WATER.
Fill a wine-glass with water, place over its mouth a card, so
as to prevent the water from escaping, and put the glass, mouth
downwards, into a basin of water. Next, remove the card, and
raise the glass partly above the surface, but keep its mouth below
the surface, so that the glass still remains completely filled with
water. Then insert one end of a quill or reed in the water below
the mouth of the glass, and blow gently at the other end, when air
will ascend in bubbles to the highest part of the glass, and expel
the water from it; and, if you continue to blow through the quill,
all the water will be emptied from the glass, which will be filled
TO EMPTY A GLASS OF WATER WITHOUT TOUCHING IT.
Hang over the edge of the glass a thick skein of cotton, and
the water will slowly be decreased till the glass is empty. A towel
will empty a basin of water in the same way.
108 FIRE, WATER, AND AIR.
DECOMPOSITION OF WATER.
The readiest means of decomposing water is as follows: Take a
gun-barrel, the breech of which has been removed, and fill it with
iron wire, coiled up. Placeit across a chafing-dish filled with
lighted charcoal, and connect to one end of the barrel a small glass
retort containing some water; and, to the other, a bent tube, open-
ing under the shelf of a water bath. Heat the barrel red hot, and
apply a lamp under the retort: the stream of water, in passing
over the red-hot iron of the barrel, will be decomposed, the oxygen
will unite with the iron, and the hydrogen may be collected in the
form of gas at the end of the tube over the water.
WATER HEAVIER THAN WINE.
Let a tumbler be half-filled with water, and fit upon its surface
a piece of white paper, upon which pour wine; then carefully
draw out the paper, say with a knitting-needle, so as to disturb the
liquids as little as possible, and the water, being the heavier, will
continue at the lower part of the glass; whilst the wine, being the
lighter, will keep above it. But, if a glass be first half-filled with
wine, and water be poured over it, it will at once sink through the
wine, and both liquids will be mixed.
TO INFLATE A BLADDER WITHOUT AIR.
Put a tea-spoonful of ether into a moistened bladder, the neck
of which tie up tightly; pour hot water upon the bladder, and the
ether, by expanding, will fill it out.
AIR AND WATER BALLOON.
Procure a small hollow glass vessel, the shape of a balloon,
the lower part of which is open, and place it in water, with the
FIRE, WATER, AND AIR. 109
mouth downwards, so that the air within prevents the water filling
it. Then fill a deep glass jar nearly to the top with water, and
place the balloon to float on its surface; tie over the jar with
bladder, so as to confine the air between it and the surface of the
water. Press the hand on the bladder, when more water will enter
the balloon, and it will soon sink to the bottom of the jar; but,
on removing your hand, the balloon will again ascend slowly to the
HEATED AIR BALLOON.
Make a balloon, by pasting together gores of bank post
paper; paste the lower ends round a slender hoop, from which
proceed several wires, terminating in a kind of basket, sufficiently
strong to support a sponge dipped in spirit of wine. When the
spirit is set on fire, its combustion will produce a much greater
degree of heat than any ordinary flame; and, by thus rarefying
the air within the balloon, will enable it to rise with great rapidity,
to a considerable height.
THE PNEUMATIC TINDER-BOX.
Provide a small stout brass tube, about six inches long, and
half an inch in diameter, closed at one end, and fitted with a
hollow air-tight piston, containing in its cavity a scrap of amadon,
or German tinder. Suddenly drive the piston into the tube by a
strong jerk of the hands; and the compression of the air in the
tube will give out so much heat as to light the tinder; and upon
quickly drawing out the piston, the glowing tinder will kindle a
THE BACCHUS EXPERIMENT.
This experiment, shewing the elasticity of air, is performed
with a pleasing toy. It represents a figure of Bacchus sitting
110 FIRE, WATER, AND AIR.
across a cask, in which are two separate compartments, Put into
one of them a portion of wine or coloured liquid, and place the
apparatus under the exhausted receiver of an air-pump, when the
elastic force of the confined air will cause the liquid to ascend a
transparent glass tube (fitted on purpose), into the mouth of the
Bacchanalian figure. To render the experiment more striking, a
bladder, with a small quantity of air therein, is fastened around
the figure, and covered with a loose silken robe, when the air in
the bladder will expand, and produce an apparent increase in the
bulk of the figure, as if occasioned by the excess of liquor drunk.
THE MYSTERIOUS CIRCLES.
Cut from a card two disks or circular pieces, about two inches
in diameter; in the centre of one of them make a hole, into which
put the tube of a common quill, one end being even with the sur-
face of the card. Make the other piece of card a little convex, and
lay its centre over the end of the quill, with the concave side of
the card downward ; the centre of the upper card being from one-
eighth to one-fourth of an inch above the end of the quill. Attempt
to blow off the upper card by blowing through the quill, and Ã©
will be found impossible.
If, however, the edges of the two pieces of card be made to
fit each other very accurately, the upper card will be moved, and
sometimes it will be thrown off; but, when the edges of the card
are on two sides sufficiently far apart to permit the air to escape,
the loose card will retain its position, even when the current of air
sent against it be strong. The experiment will succeed equally
well, whether the current of air be made from the mouth or from
a pair of bellows When the quill fits the card rather loosely, a
comparatively light puff of air will throw both cards three or four
FIRE, WATER, AND AIR. 111
feet in height. When, from the humidity of the breath, the upper
surface of the perforated card has a little expanded, and the two
opposite sides are somewhat depressed, these depressed sides may
be distinctly seen to rise and approach the upper card, directly in
proportion to the force of the current of air.
Another fact to be shewn with this simple apparatus, appears
equally inexplicable with the former. Lay the loose card upon the
hand with the concave side up; blow forcibly through the tube,
and, at the same time, bring the two cards towards each other,
when, within three-eighths of an inch, if the current of air be
strong, the loose card will suddenly rise and adhere to the per-
forated card. If the card through which the tube passes have
several holes made in it, the loose card may be instantly thrown
off by a slight puff of air.
For the explanation of the above phenomenon, a gold medal
and one hundred guineas were offered, some years since, by the
Royal Society. Such explanation has been given by Dr. Robert
Hare, of the United States of America, and is as follows :
Supposing the diameter of the disks of card to be to that of
the hole as 8 to 1, the area of the former to the latter must be as
64'to 1. Hence, if the disks were to be separated (their surfaces
remaining parallel), with a velocity as great as that of the air blast,
a column of air must meanwhile be interposed, sixty-four times
greater than that which would escape from the tube during the
interim; consequently, if all the air necessary to preserve the
balance be supplied from the tube, the disks must be separated
with a velocity as much less than that of the blast, as the column
required between them is greater than that yielded by the tube;
and yet the air cannot be supplied from any other source, unless a
112 FIRE, WATER, AND AIR.
deficit of pressure be created between the disks, unfavourable to
It follows, then, that, under the circumstances in question, the
disks cannot be made to move asunder with a velocity greater
than one-sixty-fourth of that of the blast. Of course, all the force
of the current of air through the tube will be expended on the
moveable disk, and the thin ring of air which exists around the
orifice between the disks: and, since the moveable disk can only
move with one-sixty-fourth of the velocity of the blast, the ring of
air in the interstice must experience nearly all the force of the jet,
and must be driven outwards, the blast following it in various
currents, radiating from the common centre of the tube and disks.
PRINCE RUPERT'S DROPS.
Let fall melted glass into cold water, and it will become sud-
denly cooled and solidified on the outside before the internal part
is changed ; then, as this part hardens, it is kept extended by the
arch of the outside crust: and, if the finely drawn-out point of
the drop be broken off, the cohesion of the atoms of the glass is
destroyed, and the whole crumbles to dust with a smart explosion.
The dampness of the air, and the consequent approach of rain,
is denoted by several simple means, which are termed hygrometers.
Thus, if an ear of the wild oat be hung up, its awn or bristly
points will be contracted by a rotatory motion in damp air, and
relaxed by a contrary motion when the air is dry. Similar effects
are observable on all cordage, string, and every description of
twisted material; as the moisture swells the threads, and increases
FIRE, WATER, AND AIR. 113
â€˜ their diameter, but reduces their length: hence, catgut is used in
the construction of a weather-house, in which the man and woman
foretel wet or dry weather, by moving as the catgut stretches or
contracts, according as the air is moist or dry.
To prove the moving power of the awn, separate one from the
ear, and, holding the base between the finger and thumb, moisten
the awn with the lips, when it will be seen to turn round for some
THE PNEUMATIC DANCER.
This amusing pneumatic toy consists of a figure made of glass,
or enamel, and so constructed as to remain suspended in a glass
jar of water. An air-bubble, communicating with
the water, is placed in some part of the figure, shewn
at m, near the top of the jar, A, in the engraving.
At the bottom, B, of the vessel is a bladder, which
can be pressed upwards by applying the finger to
the extremity of a lever, e 0, when the pressure will
be communicated through the water to the bubble of
air, which is thus compressed. The figure will then
sink tothe bottom; but, by removing the pressure,
the figure will again rise, so that it may be made to
dance in the vessel, as if by magic. Fishes, made of
glass, are sometimes substituted for the human figure.
A common glass jar may be used for this experiment,
in which case the pressure should be applied
to the upper surface, which should be a piece
of bladder, instead of being placed at the bottom,
as shewn in the figure engraved.
114 FIRE, WATER, AND AIR.
THE ASCENDING SNAKE.
To construct this pretty little pneumatic toy, take a square
piece of stiff card, or sheet copper or brass, about two and a half
Fig.2 Fig-l. or three inches in diameter, and cut it out
spirally, so as to resemble a snake, as in
the engraving (fig. 1). Then paint the body
on each side of the card the colours of a
snake ; take it by the two ends, and draw
out the spiral till the distance from head
f to tail is six or seven inches, as in fig. 2. Next, provide a
slender piece of wood on a stand, and fix a sharp needle
at its summit; push the rod up through the spiral, and
| let the end of the spiral rest upon the summit of the
needle. Now place the apparatus as nearly as possible to the edge
of the mantel-shelf above the fire, and the snake will begin to
revolve in the direction of its head; and, if the fire be strong,
or the current of heated air which ascends from it is made
powerful, by two or three (persons coming near it, so as to
concentrate the current, the snake will revolve very rapidly. The
rod a, b, should be painted, so as to resemble a tree, which the
snake will appear to climb; or, the snake may be suspended by
a thread from the ceiling, over the current of air â€˜from a lamp.
Two snakes may be made to turn round in opposite directions, by
merely drawing out the spiral of one from the upper side, and of
the other from the under side of the figure, and fixing them, of
course, on separate rods.
THE PNEUMATIC PHIAL.
Provide a phial one-fourth filled with any coloured water, and
with a glass tube passing through the cork, or cemented into the
FIRE, WATER, AND AIR. 115
neck of the phial, so as to be air-tight; the tube may reach to
within a quarter of an inch of the bottom of the phial, so as to
dip below the surface of the liquid. Hold this little instrument
before the fire, or plunge it into hot water, when the air that is in
the phial will expand, and force up the coloured liquor into the
Dip the bowl of a tobacco-pipe into melted resin, hold the pipe
in a vertical position, and blow through it; when bubbles of
various sizes will be formed, of a brilliant silvery hue, and in a
variety of colours.
MOISTURE OF THE ATMOSPHERE,
Moisture is always present in the air, even when it is driest.
To prove this, press a piece of sheet copper into the form of a
cup; place on it a piece of phosphorus, thoroughly dried between
blotting-paper; put the cup on a dry plate, and beside it a small
piece of quick lime ; turn over it a glass tumbler, and leave â€˜it for
ten minutes, that the lime may remove all moisture from the in-
cluded air; take off the tumbler, touch the phosphorus with a hot
wire, and instantly replace the glass; when a dry solid will be
formed, resembling snow. As soon as the flame is extinct, ex-
amine the plate ; when the solid will, in a very short time, attract
so much water from the air, that it will pass into small drops
CLIMATES OF A ROOM,
The air in a room may be said to resemble two climates: as it
is lighter than the external air, a current of colder or heavier air
is continually pouring in from the crevices of the windows and
116 FIRE, WATER, AND AIR.
doors; and the light air must find some vent, to make way for the
heavy air. If the door be set a-jar, and a candle held near the
upper part of it, the flame will be blown outwards, shewing that
there is a current of air flowing out from the upper part of the
room ; and, if the candle be placed on the floor, close by the door,
the flame will bend inwards, shewing that there is also a current
of air setting into the lower part of the room. The upper current
is the warm, light air, which is driven out to make way for the
stream of cold, dense air, which enters below.
BUBBLES IN CHAMPAGNE,
Pour out a glass of champagne, or bottled ale, and wait till
the effervescence has ceased ; you may then renew it by throwing
into the liquor a bit of paper, a crumb of bread, or even by
violently shaking the glass. The bubbles of carbonic acid chiefly
rise from where the liquor is in contact with the glass, and is in
greatest abundance at those parts where there are asperities. The
bubbles setting out from the surface of the glass are at first very
small; but they enlarge in passing through the liquor. It seems
as if they proceeded more abundantly from the bottom of the glass
than from its sides ; but this is an ocular deception.
PROOFS THAT AIR IS A HEAVY FLUID.
Expel the air out of a pair of bellows, then close the nozzle
and valve-hole beneath, and considerable force will be requisite
to separate the boards from each other. This is caused by the
pressure or weight of the atmosphere, which, acting equally upon
the upper and lower boards externally, without any air inside,
operates like a dead weight in keeping the boards together. In
like manner, if you stop the end of a syringe, after its piston-rod
FIRE, WATER, AND AIR. 117
has been pressed down to the bottom, and then attempt to draw it
up again, considerable force will be requisite to raise it, depending
upon the size of the syringe, being about fourteen or fifteen
pounds to every square inch of the piston rod. When the rod is
drawn up, unless it be held, it will fall to the bottom, from the
weight of the air pressing it in.
Or, fill a glass tumbler to the brim with water, cover it with a
piece of thin wet leather, invert it on a table, and try to pull it
straight up, when it will be found to require considerable force.
In this manner do snails, periwinkles, limpets, and other shells,
adhere to rocks, &. Flies are enabled to walk on the ceiling of
a room, up a looking-glass, or window-pane, by the air pressing
on the outside of their peculiarly constructed feet, and thus sup-
To the same cause must be attributed the firmness with which
the oyster closes itself; for, if you grind off a part of the shell,
so as to make a hole in it, though without at all injuring the fish,
it may be opened with great ease.
TO SUPPORT A PEA ON AIR.
This experiment may be dexterously performed by placing a
pea upon a quill, or the stem of a tobacco-pipe, and blowing
upwards through it.
PYROPHORUS, OR AIR-TINDER.
Mix three parts of alum with one of wheat flour, and put them
intoâ€˜'a common phial; set it in a crucible, upto the neck in
sand; then surround the crucible with red-hot coals, when first a
â€˜black smoke, and next a blue sulphureous flame, will issue from
118 FIRE, WATER, AND AIR.
the mouth of the phial; when this flame disappears, remove the
crucible from the fire, and, when cold, stop the phial with a good
cork. If portion of this powder be exposed to the air, it will
Or, a very perfect and beautiful pyrophorus may be obtained
by heating tartrate of lead in a glass tube, over a lamp. When
some of the dark brown mass thus formed is shaken out in the air,
it will immediately inflame, and brilliant globules of lead cover
the ignited surface.
Or, mix three parts of lamp-black, four of burnt alum, in
powder, and eight of pearl-ash, and heat them for an hour, to a
bright cherry red, in an iron tube. When well made, and poured
out upon a glass plate or tile, this pyrophorus will kindle, with
a series of small explosions, somewhat like those produced by
throwing potassium upon water ; but this effect should be witnessed
from a distance.
Put a small piece of grey cast-iron into strong nitric acid,
when a porous, spongy substance will be left untouched, and will
be of a dark grey colour, resembling plumbago. If some of
this be put upon blotting paper, in the course of a minute it will
spontaneously heat and smoke ; and, if a considerable quantity be
heaped together, it will ignite and scorch the paper; nor will the
properties of this pyrophorus be destroyed by its being left for
days and weeks in water.
BEAUTY OF A SOAP BUBBLE.
Blow a soap bubble, cover it with a clean glass to protect it
from the air, and you may observe, after it has grown thin by
standing a little, several rings of different colours within each
FIRE, WATER, AND AIR. 119
other round the top of it. The colour in the centre of the rings
will vary with the thickness; but, as the bubble grows thinner, the
rings will spread, the central spot will become white, then bluish,
and â€˜hen black; after which the bubble will burst, from its extreme
tenuiiy at the black spot, whereâ€™ the thickness has been proved
not to exceed the 2,500,000th part of an inch.
WHY A GUINEA FALLS MORE QUICKLY THAN A FEATHER
THROUGH THE AIR.
The resistance of the air to falling bodies is not proportioned
to the weight, but depends on the surface which the body opposes
to the air. Now, the feather exposes, in propor-
tion to its weight, amuch greater surface to the
air than a piece of gold does, and therefore suffers
a much greater resistance to its descent. Were
the guinea beaten to the thinness of gold-leaf, it
would be as long or even longer in falling than the
feather; but, let both fall in a vacuum, or under
the receiver of an air-pump, from which the air
has been pumped out, and they will both reach
the bottom at the same time; for gravity, acting
independently of other forces, causes all bodies to
descend with the same velocity.
An apparatus for performing this experiment is
shewn in the engraving: the coin and the feather
are to be laid together on the brass flap, A or B;
this may be let down by turning the wire,(C, which passes through
a collar of leather, D, placed in the head of the receiver.
120 -FIRE, WATER, AND AIR.
SOLIDITY OF AIR.
Provide a glass tube, open at each end; close the upper end
by the finger, and immerse the lower one in a glass of water,
when it will be seen that the air is material, and occupies it own
space in the tube, for it will not permit the water to enter it
until the finger is removed, when the air will escape, and the
water rise to the same level in the inside as on the outside of
BREATHING AND SMELLING.
Hold the breath, and place the open neck of a phial, containing
oil of peppermint, or any other essential oil, in the mouwh, and
the smell will not be perceived; but, after expiration, it will be
SLEIGHTS AND SUBTLETIES.
HE chief requisites for success in the performance
of feats of Legerdemain are manual dexterity
and self-possession. The former can only be
4, acquired by practice; the latter will be the
X) natural result of a well-grounded confidence,
We subjoin a few preliminary hints, of consider-
able importance to the amateur exhibitor.
1. Never acquaint the company before-hand with} the particu-
lars of the feat you are about to perform, as it will give them time
to discover your mode of operation.
2. Endeavour, as much as possible, to acquire various methods
of performing the same feat, in order that, if you should be likely
to fail in one, or have reason to believe that your operations are
suspected, you may be prepared with another.
124 SLEIGHTS AND SUBTLETIES.
3. Never yield to the request of any one to repeat the same
feat, as you thereby hazard the detection of your mode of opera-
tion ; but do not absolutely refuse, as that would appear ungracious. -
Promise to perform it in a different way, and then exhibit another
which somewhat resembles it. This mancuvre seldom fails to
answer the purpose.
4. Never venture on a feat requiring manual dexterity, till you
have previously practised it, so often as_to acquire the necessary
5. As diverting the attention of the company from too closely
inspecting your manceuvres is a most important object, you should
manage to talk to them during the whole course of your pro-
ceedings. It is the plan of vulgar operators to gabble unintelligible
jargon, and attribute their feats to some extraordinary and mys-
terious influence. There are few persons at the present day
credulous enough to believe such trash, even among the rustic
and most ignorant; but as the youth of maturer â€˜years might
inadvertently be tempted to pursue this method, while exhibiting
his skill before his younger companions, it may not be deemed
superfluous to offer a caution against such a procedure. He may
state, and truly, that everything he exhibits can be accounted
for on rational principles, and is only in obedience to the unerring
laws of Nature; and although we have just cautioned him against
enabling the company themselves to detect his operations, there
can be no objection (particularly when the party comprises many
younger than himself) to occasionally shew by what simple means
the most apparently marvellous feats are accomplished.
SLEIGHTS AND SUBTLETIES. 125
THE RING AND THE HANDKERCHIEF.
This may be justly considered one of the most surprising
deceptions ; and yet it is so easy of performance, that any one may
accomplish it after a few minutesâ€™ practice,
You previously provide yourself with a piece of brass wire,
pointed at both ends, and bent round so as to form a ring, about
the size of a wedding-ring. This you conceal in your hand. You
then commence your performance by borrowing a silk pocket
handkerchief from a gentleman, and a wedding-ring from a lady ;
and you request one person to hold two of the corners of the hand-
kerchief, and another to hold the other two, and to keep them at
full stretch. You next exhibit the wedding-ring to the company,
and announce that you will make it pass through the handkerchief.
You then place your hand under the handkerchief, and substituting
the false ring, which you had previously concealed, press it against
the centre of the handkerchief, and desire a third person to take
hold of the ring through the handkerchief, and to close his finger
and thumb through the hollow of the ring. The handkerchief is
- held in this manner for the purpose of shewing that the ring has not
been placed within a fold. You now desire the persons holding
the corners of the handkerchief to let them drop; the person hold-
ing the ring (through the handkerchief as already described) still
retaining his hold.
Let another person now grasp the handkerchief as tight as he:
pleases, three or four inches below the ring, and tell the person
holding the ring to let it go, when it will be quite evident to the
company that the ring is secure within the centre of the handker-
chief. You then tell the person who grasps the handkerchief to
hold a hat over it, and passing your hand underneath, you open the
false ring, by bending one of its points a little aside, and bringing ,
126 SLEIGHTS AND SUBTLETIES.
one point gently through the handkerchief, you easily draw out the
remainder; being careful to rub the hole you have made in the
handkerchief with your finger and thumb, to conceal the fracture.
You then put the wedding-ring you borrowed over the outside
of the middle of the handkerchief, and desiring the person who
holds the hat, to take it away, you exhibit the ring (placed as
described) to the company; taking an opportunity, while their
attention is engaged, to conceal or get rid of the brass ring.
THE KNOTTED HANDKERCHIEF.
This feat consists in tying a number of hard knots in a pocket-
handkerchief borrowed from one of the company, then letting any
person hold the knots, and by the operator merely shaking the
handkerchief, all the knots become unloosed, and the handkerchief
is restored to its original state.
To perform this excellent trick, get as soft a handkerchief as
possible, and taking the opposite ends, one in each hand, throw the
right hand over the left, and draw it through, as if you were going
to tie a knot in the usual way. Again throw the right-hand end
over the left, and give the left-hand end to some person to pull,
you at the same time pulling the right-hand end, with your right
hand, while your left hand holds the handkerchief just behind the
knot. Press the thumb of your left hand against the knot to pre-
vent its slipping, always taking care to let the person to whom you
gave one end pull first, so that, in fact, he is only pulling against
your left hand.
You now tie another knot exactly in the same way as the first,
taking care always to throw the right hand end over the left. As
you go on tying the knots, you will find the right-hand end of the
handkerchief decreasing considerably in length, while the left-hand
SLEIGHTS AND SUBTLETIES. 127
one remains neatly as long as at first; because, in fact, you are
merely tying the right-hand end round the left. To prevent this
from being noticed, you should stoop down a little after each knot,
and pretend to pull the knots tighter; while, at the same time,
you press the thumb of the right hand against the knot, and with
the fingers and palm of the same hand, draw the handkerchief, so
as to} make the left-hand end shorter, keeping it at each knot as
nearly the length of the right-hand end as possible.
When you have tied as many knots as the handkerchief will
admit of, hand them round for the company to feel that they are
firm knots; then hold the handkerchief in your right hand, just
below the knots, and with the left hand turn the loose part of the
centre of the handkerchief over them, desiring some person to hold
them. Before they take the handkerchief in hand, you draw out
the right-hand end of the handkerchief, which you have in the
right hand, and which you may easily do, and the knots being still
held together by the loose part â€˜of the handkerchief, the. person
who holds the handkerchief will declare he feels them: you then
take hold of one of the ends of the handkerchief which hangs
down, and desire him to repeat after you, oneâ€”twoâ€”three,â€”
then tell him to let go, when, by giving the handkerchief a smart
shake, the whole of the knots will become unloosed.
Should you, by accident, whilst tying the knots, give the
wrong end to be pulled, a hard knot will be the consequence, and
you will know when this has happened the instant you try to
draw the left-hand end of the handkerchief shorter. You must,
therefore, turn this mistake to the best advantage, by asking any
one of the company to see how long it will take him to untie one
knot, you counting the seconds. When he has untied the knot,
your other knots will remain right as they were before. Having
finished tying the knots, let the same person hold them, and tell
128 SLEIGHTS AND SUBTLETIES.
him that, as he took two minutes to untie one knot, he ought to
allow you fourteen minutes to untie the seven; but as you do not
wish to take any advantage, you will be satisfied with fourteen
You may excite some laughter during the performance of this
trick, by desiring those who pull the knots along with you, to pull
as hard as they please, and not to beafraid, as the handkerchief
is not yours; you may likewise "go to the owner of the handker-
chief, and desire him to assist you in pulling a knot, saying, that if
the handkerchief is to be torn, it is only right that he should have
a share of it; you may likewise say that he does not pull very hard,
which will cause a laugh against him.
THE INVISIBLE SPRINGS.
Take two pieces of white cotton cord, precisely alike in length ;
double each of them separately, so that their ends meet; then tie
them together very neatly, with a bit of fine cotton thread, at
the part where they double (i. e. the middle). This must all be
When you are about to exhibit the trick, hand round two
other pieces of cord, exactly similar in length and appearance
to those which you have prepared, but not tied, and desire your
company to examine them, You then return to your table,
placing these cords at the edge, so that they fall (apparently acci-
dentally) to the ground, behind the table; stoop to pick them up,
but take up the prepared ones instead, which you have previously
placed there, and lay them on the table.
Having proceeded thus far, you take round for examination
three ivory rings; those given to children when teething, and
which may be bought at any of the toyshops, are the best for your
SLEIGHTS AND SUBTLETIES. 129
purpose. When the rings have undergone a sufficient scrutiny,
pass the prepared double cords through them, and give the two
ends of one cord to one person to hold, and the two ends of the
other to another. Do not let them pull hard, or the thread will
break, and your trick be discovered. Request the two persons to
approach each other, and desire each to give you one end of the
cord which he holds, leaving to him the choice. You then say,
that, to make all fast, you will tie these two ends together, which
you do, bringing the knot down so as to touch the rings; and
returning to each person the end of the cord next to him, you state
that this trick is performed by the rule of contrary, and that when
you desire them to pull hard, they are to slacken, and vice versd,
which is likely to create much laughter, as they are certain of
making many mistakes at first.
During this time, you are holding the rings on the fore-finger
of each hand, and with the other fingers preventing your assistants
from separating the cords prematurely, during their mistakes ; you
at length desire them, in a loud voice, to slacken, when they will
pull hard, which will break the thread, the rings remaining in your
hands, whilst the strings will remain unbroken: let them be again
examined, and desire them to look for the springs in the rings.
THE MIRACULOUS APPLE.
To divide an apple into several parts, without breaking the
rind :â€”Pass a needle and thread under the rind of the apple,
which is easily done by putting the needle in again at the same
hole it came out of ; and so passing on till you have gone round the
apple. Then take both ends of the thread in your hands and draw
it out; by which means the apple will be divided into two parts.
In the same manner, you may divide it into as many parts as you
130 SLEIGHTS AND SUBTLETIES.
please, and yet the rind will remain entire. Present the apple to
any one to peel, and it will immediately fall to pieces.
THE SELF-BALANCED PAIL.
You lay a stick across the table, letting one-third of it project
over the edge; and you undertake to hang a pail of water on it,
without either fastening the stick on the table, or letting the pail
rest on any support; and this feat, the laws of gravitation will
enable you literally to accomplish.
You take the pail of water, and hang it by the handle upon
oie the projecting end of the stick, in
such a manner that the handle may
rest on it in an inclined position,
with the middle of the pail within
the edge of the table. That it may
be fixed in this situation, place
another stick with one of its ends resting against the side at the
bottom of the pail, and its other end against the first stick, where
there should be a notch to retain it. By these means, the pail will
remain fixed in that situation, without being able to incline to
either side; nor can the stick slide along the table, or move along
its edge, without raising the centre of gravity of the pail, and the -
water it contains.
THE PHANTOM AT COMMAND.
This feat is performed by means of confederacy. â€” Having
privately apprized your confederate that when he hears you strike
one blow, it signifies the letter A; when you strike two, it means
B; and 80 on for the rest of the alphabet, you state to the company,
that if any one will walk into the adjoining room, and have the
SLEIGHTS AND SUBTLETIES. - 131
door locked upon him, you will cause any animal to appear to him
which another person may name.
In order to deter every one except your confederate from accept-
ing the offer, you announce at the same time, that the person who
volunteers to be shut up in the room must be possessed of consider-
able courage, or he had better not undertake it. Having thus
gained your end, you give your confederate a lamp, which burns
with a very dismal light; telling him, in the hearing of the com-
pany, to place it on the middle of the floor, and not to feel alarmed
at what he may happen to see. You then usher him into the
room, and lock the door.
You next take a piece of black paper, and a bit of chalk, and
giving them to one of the party, you tell him to write the name of
any animal he wishes to appear to the person shut up in the room.
This being done, you receive back the paper, and after shewing it
round to the company, you fold it up, burn it in the candle or
lamp, and throw the ashes into a mortar ; casting in at the same
time a powder, which you state to be possessed of very miraculous
Having taken care to read what was written, you proceed to
pound the ashes in the mortar thus : Supposing the word written to
be CAT, you begin by stirring the pestle round the mortar several
times, and then strike three distinct blows, loud enough for the con-
federate to hear, and by which he knows that the first letter of the
word is C. You next make some irregular evolutions of the
pestle round the mortar, that it may not appear to the company
that you give nothing but blows, and you then strike one blow to
denote A. Work the pestle about again, and then strike twenty
blows, which he will know to mean T ; finishing your manceuvre by
working the pestle about the mortar; the object being to make the
blows as little remarkable as possible. You then call aloud to your
132 SLEIGHTS AND SUBTLETIES.
confederate, and ask him what he sees. At first he is to make no
reply ; but presently afterwards, he cries out that he is so frightened
he cannot tell you. At length, after being interrogated several
times, he says that something has appeared to him which very
much resembles a CAT.
That no mistake may be made, each party should repeat to
himself the letters of the alphabet in the order of the blows.
THE MIRACULOUS SHILLING.
Provide a round box, the size of a large snuff-box, and likewise
eight other boxes, which will go easily into each other, letting the
least of them be of the size to hold a shilling. Observe that all
these boxes must shut so freely that they may all be closed at once,
by the covers accurately fitting within each other.
Previously to commencing your performance, fit the boxes
within each other, and place them in a table-drawer at another
part of the room. You also fit the covers in the same manner, and
lay them by the side of the boxes ; you likewise provide a silk hand-
kerchief, into one corner of which a shilling is sewn.
You now commence your operations, by borrowing a shilling,
desiring the lender to mark it, that it may not be changed. Take
this shilling in your right hand, and the handkerchief in your left,
pretending to place the shilling in the centre of the handkerchief;
instead of which, you put the corner of the handkerchief in which
a shilling was sewn, as previously described, concealing the bor-
rowed shilling in your right hand. You then desire the person to
feel that his shilling is there, and tell him to hold it tight.
You now go to the drawer, and placing the borrowed shilling
in the smallest of the boxes, you put on all the covers, by taking
them in the centre between the fore-finger and thumb, to prevent
their separation, and fit them on, by carefully sliding them along,
and then pressing them down.
SLEIGHTS AND SUBTLETIES. 133
Having thus closed your boxes, you produce what appears to
be a single box, and lay it on the table. You now ask the person,
who still retains his hold of the shilling in the handkerchief, if he
is sure that it is there. He will reply in the affirmative; you then
request him to allow you to take the handkerchief, and having
done so, you strike that part of the handkerchief containing the
shilling on the box, and immediately shake out the handkerchief,
holding it by two corners, and shifting it round so as to get the
shilling within your grasp: it will thus appear that the shilling is no
longer there. You desire the person to open the box, and hand it
round, till the shilling be found; and when the last box is opened,
and the shilling taken out, you ask the lender to state whether it
is the one which he marked; to which he must, of course, reply in
THE LOCOMOTIVE SHILLING.
Privately place a shilling, which you previously mark on the head
side with a cross, under a candlestick, or in any other out-of-the-way
situation, where it is not likely to be discovered. You next borrow a
shilling of one of the company, and say: â€œNow I am going to shew
you a trick with this shilling, but that you may knowit again, I will
mark it.â€ Then take your penknife, and cross it in the same man-
ner as the one you have concealed ; shew it to the person who lent
it to you, and ask him if he will know it again. He will reply :
â€œYes: it is marked with a cross.â€ Knock under the table, and
say â€œPresto! fly quickly!â€ at the same time adroitly conveying
the shilling into your pocket. You then tell the spectators that it
is gone; but you have a strong notion that if they look they will
find it under the candlestick (or whatever other place you may
have concealed it in), where the first shilling you marked will of
course be found, and having the same marks as the genuine one,
will be mistaken for it.
134 SLEIGHTS AND SUBTLETIES.
THE PENETRATIVE SIXPENCE.
You profess that you will make a sixpence pass through the table.
To perform this feat, you must have a handkerchief in one corner
of which is sewed a sixpence, or a counter the exact size of one.â€”
Take it out of your pocket, and ask one of the company to lend
you a sixpence, which you must seem to carefully wrap up in the
middle of the handkerchief, but instead of which, you keep it in
the palm of your hand, and in its stead, wrap up the corner in
which the other sixpence or counter is sewn, in the midst of the
handkerchief, and bid the person from whom you borrowed the
sixpence, feel that it is there. You then lay it under a hat upon
the table, take a glass in the hand in which you have concealed
the sixpence, and hold it under the table. Give three knocks upon
the table, crying â€œ Presto! come quickly!â€ Then drop the six-
pence into the glass; bring the glass from under the table, and
exhibit the sixpence to the spectators. You lastly take the hand-
kerchief from under the hat, and shake it, taking care to hold it by
the corner in which the counter or sixpence was sewn.
THE VANISHING SIXPENCE.
Having previously stuck a small piece of white wax on the
nail of your middle finger, lay a sixpence on the palm of your
hand, and, addressing the company, state that it shall vanish at the
word of command. â€œ Many persons,â€ you observe, â€œ perform this
feat, by letting the sixpence fall into their sleeve ; but to convince
you that I shall not have recourse to any such mean deception, I
will turn up my cuffs.â€ You then close your hand, and bringing
the waxed nail in contact with the sixpence, it will firmly adhere
to it. You then blow your hand, and cry â€œ Begone!â€ and suddenly
opening it, and exhibiting the palm, you shew that the sixpence has
SLEIGHTS AND SUBTLETIES. 135
vanished. If you borrow the sixpence of any of the company, take
care to rub off the wax, before you restore it to the owner.
TO MAKE A SIXPENCE BALANCE AND SPIN ON ITS EDGE,
ON THE POINT OF A NEEDLE.
Procure a common wine-bottle, two forks, two corks, a needle,
a sixpence, and a penknife. Having corked the bottle, force the
eye of the needle into the cork perpendicularly, leaving more than
half the needle sticking up. You next cut a small slit with the
penknife in the centre of the bottom of the second cork, into
which you insert the sixpence, edgewise; then stick the forks into
the upper cork, and, with a steady hand, place the edge of the
sixpence on the point of the needle, and it will immediately find
its balance. You may now take the upper cork, between the
finger and thumb, and spin it round as fast as you please, as the
sixpence will not fall off. When it goes slow, hit one of the forks
with your finger as it goes round, to increase its velocity.
THE MULTIPLYING COIN.
Let a tumbler be half-filled with water; put a sixpence in it;
and holding a plate over the top, turn the glass upside down. The
sixpence will fall down on the plate, and appear to be a shilling;
while at the same time a sixpence will seem to be swimming in the
water. Ifa shilling is put in the glass, it will have the appearance
of a half-crown and a shilling; and if a half crown were put in, it
would seem to be a crown piece and a half-crown.
136 SLEIGHTS AND SUBTLETIES.
THE WONDERFUL HAT.
Place three pieces of bread, or other eatable, at a little distance
from each other on a table, and cover each with a hat; you then
take up the first hat, and removing the bread, put it into your
mouth, and let your company see that you swallow it; then raise
the second hat, and eat the bread which was under that, and
do the same with the third. Having eaten the three pieces, give
any person in company liberty to choose under which hat he
would wish those three pieces of bread to be; when he has made
choice of one of the hats, put it on your head, and ask him if he
does not think that they are under it.
TO BRING A PERSON DOWN UPON A FEATHER.
This is a practical pun:â€”You desire any one to stand on
a chair or table, and you tell him that, notwithstanding his weight,
you will bring him down upon a feather. You then leave the
room, and procuring a feather from a feather-bed, you give it to
him, and tell him you have performed your promiseâ€”that you
engaged to bring him down upon a feather, which you have done;
for there is the feather, and, if he looks, he'll find down upon it.
SLEIGHTS AND SUBTLETIES. 137
THE APPARENT IMPOSSIBILITY.
You profess yourself able to shew any one what he never saw,
what you â€˜never saw, and what nobody else ever saw, and which,
after you two have seen, nobody else ever shall see.
After requesting the company to guess this riddle, and they
have professed themselves unable to do so, produce a nut, and
having cracked it, take out the kernel, and ask them if they have
ever seen that before ; they will of course answer, No; you reply,
neither have I, and I think you will confess that nobody else has
ever seen it, and now no one shall ever see it again; saying which,
you put the kernel into your mouth and eat it.
AN OMELET COOKED IN A HAT, OVER THE FLAME
OF A CANDLE.
You state that you are about to cook an omelet; and you
break four eggs in a hat, place the hat for a short time over the
flame of a candle, and shortly after produce an omelet, completely
cooked, and quite hot.
Some persons would be credulous enough to believe that by the
help of certain ingredients you had been enabled to cook the
omelet without fire; but the secret of the trick is, that the omelet
had been previously cooked and placed in the hat, but could not
be seen, because the operator, when breaking the eggs, placed it
too high for the spectators to observe the contents. The eggs
were empty ones, the contents having been previously extracted,
by being sucked through a small aperture, but to prevent the com-
pany from suspecting this, the operator manages, as if by accident,
to let a full one fall on the table, which breaking, induces a belief
that the others are also full.
138 SLEIGHTS AND SUBTLETIES.
THE IMPOSSIBLE OMELET.
You produce some butter, eggs, and other ingredients for
making an omelet, together with a frying-pan, in a room where
there is a fire, and offer to bet a wager, that the cleverest cook will
not be able to make an omelet with them. The wager is won by
having previously caused the eggs to be boiled very hard.
GO IF YOU CAN.
You tell a person that you will clasp his hands together in such
a manner, that he shall not be able to leave the room without
unclasping them, although you will not confine his feet, or bind
his body, or in any way oppose his exit.
This trick is performed by clasping the partyâ€™s hands round
the pillar of a large circular table or other bulky article of furniture,
too large for him to drag through the doorway.
THE FIGURE PUZZLE.
You assert that you can prove the half of nine to be either four
or six; and the half of twelve to be seven. To
Be make this manifest you have only to draw a nine
So or a twelve in numerals, and fold the paper across
the middle, as in the margin.
THE VISIBLE INVISIBLE.
You tell the company that you will place a candle in such a
manner that every person in the room, except one, shall see it; yet
you will not blindfold him, nor in any way restrain his person, or
offer the least impediment to his examining or going to any part of
SLEIGHTS AND SUBTLETIES. 139
the room he pleases. This trick is accomplished by placing the
candle on the partyâ€™s head; but it cannot be performed if a looking-
glass is in the room, as that will enable him to turn the laugh
THE DOUBLE MEANING.
Place a glass of any liquor upon the table, put a hat over it, and
say: â€œI will engage to drink the liquor under that hat, and yet I'll
not touch the hat.â€ You then get under the table, and after giving
three knocks, you make a noise with your mouth as if you were
swallowing the liquor. Then getting from under the table, you say:
â€œ Now, gentlemen, be pleased to look.â€ Some one, eager to see if
you have drunk the liquor, will raise up the hat, when you instantly
take the glass, and drink the contents, saying: â€œGentlemen, I
have fulfilled my promise. You are all witnesses that 7 did not
touch the hat.â€
QUITE TIRED OUT.
You undertake to make a person so tired, by attempting to
carry a small stick out of the room, as to be unable to accomplish
it, although you will add nothing to his burthen, nor lay any
restraint upon his personal liberty. To perform this manceuvre,
you take up the stick, and cutting off a very small sliver, you
direct him to carry it out of the room, and return for more; con-
cluding by telling him, that you mean him to perform as many
similar journeys as you can cut pieces off the stick. As this may
be made to amount to many thousands, he will of course gladly
give up the undertaking.
SOMETHING OUT OF THE COMMON.
Having picked a stick or stone off a common, you tell a person
that you are about to shew him something which will surprise him,
140 SLEIGHTS AND SUBTLETIES.
â€”something, in fact, quite out of the common. Having thus
excited his curiosity, you produce the stick or stone, or whatever
else you may have picked up, which of course he will examine
very intently, and at length observe, that he sees nothing extra-
ordinary in it. â€œThat may be,â€ you reply, â€œ and yet, I assure you
that it is really something out of the common.â€ This will, no
doubt, set him upon a fresh examination, which will naturally end
in his asking for an explanation. This you give, by telling him that
â€œthough not uncommon, it is out of the common, for it is out of
â€” Common ;â€ and, no doubt, the company present will indulge
in a hearty laugh at the queristâ€™s expense.
TO RUB ONE SIXPENCE INTO TWO.
Previously wet a sixpence slightly, and stick it to the under edge
of a table (without a cover), at the place where you are sitting.
You then borrow a sixpence from one of the company, and
tucking up your sleeves very high, and opening your fingers, to
shew that you have not another concealed, rub it quickly back-
wards and forwards on the table, with your right hand, holding
your left under the edge of the table to catch it. After two or
three feigned unsuccessful attempts to accomplish your object,
you loosen the concealed sixpence with the tips of the fingers of
the left hand, at the same time that you are sweeping the borrowed
sixpence into it; and rubbing them a little while together in your
hands, you throw them both on the table.
You tell a person you will place him in the centre of a room,
and draw a circle of chalk round him, which shall not exceed three
feet in diameter, yet out of which he shall not be able to leap,
SLEIGHTS AND SUBTLETIES. 141
though his legs shall be perfectly free. When the party has ex-
hausted his ingenuity in trying to discover by what means you can
prevent his accomplishing so seemingly easy a task, you ask him
if he will try, and on his assenting, you bring him into the middle
of the room, and having requested him to button his coat tightly,
you draw, with a piece of chalk, a circle round his waist, outside
his coat, and tell him to jump out of it!
It will greatly improve this trick if the person be blindfolded,
as he will not be aware of the mode of performing it till the
bandage is removed, provided his attention be diverted while you
are drawing the line round him.
FEATS WITH CARDS.
Ir will be necessary to acquire considerable dexterity in the
performance of the three following feats, before the others can be
exhibited with any chance of success,
THE FORCED FEAT.
Forcing is making a person take such a card as you think fit,
while he supposes he is taking one at hazard, or according to his
own inclination. It is almost impossible to describe how this is
done ; we must, however, attempt it.
142 SLEIGHTS AND SUBTLETIES,
First, ascertain what the card you intend to force is; this must
be done privately, or while you are playing with the cards; then
place it, to all appearance, carelessly in the pack, but still keep
your eye, or the little finger of your left hand, in which you hold
the pack, upon it. Now, request a person to take a card from the
pack; open them nimbly from your left to your right hand,
spreading them backward and forward, so as to puzzle the person
in making his choice; the moment you see him putting out his
hand to take a card, spread on the cards till you come to the
one you wish to force ; let its corner be most invitingly put forward
in front of the other cards, and let it make its appearance only the
moment his fingers reach the pack. The mode of operation seems
so fair, that unless he knows the secret of forcing, you may put
what card you please into his hand, while he thinks he is making
a choice himself.
Having thus forced your card, you may tell him to look at it ;
give him the pack to shuffle as much as he pleases, for, in fact, do
what he will, you, of course, can always tell what it was. A
method of doing this cleverly is the first thing to be acquired ; for,
without it, few of the master-feats can be performed.
Should you, however, happen to meet with any one in com-
pany who knows this feat, you must have recourse to the following
We will suppose the card you wish to force to be the ace of
hearts, but the person you present the pack to, will not take it,
but persists in taking one near the top or bottom; let him do so,
still keeping your finger against the ace of hearts. As soon as he
has drawn the card he wishes, and while he is looking at it, slip
the fore-finger of your left hand between the ace of hearts and
the card immediately under it, press the cards tightly together in
front, in order to conceal the finger, and desire him to return the
SLEIGHTS AND SUBTLETIES. 143
card to any part of the pack he pleases, at the same time opening
the pack at the place where your finger is, taking care to with-
draw your finger immediately, lest it should be seen, when the
card will be placed under the ace of hearts. You then shuffle the
cards slightly, for should they be shuffled too much, the two cards
which are now together might chance to get separated.
Ask the person who drew the card, whether he thinks his card Â©
is now in the pack; he will, of course, answer in the affirmative ;
you say that you doubt it, throw the top card of the pack on the
table, face uppermost, and so on with the rest, until you have gone
through the pack; then ask if he has seen his card, he will answer,
Yes: you can now either tell him the name of it, or finish the feat
in any other way you may think proper, as, by your watching for
the ace of hearts, you will perceive what his card is, by its being
the one which immediately follows it.
THE NERVE FEAT.
Force a card, and when the person who has taken it puts it in
the pack, Jet him shuffle the cards: then look at them again your-
self, find the card, and place it at the bottom; cut them in half;
give the party that half which contains his card at the bottom, and
desire him to hold it between his finger and thumb just at the cor-
ner; bid him pinch them as tight as he can; then strike them
sharply, and they will all fall to the ground, except the bottom
one, which is the card he has chosen. This is a very curious feat,
and, if well done, is really astonishing. It is a great improvement
of this feat to put the chosen card at the top of the pack, and turn
the cards face upward, so that when you strike, the choosing
party's card will remain in his hand, actually staring him in the
144, SLEIGHTS AND SUBTLETIES.
THE TURN-OVER FEAT.
When you have found a card chosen, which you have previously
forced, or any card that has been drawn, and which you have dis-
covered by the means before described, in order to finish your feat
cleverly, convey the card, privately, to the top of the pack ; get all
the other cards even with each other, but let the edge of your top
card project a little over the rest; hold them between your finger
and thumb, about two feet from the table, let them drop, and the
top card (which must be, as we have said, the one drawn) will fall
with its face uppermost, and all the rest with their faces towards
TO TELL THE NAME OF A CARD THOUGHT OF.
Desire any person to draw seven or eight cards from the pack,
and think of any one of them; when he returns them to you, place
them at the bottom of the pack, but to prevent this from being
noticed, attract the companyâ€™s attention, by saying that as you
intend throwing the cards on the table, it may be suspected that
you will watch the eye of the party, to see which card he fixes
upon, but to prove that this is not the case, you say you will turn
your head aside ; during this time you have continued shuffling the
cards, but in euch a manner that you do not remove the cards
which are at bottom from their places; you then take five or six
cards off the top of the pack, and throw them on the table face up-
wards, asking if the card thought of is among them.
Whilst the person is looking over these, you, unperceivedly,
take one card from the bottom of the pack, and place it on the
top; when he says that his card is not in the first parcel, take off
five or six more (including the card which you have taken from
the bottom), and throw them on the table in the same manner as
SLEIGHTS AND SUBTLETIES. 145
you did the former, taking care, as you turn your head away, to '
ascertain the card drawn from the bottom, as should he say that
his card is in the second parcel, you immediately know that the
card brought from the bottom was his; but, while he is looking at
the second parcel, remember to bring another card from the bot-
tom to the top of the pack, as when all eyes are fixed upon those
on the table, a favourable opportunity is afforded of doing so
unperceived ; you proceed in this manner, bringing one up, and
throwing out five or six for examination, until the card has been
seen; when, knowing which it is, you may make use of the Turn-
over, the Nerve Feat, or any other you please, to make it known.
This feat may occasionally be substituted for the Forcing Feat,
particularly in a company where the latter is known.
A CARD THOUGHT OF BY ONE PERSON, TO BE FOUND IN A
PART OF THE PACK NAMED BY ANOTHER PERSON.
Shuffle a pack of cards; lay the uppermost card face upwards
on the table, calling it number one ; lay the next down in the same
manner, calling it number two; and so on, for a dozen or more.
While you are laying them down, desire a person to think of any of
those cards, and to recollect not only the name of the card, but its
numerical order; you then give any other person the choice of
naming the numerical order in which the card thought of shall be
found, to commence counting with the same number as that of the
card thought of, but the person making such choice must not name
any number under twelve.
Suppose, for example, that the card thought of is the ace of
hearts, and that it is the ninth card; you then take up the twelve
or fourteen cards which you have laid out to be selected from, in
the order in which they lie, and place them on the top of the pack.
146 SLEIGHTS AND SUBTLETIES.
You now ask any other person in what numerical order above
twelve he wishes the card to be found; suppose he says, twenty-
three; you put your hands under the table, and slipping off the
top card with your thumb, shift the second on it, the third on the
second, the fourth on the third, and so on to the twenty-third,
which was the number chosen; you now lay these cards on the
top of the pack, and handing it to the person who thought of
a card, desire him to commence reckoning at the number of his
card, he will, therefore, throw the top card on the table, calling it
nine, the next ten, and so on, until he throws down the twenty-
second card, when you should stop him, reminding him that the
number chosen is twenty-three, and that, consequently, the card
which he is about to take up is the card he thought of; then desire
him, lest it might be thought that he was a confederate, to say
what hie card was; he will declare it to be the ace of hearts ; tell
him to turn the card up, and the ace of hearts it will most cer-
TO TELL THE NAMES OF THE CARDS BY THE WEIGHT.
You desire any person to cut a pack of cards as often as he
pleases, and undertake, by weighing each card for a moment
on your finger, not only to tell the colour, but the suite and
number of spots, and, if a court-card, whether it be king, queen,
You must have two packs of cards exactly alike; one pack to
be constantly in use during the evening in performing your other
tricks; the second, or prepared pack, in your pocket, which take
an opportunity of exchanging, so that it may be believed that the
pack of cards of which you tell the names, is the same as that you
have been using with your other tricks, and which they must
know have been well shuffled.
SLEIGHTS AND SUBTLETIES. â€” 147
The manner of preparing your pack (which must be done pre-
viously) is by the following line, which you commit to memory :
the words in italics forming the key :â€”
Eight Kings threa-tenâ€™d to save nine fair Ladies for one sick Knave.
Eight King three ten two sevennine five Queen four ace siz Knave.
You will perceive that this is akind of artificial memory, formed by
the circumstance of the initial letter of the words in the line and
the names of the cards being indentical, as well as the near
resemblance of some of the words. The word â€œ threatenâ€™dâ€ is
divided into two words, in order that it may answer for the three
and ten; you should pay attention to this, or you will be very
likely to forget the ten altogether, which would set you entirely
wrong; you should likewise commit to memory the order in which
the suites come, viz. :â€”heartsâ€”spadesâ€”diamondsâ€”clubs.
You should now separate the different suites, and lay them on
the table, face upwards, placing hearts first, spades next, diamonds
next, and clubs last. Having done so, begin to sort (to yourself),
according to your key; take up the eight of hearts, placing it in the
left hand with its back to the palm ; then the king of spades, which
you lay over it, next the three of diamonds, next the ten of clubs,
then the two of hearts, and so on, until you finish your line, which
will terminate with the knave of hearts. You then take up the
eight of spades, and go on in the same way till you come to the
knave of spades, when you begin again with the eight of diamonds,
and go on until you come to the knave of diamonds, and beginning
again with the eight of clubs, you go on until you come to the
knave of clubs, which finishes the pack, and which is now ready
for use ; when you have made your exchange, and brought forward
your prepared pack, hand it round to be cut.
You now want to know the first card, as a clue to the rest; and
therefore take off the top card, and holding it up between you and
148 SLEIGHTS AND SUBTLETIES.
the light, you see what the card is, saying, at the same time, that
the old way of performing the trick was by doing so, but that this
was very easily detected.
Having thus obtained a knowledge of the first card, which we
will suppose to be the ten of diamonds, you then take the next
card on your finger, and while pretending to weigh it, you have
time to recollect what is the next word, in your key, to Â¢enâ€™d,
which is Â¢o,â€”you, consequently, know that this card is a two;
you must then recollect what suite comes after diamonds, which is
clubs ; you, therefore, declare the card you are now weighing on
your fingers to be the two of clubs ; the next will of course be the
seven of hearts, the next to that the nine of spades, and so on as
long as you please.
THE QUEENS GOING TO DIG FOR DIAMONDS.
Separate from a pack the four kings, queens, knaves, and aces ;
likewise four common cards of each suite; then lay in a row on
the table, the queens, face upwards, and commence telling your
story, thus :â€”
â€œ These are four queens, who set out to seek for diamonds [place
four common cards of the diamond suite half over the queens.) As
they intend to dig for the diamonds, they each take a spade [place
four common spades half over the diamonds}. The kings, their
husbands, knowing their intention, sent a guard of honour to protect
them from danger [here lay down the four aces half over the spades].
But lest they should neglect their duty, they resolved to set out
themselves [Jay the four kings half over the four aces}. Now there
were four robbers, who, being apprized of the queensâ€™ intentions,
determined to waylay and rob them on their return [Jay the four
knaves half over the four kings]. They were each armed with a
SLEIGHTS AND SUBTLETIES. 149
club [lay four clubs over the four knaves], and not knowing how
the queens would be protected, it was necessary they should each
possess a stout heartâ€ [/ay four hearts over the four clubs}.
You have now placed the whole of the cards on the table, in four
columns; you then pack the cards in the first column together,
beginning at your left hand, keeping them in the order in which
you laid them out, and place them on the table, face downward.
Pack up the second column in the same way, lay them on the first,
and so on with the other two.
You now give the cards to be cut by as many persons as please,
and as often as they choose ; and it would have a good effect, if you
were to give the cards what is termed ashuffle-cut ; that is, to give
them the appearance of being shuffled, but, in fact, only to cut
them quickly several times. You then commence laying them out
again in four columns, as you did at first, when it will be found that
they all come in their proper order again. You next desire any
one to try if he can do it, when the chances are exactly seven to
one that he does not succeed; but if he should, you request him to
try it again, when he is almost certain to fail, unless he knows
the secret, which merely consists in having the cards cut until a
common card of the heart suite remains at the bottom of the pack.
THE CARD IN THE EGG.
To perform this feat, you must have a round hollow stick, about
ten inches long and three quarters of an inch in diameter, the
hollow being three-eighths of an inch in diameter. You must
also have another round stick to fit this hollow, and slide in it
easily, with a knob to prevent its coming through. Our young
readers will clearly understand our meaning, when we say, that in
all respects it must resemble a pop-gun, with the single exception
150 SLEIGHTS AND SUBTLETIES.
that the stick which fits the tube, must be of the full length of the
tube, exclusively of the knob.
You next steep a card in water for a quarter of an hour, peel off
the face of it, and double it twice across, till it becomes one-fourth
of the length of a card, then rollit up tightly, and thrust it up the
tube till it becomes even with the bottom. You then thrust in the
stick at the other end of the tube till it just touches the card.
Having thus provided your magic wand, let it lie on the table
until you have occasion to make use of it, but be careful not to
allow any person to handle it.
You now take a pack of cards, and let any person draw one ;
but be sure to let it be a similar card to the one which you have in
the hollow stick. This must be done by forcing. The person who
has chosen it will put it into the pack again, and, while you are
shuffling, you let it fall into your lap. Then, calling for some eggs,
desire the person who drew the card, or any other person in the
company, to choose any one of the eggs. When he has done so,
ask if there be anything in it. He will answer, There is not.
Place the egg in a saucer ;â€”break it with the wand, and, pressing
the knob with the palm of your right hand, the card will be driven
into the egg. You may then shew it to the spectators.
A great improvement may be made in this feat, by presenting
the person who draws the card with a saucer and a pair of forceps,
and instead of his returning the card to the pack, desire him to
take it by the corner with the forceps and burn it, but to take care
and preserve the ashes; for this purpose you present him with a
piece of paper (prepared as hereafter described), which he lights
at the candle, but a few seconds after; and before he can set the
card on fire, it will suddenly divide in the middle and spring back,
burning his fingers if he do not drop it quickly. Have another
paper ready, and desire him to try that; when he will most likely
beg to be excused, and will prefer lighting it with the candle.
SLEIGHTS AND SUBTLETIES. 151
When the card is consumed, you say that you do not wish to
fix upon any particular person in company to choose an egg, lest it
might be suspected that he was a confederate ; you therefore request
any two ladies in company to volunteer to choose each an â€˜egg, and
having done so, to decide between themselves which shall contain
the card; when this is done, take a second saucer, and in it receive
the rejected egg, break it with your wand, and shew the egg round
to the company; at the same time drawing their attention to the
fact of those two eggs having been chosen from among a number
of others, and of its not being possible for you to have told which of
them would be the chosen one.
You now receive the chosen egg in the saucer containing the
ashes, and having rolled it about until you have blacked it alittle,
blow the ashes from around it into the grate; you then break the
egg with the same wand, when, on touching the spring, the card
will be found in the egg.
The method of preparing the paper, mentioned in the above
feat, is as follows :â€”Take'a piece of letter paper, about six inches
in length and three quarters of an inch in breadth, fold it longi-
tudinally, and with a knife cut it in the crease about five inches
down ; then take one of the sides which are still connected at the
bottom, and with the back of the knife under it, and the thumb of
the right hand over it, curl it outwards as a boy would the tassels
of his kite; repeat the same process with the other side, and lay
them by for use. _When about using them (but not till then, as
the papers will soon lose their curl if stretched), draw them up so
as to make them their original length, and turn the ends over a
little, in order that they may remain so: when set on fire, they will
burn for a minute or two, until the turn-over is burnt out, when the
lighted ends will turn over quickly, burning the fingers of the
holder ; this part of the trick never fails to excite the greates:
152 SLEIGHTS AND SUBTLETIES.
THE INGENIOUS CONFEDERACY.
Lay sixteen cards on the table in four divisions, four cards in
each with the faces upwards. You then state that you will leave
the room, and, on your return, will name any one card which may
have been touched in your absence, on one of the company (your
confederate) pointing out a passage from any author to be read to
you, on your return, by any person present. To perform this
trick, the cards should be placed in the order in which they appear
in the annexed cut, you previously making your confederate ac-
quainted with your mode of proceeding, which is thus :â€”The cards
are supposed to be divided into four classes,
as A, B, C,D; you likewise agree to class
aa LL] everything in the world under the four
denominations of biped, quadruped, vege-
[| [| g [| table, and mineral: class A stands for.
Ty 7~gâ€” bipeds, B for quadrupeds, C for vegetables,
9_ 10 3 44 and D for minerals; each class must now
aa ru be subdivided in the same manner: in
class A No. 1 is the biped, 2 the quad-
[| g (I ruped, 3 the vegetable, and 4 the mineral,
and so with the other classes; when per-
en * pb forming the trick, your confederate must
take care to select an appropriate passage; for example, we will
suppose the card No. 4 to have been touched, and that a volume
of Moore having been presented to your confederate to select from,
he gives the following lines to be read :---
â€œ Breathes there the slave so lowly,
Condemned to chains unholy,
Who, could he burst his bonds at first,
Would pine beneath them slowly,â€ &c.
SLEIGHTS AND SUBTLETIES. 153
The first word which can be classed as above is slave, you may
thus be certain that the card touched is in class A, a slave being a
biped ; the next word you can fix upon is chains, which being com-
monly made of some metal, you rank in the mineral class, and
know that card No. 4 was the one touched, it being the mineral of
the biped class.
Supposing the trick to be repeated, as is very likely, and that
a volume of Byron is given to your confederate, who selects the
â€œ Know ye the land, where the cypress and myrtle
Are emblems of deeds that are done in their clime,â€ &c;
you know â€œ cypressâ€ being the first word that can be classed, the
card touched must be in class C (vegetable), and the next word
â€œ myrtleâ€ being also a vegetable, the card touched must have been
No. 11, which is the vegetable of the vegetable class. Many ap-
propriate passages may be easily selected, and your confederate
should select a long passage to be read, as it gives greater scope, and
helps to mislead the rest of the company ; for should they imagine
that the card is discovered by the number of lines read, and they
touch the same card again, he can select another passage, desiring
them to read only as many lines as they choose.
THE CHANGEABLE CARDS.
Having shuffled a pack, select the eight of each suite, and the
deuce of diamonds; hold the four eights in the left hand, and the
deuce in the right, and having shewn them, take in the deuce
among the four in the left hand, and throw out one of the eights ;
give them to be blown upon, when they will be turned into four
deuces; you now exchange one of the deuces for the eight, and
giving them again to be blown upon, they will appear all black
154 SLEIGHTS AND SUBTLETIES.
cards; you again take in the deuce, and discard the eight, when,
by blowing on them, they will all turn red; you now, for the last _
time, take in the eight, and throw away a deuce, when they will
be found to be four eights and a deuce, as they were at first.
To perform this ingenious deception you procure five plain
cards, the size of playing cards, which you paint to resemble the
five cards as under,
1 2 3 4 5
%e9 %Â»Â¢ +,Â¢ Â© |
9 9 Â¢ Â¢
| o |le*el| @ |
and mixing them) with a common pack, you next, under the pre-
tence of selecting the eight of each suite, and the deuce of dia-
monds, take out your false cards (Nos. 1, 2, 3, 4), which you hold
as under; and taking No. 5 in your right hand, you shew your
company that there are the four eights
and the deuce of diamonds; you should
likewise hold them up to the light, to
let them see that they are not double,
which you may do without fear of de-
tection, as the lower parts of the cards
will be so opaque, that the deficiency of
spots will not be perceived; you now
place the deuce of diamonds between
Nos. 3 and 4, the latter of which you
withdraw and throw on the table, but
take care not to do so until you have first
taken in No. 5 (the deuce of diamonds), else the deficiency of spots
on No.3 will cause the trick to be discovered: you then close those
SLEIGHTS AND SUBTLETIES. 155
four cards together, and taking them by the top, with the fingers
and thumb of the right hand, having the thumb on the face of the
cards, and the fingers on the back, hold them out with their faces
turned towards the floor, and desire some person to blow upon
them ; when this has been done, give your wrist a turn, so that the
top part of the cards will now be the bottom; in fact, you turn the
cards upside down; hold them up to your mouth, pretending to
breathe on them, which not only tends to deceive your company, but
gives you time to arrange your cards, which you do by opening them
out to the right hand, when they will appear to be four deuces, in
the order represented in the following figure : you may again hold
them up to the light, to shew that they are single cards.
The next change, although rather more difficult to accomplish,
is decidedly the best of the whole, inasmuch as the cards are
never shut up, nor removed for one moment from under the eye.
Having shewn them to be four deuces, you take in the eight of
clubs, and place it between Nos. 3 and 5; withdraw No. 5, and,
holding it up to the light, you desire the
company to observe that the cards are
not double, and while all eyes are turned
to this card, turn your left hand, contain-
ing the other four, with its back towards
the ceiling, and the faces of the cards
towards the floor, keeping them in a
horizontal position; throw down the
deuce of diamonds, and continue your
remarks on the cards not being double,
by saying, â€œYou perceive any of them
will bear examination ;â€ at the same time take hold of the card next
but one to your right hand, with the fingers and thumb of that
hand, taking care to have the thumb above and the fingers under-
156 SLEIGHTS AND SUBTLETIES.
neath the card; take it out, still keeping it in a horizontal position,
and while making the above observation, turn it round with the
fore-finger of the right hand, until you have got hohd of the other
end, when, before anybody has time to take hold of it, return
it to the situation from which you took it, taking care that you put
it exactly in the same angle.
You now hold those cards out, with the backs upward, to be
blown upon; but you have no occasion to shut them up at this
change, as, if you turn them over, it will be perceived that they
areall black; you now take in the deuce of diamonds, as you
did at the first change, and discard the eight of clubs, close them
up, and taking them by the top, hold them out to be blown upon,
give your wrist a turn as before, open them out to yourself
while pretending to breathe on them, when, on shewing them
to your company, they will be all red; you now again take in
the eight of clubs, throwing out the deuce of diamonds on the
table, with its face downwards, and taking hold of the card next
but one to your right hand, throw it down in the same manner ;
whilst performing this latter part, you should say, â€œI take in
the eight, and I throw out the deucesâ€”Oh! I beg pardonâ€”only
â€˜one of the deuces;â€ at the same moment take up the last card
you threw out, by the opposite end to that which you formerly
held it by, and return it to its own place again, taking particular
care of the angle; let them be blown upon, when they will be
found to be four eights and a deuce, as they were at first.
Should any persons now desire to examine the cards, tell them
you can only give them one at a time, breathe upon the deuce of
diamonds and present it to them; when they have returned it to
you, and before they have time to ask for another, hand them the
eight of clubs, saying, that perhaps they would like to examine a
black card; they seeing you so confident, will scarcely ask for any
SLEIGHTS AND SUBTLETIES, 157
more. We would recommend our young friends to practise this
trick well before they attempt to shew it, as it is too good a one to
hazard its discovery by impatience, which is too frequently the
â€œ HOLD IT FAST.â€
You commence by asking the most athletic person in company
whether he is nervous; he will most probably answer in the nega-
tive ; you then ask whether he thinks he can hold a card tightly.
If he answer, No, ask the question of some one else, till you obtain
an answer in the affirmative. You then desire the party to stand
in the middle of the room, and holding up the pack of cards, you
shew him the bottom card, and request him to proclaim what card
it is; he will say it is the knave of hearts; you then tell him to
holdjthe card tightly at the bottom, and look to the ceiling.
While he is looking up, you ask him if he recollects his card ; if
he say, Yes, desire him to draw it away, and ask him what it is;
he will, of course, answer, the knave of hearts; tell him he has
made a mistake, for if he look at his card, he will find it to be the
knave of spades, which will be the case. You then give him the
remainder of the pack, telling him that if he looks over it, he will
find the knave of hearts in quite a different situation.
This feat, though it excites much admiration, is very simple.
You procure an extra knave of hearts, and cut it in half, keeping
the upper part, and throwing away thelower. When commencing
your feat, get the knave of spades to the bottom of the pack, and
lay over the upper part of it, unperceived, your half knave of
_hearts; and, under pretence of holding the pack very tight,
throw your thumb across the middle of the knave, so that the
joining may not be perceived, for the legs of those two knaves are
so much alike that there is no danger of detection. You, of course,
158 SLEIGHTS AND SUBTLETIES.
give him the legs of the knave of spades to hold, and when he has
drawn the card away, hold your hand so that the faces of the cards
will be turned towards the floor, and take an opportunity of re-
moving the half knave: you may vary the feat by having a half-
knave of spades.
ILLUSIONS OF TOUCH.
ppty the points of a pair of compasses, distant
from each other one or two lines, to the cheek,
Ge) just before the ear; then move them succes-
\Â® \D sively to several other parts of the cheek, and
Os m2) you will find, on approaching the mouth, that
Cy y) say the points will appear to recede from each other ;
PAREN GSS this effect being produced by the great difference
of the sense of touch in these parts. It is a general law, that, in the
more sensitive portions of the skin, any two points appear to be
further asunder from each other than points of equal distance
appear to be to a less sensitive portion. The same experiments
may be made by holding together the extremities of the fore-
finger and thumb, and then passing the tips of both in a line from
the ear to either the upper or the under lip; as they approach the
latter, they will feel to the cheek as if they were becoming more
and more distant from each other.
If the skin be touched with the points of a pair of compasses,
one inch asunder, the person so touched, while he shuts his eyes,
will instantly be aware that his skin is touched in two places; but
by continually drawing the two points closer, a degree of nearness
may be reached at which the person will imagine his skin to be
touched by only one body: he will, however, describe this body, or
the compasses, to be a little longer in one direction than another ;
and it appears that this difference of length corresponds with the
distance between the two points of the compasses. When these
points are brought still nearer together, the inequality will no
longer be felt, and the person will fancy he is being touched by
one body only.
Handle a pea: it is oneâ€”place it between the first and second
fingers of the right hand, in their natural position, and you will
still feel the pea but as one. Then cross the two fingers, bringing
the second over the first, and place the pea in the fork between
them, so as to feel the left side of the pea with the right side of the
second finger, and the right with the left of the first. The impres-
sion will then be that you have two peas touching the fingers,
especially if the eyes be shut, and the fingers be placed by another
person. The illusion will be equally strong if the two fore-fingers
of both hands be crossed, and the pea placed between them.
ILLUSION OF THE TASTE.
If the nose be held tightly while you are eating cinnamon you
will perceive scarcely any difference between its flavour and that
of a deal shaving.
THE GENERAL BLEACHER,
Provide some strong chloride of lime, soak in it strips of
printed cotton; take them out, dry them, and you will find them
very white, but very rotten, slitting and dropping into holes upon
the slightest touch.
The dazzling whiteness of paper is caused by bleaching it with
chloride of lime. Thus, if you write on printing paper with common
ink, it will fade, because the chloride will destroy the colouring
matter of writing ink. It will not, however, change printing ink,
as that owes its blackness to charcoal, which is a singularly perma-
nent substance. Blot over a printed page with common writing
ink, wash it with chloride of lime, when the blots will disappear,
and leave the printing unchanged.
INFLUENCE OF COLOURED GLASS ON BULBOUS ROOTS.
Put a bulb, as a hyacinth, narcissus, &c., into a white glass,
and another into a purple glass: the latter will grow faster than the
former; and, if a pinch of salt, or a piece of nitre, be put into the
water whenever it is changed, the brightness of the colour of the
flower will be considerably heightened.
THE SPINNING-TOP â€œ ASLEEP.â€
Spin a top, and it will for some time stand â€œasleep,â€ as it is
called in the parlance of the play-ground. The cause is thus
explained by Dr. Arnot, in his valuable Elements of Physics :
â€œWhile the top is perfectly upright, its point, being directly under
its centre, supports it steadily, and although turning so rapidly,
has no tendency to move from the place; but, if the top incline at
all, the side of the peg, instead of the very point, comes in contact
with the floor, and the peg then becomes a little wheel or roller,
advancing quickly, and with its touching edge, describing a curve
somewhat as a skaiter does, until it becomes directly under the
body of the top, as before. It thus appears that the very fact of
the top inclining causes the point to shift its place, so that it
cannot rest until it come again directly under the centre of
TO JUDGE OF WEIGHTS.
Persons accustomed to estimate weights by poising them in
their hands, will distinguish perfectly between two, only differing
by a thirtieth part. In comparing two weights, poise one and then
instantly the other, in the same hand ; the few seconds of time
that pass between the poising of the two weights will not prevent
their accurate comparison. The interval may amount to twenty
seconds, yet a just estimate may still be made; but when it
amounts to forty seconds, all accuracy will be lost.
QUICKSILVER AND OIL UNITED.
Let fall a very small drop of oil upon a large drop of mercury,
and the latter will become enlarged. This phenomenon is at-
tributed to a combination of the oil with the mercury, which pro-
duces a compound, the attraction of which is less strong than that
of pure mercury.
TO DISSOLVE THE SODA IN GLASS.
Glass consists of sand, carbonate of soda, and red lead, heated
together. If water be poured into a glass vessel, neither of the
ingredients will be affected by it; but, if the glass be reduced to a
fine powder, and water be poured on it, the soda will instantly be
Or, moisten with water a piece of turmeric, or test-paper ; drop
on it a little powdered glass, and the soda in it will change the
yellow paper to brown.
Make a solution of caoutchouc in caoutchoucine, plunge into
it, once or twice, unsized paper, and dry it by a gentle heat. It
may then be used as writing paper, and will resist all humidity ;
aud small vessels made of it will even contain water.
TO DISSOLVE GOLD OR PLATINUM,
Mix a little nitric acid with half the quantity of muriatic acid,
into which put the metal for solution.
Or, pour a little aqueous solution of chlorine into a small glass,
and put in a bit of pure gold leaf; stir it with a glass rod, and the
gold will dissolve. Thus gold, which cannot be dissolved in nitric,
sulphuric, or other strong acids, will quickly disappear in water,
with a little chlorine in solution.
COLDER THAN ICE.
Mix common salt with pounded ice or snow, and they will run
into brine, which will be much colder than the ice or snow.
Dissolve two ounces of nitre and three of Glauber salts in five
ounces of warm water ; fill two bottles with the solution, into one
of which put a crystal of nitre, and into the â€˜other a crystal of
Glauber salts; place both bottles in ice-cold water, when nitre
only will crystalize in the one and Glauber salts in the other.
ONE AND ONE DO NOT MAKE TWO.
Mix a wine-glass full of sulphuric acid with a wine-glass full of
water, cautiously ; and, on re-measuring the mixture, it will not be
found sufficient to re-fill both glasses.
TO COPY WRITING INSTANTLY.
Add a little sugar to ink, with which write the letter to be
copied; then lay a sheet of thin unsized paper, damped with
a sponge, on the writing; pass lightly over it a flat iron, very
moderately heated, and a reverse impression of the writing will be
accurately taken off. ,
THE RIVAL DIALS.
Fix two pendulum clocks to the same wall, or lay two watches
upon the same table, and they will take the same rate of going,
though they would vary in that rate if they were placed in separate
apartments. Indeed, it has been observed, that the pendulum of
one clock will even stop that of the other, and that the stopped
pendulum will, after a certain time, go again, and, in its turn, stop
the other pendulum.
TO SPIN INDIAN RUBBER.
Dissolve a small piece of Indian rubberin a little caoutchoucine,
and put a drop or two of the solution upon a looking-glass or window-
pane ; touch it lightly with a dry piece of Indian rubber, quickly
draw out a fine thread, which attach to a card, and wind off as silk.
As the art of man can unmake whatever his ingenuity can
make, we have no right to expect an indelible ink; however, an
approximation to it may be made as follows: make a saturated so-
lution of indigo and madder in boiling water, in such proportions
as to give a purple tint ; add to it from one-sixth to one-eighth of its
weight of sulphuric acid, according to the thickness and strength of
the paper to be used. Write with this ink, and expose the paper to
a gradual heat from the fire, when the characters will be completely
black, the letters being burnt in and charred by the sulphuric acid.
If the acid has not been used in sufficient quantity to destroy the
texture of the paper, and reduce it to the state of tinder, the colour
may be discharged by washing it with a strong solution of oxalic
acid in water. When the full proportion of acid has been em-
ployed, crumple and rub the paper, â€˜and the charred letters will
fall out; then by placing a black ground behind the letters, they
may be preserved, and thus a species of indelible writing may be
procured, the letters being, as it were, stamped out of the paper.
Soak any part of a plant in nitric acid fora short space of time,
and all power of cohesion will be lost by the vessels, which will
become transparent, and be easily separable from each other by
gentle dissection. So complete will be the effect that even the
most delicate cells of the cellular tissue will become disengaged
from each other, and may be examined singly with perfect ease.
This discovery will enable persons who have not compound micro-
scopes, and delicate dissecting instruments, to anatomize plants
TO TELL WHAT O'CLOCK IT IS BY THE MOON.
This may be calculated by the shadow which the moon casts
upon a sun-dial, it being only necessary to know the moonâ€™s age,
which may be found in an almanack. If the new moon happens in
the morning, this day is taken into the account ; but if it happens
after noon, the following day is counted the first. The moon's
age is to be multiplied by four and divided by five. The quotient
must either be added to the hour, which the shadow indicates on
the sun-dial, and the sum will give the time sought; or subtract
from the quotient the hour shewn by the moon upon the dial, and
the remainder will give the hour sought. The first is to be done
when the shadow falls on an hour of the afternoon, and the latter
when it falls upon an hour of the forenoon. The following are
1st. Suppose the moon to be ten days old, and the shade cast
by the moon upon the sun-dial to be at half-past two ; or, that the
shadow cast by the moon falls on the place at which the shadow
cast by the sun stands at half-past two ;â€”what o'clock was it then?
The answer is calculated as follows:â€”The moon's age, 10 days
x4=40%=8. Eight, therefore, is the time when the moon
was in the meridian, and 8 + 2} = 104, or half-past ten, the hour
2d. Suppose the moon to have been eighteen days old, and the
shadow cast by it on the sun-dial to have marked 11. This time
is subtracted from the hour when the moon was in the meridian on
that day, and from which the hour marked by the shadow must be
deducted. The shadow shews here 11 o'clock in the forenoon, or
one hour before noon, which, deducted from 2 h. 24m. gives
Lh, 24m. ; 22?â€”1 = 13, or 24 minutes past one o'clock.
This is a newly invented instrument, by the aid of which a
person may have a plaster cast of his face taken without submit-
ting to the usual unpleasant process.
It consists of an assemblage of very fine moveable wires, con-
fined closely together within a broad hoop or band, after the
: manner of the bristles in a
telescope hearth-brush, but not
closed at the back, in order to
allow to the wires a free
passage. The wires slide in a
metal plate, perforated all over
with holes, very fine and close
together. The apparatus is
surrounded by an outer case
which is filled with warm
water, in order to prevent any
unpleasant sensation on the contact of the instrument with the skin.
When it is desired to take a likeness, the instrument is applied
to the face with a gentle and gradual pressure, the wires easily
yield and slide back, conformably to the prominences of the coun-
tenance; they are then fixed tightly in their position, and thus
form a mould which will yield a perfect and faithful cast of the
face, in which even the most minute line will appear with the
INFINITE DIVISIBILITY OF MATTER.
Dissolve a single grain of copper in about one dram of nitric
acid, and dilute the solution with about one ounce of water, when
it will be evident that a single drop of the mixture must contain an
almost immeasurably small portion of copper. Yet, if the blade of
a knife be dipped into it, it will become covered with a coat of
copper; thus shewing that the copper can be infinitely divided
without any alteration in its properties.
HOLDING THE BREATH.
If a person inspire deeply, he will be able, immediately after, to
hold breath for a time, varying with his health, state of exertion,
or repose. A man, during an active walk, may not be able ,to
cease breathing for more than half a minute ; but, after resting on
a chair or bed, he may refrain from breathing for a minute and a
half, or even two â€˜minutes. But if he will prepare himself by
breathing deeply, hardly, and quickly (as he would naturally do
after running), and ceasing that operation with his lungs full of air,
then hold his breath as long as he is able, he will find that the
time, during which he can remain without breathing, will be double,
or even more than double the former. This effect may be ren-
dered exceedingly serviceable, as on many occasions a man who
can hold breath for a minute, or two minutes, may save the life
of another; such as in entering a chamber on fire, rescuing from
SAND IN THE HOUR-GLASS.
It is a remarkable fact, that the flow of sand in the hour-glass
is perfectly equable, whatever may be the quantity in the glass;
that is, the sand runs no faster when the upper half of the glass is
quite full than when it is nearly empty. It would, however, be
natural enough to conclude that, when full of sand, it would be
more swiftly urged through the aperture, than when the glass was
only a quarter full, and near the close of the hour.
The fact of the even flow of sand may be proved by avery
simple experiment. Provide some silver sand, dry it over or
before the fire, and pass it through a tolerably fine sieve. Then
take a tube, of any length or diameter, closed at one end, in
which make a small hole, say the eighth of an inch; stop this
with a peg, and fill up the tube with the sifted sand. Hold the
tube steadily, or fix it to a wall, or frame, at any height from
a table; remove the peg, and permit the sand to flow in any
measure for any given time, and note the quantity. Then, let
the tube be emptied, and only half or a quarter filled with sand,
measure again, for a like time, and the same quantity of sand will
flow: even if you press the sand in the tube with a ruler or stick,
the flow of the sand through the hole will not be increased.
The above is explained by the fact, that when the sand is
poured into the tube, it fills it with a succession â€˜of conical heaps,
and that all the weight which the bottom of the tube sustains, is
only that of the heap which first falls upon it; as the succeeding
heaps do not press downward, but only against the sides or walls
of the tube.
RESISTANCE OF SAND.
From the above experiment it may be concluded, that it is
extremely difficult to thrust sand out of a tube by means of a fitting
plug or piston ; and this, upon trial, is found to be the case. Fit a
piston to a tube (exactly like a boyâ€™s pop-gun), pour some sand in,
and try with the utmost strength of the arm to push out the sand.
It will be found impossible to do this : rather than the sand should
be shot out, the tube will burst at the sides.
GLASS BROKEN BY SAND.
If bullets be let fall on glass which has been cooled in the open
air, they will not break ; but, if a few grains of sand be let fall on
the same kind of glass, it will be broken into a thousand pieces!
This is explained by the lead not scratching the surface of the
glass; whereas the sand, being sharp and angular, scratches suffi-
ciently to break it.
TO BLEACH IVORY.
Place any piece of discoloured ivory beneath a glass, expose it
to the sun, and it will soon be restored to pure whiteness ; whereas,
if the ivory be exposed to the sun without the glass covering, it
will become more discoloured.
Put into a little diluted muriatic acid, a common whelk-shell,
when it will be completely dissolved, and not a sensible trace of it
If an oyster-shell, or land snail-shell, be put into the acid, its
substance will disappear, but the form or skeleton of the shell will
THE MAGIC EGG,
Fill a basin with dilute muriatic acid, and put into it an egg,
which will sink; but, in a few seconds, the whole of the egg-shell,
being covered with bubbles of carbonic acid gas, will rise to the
surface, a portion of the egg will be lifted above the surface, and
the whole egg will slowly rotate. This rotation is formed by the
bubbles of gas forming at the under part of the egg, and over all
the submersed portions, which render them lighter than the por-
tions above the liquid level, till the under portion ascends and the
THE MAGIC WHIRLPOOL.
Fill a glass tumbler with water, throw upon its surface a few
fragments or thin shavings of camphor, and they will instantly
begin to move and acquire a motion, both progressive and rotatory,
which will continue for a considerable time. During these rota-
tions, if the water be touched by any substance which is at all
greasy, the floating particles will quickly dart back, and, as if
by a stroke of magic, be instantly deprived of their motion and
In like manner, if thin slices of cork be steeped in sulphuric
ether in a closed bottle for two or three days, and then placed upon
the water, they will rotate for several minutes, like the camphor ;
until the slices of cork having discharged all their ether, and
become soaked with water, they will keep at rest.
If the water be made hot, the motion of the camphor will
be more rapid than in cold water, but it will cease in proportionately
less time. Thus, provide two glasses, one containing water at
58 degrees, and the other at 210 degrees ; place raspings of cam-
phor upon each at the same time ; the camphor in the first glass
will rotate for about five hours, until all but a very minute portion
has evaporated, while the rotation of the camphor. in the hot water
will last only nineteen minutes; about half the camphor will
pass off, and the remaining pieces, instead of being dull, white, and
opaque, will be vitreous and transparent, and evidently soaked with
water. The gyrations, too, which at first will be very rapid, will
gradually decline in velocity, until they become quite sluggish.
The stilling influence of oil upon waves has become proverbial :
the extraordinary manner in which a small quantity of oil instantly
spreads over a very large surface of troubled water, and the
stealthy manner in which even a rough wind glides over it, must
have excited the admiration of all who have witnessed it.
By the same principle, a drop of oil may be made to stop the
motion of the camphor as follows; throw some camphor, both in
slices and in small particles, upon the surface of water, and while
they are rotating, dip a glass rod into oil of turpentine, and allow a
single drop thereof to trickle down the inner side of the glass to the
surface of the water; the camphor will instantly dart to the oppo-
site point of the liquid surface, and cease to rotate. Ifa piece of
hard tallow or lard be employed, the motion of the camphor will be
more slowly stopped than by oil or fluid grease, as the latter
spreads over the surface of the water with greater rapidity.
If a few drops of sulphuric or muriatic acid be let fall into the
water, they will gradually stop the motion of the camphor; but, if
camphor be dropped into nitric acid diluted with its own bulk
of water, it will rotate rapidly for a few seconds and then stop.
If a piece of the rotating camphor be attentively examined with
a lens, the currents of the water can be well distinguished, jetting
out, chiefly from the corners of the camphor, and bearing it round
with irregular force.
The currents, as given out by the camphor, may also be seen by
means of the microscope ; a drop or two of pure water being placed
upon a slip of glass, with a particle of camphor floating upon it.
By this means, the currents may be detected, and it will be seen
that they cause the rotations.
Or, a flat watch-glass called a Junar, may be employed, raised a
few inches, and supported on a wire ring, kept steady by thrusting
one end into an upright piece of wood, like a retort stand. Then
put the camphor and water in the watch-glass, and place under the
frame a sheet of white paper, so that it may receive the shadow of
the glass, camphor, &c., to be cast by a steady light placed above,
and somewhat on one side of the watch-glass. On observing the
shadow, which may be considered a magnified representation of
the object itself, the rotations and currents can be distinguished.*
A peculiar kind of porcelain was formerly manufactured in
China, which exhibited its colour and devices only when filled with
water. Though the art of manufacturing this porcelain has been
lost, and the mode cannot now be described with accuracy, the fol-
lowing has been conjectured as not very remote from the truth.
The first requisite was that the vessel be extremely thin, so that
the figures to be formed might be sufficiently clear and perceptible.
After the vessel had been baked, the figures, which were mostly
fish (as those were most appropriate with the water), were formed
on the inside; and, after the colour had dried, a second extremely
thin coat, of the same substance as that of which the vessel was
constructed, was lain on the inside and varnished. The fish, or
other device, would then, it is evident, be enclosed between the two
* Abridged from the Magazine of Popular Science, vol. iii.
coats of the ware of which the vessel was made, All that remained
to be done was to grind the outside of the vessel as close to the
figures as possible, to varnish it again, and bake it a second time ;
and though, after this operation, the figures and embellishments
would not be at all perceptible, yet, so soon as the vessel was filled
with water, they would at once be rendered clear and distinct to a
degree scarcely credible. Attempts have been made to revive this
beautiful art, but hitherto without success.
A GALVANIC TONGUE.
Coat the point of the tongue with tin-foil, and its middle part
with gold or silver leaf; when a sourish taste will be produced, and
the tongue will be galvanised.
DRINKING PORTER OUT OF PEWTER.
If porter be drunk out of a pewter pot, it will produce a more
brisk sensation than when it is taken out of a glass vessel, which is
ascribed to a galvanic effect. In this instance, there is a combina-
tion of one metal and two dissimilar fluids, which combination
constitutes a galvanic circle. In the act of drinking, one side of
the pewter pot is exposed to the action of the saliva, which
moistens the lip, while the other metallic side is in contact with the
porter; the circuit being thus completed, an agreeable relish is
communicated to the beverage when it comes in contact with the
ELECTRIC OR GALVANIC PRESERVATION.
â€˜ Immerse a slip of copper in dilute nitric acid, and it will be
soon corroded and dissolved; but, if a slip of zinc be immersed
with the copper, the zinc will be dissolved, and the copper remain
unaltered and uninjured.
LIGHT FROM THE DIAMOND.
Expose a fine diamond to the sunbeams, and carry it into a
dark room, when it will exhibit phosphorescence ; and it has been
stated that such diamonds as do not display this peculiarity, may
be made to do so by dipping them into melted borax.
The diamond becomes phosphorescent also when fixed to the
prime conductor of an electrical machine, and a few sparks may be
taken from it. It likewise becomes electric by friction; and
the Hon. Mr. Boyle obtained electric gleams by rubbing two dia-
monds together in the dark.
TO BREAK A STONE WITH A BLOW OF THE FIST.
Select two stones from three to six inches. long, and about half
as thick; lay one flat on the ground, on which place one end of
the other, raising the reverse end to an angle of forty-five degrees,
â€˜and just over the centre of the stone (with which it must form a
T,) supporting it in that position by a piece of thin twig or stick,
one, or one and a half inch long; if the raised stone be now smartly
struck about the centre, with the little finger side of the fist, the
stick will give way, and the stone will be broken to pieces: the
stones must be laid so as not to slip, otherwise the experiment will
Fasten a sprig of fresh rosemary, or any similar shrub, to the
inside of a small bandbox, near the top; heat a thick tile, and
sprinkle it with gum benzoic, and immediately place the bandbox
over it, when the acid will be sublimed by the heat, and will con-
dense in a white vapour upon the green plant, giving it the appear-
ance of being covered with hoar frost.
TO MELT LEAD IN A PIECE OF PAPER.
Wrap up a very smooth ball of lead in a piece of paper, taking
care that there be no wrinkles in it, and that it be everywhere in
contact with the ball; if it be held in this state, over the flame of a
taper, the lead will be melted without the paper being burnt. The
lead, indeed, when once fused, will not fail in a short time to pierce
the paper, and run through.
Provide a pair of scales, in one of which place a tumbler filled
with water, and poise it by placing weights in the opposite scale ;
thep hold in the tumbler a block of wood, or any substance nearly
the size of the tumbler, but so that it shall not touch the sides or
bottom ; when, although nearly the whole of the water will have
to run over the sides, and only a spoonful may remain, the scales
will continue balanced; and all this without regard to the weight
of the body you plunge into the water, taking care to hold it
entirely clear of the tumbler, so that it touch it nowhere; for the
effect will be the same if what you plunge in be scooped hollow
and made water-tight. A bladder blown up, tied fast, and held
down in the water, so as to leave only a spoonful of water sur-
rounding it, will keep the scales balanced just as well as a block
of lead of the same size.
Mix a little red lead with some powdered charcoal, and with
the mixture fill the bowl of a tobacco-pipe; set it over a common
fire, and in about twenty minutes the lead will be found reduced
to its metallic state.
ELECTRICAL ATTRACTION AND REPULSION.
Rub a piece of amber, a stick of red sealing-wax, or a smooth
glass tube, smartly upon the sleeve of a coat, or any other dry
woollen substance, and it will attract to itself bits of straw,
paper, fragments of gold leaf, or any small and light bodies. The
amber, wax, or glass, is then said to be excited, and the attractive
power, thus developed, is called electrical attraction.
Select a clean and dry downy feather, and suspend it from a
beam by a long thread of white silk; to be used in the following
Provide a glass tube, about three feet long and three quarters of
an inch diameter ; wipe it dry, and rub it gently with a warm silk
- handkerchief ; then apply the tube to the feather, and it will attract
it; withdraw the tube gently, apply it again, and the feather will
be repelled for a time, but then attracted, and then again repelled.
In this case, the feather having received electricity from the glass,
is repelled by it; for bodies similarly electrified repel each other.
Fold a silk handkerchief, warm it, and with it rub the tube ;
apply it to the feather, and it will first attract and then repel it ;
when the feather has just been repelled by the silk, apply the tube,
and the feather will be attracted. The handkerchief must be folded
so thickly as to keep the hand as far as possible from the glass tube.
Roll up flannel thickly, rub it with sealing-wax, and the roll
will by turns attract and repel the feather; when thus repelled,
apply the excited wax, and it will instantly attract the feather.
When the atmosphere is dry, take in one hand a rod of glass
and in the other a stick of sealing-wax, and rub them against silk
or worsted; with one of them approach a bit of gold leaf, floating
in the air, it will first attract and then repel it. When the gold
has just been repelled, approach it with the other rod, and it will
be immediately attracted: and this alternate attraction and re-
pulsion may be strikingly displayed by placing the two excited rods
at a small distance asunder, with the gold leaf between them.
Nearly fill a wine-glass with a weak solution of blue vitriol
in water, and place in it the blade of a knife and a small silver
spoon ; the knife will soon acquire a copper coating, but the spoon
will remain bright until it is touched with the blade of the knife,
when it will also become plated with copper.
THE ELECTRIC BALLS.
Provide two small balls of equal size ; both made of gum-lac,
and cover one with gold leaf. Suspend these balls from a beam
by fine white silk threads, at a little distance from each other, so
as to allow a comparison of their motions. Then rub a stick of
red sealing-wax upon any woollen substance, or warm it, at the
fire, and present it to the balls; when it will be at once seen that
the gilt ball, which readily admits of the transfer of electricity
from one side to the other, will be sooner and more powerfully
attracted than the other ball, which allows of no motion in
its electricity. The latter ball will, however, by slow degrees be
feebly attracted, and may, at length, be made to adhere for a
considerable time to the sealing-wax.
THE ELECTRIC DANCE.
Lay on a table small pieces of paper or cotton, feathers, or
gold-leaf; then rub with a silk handkerchief a glass tube, hold it
parallel to the table, and the several pieces will be alternately at-
tracted and repelled, and a kind of electrical dance will be kept up.
If to the further end of the tube you hang a brass ball, by
a thread of linen, hemp, or metallic wire, the ball will participate
in the magic power of the rubbed tube; but if the ball be sus-
pended by a cord of silk, worsted, or hair, or be attached by
wax or pitch, the attractive and repulsive properties of the rod
will not pass into the ball.
Shake a barometer in a dark room, and light will be produced
in the empty part of it by the friction of the quicksilver electrifying
the glass tube. Even the friction of air upon glass is attended by
electricity, as has been found by blowing upon a dry plate of glass
with a pair of bellows.
ELECTRIC LIGHT FROM BROWN PAPER.
Provide a piece of thick brown paper, thoroughly dry and
warm; rub the paper briskly in a dark room, and there will dart
forth flashes of electric light to the fingers, to a key, or to any
other conductor that may be presented to it.
Heat a small portion of sulphate of quinine in a spoon over the
flame of a lamp, and it will become luminous and highly electrical.
SUDDEN PRODUCTION OF LIGHT.
Take apiece of dry and warm wood into a dark room, sud-
denly rend it asunder, and a flash of light will be perceived. The
same effect may likewise be produced by suddenly snapping
asunder a stick of sealing-wax in the dark.
Or, break a Prince Rupertâ€™s drop, and electrical light will per-
vade the whole, so that its form will be distinctly visible in
the dark. The light will appear, even if the experiment be made
ELECTRICITY OF THE CAT.
Place your left hand upon the throat of the cat, and, with the
middle finger and the thumb, press slightly the bones of the
animalâ€™s shoulders ; then, if the right hand be gently passed along
the back, perceptible shocks of electricity will be felt in the left
hand. Shocks may also be obtained by touching the tips of the
ears after rubbing the back. If the colour of the cat be black, and
the experiment be made in a dark room, the electric sparks may
be very plainly seen.
Very distinct discharges of electricity may also be obtained by
touching the tips of the ears, after applying friction to the back ;
and the same may be obtained from the foot. Placing the cat on
your knees, apply your right hand to the back; the left fore paw
resting on the palm of your left hand, apply the thumb to the upper
side of the paw, so as to extend the claws, and, by this means, bring
your fore-finger into contact with one of the bones of the leg, where
it joins the paw; when, from the knob or end of this bone, the finger
slightly pressing on it, you may feel distinctly successive shocks,
similar to those obtained from the ears.
It is, perhaps, unnecessary to add, that, in order to this experi-
ment being conveniently performed, the experimenter must be on
good terms with the cat.
WHITEHEAD AND COMP, PRINTERS,
76, FLEET STREET, LONDON.
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AGREEMENT_INFO ACCOUNT 'UF' PROJECT 'UFDC'
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The element type "div" must be terminated by the matching end-tag "