Front Cover
 Title Page
 Table of Contents
 State of Maine
 State of New Hampshire
 State of Vermont
 State of Massachusetts
 State of Rhode Island
 State of Connecticut
 New England
 The Puritans
 State of New York
 State of New Jersey
 State of Pennsylvania
 State of Delaware
 State of Maryland
 Middle states
 State of Virginia
 North Carolina
 South Carolina
 The five southern Atlantic...
 Alabama, Mississippi, Louisiana,...
 The western states
 The territories
 The United States
 The French War
 The Revolution
 United States after the Revolu...
 British posessions in North...
 The Esquimaux
 United provinces
 West Indies
 The Buccaneers
 Story of Columbus
 General view of America
 Chronological index
 Pronouncing index

Group Title: First book of history
Title: The first book of history
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00001688/00001
 Material Information
Title: The first book of history
Series Title: The first book of history
Physical Description: Book
Language: English
Creator: Goodrich, Samuel G.
Publisher: Jenks, Palmer & Co.
Place of Publication: Boston
Publication Date: 1850
Edition: Revised, enlarged and improved edition
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00001688
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: ltqf - AAA1735
ltuf - ALH5991
oclc - 04340585
alephbibnum - 002235531

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Page 1
        Page 1a
        Page 2
    Title Page
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
    Table of Contents
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
    State of Maine
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
    State of New Hampshire
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
    State of Vermont
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
    State of Massachusetts
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
        Page 30
        Page 31
        Page 32
    State of Rhode Island
        Page 33
        Page 34
        Page 35
    State of Connecticut
        Page 36
        Page 37
        Page 38
        Page 39
        Page 40
        Page 41
    New England
        Page 42
        Page 43
        Page 44
        Page 45
        Page 46
        Page 47
        Page 48
        Page 49
        Page 50
        Page 51
        Page 52
        Page 53
        Page 54
        Page 55
        Page 56
        Page 57
    The Puritans
        Page 58
        Page 59
        Page 60
        Page 61
    State of New York
        Page 62
        Page 63
        Page 64
        Page 65
        Page 66
        Page 67
        Page 68
        Page 69
        Page 70
        Page 71
        Page 72
        Page 73
        Page 74
        Page 75
        Page 76
    State of New Jersey
        Page 77
        Page 78
    State of Pennsylvania
        Page 79
        Page 80
        Page 81
        Page 82
        Page 83
    State of Delaware
        Page 84
        Page 85
    State of Maryland
        Page 86
        Page 87
        Page 88
        Page 89
        Page 90
    Middle states
        Page 91
    State of Virginia
        Page 92
        Page 93
        Page 94
        Page 95
        Page 96
        Page 97
        Page 98
        Page 99
    North Carolina
        Page 100
        Page 101
        Page 102
        Page 103
    South Carolina
        Page 104
        Page 105
        Page 106
        Page 107
        Page 108
    The five southern Atlantic states
        Page 109
        Page 110
    Alabama, Mississippi, Louisiana, and Texas
        Page 111
        Page 112
        Page 113
        Page 114
    The western states
        Page 115
        Page 116
        Page 117
        Page 118
        Page 119
        Page 120
        Page 121
        Page 122
    The territories
        Page 123
        Page 124
        Page 125
        Page 126
        Page 127
        Page 128
    The United States
        Page 129
        Page 130
        Page 131
        Page 132
    The French War
        Page 133
        Page 134
        Page 135
        Page 136
        Page 137
        Page 138
        Page 139
    The Revolution
        Page 140
        Page 141
        Page 142
        Page 143
        Page 144
        Page 145
        Page 146
        Page 147
        Page 148
        Page 149
        Page 150
        Page 151
        Page 152
        Page 153
        Page 154
    United States after the Revolution
        Page 155
        Page 156
        Page 157
        Page 158
        Page 159
    British posessions in North America
        Page 160
        Page 161
        Page 162
    The Esquimaux
        Page 163
        Page 164
        Page 165
        Page 166
        Page 167
        Page 168
        Page 169
        Page 170
        Page 171
        Page 172
        Page 173
        Page 174
        Page 175
        Page 176
        Page 177
        Page 178
        Page 179
        Page 180
        Page 181
        Page 182
        Page 183
        Page 184
        Page 185
        Page 186
        Page 187
        Page 188
        Page 189
        Page 190
        Page 191
        Page 192
        Page 193
        Page 194
        Page 195
        Page 196
        Page 197
        Page 198
        Page 199
        Page 200
    United provinces
        Page 201
        Page 202
        Page 203
        Page 204
        Page 205
        Page 206
        Page 207
        Page 208
    West Indies
        Page 209
        Page 210
        Page 211
        Page 212
        Page 213
        Page 214
    The Buccaneers
        Page 215
    Story of Columbus
        Page 216
        Page 217
        Page 218
        Page 219
    General view of America
        Page 220
        Page 221
        Page 222
        Page 223
        Page 224
        Page 225
        Page 226
    Chronological index
        Page 227
        Page 228
        Page 229
        Page 230
        Page 231
        Page 232
        Page 233
        Page 234
    Pronouncing index
        Page 235
        Page 236
        Page 237
        Page 238
        Page 239
        Page 240
        Page 241
        Page 242
        Page 243
        Page 244
        Page 245
        Page 246
        Page 247
        Page 248
        Page 249
        Page 250
        Page 251
        Page 252
        Page 253
        Page 254
        Page 255
        Page 256
        Page 257
        Page 258
        Page 259
Full Text








LsuIOReW Uowg TO *Isio.


Entered according to Act of Congress, in the year 1848, by
In the Clerk's Office of the District Court of the District of Massachusetts.

Emerson's Spelling Books.
THE NATIONAL SPELLING BOOK, and Pronouncing Tutor, on an improved Plan with ]pNogMi
site Reding leesons. By B. D. EM RSON. One hundred and sixtieth edition, revised.
AN INTRODUCTION TO THE NATIONAL SPELLING BOOK, on the plan of the above Work, br
the ue of the Youngst Clases, and for Primary Schools; by the same Author.
W reester's Reading Books.
FIRST BOOK or PRIIER.-SECOND BOOK, for Reading and Spelling.
INTRODUCION to Third Book, fo Reading and Spelling
THIRD BOK, for Reding and pellin; with Rules and netructiornfor arolding Common Error
FOURTH BOK FOR EADIN with Rules and Instructions.
The above form a complete series of leading Books for youth, which are not surpssed by any otue
works for this purple now before the public.
The Rules and [ntructions fr avoiding Common Erron, and the Questions upon each leson, form
Iteir peculiar ch trleic., and ad ch to their value and Intrest, both o Tiarceb and PpUl.
WhaU adds to e vanle oU tisr i elevated moal tons wkhh pervade the Ilons, sulr thm nt only
Otsie the mid uu M lAlelu teM an se adinug, bat l do mucb for thit eutr and usual neeeeu p st edee
tie, the r elie of the mal ohaacur, and theduation of the moal af dontiu."-o. B.n
Parley's keool e*I.
hadimn the ,o1Mu sH Westaer imap,~) : with e e a- ;and, d Mp ofrtheadif

Bi D oOr th b I adoUllrap aa> lhibtirahn stidlng
Ancilnt xl= wkth 1AAgra;) 4
of the UMWshd utand be enats, a tiMndard th in Isory.
PAUIBLM OO E O n SCTATEB, ntE. i.Bata; w *th
nersoa's Arithmett4, Is Tbhi
pat L, Mental, Yug anuses, Illeutrata wlie. P ortw.. = U aWl *.lM01n0d1 lr
Common Schools. Part ., for AdWvanced Schobah, .inals Ibd hWcM KgLEY tohe pia
II. and III. QUESTIONS to Par InL ofdo.
These Arithbnlic ae adopted by the Boston Sol BdW eed seed *roeghel t th U. li thr
schools which hOe introduced the mouderunn isua
nail] Alm.
FIRST LLSDNS IN ALUEBRA: an elemiary work, for the use of Aodemie and Common Schools
By EBENIg U BAILEY. A KEY to the above. By the same.
y a vote of the Bton School Committ, this Algebai used in the public school of the city
WeeVteres DiMtionaries.
An IELMENTAIY DICTIONARYi for olume Schools and Academic. By B. WORCESTER.
Contaln nearly 9000 more word than any ohr school dictionar.
guoas, t the uain, ad for general reference. By the nme. vised and enlarged. ombuning
advantage, a a Prnouncing Dictionary, superior to ail others."
Goodrich's United States.
revied and enlarged from the one hundredth edition.
GOODRICuB' QoM9nno to the above, revised and nluld
EnUmanso' QMueIos and SuBrn.anur to Goodrich's Hstory of United States. A New Edition,
revised and adapted to the enlarged edition of the Hitory.
The above are in extensive ue la the vario thoos throughout the United State, and meet with
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Russell's Eloe tloBary Series.
Musle Books for feheels.
VOCAL CLASS BOOK. The two last works are publlhed under the section of the BostoM *
Of Meusi, and the three form a progressive series br the use of hmilies and schools. By .OJL


Axon. the multitude of books for intructing the young, thbe are not a few of an historical
nature; but it is remarkable that History is not a universal, nor even a wgeeral sd ou
common schools. This cannot arise from any want of adapttio i the rnbjet irel to t
purposes of instruction; on the contrary, it is manifest, that it is peculiarly adapted to imhee
purposes. We do not mean to ay this of history a it has been generally atd; for msts
school-books of this kind are ut little more than extended chronological taMle, al fer
nothing to the reader but a tedious mas of dates aad general observation. Seek we ks
may be useful to people f mature age, bqt they neither among no instruct the hls of nead
era for whom they are designed But of all reading, tie is none that so readily attract
the attention, and lays hold of the sympathy of children and youth, as lively araivea of the
enterprises, adventures, dangers, trails, aucceeses, and fhllaue of making and thems is
the business of history to display. Book which treat ofthe works of nature art, whih
exhibit geographical details, observations upon natural history, d natural phil phy- y
or all of these will be immediately thrown aside by a child let to his choice, for,a book of
stories, delineating events in connection with the development df human paMions.
If, then, history, when properly treated, is one of the most attractive of all studies, why i
it not regularly taught in all our schools 1 It is not because hit deemed lap Beeful than
other studies; "the proper study of mankind is ma," and it eam et e e ed upon too
soon. After posesing a knowledge of religion, ad the duties we wa to God aad our
neighbor, history is the most important of all studies. It relates to a what has bees done
by mankind, and thus twhesus what they may do. It saquaints as wiA th ttle character
of our race, sad enass s to know ourselves better. It appri s usof the ei e of evil,
and the way to shufr t; it squaints aswith the existence of good, and bsowas howto
attain it.
It annot be, therefore, tt the limited ose of history, in our schools, is owing to an idea
that it i ueless. The fot m arise fiom the want of historical books, written in a style
which shll reader them both intsrsing and proftable. Bdc at least is the Weviction of
the author of this volume; and believing that a Fist Book of History for general -se ouar
schools is much to be desired, he has undertaken, and now ofrs to the public, the p0ti t
In preparing it, two things have been had in view. In the ht place, it should be useful;
and in the second place, to make it useful, it must be entertaining. To accomplish these
ends, the book is provided with maps, and before the pupil enters upon the history of any
state or country, he is to learn from them its shape, boundaries, rivers, shoe, &e. He is
then briefly made acquainted with its resent state, is towns ad cities, ad the ccupations
of its inhabitants. Thee geographial details are eonyed to the pupil, by narrating sup-
posed travels through various countries, in which he tabs a part.
The pupil, being ths aqainted with the p a it io i of a a et is tha id i
history. The an has been careful to in od recipe dates; fior ith t it would
be impossible to ive any distinct view of py portie histo. B3uH hM it ight re
assiduoly to select from the great msss of events, thos opise wbh wo ms t esler
lated to phase sad to ipevse the young reader. He has introduced any
adventures, and eaious pailarn, for the double purpose a.e bv, of
throwing lg po the pa A ead wvth wtdwhih they ape easMted. A sa mi r
of engr have been as well fr illustration, as fr fuing mcoia si o .
nand the materials n o thee a m w
A li style 1 ben adopted, ad the matoils 6 iavhet Mnaa--*->


plan. The common method is to begin at the earliest date, and follow down the train of
events to the present time. The author of this work has partially reversed this method. He
begins with the individual states of our own country, and first exhibits their present condition.
He then notices a few recent events, and having fixed the attention of the reader upon the
subject, proceeds to narrate the history. Avoiding general statements, he has endeavored to
keep the attention and interest of the pupil alive, by descriptions, sketches, and tales, which
may at once gratify the taste and improve the understanding.
It will be observed, that, although the book contains a large quantity of matter, yet it em-
braces the history of the Western Continent only. It is believed that it will be more useful
than if it contained the history of the Eastern Continent, also, in the same number of pages.
In proportim as a work is condensed, it becomes general, and of course, uninteresting to
children. It was deemed preferable, therefore, to give an ample history of our own Hemi-
spee, and if the plan should be approved, a second volume, embracing the history of the
astern Hemisphere, will be published.*
Sinm the above was written, PARur'S SacowD Booz or HiOreiv, embracing the history of the
Estera Hemisphere, sad PAsL 'Is TIaxs Booz or Hisroar, contain Ancient History, have been
published. They are both upon the same plan as this work, conectia History with Geogray, are
written in the same attractive str, contain maps sad engraviap, are extensively in-etroded as
elassbooks in the schools of the United States.

Ts first edition of this wrk was published several years ago, since which time, it has
run through nearly three hundred editions, and acquired a very extended eimulatio. The
maps and engravings have beenredrawn and newly engraved, and such corrections and ad-
ditions have been made as the changes in the condition of the several states and countries
treated of in the work render necessary. This edition, therefore,'may be considered as
adapted to the existing political geography of North and South America, the work having
been enlarged so as to embrace the interesting events of the last few years, and ca having
been taken so to make the additions, that the new edition can be conveniently used with the
former ones.
The work has already met with unexampled encouragement; but it is hoped this improved
edition may be found even more worthy of the public favor than the preceding ones.
Boaror, JANUARY 1, 1850.

THa author would reseptfilly sat, that this volume beut into thee bnds of pupils of frm aine
to sixteU years of s. it is not p essential, but it would b etta, that they. abi have a d
through small work on geography. The teacher is, ofcurse, at librt to reject the quMt ea
the lapt inserted tlhrog t the work, and to frame suh interrogations e relaing pupil, sM
he shesess. It s ieoamendedven if they are d, that dhy be not strictly adhered to; the te er
kwledge of ir ehelm eter of ibs pUis will ofta egrest to him muse apt andal p tlsro
tieaa tm old be framd wit toIt taowledge. At the esad ef thi wamh isa Ch m Tals,
wbTh the author deam laserat, aa ~ in to be tba hlivstd la the Im n rmofr
Eu bfs he is allowedbto hc Sa thd : occasionl sre Ik t o ale lio I b
t= k= ssdrm_ ::,W aorsaAb d se.risn hisd a tM sme i i s sI tthisB rb
M l at ma I b9a|rgiift4AA:e19 aB. Is We saded* pi- o tisher A = e5A
I a a u sBB- ad ^ieleadr.


CAPTERL STATE or MAiNsa.- Qution
o Map. Gq phy. lBsines. Pist ship-
blldg. P Ice-catting. Moo1e.
. . . . . . .11
CHAP. I. MAIm, costlsued.-Indlan Old
Town. Penobsot tribe. History. Sele-
meat in Mane. tory of the Noridewock
tribe. History ofM Railroad. FPr
School . ..... . . ..... .
CHAP. NswHAusmnai .-IslbsofShoals.
Cod sh. Sera rp t. eopy. Ques-
tio on the Map. DIferent mt and trees
a poup mountains. Fine owns. Moun-
tains. L akr The Notch. ........ 17
CHAP. 4. New HAmsmnr, continued.-
Slide of a mountain. History. Attack on
Dover. Railad ....... .. .. g0
CHAP. L Vn oir. Ge aphyand Qua-
tions. Salmon. OGeen L Rail-
roads. Judge Meech's Far. Towns. Pro-
duction &fr ae person la different states.
Maple Sugar. SfItig. Schools .... .1
CHAP. VauoNrr, continued.-Inunda-
tion. Battle o Lake Champlain. Of Ben-
nington. etlmnt.. . . . . 4
CHAP. T. MAsAVeom rM.-Geogrphy.
Commerce. PFsh. lee letters. Ptories.
Slit rts. Boston. Water-works. Ral-
rees. Town. fP ners. Oean steam-
boats. BnkerHill Monument. Gret men
who have died. Mount Aubur Cemetery.
Institutions. ............ .. 6
CHAP. L. MasAcK rrr, continued.-
Centennial celebration. Settlement of Bea-
ton. OPlymouth. Otherettlements. His-
tory. . . . . . .. .. 3
CHAP. 9. RBODnItLAND.-Towns. Geog-
raphy and Questions. Story of Lafayette and
the rde. Roer Williams and settlement.
Clambake. Trouble. Public Schools. BI-
ography. .................. n
CHAP. 10. CoimaoTnoTu.- Der o.
Questions aGeon hy. Norwich
New Lndon. TD a TOWN. W
HRave. People. lntastaamboats. 1..
CHAP. 1. Cowrnosm eotioned.-Ber-
mlteme. Charter Oak. H o. Mr. Cb.
ter i tha weedA Bs ead ai at
the y e. ...............
OHAP.3. Narw Ibauu.-Clum.. *.-

dLbM aTme. Railra. a-
agsBanks. Life hame. Health lar-
mo. Fire and Mad"Ial u. .. .4
OHAP. 1. Nsw ETLAHo eontinued.-
History. The Puritas. Settlement. PIy-
month ock. Saot. Manoit. Ae-
dote. Otber eulers. 89ekW Bos. Der.
chester. Lady Anbdsa Johaon . . .44
CHAP. 14. New BZeLu eletlaed.-
Two colonies, Plymolth and Mahmmm
Sir Hery Vane. An Hatchinso. IdiMas.
Capture of Mti. UnoM otc eolRWo 6 1r
defedoe. .................. 47
CHAP, I Naw ExaLA.o ontinued.-
Hatred of the Indians. Klg Philip orexs
thta to war................ 48
CHAP. 1. New ENOLA, eMtiMed.-
lgeld burL Bi ar t Maidy
Bk. War in Maine. framprsi.
Attack o BookfL. The Nrampe.
Death of Philip. .......... . ..
CHAP. V. Nsw reanLAr, eetimed.-
Charters of the Colonies tak wy. An.
dre Ilapr oanad, a ett Eglal. Op.
paedwtItcci at Salem. ......... 6
CHAP. 18. Nw ENuosA, CeAtieOd.-
Wa between England and Attack
onHaverhill. Stof Mr. Daatn. Mrs.
Dunstan. Qee Anne's War. Attack on
Deero d. Port Royal takes. Peac. Can-
ads taken by the Britbsh. ......... 4
CHAP. It. Naw ExeLAnu, continued.-
India war in Maine. King Georges War.
Caate of Loulhrg. Peace. Frenh and
nd War. Treaty of Pars. Treablbe-
twee the American Colane and bI0ad,
begts ingthe Rb.otio .......... .
CHAP. 9. Tas PAirrTA.--Telre e-
ter. Object in comingteoAnmri. Pere-
rio ftb a it, .......... 5
CHAP. m. i s PwnA, .-
Persaaente of the QMkesLaasethms
ahbbath aMli la i the i

CHAP. IMaw Te.



CHAP. New Yon, continued. --Gret
fn i Albany. Trenton Falls, sad ad ncl-
det. Ne York Indian. Slt Well. Ni-
qaFlls. Stories. Railroad. Internal
mprorements. Niagar Wire Bridge. His-
tory. Anedote. rict School Lbraries. e
CHAP. M9. Now You, continued.-Erie
Cual. Railod. Caanou Telegrph ad
MCHAPet Tleg aph. Hior of ntned.net.
Dutcli. Ildiun wrn. nSurrender to the Eng-
li1h, under the Duke of York. Chooing rep-
lrestdt ............... 70

CHAP. 2. NIw TYon, continued.-Lels-
ler. Buning of Schenectady. GO. Slogh-
tar. plotof Peter Schuyler ...... .74
CHAP. 7. Naw Yoax, oetinued.--Pi-
rates. Robert idd. Persecution of the m
gaow. Tolmonwilmven. Peace of 1747.. 7
CHAP. M. Nzw Jart.-Travels. Geog-
nfiy. P Accident. Orchab.
,JoeMe ..uarte. Canals. Mines. His-
tory. uttleent DIvision nto uet and
WsJersey. Btte of M mouth. . .77
CHAP. PmnMTLvAiuA.-PUlh ddpbl
OQmfqpr e QMtjiow. IBdpeidece.Hi
too Sfid col a. nEounat Wa-
ter-w s. Gcd Orphan College. Tvm-
ele. Rads. ridgm. a. erman.
AhiahuT Ibutela Pittabec. Coal
-hi. =i. School. Blraphy. .79
CHAP. M. PmITLVANiA, contiaued.--
Hir. Wllim Penn. Settlement. Pnn
owaM to America. PFound PhIadelphiL
Rar to alud. Iid settlement of
PPealwta. vsn gio its his colony.
Death of Pn. Charter. lodiuas.... 83
CHAP. IL DazwAau.- Size 8 ditMatiB.
Tavel. Breakwater. Revoltionary War.
Dawse regiment. Settlement. Praddbe
PoIus. IMiss. governor Rilnagh. Peter
Sta nnat. Capture of the Dteh. History: 84
am d lDixs' Line. Negrn. IeMom.
Batleme. Plar. Trd with the Wet.
American MekMMce and lln a W. Na-
vIllaeL Mnhtl e .lqei.*..... .

tim War Vith BRage-a
armekd. Beiner Uahll

of lr dlerls

CHAP. 4. MIDD] STArm.-- Gemi
view. History. Geography. . . . M
.CHAP. 1. Vrannu.- Travels. Menm.
CuMtom. Plantations. Clmte. ace of
the country. Natal curicaitle. Aieat
movade. RaIlrd.& Mines. 6ifap... .
CHAP. I. Vtnomn, emtluaid.--Jk.
sn. Mount Veron. Waublait Jams-
town. lodian. Spaniards. Chbeeasae
Bay. Indian chiefs, Settlemeant Jam
river. John Smithy Hie adventwe. Cos.
duct. Pow Pat. Pocaheat ... .
CHAP. s8. ViaoenruA.cmtioed-Sate o
the colony under Smiih'a goveranm t. The
colonists dg for o. Befllctioa. nith
hosenPra t. Poeabont. Miseryl
the colonists. Loid Delaware.. . 97
CHAP. Vraenru.-Tbheealor .r-
ishes. CaptArpgl. MarrNiaeorPs-
hontas. Defth, rt Slves the colo-
nies. Opeancnoogb. S ter of the
colobet. Vegeaaceoftheali*h. His
tory. .................. .
CHAP. M. Noarn CAwoui .-- tvels.
Qaetionu on p. Pletalim. Fors.
Tr. Gold Tdlga o Raw. Uads.
Con. Gold. -ott. Taima Rism.
Settlement b Epicopal@Ii Sttima of
tbhe colony. trle. Origi of tb
naNs orthaudoutk CoeianL. India&.
The Six Natlols. History ........ .I
CHAP. 4. Souvr CAzoU.m.--ViYe.
GOORMiphieaMW WIMa CukatoI Plat-
Protestants. History. Pint cotton the
United Sates. Railads. E rpise.. .lo0
CHAP. 41. GOooaez .-Foe of the coa-
y. avanah. Imnprovemnts. Ratlrods.
Volcano. Fruits. Okenook fha p. St-
timt of Georia. Situatior the oly.
Attacks of irds. Gea. Ogithorp.
FLORIA. i "ery. Setulemn t. Hry.
Smiuoles. Orange. Ke Wet. Commo
eol ... .. .. ....... . lo1
CHIAP. Tod nITSioranw ATnLAvmo
DrArm.- yp QwsMtl. GMrl vtw.
Liberal. ............... .1
CHAP. 4. ALAA, Mresrms L oia
lANA, TAs.-0*Gpuha Qest..

CUMIA j Ta iagabn A 10
Nethes. Da
bJJ Bdiobe. a wm

CHAP.4 m.W, u'mA M--IM

Oble. h. dlia. mD. Misouri. Lad
avs. Iemmmtalws. Prairie. LSt. s.
Hut. Mormow TemIese. it.
Maumth Caew. Arkam. Ot G at.
Micigan. nOGreat kes. MirmtPP 11
CHAP. 4. Wrmua 8rAr, easrted
-Origin of thr sue of TInm. Hts-
tor. Settlaw't. Kentuck. Deaul
Boise. ller*tay War.. Pro.
Er*L. idnLdanad mdi. Mi. -
M sa~dn. l _~ Au. Wild
ri1e. Mtelm 6oHn Wlcaodnsi. I
CHAP. 4. TruTMarow .-G- oalml-
ical Qautios. FPoe the Ms-trT.
ri Territy. Indiaua. a No-
brask. Bad to the Paeie. BiMua
other animi. Lewri and OCk. Anee.
doe. OmtTeoitory. Trtrwith Eafg-
land. Tlrae. OrgmeitiM. I"NmutlUm.

CHAP. iaU rr uathm.--ie
Cherokees. UVe orNowColiBla. New
MeZico. SenaPMiaMO. .*...... 123
CHAP. 4N. Tom VUrro SrATs. -Map
Qoutloas. Wa liuWRee. DiRve -
1008. ValleyortbiMlsiw. 9Kam
Prairies. A barber. City of W
U. 8. Presidents. Americkm .. 12
CHAP. 4L. TuR FPosmo WA.--lap
Questions. Coleles. Fench. Egdiuh.
Oeore Wmhingto. Governor Didde.
Foart Queme. Goen. mSok. B
ditit agaiM ort Nimaga. Croen Pont. 13
CHAP. 4. FRwsa WAS, comtiad.--
Baglud e Praem declare Fort Wn.
Hetry. u. rD Gae. Tioo-
dero. DthoLd BHowe. Captof
Fort Frostemc. Qaebc. MoHatm.
Death of ole. Moal tak. Frech
possessions cded to the British. ..... 136
CHAP. 1. Tar RBvoLunow. -Parlia-
meatof reat Britain. People oAmeria.
Gcoenrl Gge. Quanbl.......... 140
CHAP. 1. Ravorvrox.-Tm on Ta.
New laws: CU1 of Tes dmtroyd.
PortBill paed. Ton aesig. Sto. .143
CHAP. IL. R Lm.TsoX, ttd --1

CHAP. I. RavoLtno, e@atlm-a.--at

CrvmPolet. BPttle Banker HM.. 147
CHAP. N. RavoLWTION o laMd.--Oi-

^.-L M f.t^^-"-, I f.
aU. .ti w in
-MP. d wmase.wenmmL-ow.



Ad- -e ANMol.SJMAs. M21is.
Navel M1 ma1. 0. .d. u. .
am VIt A--e. HONB & If*. F4L
VisitdLahcft. Tmm-iL U.S.
69. Qmto Tew ..ew ...... 1M
CHAP. Baznm Pommom m aN
Amateo.-rDisMi SLes
ioMn. Tm. PlM .
HiSMl. MMBoi. D.Lag wm-
bee. Neofoltmed. ( Oi-t

Insuurction............ ..... I
CHAP. Tuu KBmumf.-wdtT-
tiom. Cl e of(leBaldme.
ReBlear. Or iL .. . ... ...w
CHAP. o. Om~mrL.--wti r-
ala. ts di fle. WMm mi
MfidPtiof the Gnomb JlMmon.
Aanmb. Settm m lntm. tj4
CHAP. 6L IloLAl.-Cl.
People. ebits. Modt Boo k M
YoSal. As mptio Amn.ml
Diwcvry. Settlmt Ellt. . . t
CHAP. Msnoo.-Q-ed-ls af th
M4p0. VeS tMd Ul6B= Vm CIm,
TweIllo. City ofS3 Catholic
priest. GMOld Ataistnraie.
AM.rlstem. tae. AmL-
Re. mae.i tnd. CraUSM. T
CAumoaus-Lmm-s. ........ .. 1
CHAP. U. Meaen .ti.-bl.
ltia Imian

CHAF. N G Me -ea

MagS .Cete. ..... . . .14
CHAP- M uxK lau.oL-UeIgm

oaNA. I now%
ana- a^s


devaes. GOdmaLM. AM*@&

ounnawio wity
U.L oaqsa .3. PeWsr. IN
-V WOAP. a 4" us-
o~r.~hrnt tima. 7S4

CHAP. O. COLDVus.- Bmnth hAul..
Osud bads CA=Lia. Ands"
maimmis. l MIn.. .187
CHAP. WS. CwinMA, esadmad. lurs
. ho Urns.. Vszm". uems..
Gaud MbIm&t worteg

CHAP. T& m -NMap Qmations. DI-
vIi.. hm. Limwa. Qmudicraie, d
iiU. mies Cam..--l Mwe. isi
WINIL Oum Pwarm ......lo
OW. Vn. Pnv coulawal eemed oi

iP Atd dp Name prisonw. 193
CHAP. IL '.Pmmv carnuded.-Treatment
sfihb. mHeh. Qme totka"O. Cas.
Death of
=f We i.. 196
CHAP. ISL DOLviA. Andes. Mines. No.
t80. Dhsesveq .themIM. Or tow.
oseedegle. PWO andsicAyroe. .. 17
CHAP. I. CPuri -0em .
Vlmsydu. And. Sa.Jaj-Analr-.
m. Datbohf Valriv. ktitmi. Ju
tnammdez. Rabi..Chrese. Eampas. iN
CRAP. IL P&TAvorn.-N-seom.
Csmptj. shahaitmate. GikLeea ua
Ogiehes. Ten dd Fpw. Peopl. Die.
cevirn. .Stem of x ........ I"
*UAP. W. Uunrr Poomm. T~ v

Tm Assojefts. )
-. 3uedmmis m.
HAP. I um i. -NaI., ros
PW VAWMI. brkwmL'Jwdts Min



Travel. o Jame. Harbor. Peorpl

Ovw-ml PIaae do Joubvili. lm
CHAP. n. OmnuA.-Dlvilms. Climae.
lbdlie. PENm. Vampir. 8sehe. A.-
ryCa WlaWtmona. Di suof Gal-
wi4 Dorad. alSmie hle dkOfl. Hl-
tory. VpulatEllis. Smebo. ..90
CHAP. 7. Wanr Is.--Questinm a
theiVp Vesle. Hays. T'ad. Fruit.
Climat. Cab. hnve. Diewri of
Clbs. Do n Je a Velsu. Idiun.
Tnl withU. History dofHati. Co.
nlamb. hAmdes. Danremoas. Chis-

corry. i. Hurriane. ear -
tals. Dealsail. M rdaque. . mS
CHAP. M. WaTe la .atid.-bl-
hebiinvs. Pkhae. Ualme.

CHAP. IL. T 1 BcoPnamM.-Ori.
lnme. Piemrn Is GL On .
Mrape. umrthlkmw. iesr mm ..1i
CHAP.S. h ov or CowmM. -Plrt.
Yoth k m Coemb. Advestam. Pfe-
gues .l. Puge to Idia. Yhogtes
of Columbms. Govermetnof ar-
disaMd ad abella. HIes m t.e
CHAP. I. Comasrs, Meat-ied.-Ila
soy~e m oA oe. Disewmy of land.
L Nativest C".Corry. ba. .
tl. Reimto pa. Primtces Odr
voyalgfe. ANrm Vpa. ..... aa1
CHAP. L. GaunAL VYw or AmmRIA.
-O OrgiI iba. Ortml t. Dim-
cover. lmuero. Btedrs. United
StM. Hilsry. Cbmater. ...... nl
CHAP. .L Orsmu Vmr or AXmICA.
Tan Unmap rAm. How to stedy His-
tWy. Cuss. twtitid. Peinta. iMa
aftmide. Ahrselm. Trade. Zradtle.
enlta @aiee. ObhyU. 0*i5
feats. n u. oCem. ...... .. .m

Pnaommwue lRmo or P-sA, P&aom
im woe ... .......... . .

w~w 40114WWPusitank
NNW Imm in 1111111111

ftaam SAm RL&" e1 Mmsan *f
beam 5m U.A Line
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1. TB state of Maine is about as ex-
tensive as all the rest of New England,
but a great part of it is still covered with
forests. You will observe on the map,
that nearly all the towns and villages he
in the southern portion, towards the sea-
board. As you go from the sea to the
interior, the soil grows better; some of
the most fertile parts of the state are yet
almost a wilderness.
2. There are a great maay lakes in
this state, which abound in fish. There
are a multitude of streams and rivers;
these afford many excellent mill-seats.
Qucstior on tl Map of Madke.-How is
Main. bmded on the North? East? Both?
Wet? Describe the Poabo river that Is,
tell ti wht oomty it bes, ln wht diction it
ram, tihat what soaut it fows, and lnto
wie -s t nttm. Decibe the raebee ln the
mIv. Ts i AadlM ia, Blso, St. Cmlz.

D a. bhosI that i, te i
wtoh-a ti Aumehu a e,theelhaml,
&-- eak Mse.eo i
,tm haed by* P.,b.

ei@n, ul lins
the tles he tatt-hY S MU

There are a great many bays riult,
and islands alo the shore. Tb bar
tiful salmon, w its silvery a sca ad
its pink fesh that tastes so weB.is ai
in Maine, with nets, in weas, alrm ts
it is leaping the falls.. By measqf 1
strong tail and fins, it will shot a
fall of ten or twelve feet in h dht, b
way to the fresh water, in the sl
lay its eggs or spawn.
3. If you wer to go to Main ir ti
summer, you would see many tbi* Ib
delight you. The little grees
scattered along the coast ae very ar-
tiful; some of them have very hi- --.
houses upon them. You woul a l
capital: Grand Meam lad, Mt. DusuI, *i
Fox, Boon.
How many coui les Inbt ThMl i
Capital of Mail? In what otstyl
Describe the foflowig u by
county each in to, ad its dlrsetis
td: Pamrtd, WimetM On~i Bt.
What Is th 000w ot I mbb"1 Is al"
Number of p um alles IOGrmst 1Lk o
maim? OGrfst vwi, Md maw IM t
Averp width?
QuetmeaMuCosn rL-i. BMrL-1
Main t WWbk PaM ofUisN Isa
8. W head ishesia Mo r l OtherabR
oijue ale" Marnt a i dei ia
'*lf^~irl ^.-!?"t~ a~


Kemmbe to be a large river, with many
handsome villages upon its banks.
4. You would see a great many deep
forests, and several pleasant towns. At
Gardiner you would see one of the pret-
tiest churches in New England; and
Portland you would find to be a city
almost equal to Providence, or Salem.
At Augusta, which is the capital of the
state, you would see the granite building
called the capitol, in which the govern-
ment assemble; and the State Asylum
for the Insane; and the building of the
United States Arsenal, or place to keep
guns, balls, powder, &c., for war.
6. In travelling through Maine, you
would not see as many manufactories as
in some qther New England states; but
in the southern part they are every year
building more and more. In 1847 they
wommenced the erection of factories at
Lewiston, on the Androscoggin river,
twenty-four miles north by east from
Portland. There are few of our states
whbkh have so many streams, falling
down from the hills, near the sea, to turn
factare, where they can easily receive
grisla to make cloths, &c., of, and then
eand them at once, in ships, to different
aces all over the world, to sell them.
You would meet with a great many saw-
mial employed in sawing logs into
beudsand planks. You would see many
of the men cutting down trees in the
woods; sad at Bangor, Portland, Wiscas-
e, and other places, you would notice a
gut many vessels; some ot them loaded
wilkimber, and soma with fire-wood.
6, If you were to ask some person

Mbal 4. What othlr ti wMl" yor me
me at Augutlt 5. Are th ma*y mne-
osl kla lMas W whets theyelMigo
IN ar Why tthe piod ph, mLhtr.tlM
Wlhetaw u bt IW bt my ma sat Dan-
Ir ld tr pleft e.L Wbr the wood

where these vessels were going, he
would tell you that some of them are
bound to Boston, some to New York,
some to Charleston, and some to other
places. The fire-wood is carried chiefly
to Boston; the lumber is carried to almost
all the seaports of the United States and
the West Indies.
7. They send out not only pine and
hemlock and other timber, boards, clap-
boards, shingles, laths, and bark for tan-
ning and for fuel, but also vast quanti-
ties of granite for building, which is used
in Boston, New York, and even New
Orleans; slate for covering the roofs of
houses; and lime, which they burn in
kilns, at Thomaston and Camden espe-
cially, to make plaster. They put it in
barrels, and are very careful to keep it
dry; because, if it gets wet, it will be-
come very hot, you.have seen it smoke
when mortar is made of it,--and it will
set a vessel on fire. Besides the loss, a
fire on board a vessel at sea is a dread-
ful calamity.
8. In Maine they make a great many
excellent ships for the merchants of oth-
er states; timber is plenty and cheap.
Captain John Smith, of whom I shall
tell you in the history of Virginia, built
himself some boats on the island Mishe-
guin, here, in 1614, and that was prob-
ably the first ship-building in Maine.
9. You would observe, also, in Maine,
some very good farms; you would see
a great many fields planted with corn,
or sown with wheat and rye, where the
ground is almost covered with stumps.
If you were to inquire of the owner, he
would tell you, that ten or fifteen years

sad lumb f a shloe cared? 1. What dims
mt out to MDll Whe r IIs -i mbs b
Wht oel lsamle la IM l By Wu lMf
whnas balulh r tdi alt A.
Who of hdswaanas l llist Wauta=

ago his whole farm was covered with
thick f The trees have been ct
down, one y one, and the lrad, by pa.
tient labor, has been changed from a
wilderness into meadows and wheat,
fields. Wheat, otatoe, rye, grasi, cattle
for beef, and aseep for wool and cloths,
will probably be its chief productions.
10. If you should happen to be in
Maine in the winter, you would 'nd
the snow very deep, and the air exceed-
ingly cold. It would be well, while you
are travelling, to cover yor ears with
fur, and take care to be well rapped up,
or your face and fingers would rese.
Pearh a will meet with people cot.
ting boc of ice from the rivers, which
they ar gong to end to Charleton,
New Oran, the West Indies, and oth-
er hot countries, to be used in summer.
Formerly the legislature made law to
prevent the milowners from throwing
the sawdust into the streams, and ob.
structing them; now sawdust is found
very valuable to heat their steam mills,
and to pack their ice. They send whole
vessel-loads of it to Boston, for the ice
business there, of which I shall tell you
in Chapter VII.
11. If you should chance to be in the
northern or middle parts of the state,
you might have an opportunity of see-
ing the Indians kill a moose. This is
the largest animal of the deer-kind.
These animals are found in no part of
the United States except Maine, and
even there they are scarce. They were
once common in all the northern parts
of New England.
1*. The forest in Maine are owned
by perons who sell to others the right
to take timber from them. Thee others
he~mbMhthtirChit amo to. Whsttf
d tr I. Whadmmmt M Whesftim

groiVTS or T E rOPLE.
hir men with thir emk u oe ate
into the woods near the ri
the winter, whn the mew md*
it easier to do haulig, is euUll <
the trees, cutting ,m iatk
putting the logs &t*e woo w IU
the ice. Then when the ice
the freshets come, as they sat
are floted or rn down to 4teo lfaq
sawed. All this is called Laet g.
13. The merchants s thepl th
ea, who get the emisi asths
called, to cut down tres,--
of molasses, bag of bes4l, aiL
pork, Indian meal aod Am adt,
provisions. SoRe g
teams into the woo=e ds a J
ot thousands of dollar n tinb
to get more paid back again
selfthe lumber, and as to nsale
14. The sowliesin thelsnlie I
four to six feet deep. The lh i
with his axe on his shoulder, gM a&M
selects a vast tree; and can tiel bw
may boards is will IaesbyIl
it with his eae, in a mo u Let
walks up to it, and stkes Nhs
it, ad knowsbytnon t e ifrit l lM
tree to cut.
16. After the tree ame sto i.ihi
which, if meant for boards, aren
eighteen feet long, the slow t sUa
and patient oxen toil over tihe oow, a
drag thaes sawoMg eks, ad trees, ad
stamps, a ta lJ a l wa hils,gm
it weldd seem mpossid togo,-4
upon the e in the riar; or into e bed
o a little stream which runs into the
river. The owner seedwaB Soalr," as
he is called, to overok teh i ad
cale or take an ecooOl .,,.Lj ,

hsmlst w asellI ,ad
do thI nusi het s rm l 3 thL
14. aw do th k be m Iie* '
Is. Whmeds lophAIt W"h sdma .


so that he may know how many are to
be paid for; this payment is called
"aumpage." Every owner has his
particul mark, which is chopped upon
each log by his lumnirers.
16. In the spring, the ice and snow,
without which they could not have
dragged out the logs, melt,--the river
gets full, and thousands and thousands
of these logs are borne along down the
current, to the mills, to be prepared for
market. It is a very difficult and some-
times dangerous matter to get these logs
along in the river; it is another great
business, and is called Driving.
17. Men go constantly, in companies,
up and down the river, and watch when
a log is stopped by a rock, or at a fall, and
get loose. Sometimes hundreds of
og get jammed together; and the water
risks, and the logs come down and pile
up more and more. Then the active
and hardy drivers dash into the river

with their poles and axes, spring from
log to log, and now push of here, and
cut away with their axes there, until
they loosen it; and with a crash and
pmwr,the jam breaks ppand away go
d1t Hwer fio thi owm Ihiua leshp Is.
What Ihap a spril 17. What I edbd

the rolling, tumbling logs down the rush.
ing river. Sometimes the umen jump on
shore, sometimes they are carried down
on the timber, and sometimes they are
pitched off into the stream, and have to
wade or swim out, with their red flannel
shirts dripping; but they do not mind
it; they hasten to look out for other stop-
pages and clear them.
18. Down in the smooth parts of the
river, near the mills, or where sea vessels
can come, long strings of logs, fastened
together strongly, are stretched out from
the shore into the stream, leaving an
angle or mouth, as it were, up stream,
to catch the logs as they come floating
down; -this is called a Boom.
19. If you were there in the spring,
when log-driving commences, you would
see the river covered with boats, and men
and boys busy directing the logs into
the booms; for the owners of the booms
are not allowed to stop the centre of the
river, but only the sides; and they are
paid by the owners of the logs so much
piece for what they collect.

1. In Penobscot river, forty miles from
the mouth, there is a little island, called
Indian Old Town. If you go there, you
will see about three hundred Indians.
They live in small houses, or huts, built
of sticks and boards, and cultivate the
land, catch fish, and hunt wild animals.
They are the remains of a great tribe,
the Penobscots, that once inhabited a
large extent of country, in Maine.

driving leop Dertib It. 11, I. Dsstg a
boon, aid pcklg mth logp.
1. What of thA Pasmbu t ldi~s a LM


YTo will observe amon the In-
ins, me man, whom they ca chief.
If youak him to tell ym t sry of
the Pobs trib, he will btform you
that the were once many thousands
of them. They, with other Indias,
many years ago, possessed all the lands
in Ham.

Pmtais CUbflrlli at fi bs.
3. Thee were then no white men
there; there were none but Indians.
Then were no towns and no villages,
except small collections of Indian huts,
called wigwams. The Indians did not
cut down the trees; they had no horses,
and they had no tame animals but dogs.
4. The whole country, far and wide,
was covered with forests. In these for-
Sests there were a great many bears, pan-
thers, wild-cats, wolves, deer, moose,
foxes, rabbits, beavers, and other ani-
malr. The Indians then did not culti-
rate the land, except perhaps that they
raid a little corn asd few pumpkins.
They lived almost entirely upon the

w dlo hMdis dw si yes? Wa ds theb
ullHll |ssut a. Wh O wa I Sh so(th b
r, t 1 &eVNg shoMmt 4.tWha M
Sa s- t a 'Wha hpput i. the

wA anid ls, whish they kMW Il
thi bwi and soews.
a Bat, at l iag, soft *1W
Casme, Wad dy b to "mt(ilk 04
tries, and bld hosM. Prik s
they erected saw-millsad Ask ~
clear the land, and raised what, sil
rye, and cor. And at tlh HM
white peope came, aad they kba l
houses, and cut down more see, tad
cultivated more land.
8. And so the white mena i
and they spread their towns and Tilb
ver the a And the Ila.d sm t
away, or they died; for sheiairf
wm at dow, and they coma #a
with the white people. Tbe the N-
nobscot tribe, which b o ae
maey thdamlads, confabte n Aw
hundred Indis only. Other
once samerous aid pOwwmadl w
exi t. Such would be e
the Indian chief weal t you M 'Iat
would be all true.
7. As early as the year 16W7,J
one hundred English people sf.~ t
Maine, and began a settlemsdt att
mouth of the river Kennetes. 'Th'
greater part were soon discemsed,"ai
fifty-five returned in the vessel
brought them over. t.
8. There were at this time noad I
Indians in all New England,y qg
white people I m ipe akiu t '*u
were pretty well treated by -i tatteuiS
but they found the winter esesad y
severe, and the next year Ly4
turned to England in a vessel t
to thrm e nm pr .
9. e Nordgewek tribe of i~
wbbs p -os- s. LINK
WN t w1 1thelts 1 ~ t
kaart a. whls ai in 1t '
a Whi sayned a h- mM lb -1 i


puserved, for many ya, a story about
these settler, which Iwill tell yeo. The
white people were jealous of the Indians,
and washed to get rid of them. So they
one day employed a large number of
them to take old of a rope, and draw
a cannon into the fort. When a great
many had taken hold, and the rope was
drwn in a straight line, then the white
people fired the cannon, and killed all
the Indians. This is the story; if it is
tre, the white people behaved very
10. Itwas in the year 163, above
two hundred years ago, that the first
white men settled permanently in Maine.
This settlement was made on the Saco,
a i meral houses were bul.
.11. More white people went from
Massachuts, and other paces, and
Meaed in ariou s parts of Maine. In
1AR, Maine was attached to Maassahu-
*eso and continued to be so til the year
18o, when it became an independent
ste. It has now a governor and a leg-
idsate of its own; they meet once a
ear, at Augusta; and there they make
law for the state.
12. Maine is rapidly advancing in
population and improvement. In 1890,
S the number of inhabitants was only
300,000; in 1840, it was about 500,000.
About the year 1840, there were great
speculations in the lands of Maine, as
*well as in the Western lands. The
United States had a dispute about the.
north-eastern boundary, between Maine
and the British possessions, which was

wock Indianl? 10. When wa the fint perma-
neat senlement made in )line by white peo-
t ie? II. We wM Maie rant% al w MMM-
dusetts I When did MaXie beoma a idrna.
demntsta Whe doese blegtalmls Ma
meet ? I. What m yet S of the 1Id of
aIs What dispute ua sttled I 161

"' "'"' '~~' ~'

settled in 1843, ad they have mes
erected cast-iron posts, se that the be-
dary shall be known hereater.
13. The river and harbors of Maine
are covered with ice in winter, so that
vessels cannot come and go, except near
the sea, though in summer, you can
have your choice of steamboats apd
packets, as they continually ply between
Boston ad Portland, and Kiarees and
Peooecot rivers. We can go n a
stemboat to IHallowell upon the river
aAsab, wioh I think almost a bean-
tium Ats & e deon.
14. Tbais the sow makes good
roads fort sothe ia the y yet
with the d i i apgir it mak tra mv-
elling dild Bt- i railroad,
which ad ad snow do ot top, mre
laid from Boston to Prtiaud city; aad
in 18 t1 bad begun to al14n
dthmem fr ere, north, through 1
Hampshire, to Canada ad the St.
Lawrence river; and north-east in two
directioes,-one through Lewiston to
Waterville, on the Kennebec river, and i
the other through Brunswick, the town
where Bowdoin College is, and to Bath,
a flourishing city, where they build
many ships; and from Brunswick to
Hallowell, also on the Kennebec.
Thence they will carry it to Bangor, a
large, active city, on the Penobecot river.
On the 4th of July, 1846, was conm-
menced the Atlantic and St. Lawrence
Railroad, from Portland to Montreal.
A short railroad, from Bangor to Orono,
was made in 1806.
1. In order that among this increas-
ing people, the boys and girls should
make good citizens, the legislature of
Maine established, in 1846, ambm wr

M. Whetr 4i A Isesbee y't Wh
s u ia let A. Wh adi
eatblAs In e ? W h bt is So

: II
EAIMB.-1133 SNOI.-3 UESI.11a33.

mm, to be chosen in each eo y, ad
aled Board of Eduation, who a to
suM that publi school, whee see child
in the stat can attoond ,ar ke; and
that they have good teachers, ad good
books to learn from; rad that they are
taught what will make them wise and
well behaved.
16. The people ae made to pay, that
is, taxed, uas it is called, according tothe
property they have, to support thee
chools; and every child between four
and sixteen year of ag has a rigt to
go to them. This is caled emtM ng
a Public Free School System.
17. There are other prominent per-
sons chosen in each school district m a
town, called Superintendents, who visit
the schools, and see if all the children
that ought to go do go; and if they are
well ght after they are at school; so
that, wi all the care of his o er
friends, the members of the board, te
Snperitndents and teacher, if any
ch i ignornt, it is generally his or
her own faiilt
18. This learning in all the people
makes a state happy and prosperous and
strong, and, my young trends, it is one
of the greatest prvilges of our excellent
country; especially wen joined with the
religious instruction we get from our
ministers, who teach us on Sunday, and
from our Sabbath school teachers.

1. There r many thing in lNew
uahire that a ry interesting.

4 40' A6
'f h ~,y stn el"-u Wna wd towsm.
|l"9 ".Mailesalerimenen-- t

Abowul ekwo eto O~f'

otfhseis. n. ~of *.1'~i~
io New Mmgshuie; hsM.M' *.z
Idsad,'4" it s li.00, iihd
GospaL Mbt pq96 ase asoteis
ad areuped cm ow Ia eminbVmd

B These cod4Wh we cau~
hooks amd Mum They. s n
tried am inad drned.

A oseerpem is- -W Usewim
MMvby sevi Pple6P0 eswate -
a wh age. He crm r ask a
boat, that a men in it c:aU he'. ONk*
him with an oar. His color .ua*
-, Aammes DeeWoIabsW
o, equi, SOunpe. Ia viat 011 e
a the WIte Montais I
Weehisagt I Deacrimsed
Pow NM uintlee In New BR.P&

IcS O M ne HI pW et dMI
s 0QesIit Roeofs cIs
hkri Ewu, E. ,
Wlplmsle, US 4o7
b"i. of NeI UNmgIMM
booi if few --,


black; he seemed larger round than the
body of a man, and about as long as the
mast of a large vessel.
3 This state is called the Switzer-
land of America, because it is almost
made up of mountains, and their side
ridges, or spurs, -ust as Switzerland
in Europe is made up of the Alps
mountains. It always grows colder the
higher from the earth that you ascend;
for there is nothing to get warmed and
keep the heat of the sun, which all pass-
ea offat once. At the foot of the moun-
ttai, therefore, it may be a very mild
climate, and animals and trees that will
live only in hot countries are found; as
you go up the mountains, the air be-
comes thinner and lighter, and the trees
of teperate countries come next; at
Only pines, and such trees as grow
in cold clima, are found then these
become statd and fail; and next above,
-ly gresmrs which makes the tops
of the momtains that are just that
height look green.
4. The Green Mountains of Vermont,
which name means "green mountain,"
are of that height, and take their name
from tat appearance. Abovethe height
of the green trees and grass, no vegeta-
tion is found; the bleak granite rocks
look white; and it is so cold that snow
lies there most of the year. Such is the
height of the mountains in New Hamp-
shire; andthey are therefore named, from
their appearance, White Mountains.
New Hampshir is more mountain-
ems than her sister states, yet her high-
lands furish grass of peculiar sweetness
for the cattle, which, with wool from

atOI Wbut is New Hmpen amd, sad
whyt Desaf ds thiw mr a y up he
Whime NML M. Wbhy Msm smMs
esat Wh sm a s h iam m a *
m slet WhL e gum af *s aml

her sheep, are her staple productions
that is, those which she is most engaged
in raising and selling. New Hampshire
is likewise named the Granite State, from
the great quantity of that roek there.
6. You will ee, by looking on the
map, that many rivers rise in the high-
lands of New Hampshire. Along their
banks, the level lands, called intervale,
are very rich, and produce corn and hops.
The rivers afford many manufacturing
sites, and if you travel there you will
see great increase of factories and rail-
roads going on.
7. Portsmouth is the only seaport in
New Hampshire. It is a very handsome
place, and there are a number of beauti-
ful buildings there. Dover is a large
manufacturing town. Some of the man-
ufactories are very extensive. I suppose
one of these establishments makes at
least eight thousand yards of cotton
cloth every day.
8. In 1846-7, many mills for making
cotton cloth, which go by steam, were
established at Portsmouth. A new city,
called Manchester, was laid out on the
Merrimac, with many factories to go by
water; several vast ones were built
there, and the place i growing very
fast. At Nashua, Nashville, and Amos-
keag, are many large factories.
9. There are a great many other
pleasant towns in New Hampshire.
Exeter is a handsome place, and Phil-
lips' Academy is there, in which boys
are taught Latin and Greek, and many
other things. At Concord, where the
legislature meets every year, there is an
elegant state-house; and also one of
those benevolent institutions, a state

of New Hmpsint What uoter ma e
ils sMa, amd whyl he uims iga J
bobst W rt of Posrt Ith I
S mbhs"rt Usibut 31mbdilak t W


asylum for the insane, where those who
are thus unfortunate can live. Able
physicians always reside there, and
study continually to know all about
insanity; and they take cae of the pa-
tients, and try to cur them.
10. At Franconia, in Grafton county,
there are some very celebrated iron-
works. There are mines of iron there,
and the people get great quantities of it.
They make it into stoves, kettles, hal-
low ware, and castings for machiery.
The mountains around this place are
very wild and beautiful. At Hanover
is Dartmouth College, an old and re-
spectable smminay,where a great many
young men are educated.
11. There are several very fine lakes
in New Hampshire. If you should ever
travel in this state, you will find the
country very hilly, and very interesting.
Most of the people are engaged in farm-
ing. They have a great many hores,
cattle and sheep.
12. As you pass along, you will some-
times find yourself on the top of a high
hill. You will see around you a great
many other hills; and in the distance,
you will observe the tops of blue moun-
tains. By and by, you will descend
into a valley. You will see the streams
running rapidly down the sides of the
hills, and at the bottom of the valley
you will frequently find a sheet of
bright water, sparkling like a mirror.
13. Before you return, you must visit
Lake Winnipseogee. It is really one
of the most delightful lakes in the world.
I suppose you have heard a great deal
abopt Loth Lomond, in Scotland; but.I
assur you, Lake Winnipiseogee is muok
more beautiful The name of,this lake

.f U n. W et of lust as( a ts
lt T LH Whlnw yw St w

is nounoad Winaepwakit Ah LI
litue ste mbat oo-t Mf ..s tiAt
that year some tle-a Uo Jb
bought the land about the o't# sft his
lake.and oth near lakes, to de.up
the waters where they run into the Mr
rimac river, and keep them as a pat
reservoir or mill-pod, till summr-tame,
when the river dries up consider.
They then let the water into tbe river,
a it is wanted, to keep the great aorie
a-going in the towns on the banks.
14. After you hav sea this lahk
you should visit the White MKetnie.
These are the highest in the Uuita
States east of the Mississippi, except
Mount Black, in North Carolina, said
to be a few feet higher. Mount Wash-
ington, the tallest peak, is moe than
six thousand feet above the level of th
sea. Their Indian name was Agieco-
chook; and by one of the eastern tris
they were called a very hd
Waumbekket-methna, which a
"white mountain."
15. Those Indians said a d g am
overspread the land and destroyed e*
ry human being, except one poweiq, r
priest, and his wife, who sa tis& *
selves on the top of these hills. T&
ignorant IndianM thought that som Ie
ings lived up there, and made steas;
and they were afraid to go up. But
we are better taught than they we,
and we find the only difficulty i in
climbing over the rocks, and get ting ed
with our walk.
16. The sight from their mt 4 -
ous; we can em e he oe. e eby, -
selves,look, from a distam IUk a silv
cloud in the sky, when tk we e k
visited by white m in 16=,,m7* "
amed the Orystal Hill.

OItemsnw t M14.IswhMiN
hfasi on? Rn Ost M .


17. It is a delightful thing to travel
about these mountains in aumnrm. A
great manypeople visit them every year,
and they all come back much gratified
with their journey. Among the moun-
tains, thee is a place called the Notch.
Hee the mountain seems to be divided
ito two puts, from the top to the bot-
18. This chasm affords a passage
through which the river Saeo runs.
There is also a road through it, and as
you pass along you will be astonished
at the mighty rocks that lie heaped up
on every side of you.

1. A few years since, an awful event
occurred at the Notch in the White
buntains. An immense mass of rocks,
earth, and trees, of several acres in ex-
taet, slid down from the height into the
valley. It is scarcely possible to describe
th scene. The mountains were shaken
fir several miles around. The air, put
a motion by the falling mass, swept by
,. a hurricane. The noise was far
louder than thunder. Rushing down to
the bottom of the valley, the rocks over-
turned and buried everything before
The bed of the rive Secowas filled
up; the koad was covered over; and acres
of around, before fit for cultivation, now
exhibited a confused mass of rocks split
and shivered, and trees torn up by the
rootstheir trunks broken into a thou-
sand pieces.

aldtkmsI Is. Pmint IT. Whit d tfi
NiaeI It The riwr s
It bnodsessambsoiqhas shslslah>

3 There is a circmstance of pain
ful interest connected with this event.
There was, on the side of the valley, a
small house, belonging to a man of the
name of Willey. He, with his wife and
two or three children, was in this house
when the mountain began to slide down.
They heard the dreadful sound, and ran
out of the house, to save themselves.

4 But, alas! the avalanche of rocks
and earth swept over and buried the
forever in the rins. The house stood
still, safe and untouched, and if they
had remained in it, they too had been
saved. The house, I believe, remains
there still; but the happy family that
once inhabited it are not there!
5. Somewhat more than two hundred
years ago, New Hampshire, like Maine,
was covered with forests, and inhabited
by Indians; but in 1623,some English
people came and built a house on Pis-
cataqua river, which was called Mason
HalL The sme year some ofthe peo-
ple went further up the river, and settled
at Cocheco, now called Dover.
wutmmeossw t 4.WnM$tott j,
Ip-l timsu hs* s. Whadtlt..1II,
b-ow s apot wi.t w Alss lt b
Wbmwsthea"IhaXJ.hlNk1 AWWt

MEW IRASP6 3.-I? ANNALL.-V3I ON?'.-Iran SitUS. gs.

& In 1641, New HaIm br was at-
tehed to MMasschse but In hirty-
eght years after, that is, in 169, the
n of England separated it fom Mr-
c sertte. It then became a royal
province; the vernor being appointed
by the king of Egad.
7. In 1776, New Hamphire, withthe
ether colonies, engaged in the revolution.
A constitution, or form of government,
was then adopted by the people, which
remained till 1783. At that tune, a new
constitution was formed, which remains
in force till this day. The early history
of New Hampshire is full of aicident
relating to the w with the Indias.
I hall have occasion to notice some of
these when I come to give an account
of New Bnghnd.
8 I rill, however, tell y one of
these stories now. In 189, the av-
ages made a dreadful attack apon Dover.
Tey had been provoked by the white
people, and determined on revenge.
But they pretended to be friendly, and
on the fatal night sent their women to
get lodgings in 'the houses of the white
people. These were admitted, and when
all was quiet they softly opened the
doors. The Indians then rushed in,
killed twenty persons, carried twenty.
nine away as prisoners, and fled with
such rapidity as to escape from the peo-
ple who came to attack them.
9. The railroads are laid across even
the granite hills of New Hampshire, as
well as the level parts. The two from
Boston to Portland cross the state on the
seaboard; that from Portland to Ver-
mont, and that to Canada, cross it;
while another, called theNorthern, from
COaMal to Lebanon, and thence to
mAkpbitsmstu hist t r.ti l Wht
t,0MJ I. Whk a Drt 'Dkmstsi
~ria bMm N Mmpbs,

Montpdr, B -t1 r t1 *C
go though tie -ats do nhf1.
Anotkrw, frim B3ogd toh 4 *h ,
and Boriingtc paos its
ontd-"wessm paut, athm a
beautiful toa oai sose; ski1red
the Cheshire. Other ranihbeAd it
the Coinwnectit river, conet ts. s

STATs OFr vrAfoiT.
1. CommectiW river Iseriatm Ve
moat as -see bydte ap b i tem
Hampshie th eeNt. riirmirs
through a alley of searvl m s. i.
width, which is vey rih l heMiful.
The meadows here are e r
Very lare sop of cotn, Vw ea
ont, a cultivated in the mhI Al
of the river is in New -a .
which atmdes to is westaihs
that the Coaati stis raleasedw
of VsYenmat tihagh it is s swtr
it powiMy ean be.
2. Veronat has several vey pleas
towns along Connectiet rler. |Mk
tleboro is one of the pretlieSt vllha
in the state. It has several m;s=fae
ries, and is a place of mei budmas.
There is the Vermont Asyem for the
Quail. .m am Map if Veru--u L--.
rimf Dhris Lmaol river., Oas, M -,
Ottw COrk. Duribe Lake Chlmlo Mnm.
pism. Thuirasm. ThCam phet1 twmim da
tk OMi s lnrm BOmul hlemr m.
tew.. 5I mrss C-ltdt lte4M-
tyIbs MNp I eer Dlorabs s ikMlMe s:

olMes? tlsni I lth.f o? I f
Awrs ethm g& Avra wridikl.
L. Wht Oaf ClOaseNt"at IT,
080dIM In wVIA *,16 2:

THS FI35? 3001 0 uIsTOzY.-vIuNON?.

Insane. Bellows Falls is situated where
the river tumbles over some rocks, in a
very violent manner.
3. Therare a great many mills at
this place. There is a bridge over the
cataract, from which you can look down
upon the whirling water. There were
once a great many salmon in Connecti-
cut river, and the Indians, about one
hundred years ago, used to kif great
many of them with spears, asI ey at-
tempted to ascend the falls. They were
very expert at this, and would often take
several of them in the course of an hour.
You can see now some figures, which
these Indians cut in the rocks near the
river, below the bridge.
4. Windsor is a very pleasant town,
and has considerable business. If you
ever go to Windsor, I hope you will go
to the top of Aacutney Mountain. It is
very lofty, and when you are on the top,
you can se all around you to an im-
ames distance. You will also find,
quite on the summit of this mountain,
a beautiful little lake of clear water.
In going from the eastern to the
western part of Vermont, you will cross
a gat many mountains. These are
calledthe Green Mountains. There is
a range of them running through Ver-
mont, from north to south. They spread
over all the middle parts of this state.
You have seen, in the account of the
White Mountains of New Hampshire,
in Chapter III., paragraphs 3 and 4,
why these are called Green Mountains.
6. The railroads which cross these
mountains go through very pleasant and
flourishing towns, and afford the people
opportunity to bring their industrial
products, and the minerals found in the

boro? 3. Bellows calls Indal Fips a
rAocs 4. WindsorT Asesatsy wMastala
Qsnu Momutais? Reun fr their ian=e

state,-marble, iron, manganese, tc.,-
to market; and also permit us to take
most interesting journeys through this
rich state.
7. The Rutland and Burlington Rail-
road passes from Burlington, through
Rutland, to Bellows Falls. Brandon is
one of the increasing towns through
which it passes. Here you will see a car
factory, where they make the convenient
and splendid cars that are used on rail-
roads; and there are several iron fur-
naces. At Pittsford is beautiful marble.
This was a frontier town, and you can
now see some fortifications there. The
Central road passes through Montelier.
Several other railroads were established
in 1846, 6, and 7. The Connecticut
and Passumpeic Rivers Railroad ex-
tends from White river to Stanstead.
One from Concord, N. H., called the
Northern, connects at Lebanon with the
Vt Central Railroad. And tA Fitch-
burg, from Boston, with the Cheshire,
through Keene, N. H., reaches the Bur-
lington and Rutland Road at Bellows
8. From Burlington these various
roads will soon connect with Canada
and the St. Lawrence river. By the
Ogdensburg Railroad, through Northern
New York, Vermont will be connected
with Lake Ontario and.all the region of
the great north-western lakes; while
by Lake Champlain and the Northern
Canal to Hudson river, and by a rail-
road from Rutland to intersect the Sai-
atoga and Whitehall Railroad, this state
is connected with New York city.
Railroads are also projected from Brat-
tleboro' to Tron N. Y., and from Rut-
land, south, through Bennington, to

. Railrtads T. BmudeW Phttufl b-
risb the nilrds; tht is, tell wht Ir
they counc. Facilities tTsve l


connect with the Pittsfeld and North
Adams Railroad; thereby forming a
connection with the railroads of Massa-
chusetts and Connecticut, of which I
have given you an account elsewhere.
9. At Burlington you will find a
steamboat ready to carry you on the
lake toward Canada. You will be very
much pleased with Burlington, for it is
one of the handsomest towns in New
England. It is situated on the shore
of the lake, and thus you have a fine
prospect of it. At this place is a col-
lege, called the University of Vermont.
10. You will also find a college at Mid-
dlebury. You will see, at Middlebury,
too, a great many manufactories, and
a quarry, where they obtain very hand-
some, colored marble. At Shelburne,
near the lake, you will see, if you travel
that way, the rich and extensive farm of
Judge Meech, which contains three thou-
sand qres, and is one of the largest in
the noTthern states. In 1847 he cut off
it one thousand tons of hay, and kept
three thousand sheep and four hundred
head of cattle, and sold one thousand
bushels of rye.
11. The owner had then lived on it
over forty years, and in his younger
days had to work hard; but industry
and thrift succeeded, as they are almost
certain to do. This is the history of
hundreds of thousands of American in-
dividuals, and, indeed, of the Americqn
12. Montpelier is a handsome town,
and there the legislature meets, once a
year, to make laws for the state. In
passing through Vermont, you will per-
ceive that most of thlpeople are farm-
ers. They raise a t many horned
cattle, and sheep, and hogs, and horses.

The horse are very fie oa.on
of the beautiful horse. ym ou ii
York, Boston, asd Hagibrd, o if
13. Vermontisons ofthe maC i mli.
trious and successful agricultl ts
in the Union. There a onl four
state that produce more thai eiM
dred dollars to each hwd, or ie(of
the i atioa' via., Vermeet, Ii -
sipp1kansas, and Louisia.
I-, a lt bo
people, andt anW
woo from the i Oii a i
worth three M of dbMars a rm .
They also make, in Vernmapi ,amwm
a million of dollarsworth of m*#ll l-
gar a year. It is the nest a po-
ducing state to Louisiana. m T bil
it in the latter state, frm the )je of

*rm a apimur.
the*'sgarlane; but in Vermont they
boil it from the mp of the maple trees.
16. During the winter, the weather
is cold, and the snow falls to a great
depth. It is sometimes four or $ve ht

te&mrhta ,a. .Dlbago? iiXlIIsddAM7y eVemt2 Rume? 15. 1A;Im5 .
hiur Musk's & Is. Ma"tpsl PNo*k Rf *8s of Vashmm m Y'WWaglI


-dep The pope have thee or four
meeths' ie sleighing. Although the
air is very sharp, yet the winter is a
ery merry season in this state. The
children re on their sleds down the
hills, and the pple glid swiftly over

W isn VrT asmit.
the hills ad valleys in their sleighs.
It is in summer one of the most beauti-
ful of he steps.
If you travel among these green
hills, whose ascent is so gradual that
they do not seem like mountains;-
along the teams, and pleasant lakes,
and bright, petty valleys;-you will
find, from tame to time, the school-
houses, where the boys and girls of this
state are learning to be good, and wise,
and happy, under their public free school
S7, They are learning the best way
to make the most of their soil, quar-
ries, and mines, and to take the places
of their fathers and mothers, by and by,
as good me and women and citizeri.
K. You will find the indefatigable
superintendent visiting these schools,
andhe will be glad to take you in with
him; when you will hear him tell the,

Ws. WkNt Deritbhe pkie. I. Sbd d?
isa, a ad t Mr. Hammmit

children how they should behave, and
how they should study, and what they
should do it for, just as the teachers,
those good fiends of the children, have
been telling them. In 1848, died in
this state, S. Hammond, who was one
of those who, in the beginning of our
Revolution, threw over the English tea
into Boston harbor, which I shall tell
you about.

1. Over thirty years ago, a very sin
gular event occurred in Vermont. There
was a very large pond, or lake, in the
north-western part of the state; it was
three miles long, and one wide. One
day, some 'men were at work at a bank
of earth,at the end of this pond.
2. Suddenly the bank gave way, and
the water came rushing out at thY place
with great violence. For several miles
it rolled on in a torrent, Iweeping off
mills, houses, barns, and cattle, and
barely giving the inhabitants time to
escape. It did not stop till the whole
pond was exhausted. Where the pond
used to be, there is now only the bed
of a small river.
3. During the year 1814, there was
a famous battle fought on Lake Cham-
plain, between some American and Bril
ish ships. The battle took place in
sight of Burlington. There were thou-
sands of people along the shore to wit-
ness it. There were several American
vessels, and several British vessels, also.
The Americans J were commanded
by CommodIl donough.

1. What w psb cm ela Vment omr thi
yUrs at s Wt hatlr -us M Lake Olm
inthT year 1814 Dsuibethis batt. s. Wh


4 They fought each other with can-
for more than two hour. At length
e British ships were beaten, and the
ricans took them nearly all. This
happened during the late war with Eng-
nd, of which I shall tell you more be-
re I get through the book.
6 In August, 1777, there was a cel-
brated battle fought at Bennington, be-
ween some American and British sol-
iers. General Stark, with some New
ampshire and Vermont troops, attacked
me British soldiers, commanded by
colonel Baum, at that place.
6. The British troops were dressed
n fine red coats, and white pantaloons.
hey had beautiful music, and their
fliers were mounted on fine horses.
ut the Vermont and New Hampshire
en were not regular soldiers; they
ere farmers, and mechanics, and mer-
hants, who went to war merely to drive
ese Britishioldiers from the country.
7. The Americans were dressed in
heir common clothes. The British
troops, who were so finely attired, de-
spised them. They called them Yan-
kees, and laughed at their homespun
dress. But when the battle began the
laughter of the British troops was done.
The Americans fell upon then and
killed a great many of them, and by
and by the British fled.
8. As they were running away, they
met a good many more British soldiers.
Thinking themselves now strong enough
to beat the Americans, they went back,
and began to fight again. But the
Americans attacked them with such
vigor, that soon seven hur[d of the
British were killed and wo Col.
Baum was killed, and the the
British ran away. This a took
place during the Revoluti a,
blaU t BueliagitaAmIpt, 17r 1 Sar,. De-

of which I shall tll you move by ad
.9. Vermont was not settld by'the
white people till some time after th
other New England States. Thee was
a fort built near Brattleboro, in 172,
called Fort Dummer. The remains of
it are still to be seen. It was built to
protect the people who had settled there
from the Uli s.
10. Vg R was settled principlly
by people from Connecticut They At
established themselves along on Cw-
necticut river, and aftewards ia other
parts of the state. They had a good
many skirmishes with the ldisaza and
for a long time there was a great dispute
whether the land belonged to New York
or New Hampshire.
11. It was decided in Englad, ia
1764, that it belonged to New York,
and consequently te government of
that colony began to sll the land to any
persons who would buy. The settler.
thought this very unjust, and deter-
mined to resist. New York then sent
troops into Vermont, and there was
some fighting. These difficulties were
not settled till years after.
' 12. During the Revolutionary War
Vermont was independent, and in 1791
it became one of the United States. It
is now little more than one hundred
years since this state was a mere wil-
derness, occupied only by scattered tribes
of savages, bears, and wolves. Now it
has a great many flourishing towns, and
cultivated farms, on the tops of the hills,
in the valleys, and along the rivers and
lakes. Several years ago, a steam-
serib this battle... MSulnt of Venaomtt
Fort Dmmewr 10. Who vwee the Ant hets rof
Venaomt What of thb. uttlrt? t. Whantt
pi in rtt6? 12. WheM 4id me roa
th UBitda Sates? What ofi au ms L
dredy rsagol Whatof ite*t


boat ascended the river to the distance
of two hundred miles from its mouth,
and was warmly greeted by the inhab-
itants along the banks.

1. Massachusetts is noftrge state,
but there are a great many peoe in it.
It has ninety-four persons to each square
mile of its territory, supposing they were
distributed equallall all over it. This is
being more thickly settled than any oth-
er of the United States. England has
two hundred and sixty people to each
square mile. Those who live along the
seaboard, at Boston, Salem, New Bed-
ford, Nantucket, and other places, own
a great many ships, brigs, sloops, and
schooners. Some of these ships are
sent to England, and other parts of Eu-
ro, and they bring back various kinds
of goods.
2. Other ships are sent to China, and
Quiiu the Ms p of Mau satickM s.-
Boundaries? Describe the Merrimae river,
Charles, Deedeld, Westfeld. What range of
mountains in M. 7 Through what counties do
these mountains run? Describe Massachusetts
Bay. Barnstable, Cape Cod Bay, Buzzard's Bay.
Describe the following islands: Martha's Vine-
yard, Nantucket, Elizabeth, Dukes. 5. How
many counties in M. Their names ? Capital
In what county is Boston? Describe the follow-
ing town: Salem, New Bedford, Newburyport,
Worcester, Ambrst, Cambridge, Northampto,
Springfeld, Greenid, DeerAeld, Concord, lax
ingtoo, Pittfield, Steckbridge, Westfeld, Wil-
llamstown. Population of M. Squ mles?
Greatest lth of IL? OGeatet width? Aver-
g lntA? Average width?
1. What of J s setts7 ow many peo-
sto ahfril? HowmeInayhhBe aad
Labiaili boardT What iscoeiu eet

they bing back tbt The trade cared
on by these ships called commerce.
Some of the vessels go to a gat dis-
tance to catch whales, for their oil Oth-
er vessels go out to catch cod-sh and
3. Great numbers of cod are taken in
boats, along the shores, but most on the
banks of Newfoundland. These banks
are immense sandy places, out at sea,
east of Newfoundland; the largest is
four hundred miles long, and the water
is from one hundred and twenty to three
hundred feet deep upon them.
4. The cod-fish are in millions, feed-
ing on the worms on the bottom. The
vessels come here in the summer, from
Europe and America, and get loads of
fish, which they take with hook and
clams for bait. The cod are split and
salted down. The live ae -kept in
barrels, where oil drains from them.
When the vessels come iqne, the fish
ae spread to dry on flakes, or platforms
made of branches and twigs of trees, on
a frame three feet from the ground.
6. The mackerel am caught in early
summer, all along the northern United
States, in immense shoals or swarms.
They are opened, pickled, and then as-
sortesinto barrels by an inspector ap-
pointed for the purpose, who marks them
No. 1, 2, &c., according to the quality.
These cod and mackerel are eaten at
home, or sent to the Southern States,
the West Indies, South America, and
Southern Europe.
6. The whale fishery in America
was first begun by the inhabitants of
Nantuc k They, and the people from
New Connecticut, New York,
&c. mr-oil, spermacsti
and carry it on at e nth
Ia n

bhelongingto ILI 3DOWAlto
LTVhsnesrsIahs. ak%*



pole, at the south pole, and in the
eat ocean, where the whales have
een taken eighty to a hundred feet
long. I wi tllt you about it whe I
come to speak of Greenland. A g"t
many sloops, and schooners, and brigo,
go to New York, Philadelphia, Charles-
ton, and other places.
7. They carry a good many articles
away, which ar not wanted in Massa-
chusetts, and get, in exchange for them,
other articles that are wanted here. So,
you see, there are a great many people
constantly occupied in managing these
hips. ou may often see several hun-
dred vessels, of various kinds, at Boston.
8. At Boston, some years since, was
commneeed the ice trade, which now
amounts to an immense vale every
year. The ice is taken fom the ponds
and collected in ice-houses, in the win-
ter. This is pretty cold work, you may
be sure. ~e men have thick mittens,
and they thrash their arms together, and
blow their fingers with their ot breath;
andWhenthe coldwindcomes, they work
awat the harder, to keep themselves
9. You will be interested to go out to
these ponds, to some of which they have
made railroads, on purpose to bAng the
) ice to the wharves. You would find
some of the men sawing the thick ice
into blocks; and others pulling it from
the'water with iron hooks and long
poles, and then it is hauled by horses,
Sand an ingenious contrivance of ropes
and plleys, into the ice-houses on the
border f dhe pond. T se houses anm
built idae, and the a the
outside ad inside
tenbark, that the
10. At jrper
on carts orrail to in
&&qt' s $ hs 'aTk I do

which it is carefully ped Ia sam
dust and so carried, l over the weM.
In hot countries it is very grnstei;'nd
eren in England, daring sunmer,AmN
ican ice has become quite fe s.
Sometimes they put fsh, or mets, or
fruits, in among the ice, and they keep
nicely on the voyage, and when taken
out look as fresh, ad taste as well, as
when AL- in.
11. In i pto of the tat remote
from the s, the people of Maaeu-
set ar chief occupied in agriacule.
There e a re t many very fne frms;
and the ople manage the extreme
well. There also ry extr m
manufaetories in Masahusett. Low-
ell is a great manufacturing tow.
12. You must not fail, if you haman
opportunity, to stop at Lowell, and re-
mark the industry and the srcesa of
this astonishing city. In 181 it was
part of Chelmnfod, and had 14 two
hundred inhabitants; in 1847, ~ls
about thity thousand. You mut VWt
the thtories there, and see br mae
and clean everything is; the roWe and
the people in them. A place for ry-
thing, and everything in its place, is the
rule there.
13. You would find, if you were to
count them, nine or ten thousand per-
sons at work at once; seven thousand
of them are women and girls, who have
come from all parts of the country.
They stay her about five years,and
then return with the moany they hav
earned by industry and good behavior,
to be happy at home. They have books
to read; and they write and publish a
book or magazine, themselves, e y
month; it is called the owellO
14. They make in Lwme abvl

alg fthales. II. LWhsti b
'a h at M anaoms N a5suI h


enty-five millions of yards of cloth a
year. Lowell was the first place in the
world where they wove carpets, and all
their rich and curious patterns, with
power looms, that is, which go by water
or steam. They used always to be
woven by hand. This place is an ex-
cellent specimen of our manufacturing
villages and cities, so much better than
those we read of in Engld and the
rest of Europe.
16. More of these busy places are
constantly building. On the Merrimac
river, just below Lowell, they built, in
1847, a number of large factories, and
called the place Lawrence. And still
others at Hadley Falls, on the Connecti-
cut river, at a place which they have
named Ireland.
16. At Newburyport and Salem are
very large factories, which go by steam.
There is one of this kind at Salem,
which is among the largest in the United
States, if not in the world. It has
twenty-seven thousand spindles, which
am spinning away all at once; and a
busy sight and whiz they make of it.
17. There are many other manufac-
tories, at Waltham, Taunton, Canton,
Ware, Springfield, Framingham, and
other places. The goods manufactured
in these towns are chiefly carried to
Boston, and are thence taken to New
York, Philadelphia, Charleston, New
Orleans, and various foreign markets.
18. On the south-eastern shore of
Massachusetts, you would see, in pass-
ing close to the ocean, a great many low
wooden vats, into which the salt water
of the sea is put. The sun dries up the
water, and the salt is left on the bottom
*Lwe llI aDMerlt myothr maua in town
r ple that ye hat see. Is. Lawa? Ine-
dead IS. kNakrypuo t aO IT. Othr
msM -smm Wbht of tsh gmos m

and sides of the vats, and collected, Is
great quantities, for use and sale. When
a shower is coming up, you will see the
men run to slide the covers over these
alt works, so that the water shall not
spoil the operations.
19. Boston is the largest city in New
England. There are many interesting
things in Boston. The Common is a
very beautiful place. It is delightful to
see it covered with people, men, women,
and children, on a pleasant summer
evening. How pleased the boys are to
get around the Frog-pond, and throw
sticks into it, so that they may see the
dogs jump in, swimaboutand get them!
--- ,- -

Boays eylam asrms Cwms.
20. In 1847 the people of Boston,
finding that the city was getting to have
so many people ard houses in it that
there was not enough good fresh water
to use, purchased a whole pond, called
Long Pond. This they re-called by its
old Indian name, Cochituate Lake. "It
is situated in Frmingham, Natick, k,.,
about tw miles west of Boston, and
hi r e highest part of the city.
built a large brick aq
duct, that you might walk 2p.
Deerlbe h-Maklg. Is
What 'Tbe CommMoT Deirisbe


right through it, in which the water
runs from Cochituate Lake, over riven
and valleys, and through hills, to a large
reservoir, and thence by iron pipes into
the chambers of any of the houses in
the city. These pipes carry it through
all the streets, and there are altogether,
sixty miles in length of them. They
may also be used to feed public foun-
tains, which are very pretty, with the
bright water sparkling like diamonds in
the sunshine. This structure is next in
size to the Croton water-works, which
supply New York city, and of which I
shall tell you by and by. Many of our
large cities in the United States are thus
supplied with pure water, as Philadel-
phia, Baltimore, Cincinnati, doe.
22. The State-house is finely siM-
ated, and it has a good upamrtne.
When I was young, I usedAt~ a to go
to the top of the State-hose, from which
there is a splendid prospect I could see
the ocean, with a great many islands in it,
and I could see a great many fine towns
all around Boston, and I could look down
upon the city itself, and see almost all
that was going on in the streets.
23. There are a great many hand-
some buildings in Boston. The Stone
Market is a very fine building, and I
do not think there is a more beautiful
market in the world. Tremont House,
King's Chapel, St. Paul's Church, and
Trinity Church; the new Boston Ath-
enmum; the Howard Athenmum; the
Museum; several freestone, Gothic and
theirr churches; the Merchants' Ex-
change, and the United States Custom-
house, are very elegant edifices.
24. The land in Bosto riginall
about six hundred acres, I&L y have

pt. W sIt Wa-emW-l iP M .- m
fsft aW AmNdteg in B-aisll= k and

filled it up on the border of the bas,
until, in 1847, it had about thirteen han-
dred acres, and one hundred and twenty
thousand inhabitants. But the sur-
rounding lately incorporated cities of
Roxbury, Cambridge, and Charlestown,
and the towns, join it so closely, that
you would take them all together to be
one city of more than two hundred thou-
sand inhabitants. Boston is continually
advancing'ith therest of the state and
country. It is connected with all parts
of the land by -railroads, and with all
parts of the world by the sea.
25. I will tell you about those rail-
roads, because they have changed all
the old modes of travelling and of doing
business, all over the country. They
have, also, wherever they are, rendered
states flourishing, and have increased
wealth more than all their enormous
cost. One locomotive engine on a rail-
road will do the work of six hundred
and sixty-eight horses. It needs only
four men to take care of it; but the four-
horse teams, to equal it, would require
one hundred and sixty-seven men.
26. There are more than thirty rail-
roads in New England, with all their
branches. They have cost forty or fifty
millions of dollars. Seven of these rail-
roads, as you will see on the map, di-
verge directly from Boston, the capital,
into all parts of the state, and into other
27. These make in all more than
eight hundred miles of railroad. In
1847, their cars travelled, over them,
one million five hundred and thirty
thousand miles, and transported three
million one hundred anr thirty-ve
thousand paeagers. And for that
quick and eas, travelling, in coamri
p pelmtio Del ite ahad. a4s,


able, clean, and well ventilated cars,
they charged a passenger only two and
two fifths cents a mile.
28. Salem is quite a city, and many
of the people are engaged in commerce.
The city of Worcester, and the towns
of Springfield and Northampton, are
remarkably handsome. Massachusetts
abounds in beautiful villages. It is
pleasant to observe, in travelling through
it, the great number of very neat meet-
29. The city of Worcester you will
find the grand centre for railroads from
Boston, Albany, Providence, Norwich,
Nashua, and Concord. It has been
proposed to build a mammoth depot, to
accommodate all these together. What
curious articles you would see piled up
there and lying about, brought from so
many different places, and going, per-
haps, to every part of the world!
30. At Cambridge there is a college,
called Harvard University. In 1848,
its libraries amounted to eighty-two
thousand volumes; and besides its
schools of Law, Medicine, and Divinity,
there was established here, in 1847, the
Lawrence Scientific School, for practical
science. Another college is located at
Amherst, and one also at Williamstown.
There are a great many academies and
schools in the state, and it has one of the
best organized and established systems
of public free schools.
31. More than one hundred and fifty
thousand children are at school all the
time, who have the use of district school
libraries, provided for them by the fore-
thought and liberality of the towns and
of the state. They have also Normal

Ilusdah In Mamschnusta It 1s4T 7 Sasl
N-thampt l WesurTl Cas br id
ALnMe t Willismstw Publi fthbl.s,
a. DUMtrt sbool hdari Normal Schoobl

Schools, so called, where male and
females, who wish to become teachers,
are admirably taught by able instructors,
and afterwards themselves do a great
deal of good in teaching, all over the
32. Massachusetts has done more
than any other state towards encour.
aging farmers, who are so important a
class, as they furnish us with food, and
the materials of which our clothes are
made. They have societies of agricul-
ture and horticulture here, as in other
states. The intelligence and experiments
of the members of such societies are
constantly improving those branches of
industry. There is a Massachusetts
State Manual Labor School at West-
boro', and a Farm School, established
near Boston, on an island, by private
munificence. Here boys who are so
unfortunate as to be exposed to vice,
without other opportunities, are trained
to habits of industry and morality, and
instructed in what will be useful to them
when they grow up. In 1846 and
1848, were incorporated the Mas. Acad-
emy of Agriculture, and the Mass. Ag-
ricultural Institute.
33. Commerce, manufactures, fishing
and farming, are the chief employment
of the state, which is continually enter-
prising and successful. Her capital has
now several routes connecting with New
York city. Her WesternRailroad,break-
ing through seeming impoibilities,
opens to her the same West that makes
New York great. Railroad confine
to her own territory bring business to
Boston, which has, also, railroads to
Maine, New Hampshire, and Vermont,
and will son be connected with Cnamt,
and bee winter communiesalos at lase

Z;M c IICh i of fs. .iM*


between England and her provinces, by
means of the great enterprise of the Brit.
ish government, through their agent, Mr.
Cunard; who, in 1840, established a line
of steamers between Lierpool and Bos-
ton, which come across in from eleven
to fourteen days.
34. In 1826 was begun, and in 1842
was finished, at Bunker Hill, granite

ialnbr Hm wmntsa
obelisk, two hundred and twenty feet
high, a monument of the battle fought
there, of which I will tell you in Chap-
ter LIII. You can ascend to the top,
which is three hundred and nine feet
above high water, by circular stone
stairs arodhd a well in .e centre, and
will have a fine view from it.
36. In 1826, died John Lowell, Jr.,
Esq., who founded free public lectures,
at Boston, which were first commenced
in 1839; and in 1839, Nathaniel Bow-
ditch died, the great American astrono-
"mer. In 184S, died Rev. William E.
Channing, a distinguished writer, and
Washington Allson, the great Ameri-
can painter. In 184, died Joseph Sto-
ry, Judge of the Supreme Court of the
United Staes, one of the st and

btut IS. I brU = mu t Ia. ids.-

moet famous lawyers in the weid; ae
in 1846, died Dr. Bein. Wateibose,
who introduced vaccination again the
small-pox into America; Feb. S 3848,
died at Washington, where he pre-
sented his state in Congres, John Qiin.
y Adams, Ex-president of the United
States, a man possessed of more politi-
cal knowledge than any individual in
the United States of his time.. He died
in the Capitol, being stricken with dis-
ease in his place in Reprentatives'
Hall. His body was brought to its tomb.
in Quincy by a delegation of members
of Congress, one from each state and
territory. The cities through which it
passed,and the Legislature of Masa-
husetts, paid it the honor of funeral pro-
cessions and eulogies. The tombs of
meet of these great men are to be seen
at Mt. Auburn, the first, as it is also one
of the best, of the ornamented cemnterie.
in the U. S.; it is at Cambridge.
36. We might also visit, er
ably, the admirably conducted rins
Institution and Asylum for the BHbd, at
South Boston; the McLean Asylum for
the Insane, at Somerville, just ot f the
capital; the Massachusetts Hoetad, in
the city; the State Asylum for the
Insane, at Worcester; also the United
States Arsenal, at Spring&sed.
37. It is not so cold inMassachusetts,
during the winter, as in Vermont and
Maine. The snow is not so deep, and
there is not so much sleighing. If you
ever travel through the state, a will
find it very hilly. Thob there ar a
great many rilroads, yet ye wish to
see the country, you d better travel in
some other way. Near Northapo is
a high mountain, cald lye. From

-lh pwm uar umis miti k Adam I
Ibeteto r 1" Htft Or "aj"skll(
Itta. Winter tMi ettl b = MllwL


the top of it, you can look down upon
Connecticut never, winding through a
valley so rich and beautiful, that it
seems like a carpet woven with various
bright colors.

1. On the 17th day of September,
18M0, there was a great parade in Bos-
ten. There was the governor of the
state, and the mayor of the city, and the
president of Harvard college, and a
great magy other men; and then there
were a great many children, little boys
and girls, from all the schools in Boston.
2. It was a very bright day, and they
all assembled on the Common. There
were a great many thousand people be-
side, who came to look on. I was there
myself, and I was delighted at the long
tpwa of good little boys and girls. By
and by, the men all went in a long pro-
cesion to the Old South church, and
there Mr. Quiney delivered an oration.

I Now you will be uniouato know
L. who a*k ims BMW is lymmi.,
ur~m bIt 1~ W a ~lthSUUWS.,
M1 L What Mes dh-"-r s

what all this parade was .about. I wit
tell you: It was to celebrate the settle-
ment of Boston, which took place just
two hundred years before; that is, on
the 17th of September, 1630.
4. Ten years before, in 1690, some
persons had come from England, and
settled at Plymouth. At that period,
many of the people in England were per-
secute, and could not be happy there.
They chose therefore to come to Amer-
ica, and live in the woods, with Indians
and wild beasts around them, rather
than stay there.
5. Accordingly fifteen hundred per-
sons came over in 1630, and settled at
Charlestown, Dorchester, and other
places. A man by the pame of Black-
stone came to the place where Boston
now stands, and liking it petty we, he
told some of the people about it, and
they went and settled here.
6. The first settlers here suffered a
great deal. They had poor, miserable
hbts to live in, and in winter the weather
was excessively cold. They were almost
starved, too, for want of food. A great
many of them died from hunger, cold,
and distress.
7. Such is a brief sketch of the first
settlement of oston. WhA a wonder-
ful change has taken place in two hun-
dred years! The spot where Boston
stands was then a wilderness. The
hills and the islands were covered with
trees, and the Indians were living all
around. Now the Indians are all gone,
and there are one hundred and twenty
thousand people living in this place; in
the towns around it there ar at least as
many more.

r dafs uam p 4. Wh4 dae am I I
p p a s a t a aAmetat It*
Iswet a. dfuwdesl.t
sek.st ,. We th l -- rlile g
1*6t Mu" mni d ll


& The forests have all been cut
down, the hills have been levelled, the
valleys have been filled up; houses,
churches, and other public edifices, now
stand on the very places which were
then occupied by Indian wigwams.
The bay, where then you could see
only a few Indian canoes, is now cov-
ered with hundreds of vessels, and in the
streets you hear the noise of a thousand
wheels, where then were heard only the
cries of wild beasts and savage men.
9. Such are the mighty changes that
have taken place in this country since it
was settled by the white people. It is
very interesting to look around, and see
the present condition of towns, cities and
countries. But I think it is still more
interesting to go back and study the
history ofplaces, and see what has hap-
pened there in times that have now
gone by.
10. The first settlement in New Eng-
land was made at Plymouth, in 160.
The settlers were english people, called
Puritans. Within'ten years after, So-
lem, Dorchester, Charlestown, and Bos-
ton, were settled. A great many people
same over from England, and thus the
colony rew ery rapidly.
11. They had a great many dificul-
ties to encounter. Before they could
raise grain to make bread of, they were
obliged to cut down trees, and till the
land. They had also to build houses,
to make roads, and defend themselves
against the Indians. Their condition
was indeed a very hard one, and some
of the people who came over died from
want sl ftigue, as I have aid before.
W IMmy of them were killed by the

~ etn 10h. uWht tWhat thabmtI
sreW t Whwerlndilr8t ,s.

savages, but in spite of al thme Teib,
the colony continued to ineosek The
white people penetrated further ito the
interior, cut down the trees, built towra
and villages, and soon spred them
selves over the whole country that is
now called Massachusetts.
13. But after a while the Revohlu -
ary War broke out, and then the paple
had to defend themselves against Bilt
ish soldiers. Ishall tell you a about
this war by and by. I slltell yo of
the battles of Leington, and of Bunk
Hill, and many other interesting things.

1. Rhode Island is the mallet of the
United States; but there a a a gnat
many manufactories there, sad the peo-
ple carry on a good deal of commerce.
At Pawtucket there are some veq -
tensive cotton manufactorise. These
are situated on the falls of the Paw-
tucket river.
2. Providence is a large tow, with a
college, called Brown Univeusi. If
you ever visit Providence, you 0old
Describe th progas o(fthe Iu I .l M a-
chaus 13. Rrolutiomary WarwT
Qudiwa on the Moap T Rhia hW. -
Boundaries Descrbe the Pawuinr du ,
Chrle, Wood, Pawt et. Dearibe I ap-
st Bay. Deribe Rhode Ib Mlek Idd.
How mary countiMs n Rbode IUedt? ld
amenl Capkalt In wVbt coe is h ml-
de.? Decrib the foowliyl Iletl,
Ne*plt, PA h wsh mva, Iu, i3. W.
Oemwub, dMLhMI, ComTr, ib81lt

Avengektwdh T
l. Wao LB LL anmiateit fMl I
I. wPIIo t I IT %thb-r tha


Sand see the Arcade. This is a very
beautiful building, where you can pur-
chase almost every kind of elegant mer-
chandise. You should also go and see
the basin of the old Blackstone Canal, a
place for boats that came from Worces-
ter, until, in 1848, the canal was made
.the line of a railroad.
3. At Providence you can take the
steamboat and go to Newport. You
will ~il down Narraganset Bay, which,
I thima, is one of the most beautiful
bays in the world. As you go along,
you will see Bristol at your left. It is
a very pleasant town, and there are a
number of beautiful houses there.
4. Near Bristol, yoj can see a hill
called Mount Hope. phis is very cele-
brated, as having been the residence of
a famous Indian chief, whose name was
Philip. His ery interesting,
Sm hall tell F ou, by and by.
You will find Neport very pleas-
atly situated. It has rather a venera-
be race. It stands upon a large
idd, called Rhode Island. This gave
name to the state. Newport is resorted
to by many people it summer, for its
beaty and pleasant ea-breezes. Fort
Adias, an immense and curious fortia-
cation, is on an island near by.
6. In the war of the Revolution, the
English were driven out of Newport.
In o der to event the Americans from
following them, they took up all the
planks of the bridge which d from
Newport to the main land, and left
o lng but the nrrow timbers.
7. neral Lfayette, of whom I
hal tell you more hreafte, was asist
i the Americans, and wished to allow
thd ritish,aad to passl bridge. Its
height ad length invade his to
sesl t &a -~ ilsdt N W Mt.
U-t ~NspMet fJM t.1 r. ITpae

whirl; it was impossible for him to
cross it without assistance, and it was
difficult to help him. A Mr. Abel Car-
penter, of Providence, R. I., but who
died in Lyndon, Vt., about ,184, had a
great deal of firmness, and he volun-
teered and helped Lafayette in the only
way it could be done. He walked back-
wards the whole distance, leading the
general by the hands. They performed
this dangerous enterprise in safety, and
thus outgeneraled the enemy.
8. The first white man that settled
in Rhode Island was Roger Williams.
He was a clergyman, and lived in Boe-
ton; but he did not think exactly as the
other clergymen of Boston did, and so
he was banished from Massachusetts.

ager wllims iatin to IRhod l.nd.
9. He went away with his family
into the woods. After travelling a con-
siderable time, he stopped, and began to
build himself a house. Here he made
a settlement, and called it Providence.
This took place in 136, and was the
first settlement in Rhode Island. He
was kindly treated by the Ibdimne, who
seemed pload at his arrivl an
theim. ,
saL.s h I & W ilbs
slk--a l as e. -Wva wgo As d


10. The colony, thus begun, increased
rapidly, ad in the Revolutionary War it
united with the other colonies in the
struggle for freedom. It became one
of the United States inlO790.
11. There is a curious custom, use-
ful when a large multitude is to be en-
tertained, which is practised in Rhode
Island and along the sea-shore. It is
called a clam-bake. A party assembles
on horseback, on foot, in wagons, chaises,
carryalls, and boats, in some retired spot,
where the green waves of ocean, crest-
ed with snowy foam, are rolling with a
singing murmur, forever and ever, to the
rocks and the shore;-or where the
quieter sea seems to smile and rejoice
as it glances aok the brightness of a
summer's san.
12. Some of the busy multitude are
see piling wood and dry branches upon
a huge fire, into which many large
stones are thrown; others heap up, close
at hand, sea-weed torn from the rocks,
or bring buckets of clams freshly dug
from the muddy flats. Others, with
cautious clutch and noisy glee, bring
from the boats, at the rocks, the strug-
gling; greenish-black lobsters, just from
the traps; while others still fetch the
fish they have just caught, fresh from
the ocean.
13. The wood now burnt to coals,
and these, withAe red-hot stones, are
pushed together into a bed five feet by
twelve, or much larger, if the number
of guests requires it. They now quick.
ly cover the stones and coals with a
thick layer of sea-weed, hissing, crack-
ng, and steaming. All over this ar
stwed elam, lobster, fish, and gren
rn, if it is in sean Anothr layr
of e-weed, ano her of clm, b

1Id-ttMaesesamt lt--i&.llWl idbmn

stars,, sh,and coro; and thke, wrw(
weeds are heaped and passed asela
as possible, to keep in the hbt and
14. The clams, kc., being baked, or
rther, well steamed, and seasoned, the
pile is quickly raked open ;-th lob-
sters a discovered of a bright acajet,
the fsh nicely cooked, and the clms
invitingl opening their whitened shU.
Everydyis now busy hU his
frierm and himself, uig 'sibrh
knife and plate, and with many a me
joke and echoing laugh, and much f
humored talk, duly varied with poia
or other peeches, a great mnaaypgl
at once anre eoying an oldrkahsi
Indian clam-bhae
15. Rhode bland had bees goveseed
by the charter o'ig'nally gad br
as a colony, in 3, by g Cha
II., of England. I 1841, som p--
wishing to alter that char, femed
a constitution, and elected TIma W.
Dorr governor. Trouble then eead
between them and other person iath
state,which, though threatening t be -
rious,were happily quieted, and the p
pie peaceably, by a convention, isa 1 ,
formed a new constitution, reorgani
their government under it, and are new
pursuing their business with their acce-
tomed enterprise and industry.
16. They have a public free school
system, also, in Rhode Island. The per-
sons rho conduct it are very active, and
do all that they can to encourage and
assist the children in their learning;
and they tre going on fely. In 1847
was first opened, at Providence, the
Butler Hosital for the Inim In
183I died Samuel Slate, who bW in
ba .t Is.Rew bsslbh doable
wh.e, g Ita.s, as rlsa t ,
Wil. Haetmd ma s touat 1a MMHi lt
9"tamt nmsmd Ak I


1T90, at Pawtucket, the first cotton-mill
in the United States.

1. Connecticut, with the exception of
Rhode Island, is the smallest of the
New England States; but it has more
inhabituto than any of them, except
' M aswc tts and Maine. The coun-
try is very hilly, but it abounds in
rams and rivers, and is generally
qui fertile.
I. The people are very industrious.
A great many of them are occupied in
culrvating the land, and they cultivate
it very well. They raise a good many
cattle, hores, hogs, sheep, and some
grain and kitchen vegetables. A great
may of the people are occupied in man-
ufctories, and a considerable number
ar engaged in commerce. Almost
every person in the state is busy about
3. Let us suppose that we begin at
the eastern part of the state, and travel
through it. We will commence our
journey at Norwich. 'This town is sit-
QwdeUns' the Mop q/'f a m eu. Boun-
duies? Describe the Connectiut, Housataoc,
Pumlngton, Thomes. What reampof monoaisn
in Connecticut Through what eountis do they
rue Desribe the following Iula ds: alkner's,
Fis', Goose, Thimble. How may counties Ia
Coanmetiut? Their names CapiM l Inwhl
county s Huartfd? New avent Dese tbhe
followia towns: orwiL, New Leadn, Wind-
ham, Tollud, Windsr, Wethmdd, Middle-
townd,L iatd, eld, Dubal, Grotoa,
Brooklyn. Poplatind of COnmdedat Bqun
maul Grtet leth o(Ceineaeatl Oret
width? Avsnealegtkh AWs width?
I.Whlt dOfCmettmtl n poplm What
o thlr sde W orf mastedne Ca-


uated on the Thames, and we shall at1
quite a number of vessels there, engaged
in carrying on trade with New Yok,
Philadelphia, and Charleston. There
are several falls in the riverit Nor-
wich, and these afford fine. iill-seats,
where there are some very extensive
cotton manufactories.
4. The country around Norwich was
once occupied by a celebrated tribe' of
Indians, called Mohicans. These Mo-
hicans were once at war with some other
Indians. One night, several of these
Indians had encamped on the top of
some high rocks.
4. Their enemies discovered their
situation, and secretly encircled them
on all sides but one. On that side was
a steep precipice, at the foot of which
was the river. When the morning
came, the party of Indians first men-
tioned were about.to depart, when they
discovered that they were surrounded
by their foes.
6. They made a short resistance; but
perceiving that they were outnumbered
by their enemies, they leaped over the
rocks, and were killed by the fall.
7. Having examined Norwich, we
will take a boat, and go down the river
Thames, to New London. At this
place, we shall see a steamboat that
goes to New York, d we shall also
observe a good man other vessels.
Among the vessels, we shall see a large
ship fitting out to go to the Pacific ocen,
to catch whales.
8. We shall perhaps see another ves-
sel, that has just come back from a
whaling voyage, after an absence e(
three years. If she is not unloaded mw
shall ind, on board of her, about twa
thousand barrels of sperml, mad a
Imt What or Nonsehl -4. Wh
V. New Leadlt seasmb Wa t w ee 1 P


god deal of whale-be The oil is
ed for burning in lamps, and the
whale-bone is for mbrells frames and
many other purposes.
9. Ner New London we shall see
two forts; one of them is called Fort
Trumbull, and the other Fort Griswold.
The latter is situated in Groton, just
acroe the river Thames.
10. I will tell you an odd story of
what happed in Groton, about the
year 181. There was war, then, be-
tween our country and Great Britain.
There were several British hdip in
sight, and it was expected they wueld
soon make an attack upon the or. A
company of soldiers from Hartford o-
cpied a house in Groton, as their bar-
117 One night, as they we 3 asleep,
there was a sudden ery of alarm among
the soldiers. They seized their arms,
rnd rushed out of the barracks. The
drums were beat, the sentinel fired his
gun,and all supposed that the British
were now about to make the expected
attack. Some of the men declared they
could see the enemy landing, and others
thought they could hear the roar of can-
non in the distance.
12. The officers assembled, and in-
quired into the matter. They soon dis-
covered that the British had nothing to
do with the alarm. It seems that one
of the soldiers, whose name was Tom
Stire, while he was sleeping with the
rest, fell into a drem. He dreamed
that the British were coming, and in his
sleep he exclaimed, "'Alarm alarm!
the enemy ae coming!" This occa-
sioned the whole disturbance.
1. Akr we have emmined New
Londn, we will et outa nd go to Hart
.a ti. Wa"? w .t l.eU IIt st--s.
WhatMseqr thlsmrt 5. uambt Der

ford. This is a vey h sio *sti
on Connecticut ver. V -i* st1M
the Deaf and Daub Ala, -we
shill s about *o*hna
deaf a'1d 6 br
tread and writ&,aadwb

sitliN a OCanmeidowt N oth
the W eslyan Uniahi.a
from Hatfod w wds l
the popl raise meidy heti
fonimm every year. T os *eMd
ent to all pa of the egatr. Se
of them go asfr U Chpulse Now
Orleua, nd the We dies.
15. Afer ievr Middleto, we
shall pass through D ha, whw the
people make a immese quantity of
shoes. At length we all arie at
New Haven, which is one of the band-
somest cities in New England. Here
we shall find a large basin, where were
formerly seen a great many canal boats,
which went along the Farmngton Cunal,
with merchandise and produce. The
line of this canal was taken,in 1848for
a railroad.
16. At New Haven we shall al ee
Yale College. This consists of several
brick buildings, ia which there three
or four hundred students. We'ua tgo
andmbLAyen I R tmt W mCot.
Wei6ael t 14 D kam Nte eUlp.
Inseba? c sm.W1t is. TroCdltI

38 f13 7125T 3001 Of tI5TOBY.-CONXUCTICU?.

i e o mef these building saa se the
eaNsnt. This isa coletiea of beauti-
ful mines from all part of the world.

17. It is 3 intereting to examine
tri dlbst, for tee ar stones thee
Shtae been ugt from various
dif B pe, Asia, i and Amer-
Ther are two tone pillars there,
whih eamr from the famous Giant's
Causeway, in Ireland.
18. Ter are also some specimens
of stones which fell from the air, in
Connecticut, about twenty years ago.
These stones formed k part of a vast red
meteor, that few along in the sky, and
finally exploded with a great noise.
The stones fell in the town of Weston.
19. They have also at this college
some professors who teach young men
how to use science in practice, in man-
ufactures and agriculture. There is a
public free school system in this state.
It once owned a great deal of land west
of the Alleghany Mountains, in what is
now the State of Ohio. They sold it,
and took the money, to pay it income
each year for public schools, so that no,
individual should have to pay out money

Wr. OamMt? l. M Mtsls mies? 19t.r P e

for education, bat 'every Coameetirt
boy and girl should har the prvl
of going to eeeol: At mset ty tax
the people a small sum for the schools,
so that they will be more interested in
keeping them good. This is the way
they do in several states.
20. The people of Connecticut are
very busy and ingenious. Many of
them go to the Southern and Western
states, and even as far as Mexico, to sell
the articles that are manufactured in
this state. Mr. Whitney, who invented
the machine called a cotton-gin, for
combing out the seeds from cotton very
quickly, and so made cotton much
cheaper and more used, was a native of
this tate; and Mr. John Fitch, who,
in October, 1788, made a steamboat,
which he named the Peseveance,
which ran eight miles an hwr on the
Delaware river.
21. He prophesied, in a letter to Mr.
Rittenhouse, in 179, that it would be
of immense advantage to the peter
lands; and that in time it woeld be the
mode of crossing the Atlantic ocean,
" whether," said he, "I shall bring it to
perfection or not." He was called rasy
to think of such a thing. But Robert
Fulton, of New York, first successfully
brought steamboats into use, and they
have altered the face of the great and
rich West, as the states beyond the Al-
leghanies are called; and brought Eu-
rope within a fortnight's pleasant sail of
the United States.
22. In Connecticut, too, was born
Mr. Blanchard, who invented a machine
for turning out crooked gun-sooks, and
lasts to make shoes uon, ad ev
cope -of human bsts, urmarbi,--
featres, ean, Mor, and all.

mdBhst sH I llt mut
~--? U.r 1 d

COUNINTICUT.-A 3uaIlusa-s11toui OF fag O011 2. 10.

SS The thrifty State of Conneet-
et and Rhode Island ae becoming
pet thoroughfares between their ad-
oining sister states, ad are pro6ting by
their prosperity. Connecticut had for
years made nearly one hundred thou-
sand dollars' worth of silk annually, and
Mmasachusetts, Ohio, Tennessee, and
several other states, are establishing the
culture, and also the manufacture, and
are encouraging it by legislative boun-

1. On the western border of Con-
necticut is a range of low mountains,
forming in some places the boundary
between that state and New York.
About thirty years ago, there was a
woman in these mountains who lived
alone in a cave. She had no bed but
the rock, and no furniture but a Bible.
Here she had dwelt, summer and winter,
for thirty years.
2. She had no light at night, and she
had never any fire. In summer she oc-
casionally wandered to the neighboring
villages, and begged a little milk, or
other food. But she lived chiefly upon
roots and nuts. The wild animals were
so accustomed to see her, that they were
not afraid of her. The foxes would
come close to her, and the birds would
alight on her head. She died about the
year 1W10.
3. The name of this siular woman
was Sarah Bishop. She lived on Long
Island at the ti~e of the Revolutionary
War. Her father' house ws b t by
the British, and she was cruelly
t. M-als iL tLh wtCemdmStot L
wt d t ab shMiept 4~ swe as Ht t

b a British okcer. Sb.1 tW
ci and wandend to tl.
Then she fead a cv~,at a 4Im
from any house; and there aw's,-
till about the tima of bhr deh .
4. At Hartford there is a iwt
tree, called the Charte Oak. T is1
a story of that tree, w"leI I t al
you. AoUt ab e huadm d adMiy

ChW artekeam& -
ago, the Kingof Eglas met i
mund Aodre to take mw tdb dthula
of the American e6 nig*- TIhs hat-
ters were papers, signed 1the dog,
granting the colonies certain vilgs;
and the people of the colonies did sot
wish to give them up.
5. Well, Sir Edmund Andros came
to Hartford to get the charter of Con-
necticut. Some of the people being
assembled at evening, the charter wa
brought in. Sir Edmund was present,
and was about to take the charter away,
when the lights were all soddeM blown
out, and the people were left in te dark.
6. By and b, the andles were light-
ed again; but the cterwas goe, and
it could not be lnd. Sk Edmund wo
Wt en Ms n Awe *Ub lar ms
Adiinesm as Delt DaIethbasms *,6.
lwy of Mr BsM W hab s and *1 dbsiewl


therefore liged to go away without it.
After a log time, the charter was found
in a hollow place, in this old oak tree,
standing in the southern part of the city.
It was hid there by Captain Wadsworth,
who took it, and carried it of, when the
lights were blown out.
7. The first house built in Copnecti-
cut, by the white men, was erected at
Windsor, in 163, by some people from
Massacuset. Two years after, about
sia persons came from Massachusetts,
sad settled at Wiadsor, Hartford, and
Wethersield. They went across the
wilderness, instead of going round by
water, as the firs settlers had done.
& The et year some more persons
removed free Masachusetts. They,
too, went by ad through the woods.
There was ihe, of course, no roads;
the whel agee was n unbroken forest.
Thy had nothing to guide them but a
pocket compass, which they carried.
They had a number of cows with them,
which they drove through the woods;
the ubsisted principally on their milk,
dunng their long nd difficult journey.
9. Stage can go from Hartford to
Boston in a day, and the rail-cars in
less time. These people were several
weeks,.then, in going over the same
10. I will tell you a story of what
happened at Wethersfield a few years
after that place was settled. A very re-
spectable man lived there, whose name
was Chester. One day he went into
the woods to see about his cattle.
11. By and by, he set out to return,
but he soon discovered that he had lost
his way. He wandered about for a
great while, hoping every moment to
r. Wast of A nt. bO in Cesetinrt
Other mulsm? What of their jmst t.
Con ges te aveliA feelllie them eat w.

get out of the woods; but the Atis
e went, the thicker were the trees, and
the deeper was the forest.
12. He now grew very anxious, for
the night was approaching. He hal-
looed and shouted for help, but no one
came. At length it was night, and the
forest all around was covered with dark-
ness. The wanderer listened, but he
could hear no human voice; he could
hear only the howling of wild beasts.
13. He climbed a tree, and there he
remained, in great anxiety, till morning.
Worn out with watching and fatigue,
and faint for want of food, Mr. Chester
still made exertions to escape. He as-
cended to the top of a hill, and there
he obtained a sight of the country all
14. But it was one boundless forest
on all sides. He was now in the great-
est distress. The weather was cloudy;
he could not see the sun, so as to direct
his course, and he had no hope but to
lie down and perish in the wilderness.
15. But at this moment his ear caught
a distant sound. He listened attentive-
ly; it was the beat of a drum. He
heard a shout and a call. He answered,
and soon he was in the arms of his
friends, who had come in search of him.
The people of Wethersfield had felt
great anxiety for his absence, and imag-
ming that he was lost in the woods, the
men had set out in various directions to
look for him.
16. By this means hbe was disrov.
ered and taken back to his family. His
grave-stone is still to be seen in the
burying-ground at Wethersfield. The
place where he was lost is called Moant
Lamentation. You will pas it on the
road from Hartford to New Haven.
17. If we know how other people
Is-l. aSty t Mr. ChestarT 1t-m,


work and sceed,we shall be both iab
and willing to be idustrious ourselves.
It will be curious, as well a instretive,
to look over Connecticut, and see how
the New England people make a living
-how busy they are. We American-
are busy ad enrprising, not only in
Connecticut, but elsewhere.
18. At the north-western prt of the
state, we find many furnaces smeling
down iron ore of the bet quality, from
their own mines. There is a shop man-
ufacturing some of the best and most
delicate ctlery; and another making
huge anchors and chain cables for our
vessels, from iron wrought at their own
furnace. Next, on the outlet of a pond,
we find a village of fifteen hundred peo-
ple, whose business is scythe-making.
Another town is famous for its brass
kettles, a article made nowhere else in
the whole nation. Hard by are two
towns, made populous on the rugged
hill-sides, and rich, by the manufacture
of bras clocks.
19. Coming eastward into Hartford
County, we find a gang of hands digging
copper ore. Then we will visit Colins-
ville, where is the largest manufactory
of axes in the world, turning out more
than eight hundred axes in ay. Fol-
lowing the Farmington river in the gorge
where it breaks through the Talcot Moun-
tains to join the Connecticut, are fifteen
hundred Scotchmen making carpets; and
another part of this establishment is ten
or fifteen miles north-east.
20. Passing by a community of Shak-
ing uakers, as they are called, who
supply the garden seeds, and brooms,
made of the broom corn, so largely
planted on Connecticut river; and by
Hards powder mills,-yei ener a

dma s of tm eompes A t san May
a miu aet H. wenst li. OmdpeO

rowing town, wh* s ma, MJ -S
to&fdinret kids, im o i
card-eeth megh to straig
fibr that ever gew a shp'
or on a cotton plaation..
21. Onthe otherdeof H ardd, we
find a town of three thousand iabth*
ants,manufactring varioussorts of bas
ware, to mention which kind, would be
to write half the nam ofallthearticle
in a hadwareAhop. Hooks and eye
must be articulasd, enouh o hook
all the ladis' dresses in the d.
22. In Tolland we ind oeton asd
woollen goods. Hese, at h out of
a beautiful lab, wheb wa Ius, ke
almost all others in ths omry, Ma
made useful, they weave sis-M ad
cassimeres. Then comes Mausme, wil
four or five silk factories, wheace a gat
part of our tailors obtain bir sewing-
silk and twist. Here the mw ager
was invented. In the eastern part of
Windham County, in the valley of a
single stream, in th space of twraty
miles, are twelve cotton factory village.
23 In New London County is man-
ufactured India rubber, in a variety of
forms; a wholly new thin n the his-
tory of manufactures. In Norwich, wool-
len and cotton mills abound. Here, in one
mill, more than two hundred and sixty
thousand dollars' worth of paper, for
books and for writing letters upon, has
been made in a year. New London and
Stonington, as id before, ae grow
ing rich out of the whale fishery. L y.,
at the mouth of the Connecticut fur-
nishes captains for vessels, and seamen
to assist in navigatig them.
4. Sailing up th river, irh in
spring m fild almost Mwkh
catch shad, yeou pass a quarry
stone. Then yu see a shp, a si
I. eismsst Caud-emNt s1. DSm wiL .1

42 T11 735?IR 300K 0F BH5TOUY.-X1W UNSLAXD.

of a large establishment at Meriden, for
nufacturing ivory. Hre you find
ivory comb, piano-forte keys, umbrella
tops, and all kinds of ornamental work,
made from elephants' tusks. And there
is an establishment of forty hands for
making patent inkstands.
25. Next we should find a shop turn-
ing out axe-handles; next, a screw fac-
tory. Then we pass, on the banks of
the river, a quarry of gneiss, a striped
rock, like granite, splitting about as read-
ily as chestnut timber; and whence are
sent vast quantities of stone to various
parts of the Union and the West Indies.
And then another quarry of red sand-
stone, employing three hundred men.
26. There is a whole town made rich
by the manufacture of all kinds of bells;
suck as sleigh, house, clock, and cow
bells. Fairhaven furnishes much of
New England, and some portions of
New Yok, with oysters. Waterbury,
with almost four thousand inhabitants,
makes buttons, brass wire, and pins by
the ton. A part of the pin establishment
is at Poughkeepsie, New York. Derby
Village, too, has a pin manufactory.
27. Then come Birmingham and An-
sonia, making cutlery and hardware.
Just above them is a large establish-
ment making chisels, augers, and the
like. Passing westward into Fairfield
County, we shall make acquaintance
with the hatters in abundance; here it.
is that superb hats are made.
28. If you follow all these out on the
map, and remember them, you will know
the actual present history of manufac-
tures in this state. And you will know
how many ways of industry then ae in
the United States, of which these are
specimens. My young friends, no one
need or ought to be idle.
a. Paper, tc. s. SlMdl? hIey? al,
4 so. o.ntmf Piss, ae.? 27. a11s, be.

1. I have now given yo some acs i
of the six states which bear the gmral
title of New England. In travelling
through this portion of our country, you
will observe that it is generally hilly,
and is crossed by a range of mountains,
extending from the north-eastern part
of Maine to the south-western part of
2. The climate is not extremely hot,
nor extremely cold. Snow begins to fall
about the first of December. spring re-
turns in April. There isusually sleigh-
ing in all parts of it, for a few weeks
during the winter. In summer the
weather is delightful. There is plenty
of strawberries, cherries, currants, and
other berries, and in the autumn there
are apples,,pears, peaches, walnuts and
chestnuts, and melons in abundance.
3. The largest river is the Connecti-
cut. It is a beautiful stream, and wa-
ters four of the New England States.
There is not a river on the globe whose
banks afford more charming scenery
than this. I have seen the Thames in
England, the Rhone in France, and the

Questons on Oew Map qf New Egland. -
Boundaries? Boundaries of each of the six New
England States Which Is the largest river
What rve principal riers lI New England?
Which way do they all rI ? What rang of
mountains in New Eglad? Extent and direc-
tion of this range? Distance and dirhtion at the
following town from Boston: Augusta, Coseod,
Montpeller, Provideoce, Hartford, NSw hten?
Extent of Nqw England? Populatie I Onresa
legthofNewEngland? Greatert wi Avr.
age lengthI Aveng width?
I. HowIamY st tes In w KZalM? YIh
men? a dte Bof the costry? Mon t I.
01salt? Frult I. Conemetol rer? 4


Rhine in Germany; and they an all
less pleasing to my eye than this.
4 You should see this river in June.
The meadows and mountains along its
borders are then in their glory. If you
are there in May, yeo will see the fish-
ermen, with their long nets, catching
shad, for which this river is famous.
In former times, there were a great
many salmon in this river; but for some
reason or other they have entirely de-
serted it. I suppose they went away on
account of the locks and canals that have
been builtupon it. Quonnektacut meant
in Indian, long river of pines.
6. Not many years since, salmon were
often to be taken as far up as Vermont.
They even used to ascend the little
streams that come down from the moun-
tains, and were often caught in them.
An old gentleman told me, that, about
thirty-five years ago, he was. travelling
at night, on horseback, among the moun-
tains in that state. As his hours was
going through a mall stream, that ran
across the road, he heard a great pound-
ing and plashing in the water. He went
to the spot, and there he found a salmon
that weighed nine pounds, which had
got into a shallow place, and could not
get out. He easily caught it with his
hands, and then carried it home.
6. In travelling through New Eng-
land, you will observe a great many
school-houses, by which you may know
that the children are well educated; and
you will see a great many churches and
meeting-houses, by which you will un-
derstand that the people are attentive to
7. There are still a good many for-
ets and much unoccupied land in New
gland. But a great part of its sur-
last MI m T S of da salmT s.
tagubm s~I Cblsm rd Plesim T s

fae is under cutivatimr. Thm, am
meo tha one thousand tor mand l
lages scattered over its hills, leyi-m
plains, and there were, i 1a 0 oe
two and a quarter million inhabitat
within its borders; which giw three
million for 1660. The pece are gen-
erally industrious, in agriculture, conm
merce, and manufactures.
8. From Yengese, the pronunciation
of the word English,by the Lenni Len-
nape Indians, came the word Yankees;
which is applied in this country more
particularly to the New Englanders. In
the south we apply it to all pple of the
northern states; and in EurM they
apply it to all the people of the Union.
no matter which part they inhabit.
will outlive every other tile.
9. In 1847 there were two thousand
four hundred and twenty miles of ra ni
roads finished in the New m
States. In Maine, three hdred; w
Hampshire, four hundred and seventy-
five; Vermont, three hundred and sevm-
ty; Massachusetts, nine hundred; Con-
necticut, three hundred; and in Rhode
Island, seventy-five. These have omt
over fifty millions of dollars; and several
hundred miles more were then projected.
10. There were in 1848 eight differ-
ent lines of railroad and steamboat travel
from Boston to New York city, varying
.in distance from two hundred and seven
to two bhndred and forty miles, aad tak-
ing from ten to fifteen hours. Nor is it
only in enterprise and making money
that the New Englndes and New
Yorkers, and other Americas, an suce
cessful. They are provident, and save
it for their children and families. There

sravilagsM? N umberomhblsd- a ur
theyoopled? s. Orig n tofs wda Tah
iApJtitmsa s. *il* of m aleme mw
'had emMs las4r 10. artsslmNstmz


ae savings banks, into which they put
imne of thqir earnings, to be kept for
tem. That is, they gie it to a com-
pany of persons, who will take care of
it, and use it for them to make more, and
give it to the owners when they call, or
send a written drder,called a check, for it.
11. There is iso Life Assurance, or
Insurance. Many who are earning
money, take every year during their
lives, a little of it, that they can very
well spare, and give it to a company,
who will carefully use it, and when the
owners die, will pay a certain large sum
agreed upon, to their wives, or children,
or friends, to support and comfort them.
12. Then there is Health Insurance;
where others pay a small sum-say
from four to twenty dollars a year-to
a company, and the company agree,
whenever these persons are sick, or
hurt by accidents, so that they cannot
work to earn money to support them-
selves and families, that they will pay
them a certain sum of money every
week they are sick,-from three to
twelve dollars. This was first com-
memoed in 1846.
13. You see it is the history of an
excellent thing. It takes care of prop*
erty, after it is earned, and avoids a
great deal of unhappiness, and misery,
as well as makes one feel safer, more
contented, and happier. You know that
persons have for a long time insured, as
they call it, their houses, and goods, and
ships; that is, paid a company a small
sum, to agree to pay them back a large
one, the value of their houses, r goods,
or ships, if they are destroyed by fire, or
by the dangers of the sea. Thi is called
Fire and Marine Insurance.
14. Such is New England now; but
akvhpgs Bes 1J. Ik -As is Miah
l I ?oIL. FPrNS M i060asmmt 14.

what was it a little more than two bhe.
dred years go A mee wilderes,
inhabited by bes, wolves and other
wild beasts, and by scared tribes of
Indians, who lived in wigwams, hunted
with bows and arrows for subsistence,
and were constantlyslaying each other
in battle.
16. What a great change has taken
place in a short space of time Yet
many interesting things have happened
within these two hundred years. It is
pleasant to go back, and trace the his-
tory of former times. There i no part
of our country, -not a town or village,
-that has not some interesting story
connected with it.
16. I shall endeavor to collect the
most mung and instructive portions
of New England history, and tel what
I .have to say in such a manner as to
please you. You are now acquainted
with the geography of this section of
the country; I shal therefore tari you
back at once t6 the period when our fore-
fathers first landed upon these shares.

1. A little more than two hundred
years ago, there were in England a
great many people called Puritans.
They were not happy in England, for
they had peculiar opinions about reli-
gion. They ere cruelly treated, and
some of them at length fled from the
country. They went first to Holland,
but finally they concluded to wander to
America; whence they are called Pil-
grims. *
What of Nw EBglad twm lbadl em oqt
iU. W bafitnawt
1. What dthP Resmt Bw dM th9stI .


S. They et o"t in two essels, but
e of them was leaky, ad went Ulk.
They all e ed the other ship, and
after a long and tomy passage, they
reached broad harbor. They then
sent some people ashore, to examine
the country. These found some Indian
corn in baskets, buried in the sand.
They also discovered Indian burial-
places, surrounded by sticks stack in
the ground.
8. One nightthe exploring party buil
a fire in the woods, and slept by the side
of it. In the morning, some arrow,
pointed with eagles' cws, and sharp
pieces of deer's horne, fell among them.
These were sent by some Indians who
came to attack them. The white men
fired their guns at them, and the Indians
aa off in great alarm. At this time the
saves had no guns, and they imagined
that the fire of the musket was lightning,
and the report thunder. No wonder
they were afraid of people who, as they
believed, made use of thunder and light-
4. Having examined the shores, the
emigrants pitched upon a place when
they concluded to settle. December O
1620, they landed on a Rock there, and
called the place Plymouth. It was win-
ter when they arrived, and the country
had a most dreary aspect. There wre
no houses to receive them, there were
no friends to welcome them; there was
nothing before them but a gloomy forest,
inhabited by savages and ilda beast
There was nohing behind t them t
vast oee, ruling between them aad
their mad land. This little colony

to AmAda W M N ye*dse irte t
osI se t i MsN buli l Lbast tsa f
Inse" OW Seash an 1* I PM '
Sudb a euleg hma ot a
T dseumer ,in d

e---aied of one ihuAdara "amkw
sons. They ren divided I i
families, andeach family rk is u
leg hose. .
& For some time the adn wre
not visited by any of the ladians. Tey
saw a few soon after their bading, at
these ran away as if they we very much
frightened. One day, however, an In-
dian came among-them, saying, in Eo
lish, "Welcome, Englishmen! Wel
come, Englishmen!"
6. This surprised the white ppe
very much. The Indian told them tat
his ame was Samoeet, and that he bad
leant to speak OEglish of the fisbera
he had seen upon the coet.
7. After some time, an Indian chies
called Maisasoit, came near to he st-
tlement, with some ofhis me. Hewas
a sort of king, and ruled over several
tribes. He was at fr d afraid to
down into the village, but by aod by h
went down, and the people sahrted him
with a drum and AIe, which likd
very ms.

SThim hebwet d
house, wheo he a a
ner, and dm a p0r

dmaud.t audste


rum. He then made a treaty with the
white people, and agreed to be at peace
with them. WThis treaty he and hs de-
scendants kept faithfully for fifty years.
9. I will now tell you of two white
men that got lost in the woods. It was
winter, and it was snowing very fast.
The snow had covered up the path, and
they could not find their way back to
the village. At length night came on,
and ma it grew dark they heard a dread-
ful howling near them.
10. They were very much alarmed,
for they did not know what wild beasts
might be in the woods. All night they
continued in the storm, shivering with
cold, and frightened at the wild sounds
they heard. At length the morning
came, and they reached the settlement.
I suppose the noise they heard was the
howling of wolves.
11.The settlers found their situation
extremely uncomfortable. The winter
was very severe, their houses were mis-
erable, and they were destitute of all
those conveniences which they had been
. accustomed to enjoy in England. Borne
down with suffering, many of them were
table sick, and when the spring arrived,
half to their number were dead.
12. Notwithstanding these discour-
aging cram ances, other persons came
out from B nd and joined the set-
tler so tl, in ten years after, the
whole nesir amunted to three hun-
dred. Is th yor 1800 men than f-
teen hunde peras came freeO Eng
land, and uiled Baoston, Dorch- r,
Salem, ad ether place" in the Vidry.
13. These people were nearly all
Puritans, but many of them po ed
wealth, and had been bout up in

d two mta t ls t T 1t. i.bhl apd tifd
edophli OtL wmtawt d Who t- n-
us* 14 t4. Wiat d tisse Msem II.

a very delicate manner. Their sole
object in coming to America wae to
enjoy their religious opinions without
restraint. But they' had not foreseen
the sufferings that were before them.
14. The winter set in with unusual
severity. The snow fell to a great
depth, and the cold became inmnse.
Assembled in log houses, which afford-
ed but a poor shelter from the driving
blasts, the emigrants had to endure
hunger as well as cold. Their stock
of provisions became nearly exhausted,
and many of them were compelled to
subsist on clams, muscles, nuts, and
15. Unable to sustain these privations,
many of them died. Among these was
one woman whose fae has always ex-
cited peculiar sympathy. This was La-
dy Arabella Johnson. Her father was
a rich man in England, and she had
been brought up in the enjoyment of
every luxury.
16. But in America she was deprived
of the common comforts of life. Her
delicate frame could not endure these
trials. Although her husband came
with her, and every care and kindness
were bestowed upon her, yet in about a
month after her arrival, she died.
17. Such were the sufferings that
attended the first settlers in New Eng-
land. Yet these were sustained with
the utmost fortitude. Those who died
left a state of sorrow, in the conscious-
ness of having done their duty, and the
strong hope of entering a state of peace
beyond the grave. Those who lived
prayed to Heaven for strength to sup
port them in their troubles, and their
prayers seemed to be answered.
I8 Thu prepm ed for life or deth,

- 1 as. i l IIadt t it. III
Mtheelen rU. samio t-


dtey eontined to t le with their
miifktea, wiit a 8ism of hramres
which we emat filn admin.

1. I hae now told you something
about the two colonies o Plymouth and
Massachetts. The settlement at Ply.
mouth was the first permatat English
settlement in New EBglad. The col-
ony oMa chusetts, e., blue hill,"
was so named from a native Idian tribe.
This olony increased much more rap-
idly than aouth.
Such ftvotnble ccout wee givt
-n of it in England, that many persons
of distinction came from that country,
end etled in Boon anrd other par of
the colony. Amour these wasw Sir -
ry Vau Hewa but twmrty-five ya
old when he arrived, but he was grave
that he woa the heats of the peopleand
they ade himsgovernor.
3. You will recollect it was in he
year 1633 that the fir settlement was
made in Connecticut. In 136 Roer
Willimu was banished and settled in
Rhode Island. New Hampshire was
firssettled in 1083, and Maine in the
amue year. In 188 a setement was
made at New Haven, which was after-
wards called the colony of New Harea.
Vermont was nt settled till 17l4.
4. About the year 136, a woman,
whose nae was Ann HutchinsoR, be-
gan to peach tuane doctrines in Ma-
.echmwem She hadpleasinq addRees,
I. wb ari Wm &a rad in .y

Mt &AI4M fa t lsent 9. m
v-t s.Aa lf- mr l^T-1

wAu ktheeewa Sir the icin
a6t in so he wM d bek pto il
ide Theytlker seve great de he was t,

by having his head cut C for "pl-
and iome of them bea me ve tra y.

6. For a long daie, the ladike/ did
At length Ann Hubhtahmon'tsoeM

were condemned Ma b ait d bhe
wm baihed from the colony. Sir

ate, wne aithslly omh red y di m:
but the; Peo he who lived in 0Ea ,
end ureat e rl year e re meeeaod,
aIn 1i, on t charge e mof ahigh t

brook, ad at Wedtereeld tey kMW
six men,three wornned anwd.
6. TeF log thing the Idi aid
ot moluent the oinhabitante rf m
ct Harsorad tPlo oider what oi be
treaty mad. wiih MaMasot, bfte

done was deterin oberted o endIm:
but the Pequot, who lived in -a-anli-

SmeIn agathey them. About ainy-
ookwhite mean d seventy friendly Indi
wix me thre men, aed. Thy w ll
Conequendery, M ommae d of Opairtn
at Hartford to eonrider what should be

8. They entered some bnP a hmd
ford, end went down C outnd etr
ptol akod Her e amey oCap to
maim a seddea attack upe n ati
Indian fort, sitated where ouimam
nowr tands. Thiius was oneofpri-

a Tbhey eaed e h es Iy> it. IA
etomiaesb e ilgle c pited

48 na t IST 2001 01 XI8TOZ.-XZW INGLA).

break. The Pequots had no suspicion
that an enemy was near. But by aad
by, a dog barked, and then one of the
Indians, who saw the white men, gave
the akwm. At this instant, the soldiers
fired upon the Indians. Many of the
savages were killed; but very soon the
rest recovered from their astonishment,
and then they fought bravely.
10. They shot their arrows and guns
at the white men, and hurled stones and
sticks at them with the greatest fury.
The Indians were far more numerous
than the white men, and the latter were
at length nearly exhausted. At this
moment, Captain Mason ordered their
fort to be set on fire. The flames caught
quickly, and spreading from wigwam to
wigwam, soon set them all in a blaze.
11. It was an awful scene, and the
struggle was soon terminated. Seventy
wigwam were reduced to ashes, and
irx or seven hundred Indians were killed
either by the bullets or the fire.
1.& Thi dreadful event alarmed the
Peqapts, and they led, with their chief,
Sa&m us, to the west. They were fol-
lowed by the white men, who overtook
them in a swamp, near Fairfield. Here
a battle was fought, and the Indians
were entirely defeated. This was fol-
lowed by a treaty with the remaining
SIndia, and the Pequots gave the colo-
nies no more trouble.
13. In 1643, the four colonies of Ply.
mouth, Massachusetts, Connecticut, and
New Haven, entered into an agreement
for the purposes of mutual defence.
They were led to do this by fear of the
-tll. Derb tibetad of hefd t. IL What
did telm do after t battle Wat di the
wheMs ps dot What ua ha the dm l
delm spUn the Puqus? ll. What wa des
esdt WMhy ws this t alnelm belw
ts Fi*kdglanelms I9

Indians, who were nwvmy akimdly,
and who watched evey opptUmty to
do the white people mlIk .

1. We now approach a perodof great
interest in the history of New Eng md.
The Indians perceived that the Englih
were rapidly increing in number,
while they themselves were as fast di-
minishing. They foresaw that, in a
short time, the English colonies would
oversread the whole land, while they
should themselves be drive back into
the wilderness.
2. This excited their jealousy, and
led them cordially to hate the EBglit.
Beside this, quarrels occasionally rm
between the white inhabitants and the
savages. Whether thee originated with
the English or the Indians, the latter
we raways sre to be thought in th
wrong, and were punished by the white
people accordingly.
3. In short, the Indiana had discov-
ered that the Enlish, being wiser and
more artful than they, werelikely soon
to become their masters;.ad the hatred
thus excited was aggravated by acts of
injustice and oppresio, committed on
the part of the English toward the av-
4. There lived, about this time, in
Rhode Island,an Indian,whwas called
Philip by the English. He was chief
of the Wamp ags, and lied at Meant
Hope, near Bril The country w
then called Pokanoket.
1. What of the 100 1. L tleMsll
What ha the dIm -uir-t Wftal
amsdtha ed d eithe-a 4. lWh
filipt .L What dUit 1 polsi
:* .. :


be* a iiiianb~~bb~~b rpr of gir" PC
wrea .hes9d9h 6dliz. wowi, in the
coureof a sw yrmocEe 1ato 4e0is as
indadent tribal, Aftrreieding p-
pmt dek to drive th a'o~ fysm
dok4a, dben bi tCowtry such

C.di.ly~ ho al"ited in kisot,
%"*aof Oim in NeM Efibd.
lbeanwvud wA, the cifB, l
641e6 Alalf "lik ldith l d imct, In
a fw' ,l r-refs* d d

fNkth* wo;1 iddcemuto ie
EuglIA dc Iotagrighted, arid
greedy, who township to ton-
.Sip and a" yt olony and V who
would newr be coatt until they pe
umed &mry foot of hand wet o th.

O1.Np-'-l the gudul do-
ub lui of d il
0" woo is 0 w wed weeb the
fs~ wu99h ae Ie 4,thee thein

I 1 4 m. ksasmwt4
- 1MOWW'

tuma lesav.
& To remedy these evil., Phlif so-
posed that a n sy eIt idbe
made, by *Ul the tribe iee nX
to deprty re E lgtL B
difficulty in n 1g A. ehie i.rto sl his
sobenu. A guamr wket- agred
upoo, nad .oo o wn r ir ua.
. 9. In Joe, 11, ps _noplao* aG
Swmaey, in Pn Cdl.a, se
returning hones ct hat, ad uamn
attack was mao by so"DW giC es9
them. At this prida th am. t
supplied with U5rht ,pirw o, 4&i,

10. roIna Ife t thwereo
or ine of the inhato 9t ~ IwMw
were kiUld. Ths pow ry wr iar-
diddely ailarmed, aso4 6w b asr
the uccor of dto il fto P
ters. An awuklisumidesa& r 6r
dima the next morning, ud Mi, ot
them were killed.
11. This resolute conduct awe the
Indians; and Phillp hfU expfi
an attack, fled om Hope, wi
his warriors. It wasu en O sertaand
that they had gone to a swmp in Pbm
eat, now Tiverton. The wihse peogI
followed them thither, and mmwiift
w a sed spurnedthe tilt.i h
toie to
to neeoonter & a-y 6* swe r ,

asam mImaehl i~atbeSmuimIt c r
to* insi~~15 ~
"oldL k wm 4w
w g* *0~lot


dbismined to surround it, ad starve
them at. But Philip e-eed their
dAii and privately sole away with
his men.

NBW SNGLAND-Cou'wnro .
1.'1 can hardly tell you all that hap-
pned during the bloody war that fol-
lowed. all parts of New ngnd,
the Indiana mmed to be movedby a
spirit of deadly revenge. The set the
town of 8pa eld on fire, and no lss
thathirty hos were consumed.
AboUt eihty yun men were at-
tacked Mddy Brook, as they were
aployd tno tn .ae gra
na idea that a enemy was at hand.
They had topped a moment with their
tea and w gathering Bome grape
by 6sead.eids.
4 Sad naste thunderbolt, the a-
re yl brake upon their ea. They
wer ihamditely surrounded by the
ladimi; and having no arms, they were
ineayaMe of defence. Seventy of them
w shot down, and these were all
bWd in aoe Znve.
4. New Lpm hire and Maine,
the Indians feD upon the towns, set the
boume on fre, and killed the inhabit-
sat. At Sao, Dover, Exeter, and oth-
er=a teyte esBaiited the most dread.
"WA kb iehss, they iM.. dl
(abeoag, new rokobI and burt al
isth e h as in e, fa which te in
hbl Udte had refug. Thi they
also sailed; and f tw day, ince-

tI.W oritA m w o lt. W W U

s-d they pued their hmbt.*ot
Wri A NOW 4et1( bals
bfa in aires of to 1aab=9
ly owe I isea it was Mbe3.

endingg it imeiar t deo
te s e in th way, they
to set.e te the ho-a With long
poles, they thrust against it firbraad,
and rap dined i frimataa. They
tW agipw ofre upo ii4ai.ly
Srldoade at d ad a,
ae it at fine, and pahei it agise the
7. Tho. wu arl i m-waa aom-
munigatid th ailig a ,d saw,
feeliro aoutri of their taes
tooekLr stie so tism sh t cat
donlra *WI*a sh"W toes-

_es:_- di a ua ea a
.& Smee aer Ma eI iSn
some seismp ear0=s to
attacked thI M-Ibimns, bow4 s
of them, sod the at iUm ae.

.d deft e. Mierra *@A i
L Id" L INA f ,M

mw UNOLArD.-fttRO ?1L1P'S WAS'.

a humble dhe Namgpanet. They
were a pe fu tribe a Rhode Iland,
and occpied a fort of reat strength.
Near two thouand white men went
against them. The fort was built on
a hill in the centre of a swamp, and in
it there were four thousand Indian war.
10. There was but one entrance to
the fort. This was accidentally disco.-
end by the white men, and they al-
lantly rushed in to attack the enemy.
But the Indiana met them, and many
of the English were killed. They were
at length obliged to retreat; but by and
by, eae Coeeticut troop entered the
fort on the opposite side, and at the same
moment the attack was vigorously re
need at the entrance. *
11. The Indians were now cut down
with dreadful daughter. The fort was
taken, and six hundred wigwams were
set on ire, and burnt to the ground.
More than one thousand of the Indian
warriors were killed, and three hundred
were taken prisoners.
1. Such were some of the events of
this remarkable war. For near two
years, almost every part of New Eng-
land was a scene of bloodshed. But
although the Indians killed great num-
bers of white people, yet their own loss
was far greater. In truth, they never
recovered from the many reverses they

m. Asrh the wee, perhaps, ten
times M e ny of them as of the white
such was the superior skill
of the letter; that the
seMatMl defeated, and
S Maw B11fitbd ranally

at Mi ai

14. Ast A tewr was
the deA tPof hip. H siudat
a swamp near Mount lHopes,. i..
other India. Captdh Ohdealk a
few white men, anrroended the aM
at night.
16. When the morning came, Fblhp,
perceiving that he could not eaypi,
rushed toward the mpot where mare f
the white men lay. An English soldier
levelled hims but it mised fie. An
Indian, who wa of the rt, too delib-
erate aim, and shot the chief, thr
the heat. Thus fell the mot esabtt-
edd d the ldian chief. Feroa e
time the Indians, finding further~ ie
ame vain, began to submit to the Sar
lish. The struggle was eetimed a
while in Maine, bt that mams enda .
and no general efort was er aw
made, ea the part of the W"-ir to
subdue the English.
16. Thi war, the tpry of whiMh
have just iIated, lated biou the nS
1676 till 18. About i
white men were killed in the b-Al
thirteen towns were demtyed, re -
hundred dwelling-houes burnt. Thee
were dreadful loea to the poworma
nits, but the unhappy Indiansa safed
still more.
17. Their chiefs and their pinea
men were nearly all killed. Thr wiff
wams were burnt; they wee driven he
their homes; and now, deflate d iab
duod, their situation wasa O which
well ecitp ear pity. Sav e lihi
happst l e, a niserbae eudit ;

thd dlami 14. Wht wati lsi *in wrt
sI. to. Uwhoieem wlit
Ster at M.Barr ao, ir.talt
win Ig1sei l
vat Ir. m8ni' IU
Wbsd hude


but the New England Indian had now
lost their independence, and allthat sa-
qss hold meet dear.
IS. From that period they rapidly di-
minished; moot of the tribes are now
extinct, and a few hundreds are all that
remain of a mighty people, that once
theatened to drive our forefather from
this lad.

NrW NGLAND--Oarmwmm.
1. Soon after Philip's war, the colo
nie egn to be involved in difficulty
wih England. The king of England
claimed these colonies as his own, and
he, with the parliament, made certain
w respecting trade and commerce
wit Ameria.
9. Now it was pretended that the
eolniea had violated these laws, and
idrMaat the king determined to take
may teir charters. These charters
wer of gnat importance, for they ve
the colonies many privileges. The
king who reigned in England t the
time was James II. He ent Sir Ed.
mund Andro over to this country, to
take away the charters of all the New
England colonies, except Plymouth.
3 He also appointed Sir Edmund
governor over all the colonies whose
chte he thus proposed to take away.
ecordurly he came. I have told you
BoW tie harer of Connecticut was id
n a oak tree; but Sir Edmund assumed
ti oerment of the New Engand
eaes, althog he could ot hnd that
At fit be pvened people
I. Whit dobt qsi o t (Mqd S.
liit L WWS a t Mw iemdes oat
w e W etda l Ut t ir ert
hmd al mast 4. What d bb iea estI

pretty well; but band by he did may
thins which displeed them very
c. Many unjust and oppessive
laws were passed, and the people saw
that Sir Edmund had no regard to their
happiness and prosperity in his admins-
5. Sir Edmund began to rule in 1686.
Two year after, the news arrived that
Jame II., king of England, had become
so unpopular a to be obliged to leave
the country, and that a new king, Wil-
liam .,ad taken his place on the
throne. This news ve the colonies
grnat joy, for the hated awm U. on
account of h onduct toward tb d
or especially on saeont of the gov-
eror, Sir Edmund Andros, whom he
had sent to rue.ovr them.
6. Under the excitemet of thi joy,
the people of Borton eied Sir Edmund
and about Ay of his asoeiat, and put
them in prison. Th they remained
for some time; te wee hn senot to
England, to be trid for their mi
7. I will now relate what may sen
to you very strange. In the year 16B8,
two children of Parris, a minister in.
Salem, Massachusetts, were taken sick.
They were affected in a very singular
manner, and the physicians were sent
for. They were at a loss to account for
he disorder, and on of them fouly
mid they must be bewitched.
SThe children, hearing this, and
being in great ditMs, declared that a
Indian woman, living in the house, had
bewitched thm. Mr. Parris beed
what the children id; the ladia we.
man was accusedt rime, "is a
l. W"nt mnm d te a I W ItMlW
hiHssne a is t .i


rote of agtation and alarm, prtilBy
confessed hoaelfgiky. This adr ex-
ited get attention; many people came
to see these little children, and they
were very much pitied.
9. By and by other thoughtless chil-
dren, loving to attract notice, pretended
that they were affected in a similar man-
ner, and they aid that they were se-
cretly tormented by an old woman in the
neighborhood. All these things were
believed, and more children and several
women soon declared themselves be-
witched, charging several persons with
being the authors of their distress.
10. They pretended that these per*
on entered their ooms through key-
holes, or cracks in the window, pinched
their flesh, picked them with needles,
and tormented them in the most cruel
manner. Nobody could see these tor-
mentors but the suferers themselves,
although seal persons might be in
the rea where oneof the bawHed
ws wautffg ad a rieking, &h6 Ae
paWehes of the witch.
11. Strange as it may seem, this
matter, instead of being regarded as a
delusion, was touJt to be founded in
reality. The people those days be-
lieved thahe devil sometimes gave to
certain persons great power for purpose
of evil. These persons were said to
deal with the devil, and they were con-
sidered very wikekd.
12. Thebusinss they wen opposed
to carry on with him was called witch-
craft, and any person under their infu-
ence was aid to be bewitched. In
England, parliament had thought it
neces to make severe laws against
witch t Seral prons there had
bean enmnm d and executed under

t-obpnialsidt iid Wheladl tbs
Ilit I I Lhe1 ds 1 T SL.Whadhbee

those la.f h k wherziharhtf
to proceed in a similar 1MuM|"a f
lem. Aaroag J li oM. iMa e
cmed of Wah ph wi vhmf their
neighbor w ~6ea in pris", UA a
court wam frmed to try themn.
1. Many of them wea easuied
and found guilty, and some, under the
filuence of a distmpeed imagintio0n,
confessed that wthe filty. The
business at Wet rsch a very
alarming height. Nineteen passes
had been elected; ome hudred ad
fifty wer i prUso; amd many aem
were soansed.
14. In this state of things, the pn e
began to doubt dt comeetms of i
proceedngs. They mm i th b-
ject mose casAeily, sad wa very ean
satisfied that they had acted maey.
The judge of the court als began to
take difslat views of the sjfeet
Those who wene rogh t al were
therefore ited, d those pia=
wern ymebO
16. Thus nded this ea diMr
deusion. We at the preset d, wh
know that the is no such tlhig
witchcraft, cannot bat wonder that or
ancestors should have believed it, sad
that many persons should have been
hung for a crime that was only imagin-
ary. But we should remember that it
was a common error of that age.
16. It was not an invention of their
own. They received their notions from
England, and it was natural they aould
act agreeably to them. We ma0t do
them the justice to say, however t
they very soon discovered their ar,
andeueprssed their sorrow for it. '

dI. in *s" vl"u u m tha 14.
atshW&dt the Mia bqts) ast Wt -
bwot is. kIs the mWsay mhfthaiai .
wuA 1t. Whdidk l -s1 bdmls la1 t

M4 TH1 rlST OQ sOr 1 sI5tOTt.-NW INGOLAND.

n3W NaGLAsP-e-onrws. .
I. een after the aeesipe of Wil-
liam IMl. to the trop of. England, a
war broke oe between dt cotry and
Fmane. Now, the Fneh had several
etdmMat, in Canada, emandig along
the rinr St. Lwromee, and incladig
MEnteal and Quebe. They had ablso
several 6t pen Le Cbaplain and
ti. The wr between Fraoe md lBg
hN, in Eturop, of eurse eaneded to
their A rican colonies The Fech
Im Caada, maist by usr *ubers
fIndians miade d an t l pit dtoew
XQaund br t the hM s f the ahab-
otsal t mo y fBt lao pee oo, and

d-Blmam e nei ot I di em mB
n eid Isam s of ws, wpnia.
Theandaias peclteingfthei

- WelmstMeae.d mihahI.P t lew-ns ,er
a-Me satmdight, aadd in nui-w.
tor; the people wen m hUed i
sksk sdm, and tAei whose lives were
l were two 6m their hoomsand
to eNd auffriag wrane thn
4eT5 The history of theme thing is
t" p Mtim for Btie' rnader; I s ill
therfin only tell them one story of this
a war.
4 Il the winter of 1696, a perty of
Indians mde an attack on the town of
i Haverhill, Iaachsetta. Among the
Qmii.. ra dotAfr qf A. VWd Bi.
NW&d vM L A i-M, .-Im. what W imadoe Ib
10m* ham Nw SndT NonT Scoa faum
Nlbs B kIN*WbumdlmiA? b 0" die.
I1Mt 6fm Qmbs? F1- MmWMaI
nmalsmempt LLM0k-lahr
LWah t irstl1Ma Mt WIpuIs-
t iadfsn dothla Ifat dd utht.
d VtW4-7,MMthmap4In rmIhtMuirW

pol of that twn, M a M DI
sta. Hewa ia aeld.a. weuk.whea
Am mewun inal.eiw hs wba
the Mois of the attak aaed his rs.
He Wimediad maistOd, na to Wh
hone to save h fi had seven
cildrsn d them Ieoedbetd for the
pspoM of taldng them to a lbc of
sfety before the dWien "wM mnime
I&. Hih wa u &cZmd de a .U
ift but a week old. H am har-
id to hert beut s k eol "et
mdy to lb, the houe, Mr. Dusan
perved tht a pt of 'the mve
we already cloe to hdwud Ax-
pedg tdt all would be dainhe rum
io the9oor,a"doatodhis hsem, with
the &uiutio o tsldjl off WI a hil-
, te one he loved barl, tmd lying
Wriethta toa Alae of afrty.
6D BtwUa hokunhethe IwWeh
Shiu whs sho ihoU I ma to
the npavote a uoo ndU ~ M ad
thenfaet lCthr UUM~t rf-l Ll

wad, he t hiamelf Iptw #hem
and the ldiar. The savage dis-
chared their gpa at him, bst tOhy did
not i Ihh. q@ had a lam, ~, nd
he o tea ert ...
7.' Th lhe haurd ds ~il dei
lmt St Trrthestay of r. Do ftels
7!= *;= W B46


long, loaded his gu he went, ma
ed at his pursuer. Thus he pro-
cedeed for more than a mile-protect-
ing his little family, defending himself,
and keeping the enemy at a distance.
At length he reached a place of safety,
and there, with feelings of joy which
cannot be described, he placed his chil-
dren beyond the reach of the Indians.
8. But Mrs. Dunstan was destined to
undergo the severest trials. Although
she was very ill, the saages compelled
her, with the nurse and her little infant,
to go with them. They soon left the
town of Haverhill, and et out to go to
the homes of the Indians. These wre
at the distance of one hundred and fifty
miles. You must recollct that it was
winter, and the journey was to be per-
formed on foot through the wilderness.
9. Mrs. Dunstan and the nurse were
soon overcome with fatigue. The In-
dians, perceiving that the title infant oc-
cupied much of their attention, snatched
it rom the mother, and killed the little
innocent,by striking it against a tree.
After a toilome march, and the great-
est suffering, Mrs. Dunstan and her
compaon completed the journey.
10. But now the Indians concluded
to remove to a distant place, and these
two women were forced to accompany
them. Wheq they reached the end of
their journey, they discovered they were
to undergo severe torture. They there-
fore determined, if posible,to make their
l. O&Qe night, Mrs. Dunstan, the
nune, ad another woman, rose secret-
ly, while the Indians were asleep.
There were ten of them in the wigwam
where they were. These the women
killed with their own hands, and then
depted. After wanderig a long time

in the woods, rthy nresa li
and Mrs. Dnsetan was r seBe il&
family. This is r.strag -M ,buit I
believe i is perfectly trn. .
12. A few years after wapi
which I have jst been tlia g yea,
another war broke out with the Faekh.
which occasioned gent diamee 1a the
colonies. It was culted Quae Aa'
war, for at that time King Wiliam w
dead, sad Queen An was as th Brit-
iQ thone.
13. This war commaee i 1708,
and the Freanh ad ladiMs ms-
diately invaded New Ead. In
17o, a party of Fnrah iad adins
madean ttak onDeulmd. t waat
night, and in the miditewitar. AH
the people werm aleep; they had
fear that an enemy wa at had. he
sudden yell of te mages bam sthe
ear, ad they then knmethe dasi
sne that was coming.
14. The town wa set o a e, fa ty
sevenof the people were killedY d me
hundred nm,,womeaaddli mawum
carried into captiity. A.oag th,
was Mr. Williams, a cleqyma, aId hi
wife and five children. They et ot on
foot, and began their journey through
the snow.
16. On the second day, Mrs. Wil-
liams, who was in bad health, was very
weary, and unable to keep up with the
rest. Her husband was 0 allowed st
asist her, and she seemed rto on thi
point of fainting, from weeOaes and fa-
tigue. At this time, onseofth Indians
came up to her, and killed br6. r,
16. The party then went oxi; r
enteen other persons were L the

Aoe'is war Wb&ql Wh happasMts m
Dearie the attUk a DM"ad. 14. Wh4t
Mr. wlal. m dhba i h ln ICOfllm.~
ran? i Whateoftd td r sepdMt '

56 Tat jrIis 3001 01 oII?03Yo.-N3W ENGLAND.

savasbefre they i ,ved ip Canada.
Nr.Wiau= was 1a9 ted by the
Frnch ps~ the 6mr d after two
year, he returned, with fiftyseven
other captives, to Deerfield. He was
minister of that town for twelve' years
after his return, and then he died.
17. This story affords a fair example
of the celties of this war. It continued
till the year 1713. The people of the
colonies suffered very much; they made
several attempts to take Canada from
the French. Queen Anne sent over a
comiderable number of troop, to assist
them in dong o. But hi project
failed. They, ever, took PortRoyal,
now called A polish, in Nova Sotia.
18 At length, in 1713, the French
and aglish made peae with each
other ia Europe, and the war ceased
thee, adin the colonies also. From
this time, Nova Scotia and Newfound-
land belonged to the English. Canada
still belonged to the French, and con-
tinued so till the year 1769, when it
was eonqueed by the British, and has
since remained subject to that govern-

1. I am sorry that I have but little to
tell you about this period, except tales
of war. It is painful to read the history
of times gene by, and learn what dread-
ful suffengs have been endured by the
further M~dt n ye givr d Mr. Wills and
Lbe oter eapdth IT. How hln did Quee
Ane% au eamiwt WhLtdid th l l at-
inpt to do? What pla did try nks? Is.
Wkht took pl la the darw iris Te m did
Newfimdlamd d NmeO Sootl bdMele th
diml To whan did Ca O ad bm
. What oh ddeld w ak of war d pMMes

generations that hve lived before a
But painful as it is, we must sill read
it. It may teach us the ad conse-
quences of war, and show us how much
better it is to be always at pae.
2. In the past ages of the world,
kings, and generals, and great men,
have been fond of making war, and I
am afraid that some people are disposed
to applaud them for t. But the wisest
and best of men look upon all wars as
evils, and they deem those persons very
wicked who promote a war that could
safely be avoided.
3. About the year 1722, the Indian
tribes in Maine, and along the eastern
and northern border, made war upon
the English settlers. It is supposed that
they were incited to this by some French
Jesuits, Roman Catholic priests, who
lived in Nova Scotia. These Indians
often attacked the people in Maine,
Massachusetts, and New Hamphire,
and annoyed them very much. Bt n
1726, this war ceased.
4. In 1744, England and France were
again involved in strife. George II. was
then king of England, and this war is
called King George's war. The most
important event to New England, that
took place during this period, was the
capture of Louisburg. This was a very
strongly fortified town, belonging to the
French, on the island of Cape Breton,
in the Gulf of St. Lawrence.
6. Here they kept a good many ships,
and in time of war, these drove away
the English and American sailors, who
went to the banks of Newfoundland to

8. What did theo blsas a imlt Whe dMi
thids wM et 4. Whit aqpamd il 1V44(
What was the mat pimp~rt ~swa A hml
dwrtMih Gose's wart U V"h k Mt
i ath alsd of O btCap ta has-t MI
rib LMuibg. a. Why was ri m tMi

NNW 3IorAW3D.-haIKOU -AN Moux -3-3INix.

tesh ed4eL. To stdwLetborg wr
thesfot a bA eet Toeoph
this, the colies united d sent At
four thousand dthre hundred mn, muder
the comndd of Sir William Peppeell,
against it. They went in twelve Phips,
and some smaller vessels.
6. They arrived at Loiburg the lst
of April, 1744. They were occupied
fourteen days in drawing their cannot
eros a swmp, so as to bring them
near the town. They then besieged it;
that is, they rounded it both by land
and water. They also made frequent
attacks upon the sldie i the fr.
7. Theu continued till the 16th June,
when the French commander requested
them to top, and on the 19th he sori
rendered the pace into the hands of the
Amerieai. Thus Louibrg and the
land of Cape Brto came into the
posesion of the English.
& In 1748, France and Engknd
again made peace, and the eoQMa I
one mor enjoyed tranqillity. But
this did not last ong. A still more ex-
tensive and important war was at hand.
This commenced in 1765, and is called
in this country the French and Indian
war. There ae people now living who
remember this war. I have seen my-
self a good many of the old soldiers that
were engaged in it, and they have told
me many stories about it. I shall tell
you some of these by and by.
9. But as several colonies beside
those of New England were engaged in
this war, and as it was carried on chiefly
in Canada, ad along the remote parts

with the shelem a toI tlaosbul What
did th .lrl deT Dusib thpesed.
lap o fte eAeislm 2UPWlb Iioug. r.
w ) whedwas Lei h t ob t What
I- t t wa ml w ta minwt G.
rWi.,r th- PMp dwar ds1 e4mhd at

9de. asMy, kisek m t m
to se,, st ofth an
bla s Aee VIA es abo
colonies, I shall give yo ean auimne-t
the French war.
10. I need only say ne, tht Ne
England took an active pt in it, d
that her soldiers votribtel very amw
to the sucems of the British ames. T
whole of Canads was conquered by it*
English, and from that thm to the 0 ae
ent has been subject to Great Brin
together with Nova Sood.,Newo .d
land, sad Cape Breton. This war Ws
closed by a treaty of peace, mds at
Pari, in 176. .
11. It was about the time thad his
peace was ooncluded, that thedo s ed
America began to be aited s,
coming revolution. The end"et elth
British kiag and nitaent was mase
with selfishnes m the first setdesont
of the country.
12. I msa by this, that in the laws
they had passel, te regrlai. they
had made, and the office they had ap
pointed, for America, they had it lel
view to promote the happiness and pro
perity of the colonies, than to make
them profitable to Engln, the mother
country, and to needy favorite.
13. Yet, in spite o this unkind pol-
cy, the people here loved and honed
the king, and cherished the strongest
attachment to Old England. Many of
the inhabitants had come from that
country, ad the et had descended
from Englia emigrants. B nd was

1o. Whte ut wad 1 w *i W JR *IIhea
wart Whaetmw thw wedt t w ii
ad Iv uM tr heMo wVr dot t .
of tbh klm i -sd i t iK a
wat wU the o k r i td seltesin
baglat new w dere uMinmr a i

a 2E3 FIRST B00K OF 3MI5T0T.-II3W SNOi*3I.

thefb r always spoken of a HOmo,
the Mter Country, the Land of tir
Fathers. By ek tender epthets did
the coloniesxm the af1etion they
felt for Engian
14. But these feelings were no secu-
rity against injustice. The British par-
liament passed a series of acts relating
to Amerca, fron 1760 to 1770, which
roused the indignation of the people,
and brought on the Revolutionary War.
Neu nd took a leading part in this

1. I & have occasion to tell you
mny hintedra g things that happened
in thSi section of the country, during
thatwar. But as the whole nation was
eaed in it, I shall defer my account
ot til I hve told yoe the history of
the other cedaies.

SAa sated in the preceding chap
tar, the palate history of the New
England colonies properly closes about
the time of the French war. They then
began to act in concert with the other
colonies, and from that period their his-
tory is soon lost in that of the nation.
Bat before that time, the history of New
England is but little connected with the
other parts of the country.
2. The Dutch, thing settled New
York, interrupted the intercourse be-
tween them and the more southern Eng-
lish colonies; but they wer not more
separated by this circumstance than b1
fiht 14. What eemmid iB Rewlvdlry

1. Why deMl the hlqry t wNe bmd plip
etrdM wtit Vb eh Whlta aleb-
mry r New aand prim s to tb hsae war

difence of chsaCLer. New Engld
was settled almost wholly by the Psri
8. These were ery peculiar people.
They held religion to be of the greatest
importance. They loved the services
of religion, and it was one of their great.
eat enjoymeits to meet together and
worship in their own way. They spent
mach time in praying to God in secret.
They read the Scriptures with a deep
and careful interest, and thy held i to
be the great business of this life to make
preparation for another.
4. Such were the views and feelings
of the Puritans. In Engnd, they were
miserable, for they could not idulge
their religious feeling, and expre their
religious oiion in peace. They w
ridiuled, depid, and pereutedTo
them, therefse, the wildem s of Amer-
ic was a better place ta Bglnd; for
there, in the woods, they old embl
together, and worship Gd in their
liar manner, without reproach endwi
&. u coming to this country, there
fore, the principal object f these people
was to enjoy their religion. Being all
of one mind, they seemed not to foresee
that future generations would be divided
in opinion; and, taking the example of
the Jews, they proposed to form a com-
munity as nearly as possible according
to the ancient Jewish system.
6. Some time after the colonies were
settled, persons came mong them, and
began to preach doctrines different from
their own. The Puritans had never
thought of allowing people to enter the
colonies, and utter sentiments and opin-
a. WhbaftuebtD Whamt dlNa( r
What O the PutNa-? 4. Toe P
BEamd?7 Their objec hra oi
Wht dthy msnarmest Whalbs
ps1 5. Wha tAk plan ems em a

XBW SPOUl,&D.-T33B ?Wi&U~3&?r6.,lA3U N

hie Allb t r0 mthee held by the
7. They had no ide of s i na fe
kifte to all ligioM, t4ey the
fore comaied the ame error that had
drive them from Egla~nd They with-
held chary from then opponent; they
gare them had names; t-ey impioIed
some, banihed soa, and put other to
& I bh told you how Roger Wil-
liams wa expelled, and I will now tell
you sow other thing of a similar a-
tum. Abpot the year 1660, several per-
-e in the Plymouth and Maadchnetts
colonies dpted the sentimental of the
Bapist, were of course excoammna-
niated from the church to which they
9. Aer this, Mr. Clak, a Baptst
clergyiaa of Bhede Islad, ca.e ito
Mamsacse1 its, with two other Baptist
amed Helsaes ad CramUd. One
8abbath so mg. a they had oan-
hbd f woarsib, tey were sisaib
the WbL and forcibly a
to the C Itch, where
they we"It ep rig the service. Mr.
ChL k re= to take off his hat; so be
at with it o, and when the minister
begn to pray, he took a book out of his
pocket, and amused himself with read-
ing. When theservice was done, he
addressed the people, and explained his
10.These three Baptist were tried
by a court, a fortnight aer this, and
sentenced as follows:-Mr. Clark wu
to pay a ne of about one hundred dol-
larms Mr. Hiele about am handed
edmstls s em lp 7 Of Awt ltd ty vm
i"it WhW Mr duMt eastm W"AU
; e1 I.W jk st ils h et w 1.
.i What sMakeis w" pmea

41wrA ddlpo- ha iMW Owns

seadte of the eI.
limhes upon the vaoSed back i i e
eadured with gest fahdia. Tw of
his fiend were preMsntu sd a er th
punishment was over,tey sheok hbi
with him, and praised i hi fr hits wem
ae sad coatay. For thin eat, the
An were tried "od sentenced
forty bilsngs, or to btl Id w di
The fiae were, hwe pirs pe h
19, Such were sm of th es
ings against the B ptip ; atlines
crel seepe wre ft i a ractpeat 0Ie
Quaker. Of othesejw ilSnh e
meam second.
"m -

1. The first Qualker that cam late
Mauachusetta were May Le r d
Anna Austin, who reebsa Bosob, from
England, by way of the West Indies, in
1666. They brought with them vseeis
Quaker books, which the deputy-gov-
ernor caused to be burat by bae hag
aoan, while the women theim es were
puthi prison. Ber te ere kept in
close onie s or oe weeks, n
parobeins penrmi to oa s w ithe A
them we a th gh e. wiadlraI They
wern finally sent ck to the West I.
p e ths reei asit 11. Wt oef ahmit
t. Who wa td iat mhmb that a-f


dien a ship, and the jailer kept their
beds and Bile for his trouble.
t; A hort time after this, eight other
Quakers cam to Boston, who were im-
mediately put i prison, where they were
kept eleven weeks. Very severe laws
were then passed, banishing all Quakers
from the colony, upon pain of death.
But the greater the cruelty with which
they wer treated, the more they flocked
to the eloies.
. At length, four of them, who had
beer banimed, having returned, were
apprehended, convicted, and sentenced
to death. They were then led out, and
Mecated, agreeably to the sentence.
They died with great courage, and de-
clared to the people, who were assem-
bled, that they priced in their death,
and thanked God that he had given
them thi opportunity to attest the truth
and eity of their faith. Thus they
died triumphing, at the very gallows,
over their persecutors.
4. These cruelties had an effect di-
rectly opposite to that intended by the
Puritans. It led the people in the first
place to pity them, then to defend, and
finally to agree with them. Instead,
therefore, of suppressing either the Bap-
tists or the Quakers, the laws and pro-
ceedings against them actually induced
a reat many persons to join thbee
& It is very certain that the New
England fathers made great mistakes in
this matter, but we must consider that
these things happened almost two hun-
ded year ago. Te idea, now so com-
me, and new so lear to us all, that

Nw aind7 What of thel 2. What of
d& tir Q sm I Wiht kws we hem
= LT Watd fnar QualMk that h bm
1 4. What Soat lil tham mlJl
Wht is thnbn obvihmt What, howevr,

every peron has a right to woshipGod
in his own way, had not then tered
into the minds of mes, thoua pro-
claimed by Roger Willias. (r fore-
fathers were not alone in their arrow
views; all over the wide world mankind
were in darkness on this subject
6. The shadow has indeed passed
away from our own country. Here,
every man may freely choose in what
manner he will hold communion with
his God. But in many parts of the
world, even now, there are perss who
suffer much on account of their faith.
There are, I think, even in our own
land, at this very day, thee who ae
spoken of unkindly and uncharitably,
because of their religion.
7. Let us not, therefore, think too
harshly of the New England fathers.
Let us look rather at their vie; their
patience under misfortune; their ad
endurance of cold, hugr, want, ad
privation; their deep 2 6 ferZ let t
their strict otervance of what teiy
deemed right; and their stern rejection
of whatever they thought wrong.
8. Let us look also atthe wdm of
these men. They immediately etab-
lished schools for the education of all
classes. This was a noble thought, and
one that had not yet entered mist the
heads of the wisest men in jope.
Observe their courage, vigor, .inter-
prie in war; how ready were:dy all
to assemble at the mom*rt of danger,
whether it came from their avage or
civised foes!
I Md wsMi""" WetllUh m t 7t -
%to bae thte mdmd of am?' Wm the PMrtM
alomme thir itolac What M the emi
t f dt as mtd makid thlis m tmbt
What ofer seM smr I7 Wht oMM Ma
pa of the M r. WMht, noh
w d lIarespteaths wahglat
SWhat their wimri Of theirs u
nlhlrtbr=5a nTB


9. Consider their elf-denial. The
kos of the feld, the services of reli-
gin, the cal of war, and their dome.-
ti duties, maggd their whole saenLtion.
They bad no euament; they had
parted with them l. They re bne,
tern mn, ready to die, ui God so or.
dainld i yet Msolute in dischareging
al the dutie of life long u it lated
,10. To gi you a more lively idea
of the character of our New B gland
ancestor, I will sketh a pict of what
might have been sen,in any of the New
gland villages, in the earlier par of
tdir history.
11. We will uppoee it to be the
morning of the Sabath. Surrounded
by a few houee, some of them built of
lop, ad poe of board, i a mall
WiwM btifi dishout a steeple; this
b te meaisgatoe At "e appointed
bou, the an~Mn pgathear-
bate the. nL Mam a quarters.

A Wn'a hej d ,m.
IS. But meh m carism a gpn, ad
over his should he bah the tnM
of a sodier. The Ona. an led
to e ,wr ar s the wlnageh doer,
a* afMtIA imlth4 neteIe. give
r~i^""'sr^^ WI 19

he alarm, IF the IwaI u rpah
1a4poati the p h ans. #mV'M
, frotb ddoM e oCa ei al,
their tS l y, they ai p
God,aidthe they wo Udp, m
erful mst shae been t heeh M we
dre ar father from Engla in the
wildernes, to live a life like t
1. I will sketch a other pida.
We will sppoee it to be lweek-day, a
day of labor. You se a s genag
with his scythe into the Seld ; bthe is
aed with a mukeL Yeo see ma
pen u M, and another hoeighitcen;
tky eah mpakety la sed to their
14. You mee a man eo horsebl
giag fro one viage to maaotdr be
too, aaram You ee a M G ynwig
with his fairly to soMe disleMl. l-e.
ment; he is provided with thi a-a
of instant defence.
16. Thus livedour New oEngoad
fathers for more than one genestion.
They were in a state of constant prep.-
ration for attack; always sugapsg
that the next instant an Indian arrow,
or an Indian bullet, might be in the air,
speeding with a deadly aim to the
16. Nor was this al. The weed
were full of wild animals. At ight,
the wolves would come about the houses
and barnm, and often cary off a @heep
or a lam. If a traveller on foot a
in the forest till esneet, he heard e
bowl of theee hungry beats upon his
track; a perchance a bear creed his
pth,rning black with aw ok;
oar gl led UM K the

yi ofl W &wih 4 w- W&J
*a "WdI as. of- -a s

T111 1121T S0OO 01 KI5TORT.-NZW 101K.

WS. A people giving unler cniem-
rass like tsee, sarroanded by dan-
ge, inured to toil, tmngi to relasa-
tion and amusement; liag prtly o
the fleh of deer, which they huted in
the woods, and partly upon the fruits
yielded by the fields to their own labor;
were' likely to poseps great courage,
sternness, and decision of character.'
And such, indeed, were leading pecu.
liaritieof the New England settlers.
18. There can be no doubt that many
of our blesings, in New England, have
defended to us from the Pilgrim Fa-
ther. The abundance of our schools,
the love and reverence felt for religion,
and, a consequences of those, the intel-
liene and morality of the people gen-
r nly, ae things for which we have to
t the piety and wisdom of the P-

1. New York is the richest and moat
populous of the United States. Its ter-
Wl twelan ad other wild beslet 1. What
ra liUdlyto be the efwtof ireammtm like
thm Ik New m glmud What ere the leadi
peMlrlitms the New Bnilnd msulert 1s.
Ofwtai m h b am doubt? For wat we
to thek he pl wmd im of the ~metml
Q Me Me&tp qfN mwh.-&mgds.
lsrt DiMr.lthelb k He rvwr, M k, ..
s.e, Om~5 amse. Dnemd Late Om ,
cpe. a~mt n-. ~. ok mme.
Oq UmcemLLmhtk bmuL 0.
, ta 114 mblm iU, lort 'r ,t, own
. W smriae ts r a New at ll bli
O wllrrTkt S .nletttelglame
wrak r-KN-ren a. -ra.
repeelar h eY kr Ob ptIa hh ta
seebAlbnW1 8.ub Almthe g teso

ritory is r extensive, bt it is not es
large as sme of th their sates. The
land is in general i, and some of it
i exceedingly so. The mes of water
communication in this tate are ri-
valled: in the eastern P is the Had.
son river, which is navigated by sloope
and steamboats for one hundred and
ixty mile. On the north ad east
Lake George and Champlan the st.
Lawrence, and Lake Ontario. On ke
wet is Lake Erie.
2. The grand canal extends the whole
length of the state, from et to west,
and connects the waters of the great
lakes with the Hodson. Beside thee,
there ar, in the interior, a great n -
ber of smaller streams and ne, nvi-
gable by bot. I believe there i not a
spot of the ame eatnt oa the eart,
more favored by water epmoaissai
than the State of NIew Yolk
3. The produce of atmt every pe
tion of it ui be esM y a i
gnellaiy, ath u ila Aess t *
4 frhe Ueted6 w SA; &Wa '

ad earrni, out BeMnuadies.

VOUMa.ma? Whe sdesstbqhegt Whom
ad! UheeehL~.emurr m.l t Peheeatm
b%44(NmTll~ t 4 00" iftl vmp
of mmo Newm YTo" UastbugJAW
hqrl1 klluiiht
wow asm~ew LIU' -amy ~
W911i100 ad. 01=0 V l Meb~lim
Pedant ft d Sm te 1111111011*


habitat, and was the fifth city in sive
in the world; and whole newstreets a
being built each year. It is more than
fr mile long.
4. Les than two hundred and fity
years a, the land on which this great
city is builtt was purchased for twenty-
four dollars. The streets were firt
red in 1676. The first stage route
between Boston and New York was
established in 1732; it required four-
teen days to go from city to city. In
1746, the first coach was driven there;
it belonged to an English woman, Lady
5. The buildings, especially the pri-
rate dwellings, ar more splendid than
any others in the United States. Some
of the chuches, too, are very beaui-
fuL You must isit Trinity Church, a
Gothic buildioftfree-rtao; and Grace
Church, built of white maybe. The City

Cattr as lamw YtM
Hall at the Univety of the cty ot
New York, ar superb sucture of the
same trial. There, too, ar the vat
Astr House hotel, and the Esch ge,
ad Custom-bose, ad the Ope
Hosem; ad a white marble bild.
seeded in 9aby Mr. Sfwart, for

ie 'LA seel6 W

his store, though it od lio a lae
cent public bidia. At SMer s ies
Jya can par"hase inddf
rom ofad goes for half a ur
a shwl tfor thousand deRl.
6. There is, in New York, onem s.
torical curiosity, you wil, a an AMri
can, lie to se. It is the ry tab o
which the Amerian Congress, on the
4th of JI 1776, signed th Declhm-
tio of Ibendence from Gret Brit-
ain, about which I shall tell youa, a litle
further an. Thi table ws bright
from Philadelphia, and is in a room in
the City Hall.
7. In th year 184 the city of New
York completed the mot mgniet
structure of the kind ever attamsd in
the United States, and one of ths m
o in the world. They built aqs-
duct from the Croton river, which th
dammed up jus at its entrance intohe
Hudson, forty miles above theit.
Through this aqueduct they u t
pure water, through hills an over val-
leys and rivers, into vast site esem ir
near and within the city; and theee
distributed it, through all the streets,
the bohees and buildings.
8. The stone bridge for it over H-.
lem river is one of the most magpi-
cent in the world. The fountains, in the
different parks or enclosures of the aty,
send up their jets of water sixty feet into
the air, which fal in glittering spmr,
and make, when the sun shiuse mey
a rich rainbow. Before this a fn-
bed, the water in the city was very
bad. They brought Mi ofh o wrht wa
used for drink from Jerey, Mae th
Hodeo. in h ls ne a soaidi bythe
gallon. Now, evr b al s eams
and to spa for every l { ias
atrodseI hate the d j
aasssuiMet TO.Ct epeia t1 as .


9. In 1885 a fire burned over twenty
of the richest part of New York
j destroying property to the amount
of eighteen millions of dollars, but all
the area has been rebuilt. In 1845 an-
other fire destroyed fine houses and
costly stores, to the amount of six mil-
lions of dollars, but that area too has
been all built over again, so that you
hardly see the trace of the calamity.
10. Here you will see the Tract
House, built in 1846. It is five stories
in height, sad is occupied by the Amer-
ican Board of Foreign Missions, the
American Home Mission Society, and
the New York'Tract Society. It is
heated throughout by steam. It has
fifty-three rooms, and fifteen printg-
presses, and one hundred end thirty-
Six persns constantly employed in it.
There are thousands connected with its
benevolent operations, all over the Uni-
ted States.
11. In this city lived, in 1847, Mrs.
Joanna Bethune, who was the origin-
ator and founder, in this country, of
infant schools, and of infant Sabbath
elases. The first infant school was
commenced here on the 16th July,
187. The name has been changed
from Infant, to Primary schools, with
which you are all very well acquainted,
and you understand how much good
they do. Here too died, on the 20th of
March, 1848, John Jacob Astor, who
had, by industry, prudence, and fore-
sight, acquired more wealth than any
other man in America. He left four
hundred thousand dollars, to establish a
library in the city of New York, to be
fee, without any charge for admission,
er the use of books.
IS. Albay, is the set of the ste
la h T at lhsent i. "lab m 1d bMt
mbshelt J. Ast I. Albrmt Ohe

government; it looks finely, a it rises
on the hill,from the river. It has beau-
tiful buildings and water-works; and
the State Normal School. Utica, Roch-,
ester, Syracuse, Cnandaigua, Geneva,
where is a college, BufiSlo, and Troy
are flourishing places. Schenectady has
Union College; Madison University is
at Hamilton. There is Binghamton,
and Ballston and Saratoga Springs, and
Oswego. Indeed, this great state is full
of thriving and populous towns; you
must travel all over it to know what
great things the population are doing
13. The Hudson river is a noble
stream. It was, I believe, on this river,
that steamboats were first brought into
use. They were introduced by the cel-
ebrated Robert Fulton, of New York, in
the year 1803. There W*a but one boat
on the river for a longtime. But now
there are great many. S
ene of these bat carries fi
pasengers. They ae very
wil go from Alay to Nwfo k a
distance of one kWdred ad fifty ,
in about twelve hours.
14. It is delightful to go up thel -
son in oom of tibee boats. Les p-
Sthat we make a trip, is this ate,
the city of New York to Niagra
Falls. Before start, we me
bout the city of New York a ie.
We m t go up and down Bttdway,
which is oae of the finet streets in the
1. We ll seea great many ladies
and gendaen, very pyly dressed, and
we nall see some old women sitting
down on-the pavements, with oranges,
and apples,andnuts to sel And we
shall see a great many coaches, and -
wam Oaelt M ttt Il.t? 14.
Itombe odst lhebday u IA W

JIM T031R-TX5 OLVW-.,!55 XbITEt jkII*

aI e- and dAys, driving throu the
streets, an we mst be very c l that
w e a not l asked down and run over
by some ethem.
16. On the rwes at the sides of
the city, their is the same constant
passing, of different vessels, large and
small; the little sloop. that sail along
the coast, and the grt hip that tiv-
ers the ocean. There r a hundred
steamboats, to, cro g the ferries to
Jersey and to Long ad, ad els
where, moving up and down the Sooud,
or East river, a they call it; and the
Hudson, which they call the North
river. There are here, too, lines of ge-
ular steamers from Havre, in Frnme,to
New York, established in 1847; and a
regul line fran Bremen, in Germay,
byEngland, to thi city; and other
line from Liverpool, Enand, to New
York, to alternate with those from Liv-
erpool to Boston, Massachusetts.
17. The Ast navigation of the Atlan-
tic ocean by steam was in the Savanah
owned William Dodd, and cemmud-
ed by Caa Rogers, of New York,
who, in 181, twice visited, in her, Eu.
rope and Asia receiving presents from
the King of Swede, the Emperor of
Russia, and the Grand Seignior of Tur-
18. We must now go down into
Pearl street, and there we shall sed the
merchants so busy,and in such a hurry,
that they almost ru over each other.
There we shall hear a great rattling of
carts, and we shall see everybody walk
ing very fast, and we al see a great
tumblg about of bales, boxes, bags, and
brels. Ater this, we must go to Ce
mI, *th ssssao n of e. is. Is mMM a
1th ity we 1 Itay ilBst ssitl Adbu t
**- sis r ssl M i( nes -the t-
It ai.ss rMI *aar n.A
4~J~~ ~u~r idair n

&sxdenboamdsse thq 'r~ piJ
a.3liwt nd~~li- ipp~
CPICQ~;d~~~iiir nb.,~fl; WIF4ad

the mot ip scenery e wed
and by adby we come to ,he Paiia
does, which are very hgh pi
rocks, on the west e of the river.
On the east side, we shall me the lie
of the great Croton aqueduct, which we
can trace by the white marble towers, to
ventilate the aqueduct, that is,.let fresh
air circulate in it
20. We soon come to West orint,
where there is an excellent academy, 4a
which young men receive a military
education. After this, we come to the
Catskill Mountains. Theme a ll,
blue mountains, which seem to eh to
the clouds. A geat maay travel
ascend them, and they t h tdt e
propect from them as tiuy mlime.
Their is here a beati t t ma4
where the water falls tah4 e L.W
dred feet over the rocks. .T6l e qp

DM. 'b tbhe 'ae. am t
al. NtallteoratwiSr ^


tains afford many pictu ue view.
They wed to be inhabited byenany wild
animals, such a deer, eougt .
21. It is Ma many ears i e, that
two huhntm wea e e searchig for game
among these mountains. Coming to a
ill, they aged to pass ronad it, one
in way, and t going the
ote way. At~ le h m
head he report of a gu, ran to
the st hut eoold see of his
-c n Hsmad his length,
t" i leess; and by saw a
m rl panther, with tb of his
S t~ap a tm. Sfired a
I an ..ml with his
tE tho sgr n a. Ieorg of the
Imi"m ww Mirt AI wounded
animl, bt was ists klled by a
stroke of his paw. The ma soon pro-
cured help at a neighbikl village.
The arty found the coup dead, and
by it he body of the unfortunate sports.
man, who was also dead.

1. Soon after leaving the Catskill
Mountains, we shall reach Albany.
Here, in 1848, buildings on many acres,
and boats and goods of immense value,
were burned. We will now enter a
canal-boat, and proceed to Utica. We
shall go at the rate of about four miles
an hour, and we shall find the boat filled
with ame, women, and children.
& On arriving at Utica we shall be
urrised t fid it o large ad so hand-
ome a place. We most now go, in a
carrage, about twelve miles north of
Utic, and se Tnton Falls. A small
river bee taities over tharkcs, and
4. Atabrt Oasetst .a tMtat TIa

presents eval exceedingly bertiful
3. A very ad accident hapen.d her
a few years ago. A young y, rom
New York, came wah some of her
friends to see the caterat. She was
standing on the edge of one of the high-
est rocks, and her friends were at a little
distance. Suddenly she disappeared
from their view. They ran to the spot,
and looked over the precipice. She had
fallen to a trat depth below, and was
instantly killed.
4. From Utica I think we had better
travel by railroad, for by this time we
shall be tired of canal-boats. We most
be particular, however, to go and see
the Indians at Vernon, about seventeen
miles yest of Utica. There ar near
oe thousand of them, and they ae the
remnants of two famous tribes, that once
inhabited this pert of the state.
These Indians are called Oneidas
and Tuscaroras; they are partly civil-
ied, for they till the land, goto meet-
ing, and live peaceably. They are,
however, a degraded people, and will
rather excite your pity tha your re-
spect. We shall, perhaps, on our way,
meet with other Indians; the poor re-
mains of the celebrated, tribes, which I
shall have occasion to mention, by and
by, under the name of the Five Nations.
6. We shall soon pass through the
flourishing town of Syiprse. It would
be well to stop here to see the improve-
ments, and to visit the famous slt-wells
nearby. They draw up the alt water
from the earth and boil it away.in large
kettles, or evaporate it; sad then te
lt remains white for use. Immens
quantities an made here, and the wws
ar vry curious.
tlld7 Aedieet 4, TYam hssm
a. mast aM-wlv t y. D.got IL

Xiw tOr K.-I#AOAMA IALL8-A33030Y15-2OVVZs.

7. Ater leaving Sym se, we sha
pM through Auburn, Ca la and
Bedf amad at length aive at Niagara
alls. Theme an fnaedby an immeun
mass of water, which comes frm the
gret akes, and pours over the "roa to
the- depth of a handed and dIy fet

The roar of the wats is like thnder.
SmeLtinme it is hard at the distance of
many ile. The earth trembles arod,
as i in fear of the awful scene, and a
hick cloud of vapor rises high Into the
air, stretching itself far away over the
hills and nal.ey:
8. few years ag, some people got
alargship, and placed in it a wild bar
and some other animals. They then
brought it near the falls, and left it in
the swift current. Many thousands of
people were there to see the sight. The
ship was instantly drawn along by the
tide towd the falls; itcame to the edge
of the ceks, and down, down it went,
brokenla tho mand pieces. The per
bear ,ii r with it. For a long tim
keW in theater, b at a gth
hle the arkm, eand then
will te yu sdet r tory of~
PA. Whadfahipt 1e. "ay de s

thesed There was ef nrsai
sleep a his anoe, are, la. Ie
wun t frtS the WU4 bst Leae
w tidu.d h hr fe Di by ad
by ti atht was untiWd by sme su.
dent, and the ianoe mflted ea up the
10. It we iletly along, ad the
India stil comtinad to sep.
the armt began to ta the beat
toward the fal. It went more ad
more nsply, and soon was near the
aurctl At this moment th Indio
awoke; he aw his sitestionasd km
tha it wm vain to stragge aait Md
fate. He therefore M imtd I SSVWi,
wrapped hi basket doear remd hit
body, ad, folding his amsu, weardkO
With the th"ndenag tide.
11. After saying a while st t fOb,
we mMnt oe t oto returi. We myi
back to Albany by the canal or hy
car; or to Baffl, by the n
Thence we may go by smuemtM e
Lake Brie, to the town of Dedaht,
where commences the Brie ead Hadl
Railroad, that i going through the ast
part of New York rate, Mnea PeMayl
vania, to Piernot, on the Hudson, m
called fromi its long tone pier, and the
Palisade Mountains, jut above it.
12. Or we may, from Nira, il
down Lake Otrino, to Ogdenu r, mad
thence go to Montreal, in Ca by
the steamboat, down the St. LawImen
river; or go, by rilread, to ulin e,
Vermont. Thence we my go, by sme
of the milrade I told ya f, whCen tk-
ing about Vermont, thrgh to Pordand
and Bonoa; or by Bemingten, to New
Tea. O down lahChaaainia. a
.m..ad, to Whitehall.theMo hysafsl
to Tvoy, andthees in -aI--,m.
Mat n. Isrs hemr llAlay i
L. 1"" klm WisTe 111 VT k *flte


the North river; or by the Hudson River
Bailroad to the city of New York.
13 You se you have a choice of
routs that is almost poling. The
souther, eastern, and northern lines,
through New York state, were in the
course of completion in 1848, and vari-
ous branches have connected, or are
connecting, these great thoroughfares
with one another. This is the history
of what is called Internal Improvement
14. While we are at Niagara, we
must br no means omit to visit the
woaderml, iron, suspension bridge, over
the Niagara river, just below the Falls.
It coects New York and Canada.
The rocky baks of the river are very
high and steep, here. The water that
has come over the falls, seems chafed
ad frightened at its dreadfd plunge,
ad rushes away very swiftly through
I& On each opposite rocky bank of
the river, they have erected a huge stone
tw. They then fasten strongly into
the earth, on oe side, a great many
wie ropes, ad lead them over the tops
of these towers, clear across the river, to
the other side, and fasten them strongly
into the ground there also. These ropes
are so long that they bend down in the
middle between the piers.
16. Then they hang down iron rods,
all along, hor thee wire ropes; and to
the bottom of thee rods they fasten
acres timbers and on the timbers lay
SThis makes the floor of the
idg, on which you pass over. The
railway is to occupy the eont, with two
cariage-ways on either ide, ad two
foot-ways. I think you nee bere
saw so rge an ur. It is two hn-
utb I. Wht sM le a l ImpsmeasI 14
-Ir. BMpmsskiMpt is. Wbatsfthse wes

dred and fifty feet above the water of
the river.
17. You will feel strangely o stad
on this bridge, hung o high in the air,
ypparenly little wire string; and
at every step of yor foot. You
will look up at the cear sky above you,
then away down at the wild river rush-
ig trar beneath you. Theak
iMA i;.0-tbere is the eternal rotsi
I do not believe the whole
wrld ea bd such an interests po-
ition. Wi bridge was begun in 1817,
ad Mr, Elet, of St. Lou, eri,
was th& aehect.
W1& the time we get home we shall
be sati that the State of New York
abounds iA intesting object. The
western pert'o s Atate will fV as
wak ssrprie.\ It .now pesoete ay
age towns, and a mulitade ofthiving
ingesa; yet it has been almost wholly
settled within the last fifty year.
more thriving, intelligent, and happy
people, it would be difiult to fid.
Fift year ago, there was not a house
in ochester, and it has now more than
twenty-six thousand inhabitants. Utica
had then scarcely fifty houses; but, in
1846, it had more than fifteen thousand
people. And Buffalo had more than
thirty-five thousand population, and
steamboats and sail-vessels of a very
large commerce, in 1848.
N9. The growth in this part of the
state seems, indeed, quite magical. I
recollect a story of what happened near
Rochester, within the last thirty-fire
years. Two peraos were travelling
on horseback through the woods, in
winter, guided only by a horse-path.
The snow had recently f a to a great
iaspl tfNewYT Ilesusrt Udat m
"lIt It-M. TlI ts Myf tWame ls h


Isad the at length lost their way.
T sertook to rmee their steps
but eight ame on, while they were still
in the midat of the fonret.
90. They knew they were at a con-
siderable distance from any settement,
and had no hope of reaching a house
during the night. It therefore became
apparent that they mut ped it in the
woods. But as the sn went down, the
cold increased, nd in a ort time it
was exceedingly seven The horses
were worn out with tige, and the
traveller ben to fear that they hold
be froe Thy looked about for the
hahehr of a rock or some other place,
but nothing of the kind presented itself
hei situation was now alarming; they
cosd at proceed, and to remasi IMe
was certain death.
21. At legthone of them reollected
that he had a small tinder-box in his
iachet. This he took out, and the trav-
llesr set about making preparations to
bil a ire, with great alacrity. They
got toget there bark of some tree, and
ome dry branches; they then began to
prepare the tinder-box, but on examining
it, the inder was entirely gone.
2 Thpre was, however, in the box,
a small piece of linen rag, the edges of
which were burnt. These edges were
carefully rolled together, and with a
trembling hand, the spa of fire were
struck upon them. gin and again
the effort was made, but without sup-
cess. With feelings of the deepest anx-
iety, the tavellers bent over the box.
Life ad death were on the i'ne. If
the spil caught, they were um ; if not,
they -nt perish. To such a narrow
point is hum fortune often reduced.
STh list is now struck with great-
er le. The re diecends in shower,
la to wdas. 5. Applli of1 Nw Yuk1t

ubd Wn) me. SULi, wsy-ddk
bsatw .u tb tr, R~ie i 5,
bat wehliset over Ae al
again tbeen s thte b5
a the o of adthfaitl w tl-
de. p it.A oe bAn owe r 11ato
park to. aught by the tia&r, M
match i lighted; some anul a lme
wood are set on fe, and in a fa ai-
mte the travelers an warmigl
olve s a bright blael HI erd
rmi di dnrito the siche t.h th
earn' 'they meastd twh horses; ad
reooh tin pce of their deeta in
M. Thib sote i, calle the plairn
State, becas it s so powrfwtl ih
elation sad sreaeIpe. isu duryle
in agricuakue, sad in mnemaiwuu. b
has Ra n palip Iol &lVEI,
well og oter every prt of I
hae been highly delighted i imtemdi
the annual m aed eiom of the riu h
tendents of these school, who coe
there to. cosault for their goad -
hear thbms epet how they b fe, all
their duties How indHiiM! hy
hare beea, in waiting the ued, ,hele
in their efforts for the boys ad gll of
their school! I saw there, too,
many of the teseaher. All ahow i
same spirit to do the children ll the
good in their power.
25. You would be rey much pleased
to e what a vast number of the chil-
dren are at the public schools, i this
great state; and the school libraries they
have to read from; and the cam which
the teachers, and supri randents, and
parents show, to have the bys and irls
earn. They seem determined, s ty
are the greatest state in the Uthia, to
be among the wieet.
96. I ahod lie to e all the ar
and all the people relate their easple.
PIbUb AMlbt Anld m-wdet I Otb
deahlltadsm dlt asef ipmei t L

TINS 7111T 3001 Og' NISiO~tY-NRw YOMI.

Whaaglorious sight it would be I what
a nation we should become We should
all, like the great Frankli, wish to go
forward fifty year hene,-and many
of you, my young friend, will do so,-
and Me what we arrive at then. What
a history'it will be!
t. The district school librarie of
books, to interest and make wiser the
young people of this state, amounted, in
1847, to a million and a quarter of vol-
umes. Thee have all been put in there
in ten or twelve years. They add about
a hundred thousand volumes a year,
besides map, globes, instruments, ac.
They have etabishd a Normal School
at Amany, like those I told you of in Mas-
schustts, which is orishing, ad sed-
ing oannually,educated instructors.

NIW YOIK-Conumw .
1. I think you cannet fail to admire
te gnat Ee Canal, in the State of
MNw York. It is three hundred and
siaty-wo miles in length; it is forty feet
wide, and has eighty-three locks. It is
oae o the longest canals in the world,
and i is certainly one of the most use-
ful. It is frozen up in winter, but dur-
ing the spring, summer, and autumn,
many hundreds of boats, loaded with
produce and goods of all kinds, are
psing to and fro upon it.
2. This canal was begun in 1817, and
finished in 186. It was planned by De
Witt Clinton, and made by the people of
New York. Many men were occupied,
for eight years, in digging the erth, in
Dr. nklUa'in wkihl r. Dawt uSAool blia-
rit Nam lshll A4m
1. LMtl thelhdeRC Ml Width? Nmt-
Iser dfok Of wat see i altinu at. Wh
Was It Iqm? Wheabishna f 04t What hBw

cutting through the rocks, sand in i.
ing walls and r the lks. The
whole cost of the W9i:i igi millim
dollars. They have eel d to e-
large it, to accommodate the icreasing
business. The income from the tolls, for
carrying things on this canal, wa, in the
year 187, three and a half millions of
dollars; or nearly half the whole original
cost. When they wished to give the
quickest possible notice, at New York,
that the lake waters were for the first
time let into the canal at Bufalo, they
put, at every eight miles' distance along
the line, eadyoaded cannon, and a
man with a listed match at eah, who
was to fire his anon as soon as he
the flash of the one net west of him.
T y thus sent he news from Bus. to
Sany Hook, fie hundred a faty-ur
miles, in onw u and tmy ohm*Un I
This was in 18 ; in 1848, the tt
in of the waterways announced by mg-
netic telegraph, the sae distnce, se
Mudwte! Such is the pop.ens i
tical science in twenty4ue.year.
3. I will now tell you the early hi-
tor of this great ate. In the year
1609, Henry Hudson, an English avi-
gator, was employed by some Dtseh
people to go on a voyge of discovery.
He came to America, id discovered the
river which now bears his name. He
sailed up as far as Albany, and went in
his boat a little further.
4. He saw, along the banks of the
river, then, nothing but trees, and In-
dians, and wild animals. What a
change has taken place in a little more
than twb hundred years! The island
at the mouth of the river, which was
th eyine d to t I WhyWt, M *s L-
a om itlba lsm84 HEw mVvr sttsdi l
oiqpd glur In 1 Bow Ian 1 8. t W
Hmr yadaal 4.Whatdbs bihst WMIAis


Ahm onede 4l with eam amd hmbse,
is ow he sat e a iAhy city; and
th buak of th ,H t en ea l.
t.r, now pwaern oTver with towns,
atise, Tila and coantry-wetat .
6. Five y aM j udmo's discov-
ery, ome Dutch e to Albany,
and began there This was
in the yer 161k. before the
Pi u amrriV | south. It was
their ettlementile in New York.
About the Mame Ahe built a few
heases, on an ihul d by the la-
disan Ma h city of New
2fork w -
4. You will at New York
di by Englh peo-
e ,or the
Swas claimed

1ru em-
out wwk

*l athe nsme of
r, and knew well
of war. He
end fAy
latter were do-
of them were

in battle was fought
h near Horse-neck.
it e killed on both
but the Dutch were victorious.
bodies were buried at a place
I s d Plain, and one hun-
as the graves were

.ome disputes between
Is t rnT a What
41T t Whg snaummt abeut
I., wS uNw Yak t.
ItWe lel In 1u? L.
e- adN lew YMk?

the pma of Nw MA dwth
of, Nw-Yak about iT 4
the Dutch gemrer w t op
where he met som pem* -le, S
New England c lowate, t m* mm-
to n a ag meant Ibet the la. pt
King Carle of England a that the
Duth had no right to eay of the land
and granted what the Dutek had eled
upon his brother, the Duke of Yeek
and Albany, aerwads J U.
10. In 1e6, the duke Paie, with
three hip, to New York, and oe-
anded the people to soader the
town. Th refi ed at3 ft, but it a
liOle while hy ve i p, as hte'ek
posseeminoit TkheaM efthiAplu ,
which was before Cal edi L ab n.
now changed to New York, ad the
place on the Hudson where the firt st-
tlement wa made, which had been called
Fort Orage, was now called A w.
These nares have ame beer

7M nto ommone r oammemc nM Tr-a.
11. In 1673 the Cey of NeW York
was retaken by the IDtch. The fort
and ty were surrendered by the tr
ery of John Manig, the co .
Wha did Keig ChaulM de 10. What did
Dbmo of( Yk m Alhy dd it t Wl i
6hspeopimleY D msribmQsl. Wh, = .I
dtaimmawtwokplret iat. temshapni
ed --HBM *r~l wOKtY y0** Wl ipMM

THR FIlR" WOOK 01 EI8ToRY.-i2W M*i'if.

eleer, without f a gun. The next
yer peae was concluded between Eng-
lad and Holland, and the colony was
remored to the English.
12. The Duke of York and Albany,
the former proprietor, now came again
into possession of the colony, and sent
Sir Edmund Andros, afterwards the ty-
rant of New England, to govern it. He
was succeeded by other governors; and
in 168 the people were permitted to
meet and choose representatives.
13. These representatives assembled
and made laws, but they could not go
into force till they were ratified by the
duke. This arrangement was satisfac-
tory to the people, and the colony now
felt the blessings of good government.

NBW YORK-Comnuvro.
1. wift now tell you about the In-
A ws tlorther part of New Yak.
Cf tem, rof the country w
ihabibted by five nations, c
dt, kjieaw te a, O da.g, Orei.
dan Mohaw hes nations were
frimdbl to the Engl colonies, and be-
ng y powerful, they protected the
inhabitants from the French settlements
in Canada.
2. At length the French governor, De
Ia arem, beng aftid of these Indian
tribes, raised an army of seventeen hun-
dred men, and went against them. But
his troops suffered very much from hard-
ship and sickness, and many of them
16731 Whattook pleotheneutyert? What
did thd Due of York mi AIny mr de What
cmn to pr Isl L1 What f the teroest-
atives Whltortd k wmardeby thd
1. of the l atiouns T'lu Trl mm?
SWlWafRtD D ian tL WhMt whiblgd

3. Being sumn un bty his esmeif
he was now obld to ask peae (iT. s,
savages, whom lh bad eeom toda- .
He sent to the ebhil of the five
tions, requesting them to *ie sad ie
him, andthree f m came. A circle
was formed, of the Fredch
officers and then DeklBarre
addressed the eTbsOnndasn ias
follows: '
4. "Chief, liwm to wat I hate to
say. I am e o is country
great king, who ds sdauy wow%~
He is good to but he iste
rible to his ene 'W r ye,,l
friends of his ; I tdllyou
ye are hias
You p ad
fightfor d
ith them for a,.'
led them into
them thetra
and now they cS tway
the French oat get.
5. "Such Is
of the Five Natl4
king, my mat er ere
things? He a
land, that shall
dry leaves of a
the whirlwind;
less you change
stead of enemies h
6. amngu, t
kno, perfectly wel the dis tr
French army. There fy
haughty speech.vf h o tm .
made a follo
will pereive he'e a'
nondio, and the Zngldl o

say? eWhgd6i

-INDIAN ,NA-TOr&*4113 fAfl@OW#.

the the Fnmeh to or codsee a em
po. trldU which th Ed glish sT 1M.
Mrer We are bers fee; we aear ipead
erda on Yoomodio r Cotemr. W? .
mrien gwho we leeue and buy t :I
ave what we please. If your aw e ON
Sthe your dares, use dtem as skh aoe
hish mendthm to reive mother but ye
the people. .
had "Heu, Yonoedip; wm t is
ended th voice of all the Five Natiomm. h
Sford hey bred th hatchet at Codmam, in
the middle of the fort, they pltIed
have tre of pace i the msu polae,%
f so there caeflly premrved, Ga imsed
Sfar. of a rtret for Mldiers, th faet mp
Ithe be a rendevous for mechmts.
Sas- care that the may soldiers who pp
age, there, do not choke the tree of pus,
Share and prevent it from covering yet eo-
try Md oun with its braebes. Ir
, for sure you that our warri shadl dame
the under its leaves, and will never di
emoor the hatchet to cut it down, till A*ir
hap- brother Yonnondio, or Carlear, Adt i .
oond trade the country which the G tS spirit
been has given to our ancesto."
inch. 1. De la Bae heard this acemful
p; 1 speech with shame and age. But
ch knowing his weakness, he wa oigd
great to make peace. Not long after, another
ol- French governor went against these
ern- Indians, with a still larger amy than
me to that of De la Barre. But the cunning
h the Indians concealed themselves till the
, that French'were near, and then suddenly
as to fell upon his army, and obliged him to
knesm retreat out of their country. Thet
r the wan made the Five Nations hate the
French, and attached them to the Eng-
a our lish colonies.
,, and
ought o D h mBtn Wlhat d-.l mohr d
rt wMt as th hlfrst 1r1 -
wh h~ma 7

74 TEI FIB8T 1 001 OFr IOTOAT.- Sft-. 'ol .

CHAPTER XXVI. Uamll ptyOJf d aldi
dians to
NEW YOBK-Corunma eluded to
1. In the year 1 the Duke of York T"e yPeOI f o
succeeded his brother, Charles the Sec- waed oT their anger, bt they wm a
ond, and became king of England, under not believe that iun would come fem
the tide of James the Second. I have Canada, a distance of two or three hun-
told you before that this king was hated dred miles, t r the deep snows of
by the English people, and he was winter,to moum!um .
equ ll dilied in the colonies 7 But they .er ftdly decided.
2. oe claimed absolute authority over On a Satday the enemy
the American people, and beside that, he nea the townR. diis *k e r
was a Catholic. These things caused selves into ms.0o ever
him to be dreaded by the people. They house might be ld ae the sams i
were therefore very much rejoiced when stont. Thus W a ented the
the news came, in 18 that he had place about e 'c oc
Willun, Prince of Orange, had one- and stillne tbae a
needed im. With a noi em i
Elated by this news, and stimu- trnbuted te
lahed by the emample of the people at At a given ai ageu
Bosto, who had seized and imprisoned was onaded. Wa d d
Andre; they began to make prepara- this to the sUar-ed fat-s
oti to depose the governor, whose ofthis unhp tom t
name was Nicholson. 9. It is aely tos
4. Alarmed at this, he led by night, the ene that Wt ho
and the chief magistracy was assumed conscious of their dman, g0t4a0
by a militia captain, whose name was their beds, but weo met t the
Leisler. He was a weak man, and and slaughtered by te sa
managed the affair of the colony very hous was set on re; q
bady. rendered frantic by sees tam.
6. While the settlement was suffering through the place, tham th
from the troubles occasioned by Leisler's chanced to meet.
administration, war was declared be- .10. Sixty of Ate lwe km ,
tween England and France. This was and twenty-five we wr pZsoers
King William's war, of which I have Some attemp.to *ea bl. th.
told you something in the history of were naked; thkat w .*re
New England. Count Frontenac wa severe, ad a ul di-
now governor of Canada. tance to go bgo al 4aM reb M a
6. In the winter of 1690, he sent a place of securitL A part ariveda
safety, and twer five lot their liM,
i. Wha took pibmtSi i 7 Why ddMth by thcold .
iplle hwJar smtesodla Wh e m a II1. To avrean thee epasMl a
i USIt W lab *~e bad this mw apm" the
1 What of cheolmat Uslt 5. APnUes What tWek lalaL
W rt au w broke out? Who Vu omt 10m ? 7-10. De s tIa sk iM r


nEw retO3..SQIOVUI3@5?ItICItOhIOlAW KlnD.

aslbn a similar asdr committed in
I ag nld, aa sak upo" Canada
w.astommd upon As army, raised
ia lew York and Cemnecicut, pro.
ceded as far as Lke Champlain, but
finding no boats to (ske them across,
they were obliged to return. Thus the
whole expedition failed, and this was
attributed to the imbesility of Leisler.
12. It was about this time, that King
William sent Col Henry Sloughter to
be vernor of New York. But unhap-
ply was totally nit for the ofice.
W he arrived, Leiser refused to
give up his authority. He sent two
messengers, however, to confer with
Sloegbte These essengers were im-
medisaely asied by the governor, and
pe i pe n as rebel
18. Ts alarmed Loiser and his
ssocates, and they attempted to escape.
But he, with his so-n-law Milbome,
was taken, tried, and condemned to
death, for high tressea. But the gov.
W ref d to sd e warrant for
tir execution, as did not wish to
scidie two men who had been rather
week than wicked.
14. But the enemies of Leisler -and
Miiborne contrived a plot for their de-
struction. They made a great feast,
and invited Governor Sloughter to go
and partake of it. He went, and when
he was intoxicated with wine, they asked
him to sign the death-warrant of the two
prioner. This he did, and before he
ad recovered his smes, Leisler and
Milborne were executed. Thus, through
his foly and wickedness, two men saf-
faed an iPnosinious death.

tdy. . Wlha enak vw am dImou
-apt What amy was lnd What dU
t alm 14. I ~WL es assMl Ms. wlM
d4Le LMait st le s0mena w etmri is.

1& In 101, Govern Uor W
died. The same year a m iy 6e
mam of Peter Schaylr, at tw kild of
three hundred Mohawk IlMb ,.t
to mak an attack upon the FIre set-
tmeents at the north end of Lake C(
plain. A body of about eight hdid
men were sent from Mofotrel *gaia
him. With these, Schuyler an hi
Mohawks had several bae in all of
which they were succesfl. They
killed more of the enemy than the whole
number of their party.

NBW YOBK--eOamm.
1. In 1899, Col. Fletcher wa mad.
governor of New York, and in 1868 *
was ucneeded by the Earl of Bel-
mont. About thi time, the Anriipai
seas were very much infested by mas.
These bold men attacked swih dXMM
they met with on the ocean, paudred
them of whatever they wasRtd, and
either murdered the crew and took the
ships, or sunk them both together in the
2. Governor Bellamont was partis-
larly charged, by the English govern-
ment, to clear the American seas, if pos-
sible, of these desperate men. But the
necessary ships not being furnished, he,
with some other individuals, determined
to fit out a vessel on their own account,
and send it against the pirates.
3. They accordingly procured a ship
of war, and gave the command of it to
a sea-captain, whose name was Robert

1. hat Ussk plUa I Joel isA qr
Whsas the pol TLmWa e d Fe
Imms di mm. euhdt L. Wed? L

THlp135?T 3001 OF 91IsOY.-xIw YoRK.

Kidd But when he got out upon the
water, Kidd determined to become a pi-
rate hihdelf. He proposed the plan to
his men, and they consented to it.
4. So he went forth and became one
of the most infamous pirates that was
eer'known. He attacked many vessels
upon the Atlantic and Indian oceans,
and after three years he returned. He
burnt his ship and ient to Boston,
where he was een in the streets. He
was seied, and carried to England, and
there he was tried, condemned and exe-
I suppose you have heard a great
many stones of this wretch, Captain
idd. It is said that he buried great
dal of gold in pots, somewhere along
t coast. A great many attempts have
been made to find this gold, but without
Bscess. I suspect that Kidd and his
sailors spet all the money so wickedly
got, and never buried any of it.
6. I will now pus over a considera-
ble space of time, during which nothing
very remarkable happened in this colo-
ny. Several governors had been sent
from England, most of whom were ut-
terly unworthy of the trust.
7. About the year 1736, circum-
stances occurred in the city of New
York, which it is painful to dwell upon.
Some persons of very bad character cir-
culated a report that the negroes, of
which there were a good many in the
city, had formed a plot to burn the
town, and make one of their number
8& A great many fires had taken
place; and these led the people to be-
lieve that the rumor wa true. Many
of the negroea wee arrested and pt in
KmIt 4. WltmwsthLf asea(Wt lsbl-
tses Ige't WM linad s r wm swsof
,, 9 What sesmdl atl, dy d aNew

prison. Other accused s now cam for
ward, and so strong was the prejdie
against the negroes, that, when the rl
came on,ll the lawy offered their
services to plead against them.
9. Thus left without defence, these
unhappy people were all condemned.
Fourteen were burnt to death, eighteen
were hung, and seventyone were trans
ported out of the country! It is grati-
fying to feel sur that, in our day, the
weakest and most defenceless ae not
exposed to such cruelty and injustice.
10. In 1743, George Clinton was
sent over as governor of the colony.
He was warmly received by the people,
and his administran was, on the whole,
aeeptable. In 14S during George
the Second's wa, New York was mch
distressed by th incursiona of the In-
11. Saratoga w destroyed, and
other parts of the colony ued very
mach. Some of the ladiaas came t
Albany, and concealing themselves I
the neighborhood, lay i wait to take
prisoners. One sarge, bolder than the
rest, called Tolmonwiemon, came with
in the city itself, and carried off peop-
by night.
12. In 1746, New York united with
the eastern colonies in an expedition
against Canada, but the project totally
failed. The next year, the welcome
news of peace between England and
France arrived, and the colony wa re
lived from the distresses brought upon
them by the war.
13. Thus I have told you of sne of
the principal events in the history of
NewYork, up to the time of the Frech

Yok la IsM t Eow amy ames m
bnl a e mmy h utl n1 kMNo
ii Wle of ImWni seat Ws i

MIW s3s1Ts.-A Msa3 .I1T--rN.-a --OIs. W'
,whih camnced in 17 Pres see the Pamaemc Fals. Thew ma fi
ime uiM colosles acted in ooPei t; the Pi sic rivet,, wahi s ie
I hall therefore leave the sep the rocks to the den r ty
history of Nw York her, and give you feet. The spetacle is vey i d
a view of what remains, in the goe al beautiful.
account of the French war and the 4. Some year ao, a gentleam aid
American Revolution. his wife, from New York, wae ita in
on the rock, which hap over the eamt.
rnet. The lady suddony becme disny,
CHAPTER XXVIII. and fell over the awful pnoi ic. Sh
ITATf OF Nw JnBISr. wasinantly illed y &f Pa r.
en is a brisk maoufataring town, stu-
1. I will nowtell you about New Jer. ted near the cataract
e. It is not a large state, but m tra We may the leave Newark
efing through it we sha see many railroad, and soon arrive at EIi
things that are interesting. We must town. In pa n alon, we A .
start t New York in a teamboat, nd serve many fine orch an
cres the North river to Jersey City. autumn, we shalle a ab eamM
This is done in a few minutes. Then excellent' anpl. The cider maade
we get into the cars, and ride nine miles, is e celebrated
over a railroad, to Newark. 6. On arriving at Elizbetb*ow we
2. This i a beautiful city, with se- shall b struck with the bnatrf e li
oral handsome churches, and many place. But we shall not be a l
handsome houses. We shall see many stop long, as the conductor f te c is
ofthe people busy in making shoes, in ,rt btJury; wh he rigs t
gige coaches, o bnises, stages, and bell, he poaenge will jump into th
wage. Newark is the largest city in car and away we go.
the tate; it had thirty thousand hab. 7. We all pa through New BrSu
sin 1847. The whole ofnohem wick, upon the railroad, and trallM
iJer y is as buy, with it on a few miles, we shall at length reach
muntar s, as a hire of bee. Princeton. Here we shall obe a
.3. We ust not omit to make an ex large building, with a green lawn ia
cursie .i ewark to Ptteon to front, covered with shady tree. Thi,
oaMI Is%.*Itbmkpluasm t "MOWhMs is Princeton Collage; it is quite 006
un.e thtnst pIt. IaL. w, a brated, and a great many yong me
are educated here.
amp t at? a &. After leaving Princets, we shall
oon arrive at Trentom, whish is buti-
SfuL r situated on the Deawa. We
u shall here notice a inee hd amas
A th river. I think we had i take
UNiS. &4i n arIM t f d"t? the steamboat now, and go don the
Oiri-It A Ir Hs s Mlil 4. Mea seis t .Min
osmab In 4. raw m ,
eIm ( Ifsrw AMrI C J cit M I s.wat, d u..s Am.t.
rM L i n. *s*ts p T .& Wht d th bohIwa' 7T. Mht o F Slm .

to TIriujii 300B 0F RISYOR?.-NZW 12282T.

Delware to Philadelphia; though we
cam, if we choose, go on in the cars of
either of two railroads.
9. We shall be delighted with this
part of our journey. On both sides of
the river, we shall see many very hand-
some towns. Those on the west side
belong to Pennsylvania, those on the
east, to New Jersey. Among other in-
teresting things, we shall see Joseph
Bonaparte's house at Bordeptown.
10. Joseph Bonaparte, who died in
1846, was a brother of the famous Na-
poleon Bonaparte, and once king of Na-
pies and then of Spain. The house is
lge, and quite different from other
homes in the. state; it is now a place
of public resort. There is a very lofty
tower on the grounds, called an observa-
tory. From the top of this, there is a
very extensive and beautiful prospect.
11. Bat the most common way of
travelling across this part of New Jersey
now, is to leave New York in a steam-
boat, which carries us up the river Rar-
itan to Aitboy: at this place we may
gt into the railroad cars, and go to
bordentown, where there is a steam-
bet ready to take us to Philadelphia.
12. Soon after passing Bordentown,
we shall come to Burlington, and then,
in a little while, we shall reach Phila-
delphia. If we go into the market at
Piladelphia, we shall observe large
quantities of the finest apples, pears, and
peaches, and sweet potatoes, and other
vegetables, that we have ever seen.
Many of. these things are brought from
that prt of New Jersey which lies on
the Delaware, opposite to Philadelphi.
1. You will ee valuable ine and

co r mines in New Jersey. The a
na, from the Delaware to the HaUm
river, cro this state, and bring to kew
York immense quantities of the Pen-
sylvania coal, for fuel,-caled the Le-
high or anthracite, and by various other
names, taken from the plae or mine
whence it is obtained. From New Jer-
sey, too, is carried to distant parts, to
Boston, &c., the light-colored freestone,
that is so much used in building houses,
churches, and other edifices.
14. If we stay some time in the State
of New Jersey, we shall observe that the
people differ considerably from those in
New England. This difference is owing
to the difeence of origin. Thepele
of New England are descended entirely
from the English, while those of New
Jersey are the mixed descendants of
English, Dutch, Danes, Germea, and
1. The first settlement in this stat
was made by the Danes, in 169. Sqm .
Dutch and Swedes soon ar made set
tlement in the territory; the pepuladie
was, however, very small. l 16,

Thet. T 9. a0MwY Ubs the? Is. wIL k 1Mew Jesey cams, M A w TU4, ho.
aseso BNOPUU1 me havs ad~rl
11. WaftfIwOhN.Jimy? Mi;. ;bWas. Wbtefdo psqlsedls k l3ssy
Aidahet is Kb. 0091 Iftms 1t 14. 13. Mra sad e NWan u Um mil "

r -^;



leea of tUh-S.h The net
j IsIou taii made at El.-
by t e aen, who purchased
of ibthe Ildi s,
t.'Tbe mse year Sir George Car.
teret was appointed governor, and the
colony received the name of Jersey, in
compliment to him, who was a native
of the ilad of Jersey, on the northern
coat of France.
17. In 1676, the province was divided
into East and West Jerey, and so con-
tinued until 1702. The government
was then surrendered to Queen Anne,
of England, and BEat and West Jersey
wern united, under the title of New Jer-
my. From this date to the Revolution-
ary War, very little happened in this
ioy, the story of which would be in-
Cdo you.
wamrs with the French and
Indisan, which afflicted New England
and New York so muh, did not reach
New Jery. Bat daring the Revolu.
hry War, this satae was oaied by
the Znglish ad American anmer, a
it mequ y ewh lease, and
saru ed gntd m. Ofth ethinpg

zf& Iwf $ Ptl i a of one
1w now. Tbb teall at Mon-
laMi- t nR mmraof l7M between

dr M Ai6.g ,Ilr s d
meAa i whfg aer W gstes. ad
The aua-eos te m Sa.
Mf wwf aem a3 hal de Mu.
The wer ht, ad a woman,
nisad ?he, wa ea.gewd ih

eie asnts 1w. e e iis MoMe
WKi aA- tt I?.. hub -* la1-
"ambond I I&I--a aMWOMMr
*A-ll~ftt W-H~il'YIaM1Wt

Waes aniag.y ef thm L of l m t
ad by, her hsbu4h *-r war m
them, was keld. Mey iM-ud-id
eek his pbee t swe gMin, a li
lite a op. She was eatd ld r
Mollyeer after. In 1M4, A pe
of N Jenrey formed an amended eM-
etiaion for their te.

1. This is large, welhy, ad heis
fishing state. Our anves tiogh it
will afford us much *ati iti W
must examine Phi dde iin the 6it
place. In my opiuame, it t b ek
someet city in the Unitd 8latM.
streets are all traiht, and enr aeh
other in a regular menMr.
2. In this city you will s a ke-
ing called Indebpdeme IR, knes
in the large rom, which is s ae d
juat sit wa then, was ade, a sly
4, 17',tbhDealariea ofIrdat
of our country, of which I t1 l yoU
by and by, M thy e Ti haptem & ahe
American Revolution.
3. What was then done, in *t bId-
QuM*m. M1 9Ah M.fp.-UlirArIT? D-
wribedlheldnawre,Sqlus.m|r .hUheJrZljl.
nit., Ltg, Oho, ohioArh. Wh tnms of
maomtius iaPemauylmIal Tkri whet an-
tis do they Deartlbe lhnr ay. How
M"ny acam. in WmY WbIe Is w-
ddwAgeo BuW? WMraw 0 -kr'
PW mpha A.. ta e atf PMId-

M-a-- ie, A ba8. , t, o, Laon.
asadtun s.bIat as ie~ egM
mplhaat AxI vflt-

bhbmh RM L U IM M.WWI*1

ing, leLo.rBeroIltin; -our ak as a sign that he was free and homes
ig our own laws, ani thriving as we be,for none were so uales.ty wore
think best,--in our own way, without free. Thus the cap became the mbiem
being directed by a government on the of freedom; and our nation adopted it.
other side of the ocean, that could not 7. We shall find many interesting ob-
know what was good for us. Since jets in the cty. The building erected
then we have become a great nation,- by the U. S. Bank, and now used foi
may we also be a wise and a good one. the custom-house, is of white marble
On the 22d day of February, 1847, and very beautiful. The Arcade is a
the old Independence Bell, as it was very curious building, in which there
called, which was on Independence Hall, are a great many shops. In the upper
and was used to call the people together part of this building is Peale's Museum.
on the solemn day of the Declaration,- 8. This is a most interesting collee-
and to celebrate the peace which fol- tion. There are hundreds o stuffed
lowed the Revolutionary War, and on birds and animals, which look as if they
the successive Independence days since, were really alive.' There a grisly
-was tolled for the last time, in mem- bears, and deer, and elks, end prodi-
ory of the birthday of Washington, who gious great serpents, and birds with
was our country's general and first beautiful feathers, and crane with legs
President The bell is cracked, and as long as a man's, and thevPi bas,
spoild for use now. It was cast in and butterflies, and Indian t wk,
Phlablphka, about 173, and had on it, and a multitude of other thins.
", Posdai LmnnT throughout this lnd 9. But the met woderful of s the
e all tke inhabitants thereof."
SYou mat not fail to visit the
United tties Mint, in Philadelphia,
wh ere e make the metal money, or
ein, which we use:--the eagle and
hblf.egles, of gold; the dollars, halves,
mad qurers, dimes and half-dimes, of
silver and the cents and half-cents, of
;pr. *t is a very curious process.
TI vrersdust of the floor is valuable,
for it has jold sad silver in it.
6. Yqu have uen, o our old cents
and com, a cap, sometimes on the bead
of the fmale figure rpr eunting Li*. S km 'e
ty, and etmes, a little way of it. I
will tell you what that is for. In an- heleton of the mtdem ,r omla h.
isnt times, old age was ay ho- These bone were f d Is he Seat of
e. QL pid a esmr Ioreed New York; the animal t whi they
their mm ritr.i a kalm r belongqe mat have been ashie as
W" ehe hem ca p gOven huml unall house. No animals of this

Aar.Ihde.Ls to be sies an?.t IWIt as

aw le ir America, or anywhere els
Bts legbefe the whim people cam
tthis conty,it is ierti that they
armed through the fure of Americ.
Some of them must have been at ast
four times a large a the largest ele-
10. Aer leaving the museum, we
should go and me the Fairmount water-
works, about two or three miles out of
town. Theeare stated on the Schu
kill river. There e here several large
wheels, which are so contrived as to
force the water from the river up into
a reservoir, on the top of a hih ill.
From thence the water flow to t ity,
and supplie the whole place. Thu a
a most useful invention, and one that
may well excite our admiration.
t from Fairmount, we
will ismid College. The
building ione of te met magnilcent
in tn United States. It is buit of white
male, with money left to Philadelphia
byS hen Girard, of that city., e of
the et merchant of our country.
He founded it for the education of poor
onhc ehildhe. first, those born in
Pi h; then, those born in Penn-
ylvania; then, those born in the city of
ew York and lastly, those born in
New Orleans. He lso left money for
iapin and beaetifyin g the of
Phlehia. Mr. Giraed ie I1,
adCte leMSumihed and"
M4 ":siati o organized, in c-
har, 3 .
l rmwst now lrve Piladeslphia,
aeMe *W Phttbhurg. We hall trav
l O NSeeteads, with Ame snoew
bridge we shall ea goet ny
Slma ieri& bumMa e of very f ne

SCOLL"*- I,4.. A$
Y 0
oale. Weori a. l
tar, whie ish I MfU
town in the .Uiitd ht, *

U. Ar we. alongIt,,wehaUi.
will ike than rey Mach.k
very fely, a*a dates in a oizg
master, ir sa i that there I sM
been a single intace ef a QMiabWJ
commuting a criimince, the eot&-
mentof th courtrf jusie in tlsi s.
This is shown by the reeods of dLae
14. Yetwil meet with a gel
peoe herewho eai talk rbMal
German. There ". A@ a

are "er y al 0M" aInn 11M064S
W%4y t-eep * .. A-
1. Ater travelling a'whr l daur, ]
will find that you have pased over a
lofty mountsams You will be F Bh
fatigued, and I think you will bhe A
that you have get ver theam,. ey
have a very deotlse s 1u -
Inames. If. erasel l mr md,
yeo will be a ew home sJIr
the m WiMais. These amms r
to b elahaliteby meay wM l

aeM ,tum i. mom hwf
as mt r----t -, a lt.
IN* it

* T-fI BOO30K oF HlI
IT. JAer having ssed the Allegia-
sei, yn will arrive at Pitsborg. This
is a great manthetring place. Asyon
is -yes wni observe a eod of
bk moke rsindg over th town, and
yoe will notice that almost all the build-
mngs ae blesbned with the coalsmoke.
Co is so very bmdant her,e hat you
may bay a bhel of it for a few cents.
In Apd, 1M,wewred heoe dreadful
fin, whih baoned more than a thousand
hoase, a Oerw saillions of property.
I&S. W~ah baily h ave tito set
damt iin s little'ok all t interest-
athin a be semn in Pen mir.
TeISm rathLe,,l ea, h tad l eatd .l
Lmas, womae pqeop g a great deal

of coalwhich is carried down in little
cms, ra ileds,to the aaala, and then
put ie boat, and earned to Philadel-
phisa ad ether places.
U. Ther e several fine canai,
ray niiroads, and some of the mat
baau rimnves i the wold. The bani
of te Sc&hayk I ddaaroad the

i the smin win
ingatLte. IsbeistcesMheelrwia-
5^helbUgsCoallt i s.I
esmiolE. no i ast

tar as in New England., Many pat
of it ae fertile and highly cultivated,
and the comfort and luxurie of li ar
very ap and abundant.
a0. ln 1836, there were one handed
thousand pupils in the common school
of this state. In 1838, there were two
hundred and thirty4hree thousand. In
1847, thee were nearly three hundred
and thirty-one thousand. So you see
the number of boys and girls leaning
to be good men and women, must be
nearly four times as great now as in
21. Pennsylvania is called the Key-
stone Sate, as being the middle, and a
very important state in our Union. A
few years since, she had undertaken to
make so many canals and lroad at
once, that she became ~ more
than she could pay fraom
elate income. But by ptrl tally and
bonesly taxing herself, she hia re-
deem her edit, and ill seon be
feed, by her vast mineral, agriculurkl,
ad manufacturing resources, from all
22. In 1839, died at Philadelphia.
Matthew Carey, a distinguished plan
thropist; and n 1844, Nicholas Biddle,
a celebrated financier, aadprmident of
the great Pennsylvania institatioa, eakd
the United States Bank, so he d been
of that in which th Fderal Govern-
meat were stockholdwu, t& ', owned
apart. And there, died, in K, Per
S. Duponceau, who came to de earn-
try, from Franc u aid t BDe Steu-
beo. He was onB of te m tuarsed
men of our eouay, specially in at
Indian laungga ad andmqlis,
N"? l qfa a
YmIqf OISh t e1 Osa
ile? l. iu
lt enet mOe d

caWWlTAMlA.-r k7,hWA T W *

rB3NS LVAMl4. -
Pem eyvuiiA; t Ibq J.'id ," begin w *
w.lim Nim, for he w th chisf or
srtrent orf e almc t He was thC
sm of a bridti a dlad, and lived in
Trondon. He wa educated a lawyer,

3. In 11, Chtades granted to
him a large ts ot land between New
Js Ey and Mrrlnd. This inlued
Penasn =a Delaware. In the fal
of the ame year, a good many persons, Pa inlt )i ,%,T l0 ..'
chiefly Qapket to whom he had sold
some f the ad, st oat in three ships, and tmae ners a r t
and eaM Amesite The people set- pri t on..
tied.a lPilaware river, near where & H wei s I e s
ibdlph noiw stands. them oh tn b dal( tdo
3. These woghtwith them a letter of their otd es a
fmr Peon to tho Indias. In this he this they eed r qt
aid to them, the great God had $s061 1mmrr Sir
been pleased to make him concerned in ead ja4ai h ir JWis
their part of the wrid, and that the king aOd t a p t too, il-
of the coatry where he lived had given that he eould bert them All -
him a great province therein; but that thiT i tree or not, I taMst
he did not des to enjoy it without is certain the India* hlMUg
their consent; that he was a man of him with feeling. of lovI
peace, and that the people whom he tion. *
sent were men of the same disposition; 6. Penn also marked out ate P
and if any difrene should happen be- a great cit,to which he wte 6awae
tween thm., it might he adjutdb of *hiWdeihhm i a
equal be of men, chosen h citf r e rM
sides." I of the year,wo lae 1s li mighty
a bathe r lIgPena f a I ?g' to
ame to the colony wft twdm d EO lsrI ig teo l a hap-
yai Wbile he ws m in e on- ^ ^y y > w alM S I
i. ient s.m(Mkle -y fi s" 1^

i^WwnasfflaUL r h;s 9 .
r'^^l'*^l~~tsrt jw) ^&c a-LL,* Sll

91 THU IllS! 3009 0f 115T0.-DZLAWAIN.

agreeble; h dee, and other wild ai.
m were abundat. The vermet,
tee, araged Pmn was Juot and lib.
lboo. eheto"l Amo eq rrmen
tMo aa a his Mwni way.
& Thua1ee amamng emsuelves,
thelimd t e their hiend by

les in tmheoth

ma M tL ba i they.6 p irle
0110 =.n jw n^fti .-Bim Wi,

tw.. .M a in.. s.tnas. .
&. Inlaw Peanarturnedtotthepror-
ieM. He f maod om w umess ong
the peple. To em ve w a tb tgave
dth a w charter in 1701. This was
s.idloed to the assembly chosen by the
P- d asccpted. But the inhabit
uat in't"s pmt of the p wince which
newr Ms the State of Delaware, did
ot li th de charter, and refused to acc
mot j.
1&. They were therefore separated
fem Pansylvania, and had a distinct
sessy, chosen by the people, who
made their laws. Thmesme governor,
however, presided over Pennsylvania
and Delawam
11. Pn s-o returned to England,
sad never visited America asin. He
died in 1718 leaving beh him the
character of a trlypio and good man.
He. was twice imprieed in Engknd,
prsDa w Uenyey se- 7t Wksi
SW"-H-aswIl "eWes iss .s l u

lr I as ho M let eP.WhAMiu he
"Wt LWMa M -lsMIII WthMet

by the government, for his religious opi
ions; and his enemies accused him of
very wicked conduct But he lived to
see every suspicion wiped away. from
his reputation; and his life teaches s
that the world fails not to heoor a man
of active kindness, piety, aed trth.
12.. His colony continued to iourish,
and its ncrse in population was i-
exampled. The Indians, concilited by
kidness, remained for seventy year at
peace with the inhabitants; and thus,
until the French war, nothing occurred
in Pennylvania to interrupt her proe-

1. This is the smallest sl in the
Union, except Rhode Island; but it is
beautifully situated long the western
shore of Delaware Bay, and like every
other part of our country, aords inter-
esting topics of geo phy and history.
In our travel through it e sll -
serve some of the finest wheat-fields in
the world.
2. At Wilmington, on the Brandy.
wine, we shall see extensive manufac-
tories of paper, and some of the best
lour-mills in the country. We shall
notice a very useful canal, crossing the
northern part of the state, from Delaware
Bay to Chesapeake Bay. Ol portion
die Wbhtdblbssdheasdter is. Whet

Queamon i a MAp.-Bm ti Wh
bay amt d Ddhwm Nmb"r of enmiWi
7akr same sI O Nr InL a h a sb m IS

r1. Wasewsmt f t W lMaN h
wns.a asd st Whetmi t s l

IILAWr~lS. &~L'tl~)~IYhKWAYI.R PAY3li4i* Dj KItl.

4thb sdIi is eled *L6 Deep 0ut,
A"f-ime"fbeali ft a dWOEN Ifoar

m..il, thraogh b ninety e high.
A brid a single Areh hats'h it.
8. i adrfromp Philadelphia to
Baltimore abo pa through this sate.
The ist railroad, on a puio route, in
the United States, was bilt hre, from
Wilmngtoq to Ellkon. At Newark is
a flour i college; and there ae many
good school and academies. This tate
has furnished a number of able and elo-
quent men. We shall pass Dover, a
pleuaht little town, which is the seat of
government; and if we proceed to Lew-
istown, at the southern point of the state,
we shall see the people engaged in mak-
ing salt from sea-water.
4. At the mouth of Delaware Bay,
and nea&Cape Henlopen, we shall ob
serve animmense wall of stone in the
ea, called a breakwater. This was
built b the government of the United
States, to'pitect vessels which may be
at ranch in the bay, from the wave
that rl in from the ean dring storms,
.adf ro st iosdatom es oatingdown

mi t O l oIp mt ulbel, .
en ea. 5.3 ? 7D lawleuanteu 4.
itar tlba Munlir raMs DInMr mM

e.The uhs*,~ f",~*
hu bestm il pegi -Iy

OHM@ It r. Oe, ve
d e d o t h e A i l W I =b
whoil sewuph a thu tinina t

dyingki t e exesse iammy.01
&asut it is notC Slh 1611

you o the s, wi W saw ,
eer, named Gustavus lAdoom
man ws wounded linobams agnduY
diedan, or th ci. t
with thei rahyowla d tfwer
and Xevud sddht thavas
dyiat ka he ezpmmed& Iu~~
L Nut it is nt my lntentloat tel
yuuof th.Nmsrlutiomuy Wuuewc I
mthe pbkc yo btey tWaWish eusbt
da. More than two hundise ym d
s~o, there llvpd in Swuden a h uea
ing, named stwve Adow" die,
Pklrar~ohden amsto l-'k
Mnd ande. at Cape HeGom pem ,4nY
Itwaaabeatifu~l ri*, corned writ

Md 9W Am ewi dtei,
wishn their youngb &wns wesrei quikaj
The migsWnt dor* a e
*h place, tat they ad1 1%ait *hA l

hy WhrsafDrhwue~~atibwlgrp m7
line Dha.1mebslMi inbetnn t 3.~
Kalbi e. Wkrt .1SW iq~d~'Wbm
im~ 3my malts.n fsab lda
weibsyt WhSEC p3MUP.9l

123 vIns- BOOK 'OP 21srTl. -MARYLAND.

'lIn. is laer tatd them kid-
l, mi4 i tn lid an beth sid of
rwae T se nnttlrs npw aUiaed
thiMeseve. ueer imndgton, and called
the reatry New Sweden.
& Butthe eeny was not pumitted
to enjoy it e lands and delightful cli-
mte in pae. The Dwtch claimed the
ritwry, nd after anpoying them' in
w io ways, iy built a rt at New
Catl Aqra by r naemeofisingh
was the penor of the Swedish col-
SOn day he popoed to the cm.
*wmder of the Duch fr to pay hi a
frimadlhr Thwi w aes- ed ad

Msm. T y wet received wit knd-
as, and tM ted with g e ality.

pioners of the garrison.
10u The gSo her of New York at
iu sim was Peter SUyheeat, whom
tor describes as ponsidemng a prht
hot mp. Such a man was not kely
bo pemu t the trachery of v isingh to go
uanvenged. So he fitted out an arma.
MSt, which went against the Swedes,
in s 0l Te-els, in the year 1666.
11. There was coniderable fighting;
but the Dutch were victorious, and hav-
ing takes the Swedish forts, they al-
lowed slw of the inhabitants to remain,
ad seat he rest prisoners to Holland.
The wstlemp t continued in the hands
of the Duteh till 166, when.it came
into the psessien of the English, with
the surrender of New York.

\wht s dU thed parr dot who
s mew gMMtm ~te sas ly f New Yrk
what wm dmla 1a t 1. What thse Dd
wmeR my mdi thsthlM to st Wha haq.
sedd i te ? I14 What ia mR? Whet

S. In 1688, the tritry was pW
esmed by William Penn, ad m il
1703, formed a pat of Penaplvania.
At t Kti@e, it was partiBy p d,
si a distinct arsimblyd l byhe
h the sm e at
ed ver es oIer
Dreawea. The o smin ie ad thui
ita wen till 1775, it bemiert
Jinal"Wi suite.

1. Mary id is divided, by Chem.-
peate BRa, iyonto twou called the
Euo m and Western io. Intravel.
lin4 through t ate, swe shla-id that
the land on boh sides of thel gen
really level, or moderately onen. If
we proceed into the mon weon parts,
between the Potomac river and Papsyl.
nia, we shall fid hil, mountains, and
S. There was, fo many years, a dis-
pute about boundary, between the heir
of William Penn, proprietor of what is
now the State of Pennsylvania, and the
heirs of Lord Baltimoe, proprietor of
what is now the State of arland. In
1762, Mr. Charles Mason, of the Eng-
lish Royal Observatory, London, and
Mr. Jeremiah Dixon, were appointed to
run a line between the lands of the two
DiawaRl etweheos b eesa d 17 Wat tfkl-
awar after 17031 What took place a 17 I
SQuo dm..e t Ar.-Bevmdaril DBryw
biy Is qNylWnd me iai two m pet Wmt
essties tlathM raitrl What a thL was-
rt? Dsmribetharaqshma, P1gm Os
itall whta county is AnApondI
otltasn, undhtwmA CIbxIsaL
1. beadthcnrmsya t 3nsman ad b
IHat 8. W -F se a te omt 'l Wh"4


KARTLAUD.--SllAV33--3A0O--M31 INlr MlN3S *ttto6C

This line was called Muaer ad
,a 'li.a
2. telMppas,lheatfer aml us
the slavt esiubsahaveben seut d Mi
ee mad Dima's line, ad tbihe st
f eei aro lldes atbo it Tisr hs
made i ot t ofe n t pok t t
4. We ba not long in Maryland
befon we discover thr thee a a eat
many neg slave dths. The nroes
do net I-mbully choose their -pla -
menti lols oto er po T plaht e laort
their ownrs as th.e o t
In the diteas north of Maryland
laeny is nt aothorted by law. The
people tMn eansid it a evtil, and
ha taken are to ab oli it. But in
Maryland, and the tat south of it, te
laws people to hold slaver Many
paoi e m tiare, believe itwrong;
tit ha been long practused. There
are may t ands of slaves in the
country, ad it is therefore not easy to
devise amy pla by which they can safe-
ly be set ree.
6. We shall observe many fine wheat-
fields in Maryland, and many planta-
tions of tobacco. This plant is cultivated
in rows, like Indian corn, and it has
broad leaves, like a mullein. We shall
notice that almost all the labor in the
fields is performed by the negroes.
7. You will be delighted with Balti-
more. It is as 1rge as Boston, and has
many interesting objects in it. There
are public water-works, and two flour
fishing medical colleges; one literary
college, and the Marylan4 University;
also the fine building of the Exchange.
There is a tall monument, with a static
ofWssiagte oan the top, that you cau*

OW mAnO t s. _Wios -- of OldoseAS
Isoughist Ls Wbhtadtaiih NM flIt WT.
WaIt O $ IS? te > WNswMlt C Om&t
--_ al 4rlH^t -wm>&- AOkLftt

When y70 *ot- wMgb0
otiau4st d ,
astod abet IWm .. eb
sotoo. PYo will wse a bWmll
pirtoni in thi abkMk W
9. After*eig the t o *he Aiy,
yoa sh uld go is Iseelutt whaos
y will ndes a 6o6 *Uyw (
IMded wi" flmr. bMm ("
gateit our.mrMhst mi the wmI
Tbouosb ad theAsands daelmb
brought here evoy yeJ bNheati
parts f MaryId,4 ta r borIgMMM,
Pennsylvania, dA Vmi., lUi Am
s o m hips to Nwr Ykd, Boamr,
Charleston, aad various farie e48
10. I mut tell yo tMhat*the is
geat trade between Belsimu mA
sate wet of the Allegbmy mlies.
The wtern people a mt umy
goods at Baltimore, and gd "s Imn
a great deal of woetem prodmea. Tht
is, theefore, a Vst dal f t relv
back ad ea, ad handed ui

'r Ovi st swi$ I


an eosaaly osapied in transporting
gods ad produce to ad from market.
11. It was i order to carry on all
thi business m u asiy. that 4e peo-
pie vwy early builttwhat we call a rail-
road. Its ir bea laid evenly alone the
ound, by mang down or throg the
is and Ailling up tr valleys d ridg-
i the streams, allow the carriages,
witheir small wheels, to ran upon
them with wonderful facility. In this
way, you know, one hore would draw
as mch as ten or a dosen horses, on a
common road. And if we mount a car,
we can be drawn by a locomotive from
twenty to sixty miles, or more, an hour.
1t. In 1864, Nicholas, car, or em-
peror, of the mighty empire of Russia,
m Eurps and Asia, wished to build a
railroad, four hundred miles long, from
thecityoft. PetesnburgtoMoscow. He
seat to different countries, to have petr
se try who could make the best steam
engines, locomotives, as they are called,
for his railroad.
13. The English and others tried, but
the engine of Mr. Winans, of Baltimore,
Maryland, was found to be the best.
The car therefore requested him to
mau e ea hundred and sixty-two loco-
motive steam engines, and five thousand
hithen cars to carry merchandise in;
and three gnrat, steam, pile or post-driv-
ing machines. All these will cost four
million of dollars, ad ae to be made
in la whither the Americans take
:14. TI is aorable in the his-
tory of the a i a l sr that our me-
chanies should make the best lo6omo-
tives, al that dtey About aO ever
from Srope to as r them. Besides
SWIAt a.m tlMt s th lladb S g
hktmMt aig of tM at arm t is,
U. Nihdlet AmaMA asgg lae IMA2sb

tidt, the empemrstt hers for j
Whistler, an American engi ner to
oome to Ruasii, to be chief engine of
that mighty road, and make it.
I Beside Baltimore, there an se.
erd pleaant towns i Maryland. An-
napolis, the sea of goven ent, has a
handsome state-house, sad Fredeick-
town is a peant pleee. At Annapo-
lis is sbfihe a Naval School of the
United Stas, where young men re
educated to be odicers in the Uany.
16. The climate of Marylan s very
agreeable. The winter is never severe,
and often, when the rivers and lakes of
New England are frozen over, the creeks
and inlets along Chesapeake Bay are
covered with focks of wild waterfowl.
17. Maryland is still increasing, and
now getting much business frm the
Cunmeran coal, which is broht by
railroad, from the mines in Virgin, and
from the facility and nearness of com-
munication abe offer between the states
on both sides of the Alleghanies.
18. Itwas from Washington, D. C., to
Baltimore, Md., that its inventor, Pro-
fessor Morse, of New York, first set up,
by wires led on top of upright poles
along the line of the railroad, his mag-
netic telegraph, which, moving little
points by the electricity of a magnet,
writes what is aid at one end plainly
down at the other, distant thrty-six.
miles, in two seconds. This is now the
way of telling news between large citiw;
it can be made perfectly secet.
19. In 184( it extended sth ad
south-west to Petersburg ad New O
leans; north to Montreal, Cana ; and
west to St. Louis, Missouri, cosaedtig

Ult I.T Nma SW-h t l nlmi dmt Us.
atmees IL tri. elt? is manlsis
gig h -lia iss.19 es"Aig s klt,


a these pohtso a, and seekig
them iu Washing". mThere a
loe betaebeI htwea-eiarsd townma
This bogsr w ia a few minua
intelletual reach of rh otr, the p~oM-
ple upon feu gat rivm of North
Amenca,-the Miasii, the Ohio,
the Hudson, ad the St. L rece.
21. In 18t7, the whole of our presi-
dea'mannua mege to Congres, which
contained 4i0htn thousand words, was
transmitted ths, from Wshington to
St. Louis, Missouri, seventeen hundred
and ity miles, in twive hours.

1. Beimor is situatd on the river
Patapeo, which eters CheapeakeB, ,
about fourteen mil from the city. n
the northern side of this rier is a piece
of land runuar into the bay, called
North Point. You should visit this
spot, for a famous battle was fought
there on the 12th of September, 1814.
At that time, our country was at war
with England. A great many English
soldiers and ships were sent over to fight
with our people.
2. On the 23d of August, they made
an attack on the city of Washington,
and as there were few American troop
there, they burnt the capitol, and several
other public buildings, and the presi-
dent's house. The president himael
was obliged to ride very fast, to keep
ot of their way.
3. After they had done this, the Brit-
w sBlMis se pM la m ihasm a by Id
:1; 6i0tam b7 it isMa IM
1. WhatesalMMelt hPmmstl NM&
Poolt .-WIMs skaisdhe Asmpus,
Met & Wrhat sk tlaq m siadMhe

ia. wat to atitk *B ~l,-' nw
mm haed th medA of the
a set of 11y shis, ald* i i
ahne mahatoned, air tohe.m d
wale headed at Nkth tPait .
4. New the people Bat nesM we
not is the hum for having theA ultl
take by the British -eMinl; sthe
was preat bestul i te in sweet. *Mi
we seen rasig to a"d *t,with
lets in their hands, and -wsaMs-
full of r0soltiss. The *dw MA
their counting-ess; the lawyers, t
offices; the mmischrn vriv emI -
ployments; te dream hieao the Uls
screamed; and, assemei MWd .e
commnd of their ledst1he I m0et
and beat ame in the -a* waat dom
meet the emy.
6. They mes and there wa b
ghting. The emanr .beowed, sad
the mu setrm t the air wit a coMsi
ue ar. Ma vybnm mm fel a bai
sides. Bt the Americans, being br
in number, were oblied to sts
General Ross, the Brish leader, a
killed; and finding, by the experiment
they had made, that the people of Baldi
more were inclined to treat them t
roughly, the British went away, ship,
sailors, soldiers, and al
6. In one of the public squares of Bal-
timoe, they have erected a besi tl
marble monument, to conesmoua die
event, with the names of dts who
wea killed intis bhatt. Seodam ae
ais deeds which have neemdi tak
pd in Maryland. Lt us ow eo-

t..M *s e ed the whitn e pea

sikarfilyam rt 4. Whnsk
---SSmthe batet S. S MI W Wh
ILmaIMItle *


th Catholies in Englad were perse-
ated as the Pritans had been before.
On of them, Lord Baluimore, deter-
mined threfon to come to America.
Accordingly he went to Virginia, which
had now been settled some time. But
he found the people thee as little dis-
poed to treat the Catholics kindly as in
=gand. So he went back to Eng-
and begged the kig to give him
a charter of the land lying on Chea-
ke Bay, then occupied only by the
8. This requestwas grated; but be-
fore the business was completed,he died.
His on, Cecil, also called Lord Blti.
more, detemined to carry nto effect the
plaofhis father. o he obtained the
grant for himself, and in 1634 sent his
broer, Leonard Calvert, with two hun-
dred Catholic emigrants, to settle upon
the land on the Chesapeake.
9. When they arrived at the modth
of the Potomae river, they found an In-
dim village there, called Yoamaco.
This village they purchased of the sav-
a and thus obtained good shelter, till
teycould build better houses. They
al acquired some good land, which
had been "cultivated. Their situation
wu thIrefore very comfortable.
10. The colonists found plenty of
wild deer in the woods, and abundance
of fish along the shores of the bay. The
sea-fowl were also numerous. There
were countless flocks of ducks, skim-
ming along the water, and settling down
around the islands; and there were
numbers of wild geese at the mouths of
the creeks and rivers.

bmtad yeIm t Wha" t d Ulthesa
VIh s? Whatat i &,Ai at els.i
fa ahing At As asaethf 4t M-1 ti .
What di ths eaests Ais *4W1 uh II.

11. The elosy uibhed, a we
- account of its ple- saeation, a
the liberal policy of i t gnrm et
Thee CahJic did anot moMu ibh
who difered with thea ina em s
opinion. Lord Baltimore, and oger
William, of Rhode Island, seem to
have discovered, aboht the sme time,
that every man ha a right to worhip
Godashe please. Thus Rhode Islad
sad Maryland, at this early date, en-
joyed the blessings of entire religious
12. Yt the co y,whee Itory I am
now telling you, had its share of trou-
bles. A man by the name of Clayborne
stirred up the Indians to hostility, and
they made war on the ttlers. This
continued for several years, ad the peo-
pie suffered great distress. In 164l the
same Clayborne induced some of the set-
tlers to rebel against their rulers, and
Calvett, the governor, was obliged to fly
to Virgini. But the next year, the re-
volt was suppressed. Governor Calvert
returned, and the colony once more en-
joyed a state of peace.
13. In 1666, the colony contained
about twelve thousand inhabitants. In
1676, Lord Baltimore, the founder of
the colony, died, leaving behind him the
enviable character of a wise and good
man. He was succeeded by his son
Charles, as proprietor of the colony, and
he displayed the amne amiable qualities
as his ter had done.
14 In 16, King William assumed
the government of the colony-; but in

Did thd silr ofM. L Aor Wlhy Lad
Uitime sad Rogr Wiinsl Mulqhl Mt
hodIuladl IS.Whatorthshast Wha
teOk pl1m t- O IIs Hew msay h-1M
L I his. t 7W in ts4t ObNmw
Lad B.? What t Chadu, Last ai Wt
14. What twok pless ia 1sl WM is EVal


ITI, it M as eed to WLa Bdimen ,
md oumiel is the fAitly ill 1f97
Thie m a tbSI ga" iM 3rortherd
-l" ina the dUiar and Loul
Bitimon's laims cead.
1.I Before we lve Maryland I
wish to tell yo, in order to emourage
you to love yar country, a stry about
a g and great patriot, who lived sar
Batimsre, and died in 8 in his sWth
6. In the year 1 all but one of
he peron who were snt to PIdle
delpia from the diWt states in
O, ad tig ed the Declartion of or
ladpeidseae, o whie you read in th
chapters the BRe~ lutioenhadiod;
-d tm i veaeraMe Chale Cae rrel,
of Oanelon, in Marylad, lene re
mined miong the living.
17. The g t e city of
New York, there, appointed a com-
mittee to wait on him, and obtain from
him, to deposit in their City E a, a
co of that Declaration, signed ai
bhZ The aged patriot yielded to
the request, and affixed, with his own
hand, to a copy of that instrument, the
grateful, solemn, and pious words which
18. "Grateful to Almighty God, for
the blessings which, through Jesus
Christ our Lord, he has conferred on
my beloved country, in her emancipa-
tion, and n myself, in permitting me,
nd*r erciuumonces of mercy, to lie to
the m f 80 years, and to saurive the
and bmy present signature, my
pE ofthe AmDeclar Ind of ndde
pdeuw, bdwoPl By Oongress on the
4 f Jly, 7 which originally*
sraribed on the d day of August
nlb I arms -M. Y "wat Is so r
O emL.

motes ptseriy mmd egau s t
-"ee sm a Asm" to be"

ug. rtion, 1th Iib t
1 rithee tnow ghvenir yiO t)
qath toa the, and noay that it ecaeil

sd iligin libter in the hiw WeM.J
to y eo of the people. rT~M

different countries, who ctme fo
out purposes;-some for trade; a"$
to improve their fortunes; and some fur
religious peace.
2. There is no such resembans be.
tween the people of the f

their manners, customs, and oin
as between the people of New EnglMd.
vrietytled among dif As iabtt, tir
"diek t te ounries, mmho me at

Wad alie mml aemafi at** Mde m
twe the people of these fie tm pM
their manners, and oopiboasd

@Nt prI-',, 6rd om

I. WWdke d uchat IdulemIa po
as between the people of jNe E18laa.

k d the acsar, Mas hah inst eat
variety amoag ae ha.ti th* eir
nMtlh athei aMw Es atk a~dIs mtUM

ihart d e s aMsn ktIi

at s dH aYs Mailt Wkr-lt s. mh

TE 71 36t B00OK 01 11TORT. -VRl0G3mA.

houses, dre, manner of tilling the
and, thoughts, feeling, and opinoos,
in difirent parts of thi secon of the
3. If you will look at the map, you
will observe, that the two largest cities,
and three of the finest rivers, in the
Unibn, an in these states. New York
is the largest city on the American con-
tinent, and the Hudson is one of the
noblest navigable rivers in the world.
4. In point of soil and climate, these
states doubtless burpass all the others
situated apon the Atlantic. They are
generally very fertile, producing grain
and fruit in the greatest perfection and
abundance. They are equally removed
from the severe winters of the north,
and the burning summers of the south.
& Thus happily placed in the heart
of the country, are growing in
population and wealth. Previous to the
French war, which has been before men-
tied, theee states never acted in con-
cert. They were then separate colonies,
with separatee interests. They have
therefore no common history until the
year 1756, when they united with the
other colonies, to resist the French and
Indians. The history of that war will
be given hereafter.

1. We have now reached Virginia,
the oldest and largest sta in the Union.
the ope rd ole is mn B Haoes, dm
0 1. w9 ~ d toNw yett Th oaMa it 4
drtheMsi alea st CllfaMt 5. GeMwr
-Use pis des h cVe aur as r.a

Jwtf Yk Wat t i ts sw a -
Hm M N Jm L Yek. Was oi Ik 1 .0

We shall not fd as ood tmds, ar as
od stages, here as in the Middle and
sern States, nor shall we meet with
sd many handsome houses, nor hall
we, at the distance of every few miles,
come to a pleasant little village.
2. We shall remark that the houses
are scattered, and that the land, instead
of being divided into small farms, is laid
out in extensive plantations of several
hundred acres each. Instead of mead-
ows, apple orchards, and small patches
of rye, Indian corn, and flax, we shall
see vast plains covered with crops of
tobacco, wheat, and hemp. We shall
see, that the whole labor of the field
is performed, on these plantations, by
the negroes. The planters themselves
have large house, and live in excellent
3 In travelling through the country,
we shall not meet with many taverns;
it may therefore be convenient to stop
for a night at a planter's house. We
may be sure of a hearty welcome, and
the liberal host will take nothing in pa
ment.- If it is autumn, he will probably
invite us to go the next day in chase of
deer. There are a great many of these
aniinals still in Virginia, and the plant-
ere hunt them on horseback, with packs
of hounds. We must take care that our
travels do not take place in the summer,
for then it is.very hot in eastern Vir-
ginia. We had better go in the winter,
and thus, while New England is buried
up in now-drifts, we may travel at our
ease in the Southern States.
61kt BrW4or Mt- B Udlp MMd BsAM
gla dwo dos ABu R ngp ems the amt?
Us' doM thu AllMlah mug. uMa tha sue.?
CQttal Daribe Nork, Pmabl J
I'. wtetfVbigaiaT am hssdbhta
VrTgl L IAbu Pl Mit Wtfbst
iP mw nlaht a aplaie.kos h Wh


4. Vi a my bediridbe i d etahu
pa That which lies toward the sea
coast is leland sandy; that which hli
eat of the Blu RidE is hilly,.and that
which lies west of it as mountamous. In
the western part of the state, then a
fewer nroe, and the white people
labor on the farms.
There ar several remarkable ca-
riositie in this state. One is a Natural
Bridge, composed of rocks; it is two
hundred ad afty feet high, and a little
river low beneath it at the bottom.
Wier's Cave is a astoisin work of
nature. It consists of asera spacious
caverns in the rocks, more than two
thbosad feet in length. The sides are
covered over with beautiful crystals. If
you enter the cave with a light, it is re-
flected by these crystals, and you will
be astonihed at the wonderful brilliancy
of the scene.
.6. There arseveral other caves in
Virginia, one of which is called the
Blowng Cave. From this, a team of
air issues so powerful as to blow down
the gras and weeds, to the distance of
sixty feet from the mouth.
7. In the wester part of the state,
near the Ohio, is a remarkable mound
of earth, filled with human bones. It
*is seventy feet high, and three hundred
feet across at the bottom. This won-
derful hill must have been built log
before the white people cme to Amer-
ic. It is protl, indeed, that was
constructed any ages since, eva be-
fore the ce of savages we are -
qualed with occupied dhe country. It
was, o doubt, the work of a people who
li bIdrishsd, and passed away, leav-

dart m& w a T hIs b* awh De-
ilb m bImt s Wi resfb ms
a 1t 11 8s10t s. LNsl NiAlt Wmet
SA.t .Iri Om t r. l of srst

^ as r' behin-kih h61-r-
Moulds, to Wg#M they Ow.
Richme.-d, the atsesit e W
in irginia, is a aandsome edthe
largs town inm ,.o sa uk hs
a great deal of trade. Lyak ,, ea
Jame river, lhs -some mauaebs.
and deals extensively inke prodoau t
the country. Gaeat quastie of *s
hemp, and tobacco, stapWs of iVr
'ia, an seat down James riem e
Richmond, from this pb, by .aM l,
called James River ma awu tCOaL
9. There is also a ramiead from iS
per's Ferry to Winahewter, in hie vay
of Virginia,s as it called, ad an Bs
a macadamised eed fom Wirneheatr
to Stanton, ad through a bealMh a
country as I ever saw. A raileadum
from Petersburg to Weldon, im R-th
Caroline; whence one goes to Noertk,
where is the U. S; NavyYard, Mo Chem-
peake Bay. Anhaihr raflhead poa
Richmond to Potomac river, and aMt
towards the mountains is Lomauai y.
S10. At Saltrille, in Smyth om4ty,
are salt-wells, whence they draw watt
to boil and make sa And in thd*
county, Wythe, we can see rick Ms
of lead, in which silver is fhbud AM.
There is coal among the Aeghamy
Mountains, as wel as near iehm ; .
these latter mines will be very mirna
ing to visit, blacks they are. Ma sl
mad gold are fend a Virgiais ad
Spent of 91ow in Acim e ey.
11. On ft basm of the Kam .,
ye mut not to seeM I iy
there, a ury arilou mataal Ie They
have dg there, Oh l-aetes,
merons sBlwaeB, b! aIe l
Fro m n of these issues u s
-I e, Iw.t Tlll T D i
w ha Lis *eant 4
ri wllt In rli. YirL


the water, cosantly, a gPat quantity
of gua, which burs very freely in the
air. This theylead underhe ket-
tles,and lit it ad boil with it. Thus
the same well furnishes nit water, and
fuel to make salt Bem it.
12. Virginia is looking forward now
to increased property. Her mountain-
ous counties, specially, have much im.
pved. A number of persons from
WesterN. York and Pennsylvania are
purchosig lands and water-power in
Virinia, and they, moving there with
their enterprise and industry, will doubt-
lees develop the resources of this, one of
the best located countries on the globe.
Thousands annually visit, for health and
recreation, the Virginia sulphur and
other mineral springs, in the central
mom ius counties.
1& If we had time, we could find
here great deal to amuse us. In Rus-
sll Ceunty, the soth-west part of the
rse, on Stock Creek, near Clinch river,
I have ee another natural bridge,
moe vast than the one I told you ofbe-
fore; and in Lee County, adjoining, is
on with three perfect arches, which
pmMs s have dammed up, and in the
centre me of which they have erected
a gristill. Roads go over both of
them. In Hampden County, the north-
west part of the state, is the Ice Moun-
tain, over the surface of which, in the
bttest ays of summer, you ca nd ice,
by ti ol rusones, or looking into W
cavsm" dwe rck..
14 I 1836, died here, John M -
shll, the able bcdiW atice of the United
8a6ud, ed in de Jame Meadi
did, ex-preident of our uBona.
Esaf j .9tswlst ny a. A-ldmIT
t N*1etd 1 mIwo ssel I

1. Before we leave Virginia,we must
visit Monticello, the seat of the te
Thomas Jefferson. He was once pri-
dent of the United States, a I shall
have occasion by and by to tell you.
He died on the 4th of July, 19M.
2. There is another place in this state,
that we must not fail to visit Thisis
a pleasant hill, called Mount Vernon.
Here General Washington lived, and at
a little distance from the house where
he dwelt, is a tomb, in which- his body
reposes. I shall have many things to
tell you of this great and o man. He
died in the year 1799. I recollect when
the event happened, though I was then
a child. Su wa the sorrow of the
people when the sad news came, that
the bells were tolled, and everybody
went into mouriag.
3. In the south-eastern part of the
state is a place called Jametown. It
is on a little island in James river,about
thirty miles from its mouth. The place
is now in ruins, but if you visit it, you
will desire to know its histoy.. n an-
cient churchyard, the cming chim-
ney of a church, a few traes of old
house, and rude fortcation will make
you feel that there is an arestag story
connected wih thA
Madl wag im S td itLk I
a my tr t av t room the
whole. I must m m a p ed
when u yatMie peopl dwih in
America. T54 toUty
pied by twmrm afioys L

T. 4M00 1tu hm JL -N- am 6 Im
osrt W has lgt m a.Jeurwt 6 .

VIRGINIA.-"A5133IV 99114- RUIN 8-89vSIN t81O2T. 6

wa tm a wide Lhui fmr the
Indians. They ane wl its val-
ley, romed oer itb bil ad mouan-
tm, and sailed upon is river and
& The Spaniards had penetraed into
South Ameica, and foud countries
abounding in silver ad god Stories
of their success were cicad through-
out Europe, and the spirit of adventfib
entered into many mind. In Englnd
a company was fodfor ria ng a
settlement in North A~mnica; and, ha-
ing obtained a t of land, they de-
spatched three ships, with one hundred
and five adventure, for the new world.
6. A r sailing across the Atatic, a
tonn drove them into the moth of
Chespeake Bay. On approc'inghe
land, tey discovered a large and bea-
tiful river which they determined to
ascend. ihey had several interviews
with the Ind=n, who received them
1110211 -

d O deSOgNe of &iMa
be* MA -.Gum iswr
p"k they Aw-utAA
o T 6 .
A soo ww*
vix* %- t AWWM boukb

7- They pied, by tips, 6* d"
wih1d to atukon th6 -1" iwtp ,
A heer chief edred tdm r as
land a they desired, ae theme"
deer, a a mark of good wi
&. O the 13th of May, 10, th
emni pat landed, and bgan their a
tOlihrsMet. It was on an madhi t
river. The river Iey caed Jear
riner, a md the villa the ar d Jesa,
Awn, This was the pn mnn1t
Bg I settlement in North Amsica;
and ruia In hve des ite ae te
remain of the annt town whick th
peop bilt
9. The colonists snm bqn to -u
rience difficulties which hety hed wt
foreseen. The provisions hey b nht
with them were at length exbMd;
and,iiaing planted dothir, Auy mw
in gret want of food. Beid thisd
climate being hot and damp, ao y of
them wee taken sick, and in the eiMs
e( four meaths, fifty ofte de
10. They were now in gset daisess,
and hardly knew what to do.' I&thi
emergency, they comelted mue e dihr
number, named John Smith. Ihwa
certainly one of the most etrardinary
men that ever lived. -At the age of
fieen, h left England, and tra rie
on foot through Spain, France, ad nt-
IRHene he entered the amy if de
of Austria, and a gth ab
the comanad of a t epdhI .

withmhl: thii wa ae 55yd -t
," a pmes wsh n r s @a te-# Aw &a
.ek te liaM. AltYiLnIt ami


mounted on fine horses, the two combat-
ant met in the field. After a desperate
struggle, Smith killed the Turk. Not
isied with this, he challenged anoth-
er, and finally a third, and killed these,
as he had done the first.
I8. After this, he was in a battle with
the Turks, and, being wounded, was
taken by the latter, and sent prisoner to
Constantinople. Here he was made a
slave, and was treated cruelly by his
master; but his mistress took compas-
lion on him, and sent him to her broth-
er, who lived at a great distance, re-
questing that he might be treated kindly.
But her directions were not followed,
and Smith received the same harsh
treatment as before.
13. Irritated by this, he slew his new
asiter. He then travelled in various
countries meeting with strange adven-
turnes whever he went. He finally re-
tuned to Egland, and joined the expe-
dition to Virgini. While they were at
a, the emigrants became jealous of him,
and pt him in confinement. In this
ceedition he remained, until the distress
of the colony rendered his assistance
t14. e then granted him a trial;
and being acquitted, he immediately
adapted measures for remedying the
existing evils. He set about building
a fort, to protect the people from the In-
dians, and made long journeys into the
wilderness, to procure corn, and other
food, of the natives.
15. On one ccasio, he obtained an
del, made of skins, and staged with
mes. This the avages rereoed
veypLcaM ; and in order to get it b
dy gr him as much ca as he ed

010os 15. WWi du lNSA tiepis.w II
Yiai I4. Wmdi trmdS a& Whit

16. Nothing could exceed the bold-
ness and enterprise of this Slaglar man,
yet it must be confessed that his conduct
was not always regulated by justice or
truth. In his intercourse with the sav-
ages, he resorted to stratagem or vio-
lence, if he could not succeed in his
plans by other means It was partly on
this account that the Indians began to
hate the white people; and Smith him-
self nearly fell a victim to the feelings
of revenge he had excited.
17. He went one day to explore the
little river Chickhominy. Having as-
cended as far as he could in a boat, he
lef it in charge of his men, and proceed-
ed along the ank of the river, with two
white men and two Indian guides. But
n) long after he was gone, the savages,
who were lurking in the woods, sur-
rounded the men in the boa and took
them prisoners.
18. They then punned Smith, and
soon coming up with him, killed his
white copanions with their arrows,
aad wounded himself. But with an
undaunted spirit, he f4ed upon his ene-
mies, and tying one of te Indian guides
to his side, he continued to retreat tow-
ard the boat. Awed by his brave,the
savages kept loof; butt at In he
came to a place were he sank in the
19. Being unable to extricate himself,
his enemies now seized him, and took
him ia trimph,to Powhbaa, heir ing.
A council was now held, to determine
what should be done with the prisoner,
and it was decided that he should die.
He was accordingly brought hrt and
being laid on the ground,hi hea was
pleeid upon a stone.

tboI-ir W WWr'st rlt k OPIY
tdw dva~mss dris a CM&*MWkj


O0. Powhatn claimed the hoeor of
killing him. He took a large club, and
raising it high in the air, was about to
give the fatal blow, when his daughter,
moved by pity, rushed to the prisoner,
and sheltered his body by her own. The
astonished chief brought his club slowly
to the ground, and a murmur of surprise
burst from the lips of the savages who
stood around.

21. The chief now raised his dgh-
ter, and seming to be touched by that
pity which had affected her so much,
ve Smith his liberty, and sent him
back to Jamestown.

VIRGINIA-Coirmm o.
1. On hisarrivalat Jamestown, Smith
found the number of settlers reduced to
thirtyneibt. They were so disheart
ended, that most of them had determined
to abandon the settlement, and go back
to EKflhd. Smith remonstrated, but
they wo=la M stop. They entered a
small v el and prepared to sail down
the zrie. He dotnined that they
shqli gtg so he pointed the gum
L Wdslwtu+mhsu9m sm f9 ..1t
t. spt4ermiasde = ablseIde mo.mt

of the fort at the vesel, qad tlp -
to sink her if they did not'*ta^
lamed at this, they gate .p
p andm cameo ur iae.
Colony was *,*wAll st Ale
starving condition; bor Sinb, this
time, had acquired such a reprataon for
courage among the Indian, that they
did not dare to refuse supplies. Po6;-
hontas, too, the beat Indian girl
who had saved his life, cntinud to be
his friend, and sent him such artile
as wert most needed. Thus the coloy
was able to subsist till Captain Newport
who brought out the first settle, M
turned to he colony, bringing wit him
a quantity of provisions, and one hun
dred and twenty pemons.
3. ow that the danger was over,
colonists would no longer submit to
government of Smith. sorm and
confusion among the people soon fq
lowed. About the same tme, the pe-
lion for gold, which had indueod ma4n
of the settlrs to come to the country,
was again excited. Some partfies of
yellow shining earth Were kond in te
bank of a little stream, north of James-
town. Captivated with the idea of t-
ting suddenly rich, the colonists le their
proper employment, and went to Sg
what they supposed to be gold.
4. Smith endeavored t4 dissuvoa
them, but they would not listen to him.
Nothing was thought of, or talked e1
but god. o they all weat toflln
the ip with the earth, which they sp
posed o contain prticles of thai eci
metal. At length abl leaded, ase
sailed for EnFland. Wist ,se iie
the,, the cargowas ex e
to be nothing but common sad, i
with little pieces f ihmnig Msge.

ab s-d bs .L.M aU iT alu


& There i lesson to be drawn from
this point of history. "All is not gold
that glittes," say the proverb; and so
the Virgipias found it. I hope my
readers, fifth ever tempted by any
shining prospW to depart from the path
of duty, -il tried that what seems
to be ld often proves to be only vular
dust I
6. Smith, fining that he could not
be useful, left the colonists digging for
gold, and went himself to explore the
coasts of the Chesapeake Bay. Having
been absent some time, he returned, and
after a while went again to traverse the
wilderness. He often met with Indians,
and traded with some, fought with some,
and again went back to the settlement,
leavingwith the natives an awful im-
pression of his valor.
7. He was now chosen president, and
the people submitting to his authority,
ordr was son restored. Habits of in-
dstry wer resumed, and peace and
plty soon smiled upon the colony.
SIn 1609,the London company sent
out nine ships, with nine hundred emi-
grants to the colony. On board of one
of these vessels there were some officers
appointed to rule over them. This, un-
hapily, was driven by a storm upon the
Bermudas, and detained for a long time.
The othervesels arrived safely; but the
persons who came in them were of a vi-
ious character, and refused to permit
Smith to govern them. He determined,
however, that he would be obeyed, and
accordingly he seized upon several of
them, and put them in prn. This
alarmed the rest, and or as again

tsn is M be AR m sm as| m iods
lahtas, a. Tam dl .a dot r. T wht
ss ,' dra" sa ft b seld s nt
WW mkit l Wba hppmms k lte

9. It was about this time that he
Indians, fearing that the white pe ple
would become too powerful, determined
to make a sudden attack upon them, and
kill them all. Pocahontas heard of this
scheme, and resolved, if possible, to save
the English. Accordingly, one dark and
stormy night, she left her father's wig-
wam, and went alone, through the for-
ests, to Jamestown. Here she found
Smith, and apprised him of the threat-
ened danger. She then returned, and
Smith took immediate measures to put
'the colony in a itte of defence.
19. The Indl~ Inding the people
watchfl and prepared, mve up their
project. Thus in did Poeshontas
save th life of m as t ell as the
lives of a the white peopb the col-

oT. About this time, Sfith received
a dangerous wound, which obliged him
to go to England, to conseu a surgeon.
The Indians, finding the only man they
feared was gone, attacked the colony,
and, cutting off their supplies, reduced
them to the greatest extremity.
12. Such, in a short time, was their
miserable condition, that they devoured
the skins of their horses, the bodies of
the Indians they had killed, and the flesh
of their dead companions. In six months,
their number was reduced, from more
than five hundred, to sixty.
13. At this point of time, the persons
who had been wrecked at Bermuda ar-
rived; but they, with the other settlers,
all agreed that it was best to quit the
Wt of m v-1 Who m r krd tUd
venll ChMsrMM ef awemrisar a Whma
dM df WhtdMhlte h dot t ms. Wlat
pia was .d by t6 madikm sahbet h dhI
tl alst s*. un heudb-h s liMm
Wrd ss mbr ,4 th ,. i4dle aUM
mest d ohe pam" s the eas I I1 sa


settlement, and return to England. Ac-
sordingly they sailed down the river for
that purpose. Fortunately, they were
met by Lord Delaware, who had come
in a vesel from England, loaded with
provisions. This revived their courage,
and they went back to Jamestown.

1. The colony now bepn to enjoy
more favorable prospects. Lord Dela.
ware, who was governor, restored order
and contentment by his mild and gentle
conduct, and the Indians were once
more taught to respect and fear the
Engish. In 1611 new settlers arrived,
and other towns were founded; and un-
der a succession of wise governors, Vir-
ginia became a flourishing and extensive
2. n 1612, Captain Argal went on a
trading voyage up the Potomac, and
heard that Pocahontas was in the neigh-
borhood. He invited her to come on
board his vessel, and she came. He
then detained her, and carried her to
Jamestown. He knew that Powhatan
loved his daughter, and thought, while
she was in the possession of the Eng-
lish, that he would be afraid to do them
3. But the noble-hearted chief, indig-
nant at the treachery that had been prac-
tisd, refused to listen to any terms of
peace, till his dau r was restored.
4 While Poe wasu was at Janme-
9meAk? Whir d, As edsvaf dt wW
if Ld Ilmea t WWhe dM imlral 1 T
s. ONdid ( dt a lmy i--u L Du.-
wm- Wbt bM M la t I Whbs f r-.
lh s a e s t ha-.. a n PA ...-ho

town, a rM peta e aiM.
named Raot, beame .
She was, indeed, a very _l
man; siple., inoeell''-
Pocahontas sM on e atiedUi t
Rolfe, and with the consent of Poplt-
an, theywere married. This was At.
lred by peace between the colony ad
a the trbes ubect to Powhatan. dSon
after, Rolfe visited England with his
bride. She was received by th king
and queen with the respect due to ir
virtues as a woman, and her rank as a
princess. When she was about to *
turn to America, she died, leaving
child, from whom some of the most Ie-
spectable families in Virgini have de
New settlers now frequently war
rived, and the colony rapidly inresea
In 1619, a Dutch vessel came to Juame
town, bringing twenty Afrieans, who
were purchased by thepeople. These
were the first slaves brought into oit
country, and thus the foir as
pimrialy laid for that system of _sle~y
which now pervades the Southern Shalt
6. In 1622, in the midst of appears
peace and prosperity, the colony was at
the point of annihilation. Powhaan,
friend of the English, was dead. !M
successor, Opecancanough, was a Clhid
of great talent; but he secretly hated Oe
English, and formed a scheme for their
destruction. By his art and eloquec,
he persuaded all the ighborin tribes
to unite in an efft to kl eVry white
man, woman, and child, throughout the

asr Wihe msllwt IMn stl sfg MslM
and PWn.hsMt duo at 04AW l"'b
nwlegt B rw Pa ueashrmk 3e
Mtgadqsmst Wh ml
whev bob b *?. L Wh u
aro i h elsm hlkt v.

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