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The first book of history

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Title:
The first book of history
Series Title:
The first book of history
Creator:
Goodrich, Samuel G.
Place of Publication:
Boston
Publisher:
Jenks, Palmer & Co.
Publication Date:
Language:
English
Edition:
Revised, enlarged and improved edition

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University of Florida
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ALH5991 ( ltuf )
04340585 ( oclc )
026905690 ( alephbibnum )

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The Baldwin Library

University





PICTURE OF THE WESTERN HEMISPHERE.



NORTH AND SOUTH AMERICA



PARLEY’S FIRST BOOK OF HISTORY.

THE

FIRST BOOK OF HISTORY,

FOR

CHILDREN AND YOUTH.

BY THE AUTHOR OF PETER PARLEY’S TALES



WITH SIXTY-EIGHT ENGRAVINGS AND SIXTEEN MAPS.
FOURTH REVISED EDITION—ENLARGED AND IMPROVED—
BROUGHT DOWN TO 1850.
——@————
BOSTON:
JENKS, PALMER & CO.
1850.



Entered according to Act of Congress, in the year 1848, by

Cuar.es J, Henpves,
In the Clerk’s Office of the District Court of the District of Massachusetts.



SCHOOL BOOKS PUBLISHED BY JENKS, PALMER & CO., BOSTON,

AND FOR SALE BY THE BOOKSELLERS GENERALLY.

Emerson’s Spelling Books,
THE NATIONAL SPELLING BOOK, and Pronouncing Tutor, on an improved Plan; with progres
sive Reading Lessons. By B. D. EMERSON. One hundred and sixtieth edition, revised.
AN INTRODUCTION TO THE NATIONAL SPELLING BOOK, on the plan of the above Work, for
the use of the Youngest Classes, and for Primary Schools; by the same Author.

Worcester’s Reading Books.

FIRST BOOK, or PRIMER.—SECOND ROOK, for Reading and Spelling.

INTRODUCTION to Third Book, for Reading and Spelling

‘THIRD BOOK, for Reading and aun ;_ With Rules and Instructiong for avoiding Common Errors.

FOURTH BUOK FOR READING, with Rules and Instructions.

The above form a complete series of Reading Books for youth, which are not surpassed by any other
works for this pu uow before the public.

The Rules and Instructions for avoiding Common Errors, and the Questions upon each lesson, form
their peculiar characteristics, and add much to their value and interest, both to Teachers and Pupils,

What adds to the value of this series is ‘* the elevated moral tone which pervades the lessons, fitting them not only to
exercise the mind and communicate the art of reading, but to do much for that Letter and usually neglected part of educa-
tion, the formation of the moral character, and the education of the moral aflections,”"—Geo. B. Eunetton. e

. Parley’s School Books.

THE FIRST BOOK OF HISTORY, OR HISTORY ON BASIS OF GEOGRAPHY, (compre
hending the Countries of the Western Hemisphere,) with 68 vings, and sixteen Maps of the dif
ferent sections of the United States and the various countries of the Western Hemisphere.

THE SECOND BOOK OF HISTORY, Caos the Countries of the Eastern Hemisphere,) with
on ee and sixteen ae of the ditferent Countries,

BOOK OF HISTORY; by the same author ap Gamat pice ; (comprehending
Ancient History in connection with Ancient Geography :) with Maps and Engravings.

The above series of Histories are extensively introduced into Schools - Academies, in various sections
of the United States, and-may be considered as standard books for the ion of youth in History.

PARLEY’s BOOK OF E UNITED STATES, tical, Historical; with
Comparative Views of other Countries. Illustrated by fort vings and eight Ma

PARLEY’S ARITHMETIC FOR CHILDREN AND YO! with numerous Rigoeing.

. _Emerson’s Arithmetic, in Three Parts.

Part [., Mental, for Young Classes, illustrated with cuts. Part Il., Mental and Written united, fo:

operations, KEY to

Common Schools. Part III., for Advanced Scholars, containing the higher Parte
IL and II. QUESTIONS to Part IIL. of do.

These Arithmetics are adopted by the Boston School Board, and are used throughout the U. S., in those
schools which have introduced the modern impro ts,

Bail Algebra.

FIRST LESSONS IN ALGEBRA; an elementary work, for the use of Academies and Common Schools
By EBENEZER BAILEY. A KEY to the above. By the same.

By 2 vote of the Boston School Committee, this Algebra is used in the public schools of the city

Worcester’s Dictionaries,

An ELEMENTARY DICTIONARY, for Common Schools and Academies. By J. E. WORCESTER.
Containing nearly 9000 more words than any other school dictionary.

A CUMPREH E PRONOUNCING AND EXPLANATORY, DICTIONARY of the English Lan-
guaze, fir the satne, and for general reference. By the same. Revised and enlarged, “ bining
advantages, as a Pronouncing Dictionary, superior to all others,””

Goodrich’s United States,
A HISTORY OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA. By Cuantzs A. Goopricn. New Edition
revised and enlarged from the one hundredth edition.
Goopricn’s Questions to the above, revised and enl

Emerson’s Qusstions and SuppLeMeEnT to Goodrich's History of United States. A New Edition,
revised and adapted to the enlarged edition of the History.

The above are in extensive use in the various Schools throughout the United States, and meet with

much approbation.
Russell’s Elocutionary Series,
LESSONS IN EXUNCIATION.—EXERCISES IN ELOCUTION.—RUDIMENTS OF GESTURE.

ans gaia oy Books for Schools,

My — COMMON SCHOOL SONGSTER.—THE YOUNG Y’s
VOCAL CLASS BOOK. The two last works are published under the sanction of the Boston m,
of Music, and the three form a progressive series for the use of families and schools, By G. J.



,

PREFACE.

_

Awone the multitude of books for instructing the young, there are not a few of an historical
nature ; but it is remarkable that History is not a universal, nor even a general study in out
common schools. ‘This cannot arise from any want of adaptation in the subject itself to the
purposes of instruction ; on the contrary, it is manifest, that it is peculiarly adapted to these
purposes. We do not mean to say this of history as it has been generally treated ; for most
school-books of this kind are but little more than extended chronological tables, and offer
nothing to the reader but a tedious mass of dates and general observations. Such works
may be useful to people of mature age; but they neither amuse nor instruct the class of read-
ers for whom they are designed. But of all reading, there is none that so readily attracts
the attention, and iss hold of the sympathy of children and youth, as lively narratives of the
enterprises, adventures, dangers, trials, successes, and failures of mankind; and these ‘it is
the business of histor'y to display. Books which treat of the works of nature and art, which
exhibit geographical details, observations upon natural history, and natural philosophy — any
or all of these will be immediately thrown aside by a child left to his choice, for,a book of
stories, delineating events in connection with the development of human passions.

If, then, history, when properly treated, is one of the most attrattive of all studies, why is
it not regularly taught in all our schools? It is not because it is deemed less useful than
other studies ; ‘‘the proper study of mankind is man,’’ and it cannot be entered upon too
soon, After possessing a knowledge of religion, and the duties we owe to God and our
neighbor, history is the most important of all studies. It relates to us what has been done
by mankind, and thus teaches us what they may do. It acquaints us with the true character
of our race, and enables us to know ourselves better. It apprizes us of the existence of evil,
and the way to shun it; it acquaints us with the existence of good, and shows us how to
attain it.

It cannot be, therefore, that the limited use of history, in our schools, is owing to an idea
that it if useless. The fact must arise from the want of historical books, written in a style
which shall render them both interesting and profitable, Such at least is the conviction of
the author of this volume ; and believing that a First Book of History for general use in our
schools is much to be desired, he has undertaken, and now offers to the publio, the present
volume.

Tn preparing it, two things have been had in view. In the first place, it should be useful ;
and in the second place, to make it useful, it must be entertaining. To accomplish these
ends, the book is provided with maps, and before the pupil enters upon the history of any
state or country, he is to learn from them its shape, boundaries, rivers, shores, &c. He is
then briefly made acquainted with its present state, its towns and cities, and the occupations
of its inhabitants. ese geographical details are conveyed to the pupil, by narrating sup-
posed travels through various countries, in which he takes a part. j Y

The pupil, being thus acquainted with the present condition of a country, is then told its
history. The author has been careful to introduce precise dates ; for without them, it would
be impossible to give any distinct view of any portion of history. But he has sought more
assiduously to select from the great mass of events, those topics which would be most calcu-
lated to please and to improve the young reader. He has introduced many tales,
adventures, and curious particulars, for the double purpose of enlivening the book,
throwing light upon the naps wee events with. which they are connected. A large numbet
of engravings have been i , a8 well for illustration, as for fixing certain ideas perma-
nently in the memory of the pupil. 2

A familiar style has been adopted, and the materials throughout are arranged on @ new



6 PREFACE.

plan. The common method is to begin at the earliest date, and follow down the train of
events to the present time. The author of this work has partially reversed this method. He
begins with the individual states of our own country, and first exhibits their present e He then notices a few recent events, and having fixed the attention of the reader upon the
subject, proceeds to narrute the history. Avoiding general statements, he has endeavored to
keep the attention and interest of the pupil alive, by descriptions, sketches, and tales, which
may at once gratify the taste and improve the understanding.

t will be observed, that, although the book contains a large quantity of matter, yet it em-
braces the history of the Western Continent only. It is believed that it will be more useful
than if it contained the history of the Eastern Continent, also, in the same number of pages.
In proportion as a work is condensed, it becomes general, and of course, uninteresting to
children. It was deemed preferable, therefore, to give an ample history of our own Hemi-

here, and if the plan should be approved, a second volume, embracing the history of the

Hemisphere, will be published.* :

* Since the above was written, Pariey’s Seconp Boox or History, embracing the history of the
Eastern Hemisphere, and Partey’s Tuirp Boox or History, containing Ancient History, have been
published. They are both upon the same plan as this work, connecting History with Geography, are
written in the same attractive style, contain maps and engravings, and are extensively introduced as
class-books in the schools of the United States.

Se

PUBLISHERS’ NOTICE TO THE REVISED EDITION OF THIS WORK

Tue first edition of this werk was published several years ago, since which time, it has
run through nearly three hundred editions, and acquired a very extended circulation. The
maps and engravings have beenre-drawn and newly engraved, and such corrections and ad-
ditions have been made as the changes in the condition of the several states and countries
treated of in the work render necessary. This edition, therefore, may be considered as
adapted to the existing political geography of North and South America, the work having
been enlarged so as to embrace the interesting events of the last few years, and care having
been taken so to make the additions, that the new edition can be conveniently used with the
former ones.

The work has already met with unexampled encouragement ; but it is hoped this improved
edition may be found even more worthy of the public favor than the preceding ones.

Boston, January 1, 1850.

———}jy-——_
SUGGESTIONS TO TEACHERS.

Tue author would respectfully suggest, that this volume be put into the hands of pupils of from nine
to sixteen years of age. It js not perhaps essential, but it would be better, that they should have passed
through some small work on geography. The teacher is, of course, at liberty to reject the questions on
the chapters inserted throughout the work, and to frame such interrogations for exercising the pupil, as
he chooses. It is recommended, even if they are used, that they be not strictly adhered to ; the teacher’s
knowledge of the character of his pupils, will often suggest to him more apt and appropriate inte: -
tions, than could be framed without that knowledge. At the end of the work is a Chronological Table,
which the author deems important, and recommends to be thoroughly riveted in the memory of the
pupil, before he is allowed to quit the study: occasional reference to the Pronouncing Index is also
in. It is also recommended that the pupil, in his progress through the work, be required to tell
the length, and average Width ofeach ofthe countries found onthe maps; this may be ascertained with
sufficient accura applying the scale of miles. some other parts studies,
sapllouay toad ie sid tf the teallon



CONTENTS.

c want 1 a on ae. — etians
usiness, First s|
building. Pretatics. Ice-cutting. Moons.
Lumbering.
CHAP, 2, Marnz, continued.—Indian Old
Town. Penobscot tribe. History. Settle-
ment in _— Story of the coat ee
tribe. History of cea or
Sehools, . oss 6 Vier gre we whe

CHAP, 3. Nie Wsisbeaiis: Saat of Shoals,
Codfish. Sea Serpent. phy. Ques-
tions on the Map. Different c’ imate fe trees

as you ae coe towns. Moun-
talus. ‘Lakes. ‘The Notch.

CHAP. 4, New eae continued, —
Slide of a mountain. ae Attack on
Dover. Railroads... ......... +20

CHAP. “* ae, 1 ieee phy and Ques-
tions, ountains, Rail-
roads, a ige Meech’s Farm. Towns. Pro-
duction for each person in different states.
Maple Sugar. Sleighing. Schools.

CHAP. 6. Vermont, continued. —Inunda-

tion, Battle on Lake ore Of Ben-
nington. Settlement... ......... 24
CHAP. 7 Massacuuserrs. — Geography.

Commerce. Fish. Ice cutters, Factories.
Salt vats, Boston, Water-works. Rail-
roads. Towns. Farmers. Ocean steam-
boats. Bunker Hill Monument. Great men
who have died. Mount an Comane,
TesHtUUOMES 636s hes as biases. Se ae

CHAP. 8 Massacnuserts, dinlanad —
Centennial celebration. Settlement of Bos-
ton. Of Plymouth. Other ee =
tory. . + 32

CHAP. 9, Ruopg#lstanv. —Towns. Geog-
raphy and Questions. Story of Lafayette and
the tridge. Roger Williams and cotlamant.
Clambake : “— Schools. Bi-
ography. . eee .

CHAP. 10, Filla ac Deseri a.
Questions on hy. Norwich Indian:

ew London, . Towns, New
Haven. People. First steamboats. Silk. . 36

CHAP. a amreeteers continued. — Her-

mitess, Say Eade Ches-

ter ia)
they make. :
CHAP. 12. Diciacn: sc etleene ="

oS), p10 hee CNG . .

2.9 0 ue

ograpl a Connecticut river. Anecdite
Yankees. Railroads, Sav-

ings Banks, ‘Life Insurance, Health Insur-

ance. Fire and Marine Insurance... . . . 42

CHAP. 13. New Enatann, continued, ~
History. The Puritans. Settlement. Ply-
mouth Samoset, Massassoit. Anec-
dote. Other settlers. Salem. Boston. Dor-
chester. Lady Arabella Johnson... .. . 44

CHAP. 14. New Enatanp, ecdntinued. —
Two colonies, Plymouth and Massachusetts.
Sir Henry Vane. Ann Hutchinson, Indians,
Capture of Mystic. Union of colonies for
defetice, . eee ee oe e

CHAP. 15. New Enatanp, continued. —
ewe of the —. oes ae excites
to war. . oe e « 4

ca, New Bnguane, coattuned _

ngfie jurnt. laughter at

Brook. 7 cil. "The "ert Ham chien
ttack on Broo! lp
Death of Philip. . Rowagests. ‘

CHAP. 17. New tein continued. —
Charters of the Colonies taken away. a
dros imprisoned, and sent to aa,
posed witchcraft at Salem. fone ee

CHAP. 18. New Binal. continued, —
War between England and France. Attack
on Haverhill. Story of Mr. Dunstan. Mrs.
Dunstan, Sere nne’s War. Attack on
Deerfield. Port Ro’ aan. Peace, Can-
ada taken by the Brit ' - 54

CHAP. 19. New oil continued, —
— war in Maine. King George’s War.
apture of Louisburg. Peace. French and
Indian War. Treaty of Paris. Trouble be-
tween the American Colonies and eet,
beginning the Revolution... ... . . 56

CHAP. 20, Tue Punirans.— Their charse-
ter, Oe in coming to America. Perse-
cution of the Baptists,.....-+..... 58

CHAP. 21. Tue Pvarrans, omens —
Dusoestne of the Quakers, Reflecti
th morning in the forests, Other

oVD ce © 0.0; 618

se 0.0 @ 0 3 ae

praca ol 2 ic AF 0 b'y thiat's oe aoree —
CHAP. 22, New Yorx.—

coription bad Quewlens. ite

New York city. Croton First ocean,

steamboat. Passage up the He Anec-

dote of a wild beast



8

CHAP. 28. New York, continued. — Great
fire in Albany. Trenton Falls, and sad acci-
dent. New York Indians. Salt Wells, Ni-

Falls. Stories. Railroads. Internal
Improvements. Niagara Wire Bridge. His-
tory. Anecdote. District School Libraries.

CHAP. 24. New York, continued. — Erie
Canal. Railroad. Cannon Telegraph and
Magnetic Telegraph. History of settlement.
Dutch. Indian wars. Surrender to the Eng-
lish, under the Duke of York. Choosing rep-
resentatives......:+.. Pte.0r 8 6,0)

CHAP. 25. New York, continued. — The
Five Natios. ....... Mae’ ghels

CHAP. 26. New Yonk, continued. —Leis-
ler. Burning of Schenectady. Gov. Slough-
ter. Exploitsof Peter Schuyler... ... .

CHAP. 27. New York, continued. —Pi-
rates. Robert Kidd. Persecution of the ne-
groes. Tolmonwilemon. Peace of 1747. .

CHAP. 28. New Jersey.—Travels. Geog-
raphy. Passaic Falls. Accident. Orchards.
Joseph Bonaparte. Canals. Mines. His-
tory. Settlement. Division into East and
West Jersey. Battle of Monmouth, . .. .

CHAP. 29. Pennsyivanta. —Philadelphia.
Geographical Questions. Independence. His-
tory of United States coin. irmount Wa-
ter-works. Girard Orphan College. Trav-
els. Roads. Bridges. Quakers. Germans.
hh Mountains. Pittsburg. Coal
mines. Canals. Schools. Biography. .

CHAP. 30. Pennsyivanta, continued, —
History. William Penn. Settlement. Penn
comes to America. Founds Philadelphia.
Returns to England. Rapid settlement of
Pennsylvania. Penn again visits his colony.
Death of Penn, Character. Indians, . .

CHAP. 831. De.aware. — Size and situation.
Travels. Breakwater. Revolutionary War.
Delaware regiment. Settlement. ise
Point. Indians, Governor Risingh. Peter
Stuyvesant. Capture of the Dutch. History:

CHAP. 82. Manyiann.—Geography. Ma-
son and Dixon’s Line. Negroes. Tobacco.
Baltimore. Flour. Trade with the West.
American science and skill in Russia. Na-
val School. Magnetic Telegraph... . .

CHAP. 33. Maryann, continued. — North
Point. War with England. Washi
burned. Baltimore. Catholics. Lord Bal-
timore. Settlement. Indian Sit-
uation of the colonists. Death of 1.
timore. His character

o

Patriotic

66

+75

+79

. 83

84

CONTENTS,

CHAP. 84. Muppie Srares, — General
view. History. Geography. ......

«CHAP. 35. Vinain1a. — Travels, Manners.
Customs. Plantations. Climate. Face of
the country. Natural curiosities. Ancient
mounds. Railroads. Mines. Springs. . .

CHAP. 86. Virar1a, continued. — Jeffer-
son. Mount Vernon. Washington. James-
town. Indians. Spaniards. bps sone
Bay. Indian chiefs, Settlement on James
river. John Smith.’ His adventures. Con-
duct. Powhatan, Pocahontas, .....

CHAP. 87. Vinersta, continued. — State of
the colony under Smith’s government. The
colonists dig for gold, Reflections. Smith
chosen President. Pocahontas. Misery of

ware.

‘the colonists. Lord Dela é

CHAP. 88. Virers1a, —The colony
ishes. Captain Ar

flour-
- Marriage of Poca-
hontas. Death. First Slaves in the colo-
nies. Opecancanough. Slaughter of the
colonists. Vengeance of the English. His-
WP C8 66 5 as oie ed ga es

CHAP. 89. Norrn Canora.—Travels.
Questions on Map. Plantations. Forests,
Tar. id digging: Towns. Railroads.
Corn. Gold. Cotton. Tobacco. Rice.
Settlement by Episcopalians. Situation of
the colony. Other settlers. Origin of the
names North and South Carolina. Indians.
The Six Nations. History. .......

|CHAP. 40. Sours Carotima.— Voyage.
one Questions. Charleston. Plant-
ers, eof Charleston. Puritans. French
Protestants. History. First cotton in the
United States. Railroads. Enterprise. . .

CHAP. 41. Grorata.—Face of the coun-
WF, Savannah. Improvements. Railroads.
oleano. Fruits. Okefinoke Swamp. Set-
tlement of Georgia. Situation of the colony.
Attacks of Spaniards. Gen. Oglethorpe.
Fronipa.— Discovery. Settlement, History.
Seminoles, Oranges. Key West. Common
Schools... 0%. . os ®

ClO ates see

CHAP. 42. Tur Five Sournery ATLANTIC
Srares.— Map Questions. General view.
Liberia.

CHAP. 43. Azasama, Mississtrpr, Lovurs-
eas Texas. — phical ee:

otton Factory. . tors.
Natchez. De Soto. ‘History. Sec
Indigo, J. J. Audubon. New Orleans,
‘Trade. Battle. Gen, Jackson.
Texas. — History. Trade.

CHAP. 44. Tux Western’ Sr 5
Questions. General view. C
Ohio river. Inland navigation. State of

94

100

106

BISA 6 aha they We WG «+ 108

ate e omeuthy



CONTENTS.
Ohio. Indiana. Mlinois. Missouri. Lead ernment of France. Great Britain. Battle
caves. Iron mountains. Prairies. St. Louis. of Monmouth. Destruction of Wyoming. .

Hunters. Mormons. Tennessee. Kentucky.
Mammoth Cave. Arkansas. Great .
Michigan. The Great Lakes, Mississippi.

CHAP. 45. Western Srares, continued.
— Origin of the name of Tennessee. His-
tory. Settlement. pg Daniel
Boone, Revolutionary War. Ohio. Pro-

ress. Indiana and Illinois. Missouri.
Michigan and Iowa. Coal. Mines. Wild
rice. Settlers from Holland. Wisconsin.

CHAP. 46. Tux Territories. — Geograph-
ical Questions. Face of the country. Mis-
souri Territory. Indians. Minesota. Ne-
braska. s to the Pacific. Bisons and
other animals. Lewis and Clark. Anec-
dotes. Geegee Territory. Treaty with Eng-
land. Trade. Organization. Nauathlee.
Cherokees. Upper or New California. New
Mexico. San Francisco... . .

CHAP. 47%. Tus Uniten Srates.— Map
Questions. - phical Review. Divis-
ions. Valley of the Mississippi. Steam-
boats. Commerce. White Bleed of the
Prairies, A barbecue. City of Washington.
U. S. Presidents. American Revolution. .

CHAP. 48. Tue Frexcn War.— Map
Questions, Colonies. French. English.
Cone en Governor Dinwiddie.
Fort Du Quesne, Gen. Braddock. Expe-
dition against Fort Niagara. Crown Point.

CHAP. 49. Frencn War, continued. —
England and France declare war. Fort Wm.
Henry. Louisburg. Du Quesne. Ticon-
deroga. Death of Lord Howe. Capture of
Fort Frontenac. Quebec. Montcalm.
Death of Wolfe. Montreal taken. French
possessions ceded to the British. . . .. -

CHAP. 50. Tue Revotution. —Parlia-
ment of Great Britain. People of America.
General Gage.

CHAP. 51. Revo.vrion.—Tax on Tea.
New laws: Cargoes of Tea destroyed.
Port Bill passed. Town meetings. Story. .

CHAP. 52, Revo.vurion, continued. — State
of the country. General Gage. Battle of
Lexington. Excitement of the people... .

CHAP. 58. Revo.urion, continued, — State
of the omer. Power of land. Res-
olution of the Americans. Ticonderoga.
Crown Point. Battle of Bunker Hill... .

CHAP. 54. Revotvtion, continued. —Con-
tinental Con; . Declaration of Indepen-
dence. Was crosses the Delaware.
General Howe. General Bu: e. Bat-
tle of Saratoga. Surrender ne

CHAP, 55. Revoturiox, continued. — Gov-

oeee

115

8

- 123

128

133

142

145

147

149

CHAP. 66, Revo.urion, concluded. — Gen-
eral Sullivan, Indians. Count Rocham-
beau. Benedict Arnold. Story of Major
Andre. North and South Carolina. Wash-
ington, Surrender of Lord Cornwallis. . .

CHAP. 67%. Uwirep Srates arrer THE
Revotution. — Washington chosen Presi-
dent. His death. Character. Influence
of his example. Lafayette. Reflections.
Adams. Dist. ef Col. Jefferson. Madison.
Naval battles. Monroe, J.Q. Adams. Jack-

Harrison.

son. Van . . Tyler. Poll.
Visit of Lafayette. Texas annexed. U.S.
flag. Questions for Review... ....-

= 58. nom ene vt —

meaica.—Divisions.

tions. Travels, Plank = Lakes.
Hunters. Montreal. St. Lawrence. Que-
bec. Newfoundland. Codfish. Climate.
Soldiers. History. King William’s, Queen
Anne’s, King George’s, and the Old h
War. Story of Acadie. History. Cholera.
Insurrection. .. . 6. +s . 88 Se

CHAP. 59. Tue Esquimavx. — Map Ques-
tions. Count

of the Esquimaux. 6
Reindeer. Origin. . ” -

CHAP. 60. GreexLanp. — Wha

voy-
age. Islands of ice. White rat De
scription of the ers. Navigators.
Animals, Settlement. Captain Ross. . .

CHAP. 61. [ce.awp.—Country. Proverb.
People. Habits. Mount Hech. Skaptar
Yokul. An eruption. Aurora Borealis.
Discovery. Settlement. History. ... .

CHAP. 62. Mexico.—Questions on the
Maps. Voyage to Mexico. Vera Cruz.
Travelling. City of Mexico. Catholic
priests, Cathedral. Gold. Avcient ruins.
Ascent of Orizaha. State. Mines. Santa
Fe, Travels and trade, Caravans. THE
Ca.irornias. — Lo es § pete rere

CHAP. 63. Mextco, continued. — Popula-
tion. Indians. Tenuchtitlan, Spaniards.
Cortez. Capture of Tabasco. Indian attack.
Treaty of peace, Mexican warriors. . . .

CHAP. 64. Mexico, continued. — Colony
at Vera Cruz. M from Montezuma.
Cortez sets out from uchtitlan. Tlas-
cala. Slaughter at Cholula, Tenuchtitlan,
Montezuma and Cortez... ..-+++-.

CHAP. ¢ eg ma agg Ne

the y
taken. Governor of Gun 'N _
iards attacked by Mexicans. h of Mon-
tezuma. Retreat of the

CHAP. 66. Mexico, concluded. —Small-

9

152

153

160

« - 163

164

168

272

-174

Spaniards... . .177



Lo

x. Quetlevaca. Guatimozin. Attack on
‘enachtitlan. Torture of Guatimozin and
his minister. Government of Mexico. City
of Mexico. Fate of Cortez. History. Itur-
bide. Santa Anna. Texas. Troubles with
U.S. War. Conquests by U.S. Peace.

CHAP. 67. Guatmaca.— Mountains. Ma-
y and . City of Guatimala.

Other towns. mmment. History. Mos-
quito Indians, Origin. Palenque. Ancient
wong 0 carvings, temples. Canal routes
rom the Pacific to the Atlantic. Yuoaran.

CHAP. 68, Coromsia.— South America.
phical Questions. Climate. Andes.
Burning mountains. Pampas. Mines...

CHAP. 69. Coxomsra, continued. — Pizar-
ro. The Moscas. Venezuela. Germans.
Le, vag General Miranda. Bonaparte.

. Conflicts in New Grenada,

— Bolivar. Republic of Co-
lombia. Independence. Death of Bolivar.
CHAP. 70.

Perv. — Map Questions. Di-
vision. Alpacas. Lima. Quicksilver and
other mines. Cuzco. Pizarro.......

CHAP. 71. Perv, continued. — Second ex-

ition to Peru. Foundation of the empire.
of the Spaniards. The é
Procession. Atahualpa taken prisoner. .

CHAP. 72. Perv, concluded. — Treatment
of the Inca. His death. Quito taken. Con-
est of Peru. Lima founded. Death of
Finer. History. Constitution formed. .

CHAP. 78. Bortvia. — Andes. Mines. Po-
tosi. Discovery of the mines. Other towns.
Constitution, Peru and Buenos Ayres. «

CHAP. 74. Cuitt.—Geography. Travels.
Vineyards. Andes. St. Hy Araucani-

ans. Death of Valdivia. History. Juan
Fernandez. Robinson Crusoe. Enterprise,

CHAP. 75. Paraconia.— Map Questions,
Country. Inhabitants. Giants. Huts.
Ostriches, Terra del pe. People. Dis-
covery. Straits of Magellan... .....

— tical Gouent Swern, == Taare.
eogra Questions. Islands near Ca
Horn. Travelling. Anecdotes. ,
imals. Condors. Pampas. Buenos Ayres,
Face of the country. Soil. Towns.

185

187

191

- 193

196

- 197

198

e0-
le. Di . Indians. Jesuits. His-
east Govern. of Francia. . . 201

CHAP. 77. Brazit.— Map Questions.

CONTENTS.

Travels. Rio Janeiro. Harbor. People.
Emperor. Extent. Population, Indians,
ee Piaowery. Landing of Ca-
bral, San Salvador, The Dutch. History.
Government. Prince de Joinville. ... .
CHAP. 78. Guiana. — Divisions. Climate.
Indians. Poison, Vampires. Snakes. Sto-
ry of Captain Waterton. Discovery of Gui-
ana by Vasco Nunes. Sir Walter igh.
El Dorado, Settlers in Dutch Guiana. His-
tory. Vespasian Ellis. Steamboats.. . .

CHAP. 79. West Inpies.— Questions on
the Map. Vessels, Havana. Trade. Fruit.
Climate.» Cuba, Slaves. Discovery of
Cuba. Don Jago ce Velasquez. Indians.
Trade with U. 8. History of Hayti. Co-
lumbus, Anecdote. Disturbances. Chris-

— a of Hayti. Division.
assacres, Porto Rico. Jamaica. Dis-
covery. History. Hurricanes. Great Bri-
tain. Danish Islands, Martinique. . . .
CHAP. 80. Wesr Ivpres, continued. — In-
habitants. Spaniards. Pirates. Bahamas.
Turtles. Cat Island. Columbus. Carib-

bee Islands. Discovery. History. Caribs. 212

CHAP. 81. Tue Buccaneers. — Origin.
Fame. Pierre le Grand ization.

Morgan. Bartholomew. His adventures. . 215

CHAP. 82. Srory or Cotumsvs. — Pirates.
Youth Cee ee
guese sailors. Passage to India. ughts
of Columbus. Government of Genoa. Fer-
dinand and Isabella, He sets sail... . .

CHAP. 83. Cotumpsvs,. continued. — First
yovage on the ocean. Discovery of land.
Landing. Natives. Country. Cuba. Hay-
ti, Return to Spain. Procession. Other
voyages. Americus Vespucius. .....

CHAP. 84. Cras yey oe Asaeess,
—Geography. Original inhabitants. Dis-
coverers. "Ooinerme, Settlers. United

States. History. Character.

CHAP. 85. Genera. View or Amenica.
Tue Unirep States. — How to study His-
tory. Census. Statistics. Products. Man
ufactories. Agriculture. Trade. Education.
Philanthropy. Science. Charity. Cali-
fornia, Eventsto 1850. ..... ole sie

Curonotocicat Inpex or Events. ... .
Pronouncine Inpex or Persons, Paces
Evynrs, To... ... 6%

LIST OF MAPS.

Marne New Enoranp, Western Srates,

New HIRE New York, Mexico, Texas, GuaTima-
. Vermont, New Jexsey, Pennsyivanta, La ann West Inp1es,
Massacnvsetrs, Detaware ann Maryianp, Unrrep States,

Ruove Istanp, Muvpe States, Norra America,
Conngcricor, Souvrnern States, Sourn America.



THE

FIRST BOOK OF HISTORY,

COMBINED WITH GEOGRAPHY.

CHAPTER I.
STATE OF MAINE.

1, Tue state of Maine is about as ex-
tensive as all the rest of New England,
but a great part of it is still covered with
forests. You will observe on the map,
that nearly all the towns and villages lie
in the southern portion, towards the sea-
board. As you go from the sea to the
interior, the soil grows better; some of
the most fertile parts of the state are yet
almost a wilderness.

2. There are a great many lakes in
this state, which abound in fish. There
ate a multitude of streams and rivers;
these afford many excellent mill-seats.

Questions on the Map of Maine.— How is
Maine bounded on the North? East? South?
West? Describe the Penobscot river; that is,
tell in what county it rises, in what direction it
runs, through what counties it flows, and into
what sea it enters. Describe the Kennebec in the
sume way, The Androscoggin, Saco, St. Croix.

Describe Moosehead Lake ; that is, tell what
county it is in, and which way it lies from Augus-
ta, the capital of the state. Describe Grand Lake,
Schoodie, Sebago, Temiscouata.

Describe the following bays; that is, tell in
which direction they are from Augusta, the capital,
and what sea or ocean they are formed by+ Penob-
scot, Casco, Frenchman’s,

Describe the following islands, by’ telling in
what waters they lie, and their direction from the

‘

There are a great many bays, rivulets,
and islands along the shore. The beau-
tiful salmon, with its silvery scales, and
its pink flesh that tastes so well, is taken
in Maine, with nets, in wears, and while
it is leaping the falls.. By means of its
strong tail and fins, it will shoot ‘up a
fall of ten or twelve feet in height, on its
way to the fresh water, in the spring, to
lay its eggs or spawn.

3. If you were to go to Maine in the
summer, you would see many things to
delight you. The little green is
scattered along the coast are very beau-
tiful ; some of them have very handsome
houses upon them. You would find the

capital: Grand Menan Island, Mt. Desert, Deer,
Fox, Boon.

How many counties in Maine? Their names?
Capital of Maine? In what county is Augusta?
Describe the following towns, by ’ what
county each is in, and its direction from the
tal: Portland, Wiscasset, Cornish, Bangor,
ridgewock, Castine, Paris, York, Machias, Bath. -
What is the number of inhabitants in Maine?
Number of square miles? Greatest length of
Maine? Greatest width, and average length ?
Average width?

Questions on Chapter I. —1. How extensive is
Maine? Which part of this state is most settled ?
2. What of lakes in Maine ? Other waters? What
objects along the shore? What of the salmon?
3. If you were to go to Maine in summer, what
would you see along the coast? What of the Ken-



12

Kennebec to be a large river, with many
handsome villages upon its banks.

4, You would see a great many deep
forests, and several pleasant towns. At
Gardiner you would see one of the pret-
tiest churches in New England; and
Portland you would find to be a city
almost equal to Providence, or Salem.
At Augusta, which is the capital of the
state, you would see the granite building
called the capitol, in which the govern-
ment assemble; and the State Asylum
for the Insane; and the building of the
United States Arsenal, or place to keep
guns, balls, powder, &c., for war.

5. In travelling through Maine, you
would not see as many manufactories as
in some other New England states ; but
in the southern part they are every year
building more and more. In 1847 they
commenced the erection of factories at
Lewiston, on the Androscoggin river,
twenty-four miles north by east from
Portland. There are few of our states
which have so many streams, falling
down from the hills, near the sea, to turn
factories, where they can easily receive
materials to make cloths, &c., of, and then
send them at once, in ships, to different

all over the world, to sell them.
ou would meet with a great many saw-
mills, employed in sawing logs into
boards and planks. You would see many
of the men cutting down trees in the
woods; and at Bangor, Portland, Wiscas-
set, and other places, you would notice a
great many vessels; some of them loaded
with lumber, and some with fire-wood.
6. If you were to ask some person



nebec? 4. What other things would you see?
What at Augusta? 5. Are there many manufac-
tories in Maine? Where were they building some
in 18477 Why are these good places for factories ?
What of saw- mills? What may be seen at Ban-
gor and other places? 6. Where are the wood

THE FIRST BOOK OF HISTORY.—MAINE.

where these vessels were going, he
would tell you that some of them are

bound to Boston, some to New York, ©

some to Charleston, and some to other
places. The fire-wood is carried chiefly
to Boston ; the lumber is carried to almost
all the seaports of the United States and
the West Indies.

7. They send out not only pine and
hemlock and other timber, boards, clap-
boards, shingles, laths, and bark for tan-
ning and for fuel, but also vast quanti-
ties of granite for building, which is used
in Boston, New York, and even New
Orleans ; slate for covering the roofs of
houses ; and lime, which they burn in
kilns, at Thomaston and Camden espe-
cially, to make plaster. ‘They put it in
barrels, and are very careful to keep it
dry; because, if it gets wet, it will be-
come very hot, — you-have seen it smoke
when mortar is made of it, — and it will
set a vessel on fire. Besides the loss, a
fire on board a vessel at sea is a dread-
ful calamity.

8. In Maine they make a great many
excellent ships for the merchants of oth-
er states; timber is plenty and cheap.
Captain John Smith, of whom I shall
tell you in the history of Virginia, built
himself some boats on the island Mishe-
guin, here, in 1614, and that was prob-
ably the first ship-building in Maine.

9. You would observe, also, in Maine,
some very good farms; you would see
a great many fields planted with corn,
or sown with wheat and rye, where the

ound is almost covered with stumps.

f you were to inquire of the owner, he

would tell you, that ten or fifteen years

and lumber of Maine carried? 7. What else is
sent out to sell? Where is lime made? 8,
What else is made in Maine? By whom and
when was ship-bailding first done in Maine? 9.
What of farms and farming in Maine? What will

tities



MAINE.—PRODUCTIONS—PYRSUITS OF THE PEOPLE.

ago, his whole farm was covered with
thick forests. The trees have been cut
down, one by one, and the land, by pa-
tient labor, has been changed from a
wilderness into meadows and wheat-
fields. Wheat, potatoes, rye, grass, cattle
for beef, and sheep for wool and cloths,
will probably be its chief productions.
10. If you should happen to be in
Maine in the winter, you would find

the snow very deep, and the air exceed-

ingly cold. It would be well, while you
are travelling, to cover your ears with
fur, and take care to be well wrapped up,
or your face and fingers would freeze.
Rokete you will meet with people cut-
ting blocks of ice from the rivers, which
they are going to send to Charleston,
New Orleans, the West Indies, and oth-
er hot countries, to be used in summer.
Formerly the legislature made laws to
prevent the mill-owners from throwing
the sawdust into the streams, and ob-
structing them; now sawdust is found
very valuable to heat their steam wills,
and to pack their ice. They send whole
vessel-loads of it to Boston, for the ice
business there, of which I shall tell you
in Chapter VII.

11. If you should chance to be in the
northern or middle parts of the state,
you might have an opportunity of see-
ing the Indians killa moose. This is
the largest animal of the deer-kind.
These animals are found in no part of
the United States except Maine, and
even there they are scarce. They were
once common in all the northern parts
of New England.

12. The forests in Maine are owned
by persons who sell to others the right
to take timber from them. These others



probably be their chief productions? 10. What of
the winter, and ice, in Maine? What of the saw-
dust? 11, What of the moose? 12, What of the



13

hire men with their oxen and axes to go
into the woods near the rivers, and spend
the winter, when the snow and ice make
it easier to do hauling, in cutting down
the trees, cutting ,them into logs, and
putting the logs into the water, or on
the ice. Then when the ice melts, and
the freshets come, as they say, the h
are floated or run down to the mills to
sawed. All this is called Lumbering.

13. The merchants supply the lumber-
ers, who get the “ permits,” as they are
called, to cut down trees, —with barrels
of molasses, bags of beans, barrels of salt
pork, Indian meal and flour, and other
provisions. Some put a great many
teams into the woods, and spend tens
of thousands of dollars in this business,
to get more paid back again when they
sell the lumber, and so to make money.

14. The snowlies in these forests from
four to six feet deep. The lumberer,
with his axe on his shoulder, goes out,
selects a Ras tree; and can tell how
many boards it will make, by measuring
it with his eye, in a coeeans He then
walks up to it, and strikes his axe into
it, and knows by the noise if it is a sound
tree to cut.

15. After the trees are cut into logs,
which, if meant for boards, are about
eighteen feet long, the slow but strong
and patient oxen toil over the snow, and
drag them among rocks, and trees, and
stumps, and up and down hills, where
it would seem impossible to go, — dewn
upon the ice in the river ; or into the bed
of a little stream which runs into the
river. ‘The owner sends a “ Scaler,” as
he is called, to overlook the teams, and
“scale” or take an account of the logs,



forests? What is called lumbering? 13, What
do the merchants supply the Jumberers with?
14. How do the lumberers live in the forests?
15. Where are the logs left? What does the sealer



14

so that he may know how many are. to
be paid for; this payment is called
“stumpage.” Every owner has his
particular mark, which is chopped upon
each log by his lumberers.

16. In the spring, the ice and snow,
without which they could not have
dragged out the logs, melt, —the river
gets full, and thousands and thousands
of. these logs are borne along down the
current, to the mills, to be prepared for
market. It is a very difficult and some-
times dangerous matter to get these logs
along in the river; it is another great
business, and is called Driving.

17. Men go constantly, in companies,
up and down the river, and watch when
a log is stopped by a rock, or ata fall, and
get it loose. Sometimes hundreds of
logs get jammed together ; and the water
rises, and the logs come down and pile
up more and more. Then the active
and hardy drivers dash into the river



Driving Logs in Maine.
with their poles and axes, spring from
log to log, and now push off here, and
cut away with their axes there, until
they loosen it; and with a crash and
uproar, the jam breaks up, and away go

do? How ios the owner know his logs? 16.
What happens in spring? 17, What is called

THE FIRST BOOK OF HISTORY.—MAINE.

the rolling, tumbling logs down the rush-
ing river. Sometimes the men jump on
shore, sometimes they are carried down
on the timber, and sometimes they are
pitched off into the stream, and have to
wade or swim out, with their red flannel
shirts dripping; but they do not mind
it; they hasten to look out for other stop-
pages and clear them.

18. Down in the smooth parts of the
river, near the mills, or where sea vessels
can come, long strings of logs, fastened
together strongly, are stretched out from
the shore into the stream, leaving an
angle or mouth, as it were, up stream,
to catch the logs as they come floating
down ; —this is called a Boom.

19. If you were there in the spring,
when log-driving commences, you oil
see the river covered with boats, and men
and boys busy directing the logs into
the booms; for the owners of the booms
are not allowed to stop the centre of the
river, but’only the sides; and they are
paid by the owners of the logs so much
apiece for what they collect.

CHAPTER II.
MAINE—Continvuep.

1. In Penobscot river, forty miles from
the mouth, there is a little island, called
Indian Old Town. If you go there, you
will see about three hundred Indians.
They live in small houses, or huts, built
of sticks and boards, and cultivate the
land, catch fish, and hunt wild animals.
They are the remains of a great tribe,
the Penobscots, that once inhabited a
large extent of country, in Maine.

driving logs? Describe it. 18, 19. Deseribe a
boom, and picking up the logs.

1. What of the Penobscot Indians? 2, Wha

e



MAINE.-—-INDIANS-——-EARLY HISTORY.

2. You will observe, among the In-
dians, one man, whom they call chief.
If you ask him to tell you the story of
the Penobscot tribe, he will inform you
that there were once many thousands
of them. They, with other Indians,
many years ago, possessed all the lands
in Maine.

of his Tribe.

3. There were then no white men
there; there were none but Indians.
There were no towns and no villages,
except small collections of Indian huts,
called wigwams. The Indians did not
cut down the trees; they had no horses,
and they had no tame animals but dogs.

4, The whole country, far and wide,
was covered with forests. In these for-

* ests there were a great many bears, pan-
thers, wild-cats, wolves, ha. moose,
foxes, rabbits, beavers, and other ani-
mals. The Indians then did not culti-
vate the land, except perhaps that they
raised a little corn and a few pumpkins.
They lived almost entirely upon the



would the Indian chief tell you? What does the
picture represent? 3, What was the state of the
country before the white people came? 4. What
ild animals were there in the woods? How did

| Indians live? 5, What happened when the



15

wild animals, which they killed with
their bows and arrows.

5. But, at length, some white men
came, and they began to cut down the
trees, and build houses. Pretty soon
they erected saw-mills, and then they
cleared the land, and: raised wheat, and
rye, and corn. And at length more
white people came, and they built more
houses, and cut down more trees, and
cultivated more land.

6. And so the white men increased,
and they spread their towns and villages
over the land. And the Indians went
away, or they died; for their forests
were cut down, and they could not live
with the white people. Thus the Pe-
nobscot tribe, which once contained
many thousands, consists now of three
hundred Indians only. Other tribes
once numerous and powerful are now
extinct. Such would be the story that
the Indian chief would tell you, and it
would be all true.

7. As early as the year 1607, about
one hundred English people came to
Maine, and began a settlement at the
mouth of the river Kennebec. The
greater part were soon discouraged, and
fifty-five returned in the vessel that
brought them over. ;

8. There were at this time none but ,
Indians in all New England, except the
white people I am speaking of. ‘These
were pretty well treated by the ratives ;
but they found the winter excessively
severe, and the next year they all re-
turned to England in a vessel that came
to bring them provisions.

9. The Norridgewock tribe of Indians

white people came? 6. What became of ‘the In-
dians? What is the present number of the Penob-
scot tribe? 7. What of the settlement attempted
in 16077? 8. What did the settlers finally do?
9. What story used to be told by the Norridge-



.

16 THE FIRST BOOK OF
preserved, for many years, a story about
these settlers, which will tell you. The
white people were jealous of the Indians,
and wished to get rid of them. So they
one day employed a large number of
them to take hold of a rope, and draw
a cannon into the fort. en a great
many had taken hold, and the rope was
drawn in a straight line, then the white
people fired the cannon, and killed all
the Indians. This is the story; if it is
true, the white people behaved very
wickedly.

10. It was in the year 1623, above
two hundred years ago, that the first
white men settled permanently in Maine.
This settlement was made on the Saco,
and several houses were built.

11. More white people went from
Massachusetts, and other places, and
settled in various parts of Maine. In
1652, Maine was attached to Massachu-
setts, and continued to be so till the year
1820, when it became an independent
state. It has now a governor and a leg-
islature of its own; they meet once a

ear, at Augusta; and there they make
ws for the state.

12. Maine is rapidly advancing in
population and improvement. In 1820,
the number of inhabitants was only
300,000 ; in 1840, it was about 500,000.
About the year 1840, there were great
speculations in the lands of Maine, as

‘well as in the Western lands. The
United States had a dispute about the.
north-eastern boundary, between Maine
and the British possessions, which was

wock Indians? 10. When was the first perma-
nent settlement made in Maine by white peo-
ple? 11. When was Maine attached to Massa-
chusetts? When did Maine become an indepen-
dent state? Where does the legislature of Maine
meet? 12. What can you say of the increase of
Maine? What dispute was settled in 18437
r

‘Lawrence river; and north-east in two

HISTORY.—MAINE.

settled in 1843, and they have since
erected cast-iron posts, so that the boun-
dary shall be known hereafter.

13. The rivers and harbors of Maine
are covered with ice in winter, so that
vessels cannot come and go, except near
the sea, though in summer, you can
have your choice of steamboats and

ackets, as they continually ply between
on and Portland, and Kennates and

Penobscot rivers. We can go in a
steamboat to Hallowell upon the river
Kennebec, which I think almost as beau-
tiful as the Hudson.

14. Though the snow makes good
roads for four months in the year, yet
with the mud in spring it makes trav-
elling difficult. But iron railroads,
which mud and snow do not stop, are
laid from Boston to Portland city; and
in 1847 they had begun to continue
them from there, north, through New
Hampshire, to Canada and the St.




















directions, —one through Lewiston to
Waterville, on the Kennebec river, and
the other through Brunswick, the town
where Bowdoin College is, and to Bath,
a flourishing city, where they build
many ships; and from Brunswick to
Hallowell, also on the Kennebec.
Thence they will carry it to Bangor, a .
large, active city, on the Penobscot river.
On the 4th of July, 1846, was com- °
menced the Atlantic and St. Lawrence
Railroad, from Portland to Montreal.
A short railroad, from Bangor to Orono,
was made in 1836,

15. In order that among this increas-
ing people, the boys and girls should
make good citizens, the legislature of
Maine established, in 1845, a number of



13, Where do steamboats ply? 14, What rail-
roads are in Maine? 15, What did the legislar
establish in 18452 What is the meaning’

AS



MAINE.—-FREE SCHOOLS.—NEW HAMPSHIRE.—FISHERIES. 17

men, to be chosen in each county, and
called a Board of Education, who are to
see that public schools, where each child
in the state can attend, are kept; and
that they have good teachers, and good
books to learn from; and that they are
taught what will make them wise and
well behaved. ‘

16. The people are made to pay, that
is, taxed, as it is called, according to the
property they have, to support these
schools; and every child between four
and sixteen years of age has a right to
go to them. This is called establishing
a Public Free School System.

17. There are other prominent per-
sons chosen in each school district in a
town, called’ Superintendents, who visit
the schools, and see if all the children
that ought to go do go; and if they are
well taught after they are at school; so
that, with all the care of his or her
friends, the members of the board, the
superintendents and teachers, if any
child is ignorant, it is generally his or
her own fault.

18. This learning in all the people
makes a state happy and prosperous and
strong, and, my young friends, it is one
of the greatest privileges of our excellent
country ; especially when joined with the
religious instruction we get from our
ministers, who teach us on Sunday, and
from our Sabbath school teachers.



CHAPTER III.
STATE OF NEW HAMPSHIRE,

1. There are many things in New
Hampshire that are very interesting.
_

“establisha free school system” What do town su-
perintendents do? 18. What is said of instruction?

Questions on the Map of New Hampshire.—
Boundaries of ar Describe the Merri-



About eleven miles to the east of Ports-
mouth are some islands, called the Isles
of Shoals. One of the largest belongs
to New Hampshire ; it is called Star
Island,.and on it is a little town called
Gosport. The j ges are all fishermen,
- are occupied chiefly in catching cod-
fish.

2. These cod-fish are caught with
hooks and lines. They are then car-
ried ashore and dried.



Catching Cod-fish.

A sea-serpent is said to have been
seen by several people, near these shores,

a while ago. He came so near to a
boat, that a man in it could have struck
him with an oar.* His color was nearly



mac, Ammonoosuc. Describe Lake Winnipiseo-
gee, Squam, Sunapee. In what part of the)state
are the White Mountains? Where is Mount
Washington? Describe the Isles of Shoals.
How many counties in New Hampshire? Their
names? P

Capital of New Hampshire? In what county
is Concord? Describe the following towns:
Portsmouth, Exeter, Dover, Keene, Plymouth,
Walpole, Lancaster, Haverhill, Amherst. Popu-
lation of New Hampsbire? Extent? Greatest
length of New Hampshire? Greatest width’
Average length? Average width?

1. What of the Isles of Shoals? 2, What of
the sea-serpent? What does the picture repre-



18

black; he seemed larger round than the
body of a man, and about as long as the
mast of a large vessel.

3. This state is called the Switzer-
land of America, because it is almost
made up of mountains, and their side
tidges, or spurs, just as Switzerland
in Europe is made up of the =
mountains. It always grows colder the
higher from the earth that you ascend ;
for there is nothing to get warmed and
keep the heat of the sun, which all pass-
es off at once. At the foot of the moun-
tains, therefore, it may be a very mild
climate, and animals and trees that will
live only in hot countries are found; as
you go up the mountains, the air be-
comes thinner and lighter, and the trees
of temperate countries come next; at
last, only pines, and such trees as grow
in cold climates, are found: then these
become stinted and fail; and next above,
only grass grows, which makes the tops
of the mountains that are just that
height look green.

4, The Green Mountains of Vermont,
which name means “ green mountain,”
are of that height, and take their name
from that appearance. Above the height
of the green trees and grass, no vegeta-
tion is found; the bleak granite rocks
look white; and it is so cold that snow
lies there most of the year. Such is the
height of the mountains in New Hamp-
shire ; and they are therefore named, from
their appearance, White Mountains.

%. New Hampshire is more mountain-
ous than her sister states, yet her high-
lands furnish grass of peculiar sweetness
for the cattle, which, with wool from

sent? 3. What is New Hampshire called, and
why? Describe the weather as you go up the
White Mountains. Why are some mountains
green? 4, What state takes its name from such
mountains? What grows on the mountains

THE FIRST BOOK OF HISTORY.—NEW HAMPSHIRE.

her sheep, are her staple productions
that is, those which she is most engaged
in raising and selling. New Hampshire
is likewise named the Granite State, from
the great quantity of that rock there.

6. You will see, by looking on the
map, that many rivers rise in the high-
lands of New Hampshire. Along their
banks, the level lands, called intervale,
are very rich, and produce corn and hops.
The rivers afford many manufacturing
sites, and if you travel there you will
see great increase of factories and rail-
roads going on.

7. Portsmouth is the only seaport in
New Hampshire. It is a very handsome
place, and there are a number of beauti-
ful buildings there. Dover is a large
manufacturing town. Some of the man-
ufactories are very extensive. I suppose
one of these establishments makes at
least eight thousand yards of cotton
cloth every day.

8. In 1846-7, many mills for making
cotton cloth, which go by steam, were
established at Portsmouth. A new city,
called Manchester, was laid out on the
Merrimac, with many factories to go b
water; several vast ones were built
there, and the place is growing very
fast. At Nashua, Nashville, and Amos-
keag, are many large factories.

9. There are a great many other

leasant towns in New Hampshire.

xeter is a handsome place, and Phil-
lips’ Academy is there, in which boys
are taught Latin and Greek, and many
other things. At Concord, where the
legislature meets every year, there is an
elegant state-house; and also one of
those benevolent institutions, a state



of New Hampshire? 5. What other name has
this state, and why? 6. Its rivers and their
banks? 7. What of Portsmouth? Dover1
‘6. Manchester? Nashua? Nashville? Amos



NEW HAMPSHIRE.—REMARKABLE NATURAL FEATURES.

asylum for the insane, where those who
are thus unfortunate can live. Able
physicians always reside there, and
study continually to know all about
insanity; and they take care of the pa-
tients, and try to cure them.

10. At Franconia, in Grafton county,
there are some very celebrated iron-
works. There are mines of iron there,
and the people get great quantities of it.
They make it into stoves, kettles, hol-
low ware, and castings for machinery.
The mountains around this place are
very wild and beautiful. At Hanover
is Dartmouth College, an old and re-
spectable seminary, where a great many
young men are educated.

11. There are several very fine lakes
in New Hampshire. If you should ever
travel in this state, you will find the
country very hilly, ood very interesting.
Most of the people are engaged in farm-
ing. They uve a great many horses,
cattle and sheep.

12. As you pass along, you will some-
times find yourself on the top of a high
hill. You will see around you a great
many other hills; and in the distance,
you will observe the tops of blue moun-
tains. By and by, you will descend
into a valley. You will see the streams
running rapidly down the sides of the
hills, and at the bottom of the valley

ou will frequently find a sheet of
bright water, sparkling like a mirror.

13. Before you return, you must visit
Lake Winnipiseogee. It is really one
of the most delightful lakes in the world.
I suppose you have heard a great deal
about Loch Lomond, in Scotland; but.I
assure you, Lake Winnipiseogee is much
more beautiful. The name of this lake

keag? 9. Exeter? Concord? 10, Franconia?
Hanover? 11. What of lakes? Face of the
country? The people? 12. What will you observe
in travelling? 13, What of Lake Winnipiseogee ?

19

is pronounced Winnepesokke; it had a
little steamboat on it in 1847., And in
that year some gentlemen of Boston
bought the land about the outlet of this
lake, and other near lakes, to dam up
the waters where they run into the Mer-
timac river, and keep them as a great
reservoir or mill-pond, till summer-time,
when the river dries up considerably.
They then let the water into the river,
as it is wanted, to keep the great factories
a-going in the towns on the banks.

14. After you have seen this lake,
ou should visit the White Mountains.
hese are the highest in the United

States east of the Mississippi, except
Mount Black, in North Carolina, said
to be a few feet higher. Mount Wash-
ington, the tallest peak, is more than
six thousand feet above the level of the
sea. Their Indian name was Agioco-
chook ; and by one of the eastern tribes
they were called a very hard name,
Waumbekket-methna, which signifies
“white mountain.”

15. Those Indians said a deluge once
overspread the land and destroyed eve-
ry human being, except one powow, or
priest, and his wife, who saved them-"
selves on the top of these hills. The
ignorant Indians thought that some be-
ings lived up there, and made storms;
and they were afraid to go up. But
we are better taught than they were,
and we find the only difficulty is in
climbing over the rocks, and getting tired
with our walk.

16. The sight from en ae is glori-
ous; we can see the ocean. They, them-
selves, look, from a distance, like a silver
cloud in the sky; when os were first
visited by white men, in 1632, they were.
named the Crystal Hills.



Other lakes? 14, The White Mountains? ‘Theit
different names? Mt. Washington? 15. Indiag |



20

17. It is a delightful thing to travel
about these mountains in summer. A
great many people visit them every year,
and they all come back much gratified
with their journey. Among the moun-
tains, there is a place called the Notch.
Here the mountain seems to be divided
into two parts, from the top to the bot-
tom.

18, This chasm affords a passage
through which the river Saco runs.
There is also a road through it, and as
you pass along you will be astonished
at the mighty rocks that lie heaped up
on every side of you.

CHAPTER IV.
NEW HAMPSHIRE—Continuzp.

1. A few years since, an awful event
occurred at the Notch in the White
Mountains. An immense mass of rocks,
earth, and trees, of several acres in ex-
tent, slid down from the height into the
valley. It is scarcely possible to describe
the scene. The mountains were shaken
for several miles around. The air, put
n motion by the falling mass, swept by
ike a hurricane. The noise was far
louder than thunder. Rushing down to
the bottom of the valley, the rocks over-
turned and buried everything before
them.

2, The bed of the river Saco was filled
ups the road was covered over; and acres
of ground, before fit for cultivation, now
exhibited a confused mass of rocks split
and shivered, and trees torn up by the
roots, their trunks broken into a thou-
sand pieces.

traditions? 16. Prospect? 17. What of the

Notch? 18. The river Saco?
1,2. Describe the catastrophe at the Notch in the



THE FIRST BOOK OF HISTORY.—-NEW HAMPSHIRE.

3. There is a circumstance of pain-
ful interest connected with this event.
There was, on the side of the valley, a
small house, belonging to a man of the
name of Willey. He, with his wife and
two or three children, was in this house

when the mountain began to slide down.
They heard the dreadful sound, and ran
out of the house, to save themselves.

4. But, alas! the avalanche of rocks
and earth swept over and buried them
forever in the ruins.. The house stood
still, safe and untouched, and if they
had remained in it, they too had been
saved. The house, ! believe, remains
there still; but the happy family that
once inhabited it are not there!

5. Somewhat more than two hundred
years ago, New Hampshire, like Maine,
was covered with forests, and inhabited
by Indians; but in 1623,some English
people came and built a house on Pis-
cataqua river, which was called Mason
Hall. The same year some of the peo-
ple went further up the river, and settled
at Cocheco, now called Dover.



White Mountains? 354, What of the Willey fam-
ily and their house? 5. What of N. H., about twe
hundred years ago? What took place in 16231
When was the first house in N. H. built? 6, Whit



NEW HAMPSHIRE.—ITS ANNALS.—VERMONT.—THE RIVER. 21

6. In 1641, New Hampshire was at-
tached to Massachusetts, but in thirty-
eight years after, that is, in 1679, the
king of England separated it from Mas-
sachusetts. It then became a royal

rovince; the governor being appointed
by the king of England.

7, In 1775, New Hampshire, with the
other colonies, engaged in the revolution.
A constitution, or form of government,
was then adopted by the people, which
remained till 1783, At that time, anew
constitution was formed, which remains
in force till this day. The early history
of New Hampshire is full of incidents
relating to the wars with the Indians.
I shall have occasion to notice some of
these when I come to give an account
of New England.

8. I will, however, tell you one of
these stories now. In 1689, the sav-
ages made a dreadful attack upon Dover.
They had been provoked by the white

ople, and determined on revenge.
Bat they pretended to be friendly, and
on the fatal night sent their women to
get lodgings in ‘the houses of the white
people. These were admitted, and when
all was quiet they softly opened the
doors. The Indians then rushed in,
killed twenty persons, carried twenty-
nine away as prisoners, and fled with
such rapidity as to escape from the peo-
ple who came to attack them.

9. The railroads are laid across even
the granite hills of New Hampshire, as
well as the level parts. The two from
Boston to Portland cross the state on the
seaboard; that from Portland to Ver-
mont, and that to Canada, cross it;
while another, called the Northern, from
Concord to Lebanon, and thence to
tial aerate tent
took place in 1641? In 1679? 7. In17752 What
in 17832 s. What of Dover? Describe the
railroads in New Hampshire.

Montpelier, Burlington, and Canada, °
goes through the centre of the state.
Another, from Boston to Rutland, Vt.,
and Burlington, passes through its
south-western part, and through the
beautiful town of Keene; it is called
the Cheshire. Other railroads, along
a Connecticut river, connect these
ines.

CHAPTER V.
STATE OF VERMONT.

1. Connecticut river separates Ver-
mont, as you see by the map, from New
Hampshire on the east. This river runs
through a valley of several miles in
width, which is very rich and beautiful.
The meadows here are exceedingly fine.
Very large crops of corn, wheat, and
oats, are cultivated in the valley. All
of the river is in New Hampshire,
which extends to its western bank; so
that the Connecticut is really not a river
of Vermont, though it is as near to it as
it possibly can be.

2. Vermont has several very pleasant
towns along Connecticut river. Brat-
tleboro is one of the prettiest villages
in the state. It has several manufacto-
ries, and is a place of much business.
There is the Veanias Asylum for the

Questions on the Map of Vermont.— Bounda-
ries? Describe Lamoile river, Onion, Missisque,
Otter Creek. Describe Lake Champlain, Mem-
phremagog, Dunmore. Through what counties do
the Green Mountains run? How many counties
in V.2 Their names? Capital? In what coun-
ty is Montpelier? Describe the following towns :
Windsor, Brattleboro, Royalton, Middlebury,
Burlington, Bgnnington, Westminster, Rutland,
Woodstock. Population of Vermont? Square
miles? Greatest length of V.? Greatest width?
Average length? Average width?

1, What of Connecticut river? Valley of the
Connecticut? In what state ie it? 2. Brattle





22

Insane. Bellows Falls is situated where
the river tumbles over some rocks, in a
very violent manner.

3. There are a great many mills at
this place. ‘There is a bridge over the
cataract, from which you can look down
upon the whirling water. There were
once a great many salmon in Connecti-
cut river, and the Indians, about one
hundred years ago, used to killa great
many of them with spears, as ‘they at-
tempted to ascend the falls. They were
very expert at this, and would often take
several of them in the course of an hour.
You can see now some figures, which
these Indians cut in the rocks near the
river, below the bridge.

4, Windsor is a very pleasant town,
and has considerable business. If you
ever go to Windsor, I hope you will go
to the top of Ascutney Mountain. It is
very lofty, and when you are on the top,
you can see all around you to an im-
mense distance. You will also find,
quite on the summit of this mountain,
a beautiful little lake of clear water.

5. In going from the eastern to the
western part of Vermont, you will cross
a great many mountains. These are
called the Green Mountains. There is
a range of them running through Ver-
mont, from north to south. They spread
over all the middle parts of this state.
You have seen, in the account of the
White Mountains of New Hampshire,
in Chapter III., paragraphs 3 and 4,
why these are called Green Mountains.

6. The railroads which cross these
mountains go through very pleasant and
flourishing towns, and afford the people
opportunity to bring their industrial
products, and the minerals found in the



boro? 3. Bellows Falls Indians? Figures on
rocks? 4, Windsor? Ascutney Mountain ?
Green Mountains? Reason for their name?

THE FIRST BOOK Or HISTORY.— VERMONT.

state, — marble, iron, manganese, &c.,—
to market; and also permit us to
most interesting journeys through this
rich state.

7. The Rutland and Burlington Rail-
road passes from Burlington, through
Rutland, to Bellows Falls. Brandon is
one of the increasing towns through
which it passes. Here you will see a car
factory, where they make the convenient
and splendid cars that are used on rail-
roads; and there are several iron fur-
naces. At Pittsford is beautiful marble.
This was a frontier town, and you can
now see some fortifications there. The
Central road passes through Montpelier.
Several other railroads were established
in 1845, 6, and 7. The Connecticut
and Passumpsic Rivers Railroad ex-
tends from White river to Stanstead.
One from Concord, N. H., called the
Northern, connects at Lebanon with the
Vt. Central Railroad. And the Fitch-
burg, from Boston, with the Cheshire,
through Keene, N. H., reaches the Bur-
lington and Rutland Road at Bellows
Falls.

8. From Burlington these various
roads will soon connect with Canada
and the St. Lawrence river. By the
Ogdensburg Railroad, through Northern
New York, Vermont will be connected
with Lake Ontario and.all the region of
the great north-western lakes; while
by Lake Champlain and the Northern
Canal to Hudson river, and by a rail-
road from Rutland to intersect the Sa.-
atoga and Whitehall Railroad, this state
is connected with New York city.
Railroads are also projected from Brat-
tleboro’ to Troy, N. Y., and from Rut-
land, south, through Bennington, to



6. Railroads? 7. Brandon? Pittsford? De-
scribe the railroads; that is, tell what places
they connect. 8. Facilities of travel? Lake

%



VERMONT.—COLLEGES--~FARMING— WOOL-GROWING, ETC.

connect with the Pittsfield and North
Adams Railroad; thereby forming a
connection with the railroads of Massa-
chusetts and Connecticut, of which I
have given you an account elsewhere.

9. At Burlington you will find a
steamboat ready to carry you on the
lake toward Canada. You will be very
much pleased with Burlington, for it is
one of the handsomest towns in New
England. It is situated on the shore
of the lake, and thus you have a fine

rospect of it. At this place is a col-
ege, called the University of Vermont.

10. You will also find a college at Mid-
dlebury. You will see, at Middlebury,
too, a great many manufactories, and
a quarry, where they obtain very hand-
some, colored marble. At Shelburne,
near the lake, you will see, if you travel
that way, the rich and extensive farm of
Judge Meech, which contains three thou-
sand agres, and is one of the largest in
the northern states. In 1847 he cut off
it one thousand tons of hay, and kept
three thousand sheep and four hundred
head of cattle, and sold one thousand
bushels of rye.

11. The owner had then lived on it
over forty years, and in his younger
days had to work hard; but industry
and thrift succeeded, as they are almost
certain to do. This is the history of
hundreds of thousands of American in-
dividuals, and, indeed, of the American
people.

12. Montpelier is a handsome town,
and there the legislature meets, once a
year, to make laws for the state. In
passing through Vermont, you will per-
ceive that most of thegpeople are farm-
ers. They raise a ee many horned
cattle, and sheep, and hogs, and horses.

Champlain, &.? 9. Burlington? 10. Middlebury?
Judge Meech’s farm? 12. Montpelier? People

The horses are very fine ones. Many
of the beautiful horses you see in New
York, Boston, and Hartford, come from
Vermont.

13. Vermont is one of the most indus-
trious and successful agricultural states
in the Union. There are only four
states that produce more than one hun-
dred dollars to each head, or person, of
the population; viz., Vermont, Missis-
sipp ansas, and Louisiana.

14. Vermont produced, as was shown
by the census of 1840, one hundred and
forty-eight dollars to each person of her
people, and was thus the first. The
wool from the sheep on her hills is
worth three millions of dollars a year.
They also make, in Vermont, more than
a million of dollars,worth of maple su-
gara year. It is the next sugar pro-
ducing state to Louisiana. They boil
it in the latter state, from the juice of



the’ sugar-cane; but in Vermont they
boil it from the sap of the maple trees.

15. During the winter, the weather
is cold, and the snow falls to a great

depth. It is sometimes four or five feet



of Vermont? Horses? 13. Agriculture? 14. Prod-
tice of Vermont per head? Wool? Maple sugar?

4 ’



24 THE FIRST BOOK OF
deep. The people have three or four
months’ fine sleighing. Although the
air is very sharp, yet the winter is a
wy merry season in this state. The
children ride on their sleds down the
hills, and the people glide swiftly over



Winter in Vermont.

the hills and valleys in their sleighs.
It is in summer one of the most beauti-
ful of the states.

16. If you travel among these green
hills, whose ascent is so gradual that
they do not seem like mountains ;—
along the streams, and pleasant lakes,
and bright, pretty valleys;—you will
find, from time to time, the school-
houses, where the boys and girls of this
siate are learning to be good, and wise,
and happy, under their public free school
system.

17. They are learning the best way
to make the most of their soil, quar-
ries, and mines, and to take the places
of their fathers and mothers, by and by,
as good men and women and citizen.

18. You will find the indefatigable
superintendent visiting these schools,
and he will be glad to take you in with
him; when you will hear him tell the
<— tnt ieermweernsetiinied ata
‘6. Winter? Describe the picture. 16. Schools ?
18. Superintendents ? Mr. Hammond?





HISTORY.—-VERMONT.

children how they should behave, and
how they should ‘study, and what they
should do it for, just as the teachers,
those good friends of the children, have
been telling them. In 1842, died in
this state, S. Hammond, who was one
of those who, in the beginning of our
Revolution, threw over the English tea
into Boston harbor, which I shall tell
you about.

_—

CHAPTER VI.
VERMONT—Conminvep.

1. Over thirty years ago, a very sin-
gular event occurred in Vermont. ‘There
was a very large pond, or lake, in the
north-western part of the state; it was
three miles long, and one wide. One
day, some ‘men were at work at a bank
of earth, at the end of this pond.

2. Suddenly the bank gave way, and
the water came rushing out at th® place
with great violence. For several miles
it rolled on in a torrent, Sweeping off
mills, houses, barns, and cattle, and
barely giving the inhabitants time to
escape. It did not stop till the whole
pond was exhausted. Where the pond
used to be, there is now only the bed
of a small river.

3. During the year 1814, there was
a famous battle fought on Lake Cham-
plain, between some American and Brit
ish ships. The battle took place in
sight of Burlington. There were thou-
sands of people along the shore to wit-
ness it. There were several American
vessels, and several British vessels, also.
The American ships were commanded
by Commodore Macdonough.

‘



1, What event took place in Vermont over thirty
years ago? 3,4, What battle on Lake Champlain
in the year 1814? Describe this battle. 5. What













4. They fought each other with can-
on for more than two hours. At length
e British ships were beaten, and the
mericans took them nearly all. This
appened during the late war with Eng-
nd, of which I shall tell you more be-
ore I get through the book.

5 In August, 1777, there was a cel-
brated battle fought at Bennington, be-
ween some American and British sol-
iers. General Stark, with some New
ampshire and Vermont troops, attacked
ome British soldiers, commanded by
olonel Baum, at that place.

6. The British troops were dressed
n fine red coats, and white pantaloons.
hey had beautiful music, and their
fficers were mounted on fine horses,
ut the Vermont and New Hampshire
en were not regular soldiers; they
ere farmers, and mechanics, and mer-
hants, who went to war merely to drive
hese egy sone from the country.

7. The Americans were dressed in
heir common clothes. The British
troops, who were so finely attired, de-
spised them. They called them Yan-
kees, and laughed at their homespun
dress. But when the battle began the
laughter of the British troops was done.
The Americans fell upon them, and
killed a great many of them, and by
and by the British fled.

8. As they were running away, they
met a good many more British soldiers.
Thinking themselves now strong enough
to beat the Americans, they went back,
and began to fight again. But the
Americans attacked them with such
vigor, that soon seven hu of the
British were killed and wo Col.
Baum was killed, and the the
British ran away. This battle. took
place during the Revolutiona





battle at Bennington in August, 1777? 6,7,8. De-

“VERMONT.—BATTLE OF BENNINGTON—ANNALS, ETC,

25
Â¥ which I shall tell you more by and

‘e

-9. Vermont was not settled by ‘the
white people till some time after the
other New England States. There was
a fort built near Brattleboro, in 1724,
called Fort Dummer. The remains of
it are still to be seen. It was built to
protect the people who had settled there
from the Iggians.

10. Ve. was settled principally
by people from Connecticut. They first
established themselves along on Con-
necticut river, and afterwards in other
parts of the state. They had a good
many skirmishes with the Indians, and
for a long time there was a great dispute
whether the land belonged to New York
or New Hampshire.

11. It was decided in England, in
1764, that it belonged to New York,
and consequently the government of
that oT began to sell the land to any
persons who would buy. The settlers
thought this very unjust, and deter-
mined to resist. New York then sent
troops into Vermont, and there was
some fighting. These difficulties were
not settled till years after.

' 12. During the Revolutionary War
Vermont was independent, and in 1791
it became one of the United States. It
is now little more than one hundred
years since this state was a mere wil-
derness, occupied only by scattered tribes
of savages, bears, and wolves. Now it
has a great many flourishing towns, and
cultivated farms, on the tops of the hills,
in the valleys, and along the rivers and
lakes. Several years ago, a steam-

scribé this battle. 9, Settlement of Vermont?
Fort Dummer? 10. Who were the first settlers of
Vermont? What of these settlers? 11. What tool
place in 1764? 12. When did e one of
the United States? What of Vi t one hum
dred years ago? What of it now?



26

boat ascended the river to the distance
of two hundred miles from its mouth,
and was warmly greeted by the inhab-
itants along the banks.

CHAPTER VII.
STATE OF MASSACHUSETTS.

1. Massachusetts is n rge state,
but there are a great many people in it.
It has ninety-four persons to each square
mile of its territory, supposing they were
distributed equally all over it. This is
being more thickly settled than any oth-
er of the United States. England has
two hundred and sixty people to each
square mile. Those who live along the
seaboard, at Boston, Salem, New Bed-
ford, Nantucket, and other places, own
a great many ships, brigs, sloops, and
schooners. Some of these ships are
sent to England, and other parts of Eu-
rope, and they bring back various kinds
of goods.

2. Other ships are sent to China, and



Questions on the Map of Massachusetts. —
Boundaries ?
Charles, Deerfield, Westfield. What range of
mountains in M.? Through what counties do
these mountains run? Describe Massachusetts
Bay, Barnstable, Cape Cod Bay, Buzzard’s Bay.
Describe the following islands: Martha’s Vine-
yard, Nantucket, Elizabeth, Dukes. 5. ‘How
many counties in M.? Their names? Capital?
In what county is Boston? Describe the follow-
ing towns: Salem, New Bedford, Newburyport,
Worcester, Amherst, Cambridge, Northampton,
Springfield, Greenfield, Deerfield, Concord, Lex-
ington, Pittsfield, Stockbridge, Westfield, Wil-
liamstown. Population of M.? Square miles?
Greatest length of M.? Greatest width? Aver-
uge length? Average width?

1. What of setts? How many peo-
ple to each square mile? How many in England?
People along the seaboard? 2. What is commerce?

Describe the Merrimac river,

THE FIRST BOOK OF HISTORY.—MASSACHUSETTS.

they bring back teat The trade carried
on by these ships is called commerce.
Some of the vessels go to a great dis-
tance to catch whales, for their oil. Oth-
er vessels go out to catch cod-fish and
mackerel.

3. Great numbers of cod are taken in
boats, along the shores, but most on the
banks of Newfoundland. These banks
are immense sandy places, out at sea,
east of Newfoundland: the largest is
four hundred miles long, and the water
is from one hundred and twenty to three
hundred feet deep upon them.

4. The cod-fish are in millions, feed-
ing on the worms on the bottom. The
vessels come here in the summer, from
Europe and America, and get loads of
fish, which they take with hooks and
clams for bait. The cod are split and
salted down. The livers are kept in
barrels, where oil drains from them.
When the vessels come e, the fish
are spread to dry on flakes, or platforms
made of branches and twigs of trees, on
a frame three feet from the ground.

5. The mackerel are caught in early
summer, all along the northern United
States, in immense shoals or swarms.
They are opened, pickled, and then as-
sortedinto barrels by an inspector ap-
pointed for the purpose, who marks them
No. 1, 2, &c., according to the quality.
These cod and mackerel are eaten at
home, or sent to the Southern States,
the West Indies, South America, and
Southern Europe.

6. The whale fishery in America
was first begun by the inhabitants of






Nantucket. They, and the people from
New B Connecticut, New York,
&e., re lamp-oil, spermaceti,
and e, carry it on at the north

essels belonging to M.? 3, Describe tne
5. The mackerel fishery. 6. The whale



MASS.—THE ICE BUSINESS—FARMING—FACTORIES. 27

pole, at the south pole, and in the
great oceans, where the whales have
been taken eighty to a hundred feet
long. I will tell you about it when I
come to speak of Greenland. A gregt
many sloops, and schooners, and brigs,
go to New York, Philadelphia, Charles-
_ ton, and other places.

7. They carry a good many articles
away, which are not wanted in Massa-
chusetts, and get, in exchange for them,
other articles that are wanted here. So,
you see, there are a great many people
constantly occupied in managing these
ships. You may often see several hun-
dred vessels, of various kinds, at Boston.

8. At Boston, some years since, was
commenced the ice trade, which now
amounts to an immense value every
year. The ice is taken from the ponds
and collected in ice-houses, in the win-
ter. This is pretty cold work, you may
be sure. ‘The men have thick mittens,
and they thrash their arms together, and
blow their fingers with their hot breath ;
and whenthe cold wind comes, they work
away the harder, to keep themselves

which it is carefully packed in saw-
dust, and so carried half over the world.
In hot countries it is very grateful; and
even in England, during summer, Amer-
ican ice has become quite famous.
Sometimes they put fish, or meats, or
fruits, in among the ice, and they keep
nicely on the voyage, and when taken
out look as fresh, and taste as well, as
when firstgmpe i.

11. In rts of the state remote
from the sea, the people of Massachu-
setts are chiefly occupied in agriculture.
There are a great many very fine farms;
and the people manage them extremely
well. Phere are also very extensive
manufactories in Massachusetts. Low-
ell is a great manufacturing town.

12. You must not fail, if you have an
opportunity, to stop at Lowell, and re-
mark the industry and the success of
this astonishing city. In 1826 it was
of Chelmsford, and had only two

undred inhabitants; in 1847, it had
about thirty thousand. You must visit
‘the factories there, and see how neat
and clean everything is; the rooms and
the people in them. A place for every-
thing, and everything in its place, is the
rule there.

13. You would find, if you were to
count them, nine or ten thousand per-
sons at work at once; seven thousand
of them are women and girls, who have
come from all parts of the country.
They stay here about five years, and
then return with the money they have
earned by industry and good be avior,
to be happy at home. They have books
to read; and they write and publish a
book or magazine, themselves, every
month; it is called the Lowell Offering.

14. They make in Lowell about sev-

rt
getting of the ice. 11. What of the people remote
from the sea? Manufactories in M. 2) 12, 18, I4y,

























warm,

9, You will be interested to go out to
these ponds, to some of which they have
made railroads, on purpose to bring the
ice to the wharves. You would find
some of the men sawing the thick ice
into blocks; and others pulling it from
the ‘water with iron hooks and long
poles, and then it is hauled by horses,
-and an ingenious contrivance of ropes
and pulleys, into the ice-houses on the
border of the pond. These houses are
built double, and the space een the
outside and inside walls i
tan-bark, that the ice may

10. At proper times the:
on carts or railroads to

fishery.






8, 9,10. The ice



28

enty-five millions of yards of cloth a
year. Lowell was the first place in the
world where they wove carpets, and all
their rich and curious patterns, with
power looms, that is, which go by water
or steam. They used always to be
woven by hand. This place is an ex-
cellent specimen of our manufacturing
villages and cities, so much better than
those we read of in England and the
rest of Europe.

15. More of these busy places are
constantly building. On the Merrimac
river, just below Lowell, they built, in
1847, a number of large factories, and
called the place Lawrence. And still
others at Hadley Falls, on the Connecti-
cut river, at a place which they have
named Ireland.

16. At Newburyport and Salem are
very large factories, which go by steam.
There is one of this kind at Salem,
which is among the largest in the United
States, if not in the world. It has
twenty-seven thousand spindles, which
are spinning away all at once; anda
busy sight and whiz they make of it.

17, There are many other manufac-
tories, at Waltham, Taunton, Canton,
Ware, Springfield, Framingham, and
other places. The goods manufactured
in these towns are chiefly carried to
Boston, and are thence taken to New
York, Philadelphia, Charleston, New
Orleans, and various foreign markets.

18. On the south-eastern shore of
Massachusetts, you would see, in pass-
ing close to the ocean, a great many low
wooden vats, into which the salt water
of the sea is put. The sun dries up the
water, and the salt is left on the bottom



* Lowell? Describe any other manufacturing town
or place that you have seen, 15, Lawrence? Ire-
land? 16. Newburyport? Salem? 17. Other
towns mentioned? What of the goods manu-



THE FIRST BOOK OF HISTORY.—MASSACHUSETTS,

and sides of the vats, and collected, in
great quantities, for use and sale. When
a shower is coming up, you will see the
men run to slide the covers over these
salt works, so that the water shall not
spoil the operations.

19. Boston is the largest city in New
England. There are many interesting
things in Boston. The Common is a
very beautiful place. It is delightful to
see it covered with people, men, women,
and children, on a pleasant summer
evening. How pleased the boys are to
get around the Frog-pond, and throw
sticks into it, so that they may see the
dogs jump in, swim about and get them!



Boys playing on Boston Common.

20. In 1847 the people of Boston,
finding that the city was getting to have
so many people and houses in it that
there was not enough good fresh water
to use, purchased a whole pond, called
Long Pond. This they re-called by its.
old Indian name, Cochituate Lake. It
is situated in Framingham, Natick, &c.,





about twenty miles west of Boston, and
higher e highest part of the city.

21, built a large brick aque-
duct, that you might walk up-

18. Describe salt-making. 19,
? The Common? Describe the



MASS.—BOSTON WATER-WORw. —BUILDINGS— RAILROADS.

right through it, in which the water
runs from Cochituate Lake, over rivers
and valleys, and through hills, to a large
reservoir, and thence by iron pipes into
the chambers of any of the houses in
the city. These pipes carry it through
all the streets, and there are altogether,
sixty miles in length of them. They
may also be used to feed public foun-
tains, which are very pretty, with the
bright water sparkling like diamonds in
the sunshine. This structure is next in
size to the Croton water-works, which
supply New York city, and of which I
shall tell you by and by. Many of our
large cities in the United States are thus
supplied with pure water, as Philadel-
phia, Baltimore, Cincinnati, &c.

22. The State-house is finely situ-
ated, and it has a good arance.
When I was young, I used. to like to go
to the top of the State-house, from which
there is a splendid prospect. I could see
the ocean, with a great many islands in it,
and I could see a great many fine towns
all around Boston, and I could look down
upon the city itself, and see almost all
that was going on in the streets.

23. There are a great many hand-
some buildings in Boston. The Stone
Market is a very fine building, and I
do not think there is a more beautiful
market in the world. Tremont House,
King’s Chapel, St. Paul’s Church, and
Trinity Church; the new Boston Ath-
eneum; the Howard Atheneum; the
Museum; several freestone, Gothic and
“other churches; the Merchants’ Ex-
change, and the United States Custom-
house, are very elegant edifices.

24. The land in Boston was originally
about six hundred acres, but they have

picture. 20,21. Water-works? 22.
23. What fine buildings in Boston

House?
t and

29
filled it up on the borders of the bays,
until, in 1847, it had about thirteen hun-
dred acres, and one hundred and twenty
thousand inhabitants, But the sur-
rounding lately incorporated cities of
Roxbury, @ambridge, and Charlestown,
and the towns, join it so closely, that
you would take them all together to be
one city of more than two hundred thou-
sand inhabitants. Boston is continually
advancing with the-rest of the state and
country. It is connected with all parts
of the land by railroads, and with all
parts of the world by the sea.

25. I will tell you about those rail-
roads, because they have changed all
the old modes of travelling and of doing
business, all over the country. They
have, also, wherever they are, rendered
states flourishing, and have increased
wealth more than all their enormous
cost. One locomotive engine on a rail-
road will do the work of six hundred
and sixty-eight horses. It needs only
four men to take care of it; but the four-
horse teams, to equal it, would require
one hundred and sixty-seven men.

26. There are more than thirty rail-
roads in New England, with all their
branches. They have cost forty or fift
millions of dollars. Seven of these rail- |
roads, as you will see on the map, di-
verge directly from Boston, the capital,
into all parts of the state, and into other
states.

27, These make in all more than
eight hundred miles of railroad. In
1847, their cars travelled, over them,
one million five hundred and thirty
thousand miles, and transported three
million one hundred and thirty-five
thousand passengers. And for that
quick and easy travelling, in comfbrt-

in inensinenerns—votieiiiecain imeieiath aa
population? 25. Describe a railroad, 26, 27,

ws



30

able, clean, and ‘well ventilated cars,
they charged a passenger only two and
two fifths cents a mile.

28. Salem is quite a city, and many
of the people are engaged in commerce.
The city of Worcester, and the towns
of Springfield and Northampton, are
remarkably handsome. Massachusetts
abounds in beautiful villages. It is
pleasant to observe, in travelling through
it, the great number of very neat meet-
ing-houses.

29. The city of Worcester you will
find the grand centre for railroads from
Boston, Albany, Providence, Norwich,
Nashua, and Concord. It has been
proposed to build a mammoth depot, to
aecommodate all these together. What
curious articles you would see piled up
there and lying about, brought from so
many different places, and going, per-
haps, to every part of the world!

30. At Cambridge there is a college,
called Harvard University. In 1848,
its libraries amounted to eighty-two
thousand volumes; and besides its
schools of Law, Medicine, and Divinity,
there was established here, in 1847, the
Lawrence Scientific School, for practical
science. Another college is located at
Amherst, and one also at Williamstown.
There are a great many academies and
schools in the state, and it has one of the
best organized and established systems
of public free schools.

31. More than one hundred and fifty
thousand children are at school all the
time, who have the use of district school
libraries, provided for them by the fore-
thought and liberality of the towns and
of the state. They have also Normal

Railroads in Massachusetts in 18477? 28. Salem?
Northampton? 29. Worcester? 30. Cambridge?
Amherst? Williamstown? Public free schools ?.
1. District school libraries? Normal Schools $

THE FILST BOOK OF HISTORY. — MASSACHUSETTS.

Schools, so called, where males and
females, who wish to become teathers,
are admirably taught by able instructors,
and afterwards themselves do a great
deal of good in teaching, all over the
country.

32. Massachusetts has done more
than any other state towards encour:
aging farmers, who are so important a
class, as they furnish us with food, and
the materials of which our clothes are
made. They have societies of agricul-
ture and horticulture here, as in other
states. The intelligence and experiments
of the members of such societies are
constantly improving those branches of
industry. here is a Massachusetts
State Manual Labor School at West-
boro’, and a Farm School, established
near Boston, on an island, by private
munificence. Here boys who are so
unfortunate as to be exposed to vice,
without other opportunities, are trained
to habits of industry and morality, and
instructed in what will be useful to them
when they grow up. In 1845 and
1848, were incorporated the Mass. Acad-
emy of Agriculture, and the Mass. Ag-
ticultural Tnstitate.

33. Commerce, manufactures, fishing
and farming, are the chief employments
of the state, which is continually enter-
prising and successful. Her capital has
now several routes connecting with New
York city. Her Western Railroad, break-
ing through seeming impossibilities,
opens to her the same West that makes

ew York great. Railroads confined
to her own territory bring business to
Boston, which has, also, railroads to
Maine, New Hampshire, and Vermont,
and will soon be connected with Canada,
and be the winter communication at least

2. wid done for agriculture? Farming
schools? 33. Chief employments of the people?



MASS.—-BUNKER HILL—DISTINGUISHED MEN, ETC.

between England and her provinces, by
means of the great enterprise of the Brit-
ish government, through their agent, Mr.
Cunard; who; in 1840, established a line
of steamers between Liverpool and Bos-
ton, which come across in from eleven
to fourteen days.

34. In 1825 was begun, and in 1842
was finished, at Bunker Hill, a granite

——F



Bunker Hill Monument.

obelisk, two hundred and twenty feet
high, a monument of the battle fought
there, of which I will tell you in Chap-
ter LIII. You can ascend to the top,
which is three hundred and nine feet
above high water, by circular stone
stairs around a well in the centre, and
will have a fine view from it.

35. In 1825, died John Lowell, Jr.,
Esq., who founded free public lectures,
at Boston, which were first commenced
in 1839; and in 1839, Nathaniel Bow-
ditch died, the great American astrono-
‘mer. In 1842, died Rev. William E.
Channing, a distinguished writer, and
Washington Allston, the great Ameri-
can a In 1846, died Joseph Sto-
Hg udge of the Supreme Court of the
nited States, one of the ablest and

tee aint niin
Connection with other states? Steamers to Eng-
land? 34. Bunker Hill Monument? 35. Distin-

3h

most famous lawyers in the world; and
in 1846, died Dr. Benj. Waterhouse,
who introduced vaccination against the
small-pox into America; Feb, 23, 1848,
died at Washington, where he repre-
sented his state in Congress, John Quin-
cy Adams, Ex-president of the United
tates, a man possessed of more politi-
cal knowledge than any individual in
the United States of his time. He died
in the Capitol, being stricken with dis-
ease in his place in Representatives’
Hall. His body was brought to its tomb .
in Quincy by a delegation of members
of Congress, one from each state and
territory. The cities through which it
passed, and the Legislature of Massa-
chusetts, paid it the honor of funeral pro-
cessions and eulogies. The tombs of
most of these great men are to be seen
at Mt. Auburn, the first, as it is also one
of the a the en soontenies
in the U. S.; it is at Cambridge. ,

36. We might also visit, very gilt
ably, the admirably eonducted Perkins
Institution and Asylum for the Blind, at
South Boston ; the McLean Asylum for
the Insane, at Somerville, just out of the
capital; the Massachusetts Hospital, in
the city; the State Asylum for the
Insane, at Worcester; also the United
States Arsenal, at Springfield.

37. It is not so cold in Massachusetts,
during the winter, as in Vermont and
Maine. The snow is not so deep, and
there is not so much sleighing. If you
ever travel through the state, you will
find it very hilly. Though there are a
great many railroads, yet, if you wish to
see the country, you had better travel in
some other way. Near rureng is
a high mountain, called Holyoke. From

guished persons mentioned? Mount Auburn?
Institution for blind? Other institations ?
37. Winter? Face of the country? Mt. Holyoke ?



32

the top of it, you can look down upon
Connecticut river, winding through a
valley so rich and beautiful, that it
seems like a carpet woven with various
bright colors.

CHAPTER VIII.
MASSACHUSETTS—Conrixven.

1. On the 17th day of September,
1830, there was a great parade in Bos-
ton. There was the governor of the
state, and the mayor of the city, and the
president of Harvard college, and a
great many other men; and then there
were a great many children, little boys
and girls, from all the schools in Boston.

2. It was a very bright day, and they
all assembled on the Common. There
were a great many thousand people be-
side, who came to look on. I was there
myself, and I was delighted at the long
rows of good little boys and girls. By
and by, the men all went in a long pro-
cession to the Old South church, and
there Mr. Quincy delivered an oration.



Celebration of the Settlement of Boston.
3. Now you will be curious to know

1, What took place in Boston in September,
18307 Describe the picture. 3. What was this
ceiebration for? When did the settlement of



THE FIRST BOOK OF HISTORY. —MASSACHUSETTS.

what all this parade was ,about. I will
tell you: It was to celebrate the settle-
ment of Boston, which took place just
two hundred years before; that is, on
the 17th of September, 1630.

4. Ten years before, in 1620, some
persons had come from England, and
settled at Plymouth. At that period,
many of the people in England were per-
secutell, and could not be happy there.
They chose therefore to come to Amer-
ica, and live in the woods, with Indians
and wild beasts around them, rather
than stay there.

5. Accordingly fifteen hundred per-
sons came over in 1630, and settled at
Charlestown, Dorchester, and other
places. A man by the name of Black-
stone came to the place where Boston
now stands, and liking it pretty well, he
told some of the people about it, and
they went and settled there.

6. The first settlers here suffered a
great deal. They had poor, miserable
huts to live in, and in winter the weather
was excessively cold. They were almost
starved, too, for want of food. A great
many of them died from hunger, cold,
and distress.

7. Such is a brief sketch of the first
settlement of Boston. Whdt a wonder-
ful change has taken place in two hun-
dred years! The spot where Boston
stands was then a wilderness. The
hills and the islands were covered with
trees, and the Indians were living all
around. Now the Indians are all gone,
and there are one hundred and twenty
thousand people living in this place; in
the towns around it there are at least as
many more.



Boston take place? 4. Why did some English
people come to livg in America? 5. Settlers of
1630? 6. What of wolves? Sufferings of the first
settlers? 7,8, What changes have taken place in



MASS.—ORIGINAL CONDITION OF THE COUNTRY, ETC.

8. The forests have all been cut
down, the hills have been levelled, the
valleys have been filled up; houses,
churches, and other public edifices, now
stand on the very places which were
then occupied by Indian wigwams.
The bay, where then you could see
only a few Indian canoes, is now coy-
ered with hundreds of vessels, and in the
streets you hear the noise of a thousand
wheels, where then were heard only the
cries of wild beasts and savage men.

9. Such are the mighty changes that
have taken place in this aren since it
was settled by the white people. It is
very interesting to look around, and see
the present condition of towns, cities and
countries. But I think it is still more
interesting to go back and study the
history of places, and see what has hap-
pened there in times that have now
gone by.

10. The first settlement in New Eng-
land was made at Plymouth, in 1620,
The settlers were English people, called
Puritans. Within ten years after, Sa-
lem, Dorchester, Charlestown, and Bos-
ton, were settled. A great many people
came over from England, and thus the
colony grew very rapidly.

11, They had a great many difficul-
ties to encounter. Before they could
raise grain to make bread of, they were
obliged to cut down trees, and till the
land. They had also to build houses,
to make roads, and defend themselves
against the Indians. Their condition
was indeed a very hard one, and some
of the people who came over died from
want and fatigue, as I have said before.

12. Many of them were killed by the

218 years? 10. When was the first settlement in
New England? What were the settlers called?
What of Salem, and other towns? 11, What had
the settlers to do? What was their situation? 12.

3

savages, but in spite of all these evils,
the colony continued to increase. The
white people penetrated further into the
interior, cut down the trees, built towns:
and villages, and soon spread them-
selves over the whole country that is
now called Massachusetts.

13. But after a while the Revolution-
ary War broke out, and then the people
had to defend themselves against Brit-
ish soldiers. I shall tell you all about
this war by and by. I shall tell you of
the battles of Lexington, and of Bunker
Hill, and many other interesting things.

CHAPTER IX.
STATE OF RHODE ISLAND.

1. Rhode Island is the smallest of the
United States; but there are a great
many manufactories there, and the peo-
ple carry on a good deal of commerce.
At Pawtucket there are some very ex-
tensive cotton manufactories. hese
are situated on the falls of the Paw-
tucket river.

2. Providence is a large town, with a
college, called Brown University. If
you ever visit Providence, you should



Describe the progress of the ontlognntte Massp-

chusetts. 13. Revolutionary W:

Questions on the Map of Rhode Isiand. —
Boundaries? Describe the Pawtucket river,
Charles, Wood, Pawtuxet. Describe Narragun-
set Bay. Describe Rhode Island, Block Island.
How many counties in Rhode Island? Their
names? Capital? In what county is Provi-
dence? Describe the following towns: Bristol,
Newport, Pawtucket, Warren, E. Greenwich, W.
Greenwich, Richmond, Coventry, Hopkinton.
Population of Rhode Island? Extent? Greatest
length of R. I.? Greatest width? Average length?
Average width ? ,

1, What of R. I. manufactories? Pawtucket 1
2. Providence? The University? The Arcade



34

go and see the Arcade. This is a very
beautiful building, where you can pur-
chase almost every kind of elegant mer-
chandise. You should also go and see
the basin of the old Blackstone Canal, a
place for boats that came from Worces-
ter, until, in 1848, the canal was made
_ the line of a railroad.

3. At Providence you can take the
steamboat and go to Newport. You
will sail down meee Bay, which,

think, is one of the most beautiful
bays in the world. As you go along,
you will see Bristol at your left. . It is
a very pleasant town, and there are a
number of beautiful houses there.

4. Near Bristol, you can see a hill
called Mount Hope. This is very cele-
brated, as having been the residence of
a famous Indian chief, whose name was
Philip. His story@is very interesting,
and I shall tell it td you, by and by.

5. You will find Newport very pleas-
antly situated. It has rather a venera-
ble appearance. It stands upon a large
island, called Rhode Island. This gave
name to the state. Newport is resorted
to by many people in summer, for its
healthy and pleasant sea-breezes. Fort
Adams, an immense and curious fortifi-
cation, is on an island near by.

« 6. In the war of the Revolution, the
English were driven out of Newport.
In order to prevent the Americans from
following len they took up all the
lanks of the bridge which led from
ewport to the main land, and left
nothing but the narrow timbers.

7. General Lafayette, of whom I
shall tell you more hereafter, was assist-
ing the Americans, and wished to follow
the British, and to pass this bridge. Its
height and length made his head to

The Basin? 3, Narraganset Bay? Bristol? 4. Mt.
Hope? 6. Newport? Ft. Adams? 7. Lafayette





THE FIRST BOOK OF HISTORY.—RHODE ISLAND.

whirl; it was impossible for him to
cross it without assistance, and it was

difficult to help him. A Mr. Abel Car- »

penter, of Providence, R.I., but who
died in Lyndon, Vt., about 1846, had a
great deal of firmness, and he volun-
teered and helped Lafayette in the only
way it could be done. He walked back-
wards the whole distance, leading the
general by the hands. They performed
this dangerous enterprise in safety, and
thus outgeneraled the enemy.

8. The first white man that settled
in Rhode Island was Roger Williams.
He was a clergyman, and lived in Bos-
ton ; but he did not think exactly as the
other clergymen of Boston did, and so
he was banished from Massachusetts.








Roger Williams emigrating to Rhode Island.

9. He went away with his family
into the woads, After travelling a con-
siderable time, he stopped, and began to
build himself a house. Here he made
a settlement, and called it Providence.
This took place in 1636, and was the
first settlement in Rhode Island. He
was kindly treated by the Indians, who
seemed pleased at his arrival among
them.

—_—
and Mr, Carpenter? 8. Roger Williams? De
seribe the picture. 9, When was the first settle



RHODE ISLAND.—CLAM-BAKE—OLD CHARTER~—SCHOOLS.

10. The colony, thus begun, increased
rapidly, and in the Revolutionary War it
united with the other colonies in the
struggle for freedom. It became one
of the United States in1790.

11. There is a curious custom, use-
ful when a large multitude is to be en-
tertained, which is practised in Rhode
Island and along the sea-shore. It is
called a clam-bake. A party assembles
on horseback, on foot, in wagons, chaises,
carryalls, and boats, in some retired spot,
where the green waves of ocean, crest-
ed with snowy foam, are rolling with a
singing murmur, forever and ever, to the
rocks and the shore;—or where the
quieter sea seems to smile and rejoice
as it glances back the brightness of a
summer’s sun.

12. Some of the busy multitude are
seen piling wood and dry branches upon
a huge fire, into which many large
stones are thrown ; others heap up, close
at hand, sea-weed torn from the rocks,
or bring buckets of clams freshly dug
from the muddy flats. Others, with
cautious clutch and noisy glee, bring
from the boats, at the rocks, the strug-
gling; greenish-black lobsters, just from
the traps; while others still fetch the
fish they have just caught, fresh from
the ocean.

13. The wood is now burnt to coals,
and these, withythe red-hot stones, are
pushed together into a bed five feet by
twelve, or much larger, if the number
of guests requires it. They now quick-
Vy cover the stones and coals with a
thick layer of sea-weed, hissing, crack-
ling, and steaming. All over this are
strewed clams, lobsters, fish, and n
corn, if it is in season, Another layer
of sea-weed, and another of clams, lob-

ment made in Rhode Island? - 10. When did Rhode
\ Island become a state? 11—14. What is a clam-



sters, fish, and corn; and then, over all,
weeds are heaped and pressed as closely
as possible, to keep in the heat and
steam.

14. The clams, &c., being baked, or
rather, well steamed, and seasoned, the
pile is quickly raked open ;—the lob-
sters are discovered of a bright scarlet,
the fish nicely cooked, and the clams
invitingly opening their whitened shell.
Everybody is now busy helping his
friends and himself, using shell#for both
knife and plate, and with many a me
joke and echoing laugh,and much gon

umored talk, duly varied with political
or other speeches, a great many people
at once are enjoying an old-fashioned,
Indian seoohale

15. Rhode Island had been governed
by the charter originally ted her
as a colony, in 1663, b King Charles
II., of England. In 1841, some persons,
wishing to alter that charter, formed
a constitution, and elected Thomas W.
Dorr governor. Troubles then ensued
between them and other persons in the
state, which, though threatening to be se-
tious, were happily quieted, and the
ple peaceably, by a convention, in 1843,
formed a new constitution, reérganized
their government under it, and are now
pursuing their business with their accus-
tomed enterprise and industry.

16. They have a public free school
system, also, in Rhode Island. The per-
sons who conduct it are very active, and
do all that they can to encourage and
assist the children in their learning ;
and they are going on finely. In 1847
was first opened, at Providence, the
Butler Hospital for the Insane. In
1835 died Samuel Slater, who built, in

bake? 15. How had Rhode Island been governed?
What was done in 18417 In 19437 16, Free
school system? Insane Asylum? Samuel Slater?



1790, at Pawtucket, the first cotton-mill
in the United States.

CHAPTER X.
STATE OF CONNECTICUT.

1. Connecticut, with the exception of
Rhode Island, is the smallest of the
New England States; but it has more
inhabitants than any of them, except
‘Massachusetts and Maine. The coun-
try is very hilly, but it abounds in
streams and rivers, and is generally
quite fertile.

2. The people are very industrious.
A great many of them are occupied in
cultivating the land, and they cultivate
it very well. They raise a good many
cattle, horses, hogs, ee and some
grain and kitchen vegetables. A great
many of the people are occupied in man-
ufactories, and a considerable number
are engaged in commerce. Almost
every person in the state is busy about
something.

3. Let us suppose that we begin at
the eastern part of the state, and travel
through it. We will commence our
journey at Norwich. “This town is sit-



Questions on the Map of Connecticut. — Boun-
daries? Describe the Connecticut, Housatonic,
Farmington, Thames. What range-of mountains
in Connecticut? Through what counties do they
run? Describe the following islands: Falkner’s,
Fisher’s, Goose, Thimble. How many counties in
Connecticut? Their names? Capital? In what
county is Hartford? New Haven? Describe the
following towns: Norwich, New London, Wind-
ham, Tolland, Windsor, Wethersfield, Middle-
town, Litchfield, Fairfield, Danbury, Groton,
Brooklyn. Population of Connecticut? Square
miles? Greatest length of Connecticut? Greatest
width? Average length? Average width?

1. What of Connecticut? 2. The people? What
do they raise? What of manufactures? Com-

THE FIRST BOOK OF HISTORY.—CONNECTICUT.

uated on the Thames, and we shall see
quite a number of vessels there, engaged
in carrying on trade with New York
Philadelphia, and Charleston. _ There
are several falls in the river,;:at Nor-
wich, and these afford fine. mill-seats,
where there are some very extensive
cotton manufactories.

4. The country around Norwich was
once occupied by a celebrated tribe’ of
Indians, called Mohicans. These Mo-
hicans were once at war with some other
Indians. One night, several of these
Indians had encamped on the top of
some high rocks.

§. Their enemies discovered their
situation, and secretly encircled them
on all sides but one. On that side was
a steep precipice, at the foot of which
was the river. When the morning
came, the party of Indians first men-
tioned were about.to depart, when they
discovered that they were surrounded
by their foes.

6. They made a short resistance ; but
perceiving that they were outnumbered
by their enemies, they leaped over the
rocks, and were killed by the fall.

7. Having examined Norwich, we
will take a boat, and go down the river
Thames, to: New London. At this
place, we shall seq a steamboat that
goes to New York, did we shall also
observe a good many other vessels.
Among the vessels, we shall see a large
ship fitting out to go to the Pacific ocean,
to catch whales.

8. We shall perhaps see another ves-
sel, that has just come back from a
whaling voyage, after an absence of
three years. If she is not unloaded, we
shall find, on board of her, about two
thousand barrels of sperm-oil, and a

merce? 3, What of Norwich? 4—6, Indians?
7. New London? Steamboat? Whale-ships?

as

i

j



CONNECTICUT.—ANECDOTE— BENEVOLENT INSTITUTIONS,

good deal of whale-bone. The oil is
used for burning in lamps, and the
whale-bone is for umbrella frames; and
many other purposes.

9. Near New London we shall see
two forts; one of them is called Fort
Trumbull, and the other Fort Griswold.
The latter is situated in Groton, just
across the river Thames.

10. I will tell you an odd story of
what happened in Groton, about the
year 1812, There was war, then, be-
tween our country and Great Britain.
There were several British ships in
sight, and it was expected we would
soon make an attack upon the forts. A
company of soldiers from Hartford oc-
cupied a house in Groton, as their bar-

racks,

11; One night, as they we 2 asleep,
there was a sudden cry of alarm among
the soldiers. They seized their arms,
and rushed out of the barracks. The
drums were beat, the sentinel fired his
gun, and all supposed that the British
were now about to make the expected
attack. Some of the men declared they
could see the enemy landing, and others
thought they could hear the roar of can-
non in the distance.

12. The officers assembled, and in-
quired into the matter. They soon dis-
covered that the British had nothing to
do with the alarm. It seems that one
of the soldiers, whose name was Tom
Stire, while he was sleeping with the
rest, fell into a dream. He dreamed
that the British were coming, and in his
sleep he exclaimed, “ Alarm‘ alarm!
the enemy are coming!” ‘This occa-
sioned the whole disturbance. .

13. After we have examined New
London, we will set out and go to Hart-



8. Whalevil? Whale-bone? 9. Forts? 10—12.
What story of the late war? 13. Hartford? Deaf





37

ford. This is a very fine town, situated
on Connecticut river. We must visit
the Deaf and Dumb Asylum, where we
shall see about one hundred and fifty
deaf and dumb pupils, who are taught
to read and write, and who can converse
by signs almost as well as we can |
talking. We shall also see, at Hartford,
a place for persons who are insane, called
the Retreat. Here they are taken care,
of, and many of them are cured. Be-
fore we leave town, we must go to Trin-
ity, formerly called Washington, Col-
lege, which is a fine institution.

14. After leaving Hartford, we will
go to Middletown, which is beautifully
situated on Connecticut river. Here is
the Wesleyan University. On our wa
from Hartford, we shall pass throug
Wethersfield, a pleasant place, where
the people raise many thousand bushels
of onions every year. These onions are
sent to all parts of the country. Some
of them go as far as Charleston, New
Orleans, and the West Indies.

15. After leaving Middletown, we
shall pass through Durham, where the
people make an immense quantity of
shoes. At length we shall arrive at
New Haven, which is one of the hand-
somest cities in New England. Here
we shall find a large basin, where were
formerly seen a great many canal boats,
which went along the Farmington Canal,
with merchandise and produce. The
line of this canal was taken, in 1848, for
a railroad.

16. At New Haven we shall also see
Yale College. This consists of several
brick buildings, in which there are three
or four hundred students. We must go



and Dumb Asylum? Retreat? Washington Col-
lege? 14. Middletown? Wesleyan University ?
Wethersfield? 15. Durham? New Haven?
The Basin? Canal-boats? 16. Yale College?



38 THE FIRST BOOK OF

into one of these buildings and see the
eabinet. This is a collection of beauti-
ful minerals from all parts of the world.



17. It is very interesting to examine
this cabinet, for there are stones there
which have been brought from various
of Europe, Asia, Africa, and Amer-

. There are two stone pillars there,
which came from the famous Giant’s
Causeway, in Ireland.

18. There are also some specimens
of stones which fell from the air, in
Connecticut, about twenty years ago.
These stones formed a part of a vast red
meteor, that flew along in the sky, and
finally exploded with a great noise.
The stones fell in the town of Weston.

19. They have also at this college
some professors who teach young men
how to use science in practice, in man-
ufactures and agriculture. There is a

ublic free school system in this state.
t once owned a great deal of land west
of the Alleghany Mountains, in what is
now the State of Ohio. They sold it,
and took the money, to pay its income
each year for public schools, so that no
individual should have to pay out money

17, Cabinet? 19. Meteoric stones? 19. Public

aAlSTORY.—CONNECTICUT.

for education, but ‘every Connecticut
boy and girl should have the privilege
of going to school: At present they tax
the people a small sum for the schools,
so that they will be more interested in
keeping them good. ‘This is the way
they do in several states.

20. The people of Connecticut are
very busy and ingenious. Many of
them go to the Southern and Western
states, and even as far as Mexico, to sell
the articles that are manufactured in
this state: Mr. Whitney, who invented
the machine called a cotton-gin, for
combing out the seeds from cotton ver
quickly, and so made cotton mab
cheaper and more used, was a native of
this state; and Mr. John Fitch, who,
in October, 1788, made a steamboat,
which he named the Perseverance,
which ran eight miles an hour on the
Delaware river.

21. He prophesied, in a letter to Mr.
Rittenhouse, in 1793, that it would be
of immense advantage to the western
lands; and that in time it would be the
mode of crossing the Atlantic ocean,
“whether,” said he, “I shall bring it to
perfection or not.” He was called crazy
to think of such a thing. But Robert
Fulton, of New York, first successfully
brought steamboats into use, and they
have altered the face of the great and
rich West, as the states beyond the Al-
leghanies are called; and brought Eu-
rope within a fortnight’s pleasant sail of
the United States.

22. In Connecticut, too, was born
Mr. Blanchard, who invented a machine
for turning out crooked gun-stocks, and
lasts to make shoes upon, and even
copies of human busts, from marble, —
features, ears, nose, and all.



schools? 20—22, The people? Three great im
ventions? 23. Travel? Silk?



CONNECTICUT.—-A HERMITESS—STORY OF THE CHARTER.

93. The thrifty States of Connecti-
cut and Rhode Island are becoming
great thoroughfares between their ad-
joining sister states, and are profiting by
their prosperity. Connecticut has’ for
years made nearly one hundred thou-
sand dollars’ worth of silk annually, and
Massachusetts, Ohio, Tennessee, and
several other states, are establishing the
culture, and also the manufacture, and
are encouraging it by legislative boun-
ties.

——

CHAPTER XI.
CONNECTIC U T—Continvugp.

1. On the western border of Con-
necticut is a range of low mountains,
forming in some places the boundary
between that state and New York.
About thirty years ago, there was a
woman in these mountains who lived
alone ina cave. She had no bed but
the rock, and no furniture but a Bible.
Here she had dwelt, summer and winter,
for thirty years.

2, She had no light at night, and she
had never any fire. In summer she oc-
casionally wandered to the neighboring
villages, and begged a little milk, or

other food. But she lived chiefly upon ||

roots and nuts. The wild animals were
so accustomed to see her, that they were
not afraid of her. The foxes would
come close to her,.and the birds would
alight on her head. She died about the
year 1810.

3. The name of this singular woman
was Sarah Bishop. She lived on Long
Island at the time of the Revolutionary
War. Her father’s house was burnt by
the British, and she was cruelly treated

rT

1. Mountains in the west of Connecticut? 2, 3.
What of Sarah Bishop? 4, Tree at Hartford?









by a British officer. She then left so-
ciety, and wandered to the mountains.
There she found a cave, at a distance
from any house; and there she resided,
till about the time of her death.

4, At Hartford there is a celebrated
tree, called the Charter Oak. There is
a story of that tree, which I will tell
you. About one hundred and fifty years




Charter Oak, at Hartford.

ago, the King of England sent Sir Ed-
mund Andros to take away the charters
of the American colonies,, These char-
ters were papers, signed by the king,
granting the colonies certain privileges ;
and the people of the colonies did not
wish to give them up. .

5. Well, Sir Edmund Andros came
‘to Hartford to get the charter of Con-
necticut. Some of the people being
assembled at evening, the chartet was
brought in. Sir Edmund was present,
and was about to take the charter away,
when the lights were all suddenly blown
out, and the people were left in the dark.

6. By and by, the candles were light-
ed again ; but the charter was gone, and
it could not be found. Sir Edmund was



a ee
What were the charters which Sir Edmund
Andros came to get? Describe the picture. 6, 6.
Story of Sir Edmund Andros and the charter’



40

therefore obliged to go away without it.
After a long time, the charter was found
in a hollow place, in this old oak tree,
standing in the southern part of the wr
It was hid there by Captain Wadsworth,
who took it, and carried it off, when the

_ lights were blown out.

7. The first house built in Connecti-
cut, by the white men, was erected at
Windsor, in 1633, by some people from
Massachusetts. ‘Two years after, about
sixty persons came from Massachusetts,
and settled at Windsor, Hartford, and
Wethersfield. They went across the
wilderness, instead of going round by
water, as the first settlers had done.

8. The next year some more persons
removed from Massachusetts. They,
too, went by land through the woods.
There were then, of course, no roads;
the whole space was an unbroken forest.
They had nothing to guide them but a

cket compass, which they carried.
They had a number of cows with them,
which they drove through the woods;
they subsisted principally on their milk,
during their long oad difficult journey.

9. Stages can go from Hartford to
Boston in a day, and the rail-cars in
less time. These people were several
weeks, then, in going over the same
country.

10. [ will tell you a story of what
happened at Wethersfield a few years
after that place was settled. A very re-
spectable man lived there, whose name
was Chester. One day he went into
the woods to see about his cattle.

1]. By and by, he set out to return,
but he soon discovered that he had lost
his way. He wandered about for a
great while, hoping every moment to

7. What of the first. house in Connecticut?
Other settlers? 8. What of their journey? 9.
Compare the travelling facilities then and now.



THE FIRST BOOK OF HISTORY.—CONNECTICUT.

get out of the woods; but the further
he went, the thicker were the trees, and
the deeper was the forest.

12. He now grew very anxious, for
the night was approaching. He hal-
looed and shouted for help, but no one
came. At length it was night, and the
forest all around was covered with dark-
ness. The wanderer listened, but he
could hear no human voice; he could
hear only the howling of wild beasts.

13. He climbed a tree, and there he
remained, in great anxiety, till morning.
Worn out with watching and fatigue,
and faint for want of food, Mr. Chester
still made exertions to escape. He as-
cended to the top of a hill, and there
he obtained a sight of the country all
around.

14. But it was one boundless forest
on all sides. He was now in the great-
est distress. The weather was cloudy ;
he could not see the sun, so as to direct
his course, and he had no hope but to
lie down and perish in the wilderness.

15. But at this moment his ear caught
a distant sound. He listened attentive-
ly; it was the beat of a drum. He
heard a shout anda call. He answered,
and soon he was in the arms of his
friends, who had come in search of him.
The people of Wethersfield had felt
great anxiety for his absence, and imag-
ining that he was lost in the woods, the
men had set out in various directions to
look for him.

16. By this means he was discov-
ered and taken back to his family. His
grave-stone is still to be seen in the
burying-ground at Wethersfield. The
bed where he was lost is called Mount

amentation. You will pass it on the
road from Hartford to New Haven.

17. If we know how other people

10—16. Story of Mr. Chester? 17—28. Men



CONNECTICUT. — ASTONISHING

work and succeed, we shall be both able
and willing to be industrious ourselves,
It will be curious, as well as instructive,
to look over Connecticut, and see how
the New England people make a living
—how busy they are. We Americans
are busy and enterprising, not only in
Connecticut, but elsewhere.

18. At the north-western part of the
state, we find many furnaces smelting
down iron ore of the best quality, from
their own mines. There is a shop man-
ufacturing some of the best and most
delicate cutlery; and another making
huge anchors and chain cables for our
vessels, from iron wrought at their own
furnace. Next, on the outlet of a pond,
we find a village of fifteen hundred peo-
ple, whose business is scythe-making.
Another town is famous for its brass
kettles, an article made nowhere else in
the whole nation. Hard by are two
towns, made populous on the rugged
hill-sides, and rich, by the manufacture
of brass clocks.

19. Coming eastward into Hartford
County, we find a gang of hands digging
copper ore. Then we will visit Collins-
ville, where is the largest manufactory
of axes in the world, turning out more
than eight hundred axes inaday. Fol-
lowing the Farmington river in the gorge
where it breaks through the Talcot Moun-
tains to join the Connecticut, are fifteen
hundred Scotchmen making carpets; and
another part of this establishment is ten
or fifteen miles north-east.

20. Passing by a community of Shak-
ing Quakers, as they are called, who
supply the garden seeds, and brooms,
made of the broom corn, so largely

lanted on Connecticut river ; at by
azard’s powder mills,— you enter a



tion some of the occupations? Are there many
different ones? 18. Iron works? 19. Carpets?

DIVERSITY OF EMPLOYMENTS. 4l

growing town, where are made paper,
cloth of different kinds, iron ware;
card-teeth enough to straighten all the
fibre that ever grew on a sheep's back,
or on a cotton plantation.

21. On the other side of Hartford, we ©
find a town of three thousand inhabit-
ants, manufacturing various sorts of brass
ware, to mention which kinds would be
to write half the names of all the articles
in a hardwareshop. Hooks and eyes
must be particularized, enough to hook
all the ladies’ dresses in the land.

22. In Tolland we find cotton and
woollen goods. Here, at the outlet of
a beautiful lake, whose waters, like
almost all others in this country, are
made useful, they weave satinets and
cassimeres. Then comes Mantua, with
four or five silk factories, whence a great
part of our tailors obtain their sewing-
silk and twist. Here the screw auger
was invented. In the eastern part of
Windham County, in the valley of a
single stream, in the space of twenty
miles, are twelve cotton factory villages.

23. In New London County is man-
ufactured India rubber, in a variety of
forms; a wholly new thing in the his-
tory of manufactures. In Norwich, wool-
len and cotton mills abound. Here, in one
mill, more than two hundred and sixty
thousand dollars’ worth of* paper, for
books and for writing letters upon, has
been made ina year. New London and
Stonington, as I said before, are _grow-
ing rich out of the whale fishery. Lyme,
at the mouth of the Connecticut, fur-
nishes captains for vessels, and seamen
to assist in navigating them.

24. Sailing up that river, which in
spring is filled almost with seines to
catch shad, you pass a quarry of free-
stone. Then you see a shop, a branch



20, Brooms? Card-teeth? 21. Brass ware, &.?



-

42

of a large establishment at Meriden, for |
manufacturing a Here you find

ivory combs, piano-forte keys, umbrella

tops, and all kinds of ornamental work,

made from elephants’ tusks. And there

is an establishment of forty hands for

a inkstands.

25. Next we should find a shop turn-
ing out axe-handles; next, a screw fac-
tory. Then we pass, on the banks of
the river, a quarry of gneiss, a striped
rock, like granite, splitting about as read-
ily as chestnut timber; and whence are
sent vast quantities of stone to various
parts of the Union and the West Indies.
And then another quarry of red sand-
stone, employing three hundred men.

26. There is a whole town made rich
by the manufacture of all kinds of bells ;
such. as sleigh, house, clock, and cow
bells. Fairhaven furnishes much of
New England, and some portions of
New York, with oysters. Waterbury,
with almost four thousand inhabitants,
makes buttons, brass wire, and pins by
the ton. A part of the pin establishment
is at Poughkeepsie, New York. Derby
Village, too, has a pin manufactory.

27. Then come Birmingham and An-
sonia, making cutlery and hardware.
Just above them is a large establish-
ment making chisels, augers, and the
like. Passing westward into Fairfield
County, we shall make acquaintance
with the hatters in abundance; here it
is that superb hats are made.

28. If you follow all these out on the
map, and remember them, you will know
the actual present history of manufac-
tures in this state. And you will know
how many ways of industry there are in
the United States, of which these are
specimens. My young friends, no one
need or ought to be idle.

23. Paper, &c.? 24, Shad? Ivory? 25. Gneiss,
&.? 26. Oysters? Pins, &c.? 27. Hats, &.?

THE FIRST BOOK OF HISTORY.—-NEW ENGLAND.

CHAPTER XII.
NEW ENGLAND.

1. Thave now given you some accowht
of the six states which bear the géiieral
title of New England. In travelling

through this portion of our country, you <

will observe that it is generally hilly,
and is crossed by a range of mountains,
extending from the north-eastern part
of Maine to the south-western part of
Connecticut.

2. The climate is not extremely hot,
nor extremely cold. Snow begins to fall
about the first of December. Spring re-
turns in April. There is usually sleigh-
ing in all parts of it, for a few weeks
during the winter. In summer the
weather is delightful. There is plenty
of strawberries, cherries, currants, and
other berries, and in the autumn there
are apples, pears, peaches, walnuts and
chestnuts, and melons in abundance.

3. The largest river is the Connecti-
cut. It is a beautiful stream, and wa-
ters four of the New England States.
There is not a river on the globe whose
banks afford more charming scenery
than this. I have seen the Thames in
England, the Rhone in France, and the

Questions on the Map of New England. -
Boundaries? Boundaries of each of the six New
England States? Which is the largest river?
What five principal rivers in New England?
Which way do they all run? What range of
mountains in New England? Extent and direc-
tion of this range? Distance and direction of the
following towns from Boston: Augusta, Concord,
Montpelier, Providence, Hartford, New Haven?
Extent of New England? Population? Greatest
length of New England? Greatest width? Aver-
age length? Average width ?

1, How many states in New England? Theit
names? Face of the country? Mountains? 2.
Climate? Fruits? 3. Connecticut river? 4

*



9

’
NEW ENGLAND.—ITS GREAT RIVER-——-POPULATION, ETC. 43

Rhine in Germany; and they are all
less pleasing to my eye than this.

4, You esta see this river in June.
The meadows and mountains along its
borders are then in their glory. If you
are there in May, you will see the fish-
ermen, with their long nets, catching
shad, for which this river is famous.
In former times, there were a great
many salmon in this river ; but for some
reason or other they have entirely de-
serted it. I suppose they went away on
account of the locks and canals that have
been built upon it. Quonnektacut meant
in Indian, long river of pines.

5. Not many years since, salmon were
often to be taken as far up as Vermont.
They even used to ascend the little
streams that come down from the moun-
tains, and were often caught in them.
An old gentleman told me, that, about
thirty-five years ago, he was. travelling
at night, on horseback, among the moun-
tains in that state. As his horse was
going through a small stream, that ran
across the road, he heard a great pound-
ing and plashing in the water. He went
to the spot, and there he found a salmon
that weighed nine pounds, which had
got into a shallow place, and could not
get out. He easily caught it with his
hands, and then carried it home.

6. In travelling through New Eng-
land, you will observe a great many
school-houses, by which you may know
that the children are well educated ; and
you will see a great many churches and
meeting-houses, by which you will un-
derstand that the people are attentive to
religion.

7. There are still a good many for-
ests and much unoccupied land in New
England. Buta great part of its sur-

Shad? Salmon? 5. Story of a salmon? 6.
School-houses? Churches? 7. Forests? Towns

face is under cultivation. There are
more than one thousand towns and yj
lages scattered over its hills, valleys, an
plains, and there were, in 1840, about
two and a quarter million inhabitants
within its borders; which gives three
million for 1850. The pecple are gen-
erally industrious, in agriculture, com-
merce, and manufactures,

8. From Yengeese, the pronunciation
of the word English, by the Lenni Len-
nape Indians, came the word Yankees ;
which is applied in this country more
particularly to the New Englanders. In
the south we apply it to all people of the
northern states; and in Europe, they
apply it to all the people of the Union.
no matter which part they inhabit. It
will outlive every other title.

9. In 1847 there were two thousand
four hundred and twenty miles of rail-
roads finished in the New England
States. In Maine, three hundred; New
Hampshire, four hundred and seventy-
five ; Vermont, three hundred and seven-
ty; Massachusetts, nine hundred; Con-
necticut, three hundred; and in Rhode
Island, seventy-five. These have cost
over fifty millions of dollars ; and several
hundred miles more were then projected.

10. There were in 1848 eight differ-
ent lines of railroad and steamboat travel

| from Boston to New York city, varying
.in distance from two hundred and seven
to two hundred and forty miles, and tak-
ing from ten to fifteen hours. Nor is it
only in enterprise and making money
that the New Englanders and New
Yorkers, and other Americans, are suc-
cessful. They are provident, and save
it for their children and families. There

and villages? Number of inhabitants? How are
they occupied? 8. Origin of the word Yankees ?
Application? 9. Miles of railroads in New Eng-
land States in 18477 10. Routes to New York?



44

are savings banks, into which they put
me of their earnings, to be kept for
them. That is, they give it to a com-
pany of persons, who will take care of
it, and use it for them to make more, and
give it to the owners when they call, or
send awritten order, called a check, for it.

11. There is also Life Assurance, or
Insurance. Many who are earning
money, take every year during their
lives, a little of it, shat they can very
well spare, and give it to a company,
who will carefully use it, and when the
owners die, will pay a certain large sum
agreed upon, to their wives, or children,
or friends, to support and comfort them.

12. Then there is Health Insurance ;
where others pay a small sum—say
from four to twenty dollars a year — to
a company, and the company agree,
whenever these persons are sick, or
hurt by accidents, so that they cannot
work to earn money to support them-
selves and families, that they will pay
them a certain sum of money every
week they are sick,—from three to
twelve dollars. This was first com-
menced in 1846.

13. You see it is the history of an
excellent thing. It takes care of prop-
erty, after it is earned, and avoids a
great deal of unhappiness, and misery,
as well as makes one feel safer, more
contented, and happier. You know that
persons have for a long time insured, as
they call it, their houses, and goods, and
ships; that is, paid a company a small
sum, to agree to pay them back a large
one, the value of their houses, or goods,
or ships, if they are destroyed by fire, or
by the dangers of the sea. This is called
Fire and Marine Insurance.

14. Such is New England now; but

Savings Banks ? 11. Life Assurance? 12, Health
Insurance? 13. Fire and Marine Insurance? 14.

e

THE FIRST BOOK OF HISTORY.—NEW ENGLAND.

what was it a little more than two hun-
dred years ago? A mere wilderness,
inhabited by bears, wolves, and other
wild beasts, and by scattered tribes of
Indians, who lived in wigwams, hunted
with bows and arrows for subsistence,
and were constantly slaying each other
in battle.

15. What a great change has taken
place in a short space of time! Yet
many interesting things have happened
within these two hundred years. It is
pleasant to go back, and trace the his-
tory of former times. There i$ no part
of our country, — not a town or village,
—that has not some interesting story
connected with it.

16. I shall endeavor to collect the
most onating and instructive portions
of New England history, and tell what
I have to say in such a manner as to
please you. You are now acquainted
with the geography of this section of
the country ; T shall therefore take you
back at once té the period when our fore-
fathers first landed upon these shores.



CHAPTER XIII.
NEW ENGLAND —Continvzp:

1. A little more than two hundred
years ago, there were in England a
reat many people called Puritans.
hey were not happy in England, for
they had peculiar opinions about reli-
gion. They were cruelly treated, and
some of them at length fled from the
country. They went first to Holland,
but finally they concluded to wander to
America; whence they are called Pil-
grims. *

What of New England two hundred years ago?
15. What of it now?

1. What of the Puritans ? 2, How did they come.



NEW ENGLAND.—FIRST SETTLERS AND ABORIGINES.

2. They set out in two vessels, but
one of them was leaky, and went back.
They all entered the other ship, and
after a long and stormy passage, they
reached a broad harbor. They then
sent some people ashore, to examine
the country. These found some Indian
corn in baskets, buried in the sand.
They also discovered Indian burial-
places, surrounded by sticks stuck in
the ground.

3. One night the exploring party built
a fire in the woods, and slept by the side
of it. In the morning, some arrows,
pointed with eagles’ claws, and sharp

ieces of deer’s horns, fell among them.
These were sent by some Indians who
came to attack them. The white men
fired their guns at them, and the Indians
ran off in great alarm. At this time the
savages had no guns, and they imagined
that the fire of the musket was lightning,
and the report thunder. No wonder
they were afraid of people who, as they
believed, made use of thunder and light-
ning.

4. Having examined the shores, the
emigrants pitched upon a place where
they concluded to settle. December 22,
1620, they landed on a Rock there, and
called the place Plymouth. It was win-
ter when they arrived, and the country
had a most dreary aspect. There were
no houses to receive them, there were
no friends to welcome them; there was
nothing before them buta gloomy forest,
inhabited by savages and wild beasts.
There was nothing behind them but the
vast ocean, rolling between them and
their native land. This little colony

to America? What did they do after their arrival ?
Indian corn? Indian burial-place? 3. Story of
Indians who attacked an exploring party? 4.
When did the emigrants land? Name of their
settlement? What of the season? Situation of
the pilgrims? Number of the colonists? What

45

consisted of one hundred and one per-
sons. They were divided into nineteen
families, and each family Built itself a
log house.

5. For some time the settlers were
not visited by any of the Indians. They
saw a few soon after their landing, but
these ran away as if they were very much
frightened. One day, however, an In-
dian came among-them, saying, in Eng-
lish, “ Welcome, Englishmen! Wel-
come, Englishmen!”

6. This surprised the white people
very much. The Indian told them that
his name was Samoset, and that he had
learnt to speak English of the fishermen
he had seen upon the coast.

7. After some time, an Indian chief,
called Massasoit, came near to the set-
tlement, with some of his men. He was
a sort of king, and ruled over several
tribes. He was at first afraid to go
down into the village, but by and by he
went down, and the people saluted him
with a drum and fife, which he liked
very much.



8, Then he went into the governor's
house, where he ate a very hearty din-
ner, and drank a prodigious draught of



did they do? 5. Indians? 6, Samoset? 7,8. What
of Massasoit? Describe the picture, 9, 10. Story



46

rum. He then made a treaty with the
white people, and agreed to be at peace
with them. * This treaty he and his de-
scendants kept faithfully for fifty years.

9. I will now tell you of two white
men that got lost in the woods. It was
winter, and it was snowing very fast.
The snow had covered up the path, and
they could not find their way back to
the village. At length night came on,
and as it grew dark they heard a dread-
ful howling near them.

10. They were very much alarmed,
for they did not know what wild beasts
might be in the woods. All night a
continued in the storm, shivering wit
cold, and frightened at the wild sounds
they heard. At length the morning
came, and they reached the settlement.
I suppose the noise they heard was the
beanie of wolves.

11. The settlers found their situation
extremely uncomfortable. The winter
was very severe, their houses were mis-
erable, and they were destitute of all
those conveniences which they had been
. accustomed toenjoy in England. Borne
down with suffering, many of them were
taken sick, and when the spring arrived,
half of their number were dead.

12. Notwithstanding these discour-
aging circumstances, other persons came
out from England and joined the set-
tlers, so that, in ten years after, the
whole number amounted to three hun-
dred. In the year 1630 more than fif-
teen hundred persons came from Eng-
land, and settled at Boston, Dorchester,
Salem, and other places in the vicinity.

13. These people were nearly all
Puritans, but many of them possessed
wealth, and had been brought up in

of two men that got lost? 11. Sufferings of the
colonists? 12. Other settlers? What happened in
1630? 13, 14. What of these fifteen hundred set-

THE FIRST BOOK OF HISTORY.—NEW ENGLAND.

a very delicate manner. Their sole
object in coming to America was to
enjoy their religious opinions without
restraint. But they had not foreseen
the sufferings that were before them.

14, The winter set in with unusual
severity. The snow fell to a great
depth, and the cold became intense.
Assembled in log houses, which afford-
ed but a poor shelter from the driving
blasts, the emigrants had to endure
hunger as well as cold. Their stock
of — became nearly exhausted,
and many of them were compelled to
subsist on clams, muscles, nuts, and
acorns.

15. Unable to sustain these privations,
many of them died. Among these was
one woman whose fate has always ex-
cited peculiar sympathy. This was La-
dy Arabella Johnson. Her father was
a rich man in England, and she had
been brought up in the enjoyment of
every luxury.

16. But in America she was deprived
of the common comforts of life. Her
delicate frame could not endure these
trials. Although her husband came
with her, and every care and kindness
were bestowed upon her, yet in about a
month after her arrival, she died.

17. Such were the sufferings that
attended the first settlers in New Eng-
land. Yet these were sustained with
the utmost fortitude. Those who died
left a state of sorrow, in the conscious-
ness of having done their duty, and the
strong hope of entering a state of peace
beyond the grave. Those who lived
prayed to Heaven for strength to sup-
port them in their troubles, and their
pager seemed to be answered.

Thus prepared for life or death,

tlers? 15,16. Lady Arabella Johnson? 17. Pious
fortitude? 18, Conduct of the settlers 7



NEW ENGLAND.—ITS ANNALS—DISPUTES—PEQUOT WAR.

they continued to struggle with their
misfortunes, with a degree of firmness
which we cannot fail to admire.

———

CHAPTER XIV.
NEW ENGLAND—Continvep.

1. I have now told you something
about the two colonies of Plymouth and
Massachusetts. The settlement at Ply-
mouth was the first permanent English
settlement in New England. The col-
ony of Massachusetts, i. e., “ blue hills,”
was so named from a native Indian tribe.
This colony increased much more rap-
idly than Plymouth.

3. Such favorable accounts were giv-
en of it in England, that many persons
of distinction came from that country,
and settled in Boston and other parts of
the colony. Among these was Sir Hen-

Vane. He was but twenty-five years
old when he arrived, but he was so grave
that he won the hearts of the people, and
they made him. governor.

3. You will recollect it was in the
year 1633 that the first settlement was
made in Connecticut. In 1636 Roger
Williams was banished, and settled in
Rhode Island. New Hampshire was
first settled in 1623, and Maine in the
same year. In 1638 a settlement was
made at New Haven, which was after-
wards called the colony of New Haven.
Vermont was not settled till 1724.

4. About the year 1635, a woman,
whose name was Ann Hutchinson, be-
gan to preach strange doctrines in Mas-
sachusetts, She hada pleasing address,



1. What colony was first settled in New Eng-
land? Colony of Massachusetts? 2, Sir Henry
Vane? 3. When was the first settlement made

mont? 4, Ann Hutchinson? 6. Sir Henry Vane?

47

and fluent speech; and she persuaded
many persons to believe as she did.
—a these was Sir Henry Vane.

5. By and by, some of the principal
people assembled to consider the,sub-
ject. They talked a great deal about it,
and some of them became very angry.
At length Ann Hutchinson’s doctrines
were condemned by a majority, and she
was banished from the colony. Sir
Henry Vane was very much displeased
at this; so he went back to England,
and after several years he was executed,
by having his head cut off, for republi-
canism, on a charge of high treason.

6. For a long time, the Indians did
not molest the inhabitants of Massa-
chusetts and Plymouth colonies. The
treaty made with Massasoit, as before
stated, was faithfully observed by them :
but the Pequots, who lived in Connecti-
cut, troubled the re there very much.
In 1637, they killed three men at Say-
brook, and at Wethersfield they killed
six men, three women, and twenty cows.

7. These things caused great alarm.
Consequently, some of the people met
at Hartford to consider what should be
done It was determined to send a body
of men against them. About ninety
white men and seventy friendly Indians
were soon assembled. They were all

laced under the command of Captain
ason.

8. They entered some boats at Hart-
ford, and went down Connecticut river
to Saybrook. Here they resolved to
make a sudden attack upon Mystic, an
Indian fort, situated where Stonington
now stands. This was one of the prin-
cipal places belonging to the Indians.

9. They reached the spot about day-



6. Indians of Massachusetts? 1 What
did the Pequots do in f6377 7. did the
colonists do? Captain Mason? 8, Fort Mystic?



48

break. The Pequots had no suspicion
that an enemy was near. But by and
by, a dog barked, and then one of the
Indians, who saw the white men, gave
the alarm. At this instant, the soldiers
fired upon the Indians. Many of the
_savages were killed; but very soon the
rest recovered from their astonishment,
and then they fought bravely.

10. They shot their arrows and guns
at the white men, and hurled stones and
sticks at them with the greatest fury.
The Indians were far more numerous
than the white men, and the latter were
at length nearly exhausted. At this
moment, Captain Mason ordered their
fort to be set on fire. The flames caught
quickly, and spreading from wigwam to
wigwam, soon set them all in a blaze.

11. It was an awful scene, and the
struggle was soon terminated. Seventy
wigwams were reduced to ashes, and
six or seven hundred Indians were killed
either by the bullets or the fire.

12. This dreadful event alarmed the
Pequots, and they fled, with their chief,
Sassacus, to the west. They were fol-
lowed by the white men, who overtook
them in a swamp, near Fairfield. Here
a battle was fought, and the Indians
were entirely defeated. This was fol-
lowed by a treaty with the remaining

_Indians, and the Pequots gave the colo-
nies no more trouble.

13. In 1643, the four colonies of Ply-
mouth, Massachusetts, Connecticut, and
New Haven, entered into an agreement
for the purposes of mutual defence.
They were led to do this by fear of the

9—11. Describe the taking of the fort. 12. What
did the Pequots do after the battle? What did the
white people do? What effect had the second
defeat upon the Pequots? 13, What was done in
16437 Why was this agreement made between
the New England colonies ?

yy
THE FIRST BOOK OF HISTORY.—NEW ENGLAND. |

Indians, who were now very unfriendly,
and who watched every opportunity to
do the white people mischief.

CHAPTER XV.
NEW ENGLAND—Continvep.

1. We now approach a period of great
interest in the history of New England.
The Indians perceived that the English
were rapidly increasing in numbers,
while they Lanneiees were as fast di-
minishing. They foresaw that, in a
short time, the English colonies would
overspread the whole land, while they
should themselves be driven back into
the wilderness.

2. This excited their jealousy, and
led them cordially to hate the English.
Beside this, quarrels occasionally rose
between the white inhabitants and the
ergo: Whether these originated with
the English or the Indians, the latter
were always sure to be thought in the
wrong, and were punished by the white
people accordingly.

3. In short, the Indians had discov-
ered that the English, being wiser and
more artful than they, were. likely soon
to become their masters ; and the hatred
thus excited was aggravated by acts of
injustice and oppression, committed on
the part of the Boglish toward the sav-

es.

“T There lived, about this time, in
Rhode Island, an Indian, who was called
Philip by the English. He was chief
of the Wengshnae, and lived at Mount
Hope, near Bristol. The country was
then called Pokanoket.

cuittteapsiaiecuisssinnaapetiennamaciaininineialiaieai

1, What of the Indians? 2. Quarrels? 3,
What had the Indians discovered? What in-
creased the hatred of the Indians? 4, Who was
Philip? 5. What did Philip perceive? What did



NEW ENGLAND.—KING PHILIP’S WAR.

5. Philip, being a man of gteat sagac-
ity, saw that, unless the English colonies
were checked, the Indians would, in the
course of a few years, cease to exist as
independent tribes. After reflecting up-
on these things, he resolved to make one
great effort to drive the English from
the land, and free his country from such
dangerous intruders.

6. Accordingly, he visited, in secret,
‘several of the tribes in New England.
He conversed with the chiefs, and told
them that if they remained inactive, in
a few years the beautiful rivers, and
hills, and forests, which had descended
from their fathers, would cease to be
their inheritance. He described the

English as crafty, long-sighted, and
greedy, who added township to town-
ship, and colony to colony, and who
would never be content until they pos-
sessed every foot of land west of the
Hudson.

~ Philip addressing the Indian Chiefs.
7. He prophesied the gradual de-
crease, and the final extinction, of all
those tribes who once reigned over the

whole land. He told them that their
forests would be cut down, that their

cece deacarectringtgeetemnenereteeniaeiatntaian atta
he resolve upon? 6,7; What did he tell the chiefs ?
Describe the picture, re did Philip propose



hunting-grounds would be soon taken
from them, that their warriors would be
slain, their children wander forth in pov-
erty, their chiefs be beggars, and their
tribes be scattered and lost like the au-
tumn leaves. ‘

8. To remedy these evils, Philip pro-
posed that a mighty effort should be
made, by all the tribes in New England,
to destroy the English. He had little
difficulty in bringing the chiefs into his
schemes. A general effort was agreed
upon, and soon the war began.

9. In June, 1675, as the people of
Swanzey, in Plymouth Colony, were
returning home from church, a sudden
attack was made by some Indians upon
them. At this period the Indians were

| supplied with muskets, powder, and ball,

and they had learnt to use fire-arms with
considerable skill.

10. In afew moments, therefore, eight
or nine of the inhabitants of Swanzey
were killed. The country was imme-
diately alarmed, and the people flew to
the succor of the village Pom all quar-
ters. An attack was made upon the In-
dians the next morning, and several of
them were killed.

11. This resolute conduct awed the
Indians; and Philip himself, expecting
an attack, fled from Mount Hope, with
his warriors. It was soon ascertained
that they had gone to a swamp in Pocas-
set, now Tiverton. The white people
followed them thither, and entering the
swamp, pursued them till night. They
were then obliged to retreat.

12. The English, finding it impossible
to encounter the enemy in the swamp,



to the Indian chiefs that they should do? 9. What
occurred in June, 16757 10. What followed the
attack upon the people of Swanzey? 11. What
did Philip and his warriors do? 12, What did
the white people do? What of Philip?



50

determined to surround it, and starve
them out. But Philip guessed their
design, and privately stole away with
his men.

CHAPTER XVI.
NEW ENGLAND—Continvep.

1. I can hardly tell you all that hap-
pee during the bloody war that fol-
owed. In all parts of New England,
the Indians seemed to be moved by a
spirit of deadly revenge. They set the
town of Springfield on fire, and no less
than thirty houses were consumed.

2. About eighty young men were at-
tacked at Muddy ow | as they were
employed in transporting some grain
from Deerfield to Hadley. They had
no idea that an enemy was at hand.
They had stopped a moment with their
teams, and were gathering some grapes
by the road-side.

3. Sudden as the thunderbolt, the sav-
age yell broke upon their ears. They
were immediately surrounded by the
Indians ; and having no arms, they were
incapable of defence. Seventy of them
were shot down, and these were all
buried in one grave.

4. In New Hampshire and Maine,
the Indians fell upon the towns, set the
houses on fire, and killed the inhabit-
ants. At Saco, Dover, Exeter, and oth-
er places, they committed the most dread-
ful outrages. t

5. In Massachusetts, they attacked
Quaboag, now Brookfield, and burnt all
the houses except one, in which the in-
habitants had taken refuge. This they
also assailed; and for two days, inces-

1, What of .ne Indians? Springfield? 2. What
a. Muddy Brook? 4, What took place

in New Hampshire and Maine? 5, 6,7. What at
Brookfield? Describe the attack of the Indians

THE FIRST BOOK OF HISTORY.—-NEW ENGLAND.

santly, they poured their musket-shot
upon it. A great multitude of balls

sed through the sides of the house,
ut only one person in it was killed.



6. Finding it impossible to destroy
the people in this way, they attempted
to set fire to the house. With long
poles, they thrust against it fire-brands,
and rags dipped in brimstone. They
shot arrows of fire upon it, and finally
they loaded a cart with flax and tow,
set it on fire, and pushed it against the
house.

7. The curling flame was soon com-
municated to the building; and now,
feeling certain of their prey, the savages
took their station so that they might cut
down those who should attempt to es-
cape. But in this moment of peril, the
white men were saved, as if by the hand
of Heaven. A sudden shower fell upon
the flames, and at once extinguished
them.

8. Soon after, Major Willard, with
some soldiers, came to their relief. He
attacked the Indians, killed a number
of them, and the rest fled away.

9. At length it was thought necessary

ona house at Brookfield, Describe the :
8. Relief? 9. What of the Narragansetts? 10



NEW ENGLAND.—KING PHILIP’S WAR.

to humble the Narragansetts. The

were a powerful tribe in Rhode Island,
and occupied a fort of great strength.
Near two thousand white men went
against them. The fort was built on
a hill in the centre of a swamp, and in
it there were four thousand Indian war-
riors.

10. There was but one entrance to
the fort. This was accidentally discov-
ered by the white men, and they gal-
lantly rushed in to attack the enemy.
But the Indians met them, and many
of the English were killed.: They were
at length obliged to retreat; but by and
by, some Connecticut troops entered the
fort on the opposite side, and at the same
moment the attack was vigorously re-
newed at the entrance. -

11. The Indians were now cut down
with dreadful slaughter. The fort was
taken, and six hundred wigwams were
set on fire, and burnt to the ground.
More than one thousand of the Indian
warriors were killed, and three hundred
were taken prisoners.

12. Such were some of the events of
this remarkable war. For near two

ears, almost every part of New Eng-
and was a scene of bloodshed. But
although the Indians killed great num-
bers of white people, yet their own loss
was far greater. In truth, they never
recovered from the many reverses they
experienced.

18. Although there were, perhaps, ten
times as many of them as of the white
people, yet such was the superior skill
and management of the latter, that the
Indians were bern defeated, and

their power in New England finally
overthrown: ~

ara
Describe thi idttack upon them. 11, The result ?
12, What did New present for near two
years? 13, What was the result of this war to

‘well excite our pity.

51

14. At length the war was closed by
the death of Philip. He was found in
a swamp near Mount Hope, with several
other Indians. Captain Church, with a
few white men, surrounded the swamp
at night.

15. When the morning came, Philip,
perceiving that he could not escape,
rushed towards the spot where some of
the white men lay. An English soldier
levelled his gun, but it missed fire. An
Indian, who was of the party, took delib-
erate aim, and shot the chief. through

the heart. Thus fell the most celebrat- -

ed of all the Indian chiefs. From this
time, the Indians, finding further resist-
ance vain, began to submit to the Eng-
lish. The struggle was continued a
while in Maine, but that soon ended,
and no general effort was ever after
made, on the part of the Indians, to
subdue the English.

16. This war, the story of which I
have just related, lasted from the year
1675 till 1678. About six hundred
white men were killed in the struggle,
thirteen towns were destroyed, and six
hundred dwelling-houses burnt. These
were dreadful losses to the poor colo-
nists, but the unhappy Indians suffered
still more.

17. Their chiefs and their printipal
men were nearly all killed. Their wig-
wams were burnt ; they were driven from
their homes; and now, defeated and sub-
dued, their situation was one which may
Savage life, in'its
happiest state, is a miserable condition ;



the Indians ? 14. What event terminated the war?
15. Describe Philip's death. What of the Indians
after this? 16. How long did Philip’s war last?
What losses were suffered by the colonists in this
war? 17, How did the Indians suffer byit? 18
What of the Indians from that time? What of
them now?



but the New England Indians had now
lost their independence, and all that sav-
ages hold most dear.

18. From that period they rapidly di-
minished; most of the tribes are now
extinct, and a few hundreds are all that
remain of a migh‘y people, that once
threatened to drive our forefathers from
this land.

CHAPTER XVII.
NEW ENGLAND—Conrinvep.

1, Soon after Philip’s war, the colo-
nies began to be involved in difficulty
with England. The king of England
claimed these colonies as his own, and
he, with the parliament, made certain
laws respecting trade and commerce
with America.

2. Now it was pretended that the
colonies had violated these laws, and
therefore the king determined to take
away their charters. These charters
were of great importance, for they gave
the colonies many privileges. The
king who reigned in England at the
time was James II. He sent Sir Ed-
mund Andros over to this country, to
take away the charters of all the ‘New
England colonies, except Plymouth.

3. He also — Sir Edmund
governor over all the colonies whose
charters he thus proposed to take away.
Accordingly he came. I have told you
how tae charter of Connecticut was hid
in an oak tree; but Sir Edmund assumed
the government of the New England
colonies, although he could not find that
charter.

4. At first he governed the people

"1. What of the colonies and the king of Eng-
land? 2. What did the king determine to do?
What king reigned at this time? What of Sir
Edmund Andros? 4. What of his government?

THE FIRST BOOK OF HISTORY.—NEW ENGLAND.

pretty well; but by and by he did man
thin : which diisleased them ~~
much. Many unjust and oppressive
laws were passed, and the people saw
that Sir Edmund had no regard to their
happiness and prosperity in his adminis-
tration.

5. Sir Edmund began to rule in 1686.
Two years after, the news arrived that
James II., king of England, had become
so unpopular as to be obliged to leave
the country, and that a new king, Wil-
liam IIl., had taken his place on the
throne. This news gave the colonies
great joy, for they hated James II. on
account of his conduct toward them, and
more especially on account of the gov-
ernor, Sir Edmund Andros, whom he
had sent to rule.over them.

6. Under the excitement of this joy
the people of Boston seized Sir Edmund
and about fifty of his associates, and put
them in prison. There they remained
for some time; they were then sent to
England, to be tried for their miscon-
duct.

7. I will now relate what may seem
to you very strange. In the year 1692,
two children of Mr. Parris, a minister in
Salem, Massachusetts, were taken sick.
They were affected in a very singular
manner, and the physicians were sent
for. They were at a loss to account for
the disorder, and one of them finally
said they must be bewitched.

8. The children, hearing this, and
being in great distress, declared that an
Indian woman, living in the house, had
‘bewitched them. Mr. Parris believed
what the children said; the Indian wo-
man was accused of the crime, and in a



5. What news arrived in 1688? What effect had
this news on the colonists? 6. What did the
ple of Boston do? 7—9. What took place at
in the year 16927 10, What did the people sup-



NEW ENGLAND.~—WITCHCRAFT.

state of ae and alarm, partially
confessed herself guilty. This affair ex-
cited great attention; many people came
to see these little children, and they
were very much pitied.

9. By and by other thoughtless chil-
dren, loving to attract notice, pretended
that they were affected in a similar man-
ner, and they said that they were se-
cretly tormented by an old woman in the
neighborhood. All these things were
believed, and more children and several
women soon declared themselves be-
witched, charging several persons with
being the authors of their distress.

10. They pretended that these per-
sons entered their rooms through key-
holes, or cracks in the window, pinched
their flesh, pricked them with needles,
and tormented them in the most cruel
manner. Nobody could see these tor-
mentors but the sufferers themselves,
although several persons might be in
the room where one of the bewitched
was wailing and shrieking, from the
pinches of the witch.

11, Strange as it may seem, this
matter, instead of being regarded asa
delusion, was thought to be founded in
reality. The people in those days be-
lieved that'the devil sometimes gave to
certain persons great power for purposes
of evil. These persons were said to
deal with the devil, and they were con-
sidered very wicked.

12. The business they were supposed
to carry on with him was called witch-
eraft, and any person under their influ-
ence was 3 to be bewitched. In
England, parliament had tnought it
necessary to make severe laws against
witchcraft. Several persons there had
been condemned and executed under

posed to be bewitched pretend? 11. What did the
people believe in those days? 12, What had been

53

those laws. It was now thought proper
to proceed in a similar manner at Bee
lem. Accordingly, those ms -ac-
cused of practising witchcraft upon their
neighbors were put in prison, and a
court was formed to try them.

13. Many of them were examined
and found guilty, and some, under the
influence of a distempered imagination,
confessed that they were guilty. The
business at le reached a very
alarming height. Nineteen persons
had been executed; one hundred and
fifty were in prison; and many more
were Sr na -

14. In this state of things, ro
began to doubt the correctness of their
proceedings. They examined the sub-
ject more carefully, and were very soon
satisfied that they had acted rashly.
The judges of the court also began to
take different views of the subject.
Those who were brought to trial were
therefore — and those in prison
were released.

16. Thus ended this extraordinary
delusion. We at the present day, who
know that there is no such thing as
witchcraft, cannot but wonder that our
ancestors should have believed in it, and
that many persons should have been
hung for a crime that was only imagin-
ary. But we should remember that it
was a common error of that age.

16. It was not an invention of their
own. They received their notions from
England, and it was natural they should
act agreeably to them. We must do
them the justice to say, however; that
they very soon discovered their error,

and expressed their sorrow for it. . »

done in England? What was done in- ni?
13. How many victims were there? 14.
at length did the people begin to do? What
lowed? 15. Is there any such thing as witch-
craft? 16. Why did our forefathers believe in it1







64 THE FIRST BOOK

CHAPTER XVIII.
NEW ENGLAND—Conrinvep,

1. Soon after the accession of Wil-
liam III. to the throne of England, a
war broke out between that country and
France. Now, the French had several
settlements in Canada, extending along
the river St. Lawrence, and including
Montreal and Quebec. They had also
several forts on Lake Champlain and
Lake George.

2. The war between France and Eng-
land, in Europe, of course extended to
their American colonies. The French
from Canada, assisted by large numbers
of Indians, invaded several parts of New
England, burnt the houses of the inhab-
itants, killed many of the people, and
carried large numbers of men, women,
and children, into captivity.

3. The cruelties practised during this
war almost exceed belief. Towns were
attacked at midnight, and in mid-win-
ter; the people were often killed in
their beds, and those whose lives were
spared were torn from their homes, and

liged to endure sufferings worse than
death. The history of these things is
too painful for my little’ readers ; I will
therefore only tel! them one story of this
cruel war.

4. In the winter of 1696, a party of
Indians made an attack on the town of
_ Haverhill, Massachusetts. Among the

Questions on the Map of the United States
and North America, gc. —In what direction is
Canada from New England? Nova Scotia from
New England? Newfoundland? In which direc-
tion is Boston from Quebec? From Montreal ?
From Lake George? Lake Champlain ?

1, What of England and France? What posses-
sions had the French in America? 2, What did the
French and Indians do? 3. What of the cruelties
of this war? 4—7, What happened in the winter of

OF mISTORY.—-NEW ENGLAND.

people of that town, was a Mr. Dun
stan. He was ina field, at work, when
the news of the attack reached his ears.
He immediately started, and ran to his
house to save his family. He had seven
children, and these he collected for the
purpose of taking them to a place of
safety, before the Indians should arrive.

5. His wife was sick, and she had an
infant but a week old. He now hur-
ried to her, but before she could get
ready to leave the house, Mr. Dunstan
perceived that a party of the savages
were already close to his dwelling. Ex-
pecting that all would be slain, he ran
to the door, and mounted his horse, with
the intention of taking one of his chil-
dren, the one he loved best, and flying
with that to a place of safety.

6. But which should he take? which

of his seven children should he leave to
the savages? He could not decide, and
therefore telling the childyen to run for-

<=}



Mr. Dunstan saving his Children.
ward, he placed himself between them
and the alises: The savages dis-
charged their guns at him, but they did
not hit him. He had a gun, too, and
he fired back at them.

7. Then he hurried his little children

16967 Tell the story of Mr. Dunstan, 8~11, Tell



NEW ENGLAND.—-ANECDOTES OF SAVAGE WARFARE.

along, loaded his gun as he went, and
fired at his pursuers. Thus he pro-
ceeded for more than a mile—protect-
ing his little family, defending himself,
and keeping the enemy at a distance.
At length he reached a place of safety,
and there, with feelings of joy which
cannot be described, he sie his chil-
dren beyond the reach of the Indians,

8. But Mrs. Dunstan was destined to
undergo the severest trials, Although
she was very ill, the savages compelled
her, with the nurse and her little infant,
to go with them. They soon left the
town of Haverhill, and set out to go to
the homes of the Indians. These were
at the distance of one hundred and fifty
miles. You must recollect that it was
winter, and the journey was to be per-
formed on foot through the wilderness.

9. Mrs. Dunstan and the nurse were
soon overcome with fatigue. The In-
dians, perceiving that the little infant oc-
cupied much of their attention, snatched
it from the mother, and killed the little
innocent, by striking it against a tree.
After a toilsome march, and the great-
est suffering, Mrs. Dunstan and her
companion completed the journey.

10. But now the Indians concluded
to remove to a distant place, and these
two women were forced to accompany
them. When they reached the end of
their journey, they discovered they were
to undergo severe torture. They there-
fore determined, if possible, to make their
escape.

11. One night, Mrs. Dunstan, the
nurse, and another woman, rose secret-
Ke while the Indians were asleep.

here were ten of them in the wigwam
where they were. These the women
killed with their own hands, and then
departed. After wandering a long time

thestory of Mrs, Dunstan. 12, 13. When did Queen

in the woods, they reached Haverhill,
and Mrs. Dunstan was restored to her
family. This is a strange story, but I
believe it is perfectly true.

12. A few years after the war of
which I have just been telling you,
another war broke out with the French.
which occasioned great distress in the
colonies. It was called Queen Anne’s
war, for at that time King William was
dead, and Queen Anne was on the Brit-
ish throne.

13. This war commenced in 1702,
and the French and Indians imme-
diately invaded New England. In
1704, a party of French and Indians
made an attack on Deerfield. It was at
night, and in the midst of winter. All
the people were asleep; they had ne
fear that an enemy was at hand. The
sudden yell of the savages burst on their
ears, and they then knew the dreadful
scene that was coming.

14. The town was set on fire, forty-
severr of the people were killed, and one
hundred men, women and children, were
carried into captivity. Among these
was Mr. Williams, a clergyman, and his
wife and five children. They set out on
foot, and began their journey through
the snow.

15. On the second day, Mrs. Wil-
liams, who was in bad health, was very
weary, and unable to keep up with the
rest. Her husband was not allowed to
assist her, and she seemed to be on the
point of fainting, from weakness and fa-
tigue. At this time, one of the Indians
came up to her, and killed her.

16. Phe party then went on; but sev-
enteen other persons were killed by the



Anne’s war begin? What happened in 17041
Describe the attack on Deerfield, 14, What of
Mr. Williams and his family? 15. Of Mrs, Wil-
liams? 16. What of the other captives? What



56

savages, before they arrived in Canada.
Mr. Williams was kindly treated by the
French people there, and after two
years, he returned, with fifty-seven
other captives, to Deerfield. He was
minister of that town for twelve’ years
after his return, and then he died.

17. This story affords a fair example
of the cruelties of this war. It continued
till the year 1713. The people of the
colonies suffered very much ; they made
several attempts to take Canada from
the French. Queen Anne sent over a
considerable number of troops, to assist
them in doing so. But this project
failed. They, however, took Port oyal,
now called Annapolis, in Nova Scotia.

18. At length, in 1713, the French
and English made peace with each
other in Europe, and the war ceased
there, and in the colonies also. From
this time, Nova Scotia and Newfound-
land belonged to the English. Canada
still belonged to the French, and con-
tinued so till the year 1759, when it
was conquered by the British, and has
since remained subject to that govern-
ment.

CHAPTER XIx.
NEW ENGLAND—Conrinvep,

1. I am sorry that I have but little to
tell you about this period, except tales
of war. It is painfal to read the histo
of times gone by, and learn what dread-
ful sufferings have been endured by the

further account can you give of Mr. Williams and
the other captives? 17. How long did Queen
Aune’s war continue? What did the colonies at-
tempt to do? What place did they take? 18.
What took place in the year 17132? To-whom did
Newfoundland and Nova Scotia belong from this
time? To whom did Canada belong?

1,2, What should we think of war and peace ?

THE FIRST BOOK OF HISTORY.—NEW ENGLAND.

nerations that have lived before us.

ut painful as it is, we must still read
it. t may teach us the sad conse-
quences of war, and show us how much
better it is to be always at peace.

2. In the past ages of the world,
kings, and generals, and great men,
have been fond of making war, and I
am afraid that some people are disposed
to applaud them for it. But the wisest
and best of men look upon all wars as
evils, and they deem those persons very
wicked who promote a war that could
safely be avoided.

3. About the year 1722, the Indian
tribes in Maine, and along the eastern
and northern border, made war upon
the English settlers. It is supposed that
they were incited to this by some French
Jesuits, Roman Catholic priests, who
lived in Nova Scotia. These Indians
often attacked the people in Maine,
Massachusetts, and New Hampshire,
and annoyed them very much. But in
1725, this war ceased.

4. In 1744, England and France were
again involved in strife. George II. was
then king of England, and this war is
called King George’s war. The most
important event to New England, that
took place during this period, was the
capture of Louisburg. This was a very
strongly fortified town, belonging to the
French, on the island of Cape Breton,
in the Gulf of St. Lawrence.

5. Here they kept a good many ships,
and in time of war, these drove away
the English and American sailors, who
went to the banks of Newfoundland to



3. What did the Indians in 1722? When did
this war cease? 4. What happened in 1744?
What was the most important event in America
during King George’s war? In which direction
is the island of Cape Breton from Boston? De-
scribe Louisburg. 5. Why was it a great object



NEW ENGLAND.—FRENCH AND INDIAN WAR— BRITAIN.

tatch cod-fish. To take Louisburg was
therefore a great object. To accomplish
this, the colonies united, and sent about
four thousand three hundred men, under
the command of Sir William Pepperell,
against it. They went in twelve ships,
and some smaller vessels.

6. They arrived at Louisburg the last
of April, 1744. - They were occupied
fourteen days in drawing their cannon
across a swamp, so as to bring them
near the town. They then besieged it;
that is, they surrounded it both by land
and water. They also made frequent
attacks upon the soldiers in the forts.

7, This continued till the 15th June,
when the French commander requested
them to stop, and on the 19th he sur-
rendered the place into the hands of the
Americans. Thus Louisburg and the
island of Cape Breton came into the
possession of the English.

8. In 1748, France and England
again made peace, and the colonies
once more enjoyed tranquillity. But
this did not last long. A still more ex-
tensive and important war was at hand.
This commenced in 17565, and is called
in this country the French and Indian
war. There are people now living who
remember this war. I have seen my-
self a good many of the old soldiers that
were engaged in it, and they have told
me many stories about it. I shall tell
you some of these by and by.

9. But as several colonies beside
those of New England were engaged in
this war, and as it was carried on chiefly
in Canada, and along the remote parts



with the colonies to take Louisburg? What
did the colonies do? 6. Describe the, proceed-
ings of the expedition against Louisburg. 7.
How and when was Louisburg taken? 8, What
happened in 17487 What began in 17557 9.
Where was the French war chiefly carried on?





57

of the country, it does not seem proper

to give an account of it, while I am onl

telling you the history of New England.

After I have told you about the other

colonies, I shall give you an account of
the French war.

10. I need only say now, that New
England took an active part in it, and
that her soldiers contributed very much
to the success of the British arms. The
whole of Canada was conquered by the
English, and from that time to the pres-
ent has been subject to Great Britain,

together with Nova Scotia, Newfound-

land, and Cape Breton. This war was
closed by a treaty of peace, made at
Paris, in 1763.

11. It was about the time that this

peace was concluded, that the

e of
America began to be prod 9 the
coming revolution. The conduct of the
British king and parliament was marked
with selfishness from the first settlement
of the country.

12. I mean by this, that in the laws
they had passed, the regulations they
had made, and the officers they had ap-
pointed, for America, they had it less in
view to promote the happiness and pros-
perity of the colonies, than to make
them profitable to England, the mother
country, and to needy favorites.

13. Yet, in spite of this unkind poli-
cy, the people here loved and honored
the king, and cherished the strongest
attachment to Old England. Many of
the inhabitants had come from that
country, and the rest had descended
from English emigrants. England was



10. What part had New England in the French
war? What was the result of that war? When
and how was the French war closed? 11, What
of the king and parliament of England? 13.
What were the feelings of the colonies towards
England? How were they accustomed to speak



58

therefore always spoken of as Home,
the Mother Country, the Land of their
Fathers. By such tender epithets did
the colonies express the affection they
felt for England.

14, But these feelings were no secu-
rity against injustice. The British par-
liament passed a series of acts relating
to America, from 1760 to 1770, which
roused the indignation of the people,
and brought on the Revolutionary War.
New England took a leading part in this
noble struggle.

15. I shall have occasion to tell you
many interesting things that 7
in this section of the country, during
that war. But as the whole nation was
engaged in it, I shall defer my account
of it till I have told you the history of
the other colonies.

CHAPTER XX.
THE PURITANS.

1, As stated in the preceding chap-
ter, the separate history of the New
England colonies properly closes about
the time of the French war. They then
began to act in concert with the other
colonies, and from that period their his-
tory is soon lost in that of the nation.
But before that time, the history of New
England is but little connected with the
other parts of the country.

2. The Dutch, having settled New
York, interrupted the intercourse be-
tween them and the more southern Eng-
lish colonies; but they were not more
separated by this circumstance than by

of it? 14, What occasioned the Revolutionary
War?

1. Why does the history of New England prop-
erly close with the French war? What of the his-
tory of New England previous to the French war?

THE FIRST BOOK OF HISTORY.—NEW ENGLAND.

difference of character. New England
was settled almost wholly by the Puri-
tans.

8. These were very peculiar people.
They held religion to be of the greatest
importance. They loved the services
of religion, and it was one of their great-
est enjoyments to meet — and
worship in their own way. They spent
much time in praying to God in secret.
They read the Scriptures with a deep
and careful interest, and they held it to
be the great business of this life to make
preparation for another.

4, Such were the views and feelings
of the Puritans. In England, they were
miserable, for they could not indulge
their religious feelings, and express their
religious opinions in peace. They were
ridiculed, despised, and persecuted. To
them, therefore, the wilderness of Amer-
ica was a better place than England ; for
there, in the woods, they could assemble
together, and worship God in their pecu-
liar manner, without reproach and with-

out —

5. In coming to this country, there-
fore, the principal object of these people
was to enjoy their religion. Being all
of one mind, they seemed not to foresee
that future generations would be divided
in opinion; and, taking the example of
the Jews, they proposed to form a com-
munity as nearly as possible according
to the ancient Jewish system.

6. Some time after the colonies were
settled, persons came among them, and
began to preach doctrines different from
their own. The Puritans had never
thought of allowing people to enter the
colonies, and utter sentiments and opin-

2, What of the Dutch? What of New England?
3. What of the Puritans? 4, The Puritans in
England’? 5. Their object in coming to America?
What did they not foresee? What did they pro-
pose? 6. What took place some time after the



NEW ENGLAND.—THE PURITANS —BAPTISTS—— QUAKERS.

jons different from those held by the
first settlers.

7. They had no idea of giving free
toleration to all religions; they there-
fore committed the same error that had
driven them from England. They with-
held charity from their opponents ; they
gave them hard names; they imprisoned
some, banished some, and put others to
death.

8. Ihave told you how Roger Wil-
liams was expelled, and I will now tell
you some other things of a similar na-
ture. About the year 1650, several per-
sons in the Plymouth and Massachusetts
colonies adopted the sentiments of the
Baptists, a were of course excommu-
nicated from the churches to which they
belonged.

9. After this, Mr. Clark, a Baptist
clergyman of Rhode Island, came into
Massachusetts, with two other Baptists,
named Holmes and Cranfield. One
Sabbath morning, as they had assem-
bled for worship, they were seized by
the public officers, and forcibly carried
to the Congregational church, where
they were kept during the service. Mr.
Clark et to take off his hat; so he
sat with it on, and when the minister
began to pray, he took a book out of his
pocket, and amused himself with read-
ing. When the service was done, he
addressed the people, and explained his
conduct.

10. These three Baptists were tried
by a court, a fortnight after this, and
sentenced as follows: — Mr. Clark was
to pay a fine of about one hundred dol-
lars; Mr. Holmes about one hundred
Sea RE etE Via a aah ge
colonies were settled? 7. Of what had they no
idea? What error did they commit? What did
they do? 8, What took place about 16507 9.
What of Mr, Clark and two other Baptists? What
did Mr. Ole*k do? 10, What sentence was passed





59

and fifty, and Mr. Cranfield about twen-
a dollars. In case they refused,

ey were to be publicly whipped. The
all refused ; but Mr. "eae tee >
privately paid by his friends. Cranfield
was released, and Holmes suffered the
sentence of the court.

11. He received a number of cruel
lashes upon the naked back, which he
endured with great fortitude. ‘Two of
his friends were present, and after the
punishment was over, they shook hands
with him, and praised him for his cour-
age and constancy. For this act, these
men were tried and sentenced to pa
forty shillings, or to be publicly whipped.
The fines were, however, paid by theit
friends.

12, Such were some of the proceed-
ings against the Baptists; but still more
cruel steps were taken in respect to the
Quakers. Of these I will now give you

some account.

——

CHAPTER XXI.
THE PURITANS—Conrinvep.

1. The first Quakers that came into
Massachusetts were Mary Leisher and
Anna Austin, who reached Boston, from
England, by way of the West Indies, in
1656. They brought with them some
Quaker Sess which the deputy-gov-
ernor caused to be burnt by the hang-
man, while the women themselves were
put-in prison. Here they were kept in
close confinement for five weeks, no
person being permitted to converse with
them even through the window, They
were finally sent back to the West In-

—_—_
upon the three Baptists? 11, What of Holmes?
Two of his friends ?

1. Who were the first Quakers that came te



60

dies in a ship, and the jailer kept their
beds and Bible for his trouble.

2. A short time after this, eight other

Quakers came to Boston, who were im-
mediately put in prison, where they were
kept eleven weeks. Very severe laws
were then passed, banishing all Quakers
from the colony, upon pain of death.
But the greater the cruelty with which
they were treated, the more they flocked
to the colonies.
. 3. At length, four of them, who had
been banished, having returned, were
apprehended, convicted, and sentenced
to death. They were then led out, and
executed, agreeably to the sentence.
They died with great courage, and de-
clared to the people, who were assem-
bled, that they rejoiced in their death,
and thanked God that he had given
them this opportunity to attest the truth
and sincerity of their faith. Thus they
died triumphing, at the very gallows,
over their persecutors.

4. These cruelties had an effect di-
rectly opposite to that intended by the
Puritans. It led the people in the first
place to pity them, then to defend, and
finally to agree with them. Instead,
therefore, of suppressing either the Bap-
tists or the Quakers, the laws and pro-
ceedings against them actually induced
a great many persons to join those
sects.

5. It is very certain that the New
England fathers made great mistakes in
this matter, but we must consider that
these things happened almost two hun-
dred years ago. The idea, now so com-
mon, and now so clear to us all, that

New England? What of them? 2. What of
eight other Quakers? What laws were then
passed? 3. What of four Quakers that had been
banished? 4, What effect had these cruelties ?
5. What is therefore obvious? What, however,

THE FIRST BOOK OF HISTORY.—NEW ENGLAND.

every person has a right to worship God
in his own way, had not then entered
into the minds of men, though pro-
claimed by Roger Williams. Our fore-
fathers were not alone in their narrow
views ; all over the wide world mankind
were in darkness on this subject.

6. The shadow has indeed passed
away from our own country. Here,
every man may freely choose in what
manner he will hold communion with
his God. But in many parts of the
world, even now, there are persons who
suffer much on account of their faith.
There are, I think, even in our own
land, at this very day, those who are
spoken of unkindly and uncharitably,
because of their religion.

7. Let us not, therefore, think too
harshly of the New England fathers.
Let us look rather at theif virtues ; their
patience under misfortune ; their stead
endurance of cold, hunger, want, an
privation ; their deep and fervent piety ;
their strict observance of what they
deemed right; and their stern rejection
of whatever they thought wrong.

8. Let us look also at the wisdom of
these men. They immediately estab-
lished schools for the education of all
classes. This was a noble thought, and
one that had not yet entered into the
heads of the wisest men in Ewrope.
Observe their courage, vigor, and enter-
prise in war; how ready were they all
to assemble at the moment of danger,
whether it came from their savage or
civilized foes !

should we consider? What idea had not yet en-
tered into the minds of men? Were the Puritans
alone in their intolerance? What was the condi-
tion of the rest of mankind on this subject? 6.
What of our own country? What of many other
parts of the world? 7, What, therefore, should
we do in respect to the New England fathers? 8.
What of their wisdom? Of their courage? Of



NEW ENGLAND.—TRIALS—PERILS—VIRTUES.

9. Consider their self-denial. The
labors of the field, the services of reli-
gion, the calls of war, and their domes-
tic duties, engaged their whole attention.
They had no amusements ; a had
parted with them all. They were brave,
stern men, ready to die, if God so or-
dained it; yet resolute in discharging
all the duties of life so long as it lasted.

10. To give you a more lively idea
of the character of our New England
ancestors, I will sketch a picture of what
might have been seen, in any of the New
England villages, in the earlier part of
their history.

11. We will suppose it to be the
morning of the Sabbath. Surrounded
by a few houses, some of them built of
logs, and some of boards, is a small

brown building, without a steeple ; this
is the meeting-house. At the appointed
hour, the worshippers are seen gather-
ing to the church from various quarters.



A New England Church in early times.

12, But each man carries a gun, and
over his shoulder he has the trappings
of a soldier. The guns are all placed
together near the meeting-house door,
and one man is stationed there to give
eS ee eee

their self-denial? 10—12. What spectacle might
have been seen,on a Sabbath morning, in a New

61

the alarm, if the Indians are seen to be
approaching the spot. Thus prepared
to fly to the defence of their houses and
their families, they enter the house of
God,and there they worship. How pow-
erful must have been the motive which
drove our fathers from England into the
wilderness, to live a life like this!

13. I will sketch another picture.
We will suppose it to be a week-day ; a
day of labor. You sec a man going
with his scythe into the field; but he is
armed with a musket. You see a man
ploughing, and another hoeing his corn;
they have each muskets lashed to their
backs.

14. You see a man on horseback,
going from one village to another ; he,
too, is armed. You see a man removing
with his family to some distant settle-
ment; he is provided with the means
of instant defence. |

15. Thus lived “our New England
fathers for more than one generation.
They were in a state of constant prepa-
ration for attack; always supposing
that the next instant an Indian arrow,
or an Indian bullet, might be in the air,
speeding with a deadly aim to the
heart.

16. Nor was this all. The woods
were full of wild animals. At night,
the wolves would come about the houses
and barns, and often carry off a sheep
oralamb. If atraveller on foot lingered
in the forest till sunset, he heard the
howl of these hungry beasts upon his
track; or perchance a bear crossed his
path, turning back with a wistful look ;
or a panther glared on him from the
branches of some aged oak, or the lonely
cry of the wild-cat filled his ears.



England village? 13,14, What might be seen on
a week-day? 15. How did our New England
fathers live for more than one generation? 16.



62

17. A people living under circum-
stances like these, surrounded by dan-
gers, inured to toil, strangers to relaxa-
tion and amusement ; living partly on
the flesh of deer, which they hunted in
the woods, and partly upon the fruits
yielded by the fields to their own labor ;
were’ likely to possess great courage,
sternness, and decision of character.
And such, indeed, were leading pecu-
liarities of the New England settlers.

18. There can be no doubt that many
of our blessings, in New England, have
descended to us from the Pilgrim Fa-
thers. The abundance of our schools,
the love and reverence felt for religion,
and, as consequences of these, the intel-
ligence and morality of the people gen-
erally, are things for which we have to
thank the piety and wisdom of the Pu-
ritans.

CHAPTER XXII.
STATE OF NEW YORK.

1. New York is the richest and most
populous of the United States, Its ter-

What of wolves and other wild beasts? 17, What
was likely to be the effect of circumstances like
those in New England? What were the leading
peculiarities of the New England settlers? 18.
Of what can there be no doubt? For what are we
to thank the piety and wisdom of the Puritans?

Questions on the Map of New York. —Bounda-
ries? Describe the Hudson river, Mohawk, Gen-
esee, Oswego, Saranac. Describe Lake Oneida,
Cayuga, Seneca, Skeneateles, Onondaga, Cha-
tauque, Champlain, Ontario, Erie, Crooked, Owas-
co, What mountains in New York? Where are
they? What great island at the south-east corner
of the state? N.B. A part of this island is on
the map of Connecticut. Describe Staten Island.
Counties in New York? NN. B. Let the pupil an-
swer this question with the map before him. How
many counties in New York? Capital? In what
* gounty is Albany? Describe the following towns:

THE FIRST BOOK OF HISTORY.—-NEW YORK.

ritory is very extensive, but it is not so
large as some of the other states. The
land is in general fertile, and some of it
is exceedingly so. The means of water
communication in this state are unri-
valled: in the eastern part is the Hud-
son river, which is navigated by sloops
and steamboats for one hundred and
sixty miles. On the north and east are
Lakes George and Champlain the St.
Lawrence, and Lake Ontario. On the
west is Lake Erie.

2. The grand canal extends the whole
length of the state, from east to west,
and connects the waters of the great
lakes with the Hudson. Beside these,
there are, in the interior, a great num-
ber of smaller streams and lakes, navi-
gable by boats. I believe there is not a
spot of the same extent on the earth,
more favored by water communication
than the State of New York.

3. The produce of almost every por-
tion of it may be easily carried to its
great city, and this is the centre of com-
merce for the United States; hence it is
called’ “the Commercial Emporium,”
that is, the chief place for bringing in
and carrying out merchandise, for buy-
ing and for selling. The city of New
York is the largest in North America,
and is rapidly increasing. It had, in
1848, about four handel thousand in-

New York, Poughkeepsie, Hudson, West Point,
Troy, Saratoga, Plattsburg, Utica, g,
Canandaigua, Cooperstown, Catskill, Buffulo, Ni-
agara, Geneva, Through what counties does the
great canal run? Where does it begin? Where
end? Where is the northern canal? Population
of the State of New York? Extent? Greatest
length of New York? Greatest width? Average
length? Average width ?

1, What of New York? Its territory? Land?
Water communication? 2. The grand canal?
Lakes and streams? 3, What is said about the
produce? City of New York? Inhabitants ia





" NEW YORK.—BUILDINGS— WATER-WORKS.

habitants, and was the fifth city in size
in the world ; and whole new streets are
being built each year. It is more than
four miles long.

4, Less than two hundred and fifty
years ago, the land on which this gteat
city is built was purchased for twenty-
four dollars. The streets were first

aved in 1676. The first stage route

tween Boston and New York was
established in 1732; it required four-
teen days to go from city to city. In
1745, the first coach was driven there ;
it belonged to an English woman, Lady

Murray.

5. The buildings, especially the pri-
vate dwellings, are more splendid than
any others in the United States. Some
of the churches, too, are very beauti-
ful. You must visit Trinity Church, a
Gothic building, of free-stone; and Grace
Church, built of white marble. The City



City Hall in New York.

Hall, and the University of the city of
New York, are superb structures of the
same material. There, too, are the vast
Astor House hotel, and the Exchange,
and Custom-house, and the Opera
House ; and a large white marble build-
ing, erected in 1845, by Mr. Stewart, for

1848? 4. History? 5. Buildings? 6, Histori-



his store, though it looks like a magnifi-
cent public building. At Stewart’s store
you can purchase all kinds of dr —
from a pair of gloves for half a do ar, to
a shawl for two thousand dollars.

6. There is, in New York, one his-
torical curiosity, you will, as an Ameri-
can, like to see. It is the very table on
which the American Congress, on the
4th of July, 1776, signed the Declara-
tion of Inde ndence from Great Brit-
ain, about which I shall tell you, a little
further on. This table was brought
from Philadelphia, and is in a room in
the City Hall.

7. In the year 1848, the city of New
York completed the most magnificent
structure of the kind ever attempted in
the United States, and one of the most
so in the world. They built an aque-
duct from the Croton river, which they
dammed up just at its entrance into the
Hudson, forty miles above the city.
Through this aqueduct they brought

ure water, through hills and over val-
eys and rivers, into vast stone reservoirs
near and within the city; and thence
distributed it, through all the streets, to
the houses and buildings.

8. The stone bridge for it over Har-
lem river is one of the most magnifi-
cent in the world. The fountains, in the
different parks or enclosures of the city,
send up their jets of water sixty feet into
the air, which fall in glittering spray,
and make, when the sun shines, many
a rich rainbow. Before this was fin-

vished, the water in the city was very

bad. They brought much of what was
used for drink from Jersey, across the
Hudson, in barrels, and sold it by the
gallon. Now, everybody has enough
and to spare, for every ; it was
introduced into the city in 1849. oe

cal curiosity? 7,8. Croton aqueduct? 9. Fires?



64

9. In 1835 a fire burned over mae
of the richest part of New Yor

pag destroying property to the amount
of eighteen millions of dollars, but all
the area has been rebuilt. In 1845 an-
other fire destroyed fine houses and
costly stores, to the amount of six mil-
lions of dollars, but that area too has
been all built over’ again, so that you
hardly see the traces of the calamity.

10. Here you will see the Tract
House, built in 1846. It is five stories
in height, and is occupied by the Amer-
ican Board of Foreign Missions, the
American Home Mission Society, and
the New York’ Tract Society. © It is
heated throughout by steam. It has
fifty-three rooms, and fifteen pendeg-
presses, and one hundred an thirty-
six persons constantly employed in it.
There are thousands connected with its
benevolent operations, all over the Uni-
ted States.

11. In this city lived, in 1847, Mrs.
Joanna Bethune, who was the origin-
ator and founder, in this country, of
infant schools, and of infant Sabbath
classes. The first infant school was
commenced here on the 16th July,
1827, The name has been changed
from Infant, to Primary schools, with
which you are all very well acquainted,
and you understand how much good
they do. Here too died, on the 29th of
March, 1848, John Jacob Astor, who
had, by industry, prudence, and fore-
eight, acquired more wealth than any
other man in America. He left four
hundred thousand dollars, to establish a
library in the city of New York, to be
free, without any charge for admission,
or the use of books,

12. Albany is the seat of the state



10. The Tract House? 11. Infant and Sabbath
schools? J. J. Astor? 12. Albany? Other

THE FIRST BOOK OF HISTORY.—NEW YORK.

government; it looks finely, as it rises
on the hill,from the river. It has beau-
tiful buildings and water-works; and
the State Normal School. Utica, Roch-,
ester, Syracuse, Canandaigua, Geneva;
where is a college, Buffalo, and Troy
are flourishing places. Schenectady has
Union College; Madison University is
at Hamilton. There is Binghamton,
and Ballston and Saratoga Springs, and
Oswego. Indeed, this great state is full
of thriving and populous towns; you
must travel all over it to know what
great things the population are doing
everywhere.

13. The Hudson river “is a noble
stream. It was, I believe, on this river,
that steamboats were first brought into
use. They were introduced by the cel-
ebrated Robert Fulton, of New York, in
the year 1803. There was but one boat
on the river for a long time. But now
there are a great many. Sometimes
one of these boats carries five hundred
passengers. They are very rapid, and
will go from Albany to New York, a
distance of one hundred and fifty miles,
in about twelve hours.

14. It is delightful to go up the Hud-
son in one of these boats. Let us sup-

se that we make a trip, in this state,
ad the city of New York to Niagara
Falls. Before we start, we must go
about the city of New York a little.
We must go up and down Broadway,
which is one of the finest streets in the
world,

16. We skall see a great many ladies
and gentler.en, very gayly dressed, and
we shall see some old women sitting
down on-the pavements, with oranges,
and apples, and nuts to sell. And we
shall see a great many coaches, and om-



towns? Colleges? Activity? 13,14. Hudson?
Steamboats? The city and Broadway? 16. De-



NEW YORK.—THE CITY—THE NORTH RIVER.

nibuses, and drays, driving through the
streets, and we must be very careful that
we are not knocked down and run over
by some of them.

16. On the waters at the sides of
the city, there is the same constant
passing, of different vessels, large and
small; the little sloops that sail along
the coast, and the great ships that trav-
erse the ocean. There are a hundred
steamboats, too, crossing the ferries to
Jersey and to Long Island, and else-
where, moving up and down the Sound,
or East river, as they call it; and the
Hudson, which they call the North
river. There are here, too, lines of reg-
ular steamers from Havre, in France, to
New York, established in 1847; anda
regular line from Bremen, in Germany,
by England, to this city; and another
line from Liverpool, England, to New
York, to alternate with those from Liv-
erpool to Boston, Massachusetts.

17. The first navigation of the Atlan-
tic ocean by steam was in the Savannah,
owned by William Dodd, and command-
ed by Captain Rogers, of New York,
who, in 1819, twice visited, in her, Eu-
rope and Asia, receiving presents from
the King of Sweden, the Emperor of
Russia, and the Grand Seignior of Tur-
key.

18. We must now go down into
Pear! street, and there we shall seé the
merchants so busy,and in such a hurry,
that they almost run over each other.
There we shall hear a great rattling of
carts, and we shall see everybody walk-
ing very fast, and we shall see a great
tumbling about of bales, boxes, bags, and
barrels. After this, we must go to Cas-



scribe the street scenes of the city. 16. Scenes on
the city waters? Ferry steamboats? Atlantic
steamers? 17.-First steam voyage across the At-
lantic? 18. Pearl street? Castle Garden? 19.

5

tle Garden, and see the fireworks ; and
having seen a great many more things,
we will then go on board the steam-
boat, and set out for Albany. .
19. Away we go, dashing through
the water, in fine style, passing some of



Scenery on the Hudson.

the most beautiful scenery in the world ;
and by and by we come to the Palisa-
does, which are very high perpendicular
rocks, on the west sill of the river.
On the east side, we shall see the line
of the great Croton aqueduct, which we
can trace by the white marble towers, to
ventilate the aqueduct, that is, let fresh
air circulate in it.

20. We soon come to West Point,
where there is an excellent academy, in
which young men receive a military
education. After this, we come to the
Catskill Mountains. These are tall,
blue mountains, which seem to reach to
the clouds. A great many travellers
ascend them, and they tell us that the
jorenet from them is truly sublime.

here is here a beautiful little cascade,
where the water falls almost three hun-
dred feet over the rocks. These moun-~



Describe the picture. Palisadoes? Croton aque-
duct? 20. West Point? Catskill Mountains?
21. Tell the story of two huntsmen.



66

tains afford many picturesque views.
They used to be inhabited by many wild
animals, such as deer, cougars, &c.

21. It is not many years since, that
two huntsmen were searching for game
among these mountains. Coming toa
hill, they agreed to pass around it, one
going one way, and the other going the
other way. At length one of them
heard the report of a gun. He ran to
the spot, but could see nothing of his
companion. He found his dog, at length,
torn in pieces; and by and by sawa
cougar or panther, with the body of his
friend, in the top of a tree. He fired a
gun, and the animal dropped with his
prey to the ground. The dog of the

untsman now attacked the wounded
animal, but was instantly killed by a
stroke of his paw. The man soon pro-
cured help at a neighboring village.
The any Pear the cougar dead, and
by it the body of the unfortunate sports-
man, who was also dead.

CHAPTER XXIII.
NEW YORK—Continvep.

1. Soon after leaving the Catskill
Mountains, we shall reach Albany.
Here, in 1848, buildings on many acres,
and boats and goods of immense value,
were burned. We will now enter a
canal-boat, and proceed to Utica. We
shall go at the rate of about four miles
an hour, and we shall find the boat filled
with men, women, and children.

2. On arriving at Utica, we shall be
surprised to find it so large and so hand-
some a place. We must now go, ina
carriage, about twelve miles north of
Utica, and see Trenton Falls. A small
river here tumbles over the rocks, and



1. Albany? Canal-boat? 2, Utica? Trenton

THE FIRST BOOK OF HISTORY.-—-NEW YORK.

presents several exceedingly beautiful
cascades.

3. A very sad accident happened here
a few years ago. A young lady, from
New York, came with some of her
friends to see the cataract. She was
standing on the edge of one of the high-
est rocks, and her friends were at a little
distance. Suddenly she a
from their view. They ran to the â„¢
and looked over the precipice. She had
fallen to a great depth below, and was
instantly killed.

4. From Utica I think we had better
travel by railroad, for by this time we
shall be tired of canal-boats. We must
be particular, however, to go and see
the Indians at Vernon, about seventeen
miles west of Utica. There are near
one thousand of them, and they are the
remnants of two famous tribes, that once
inhabited this part of the state.

5. These Indians are called Oneidas
and Tuscaroras; they are partly civil-
ized, for they till the land, go to meet-
ing, and live peaceably. They are,
however, a degraded people, and will
rather excite your pity than your re-
spect. We shall, perhaps, on our way,
meet with other Indians; the poor re-
mains of the celebrated tribes, which I
shall have occasion to mention, by and
by, under the name of the Five Nations.

6. We shall soon pass through the
flourishing town of Syracuse. It would
be well to stop here to see the improve-
ments, and to visit the famous salt-wells
near by. They draw up the salt water
from the earth and boil it away, in large
kettles, or evaporate it; and then the
salt remains white for use. Immense
quantities are made here, and the works
are very curious.



Falls? 3, Accident? 4, 6. Vernon Indians?
6, Syracuse? Salt-wells? 7. Describe Niagara



NEW YORK.—NIAGARA FALLS—ANECDOTES—ROUTES.

7. After leaving Syracuse, we shall
ass through Auburn, Canandaigua, and
Baffalo, and at length arrive at Niagara
Falls. These are formed by an immense
mass of water, which comes from the
great lakes, and pours over the rocks to
the’ depth of a hundred and fifty feet.




Falls of Niagara.
The roar of these waters is like thunder.
Sometimes it is heard at the distance of
many miles. The earth trembles around,
as if in fear of the awful scene, and a
thick cloud of vapor rises high into the
air, stretching itself far away over the
hills and valleys.

8, A few years ago, some people got
a large ship, and placed in it a wild bear
and some other animals. They then
brought it near the falls, and left it in
the swift current. Many thousands of
people were there to see the sight. The
ship was instantly drawn along by the
tide toward the falls ; it came to the edge
of the rocks, and down, down it went,
broken in a thousand pieces. The poor
bear went over with it. For a long time
he was buried in the water, but at length
he rose upon the surface, and then-he
sprang ashore.

9. I will tell you another story of



Falls. 8. What of a ship? 9, 10. Story of an

67

these falls, There was once an Indian
sleeping in his canoe, on the lake.

was not far from the falls, but the canoe
was tied, and he felt safe. But by and
by the string was untied by some acci-
dent, and the canoe floated out upon the
water.

10. It went silently along, and the
Indian still continued to sleep. Soon
the current began to take the boat
toward the falls. It went more and
more rapidly, and soon was near the
cataract. At this moment the Indian
awoke; he saw his situation, and knew
that it was vain to struggle against his
fate. He therefore seated himself erect,
wrapped his blanket closer round his
body, and, folding his arms, went down
with the thundering tide.

11. After staying a while at the falls,
we must set out to return. We may go
back to Albany by the canal or by the
cars; or to Butalo, by the railroad.
Thence we may go by steamboat, on
Lake Erie, to the town of Dunkirk,
where commences the Erie and Hudson
Railroad, that is going through the south
part of New York state, near Pennsyl-
vania, to Piermont, on the Hudson, so

| called from its long stone pier, and the

Palisade Mountains, just above it.

12. Or we may, from Niagara, sail
down Lake Ontario, to Ogdensburg, and
thence go to Montreal, in Canada by
the steamboat, down the St. Lawrence
river; or go, by railroad, to Burlington,
Vermont. Thence we may go, by some
of the railroads I told you of, when talk-
ing about Vermont, through to Portland
and Boston; or by Bennington, to New
York. Or down Lake Champlain, in a
steamboat, to Whitehall, thence by canal
to Troy, and thence in a steamboat, down
—
Indian? 11. How may we return from Niagara 1
12. Routes from Western New York to the Atlan-



68

the North river ; or by the finden River
Railroad, to the city of New York.

13. You see you have a choice of
routes that is almost puzzling. The
southern, eastern, and northern lines,
through New York state, werein the
course of completion in 1848, and vari-
ous branches have connected, or are
connecting, these great thoroughfares
with one another. ‘his is the history
of what is called Internal Improvements.

14. While we are at Niagara, we
must by no means omit to visit the
wonderful, iron, suspension bridge, over
the Niagara river, just below the Falls.
It connects New York and Canada.
The rocky banks of the river are very
high and steep, here. The water that
has come over the falls, seems chafed
and frightened at its dreadful plunge,
and rushes away very swiftly through
this gorge.

15. On each opposite rocky bank of
the river, they have erected a huge stone
tower. They then fasten strongly into
the earth, on one side, a great many
wire ropes, and lead them over the tops
of these towers, clear across the river, to
the other side, and fasten them strongly
into the ground there also. These ropes
are so long that they bend down in the
middle between the piers.

16. Then they hang down iron rods,
all along, from these wire ropes; and to
the bottom of these rods they fasten
_ cross timbers; and on the timbers lay
lank. This makes the floor of the
les, on which you pass over. The
railway is to occupy the centre, with two
carriage-ways on either side, and two
foot-ways. I think you never before
saw so large an arch. It is two hun-



tic? 13. What are Internal Improvements? 14
—17. Suspension bridge? 18, What of the west-

THE FIRST BOOK OF HISTORY.—NEW YORK.

dred and fifty feet above the water of
the river.

17. You will feel strangely to stand
on this bridge, hung so high in the air,
by apparently little wire strings; and
shaking at every step of your foot. You
will look up at the clear sky above you,
then away down at the wild river rush-
ing so terribly beneath you. Then look
in front; —there is the eternal roar of
Niagara. I do not believe the whole
world can afford such an interesting po-
sition. This bridge was begun in 1847,
and Mr, Ellet, of St. Louis, Missouri,
was the architect.

18. By the time we get home we shall
be satisfied that the State of New York
abounds in interesting objects. The
western part of the state will fill us
with surprise. It now presents many
large towns, and a multitude of thriving
villages ; yet it has been almost wholly
settled within the last fifty years.
more thriving, intelligent, and happ
no it would be difficult to find.

a years ago, there was not a house
in Rochester, and it has now more than
twenty-six thousand inhabitants. Utica
had then scarcely fifty houses; but, in
1845, it had more than fifteen thousand
people. And Buffalo had more than
thirty-five thousand population, and
steamboats and sail-vessels of a very
large commerce, in 1848,

19, The growth in this part of the
State seems, indeed, quite magical. |
recollect a story of what happened near
Rochester, within the last thirty-five
years. Two persons were travelling
on horseback through the woods, in
winter, guided only by a horse-path.
The snow had recently fallen to a great



ern part of New York? Rochester? Utica? Buf-
falo? 19-23, Tell the story of two! men lost is



NEW YORK.—ANECDOTE—SCHOOL SYSTEM.

depth, and they at length lost their way.
They undertook to retrace their steps,
but night came on, while they were still
in the midst of the forest.

20. They knew they were at a con-
siderable distance from any settlement,
and had no hope of reaching a house
during the night. It therefore became
apparent that they must spend it in the
woods. But as the sun went down, the
cold increased, and in a short time it
was exceedingly severe, The horses
were worn out with fatigue, and the
travellers began to fear that they should
be frozen. They looked about for the
shelter of a rock, or some other place,
but nothing of the kind presented itself.
Their situation was now alarming ; they
could not proceed, and to remain idle
was certain death.

21. At length one of them recollected
that he had a small tinder-box in his
pocket. This he took out, and the trav-
ellers set about making preparations to
build a fire, with great alacrity. They
got together the bark of some trees, and
some dry branches ; they then began to
prepare the tinder-box, but on examining
it, the tinder was entirely gone.

22. There was, however, in the box,
a small piece of linen rag, the edges of
which were burnt. These edges were
carefully rolled together, and with a
trembling hand, the sparks of fire were
struck upon them. Again and again
the effort was made, but without suc-
cess, With feelings of the deepest anx-
iety, the travellers bent over the box.
Life and death were on the issue. If
the spark caught, they were sate ; if not,
they must perish. To such a narrow
point is human fortune often reduced.

23. The flint is now struck with great-
erforce. The fire descends in a shower,

in the woods. 24, Appellation of New York?

but without avail. Again, again, and
again they make the trial, an they are
on the point of giving themselves up in
despair. Another blow is struck; its
spark is caught by the tinder, and a
match is lighted; some small fibres of
wood are set on fire, and in a few min-
utes the travellers are warming them-
selves by a bright blaze! Here they
remained during the night. In the
morning they mounted their horses, and
pig the place of their destination in
safety.

24, This state is called the Empire
State, because it is so powerful in po;
ulation and resources. It is very ric
in agriculture, and in manufactures. It
has a thorough public school system,
well organized, over every part of it. I
have been highly delighted in attending
the annual conventions of the superin-
tendents of these schools, who come
there to. consult for their good,—to
hear them report how they have fulfilled
their duties. How indefatigable they
have been, in assisting the able teachers
in their efforts for the boys and girls of
their schools! I saw there, too, a t
many of the teachers. All showed the
same spirit to do the children all the
good in their power.

25. You would be very much pleased
to see what a vast number of the chil-
dren are at the public schools, in this
great state ; and the school libraries the
have to read from; and the care whic.
the teachers, and superintendents, and

arents show, to have the boys and girls
earn. They seem determined, as they
are the greatest state in the Union, to
be among the wisest.

26. I should like to see all the states
and all the people emulate their example.

Public schools? Annual convention? 25. Chil-
dren in the schools? Love of improvement? 26.



70 THE FIRST BOOK 0¢
What a glorious sight it would be! what
a nation we should become! We should
all, like the great Franklin, wish to go
forward fifty years hence, —and many
of you, my young friends, will do so, —
and see what we arrive at then. What
a history it will be!

27. The district school libraries of
books, to interest and make wiser the
young people of this state, amounted, in

847, to a million and a quarter of vol-
umes. These have all been put in there
in ten or twelve years. They add about
a hundred thousand volumes a year,
besides maps, globes, instruments, &c.
They have established a Normal School
at Albany, like those I told you of in Mas-
sachusetts, which is flourishing, and send-
ing out, annually, educated instructors.



CHAPTER XXIV.
NEW YORK—Conmyvep.

1. I think you cannot fail to admire
the great Erie Canal, in the State of
New York. It is three hundred and
sixty-two miles in length ; it is forty feet
wide, and has eighty-three locks. It is
one of the longest canals in the world,
and it is certainly one of the most use-
ful. It is frozen up in winter, but dur-
ing the spring, summer, and autumn,
many hundreds of boats, loaded with
produce and goods of all kinds, are
passing to and fro upon it.

2. This canal was begun in 1817, and
finished in 1825. It was planned by De
Witt Clinton, and made by the people of
New York. Many men were occupied,
for eight years, in digging the earth, in

Dr. Franklin’s wish? 27. District school libra-
ries? Normal School at Albany ?

1. Length of the Erie Canal? Width? Num-
ber of locks? Of what use is this canal? 2, When
was it begun? When finished? Cost’? What have



HISTORY.—NEW YORK.

cutting through the rocks, and in build.
ing walls and da r the locks. The
whole cost of the cgnal was eight million
dollars. They have beenwbhiged to en-
large it, to accommodate the increasing
business. The income from the tolls, for
carrying things on this canal, was, in the
year 1847, three and a half millions of
dollars; or nearly half the whole original
cost. When they wished to give the
uickest possible notice, at New York,
that the lake waters were for the first
time let into the canal at Buffalo, they
put, at every eight miles’ distance along
the line, ready-loaded cannon, and a
man with a lighted match at each, who
was to fire his cannon as soon as he saw
the flash of the one next west of him.
They thus sent the news from Buffalo to
Sandy Hook, five hundred and forty-four
miles, in one hour and twenty minutes !
This was in 1825; in 1848, the letting
in of the water was announced, by mag-
netic telegraph, the same distance, in one
minute! Such is the progress of prac-
tical science in twenty-three years.

3. I will now tell you the early his-
tory of this great state. ‘In the year
1609, Henry Hudson, an English navi-
gator, was employed by some Ditch

eople to go on a voyage of discovery.
He came to America, and discovered the
river which now bears his name. He
sailed up as far as Albany, and went in
his boat a little further.

4. He saw, along the banks of the
river, then, nothing but trees, and In-
dians, and wild animals. What a
change has taken place in a little more
than two hundred years! The island
at the mouth of the river, which was

they since done to it? Why? What was the in-
come from it in 1847? How was notice of its being
opened given in 18257? How in 1848? 3, What of
Henry Hudson? 4. What did he see? What change



NEW YORK.—FIRST SETTLEMENT—CHANGE OF MASTERS. 71

then covered only with trees and shrubs,
is now the seat of a mighty city; and
the banks of the Hudson, then so soli-
tary, are now sprinkled over with towns,
cities, villages, and country-seats.

5. Five years after Hudson’s discov-
ery, some Dutch people came to Albany,
and began there a settlement. This was
in the year 1614, six years before the
Pilgrims arrived at Plymouth. It was
the first settlement made in New York.
About the same time they built a few
houses, on an island called by the In-
dians Manhattan, where the city of New
York now stands.

6. You will observe that New York
was settled by Dutch, not English peo-
Rie They came from Holland, or the

etherlands, and the colony was claimed
by that country. It inereased ‘rapidly.

% 1643, a war broke out with
the Indians. The Dutch governor em-

loyed a brave captain, by the name of
Divlerhill, to go against them. He had
been a soldier in Europe, and knew well
how to conduct the business of war. He
took with him one hundred and fifty
men, and they had a great many battles
with the Indians. The latter were de-
feated, and four hundred of them were
killed during the war.

8. In 1646, a severe battle was fought
with the Indians, near Horse-neck.
Great numbers were killed on both
sides, but the Dutch were victorious.
The dead bodies were buried at a place
called Strickland’s Plain, and one hun-
dred years afterwards the graves were
still te be geen. ,

9. There were some disputes between



has taken place in two hundred years? 5. What
settlement in 1614? What other settlement about
the same time? 6. By whom was New York set-
tled? 7. What took place in 1643? What of Cap-
tain Underhill? 8. What took place in 1646? 9.
Disputes between New England and New York?







the eens of New England and those
of New York about territory. At length
the Dutch governor went to Hartford,
where he met some people sent by the
New England colonies, and they came
to an agreement about the land. But
King Charles of England said that the
Dutch had no right to any of the land,
and granted what the Dutch had settled
upon to his brother, the Duke of York
and Albany, afterwards James II.

10. In 1664, the duke came, with
three ships, to New York, and com-
manded the people to surrender the
town. They refused at first, but in a
little while they gave it up, and he took
possession of it. ‘The name of this place,
which was before called Manhattan, was
now changed to New York, and the
place on the Hudson where the first set-
tlement was made, which had been called
Fort Orange, was now called Albany.
These names have since been retained.



Sa OE
The Dutch Commander surrendering New York.

11. In 1673 the city of New York
was retaken by the Dutch. The fort
and city were surrendered by the treach-
ery of John Manning, the commanding

RN CE
What did King Charles do? 10, What did the
Duke of York and Albany do in 1664? What did
the people do? Describe tué picture. What change
of names now took place? 11. What happened in



72

officer, without _ agun. The next
= peace was concluded between Eng-
and and Holland, and the colony was
restored to the English.

12. The Duke of York and Albany,
the former proprietor, now came again
into possession of the colony, and sent
Sir Edmund Andros, afterwards the i
rant of New England, to govern it. He
was succeeded by other governors ; and
in 1682 the people were permitted to
meet and choose representatives.

13. These representatives assembled
and made laws, but they could not go
into force till they were ratified by the
duke. This arrangement was satisfac-
tory to the people, and the colony now
felt the blessings of good government.



CHAPTER XXV.
NEW YORK—Continvep.

1. I will now tell you about the In-
dians in the northern part of New York.
The interior of the country was origi-
nally inhabited by five nations, called
the Senecas, Cayugas, Onondagas, Onei-
das,and Mohawks. These nations were
friendly to the English colonies, and be-
ing very powerful, they protected the
inhabitants from the French settlements
in Canada.

2. At length the French governor, De
la Barre, being afraid of these Indian
tribes, raised an army of seventeen hun-
dred men, and went against them. But
his troops suffered very much from hard-
ship and sickness, and many of them
died.

16732 What took place the next year? 12. What
did the Duke of York and Albany now do? What
caine to pass in 1682? 13, What of the represent-
atives? What of the laws made by them?

1. What of the Five-=Yations? Their names ?
2. Whut of De la Barre? 3, What was hé obliged

THE FIRST BOOK OF HISTORY.—NEW YORK.

3. Being surrounded by his enemies,
he was now obliged to ask peace of the
savages, whom he had come to destroy.
He sent to the chiefs of the Five Na-
tions, requesting them to come and see
him, and three of them came. A circle
was formed, consisting of the French
officers and chiefs, and then De la Barre
addressed the chief of the Onondagas as
follows :

4, “Chief, listen to what I have to
say. I am sent to this country by a
great king, who commands many armies.

He is good to his friends, but he is ter- *

rible to his enemies. What are ye, his
friends or his enemies? I tell you that
ye are his enemies.

“You prowaae English, and you
fight for them. You have made a league
with them for ee war, You have
led them into the country, and shown
them the trading-grounds of the

and now they carry away the furs which

the French ought to get.

5. “Such is your conduet, and tha
of the Five Nations; and what shall the
king, my master, do to you for these

things? He can send an army into this
Sie, asthe —

dry leaves of autumn are scattered by

land, that shall scatter your

the whirlwind; and this he will do, un-
less you change your conduct, and in-
stead of enemies become his friends.”

6. Garrangula, the Onondaga chief,
knew perfectly well the distress of the
French army. He therefore heard this
haughty speech with contempt. After
walking six times around the circle, he
made the following reply, in which you
will perceive he calls be la Barre, Yc -
pe and the English governor, Cor-
ear.

to do? Whom did he send fer? Who came?
What scene followed? 4,5. What did De la Barre
say? 6. What of Garrangula? 7—11. Repeat the



10 2h

tee

NEW YORK.—INDIAN ORATION—FIVE NATIONS.

7. “Yonnondio, I honor you, and the
warriors that are with me honor you.
Your interpreter has finished your
speech ; I now begin mine. My words
make haste to reach your ears; hearken
to them. Yonnondio, you must have
believed, when you left Quebec, that the
sun had consumed all the forests which
render our country imaccessible to the
French ; or that the great lakes had
overflown their banks and surrounded
our castles, so that it was impossible for
us to get out of them,

8. “Yes, Yonnondio, you must have
dreamed so; and the curiosity of so
geet a wonder has brought you so far.

ow you are undeceived; for I, and the
warriors here present, are come to as-
sure you that the Senecas, Cayugas,
eoraieges, Oneidas, and Mohawks, are

alive.

9. “I thank you, in their name, for
‘ bringing: back into their country the
pipe of peace, which your ——
received from their hands. It was hap-
__ py for you that you left under ground
_ that murdering hatchet, which has been
-_. so often dyed in the blood of the French.
ear, Yonnondio; I do not sleep; I
-have my eyes open; and the sun which
enlightens me, discovers to me a great
captain, at the head of a company of sol-
diers, who speaks as if he was dream-
ing. He says that he only came to
smoke the great pipe of peace with the
Onondagas. But Garrangula says, that
he sees the contrary; that it was to
knock them on the head, if sickness
had not weakened the arms of the

French.

10. “We carried the English to our
lakes, to trade with the Utawawas, and
Quatoghies, as the Adisomdoes brought

PA ES A AE
speech of Garrangula to De la Barre. 12. What

73
the French to our castles, to carry on a
trade which the English say is theirs.
We are born free; we neither depend
on Yonnondio nor Corlear. We ma

go where we please, and: buy and sell
what we please. If your allies are
your slaves, use them as such* com-
mand them to receive uo other but your
people. ‘

11. “Hear, Yonnondio; what I sa7 is
the voice of all the Five Nations. When
they buried the hatchet at Cadaracai, in
the middle of the fort, they planted the
tree of peace in the same place, te be
there carefully preserved, that instead
of a retreat for soldiers, the fort might
be a rendezvous for merchants. Take
care that the many soldiers who appear
there, do not choke the tree of peace,
and prevent it from covering your coun-
try and ours with its branches. I as-
sure you that our warriors shall dance
under its leaves, and will never dig up
the hatchet to cut it down, till their
brother Yonnondio, or Corlear, shall in-
vade the country which the Great Spirit
has given to our ancestors.”

12. De la Barre heard this scornful
speech with shame and rage. But
knowing his weakness, he was obliged
to make peace. Not long after, another
French governor went against these
Indians, with a still larger army than
that of De la Barre. But the cunning
Indians concealed themselves till the
French were near, and then suddenly
fell upon his army, and obliged him to
retreat out of their country. These
wars made the Five Nations hate the
French, and attached them to the Eng-
lish colonies.



of De la Barre? What of another French gov-
ernor? What did the Indians do? What effect
had these wars?



74

CHAPTER XXVI.
NEW YORK—Conrinvzp.

1. In the year 1685, the Duke of York
succeeded his brother, Charles the Sec-
ond, and became king of England, under
the title of James the Second. I have
told you before that this king was hated
by the ‘English people, and he was
equally disliked in the colonies.

2. He claimed absolute authority over
the American people, and beside that, he
was a Catholic. These things caused
him to be dreaded by the people. They
were therefore very much rejoiced when
the news case, in 1689, that he had
been driven from the throne, and that
William, Prince of Orange, had suc-
ceeded him.

3. Elated by this news, and stimu-
lated by the example of the people at
Boston, who had seized and imprisoned
Andros, they began to make prepara-
tions to depose the governor, whose
name was Nicholson.

4, Alarmed at this, he fled by night,
and the chief magistracy was assumed
by a militia captain, whose name was
Leisler. He was a weak man, and
managed the affairs of the colony very
badly.

5. While the settlement was suffering
from the troubles occasioned by Leisler’s
administration, war was declared be-
tween England and France. This was
King William’s war, of which I have
told you something in the history of
New England. Count Frontenac was
now governor of Canada.

6. In the winter of 1690, he sent a
emetic crickets

1. What took place in 1685? 3, Why did the
people hate James the Second? +What news came
in 16892 3, What effect had this news upon the
peopie? 4° What of Nicholson? Leisler? 5.
What war now broke out? Who was Count

THE FIRST BOOK OF HISTORY.—NEW YoRK.

vt
small party of French soldiers and In-..
dians to attack Albany. These com
cluded to destroy ectady first.
The people of Schenectady had been
warned of their danger, but they would
not believe that men would come from
Canada, a distance of two or three hun-
dred miles, through the deep snows of
winter, to molest them. ‘

7. But they were. fatally deceived.
On a Saturday night, the enemy came
near the town. They divided thems
selves into small parties, so that every
house might be attacked at the same in-
stant. Thus prepared, they entered the
place about eleven o’clock.

8. The inhabitants were all asleep,
and stillness rested upon the place.
With a noiseless. step, the enemy dis-
tributed themselves through the village,
Ata given signal, the savage war-whoop
was sounded. What a dreadful cry was
this to the startled fathers and‘ mothers _
of _ unhappy pig ¥

9. It is scarcely ible to describe
the scene that followed. The people,
conscious of their danger, sprang from
their beds, but were met at the door,
and slaughtered by the savages. Every
house was set on fire; and the Indians,
rendered frantic by the wild scene, ran
through the place, slaying those they
chanced to meet,

10. Sixty of the people were killed,
and twenty-five were made prisoners,
Some attempted to escape, but they
were naked; the weather was extremel y
severe, and they had a considerable dis-
tance to go before they could reach a
place of security, A part arrived jn
safety, and twenty-five lost their limbs
by the cold.

11. To avenge these cruelties, with ©

4 Kis,
Frontenac? 6. What nce in the easel “y
1690? 7—10. Describe the attack upon Schenes:

ae



NEW YORK.—GOVERNORS— PIRATES—CAPTAIN KIDD.

others of a similar nature committed in
New England, an attack upon Canada
was determined upon. An army, raised
in New York and Connecticut, pro-
ceeded as far as Lake Champlain, but
finding no boats to take them across,
they were obliged to return. Thus the
whole expedition failed, and this was
attributed to the imbecility of Leisler.

12. It was about this time, that King
William sent Col. Henry Sloughter to
be governor of New York. But unhap-
py he was totally unfit for the office.

hen he arrived, Leisler refused to
give up his authority. He sent two
messengers, however, to confer with
Sloughter. These messengers were im-
mediately seized by the governor, and
put in prison as rebels.

13. This alarmed Leisler and his
associates, and they Te to escape.
But he, with his son-in-law Milborne,
was taken, tried, and condemned to
death, for high treason. But the gov-
ernor refused to sign the warrant for
their execution, as he did not wish to
sacrifice two men who had been rather
weak than wicked.

14, But the enemies of Leisler and
Milborne contrived a plot for their de-
struction. They made a great feast,
and invited Governor Sloughter to go
and partake of it. He went, and when
he was intoxicated with wine, they asked
him to sign the death-warrant of the two
rene. This he did, and before he

ad recovered his senses, Leisler and
Milborne were executed. Thus, through
his folly and wickedness, two men suf-
fered an ignominious death.



tady. 11. What attack was now determined
upon? What army was raised? - What did they
do? 12. What of Governor Sloughter? 13. What
of Leisler? 14. In what manner was the execu-
tion of Leisler and his son-in-law effected? 15.



which they were successful.
killed more of the enemy than the whole
number of their party.








75
15. In 1691, Governor Sloughter

died. The same year, a man, by the
name of Peter Schuyler, at the head of
three hundred Mohawk Indians, went
to make an attack upon the French set-
tlements at the north end of Lake Cham:
plain. A body of about eight hundred
men were sent from Montreal against
him. With these, Schuyler and his

Mohawks had several battles, in all of
They

—

CHAPTER XXVIII.
NEW YORK—Conrinvzp.
1. In 1692, Col. Fletcher was made

governor of New York, and in 1698 he

was succeeded by the Earl of Bella-
mont. About this time, the American
seas were very much infested by pirates.
These bold men attacked such ahi as

they met with on the ocean, plun

them of whatever they wanted, and
either murdered the crew and took the
- or sunk them both together in the
eep.

2, Governor Bellamont was particu-
larly charged, by the English govern-
ment, to clear the American seas, if pos-
sible, of these desperate men. But the
necessary ships not being furnished, he,
with some other individuals, determined
to fit out a vessel on their own account,
and send it against the pirates. -

3. They accordingly procured a ship
of war, and gave the command of it to
a sea-captain, whose name was Robert
Fen gel een gia
What took place in 1691? What of Peter Schuy-
ler?

1. What took place in 1692? What in 16984
What of the pirates? 2, What did Governor Bel-
lamont and some others do? 3. What of Rober



76

Kidd. But when he got out upon the
water, Kidd determined to become a pi-
rate hithself. He proposed the plan to
his men, and they consented to it.

4. So he went forth and became one
of the most infamous pirates that was
ever'known. He attacked many vessels
upon the Atlantic and Indian oceans,
and after three years he returned. He
burnt his ship and went to Boston,
where he was seen in the streets. He
was seized, and carried to England, and
there he was tried, condemned and exe-
euted.

5. I suppose you have heard a great
many stories of this wretch, Captain
Kidd. It is said that he buried a great
deal of gold in pots, somewhere along
the coast. A great many attempts have

been made to find this gold, but without

success. I suspect that Kidd and his
sailors spent all the money so wickedly
got, and never buried any of it.

6. I will now pass over a considera-
ble space of time, during which nothing
very remarkable happened in this colo-
ny. Several governors had been sent
from England, most of whom were ut-
terly unworthy of the trust.

7. About the year 1736, circum-
stances occurred in the city of New
York, which it is painful to dwell upon.
Some persons of very bad character cir-
culated a report that the negroes, of
which there were a good many in the
city, had formed a plot to burn the
town, and make one of their number
governor. :

8. A great many fires had taken
lace; and these led the people to be-
ieve that the rumor was true. Many
of the negroes were arrested and put in

eae ale elena
Kidd? 4, What was the fate of Kidd? His ill-
yotten gold? 6. What kind of governors were sent
over? 7,8. What occurred in the city of New



THE FIRST BOOK OF HISTORY.—NEW YORK.

prison. Other accusers now came for:
ward, and so strong was the prejudice
against the negroes, that, when the trial
came on, all the lawyers offered their
services to plead against them.

9. Thus left without defence, these
unhappy people were all condemned.
Fourteen were burnt to death, eighteen
were hung, and seventy-one were trans-
ported out of the country! It is grati-
fying to feel sure that, in our day, the
weakest and most defenceless are not
exposed to such cruelty and injustice.

10. In 1748, George Clinton was
sent over as governor of the colony.
He was warmly received by the people,
and his administration was, on the whole,
acceptable. In 1745, during George
the Second’s war, New York was much
distressed by the incursions of the In-
dians.

11. Saratoga was destroyed, and
other parts of the colony suffered very
much. Some of the Indians came to
Albany, and concealing themselves in
the neighborhood, lay in wait to take
prisoners. One savage, bolder than the
rest, called Tolmonwilemon, came with-
in the city itself, and carried off people
by night.

12. In 1746, New York united with
the eastern colonies in an expedition
against Canada, but the project totally
failed. The next year, the welcome
news of peace between England and
France arrived, and the colony was re-
lieved from the distresses brought upon
them by the war. ,

13. Thus I have told you of some of
the principal events in the history of
New York, up to the time of the French



York in 1736? 9. How many negroes were
barnt?) How many hung? How many trans-
ported? 10. What happened in 17437 In 37457
11. What of Saratoga? What of Tolmonwile



NEW JERSEY.——A BUSY ES OT

war, which commenced in 1755. From
that time the colonies acted in concert;
and I shall therefore leave the separate
history of New York here, and give you
a view of what remains, in the general
account of the French war and the
American Revolution.



CHAPTER XXVIII.
“STATE OF NEW JERSEY.

1. I will now tell you about New Jer-
- It is not a large state, but in trav-
elling through it we shall see many
things that are interesting. We must
start at New York in a steamboat, and
cross the North river to Jersey City.
This is done in a few minutes. Then
we get into the cars, and ride nine miles,
over a railroad, to Newark.

2. This is a beautiful city, with sev-
eral handsome churches, and many
handsome houses. We shall see many
of the people busy in making shoes,
gigs, coaches, omnibuses, stages, and
wagons. Newark is the largest city in
the state; it had thirty thousand inhab-
itants in 1847. The whole of northern
New Jersey is as busy, with its various
manufactures, as a hive of bees.

3. We must not omit to make an ex-
cursion from Newark to Patterson, to

mon? 12, What took place in 17467 What news
came the next year? 13. French war, when?

Questions on the Map. — Boundaries? Describe
the Raritan river, Delaware, Passaic. Counties
in New Jersey? Their names? Capital? In
what county is Trenton? Describe the following
towns: Elizabethtown, Newark, Princeton, New
Brunswick, Morris, Patterson, Bordentown, Bur-
lington. Population of New Jersey? Extent?
Greatest length of New Jersey? Greatest width?
Average length? Average width ?

1. What of New Jersey? Jersey City? 2
Newark? Northern N, Jersey? 3. What of the

77

see the Passaic Falls. These are farmed
by the Passaic river, which rolls over
the rocks to the depth of seventy-two
feet. The spectacle is very brilliant and
beautiful.

4. Some years ago, a gentleman and
his wife, from New York, were standing
on the rock, which hangs over the cata-
ract. The lady suddenly became dizzy,
and fell over the awful precipice. She
was instantly killed by & fall. Pater-
son is a brisk manufacturing town, situ-
ated near the cataract.

5. We may then leave Newark by a
railroad, and soon arrive at Elizabeth-
town. In passing along, we shall ob-
serve many fine orchards; and if it is
autumn, we shall see abundance of very
excellent apples. The cider made here
is very celebrated.

6. On arriving at Elizabethtown, we
shall be struck with the beauty of the
place. But we shall not be allowed to
stop long, as the conductor of the cars is
in a great hurry; when he rings the
bell, the passengers will jump into the
cars, and away we go.

7. We Sons through New Bruns-
wick, upon the railroad, and travelling
on a few miles, we shall at length reach
Princeton, Here we shall observe a
large building, with a green lawn in
front, covered with shady trees. This
is Princeton College; it is quite cele-
brated, and a great many young men
are educated here.

8. After leaving Princeton, we shall
soon arrive at T'renton, which is beauti-
fully situated on the Delaware. We
shall here notice a fine bridge across
this river. I think we had better take
the steamboat now, and go down the



Passaic Falls? 4. Fatal accident? Patterson?
5. What of orchards? Apples? Cider? 6, Eliza-
bethtown? 7. What of Princeton College? 8,



78

Delaware to Philadelphia; though we
can, if we choose, go on in the cars of
either of two railroads.

9. We shall be delighted with this
part of our journey. On both sides of
the river, we shall see many very hand-
some towns. Those on the west side
belong to Pennsylvania, those on the
east, to New Jersey. Among other in-
teresting things, we shall see Joseph
Bonaparte’s house at Bordentown.

10. Joseph Bonaparte, who died in
1846, was a brother of the famous Na-
poleon Bonaparte, and once king of Na-

les and then of Spain. The house is
arge, and quite different from other
houses in the. state; it is now a place
of public resort. There is a very lofty
tower on the grounds, called an observa-
tory. From the top of this, there is a
very extensive and beautiful prospect.

11. But the most common way of
travelling across this part of New Jersey
now, is to leave New York in a steam-
boat, which carries us up the river Rar-
itan to Amboy: at this place we may

et into the railroad cars, and go to
ordentown, where there is a steam-
boat ready to take us to Philadelphia.

12. Soon after passing Bordentown,
we shall come to Burlington, and then,
in a little while, we shall reach Phila-
delphia. If we go into the market at
Philadelphia, we shall observe large
quantities of the finest apples, pears, and
peaches, and sweet potatoes, and other
vegetables, that we have ever seen.
Many of these things are brought from
that part of New Jersey which lies on
the Delaware, opposite to Philadelphia.

13. You will see valuable zinc and



Trenton? 9. Scenery on the river? 10. Who is
Joseph Bonaparte? His house and observatory ?
MM. Travelling in N. Jersey? 12. Market at Phil-
adelphia? 13, Mines? Canal? Freestone? 14.



=" BOOK OF HISTORY.—NEW JERSEY.

copper mines in New Jersey. The ca-
nals, from the Delaware to the Hudson
river, cross this state, and bring to New
York immense quantities of the Penn-
sylvania coal, for fuel, —called the Le-
high or anthracite, and by various other
names, taken from the place or mine
whence it is obtained. From New Jer-
sey, too, is carried to distant parts, to
Boston, &c., the light-colored freestone,
that is so much used in building houses,
churches, and other edifices.

14. If we stay some time in the State
of New Jersey, we shall observe that the
yore differ considerably from those in

ew England. This difference is owing
to the difference of origin. The people
of New England are descended entirely
from the English, while those of New
Jersey are the mixed descendants of
English, Dutch, Danes, Germans, and
Swedes.

15. The first settlement in this state
was made by the Danes, in 1624. Some
Dutch and Swedes soon after made set-
tlements in the territory ; the population
was, however, very small. In 1664,

Settlement
New Jersey came, with New York, into



What of the people of New Jersey? Their origin?
15. First settlement in New Jersey? What oo-





the hands of the English. The next
ir, a settlement was made at Eliza-
thtown, by three men, who purchased
the Tand of the Indians.

16.°The same year Sir George Car-
teret was appointed governor, and the
colony received the name of Jersey, in
compliment to him, who was a native
of the island of Jersey, on the northern
coast of France.

17. In 1676, the province was divided
into East and West Jersey, and so con-
tinued until 1702. The government
was then surrendered to Queen Anne,
of England, and East and West Jersey
were united, under the title of New Jer-
sey. From this date to the Revolution-
ary War, very little happened in this
colony, the story of which would be in-
teresting to you.

18. The wars with the French and
Indians, which afflicted New England
and New York so much, did not reach
New Jersey. But during the Revolu-

tionary War, this state was occupied by || J

the English and American armies, and
it consequently met with losses, and
suffered istress.. Of these things
I shall tell you more by and by.

19. I wil, however, tell you of one
battle now. This took place at Mon-
mouth, in the summer of 1778, between
the Americans under Washington, and
the British under Sir Henry Clinton.
The two armies fought terribly, and
hundreds were killed on both sides.
The weather was hot, and a woman,
named Molly Pitcher, was engaged in
carrying water to some soldiers who



curred in 16642 When was Elizabethtown set-
tled? Describe the picture. 16, What of Sir
George Carteret? Why was the territory called
New Jersey? 17. What took place in 16767
What happened in 1702? 18, What of New Jer-
sey during the Revolutionary War? 19. Battle
ef Monmouth? What was done in 1844?

NEW JERSEY.—BATTLE.— PENNSYLVANIA. .

79

were managing one of the cannon. By
and by, her husband, who was among
them, was killed. Molly immediately
took his place at the gun, and fought
like a trooper. She was called Major
Molly ever after. In 1844, the people
of New Jersey formed an amended con-
stitution for their state.

CHAPTER XXIX.
STATE OF PENNSYLVANIA.

1. This is a large, wealthy, and flour-
ishing state. Our travels through it
will afford us much gratification. We
must examine Philadelphia, in the first
place. In my opinion, it is the hand-
somest city in the United States. The
streets are all straight, and cross each
other in a regular manner.

2. In this city you will see a build-
ing called Independence Hall, because
in the large room, which is now arranged
just as it was then, was made, on July
4, 1776, the Declaration of Independence
of our country, of which I shall tell you
by and by, in the chapters upon the
American Revolution. ’

3. What was then done, in that build-

Questions on the Map.—Boundaries? De-
scribe the Delaware, Susquehannah, Schuylkill, Ju-
niata, Lehigh, Ohio, Alleghany. What ranges of
mountains in Pennsylvania? Through what coun-
ties do they ran? Describe Delaware Bay. How
many counties in Pennsylvania? Which lie west
of the Alleghanies? Which east? Capital? In
what county is Harrisburg? In what county is
Philadelphia? Ans. In the county of Philadel-
phia. Describe the following towns: Lancaster,
Harrisburg, Pittsburg, Chester, Wilkesbarre,
Huntingdon, Bedford, Carlisle, York, Easton.
Population of Pennsylvania? Extent? Greatest
length of Pennsylvania? Gireatest width? Av-
erage length? Average width?

1. What of Pennsylvania? Philadelphia? 9
Hall? 3. What was done by our





80

ing, led to. our Revolution ;—our mak-
ing our own laws, and thriving as we
think best, —in our own way, without
being directed by a government on the
other side of the ocean, that could not
know what was good for us. Since
then we have become a great nation, —
may we also be a wise and a good one.

4, On the 22d day of February, 1847,
the old Independence Bell, as it was
called, which was on Independence Hall,
and was used to call the people together
on the solemn day of the Declaration, —
and .to celebrate the peace which fol-
lowed the Revolutionary War, — and on
the successive Independence days since,
—was tolled for the last time, in mem-
ory of the birth-day of Washington, who
was our country’s general and _ first
President. The bell is cracked, and
spoiled for use now. It was cast, in
Philadelphia, about 1753, and had on it,
“ Proclaim Liserty throughout this land
unto all the inhabitants thereof.”

5. You must not fail to visit the
United States Mint, in Philadelphia,
where they make the metal money, or
coin, which we use:—the eagles and
half-eagles, of gold; the dollars, halves,
and quarters, dimes and half-dimes, of
silver; and the cents and half-cents, of
copper. It is a very curious process.
The very dust of the floor is valuable,
for it has gold and silver in it.

6. You have seen, on our old cents
and coins, a cap, sometimes on the head
of the female figure representing Liber-
ty, and sometimes, a little way off it. I
will tell you what that is for. In an-
cient times, old age was expressly hon-
ored. Qld persons generally covered
their heads with caps.
-was made free, he had a cap given him,

Revolution? 4. Bell? 5. Mint and coins? 6.
What is the Liberty cap? 7. Bank of U.S. build-

When a slave,

THE FIRST BOOK OF HISTORY.—PENNSYLVANIA.

as a sign that he was free and honora-
ble,"for none were so unless, they were
free. Thus the cap became the emblem
of freedom ; and our nation adopted it.

7. We shall find many interesting ob-
jects in the city. The building erected
by the U. S. Bank, and now used for
the custom-house, is of white marble
and very beautiful. The Arcade iso
very curious building, in which there
are a great many shops. In the upper
part of this building is Peale’s Museum.

8. This is a most interesting collec-
tion. There are hundreds of stuffed
birds and animals, which look as if they
were really alive.* There are grisly
bears, and deer, and elks, and prodi-
gious great serpents, and birds with
beautiful feathers, and cranes, with legs
as long as a man’s, and there are bugs,
and butterflies, and Indian tomahawks,
and a multitude of other things.

9. But the most wonderful of all is the



. Skeleton of the Mastodon at Philadelphia.

skeleton of the mastodon, or mammoth.
These bones were found in the State of
New York; the animal to which they

belonged must have been as large as a
small house. No animals of this kind



ing? Arcade? 8; Peale’s Museum? What is
to be seen there? 9, What of the mastodon?



PENNSYLVANIA. — GIRARD COLLEGE — MOUNTAINS. 4 81
»

cattle. We shall pass through.Lancas-
ter, which is one of the most beautiful

towns in the United States, and Harris-
burg, where the legislature meets to
make laws for the state. ,

13. As we pass along, we shall notice
a ae many Quakers, and I think you
will like them very much. They are
very friendly, and dress in a singular
manner, It is said that there has not
been a single instance of a Quaker’s
committing a crime, since the establish-
ment of the courts of justice in this state.
This is shown by the records of those
courts.

14. You will meet with a good many
people here who can talk nothing but
German. There are, indeed, a great
many German people, and some entire
villages are composed of Germans, and
their descendants. They have almanacs,
newspapers, and some ta , printed in
their language.

15. At length, you will reach the Al-
leghany Mountains. These consist of
a great many separate ranges. You will
first go over one, and then another, and
another, and another. Some of them
are very high, and the sides are exceed-
ingly steep.

16. After travelling a whole day, you
will find that you have passed over these
lofty mountains. You will be much
fatigued, and I think you will be glad
that you have got over them, for they
have a very desolate and gloomy ap-
.|| pearance. tf you travel on the railroad
you will be only a few hours going over
the mountains. These mountains used
to be inhabited by many wild animals ;
deer and elk are still found there, as well
as wolves ahd foxes. The wild-cat and
cougar are also occasionally met with.

°
now live in America, or anywhere else.
But long before the white people came
to this country, it is certain that they
roamed through the forests of America.
Some of them must have been at least
four times as large as the largest ele-
phant.

10. After leaving the museum, we
should go and see the Fairmount water-
works, about two or three miles out of
town. These are situated on the Schuyl-
kill river. There are here several large
wheels, which are so contrived as to
force the water from the river up into
a reservoir, on the top of a high hill.
From thence the water flows to the city,
and supplies the whole place. This is
a most useful invention, and one that
may well excite our admiration.

11. Alittle way from Fairmount, we
will visif"Girard Orphan College. The
building is‘one of the most magnificent
in the United States. It is built of white
marble, with money left to Philadelphia
by Stephen Girard, of that city, one of
the richest merchants of our country.
He founded it for the education of poor
orphan children. First, those born in
Philadelphia ; then, those born in Penn-
sylvania ; then, those born in the city of

ew York? and lastly, those born in
New Orleans. He also left money for
improving and beautifying the city of
Philadelphia. Mr. Girard died in 1831,
and the cgllege was finished and opened,
and the Mstitution organized, in Decem-
ber, 1847.

12. We must now leave Philadelphia,
and set out for Pittsburg. We shall trav-
el over excellent roads, with fine stone
bridges, and we shall see a great many
large farms, with abundance of very fine









Describe the picture. 10, Fairmount water-works ?
What is the use of them? 11. Girard College for
orphans? 12. ree ae Farms?



Cattle? Lancaster? Harrisburg? 18, Quakers t
14. Germans? 15, 16, Alleghany Mountains’



82

17. After having passed the Allegha-
nies, you will arrive at Pittsburg. This
is a great manufacturing place. As you
approach it, you will observe a cloud of
black smoke rising over the town, and
you will notice that almost all the build-
ings are blackened with the coal-smoke.
Coal is so very abundant here, ‘that you
may buy a bushel of it for a few cents.
In April, 1845, occurred here a dreadful
fire, which burned more than a thousand
houses, and over six millions of property.

18. We shall hardly have time to set
down in this little ‘book all the interest-
ing things to be seen in Pennsylvania.
There are the Lehigh and Schuylkill coal
mines, where the people get a great deal

x

a



of coal, which is carried down in little
cars, on railroads, to the canals, and then
put into boats, and carried to Philadel-
phia and other places.

19. There are several fine canals,
many railroads, and some of the most
beautiful rivers in the world. The banks
of the Schuylkill, the Juniata, and the
Susquehanna, are truly enchanting du-
ring the summer. On whole, we
shall find Pennsylvania a most interest-
ing state. It is not so cold there in win-

acl liht i aiiniaieinldncniibipmrmnay incites
Wild animils? 17. Pittsburg? Coal? Fire? 18.
Lehigh and Schuylkill coal mines? 19. Canals?



THE FIRST BOOK OF HISTORY.—PENNSYLVANIA.

ter as in New England. Many parts
of it are fertile and highly cultivated,
and the comforts and luxuries of life are
very chéap and abundant.

20. In 1835, there were one hundred
thousand pupils in the common schools
of this state. In 1838, there were two
hundred and thirty-three thousand. In
1847, there were nearly three hundred
and thirty-one thousand. So you see
the number of boys and girls Covala
to be good men and women, must be
nearly four times as great now as in

21. Pennsylvania is called the Key-
stone State, as being the middle, and a
very important state in our Union. A
few years since, she had undertaken to
make so many canals and railroads at
once, that she became in d more
than she could pay from ‘tief ordinary
state income. But by patriotically and
honestly taxing herself, she has re-
deemed her credit, and will soon be
freed, by her vast mineral, agricultural,
and manufacturing resources, from all
embarrassment. .

22. In 1839, died at Philadelphia,
Matthew Carey, a distinguished philan-
thropist; and in 1844, Nicholas Biddle,
a celebrated financier, and president of
the great Pennsylvania institution, called

'the United States Bank, as he had been

of that in which the Federal Govern-
ment were stockholders, thatgis, owned
apart. And there, died, in , Peter
S. Duponceau, who came to this coun-
try, from France, as aid to Baron Steu-
ben. He was one of the most learned
men of our country, especially in the
Indian languages and antiquities.

Rivers? Climate? Soil? Comforts and luxuries
of life? 20, Common Schools? 21. Appellation
of Pennsylvania? Internal Improvements? Tax-

es? Credit? 22. Distinguished men? Carey 1
Biddle? Duponceau ? :



PENNSYLVANIA. — PENN—QUAKERS— TREATY — CITY. »

CHAPTER XXX.
PENNSYLVANIA—Oontinvep.

1. I will now tell you the history of
Pennsylvania ; but f nus begin with
William Penn, for he was the chief in-
strument of its settlement. He was the
son of a British admiral, and lived in
London. He was educated as a lawyer,
put he joined the Quakers, then an ob-
seure and persecuted sect.

2. In 1681, King Charles granted to
him a large tract of land between New
Jersey and Maryland. This included
Pennsylvania and Delaware. In the fall
of the same year, a good many persons,
chiefly Quakers, to whom he had. sold
some of the land, set out in three ships,
and comely America. These people set-
tled.on Delaware river, near where
Philadelphia now stands.

3. These brought with them a letter
from Penn to the Indians. In this he
said to them, “that the great God had
been pleased to make him concerned in
their part of the world, and that the king
of the country where he lived had given
him a great province therein; but that
he did not desire to enjoy it without
their consent; that he was a man of
peace, and that the people whom he
sent were men of the same disposition ;
and if any difference should happen be-
tween them, it might be adjusted by an
equal number of men, chosen on both
sides.”

4. In the fall of 1682, Penn himself
came to the colony with two thousand
emigrants.’ While he was in the coun-



1, What of William Penn? 2. What took place
in 16817 What did the grant to Penn include?
What took place in the fall of 1681? Where and
when was the first settlement in Pennsylvania
made? 3.?What did Penn say in his letter to the



try, he met some of the Indiam chiefs,
and made a treaty with them. His mild



Penn making a Treaty with the Indians.

and gentle manners made a great im-
pression on the savages.

5. He walked with them, sat with
them on the ground, and ate with them
of their roasted acorns and hominy. At
this they expressed great delight, and
soon began to show how they could hop
and jump. Penn, it is said, then got u
and began to hop, too, and soon Swed
that he could beat them all. Whether
this is true or not, I cannot say; but it
is certain the Indians long remembered
him with feelings of love and venera-
tion. .

6. Penn also marked out the plan of
a great city, to which he gave the name
of Philadel hia ; by which is meant “the
city of brotherly love.” Before the end
of the year, this place contained eighty
buildings. In 1684, Penn returned to
England, leaving the province in a hap-
py and prosperous condition.

7. No part of America was settled
more rapidly than Pennsylvania. The
soil was fertile; the climate mild and

of Penn and the Indians? Describe the picture.
6. Whe: great city did’ Penn lay the foundation of ?

indians? 4. What took place in 16827? What | When did’Penn retura to Englond? 7. Why war



84

agreeable ; the deer, and other wild ani-
mals, were abundant. The government,
too, arranged by Penn, was just and lib-

eral, giving perfect freedom to every man
to worship God in his own way.

8. Thus at peace among themselves,
the Indians being made their friends by
justice and gentleness, the people of this
colony afforded a striking contrast to the
less fortunate settlements in the north
and east. Attracted by the favorable
circumstances I mee et cme
ous emigrants flocked to Pennsylvania ;
and in four years after Penn received
the grant, the province contained twenty
settlements, and the city of Philadelphia
two thousand inhabitants.

9. In 1699 Penn returned to the prov-
ince. He found some uneasiness among
the people. To remove this, he gave
them a new charter in 1701. This was
submitted to the assembly chosen by the
people, and accepted. But the inhabit-
ants in that a of the province which
now forms the State of Delaware, did
not like the charter, and refused to ac-
cept it, »

10. They were therefore separated
from Pennsylvania, and had a distinct
assembly, chosen by the people, who
made their laws. The same governor,
however, presided over Pennsylvania
and Delaware.

11. Penn soon returned to England,
and never visited America again. He
died in 1718, leaving behind him the
character of a truly pious and good man.
He was twice imprisoned in England,

Pennsy.vania very rapidly settled? 8@In what
respects did Pennsylvania differ from the northern
and eastern colonies? What was the condition of
the colony in four years after Penn received the
grant? 9, What did Penn do in 1699? What in
17012 What of the people of Delaware? 10.
What of the government of Delaware? 11. When
aid Penn return finally to England? When did he

THE FIRST BOOK OF HISTORY.— DELAWARE.

by the government, for his religious opin
ions; and his enemies accused him of
very wicked conduct. But he lived to
see every suspicion wiped away from
his reputation; and his life teaches us
that the world fails not to honor a man
of active kindness, piety, and truth.

12.. His colony continued to flourish,
and its increase in population was un-
exampled. The Indians, conciliated by
kindness, remained for seventy years at
peace with the inhabitants; and thus,
until the French war, nothing occurred
in Pennsylvania to interrupt her pros-
perity.

CHAPTER XXXI.
“STATE OF DELAWQBE.

1. This is the smallest state in the
Union, except Rhode Island; but it is
beautifully situated along the western
shore of Delaware Bay, and like every
other part of our country, affords inter-
esting topics of geography and history.
In our travels through it we shall o
serve some of the finest wheat-fields in
the world. ;

2. At Wilmington, on the Brandy-
wine, we shall see extensive manufac-
tories of paper, and some of the best
flour-mills in the country. We shall
notice a very useful canal, crossing the
northern part of the state, from Delaware
Bay to Chesapeake Bay. Ori€ portion



die? What of his life and character? 12, What
of his colony? Indians?

Questions on the Map. — Boundaries? What
bay east of Delaware? Number of counties ?
Their names? Capital? In what county is Do-
ver? Describe Wilmington, Newcastle. Where
is Cape Henlopen? Cape May? Extent of Del-
aware ? ‘jon ?

1. What of Delaware? Wheat-fields? 2. Wib



DELAWARE. —BREAKWATER — PATRIOTISM—DE KALB.

of this canal is called the Deep Cut,
where it passes, for a distance of four



The Deep Cut on the Canal.

miles, through a hill ninety feet high.
A bridgevof a single arch crosses it.

aT ilroads from Philadelphia to
Baltimore also pass through this state.
The first railroad, on a public route, in
the United States, was built here, from
Wilmington to Elkton. At Newark is
a flourishing college; and there are many
good schools and academies. This state
has furnished a number of able and elo-
quent men. We shall pass Dover, a
pleasait little town, which is the seat of
government ; and if we proceed to Lew-
istown, at the southern point of the state,
we shall see the people engaged in mak-
ing salt from sea-water.

4, At the mouth of Delaware Bay,
and nearyCape Henlopen, we shall ob-
serve an immense wall of stone in the
sea, called a breakwater. This was
built by the government of the United
States, to protect vessels which may be
at anchor in the bay, from the waves
that roll in from the ocean during storms,
and from the ice that comes floating down



_ mington? Canal? Deep Cut? Describe the pic-
ture. 3. Railroads? Dover? Lewistown? 4.
What of the breakwater at the mouth of Delaware



85
from the rivers in the spring. This

breakwater is near three quarters of a
mile in lenge and is truly a grand and
useful wor

. The stone for it was
brought from a great distance — some
of it from Boston, and some from other
laces.

5. In the Revolutionary War, the
people of this little state put forth their
whole strength for the cause of liberty.
The Delaware regiment was reckoned
the finest in the whole army. In the
famous battle of Camden, in South Car-
olina, 1780, these, with some Maryland
troops, were commanded by a French
officer, named De Kalb. This brave
man was wounded in eleven places, and
died on the field. He was so impressed
with the gallant conduct of his Delaware
and Maryland soldiers, that with his
dying breath he expressed his regard
for them.

6. But it is not my intention to tell
you of the Revolutionary War now. I
must take you back to a much earlier
date. More than two hundred years
ago, there lived in Sweden a famous
king, named Gustavus Adolphus. Un-
der his patronage, some Swedes and
Finns, or Finlanders, came to America,
and landed: at Cape Henlopen, in 1627.
It was a beautiful spot, covered with
green trees, beneath which the wild deer,
with their young fawns, were sporting.
The emigrants were so charmed with
the place, that they called it Paradise
Point.

7. They now proceeded further up the
bay, and had some intercourse with the



Bay? 5. What of Delaware in the Revolution ?
The Delaware regiment? Battle of Camden? De
Kalb? 6. What of Gustavus Adolphus? When
did the first settlers arrive in Delaware? Who
were they? What of Cape Henlopen? What did
the emigrants call it? 7. What of the Indians?



86

Indians. The latter treated them kind-
ly. and sold them land on both sides of

e water. The settlers now established
themselves near Wilmington, and called
the country New Sweden.

8. But the colony was not permitted
to enjoy its fine lands and delightful cli-
mate in peace. The Dutch claimed the
territory, and after annoying them in
various ways, finally built a fort at New
Castle. Aman by the name of Risingh
was then governor of the Swedish col-

ony.

9 One day he pro to the com-
mander of the Dutch fort, to pay him a
friendly visit. This was accepted, and
Risingh went, accompanied by thi
men. They were received with kind-
ness, and treated with great hospitality.
But, disregarding this, they treacherous-
ly took possession of the fort, and made
prisoners of the garrison.

10. The governor of New York at
this time was Peter Stuyvesant, whom
history describes as possessing a pretty
hot temper. Such a man was not likely
to permit the treachery of Risingh to go
unavenged. So he fitted out an arma-
ment, which went against the Swedes,
in several vessels, in the year 16565.

11. There was considerable fighting ;
but the Dutch were victorious, and hav-
ing taken the Swedish forts, they al-
lowed a few of the inhabitants to remain,
and sent the rest prisoners to Holland.
The settlement continued in the hands
of the Dutch till 1664, when. it came
into the possession of the English, with
the surrender of New York.

Where did the emigrants settle? What did they
_ call the country? 8, What of the Dutch? 9.
\ What did the Swedish governor do? 10. Who
was now governor of the colony of New York?
What was done in 1655? 11. What of the Dela-
ware colony from this time to 1664?/ What hap-
pened in 1664? 12. What in 1682? What of

THE FIRST BOOK OF HISTORY.—MARYLAND.

12. In 1682, the territory was pur:
chased by William Penn, and until
1703, formed a part of Pennsylvania.
At that time, it was partially separated,
having a distinct assembly chosen by the
people, though the same governor that
ruled over Pennsylvania ruled also over
Delaware. The colony remained in this
situation till 1775, when it became an
independent state.

CHAPTER XXXII.
STATE OF MARYLAND.

1. Maryland is divided, by Chesa-
_— Bay, into two parts, called the

astern and Western Shores. In travel-
ling through this state, we shall find that
the land on both sides of the bay is gen-
erally level, or moderately uneven. If
we proceed into the more western parts,
between the Potomac river and Pennsyl-
vania, we shall find hills, mountains, and
valleys.

2. There was, for many years, a dis-
pute about boundary, between the heirs
of William Penn, proprietor of what is
now the State of Pennsylvania, and the
heirs of Lord Baltimore, proprietor of
what is now the State of Maryland. In
1762, Mr. Charles Mason, of the Eng-
lish Royal Observatory, London, and
Mr. Jeremiah Dixon, were appointed to
run a line between the lands of the two

Delaware between 1682 and 1703? What cf Del-
aware after 1703? What took place in 1775 ?

Questions on the Map.— Boundaries? By what
bay is Maryland separated into two parts? What
counties in the eastern part? What in the west-
ern? Describe the Susquehanna, Potomac. Cap-
ital? In what county is Annapolis? Describe
Baltimore, Fredericktown, Cumberland.

1. Face of the country? 2. Mason aad Dixon's :
line? 3. Why so often mentioned? 4, What of



MARYLAND.-—SLAVERY—TOBACCO—SIGHTS IN BALTIMORE.

pee. This line was called Mason and
ixon’s line.

3. It so happens, that for several years
the slave states have been south of Ma-
son and Dixon’s line, and the states
free from slaves north of it. This has
made it to be often spoken of.

4. We shall not be long in Maryland
before we discover that there are a great
many negro slaves there. The negroes
do not generally choose their employ-
ments, like other people, but labor for
their owners as they direct.

5. In the states north of Maryland
slavery is not authorized by law. The
people there consider it a great evil, and
have taken care to abolish it. But in
Maryland, and the states south of it, the
jaws permit people to hold slaves. Many

rsons, even there, believe it wrong;
Pt it has been long practised. There
are many thousands of slaves in the
country, and it is therefore not easy to
devise any plan by which they can safe-
ly be set free.

6. We shall observe many fine wheat-
fields in Maryland, and many planta-
tions of tobacco. This plant is cultivated
in rows, like Indian corn, and it has
broad leaves, like a mullein. We shall
notice that almost all the labor in the
fields is performed by the negroes.

7. You will be delighted with Balti-
more. It is as large as Boston, and has
many interesting objects in it. ‘There
are public water-works, and two flour-
ishing medical colleges; one literary
college, and the Maryland University ;
also the fine building of the Exchange.
There is a tall monument, with a statue
of Washington on the top, that you can-
not fail to admire.

Se emerging
negro slaves? 5. What of Maryland and the states
south of it? 6, Wheat-fields.in Maryland? To-
bacco? Who cultivate the land in Maryland? 7.
What of Baltimore? Water-works? Colleges?

87

8. The Roman Catholie cathedral is
one of the finest churches in America.
When you go into it, you must be par-
ticular to take off your oe for the Cath-
olics reverence their churches very much,
and expect others who enter them to do
so too. You will see several beautiful
pictures in this church.

9. After seeing the rest of the city,
you should go to Howard-street, where

ou will notice a great many wagons,
oaded with flour. Baltimore is the

eatest flour-market in the world.

housands and thousands of bartels are
brought here every year from various
arts of Maryland, and from Delaware,
ennsylvania, and Virginia. It is then
sent in ships to New York, Boston,
Charleston, and various foreign coun-
tries.

10. I must tell you that there is a
great trade between Baltimore and the
states west of the Alleghany Mountains.
The western people buy a great many
goods at Baltimore, and send in return
a great deal of western produce. There
is, therefore, a vast deal of travelling
back and forth, and hundreds of cars



i ®
8. Catholic cathedral? 9. Howard-street? What
of Baltimore asa flour-market? 10. Western trade
of Baltimore? Cars? Describe the picture. 11.



are constantly occupied in transporting
goods and produce to and from market.

1]. It was in order to carry on all
this business more easily, that the peo-
ple very early built-what we call'a rail-
road. Its iron bars laid evenly along the

ound, by cutting down or oocak the

ills, and filling up the valleys and bridg-
ing the streams, allow the carriages,
with their small wheels, to run upon
them with wonderful facility. In this
way, you know, one horse would draw
as much as ten or a dozen horses, on a
common road. And if we mounta car,
we can be drawn by a locomotive from
twenty to sixty miles, or more, an hour.

12. In 1844, Nicholas, czar, or em-
peror, of the mighty empire of Russia,
in Europe and Asia, wished to build a
railroad, four hundred miles long, from
thecity of St. Petersburg to Moscow. He
sent to different countries, to have per-
sons try who could make the best steam
engines, locomotives, as they are called,
for his railroad.

13. The English and others tried, but
the engine of Mr. Winans, of Baltimore,
Maryland, was found to be the best.
The czar therefore requested him to
make one hundred and sixty-two loco-
motive steam engines, and five thousand
burthen cars to carry merchandise in ;
and three great, steam, pile or post-driv-
ing machines. All these will cost four
millions of dollars, and are to be made
in Russia, whither the Americans take
their workmen.

14. This is very honorable in the his-
tory of the arts in America; that our me-
chanics should make the best locomo-
tives, and that they should come over
from Europe to us for them. Besides

Whar .8 .he object of the railroads building from
Baltimore? Saving of time and strength? 12,
43. Nicholas? American engines in Russia?

THE FIRST BOOK OF HISTORY.—MARYLAND.

that, the emperor ‘sent here for Major
Whistler, an American engineer, to
come to Russia, to be chief engineer of
that mighty road, and make it.

15. Beside Baltimore, there are sev-
eral pleasant towns in Maryland. An-
mainte the seat of governinent, has a
handsome state-house, and Frederick-
town is a pleasant place. At Annapo-
lis is established a Naval School of the
United States, where young men are
educated to be officers in the navy.

16. The climate of Maryland is very
agreeable. The winter is never severe,
and often, when the rivers and lakes of
New England are frozen over, the creeks
and inlets along Chesapeake Bay are
covered with flocks of wild water-fowl.

17. Maryland is still increasing, and
now getting much business from the
Cumberland coal, which is brought by
railroad. from the mines in Virginia, and
from the facility and nearness of com-
munication she offers between the states
on both sides of the Alleghanies.

18. It was from Washington, D. C., to
Baltimore, Md., that its inventor, Pro-
fessor Morse, of New York, first set up,
by wires led on top of upright poles
x Be the line of the railroad, his mag-
netic telegraph, which, moving little
points by the electricity of a magnet,
writes what is said at one end plainly
down at the other, distant thirty-six.
miles, in two seconds. ‘This is now the
way of telling news between large cities; ,
it can be made perfectly secret.

19. In 1848, it extended south a
south-west to Petersburg and New Or-
leans; north to Montreal, Canada; and
west to St. Louis, Missouri, connecting

14° American engineers in Russia? 15. Annapo-
lis? U.S, Nayal School? Fredericktown? 16,
Climate of M.? 17. Coal? 18, Magnetic tele.
graph th Describe it, 19. Its extent in 1848? 20,



MARYLAND.—TELEGRAPH—BURNING OF THE CAPITOL, ETC. 89

ish went to attack Baltimore.
entered the mouth of the Pataysco wi

a fleet of sixty ships, and on the day
above mentioned, six thousand troops
were landed at North Point.

4. Now the people of Baltimore were
not in the humor for having their city
taken by the British soldiers; so there
was a great bustle in the streets. Men
were seen running to and fro,'with mus-
kets in their hands, and countenances
full of resolution. The merchants left
their counting-rooms ; the lawyers, their
offices ; the mechanics, their various em-
ployments; the drums beat; the fifes
screamed; and, assembled under the
command of their leaders, the bravest
and best men in the city went down to
meet the enemy. .

5. They met, and there was hard
fighting. The cannon bellowed, and
the musketry rent the air with a contin-
uefl roar. Many brave men fell on both
sides. But the Americans, being few
in number, were obliged to retreat.
General Ross, the British leader, was
killed; and finding, by the experiment
they had made, that the people of Balti-
more were inclined to treat them too
roughly, the British went away, ships,
sailors, soldiers, and all.

6. In one of the public squares of Bal-
timore, they have erected a beautiful
marble monument, to commemorate this
event, with the names of those who
were killed in this battle. Such are the
brave deeds which have recently taken
place in Maryland. Let us now con-
template the period when the white peo-
ple first settled upon these shores.

7, More than two hundred years ago,

all these points together, and centring
them in Washington. There are also
local branches between cities and towns.

20. This brings within a few minutes’
intellectual reach of each other, the peo-
ple upon four great rivers of North
America,—the Mississippi, the Ohio,
the Hudson, and the St. Lawrence.

21. In 1847, the whole of our presi-
dent’s annual message to Congress, which
contained eighteen thousand words, was
transmitted thus, from Washington to
St. Louis, Missouri, seventeen hundred
and fifty miles, in twelve hours.
























—

CHAPTER XXXIIl.
MARYLAND—Continvep.

1, Baltimore is situated on the river
Patapsco, which enters Chesapeake Bay,
about fourteen miles from the city. On
the northern side of this river is a piece
of land running into the bay, called
North Point. a should visit this
spot, for a famous battle was fought
there on the 12th of September, 1814.
At that time, our country was at war
with England. A great many English
soldiers and ships were sent over to fight
with our people.

2. On the 23d of August, they made
an attack on the city of Washington,
and as there were few American troops
there, they burnt the capitol, and several
other public buildings, and the presi-
dent’s house. The president himself
was obliged to ride very fast, to keep
out of their way.

3. After they had done this, the Brit-



What great rivers are put in communication by it?
21. What was done by it in 1847?

1. What of Baltimore? The Patapsco? North
Point? 2. What took place on the 23d of August,
18142 3, What took place at North Point on the



12th of September? 4. What took place in Balti-
more before the battle? 6. What took place when —
the British and Americans met? What followed?
6. Monument? 7. What of the Catholies two’



90

the Catholics in England were perse-
cuted as the Puritans had been before.
One of them, Lord Baltimore, deter-
mined therefore to come to America.
Accordingly he went to Virginia, which
had now been settled some time. But
he found the people there as little dis-
os to treat the Catholics kindly as in

ngland. So he went back to Eng-
land, and begged the king to give him
a charter of the land lying on Chesa-

ake Bay, then occupied only by the
ndians.

8, This request was granted ; but be-
fore the business was completed, he died.
His son, Cecil, also called Lord Balti-
more, determined to carry into effect the
plans of his father. So he obtained the
grant for himself, and in 1634 sent his
brother, Leonard Calvert, with two hun-
dred Catholic emigrants, to settle upon
the land on the Cliesapeake.

9. When they arrived at the mouth
of the Potomac river, they found an In-
dian village there, called Yoamaco.
This village they purchased of the sav-
ages, and thus obtained good shelter, till
they could build beiter houses. The
also acquired some good land, erhich
had been ‘cultivated. Their situation
was thérefore very comfortable.

10. The colonists found plenty of
wild deer in the woods, and abundance
of fish along the shores of the bay. The
sea-fowl were also numerous. There
were countless flocks of ducks, skim-
ming along the water, and settling down
around the islands; and there were
numbers of wild geese at the mouths of
the creeks and rivers.



hundred years ago? What of Lord Baltimore?
Virginia? 8. What of Cecil, Lord Baltimore?
Leonard Calvert? 9, What did the emigrants do
on arriving at the mouth of the Potomac? 10.
What did the colonists find? Wild fowl? 11.

THE FIRST BOOK OF HISTORY.—MARYLAND.

11. The colony flourished, as well
on account of its pleasant situation, as
the liberal policy of its government.
These Catholics did not persecute those
who differed with them in religious
opinion. Lord Baltimore, and Roger

illiams, of Rhode Island, seem to
have discovered, about the same time,
that every man has a right to worship
God as he pleases. Thus Rhode Island
and Maryland, at this early date, en-
joyed the blessings of entire religious
freedom.

12. Yet the colony, whose story I am
now telling you, had its share of trou-
bles. A man by the name of Clayborne
stirred up the Indians to hostility, and
they sal war on the settlers. This
continued for several years, and the peo-
ple suffered great distress. In 1646, the
same Clayborne induced some of the set-
tlers to rebel against their rulers, and
Calvert, the governor, was obliged to fly
to Virginia. But the next year, the re-
volt was suppressed. Governor Calvert
returned, and the colony once more en-
joyed a state of peace.

13. In 1666, the colony contained
about twelve thousand inhabitants. In
1676, Lord Baltimore, the founder of
the colony, died, leaving behind him the
enviable character of a wise and good
man. He was succeeded by his son
Charles, as proprietor of the colony, and
he displayed the same amiable qualities
as his father had done.

* 14, In 1689, King William assumed
the government of the colony; but in



Did the colony of M. flourish? Why? Lord
Baltimore and Roger Williams? Maryland and
Rhode Island? 12. What of the Indians? What
took place in 1645? 13. How many inhabitants
in M. in 1666? What in 1676? Character of
Lord B.? What of Charles, Lord Baltimore?
14, What took place in 16897 What in 17167



MAR YLAND.—CARROL’S TESTIMONY.—MIDDLE STATES.

1716, it was restored to Lord Baltimore,
and continued in the family till 1775.
The people then engaged with the other
colonies in the revolution, and Lotd
Baltimore’s claims ceased.

15. Before we leave Maryland, I
wish to tell you, in order to encourage
you to love your country, a story about
a good and great patriot, who lived near
Baltimore, and died in 1832, in his 96th

ar.
m6. In the year 1826, all but one of
the persons who were sent to Phila-
delphia from the different states in
1776, and signed the Declaration of our
Independence, of which you read in the
chapters on the Revolution,—had died ;
—of them the venerable Charles Carrol,
of Carrolton, in Maryland, alone re-
mained among the living.

17. The government of the city of
New York, therefore, appointed a com-
mittee to wait on him, and obtain from
him, to deposite in their City Hall, a
copy of that Declaration, signed again
by him. The aged patriot yielded to
the request, and affixed, with his own
hand, to a copy of that instrument, the
grateful, solemn, and pious words which
follow :

18. “Grateful to Almighty God, for
the blessings which, through Jesus
Christ our Lord, he has conferred on
my beloved country, in her emancipa-
tion, and on myself, in permitting me,
under circumstances of mercy, to live to
the age of 89 years, and to survive the
fiftieth year of American Independence,
and certify, by my present signature, my
approbation gf the Declaration of Inde-
pendence, adopted by Congress on the
4th of July, 1776, which I originally
subscribed on the 2d day of August of

——— eS

What in 17757 15—18, Tell what is said of
Charles Carrol.







91

the same year, and of which I am now
the last surviving signer, — I do hereby
recommend, to the present and future
generations, the principles of that im-
portant document, as the best earthly
inheritance their ancestors could be-
queath to them, and pray that the civil
and religious liberties they have secured
to my country, may be perpetuated to
remotest posterity and extended to the
whole family of man. ’
“ CHartes Carrot, of Carrolton.
“ Aug. 2, 1826.”

CHAPTER XXXIV.
MIDDLE STATES.

1. I have now given you a brief
sketch of the geography and history of
the five Middle States. These are
classed together merely on account of
their sityation, and not because of any
similarity either in the history or the
manners of the people. They were
settled at different times, by people from
different countries, who came for differ-
ent purposes ;—some for trade ; some
to improve their fortunes; and some for
religious peace.

2, There is no such resemblance be-
tween the people of these five states,
their manners, customs, and opinions,
as between the people of New England.
On the contrary, we shall find great
variety among the inhabitants, their
tow arndae bese eae aienenat aac

Map of the Middle Statee.— Boundaries of
each of the five Middle States? Distance and di-
rection of the several capitals of the Middle States
from the. city of New York? What three great
cities in the Middle States? What three great
rivers? Describe them, Extent of the Middle
States? Population?

1. What of the Middle States? Settlement of
the Middle States? When and by whom was
each of the Middle States settled? 2. What of



92

houses, dress, manner of tilling the
land, thoughts, feelings, and opinions,
in different parts of this section of the
Union.

3. If you will look at the map, you
will observe, that the two largest cities,
and three of the finest rivers, in the
Union, are in these states. New York
is the largest city on the American con-
tinent, and the Hudson is one of the
noblest navigable rivers in the world.

4. In point of soil and climate, these
states doubtless surpass all the others
situated upon the Atlantic. They are
generally very fertile, producing grain
and fruit in the greatest perfection and
abundance. They are equally removed
from the severe winters of the north,
and the burning summers of the south.

5. Thus happily placed in the heart
of the country, they are growing in

pulation and wealth. Previous to the

rench war, which has been before men-
tioned, these states never acted in con-
cert. They were then separate colonies,
with .separate interests. They have
therefore no common histéry until the
year 1756, when they united with the
other colonies, to resist the French and
Indians. The history of that war will
be given hereafter.

CHAPTER XXXV.
STATE OF VIRGINIA.

1. We have now reached Virginia,
the oldest and largest state in the Union.





the people of the Middle States? Houses, dress,
&.? 3. What of New York? The Hudson? 4,
Soil of the Middle States? Climate? 5. Growth
of the Middle States previous to the French war?

Questions on the Map of the Southern States.
— Boundaries of Virginia? Describe the Rappa-
hannock, James, York. What mountains in Vir-

THE FIRST BOOK OF HISTORY.—VIRGINIA.

We shall not find as good roads, nor aa
stages, here, as in the Middle and
astern States, nor shall we meet with
so many handsome houses, nor shall
we, at the distance of every few miles,
come to a pleasant little village.

2. We shall remark that the houses
are scattered, and that the land, instead
of being divided into small farms, is laid
out in extensive plantations of several
hundred acres each. Instead of mead-
ows, apple orchards, and small patches
of rye, Indian corn, and flax, we shall
see vast plains covered with crops of
tobacco, wheat, and hemp. _ We shall
see, that the whole labor of the field
is performed, on these plantations, by
the negroes. The planters themselves
have large houses, and live in excellent
style.

3. In travelling through the country,
we shall not meet with many taverns ;
it may therefore be convenient to stop
for a night at a planter’s house. We
may be sure of a hearty welcome, and
the liberal host will take nothing in pay-
ment. Ifit is autumn, he will probably
invite us to go the next day in chase of
deer. There are a great many of these
animals still in Virginia, and the plant-
ers hunt them on horseback, with packs
of hounds. We must take care that our
travels do not take place in the summer,
for then it is.very hot in eastern Vir-
ginia. We had better go in the winter,
and thus, while New England is buried
up in snow-drifts, we may travel at our
ease in the Southern States.



ginia? How does the Blue Ridge cross the state?
How does the Alleghany range cross the state?
Capital? Describe Norfolk, Petersburg, James-
town,

1, What of Virginia? 2. Houses and lands in
Virginia? 3. Labor? Planters? What if we
stop over night ata planter’s house? What of



VIRGIN A.—CURIOSITIES—RAILROADS—SALT-WELLS.

4, Virginia may be divided into three
parts. That which lies toward the sea-
coast is level and sandy; that which lies
east of the Blue Ridge is hilly, and that
which lies west of it is mountainous. In
the western part of the state, there are
fewer negroes, and the white people
labor on the farms.

5. There are several remarkable cu-
riosities in this state. One is a Natural
Bridge, composed of rocks; it is two
hundred and fifty feet high, and a little
river flows beneath it at the bottom.
Wier’s Cave is an astonishing work of
nature. ' It consists of several spacious
caverns in the rocks, more than two
thousand feet in length. The sides are
covered over with beautiful crystals. If
you enter the cave with a light, it is re-
flected by these crystals, and you will
be astonished at the wonderful brilliancy
of the scene.

6. There are several other caves in
Virginia, one of which is called the
Blowing Cave. From this, a stream of
air issues so powerful as to blow down
the grass ead weeds, to the distance of
sixty feet from the mouth.

7. In the western part of the state,
near the Ohio, is a remarkable mound
of earth, filled with human bones. It
‘is seventy feet high, and three hundred
feet across at the bottom. This won-
derful hill must have been built long
before the white people came to Amer-
ica. It is probable, indeed, that it was
constructed many ages since, ever be-
fore the race of savages we are ac-
quainted with occupied the country, It
was, no doubt, the work of a people who
lived, flourished, and passed away, leav-



deer? 4. How may Virginia be divided? De-
scribe these three divisions. What of the western
part of the state? 5, Natural Bridge? Wier’s
Cave? 6. Blowing Cave? 7. Mound of earth?







ing no record behind them, but these
mounds, to tell that they ever existed.

8. Richmond, the seat of government

in Virginia, is a handsome place, and the
largest town in the state. Norfolk has
a great deal of trade. Lynchburg, on
James river, has some manufactares,
and deals extensively in the produce of
the country. Great quantities of flour,
hemp, and tobacco, the staples of Vir-

inia, are sent down James river to
ichmond, from this place, by a, canal,

called James River and Kenawha Canal.

9. There is also a railroad from Har-

per’s Ferry to Winchester, in the valley
of Virginia, as it is called, and as fine
a macadamized road from Winchester
to Staunton, and through as beautiful a
mee as lever saw. A railroad runs

from Petersburg to Weldon, in North
Carolina; whence one goes to Norfolk,
where is the U. S. Navy Yard, or. Chesa-

ake Bay. Another railroad goes from
Richmond to Potomac river, and another
towards the mountains in Louisa County.

10. At Saltville, in Smythe County,
are salt-wells, whence they draw water
to boil and make salt. And in the next
county, Wythe, we can see rich mines
of lead, in which silver is found also.
There is coal among the Alleghany
Mountains, as well as near Richmond ;
these latter mines will be very interest-
ing to visit, black as they are. Marble
and gold are found in Virginia, and
plenty of figs grow in Accomac County.

11. On the banks of the Kenawha,
you must not forget to see, if you travel
there, a very curious natural fire. They
have dug there, near Charleston, nu-
merous salt-wells, for — salt.
From one of these issues up, through

ee
g. Richmond? Norfolk? Lynchburg? Flour
hemp, and tobacco? 9, Railroads, &.? 10. Salt
wells? Lead mines?. Minerals? Figs? 11.



the water, constantly, a great quantity
of gas, which burns very freely in the
air. This gas they lead under the ket-
tles, and light it and boil with it. Thus
the same well furnishes salt water, and
fuel to make salt from it.

12, Virginia is looking forward now
to increased prosperity. Her mountain-
ous counties, aanle have much im-

roved. A number of persons from
Western N. York and Pennsylvania are

urchasing lands and water-power in

irginia, and they, moving there with
their enterprise and industry, will doubt-
less develop the resources of this, one of
the best located countries on the globe.
Thousands annually visit, for health and
recreation, the Virginia sulphur and
other mineral springs, in the central
mountainous counties.

13. If we had time, we could find
here a great deal to amuse us. In Rus-
sell County, the south-west part of the
state, on Stock Creek, near Clinch river,
I have seen another natural bridge,
more vast than the one I told you of be-
fore; and in Lee County, adjoining, is
one with three perfect arches, which
persons ‘have dammed up, and in the
centre one of which they have erected
a grist-mill. Roads go over both of
them. In Hampden County, the north-
west part of the state, is the Ice Moun-
tain, over the surface of which, in the
hottest days of summer, you can find ice,
by turning up stones, or looking into any
caverns of the rock.

14. In 1836, died here, John Mar-
shall, the able chief justice of the United
States, and in 1837, James Madison
died, ex-president of our Union.



Kenawha salt wells? N 2 12. Settlers?
Springs? ,13. Natural 9 Ice Mountain?
14. Distinguished men?

\

THE FIRST BOOK OF HISTORY.—VIRGINIA.

CHAPTER XXXVI.
VIRGINIA—Continvgp.

1. Before we leave Virginia, we must
visit Monticello, the seat of the late
Thomas Jefferson. He was once presi-
dent of the United States, as I shall
have occasion by and by to tell you.
He died on the 4th of July, 1826.

2. There is another place in this state,
that we must not fail to visit. This is
a pleasant hill, called Mount Vernon.
Here General Washington lived, and at
a little distance from the house where
he dwelt, is a tomb, in which his body
reposes. I shall have many things to
te Pha of this great and good man. He
died in the year 1799. I recollect when
the event eerie though I was then
achild. Such was the sorrow of the
people when the sad news came, that
the bells were tolled, and everybody
went into mourning.

3. In the south-eastern part of the
state is a place called Jamestown. It
is ona little island in James river, about
thirty miles from its mouth. The place
is now in ruins, but if you visit it, you
will desire to know its history.. An an-
cient churchyard, the crumbling chim-
ney of a church, a few traces of old
houses, and rude fortifications, will make
you feel that there is an interesting story
connected with them.

4. The story is indeed interesting,
and I will now tell you a part of it; I
am sorry that I have not room for the
whole. I must commence at a period
when as yet no white people dwelt in
America. This vast country, now occu-
pied by twenty millions of inhabitants,



1. Monticello? Thomas Jefferson? 2. Mount
Vernon? Washington? 3. Jamestown? 4. Th



VIRGINIA. —ADVENTURERS— RUINS—SUFFERINGS—STORY.

was then a wide hunting-ground for the
Indians. They alone dwelt in its val-
leys, roamed over its hills and moun-
tains, and sailed upon its rivers and

ys.

5. The Spaniards had penetrated into
South America, and found countries
abounding in silver and gold. Stories
of their success were circulated through-
out Europe, and the spirit of adventure
entered into many minds. In England
a company was formed for making a
settlement in North America; and, hav-
ing obtained a grant of land, they de-
spatched three ships, with one hundred
and five adventures, for the new world.

6. After sailing across the Atlantic, a
storm drove them into the mouth of
Chesapeake Bay. On approaching the
land, they discovered a large and beau-
tiful river, which they determined to
ascend. They had several interviews
with the Indians, who received them



Q with Indians ‘on James River.

kindly. One day, as some of them
were ashore, an Traian chief came to
them, with a bow and arrow in one
hand, and a pipe in the other, and asked
them for what purpose they came.

comet EE his kietiatinareampsnniansperneepieenetie

past and present? 65. The Spaniards? A com-
pany in England? 6. What of the one hundred

7. They replied, by signs, that they
wished to settle on the lands in peace,
and so the chief received them well.
Another chief offered them as much
land as they desired, and sent them a
deer, as a mark of good will.

8. On the 18th of May, 1607, the
emigrants landed, and began their es-
tablishment. It was on an island in the
river. The river they called James
river, and the village they called James-
town. This was the first permanent
English settlement in North America;
and the ruins I have described are the
remains of the ancient town which these
people built.

9. The colonists soon began to expe-
rience difficulties which they had not
foreseen. The provisions they brought
with them were at length exhausted ;
and, having planted nothing, they were
in great want of food. Beside this, the
climate being hot and damp, many of
them were ies sick, and in the course
of four months, fifty of them died.

10. They were now in great distress,
and hardly knew what to do. In this
emergency, they consulted one of their
number, named John Smith. He was
certainly one of the most extraordinary
men that ever lived. At the age of
fifteen, he left England, and travelled
on foot through Spain, France, and Ger-
many.

11. Here he entered the army of the
emperor of Austria, and at length ob-
tained the command of a troop of horse.
One day he challenged a Turk to fight
with him: this was accepted, and,



and five persons who set out for America? De-
scribe the picture. 7. The Indians? 8, What
took place on the 13th May, 1607? James river?
Jamestown? What was the first it Eng
lish settlement in North America? 9, What of
the colonists? 10. John Smith? Describe his



96 THE FIRST BOOK OF HISTORY.—VIRGINIA.



























mounted on fine horses, the two combat-
ants met in the field. After a desperate
struggle, Smith killed the Turk. Not
satisfied with this, he challenged anoth-
er, and finally a third, and killed these,
as he had done the first.

12. After this, he was in a battle with
the Turks, and, being wounded, was
taken by the latter, and sent prisoner to
Constantinople. Here he was made a
slave, and was treated cruelly by his
master; but his mistress took compas-
sion on him, and sent him to her broth-
er, who lived at a great distance, re-

uesting that he might be treated kindly.

ut her directions were not followed,
and Smith received the same harsh
treatment as before.

13. Irritated by this, he slew his new
master. He then travelled in various
countries, meeting with strange adven-
tures wherever he went. He finally re-
turned to England, and joined the expe-
dition to Virginia. While they were at
sea, the emigrants became jealous of him,
and put him in confinement. In this
condition he remained, until the distress
_ of the colony rendered his assistance
necessary.

14. They then granted him a trial ;
and being acquitted, he immediately
adopted measures for remedying the
existing evils. He set about building
a fort, to protect the people from the In-
dians, and made long journeys into the
wilderness, to procure corn, and other
food, of the natives.

15. On one occasion, he obtained an
idol, made of skins, and stuffed with
moss. This the savages reverenced
very much; and in order to get it back,
they gave him as much corn as he asked
for. '

i il ha ci apatites
adventures. 13. What did the emigrants do with
Smith? 14, What did Smith do? 16. Why did

16. Nothing could exceed the bold-
ness and enterprise of this singular man,
yet it must be confessed that his conduct
was not always regulated by justice or
truth. In his intercourse with the sav-
ages, he resorted to stratagem or vio-
lence, if he could not succeed in his
plans by other means. _It was partly on
this account that the Indians began to
hate the white people ; and Smith him-
self nearly fell a victim to the feelings
of revenge he had excited.

17. He went one day to explore the
little river Chickahominy. Having as-
cended as far as he could in a boat, he
left it in charge of his men, and proceed-
ed along the bank of the river, with two
white men and two Indian guides. But
ng long after he was gone, the savages,
who were lurking in the woods, sur-
rounded the mén in the boat, and took
them prisoners.

18. They then pursued Smith, and
soon coming up with him, killed his
white companions with their arrows,
and ‘eae himself. But with an
undaunted spirit, he fired upon his ene-
mies, and tying one of the Indian guides
to his side, he continued to retreat tow-
ard the boat. Awed by his bravery, the
savages kept aloof; but at length he
came to a place where he sank in the
mire.

19. Being unable to extricate himself,
his enemies now seized him, and took
him in triumph to Powhatan, their king.
A council was now held, to determine
what should be done with the prisoner,
and it was decided that he should die.
He was accordingly brought forth, and
being laid on the ground, his head was
placed upon a stone.

Spt at alee
the Indians hate the white people? 17—21. Tel)

the adventures of Smith, as he went to explore the
river Chickahominy. °



VIRGINIA.—SMITH RESCUED—STATE OF THE COLONY.

20, Powhatan claimed the honor of
killing him. He took a Jarge club, and
oe it high in the air, was about to
give the fatal blow, when his daughter,
moved by pity, rushed to the prisoner,
and sheltered his body by herown. The
astonished chief brought his club slowly
to the ground, and a murmur of surprise
burst from the lips of the savages who
stood around.



Pocahontas saving Smith.

21. The chief now raised his daugh-
ter, and Seeming to be touched by that
pity which had affected her so much,
gave Smith his liberty, and sent him
back to Jamestown.



CHAPTER XXXVII.
VIRGINIA—Conrinvep.

1. On his arrival at Jamestown, Smith
found the number of settlers reduced to
thirty-eight. They were so disheart-
ened, that most of them had determined
to abandon the settlement, and go back
to England. Smith remonstrated, but
they would not stop. They entered a
small vessel, and prepared to sail down
the river. He determined that they
should not go; so he pointed the guns



1. What of Smith and settlers on his return?





97

of the fort at the vessel, and threatened
to sink her, if they did not return.
Alarmed at this, they gave up their
project, and came ashore.

. 2. The colony was.now almost in a
starving condition; but Smith, by this
time, had acquired such a reputation for
courage among the Indians, that they
did not dare to refuse supplies. Poca-
hontas, too, the beautiful Indian girl
who had saved his life, continued to be
his friend, and sent him such articles
as were most needed. Thus the colony
was able to subsist till Captain Newport,
who brought out the first settlers, re-
turned to the colony, bringing with him
a quantity of provisions, and one hun-
dred and twenty persons.

3. Now that the danger was over, the
colonists would no longer submit to the
government of Smith. Disorder and
confusion among the people soon fol-
lowed. About the same time, the pas-
sion for gold, which had induced many
of the settlers to come to the country,
was again excited. Some particles of
yellow shining earth were found in the
bank of a little stream, north of James-
town. Captivated with the idea of get-
ting suddenly rich, the colonists left their
proper employments, and went to dig
what they supposed to be gold.

4. Smith endeavored to dissuade .

‘them, but they would not listen: to him.

Nothing was thought of, or talked of,
but gold. So they all went to filling
the ship with the earth, which they sup-
posed to contain particles of that precious
metal. At length she was loaded, and
sailed for England. When she arrived
there, the cargo was examined, and found
to be nothing but common mud, filled
with little pieces of shining stone.

2. State of the colony? Pocahontas? 3, What of
Smith and the colonists? 4. Gold? 5. What



98 THE FIRST BOOK OF

5. There is alesson to be drawn from
this point of history. “All is not gold
that glitters,” says the proverb; and so
the Virginians found it. I hope my
readers, ff thefdre ever tempted by an
shining prospect to depart from the path
of duty, will recollect that what seems
to be gold often proves to be only vulgar
dust. -

6. Smith, finding that he could not
be useful, left the colonists digging for
gold, and went himself to explore the
coasts of the Chesapeake Bay. Having
been absent some time, he returned, and
after a while went again to traverse the
wilderness. He often met with Indians,
and traded with some, fought with some,
and again went back to the settlement,
leaving with the natives an awful im-
pression of his valor.

7. He was now chosen president, and
the people submitting to his authority,
order was soon restored. Habits of in-
dustry were resumed, and peace and
plenty soon smiled upon the colony.

8. In 1609, the London company sent
out nine ships, with nine hundred emi-
grants to the colony. On board of one
of these vessels there were some officers
appointed to rule over them. This, un-
happily, was driven by a storm upon the
Bermudas, and detained for a long time.
- The other vessels arrived safely ; but the
persons who came in them were of a vi-
cious character, and refused to permit
Smith to govern them. He determined,
however, that he would be obeyed, and
accordingly he seized upon several of
them, and put them in prison. This
alarmed the rest, and order was again
restored



Jesson is to be drawn from the conduct of the Vir-
ginians? 6. What did Smith do? 7. To what
pffice was Smith chosen on his second return?
What followed? 8. What happened in 16097





HISTORY.— VIRGINIA.

9. It was about this time that she
Indians, fearing that the white pe ple
would become too powerful, determined
to make a sudden attack upon them, and
kill them all. Pocahontas heard of this
scheme, and resolved, if possible, to save
the English. Accordingly, one dark and
stormy night, she left her father’s wig-
wam, and went alone, through the for-
ests, to Jamestown. Here she found
Smith, and apprized him of the threat-
ened danger. She then returned, and
Smith took immediate measures to put

‘the colony in a state of defence.

10. The Indians, finding the people

watchful and prepared, gave up their
project.
save the life of
lives of all the white people in the col-

Thus again did Pocahontas

mith, as well as the

ony.

ii. About this time, Smith received
a dangerous wound, which obliged him
to go to England, to consult a surgeon.
The Indians, finding the only man they
feared was gone, attacked the colony,

and, cutting off their supplies, reduced

them to the greatest extremity.
12. Such, in a short time, was their
miserable condition, that they devoured

the skins of their horses, the bodies of
the Indians they had killed, and the flesh

of their dead companions. In six months,
their number was reduced, from more
than five hundred, to sixty.

13. At this point of time, the persons
who had been wrecked at Bermuda ar-
rived; but they, with the other settlers,
all agreed that it was best to quit the

What of one vessel? Who were on board this
vessel? Character of the new emigrants? What
did they do? What did Smith do? 9, 10. What
plan was formed by the Indians about this time ?
What did Pocahontas do? 11. What of Smith?
The Indians? 12. Condition of the colony? How
was the number of the colonists reduced? 13.
What of the persons who had been wrecked at



*

‘

VIRGINIA,—THE COLONY PROSPERS—A MARRIAGE—a PLOT. 99

settlement, and return to England. Ac-
cordingly they sailed down the river for’
that purpose. Fortunately, they were
met by Lord Delaware, who had come
in a vessel from England, loaded with
provisions. This revived their courage,
and they went back to Jamestown.

CHAPTER XXXVIII.
VIRGINIA—Continvep.

1, The colony now began to enjoy
more favorable prospects. Lord Dela-
ware, who was governor, restored order
and contentment by his mild and gentle
conduct, and the Indians were once
more taught to respect and fear the
English. In 1611 new settlers arrived,
and other towns were founded; and un-
der a succession of wise governors, Vir-
ginia became a flourishing and extensive

colony.

2. Th 1612, Captain Argal went on a
trading voyage up the Potomac, and
heard that Pocahontas was in the neigh-
borhood. He invited her to come on
board his vessel, and she came. He
then detained her, and carried her to
Jamestown. He knew that Powhatan
loved his daughter, and thought, while
she was in the possession of the Eng-
lish, that he would be afraid to do them
mischief.

3. But the noble-hearted chief, indig-
nant at the treachery that had been prac-
tised, refused to listen to any terms of
peace, till his daughter was restored. ©

4, While Pocahontas was at James-
cost Accent tehilichpnintinciinalcicentnctnttigaitiniaaieatamasetiartbiarimmnstiiy

Bermuda? What did the colonists do? What
of Lord Delaware? What did the emigrants do?

1. Condition of the colony under Lord Dela-
ware? What happened in 1611? What of Vir-
ginia after this? 2, Captain Argal and Pocahon-
tas? 3, Powhatan? 4, Mr. Rolfe and Pocahon-

town, a respectable young Englishman,
named Rolfe, sesidiin very fort ot her.
She was, indeed, a very interesting wo-
man; simple, innocent, and beautiful.
Pocahontas soon became attached to
Rolfe, and with the consent of Powhat-
an, they were married. This was fol-
mo by peace between the colony and
all the tribes subjectto Powhatan. Soon
after, Rolfe visited England with his
bride. She was received by the king
and queen with the respect due to her
virtues as a woman, and her rank as a
princess. When she was about to re-
turn to America, she died, leaving one
child, from whom some of the most re-
spectable families in Virginia have de-
scended.

5. New settlers now frequently ar-
rived, and the colony rapidly increased.
In 1619, a Dutch vessel came to James-
town, bringing twenty Africans, who
were purchased by the people. These
were the first slaves brought into our
country, and thus the foundation was
primarily laid for that system of slavery
which now pervades the Roadie States.

6. In 1622, in the midst of apparent
peace and prosperity, the colony was on
the point of annihilation. Powhatan, the
friend of the English, was dead. His
successor, Opecancanough, was a chief
of great talent ; but he secretly hated the
English, and formed a scheme for their
destruction. By his art and eloquence,
he persuaded all the neighboring tribes
to unite in an effort to kill every white
man, woman, and child, throughout the
colony.

tas? What followed the marriage of Mr. Rolfe

and Pocahontas? Where did they go after their

marriage? How was Pocahontas received by the

king and queen? What else of Pocahontas? 5.

What took place in 1619? 6. What took place itt

16227 What of Opecancanough? 7. What did
“-



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The Baldwin Library

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PICTURE OF THE WESTERN HEMISPHERE.



NORTH AND SOUTH AMERICA
PARLEY’S FIRST BOOK OF HISTORY.

THE

FIRST BOOK OF HISTORY,

FOR

CHILDREN AND YOUTH.

BY THE AUTHOR OF PETER PARLEY’S TALES



WITH SIXTY-EIGHT ENGRAVINGS AND SIXTEEN MAPS.
FOURTH REVISED EDITION—ENLARGED AND IMPROVED—
BROUGHT DOWN TO 1850.
——@————
BOSTON:
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Entered according to Act of Congress, in the year 1848, by

Cuar.es J, Henpves,
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SCHOOL BOOKS PUBLISHED BY JENKS, PALMER & CO., BOSTON,

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PREFACE.

_

Awone the multitude of books for instructing the young, there are not a few of an historical
nature ; but it is remarkable that History is not a universal, nor even a general study in out
common schools. ‘This cannot arise from any want of adaptation in the subject itself to the
purposes of instruction ; on the contrary, it is manifest, that it is peculiarly adapted to these
purposes. We do not mean to say this of history as it has been generally treated ; for most
school-books of this kind are but little more than extended chronological tables, and offer
nothing to the reader but a tedious mass of dates and general observations. Such works
may be useful to people of mature age; but they neither amuse nor instruct the class of read-
ers for whom they are designed. But of all reading, there is none that so readily attracts
the attention, and iss hold of the sympathy of children and youth, as lively narratives of the
enterprises, adventures, dangers, trials, successes, and failures of mankind; and these ‘it is
the business of histor'y to display. Books which treat of the works of nature and art, which
exhibit geographical details, observations upon natural history, and natural philosophy — any
or all of these will be immediately thrown aside by a child left to his choice, for,a book of
stories, delineating events in connection with the development of human passions.

If, then, history, when properly treated, is one of the most attrattive of all studies, why is
it not regularly taught in all our schools? It is not because it is deemed less useful than
other studies ; ‘‘the proper study of mankind is man,’’ and it cannot be entered upon too
soon, After possessing a knowledge of religion, and the duties we owe to God and our
neighbor, history is the most important of all studies. It relates to us what has been done
by mankind, and thus teaches us what they may do. It acquaints us with the true character
of our race, and enables us to know ourselves better. It apprizes us of the existence of evil,
and the way to shun it; it acquaints us with the existence of good, and shows us how to
attain it.

It cannot be, therefore, that the limited use of history, in our schools, is owing to an idea
that it if useless. The fact must arise from the want of historical books, written in a style
which shall render them both interesting and profitable, Such at least is the conviction of
the author of this volume ; and believing that a First Book of History for general use in our
schools is much to be desired, he has undertaken, and now offers to the publio, the present
volume.

Tn preparing it, two things have been had in view. In the first place, it should be useful ;
and in the second place, to make it useful, it must be entertaining. To accomplish these
ends, the book is provided with maps, and before the pupil enters upon the history of any
state or country, he is to learn from them its shape, boundaries, rivers, shores, &c. He is
then briefly made acquainted with its present state, its towns and cities, and the occupations
of its inhabitants. ese geographical details are conveyed to the pupil, by narrating sup-
posed travels through various countries, in which he takes a part. j Y

The pupil, being thus acquainted with the present condition of a country, is then told its
history. The author has been careful to introduce precise dates ; for without them, it would
be impossible to give any distinct view of any portion of history. But he has sought more
assiduously to select from the great mass of events, those topics which would be most calcu-
lated to please and to improve the young reader. He has introduced many tales,
adventures, and curious particulars, for the double purpose of enlivening the book,
throwing light upon the naps wee events with. which they are connected. A large numbet
of engravings have been i , a8 well for illustration, as for fixing certain ideas perma-
nently in the memory of the pupil. 2

A familiar style has been adopted, and the materials throughout are arranged on @ new
6 PREFACE.

plan. The common method is to begin at the earliest date, and follow down the train of
events to the present time. The author of this work has partially reversed this method. He
begins with the individual states of our own country, and first exhibits their present e He then notices a few recent events, and having fixed the attention of the reader upon the
subject, proceeds to narrute the history. Avoiding general statements, he has endeavored to
keep the attention and interest of the pupil alive, by descriptions, sketches, and tales, which
may at once gratify the taste and improve the understanding.

t will be observed, that, although the book contains a large quantity of matter, yet it em-
braces the history of the Western Continent only. It is believed that it will be more useful
than if it contained the history of the Eastern Continent, also, in the same number of pages.
In proportion as a work is condensed, it becomes general, and of course, uninteresting to
children. It was deemed preferable, therefore, to give an ample history of our own Hemi-

here, and if the plan should be approved, a second volume, embracing the history of the

Hemisphere, will be published.* :

* Since the above was written, Pariey’s Seconp Boox or History, embracing the history of the
Eastern Hemisphere, and Partey’s Tuirp Boox or History, containing Ancient History, have been
published. They are both upon the same plan as this work, connecting History with Geography, are
written in the same attractive style, contain maps and engravings, and are extensively introduced as
class-books in the schools of the United States.

Se

PUBLISHERS’ NOTICE TO THE REVISED EDITION OF THIS WORK

Tue first edition of this werk was published several years ago, since which time, it has
run through nearly three hundred editions, and acquired a very extended circulation. The
maps and engravings have beenre-drawn and newly engraved, and such corrections and ad-
ditions have been made as the changes in the condition of the several states and countries
treated of in the work render necessary. This edition, therefore, may be considered as
adapted to the existing political geography of North and South America, the work having
been enlarged so as to embrace the interesting events of the last few years, and care having
been taken so to make the additions, that the new edition can be conveniently used with the
former ones.

The work has already met with unexampled encouragement ; but it is hoped this improved
edition may be found even more worthy of the public favor than the preceding ones.

Boston, January 1, 1850.

———}jy-——_
SUGGESTIONS TO TEACHERS.

Tue author would respectfully suggest, that this volume be put into the hands of pupils of from nine
to sixteen years of age. It js not perhaps essential, but it would be better, that they should have passed
through some small work on geography. The teacher is, of course, at liberty to reject the questions on
the chapters inserted throughout the work, and to frame such interrogations for exercising the pupil, as
he chooses. It is recommended, even if they are used, that they be not strictly adhered to ; the teacher’s
knowledge of the character of his pupils, will often suggest to him more apt and appropriate inte: -
tions, than could be framed without that knowledge. At the end of the work is a Chronological Table,
which the author deems important, and recommends to be thoroughly riveted in the memory of the
pupil, before he is allowed to quit the study: occasional reference to the Pronouncing Index is also
in. It is also recommended that the pupil, in his progress through the work, be required to tell
the length, and average Width ofeach ofthe countries found onthe maps; this may be ascertained with
sufficient accura applying the scale of miles. some other parts studies,
sapllouay toad ie sid tf the teallon
CONTENTS.

c want 1 a on ae. — etians
usiness, First s|
building. Pretatics. Ice-cutting. Moons.
Lumbering.
CHAP, 2, Marnz, continued.—Indian Old
Town. Penobscot tribe. History. Settle-
ment in _— Story of the coat ee
tribe. History of cea or
Sehools, . oss 6 Vier gre we whe

CHAP, 3. Nie Wsisbeaiis: Saat of Shoals,
Codfish. Sea Serpent. phy. Ques-
tions on the Map. Different c’ imate fe trees

as you ae coe towns. Moun-
talus. ‘Lakes. ‘The Notch.

CHAP. 4, New eae continued, —
Slide of a mountain. ae Attack on
Dover. Railroads... ......... +20

CHAP. “* ae, 1 ieee phy and Ques-
tions, ountains, Rail-
roads, a ige Meech’s Farm. Towns. Pro-
duction for each person in different states.
Maple Sugar. Sleighing. Schools.

CHAP. 6. Vermont, continued. —Inunda-

tion, Battle on Lake ore Of Ben-
nington. Settlement... ......... 24
CHAP. 7 Massacuuserrs. — Geography.

Commerce. Fish. Ice cutters, Factories.
Salt vats, Boston, Water-works. Rail-
roads. Towns. Farmers. Ocean steam-
boats. Bunker Hill Monument. Great men
who have died. Mount an Comane,
TesHtUUOMES 636s hes as biases. Se ae

CHAP. 8 Massacnuserts, dinlanad —
Centennial celebration. Settlement of Bos-
ton. Of Plymouth. Other ee =
tory. . + 32

CHAP. 9, Ruopg#lstanv. —Towns. Geog-
raphy and Questions. Story of Lafayette and
the tridge. Roger Williams and cotlamant.
Clambake : “— Schools. Bi-
ography. . eee .

CHAP. 10, Filla ac Deseri a.
Questions on hy. Norwich Indian:

ew London, . Towns, New
Haven. People. First steamboats. Silk. . 36

CHAP. a amreeteers continued. — Her-

mitess, Say Eade Ches-

ter ia)
they make. :
CHAP. 12. Diciacn: sc etleene ="

oS), p10 hee CNG . .

2.9 0 ue

ograpl a Connecticut river. Anecdite
Yankees. Railroads, Sav-

ings Banks, ‘Life Insurance, Health Insur-

ance. Fire and Marine Insurance... . . . 42

CHAP. 13. New Enatann, continued, ~
History. The Puritans. Settlement. Ply-
mouth Samoset, Massassoit. Anec-
dote. Other settlers. Salem. Boston. Dor-
chester. Lady Arabella Johnson... .. . 44

CHAP. 14. New Enatanp, ecdntinued. —
Two colonies, Plymouth and Massachusetts.
Sir Henry Vane. Ann Hutchinson, Indians,
Capture of Mystic. Union of colonies for
defetice, . eee ee oe e

CHAP. 15. New Enatanp, continued. —
ewe of the —. oes ae excites
to war. . oe e « 4

ca, New Bnguane, coattuned _

ngfie jurnt. laughter at

Brook. 7 cil. "The "ert Ham chien
ttack on Broo! lp
Death of Philip. . Rowagests. ‘

CHAP. 17. New tein continued. —
Charters of the Colonies taken away. a
dros imprisoned, and sent to aa,
posed witchcraft at Salem. fone ee

CHAP. 18. New Binal. continued, —
War between England and France. Attack
on Haverhill. Story of Mr. Dunstan. Mrs.
Dunstan, Sere nne’s War. Attack on
Deerfield. Port Ro’ aan. Peace, Can-
ada taken by the Brit ' - 54

CHAP. 19. New oil continued, —
— war in Maine. King George’s War.
apture of Louisburg. Peace. French and
Indian War. Treaty of Paris. Trouble be-
tween the American Colonies and eet,
beginning the Revolution... ... . . 56

CHAP. 20, Tue Punirans.— Their charse-
ter, Oe in coming to America. Perse-
cution of the Baptists,.....-+..... 58

CHAP. 21. Tue Pvarrans, omens —
Dusoestne of the Quakers, Reflecti
th morning in the forests, Other

oVD ce © 0.0; 618

se 0.0 @ 0 3 ae

praca ol 2 ic AF 0 b'y thiat's oe aoree —
CHAP. 22, New Yorx.—

coription bad Quewlens. ite

New York city. Croton First ocean,

steamboat. Passage up the He Anec-

dote of a wild beast
8

CHAP. 28. New York, continued. — Great
fire in Albany. Trenton Falls, and sad acci-
dent. New York Indians. Salt Wells, Ni-

Falls. Stories. Railroads. Internal
Improvements. Niagara Wire Bridge. His-
tory. Anecdote. District School Libraries.

CHAP. 24. New York, continued. — Erie
Canal. Railroad. Cannon Telegraph and
Magnetic Telegraph. History of settlement.
Dutch. Indian wars. Surrender to the Eng-
lish, under the Duke of York. Choosing rep-
resentatives......:+.. Pte.0r 8 6,0)

CHAP. 25. New York, continued. — The
Five Natios. ....... Mae’ ghels

CHAP. 26. New Yonk, continued. —Leis-
ler. Burning of Schenectady. Gov. Slough-
ter. Exploitsof Peter Schuyler... ... .

CHAP. 27. New York, continued. —Pi-
rates. Robert Kidd. Persecution of the ne-
groes. Tolmonwilemon. Peace of 1747. .

CHAP. 28. New Jersey.—Travels. Geog-
raphy. Passaic Falls. Accident. Orchards.
Joseph Bonaparte. Canals. Mines. His-
tory. Settlement. Division into East and
West Jersey. Battle of Monmouth, . .. .

CHAP. 29. Pennsyivanta. —Philadelphia.
Geographical Questions. Independence. His-
tory of United States coin. irmount Wa-
ter-works. Girard Orphan College. Trav-
els. Roads. Bridges. Quakers. Germans.
hh Mountains. Pittsburg. Coal
mines. Canals. Schools. Biography. .

CHAP. 30. Pennsyivanta, continued, —
History. William Penn. Settlement. Penn
comes to America. Founds Philadelphia.
Returns to England. Rapid settlement of
Pennsylvania. Penn again visits his colony.
Death of Penn, Character. Indians, . .

CHAP. 831. De.aware. — Size and situation.
Travels. Breakwater. Revolutionary War.
Delaware regiment. Settlement. ise
Point. Indians, Governor Risingh. Peter
Stuyvesant. Capture of the Dutch. History:

CHAP. 82. Manyiann.—Geography. Ma-
son and Dixon’s Line. Negroes. Tobacco.
Baltimore. Flour. Trade with the West.
American science and skill in Russia. Na-
val School. Magnetic Telegraph... . .

CHAP. 33. Maryann, continued. — North
Point. War with England. Washi
burned. Baltimore. Catholics. Lord Bal-
timore. Settlement. Indian Sit-
uation of the colonists. Death of 1.
timore. His character

o

Patriotic

66

+75

+79

. 83

84

CONTENTS,

CHAP. 84. Muppie Srares, — General
view. History. Geography. ......

«CHAP. 35. Vinain1a. — Travels, Manners.
Customs. Plantations. Climate. Face of
the country. Natural curiosities. Ancient
mounds. Railroads. Mines. Springs. . .

CHAP. 86. Virar1a, continued. — Jeffer-
son. Mount Vernon. Washington. James-
town. Indians. Spaniards. bps sone
Bay. Indian chiefs, Settlement on James
river. John Smith.’ His adventures. Con-
duct. Powhatan, Pocahontas, .....

CHAP. 87. Vinersta, continued. — State of
the colony under Smith’s government. The
colonists dig for gold, Reflections. Smith
chosen President. Pocahontas. Misery of

ware.

‘the colonists. Lord Dela é

CHAP. 88. Virers1a, —The colony
ishes. Captain Ar

flour-
- Marriage of Poca-
hontas. Death. First Slaves in the colo-
nies. Opecancanough. Slaughter of the
colonists. Vengeance of the English. His-
WP C8 66 5 as oie ed ga es

CHAP. 89. Norrn Canora.—Travels.
Questions on Map. Plantations. Forests,
Tar. id digging: Towns. Railroads.
Corn. Gold. Cotton. Tobacco. Rice.
Settlement by Episcopalians. Situation of
the colony. Other settlers. Origin of the
names North and South Carolina. Indians.
The Six Nations. History. .......

|CHAP. 40. Sours Carotima.— Voyage.
one Questions. Charleston. Plant-
ers, eof Charleston. Puritans. French
Protestants. History. First cotton in the
United States. Railroads. Enterprise. . .

CHAP. 41. Grorata.—Face of the coun-
WF, Savannah. Improvements. Railroads.
oleano. Fruits. Okefinoke Swamp. Set-
tlement of Georgia. Situation of the colony.
Attacks of Spaniards. Gen. Oglethorpe.
Fronipa.— Discovery. Settlement, History.
Seminoles, Oranges. Key West. Common
Schools... 0%. . os ®

ClO ates see

CHAP. 42. Tur Five Sournery ATLANTIC
Srares.— Map Questions. General view.
Liberia.

CHAP. 43. Azasama, Mississtrpr, Lovurs-
eas Texas. — phical ee:

otton Factory. . tors.
Natchez. De Soto. ‘History. Sec
Indigo, J. J. Audubon. New Orleans,
‘Trade. Battle. Gen, Jackson.
Texas. — History. Trade.

CHAP. 44. Tux Western’ Sr 5
Questions. General view. C
Ohio river. Inland navigation. State of

94

100

106

BISA 6 aha they We WG «+ 108

ate e omeuthy
CONTENTS.
Ohio. Indiana. Mlinois. Missouri. Lead ernment of France. Great Britain. Battle
caves. Iron mountains. Prairies. St. Louis. of Monmouth. Destruction of Wyoming. .

Hunters. Mormons. Tennessee. Kentucky.
Mammoth Cave. Arkansas. Great .
Michigan. The Great Lakes, Mississippi.

CHAP. 45. Western Srares, continued.
— Origin of the name of Tennessee. His-
tory. Settlement. pg Daniel
Boone, Revolutionary War. Ohio. Pro-

ress. Indiana and Illinois. Missouri.
Michigan and Iowa. Coal. Mines. Wild
rice. Settlers from Holland. Wisconsin.

CHAP. 46. Tux Territories. — Geograph-
ical Questions. Face of the country. Mis-
souri Territory. Indians. Minesota. Ne-
braska. s to the Pacific. Bisons and
other animals. Lewis and Clark. Anec-
dotes. Geegee Territory. Treaty with Eng-
land. Trade. Organization. Nauathlee.
Cherokees. Upper or New California. New
Mexico. San Francisco... . .

CHAP. 47%. Tus Uniten Srates.— Map
Questions. - phical Review. Divis-
ions. Valley of the Mississippi. Steam-
boats. Commerce. White Bleed of the
Prairies, A barbecue. City of Washington.
U. S. Presidents. American Revolution. .

CHAP. 48. Tue Frexcn War.— Map
Questions, Colonies. French. English.
Cone en Governor Dinwiddie.
Fort Du Quesne, Gen. Braddock. Expe-
dition against Fort Niagara. Crown Point.

CHAP. 49. Frencn War, continued. —
England and France declare war. Fort Wm.
Henry. Louisburg. Du Quesne. Ticon-
deroga. Death of Lord Howe. Capture of
Fort Frontenac. Quebec. Montcalm.
Death of Wolfe. Montreal taken. French
possessions ceded to the British. . . .. -

CHAP. 50. Tue Revotution. —Parlia-
ment of Great Britain. People of America.
General Gage.

CHAP. 51. Revo.vrion.—Tax on Tea.
New laws: Cargoes of Tea destroyed.
Port Bill passed. Town meetings. Story. .

CHAP. 52, Revo.vurion, continued. — State
of the country. General Gage. Battle of
Lexington. Excitement of the people... .

CHAP. 58. Revo.urion, continued, — State
of the omer. Power of land. Res-
olution of the Americans. Ticonderoga.
Crown Point. Battle of Bunker Hill... .

CHAP. 54. Revotvtion, continued. —Con-
tinental Con; . Declaration of Indepen-
dence. Was crosses the Delaware.
General Howe. General Bu: e. Bat-
tle of Saratoga. Surrender ne

CHAP, 55. Revoturiox, continued. — Gov-

oeee

115

8

- 123

128

133

142

145

147

149

CHAP. 66, Revo.urion, concluded. — Gen-
eral Sullivan, Indians. Count Rocham-
beau. Benedict Arnold. Story of Major
Andre. North and South Carolina. Wash-
ington, Surrender of Lord Cornwallis. . .

CHAP. 67%. Uwirep Srates arrer THE
Revotution. — Washington chosen Presi-
dent. His death. Character. Influence
of his example. Lafayette. Reflections.
Adams. Dist. ef Col. Jefferson. Madison.
Naval battles. Monroe, J.Q. Adams. Jack-

Harrison.

son. Van . . Tyler. Poll.
Visit of Lafayette. Texas annexed. U.S.
flag. Questions for Review... ....-

= 58. nom ene vt —

meaica.—Divisions.

tions. Travels, Plank = Lakes.
Hunters. Montreal. St. Lawrence. Que-
bec. Newfoundland. Codfish. Climate.
Soldiers. History. King William’s, Queen
Anne’s, King George’s, and the Old h
War. Story of Acadie. History. Cholera.
Insurrection. .. . 6. +s . 88 Se

CHAP. 59. Tue Esquimavx. — Map Ques-
tions. Count

of the Esquimaux. 6
Reindeer. Origin. . ” -

CHAP. 60. GreexLanp. — Wha

voy-
age. Islands of ice. White rat De
scription of the ers. Navigators.
Animals, Settlement. Captain Ross. . .

CHAP. 61. [ce.awp.—Country. Proverb.
People. Habits. Mount Hech. Skaptar
Yokul. An eruption. Aurora Borealis.
Discovery. Settlement. History. ... .

CHAP. 62. Mexico.—Questions on the
Maps. Voyage to Mexico. Vera Cruz.
Travelling. City of Mexico. Catholic
priests, Cathedral. Gold. Avcient ruins.
Ascent of Orizaha. State. Mines. Santa
Fe, Travels and trade, Caravans. THE
Ca.irornias. — Lo es § pete rere

CHAP. 63. Mextco, continued. — Popula-
tion. Indians. Tenuchtitlan, Spaniards.
Cortez. Capture of Tabasco. Indian attack.
Treaty of peace, Mexican warriors. . . .

CHAP. 64. Mexico, continued. — Colony
at Vera Cruz. M from Montezuma.
Cortez sets out from uchtitlan. Tlas-
cala. Slaughter at Cholula, Tenuchtitlan,
Montezuma and Cortez... ..-+++-.

CHAP. ¢ eg ma agg Ne

the y
taken. Governor of Gun 'N _
iards attacked by Mexicans. h of Mon-
tezuma. Retreat of the

CHAP. 66. Mexico, concluded. —Small-

9

152

153

160

« - 163

164

168

272

-174

Spaniards... . .177
Lo

x. Quetlevaca. Guatimozin. Attack on
‘enachtitlan. Torture of Guatimozin and
his minister. Government of Mexico. City
of Mexico. Fate of Cortez. History. Itur-
bide. Santa Anna. Texas. Troubles with
U.S. War. Conquests by U.S. Peace.

CHAP. 67. Guatmaca.— Mountains. Ma-
y and . City of Guatimala.

Other towns. mmment. History. Mos-
quito Indians, Origin. Palenque. Ancient
wong 0 carvings, temples. Canal routes
rom the Pacific to the Atlantic. Yuoaran.

CHAP. 68, Coromsia.— South America.
phical Questions. Climate. Andes.
Burning mountains. Pampas. Mines...

CHAP. 69. Coxomsra, continued. — Pizar-
ro. The Moscas. Venezuela. Germans.
Le, vag General Miranda. Bonaparte.

. Conflicts in New Grenada,

— Bolivar. Republic of Co-
lombia. Independence. Death of Bolivar.
CHAP. 70.

Perv. — Map Questions. Di-
vision. Alpacas. Lima. Quicksilver and
other mines. Cuzco. Pizarro.......

CHAP. 71. Perv, continued. — Second ex-

ition to Peru. Foundation of the empire.
of the Spaniards. The é
Procession. Atahualpa taken prisoner. .

CHAP. 72. Perv, concluded. — Treatment
of the Inca. His death. Quito taken. Con-
est of Peru. Lima founded. Death of
Finer. History. Constitution formed. .

CHAP. 78. Bortvia. — Andes. Mines. Po-
tosi. Discovery of the mines. Other towns.
Constitution, Peru and Buenos Ayres. «

CHAP. 74. Cuitt.—Geography. Travels.
Vineyards. Andes. St. Hy Araucani-

ans. Death of Valdivia. History. Juan
Fernandez. Robinson Crusoe. Enterprise,

CHAP. 75. Paraconia.— Map Questions,
Country. Inhabitants. Giants. Huts.
Ostriches, Terra del pe. People. Dis-
covery. Straits of Magellan... .....

— tical Gouent Swern, == Taare.
eogra Questions. Islands near Ca
Horn. Travelling. Anecdotes. ,
imals. Condors. Pampas. Buenos Ayres,
Face of the country. Soil. Towns.

185

187

191

- 193

196

- 197

198

e0-
le. Di . Indians. Jesuits. His-
east Govern. of Francia. . . 201

CHAP. 77. Brazit.— Map Questions.

CONTENTS.

Travels. Rio Janeiro. Harbor. People.
Emperor. Extent. Population, Indians,
ee Piaowery. Landing of Ca-
bral, San Salvador, The Dutch. History.
Government. Prince de Joinville. ... .
CHAP. 78. Guiana. — Divisions. Climate.
Indians. Poison, Vampires. Snakes. Sto-
ry of Captain Waterton. Discovery of Gui-
ana by Vasco Nunes. Sir Walter igh.
El Dorado, Settlers in Dutch Guiana. His-
tory. Vespasian Ellis. Steamboats.. . .

CHAP. 79. West Inpies.— Questions on
the Map. Vessels, Havana. Trade. Fruit.
Climate.» Cuba, Slaves. Discovery of
Cuba. Don Jago ce Velasquez. Indians.
Trade with U. 8. History of Hayti. Co-
lumbus, Anecdote. Disturbances. Chris-

— a of Hayti. Division.
assacres, Porto Rico. Jamaica. Dis-
covery. History. Hurricanes. Great Bri-
tain. Danish Islands, Martinique. . . .
CHAP. 80. Wesr Ivpres, continued. — In-
habitants. Spaniards. Pirates. Bahamas.
Turtles. Cat Island. Columbus. Carib-

bee Islands. Discovery. History. Caribs. 212

CHAP. 81. Tue Buccaneers. — Origin.
Fame. Pierre le Grand ization.

Morgan. Bartholomew. His adventures. . 215

CHAP. 82. Srory or Cotumsvs. — Pirates.
Youth Cee ee
guese sailors. Passage to India. ughts
of Columbus. Government of Genoa. Fer-
dinand and Isabella, He sets sail... . .

CHAP. 83. Cotumpsvs,. continued. — First
yovage on the ocean. Discovery of land.
Landing. Natives. Country. Cuba. Hay-
ti, Return to Spain. Procession. Other
voyages. Americus Vespucius. .....

CHAP. 84. Cras yey oe Asaeess,
—Geography. Original inhabitants. Dis-
coverers. "Ooinerme, Settlers. United

States. History. Character.

CHAP. 85. Genera. View or Amenica.
Tue Unirep States. — How to study His-
tory. Census. Statistics. Products. Man
ufactories. Agriculture. Trade. Education.
Philanthropy. Science. Charity. Cali-
fornia, Eventsto 1850. ..... ole sie

Curonotocicat Inpex or Events. ... .
Pronouncine Inpex or Persons, Paces
Evynrs, To... ... 6%

LIST OF MAPS.

Marne New Enoranp, Western Srates,

New HIRE New York, Mexico, Texas, GuaTima-
. Vermont, New Jexsey, Pennsyivanta, La ann West Inp1es,
Massacnvsetrs, Detaware ann Maryianp, Unrrep States,

Ruove Istanp, Muvpe States, Norra America,
Conngcricor, Souvrnern States, Sourn America.
THE

FIRST BOOK OF HISTORY,

COMBINED WITH GEOGRAPHY.

CHAPTER I.
STATE OF MAINE.

1, Tue state of Maine is about as ex-
tensive as all the rest of New England,
but a great part of it is still covered with
forests. You will observe on the map,
that nearly all the towns and villages lie
in the southern portion, towards the sea-
board. As you go from the sea to the
interior, the soil grows better; some of
the most fertile parts of the state are yet
almost a wilderness.

2. There are a great many lakes in
this state, which abound in fish. There
ate a multitude of streams and rivers;
these afford many excellent mill-seats.

Questions on the Map of Maine.— How is
Maine bounded on the North? East? South?
West? Describe the Penobscot river; that is,
tell in what county it rises, in what direction it
runs, through what counties it flows, and into
what sea it enters. Describe the Kennebec in the
sume way, The Androscoggin, Saco, St. Croix.

Describe Moosehead Lake ; that is, tell what
county it is in, and which way it lies from Augus-
ta, the capital of the state. Describe Grand Lake,
Schoodie, Sebago, Temiscouata.

Describe the following bays; that is, tell in
which direction they are from Augusta, the capital,
and what sea or ocean they are formed by+ Penob-
scot, Casco, Frenchman’s,

Describe the following islands, by’ telling in
what waters they lie, and their direction from the

‘

There are a great many bays, rivulets,
and islands along the shore. The beau-
tiful salmon, with its silvery scales, and
its pink flesh that tastes so well, is taken
in Maine, with nets, in wears, and while
it is leaping the falls.. By means of its
strong tail and fins, it will shoot ‘up a
fall of ten or twelve feet in height, on its
way to the fresh water, in the spring, to
lay its eggs or spawn.

3. If you were to go to Maine in the
summer, you would see many things to
delight you. The little green is
scattered along the coast are very beau-
tiful ; some of them have very handsome
houses upon them. You would find the

capital: Grand Menan Island, Mt. Desert, Deer,
Fox, Boon.

How many counties in Maine? Their names?
Capital of Maine? In what county is Augusta?
Describe the following towns, by ’ what
county each is in, and its direction from the
tal: Portland, Wiscasset, Cornish, Bangor,
ridgewock, Castine, Paris, York, Machias, Bath. -
What is the number of inhabitants in Maine?
Number of square miles? Greatest length of
Maine? Greatest width, and average length ?
Average width?

Questions on Chapter I. —1. How extensive is
Maine? Which part of this state is most settled ?
2. What of lakes in Maine ? Other waters? What
objects along the shore? What of the salmon?
3. If you were to go to Maine in summer, what
would you see along the coast? What of the Ken-
12

Kennebec to be a large river, with many
handsome villages upon its banks.

4, You would see a great many deep
forests, and several pleasant towns. At
Gardiner you would see one of the pret-
tiest churches in New England; and
Portland you would find to be a city
almost equal to Providence, or Salem.
At Augusta, which is the capital of the
state, you would see the granite building
called the capitol, in which the govern-
ment assemble; and the State Asylum
for the Insane; and the building of the
United States Arsenal, or place to keep
guns, balls, powder, &c., for war.

5. In travelling through Maine, you
would not see as many manufactories as
in some other New England states ; but
in the southern part they are every year
building more and more. In 1847 they
commenced the erection of factories at
Lewiston, on the Androscoggin river,
twenty-four miles north by east from
Portland. There are few of our states
which have so many streams, falling
down from the hills, near the sea, to turn
factories, where they can easily receive
materials to make cloths, &c., of, and then
send them at once, in ships, to different

all over the world, to sell them.
ou would meet with a great many saw-
mills, employed in sawing logs into
boards and planks. You would see many
of the men cutting down trees in the
woods; and at Bangor, Portland, Wiscas-
set, and other places, you would notice a
great many vessels; some of them loaded
with lumber, and some with fire-wood.
6. If you were to ask some person



nebec? 4. What other things would you see?
What at Augusta? 5. Are there many manufac-
tories in Maine? Where were they building some
in 18477 Why are these good places for factories ?
What of saw- mills? What may be seen at Ban-
gor and other places? 6. Where are the wood

THE FIRST BOOK OF HISTORY.—MAINE.

where these vessels were going, he
would tell you that some of them are

bound to Boston, some to New York, ©

some to Charleston, and some to other
places. The fire-wood is carried chiefly
to Boston ; the lumber is carried to almost
all the seaports of the United States and
the West Indies.

7. They send out not only pine and
hemlock and other timber, boards, clap-
boards, shingles, laths, and bark for tan-
ning and for fuel, but also vast quanti-
ties of granite for building, which is used
in Boston, New York, and even New
Orleans ; slate for covering the roofs of
houses ; and lime, which they burn in
kilns, at Thomaston and Camden espe-
cially, to make plaster. ‘They put it in
barrels, and are very careful to keep it
dry; because, if it gets wet, it will be-
come very hot, — you-have seen it smoke
when mortar is made of it, — and it will
set a vessel on fire. Besides the loss, a
fire on board a vessel at sea is a dread-
ful calamity.

8. In Maine they make a great many
excellent ships for the merchants of oth-
er states; timber is plenty and cheap.
Captain John Smith, of whom I shall
tell you in the history of Virginia, built
himself some boats on the island Mishe-
guin, here, in 1614, and that was prob-
ably the first ship-building in Maine.

9. You would observe, also, in Maine,
some very good farms; you would see
a great many fields planted with corn,
or sown with wheat and rye, where the

ound is almost covered with stumps.

f you were to inquire of the owner, he

would tell you, that ten or fifteen years

and lumber of Maine carried? 7. What else is
sent out to sell? Where is lime made? 8,
What else is made in Maine? By whom and
when was ship-bailding first done in Maine? 9.
What of farms and farming in Maine? What will

tities
MAINE.—PRODUCTIONS—PYRSUITS OF THE PEOPLE.

ago, his whole farm was covered with
thick forests. The trees have been cut
down, one by one, and the land, by pa-
tient labor, has been changed from a
wilderness into meadows and wheat-
fields. Wheat, potatoes, rye, grass, cattle
for beef, and sheep for wool and cloths,
will probably be its chief productions.
10. If you should happen to be in
Maine in the winter, you would find

the snow very deep, and the air exceed-

ingly cold. It would be well, while you
are travelling, to cover your ears with
fur, and take care to be well wrapped up,
or your face and fingers would freeze.
Rokete you will meet with people cut-
ting blocks of ice from the rivers, which
they are going to send to Charleston,
New Orleans, the West Indies, and oth-
er hot countries, to be used in summer.
Formerly the legislature made laws to
prevent the mill-owners from throwing
the sawdust into the streams, and ob-
structing them; now sawdust is found
very valuable to heat their steam wills,
and to pack their ice. They send whole
vessel-loads of it to Boston, for the ice
business there, of which I shall tell you
in Chapter VII.

11. If you should chance to be in the
northern or middle parts of the state,
you might have an opportunity of see-
ing the Indians killa moose. This is
the largest animal of the deer-kind.
These animals are found in no part of
the United States except Maine, and
even there they are scarce. They were
once common in all the northern parts
of New England.

12. The forests in Maine are owned
by persons who sell to others the right
to take timber from them. These others



probably be their chief productions? 10. What of
the winter, and ice, in Maine? What of the saw-
dust? 11, What of the moose? 12, What of the



13

hire men with their oxen and axes to go
into the woods near the rivers, and spend
the winter, when the snow and ice make
it easier to do hauling, in cutting down
the trees, cutting ,them into logs, and
putting the logs into the water, or on
the ice. Then when the ice melts, and
the freshets come, as they say, the h
are floated or run down to the mills to
sawed. All this is called Lumbering.

13. The merchants supply the lumber-
ers, who get the “ permits,” as they are
called, to cut down trees, —with barrels
of molasses, bags of beans, barrels of salt
pork, Indian meal and flour, and other
provisions. Some put a great many
teams into the woods, and spend tens
of thousands of dollars in this business,
to get more paid back again when they
sell the lumber, and so to make money.

14. The snowlies in these forests from
four to six feet deep. The lumberer,
with his axe on his shoulder, goes out,
selects a Ras tree; and can tell how
many boards it will make, by measuring
it with his eye, in a coeeans He then
walks up to it, and strikes his axe into
it, and knows by the noise if it is a sound
tree to cut.

15. After the trees are cut into logs,
which, if meant for boards, are about
eighteen feet long, the slow but strong
and patient oxen toil over the snow, and
drag them among rocks, and trees, and
stumps, and up and down hills, where
it would seem impossible to go, — dewn
upon the ice in the river ; or into the bed
of a little stream which runs into the
river. ‘The owner sends a “ Scaler,” as
he is called, to overlook the teams, and
“scale” or take an account of the logs,



forests? What is called lumbering? 13, What
do the merchants supply the Jumberers with?
14. How do the lumberers live in the forests?
15. Where are the logs left? What does the sealer
14

so that he may know how many are. to
be paid for; this payment is called
“stumpage.” Every owner has his
particular mark, which is chopped upon
each log by his lumberers.

16. In the spring, the ice and snow,
without which they could not have
dragged out the logs, melt, —the river
gets full, and thousands and thousands
of. these logs are borne along down the
current, to the mills, to be prepared for
market. It is a very difficult and some-
times dangerous matter to get these logs
along in the river; it is another great
business, and is called Driving.

17. Men go constantly, in companies,
up and down the river, and watch when
a log is stopped by a rock, or ata fall, and
get it loose. Sometimes hundreds of
logs get jammed together ; and the water
rises, and the logs come down and pile
up more and more. Then the active
and hardy drivers dash into the river



Driving Logs in Maine.
with their poles and axes, spring from
log to log, and now push off here, and
cut away with their axes there, until
they loosen it; and with a crash and
uproar, the jam breaks up, and away go

do? How ios the owner know his logs? 16.
What happens in spring? 17, What is called

THE FIRST BOOK OF HISTORY.—MAINE.

the rolling, tumbling logs down the rush-
ing river. Sometimes the men jump on
shore, sometimes they are carried down
on the timber, and sometimes they are
pitched off into the stream, and have to
wade or swim out, with their red flannel
shirts dripping; but they do not mind
it; they hasten to look out for other stop-
pages and clear them.

18. Down in the smooth parts of the
river, near the mills, or where sea vessels
can come, long strings of logs, fastened
together strongly, are stretched out from
the shore into the stream, leaving an
angle or mouth, as it were, up stream,
to catch the logs as they come floating
down ; —this is called a Boom.

19. If you were there in the spring,
when log-driving commences, you oil
see the river covered with boats, and men
and boys busy directing the logs into
the booms; for the owners of the booms
are not allowed to stop the centre of the
river, but’only the sides; and they are
paid by the owners of the logs so much
apiece for what they collect.

CHAPTER II.
MAINE—Continvuep.

1. In Penobscot river, forty miles from
the mouth, there is a little island, called
Indian Old Town. If you go there, you
will see about three hundred Indians.
They live in small houses, or huts, built
of sticks and boards, and cultivate the
land, catch fish, and hunt wild animals.
They are the remains of a great tribe,
the Penobscots, that once inhabited a
large extent of country, in Maine.

driving logs? Describe it. 18, 19. Deseribe a
boom, and picking up the logs.

1. What of the Penobscot Indians? 2, Wha

e
MAINE.-—-INDIANS-——-EARLY HISTORY.

2. You will observe, among the In-
dians, one man, whom they call chief.
If you ask him to tell you the story of
the Penobscot tribe, he will inform you
that there were once many thousands
of them. They, with other Indians,
many years ago, possessed all the lands
in Maine.

of his Tribe.

3. There were then no white men
there; there were none but Indians.
There were no towns and no villages,
except small collections of Indian huts,
called wigwams. The Indians did not
cut down the trees; they had no horses,
and they had no tame animals but dogs.

4, The whole country, far and wide,
was covered with forests. In these for-

* ests there were a great many bears, pan-
thers, wild-cats, wolves, ha. moose,
foxes, rabbits, beavers, and other ani-
mals. The Indians then did not culti-
vate the land, except perhaps that they
raised a little corn and a few pumpkins.
They lived almost entirely upon the



would the Indian chief tell you? What does the
picture represent? 3, What was the state of the
country before the white people came? 4. What
ild animals were there in the woods? How did

| Indians live? 5, What happened when the



15

wild animals, which they killed with
their bows and arrows.

5. But, at length, some white men
came, and they began to cut down the
trees, and build houses. Pretty soon
they erected saw-mills, and then they
cleared the land, and: raised wheat, and
rye, and corn. And at length more
white people came, and they built more
houses, and cut down more trees, and
cultivated more land.

6. And so the white men increased,
and they spread their towns and villages
over the land. And the Indians went
away, or they died; for their forests
were cut down, and they could not live
with the white people. Thus the Pe-
nobscot tribe, which once contained
many thousands, consists now of three
hundred Indians only. Other tribes
once numerous and powerful are now
extinct. Such would be the story that
the Indian chief would tell you, and it
would be all true.

7. As early as the year 1607, about
one hundred English people came to
Maine, and began a settlement at the
mouth of the river Kennebec. The
greater part were soon discouraged, and
fifty-five returned in the vessel that
brought them over. ;

8. There were at this time none but ,
Indians in all New England, except the
white people I am speaking of. ‘These
were pretty well treated by the ratives ;
but they found the winter excessively
severe, and the next year they all re-
turned to England in a vessel that came
to bring them provisions.

9. The Norridgewock tribe of Indians

white people came? 6. What became of ‘the In-
dians? What is the present number of the Penob-
scot tribe? 7. What of the settlement attempted
in 16077? 8. What did the settlers finally do?
9. What story used to be told by the Norridge-
.

16 THE FIRST BOOK OF
preserved, for many years, a story about
these settlers, which will tell you. The
white people were jealous of the Indians,
and wished to get rid of them. So they
one day employed a large number of
them to take hold of a rope, and draw
a cannon into the fort. en a great
many had taken hold, and the rope was
drawn in a straight line, then the white
people fired the cannon, and killed all
the Indians. This is the story; if it is
true, the white people behaved very
wickedly.

10. It was in the year 1623, above
two hundred years ago, that the first
white men settled permanently in Maine.
This settlement was made on the Saco,
and several houses were built.

11. More white people went from
Massachusetts, and other places, and
settled in various parts of Maine. In
1652, Maine was attached to Massachu-
setts, and continued to be so till the year
1820, when it became an independent
state. It has now a governor and a leg-
islature of its own; they meet once a

ear, at Augusta; and there they make
ws for the state.

12. Maine is rapidly advancing in
population and improvement. In 1820,
the number of inhabitants was only
300,000 ; in 1840, it was about 500,000.
About the year 1840, there were great
speculations in the lands of Maine, as

‘well as in the Western lands. The
United States had a dispute about the.
north-eastern boundary, between Maine
and the British possessions, which was

wock Indians? 10. When was the first perma-
nent settlement made in Maine by white peo-
ple? 11. When was Maine attached to Massa-
chusetts? When did Maine become an indepen-
dent state? Where does the legislature of Maine
meet? 12. What can you say of the increase of
Maine? What dispute was settled in 18437
r

‘Lawrence river; and north-east in two

HISTORY.—MAINE.

settled in 1843, and they have since
erected cast-iron posts, so that the boun-
dary shall be known hereafter.

13. The rivers and harbors of Maine
are covered with ice in winter, so that
vessels cannot come and go, except near
the sea, though in summer, you can
have your choice of steamboats and

ackets, as they continually ply between
on and Portland, and Kennates and

Penobscot rivers. We can go in a
steamboat to Hallowell upon the river
Kennebec, which I think almost as beau-
tiful as the Hudson.

14. Though the snow makes good
roads for four months in the year, yet
with the mud in spring it makes trav-
elling difficult. But iron railroads,
which mud and snow do not stop, are
laid from Boston to Portland city; and
in 1847 they had begun to continue
them from there, north, through New
Hampshire, to Canada and the St.




















directions, —one through Lewiston to
Waterville, on the Kennebec river, and
the other through Brunswick, the town
where Bowdoin College is, and to Bath,
a flourishing city, where they build
many ships; and from Brunswick to
Hallowell, also on the Kennebec.
Thence they will carry it to Bangor, a .
large, active city, on the Penobscot river.
On the 4th of July, 1846, was com- °
menced the Atlantic and St. Lawrence
Railroad, from Portland to Montreal.
A short railroad, from Bangor to Orono,
was made in 1836,

15. In order that among this increas-
ing people, the boys and girls should
make good citizens, the legislature of
Maine established, in 1845, a number of



13, Where do steamboats ply? 14, What rail-
roads are in Maine? 15, What did the legislar
establish in 18452 What is the meaning’

AS
MAINE.—-FREE SCHOOLS.—NEW HAMPSHIRE.—FISHERIES. 17

men, to be chosen in each county, and
called a Board of Education, who are to
see that public schools, where each child
in the state can attend, are kept; and
that they have good teachers, and good
books to learn from; and that they are
taught what will make them wise and
well behaved. ‘

16. The people are made to pay, that
is, taxed, as it is called, according to the
property they have, to support these
schools; and every child between four
and sixteen years of age has a right to
go to them. This is called establishing
a Public Free School System.

17. There are other prominent per-
sons chosen in each school district in a
town, called’ Superintendents, who visit
the schools, and see if all the children
that ought to go do go; and if they are
well taught after they are at school; so
that, with all the care of his or her
friends, the members of the board, the
superintendents and teachers, if any
child is ignorant, it is generally his or
her own fault.

18. This learning in all the people
makes a state happy and prosperous and
strong, and, my young friends, it is one
of the greatest privileges of our excellent
country ; especially when joined with the
religious instruction we get from our
ministers, who teach us on Sunday, and
from our Sabbath school teachers.



CHAPTER III.
STATE OF NEW HAMPSHIRE,

1. There are many things in New
Hampshire that are very interesting.
_

“establisha free school system” What do town su-
perintendents do? 18. What is said of instruction?

Questions on the Map of New Hampshire.—
Boundaries of ar Describe the Merri-



About eleven miles to the east of Ports-
mouth are some islands, called the Isles
of Shoals. One of the largest belongs
to New Hampshire ; it is called Star
Island,.and on it is a little town called
Gosport. The j ges are all fishermen,
- are occupied chiefly in catching cod-
fish.

2. These cod-fish are caught with
hooks and lines. They are then car-
ried ashore and dried.



Catching Cod-fish.

A sea-serpent is said to have been
seen by several people, near these shores,

a while ago. He came so near to a
boat, that a man in it could have struck
him with an oar.* His color was nearly



mac, Ammonoosuc. Describe Lake Winnipiseo-
gee, Squam, Sunapee. In what part of the)state
are the White Mountains? Where is Mount
Washington? Describe the Isles of Shoals.
How many counties in New Hampshire? Their
names? P

Capital of New Hampshire? In what county
is Concord? Describe the following towns:
Portsmouth, Exeter, Dover, Keene, Plymouth,
Walpole, Lancaster, Haverhill, Amherst. Popu-
lation of New Hampsbire? Extent? Greatest
length of New Hampshire? Greatest width’
Average length? Average width?

1. What of the Isles of Shoals? 2, What of
the sea-serpent? What does the picture repre-
18

black; he seemed larger round than the
body of a man, and about as long as the
mast of a large vessel.

3. This state is called the Switzer-
land of America, because it is almost
made up of mountains, and their side
tidges, or spurs, just as Switzerland
in Europe is made up of the =
mountains. It always grows colder the
higher from the earth that you ascend ;
for there is nothing to get warmed and
keep the heat of the sun, which all pass-
es off at once. At the foot of the moun-
tains, therefore, it may be a very mild
climate, and animals and trees that will
live only in hot countries are found; as
you go up the mountains, the air be-
comes thinner and lighter, and the trees
of temperate countries come next; at
last, only pines, and such trees as grow
in cold climates, are found: then these
become stinted and fail; and next above,
only grass grows, which makes the tops
of the mountains that are just that
height look green.

4, The Green Mountains of Vermont,
which name means “ green mountain,”
are of that height, and take their name
from that appearance. Above the height
of the green trees and grass, no vegeta-
tion is found; the bleak granite rocks
look white; and it is so cold that snow
lies there most of the year. Such is the
height of the mountains in New Hamp-
shire ; and they are therefore named, from
their appearance, White Mountains.

%. New Hampshire is more mountain-
ous than her sister states, yet her high-
lands furnish grass of peculiar sweetness
for the cattle, which, with wool from

sent? 3. What is New Hampshire called, and
why? Describe the weather as you go up the
White Mountains. Why are some mountains
green? 4, What state takes its name from such
mountains? What grows on the mountains

THE FIRST BOOK OF HISTORY.—NEW HAMPSHIRE.

her sheep, are her staple productions
that is, those which she is most engaged
in raising and selling. New Hampshire
is likewise named the Granite State, from
the great quantity of that rock there.

6. You will see, by looking on the
map, that many rivers rise in the high-
lands of New Hampshire. Along their
banks, the level lands, called intervale,
are very rich, and produce corn and hops.
The rivers afford many manufacturing
sites, and if you travel there you will
see great increase of factories and rail-
roads going on.

7. Portsmouth is the only seaport in
New Hampshire. It is a very handsome
place, and there are a number of beauti-
ful buildings there. Dover is a large
manufacturing town. Some of the man-
ufactories are very extensive. I suppose
one of these establishments makes at
least eight thousand yards of cotton
cloth every day.

8. In 1846-7, many mills for making
cotton cloth, which go by steam, were
established at Portsmouth. A new city,
called Manchester, was laid out on the
Merrimac, with many factories to go b
water; several vast ones were built
there, and the place is growing very
fast. At Nashua, Nashville, and Amos-
keag, are many large factories.

9. There are a great many other

leasant towns in New Hampshire.

xeter is a handsome place, and Phil-
lips’ Academy is there, in which boys
are taught Latin and Greek, and many
other things. At Concord, where the
legislature meets every year, there is an
elegant state-house; and also one of
those benevolent institutions, a state



of New Hampshire? 5. What other name has
this state, and why? 6. Its rivers and their
banks? 7. What of Portsmouth? Dover1
‘6. Manchester? Nashua? Nashville? Amos
NEW HAMPSHIRE.—REMARKABLE NATURAL FEATURES.

asylum for the insane, where those who
are thus unfortunate can live. Able
physicians always reside there, and
study continually to know all about
insanity; and they take care of the pa-
tients, and try to cure them.

10. At Franconia, in Grafton county,
there are some very celebrated iron-
works. There are mines of iron there,
and the people get great quantities of it.
They make it into stoves, kettles, hol-
low ware, and castings for machinery.
The mountains around this place are
very wild and beautiful. At Hanover
is Dartmouth College, an old and re-
spectable seminary, where a great many
young men are educated.

11. There are several very fine lakes
in New Hampshire. If you should ever
travel in this state, you will find the
country very hilly, ood very interesting.
Most of the people are engaged in farm-
ing. They uve a great many horses,
cattle and sheep.

12. As you pass along, you will some-
times find yourself on the top of a high
hill. You will see around you a great
many other hills; and in the distance,
you will observe the tops of blue moun-
tains. By and by, you will descend
into a valley. You will see the streams
running rapidly down the sides of the
hills, and at the bottom of the valley

ou will frequently find a sheet of
bright water, sparkling like a mirror.

13. Before you return, you must visit
Lake Winnipiseogee. It is really one
of the most delightful lakes in the world.
I suppose you have heard a great deal
about Loch Lomond, in Scotland; but.I
assure you, Lake Winnipiseogee is much
more beautiful. The name of this lake

keag? 9. Exeter? Concord? 10, Franconia?
Hanover? 11. What of lakes? Face of the
country? The people? 12. What will you observe
in travelling? 13, What of Lake Winnipiseogee ?

19

is pronounced Winnepesokke; it had a
little steamboat on it in 1847., And in
that year some gentlemen of Boston
bought the land about the outlet of this
lake, and other near lakes, to dam up
the waters where they run into the Mer-
timac river, and keep them as a great
reservoir or mill-pond, till summer-time,
when the river dries up considerably.
They then let the water into the river,
as it is wanted, to keep the great factories
a-going in the towns on the banks.

14. After you have seen this lake,
ou should visit the White Mountains.
hese are the highest in the United

States east of the Mississippi, except
Mount Black, in North Carolina, said
to be a few feet higher. Mount Wash-
ington, the tallest peak, is more than
six thousand feet above the level of the
sea. Their Indian name was Agioco-
chook ; and by one of the eastern tribes
they were called a very hard name,
Waumbekket-methna, which signifies
“white mountain.”

15. Those Indians said a deluge once
overspread the land and destroyed eve-
ry human being, except one powow, or
priest, and his wife, who saved them-"
selves on the top of these hills. The
ignorant Indians thought that some be-
ings lived up there, and made storms;
and they were afraid to go up. But
we are better taught than they were,
and we find the only difficulty is in
climbing over the rocks, and getting tired
with our walk.

16. The sight from en ae is glori-
ous; we can see the ocean. They, them-
selves, look, from a distance, like a silver
cloud in the sky; when os were first
visited by white men, in 1632, they were.
named the Crystal Hills.



Other lakes? 14, The White Mountains? ‘Theit
different names? Mt. Washington? 15. Indiag |
20

17. It is a delightful thing to travel
about these mountains in summer. A
great many people visit them every year,
and they all come back much gratified
with their journey. Among the moun-
tains, there is a place called the Notch.
Here the mountain seems to be divided
into two parts, from the top to the bot-
tom.

18, This chasm affords a passage
through which the river Saco runs.
There is also a road through it, and as
you pass along you will be astonished
at the mighty rocks that lie heaped up
on every side of you.

CHAPTER IV.
NEW HAMPSHIRE—Continuzp.

1. A few years since, an awful event
occurred at the Notch in the White
Mountains. An immense mass of rocks,
earth, and trees, of several acres in ex-
tent, slid down from the height into the
valley. It is scarcely possible to describe
the scene. The mountains were shaken
for several miles around. The air, put
n motion by the falling mass, swept by
ike a hurricane. The noise was far
louder than thunder. Rushing down to
the bottom of the valley, the rocks over-
turned and buried everything before
them.

2, The bed of the river Saco was filled
ups the road was covered over; and acres
of ground, before fit for cultivation, now
exhibited a confused mass of rocks split
and shivered, and trees torn up by the
roots, their trunks broken into a thou-
sand pieces.

traditions? 16. Prospect? 17. What of the

Notch? 18. The river Saco?
1,2. Describe the catastrophe at the Notch in the



THE FIRST BOOK OF HISTORY.—-NEW HAMPSHIRE.

3. There is a circumstance of pain-
ful interest connected with this event.
There was, on the side of the valley, a
small house, belonging to a man of the
name of Willey. He, with his wife and
two or three children, was in this house

when the mountain began to slide down.
They heard the dreadful sound, and ran
out of the house, to save themselves.

4. But, alas! the avalanche of rocks
and earth swept over and buried them
forever in the ruins.. The house stood
still, safe and untouched, and if they
had remained in it, they too had been
saved. The house, ! believe, remains
there still; but the happy family that
once inhabited it are not there!

5. Somewhat more than two hundred
years ago, New Hampshire, like Maine,
was covered with forests, and inhabited
by Indians; but in 1623,some English
people came and built a house on Pis-
cataqua river, which was called Mason
Hall. The same year some of the peo-
ple went further up the river, and settled
at Cocheco, now called Dover.



White Mountains? 354, What of the Willey fam-
ily and their house? 5. What of N. H., about twe
hundred years ago? What took place in 16231
When was the first house in N. H. built? 6, Whit
NEW HAMPSHIRE.—ITS ANNALS.—VERMONT.—THE RIVER. 21

6. In 1641, New Hampshire was at-
tached to Massachusetts, but in thirty-
eight years after, that is, in 1679, the
king of England separated it from Mas-
sachusetts. It then became a royal

rovince; the governor being appointed
by the king of England.

7, In 1775, New Hampshire, with the
other colonies, engaged in the revolution.
A constitution, or form of government,
was then adopted by the people, which
remained till 1783, At that time, anew
constitution was formed, which remains
in force till this day. The early history
of New Hampshire is full of incidents
relating to the wars with the Indians.
I shall have occasion to notice some of
these when I come to give an account
of New England.

8. I will, however, tell you one of
these stories now. In 1689, the sav-
ages made a dreadful attack upon Dover.
They had been provoked by the white

ople, and determined on revenge.
Bat they pretended to be friendly, and
on the fatal night sent their women to
get lodgings in ‘the houses of the white
people. These were admitted, and when
all was quiet they softly opened the
doors. The Indians then rushed in,
killed twenty persons, carried twenty-
nine away as prisoners, and fled with
such rapidity as to escape from the peo-
ple who came to attack them.

9. The railroads are laid across even
the granite hills of New Hampshire, as
well as the level parts. The two from
Boston to Portland cross the state on the
seaboard; that from Portland to Ver-
mont, and that to Canada, cross it;
while another, called the Northern, from
Concord to Lebanon, and thence to
tial aerate tent
took place in 1641? In 1679? 7. In17752 What
in 17832 s. What of Dover? Describe the
railroads in New Hampshire.

Montpelier, Burlington, and Canada, °
goes through the centre of the state.
Another, from Boston to Rutland, Vt.,
and Burlington, passes through its
south-western part, and through the
beautiful town of Keene; it is called
the Cheshire. Other railroads, along
a Connecticut river, connect these
ines.

CHAPTER V.
STATE OF VERMONT.

1. Connecticut river separates Ver-
mont, as you see by the map, from New
Hampshire on the east. This river runs
through a valley of several miles in
width, which is very rich and beautiful.
The meadows here are exceedingly fine.
Very large crops of corn, wheat, and
oats, are cultivated in the valley. All
of the river is in New Hampshire,
which extends to its western bank; so
that the Connecticut is really not a river
of Vermont, though it is as near to it as
it possibly can be.

2. Vermont has several very pleasant
towns along Connecticut river. Brat-
tleboro is one of the prettiest villages
in the state. It has several manufacto-
ries, and is a place of much business.
There is the Veanias Asylum for the

Questions on the Map of Vermont.— Bounda-
ries? Describe Lamoile river, Onion, Missisque,
Otter Creek. Describe Lake Champlain, Mem-
phremagog, Dunmore. Through what counties do
the Green Mountains run? How many counties
in V.2 Their names? Capital? In what coun-
ty is Montpelier? Describe the following towns :
Windsor, Brattleboro, Royalton, Middlebury,
Burlington, Bgnnington, Westminster, Rutland,
Woodstock. Population of Vermont? Square
miles? Greatest length of V.? Greatest width?
Average length? Average width?

1, What of Connecticut river? Valley of the
Connecticut? In what state ie it? 2. Brattle


22

Insane. Bellows Falls is situated where
the river tumbles over some rocks, in a
very violent manner.

3. There are a great many mills at
this place. ‘There is a bridge over the
cataract, from which you can look down
upon the whirling water. There were
once a great many salmon in Connecti-
cut river, and the Indians, about one
hundred years ago, used to killa great
many of them with spears, as ‘they at-
tempted to ascend the falls. They were
very expert at this, and would often take
several of them in the course of an hour.
You can see now some figures, which
these Indians cut in the rocks near the
river, below the bridge.

4, Windsor is a very pleasant town,
and has considerable business. If you
ever go to Windsor, I hope you will go
to the top of Ascutney Mountain. It is
very lofty, and when you are on the top,
you can see all around you to an im-
mense distance. You will also find,
quite on the summit of this mountain,
a beautiful little lake of clear water.

5. In going from the eastern to the
western part of Vermont, you will cross
a great many mountains. These are
called the Green Mountains. There is
a range of them running through Ver-
mont, from north to south. They spread
over all the middle parts of this state.
You have seen, in the account of the
White Mountains of New Hampshire,
in Chapter III., paragraphs 3 and 4,
why these are called Green Mountains.

6. The railroads which cross these
mountains go through very pleasant and
flourishing towns, and afford the people
opportunity to bring their industrial
products, and the minerals found in the



boro? 3. Bellows Falls Indians? Figures on
rocks? 4, Windsor? Ascutney Mountain ?
Green Mountains? Reason for their name?

THE FIRST BOOK Or HISTORY.— VERMONT.

state, — marble, iron, manganese, &c.,—
to market; and also permit us to
most interesting journeys through this
rich state.

7. The Rutland and Burlington Rail-
road passes from Burlington, through
Rutland, to Bellows Falls. Brandon is
one of the increasing towns through
which it passes. Here you will see a car
factory, where they make the convenient
and splendid cars that are used on rail-
roads; and there are several iron fur-
naces. At Pittsford is beautiful marble.
This was a frontier town, and you can
now see some fortifications there. The
Central road passes through Montpelier.
Several other railroads were established
in 1845, 6, and 7. The Connecticut
and Passumpsic Rivers Railroad ex-
tends from White river to Stanstead.
One from Concord, N. H., called the
Northern, connects at Lebanon with the
Vt. Central Railroad. And the Fitch-
burg, from Boston, with the Cheshire,
through Keene, N. H., reaches the Bur-
lington and Rutland Road at Bellows
Falls.

8. From Burlington these various
roads will soon connect with Canada
and the St. Lawrence river. By the
Ogdensburg Railroad, through Northern
New York, Vermont will be connected
with Lake Ontario and.all the region of
the great north-western lakes; while
by Lake Champlain and the Northern
Canal to Hudson river, and by a rail-
road from Rutland to intersect the Sa.-
atoga and Whitehall Railroad, this state
is connected with New York city.
Railroads are also projected from Brat-
tleboro’ to Troy, N. Y., and from Rut-
land, south, through Bennington, to



6. Railroads? 7. Brandon? Pittsford? De-
scribe the railroads; that is, tell what places
they connect. 8. Facilities of travel? Lake

%
VERMONT.—COLLEGES--~FARMING— WOOL-GROWING, ETC.

connect with the Pittsfield and North
Adams Railroad; thereby forming a
connection with the railroads of Massa-
chusetts and Connecticut, of which I
have given you an account elsewhere.

9. At Burlington you will find a
steamboat ready to carry you on the
lake toward Canada. You will be very
much pleased with Burlington, for it is
one of the handsomest towns in New
England. It is situated on the shore
of the lake, and thus you have a fine

rospect of it. At this place is a col-
ege, called the University of Vermont.

10. You will also find a college at Mid-
dlebury. You will see, at Middlebury,
too, a great many manufactories, and
a quarry, where they obtain very hand-
some, colored marble. At Shelburne,
near the lake, you will see, if you travel
that way, the rich and extensive farm of
Judge Meech, which contains three thou-
sand agres, and is one of the largest in
the northern states. In 1847 he cut off
it one thousand tons of hay, and kept
three thousand sheep and four hundred
head of cattle, and sold one thousand
bushels of rye.

11. The owner had then lived on it
over forty years, and in his younger
days had to work hard; but industry
and thrift succeeded, as they are almost
certain to do. This is the history of
hundreds of thousands of American in-
dividuals, and, indeed, of the American
people.

12. Montpelier is a handsome town,
and there the legislature meets, once a
year, to make laws for the state. In
passing through Vermont, you will per-
ceive that most of thegpeople are farm-
ers. They raise a ee many horned
cattle, and sheep, and hogs, and horses.

Champlain, &.? 9. Burlington? 10. Middlebury?
Judge Meech’s farm? 12. Montpelier? People

The horses are very fine ones. Many
of the beautiful horses you see in New
York, Boston, and Hartford, come from
Vermont.

13. Vermont is one of the most indus-
trious and successful agricultural states
in the Union. There are only four
states that produce more than one hun-
dred dollars to each head, or person, of
the population; viz., Vermont, Missis-
sipp ansas, and Louisiana.

14. Vermont produced, as was shown
by the census of 1840, one hundred and
forty-eight dollars to each person of her
people, and was thus the first. The
wool from the sheep on her hills is
worth three millions of dollars a year.
They also make, in Vermont, more than
a million of dollars,worth of maple su-
gara year. It is the next sugar pro-
ducing state to Louisiana. They boil
it in the latter state, from the juice of



the’ sugar-cane; but in Vermont they
boil it from the sap of the maple trees.

15. During the winter, the weather
is cold, and the snow falls to a great

depth. It is sometimes four or five feet



of Vermont? Horses? 13. Agriculture? 14. Prod-
tice of Vermont per head? Wool? Maple sugar?

4 ’
24 THE FIRST BOOK OF
deep. The people have three or four
months’ fine sleighing. Although the
air is very sharp, yet the winter is a
wy merry season in this state. The
children ride on their sleds down the
hills, and the people glide swiftly over



Winter in Vermont.

the hills and valleys in their sleighs.
It is in summer one of the most beauti-
ful of the states.

16. If you travel among these green
hills, whose ascent is so gradual that
they do not seem like mountains ;—
along the streams, and pleasant lakes,
and bright, pretty valleys;—you will
find, from time to time, the school-
houses, where the boys and girls of this
siate are learning to be good, and wise,
and happy, under their public free school
system.

17. They are learning the best way
to make the most of their soil, quar-
ries, and mines, and to take the places
of their fathers and mothers, by and by,
as good men and women and citizen.

18. You will find the indefatigable
superintendent visiting these schools,
and he will be glad to take you in with
him; when you will hear him tell the
<— tnt ieermweernsetiinied ata
‘6. Winter? Describe the picture. 16. Schools ?
18. Superintendents ? Mr. Hammond?





HISTORY.—-VERMONT.

children how they should behave, and
how they should ‘study, and what they
should do it for, just as the teachers,
those good friends of the children, have
been telling them. In 1842, died in
this state, S. Hammond, who was one
of those who, in the beginning of our
Revolution, threw over the English tea
into Boston harbor, which I shall tell
you about.

_—

CHAPTER VI.
VERMONT—Conminvep.

1. Over thirty years ago, a very sin-
gular event occurred in Vermont. ‘There
was a very large pond, or lake, in the
north-western part of the state; it was
three miles long, and one wide. One
day, some ‘men were at work at a bank
of earth, at the end of this pond.

2. Suddenly the bank gave way, and
the water came rushing out at th® place
with great violence. For several miles
it rolled on in a torrent, Sweeping off
mills, houses, barns, and cattle, and
barely giving the inhabitants time to
escape. It did not stop till the whole
pond was exhausted. Where the pond
used to be, there is now only the bed
of a small river.

3. During the year 1814, there was
a famous battle fought on Lake Cham-
plain, between some American and Brit
ish ships. The battle took place in
sight of Burlington. There were thou-
sands of people along the shore to wit-
ness it. There were several American
vessels, and several British vessels, also.
The American ships were commanded
by Commodore Macdonough.

‘



1, What event took place in Vermont over thirty
years ago? 3,4, What battle on Lake Champlain
in the year 1814? Describe this battle. 5. What










4. They fought each other with can-
on for more than two hours. At length
e British ships were beaten, and the
mericans took them nearly all. This
appened during the late war with Eng-
nd, of which I shall tell you more be-
ore I get through the book.

5 In August, 1777, there was a cel-
brated battle fought at Bennington, be-
ween some American and British sol-
iers. General Stark, with some New
ampshire and Vermont troops, attacked
ome British soldiers, commanded by
olonel Baum, at that place.

6. The British troops were dressed
n fine red coats, and white pantaloons.
hey had beautiful music, and their
fficers were mounted on fine horses,
ut the Vermont and New Hampshire
en were not regular soldiers; they
ere farmers, and mechanics, and mer-
hants, who went to war merely to drive
hese egy sone from the country.

7. The Americans were dressed in
heir common clothes. The British
troops, who were so finely attired, de-
spised them. They called them Yan-
kees, and laughed at their homespun
dress. But when the battle began the
laughter of the British troops was done.
The Americans fell upon them, and
killed a great many of them, and by
and by the British fled.

8. As they were running away, they
met a good many more British soldiers.
Thinking themselves now strong enough
to beat the Americans, they went back,
and began to fight again. But the
Americans attacked them with such
vigor, that soon seven hu of the
British were killed and wo Col.
Baum was killed, and the the
British ran away. This battle. took
place during the Revolutiona





battle at Bennington in August, 1777? 6,7,8. De-

“VERMONT.—BATTLE OF BENNINGTON—ANNALS, ETC,

25
Â¥ which I shall tell you more by and

‘e

-9. Vermont was not settled by ‘the
white people till some time after the
other New England States. There was
a fort built near Brattleboro, in 1724,
called Fort Dummer. The remains of
it are still to be seen. It was built to
protect the people who had settled there
from the Iggians.

10. Ve. was settled principally
by people from Connecticut. They first
established themselves along on Con-
necticut river, and afterwards in other
parts of the state. They had a good
many skirmishes with the Indians, and
for a long time there was a great dispute
whether the land belonged to New York
or New Hampshire.

11. It was decided in England, in
1764, that it belonged to New York,
and consequently the government of
that oT began to sell the land to any
persons who would buy. The settlers
thought this very unjust, and deter-
mined to resist. New York then sent
troops into Vermont, and there was
some fighting. These difficulties were
not settled till years after.

' 12. During the Revolutionary War
Vermont was independent, and in 1791
it became one of the United States. It
is now little more than one hundred
years since this state was a mere wil-
derness, occupied only by scattered tribes
of savages, bears, and wolves. Now it
has a great many flourishing towns, and
cultivated farms, on the tops of the hills,
in the valleys, and along the rivers and
lakes. Several years ago, a steam-

scribé this battle. 9, Settlement of Vermont?
Fort Dummer? 10. Who were the first settlers of
Vermont? What of these settlers? 11. What tool
place in 1764? 12. When did e one of
the United States? What of Vi t one hum
dred years ago? What of it now?
26

boat ascended the river to the distance
of two hundred miles from its mouth,
and was warmly greeted by the inhab-
itants along the banks.

CHAPTER VII.
STATE OF MASSACHUSETTS.

1. Massachusetts is n rge state,
but there are a great many people in it.
It has ninety-four persons to each square
mile of its territory, supposing they were
distributed equally all over it. This is
being more thickly settled than any oth-
er of the United States. England has
two hundred and sixty people to each
square mile. Those who live along the
seaboard, at Boston, Salem, New Bed-
ford, Nantucket, and other places, own
a great many ships, brigs, sloops, and
schooners. Some of these ships are
sent to England, and other parts of Eu-
rope, and they bring back various kinds
of goods.

2. Other ships are sent to China, and



Questions on the Map of Massachusetts. —
Boundaries ?
Charles, Deerfield, Westfield. What range of
mountains in M.? Through what counties do
these mountains run? Describe Massachusetts
Bay, Barnstable, Cape Cod Bay, Buzzard’s Bay.
Describe the following islands: Martha’s Vine-
yard, Nantucket, Elizabeth, Dukes. 5. ‘How
many counties in M.? Their names? Capital?
In what county is Boston? Describe the follow-
ing towns: Salem, New Bedford, Newburyport,
Worcester, Amherst, Cambridge, Northampton,
Springfield, Greenfield, Deerfield, Concord, Lex-
ington, Pittsfield, Stockbridge, Westfield, Wil-
liamstown. Population of M.? Square miles?
Greatest length of M.? Greatest width? Aver-
uge length? Average width?

1. What of setts? How many peo-
ple to each square mile? How many in England?
People along the seaboard? 2. What is commerce?

Describe the Merrimac river,

THE FIRST BOOK OF HISTORY.—MASSACHUSETTS.

they bring back teat The trade carried
on by these ships is called commerce.
Some of the vessels go to a great dis-
tance to catch whales, for their oil. Oth-
er vessels go out to catch cod-fish and
mackerel.

3. Great numbers of cod are taken in
boats, along the shores, but most on the
banks of Newfoundland. These banks
are immense sandy places, out at sea,
east of Newfoundland: the largest is
four hundred miles long, and the water
is from one hundred and twenty to three
hundred feet deep upon them.

4. The cod-fish are in millions, feed-
ing on the worms on the bottom. The
vessels come here in the summer, from
Europe and America, and get loads of
fish, which they take with hooks and
clams for bait. The cod are split and
salted down. The livers are kept in
barrels, where oil drains from them.
When the vessels come e, the fish
are spread to dry on flakes, or platforms
made of branches and twigs of trees, on
a frame three feet from the ground.

5. The mackerel are caught in early
summer, all along the northern United
States, in immense shoals or swarms.
They are opened, pickled, and then as-
sortedinto barrels by an inspector ap-
pointed for the purpose, who marks them
No. 1, 2, &c., according to the quality.
These cod and mackerel are eaten at
home, or sent to the Southern States,
the West Indies, South America, and
Southern Europe.

6. The whale fishery in America
was first begun by the inhabitants of






Nantucket. They, and the people from
New B Connecticut, New York,
&e., re lamp-oil, spermaceti,
and e, carry it on at the north

essels belonging to M.? 3, Describe tne
5. The mackerel fishery. 6. The whale
MASS.—THE ICE BUSINESS—FARMING—FACTORIES. 27

pole, at the south pole, and in the
great oceans, where the whales have
been taken eighty to a hundred feet
long. I will tell you about it when I
come to speak of Greenland. A gregt
many sloops, and schooners, and brigs,
go to New York, Philadelphia, Charles-
_ ton, and other places.

7. They carry a good many articles
away, which are not wanted in Massa-
chusetts, and get, in exchange for them,
other articles that are wanted here. So,
you see, there are a great many people
constantly occupied in managing these
ships. You may often see several hun-
dred vessels, of various kinds, at Boston.

8. At Boston, some years since, was
commenced the ice trade, which now
amounts to an immense value every
year. The ice is taken from the ponds
and collected in ice-houses, in the win-
ter. This is pretty cold work, you may
be sure. ‘The men have thick mittens,
and they thrash their arms together, and
blow their fingers with their hot breath ;
and whenthe cold wind comes, they work
away the harder, to keep themselves

which it is carefully packed in saw-
dust, and so carried half over the world.
In hot countries it is very grateful; and
even in England, during summer, Amer-
ican ice has become quite famous.
Sometimes they put fish, or meats, or
fruits, in among the ice, and they keep
nicely on the voyage, and when taken
out look as fresh, and taste as well, as
when firstgmpe i.

11. In rts of the state remote
from the sea, the people of Massachu-
setts are chiefly occupied in agriculture.
There are a great many very fine farms;
and the people manage them extremely
well. Phere are also very extensive
manufactories in Massachusetts. Low-
ell is a great manufacturing town.

12. You must not fail, if you have an
opportunity, to stop at Lowell, and re-
mark the industry and the success of
this astonishing city. In 1826 it was
of Chelmsford, and had only two

undred inhabitants; in 1847, it had
about thirty thousand. You must visit
‘the factories there, and see how neat
and clean everything is; the rooms and
the people in them. A place for every-
thing, and everything in its place, is the
rule there.

13. You would find, if you were to
count them, nine or ten thousand per-
sons at work at once; seven thousand
of them are women and girls, who have
come from all parts of the country.
They stay here about five years, and
then return with the money they have
earned by industry and good be avior,
to be happy at home. They have books
to read; and they write and publish a
book or magazine, themselves, every
month; it is called the Lowell Offering.

14. They make in Lowell about sev-

rt
getting of the ice. 11. What of the people remote
from the sea? Manufactories in M. 2) 12, 18, I4y,

























warm,

9, You will be interested to go out to
these ponds, to some of which they have
made railroads, on purpose to bring the
ice to the wharves. You would find
some of the men sawing the thick ice
into blocks; and others pulling it from
the ‘water with iron hooks and long
poles, and then it is hauled by horses,
-and an ingenious contrivance of ropes
and pulleys, into the ice-houses on the
border of the pond. These houses are
built double, and the space een the
outside and inside walls i
tan-bark, that the ice may

10. At proper times the:
on carts or railroads to

fishery.






8, 9,10. The ice
28

enty-five millions of yards of cloth a
year. Lowell was the first place in the
world where they wove carpets, and all
their rich and curious patterns, with
power looms, that is, which go by water
or steam. They used always to be
woven by hand. This place is an ex-
cellent specimen of our manufacturing
villages and cities, so much better than
those we read of in England and the
rest of Europe.

15. More of these busy places are
constantly building. On the Merrimac
river, just below Lowell, they built, in
1847, a number of large factories, and
called the place Lawrence. And still
others at Hadley Falls, on the Connecti-
cut river, at a place which they have
named Ireland.

16. At Newburyport and Salem are
very large factories, which go by steam.
There is one of this kind at Salem,
which is among the largest in the United
States, if not in the world. It has
twenty-seven thousand spindles, which
are spinning away all at once; anda
busy sight and whiz they make of it.

17, There are many other manufac-
tories, at Waltham, Taunton, Canton,
Ware, Springfield, Framingham, and
other places. The goods manufactured
in these towns are chiefly carried to
Boston, and are thence taken to New
York, Philadelphia, Charleston, New
Orleans, and various foreign markets.

18. On the south-eastern shore of
Massachusetts, you would see, in pass-
ing close to the ocean, a great many low
wooden vats, into which the salt water
of the sea is put. The sun dries up the
water, and the salt is left on the bottom



* Lowell? Describe any other manufacturing town
or place that you have seen, 15, Lawrence? Ire-
land? 16. Newburyport? Salem? 17. Other
towns mentioned? What of the goods manu-



THE FIRST BOOK OF HISTORY.—MASSACHUSETTS,

and sides of the vats, and collected, in
great quantities, for use and sale. When
a shower is coming up, you will see the
men run to slide the covers over these
salt works, so that the water shall not
spoil the operations.

19. Boston is the largest city in New
England. There are many interesting
things in Boston. The Common is a
very beautiful place. It is delightful to
see it covered with people, men, women,
and children, on a pleasant summer
evening. How pleased the boys are to
get around the Frog-pond, and throw
sticks into it, so that they may see the
dogs jump in, swim about and get them!



Boys playing on Boston Common.

20. In 1847 the people of Boston,
finding that the city was getting to have
so many people and houses in it that
there was not enough good fresh water
to use, purchased a whole pond, called
Long Pond. This they re-called by its.
old Indian name, Cochituate Lake. It
is situated in Framingham, Natick, &c.,





about twenty miles west of Boston, and
higher e highest part of the city.

21, built a large brick aque-
duct, that you might walk up-

18. Describe salt-making. 19,
? The Common? Describe the
MASS.—BOSTON WATER-WORw. —BUILDINGS— RAILROADS.

right through it, in which the water
runs from Cochituate Lake, over rivers
and valleys, and through hills, to a large
reservoir, and thence by iron pipes into
the chambers of any of the houses in
the city. These pipes carry it through
all the streets, and there are altogether,
sixty miles in length of them. They
may also be used to feed public foun-
tains, which are very pretty, with the
bright water sparkling like diamonds in
the sunshine. This structure is next in
size to the Croton water-works, which
supply New York city, and of which I
shall tell you by and by. Many of our
large cities in the United States are thus
supplied with pure water, as Philadel-
phia, Baltimore, Cincinnati, &c.

22. The State-house is finely situ-
ated, and it has a good arance.
When I was young, I used. to like to go
to the top of the State-house, from which
there is a splendid prospect. I could see
the ocean, with a great many islands in it,
and I could see a great many fine towns
all around Boston, and I could look down
upon the city itself, and see almost all
that was going on in the streets.

23. There are a great many hand-
some buildings in Boston. The Stone
Market is a very fine building, and I
do not think there is a more beautiful
market in the world. Tremont House,
King’s Chapel, St. Paul’s Church, and
Trinity Church; the new Boston Ath-
eneum; the Howard Atheneum; the
Museum; several freestone, Gothic and
“other churches; the Merchants’ Ex-
change, and the United States Custom-
house, are very elegant edifices.

24. The land in Boston was originally
about six hundred acres, but they have

picture. 20,21. Water-works? 22.
23. What fine buildings in Boston

House?
t and

29
filled it up on the borders of the bays,
until, in 1847, it had about thirteen hun-
dred acres, and one hundred and twenty
thousand inhabitants, But the sur-
rounding lately incorporated cities of
Roxbury, @ambridge, and Charlestown,
and the towns, join it so closely, that
you would take them all together to be
one city of more than two hundred thou-
sand inhabitants. Boston is continually
advancing with the-rest of the state and
country. It is connected with all parts
of the land by railroads, and with all
parts of the world by the sea.

25. I will tell you about those rail-
roads, because they have changed all
the old modes of travelling and of doing
business, all over the country. They
have, also, wherever they are, rendered
states flourishing, and have increased
wealth more than all their enormous
cost. One locomotive engine on a rail-
road will do the work of six hundred
and sixty-eight horses. It needs only
four men to take care of it; but the four-
horse teams, to equal it, would require
one hundred and sixty-seven men.

26. There are more than thirty rail-
roads in New England, with all their
branches. They have cost forty or fift
millions of dollars. Seven of these rail- |
roads, as you will see on the map, di-
verge directly from Boston, the capital,
into all parts of the state, and into other
states.

27, These make in all more than
eight hundred miles of railroad. In
1847, their cars travelled, over them,
one million five hundred and thirty
thousand miles, and transported three
million one hundred and thirty-five
thousand passengers. And for that
quick and easy travelling, in comfbrt-

in inensinenerns—votieiiiecain imeieiath aa
population? 25. Describe a railroad, 26, 27,

ws
30

able, clean, and ‘well ventilated cars,
they charged a passenger only two and
two fifths cents a mile.

28. Salem is quite a city, and many
of the people are engaged in commerce.
The city of Worcester, and the towns
of Springfield and Northampton, are
remarkably handsome. Massachusetts
abounds in beautiful villages. It is
pleasant to observe, in travelling through
it, the great number of very neat meet-
ing-houses.

29. The city of Worcester you will
find the grand centre for railroads from
Boston, Albany, Providence, Norwich,
Nashua, and Concord. It has been
proposed to build a mammoth depot, to
aecommodate all these together. What
curious articles you would see piled up
there and lying about, brought from so
many different places, and going, per-
haps, to every part of the world!

30. At Cambridge there is a college,
called Harvard University. In 1848,
its libraries amounted to eighty-two
thousand volumes; and besides its
schools of Law, Medicine, and Divinity,
there was established here, in 1847, the
Lawrence Scientific School, for practical
science. Another college is located at
Amherst, and one also at Williamstown.
There are a great many academies and
schools in the state, and it has one of the
best organized and established systems
of public free schools.

31. More than one hundred and fifty
thousand children are at school all the
time, who have the use of district school
libraries, provided for them by the fore-
thought and liberality of the towns and
of the state. They have also Normal

Railroads in Massachusetts in 18477? 28. Salem?
Northampton? 29. Worcester? 30. Cambridge?
Amherst? Williamstown? Public free schools ?.
1. District school libraries? Normal Schools $

THE FILST BOOK OF HISTORY. — MASSACHUSETTS.

Schools, so called, where males and
females, who wish to become teathers,
are admirably taught by able instructors,
and afterwards themselves do a great
deal of good in teaching, all over the
country.

32. Massachusetts has done more
than any other state towards encour:
aging farmers, who are so important a
class, as they furnish us with food, and
the materials of which our clothes are
made. They have societies of agricul-
ture and horticulture here, as in other
states. The intelligence and experiments
of the members of such societies are
constantly improving those branches of
industry. here is a Massachusetts
State Manual Labor School at West-
boro’, and a Farm School, established
near Boston, on an island, by private
munificence. Here boys who are so
unfortunate as to be exposed to vice,
without other opportunities, are trained
to habits of industry and morality, and
instructed in what will be useful to them
when they grow up. In 1845 and
1848, were incorporated the Mass. Acad-
emy of Agriculture, and the Mass. Ag-
ticultural Tnstitate.

33. Commerce, manufactures, fishing
and farming, are the chief employments
of the state, which is continually enter-
prising and successful. Her capital has
now several routes connecting with New
York city. Her Western Railroad, break-
ing through seeming impossibilities,
opens to her the same West that makes

ew York great. Railroads confined
to her own territory bring business to
Boston, which has, also, railroads to
Maine, New Hampshire, and Vermont,
and will soon be connected with Canada,
and be the winter communication at least

2. wid done for agriculture? Farming
schools? 33. Chief employments of the people?
MASS.—-BUNKER HILL—DISTINGUISHED MEN, ETC.

between England and her provinces, by
means of the great enterprise of the Brit-
ish government, through their agent, Mr.
Cunard; who; in 1840, established a line
of steamers between Liverpool and Bos-
ton, which come across in from eleven
to fourteen days.

34. In 1825 was begun, and in 1842
was finished, at Bunker Hill, a granite

——F



Bunker Hill Monument.

obelisk, two hundred and twenty feet
high, a monument of the battle fought
there, of which I will tell you in Chap-
ter LIII. You can ascend to the top,
which is three hundred and nine feet
above high water, by circular stone
stairs around a well in the centre, and
will have a fine view from it.

35. In 1825, died John Lowell, Jr.,
Esq., who founded free public lectures,
at Boston, which were first commenced
in 1839; and in 1839, Nathaniel Bow-
ditch died, the great American astrono-
‘mer. In 1842, died Rev. William E.
Channing, a distinguished writer, and
Washington Allston, the great Ameri-
can a In 1846, died Joseph Sto-
Hg udge of the Supreme Court of the
nited States, one of the ablest and

tee aint niin
Connection with other states? Steamers to Eng-
land? 34. Bunker Hill Monument? 35. Distin-

3h

most famous lawyers in the world; and
in 1846, died Dr. Benj. Waterhouse,
who introduced vaccination against the
small-pox into America; Feb, 23, 1848,
died at Washington, where he repre-
sented his state in Congress, John Quin-
cy Adams, Ex-president of the United
tates, a man possessed of more politi-
cal knowledge than any individual in
the United States of his time. He died
in the Capitol, being stricken with dis-
ease in his place in Representatives’
Hall. His body was brought to its tomb .
in Quincy by a delegation of members
of Congress, one from each state and
territory. The cities through which it
passed, and the Legislature of Massa-
chusetts, paid it the honor of funeral pro-
cessions and eulogies. The tombs of
most of these great men are to be seen
at Mt. Auburn, the first, as it is also one
of the a the en soontenies
in the U. S.; it is at Cambridge. ,

36. We might also visit, very gilt
ably, the admirably eonducted Perkins
Institution and Asylum for the Blind, at
South Boston ; the McLean Asylum for
the Insane, at Somerville, just out of the
capital; the Massachusetts Hospital, in
the city; the State Asylum for the
Insane, at Worcester; also the United
States Arsenal, at Springfield.

37. It is not so cold in Massachusetts,
during the winter, as in Vermont and
Maine. The snow is not so deep, and
there is not so much sleighing. If you
ever travel through the state, you will
find it very hilly. Though there are a
great many railroads, yet, if you wish to
see the country, you had better travel in
some other way. Near rureng is
a high mountain, called Holyoke. From

guished persons mentioned? Mount Auburn?
Institution for blind? Other institations ?
37. Winter? Face of the country? Mt. Holyoke ?
32

the top of it, you can look down upon
Connecticut river, winding through a
valley so rich and beautiful, that it
seems like a carpet woven with various
bright colors.

CHAPTER VIII.
MASSACHUSETTS—Conrixven.

1. On the 17th day of September,
1830, there was a great parade in Bos-
ton. There was the governor of the
state, and the mayor of the city, and the
president of Harvard college, and a
great many other men; and then there
were a great many children, little boys
and girls, from all the schools in Boston.

2. It was a very bright day, and they
all assembled on the Common. There
were a great many thousand people be-
side, who came to look on. I was there
myself, and I was delighted at the long
rows of good little boys and girls. By
and by, the men all went in a long pro-
cession to the Old South church, and
there Mr. Quincy delivered an oration.



Celebration of the Settlement of Boston.
3. Now you will be curious to know

1, What took place in Boston in September,
18307 Describe the picture. 3. What was this
ceiebration for? When did the settlement of



THE FIRST BOOK OF HISTORY. —MASSACHUSETTS.

what all this parade was ,about. I will
tell you: It was to celebrate the settle-
ment of Boston, which took place just
two hundred years before; that is, on
the 17th of September, 1630.

4. Ten years before, in 1620, some
persons had come from England, and
settled at Plymouth. At that period,
many of the people in England were per-
secutell, and could not be happy there.
They chose therefore to come to Amer-
ica, and live in the woods, with Indians
and wild beasts around them, rather
than stay there.

5. Accordingly fifteen hundred per-
sons came over in 1630, and settled at
Charlestown, Dorchester, and other
places. A man by the name of Black-
stone came to the place where Boston
now stands, and liking it pretty well, he
told some of the people about it, and
they went and settled there.

6. The first settlers here suffered a
great deal. They had poor, miserable
huts to live in, and in winter the weather
was excessively cold. They were almost
starved, too, for want of food. A great
many of them died from hunger, cold,
and distress.

7. Such is a brief sketch of the first
settlement of Boston. Whdt a wonder-
ful change has taken place in two hun-
dred years! The spot where Boston
stands was then a wilderness. The
hills and the islands were covered with
trees, and the Indians were living all
around. Now the Indians are all gone,
and there are one hundred and twenty
thousand people living in this place; in
the towns around it there are at least as
many more.



Boston take place? 4. Why did some English
people come to livg in America? 5. Settlers of
1630? 6. What of wolves? Sufferings of the first
settlers? 7,8, What changes have taken place in
MASS.—ORIGINAL CONDITION OF THE COUNTRY, ETC.

8. The forests have all been cut
down, the hills have been levelled, the
valleys have been filled up; houses,
churches, and other public edifices, now
stand on the very places which were
then occupied by Indian wigwams.
The bay, where then you could see
only a few Indian canoes, is now coy-
ered with hundreds of vessels, and in the
streets you hear the noise of a thousand
wheels, where then were heard only the
cries of wild beasts and savage men.

9. Such are the mighty changes that
have taken place in this aren since it
was settled by the white people. It is
very interesting to look around, and see
the present condition of towns, cities and
countries. But I think it is still more
interesting to go back and study the
history of places, and see what has hap-
pened there in times that have now
gone by.

10. The first settlement in New Eng-
land was made at Plymouth, in 1620,
The settlers were English people, called
Puritans. Within ten years after, Sa-
lem, Dorchester, Charlestown, and Bos-
ton, were settled. A great many people
came over from England, and thus the
colony grew very rapidly.

11, They had a great many difficul-
ties to encounter. Before they could
raise grain to make bread of, they were
obliged to cut down trees, and till the
land. They had also to build houses,
to make roads, and defend themselves
against the Indians. Their condition
was indeed a very hard one, and some
of the people who came over died from
want and fatigue, as I have said before.

12. Many of them were killed by the

218 years? 10. When was the first settlement in
New England? What were the settlers called?
What of Salem, and other towns? 11, What had
the settlers to do? What was their situation? 12.

3

savages, but in spite of all these evils,
the colony continued to increase. The
white people penetrated further into the
interior, cut down the trees, built towns:
and villages, and soon spread them-
selves over the whole country that is
now called Massachusetts.

13. But after a while the Revolution-
ary War broke out, and then the people
had to defend themselves against Brit-
ish soldiers. I shall tell you all about
this war by and by. I shall tell you of
the battles of Lexington, and of Bunker
Hill, and many other interesting things.

CHAPTER IX.
STATE OF RHODE ISLAND.

1. Rhode Island is the smallest of the
United States; but there are a great
many manufactories there, and the peo-
ple carry on a good deal of commerce.
At Pawtucket there are some very ex-
tensive cotton manufactories. hese
are situated on the falls of the Paw-
tucket river.

2. Providence is a large town, with a
college, called Brown University. If
you ever visit Providence, you should



Describe the progress of the ontlognntte Massp-

chusetts. 13. Revolutionary W:

Questions on the Map of Rhode Isiand. —
Boundaries? Describe the Pawtucket river,
Charles, Wood, Pawtuxet. Describe Narragun-
set Bay. Describe Rhode Island, Block Island.
How many counties in Rhode Island? Their
names? Capital? In what county is Provi-
dence? Describe the following towns: Bristol,
Newport, Pawtucket, Warren, E. Greenwich, W.
Greenwich, Richmond, Coventry, Hopkinton.
Population of Rhode Island? Extent? Greatest
length of R. I.? Greatest width? Average length?
Average width ? ,

1, What of R. I. manufactories? Pawtucket 1
2. Providence? The University? The Arcade
34

go and see the Arcade. This is a very
beautiful building, where you can pur-
chase almost every kind of elegant mer-
chandise. You should also go and see
the basin of the old Blackstone Canal, a
place for boats that came from Worces-
ter, until, in 1848, the canal was made
_ the line of a railroad.

3. At Providence you can take the
steamboat and go to Newport. You
will sail down meee Bay, which,

think, is one of the most beautiful
bays in the world. As you go along,
you will see Bristol at your left. . It is
a very pleasant town, and there are a
number of beautiful houses there.

4. Near Bristol, you can see a hill
called Mount Hope. This is very cele-
brated, as having been the residence of
a famous Indian chief, whose name was
Philip. His story@is very interesting,
and I shall tell it td you, by and by.

5. You will find Newport very pleas-
antly situated. It has rather a venera-
ble appearance. It stands upon a large
island, called Rhode Island. This gave
name to the state. Newport is resorted
to by many people in summer, for its
healthy and pleasant sea-breezes. Fort
Adams, an immense and curious fortifi-
cation, is on an island near by.

« 6. In the war of the Revolution, the
English were driven out of Newport.
In order to prevent the Americans from
following len they took up all the
lanks of the bridge which led from
ewport to the main land, and left
nothing but the narrow timbers.

7. General Lafayette, of whom I
shall tell you more hereafter, was assist-
ing the Americans, and wished to follow
the British, and to pass this bridge. Its
height and length made his head to

The Basin? 3, Narraganset Bay? Bristol? 4. Mt.
Hope? 6. Newport? Ft. Adams? 7. Lafayette





THE FIRST BOOK OF HISTORY.—RHODE ISLAND.

whirl; it was impossible for him to
cross it without assistance, and it was

difficult to help him. A Mr. Abel Car- »

penter, of Providence, R.I., but who
died in Lyndon, Vt., about 1846, had a
great deal of firmness, and he volun-
teered and helped Lafayette in the only
way it could be done. He walked back-
wards the whole distance, leading the
general by the hands. They performed
this dangerous enterprise in safety, and
thus outgeneraled the enemy.

8. The first white man that settled
in Rhode Island was Roger Williams.
He was a clergyman, and lived in Bos-
ton ; but he did not think exactly as the
other clergymen of Boston did, and so
he was banished from Massachusetts.








Roger Williams emigrating to Rhode Island.

9. He went away with his family
into the woads, After travelling a con-
siderable time, he stopped, and began to
build himself a house. Here he made
a settlement, and called it Providence.
This took place in 1636, and was the
first settlement in Rhode Island. He
was kindly treated by the Indians, who
seemed pleased at his arrival among
them.

—_—
and Mr, Carpenter? 8. Roger Williams? De
seribe the picture. 9, When was the first settle
RHODE ISLAND.—CLAM-BAKE—OLD CHARTER~—SCHOOLS.

10. The colony, thus begun, increased
rapidly, and in the Revolutionary War it
united with the other colonies in the
struggle for freedom. It became one
of the United States in1790.

11. There is a curious custom, use-
ful when a large multitude is to be en-
tertained, which is practised in Rhode
Island and along the sea-shore. It is
called a clam-bake. A party assembles
on horseback, on foot, in wagons, chaises,
carryalls, and boats, in some retired spot,
where the green waves of ocean, crest-
ed with snowy foam, are rolling with a
singing murmur, forever and ever, to the
rocks and the shore;—or where the
quieter sea seems to smile and rejoice
as it glances back the brightness of a
summer’s sun.

12. Some of the busy multitude are
seen piling wood and dry branches upon
a huge fire, into which many large
stones are thrown ; others heap up, close
at hand, sea-weed torn from the rocks,
or bring buckets of clams freshly dug
from the muddy flats. Others, with
cautious clutch and noisy glee, bring
from the boats, at the rocks, the strug-
gling; greenish-black lobsters, just from
the traps; while others still fetch the
fish they have just caught, fresh from
the ocean.

13. The wood is now burnt to coals,
and these, withythe red-hot stones, are
pushed together into a bed five feet by
twelve, or much larger, if the number
of guests requires it. They now quick-
Vy cover the stones and coals with a
thick layer of sea-weed, hissing, crack-
ling, and steaming. All over this are
strewed clams, lobsters, fish, and n
corn, if it is in season, Another layer
of sea-weed, and another of clams, lob-

ment made in Rhode Island? - 10. When did Rhode
\ Island become a state? 11—14. What is a clam-



sters, fish, and corn; and then, over all,
weeds are heaped and pressed as closely
as possible, to keep in the heat and
steam.

14. The clams, &c., being baked, or
rather, well steamed, and seasoned, the
pile is quickly raked open ;—the lob-
sters are discovered of a bright scarlet,
the fish nicely cooked, and the clams
invitingly opening their whitened shell.
Everybody is now busy helping his
friends and himself, using shell#for both
knife and plate, and with many a me
joke and echoing laugh,and much gon

umored talk, duly varied with political
or other speeches, a great many people
at once are enjoying an old-fashioned,
Indian seoohale

15. Rhode Island had been governed
by the charter originally ted her
as a colony, in 1663, b King Charles
II., of England. In 1841, some persons,
wishing to alter that charter, formed
a constitution, and elected Thomas W.
Dorr governor. Troubles then ensued
between them and other persons in the
state, which, though threatening to be se-
tious, were happily quieted, and the
ple peaceably, by a convention, in 1843,
formed a new constitution, reérganized
their government under it, and are now
pursuing their business with their accus-
tomed enterprise and industry.

16. They have a public free school
system, also, in Rhode Island. The per-
sons who conduct it are very active, and
do all that they can to encourage and
assist the children in their learning ;
and they are going on finely. In 1847
was first opened, at Providence, the
Butler Hospital for the Insane. In
1835 died Samuel Slater, who built, in

bake? 15. How had Rhode Island been governed?
What was done in 18417 In 19437 16, Free
school system? Insane Asylum? Samuel Slater?
1790, at Pawtucket, the first cotton-mill
in the United States.

CHAPTER X.
STATE OF CONNECTICUT.

1. Connecticut, with the exception of
Rhode Island, is the smallest of the
New England States; but it has more
inhabitants than any of them, except
‘Massachusetts and Maine. The coun-
try is very hilly, but it abounds in
streams and rivers, and is generally
quite fertile.

2. The people are very industrious.
A great many of them are occupied in
cultivating the land, and they cultivate
it very well. They raise a good many
cattle, horses, hogs, ee and some
grain and kitchen vegetables. A great
many of the people are occupied in man-
ufactories, and a considerable number
are engaged in commerce. Almost
every person in the state is busy about
something.

3. Let us suppose that we begin at
the eastern part of the state, and travel
through it. We will commence our
journey at Norwich. “This town is sit-



Questions on the Map of Connecticut. — Boun-
daries? Describe the Connecticut, Housatonic,
Farmington, Thames. What range-of mountains
in Connecticut? Through what counties do they
run? Describe the following islands: Falkner’s,
Fisher’s, Goose, Thimble. How many counties in
Connecticut? Their names? Capital? In what
county is Hartford? New Haven? Describe the
following towns: Norwich, New London, Wind-
ham, Tolland, Windsor, Wethersfield, Middle-
town, Litchfield, Fairfield, Danbury, Groton,
Brooklyn. Population of Connecticut? Square
miles? Greatest length of Connecticut? Greatest
width? Average length? Average width?

1. What of Connecticut? 2. The people? What
do they raise? What of manufactures? Com-

THE FIRST BOOK OF HISTORY.—CONNECTICUT.

uated on the Thames, and we shall see
quite a number of vessels there, engaged
in carrying on trade with New York
Philadelphia, and Charleston. _ There
are several falls in the river,;:at Nor-
wich, and these afford fine. mill-seats,
where there are some very extensive
cotton manufactories.

4. The country around Norwich was
once occupied by a celebrated tribe’ of
Indians, called Mohicans. These Mo-
hicans were once at war with some other
Indians. One night, several of these
Indians had encamped on the top of
some high rocks.

§. Their enemies discovered their
situation, and secretly encircled them
on all sides but one. On that side was
a steep precipice, at the foot of which
was the river. When the morning
came, the party of Indians first men-
tioned were about.to depart, when they
discovered that they were surrounded
by their foes.

6. They made a short resistance ; but
perceiving that they were outnumbered
by their enemies, they leaped over the
rocks, and were killed by the fall.

7. Having examined Norwich, we
will take a boat, and go down the river
Thames, to: New London. At this
place, we shall seq a steamboat that
goes to New York, did we shall also
observe a good many other vessels.
Among the vessels, we shall see a large
ship fitting out to go to the Pacific ocean,
to catch whales.

8. We shall perhaps see another ves-
sel, that has just come back from a
whaling voyage, after an absence of
three years. If she is not unloaded, we
shall find, on board of her, about two
thousand barrels of sperm-oil, and a

merce? 3, What of Norwich? 4—6, Indians?
7. New London? Steamboat? Whale-ships?

as

i

j
CONNECTICUT.—ANECDOTE— BENEVOLENT INSTITUTIONS,

good deal of whale-bone. The oil is
used for burning in lamps, and the
whale-bone is for umbrella frames; and
many other purposes.

9. Near New London we shall see
two forts; one of them is called Fort
Trumbull, and the other Fort Griswold.
The latter is situated in Groton, just
across the river Thames.

10. I will tell you an odd story of
what happened in Groton, about the
year 1812, There was war, then, be-
tween our country and Great Britain.
There were several British ships in
sight, and it was expected we would
soon make an attack upon the forts. A
company of soldiers from Hartford oc-
cupied a house in Groton, as their bar-

racks,

11; One night, as they we 2 asleep,
there was a sudden cry of alarm among
the soldiers. They seized their arms,
and rushed out of the barracks. The
drums were beat, the sentinel fired his
gun, and all supposed that the British
were now about to make the expected
attack. Some of the men declared they
could see the enemy landing, and others
thought they could hear the roar of can-
non in the distance.

12. The officers assembled, and in-
quired into the matter. They soon dis-
covered that the British had nothing to
do with the alarm. It seems that one
of the soldiers, whose name was Tom
Stire, while he was sleeping with the
rest, fell into a dream. He dreamed
that the British were coming, and in his
sleep he exclaimed, “ Alarm‘ alarm!
the enemy are coming!” ‘This occa-
sioned the whole disturbance. .

13. After we have examined New
London, we will set out and go to Hart-



8. Whalevil? Whale-bone? 9. Forts? 10—12.
What story of the late war? 13. Hartford? Deaf





37

ford. This is a very fine town, situated
on Connecticut river. We must visit
the Deaf and Dumb Asylum, where we
shall see about one hundred and fifty
deaf and dumb pupils, who are taught
to read and write, and who can converse
by signs almost as well as we can |
talking. We shall also see, at Hartford,
a place for persons who are insane, called
the Retreat. Here they are taken care,
of, and many of them are cured. Be-
fore we leave town, we must go to Trin-
ity, formerly called Washington, Col-
lege, which is a fine institution.

14. After leaving Hartford, we will
go to Middletown, which is beautifully
situated on Connecticut river. Here is
the Wesleyan University. On our wa
from Hartford, we shall pass throug
Wethersfield, a pleasant place, where
the people raise many thousand bushels
of onions every year. These onions are
sent to all parts of the country. Some
of them go as far as Charleston, New
Orleans, and the West Indies.

15. After leaving Middletown, we
shall pass through Durham, where the
people make an immense quantity of
shoes. At length we shall arrive at
New Haven, which is one of the hand-
somest cities in New England. Here
we shall find a large basin, where were
formerly seen a great many canal boats,
which went along the Farmington Canal,
with merchandise and produce. The
line of this canal was taken, in 1848, for
a railroad.

16. At New Haven we shall also see
Yale College. This consists of several
brick buildings, in which there are three
or four hundred students. We must go



and Dumb Asylum? Retreat? Washington Col-
lege? 14. Middletown? Wesleyan University ?
Wethersfield? 15. Durham? New Haven?
The Basin? Canal-boats? 16. Yale College?
38 THE FIRST BOOK OF

into one of these buildings and see the
eabinet. This is a collection of beauti-
ful minerals from all parts of the world.



17. It is very interesting to examine
this cabinet, for there are stones there
which have been brought from various
of Europe, Asia, Africa, and Amer-

. There are two stone pillars there,
which came from the famous Giant’s
Causeway, in Ireland.

18. There are also some specimens
of stones which fell from the air, in
Connecticut, about twenty years ago.
These stones formed a part of a vast red
meteor, that flew along in the sky, and
finally exploded with a great noise.
The stones fell in the town of Weston.

19. They have also at this college
some professors who teach young men
how to use science in practice, in man-
ufactures and agriculture. There is a

ublic free school system in this state.
t once owned a great deal of land west
of the Alleghany Mountains, in what is
now the State of Ohio. They sold it,
and took the money, to pay its income
each year for public schools, so that no
individual should have to pay out money

17, Cabinet? 19. Meteoric stones? 19. Public

aAlSTORY.—CONNECTICUT.

for education, but ‘every Connecticut
boy and girl should have the privilege
of going to school: At present they tax
the people a small sum for the schools,
so that they will be more interested in
keeping them good. ‘This is the way
they do in several states.

20. The people of Connecticut are
very busy and ingenious. Many of
them go to the Southern and Western
states, and even as far as Mexico, to sell
the articles that are manufactured in
this state: Mr. Whitney, who invented
the machine called a cotton-gin, for
combing out the seeds from cotton ver
quickly, and so made cotton mab
cheaper and more used, was a native of
this state; and Mr. John Fitch, who,
in October, 1788, made a steamboat,
which he named the Perseverance,
which ran eight miles an hour on the
Delaware river.

21. He prophesied, in a letter to Mr.
Rittenhouse, in 1793, that it would be
of immense advantage to the western
lands; and that in time it would be the
mode of crossing the Atlantic ocean,
“whether,” said he, “I shall bring it to
perfection or not.” He was called crazy
to think of such a thing. But Robert
Fulton, of New York, first successfully
brought steamboats into use, and they
have altered the face of the great and
rich West, as the states beyond the Al-
leghanies are called; and brought Eu-
rope within a fortnight’s pleasant sail of
the United States.

22. In Connecticut, too, was born
Mr. Blanchard, who invented a machine
for turning out crooked gun-stocks, and
lasts to make shoes upon, and even
copies of human busts, from marble, —
features, ears, nose, and all.



schools? 20—22, The people? Three great im
ventions? 23. Travel? Silk?
CONNECTICUT.—-A HERMITESS—STORY OF THE CHARTER.

93. The thrifty States of Connecti-
cut and Rhode Island are becoming
great thoroughfares between their ad-
joining sister states, and are profiting by
their prosperity. Connecticut has’ for
years made nearly one hundred thou-
sand dollars’ worth of silk annually, and
Massachusetts, Ohio, Tennessee, and
several other states, are establishing the
culture, and also the manufacture, and
are encouraging it by legislative boun-
ties.

——

CHAPTER XI.
CONNECTIC U T—Continvugp.

1. On the western border of Con-
necticut is a range of low mountains,
forming in some places the boundary
between that state and New York.
About thirty years ago, there was a
woman in these mountains who lived
alone ina cave. She had no bed but
the rock, and no furniture but a Bible.
Here she had dwelt, summer and winter,
for thirty years.

2, She had no light at night, and she
had never any fire. In summer she oc-
casionally wandered to the neighboring
villages, and begged a little milk, or

other food. But she lived chiefly upon ||

roots and nuts. The wild animals were
so accustomed to see her, that they were
not afraid of her. The foxes would
come close to her,.and the birds would
alight on her head. She died about the
year 1810.

3. The name of this singular woman
was Sarah Bishop. She lived on Long
Island at the time of the Revolutionary
War. Her father’s house was burnt by
the British, and she was cruelly treated

rT

1. Mountains in the west of Connecticut? 2, 3.
What of Sarah Bishop? 4, Tree at Hartford?









by a British officer. She then left so-
ciety, and wandered to the mountains.
There she found a cave, at a distance
from any house; and there she resided,
till about the time of her death.

4, At Hartford there is a celebrated
tree, called the Charter Oak. There is
a story of that tree, which I will tell
you. About one hundred and fifty years




Charter Oak, at Hartford.

ago, the King of England sent Sir Ed-
mund Andros to take away the charters
of the American colonies,, These char-
ters were papers, signed by the king,
granting the colonies certain privileges ;
and the people of the colonies did not
wish to give them up. .

5. Well, Sir Edmund Andros came
‘to Hartford to get the charter of Con-
necticut. Some of the people being
assembled at evening, the chartet was
brought in. Sir Edmund was present,
and was about to take the charter away,
when the lights were all suddenly blown
out, and the people were left in the dark.

6. By and by, the candles were light-
ed again ; but the charter was gone, and
it could not be found. Sir Edmund was



a ee
What were the charters which Sir Edmund
Andros came to get? Describe the picture. 6, 6.
Story of Sir Edmund Andros and the charter’
40

therefore obliged to go away without it.
After a long time, the charter was found
in a hollow place, in this old oak tree,
standing in the southern part of the wr
It was hid there by Captain Wadsworth,
who took it, and carried it off, when the

_ lights were blown out.

7. The first house built in Connecti-
cut, by the white men, was erected at
Windsor, in 1633, by some people from
Massachusetts. ‘Two years after, about
sixty persons came from Massachusetts,
and settled at Windsor, Hartford, and
Wethersfield. They went across the
wilderness, instead of going round by
water, as the first settlers had done.

8. The next year some more persons
removed from Massachusetts. They,
too, went by land through the woods.
There were then, of course, no roads;
the whole space was an unbroken forest.
They had nothing to guide them but a

cket compass, which they carried.
They had a number of cows with them,
which they drove through the woods;
they subsisted principally on their milk,
during their long oad difficult journey.

9. Stages can go from Hartford to
Boston in a day, and the rail-cars in
less time. These people were several
weeks, then, in going over the same
country.

10. [ will tell you a story of what
happened at Wethersfield a few years
after that place was settled. A very re-
spectable man lived there, whose name
was Chester. One day he went into
the woods to see about his cattle.

1]. By and by, he set out to return,
but he soon discovered that he had lost
his way. He wandered about for a
great while, hoping every moment to

7. What of the first. house in Connecticut?
Other settlers? 8. What of their journey? 9.
Compare the travelling facilities then and now.



THE FIRST BOOK OF HISTORY.—CONNECTICUT.

get out of the woods; but the further
he went, the thicker were the trees, and
the deeper was the forest.

12. He now grew very anxious, for
the night was approaching. He hal-
looed and shouted for help, but no one
came. At length it was night, and the
forest all around was covered with dark-
ness. The wanderer listened, but he
could hear no human voice; he could
hear only the howling of wild beasts.

13. He climbed a tree, and there he
remained, in great anxiety, till morning.
Worn out with watching and fatigue,
and faint for want of food, Mr. Chester
still made exertions to escape. He as-
cended to the top of a hill, and there
he obtained a sight of the country all
around.

14. But it was one boundless forest
on all sides. He was now in the great-
est distress. The weather was cloudy ;
he could not see the sun, so as to direct
his course, and he had no hope but to
lie down and perish in the wilderness.

15. But at this moment his ear caught
a distant sound. He listened attentive-
ly; it was the beat of a drum. He
heard a shout anda call. He answered,
and soon he was in the arms of his
friends, who had come in search of him.
The people of Wethersfield had felt
great anxiety for his absence, and imag-
ining that he was lost in the woods, the
men had set out in various directions to
look for him.

16. By this means he was discov-
ered and taken back to his family. His
grave-stone is still to be seen in the
burying-ground at Wethersfield. The
bed where he was lost is called Mount

amentation. You will pass it on the
road from Hartford to New Haven.

17. If we know how other people

10—16. Story of Mr. Chester? 17—28. Men
CONNECTICUT. — ASTONISHING

work and succeed, we shall be both able
and willing to be industrious ourselves,
It will be curious, as well as instructive,
to look over Connecticut, and see how
the New England people make a living
—how busy they are. We Americans
are busy and enterprising, not only in
Connecticut, but elsewhere.

18. At the north-western part of the
state, we find many furnaces smelting
down iron ore of the best quality, from
their own mines. There is a shop man-
ufacturing some of the best and most
delicate cutlery; and another making
huge anchors and chain cables for our
vessels, from iron wrought at their own
furnace. Next, on the outlet of a pond,
we find a village of fifteen hundred peo-
ple, whose business is scythe-making.
Another town is famous for its brass
kettles, an article made nowhere else in
the whole nation. Hard by are two
towns, made populous on the rugged
hill-sides, and rich, by the manufacture
of brass clocks.

19. Coming eastward into Hartford
County, we find a gang of hands digging
copper ore. Then we will visit Collins-
ville, where is the largest manufactory
of axes in the world, turning out more
than eight hundred axes inaday. Fol-
lowing the Farmington river in the gorge
where it breaks through the Talcot Moun-
tains to join the Connecticut, are fifteen
hundred Scotchmen making carpets; and
another part of this establishment is ten
or fifteen miles north-east.

20. Passing by a community of Shak-
ing Quakers, as they are called, who
supply the garden seeds, and brooms,
made of the broom corn, so largely

lanted on Connecticut river ; at by
azard’s powder mills,— you enter a



tion some of the occupations? Are there many
different ones? 18. Iron works? 19. Carpets?

DIVERSITY OF EMPLOYMENTS. 4l

growing town, where are made paper,
cloth of different kinds, iron ware;
card-teeth enough to straighten all the
fibre that ever grew on a sheep's back,
or on a cotton plantation.

21. On the other side of Hartford, we ©
find a town of three thousand inhabit-
ants, manufacturing various sorts of brass
ware, to mention which kinds would be
to write half the names of all the articles
in a hardwareshop. Hooks and eyes
must be particularized, enough to hook
all the ladies’ dresses in the land.

22. In Tolland we find cotton and
woollen goods. Here, at the outlet of
a beautiful lake, whose waters, like
almost all others in this country, are
made useful, they weave satinets and
cassimeres. Then comes Mantua, with
four or five silk factories, whence a great
part of our tailors obtain their sewing-
silk and twist. Here the screw auger
was invented. In the eastern part of
Windham County, in the valley of a
single stream, in the space of twenty
miles, are twelve cotton factory villages.

23. In New London County is man-
ufactured India rubber, in a variety of
forms; a wholly new thing in the his-
tory of manufactures. In Norwich, wool-
len and cotton mills abound. Here, in one
mill, more than two hundred and sixty
thousand dollars’ worth of* paper, for
books and for writing letters upon, has
been made ina year. New London and
Stonington, as I said before, are _grow-
ing rich out of the whale fishery. Lyme,
at the mouth of the Connecticut, fur-
nishes captains for vessels, and seamen
to assist in navigating them.

24. Sailing up that river, which in
spring is filled almost with seines to
catch shad, you pass a quarry of free-
stone. Then you see a shop, a branch



20, Brooms? Card-teeth? 21. Brass ware, &.?
-

42

of a large establishment at Meriden, for |
manufacturing a Here you find

ivory combs, piano-forte keys, umbrella

tops, and all kinds of ornamental work,

made from elephants’ tusks. And there

is an establishment of forty hands for

a inkstands.

25. Next we should find a shop turn-
ing out axe-handles; next, a screw fac-
tory. Then we pass, on the banks of
the river, a quarry of gneiss, a striped
rock, like granite, splitting about as read-
ily as chestnut timber; and whence are
sent vast quantities of stone to various
parts of the Union and the West Indies.
And then another quarry of red sand-
stone, employing three hundred men.

26. There is a whole town made rich
by the manufacture of all kinds of bells ;
such. as sleigh, house, clock, and cow
bells. Fairhaven furnishes much of
New England, and some portions of
New York, with oysters. Waterbury,
with almost four thousand inhabitants,
makes buttons, brass wire, and pins by
the ton. A part of the pin establishment
is at Poughkeepsie, New York. Derby
Village, too, has a pin manufactory.

27. Then come Birmingham and An-
sonia, making cutlery and hardware.
Just above them is a large establish-
ment making chisels, augers, and the
like. Passing westward into Fairfield
County, we shall make acquaintance
with the hatters in abundance; here it
is that superb hats are made.

28. If you follow all these out on the
map, and remember them, you will know
the actual present history of manufac-
tures in this state. And you will know
how many ways of industry there are in
the United States, of which these are
specimens. My young friends, no one
need or ought to be idle.

23. Paper, &c.? 24, Shad? Ivory? 25. Gneiss,
&.? 26. Oysters? Pins, &c.? 27. Hats, &.?

THE FIRST BOOK OF HISTORY.—-NEW ENGLAND.

CHAPTER XII.
NEW ENGLAND.

1. Thave now given you some accowht
of the six states which bear the géiieral
title of New England. In travelling

through this portion of our country, you <

will observe that it is generally hilly,
and is crossed by a range of mountains,
extending from the north-eastern part
of Maine to the south-western part of
Connecticut.

2. The climate is not extremely hot,
nor extremely cold. Snow begins to fall
about the first of December. Spring re-
turns in April. There is usually sleigh-
ing in all parts of it, for a few weeks
during the winter. In summer the
weather is delightful. There is plenty
of strawberries, cherries, currants, and
other berries, and in the autumn there
are apples, pears, peaches, walnuts and
chestnuts, and melons in abundance.

3. The largest river is the Connecti-
cut. It is a beautiful stream, and wa-
ters four of the New England States.
There is not a river on the globe whose
banks afford more charming scenery
than this. I have seen the Thames in
England, the Rhone in France, and the

Questions on the Map of New England. -
Boundaries? Boundaries of each of the six New
England States? Which is the largest river?
What five principal rivers in New England?
Which way do they all run? What range of
mountains in New England? Extent and direc-
tion of this range? Distance and direction of the
following towns from Boston: Augusta, Concord,
Montpelier, Providence, Hartford, New Haven?
Extent of New England? Population? Greatest
length of New England? Greatest width? Aver-
age length? Average width ?

1, How many states in New England? Theit
names? Face of the country? Mountains? 2.
Climate? Fruits? 3. Connecticut river? 4

*
9

’
NEW ENGLAND.—ITS GREAT RIVER-——-POPULATION, ETC. 43

Rhine in Germany; and they are all
less pleasing to my eye than this.

4, You esta see this river in June.
The meadows and mountains along its
borders are then in their glory. If you
are there in May, you will see the fish-
ermen, with their long nets, catching
shad, for which this river is famous.
In former times, there were a great
many salmon in this river ; but for some
reason or other they have entirely de-
serted it. I suppose they went away on
account of the locks and canals that have
been built upon it. Quonnektacut meant
in Indian, long river of pines.

5. Not many years since, salmon were
often to be taken as far up as Vermont.
They even used to ascend the little
streams that come down from the moun-
tains, and were often caught in them.
An old gentleman told me, that, about
thirty-five years ago, he was. travelling
at night, on horseback, among the moun-
tains in that state. As his horse was
going through a small stream, that ran
across the road, he heard a great pound-
ing and plashing in the water. He went
to the spot, and there he found a salmon
that weighed nine pounds, which had
got into a shallow place, and could not
get out. He easily caught it with his
hands, and then carried it home.

6. In travelling through New Eng-
land, you will observe a great many
school-houses, by which you may know
that the children are well educated ; and
you will see a great many churches and
meeting-houses, by which you will un-
derstand that the people are attentive to
religion.

7. There are still a good many for-
ests and much unoccupied land in New
England. Buta great part of its sur-

Shad? Salmon? 5. Story of a salmon? 6.
School-houses? Churches? 7. Forests? Towns

face is under cultivation. There are
more than one thousand towns and yj
lages scattered over its hills, valleys, an
plains, and there were, in 1840, about
two and a quarter million inhabitants
within its borders; which gives three
million for 1850. The pecple are gen-
erally industrious, in agriculture, com-
merce, and manufactures,

8. From Yengeese, the pronunciation
of the word English, by the Lenni Len-
nape Indians, came the word Yankees ;
which is applied in this country more
particularly to the New Englanders. In
the south we apply it to all people of the
northern states; and in Europe, they
apply it to all the people of the Union.
no matter which part they inhabit. It
will outlive every other title.

9. In 1847 there were two thousand
four hundred and twenty miles of rail-
roads finished in the New England
States. In Maine, three hundred; New
Hampshire, four hundred and seventy-
five ; Vermont, three hundred and seven-
ty; Massachusetts, nine hundred; Con-
necticut, three hundred; and in Rhode
Island, seventy-five. These have cost
over fifty millions of dollars ; and several
hundred miles more were then projected.

10. There were in 1848 eight differ-
ent lines of railroad and steamboat travel

| from Boston to New York city, varying
.in distance from two hundred and seven
to two hundred and forty miles, and tak-
ing from ten to fifteen hours. Nor is it
only in enterprise and making money
that the New Englanders and New
Yorkers, and other Americans, are suc-
cessful. They are provident, and save
it for their children and families. There

and villages? Number of inhabitants? How are
they occupied? 8. Origin of the word Yankees ?
Application? 9. Miles of railroads in New Eng-
land States in 18477 10. Routes to New York?
44

are savings banks, into which they put
me of their earnings, to be kept for
them. That is, they give it to a com-
pany of persons, who will take care of
it, and use it for them to make more, and
give it to the owners when they call, or
send awritten order, called a check, for it.

11. There is also Life Assurance, or
Insurance. Many who are earning
money, take every year during their
lives, a little of it, shat they can very
well spare, and give it to a company,
who will carefully use it, and when the
owners die, will pay a certain large sum
agreed upon, to their wives, or children,
or friends, to support and comfort them.

12. Then there is Health Insurance ;
where others pay a small sum—say
from four to twenty dollars a year — to
a company, and the company agree,
whenever these persons are sick, or
hurt by accidents, so that they cannot
work to earn money to support them-
selves and families, that they will pay
them a certain sum of money every
week they are sick,—from three to
twelve dollars. This was first com-
menced in 1846.

13. You see it is the history of an
excellent thing. It takes care of prop-
erty, after it is earned, and avoids a
great deal of unhappiness, and misery,
as well as makes one feel safer, more
contented, and happier. You know that
persons have for a long time insured, as
they call it, their houses, and goods, and
ships; that is, paid a company a small
sum, to agree to pay them back a large
one, the value of their houses, or goods,
or ships, if they are destroyed by fire, or
by the dangers of the sea. This is called
Fire and Marine Insurance.

14. Such is New England now; but

Savings Banks ? 11. Life Assurance? 12, Health
Insurance? 13. Fire and Marine Insurance? 14.

e

THE FIRST BOOK OF HISTORY.—NEW ENGLAND.

what was it a little more than two hun-
dred years ago? A mere wilderness,
inhabited by bears, wolves, and other
wild beasts, and by scattered tribes of
Indians, who lived in wigwams, hunted
with bows and arrows for subsistence,
and were constantly slaying each other
in battle.

15. What a great change has taken
place in a short space of time! Yet
many interesting things have happened
within these two hundred years. It is
pleasant to go back, and trace the his-
tory of former times. There i$ no part
of our country, — not a town or village,
—that has not some interesting story
connected with it.

16. I shall endeavor to collect the
most onating and instructive portions
of New England history, and tell what
I have to say in such a manner as to
please you. You are now acquainted
with the geography of this section of
the country ; T shall therefore take you
back at once té the period when our fore-
fathers first landed upon these shores.



CHAPTER XIII.
NEW ENGLAND —Continvzp:

1. A little more than two hundred
years ago, there were in England a
reat many people called Puritans.
hey were not happy in England, for
they had peculiar opinions about reli-
gion. They were cruelly treated, and
some of them at length fled from the
country. They went first to Holland,
but finally they concluded to wander to
America; whence they are called Pil-
grims. *

What of New England two hundred years ago?
15. What of it now?

1. What of the Puritans ? 2, How did they come.
NEW ENGLAND.—FIRST SETTLERS AND ABORIGINES.

2. They set out in two vessels, but
one of them was leaky, and went back.
They all entered the other ship, and
after a long and stormy passage, they
reached a broad harbor. They then
sent some people ashore, to examine
the country. These found some Indian
corn in baskets, buried in the sand.
They also discovered Indian burial-
places, surrounded by sticks stuck in
the ground.

3. One night the exploring party built
a fire in the woods, and slept by the side
of it. In the morning, some arrows,
pointed with eagles’ claws, and sharp

ieces of deer’s horns, fell among them.
These were sent by some Indians who
came to attack them. The white men
fired their guns at them, and the Indians
ran off in great alarm. At this time the
savages had no guns, and they imagined
that the fire of the musket was lightning,
and the report thunder. No wonder
they were afraid of people who, as they
believed, made use of thunder and light-
ning.

4. Having examined the shores, the
emigrants pitched upon a place where
they concluded to settle. December 22,
1620, they landed on a Rock there, and
called the place Plymouth. It was win-
ter when they arrived, and the country
had a most dreary aspect. There were
no houses to receive them, there were
no friends to welcome them; there was
nothing before them buta gloomy forest,
inhabited by savages and wild beasts.
There was nothing behind them but the
vast ocean, rolling between them and
their native land. This little colony

to America? What did they do after their arrival ?
Indian corn? Indian burial-place? 3. Story of
Indians who attacked an exploring party? 4.
When did the emigrants land? Name of their
settlement? What of the season? Situation of
the pilgrims? Number of the colonists? What

45

consisted of one hundred and one per-
sons. They were divided into nineteen
families, and each family Built itself a
log house.

5. For some time the settlers were
not visited by any of the Indians. They
saw a few soon after their landing, but
these ran away as if they were very much
frightened. One day, however, an In-
dian came among-them, saying, in Eng-
lish, “ Welcome, Englishmen! Wel-
come, Englishmen!”

6. This surprised the white people
very much. The Indian told them that
his name was Samoset, and that he had
learnt to speak English of the fishermen
he had seen upon the coast.

7. After some time, an Indian chief,
called Massasoit, came near to the set-
tlement, with some of his men. He was
a sort of king, and ruled over several
tribes. He was at first afraid to go
down into the village, but by and by he
went down, and the people saluted him
with a drum and fife, which he liked
very much.



8, Then he went into the governor's
house, where he ate a very hearty din-
ner, and drank a prodigious draught of



did they do? 5. Indians? 6, Samoset? 7,8. What
of Massasoit? Describe the picture, 9, 10. Story
46

rum. He then made a treaty with the
white people, and agreed to be at peace
with them. * This treaty he and his de-
scendants kept faithfully for fifty years.

9. I will now tell you of two white
men that got lost in the woods. It was
winter, and it was snowing very fast.
The snow had covered up the path, and
they could not find their way back to
the village. At length night came on,
and as it grew dark they heard a dread-
ful howling near them.

10. They were very much alarmed,
for they did not know what wild beasts
might be in the woods. All night a
continued in the storm, shivering wit
cold, and frightened at the wild sounds
they heard. At length the morning
came, and they reached the settlement.
I suppose the noise they heard was the
beanie of wolves.

11. The settlers found their situation
extremely uncomfortable. The winter
was very severe, their houses were mis-
erable, and they were destitute of all
those conveniences which they had been
. accustomed toenjoy in England. Borne
down with suffering, many of them were
taken sick, and when the spring arrived,
half of their number were dead.

12. Notwithstanding these discour-
aging circumstances, other persons came
out from England and joined the set-
tlers, so that, in ten years after, the
whole number amounted to three hun-
dred. In the year 1630 more than fif-
teen hundred persons came from Eng-
land, and settled at Boston, Dorchester,
Salem, and other places in the vicinity.

13. These people were nearly all
Puritans, but many of them possessed
wealth, and had been brought up in

of two men that got lost? 11. Sufferings of the
colonists? 12. Other settlers? What happened in
1630? 13, 14. What of these fifteen hundred set-

THE FIRST BOOK OF HISTORY.—NEW ENGLAND.

a very delicate manner. Their sole
object in coming to America was to
enjoy their religious opinions without
restraint. But they had not foreseen
the sufferings that were before them.

14, The winter set in with unusual
severity. The snow fell to a great
depth, and the cold became intense.
Assembled in log houses, which afford-
ed but a poor shelter from the driving
blasts, the emigrants had to endure
hunger as well as cold. Their stock
of — became nearly exhausted,
and many of them were compelled to
subsist on clams, muscles, nuts, and
acorns.

15. Unable to sustain these privations,
many of them died. Among these was
one woman whose fate has always ex-
cited peculiar sympathy. This was La-
dy Arabella Johnson. Her father was
a rich man in England, and she had
been brought up in the enjoyment of
every luxury.

16. But in America she was deprived
of the common comforts of life. Her
delicate frame could not endure these
trials. Although her husband came
with her, and every care and kindness
were bestowed upon her, yet in about a
month after her arrival, she died.

17. Such were the sufferings that
attended the first settlers in New Eng-
land. Yet these were sustained with
the utmost fortitude. Those who died
left a state of sorrow, in the conscious-
ness of having done their duty, and the
strong hope of entering a state of peace
beyond the grave. Those who lived
prayed to Heaven for strength to sup-
port them in their troubles, and their
pager seemed to be answered.

Thus prepared for life or death,

tlers? 15,16. Lady Arabella Johnson? 17. Pious
fortitude? 18, Conduct of the settlers 7
NEW ENGLAND.—ITS ANNALS—DISPUTES—PEQUOT WAR.

they continued to struggle with their
misfortunes, with a degree of firmness
which we cannot fail to admire.

———

CHAPTER XIV.
NEW ENGLAND—Continvep.

1. I have now told you something
about the two colonies of Plymouth and
Massachusetts. The settlement at Ply-
mouth was the first permanent English
settlement in New England. The col-
ony of Massachusetts, i. e., “ blue hills,”
was so named from a native Indian tribe.
This colony increased much more rap-
idly than Plymouth.

3. Such favorable accounts were giv-
en of it in England, that many persons
of distinction came from that country,
and settled in Boston and other parts of
the colony. Among these was Sir Hen-

Vane. He was but twenty-five years
old when he arrived, but he was so grave
that he won the hearts of the people, and
they made him. governor.

3. You will recollect it was in the
year 1633 that the first settlement was
made in Connecticut. In 1636 Roger
Williams was banished, and settled in
Rhode Island. New Hampshire was
first settled in 1623, and Maine in the
same year. In 1638 a settlement was
made at New Haven, which was after-
wards called the colony of New Haven.
Vermont was not settled till 1724.

4. About the year 1635, a woman,
whose name was Ann Hutchinson, be-
gan to preach strange doctrines in Mas-
sachusetts, She hada pleasing address,



1. What colony was first settled in New Eng-
land? Colony of Massachusetts? 2, Sir Henry
Vane? 3. When was the first settlement made

mont? 4, Ann Hutchinson? 6. Sir Henry Vane?

47

and fluent speech; and she persuaded
many persons to believe as she did.
—a these was Sir Henry Vane.

5. By and by, some of the principal
people assembled to consider the,sub-
ject. They talked a great deal about it,
and some of them became very angry.
At length Ann Hutchinson’s doctrines
were condemned by a majority, and she
was banished from the colony. Sir
Henry Vane was very much displeased
at this; so he went back to England,
and after several years he was executed,
by having his head cut off, for republi-
canism, on a charge of high treason.

6. For a long time, the Indians did
not molest the inhabitants of Massa-
chusetts and Plymouth colonies. The
treaty made with Massasoit, as before
stated, was faithfully observed by them :
but the Pequots, who lived in Connecti-
cut, troubled the re there very much.
In 1637, they killed three men at Say-
brook, and at Wethersfield they killed
six men, three women, and twenty cows.

7. These things caused great alarm.
Consequently, some of the people met
at Hartford to consider what should be
done It was determined to send a body
of men against them. About ninety
white men and seventy friendly Indians
were soon assembled. They were all

laced under the command of Captain
ason.

8. They entered some boats at Hart-
ford, and went down Connecticut river
to Saybrook. Here they resolved to
make a sudden attack upon Mystic, an
Indian fort, situated where Stonington
now stands. This was one of the prin-
cipal places belonging to the Indians.

9. They reached the spot about day-



6. Indians of Massachusetts? 1 What
did the Pequots do in f6377 7. did the
colonists do? Captain Mason? 8, Fort Mystic?
48

break. The Pequots had no suspicion
that an enemy was near. But by and
by, a dog barked, and then one of the
Indians, who saw the white men, gave
the alarm. At this instant, the soldiers
fired upon the Indians. Many of the
_savages were killed; but very soon the
rest recovered from their astonishment,
and then they fought bravely.

10. They shot their arrows and guns
at the white men, and hurled stones and
sticks at them with the greatest fury.
The Indians were far more numerous
than the white men, and the latter were
at length nearly exhausted. At this
moment, Captain Mason ordered their
fort to be set on fire. The flames caught
quickly, and spreading from wigwam to
wigwam, soon set them all in a blaze.

11. It was an awful scene, and the
struggle was soon terminated. Seventy
wigwams were reduced to ashes, and
six or seven hundred Indians were killed
either by the bullets or the fire.

12. This dreadful event alarmed the
Pequots, and they fled, with their chief,
Sassacus, to the west. They were fol-
lowed by the white men, who overtook
them in a swamp, near Fairfield. Here
a battle was fought, and the Indians
were entirely defeated. This was fol-
lowed by a treaty with the remaining

_Indians, and the Pequots gave the colo-
nies no more trouble.

13. In 1643, the four colonies of Ply-
mouth, Massachusetts, Connecticut, and
New Haven, entered into an agreement
for the purposes of mutual defence.
They were led to do this by fear of the

9—11. Describe the taking of the fort. 12. What
did the Pequots do after the battle? What did the
white people do? What effect had the second
defeat upon the Pequots? 13, What was done in
16437 Why was this agreement made between
the New England colonies ?

yy
THE FIRST BOOK OF HISTORY.—NEW ENGLAND. |

Indians, who were now very unfriendly,
and who watched every opportunity to
do the white people mischief.

CHAPTER XV.
NEW ENGLAND—Continvep.

1. We now approach a period of great
interest in the history of New England.
The Indians perceived that the English
were rapidly increasing in numbers,
while they Lanneiees were as fast di-
minishing. They foresaw that, in a
short time, the English colonies would
overspread the whole land, while they
should themselves be driven back into
the wilderness.

2. This excited their jealousy, and
led them cordially to hate the English.
Beside this, quarrels occasionally rose
between the white inhabitants and the
ergo: Whether these originated with
the English or the Indians, the latter
were always sure to be thought in the
wrong, and were punished by the white
people accordingly.

3. In short, the Indians had discov-
ered that the English, being wiser and
more artful than they, were. likely soon
to become their masters ; and the hatred
thus excited was aggravated by acts of
injustice and oppression, committed on
the part of the Boglish toward the sav-

es.

“T There lived, about this time, in
Rhode Island, an Indian, who was called
Philip by the English. He was chief
of the Wengshnae, and lived at Mount
Hope, near Bristol. The country was
then called Pokanoket.

cuittteapsiaiecuisssinnaapetiennamaciaininineialiaieai

1, What of the Indians? 2. Quarrels? 3,
What had the Indians discovered? What in-
creased the hatred of the Indians? 4, Who was
Philip? 5. What did Philip perceive? What did
NEW ENGLAND.—KING PHILIP’S WAR.

5. Philip, being a man of gteat sagac-
ity, saw that, unless the English colonies
were checked, the Indians would, in the
course of a few years, cease to exist as
independent tribes. After reflecting up-
on these things, he resolved to make one
great effort to drive the English from
the land, and free his country from such
dangerous intruders.

6. Accordingly, he visited, in secret,
‘several of the tribes in New England.
He conversed with the chiefs, and told
them that if they remained inactive, in
a few years the beautiful rivers, and
hills, and forests, which had descended
from their fathers, would cease to be
their inheritance. He described the

English as crafty, long-sighted, and
greedy, who added township to town-
ship, and colony to colony, and who
would never be content until they pos-
sessed every foot of land west of the
Hudson.

~ Philip addressing the Indian Chiefs.
7. He prophesied the gradual de-
crease, and the final extinction, of all
those tribes who once reigned over the

whole land. He told them that their
forests would be cut down, that their

cece deacarectringtgeetemnenereteeniaeiatntaian atta
he resolve upon? 6,7; What did he tell the chiefs ?
Describe the picture, re did Philip propose



hunting-grounds would be soon taken
from them, that their warriors would be
slain, their children wander forth in pov-
erty, their chiefs be beggars, and their
tribes be scattered and lost like the au-
tumn leaves. ‘

8. To remedy these evils, Philip pro-
posed that a mighty effort should be
made, by all the tribes in New England,
to destroy the English. He had little
difficulty in bringing the chiefs into his
schemes. A general effort was agreed
upon, and soon the war began.

9. In June, 1675, as the people of
Swanzey, in Plymouth Colony, were
returning home from church, a sudden
attack was made by some Indians upon
them. At this period the Indians were

| supplied with muskets, powder, and ball,

and they had learnt to use fire-arms with
considerable skill.

10. In afew moments, therefore, eight
or nine of the inhabitants of Swanzey
were killed. The country was imme-
diately alarmed, and the people flew to
the succor of the village Pom all quar-
ters. An attack was made upon the In-
dians the next morning, and several of
them were killed.

11. This resolute conduct awed the
Indians; and Philip himself, expecting
an attack, fled from Mount Hope, with
his warriors. It was soon ascertained
that they had gone to a swamp in Pocas-
set, now Tiverton. The white people
followed them thither, and entering the
swamp, pursued them till night. They
were then obliged to retreat.

12. The English, finding it impossible
to encounter the enemy in the swamp,



to the Indian chiefs that they should do? 9. What
occurred in June, 16757 10. What followed the
attack upon the people of Swanzey? 11. What
did Philip and his warriors do? 12, What did
the white people do? What of Philip?
50

determined to surround it, and starve
them out. But Philip guessed their
design, and privately stole away with
his men.

CHAPTER XVI.
NEW ENGLAND—Continvep.

1. I can hardly tell you all that hap-
pee during the bloody war that fol-
owed. In all parts of New England,
the Indians seemed to be moved by a
spirit of deadly revenge. They set the
town of Springfield on fire, and no less
than thirty houses were consumed.

2. About eighty young men were at-
tacked at Muddy ow | as they were
employed in transporting some grain
from Deerfield to Hadley. They had
no idea that an enemy was at hand.
They had stopped a moment with their
teams, and were gathering some grapes
by the road-side.

3. Sudden as the thunderbolt, the sav-
age yell broke upon their ears. They
were immediately surrounded by the
Indians ; and having no arms, they were
incapable of defence. Seventy of them
were shot down, and these were all
buried in one grave.

4. In New Hampshire and Maine,
the Indians fell upon the towns, set the
houses on fire, and killed the inhabit-
ants. At Saco, Dover, Exeter, and oth-
er places, they committed the most dread-
ful outrages. t

5. In Massachusetts, they attacked
Quaboag, now Brookfield, and burnt all
the houses except one, in which the in-
habitants had taken refuge. This they
also assailed; and for two days, inces-

1, What of .ne Indians? Springfield? 2. What
a. Muddy Brook? 4, What took place

in New Hampshire and Maine? 5, 6,7. What at
Brookfield? Describe the attack of the Indians

THE FIRST BOOK OF HISTORY.—-NEW ENGLAND.

santly, they poured their musket-shot
upon it. A great multitude of balls

sed through the sides of the house,
ut only one person in it was killed.



6. Finding it impossible to destroy
the people in this way, they attempted
to set fire to the house. With long
poles, they thrust against it fire-brands,
and rags dipped in brimstone. They
shot arrows of fire upon it, and finally
they loaded a cart with flax and tow,
set it on fire, and pushed it against the
house.

7. The curling flame was soon com-
municated to the building; and now,
feeling certain of their prey, the savages
took their station so that they might cut
down those who should attempt to es-
cape. But in this moment of peril, the
white men were saved, as if by the hand
of Heaven. A sudden shower fell upon
the flames, and at once extinguished
them.

8. Soon after, Major Willard, with
some soldiers, came to their relief. He
attacked the Indians, killed a number
of them, and the rest fled away.

9. At length it was thought necessary

ona house at Brookfield, Describe the :
8. Relief? 9. What of the Narragansetts? 10
NEW ENGLAND.—KING PHILIP’S WAR.

to humble the Narragansetts. The

were a powerful tribe in Rhode Island,
and occupied a fort of great strength.
Near two thousand white men went
against them. The fort was built on
a hill in the centre of a swamp, and in
it there were four thousand Indian war-
riors.

10. There was but one entrance to
the fort. This was accidentally discov-
ered by the white men, and they gal-
lantly rushed in to attack the enemy.
But the Indians met them, and many
of the English were killed.: They were
at length obliged to retreat; but by and
by, some Connecticut troops entered the
fort on the opposite side, and at the same
moment the attack was vigorously re-
newed at the entrance. -

11. The Indians were now cut down
with dreadful slaughter. The fort was
taken, and six hundred wigwams were
set on fire, and burnt to the ground.
More than one thousand of the Indian
warriors were killed, and three hundred
were taken prisoners.

12. Such were some of the events of
this remarkable war. For near two

ears, almost every part of New Eng-
and was a scene of bloodshed. But
although the Indians killed great num-
bers of white people, yet their own loss
was far greater. In truth, they never
recovered from the many reverses they
experienced.

18. Although there were, perhaps, ten
times as many of them as of the white
people, yet such was the superior skill
and management of the latter, that the
Indians were bern defeated, and

their power in New England finally
overthrown: ~

ara
Describe thi idttack upon them. 11, The result ?
12, What did New present for near two
years? 13, What was the result of this war to

‘well excite our pity.

51

14. At length the war was closed by
the death of Philip. He was found in
a swamp near Mount Hope, with several
other Indians. Captain Church, with a
few white men, surrounded the swamp
at night.

15. When the morning came, Philip,
perceiving that he could not escape,
rushed towards the spot where some of
the white men lay. An English soldier
levelled his gun, but it missed fire. An
Indian, who was of the party, took delib-
erate aim, and shot the chief. through

the heart. Thus fell the most celebrat- -

ed of all the Indian chiefs. From this
time, the Indians, finding further resist-
ance vain, began to submit to the Eng-
lish. The struggle was continued a
while in Maine, but that soon ended,
and no general effort was ever after
made, on the part of the Indians, to
subdue the English.

16. This war, the story of which I
have just related, lasted from the year
1675 till 1678. About six hundred
white men were killed in the struggle,
thirteen towns were destroyed, and six
hundred dwelling-houses burnt. These
were dreadful losses to the poor colo-
nists, but the unhappy Indians suffered
still more.

17. Their chiefs and their printipal
men were nearly all killed. Their wig-
wams were burnt ; they were driven from
their homes; and now, defeated and sub-
dued, their situation was one which may
Savage life, in'its
happiest state, is a miserable condition ;



the Indians ? 14. What event terminated the war?
15. Describe Philip's death. What of the Indians
after this? 16. How long did Philip’s war last?
What losses were suffered by the colonists in this
war? 17, How did the Indians suffer byit? 18
What of the Indians from that time? What of
them now?
but the New England Indians had now
lost their independence, and all that sav-
ages hold most dear.

18. From that period they rapidly di-
minished; most of the tribes are now
extinct, and a few hundreds are all that
remain of a migh‘y people, that once
threatened to drive our forefathers from
this land.

CHAPTER XVII.
NEW ENGLAND—Conrinvep.

1, Soon after Philip’s war, the colo-
nies began to be involved in difficulty
with England. The king of England
claimed these colonies as his own, and
he, with the parliament, made certain
laws respecting trade and commerce
with America.

2. Now it was pretended that the
colonies had violated these laws, and
therefore the king determined to take
away their charters. These charters
were of great importance, for they gave
the colonies many privileges. The
king who reigned in England at the
time was James II. He sent Sir Ed-
mund Andros over to this country, to
take away the charters of all the ‘New
England colonies, except Plymouth.

3. He also — Sir Edmund
governor over all the colonies whose
charters he thus proposed to take away.
Accordingly he came. I have told you
how tae charter of Connecticut was hid
in an oak tree; but Sir Edmund assumed
the government of the New England
colonies, although he could not find that
charter.

4. At first he governed the people

"1. What of the colonies and the king of Eng-
land? 2. What did the king determine to do?
What king reigned at this time? What of Sir
Edmund Andros? 4. What of his government?

THE FIRST BOOK OF HISTORY.—NEW ENGLAND.

pretty well; but by and by he did man
thin : which diisleased them ~~
much. Many unjust and oppressive
laws were passed, and the people saw
that Sir Edmund had no regard to their
happiness and prosperity in his adminis-
tration.

5. Sir Edmund began to rule in 1686.
Two years after, the news arrived that
James II., king of England, had become
so unpopular as to be obliged to leave
the country, and that a new king, Wil-
liam IIl., had taken his place on the
throne. This news gave the colonies
great joy, for they hated James II. on
account of his conduct toward them, and
more especially on account of the gov-
ernor, Sir Edmund Andros, whom he
had sent to rule.over them.

6. Under the excitement of this joy
the people of Boston seized Sir Edmund
and about fifty of his associates, and put
them in prison. There they remained
for some time; they were then sent to
England, to be tried for their miscon-
duct.

7. I will now relate what may seem
to you very strange. In the year 1692,
two children of Mr. Parris, a minister in
Salem, Massachusetts, were taken sick.
They were affected in a very singular
manner, and the physicians were sent
for. They were at a loss to account for
the disorder, and one of them finally
said they must be bewitched.

8. The children, hearing this, and
being in great distress, declared that an
Indian woman, living in the house, had
‘bewitched them. Mr. Parris believed
what the children said; the Indian wo-
man was accused of the crime, and in a



5. What news arrived in 1688? What effect had
this news on the colonists? 6. What did the
ple of Boston do? 7—9. What took place at
in the year 16927 10, What did the people sup-
NEW ENGLAND.~—WITCHCRAFT.

state of ae and alarm, partially
confessed herself guilty. This affair ex-
cited great attention; many people came
to see these little children, and they
were very much pitied.

9. By and by other thoughtless chil-
dren, loving to attract notice, pretended
that they were affected in a similar man-
ner, and they said that they were se-
cretly tormented by an old woman in the
neighborhood. All these things were
believed, and more children and several
women soon declared themselves be-
witched, charging several persons with
being the authors of their distress.

10. They pretended that these per-
sons entered their rooms through key-
holes, or cracks in the window, pinched
their flesh, pricked them with needles,
and tormented them in the most cruel
manner. Nobody could see these tor-
mentors but the sufferers themselves,
although several persons might be in
the room where one of the bewitched
was wailing and shrieking, from the
pinches of the witch.

11, Strange as it may seem, this
matter, instead of being regarded asa
delusion, was thought to be founded in
reality. The people in those days be-
lieved that'the devil sometimes gave to
certain persons great power for purposes
of evil. These persons were said to
deal with the devil, and they were con-
sidered very wicked.

12. The business they were supposed
to carry on with him was called witch-
eraft, and any person under their influ-
ence was 3 to be bewitched. In
England, parliament had tnought it
necessary to make severe laws against
witchcraft. Several persons there had
been condemned and executed under

posed to be bewitched pretend? 11. What did the
people believe in those days? 12, What had been

53

those laws. It was now thought proper
to proceed in a similar manner at Bee
lem. Accordingly, those ms -ac-
cused of practising witchcraft upon their
neighbors were put in prison, and a
court was formed to try them.

13. Many of them were examined
and found guilty, and some, under the
influence of a distempered imagination,
confessed that they were guilty. The
business at le reached a very
alarming height. Nineteen persons
had been executed; one hundred and
fifty were in prison; and many more
were Sr na -

14. In this state of things, ro
began to doubt the correctness of their
proceedings. They examined the sub-
ject more carefully, and were very soon
satisfied that they had acted rashly.
The judges of the court also began to
take different views of the subject.
Those who were brought to trial were
therefore — and those in prison
were released.

16. Thus ended this extraordinary
delusion. We at the present day, who
know that there is no such thing as
witchcraft, cannot but wonder that our
ancestors should have believed in it, and
that many persons should have been
hung for a crime that was only imagin-
ary. But we should remember that it
was a common error of that age.

16. It was not an invention of their
own. They received their notions from
England, and it was natural they should
act agreeably to them. We must do
them the justice to say, however; that
they very soon discovered their error,

and expressed their sorrow for it. . »

done in England? What was done in- ni?
13. How many victims were there? 14.
at length did the people begin to do? What
lowed? 15. Is there any such thing as witch-
craft? 16. Why did our forefathers believe in it1




64 THE FIRST BOOK

CHAPTER XVIII.
NEW ENGLAND—Conrinvep,

1. Soon after the accession of Wil-
liam III. to the throne of England, a
war broke out between that country and
France. Now, the French had several
settlements in Canada, extending along
the river St. Lawrence, and including
Montreal and Quebec. They had also
several forts on Lake Champlain and
Lake George.

2. The war between France and Eng-
land, in Europe, of course extended to
their American colonies. The French
from Canada, assisted by large numbers
of Indians, invaded several parts of New
England, burnt the houses of the inhab-
itants, killed many of the people, and
carried large numbers of men, women,
and children, into captivity.

3. The cruelties practised during this
war almost exceed belief. Towns were
attacked at midnight, and in mid-win-
ter; the people were often killed in
their beds, and those whose lives were
spared were torn from their homes, and

liged to endure sufferings worse than
death. The history of these things is
too painful for my little’ readers ; I will
therefore only tel! them one story of this
cruel war.

4. In the winter of 1696, a party of
Indians made an attack on the town of
_ Haverhill, Massachusetts. Among the

Questions on the Map of the United States
and North America, gc. —In what direction is
Canada from New England? Nova Scotia from
New England? Newfoundland? In which direc-
tion is Boston from Quebec? From Montreal ?
From Lake George? Lake Champlain ?

1, What of England and France? What posses-
sions had the French in America? 2, What did the
French and Indians do? 3. What of the cruelties
of this war? 4—7, What happened in the winter of

OF mISTORY.—-NEW ENGLAND.

people of that town, was a Mr. Dun
stan. He was ina field, at work, when
the news of the attack reached his ears.
He immediately started, and ran to his
house to save his family. He had seven
children, and these he collected for the
purpose of taking them to a place of
safety, before the Indians should arrive.

5. His wife was sick, and she had an
infant but a week old. He now hur-
ried to her, but before she could get
ready to leave the house, Mr. Dunstan
perceived that a party of the savages
were already close to his dwelling. Ex-
pecting that all would be slain, he ran
to the door, and mounted his horse, with
the intention of taking one of his chil-
dren, the one he loved best, and flying
with that to a place of safety.

6. But which should he take? which

of his seven children should he leave to
the savages? He could not decide, and
therefore telling the childyen to run for-

<=}



Mr. Dunstan saving his Children.
ward, he placed himself between them
and the alises: The savages dis-
charged their guns at him, but they did
not hit him. He had a gun, too, and
he fired back at them.

7. Then he hurried his little children

16967 Tell the story of Mr. Dunstan, 8~11, Tell
NEW ENGLAND.—-ANECDOTES OF SAVAGE WARFARE.

along, loaded his gun as he went, and
fired at his pursuers. Thus he pro-
ceeded for more than a mile—protect-
ing his little family, defending himself,
and keeping the enemy at a distance.
At length he reached a place of safety,
and there, with feelings of joy which
cannot be described, he sie his chil-
dren beyond the reach of the Indians,

8. But Mrs. Dunstan was destined to
undergo the severest trials, Although
she was very ill, the savages compelled
her, with the nurse and her little infant,
to go with them. They soon left the
town of Haverhill, and set out to go to
the homes of the Indians. These were
at the distance of one hundred and fifty
miles. You must recollect that it was
winter, and the journey was to be per-
formed on foot through the wilderness.

9. Mrs. Dunstan and the nurse were
soon overcome with fatigue. The In-
dians, perceiving that the little infant oc-
cupied much of their attention, snatched
it from the mother, and killed the little
innocent, by striking it against a tree.
After a toilsome march, and the great-
est suffering, Mrs. Dunstan and her
companion completed the journey.

10. But now the Indians concluded
to remove to a distant place, and these
two women were forced to accompany
them. When they reached the end of
their journey, they discovered they were
to undergo severe torture. They there-
fore determined, if possible, to make their
escape.

11. One night, Mrs. Dunstan, the
nurse, and another woman, rose secret-
Ke while the Indians were asleep.

here were ten of them in the wigwam
where they were. These the women
killed with their own hands, and then
departed. After wandering a long time

thestory of Mrs, Dunstan. 12, 13. When did Queen

in the woods, they reached Haverhill,
and Mrs. Dunstan was restored to her
family. This is a strange story, but I
believe it is perfectly true.

12. A few years after the war of
which I have just been telling you,
another war broke out with the French.
which occasioned great distress in the
colonies. It was called Queen Anne’s
war, for at that time King William was
dead, and Queen Anne was on the Brit-
ish throne.

13. This war commenced in 1702,
and the French and Indians imme-
diately invaded New England. In
1704, a party of French and Indians
made an attack on Deerfield. It was at
night, and in the midst of winter. All
the people were asleep; they had ne
fear that an enemy was at hand. The
sudden yell of the savages burst on their
ears, and they then knew the dreadful
scene that was coming.

14. The town was set on fire, forty-
severr of the people were killed, and one
hundred men, women and children, were
carried into captivity. Among these
was Mr. Williams, a clergyman, and his
wife and five children. They set out on
foot, and began their journey through
the snow.

15. On the second day, Mrs. Wil-
liams, who was in bad health, was very
weary, and unable to keep up with the
rest. Her husband was not allowed to
assist her, and she seemed to be on the
point of fainting, from weakness and fa-
tigue. At this time, one of the Indians
came up to her, and killed her.

16. Phe party then went on; but sev-
enteen other persons were killed by the



Anne’s war begin? What happened in 17041
Describe the attack on Deerfield, 14, What of
Mr. Williams and his family? 15. Of Mrs, Wil-
liams? 16. What of the other captives? What
56

savages, before they arrived in Canada.
Mr. Williams was kindly treated by the
French people there, and after two
years, he returned, with fifty-seven
other captives, to Deerfield. He was
minister of that town for twelve’ years
after his return, and then he died.

17. This story affords a fair example
of the cruelties of this war. It continued
till the year 1713. The people of the
colonies suffered very much ; they made
several attempts to take Canada from
the French. Queen Anne sent over a
considerable number of troops, to assist
them in doing so. But this project
failed. They, however, took Port oyal,
now called Annapolis, in Nova Scotia.

18. At length, in 1713, the French
and English made peace with each
other in Europe, and the war ceased
there, and in the colonies also. From
this time, Nova Scotia and Newfound-
land belonged to the English. Canada
still belonged to the French, and con-
tinued so till the year 1759, when it
was conquered by the British, and has
since remained subject to that govern-
ment.

CHAPTER XIx.
NEW ENGLAND—Conrinvep,

1. I am sorry that I have but little to
tell you about this period, except tales
of war. It is painfal to read the histo
of times gone by, and learn what dread-
ful sufferings have been endured by the

further account can you give of Mr. Williams and
the other captives? 17. How long did Queen
Aune’s war continue? What did the colonies at-
tempt to do? What place did they take? 18.
What took place in the year 17132? To-whom did
Newfoundland and Nova Scotia belong from this
time? To whom did Canada belong?

1,2, What should we think of war and peace ?

THE FIRST BOOK OF HISTORY.—NEW ENGLAND.

nerations that have lived before us.

ut painful as it is, we must still read
it. t may teach us the sad conse-
quences of war, and show us how much
better it is to be always at peace.

2. In the past ages of the world,
kings, and generals, and great men,
have been fond of making war, and I
am afraid that some people are disposed
to applaud them for it. But the wisest
and best of men look upon all wars as
evils, and they deem those persons very
wicked who promote a war that could
safely be avoided.

3. About the year 1722, the Indian
tribes in Maine, and along the eastern
and northern border, made war upon
the English settlers. It is supposed that
they were incited to this by some French
Jesuits, Roman Catholic priests, who
lived in Nova Scotia. These Indians
often attacked the people in Maine,
Massachusetts, and New Hampshire,
and annoyed them very much. But in
1725, this war ceased.

4. In 1744, England and France were
again involved in strife. George II. was
then king of England, and this war is
called King George’s war. The most
important event to New England, that
took place during this period, was the
capture of Louisburg. This was a very
strongly fortified town, belonging to the
French, on the island of Cape Breton,
in the Gulf of St. Lawrence.

5. Here they kept a good many ships,
and in time of war, these drove away
the English and American sailors, who
went to the banks of Newfoundland to



3. What did the Indians in 1722? When did
this war cease? 4. What happened in 1744?
What was the most important event in America
during King George’s war? In which direction
is the island of Cape Breton from Boston? De-
scribe Louisburg. 5. Why was it a great object
NEW ENGLAND.—FRENCH AND INDIAN WAR— BRITAIN.

tatch cod-fish. To take Louisburg was
therefore a great object. To accomplish
this, the colonies united, and sent about
four thousand three hundred men, under
the command of Sir William Pepperell,
against it. They went in twelve ships,
and some smaller vessels.

6. They arrived at Louisburg the last
of April, 1744. - They were occupied
fourteen days in drawing their cannon
across a swamp, so as to bring them
near the town. They then besieged it;
that is, they surrounded it both by land
and water. They also made frequent
attacks upon the soldiers in the forts.

7, This continued till the 15th June,
when the French commander requested
them to stop, and on the 19th he sur-
rendered the place into the hands of the
Americans. Thus Louisburg and the
island of Cape Breton came into the
possession of the English.

8. In 1748, France and England
again made peace, and the colonies
once more enjoyed tranquillity. But
this did not last long. A still more ex-
tensive and important war was at hand.
This commenced in 17565, and is called
in this country the French and Indian
war. There are people now living who
remember this war. I have seen my-
self a good many of the old soldiers that
were engaged in it, and they have told
me many stories about it. I shall tell
you some of these by and by.

9. But as several colonies beside
those of New England were engaged in
this war, and as it was carried on chiefly
in Canada, and along the remote parts



with the colonies to take Louisburg? What
did the colonies do? 6. Describe the, proceed-
ings of the expedition against Louisburg. 7.
How and when was Louisburg taken? 8, What
happened in 17487 What began in 17557 9.
Where was the French war chiefly carried on?





57

of the country, it does not seem proper

to give an account of it, while I am onl

telling you the history of New England.

After I have told you about the other

colonies, I shall give you an account of
the French war.

10. I need only say now, that New
England took an active part in it, and
that her soldiers contributed very much
to the success of the British arms. The
whole of Canada was conquered by the
English, and from that time to the pres-
ent has been subject to Great Britain,

together with Nova Scotia, Newfound-

land, and Cape Breton. This war was
closed by a treaty of peace, made at
Paris, in 1763.

11. It was about the time that this

peace was concluded, that the

e of
America began to be prod 9 the
coming revolution. The conduct of the
British king and parliament was marked
with selfishness from the first settlement
of the country.

12. I mean by this, that in the laws
they had passed, the regulations they
had made, and the officers they had ap-
pointed, for America, they had it less in
view to promote the happiness and pros-
perity of the colonies, than to make
them profitable to England, the mother
country, and to needy favorites.

13. Yet, in spite of this unkind poli-
cy, the people here loved and honored
the king, and cherished the strongest
attachment to Old England. Many of
the inhabitants had come from that
country, and the rest had descended
from English emigrants. England was



10. What part had New England in the French
war? What was the result of that war? When
and how was the French war closed? 11, What
of the king and parliament of England? 13.
What were the feelings of the colonies towards
England? How were they accustomed to speak
58

therefore always spoken of as Home,
the Mother Country, the Land of their
Fathers. By such tender epithets did
the colonies express the affection they
felt for England.

14, But these feelings were no secu-
rity against injustice. The British par-
liament passed a series of acts relating
to America, from 1760 to 1770, which
roused the indignation of the people,
and brought on the Revolutionary War.
New England took a leading part in this
noble struggle.

15. I shall have occasion to tell you
many interesting things that 7
in this section of the country, during
that war. But as the whole nation was
engaged in it, I shall defer my account
of it till I have told you the history of
the other colonies.

CHAPTER XX.
THE PURITANS.

1, As stated in the preceding chap-
ter, the separate history of the New
England colonies properly closes about
the time of the French war. They then
began to act in concert with the other
colonies, and from that period their his-
tory is soon lost in that of the nation.
But before that time, the history of New
England is but little connected with the
other parts of the country.

2. The Dutch, having settled New
York, interrupted the intercourse be-
tween them and the more southern Eng-
lish colonies; but they were not more
separated by this circumstance than by

of it? 14, What occasioned the Revolutionary
War?

1. Why does the history of New England prop-
erly close with the French war? What of the his-
tory of New England previous to the French war?

THE FIRST BOOK OF HISTORY.—NEW ENGLAND.

difference of character. New England
was settled almost wholly by the Puri-
tans.

8. These were very peculiar people.
They held religion to be of the greatest
importance. They loved the services
of religion, and it was one of their great-
est enjoyments to meet — and
worship in their own way. They spent
much time in praying to God in secret.
They read the Scriptures with a deep
and careful interest, and they held it to
be the great business of this life to make
preparation for another.

4, Such were the views and feelings
of the Puritans. In England, they were
miserable, for they could not indulge
their religious feelings, and express their
religious opinions in peace. They were
ridiculed, despised, and persecuted. To
them, therefore, the wilderness of Amer-
ica was a better place than England ; for
there, in the woods, they could assemble
together, and worship God in their pecu-
liar manner, without reproach and with-

out —

5. In coming to this country, there-
fore, the principal object of these people
was to enjoy their religion. Being all
of one mind, they seemed not to foresee
that future generations would be divided
in opinion; and, taking the example of
the Jews, they proposed to form a com-
munity as nearly as possible according
to the ancient Jewish system.

6. Some time after the colonies were
settled, persons came among them, and
began to preach doctrines different from
their own. The Puritans had never
thought of allowing people to enter the
colonies, and utter sentiments and opin-

2, What of the Dutch? What of New England?
3. What of the Puritans? 4, The Puritans in
England’? 5. Their object in coming to America?
What did they not foresee? What did they pro-
pose? 6. What took place some time after the
NEW ENGLAND.—THE PURITANS —BAPTISTS—— QUAKERS.

jons different from those held by the
first settlers.

7. They had no idea of giving free
toleration to all religions; they there-
fore committed the same error that had
driven them from England. They with-
held charity from their opponents ; they
gave them hard names; they imprisoned
some, banished some, and put others to
death.

8. Ihave told you how Roger Wil-
liams was expelled, and I will now tell
you some other things of a similar na-
ture. About the year 1650, several per-
sons in the Plymouth and Massachusetts
colonies adopted the sentiments of the
Baptists, a were of course excommu-
nicated from the churches to which they
belonged.

9. After this, Mr. Clark, a Baptist
clergyman of Rhode Island, came into
Massachusetts, with two other Baptists,
named Holmes and Cranfield. One
Sabbath morning, as they had assem-
bled for worship, they were seized by
the public officers, and forcibly carried
to the Congregational church, where
they were kept during the service. Mr.
Clark et to take off his hat; so he
sat with it on, and when the minister
began to pray, he took a book out of his
pocket, and amused himself with read-
ing. When the service was done, he
addressed the people, and explained his
conduct.

10. These three Baptists were tried
by a court, a fortnight after this, and
sentenced as follows: — Mr. Clark was
to pay a fine of about one hundred dol-
lars; Mr. Holmes about one hundred
Sea RE etE Via a aah ge
colonies were settled? 7. Of what had they no
idea? What error did they commit? What did
they do? 8, What took place about 16507 9.
What of Mr, Clark and two other Baptists? What
did Mr. Ole*k do? 10, What sentence was passed





59

and fifty, and Mr. Cranfield about twen-
a dollars. In case they refused,

ey were to be publicly whipped. The
all refused ; but Mr. "eae tee >
privately paid by his friends. Cranfield
was released, and Holmes suffered the
sentence of the court.

11. He received a number of cruel
lashes upon the naked back, which he
endured with great fortitude. ‘Two of
his friends were present, and after the
punishment was over, they shook hands
with him, and praised him for his cour-
age and constancy. For this act, these
men were tried and sentenced to pa
forty shillings, or to be publicly whipped.
The fines were, however, paid by theit
friends.

12, Such were some of the proceed-
ings against the Baptists; but still more
cruel steps were taken in respect to the
Quakers. Of these I will now give you

some account.

——

CHAPTER XXI.
THE PURITANS—Conrinvep.

1. The first Quakers that came into
Massachusetts were Mary Leisher and
Anna Austin, who reached Boston, from
England, by way of the West Indies, in
1656. They brought with them some
Quaker Sess which the deputy-gov-
ernor caused to be burnt by the hang-
man, while the women themselves were
put-in prison. Here they were kept in
close confinement for five weeks, no
person being permitted to converse with
them even through the window, They
were finally sent back to the West In-

—_—_
upon the three Baptists? 11, What of Holmes?
Two of his friends ?

1. Who were the first Quakers that came te
60

dies in a ship, and the jailer kept their
beds and Bible for his trouble.

2. A short time after this, eight other

Quakers came to Boston, who were im-
mediately put in prison, where they were
kept eleven weeks. Very severe laws
were then passed, banishing all Quakers
from the colony, upon pain of death.
But the greater the cruelty with which
they were treated, the more they flocked
to the colonies.
. 3. At length, four of them, who had
been banished, having returned, were
apprehended, convicted, and sentenced
to death. They were then led out, and
executed, agreeably to the sentence.
They died with great courage, and de-
clared to the people, who were assem-
bled, that they rejoiced in their death,
and thanked God that he had given
them this opportunity to attest the truth
and sincerity of their faith. Thus they
died triumphing, at the very gallows,
over their persecutors.

4. These cruelties had an effect di-
rectly opposite to that intended by the
Puritans. It led the people in the first
place to pity them, then to defend, and
finally to agree with them. Instead,
therefore, of suppressing either the Bap-
tists or the Quakers, the laws and pro-
ceedings against them actually induced
a great many persons to join those
sects.

5. It is very certain that the New
England fathers made great mistakes in
this matter, but we must consider that
these things happened almost two hun-
dred years ago. The idea, now so com-
mon, and now so clear to us all, that

New England? What of them? 2. What of
eight other Quakers? What laws were then
passed? 3. What of four Quakers that had been
banished? 4, What effect had these cruelties ?
5. What is therefore obvious? What, however,

THE FIRST BOOK OF HISTORY.—NEW ENGLAND.

every person has a right to worship God
in his own way, had not then entered
into the minds of men, though pro-
claimed by Roger Williams. Our fore-
fathers were not alone in their narrow
views ; all over the wide world mankind
were in darkness on this subject.

6. The shadow has indeed passed
away from our own country. Here,
every man may freely choose in what
manner he will hold communion with
his God. But in many parts of the
world, even now, there are persons who
suffer much on account of their faith.
There are, I think, even in our own
land, at this very day, those who are
spoken of unkindly and uncharitably,
because of their religion.

7. Let us not, therefore, think too
harshly of the New England fathers.
Let us look rather at theif virtues ; their
patience under misfortune ; their stead
endurance of cold, hunger, want, an
privation ; their deep and fervent piety ;
their strict observance of what they
deemed right; and their stern rejection
of whatever they thought wrong.

8. Let us look also at the wisdom of
these men. They immediately estab-
lished schools for the education of all
classes. This was a noble thought, and
one that had not yet entered into the
heads of the wisest men in Ewrope.
Observe their courage, vigor, and enter-
prise in war; how ready were they all
to assemble at the moment of danger,
whether it came from their savage or
civilized foes !

should we consider? What idea had not yet en-
tered into the minds of men? Were the Puritans
alone in their intolerance? What was the condi-
tion of the rest of mankind on this subject? 6.
What of our own country? What of many other
parts of the world? 7, What, therefore, should
we do in respect to the New England fathers? 8.
What of their wisdom? Of their courage? Of
NEW ENGLAND.—TRIALS—PERILS—VIRTUES.

9. Consider their self-denial. The
labors of the field, the services of reli-
gion, the calls of war, and their domes-
tic duties, engaged their whole attention.
They had no amusements ; a had
parted with them all. They were brave,
stern men, ready to die, if God so or-
dained it; yet resolute in discharging
all the duties of life so long as it lasted.

10. To give you a more lively idea
of the character of our New England
ancestors, I will sketch a picture of what
might have been seen, in any of the New
England villages, in the earlier part of
their history.

11. We will suppose it to be the
morning of the Sabbath. Surrounded
by a few houses, some of them built of
logs, and some of boards, is a small

brown building, without a steeple ; this
is the meeting-house. At the appointed
hour, the worshippers are seen gather-
ing to the church from various quarters.



A New England Church in early times.

12, But each man carries a gun, and
over his shoulder he has the trappings
of a soldier. The guns are all placed
together near the meeting-house door,
and one man is stationed there to give
eS ee eee

their self-denial? 10—12. What spectacle might
have been seen,on a Sabbath morning, in a New

61

the alarm, if the Indians are seen to be
approaching the spot. Thus prepared
to fly to the defence of their houses and
their families, they enter the house of
God,and there they worship. How pow-
erful must have been the motive which
drove our fathers from England into the
wilderness, to live a life like this!

13. I will sketch another picture.
We will suppose it to be a week-day ; a
day of labor. You sec a man going
with his scythe into the field; but he is
armed with a musket. You see a man
ploughing, and another hoeing his corn;
they have each muskets lashed to their
backs.

14. You see a man on horseback,
going from one village to another ; he,
too, is armed. You see a man removing
with his family to some distant settle-
ment; he is provided with the means
of instant defence. |

15. Thus lived “our New England
fathers for more than one generation.
They were in a state of constant prepa-
ration for attack; always supposing
that the next instant an Indian arrow,
or an Indian bullet, might be in the air,
speeding with a deadly aim to the
heart.

16. Nor was this all. The woods
were full of wild animals. At night,
the wolves would come about the houses
and barns, and often carry off a sheep
oralamb. If atraveller on foot lingered
in the forest till sunset, he heard the
howl of these hungry beasts upon his
track; or perchance a bear crossed his
path, turning back with a wistful look ;
or a panther glared on him from the
branches of some aged oak, or the lonely
cry of the wild-cat filled his ears.



England village? 13,14, What might be seen on
a week-day? 15. How did our New England
fathers live for more than one generation? 16.
62

17. A people living under circum-
stances like these, surrounded by dan-
gers, inured to toil, strangers to relaxa-
tion and amusement ; living partly on
the flesh of deer, which they hunted in
the woods, and partly upon the fruits
yielded by the fields to their own labor ;
were’ likely to possess great courage,
sternness, and decision of character.
And such, indeed, were leading pecu-
liarities of the New England settlers.

18. There can be no doubt that many
of our blessings, in New England, have
descended to us from the Pilgrim Fa-
thers. The abundance of our schools,
the love and reverence felt for religion,
and, as consequences of these, the intel-
ligence and morality of the people gen-
erally, are things for which we have to
thank the piety and wisdom of the Pu-
ritans.

CHAPTER XXII.
STATE OF NEW YORK.

1. New York is the richest and most
populous of the United States, Its ter-

What of wolves and other wild beasts? 17, What
was likely to be the effect of circumstances like
those in New England? What were the leading
peculiarities of the New England settlers? 18.
Of what can there be no doubt? For what are we
to thank the piety and wisdom of the Puritans?

Questions on the Map of New York. —Bounda-
ries? Describe the Hudson river, Mohawk, Gen-
esee, Oswego, Saranac. Describe Lake Oneida,
Cayuga, Seneca, Skeneateles, Onondaga, Cha-
tauque, Champlain, Ontario, Erie, Crooked, Owas-
co, What mountains in New York? Where are
they? What great island at the south-east corner
of the state? N.B. A part of this island is on
the map of Connecticut. Describe Staten Island.
Counties in New York? NN. B. Let the pupil an-
swer this question with the map before him. How
many counties in New York? Capital? In what
* gounty is Albany? Describe the following towns:

THE FIRST BOOK OF HISTORY.—-NEW YORK.

ritory is very extensive, but it is not so
large as some of the other states. The
land is in general fertile, and some of it
is exceedingly so. The means of water
communication in this state are unri-
valled: in the eastern part is the Hud-
son river, which is navigated by sloops
and steamboats for one hundred and
sixty miles. On the north and east are
Lakes George and Champlain the St.
Lawrence, and Lake Ontario. On the
west is Lake Erie.

2. The grand canal extends the whole
length of the state, from east to west,
and connects the waters of the great
lakes with the Hudson. Beside these,
there are, in the interior, a great num-
ber of smaller streams and lakes, navi-
gable by boats. I believe there is not a
spot of the same extent on the earth,
more favored by water communication
than the State of New York.

3. The produce of almost every por-
tion of it may be easily carried to its
great city, and this is the centre of com-
merce for the United States; hence it is
called’ “the Commercial Emporium,”
that is, the chief place for bringing in
and carrying out merchandise, for buy-
ing and for selling. The city of New
York is the largest in North America,
and is rapidly increasing. It had, in
1848, about four handel thousand in-

New York, Poughkeepsie, Hudson, West Point,
Troy, Saratoga, Plattsburg, Utica, g,
Canandaigua, Cooperstown, Catskill, Buffulo, Ni-
agara, Geneva, Through what counties does the
great canal run? Where does it begin? Where
end? Where is the northern canal? Population
of the State of New York? Extent? Greatest
length of New York? Greatest width? Average
length? Average width ?

1, What of New York? Its territory? Land?
Water communication? 2. The grand canal?
Lakes and streams? 3, What is said about the
produce? City of New York? Inhabitants ia


" NEW YORK.—BUILDINGS— WATER-WORKS.

habitants, and was the fifth city in size
in the world ; and whole new streets are
being built each year. It is more than
four miles long.

4, Less than two hundred and fifty
years ago, the land on which this gteat
city is built was purchased for twenty-
four dollars. The streets were first

aved in 1676. The first stage route

tween Boston and New York was
established in 1732; it required four-
teen days to go from city to city. In
1745, the first coach was driven there ;
it belonged to an English woman, Lady

Murray.

5. The buildings, especially the pri-
vate dwellings, are more splendid than
any others in the United States. Some
of the churches, too, are very beauti-
ful. You must visit Trinity Church, a
Gothic building, of free-stone; and Grace
Church, built of white marble. The City



City Hall in New York.

Hall, and the University of the city of
New York, are superb structures of the
same material. There, too, are the vast
Astor House hotel, and the Exchange,
and Custom-house, and the Opera
House ; and a large white marble build-
ing, erected in 1845, by Mr. Stewart, for

1848? 4. History? 5. Buildings? 6, Histori-



his store, though it looks like a magnifi-
cent public building. At Stewart’s store
you can purchase all kinds of dr —
from a pair of gloves for half a do ar, to
a shawl for two thousand dollars.

6. There is, in New York, one his-
torical curiosity, you will, as an Ameri-
can, like to see. It is the very table on
which the American Congress, on the
4th of July, 1776, signed the Declara-
tion of Inde ndence from Great Brit-
ain, about which I shall tell you, a little
further on. This table was brought
from Philadelphia, and is in a room in
the City Hall.

7. In the year 1848, the city of New
York completed the most magnificent
structure of the kind ever attempted in
the United States, and one of the most
so in the world. They built an aque-
duct from the Croton river, which they
dammed up just at its entrance into the
Hudson, forty miles above the city.
Through this aqueduct they brought

ure water, through hills and over val-
eys and rivers, into vast stone reservoirs
near and within the city; and thence
distributed it, through all the streets, to
the houses and buildings.

8. The stone bridge for it over Har-
lem river is one of the most magnifi-
cent in the world. The fountains, in the
different parks or enclosures of the city,
send up their jets of water sixty feet into
the air, which fall in glittering spray,
and make, when the sun shines, many
a rich rainbow. Before this was fin-

vished, the water in the city was very

bad. They brought much of what was
used for drink from Jersey, across the
Hudson, in barrels, and sold it by the
gallon. Now, everybody has enough
and to spare, for every ; it was
introduced into the city in 1849. oe

cal curiosity? 7,8. Croton aqueduct? 9. Fires?
64

9. In 1835 a fire burned over mae
of the richest part of New Yor

pag destroying property to the amount
of eighteen millions of dollars, but all
the area has been rebuilt. In 1845 an-
other fire destroyed fine houses and
costly stores, to the amount of six mil-
lions of dollars, but that area too has
been all built over’ again, so that you
hardly see the traces of the calamity.

10. Here you will see the Tract
House, built in 1846. It is five stories
in height, and is occupied by the Amer-
ican Board of Foreign Missions, the
American Home Mission Society, and
the New York’ Tract Society. © It is
heated throughout by steam. It has
fifty-three rooms, and fifteen pendeg-
presses, and one hundred an thirty-
six persons constantly employed in it.
There are thousands connected with its
benevolent operations, all over the Uni-
ted States.

11. In this city lived, in 1847, Mrs.
Joanna Bethune, who was the origin-
ator and founder, in this country, of
infant schools, and of infant Sabbath
classes. The first infant school was
commenced here on the 16th July,
1827, The name has been changed
from Infant, to Primary schools, with
which you are all very well acquainted,
and you understand how much good
they do. Here too died, on the 29th of
March, 1848, John Jacob Astor, who
had, by industry, prudence, and fore-
eight, acquired more wealth than any
other man in America. He left four
hundred thousand dollars, to establish a
library in the city of New York, to be
free, without any charge for admission,
or the use of books,

12. Albany is the seat of the state



10. The Tract House? 11. Infant and Sabbath
schools? J. J. Astor? 12. Albany? Other

THE FIRST BOOK OF HISTORY.—NEW YORK.

government; it looks finely, as it rises
on the hill,from the river. It has beau-
tiful buildings and water-works; and
the State Normal School. Utica, Roch-,
ester, Syracuse, Canandaigua, Geneva;
where is a college, Buffalo, and Troy
are flourishing places. Schenectady has
Union College; Madison University is
at Hamilton. There is Binghamton,
and Ballston and Saratoga Springs, and
Oswego. Indeed, this great state is full
of thriving and populous towns; you
must travel all over it to know what
great things the population are doing
everywhere.

13. The Hudson river “is a noble
stream. It was, I believe, on this river,
that steamboats were first brought into
use. They were introduced by the cel-
ebrated Robert Fulton, of New York, in
the year 1803. There was but one boat
on the river for a long time. But now
there are a great many. Sometimes
one of these boats carries five hundred
passengers. They are very rapid, and
will go from Albany to New York, a
distance of one hundred and fifty miles,
in about twelve hours.

14. It is delightful to go up the Hud-
son in one of these boats. Let us sup-

se that we make a trip, in this state,
ad the city of New York to Niagara
Falls. Before we start, we must go
about the city of New York a little.
We must go up and down Broadway,
which is one of the finest streets in the
world,

16. We skall see a great many ladies
and gentler.en, very gayly dressed, and
we shall see some old women sitting
down on-the pavements, with oranges,
and apples, and nuts to sell. And we
shall see a great many coaches, and om-



towns? Colleges? Activity? 13,14. Hudson?
Steamboats? The city and Broadway? 16. De-
NEW YORK.—THE CITY—THE NORTH RIVER.

nibuses, and drays, driving through the
streets, and we must be very careful that
we are not knocked down and run over
by some of them.

16. On the waters at the sides of
the city, there is the same constant
passing, of different vessels, large and
small; the little sloops that sail along
the coast, and the great ships that trav-
erse the ocean. There are a hundred
steamboats, too, crossing the ferries to
Jersey and to Long Island, and else-
where, moving up and down the Sound,
or East river, as they call it; and the
Hudson, which they call the North
river. There are here, too, lines of reg-
ular steamers from Havre, in France, to
New York, established in 1847; anda
regular line from Bremen, in Germany,
by England, to this city; and another
line from Liverpool, England, to New
York, to alternate with those from Liv-
erpool to Boston, Massachusetts.

17. The first navigation of the Atlan-
tic ocean by steam was in the Savannah,
owned by William Dodd, and command-
ed by Captain Rogers, of New York,
who, in 1819, twice visited, in her, Eu-
rope and Asia, receiving presents from
the King of Sweden, the Emperor of
Russia, and the Grand Seignior of Tur-
key.

18. We must now go down into
Pear! street, and there we shall seé the
merchants so busy,and in such a hurry,
that they almost run over each other.
There we shall hear a great rattling of
carts, and we shall see everybody walk-
ing very fast, and we shall see a great
tumbling about of bales, boxes, bags, and
barrels. After this, we must go to Cas-



scribe the street scenes of the city. 16. Scenes on
the city waters? Ferry steamboats? Atlantic
steamers? 17.-First steam voyage across the At-
lantic? 18. Pearl street? Castle Garden? 19.

5

tle Garden, and see the fireworks ; and
having seen a great many more things,
we will then go on board the steam-
boat, and set out for Albany. .
19. Away we go, dashing through
the water, in fine style, passing some of



Scenery on the Hudson.

the most beautiful scenery in the world ;
and by and by we come to the Palisa-
does, which are very high perpendicular
rocks, on the west sill of the river.
On the east side, we shall see the line
of the great Croton aqueduct, which we
can trace by the white marble towers, to
ventilate the aqueduct, that is, let fresh
air circulate in it.

20. We soon come to West Point,
where there is an excellent academy, in
which young men receive a military
education. After this, we come to the
Catskill Mountains. These are tall,
blue mountains, which seem to reach to
the clouds. A great many travellers
ascend them, and they tell us that the
jorenet from them is truly sublime.

here is here a beautiful little cascade,
where the water falls almost three hun-
dred feet over the rocks. These moun-~



Describe the picture. Palisadoes? Croton aque-
duct? 20. West Point? Catskill Mountains?
21. Tell the story of two huntsmen.
66

tains afford many picturesque views.
They used to be inhabited by many wild
animals, such as deer, cougars, &c.

21. It is not many years since, that
two huntsmen were searching for game
among these mountains. Coming toa
hill, they agreed to pass around it, one
going one way, and the other going the
other way. At length one of them
heard the report of a gun. He ran to
the spot, but could see nothing of his
companion. He found his dog, at length,
torn in pieces; and by and by sawa
cougar or panther, with the body of his
friend, in the top of a tree. He fired a
gun, and the animal dropped with his
prey to the ground. The dog of the

untsman now attacked the wounded
animal, but was instantly killed by a
stroke of his paw. The man soon pro-
cured help at a neighboring village.
The any Pear the cougar dead, and
by it the body of the unfortunate sports-
man, who was also dead.

CHAPTER XXIII.
NEW YORK—Continvep.

1. Soon after leaving the Catskill
Mountains, we shall reach Albany.
Here, in 1848, buildings on many acres,
and boats and goods of immense value,
were burned. We will now enter a
canal-boat, and proceed to Utica. We
shall go at the rate of about four miles
an hour, and we shall find the boat filled
with men, women, and children.

2. On arriving at Utica, we shall be
surprised to find it so large and so hand-
some a place. We must now go, ina
carriage, about twelve miles north of
Utica, and see Trenton Falls. A small
river here tumbles over the rocks, and



1. Albany? Canal-boat? 2, Utica? Trenton

THE FIRST BOOK OF HISTORY.-—-NEW YORK.

presents several exceedingly beautiful
cascades.

3. A very sad accident happened here
a few years ago. A young lady, from
New York, came with some of her
friends to see the cataract. She was
standing on the edge of one of the high-
est rocks, and her friends were at a little
distance. Suddenly she a
from their view. They ran to the â„¢
and looked over the precipice. She had
fallen to a great depth below, and was
instantly killed.

4. From Utica I think we had better
travel by railroad, for by this time we
shall be tired of canal-boats. We must
be particular, however, to go and see
the Indians at Vernon, about seventeen
miles west of Utica. There are near
one thousand of them, and they are the
remnants of two famous tribes, that once
inhabited this part of the state.

5. These Indians are called Oneidas
and Tuscaroras; they are partly civil-
ized, for they till the land, go to meet-
ing, and live peaceably. They are,
however, a degraded people, and will
rather excite your pity than your re-
spect. We shall, perhaps, on our way,
meet with other Indians; the poor re-
mains of the celebrated tribes, which I
shall have occasion to mention, by and
by, under the name of the Five Nations.

6. We shall soon pass through the
flourishing town of Syracuse. It would
be well to stop here to see the improve-
ments, and to visit the famous salt-wells
near by. They draw up the salt water
from the earth and boil it away, in large
kettles, or evaporate it; and then the
salt remains white for use. Immense
quantities are made here, and the works
are very curious.



Falls? 3, Accident? 4, 6. Vernon Indians?
6, Syracuse? Salt-wells? 7. Describe Niagara
NEW YORK.—NIAGARA FALLS—ANECDOTES—ROUTES.

7. After leaving Syracuse, we shall
ass through Auburn, Canandaigua, and
Baffalo, and at length arrive at Niagara
Falls. These are formed by an immense
mass of water, which comes from the
great lakes, and pours over the rocks to
the’ depth of a hundred and fifty feet.




Falls of Niagara.
The roar of these waters is like thunder.
Sometimes it is heard at the distance of
many miles. The earth trembles around,
as if in fear of the awful scene, and a
thick cloud of vapor rises high into the
air, stretching itself far away over the
hills and valleys.

8, A few years ago, some people got
a large ship, and placed in it a wild bear
and some other animals. They then
brought it near the falls, and left it in
the swift current. Many thousands of
people were there to see the sight. The
ship was instantly drawn along by the
tide toward the falls ; it came to the edge
of the rocks, and down, down it went,
broken in a thousand pieces. The poor
bear went over with it. For a long time
he was buried in the water, but at length
he rose upon the surface, and then-he
sprang ashore.

9. I will tell you another story of



Falls. 8. What of a ship? 9, 10. Story of an

67

these falls, There was once an Indian
sleeping in his canoe, on the lake.

was not far from the falls, but the canoe
was tied, and he felt safe. But by and
by the string was untied by some acci-
dent, and the canoe floated out upon the
water.

10. It went silently along, and the
Indian still continued to sleep. Soon
the current began to take the boat
toward the falls. It went more and
more rapidly, and soon was near the
cataract. At this moment the Indian
awoke; he saw his situation, and knew
that it was vain to struggle against his
fate. He therefore seated himself erect,
wrapped his blanket closer round his
body, and, folding his arms, went down
with the thundering tide.

11. After staying a while at the falls,
we must set out to return. We may go
back to Albany by the canal or by the
cars; or to Butalo, by the railroad.
Thence we may go by steamboat, on
Lake Erie, to the town of Dunkirk,
where commences the Erie and Hudson
Railroad, that is going through the south
part of New York state, near Pennsyl-
vania, to Piermont, on the Hudson, so

| called from its long stone pier, and the

Palisade Mountains, just above it.

12. Or we may, from Niagara, sail
down Lake Ontario, to Ogdensburg, and
thence go to Montreal, in Canada by
the steamboat, down the St. Lawrence
river; or go, by railroad, to Burlington,
Vermont. Thence we may go, by some
of the railroads I told you of, when talk-
ing about Vermont, through to Portland
and Boston; or by Bennington, to New
York. Or down Lake Champlain, in a
steamboat, to Whitehall, thence by canal
to Troy, and thence in a steamboat, down
—
Indian? 11. How may we return from Niagara 1
12. Routes from Western New York to the Atlan-
68

the North river ; or by the finden River
Railroad, to the city of New York.

13. You see you have a choice of
routes that is almost puzzling. The
southern, eastern, and northern lines,
through New York state, werein the
course of completion in 1848, and vari-
ous branches have connected, or are
connecting, these great thoroughfares
with one another. ‘his is the history
of what is called Internal Improvements.

14. While we are at Niagara, we
must by no means omit to visit the
wonderful, iron, suspension bridge, over
the Niagara river, just below the Falls.
It connects New York and Canada.
The rocky banks of the river are very
high and steep, here. The water that
has come over the falls, seems chafed
and frightened at its dreadful plunge,
and rushes away very swiftly through
this gorge.

15. On each opposite rocky bank of
the river, they have erected a huge stone
tower. They then fasten strongly into
the earth, on one side, a great many
wire ropes, and lead them over the tops
of these towers, clear across the river, to
the other side, and fasten them strongly
into the ground there also. These ropes
are so long that they bend down in the
middle between the piers.

16. Then they hang down iron rods,
all along, from these wire ropes; and to
the bottom of these rods they fasten
_ cross timbers; and on the timbers lay
lank. This makes the floor of the
les, on which you pass over. The
railway is to occupy the centre, with two
carriage-ways on either side, and two
foot-ways. I think you never before
saw so large an arch. It is two hun-



tic? 13. What are Internal Improvements? 14
—17. Suspension bridge? 18, What of the west-

THE FIRST BOOK OF HISTORY.—NEW YORK.

dred and fifty feet above the water of
the river.

17. You will feel strangely to stand
on this bridge, hung so high in the air,
by apparently little wire strings; and
shaking at every step of your foot. You
will look up at the clear sky above you,
then away down at the wild river rush-
ing so terribly beneath you. Then look
in front; —there is the eternal roar of
Niagara. I do not believe the whole
world can afford such an interesting po-
sition. This bridge was begun in 1847,
and Mr, Ellet, of St. Louis, Missouri,
was the architect.

18. By the time we get home we shall
be satisfied that the State of New York
abounds in interesting objects. The
western part of the state will fill us
with surprise. It now presents many
large towns, and a multitude of thriving
villages ; yet it has been almost wholly
settled within the last fifty years.
more thriving, intelligent, and happ
no it would be difficult to find.

a years ago, there was not a house
in Rochester, and it has now more than
twenty-six thousand inhabitants. Utica
had then scarcely fifty houses; but, in
1845, it had more than fifteen thousand
people. And Buffalo had more than
thirty-five thousand population, and
steamboats and sail-vessels of a very
large commerce, in 1848,

19, The growth in this part of the
State seems, indeed, quite magical. |
recollect a story of what happened near
Rochester, within the last thirty-five
years. Two persons were travelling
on horseback through the woods, in
winter, guided only by a horse-path.
The snow had recently fallen to a great



ern part of New York? Rochester? Utica? Buf-
falo? 19-23, Tell the story of two! men lost is
NEW YORK.—ANECDOTE—SCHOOL SYSTEM.

depth, and they at length lost their way.
They undertook to retrace their steps,
but night came on, while they were still
in the midst of the forest.

20. They knew they were at a con-
siderable distance from any settlement,
and had no hope of reaching a house
during the night. It therefore became
apparent that they must spend it in the
woods. But as the sun went down, the
cold increased, and in a short time it
was exceedingly severe, The horses
were worn out with fatigue, and the
travellers began to fear that they should
be frozen. They looked about for the
shelter of a rock, or some other place,
but nothing of the kind presented itself.
Their situation was now alarming ; they
could not proceed, and to remain idle
was certain death.

21. At length one of them recollected
that he had a small tinder-box in his
pocket. This he took out, and the trav-
ellers set about making preparations to
build a fire, with great alacrity. They
got together the bark of some trees, and
some dry branches ; they then began to
prepare the tinder-box, but on examining
it, the tinder was entirely gone.

22. There was, however, in the box,
a small piece of linen rag, the edges of
which were burnt. These edges were
carefully rolled together, and with a
trembling hand, the sparks of fire were
struck upon them. Again and again
the effort was made, but without suc-
cess, With feelings of the deepest anx-
iety, the travellers bent over the box.
Life and death were on the issue. If
the spark caught, they were sate ; if not,
they must perish. To such a narrow
point is human fortune often reduced.

23. The flint is now struck with great-
erforce. The fire descends in a shower,

in the woods. 24, Appellation of New York?

but without avail. Again, again, and
again they make the trial, an they are
on the point of giving themselves up in
despair. Another blow is struck; its
spark is caught by the tinder, and a
match is lighted; some small fibres of
wood are set on fire, and in a few min-
utes the travellers are warming them-
selves by a bright blaze! Here they
remained during the night. In the
morning they mounted their horses, and
pig the place of their destination in
safety.

24, This state is called the Empire
State, because it is so powerful in po;
ulation and resources. It is very ric
in agriculture, and in manufactures. It
has a thorough public school system,
well organized, over every part of it. I
have been highly delighted in attending
the annual conventions of the superin-
tendents of these schools, who come
there to. consult for their good,—to
hear them report how they have fulfilled
their duties. How indefatigable they
have been, in assisting the able teachers
in their efforts for the boys and girls of
their schools! I saw there, too, a t
many of the teachers. All showed the
same spirit to do the children all the
good in their power.

25. You would be very much pleased
to see what a vast number of the chil-
dren are at the public schools, in this
great state ; and the school libraries the
have to read from; and the care whic.
the teachers, and superintendents, and

arents show, to have the boys and girls
earn. They seem determined, as they
are the greatest state in the Union, to
be among the wisest.

26. I should like to see all the states
and all the people emulate their example.

Public schools? Annual convention? 25. Chil-
dren in the schools? Love of improvement? 26.
70 THE FIRST BOOK 0¢
What a glorious sight it would be! what
a nation we should become! We should
all, like the great Franklin, wish to go
forward fifty years hence, —and many
of you, my young friends, will do so, —
and see what we arrive at then. What
a history it will be!

27. The district school libraries of
books, to interest and make wiser the
young people of this state, amounted, in

847, to a million and a quarter of vol-
umes. These have all been put in there
in ten or twelve years. They add about
a hundred thousand volumes a year,
besides maps, globes, instruments, &c.
They have established a Normal School
at Albany, like those I told you of in Mas-
sachusetts, which is flourishing, and send-
ing out, annually, educated instructors.



CHAPTER XXIV.
NEW YORK—Conmyvep.

1. I think you cannot fail to admire
the great Erie Canal, in the State of
New York. It is three hundred and
sixty-two miles in length ; it is forty feet
wide, and has eighty-three locks. It is
one of the longest canals in the world,
and it is certainly one of the most use-
ful. It is frozen up in winter, but dur-
ing the spring, summer, and autumn,
many hundreds of boats, loaded with
produce and goods of all kinds, are
passing to and fro upon it.

2. This canal was begun in 1817, and
finished in 1825. It was planned by De
Witt Clinton, and made by the people of
New York. Many men were occupied,
for eight years, in digging the earth, in

Dr. Franklin’s wish? 27. District school libra-
ries? Normal School at Albany ?

1. Length of the Erie Canal? Width? Num-
ber of locks? Of what use is this canal? 2, When
was it begun? When finished? Cost’? What have



HISTORY.—NEW YORK.

cutting through the rocks, and in build.
ing walls and da r the locks. The
whole cost of the cgnal was eight million
dollars. They have beenwbhiged to en-
large it, to accommodate the increasing
business. The income from the tolls, for
carrying things on this canal, was, in the
year 1847, three and a half millions of
dollars; or nearly half the whole original
cost. When they wished to give the
uickest possible notice, at New York,
that the lake waters were for the first
time let into the canal at Buffalo, they
put, at every eight miles’ distance along
the line, ready-loaded cannon, and a
man with a lighted match at each, who
was to fire his cannon as soon as he saw
the flash of the one next west of him.
They thus sent the news from Buffalo to
Sandy Hook, five hundred and forty-four
miles, in one hour and twenty minutes !
This was in 1825; in 1848, the letting
in of the water was announced, by mag-
netic telegraph, the same distance, in one
minute! Such is the progress of prac-
tical science in twenty-three years.

3. I will now tell you the early his-
tory of this great state. ‘In the year
1609, Henry Hudson, an English navi-
gator, was employed by some Ditch

eople to go on a voyage of discovery.
He came to America, and discovered the
river which now bears his name. He
sailed up as far as Albany, and went in
his boat a little further.

4. He saw, along the banks of the
river, then, nothing but trees, and In-
dians, and wild animals. What a
change has taken place in a little more
than two hundred years! The island
at the mouth of the river, which was

they since done to it? Why? What was the in-
come from it in 1847? How was notice of its being
opened given in 18257? How in 1848? 3, What of
Henry Hudson? 4. What did he see? What change
NEW YORK.—FIRST SETTLEMENT—CHANGE OF MASTERS. 71

then covered only with trees and shrubs,
is now the seat of a mighty city; and
the banks of the Hudson, then so soli-
tary, are now sprinkled over with towns,
cities, villages, and country-seats.

5. Five years after Hudson’s discov-
ery, some Dutch people came to Albany,
and began there a settlement. This was
in the year 1614, six years before the
Pilgrims arrived at Plymouth. It was
the first settlement made in New York.
About the same time they built a few
houses, on an island called by the In-
dians Manhattan, where the city of New
York now stands.

6. You will observe that New York
was settled by Dutch, not English peo-
Rie They came from Holland, or the

etherlands, and the colony was claimed
by that country. It inereased ‘rapidly.

% 1643, a war broke out with
the Indians. The Dutch governor em-

loyed a brave captain, by the name of
Divlerhill, to go against them. He had
been a soldier in Europe, and knew well
how to conduct the business of war. He
took with him one hundred and fifty
men, and they had a great many battles
with the Indians. The latter were de-
feated, and four hundred of them were
killed during the war.

8. In 1646, a severe battle was fought
with the Indians, near Horse-neck.
Great numbers were killed on both
sides, but the Dutch were victorious.
The dead bodies were buried at a place
called Strickland’s Plain, and one hun-
dred years afterwards the graves were
still te be geen. ,

9. There were some disputes between



has taken place in two hundred years? 5. What
settlement in 1614? What other settlement about
the same time? 6. By whom was New York set-
tled? 7. What took place in 1643? What of Cap-
tain Underhill? 8. What took place in 1646? 9.
Disputes between New England and New York?







the eens of New England and those
of New York about territory. At length
the Dutch governor went to Hartford,
where he met some people sent by the
New England colonies, and they came
to an agreement about the land. But
King Charles of England said that the
Dutch had no right to any of the land,
and granted what the Dutch had settled
upon to his brother, the Duke of York
and Albany, afterwards James II.

10. In 1664, the duke came, with
three ships, to New York, and com-
manded the people to surrender the
town. They refused at first, but in a
little while they gave it up, and he took
possession of it. ‘The name of this place,
which was before called Manhattan, was
now changed to New York, and the
place on the Hudson where the first set-
tlement was made, which had been called
Fort Orange, was now called Albany.
These names have since been retained.



Sa OE
The Dutch Commander surrendering New York.

11. In 1673 the city of New York
was retaken by the Dutch. The fort
and city were surrendered by the treach-
ery of John Manning, the commanding

RN CE
What did King Charles do? 10, What did the
Duke of York and Albany do in 1664? What did
the people do? Describe tué picture. What change
of names now took place? 11. What happened in
72

officer, without _ agun. The next
= peace was concluded between Eng-
and and Holland, and the colony was
restored to the English.

12. The Duke of York and Albany,
the former proprietor, now came again
into possession of the colony, and sent
Sir Edmund Andros, afterwards the i
rant of New England, to govern it. He
was succeeded by other governors ; and
in 1682 the people were permitted to
meet and choose representatives.

13. These representatives assembled
and made laws, but they could not go
into force till they were ratified by the
duke. This arrangement was satisfac-
tory to the people, and the colony now
felt the blessings of good government.



CHAPTER XXV.
NEW YORK—Continvep.

1. I will now tell you about the In-
dians in the northern part of New York.
The interior of the country was origi-
nally inhabited by five nations, called
the Senecas, Cayugas, Onondagas, Onei-
das,and Mohawks. These nations were
friendly to the English colonies, and be-
ing very powerful, they protected the
inhabitants from the French settlements
in Canada.

2. At length the French governor, De
la Barre, being afraid of these Indian
tribes, raised an army of seventeen hun-
dred men, and went against them. But
his troops suffered very much from hard-
ship and sickness, and many of them
died.

16732 What took place the next year? 12. What
did the Duke of York and Albany now do? What
caine to pass in 1682? 13, What of the represent-
atives? What of the laws made by them?

1. What of the Five-=Yations? Their names ?
2. Whut of De la Barre? 3, What was hé obliged

THE FIRST BOOK OF HISTORY.—NEW YORK.

3. Being surrounded by his enemies,
he was now obliged to ask peace of the
savages, whom he had come to destroy.
He sent to the chiefs of the Five Na-
tions, requesting them to come and see
him, and three of them came. A circle
was formed, consisting of the French
officers and chiefs, and then De la Barre
addressed the chief of the Onondagas as
follows :

4, “Chief, listen to what I have to
say. I am sent to this country by a
great king, who commands many armies.

He is good to his friends, but he is ter- *

rible to his enemies. What are ye, his
friends or his enemies? I tell you that
ye are his enemies.

“You prowaae English, and you
fight for them. You have made a league
with them for ee war, You have
led them into the country, and shown
them the trading-grounds of the

and now they carry away the furs which

the French ought to get.

5. “Such is your conduet, and tha
of the Five Nations; and what shall the
king, my master, do to you for these

things? He can send an army into this
Sie, asthe —

dry leaves of autumn are scattered by

land, that shall scatter your

the whirlwind; and this he will do, un-
less you change your conduct, and in-
stead of enemies become his friends.”

6. Garrangula, the Onondaga chief,
knew perfectly well the distress of the
French army. He therefore heard this
haughty speech with contempt. After
walking six times around the circle, he
made the following reply, in which you
will perceive he calls be la Barre, Yc -
pe and the English governor, Cor-
ear.

to do? Whom did he send fer? Who came?
What scene followed? 4,5. What did De la Barre
say? 6. What of Garrangula? 7—11. Repeat the
10 2h

tee

NEW YORK.—INDIAN ORATION—FIVE NATIONS.

7. “Yonnondio, I honor you, and the
warriors that are with me honor you.
Your interpreter has finished your
speech ; I now begin mine. My words
make haste to reach your ears; hearken
to them. Yonnondio, you must have
believed, when you left Quebec, that the
sun had consumed all the forests which
render our country imaccessible to the
French ; or that the great lakes had
overflown their banks and surrounded
our castles, so that it was impossible for
us to get out of them,

8. “Yes, Yonnondio, you must have
dreamed so; and the curiosity of so
geet a wonder has brought you so far.

ow you are undeceived; for I, and the
warriors here present, are come to as-
sure you that the Senecas, Cayugas,
eoraieges, Oneidas, and Mohawks, are

alive.

9. “I thank you, in their name, for
‘ bringing: back into their country the
pipe of peace, which your ——
received from their hands. It was hap-
__ py for you that you left under ground
_ that murdering hatchet, which has been
-_. so often dyed in the blood of the French.
ear, Yonnondio; I do not sleep; I
-have my eyes open; and the sun which
enlightens me, discovers to me a great
captain, at the head of a company of sol-
diers, who speaks as if he was dream-
ing. He says that he only came to
smoke the great pipe of peace with the
Onondagas. But Garrangula says, that
he sees the contrary; that it was to
knock them on the head, if sickness
had not weakened the arms of the

French.

10. “We carried the English to our
lakes, to trade with the Utawawas, and
Quatoghies, as the Adisomdoes brought

PA ES A AE
speech of Garrangula to De la Barre. 12. What

73
the French to our castles, to carry on a
trade which the English say is theirs.
We are born free; we neither depend
on Yonnondio nor Corlear. We ma

go where we please, and: buy and sell
what we please. If your allies are
your slaves, use them as such* com-
mand them to receive uo other but your
people. ‘

11. “Hear, Yonnondio; what I sa7 is
the voice of all the Five Nations. When
they buried the hatchet at Cadaracai, in
the middle of the fort, they planted the
tree of peace in the same place, te be
there carefully preserved, that instead
of a retreat for soldiers, the fort might
be a rendezvous for merchants. Take
care that the many soldiers who appear
there, do not choke the tree of peace,
and prevent it from covering your coun-
try and ours with its branches. I as-
sure you that our warriors shall dance
under its leaves, and will never dig up
the hatchet to cut it down, till their
brother Yonnondio, or Corlear, shall in-
vade the country which the Great Spirit
has given to our ancestors.”

12. De la Barre heard this scornful
speech with shame and rage. But
knowing his weakness, he was obliged
to make peace. Not long after, another
French governor went against these
Indians, with a still larger army than
that of De la Barre. But the cunning
Indians concealed themselves till the
French were near, and then suddenly
fell upon his army, and obliged him to
retreat out of their country. These
wars made the Five Nations hate the
French, and attached them to the Eng-
lish colonies.



of De la Barre? What of another French gov-
ernor? What did the Indians do? What effect
had these wars?
74

CHAPTER XXVI.
NEW YORK—Conrinvzp.

1. In the year 1685, the Duke of York
succeeded his brother, Charles the Sec-
ond, and became king of England, under
the title of James the Second. I have
told you before that this king was hated
by the ‘English people, and he was
equally disliked in the colonies.

2. He claimed absolute authority over
the American people, and beside that, he
was a Catholic. These things caused
him to be dreaded by the people. They
were therefore very much rejoiced when
the news case, in 1689, that he had
been driven from the throne, and that
William, Prince of Orange, had suc-
ceeded him.

3. Elated by this news, and stimu-
lated by the example of the people at
Boston, who had seized and imprisoned
Andros, they began to make prepara-
tions to depose the governor, whose
name was Nicholson.

4, Alarmed at this, he fled by night,
and the chief magistracy was assumed
by a militia captain, whose name was
Leisler. He was a weak man, and
managed the affairs of the colony very
badly.

5. While the settlement was suffering
from the troubles occasioned by Leisler’s
administration, war was declared be-
tween England and France. This was
King William’s war, of which I have
told you something in the history of
New England. Count Frontenac was
now governor of Canada.

6. In the winter of 1690, he sent a
emetic crickets

1. What took place in 1685? 3, Why did the
people hate James the Second? +What news came
in 16892 3, What effect had this news upon the
peopie? 4° What of Nicholson? Leisler? 5.
What war now broke out? Who was Count

THE FIRST BOOK OF HISTORY.—NEW YoRK.

vt
small party of French soldiers and In-..
dians to attack Albany. These com
cluded to destroy ectady first.
The people of Schenectady had been
warned of their danger, but they would
not believe that men would come from
Canada, a distance of two or three hun-
dred miles, through the deep snows of
winter, to molest them. ‘

7. But they were. fatally deceived.
On a Saturday night, the enemy came
near the town. They divided thems
selves into small parties, so that every
house might be attacked at the same in-
stant. Thus prepared, they entered the
place about eleven o’clock.

8. The inhabitants were all asleep,
and stillness rested upon the place.
With a noiseless. step, the enemy dis-
tributed themselves through the village,
Ata given signal, the savage war-whoop
was sounded. What a dreadful cry was
this to the startled fathers and‘ mothers _
of _ unhappy pig ¥

9. It is scarcely ible to describe
the scene that followed. The people,
conscious of their danger, sprang from
their beds, but were met at the door,
and slaughtered by the savages. Every
house was set on fire; and the Indians,
rendered frantic by the wild scene, ran
through the place, slaying those they
chanced to meet,

10. Sixty of the people were killed,
and twenty-five were made prisoners,
Some attempted to escape, but they
were naked; the weather was extremel y
severe, and they had a considerable dis-
tance to go before they could reach a
place of security, A part arrived jn
safety, and twenty-five lost their limbs
by the cold.

11. To avenge these cruelties, with ©

4 Kis,
Frontenac? 6. What nce in the easel “y
1690? 7—10. Describe the attack upon Schenes:

ae
NEW YORK.—GOVERNORS— PIRATES—CAPTAIN KIDD.

others of a similar nature committed in
New England, an attack upon Canada
was determined upon. An army, raised
in New York and Connecticut, pro-
ceeded as far as Lake Champlain, but
finding no boats to take them across,
they were obliged to return. Thus the
whole expedition failed, and this was
attributed to the imbecility of Leisler.

12. It was about this time, that King
William sent Col. Henry Sloughter to
be governor of New York. But unhap-
py he was totally unfit for the office.

hen he arrived, Leisler refused to
give up his authority. He sent two
messengers, however, to confer with
Sloughter. These messengers were im-
mediately seized by the governor, and
put in prison as rebels.

13. This alarmed Leisler and his
associates, and they Te to escape.
But he, with his son-in-law Milborne,
was taken, tried, and condemned to
death, for high treason. But the gov-
ernor refused to sign the warrant for
their execution, as he did not wish to
sacrifice two men who had been rather
weak than wicked.

14, But the enemies of Leisler and
Milborne contrived a plot for their de-
struction. They made a great feast,
and invited Governor Sloughter to go
and partake of it. He went, and when
he was intoxicated with wine, they asked
him to sign the death-warrant of the two
rene. This he did, and before he

ad recovered his senses, Leisler and
Milborne were executed. Thus, through
his folly and wickedness, two men suf-
fered an ignominious death.



tady. 11. What attack was now determined
upon? What army was raised? - What did they
do? 12. What of Governor Sloughter? 13. What
of Leisler? 14. In what manner was the execu-
tion of Leisler and his son-in-law effected? 15.



which they were successful.
killed more of the enemy than the whole
number of their party.








75
15. In 1691, Governor Sloughter

died. The same year, a man, by the
name of Peter Schuyler, at the head of
three hundred Mohawk Indians, went
to make an attack upon the French set-
tlements at the north end of Lake Cham:
plain. A body of about eight hundred
men were sent from Montreal against
him. With these, Schuyler and his

Mohawks had several battles, in all of
They

—

CHAPTER XXVIII.
NEW YORK—Conrinvzp.
1. In 1692, Col. Fletcher was made

governor of New York, and in 1698 he

was succeeded by the Earl of Bella-
mont. About this time, the American
seas were very much infested by pirates.
These bold men attacked such ahi as

they met with on the ocean, plun

them of whatever they wanted, and
either murdered the crew and took the
- or sunk them both together in the
eep.

2, Governor Bellamont was particu-
larly charged, by the English govern-
ment, to clear the American seas, if pos-
sible, of these desperate men. But the
necessary ships not being furnished, he,
with some other individuals, determined
to fit out a vessel on their own account,
and send it against the pirates. -

3. They accordingly procured a ship
of war, and gave the command of it to
a sea-captain, whose name was Robert
Fen gel een gia
What took place in 1691? What of Peter Schuy-
ler?

1. What took place in 1692? What in 16984
What of the pirates? 2, What did Governor Bel-
lamont and some others do? 3. What of Rober
76

Kidd. But when he got out upon the
water, Kidd determined to become a pi-
rate hithself. He proposed the plan to
his men, and they consented to it.

4. So he went forth and became one
of the most infamous pirates that was
ever'known. He attacked many vessels
upon the Atlantic and Indian oceans,
and after three years he returned. He
burnt his ship and went to Boston,
where he was seen in the streets. He
was seized, and carried to England, and
there he was tried, condemned and exe-
euted.

5. I suppose you have heard a great
many stories of this wretch, Captain
Kidd. It is said that he buried a great
deal of gold in pots, somewhere along
the coast. A great many attempts have

been made to find this gold, but without

success. I suspect that Kidd and his
sailors spent all the money so wickedly
got, and never buried any of it.

6. I will now pass over a considera-
ble space of time, during which nothing
very remarkable happened in this colo-
ny. Several governors had been sent
from England, most of whom were ut-
terly unworthy of the trust.

7. About the year 1736, circum-
stances occurred in the city of New
York, which it is painful to dwell upon.
Some persons of very bad character cir-
culated a report that the negroes, of
which there were a good many in the
city, had formed a plot to burn the
town, and make one of their number
governor. :

8. A great many fires had taken
lace; and these led the people to be-
ieve that the rumor was true. Many
of the negroes were arrested and put in

eae ale elena
Kidd? 4, What was the fate of Kidd? His ill-
yotten gold? 6. What kind of governors were sent
over? 7,8. What occurred in the city of New



THE FIRST BOOK OF HISTORY.—NEW YORK.

prison. Other accusers now came for:
ward, and so strong was the prejudice
against the negroes, that, when the trial
came on, all the lawyers offered their
services to plead against them.

9. Thus left without defence, these
unhappy people were all condemned.
Fourteen were burnt to death, eighteen
were hung, and seventy-one were trans-
ported out of the country! It is grati-
fying to feel sure that, in our day, the
weakest and most defenceless are not
exposed to such cruelty and injustice.

10. In 1748, George Clinton was
sent over as governor of the colony.
He was warmly received by the people,
and his administration was, on the whole,
acceptable. In 1745, during George
the Second’s war, New York was much
distressed by the incursions of the In-
dians.

11. Saratoga was destroyed, and
other parts of the colony suffered very
much. Some of the Indians came to
Albany, and concealing themselves in
the neighborhood, lay in wait to take
prisoners. One savage, bolder than the
rest, called Tolmonwilemon, came with-
in the city itself, and carried off people
by night.

12. In 1746, New York united with
the eastern colonies in an expedition
against Canada, but the project totally
failed. The next year, the welcome
news of peace between England and
France arrived, and the colony was re-
lieved from the distresses brought upon
them by the war. ,

13. Thus I have told you of some of
the principal events in the history of
New York, up to the time of the French



York in 1736? 9. How many negroes were
barnt?) How many hung? How many trans-
ported? 10. What happened in 17437 In 37457
11. What of Saratoga? What of Tolmonwile
NEW JERSEY.——A BUSY ES OT

war, which commenced in 1755. From
that time the colonies acted in concert;
and I shall therefore leave the separate
history of New York here, and give you
a view of what remains, in the general
account of the French war and the
American Revolution.



CHAPTER XXVIII.
“STATE OF NEW JERSEY.

1. I will now tell you about New Jer-
- It is not a large state, but in trav-
elling through it we shall see many
things that are interesting. We must
start at New York in a steamboat, and
cross the North river to Jersey City.
This is done in a few minutes. Then
we get into the cars, and ride nine miles,
over a railroad, to Newark.

2. This is a beautiful city, with sev-
eral handsome churches, and many
handsome houses. We shall see many
of the people busy in making shoes,
gigs, coaches, omnibuses, stages, and
wagons. Newark is the largest city in
the state; it had thirty thousand inhab-
itants in 1847. The whole of northern
New Jersey is as busy, with its various
manufactures, as a hive of bees.

3. We must not omit to make an ex-
cursion from Newark to Patterson, to

mon? 12, What took place in 17467 What news
came the next year? 13. French war, when?

Questions on the Map. — Boundaries? Describe
the Raritan river, Delaware, Passaic. Counties
in New Jersey? Their names? Capital? In
what county is Trenton? Describe the following
towns: Elizabethtown, Newark, Princeton, New
Brunswick, Morris, Patterson, Bordentown, Bur-
lington. Population of New Jersey? Extent?
Greatest length of New Jersey? Greatest width?
Average length? Average width ?

1. What of New Jersey? Jersey City? 2
Newark? Northern N, Jersey? 3. What of the

77

see the Passaic Falls. These are farmed
by the Passaic river, which rolls over
the rocks to the depth of seventy-two
feet. The spectacle is very brilliant and
beautiful.

4. Some years ago, a gentleman and
his wife, from New York, were standing
on the rock, which hangs over the cata-
ract. The lady suddenly became dizzy,
and fell over the awful precipice. She
was instantly killed by & fall. Pater-
son is a brisk manufacturing town, situ-
ated near the cataract.

5. We may then leave Newark by a
railroad, and soon arrive at Elizabeth-
town. In passing along, we shall ob-
serve many fine orchards; and if it is
autumn, we shall see abundance of very
excellent apples. The cider made here
is very celebrated.

6. On arriving at Elizabethtown, we
shall be struck with the beauty of the
place. But we shall not be allowed to
stop long, as the conductor of the cars is
in a great hurry; when he rings the
bell, the passengers will jump into the
cars, and away we go.

7. We Sons through New Bruns-
wick, upon the railroad, and travelling
on a few miles, we shall at length reach
Princeton, Here we shall observe a
large building, with a green lawn in
front, covered with shady trees. This
is Princeton College; it is quite cele-
brated, and a great many young men
are educated here.

8. After leaving Princeton, we shall
soon arrive at T'renton, which is beauti-
fully situated on the Delaware. We
shall here notice a fine bridge across
this river. I think we had better take
the steamboat now, and go down the



Passaic Falls? 4. Fatal accident? Patterson?
5. What of orchards? Apples? Cider? 6, Eliza-
bethtown? 7. What of Princeton College? 8,
78

Delaware to Philadelphia; though we
can, if we choose, go on in the cars of
either of two railroads.

9. We shall be delighted with this
part of our journey. On both sides of
the river, we shall see many very hand-
some towns. Those on the west side
belong to Pennsylvania, those on the
east, to New Jersey. Among other in-
teresting things, we shall see Joseph
Bonaparte’s house at Bordentown.

10. Joseph Bonaparte, who died in
1846, was a brother of the famous Na-
poleon Bonaparte, and once king of Na-

les and then of Spain. The house is
arge, and quite different from other
houses in the. state; it is now a place
of public resort. There is a very lofty
tower on the grounds, called an observa-
tory. From the top of this, there is a
very extensive and beautiful prospect.

11. But the most common way of
travelling across this part of New Jersey
now, is to leave New York in a steam-
boat, which carries us up the river Rar-
itan to Amboy: at this place we may

et into the railroad cars, and go to
ordentown, where there is a steam-
boat ready to take us to Philadelphia.

12. Soon after passing Bordentown,
we shall come to Burlington, and then,
in a little while, we shall reach Phila-
delphia. If we go into the market at
Philadelphia, we shall observe large
quantities of the finest apples, pears, and
peaches, and sweet potatoes, and other
vegetables, that we have ever seen.
Many of these things are brought from
that part of New Jersey which lies on
the Delaware, opposite to Philadelphia.

13. You will see valuable zinc and



Trenton? 9. Scenery on the river? 10. Who is
Joseph Bonaparte? His house and observatory ?
MM. Travelling in N. Jersey? 12. Market at Phil-
adelphia? 13, Mines? Canal? Freestone? 14.



=" BOOK OF HISTORY.—NEW JERSEY.

copper mines in New Jersey. The ca-
nals, from the Delaware to the Hudson
river, cross this state, and bring to New
York immense quantities of the Penn-
sylvania coal, for fuel, —called the Le-
high or anthracite, and by various other
names, taken from the place or mine
whence it is obtained. From New Jer-
sey, too, is carried to distant parts, to
Boston, &c., the light-colored freestone,
that is so much used in building houses,
churches, and other edifices.

14. If we stay some time in the State
of New Jersey, we shall observe that the
yore differ considerably from those in

ew England. This difference is owing
to the difference of origin. The people
of New England are descended entirely
from the English, while those of New
Jersey are the mixed descendants of
English, Dutch, Danes, Germans, and
Swedes.

15. The first settlement in this state
was made by the Danes, in 1624. Some
Dutch and Swedes soon after made set-
tlements in the territory ; the population
was, however, very small. In 1664,

Settlement
New Jersey came, with New York, into



What of the people of New Jersey? Their origin?
15. First settlement in New Jersey? What oo-


the hands of the English. The next
ir, a settlement was made at Eliza-
thtown, by three men, who purchased
the Tand of the Indians.

16.°The same year Sir George Car-
teret was appointed governor, and the
colony received the name of Jersey, in
compliment to him, who was a native
of the island of Jersey, on the northern
coast of France.

17. In 1676, the province was divided
into East and West Jersey, and so con-
tinued until 1702. The government
was then surrendered to Queen Anne,
of England, and East and West Jersey
were united, under the title of New Jer-
sey. From this date to the Revolution-
ary War, very little happened in this
colony, the story of which would be in-
teresting to you.

18. The wars with the French and
Indians, which afflicted New England
and New York so much, did not reach
New Jersey. But during the Revolu-

tionary War, this state was occupied by || J

the English and American armies, and
it consequently met with losses, and
suffered istress.. Of these things
I shall tell you more by and by.

19. I wil, however, tell you of one
battle now. This took place at Mon-
mouth, in the summer of 1778, between
the Americans under Washington, and
the British under Sir Henry Clinton.
The two armies fought terribly, and
hundreds were killed on both sides.
The weather was hot, and a woman,
named Molly Pitcher, was engaged in
carrying water to some soldiers who



curred in 16642 When was Elizabethtown set-
tled? Describe the picture. 16, What of Sir
George Carteret? Why was the territory called
New Jersey? 17. What took place in 16767
What happened in 1702? 18, What of New Jer-
sey during the Revolutionary War? 19. Battle
ef Monmouth? What was done in 1844?

NEW JERSEY.—BATTLE.— PENNSYLVANIA. .

79

were managing one of the cannon. By
and by, her husband, who was among
them, was killed. Molly immediately
took his place at the gun, and fought
like a trooper. She was called Major
Molly ever after. In 1844, the people
of New Jersey formed an amended con-
stitution for their state.

CHAPTER XXIX.
STATE OF PENNSYLVANIA.

1. This is a large, wealthy, and flour-
ishing state. Our travels through it
will afford us much gratification. We
must examine Philadelphia, in the first
place. In my opinion, it is the hand-
somest city in the United States. The
streets are all straight, and cross each
other in a regular manner.

2. In this city you will see a build-
ing called Independence Hall, because
in the large room, which is now arranged
just as it was then, was made, on July
4, 1776, the Declaration of Independence
of our country, of which I shall tell you
by and by, in the chapters upon the
American Revolution. ’

3. What was then done, in that build-

Questions on the Map.—Boundaries? De-
scribe the Delaware, Susquehannah, Schuylkill, Ju-
niata, Lehigh, Ohio, Alleghany. What ranges of
mountains in Pennsylvania? Through what coun-
ties do they ran? Describe Delaware Bay. How
many counties in Pennsylvania? Which lie west
of the Alleghanies? Which east? Capital? In
what county is Harrisburg? In what county is
Philadelphia? Ans. In the county of Philadel-
phia. Describe the following towns: Lancaster,
Harrisburg, Pittsburg, Chester, Wilkesbarre,
Huntingdon, Bedford, Carlisle, York, Easton.
Population of Pennsylvania? Extent? Greatest
length of Pennsylvania? Gireatest width? Av-
erage length? Average width?

1. What of Pennsylvania? Philadelphia? 9
Hall? 3. What was done by our


80

ing, led to. our Revolution ;—our mak-
ing our own laws, and thriving as we
think best, —in our own way, without
being directed by a government on the
other side of the ocean, that could not
know what was good for us. Since
then we have become a great nation, —
may we also be a wise and a good one.

4, On the 22d day of February, 1847,
the old Independence Bell, as it was
called, which was on Independence Hall,
and was used to call the people together
on the solemn day of the Declaration, —
and .to celebrate the peace which fol-
lowed the Revolutionary War, — and on
the successive Independence days since,
—was tolled for the last time, in mem-
ory of the birth-day of Washington, who
was our country’s general and _ first
President. The bell is cracked, and
spoiled for use now. It was cast, in
Philadelphia, about 1753, and had on it,
“ Proclaim Liserty throughout this land
unto all the inhabitants thereof.”

5. You must not fail to visit the
United States Mint, in Philadelphia,
where they make the metal money, or
coin, which we use:—the eagles and
half-eagles, of gold; the dollars, halves,
and quarters, dimes and half-dimes, of
silver; and the cents and half-cents, of
copper. It is a very curious process.
The very dust of the floor is valuable,
for it has gold and silver in it.

6. You have seen, on our old cents
and coins, a cap, sometimes on the head
of the female figure representing Liber-
ty, and sometimes, a little way off it. I
will tell you what that is for. In an-
cient times, old age was expressly hon-
ored. Qld persons generally covered
their heads with caps.
-was made free, he had a cap given him,

Revolution? 4. Bell? 5. Mint and coins? 6.
What is the Liberty cap? 7. Bank of U.S. build-

When a slave,

THE FIRST BOOK OF HISTORY.—PENNSYLVANIA.

as a sign that he was free and honora-
ble,"for none were so unless, they were
free. Thus the cap became the emblem
of freedom ; and our nation adopted it.

7. We shall find many interesting ob-
jects in the city. The building erected
by the U. S. Bank, and now used for
the custom-house, is of white marble
and very beautiful. The Arcade iso
very curious building, in which there
are a great many shops. In the upper
part of this building is Peale’s Museum.

8. This is a most interesting collec-
tion. There are hundreds of stuffed
birds and animals, which look as if they
were really alive.* There are grisly
bears, and deer, and elks, and prodi-
gious great serpents, and birds with
beautiful feathers, and cranes, with legs
as long as a man’s, and there are bugs,
and butterflies, and Indian tomahawks,
and a multitude of other things.

9. But the most wonderful of all is the



. Skeleton of the Mastodon at Philadelphia.

skeleton of the mastodon, or mammoth.
These bones were found in the State of
New York; the animal to which they

belonged must have been as large as a
small house. No animals of this kind



ing? Arcade? 8; Peale’s Museum? What is
to be seen there? 9, What of the mastodon?
PENNSYLVANIA. — GIRARD COLLEGE — MOUNTAINS. 4 81
»

cattle. We shall pass through.Lancas-
ter, which is one of the most beautiful

towns in the United States, and Harris-
burg, where the legislature meets to
make laws for the state. ,

13. As we pass along, we shall notice
a ae many Quakers, and I think you
will like them very much. They are
very friendly, and dress in a singular
manner, It is said that there has not
been a single instance of a Quaker’s
committing a crime, since the establish-
ment of the courts of justice in this state.
This is shown by the records of those
courts.

14. You will meet with a good many
people here who can talk nothing but
German. There are, indeed, a great
many German people, and some entire
villages are composed of Germans, and
their descendants. They have almanacs,
newspapers, and some ta , printed in
their language.

15. At length, you will reach the Al-
leghany Mountains. These consist of
a great many separate ranges. You will
first go over one, and then another, and
another, and another. Some of them
are very high, and the sides are exceed-
ingly steep.

16. After travelling a whole day, you
will find that you have passed over these
lofty mountains. You will be much
fatigued, and I think you will be glad
that you have got over them, for they
have a very desolate and gloomy ap-
.|| pearance. tf you travel on the railroad
you will be only a few hours going over
the mountains. These mountains used
to be inhabited by many wild animals ;
deer and elk are still found there, as well
as wolves ahd foxes. The wild-cat and
cougar are also occasionally met with.

°
now live in America, or anywhere else.
But long before the white people came
to this country, it is certain that they
roamed through the forests of America.
Some of them must have been at least
four times as large as the largest ele-
phant.

10. After leaving the museum, we
should go and see the Fairmount water-
works, about two or three miles out of
town. These are situated on the Schuyl-
kill river. There are here several large
wheels, which are so contrived as to
force the water from the river up into
a reservoir, on the top of a high hill.
From thence the water flows to the city,
and supplies the whole place. This is
a most useful invention, and one that
may well excite our admiration.

11. Alittle way from Fairmount, we
will visif"Girard Orphan College. The
building is‘one of the most magnificent
in the United States. It is built of white
marble, with money left to Philadelphia
by Stephen Girard, of that city, one of
the richest merchants of our country.
He founded it for the education of poor
orphan children. First, those born in
Philadelphia ; then, those born in Penn-
sylvania ; then, those born in the city of

ew York? and lastly, those born in
New Orleans. He also left money for
improving and beautifying the city of
Philadelphia. Mr. Girard died in 1831,
and the cgllege was finished and opened,
and the Mstitution organized, in Decem-
ber, 1847.

12. We must now leave Philadelphia,
and set out for Pittsburg. We shall trav-
el over excellent roads, with fine stone
bridges, and we shall see a great many
large farms, with abundance of very fine









Describe the picture. 10, Fairmount water-works ?
What is the use of them? 11. Girard College for
orphans? 12. ree ae Farms?



Cattle? Lancaster? Harrisburg? 18, Quakers t
14. Germans? 15, 16, Alleghany Mountains’
82

17. After having passed the Allegha-
nies, you will arrive at Pittsburg. This
is a great manufacturing place. As you
approach it, you will observe a cloud of
black smoke rising over the town, and
you will notice that almost all the build-
ings are blackened with the coal-smoke.
Coal is so very abundant here, ‘that you
may buy a bushel of it for a few cents.
In April, 1845, occurred here a dreadful
fire, which burned more than a thousand
houses, and over six millions of property.

18. We shall hardly have time to set
down in this little ‘book all the interest-
ing things to be seen in Pennsylvania.
There are the Lehigh and Schuylkill coal
mines, where the people get a great deal

x

a



of coal, which is carried down in little
cars, on railroads, to the canals, and then
put into boats, and carried to Philadel-
phia and other places.

19. There are several fine canals,
many railroads, and some of the most
beautiful rivers in the world. The banks
of the Schuylkill, the Juniata, and the
Susquehanna, are truly enchanting du-
ring the summer. On whole, we
shall find Pennsylvania a most interest-
ing state. It is not so cold there in win-

acl liht i aiiniaieinldncniibipmrmnay incites
Wild animils? 17. Pittsburg? Coal? Fire? 18.
Lehigh and Schuylkill coal mines? 19. Canals?



THE FIRST BOOK OF HISTORY.—PENNSYLVANIA.

ter as in New England. Many parts
of it are fertile and highly cultivated,
and the comforts and luxuries of life are
very chéap and abundant.

20. In 1835, there were one hundred
thousand pupils in the common schools
of this state. In 1838, there were two
hundred and thirty-three thousand. In
1847, there were nearly three hundred
and thirty-one thousand. So you see
the number of boys and girls Covala
to be good men and women, must be
nearly four times as great now as in

21. Pennsylvania is called the Key-
stone State, as being the middle, and a
very important state in our Union. A
few years since, she had undertaken to
make so many canals and railroads at
once, that she became in d more
than she could pay from ‘tief ordinary
state income. But by patriotically and
honestly taxing herself, she has re-
deemed her credit, and will soon be
freed, by her vast mineral, agricultural,
and manufacturing resources, from all
embarrassment. .

22. In 1839, died at Philadelphia,
Matthew Carey, a distinguished philan-
thropist; and in 1844, Nicholas Biddle,
a celebrated financier, and president of
the great Pennsylvania institution, called

'the United States Bank, as he had been

of that in which the Federal Govern-
ment were stockholders, thatgis, owned
apart. And there, died, in , Peter
S. Duponceau, who came to this coun-
try, from France, as aid to Baron Steu-
ben. He was one of the most learned
men of our country, especially in the
Indian languages and antiquities.

Rivers? Climate? Soil? Comforts and luxuries
of life? 20, Common Schools? 21. Appellation
of Pennsylvania? Internal Improvements? Tax-

es? Credit? 22. Distinguished men? Carey 1
Biddle? Duponceau ? :
PENNSYLVANIA. — PENN—QUAKERS— TREATY — CITY. »

CHAPTER XXX.
PENNSYLVANIA—Oontinvep.

1. I will now tell you the history of
Pennsylvania ; but f nus begin with
William Penn, for he was the chief in-
strument of its settlement. He was the
son of a British admiral, and lived in
London. He was educated as a lawyer,
put he joined the Quakers, then an ob-
seure and persecuted sect.

2. In 1681, King Charles granted to
him a large tract of land between New
Jersey and Maryland. This included
Pennsylvania and Delaware. In the fall
of the same year, a good many persons,
chiefly Quakers, to whom he had. sold
some of the land, set out in three ships,
and comely America. These people set-
tled.on Delaware river, near where
Philadelphia now stands.

3. These brought with them a letter
from Penn to the Indians. In this he
said to them, “that the great God had
been pleased to make him concerned in
their part of the world, and that the king
of the country where he lived had given
him a great province therein; but that
he did not desire to enjoy it without
their consent; that he was a man of
peace, and that the people whom he
sent were men of the same disposition ;
and if any difference should happen be-
tween them, it might be adjusted by an
equal number of men, chosen on both
sides.”

4. In the fall of 1682, Penn himself
came to the colony with two thousand
emigrants.’ While he was in the coun-



1, What of William Penn? 2. What took place
in 16817 What did the grant to Penn include?
What took place in the fall of 1681? Where and
when was the first settlement in Pennsylvania
made? 3.?What did Penn say in his letter to the



try, he met some of the Indiam chiefs,
and made a treaty with them. His mild



Penn making a Treaty with the Indians.

and gentle manners made a great im-
pression on the savages.

5. He walked with them, sat with
them on the ground, and ate with them
of their roasted acorns and hominy. At
this they expressed great delight, and
soon began to show how they could hop
and jump. Penn, it is said, then got u
and began to hop, too, and soon Swed
that he could beat them all. Whether
this is true or not, I cannot say; but it
is certain the Indians long remembered
him with feelings of love and venera-
tion. .

6. Penn also marked out the plan of
a great city, to which he gave the name
of Philadel hia ; by which is meant “the
city of brotherly love.” Before the end
of the year, this place contained eighty
buildings. In 1684, Penn returned to
England, leaving the province in a hap-
py and prosperous condition.

7. No part of America was settled
more rapidly than Pennsylvania. The
soil was fertile; the climate mild and

of Penn and the Indians? Describe the picture.
6. Whe: great city did’ Penn lay the foundation of ?

indians? 4. What took place in 16827? What | When did’Penn retura to Englond? 7. Why war
84

agreeable ; the deer, and other wild ani-
mals, were abundant. The government,
too, arranged by Penn, was just and lib-

eral, giving perfect freedom to every man
to worship God in his own way.

8. Thus at peace among themselves,
the Indians being made their friends by
justice and gentleness, the people of this
colony afforded a striking contrast to the
less fortunate settlements in the north
and east. Attracted by the favorable
circumstances I mee et cme
ous emigrants flocked to Pennsylvania ;
and in four years after Penn received
the grant, the province contained twenty
settlements, and the city of Philadelphia
two thousand inhabitants.

9. In 1699 Penn returned to the prov-
ince. He found some uneasiness among
the people. To remove this, he gave
them a new charter in 1701. This was
submitted to the assembly chosen by the
people, and accepted. But the inhabit-
ants in that a of the province which
now forms the State of Delaware, did
not like the charter, and refused to ac-
cept it, »

10. They were therefore separated
from Pennsylvania, and had a distinct
assembly, chosen by the people, who
made their laws. The same governor,
however, presided over Pennsylvania
and Delaware.

11. Penn soon returned to England,
and never visited America again. He
died in 1718, leaving behind him the
character of a truly pious and good man.
He was twice imprisoned in England,

Pennsy.vania very rapidly settled? 8@In what
respects did Pennsylvania differ from the northern
and eastern colonies? What was the condition of
the colony in four years after Penn received the
grant? 9, What did Penn do in 1699? What in
17012 What of the people of Delaware? 10.
What of the government of Delaware? 11. When
aid Penn return finally to England? When did he

THE FIRST BOOK OF HISTORY.— DELAWARE.

by the government, for his religious opin
ions; and his enemies accused him of
very wicked conduct. But he lived to
see every suspicion wiped away from
his reputation; and his life teaches us
that the world fails not to honor a man
of active kindness, piety, and truth.

12.. His colony continued to flourish,
and its increase in population was un-
exampled. The Indians, conciliated by
kindness, remained for seventy years at
peace with the inhabitants; and thus,
until the French war, nothing occurred
in Pennsylvania to interrupt her pros-
perity.

CHAPTER XXXI.
“STATE OF DELAWQBE.

1. This is the smallest state in the
Union, except Rhode Island; but it is
beautifully situated along the western
shore of Delaware Bay, and like every
other part of our country, affords inter-
esting topics of geography and history.
In our travels through it we shall o
serve some of the finest wheat-fields in
the world. ;

2. At Wilmington, on the Brandy-
wine, we shall see extensive manufac-
tories of paper, and some of the best
flour-mills in the country. We shall
notice a very useful canal, crossing the
northern part of the state, from Delaware
Bay to Chesapeake Bay. Ori€ portion



die? What of his life and character? 12, What
of his colony? Indians?

Questions on the Map. — Boundaries? What
bay east of Delaware? Number of counties ?
Their names? Capital? In what county is Do-
ver? Describe Wilmington, Newcastle. Where
is Cape Henlopen? Cape May? Extent of Del-
aware ? ‘jon ?

1. What of Delaware? Wheat-fields? 2. Wib
DELAWARE. —BREAKWATER — PATRIOTISM—DE KALB.

of this canal is called the Deep Cut,
where it passes, for a distance of four



The Deep Cut on the Canal.

miles, through a hill ninety feet high.
A bridgevof a single arch crosses it.

aT ilroads from Philadelphia to
Baltimore also pass through this state.
The first railroad, on a public route, in
the United States, was built here, from
Wilmington to Elkton. At Newark is
a flourishing college; and there are many
good schools and academies. This state
has furnished a number of able and elo-
quent men. We shall pass Dover, a
pleasait little town, which is the seat of
government ; and if we proceed to Lew-
istown, at the southern point of the state,
we shall see the people engaged in mak-
ing salt from sea-water.

4, At the mouth of Delaware Bay,
and nearyCape Henlopen, we shall ob-
serve an immense wall of stone in the
sea, called a breakwater. This was
built by the government of the United
States, to protect vessels which may be
at anchor in the bay, from the waves
that roll in from the ocean during storms,
and from the ice that comes floating down



_ mington? Canal? Deep Cut? Describe the pic-
ture. 3. Railroads? Dover? Lewistown? 4.
What of the breakwater at the mouth of Delaware



85
from the rivers in the spring. This

breakwater is near three quarters of a
mile in lenge and is truly a grand and
useful wor

. The stone for it was
brought from a great distance — some
of it from Boston, and some from other
laces.

5. In the Revolutionary War, the
people of this little state put forth their
whole strength for the cause of liberty.
The Delaware regiment was reckoned
the finest in the whole army. In the
famous battle of Camden, in South Car-
olina, 1780, these, with some Maryland
troops, were commanded by a French
officer, named De Kalb. This brave
man was wounded in eleven places, and
died on the field. He was so impressed
with the gallant conduct of his Delaware
and Maryland soldiers, that with his
dying breath he expressed his regard
for them.

6. But it is not my intention to tell
you of the Revolutionary War now. I
must take you back to a much earlier
date. More than two hundred years
ago, there lived in Sweden a famous
king, named Gustavus Adolphus. Un-
der his patronage, some Swedes and
Finns, or Finlanders, came to America,
and landed: at Cape Henlopen, in 1627.
It was a beautiful spot, covered with
green trees, beneath which the wild deer,
with their young fawns, were sporting.
The emigrants were so charmed with
the place, that they called it Paradise
Point.

7. They now proceeded further up the
bay, and had some intercourse with the



Bay? 5. What of Delaware in the Revolution ?
The Delaware regiment? Battle of Camden? De
Kalb? 6. What of Gustavus Adolphus? When
did the first settlers arrive in Delaware? Who
were they? What of Cape Henlopen? What did
the emigrants call it? 7. What of the Indians?
86

Indians. The latter treated them kind-
ly. and sold them land on both sides of

e water. The settlers now established
themselves near Wilmington, and called
the country New Sweden.

8. But the colony was not permitted
to enjoy its fine lands and delightful cli-
mate in peace. The Dutch claimed the
territory, and after annoying them in
various ways, finally built a fort at New
Castle. Aman by the name of Risingh
was then governor of the Swedish col-

ony.

9 One day he pro to the com-
mander of the Dutch fort, to pay him a
friendly visit. This was accepted, and
Risingh went, accompanied by thi
men. They were received with kind-
ness, and treated with great hospitality.
But, disregarding this, they treacherous-
ly took possession of the fort, and made
prisoners of the garrison.

10. The governor of New York at
this time was Peter Stuyvesant, whom
history describes as possessing a pretty
hot temper. Such a man was not likely
to permit the treachery of Risingh to go
unavenged. So he fitted out an arma-
ment, which went against the Swedes,
in several vessels, in the year 16565.

11. There was considerable fighting ;
but the Dutch were victorious, and hav-
ing taken the Swedish forts, they al-
lowed a few of the inhabitants to remain,
and sent the rest prisoners to Holland.
The settlement continued in the hands
of the Dutch till 1664, when. it came
into the possession of the English, with
the surrender of New York.

Where did the emigrants settle? What did they
_ call the country? 8, What of the Dutch? 9.
\ What did the Swedish governor do? 10. Who
was now governor of the colony of New York?
What was done in 1655? 11. What of the Dela-
ware colony from this time to 1664?/ What hap-
pened in 1664? 12. What in 1682? What of

THE FIRST BOOK OF HISTORY.—MARYLAND.

12. In 1682, the territory was pur:
chased by William Penn, and until
1703, formed a part of Pennsylvania.
At that time, it was partially separated,
having a distinct assembly chosen by the
people, though the same governor that
ruled over Pennsylvania ruled also over
Delaware. The colony remained in this
situation till 1775, when it became an
independent state.

CHAPTER XXXII.
STATE OF MARYLAND.

1. Maryland is divided, by Chesa-
_— Bay, into two parts, called the

astern and Western Shores. In travel-
ling through this state, we shall find that
the land on both sides of the bay is gen-
erally level, or moderately uneven. If
we proceed into the more western parts,
between the Potomac river and Pennsyl-
vania, we shall find hills, mountains, and
valleys.

2. There was, for many years, a dis-
pute about boundary, between the heirs
of William Penn, proprietor of what is
now the State of Pennsylvania, and the
heirs of Lord Baltimore, proprietor of
what is now the State of Maryland. In
1762, Mr. Charles Mason, of the Eng-
lish Royal Observatory, London, and
Mr. Jeremiah Dixon, were appointed to
run a line between the lands of the two

Delaware between 1682 and 1703? What cf Del-
aware after 1703? What took place in 1775 ?

Questions on the Map.— Boundaries? By what
bay is Maryland separated into two parts? What
counties in the eastern part? What in the west-
ern? Describe the Susquehanna, Potomac. Cap-
ital? In what county is Annapolis? Describe
Baltimore, Fredericktown, Cumberland.

1. Face of the country? 2. Mason aad Dixon's :
line? 3. Why so often mentioned? 4, What of
MARYLAND.-—SLAVERY—TOBACCO—SIGHTS IN BALTIMORE.

pee. This line was called Mason and
ixon’s line.

3. It so happens, that for several years
the slave states have been south of Ma-
son and Dixon’s line, and the states
free from slaves north of it. This has
made it to be often spoken of.

4. We shall not be long in Maryland
before we discover that there are a great
many negro slaves there. The negroes
do not generally choose their employ-
ments, like other people, but labor for
their owners as they direct.

5. In the states north of Maryland
slavery is not authorized by law. The
people there consider it a great evil, and
have taken care to abolish it. But in
Maryland, and the states south of it, the
jaws permit people to hold slaves. Many

rsons, even there, believe it wrong;
Pt it has been long practised. There
are many thousands of slaves in the
country, and it is therefore not easy to
devise any plan by which they can safe-
ly be set free.

6. We shall observe many fine wheat-
fields in Maryland, and many planta-
tions of tobacco. This plant is cultivated
in rows, like Indian corn, and it has
broad leaves, like a mullein. We shall
notice that almost all the labor in the
fields is performed by the negroes.

7. You will be delighted with Balti-
more. It is as large as Boston, and has
many interesting objects in it. ‘There
are public water-works, and two flour-
ishing medical colleges; one literary
college, and the Maryland University ;
also the fine building of the Exchange.
There is a tall monument, with a statue
of Washington on the top, that you can-
not fail to admire.

Se emerging
negro slaves? 5. What of Maryland and the states
south of it? 6, Wheat-fields.in Maryland? To-
bacco? Who cultivate the land in Maryland? 7.
What of Baltimore? Water-works? Colleges?

87

8. The Roman Catholie cathedral is
one of the finest churches in America.
When you go into it, you must be par-
ticular to take off your oe for the Cath-
olics reverence their churches very much,
and expect others who enter them to do
so too. You will see several beautiful
pictures in this church.

9. After seeing the rest of the city,
you should go to Howard-street, where

ou will notice a great many wagons,
oaded with flour. Baltimore is the

eatest flour-market in the world.

housands and thousands of bartels are
brought here every year from various
arts of Maryland, and from Delaware,
ennsylvania, and Virginia. It is then
sent in ships to New York, Boston,
Charleston, and various foreign coun-
tries.

10. I must tell you that there is a
great trade between Baltimore and the
states west of the Alleghany Mountains.
The western people buy a great many
goods at Baltimore, and send in return
a great deal of western produce. There
is, therefore, a vast deal of travelling
back and forth, and hundreds of cars



i ®
8. Catholic cathedral? 9. Howard-street? What
of Baltimore asa flour-market? 10. Western trade
of Baltimore? Cars? Describe the picture. 11.
are constantly occupied in transporting
goods and produce to and from market.

1]. It was in order to carry on all
this business more easily, that the peo-
ple very early built-what we call'a rail-
road. Its iron bars laid evenly along the

ound, by cutting down or oocak the

ills, and filling up the valleys and bridg-
ing the streams, allow the carriages,
with their small wheels, to run upon
them with wonderful facility. In this
way, you know, one horse would draw
as much as ten or a dozen horses, on a
common road. And if we mounta car,
we can be drawn by a locomotive from
twenty to sixty miles, or more, an hour.

12. In 1844, Nicholas, czar, or em-
peror, of the mighty empire of Russia,
in Europe and Asia, wished to build a
railroad, four hundred miles long, from
thecity of St. Petersburg to Moscow. He
sent to different countries, to have per-
sons try who could make the best steam
engines, locomotives, as they are called,
for his railroad.

13. The English and others tried, but
the engine of Mr. Winans, of Baltimore,
Maryland, was found to be the best.
The czar therefore requested him to
make one hundred and sixty-two loco-
motive steam engines, and five thousand
burthen cars to carry merchandise in ;
and three great, steam, pile or post-driv-
ing machines. All these will cost four
millions of dollars, and are to be made
in Russia, whither the Americans take
their workmen.

14. This is very honorable in the his-
tory of the arts in America; that our me-
chanics should make the best locomo-
tives, and that they should come over
from Europe to us for them. Besides

Whar .8 .he object of the railroads building from
Baltimore? Saving of time and strength? 12,
43. Nicholas? American engines in Russia?

THE FIRST BOOK OF HISTORY.—MARYLAND.

that, the emperor ‘sent here for Major
Whistler, an American engineer, to
come to Russia, to be chief engineer of
that mighty road, and make it.

15. Beside Baltimore, there are sev-
eral pleasant towns in Maryland. An-
mainte the seat of governinent, has a
handsome state-house, and Frederick-
town is a pleasant place. At Annapo-
lis is established a Naval School of the
United States, where young men are
educated to be officers in the navy.

16. The climate of Maryland is very
agreeable. The winter is never severe,
and often, when the rivers and lakes of
New England are frozen over, the creeks
and inlets along Chesapeake Bay are
covered with flocks of wild water-fowl.

17. Maryland is still increasing, and
now getting much business from the
Cumberland coal, which is brought by
railroad. from the mines in Virginia, and
from the facility and nearness of com-
munication she offers between the states
on both sides of the Alleghanies.

18. It was from Washington, D. C., to
Baltimore, Md., that its inventor, Pro-
fessor Morse, of New York, first set up,
by wires led on top of upright poles
x Be the line of the railroad, his mag-
netic telegraph, which, moving little
points by the electricity of a magnet,
writes what is said at one end plainly
down at the other, distant thirty-six.
miles, in two seconds. ‘This is now the
way of telling news between large cities; ,
it can be made perfectly secret.

19. In 1848, it extended south a
south-west to Petersburg and New Or-
leans; north to Montreal, Canada; and
west to St. Louis, Missouri, connecting

14° American engineers in Russia? 15. Annapo-
lis? U.S, Nayal School? Fredericktown? 16,
Climate of M.? 17. Coal? 18, Magnetic tele.
graph th Describe it, 19. Its extent in 1848? 20,
MARYLAND.—TELEGRAPH—BURNING OF THE CAPITOL, ETC. 89

ish went to attack Baltimore.
entered the mouth of the Pataysco wi

a fleet of sixty ships, and on the day
above mentioned, six thousand troops
were landed at North Point.

4. Now the people of Baltimore were
not in the humor for having their city
taken by the British soldiers; so there
was a great bustle in the streets. Men
were seen running to and fro,'with mus-
kets in their hands, and countenances
full of resolution. The merchants left
their counting-rooms ; the lawyers, their
offices ; the mechanics, their various em-
ployments; the drums beat; the fifes
screamed; and, assembled under the
command of their leaders, the bravest
and best men in the city went down to
meet the enemy. .

5. They met, and there was hard
fighting. The cannon bellowed, and
the musketry rent the air with a contin-
uefl roar. Many brave men fell on both
sides. But the Americans, being few
in number, were obliged to retreat.
General Ross, the British leader, was
killed; and finding, by the experiment
they had made, that the people of Balti-
more were inclined to treat them too
roughly, the British went away, ships,
sailors, soldiers, and all.

6. In one of the public squares of Bal-
timore, they have erected a beautiful
marble monument, to commemorate this
event, with the names of those who
were killed in this battle. Such are the
brave deeds which have recently taken
place in Maryland. Let us now con-
template the period when the white peo-
ple first settled upon these shores.

7, More than two hundred years ago,

all these points together, and centring
them in Washington. There are also
local branches between cities and towns.

20. This brings within a few minutes’
intellectual reach of each other, the peo-
ple upon four great rivers of North
America,—the Mississippi, the Ohio,
the Hudson, and the St. Lawrence.

21. In 1847, the whole of our presi-
dent’s annual message to Congress, which
contained eighteen thousand words, was
transmitted thus, from Washington to
St. Louis, Missouri, seventeen hundred
and fifty miles, in twelve hours.
























—

CHAPTER XXXIIl.
MARYLAND—Continvep.

1, Baltimore is situated on the river
Patapsco, which enters Chesapeake Bay,
about fourteen miles from the city. On
the northern side of this river is a piece
of land running into the bay, called
North Point. a should visit this
spot, for a famous battle was fought
there on the 12th of September, 1814.
At that time, our country was at war
with England. A great many English
soldiers and ships were sent over to fight
with our people.

2. On the 23d of August, they made
an attack on the city of Washington,
and as there were few American troops
there, they burnt the capitol, and several
other public buildings, and the presi-
dent’s house. The president himself
was obliged to ride very fast, to keep
out of their way.

3. After they had done this, the Brit-



What great rivers are put in communication by it?
21. What was done by it in 1847?

1. What of Baltimore? The Patapsco? North
Point? 2. What took place on the 23d of August,
18142 3, What took place at North Point on the



12th of September? 4. What took place in Balti-
more before the battle? 6. What took place when —
the British and Americans met? What followed?
6. Monument? 7. What of the Catholies two’
90

the Catholics in England were perse-
cuted as the Puritans had been before.
One of them, Lord Baltimore, deter-
mined therefore to come to America.
Accordingly he went to Virginia, which
had now been settled some time. But
he found the people there as little dis-
os to treat the Catholics kindly as in

ngland. So he went back to Eng-
land, and begged the king to give him
a charter of the land lying on Chesa-

ake Bay, then occupied only by the
ndians.

8, This request was granted ; but be-
fore the business was completed, he died.
His son, Cecil, also called Lord Balti-
more, determined to carry into effect the
plans of his father. So he obtained the
grant for himself, and in 1634 sent his
brother, Leonard Calvert, with two hun-
dred Catholic emigrants, to settle upon
the land on the Cliesapeake.

9. When they arrived at the mouth
of the Potomac river, they found an In-
dian village there, called Yoamaco.
This village they purchased of the sav-
ages, and thus obtained good shelter, till
they could build beiter houses. The
also acquired some good land, erhich
had been ‘cultivated. Their situation
was thérefore very comfortable.

10. The colonists found plenty of
wild deer in the woods, and abundance
of fish along the shores of the bay. The
sea-fowl were also numerous. There
were countless flocks of ducks, skim-
ming along the water, and settling down
around the islands; and there were
numbers of wild geese at the mouths of
the creeks and rivers.



hundred years ago? What of Lord Baltimore?
Virginia? 8. What of Cecil, Lord Baltimore?
Leonard Calvert? 9, What did the emigrants do
on arriving at the mouth of the Potomac? 10.
What did the colonists find? Wild fowl? 11.

THE FIRST BOOK OF HISTORY.—MARYLAND.

11. The colony flourished, as well
on account of its pleasant situation, as
the liberal policy of its government.
These Catholics did not persecute those
who differed with them in religious
opinion. Lord Baltimore, and Roger

illiams, of Rhode Island, seem to
have discovered, about the same time,
that every man has a right to worship
God as he pleases. Thus Rhode Island
and Maryland, at this early date, en-
joyed the blessings of entire religious
freedom.

12. Yet the colony, whose story I am
now telling you, had its share of trou-
bles. A man by the name of Clayborne
stirred up the Indians to hostility, and
they sal war on the settlers. This
continued for several years, and the peo-
ple suffered great distress. In 1646, the
same Clayborne induced some of the set-
tlers to rebel against their rulers, and
Calvert, the governor, was obliged to fly
to Virginia. But the next year, the re-
volt was suppressed. Governor Calvert
returned, and the colony once more en-
joyed a state of peace.

13. In 1666, the colony contained
about twelve thousand inhabitants. In
1676, Lord Baltimore, the founder of
the colony, died, leaving behind him the
enviable character of a wise and good
man. He was succeeded by his son
Charles, as proprietor of the colony, and
he displayed the same amiable qualities
as his father had done.

* 14, In 1689, King William assumed
the government of the colony; but in



Did the colony of M. flourish? Why? Lord
Baltimore and Roger Williams? Maryland and
Rhode Island? 12. What of the Indians? What
took place in 1645? 13. How many inhabitants
in M. in 1666? What in 1676? Character of
Lord B.? What of Charles, Lord Baltimore?
14, What took place in 16897 What in 17167
MAR YLAND.—CARROL’S TESTIMONY.—MIDDLE STATES.

1716, it was restored to Lord Baltimore,
and continued in the family till 1775.
The people then engaged with the other
colonies in the revolution, and Lotd
Baltimore’s claims ceased.

15. Before we leave Maryland, I
wish to tell you, in order to encourage
you to love your country, a story about
a good and great patriot, who lived near
Baltimore, and died in 1832, in his 96th

ar.
m6. In the year 1826, all but one of
the persons who were sent to Phila-
delphia from the different states in
1776, and signed the Declaration of our
Independence, of which you read in the
chapters on the Revolution,—had died ;
—of them the venerable Charles Carrol,
of Carrolton, in Maryland, alone re-
mained among the living.

17. The government of the city of
New York, therefore, appointed a com-
mittee to wait on him, and obtain from
him, to deposite in their City Hall, a
copy of that Declaration, signed again
by him. The aged patriot yielded to
the request, and affixed, with his own
hand, to a copy of that instrument, the
grateful, solemn, and pious words which
follow :

18. “Grateful to Almighty God, for
the blessings which, through Jesus
Christ our Lord, he has conferred on
my beloved country, in her emancipa-
tion, and on myself, in permitting me,
under circumstances of mercy, to live to
the age of 89 years, and to survive the
fiftieth year of American Independence,
and certify, by my present signature, my
approbation gf the Declaration of Inde-
pendence, adopted by Congress on the
4th of July, 1776, which I originally
subscribed on the 2d day of August of

——— eS

What in 17757 15—18, Tell what is said of
Charles Carrol.







91

the same year, and of which I am now
the last surviving signer, — I do hereby
recommend, to the present and future
generations, the principles of that im-
portant document, as the best earthly
inheritance their ancestors could be-
queath to them, and pray that the civil
and religious liberties they have secured
to my country, may be perpetuated to
remotest posterity and extended to the
whole family of man. ’
“ CHartes Carrot, of Carrolton.
“ Aug. 2, 1826.”

CHAPTER XXXIV.
MIDDLE STATES.

1. I have now given you a brief
sketch of the geography and history of
the five Middle States. These are
classed together merely on account of
their sityation, and not because of any
similarity either in the history or the
manners of the people. They were
settled at different times, by people from
different countries, who came for differ-
ent purposes ;—some for trade ; some
to improve their fortunes; and some for
religious peace.

2, There is no such resemblance be-
tween the people of these five states,
their manners, customs, and opinions,
as between the people of New England.
On the contrary, we shall find great
variety among the inhabitants, their
tow arndae bese eae aienenat aac

Map of the Middle Statee.— Boundaries of
each of the five Middle States? Distance and di-
rection of the several capitals of the Middle States
from the. city of New York? What three great
cities in the Middle States? What three great
rivers? Describe them, Extent of the Middle
States? Population?

1. What of the Middle States? Settlement of
the Middle States? When and by whom was
each of the Middle States settled? 2. What of
92

houses, dress, manner of tilling the
land, thoughts, feelings, and opinions,
in different parts of this section of the
Union.

3. If you will look at the map, you
will observe, that the two largest cities,
and three of the finest rivers, in the
Union, are in these states. New York
is the largest city on the American con-
tinent, and the Hudson is one of the
noblest navigable rivers in the world.

4. In point of soil and climate, these
states doubtless surpass all the others
situated upon the Atlantic. They are
generally very fertile, producing grain
and fruit in the greatest perfection and
abundance. They are equally removed
from the severe winters of the north,
and the burning summers of the south.

5. Thus happily placed in the heart
of the country, they are growing in

pulation and wealth. Previous to the

rench war, which has been before men-
tioned, these states never acted in con-
cert. They were then separate colonies,
with .separate interests. They have
therefore no common histéry until the
year 1756, when they united with the
other colonies, to resist the French and
Indians. The history of that war will
be given hereafter.

CHAPTER XXXV.
STATE OF VIRGINIA.

1. We have now reached Virginia,
the oldest and largest state in the Union.





the people of the Middle States? Houses, dress,
&.? 3. What of New York? The Hudson? 4,
Soil of the Middle States? Climate? 5. Growth
of the Middle States previous to the French war?

Questions on the Map of the Southern States.
— Boundaries of Virginia? Describe the Rappa-
hannock, James, York. What mountains in Vir-

THE FIRST BOOK OF HISTORY.—VIRGINIA.

We shall not find as good roads, nor aa
stages, here, as in the Middle and
astern States, nor shall we meet with
so many handsome houses, nor shall
we, at the distance of every few miles,
come to a pleasant little village.

2. We shall remark that the houses
are scattered, and that the land, instead
of being divided into small farms, is laid
out in extensive plantations of several
hundred acres each. Instead of mead-
ows, apple orchards, and small patches
of rye, Indian corn, and flax, we shall
see vast plains covered with crops of
tobacco, wheat, and hemp. _ We shall
see, that the whole labor of the field
is performed, on these plantations, by
the negroes. The planters themselves
have large houses, and live in excellent
style.

3. In travelling through the country,
we shall not meet with many taverns ;
it may therefore be convenient to stop
for a night at a planter’s house. We
may be sure of a hearty welcome, and
the liberal host will take nothing in pay-
ment. Ifit is autumn, he will probably
invite us to go the next day in chase of
deer. There are a great many of these
animals still in Virginia, and the plant-
ers hunt them on horseback, with packs
of hounds. We must take care that our
travels do not take place in the summer,
for then it is.very hot in eastern Vir-
ginia. We had better go in the winter,
and thus, while New England is buried
up in snow-drifts, we may travel at our
ease in the Southern States.



ginia? How does the Blue Ridge cross the state?
How does the Alleghany range cross the state?
Capital? Describe Norfolk, Petersburg, James-
town,

1, What of Virginia? 2. Houses and lands in
Virginia? 3. Labor? Planters? What if we
stop over night ata planter’s house? What of
VIRGIN A.—CURIOSITIES—RAILROADS—SALT-WELLS.

4, Virginia may be divided into three
parts. That which lies toward the sea-
coast is level and sandy; that which lies
east of the Blue Ridge is hilly, and that
which lies west of it is mountainous. In
the western part of the state, there are
fewer negroes, and the white people
labor on the farms.

5. There are several remarkable cu-
riosities in this state. One is a Natural
Bridge, composed of rocks; it is two
hundred and fifty feet high, and a little
river flows beneath it at the bottom.
Wier’s Cave is an astonishing work of
nature. ' It consists of several spacious
caverns in the rocks, more than two
thousand feet in length. The sides are
covered over with beautiful crystals. If
you enter the cave with a light, it is re-
flected by these crystals, and you will
be astonished at the wonderful brilliancy
of the scene.

6. There are several other caves in
Virginia, one of which is called the
Blowing Cave. From this, a stream of
air issues so powerful as to blow down
the grass ead weeds, to the distance of
sixty feet from the mouth.

7. In the western part of the state,
near the Ohio, is a remarkable mound
of earth, filled with human bones. It
‘is seventy feet high, and three hundred
feet across at the bottom. This won-
derful hill must have been built long
before the white people came to Amer-
ica. It is probable, indeed, that it was
constructed many ages since, ever be-
fore the race of savages we are ac-
quainted with occupied the country, It
was, no doubt, the work of a people who
lived, flourished, and passed away, leav-



deer? 4. How may Virginia be divided? De-
scribe these three divisions. What of the western
part of the state? 5, Natural Bridge? Wier’s
Cave? 6. Blowing Cave? 7. Mound of earth?







ing no record behind them, but these
mounds, to tell that they ever existed.

8. Richmond, the seat of government

in Virginia, is a handsome place, and the
largest town in the state. Norfolk has
a great deal of trade. Lynchburg, on
James river, has some manufactares,
and deals extensively in the produce of
the country. Great quantities of flour,
hemp, and tobacco, the staples of Vir-

inia, are sent down James river to
ichmond, from this place, by a, canal,

called James River and Kenawha Canal.

9. There is also a railroad from Har-

per’s Ferry to Winchester, in the valley
of Virginia, as it is called, and as fine
a macadamized road from Winchester
to Staunton, and through as beautiful a
mee as lever saw. A railroad runs

from Petersburg to Weldon, in North
Carolina; whence one goes to Norfolk,
where is the U. S. Navy Yard, or. Chesa-

ake Bay. Another railroad goes from
Richmond to Potomac river, and another
towards the mountains in Louisa County.

10. At Saltville, in Smythe County,
are salt-wells, whence they draw water
to boil and make salt. And in the next
county, Wythe, we can see rich mines
of lead, in which silver is found also.
There is coal among the Alleghany
Mountains, as well as near Richmond ;
these latter mines will be very interest-
ing to visit, black as they are. Marble
and gold are found in Virginia, and
plenty of figs grow in Accomac County.

11. On the banks of the Kenawha,
you must not forget to see, if you travel
there, a very curious natural fire. They
have dug there, near Charleston, nu-
merous salt-wells, for — salt.
From one of these issues up, through

ee
g. Richmond? Norfolk? Lynchburg? Flour
hemp, and tobacco? 9, Railroads, &.? 10. Salt
wells? Lead mines?. Minerals? Figs? 11.
the water, constantly, a great quantity
of gas, which burns very freely in the
air. This gas they lead under the ket-
tles, and light it and boil with it. Thus
the same well furnishes salt water, and
fuel to make salt from it.

12, Virginia is looking forward now
to increased prosperity. Her mountain-
ous counties, aanle have much im-

roved. A number of persons from
Western N. York and Pennsylvania are

urchasing lands and water-power in

irginia, and they, moving there with
their enterprise and industry, will doubt-
less develop the resources of this, one of
the best located countries on the globe.
Thousands annually visit, for health and
recreation, the Virginia sulphur and
other mineral springs, in the central
mountainous counties.

13. If we had time, we could find
here a great deal to amuse us. In Rus-
sell County, the south-west part of the
state, on Stock Creek, near Clinch river,
I have seen another natural bridge,
more vast than the one I told you of be-
fore; and in Lee County, adjoining, is
one with three perfect arches, which
persons ‘have dammed up, and in the
centre one of which they have erected
a grist-mill. Roads go over both of
them. In Hampden County, the north-
west part of the state, is the Ice Moun-
tain, over the surface of which, in the
hottest days of summer, you can find ice,
by turning up stones, or looking into any
caverns of the rock.

14. In 1836, died here, John Mar-
shall, the able chief justice of the United
States, and in 1837, James Madison
died, ex-president of our Union.



Kenawha salt wells? N 2 12. Settlers?
Springs? ,13. Natural 9 Ice Mountain?
14. Distinguished men?

\

THE FIRST BOOK OF HISTORY.—VIRGINIA.

CHAPTER XXXVI.
VIRGINIA—Continvgp.

1. Before we leave Virginia, we must
visit Monticello, the seat of the late
Thomas Jefferson. He was once presi-
dent of the United States, as I shall
have occasion by and by to tell you.
He died on the 4th of July, 1826.

2. There is another place in this state,
that we must not fail to visit. This is
a pleasant hill, called Mount Vernon.
Here General Washington lived, and at
a little distance from the house where
he dwelt, is a tomb, in which his body
reposes. I shall have many things to
te Pha of this great and good man. He
died in the year 1799. I recollect when
the event eerie though I was then
achild. Such was the sorrow of the
people when the sad news came, that
the bells were tolled, and everybody
went into mourning.

3. In the south-eastern part of the
state is a place called Jamestown. It
is ona little island in James river, about
thirty miles from its mouth. The place
is now in ruins, but if you visit it, you
will desire to know its history.. An an-
cient churchyard, the crumbling chim-
ney of a church, a few traces of old
houses, and rude fortifications, will make
you feel that there is an interesting story
connected with them.

4. The story is indeed interesting,
and I will now tell you a part of it; I
am sorry that I have not room for the
whole. I must commence at a period
when as yet no white people dwelt in
America. This vast country, now occu-
pied by twenty millions of inhabitants,



1. Monticello? Thomas Jefferson? 2. Mount
Vernon? Washington? 3. Jamestown? 4. Th
VIRGINIA. —ADVENTURERS— RUINS—SUFFERINGS—STORY.

was then a wide hunting-ground for the
Indians. They alone dwelt in its val-
leys, roamed over its hills and moun-
tains, and sailed upon its rivers and

ys.

5. The Spaniards had penetrated into
South America, and found countries
abounding in silver and gold. Stories
of their success were circulated through-
out Europe, and the spirit of adventure
entered into many minds. In England
a company was formed for making a
settlement in North America; and, hav-
ing obtained a grant of land, they de-
spatched three ships, with one hundred
and five adventures, for the new world.

6. After sailing across the Atlantic, a
storm drove them into the mouth of
Chesapeake Bay. On approaching the
land, they discovered a large and beau-
tiful river, which they determined to
ascend. They had several interviews
with the Indians, who received them



Q with Indians ‘on James River.

kindly. One day, as some of them
were ashore, an Traian chief came to
them, with a bow and arrow in one
hand, and a pipe in the other, and asked
them for what purpose they came.

comet EE his kietiatinareampsnniansperneepieenetie

past and present? 65. The Spaniards? A com-
pany in England? 6. What of the one hundred

7. They replied, by signs, that they
wished to settle on the lands in peace,
and so the chief received them well.
Another chief offered them as much
land as they desired, and sent them a
deer, as a mark of good will.

8. On the 18th of May, 1607, the
emigrants landed, and began their es-
tablishment. It was on an island in the
river. The river they called James
river, and the village they called James-
town. This was the first permanent
English settlement in North America;
and the ruins I have described are the
remains of the ancient town which these
people built.

9. The colonists soon began to expe-
rience difficulties which they had not
foreseen. The provisions they brought
with them were at length exhausted ;
and, having planted nothing, they were
in great want of food. Beside this, the
climate being hot and damp, many of
them were ies sick, and in the course
of four months, fifty of them died.

10. They were now in great distress,
and hardly knew what to do. In this
emergency, they consulted one of their
number, named John Smith. He was
certainly one of the most extraordinary
men that ever lived. At the age of
fifteen, he left England, and travelled
on foot through Spain, France, and Ger-
many.

11. Here he entered the army of the
emperor of Austria, and at length ob-
tained the command of a troop of horse.
One day he challenged a Turk to fight
with him: this was accepted, and,



and five persons who set out for America? De-
scribe the picture. 7. The Indians? 8, What
took place on the 13th May, 1607? James river?
Jamestown? What was the first it Eng
lish settlement in North America? 9, What of
the colonists? 10. John Smith? Describe his
96 THE FIRST BOOK OF HISTORY.—VIRGINIA.



























mounted on fine horses, the two combat-
ants met in the field. After a desperate
struggle, Smith killed the Turk. Not
satisfied with this, he challenged anoth-
er, and finally a third, and killed these,
as he had done the first.

12. After this, he was in a battle with
the Turks, and, being wounded, was
taken by the latter, and sent prisoner to
Constantinople. Here he was made a
slave, and was treated cruelly by his
master; but his mistress took compas-
sion on him, and sent him to her broth-
er, who lived at a great distance, re-

uesting that he might be treated kindly.

ut her directions were not followed,
and Smith received the same harsh
treatment as before.

13. Irritated by this, he slew his new
master. He then travelled in various
countries, meeting with strange adven-
tures wherever he went. He finally re-
turned to England, and joined the expe-
dition to Virginia. While they were at
sea, the emigrants became jealous of him,
and put him in confinement. In this
condition he remained, until the distress
_ of the colony rendered his assistance
necessary.

14. They then granted him a trial ;
and being acquitted, he immediately
adopted measures for remedying the
existing evils. He set about building
a fort, to protect the people from the In-
dians, and made long journeys into the
wilderness, to procure corn, and other
food, of the natives.

15. On one occasion, he obtained an
idol, made of skins, and stuffed with
moss. This the savages reverenced
very much; and in order to get it back,
they gave him as much corn as he asked
for. '

i il ha ci apatites
adventures. 13. What did the emigrants do with
Smith? 14, What did Smith do? 16. Why did

16. Nothing could exceed the bold-
ness and enterprise of this singular man,
yet it must be confessed that his conduct
was not always regulated by justice or
truth. In his intercourse with the sav-
ages, he resorted to stratagem or vio-
lence, if he could not succeed in his
plans by other means. _It was partly on
this account that the Indians began to
hate the white people ; and Smith him-
self nearly fell a victim to the feelings
of revenge he had excited.

17. He went one day to explore the
little river Chickahominy. Having as-
cended as far as he could in a boat, he
left it in charge of his men, and proceed-
ed along the bank of the river, with two
white men and two Indian guides. But
ng long after he was gone, the savages,
who were lurking in the woods, sur-
rounded the mén in the boat, and took
them prisoners.

18. They then pursued Smith, and
soon coming up with him, killed his
white companions with their arrows,
and ‘eae himself. But with an
undaunted spirit, he fired upon his ene-
mies, and tying one of the Indian guides
to his side, he continued to retreat tow-
ard the boat. Awed by his bravery, the
savages kept aloof; but at length he
came to a place where he sank in the
mire.

19. Being unable to extricate himself,
his enemies now seized him, and took
him in triumph to Powhatan, their king.
A council was now held, to determine
what should be done with the prisoner,
and it was decided that he should die.
He was accordingly brought forth, and
being laid on the ground, his head was
placed upon a stone.

Spt at alee
the Indians hate the white people? 17—21. Tel)

the adventures of Smith, as he went to explore the
river Chickahominy. °
VIRGINIA.—SMITH RESCUED—STATE OF THE COLONY.

20, Powhatan claimed the honor of
killing him. He took a Jarge club, and
oe it high in the air, was about to
give the fatal blow, when his daughter,
moved by pity, rushed to the prisoner,
and sheltered his body by herown. The
astonished chief brought his club slowly
to the ground, and a murmur of surprise
burst from the lips of the savages who
stood around.



Pocahontas saving Smith.

21. The chief now raised his daugh-
ter, and Seeming to be touched by that
pity which had affected her so much,
gave Smith his liberty, and sent him
back to Jamestown.



CHAPTER XXXVII.
VIRGINIA—Conrinvep.

1. On his arrival at Jamestown, Smith
found the number of settlers reduced to
thirty-eight. They were so disheart-
ened, that most of them had determined
to abandon the settlement, and go back
to England. Smith remonstrated, but
they would not stop. They entered a
small vessel, and prepared to sail down
the river. He determined that they
should not go; so he pointed the guns



1. What of Smith and settlers on his return?





97

of the fort at the vessel, and threatened
to sink her, if they did not return.
Alarmed at this, they gave up their
project, and came ashore.

. 2. The colony was.now almost in a
starving condition; but Smith, by this
time, had acquired such a reputation for
courage among the Indians, that they
did not dare to refuse supplies. Poca-
hontas, too, the beautiful Indian girl
who had saved his life, continued to be
his friend, and sent him such articles
as were most needed. Thus the colony
was able to subsist till Captain Newport,
who brought out the first settlers, re-
turned to the colony, bringing with him
a quantity of provisions, and one hun-
dred and twenty persons.

3. Now that the danger was over, the
colonists would no longer submit to the
government of Smith. Disorder and
confusion among the people soon fol-
lowed. About the same time, the pas-
sion for gold, which had induced many
of the settlers to come to the country,
was again excited. Some particles of
yellow shining earth were found in the
bank of a little stream, north of James-
town. Captivated with the idea of get-
ting suddenly rich, the colonists left their
proper employments, and went to dig
what they supposed to be gold.

4. Smith endeavored to dissuade .

‘them, but they would not listen: to him.

Nothing was thought of, or talked of,
but gold. So they all went to filling
the ship with the earth, which they sup-
posed to contain particles of that precious
metal. At length she was loaded, and
sailed for England. When she arrived
there, the cargo was examined, and found
to be nothing but common mud, filled
with little pieces of shining stone.

2. State of the colony? Pocahontas? 3, What of
Smith and the colonists? 4. Gold? 5. What
98 THE FIRST BOOK OF

5. There is alesson to be drawn from
this point of history. “All is not gold
that glitters,” says the proverb; and so
the Virginians found it. I hope my
readers, ff thefdre ever tempted by an
shining prospect to depart from the path
of duty, will recollect that what seems
to be gold often proves to be only vulgar
dust. -

6. Smith, finding that he could not
be useful, left the colonists digging for
gold, and went himself to explore the
coasts of the Chesapeake Bay. Having
been absent some time, he returned, and
after a while went again to traverse the
wilderness. He often met with Indians,
and traded with some, fought with some,
and again went back to the settlement,
leaving with the natives an awful im-
pression of his valor.

7. He was now chosen president, and
the people submitting to his authority,
order was soon restored. Habits of in-
dustry were resumed, and peace and
plenty soon smiled upon the colony.

8. In 1609, the London company sent
out nine ships, with nine hundred emi-
grants to the colony. On board of one
of these vessels there were some officers
appointed to rule over them. This, un-
happily, was driven by a storm upon the
Bermudas, and detained for a long time.
- The other vessels arrived safely ; but the
persons who came in them were of a vi-
cious character, and refused to permit
Smith to govern them. He determined,
however, that he would be obeyed, and
accordingly he seized upon several of
them, and put them in prison. This
alarmed the rest, and order was again
restored



Jesson is to be drawn from the conduct of the Vir-
ginians? 6. What did Smith do? 7. To what
pffice was Smith chosen on his second return?
What followed? 8. What happened in 16097





HISTORY.— VIRGINIA.

9. It was about this time that she
Indians, fearing that the white pe ple
would become too powerful, determined
to make a sudden attack upon them, and
kill them all. Pocahontas heard of this
scheme, and resolved, if possible, to save
the English. Accordingly, one dark and
stormy night, she left her father’s wig-
wam, and went alone, through the for-
ests, to Jamestown. Here she found
Smith, and apprized him of the threat-
ened danger. She then returned, and
Smith took immediate measures to put

‘the colony in a state of defence.

10. The Indians, finding the people

watchful and prepared, gave up their
project.
save the life of
lives of all the white people in the col-

Thus again did Pocahontas

mith, as well as the

ony.

ii. About this time, Smith received
a dangerous wound, which obliged him
to go to England, to consult a surgeon.
The Indians, finding the only man they
feared was gone, attacked the colony,

and, cutting off their supplies, reduced

them to the greatest extremity.
12. Such, in a short time, was their
miserable condition, that they devoured

the skins of their horses, the bodies of
the Indians they had killed, and the flesh

of their dead companions. In six months,
their number was reduced, from more
than five hundred, to sixty.

13. At this point of time, the persons
who had been wrecked at Bermuda ar-
rived; but they, with the other settlers,
all agreed that it was best to quit the

What of one vessel? Who were on board this
vessel? Character of the new emigrants? What
did they do? What did Smith do? 9, 10. What
plan was formed by the Indians about this time ?
What did Pocahontas do? 11. What of Smith?
The Indians? 12. Condition of the colony? How
was the number of the colonists reduced? 13.
What of the persons who had been wrecked at
*

‘

VIRGINIA,—THE COLONY PROSPERS—A MARRIAGE—a PLOT. 99

settlement, and return to England. Ac-
cordingly they sailed down the river for’
that purpose. Fortunately, they were
met by Lord Delaware, who had come
in a vessel from England, loaded with
provisions. This revived their courage,
and they went back to Jamestown.

CHAPTER XXXVIII.
VIRGINIA—Continvep.

1, The colony now began to enjoy
more favorable prospects. Lord Dela-
ware, who was governor, restored order
and contentment by his mild and gentle
conduct, and the Indians were once
more taught to respect and fear the
English. In 1611 new settlers arrived,
and other towns were founded; and un-
der a succession of wise governors, Vir-
ginia became a flourishing and extensive

colony.

2. Th 1612, Captain Argal went on a
trading voyage up the Potomac, and
heard that Pocahontas was in the neigh-
borhood. He invited her to come on
board his vessel, and she came. He
then detained her, and carried her to
Jamestown. He knew that Powhatan
loved his daughter, and thought, while
she was in the possession of the Eng-
lish, that he would be afraid to do them
mischief.

3. But the noble-hearted chief, indig-
nant at the treachery that had been prac-
tised, refused to listen to any terms of
peace, till his daughter was restored. ©

4, While Pocahontas was at James-
cost Accent tehilichpnintinciinalcicentnctnttigaitiniaaieatamasetiartbiarimmnstiiy

Bermuda? What did the colonists do? What
of Lord Delaware? What did the emigrants do?

1. Condition of the colony under Lord Dela-
ware? What happened in 1611? What of Vir-
ginia after this? 2, Captain Argal and Pocahon-
tas? 3, Powhatan? 4, Mr. Rolfe and Pocahon-

town, a respectable young Englishman,
named Rolfe, sesidiin very fort ot her.
She was, indeed, a very interesting wo-
man; simple, innocent, and beautiful.
Pocahontas soon became attached to
Rolfe, and with the consent of Powhat-
an, they were married. This was fol-
mo by peace between the colony and
all the tribes subjectto Powhatan. Soon
after, Rolfe visited England with his
bride. She was received by the king
and queen with the respect due to her
virtues as a woman, and her rank as a
princess. When she was about to re-
turn to America, she died, leaving one
child, from whom some of the most re-
spectable families in Virginia have de-
scended.

5. New settlers now frequently ar-
rived, and the colony rapidly increased.
In 1619, a Dutch vessel came to James-
town, bringing twenty Africans, who
were purchased by the people. These
were the first slaves brought into our
country, and thus the foundation was
primarily laid for that system of slavery
which now pervades the Roadie States.

6. In 1622, in the midst of apparent
peace and prosperity, the colony was on
the point of annihilation. Powhatan, the
friend of the English, was dead. His
successor, Opecancanough, was a chief
of great talent ; but he secretly hated the
English, and formed a scheme for their
destruction. By his art and eloquence,
he persuaded all the neighboring tribes
to unite in an effort to kill every white
man, woman, and child, throughout the
colony.

tas? What followed the marriage of Mr. Rolfe

and Pocahontas? Where did they go after their

marriage? How was Pocahontas received by the

king and queen? What else of Pocahontas? 5.

What took place in 1619? 6. What took place itt

16227 What of Opecancanough? 7. What did
“-
100 THE FIRST BOOK OF

7. To conceal their purpose, the In-
dians now professed the greatest friend-
ship for the English, and the evening
before the attack brought them presents
of game. The next day, precisely at
twelve o’zlock, the slaughter began, and
three hundred and forty-seven men, wo-
men, and children, were killed in a few
hours. More would have been destroyed,
but that the plot was revealed by a friend-
ly Indian, in time to put several of the
towns on their guard.

8. This dreadful scene roused the

. English to vengeance. They pursued

their enemies into the woods, burnt
their wigwams, hunted them from for-
est to forest, killed hundreds of them,
and drove the rest back into remote
retreats. But although victorious, their
numbers were very much reduced. Out
of eighty settlements, only eight re-
mained; and in 1624, of the nine thou-
sand that had come to the colony, eigh-
teen hundred only were living.

9. It is impossible, in this little book,
to tell you everything in the history of
Virginia, that is interesting. Under a
succession of governors, some good and
some bad, the colony was at one time
in prosperity, at another in adversity.
When Cromwell usurped the govern-
ment of England, in 1660, the Virgin-
ians remained true to the king, but were
afterwards obliged to submit to Crom-
well’s authority. At the restoration of
Charles the Second, in 1666, they were
among the first to greet his return.

10. In 1676, the colony experienced
all the miseries of civil war. Nethaniel
Bacon, a lawyer, put himself at the head

the Indians do? -How many white people were
killed? 8. What did the English do? How had
the numbers of the colonists been reduced? 9.
What of the colony after these events? Cromwell
and the Virginians? What did the Virginians do
on the restoration of Charles the Second? 10.

; ,
HISTORY.—VIRGINIA.

of a rebellion, during which Jamestown
was burnt, and the adjacent districts laid
waste. At length he died, and Govern-
or Berkley resumed his authority.

11. Notwithstanding these troubles,
Virginia continued to flourish, and in
1688 contained sixty thousand inhabit-
ants. From that period, till about the
year 1756, nothing occurred which I
think would amuse you.



CHAPTER XXXIX.
NORTH CAROLINA.

1. After leaving Virginia, we shall
enter North Carolina. In travelling
over the state, we shall observe that,
like Virginia, it is divided into three
parts; the level, sandy region towards
the sea, and occupying nearly one half
of the state; the hilly country in the
middle; and the mountainous districts
in the western portion.

2. We shall remark that all the labor
of the field is performed by negroes.
We shall see a great many plantations
of tobacco, cotton, and rice. We shall
meet with great forests of pine, in the
eastern part of the state. Many of
these trees are cut down by the people,
made into boards, and sent to foreign

What happened in 16762 11. What of Virginia
in 1688?

Questions on the Map of the Southern States.
— Boundaries of North Carolina? Describe the
‘following rivers: —Neuse, Cape Fear, Pamlico,
Chowan, Roanoke. What mountains in North
Carolina? How do they cross the state? Cap-
ital of North Carolina? Where is Pamlico Sound 1
Describe the following towns: — Raleigh, Fayette-
ville, Edenton, Newbern. Extent of North Caro-
lina? Population? What capes in North Caro-
lina?

1. How is North Carolina divided? 2. Wha,
of negroes? Plantations? Forests? 3, Gold’
NORTH CAROLINA.—GOLD-DIGGING—TRAVELLJING.

markets. Great quantities of pitch and
tar are also extracted from the pine trees,
put into casks, and sent away.

3. If we proceed to the hilly country,
along the banks of the Yadkin river, we
shall meet with people, in various places,
hunting for gold. This is found in small
grains, mixed with sand, and sometimes
in lumps of considerable size. Some
persons have gone from New England
to dig for gold in this state. I suppose
they hope to get suddenly rich ; but they
had better stay at home; for where one
man becomes wealthy by digging for
gold, a thousand get rich by staying
at home, and quietly cultivating their
farms.



People seeking for Gold in North Carolina.

4. If you look on the map, you will
see, in North Carolina, three capes
shooting out into the Atlantic Ocean.
These are dangerous places for ships.
Often, when they are sailing by, they
are driven by the wind upon these
capes, and dashed to pieces by the roll-
ing: waves.

5. While in this state, we should visit
Raleigh. We shall find a handsome
state-house here, where the legislature

Describe the ypicture. 4. Capes in North Caro-
lina? 5, What of Raleigh? Statue? State uni-

101

meets to enact laws. A beautiful statue
of white marble, representing Washing-
ton sitting down, with a paper in his
hand, which was executed in Italy, by
a famous man called Canova, and cost
several thousands of dollars, used tc be
shown here; but a few years ago it was
destroyed by fire. Near Raleigh is the
suversty of North Carolina, at Chapel
ill.

6. Four railroads meet at Weldon, in
the north-eastern part of this state, as
I told you in the chapter on Virginia.
At Wilmington you can take a steam-
boat for Charleston, South Carolina.
Other railroads are contemplated, to
join Raleigh and Wilmington with
Charleston.

7. If you travel over the Wilmington
and Weldon Railroad, ie will find it
level as a floor the whole way. . There
is not a single hill or valley; but you
pass on and on, night and day. Your
iron horse never tires, only give him
wood and water enough. He hurries

|| you all this way through a dark forest

of pine, and through bushy swamps.
The whitened pine trees, where they
have stripped off the bark to collect the
pitch, appear very curiously, as you
go, hour after hour, through crowds of
them, standing so still; while the black
smoke, and the sparks from the pine
wood that is burned under the engine,
increase the feeling, especially at night,
that you are careering, in smoke and
flame, through some strange region.

8. North Carolina has annually sent
out a great many persons to Seiple the
Western and Southern States. Her gov-
ernor, in the year 1844, recommended
the establishment of an agricultural
school, which will well become a state

versity? 6, Railroads? 7. Route from Weldon
to Wilmington? 8. Emigrants? Agricultura!
102

second only to Tennessee in growing
Indian corn, and raising annually the
enormous quantity of twenty-five mil-
lions of bushels. Immensely valuable
veins of gold have been lately found in
this state, which, together with the gold
sand-washings, will be very curious to
visit.

9. We shall not find any very large
town in North Carolina; but Fayetie-
ville, Newbern, and Wilmington are
considerable places. A great part of the
tobacco, rice, and cotton, raised in this
state, are sent to Charleston, in South
Carolina, and are thence distributed to
all parts of the world. A great deal of
the cotton is taken in large bags to
New England, where it is worked up
into cloth.

10. The tobacco is taken to various
countries. Some of it is made into
snuff, some into cigars, and some of it is
chewed. If you should ever go to Eu-
rope, you will see a great many of the
people constantly snuffing and puffing ;
and you may be pretty sure that they
are indebted to North or South Caro-
lina for the pleasure they take in these
things.

11. North Carolina was first settled
about the year 1650. ‘The settlers of
Virginia were not Puritans, but Church-
men, or Episcopalians. They were,
however, almost as zealous as the New
England fathers, and persecuted those
who did not believe with them in mat-
ters of religion.

12. Several persons, distressed by
these persecutions, left the colony, and
proceeding to the north side of Albe-



School? Corn? Gold? 9, Fayetteville? Wil-
mington? Newbern? Cotton, tobacco, and rice?
What is done with the cotton? 10. With the to-
bacco? 11. When was North Carolina first set-
tled? What of the settlers of Virginia? 12. By

.

THE FIRST BOOK OF HISTORY.—NORTH CAROLINA.

marle Sound, settled along the shore,
about the time above mentioned. Here,
in the wilderness, they found peace and
plenty. The soil was fertile, and the
climate soft and gentle. Free from the
biting winters of the north, undisturbed
by the persecutions of their fellow-men,
they lived for a time without govern-
ment, yet without anarchy.

13, Attracted by these favorable cir-
cumstances, other settlers came to them,
until their number was considerable. In
1663, the territory of North and South
Carolina was granted, by the King of
England, to Lord Clarendon and others.

14. To induce people to settle here,
they gave public notice that the inhab-
itants should enjoy perfect religious free-
dom, and have an assembly of their own
coe to meee laws for them. Ac-
cordingly, a many persons came,
and i Viccniacea was made governor
of the colony.

15. In 1670, William Sayle made a
settlement ata place then called Port
Royal. The next year, he removed to
a neck of land between two rivers, called
Cooper and Ashley. The settlement he
called Charleston, in honor of the King
of England, Charles the Second, then
on the throne. This place grew very
rapidly, and being at a great distance
from Albemarle Sound, it had a distinct
government to superintend its affairs.
Hence arose the two names of North
and South Carolina.

16. In 1707, some French people,
forced from their homes by persecution,



whom was North Carolina first settled? Situa-
tion of the settlers? 13. What took place in
1663? 14. What inducements did the proprietors
hold out to settlers? What of Mr. Drummond?
15. What took place in 1670? What of Charles-
ton? Why did the colony of Charleston have a
separate government? What occasioned the two
names of N. C. and S. C.? 16. What took place
NORTH CAROLINA.—INDIAN

settled on the river Trent, near Pamlico
Sound. In 1710, some Germans, driven
by the same cause from their native
land, took refuge near .the same spot.
Here for a time these settlers lived hap-
pily, but, by and by, a sudden and aw-
ful calamity fell upon them.

17. Not far from the white people,
two powerful tribes of Indians, named
Tuscaroras and Corees, inhabited the
forests. Irritated by some injuries they
had received, and fearing that the white
people would soon spread themselves
over the whole land, they secretly plot-
ted the entire destruction of the French
and German settlers.

18. The Indians were always very
artful in war. In the present instance,
they privately sent their families to a
distant fort, and then twelve hundred
warriors, armed with bows and spears,
prepared for the attack.

19. They waited until it was night;
then dividing into several parties, they
secretly approached the different settle-
ments. The inhabitants, who had gone
to rest in peace, and without fear, were
suddenly waked by the dreadful war-
whoop.

20. Men, women, and children were
killed. The Indians, furious as tigers,
ran from house to house, slaying all
they met. Shrieks, prayers, and cries
for mercy availed not. The innocent,
the tae and, the unresisting, all
perished alike.

. 21. A few only of the inhabitants
escaped. These, with the cries of their

in 1707? What in 1710? 17. What tribes of In-
dians inhabited the forests near these settlers?
What plan was formed by these tribes? 18. What
of the Indians? Their families? How many
warriors went to the attack? 19, 20. What did
these warriors do? Describe the massacre. 21.
How were the of South Carolina informed

103

murdered countrymen in their ears, fled
swiftly through the woods, to the settle-
ment in South Carolina, for assistance.
About a thousand men were immedi

ly despatched, under Colonel Barnwell,
against the Indians.

22. They had a long and tedious
march; but at length they met the ene-
my. The latter fought bravely, but
were defeated, and fled to the fortified
town, where they had sent their women
and children. Here the white men pur-
sued them, and were on the point of
storming the gor, ene the mate
begged for peace. is was grani
Colonel Beenwell, and the white men
returned to their homes.

23. But this peace did not last long;
the Indians soon made war again, and
Colonel Moore, with forty white men,
and eight hundred friendly Indians, was
sent against the enemy. The latter
again fled to one of their fortified
towns ; but after a siege of several days,
this was taken, with eight hundred pris-
oners.

24. The Corees and Tuscaroras were
now quite disheartened; they gave up
their hopes of driving the white people
from the country, and the former con-
tinued to be peaceable ever after. The
latter, in 1713, bade adieu to the for-
ests, and hills, and rivers, which they
had once called their own, and, moving
to the north, joined the Five Nations.
From this time, these celebrated tribes
were called the Six Nations. “A rem-
nant of the Tuscarora tribe may still be
seen at Vernon, in the State of New

York.

MASSACRE-—-TUSCARORAS.

of these things? What did they do? 22. What
did the soldiers of S.C. 40? What did the In-
dians do? Did Col. Barnwell grant the Indians
peace? 23. Did this peace last long? What of
Col. Moore? 24. What of the Corees and Tusca.
104

25. In 1729, the two Carolinas, which
till this time had been one colony, were
separated, and ever since have remained
distinct. The interior of North Caro-
lina was soon explored, and finding it
very fertile, many settlers established
thernselves there. * The colony increased
rapidly, and under a succession of good
governors, it flourished, till the approach
of the Revolutionary War, in 1775.

——

CHAPTER XL.
SOUTH CAROLINA.

1. Perhaps my reader is tired of land
travelling. I therefore propose that we
go to South Carolina by water. We
will enter a ship at New York, and in

a few hours we shall be upon the broad’

ocean. The hills will sink behind the
blue waves, and we shall see nothing
but the sky ‘pbove, and the ocean around

Us. Sh

2. It is a delightful thing to sail upon
the water with a fresh breeze ; — but by
and by the clouds grow dark, the wind
howls through the rigging of the ship,
and the waves are thrown into the most
violent agitation. The vessel now leans
down on one side towards the water, the
timbers creak, the ropes rattle, the cap-
tain shouts aloud to the men, the waves
strike the ship, and she staggers like a
drunken man.



roras? What did the Tuscaroras do in 1713? Six
Nations? 25, What took place in 1729? What
of N. C. from this time?

Questions on the Map of the Southern States.—
Boundaries? Describe the following rivers ; San-
tee, Edisto, Great Pedee, Little Pedee. What
mountains in $. C.? Capital? Describe the fol-
lowing towns: Charleston, Greenville, Abbeville.
Exteut? Population? 7

1—4, Describe a voyage from New York to

THE FIRST BOOK OF HISTORY.—SOUTH CAROLINA.

2. At such a time, one who has never
been at sea, before is likely to be fright-
ened; but the skilful captain and the
fearless sailors’ watch every sail, and
rope, and spar, every wave, and every
breath of the gale, and the gallant ship,
like a bird on the water, rides safely
amidst the storm.

4, At length the clouds break away,
the sun shines down upon the sea, and
the troubled waters sink to repose; a
deep calm settles upon the ocean, and
its bosom is as smooth as a mirror. By
and by a breeze springs up, the sails are
filled, and the ship, speeding on, ‘her
way, soon reaches the port to which she
is bound. In six days after leaving
New York, we shall probably reach
Charleston.

5. This we shall find to be a large
and handsome city, with more negroes
than white people in it. It is situated,
as I have mentioned before, on a tongue
of land between two little rivers, one
called Ashley, and the other Cooper.
These unite below the city, and form a
large harbor, covered with vessels of
various kinds.

6. If we stay a few weeks at Charles-
ton, we shall find that it isa very gay
city. In winter, a great many people
from the Northern States are here; and
in summer, multitudes from the West
Indies, and from the interior of the state,
make it the place of their abode.

7. If we travel over South Carolina,
we shall find the eastern part sandy,
and the western part mountainous.
Many of the planters are very rich, and
great quantities of tobacco, rice, and
cotton, are produced from the land.
The negroes, who are more numerous



Charleston. 5. What of Char!
tion? 6. What if we stay at C a few
weeks? 7. Face of the country in $,C.? The

%.lts situa-
S. CAROLINA.—EARLY ANNALS—FIRST COTTON PLANTED.

fnan the white people, perform all the
labor.

8. There are no large towns in this
state, except Charleston. Columbia is a
handsome place, and there the legisla-
ture meets. Charleston is the principal
seat of trade. The cotton, rice, and to-
bacco are sent there and sold, and there
the people get cloths, knives, axes, and
other articles of merchandise.

9. I have told you something about
the early history of this state. The first
settlement, you will remember, was
made near Charleston, in 1670. Many
circumstances contributed to make the
settlement in South Carolina flourish.

10. Puritans came from England,
because they were disgusted with the
wickedness which prevailed there dur-
ing the reign of Charles the Second.
Many persons, who had lost their for-
tunes, settled here, in the hope of once
more becoming rich. Large numbers
of French Protestants, driven into exile
by the cruelty of their government,
here sought an asylum. From all
these sdtineés, the population of South
Carolina increased with great rapidity.

11. Lhave told you that, until 1729,
Nogth and South Carolina were consid-
eles one colony. They had different
governors, indeed, but until the date
above mentioned, they were essentially
one. They were then separated, and
never afterwards united. From this
period, the history of South Carolina
offers nothing that would amuse my
young readers, until the War of the
Revolution; then its story, of which I
shall tell you something by and by, be-
comes exceedingly interesting.

12. In 1787, a gentleman in Christ



planters? Productions? Slaves? 8. Columbia?
Charleston? 9. First settlement in S,C.? 10.
Who came to settle in S.C,.? 11. What of N.C.



105

Church parish, in this state, planted one
acre of land with cotton seed. This
produced a bag of cotton wool, weighing
two hundred and sixty-seven pounds.
This was the first bale of cotton pro-
duced in the United States.

13. The editors of the newspapers cf
that day wrote in their papers, that this
commodity promised to become the prin-

cipal staple article of export from this



Cultivation of Cotton.

state. It has become so; and not only
of South Carolina, but of several other
states. It is the article of which the
greatest value is now sent from this
country, for sale in Europe. In 1840,
there were raised in the United States
nine hundred and thirty-six millions of
pounds.

14. South Carolina has changed —
little for many years, though her rail-
road has brought to Charleston much of
the Georgia trade, that formerly stopped
at Augusta. A company was huews in
the year 1844 for cotton manufacturing,
as the prices they get for that staple
have become very low, and owing to the

‘amount grown, may continue so, and

drive these countries to other p rsuits.



‘and S. C. until 1729? 12. First cotton raised in
S. Carolina? 13. Importance? Describe the pic-
106

Te have also, in many of the South-
ern States, begun to turn their attention

to raising cattle, hogs, &c., and to man-

ufacturing,

CHAPTER XLI.
GEORGIA.

1. This is a very large state, but not
so thickly settled as South Carolina.
The southern parts are barren and
sandy, the northern parts mountainous.
The State of Georgia is one of the best
verned and most prosperous of the
thern States. It has many excel-
lent works of internal improvement,
which produce large dividends to the
stockholders.

2, Savannah, the chief town, is situ-
ated on the Savannah river, about. four
teen miles from the sea. It is regularly
laid out, and carries on a very extensive
trade. When we are there, we shall
observe several steamboats going up
and down the river; some of them from
Augusta, loaded with bags of cotton,
and others carrying up passengers, and
various articles of merchandise wanted
by the people.

3. If we get into the steamboat, and go
to Augusta, we shall find ita very flour-
ishing place. It receives great quantities
of cotton and tobacco from the neighbor-
ing districts, which are sent down the

ture. 14, Railroad? Cotton manufacturing?
Stock raising, &c. ?

Questions dn the Map of the Southern States, —
Boundaries? Describe the following rivers : Ogee-
chee, Oconee, Ocmulgee, Satilla, Savannah.
What mountains extend into the north-western
part of the state? Describe the following towns:
Augusta, Savannah, Brunswick, Clarksville. Ex-
tent? Population ?

1, What of Georgia? Face of the country?
2 Savannah? Its trade? Steamboats? 3, Au-



THE FIRST BOOK OF HISTORY.——GEORGIA.

river to Savannah; or on the railroad
leading to Charleston, S.C. They
have lately begun to manufacture their
cotton into cloth in this state. In 1847,
there were thirty-two cotton factories in
Georgia, costing two millions of dollars,
using twenty thousand bales, and mak-
ing a million and a half dollars’ worth of
goods, a year.

4. Georgia has improved lately by
her various railroads, and the beautiful
city of Savannah is again bustling,
though Augusta, not being now the end
of a road, but only an intermediate sta-
tion, is not so busy as formerly. There
is a strong likelihood now, that the rail-
roads of Georgia and South Carolina
will be pushed on to Memphis and Nash-
ville, bringing to their seaports trade and
travel from the Cumberland, Tennessee,
‘and Mississippi valleys.

5. The only volcano that has ever ap-
peared in the United States, broke out,
in 1843, with smoke pouring through
the rocks, in Union County, the north-
east corner of this state, at the end of
the Alleghany range. ,

6. We shall find Milled vite and
Macon to be very pleasant places; and
if we travel into the western part of the

state, we shall find numerous flourish-

ing towns in the region lately occupied
by two famous tribes of Indians, called
Creeks and Cherokees. .These Indians
have been removed to the west of the
Mississippi River.

ate While in Georgia, we shall ob-
serve some delicious fruits, that do not
flourish in the Northern States. Or-
anges, lemons, limes, and figs, grow
here in plenty. These last, when taken
fresh from the tree, are far more deli-
cious than when dried, as we get them



gusta? Ootton factories? 4, Railroads? Their
extent? 6. Volcano? 6. Milledgeville? Ma.
GEORGIA.—SWAMP SIGHTS AND SOUNDS—NOBLE PLAN. 107

at the north. The people often eat them
for breakfast, and they make an excel-
lent meal.

8. Most of the orange and fig trees in
Georgia were killed by a frost, in 18365.
But the trees have grown up again, and
bear finely. The average crop of an
acre of orange trees is six to eight thou-
sand oranges.

9. In the southern part of Georgia,
and lying partly in Florida, is a famous
swamp, called Okefinokee. It is three
hundred miles around it, and it is full
of reptiles. If you should happen to go
along the edge of this swamp, in sum-
mer, you would see some strange sights,
and hear some strange sounds.

10. There are crocodiles large enough
to swallow a man, lizards creeping along
the trunks of the trees, and huge ser-
pents coiled in the thickets. If y
stay till evening, you will have a sefe-

enade from ten thousand frogs; and
when it gets to be dark, a bird, like a
whippoorwill, will repeat the sound of
“chuck will’s widow” so fast as to .as-
tonish you.

morning, you will notice cranes, herons
spoonbills, and bitterns, all of them birds
of the long-legged family, and some as
tall asa man. hese you will see stand-
ing motionless for hours, along the edge
of the water, looking very sad, as if they
had no friends upon earth ; but if a fish,
or a frog, or a snake, or a young croco-
dile, comes in their way, it is snapped
up in an instant.

12. As my reader knows something
about Georgia, as it is now, I will pro-
ceed to say something of its histor~t In
1732, one hundred and thirteen persons,
under James Oglethorpe, came from
England, and made the first settlement
in this colony. They established them-
selves at Yamacraw Bluff, and there laid
the foundation of the present city of Sa-
wannah.

13. The object of those persons in
England who planned the settlement of
Gebrgia, was to provide a place, where
the poor people of Great Britain might
go and live comfortably. They also
desired to furnish an asylum, where the
perseeuted and oppressed of all nations
might go and be at peace.

14. Such were the noble views which
led to* the settlement of this colony.
The proprietors, wishing to secure the
happiness of the people, forbade slavery
and the use of rum. Unfortunately,
these good rules were soon disregarded.

15. In 1733, five hundred poor peo-
ple emigrated from England to Georgia
and in 1735, four hundred settlers came
from Germany, Switzerland, and $cot-
land. Thus the number of inhabitants |




















i Swam nokee swamp? Describe the picture. 12. What
ee caper . took place in 1732? Where was the first settle-

11. If you visit this place in the || ment inGeorgia made? 13. What motives led to
—_———_———————— ] the settlement of G.? 14. What was forbidden in
con? Indians? 7. Fruits in Georgia? 8. Frost || Georgia? Were these restrictions observed? 15.
in 183572 Orange crop? 9—11. What of Okefi- || What took place in 1733? Whatin 17352 Did

‘
108

increased rapidly; but still the colony

did not flourish. The greater part of
the people remained poor, although half

a million of dollars had been spent in

sending them across the Atlantic, and
in

ah

comforts of life.

16. In the year 1740, there was war

between England and Spain. Now, the
latter
and bad

lent fovernor of Georgia, determined to
make war upon these Spanish settle-
ments.

17. So he took with him two thou-
sand men, a of them from Virginia
and South Carolina, and proceeded
against St. Augustine. This place he
besieged; but the Spaniards di
themselves bravely, and he was obliged
to march back again with his two thpu-
sand men.

18. T'wo years after this, the Span-
iards came, with thirty vessels, and three
thousand soldiers, to punish the English
settlers for their attack on St. Augustine.
Their intention was to take possession
of Georgia first, and the two Carolinas
afterwards. ; :

19. Gen. Oglethorpe had but seven
hundred men, and a small body of In-
dians, under his command. According-
ly he sent to South Carolina for assist-
ance; but the people would not send
him any: So he and his little band
were left to defend themselves, as well
as they could, against four times their
number.



the colony flourish? What of the greater part of
the people? How much had been spent? 16.

What took place in 1740? What of Florida? Sev-
eral towns and settlements there? 17, What did
Gen. Oglethorpe do? 18. What did the Spaniards
do, two years after? 19, What of Gen. Oglethorpe?

THE FIRST BOOK OF

roviding them with the necessaries

overnment possessed Florida,
several settlements there. Ac-
cordingly, Mr. Oglethorpe, the excel-

efended

HISTORY.—FLORIDA,.















20. Oglethorpe knew his danger, and
determined to scare the Spaniards away
if possible. He therefore contrived to
make them believe that he had more
men than he actually had, and that a
great body of English soldiers were
coming to help him.

21. One day, the Spaniards saw three
vessels of war off the coast; supposing
that these had brought the reinforce-
ments, they became very much alarmed,
ran aboard their ships as fast as possible,
and sailed away. Thus Oglethorpe got
rid of his troublesome visitors.

22. In 1754, the proprietors gave up
the colony to the king, and after that
time it prospered very much. The peo-
ple began to cultivate rice and indigo,
which they found very profitable. Some-
times the Florida iatie were trouble-
ome, but no war of much interest oc-
curred.

FLORIDA.

23. At the south-eastern corner of the
United States is Florida, a broad strip
of land shooting into the sea, between
the Atlantic Ocean and the Gulf of Mex-
ico. It,was formerly divided into East
and West Florida. It was discovered, in
1512, by the Spaniards, on Pascua Flo-
rida, (Easter Sunday,) and hence the
gave. it the name, as its trees were bril
liant with flowers. In 1562, little band
of French Protestants fled from persecu-
tion, and settled near where the present
town of St. Augustine stands. Here it
,would seem as if they might have lived
in peace; but the cruelty which had
driven them from home pursued them
to their lonely retreat.





20. How did Oglethorpe frighten the Spaniards?
21. What did they do? 22, What took place in
1754? What did the people cultivate? The In-
dians? 23, Where is Florida? Discovery? St.
FLORIDA.—MASSACRES—SEMINOLE WAR—FRUITS.

24. A Spanish officer, named Melen-
dez, discovered the settlement, and find-
ing that the people were not Catholics,
but Protestants, he and his soldiers put
them to death, in the most cruel man-
ner. But this wicked act did not go
unpunished. A few years afterwards, a
Frenchman, named De Gourgues, vis-
ited the country with some soldiers,
attacked the Spaniards who were settled
near, and killed many of them. Some
of them he hanged upon the same trees
from which were still suspended the
skeletons of his countrymen, who had
been murdered by Melendez.

25. St. Augustine was founded by
the Spaniards about the year 1564, or
1570, and is the oldest town in the
United States. Other settlements were
made in Florida by the Spaniards, but
the population increased slowly. In
1819, the Spanish government relin-
quished their claims to the country ; and
since that time it has belonged to the
United States.

26. In 1818, the Indians called Sem-
inoles, that is, Wanderers, or Refugees,
were conquered by the United States ;
part refused to go to the lands assigned
them beyond the Mississippi, and fled
mto the swamps of Florida, living on
the hummocks, or spots of dry land, and
cunningly crossing the rivers by logs
sunken below the surface of the water,
which they knew where to find and
walk over on; but the troops who pur-
sued them were stopped, seeing no
bridge, and wondered how it was possi-
ble for the Indians to escape across.

27. After expending many millions
of money, killing many Indians, and
losing hundreds of men by battle, mur-



Augustine? 24, French and 1 25. His-
tory? When was it bought by the United States?
26 27 Seminole Indians? War with them? When

/





‘

109

der, and adnate the whites, in 1838,
took prisoner the Indian chief, Osceola,
whdé died broken-hearted, and, in 1842,
they removed the remainder to the west,
leaving only a few, who were quiet, in
the territory, which, in the year 1845,
became a state.

28. Previous to the frosts of February,
1835, the most profitable crop of this
country was the orange. South and
east of St..John’s river, were orange
trees known to be one hundred and fifty
years old. About 1845, there wa im-
ported a little bug, which threatened to
destroy again every orange, lemon, lime,
and citron tree.

29. Key West, on an island off this
coast, was made a city in 1847, when
the United States commenced there a
Marine Hospital, that is, for sailors. A
botanic garden was to be established
here, by the general government, in
which it is intended to naturalize all the
tropical fruits which will flourish in, or
endure, the southern climate.

30. Business and numbers increase
very fast in this state. Tallahassee is
its capital. In 1848, the legislature es-
tablished that excellent thing, # com-
mon school system, in Florida.



CHAPTER XLIU.

THE FIVE SOUTHERN ATLANTIC
STATES.

1. I have now given you some ac-
count of Virginia, North Carolina, South
was it made a state? 28. Oranges, &c.? 29, Key
West? U.S. Hospital? Botanic garden? 30.
Common school system ?

Questions on the Map of the Southern States.
—Which five of the Southern States lie on the At-
lantic ocean? What mountains cross these states 1
In which direction do the rivers generally run, in
these fiye states? Which is the largest town ? In


110

é
Carolina, Georgia, and Florida. These
five states are in many respects alike.
The southern and eastern portions are
generally low and sandy. ‘The western
portions are hilly and mountainous.
Some portions are very productive.

2. Their chief productions are cotton,
tobacco, and rice. The climate is hot,
and in. summer it is unhealthy in the
low country. The land is chiefly di-
vided into large plantations. The own-
ers of these are called planters. ‘They
possess a multitude of negroes, who per-
form all the labors of the field and in the

house.

Negroes at Work in the Field.



3. The negroes are generally well
treated ; that is, they have enough to
eat, drink, and wear, and are not often
required to laborgbeyond their strength.
But the system of slavery is not condu-
cive to the happiness either of the white
people or the negroes.



which direction are the following places from
Washington: Richmond, Raleigh, Columbia,
Charleston, Milledgeville, Savannah? How many
people in these five Southern States ?

1. What of the five Southern Atlantic States?
Face of the country? 2. Chief productions? Cli-
mate? How is the land divided? Planters?
Slaves? Describe the picture, 3, How@re the



THE FIRST BOOK OF HISTORY.—S. ATLANTIC STATES.

4, The negroes are the legal property
of their masters, who have a legal right
to punish them for bad conduct, and to
sell them. But the laws of these states
protect the lives of slaves. As the slave-
trade has been abolished a great many
years, no new ones can be brought into
the country, and only those persons
born of a slave mother are held in

slavery.

5. "This institution is sanctioned by
the laws of the slave-holding states.

6. I hope the time will soon come,
whet there will be no slaves in our
country. A benevolent society has been
formed for the purpose of sending those
that may be set free to Africa. They
have already established a colony there,
consisting entirely of blacks, called Libe-
ria, which, in 1847, became indepen-
dent. Several ‘thousands have already
gone there; and the colony is prosper-
ing.

7. Ihave already told you that the
first negroes brought to this country ar-
rived at Virginia in 1619. For about
fifty years before the settlement of this
colony, the merchants of England had
been engaged in the slave-trade. They
used to send large ships to the western
coast of Africa; these were then loaded
with negroes, which were taken to the
West Indies, to South America, and
various other places, and sold. Some-
times the negroes were bought in Africa
of those who had taken them in war,
and sometimes the sailors went ashore,
stole men, women, and children, and
forced them on board their ships.

8. These poor creatures were crowd-
ed into the vessels, and used in the most

negroes treated? 4, How are their lives protected ?
How do persons become slaves? 6, What of Li-
beria? 7. What of the first slaves brought to
America? What of the slave-trade? How are
the slaves procured? 8. How were the negroes


ALABAMA, MISSISSIPPI, LOUISIANA, AND TEXAS.

barbarous manner. Many of them ex-
pired for want of fresh air; some be-
came deranged, and jumped into the
sea. Sometimes mothers died, and
their little children perished for want of
cate; and sometimes the men killed
themselves rather than endure the tor-
ments they suffered.

9. Such were some of the horrors
attending the slave-trade. Yet it con-
tinued to be carried on, and very soon
there were a great many slaves in all
the colonies. There were more in the
Southern than in the Northern States;
but still, in Pennsylvania, New York,
and New England, there were several
thousands.

10. But, at length, the people became
convinced that slavery was an evil, and,
in all the states north of Maryland, it
was abolished. In the Southern States
it is still permitted.

CHAPTER XLIII.

ALABAMA, MISSISSIPPI, LOUIS-
IANA, AND TEXAS.

_ 1. To the west of Georgia, there are
four large states, called Alabama, Mis-

treated on board the ships? Describe their suffer-
ings. 9. Were there once slaves in the Middle
and Northern States? 10. Of what did the people
become convinced? What was done?

Questions on the Map of the Southern States.
— Boundaries of Alabama? Describe the follow-
ing rivers: Alabama, Tallapoosa, Cahawba, Tom-
bigbee. What is the capital?

Boundaries of Mississippi? Describe the fol-
lowing rivers: Pascagoula, Leaf, Pearl, Black,
Yazoo, Capital? Describe Natchez, Mobile,
Columbia.

Boundaries of Louisiana? Describe the follow-
ing rivers: Sabine, Wachitta, Red, Tensas. Cap-
ital? How is New Orleans situated? Describe
the following towns: Baton Rouge, Alexandria,
Franklin.

lll

sissippi, Louisiana, and Texas. Alaba-
ma is well furnished with navigable
rivers, and the soil is remarkably fertile.
The inhabitants are chiefly engaged in
raising cotton and tobacco.

2, his territory was a mere hunt-
ing-ground for the Indians, long after the
settlement of other parts of our country.
After the Revolutionary War, it was
claimed by Georgia, and the United
States purchased it for one million two
hundred and fifty thousand dollars. By
and by it began to be settled, and soon
there were several thousand people
there. In 1819, it became one of the
United States.

3. I will now tell you about the State
of Mississippi. The land here is gen-
erally level, with some ranges of hills.
A large portion of the country is still
covered with thick pine forests, in which
there are a great many wild deer.
Toward the southern part, there are

swamps and marshes filled with alliga-
tors. Natchez is the largest town in the
state. It is situated on a high bluff, on

the eastern bank of the Mississippi.
The planters send a great deal of cotton
to this place, which is taken down the
river to New Orleans.

4, As early as the year 1539, a Span-
iard, named Ferdinand de Soto, came
to this country with nine hundred per-
sons. They spent three years in search-
ing for gold; but at length De Soto died,
and his companions went away. In
1683, a Frenchman, named La Salle,
came down the river, and named the
country, from the gulf to the lakes, Lou-
isiana, in honor of his king, Louis XIV. .

1, What of Alabama? Soil? Inhabitants? 2.
What of the territory of Alabama? By whom was
it claimed? By whom purchased? When did
Alabama become,a state? 3. What of Missis-
sippi? Forests? Swamps? Natchez? 4, What
of Ferdinand de Soto? What happened in 16837
112

5. From this the French claimed the
territory, and, in 1716, made a settle-
ment, where Natchez now stands, called
Fort Rosalie. Other settlements were
made by French people in the territory,
but in 1763 it was ceded to Great Brit-
ain: At the close of the Revolutionary
War, it belonged to the United States ;
and in 1817 it was admitted into the
Union as a state.

6. Louisiana is the most level of the
United States. There are very exten-
sive marshes lying along the Gulf of
Mexico, and there is much low land bor-
dering on the Mississippi. In the spring
of the year, when the mighty river is
swollen by rains, it sometimes rises
above its banks, and spreads a vast
flood of waters over the country in Lou-
isiana.

7. The people of this state are chiefly
employed in raising cotton. There are
also many plantations of sugar-cane.
This plant resembles our Indian corn
(maize) in appearance. The stalks con-
tain a sweet juice, from which sugar and



Cultivating the Sugar-cane.

errr lirica
5. What in 1716? Whatin 17362 To whom did
Mississippi belong at the close of the Revolution-
ary War? When did it become a state? 6. What
of Louisiana? Marshes? What of the Missis-
sippi? 7. Cotton? Sugar-cane? Describe the




















THE FIRST BOOK OF HISTORY.—LOUISIANA.

molasses are made. A large part of the
sugar and molasses which we use is pro-
duced in Louisiana.

8. In 1796, the first experiment in
making sugar in the United States was
undertaken, near New Orleans. The
exclamation “It grains! it grains!” —
showing that the experiment was suc-
cessful, ran joyfully through the coun-
try. Louisiana can suppl the Union
with cane sugar. In 1846 they made
one hundred and eighty-one thousand
hogsheads.

9. Before the war of 1775, much in-
digo was raised in Georgia, though the
culture was there abandoned, afterwards.
In 1847, it was raised at Baton Rouge,
of very excellent quality, and attention
is turned to raising it as an article of
sale. You know it is used very much
in dyeing, and is now brought from the
East Indies.

10. In Louisiana resides J. J. Audu-
bon, a famous naturalist. He has made
one of the most splendid books ever seen.
It tells about all-the birds of America.
It gives pictures of them, exact as to
their size, form, and color ; of their nests
and eggs; and of the trees to which each
kind particularly resorts. He had, in
1847, nearly finished another work, on
the quadrupeds of North America; but,
though he can give their form and color,
he cannot copy, in a book, their exact
size.

11. He has passed a great part of his
life in the ieee and forests of this con-
tinent, in his favorite pursuits. Some-
times he has slept in the swamps of the
south, with the rich vines and the heavy
hanging moss making his only curtains.
Sometimes he has ‘camped out” among
the wigwams of the Indians, amid the



. 8. First sugar-making? 9. Indigo? 10,
11. J.J. Audubon? 12, What is said of perse-
LOUISIANA.—THE CRESCENT CITY—BATTLE OF N. 0.

snows of Canada. No dangers or toils
have deterred him, no difficulties or fa-
tigues hindered him.

12. This is perseverance, my young
friends ; it is the grand secret of success
in everything you undertake. You must
look at these splendid books when you
have an opportunity ; and while you are
doing so, think of the manner in which
they were completed.

13. New Orleans, the capital of Lou-
isiana, has over one hundred thousand
inhabitants. It is situated one hundred
miles from the mouth of the Mississippi,
and receives vast quantities of produce,
which come down that great river. If
you ever visit this place, you will see
many things to surprise you. The peo-
ple are a collection from all countries.
A great many are French; some are
Spanish, some Scotch, some Irish, and
some Dutch. Beside these, there are
thousands of negroes.

14. At this place you will see many
vessels which have come from various
parts of Europe and America, to get cot-
ton, tobacco, sugar, flour, pork, and furs ;
all of which come down the Mississippi
in abundance, in flat-boats, arks, steam-
ers, &c. These different craft have their
places assigned them along the levee,
which presents the shape of a crescent.
In one place are all the flat-boats ; in an-
other, the steamers all together; in an-
other, the rigged vessels ; —and their ex-
tended number, thus regularly arranged,
presents a very striking and character-
istic scene, full of beauty and bustle.

15. You will also see many steam-
boats, going and coming, loaded with
perotoenes and freight of all kinds.

ome of these boats are almost as large



verance? 13. New Orleans? People of New
Orleans? 14. Vessels? Their arrangement ?
15. Steamboats ? Gee re ee ep

113

as ships of war. They are constantly
going up° and down the Mississippi ;
some of them ascend that river for more
than two thousand miles.

16. I have told you of a famous bat-
tle which took place near Baltimore, in
1814. During the same war, a still
more famous engagement occurred at
New Orleans. On the 8th of January,
1815, twelve thousand British troo
came against that city. General Jack-
son was there, with three thousand
American soldiers.

17. He knew that the enemy were
coming ; so he prepared to receive them.
He had a long breast-work made of bags
of cotton, heaped one upon another.
Then he placed twelve cannon along the
line, and the Americans got behind the
breast-work. All things were now ready,
and the British troops, led by General
Packenham, began to advance over the
level ground toward the American breast-
work.

18. For a long time the Americans
were still, and let the British come close
upon them. Then suddenly the men
put their lighted matches to the cannon ;
the balls were hurled amid the British
ranks, and the soldiers fell by hundreds.
Then, too, the Americans pointed their
guns over the breast-work, and sent their
bullets in the faces of the enethy. A
living sheet of fire continued to blaze
along the American line, and the grourd,
far and near, was shaken with the thun-
der of the battle.

19. The British were brave men, and
they were led by a brave general; but
they could not withstand the deadly fire



New Orleans fought? Who commanded the Amer-
icans? How many British troops were there?
How many Americans? 17. What did General:
Jackson do? Who commanded the British troops 1
| 18,19. Describe the battle. 20. How long did the
114

of the Americans. They were driven
back, leaving the ground strewed with
hundreds of the dead anddying. ‘Twice,
indeed, they rallied, and a few of them,
as if seeking death, rushed close up to
the breast-work. One daring officer, at
the head of his men, ascended to the top
of it, and shouted to his followers to
come on. But ere the words had parted
from his lips, he fell into the ditch be-
low, pierced through and through by a
dozen bullets.

20. In one hour after the battle be-
gan, it was all over. The British were
totally defeated, and marched 7
away. General Packenham was killed,
seven hundred of his brave soldiers lay
dead on the field, one thousand four
hundred were wounded, and five hun-
dred were taken prisoners. Thus the
British lost twenty-six hundred men,
while the Americans had only seven
killed and six wounded.

21. Let us now go back to a much
earlier date, and see what happened in
Louisiana. This name was originally
applied to that vast tract of country
lying between the Mississippi and the
Pacific Ocean: It was considered as
belonging to the French; and in 1699,
the first settlement was made at Iber-
ville. Owing to the unhealthiness of
the climate, many of the settlers died,
and the colony did not flourish. In
1712, out of twenty-five hundred who
had settled there, only four hundred
were living.

22, In 1717, the present city of New
Orleans was founded, and from this time

battle last? Who were defeated ? What was the
loss of the British? Loss of the Americans? 21.
To what tract was the name of Louisiana first ap-
plied ? To whom did it belong? What took place
fn 16997 What of this colony? What of the set-
tlers in 1712? 22. When was New Orleans found-
ed? What of the French settlements after this?

THE FIRST BOOK OF HISTORY.—TEXAS.

the French settlements along the Mis-
sissippi continued to increase. In the
year 1803, Mr. Jefferson, the president
of the United States, bought the whole
country west of the Mississippi of the
French government, and gave them fif-
teen millions of dollars for it. Since
that time, it has belonged to the United
States.

23. In the year 1812, that portion now
called Louisiana was set apart, and be-
came one of the United States. The in-
habitants were-chiefly French, but a great
many people have emigrated, within the
last twenty years, from other parts of
the United States, and settled there.

TEXAS.

24. In December, 1835, Texas, one
of the federal states of Mexico, next to
our country on the south-west, and into
which some twenty thousand persons
had removed from our country, insisted
on withdrawing from the general gov-
ernment of Mexico.

25. Its independence was declared
March, 1836, and in that year was es-
tablished, by a battle at San Jacinto,
where, by a small number, the president
of Mexico, General Santa Anna, was
defeated and taken prisoner. He was
afterwards liberated, and passed home
through the United States.

26. Texan independence was ac-
knowledged by the United States, Eng-
land, and France, but not by Mexico,
who continued to claim her as one of
her provinces, under the abolishment of
the federal constitution, in 1836. Tex-
as organized as a republic, with a con-
stitution like that of the Southern States.
D. G. Burnet, elected in March, 1835,

What took place in 18037 23, What in 18127
Inhabitants? 24. Texas. What was it? 25. When
did Texas declare its independence? Santa Anna?


TEXAS.—-ANNALS—TRADE—SCHOOLS—GULF STATES.

was the first president; Samuel Houston,

the next, elected in September, 1836, and
A. B. Jones, the next president, elected
in 1844, The population is mostly made
up of Americans, from the United States.
Austin is the seat of government. Gal-
veston, on an island on the coast, is the
most active place of business.



‘View of Galveston.

27. A treaty annexing Texas to our
republic, as one of our Union, was ne-
gotiated, by President Tyler and his cab-
met, in 1844, but our Senate rejected it;
and that annexation was, in 1845, one
of the most exciting subjects before Con-
gress. It was consummated in 1846.

28. In 1846, Texas exported three
hundred thousand dollars’ worth of cot-
ton, and bought from our other states
one million two hundred thousand dol-
lars worth of merchandise. Very large
grants of land in Texas were made to
Spaniards, Americans, and Irishmen, by
Spain, Mexico, and Texas herself, un-
der the different governments, on condi-
tion of inducing persons to settle a por-
tion of it. In this way a great many
have been led to settle there. In 1847,



26, Presidents? Capital? Galveston? Describe
the . 27. Annexation to the United States?
88, Business? Lands? Population in 1847? Pub-

115

the people of Texas were variously esti-
mated, at from one hundred thousand to
two hundred thousand.

29. In 1846, a public school system
was.successfully organized in Galveston,
Texas, thence to extend over the whole
state. So you see the American wish
for innvtglen and good education is
found active there.

30. Thus I have told you about the
great states lying along the Gulf of Mex-
ico. The climate here is very hot, and, -
as in the other Southern States, almost
all the labor is performed by negroes.
There are many French and Spanish
among the inhabitants, who still pre-
serve the customs of their original coun-
tries. There are many thousands of the
people who speak no other language
than the French.

CHAPTER XLIV.
THE WESTERN STATES.

1. To the north of the states of which
I have just been telling you, are the
Western States. They are very fertile,

lic schoo] system? 30. Climate of the south-west-
ern states ? Negroes? French and Spanish? French
language ?

Questions on the Map of the Western States. —
Boundaries of Ohio? Describe the following riv-
ers: Sandusky, Ohio, Cuyahoga, Maumee, Mus-
kingum. Capital? Describe the following towns:
Columbus, Cincinnati, Lancaster, Chillicothe, Ma-
rietta, Zanesville, Steubenville.

Boundaries of Indiana? Describe the following
rivers: White, Wabash, Tippecanoe, Capital ?
Describe the following towns : Connersville, Vin-
cennes, Madison, Corydon.

Boundaries of Illinois? Describe the follow-
ing rivers: Illinois, Sangamon, Rock, Kaskaskia.
Capital? Describe the following towns: Peoria,
Alton, Kaskaskia, Chicago, Galena.

Boundaries of Missouri? Describe the following
rivers: Gasconade, Osage, Missouri, Big Black
116

and are watered by some of the noblest
rivers in the world. In general, they
are hilly, or moderately uneven.

2. As this is a very interesting por-
tion of our country, we must not fail to
pay it a visit. We will take the rail-
road cars at Philadelphia, and proceed,
partly by canal and partly by railroad,
across the Alleghany Mountains to Pitts-
burg. There we will enter a steamboat,
and go down’ the Ohio river to Cincin-

~nati.

3. This is a large city, containing
over seventy thousand inhabitants ; yet
it is but fifty years since it was first laid
out! If we travel over the State of
Ohio, we shall find that it has been re-
cently settled, and that large portions of
it are yet covered with forests. But we
shall everywhere meet with new villages
springing up in the wilderness ; we shall
see a great many good farms; and we
shall discover that the inhabitants enjoy
an abundance of the comforts of life.

4. At Cincinnati is their admirable
observatory, established within a few
years, so that Ohio and that city have
the credit of first establishing these
watch-towers of science, in the United

Prairie, La Mine. Capital? Describe the follow-
ing towns: St. Genevieve, Louisiana, St. Charles,
Franklin. What mountains in Missouri? In what
direction do they ran? In what part of the state
do they lie?

Boundaries of Tennessee? Describe the follow-
ing rivers: Duck, Tennessee, Forked Deer, Cum-
berland. Capital? Describe the following towns:
Memphis, Fayetteville. What mountains cross
the south-eastern part of Tennessee ?

Boundaries of Kentucky? Describe the follow-
ing rivers : Green, Kentucky, Licking. Capital?
Describe the following towns: Lexington, Mount
Vernon, Louisville, Maysville, Bairdstown.

1,2. What of the Western States? Fertility?
Rivers? Face of the country? 3. What of
Cincinnati? What of the State of Ohio? For-
ests” Villages? Farms? Inhabitants? 4, Ob-

THE FIRST BOOK OF HISTORY.—WESTERN STATES.

States. Excellent schools are constantly
being founded ; and they have many fine
colleges.

5. The cultivation of the vine is still
rapidly spreading on the Ohio river.
Persons from the vine-growing countries
of Europe have settled there, and are
cultivating the grape. The French,

when they first discovered the Ohio,
called it La Belle Riviéré, which, like

the Indian name, Ohio, means, the beau-
tiful river.

6. I don’t suppose there ever was, in
the world, such a fast-growing state as
Ohio. It was settled about 1788; now
look on the map, and see how many in-
habitants there are. And all these peo-
ple are comfortable and happy, with good
schools and good habits. In 1841, died
William H. Harrison, of Ohio, President
of the United States for only thirty days,
and the first president who died in office.

7. If we travel westward into Indiana
and Illinois, we shall find the count
still more thinly peopled. But we shall
now find there many flourishing towns
and little villages, built within a few
years. As we cross the forests, we shall]



servatory? 5. Vine? Name of the river? 6.
Date of settlement? Schools? President Harri-
son? 7. What of Indiana? Mllinois? Villages?
— “"

wae
¢: “9 he}

WESTERN STATES.—CANAL—LEAD MINES—PRAIRIES.

Bee a ag of deer, and flocks of wild
turkeys. We may sometimes see a bear
crossing our path, or a panther couched
in the top of a tree.

8. These states have invested large
sums of money in railroads and canals,
which will at no distant period develop
their resources, and enrich them. One
railroad is contemplated, which will pass
directly through the State of Illinois,
from the north to the south, and there
terminate at Cairo, just at the junction
of the Ohio and Mississippi rivers, where
they are said to have abenlly expended
nearly a million of dollars to prepare a
site for a great central metropolis.

9. April 18th, 1848, the first boat
passed from the Illinois and Michigan
Canal into the waters of Lake Michigan,
thus completing a continuous water com-
munication from New York, by way of
the lakes, to New Orleans; making, I
believe, the most extended inland navi-
gation in the world.

10. If we travel in Missouri, we*shall
find the region but thinly inhabited.
We ought to visit the lead mines in this
state ; they lie about forty miles west of
the Mississippi, and are the most prolific
in the world. Many million pounds of
lead are obtained from these mines ev-
ery year.

11. In Jefferson County there is a
cave, lined with, or made out of lead.
It sparkles all over, and is a rich and
beautiful sight, as well as a valuable
mine. Not far from the river we find

two curious iron mountains, one seven:

hundred and the other three hundred
feet high. A few trees grow in the
crevices, but they are really rounded
a
Deer? Other. wild animals? 8. Railroads and
tanals? Cairo? 9. Illinois and Michigan Canal?
10, Missouri? Lead mines? 11. Cave? Iron

117

hills of rich iron ore; enough to supply
the world for ages.

12. At Lamotte, in Missour’, they
found, in 1847, for the first time in the
United States, a mine of cobak; a sub-
stance used in coloring porcelain, and
for which we have had to send to Ger-
many. In that year a porcelain manu-
factory was established in this state.

13. As we are crossing this state, we
shall occasionally meet with prairies.
These are natural upland meadows, or
levels, covered with tall grass, and are al-
most as level as the sea. Sometimes they
are of vast extent, and you may travel
for a whole day without getting across
one of them. When you are in the
midst of one of these mighty prairies,
you may look around, and see —
on either side but the level land sprea
out like the ocean to the horizon, of a
drab color in winter, dark brown in
spring, and“green in summer.

14, It is the practice of the Indians
to burn these prairies over every year.
The fire mal rapidly among the tall

grass, and often the

eer, wild horses,



mountains? 12. Cobalt? Porcelain? 13. Prai-
ries? 14. Prairie fires? , Describe the picture.
118

and buffaloes, are overtaken and burnt
to death.

15. We shall find St. Louis to be a
considerable place, and rapidly increas-
ing. Many of the inhabitants are
French, and some of them are natives
of New England. It already has the
air of a wealthy metropolis, vying, in
the size of its massive structures, with
the most imposing of the Atlantic cities.

16. If you are fond of enterprise, you
can here join a hunting expedition, about
to proceed two thousand’ miles up the
Missouri river, for the purpose of killing
buffaloes, bears, beavers, and other wild
animals, These hunting parties fre-
quently set out from St. Louis, and
are sometimes gone two or three years.
They bring back many boat-loads of
skins, taken from the animals they have
killed. Sometimes these hunters meet
with unfriendly Indians, who attack
them. Sevan hunting Parties have
been entirely destroyed in this way.

17. Missouri has Suen settled, and
principally from the southern and south-
western states; she is one of the richest
in natural resources. The lead mines
reserved by the United States in these
Western States have become very pro-
ductive ; and they begin to get hence cop-
per, also, which has been found in pure
masses weighing thousands of pounds.

18. In 1840, a man named Joseph
Smith said he had found some old brass
or gold plates, engraved with the book
of Mormon, which once was one of the
sacred books, the rest of which form our
Bible; he also said he had visions and
revelations to form a new sect, called
_ Mormons, or Latter-day Saints. Num-

15. St. Louis? 16. Hunting expedition? What
do hunters sometimes meet with? 17. Whence
was Missouri settled? What is said of minerals?
18. Tell what is said of the Mormons. 19, What

THE FIRST BOOK OF HISTORY.—WESTERN STATES.

bers and wealth, from east and west
United States, and from Europe, joined
him ; they settled at Far West, in Mis-
souri, but being driven thence, went to
Nauvoo, in Illinois, founded a city, or-
ganized a government, and began build-
ing a curious and vast stone temple. In
August, 1844, a quarrel broke out be-
tween the Mormons and other c:tizens,
and Joseph Smith, with several other
leaders, was shot. In 1847, after much
suffering, they moved to Oregon and
California.

19. After leaving Missouri, we should
travel in Tennessee and Kentucky. Here
we shall find the country more thickly
settled, and we shall meetwith several
large and handsome towns. Nashville
and Lexington are both delightful places.
Louisville is a handsome and very busy
town.

- We must not leave Kentucky
without visiting Mammoth Cave, situ-
ated in the south-western part of the
stater It is. one of the most remarkable
curiosities in the country. It extends



Mammoth Cave,
under ground to the distance of two

of Tennessee and Kentucky? Nashville and Lex-
ington? Louisville? 20. Where is Mammoth
Cave? Describe it. Describe the picture. 21,
WESTERN STATES, —HEMP— FACTORIES —GREAT RAFT.

miles, and presents a, great many ave-
nues and apartments. One of these is
said to cover many acres of ground, with
an arch of rock over, it which is more
than two hundred feet high.

21. Kentucky has done much to edu-
cate her people, and she has advanced
to wealth in agriculture. Tennessee
is likewise improving; formerly cotton
used to grow well there, but now it does
not, and her people, as well as those of
Old Kentucky, so called because she was
the first settled of the Western States,
now raise much hemp for ropes and can-
vass. The United States government
agrees to buy their hemp, so as to en-
courage them, that we may become indc-

ndent of foreign nations for this article.

he United States have a national arm-
ory, or place to make guns and cannbn,
at Memphis, on the Mississippi, in Ten-
nessee.

22. In Tennessee there were, in 1846,
more than fifty cotton factories, and sev-
eral woollen ones. In some of them,
half of the hands employed are blacks.
In this state died, in 1845, Andrew Jack-
son, ex-president of the United States.

23. The State of Arkansas has very
few towns, and, indeed, it has not many
inhabitants. The great river from which
it is called runs through the state, and
steamboats go up it for several hundred
miles. Much of the land in Arkansas
is so low that it is covered with water
for a part of the year, and the travelling
is very difficult.

24, In Arkansas the great raft of
lodged logs and earth, which covered
up Red river for two hundred and fifty
miles, has been all cleared out for the pas-



Advance of Kentucky? Of Tennessee? Armory
at Memphis? Cotton factories in Tennessee ?
Ex-president Jackson? 23. What is said of Ar-
kansas? 24, Of the river Arkansas? Great raft?

—_

119

sage of steamboats, by Captain Shreeve,
who sawed away logs at the lower part,
and let the current drift them down;
and with his snag-boat and great chains
pulled up the snags that were stuck in
the bottom of the river, and the upper
ends of which often ran through the
steamboats.

25. If you get into a steamboat in
Buffalo, which is in New York, you
will be carried across a large sheet of
fresh water, called Lake Erie, to the
city of Detroit. When you land at De-
troit, you will find yourself in the State
of Michigan, to which a great many
thousand people have lately moved, from
New York, New England and Canada,
and also from Europe.

26. Land is very good and cheap
there, and there is a great deal that is
not occupied ; so that people are“glad to
go there from other states, where the
and is pgorer and dearer. You will
see some French people here, but not
so many as there are in C .

27. There are three great lakes join-
ing Michigan, called Lakes Huron, Su-
perior, and Michigan, and very good fish
are caught in them. If you do not stop
at Detroit, the steamboat will carry you
wp, through Lake St. Clair and Lake

uron, to Mackinac, and through the
Straits of Michilimackinac and Lake
Michigan, to Chicago, whic is in Illi-
nois.

28. West of the Alleghany Mountains
is the valley of the Mississippi; which
means all the country whose streams
tun into that river, as you will see on
the map. ‘This valley is sometimes

25. How do you go to Detroit? In what state is
it? 26. Why do so many persons move to Mich.
igan? When did it become a state? 27. What
is saidof the lakes? 28. Valley of the Missis-
sippi? Amount of fresh water in the lakes of
North America ? '
120

called the Great American Basin, and
the Great Valley. The great lakes of
North America are computed to contain
more than half of all the fresh water on
the earth.

.CHAPTER XLV.
WESTERN STATES—Conrtinvep.

1. I will now tell you something of
the history of the Western States. I
will begin first with Tennessee. This
state derives its name from its principal
river. The Indians imagined this river
to bend like a spoon; so they called it
Tennessee, which, in their language, is
the name of a spoon.

2. This country was included, with
the two Carolinas, in the grant made
by Charles the Second to the Earl of

larendon, in 1664. When North and
South Carolina were separated, in 1729,
Tennessee continued to be aart of the
former, and so remained till the year
1789, when it was ceded to the United
States. In 1796, it became a member
of the Union.

3. The first settlement in Tennessee
was made about the year 1764, by fifty
families, who established themselves
where Nashville now stands. These
were attacked by the Indians, and were
soon obliged to return to North Carolina.
In 1765, some people came to the east-
ern part of the territory, and formed the
first permanent white settlement in Ten-
nessee. In 1780, Nashville was found-
ed, and from this period the population
rapidly increased.

4, Siaake belonged to Virginia till



1. From what did Tennessee derive its name?
2. In what was Tennessee included? What of
Tennessee after 1789? When was it ceded to the
United States? When did it become a state? 3.
When was the first settlement made in Tennessee?

THE FIRST BOOK OF HISTORY.—WESTERN STATES,

the year 1786, when it became a sepa
rate district. It was received into the
Union in 1792. Long after Virginia
was settled, Kentucky remained in the
possession of the Indians. Some white
people went there occasionally to trade
with the natives, and they brought back
very favorable accounts of the soil and
climate. In 1769, Colonel Daniel Boone
and some others went to see the coun-
try.

5. This party was attacked and plun-
dered by the Indians, and all of them
were killed except Boone. He te-
mained in the wilderness for near two
years, and then returned to his family,
who lived on the Yadkin river, in North
Carolina. .

6. He was an eccentric man, and pre
ferred the wild woods to meadows and
wheat-fields. Accordingly, he deter-
mined to return to Kentucky, and, in
1773, went there, with fifty families be-
side his own, and forty men. These
penetrated into the forests, and made the
first settlement in Kentucky.

7. Other settlers continued to arrive,
and the population thus gradually in-
creased. Busia the Sordadanery
War, the inhabitants were much dis-
tressed by the Indians, who took part
with the British, and committed every
species of cruelty upon the defenceless
settlers. They were severely punished,
however, in 1778, by Gen. Clarke, who
marched against them with a body of
soldiers, and laid their country waste
From this time, they became less hostile,
and the white people lived in greater
security.

What occurred in 1765? What in 17807 4. What
of Kentucky ? When did it become a state? What
of the Indians? Indian traders? Colonel Boone ?
6. Character of Boone? What did he do in 1773?
When was the first settlement made inK.? 7,

What of other settlers? The people of K. during
WESTERN STATES.—BOONE— SETTLEMENT OF OHIO.

8. After this, the settlements flour-
ished ; the fruitful soil, the mild climate,
and beautiful rivers of this region, drew
peers to it from all parts of the country.

ol. Boone himself, retaining his love
for the wilderness, retired as civilization
advanced. He spent much of his time
alone in the woods, subsisting upon wild



Boone shooting a Deer.
deer, which he killed with his sure rifle.
He lived téa great age, and, when a
gtay-haired old man, was still attached
to the mode of life which he had pre-
ferred in earlier days.

9. I will now tell you of Ohio. As
late as the year 1787, almost all this
country was in the possession of the In-
dians. A few scattered inhabitants had
established themselves within the terri-
tory. In 1788, Gen. Rufus Putnam,
with a party from New England, planted
a little colony at the mouth of the Mus-
kingum, where Marietta now stands ;
thus forming the first regular settlement
in Ohio.

10, From this time the population

the revolution? What took place in 1778? 8.
What of K. after this? What of Col. Boone?
Describe the picture. 9, What of Ohio till 1787?
What took place in 1788? What was the first
regular settlement in Ohio? 10, What of war

121

increased, though it was considerably
checked by an unhappy war with the
Indians, which lasted till 1795. In
August of that year, Gen Wayne made
a treaty of peace with the savages, and
thus hostilities ceased.

11. Emigrants now began to flock to
Ohio, from various parts of the country ;
a great many went from New England,
and, liking the country, they invited
their friends to come and join them.
At length, so numerous were the emi-
grations, that, every day, one might see,
in the Eastern States, wagon-loads of
men, women, and children, moving to
this western country.

12. The summer of 1816 was very
cold; and in New England the crops of
corn were cut off, other kinds of grain
were nearly destroyed, and there was
not grass enough produced to support
the cattle. The winter that followed
was severeyand many of them died from
hunger. There was a good deal of suf-
fering, too, among the people.

13. These circumstances gave a fresh
impulse to the tide of emigration which
was flowing to the west. Farmers, me-
chanics, day laborers, grandfathers and
grandmothers, husbands and wives, sons
and daughters, sold houses and lands,
and bidding adieu to their native New
England, took up their long and tedious
way to Ohio. Thousands and thousands
thus went away from a land of mead-
ows, and meeting-houses, and pleasant
villages, to bury themselves in the deep
forests of a new country.

14, But they have beeh well reward-
ed. Ohio was admitted into the Union
with the Indians? Peace? 11. Emigrants?
What might every day be seen, some years ago, in
the Eastern States? 12. The summer of 1816?
The following winter? 13, What effect had the
cold seasons of 1816? 14, When did Ohio become
122

in 1802, and is now one of the most pros-
aap of the United States. Though it

been settled only about fifty years,
it has over fifteen hundred thousand in-
habitants. Its growth has been unex-
ampled, and we can see nothing in the
future which is likely to check its pro-

ess.

15. Indiana and Illinois originally
belonged to the French, and a few scat-
tered settlements were made there, by
people of that nation, over a hundred
years ago. But at the close of the war,
in 1763, of which I am going to tell you
soon, the territory was ceded to Great
Britain. At the close of the Revolu-
tio War, it was given up to the
United States. Indiana was admitted
into the Union in 1816, and Illinois two
years after.

16. Missouri is a part of the great
tract of country purchased by Mr. Jeffer-
son of the French government, in 1803,
as I have told you. A settlement was

. made, at St. pee some French peo-
ple, as early as 1764. The population
was, however, small until within a few

ears. It was admitted into the Union
in 1821, after’a warm discussion in Con-

‘gress, whether slavery should be allowed
in the state or not. It was at length
decided that it should be allowed, and
Missouri, with Tennessee, Kentucky,

a state? Its present condition? How long has

O. been settled? Its population? Growth? 15.
What of Indiana and Illinois? Settlements made

there? When was the territory ceded to Great

Britain? When did it come into the possession

of the United Staies? When did Indiana become

a state? When did Illinois become a state? 16.
What of Missouri? Settlement of St. Louis?
When did M. become a state? What took place
in Congress before its admission into the Union?

Which of the Western States allow of slavery?

Which of them do not? Repeat the names of all

the states that allow of slavery. Repeat the

THE FIRST BOOK OF HISTORY.—WESTERN STATES,

and Arkansas, are among the slave-
holding states. The other Western
States, like New England, and the Mid-
dle States, except Delaware, do not per-
mit slavery.

17. Michigan was admitted into the
Union in 1836. In 1846, the south-
eastern part of Iowa Territory was formed
into a state, and received into the Union,
under the name of Iowa. The north
line of Missouri bounds it on the south,
the Mississippi on the east, the Missouri
and Sioux rivers on the west, and the
an 43} degrees on the north.

ince 1838, it increased in popula-
tion more rapidly than any other state,
and in 1848, had one hundred and
twenty thousand people. Iowa is cele-
brated for its anthracite coal, its mines
of lead, copper, and silver, and its salt.
Here is found excellent wild rice.

18. In 1847, a settlement of more
than eight hundred Hollanders was
made there, and it is continually increas-
ing. These Dutch are Iéwrned and
wealthy, and left Europe, like the early
settlers of several of the Atlantic states,
of which I told you, some time ago, to es-
cape political and religious persecution.

19. In 1846, also, Congress made
provision for the reception into the
Union of a part of the territory of Wis-
consin, included between the Mississip-
pi, the St. Croix, and a line running
straight north from it to the falls of the
St. Louis, near Fond du Lac, on the
one side, and Michigan, Illinois, and
Lake Superior, on the others. This
tract is said to have two hundred and
thirteen thousand people. In 1848, it

names of those that do not. How are slave-
holding states? How many are veholding
states? 17. When was Michigan admitted 10 the
Union? Iowa? Bounds? Increase? 18. Hol-
landers? 19. When did Wisconsin become a
TERRITORIES. — PRAIRIE WORLD—ABORIGINES

was admitted into the Union, as the thir-
tieth star in our glorious constellation
of states.

CHAPTER XLVI.
THE TERRITORIES.

1. I have now told you of the States.
But if you will look on the map of the
United States, you will see embraced
within its limits vast tracts of country,
called Territories. These occupy as
great an extent of surface as the states
themselves. They are for the most part
unsettled, and therefore more than one
half of the land, belonging to the United
States, is yet in a state of nature.

2. The immense region, stretching
between the settlements of the United
States on the east, and the Rocky Moun-
tains on the west, is chiefly a plain, gul-
lied by many long rivers,—an extend-
ed prairie, generally destitute of trees,
except along the banks of its far-wan-
\dering streams.

3. Occasionally we find a range of

state? Its population? What is its number
among the states? .



Questions on the Map of the United States. —
North-western boundary of the Union? What
tribes of Indians in the north-west? Boundaries
of Missouri Territory? Describe the following
rivers: Yellow Stone river, Platte, Kanzas, Mis-
souri. Where are the Falls of St. Anthony?
Where are the Great Falls of the Missouri?
Boundaries of Minesota Territory? Of Wiscon-
sin and Iowa States? Of Oregon? Where is
Council Bluffs? Describe the Columbia river.
Multnomah. Where is Oregon City? Where is
Vancouver’s island? Nootka Sound? What tribes
of Indians in Oregon Territory? What great range
of mountains separates Oregon from Missouri
Territory?

1. What of the extent of the territories? What
portion of the United Statesis still unsettled? 2.

123

hills, as the Black Hills, between the
sources of the Platte and the Missouri,
three or four hundred miles long, ~or
an elevated table land, as the Coteau
des Prairies, or Ridge of the Prairies,
half way between the Mississippi and
Missouri, and about two-hundred miles
in length. Most of this tract is known
by the name of the Missouri Territory.

4. There are some white inhabitants
on the eastern skirts of this prairie
world, but over its whole extent roam
the aboriginal savages, under the names
of Dahcotahs, Pawnees, Camanches,



Blackfeet, Crows, Mandans, &c., &c.
Between the Platte and Arkansas rivers,
and the Platte and Red, with the hun-
dredth degree of longitude for a western
boundary, between the Red and Arkan-
sas rivers, and the states of Missouri and
Arkansas on the east, —lies the Indian
Territory, a part of which is now taken
for the new territory of Nebraska. In
it, on the borders of those two states, are
settled the Indians who have been re-
moved by the government from the
states east of the Mississippi.





American Indians.

5. First, at the north, come the Iowas
then, in order, going south, the Kicka-



Describe Missouri Territory. 4. Name its tribes,
124

poos, Delawares, Kansas, Shawnees,
Ottawas, Weas and Piankashaws, Peo-
rias, Kaskaskias, Pottawatamies, Cher-
okees, with the Osages west of them;
Quapaws, Senecas and Shawnees, Sen-
ecas, with the Cherokees on their west
and south; Creeks, Seminoles; Choc-
taws, with Chickasaws on their west.
The*Sacs and Foxes are.in the centre
of Iowa. The Menomonees are in the
north of Wisconsin ; Chippeways, at the
west end of Lake Superior; and the
fierce Sioux, in the country of St. Pe-
ter’s river.

6. A new territory is forming to the
west of Wisconsin and north of Iowa.
It is called Minesota, that is, “ blue
earth,” the Indian name for the St. Pe-
ter’s river. On the north it extends to
the northern boundary of the Union ; on
the west it is bounded by Red river, and
thence, to the north boundary of Iowa,
by the meridian of 96° 50’. It is said

to contain ninety thousand square miles,

equal to Michigan and Ohio, together,
or New York and Pennsylvania. Its
latitude is that of Maine. Wheat and
grasses grow well here. The lake and
its rivers give it access to market. The
lake border is rich in minerals. Mine-
sota’s most important points are Fond
du Lac, at the head of the lake, and
Fort Snelling, at the Falls of St. Antho-
ny. It will one va be ready for admis-
sion into our sisterhood of states,

7, A new territory, named Nebraska,
which is the Indian name for the Platte,
is forming, partly from Missouri Territo-
ry and partly from the Indian Territory.
Its boundary line commences at the

Bounds of Indian Territory’? 5, Name its Indians.
Describe the picture. Where are the Sacs and
Foxes? Menomonees? Chippeways? Sioux?
6. What and where is Minesota? Its most im-

THE FIRST BOOK OF HISTORY.— TERRITORIES.

point where the parallel of forty degrees
of latitude strikes the middle of the
Missouri river; thence up the middle
of that river to the forty-third parallel ;
then along that to the summits of the
Rocky Mountains; thence straight
south to the ‘fortieth parallel, which
forms its southern boundary, back to
the point of departure in the Missouri
river.

8. For two hundred and fifty miles
west of the Missouri, you will find Ne-
braska to be of great agricultural beauty
and facilities, thickly timbered on the
streams, and as fertile as Missouri. For
four hundred miles westward you will
see the whole surface covered with rich
grasses, improving in quantity and qual-
ity up to the snow of the mountains.

9. In this territory are-all the good
routes to California, the road to Santa
Fe, and the excellent and more direct
pass to Oregon, one hundred and _fifty
miles south of the great South’ Pass.
Military posts will soon be found here,
from the Missouri to the mountains, and
the Pacific railroad will pass through it.

10. The noble area for future tens of
millions, stretching from the states to the
mountains, has no white settlements, but
will one day be studded with villages.
Council Bluffs is now its most important
point. The whole wide region abounds
in wild animals, which are hunted as
well by parties of white men, as by the
native tribes of savages. Travellers
who have been in this region give won-
derful accounts of the wild animals.

11. The “buffalo,” or bison, as it is
more properly called, is a large beast,,
resembling an ox. These creatures
in droves, and feed upon the grass of he
prairies. Sometimes a drove of ten thou-



8. Describe it. 9. Its Importance? 10. Pros-

portant points? 7. Where and what is Nebraska? || pects? Council Bluffs? Animals? 11. What ©
TERRITORIES.—WILD ANIMALS.

sand may be seen, stretching over the
land as farastheeyecanreach. The In-

‘A Herd of Bisons.

dians shoot great numbers of these ani-
mals; they feed on their flesh, and sell

the skins to the traders. These skins

are called buffalo robes, and we use them
in winter to keep our feet warm when we
are riding.

12. There are bears of various kinds,
beavers, badgers, opossums, raccoons,



Bear, Badger, Cougar, Beaver, Opossum, Raccoon,
and Squirrel,

and black, grey, red, and striped squir-

rels. There are cougars, generally

called panthers, so strong as to be able

ean you say of the bison? Describe the pic-
. ture. 12, Other animals? Describe the picture.



6 ;
125
to killa man, and carry his body up a
tree. The grisly bears, with terrible
claws, are so tough that they can hardly 4
be killed with musket balls. j

13. The elks are in great abundang
with large, branching horns. There






er re Cre sk a i

Elk, Antelopes, Rocky Mountain Sheep and Goat.

also, beautiful little antelopes, that seem
to fly, rather than run, over the hills and
valleys ; and, toward the Rocky Moun-
tains, are sheep with horns as big as a
man’s arm. Swift-footed goats roam on
the Rocky Mountains, and leap like birds
from cliff to cliff. Beside all these, there

* a - t .
a a he
2 ts * = re

Ruffed Grouse, Ducks, and Quails.



13. Elks? Antelopes? Sheep? Goats? De.
scribe the picture. Game? Describe the picture,
126

is wild game in great abundance in
every quarter.

14. The prairie dogs live in commu-
nities, and burrow in the ground. Some-
times they undermine the ground, so
that it is dangerous to ride over it, as
the horse is liable to fall in. The go-

, too, is feund, turning up his hills,
in the southern part.

15. There are a great many wild
horses in the plains. The Indians catch
these animals, and tame them. An In-
dian warrior, mounted on a fleet horse,



Indian Warriors on Horseback.

riding with his spear in his hand,
against his enemy, has a formidable ap-
pearance.

16. I have now to tell you of Oregon
Territory, which lies between the Rocky
Mountains and the Pacific Ocean. It is
an immense region, being six times as
extensive as all the New England States.
In 1848, it was: said to have over ten
thousand white inhabitants, settlers,
hunters, fur traders, &c.

17. About forty years ago, Mr. Jeffer-
son sent a party of men, under Capt.



14. Prairie dogs? Gophers? 15. Wild horses?
Indian warriors? Describe the picture. 16. Ore-
gon Territory? Its extent?’ White inhabitants ?
37. What did Mr, Jefferson do about forty years



THE FIRST BOOK OF HISTORY.— TERRITORIES.

Lewis and Capt. Clark, to explore this
country. They ascended the river Mis-
souri to its source, crossed the Rocky
Mountains, and went down the Columbia
river to the Pacific Ocean. There they
remained through the winter, and then
returned.

18. They were absent two years, and
met with many strange adventures.
They found a great many grisly bears
on the west side of the Rocky Moun-
tains, and had several encounters with
them. One day, a man named Mc-
Neal, belonging to the party, was riding
by some bushes, when a huge bear
jumped out and pursued him.

19. His horse, being greatly fright-
ened, sprung aside, and threw him on
the ground. By the time he could get
up, the bear was close to him, with his
mouth open, and growling terribly.
McNeal struck him over the head with
the breech of his gun; though it broke
the latter to pieces, it only stunned the
bear for a moment. McNeal ran as fast
as he could to a tree, and began to climb
up; but the bear followed so close, as to
scratch him behind when he was ascend-
ing; but he got out of the creature’s way,
and as the bear could not climb the tree,
McNeal was safe.

20. The hungry beast waited a long
time, expecting that the man would come
down, and let him eat him up. But
finding that he would not do so, the
creature walked away, and the poor fel-
low came down, glad enough to escape
from his new acquaintance.

21. One day, Capt. Lewis was walk-
ing along upon a prairie, when he was
suddenly attacked by a grisly bear. As
he had no gun, he leaped into the river,



ago? What did Lewis and Clark do? 18-20,
Grisly bears? Story of McNeal and a bear? 21
Story of Capt. Lewis and the bear? Describe th
TERRITORIES.—-INTERESTING EXPLORATION-— OREGON.

which was close by, and was going to
swim to one of the boats. But when he
had got a little way into the water, he
found that the creature was close to him.



So he turned round, and faced him with
a spear, which he had in his hand. The
bear did not like the looks of the spear,
so he whirled about, and scampered
away as fast as he could.

29, The travellers found everywhere
on their route, tribes of Indians scattered

over the country. Those who lived
along the banks of the Columbia river
were generally poor and miserable.
Most of them were great thieves, and
troubled the party very much by pilfer-
ing.
33, As the travellers were returning,
they saw immense herds of bisons on
the plains east of the Rocky Mountains.
One day, as they were coming down the
Missouri in some boats, they found the
river quite choked up by a multitude
of these animals, who were swimming
across it.

24. Finally, the travellers returned,
to the great joy of their friends. They
had been gone so long, that everybody



. 22. Tribes of Indians? 23, Herds of
1 24. Lewis and Clark’s book? 25.

127

thought them dead. They published a
book, written by one of them, Dr. James,
giving an account of their expedition,
which is full of interest, and affords a
great deal of valuable information,

25. Oregon Territory is divided by
nature into three parts: the eastern,
among the mountains, is barren; but its
valleys and hills afford grass to the im-
mense herds of bisons which winter
there. The next part, west, is a pretty
good surface, but with stunted trees and
vegetation. The last part is about four
hundred miles wide towards the west,
with a healthy climate. But it is crossed
by ranges of mountains, which have at
some time been heaved up and seamed
by earthquakes and volcanoes.

26. Sometimes the traveller comes to
the edge of a crack in these mountains,
a quarter or a half of a mile wide, and a
thousand feet deep. Its rocky sides are
straight down, and seem once to have
joined, and to have been split apart by
Some terrible earthquake. There is no
crossing here, and he is obliged some-
times to go round twenty miles, to reach
the other side and pursue his journey.

27. The great Columbia river, which
empties into the Pacific, is full of rocks
and falls, and rushes between precipices.
It is navigable only about one hundred
and thirty-five at and at its mow
there is a very dangerous bar or shoal
of sand, on which vessels are lost. The
Willametta, or Willamette, river runs
into the Columbia from the south, east
of the first range of mountains from the
Pacific.

28, The English claimed the wee?
down to the forty-ninth degree of no
latitude, on the Pacific, and the United

Features of Oregon? Three parts? 26. Ravines,
or cracks? 27. Columbia river? Willamette
river? 28, Treaty with England, 18467 State
128

States up to the fifty-fourth degree.
But the forty-ninth degree was agreed
upon in 1846, by a treaty between Eng-
land and the United States. The Amer-
icans having formed a road through the
Rocky Mountains, are pouring into the
broken, rough Oregon Territory, and
have settled to the number of six thou-
sand, it is said, on the Willamette and
other rivers —a regular, industrious col-
ony, who have asked the protection of
United States laws.

29. That colony sold twelve hundred
barrels of flour in 1846. In 1847, the
United States commenced the building
of steamers, to run from Astoria, in Or-
egon, to Panama; to connect with anoth-
er line, on the Athantic side, from Cha-
gres to New York, touching at Havana,
Savannah, and Charleston. A line from
San Francisco, by the Sandwich Isl-
ands, to China, is also proposed.

30. Fort Vancouver, opposite the Wil-
lamette, on the Columbia, is a large vil-
lage. Oregon City, the capital is anoth-
er, at the Falls of the Willainette.

31. A state has a governor and a leg-
islature, who meet and make Jaws for
the people, by whom they are chosen.
The territories have legislatures, to
make their laws ; but are ruled by gov-
ernors appointed by the President and
Senate of the United States. When a
Territory has seventy-two thousand five
hundred people, they may petition Con-
gress to be admitted into the Union
and when their petition is granted, they
become a State.

32. All but a few remnants of the
Indians who lived east of the Missis-
of Oregon colony in 1647? 29. Flour? United
States steamers? 30. Fort Vancouver? Oregon
City? 31, Whathasa state? What do the gov-
ernor and legislature of a state do? Who choose
them? Hasaterritorya legislature? Who make
the Jaws for the territories? Who appoint the
“governors? How may a territory become a state ?



THE FIRST BOOK OF HISTORY.— TERRITORIES.

| sippi have had lands assigned them
west of it. Nauathlee, the Cherokee
capital, has many buildings, schools,
churches, and much wealth... In 1840,
died Jesse Bushyhead, the learned chief
justice of the Cherokee nation.

33. Upper or. New California and
New Mexico were ceded to the United
States, in 1848, and have military gover-
nors ; but will probably soon become terri-
tories or states. The isolated but fine re-
gion of New Mexico is only to be reached
by tedious routes, described on p. 171;
where will be found a further &ccount
of the Californias, Upper and Lower.
The splendid bay and flourishing place
of San Francisco, are in a fertile region ;



View of San Francisco.
the harbor is the most magnificent on
that vast Pacific ocean, and, it is said,
can contain all the navies in the world.



32. What has become of the Indians east of the
Mississippi? Nauathlee? Distinguished man?
33. Upper California? Santa Fe? ‘San Fran-
cisco? Utah L.? San Joaquim R? Tula L.?
Sacramentos R, ?

Questions on the Map of the United States,
New England, the Middle States, Southern States,
and Western States.—Boundaries of the U. 8.?
What great lakes lie along the northern bounda-
ries of the U. S.? What river is the outlet?
What great range of mountains runs north-east
and south-west in the eastern part of the United
States? Note. The several ranges which extend
THE UNITED STATES.—THREE VAST REGIONS,

CHAPTER XLVII.
THE UNITED STATES.

1. We have now completed our sur-
vey of the individual States; but I have
some more things to tell you about our
country. Observe that the rivers east
of the Appalachian chain flow into the
Atlantic. Those west of the Rocky
Mountains flow into the Pacific. The
rivers between these two chains empty
into the Mississippi.

2. Our country may be divided into

nti elcid an a Dia,
from New England to Georgia, including the
Green Mountains in New England, the Catskill
in New York, the Blue Ridge, Alleghanies, and
Cumberland Mountains, in the Middle and South-
ern States, may be considered as’ one great chain,
and usually pass under the title of the Appalachian
chain. — What great range of mountains in the
western part of the United States? In which di-
rection does this range run? Note. The Rocky
Mountains are a part of the great chain that ex-
tends from the southern part of South America to
the northern part of North America. This is the
longest chain of mountains in the world, being
near eleven thousand miles long. The tops of
some of the Rocky Mountains are very lofty, and
are always covered with snow.— What is the
largest river in the United States? Note. The
river Mississippi, including the Missouri, which
flows into it, is the longest in the world, being
about four thousand five hundred miles long. —
Describe the Mississippi river, Missouri, Ohio,
Susquehannah, Delaware, Hudson, Connecticut,
Potomac, Kennebec, Penobscot, Tell the names
of those states that touch upon the Atlantic. Those
that touch upon the Gulf of Mexico. Tell the
names of those states that have no seaboard. Tell
the name of each capital of each state, with its
direction from Washington, from Philadelphia,
from New York, and from where you are. Tell
the extent of each state, beginning at the largest,
and proceeding in the order of their extent. Tell
the number /of inhabitants of each state, begin-
ning with that which has the most, and proceed-
ing according to population.

1, What of mountains? Rivers? 2. How may
the United States be divided? What of the first

9

129

three parts: that which lies east of the
Alleghanies ; that which lies west of the
Rocky Mountains; and that which lies
between the two. The first is that
which was first settled, and which is
most thickly inhabited. It abounds in
rivers and seaports, and embraces those
portions of the country which were set
tled before the American Revolution.

3. The second division of our coun-
try, lying west of the Rocky Mountains,
is yet uninhabited but by Indians, ex-
cept north, in Oregon; south-west, on
the Pacific, in California; and in New
Mexico, among the Cordilleras. The
third division, which usual] passes
under the title of the Valley of the Mis-
sissippi, is the most extensive and the
most fertile section of the United States.
Almost all the settlements here are of
recent date; yet everything is flourish-
ing. Emigrants are flocking to it from
all parts of the world, and towns and vil-
lages are springing up in every quarter.

It is not easy to form an adequate
idea of this great valley. The State of
Ohio does not embrace more than one
thirtieth part of it. Yet this state has
more than one million and five hundred
thousand inhabitants. What a vast pop-
ulation, then, will, in the ree afew

ears, be spread over the t. Valley of
the Mississippi! In 1847 this alley had
a population of eight and a half millions.
en as densely peopled as France its
surface, of a million square miles, will
sustain more than one hundred millions.

5. The navigation of the Ohio river is
one thousand miles; of the Mississippi,
two thousand ; the Missouri, threé thou-
sand ; their tributaries, six thousand ; —



part? The second? The third? 3, Settlements
in the Valley of the Mississippi? Emigrants ?
Towns and villages? 4, Population of this val-
ley? How many in 18477 5. Distance of steam-
130

making twelve thousand miles that you
can wail about there in steamboats. In-
deed, you may go in a steamboat, on
the ete and its tributaries, more
than sixteen thousand six hundred miles,
without once leaving your boat.

6. Before 1817, there were twenty
barges, or boats, on the Ohio. In 1847,
there were over five hundred steamboats,
and more than seven hundred flat-boats
annually passed the Louisville Canal.
On Lake Erie the first steamboat was
built in 1818, and in 1847 there were
sixty-four on that lake alone. All the
lakes together offer five thousand miles
of coast, more than equal to the Atlantic
coast of the United States, and their
tonnage, mariners, imports and exports,
double every five years.

7. The commerce of these waters is
as great as that which floats upon the
ocean, between our seaports and foreign
countries. The arrival, wooding up, and

: | ition eal)
i % a a — i
"Mississippi, Steamboat.
departure of a steamboat, is one of the
most lively and animating scenes of the

Great West. In 1847, there were more
than six hundred steamboats there, worth



boat sailing? 6. Boats on Ohio river? On Lake
Erie? 7. Describe the picture. Boats on al! the
‘ivers of that basin? Value? Value of merchan-

el there, in a few years,
them manufacturing a mighty supply of
everything that is necessary for life and



THE FIRST BOOK OF HISTORY.—UNITED STATES.

over ten millions of dollars. It costs
twelve millions of dollars a year to nav-
igate them. They carry back and for-
wards, every year, more than two hun-
dred millions of dollars’ worth of mer-
chandise. In 1870, the commerce of the
great valley, it is estimated, will be
worth nearly nine hundred millions of
dollars.

8. They have coal and wood for
steam-engines, all sorts of minerals, cot-
ton, and wool, and flax, and the cheap-

est and most abundant production of

food ; and, no doubt, if you should trav-
ou will find

comfort.

9. Such is the history of the wealth
of the Great West. New Orleans, and
St. Louis, Louisville, Cincinnati, Pitts--

burg, Buffalo, Detroit, and Chicago, —

what great and growing cities! To con-
nect this central valley with the Pacific
Ovean, as it is already connected with
the Atlantic, it has been proposed to
build, in fifteen years, a railroad from
Lake Michigan to tide waters in Oregon.

10. If we travel there, we shall be
interested in the western bustle, its ac-
tivity and its success. But in some un-
settled parts, on those vast grassy plains,
the prairies, we shall be filled with dif-
ferent feelings. One of the most striking
things is the stillness of the prairies. It
is absolutely awful.

11. At night, when the moon has
gone down, and the stars are out, if we
stand in the centre of these ocean-like
plains, the deep, unbroken silence that
surrounds us is sublime. Not a solitary



dise carried? Probable value of the commerce in
1870? 8. Products? 9. Great centres of trade
and population? Railroad to the Pacific? 10.
Pariries? 11. Stillness? 12,13, Tell the story
UNITED STATES. —PRAIRIE STEED—A BARBECUE.

sound can be heard, —no insect, no bird,
no beast, no human voice or step; —it
is all still.

12, For a number of years, there was
seen on the prairies, in the great Amer-
ican Desert, near the Cross Timbers and
Red river, a wild horse, called the White
Steed of the Prairies. He was of beau-
tiful form, with silvery, flowing mane
and tail, and of unequalled speed. No
hunter could take him, though they
have tried with the lasso, a hundred
times. They have gone out on pur-

ose, and tired down three or four
orses, which they changed, in the
chase.

13. He never gallops, but paces, like
the winds, a mile in two minutes. And
he never tires ; hour after hour, till the
chase is up, he moves on over the wide
plains at his rapid gait. He seems to
scorn even to keep company with the
common herd of mustangs, or wild
horses, but feeds aloof, conspicuous and
matchless for his beauty and his swift-
ness.

14. When I was telling you the man-
ners and customs of some of the Eastern
States, and about a clam-bake in Rhode
Island, I promised to tell you about a
barbecue, a custom of the Western
States, especially Kentucky. Both are
public picnics, or eating parties, where
each contributes. Like clam-bakes, the
barbecues are favorite political gather-
ings, where a party meets to make
speeches, and encourage one another
and the people, to vote for a particular
pn or candidate for a public office.

t may be representative to Congress, or
to the state legislature ; or for a governor
of a state ; or even in a presidential elec-
tion.

16. The people in the vicinity, for

ae ell ii ee a aT iG
ofthe White Steed of the Prairies? 14—-19. De-

131

days before, send in to the place chosen
for the barbecue, an immense quantity of
provisions. Hogs split in halves, and
none and calves, and Leong’ and
bread, and butter, and cheese, é&v. &c.

16. Stages for the orators are roughly
put up; and sometimes the ladies deco-
rate them with evergreens and flowers.
Rough benches are provided ; and some-
where near by, rough tables are set u b
long enough to accommodate hundreds
or thousands of people.

17, They then dig a trench in the
ground, some hundreds of feet long,
about four feet wide, and one and a
half deep. In this, all along from end
to énd, they kindle a roaring fire, and
continue throwing in huge logs of hard
wood. These burn till the trench is.
half filled with glowing coals. All
brands and unburnt wood are removed.

18, Long split sticks are now run
through the halves of the sheep, pigs
and calves, and through the turkeys and
poultry, like rough spits. These are
then laid across the ditch, directly over
the glowing coals. There the provis-
ions are roasted, being duly turned from
time to time, and basted, by men who
pass about, with a mop of cotton tied to
the end of a long stick, which they di
intoa pail of melted butter, with salt an
flour, and which they carry in the other
hand,

19. As soonas the speaking and cook-
ing are over, the provisions are raised
and taken to the tables; the multitude
follow them, with excited patriotism
and appetites, stand round the tables,
and have a merry meal.

20. I will now tell you of the city of
Washington, which you will find on the
map, between Maryland and Virginia.
You will see there the National Observ-

KS
scribe a barbecue? 20. Where is the city of
132

atory, founded in 1842. You must not
fail to visit the Patent Office. In that
office are deposited models and speci-
mens of all the machines and inventions
which persons have thought of, and
wish the government of the United
Statgs to give them a patent for. A pa-
tent is a permission to use and sell one’s
invention for fourteen years, without
anybody else being suffered to do so.
21. As our people are the most ingen-
ious in the world, you will see there some
of the most curious inventions. Some
will make you laugh, and some will
astonish you. Some are of no use at
all, though their inventors thought, no
doubt, they were quite important aflairs;
and some are very important to every-
body.
22. You will also find, at the Patent
Office, accounts of inventions of other
nations ; and the seeds of plants of other
countries, which it is thought may be
usefully planted in our own country.
There are, constantly, a great many
such introduced into the United States.
23. Washington is the capital of the
United States. Here there is a large and





“Members of Congress going to the Capitol.
splendid edifice, called the Capitol. In
Washington? Observatory? Patent Office? What



THE FIRST BOOK OF HISTORY.—UNITED STATES,

this building, people, sent from all the
states. collect together in two bodies.
One of them, when assembled, is called
the House of Representatives ; the other
is called the Senate. These persons
meet every winter to make laws for the
country, and when assembled are called
Congress.

24. The President of the United
States lives in a large house about a
mile from the Capitol. When any law
has been passed by Congress, it is sent
to him. If he approves of it, then it is
published, and the people are obliged to
obey it.

25. The president is chosen every
four years, by electors selected for that
purpose. Z. ‘Taylor became president
in 1849; J. K. Polk in 1845; J. Tyler
chosen vice-president, became president
by the death of Harrison, who succeeded

artin Van Buren in 1841. Van Bu-
ren, in 1837, succeeded Andrew Jack-
son, who, in 1829, succeeded John
Quincy Adams, who came into office in
1825. James Monroe preceded him;
he was twice elected president, and came
first into the office in 1817.

26. James Madison preceded Monroe,
and was dlso twice elected. He first
came into the office in 1809. It was
during his administration that the last



is a patent? 21, 22. What will you find at the
Patent Office? 23. What splendid building at
Washington? Describe the picture. Who as-
semble in this building? What are the names of
the two bodies that assemble in the Capitol? For
what purpose do the Senate and House of Repre-
sentatives meet? What is Congress? 24. Where
does the president of the U. S. live? When a
law has been passed by Congress, what is done
with it? What if the president avprove of it?
25. How is the president chosen? Who is presi-
dent of the U. S. now? When did he come into
office? What of Andrew Jackson (28)? What
of John Q. Adams? James Monroe? 26, James
UNITED STATES.—-SUCCESSION OF PRESIDENTS, ETC.

war with England took place, during
which the famous battle of New Orleans
was fought, as I have told you.

27. Thomas Jefferson preceded Mad-
ison, and was twice chosen president.
He first entered upon the duties of his
office in 1801. Before him, John Ad-
ams, father of John Quincy Adams, was

resident four years. He was preceded

George Washington, the first presi-
dent of the United States, who was twice
elected, and first entered upon the duties
of the office in 1789.

28. At that time, the present govern-
ment was organized, and the present
constitution went into operation. Thus
we have-had eleven presidents of the
Union, up to 1848, all: natives of Vir-
ginia, except the two Adamses, who
were of Massachusetts, Jackson of 8. Car-
olina, Van Buren of N. York, and Polk
of N.Carolina. Jackson, during the Am.
Revolution, was a soldier, and in the
late war with England, he commanded
the American troops in the southern
part of the United States. He defeated
the British at New Orleans with dread-
ful slaughter, and showed himself an
able general.

29. You perceive our present govern-
ment has been going on since the year
1789. During this time, our country
has enjoyed great prosperity. Our pop-

Madison? What war occurred during Madison’s
administration? 27. What of Thomas Jefferson ?
John Adams? Who was the first president of the
U. 8.2 When did Washington first enter upon
the duties of his office as president? 28. When
was the present government of the U. S, organ-
ized? When did the present constitution of the
U. S. go into operation? How many presidents
have there been up to the year 1848? How many
of them were natives of Virginia? Which of
them natives of Massachusetts? 29. How long
has our present government been in operation?
What of our country since 1789? Its population ?

133

ulation has rapidly increased, our towns
and villages have multiplied, our com-
merce, agriculture, and manufactures,
have been extended, and the number of
our states, originally hut thirteen, has
more than doubled.

30. But what happened before the
year 1789? An event of more impor-
tance than any other which has ever
occurred in our country: I mean the
American Revolution. This began in
1775, and lasted for eight years. Pre-
vious to this event, the settlements in
this country were mere colonies, subject
to Great Britain; after it, these became
one great nation of separate states, all
united, however, under one general gov-
ernment.

31. Before the Revolution, a famous
war broke out, often called the “Old
French War.” I shall now give you
some account of it, and then I shall pro-
ceed to tell you of the Revolution.

CHAPTER XLVIII.
THE FRENCH WAR.

1. This war began about the year
1755. At that period, the country now

Towns and villages? Commerce, agriculture, and
manufactures? 30. What of the American Revo-
lution? What of the settlements in this country,
before the Revolution? What of them after the
Revolution? 31. What-of the “Old French
War?” oo

Questions on the Map of the United States.—
Describe the river St. Lawrence, Lake Ontario,
the Mississippi, Ohio, Where is Quebec? Mon-
treal? Canada? In which direction is New Or-
leans from Quebec? In which direction is Que-
bec from Boston and New York ? '

Questions on the Map of New York. — Where
is Lake Champlain? ‘Ticonderoga? Crown
‘

134

occupied by New England, the five
Middle States, and the four Southern
States lying along the Atlantic, em-
braced thirteen colonies, all belonging
to Great Britain, and all acknowledging
the government of that country. My
reader will recollect that none of the
country lying west of the states above
mentioned was then occupied by Eng-
lish settlers.

2. The French had settlements in
Canada, extending from the mouth of
the St. Lawrence to Lake Ontario.
_ Along the shores of that lake, they had

established several forts and trading-
houses, to promote their trade with the
Indians, which was now esteemed a
matter of great consequence. They
had also planted New Orleans, near the
mouth of the Mississippi, and, having
ascended that river, laid claim to the
beautiful and fertile valley through
which it flows.

3. They had also built trading-houses
on the river Ohio, and finally deter-
mined to connect their northern and
southern settlements by a chain of forts,
extending from Lake Ontario to their
establishments on the Ohio, and thence
down the river Mississippi to New Or-
leans.

4. While the French were busy in
carrying this project into effect, some
English people, from Virginia, estab-



Poiat? Fort Wm. Henry? Ft. Edward? Lake
Ontario? Niagara? .

Questions on the Map of the Middle States. —
In which direction is Pittsburg from Philadelphia ?
New York? Lake Champlain? Niagara?

1, When did the French war begin? What of
the country at that period? 2. French settle-
ments? Forts and trading-houses? New Or-
leans? Valley of the Mississippi? 3, Other
trading-houses ?_ What did the French determine
to do? 4. What of some English settlers from

THE FIRST BOOK OF HISTORY.—THE FRENCH WAR.

lished themselves on the Ohio river, not
far from the French settlements. As .
the French now claimed the country,
they seized some of these settlers, and
carried them prisoners to Canada.

5. Now the land in question was
considered as a part of the colony of
Virginia by the English, and it was
supposed to belong to certain English
a to whom it had been granted.

hese persons, regarding the conduct
of the French as very wrong, applied to
Gov. Dinwiddie, of irginia, for redress.

6. The governor thought it best, in
the first place, to send a messenger to
the commander of the French forces on
the Ohio, and require him to march his
troops away, and thus quit the country.
The person chosen for this purpose was
George Washington, then but twenty-
one years old. At this early age he
began that public career which has en-
deared his name to every American, and
rendered it illustrious throughout the
world.

7. Washington went to the French
commander, and delivered to him a let-
ter from Gov. Dinwiddie, explaining the
nature of his business. The French
officer replied that he would forward the
letter to his general, who was then in
Canada, and that he should strictly abide
by his instructions.

8. This answer did not satisfy Gov.
Dinwiddie; so he raised four hundred
troops, and sent them, under the com-
mand of Washington, against the French,
in the spring of 1764. They proceeded
through the woods, and over the moun-
tains, till they came near Fort Du



Virginia? What did the French do to these set-
tlers? 5. What did Gov. Dinwiddie do? What
of George Washington? 7. What reply did the
French commander send to Gov. Dinwiddie? 8,
What did the governor then do? When was this?
FRENCH WAR.—WASHINGTON’S FIRST EXPLOITS, ETC.

Quesne, where Pittsburg, in Pennsylva-
nia, now stands.

9. When Washington had nearly
reached this fort, about nine hundred
French soldiers came out to attack him.
He had scarcely time to throw up some
hasty works for defence, before the
French came upon him, The number
of the French was more than double
that of the English, but Washington did
not mind that; he cheered his men, and
they fought very bravely. By and by,
the French were tired of the battle, and
so they made an agreement with Wash-
ington, that he and his men should re-
turn to Virginia, which they did accord-

ingly.

10. Being informed of all these
things, the British government perceived
that they must either drive the French
away by force, or relinquish the whole
Valley of the Mississippi. They deter-
mined to do the former, and sent out a
great many troops to America to accom-
* plish this object. In the spring of 1755,
Gen. Braddock, an English officer, be-
gan to make preparations, in Virginia,
to proceed with a large army against
Fort Du Quesne.

1]. Now I must tell you that it is
necessary for an army that is going on
a march, to have a great number of
horses and wagons to carry their bag-
gage. It was found very difficult to
et enough of these; and Gen.

raddock, .becoming impatient, deter-
mined to set out with a part of the army



What did Washington and the four hundred sol-
diers do? Where was Fort Du Quesne? Note.
‘This is pronounced Du Kane.—9. When Wash-
ington came near this fort, what did the French
do? What of Washington? How did the Eng-
lish fight? What agreement was made? 10.
What of the British government? What did they
do? What took place in the spring of 17552 11.
What of an army going.on a march? Why did





only. Accordingly he proceeded with
twelve hundred men, leaving Col. Dun-
bar to come on with the rest of the
pa Ay as soon as the preparations were

y- Gen. Braddock was a braye
man, and knew very well how to man-
age a battle with regular soldiers; but
he knew nothing of the Indian method
of skulking behind trees, and rocks, and
thickets, and shooting down men like so
many squirrels,

12. So he proceeded on through the
woods, trusting in his own skill, and
fearing nothing. He was advised to be
on his guard, lest the sly savages should
surprise him. But he treated this coun-
sel with scorn. On the 9th of July, the
English troops had approached within a
few miles of Fort Du Quesne. At
length they came toa narrow valley,
with high rocks on each side. It was
midsummer, and the trees were covered
with a thick mantle of leaves. All was
peaceful and quiet around, and the troops
marched on, never dreaming that behind
every bush, and rock, and tree around,
lay a lurking savage, taking a sure aim,
and ready to send a fatal bullet to the
heart.

13. At once, a wild and hideous yell
burst from the rocky sides of the valley,
and at the same instant, hundreds of
muskets flashed from the many hiding-
places of the foe. Astounded at this,
the forward ranks of the English were
thrown into confusion. But in a few
minutes, Gen. Braddock came up, with
the main body of the army, and order



Gen, Braddock become impatient? What did he
do? Character of Gen. Braddock? 12. How was
Gen, B. advised? Where was the army on the
9th of July? To what place did they at length
come? What of the season, trees, &c.? 13. De-
scribe the attack of the Indians and French upon
the English army. What was the first effect of
this attack? What did Gen. Braddock do? What
136

was restored; but it was to no purpose.
The enemy did not come out in regular
platoons to be fired at, as Gen. Braddock
expected ; they remained in their cov-
erts, and shot down the British soldiers
like a herd of deer.

14. Braddock was too proud to re-
treat. He and his officers remained on
the ground, bravely exerting themselves
to overcome the enemy ; but in this they
only sacrificed their lives. One by one
they were shot down, and Braddock at
length fell. The British soldiers then
fled in dismay. Washington, with his
Virginia troops, sheltered the flying
army from the French and Indians who
pursued them.

15. But for him, nearly all the men
under Braddock’s command would have
fallen a sacrifice to his rashness. As it
was, one half of the number perished in
the battle. This disastrous enterprise
was closed by a return of the troops to
Philadelphia, leaving the frontier of
Pennsylvania and Virginia exposed to
the enemy. ‘

16. Two other expeditions were un-
dertaken against the French, during the
summer of 1755. One was against Fort
Niagara, situated near the great cata-
ract, and the other against Crown Point,
an impertant post on the western shore
of Lake Champlain. Both of these ex-
peditions were unsuccessful,



CHAPTER XLIX.

FRENCH WAR —Conrrnuzp,

1. In the spring of 1756, great prep-
arations were made for war in America,
a eee TT eee nae
did the enemy do? 14. What of Braddock and
his officers? What took place after Braddock was
killed? What of Washington? 15. What part
of the English troops were killed? What did the
remainder of the English army do? 16. What

THE FIRST BOOK OF HISTORY.—THE FRENCH WAR.

both by the French and English ; yet it
is remarkable that the two nations in
Europe yet continued to be on terms of
the greatest apparent friendship; but
this did not last long. England de-
clared war in May, and France in June
following.

2. A great many troops were assem-
bled in America; but instead of being
placed under the command of American
officers, who were well acquainted with
the country, and who would of course
be anxious to carry on the war with
success, they were commanded by Brit-
ish officers, who spent a great deal of
time in show and parade, but did very
little more. The whole season was
wasted in indolence on the part of the
English, while the French prosecuted
the war with activity and vigor.

3. The next year, 1757, was like
that which preceded it. The king and
parliament of Great Britain were jeal-
ous of the colonies at this early date.
They were not willing to intrust native “
Americans with the direction of affairs,
and therefore continued to employ the
oflicers who had: exhibited nothing but
indolence and weakness before. . "

4. The principal event of this cam-
paign was the capture of Fort William
Henry. This was situated on Lake
George, and had a garrison of three
thousand men, under the command of

Spot aLiter on pstmt cerertprtpchinaeesinsasns
other expeditions were undertaken in 17552 How
did these expeditions terminate ?

1. What of the spring of 1756? Whatis re-
markable? When did England declare war?
Note. This war is generally spoken of as ha
commenced in 1756, because war was not ut
till that time ; but we have seen that hostili
commenced nearly two years before.—2. Whatof
British troops? Urider whose command were they
placed? What of the British officers? What
of the French? 3. What of the year 1757? King
and parliament? 4. Principal event of 17577

~s
FRENCH WAR.—AWFUL MASSACRE AT FORT WM. HENRY.

Col. Munroe. Fifteen miles to the
south of this post was Fort Edward, on
the east side of the Hudson river, occu-
pied by Gen. Webb, with four thousand
troops.

5. The French commander, Mont-
calm, collected near ten thousand men,
many of them Indians, and suddenly
appeared before Fort William Henry.

hey came sailing down the lake, cov-
ering its bright surface with a multitude
of boats and canoes. The whole arm
landed, and immediately began the at-
tack. ‘

6. Col. Munroe was surprised, but
not disheartened. Though his little
garrison was surrounded by ten thou-
sand men, he made a bold and success-
ful defence. The soldiers kept off the
‘ enemy with muskets, and with cannon,
which shook the hills around with their
thunder, and often sent death among the
ranks of the besiegers.

7. Thus for six days was the fort de-
fended ; but Col. Munroe knew he could
not hold out long, unless assistance came
from Gen. Webb. He sent to that offi-
cer repeatedly, entreating him for help,
but none came. Thus deserted in the
most cowardly and cruel manner, he
was obliged to surrender the fort to

Montcalm. The English marched out.

of the fort, and the French took posses-
sion of it. But the saddest part of this
story I have yet to tell. Montcalm
promised to protect the English prison-
ers from the savages; but this he failed
todo. They first fell upon the sick, and
lundered and killed t em; thus they
me excited, and surrounding the
rmed English soldiers, who had
treet

Fort Wm. 1 ? Fort Edward? Gen. Webb?
5. Moni 6. Col. Munroe? 7. How was
the fort 2 Gen. Webb? What was Col.

Munroe obliged jo do? What did Montcalm |

,

NS e

137

no means of defence, began to slay
them.

8. There were several thousands of
the savages, and they now filled the air
with their horrid yells. They struck
down the English with their tomahawks,
and tore the reeking scalps from their
heads. As the slaughter proceeded, -
they grew more frantic. Their yells
became still more wild, and these were
now mingled with the shrieks of the
wounded and the dying. At this awful
moment, Munroe besought Montcalm to
protect his poor soldiers, as he had prom-
ised; but nt officer would not, or could
not. His bloody allies were permitted
to do their ail of death without re-
straint. The carnage went on, and
hundreds of the British soldiers were
slaughtered, or carried captives into the
wilderness.

9. The day after this fearful dy,
Major Putnam was sent by Gen. Webb
to watch the motions of the enemy.
They had already left the place, and
set out for Ticonderoga. They had de-
stroyed the fort, leaving the buildings
still on fire. The ground, far and near,
was covered with dead bodies, cut and
mangled in the most shocking manner.
Some were still broiling in the flames,
and others were torn limb from limb.
Thus ended this melancholy affair. Al-
though it occurred near a hundred years
ago, who, without shuddering, can read
the detail of such barbarities !

10. The next year, 1758, the war
wore a different aspect. William Pitt,

—————————_—_—

promise? The savages? 8. Describe the man-
ner in which the Indians killed the English. What
did Munroe do? Did Montcalm endeavor to re-
strain the savages? What of the British soldiers ?
9. Major Putnam? What had the enemy done?
Describe the scene. How long since this event
occurred? 10, What of William Pitt? Louis.
138

a man of great talents, was placed at the
head of affairs in England. He caused
new officers to be appointed to command
the armies, and the result showed that
he selected them wisely. Louisburg, a
strong town on the island of Cape Bre-
ton, which had been before captured
from the French in 1744, and atfter-
wards restored to them, was taken by
Lord Amherst, and Fort Du Quesne
was taken by General Forbes.

11. Lord Abercrombie was sent, with
an army of seventeen thousand men,
a plnst Sivenderves. This was a strong
Sak fort, on the western shore of
Lake Champlain. The English army
crossed the lake in boats. It was truly
a magnificent display, as they covered
the blue water, seemingly as countless
as the wild fowl that sometimes hover
over its surface.



Ss
Abercrombie’s Army crossing Lake Champlain,

12. But amid this proud array, there
was many a heart, bounding with youth
and hope, destined soon to beat no more.
When the English had landed, they
marched toward the fort. They were
‘met by a small party of the French, and

entail ici is
burg? Fort Du Quesne? 11. Lord Abercrombie?
Ticonderoga? What of the English army crossing
the lake? Describe the picture. 12. What oc.



THE FIRST BOOK OF HISTORY.—THE FRENCH WAR.

in a skirmish that followed, Lord Howe
was killed. He was a brave young
officer, and all the soldiers iad: him.
When they saw him fall dead upon the
field, they rushed forward, determined
to avenge his death. They surrounded
the fort, and attacked it with the great-
est fury. They had muskets and can-
non, and kept up a continual fire against
the walls of the fort. If a Frenchman
showed his head over the ramparts, he
was immediately shot by the British
soldiers.

13. They tried every means in their
= to get possession of the place.

hey procured ladders, and attempted
to climb over the walls. For four hours
they stormed the fort with the utmost
boldness and bravery; but it was de-
fended with equal courage. The French
poured down from the walls a dreadful
fire of cannon and musketry. The noise
of the battle was heard to the distance
of fifty miles. It seemed like continued
thunder ; a thick cloud of smoke rose up
from the place, and stretching itself far
across the sky, appeared to tell of the
awful scene it had witnessed.

14. Finding it impossible to take the
fort, Lord Abercrombie was forced to
abandon the enterprise. Two thousand
of his men had been killed or wounded ;
and with this heavy loss he retreated,
He, however, despatched three thousand
men, under Colonel Bradstreet, against
Fort Frontenac, situated on Lake Onta-
rio, This place was taken, and the
French were thus deprived of a station
of great importance. '

15. In the next year, 1759, several

curred when the English had land 4d? What of
Lord Howe? What followed his death? De-
scribe the battle. 14, What was Lord Abercrom-
bie forced todo? What was the loss of the Eng-
lish? Fort Frontenac? 15, What of 17597


FRENCH WAR.—QUEBEC—HOW WOLFE TOOK IT.

important places were taken by the Eng-
lish. Among these were the forts of Ni-
agara, Ticonderoga, and Crown Point;
but the most important event was the
capture of Quebec.

16. This place, situated on the north-
west side of the St. Lawrence, was
deemed one of the strongest in the
world. It was defended by a great
many cannon, placed in several forts,
built upon high rocks. It was thought
impossible for soldiers’ in any way to
climb up these rocks, or to get posses-
sion of the fortifications.

17. But William Pitt believed that
the place might be taken; so he sent a
large and powerful army against it, com-
manded by General Wolfe. This offi-
cer was a young man, full of bold and
daring thoughts. Three officers, Monc-
ton, Fonddbend, and Murray, all young
and brave like himself, were associated
with him.

18. It was toward the last of June,
that the English army landed on the
island of Orleans, a few miles below
Quebec. Here Wolfe had an opportu-
nity to examine the difficulties he had
to overcome. He perceived that they
Were very great, but declared to his
friends, that he would either take the
city, or die in the attempt. He devised
various schemes, and made several ef-
forts, but without success, Montcalm,
the French commander, was exceeding-
ly vigilant, and even the confident spirit
of Wolfe began to be dejected.

What forts were taken? Situation of Quebec?
Its direction from Boston? From Hartford ?
From New York? How was Quebec defended?
What was thought of the fortifications? 17. What
of William Pitt? What of General Wolfe’? What
young officers were associated with Wolfe? 18.
What of the English army? What of Wolfe?
Montcalm? 19. What was at length discovered ?



139

19. But at length a narrow path was
discovered, by which the soldiers might
climb the Heights of Abraham, and thus
overlook the forts and the town. Welfe
knew that if he could get possess'on of
these heights, he should obtain a great
advantage. Accordingly, he resolved to
make the attempt. But it was neces-
sary that the enterprise should be con-
ducted with the greatest secrecy.

20. In the stillness of night, a part of
the army landed at the foot of the cliff
which overhung the river. They were
ready to climb the rocks by daybreak.
Wolfe was himself among them, and
they began their difficult task. Clam-
bering up the steep, they caught hold
of roots, bushes, and angles of the rocks,
and at length stood safe upon the plain
above. Before sunrise, the whole arm
had gained the heights, and were all
arranged under their several leaders.

21. When Montcalm heard of all this,
he thought it impossible, and would not
believe the story; but he soon found it
to be true. Knowing that he must now
come to battle, he drew out his men up-
on the plain in front of the English army.
When all was ready, the French ad-
vanced briskly. The English stood
still, and received them with a dreadful
fire. A fierce engagement followed, and
after a long struggle, the French were
defeated. Montcalm and Wolfe were
both mortally wounded. :

22. The latter died on the field of bat
tle. He had received a bullet in his
wrist, and another: in his leg; but he
concealed these wounds, and pressed in-



20. How did the British army get possession of
the Heights of Abraham? 21. What of, Mont-
calm? How did the French army advance? How
did the English receive them? What of the bat-
tle? Montcalm and Wolfe? 22. How was Wolfe
wounded? Describe his death. 23, What of Que-
140

to the thickest of the fight; but by and
by he was shot in the body, and carried
off the field. When he was ‘dying, he
heard some one say, ‘They fly! they
ny !” «Who fly?” saidhe. “The

rench,” was the answer. “Then I
die ‘contented,” said the hero, and ex-
pired.

23. Five days after this battle, Quebec
surrendered to the English, and has ever
since remained in their possession. It
was the capital of the British possessions
in America, but the governor, appointed
by the king, now lives at Montreal.

24, The next year, the French made
some feeble attempts to recover Quebec,
but without success. In September,
Montreal was taken by the English,
and in 1763 the war was closed by a
— made at Paris. By this a

rance ceded to England all her north-
ern colonies, and these still remain sub-
ject to Great Britain.

25. Thus I have told you of the “ Old
French War.” All the thirteen colonies
were engaged in it, and they furnished
a great many troops, who went to Can-
ada, and assisted in the battles I have
described. I have frequently met with
eld men, as I have told you before, who
were soldiers in that famous war. But
it is now above eighty years since these
things happened, and nearly all those
who acted a part in the scenes of that
day are numbered with the dead. Per-
haps you may meet with some gray-
ha.red old man, who will tell you that
he fought with Wolfe, on the Heights
of Abraham. If you should ever do so,
you should ask him to tell you the story
of that celebrated affair.



bec? What of the French the next year? Mon-
treal? .What occurred in 1763? 'To whom do
the Canadas now belong? 25. What of the thir-
teen colonies? How long since the French war?

THE FIRST BOOK OF HISTORY.—THE REVOLUTION.

CHAPTER L.
THE REVOLUTION.

1. We are now coming to events of
great interest and great importance.
Soon after the French war, the king
and parliament of Great Britain began
to treat the colonies in a very unjust
manner. They had never conducted
generously to them; on the contrary,
their proceedings had generally shown
a desire to make them profitable to Eng-
land, rather than prosperous and happy
among themselves.

2. Yet the people in this country
loved England so well that they easily
forgot these things; and it is probable
that all might have gone on in harmony
for many years, if the British govern-
ment had not attempted to oppress and
enslave the people.

3. It is hardly necessary to tell you
of all the difficulties which preceded the
war; but I will endeavor to make you
understand the principal one. he
British government, being very much
in debt, wanted to raise large sums of
money, and so determined to get a part
of it by taxing the Americans. Now,
the latter maintained that England had
no right to tax them. They thought it
very hard, and very unjust, that parlia-
ment, consisting of men who lived in
England, at a distance of three thou-
sand miles, should take away the money
of the people here, just because they .
happened to want it. Yet this was



1. What of the king and parliament soon after
the French war? How had the colonies been
treated by the government of England? 2. What
of the people of this country? 3. What was the

pal difficulty between England and the colo-
nies which led to the Revolution? What did the
Americans think? What did parliament claim a
right to do? What did parliament do? What
THE REVOLUTION.—BOSTON GARRISONED—MASSACRE.

what parliament claimed the right to
do, and acted accordingly.

4. In opposing this, the Americans
were Poietty right ; but still parliament
passed laws imposing duties upon vari-
ous articles of merchandise brought into
the country. These acts produced a
great ferment throughout the colonies.
The people of Boston were particularly
excited; and fearing rebellion, General
Gage, the British commander, assem-
bled two regiments of soldiers, to keep
them in awe.

5. These troops took possession of the
state-house without leave, and there they
lived. They paraded about the streets,
and filled the ears of the inhabitants
with the constant din of their music.

6. Now my reader will recollect that
these were foreign soldiers, sent with
cannon, muskets, &nd bayonets, to re-
strain a people who considered them-
selves free. It is easy to perceive that
all this was not calculated to soothe their
jealous feelings; on the contrary, it ex-
asperated the people, and prepared them
to take up arms against their oppress-
ors.

7. Such was the state@f irritation in
Boston, in the spring of 1770, that quar-
rels occurred almost every day between
the soldiers and the populace. On the
second of March, as one of the British
soldiers was going by the shop of one
Gray, a rope-maker, he was beaten se-
verely. He ran off, but returned with
some of his comrades, and the soldiers
and rope-makers fell together by the
ears in good earnest. The latter got
the worst of it.

effect had these acts? People of Boston? Gen-
eral Gage? 5. British troops? 6. What effect
was produced by these things upon the feelings of
the people in Boston? 7, What of the spring of
17702 What occurred on the 2d of March? 8—10.

141

8. The people were now more angry
than ever.. A great tumult broke out,
between se¥en and eight o’clock, on the
evening of the 5th of March. The mob,
armed with clubs, ran toward King-
street, now State-street, crying, “Let
us drive out these rascals! They have
no business here! Drive them out!
Drive out the rascals!” About this
time, some one cried out, that the town
had been set on fire. Jhen the bells
rang, and the crowd became greater and
more noisy; they rushed furiously to
the custom-house, and, seeing an Eng-
lish soldier stationed, there, shouted,
“Kill him! kill him!” The people
attacked him with snow-balls, pieces of
ice, and-whatever they could find.

9. The sentinel called for the guard,
and Captain Preston sent a corporal with
a few soldiers to defend him, They
marched with their guns loaded, and the
captain followed them. ‘They met a
crowd of the people, led on by a giant
of a negro, hamed Attucks; they bran-
dished their clubs, and pelted the sol-
diers with snow-balls, abused them with

ar

>

a] t My ; ey)
r »~ "
wa.
eS
ye



People attacking the Soldiers,
all manner of harsh words, showed in

What occurred on the evening of the 5th of March1
* an immense crowd of

142

their faces, surrounded them, and chal-
lenged them to fire.

10. They even rushed updh the points
of the bayonets. The soldiers stood like
statues, the bells ringing, and the mob
pressing upon them. At last, Attucks,
with twelve of his men, began to strike
upon their muskets with clubs, and cried
out to the multitude, « Don’t be afraid!
They dare not fire —the miserable cow-
ards! Kill the rascals! Crush them
under foot!” Attucks lifted his arm
against Captain Preston, and seized up-
on a bayonet. “They dare not fire!”
shouted the mob again. At this instant
the firing began. The negro dropped
dead upon the ground. The soldiers
fired twice more. Three men were
killed, and others were wounded. The
mob dispersed, but soon returned to car-
ry off the bodies.

11. The whole town was now in an
uproar. Thousands of men, women,
and children, rushed through the streets.
The sound of drums, and cries of “To
arms! to arms!” were heard from all
quarters. The soldiers who had fired
on the people were arrested, and the

governor at last persuaded the multitude.

to go home quietly. The troops were
ordered off to Castle William,now Cas-
tleIsland. The three slain citizens were
buried, with great ceremony, on the Sth ;
the shops were all closed; while the
bells in Boston, and the towns around,
were al] tolling.

12. The bodies were followed to the
churchyard, from King-street, through
the city, by a-long file of coaches, and

The soldiers were soon after tried. Two

ts Mian ties atts thn Withins obaane

upon the people? What of the British troops?
The burial of the slain citizens? 12. Trial of the
soldiers ?

ople on foot.

THE FIRST BOOK OF HISTORW.—THE REVOLUTION.

were condemned and imprisoned; six
of them were acquitted, much to the
honor of the jury, and of John Adams
and Josiah Quincy, who pleaded for
them. ‘The irritated and unreasonable
populace would have torn the soldiers
in pieces, if they could have had their
way.

CHAPTER. LI.
REVOLUTION—Continvep.

1, In Marchy 1771, the English par-
liament conelnded to repeal the duties
upon glass, paint, &c., but retained a
tax of threepence a pound upon tea.
This was a sad mistake. If parliament
had repealed all, and said no more
about taxes, the Americans might still
have been satisfied, As it was, they
began to buy the goods of the English
merchants again, tea alone excepted ; this
they would have nothing to do with.

2. So matters went on, during the
year 1771. The officers of the revenue
were everywhere despised. In Boston,
one of them undertook to seize upon a
vessel, for sgme violation of the law.
He was sein upon himself by the peo-
ple, for what: they thought a violation
of the law, stripped, carted through the
town, besmeared with tar, and plastered
over with a coat of feathers, so that he
looked more like an ostrich than a man.

3. In 1772, the English government,
intending to put down the rebellious
spirit of the Americans, made several
new laws, which only served to increase
the difficulty. The Americans now be-


ee ee ee

THE REVOLUTION.—TEA-#BOSTON TEA-PARTY—PORT BILL. 143

gan to think of doing something for them-
selves, in earnest. Committees were cho-
sen in eve rt of the country, to at-
tend to public affairs, and to write to
each other. é

4. In 1773, large ships, loaded with
immense cargoes of tea, were sent out
to, America, by some merchants in Eng-
land. But the colonists had made u
their minds what to do. In Philadel-
phia and New York, not a man could
be found to receive the English tea, or
have anything to do with it. A few
chests, which one Captain Chambers
had brought to Philadelphia, were let
down very quietly to the bottom of the
river, by some people, who went slyly
on béard the ship. : Charleston it was
landed and lodged in cellars so damp
that it was soon spoiled.

5. The people of Boston took a keen
interest in this business. The English
agents there, when the tea was first
known to be coming, were required by

the people to give up all concern with it. |

They made no answer, but withdrew, as
fast as convenient, into the fortress. Cap-
tain Hall soon arrived in port, with one
hundred chests of tea. ‘Fhe people col-
lected in great fury, ordered him to keep
it on board, as he valued his life, and
placed a guard close by the vessel, up-
on Griffin’s Wharf, east of Fort Hill.
6. Two other vessels having arrived,
they were bdbliged to anchor by the side
of Hall’s ship. A town-meeting, mean-
while, was summoned; and the people
agreed to call upon the governor, and
request him to have the ships sent off.
Byt the gove ould do no such
thing. A an. A



seen in the gallery of the hall, dressed
ike an Indjan, shouted the cry of war.

7. The Theeting was dissolved in the
twinkling of an eye, and the multitude
rushed to Griffin's Wharf. Here were
seventeen sea-captains, carpenters, and
others, disguised as Indians. It was
night, and these persons went on board
the three vessels, and, in less than two
hours, three hundred and forty chests
were staved and emptied into the sea.
This done, they went quietly home, and
the crowd dispersed, very well satisfied.

8. Early in 1774, an account of these
disturbances having reached England,
the government then determined, by
way of punishing the people of Boston,
to destroy the trade of that town, by
forbidding all manner of goods to be
landed there. Accordingly, the Boston
Port Bill. was passed in parliament,
March 14th, and the news was received
in Boston, May 10th. Like other -un-
just laws, this also did more hurt than
good.

9. In a few days after the Port Bill
was passed, other laws were made, still
more-severe. They were opposed, in
England, by some persons; but a large
part, both of the parliamerit and people,
supposed, if the Americans were pun-
ished and frightened pretty well, they
would, by and by, be more submissive
to the mother country. This was an-
other sad mistake.

10. Not only the people of Boston,
but the whole people of America,—
north, south, east, and west, —were
more yindignant than ever. Town-
meetings were held, days of fasting
esc th dS
were three hundred and forty chests of tea de-
stroyed? 8, What occurred in 17742 Boston
Port Bill? 9. Other laws? What did the
and parliament of England think? 10. What of
the

a
*
144

appointed, and news of the Port Bill
spread over the whole country. An
agreement to stop all trad® with Eng-
land, called the “league and covenant,”
was signed by immense numbers.

11. Those who refused to sign it were
hooted at as enemies of the country.
General Gage, at Boston, issued a*proc-
lamation against the league, and de-
clared it treasonable. But these Avere
mere words; and the Bostonians pub-
lished, in return, that the general's proc-
lamation was treason.

12. On the first of June the Port Bill
was put in force. At midday, all busi-
ness ceased in the custom-house; no
vessel was suffered to enter the harbor.
Very little was now done, for the rich
had no money to spare, and the poor
had no employment. The soldiers pa-
raded the streets in triumph.

13. But the Bostonians were not for-
gotten. The country was awake on all
sides. The first of June was kept as a
fast day, in many places. In Philadel-
phia, the shops were shut, and the bells
tolled. The people of Marblehead and
Salem offered the Boston merchants
their harbors, wharves and warehouses,
free of all costs and large sums of mon-
ey, and other things, collected in all
parts of the country, were sent into Bos-
ton.

14. Ser»us preparations began to be
made for war. People provided them-
selves with arms, formed companies, and
learned, as fast as possible, the business
of soldiers. Being most of them used
to hunting, they were good marksmen.
In all places, nothing was heard but the
noise of drums and fifes. Fathers and



.
11, General Gage? Bostonigns? 12. Port Bill?
13. Bostonians? First of June? Philadelphia?
People of Marblehead and Salem? Money and
other things? 14, What preparations were made

THE FIRST BOOK OF HISTORY.—THE REVOLUTION.

sons, young and old, became soldiers,
and even women and girls set about
casting balls and making cartridges.

15, Meanwhile, the jealousy of the
people tqward the soldiers continued to
increase. Even the children caught the

eneral feeling, as a story will show you.
During the winter, before the Port Bill

assed, the boys were in the habit of
building hills of snow on the Common,
and sliding down upon them to the pond. _
The English troops beat down these
hills, merely to provoke the children.
The boys complained of the injury, and
set about repairing it. However, when
they returned from school, they found
the snow hills beat down again.

16. Several of the boys now waited
upon the British captain, and informed
him of the conduct of his soldiers; but
he would have nothing to say to them ;
and the soldiers were more impudent
than ever. At last, they called a meet-
ing of the largest boys, and sent them
to General Gage, commander-in-chief.

17. He asked why so many children
had called upon him. “ We came, sir,”
said the tallest boy, “to demand satis-
faction.” ‘ What!” said the general ;
“have your fathers been teaching you
rebellion, and sent you to show it here?”
“ Nobody sent us, sir,” answered the boy,
while his cheek reddened and his eye
flashed ; “we have never injured or in-
sulted your troops; but they have trod-
den down our snow hills, and broken
the ice on our skating ground. We
complained, and they called us young
rebels, and told us to help ourselves if
we could. We captain of this,
esterday our
a third time;
longer.” .




THE REVOLUTION.—FIRST BLOOD SHED AT LEXINGTON, ETC. 145

18. The general looked at them with

admiration, and said to an officer at his

‘ side, “ The very children draw in a love

of liberty with the air they breathe. —

You-may go, my brave boys; and be

assured, if my pars 8 trouble you again,
they shall be punished.”



CHAPTER LII.
REVOLUTION —Continvep.

1. I have now told you something
which preceded the Revolutionary War.
You see, by what I have told you, that
the people in all parts of the country
were resolved to resist the oppression
of the British government. Slowly and
reluctantly had they come to the deci-
sion; but now that the spirit of the na-
tion was roused, they were ready to go
into the field, and shed their blood in
the sacred cause of liberty.

2. In this state of things, nothing was
wanting but some occasion which might
call the feelings of the people into action ;
and this was not long delayed. There
were some military stores at Concord,
about eighteen ile from Boston, be-
longing to the Americans. These Gen-
eral Gage wished to destroy; and for
this purpose, he sent about eight hun-
dred grenadiers and light infantry from
Boston, at eleven o’clock in the evening
of the 18th of April, 1776.

3. Notice of this was immediately car-
ried into the country. By two o’clock
in the morning, ae eid and thirty
of, rip Lexington militia had assembled
on the green, at the meeting-house, to
oppose them. They were dismissed, but







had the people of the country resolved
2. Military stores at Concord? What did
Gage do? 3, Lexington militia? In
is Lexington from Boston? Brit-

10

collected again between four and five, at
the beat of.the drum. By and by, the
body of British troops come marchi
up the road, Major Pitcairn at their head.
“Disperse, you rebels!” cried the ma-
jor, addressing the militia ; “ throw down
your arms, and disperse!” They did
not disperse, however. He now rode
forward, discharged his pistol, bran-
dished his sword, and ordered his sol-
diers to fire. They did so, and three or
four of the Americans were killed. The
soldiers shouted, fired again, and then
proceeded toward Concord.

4, At Concord they disabled two can-
non, threw five hundred pounds of ball
into the wells, and staved about sixty
barrels of flour. They fired upon the
Concord militia, under Major Buttrick’s
command. Two men were killed; a
skirmish followed; and the English re-
treated, as fast as possible, to Lexington.
By this time, the people were coming
upon them from all parts of the country.
The British were fired upon on all sides,
from sheds, houses, and fences,

5. At Lexington, where they halted
to rest, they were joined by nine hun-
dred more troops, sent out from Boston,
under Lord Perey. These brought two
cannon with them ; and the country peo-
ple were kept back. They still fired up-
on the troops, however, and being gen-
erally good marksmen, made terrible:
havoc. The regulars, as the English
troops were called, reached Charlestown.
at sunset, and returned the next day into:
Boston. Sixty-five of their number had:



ish troops? Major Pitcairn? What did the sol-
diers do? 4, What was done at Concord? What
took place when the British had returned to Lex-
ington? 5. Lord Percy? What did the Amori-
cans do? What were the English ¢ called 7
What of their return to Boston? H wt
were killed and wounded, and made prisoners
146

been killed, one hundred and eighty
wounded, and twenty-eight made pris-
oners.

6. Of the provincials, fifty were killed,
and thirty-eight wounded and missing.
There were never more than three or
four hundred of the latter fighting at one
‘time, and these fought as they pleased,
without order. The regulars were
obliged to keep in the main road; but
the militia, knowing every inch of the
country, flanked them, and fired upon
them at all the corners.

7. The news of this first battle pro-
duced a tremendous excitement through-
out the country. The dead were buried
with great ceremony. Great bodies of
militia marched towards Boston, and
agreements were entered into by thou-
sands of people, to defend the Bostoni-
ans to the last gasp.

8, Everybody was armed and ready
to fight. When the news of the Lex-
ington battle reached Barnstable, a com-
pany of militia started off for Cambridge,
at once. In the front was a young man,
the only child of an old farmer. As
they came to the old gentleman’s house,
they halted a moment. The drum and
fife ceased. The farmer came out, with
his gray head bare. “God be with you
all!” said he; “and you, John, if you
must fight, fight like a man, or never let
me see you ee The oldman gave
him his blessing. The brave fellow
brushed a tear from his eye, and the
company of patriots marched on.

“9. I will tell you one or two more
stories, which ahve ou understand
the excitement produced by the battle

6. How many of the provincials? How many
provincials were engaged in the battle? The reg-
ulars? Militia? On what day did the battle of
Lexington occur? 7. What effect had the news
of this battle? 8. Story of an old man at Barn-

THE FIRST BOOK OF HISTORY.—THE REVOLUTION,

of Lexington. The news teached a
small town in Connecticut, on the morn-
ing of the Sabbath. It was nearly time
to go to meeting, when the beating of a
drum, and the ringing of the bell, attract-
ed the attention of the people.

10. In expectation that some great
event was about to happen, every un-
usual signal had a startling effect.
When the drum and the bell were
heard, therefore, the men came running
to the meeting-house green, in breath-
less haste. Soon the clergyman was
among them, and they were all told that
some of their countrymen had been shot
by the British soldiers, at Lexington.
The faces of the men, as they heard it,
were pale, but not from fear; it was im-
mediately resolved, that thirty persons
should be equipped, and set out for
Boston. Those who could best go were
selected, and went home to make prep-
arations.

11. At noon, they had all returned to
the little lawn in front of the meeting-
house. There was a crowd of snegh
around. There were friends and ac-
quaintances, and wives and children.
Such as were not well supplied with
clothes and equipments, were imme-
diately furnished by their neighbors.
Among the crowd, there was one re-
markable individual. This was a rich
old miser, who was never known to part
with his money, but with extreme re-
luctance. On the present occasion, his
nature seemed changed. He took sev-
eral of the soldiers apart, whom he sup-
posed likely to be destitute, and putrinto
their hands about thirty dollars of hard
cash ; at the same time saying, ina low
a “ a oe rascals! beat them!

you come , perhaps you will
me; if not, God bios mo my

less you!
stable? 9—12. Story of a small town in Connecti-


—_—

»

REVOLUTION. —FARMERS TURN SOLDIERS,

12. After all the arrangements were
made, the soldiers entered the broad
aisle of the church. An affecting and
fervent prayer was then offered by the
ee in behalf of the country, and
in behalf of these brave men, that were
about to enter upon the dangerous
chances of war. After the prayer, he
made a short but animated address, en-
couraging the men to do their duty.
He pronounced a blessing, and then
they departed.

13. I will now tell you about General
Putnam. He was a brave man, and
lived at Brooklyn, in Connecticut. He
was a farmer, and was ploughing in the
field when the tidings from Lexington
were brought to him. He did not stay
even to unharness his cattle; but leav-
ing the plough in che unfinished furrow,
he went to his house, gave some hasty
directions respecting his affairs, mount-
ed his horse, and with a rapid pace pro-
ceeded to Boston.

14. In the course of a few weeks,
thirty thousand men had arrived from
various parts of the country. They
were, indeed, poorly armed, but they
were full of resolution. Most of them
were farmers and mechanics, who had
spent their lives in peace, and knew
nothing of war. But the blood of their
countrymen had been spilled, and they
had come to right their wrongs. They
had no cannon, no leaders, but little am-
munition, and many of them had no
guns. But in spite of these deficiencies,
they were full of courage, and ready,
as soon as an opportunity offered, to
meet the British troops in open battle.

cut? 13, Gen, Putnam? 14, How many people
had assembled in Boston in the course of a few
weeks? What of them?

oF. State of the country.at the commencement of

147 .

ETC.

CHAPTER LIII.
REV OLU TION —Conrinvuzp,

1. I must beg my readers to pause
here a moment, and consider the state
of the country at this point of our story.
It was not then, as now, full of wealth,
and covered with large towns and cities.
Boston, which has now six score thou-
sand inhabitants, had then but ten thou-
sand. New York, Philadelphia, and
other large places, were then compara-
tively small. The country was poor,
and the whole number of inhabitants,
throughout the thirteen colonies, was
scarcely three millions; yet they were
about to engage in a strife with Great
Britain, the most powerful nation on the

earth.

2. She had nearly one thousand ships
of war, and the Americans had none.
She had powerful armies, skilful gener-
als, and an abundance of all the mate-
rials for making war. Such was, in-
deed, the et and apparent weakness
of America, such the mighty power of
England, that in Europe it was gen-
erally believed that the Americans must
be crushed in the struggle.

3. But our brave fathers thought not
so. They knew the power of England,
but they knew also that the race is not
always to the swift, nor the battle to the
strong. Placing their confidence in
Heaven and the justice of their cause,
they entered boldly into the contest, and,
as we shall see in the end, triumphed
over their oppressors.

4. The war having been opened by
the battle of Lexington, the Americans



the war? Boston? New York and Philadelphia?
Population of the thirteen colonies? Great Brit-
ain? 2. Her navy? Armies? Generals, &.?
What was generally believed in Europe? 3. What
of our forefathers? 4. The Americans? Ticom-
148

determined to prosecute it, on their part,
with vigor. They sent some soldiers
against two British forts, Ticonderoga
and Crown Point, both of which were
easily captured. The militia invested
Boston, and pretty soon the British
troops, of which there were several
thousands in that town, began to feel a
little uncomfortable. The Americans
had two or three old, rusty cannon, with
which they blazed away upon the ene-
my, making a good deal of noise, and
doing some execution.

5. Gen. Gage did not like to be
cooped up in Boston, with his men; so
he determined to cut through the militia
with his troops, and take up some sta-
tion in the country. To prevent this,
the Americans sent a thousand men by
night to occupy Bunker Hill. By mis-
take they went to Breed’s Hill, situated
in Charlestown, and very near to Bos-
ton. At midnight they began to erect
entrenchments, and working with all
their might, they had thrown up a small
/redoubt,eight.rods square, by the dawn
of day. The British were utterly aston-
ished, when they saw what was going
on. Knowing that the Americans could
throw their cannon balls down upon
them from the hill, they saw the neces-
sity of immediately driving them away,
if pessible.

6. It was now the 17th of June, and
the British troops were soon put in mo-
tion. The whole town of Boston re-
sounded with the noise of drums and
fifes. Heavy columns of soldiers march-
ed along the streets, and entered the
boats to cross over to Breed’s Hill. A
great many cannon, from the British



deroga and Crown Point? * Militia? British

7 Cannon? 6, Gen. Gage? What did
the Americans do? Breed’s Hill? The British?
0. What day wee this? place in Bos-

THE FIRST BOOK OF HISTORY.—THE REVOLUTION.

ships, and other places, opened their fire
upon the Americans, and the balls went
howling through the air, and ploughing
up the ground, but doing little damage.

7. The Americans knew what was
coming, and, like men, not to be turned
from their purpose, labored steadily at
their works. There were Prescott, Put-
nam, Warren, and other brave leaders,
among them. There were no idle hands,
there were no coward hearts, there: ev-
ery man entered with his whole soul
into the business of the awful crisis.

8. Atlength the British landed : some
of them entered Charlestown, and set it
on fire. The flames ran from house to
house, until the whole town was in-
volved in one vast blaze. Pretty soon
the troops began to advance up the hill
towards the Americans. The latter
were now ready, and having placed
themselves behind their “breastworks,
lay waiting for the enemy. There were
gray-haired old men, with their sons
and grandsons near them; there were
neighbors, friends, and brothers, side by
side.

9. The British advanced bravely.
They were led by General Howe and
other gallant officers.- With steady
confidence they marched towards the
American lines. It was now an awful
moment. Thousands and thousands of
people covered the hills, and houses, and
steeples of Boston, that they might see
the fight. The cannon, for a few min-
utes, ceased their roar; everything
around seemed to pause and look with
breathless interest upon the scene.

10. The British came on. The still-.
ness of death rested upon the Amerigan’
lines. At length, the enemy had see -—

ton? What of the British cannon? 7. The Aimer-
icans? What leaders among the Americans? 8.
The British? Charlestown? 9, 10. Describe the,

o
»”

_,
da rn a en inaeenemeemnannaan
battle.” 11. Loss of the British? Of the Ameri-
‘‘eans? British officers? 12. Where was the bat-

y.
°

REVOLUTION.—-EFFECTS OF BUNKER HILL BATTLE, ETC. 149

proached within a few rods, when, at a
givén signal, a thousand bullets were
suddenly hurled amid their ranks. For
a few seconds, the Americans kept up a
deadly fire, and the British were obliged
to retreat. But they soon rallied, and
came again upon the Americans. They
were again driven back. Still a third
time they rallied, and the Americans,
having used up all their powder and
ball, fought for some time with the but-
ends of their muskets, and then reluc-
tantly retreated.

11. In this battle, ten hundred and
fifty-four of the British were killed and
wounded ; of the Americans, four hun-
dred and fifty-three. The British offi-
cers were astonished at the result; they
had despised the Americans before, and
never imagined that a collection of peo-
ple, who had not learnt the art of war,
commanded by no experienced officers,
and but poorly provided with arms and
ammunition, could make such havoc
among disciplined troops.

12. This battle, though it was fought
on Breed’s Hill, is called the battle of
Bunker. Hill. The Americans were
driven back, indeed; but this happened
only because their ammunition was ex-
pended. It gave the people great cour-
age, for it showed that they could beat
the British regulars in a fair fight.

13. Yet the Americans, though they
rejoiced, at their partial success, had
much occasion for sorrow. Many of
their friends and neighbors had been
killed, and among these was Gen. War-
ren, who was greatly beloved by all the
pegple.’ He was fighting in the midst
of the battle, when a British officer, who



' tle of Bunker Hill fought 2+ Why were the Amer-

icans driven back? Why did the battle of Bunker

knew him, took a gun from a soldier,
and shot him through the head. The



monument, of which a cut and descrip-
tion are given at page 31, is erected
near the spot where he fell.

CHAPTER LIV.
REVOLUTION—Conrtinvzp.

1. The people of the colonies, finding
it necessary to have some general gov-
ernment, had* sent some of their wisest
men to Philadelphia, to manage public
affairs. These were called the Con-
tinental Congress. They appointed
George Washington, of Virginia, com-
mander-in-chief of the American armies,
and in about a fortnight after the battle
of Bunker Hill, he reached Cambridge,
three miles from Boston. He found
about fourteen thousand militia in the
neighborhood, and immediately exerted
himself to teach them the art of war.

2. To tell of all the interesting events
of the Revolution would fill a large book.



Hill encourage the Americans? 13. Gen, War-
ren? Describe the picture.

1. Continental Congress? Washington? Mi
150

I can only give you a few details, and
leave you to read the whole history in
some larger work. The war soon spread
over the country, and many skirmishes
took place between the provincials and
the British soldiers.

3. During the latter part of the year
1775, two expeditions were sent against
Canada ; one, consisting of three thou-
sand men, was put under the command
of Gen. Schuyler, and went by the way
of Lake Champlain; the other, consist-
ing of eleven hundred men, and com-
manded by Gen. Arnold, went up the
Kennebec river, and crossed the wilder-
ness to Quebec.

4. The soldiers under the command
of Arnold suffered incredible hardships.
For several days, they were almost en-
tirely destitute of food, and many of
them were nearly starved to death.
Yet these privations were borne with
fortitude, and the men at length reached
Quebec.

5. An attack was finally made upon
that place; but Gen. Arnold being
wounded, and Gen. Montgomery killed,
it failed of success. After, many vicissi-
tudes, the American troops were obliged
to return, without having accomplished
the objects of the two expeditions in
which they had been engaged.

6. The spring of 1776 opened with
favorable prospects for the Americans.
Gen. Washington managed so well,
that, in March, Gen. Howe, with all the
British troops, was forced to quit Bos-
ton. On the 17th, the fleet set sail for
Halifax, and the American troops en-
tered the town.

7. On the 4th of July, of this year,

litia? =2. What of the war? 3, Gen. Schuyler?
Gen, Arnold? 4. What of his expedition? 5.
Attack on Quebec? .6. General Howe? 7. De-
elaration of Independence, what? Fourth of July?

THE FIRST BOOK OF HISTORY.—THE REVOLUTION.

Congress made a solemn declaration,
that the people of America would sub-
mit to the government of England no
more, but that they would be a free
and independent nation. This is called
the Dudlasation of Independence. It
was hailed by the inhabitants with the
greatest joy, and the day is still cele-
brated every 4th of July. From this
time each of the colonies became a state,
and, joined together under the general
government of Congress, they became a
free nation, under the name of the United
States.

8. At this time, the hopes and the
courage of the country were very high ;
but these were soon depressed by great
misfortunes. In August, a powerful
British army came, in ships, against
New York. Washington was there
with many troops; but after a great
deal of fighting, they were forced to quit
the place, and give it up to the British.
Several American forts were also taken,
and the provincial army, now very
much reduced, retreated to New Jersey.

9. The British officers thought the
war nearly finished, and large numbers
of the American people feared that the
power of England was about to triumph
over the liberties of the country. One
event, however, revived,a little their
sinking courage. In December, Gen.
Washington, being on the Pennsylvania
side of the Delaware, with the Ameri-
can troops, suddenly crossed that river
to Trenton. At this place there were
about one thousand soldiers, who came
from Hesse in Germany, and were called
Hessians. They had been hired by the
British, and came to this country to
fight for them against the Americans.



What of the colonies? 8. New York? Provin-

cial army? 9. British officers? Describe the

capture of the Hessians. Describe the picture,
~
REVOLUTION, —LAFAYETTE — BURGOYNE, ETC.

Washington came suddenly upon them,
‘and took nine hundred prisoners.



American Troops crossing the Delaware.

10. In January, 1777, Washington
attacked some British troops at Prince-
ton, killed one hundred men, and took
three hundred prisoners. In this battle,
James Monroe, who was afterwards
president of the United States, was
wounded. Washington himself, whose
bravery led him into the midst of the
fight, was placed in great danger, but
escaped unhurt. The British were so
much astonished at these bold and sud-
den enterprises, that they retreated to
New Brunswick, and left the American
army to take up their winter quarters
quietly at Morristown.

11. In the spring of 1777, Lafay-
ette, a young French nobleman, left his
country, and came to assist the Ameri-
cans. He became the bosom friend of
Washington, and was appointed a gen-
eral in the army. He fought bravely
and successfully for our country; and
afterward returned to France, where he
continued till his death, striving to se-
cure, for his native land, the blessings of
that liberty which he assisted our fathers
to establish here.

10. What took place in Jan., 177772 James Mon-
oe? Washington? The British? 11. Lafay-







151

12. In September, of this year, Gen.
Howe left New York, with a strong
British force, in a great many ships.
These entered Chesapeake Bay, and the
troops proceeded towards Philadelphia.
Washington met them at every point,
and fought several battles. But the
Americans were obliged to retreat, and
the British entered Philadelphia on the
26th.

13. About the time that the events oc-
curred which I have just related, others,
of great importance, were taking place
in the north. Gen. Burgoyne, a famous
British officer, set out from Canada with
one of the finest armies that was ever
known, intending to proceed to. New
York, across the country, by way of
Lake Champlain. Gen. Gates assem-
bled a considerable force to oppose him. -
The brave inhabitants left their farms,
and came in hundreds to assist him.
Several skirmishes took place, and, on
the 16th of August, a detachment, sent
by Burgoyne to destroy some stores at
Bennington, was defeated, as I have told
you in the history of Vermont.

14. On the 18th of September, a fierce
battle was fought at Stillwater, near Sar-
atoga. On the 7th of October, another
battle was fought. The greatest bravery
was displayed on both sides, and night
only terminated the conflict. Burgoyne
retreated to the heights of Saratoga, and
the Americans pursued. ‘The situation
of the British troops was now distress-
ing. Many of their officers had been
killed; they were surrounded by active
enemies, and they had only food enough
left for three days. Having no hope of
escape, they were obliged to surrender ;

ette? 12)Gen. Howe? Washington? When
did the. British enter Philadelphia? 13. Gen.
Burgoyne ? » Gen. Gates?» Battle of Bennington 1
14. Eighteenth of September? Seventh of Octo-
152

and on the 17th of October, the whole
army, consisting of six thousand men,
laid down their arms. This was a great
event, and, amid many losses and re-
verses, sustained the hopes of the Amer-
ican people.

CHAPTER LV.
REVOLUTION—Conrtisvep.

1. The year 1778 opened with an
event which occasioned great joy in
America. In February, the govern-
ment of France acknowledged the inde-
pendence of the colonies, and promised
to send ships, troops, cannon, guns, and
ammunition, to assist them. The gov-
ernment of Great Britain, hearing of
this, and being alarmed by the defeat



and capture of their favorite general,
Burgoyne, and his army, determined, if
possible, to make up the quarrel with
America. Accordingly, they sent some
men to Philadelphia, to arrange the
business with Congress.

2. They offered to grant all that the
Americans had claimed, to lay no more
taxes, and to repeal all their unjust and
offensive laws. But now that the peo-
ple had suffered so much, Congress
would not listen to these terms. The
English agents, finding that they could
not succeed in this way, attempted to
bribe Joseph Reed, one of the members. |
They offered him a great deal of money,
and a rich office, if he would bring about
a reconciliation between the two coun-
tries.

3. But Mr. Reed was an honest man:



ber? Burgoyne? British troops? Their sur-
render?

1, Government of France? * Government of
Great Britain? 2,3. What offer did her agents
make? Congress? + Joseph Reed? 4. Honesty ?

THE FIRST BOOK OF HISTORY.—THE REVOLUTION,

he loved his country, and would not sell
his conscience for gold or power. He
replied to the unworthy offer: —“I am
not worth purchasing ; but, poor as
am, your king has not money enough to
buy me.” Such noble conduct as this
was not uncommon among the true-
hearted pattiots of our glorious revolu-
tion. The brave fighting, the daring
courage, the bold enterprise, of our sol-
diers, did not more contribute to the sal-
vation of our country, in that day of trial,
than the steadfast truth and sincerity of
our public men.

4. I must add one word more on this
subject. My young readers should un-
derstand, that when they grow up, it
will be the duty of many of them to as-
sist in choosing officers to rule over the
country. Now, let them remember that
the country is safe only in the hands of
honest men. Let them, therefore, never
assist, directly or indirectly, in bringing
any other than honest men into office.
If they do so, they sell their country,
and are not woke of those blessings
which our forefathers fought and bled to
secure.

5. In June, that part of the British
army which was in Philadelphia left
that city, and marched across the coun-
try to New York. Washington, with
his troops, forsook his log huts in the
woods, and pursued them. At Mon-
mouth, a fierce battle was fought, of
which I have told you in the history of
New Jersey. The British had’ the
worst of the battle, five hundred of their
men being killed and wounded. Sir
Henry Clinton, the British commander,
stole away with his troops by night, and
escaped to New York. ,

6. In July, Count d’Estaing came
eee

5. What took place in June, 17782 Washington?
Battle of Monmouth? Sir Henry Clinton? 6,
REVOLUTION.—MASSACRE IN THE VALE OF WYOMING.

with a large French fleet to assist the
Americans; but he effected nothing, and
at the close of the season, sailed for the
West Indies.

7. I will now tell you about Wyo-
ming. This was a beautiful little dis-
trict in Pennsylvania, situated in what
is the present county of Luzerne. Here
were a few small villages, the people of
which were almost wholly occupied in
agriculture. They were surrounded
with charming forests, and bright mead-
ows, and green hills, and sparkling riv-
ulets; all around was happiness, peace,
and plenty. But this lovely spot was
destined to become the scene of cruel-
ties scarcely equalled in the history of
human warfare.

8. The British officers and soldiers
hady become very bitter in their feelings
toward the Americans. The capture
of Burgoyne had wounded their pride,
and their general bad success irritated
and exasperated them. Above all, the
French, whom they hated most cordial-
ly, had now taken part with the Ameri-
cans. Acting under the influence of
their embittered feelings, they conducted
the war, in many instances, rather as if
they were fighting with savages, than
with civilized men.

9. The people of Wyoming had sent
some of their men to foht against the
British, and for this they were to be
scourged. .A band of four hundred In-
dians, and about as many tories, were
sent against them. The inhabitants
heard of their danger, but too late for
effectual defence. They, however, threw
up some hasty breast-works, and gath-
ered their families into them. The
enemy at length appeared before one of



Count d’Estaing? 7. What of Wyoming? Brit--

ish officers and soldiers? How did they conduct
the war? 9—12./'Tell the story of Wyoming.

153

the forts, and pretended that they wished
to make peace. They invited the com-
mander to come out, for this purpose ;
so he and the soldiers went to meet
them, at a place appointed in the woods ;
but when they reached the spot, not an
Indian nor a tory was there; they
pressed on through the dark paths of
the forests, but found no one.

10. At last, they saw themselves sur-
rounded by the enemy. The savages
were in every bush. They sprung out
upon them, uttering terrible yells. All
but sixty, of four hundred men, were
murdered with the most horrible cru-
elty.

Th. The enemy then went back to
the fort, and, to frighten the people
within, hurled over the gates the scalps
of their husbands, brothers, and fathers.
They now inquired of the leader of the
tories, what terms he would give them.
He answered only, “The hatchet!”
They fought as long as possible, but the
enemy soon enclosed the fort with dry
wood, and then set it on fire. The un-
happy people within were involved in
the flames, and they all perished, men,
women, and children, in the awful blaze.

12. The whole Wyoming country
was now ravaged. The people were
scalped; the harvests, houses, and or-
chards, were burned; even the tongues
of the horses and cattle were cut out,
and the poor creatures left to perish.

——

CHAPTER LVI.
REVOLUTION —Conciupep.

1. The year 1779 was distinguished
by no remarkable occurrences. The
English took Savannah, and repulsed
the French and Americans, who at-

1, The year 17792 What occurred at Savannah ?
154

tempted to recapture the city, with se-
vere loss. Gen. Tryon went to Con-
necticut with several hundred men,
plundered New Haven, and burnt the
towns of Fairfield and Norwalk. In
August, Gen. Sullivan marched against
the Indians in the western part of the
‘State of New York. These had taken
part with the British, and had commit-
ted many acts of cruelty and violence
upon the inhabitants of the country.
The American troops went to chastise
them for this conduct.

2. At this time the whole country,
from Utica westward, was inhabited
only by savages. Yet Gen. Sullivan
found that these had very comfortable
houses, a great many peach and apple

trees, and very fine fields of corn. But |

it was his duty to destroy them. He
set the villages on fire, and laid the
whole country waste. He then returned
with his men to his quarters in Pennsyl-
vania.

3. On the 12th of May, 1780, Charles-
ton, in South Carolina, surrendered to the
British, after a gallant defence by Gen.
Lincoln. Several battles took place,
during the season, in North and Routh
Carolina, in most of which the Ameri-
cans were defeated.

4. In July, Count Rochambeau, with
six thousand French troops, arrived at
Rhode Island, and marched across the
country to join Washington, near New
York. These troops were welcomed by
the inhabitants with great joy. When
they encamped at night, though most of
them were weary, there were many of
them still ready to spend an hour in
amusement. Some green spot was se-

Gen. Tryon? Gen. Sullivan? 2, Country west
of Utica? What of the Indian houses, &.? What
did Gen, Sullivan do? 3. Charleston? North and
South Carolina? 4. Count Rochambeau? De-

THE FIRST BOOK OF HISTORY.—THE REVOLUTION,

lected, a violin was brought, and the

village maidens <* gayly in the
ite Frenchmen.

dance with the po




The French Camp at Evening.
5. Washington had hoped, with the
assistance of the French troops, to*re-
take New York; but the British assem-
bled so great a force there, that it was
thought imprudent to underfake it.
Thus the seasyp passed, the Americans
having gained” nothing and lost much.
The hopes of the country were indeed
very much depressed ; nor did it revive
them to learn that one of their generals
had become a traitor to his country.

6. This was Benedict Arnold, the
same man who led an army into Cana-
da, in 1775. He was a very bold and
intrepid man; but he was selfish and
unprincipled. He held the command
of a very important fort at West Point.
He signified to the British his willing-
ness to give up the fort, and Major An-
dre, a fine young officer, was sent pri-
vately to make a bargain with him. It
was agreed that Arnold should put the
British in possession of the fort, and
that they should give him fifty thousand



scribe the picture. 5, Washington? Hopes of
the country at the end of the year 17807 6, Char.
acter of Amold? How did he propose to give up
REVOLUTION. —ARNOLD’S TREASON, ETC.

dollars and a general’s command in the
British army.

7. When all things were arranged,
Andre secretly set out to return; but he
was detected, and the whole plot was
discovered. Arnold escaped to the
British at New York, and his name has
ever since been covered with infamy.
Andre was tried as a spy, and justly
hung on a gallows.

8. During the spring of 1781,a great
many battles and skirmishes were fought
in North and South Carolina. The
British were commanded by Lord Corn-
wallis, and the Americans by Gen.
Greene. The latter were frequently
defeated, yet they were never discour-
aged, and the result of the whole cam-
paign was highly advantageous to the
American cause.

9. In the summer of 1781, Lord
Cornwallis was stationed at Yorktown,
in Virginia, with ten thousand ‘British
troops. Washington was near New
York, making re rations to attack
that city, where Sir Henry Clinton held
the command. But his army being too
small, he determined to march to the
south, against Cornwallis. Accordingly,

he set out with the army; and before.

Sir Henry Clinton suspected his design,
he had already nels Delaware.
10. About this time, Arnold, the trai-
tor, was sent with some British troops
against New London. They took Fort
Griswold by assault, and after the gar-
rison had surrendered, murdered nearly
the whole of them in cold blood. The
then burnt New London to the ground,

the fort at West Point? What of Andre? 7.
What did Arnold do after the discovery of the
plot? Fate of Andre? 8. The year 1781? The
British? Americans? Result of the whole cam-
paign? 9. Lord Cornwallis? Washington?
What did Washington determine to do? 10, Ar-
nold? ‘Fort Griswold? Washington? 11, How

155

and returned to New York. But the
period of British triumph was fast draw-
ing to a close. Was — marched
on, and was joined by a large number
of French troops, who had just arrived
in the Chesapeake, under Count de
Grasse.

11. The combined army amounted to
sixteen thousand men. Cornwallis was .
sheltered by strong fortifications; but
the Americans and French drew near,
planted their cannon, and, on the 9th of
October, began to pour in their shot upon
him. A tremendous cannonade was
now kept up nightand day. The walls
of the British fort were battered down,
their cannon were silenced, and ‘their
men slaughtered by hundreds. Corn-
wallis attempted to escape, but did not
succeed. At length, finding all resist-
ance vain, he offered to capitulate, and on
the 19th, the whole army surrendered.

12. This splendid victory, in effect,
closed the war. The British govern-
ment saw that America could not be
conquered. Accordingly they aban-*
doned the attempt, samoal ged the
independence of the United States, and,
in 1783, a treaty of peace between the
two nations was signed. The British
troops now took their departure; and
our country, thenceforward, assumed
her station among the independent na-
tions of the earth.

CHAPTER LVII.

UNITED STATES AFTER THE
REVOLUTION.

1, I have now told you of the Revo-
lutionary War. It is scarcely possible

many American and French soldiers? Describe
the attack on Cornwallis, What occurred on the

19th of O@dber?. 12. The British government ?
What took place in 1783? What of our country?
156

for us to conceive of the sufferings of
the country, during this struggle of eight
years. Thousands of people were kill-
ed; towns were burnt down; the lands
lay uncultivated ; many of the churches
had ceased to be places of worship, and
‘become barracks for soldiers. Hun-
dreds of families had been broken up;
thousands had been reduced from wealth
to poverty; widows were mourning for
their husbands who were slain; chil-
dren were thrown upon the world with-
out protection ; and society, having lost
its character for pure morality, was
stained with profligacy and vice.

2. Beside all this, though our coun-
try had gained peace and independence,
it was still without a regular govern-
ment. Happily, we had wise and good
men at this time, as well as brave ones
during the war. These, seeing the ne-
cessities of the country, devised an ex-
cellent government, which went into
operation in the year 1789, as I have
told you. The rules and principles of
‘this government are called the Constitu-
tion of the United States. Washington
was chosen president by the people, and
Congress assembled at Philadelphia, to
make laws for the country. All things
now began to go on well. The people
returned to their habits of industry, and
the meadows and wheat-fields began to
bloom once more. Poverty and mourn-
ing fled away, the ministers of the gos-
pel returned to their churches, and
ro and plenty were spread over the

and.

3. After Washington had been presi-
dent four years, the people chose him



1, Sufferings of the Americans by the war? 2.
What of our country? What did the wise men of
our country do? What is the Constitution ? Wash-
ington? Congress? What consequenéés followed
the establishment of our government? 3. Wash-

THE FIRST BOOK OF HISTORY.—THE UNITED STATES.

again, and he held the office four years
longer. He then declined a reélection,
and, retiring to his country-seat, at Mount
Vernon, spent the remainder of his days
in attending to his farm. He died in
1799, as I have before told you. He
was one of the greatest and best men
that ever lived; his memory is cher-
ished, by the American people, as that of
a father, and venerated throughout the
world. He not only saved his country
by his bravery, skill, and prudence, but
he has done, and will do, more good to
mankind by his example, than any other
man that ever existed. Other generals,
and other statesmen, by looking to him,
will feel their selfishness rebuked, their
ambition chastened, their patriotism
warmed and elevated, and their good
will to mankind expanded and strength-
ened. The holy influence which Wash-
ington’s name and ‘character will exert
upon the world, is doubtless incalcula-
ble; while human ‘society lasts, they
will never cease to shed their blessings
upon mankind.

4. I will endeavor to illustrate the
influence of Washington’s example. I
have told you of Lafayette, who left
ease and luxury at home, and came to
help the Americans in their struggle for
liberty. He became the intimate friend
of Washington, and his noble heart was
deeply imbued with the lofty and pure
sentiments of that great man.

5. After our war was done, he re-
turned to his own country. The spirit
of liberty was soon after kindled in
France. True to his principles, La-
fayette stood forth as the friend of free-
dom, justice, and humanity. But am-

ington? How did he spend the remainder of his
life after being president? Character of Wash-
ington? His memory? What of his example?
4—7. How does the life of Lafayette illustrate the
»
THE UNION. —INFLUENCE OF WASHINGTON AND LAFAYETTE. 157

bitious men arose, and a horrible scene
of strife, bloodshed, and anarchy, spread
over the land. Then Bonaparte came.
In his attempts to conquer the world,
millions of human beings were slain.

6. During all this time, Lafayette
was banished, or in prison. But, at
length, Bonaparte was dead. The self-
ish and the blood-thirsty had —
and their schemes had perished with
them. Again the spirit of Aiberty visited
France, and again Lafayette appeared
as the friend of his country and man-
kind. ;

7. Amidst the turmoil of angry pas-
sions, he remained calm and steadfast.
The example of Washington was ever
before him. His countrymen discovered
his sincerity, and they placed their des-
tiny in his hands. At the age of near
eighty years, he was the admiration of
the world. Thus Lafayette, by study-
ing the character of Washington, became
what he was; and other patriots, here-
after, will glory in following the exam-
ple of Lafayette.

8. There is another point of view, in
which it is delightful to think of Wash-
ington. He had many enemies, and
during his lifetime, by intrigue and
falsehood, they made many people be-
lieve that he wasa bad man. But their
voices are now hushed, and their names
have passed into contempt; while his
name, like the ascending sun, gathers
additional brightness with the advance
of time. This may teach us that virtue
and vice have, ultimately, their reward.
One brings disgrace, the other honorable
fame. Mankind will, soon or late, pass
a a sentence upon the actions of their
fellow-beings. Though an _intriguer
may flourish for a time, yet the stamp



influence of Washington’s example? 8. What
lesson is taught us by the life of Washington?

of ignominy will inevitably be impressed
upon him. The falsehood, the selfish-
ness, and the meanness, which he thinks
to hide in his own breast forever, will,
some time or other, be brought out. He
cannot escape.

9. In 1797, John Adams, of Massa-
chusetts, was chosen president. He was
a member of the old congress, who sat
at Philadelphia during the war, and
brought the country safe.y through that
trying period. He was a man of great
eloquence. His heart was full of patri-
otic feelings, and he had the art of utter-
ing them with such force, as to awaken
similar feelings in the breasts of others.
He lifted his voice against the tyranny
of Britain, and pleaded earnestly for the
cause of liberty. In this way he pro-
duced great effect; and, in gratitude for
these things, the people chose him presi-
dent.

10. During his administration, the
city of Washington became the seat of
government. In 1800, congress, which
before had sat at Philadelphia, removed
to this place, and haye ever since held
their sessions there. It has now grown
up to be quite a large city. It is situ-
ated in the District of Columbia, which
is a tract of land on the Potomac river,
whose people are under the government
of congress. It was ceded to the United
States in 1790, and has now over forty
thousand inhabitants.

11. In 1801, Thontas Jefferson, of
Virginia, was elected president of the
United States. He, too, was an ardent
friend of liberty, and exerted himself,
during the Revolution, to save the coun-

: s 1803, he purchased Louisiana,
of the French, forthe United States, an

9. John Adams? His character? 10. City of
Washington? Congress? District of Columbia?
11, Thomas Jefferson? Louisiana? 12. What
158

immense tract of land, lying between the
Mississippi and the Pacific Ocean. Of
this I have told you in the history of
Louisiana.

12. In 1805, Mr. Jefferson was elect-
ed president a second time. In 1809,
James Madison, of Virginia, was elect-
ed president. In 1812, our country de-
clared war against Great Britain. The
principal cause of this was, that the ships
of that nation frequently met our vessels
upon the sea, ~ their officers behaved
in a very improper manner. They took
the liberty to search our vessels, and if
they found any English sailors on board,
they took them forcibly away. Some-
times they mistook American for Eng-
lish sailors, and thus many of our coun-
trymen were forced into the British navy,
and there obliged to fight the battles of
the English.

13. After the war was declared, the
government of England sent a great
many vessels with soldiers to fight
against our country. In the history of
Maryland, I have told you how they
burnt the public buildings at Washing-
ton, and how the British were roughly
handled at North Point. In the history
of Louisiana, I have told you how they
were slaughtered by the Americans un-
der General Jackson. Many other bat-
tles and skirmishes took place, particu-
larly along the boundary between Can-
ada and the United States.

14. But the fost interesting occur-
rences happened upon the sea. We
had only a few ships of war; but these
were commanded by Decatur, Hull, and
other gallant officers. Occasionally they

took place in 1805? James Madison? What
occurred in 18127 Occasion of the war? 13,
Government of England? When was the battle
at North Point fought? When was Washington
taken and burnt by the British? When was the
battle of New Orleans fought? 14, 15. What of

‘

THE FIRST BOOK OF HISTORY.—THE UNITED STATES.

fell in with the British ships, and dread-
ful battles followed. The English sea-
men, like their soldiers, were brave and
skilful. ‘They had great renown; and,
being accustomed to beat all other ships,
expected to beat ours also. But in this
they were mistaken. In the very first
encounter, the Americans beat the Brit-
ish, and brought one of their large ships
in triumph to America. Several other
ships, and two whole fleets on the lakes,
were taken by the Americans.

15. I cannot tell you of all the gallant
achievements that took place during the
war. These things happened little more
than thirty years ago; and you will ea-
sily find some person who knows all
about them, and who will take pleasure
in telling you the whole story. You
must ask particularly about Commodore
Macdonough, who captured a great num-
ber of vessels on Lake Champlain, and
about Commodore Perry, who took as
many more on Lake Erie. You must
ask about the brave Captain Lawrence,
who was killed, and his ship, the Ches-
apeake, taken by the British.

16. In 1813, Madison was elected a
second time, and, in 1817, James Mon-
roe, of Virginia, became president. He
made a tour through the United States,
and everywhere the people paid him the
greatest respect. He was elected a sec-
ond time, in 1821; and in 1825, John
Quincy Adams, of Massachusetts, was
chosen to succeed him. He was presi-
dent for four years. In 1829, General
Jackson became president; then Mr.
Van Buren, in 1837; then General
Harrison, in 1841; who soon dying,
Tyler became president; then Polk in
1845; then Taylor in 1849,



our navy? English seamen? Battles and heroes ?
16. Madison? James Monroe? Tour of Mon-
roe? In 18217 John Quincy Adams? General
THE UNITED STATES.—THE MEANING OF OUR FLAG

17. I must not forget to tell you of
Lafayette’s visit to this country, in 1824.
He was welcomed by all the people, for
they remembered how he came in his
youth, and fought for the country. He
went back in a short time to France, and
died a few years ago.

18. In 1845, happened the annexation
of Texas to the United States, as one of
them, of which I have already given you
an account, when I told you about that
state. In.the same year was begun the
war between the United States and Mek-
ico, of which I shall give you an account
when I come to tell you the history of
that country, as its operations were con-
fined entirely to Mexico.

19. I do not know that I can find a
better time than now, to tell you the
history of the United States flag, that
you so often see waving its stars and
stripes.

20. In old times, persons fought in
war, covered up in armor. To distin-
guish them, they painted signs on their
shields and cloaks, which got to be called
their coats of arms, or shields. These
generally had some meaning in them,
and alluded to some quality or deed of
the person who wore them ; —as a wild
boar’s head, for fierceness; spurs, for
some deed on horseback, and so on.

21. Families, and finally nations, took
these coats of arms, on their flag, seal,
coins, &c. When they are erected over
a ship, or place, or army, they show to
what government it belongs.

22. The first flag of our Revolution
was run up to the mast of the frigate



Jackson? 17. General Lafayette? 18. When
was Texas annexed to the United States? War
with Mexico? 19, 20. What were coats of arms
for, anciently? 21. What are these shields used
for now? 22. What were the first flags. of the

159

Alfred, in Philadelphia, by the celebrat-
ed naval hero, Paul Jones, then a lieu-
tenant. The flag was thirteen stripes,
red and white,—one for each of the
thirteen states, — with a rattlesnake, ex-
tended, mouth open, and tongue out, to-
ward the outer folds of the flag. Under
the snake were the words, “ Don’t tread
on me!” There was also another some-
times used, white, with a pine tree, in
the centre, with the motto: — “ Liberty
tree —an appeal to God.” Virginia, at
an — period of the Revolution, hoist-
ed a yellow flag, with a rattlesnake coiled
up; but afterwards adopted the stripes.

23. Our present one was adopted with
thirteen stars as well as thirteen stripes,
for the original states. The stripes al-
ways stand the same, but a star is added
for each state which is received into the
Union. The present motto of the United
States is, E p