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Title: Chironomidae (Diptera) of Florida (FSM Bulletin)
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Title: Chironomidae (Diptera) of Florida (FSM Bulletin)
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Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Page 275
        Page 276
        Page 277
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    Back Cover
        Page 314
Full Text






Volume 13

Number 5


Elisabeth C. Beck and William M. Beck, Jr.




lished at irregular intervals. Volumes contain about 300 pages and are not
necessarily completed in any one calendar year.

3 1262 07112 3912

WALTza AvRFzmNBRG, Managing Editor
Ouvn A LA' rn, JR., Editor SIENCE

Consultants for this iue:

Communications concerning purchase or exchange of the publication and all
manuscripts should be addressed to the Managing Editor of the Bulletin, Florida
State Museum, Seagle Building, Gainesville, Florida 38601.

Published, June 9, 1969

Price for this issue $.60




SYNOPSIS: Reared chironomids from Florida, which American authors have
classified as belonging to the genera Cryptochiroiomum or Harnischia, were
studied and placed in four genera described by EurpPearn 'thors.
Larva, pupa, and adult of each species are described, t l in classifying the
16 Florida species the following taxonomic changes. are uited .Tendipes tenuicau-
datou, Chironomus directs, Chironomus sublettel, Hq e4sshid cainata, Chironomus
hrtalatus, Tendipes pectinatelae, and Chironomiiiuals t are'now placed in the
genus Parachironomus. Harnischia casuaria.is pide a species of the genus
Cryptotendipes, and Chironomus undine is plal~id hatr genus Paracladopelma.
Two new species are described: Parachironomus schneideri and Paraclado-
pelma loganae.

Ta~Lz OF CowrmrENTs

INr ODUCn o N .......... ---.........- -- .......... -------------------- ------...- -- 278
Ka s TO GE A ................---- ------- ------ --....... ... ..... .................. 279
Gmnus Cryptochironomu ........ ---..... --------------- ------ 282
GaEus Demieryptochironomus .... ............. .. .........--------.. 282
GECAN Parachironomu .........................---------- ....---.------------------- 283
GC u s Cryptotendipes .......................----------- ------- ... .... .... .. ---------- 284
G n-us Hamischia .................. .... ...... ----------------------------- ... 296
GENUS Pamdadopelma ........................ ...... .........-------------- 301
D cu ssroN .......................... ................................. 04
PLAT - ........................ ............................. ......... ...... ............---- ------------------.. 06
LrmwnATU CTrED ....................... ..... .......... ... 811

'This investigation was supported largely by Public Health Service Research
Grant AI-04008-06 and -07 from the Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases.
!Elisabeth C. Beck is an entomologist with the Bureau of Entomology, Florida
State Board of Health. For the past 18 years she has worked mainly with the
taxonomy of mosquitoes, sand Bies, and midges.
William M. Beck, Jr. for the past 21 years has been senior biologist and
chief biologist of the Bureau of Sanitary Engineering, Florida State Board of
Health, where his work has been almost entirely with the ecology of the waters
of Florida.
Beck, Elisabeth C., and William M. Beck, Jr. 1969. Chironomidae (Diptera) of
Florida III. The Harnischia Complex (Chironominae). Bull. Florida State Mus.,
vol. 18, no. 5, pp. 277-313.


Although the taxonomy of the Chironomidae has been in a con-
fused state for some time (Beck and Beck, 1966, 1968; Fittkau, 1968),
probably the greatest variety of taxa has been proposed for those
species that American authors have classified under Cryptochironomus
or Harnischia. These are the Chironomini with the appendages of
the male genitalia greatly reduced or absent. The anal point is present;
appendage 2 is absent or present as a small lobe, usually without
macrotrichia; appendage 1 is lobe-shaped (rounded at the apex), rod-
shaped (long, slender, with apex flat or excavated), or apparently
The taxonomy of these groups has been handled seemingly in three
ways 1) Putting all these species in the genus Chironomus, subgenus
Cryptochironomus, and making no further breakdown except species.
This follows Freeman (1957), and was the procedure adopted by
Sublette and Sublette (1965). 2) Separating the species into the gen-
era Cryptochironomus s.s. and Harnischia (with two or more sub-
genera), as was done in Townes (1945). 3) Classifying the species
into a number of different genera, as proposed by European workers,
principally Lenz.
As our studies with reared specimens show distinctive morpho-
logical characters in all three life stages of the groups we have in-
cluded, and as we feel these different characters of generic importance,
we have adopted the European concept and give these groups generic
rank in this paper.
We do find, however, that some of the genera we are dealing
with have, in the immature stages, many characters in common with
Chironomus (Dicrotendipes), and in other stages appear to be especially
close to other chironomid genera. This makes it difficult, if not im-
possible, to draw straight-line relationships. We are placing the Flor-
ida species that we have reared into the following genera: Crypto-
chironomus Kieffer, Parachironomus Lenz, Paracladopelma Harnisch,
Cryptotendipes Lenz, and Harnischia Kieffer (= Cryptocladopelma
Lenz). We feel that Demicryptochironomus Lenz and Microchirono-
mus Kieffer (= Leptochironomus Pagast) are also valid genera, but
none have been reared from Florida.
The species falling into Crytochironomus will be dealt with in a
later paper, but the genus is included in keys to the genera because
its similarity to the genera under consideration requires that we be
able to differentiate it clearly.


Sublette and Sublette (1965) list 53 species under Chironomus
(Cryptochironomus); of these only 6: argus Roback, blarina Townes,
digitatus (Malloch), fulvus (Johannsen), psittacinus (Meigen) and
scimitarus Townes are Cryptochironomus s.s. The remaining 46 will
probably fall into the genera discussed in this paper.
Abbreviations follow those of Dendy and Sublette (1959). Wing
length is measured from the basal arculus to wing apex. Antennal
ratio of larvae is expressed as the proportions of the segments. Holo-
types of new species are deposited in the United States National
Museum. Paratypes, where available, are deposited with the Florida
State Collection of Arthropods, Gainesville, Florida, and in the au-
thors' collection.

Key to Genera Adult Males'
1. Appendage 1 of male genitalia long, slender, rod-like, at least three times
as long as wide ....................-.................- .. ................................ .......-....... 2
Appendage 1 of male genitalia rounded, lobe-like, or scarcely discernible ..... 4
2. A small bristle bearing hump on each side of anal point; anal point not "set
down," broad at base and widened toward apex .....----... Microchironomus
Not as above, anal point tapered, not usually widened apically ................ 3
3. Dististyle with distinct notch on inner margin, appendage 1 rounded at apex,
usually with 3 apical bristles ....................:......................-- Cryptotendipes
Dististyle not distinctly notched on inner margin; appendage 1 flat or exca-
vated at apex, usually only 2 apical bristles ..........----............. Parachironomus
4. Appendage 2 is a distinct lobe; tergite IX not broad on each side of anal
point ...... .. ........ .....- ....... ......... ..... ----...........--.... .... ............... 5
Appendage 2 scarcely discernible; tergite IX broad laterally from anal point
and may be drawn into points at lateral corer ..--...... ---.. .... .....arnischia
5. Appendage 1 rather large, broader at apex, the lobe covered in microtrichia
and with several bristles; appendage 2 without bristles ... Paracladopelma
Appendage 1 a small lobe, not broadened at apex --......... --...................... 6
6. Anal point broadly triangular at base, appendages 1 and 2 very small, may
have a common base, or overlie each other ....... Demicryptochironomus
Anal point slender, or broadened toward apex,
not triangular basally ........ ......... ...... ..........- ............. Cryptochironomus

Key to Genera Larvae
1. Labial plate with a broad pale median area and oblique darker lateral teeth,
so that labial plate appears concave ............. .... .................................. 2
Labial plate not as above, generally convex ......................................
2. Larval antenna 5-segmented .............. ..-----..-.- ... Cryptochironomus
Larval antenna 7-segmented ......-........ ............. Demicryptochirononmu

Table 1, following these keys, summarizes the characteristics of each genus.


3. Basal segment of maxillary palpus less than one-half as long as antenna
segment 1; paralabial striae usually fading toward anterior (exception is P.
pectinatellae); premandibles with 2 (rarely 3 or 4) blades ...... ...... 4
Basal segment of maxillary palpus more than one-half as long as antennal
segment I; paralabial striae distinct to anterior margin; premandibles with
4-5 blades .............................-..... ........ ....................... ... Paradadopelma
4. Labial plate with single unnotched median teeth (exception is pectina-
tellae), see Plate II, fig. 6a ... ....... ........... ............... 5
Labial plate with median tooth double or notched ......... ......... 6
5. Median labial tooth more or less pointed, with 6 or 7 lateral teeth usually
progressively reduced in size; anterior margin of paralabials crenulate; head
capsule not darkened ........ --..................... .... .... ... Parachironomus
Median labial tooth broadly rounded; outer labial teeth much enlarged;
anterior margin of paralabials not distinctly crenulate; gular area of head
capsule darkened ...................... .............. ....... Cryptotendipes
6. Median labial tooth usually notched medially or double ......... Harnischia
Median labial tooth trilobed ......... .... ........ ........._. Microchironomus

Key to Genera Pupae
1. Anal segment with a pair of posterior conical projections; cephalic tubercules
conspicuous, often forked or with a distinctive shape; tergites II or III- VII
with posterior row of heavy spines ............ Cryptochironomus
No paired projections posteriorly on anal segment .. ....... 2
2. Abdominal tergites III- VI (or VII or VIII) with posterior rows of fairly
broad sharp spines. Similar apical rows on stemites III VI to VIII. Res-
piratory organ arising as a long stalk, branched some distance from body,
often half the length of the pupal body or longer .......... Cryptotendipes
Not as above .... .... ....... ........ ............. ....... ..................... 3
3. Segment VIII with 4 lateral filaments and usually a long lateral spine ...... 4
Segment VIII with 5 lateral filaments (5th may be smaller and set in from
margin), and only very tiny spines or none at postero-lateral comer 5
4. Shagreen on tergites III- VI confined to posterior third of each segment;
spines on VI form mace-like patch ................ ......... Hamischia
Shagreen on tergites III VI not confined to posterior third of each seg-
ment; in paired patches or bands; no mace-like patch on VI. Microchironomus
5. Posterior row of hooks on tergite II more than one-half as wide as seg-
ment; respiratory organ with a few spines on outer branches; cephalic
tubercules short, broad basally and bent at tip; tergites II VI with median
shagreen, or almost to posterior margin, heaviest apically; 1- 10 small
lateral spines on VIII ..... ...................... Demicryptochironomus
Posterior row of hooks on tergite II less than one-half as wide as segment;
respiratory organ without spines ...... .. .................. 6
6. Shagreen on tergrites III- VI in median longitudinal band of fine spicules
(which may have a clear median line apically) with coarser spines toward
posterior margin ..-.. ................ .... .............. Parachironomus
Shagreen on tergites III and IV in paired patches, becoming contiguous on
V and VI; posterior short coarse spines are in rows; shagreen usually con-
fined to posterior half of tergite ..... ....... ......... Paracladopelma

Vol. 13


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Genus Cryptochironomus Kieffer
Cryptochironomus Kieffer, 1918: 38. Genotype: (Tendipes (Cryptochironomus)
chlorolobus Kieffer) = supplicans (Meigen) (original designation), [fide
Townes, 1945: 961; Harnisch, 1923: 285-288 [partiml Lenz, 1921: 15; Lenz,
1941: 34; Townes, 1945: 96; Lenz, 1960c: 224.
Chironomus (Chryptochironomus) Kieffer. Goetghebuer, 1928: 73 [partiml; Goet-
ghebuer, 1937 (in Lindner): 36-41 [partiml; Freeman, 1957: 382-405
Chironomus (Chironomus) group Cryptochironomus Kieffer. Edwards, 1929: 388;
Pagast, 1931: 209, 213-216; Johannsen, 1937: 20.
ADULT: Very generally, adults of this genus are larger and heavier
bodied than adults of the other genera under consideration here.
The dististyle of the male genitalia is more or less angular at apex
and fairly short, the appendages are small, rounded, about equal in
size, both densely pubescent and with several bristles. The presence
of bristles on appendage 2 separates this genus from all other genera
considered here.
LARVA: Labial plate with wide median pale domed area and five
dark lateral teeth on each side, the outer tooth may be notched, gen-
eral shape of plate concave so that outermost teeth project anteriorly;
basal segment of maxillary palp is three to four times as long as wide;
premandibles with four to six blades; antennae five-segmented, blade
arising near apex of second segment.
PUPA: Cephalic tubercles are often very large and of distinct shapes.
Posterior hook row on tergite II usually interrupted medially; tergites
III VIII with heavy spines near posterior margin; no comb or caudo-
lateral spines on VIII. Lateral filaments on V- VIII: 4-4-4-5 usually,
but may differ in some species. Anal fins have paired tubular median

Genus Demicryptochironomus Lenz
Demicryptochironomus Lenz, 1941: 34. Genotype: Denicrytochironomus vul-
neratus Zett. [monotypic]; Lenz, 1960a: 450-463; Lenz, 1960c: 222.
ADULT: Very difficult to separate from other genera. Appendages of
male genitalia are very short and appear to overlay one another, or
to have a common base; base of anal point is broadly triangular.
LARVA: Labial plate much as in Cryptochironomus, but with seven
lateral teeth; premandibles with four blades, one of which is much
smaller; antenna seven-segmented.
PUPA: Exuvia pigmented, yellow; posterior hook row on tergite II not
interrupted medially and more than one-half as wide as segment; VIII

Vol. 13


with 2-10 small spines caudo-laterally, these fused at base. Lateral fila-
ments on segments V VIII: 4-4-4-5.

Genus Parachironomus Lenz
Parachironomus Lenz, 1921: 13. Genotype: Chironomus cryptotomus Kieffer [by
present designation]; Harnisch, 1923: 304 [Harnisch's designation of genotype:
pararostratus n. sp. is invalid because that species was not listed by Lenz in
19211; Lenz, 1941: 34; Lenz, 1957 (in Lindner): 196; Fittkau, Reiss, and
Schlee, 1967: 373.
Chironomus Meigen. Malloch, 1915: 452, 474-475 [partim].
Chironomus (Chironomus) group Parachironomus Lenz. Edwards, 1929: 388;
Pagast, 1931: 210.
Chironomus (Cryptochironomus) group III Parachironomus Lenz. Johannsen,
1937: 21; Goetghebuer, 1937: 41 [Goetgbebuer's designation of "? P. cryp-
totomus" as genotype is invalid because questioned.]
Dychironomus Lenz 1941: 35 [nomen nudum-published after 1930 and type
fixation by Townes, 1945, occurs in synonomy].
Paracharnischia Lenz 1941: 36. [nomen nudum published after 1930 and type
fixation by Townes, 1945, occurs in synonomy].
Harischia (Harnischia) Kieffer. Townes, 1945: 152 [partim]
[Townes' designation of Chironomus cryptotomus Kieffer as genotype of
Parachironomus is invalid because it occurs in synonomy]; Roback, 1957: 101.
Tendipes (Cryptochironomus). Dendy and Sublette, 1959: 515-517 [partiml;
Sublette, 1960: 220-224 [partiml; Darby, 1962: 1-200 [partim].
Chironomus (Cryptochironomus). Freeman, 1957: 382-405 [partim]; Sublette,
1964a: 133 [partim]; Beck, 1962: 91 [partim]; Beck and Beck, 1964: 203
and 205.
ADULT: Appendage 1 elongate, usually with two apical bristles; ap-
pendage 2 is a very small lobe or is lacking. Frontal tubercles usually
lacking, but some species have very small ones present.
LARVA: Labial teeth more or less pointed, evenly and progressively
reduced from median to outermost, equally pigmented; paralabial
striae distinct, sometimes recurved, but not reaching the anterior mar-
gin of paralabial plate (except in pectinatellae), the anterior margin
crenulate. Antennae five-segmented, two ring organs on basal seg-
ment, the blade arising from apex of basal segment. Mandible with
two or three lateral teeth which are usually pointed; premandibles
with two, or sometimes three blades. Claws of posterior prolegs with
fine hairlike spines along inner margin; in some species anterior claws
are pectinate near apex.
PUPA: Exuvia clear, colorless or pale brownish. Cephalic tubercles
rather short with apical spine. Posterior lateral lobes usually present on
segment II. Posterior row of hooks on tergite II not interrupted
medially. Shagreen on tergites III VI in median longitudinal band


(which may have a clear line apically) with coarser spines toward
posterior margin. Tiny caudo-lateral spines may be present on segment
VIII. In some species there are rows of long pale spines on sternites
I and/or II.
Eight species of Parachironomus have been reared from Florida:
alatus, hirtalatus, pectinatellae, sublettei, monochromus, directs, cari-
natus, and schneideri n. sp. The following species that probably belong
in Parachironomus have been recorded from Florida, but not reared:
frequens (Johannsen), potamogeti (Townes), tenuicaudatus (Mal-
loch), and nigrovittatus Malloch.

Key to Species of Parachironomus Larvae
1. Median labial tooth double or deeply cleft pectinatellae
Median labial tooth not double or deeply cleft .. 2
2. Penultimate labial tooth on each side distinctintly longer than teeth on
each side of it .......... 3
Penultimate labial tooth not longer ... 4
3. Fourth antennal segment longer than 3rd and 5th together (paralabial
striae not recurved; anterior margin paralabial plate scalloped with points
posterior; premandible light) alatus
Fourth antenna segment shorter than 3rd and 5th together; (paralabial
striae recurved; anterior margin paralabial plate scalloped with points
anterior; premandible dark) ----- ............. hirtalatus
4. Three large dark lateral teeth on mandible; 3rd antennal segment distinctly
longer than 4th; (6 lateral labial teeth, with serrate edge to labial plate;
anterior margin with scallop points posterior) su-blettei
Two dark lateral teeth on mandible, or if 3rd present it is much smaller
and somewhat paler; antenna segments 3 and 4 equal, or 4 longer . ..... 5
5. Three basal antennal segments brown; premandible dark; (only 2 dark
lateral teeth on mandible; paralabial striae recurved; anterior margin para-
labials scalloped with points anterior schneideri
Three basal antennal segments not brown, though segment 2 may be;
premandibles not dark ...... 6
6. Lateral edge of labial plate serrate; paralabial strike not recurved 7
Lateral edge of labial plate not serrate; paralabial strike recurved; 4th
antennal segment longer than 3rd monochromes
7. Antennal segments 3 and 4 equal in length; paralabial plate scalloped
with points posterior ......... .._ ... ........ directs
Antennal segment 3 shorter than 4; paralabial plate scalloped with points
anterior ......... .. carinatus

Key to Parachironomus Adults'
'This key includes only those species of Parachironomus we have reared. Because
any species not included will key out somewhere, identifications made by key
should be-checked against the species descriptions.

Vol. 13


1. Wing with macrotrichia in apex of cell R, M, and Cu, ..... hirtalatus
Wing with no macrotrichia on wing membrane ... ....... 2
2. Squama without a fringe of hairs, or with only 2 or 3 hairs ... .... 3
Squama with 4-15 hairs .............. .... ... 6
3. Mid and hind tibiae each with 2 approximately equal spines ...... 4
Mid tibiae with two spines of unequal length ............- .... 5
4. Dististyle rather short and broad, with base of inner margin rounded
out ................. ........ ........- .......- .......... sublettei
Dististyle long, slender, straight on inner margin .. .... .. directs
5. P.A. bristles 4, 1 spine on middle tibia about 2X as long as the other;
appendage 1 of male genitalia rod-like, slightly enlarged apically with
2 bristles, but no microtrichia ..... ..... ........- carinatus
P.A. bristles 2, 1 spine of middle tibia about 1%X as long as other; ap-
pendage 1 rather short, much broadened apically, covered in dense micro-
trichia .......... ....-..... ......-- ..... ----- ---. .--- -- alatus
6. Dististyle narrowed toward base, wider toward apex, style distinctly in-
curved from middle to apex ... .......-. 7
Dististyle of uniform width, more or less straight ..... 8
7. Appendage 1 reaching to apex of anal point; P.A. bristles 7; squamal fringe
of 14-15 hairs --- .........--- .........--- tenuicaudatus
Appendage 1 not reaching to apex of anal point, P.A. bristles 5 or 6;
squamal fringe of 6-12 hairs.......... ......... monochromus
8. W.L. 1.9 mm or more; apex of dististyle distinctly inturned, apex of ap-
pendage 1 also pointed and bent inward at apex .... pectinatellae
W.L. not over 1.7 mm; dististyle and appendage 1 not distinctly in
turned .. .... .... .. .------. .------ schneideri

Parachironomus monochromus (Wulp)
Chironomus unicolor van der Wulp, 1858: 5 [fide Townes, 1945: 1601.
Chironomus monochromus Wulp, 1874: 129 [fide Townes, 1945: 1601.
Harnischia (Harnischia) monochromus (Wulp). Townes, 1945: 160; Sublette,
1957: 391; Beck and Beck, 1959: 95.
Tendipes (Cryptochironomus) monochromus (Malloch). Dendy and Sublette,
1959: 516; Darby, 1962: 38.
Chironomus (Cryptochironomus) monochromes Wulp. Sublette, 1964a: 134.
Parachironomus monochromus (Wulp). Albu, 1968: 147; Albu and Botnariuc,
1966: 51.
MALE: W.L. 1.6- 1.9 mm; A.R. 2.2 2.4; L.R. 1.5- 1.8. Head pale yel-
low, antenna flagellum brown; no frontal tubercles. Thorax yellowish
green; vittac and postnotum light brown. P.A. bristles 5 or 6, squama
with 6-12 hairs. Legs pale yellowish green, forelegs from basitarsus,
and all apical trasal segments brown. Wing membrane pale with
light brown veins, small macrotrichia present along the base of R, or
R1 and R4+5. Abdomen green; male genitalia as in Plate I, figure 1,
dististyles blackish apically.
FEMALE: W.L. 1.4-1.9 mm. Apical antenna segment dark, about the
length of the proceeding two segments. Spermathecae two, spherical


with neck at duct lightly chitinized and brownish. Setae are present on
wing veins R, R1 and R4+.s, and on apical half of M.
LARVA: (Plate II, figures 1 a-d.) Head capsule pale, antennal ratio
50:11:5:6:3. Labial plate with 15 golden yellow teeth; paralabial striae
recurved; mandible with two dark lateral teeth; premandible pale
with two broad blades. Preanal papillae with eight yellow or pale
brown bristles each. Anterior proleg claws yellow, with comb-like
teeth at apex; posterior proleg claws yellow with a few very small
spines near base of inner margin, very difficult to see.
PUPA: (Plate II, figure If; Plate V, figure 1.) Pale yellow, 3.4 4.6
mm long. Tergite II has a posterior row of 20-30 yellow hooks with
a short row of very small colorless spines anterior to hooks, lateral
lobes present. Tergites III-VI with paired triangular patches of pale
fine spines, patches almost contiguous on VI. Lateral filaments on
V-VIII: 4-4-4-5, no caudo-lateral spines on VIII. There are 70-95
lateral filaments on anal fins.
Sublette (1957) described the larva of Harnischia (Harnischia)
monochromus and of a Harnischia (H.) species. The two descriptions
were transposed so that the description of the "species" is really of
REARED SPECIMENS: Jefferson Co., Lake Miccosuckee, May 1964, No-
vember 1963.
Seminole Co., Howell Creek, November 1966.
St. Johns Co., Shand's Bridge, June 1963.
This species has been taken in light traps every month of the
year throughout the State as far south as Broward County.

Parachironomus tenuicaudatus (Malloch)
Chironomus modestus var. b. Johannsen, 1905: 228.
Chironomus tenuicaudatus Malloch, 1915: 475; Miller, 1941: 62 [fide Townes,
1945: 1601.
Cryptochironomus baciliger Kicffer, 1922: 358 [fide Townes, 1945: 1601.
Chironomus (Chironomus) tenuicaudatus (Parachironomrus group). Johannsen,
1938: 21.
Chironomus (Limnochironomus) tenuicaudatus Johannsen, 1938: 43; Beyer
1941: 3 [fide Townes, 1945: 160].
Harnischia (Harnischia) tenuicaudatus (Malloch). Townes, 1945: 160; Roback,
1957: 103.
Tendipes (Cryptochironomus) tenuicaudatus (Malloch). Dendy and Sublette, 1959:
516; Sublette, 1960: 224; Darby, 1962: 38.
Parachironomus bacilliger (Kieffer). Fittkau, Reiss, and Schlec, 1967: 373.
MALE: W.L, 2.0 mm; A.R. 2.6; L.R.? (fore tarsi missing). Head pale

Vol. 13


green, pedicel and antennal flagellum black, palpi blackish; eyes sep-
arated dorsally by about one-half the diameter of the pedicel; no
frontal tubercles. Mesonotum green with black vittae, sternum, and
postnotum; P.A. bristles 7. Legs gray, foreleg and apical three or four
tarsal segments on mid and hind legs blackish; a pair of spines on
each mid and hind tibia. Wing membrane pale grayish with gray
veins; macrotrichia along veins R, R1, and R4+s. Squama with 14-15
hairs. Abdomen brown to olive green; genitalia blackish, as in Plate
I, figure 2.
FEMALE: None reared.
LARVA: Larval cast lost. Johannsen (1937: 43), describes the larva
as having a labial plate of 13 teeth, the median one trilobed; an-
tennal ratio approximately 50:12:6:6:2.
PUPA: (Plate III, figure 2f; Plate V, figure 6). Pale, almost colorless,
4.85 mm long; notum densely nodulate. Cephalic tubercles acutely
pointed with subapical bristle. Tergite II with posterior row of about
30 yellow-gray hooks; lateral lobes near posterior margin, sha-
greened along lateral edge; sternite II shagreened and with narrow
band of small spines posteriorly. Tergites III-VI with broad median
area of shagreen from basal one-fifth to posterior margin medially,
spines slightly larger on each successive segment, a small clear oval
area near the posterior border. Tergite VII with median longitudinal
band of very fine shagreen; VIII faintly shagreened. Lateral filaments
on V-VIII: 4-4-4-5. Each lobe of anal fins bears 90-100 lateral filaments.
(Johannsen says only 4 lateral filaments on VIII, and 80-90 filaments
on anal fins.)
REARED SPECIMENS: 1 male (no larval cast), Polk County, Lake St.
Claire, 21 January 1966.
The only other specimen recorded from Florida was taken at Inter-
national Airport, Miami, Florida.

Parachironomus schneideri new species
Chironomus (Cryptochironomus) directs Dendy and Sublette. Beck and Beck,
1964: 205 [partim; misidentification].
HOLOTYPE MALE: Jefferson Co., Fla., Lake Miccosuckee, 4 June 1963
(USNM) W.L. 1.65 mm.; A.R. 2.2; L.R. 1.7.
Head whitish with pedicel and antennal flagellum brownish; no
frontal tubercles. Thorax whitish with pale to medium brown vittae,
sternum and postnotum. P.A. bristles 5; squama with 12 hairs. Legs
pale with apical segments brown, forelegs light brown beyond femora.


Wing membrane and veins pale brown; abdomen pale with male geni-
talia slightly darker. Genitalia as in Plate I, figure 3.
Beck and Beck (1964) described the immatures of this species as
Chironomus (Cryptochironomus) directs immatures. In working with
additional reared material, we find that the specimens we were for-
merly calling directs included both directs and a new species. They
differ as adults in details of the male genitalia, the dististyle of
schneideri being shorter and wider proportionally, and appendage 1
appears slightly capitate with the two setae on opposite sides, equi-
distant from the apex, much as in the European species parilis. P.
schneideri is also larger than our specimens of directs:

MALES: Wing length Antennal ratio Leg Ratio
directs holotype 1.4 mm 2.3 1.67
directs (range described) 1.3-].9 2.0-2.3 1.5-1.7
directs from Florida 1.0-1.3 1.8-2.2 1.6-1.8
schneideri new species 1.3-1.65 2.1-2.5 1.7-1.8
abortivus Malloch 3.0 3.1 1.4

FEMALE: W.L. 1.30- 1.46 mm (2); coloration as in male.

LARVA: (Plate II, figures 2 a-e.) Head capsule pale; antennal ratio
50:9:4:6:3. Basal antennal segment brown, second and third usually
brown also. Preanal papillae with eight gray-brown bristles. Claws of
posterior proleg with a few spines on inner margin, and in some
specimens, along outer margin also. Premandible dark.

PUPA: (Plate II, figure 2f; Plate V, figure 2). Medium to dark brown,
3.6-3.85 mm. long; mesonotum nodulate dorsally; cephalic tubercles
broad and fairly short. Tergite II with 24-26 dark hooks in posterior
row. Lateral lobes on II; no pale sternal spines. Tergites III-VI with
median area shagreened, the spines fairly short and wide, almost tri-
angular; VII with very fine shagreen. Lateral filaments on V-VIII:
4-4-4-5; no caudo-lateral spines on VIII; anal fin with 70 lateral fila-

REARED PARATYPES: Jefferson Co., Lake Miccosuckee, April 1963 (1
female), November 1963 (1 female allotype, 1 male). We take pleas-
ure in naming this species in honor of Robert F. Schneider.


Parachironomus directs (Dendy and Sublette) new combination"
Tendipes (Cryptochironomus) directs Dendy and Sublette, 1959: 514.
Chironomus (Cryptochironomus) directs (Dendy and Sublette), Sublette, 1964a:
133; Beck and Beck, 1964: 203.
MALE: W.L. 1.05-1.36 mm (6); A.R. 1.8-2.2; L.R. 1.6-1.8. Head pale
whitish, pedicel of antenna brownish, antennal flagellum brown be-
yond basal segment. Mesonotum whitish with pale ochraceous-brown
vittae and postnotum; P.A. bristles 3-4, squama with 2-3 hairs. Legs
stramineous, apices brown, forelegs brown beyond middle of femora.
Wing membrane very pale, veins brownish; abdomen pale yellow-
brown. Genitalia as in Plate I, figure 4.
FEMALE: W.L. 0.90-0.95 mm (3); coloration as in males.
LARVA: (Plate II, figures 3 a-e.) Head capsule pale; antennal ratio
50:12:8:7:4. Labial plate with 15 golden brown teeth, paralabial striae
not recurved; mandible with two dark lateral teeth and the sugges-
tion of a smaller dark tooth on shoulder. Preanal papillae with eight
yellow-gray bristles; some claws of posterior proleg spined on inner
PUPA: (Plate II, figure 3f; Plate V, figure 3.) Light brown, 2.6-3.2 mm
long. Tergite II with 30-32 brown hooks in posterior row. Lateral
lobes present; no pale sternal spines. Tergites III-VI with median
wide longitudinal band of very fine slender spines; VII faintly spicu-
late. Lateral filaments on V-VIII 4-4-4-5; no caudo-lateral spines on
VIII. Anal fin bears 36-40 lateral filaments.
REARED SPECIMENS: St. Johns Co., Shand's Bridge, June 1963, July
1965, April 1966.
Seminole Co., Howell Creek, October 1966.

Parachironomus sublettei (Beck) new combination
Chironomus (Cryptochironomus) sublettei Beck, 1961: 127.
MALE: W.L. 1.15-1.35 (3); A.R. 1.5; L.R. 1.6. Head pale with dark
brown pedicel of antenna, antennal flagellum brown; very small frontal
tubercles present. Mesonotum pale tan with dark brown vittae; P.A.
bristles 3. Legs pale brown with forelegs and apices of other legs
darker brown. Wing membrane light brown with veins darker brown;

'Bcck and Beck (1964) described a larva and pupa as Chironomus (Cryptochirono-
mus) directs Dendy and Sublette. It now appears that we were working with
a mixed series of directs and schneideri new species. (See notes under P.



abdomen light brown, darker at incisures. Genitalia as in Plate I
figure 5. Squama with one hair.
FEMALE: W.L. 1.10-1.50 (5); coloration as in male; last antenna seg-
ment dark brown.
LARVA: (Plate II, figures 4 a-e.) Head capsule pale, antennal ratio
50:12:8:8:3; striae of paralabials not recurved; labial plate with 13
teeth and serrate lateral margins; premandibles with two blades.
Claws of posterior proleg light brown, spined along inner margin.
Mandible with three dark lateral teeth.
PUPA: (Plate II, figure 4f; Plate V, figure 4.) Light yellow-brown,
2.9-3.9 mm long. Tergite II with 28-30 gold-colored hooks in posterior
row (as many as 40 in females). Lateral lobes present; no pale sternal
spines. Tergites III-VI with broad median longitudinal patch of very
slender pale spines; tergite VII with very faint shagreen. No caudo-
lateral spines on VIII. Lateral filaments on V-VIII: 4-4-4-5. Anal fins
with 32 lateral filaments (males) or 40-55 (females).
REARED SPECIMENS: Escambia Co., Escambia River, November 20,
1963 (1 male, 2 females); Broward Co., Plantation Canal, 24 Septem-
ber 1964 (1 male, 1 female).

Parachironomus carinatus (Townes) new combination
Harnischia (Harnischia) carinata Townes, 1945: 158; Sublette, 1957: 393; Beck
and Beck, 1959: 95.
MALE: W.L.1.25-1.35 (2); A.R. 1.9-2.2; L.R. 1.9. Head yellow, pedicel
orange, palpi whitish, antennal flagellum brown; small frontal tubercles
present. Mesonotum yellow, vittae not distinct on our specimens; P.A.
4, scutellum with six long and four shorter bristles. Legs yellowish
green, foreleg beyond femora and all apical tarsal segments brown-
ish; tibiae of middle legs each have two apical spines, one nearly twice
as long as the other, sole spines on tarsi of middle and hind legs.
Wings with membrane and veins light brown, dark setae along R, Ri,
and R4+s. Abdomen pale green, slightly darker apically. Genitalia
as in Plate I, figure 6. Squama bare.
FEMALE: W.L. 1.35 mm (1); L.R. 2.0; coloration as in male.
LARVA: (Plate II, figures 5 a-e.) Head capsule very pale; antenna
ratio 50:15:5:8:3. Labial plate with 13 golden brown teeth, the lateral
margin of plate serrate; all teeth long, pointed, separated. Paralabial
striae short, not recurved. Mandible with two dark lateral teeth and
small pale basal tooth. Preanal papillae with yellow bristles; claws of
posterior proleg grayish-yellow, some with spines near base of inner

Vol. 13


PUPA: (Plate II, figure 5; Plate V, figure 5.) Pale brown, 2.85-3.65 mm
long. Tergite II with posterior row of about 40 dark hooks. No lateral
lobes or pale sternal spines. Tergites III-VI with broad median apical
area of fine slender pale spines, about six longer spines near posterior
margin of VI. Tergite VIII has two to five very tiny pale spines near
caudo-lateral corer. Lateral filaments on V-VIII: 4-4-4-5; anal fin
bears 38-46 lateral filaments.
REARED SPECIMENS: Hamilton Co., Swift Creek, August 1966. Flagler
Co., Rayonier Ditch, November 1964.
This species has been taken in light traps all months of the year
and throughout the State.
Parachironomus hirtalatus (Beck and Beck) new combination
Chironomus (Cryptochironomus) hirtalatus Beck and Beck, 1964: 204.
MALE: W.L. 1.1-1.55 (9); A.R. 1.8-2.0; L.R. 1.8-2.0. Head yellow,
pedicel dark yellow to ochraceous, palpi light brown, antenna flagel-
lum dark brown; no frontal tubercles. Mesonotum yellow with vit-
tae, sternum and postnotum indistinctly darker; P.A. bristles 4,
squama with 4-10 hairs. Legs pale yellow with all apical tarsal seg-
ments and the forelegs from middle of femora darker. Wing mem-
brane and veins light brown; macrotrichia present in apex of cells
R, M, and Cui, and extending back along middle of cell R and along
vein M. Abdomen pale yellowish white. Genitalia as in Plate I, figure 7.
FEMALE: W.L. 1.0-1.2 (5); coloration as in male.
LARVA: (Plate III, figure 3 a-e.) Head capsule pale tan; antennal
ratio 50:11:4:6:2. Labial teeth 15, very dark, with the sixth lateral
longer than fifth or seventh. Premandibles darkened, with two blades;
mandible with two large dark lateral teeth and smaller basal tooth
sometimes darkened. Preanal papillae with eight bristles; claws of
posterior proleg dark gray, some with one or two spines near base
of inner margin.
PvrA: (Plate III, figure 3; Plate V, figure 7.) Very pale brown, 3.0-4.1
mm long. Mesonotum with a very distinctive horn-shaped lobe pos-
terior to base of respiratory organ, this lobe usually brownish. Pos-
terior lateral lobes present on segment II. Tergite II with 20-22 dark
hooks in posterior row. Sternite I with short pale spines near base on
each side. Tergites III-VI with median shagreened area near posterior
margin, very small on III and about three-fourths the length of seg-
ment on VI; apical row of spines on VI are larger. No caudo-lateral
spines present on VIII; lateral filaments on V-VIII: 4-4-4-5. Anal fin
with 60-75 lateral filaments.


REARED SPECIMENS: St. Johns Co., Ditch on State Rd. #210, March
Flagler Co., Rayonier Ditch, February 1965; Little Haw Creek, June
Polk Co., Green Swamp, March 1963.
Clay Co., Black Creek, March 1962.
Jefferson Co., Lake Miccosuckee, September 1961; June 1963.
Leon Co., Chaoborus Pond, July 1965; Blue Sink, July 1966.
Duval Co., Sphagnum bog on U.S. Alt. #1, September 1963; Novem-
ber 1964; May 1961; St. John's River, March 1965.
P. hirtalatus differs from typical Parachironomus in the adult stage
by having macrotrichia on the wings, as a larva in the distinctly pro-
jecting 6th lateral labial teeth and suggestion of trilobed median, and
as a pupa in having a horn-shaped projection on the dorsum of the

Parachironomus pectinatellae (Dendy and Sublette)
new combination
Tendipes (Cryptochironomus) pectinatellae Dendy and Sublette, 1959: 516.
MALE: W.L. 1.9-2.2 mm; A.R. 2.7; L.R. 1.70. Head light brown with
darker antennae and mouthparts. Mesonotum whitish with pale
yellow vittae. P.A. bristles six. Legs pale, the fore femora brownish
at base and apex, the fore tibiae and tarsi brown, apical two or three
tarsal segments brown on mid and hind legs. Squama with hair
fringe. Abdomen pale whitish to light brown. Male genitalia with
dististyle incurved at apex, and anal point widened basally (see
Dendy and Sublette, 1959).
LARVA: (Plate III, figure 1 a-e.) Head small, yellow; labial plate
with 15 dark brown teeth, the median deeply cleft and the first laterals
shorter than median or second laterals. Paralabials long with striae
distinct to anterior margin which is smooth, not crenulate. Antennal
ratio: 50:12:4:8:3. Premandibles with four blades. Claws of posterior
proleg pale yellow, some with minute spines on inner margin.
PUPA: (Based on reared specimens from Arkansas). Pale brown, 3.7-
4.0 mm long. Mesonotum nodulate dorsally; cephalic tubercles small
and acutely pointed. Tergite II with approximately 60 brown hooked
spines in posterior row, a narrow band of shagreen anterior to hooks.
Tergites III-VI with paired patches of shagreen on posterior one-third
to two-thirds of segment, shagreen less distinct on VI than on V.

Vol. 18


There may be 1-3 very small caudo-lateral spines on VIII. Lateral
filaments on V-VIII: 4-4-4-5, the 5th smaller and set in from margin.
Anal fins bear 80-90 lateral filaments.
Adults of this species have been taken in light traps in Gadsden and
Jackson counties in June and August through October.

Parachironomus alatus (Beck) new combination
Chironomus (Cryptochironomus) alatu Beck, 1962: 91.
MALE: W.L. 1.0 mm (1); A.R. 1.3; L.R. 1.8. Head brownish-yellow,
antennal flagellum and palpi light brown; pedicel ochraceous; no
frontal tubercles. Mesonotum yellowish to light brown with medium
brown vittae and postnotum; P.A. bristles 2, squama bare. Legs pale
with last tarsal segment on all legs and apical half of fore femora and
tibiae medium brown. The two tibial spines on middle leg of unequal
length. Wing membrane and veins light brown, punctuate, dark setae
along R, R1, and R4+5. Abdomen pale greenish. Genitalia of male as
in Plate I, figure 8.
FEMALE: W.L. 0.95 mm (2); coloration as in male, entire antenna
LARVA: (Plate III, figures 2 a-e.) Head capsule pale; antennal ratio
50:16:4:16:6. Labial plate with 15 chocolate brown teeth, the 6th
laterals distinctly projecting. Mandible with two dark lateral teeth;
premandible with two blades. Preanal papillae with yellowish brown
bristles; posterior prolegs with very sparse fine spines along both
inner and outer margins of some claws.
PUPA: (Plate V, figure 8.) Very pale, 2.5 mm long; mesonotum ap-
parently not nodulate; no cephalic tubercles, but a short pale bristle.
No lateral lobes on segment II; posterior row on tergite II with 12-14
hooks. No pale sternal spines. Tergites II-VII with a pair of con-
spicuous dark median bristles near posterior border, a small spine
patch between them with spines larger on each succeeding segment,
those on VI forming an elongate oval patch suggesting a mace; ter-
gite VII with very fine shagreen. Tergite VIII bare, no caudo-lateral
spines. Lateral filaments on V-VIII: 4-4-4-5. Anal fins with 24-27
lateral filaments.
REARED SPECIMENS: Clay Co., Peter's Creek, March 1965, April 1965.
ADULT RECORDS: Light trap captures in Highlands Co. in August,
St. Lucie Co. in April, Broward Co. in October, and paratype speci-


mens from Palm Beach Co. in August and from Lake Co. in August
and September.
Several distinctive characters of this species in all stages make it
different from all other known Florida species of the genus. It may
not belong in Parachironomus, but as it does not fit precisely any
group as yet described, we feel it best to include it here for the
present. P. alatus differs as an adult in having a broader appendage 1
covered in dense microtrichia; as a larva in shape of the labial plate
(somewhat similar to hirtalatus), antennal ratio; and as a pupa in the
median posterior spine patch on VI which suggests a mace, and the
lack of cephalic tubercles.

Genus Cryptotendipes Lenz
Cryptotendipes Lenz, 1941: 34. Genotype: Chironomus usmaensis Pagast [by
present designation]; Lenz, 1959a: 238-250; Lenz, 1960c: 207.
Although Cryptotendipes is a nomen nudum, we prefer to retain
the name rather than propose a new one. Lenz did not clearly desig-
nate a type and none has been designated since. As anomalis was
described from a female, and as the pupa of pseudotener apparently
does not have the stalked respiratory organ (assuming that Roback's
(1957: 103) description is correct), we designate Chironomus usma-
ensis Pagast as the genotype.
It has been suggested that Cladopelma Kieffer (1921: 63) (geno-
type: C. virescens Meigen [fixation by Harnisch, 1923]) may belong
in the genus Cryptotendipes and, if so, the correct name for the genus
would be Cladopelma. However, the figures that Harnisch gives for
the larva and pupa of virescens do not agree with Cryptotendipes in
that the outer labial teeth of larva are not enlarged and projecting,
and the pupa lacks the stalked respiratory organ, and seems rather
to suggest Microchironomus. We therefore feel that until it is demon-
strated that Hamisch's figures are not correct for virescens Meigen,
and that the immatures of virescens do, in fact, conform with other
species of Cryptotendipes, it is best to retain the name Cryptotendipes
for this genus.
ADULT: Appendage 1 small, somewhat longer than wide, usually with
three or more apical bristles; appendage 2 apparently lacking. Inner
margin of dististyle is distinctly notched.
LARVA- Labial plate with all teeth equally dark, median domed and
sometimes appearing broadly trilobed, with six or seven lateral teeth,
the outer two or three greatly enlarged. Antennae five-segmented,


rather short in most species. Paralabials long, with distinct striations.
Premandibles with two rather short blades; mandible with three
shallow flat lateral teeth. Proleg claws are simple.
PUPA: Cephalic tubercles pointed with subapical bristle. Respiratory
organ with long stalk basally, branched some distance from body,
often nearly as long as pupal body. Posterior row of hooks on tergite
II not interrupted medially. Posterior rows of coarse spines present
on tergites III-VI or VII. Spines on VI or VII may be in a mace-like
arrangement. Sternites I and/or II may have rows of pale spines, or
pale spines on lobes. VIII has a long slender curved spine on each
lateral margin about two thirds from base. Lateral filaments on V-
VIII are 3-3-3-3 in type species, but are 4-4-4-4 in known Florida
Two species of this genus have been reared from Florida, casuarius
(Townes), and an undescribed species. The species of this genus
most nearly resemble those of the genus Hamischia, but the dark un-
notched median labial tooth of the larva, the long stalked respiratory
organ and the longer, slenderer spine on VIII of pupa, and the notched
inner margin of the dististyle of adult male clearly separate the two

Cryptotendipes casuarius (Townes) new combination
Chironomus (Microchironomus) sp. 1, Townes, 1938: 172 [fide Townes, 1945:
Chironomus (Chironomus) sp. b, Miller, 1941: 63. [fide Townes, 1945: 162].
Harnischta (Hanischia) casuaria Townes, 1945: 162; Beck and Beck, 1959: 95.
MALE: W.L. 1.15-1.50 mm.; A.R. 1.6-2.0; L.R. 1.7-1.9. Head yellow,
pedicel ochraceous, palpi light brown, antennae brown; no frontal
tubercles present. Mesonotum yellowish with ochraceous vittae and
postnotum. Legs yellowish, the forelegs and all apical tarsal segments
darker. Wings almost colorless with pale brownish veins. Abdomen
yellow-green. Male genitalia as in Plate I, figure 9.
FEMALE: Similar to male.
LARVA: (Plate III, figure 5 a-d.) Head capsule pale, the gula very
dark. Antennal ratio 50:16:6:8.6. Preanal papillae with 8 yellowish
bristles. Proleg claws yellow, simple.
PUPA: (Plate III, figure 3f; Plate V, figures 9, 9a.) Length 2.75-3.10
mm. Tergite II with posterior row of 14-20 hooks. Posterior row of
coarse spines on tergites III-VII, and on sternites II-V or VI. Lateral
filaments on V-VIII: 4-4-4-4; VIII with long slender curved lateral


spine about two-thirds from base of segment. Anal fin with 25-31
lateral filaments on each lobe.
We have experienced considerable difficulty in trying to separate
C. casuarius and C. emorsus. Johannsen's (1937: 44) description of
Chironomus (Limnochironomus) sp., which Townes suggests may be
emorsus, does not clearly differ from the above pupa, except in having
posterior spine rows on sternites II-VII, while our specimens have
them only on sternites II-V or VI.
REAED SPECIMENS: Madison Co., Suwannee River, November 1963.
Duval Co., Beach Blvd. Creek, January 1962.
Flagler Co., Rayonier Ditch, May 1964.

Cryptotendipes sp.
Only one specimen has been reared (from Wakulla liver at High-
way 98, August 1967). As this specimen is imperfect we felt it best
not to describe it until others are reared. It differs from casuarius
as an adult in being larger: W.L. 1.65 mm.; A.R. 2.35; L.R. 1.75,
and in lacking the median carina of the ninth tergite of the male
genitalia. The pupa has posterior rows of broad spines on tergites
III-VIII, those on VI and VII in two or more rows, those on VIII form-
ing a round rosette-like patch. Sternite I has a row of pale spines on
each side of the midline anteriorly and a small spined lobe lateral to
each row. There are apparently no posterior rows of pale spines on
the sternites. There is a pair of conspicuous bristles on II, and two
pair on each succeeding tergite (also on each sternite?). Anal fins
each bear 22 lateral filaments. The male genitalia of this species
closely resemble emorsus, but the pupal cast of this specimen does
not agree with Johannsen's (1937: 44) description of Chironomus
(Limnochironomus) sp.

Genus Harnischia Kieffer
Harnischia Kieffer 1921: 69. Genotype: Harnischia fuscimanus Kieffer (mono-
typic) [fide Townes, 1945: 1521; Lenz, 1921: 15.
Chironomas Meigen. Malloch, 1915: 474 [partim].
Chironomus (Harnischia) Goetghebucr, 1928: 86.
Chironomus (Chtronomus) group Hamischia. Edwards, 1929: 389 [partim]; Pa-
gast, 1931: 210-211; Johannsen, 1937: 21; Goctghebuer, 1937: 47.
Cryptocladopelma Lenz, 1941: 34; Lenz, 1960b: 165-184; Lenz, 1960c: 212.
Harnischia (Hamischia). Townes, 1945: 152 [partim]; Roback, 1957: 100-103
[partim]; Beck and Beck, 1959: 95 [partim].
Chironomus (Cryptochironomus). Freeman, 1957: 382-405 Lpartim]; Sublette,
1964: 134 [partim]; Beck, 1961: 125 [partim]; Beck, 1962: 91 [partim].

Vol. 13


Tendipes (Cryptochironomus). Dendy and Sublette, 1959: 516 [parttm]; Sublette,
1960: 224-225 [partim]; Darby, 1962: 1-200 [partim].
[non] Harnischia Kieffer. Lenz, 1960a: 221 [Lenz's figure and description of the
larva and pupa of "H. fscimanus" must be a misidentification as a larva and
pupa of the type described will produce an adult of the genus Paraclado-
LARVA: Labial plate dark, median teeth may be somewhat lighter and
usually (not in collatorP) notched. Paralabials with striations strong
basally, fading anteriorly; premandible with two blades and a medio-
lateral projection. Mandible with two dark squared lateral teeth and
usually a dark area on shoulder.
PUPA: Cephalic tubercles usually large, pointed, with some spines.
Posterior row of hooks on II divided medially. Sternites I and/or II
with pale spine rows. Tergites III-V with double or triple posterior
rows of coarse spines, paired on III and IV, contiguous on V and
forming a mace-like pattern on VI. Lateral filaments on V-VIII:
4-4-4-4, VIII with a large lateral spine about two-thirds from base
on each side. Anal fin with 35-55 lateral filaments.

Harischia collator Townes
Chironomus (Microchironomus) sp. 2, Townes, 1958: 172 [fide Townes, 1945:
Harnmischia (Harnischia) collator Townes, 1945: 169; Beck and Beck, 1959: 95.
MALE: W.L. 1.4 mm; A.R. 2.6; L.R. 1.8-2,0. Head ochraceous, pedicel
slightly darker, antennae and palpi brown; very small frontal tubercles
present. Mesonotum pale yellowish white with vittae, sternum and
postnotum orange-yellow. P.A. bristles 3. Legs light brown, foreleg
beyond mid-femora and apical two or three tarsal segments on all
legs darker brown. Wings and veins light brown, squama with 8 hairs.
Abdomen yellow. Male genitalia as in Plate 1, figure 10.
FEMALE: None reared.
LAnVA: (Plate IV, figures 1 a-e.) Head pale, gular area pale grayish-
brown. Antennal ratio 50:20:2:4:2. Median tooth of labial plate does
not appear to be notched. Preanal papillde with eight yellow bristles;
proleg claws simple.
PUPA: (Plate IV, figure 1; Plate V, figures 12, 12a.) Medium brown,
4.0 mm long. Cephalic tubercles large, pointed, rough, but not dis-
tinctly spined. Abdominal segment I appears to have an anterior lobe
on each side. Wing sheath with a tiny conical projection near base on
outer margin. Tergite II with about 20 moderately large golden brown


hooks in a dividedd posterior row. Stenite 1 has a row of fairly long
clear spines near posterior margin. Sternite II has anterior row of long
pale spines. Tergites III-V with double or triple rows of short spines,
divided on II-IV and contiguous on V. Tergite VI has a median pos-
terior mace-like patch with 11-13 spines. VIII bears an almost straight
spine on each lateral margin about fve-eighths irom base. Lateral
fiaments on V-V111 are 4-4-4-4. Anal fn with 40 lateral filaments.
REARED SPECIMENS: Duval Co., Beach Blvd. Creek, March 1964.

Harischia galeator Townes
Hamischia (Harischia) galeator Townes, 1945: 170; Beck and Beck, 1959: 95.
Chironomus (Cryptochironomus) galeator (Townes), Sublette, 1964: 134.
MALE: W.L. 1.35 mm; A.R. 1.85; L.R. 1.85. Head deep yellow, post-
ocular bristles in a single row, pedicel ochraceous, palpi and antennae
light brown. Small frontal tubercles present. Mesonotum greenish-
yellow with deeper orange vittae, and postnotum; P.A. bristles 3. Legs
pale greenish-white, the forelegs beyond femora and all apical tarsal
segments brown. Wings and veins light brown, squama with six (?)
hairs. Abdomen greenish-yellow. Male genitalia as in Plate I, .figure
11. The projecting hood of ninth tergite is strongly curved and the
degree to which the anal point is covered by this hood depends on
the angle at which the genitalia is mounted for viewing.
LARVA: (Plate IV, figures 2 a-e.) Head pale, the gular area dark
brown apically. Antennal ratio 50:16:4:6:4. Labial plate with median
tooth indistinctly notched. Preanal papillae with eight pale brown
bristles; claws of prolegs yellow, simple.
PUPA: (Plate IV, figure 2 f; Plate V, figures 13, 13a.) Light brown,
3.75 mm. long. Cephalic tubercles rough with some spines. There is
a small brown conical lobe near base of outer margin of wing sheath.
Leg case of hind leg is spined. Sternite I has a patch of large pale
spines on each side near anterior lateral margin. Sternite II with a
short median row of small pale spines near posterior margin and an
anterior band-of longer pale spines. Tergite II has about 40 golden
hooks in posterior divided row. Tergites III-V have divided paired
rows of fairly broad spines near posterior margin with speculation be-
tween; on VI there is a median mace-like patch containing about
six brown spines. Segment VIII has an almost straight spine about
five-eighths from base on each side. Anal fins with about 40 lateral
filaments on each side.
REAED SPECIMENS: Columbia Co., Robinson's Creek, October 1965.

Vol. 18


Jefferson Co., Lake Lafayette, April 1963.
Flagler Co., Rayonier Ditch, September 1966.
Seminole Co., Howell's Creek, October 1966.
Escambia Co., Canoe Creek, October 1967.

Hamischia viridulus (Linnaeus)
Tipula viridltus Linnaeus, 1767: 975 [fide Townes, 1945: 1681.
Chironomus (Harischia) viridulus (Linnaeus) Goetghebuer, 1928: 86.
Hanischia (Hamischia) viridulus (Linnaeus), Townes, 1945: 168; Beck and Beck,
1959: 95.
Tendipes (Cryptochironomus) viridulus (Linne), Sublette, 1960: 225.
MALE: W.L. 1.44 mm; A.R. 2.0; L.R. 2.0. Head dark yellow-brown,
antennae and palpi brown. Mesonotum brownish-yellow with brown
vittae and postnotum. P.A. bristles 3. Legs light brown with forelegs
and all apical tarsal segments brown. Wings and veins very pale yel-
lowish, squamal hairs 11+. Abdomen yellow-green. Male genitalia
as in Plate I, figure 12.
FEMALE: None reared.
LARVA: (Plate IV, figures 3 a-e.) Head capsule pale, gula not dark-
ened. Antennal ratio 50:15:4:4:2. Median labial tooth distinctly
notched. Preanal papillae with eight yellow bristles; proleg claws pale
yellow, simple. The larva and pupa of this species are similar to
amachaerus as described by Roback (1957).
PUPA: (Plate IV, figure 3f; Plate V, figures 14, 14a.) Light brown, 4.0
mm long. Cephalic tubercle appears to be very small, but this may
be the way it is mounted on slide. There is a small brown lobe near
base of outer margin of wing sheath. Sternite I has anterior lateral
lobes with a short double row of pale spines postero-medially from
lobes, and a posterior row of moderately long pale slender spines.
Sternite II has an anterior row of long spines arising from distinct
alveoli and a short double median row of very pale spines near pos-
terior border. A divided row of about 26 golden brown hooks pos-
teriorly on tergite II. Tergites III-VI with posterior row of short
broad pointed spines with a row or two of fine spines anterior to these;
spine rows interrupted medially on III, IV, almost contiguous on V,
and forming a mace-like patch on VI with six or seven spines. Lateral
filaments on V-VIII: 4-4-4-4; VIII has a long spine, bent near middle,
about five-eighths from base of segment. Anal fin bears 35 lateral fila-
ments on each side.
REARED SPECIMENS: Duval Co., Expressway creek near U.S. #1, No-
vember 1964.


Harnischia boydi (Beck) new combination6

Chironomus (Cryptochironomus) boydi Beck, 1962: 91.
MALE: W.L. 1.25-1.4 mm; A.R. 2.0-2.16; L.R. 1.76-1.90. Head dark
yellow, palpi and antennae brown, pedicel ochraceous. Small frontal
tubercles present. Mesonotum green or yellow with deeper yellow
vittae and postnotum. P.A. bristles three. Legs light brown, forelegs
and all apical tarsal segments darker. Tibiae on middle leg bear only
one apical spine each; tibiae on hind legs have two. Wings and veins
pale brown, squama with 4+ (?) bristles. Abdomen yellow green.
Male genitalia as in Plate I, figure 13.

FEMALE: None reared.

LARVA: (Plate IV, figures 4 a-e.) Head capsule pale with brownish
gular and dark occipital rim. Antennal ratio 50:16:2:2:2. Labial plate
with median tooth notched, median three teeth somewhat paler;
seven lateral teeth, outer three somewhat separated from rest and
projecting. Paralabials almost triangular, striae distinct but short.
Preanal papillae with eight gray or brown bristles; proleg claws yel-
low, simple.

PUPA: (Plate IV, figure 4f; Plate V, figure 15.) Light brown, 3.6 mm.
long. Cephalic tubercles rough but lacking distinct spines. Anterior
lateral lobes on segment I. Sternite I has a posterior row of short pale
spines; sternite II has an anterior row of long pale spines. Posterior
hook row on II is interrupted medially and appears to be on a raised
area. Tergites III-VI have two or three rows of short sharp spines,
paired on II-IV, contiguous on V, and forming a mace-like patch on
VI. Stemite IV has lateral whorls of fine spinules, and there are very
small pale spines postero-laterally on V and VI. VII is spiculate on
anterior half and on caudo-lateral corners. VIII has a large yellow
lateral spine on each side about five-eights from base, this spine
fairly broad basally and distinctly bent at middle, ending in a point.
Lateral filaments on V-VIII: 4-4-4-4. Anal fins bear 48-50 lateral fila-

REARED SPECIMENS: Broward Co., Plantation Canal, September 1964.
Flagler Co., Rayonier Ditch, November 1967.
Duval Co., Expressway near U.S. 1, November 1964.

This species may be a synonym for Chironomus (Cryptochironomus) forcipis
Rempel, 1939.

Vol. 13


Harnischia edwardsi (Kruseman)
Chironomus (Chironomus) virescens Meigen, Edwards, 1929: 891, [according to
Townes, 1945: 1671.
Tendipes (Parachironomus) edwardsi Kruseman, 1933: 194, [fide Townes, 1945:
Harnischia (Harnischia) edwardst (Kruseman). Townes, 1945: 167; Beck and
Beck, 1959: 95.
Tendipes (Cryptochironomus) edwardsi Kruseman. Sublette, 1960: 224.
Chironomus (Cryptochironomus) edwardsi (Kruseman). Sublette, 1964a: 134.
MALE: W.L. 1.2-1.4 mm; A.R. 1.9; L.R.? Head yellowish, the palpi,
antennae, and pedicel brown. Postocular bristles in a single row;
small frontal tubercles present. Mesonotum yellow green with deep
yellow vittae, sternum and postnotum. P.A. bristles two. Legs light
brown, forelegs beyond femora and all apical tarsal segments brown.
Wing membrane and veins light brown, punctate, squama with 2-3
(?) hairs. Abdomen greenish-yellow. Male genitalia as in Plate I,
figure 14.
FEMALE: None reared.
LARVA: (Plate IV, figures 5 a-e.) Head pale with a part of the gular
area darkened. Antennal ratio 50:15:3:8:3. Labial plate with median
tooth deeply notched, almost appearing double, the median and first
laterals slightly paler than outer teeth; fifth through seventh laterals
somewhat separated off and projecting. Paralabial striae distinct, but
short. Preanal papillae with long gray-yellow bristles; proleg claws
yellow, simple.
PUPA: (Plate IV, figure 5f; Plate V, figure 16.) Pale yellow-brown,
about 3.5 mm long. Cephalic tubercles large, pointed, spined. Tergite
II with posterior divided row of yellow-gray hooks. Sternite II with
anterior row of long pale spines and a divided posterior row of a few
very small pale spines. Tergites III-VI with double or triple rows of
spines, paired on III, IV, contiguous on V, and forming mace-like
patch with about five large and six or seven smaller spines on VI. VIII
has a lateral spine on each side about three-fourths from base of
segment which is broad basally and bent in the middle. Lateral fila-
ments on V-VIII: 4-4-4-4. Anal fins bear.55 lateral filaments on each
REARED SPECIMEN: Jackson Co., Apalachee Game Management Area,
March 1963.
Genus Paracladopelma Harnisch
Paracladopelma Harnisch, 1923: 304. Genotype: Paracladopelma camptolabis
Kieffer [original designation by Harnisch]; Lenz, 1941: 34; Lenz, 1959b:


429-449; Fittkau and Schlee, 1967: 874.
Chironomus Meigen. Malloch, 1915: 439 [partim].
Chironomus (Chironomus) Group Cladopelma Kieffer, Paraodadopelma IIarnisch.
Edwards, 1929: 387 [partim]; Johannsen, 1937: 21.
Chironomus (Cryptochironomus) Group Parocladopelma Harnisch. Pagast, 1931:
209; Goetghebuer, 1937: 34.
Harnischia (Cladopelma) Kieffer. Townes, 1945: 147. [Townes designation of
genotype: Cladopelma laminata Kieffer is in error as Harnisch, 1923, desig-
nated the genotype of Cladopelma as virescens Meigen. C. virescens does not
belong in a genus with the other species here considered (i.e. Paradoadopelma),
so it follows that the correct name for the genus under consideration is not
Cladopelma, but Paracladopelmal; Roback, 1957: 110.
ADULT: Both appendages of male genitalia present; appendage 1
broadened apically, covered with microtrichia and bearing a few
bristles; appendage 2 usually smaller, rounded. Anal point triangular
at base, shoulders of ninth tergite not angular. Reared Florida speci-
mens may have small frontal tubercles present, 2-3 P.A. bristles, and
4-6 hairs on squama.
LARVA: Labial plate with broad median domed area, pale in Florida
species, which may be notched to suggest small squared teeth; laterals
dark and outermost may project very slightly. Paralabials wide with
distinct striae to anterior margin of plate. Maxillary palps conspicu-
ously long, the basal segment being more than one-half as long as
first antenna segment. Antennae five-segmented, the second segment
about one-half as long as the first. Premandibles with five or more
blades. There is a pair of two-segmented sensory palps on the labrum
and another small two-segmented palp near the base of each maxillary
palp. Claws of prolegs arc not spined.
PUPA: Cephalic tubercles small, acutely pointed. Posterior row of
hooks on tergite II not divided usually less than one-half the width
of the segment; no lateral lobes on I or II. Tergites III-VI with pos-
terior spine rows of heavier spines which are paired on III-V and
coalesced on VI. Lateral filaments on V-VIII: 4-4-4-5. VIII may have
a comb of several spines fused basally (no specimens we have reared
do). Anal fin bears 20-35 lateral filaments.

Paracladopelma undine (Townes) new combination
Harnichia (Cladopelma) undine Townes, 1945: 149; Roback, 1957.
Chironomus (Cryptochironomus) undine (Townes), Beck, 1961: 125.
MALE: W.L. 1.7 mm; L.R. 2.0; A.R. 1.9. Head, thorax and abdomen
reddish brown, little color variation generall specimen?); no apparent
frontal tubercles. P.A. bristles three, wing brown, setae at apex of

Vol. 13


R1+5 which is strongly downcurved at apex, squama with five hairs.
Male genitalia as in Plate I, figure 15.
FEMALE: W.L. 1.8 mm. All brown, the vittae and postnotum being
darkest. Legs brown, middle and hind femora somewhat lighter;
two spines on tibiae of mid and hind legs. Wing brown with long
dark setae along R, R1, and R4+s, squama with five hairs. Genital
lobe almost triangular.
LARVA: (Plate III, figures 6 a-d and g-i.) Head capsule pale, the pos-
terior rim brown. Antennal ratio 50:12:2:2:1. Labial plate with pale
median area of four shallow squared teeth, with six slightly darkened
lateral teeth, the outer two more pointed and slightly longer. Mandible
with three pale lateral teeth, comb of two bristles and brush of four
unfringed branches. Premandible with four dark blades, the outer very
thin. This larva is very similar to Roback's (1957) description of the
larva of nais, except that that species has the head capsule dark, and
the paralabials appear to be wider.
PuPA: (Plate III, figure 4 f; Plate V, figure 10.) Brown, 3.7 mm. long.
Cephalic tubercles small, slender, with pointed apex. Tergite II with
posterior row of approximately 50 hooks. Tergites III-V with paired
patches of coarse spines posteriorly, joined by finer spines; patches
coalesced on VI. Tergite VIII has spiculate antero-lateral patches.
Anal fins bear 30 lateral filaments. Male genital sac apparently shorter
than anal fins.
REARED SPECMENS: Okaloosa Co., Juniper Creek, February 1966.

Paracladopelma loganae new species

MALE HOLOTYPE: W.L. 1.55 mm; A.R. 2.0; L.R. 1.8. Collected in Es-
cambia County, Perdido River, February 2, 1966 (USNM). Head yel-
lowish, pedicel and antennae brown, apical segment of palpi paler.
P.O. bristles in single row; small frontal tubercles present. Mesonotum
yellowish-brown with ochraceous vittae; sternum, small pleural spot
anterior to wing, and postnotum dark brown; P.A. bristles 3 (or 4).
Legs pale brown, forelegs beyond femora and all apical tarsal seg-
ments darker brown; mid and hind tibiae each bear two spines. Wing
light brown, dark setae along apex of R4 + ; squama with four or five
hairs. Abdomen brown. Male genitalia as in Plate I, figure 16.
FEMALE ALLOTYPE: W.L. 1.45 mm. Very pale brownish with brown
vittae, sternum and postnotum. Wing membrane and veins brown,
squama with six or seven hairs. Legs brown, forelegs and apices of


all legs slightly darker. Abdomen brown. Spermathecae two, clear,
flask-shaped, approximately 0.05 mm in diameter.
LARVA: (Plate III, figures 7 a-d and g-i.) Head capsule pale, occipital
rim not darkened. Antennal ratio 50:28:2:2:2, blade arising from near
base of the second segment. Mandible with three lateral teeth, the
basal one pale and very sharply pointed; brush with four branches;
comb of seven or eight bristles.
PUPA: (Plate III, figure 5f; Plate V, figure 11.) Light brown, 3.9 mm
long. Cephalic tubercles brown, approximately 0.02 mm long with
sharp pointed apex and a subapical bristle. Tergites III-VI with pos-
terior median brownish area of three to four rows of small triangular
spines, in paired patches joined medially by paler, smaller spines.
Anal fin with 32 lateral filaments. Male genital sac bluntly rounded
at tips and about two-thirds as long as anal fins.
REAREn SPECIMENS: (Paratypes) Escambia Co., Perdido River, 7
February 1966 (2 males, 3 females); Bradford Co., Santa Fe River
Drainage, 20 March 1968 (4 males).
We take pleasure in naming this species for Miss Lucile Logan,
longtime associate and friend.

For many of the species within this group we have too few speci-
mens to indicate much of either their ecology or zoogeography, but we
do have enough records for some to show the types of water they
inhabit. The genus Demicryptochironomus appears to contain species
confined to our swiftest waters. Paracladopelma undine, P. loganae,
and H. collator have been found only in running water in Florida.
Species confined to standing waters or streams of extremely low
velocity are Parachironomus alatus, P. pectinatellae, P. directs, P.
monochromus, P. hirtalatus, P. sublettei, and Harnischia boydi. In
addition P. sublettei and H. boydi larvae occur most frequently in the
canals of southeastern Florida, a fact of, perhaps, greater significance
in zoogeography than in their ecology. Parachironomus carinatus, P.
schneideri, Harnischia viridulus, H. edwardsi, and H. galeator are
ubiquitous. Of all the species of this group thus far known from Flor-
ida Parachironomus alatus is probably the most restricted ecologi-
cally, the larvae being found only in sphagnum bogs and in dense
vegetation in other highly acid waters.

Vol. 13


A brief review of the literature on chironomids in the United
States shows that in only a few widely scattered areas has any sig-
nificant study of local chironomid faunas been made. Thus the group's
zoogeography can be discussed only in general terms.
Three local species Parachironomus monochromus, Hamischia
edwardsi, and H. viridulus are holarctic in distribution. Species of
nearctic distribution are Parachironomus carinatus, Harnischia gale-
ator, H. collator, Paracladopelma undine, and Cryptotendipes casu-
arius. Species thus far confined to the extreme southeastern United
States are Parachironomus pectinatellae (Alabama and Florida) and
P. directs (Louisiana, Alabama, and Florida). There is a strong pos-
sibility that Parachironomus sublettei and Harnischia boydi may be
neotropical in distribution (see footnote 6). At the present stage of
our knowledge the following four species seem to be endemic to
Florida: Parachironomus alatus, P. schneiderei, P. hirtalatus, and
Paracladopelma loganae.
Our extensive larval collections contain representatives of many
species that have not yet been reared. Thus the present discussion of
the Harnischia group is necessarily incomplete.

It is a pleasure to acknowledge our gratitude to D. R. Oliver, Canada De-
partment of Agriculture, and A. L. Hamilton, Fisheries Research Board of
Canada, for their time in reviewing and criticising the manuscript, for their ideas
and aid, and for the loan of specimens. We are also most grateful to E. J. Fittkau
and Fr. Reiss, Abtetlung Tropenokologie, Max-Planck-Institut fur Limnologie,
for valuable discussions and for the loan of specimens. We also wish to thank
J. S. Dendy, Auburn University, and Larry Aggus, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Serv-
ice, for the loan of reared specimens of Parachironomus pectinatellae.






1 2


Plate I

Male Genitalia

Parachironomus monochromus
P. tenuicaudatu
P. schneidert
P. directs
P. sublettei
P. arinatus
P. hirtalatus
P. alatus

9. Cryptotendipes casuarus
10. Hamischia collator
11. H. galeator
12. H. viridulus
13. H. boydi
14. H. edwardst
15. Paracladopelma undine
16. P. loganae

Vol. 18




~a~ Ua
4 b

r^ a-1 a

o-^ o lb
^^^ a ^ b

Plate H

1. monochrome
2. schneideri
8. directus
4. sublettel
5. carinatus

a. larval labial plate
b. antenna
c. premandible
d. mandible
e. claw of posterior proleg
f. pupal cephalic tubercle

iS \


.. b 2fc d


4\ dd


2. tenuicaudatus b. antenna
3. hirtalatas c. premandible
4. alatus d. andible
5. casuatrsP e. claw of posterior proleg
6. undine f. pupal cephalic tubercle
7. loganae g. sensory palp of labrum of larva
h. maxillary palp of larva
i. palp near base of maxillary palp




a A

Plate IV

1. collator a. larval labial plate
2. galeator b. antenna
3. viridulus c. premandible
4. boydi d. mandible
5. edwardst e. maxillary palp
f. cephalic tubercle of pupa



Plate V

Pupal tergite VI: 1. monochromts; 2. schneideri; 3. directs; 4. sublettei; 5.
carinatus; 6. tenuicaudatum; 7. hirtalatus; 8. alltus; 9. casuarius; 10. undine;
11. loganae; 12. colator; 13. galeator; 14. viridulus; 15. boydi; 16. edwardsi.
-I. 15

Plate V

Pupal tergite VI: 1. monochromus; 2. schneideri; 3. directus; 4. sublettei; 5.
carinatus; 6. tenuicaudatus; 7. hirtalatus; 8. altus; 9. casuarius; 10. undine;
11. loganae; 12. collator; 18. galeator; 14. viridulus; 15. boydi; 16. edwardsi.
Pupal tergite VII: 9a casuarius
Mesonotal tubercle of pupa: 12a. collator; 13a. galeator; 14a. viridulus.

Vol. 13



Albu, P. 1966. Verzelchnis der bis jetzt aus Rumanien bekannten Chironomiden.
Gewasser und Abwasser 41/42: 145-148.
,and N. Botnariuc. 1966. Les Chironomides de la riziere de Chirogi
(Oltenitza-Roumanie). Gewasser und Abwasser 41/42: 48-63.
Beck, E. C. 1961. Two new Chironomidae (Diptera) and additional state rec-
ords from Florida. Florida Ent. 44 (13): 125-128.
1962. Five new Chironomidae (Diptera) from Florida. Florida Ent.
45 (2): 89-92.
Sand W. M. Beck, Jr. 1959. A checklist of the Chironomidae (Insecta)
of Florida (Diptera: Chironomidae). Bull. Florida State Mus. 4 (3): 85-96.
Beck, W. M., Jr. and E. C. Beck. 1964. New Chironomidae from Florida (Dip-
tera). Florida Ent. 47 (3): 201-207.
1966. The Chironomidae of Florida: a problem in international tax-
onomy. Gewasser und Abwasser 41/42: 129-135.
1968. The concept of genus in the family Chironomidae. Ann. Zool.
Fenn. 5:14-16.
Beyer. 1941. Iowa non-biting midges. Mimeographed, 3 pp. (not seen) (referred
to in Townes).
Darby, R. E. 1962. Midges associated with California rice fields, with special
reference to their ecology (Diptera: Chironomidae). Hilgardia 32 (1): 1-206.
Dendy, J. S. and J. E. Sublette. 1959. The Chironomidae (= Tendipedidae:
Diptera) of Alabama with descriptions of six new species. Ann. Ent. Soc.
Amer. 52 (5): 506-519.
Edwards, F. W. 1929. British non-biting midges (Diptera, Chironomidae). Trans.
Ent. Soc. London 77: 279-430.
Fittkau, E.-J., Fr. Reiss and D. Schlee, 1967. Chironomidae. In Limnofauna
Europaea, Stuttgart pp. 346-381.
Fittkau, E.-J. 1968. Die Abgrenzung der Gattung bei Chironomiden. Ann. Zool.
Fenn. 5:33-36.
Freeman, Paul. 1957. A study of the Chironomidae (Diptera) of Africa south
of the Sahara. Part III. Bull. Brit. Mus. (Nat. Hist.) 5 (9): 323-426.
Goetghebuer, M. 1928. Faune de France, 15. Diptera (Nematoceres) Chirono-
midae Tanypodinae, pp. 1-174.
1937. In Lindner. Die Fliegen der Palaearctischen Region. 13c: 84-50.
Harnisch, O. 1923. Metamorphose und system der gattung Cryptochironomus
K. s:. Zool. Jahrb. 47: 271-308.
Johannsen, O. A. 1905. May flies and midges. N. Y. State Mus. Bull. 86: 179-331.
1937. Aquatic Diptera, Part IV. Cornell Univ. Agric. Exp. Sta. Mem.
210: 1-80.
Kruseman, G., Jr. 1933. Tendipedidae Neerlandicae. Tijdschr. v. Ent. 76: 194.
(not seen)
Kieffer, J. J. 1918. Beschreibung neuer, auf Lazarettschiffen des ostlichen Kriegs-
schauplatzes und bei Ignalino in Litauen von Dr. W. Horn gesammelter
Chironomiden, mit Uebersichtstabellen einiger Gruppen von palaarktischen
Arten (Dipt.). Ent. Mitt. 7:38 (not seen).
1921. Chironomides nouveaux ou peu connus de la region palearctique.
Bull. Soc. d'hist. Nat. Moselle 29:69 (not seen).


1922. Nouveaux Chironomides a larves aquatiques. Ann. Soc. Sci..
Bruxelles 41: 358 (not seen).
Lenz, Fr. 1921. Chironomidenpuppen und-larven. Bestimmungstabellen. Deutsche
Entomologische Zeit. 160: 1-15.
1941. Die Metamorphose der Chironomidengattung Cryptochironomus.
Zool. Anz. 133 (112): 29-41.
1957. In Lindner. Die Fliegen der Palaearctischen Region. 13c (195):
1959a. Die Metamorphose der Gattung Cryptotendipes Lenz. Deutsche
Entom. Zeits., 6 (I-III): 238-250.
1959b. Zur Metamorphose und Okologie der Tendipediden-Gattung
Paracladopelma. Arch. f. Hydrobiol. 55 (3): 429-449.
1960a. Die Metamorphosestadien der Tendipedidengattung Demicryp-
tochironomus Lenz. Abh. nature. Ver. Bremen 35 (3): 450-463.
-- 1960b. Die Tendipediden-Gattung Cryptocladopelma Lenz. In oberitali-
enischen Gewassern. Mem. 1st Ital. Idrobiol., 12: 165-184.
----. 1960c. In Lindner. Die Fliegen der Palaearctischen Region. 13c (196):
Linnaeus, C. 1767. System Nat. Ed. 12: 975. (not seen).
Malloch, J. R. 1915. The Chironomidae or midges of Illinois with particular refer-
ence to the species occurring in the Illinois River. Illinois State Nat. Hist. Bull.
10: 275-543.
Miller, R. B. 1941. A contribution to the ecology of the Chironomidae of Costello
Lake, Algonquin Park, Ontario. Univ. Toronto Stud. (Biol. Scr.) 49: 62-63.
(not seen).
Pagast, F. 1931. Chironomiden aus der Bodenfauna des Usmasees in Kurland.
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Rempel, J. G. 1939. Neu Chironomiden aus Nordostbrasilien. Zool. Anz. 1.9:
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Sublette, J. E. 1957. The ecology of the macroscopic bottom fauna in Lake Tex-
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-- -, and B. R. Buckley. 1964b. Chironomidae (Diptera) of Louisiana II.
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Vol. 18


Townes, H. K., Jr. 1938. Studies on the food organisms of fish. A biological
survey of the Allegheny and Chemung watersheds. Ann. Rpt. N. Y. State
Conserve. Dept 27, Suppl. p. 172. (not seen).
----- 1945. The Nearctic species of Tendipedini (Diptera; Tendipedidae
(= Chironomidae) ). Amer. Midl. Nat. 34 (1): 1-206.
Van der Wulp, F. M. 1858. Beschrijving van eenige nieuwe of twijfelachtige
soorten van Diptera uit de families der Nemocera. Tijdschr. v. Ent. 2: 159-185.
(not seen).
---- 1874. Dipterologische aanteekeningen. Tijdschr. v. Ent. 17: 109-148.
(not seen).

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