THE FLORIDA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES
VOL. 6 No. 2
CHECK LIST OF FLORIDA MOSSES*
RUTH OLIVE SCHORNHERST
Florida State College for Women
The purpose of this paper is two-fold: (1) the presentation of
a history of Bryology in Florida, giving briefly the names of prominent
collectors and indicating the regions where they have collected, with
the idea of furnishing references to those interested in this phase of
botanical study in the state; and (2) furnishing a check list of species
of mosses known to occur here.
Miss Lillian Arnold, botanist on the herbarium staff of the Florida
Agricultural Experiment Station, has recently published a summary
of geological and climatological conditions affecting the distribution
of plants in Florida.' While the remarks in this paper apply specifical-
ly to the distribution of trees, the same conditions are significant in
relation to the occurrence of lower plant groups. St. John' has dis-
cussed the effect of these conditions upon the distribution of ferns
in Florida, and a paper by the author' is concerned with this prob-
lem in relation to mosses.
HISTORY OF BRYOLOGY IN FLORIDA
The first reference to collections of mosses in Florida began to
appear in botanical literature about 1900, at the time when the resort
areas of the southern part of the state were beginning to attract
winter visitors. Many of these early collections represent a pleasant
hour or two of browsing about in the hammocks in the vicinity of
Miami, rather than any serious survey of the moss flora of that re-
*Much of the field work necessary for gathering distribution data for this
paper was done with the aid of the 1939 Research Grant from the Florida
Academy of Sciences. The author wishes to make grateful acknowledgment for
'Lillian E. Arnold, "Check list of native and naturalized trees in Florida,"
Proc. Fla. Acad. Sci., Vol. 2 (1937), pp. 53-55.
'Edward P. St. John, "Rare ferns in central Florida," Amer. Fern Journ.,
Vol. 26 (1936), pp. 41-50.
'Ruth O. Schornherst, "Phytogeographic studies of the mosses of northern
Florida," Amer. Mid. Nat., Vol. 29 (1943), pp. 509-532.
2 PROCEEDINGS OF THE FLORIDA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES
gion. In 1877 J. Donnell Smith, an early plant explorer, made ex-
tensive collections in the southern part of the state, and in 1878, in
the company of Coe Finch Austin, explored the Caloosahatchee River.
Many of Smith's collections of both years are deposited in various
American herbaria. Other visiting botanists who have collected Bry-
ophytes in peninsular Florida, thus adding materially to our knowl-
edge of the flora are A. W. Chapman, Elizabeth Gertrude Britton
.",,''." Fred W. Gray,' O. E. Jennings, Lewis E. Anderson, and J. K.
Small. Until recent years no records of collections in continental Flor-
ida have appeared in published reports.
Severin Rapp, who settled in Sanford in 1884, was the best known
of the resident bryologists. His death, in his 88th year, in October,
1941, was a distinct loss to the state. His collections from the vicinity
of Sanford'" have furnished much information concerning the bry-
'ophyte flora of the Florida East Coast. Lighthipe (or Lightipe), an
Episcopal rector, collected around Monticello in Jefferson County
about 1890, and more recently Herman Kurz, Olivia Embrey Lay,
Erress Arrant, and the author"'1 in other locations in northern Flor-
ida. In the central part of the state, three persons have made out-
standing contributions to the information on the moss flora: A. J.
Grout,18''161" a botanist known everywhere for his contribution to
'Elizabeth Gertrude Britton, "West Indian mosses in Florida," The Bryolo-
gist, Vol. 6 (1903), pp. 58-61.
a "Mosses of Florida collected by Severin Rapp," The Bryologist,
Vol. 21 (1918), pp. 27-28.
6-, "Jagerinopsis squarropsis, nsp.," The Bryologist, Vol. 21 (1918),
"West Indian mosses in Florida," The Bryologist, Vol. 22
(1919), p. 2 (A description of specimens collected by Rapp in Seminole County).
"The re-discovery of Fissidens Donnellii Austin," Journ. N. Y.
Bot. Garden., Vol. 20 (1919), pp. 138-142.
'Fred W. Gray, "Pygmies, here and there, now and then," The Bryologist,
Vol. 35 (1932), pp. 18-23.
"Severin Rapp, "A list of mosses from Sanford, Florida," The Bryologist, Vol.
22 (1919), pp. 50-54.
"Ruth O. Schornherst, "A preliminary list of mosses from northern Florida,"
The Bryologist, Vol. 34 (1940), pp. 57-73.
12 "A second list of mosses from northern Florida," The Bry-
ologist, Vol. 44 (1941), pp. 117-119.
"A. J. Grout, "Collecting mosses in Florida," The Bryologist, Vol. 16 (1913),
14 -, "Collecting mosses along the Florida west coast," The Bry-
ologist, Vol. 30 (1937), pp. 29-30.
1. "Mosses in Florida lime-sinks," The Bryologist, Vol. 43
(1940), p. 112.
6 "Moss flora of North America north of Mexico (Newfane,
Vermont, 1928-1940. 3 vols.).
CHECK LIST OF FLORIDA MOSSES
Bryology, and a winter resident of Manatee; J. B. McFarlin", until
recently botanist at Highlands Hammock State Park; and W. A. Mur-
rill," of Gainesville.
This brief summary indicates a definite spottiness in moss col-
lecting in the state, with many regions yet to be studied and much
to be learned concerning the exact distribution of many species. More
and more, attention is being given to problems of distribution of
plants of all groups, with particular emphasis in this part of the coun-
try on tropical species.
CHECK LIST OF MOSSES OF FLORIDA
The nomenclature of the Sphagnaceae follows A. L. Andrews."
Classification and nomenclature of the other groups is mainly that
found in Grout's List of Mosses of North America north of Mexico.20
Of the two hundred and sixty-five species and varieties of mosses listed
as occurring in the state, one hundred and eighty-four have been col-
lected by the author. The others reported have been assembled from
a study of material collected by Dr. W. S. Phillips, formerly of the
University of Miami, collections by Dr. Herman Kurz of the Florida
State College for Women, from material deposited in the herbaria of
the New York Botanical Garden, the University of Michigan, and
the University of Florida, and from published reports of various au-
thors. Several species appear in the literature as occurring in Florida
but show no county records. For completeness they have been in-
cluded here, although specimens have not been seen by the author,
and their authenticity has not been established. These species are in-
dicated by an asterisk (*).
Sphagnum cuspidatum Ehrh. var. serrulatum Schlieph.
Alachua, Dade, Franklin, Lake, Lee, Leon, Polk, Orange, Seminole, Wakulla
Sphagnum cyclophyllum Sull. and Lesq.
Manatee, Polk, Seminole
Sphagnum erythrocalyx Hampe
Manatee, Polk, Seminole
Sphagnum Fitzgeraldi Ren.
Jefferson, Orange, Seminole
"J. B. McFarlin, "Mosses of Polk County, Florida, "The Bryologist, Vol.
40 (1937), pp. 49-57.
"W. A. Murrill, "Bryophytes of Alachua County," Herbarium of the U. of
Fla. Agric. Exp. Sta. 1938. (Mimeographed).
"A. L. Andrews, "List of North American species of Sphagnum," The Bry-
ologist, Vol. 43 (1940), p. 132.
"A. J. Grout, "List of mosses of North America north of Mexico," The Bry-
ologist, Vol. 43 (1940), pp. 119-131.
4 PROCEEDINGS OF THE FLORIDA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES
Sphagnum henryense Warnst.
Sphagnum imbricatum Chapman
Alachua, Manatee, Santa Rosa
Sphagnum macrophyllum Bernh.
DeSoto, Duval, Lee, Leon, Liberty, Manatee, Orange, Polk, Putnam, St.
Johns, Santa Rosa, Seminole, Taylor, Volusia
Sphagnum magellanicum Brid.
Leon, Liberty, Polk, Putnam, Seminole
Sphagnum meridense (Hampe) C. Miill.
Sphagnum palustre L.
Alachua, Clay, Highlands, Jefferson, Marion, Leon, Liberty, Okeechobee,
Polk, St. Johns, Seminole
Sphagnum portoricense Hampe
Clay, Jefferson, Leon, Manatee, Orange, Polk, Volusia
Sphagnum recurvum Beauv.
Alachua, Hillsborough, Leon, Liberty, Pasco, Polk, St. Johns, Seminole,
Sphagnum strictum Sull.
Alachua, Jefferson, Lee, Leon, Manatee, Okaloosa, Polk, St. Johns, Seminole
Sphagnum subsecundum Nees
Alachua, Duval, Gadsden, Lee, Leon, Levy, Manatee, Seminole, Volusia
Sphagnum tabulare Sull.
Sphagnum tenerum Sull. and Lesq.
Atrichum angustatum (Brig.) Bry. Eur.
Alachua, Citrus, Duval, Jefferson, Leon, Liberty, Manatee, Marion, Polk,
Atrichum crispum (James) Sull.
Atrichum macmillani (Holz.) Frye
Alachua, Duval, Gadsden, Jefferson, Leon, Liberty, Nassau, Wakulla, Walton
Atrichum undulatum (Hedw.) Beauv.
Pogonatum brachyphyllum (Rich.) Beauv.
Duval, Escambia, Franklin, Gadsden, Jefferson, Leon, Liberty, Polk, Seminole
Pogonatum pensilvanicum (Hedw.) Paris
Gadsden, Jackson, Leon
Polytrichum commune Hedw.
Alachua, Duval, Manatee, Marion, Polk, Seminole
Polytrichum commune Hedw. var. perigonale (Mx.) Bry. eur.
Jefferson, Leon, Liberty
Polytrichum gracile Smith
Fissidens adiantoides Hedw.
Citrus, Dade, Gadsden, Holmes, Lee, Leon, Levy, Liberty, Manatee, Wakulla
CHECK LIST OF FLORIDA MOSSES
Fissidens adiantoides Hedw. var. semicristatus Grout
Dade, Lee, Leon, Palm Beach, Wakulla
Fissidens bryoides Hedw.
Alachua, Dade, Gadsden, Jackson, Liberty, Marion
Fissidens Bushii Card. and Th6r.
Alachua, Gadsden, Jackson, Jefferson, Sumter
Fissidens christatus Wils.
Alachua, Citrus, Dade, Gadsden, Lee, Leon, Levy, Liberty, Manatee, Marion,
Pasco, Polk, St. Johns, Seminole, Wakulla
Fissidens cristatus Wils. var. winonensis (Ren. and Card.) Grout
Fissidens Donnellii Aust.
Dade, Highlands, Jefferson, Lee, Leon, Marion, Seminole, Volusia
Fissidens exiguus Sull.
*Fissidens exiguus Sull. var. falcatulus (Ren. and Card.) Grout
Fissidens Garberi Lesq. and James
Alachua, Brevard, Charlotte, Columbia, Dade, Gadsden, Jefferson, Lake, Lee,
Leon, Liberty, Martin, Palm Beach, St. Lucie, Santa Rosa, Seminole, Volusia
Fissidens Hallii Aust.
Fissidens Kegelianus C. Mill.
Alachua, Citrus, Dade, Marion, Monroe, Polk
Fissidens Littlei (Williams) Grout
Fissidens manateensis Grout
Collier, Jefferson, Lee, Manatee, Seminole, Suwannee
Fissidens minutulus Sull.
Gadsden, Jackson, Leon, Liberty, Monroe
Fissidens obtusifolius Wils.
Fissidens polypodioides Hedw.
Gadsden, Leon, Liberty
Fissidens radicans Mont.
Collier, Dade, Manatee, Marion, Monroe
Fissidens Ravenelii Sull.
Gadsden, Hardee, Jefferson, Leon, Liberty, Pasco, Polk, Seminole
Fissidens subbasilaris Hedw.
Citrus, Collier, Gadsden, Holmes, Lake, Levy, Liberty, Seminole, Volusia,
Fissidens subcrenatus Schimp.
Fissidens taxifolius Hedw.
Alachua, Citrus, Duval, Gadsden, Holmes, Jackson, Jefferson, Leon, Liberty,
Manatee, Marion, Wakulla
Fissidens tortilis Hamp and C. Miill.
Fissidens viridulus (Web. and Mohr) Wahlenb.
Alachua, Gadsden, Jackson, Lee, Leon, Liberty, Manatee, Seminole, Volusia
Fissidens viridulus (Web. and Mohr) Wahlenb. var. texanus (Lesq.) Grout
Gadsden, Lee, Liberty
6 PROCEEDINGS OF THE FLORIDA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES
Archidium alternifolium (Hedw.) Schimp.
Dade, Lee, Manatee, Seminole
Archidium Donnellii Aust.
Archidium floridanum Aust.
Franklin, Gadsden, Lee
Archidium Hallii Aust.
Archidium longifolium Lesq. and James
Dade, Lee, Manatee, Seminole
Archidium ohioense Schimp.
Franklin, Lee, Levy, Manatee, Seminole
Bruchia carolinae Aust.
Lee, Marion, Polk
Bruchia Donnellii Aust.
Alachua, Duval, Jefferson, Leon, Polk, Seminole
*Bruchia flexuosa (Sw.) C. Miill.
Bruchia Ravenelii Wils.
Alachua, Gadsden, Leon, Marion, Polk, Seminole
Bruchia Sullivanti Aust.
Jefferson, Marion, Polk
Bruchia texana Aust.
Creatodon purpureus (Hedw.) Brid.
Ditrichum pallidum (Hedw.) Hempe
Alachua, Escambia, Gadsden, Highlands, Jefferson, Leon, Madison, Manatee,
Marion, Polk, Seminole, Volusia, Wakulla
Ditrichum pusillum (Hedw.) E. G. B.
Trematodon longicollis Mx.
Alachua, Clay, Gadsden, Jefferson, Leon, Liberty, Manatee, Polk, Seminole
Pleuridium acuminatum Lindb.
*Pleuridium alternifolium Brid.
*Pleuridium Sullivanti Aust.
Campylopus angustiretis (Aust.) Lesq. and James
Duval, Manatee, St. Lucie, Seminole
Campylopus fragilis (Dicks.) Bry. eur.
Campylopus gracilicaulis Mitt.
Collier, Gadsden, Highlands, Lee, Leon, Manatee, Seminole
Campylopus gracilicaulis Mitt. var. Donnellii (Aust.) Grout
Citrus, Duval, Lee, Levy, Liberty, Manatee, Okeechobee, St. Lucie, Santa
Rosa, Seminole, Walton
CHECK LIST OF FLORIDA MOSSES
Campylopus introflexus (Hedw.) Brid.
*Campylopus tallulensis Sull and Lesq.
Campylopus tallulensis Sull. and Lesq. var. subleucogaster (C. Miill.) Grout
Dicranella Herminieri Besch.
Leon, Manatee, Marion, Polk, Santa Rosa, Seminole
Dicranella heteromalla (Hedw.) Schimp.
Alachua, Bay, Leon, Manatee, Seminole, Volusia
Dicranella heteromalla (Hedw.) Schimp. var. orthocarpa (Hedw.) Paris
Alachua, Polk, Seminole
Dicranella Hilariana (Mont.) Mitt.
Gadsden, Jackson, Jefferson, Leon, Liberty, Manatee, Polk, Seminole
Dicranella spaerocarpa Card.
picranella varia (Hedw.) Schimp.
Dicranodontium asperulum (Mitt.) Broth.
Dicranodontium denudatum (Brid.) E. G. B.
Manatee. (Also reported from Florida with no record of place, by L. M.
Underwood in 1891. Specimen in herbarium of New York Botanical Garden.
Det. E. G. Britton.)
Dicranum condensatum Hedw.
Bay, Brevard, Dade, Franklin, Gulf, Hillsborough, Lake, Leon, Okaloosa,
Okeechobee, Orange, Osceola, Palm Beach, Polk, St. Lucie, Seminole, Volusia,
Leucobryum albidum (Brid.) Lindb.
Alachua, Citrus, Dade, Duval, Gadsden, Glades, Highlands, Hillsborough,
Jefferson, Lake, Lee, Leon, Levy, Liberty, Manatee, Marion, Osceola, Polk,
St. Johns, Santa Rosa, Seminole, Volusia, Wakulla
Leucobryum antillarum Schimp.
Alachua, Gadsden, Leon, Levy, Liberty, Polk
Octoblepharum albidum Hedw.
Brevard, Citrus, Collier, Dade, Duval, Highlands, Hillsborough, Lake, Lee,
Leon, Levy, Manatee, Monroe, Orange, Palm Beach, Pinellas, Polk, St. Johns,
Calymperes Donnellii Aust.
Collier, Dade, Manatee, Polk, Seminole
Calymperes emersum C. Miill.
Calymperes Nashii Williams
Calymperes Richardi C. Mill.
Dade, Duval, Manatee, Monroe, Sumter
Syrrhopodon filigerus (Aust.) Williams
Dade, Lee, Leon, Manatee, Seminole
8 PROCEEDINGS OF THE FLORIDA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES
Syrrhopodon floridanus Sull.
Alachua, Collier, Duval, Escambia, Franklin, Highlands, Leon, Levy, Liberty,
Madison, Manatee, Polk, St. Lucie, Seminole, Volusia, Wakulla
Syrrhopodon Gaudichaudii Mont.
Syrrhopodon incompletus Schwaegr.
Citrus, Collier, Dade, Jackson, Leon, Levy, Manatee, Polk, Seminole, Sumter
Syrrhopodon ligulatus Mont.
Citrus, Escambia, Lake, Levy, Liberty, Seminole, Suwannee
Syrrhopodon parasiticus (Sw.) Besch.
Citrus, Collier, Gadsden, Hardee, Jefferson, Leon, Liberty, Seminole
Syrrhopodon prolifer Schwaegr.
Syrrhopodon texanus Sull.
Alachua, Citrus, Collier, Duval, Escambia, Gadsden, Holmes, Lee, Leon,
Liberty, Manatee, Polk, Santa Rosa, Seminole, Volusia, Wakulla
*Diphyscium foliosum (Hedw.) Mohr
Acaulon rufescens Jaeger
Barbula agraria Hedw.
Alachua, Citrus, Columbia, Dade, Franklin, Jackson, Jefferson, Manatee,
Marion, Monroe, Leon, Levy, Osceola, Seminole, Wakulla
*Barbula convolutr Hedw.
Barbula Cruegeri Sond.
Alachua, Citrus, Columbia, Duval, Franklin, Gadsden, Jefferson, Leon,
Levy, Liberty, Madison, Manatee, Seminole, Suwannee, Wakulla
Barbula unguiculata Hedw.
Desmatodon Barbula (Schwaegr.) Grout
Alachua, Gadsden, Jackson, Madison, Wakulla
!Desmatodon plinthobius Sull. and Lesq.
Columbia, Jackson, Leon
Desmatodon Sprengelii (Schwaegr.) Williams
Eucladium verticillatum (Brid.) Bry. eur.
Alachua, Columbia, Gadsden
Gymnostomum calcareum Nees and Hornsch.
Gymnostomiella Orcutti Bartram
Hyophila Tortula (Schwaegr.) Hempe
Tortella flavovirens (Bruch) Broth.
Dade, Gadsden, St. Johns, Seminole, Volusia
Tortella humilis (Hedw.) Jennings (Tortella caespitosa (Schwaegr.) Limpn.)
Alachua, Citrus, Duval, Gadsden, Hernando, Jackson, Jefferson, Leon,
Liberty, Madison, Marion, Seminole
CHECK LIST OF FLORIDA MOSSES
Weisia jamaicensis (Mitt.) Grout
Weisia viridula Hedw.
Alachua, Citrus, Columbia, Duval, Franklin, Gadsden, Jackson, Leon, Liberty,
Madison, Manatee, Polk, St. Lucie, Seminole, Suwannee, Volusia, Wakulla
Weisia viridula Hedw. var. australis Aust.
Alachua, Bay, Columbia, Duval, Franklin, Gadsden, Hillsborough, Jefferson,
Lake, Leon, Liberty, Manatee, Marion, Polk, Seminole, Volusia
Ptychomitrium Drummondii Sull.
Gadsden, Jefferson, Suwannee
Ephemerum crassinervium (Schwaegr.) C. Miill.
Ephemerum crassinervium (Schwaegr.) C. Mill. var. papillosum (Aust.) Ren.
Gadsden, Leon, Seminole
Ephemerum megalosporum (Aust.) Salm.
Leon, Manatee, Polk, Seminole
Ephemerum serratum (Hedw.) Hempe
Ephemerum spinulosum Schimp.
Duval, Gadsden, Lee, Leon, Seminole
Ephemerum spinulosum Schimp. var. hystrix (Lindb.) Grout
Nanomitrium Austinii (Sull.) Lindb.
Leon, Polk, Seminole
Nanomitrium Austinii (Sull.) Lindb. var. floridanum Grout
Nanomitrium synoicum (James) Lindb.
Aphanorrhegma serratum (Hook. and Wils.) Sull.
*Entosthodon Drummondii Sull.
Funaria calvescens Schwaegr.
Alachua, Columbia, Duval, Gadsden, Jackson, Jefferson, Leon, Liberty,
Manatee, Polk, Seminole, Wakulla
Funaria flavicans Mx.
Bay, Franklin, Gadsden, Lee, Leon, Manatee, Pinellas, Polk, St. Johns, Sem-
inole, Volusia, Wakulla
Funaria hygrometrica Hedw.
Alachua, Citrus, Collier, Dade, Duval, Escambia, Gadsden, Jackson, Jeffer-
son, Leon, Manatee, Polk, Sarasota, Seminole
Funaria hygrometrica Hedw. var. patula Bry. eur.
Manatee, Polk, Seminole, Volusia
10 PROCEEDINGS OF THE FLORIDA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES
Funaria serrata Brid.
Escambia, Gadsden, Holmes, Jefferson, Leon, Seminole
Physcomitrium turbinatum (Mx.) Brid.
Alachua, Calhoun, Duval, Gadsden, Jackson, Leon, Liberty, Manatee, Polk,
Physcomitrium turbinatum (Mx.) Brid. var. Langloisii (Ren. and Card) E.G.B.
Calhoun, Leon, Polk, Seminole, Wakulla
Tetraplodon pennsylvanicus (Brid.) Grout
Clay, Hillsborough, Lee, Leon, Polk, Putnam, Seminole, Wakulla
Solmsiela Kurzii Steere
Macromitrium mucronifolium Hook. and Grev.
Broward, Dade, Manatee, Monroe, St. Johns, Seminole, Volusia
Macromitrium didymodon Schwaegr. (Macromitrium rhabdocarpum Mitt.)
Liberty, Seminole, Volusia
Schlotheimia Sullivantii C. Mill.
Citrus, Collier, Dade, Escambia, Gadsden, Hardee, Hernando, Highlands,
Jefferson, Lee, Leon, Levy, Liberty, Manatee, Marion, Okaloosa, Polk,
Putnam, St. Johns, Santa Rosa, Seminole, Volusia, Wakulla
Aulacomnium heterostichum (Hedw.) Bry. eur.
Aulacomnium palustre (Web. and Mohr) Schwaegr.
Alachua, Franklin, Hernando, Leon, Liberty, Polk, St. Johns, Seminole,
*Bartramia pomiformis Hedw.
Philonotis glaucescens (Hornsch.) Paris
Alachua, Duval, Gadsden, Jefferson, Leon, Levy, Liberty, Manatee, Marion,
Polk, Seminole, Volusia
Philonotis gracillima Angstr.
Alachua, Gadsden, Leon, Levy, Liberty, Madison, Marion
Philonotis longiseta (Rich.) E.G.B.
Alachua, Leon, Manatee, Polk, Seminole, Suwannee, Walton
Philonotis sphaericarpa Brid.
Alachua, Gadsden, Jefferson, Lee, Leon, Levy, Liberty, Marion, Seminole,
Philonotis sphaericarpa Brid. var. terrestris Dismier
Philonotis uncinata (Schwaegr.) Brid.
Liberty, Manatee, Polk, Seminole
CHECK LIST OF FLORIDA MOSSES
Brachymenium macrocarpum Card.
Gadsden, Leon, Seminole, Volusia
Brachymenium systyliwn (C. Mill.) Jaeger
Citrus, Liberty, Marion
Bryum argenteum Hedw.
Alachua, Citrus, Gadsden, Leon, Manatee, Polk, Seminole
Bryum argenteum Hedw. var. lanatum (Beauv.) Bry. eur.
Bryum bicolor Dicks.
Bryum bimum Schreb.
Bryum capillare Hedw.
Alachua, Citrus, Collier, Dade, Duval, Franklin, Jefferson, Leon, Liberty,
Madison, Manatee, Polk, St. Johns, Seminole, Union, Wakulla
Bryum coronatum Hedw.
Collier, Dade, Leon, Manatee, Polk, St. Lucie, Seminole, Volusia
Bryum pseudotriquetrum (Hedw.) Schwaegr.
Leptobryum pyriforme (L.) Schimp.
Pohlia Cruegeri (Hampe) Andrews
Duval, Leon, Manatee, Polk, Seminole
Mnium affine Bland.
Alachua, Citrus, Duval, Gadsden, Jefferson, Leon, Liberty, Suwannee
Mnium cuspidatum, Hedw.
Alachua, Citrus, Duval, Gadsden, Jackson, Leon, Manatee, Marion, Polk,
Mnium rostratum Roehl.
Alachua, Duval, Gadsden, Jefferson, Leon
Mnium punctatum Hedw.
Rhizogonium spiniforme (Hedw.) Bruch
Alachua, Duval, Gadsden, Highlands, Leon, Liberty, Polk, Seminole, Volusia
Rhacopilum tomentosum (Hedw.) Brid.
Citrus, Collier, Dade, Manatee
Amblystegium Jaratzkanum Schimp.
Alachua, Gadsden, Jackson, Leon, Madison, Putnam, Suwannee, Wakulla
Amblystegium serpens (Hedw.) Bry. eur.
Alachua, Duval, Gadsden, Leon, Levy, Liberty, Wakulla
12 PROCEEDINGS OF THE FLORIDA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES
Amblystegium varium (Hedw.) Lindb.
Alachua, Duval, Gadsden, Leon, Liberty, Manatee, Polk, Seminole, Volusia,
Amblystegium variwm (Hedw.) Lindb. var. lancifolium Grout
Alachua, Collier, Dade, Gadsden, Leon, Wakulla
*Brachythecium Fitzgeraldi (C. Mull.) Ren. and Card.
Brachythecium oxydadon (Brid.) Jaeger and Sauerb.
*Brachythecum plumosum (Sw.) Br. and Sch.
Brachythecium Roteanum DeNot.
Alachua, Jackson, Seminole
Brachythecium salebrosum (Web. and Mohr) Bry. eur.
Alachua, Gadsden, Seminole, Wakulla
Brachythecium splendens Aust.
Citrus, Marion, St. Johns, Seminole
Campylium chrysophyllum (Brid.) Bryhn
Gadsden, Leon, Liberty, Madison, Seminole, Wakulla
Campylium polyganum (Bry. eur.) Bryhn
*Campylium polyganum (Bry. eur.) Bryhn var. minus (Schimp.) Grout
Campylium radical (Beauv.) Grout
Chamberlainia acuminata (Hedw.) Grout
Gadsden, Jackson, Jefferson, Leon, Suwannee, Wakulla
*Chamberlainia acuminata (Hedw.) Grout var. rupincola (Sull. and Lesq.) Grout
Cirriphyllum Boscii (Schwaegr.) Grout
Escambia, Gadsden, Jackson, Leon, Madison, Suwannee
Climadum Kindbergii (Ren. and Card.) Grout
Alachua, Citrus, Duval, Jackson, Jefferson, Gadsden, Leon, Polk
Ectropothecium caloosiense (Aust.) E.G.B.
Alachua, Hillsborough, Lee, Seminole
Entodon Drummondii (Bry. eur.) Jaeger and Sauerb.
Alachua, Citrus, Dade, Escambia, Gadsden, Jackson, Jefferson, Leon, Lib-
erty, Marion, Pasco, Polk, Seminole, Sumter, Volusia, Wakulla
Entodon seductrix (Hedw.) C. Miill.
Alachua, Citrus, Collier, Duval, Escambia, Franklin, Gadsden, Holmes, Jef-
ferson, Madison, Manatee, Marion, Leon, Liberty, Polk, Santa Rosa, Sem-
inole, Sumter, Volusia, Wakulla
Eurhynchium hians (Hedw.) Jaeger and Sauerb.
Alachua, Columbia, Dade, Duval, Gadsden, Highland, Jackson, Jefferson,
Leon, Liberty, Marion, Polk, Putnam, Seminole
Eurhynchium Rappii (Williams) Grout
Alachua, Duval, Leon, Liberty, Seminole, Wakulla
Eurhynchium serrulatum (Hedw.) Kindb.
Alachua, Citrus, Dade, Duval, Gadsden, Jackson, Jefferson, Leon, Liberty,
Polk, St. Johns, Seminole, Volusia, Wakulla
Homalotheciella fabrofolia (Grout) Broth.
Gadsden, Jefferson, Seminole
Homalotheciella subcapillata (Hedw.) Card.
Citrus, Gadsden, Leon, Seminole
Hypnum Patientiae Lindb.
Alachua, Escambia, Gadsden, Jefferson, Leon, Madison, Manatee, Santa
CHECK LIST OF FLORIDA MOSSES
Hypnum Patientiae Lindb. var. americanus Ren. and Card.
Gadsden, Jefferson, Leon, Seminole, Suwannee
Leptodictyum riparium (Hedw.) Warnst.
Alachua, Collier, Dade, Jefferson, Leon, Levy, Manatee, Polk, Seminole
Leptodictyum sipho (Beauv.) Broth.
Collier, Gadsden, Jefferson, Leon, Manatee, Wakulla
Leptodictyum trichopodium (Schultz) Warnst.
Gadsden, Leon, Levy, Marion
Leptodictyum trichopodium (Schultz) Warnst. var. Kochii (Bry. eur.) Broth.
Leptodictyum vacillans (Sull.) Broth.
Mittenothamnium diminutivum (Hampe) E.G.B.
Broward, Citrus, Dade, Leon, Manatee, Monroe, St. Lucie, Seminole
Plagiothecium geophilum (Aust.) Grout
Gadsden, Liberty, Marion, Suwannee
Plagiothecium Mariannae Grout
Plagiothecium micans (Sw.) Paris
Alachua, Brevard, Calhoun, Citrus, Dade, Duval, Franklin, Gadsden, Glades,
Highlands, Hillsborough, Jackson, Jefferson, Lake, Lee, Leon, Liberty, Mad-
ison, Manatee, Orange, Pasco, Polk, Putnam, Santa Rosa, Seminole, Volusia,
Plagiothecium micans (Sw.) Paris var. fulvum (Hook. and Wils.) Paris
Leon, Polk, Seminole
Plagiothecium micans (Sw.) Paris var. Groutii (Card. and Th6r.) Grout
Plagiothecium micans (Sw.) Paris var. latifolium Grout
Leon, Seminole, Wakulla
Plagiothecium micans (Sw.) Paris var. minus Grout
Platygyrium repens (Brid.) Bry. eur.
Sciaromium Lescurii (Sull.) Broth.
Sematophyllum adnatum (Mx.) E.G.B.
Alachua, Citrus, Dade, Duval, Franklin, Gadsden, Gulf, Highlands, Jack-
son, Lake, Lee, Leon, Levy, Liberty, Manatee, Marion, Polk, St. Johns, Santa
Rosa, Seminole, Sumter, Volusia, Wakulla
Sematophyllum caespitosum (Hedw.) Mitt.
Citrus, Collier, Dade, Duval, Glades, Orange, Polk, Seminole
Sematophyllum carolinianum (C. Mill.) E.G.B.
Sematophyllum Smallii Williams
Stereophyllum Donnellii (Aust.) Card.
Stereophyllum Wrightii (Sull.) Ren. and Card,
Dade, Manatee, Monroe, Polk
Taxiphyllum planissimum (Mitt.) Broth.
Taxithelium planum (Brid.) Mitt.
Collier, Dade, Lee, Manatee, Seminole
14 PROCEEDINGS OF THE FLORIDA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES
Vesicularia amphiloba (Spruce) Broth.
Vesicularia crassicaulis (Mitt.) Broth.
Vesicularia vesicularis (Schwaegr.) Broth.
Dade, Orange, Seminole
Anomodon attenuatus (Hedw.) Hiiben.
Alachua, Columbia, Gadsden, Jackson, Jefferson, Leon, Liberty, Madison,
Seminole, Suwannee, Wakulla
Anomodon ninor (Beauv.) Lindb.
Gadsden, Leon, Liberty, Suwannee, Wakulla
Anoanodon rostratus (Hedw.) Schimp.
Alachua, Columbia, Gadsden, Jackson, Leon, Liberty, Marion, Wakulla
Haplohymenium triste (Cesati) Kindb.
Herpiteneurum toccoae (Sull. and Lesq.) Card.
(Specimen in herbarium of the New York Botanical Garden marked "Ano-
modon Toccoae. Florida, Featherman 1871. Herb. Coe Finch Austin. Pur-
chased by Columbia College 1885-1887. Det. A. J. Grout." No location
Leskea australis Sharp
Gadsden, Jackson, Jefferson, Lake, Leon, Madison, Polk, Seminole, Volusia,
Thelia asprella Sull.
Franklin, Hernando, Lake, Leon, Liberty, Manatee, Marion, Polk, 'St. Johns,
Santa Rosa, Seminole
Thelia hirtella (Hedw.) Sull.
Alachua, Citrus, Duval, Escambia, Franklin, Gadsden, Highlands, Jackson,
Jefferson, Leon, Levy, Liberty, Madison, Manatee, Pasco, Polk, Seminole,
Thelia Lescurii Sull.
Gadsden, Hernando, Leon, Liberty
Thuidium Alleni Aust.
Alachua, Manatee, Volusia
Thuidium delicatulum (Hedw.) Mitt.
Alachua, Citrus, Clay, Duval, Gadsden, Jackson, Jefferson, Leon, Liberty,
Marion, Polk, Seminole, Wakulla
Thuidium involves (Hedw.) Mitt.
Dade, Duval, Seminole
Thuidium microphyllum (Hedw.) Best
Alachua, Calhoun, Citrus, Collier, Dade, Franklin, Gadsden, Hernando, High-
lands, Jackson, Jefferson, Leon, Liberty, Madison, Manatee, Marion, Polk,
Santa Rosa, Seminole, Suwannee, Volusia, Wakulla
Thuidium microphyllum (Hedw.) Best var. lignicola (Kindb.) Best
Alachua, Dade, Duval, Franklin, Gadsden, Jackson, Leon, Levy, Liberty,
Thuidium minutulum (Hedw.) Bry. eur.
Alachua, Citrus, Collier, Columbia, Dade, Duval, Gadsden, Hernando, High-
lands, Jefferson, Leon, Liberty, Madison, Manatee, Marion, Polk, Seminole,
CHECK LIST OF FLORIDA MOSSES
Thuidium schistocalyx (C. Mill.) Mitt.
Hypopterygium Tamarisci (Sw.) Brid.
Callicostella pallida (Hornsch.) Jaeger and Sauerb.
Alachua, Dade, Lee, Manatee, Pasco, Polk, Putnam, Seminole
Cyclodictyon varians (Sull.) Broth.
Alachua, Duval, Seminole
Neckera disticha Hedw.
Collier, Dade, Hardee, Monroe, Polk, Seminole
Neckera undulata Hedw.
-Alachua, Citrus, Collier, Highlands, Orange, Polk, Seminole
Meteoropsis patula (Hedw.) Broth.
Papillaria nigrescens (Sw.) Jaeger and Sauerb.
Alachua, Citrus, Collier, Columbia, Dade, Gadsden, Highlands, Lake, Lee,
Leon, Liberty, Manatee, Martin, Pasco, Polk, Seminole, Sumter, Volusia,
Papillaria nigrescens (Sw.) Jaeger and Sauerb. var. Donnellii (Aust.) Grout
Collier, Dade, Manatee
Jaegerinopsis squarrosa E.G.B.
Citrus, Gadsden, Leon, Polk, Seminole, Sumter
Pireella cymbifolia (Sull.) Card.
Collier, Dade, Highlands, Lake, Lee, Manatee, Palm Beach, Putnam, Semi-
Pireella ludoviciae (C. Miill.) Card.
Alachua, Citrus, Clay, Duval, Marion, Osceola, Seminole, Volusia
Leptodon trichomitrion (Hedw.) Mohr
Alachua, Citrus, Collier, Gadsden, Highlands, Jackson, Leon, Liberty, Polk,
Santa Rosa, Seminole, Volusia, Wakulla
Leptodon trichomitrion (Hedw.) Mohr var. floridanus (Lindb.) Grout
Alachua, Gadsden, Jefferson, Leon, Seminole, Volusia
16 PROCEEDINGS OF THE FLORIDA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES
Leptodon trichomitrion (Hedw.) Mohr var. immersus (Sull. and Lesq.) Lesq.
Alachua, Citrus, Duval, Escambia, Gadsden, Holmes, Jackson, Jefferson,
Leon, Levy, Liberty, Madison, Polk, Seminole, Volusia, Wakulla
Leucodon brachypus Brid.
Leucodon julacens (Hedw.) Sull.
Alahua, Duval, Gadsden, Jefferson, Leon, Levy, Liberty, Marion, Santa
Rosa, Seminole, Suwannee, Wakulla, Walton
Leucodontopsis floridana (Aust.) E.G.B.
Collier, Dade, Lee, Sarasota, Seminole
Pseudocryphaea flagellifera (Brid.) E.G.B.
Collier, Dade, Lake, Seminole
Cryphaea glomerata Schimp.
Alachua, Clay, Collier, Columbia, Gadsden, Highlands, Jackson, Jefferson,
Lake, Leon, Levy, Liberty, Madison, Manatee, Marion, Okaloosa, Osceola,
Polk, Putnam, St. Johns, Seminole, Volusia, Wakulla
Cryphaea glamerata Schimp. var. scabra Grout
Cryphaea nervosa (Hook. and Wils.) Bry. eur.
Clasmatodon parvulus (Hampe) Sull.
Alachua, Citrus, Duval, Escambia, Gadsden, Franklin, Jackson, Jefferson,
Leon, Liberty, Madison, Manatee, Polk, Santa Rosa, Seminole, Suwannee,
Fabronia Donnellii Aust.
Fabronia Ravenelii Sull.
Schwetschkeopsis denticulata (Sull.) Broth.
Gadsden, Highlands, Jackson, Jefferson, Leon, Liberty, Marion, Polk,
Brachelyma robustum (Card.) E.G.B.
Fontinalis Sullivanti Lindb.
NOTES ON THE DISCOVERY AND BIOLOGY OF
TWO BAHAMAN FRESH-WATER TURTLES
OF THE GENUS PSEUDEMYS
L. A. HODSDON, M.D.
JAY F. W. PEARSON, PH.D.
University of Miami
The existence of a fresh-water or pond turtle on Cat Island, of
the Bahamas, had long been asserted by natives of this island, but
this form first was brought to scientific attention by Hodsdon when,
in 1933, he collected specimens for the University of Miami which
were examined by Karl Schmidt, Curator of Zoology of the Field
Museum of Natural History, Chicago.
Later, specimens of this species which had been held in captivity
on the island were described as a new species, Pseudemys felis Bar-
bour. The validity of this species is not yet firmly established.
Three males and three females of this species are still living in
Hodsdon's Miami pool, though no young have been reared during
these years of captivity.
In the Spring of 1938, Commissioner J. V. Malone, then stationed
at Great Inagua of the Bahamas, heard of similar turtles supposed
to be on that island. By diligent inquiry and a thorough and ardu-
ous search of uncleared jungle in the early Summer of that year he
succeeded in locating the ponds in question and captured seven fe-
males which, in Pearson's absence from the University, were sent to
Hodsdon. Arrangements concerning the scientific identification of
these specimens were made between the authors but through a delay
over which neither had any control, the turtles did not reach the Field
Museum until after a collecting group from Harvard University had vis-
ited Inagua, heard of the find, obtained specimens, and had again for-
warded them to Boston. Fortunately, Commissioner Malone was
recognized in the name assigned, Pseudemys malonei Barbour and
Carr. It is a privilege to have this opportunity to record in the lit-
erature the fact that both of these interesting forms were first brought
18 PROCEEDINGS OF THE FLORIDA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES
to scientific attention through the interest of members of the Florida
Academy of Sciences.
As soon as his medical practice permitted, Hodsdon took passage
for Inagua (a trip of two weeks) in search of the males of P. malonei.
The following is quoted from his summary of their discovery:
"I arrived in Great Inagua in the month of July and at once an ex-
pedition was organized to sail to Man of War Bay, on the northwest edge
of the island, where were located the fresh-water ponds in which we
hoped to capture males of the Inagua turtles. Harvard zoological collectors
were still in Inagua and hearing 'of our proposed excursion, requested the
privilege of joining us, offering to pay half the expenses. The joint ex-
pedition consisted of Commissioner Malone and myself, representing the
University of Miami, two Harvard collectors, a boat captain, and two
men acting as guides and carriers.
"We found three small, muddy, shallow ponds, the first of which was
about one third kilometer in diameter. It was round, almost waist deep,
with rushes at one end, and with a few others scattered here and there
toward the center. By feeling with our feet we obtained female turtles,
hidden under the roots of the rushes. A diligent search for males in this
pond proved vain.
"We were badly bitten by water boatmen (Corixidae), an inch or
more in length, which fastened onto our legs and bit savagely. These
insects seem to be the principal food of these turtles, as revealed by the
turtle dejections, which consisted almost entirely of shells and legs of the
insects. It seemed strange that such large and hard insects could be caught
and swallowed by the turtles and that the massive wing shields (anterior
wings) could successfully pass through the intestinal tract.
"Another pond, larger in area but much shallower, having a grove of
buttonwood trees in the center, afforded more females. This pond was
about a kilometer from the first pond. We used the 'still hunt' method
of taking specimens here. We stood patiently on a fallen tree until a
turtle head emerged, when a jump and a grab occasionally proved suc-
cessful. Again we collected no males.
"In the third pond, about three kilometers from the second one, we
were successful in capturing four males. They were about one third the
size of the females, more cautious, alert and agile, therefore harder to
capture. They seldom came up and they snapped viciously when corn-
ered. This pond was still more shallow, evidently in the process of drying
up, the mud on the bottom being much harder. With water only knee
deep, we could chase a turtle more quickly and take it more adroitly. Yet,
as we took only four males in all, I believe there were fewer of this sex
in each of the three ponds. Of the four taken, two went to the University
of Miami and are still alive in my pool, at my residence northeast of the
Miami River. The other two specimens were sent on to the Museum of
Comparative Zoology at Harvard."
TWO BAHAMAN FRESH-WATER TURTLES
II. GENERAL BEHAVIOR, NESTING AND EMERGENCE
OF YOUNG TURTLES
A cement and stone pool several feet in diameter holding water
to a depth of eighteen inches and with a layer of bottom sand and
mud had been constructed by Hodsdon to hold three male and three
female turtles from Cat Island, P. felis. It connected with a larger,
circular yard or run, with an enclosing screened fence. Over half of
this yard was filled in with clean sand but the remainder was of
Miami oolite and river silt, covered with humus, which packs very
hard in dry weather. Continuing from Hodson's notes:
"Males and females of the Cat Island turtle, P. felis, and females from
Inagua, P. malonei, became tame in captivity, very quickly, all crowding
each other to take food proffered by hand, though the P. felis males are much
more nervous than the females. Both the males of P. malonei hiss and
snap violently when picked up and rarely will rise from the water to take
food from the hand. When I go into the turtle yard, all but these males
swim up to be fed. They may peer out furtively, but on the .slightest
motion toward them, they dive out of sight.
"All of the turtles exhibit considerable intelligence. They are fast
runners and adroit dlimbers and live amiably together. They take any
kind of animal food and also feed on bananas, custard-apples, and bread.
"In the spring and summer the turtles will eat water hyacinths but
will rarely do so in autumn and winter. The warmer weather finds them
lively and vigorous, but in cold weather they are torpid and consume
less food. During northers they never rise but lie on the bottom where
the ground retains warmth beneath them.
"Two years ago four young female P. malonei, Inagua turtles, were
found in the yard. They grew slowly the first year but in the second
year their rate of growth increased. Gambusias (small fish) in the turtle
pool were never disturbed until these two-year old turtles were placed in
the pool. Since then it has been impossible to keep live fish with the
"Some weeks before the summer solstice copulation begins. During
the long days after the solstice, the .females come out and dig holes in
the sand for egg laying. The female emerges from the water, looks all
around, waits until everything is quiet, selects a suitable spot, and begins
to excavate a saucer-shaped, symmetrical hole, two and one-half to three
inches deep in the center and several inches in diameter. This she does
by pushing the dirt from the center outwards with first one hind foot
and then the other, rotating her body slightly at each push until she has
completed a circle and her excavation is symmetrical and even. Every stone
and pebble is carefully pushed far out. She then lays ten to fourteen eggs,
usually ten. If observed or disturbed she goes off into the pool or rests
quietly until the disturbance has ceased or the visitor has gone. Then
she returns or continues her work, covering her nest so skillfully, when
laying is completed, that no one could determine the exact spot of the
nest. P. malonei turtles appear to lay at intervals of a week, making two
or three distinct nests. Some were made in the sand but others in the
humus covered ground, when it was soft.
20 PROCEEDINGS OF THE FLORIDA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES
"Early in August of this year I noticed one of the female P. malonei
turtles acting in a strange manner. She slowly walked along the ground
of the yard, with her snout close to the ground, at times almost rooting
into the dirt. She stopped and scratched a few teaspoons full of soil
away, then advanced an inch or two and repeated the scratching.
"Then she found the right place and dug out a small hole about three
inches across and an inch to an inch and a half deep, using her front
feet. She then returned to the pool. I was interested and watched the
"In one to two days, young turtles emerged from it!
"I have observed this behavior several times during August and every
time, it was followed by the emergence of small turtles from the small
hole scratched in the ground by the female. Some six to seven turtles ap-
peared from each hole during the next forty-eight hours after the emer-
gence of the first one.
"The ground in these places had caked in the dry weather of July,
following the hard rains of June, and formed a hard mass that small
turtles could not have penetrated. Digging in such hard ground the
females wore down their nails, and abraded the skin of the fore-feet so
badly that they could hardly walk, and for days limped on swollen and
infected feet. One turtle had feet swollen to twice normal size and de-
veloped abscesses on both front feet, with consequent deep ulcers.
"I believe this to be the first record of this phenomenon, which was
observed by several witnesses for added corroboration.
"There is a great mortality during incubation. After some twenty-
odd turtles had emerged, I dug up the greater part of the turtle yard with
Pearson present and released seventeen living turtles, some not yet emerged
from the partly opened shell (as well as some too feeble to survive), and
many eggs, perhaps infertile, which at least had not incubated or been
hatched. Some of these eggs had been pierced by tree roots. Two fresh
nests were also uncovered, less deeply laid and apparently with eggs some-
what different in shape and color, which led us to believe that they may
prove to be eggs of the Cat Island turtle, P. felis.
"Two small turtles were uncovered in stony ground, with carapace
and plastron misshaped, so badly deformed they could not walk. One I
found with the neck ulcerated where it had rubbed against a stone during
the turtle's struggles to emerge. It has since healed but the deformed turtles
"Young turtles are provided with a white 'thorn' on the snout, about
a millimeter in length and very sharp and hard. It is doubtless an aid
in cutting the leathery shell for it softens and flakes off soon after emerg-
ence from the ground and some have already lost it at the time of emerg-
ence. It is so firmly attached to the epithelium of the snout that it can-
not be picked off without injuring the turtle's head.
"I believe that cold rains may kill some embryos, and I know that
some are so firmly imprisoned in hard ground that they cannot escape.
This is particularly true of embryos from eggs deposited on the edges of
the saucer-shaped nest where the mother has not loosened the soil. Some
eggs are eaten by ants, and land crabs undoubtedly dig up an occasional
"After hatching and escaping from the ground there are still other
dangers for young turtles. Birds will attach them. My two-year old
turtles barely escaped that danger. I had a duck, which, while I was
TWO BAHAMAN FRESH-WATER TURTLES
getting clean water for the turtle pan, seized one and threw it with con-
siderable force on the stone walk-way. Cats and racoons also attack small
"As soon as small turtles are hatched they travel toward water. No
doubt some fall in land crab holes and are destroyed by the crabs. A
young turtle will walk off to a fall, anywhere. Even large turtles of this
genus show little instinct or intelligence with reference to the dangers
"Yet, out of over fifty newly emerged turtles, only two found the
water of the pool by their own efforts. The pool is to the northeast of
the yard. The majority of them went to the northwest side of the yard
and attempted to climb the wire fence. Several climbed to a foot or more.
The northwest side marks the Miami River, but the river curves and they
could have equally well gone west or south. Four went south, and sev-
eral went west.
"Once placed in the pool they swim to the bottom for a few minutes,
then rise for air and remain floating, unless a shadow passes over them,
when they quickly disappear to the bottom again.
"These small turtles will eat meat or fish within a few hours of hatch-
ing. Many will snap valiantly a few minutes after emergence, if picked up."
It may be noted that heavy rains occurred in Miami September
20th. Following the rain, twelve more young P. malonei turtles
emerged from the nests made in sand, with no preliminary digging
by the mother. The largest weighed 12.18 gms., the smallest 8.55 gms.
On October 1st, two more emerged from sand in the same manner, one
more Oct. 4th and ten, Oct. 6th.
On October 2nd, 48 of these young Inagua turtles, P. malonei,
were released by Hodsdon in the Hialeah branch canal of the Miami
River. Their success or failure in this Florida locality will be watched
III. DIMENSIONS AND FURTHER NOTES ON HATCHING
On September 1, 1941, following a month of sporadic emergence of
young Inagua turtles, P. malonei, at the suggestion of Pearson, Hods-
don -began the careful excavation of the harder ground of the turtle
yard, and almost at once uncovered nests of various ages including
shell fragments, dead unhatched eggs, immobile young turtles, emerged
but imprisoned, and eggs with young turtles already starting to free
themselves from their shells.
Old eggs were dark ivory in general coloration, while two fresh
nests, one from 4 to 7 inches underground, the other, from 2 to 5
inches below the ground, were paler ivory or cream. All of the eggs are
rounded at both ends, almost cylindrical but slightly broader beyond
the longitudinal center of the egg. This applies to all eggs uncovered.
One old nest contained 14 eggs, 8 intact but with holes, two of
22 PROCEEDINGS OF THE FLORIDA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES
these with palm roots still penetrating them, the others fragmented by
Another old nest contained 3 immobile young turtles, in aestivation
beneath the hard crust of the ground, all in upright position. It also
contained two partly emerged turtles, with distorted carapaces and
plastrons, mentioned in Hodsdon's notes in the previous section.
Another nest contained 7 free aestivating turtles, one above an-
other, and six eggs with turtles already starting to emerge. This nest
was opened at 3:35 p.m. and all the partly hatched turtles had their
eyes open. A showed no movement but had its snout free from the
end of the egg, B had head free, C had head and front feet free, D,
E and F had heads and necks out, as well as front feet. These turtles
were free of their shells at the following times, A at 4:20 p.m., B at
4:10, C at 3:46, D at 3:44, E at 3:48 and F at 3:43.
Squirming movements, side thrustings of the fore legs, then for-
ward lunges of the fore legs and doubtless vigorous thrusts of the
hind legs, all occurring in sequence and at periodic intervals, event-
ually freed these turtles from their shells. All showed a broad umbili-
cus with plates of the plastron soft and spread apart about it. Within
a few days the plates had joined and hardened and almost no trace
of the connection between turtle and soft parts of the egg remained.
At emergence from the shell all have the carapace arched and the
outer rim of plates bent down. Within a few hours the body flattens
and the carapace plates level out. Dimensions of a newly emerged
turtle average 35 mm. length of carapace at longitudinal axis, 30 mm.
across carapace at pelvic girdle's widest region, 16.5 mm. across plas-
tron at second transverse suture, 18 mm. across plastron at third trans-
verse suture. Deviations are slight and do not range over a milli-
meter or two in any dimension. The average weight is 10.65 grams.
Day-old turtles with flattened carapaces average 38 mm. long by
36 mm. at pelvic girdle (carapace measurements).
Two-day turtles average carapace measurements of 39 mm. long by
35 mm. greatest width.
Month-old turtles average carapace measurements of 51 mm. length
by 44.5 mm. greatest width.
Two-year old Inagua turtles, P. malonei, average 85 mm. long,
center of carapace, 81 mm. wide at pelvic girdle (carapace) and 80 mm.
long center line of plastron.
Present weights of a mature male and a mature female of P. malonei
are as follows, male: 1105.63 gms.; female: 2381.35 gms.
It is worthy of note that in each case, the sores on the feet of fe-
males which had been digging holes through which young turtles es-
caped were larger on the right foot than the left. These sores, from
TWO BAHAMAN FRESH-WATER TURTLES
an eighth of an inch to a full inch in diameter, centered behind the
first digit, in each case.
In general it would seem that with layings of from 10 to 14 eggs
per nest, hatchings and emergence usually average about 50% of the
1. A new and rare species of turtle, discovered through our in-
terest and its rumored existence, has been successfully maintained and
has bred in captivity, a not too common achievement with turtles.
2. It is doubtless, therefore, a valid species.
3. The Inagua turtle apparently lays more than once a year,
building at least three nests.
4. The female Inagua turtle is able to determine the time of
hatching of the buried eggs, either through instinct, odor or hearing,
and takes definite and even painful action to aid the emergence of
her young by digging over the nest, thus loosening the ground and
permitting the young to emerge.
5. The young turtles can remain alive in the ground for an in-
deterrenate period in a state of aestivation, for we have no positive
knowledge that some of the turtles uncovered might not have been
from a previous year's laying. They can remain for at least a month,
for the period of emergence this year covered exactly a month and
each nest showed the remnants of hatched eggs contained at least one
or two aestivating turtles that immediately awakened and became
6. Inasmuch as we know that these turtles have been used for
food in Inagua, it is possible that the turtle might be successfully
introduced into this part of the State of Florida, for similar purposes,
if protected until it became established.
THE PROVISION OF CONTROLLED SALINITY
VARIATIONS IN EXPERIMENTAL
F. G. WALTON SMITH
University of Miami
A considerable number of marine organisms exists whose reactions
to varying conditions of salinity are of interest to ecologists and physi-
ologists. In the case of horny sponges of the genera Spongia and
Hippiospongia their commercial importance lends added interest to
investigations of these relations. During the years 1936-40, when the
writer was engaged in a survey of the sponge industry of the Bahamas,
several localized instances of sponge mortality occurred which appeared
to be associated with reduced salinity of the sea-water in enclosed
areas following abnormally heavy rains. Similar phenomena occurred
at Turneffe, British Honduras, during 1938 and resulted in the loss of
a considerable number of sponges.
Experiments were carried out to test the effect upon Spongia and
Hippiospongia species of various conditions of reduced salinity, but
difficulty was found in keeping them alive in the laboratory. Only by
providing vigorous circulation of sea-water through the containing
vessel could they be maintained in a healthy state. It therefore be-
came necessary to devise a method of mixing continuously flowing
fresh water and sea-water so as to give a steady water supply of con-
stant, pre-determined salinity. The same problem may well arise in the
study of other marine organisms requiring continuous water circula-
tion and it is with this general purpose in view that a description is
given of an apparatus devised for the particular case of commercial
The apparatus consists essentially of vessels A and B, supplied
with rain water and sea-water respectively, and provided with over-
flows O in order to maintain constant water levels; tubes F and S to
carry the water to tank C, where mixing takes place, and where the
mixed water is maintained at a constant level by the overflow tube O;
and a tube EM, by means of which the mixed water is taken from
vessel C to the experimental tank El. Tank E2 serves as a control
and is supplied with sea-water from vessel D, in which the water level
is maintained at the same height as in C and by similar means.
Vessels C and D are maintained at an equal height above the experi-
mental aquaria El, E2 in order to maintain equal flow through EM
CONTROLLED SALINITY IN MARINE AQUARIA 1 25
FRESHWATER SUPPLY SEA-WATER. SUPPLY
O0 I .o
0 Flm s 0
REDUCED ,ALINITY CONTROL
Fig. 1.-Apparatus for control of salinity in sea-water aquaria.
26 PROCEEDINGS OF THE FLORIDA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES
and ES. The height of A and B above C should be similar to that of
C above E, in order that no danger of emptying A, B, or C may occur.
Mixing of fresh and salt water takes place in a jar immersed in
tank C. The variation in salinity is brought about by the use of
screw clips on one of the rubber tubes F and S. For a mixture whose
salinity lies between that of rain water and half that of sea-water
supply the tube F is kept open and S screwed in until the required
salinity is obtained. For salinities lying between half that of sea-
water and full sea-water salinity the tube S is left open and F
screwed in to the necessary extent. It is necessary to check the salinity
after each adjustment. The use of thermometer and hydrometer in
conjunction with Knudson's tables gives results sufficiently rapid
and accurate for the purpose. During earlier experiments salinity was
varied by supporting A and B with cords and pulleys, in order to
adjust their relative height above C, but the added constructional de-
tails were not justified by increased accuracy of operation. In order
that the apparatus may continue to function unattended in spite of
fluctuations in the laboratory sea-water supply, it is necessary to
observe several precautions. Overflow tubes should be of the largest
size possible, whereas the other tubes should be appreciably smaller,
but of equal bore to each other. At the start of an experiment, F, S,
and ES are pinched off, and the supply through FW, SW1, SW2 so
adjusted that the water levels in A, B and D do not rise more than
one centimeter above the overflow pipes.
A and B are then allowed to discharge into C by releasing F and S.
EM is pinched off temporarily, to test the capacity of the overflow.
A similar precaution is observed in the case of D by pinching off ES.
By allowing only one of the tubes F or S to flow, it may be observed
whether the supply is still sufficient under these circumstances to
prevent drop of level in C with EM running. Should such a drop
occur the flow of EM must be decreased, or the height of A increased.
Suitable vessels for A, B, C and D are not always easily obtained
but may be made by cutting off the bottoms of wide mouthed jars.
Otherwise, battery jars may be used and the overflow tubes O re-
placed by constant level syphons, as described by Galtsoff.' This may
be less convenient for the present purpose than the system described
since it is necessary to construct the overflow syphons from wide bore
'Galtsoff, P. S., Lutz, F. E., Welch, P. S., Needham, J. G., Culture Methods
for Invertebrate Animals (1937), p. 22.
SPIRAL SCREEN FRACTIONATING COLUMNS
FOR THE SEPARATION OF TERPENES
W. DAVID STALLCUP, ROBERT E. FUGUITT and J. ERSKINE HAWKINS
University of Florida
In many cases the most practicable method of separating com-
pounds from the mixtures in which they occur is by fractional dis-
tillation. This process makes use of the differences in the boiling
points of the components and involves several other factors which are
8 so -
C ::::::::::::::::::::::-- -
L" ------------ ---
MOLE Z IN UID
Fig. I.-Equilibrium diagram for benzene-carbon tetrachloride mixtures.
28 PROCEEDINGS OF THE FLORIDA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES
One of these factors may be explained by considering the equili-
brium diagram for benzene-carbon tetrachloride mixtures.' See Figure
1. This shows the relation between the composition of the liquid
phase and vapor phase for any mixture of the two components which
are in equilibrium at the boiling temperature. The upper line is a
curve expressing the observed data. The lower line is a diagonal
between two opposite corners of the graph and may be used as a
reference line. Any'point on this line has the same composition along
According to the graph if a mixture (E) is heated to its boiling
point the first vapors resulting would have a composition (B) which
are richer in carbon tetrachloride, the more volatile component. Con-
densation of this vapor gives liquid of the same composition (B). If
liquid (B) were distilled and the first vapors condensed, they would
have a composition (C). Theoretically, liquid (C) may be obtained
from liquid (E) in two separate simple distillations provided equili-
brium is maintained between the liquid and vapor phases. This can
be approached if small samples are collected. The process is repre-
sented by the two steps (EBC) on the graph. Each step is equiva-
lent to a theoretical plate.2
From an examination of the graph it is obvious that a large number
of steps or theoretical plates would be necessary to separate a mixture
of benzene and carbon tetrachloride into the two pure components
which boil 3.5 degrees apart. To accomplish this by a series of simple
distillations would be impracticable. The separation of liquid com-
ponents has been simplified by the use of vertical heated tubes filled
with pieces of material that will furnish surface upon which vapor
may condense and re-vaporize. Such tubes, called fractionating col-
umns, are capable of producing separations which require more than
one theoretical plate. The number of theoretical plates which a col-
umn has depends on the length and diameter of the column, the type
of material with which the column is packed, the liquid mixture used
and the conditions of operation.
The standard type of laboratory column consists of a glass tube
filled with the desired type of packing. A glass heater jacket which is
partially covered with two strips of asbestos paper and wound with
nichrome resistance wire surrounds the column. This heater jacket is
'Rosanoff, M. A., and Easley, C. W., "On the Partial Vapor Pressures of
Binary Systems," J. Am. Chem. Soc., Vol. 31 (1909), pp. 953-960.
2For a complete conception of the term "theoretical plate" see Robinson, C. S.,
and Gilliland, E. R., Elements of Fractional Distillation, pp. 81-132. (New York:
McGraw-Hill Co., 1939).
FRATIONATING COLUMNS FOR TERPENES
further insulated with an outer glass tube. The liquid to be fraction-
ated is placed in a flask which is connected to the bottom of the
column. The vapors which reach the top of the column are condensed
by means of a water jacketed condenser in the column head." A
thermometer registers the vapor temperature. The condensed vapors
may be returned to the column or collected in a receiver. This is regu-
lated by means of an outlet stopcock. When the stopcock is com-
pletely closed, all the liquid is returned to the column and the column
is operating under total reflux.
The liquid in the distillation flask is heated and vaporizes into the
column. If the column heat is maintained close to the boiling tem-
perature of the liquid the vapor will condense and revaporize suc-
cessively throughout the column. The higher the mixture rises in the
column the richer it becomes in the more volatile component. While
operating under total reflux, if the column heats are properly con-
trolled for a period of one to several hours a given column will produce
results in accord with its maximum number of theoretical plates. Under
this condition, the greatest possible number of steps or theoretical plates
will exist between the vapor composition in the head and the liquid
composition in the distillation flask. To determine this maximum
number a test mixture, such as benzene-carbon tetrachloride, is re-
fluxed for the necessary length of time under the stated conditions.
Then two small samples are taken, one from the head and the other
from the distillation flask. These samples are analyzed for the
percent carbon tetrachloride by means of refractive index data for this
mixture.' By means of the equilibrium diagram, Figure 1, the num-
ber of theoretical plates required to separate the mixture to the extent
observed may be calculated. For example, if the composition of the
liquid in the distillation flask is (D) and the head vapor composition
is (A), steps may be drawn as illustrated between the two com-
positions. The number of steps between the two points (minus one to
account for the vapor formed in the kettle) correspond to the number
of theoretical plates attained by the column under equiibrium con-
ditions. In this case the number of plates in the column would be
five. Column efficiencies are best expressed by H.E.T.P., the height
equivalent to a theoretical plate, which is the height of the column
divided by the number of theoretical plates.
This maximum performance is obtained while the column is operat-
ing under total reflux. If the performance is to approach this maxi-
'For details of this type of head see Stallcup, W. D., Fuguitt, R. E., and
Hawkins, J. E., "Performance of Some Distillation Columns for the Fractionation
of Terpenes," Ind. Eng. Chem., Anal. Ed., Vol. 14 (1942).
30 .PROCEEDINGS OF THE FLORIDA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES
mum during a fractionation of a liquid mixture the condensate must
be collected from the head so slowly that the equilibrium between the
liquid and vapor in the column is disturbed as slightly as possible. The
rate of collection is controlled by means of the outlet stopcock. If
this rate is slow most of the liquid will be returned to the column
through a calibrated drop-counter. The ratio of the volume of liquid
returned to the column to the volume of liquid collected is called the
reflux ratio. The higher the reflux ratio the more nearly are equili-
brium conditions maintained and the greater is the operating effi-
ciency of the column. The effect of varying the reflux ratio upon the
separation of two components is illustrated by Rose and Long.'
The operating holdup of the column'is the volume of liquid present
in the column during the distillation. To measure this a weighed
amount of a non-volatile compound such as stearic acid is dissolved in
a weighed amount of a volatile compound such as benzene and the
mixture is refluxed in the column under operating conditions. A
sample of several grams is taken from the distilling flask and weighed.
The benzene is removed from the sample on a steam bath and the
sample is weighed again. These two weighing are used to calculate
the relative amounts of the two compounds in the distillation flask
from which the weight of benzene remaining in the flask may be de-
termined. This weight subtracted from the weight of benzene orig-
inally present in the flask must be the weight of benzene present in
the column while it is in operation. Conversion of this weight to
volume gives the operating holdup of the column. This is an im-
portant factor, particularly in analytical distillations, since the col-
umn holdup should be small with respect to the volume of the mixture
which is fractionated.
This laboratory desired efficient fractionating columns for the
analysis and the purification of terpene materials. Many efficient
columns have been reported, most of which have been designed pri-
marily for petroleum fractionation. Such columns are not necessarily
effective in terpene fractionation. To be satisfactory for the latter
the columns must perform effectively on viscous and semi-viscous
liquids at pressures of 10-20 mm. They must have a low pressure
drop and small operating holdup per theoretical plate and must have
a high throughput so that distillations can be made in a short time in
order to minimize thermal reaction. In addition, for the purposes of
this laboratory, the columns must be of economical construction,
'Rose, A., and Long, H. H., "Calculation of the Effect of Reflux Ratio in
Batch Fractionation," Ind. Eng. Chem., Vol. 33 (1941), p. 685.
FRACTIONATING COLUMNS FOR TERPENES
readily duplicated, and must operate under the heat insulation con-
ditions previously described.
Several types of column construction were considered. It was
finally decided that the spiral screen type of column as developed by.
Lecky and Ewell" should be tried as it gave the most promise of furn-
ishing the desired efficiency and performance.
SPIRAL SCREEN CONSTRUCTION
Laboratory columns for large quantities of material. Four foot lengths
of the following columns were made.
Column 1. H.E.T.P. 4.6 inches. Stainless steel gauze (60x60
mesh) was used to make washers of outside diameter (o.d.) 1.50 inches
and inside diameter (i.d.) 0.40 inch. One-eighth inch of the outer
edge of the washer was cupped at an angle of 45 degrees. A sector of
approximately 20 degrees was removed from each washer and the
washers were spot-welded together into a spiral group of twenty-four.
By joining these groups in a similar manner, any desired length could
be obtained. This spiral was then placed on the inner glass tube. A
stiff wire spiral spacer, made of Vs inch iron wire, with five turns to
the inch was screwed into the gauze spiral. Long stiff rods were
welded to the ends of the spacer to permit pulling as well as pushing
of the screen into the glass tubing. At intervals during the insertion,
the exposed gauze spiral was tightened on the inner tube in order to
ensure a more uniform fit. When the column was assembled the
spacer was removed by turning it in the proper direction.
Column 2. H.E.T.P. 2.8 inches. To make a tighter fit the
diameter of the inside tube was increased. Stainless steel gauze
washers (60x60 mesh), o.d. 1.50 inches, i.d. 0.71 inch, were used.
The column was assembled by the same procedure as described above.
Column 3. H.E.P.T. 1.3 inches. The spiral screen packing of
column 2 was removed, ground on the mandrel to the desired outside
diameter and inserted in a glass tube of a smaller inside diameter.
Column 4. H.E.T.P. 0.66 inch; operating holdup per plate was
0.90 ml. Stainless steel gauze washers (50x50 mesh) were used of
o.d. 1.50 inches, i.d. 0.71 inch. The procedure for assembly of this
column followed that for column 1. However, after spot-welding
together the washers of this stiffer 50x50 mesh gauze the spiral was
ground as described for column 3 and then was placed on the inner
rod and inserted in a glass tube of the proper inside diameter.
Laboratory column for small quantities of material.
"Lecky, H. S., and Ewell, R. H., "Spiral Screen Packing for Efficient Labora-
tory Fractionating Columns," Ind. Eng. Chem., Anal. Ed., Vol. 12 (1940), pp.
32 PROCEEDINGS OF THE FLORIDA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES
Column 5. H.E.T.P. 0.72 inch; operating holdup per plate was
0.14 ml. The procedure in making this four foot length of column was
the same as that described for column 1 since the grinding used in
columns 3 and 4 was not necessary for columns of small diameter.
The column was made with stainless steel gauze washers (60x60
mesh), o.d. 0.40 inch, i.d. 0.10 inch. The washers had a 1/16 inch cup
around the outer edge. Nickel wire was used as the inner rod and the
spacer used had several turns to the inch.
The columns were thoroughly wetted down with the liquid and the
column temperature was adjusted to within two degrees of the boiling
point of the more volatile component. Column and kettle heats were
both controlled electrically. The columns were kept on total reflux
until liquid-vapor equilibrium was attained.
580 ml. were collected from a mixture of d-pinene and camphene
fractionated at 20 mm. pressure through a six-foot length of column
of the same construction as column 4. These two compounds boil
about 3 degrees apart at this pressure. 320 ml. of d-pinene, 110 ml.
of a mixture of d-pinene and camphene, and 150 ml. of solid camphene
were collected. The column was operated under a reflux ratio of
about 40 to 1.
32 ml. were collected from a mixture of d-pinene and B-pinene dis-
tilled through column 5 at 20 mm. pressure. These compounds boil
at 7.5 degrees apart at 20 mm. A reflux ratio of 25 to 1 was used
during the collection of pure materials. A ratio of 40 to 1 was used
while passing between pure materials. Under these conditions 16 ml.
of d-pinene, 11 ml. of B-pinene and 5 ml. of mixture boiling be-
tween the two pure components were obtained.
The entire cost of column 4, including all jackets and glass
standard taper joints was $37.00; of column 5, $35.00. Labor costs
including overhead were calculated at the rate of $1.50 per hour.
Two work-hours per foot on column 4 and four work-hours per foot
on column 5 were required. These costs do not include the construc-
tion of the punches for cutting the spirals which requires about 15
The authors wish to express their gratitude to Mr. B. J. Otte,
Curator of the Chemistry Department, for his many fine suggestions
and efforts in obtaining materials and to Mr. Fred Hayes, the
machinist, and Mr. P. J. Thompson, the glassblower, for their efforts
which contributed to the success of these columns.