Title Page
 Table of Contents
 The academy during 1937
 Treasurer's report
 Program of the second annual meeting,...
 Advancing knowledge of Florida's...
 Limitations of the probable error...
 An example of the quantitative...
 A study of the artesian water supply...
 The effect of cold storage on certain...
 Check list of native and naturalized...
 Taxonomic characters and habitats...
 Florida snake venom experiment...
 Allergic hypersensitivity and the...
 An amplifier for small thermal...
 List of members, 1937

Title: Proceedings of the Florida Academy of Sciences
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00001490/00002
 Material Information
Title: Proceedings of the Florida Academy of Sciences
Abbreviated Title: Proc. Fla. Acad. Sci.
Physical Description: 7 v. : ; 23 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Florida Academy of Sciences
Publisher: Rose Printing Co., etc.
Place of Publication: Tallahassee
Frequency: annual
Subject: Science -- Periodicals   ( lcsh )
Genre: periodical   ( marcgt )
Dates or Sequential Designation: v. 1-7; 1936-44.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00001490
Volume ID: VID00002
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: aleph - 001745383
oclc - 01385276
notis - AJF8161
lccn - sn 85003387
issn - 0097-0581
 Related Items
Succeeded by: Quarterly journal of the Florida Academy of Sciences

Table of Contents
    Title Page
        Page i
        Page ii
    Table of Contents
        Page iii
        Page iv
    The academy during 1937
        Page 1
    Treasurer's report
        Page 2
    Program of the second annual meeting, at Coral Gables
        Page 3
        Page 4
    Advancing knowledge of Florida's vast plant life
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
    Limitations of the probable error of estimate in predicting the course of human behavior
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
    An example of the quantitative method in social psychology
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
    A study of the artesian water supply of Seminole County, Florida
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
        Page 30
        Page 31
        Page 32
        Page 33
        Page 34
        Page 35
    The effect of cold storage on certain Native American perennial herbs
        Page 36
        Page 37
        Page 38
        Page 38a
        Page 39
        Page 40
        Page 41
        Page 42
        Page 43
        Page 44
        Page 45
        Page 46
        Page 47
        Page 48
        Page 49
        Page 50
        Page 51
    Check list of native and naturalized trees in Florida
        Page 52
        Page 53
        Page 54
        Page 55
        Page 56
        Page 57
        Page 58
        Page 59
        Page 60
        Page 61
        Page 62
        Page 63
        Page 64
        Page 65
        Page 66
    Taxonomic characters and habitats of some of the most common Florida mycetozoa
        Page 67
        Page 68
        Page 69
    Florida snake venom experiments
        Page 70
        Page 71
        Page 72
        Page 73
        Page 74
        Page 75
    Allergic hypersensitivity and the four blood groups
        Page 76
        Page 77
        Page 78
    An amplifier for small thermal currents
        Page 79
        Page 80
        Page 81
        Page 82
        Page 83
        Page 84
        Page 85
        Page 86
        Page 87
        Page 88
        Page 89
        Page 90
        Page 91
        Page 92
        Page 93
    List of members, 1937
        Page 94
        Page 95
        Page 96
        Page 97
        Page 98
        Page 99
        Page 100
Full Text


of the

Florida Academy





Published by the Academy

sued annually under the direction of the Council of the Academy
acting through the Editor and the Business Manager.
For this volume these officers are:
Business Manager R. S. JOHNSON
THE PROCEEDINGS are sent to all members of the Academy and
are available for sale and for exchange. The price of this volume
is $1.00, bound in paper, and $2.00, bound in cloth. Orders and
correspondence concerning exchange should be sent to the Sec-
retary, J. H. Kusner, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida.


The Academy During 1937.-J. H. KUSNER, Secretary.................... 1
Treasurer's Report.-J. F. W. PEARSON, Treasurer....................... 2
Program of the Second Annual Meeting, at Coral Gables................ 3

Advancing Knowledge of Florida's Vast Plant Life. Address of H. HAROLD
HClE, Retiring President ......................................... 5
Limitations of the Probable Error of Estimate in Predicting The Course
of Human Behavior.-CHRISTIAN P. HEINLEIN ...................... 12
An Example of the Quantitative Method in Social Psychology.-CHARLES I.
MOSIER ........................................................ 17
A Study of the Artesian Water Supply of Seminole County, Florida.-
SIDNEY A. STUBns................................................... 24
The Effect of Cold Storage on Certain Native American Perennial Herbs.
Part I.-HERMAN KURZ........................................... 86
Check List of Native and Naturalized Trees in Florida.-LILLIAN E.
A RNOLD ............................................................ 52
Taxonomic Characters and Habitats of Some of the Most Common Florida
Mycetozoa.-CHARLOTTE B. BUCKLAND .............................. 67
Florida Snake Venom Experiments.-E. Ross ALLEN ..................... 70
Allergic Hypersensitivity and the Four Blood Groups.-LUCIEN Y. DYREN-
FORTH ...... .............. .......... ..... .... ........ ......... .. 76
An Amplifier for Small Thermal Currents.-DUDLEY WILLIAMS and RICHARD
TASC EK .................................................. ............ 79
ABSTRACTs: The Infrared Absorption of Vitamins C and D, by LEWIS H.
ROoERS; Traits in the Neurotic Inventory, by CHARLES I. MOSIER;
Philosophical Integrity in Science Teaching, by HAROLD RICHARDS; The
Division of Labor in the Natural Sciences, by JOHN P. CAMP; Torreya
West of the Appalachicola River, by HERMAN KURZ; Banana Water-
lilies, by EBDMAN WEST; The Flora of Fort George Island, by MRS.
W. D. DIDDELL; Scientific Theory and Possible Practice of the Bi-
chromatic Scale, by MAX F. MEYER; Chemical Analysis of Some North
Carolina Scallops, by CHARLES E. BELL.; Our Calendar and Its Reform,
by CECIL G. PHIPPS; Raman Spectra of Water Solutions of Methanol,
Ethanol, Acetone, Acetic Acid, and Dioxane, by R. C. WILLIAMSON;
An Experiment to Determine the Effect of Severe Atmospheric Dis-
turbances on the Ozone Content of the Upper Atmosphere, by W. S.
PERRY and R. G. LARRICK; Physiological and Evolutionary Theories of
Non-Additive Gene Interactions, by FRED H. HULL; The Effects of
Elastic Stretch on the Infrared Spectrum of Rubber, by RICHARD
TASCHEK; A New Automatic Respiration Calorimeter, by W. M. BAR-
ROWS, JR.; A Suggested New Notation for Logarithms, by H. H.
GERMOND; Two New Crawfishes from Florida, by H. H. HosBs; The
Genus Haylockia, by H. H. HUME ......... ........................ 83


Charter .............. ............................... ............ 91
By-Laws .................................................... ...... 92
List of Members, 1937 ............................................... 94


IN JANUARY, 1937, the American Association for the Advance-
ment of Science allotted to the Academy $50.00 for use as a
grant to be open to members of the Academy as an aid in re-
search. Notice of this was sent to all members of the Academy,
and applications for the grant were invited. The Council subse-
quently awarded the grant to Dr. F. Dudley Williams, of the
Department of Physics, University of Florida, for the construc-
tion of an amplifier to be used in connection with certain investi-
gations of the infra-red absorption spectrum of simple sugars
and the effects of certain ions on liquid water.*
The second annual meeting of the Academy was held at the
University of Miami on November 18, 19, and 20. The complete
program of this meeting appears in the following pages. Commit-
tees for this meeting were:
Morton Miller, E. T. Lindstrom, and J. H. Clouse, all
of the University of Miami.
Preliminary: W. E. DeMelt (Florida Southern College),
Chairman, J. Gifford (University of Miami), Vice-
Chairman, J. F. Conn (Stetson University), L. Y. Dyren-
forth (St. Luke's Hospital, Jacksonville), B. J. Owen
(Tallahassee), Bernice Shor (Rollins College), Frances
L. West (St. Petersburg Junior College), Sarah P.
White (Florida State College for Women), R. C. Wil-
liamson (University of Florida).
Final: R. C. Williamson (University of Florida), Chair-
man, E. M. Miller (University of Miami), B. P. Reinsch
(Florida Southern College), Jennie Tilt (Florida State
College for Women), Cornelia Smith (Stetson Uni-
RESOLUTIONS COMMITTEE: R. I. Allen (Stetson University),
Chairman, W. M. Barrows, Jr. (Florida State College
for Women), R. S. Bly (Florida Southern College), W.
L. MacGowan (Robert E. Lee High School, Jackson-
ville), W. S. Perry (University of Florida).
*See page 79 of this volume.


MEDAL COMMITTEE: W. S. Phillips (University of Miami),
Chairman, B. P. Reinsch (Florida Southern College),
Cornelia Smith (Stetson University), Jennie Tilt
(Florida State College for Women).
MEMORIALS COMMITTEE: Herman Gunter (Tallahassee), Chair-
man, R. I. Allen (Stetson University), G. F. Weber
(University of Florida).
AUDITING COMMITTEE: G. D. Ruehle (University of Florida),
Chairman, W. M. Buswell (University of Miami).
PUBLICITY COMMITTEE: L. W. Gaddum (University of Flor-
ida), Chairman, H. F. Richards (Florida State College
for Women), Henry S. West (University of Miami).
At the business session of the Annual Meeting certain amend-
ments to the By-laws* were voted.
On the recommendation of the Medal Committee, the Council
subsequently voted to award the Achievement Medal for 1937 to
Mr. Sidney A. Stubbs for his paper A Study Of The Artesian
Water Supply Of Seminole County, Florida.f
The Council also voted to hold the 1938 Annual Meeting at
Rollins College, Winter Park, on November 18 and 19.

J. H. KUSNER, Secretary.

FISCAL YEAR-1937-1938
Debit Credit Balance
Total receipts fiscal year 1935-36...............$ $356.00 $
Total disbursements fiscal year 1935-36......... 53.00
Balance on hand fiscal year 1935-36 ............. 303.00
Total receipts fiscal year 1936-37............... 517.05
Total disbursements fiscal year 1936-87.......... 85.66
Cash balance for fiscal year 1936-37............. 431.39
Balance from 1935-86.......................... 303.00
Total cash on hand November 18, 1937........ $734.39
Paid Out Paid In Balance
Paid out on order of Pres. and Sec., 1935-86....$ 51.00 $ $
Refund of dues paid in error.................... 2.00
Received profit on inaugural meeting.......... 1.00
Received 1986 dues, 234 members.............. 468.00
Received 1936 dues, 13 associate members....... 13.00
Received 1936 dues, 1 member, in error........ 2.00
Balance actual 1935-86 funds available......... 431.00
*See page 92 of this volume.
tSee page 24 of this volume.


Paid Out Paid In Balance
Paid out on order of Pres. and Sec., 1936-37.... 83.66
Refund of dues paid in error.................. 2.00
Received 1937 dues, 176 members............... 352.00
Received 1937 dues, 9 associate members........ 9.00
Received 1937 dues, 1 member, in error......... 2.00
Balance actual 1936-87 funds available.......... 277.34

Received 1938 dues, 12 members............... 24.00
Received 1938 dues, 1 member ................... 2.05
Balance actual 1938-39 funds available.......... 26.05

Total cash on hand, November 18, 1937....... $734.39
-J. F. W. PEARSON, Treasurer

Under the Auspices of the Departments of Botany and Zoology, University of
9:00 A.M. Leave the University for an all-day Marine Zoological Trip under
the direction of J. F. W. Pearson, Professor of Zoology, and E. M. Miller,
Assistant Professor of Zoology, University of Miami. The boat will go
down Biscayne Bay and outside to Fowey Light, below Soldier Key if
possible. Diving will be in from 15 to 30 feet of water. Each person mak-
ing the trip will be given the opportunity to dive and view the underwater
9:30 A. M. Leave the University for an all-day Botanical Trip to Costello
Hammock under the direction of W. S. Phillips, Professor of Botany, and
W. M. Buswell, Curator of the Herbarium, University of Miami. The
trip will be to Costello Hammock, one of the many hammocks typical of
the region between Miami and Homestead. This hammock has several
large sink holes where tropical ferns are found. On the trip down, man-
grove swamps and salt marshes will be seen. The return will be through
the Miami Pinelands to the Everglades, and some interesting transitions
between these two societies will be observed.

PRESENTATION OF PAPERs: President H. Harold Hume presiding.
1. The Division of Labor in the Natural Sciences-John P. Camp, University
of Florida.
2. Florida Snake Venom Experiments-E. Ross Allen, Florida Reptile In-
8. An Example of the Quantitative Method in Social Psychology-Charles I.
Mosier, University of Florida.
4. Philosophical Integrity in Science Teaching-Harold Richards, Florida State
College for Women.


5. Limitation of the Probable Error of Estimate in Predicting the Course of
Human Behavior-C. P. Heinlein, Florida State College for Women.
6. Torreya West of the Apalachicola River-Herman Kurz, Florida State Col-
lege for Women.

PRESENTATION OF PAPERS: Chairman E. P. St. John presiding.
1. The Flora of Fort George Island-Mrs. W. D. Diddell, Jacksonville.
2. The Effect of Cold Storage on Certain Native American Perennial Herbs
(Part I)-Herman Kurz, Florida State College for Women.
8. Taxonomic Characters and Habitats of Some of the Most Common Florida
Mycetozoa-Charlotte B. Buckland, Landon High School, Jacksonville.
4. Report on the Florida Copperhead (Agkistrodon mokasen)-E. Ross Allen,
Florida Reptile Institute.
5. Physiological and Evolutionary Theories of Non-Additive Gene Interactions
-Fred H. Hull, University of Florida.

PRESENTATION OF PAPERS: Chairman J. E. Spurr presiding.
1. A Study of the Artesian Water Supply of Seminole County, Florida-Sidney
A. Stubbs, Sanford.
2. The Infra-red Absorption Spectrum of Vitamins C and D-Lewis H. Rogers,
University of Florida.
8. The Effects of Elastic Stretch on the Infra-red Spectrum of Rubber-Rich-
ard Taschek, University of Florida.
4. A Suggested New Notation for Logarithms-H. H. Germond, University of
5. An Experiment to Determine the Effect of Severe Atmospheric Disturbances
on the Ozone Content of the Upper Atmosphere-W. S. Perry and R. G.
Larrick, University of Florida.

Toastmaster: Jennie Tilt, Vice-President of the Academy.
Address of Welcome: Bowman F. Ashe, President, University of Miami.
Retiring Address: H. Harold Hume, President of the Academy.
Presentation of the Achievement Medal for 1936: Herman Kurz, Past President
of the Academy.

PRESENTATION OF PAPERS: Chairman E. P. St. John presiding.
1. Chemical Analysis of Some North Carolina Scallops-Charles E. Bell, Uni-
versity of Florida.
2. Allergic Hypersensitivity and the Four Blood Groups-L. Y. Dyrenforth,
St. Luke's and Riverside Hospitals, Jacksonville.
3. Banana Water Lilies-Erdman West, University of Florida.
4. Two New Crawfishes from Florida, Cambarus hubbelli and Cambarus Achero-
nitis pallidus-Horton H. Hobbs, Jr., University of Florida. By title.
5. Check List of Native and Naturalized Trees in Florida-Lillian E. Arnold,
University of Florida. By title.


6. The Genus Haylockia-H. Harold Hume, University of Florida. By title.
PRESENTATION OF PAPERS: Chairman J. E. Spurr presiding.
1. A New Automatic Respiration Calorimeter-W. M. Barrows, Jr., Florida
State College for Women.
2. Raman Spectra of Water Solutions of Methanol, Ethanol, Acetone, Acetic
Acid, and Dioxane-R. C. Williamson, University of Florida.
3. An Amplifier for Small Thermal Currents-Dudley Williams, University of

(Two Parts Meeting Simultaneously)
PART A. Theory and Possible Practice of the Bichromatic (24-Tone, Quarter-
tone) Scale; with Musical Demonstrations-Max F. Meyer, University of
PART B. Our Calendar and Its Reform-Cecil G. Phipps, University of Florida.

University of Florida
FLORIDA'S NATIVE Flora-one of the largest and most varied in
the world, comprises more than 3,500 species of flowering plants
alone to say nothing of lower forms. Of trees there are at least
314 species, a number greater than is found in any other state in
the Union. Compare this number, for instance, with the trees of
the Pacific Coast, where from Vancouver to Mexico only 147
species are indigenous. Approximately there are 352 species of
grasses known as natives in this state. These numbers are not
given for purposes of comparison alone but to indicate something
of the wealth of plant material that covers the state of Florida.
The geographical position of the state, its climate, its topog-
raphy, and its geological formation are responsible in large
measure for the varied nature of its vegetation. Into its compo-
sition three main elements enter. One from northern regions
represented by such plants as Iris virginica, Saracenia purpurea,
Ilex opaca, and Chamaecyparis thyoides. Another peculiar to the
state and found nowhere else than within its borders composed
*Retiring Presidential Address.


of such plants as Rhododendron Chapmanii, Taxus floridana,
Ilex cumulicola, Iris savannarum, and Zephyranthes Simpsonii.
And a third, essentially tropical, to which such plants as Ficus
aurca, Roystonea regia, Tillandsia juncea, and Swietenia Mahag-
oni belong. Plants from these distinct sources in bountiful blend-
ing have found and maintained a place here. Is it any wonder
that this was an inviting and interesting field for the botanist and
collector? The lure of plant life, the beauty and variety of its
forms have brought many plantsmen to Florida as well as to
neighboring states to the northward where vegetation has much
in common with our own. Here came in earlier days many men
from across the ocean-English, Scotch, Irish, French, and from
our own northeastern states, botanists and collectors all, search-
ing for new and unusual plants. Many of them made their head-
quarters in Charleston, for in those days it was the most south-
erly port and offered opportunity for the dispatch of plants and
plant materials across the sea. As a result of their activities
highly prized collections of plants, plant materials, and plant
products found their way across the Atlantic to enrich and grace
the gardens of Europe, to find a cherished place on the shelves of
herbaria, to add to the variety, if not always to the effectiveness,
of physicians' remedies, to enter ultimately into the trade and
commerce of many nations. The flow of native plant products
has not ceased even to this our day and time. How interesting
were the journies and adventures of these men! How great their
contributions to the scientific knowledge of a vast area! How
important their findings, for-plant life is as important as soil or
water, land or sea, for does it not carry in itself the very basis
for the existence of all life? Yet how little is known of those who
have made present day knowledge of our plants possible. They
have gone their way unnoticed, unrecorded, and unpraised. Is it
not strange that the following of peaceful pursuits, important
though they may be in their relation to human progress and their
effects on human destinies, makes no impression on the passing
throng? Seldom are monuments erected to the memory of those
who have blazed the way into unknown regions of scientific
knowledge. History records the lives of statesmen, of warriors,
even of politicians. It records tremendous battles where thous-
ands died, but history has taken little note of painstaking en-
deavor, of patient toil, of long years of research, and of brilliant
successes in scientific fields. There has been nothing spectacular
about the goings and comings of such men; they have not caught
the public fancy; they have made neither the pages of news nor
of history. Yet to such we owe our present day knowledge of
the plants of this southeastern area, in which Florida is included.
Their explorations began in 1722 and cover a period down to date
of a little more than two centuries.


Then who were these men? Whence came they and what did
they do? Unfortunately, for reasons already given we know too
little about them. I see them in those distant days following dim
Indian trails, making their way through unbroken wilderness,
plunging through rank swampy growths, crossing streams and
rivers on frail rafts, lost betimes, soaked by rain and chilled by
piercing winds, sick and weary, yet led onward into the unknown
by that peculiar, insatiable desire to find the new and the strange,
and so to add their modicum to human knowledge.
The first of their number to come into this area of ours was
Mark Catesby, who was born at Sudbury, England, in 1679.
Some time before he was 40 years old, he made a trip to'Virginia
where he spent seven years and this led him to want to see more
of the plants of America. So he came to Charleston in 1722 and
for the next 25 years or so collected and painted plants and ani-
mals in South Carolina, Georgia, Florida, and the Bahamas. He
wrote and illustrated the "Natural History of Carolina, Florida
and the Bahama Islands," which comprised 11 numbers published
from 1730 to 1748. This was completed shortly before his death
December 23, 1749, in London. His "Natural History" is an in-
teresting and valuable work; the plant descriptions are in French
and English. Each plant illustrated is accompanied by an illus-
tration of some animal such as a bird, a turtle, or a snake. His
contribution to the biological knowledge of the area in which he
worked was very material not only in itself, not only in his publi-
cations, but because he fired the imagination and lit the interest
of those who came after him.
Next came Thomas Walter, also from England. Hampshire
was his native home, where he was born about 1740. He came
to South Carolina as a young man and settled in St. Johns
Parish, near Charleston, where he died in January, 1789. The
garden which he established has now gone back to a wilderness.
It was perhaps the first botanical garden in America. In the
British Museum there is a collection of dried plants made by
Walter in the years 1786 to 1788. These are mounted in a large
book of blank pages, many different kinds on a sheet, well pre-
served and in good condition to this day. He wrote the "Flora
Caroliniana," a monumental work when we consider the difficul-
ties under which it was written. On going through a list of the
plants of this general region, one is struck by the number of
species for which he is authority. Smilax Walterii was named for
him, and many other plants besides.
John Ellis, born in Ireland about 1710, became a London mer-
chant, made a fortune and used his wealth on plants, explora-
tions and collections. He was appointed Agent for the King of
England in 1764 and later went to Dominica in 1770. He im-
ported into England many specimens of plants. He was a corre-


spondent of Linneus and of Doctor Garden, of Charleston, South
Carolina, who was also interested in plants. He died in London
in October, 1776.
Outstanding among all the men who came into this southern
region were the two Bartrams, John and his son William. Be-
tween 1765 and 1778 they made several trips through the Caro-
linas, Georgia and Florida. They explored the St. Johns River
to its source. John Bartram was born near Darby, Pennsylvania,
March 23, 1699, and died at Kingsessing, Pennsylvania, Septem-
ber 22, 1777. All the way from the Canadian border to the head-
waters of the St. Johns River he collected plants over a period of
many years. He was responsible for the introduction into Eng-
land of the bush honeysuckle, fiery lilies, mountain laurel, dog-
tooth violet, wild asters, gentian, hemlock, red and white cedar
and sugar maple. His work was followed by his son William, who
was born at Kingsessing, February 9, 1739, and died at the same
place July 22, 1823. He accompanied his father to Florida in the
years 1765 and 1766 and lived in Florida on the St. Johns River
somewhere north of Palatka during parts of the years 1766 and
1767. From 1773 to 1778 he was engaged in botanical travels in
Carolina, Georgia, and Florida. One of the most interesting travel
works, in which he deals with the landscape, plants, animals, and
peoples, came from his pen. "Travels Through North and South
Carolina, Georgia, East and West Florida," was published in Phila-
delphia, 1791. It was followed by an English edition, published at
London, 1794, and quite recently has been reprinted here in
America. It is a fascinating book.
One of the interesting episodes in connection with William
Bartram's plant explorations was a request which came to him
from Sir Joseph Banks, President of the Royal Society, who is
said to have offered him for every new plant he could find the
sum of one shilling. To this William Bartram replied that "there
are not over 500 species altogether in the provinces of Virginia,
North Carolina, South Carolina, West and East Florida, and
Georgia, which, at one shilling each, amounts only to L 25-
supposing everything acceptable. It has taken me two years to
search only part of the last two provinces, and find by experi-
ence it cannot be done with tolerable conveniency for less than
L 100 a year, therefore it cannot reasonably be expected that he
can accept the offer." While from an economic point of view his
position was eminently correct, how little did he realize what
treasures lay beyond his sight.
Andre Michaux, the French botanical explorer, was born
March 7, 1746, at Satory near Versailles and from 1786 to 1796
he collected plants in the United States for the French govern-
ment. He worked all the way from Hudson Bay to Florida and


from the Atlantic Ocean as far west as the Mississippi River. He
published a flora of North America, "Flora Boreali-Americana,"
on which work his son was co-author. The son, Francois Andre,
also explored in America from 1785 to 1790 and made his head-
quarters at Charleston. There he started a garden to which
plants were brought and established that they might develop
good root systems and be in proper condition for forwarding to
France. As much as anyone else, the younger Michaux added to
the wealth of Florida plants in France. From 1806 to 1809 he
worked from Georgia northward to Maine and westward to Ohio.
He returned to France in the latter year and devoted himself to
the cultivation of the materials which he had collected. He died
at his estate near Point Toise, France, October 23, 1855. These
two men were more particularly interested in woody plants, trees
particularly, and added greatly to our knowledge of the tree flora
of the Southeastern states.
Two Scotchmen, John Fraser and his son John, from Scot-
land, were interested in Florida plants and did much to assist
Walter in the publication of his Flora Caroliniana. Indeed, it is
understood that many of the plants described by Walter were
collected by the Frasers. Their travels terminated with the return
to England of the younger man in 1810.
These sketches bring us down now to more modern times and
to those who were in some ways more intimately associated with
Florida plant explorations. Although he spent but a short time
in Florida, 1830 to 1837, Hardy Bryan Croom made a lasting
impression upon our knowledge of the plant world of the Apa-
lachicola region. Croom came to Florida from North Carolina.
He was a graduate of the University of North Carolina and was
born in Lenoir County, 1797. About 1832 he rented a plantation
in Florida on the west bank of the Apalachicola River. Here he
discovered Croomia, which was named for him, the interesting
isolated Torreya taxifolia and made a careful study of the native
pitcher plants. Unfortunately Croom's life was brought to an
untimely end in a shipwreck near Cape Hatteras where he per-
ished with his wife and three children. On the grounds of St.
Johns Episcopal Church, Tallahassee, Florida, there stands a
monument to his memory. Part of the inscription on this monu-
ment reads:
He was associated for a time with Doctor Chapman and the two
had planned to make a careful and thorough exploration of
Florida. This plan, however, was never realized and Doctor
Chapman was left to study Florida plants without his assistance.
Dr. Alvan Wentworth Chapman must be regarded as our own
botanist because he lived and worked in Florida for so many


years. Born in 1809 at Southampton, Massachusetts; graduated
from Amherst in 1830; taught in a private family at Whitemarsh,
Savannah, 1831-1833; became principal of an Academy at Wash-
ington, Georgia, in 1833, and remained there until 1835. Studied
medicine, moved to Quincy, Florida, in 1835 and began his med-
ical practice. In 1837 he moved to Marianna where he lived for a
short time, returned to Quincy, and finally located in Apalachi-
cola in 1847 where he continued the practice of medicine and
resided until his death in 1899. Chapman's "Flora of the South-
ern United States," published in 1860, printed in New York City,
was, for more than 40 years, our manual of the plants of this
region. Though dated in 1860, Doctor Chapman did not see a
copy of his work until after the War Between the States was
over, and it was due to the interest of Dr. Asa Gray that the
plates from which the work was printed were preserved during
that troublous period. This Manual ran through three editions.
The second was issued in 1883; the main portion of this volume
was the same as the first, but new plants were added in a supple-
ment and later a second supplement was included. This second
edition with two supplements is comparatively rare and is a
collector's prize. The third edition was issued in 1896, three years
before his death in 1899. Doctor Chapman added many new
species to the lists of Florida plants, among which may be men-
tioned in passing Zephyranthes Simpsonii, Viburnum densi-
florum, Andropogon maritius, and Salvia Blodgcttii. The whole
number is very considerable. A genus of mosses, Chapmannia,
was named for him. Doctor Chapman was a contemporary of Dr.
Asa Gray and Dr. John Torrey. He carried on a wide correspond-
ence with botanists both in America and in Europe. Many inter-
esting stories are told of his life and work. It may not be out of
place to relate a few of these, for they are at least of human
He was an unusual and interesting character. He stood over
six feet, erect, dignified and handsome, hard and stern, with a
strong profile and snow-white hair. In his late years he became
very deaf, which affliction he said was not entirely detrimental
because, "if I can't hear people's groans they won't send for me."
He admitted that except for easing a soul into or out of the
world he had done his best practice with hot baths and bread
pills. He strongly believed in fresh air and sunshine.
Doctor Chapman was an ardent Union man and his wife was
a Southerner from New Bern, North Carolina. About the war
they could not agree, so they separated for its duration and she
went to live in Marianna. They never saw each other for four
years. He heard from her once. When the war closed she re-
turned. When I visited the little graveyard in Apalachicola to
photograph his tomb, I found at the foot of the grave two little


Confederate flags. Miss Winifred Kimball, who accompanied me
arid who had known the doctor intimately for many years, said,
"I believe he would turn over in his grave if he knew those flags
were there." Because he favored the Union his life was con-
stantly in danger, and whenever the guerrillas overran the town
they raided his drugstore every time. Then he would betake him-
self to Trinity Episcopal Church and hide there until they left.
There were cushions in his pew, for, as he said, "If I must hide,
I decided I might as well be comfortable." Doctor Gray, Amer-
ica's most famous botanist, came to Florida to visit Chapman,
who had been writing him about a new rhododendron he had
found. The two went out to where it grew. Kneeling beside it,
Doctor Gray examined it carefully, then rising and extending his
hand, said, "You are right; I never saw this species. I congratu-
late you on Rhododendron Chapmanii." And so it was named for
He was an associate of Dr. John Gorrie, the first to make ice
artificially. When asked how much Gorrie made from his inven-
tion, Chapman replied, "Relatively nothing. He was no business
man, was Gorrie. If he had been he never would have invented
artificial ice."
Coming down to our own time, tribute must be paid to the
indefatiguable work in the field of Florida botany carried out by
Dr. John K. Small over a period of 35 years. Every year from
about 1900 up to the present time, Doctor Small has visited
Florida once or more. The details of his excursions are set forth
in some 90 papers. In 1903 he published his voluminous work
entitled, "The Flora of the Southeastern United States." This
was followed by a second edition in 1913 and in 1933 his "Manual
of the Southeastern Flora" appeared. This last volume has
brought down to this date our knowledge of Florida plants. The
tremendous amount of work done by Doctor Small can scarcely
be appreciated, except by those who have been associated with
him from time to time in connection with his investigations. His
plant collections are in the herbarium of the New York Botanical
Garden. The number of new forms named and described by Doc-
tor Small is very large and, although there undoubtedly remain
new plants to be found, no one will ever equal the number from
this region to which Small's name is attached as author. Al-
though he has not visited Florida this year, it is hoped that his
visits to the state are not yet ended. Recently the herbarium of
the Florida Experiment Station has been favored with a collec-
tion of 1,059 specimen's from Small's collections-a priceless
series of material that has journeyed away from the state and
then returned.
While by far most of the plants native to Florida are known,
our knowledge of where they are is most incomplete. Information


covering their distribution is lacking. Local floras covering defi-
nite areas are needed. Lists of plants authenticated by herbarium
specimens will be of great value. Representative collections of
good herbarium material are greatly to be desired and they are
needed in the several educational institutions of the State.
The field is wide open for ecological studies to be carried out
on a well rounded basis in which undertaking at least the bot-
anist, the soil scientist, the chemist and the climatologist should
join. There is need for greatly expanded plant interest all over
the State, which interest can be aroused best in our grammar and
high schools. To these ends the Florida Academy of Sciences may
well give help.
There remains much still to be done in the botanical fields in
Florida and it is hoped that the years to come may add further
to our knowledge of this vast plant area.

Florida State College for Women
THE PURPOSE OF this paper is to describe the primary theoretical
assumptions which must be satisfied to render valid the probable
error of estimate of a raw datum, score or unit-value taken from
an empirical distribution.
In correlating two variables, such as intelligence (in terms of
composite scores obtained from some standardized intelligence
test) and scholastic achievement (in terms of point grades), in-
vestigators have attempted to predict the level of an individual
in a second array from a knowledge of his level in a first array
with which the second array is correlated by a definite amount.
To describe this situation in another way, we may say that one of
the purposes in correlating arrays is to demonstrate the degree
of concomitance and mutual dependence of scores in two arrays
considered representative. When two arrays of scores are cor-
related, the scores in one array are treated as a function of the
scores in the other array. If we can demonstrate that the rela-
tionship between the two arrays is rectilinear, then in accordance
with the practice of predicting in terms of the regression equa-
tion, we may assume any y level to be a certain multiple of the
corresponding x level when each is measured from the mean.
This multiplier, as you know, is the regression coefficient "beta"


and indicates the slope of the line that best fits the trend of
paired levels. We may refer to the regression coefficient of y on
x as the slope that the straight line makes with the x-axis when
it passes through the successive x-values in such a way as to fit
best the corresponding y-values. We may refer to the regression
coefficient of x on y as the slope that the straight line makes
with the y-axis when it passes through the successive y-values in
such a way as to fit best the corresponding x measures. When
these coefficients are taken as deviations from the means of their
respective arrays, the coefficient of regression of y on x becomes
the ratio of the standard deviation of y to the standard deviation
of x times the magnitude of the coefficient of correlation. In
order to compute x in terms of y, we may interchange y and x
in the ratio and obtain the regression coefficient of x on y.
In order to develop the regression equation in deviation form,
we should recall the development of"r" as the tangent of the angle
that the regression line makes with the X-axis when the varia-
bilities in the two directions have been equalized. If "beta" rep-
resents the slope of the line required when the sum of the squares
of the errors is a minimum, and x a given value in deviation form
in the first array, y a corresponding value in the second array,
and y the level this y value must reach in order to fall on the re-
gression line, then by definition of "beta," y = bx. We revert
to this equation for the purpose of substituting it in the value
obtained for by. This gives us our regression equations in devia-
tion form-(project slide # 1 on screen)

(1) y = xC(by), where by, = ry -

(2) x = y(b,y), where bx~ = r x

From the first equation it has been the practice in mental
measurement to predict the most probable y value of individual
behavior from a known x value, and from the second equation
to predict the most probable x value of individual behavior from
a known y value. If we wish to translate the regression equation
in deviation form into a regression equation in raw datum form,
we simply substitute (X M,) for its equivalent x, and
(Y M) for its equivalent y, the M's being the respective
means. Thus, the regression equation in score form becomes-
(project slide # 2 on screen)
Y = (Xby) + (M, bhyM,)

where byx = rx, '; M_- = mean of first variable; My = mean
of second variable; X = known score.


In empirical situations where the relationship is other than
one, we know that not all y values that correspond to x values
fall on the regression line; the x and y values scatter above and
below such a line and may be regarded as misses or errors. The
standard error of estimate is simply the standard deviation of
these misses above and below the regression line. This value is
best expressed by the formula-(project slide #3 on screen)
oT. = The probable error of estimate, P.E.,,, is equal to 0.6745a,,.
In order to illustrate the practical application of the formu-
las presented, let us consider a concrete problem as described by
Charles C. Peters. The mean of intelligence test scores is given
as 100 with a standard deviation of 30; the mean of "point-aver-
ages" correlated with the intelligence test scores is 1.40 with a
standard deviation of .60. The Pearson "r" between the two vari-
ables is .40. A certain student by the name of William makes a
score of 82 in the intelligence test. What may he be expected to
achieve in terms of a point average? Substituting the cited values
in the regression equation in score form by solving we obtain
.60 .60
Y = .40 82 + (1.40 .40 100)
30 30
Y = .656 + 1.40 0.80 = 1.256
How accurate is this prediction of 1.256? This question is an-
swered by the probable error of estimate.
o, = .60(1 .40a2)% = .60(1 .16)
= .60(.84)% = 0.55
P.E.,, = .6745(0.55) = 0.371
The computed probable error of estimate is .371. This last value
(.371) means that the chances are 50 in 100 that William's actual
point average will not differ from his predicted one by more than
.371. However, we must not forget that the chances are 50 in
100 that the score will be missed by more than that amount. If
it is our desire to be practically certain within the limits of four
probable errors, the limits of our estimate will extend so far that
a given prediction becomes practically meaningless. It becomes
at once obvious that a very high "r" is demanded for the purpose
of reducing the element of chance in the prediction of a given
score. The coefficient of alienation, which is part of our standard
error of estimate, will indicate the absence of relationship be-
tween the two correlated variables, whereas the coefficient of
alienation taken from unity will describe the percentage of effi-
ciency of our prediction. Judging by the kind of conclusions
drawn from coefficients of correlation, few investigators seem to
realize that under the most ideal conditions of correlation, when


mutual dependence between the variable can be empirically dem-
onstrated, in a prediction based on an r of .95 there remains 31%
of the element of chance or that percentage of unknown factors
operating. Were this fact generally recognized, we should not be
obliged to confront the far sweeping conclusions concerning the
so-called "significant" reliabilities and validities of test scores
based on r's between .50 and .85. Yet many testers affirm the
"significant value" of intelligence test scores as predictive indices
of scholastic achievement in spite of the median efficiency of only
t per cent between the Thurstone intelligence IV test and scho-
lastic success as indicated in 43 institutions and in spite of the
long list of institutional correlations cited by Boynton in which
no single r between intelligence and scholastic success ever
reaches 50% efficiency.
But let us assume that an r between two variables is statis-
tically significant so that the degree of chance is reduced eighty-
five per cent. Such significance would demand an r of .99. In
the light of this r, is it a logically sound and scientifically valid
procedure to predict an x score in terms of a known y score?
The answer to this question depends on our concept of correla-
tion. We might answer "yes" if we can demonstrate that the
criteria of mesokurtosis, homocedasticity and representativeness
have been satisfied in the correlated arrays, if further we can
demonstrate that the moments within the correlational frame
are dynamically interacting and causally efficacious to determine
the status of.any given value in either axis. Unfortunately, most
empirical distributions are not rectilinear and hence not resolv-
able in terms of "r". Investigators are not prone to indicate the
kurtosis or skewness of their distributions, nor are they inclined
to define the criteria of representativeness for distributions con-
sidered statistically reliable. Instead of moralizing the curve of
errors and instead of forcing every conceivable variety of psycho-
logical and educational data into this ideal curve, it behooves the
present and future investigators to discover the mathematical
characteristics of empirical curves that most adequately satisfy
specific distributions of experimentally isolated qualitatively
homogeneous data. The chief failure in modern educational re-
search is the failure to distinguish between empirical probability
and theoretical probability.
Perhaps the most glaring abuse of the probable error of esti-
mate in predicting a single score or value is found in the mis-
interpretation that the method of rectilinear correlation is
identical with the method of concomitant variation. The method
of correlation when applied to the data of mental testing is not
the same as the physical method of concomitant variation. In
the latter method, a unit event A is varied to determine its effect
upon a macroscopically constant unit event B. In this method,


an interacting dynamic concomitance provides the specification
of a certain degree of causal efficacy. In the method of correla-
tion, any degree of relationship may be a function of incidental
concomitance. The relationship between intelligence scores and
scholastic achievement may be purely incidental, and not caus-
ally efficacious. We may be quite certain that the product mo-
ments within the correlational frame involving these two vari-
ables are almost purely incidental. The score of student A within
the frame of correlation is causally independent of the score of
student B unless student B is socially affecting the response of
student A to the test in question. The size of the coefficient of
correlation is never a certain index of causal efficacy or mutual
dependence. It would appear that the relationships indicated by
the great mass of educational and social data are purely inci-
dental and hence practically useless in the accurate prediction of
future events.
The following table (project slide #4 on screen) reveals at a
glance the percentage of relationship or overlapping between two
things in terms of ascending values of "r", the coefficient of cor-
relation. Observe that the acceleration in percentage of relation-
ship between an r of .95 and 1.00 is greater than that between
zero and an r of .70. Note also that the acceleration in percent-
age of relationship between an r of .99 and 1.00 is greater than
that between zero and an r of .50. To the student who has re-
garded the coefficient of correlation as a percentage of relation-
ship, the above related facts may prove startling and unbelievable.
Coefficient of Percentage of
correlation "r" relationship
.00 = .00
.25 = .03
.50 = .13
.70 = .28
.75 = .33
.80 = .40
.87 = .50
.90 = .56
.95 = .68
.96 = .72
.97 = .75
.98 = .80
.99 = .85
.995 = .90
1.00 = 1.00
Let it be remembered that the deviations within a correla-
tional frame are static and fixed. One cannot vary at will his
degree of intelligence to determine the effect the variation will
have on scholastic success. The assumption that the moments
generated by values in the X and Y arrays are dynamically effica-
cious to produce a single X value when a corresponding Y value


is known, cannot be justified when we pass from one correlational
frame to another. Standardization of a given level of achievement
in terms of some second criterion considered valid rests on the
assumption of representative behavior wholly static in character
and unaffected by time. The pseudo-mathematical techniques in-
herent in scaling devices that lead to the hypostatization of
correlated variables are perpetuated through the act of stand-
When guidance experts predict the course of individual be-
havior in the light of some mental test score, they assume that
the score expresses a psychological function or functions on which
future behavior of a discriminable quality depends. They fail to
comprehend that the gross score is a momentary transverse ex-
pression of a complex of intellectual judgments, the effective
dependability and fidelity of which are unknown. It does not
take a genius to perceive that the future course of life may as-
sume one of a large number of forms and that it is not statically
determined by any snap-shot statistical transaction of some im-
mediate narrow field of arbitrarily selected intellectual judg-
ments. A given set of intellectual judgments may function for a
given organism in as many different ways as there will be dif-
ferent effective future environments. The experimentalist's de-
scription of the future course of life by means of the probable
error of estimate based on qualitatively heterogeneous levels is
about as reliable as the predictive imagery of the crystal gazer or
the fanciful descriptions of the astrologer.

University of Florida
THIS PAPER represents the preliminary report of an effort to ap-
ply rational quantitative methods to a problem in the field of
social psychology. The temporal course of fads and popular
fashions, representing as it does the reactions of individuals to
certain stimuli, is a legitimate problem in the field of social
psychology, however trivial it may be deemed. The growth and
decline in popularity of any stimulus represents the collective
judgments of a large group of persons, and those judgments are
'In presenting this paper, the writer wishes to acknowledge the assistance
given by Professors C. G. Phipps and H. H. Germond of the Department of
Mathematics of the University of Florida.


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influenced by the social situation of the moment. These changes
in total popularity seem to exhibit certain regularities which
indicate the possibility of quantitative treatment. We see a fad
begin, sometimes slowly, sometimes suddenly, reaching a height
of popularity, and then beginning a fall from grace which may
be so slow as to be imperceptible over a period of years, or so
precipitous as to carry the fad from sight, and even from memory,
within a month or two.
As examples of this phenomenon of the growth and decline of
popularity, the "popular" songs of the day have certain advan-
tages as objects of study. The course of their life histories is
relatively brief; the development of their popularity is more truly
a matter merely of liking or disliking, uncomplicated by the pres-
sure of advertising, by the necessity of making any definite action,
such as purchasing, or by the related factor of saturation of the
potential market. (It is conceivable that a fad might be at its
peak popularity after the potential market had been saturated
and no more sales were being made.) An additional point in
favor of the study of the popularity of songs is that, as a result
of the advertising campaign of a popular cigarette, the fifteen
most popular songs of the week, determined on a nation-wide
basis, are available to test such hypotheses as may be devised.
Before going farther, it should be mentioned that this study
is not presented as a finished product, and that its chief claim
to interest lies in the opening of the field to quantitative methods
and the demonstration that such methods are likely to prove fruit-
ful, rather than in any specific results. Certain hypotheses as to
the laws underlying the growth of popularity have been tested,
others are still being tested. Certainly the most satisfactory set
has not been found. Before conclusions of significance are
reached two conditions must be met that have not been attained:
(1) more, and more varied hypotheses must be tested, and the con-
sequences of each must be investigated more fully; (2) more, and
more adequate data must be assembled to enable us definitely to
verify or reject the hypotheses tested.
If the popularity of a song be considered it would seem that
what we understand by popularity is the total number of indi-
viduals who like that song at a certain time. This, in turn, is a
function of two factors-the number of people who hear the song,
and the proportion of those hearing it who react favorably. Now
the first of these factors depends on the popularity already at-
tained-the more popular a song becomes, the more it is played,
sung, hummed, or whistled, and the more people hear it. Songs
of this type, however, do not "wear well," and after a person has
heard it several times (in some cases, once) he is less likely to like
it than formerly. Thus, as a first approximation, we may express


the rate of change in the popularity of a song as the sum of two
components (it would appear more profitable to consider the
product of the two components, and this is now being investi-
gated). The first of these components makes for an increase in
popularity proportional to the popularity already attained, the
other causes a decrease with increasing time. (More exactly,
the decrease is due to a large number of unknown factors whose
average varies as a function of time.) Writing this hypothesis
as a differential equation, we have:
(1) dp/dt = kp ct
where p is some measure of popularity, t is some measure of time,
k is a constant indicating the "catchiness" of the song, and c is
a function of its "wearing qualities." If this equation be solved
for the function p(t), we have (omitting the intermediate steps
involved in the solution):
(2) p = c/k(t + 1 ekt) + pockt
This, then, is the form in which the hypotheses outlined above
may be tested.
The ranks of the fifteen most popular songs of each week were
secured for the period beginning April 13, 1936, and ending
October 19, 1936. Only those songs on which data were complete
-from the first to the last appearance among the first fifteen-
were retained. Songs on which fewer than ten observations were
available were also eliminated.
In considering the data available, certain limitations must be
pointed out. In the first place, time is measured from an arbi-
trary origin-the time of the first appearance of the song among
the fifteen most popular. Nothing is known of the time or the
popularity before this. The data are limited to the very peak of
the curve and no information is available concerning the early
stages of growth and the later stages of the decline in popularity
-periods crucial for the test of a particular hypothesis. A second
objection is that ranks are not units, and a shift from thirteenth
place to twelfth place, for example, may not be equivalent to a
shift from third to second place, though we are forced to treat
it so. Furthermore, the rank of a song is determined by the
quality of the other songs in vogue, so that a mediocre song,
coming at a time when it is compared with a group of poor songs,
will receive the same rank as an excellent song compared with a
group of good songs.
Although it is true that equal differences in ranks do not
ordinarily measure equal differences in the attribute ranked, this
objection may be partially overcome. We may reasonably assume
that the distribution of popularity of all songs at any particular


time is such that for the most popular songs, rank is a linear
function of popularity. That this assumption is tenable is indi-
cated by the consistency of the results to be reported. For this
study, then, popularity may be approximated by rank. Since
popularity decreases as rank increases numerically, it will be
convenient to measure popularity by the negative of the rank. It
will also prove convenient, in testing the hypothesis of equation
(2) to measure time in weeks from the time of maximum pop-
A procedure for fitting the curve of equation (2) utilizing
first and second differences was developed, by means of which the
values of c, k, Po, and the zero point for time might be estimated
with fair accuracy. The curve-fitting procedure leaves much to be
desired in economy of time, and in perfection of results, but it
seems adequate to the treatment of data as rough as these ad-
mittedly are.
The results of fitting the exponential growth curve are shown
in Figs. 1-5. Fig. 1 shows the observed ranks and the fitted curve
for one particular song. The curve is nearly symmetrical and
the fit is surprisingly close. The correlation between observed and
calculated values, corrected for the number of parameters, is
.89. The next figure shows the curve and the data for a second
title-a curve exhibiting a rapid rise and relatively slow decline.
The fit in this case is by no means as good as in the first, though
still fair. The corrected correlation between observation and
prediction is .66. The low correlation may be due to one or all of
three factors: (1) the hypothesis does not fit the data; (2) the
curve-fitting procedure is not adequate; (3) the data themselves
are unreliable. The other figures show results similar to these
discussed, some excellent fits by any criterion, some not so good.
Since some of the curves presented resemblances in appear-
ance to the second degree parabola, it was decided to fit such a
curve to the data. The hypothesis leading to such a curve would
be that the rate of change in popularity is proportional to time,
Plus an original velocity. Stated as a differential equation:
(3) dp/dt = at + b
which integrates readily to give:
(4) p 2 + bt + Po
where p, t, and po have the same significance as before, a is a
positive constant indicative of the "durability" of the song, and
b is the number of weeks necessary for the song to reach its
maximum popularity-a measure of its "catchiness".
This function has certain advantages in ease and accuracy of
fitting. The resulting fits are superior to those obtained by fitting


the exponential, which may indicate that this is a better guess as
to the laws underlying the growth of popularity, or that the
method of curve-fitting is superior. The results of fitting this
parabolic function to the data are presented in the next series of
As has been mentioned, other hypotheses ought to be tested,
their consequences investigated more fully, and verified by more
adequate data. For example, both the functions discussed have
no place where the second derivative is zero, and there are ration-
al grounds for considering this unlikely. The restriction of the
data to the central range makes it impossible to test this possible
discrepancy. Again, the hypothesis that the rate is the product
function of the two components kp and ct offers interesting pos-
sibilities, and a considerably safer rational basis.
What may be concluded from this investigation? Certainly
not that either of the two hypotheses advanced as descriptions of
the popularity function is verified. The data are too few, and too
limited in range to permit of such verification. Furthermore, the
data are, as has been pointed out, unreliable as measurements.
The conclusion that we can draw, however, is that it is possible
in the field of social psychology to formulate rational hypotheses
as to the behavior of certain variables, to express those mathe-
matically and to deduce from those hypotheses certain conclu-
sions which admit of verification. If we find evidence of con-
sistent behavior from data whose reliability is questionable, may
we not expect that with more accurate measurements, our hy-
potheses will prove susceptible of exact, quantitative verification?
Furthermore such a procedure will lead to the determination of
constants having rational meaning, and by utilization of these
constants, comparisons between songs, or even between fads, may
prove both possible and enlightening.

University of Florida
FOR THE past ten months I have been engaged in a detailed study
of the subsurface geology and the artesian water supply of
Seminole County. This paper very briefly summarizes the results
of the study of the artesian waters.
*Awarded the Achievement Medal for 1937.


The investigation was begun on January 1, 1937. The pur-
pose of the survey has been to outline the area of artesian flow
and the area of highly mineralized waters, and to study in detail
the amount and causes of fluctuation in the artesian water levels.
Seminole County is located in the east central part of the
Florida peninsula. This county was organized from a part of
Orange County in 1913. The county comprises an area of 205,440
acres or 321 square miles.
The county seat of Seminole County is Sanford, located in
the northwestern part of the county on Lake Monroe. The 1935
state census gives it a population of 10,903. The population of
the county by the same census is 22,192.
The raising of celery and citrus fruits is the chief industry of
the county. The celery farms occupy the lowlands in the vicinity
of Lake Monroe and Lake Jessup, and a considerable area south
of Oviedo in the south central part of the county. Most of the
citrus groves are in the hill country in the south and western
part of the county. The area under actual cultivation in truck
crops covers approximately 6,000 acres of irrigated land. The
water used for irrigation of the truck lands is obtained from
artesian wells. Lake water is usually used for grove irrigation.


Slightly more than two hundred wells have been under ob-
servation, and monthly readings have been taken on key wells.
The chloride content has been determined upon a much larger
number. The readings of the pressure head of flowing wells have
been made with a hose and measuring rod in all practical cases.
On flowing wells where the pressure was too high to read by
means of a hose, a gauge, regularly checked against a hose, was
used. Non-flowing wells were checked by the wetted tape method.
The elevations of the wells have been determined by precise levels
run from United States Coast and Geodetic bench marks and
from elevations established by the county engineering depart-
ment corrected to Coast and Geodetic elevations. Elevations
on a few of the outlying wells were obtained by means of an
aneroid barometer.


The geologic formations of the county are shown on the chart.
Of these formations, four have significance as artesian water
horizons; the Coskinolina zone and the Ocala formation of Eocene
age, the Hawthorn formation of Miocene age, and the Caloosa-
hatchee marl of Pliocene age. The most important of these are
the Coskinolina zone and the Ocala formation.




Recent and 0-60 Undifferentiated
Pleistocene sands and soils.

Pliocene Caloosahatchee 0-70 Marl, shell and sand.
marl Minor artesian aquifer.

Interbedded clay, marl,
Miocene Alum Bluff Hawthorn 0-70? and sandy limestone.
Important artesian

Ocala limestone 0-200? Limestone. Important
(of Jackson age) artesian aquifer.

Coskinolina zone Limestone. Important
artesian aquifer.

*Eocene and Cretaceous sediffents

*Paleozoic or older Mica schist, etc.
Metamorphic basement.

*After Cooke, C. W., and Mossom, Stuart, Geology of Florida; Florida Geol.
Sur. Twentieth Ann. Rept., p. 40, 1929.


I first suspected the presence of an aquifer older than the
Ocala from a study of the chloride content of the waters. Well
cuttings from areas where the chloride content was high revealed
a predominance of the Foraminifer Coskinolina and an absence
of typical Ocala Foraminifera. I tentatively assigned this zone
to the upper part of the Middle Eocene. Through the cooperation
of the Florida Geological Survey, it has been possible to have
these samples studied by Mrs. E. R. Applin, a micropaleontologist
of Ft. Worth, Texas. Mrs. Applin suggested that this limestone
is probably Upper Claiborne in age.
This zone lies directly below the Ocala formation. The con-
tact between the two is unconformable, and the Coskinolina zone


was deeply eroded before the deposition of the Ocala formation.
The Coskinolina zone is composed of beds of relatively soft
and very hard granular limestone ranging in color from white to
rich cream and buff. The well cuttings very often closely resemble
brown sugar in color and texture. Numerous cavities occur
through the formation. G. M. Arie, a driller at Oviedo, has re-
ported a particularly large cavity in a well drilled for the Lake
Charm Fruit Company at Lake Charm northeast of Oviedo.
According to the driller, he passed through a fairly hard rock at
340 feet, and from there to 390 feet the drill was hanging free,
indicating an opening fifty feet in depth. This cavity probably
occurred in the Coskinolina zone.
The Foraminiferal fauna of the Coskinolina zone is rich and
distinctive. The following data as to families represented have
largely been derived from a study of Mrs. Applin's logs. The
family Valvulinidae is represented by at least five genera and an
undetermined number of species. The identified genera are Cos-
kinolina, Lituonella, Valvulammina, Cribrobulimina, and Areno-
bulimina. Of these, Lituonella and Coskinolina are most common.
The Textulariidae are represented by Textularia, Climacammina,
and Bigenerina. Three Miliolidae occur commonly, Quinquelocu-
lina, Triloculina and Massilina. Two Peneroplidae occur fre-
quently; Spirolina and Peneroplis. There is also an abundance


of other species which seem to be characteristic of this zone, some
of which do not appear to have been described.
The area in Seminole County that is drawing its water from
the Coskinolina zone is confined to the region between Lake
Jessup and Lake Monroe, an area almost to Oviedo around the
east side of Lake Jessup, and a strip extending east along the
St. Johns River to the edge of the county. This zone yields a large
quantity of water; but all wells that are definitely known to be
flowing from the Coskinolina zone are brackish.

The Ocala formation lies unconformably upon the Eocene
Coskinolina zone. As the Ocala occurs in Seminole County, it is
a white to light-cream-colored limestone. The formation is gen-
erally soft and very porous. Cavities of varying depths are often
struck during drilling.
This formation is relatively thin in Seminole County, attain-
ing its greatest thickness to the south and west, thinning rapidly
to the north and northeast. The formation is not thought to
exceed two hundred feet in this county.
The fauna of the Ocala is rich. Gypsina globula, Operculina
ocalana and Rotalia sp. (Cushman) are common. Specimens of
Lepidocyclina are rare in the samples from wells toward the
northern part of the county, but are usually plentiful toward
the south and west. Species of Textularia, Reusella, Eponides,
and various Miliolidae are abundant.
The farming districts west of Sanford and in the vicinity of
and south of Oviedo are obtaining artesian waters principally
from the Ocala formation, which yields a large volume of water
usually low in chloride content. Toward the area where the Cos-
kinolina zone is the principal aquifer, however, waters from the
Ocala are brackish.

___ .I
j~~ ~~~ j Ihi li J;~ i SJ S< ^iji


The Hawthorn formation is third in importance as an aquifer.
This formation underlies most of the county south and west of
Lake Jessup. At one time all the county was covered by Haw-
thorn strata, but these have been almost entirely removed by ero-
sion along the St. Johns River valley. The maximum thickness
probably does not exceed seventy feet.
The Hawthorn formation lies unconformably upon the Ocala
formation. In Seminole County it is characterized by beds of
white to gray sandy limestones alternating with beds of blue-
gray marl. The limestones and marls both contain a large per-
centage of phosphate pebbles ranging from the size of sand grains
to the size of gravel. The limestone beds are usually very hard
and range in thickness from one to three feet. The formation
caves badly during drilling, and for this reason it has been diffi-
cult to get a very accurate picture of the formation.
The fauna of the Hawthorn formation is very poorly pre-
served and no identifiable invertebrate fossils have been found.
Shark and fish teeth are common, however.
The quantity of water that the Hawthorn formation yields
is not so great as that from the Eocene formations. A large flow
of water is usually obtained at the contact zone between the
Hawthorn and the underlying formation. Because water from
the Hawthorn is softer than water from the Eocene limestone it
has been greatly desired for home water systems. Most of the
wells in the county that terminate in the Hawthorn are being
used for domestic purposes.

The Caloosahatchee marl lies unconformably upon the Ocala
formation and upon the Coskinolina zone of the Eocene in the
northern part of the county, and upon the Hawthorn formation
in the southern part of the county. It is probably absent along
the southwestern border of the county.
This formation is well developed along the St. Johns River
valley. It is known to be seventy feet thick in this region and
may possibly be thicker. In the southern part of the county it is
much thinner, probably not exceeding twenty-five feet in thickness.
In Seminole County, the Caloosahatchee marl is composed of
beds of shell marl alternating with beds of shell and sand. The
shell and sand beds are usually much thicker than the marly
phase. Both of these phases are so variable, however, that it is
impossible to give any general average for either.
The fauna of the Caloosahatchee marl present in Seminole
County is most closely related to the Nashua phase, which is well


represented by exposures a few miles to the north in Volusia
County. The mollusks Drillia tuberculata, Olivella nitidula,
Mulinia contract, Phacoides multilineatus, and Arca camphyla
are very common Pliocene species present. Many other forms are
also found. Foraminifera are plentiful. The most common forms
present are Elphidium gunteri, E. poeyanu-m, E. sagrum, E. in-
certum, Rotalia beccarii var. parkinsoniana, Discorbis floridana,
and Cibicides lobatulus. A particularly noticeable feature of the
micro-fauna is the predominance of various species of Elphidium.
This formation yields a small flow of soft water, highly im-
pregnated with hydrogen sulphide. Only a few wells are at pres-
ent obtaining water from this formation, and they are all small
driven wells used for domestic purposes. According to some of
the older drillers of the county, however, when artesian waters
were first developed in Seminole County, many of the wells were
flowing from a shell bed. This was undoubtedly the Caloosa-
hatchee marl.
The marine Pleistocene has not been identified in any well
studied from this county to date. The Pleistocene and the Recent
deposits are surficial sands. These sands furnish water for a
large number of surface-water wells used for domestic purposes.

By far the largest percentage of the artesian water used in
the county is for irrigation. Public water supplies obtaining
water from the artesian formations have been developed by the
city of Sanford and the communities of Lake Mary, Longwood
and Fern Park. Lake Mary is drawing water from the Hawthorn
formation. Sanford, Longwood and Fern Park are obtaining
water from the Ocala formation.
At the suggestion of the writer, an effort has been made by
C. R. Dawson, County Agent, to obtain an accurate count of the
number of artesian wells on the farms in the county. This infor-
mation has been assembled and supplemental data added by H.
James Gut of Sanford. These figures show a total of 2,187 ar-
tesian wells. Since these figures do not include unused wells, or
wells used for municipal, commercial or domestic purposes,
another thousand can safely be added to the 2,187 making a total
of something over three thousand wells in the county. The figures
for wells on cultivated land give an average of one well to every
2.98 acres. The most common sizes are two, three and four inch
wells in the order mentioned.
The common system of irrigation used in this county is
unique and deserves special mention. Because the hardpan lies


within only a few feet of the surface, subsurface irrigation is
very practical and is now used on most of the celery farms.
Figure 1 shows the general set-up for the irrigation of a five-
acre tract of land. The well is drilled on the high corner of the
field and is designated as A. This well feeds into a concrete or
terra cotta standpipe which is connected to a tile main. Running
from this main at twenty-foot intervals, there are lines of three-
inch drain tile across the field. Where each of these lines of
drain tile connects with the main there is another standpipe, so
that it will be possible to plug any line of drain tile and wet only
that portion of the field that requires moisture. On the outlet
side of the field, the water runs from the drain tile into a sewer
or ditch and at each outlet there is a standpipe with a partition
through the center. This partition has holes which may be
plugged and thereby the level of the water in the field is con-
trolled. This is shown in the cross-section.
During very wet weather this irrigation tile is left open and
serves for drainage. Thus the tiling serves a double purpose.
Because it is believed that the water must be kept in circula-
tion during irrigation, this system uses an enormous volume of
The area of artesian flow in the county has been carefully out-
lined on the accompanying map. Whether or not an artesian well
will flow is dependent upon the pressure head of the water and
the elevation of the land. Many attempts have been made to
obtain flowing wells in non-flowing areas by the drilling of ex-
cessively deep wells. All such attempts have been unsuccessful.
Near the edges of this outlined area, there are wells that flow
during very wet seasons and there may possibly be some addi-
tional areas where wells will flow, but where none have been
drilled to date.
The area of artesian flow is more limited today than it was a
number of years ago; and a greater constriction of the flow area
is to be expected with increased development of the artesian
supply in the county.

Previous records on the pressure head of wells in Seminole
County are meagre, and it is now impossible to locate most of
the wells mentioned in the older reports. Therefore, much of the
information necessary in formulating an estimate of the perma-
nent loss of head that has taken place must be inferred from
other sources. It has, however, been possible to find the general
area of a few of the wells mentioned in the United States Geo-


logical Survey Water-Supply Paper 319. These wells have been
rechecked and the following data have been obtained.
Water-Supply Paper 319, which was published in 1913, gives
a head of 26 feet for a well on a farm owned by Chas. Campbell.
This farm was east of Sanford, and no wells in this area now
show a head of more than 16 feet. Wells owned by F. W. Mahoney
in Sanford are reported to have had a head of one and one-half
feet above the surface at that time. The water in these wells
now stands from three to five feet below the surface.
The Fifth Annual Report of the Florida Geological Survey,
also published in 1913, reports a pressure of approximately 23
feet above the surface for a well one-quarter mile west of Lake
Monroe Station. No wells within this area have a pressure head
of more than 18 feet above the surface today.
From these data it can be seen that there has been a minimum
permanent loss of head of from four to ten feet within the flow-
ing-well area during the past twenty-five years.
In a study of permanent loss of head, rainfall must be taken
into consideration. A comparison must be made between the
rainfall at and preceding the time each set of data was being
collected. This comparison must not be restricted to the actual
years covered by the readings, but must include several years
prior to each period represented by the data. The average rain-
fall for Sanford and vicinity is 50.33 inches per year. This aver-
age is based upon the twenty-four year period from 1913 through
1936. The first set of well readings was collected between 1909
and 1911. The period for 1907 through 1911 shows an average
yearly rainfall of 45.33 inches. This is 5 inches below the normal.
Thus there is an accumulated deficit of 25 inches of rain for this
five-year period. On the other hand, the years 1933 through 1936
had an average rainfall of 52.2 inches per year, or an average of
1.87 inches above normal for each year. The year 1937 has been
slightly above normal rainfall to date. The accumulated differ-
ence between these averages is 32.42 inches, excluding the year
1937. It may be inferred, therefore, that should there be another
long period of subnormal rainfall the evident loss of head would
be even greater than that shown by the comparison I have made,
and that this four to ten foot loss of head is a conservative
Observation of the artesian wells has shown that the head of
the water is constantly fluctuating. The amount of fluctuation
was found to range from less than one foot in the non-flowing
area to as much as five and six feet within the flowing-well zones.


The causes for the fluctuation of the wells are rainfall, baromet-
ric pressure, and draft.
General rains over a large area serve to recharge the water
supply of the artesian reservoir. The effect of this recharge,
however, is not seen immediately and little or no effect is expected
from local rain. The reason for an increase in head immediately
after local rains lies in the fact that almost all the farmers shut
off their wells, thus very shortly the pressure of the wells is ma-
terially increased.
The fluctuation in head due to differences in atmospheric pres-
sure is not so great as that caused by shutting and opening the
wells, and such changes are best observed in non-flowing wells.

In order to understand the condition of the underground
reservoir of the county, and to determine the direction of flow
of the artesian waters, two maps of the piezometric surface have
been made. One represents the piezometric surface for February,
1937, a month during which nearly all the truck farms in the
county are being irrigated. The second map shows the piezo-
metric surface for July. During this month very few of the
farm wells are in use, and the large celery wash houses are not
operating. Probably there is less draft on the wells during July
than in any other month of the year. The contour lines on both
maps represent the artesian head above mean sea level.
Certain general features are characteristic of both maps. The
contours rise toward their highest point in the southwest part of
the county, and drop to their lowest point in the northeast.
Although there are no artesian wells in the extreme northeast
part of the county, I suspect that the contour will be below ten
feet above sea level. This feature demonstrates that the direc-
tion of flow is from the southwest. A small amount of recharge
may take place in the lake region in the southwest part of the
county; but the principal recharge region is probably Orange,
Lake and Polk counties. On both maps the contours swing west-
ward at Lake Jessup. This indicates a heavy leakage zone in
that lake. Another heavy leakage zone is also present along the
Wekiva River. The forty-five foot contour swings almost due
south as it approaches the river. Leakage is probably also tak-
ing place in Lake Harney. A permanent depression cone due to
excessive draft is present between Lake Jessup and the St. Johns
River east of Sanford. In this district there are a number of
celery wash houses. These plants use an excessive amount of
water, and as yet they have not made any very effective steps
toward the conservation of water. During February the center
of this cone had dropped to about 21 feet above sea level. In


July the center had risen to nearly twenty-five feet. Another
small cone is shown by a 30 foot contour directly south of San-
ford. This cone surrounds the wells used for the City of San-
ford public supply. The wells located outside the flowing-well
zone vary only slightly, and a difference is difficult to show on
the piezometric maps.
On the February map, it may be seen that the contours swing
back from the farming areas around Lake Jessup and Lake Mon-
roe. Local coning can be seen south of Oviedo, and a slight coning
is indicated east of Lake Monroe station. The contours do not
represent a closed cone, but the space between the 20 and 25 foot
contours broadens perceptibly.
On the July map the contours are higher over the flowing-
well district. The local cones due to draft for irrigation have
returned to normal, and extremely heavy coning shown around
the wash houses is not so pronounced.

A large part of the waters used for irrigation in the county
is already highly saline. Some wells that have been checked
showed a chloride content exceeding eighteen hundred parts per
The belief is quite common that this high salinity is due to
seepage of sea water into the rocks. This hypothesis is incorrect.
All the peninsula of Florida is underlain by connate salt water,
salt water contained in the rocks when they were laid down.
Over most of the state, this saline water is confined to variable
but relatively great depths. In areas where the fresh water head
has been sufficiently reduced, however, the salt water has risen
to or near to the surface of the artesian strata. As has been
pointed out by Badon Ghyben of Amsterdam and Herzberg of
Berlin, for every foot of fresh water head that is lost there is an
upward encroachment of salt water for approximately forty feet;
the exact amount of the encroachment being dependent upon the
specific gravity of the salt water. This encroachment can be
seen in Florida in certain counties near the coast where the loss
of fresh water head has been excessive.
The condition existing in Seminole County is basically a func-
tion of the theory set forth by Ghyben and Herzberg, but the
manner in which the high salinity has been developed has been
much more complex than the ideal problem confronting those
writers. The most highly mineralized waters in this county are
coming from the Coskinolina zone of the Eocene. This zone was
raised above the sea and deeply eroded before the deposition of
the younger deposits. The region around Lake Jessup and along


the St. Johns River was undoubtedly a leakage zone during that
period of uplift.
After the submergence of this zone and the subsequent depo-
sition and uplift of the Ocala formation, this region was again
developed as a leakage zone. Before the second submergence, the
Ocala formation was almost completely eroded away in the
present highly saline area, and the Coskinolina zone was exposed
at the surface. After the Miocene submergence, the same condi-
tions were repeated. This excessive leakage over long periods of
time sufficiently reduced the fresh water head to allow the highly
saline waters to move upward to the surface of the Coskinolina
zone, and today all the artesian waters in this area are saline.
Waters from the Ocala formation are not as yet highly saline;
but the excessive draft that is taking place is causing a further
upward encroachment of saline waters, and an eventual increase
in the highly saline area is to be expected.

This survey has shown that there has been a permanent loss
of head due to excessive draft, and that a large part of the county
is now drawing upon highly saline waters. Further development
and excessive use of the artesian waters can be expected to re-
duce the present area of artesian flow and to materially increase
the areas of highly saline waters. A serious curtailment of agri-
cultural operations will undoubtedly result, unless proper pre-
cautions are taken and the use of artesian waters wisely regu-
lated in the future.

Part I
Florida State College for Women
AMONG PRACTICAL growers it is pretty generally known that
the perenniating parts of many cultivated flowering herbs must
be subjected to a period of cold storage in order to insure the
development of normal foliage and flowers. In fact a good many


popular and semi-popular articles dealing with cold storage as a
necessary antecedent for subsequent growth have been published
in garden journals and in agricultural experiment station bulle-
tins. And when it comes to low temperature relations in general
there is prodigious technical literature. Harvey's ('36) "An
Annotated Bibliography of the Low Temperature Relations of
Plants" is a letter size volume of 240 pages. In the present paper,
however, reference will be made only to important pioneer works
having a direct bearing and relation to its studies. Foremost
among such works is the classical paper of Coville ('19-'20) on
"The Influence of Cold in Stimulating the Growth of Plants."
Indeed many of the speculations and generalizations regarding
the necessity of cold storage, as well as the nature of its effect,
for the normal development of various cultivated species trail
back to his experiments in the 'teens. He found, for example,
that the buds of such American woody species as Epigaea repens,
Vaccinium corymbosum, Viburnum americanum, Pyrus coro-
naria, Larix Laricina and the seeds of Cormus canadensis kept
in the green house and deprived of winter exposure would not
resume a normal growth following the usual winter period of
dormancy. In sharp contrast the plants or even parts of plants
that were subjected to winter chilling developed normally. This
work is so well known and accessible that its details may be
omitted here. Suffice it to say that Coville considers winter chill-
ing a normal necessity for the above and other species.
Nichols ('34), too, in working with the seeds of 141 species of
native American herbs and shrubs has made a significant contri-
bution. In the main he found that the seeds of northward distri-
bution were benefitted by exposure to winter temperature; as a
matter of fact a good many of southward distribution also re-
sponded favorably to refrigeration. Nichols concludes that "re-
frigeration may be an ecological factor of much importance in
relation to the northward distribution of plants."
Coville ('19, '20) gave a direct and significant lead 18 years
ago when he stated that "the whole question of the effect of chill-
ing on herbaceous perennials is an open field," but up to the
present the writer has found no references to studies attacking
the influence of freezing as an ecological or distributional factor
on the perenniating parts of native American herbs.

Ever since the writer came to Florida he has had an irre-
pressible desire to grow northern "spring flowers" in his artificial


woods. This desire led to the importation in 1930 of a number of
northern species like Erythronium americanumn, Dicentra cucul-
1aria, Polemonium reptans, Claytonia virginica, Dodocatheon
media, Iris versicolor, Trillium spp., Adiantum pedatwnt, and
even Equisetum arvense! Although only exploratory in nature the
writer feels that the behavior and leads suggested by them justify
a brief description and discussion.
Equisetum arvense rhizomes set out in a local garden around
September 10 proceeded to sprout and to send up typical vegeta-
tive shoots within a few weeks. However, after this initial burst of
growth lasting for about two months the shoots died and no new
ones ever appeared again.
Iris plants potted in common garden soil in the autumn of
1931 produced three small feebly growing shoots in the spring of
1932; by March 1933 the shoots were almost dead. The pot was
now put in a mechanical refrigerator and taken out April 23,
1933, one month later. This refrigeration of one month was
enough to stimulate the shoots to vigorous growth. From Decem-
ber 11, 1933, to February 27, 1934, the plants were refrigerated
again; and still greater growth resulted. From December 1934 to
February 1935 they were again refrigerated. As a result of this
last refrigeration the plants formed seven shoots with the tallest
leaves 16 inches high, and by May a total of 5 flowers. Because
of subsequent freezing the plants, although they have not bloomed
again, are healthy at this writing.
The Polemonium plants set in garden soil survived less than
two years and the leaves that appeared proved to be progressively
smaller and smaller until the plant died. In the winter of 1932
one plant in the garden was stimulated to new growth and
flowers by the simple expedient of covering the dormant plant
with ice for a week or so. We see here that although chilling is
necessary no great amount seems imperative.
In December of 1933 ten cultures of Erythronium americanum
containing fifteen bulbs each were placed in a refrigeration room of
about 32 degrees Fahrenheit of the Middle Florida Ice Company,
Tallahassee. These cultures were taken out one by one: the first
one after two weeks of refrigeration; the second at the end of
three weeks; the third at the end of four weeks; the fourth at
the end of five weeks; the fifth at the end of six weeks; the sixth
at the end of seven weeks; the seventh at the end of eight weeks;
1All nomenclature in this paper is according to "Gray, Asa. New Manual of
Botany. 7th Edition. 1908."


Left, stored in cooler; right, left outdoors.
Upper left, Trillium grandiflora; upper right, Dicentra cucullaria.
Middle left, Polemonlium reptans; middle right, Smilacina racemose.
Lower left, Geranium maculatum; lower right, Claytonia virginica.

i /


the eighth at the end of nine weeks; the ninth at the end of ten
weeks; and the last one at the end of eleven weeks. The first pot
taken out with two weeks of chilling produced only 1 normal leaf
of one and one-half inches. Because of disturbance of the cultures
by rodents and possibly because certain bulbs require at least one
year for thorough establishment when transplanted there were
twisted and incompletely unfolded leaves in most cultures. But
in general the longer the refrigeration, the more, the larger, and
the more nearly normal were the leaves after the cultures were
again subjected to out-of-door growing conditions.

The preliminary findings, it was felt, justified a more elabor-
ate follow-up; accordingly, beginning with the autumn of 1933
and successive autumns propagative parts of a total of twenty-
one species of native American herbs were obtained from New
England nurseries and other northern sources. Each lot of the
twenty-one species was evenly divided and planted in duplicate
pots containing local garden loam. One member of each pair was
designated for artificial chilling and the other for exposure to
natural Tallahassee, Florida, winter conditions. If two pairs of
a given species were run, the cultures were designated as "A"
and "B"; for instance, "Claytonia virginica (A)" and "Claytonia
virginica (B)". Some time in December, the date varying with
the year, one half of each species was exposed from 8 to 11 weeks
to the north Florida natural winter conditions on the shady,
north side of a large bamboo bush; the other half was stored from
8 to 11 weeks in a vegetable cooler room of the Middle Florida
Ice Plant. While the attempt was made to keep the temperature
of this cooler around 40 degrees Fahrenheit it should be noted
that a maximum-minimum thermometer showed a range of 34 to
58 degrees. It is to be regretted that it was not feasible to have
a more complete temperature record. In February, date varying
with the year, the chilled pots were withdrawn and paired with
their mates on the north side and in the partial shade of bam-
boos. From here, with the exception of watering and cleaning
out weeds, nature was left to do the rest. A condensed history or
picture of the behavior of each pair of cultures follows in
Table I.


SPECIES Parts AND FLOWERS Distribution
per pot The years refer to growing seasons beginning
in February.
Adiantum pedatum 6 plants Cooler: 1936-6 fronds, tallest 10" Rich moist woods
1937-30 fronds, 400 pinnules with (Gray)1
sporangia, tallest 16" Avery Island, Iberia Par-
Outdoors: 1986-11 fronds, tallest 17" ish La., (Wherry)2
1987-20 fronds, tallest 12", no spo-
Anemonella thalictroides 6 plants Cooler: 1936-15 flowers, tallest shoot 9" s. N. H. to Minn., Kan.
1937--42 flowers, tallest shoot 8", (Gray)
182 leaflets N. Fla. to Ark. (Small)3
Outdoors: 1936-11 flowers, tallest shoot 8"
1937-22 flowers, tallest shoot 8",
71 leaflets
Claytonia virginica (A) Many corms Cooler: 1935-30 inflorescences, tallest 6", w. N. H. to Ga., westw.
75 healthy leaves, largest 6" to Minn. and Kansas
1936-20 inflorescences, tallest 7" (Gray)
1937-12 inflorescences, tallest 6" n. of Coastal Plain
Outdoors: 1935-6 inflorescences, tallest 4", 100 (Small)
leaves, largest 3" went Alabama
1936-dead (Harper)*
Claytonia Virginica (B) 8 Corms Cooler: 1935-5 inflorescences, longest 5",
longest leaf 5"
1936--3 inflorescences, longest 5.5"
1937-dead-no corms.
Outdoors: 1935-no growth
1936-no growth
1937-no corms, dead.

Dicentra cucullaria (A) 30 bulbs Cooler: 1934-15 flowers, longest leaf 4" N. S. to L. Huron and
1935-6 inflorescences, 40 leaves, Minn., s. to N. C. and
longest 5" Mo. (Gray)
1936-some flowers, 27 leaves, longest Ga. to Nebr. (Small)
8" Tenn. Val. (Harper)
1937-some flowers, 53 leaves
Outdoors: 1934-no flowers, 6 leaves, longest
leaf 1"
1935-2 leaves, longest 1.5"
1936-no flowers, 1 small leaf
1937-dead, no corm.

Dicentra Cucullaria (B) 10 bulbs Cooler: 1935-1 inflorescence, 30 leaves, tall-
est 6"
1936-1 inflorescence, longest leaf 9"
1937-1 inflorescence, 22 leaves, long-
est 8"
Outdoors: 1935-no flowers, 19 leaves, tallest 7"
1936-no flowers, longest leaf 6.5"
1937-no flowers, 3 leaves, longest 4"

Dodocatheon Meadia (A) 6 crowns Cooler: 1934-6 rosettes, 5 of them robust, Pa. and Md. to Man.
longest leaf 4", 2 flowering (Gray)
scapes Coastal Plain, Ga. to Tex-
1935-5 healthy rosettes, longest leaf as (Small)
7", 2 flowering scapes
1936-5 rosettes, longest leaf 7", 1
flowering scape
1937-7 rosetes, longest leaf 6", no
flowers, 8 live crowns in au-

1. Northermost distribution according to Gray ('08)
2. Southermost distribution according to Wherry ('36)
3. Southermost distribution according to Small ('33)

4. West Central Alabama and Tennessee Valley distribution
according to correspondence by Dr. R. M. Harper, Plant
Geographer, University of Alabama.

TABLE I-Continued

SPECIES Parts AND FLOWERS Distribution
S The years refer to growing seasons beginning
Sp in February.

Outdoors: 1934-5 rosettes, longest leaf 8.5", 1
diseased flowering scape
1985-5 weak rosettes, longest leaf
4.5", no flowers
1986-1 rosette, longest leaf 5", no
Dodocatheon Meadia (B) 5 crowns Cooler: 1985-5 rosettes, longest leaf 5"
1936-6 rosettes, longest leaf 5", 3
flowering scapes, capsules later
1937-1 rosette, longest leaf 4", 1
flowering scape, 4 flowers, cap-
Outdoors: 1935-5 rosettes essentially as those
from cooler
1936-5 rosettes, longest leaf 5", 1
flowering scape, capsules
1987-2 rosettes, longest leaf 8", 1
flowering scape, 6 flower buds
dried up.
Erythronium americanum (A) 12 bulbs Cooler: 1935-9 leaves, tallest 2" N. B. to Fla. west to Ont.
1936-18 leaves, tallest 4" and Ark. (Gray)
1937-18 leaves, tallest 4" Fla. to Ark. (Small)
Outdoors: 1935-8 leaves, tallest 2" West-central Ala.
1936-no growth (Harper)
Erythroninm americanum (B) 11 bulbs Cooler: 1936-9 leaves, longest 5"
1937-26 leaves, longest 3"
Outdoors: 1936-1 leaf, 2" long
1937-no growth

Geranium maculatum 5 crowns Cooler: 1934-6 flower stalks, tallest 12" center. Me. to Man. and
1935-no flowers, 75 leaves, tallest 8" south. (Gray)
1986-1 flower stalk, 40 leaves, tallest Ga. to Kan. (Small)
12" west-centr. Ala.
1937-2 flower stalks, 74 leaves, tall- (Harper)
est 12"
Outdoors: 1934-no growth
1935-no flowers, 10 leaves, tallest 4"
1936-no flowers, 5 leaves, tallest 7"
1937-no flowers, 1 leaf, 2" tall

Hepatica acutiloba (A) 5 crowns Cooler: 1934-2 flowers, 75 new leaves w. Que., south. through
1935-no flower, 19 new leaves w. N. H. (Gray)
Outdoors: 1934-no flowers, 13 new leaves Ga., Mo. (Small)
1935-1 flower, 7 new leaves Tenn. Valley (Harper)
Hepatica acutiloba (B) 5 crowns Cooler: 1936-no flowers, 9 new leaves
1937-no flowers, 5 new leaves
Outdoors: 1936-no flowers, 11 new leaves
1937-no flowers, 6 new leaves

Hepatica triloba (A) 5 crowns Cooler: 1934-11 flowers, 55 new leaves N. S. to Fla., Mo., and
1935-no flowers, 20 new leaves Minn., and east w.
(discontinued) (Gray)
Outdoors: 1934-2 flowers, 15 leaves N. W. Fla. (Harper)
1935-no flowers, no new leaves

Hepatica triloba (B) 5 crowns Cooler: 1936-no flowers, 23 new leaves
1937-1 flower, 53 leaves
Outdoors: 1936-no flower, 20 leaves
1937-1 flower, 10 leaves

TABLE I-Continued
Plants or
SPECIES Parts A FLoWES Distribution
SPECIper pot The years refer to growing seasons beginning
per pot in February.

Iris versicolor 6 buds Cooler: 1934-in flower, tallest leaf 15" Nfd. to Man. (Gray)
or 1935-no flowers, 8 shoots, tallest leaf Ga. to Miss. (Small)
crowns 14"
1936-no flowers, 9 shoots, tallest leaf
1937-no flowers, plant healthy, 10
shoots, tallest leaf 13"
Outdoors: 1934-no flowers, tallest leaf 17"
1935-no flowers, 4 shoots, tallest leaf
1936-no flowers, 4 shoots, tallest leaf
Isopyrum biternatum 5 plants Cooler: 1936-no flowers, 8 leaves, tallest 4" s. Ont. to Minn. and
1937-no flowers, 69 leaflets, tallest south. (Gray)
leaf 5" w. Fla. to Tex. (Small)
Outdoors: 1936-no flowers, 11 leaves, tallest 5"
1937-4 flowers, 99 leaflets, tallest
leaf 7"

Lilium canadense 6 bulbs Cooler: 1934-3 flowers, 6 stems, tallest 12" e. Que. to Ga., w. to Mo.,
1935-2 flowers, 9 stems, tallest 10" Minn., and Ont. (Gray)
1936-1 flower, 2 stems, tallest 21" Ga. to W. Fla. (Small)
1937-1 flower 10 stems, tallest 18" Tenn. Valley (Harper)
Outdoors: 1934-no flowers, 6 stems, tallest 12"
1935-no flowers, 8 stems, tallest 8"
1936-no flowers, 7 stems, tallest 10"
1937-no flowers, 2 stems, tallest 3"

Lilium superbum (A) 2 bulbs Cooler: 1934-2 stems, one 13" high, the other N. B. to Minn. (Gray)
9", no flowers Ga. to Ark. (Small)
1935-1 stem 20" high, one abortive Also N. Fla. (Kurz)
flower bud
Outdoors: 1934-no growth
1985-2 stems, one 21" high, the other
Lilium superbum (B) 2 bulbs Cooler: 1936-one stem 20" tall, one abortive
flower bud
Outdoors: no growth
Lilium superbum (C) 2 bulbs Cooler: 1938-3 shoots, tallest 29", total of
(large) 136 leaves, 2 flowers
Outdoors: 1938-4 shoots, tallest 16", total of
170 leaves, no flowers
Lilium superbum (D) 2 bulbs Cooler: 1988-3 shoots, tallest 27", total of
(small) 165 leaves, no flowers
Outdoors: 1938-4 shoots, tallest 21", total of 85
leaves, 5 flowers
Mertensia virginica 6 crowns Cooler: 1934-6 flower stalks, tallest 17", 97 N. Y. and Ont. to Nebr.
flowers and south. (Gray)
1935-vegetative growth but no flow- Coastal Plain, Ala. to
ers (accidentally destroyed) Ark. (Small)
Outdoors: 1934-3 flower stalks, tallest 12", 23
Phlox divaricata (A) 5 plants Cooler: 1934-6 flower clusters w. Que. to Minn. and
(from New England) 1935-many flowers, seeds formed south. (Gray)
1936-no flowers, plants not vigorous n. Fla. to E. Tex. (Small)
1937-13 flowers, plants robust, 115
Outdoors: 1934-5 flower clusters
1935-no flowers, plant dead

TABLE I-Continued

SPECIES Parts AND FLOWERS Distribution
per pot The years refer to growing seasons beginning
per pot in February.
Phlox divaricata (B) one plant Cooler: 1934-20 flower clusters, 65 flowers,
(from Iowa) several flowering shoots
1935-11 flower clusters, many flow-
ers, about 100 leaves. Plants
dead by autumn.
Outdoors: 1984-on flower cluster, 8 flowers, one
flowering shoot
1935-no flower cluster, about 100
leaves. Plants dead by autumn
Podophyllum peltatum (A) At least Cooler: 1936-two leaves, tallest 15" w. Que. and w. N. Eng. to
5 buds 1987-one flower, aborted, 5 leaves, Minn. and south.
tallest 12" (Gray)
Outdoors: 1936-2 leaves, tallest 12" Fla. to Tex. (Small)
1937-dead n. w. Fla. (Harper)
Podophyllum peltatum (B) At least Cooler: 1936--4 leaves, tallest 15"
5 buds 1937-5 leaves, tallest 15"
Outdoors: 1936-3 leaves, tallest 10"
Polemonium reptans 8 crowns Cooler: 1934-40 opened flowers, large leaves N. Y. to Minn. and
1935-5 flowers, plant smaller south. (Gray)
1936-2 flowers, 24 leaves Ga. to Miss. (Small)
1937-no flowers, 12 leaves w. center. Ala. (Harper)
Outdoors: 1934-no flowers, prostrate dwarf
1985-plant dead
Sanguinaria canadensis 6 rhizomes Cooler: 1936-1 flower, 9 leaves, tallest 8" Common (Gray)
1937-2 flowers, capsules, 10 leaves, N. S. and Man. to Ark.
tallest 7" and n. Fla. (Small)
Outdoors: 1936-no flowers, 1 leaf, 5" tall

Smilacina racemosa rhizomes Cooler: 1934-2 flower clusters, 4 shoots, tall- Ga. to Tex., Calif., B. C.,
with at est 14" Ont. and N. S. (Gray)
least 6 buds 1935-2 flower clusters, 15 fruits, 6 w. center. Ala. (Harper)
shoots, tallest 10"
1936-- flower clusters, fruits, 8
shoots, tallest 19"
1937-6 flower clusters, fruits, 9
shoots, tallest 16"
Outdoors: 1934-1 aborted flower cluster, 4
shoots, tallest 5"
1935-1 flower cluster, 1 fruit, 5
shoots, tallest 8"
1936-1 flower cluster, no fruit, 10
shoots, tallest 12"
1937-no flowers, 9 shoots, tallest 9"
Symplocarpus foetidus (A) 5 crowns Cooler: 1936-4 shoots, 15 leaves, tallest 14" N. S. to N. C., w. to Ont.,
1937-3 shoots, 18 leaves, tallest 10" Minn. and Ia. (Gray)
Outdoors: 1936-1 shoot, 6 leaves, tallest 11" Ga. (or Fla.) (Small)
1937-1 bud, no growth
Symplocarpus foetidus (B) 2 crowns Cooler: 1936-1 shoot, 6 leaves, tallest 10"
1937-1 shoot, 8 leaves, tallest 4"
Outdoors: 1936-1 shoot, 2 leaves, tallest 8"
1937-1 bud, no growth
Trillium grandiflorum 6 root stocks Cooler: 1934-2 flowers, aborted, 2 shoots w. Que. and w. Vt. to
1935-8 shoots, tallest 5" Minn. (Gray)
1936-1 flower, capsule, 3 shoots, tall- Coastal Plain, N. C. to
est 9" Ark. (Small)
1937-6 shoots, tallest 8" 1 flower Tenn. Valley (Harper)
Outdoors: 1934-no growth
1935-4 shoots, tallest 3"
1936-1 flower, capsule, 2 shoots, tall-
est 8"
1937-no growth


In studying the table it appears reasonable to conclude that
since they were run in duplicates Claytonia virginica, Dicentra
cucullaria, Erythronium americanum, Hepatica triloba, Iris
versicolor, Phlox divaricata, Podophyllum peltatum, Polemonium
reptans, and Symplocarpus foetidus, all require a period of
The data also suggest that Geranium maculatum, Lilium
canadense, Mertensia virginica, Sanguinaria canadensis, Smila-
cina racemosa, and Trillium grandiflora also demand a period of
low temperature. Had these been run in duplicates, we could be
more confident.
The responses of Anemonella thalictroides, Adiantum peda-
turn, Dodocatheon Meadia, Hepatica acutiloba, Isopyrum biter-
niatum, and Lilium superbum, were in terms of rate of growth
rather than ultimate growth. In all cases the chilled culture grew
and matured earlier than the outdoor mates. In the end, however,
there was no significant difference.
It should be noted in passing that getting away to a faster
start than their unchilled duplicates was characteristic for all
cultures that were chilled.
Of general significance is the fact that chilling temperatures
seldom as low as 32 degrees Fahrenheit could, when applied for
a sustained period, promote growth in plants accustomed to the
much lower temperature of the northern winter woods.

In observing Table I the reader will notice that in most cases
the unfrozen cultures produced at least some growth the first run
and that in some species final disintegration of the unfrozen
specimens did not take place until the third year. In this con-
nection see the photograph Polemonium reptans. A study of the
graphs will reveal similar concrete examples. It appears from
this behavior that the chilling of a year suffices to tide certain
species over at least one unfavorably warm period. Attention is
directed to a statement in the "Preliminary Experiments" sec-
tion of this paper where it is shown how waning Iris and Pole-
monium plants were stimulated to renewed growth and vigor
by emergency low temperature treatment.
Another thing to be noted in Table I is the fact that, in a
number of cases, even the frozen cultures disintegrated after two
or more years. This is probably due to the inability of these wild
species to thrive indefinitely in such artificial habitats as potted
soils. The fact that the frozen ones still do better than the un-
frozen ones is, therefore, still meaningful.


According to the field observations of R. M. Harper (by letter)
Polemonium reptans, Geranium maculatum, Claytonia virginica,
Smilacina racemosa, and Erythronium americanum, reach just
about their southern limits in the Tuscaloosa latitude. Those
same species, it will be noted, did not resume normal growth
upon exposure to the winter conditions of Tallahassee, 160 miles
nearer the moderating influence of the Gulf. It becomes of in-
terest, therefore, what the temperature differences are between
the two localities. The tabulated data summarize what appear
to be some of the significant differences. (Taken from U. S.
weather publications.)

Average annual number of days Tallahassee, Fla. Tuscaloosa, Ala.
with minimum temperature at Region Region
or below freezing. 5-15 (10) 80-60 (40)
Average annual number of days
with temperature continuously none 1- 5
below freezing.
Average monthly Tallahassee, Fla. Tuscaloosa, Ala.
temperature for: (over pd. of 82 yrs.) (over pd. of 48 yrs.) Difference
D ecember ................ 58.6 ................ .45.8................ 7.5
January .................53.6................. 44.7................5.9
February ................ 55.0 ................. 46.5 ................8.5
Average minimum
temperature for:
December ................44.3............... 84.9 ...................4
January .................48.8 ................. 33.9 ................ 9.9
February ................ 44.8 ................. 85.1 ................ 9.7

Which of these differences in temperature conditions or rela-
tions are the most important it is not possible to state. However,
it should be pointed out that Coville ('29) found that tempera-
tures as high as 35 to 40 Fahrenheit for a period of two months
were low enough to bring about germination of Cornus cana-
densis seeds.
Coville expressed the opinion eighteen years ago that chilling
"appears to be a critical factor in determining how far such
plants (trees and shrubs) may go into the extension of their
geographic distribution toward the tropics." Nichols, already
quoted, points out that winter refrigeration of seeds of native
plants may be an important factor in determining plant distribu-
tion. The responses of the perennial herbs discussed in the pres-
ent paper lead to a similar conclusion. The behavior of the
writer's perennial herbs seems to warrant a similar reasoning
and to lead to the following assertions: To speak only of "frost
resistance," "hardiness," and "low temperature endurance" gives


a one-sided picture of the temperature relations in the distribu-
tion of native plants. Many species are certainly restricted in
their northward extension because of low temperature. State-
ments to that effect are surely true. But it is equally true that
a number of, if not many, species are barred from extreme southern
distribution, because they cannot forego such a periodic spell of
low temperature. Coville has also pointed out "that chilling of
dormant trees and shrubs of temperate climates as a prerequisite
to their resumption of normal growth in spring ought to be rec-
ognized in books on plant physiology as one of the normal
processes in plant life." The writer is fully in accord with that
observation. Unfortunately Coville's lament has to this day
brought little response. It does seem that the contribution made
on low temperature requirements fully warrant, if not demand,
at least some consideration in modern texts of general botany,
ecology, and plant geography, if for no other reason than to stimu-
late more research in this highly interesting field.
An examination of the distributional column will disclose the
fact that the manuals credit Florida with Symplocarpus foetidus
and Erythronium americanum. Theoretically, at least, Symplo-
carpus and Erythronium could likewise be represented in Florida
by physiological or geographical species. It is a curious fact that
up to the present, Dr. R. M. Harper (one who has explored Flori-
da and the whole Southeast, for that matter), and the writer have
never seen these species in Florida. Quite naturally the writer
wondered if refrigeration experiments would possibly help to
establish the fact that these species could not grow in Florida be-
cause of freezing requirements. However, Sanguinaria, Podo-
phyllum, and Phlox divaricata may be represented by physiolog-
ical species that do not require chilling; no corroboration, how-
ever, is produced from the reactions of the latter three species.
Physiological or Ecological Species
Anemonella thalictroides, Isopyrum biternatum, and Lilium
superbum are both found locally in north Florida. So the fact
that the frozen and unfrozen cultures from New England showed
no significantly total amount of growth at the end of the growing
season even though they started and bloomed appreciably earlier
was not surprising unless one noticed that the Sanguinaria cana-
densis, Phlox divaricata,' and Podophyllum peltatum obtained
from the North but which are also local did definitely require or
benefit from freezing. The reactions of the latter three species
suggest a differentiation of physiological species; the northern
'According to Wherry ('30) the Iowa specimen which was collected in Benton
County is probably Phlox divaricata laphami; this variety extends to the north-
western part of Florida. The New England specimen according to the same
authority would probably be Phlox divaricata canadensis. Both varieties it will
be observed benefited by chilling.


forms requiring a chilling period and the southern forms not.
But the writer is not quite ready to conclude. He awaits more
data. This fact presents a number of questions: Did the northern
forms by long residence in a rigorous climate come to require a
chilling period as Coville ('19) suggests in connection with his
work? Did the southern forms because of a long sojourn in a
milder climate lose this freezing prerequisite? And still other
questions arise. To all these the writer has at present no definite
The following are some questions that still await answers:
(1) What other perennial herbs require refrigeration? (2) Are
there really any or more geographical or physiological species?
(3) Is the length or intensity of the freezing period in any species
directly related to or proportional to the northward or south-
ward distribution of the species? (4) That is, will Minnesota rep-
resentatives of a species require more freezing (lower or longer)
than Tennessee individuals? (5) Will the latter require more
chilling than the Florida forms? (6) Will northern species estab-
lished in Florida benefit from freezing? (7) How does the effect of
a long period of freezing (a long continuous dose) compare with
shorter, more frequent periods of chilling (frequent, short doses) ?
(8) What will happen if the cooled culture of one year is sep-
arated into two halved cultures, and half designated for artificial
cooling and the other half for outdoor Tallahassee temperatures?
(9) Will earlier (August and September) chilling induce earlier
growth and response? (10) What would be the effect of a period
of consistently freezing or even lower temperature on those that
responded to chilling as well as those which responded very
little? The writer has experiments in progress which should
shed some light on most of these questions.

1. The perenniating parts of twenty-one American native
herbs were chilled at temperatures ranging most of the time
around 40 degrees Fahrenheit for periods of eight to eleven weeks
for four consecutive seasons. Twenty potted duplicates were at
the same time subjected to winter exposure of the Tallahassee,
Florida, climate. Nine of these gave definite evidence that a
period of refrigeration is a necessary and beneficial antecedent
to their normal growth and development.
2. Sanguinaria canadensis, Phlox divaricata, and Podophyl-
lum peltatum secured from New England required a preliminary
chilling period in order to resume normal growth after dormancy,
despite the fact that the species are also native in northern Flor-


ida. This behavior suggests a development of physiological or
geographical species within the species. On the other hand,
Anemonella thalictroides, Isopyrum biternatiom, and Lilium su-
perbum in the same category as to northern and southern distri-
bution responded indifferently and inconsistently to artificial
3. It is concluded that, while the inability of certain species to
endure freezing temperature may restrict their northward exten-
sion, there are other species whose southward extension is re-
stricted, because they require a chilling period before normal
growth will follow dormancy.
4. Students of plant distribution and texts dealing with eco-
logical or distributional relations of plants should give attention
to low temperature requirement as well as to low temperature
The writer is greatly indebted to the Middle Florida Ice Company, Talla-
hassee, for donating their refrigeration service. To H. H. Hume, Assistant
Director of Research at the Florida Experiment station the author is indebted
for cooperation in securing references.

COVILLE, F. V. The Effect of Cold in Stimulating the Growth of Plants. Jour.
Agr. Res. 20: 151-160. 1920.
COVILLE, F. V. The Influence of Cold in Stimulating the Growth of Plants. Ann.
Report Smith. Inst., 281-291. 1919.
GnAY, ASA. New Manual of Botany. Seventh Edition. 1908.
HARVEY, R. B. An Annotated Bibliography of the Low Temperature Relations
of Plants. University of Minnesota. 1-240. 1936.
KINCER, J. B. Temperature, Sunshine and Win. U. S. Dept. Agr. Atlas of
American Agriculture. Advance Sheet No. 7. 1-34. 1928.
NICHOLS, G. E. The Influence of Exposure to Winter Temperatures Upon Seed
Germination in Various Native American Plants. Ecology 15:364-373.
SMALL, J. K. Manual of the Southeastern Flora. 1-1554. 3rd. Edition. 1933.
WHERRY, E. T. The Eastern Short-style Phloxes. Bartonia No. 12. 25-53. 1930.
WHERRY, E. T. Fern Field Notes, 1986. Am. Fern Journal 26: No. 4. 127-131.

University of Florida
BEFORE LISTING the trees of Florida, it becomes necessary to de-
fine a "tree." The line of demarcation between a "tree" and a
"shrub" is, after all, an arbitrary matter. There is no better rule
for separating the two than that contained in the discussion of


their similarities and differences by Sudworth, who states, "Dif-
ference of opinion regarding this question has increased or de-
creased the number of recorded aborescent species. Judgment
as to when a plant is to be called a tree and when a shrub appears
to be based chiefly on the size, height and diameter, attained.
The general rule in defining a tree includes woody plants having
one well-defined stem and a more or less definitely formed crown,
and attaining a height of at least eight feet and a diameter of
not less than two inches. Most truly arborescent plants produce
a single erect or ascending trunk. Some species of trees, how-
ever, have the habit of producing several trunks from the same
root. Examples of this type of growth are to be found among
the willows, some of which, on account of their large size, obvi-
ously are properly classed as trees." It should be borne in mind,
also, that there are many plants usually shrubby of nature, that
occasionally become trees in some part of their range, even though
it is outside our State. All such plants have been included in
this compilation. Further and more technically, woody plants
may be said to differ from herbaceous in being (1) perennial and
possessing (2) vascular or specialized conducting tissue, (3) a
trunk, (4) lignification and (5) secondary thickening. These
must be taken all together, as no one condition is true solely of
a tree. However, these conditions do not need to be discussed in
a publication of a popular nature.
With these differences in mind, 313 species are here included
in the check list of native trees, together with 53 trees known to
have become naturalized in the state. The latter list is incomplete.

Three elements of flora meet in Florida. To account for their
presence it is of interest to set forth briefly the geological history
of the region as it is now understood. Schuchert has shown that
as late as Upper Eocene times the whole of what is now the State
of Florida was submerged. During the Oligocene period an island
emerged which occupied a territory that included all of what is
now central Florida and extended beyond the present coast lines
on the east and west. Warm ocean currents flowed north of this
island, the flora of which must have been wholly tropical and
similar to that of the West Indies today. During the Miocene
period, the eastern and western coast of this island sank slowly,
while the northern half of the peninsular was elevated at the
same time, thus connecting the island with the mainland. During
Pleistocene times, the southern quarter of the peninsula and the
keys emerged. During these ages successive glacial drifts sent
periods of cold climate southward. Many plants commonly re-
garded as peculiar to more northerly sections of the United States


were carried by flood waters into what is now known as Florida
and, having become adjusted and established, became an integral
part of the present flora.
Therefore it may be concluded that certain plants native to
the central portion of the peninsula are the original settlers
among Florida's flora. Those more tropical plants that could not
withstand the advent of a colder climate were destroyed in the
northern parts of the state and they remain today only in the
southern portions of the peninsula where they constitute a trop-
ical element of the flora related to and in some instances identical
with the Antillean. In addition certain plants of the West Indian
flora have become established in this region through the agencies
of birds, wind and water. Glacial periods have been a factor in
the establishment of a northern floral element in the northwestern
parts of the state. The margins of the area in which these groups
of plants are found are not clearly defined, but rather they merge
into one another.
The climate of Florida is insular and the immediate and chief
factors of climatic control are (a) latitude, (b) elevation above
sea-level and (c) proximity to large bodies of water, and (d)
the presence of the Gulf Stream along the eastern coast.
Latitude: The State of Florida lies between latitudes 240
32' and 310 N. and longitudes 790 48' and 870 38' W. It is over
427 miles in length along the 820 meridian and 382 miles wide
along the 300 10' parallel. This geographical location and exten-
sion, favors long summers and offers generous scope for a diversi-
fied flora. According to Merriam, the greater part of the State
lies in the Lower Austral Life Zone, with the most southern part
in the Tropical Belt.
Elevation: Since only small areas here and there in the state
are above 300 feet elevation, variations in altitude have little
effect on the general distribution of plants. However, topography,
different soil types and availability of water produce different and
distinct ecological conditions, which greatly influence the char-
acter of local flora. Plants of the well-drained central ridge sec-
tion differ from those growing along the larger streams and the
dune flora of the coast portrays the effects of another set of
ecological environments.
Since Florida is a region of comparatively slight relief, the
source of underground water is mainly the local rainfall, which
accumulates in various small basins of the subsoil. There are a
number of springs from which water pours in enormous volumes,
giving support to a typical flora on the banks of the streams they
form, as well as within the streams themselves. Again, there is


a vast swampy limestone underlain plain of nearly 5000 square
miles, known as the Everglades, which slopes gently southward.
Out of this area arise islands, commonly known as keys, clothed
with a dense growth of hardwoods among which various represen-
tatives of tropical trees and other plants are found.
Proximity to Water: The peninsula lies between the Gulf
of Mexico and the Atlantic Ocean. The presence of these large
bodies of water, as well as the presence of thousands of lakes, has
a beneficent effect upon the vegetation of the State, in that the
evaporation from them prevents the occurrence of frost in some
instances or minimizes the effects of it in a measure in others.
The effect of the inland bodies of water, however, is mainly local.

A difference of 40 in latitude-as from Jacksonville to Miami
-gives about a six-degree change in temperature. The average
seasonal temperatures for the State are: Summer, 80.8; autumn,
72.5; winter, 59.5; and spring, 70.4. From data collected from
1892 to 1927, it has been established that the mean temperature
for the entire State has been 70.90 F.

The Gulf of Mexico and the Atlantic Ocean are the chief
sources of supply of Florida's precipitation. The State is so sit-
uated geographically as to justify the expectation of generous
rainfall, over half of which falls in the daytime in the four warm-
est months. All districts of the State have received annual
amounts in excess of 80 inches, the marked excesses being more
frequent in coastal districts than in the interior. The data col-
lected from 1892 to 1927 give 52.29 inches as the average annual
rainfall for that period.
It is, therefore, noted that the geographical location of the
State of Florida is the controlling factor of a set of climatological
conditions that are all conducive to an abundant flora in which
large numbers of trees are represented.
The following check list contains the botanical and common
names and family of 313 species of trees native to Florida, of
which 15 are cone-bearing and 11 are palm or palm-like. In com-
piling this list, the synonymy and range records reviewed may
be found under the heading of references. The nomenclature
follows that used by J. K. Small in Manual of Southeastern
The check list of the naturalized trees of the State contains
the same data as the preceding one, but our information on the
number of naturalized trees is still incomplete pending a more


thorough survey of the State. The nomenclature follows that
used by L. H. Bailey in Standard Cyclopedia of Horticulture.

1 Bailey, L. H. Standard Cyclopedia of Horticulture. 3639 pp. MacMillan.
New York. 1928.
2 Brown, H. P. Trees of New York State Native and Naturalized. N. Y.
State College of Forestry (Tech. Pub. 15) 21 (No. 5) : 11-406. 1921.
8 Coker, W. C. and H. L. Totten. Trees of the Southeastern States. 382 pp.
Univ. of N. C. Press. Chapel Hill. 1934.
4 Curtis, A. H. Florida: A Pamphlet Descriptive of its History, Topogra-
phy, Climate, Soil. Resources and Natural Advantages, in General and
by Counties. Prepared in the Interest of Immigration by the Department
of Agriculture, B. E. McLin, Commissioner: 261-267. 1901.
5 Gifford, John C.
6 Hough, Romeyn G. American Woods. Author. Lowville, N, Y. 1910.
3rd ed.
7 Mattoon, W. R. Common Forest Trees of Florida-How to Know Them.
98 pp. Florida Forestry Assoc. Jacksonville. Rev. 1930.
8 Forest Trees and Forest Regions of the United States. U. S.
Dept. Agr. Misc. Publ. 217; 1-54. 1986.
9 Merriam, C. Hart. Life Zones and Crop Zones in the United States. 79
pp. 1898.
10 Mitchell, A. J. and M. R. Ensign. The Climate of Florida. Fla. Agr. Exp.
Sta. Bul. 200: 95-299. 1928.
11 Mowry, Harold. Ornamental Trees. Fla. Agr. Exp. Sta. Bul. 261: 5-134.
12 Sargent, C. P. Silva of North America. Houghton, Mifflin & Co., Boston.
13 Manual of the Trees of North America. 910 pp. Houghton,
Mifflin and Co., Boston. 1922.
14 Schuchert, Charles. Historical Geology of the Antillean-Caribbean Region.
768 pp. John Wiley & Sons. New York. 1935.
15 Small, J. K. Florida Trees. 107 pp. Author. New York. 1913.
16 --- Manual of the Southeastern Flora. 1554 pp. Author. New York.
17 Sudworth, George B. Check List of the Forest Trees of the United States.
U. S. Dept. Agr. Misc. Circ. 92: 1-295. 1927.

Botanical Name Common Name

Pinus taeda L.
Pinus serotina Michx.
Pinus clause (Engelm.) Vasey
Pinus echinata Miller
Pinus glabra Walt.
Pinus australis Michx. f. (P. palustris Mill.)
Pinus caribaea Morelet
Pinus palustris Mill. (P. Elliottii Engelm.)
Taxodium distichum (L.) L. C. Richard
Taxodium ascendens Brongniart
Chamaecyparis thyoides (L.) B. S. P.
Sabina silicicola Small (S. barbadensis (I.)

loblolly pine
pond pine
sand pine
short leaf pine
spruce pine
long-leaf pine
Caribbean pine

southern cypress
pond cypress
white cedar

southern red cedar


Botanical Name
Tumion taxifolium (Arn.) Greene
Taxus floridana Nutt.
Pseudophoenix vinifera (Mart.) Becc.
(P. Sargentii H. Wendl.)
Roystonea regia (H. B. K.) O. F. Cook
Sabal Palmetto (Walt.) Todd.
Sabal Jamesiana Small
Thrinax parviflora Sw. (T. floridana Sarg.)
Thrinax microcarpa Sarg.
Coccothrinax argentea (Lodd.) Sarg.
(C. jucunda Sarg.)
Serenoa repens (Bartr.) Small. (S. serrulata
(Michx.) Hook.)
Paurotis Wrightil (Griseb.) Britton.
(Serenoa arborescens Sarg.)
Yucca gloriosa L.
Yucca aloifolia L.
Wallia nigra (L.) Alef. (Juglans nigra L.)
Hicoria aquatica (Michx. f.) Britt.
Hicoria cordiformis (Wang.) Britton
Hicoria alba (L.) Britt.
Hicoria ovata (Mill.) Britt.
Hicoria austrina Small
Hicoria pallida Ashe
Hicoria floridana (Sarg.) Small
Hicoria glabra (Mill.) Britton
Leitneria floridana Chapm.
Cerothamnus ceriferus (L.) Small. (Morella
cerifera (L.) Small)
Cerothamnus inodorus (Bart.) Small. (Morella
inodora (Bartr.) Small)
Populus balsamifera L. (P. deltoides Marsh.)
Populus heterophylla L.
Salie nigra Marsh
Salix marginata Wimm.
Salix amphiba Small
Salix longipes Anders
Salix Chapmanii Small
Carpinus caroliniana Walt.
Ostrya virginiana (Mill.) Willd
Betula nigra L.
Alnus rugosa (DuRoi) Spreng.
Fagus grandifolia Ehrh. (F. Americana Sweet)
Castanea pumila (L.) Mill.

Common Name

stinking cedar
Florida yew

Sargent's palm
royal palm
cabbage palm

Florida thatch-palm

silver palm



Spanish bayonet
Spanish dagger

black walnut
white mocker-nut
shag-bark hickory

pale hickory



odorless wax-myrtle

cotton wood

black willow


smooth alder



Botanical Name
Castanea Ashei Sudw.
Castanea floridana (Sarg.) Ashe
Quercus alba L.
Quercus stellata Wang. (Q. minor (Marsh.)
Quercus Margaretta Ashe
Quercus lyrata Walt.
Quercus Prinus L. (Q. Michauxii Nutt.)
Quercus Muhlenbergii Engelm. (Q. acuminata
(Michx.) Honda)
Quercus austrina Small
Quercus geminata Small
Quercus virginiana Mill.
Quercus Chapmanii Sarg.
Quercus Rolfsii Small
Quercus myrtifolia Willd.
Quercus nigra L. (Q. aquatic Walt.)
Quercus laurifolia Michx.
Quercus Phellos L.
Quercus obtusa (Willd.) Pursh. (Q. hybrida
(Michx.) Small
Quercus cinerea Michx.
Quercus maxima (Marsh.) Ashe. (Q. rubra Du-
Quercus Shumardii Buckl.
Quercus laevis Walt. (Q. Catesbaei Michx.)
Quercus Marylandica Muench.
Quercus arkansana Sarg.
Quercus velutina Lam.
Quercus rubra L.
Quercus Pagoda Raf. (Q. pagodaefolia (Ell.)
Morus rubra L.
Ficus area Nutt.
Ficus brevifolia Nutt. (F. populnea Willd.)
Ulmus alata Michx.
Ulmus floridana Chapm.
Ulmus americana L.
Ulmus fulva Michx.
Planera aquatica (Walt.) J. F. Gmel.
Celtis georgiana Small
Celtis mississippiensis Bosc.
Celtis smallii Beadle
Trema floridana Britton
TremaLamarckiana (R. & S.) Blume
Coccolobis uvifera (L.) Jacq.
Coccolobis laurifolia Jacq.
Pisonia rotundata Griseb.
Torrubia longifolia (Heimerl.) Britton
(Pisonia obtusata (Chapm. Fl.)
Torrubia Bracei Britton
Torrubia globosa Small

Common Name

small post-oak

bastard white oak
twin live-oak

blue jack-oak




strangler fig
wild fig

winged elm
Florida elm
common elm
slippery elm
Small's hackberry
Florida trema
West Indian trema

pigeon plum




Botanical Name
Asimina triloba (L.) Dunal
Annona glabra L.
Magnolia grandiflora L. (M. foetida (L.) Sarg.)
Magnolia virginiana L.
Magnolia pyramidata Pursh
Magnolia macrophylla Michx.
Magnolia Ashei Weatherby
Illicium floridana Ellis
Liriodendron Tulipifera L.
Capparis flexuosa L. (C. cynophallophora L.
Capparis cynophallophora L. (C. jamaicensis

Hamamelis virginiana L.

Liquidambar Styraciflua L.
Platanus occidentalis L.

Malus angustifolia (Ait.) Michx.
Malus bracteata Rehder
Amelanchier canadensis (L.) Medic.
Crataegus Crus-galli L.
Crataegus aestivalis (Walt.) T. & G.
Crataegus maloides Sarg.
Crataegus luculenta Sarg.
Crataegus viridis L.
Crataegus flava Ait.
Crataegus Michauxii Pers.
Crataegus floridana Sarg.
Crataegus spathulata Michx.
Crataegus Marshallii Eggleston
(C. apiifolia Michx.)
Crataegus uniflora Muench.
Crataegus lacrimata Small
Chrysobalanus Icaco L.
Chrysobalanus interior Small
(C. pellocarpus. (FL. SE. U.S. not Mey.)
Prunus americana Marsh.
Prunus umbellata Ell.
Prunus angustifolia Marsh.
Padus virginiana (L.) Mill.
(P. serotina (Ehrh.) Agardh.)
Padus Cuthbertii Small
Laurocerasus myrtifolia (L.) Britton
(L. sphaerocarpa (Sw.) Roem.)
Laurocerasus caroliniana (Mill.) Roem.

Common Name


mountain magnolia
great-leaf magnolia
bushy magnolia
Florida anise

bay-leaved caper-tree

Jamaica caper-tree






shining haw


Florida haw

single-flowered haw


Everglade cocoa-plum
chickasaw plum

wild black-cherry

West-Indian cherry
cherry laurel


Botanical Name
Pithecolobium Unguis-Cati (L.) Benth.
Pithecolobium guadelupense Chapm.
Lysiloma bahamensis Benth. (L. latisiliqua
Vachellia Farnesiana (L) Wight & Arn.
Leucaenaglauca (L.) Benth.
Cercis canadensis L.
Gleditsia aquatica Marsh.
Gleditsia triacanthos L.
Ichthyomethiapiscipula (L.) A.S. Hitch.
Andirajamaicensis (W. Wright) Urban
Erythrinaarborea (Chapm.) Small
Guaiacum sanctum L.
Brysonimacuneata (Turcz.) P. Wilson
(B. lucida (Sw.) DC)
Zanthoxylum Fagara (L.) Sarg. (Z. Pterota
Zanthoxylum flavum Vahl. (Z. caribaeum Lam.)
Zanthoxylum Clava-Herculis L.
Zanthoxylum coriaceum Rich.
Ptelea trifoliata L.
Amyris elemifera L.
Amyris balsamifera L.
Suriana maritima L.
Simarouba glauca DC
Picramnia pentandra Sw.
Alvaradoa amorphoides Liebm.
Elaphrium Simaruba (L.) Rose. (Bursera
Simaruba L.)
Swietenia Mahagoni Jacq.
Savia bahamensis Britton
Drypetes lateriflora (Sw.) Krug. & Urban.
Drypetes diversifolia Krug. & Urban
(D. keyensis Krug & Urban)
Gymnanthes lucida Sw.
Hippomane Mancinella L.
Metopium toxiferum (L.) Krug. & Urban.
(M. Metopium (L.) Small)
Toxicodendron Vernix (L.) Kuntze.
(Rhus vernix L.)

Common Name


wild tamarind



red cardinal













Botanical Name
Rhus glabra L. (Schmaltzia glabra (L.) Small)
Rhus copallinum L. (Schmaltzia copallina (L.)
Rhus leucantha Jacq.
Cyrilla racemiflora L.
Cyrilla arida Small
Cliftonia monophylla (Lam.) Sarg.
Ilex Krugiana Loesener
Ilex verticillata (L.) Gray
Ilex longipes Chapm.
Ilex Curtissii (Fernald) Small. (I. decidua
Curtissii Fernald)
Ilex Cuthbertii Small
Ilex decidua Walt.
Ilex Busiwellii Small
Ilex ambigua (Michx.) Chapm.
(I. caroliniana (Walt.) Trelease)
Ilex myrtifolia Walt.
Ilex Cassine L.
Ilex vomitoria Ait.
Ilex cumulicola Small. (I. arenicola Ashe)
Ilex opaca Ait.
Euonymus atropurpureus Jacq.
Maytenus phyllanthoides Benth.
Rhacoma Crossopetalum L.
(Crossopetalum austrina Gardner)
Gyminda latifolia (Sw.) Urban
Schaeferia frutescens Jacq.
Dodonaea microcarya Small
Aesculus Pavia L.

Saccharodendron floridanum (Chapm.) Nieuwl.
Argentacer saccharinum (L.) Small.
(Acer dasycarpum Ehrh.)
Rufacer rubrum (L.) Small. (Acer rubrum L.)
Rufacer carolinianum (Walt.) Small
RufacerDrummondii (Hook. & Arn.) Small.
(Acer Drummondii Hook. & Arn.)
Negundo Negundo (L.) Karst.
(Rulac negundo (L.) A. S. Hitchcock)

Sapindus Saponaria L.
Sapindus marginatus Willd.
Talisia pedicellaris Radlk.
Exotheapaniculata (Juss.) Radlk.
Hypelate trifoliata Sw.
Cupania glabra Sw.

Common Name
red sumac

dwarf sumac
southern sumac




deciduous holly


American holly












Botanical Name
Krugiodendronferreum (Vahl) Urban.
(Rhamnidium ferreum (Vahl) Sarg.)
Reynosia septentrionalis Urban.
(R. latifolia Griseb.)
Rhamnus caroliniana Walt.
Colubrina reclinata (L'Her.) Brongn.
Colubrina Colubrina (Jacq.) Millsp.
Colubrina cubensis (Jacq.) Brongon.
Tilia porracea Ashe
Tilia georgiana Sarg.
Tilia heterophylla Vent.
Tilia eburnea Ashe
Tilia lasioclada Sarg.
Tilia floridana Small
Pariti tiliaceum (L.) St. Hil.
Paritigrande Britton
Gossypium hirsutum L.
Canella Winteriana (L.) Gaertn.
Clusia flava Jacq.
Clusia rosea L.
GordoniaLasianthus (L.) Ellis
TamalaBorbonia (L.) Raf.
Tamala littoralis Small
Tamala humilis (Nash) Small
Tamala pubescens (Pursh.) Small
Nectandra coriacea (Sw.) Griseb.
(Ocotea Catesbyana (Michx.) Sarg.)
Sassafras Sassafras (L.) Karst.
Misanteca triandra (Sw.) Mez.
Tetrazygia bicolor (Mill.) Cogn.
Conocarpus erecta L.
Bucida Buceras L.
Laguncularia racemosa Gaertn.
Eugenia buxifolia (Sw.) Willd.
Eugenia axillaris (Sw.) Willd.
Eugenia anthera Small
Eugenia rhombea (Berg.) Urban
Eugenia confusa DC.
Anamomis simpsonii Small
Anamomis dicrana (Berg) Britton.
(A. dichotoma-FL. SE. U.S.)
Mosiera longipes (Berg.) Small.
(Eugenia longipes Berg.)

Common Name




wild cinnamon

loblolly bay








Botanical Name
Mosiera bahamensis (Kiaersk.) Small.
(Eugenia bahamensis Kiaersk.)
Calyptranthes pallens (Poir.) Griseb.
(Chytraculia chytraculia-FL. SE. U.S.)
Calyptranthes Zuzygium (L.) Sw.
(Chytraculia zuzygium (L.) Kuntze)
Rhizophora Mangle L.
Nyssa sylvatica Marsh.
Nyssa biflora Walt.
Nyssa ursina Small
Nyssa Ogeche Marsh.
Nyssa aquatica L.
Svida alternifolid (L.f.) Small
Svidastricta (Lam.) Small
Cynoxylon floridum (L.) Raf.
Araliaspinosa L.
Kalmia latifolia L.
Oxydendrum arboreum (L.) DC
Xolismaferruginea (Walt.) Heller
Batodendron arboreum (Marsh.) Nutt.
Jacquinia keyensis Mez.
Rapanea guayanensis Aubl.
Icacoreapaniculata (Nutt.) Sudw.
Diospyros virginiana L.
Diospyros Mosieri Small
Chrysophyllum olivaeforme L. (C. monopyrenum
Sideroxylon foetidissimum Jacq.
(S. mastichodendron Jacq.)
Dipholis salicifolia (L.) A. DC
Bumelia angustifolia Nutt.
Bumelia lycioides (L.) Gaertn.
Bumelia lanuginosa (Michx.) Pers.
Bumelia tenax (L.) Willd.
Mimusops emarginata (L.) Britton.
(M. Sieberi A. DC.)
Symplocos tinctoria (L.) L'Her.
Halesia carolina L.
(Mohrodendron carolinum (L.) Brit.)
Halesia parviflora Michx.
(Mohrodendron parviflorum (Michx.) Brit.)
Halesia diptera Ellis.
(Mohrodendron dipterum (Ellis) Brit.)
Styrax grandifolia Ait.

Common Name





flowering dogwood

prickly ash

mountain laurel









wild-olive tree



Botanical Name
Fraxinus pauciflora Nutt.
Frazinus caroliniana Mill.
Fraxinus Smallii Britton
Fraxinus americana L.
Forestieraacuminata (Michx.) Poir.
(Adelia acuminata Michx.)
Forestiera porulosa (Michx.) Poir.
(Adelia segregata (Jacq.) Small)
Chionanthus virginica L.
Amarolea megacarpa Small.
(Osmanthus megacarpa Small)
Amarolea americana (L.) Small.
(Osmanthus americana (L.) B. & H.)
Osmanthus floridana Chapm.
Solanum verbascifolium L.
Sebesten Sebestena (L.) Britton.
(Cordia Sebestena L.)
Bourreria revoluta H.B.K.
(B. Radula-FL. SE. U.S.)
Bourreria ovata Miers. (B. havanensis-
FL. SE. U.S.)
Citharexylum fruticosum L.
(C. villosum Jacq.)
Duranta repens L.
Avicennia nitida Jacq.
Enallagma latifolia (Mill.) Small.
(Crescentia ovata-FL. SE. U.S.)
Schoepfia chrysophylloides (A. Rich.) Planch.
(S. Schreberi-FL. SE. U.S.)
Ximenia americana L.
Pinckneya pubens Michx.
Exostema caribaeum (Jacq.) R. & S.
Casasia clusiifolia (Jacq.) Urban.
(Genipa clusiifolia Jacq.)
Hamelia patens Jacq.
Cephalanthus occidentalis L.
Guettarda elliptica Sw.
Guettarda scabra Vent.
Psychotria nervosa Sw.
Psychotria bahamensis Millsp.
Sambucus Simpsonii Rehder
(S. intermedia-FL. SE. U.S.)
Viburnum rufidulum Raf. (V. rufotomentosum
Viburnum obovatum Walt.
Viburnum Nashii Small

Common Name




Florida privet

wild olive










rough velvet-seed
wild coffee
Bahaman wild-coffee


southern black-haw
Nash's viburnum


Botanical Name
Baccharis halimifolia L.
Baccharis glomeruliflora Pers.

Common Name


Biota orientalis (L.) Endl. (Thuja orientalis L.) Chinese-arborvitae

Cocos nucifera L.
Phoenix dactylifera L.
Casuarina equisetifolia Forst.
HicoriaPecan (Marsh.) Britton
Morus nigra L.
Morns alba L.
Papyrius papyrifera (L.) Kuntze.
(Broussonetia papyrifera (L.) Vent.
Toxylon poniferum Raf. (Maclura
aurantiaca Nutt.)
Ficus Carica L.
A nnona squamosa L.
Moringa Moringa (L.) Millsp.
Pyrus communis L.
Amygdalus Persica L.
AlbizziaJulibrissin (Willd.) Durazz.
AlbizziaLebbek (Willd.) Benth.
Parkinsonia aculeata L.
Delonix regia (Boj.) Raf.
Poinciana pulcherrima L.
Tamarindus indica L.
Robinia Pseudo-Acacia L.
Daubentonia punicea (Cav.) DC. (Sesbania
punicea Benth.)
Micropteryx Crista-galli (L.) Walp.
(Erythrina Crista-galli L.)
Glycosmis citrifolia (Willd.) Lindl.
Poncirus trifoliata (L.) Raf.
Citrus Aurantium L.
Citrus sinensis Osbeck
Citrus aurantifolia (Christm.) Swingle
Citrus Limonum (L.) Risso
Citrus Medica L.

date palm





common fig








purple sesban

bitter-sweet orange


Botanical Name
Ailanthus altissima Swingle. (A. glandulosa.

Melia Azedarach L.

Triadica sebifera (L.) Small. (Sapium
sebiferum (L.) Roxb.)
Sapium glandulosum (L.) Morong.
Ricinus communis L.

Mangifera indica L.

Thespesia populnea (L.) Soland.

Firmiana platanifolia (L.) R. Br. (Sterculia
platanifolia L.

Grevillea robusta A. Cunn.

Camphora Camphora (L.) Karst.
Persea Persea (L.) Cockerell

Lagerstroemia indica L.

Terminalia Catappa L.

Psidium Guajava Raddi.
Melaleuca Leucadendra L.

Sapota Achras Mill.
Lucuma nervosa A. DC.

Ligustrum ovalifolium Hassk.
Nerium Oleander L.
Nicotiana glauca Graham

Vitex Agnus-Castus L.

Catalpa Catalpa (L.) Karst.
Crescentia Cujete L.

Common Name



Chinese tallow-tree
castor-oil plant



Japanese varnish-tree


camphor tree





California privet






Landon~ High School, Jacksonville
THE PURPOSE of this paper is to acquaint the interested but per-
haps uninitiated scientist with some of the most common myce-
tozoa; hoping to stimulate this interest to such an extent that
he will join the collectors of this organism. Thus, the scope of
the knowledge of the Florida fauna will be further widened.
The mycetozoa comprise around 400 species placed in 53
genera which in turn, are grouped into 14 families. The tax-
onomic characters are based on the reproductive phase of the
organism. This is a fructification producing spores that give
rise to zoospores. The vegetative phase is called a plasmodium,
the color of which is sometimes used as a diagnostic character.
This paper refers to 10 genera and 13 species found in 4 Florida
counties. This number is merely an indication of the number of
the organism that may be found in this state. Specimens of the
Florida species noted are in the hands of the writer except the
specimens collected by Dr. Thaxter which are in the Farlow
Herbarium at Harvard University and which have been examined
by her.
As previously mentioned, the taxonomy of this group is based
upon the structure of the fruiting bodies and the color and size
of the spores. The fructifications are divided into two maiir
groups: those in which the spores develop outside a sporophore
belonging to the subclass Exosporeae, and those in which the
spores develop inside a sporangium. belonging to the subclass
Endosporeae. In the Exosporeae there is but one family and one
genus: the family, Ceratiomyxaceae; and the genus Ceratiomyxa.
During the fall of 1897, Dr. Robert Thaxter collected a speci-
men of Ceratiomyxa fruticulosa Macbr. variety flexuosa Lister at
Cocoanut Grove, Florida. The specimen is interesting from the
fact that it is a tropical form. The sporophores are long, slender,
white, and produce externally, white, smooth, ovoid spores. The
straight species of this genus is found everywhere, usually most
abundant after a considerable amount of rain. Their dazzling,
white sporophores catch the eye of the collector who may erro-
neously class them among the innumerable fungi.
The endosporeae are composed of 52 genera placed in 13 fam-
ilies. The sporangia are either simple or compound. The simple
sporangia are either stalked or sessile or sessile sporangia with
an irregular outline called, plasmodiocarps. The compound spo-


rangia are formed from the union of many sporangia and are
given the term aethalia. Among the aethalia are found 2 very
common forms Lycogala epidendrum Fr. and Fuligo septica
Gmelin. Lycogala epidendrum Fr. resembles a miniature puff-
ball growing in colonies on wood.i The aethalia range in size
from 3-15mm. It is cosmopolitan and has been collected from
Leon and Duval counties. Fuligo cinerea Morg. was collected by
Dr. Thaxter at Cocoanut Grove, Florida, in the fall of 1897. It
is a white aethalium not as common as the yellow Fuligo septica
Gmelin that is frequently referred to as "Flowers of Tan." The
aethalia of Fuligo septica Gmelin range in size from 2mm.-20
cm. From Clay county comes an example of the plasmodiocarp,
Hemitrichia Serpula Rost, the sporangia of which form orange-
yellow loops resembling a chain.
The simple fructifications are the most familiar ones and may
be sessile or stalked, with or without lime, scattered clustered or
heaped upon the substratum. Other sporangial characters are:
the capillitium, a system of threads; the peridium, the sporangial
wall; and the columella, a continuation of the stalk into the
capillitium. To determine whether a sporangium is sessile or
stalked; scattered, clustered or heaped is easily accomplished
with the unaided eye. But the other structures must be deter-
mined with a microscope. A beautiful example of sessile heaped,
spherical sporangia is a specimen of Oligonema nitens Rost. from
Leon county. The sporangia are minute (0.2-0.4mm.), shining,
olivaceous yellow, somewhat resembling insect eggs.
The presence or absence of lime is determined by microscop-
ical examination of the sporangia mounted in water. The lime
particles are in the form of round granules or stellate crystals.
In a water medium, the round, lime granules ably demonstrate
Brownian movement and are instantly recognized because of this
phenomenon. Physarum polycephalum Schwein. collected from
Duval county represents a stalked sporangium containing lime.
This species with its medusa-like stalked sporangia is a joy for
the beginner to encounter since it is easily recognized from its
picture. The capillitium and the olivaceous-yellow peridium con-
tain lime granules. Another stalked calcareous form is Diachea
leucopoda Rost. found in Clay county. The stalks and columellae
of this species are chalk white with lime. This particular speci-
men was collected in July 1937 and covered the leaves, grass, and
stems of plants to such an extent that a 16-year-old girl exclaimed
with wonder at the sight.
It is, perhaps, well to digress here, in order to explain the
spore characteristics. Spore characters are necessarily micro-
scopic due to their size, which range from approximately 4 micra
-13 micra. The spore size remains surprisingly constant for a
given species. The color of the spores places the mycetozoa in


the 2 orders of the group. In the first order, the spores are
violet-brown or purplish-grey. The order comprises 5 of the 13
families of the Endosporeae. In the second order, the spores are
variously colored but not violet-brown or purplish-grey. The
color of the spores is determined when they are magnified and
with transmitted light. The spores are diversely marked, such
as: worted and reticulated. The spore markings are best studied
under the oil immersion lens. The peculiar character of the
spores of the mycetozoa separates the mycetozoa from fungi that
might be confused with them.
Among the stalked sporangia with dark colored spores and
without lime are two forms with interesting capillitia and col-
umellae. In one form, the sporangium is distinct, the columella
is long, and the threads of the capillitium are arranged in the
form of a net with small meshes on the surface and large meshes
near the columella. The sporangia are cylindrical, clustered and
cinnamon-brown in color due to the color of the spore mass. In
the field, the sporangia resemble the bristles of a small brush.
This form belongs to the genus Stemonitis of which fusca is a
renowned species. The specimen previously referred to is Ste-
monitis ferruginea Ehrenb. and has been collected from Leon
and Clay counties. In the second form, the sporangia are dis-
tinct, spherical and the columella branches like a tree. The
threads of the capillitium also form a network; however, there
is no surface net. The peridium of this form is most interesting
since it has the shining appearance of Christmas tree tinsel. A
specimen of this form, Lamproderma arcyrionema Rost., has been
collected from Leon county.
In the following specimens the spores are variously colored
and the threads of the capillitium are sculptured. Hemitrichia
stipitata Macbr. is a stalked form with subglobose, yellow spo-
rangia of which the capillitial threads are in the form of a net
and are sculptured with 4-5 smooth, spiral bands. This species
seems to be abundant during the early summer and was collected
in Duval county May, 1933. A red-colored sporangium sometimes
sessile, sometimes stalked is Hemitrichia Vesparium Macbr. col-
lected in Leon county. The capillitial threads of this species are
red and studded with spines. The stalk, when present, and the
peridium is red, also.
One of the most common mycetozoa is Arcyria denudata
Wettstein which has been collected in Leon and Duval counties
and is probably found in every county and country. It is a
stalked form with a capillitium composed of a much branched
net. If not weathered, the crimson, subcylindrical sporangia at-
tract the eye at once, but if weathered the drab reddish-brown
sporangia escape unnoticed. The capillitial threads are sculp-
tured with cogs, spines, and half-rings. The stalk is hollow as


indicated by the presence within it of spore-like cells. Another
common species of this genus is Arcyria cinerea Pers. collected
in Leon county. It is similar to Arcyria denudata Wettstein
except for its ashen color and the character of the capillitial
threads which are marked with spines and worts.
The time to collect mycetozoa is after a few days of rain.
They are found on logs, leaves, stems, pilei of fungi; in fact
almost any moist substratum even the excreta of animals. If a
good collecting ground is once discovered continue to return to
that region because new species will develop as the season pro-
gresses. The Florida lime sinks should be excellent collecting
grounds for the calcareous forms. Due to Florida's mild climate,
the season should continue twelve months of the year.
The students of Florida's mycetozoa have only skimmed the
surface of this rich field. The quantity and rarity of specimens
remaining to be collected are manifold. The Eveiglades, alone,
must contain many rare forms, perhaps new species. The lime
sinks too, will surely reap a fertile harvest. In Florida, there
are new fields to conquer in every Biological science and, cer-
tainly, this is true of the mycetozoa.

Florida Reptile Institute
POISONOUS SNAKES are born with fangs and venom, and I have
seen them kill their prey with one strike when less than a day
old. Is the venom of baby snakes as potent as that of the adults?
Is there any difference between the venoms of snakes of different
sizes? Does venom dried in the sun lose any of its potency? I
did not know the answers to these questions, so, Kenneth Free-
man, M.S., of the University of Florida, and I began some experi-
ments on November 18, 1936, to find out. Some of the results of
the experiments are shown in Table I. (Notice that the weight
of the venom injected was 4 milligrams, and an ordinary pin
measuring 1 1/16 inches weighs 80 milligrams, 20 times as much
as the venom used.)


Amt. Venom Wgt. of

Injected Guinea Pig

Crotalus adamanteus (Florida
Diamond-back) 84 inch, male
(Venom was clear white) .... 4mg
Crotalus adamanteus (Florida
Diamond-back) 56.5 inch,
female ..................... 4mg
Crotalus adamanteus (Florida
Diamond-back) baby, less
than week old............... 4mg
Bothrops atrox (Fer-de-Lance)
61 inch, female............. 4mg
Agkistrodon piscivorus (Cotton-
mouth Moccasin) 58-inch, male 4 mg
Micrurus fulvius fulvius bit leg
(Coral snake) of guinea
medium size ................ pig
Agkistrodon piscivorus (Cotton-
mouth Moccasin) 38 inch,
female ...................... 4mg
Agkistrodon piscivorus (Cotton-
mouth Moccasin) baby about
week old .................... 4mg
Bothrops atrox (Fer-de-Lance)
52.5 inch, male .............. 4 mg
Bothrops atrox (Fer-de-Lance)
61 inch, male................. 4mg
Crotalus horridus atricaudatus
(Canebrake Rattlesnake)
about week old.............. 4mg

Crotalus adamanteus (Florida
Diamond-back) 53.5 inch,
fem ale .....................
Bothrops atrox (Fer-de-Lance)
23.25 inch, female............
Crotalus durissus durissus
(Tropical Rattlesnake)
48 inches ...................
Agkistrodon piscivorus (Cotton-
mouth Moccasin)
53.5 inch, male...............
Crotalus adamanteus (Florida
Diamond-back) 58-inch,
m ale .......................







250 gm Death in 1 hr 16 mins

250 gm Death in 1 hr 54 mins

250 gm Death in 2 hrs

250 gm

250 gm

Death in 2 hrs 32 mins

Death in 2 hrs 45 mins

250 gm Death in 3 hrs

250 gm Death in 3 hrs 28 mins

250 gm

250 gm

Death in 3 hrs 57 mins

Death in 6 hrs 14 mins

250 gm Death in 6 hrs 18 mins

250 gm Death in 7 hrs 45 mins

250 gm Death in 8 hrs 55 mins

250 gm Death in 14 hrs 26 mins

250 gm Death in 23 hrs 30 mins

250 gm Death in 29 hrs 47 mins

250 gm Death in 45 hrs 44 mins

Below are the results of experiments performed on dogs to
determine the relative potency of venoms. In each case 6 milli-
grams of venom to one pound of dog was given:
1. Baby rattlesnake venom; dog died in 3 hours 50 minutes.
2. Pigmy rattlesnake venom; dog died in 9 hours.
3. Diamond-back rattlesnake venom; dog died in 12 hours 35 minutes.



4. Baby Cotton-mouth venom; dog died in 15 hours 25 minutes.
5. Adult Cotton-mouth venom; dog died in 80 minutes.
6. Crotalus atrox venom (desiccated); dog died in about 85 hours.
7. Crotalus atrox venom (sun-dried); dog died in about 76 hours.
Following is a list of results of experiments carried out to
determine whether there is a definite time relation corresponding
to the given dosages of venoms (Diamond-back Rattlesnake).
2 Milligrams of Venom Per Pound of 4 Milligrams of Venom Per Pound of
Dog: Dog:
No. 1 dog died in 40 hours 10 minutes. No. 1 dog died in 6 hours.
No. 2 dog died in 24 hours 15 minutes. No. 2 dog died in 7 hours 25 minutes.
3 Milligrams of Venom Per Pound of 6 Milligrams of Venom Per Pound of
Dog: Dog:
No. 1 dog died in 9 hours 40 minutes. No. 1 dog died in 4 hours 80 minutes.
No. 2 dog died in 83 hours 30 minutes. No. 2 dog died in 15 hours 25 minutes.


It is popularly known that the King Snake is immune to the
poison of the Rattlesnake and the Cotton-mouth Moccasin, but
little is known about the effects of venom on other snakes. There-
fore, Kenneth Freeman, chemist, and I started a series of experi-
ments to find out the effect of venom on various snakes. This,
of course, is by no means conclusive but only indicates the results
obtained. To prove anything definite, we will have to continue
the experiments using hundreds of snakes.
In these experiments, venom of our own production that had
been desiccated and kept in a cool dark place was used. The
venom was weighed on balance scales made by Eimer and Amend.
The snakes were weighed on a regular 25-pound spring scale.
The injections were made with a hypodermic needle. The dried
venom was diluted with distilled water just before each injection.
1. Agkistrodon piscivorus: This specimen weighed eight ounces and was in-
jected with 150 milligrams of moccasin venom midway, just under the skin
on the right side. The dose was divided and injected in two different
places. Results: The snake died in three hours. When the skin was re-
moved, the place where the injections had been made was discolored from
bloody coagulation for several inches up and down the body.
2. Agkistrodon piscivorus: This specimen weighed five and a half ounces and
was injected with 100 milligrams of venom on the right side about midway.
This dose was divided and injected in two places. Result: There was
some swelling, but the snake recovered in four days and continued to live.
8. Agkistrodon piscivorus: This specimen weighed eight ounces and was in-
jected with 100 milligrams of venom on the right side about midway in
two places. Result: There was swelling, as in the others, but the snake
recovered in five days. On the seventh day, I killed the snake and re-
moved the skin to examine the injected spot and found it to be slightly
discolored for five inches up and down the body.
4. Agkistrodon piscivorus: This specimen weighed one-third pound, was in-
jected with 100 milligrams of venom and recovered.


5. Agkistrodon piscivorus: This specimen weighed one-half pound, was in-
jected with 100 milligrams of venom, and recovered.
6. Crotalus adamanteus: This specimen weighed one pound and was injected
with 200 milligrams of venom on the left side. The snake died in 80 hours.
Upon examination, I found the injected area very discolored with coagu-
lated blood.
7. Sistrurus miliarius barbouri: This specimen weighed three ounces, was
injected with 25 milligrams of venom and died in about 10 hours.
8. King Snake (Lampropeltis getulus getulus): This specimen weighed one
pound four ounces and was injected with 200 milligrams of venom. There
was no swelling evident and the snake continued to live without any ill
9. Indigo Snake (Drymarchon corals couperi): This specimen weighed one
and a half pounds and was injected with 200 milligrams of venom. The
snake did not show any ill effects, except that it became sluggish and
remained very quiet. There was a slight swelling evident, but the snake
10. Congo Water Snake (Natrix cyclopion floridana): This specimen weighed
one-half pound and was injected with 100 milligrams of venom in the
right side just under the skin. There was a slight swelling, but the snake
remained active and fully recovered.

We continued the same experiments, using snakes from Central
America, also alligators and turtles, the results of which are as
11. Jumping Viper (Bothrops nummifera): This specimen weighed one-fourth
pound, was injected with 75 milligrams of venom, and died in about 18
12. Tropical Rattlesnake (Crotalus durissus durissus): This specimen weighed
2 ounces, was injected with 25 milligrams of venom, and died in 45
18. 2-foot alligator weighing 1% pounds. This specimen was injected with
150 milligrams of Cotton-mouth Moccasin venom. The result was death
in about 14 hours.

EFFECT OF PIGMY RATTLESNAKE (Sistrurus Miliarius Barbouri)
VENOM ON THE CORAL SNAKE (Micrurus Fulvius Fulvius)

We have a concrete pit six feet square and five feet deep in
which we keep Coral snakes and Pigmy Rattlesnakes. On Sep-
tember 15, 1937, David Boyer, an employee at the Florida Rep-
tile Institute, put a new Coral snake into the pit. Almost im-
mediately a small Pigmy Rattlesnake bit the Coral snake on the
back, two inches back of the head. The Coral snake apparently
had disturbed the Pigmy with its excited movements. In a few
minutes the Coral snake lay still and swelling was noticeable
around the place where it had been bitten. A few hours later
there was a great amount of swelling, increasing the size of the
Coral snake's neck about one-third its normal size. Twenty-four
hours later, the Coral snake was dead and it was very evident
that death was caused from the venom of the Pigmy Rattlesnake.


I was demonstrating with a four-foot Cotton-mouth Moccasin
to show the fangs; the snake bit a stick suddenly and some of the
venom squirted out and quite a bit of it went directly into my
left eye. Immediately there was a smarting and burning sensa-
tion and it was difficult for me to see with that eye. The pain
continued as my eye became very bloodshot and inflamed. I im-
mediately washed it out with water, which seemed to help some,
and continued the treatment with an eye-cup containing boric
acid solution. In about an hour the pain left, and in two hours
my eye had cleared up.
This happened April 11, 1934, and it is now November, 1937,
and I have suffered no bad results from the venom in my eye,
even though I have had both Cotton-mouth Moccasin venom and
Rattlesnake venom squirted in my eye since that time.

It was quite accidentally that I first tasted snake venom.
A Cotton-mouth Moccasin bit down on a stick opposite my face
and the venom spurted into my mouth. Often, since that time,
I have tasted the fresh venom by dipping my finger into it. Twice
I have swallowed a half teaspoon of Moccasin venom.
Once, and this was the only time, I swallowed a teaspoonful
of Moccasin venom. This large dose of venom caused my mouth
to pucker, very much like the effect of a green persimmon. The
astringent effect lasted six hours, and was not very pleasant.
My lips remained irritated and slightly sore for over a day.
Moccasin and Rattlesnake venom, being a protein, is digested
in the stomach and the poisonous properties are destroyed.
In Noguchi's book, Snake Venoms, which gives a great deal
of information about snake venoms, he states:
Lacerda, Calmette and C. J. Martin state that the venoms of Lachesis
lanceolatus and Pseudechis may cause intense inflammation and hemorrhagic
changes in the alimentary tract, when sufficient quantities of these venoms are
given by the mouth. If the dosage be sufficiently large death follows usually,
their administration, with the usual venom-poisoning symptoms.
With the venom of cobra, alimentary administration gives somewhat
different results from those obtained in the case of crotaline venoms. Brunton
and Fayrer observed that fatal effect is produced in animals when cobra
venom is given from the digestive tract by feeding.
Fraser points out that absorption of cobra venom from the stomach is
very slight. In rats and cats, nearly 1,000 times the subcutaneous lethal dose
was given without fatal effect. As a result of such administration of venom,
the serum of these animals was found to contain a certain amount of antitoxin.
Calmette failed to confirm Fraser's experiments, as he always found the
venom to act fatally when given by the mouth in large dosage.
Kanthack fully confirms Fraser's observations that immunity can be
secured by feeding the venom to animals.


INSTITUTE 1934-1937
1934 1985 1936 1937
Snake Bites Deaths Bites Deaths Bites Deaths Bites Deaths
Rattlesnake ....... 6 1 24 7 20 8 15 7
Pigmy Rattlesnake... 10 0 18 0 5 0
Moccasin .......... 7 2 11 0 17 0 7 0
Coral Snake ......... 1 0
Copperhead ......... 1 0
Species unknown .... 1 0 2 0 8 1 2 0
TOTALS .........15 8 47 7 52 9 30 7
At the American Red Cross First Aid and Life Saving In-
stitute, I helped administer first aid in a case of Copperhead
bite in 1931. Miss Jim Haile, a student, was climbing out of a
lake onto the bank when she was bitten by something on her left
hip through two layers of bathing suit. She did not see any-
thing but felt a burning pain and complained to a doctor. Upon
examination, two fanglike punctures were found, and the Insti-
tute doctor made small incisions. Then, to verify our suspicions,
I looked for the snake and found a small Copperhead near the
water's edge crawling away from the place where Miss Haile
had been bitten.
The characteristic symptoms increased and now, certain that
it was a poisonous snake, we went to work hopefully. The doc-
tor injected antivenin while I applied suction on the two inci-
sions. The area around the bite became swollen and dark in
color and in about two hours had spread around the bite for four
inches. The swelling was reduced, probably due to the treat-
ment; however, Miss Haile remained sick for five days. She re-
covered fully, with no bad results or complications. As this was
a mild case of poisoning, I judged that the snake, being small
and biting through two layers of wool bathing suit, was not able
to inject a full dose of venom, as it could have under more
favorable circumstances. This was one of my first lessons that
only a drop of venom can cause serious trouble. I decided then
and there to handle poisonous snakes more carefully, and with
much more respect for their venom.
On one collecting trip in the Everglades, Bill Piper, my as-
sistant, was bitten by a Pigmy Rattlesnake as he turned the
snake loose to drop it in a sack. The Pigmy sank both fangs
into the index finger, and Bill pulled the snake off. Carol Stryker,
Director of the Staten Island Zoo, Staten Island, New York, was
with us at the time as our guest, and he immediately treated
Bill with a suction outfit. In spite of the treatment, however,
there was a severe pain and swelling for about 24 hours.


In collecting snake venom the first problem is securing the
snakes. We collect them ourselves when time permits, and pay
our men an average of $2.00 each for the snakes uninjured and
of a worthwhile size. We keep our snakes for milking in a con-
crete pit 30'x30', but even under favorable conditions we lose
too high a percentage of them, particularly after handling them
in the milking process.
We have arranged a box-like table in our pit, with small
frames for securing the milking glasses, and with an opening in
the center of the table in which to drop the snakes after finishing
the milking extraction.
In the actual milking process we catch the snake back of the
head by hand, using the snake hook to guide the snake's head
or to move it around. We then force the fangs over the edge
of the glass and allow the venom to run down into the glass.
From one good fresh rattlesnake we may get as much as 3 cc. of
venom. This venom must be dehydrated before shipping. In
one milking we secured one liquid ounce and found that when it
was dehydrated we had about 6 grams of venom.
We have found that the amount of venom extracted is affected
profoundly by the number of times the snake has been milked,
by the weather, and by the health and condition of the snake.

The Cotton-mouth Moccasin venom is being used for hemor-
rhagic conditions of the blood. The venom solution is injected
in small quantities in the patient which strengthens the blood
vessels and prevents bleeding. Diamond-back Rattlesnake venom
is being used in experimental work on other diseases and is being
used in place of morphine. Fer-de-Lance venom is being used
as a local coagulant and is applied directly and stops bleeding
at once.

St. Luke's, Riverside, and Duval County Hospitals,
BY THE term allergy is meant the natural tendency of an
individual to develop certain chronic diseases such as asthma
and hayfever. This is the ordinary meaning of the word.


Allergic hypersensitivity is the term used to denote this nat-
ural process as contrasted to anaphylaxis, or hypersensitization
produced by artificial inoculation. This hypersensitivity is
therefore a specific hypersensitivity, which is to say, an individual
may be sensitive to a certain substance to a degree considered
The specific exciting substance is usually protein in nature,
in the case of asthma, hayfever, uticaria, migraine, tuberculin
reaction, and so on. The involved protein substance may be in
the form of pollen, in asthma or hayfever, or some food product,
or some bacterial infection. In such case this exciting substance
is termed "allergen", by reason of its antigenic powers of arous-
ing antibody formation in .the system of the inoculated indi-
vidual. This, also, is stated in the usual sense relating to the con-
cepts of immunity.
In a previous publication it was brought out that individuals
belonging to blood Group B appeared, from clinical observation,
to experience the most acute forms of allergic disease, and it
was suggested, on the basis of a statistical survey, that a rela-
tively larger proportion of these Group B persons become hyper-
sensitive than do those of the other groups. No attempt was
made to base the premise upon biological grounds other than
mere clinical observation. This is important, for it may well be
considered from a genetic approach that would tend to give it
definite experimental credence. The fact that the blood groups
are heritable characters, mendelian dominant in nature, lends
plausibility to the thesis that linkage may explain the appear-
ance of allergic manifestations in individuals from Group B
This conception is not entirely new, and there is definite oppo-
sition to such argument, principally because of the difficulty to
be encountered in demonstrating linkage in families; because
of the present paucity of data relating to linkage with the blood
groups; and because of improbabilities connected with the 24-
chromosome cell nucleus of the human; that is, one case of
linkage per twenty-four traits studied.
The burden of this investigation is, therefore, not to attempt
to prove impossibilities, but to assemble some data of positive
nature regarding the number of individuals showing definite hy-
persensitiveness plotted against their respective blood groups.
If a sufficiently large number of any group is found to possess
specific hypersensitivity, then it will be of interest to make
familial studies; for the mere fact of chance linkage is enough
to warrant scrutiny of these factors. Since these four phenotypes
are definitely heritable, and since Group B is especially inter-
tSee reference at end of paper.


testing because of its freedom from sub-groups, the equally heri-
table factors of allergic hypersensitivity may after all be re-
It is hardly necessary to say that only the three groups, rep-
resented by the specific agglutinogens A and B (groups A, B,
and AB), and the one group represented by lack of a specific
agglutinogen (group 0) are being considered. The sub-groups,
represented by A1, A2, A1B and A2B are not considered sepa-
rately; nor are the more recently discovered (1927) groups, deter-
mined by the agglutinogens M and N, taken into this considera-
In the former study it was brought out that Group B indi-
viduals were relatively more susceptible to allergy, based upon
322 persons appearing at random for blood transfusion typings,
regardless of any specific history. Since that time a further,
more intensive study has been made upon allergic subjects.
These were selected from among prospective blood donors known,
or subsequently proved, to be allergic; and from definitely aller-
gic patients appearing at allergy clinics or under treatment.
The figures, of course, have been checked for duplication and
other errors. Only adults with fully established groups have been
entered, the youngest 16 years, the eldest 60.
For the sake of reference it is here stated that the distribu-
tion of the four groups is as follows:
0 43%
A 40%
B 7%
AB 10%
Group B is thus the rarest, AB next, and groups O and A
forming by far the larger percentage.
In material the sexes were about evenly represented. The
black and white races were also fairly equitable in distribution.
This is interesting to note, in that it has frequently been stated
that aboriginal races are predominantly group A, and that they
are not susceptible to allergic manifestations. Our figures ap-
pear to speak for evident blending of racial characters in this
respect, which fact may have some bearing upon the case for or
against linkage.
In this more recent study of chosen allergic individuals the
figures are once again significant of a possible Group B-allergy
Ninety-one individuals were typed.
0(43) A(40) B(7) AB(10)
Groups, No. of Patients 24 55 10 2
Group % of whole 26.4 60.5 11.0 2.1
Factor of incidence 0.61 1.51 1.6 0.2


Conclusions. From these figures several possibilities pre-
sent themselves, only one of which will be discussed. It is evi-
dent that the incidence of allergy among Group B individuals is
greater than in the other groups; that is, if projected on to a
large scale, all factors being equal, there would be a definitely
larger proportion of "B" individuals possessing allergic hyper-
sensitivity. Group B may be linked with a gene for this trait.
This supposition would be compatible with the conception that a
primordial genotype R gave rise to phenotypes A and B by mu-
tation, and that later there was formed an incomplete linkage
between the factors for agglutinogen B and a tendency for
allergic hypersensitivity. Being a mendelian dominant this char-
acter would necessarily survive the haphazard intermatings of
the established groups, maintaining its identity.
This condition, if proved to exist, may be the basis for certain
other disease linkages, and may some time serve as an index for
their diagnosis and treatment.
Future studies will comprehend the further accumulation of
data from typing allergic individuals with a view to extending
the proof, if possible, of a preponderance of this tendency among
Group B individuals.
Blood Groups and Allergy: A statistical review. The Southern Medical
Journal, Vol. 29, number 6, pages 617-618, June 1936, by Dr. Lucien Y. Dyren-
forth, Jacksonville, Fla.


University of Florida
IN THE conventional type of infrared spectrometer the dis-
persed radiation is detected by means of a thermocouple or
thermopile. In connection with the thermal element a high-sen-
sitivity galvanometer is used, the intensity of the radiation being
measured by the deflections obtained. This simple arrangement
is satisfactory in the near infrared region-from 1.5 p to 7.5 tx.
However, beyond 7.5 Ip the intensity of the energy emitted by
ordinary sources of infrared radiation-the Nernst Glower and
the Globar-is very low. In order to work in this region of long
wavelengths one must employ an amplifier.
It has been found by other workers in infrared spectroscopy
that ordinary forms of resistance-coupled vacuum-tube amplifiers


are unsuited for use in amplifying small thermal currents, a fact
due in part to the comparatively low resistance of the thermo-
couples and thermopiles. Hence, it was decided in the present
case to construct an optical amplifier employing barrier-layer
photo-electric cells. The general scheme used may be seen from
Figure I:


--- GG



Figure I

4 Megohms

B 1.5 volts
Figure .l


Light from a source S (the filament of an auto headlight) is
reflected from the surface of a concave mirror M1 to the mirror
of a galvanometer G1. From this galvanometer the light passes
to right-angled mirror M2 which divides the beam into two equal
parts when no current is passing through galvanometer G1. After
the original beam has been separated by M2, the two resulting
beams are focused on the barrier-layer photo-cells P1 and P2 by
the lenses L1 and L2, respectively. The photo-cells are connected to
a second galvanometer G2 so that their E.M.F.'s are in opposition.
This parallel connection keeps the total external resistance in the
G2 circuit constant and independent of relative illumination on
the photo-cells. Thus, when the amounts of light falling on them
are equal, no current flows through G2. However, if the gal-
vanometer G1 is used in connection with the thermopile T, a
small deflection of G1 results in a large deflection of G2, since the
amount of light falling on one photo-cell is increased while that
falling on the other is decreased. The deflection of galvanometer
G2 is read by means of a lamp and scale and is found to be di-
rectly proportional to the deflection of Gi for small deflections.
The barrier-layer photo-cells are "Electro-Cells" prepared by
Loewenberg. Their sensitivity is higher than that of most com-
mercially available cells; the sensitized surface is circular and is
4.5 cm in diameter. Galvanometer Gi is a Type HS Leeds and
Northrup instrument, and G2 is a Type R galvanometer made
by the same firm. The characteristics of these instruments are
shown below: Sensitivity Resistance
(Per mm at 1 meter) Period Damping Coil
(Micro-volts) Seconds (Ohms) (Ohms)
G1 ........... 0.2 5 40 17
G2 ........... 0.5 5 27 12
In the calibration of the amplifier the circuit shown in Figure
II was used.
Small E.M.F.'s can be applied to G1 from the 1000 ohm po-
tentiometer connected across the dry cell B. For a given setting
of the potentiometer a deflection of galvanometer G1 was read
directly and the corresponding deflection of the second galvanom-
eter G2 recorded. A comparison of these deflections (at the
same scale distance) will give an idea of the amplification ob-
tainable; thus, we may set
Deflection of Galvanometer G2
Amplification = Deflection of Galvanometer G1
It is found that the amplification can be varied over a con-
siderable range by varying the current through the filament of
the auto lamp; however trial has shown that an amplification of
about 250 is all that can be used conveniently due to mechanical
vibrations in the building. (All vibrations of the first galvanom-
eter are amplified.)


The deflections of the second galvanometer G2 are read at a
scale distance of 6 meters. Hence, for every 1 mm deflection of
G1 at a distance of 1 meter, a deflection of 6 x (250) millimeters
is obtained from G2. Thus, the sensitivity of the amplifier as a
unit is given by:
0.2 x 10-6
Sensitivity = .2 x 10 =1.3 x 10-10 volts/mm
1.5 x 103
Under working conditions deflections of G2 cannot be read
closer than millimeters, and it is found to be desirable to work
at lower amplifications, since the above sensitivity is close to the
Brownian limit for galvanometer measurements.
With the aid of this amplifier it will be possible to extend the
range of spectral energy to be investigated from the former upper
limit of 7.5 p to about 15 p. At the present time the amplifier is
being used in investigations of the structure of liquid crystals
and of sugars. The authors wish to thank the Florida Academy of
Sciences for a grant which was used in the construction of the in-



University of Florida

TIE SPECTRUM of Vitamin C has been published in the Journal of the American
Chemical Society in the 1937 volume. The spectrum of a saturated solution of
Vitamin D is shown in the figure below.

*It is intended to file complete copies of as many as possible of the papers abstracted
in this section with the American Documentation Institute from whom it will then be
possible to obtain at a nominal cost microfilm copies or photoprint copies readable
without optical aid. Absorption Spectrophotometry and Its Applications by Lewis H.
Rogers, an abstract of which appeared in the PROCEEDINGS, Vol. I (1036), p. 147 has
been filed in this manner. The complete paper may be obtained from the American
Documentation Institute, 2101 Constitution Avenue, Washington, D. C. by ordering
Document 1126, remitting thirty-five cents for copy in microfilm, or $1.70 for photo-



University of Florida

A PREVIOUS study of the forty most significant symptoms in the Thurstone
Neurotic Inventory by the methods of multiple factor analysis revealed
evidence of eight traits of the neurotic personality. These traits were tenta-
tively identified as cycloid tendency, depression, hypersensitivness, social
introversion, inferiority feeling, stage fright, cognitive defect, and autistic
tendency. Using these forty symptoms, scales were developed to yield approxi-
mate measures of each of the eight traits. The entire Neurotic Inventory was
administered to two hundred college students, and for each student a score
in each of the eight traits was obtained. The intercorrelations among the
eight scales were low, and no greater than would be expected from the over-
lapping of items common to two scales, indicating that at least eight traits
are necessary to describe the neurotic personality.
For each of the 178 items of the inventory which showed response fre-
quencies between 10% and 90% the correlation coefficient between item and
each of the eight scales was obtained. From the knowledge of the extent to
which each item was measuring the trait determined by the scale, it was
possible to extend the hypotheses concerning the nature of the traits. The
trait-scale of cycloid tendency shows confirmation of a tendency toward
emotional instability as a valid trait. A trait of depression as distinct from
emotional instability is adequately confirmed, though the relations between
depression and social introversion remain to be clarified. The existence of
the trait of hypersensitiveness and its identification are both strikingly con-
firmed. The trait of social introversion is borne out by the new evidence.
Items apparently social in nature are related either to depression or to social
introversion, but not to both. The trait scale intended to measure inferiority
feeling yields ambiguous results. The nature of this trait, and its relation to
social maladjustment, require further investigation. Concerning the trait
scales intended to measure cognitive defect and autistic tendency, no conclu-
sions can be drawn.


Florida State College for Women

AN EFFORT to establish a criterion by which to determine what material
should be included in undergraduate science courses, and how it should be
presented. Illustrations drawn from chemistry, physics, astronomy, biology and
psychology are used in the search for a sound criterion. The deficiencies of
the most widely stressed form of the periodic table, including those revealed
by the facts of isotopes, are discussed briefly to illustrate the distinction
between fundamental significance and professional convenience. The criterion
of philosophical integrity is applied to the practice of continuing to stress
concrete atomic models known to be unsound. The concepts of law and of
chance; the dogmatic aspects of current scientific materialism; and the misuse
of graphical analogies in an attempt to convey the illusion of explaining a
reality which is inherently incapable of being pictured, are other subtopics.
Several college texts are cited to serve as examples of the kind of teaching
which has led to the demand for greater significance and philosophical validity
in science courses. The conclusion is reached that the aims of introductory


science courses of the newer type will be defeated if a nostalgic affection
for scientific heirlooms is permitted to seduce us into parading outmoded
shoptalk under the guise of significant truth. This approach quite easily leads
teachers and authors into the error of treating students for whom technical
difficulties must be minimized, as if they were necessarily juvenile in a cul-
tural sense, and fails to give that integrated view of present realities which
the student has a right to expect and which philosophical integrity demands.


University of Florida
THE PAPER is concerned with specialization in the education, interests, and
work of the teaching, research, and administrative personnel in the broad field
of the natural sciences, which are peculiarly (and possibly a little boldly)
defined for the purposes of this discussion as the collection of these very
general divisions: Logic, Mathematics, Physics, Chemistry, Biology, and any
other which may be yet to come. Just what knowledge is excluded by this
definition is not clear.
The primary purpose is to lament the obvious fact that there is a con-
siderable lack of understanding and appreciation between those laboring in
different subdivisions and sub-subdivisions of these sciences.
A secondary purpose is to indicate that the general causes of this unfor-
tunate condition lie in the inevitable course of historical development, and the
present inadequacy of systems of education. And finally an attempt is made
to show that the condition is no longer inevitable or necessary and is to be
remedied chiefly by further educational developments. A further, and perhaps
not inappreciable contribution might be made by organized adult education
of the educated.


Florida State College for Women

THE TREES belong to the genus Torreya or Tumion, which is a conifer that
looks somewhat like a yew. In fact, its full name, Torreya taxifolia, means
"yew-leaved Torreya." Because of its odorous leaves and wood, it has borne
such English names as stinking cedar and polecat wood. It has also been
nicknamed gopher wood-possibly an allusion to the reputed material of
Noah's Ark. But lately the old folk names have been giving way, partly, to
the scientific Latin, so that to scientists and the general public alike it may
eventually have the same name.
In earlier geologic times the genus was worldwide in its distribution, but
during the Ice Age it was cut down to a few relict patches-one in Florida,
larger ones in California, Japan, and China.
The Florida Torreya trees, a distinct species, are found mainly in a small
block of land just east of the Appalachicola River in the north part of the
state. In the books all the trees are declared to be on the east bank of the
However, in 1885 a noted Southern botanist, Dr. A. W. Chapman, found
a few trees about half a dozen miles west of the river, and so reported in


one of his publications. When so few individuals of a species exist, the dis-
covery of even a dozen new ones is a matter of some importance. But the
find was lost sight of, and from then until now apparently has never been
There are about 60 trees, ranging in height from 18 inches to 80 feet,
scattered over about an acre of ground. Their assorted sizes constitute
evidence that the trees are reproducing, an encouraging sign for their survival.
Mixed with them are larger trees, mainly magnolias and beeches-a common
timber type in northern Florida.
The locality is now known as Dog Pond, near Lake Ocheesee. In Dr.
Chapman's time it was more romantically designated as Cypress Lake.


University of Florida
THE LARGE number of wild ducks of many species that winter in Florida
make the subject of duck food an important one. Among the important
sources of supply are ponds containing "banana waterlilies." This term has
been found applied to two plants very different botanically but quite similar
in several gross characters. The plant usually referred to in literature as
"banana waterlily" is known botanically as Castalia flava, a true waterlily
with yellow flowers. The plant usually designated "banana waterlily" by
Floridians is Nymphoides aquaticum in the buck bean family, often called
floating heart. Both plants have similar leaves and similar clusters of tubers,
hence the common name, but the flowers are very distinct and tubers are
borne on different parts of the plant. Castalia bears its tubers deep in the
mud one beneath each node of the long runners that spread through the ooze,
while Nymphoides bears its tubers, one on each of the many peduncle-petiole
combinations that are produced by each crown. If the tubers of the two
plants have equal food value, the Nymphoides would be much more important
because of its greater abundance and accessibility. No chemical analyses or
feeding experiments seem to be on record.


Jacksonville, Florida
FonT GEORGE ISLAND is the fourth from the outside end of a chain of
islands in the mouth of the St. Johns River, separated from each other and
from the Main Land by salt marshes and the mouths of several small creeks.
It was called Alimacani by the Timuqua Indians, from whom it was taken by
the Spanish and held successively by the French, Spanish, English, Spanish,
United States, Confederacy, United States. Its elevation ranges from a little
above sea level to the peak of "Mount Cornelia" with an elevation of 64 feet.
It is characterized by shell-heaps with heavy humus top-soil which thins down
to hard packed oyster shell at shore line. Its flora includes pteridophytes,
palms, conifers, orchids, deciduous and evergreen trees and shrubs, climbers,
and herbaceous plants. Fort George Island is the plant collector's para-
dise by reason of the diversity of its species over so small an area; many
of the species are not found elsewhere in this section of the state. Cheilanthes


microphylla and Pepperomia cumulicola were first discovered here by early


University of Miami
THE HISTORY of music is largely a growth through trial and error. But
scientific theory and experiment have always been of service, too. Subdivision
of the twelve-tone chromatic scale can be scientifically defended only when
the result is a twenty-four-tone scale, called bichromatic or quartertone scale.
Any scale of just intonation (untempered) is a scientific dream, but prac-
tically not wanted.
The use of a quartertone (24 keys) instrument is no revolution in music.
This scale can be used to enrich music in quite orthodox ways (1) by occa-
sionally offering three melodic variations to a theme for only two (major-
minor, so-called) variations; (2) by permitting to suggest to the hearer certain
chords forcefully which are now a rare psychological accident in the hearer;
(3) this third is the least important, by permitting a key instrument to
approach a sliding pitch.
On the American continent only one quartertone instrument with a single
keyboard exists. This unique instrument will be demonstrated to the eye and
to the ear. It is a reed organ. Since it is "home-made," this is not offered
to the public as "a concert" but as a laboratory demonstration. The disad-
vantages of the only existing European design of a true bichromatic key-
board will be pointed out.
In theory, the use of fractions '(as 1/2, 5/8, 6/7 etc.) must be discarded
as leading to complexities unthinkable except to a "lightning calculator." In
the analysis of a piece, each tone must be arithmetically expressed, not by the
two members of a fraction but by a single number. This becomes possible
through discarding (i.e., not writing nor speaking) any factors which are
powers of 2. Say 3 instead of 12. Further, only 1, 8, 5 and 7 (no other prime
numbers) must be admitted as factors, on psychological grounds. Arithmetical
thinking of actual music then becomes simple enough to be possible, though not
easy. The physiological theory of music is of course chemistry.
The only numerical symbols which in performance call for a quartertone
scale are 85 and products like 8x85 or 5x85. All other numbers, like 185 or
225 or 405, are expressible in playing the semitone scale. Any novel musical
practice but rarely will call for a quartertone, and the introduction of the
bichromatic scale must not be regarded as a revolution in music. All those
fantastic scales (scattered through literature) other than the bichromatic to
replace Bach's tempered one by a more complex one are condemned both on
theoretical and on practical grounds.


University of Florida
A COMPARIsoN of the chemical composition of scallops was made with that
of other protein foods. Scallops were found to contain less protein than beef,
lamb, chicken or fish but in mineral constituents scallops excel.


Soaking in fresh water materially increased the size of the scallops but
at the same time correspondingly decreased the solids, protein and ash content.
Scallops should be washed before being placed on the market. This should
be done thoroughly but quickly for if allowed to stand in fresh water more
than five minutes they will become soaked.

University of Florida
THE DAY, the month and the year are incommensurable periods of time.
This is the source of our difficulty with the calendar. The use of a 7-day week
is an additional complication.
The Egyptians first found the length of the year, first divided it into 12
months, and first divided the day and the night into 12 hours each. The
astrology of Mesopotamia contributed the planetary 7-day week (from the
sun, moon and five visible planets) and the Saxons contributed the day names.
The Metonic cycle (285 moon months = 19 years approximately) was dis-
covered in 432 B. C. and is the basis of all "moon" calendars.
In 45 B. C., Julius Caeser constructed a "solar" calendar with a leap-year
every four years. Soon after this the Roman Senate changed the months to
their present lengths and adopted their present names.
Since the fraction of a day in the length of the year is not exactly one
quarter of a day, the Roman calendar had become ten days out of step with
the seasons by 1582. In that year Pope Gregory XIII dropped the extra ten
days and changed the leap-year rule to its present form.
There are two principal plans for reforming the present calendar: (a)
13 months of 28 days each, and (b) 12 months with equal quarters composed
of 31-, 80-, 30-day months respectively. Both plans would make the extra day
over 52 weeks a second Saturday at the end of December. The second extra
day in leap-years would be similarly attached to June. Likewise both would
fix the date of Easter. Hence the calendar for every year would be the same.

University of Florida
RAMAN SPECTRA have been obtained for water solutions of several substances.
A series of concentrations was run for each substance with molar ratios of
water to the substance in question of 1, 2, 4, 6. The frequency shifts observed
all seemed to reach a final value at a concentration of about three moles of
water to one of the given substance.
Bond Methanol Ethanol Acetic Acid I Acetone Dioxane
__ M | AM M AM M I AMI M | AM M I AM
C-C 883 6 895 ? 788 +6 884 -3
C-O 1034 -14 1046 6 1107 -10
C=O 1666 +48 1712 -11
C- H
bending 1462 0 1456 0 1481 0 1430 0 1443 0
stretching 2835 + 5 2928 + 6 2942 4 8 2925 + 5 2852 +18
stretching 2943 + 7 2974 8 2885 +11


In general, it will be noted from the above table that (1) the C-H
bending frequencies are not measurably affected; (2) the C-H stretching fre-
quencies all increase, Dioxane showing the greatest shift; (8) Acetone differs
from the others in that the C-C frequency increases, while the others decrease.
In the case of the C = 0 vibration, Acetone shows a fairly large decrease, as
opposed to a very large increase in the case of Acetic Acid.

University of Florida
THIS EXPERIMENT has been suggested by Dr. E. O. Hulburt of the Naval
Research Laboratory and is being carried on in collaboration with investi-
gators at several stations.
The absorption spectrum of the northern sky is determined each day at
noon and the extent of the absorption spectrum is measured from a chosen
reference line.
This is plotted against the days in order to determine if there is any
variation during a hurricane.
Up to this time the results have been negative.


University of Florida
WHEN THE effect of two or more genes acting jointly is not the arithmetic
sum of their separate effects, it is said that their interaction is non-additive.
Non-additive interaction of genes at the same locus is dominance; non-addi-
tive interaction of genes at different loci is epistasy. Theories of Wright and
Fisher on physiological and evolutionary aspects of dominance are extended
to epistasy, i.e. the monogenic theory is extended to the multigenic case to
obtain the foundation of a generalized theory of non-additive gene interac-
tions. Some additions to the general theory are proposed.

University of Florida
THE ABSORPTION spectrum of stretched rubber has been studied in the
region between 2ft and 8. In the case of unilateral stretch transmission
measurements indicate that the absorption bands near 8.83, and 7[ become
broader with increasing stretch while the general background absorption be-


comes more pronounced. Radial stretch was found to produce similar effects
in the 3.8g and 7t regions while the bands near 61 became less intense for
both unilateral and radial stretch. In the spectrum of rubber stretched
radially to approximately 12 times its original area a band was found near
4.8g where there is no intense absorption in the unstretched material. Since
both absorption and reflection are involved in transmission measurements, it
was necessary to determine reflection and extinction coefficients. The results
indicate that the reflection coefficient diminishes and the extinction coefficient
increases with increasing stretch. The observed variations in the extinction
coefficients are of greater magnitude than those to be expected from the known
density changes which accompany stretching.

Florida State College for Women
A FULLY automatic respiration calorimeter has been constructed. It operates
upon the following principle:
In addition to heat produced by the animal, electrically generated heat is
produced within the calorimeter. A device analogous to the self-balancing
Wheatstone bridge maintains the total heat supply (as measured by the heat
loss) constant. The electric heat is measured and its amount subtracted from
the known total. The difference represents animal heat.
Simultaneously, products of respiration are analyzed and the "indirect"
heat computed for comparison.
Experimental results will be given demonstrating the order of accuracy
of measurement with this instrument.
The author designed, constructed and operated this instrument during
the years 1935-37, in collaboration with Dr. J. R. Murlin, Director of the
Department of Vital Economics, University of Rochester.

University of Florida
A suggested logarithmic notation of the form b =- logN would simplify
the statements of certain logarithmic relationships. Thus, logbNr = r logbN
would be written bNr = rby. Likewise, the statement b9gsa = N becomes
simply b'N = N. Other simplifications result.

Cambarus hubbelli
Cambarus acherontis pallidus
University of Florida
CAMBARUS HUBBELLI was taken from roadside ditches in Holmes, Jackson,
and Washington Counties. It is a burrowing species and quite common,
especially in the flatwoods of these counties.


Cambarus acherontis pallidus inhabits the caves of Alachua County. It is
a subspecies of C. acherontis taken from an underground rivulet in Orange
County, Florida, near Lake Brantley. C. acherontis pallidus has been collected
from three caves in Alachua County, namely: Devil's Hole, Warren's Cave
and Dudley Cave, and one cave in Columbia County.


University of Florida
UP TO this time, the genus Haylockia, set up by William Herbert in 1830,
has embraced a single species, H. pusilla, native in Argentina. It had been
described previously as Sternbergia americana by Hoffmanseggischen in 1824
and, in 1840, Dietrich referred it to Zephyranthes. However, the validity of
Herbert's monotypic genus is generally accepted.
In recent years three species of plants, two Peruvian and one Bolivian,
have been referred to Zephyranthes: Z. Pseudo-Colchicum Kranzlin (1914),
Z. parvula Killip (1926) and Z. Briquettii Macbride (1980), that present cer-
tain important characteristics at variance with the accepted systematic limi-
tations for the genus Zephyranthes. Type material of Z, Pseudo-Colchicum
in the Museo Berolinensis, of Z. parvula in the United States National Her-
barium, and of Z. Briquettii in the Field Museum of Natural History have
been examined critically and the conclusion reached that these three should be
transferred to the genus Haylockia as H. Pseudo-Colchicum (Kranzlin) n.
comb., H. parvula (Killip) n. comb., and H. Briquettii (Macbride) n. comb.
Since the genus Haylockia heretofore has been monotypic, the generic
description has included only such characters as are presented in the species
H. pusilla. Because of the proposed additions to the genus, the original
generic description of Haylockia is extended. Such extension does not affect
the basic conception of the genus, nor is it incompatible with a satisfactory
systematic placement of the three plants together with the type species in the
genus Haylockia.

ARTICLE I. NAM1E. The name of this corporation shall be Florida Academy
of Sciences.
ARTICLE II. PURPOSES. The purposes of the Academy shall be to promote
scientific research, to stimulate interest in the sciences, to further the dif-
fusion of scientific knowledge, to unify the scientific interests of the state
and to issue an annual scientific publication.
ARTICLE III. MEMBERSHIP. Election to membership in the Academy shall
be by vote of the Council, upon written nomination by two members.
ARTICLE IV. TERM OF CIARTER. This corporation shall have perpetual
ARTICLE V. OFFICERS. The affairs of the Academy shall be managed by the
following officers, to-wit: President, Vice-president, Secretary and
ARTICLE VI. COUNCIL. The officers, together with the immediate past Presi-
dent, and such additional members as are provided in the By-Laws, shall
constitute the Council of the Academy.


ARTICLE VII. INITIAL OFFICERS. The names of the officers who shall manage
all the affairs of the Academy until the first election under this Charter
are as follows:
President-Herman Kurz
Vice-president-R. C. Williamson
Secretary-J. H. Kusner
Treasurer-J. F. W. Pearson
ARTICLE VIII. BY-LAWS. The By-Laws of the Academy shall be made,
altered, amended or rescinded at any annual meeting by a two-thirds vote
of the members present.
ARTICLE IX. INDEBTEDNESS. The highest amount of indebtedness or liability
to which the Academy may at any time subject itself shall never be greater
than two-thirds of the value of the property of the Academy.
ARTICLE X. REAL ESTATE. The amount in value of the real estate which the
Academy may hold, subject always to the approval of the Circuit Judge,
shall be $100,000.00.

(As Amended at the 1937 Annual Meeting)
1. The annual dues shall be two dollars for members, one dollar for asso-
ciate members, payable in advance.
2. Members or associate members whose dues become one year in arrears
shall be automatically dropped from membership, after due notice has
been given by the Secretary.
8. All persons who become members of the Academy during the year
1936 shall be designated as Charter Members of the Academy.
4. Individuals or institutions may be granted Individual Sustaining Mem-
bership or Institutional Sustaining Membership, respectively, on terms
to be arranged by the Council in each case.
1. There shall be such sections of the Academy as the Council may
2. All section meetings shall be open to all members, but members shall
vote concerning section matters only in those sections in which they are
enrolled, and no member shall be enrolled in more than two sections,
except by permission of the Council.
8. There shall be a Chairman of each section.
4. The Chairman of each section shall be, ex-officio, a member of the
1. The President shall discharge the usual duties of a presiding officer at
all meetings of the Academy and of the Council, and shall give an
address to the Academy at the final meeting of the year for which he
is elected.
2. The Vice-President shall assume the duties of the President in the
latter's absence.
8. The Secretary shall keep the records of the Academy and of the
Council. He shall have charge of the sale and exchange of the Pro-
ceedings. Subject to the approval of the Council, he may appoint an
Assistant Secretary to assist him in performing his duties.
4. The Treasurer shall have charge of the finances of the Academy.


5. The Council shall exercise -general supervision over all the affairs of
the Academy in the intervals between meetings of the Academy.
Specific duties of the Council shall be:
a) To be responsible for the publications of the Academy.
b) To elect members and associate members.
c) To fill vacancies in any of the offices of the Academy.
d) To invest the funds of the Academy.
e) To make recommendations to the Academy in matters pertaining to
general policy.
f) To appoint a nominating committee.
g) To appoint an auditing committee.
h) To appoint an Editor, an editorial committee, and a Business
Manager of the Proceedings.
i) To determine affiliation relations of the Academy.
j) To choose the time and place of meetings of the Academy.
k) Toprepare programs for the meetings of the Academy.
1) To authorize the formation of Sections of the Academy.
m) To approve the appointment of the Assistant Secretary.

1. The officers and section chairmen of the Academy shall be elected at
the last session of the annual meeting.
2. The Council shall appoint a nominating committee which shall nominate
a candidate for each office named in Section 1, but additional nomina-
tions may be made by any member.
8. Officers shall be elected by vote of the members present at the annual
4. Section chairmen shall be elected by vote of the members enrolled in
their respective sections and present at the annual meeting.
6. A plurality of the votes cast for each office shall constitute election.
6. The officers thus elected shall enter upon their duties at the adjourn-
ment of the annual meeting.
7. Vacancies which occur in any office or committee chairmanship between
annual meetings shall be filled by the Council.

1. There shall be published an annual volume to be called the Proceedings
of the Florida Academy of Sciences.
2. The Proceedings shall be under the immediate control of the Council,
through an Editor, an Editorial Committee, of which the Editor shall
be Chairman ex officio, and a Business Manager, all of whom shall be
chosen by the Council annually.
8. One copy of the Proceedings shall be supplied free to each paid up
member and associate member.
1. The fiscal year of the Academy shall be the calendar year, and the
accounts of the Treasurer shall be balanced January 1 of each year.
2. Prior to each annual meeting the Council shall select an auditing
committee of two members which shall inspect the financial records of
the Academy and report on them to the annual meeting.
8. All orders which involve payment of the funds of the Academy shall
be signed by the President and the Secretary.
1. Affiliation relations between the Academy and other organizations may
be arranged by the Council on such terms as it may decide in each
case, subject to the approval of the annual meeting.


1. There shall be at least one meeting of the Academy annually.
2. The time and place of meetings shall be determined by the Council.
3. Meetings shall be conducted under Robert's Rules of Order.
4. At least thirty days written notice of each annual meetirig shall be
5. The Council shall be the program committee for the general sessions
at any meeting. The Secretary together with the Chairman of each
section shall constitute the program committee for that section.
6. At any meeting of the Academy of which thirty days notice has been
given, those present shall constitute a quorum; at other meetings, one-
fourth of the members.
DIVISION IX. AMENDMENTS (as provided in Charter)
1. By-laws may be made, altered, amended or rescinded at any annual
meeting by a two-thirds vote of the members present.

President-H. Harold Hume, University of Florida, Gainesville.
Vice-president-Jennie Tilt, Florida State College for Women, Tallahassee
Secretary-J. H. Kusner, University of Florida, Gainesville
Treasurer-J. F. W. Pearson, University of Miami, Coral Gables
Chairman of the Biological Sciences Section-Edward P. St. John, Floral City
Chairman of the Physical Sciences Section-J. E. Spurr, Rollins College,
Winter Park
Editor of the Proceedings-T. H. Hubbell, University of Florida, Gainesville
Business Manager of the Proceedings-R. S. Johnson, University of Florida,
President-R. I. Allen, Stetson University, DeLand
Vice-president-Charlotte B. Buckland, Landon High School, Jacksonville
Secretary-J. H. Kusner, University of Florida, Gainesville
Assistant Secretary-C. I. Mosier, University of Florida, Gainesville
Treasurer-(until March 21)-J. F. W. Pearson, University of Miami, Coral
Acting Treasurer-(after 'March 21)-E. M. Miller, University of Miami,
Coral Gables
Chairman of the Biological Sciences Section-L. Y. Dyrenforth, St. Lukes
Hospital, Jacksonville
Chairman of the Physical Sciences Section-B. P. Reinsch, Florida Southern
College, Lakeland
Chairman of the Social Sciences Section-R. S. Atwood, University of Florida,
Editor of the Proceedings-H. Harold Hume, University of Florida, Gaines-
Business Manager of the Proceedings-R. S. Johnson, University of Florida,

tAdams, R. H., Miami Senior High School, Miami (Biology)
*Albee, Fred H., Venice (Medicine)
Allen, E. Ross, Florida Reptile Institute, Silver Springs (Herpetology)
*Allen, R. I., Stetson University, DeLand (Physics)
*Charter Member
tAssociate Member


*Anderson, W. S., Rollins College, Winter Park (Chemistry)
*Armstrong, J. D., Box 70, Route 1, South Jacksonville (Chemistry, Physics)
*Arnold, Lillian E., Experiment Station, University of Florida, Gainesville
*Atwood, R. S., University of Florida, Gainesville (Geography)
Babcock, Louis, M. & T. Building, Buffalo, New York (Ichthyology)
*Bacon, Milton E., Jr., 2008 Riverside Drive, Jacksonville (Archeology,
*Bahrt, G. M., P. O. Box 629, U.S.D.A. Laboratory, Orlando (Chemistry, Soils)
Baker, Harry Lee, State Forester, Tallahassee (Forestry)
*Barbour, R. B., 656 Interlachen Avenue, Winter Park (Chemistry)
*Barnette, R. M., Experiment Station, University of Florida, Gainesville
(Chemistry) [Deceased]
Barrows, W. M., Florida State College for Women, Tallahassee (Physics)
*Bass, J. F., Jr., Bass Biological Laboratory, Englewood (Marine Biology)
Beach, Richard H., Mainland High School, Daytona Beach (Biology)
*Beardslee, H. C., Altamonte Springs (Mycology)
*Becker, R. B., Experiment Station, University of Florida, Gainesville
*Becknell, G. G., University of Tampa, Tampa (Physics, Mathematics)
*Bellamy, R. F., Florida State College for Women, Tallahassee (Sociology)
*Bell, C. E., Experiment Station, University of Florida, Gainesville (Chemistry,
*Berger, E. W., Experiment Station, University of Florida, Gainesville
Berner, Lewis, University of Florida, Gainesville (Biology)
*Blackmon, G. H., Experiment Station, University of Florida, Gainesville
Blair, W. Frank, Laboratory of Vertebrate Genetics, University of Michigan,
Ann Arbor, Michigan (Biology)
*Bless, Arthur A., University of Florida, Gainesville (Physics)
*Bly, R. S., Florida Southern College, Lakeland (Chemistry)
*Boliek, M. Irene, Florida State College for Women, Tallahassee (Zoology)
*Boyd, M. F., P. O. Box 793, Tallahassee (Epidemiology)
*Brown, C. A., 3408 Lowell Street, N. W., Washington, D. C. (Chemistry,
*Bruce, Malcolm, 325 Arlington Street, Gainesville (General)
*Bryan, O. C., Box 209, Bartow (Agronomy)
*Buckland, Charlotte B., Landon High School, Jacksonville (Biology)
*Buswell, Walter M., University of Miami, Coral Gables (Botany)
*Byers, C. F., University of Florida, Gainesville (Biology)
*Camp, A. F., Citrus Experiment Station, Lake Alfred (Horticulture)
*Camp, J. P., Experiment Station, University of Florida, Gainesville
*Campbell, Nelle, Stetson University, DeLand (Zoology)
fCarlin, Kathryn L., 248 Rivo Alto Island, Miami Beach (Chemistry)
*Carr, A. F., Jr., University of Florida, Gainesville (Biology)
tCarr, Mrs. A. F., Jr., 440 Colson St., Gainesville (Biology)
*Carr, T. D., 1828 W. Church Street, Gainesville (Physics)
*Carver, W. A., Experiment Station, University of Florida, Gainesville
*Cason, T. Z., 2033 Riverside Avenue, Jacksonville (Medicine)
*Chandler, H. W., University of Florida, Gainesville (Mathematics)
*Christensen, B. V., University of Florida, Gainesville (Pharmacy)
Clawson, Mrs. E. Richey, Ponce de Leon High School, Coral Gables (Chem-
istry, Physics)
*Charter Member
tAssociate Member

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