Half Title
 Title Page
 The life of Daniel DeFoe
 Robinson Crusoe

Group Title: Robinson Crusoe
Title: The life and adventures of Robinson Crusoe, of York, mariner
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00001347/00001
 Material Information
Title: The life and adventures of Robinson Crusoe, of York, mariner with an account of his travels round three parts of the globe
Uniform Title: Robinson Crusoe
Physical Description: 2 v. : ill. ; 17 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Defoe, Daniel, 1661?-1731
Whittingham, Charles, 1767-1840 ( Printer )
Carpenter, J ( Publisher )
Booker, J ( Publisher )
Defoe, Daniel, 1661?-1731
Sharpe and Hailes ( Publisher )
Gale, Curtis, and Fenner ( Publisher )
Chiswick Press ( Printer )
Publisher: Printed at the Chiswick Press by C. Whittingham, for J. Carpenter, Old Bond Street J. Booker, New Bond Street Sharpe and Hailes, Museum, Piccadilly and Gale, Curtis, and Fenner, Paternoster Row
Place of Publication: London
Publication Date: 1812
Subject: Castaways -- Fiction   ( lcsh )
Shipwrecks -- Fiction   ( lcsh )
Survival after airplane accidents, shipwrecks, etc -- Fiction   ( lcsh )
Imaginary voyages -- 1812   ( rbgenr )
Bldn -- 1812
Genre: Imaginary voyages   ( rbgenr )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
Spatial Coverage: England -- London
Citation/Reference: NUC pre-1956
Statement of Responsibility: written by himself.
General Note: Spine title: Robinson Crusoe.
General Note: Variant of Lovett, R.W. Robinson Crusoe, 192 which has v.1: 2 unnumbered pages, p. iii-xvi, life of Defoe; v.2: p. 1-369. Library's copy v.1: 4 unnumbered pages, p. v-xvi, Life of Daniel Defoe; v.2: lacking half-title p., p. 1-360.
General Note: In marbled contemporary boards, three-quarter morocco, gilt relief decorative spines, marbled endpapers.
General Note: Parts I and II of Robinson Crusoe. Part II originally published under title: Farther adventures of Robinson Crusoe.
Funding: NEH RLG GCMP4
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00001347
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved, Board of Trustees of the University of Florida.
Resource Identifier: aleph - 001801284
oclc - 29632392
notis - AJM5045

Table of Contents
    Half Title
        Page i
        Page ii
    Title Page
        Page iii
        Page iv
    The life of Daniel DeFoe
        Page v
        Page vi
        Page vii
        Page viii
        Page ix
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        Page xi
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        Page xiii
        Page xiv
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        Page xvi
    Robinson Crusoe
        Page 1
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Full Text










3printen at tbe f Bijtoick jrec0,






DANIEL DE FOE was descended from a respect-
able family in the county of Northampton, and born
in London, about the year 1663. His father, James
Foe, was a butcher, in the parish of St. Giles's,
Cripplegate, and a protestant dissenter. Why the
subject of this memoir prefixed the De to his family
name cannot now be ascertained, nor did he at any
period of his life think it necessary to give his rea-
sons to the public. The political scribblers of the
day, however, thought proper to remedy this lack
of information, and accused him of possessing so
little of the amor patriee, as to make the addition in
order that he might not be taken for an Englishman;
though this idea could have had no other foundation
than the circumstance of his having, in consequence
of his zeal for King William, attacked the prejudices
nf his countrymen in his Trueborn Englishman."

After receiving a good education at an academy
atNewington, young De Foe, before he had attained
his twenty-first year, commenced his career as an
author, by writing a pamphlet against a very pre-
vailing sentiment in favour of the Turks, who were
at that time laying siege to Vienna. This produc-
tion, being very inferior to those of his maturer
years, was very little read, and the indignant author,
despairing of success with his pen, had recourse to
the sword; or, as he termed it, when boasting of the
exploit in his latter years, displayed his attach-
ment to liberty and protestanism," by joining the
ill-advised insurrection under the Duke of Mon-
mouth, in the west. On the failure of that unfor-
tunate enterprise, he returned again to the metro-
polis; and it is not improbable, but that the circum-
stance of his being a native of London, and his per-
son not much known in that part of the kingdom
where the rebellion took place, might facilitate his
escape, and be the means of preventing his being
brought to trial for his share in the transaction.
With the professions of a writer and a soldier, Mr.
De Foe, in the year 1685, joined that of a trader;
he was first engaged as a hosier, in Cornhill, and
afterwards as a maker of bricks and pantiles, near
Tilbury Fort, in Essex; but in consequence of spend-
ing those hours in the hilarity of the tavern which
he ought to have employed in the calculations of
lie counting-house, his commercial schemes proved

unsuccessful; and in 1694 he was obliged to abscond
from his creditors, not failing to attribute those
misfortunes to the war and the severity of the times,
which were doubtless owing to his own misconduct.
It is much to his credit, however, that after having
been freed from his debts by composition, and being
in prosperous circumstances from King William's
favour, he voluntarily paid most of his creditors
both the principal and interest of their claims. This
is such an example of honesty as it would be unjust
to De Foe and to the world to conceal. The amount
of the sums thus paid must have been very con-
siderable, as he afterwards feelingly mentions to
Lord Haversham, who had reproached him with
covetousness; With a numerous family, and no
helps but my own industry, I have forced my way
through a sea of misfortunes, and reduced my debts,
exclusive of composition, from seventeen thousand
to less than five thousand pounds."
At the beginning of the year 1700, Mr. De Foe
published a satire in verse, which excited very con-
siderable attention, called the Trueborn English-
man." Its purpose was to furnish a reply to those
who were continually abusing King William and
some of his friends as foreigners, by showing that
the present race of Englishmen was a mixed and
heterogeneous brood, scarcely any of which could
lay claim to native purity of blood. The satire
was in many parts very severe; and though it gave

high offence, it claimed a considerable share of the
public attention. The reader will perhaps be grati-
fied by a specimen of this production, wherein he
endeavours to account for-

What makes this discontented land appear
Less happy now in times of peace, than war;
Why civil feuds disturb the nation more,
Than all our bloody wars had done before:
Fools out of favour grudge at knaves in place,
And men are always honest in disgrace:
The court preferments make men knaves in course,
But they, who would be in them, would be worse.
'Tis not at foreigners that we repine,
Would foreigners their perquisites resign:
The grand contention's plainly to be seen,
To get some men put out, and some put in."

It will be immediately perceived that De Foe could
have no pretensions to the character of a poet; but
he has, notwithstanding, some nervous and well-ver-
sified lines, and in choice of subject and moral lie
is in general excellent. The Trueborn Englishman
concludes thus:
Could but our ancestors retrieve their fate,
And see their offspring thus degenerate;
How we contend for birth and names unknown,
And build on their past actions, not our own;
They'd cancel records, and their tombs deface,
And openly disown the vile degenerate race.
For fame of families is all a cheat;

For this defence of foreigners De Foe was amply
rewarded by King William, who not only ordered
him a pension, but, as his opponents denominated it,
appointed him pamphlet-writer general to the court;
an office for which he was peculiarly well calculated,
possessing, with a strong mind and a ready wit, that
kind of yielding conscience which allowed him to
support the measures of his benefactors, though con-
vinced they were injurious to his country. De Foe
now retired to Newington with his family, and for a
short time lived at ease; but the death of his royal
patron deprived him of a generous protector, and
opened a scene of sorrow which probably embittered
his future life.
He had always discovered a great inclination to
engage in religious controversy, and the furious con-
test, civil and ecclesiastical, which ensued on the
accession of Queen Anne, gave him an opportunity
of gratifying his favourite passion. He therefore
published a tract, entitled "The shortest Way with
the Dissenters, or Proposals for the Establishment
of the Church," which contained an ironical recom-
mendation of persecution, but written in so serious
a strain, that many persons, particularly Dissenters,
at first mistook its real intention. The high church
party however saw, and felt the ridicule, and, by
their influence, a prosecution was commenced against
him, and a proclamation published in the Gazette,

offering a reward for his apprehension*. When Dc
Foe found with how much rigour himself and his
pamphlet were about to be treated, he at first
secreted himself; but his printer and bookseller
being taken into custody, he surrendered, being re-
solved, as he expresses it, to throw himself upon
the favour of government, rather than that others
should be ruined for his mistakes." In July, 1703,
he was brought to trial, found guilty, and sentenced
to be imprisoned, to stand in the pillory, and to pay
a fine of two hundred marks. He underwent the
infamous part of the punishment with great forti-
tude, and it seems to have been generally thought
that he was treated with unreasonable severity. So

St. James's, January 10, 1702-3.
Whereas Daniel De Foe, alias De Fooe, is charged
with writing a scandalous and seditious pamphlet, entitled
' The shortest Way with the Dissenters:' he is a middle-
sized spare man, about 40 years old, of a brown complexion,
and dark-brown coloured hair, but wears a wig, a hooked
nose, a sharp chin, grey eyes, and a large mole near his
mouth, was born in London, and for many years was a hose-
factor, in Freeman's Yard, in Cornhill, and now is owner of
the brick and pantile works near Tilbury Fort, in Essex;
whoever shall discover the said Daniel De Foe, to one of
her Majesty's Principal Secretaries of State, or any of her
Majesty's Justices of Peace, so as he may be apprehended,
shall have a reward of f50, which her Majesty has ordered
immediately to be paid upon such discovery."
London Gaz. No. 3879,

far was he from being ashamed of his fate himself,
that he wrote a hymn to the pillory, which thus
ends, alluding to his accusers:

Tell them, the men that placed him here
Are scandals to the times;
Are at a loss to find his guilt,
And can't commit his crimes.

Pope, who has thought fit to introduce him in his
Dunciad, (probably from no other reason than party
difference) characterizes him in the following line:

Earless on high stood unabash'd De Foe.

This is one of those instances of injustice and malig-
nity which so frequently occur in the Dunciad, and
which reflect more dishonour on the author than on
the parties traduced. De Foe lay friendless and
distressed in Newgate, his family ruined, and him-
self without hopes of deliverance, till Sir Robert
Harley, who approved of his principles, and foresaw
that during a factious age such a genius could be
converted to many uses, represented his unmerited
sufferings to the Queen, and at length procured his
release. The treasurer, Lord Godolphin, also sent
a considerable sum to his wife and family, and to
him money to pay his fine and the expense of his
discharge. Gratitude and fidelity are inseparable

from an honest man; and it was this benevolent act
that prompted De Foe to support Harley, with his
able and ingenious pen, when Anne lay lifeless, and
his benefactor in the vicissitude of party was perse-
cuted by faction, and overpowered, though not con-
quered, by violence.
The talents and perseverance of De Foe began
now to be properly estimated, and as a firm sup-
porter of the administration, he was sent by Lord
Godolphin to Scotland, on an errand which, as he
says, was far from being unfit for a sovereign to
direct, or an honest man to perform. His know-
ledge of commerce and revenue, his powers of in-
sinuation, and, above all, his readiness of pen, were
deemed of no small utility in promoting the union
of the two kingdoms; of which he wrote an able
history in 1709, with two dedications, one to the
Queen, and another to the Duke of Queensbury.
Soon afterwards he unhappily, by some equivocal
writings, rendered himself suspected by both parties,
so that he once more retired to Newington, in hopes
of spending the remainder of his days in peace.
His pension being withdrawn, and wearied with
politics, he began to compose works of a different
kind.-The year 1715 may therefore be regarded
as the period of De Foe's political life. Faction
henceforth found other advocates, and parties pro-
cured other writers to disseminate their suggestions,
and to propagate their falsehoods.

In 1715 De Foe published the Family Instruc-
tor;" a work inculcating the domestic duties in a
lively manner, by narration and dialogue, and dis-
playing much knowledge of life in the middle ranks
of society. Religious Courtship" also appeared
soon after, which, like the Family Instructor," is
eminently religious and moral in its tendency, and
strongly impresses on the mind that spirit of sobriety
and private devotion for which the dissenters have
generally been distinguished. The most celebrated
of all his works, The Life and Adventures of
Robinson Crusoe," appeared in 1719. This work has
passed through numerous editions, and been trans-
lated into almost all modern languages. The great
invention which is displayed in it, the variety of in-
cidents and circumstances which it contains, related
in the most easy and natural manner, together with
the excellency of the moral and religious reflections,
render it a performance of very superior and uncom-
mon merit, and one of the most interesting works
that ever appeared. It is strongly recommended
by Rosseau as a book admirably calculated to pro-
mote the purposes of natural education; and Dr.
Blair says, No fiction, in any language, was ever
better supported than the Adventures of Robinson
Crusoe. While it is carried on with that appear-
ance of truth and simplicity, which takes a strong
hold of the imagination of all readers, it suggests,
at the same time, very useful instruction; by showing

how much the native powers of man may be exerted
for surmounting the difficulties of any external situ-
ation." It has been pretended, that De Foe sur-
reptitiously appropriated the papers of Alexander
Selkirk, a Scotch mariner, who lived four years
alone on the island of Juan Fernandez, and a sketch
of whose story had before appeared in the voyage
of Captain Woodes Rogers. But this charge, though
repeatedly and confidently brought, appears to be
totally destitute of any foundation. De Foe pro-
bably took some general hints for his work from the
story of Selkirk, but there exists no proof whatever,
nor is it reasonable to suppose that he possessed
any of his papers or memoirs, which had been pub-
lished seven years before the appearance of Robin-
son Crusoe. As a farther proof of De Foe's inno-
cence, Captain Rogers' Account of Selkirk may be
produced, in which it is said that the latter had
neither preserved pen, ink, or paper, and had, in a
great measure, lost his language; consequently De
Foe could not have received any written assistance,
and we have only the assertion of his enemies to
prove that he had any verbal.
The great success of Robinson Crusoe induced
its author to write a number of other lives and
adventures, some of which were popular in their
times, though at present nearly forgotten. One of
his latest publications was A Tour through the
Island of Great Britain," a performance of very

inferior merit; but De Foe was now the garrulous
old man, and his spirit (to use the words of an in-
genious biographer) like a candle struggling in
the socket, blazed and sunk, blazed and sunk, till
it disappeared at length in total darkness." His
laborious and unfortunate life was finished on the
26th of April, 1731, in, the parish of St. Giles's,
Daniel De Foe possessed very extraordinary ta-
lents; as a commercial writer, he is fairly entitled
to stand in the foremost rank among his contempo-
raries, whatever may be their performances or their
fame. His distinguishing characteristics are origi-
nality, spirit, and a profound knowledge of his sub-
ject, and in these particulars he has seldom been
surpassed. As the author of Robinson Crusoe he
has a claim, not only to the admiration, but to the
gratitude of his countrymen; and so long as we
have a regard for supereminent merit, and take an
interest in the welfare of the rising generation, that
gratitude will not cease to exist. But the opinion
of the learned and ingenious Dr. Beattie will be
the best eulogium that can be pronounced on that
celebrated romance: Robinson Crusoe," says the
Doctor, must be allowed, by the most rigid moral-
ist, to be one of those novels which one may read,
not only with pleasure, but also with profit. It
breathes throughout a spirit of piety and benevo-
lence; it sets in a very striking light the importance

of the mechanic arts, which they, who know not
what it is to be without them, are so apt to under-
value; it fixes in the mind a lively idea of the hor-
rors of solitude, and, consequently, of the sweets
of social life, and of the blessings we derive from
conversation and mutual aid; and it shows how,
by labouring with one's own hands, one may secure
independence, and open for one's self many sources
of health and amusement. I agree, therefore, with
Rosseau, that it is one of the best books that can
be put into the hands of children."





I WAS born in the year 1632, in the city of York,
of a good family, though not of that country, my
father being a foreigner of Bremen, who settled first
at Hull: he got a good estate by merchandise, and
leaving off his trade, lived afterwards at York; from
whence he had married my mother, whose relations

were named Robinson, a very good family in that
country, and from whom I was called Robinson
Kreutznaer; but, by the usual corruption of words
in England, we are now called, nay we call our-
selves, and write our name Crusoe; and so my com-
panions always called me.
I had two elder brothers, one of whom was lieute-
nant-colonel to an English regiment of foot in Flan-
ders, formerly commanded by the famous Colonel
Lockhart, and was killed at the battle near Dunkirk
against the Spaniards. What became of my second
brother I never knew, any more than my father or
mother did know what was become of me.
Being the third son of the family, and not bred to
any trade, my head began to be filled very early with
rambling thoughts: my father, who was very ancient,
had given me a competent share of learning, as far
as house-education and a country free-school gene-
rally go, and designed me for the law; bu I would
be satisfied with nothing but going to sea; -and my
inclination to this led me so strongly against the will,
nay, the commands of my father, and against all the
entreaties and persuasions of my mother and other
friends, that there seemed to be something fatal in
that propension of nature, tending directly to the
life of misery which was to befall me. .
My father, a wise and grave man, gave me serious
and excellent counsel against what he foresaw was
my design. He called me one morning into his
chamber, where he was confined by the gout, and
expostulated very warmly with me upon this subject:
he asked me what reasons more than a mere wander-
ing inclination I had for leaving my father's house

and my native country, where I might be well intro-
duced, and had a prospect of raising my fortune by
application and industry, with a life of ease and
pleasure. He told me it was for men of desperate
fortunes on one hand, or of aspiring, superior for-
tunes on the other, who went abroad upon adven-
tures, to rise by enterprise, and make themselves
famous in undertakings of a nature out of the com-
mon road; that these things were all either too far
above me, or too far below me; that mine was the
middle state, or what might be called the upper
station of low life, which he had found, by long ex-
perience, was the best state in the world, the most
suited to human happiness, not exposed to the mise-
ries and hardships, the labour and sufferings of the
mechanic part of mankind, and not embarrassed
with the pride, luxury, ambition, and envy of the
upper part of mankind. He told me, I might judge
of the happiness of this state by one thing, viz.
that this was the state of life which all other people
envied; that kings have frequently lamented the
miserable consequences of being born to great things,
and wish they had been placed in the middle of the
two extremes, between the mean and the great; that
the wise man gave his testimony to this, as the just
standard of true felicity, when he prayed to have
neither poverty nor riches.
He bid me observe it, and I should always find,
that the calamities of life were shared among the
upper and lower part of mankind; but that the mid-
dle station had the fewest disasters, and was not ex-
posed to so many vicissitudes as the higher or lower
part of mankind; nay, they .were not subjected to

so many distempers and uneasinesses, either of body
or mind, as those were, who, by vicious living, luxury,
and extravagances, on one hand, or by hard labour,
want of necessaries, and mean and insufficient diet,
on the other hand, bring distempers upon themselves
by the natural consequencesof their way of living;
that the middle station of life was calculated for all
kind of virtues and all kind of enjoyments; that
peace and plenty were the handmaids of a middle
fortune; that temperance, moderation, quietness,
health, society, all agreeable diversions, and all de-
sirable pleasures, were the blessings attending the
middle station of life; that this way men went silently
and smoothly through the world, and comfortably
out of it, not embarrassed with the labours of the
hands or of the head, not sold to the life of slavery
for daily bread, or harassed with perplexed circum-
stances, which rob the soul of peace, and the body
of rest; not enraged with the passion of envy, or
secret burning lust of ambition for great things; but,
in easy circumstances, sliding gently through the
world, and sensibly tasting the sweets of living,
without the bitter, feeling that they are happy, and
learning by every day's experience to know it more
After this, he pressed me earnestly, and in the
most affectionate manner, not to play the young
man, not to precipitate myself into miseries which
nature, and the station of life I was born in, seemed
to have provided against; that I was under no neces-
sity of seeking my bread; that he would do well
for me, and endeavour to enter me fairly into the
station of life which he had been just recommending

to me; and that if I was not very easy and happy
in the world, it must be my mere fate or fault that
must hinder it; and that he should have nothing to
answer for, having thus discharged his duty in warn-
ing me against measures which he knew would be
to my hurt: in a word, that as he would do very
kind things for me if I would stay and settle at
home as he directed, so he would not have so much
hand in my misfortunes, as to give me any encou-
ragement to go away: and to close all, he told me
I had my elder brother for an example, to whom he
had used the same earnest persuasions to keep him
from going into the Low Country wars, but could
not prevail, his young desires prompting him to run
into the army, where he was killed; and though he
said he would not cease to pray for me, yet he would
venture to say to me, that if I did take this foolish
step, God would not bless me, and I would have
leisure hereafter to reflect upon having neglected
his counsel, when there might be none to assist in
my recovery.
I observed in this last part of his discourse, which
was truly prophetic, though I suppose my father did
not know it to be so himself; I say, I observed the
tears run down his face very plentifully, and espe-
cially when he spoke of my brother who was killed:
and that when he spoke of my having leisure to re-
pent, and none to assist me, he was so moved, that
he broke off the discourse, and told me, his heart
uas so full he could say no more to me.
I was sincerely affected with this discourse, as
indeed who could be otherwise? and I resolved not
to think of going abroad any more, but to settle at
B 2

home according to my father's desire. But, alas!
a few days wore it all off; and, in short, to prevent
any of my father's further importunities, in a few
weeks after I resolved to run quite away from him.
However, I did not act so hastily neither as my first
heat of resolution prompted, but I took my mother,
at a time when I thought her a little pleasanter than
ordinary, and told her, that my thoughts were so
entirely bent upon seeing the world, that I should
never settle to any thing with resolution enough to
go through with it, and my father had better give
me his consent than force me to go without it; that
I was now eighteen years old, which was too late to
go apprentice to a trade, or clerk to an attorney;
that I was sure, if I did, I should never serve out my
time, and I should certainly run away from my
master before my time was out, and go to sea; and
if she would speak to my father to let me go one
voyage abroad, if I came home again, and did not
like it, I would go no more, and I would promise,
by a double diligence, to recover that time I had
This put my mother into a great passion: she
told me, she knew it would be to no purpose to
speak to my father upon any such subject; that he
knew too well what was my interest to give his con-
sent to any such thing so much for my hurt; and
that she wondered how I could think of any such
thing after such a discourse as I had had with my
father, and such kind and tender expressions as she
knew my father had used to me; and that, in short,
if I would ruin myself, there was no help for me;
but I might depend I should never have their con-

sent to it: that for her part, she would not have so
much hand in my destruction; and I should never
have it to say, that my mother was willing when my
father was not.
Though my mother refused to move it to my
father, yet, as I have heard afterwards, she reported
all the discourse to him, and that my father, after
showing a great concern at it, said to her with a
sigh, That boy might be happy if he would stay
at home; but if he goes abroad, he will be the most
miserable wretch that was ever born; I can give no
consent to it."
It was not till almost a year after this that I broke
loose, though, in the mean time, I continued obsti-
nately deaf to all proposals of settling to business,
and frequently expostulating with my father and
mother about their being so positively determined
against what they knew my inclinations prompted
me to. But being one day at Hull, where I went
casually, and without any purpose of making an
elopement at that time; but, I say, being there, and
one of my companions then going by sea to London,
in his father's ship, and prompting me to go with
them, with the common allurement of sea-faring
men, viz. that it should cost me nothing for my
passage, I consulted neither father or mother any
more, not so much as sent them word of it; but
leaving them to hear of it as they might, without
asking God's blessing, or my father's, without any
consideration of circumstances or consequences, and
in an ill hour, God knows, on the first of Septem-
ber, 1651, I went on board a ship bound for London.
Never any young adventurer's misfortunes, I believe,

began sooner, or continued longer than mine. The
ship was no sooner gotten out of the Humber, but
the wind began to blow, and the waves to rise in a
most frightful manner; and, as I had never been at
sea before, I was most inexpressibly sick in body,
and terrified in mind. I began now seriously to
reflect upon what I had done, and how justly I was
overtaken by the judgment of Heaven for wickedly
leaving my father's house, and abandoning my duty.
All the good counsel of my parents, my father's tears
and my mother's entreaties, came now fresh into my
mind; and my conscience, which was not yet come
to the pitch of hardness to which it has been since,
reproached me with the contempt of advice, and the
breach of my duty to God and my father.
All this while the storm increased, and the sea,
which I had never been upon before, went very
high, though nothing like what I have seen many
times since; no, nor like what I saw a few days
after: but it was enough to affect me then, who was
but a young sailor, and had never known any thing
of the matter. I expected every wave would have
swallowed us up, and that every time the ship fell
down, as I thought, in the trough or hollow of the
sea, we should never rise more; and in this agony
of mind I made many vows and resolutions, that if
it would please God here to spare my life this one
voyage, if ever I got once my foot upon dry land
again, I would go directly home to my father, and
never set it into a ship again while I lived; that I
would take his advice, and never run myself into
such miseries as these any more. Now I saw plainly
the goodness of his observations about the middle

station of life, how easy, how comfortably lie had
lived all his days, and never had been exposed to
tempests at sea, or troubles on shore; and I resolved
that I would, like a true repenting prodigal, go
home to my father.
These wise and sober thoughts continued during
the storm, and indeed some time after; but the next
day, as the wind was abated, and the sea calmer, I
began to be a little inured to it: however, I was
very grave for all that day, being also a little sea-sick
still; but towards night the weather cleared up, the
wind was quite over, and a charming fine evening
followed; the sun went down perfectly clear, and
rose so the next morning; and having little or no
wind, and a smooth sea, the sun shining upon it, the
sight was, as I thought, the most delightful that I
ever saw.
I had slept well in the night, and was now no more
sea-sick, but very cheerful, looking with wonder upon
the sea that was so rough and terrible the day before,
and could be so calm and so pleasant in a little
time after. And now, lest my good resolutions
should continue, my companion, who had indeed
enticed me away, came to me and said, Well,
Bob," clapping me on the shoulder, how do you
do after it? I warrant you were frightened, wa'n't
you, last night, when it blew but a cap-full of wind?"
-" A cap-full do you call it?" said I; "it was a ter-
rible storm."-" A storm, you fool you," replied he,
" do you call that a storm? why it was nothing at
all; give us but a good ship and sea-room, and we
think nothing of such a squall of wind as that; but
you're but a fresh-water sailor, Bob. Come, let us

make a bowl of punch, and we'll forget all that; do
you see what charming weather it is now ?" To make
short this sad part of my story, we went the old way
of all sailors; the punch was made, and I was made
drunk with it; and in that one night's wickedness I
drowned all my repentance, all my reflections upon
my past conduct, and all my resolutions for my
future. In a word, as the sea was returned to its
smoothness of surface and settled calmness by the
abatement of that storm, so the hurry of my thoughts
being over, my fears and apprehensions of being
swallowed up by the sea being forgotten, and the
current of my former desires returned, I entirely
forgot the vows and promises that I made in my
distress. I found, indeed, some intervals of reflec-
tion; and serious thoughts did, as it were, endea-
vour to return again sometimes; but I shook them
off, and roused myself from them as it were from a
distemper, and applying myself to drinking and
company, soon mastered the return of those fits, for
so I called them; and I had in five or six days got
as complete a victory over conscience, as any young
fellow that resolved not to be troubled with it, could
desire: but I was to have another trial for it still;
and Providence, as in such cases generally it does,
resolved to leave me entirely without excuse: for if
I would not take this for a deliverance, the next was
to be such a one as the worst and most hardened
wretch among us would confess both the danger and
the mercy of.
The sixth day of our being at sea we came into
Yarmouth Roads; the wind having been contrary,
and the weather calm, we had made but little wav

since the storm. Here we were obliged to come to
anchor, and here we lay, the wind continuing con-
trary, viz. at south-west, for seven or eight days,
during which time a great many ships from New-
castle came into the same roads, as the common har-
hour where the ships might wait for a wind for the
We had not, however, rid here so long, but should
have tided it up the river, but that the wind blew too
fresh; and, after we had lain four or five days, blew
very hard. However, the roads being reckoned as
good as a harbour, the anchorage good, and our
.round tackle very strong, our men were uncon-
cerned, and not in the least apprehensive of danger,
but spent the time in rest and mirth, after the manner
of the sea; but the eighth day in the morning the
wind increased, and we had all hands at work to
strike our top-masts, and make every thing snug and
close, that the ship might ride as easy as possible.
By noon the sea went very high indeed, and our ship
rode forecastle in, shipped several seas, and we
thought once or twice our anchor had come home;
upon which our master ordered out the sheet anchor;
so that we rode with two anchors a-head, and the
cables veered out to the better end.
By this time it blew a terrible storm indeed; and
now I began to see terror and amazement in the faces
even of the seamen themselves. The master, though
vigilant in the business of preserving the ship, yet
as he went in and out of his cabin by me, I could
hear him softly say to himself several times, Lord,
be merciful to us! we shall be all lost; we shall
be all undone!" and the like. During these first

hurries I was stupid, lying still in my cabin, which was
in the steerage, and cannot describe my temper: I
could ill reassume the first penitence which I had
so apparently trampled upon, and hardened myself
against: I thought the bitterness of death had been
past, and that this would be nothing like the first:
but when the master himself came by me, as I said
just now, and said we should be all lbst, I was
dreadfully frighted: I got up out of my cabin, and
looked out; but such a dismal sight I never saw;
the sea went mountains high, and broke upon us
every three or four minutes: when I could look
about, I could see nothing but distress around us:
two ships that rid near us, we found, had cut their
masts by the board, being deep laden; and our
men cried out, that a ship which rid about a mile
a-head of us was foundered. Two more ships being
driven from their anchors, were run out of the roads
to sea, at all adventures, and that with not a mast
standing. The light ships fared the best, as not so
much labouring in the sea; but two or three of
them drove, and came close by us, running away
with only their spritsail out before the wind.
Towards evening the mate and boatswain begged
the master of our ship to let them cut away the
fore-mast, which he was very unwilling to do: but
the boatswain protesting to him, that if he did not,
the ship would founder, he consented; and when
they had cut away the fore-mast, the main-mast
stood so loose, and shook the ship so much, they
were obliged to cut her away also, and make a clear
Any one may judge what a condition I must be it

at all this, who was but a young sailor, and who had
been in such a fright before at but a little. But if
I can express at this distance the thoughts that I
had about me at that time, I was in tenfold more
horror of mind upon account of my former convic-
tions, and the having returned from them to the
resolutions I had wickedly taken at first, than I was
at death itself; and these, added to the terror of
the storm, put me in such a condition, that I can by
no words describe it. But the worst was not come
yet; the storm continued with such fury, that the
seamen themselves acknowledged they had never
known a worse. We had a good ship, but she was
deep laden, and wallowed in the sea, that the
seamen every now and then cried out, she would
founder. It was my advantage in one respect, that
I did not know what they meant by founder, till I
inquired. However, the storm was so violent, that
I saw what is not often seen, the master, the boat-
swain, and some others more sensible than the rest,
at their prayers, and expecting every moment when
the ship would go to the bottom. In the middle of
the night, and under all the rest of our distresses,
one of the men that had been down on purpose to
see, cried out, we had sprung a leak; another said,
there was four foot water in the hold. Then all
hands were called to the pump. At that very word
my heart, as I thought, died within me, and I fell
backwards upon the side of my bed where I sat,
into the cabin. However, the men roused me, and
told me, that I, that was able to do nothing before,
was as well able to pump as another; at which I
stirred up, and went to the pump and worked very

heartily. While this was doing, the master seeing
some light colliers, who, not able to ride out the
storm, were obliged to slip and run away to sea, and
would not come near us, ordered us to fire a gun as
a signal of distress. I, who knew nothing what that
meant, was so surprised, that I thought the ship had
broke, or some dreadful thing had happened. In a
word, I was so surprised, that I fell down in a swoon.
As this was a time when every body had his own
life to think of, nobody minded me, or what was
become of me; but another man stept up to the
pump, and thrusting me aside with his foot, let me
lie, thinking I had been dead; and it was a great
while before I came to myself.
We worked on; but the water increasing in the
hold, it was apparent that the ship would founder;
and though the storm began to abate a little, yet as
it was not possible she could swim till we might run
into a port, so the master continued firing guns for
help; and a light ship, who had rid it out just a-head
of us, ventured a boat out to help us. It was with
the utmost hazard the boat came near us, but it was
impossible for us to get on board, or for the boat to
lie near the ship's side, till at last the men rowing
very heartily, and venturing their lives to save ours,
our men cast them a rope over the stern with a buoy
to it, and then veered it out a great length, which
they, after great labour and hazard, took hold of, and
we hauled them close under our stern, and got all
into their boat. It was to no purpose for them or
us, after we were in the boat, to think of reaching
to their own ship; so all agreed to let her drive, and
only to pull her in towards shore as much as vw

could; and our master promised them, that if the
boat was staved upon shore he would make it good
to their master: so partly rowing and partly driving,
our boat went away to the northward, sloping towards
the shore almost as far as Winterton Ness.
We were not much more than a quarter of an
hour out of our ship but we saw her sink, and then
I understood for the first time what was meant by a
ship foundering in the sea. I must acknowledge I
had hardly eyes to look up when the seamen told
me she was sinking; for from that moment they
rather put me into the boat, than that I might be
said to go in; my heart was, as it were, dead within
me, partly with fright, partly with horror of mind,
and the thoughts of what was yet before me.
While we were in this condition, the men yet
labouring at the oar to bring the boat near the shore,
we could see (when, our boat mounting the waves,
we were able to see the shore) a great many people
running along the strand to assist us when we should
come near; but we made but slow way towards
the shore; nor were we able to reach it, till,
being past the light-house at Winterton, the shore
falls off to the westward, towards Cromer, and so the
land broke off a little the violence of the wind.
Here we got in, and, though not without much diffi-
culty, got all safe on shore, and walked afterwards
on foot to Yarmouth, where, as unfortunate men,
we were used with great humanity, as well by the
magistrates of the town, who assigned us good
quarters, as by particular merchants and owners of
ships, and had money given us sufficient to carry us
either to London or back to Hull, as we thought

Had 1 now had the sense to have gone back to
Hull, and have gone home, I had been happy, and
my father, an emblem of our blessed Saviour's para-
ble, had even killed the fatted calf for me; for
hearing the ship I went away in was cast away in
Yarmouth Roads, it was a great while before he
had any assurance that I was not drowned.
But my ill fate pushed me on now with an obsti-
nacy that nothing could resist; and though I had
several times loud calls from my reason, and my
more composed judgment, to go home, yet I had no
power to do it. I know not what to call this, nor
will I urge that it is a secret overruling decree that
hurries us on to be the instruments of our own
destruction, even though it be before us, and that
we rush upon it with our eyes open. Certainly,
nothing but some such decreed unavoidable misery
attending, and which it was impossible for me to
escape, could have pushed me forward against the
calm reasoning and persuasions of my most retired
thoughts, and against two such visible instructions
as I had met with in my first attempt.
My comrade, who had helped to harden me before,
and who was the master's son, was now less forward
than I. The first time he spoke to me after we were
at Yarmouth, which was not till two or three days,
for we were separated in the town to several quar-
ters; I say, the first time he saw me, it appeared his
tone was altered, and looking very melancholy, and
shaking his head, asked me how I did, and telling
his father who I was, and how I had come this voy-
age only for a trial, in order to go farther abroad:
his father turning to me with a very grave and
concerned tone, Young man," says he, you

ought never to go to sea any more; you ought to
take this for a plain and visible token that you are
not to be a seafaring man."-" Why, Sir," said I,
will you go to sea no more?" That is another
case," said he; it is my calling, and therefore my
duty; but as you made this voyage for a trial, you
see what a taste Heaven has given you of what you
are to expect if you persist. Perhaps this has all
befallen us on your account, like Jonah in the ship
of Tarshish. Pray," continues he, "what are you;
and on what account did you go to sea?" Upon that
I told him some of my story; at the end of which
he burst out with a strange kind of passion; What
had I done," says he, that such an unhappy
wretch should come into my ship? I would not set
my foot in the same ship with thee again for a thou-
sand pounds." This indeed was, as I said, an excur-
sion of his spirits, which were yet agitated by the
sense of his loss, and was farther than he could
have authority to go. However, he afterwards
talked very gravely to me, exhorting me to go back
to my father, and not tempt Providence to my ruin;
told me I might see a visible hand of Heaven against
me. And young man," said he, depend upon
it, if you do not go back, wherever you go, you will
meet with nothing but disasters and disappointments,
till your father's words are fulfilled upon you."
We parted soon after; for I made him little
answer, and I saw him no more: which way he went,
I know not. As for me, having some money in my
pocket, I travelled to London by land; and there, as
well as on the road, had many struggles with myself,

v hat course of life I should take, and whether I
should go home, or go to sea.
As to going home, shame opposed the best notions
that offered to my thoughts; and it immediately
occurred to me how I should be laughed at among
the neighbours, and should be ashamed to see, not
my father and mother only, but even every body
else; from whence I have since often observed, how
incongruous and irrational the common temper of
mankind is, especially of youth, to that reason which
ought to guide them in such cases, viz. that they are
not ashamed to sin, and yet are ashamed to repent;
nor ashamed of the action for which they ought
justly to be esteemed fools, but are ashamed of the
returning, which only can make them be esteemed
wise men.
In this state of life, however, I remained some
time, uncertain what measures to take, and what
course of life to lead. An irresistible reluctance
continued to going home; and as I stayed a while,
the remembrance of the distress I had been in wore
off; and as that abated, the little notion I had in my
desires to a return wore off with it, till at last I
quite laid aside the thoughts of it, and looked out
for a voyage.
That evil influence which carried me first away
from my father's house, that hurried me into the
wild and indigested notion of raising my fortune;
and that impressed those conceits so forcibly upon
me, as to make me deaf to all good advice, and to
the entreaties and even the commands of my father:
I say, the same influence, whatever it was, presented

the most unfortunate of all enterprises to my view;
and I went on board a vessel bound to the coast of
Africa; or, as our sailors vulgarly call it, a voyage
to Guinea.
It was my great misfortune that in all these adven-
tures I did not ship myself as a sailor; whereby,
though I might indeed have worked a little harder
than ordinary, yet at the same time I had learnt the
duty and office of a foremast-man; and in time might
have qualified myself for a mate or lieutenant, if not
for a master. But as it was always my fate to choose
for the worse, so I did here; for having money in
my pocket, and good clothes upon my back, I would
always go on board in the habit of a gentleman;
and so I neither had any business in the ship, or
learnt to do any.
It was my lot first of all to fall into pretty good
company in London, which does not always happen
to such loose and unguided young fellows as I then
was; the devil generally not omitting to lay some
snare for them very early: but it was not so with
me. I first fell acquainted with the master of a ship
who had been on the coast of Guinea; and who,
having had very good success there, was resolved to
go again; and who taking a fancy to my conver-
sation, which was not at all disagreeable at that
time, hearing me say I had a mind to see the world,
told me if I would go the voyage with him I should
be at no expense; I should be his messmate and his
companion; and if I could carry any thing with me,
I should have all the advantage of it that the trade
would admit; and perhaps I might meet with some

I embraced the offer; and entering into a strict
friendship with this captain, who was an honest and
plain-dealing man, I went the voyage with him, and
carried a small adventure with me, which, by the
disinterested honesty of my friend the captain, I
increased very considerably; for I carried about
40 in such toys and trifles as the captain directed
me to buy. This 40 I had mustered together by
the assistance of some of my relations whom I cor-
responded with, and who, 1 believe, got my father,
or at least my mother, to contribute so much as that
to my first adventure.
This was the only voyage which I may say I was
successful in all my adventures, and which I owe to
the integrity and honesty of my friend the captain;
under whom also I got a competent knowledge of
the mathematics and the rules of navigation, learnt
how to keep an account of the ship's course, take an
observation, and, in short, to understand some things
that were needful to be understood by a sailor: for,
as he took delight to instruct me, I took delight to
learn; and, in a word, this voyage made me both a
sailor and a merchant: for I brought home five
pounds nine ounces of gold-dust for my adventure,
which yielded me in London at my return almost
300, and this filled me with those aspiring thoughts
which have so completed my ruin.
Yet even in this voyage I had my misfortunes too;
particularly, that I was continually sick, being
thrown into a violent calenture by the excessive heat
of the climate; our principal trading being upon
the coast, from the latitude of 15 degrees north
even to the line itself.

I was now set up for a Guinea trader; and my
friend, to my great misfortune, dying soon after his
arrival, I resolved to go the same voyage again, and
I embarked in the same vessel with one who was his
mate in his former voyage, and had now got the
command of the ship. This was the unhappiest
voyage that ever man made; for though I did not
carry quite 100 of my new-gained wealth, so that
I had 200 left, and which I lodged with my friend's
widow, who was very just to me, yet I fell into terri-
ble misfortunes in this voyage; and the first was
this, viz. our ship making her course towards the
Canary Islands, or rather between those islands and
the African shore, was surprised in the grey of the
morning by a Turkish rover, of Sallee, who gave
chase to us with all the sail she could make. We
crowded also as much canvass as our yards would
spread, or our masts carry to have got clear; but
finding the pirate gained upon us, and would cer-
tainly come up with us in a few hours, we prepared
to fight; our ship having twelve guns, and the rover
eighteen. About three in the afternoon he came up
with us, and bringing to, by mistake, just athwart our
quarter, instead of athwart our stern, as he intended,
we brought eight of our guns to bear on that side,
and poured in a broadside upon him, which made
him sheer off again, after returning our fire, and
pouring in also his small-shot from near 200 men
which he had on board. However, we had not a
man touched, all our men keeping close. He pre-
pared to attack us again, and we to defend ourselves;
but laying us on board the next time upon our other
quarter, he entered sixty men upon our decks, who

immediately fell to cutting and hacking the sails
and rigging. We plied them with small-shot, half-
pikes, powder-chests, and such like, and cleared our
deck of them twice. However, to cut short this me-
lancholy part of our story, our ship being disabled,
and three of our men killed and eight wounded, we
were obliged to yield, and were carried all prisoners
into Sallee, a port belonging to the Moors.
The usage I had there was not so dreadful as at
first I apprehended; nor was I carried up the coun-
try to the emperor's court, as the rest of our men
were, but was kept by the captain of the rover as
his proper prize, and made his slave, being young
and nimble, and fit for his business. At this sur-
prising change of my circumstances, from a mer-
chant to a miserable slave, I was perfectly over-
whelmed; and now I looked back upon my father's
prophetic discourse to me, that I should be mise-
rable, and have none to relieve me, which I thought
was now so effectually brought to pass, that I could
not be worse; that now the hand of Heaven had
overtaken me, and I was undone without redemp-
tion: but, alas! this was but a taste of the misery
I was to go through, as will appear in the sequel of
this story.
As my new patron, or master, had taken me home
to his house, so I was in hopes that he would take
me with him when he went to sea again, believing
that it would sometime or other be his fate to be
taken by a Spanish or Portugal man of war; and
that then I should be set at liberty. But this hope
of mine was soon taken away; for when he went to
sea, he left me on shore to look after his little gar-

den, and do the common drudgery of slaves about
his house; and when lie came home again from his
cruise, lie ordered me to lie in the cabin to look
after the ship.
Here I meditated nothing but my escape, and
what method I might take to effect it, but found no
way that had the least probability in it: nothing
presented to make the supposition of it rational;
for I had nobody to communicate it to that would
embark with me, no fellow slave, no Englishman,
Irishman, or Scotchman there but myself; so that for
two years, though I often pleased myself with the
imagination, yet I never had the least encouraging
prospect of putting it in practice.
After about two years an odd circumstance pre-
sented itself, which put the old thought of making
some attempt for my liberty again in my head. My
patron lying at home longer than usual without fit-
ting out his ship, which, as I heard, was for want of
money, he used constantly, once or twice a week,
sometimes oftener, if the weather was fair, to take
the ship's pinnace, and go out into the road a-fishing;
and as he always took me and a young Moresco
with him to row the boat, we made him very merry,
and I proved very dexterous in catching fish; inso-
much that sometimes he would send me with a Moor,
one of his kinsmen, and the youth of Moresco, as
they called him, to catch a dish of fish for him.
It happened one time, that going a-fishing in a
stark calm morning, a fog rose so thick, that though
we were not half a league from the shore we lost
sight of it; and rowing we knew not whither or
which way, we laboured all day, and all the next
night, and when the morning came we found we had

pulled off to sea instead of pulling in for the shore;
and that we were at least two leagues from the
shore: however, we got well in again, though with
a great deal of labour and some danger; for the
wind began to blow pretty fresh in the morning;
but particularly we were all very hungry.
But our patron, warned by this disaster, resolved
to take more care of himself for the future; and
having lying by him the long-boat of our English
ship he had taken, he resolved he would not go
a-fishing any more without a compass and some pro-
vision; so he ordered the carpenter of his ship,
who also was an English slave, to build a little state-
room, or cabin, in the middle of the long-boat, like
that of a barge, with a place to stand behind it to
steer and haul home the main-sheet; and room be-
fore for a hand or two to stand and work the sails:
she sailed with what we call a shoulder of mutton
sail; and the boom gibbed over the top of the cabin,
which lay very snug and low, and had in it room
for him to lie, with a slave or two, and a table to
eat on, with some small lockers to put in some
bottles of such liquor as he thought fit to drink;
and particularly his bread, rice, and coffee.
We went frequently out with this boat a-fishing,
and as I was most dexterous to catch fish for him,
he never went without me. It happened that he had
appointed to go out in this boat, either for pleasure
or for fish, with two or three Moors of some distinc-
tion in that place, and for whom he had provided
extraordinarily, and had therefore sent on board the
boat over-night a larger store of provisions than or-
dinary; and had ordered me to get ready three
tuzees with powder and shot, which were on board

his ship; for that they designed some sport of fowl-
ing as well as fishing.
I got all things ready as he had directed, and
waited the next morning with the boat washed clean,
her ensign and pendants out, and every thing to
accommodate his guests; when by and by my patron
came on board alone, and told me his guests had
put off going, upon some business that fell out, and
ordered me with the man and boy, as usual, to go
out with the boat and catch them some fish, for that
his friends were to sup at his house; and commanded
that as soon as I got some fish I should bring it home
to his house; all which I prepared to do.
This moment my former notions of deliverance
darted into my thoughts, for now I found I was like
to have a little ship at my command; and my master
being gone, I prepared to furnish myself, not for
fishing business, but for a voyage; though I knew
not, neither did I so much as consider, whither I
should steer; for any where, to get out of that
place, was my way.
My first contrivance was to make a pretence to
speak to this Moor, to get something for our subsist-
ence on board; for I told him we must not presume
to eat of our patron's bread; he said, that was true:
so he brought a large basket of rusk or biscuit of
their kind, and three jars with fresh water, into the
boat. I knew where my patron's case of bottles
stood, which it was evident, by the make, were taken
out of some English prize, and I conveyed them into
the boat while the Moor was on shore, as if they had
been there before for our master: I conveyed also
a great lump of bees-wax into the boat, which
VOL. i. D

weighed above half a hundred weight, with a parcel
of twine or thread, a hatchet, a saw, and a hammer,
all which were of great use to us afterwards, espe-
cially the wax to make candles. Another trick I
tried upon him, which he innocently came into also;
his name was Ismael, whom they call Muley, or
Moley; so I called him: Moley," said I, our
patron's guns are on board the boat; can you not
get a little powder and shot? it may be we may kill
some alcamies (a fowl like our curlews) for ourselves,
for I know he keeps the gunner's stores in the ship."
-" Yes," says he, I'll bring some;" and accord-
ingly he brought a great leather pouch which held
about a pound and a half of powder, or rather more;
and another with shot, that had five or six pounds,
with some bullets, and put all into the boat: at the
same time I had found some powder of my master's
in the great cabin, with which I filled one of the
large bottles in the case, which was almost empty,
pouring what was in it into another; and thus fur-
nished with every thing needful, we sailed out of the
port to fish. The castle, which is at the entrance
of the port, knew who we were, and took no notice
of us: and we were not above a mile out of the port
before we hauled in our sail, and set us down to fish.
The wind blew from the N.N.E. which was contrary
to my desire; for had it blown southerly, I had been
sure to have made the coast of Spain, and at least
reached to the bay of Cadiz; but my resolutions
were, blow which way it would, I would be gone
from that horrid place where I was, and leave the
rest to fate.
After we had fished some time and watched

nothing, for when I had fish on my hook I would
not pull them up, that he might not see them, I said
to the Moor, This will not do; our master will
not be thus served; we must stand farther off." He,
thinking no harm, agreed, and being in the head of
the boat set the sails; and as I had the helm I run
the boat out near a league farther, and then brought
her to as if I would fish; when giving the boy the
helm, I stepped forward to where the Moor was,
and making as if I stooped for something behind
him, I took him by surprise with my arm under his
waist, and tossed him clear overboard into the sea.
He rose immediately, for he swam like a cork, and
called to me, begged to be taken in, told me he
would go all over the world with me. He swam so
strong after the boat, that he would have reached
me very quickly, there being but little wind; upon
which I stepped into the cabin, and fetching one of
the fowling-pieces, I presented it at him, and told
him, I had done him no hurt, and if he would be
quiet I would do him none: But," said I, you
swim well enough to reach to the shore, and the sea
is calm; make the best of your way to shore, and I
will do you no harm; but if you come near the boat
I'll shoot you through the head, for I am resolved
to have my liberty:" so he turned himself about,
and swam for the shore, and I make no doubt but
he reached it with ease, for he was an excellent
I could have been content to have taken this Moor
with me, and have drowned the boy, but there was
no venturing to trust him. When he was gone I
turned to the boy, whom they called Xury, and said

to him, Xury, if you will be faithful to me Ill
make you a great man; but if you will not stroke
your face to be true to me," that is, swear by Maho-
met and his father's beard, I must throw you into
the sea too." The boy smiled in my face, and spoke
so innocently, that I could not mistrust him; and
swore to be faithful to me, and go all over the world
with me.
While I was in view of the Moor that was swim-
ming, I stood out directly to sea with the boat, rather
stretching to windward, that they might think me
gone towards the Straits' mouth; (as indeed any one
that had been in their wits must have been supposed
to do) for who would have supposed we were sailed
on to the southward to the truly Barbarian coast,
where whole nations of Negroes were sure to sur-
round us with the canoes, and destroy us; where we
could never once go on shore but we should be de-
voured by savage beasts, or more merciless savages
of human kind?
But as soon as it grew dusk in the evening, I
changed my course, and steered directly south and
by east, bending my course a little toward the east,
that I might keep in with the shore; and having a
fair, fresh gale of wind, and a smooth, quiet sea, I
made such sail that I believe by the next day at
three o'clock in the afternoon, when I first made the
land, I could not be less than 150 miles south of
Sallee; quite beyond the Emperor of Morocco's
dominions, or indeed of any other king thereabout,
for we saw no people.
Yet such was the fright I had taken at the Moors,
and the dreadful apprehensions I had of falling into

their hands, that I would not stop, or go on shore,
or come to an anchor; the wind continuing fair till
I had sailed in that manner five days; and then the
wind shifting to the southward, I concluded also that
if any of our vessels were in chase of me, they also
would now give over; so I ventured to make to the
coast, and come to an anchor in the mouth of a little
river, I knew not what, or where; neither what lati-
tude, what country, what nation, or what river: I
neither saw, or desired to see any people; the prin-
cipal thing I wanted was fresh water. We came into
this creek in the evening, resolving to swim on shore
as soon as it was dark, and discover the country; but,
as soon as it was quite dark, we heard such dread-
fil noises of the barking, roaring, and howling of
wild creatures, of we knew not what kinds, that the
poor boy was ready to die with fear, and begged of
me not to go on shore till day. Well, Xury," said
I, then I won't; but it may be we may see men by
day, who will be as bad to us as those lions."-
" Then we give them the shoot gun," says Xury,
laughing, make them run wey." Such English
Xury spoke by conversing among us slaves. How-
ever I was glad to see the boy so cheerful, and I gave
him a dram (out of our patron's case of bottles) to
cheer him up. After all, Xury's advice was good,
and I took it; wel"ropped our little anchor, and lay
still all night; I say still, for we slept none; for in
two or three hours we saw vast great creatures (we
knew not what to call them) of many sorts, come
down to the sea-shore and run into the water, wal-
lowing and washing themselves for the pleasure of
cooling themselves; and they made such hideous
D 2

howling and yellings, that I never indeed heard the
Xury was dreadfully frightened, and indeed so was
I too; but we were both more frightened when we
heard one of these mighty creatures come swimming
towards our boat; we could not see him, but we
might hear him by his blowing to be a monstrous
huge and furious beast; Xury said it was a lion, and
it might be so for aught I know; but poor Xury
cried to me to weigh the anchor and row away:
' No," says I, Xury; we can slip our cable with
the buoy to it, and go off to sea; they cannot follow
us far." I had no sooner said so, but I perceived the
creature (whatever it was) within two oars' length,
which something surprised me; however, I immedi-
ately stepped to the cabin-door, and taking up my
gun, fired at him; upon which he immediately
turned about, and swam towards the shore again.
But it is impossible to describe the horrible noises,
and hideous cries and cowlings, that were raised, as
well upon the edge of the shore as higher within the
country, upon the noise or report of the gun, a thing
I have some reason to believe those creatures had
never heard before: this convinced me that there
was no going on shore for us in the night upon that
coast, and how to venture on shore in the day was
another question too; for to have fallen into the
hands of any of the savages, had been as bad as to
have fallen into the hands of lions and tigers; at least
we were equally apprehensive of the danger of it.
Be that as it would, we were obliged to go on
shore somewhere or other for water, for we had not
a pint left in the boat; when or where to get it, was

the point: Xury said, if I would let him go on shore
with one of the jars, he would find if there was any
water, and bring some to me. I asked him why he
would go? why I should not go, and he stay in the
boat ? The boy answered with so much affection, that
made me love him ever after. Says le, If wild
mans come, they eat me, you go wey."-" Well,
Xury," said I, we will both go, and if the wild
mans come, we will kill them, they shall eat neither
of us." So I gave Xury a piece of rusk bread to
eat, and a dram out of our patron's case of bottles
which I mentioned before; and we hauled the boat in
as near the shore as we thought was proper, and
so waded to shore; carrying nothing but our arms,
and two jars for water.
I did not care to go out of sight of the boat, fear-
ing the coming of canoes with savages down the
river: but the boy seeing a low place about a mile
up the country, rambled to it; and by and by I saw
him come running towards me. I thought he was
pursued by some savage, or frighted with some wild
beast, and I run forward towards him to help him,
but when I came nearer to him, I saw something
hanging over his shoulders, which was a creature
that he had shot, like a hare, but different in
colour, and longer legs; however, we were very
glad of it, and if was very good meat; but the
great joy that poor Xury came with, was to tell
me he had found good water, and seen no wild
But we found afterwards that we need not take
such pains for water, for a little higher up the creek
where we were, we found the water fresh when the
ride was out, which flows but a little way up; so se

filled our jars, and feasted on the hare we had killed,
and prepared to go on our way, having seen no foot-
steps of any human creature in that part of the
As I had been one voyage to this coast before, I
knew very well that the islands of the Canaries, and
the Cape de Verd islands also, lay not far off from
the coast. But as I had no instruments to take an
observation to know what latitude we were in, and
not exactly knowing, or at least remembering what
latitude they were in, and knew not where to look
for them, or when to stand off to sea towards them;
otherwise I might now easily have found some of
these islands. But my hope was, that if I stood
along this coast till I came to that part where the
English traded, I should find some of their vessels
upon their usual design of trade, that would relieve
and take us in.
By the best of my calculation, that place where
I now was, must be that country, which, lying be-
tween the emperor of Morocco's dominions and the
Negroes, lies waste, and uninhabited, except by wild
beasts; the Negroes having abandoned it, and gone
farther south for fear of the Moors; and the Moors
not thinking it worth inhabiting, by reason of its
barrenness; and indeed both forsaking it because of
the prodigious numbers of tigers, lions, and leopards,
and other furious creatures which harbour there; so
that the Moors use it for their hunting only, where
they go like an army, two or three thousand men at
a time; and indeed for near an hundred miles toge-
ther upon this coast, we saw nothing but a waste,
uninhabited country by day, and heard nothing but
cowlings and roaring of wild beasts by night.

Once or twice in the day-time I thought I saw tile
Pico of Teneriffe, being the high top of tile Moun-
tain, Teneriffe in tile Canaries; and had a great mind
to venture out, in hopes of reaching thither; but
having tried twice, I was forced in again by contrary
winds, the sea also going too high for my little
vessel; so I resolved to pursue my first design, and
keep along the shore.
Several times I was obliged to land for fresh
water, after we had left this place; and once in par-
ticular, being early in the morning, we came to an
anchor under a little point of land which was pretty
high; and the tide beginning to flow, we lay still to
go farther in. Xury, whose eyes were more about
him than it seems mine were, calls softly to me, and
tells me that we had best go farther off the shore;
" for," says he, look yonder lies a dreadful mon-
ster ou the side of that hillock fast asleep." I
,K)ked where he pointed, and saw a dreadful monster
iudeed, for it was a terrible great lion that lay on
the side of the shore, under the shade of a piece of
the hill that hung as it were a little over him.
" Xury," says I, you shall go on shore and kill
him." Xury looked frightened, and said, "Me kill!
lie eat me at one mouth;" one mouthful he meant:
however, I said no more to the boy, but bad him lie
still, and I took our biggest gun, which was almost
musket-bore, and loaded it with a good charge of
powder, and with two slugs, and laid it down; tlen
I loaded another gun with two bullets; and the
third (for we had three pieces) I loaded with five
smaller bullets. I took the best aim I could with
the first piece to have shot him in the head, but

he lay so with his leg raised a little above his nose,
that the slugs hit his leg about the knee, and broke
the bone. He started up, growling at first, but
finding his leg broke, fell down again, and then got
up upon three legs, and gave the most hideous roar
that ever I heard. I was a little surprised that I
had not hit him on the head; however, I took up
the second piece immediately, and, though he began
to move off, fired again, and shot him in the head,
and had the pleasure to see him drop, and make but
little noise, but lie struggling for life. Then Xury
took heart, and would have me let him go on shore;
" Well, go," said I; so the boy jumped into the
water, and taking a little gun in one hand, swam to
shore with the other hand, and coming close to the
creature, put the muzzle of the piece to his ear, and
shot him in the head again, which dispatched him
This was game indeed to us, but this was no food;
and I was very sorry to lose three charges of powder
and shot upon a creature that was good for nothing
to us. However, Xury said he would have some of
him; so he comes on board, and asked me to give
him the hatchet. For what, Xurv?" said I, Me
cut off his head," said he. However, Xury could not
cut off his head, but lie cut off a foot, and brought
it with him, and it was a monstrous great one.
I bethought myself however, that perhaps the
skin of him might one way or other be of some
value to us; and I resolved to take off his skin if I
could. So Xury and I went to work with him; but
Xury was much the better workman at it, for I knew
very ill how to do it. Indeed it took us both up

the whole day, but at last we got off the hide of
hiim, and spreading it on the top of our cabin, the
sun effectually dried it in two days' time, and it
afterwards served me to lie upon.
After this stop, we made on to the southward
continually for ten or twelve days, living very sparing
on our provisions, which began to abate very much,
and going no oftener into the shore than we were
obliged to for fresh water: my design in this was,
to make the river Gambia or Senegal, that is to say,
any where about the Cape de Verd, where I was in
hopes to meet with some European ship; and if I
did not, I knew not what course I had to take, but
to seek for the islands, or perish there among the
Negroes. I knew that all the ships from Europe,
which sailed either to the coast of Guinea or to
Brazil, or to the East Indies, made this Cape, or
those islands; and in a word, I put the whole of my
fortune upon this single point, either that I must
meet with some ship, or must perish.
When I had pursued this resolution about ten
days longer, as I have said, I began to see that the
land was inhabited; and in two or three places, as
we sailed by, we saw people stand upon the shore
to look at us; we could also perceive they were
quite black, and stark naked. I was once inclined
to have gone orshore to them; but Xury was my
better counsellor, and said to me, No go, no go."
However, I hauled in nearer the shore that I might
talk to them, and I found they run along the shore
by me a good way: I observed they had no weapons
in their hands, except one, who had a long slender
stick, which Xury said was a lance, and that they

would throw them a great way with a good aiin; so
I kept at a distance, but talked with them by signs
as well as I could; and particularly made signs for
something to eat; they beckoned to me to stop my
boat, and they would fetch me some meat. Upon
this I lowered the top of my sail, and lay by, and
two of them ran up into the country, and in less
than half an hour came back, and brought with
them two pieces of dry flesh and some corn, such
as is the produce of their country; but we neither
knew what the one or the other was: however, we
were willing to accept it, but how to come at it was
our next dispute, for I was not for venturing on
shore to them, and they were as much afraid of us:
but they took a safe way for us all, for they brought
it to the shore and laid it down, and went and stood
a great way off till we fetched it on board, and then
came close to us again.
We made signs of thanks to them, for we had
nothing to make them amends; but an opportunity
offered that very instant to oblige them wonderfully;
for while we were lying by the shore came two
mighty creatures, one pursuing the other (as we took
it) with great fury from the mountains towards the
sea; whether it was the male pursuing the female,
or whether they were in sport or in rage, we could
not tell, any more than we could tell whether it was
usual or strange, but I believe it was the latter; be-
cause, in the first place, those ravenous creatures
seldom appear but in the night; and in the second
place, we found the people terribly frightened, espe-
cially the women. The man that had the lance or
dart did not fly from them, but the rest did; hol-

ever, as the two creatures ran directly into the
water, they did not seem to offer to fall upon any
of the Negroes, but plunged themselves into the
sea, and swam about, as if they had come for their
diversion: at last, one of them began to come
nearer our boat than 1 at first expected; but I lay
ready for him, for I had loaded my gun with all
possible expedition, and bade Xury load botl the
others. As soon as he came fairly within my reach,
I fired, and shot him directly in the head: imme-
diately he sunk down into the water, but rose
instantly, and plunged up and down, as if he was
struggling for life, and so indeed he was: he imme-
diately made to the shore; but between the wound,
which was his mortal hurt, and the strangling of the
water, he died just before he reached the shore.
It is impossible to express the astonishment of
Ihese poor creatures, at the noise and fire of my
gun; some of them were even ready to die for fear,
and fell down as dead with the very terror; but
when they saw the creature dead, and sunk in the
w ater, and that I made signs to them to come to the
shore, they took heart and came to the shore, and
began to search for the creature. I found him by
his blood staining the water; and by the help of a
rope, which I slung round him, and gave the Negroes
to haul, they-dragged him on shore, and found that
it was a most curious leopard, spotted, and fine to
an admirable degree; and the Negroes held up their
hands with admiration, to think what it was I had
killed him with.
The other creature, frightened with the flash of
fire and the noise of the gun, swam on shore, and
VOL. 1. E

ran up directly to the mountains from whence thev
came; nor could I, at that distance, know what it
was. I found quickly the Negroes were for eating
the flesh of this creature, so I was willing to have
them take it as a favour from me; which, when I
made signs to them that they might take him, they
were very thankful for. Immediately they fell to
work with him; and though they had no knife, yet,
with a sharpened piece of wood, they took off his
skin as readily, and much more readily, than we
could have done with a knife. They offered me
some of the flesh, which I declined, making as if I
would give it them, but made signs for the skin,
which they gave me very freely, and brought me a
great deal more of their provisions, which, though
I did not understand, yet I accepted. I then made
signs to them for some water, and held out one of
my jars to them, turning it bottom upward, to show
that it was empty, and that I wanted to have it
filled. They called immediately to some of their
friends, and there came two women, and brought a
great vessel made of earth, and burnt, as I suppose,
in the sun; this they set dow n to me, as before, and
I sent Xury on shore with my jars, and filled them
all three. The women were as stark naked as the
I was now furnished with roots and corn, such as
it was, and water; and leaving my friendly Negroes,
I made forward for about eleven days more, without
offering to go near the shore, till I saw the land run
out a great length into the sea, at about the distance
of four or five leagues before me; and the sea
being very calm, I kept a large offing, to make this

point. At length, doubling the point, at about t o
leagues from the land, I saw plainly land on the
other side, to seaward: then I concluded, as it was
most certain indeed, that this was the Cape de
Serd, and those the islands, called, from thence,
Cape de Verd Islands. However, they were at a
great distance, and I could not well tell what I had
best to do; for if I should be taken with a gale of
wind, I might neither reach one nor the other.
In this dilemma, as I was very pensive, I stepped
into the cabin, and sat me down, Xury having the
helm; when, on a sudden, the boy cried out,
Master, master, a ship with a sail! and the foolish
boy was frightened out of his wits, thinking it must
needs be some of his master's ships sent to pursue
us, when I knew we were gotten far enough out of
their reach. I jumped out of the cabin, and imme-
diately saw, not only the ship, but what she was,
Niz. that it was a Portuguese ship, and, as I thought,
was bound to the coast of Guinea, for Negroes.
But, when I observed the course she steered, I was
soon convinced they were bound some other way,
and did not design to come any nearer to the shore:
upon which, I stretched out to sea as much as 1
could, resolving to speak with them, if possible.
With all the sail I could make, I found I should
not be ableto come in their way, but that they
would be gone by before I could make any signal
to them: but after I had crowded to the utmost,
and began to despair, they, it seems, saw me, by
tile help of their perspective glasses, and that it
was some European boat, which, they supposed,
must belong to some ship that was lost; so they

shortened sail, to let me come up. 1 was encour;ied
with this, and as I had my patron's ensign on board,
I made a waft of it to them, for a signal of distress,
and fired a gun, both which they saw; for they told
me they saw the smoke, though they did not hear
the gun. Upon these signals, they very kindly
brought to, and lay by for me; and in about three
hours' time I came up uith them.
They asked me what I was, in Portuguese, and
in Spanish, and in French, but I understood none of
them; but, at last, a Scotch sailor, who was on
board, called to me, and 1 answered him, and told
him I was an Englishman, that 1 had made my
escape out of slavery from the Moors, at Sallee:
they then bade me come on board, and very kindly
took me in, and all my goods.
It was an inexpressible joy to me, which any one
will believe, that I was thus delivered, as I esteemed
it, from such a miserable, aTn almost hopeless, con-
dition as I was in; and I immediately offered all I
had to the captain of the ship, as a return for my
deliverance; but he generously told me, he would
take nothing from me, but that all I had should be
delivered safe to me, when I came to the Brazils.
" For," says he, I have saved your life on no other
terms than I would be glad to be saved myself;
and it may, one time or other, be my lot to be taken
up in the same condition. Besides," continued he,
" when I carry you to the Brazils, so great a way from
vour own country, if I should take from you what
you have, you will be starved there, and then I only
take away that life I have given. No, no, Seignior
Inglese," (Mr. Englishman,) says lie; I will carry you

tlither in charity, and these things will help to
buy your subsistence there, and your passage home
As lie was charitable il this proposal, so lie was
just in the performance, to a tittle; for he ordered
the seamen, that none should offer to touch any
thing I had: then he took every thing into his own
possession, and gave me back an exact inventory of
them, that I might have them, even so much as my
three earthen jars.
As to my boat, it was a very good one; and that
lie saw, and told me he would buy it of me for the
ship's use; and asked me what I would have for
it ? I told him, lie had been so generous to me in
every thing, that I could not offer to make any
price of the boat, but left it entirely to him: upon
which, he told me he would give me a note of hand
to pay me eighty pieces of eight for it at Brazil;
and when it came thefe, if any one offered to give
more, lie would make it up. lHe offered me also
sixty pieces of eight more for my boy Xury, which
I \ as loth to take; not that I was not willing to let
the captain have him, but I was very loth to sell
lie poor boy's liberty, who had assisted me so
I'ithfully in procuring my own. However, when
I let him know my reason, lie owned it to be just,
and offeredbme this medium, that he would give
the boy an obligation to set him free in ten years,
if lie turned Christian: upon this, and Xury saying
lie was willing to go to him, I let the captain have
We had a very good voyage to the Brazils, and
arrivedd in the Bay de Todos los Santos, or All

Saints' Bay, in about twenty-two days after. And
now I was once more delivered from the most
miserable of all conditions of life; and what to
do next with myself, I was now to consider.
The generous treatment the captain gave me, I
can never enough remember: he w would take nothing
of me for my passage, gave me twenty ducats for
the leopard's skin, and forty for the lion's skin,
which I had in my boat, and caused every thing I
had in the ship to be punctually delivered to me;
and what I was willing to sell, lie bought of me;
such as the case of bottles, two of my guns, and a
piece of the lump of bees-wax,-for I had made
candles of the rest: in a word, I made about two
hundred and twenty pieces of eight of all my
cargo; and with this stock, I went on shore in the
I had not been long here, before I was recom-
mended to the house of a' ood honest man, like
himself, who had an ingeino as they call it, (that is,
a plantation and a sugar-house.) I lived with him
some time, and acquainted myself, by that means,
with the manner of planting and making of sugar:
and seeing how well the planters lived, and how
they got rich suddenly, I resolved, if I could get a
licence to settle there, I would turn planter among
them: endeavouring, in the mean time, to find out
some way to get my money, which I had left in
London, remitted to me. To this purpose, getting
a kind of a letter of naturalization, I purchased as
much land that was uncured as my money would
reach, and formed a plan for my plantation and
settlement; such a one as might be suitable to the

stock which I proposed to myself to receive firoi
I had a neighbour, a Portuguese of Lisbon, but
horn of English parents, whose name was Wells,
and in much such circumstances as I was. I call
him my neighbour, because his plantation lay next
to mine, and we went on very sociably together.
My stock was but low, as well as his; and we
rather planted for food than any thing else, for
about two years. However, we began to increase,
and our land began to come into order; so that the
third year we planted some tobacco, and made each
of us a large piece of ground ready for planting
canes in the year to come: but we both wanted
help; and now I found, more than before, I had
done wrong in parting with my boy Xury.
But, alas! for me to do wrong, that never did
right, was no great wonder. I had no remedy, but
to go on: I had got into an employment quite
remote to my genius, and directly contrary to the
life I delighted in, and for which I forsook my
father's house, and broke through all his good ad-
vice: nay, I was coming into the very middle sta-
tion, or upper degree of low life, which my father
advised me to before; and which, if I resolved to
go on with, I might as well have staid at home, and
never lha fatigued myself in the world, as I had
done: and I used often to say to myself, I could
have done this as well in England, among my friends,
as have gone five thousand miles off to do it among
strangers and savages, in a wilderness, and at such
a distance as never to hear from any part of the
world that had the least knowledge of me.

In this manner, I used to look upon my condition
with the utmost regret. I had nobody to converse
with, but now and then this neighbour; no work
to be done, but by the labour of my hands: and I
used to say, I lived just like a man cast away upon
some desolate island, that had nobody there but
himself. But how just has it been! and how should
all men reflect, that when they compare their present
conditions with others that are worse, Heaven may
oblige them to make the exchange, and be convinced
of their former felicity by their experience: I say,
how just has it been, that the truly solitary life I
reflected on, in an island of mere desolation, should
be my lot, who had so often unjustly compared it
with the life which I then led, in which, had I con-
tinued, I had, in all probability, been exceeding
prosperous and rich.
I was, in some degree, settled in my measures for
carrying on the plantation, before my kind friend,
the captain of the ship that took me up at sea, went
back; for the ship remained there, in providing his
lading, and preparing for his voyage, near three
months; when, telling him what little stock I had
left behind me in London, he gave me this friendly
and sincere advice: Seignior Inglese," says he, for
so he always called me, if you will give me letters,
and a procuration here in form to me, with orders
to the person who has your money in London, to
send your effects to Lisbon, to such persons as I
shall direct, and in such goods as are proper for
this country, I will bring you the produce of them,
God willing, at my return; but, since human affairs
are all subject to changes and disasters, I would

have you give orders for but one hundred pounds
sterling, which, you say, is half your stock, and let
the hazard be run for the first, so that if it come
safe, you may order the rest the same way; and, if
it miscarry, you may have the other half to have
recourse to for your supply."
This was so wholesome advice, and looked so
friendly, that I could not but be convinced it was
the best course I could take; so I accordingly pre-
pared letters to the gentlewoman with whom I left
my money, and a procuration to the Portuguese cap-
tain, as he desired me.
I wrote the English captain's widow a full account
of all my adventures; my slavery, escape, and how
I had met with the Portuguese captain at sea, the
humanity of his behaviour, and what condition I
was now in, with all other necessary directions for
my supply; and when this honest captain came to
Lisbon, lie found means, by some of the English
merchants there, to send over, not the order only,
but a full account of my story to a merchant at Lon-
don, who represented it effectually to her: where-
upon she not only delivered the money, but, out of
her own pocket, sent the Portuguese captain a very
handsome present for his humanity and charity to
The machant in London, vesting this hundred
pounds in English goods, such as the captain had
wrote for, sent them directly to him at Lisbon, and
he brought them all safe to me at the Brazils:
among which, without my direction, (for I was too
young in my business to think of them,) he had
taken care to have all sorts of tools, iron work, and

utensils, necessary for my plantation, and which
were of great use to me.
When this cargo arrived, I thought my fortune
made, for I was surprised with the joy of it; and
my good steward, the captain, had laid out the five
pounds, which my friend had sent him as a present
for himself, to purchase and bring me over a ser-
vant, under bond for six years' service, and would
not accept of any consideration, except a little to-
bacco, which I would have him accept, being of my
own produce.
Neither was this all: but my goods being all
English manufactures, such as cloths, stuffs, baize.
and things particularly valuable and desirable in
the country, I found means to sell them to a very
great advantage; so that I might say, I had more
than four times the value of my first cargo, and was
now infinitely beyond my poor neighbour, I mean in
the advancement of my plantation: for the first
thing I did, I bought me a Negro slave, and an
European servant also; I mean another besides that
which the captain brought me from Lisbon.
But as abused prosperity is oftentimes made the
very means of our adversity, so was it with me. I
went on the next year with great success in my plan-
tation; I raised fifty great rolls of tobacco on my
own ground, more than I had disposed of for neces-
saries among my neighbours; and these fifty rolls,
being each of above a hundred weight, were well
cured, and laid by against the return of the fleet from
Lisbon: and now, increasing in business and in wealth,
my head began to be full of projects and undertak-
ings beyond my reach; such as are. indeed, often

the ruin of the best heads in business. Had I con-
tinued in the station I was now in, I had room for
all the happy things to have yet befallen me, for
which my father so earnestly recommended a quiet,
retired life, and which he had so sensibly described
the middle station of life to be full of: but other
things attended me, and I was still to be the wilful
agent of all my own miseries; and, particularly, to
increase my fault, and double the reflections upon
myself, which in my future sorrows I should have
leisure to make, all these miscarriages were pro-
cured by my apparent obstinate adhering to my
foolish inclination, of wandering about, and pursu-
ing that inclination, in contradiction to the clearest
views of doing myself good in a fair and plain pur-
suit of those prospects, and those measures of life,
which nature and Providence concurred to present
me with, and to make my duty.
As I had once done thus in breaking away from
Imy parents, so I could not be content now, but I
must go and leave the happy view I had of being a
rich and thriving man in my new plantation, only to
pursue a rash and immoderate desire of rising faster
than the nature of the thing admitted; and thus I
cast myself down again into the deepest gulph of
inuman misery that ever man fell into, or perhaps
could be consistent with life, and a state of health
in the world.
To come, then, by just degrees, to the particulars
of this part of my story:-You may suppose, that
having now lived almost four years in the Brazils,
and beginning to thrive and prosper very well upon
my plantation, I had not only learned the language.

but had contracted an acquaintance and friendship
among my fellow-planters, as well as among the mer-
chants at St. Salvador, which was our port; and that,
in my discourses among them, I had frequently given
them an account of my two voyages to the coast of
Guinea, the manner of trading with the Negroes
there, and how easy it was to purchase on the coast
for trifles-such as beads, toys, knives, scissars,
hatchets, bits of glass, and the like-not only gold
dust, Guinea grains, elephants' teeth, &c. but Ne-
groes, for the service of the Brazils, in great num-
They listened always very attentively to my dis-
courses on these heads, but especially to that part
Which related to the buying Negroes; which was a
trade, at that time, not only not far entered into,
but, as far as it was, had been carried on by the
assientos, or permission of the kings of Spain and
Portugal, and engrossed from the public; so that
few Negroes were bought, and those excessive dear.
It happened, being in company with some mer-
chants and planters of my acquaintance, and talking
of those things very earnestly, three of them came
to me the next morning, and told me they had been
musing very much upon what I had discoursed with
them of the last night, and they came to make a
secret proposal to me: and, after enjoining me to
secrecy, they told me that they had a mind to fit out
a ship to go to Guinea; that they had all plantations
as well as I, and were straitened for nothing so
much as servants; that as it was a trade that could
not be carried on, because they could not publicly
sell the Negroes when they came home, so they de-

sired to make but one voyage, to bring the Negroes
on shore privately, and divide them among their own
plantations: and, in a word, the question was, whe-
ther I would go their supercargo in the ship, to
manage the trading part upon the coast of Guinea;
and they offered me that I should have an equal
share of the Negroes, without providing any part
of the stock.
This was a fair proposal, it must be confessed,
had it been made to any one that had not a settle-
ment and plantation of his own to look after, which
was in a fair way of coming to be very considerable,
and with a good stock upon it. But for me, that
was thus entered and established, and had nothing
to do but go on as I had begun, for three or four
years more, and to have sent for the other hundred
pounds from England; and who, in that time, and
with that little addition, could scarce have failed of
being worth three or four thousand pounds sterling,
and that increasing too; for me to think of such a
voyage, was the most preposterous thing that ever
man, in such circumstances, could be guilty of.
But I, that was born to be my own destroyer,
could no more resist the offer, than I could restrain
my first rambling designs, when my father's good
counsel was lost upon me. In a word, I told them
I would go with all my heart, if they would under-
take to look after my plantation in my absence, and
would dispose of it to such as I should direct, if I
miscarried. This they all engaged to do, and en-
tered into writings or covenants to do so: and I
made a formal will, disposing of my plantation and
effects, in case of my death; making the captain of

the ship that had saved my life, as before, my uni-
versal heir; but obliging him to dispose of my effects
as I had directed in my will; one half of the pro-
duce being to himself, and the other to be shipped
to England.
In short, I took all possible caution to preserve
my effects, and to keep up my plantation: had I
used half as much prudence to have looked into my
own interest, and have made a judgment of what I
ought to have done and not to have don: -I had
certainly never gone away from so prosperous an
undertaking, leaving all the probable views of a
thriving circumstance, and gone a voyage to sea,
attended with all its common hazards, to say nothing
of the reasons I had to expect particular misfortunes
to myself.
But I was hurried on, and obeyed blindly the dic-
tates of my fancy, rather than my reason: and ac-
cordingly, the ship being fitted out, and the cargo
furnished, and all things done as by agreement, by
my partners in the voyage, I went on board in an
evil hour again, the 1st of September, 1659, being
the same day eight years that I went from my father
and mother at Hull, in order to act the rebel to
their authority, and the fool to my own interest.
Our ship was about one hundred and twenty tons
burden, carried six guns, and fourteen men, besides
the master, his boy, and myself; we had on board
no large cargo of goods, except of such toys as
were fit for our trade with the Negroes, such as
beads, bits of glass, shells, and odd trifles, especially
little looking-glasses, knives, scissars, hatchets, and
the like.

The same day I went on board we set sail, stand-
ing away to the northward upon our own coast, with
design to stretch over for the African coast. When
they came about ten or twelve degrees of northern
latitude, which, it seems, was the manner of their
course in those days, Nwe had very good weather,
only excessive hot all the way upon our own coast,
till we came to the height of Cape St. Augustino;
from whence, keeping farther off at sea, we lost sight
of land, and steered as if we were bound for the isle
Fernando de Noronha, holding our course N.E. by
N. and leaving those isles on the cast. In this coursew-
we passed the line in about twelve days' time, and
were by our last observation, in 7 degrees 22 mi-
nutes northern latitude, when a violent tornado, or
hurricane, took us quite out of our knowledge: it
began from the south-east, came about to the north-
west, and then settled in the north-east; from whence
it blew in such a terrible manner, that for twelve
days together we could do nothing but drive, and,
scudding away before it, let it carry us whither ever
fate and the fury of the winds directed; and, during
these twelve days, I need not say that I expected
every day to be swallowed up; nor, indeed, did any
in the ship expect to save their lives.
In this distress, we had, besides the terror of the
storm, dfe of our men died of the calenture, and
one man and a boy washed overboard. About the
twelfth day, the weather abating a little, the master
made an observation as well as he could, and found
that he was in about 11 degrees north latitude, but
that he was 22 degrees of longitude difference, west
from Cape St. Augustino; so that he found he was

got upon the coast of Guiana, or the north part of
Brazil, beyond the river Amazons, toward that of
tie river Oroonoque, commonly called the Great
River; and began to consult with me what course
lie should take, for the ship was leaky and very
much disabled, alnd he was going directly back to
the coast of Brazil.
I was positively against that; and looking over
the charts of the sea-coast of America with him, we
concluded there was no inhabited country for us to
have recourse to, till we came within the circle of
the Caribbee islands, and therefore resolved to stand
away for Barbadoes; which by keeping off to sea,
to avoid the in-draft of the bay or gulf of Mexico,
we might easily perform, as we hoped, in about fif-
teen days' sail; whereas we could not possibly make
our voyage to the coast of Africa without some
assistance, both to our ship and ourselves.
With this design, we changed our course, and
steered away N.W. by W. in order to reach some of
our English islands, where I hoped for relief: but
our voyage was otherwise determined; for being in
tihe latitude of 12 degrees 18 minutes, a second
storm came upon us, which carried us away with
the same impetuosity westward, and drove us so
out of the very way of all human commerce, that
had all our lives been saved, as to the sea, we were
rather in danger of being devoured by savages than
ever returning to our own country.
In this distress, the wind still blowing very hard,
one of our men early in the morning cried out,
Land! and we had no sooner run out of the cabin
to look out, in hopes of seeing whereabouts in tihe

world we were, but the ship struck upon a sand,
and in a moment, her motion being so stopped, the
sea broke over her in such a manner, that we ex-
pected we should all have perished immediately;
and we were immediately driven into our close quar-
ters, to shelter us from the very foam and spray of
the sea.
It is not easy for any one, who has not been in
the like, condition, to describe or conceive the con-
sternation of men in such circumstances; we knew
nothing where we were, or upon what land it was
we were driven, whether an island or the main,
whether inhabited or not inhabited; and as the rage
of the wind was still great, though rather less than
at first, we could not so much as hope to have the
ship hold many minutes, without breaking in pieces,
unless the wind, by a kind of miracle, should imme-
diately turn about. In a word, we sat looking upon
one another, and expecting death every moment,
and every man acting accordingly, as preparing for
another world; for there was little or nothing more
for us to do in this: that which was our present
comfort, and all the comfort we had, was, that,
contrary to our expectation, the ship did not break
yet, and that the master said the wind began to
abate. _
ITow, though we thought that the wind did a little
abate, yet the ship having thus struck upon the
sand, and sticking too fast for us to expect her get-
ting off, we were in a dreadful condition indeed, and
had nothing to do but to think of saving our lives
as well as we could. We had a boat at our stern
just before the storm, but she was first staved by
F: 2

dashing against the ship's rudder, and, in the next
place, she broke away, and either sunk, or was
driven off to sea; so there was no hope from her:
we had another boat on board, but how to get her
off into tile sea was a doubtful thing; however,
there was no room to debate, for we fancied the
ship would break in pieces every minute, and some
told us she was actually broken already.
In this distress, the mate of our vessel laid hold
of the boat, and with the help of the rest of the
men, they got her flung over the ship's side; and
getting all into her, let her go, and committed our-
selves, being eleven in number, to God's mercy, and
the wild sea: for though the storm was abated con-
siderably, et the sea went dreadful high upon the
shore, and might be well called den wild zee, as the
Dutch call the sea in a storm.
And now our case was very dismal indeed; for
we all saw plainly, that the sea went so high, that
the boat could not live, and that we should be
inevitably drowned. As to making sail, we had
none; nor, if we had, could we have done any thing
with it; so we worked at the oar towards the land,
though with heavy hearts, like men going to execu-
tion; for we all knew that when the boat came
nearer to the shore, she would be dashed in a thou-
sand pieces by the breach of the sea. However,
we committed our souls to God in the most earnest
manner; and the wind driving us towards the shore,
we hastened our destruction with our own hands,
pulling as well as we could towards land.
What the shore was-whether rock or sand, whe-
ther steep or shoal-we knew not; the only hope

that could rationally give us the least shadow of
expectation, was, if we might happen into some bay
or gulf, or the mouth of some river, where by great
chance we might have run our boat in, or got under
the lee of tile land, and perhaps made smooth water.
But there was nothing of this appeared; and as we
made nearer and nearer the shore, the land looked
more frightful than the sea.
After we had rowed, or rather driven, about a
league and a half, as we reckoned it, a raging wave,
mountain-like, came rolling astern of us, and plainly
bade us expect the coup de grace. In a word, it
took us with such a fury, that it overset the boat at
once; and separating us, as well from the boat as
from one another, gave us not time hardly to
say, 0 God!" for we were all swallowed up in a
Nothing can describe the confusion of thought
which I felt, when I sunk into the water; for though
I swam very well, yet I could not deliver myself
from the waves so as to draw my breath, till that
wave having driven me, or rather carried me, a vast
way on towards the shore, and having spent itself,
went back, and left me upon the land almost dry,
but half dead with the water I took in. I had so
much presence of mind, as well as breath left, that
seeing myself nearer the main land than I expected,
I got upon my feet, and endeavoured to make on
towards the land as fast as I could, before another
wave should return and take me up again; but I
soon found it was impossible to avoid it; for I saw
the sea come after me as high as a great hill, and as
furious as an enemy, which I had no means or

strength to contend with: my business was to hold
my breath, and raise myself upon the water, if I
could; and so, by swimming, to preserve my breath-
ing, and pilot myself towards the shore, if possible:
my greatest concern now being, that the wave, as it
would carry me a great way towards the shore when
it came on, might not carry me back again with it
when it gave back towards the sea.
The wave that came upon me again, buried
me at once twenty or thirty feet deep in its own
body; and I could feel myself carried with a mighty
force and swiftness towards the shore a very
great way; but I held my breath, and assisted my-
self to swim still forward with all my might. 1
was ready to burst with holding my breath, when,
as I felt myself rising up, so, to my immediate relief,
I found my head and hands shoot out above the
surface of the water; and though it was not two
seconds of time that I could keep myself so, yet
it relieved me greatly, gave me breath, and new
courage. I was covered again with water a good
while, but not so long but I held it out; and finding
the water had spent itself, and began to return, I
struck forward against the return of the wav-s,
and felt ground again with my feet. I stood still
a few moments, to recover breath, and till the water
went from me, and then took to my heels, and
ran with what strength I had farther towards the
.hore. But neither would this deliver me from the
firy of the sea, which came pouring in after me
again; and twice more I was lifted up by the waves
and carried forwards as before, the shore being
very flat.


The last time of these two had well nigh been
fatal to me; for the sea having hurried me along, as
before, landed me, or rather dashed me, against a
piece of a rock, and that with such force, that it
left me senseless, and indeed helpless, as to my own
deliverance; for the blow taking my side and breast,
beat the breath, as it were, quite out of my body;
and had it returned again immediately, I must have
been strangled in the water: but I recovered a little
before the return of the waves, and seeing I should
again be covered with the water, I resolved to hold
fast by a piece of the rock, and so to hold my breath,
if possible, till the wave went back. Now as the
waves were not so high as the first, being nearer
land, I held my hold till the wave abated, and thefi
fetched another run, which brought me so near the

shore, that the next wave, though it went over
me, yet did not so swallow me up as to carry me
away; and the next run I took, I got to the main
land; where, to my great comfort, I clambered up
the cliffs of the shore, and sat me down upon the
grass, free from danger, and quite out of'the reach
of the water.
I was now landed, and safe on shore, and began
to look up and thank God that my life was saved,
in a case wherein there were, some minutes before,
scarce any room to hope. I believe it is impossible
to express, to the life, what the ecstasies and trans-
ports of the soul are, when it is so saved, as I may
say, out of the grave: and I did not wonder now at
the custom, viz. that when a malefactor, who has
the halter about his neck, is tied up, and just going
to be turned off, and has a reprieve brought to him;
I say, I do not wonder that they bring a surgeon
with it, to let him blood that very moment they tell
him of it, that the surprise may not drive the animal
spirits from the heart, and overwhelm him.

For sudden joys, like griefs, confound at first.

I walked about on the shore, lifting up my hands,
and my whole being, as I may say, wrapt up in the
contemplation of my deliverance; making a thou-
sand gestures and motions, which I cannot describe;
reflecting upon my comrades that were drowned,
and that there should not be one soul saved but
myself; for, as for them, I never saw them after-
wards, or any sign of them, except three of their
hats, one cap, and two shoes that were not fellows.

I cast my eyes to the stranded vessel-when the
breach and froth of the sea being so big I could
hardly see it, it lay so far off-and considered,
Lord! how was it possible I could get on shore?
After I had solaced my mind with the comfortable
part of my condition, I began to look round me, to
see what kind of a place I was in, and what was
next to be done; and I soon found my comforts
abate, and that, in a word, I had a dreadful deliver-
ance: for I was wet, had no clothes to shift me, nor
any thing either to eat or drink, to comfort me;
neither did I see any prospect before me, but that
of perishing with hunger, or being devoured by wild
beasts: and that which was particularly afflicting to
me was, that I had no weapon, either to hunt and
kill any creature for my sustenance, or to defend
myself against any other creature that might desire
to kill me for theirs. In a word, I had nothing
about me but a knife, a tobacco-pipe, and a little
tobacco in a box. This was all my provision; and
this threw me into such terrible agonies of mind,
that, for a while, I ran about like a madman. Night
coming upon me, I began, with a heavy heart, to
consider what would be my lot if there were any
ravenous beasts in that country, seeing at night they
always come abroad for their prey.
All the remedy that offered to my thoughts; at
that time, was, to get up into a thick bushy tree,
like a fir, but thorny-which grew near me, and
where I resolved to sit all night-and consider the
next day what death I should die, for as yet I saw
no prospect of life. I walked about a furlong from
the shore, to see if I could find any fresh water to
drink, which I did, to my great joy; and having

drank, and put a little tobacco into my mouth to
prevent hunger, I went to the tree, and getting up
into it, endeavoured to place myself so, as that if I
should fall asleep, I might not fall; and having cut
me a short stick, like a truncheon, for my defence,
I took up my lodging; and having been excessively
fatigued, I fell fast asleep, and slept as comfortably
as, I believe, few could have done in my condition;
and found myself the most refreshed with it that I
think I ever was on such an occasion.
When I waked it was broad day, the weather
clear, and the storm abated, so that the sea did not
rage and swell as before; but that which surprised
me most was, that the ship was lifted off in the
night from the sand where she lay, by the swelling
of the tide, and was driven up almost as far as the
rock which I at first mentioned, where I had been
so bruised by the wave dashing me against it. This
being within about a mile from the shore where I
was, and the ship seeming to stand upright still, I
wished myself on board, that at least I might save
some necessary things for my use.
When I came down from my apartment in the
tree, I looked about me again, and the first thing I
found was the boat; which lay, as the wind and the
sea had tossed her up, upon the land, about two
miles on my right hand. I walked as far as I could
upon the shore to have got to her; but found a
neck, or inlet, of water between me and the boat,
which was about half a mile broad; so I came back
for the present, being more intent upon getting at
the ship, where I hoped to find something for my
present subsistence.
A little after noon, I found the sea very calm, and

Ihe tide ebbed so far out, that I could come within
a quarter of a mile of the ship: and here I found a
fresh renewing of my grief; for I saw evidently, that
if we had kept on board, we had been all safe; that
i to say, we had all got safe on shore, and I had
not been so miserable as to be left entirely destitute
of all comfort and company, as I now was. This
forced tears from my eyes again; but as there was
little relief in that, I resolved, if possible, to get to
the ship; so I pulled off my clothes, for the wea-
ther was hot to extremity, and took the water; but
Mhen I came to the ship, my difficulty was still
r eater to know how to get on board; for as she
lay aground, and high out'of the water, there was
nothing within my reach to lay hold of. I swam
round her twice, and the second time I spied a small
piece of a rope, which I wondered I did not see at
tirst, hang down by the fore-chains so low, as that
tith great difficulty, I got hold of it, and by the
help of that rope got into the forecastle of the ship.
Here I found that the ship was bulged, and had a
great deal of water in her hold; but that she lay so
on the side of a bank of hard sand, or rather earth,
that her stern lay lifted up upon the bank, and her
head low, almost to the water. By this means all
her quarter was free, and all that was in that part
was dry ;for you may be sure my first work was to
search and to see what was spoiled and what was
free: and, first, I found that all the ship's provisions
were dry and untouched by the water; and, being
very well disposed to eat, I went to the bread-room,
and filled my pockets with biscuit, and eat it as I
%ent about other things, for I had no time to lose.
v'rO.. G

I also found some rum in the great cabin, of which
I took a large dram, and which I had indeed need
enough of, to spirit me for what was before me.
Now I wanted nothing but a boat, to furnish myself
with many things which I foresaw would be very
necessary to me.
It was in vain to sit still and wish for what was
not to be had, and this extremity roused my appli-
cation: we had several spare yards, and two or
three large spars of wood, and a spare top-mast or
two in the ship; I resolved to fall to work with
these, and flung as many overboard as I could
manage for their weight, tying every one with a
rope, that they might not drive away. When this
was done, I went down the ship's side, and pulling
them to me, 1 tied four of them fast together at both
ends, as well as I could, in the form of a raft, and
laying two or three short pieces of plank upon them,
crossways, I found I could walk upon it very well,
but that it was not able to bear any great weight,
the pieces being too light: so I went to work, and
with the carpenter's saw I cut a spare top-mast into
three lengths, and added them to my raft, with a
great deal of labour and pains. But the hope of
furnishing myself with necessaries, encouraged me
to go beyond what I should have been able to have
done upon another occasion.
My raft was now strong enough to bear any rea-
sonable weight. My next care was what to load it
with, and how to preserve what I laid upon it from
the surf of the sea; but I was not long considering
this. I first laid all the planks or boards upon it
that I could get, and having considered well what I

most wanted, I got three of the seamen's chests,
which I had broken open and emptied, and lowered
them down upon my raft; these I filled with pro-
visions, viz. bread, rice, three Dutch cheeses, five
pieces of dried goats' flesh, (which we lived much
upon,) and a little remainder of European corn,
which had been laid by for some fowls which we had
brought to sea with us, but the fowls were killed.
There had been some barley and wheat together,
but, to my great disappointment, I found afterwards
that the rats had eaten or spoiled it all. As for
liquors, I found several cases of bottles belonging
to our skipper, in which were some cordial waters;
and, in all, about five or six gallons of rack. These
I stowed by themselves, there being no need to put
them into the chests, nor any room for them.
While I was doing this, I found the tide began to
flow, though very calm; and I had the mortification
to see my coat, shirt, and waistcoat, which I had
left on shore, upon the sand, swim away; as for my
breeches, which were only linen, and open-knee'd, I
swam on board in them, and my stockings. How-
ever, this put me upon rummaging for clothes, of
which I found enough, but took no more than I
wanted for present use, for I had other things which
my eye was more upon; as, first, tools to work with
on shore- and it was after long searching that I
found the carpenter's chest, which was indeed a very
useful prize to me, and much more valuable than a
ship-lading of gold would have been at that time.
I got it down to my raft, even whole as it was, with-
out losing time to look into it, for I knew in general
what it contained.

Mv next care was for some ammunition and arms.
There were two very good fowling-pieces in the
great cabin, and two pistols; these I secured first,
with some powder-horns and a small bag of shot,
and two old rusty swords. I knew there were three
barrels of powder in the ship, but knew not where
our gunner had stowed them; but with much search
I found them, two of them dry and good, the third
had taken water. Those two I got to my raft, with
the arms. And now I thought myself pretty well
freighted, and began to think how I should get to
shore with them, having neither sail, oar, nor rud-
der; and the least cap-full of wind would have
overset all my navigation,

I had three encouragements: 1st, A smooth, calm
sea: 2dly, The tide rising, and setting in to the
shore: 3dly, What little wind there was, blew me
towards the land. And thus, having found two or
three broken oars belonging to the boat, and besides

the tools which were in the chest, I found two saws,
an axe, and a hammer; and with this cargo I put to
sea. For a mile, or thereabouts, my raft went very
well, only that I found it drive a little distant from
the place where I had landed before; by which I
perceived that there was some indraft of the water,
and consequently I hoped to find some creek or
river there, which I might make use of as a port to
get to land with my cargo.
As I imagined, so it was: there appeared before
me a little opening of the land, and I found a strong
current of the tide set into it; so I guided my raft,
as well as I could, to get into the middle of the
stream. But here I had like to have suffered a se-
cond shipwreck, which, if I had, I think verily would
have broken my heart; for knowing nothing of the
coast, my raft ran aground at one end of it upon a
shoal, and not being aground at the other end, it
wanted but a little that all my cargo had slipped off
towards that end that was afloat, and so fallen into
the water. I did my utmost, by setting my back
against the chests, to keep them in their places, but
could not thrust off the raft with all my strength;
neither durst I stir from the posture I was in, but
holding up the chests with all my might, I stood in
that manner near half an hour, in which time the
rising df the water brought me a little more upon a
level; and a little after, the water still rising, my
raft floated again, and I thrust her off with the oar I
had into the channel, and then driving up higher, I
at length found myself in the mouth of a little river,
with land on both sides, and a strong current or tide
running up. I looked on both sides for a proper

place to get to shore, for I was not willing to be
driven too high up the river; hoping, in time, to see
some ship at sea, and therefore resolved to place
myself as near the coast as I could.
At length I spied a little cove on the right shore
of the creek, to which, with great pain and difficulty,
I guided my raft, and at last got so near, as that
reaching ground with my oar, I could thrust her
directly in; but here I had like to have dipped all
my cargo into the sea again; for that shore lying
pretty steep, that is to say, sloping, there was no
place to land, but where one end of my float, if it
ran on shore, would lie so high, and the other sink
lower, as before, that it would endanger my cargo
again. All that I could do, was to wait till the tide
was at the highest, keeping the raft with my oar like
an anchor, to hold the side of it fast to the shore,
near a flat piece of ground, which I expected the
water would flow over; and so it did. As soon as I
found water enough, for my raft drew about a foot
of water, I thrust her upon that flat piece of ground,
and there fastened or moored her, by sticking my
two broken oars into the ground; one on one side,
near one end, and one on the other side, near the
other end: and thus I lay till the water ebbed away,
and left my raft and all my cargo safe on shore.
My next work was to view the country, and seek
a proper place for my habitation, and where to stow
my goods, to secure them from whatever might
happen. Where I was, I yet knew not; whether
on the continent, or on an island; whether inha-
bited, or not inhabited; whether in danger of wild
beasts, or not. There was a hill, not above a mile

from me, which rose up very steep and high, and
which seemed to overtop some other hills, which
lay as in a ridge from it, northward. I took out
one of the fowling-pieces, and one of the pistols,
and a horn of powder; and thus armed, I travelled
for discovery up to the top of that hill; where, after
I had, with great labour and difficulty, got up to
the top, I saw my fate, to my great affliction, viz.
that I was in an island, environed every way with
the sea, no land to be seen, except some rocks,
which lay a great way off, and two small islands,
less than this, which lay about three leagues to the
I found also that the island I was in was barren,
and, as I saw good reason to believe, uninhabited,
except by wild beasts, of whom, however, I saw
none; yet I saw abundance of fowls, but knew not
their kinds; neither, when I killed them, could I tell
what was fit for food, and what not. At my com-
ing back, I shot at a great bird, which I saw sitting
upon a tree, on the side of a great wood. I believe
it was the first gun that had been fired there since
the creation of the world: I had no sooner fired,
but from all the parts of the wood there arose an
innumerable number of fowls, of many sorts, making
a confused screaming, and crying, every one accord-
ing to hisousual note; but not one of them of any
kind that I knew. As for the creature I killed, I
took it to be a kind of a hawk, its colour and beak
resembling it, but had no talons or claws more than
common. Its flesh was carrion, and fit for nothing.
Contented with this discovery, I came back to my
raft, and fell to work to bring my cargo on shore,

which took me up the rest of that day: what to do
with myself at night I knew not, nor indeed where
to rest: for I was afraid to lie down on the ground,
not knowing but some wild beast might devour me;
though, as I afterwards found, there was really no
need for those fears.
However, as well as I could, I barricadoed myself
round with the chests and boards that I had brought
on shore, and made a kind of a hut for that night's
lodging. As for food, I yet saw not which way to
supply myself, except that I had seen two or three
creatures, like hares, run out of the wood where I
shot the fowl.
I now began to consider, that I might yet get a
great many things out of the ship, which would be
useful to me, and particularly some of the rigging
and sails, and such other things as might come to
land; and I resolved to make another voyage on
board the vessel, if possible. And as I knew that
the first storm that blew must necessarily break her
all in pieces, I resolved to set all other things apart,
till I got every thing out of the ship that I could
get. Then I called a council, that is to say, in my
thoughts, whether I should take back the raft; but
this appeared impracticable: so I resolved to go as
before, when the tide was down; and I did so, only
that I stripped before I went from my hut; having
nothing on but a chequered shirt, a pair of linen
drawers, and a pair of pumps on my feet.
I got on board the ship as before, and prepared a
second raft; and having had experience of the firs!,
I neither made this so unwieldy, nor loaded it so
hard, but yet I brought away several things very

Tseful to me: as, first, in the carpenter's stores, I
found two or three bags of nails and spikes, a great
screv-jack, a dozen or two of hatchets; and, above
all, that most useful thing called a grind-stone. All
these I secured together, with several things belong-
ing to the gunner; particularly two or three iron
crows, and two barrels of musket bullets, seven
muskets, and another fowling-piece, with some small
quantity of powder more; a large bag-full of small
shot, and a great roll of sheet-lead; but this last
was so heavy, I could not hoist it up to get it over
the ship's side.
Besides these things, I took all the men's clothes
that I could find, and a spare fore-top sail, a harm-
mock, and some bedding; and with this I loaded my
second raft, and brought them all safe on shore, to
my very great comfort.
I was under some apprehensions, during my ab-
elnce from the land, that at least my provisions
might be devoured on shore: but when I came back,
I found no sign of any visitor; only there sat a
creature like a wild cat, upon one of the chests,
%which, when I came towards it, ran away a little
distance, and then stood still. She sat very com-
posed and unconcerned, and looked full in my face,
as if she had a mind to be acquainted with me. 1
presented-my gun to her, but, as she did not under-
stand it, she was perfectly unconcerned at it, nor
did she offer to stir away; upon which I tossed her
a bit of biscuit, though, by the way, I was not very
free of it, for my store was not great: however, I
spared her a bit, I say, and she went to it, smelled
of it, and ate it, and looked (as pleased) for more;

but I thanked her, and could spare no more: so she
marched off.
Having got my second cargo on shore-though I
was fain to open the barrels of powder, and bring
them by parcels, for they were too heavy, being
large casks--I went to work to make me a little
tent, with the sail, and some poles, which I cut for
that purpose; and into this tent I brought every
thing that I knew would spoil either with rain or
sun; and I piled all the empty chests and casks up
in a circle round the tent, to fortify it from any
sudden attempt either from man or beast.
When I had done this, I blocked up the door of
the tent with some boards within, and an empty
chest set up on end without; and spreading one of
the beds upon the ground, laying my two pistols
just at my head, and my gun at length by me, I
went to bed for the first time, and slept very quietly
all night, for I was very weary and heavy; for the
night before I had slept little, and had laboured
very hard all day, as well to fetch all those things
from the ship, as to get them on shore.
I had the biggest magazine of all kinds now that
ever was laid up, I believe, for one man: but I was
not satisfied still: for while the ship sat upright in
that posture, I thought I ought to get every thing
out of her that I could: so every day, at low water,
I went on board, and brought away something or
other; but particularly the third time I went, I
brought away as much of the rigging as I could, as
also all the small ropes and rope-twine I could get,
with a piece of spare canvass, which was to mend
the sails upon occasion, and the barrel of wet gun-

powder. In a word, I brought away all the sails
first and last; only that I was fain to cut them in
pieces, and bring as much at a time as I could; for
they were no more useful to be sails, but as mere
canvass only.
But that which comforted me still more, was, that,
last of all, after I had made five or six such voyages
as these, and thought I had nothing more to expect
from the ship that was worth my meddling with; I
say, after all this, I found a great hogshead of bread,
and three large runlets of rum or spirits, and a box
of sugar, and a barrel of fine flour; this was sur-
prising to me, because I had given over expecting
any more provisions, except what was spoiled by the
water. I soon emptied the hogshead of that bread,
and wrapped it up, parcel by parcel, in pieces of
the sails, which I cut out; and, in a word, I got all
this safe on shore also.
The next day I made another voyage, and now
having plundered the ship of what was portable and
fit to hand out, I began with the cables, and cutting
the great cable into pieces, such as I could move, I
got two cables and a hawser on shore, with all the
iron-work I could get; and having cut down the
spritsail-yard, and the mizen-yard, and every thing
I could, to make a large raft, I loaded it with all
those heaey goods; and came away; but my good
luck began now to leave me; for this raft was so
unwieldy, and so overladen, that after I was entered
the little cove, where I had landed the rest of my
goods, not being able to guide it so handily as I did
the other, it overset, and threw me and all my cargo
into the water: as for myself, it was no great harm,

for I was near the shore; but as to my cargo, it a,-
a great part of it lost, especially the iron, which I
expected would have been of great use to me: how-
ever, when the tide was out, I got most of the pieces
of cable ashore, and some of the iron, though with
infinite labour; for I was fain to dip for it into the
water, a work which fatigued me very much. After
this I went every day on board, and brought away
what I could get.
I had been now thirteen days ashore, and had
been eleven times on board the ship; in which time
I had brought away all that one pair of hands could
well be supposed capable to bring; though I believe
verily, had the calm weather held, I should have
brought away the whole ship, piece by piece; but
preparing the twelfth time to go on board, I found
the wind began to rise: however, at low water, I
went on board; and though I thought I had rum-
maged the cabin so effectually, as that nothing could
be found, yet I discovered a locker with drawers in
it, in one of which I found two or three razors, and
one pair of large scissars, with some ten or a dozen
of good knives and forks; in another I found about
thirty-six pounds value in money, some European
coin, some Brazil, some pieces of eight, some gold,
and some silver.
I smiled to myself at the sight of this money:
0 drug!" said I aloud, what art thou good for?
Thou art not worth to me, no, not the taking off
the ground; one of those knives is worth all this
heap: I have no manner of use for thee; e'en re-
main where thou art, and go to the bottom, as a
creature whose life is not worth saving." However,

upon second thoughts, I took it away; and wrapping
all this in a piece of canvass, I began to think of
making another raft; but while I was preparing this,
I found the sky over-cast, and the wind began to
rise, and in a quarter of an hour it blew a fresh gale
from the shore. It presently occurred to me, that
it was in vain to pretend to make a raft with the wind
off shore; and that it was my business to be gone
before the tide of flood began, or otherwise I might
not be able to reach the shore at all. Accordingly
I let myself down into the water, and swam across
the channel which lay between the ship and the
sands, and even that with difficulty enough, partly
with the weight of the things I had about me, and
partly the roughness of the water; for the wind rose
very hastily, and before it was quite high water it
blew a storm.
But I was got home to my little tent, where I lay,
uith all my wealth about me very secure. It blew
%ery hard all that night, and in the morning, when I
looked out, behold, no more ship was to be seen! I
was a little surprised, but recovered myself with
this satisfactory reflection, viz. that I had lost no
time, nor abated no diligence, to get every thing out
of her that could be useful to me, and that, indeed,
there was little left in her that I was able to bring
away, if J.had had more time.
I now gave over any more thoughts of the ship,
or of any thing out of her, except what might drive
on shore, from her wreck; as, indeed, divers pieces
of her afterwards did; but those things were of
small use to me.
My thoughts were now wholly employed about
SOL. I. Ii

securing myself against either savages, if any should
appear, or wild beasts, if any were in the island;
and I had many thoughts of the method how to do
this, and what kind of dwelling to make, whether I
should make me a cave in the earth, or a tent upon
the earth: and in short, I resolved upon both; the
manner and description of which, it may not be im-
proper to give an account of.
I soon found the place I was in was not for my
settlement, particularly because it was upon a low,
moorish ground, near the sea, and I believed it
would not be wholesome; and more particularly
because there was no fresh water near it: so I re-
solved to find a more healthy and more convenient
spot of ground.
I consulted several things in my situation, which
I found would be proper for me: 1st, Health and
fresh water, I just now mentioned: 2dly, Shelter
from the heat of the sun: 3dly, Security from ra-
venous creatures, whether men or beasts: 4thly, A
view to the sea, that if God sent any ship in sight,
I might not lose any advantage for my deliverance,
of which I was not willing to banish all my expecta-
tion yet.
In search for a place proper for this, I found a
little plain on the side of a rising hill, whose front
towards this little plain was steep as a house-side,
so that nothing could come down upon me from the
top. On the side of this rock there was a hollow
place, worn a little way in, like the entrance or door
of a cave; but there was not really any cave, or
way into the rock, at all.
On the flat of the green, just before this hollow

place, I resolved to pitch my tent. This plain was
not above a hundred yards broad, and about twice
as long, and lay like a green before my door; and,
at the end of it, descended irregularly every way
down into the low ground by the sea side. It was
on the N.N.W. side of the hill; so that it was shel-
tered from the heat every day, till it came to a W.
and by S. sun, or thereabouts, which, in those coun-
tries, is near the setting.
Before I set up my tent, I drew a half-circle be-
fore the hollow place, which took in about ten yards
in its semi-diameter from the rock, and twenty yards
in its diameter, from its beginning and ending.
In this half-circle I pitched two rows of strong
stakes, driving them into the ground till they stood
very firm like piles, the biggest end being out of the
ground about five feet and a half and sharpened on
the top. The two rows did not stand above six
inches from one another.
Then I took the pieces of cable which I cut in
the ship, and laid them in rows, one upon an-
other, within the circle, between these two rows of
stakes, up to the top, placing other stakes in the
inside, leaning against them, about two feet and a
half high, like a spur to a post; and this fence was
so strong, that neither man nor beast could get into
it or ove, it. This cost me a great deal of time
and labour, especially to cut the piles in the woods,
bring them to the place, and drive them into the
The entrance into this place I made to be not by
a door, but by a short ladder to go over the top;

\ liich ladder, when I was in, I lifted over after me;
and so I was completely fenced in and fortified, as I
thought, from all the world, and consequently slept
secure in the night, which otherwise I could not
have done; though, as it appeared afterwards, there
was no need of all this caution from the enemies
that I apprehended danger from.
Into this fence, or fortress, with infinite labour, I
carried all my riches, all my provisions, ammunition,
and stores, of which you have the account above;
and I made a large tent, which, to preserve me from
the rains, that in one part of the year are very
violent there, I made double, viz. one smaller tent
within, and one larger tent above it, and covered
the uppermost with a large tarpaulin, which I had
saved among the sails.
And now I lay no more for a while in the bed
which I had brought on shore, but in a hammock,
which was indeed a very good one, and belonged to
the mate of the ship.
Into this tent I brought all my provisions, and
every thing that would spoil by the wet; and having
thus enclosed all my goods, I made up the entrance
which till now I had left open, and so passed and
repassed, as I said, by a short ladder.
When I had done this, I began to work my way
into the rock, and bringing all the earth and stones
that I dug down out through my tent, I laid them
up within my fence in the nature of a terrace, so
that it raised the ground within about a foot and an
half; and thus I made me a cave, just behind my
tent, which served me like a cellar to my house,

It cost me much labour and many days, before all
these things were brought to perfection; and there-
fore I must go back to some other things which
took up some of my thoughts. At the same time
it happened, after I had laid my scheme for the set-
ting up my tent, and making the cave, that a storm
of rain falling from a thick, dark cloud, a sudden
flash of lightning happened, and after that, a great
clap of thunder, as is naturally the effect of it. I
was not so much surprised with the lightning, as I
was with a thought, which darted into my mind as
swift as the lightning itself: O my powder! My
very heart sunk within me when I thought, that at
one blast, all my powder might be destroyed; on
which, not my defence only, but the providing me
food, as I thought, entirely depended. I was nothing
near so anxious about my own danger, though, had
the powder took fire, I had never known who had
hurt me.
Such impression did this make upon me, that
after the storm was over, I laid aside all my works,
my building and fortifying, and applied myself to
make bags and boxes, to separate the powder, and
to keep it a little and a little in a parcel, in hope
that whatever might come, it might not all take fire
at once; and to keep it so apart, that it should not
be possible to make one part fire another. I finished
this work in about a fortnight; and I think my
powder, which in all was about 240 lb. weight, was
divided in not less than a hundred parcels. As to
the barrel that had been wet, I did not apprehend
any danger from that; so I placed it in my new
cave, which, in my fancy, I called my kitchen, and

the rest I hid up and down in holes among the
rocks, so that no wet might come to it, marking
very carefully where I laid it.
In the interval of time while this was doing, I
went out at least once every day with my gun, as
well to divert myself, as to see if I could kill any
thing fit for food; and, as near as I could, to ac-
quaint myself with what the island produced. The
first time I went out, I presently discovered that
there were goats upon the island, which was a great
satisfaction to me; but then it was attended with
this misfortune to me, viz. that they were so shy,
so subtle, and so swift of foot, that it was the most
difficult thing in the world to come at them: but I
was not discouraged at this, not doubting but 1
might now and then shoot one, as it soon happened;
for after I had found their haunts a little, I laid
wait in this manner for them: I observed, if they
saw me in the valleys, though they were upon the
rocks, they would run away as in a terrible fright;
but if they were feeding in the valleys, and I was
upon the rocks, they took no notice of me; from
whence I concluded, that by the position of their
optics, their sight was so directed downward, that
they did not readily see objects that were above
them: so, afterwards, I took this method-I always
climbed the rocks first, to get above them, and then
had frequently a fair mark. The first shot I made
among these creatures, I killed a she-goat, which
had a little kid by her, which she gave suck to,
which grieved me heartily; but when the old one
fell, the kid stood stock still by her, till I came and
took her up; and not only so, but when I carried

the old one with me, upon my shoulders, the kid
followed me quite to my enclosure; upon which, I


laid down the dam, and took the kid in my arms,
and carried it over my pale, in hopes to have bred
it up tame; but it would not eat; so I was forced
to kill it, and eat it myself. These two supplied
me with flesh a great while, for I ate sparingly, and
preserved my provisions (my bread especially) as
much as possibly I could.
Having now fixed my habitation, I found it abso-
lutely necessary to provide a place to make a fire in,
and fuel to burn; and what I did for that, as also
how I enlarged my cave, and what conveniences I
made, I shall give a full account of in its proper
place: but I must first give some little account of
myself, and of my thoughts about living, which, it
may well be supposed, were not a few.

I had a dismal prospect of my condition; for as
I was not cast away upon that island without being
driven, as is said, by a violent storm, quite out of
the course of our intended voyage; and a great way,
viz. some hundreds of leagues, out of the ordinary
course of the trade of mankind, I had great reason
to consider it as a determination of Heaven, that
in this desolate place, and in this desolate manner,
I should end my life. The tears would run plenti-
fully down my face when I made these reflections;
and sometimes I would expostulate with myself why
Providence should thus completely ruin its crea-
tures, and render them so absolutely miserable; so
abandoned without help, so entirely depressed, that
it could hardly be rational to be thankful for such
a life.
But something always returned swift upon me to
check these thoughts, and to reprove me: and par-
ticularly, one day, walking with my gun in my
hand, by the sea side, I was very pensive upon the
subject of my present condition, when reason, as it
were, expostulated with me the other way, thus:
" Well, you are in a desolate condition, it is true;
but, pray remember, where are the rest of you?
Did not you come eleven of you into the boat?
Where are the ten? Why were not they saved, and
you lost? Why were you singled out? Is it better
to be here or there ?" And then I pointed to the sea.
All evils are to be considered with the good that is
in them, and with what worse attends them.
Then it occurred to me again, how well I was
furnished for my subsistence, and what would have
been my case if it had not happened (which was a
hundred thousand to one) that the ship floated from

;ie place where she first struck, and was driven so
near to the shore, that I had time to get all these
things out of her: what would have been my case,
if I had been to have lived in the condition in which
I at first came on shore, without necessaries of life,
or necessaries to supply and procure them? Par-
ticularly, said I aloud (though to myself,) what
should I have done without a gun, without ammuni-
tion, without any tools to make any thing, or to
work with, without clothes, bedding, a tent, or any
manner of covering?" and that now I had all these
to a sufficient quantity, and was in a fair way to
provide myself in such a manner as to live without
my gun, when my ammunition was spent: so that
I had a tolerable view of subsisting, without any
want, as long as I lived; for I considered, from the
beginning, how I should provide for the accidents
that might happen, and for the time that was to
come, not only after my ammunition should be
spent, but even after my health or strength should
I confess, I had not entertained any notion of my
ammunition being destroyed at one blast, I mean
my powder being blown up by lightning; and this
made the thoughts of it so surprising to me, when
it lightened and thundered, as I observed just now.
And now being to enter into a melancholy rela-
tion of a scene of silent life, such, perhaps, as was
never heard of in the world before, I shall take it
from its beginning, and continue it in its order. It
was, by my account, the 30th of September, when,
in the manner as above said, I first set foot upon
this horrid island; when the sun being to us in its

autumnal equinox, was almost just over my head:
for I reckoned myself, by observation, to be in the
latitude of 9 degrees 22 minutes north of the Line.
After I had been there about ten or twelve days,
it came into my thoughts that I should lose my
reckoning of time for want of books, and pen and
ink, and should even forget the sabbath days from
the working days: but, to prevent this, I cut it with
my knife upon a large post, in capital letters; and
making it into a great cross, I set it up on the shore
where I first landed, viz. I came on shore here
on the 30th of September, 1659." Upon the sides
of this square post I cut every day a notch with
my knife, and every seventh notch was as long
again as the rest, and every first day of the month
as long again as that long one: and thus I kept
my calendar, or weekly, monthly, and yearly reckon-
ing of time.
But it happened, that among the many things
which I brought out of the ship, in the several
voyages which, as above mentioned, 1 made to it, I
got several things of less value, but not at all less
useful to me, which I found, some time after, in
rummaging the chests; as, in particular, pens, ink,
and paper; several parcels in the captain's, mate's,
gunner's, and carpenter's keeping; three or four
compasses, some mathematical instruments, dials,
perspectives, charts, and books of navigation; all
which I huddled together, whether I might want
them or no: also I found three very good bibles,
which came to me in my cargo from England, and
which I had packed up among my things; some
Portuguese books also, and, among them, two or

three popish prayer books, and several other books,
all which I carefully secured. And I must not for-
get, that we had in the ship a dog, and two cats, of
whose eminent history I may have occasion to say
something, in its place: for I carried both the cats
with me; and as for the dog, he jumped out of the
ship himself, and swam on shore to me the day after
I went on shore with my first cargo, and was a
trusty servant to me for many years: I wanted
nothing that he could fetch me, nor any company
that he could make up to me, I only wanted to
have him talk to me, but that would not do. As I
observed before, I found pens, ink, and paper, and
I husbanded them to the utmost; and I shall show
that while my ink lasted, I kept things very exact,
but after that was gone I could not; for I could
not make any ink, by any means that I could de-
And this put me in mind that I wanted many
things, notwithstanding all that I had amassed
together; and of these, this of ink was one; as
also a spade, pick-axe, and shovel, to dig or remove
the earth; needles, pins, and thread: as for linen, I
soon learned to want that without much difficulty.
This want of tools made every work I did go on
heavily; and it was near a whole year before I had
entirely finished my little pale, or surrounded my
habitation." The piles or stakes, which were as
heavy as I could well lift, were a long time in cut-
ting and preparing in the woods, and more, by far,
in bringing home; so that I spent sometimes two
days in cutting and bringing home one of those
posts, and a third day in driving it into the ground;

for which purpose, I got a heavy piece of wood at
first, but at last bethought myself of one of the iron
crows; which, however, though I found it, yet it
made driving these posts or piles very laborious and
tedious work. But what need I have been con-
cerned at the tediousness of any thing I had to do,
seeing I had time enough to do it in? nor had I
any other employment, if that had been over, at
least that I could foresee, except the ranging the
island to seek for food; which I did, more or less,
every day.
I now began to consider seriously my condition,
and the circumstance I was reduced to; and I drew
up the state of my affairs in writing, not so much
to leave them to any that were to come after me
(for I was like to have but few heirs,) as to deliver
my thoughts from daily poring upon them, and af-
flicting my mind: and as my reason began now to
master my despondency, I began to comfort myself
as well as I could, and to set the good against the
evil, that I might have something to distinguish my
case from worse; and I stated very impartially, like
debtor and creditor, the comforts I enjoyed against
the miseries I suffered, thus:
I am cast upon a horrible, But I am alive; and not
desolate island, void of all drowned, as all my ship's com-
hope of recovery. pany were.
I am singled out and sepa- But I am singled out too
rated, as it were, from all the from all the ship's crew, to be
world, to be miserable. spared from death; and he
that miraculously saved me
from death, can deliver me
from this condition.

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