The Sand and gravel resources of Florida ( FGS: Report of investigation 90 )

Material Information

The Sand and gravel resources of Florida ( FGS: Report of investigation 90 )
Series Title:
( FGS: Report of investigation 90 )
Scott, Thomas M
Florida -- Bureau of Geology
Place of Publication:
Tallahassee Fla
Dept. of Natural Resources, Bureau of Geology
Publication Date:
Physical Description:
vi, 41 p. : ill., 2 maps (1 folded) ; 23 cm.


Subjects / Keywords:
Sand -- Florida ( lcsh )
Gravel -- Florida ( lcsh )
City of Tallahassee ( local )
City of Vernon ( local )
City of Jacksonville ( local )
City of Lake Wales ( local )
Miami metropolitan area ( local )
City of Pensacola ( local )
Sand ( jstor )
Gravel ( jstor )
Geology ( jstor )
Boxes ( jstor )
Terraces ( jstor )
bibliography ( marcgt )
non-fiction ( marcgt )


Bibliography: p. 31-32.
Statement of Responsibility:
by Thomas M. Scott ... [et al.]

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
The author dedicated the work to the public domain by waiving all of his or her rights to the work worldwide under copyright law and all related or neighboring legal rights he or she had in the work, to the extent allowable by law.
Resource Identifier:
022375173 ( ALEPH )
12023372 ( OCLC )
ACA2849 ( NOTIS )

Full Text
Elton J. Glssendanner, Executive Director
Casey J. Gluckman, Division Director
BUREAU OF GEOLOGY Charles W. Hendry, Jr., Chief
Thomas M. Scott
Ronald W. Hoenstine, Michael S. Knapp, Ed Lane,
George M. Ogden, Jr., Richard Deuerling, Harry E. Neel
Published for the


Elton J. Gissendanner, Executive Director
Casey J. Gluckman, Division Director
BUREAU OF GEOLOGY Charles W. Hendry, Jr., Chief
Thomas M. Scott
Ronald W. Hoenstine, Michael S. Knapp, Ed Lane,
George M. Ogden, Jr., Richard Deuerling, Harry E. Neel
Published for the



Secretary of State
RALPH D. TURLINGTON Commissioner of Education

Attorney General
GERALD A. LEWIS Comptroller
Commissioner of Agriculture

Executive Director

September 30, 1980
Governor Bob Graham, Chairman Florida Department of Natural Resources Tallahassee, Florida 32301
Dear Governor Graham:
The Bureau of Geology, Division of Resource Management, Department of Natural Resources, is publishing as its Report of Investigation No. 90, "The Sand and Gravel Resources of Florida".
This report discusses the geological occurrence, uses, market trends, and mining methods of sand and gravel deposits of Florida. This information will aid in the development and use of this natural resource.
Respectfully yours,
Charles W. Hendry, Jr., Chief Bureau of Geology


Printed for the
Florida Department of Natural Resources
Division of Resource Management
Bureau of Geology

Introduction Thomas M. Scott ......................................... 1
Purpose and Scope of Investigation ..................................... 1
Acknow ledgem ents .................................................. 1
G eneral Statem ent ................................................... 1
Terraces Thomas M. Scott ............................................ 3
Geology of Florida's Sand and Gravel Deposits Richard Deuerling, Ronald
W. Hoenstine, George M. Ogden, Jr., Ed Lane ............................. 4
N orthw est Florida .................................................... 4
- Physiography ..................................................... 4
G eo lo gy .......................................................... 6
N o rth F lo rida ........................................................ 8
Physiography ..................................................... 8
G eo lo g y .......................................................... 10
C entral Florida ...................................................... 13
Physiography ..................................................... 13
G eo logy .......................................................... 13
S o uth F lo rid a ........................................................ 16
Physiography ..................................................... 16
G eo logy .......................................................... 18
Mining and Processing Methods Michael S. Knapp ........................ 19
Production and Market Trends Ed Lane ................................. 22
The Uses of Sand and Gravel Ronald W. Hoenstine ....................... 24
G ravel aggregate ..................................................... 26
Sand aggregate ...................................................... 27
M ortar sands ........................................................ 27
Paving sands and base material ........................................ 27
Sand-cem ent riprap .................................................. 28
Sand seal coat ....................................................... 28
G lass sands ......................................................... 28
Foundry sands ...................................................... 29
A brasive sands ...................................................... 30
R eferences ............................................................ 31
Appendix Mineral Producers Active and Inactive George M. Ogden, Jr.
and H arry E. Neel .................................................... 33

Figure Page
1 Study District Map .............................................. 2
2. Physiographic Map ............................... Between pages 4 &5
3. Suction Dredge Operation........................................ 21
4. Scelping Tanks................................................. 21
5. Total Production and Value for Sand and Gravel in
Florida for Period 1970-1978 ...................................... 23
6. Quantities of Sand and Gravel for Construction and
Industrial Uses in Florida for Period 1970-1 977 ........................25
1. Terraces and Shorelines in Florida .................................. 4
2. Sand and Gravel Usages ......................................... 26
3. Critical Control Limits for Glass Sands.............................. 29
4. Foundry Sand Analysis of a Medium Grade Eastern
Silica Sand ............................................. ...... 30

Thomas M. Scott
Ronald W. Hoenstine, Michael S. Knapp, Ed Lane,
George M. Ogden, Jr., Richard Deuerling, Harry E. Neel
Purpose and Scope of Investigation
The Sand and Gravel Resources of Florida provides a summary of occurrences and uses of those commodities in Florida. The data presented are not intended to be an exhaustive study that would ultimately lead to the commercial development of a particular deposit. This report is based, however, on extensive research by the geological staff of the Florida Bureau of Geology. The research included geological field reconnaissance, examination of cores and well cuttings, analysis of data from private industry and review of the pertinent literature. As such, it is, an up-to-date report of the uses and locations of known economic deposits of sand and gravel in the State of Florida.
The authors gratefully acknowledge the valuable assistance provided by the many other authors whose publications were used in compiling this report. Special thanks go to the many Bureau of Geology personnel who asisted in the compiling and editing of The Sand and Gravel Resources of Florida.
The Florida Peninsula is underlain by more than 4,000 feet of sedimentary rocks that overlie basement rocks consisting of older sedimentary, metamorphic and igneous rocks. This thick sequence of carbonate and clastic rocks comprises the broad, relatively flat Florida Plateau. Peninsular Florida as we know it is the above sea level portion of the much larger platform. The peninsula is veneered by a relatively thin sequence of predominantly clastic sediments. The clastic sediments of clay, silt, quartz sand, and gravel overlie an older and thicker sequence of limestones and dolomites which contain very little clastic material. The change from predominantly carbonate sediments to predominantly clastic sediments occurred in the late Oligocene Epoch to Early Miocene Epoch (approximately 26 million years ago) when geologic conditions changed allowing a tremendous influx of clastic sediments from the mountains to the north. Since that time most of the sediments deposited on the platform have been sands, clays and gravels. The thickness of the clastic sediments varies widely from a few feet to several hundred feet.




0 0 20 3040 50 rnes



Figure 1. Study district map.


Virtually all of Florida is covered by this sand veneer. The sand cover has been extensively modified by numerous sea level stands that have occurred since the clastic influx began. The various sea level stands have formed terraces where thicker deposits of sand are often found. Associated with the various terraces are sand dunes and other beach features, such as sand bars, which may provide excellent sources of sand. Rivers and streams have also deposited sand units which are of economic importance.
Sand is one of Florida's most abundant natural resources. As anyone who travels through the state can readily observe, there are few areas that do not have usable general purpose sand deposits nearby. This report is designed to discuss the specifications, the various uses, and the geologic framework of the sand and gravel occurrences in the State of Florida.
Martens (1928) investigated the sand and gravel resources of Florida. He tested sand samples from many areas of the state to determine their quality. Since this is not addressed in this report, the reader is referred to Martens' (1928) report for further information.
Throughout the State of Florida, numerous marine terraces and ancient shorelines were formed by higher sea level stands. The fluctuations of sea level in Florida from the Miocene Epoch through the Pleistocene Epoch significantly altered the land surface, with subsequent coastal erosion and deposition forming marine terraces and coastal bars. Terraces mapped in Florida include the Silver Bluff, Pamlico, Talbot, Penholoway, Wicomico, Sunderland, Coharie, and the Hazlehurst which had shorelines at approximately 10, 25, 52, 70, 100, 170, 220, and 320 feet above present sea level, respectively, (Cooke, 1945; Healy, 1975; see Table 1). These relict features, with associated beach dunes and ridges, occur throughout the entire state.
The sand deposits associated with the terraces vary considerably in thickness and lithology. Lithologically, the terrace deposits are predominantly quartz sand containing varying proportions of silt, clay, and organic material. In general, the coarsest sand is found in the higher terrace deposits while the lower (younger) terrace deposits are finer and contain more clay and carbonate as contaminating material (Cooke, 1945). In south Florida, the deposits are much thinner than those in the north and generally contain more clay, silt, and organics (Cooke, 1945).
The identification of terraces and shorelines is based primarily on elevation. The distribution of terraces in Florida has been mapped by Healy (1975) in his terrace and shoreline map.


Table 1. Correlation of Terraces and Shorelines in Florida. Cooke (1939, 1945) MacNeil (1950) Healy (1975)
Hazlehurst, formerly High Pliocene Terrace Includes Hazlehurst Brandywine 150-280 feet Terrace and Coastwise
215-270 feet Delta Plain (Vernon,
1942); part of High
Pliocene Terrace
(MacNeil, 1950) 215320 feet
Coharie Coharie
170-215 feet 170-215 feet
Sunderland Okefenokee Includes Sunderland
100-170 feet 150 feet (Cooke, 1939) and
(MacNeil, 1950) Okefenokee Terraces
100-170 feet
Wicomico Wicomico Wicomico
70-100 feet 100 feet 70-100 feet
Penholoway Penholoway
42-70 feet 42-70 feet
Talbot Talbot
25-42 feet 25-42 feet
Pamlico Pamlico Pamlico
5-25 feet 25-35 feet 8-25 feet
Silver Bluff Silver Bluff Silver Bluff
0-10 feet 8-10 feet 1-10 feet
The terrace deposits and the associated dunes and other relict marine features contain significant deposits of sand scattered around the state. These deposits have a great potential for future development.
The panhandle of Florida has been divided into two major physiographic regions, the Gulf Coastal Lowlands and the Northern Highlands (Puri and Vernon, 1964a). The Northern Highlands province has been further divided into three major subdivisions. They are the Tallahassee Hills in the east, the Western Highlands in the west, and they are separated by the Marianna Lowlands (Fig. 2).

Report of Investigation No. 90 Figure 2. Physiographic Map of Florida




56 50 KM
0 15 30MILES

lo:ATOdBueu00 ofGeoog Florida Bureau of Geology


The Tallahassee Hills occur east of the Apalachicola River and north of a 20 to 100-foot escarpment known as the Cody Scarp (Puri and Vernon, 1964a). This subdivision continues into Georgia to the north and into central Madison County to the east (Fig. 2). The Tallahassee Hills are continuous except where they are broken by larger river valleys. They are relatively high in elevation and are well drained. Stream patterns are generally dendritic with major streams eventually flowing into the Gulf of Mexico. These highlands are composed of sands, clays, and clayey sands of the Hawthorn and Miccosukee formations.
The Western Highlands (Puri and Vernon, 1964a) are located in the extreme western part of the panhandle. This is a relatively high area similar to the Tallahassee Hills, but with some differences. First, the Citronelle Formation, which makes up most of the Western Highlands, is geologically younger than the formations that comprise the Tallahassee Hills. Second, the Citronelle is a fluvial deposit and contains more coarse sands and gravels than the clayey sands of the Hawthorn and Miccosukee formations which make up much of the Tallahassee Hills.
A relatively low area known as the Marianna Lowlands (Puni and Vernon, 1964a) separates the Tallahassee Hills from the Western Highlands (Fig. 2). The Marianna Lowlands occur between the Choctawhatchee River on the west and the Apalachicola River on the east and extend northward into Alabama. In some areas of the Marianna Lowlands the clayey sands have been eroded away exposing limestone. In other areas, sands and clayey sands reach thicknesses of over 200 feet (Moore, 1955; Schmidt and Coe, 1978). Where the limestone is either at or very near land surface, slightly acidic groundwater comes in contact with the limestone and dissolves large quantities of rock forming the many karst features seen in the area. Karst topography is characterized by sinkholes, caverns, limestone ridges, disappearing streams, and underground drainage.I
Physiographic features such as New Hope Ridge, Grand Ridge, and the remnant hills of Washington County including High Hill, Orange Hill, Rock Hill, Oak Hill, and Falling Water Hill (Puri and Vernon, 1964a) tend to indicate that the Tallahassee Hills and the Western Highlands were once a continuous highland area. These areas are composed of sands and clays similar to those of the Tallahassee Hills and Western Highlands.
The Gulf Coastal Lowlands (Puni and Vernon, 1964a) is a gently southward sloping feature with a low relief extending across the entire southern half of the panhandle. The thickness of the clastic


sediments overlying the marine limestones in the Gulf Coastal Lowlands ranges from a thin veneer of Pleistocene sands in the east to more than 1,500 feet of sand, gravel, clay, and sandy clays in the Pensacola area.
For the purpose of this report, the sand and gravel deposits will be divided into four categories. These are: (1) recent beach-type deposits, whether they are wave or wind-derived; (2) river alluvium;
(3) marine terrace deposits, this includes relict bars, dunes, and beach ridges; and (4) sand and gravel mined directly from a particular geologic formation.
Most of the sand and gravel being mined in northwest Florida falls in two categories of the four mentioned above. These are the
(1) marine terrace deposits (sand pits south of Tallahassee in Leon and Wakulla counties), and (2) sand and gravel mined directly from the formation (sand and gravel operations mining the Citronelle Formation in Escambia County).
Lithologically, the sediments which underlie the panhandle of Florida are marine limestones, dolomites, and sandy limestones which are overlain by marine and non-marine clastics. The clastics are generally thicker in the Northern Highlands than in the Gulf Coastal Lowlands. Thickness of the clastics changes very little from the extreme eastern panhandle (Madison County) westward to the Choctawhatchee River. West of the Choctawhatchee River, however, the thickness increases from a few tens of feet in eastern Walton County to over 1,500 feet near Pensacola. Greatest thickness (1,621 ft., penetrated in Bureau of Geology well W-3364) occurs in extreme southwest Escambia County, near the Alabama state line.
There are many indications that sea level was once higher than at present. These include the presence of beach ridges, sand bars, and coastal dunes that are many miles inland, and marine terraces which can be traced over much of the state. The marine terraces form a bench at a particular elevation which has sand deposition associated with it. Eight of these terraces have been mapped in northwest Florida (Table 1). Sand associated with marine terraces occurs over most of northwest Florida. These sands overlie sediments ranging in age from Eocene (in northern Jackson County) to Pleistocene (along the present coast). Most of the sand was derived from the Northern Highlands.
Sand is also being deposited on many beaches today. The coastal property, however, is too valuable to be used for the mining of sand.


Another source of sand and gravel is that which is deposited by streams. Streams erode sediments in the highlands and deposit these materials in valleys and other lowland areas. Stream deposits are a major source of gravel in northwest Florida.
Stream deposits can be divided into two groups, deposits associated with wash load and deposits associated with bed load. Wash load is the suspended material (silt and clay) carried by rivers. This material is usually deposited in quiet areas (lakes, swamps, floodplain). Bed load consists of the larger materials (sand, coarse sand, and gravel) which are transported along the river bottom until water velocity becomes low enough for deposition to occur. The sand and gravel deposits associated with stream deposition may be very irregular; but in many cases they are large enough to be of value. The irregular geometry of the deposits is due to the meandering of stream channels and changes in the stream's ability to carry sediment.
In northwest Florida there are many rivers and streams that have sand and gravel deposits associated with them. Sand and gravel has been dredged from the Apalachicola River in the past, and many smaller stream deposits have been used locally.
Three formations which are important to the sand and gravel industry are the Hawthorn, Miccosukee, and -Citronelle formations. All are found predominantly in the Northern Highlands in northwest Florida.
The Hawthorn Formation was named for Middle Miocene deposits exposed at Hawthorne, Alachua County, Florida. In northwest Florida, the Hawthorn Formation lies unconformably on Tampa Age (Lower Miocene) and older carbonates (Hendry and Sproul, 1966; Yon, 1966). It consists of marine sands, sandy clay, clay, marl, and limestone. The limestones are usually found near the base of the formation. The Hawthorn deposition marks a change from the marine limestone deposition of pre-Hawthorn times to a shallow marine, brackish environment in which much clastic material was introduced (Yon, 1966).
In northwest Florida, the Hawthorn Formation is found only in the Northern Highlands, north of the Cody Scarp and east of the Apalachicola River. It is not found in the Gulf Coastal Lowlands where the Hawthorn Formation may have been deposited but has since been removed by erosion (Hendry and Sproul, 1966). The Hawthorn Formation extends northward into Georgia and onto the Florida peninsula to the east. The western extent of the Hawthorn Formation is not definitely known. Thicknesses vary from less than 50 feet to greater than 250 feet.


Sands found in the Hawthorn Formation usually contain much clay which limits its usefulness as a commercial source of sand and gravel. It is predominantly used for roadbase material, and it is usually taken from small pits along highways.
The Miccosukee Formation (Hendry and Yon, 1967) includes all clastic sediments of the Tallahassee Hills that occur above the Miocene Hawthorn and Jackson Bluff formations but below the Pleistocene sands. The contact between the Miccosukee Formation and underlying sediments is unconformable. The Miccosukee Formation is found only in the Northern Highlands where it caps the hills, while the Hawthorn Formation is exposed in low areas.
Core holes drilled on the highest hills indicate that the original thickness of the Miccosukee Formation was probably between 80 and 100 feet. This thickness, however, has been greatly reduced by erosion and thicknesses now range from less than 20 feet in western Leon County to about 90 feet in the Tallahassee Hills of northern Jefferson and Leon counties (Hendry and Yon, 1967).
Lithologically, the Miccosukee Formation is a poorly sorted, coarse to fine grained, vari-colored clayey quartz sand and varicolored sandy clays. Thin laminae of white to gray clay are also present. The sands are sometimes cross-bedded. Individual units cannot be traced very far laterally (Hendry and Sproul, 1966; Yon, 1966). The Miccosukee Formation represents a change from the shallow marine to brackish environment of the Hawthorn Formation, to a deltaic sequence in late Miocene-Pliocene time (Yon, 1966).
The Citronelle Formation (Matson, 1916) unconformably overlies the Miocene coarse clastics in the western panhandle (Marsh, 1966). This formation is thought to be Pliocene or early Pleistocene in age (Vernon, 1951). The eastern extent of the Citronelle is not definitely known. It extends into Alabama to the north and west. The Citronelle consists mostly of angular to subangular, very poorly sorted, fine to very coarse grained quartz sand. Lenses of gravel and clay are also present. Units are usually traceable only over short lateral distances (Marsh, 1966; Coe, 1979). Most of the sand and gravel mined or dredged on the Western Highlands is either taken directly from the Citronelle Formation or from river alluvium derived from Citronelle sediments.
North Florida is characterized by a high broad upland which extends eastward to the Eastern Valley and westward into the


Western Highlands of the panhandle (Purl and Vernon, 1964; White, 1970). Surface elevations over most of this area are above the potentiometric surface, with highland karst features such as dry sinks, abandoned spring heads, dry stream courses, and prairies which were once broad shallow lakes. The following major landforms of this zone that are addressed here include: the Northern Highlands, Trail Ridge, Bell Ridge, the northern segment of the Brooksville Ridge, Atlantic Coastal Ridge, and the Eastern Valley (Fi1g. 2).
The Northern Highlands extend across the northern part of Florida from Trail Ridge on the east to Florida's western boundary where they cross into Alabama. The southern and eastern boundaries are defined by a scarp which extends through the East Gulf and Atlantic Coastal Plains (Doering, 1960). The topography of these highlands east of the Suwannee River varies considerably with maximum elevations of 150 to 200 feet encountered near Ellaville, Live Oak, and Lake City. Northward of this area the terrain is more subdued.
Hawthorn clays generally cap the eastern part of the Northern Highlands and exposures of limestone occur in the southern part of this landform. This has a marked influence on the drainage patterns, as surface discharge of streams occurs east of Gainesville and streams frequently go underground in the limestone terrain west of Gainesville.
Landforms comprising the Northern Highlands in north Florida and the panhandle include Tallahassee Hills, Grand Ridge, and the New Hope Ridge. These high areas may be remnants of a once integrate highland which included the Central Highlands, and have since been separated by erosion and solution (White, 1970).
Trail Ridge represents the eastern boundary of the Northern Highlands. Varying widely in elevation throughout its length, this landform generally gains elevation southward, broadens, and karstic surface features such as solution depressions and lakes become more common.
Trail Ridge is thought to be part of a beach ridge which was built at the crest of an eroding, transgressing sea. The source sediments for Trail Ridge may be sands eroded from the Northern Highlands by this transgressing sea (Pirkle, Yoho, and Hendry, 1970).
Bell Ridge, a prominent feature located in Gilchrist County, was named by Puni and Vernon in 1964. Bell Ridge, which consists of two irregularly shaped ridges, extends for a distance of 20 miles northward from the city of Trenton. These ridges, which may repre-


sent a relict barrier island, have crest elevations that reach a maximum of 100 feet above sea level.
Several sand hills that occur along the west side of the ridge near Bell, Florida, are believed to have once been a part of the main structure of Bell Ridge. Solution of the underlying limestone may have caused the collapse of these sand hills and their subsequent separation from Bell Ridge.
The Brooksville Ridge extends from the eastern part of Gilchrist County southward to Hillsborough County. This linear feature is divided into two sections by the Withlacoochee River at Dunnellon. Its width varies between 4 and 15 miles and a prominent scarp forms its western edge. This ridge has a very irregular surface with surface elevations varying over short distances from about 70 to 200 feet.
The segment of the Brooksville Ridge north of the Withlacoochee River is covered by a thick sand sequence, which in turn is underlain by clayey phosphatic sediments of the Alachua Forma.. tion. The insoluble clastics associated with the Alachua Formation readily explains the ridge's resistance to solution, as compared to the more soluble limestone composition of the Gulf Coastal Lowlands to the west and the Western Valley to the east.
The Atlantic Coastal Ridge extends along the eastern mainland coast of the Florida peninsula from the Georgia state boundary southward into Dade County. The relict beach ridges and bars that make up the Atlantic Coastal Ridge have elevations averaging 30 feet above sea level. These surface elevations, together with observations that the eastern slope of this landform roughly parallels the present submarine slope, are indications that the Atlantic Coastal Ridge may represent remnants of the Pamlico mainland shore.
The Eastern Valley is a broad, flat valley extending southward of the St. Marys Meander Plain. It is bounded to the west by the northsouth trending Duval Uplands and to the east by the Atlantic Coastal Ridges and the Center Park Ridge. Relict beach ridges occur throughout the valley. The presence of these sand ridges suggests that this valley was once a regressional beach ridge plain (White, 1970).
Five units are present in the north Florida area which contain appreciable amounts of sand. These include the Hawthorn, Miccosukee, and Alachua formations, in addition to an unnamed coarse clastic unit, and undifferentiated sands of Pliocene or younger age including terrace deposits (Puri and Vernon, 1964). /


The Hawthorn Formation contains assorted alluvial, marine, and deitaic beds of the Alum Bluff Stage. Named by Dail and Harris (1892), the Hawthorn Formation is based on sections in Alachua County at Niggersink, Newmanville, and Sullivan's Hammock. It has near-surface occurrences in Alachua, Clay, Bradford, and Union counties, in addition to a thick sequence underlying much of the Trail Ridge area.
This formation, which underlies or crops out over most of this area, consists of quartz sand, clay, carbonate, and phosphate minerals, all of which lithologically vary considerably both horizontally and vertically. Individual lenses, whose thicknesses range from a few inches to over 30 feet, have compositions that vary from essentially all calcitic or dolomitic material to all clayey sandy material.
The variable grain texture, significant clay content, and extreme variability of the Hawthorn Formation precludes extensive development of these sands, other than for local uses such as road base material and fill. In these uses the high cost of transportation dictates the use of inferior quality sands where available.
The Miccosukee Formation extends from the western half of Madison County westward into Jefferson, Leon, and Gadsden counties. This formation is a heterogeneous unit with physical features that are characteristic of deltaic deposits, such as channel cut and fill, irregular and variable bedding in the vertical sections, lenticular deposits of sand and clay, and crossbedded sands (Yon, 1966). The presence of the above features lends weight to the theory by Vernon (1951) that these sediments are part of a large deltaic mass. The heterogeneous nature of this deposit obviates commercial exploitation other than for local use, as in Madison County where this abundant red, sandy clay is used for roadbase material.
Thick deposits of a coarse clastic unit, once considered as part of the Citronelle Formation, are present in the Lake Wales Ridge area of peninsular Florida that extends in a narrow band from western Clay County southward through Putnam, Marion, Lake, Orange, and Polk counties. This clastic unit consists of loose surface sands overlying red and yellow clayey sands, which in turn overlie a sequence of white clayey sands. A maximum unit thickness of 150 feet is encountered in the ridge area of Polk County.
These sediments were deposited in Florida as clayey sands with local occurrences of quartz gravel and discoidal shaped quartzite pebbles. Unlike the underlying Hawthorn Formation, which exhibits


a wide variation in lithologic features, this unit displays a relatively uniform lithology through its lateral and vertical extent. The virtual absence of fossils in these sediments may be explained by two principal theories: (1) complete leaching of fossils during weathering, or (2) an alluvial origin for these sediments.
Bishop (1956) and Puni and Vernon (1964) have proposed that the reddish material underlying these loose surface sands be included in the Hawthorn Formation of Early and Middle Miocene age; they considered these reddish, clayey sands deltaic in origin. Bishop (1956) proposed that these sediments are alluvial deposits associated with a large delta. Observed features supporting this theory include: cut-and-fill structure, rapid changes in mixtures of clay, sand, and gravel in both horizontal and vertical directions, irregular stratification features, and the mixing of clay with quartzite pebbles.
These sediments represent one of the few sources of gravel in Florida. The quartzite pebbles frequently attain lengths of more than two inches and occur extensively throughout this central part of peninsular Florida. Significant amounts of fine to coarse grained sands are also present in abundant quantities. These sands, together with a surface veneer of loose sands, have a combined thickness of up to 15 feet, thus representing a large potential source of sand suitable for many uses.
The name "Alachua Clays" was applied by DalI and Harris (1892) to the bone-bearing beds found ". .. in sinks, gullies, and other depressions in the Upper Eocene, Miocene, and later rocks of Florida especially on the western anticline in the higher portions of Alachua County and along the banks of many rivers and streams." Sellards (1910) recommended that these sediments be called the Alachua Formation. They are now considered to be the compacted residue of the Hawthorn Formation.
The Alachua Formation extends from northern Gilchrist County into Hernando County. The Withlacoochee River divides this formation into two parts by cutting down into the limestones of the Ocala Group along its course. Outcrops are present in the southwestern part of Lafayette County, the western part of Hamilton County, and part of Alachua and Marion counties. The Alachua Formation overlies the Ocala Group limestones in many areas, and is unconformably overlain by Pleistocene marine sands. It reaches thicknesses in excess of 100 feet in parts of Citrus County, though it is usually thinner. These sands represent a significant resource suitable for future development as roadbase and fill.


The fluctuations of sea level in Florida from Miocene through Pleistocene significantly altered the land surface, with subsequent coastal erosion and deposition forming marine terraces and coastal bars. All terraces shown in Table 1 are present in the north Florida area. Although the thickness and quality of the deposits vary, the terraces provide an important sand resource in the area. Thicknesses vary from less than one foot to greater than 50 feet. The major contaminants are clay and organic matter which limit the uses of the sand (Cooke, 1945).
There are numerous physiographic features listed by Puni and Vernon (1964a) for this area. However, for the purpose of this report, they will be combined into three major physiographic regions. There are, from east to west: the Atlantic Coastal Lowlands, the Central Highlands, and the Gulf Coastal Lowlands.
The Atlantic and Gulf Coastal Lowlands are low in elevation (less than 100 feet) and poorly drained. Their characteristic features are generally coast-parallel, indicating a close control of their shape and formation by marine forces. The landforms found in the coastal lowlands are ancient barrier islands, lagoons, estuaries, coastal ridges, sand dune ridges, relict spits and bars, and intervening coast-parallel valleys (Puni and Vernon, 1964a).
The Central Highlands are comprised of a number of localized areas of higher elevation (Fig. 2). The Central Highlands are considered here to be any feature above elevation 100 feet. Some of the more prominent of these features are the Lake Wales, Brooksville, Winter Haven, Mount Dora, and Orlando ridges. These ridges enclose large elongate lowlands, the Central and Western vallies, and the valley occupied by the St. Johns River. For the most part, the higher areas are elongated and ridge-like, especially the Lake Wales Ridge, which is only a few miles wide but more than 100 miles long. Many of the other features are more or less equidimensional, but the arrangement of higher areas within their boundaries show strong lineation parallel to the Atlantic Coast. The larger valleys also share the same general elongation, parallel with the length of the peninsula.
The sand deposits in the Central Highlands are economically important in central Florida. Numerous sand ridges, such as the


Brooksville, Lake Wales, Mount Dora, and Orlando ridges make up the highest elevations in the Central Highlands, and contain significant amounts of marketable sand (Puri and Vernon, 1964a).
An unnamed coarse clastic unit of Miocene age, which was formerly called the Citronelle Formation and Fort Preston Formation (Cooke, 1945; Scott, 1978), is found in parts of Highlands, Lake, Marion, Orange, and Polk counties. These coarse clastics make up the Mount Dora, Orlando, and Lake Wales ridges. The coarse clastics are the chief source of most of Florida's construction sand, and the clays in these deposits are the source of commercial kaolin.
These non-marine coarse clastic sediments consist of poorlysorted quartz grains, ranging in size from fine sand to small pebbles. The sands and pebbles are imbedded in a predominantly kaolinitic clay matrix. The upper part of these sediments is usually red to orange, and the lower part is white to light yellow-gray.
Most of the surface sands in the Central Highlands are associated with terrace deposits of Pleistocene age (Table 1). The highest terrace is the Hazlehurst (215-320 feet) and is found only in parts of south-central Polk County (Healy, 1975). It is not important as a source of sand because of its limited areal extent. The Coharie terrace (170-215 feet), which is found in Hillsborough, Lake, Manatee, Marion, Pasco, and Polk counties, is composed of coarse sand and has a thickness of approximately six feet in the Lakeland area (Cooke, 1945)./The Sunderland terrace (100-1 70 feet), which is found in all the counties within the Central Highlands area, is composed of sand and clay of varying degrees of fineness. 'l/t probably does not exceed 40 feet in thickness over most of the area. The Coharie and Sunderland terrace sands in Citrus, Pasco, and Hernando counties are the southern extension of the Brooksville Ridge.
Recent alluvium is present in the Central Highlands in flood plains of rivers and streams, such as the Kissimmee River, Arbuckle Creek, and the lower portions of Fisheating Creek. Alluvial deposits may contain some organic material and can range from a sandy peat to bars of pure sand. These deposits are important only in certain localities where relatively clean sands are present.
Recent dune sands are also present, occurring near many of the larger lakes and as thin coverings over the Pleistocene coastal bars near the southern part of Lake Wales Ridge in Highlands County. Dune deposits may be economically important on a local scale, but usually are too thin to be of value.


Because of varying geologic factors, large sand deposits were not formed in the Atlantic Coastal Lowlands, but it does have the potential for minor sand production. The Anastasia Formation, which is found in parts of Brevard, Flagler, Indian River, Martin, St. Lucie, and Volusia counties, can locally be an almost pure sand and has been utilized as a source of sand. It is better known for the coquina which has been produced from it (Schmidt, et al., 1979). Punl and Vernon (1964) estimated that the Anastasia Formation may have a thickness of up to 100 feet. Sand deposits associated with the Anastasia Formation are characterized by being discontinuous, with lithology and texture varying considerably both laterally and vertically within short distances. The unconsolidated sediments of the Anastasia Formation are fine to medium-grained quartz sands, locally interbedded with shells or clay. These deposits are generally considered to have been deposited during the Pleistocene Epoch (Puri and Vernon, 1964).
The Atlantic Coastal Lowlands are blanketed by terrace sands of Pleistocene age. The terraces found in this area are the Wicomico (70-100 feet), Penholoway (42-70 feet), Talbot (25-42 feet), Pamlico (8-25 feet), and Silver Bluff (1-10 feet) (Table 1). The Wicomico sands are usually a gray-brown color where exposed to weathering, and are yellow and red on a fresh surface. Its thickness is variable, but probably does not exceed 50 feet.
Sands from the Penholoway, Talbot, Pamlico, and Silver Bluff terraces, taken as a group, range from a few inches to several tens of feet in thickness. These sands are found nearest the Atlantic coast but are not as extensive as the sand at higher elevations. Further inland, Scott (1978) mapped sands with a large areal extent southeast of Orlando, Orange County, which have a thickness of up to 50 feet.
Recent deposits consist of alluvial sand and clay in stream valleys and dune sand along the coastline. Alluvial and dune deposits are not extensive and are only locally important.
Most of the Gulf Coastal Lowlands surface sand is related to Pleistocene terrace deposits. The Pam lico sands cover most of this area, and are usually less than five feet in thickness. Sediments associated with the Wicomico, Penholoway, Talbot, and Silver Bluff terraces are also found in this area, and can have varying thickness and composition. These sediments are composed of very fine to medium-grained quartz sands, locally interbedded with clay. These sands are finer than the sands found in the Atlantic Coastal Lowlands (Wright, 1974), and in some locations, are too fine to be used for construction purposes. Deposits of glass sand are found in the Plant City area and are relatively pure, with only a small amount


of heavy minerals being present (Wright, 1974). The Gulf Coastal Lowlands are not an important source of sand and most of the sand used in this physiographic region is obtained from deposits in the Central Highlands.
One feature that is found on the eastern boundary of the Gulf Coastal Lowlands that is important as a source of sand is the southern part of the Brooksville Ridge. Puri and Vernon (1964a) assign the sediments that make up the Brooksville Ridge to the Alachua Formation, but more recently Knapp (1978a) suggested that they belong to the Wicomico terrace deposit at an approximate elevation of 100 feet. These sediments are fine to medium-grained quartz sands and silts, and are used for construction, fill material, and the manufacturing of asphalt.
The physiographic divisions in south Florida are shown on Figure 2. From east to west are the Atlantic Coastal Ridge, the Eastern Valley, the Everglades, the Southwestern Slope, Immokalee Rise, Big Cypress Spur, the Reticulate Coastal Swamps, and Cape Sable. Offshore at the southern tip of the peninsula lie the Florida Keys. Several of these areas do not have significant sand resources, and they will not be discussed in detail in this study. Their sand is either included as an accessory mineral in limestone, or it is mixed in a very thin veneer of sandy, shelly, peaty clastics. These areas are the Southwestern Slope, Reticulate Coastal Swamps, Cape Sable, and Florida Keys.
The mainland of south Florida, south of Lake Okeechobee and the Caloosahatchee River, with the exception of the Atlantic Coastal Ridge, may be described as topographically flat. The Atlantic Coastal Ridge is distinguished from the region's other physiographic areas by its significantly higher elevations, its linearity, and its coast-parallel orientation. These characteristics, along with other geologic evidence, indicate that the ridge originated in the Pleistocene as an ancient counterpart of the present-day complex of offshore bars, barrier beaches, dunes, and other shoreline features. Its average width is about one or two miles, but sand up to 10-feet thick may extend five to ten miles inland from the coast. General elevations are from 30 to 60 feet, with some dunes near Jensen Beach and in Jonathan Dickinson State Park rising over 80 feet. These ancient coastal dunes are composed of clean (debris-free) quartz sand and silt. Locally, they may have


iron staining and minor amounts of accessory minerals, such as phosphorite or heavy minerals. Thicknesses of 50 feet or more of relatively clean sand are available. Because they provide large quantities of easily accessible sand, these dunes have been and are still being mined in a few places.
Near Boynton Beach, in southern Palm Beach County, elevations of the ridge become lower, ranging from 10 to 15 feet above sea level. Consequently, south from Boynton Beach, the sand is thinner, and locally it may be intermixed with the underlying lithologic units, such as shell beds or limestone.
South of Fort Lauderdale the ridge becomes a gently rolling limestone ridge that trends southwest to Homestead, where it loses stature and merges with the surrounding Everglades. The prominent parts of this extension of the ridge are composed of limestone of the Miami Oolite, of Pleistocene age. Usual crest elevations are 10 to 15 feet, with highest elevations between 20 to 24 feet in the Coconut Grove area of Miami. As far south as Miami the limestone is veneered by shelly, quartz sand that may be several feet thick.
The area between the eastern edge of the Everglades and the Atlantic Coastal Ridge is named the Eastern Valley. It is not a true valley, but is a gently undulating area that is lower in elevation than the Atlantic Coastal Ridge, yet slightly higher than the Everglades. Most of the area is covered by sand. In general, both surface elevations and sand thickness increase in an easterly direction from the edge of the Everglades towards the Atlantic Coastal Ridge. Sand thickness is quite variable and can range from a few inches to over 20 feet. Much of the sand contains organics, shells, or interfingers with peat, marl, or limestone units.
The Everglades is a vast expanse of Recent peat. This great accumulation of organic debris has filled a shallow, trough-like depression in the bedrock. Throughout the past several thousand years, during which the peat was being deposited, sand and other erosion products from the higher surrounding land were introduced into the fringes of the peat. Because of man's activities of draining and farming in the Everglades, the original extent of the peat has been reduced. These activities have caused the loss of much peat through spontaneous combusion or slow oxidation. Compaction also has reduced the surface elevations and caused thinning of the peat over large areas. Areas around the edges of the Everglades that once were covered by several feet of peat are now bare sand, marl, or limestone. Potentially mineable sources of such recently exposed sand occur around the southern shore of Lake


Okeechobee. However, they may contain high percentages of organic material. The areas that lie to the east and west of the Everglades, which have been denuded of peat, have less potential as sources of sand because the sand Is usually too thin or mixed with shells, marl, limestone, or organics.
White (1970) postulated the origin of the Immokalee Rise as being a submarine shoal that developed south of the Lake Wales Ridge during late Pleistocene time. The Lake Wales Ridge was thought to have been a large mainland cape during the Pleistocene. The boundary of the immokalee Rise Is placed at the 25-feet elevation contour; its highest elevation Is between 40 and 45 feet, a few miles north of the town of Immokalee. Sequences of relatively clean sand more than 10-feet thick occur at the higher elevations. However, thickness and purity decrease In all directions going towards lower elevations. The sand becomes thinner and mixed with the shells, manls, limestones, and organic materials that occur at or near the surface of the Caloosahatchee Valley, Big Cypress Spur, and Southwestern Slope.
Five units in the south Florida area may contain appreciable sand. They are: terrace deposits, Anastasia Formation, Ft. Thompson Formation, Caloosahatchee Formation, and the Tamiami Formation.
The terrace sands, presumably of Pleistocene age, blanket much of the south Florida land area. Based on elevation alone, these sands are assigned to the Silver Bluff terrace deposits and the Pamlico terrace deposits. Generally, the terrace sands do not form economically important deposits. However, small locally Important accumulations do occur. Cooke (1945) believed that very little sand was actually carried Into the area during Pamlico and Silver Bluff time resulting In only a thin sand veneer. Hoffmeister (1974) described the Pamlico sands as having a thickness of up to 60 feet locally. Commonly associated with the terraces and the present day coastal zone are dunes of varying stature. These sands are generally well sorted with minor contaminating material.
Cooke (1945) described the Pleistocene Anastasia Formation as consisting of all gradations, .. between coarse rock, composed almost entirely of unbroken shells, and sandstone. .. ". More recently, many geologists have Included some unconsolidated sand beds In the Anastasia Formation of south Florida. These beds are only sporadic and are generally of little interest to the sand industry. Along the east coast the coquina and sands of the


Anastasia Interfinger and southward grade laterally into the Miami Oolite. The Anastasia is overlain by the terrace sand, is laterally equivalent to the Fort Thompson Formation, and overlies the Caloosahatchee Formation along the east coast.
The Pleistocene Fort Thompson Formation consists of alternating marine, brackish, and fresh water marls, limestones and sands (Cooke, 1945; Hoffmeister, 1974). It is thought to have occasional sand concentrations that may be locally important (Purl and Vernon. 1964). It is laterally equivalent to the Anastasia, and overlies the Caloosahatchee and Tamiami formations.
The Caloosahatchee Formation is described as containing sandy marl, clay, silt, sand and shell beds. The sand units are of local importance only. The age of the Caloosahatchee is thought to be Pliocene by some (Hoffmeister, 1974), and Pleistocene by others (Hunter, 1978; Dubar, 1958). It overlies the Tamlami Formation.
The Tamiami Formation is present near the surface over much of south Florida. It consists of limestone, clay, marl and sands. Hunter (1978) describes two sand members, the Pinecrest Sand and the Ortona Sand. The Pinecrest Sand member Is a-shelly calcareous sand that has been recognized over much of south Florida and is mined in many areas including some in central Florida. The Ortona Sand is an informal unit proposed by Hunter (1978) for a sand unit being mined near Ortona in Glades County. These sands are typically coarse. The areal extent of the unit is unknown but Hunter does suggest it may be present on the northwest side of Lake Okeechobee. The age of the Tamlaml is Upper Miocene-Pliocene.
There are many producers of sand and gravel in Florida (see Appendix). Their size and mode of operation. are quite variable. Most producers have rather small operations In comparison with the other mineral Industries in the state. However, due to the relatively low unit value and abundant resources, there are more individual sand and gravel producers than any other mineral commodity producers in Florida.
The scope of a sand and gravel mining operation is determined primarily by local and regional market conditions. The largest and most modern operations are near metropolitan and developing areas. The smaller (borrow pit) type of operations are scattered throughout the state; their locations determined by the local demand. Countless numbers of borrow pits for sand parallel the highways of Florida.


Surface mining is the only method of producing sand and gravel in Florida. The surface mining of sand and gravel can be divided into three major divisions, primarily by the character of the deposit (Thoenen, 1936). These divisions are: bank mining, where the elevation of the excavation floor is level with or above the surrounding land surface; pit mining, where the deposit and the excavation surface lie below the surrounding land surface; and subaqueous mining, where the excavation is carried out on a deposit located entirely below the surface of a natural body of water. All surface mining is carried out by what is known as the "bench" method. Bench or benching is defined as the horizontal step or floor along which the sand or overburden is worked (Fay, 1968).
In Florida, the pit and bank types of mining are the most common. The mining of sand and gravel from a pit or bank can be quite difficult, because the mining products desired normally need to be graded. The larger operations use a suction dredge to mine sand and gravel from pit bottoms (Fig. 3). A hydraulic gun is used to undermine the bank and allow sand and gravel to slump into the pit where it can be piped in a slurry to the classifying operations. It then passes through screen shakers which separate the coarser gravel portion. The sand component of the mixture passing through the screens is introduced into a jet-stream of water as it goes into settling tanks known as scelping tanks (Fig. 4). The scelping tanks use a jet-stream of water to separate the sand into fine and coarse fractions. The fines are piped to a settling pond and the coarser product is transported by conveyor belt to a stockpile or truck. The smaller operations employ draglines, tractors, and other heavy equipment to load sand and gravel directly onto trucks with few or no classifying operations.
Subaqueous mining is restricted to Florida's coastal areas where erosional problems have created the need for beach replenishment programs. Sand is usually dredged from inlets or offshore areas and then introduced into the nearshore littoral system. The nearshore littoral system is very sensitive to wave energy, and the offshore suction dredges are monitored closely to be sure they do not excavate protective offshore bars and barriers, which could aggravate the very problem they are attempting to solve.
Sand and gravel in Florida is transported by truck, rail, and water. Conveyance by truck represents by far the principal means of transportation and averages between 88 and 92 percent of the total tonnage hauled (U.S. Bureau of Mines, 1965-1975). Rail is an important minor means of transportation and averages from 7 to 9 percent. Due to energy demands and projected future expenses of


Figure 3. Suction dredge method of sand and gravel mining.

Figure 4. Scalping tanks. A part of a sand and gravel size-classification system.


mass transportation, shipment by rail should increase significantly in the future. Shipment by water is a very minor means of transportation, averaging from 0.5 to 1 percent.
Sand and gravel mined in Florida is produced from stream alluvial deposits, highland sands, terraces, fluvial, beach, and dune deposits. All sand and gravel produced in Florida is by open pit mining with the highest producing sand quarries located in Polk, Putnam, Hendry, Broward, and Lake counties. This is further illustrated by 1975 statistics which show that the five counties above account for about 60 percent of the state's total sand and gravel output (U.S. Bureau of Mines).
Most of Florida's gravel production is from the panhandle, with concentrations occurring in Escambia, Bay, and Gadsden counties. Presently, gravel is being mined along the Escambia River near the Florida-Alabama boundary and along the Apalachicola River at Chattahoochee, Florida. Sand and gravel mines are also located in the central peninsula of Florida, and this area has potential for increased future development. South Florida has extensive sand deposits and many quarries along the eastern coast, with potential for more development than at present. There are no known gravel deposits in south Florida.
Figure 5 shows the total production and the corresponding value for sand and gravel in Florida for the years 1970-1978. It must be noted here that the U.S. Bureau of Mines (the source of these data) improved its statistical coverage for production values after 1973. The production figures from 1973 to 1974, therefore, are only an apparent increase due to better coverage. The data do show the true trends, however, for the periods 1970-1973 and 1974-1978. They show that production and value increased significantly after 1970 and through 1973, which reflected both the nation's and Florida's increased activities in the industrial and construction segments of the economy.
Beginning in 1974, however, spiralling inflation rates have caused across-the-board rises of production costs, which are passed on to the consumer. Inflation's effect on the cost of sand and gravel in Florida is shown on Figure 5. After 1973, a comparison of the relative heights of each year's quantity and value pair of bars shows that the value bars are disproportionately high for the quantity of sand and gravel produced, which indicates a higher per-unit cost of commodity.

30WU 0
z -n
30-- 25 IT!
C C-4 I
- 4 0 W
, N
0 >
20- 20a
04 C
N ~0 z
10 15
0 I0
1970 1971 1972 1973 1974 1975 1976 1977 1978
Figure 5. Total production and value for sand and gravel In Florida for period 1970-1978. Data from U.S. Bureau C
of Mines.


Several other factors add to the cost of sand and gravel to consumers. Two cost factors that are directly tied to the price of energy are transportation and processing costs. Other indirect factors that can add to the consumer's cost are increased labor costs, increased land value for new mines, and the need to produce from lower quality deposits as the better ones become depleted or are encroached upon by urban expansion. Future state or Federal legislation may place sand and gravel operations under the purview of strip-mining laws, which may require operators to reclaim mined areas and add to the cost of mining. In early 1979, sand and gravel producers were required to implement training programs which meet the requirements of the Federal Mine Safety and Health Act (MSHA), thereby adding to the cost of operating.
Figure 6 is a breakdown of the industrial and construction components that make up the total production of sand and gravel. Industrial uses show dramatic decreases in 1971-1977, and construction uses show decreases after 1974. These statistics are symptomatic of the nationwide depressed economic conditions for the period.
From a 1976 base, total national demand for sand and gravel is forecast to increase at an annual rate of 1.6 percent (U.S. Bureau of Mines, 1979). The National Sand and Gravel Association's shortterm, national forecast is optimistic because the outlook for industrial and commercial construction activity for 1979 appears to be good, and the Federal spending for highways has increased (Pit and Quarry, 1979).
Sand and gravel is the largest nonfuel mineral industry in the United States and its products have a multiplicity of applications. Due to the large number of uses only a few of the major applications will be addressed in this report.
The term "sand" as used in this report represents material within the size range of 0.0625 to 2 millimeters and a composition consisting primarily of silica (quartz). Gravel as used here describes rock particles larger than 2 millimeters but less than 64 millimeters in diameter.
Sands mined commercially contain quartz, feldspar, iron oxides, mica and heavy minerals. Due to the wide variation in the chemical and physical characteristics of sand and gravel, their various usages have numerous different specifications.
Sand and gravel production can be divided into two groups: construction usage and industrial usage. Construction sand and gravel


0 I
-- 15

1970 1971 1972 1973

1974 1975 1976 1977

Figure 6. Quantities of sand and gravel for construction and Industrial uses In Florida for
period 1970-1977. Data from U.S. Bureau of Mines.


is the largest usage by far; consuming about 95 percent of the total sand and gravel produced in the United States in recent years. It exceeded the next most-used construction commodity, crushed stone, by some 245 million short tons. Industrial sand and gravel, though accounting for only 4 to 5 percent of the total sand and gravel production, represents almost 10 percent of the total value.
Table 2, though not complete, lists some of the various sand and gravel usages. The listed usages have been further classified as construction or industrial sand and gravel. A complete list of specifications for these usages is beyond the scope of this report; therefore, specifications for only some of the principal usages will be addressed here. A more complete list of usages and their specifications is outlined in the Florida Department of Transportation Standard Specifications for Road and Bridge Construction (1977).
A. Construction Sand and Gravel
Aggregates for concrete and bituminous mixes
Mortar Plaster Paving
Sand cement riprap
Filter aggregate for underdrain
Sand asphalt hot mix
Sand seal coat
B Industrial Sand and Gravel
Glass sand
Foundry sand
Abrasive products Silicate chemicals
Filtering media
Gravel aggregate used in portland cement must meet both physical and chemical requirements. The specifications for gravel used as aggregate are outlined in the 1977 Florida Department of Transportation Standard Specifications for Road and Bridge Construction (Section 901-1, page 535), "Gravel shall be composed of clean, tough, durable quartz. The loss when this material is subjected to the Los Angeles Abrasion Test (American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials T 96), shall be no more


than 50 percent. The dry-rodded weight per cubic foot of the gravel, tested according to AASHTO T 19, shall be not less than 95 pounds."
The tests for sand used as fine aggregate for cement concrete are outlined in the American Society for Testing Materials (ASTM) 1978 Manual. The Florida Department of Transportation requires the fine aggregate to consist of sand composed only of hard, strong, durable, uncoated grains of quartz. The fine aggregate is subjected to the colorimetric test for organic impurities in accordance with AASHTO Methods T 71 and M 6. The quartz sand fine aggregate is required to be reasonably well graded from coarse to fine when tested by laboratory sieves.
Mortar sands used for block and brick masonry represent a significant percentage of total sand production in Florida. These sands shall generally conform to the quality requirements of sand used for cement concrete. The material shall all pass the No. 8 sieve and shall be uniformly graded from coarse to fine.
Florida sands are also used in great quantities for asphaltic concrete surface paving. Fine aggregate used for this purpose shall be composed of clean, tough, angular grains free from clay, loam and other foreign matter. In addition, this aggregate must meet the following sieve requirements put forth by the Florida Department of Transportation Standard Specifications for Road and Bridge Construction (Section 333 1-5, pages 233-234):
Passing Sieve Percent
3/8 inch 97-100
No. 4 65-100
No. 10 40- 75
No. 40 20- 45
No. 80 10- 30
No. 200 0- 10
Clayey sands are an essential ingredient of paving base material and require a mixture of sand and clay free of foreign matter. This


material shall have a Limerock Bearing Ratio Value of at least 75 and meet the following sieve specifications:
Percent of Material Passing the 10-Mesh Sieve
Clay ...................... 8to 21
Silt ........ .............. 0tol10
Combined clay and silt ........8 to 25
The essential ingredients of this important usage consist of portland cement, fine aggregate, sacks, and grout. Portland cement used in sand-cement riprap shall be from an approved source and the product of an established and reputable manufacturer. The fine aggregate must meet the following sieve requirements put forth by the Florida Department of Transportation Standard Specifications for Road and Bridge Construction (Section 902-3.1, page 540): Passing Sieve Retained on Sieve Percent by Weight
No. 4 90-100
No. 4 No. 10 0-15
No. 10 No. 40 15-50
No. 40 No. 80 25-60
No. 80 No. 200 8-40
No. 200 0-10
The sacks must be of any suitable material which will hold the sand-cement mixture without leakage but permeable enough to permit the passage of water when wetted. In addition, the sacks must be of uniform size and dimensions and only one type and size of sack can be used at any one structure. The grout between the sacks must contain a clean commercial sand.
This small but significant product shall use sand that is clean and non-plastic. The grains must be hard, durable, and free from loam, roots, clay balls, and other deleterious substances. Many local sands meet these specifications.
Glass sand represents a principal usage of industrial sands in Florida. These sands have strict specifications with respect to colorant, refractory minerals, mesh distribution, and chemical re-


quirements. The critical control limits and acceptable mesh specifications of the various contaminants are listed in Table 3.

Constituent Total Iron Alumina Chromium Cobalt Manganese

Fe2O, AI20,
Cr203 Co03O4 MnO2 H20

Limit .080% .30%
.0002% .0002% .0020% .05%

maximum maximum maximum maximum maximum maximum

Acceptable Mesh Specification (after Brown 1977).

Cumulative Retained On: Cumulative Retained On: Cumulative Retained On: Cumulative Retained On: Cumulative Retained On: Cumulative Retained On:

U.S. Standard
16 -Mesh 20 Mesh 40 -Mesh 140- Mesh 200 Mesh 325 Mesh

Not one piece
.01% maximum .10% maximum* 92.0% minimum 99.5% minimum 100.0% minimum

*May be substantially modified if the base deposit is free of refractory particles exceeding 70-Mesh.
Refractory minerals are particles that fail to melt or pass into solution in molten glass within a reasonable span of time. The glass industry has only recently begun to place specifications limits on refractory contaminants. Specification techniques have not been standardized at this time. Refractory particulates include chromite, corundum, andalusite, kyanite, sillimanite, and zircon.
Foundry sands include silica sands that are used to make casting forms. Physical properties are of utmost importance and include finess, bonding strength, permeability, sintering point, and durability. The tests commonly employed are those adopted as standard by the American Foundrymen's Association for Testing Materials (ASTM) 1978 Manual. A typical anlaysis of a foundry sand is given in Table 4.

SAND. (adapted from Industrial Minerals and Rocks, 1975).
U.S. Sieve Series Percent Retained
20 0.4
30 1.6
40 6.4
50 22.6
70 40.4
100 23.6
140 4.6
200 0.6
270 0.0
Pan 0.0
AFS Finess #53
These sands require well sorted sand grains. Purity specifications are dependent on the requirements of the final product. Consequently, these specifications are written by the various commercial users, government agencies, and the American Society for Testing Materials.

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Schmidt, Walter, 1978a, Environmental Geology Series Pensacola Sheet: Florida
Bureau of Geology, Map Series No. 78.
Schmidt, Walter, 1978b, Environmental Geology Series Apalachicola Sheet: Florida Bureau of Geology, Map Series No. 84.
Schmidt, Walter, 1979, Environmental Geology Series Tallahassee Sheet: Florida
Bureau of Geology, Map Series No. 90.
Schmidt, W., et al, 1979, The Limestone, Dolomite and Coquina Resources of Florida:
Florida Bureau of Geology, Report of Investigation No. 88.
Schmidt, Walter, and Coe, Curtis, 1978, Regional Structure and Stratigraphy of the
Limestone Outcrop Belt in the Florida Panhandle: Florida Bureau of Geology,
Report of Investigation No. 86.
Scott, T. M., 1978, Environmental Geology Series Orlando Sheet: Florida Bureau
of Geology, Map Series 85.
Scott, T. M., 1979, Environmental Geology Series Jacksonville Sheet: Florida Bureau of Geology, Map Series 89.
Scott, T. M., 1979, Environmental Geology Series Daytona Beach Sheet: Florida
Bureau of Geology, Map Series 93.
Sellards, E. H., 1910, A Preliminary Paper on the Florida Phosphate Deposits: Florida
Geological Survey, Annual Report 3, p. 17-42.
Sweeney, J. W., and Hendry, C. W., Jr., 1975, "Sand and Gravel", Minerals Yearbook,
1975, U.S. Bureau of Mines, pp. 191-306.
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Geological Survey Bulletin 21.
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Survey Bulletin 33, 256 p., 2 pl., 40 figures, 20 tables.
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Florida Bureau of Geology Special Publication 19, 94 p.
Von, William, Jr., 1966, Geology of Jefferson County, Florida: Florida Geological
Survey Bulletin 48, 115 p., 28 figures, 1 pl., 9 tables.


Calloway Sand Co. P. 0. Box 343 Panama City, FL 32402 Florida Asphalt Paving Co. P. 0. Box 1310 Panama City, FL 32401 Gulf Asphalt Corp. 6610 West Highway 98 Panama City, FL 32401 Pitts Sand Co. Route 4
Panama City, FL 32401

Melbourne Sand Co. Route 1, Box 214 Eau Gallie, FL 32935

Bergeron Sand and
Rock Mining Co.
2121 North 184th Avenue Hollywood, FL 33021 D. C. Hiatt 6301 N. W. 9th Avenue Ft. Lauderdale, FL 33309 Des Rosher, Inc. 3660 N. W. North River Drive Miami, FL 33142 Florida Commercial Development
P. 0. Box 5147 Ft. Lauderdale, FL 33310 Frank Newth, Inc. P. 0. Box 3065 Pompano Beach, FL 33062
L. W. Rozzo, Inc. 4435 S. W. 26th Street Ft. Lauderdale, FL 33314 Meekins, Inc. 3500 Pembroke Road Hollywood, FL 33021

Calloway Pit Hutchinson Pit Register Pit Gulf Asphalt Pit Lynn Haven Mine
Hollywood Pit C & J Fill Pompano Pit Prospect Pit Margate Pit (No Name) Pembroke Road

Tnsp Range Sec
4S 13W 12

2S 13W 13,14

3S 14W

26S 36E 1,12

51S 39E

48S 42E 16
48S 42E 21

49S 42E

48S 42E 21

51S 40E 31,32 51S 42E 20


Pompano Silica Sand Co. 1951 N. Powerline Road Pompano Beach, FL 33060 Rockland Industries, Inc. P. 0. Box 959 Deerfield Beach, FL 33441
Panhandle Mining Development Route 1
Blountstown, FL 32424
General Development Corp. 1111 South Bayshore Drive Miami, FL 33131
Florida Rock Industries, Inc. P. 0. Box 4667 Jacksonville, FL 32201
A. J. Capeletti, Inc. P. 0. Box 9444 Hlaleah, FL 33021 Coral Aggregates Corp. Division of Meekins, Inc. 3500 Pembroke Road Hollywood, FL 33021 Florida Rock and Sand Co. P. 0. Box 3004 Florida City, FL 33030
Campbell Sand and Gravel Co. RFD 1, Box 242 Flomaton, AL 36441 Clark Sand Co. P. 0. Box 4267 Pensacola, FL 32507 Edward M. Chadbourne, Inc. 4375 McCoy Drive Pensacola, FL 32503 Escambia Materials, Inc. P. 0. Box 12268 Pensacola, FL 32581 Green's Fill Dirt Route 5, Box 212 Pensacola, FL 32503

Tsiotis Sand Mind Pit No. 1

Overholt Pit

CHARLOTTE Charlotte Co. Pit
Gold Head Mine
Dade Pit No. 6 Coral Aggregates Card Sound Pit ESCAMBIA
Century Pit Pensacola Mine Escambla Pit Bluff Springs Mine (No Name)

48S 42E 28

48S 42E

1N 8W 27

41S 21E 23,26

8S 23E

51S 41E 31
53S 39E 36
58S 39E 17

5N 30W 22
2S 30W 37, 38 1S 30W 35
5N 31W 25,26 1S 31W 12


J. W. McKay Sand Co. 263 Aquamarine Dr. Pensacola, FL 32505 Pioneer Sand Co. P. 0. Box 4599 Pensacola, FL 32507

E. R. Jahna Industries P. 0. Box 317 Lecanto, FL 32661 Florida Rock Industries, Inc. P. 0. Box 4667 Jacksonville, FL 32201
L. T. Ridgdill & Sons P. 0. Box 447 Clewiston, FL 33440 Labelle Limerock Co. General Delivery Labelle, FL 33935
Jernigan Trucking Co. Route 1, Box 141J Sef ner, FL 33584

McKay Sand Sauflay Pit GLADES
Ortona Mine Caloosa Pit

Clewiston Quarry
Labelle Limerock Mine

1S 30W 26
1S 31W 38

42S 36E 23

42S 30E

43S 34E 24

43S 28E

28S 20E 22

Coddings White Sand Co. Coddings White 795 State Road 19A Sand Pit
Mt. Dora, FL 32757 E. R. Jahna Industries, Inc. East Mine P. 0. Box 317 West Mine
Lecanto, FL 32661 Eustis Sand Co. Eustis Mine
P. 0. Box 861 Mt. Dora, FL 32757 Florida Crushed Stone Co. Tulley Sand Mine P. 0. Box 668 Brooksville, FL 33512 Florida Rock Industries, Inc. Astatula Sand Mine P. 0. Box 4667 Lake Sand Plant
Jacksonville, FL 32201 National Silica Corp. Wallace Mine
Division of Standard Sand & Silica P. 0. Box 8
Silver Springs, FL 32688 Silver Sand Co. Center Sand Pit
RR 1, Box US 1 Clermont, FL 32711

19S 26E 23
22S 26E 27
22S 25E 22
18S 27E 13,14
22S 36E 34
20S 26E 17
24S 26E 19

24S 25E

23S 26E


Standard Sand & Silica Co. P. 0. Box 35 Davenport, FL 33837

Labelle Limerock Co. General Delivery Labelle, FL 33935

Triple C Fill & Paving

44S 26E 28

Crowder Contracting and
Excavating, Inc. 3705 Doris Drive Tallahassee, FL 32303 Excavating and Land Clearing,
Route 4, Box 475 Tallahassee, FL 32304 Roberts Sand Co. P. 0. Box 1642 Tallahassee, FL 32302

(No Name) (No Name) Norfleet Pit

MANATEE Purington and Rhoades P & R Shell Pit
Route 3, Box 98A Sarasota, FL 33580 Wendel Kent and Co. State Road 70 Pit
P. 0. Box 2719 Sarasota, FL 33580 MARION
National Silica Corp National Pit
Division of Standard Sand & Silica P. 0. Box 8 Silver Springs, FL 32688 OKALOOSA

iS 2W 12
1 1W 6
1N 2W 35

35S 17E 9

35S 19E

15S 24E

Morrell Sand Co. Route 2
Crestview, FL 32536 Twin City Sand Co. 168 Bayshore Drive Niceville, FL 32578

Devane Silica Mining Co. P. 0. Drawer 338 Polk City, FL 33868 E. R. Jahna Industries, Inc. P. 0. Box 317 Lecanto, FL 32661

Dorcas Pit

Niceville Mine
Devane # Pit Haines City Mine (No Name)

4N 22W 21

1S 22W

25S 25E
27S 27E 26S 27E

Wallace Mine

24S 28E


Florida Rock Industries, Inc. P. 0. Box 4667 Jacksonville, FL 32201 Gall Silica Mining Co. P. 0. Box 987 Lake Wales, FL 33853 National Silica Corp. Division of Standard & Silica P. 0. Box 8 Silver Springs, FL 32688
Chesser and Strickland Sand Co. P. 0. Drawer D Hollister, FL 32047 Florida Rock Industries, Inc. P. 0. Box 4667 Jacksonville, FL 32201 The Feldspar Corp. EPK Division P. 0. Box 8 Edgar, FL 32049

Glenn Blackburn, Inc. Route 4, Box 157 Ft. Pierce, FL 33450

Santa Rosa Asphalt & Materials,
Route 7, Box 284A Milton, FL 32570
Ashland-Warren, Inc. P. 0. Box 7368 Naples, FL 33941 B & J Dragline Hanchey Dr. & Nokomis Venice, FL 33959 General Development Corp. 1111 South Bayshore Drive Miami, FL 33131 Venice Fill and Shell Co. P. 0. Box 691 Venice, FL 33595 Wendell Kent and Co. P. 0. Box 2719 Sarasota, FL 33580

Sandland Mine Gall 16-078 Polk City Mine A Tower Mine
Interlachen Mine Kueka Mine Edgar Mine ST. LUCIE
Gault City Pit

Newburn Road Pit (No Name) Sarasota Co. Pit Laurel Pit Brown Road Pit

24S 26E 19,20 30S 28E 3,9,10 26S 25E 26
26S 27E 26
10S 24E 16
10S 24E 29
10S 24E 30

35S 40E 36

1N 28W 21

36S 18E

39S 19E 39S 22E 19,36

38S 19E 36S 19E


Castoldi Hauling, Inc. P. 0. Box 26 Panacea, FL 32346
Adams Sand Co. General Delivery Mossy Head, FL 32434

Cass-Ora Pit Revell Pit Kornegey Pit WALTON
Adams Mine

3N 21W 21

INACTIVE SAND AND GRAVEL MINES A partial list of inactive sand and gravel mines Is found on the following pages. Many other small pits occur throughout the state that are not listed.

Brewton Engineering Company P. 0. Box 1039 Panama City, FL Cato Sand Company Box 21, Springfield Station Panama City, FL Panama Concrete Products Co. Panama City, FL ABCO Concrete Company Box 846, Airport Melbourne, FL C and P Dredging Company Box 101
Palm Bay, FL Alfred Destin Company 235 SW 4th Ave. Miami, FL Ideal Crushed Stone Company 5500 NW 37th Ave. Hialeah, FL Maule Industries 1760 Purdy Ave. Miami Beach, FL Sand Lake Development Co. 260 NW 27th St. Miami, FL Seminole Rock and Sand Co. Box 3430 Miami, FL Florida Sand and Excavating Co.,
Jacksonville, FL

PIT NAME OR LOCATION Mill Bayou Pit Mill Bayou Pit Bayou George Melbourne Pit Micco Dredge Morris Cut (Dade Co.) Palmer Lake (Miami) Dade Co. Pit T53, R40E, sec. 4 Ojus
Tarbert Pit NW 14 St. Near Jacksonville

Bay Bay Bay Brevard Brevard Dade Dade Dade Dade Dade Duval


Jacksonville Sand Company Jacksonville, FL E. E. Boone Construction
Company Rt. 7, Box 378 Pensacola, FL D and B Sand Company 5th Ave. and 28th Tampa, FL Hillsborough Sand and Material
Nebraska and 131st St. Tampa, FL B. M. Walker 1945 18th Ave. Vero Beach, FL Cartledge Fertilizer Co. Cottondale, FL The Suwannee River Sand Co. Drawer C Foley, FL Acme Sand Co. Eustis, FL American Building Products Co. Okahumpka, FL Central Sand Co. P. 0. Box 1175 Tavares, FL Underwood and Gaines Clermont, FL Ft. Myers Rock Co. Box 1942 Ft. Myers, FL Middle Florida Sand Co., Inc. P. 0. Box 922 Tallahassee, FL Ochlocknee Sand Co. Tallahassee, FL Tallahassee Sand Co. Tallahassee, FL F. R. Edwards Sand Co. Ellenton Road Palmetto, FL Cummer Lime and Manufacturing
Ocala, FL

St. Johns River Dredge (near Jacksonville) Bells Head Dredge
Vero Beach Pit Near Cottondale Dell Pit
T4S, R11 E, sec. 8

Duval Escambia Hillsborough Hillsborough Indian River Jackson

Various pits in Lake Coun- Lake ty and in Lake Eustis Okahumpka Pit Lake

Tavares Pit Lake Louisa (near Clermont) Near Ft. Myers Tallahassee Pit T1N, R1W, sec. 5 Ochlocknee River Dredge Near Tallahassee Manatee River Dredge Kendrick

Lake Lake Lee Leon Leon Leon Manatee Marion


Materials, Inc. Ocala, FL Fernandina Sand Company Fernandina, FL Perry's Sand Company Box 525
Ft. Walton Beach, FL Johnson Coberly Washed Sand Doctor Phillips, FL Florida Glass Manufacturing Co.
Jacksonville, FL Transit Mix Concrete, Inc. 1622 N. Mills Orlando, FL A. E. Hoffman Skees Rd. West Palm Beach, FL Hoyt Sand and Muck Box 50
Lake Park, FL General Materials Co. 601 24th St. S. St. Petersburg, FL Hodges Concrete Works Co. 331 16th St. St. Petersburg, FL Largo Washed Sand Co. P. 0. Box 677 Largo, FL Davenport Sand Co. Box 350
Lake Wales, FL Lakeland Cement Co. Lakeland, FL Lake Wales Concrete Sand Co. 706 Carlton Ave. Lake Wales, FL Mac Calla Brothers, Inc. Box 791
Winter Haven, FL Oak Ridge Sand Co. Box 2565 Mulberry, FL Southern Phosphate Corp. 342 Madison Ave. New York, NY

Lake Weir Fernandina Ft. Walton Pit Dr. Phillips Vineland Wekiwa Springs Hoffman Pit Pit Loc. T41S, R43E,
sec. 20 Largo
50th and 60th St. (St. Petersburg) Largo Pit T29S, R15E, sec. 25 Davenport Pit T26S, R27E, sec. 24 Lakeland Lake Wales Auburndale Pit Achan Pit Pauway Mine San Gully Mine (both near Lakeland)


Okaloosa Orange Orange Orange
Osceola Palm Beach
Pinellas Pinellas Pinellas Polk Polk Polk Polk Polk Polk

Keystone Sand Company 47 W. Forsyth St. Jacksonville, FL United Clay Mines Corp. Box 27
Hawthorne, FL Meade and McClain Davis Shore St. Augustine, FL North City Stone Works St. Augustine, FL Florida East Coast Railway St. Augustine, FL Bee Ridge Corporation Sarasota, FL K. C. Chapman 547 N. Ridgewood Ave. Daytona Beach, FL Concrete Products Co. Box 827
Daytona Beach, FL Hauser Concrete Co. 3361/2 W. Michigan DeLand, FL E. C. Thompson 109 S. Hollywood Ave. Daytona Beach, FL White Sands and Materials Box 1168
New Smyrna Beach, FL

Grandin Pit
T9S, R24E, sec. 8
Crossley Mine
T10S, R23E, sec. 27
Moultrie Creek
(near St. Augustine)
St. Augustine
St. Lucie Pit
Phillips Creek
Holly Hill Quarry
T15S, R32E, sec. 37
Port Orange
Volusia County Pit
Barbour Pit
T15S, R32E, sec. 37 White Pit

NO. 90
Putnam Putnam
St. Johns St. Johns St. Lucie Sarasota
Volusia Volusia Volusia Volusia Volusia

C. W. Hendry, Jr., Chief S. R. Windham, Assistant Chief

S. M. Ray. Secretary

Jane Walters, Secretary

OIL AND GAS SECTION L. David Curry, Administrator

Clarence Babcock, Engineer Robert Caughey, Geologist Gwen Manning, Clerk-Typist Harry Neel, Geologist

H. B. Parker, Engineer Charles Tootle, Engineer Phyllis Witty, Secretary

J. William Yon, Administrator

Kenneth Campbell, Geologist Dolores Colston, Secretary

Gregory Daugherty, Geologist Bruce Greenwood, Geologist Zoe Pemberton, Geologist

E. W. Bishop, Administrator

Albert Applegate, Geologist Ronald Hoenstine, Geologist Michael S. Knapp, Geologist Vivian Martin, Secretary

George Ogden, Geologist Felipe Pontigo, Geologist Walter Schmidt, Geologist Thomas Scott, Geologist

Burke E. Lane, Administrator

J. Douglas Calman, Librarian Richard J. Deuerling, Geologist Pauline Gammon, Draftsman Jessie Hawkins, Custodial Justin Hodges, Engineer Richard Howard, Sample Prep. Dorothy Janson, Illustrator

James P. Jones, Draftsman Earl Maxwell, Statistician
Simmie Murphy, Pressman
Albert Phillips, Engineer Odell Sheffield, Sample Prep. Sheila Weissinger, Edit. Asst.

This public document was promulgated at a total cost of $2,309.61 or a per copy cost of $3.08 for the purpose of disseminating geologic data.

Full Text
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