Citation
Stratigraphy and oil potential of the Lower Cretaceous Sunniland Formation in south Florida ( FGS: Report of investigation 89 )

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Title:
Stratigraphy and oil potential of the Lower Cretaceous Sunniland Formation in south Florida ( FGS: Report of investigation 89 )
Series Title:
( FGS: Report of investigation 89 )
Creator:
Applegate, Albert V
Pontigo, Felipe A
Place of Publication:
Tallahassee Fla
Publisher:
Florida Dept. of Natural Resources, Bureau of Geology
Publication Date:
Language:
English
Physical Description:
viii, 40 p. : ill., maps ; 23 cm.

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Petroleum -- Geology -- Florida ( lcsh )
Geochemical prospecting -- Florida ( lcsh )
Geology, Stratigraphic -- Cretaceous ( lcsh )
Miami metropolitan area ( local )
City of Punta Gorda ( local )
Collier County ( local )
Lake Trafford ( local )
City of Tallahassee ( local )
Gulf of Mexico ( local )
Hydrocarbons ( jstor )
Geology ( jstor )
Carbon ( jstor )
Carbonates ( jstor )
Limestones ( jstor )
Genre:
non-fiction ( marcgt )

Notes

Bibliography:
Bibliography: p. 20.
Statement of Responsibility:
by Albert V. Applegate and Felipe A. Pontigo, Jr.

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Source Institution:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
The author dedicated the work to the public domain by waiving all of his or her rights to the work worldwide under copyright law and all related or neighboring legal rights he or she had in the work, to the extent allowable by law.
Resource Identifier:
022375201 ( aleph )
16871068 ( oclc )
ACM3857 ( notis )

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STATE OF FLORIDA
DEPARTMENT OF NATURAL RESOURCES
Elton J. Gissendanner, Executive Director


DIVISION OF RESOURCE MANAGEMENT
Charles W. Hendry, Jr., Division Director


BUREAU OF GEOLOGY
Steve R. Windham, Chief


Report of Investigation No. 89


STRATIGRAPHY AND OIL POTENTIAL OF THE
CRETACEOUS SUNNILAND FORMATION
SOUTH FLORIDA


LOWER
IN


Albert V. Applegate and
Felipe A. Pontigo, Jr.



Published for the
BUREAU OF GEOLOGY
DIVISION OF RESOURCE MANAGEMENT
FLORIDA DEPARTMENT OF NATURAL RESOURCES


TALLAHASSEE
1984















LIBRARY
DEPARTMENT
OF
NATURAL RESOURCES


BOB GRAHAM
Governor


GEORGE FIRESTONE
Secretary of State


BILL GUNTER
Treasurer


RALPH D. TURLINGTON Commissioner of Education


DOYLE CONNER
Commissioner of Agriculture


ELTON J. GISSENDANNER
Executive Director


JIM SMITH Attorney General

GERALD LEWIS
Comptroller




LETTER OF TRANSMITTAL


Bureau of Geology Tallahassee

March 1984


Governor Bob Graham, Chairman Florida Department of Natural Resources Tallahassee, Florida 32301

Dear Governor Graham:
The Bureau of Geology, Division of Resource Management, Florida Department of Natural Resources, is publishing as its Report of Investigation No. 89, "Stratigraphy and Oil Potential of the Lower Cretaceous Sunniland Formation in South Florida."
This report discusses the occurrence of hydrocarbons in the South Florida Basin, the present producing trend, and the future potential of this hydrocarbon-producing formation. This information will aid in the development and use of this valuable natural resource.

Respectfully yours,
Steve R. Windham, Chief Bureau of Geology


















































Printed for the
Florida Department of Natural Resources
Division of Resource Management
Bureau of Geology

Tallahassee
1984



Iv


















CONTENTS
Page
Acknowledgements ............................................ viii
A bstract ............................................................. 1
Introduction .......................................................... 2
Metric Conversion Factors .......................................... 3
Exploration Sum m ary .................................................. 3
Stratigraphy .......................................................... 4
Punta Gorda Form ation ............................................. 5
Sunniland Form ation ............................................... 6
Lake Trafford Form ation ............................................ 12
G ravity .............................................................. 14
Geochem ical Analyses ................................................. 14
Sunniland Form ation ............................................... 14
Fredericksburg Stage .............................................. 18
C onclusions .......................................................... 19
Selected References ................................................... 20
Appendices- Methods of Investigations .................................. 21
Appendix A. Geological ............................................. 22
Appendix B. Geochemical ........................................... 23
C,-C Hydrocarbon Analysis ..................................... 23
Sam ple Preparation ............................................ 24
Detailed C4.CY Hydrocarbon Analysis ............................. 24
Organic Carbon Analysis .. .............................. 24
C15+ Soxhlet Extraction, Deasphaltening and
Chromatographic Separation ................... ....... 25
Gas Chromatography Analysis of Cis+ ParaffinNapthene (P-N) Hydrocarbons ............................... 25
Visual Kerogen Analysis ........................................ 26
Vitrinite Reflectance Analysis ................................... 26
Fluorescence Spectrophotometric Analysis ........................ 26
Appendix C. Results of Analysis ..................................... 27
Summary of Total Organic Carbon and Visual Kerogen Analyses ....... 28 Summary of Individual Well Organic Analyses ...................... 35





















ILLUSTRATIONS
Figure
1 Location Map of South Florida Basin ................................ 2
2 Location Map of South Florida Oil Fields ............................. 4
3 Stratigraphlc Column ............................................. 5
4 Stratigraphic Cross-section A-A' ................................... 6
5 Stratigraphic Cross-section B-B' .............................. 7
6 Stratigraphic Cross-section C-C' ................................... 8
7 Sunniland Formation Dark Carbonate Map ............................ 10
8 Equivalent Good Porosity Map of the Sunniland Formation ... .......... 11
9 Dolomite Isolith Map of South Florida Basin .......................... 12
10 Bouguer Anomaly Map of South Florida .............................. 13
11 Total Organic Carbon Cross-section ................................. 16
12 TotalC,,+ Extractable Bitumen Cross-section ......................... 16
13 Total Ct+ Hydrocarbon Cross-section ............................... 17
14 Correlation Chart Used to Determine Hydrocarbon Source Quality ........ 18
15 Summary of organic analyses for Humble Oil No. 1, Tuscon Corp.
(Perm it 47) .................................................. 35
16 Summary of organic analyses for Oleum Corp., Ted Welner Unit 12-4
(Perm it 662) ................................................. 36
17 Summary of organic analyses for Tribal-Exxon, Gulf Coast Realty Unit 2-4
(Perm it 563) ................................................. 37
18 Summary of organic analyses for Humble Oil No. 1, J. A. Curry
(Perm it 222) ................................................. 38
19 Summary of organic analyses for Tribal Oil Co., Collier Corp. Unit 26.4
(Perm it 775) ................................................. 39
20 Summary of organic analyses for Humble Oil No. 1, Collier Corp.
(Perm it 130) ................................................. 40































TABLES
Table
1 Summary of total organic carbon and visual kerogen analyses .......... 28
2 Summary of Cis+ Soxhlet extraction, deasphaltening and liquid chromatography ........................................ 30
3 Saturate hydrocarbon analyses ................................... 33
























ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
Geochemical data, graphs and geochemical cross-sections were prepared by personnel of Geochem Laboratories of Houston, Texas, under the supervision of Stephen Brown. The age determination for rhyolite in the Bass Enterprises well in Collier County was under the supervision of Marshall Carothers of Shell Oil Corporation. Statistical data concerning reserves, wells drilled, and productive acreage, were supplied by Dr. Charles H. Tootle of the Florida Bureau of Geology.





REPORT OF INVESTIGATION NO. 89


STRATIGRAPHY AND
OIL POTENTIAL OF THE LOWER CRETACEOUS SUNNILAND
FORMATION IN SOUTH FLORIDA

by
Albert V. Applegate and Felipe A. Pontigo, Jr.

ABSTRACT
The length of the present productive trend in the South Florida Basin, which extends from the Lethigh Park Field in Lee County to the FortyMile Bend Field in Dade County, is about 145 miles. The width for this trend is estimated to be 12 miles. Productive acreage in the 11 fields so far discovered is 19,180 acres out of an estimated 1,100,000 acres on the trend, or about 1.74 percent.
Three Sunniland maps, prepared principally from core studies, are significant in delineating the areas where future wildcatting has the best chance for success. These maps are: (1) effective porosity, (2) dark carbonate percentage of total carbonate, and (3) dolomite isolith.
A study of these maps reveals the following:
1. Almost all of the effective porosity is located along the northwestsoutheast hingeline where organic mound build.up in the Sunniland has led to commercial oil accumulation.
2. The presence of dark carbonates in the Sunniland is believed to be
necessary for the production of oil. Short range horizontal migra.
tion to a low relief organic mound area is postulated. All of the oil fields discovered to date lie in areas where dark carbonates make up from 30 to 60 percent of the total Sunniland section. It is believed that if the dark carbonate percentage is appreciably lower or absent, the free oil generating capacity is not present. In the downdip areas where only dark carbonates are present, oil is present but is trapped in the micritic limestones.
3. A study of an isolith map of dolomite in the Sunniland reveals that
dolomite thickness decreases rapidly to the southwest from the productive trend. To the northeast of the productive trend the dolomite decreases to a minimum thickness of about 20 feet and then
increases in eastern Hendry and Palm Beach counties.
Analyses made by Geochem Laboratories, Inc. show that the hydrocarbon-generating capacity is poor in the updip area of the South Florida Basin and excellent In the downdip area in Collier County.





BUREAU OF GEOLOGY


INTRODUCTION
This regional geologic study of the onshore portion of the Sunniland Formation was made to delineate the best areas for further exploration effort. A geochemical study of selected wells in the South Florida Basin corroborates the overall conclusions arrived at in this study. Geochemical analyses of the Dollar Bay Formation (Fredericksburg Stage of Comanchean Series) from one well were also made.
The South Florida Basin extends over approximately 77,000 square miles (figure 1). The onshore part represents about half of the basin, with the remaining area extending west to the edge of the Continental Shelf (Oglesby, 1966).


Figure 1. Location map of South Florida Basin, showing location of stratigraphic and geochemical cross-sections discussed in this report.






REPORT OF INVESTIGATION NO. 89


The productive trend extends from the Lehigh Park Field in Lee County to the Forty-Mile Bend Field (abandoned) in Dade County, a distance of approximately 145 miles. The average width of this trend is 12 miles. Core data and porosity calculations made from sonic, density and neutron logs Indicate that the more porous units are in this trend. These productive carbonates are rudistid deposits, with quantities of algal plates, bioclastic debris, and pellets, which were probably winnowed by wave action, thereby creating favorable porosity and permeability. In some areas porosity has been enhanced by dolomitization.
Geochemical analyses indicate that the hydrocarbon-generating capability of the Sunniland Formation increases downdip, grading from poor in the updip wells in Palm Beach County, to very good to excellent in the downdip wells in Collier County.
METRIC CONVERSION FACTORS
The Florida Bureau of Geology, in order to prevent duplication of parenthetical units, inserts a tabular listing of conversion factors to obtain metric units.

Multiply by to obtain
feet 0.3048 meters
inches 2.5400 centimeters
inches 0.0254 meters
miles 1.6090 kilometers acres 0.4047 hectares

EXPLORATION SUMMARY
From 1943 through 1980,184 wildcat wells were drilled to the Sunniland Formation in the onshore portion of the South Florida Basin. This drilling has resulted in the discovery of 11 oil fields (figure 2) with 260,642,000 barrels of original oil-in-place and 98,280,000 barrels of estimated recoverable oil, for a recovery factor of 38 percent (C. Tootle, personal communication). The discovery well for the South Florida Basin was the Humble Oil Company Gulf Coast Realties Well No. 1 (W-820, Florida Bureau of Geology accession number), at Sunniland Siding, Collier County, Florida (now Sunniland Field). This field had original oil-in-place of 37,685,000 barrels and total recoverable oil of 18,842,000 barrels, for a recovery factor of 50 percent. Productive acreage is 2,080 acres.
The most productive field discovered in the South Florida Basin is the West Sunoco Felda Field (figure 2), which had estimated oil-in-place of 142,857,000 barrels and recoverable reserves of 50,000,000 barrels. Productive acreage is 7,660 acres.
Total wildcat footage drilled to the Sunniland Formation or below between 1943 and the end of 1980 was 2,209,000 feet for a discovery rate of 45 barrels of recoverable oil for each foot drilled. Total oil production through 1980 was 66,869,000 barrels. In 1981 and 1982 an additional 17





BUREAU OF GEOLOGY


Figure 2. Location map of south Florida oil fields.


wildcat wells were drilled with a total footage of 202,464. This resulted in the discovery of the Townsend Canal Field. No reserve calculations for this field have yet been made. Additional oil production during 1981 and 1982 was 7,082,000 barrels.
Depth of production from the Sunniland Formation is between 11,322 feet and 11,892 feet. The average API (American Petroleum Institute Standard) gravity of this oil is between 25 and 26 degrees. The average gas-oil ratio is approximately 100:1. The moderately low gravity and low gas-oil ratio is believed to be due to the fact that the oil has been generated near the low temperature limits for oil formation. This observation is supported by geochemical analyses (see Appendix B).
STRATIGRAPHY
The strata from the onshore portion of the South Florida Basin are





REPORT OF INVESTIGATION NO. 89 5

predominantly carbonates and evaporites, and range in age from Late Jurassic or earliest Cretaceous to Pleistocene.
The emphasis of this report is on the Sunniland Formation. Only two other formations will be discussed; the Punta Gorda Formation, which underlies the Sunniland, and the Lake Trafford Formation, which overlies the Sunniland (figbure 3). The changes in the thickness and the lithology of the Sunniland Formation are shown on figures 4, 5, 6.

m -,
wj LW U.IW. 0,O rri 0 FORMATION
W. .. .. .-. ... .. .. .. .. .. ..


z L A K E TRAFFORD -,"

o -"
2- .."..".. SUNNILAND.."

0
PUNTA GORDA:.%,
IIIIIII!IIII~ llll 1 1 1 11111" 1=,11 . ,o .. .. ...." ,e l ,o e. ".




Figure 3. Stratigraphic column of formations discussed in this report.


Punta Gorda Formation
The type section for the Punta Gorda Formation is in the Humble Oil and Refining Company Lowndes Treadwell Well No. 1A (no permit number) in Sec. 17, T42S, R23E, Charlotte County (Applin and Applin, 1965, p. 39). The Punta Gorda Formation was cored and found to be 467-feet thick. Core recovery was 81 percent and a study of the core showed about 80 percent anhydrite, 11 percent micritic limestone, 6 percent gray, non-porous dolomite, and 3 percent calcareous shale. A thin bed of salt was also present in the core. The thickness of the Punta Gorda increases downdip in the basin and is about 600-feet thick in many wells in the Sunniland trend. The thickest section encountered to date onshore was 820 feet found in P-778 (Bass Enterprises Barron CollierJr., Sec. 12, T52S, R27E, Collier County). Seven wells in the South Florida Basin were drilled to igneous or basal clastics. A study of density logs in the respective wells showed 83 percent anhydrite.
Salt beds within this formation have been recorded from wells in the





BUREAU OF GEOLOGY


? 232 I


TRAFFORD FM.


-120,524 -12 ,1
-10,98i
PUNTA GORDA FM.
LEGEND
, 16 3 DOLOMITE
I ID LIGHT LIMESTONE W2!5-8 01 DARK LIMESTONE
MA AM-IYpITI


MILES SCALE


ANHYDRITIC LIMESTONE SALT


Figure 4. Stratigraphic cross-section A-A'. See Figure 1 for location.

Florida Keys. The Gulf FSL-826-G well in Florida Bay (offshore Monroe County) was partially cored in the Punta Gorda Formation and 17 feet, 10 feet, and 1 foot of salt were encountered at 12,150 feet, 12,517 feet, and 12,625 feet, respectively.
Sunniland Formation
The Sunniland Limestone was described by Applin and Applin (1965). The type section of the Sunniland Limestone is in the Humble Oil and Refining Company, Gulf Coast Realties Corporation Well No. 2, W-961 (no permit number), Sec. 30, T48S, R30E, Collier County, in the Sunniland Field.
The authors of this paper propose that the name of this rock unit be changed from Sunniland Limestone to Sunniland Formation. The rock unit has widely varying percentages of limestone, dolomite, and


LAKE


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Figure 5. Stratigraphic crosssection B-13. See Figure 1 for location.











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Figure 6. Stratigraphic cross-section C-C'. See Figure 1 for location.


16
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MILES
SCALE





REPORT OF INVESTIGATION NO. 89


In the type well and the wells which are not undip, the lowermost unit of about 50 feet is very consistent. It is a dark gray or dark brown, indurated, conchoidally fracturing, occasionally argillaceous, micritic limestone. It normally has a petroliferous odor on a fresh surface and often has stylolites developed in it. The stylolites are filled with bituminous or argillaceous residue and indicate post-depositional alteration of the carbonates. These pressure solution features are probably a result of compaction coupled with loss of volume (Bathurst, 1976, p. 471).
Mobil OIl Corporation, Barron Collier Jr., No. 1 (P-401), Sec. 9, T47S, R28E, Collier County, the discovery well and only well in the Lake Trafford Field, was completed in the 11,870-11,892 foot interval of the lower Sunniland Formation for 118 barrels of oil per day. It is the only well that has been capable of sustained production in the lower part of the Sunniland Formation. Production is believed due to fracture porosity. This interval has been called the "Rubble Zone" due to its propensity to fracture when cored. This interval is also "Unit 5" in a study by John A. Means (1977) of the Sunoco Felda and West Sunoco Felda fields.
Lying directly above the limestone unit previously described is the "Black Shale' This is not a shale but a dense argillaceous limestone about 40-feet thick. The top of this unit is usually marked by a swing to the right of the self potential and resistivity log. This unit and the underlying "Rubble Zone" are sometimes called the "Cape Sable Member" (Oglesby, unpublished cross sections) of the Sunniland Formation.
The two units described above are believed by some geologists to be essential for the generation of oil in the Sunniland Formation. Geochemical analyses of these micritic limestones indicate that they are organically rich and a potential source rock for oil. All of the oil fields discovered to date lie on a northwest-southwest trend where these dark carbonates are present (figure 7).
Lying directly above the "Black Shale" is a light brown to cream colored, non-porous, non-permeable limestone which is occasionally dolomitic. This limestone is approximately 50-feet thick. It is miliolid-rich and has at its base a bed 10 to 15-feet thick containing large numbers of foraminifera, including Orbitolina texana and Dictyoconus floridanus. Applin and Applin (1965, p. 3) state that this faunal association is a unique and characteristic feature of the Sunniland Formation. The Sunniland Formation is considered to be late Trinity in age (Applin and Applin, 1965, p. 53). There are other occurrences of these fossils in the Sunniland Formation but they are almost always present in abundance, especially the Orbitolinas, just above the "Black Shale."
The "Rubble Zone," the "Black Shale," and the light colored, miliolidrich, non-porous limestone constitute units 4 and 5 in J. A. Means (1977) Sunniland report. This represents about the basal 145 feet in the Sun Oil Red Cattle No. 1 well (P-314), Sec. 30, T45S, R29E. All of the porosity and production in the Sunniland, except for the Lake Trafford Field, is in the approximately 100 feet of rocks lying directly above this section. These porous units correspond to units 1, 2, and 3 of Means Sunniland report





BUREAU OF GEOLOGY


(1977). All of these units are productive In the SouthFlorida Basin.
Bioclastic limestones composed predominantly of rudistids, algal plates, foraminiferal and pelletal debris form the productive organic mounds on the producing trend. These mounds, which are quite porous and permeable, grade laterally into miliolid-rich non-porous, light colored limestones.
The present length of this trend Is approximately 145 miles and aver-


Figure 7. Isopach of Sunniland dark carbonate. The Sunniland Formation oil fields found to date are located on the trend where the dark carbonates are the thickest. Updip to the northeast all dark carbonates gradually disappear. Downdip to the southwest dark carbonates are the lowermost Sunniland with much of the dark carbonate section and all of
the upper Sunniland being replaced by anhydrite.





REPORT OF INVESTIGATION NO. 89


ages about 12-miles wide (figure 8). Of the 11 fields found to date production comesfrom 19,180 acres of the estimated 1,100,000 acres in the producing trend.
On the producing trend (figures 6,8, and 9) the dolomite in the formation attains a maximum thickness of 60 feet, which is 20 percent or more of the total thickness of the Sunniland Formation. Updip from the producing trend, the dolomite thickness decreases to less than 20 feet and then gradually increases to a maximum thickness of approximately 100 feet in Palm Beach County. To the southwest of the reef trend in the deeper part of the basin (figure 9) dolomite quickly decreases to 0 feet. Dolomite is associated with replacement of limestone, especially in the


Figure 8. Equivalent good porosity map of the Sunniland Formation. Note northwest-southeast alignment, where porosity is concentrated along reef trend. (See Appendix A for derivation of porosity values.)





BUREAU OF GEOLOGY


Bear Island Field. In this field dolomite is important for porosity and permeability enhancement.
As previously described the Sunniland-Punta Gorda contact is sharp. As one moves updip to the northeast the Punta Gorda, Sunniland, and Lake Trafford Formations thin. There is also an increase in dolomite at updip locations and a marked decrease in dark carbonates.
Lake Trafford Formation
The term Lake Trafford Formation was proposed by Oglesby (1966) to


Figure 9. Dolomite isolith map of the onshore portion of South Florida Basin. Dolomite thickness decreases to zero downdip from the reef trend; updip dolomite thickness decreases just northeast of trend, then
increases to approximately 100 feet In Palm Beach County.





REPORT OF INVESTIGATION NO. 89


replace the names "Upper Anhydrite" or "Upper Massive Anhydrite' The "Upper Anhydrite" Is an Impervious bed directly overlying the Sunniland Formation. The Lake Trafford Formation consists of this "cap rock" and non-porous, gray limestones and anhydrite beds. In the type well (P-222) the formation Is 134-feet thick and has 38 feet of anhydrite. On the producing trend the Sunniland Formation thickens with a resultant thinning of the Lake Trafford Formation. In the deeper part of the basin the formation thickens and is predominantly anhydrite. Because the Sunniland and Lake Trafford formations closely resemble each


Figure 10. Bouguer anomaly map of south Florida. Note minimum gravity anomalies from Lee to Dade counties. Production is associated with the two northernmost anomalies. Modified from Oglesby et al., 1973.





BUREAU OF GEOLOGY


other southwest of the producing trend, there Is some question as to the placing of the contact between the formations. Updip of the producing trend the anhydrite content of the formation decreases rapidly.
The entire section of the type well was cored. Portions of this core are available for study at the Florida Bureau of Geology.
GRAVITY
Three pronounced minimum gravity anomalies (figure 10) aligned in a northwest-southeast direction from Lee County to Dade County can be identified. The fields found to date are on or near the two northernmost anomalies. The drilling location for the discovery well of the Sunniland was drilled in the saddle between the two northernmost gravity minima, which are located in Lee and Collier counties, respectively. The discovery well, Gulf Coast Realties Corporation No. 1, was drilled on a dip reversal at the top of the Ocala Group found by core drilling. This dip reversal was later found to be the result of a large sinkhole in the Ocala Group caused by the collapse of a cavern In the underlying Lake City Limestone, and the structure present in the Lower Cretaceous was unrelated to that found at the top of the Upper Eocene Ocala Group.
Oglesby (1966) believed that these negative gravity anomalies were due to rhyolite of Late Triassic or Early Jurassic age, which might have produced subtle topographic highs during the Early Cretaceous, thus providing a favorable environment for the development of porous zones in the Sunniland Formation. Because anhydrite has a high density, excessive amounts of anhydrite may be the cause of gravity highs in south Florida.This should be taken into account in any evaluation of the basin, either onshore or offshore.
Rhyolite porphyry from the Bass Enterprises Collier Company 12-2 well (P-778), Sec. 12, T52S, R27E in Collier County, was dated by the rubidium/strontium method (Denison, 1978). Cuttings taken at 18,650 feet were found to be 189 ( 5) million years old. This well lies slightly southwest of the two most northern gravity minima and tends to confirm Oglesby's interpretation of rhyolite highs which are probably of Late Triassic-Early Jurassic age (Barnett, 1975; Denison, 1978).

GEOCHEMICAL ANALYSES
Sunniland Formation
The entire Sunniland section exhibits a strong predominance of oilprone amorphous-sapropel type kerogen. The updip wells exhibit a much greater abundance of recognizable algal components than the downdip wells. This Is attributed to the depositional environment of the back-reef lagoonal facies, where large algal populations are characteristic. The sediments downdip of the reef trend are marine in orgin, as indicated by the predominance of the amorphous-sapropel type kerogen, but they do not exhibit an abundance of algal components.
The thermal maturity of the Sunniland Formation grades from moderately immature In the Humble Oil No. 1 Tucson Corporation Well





REPORT OF INVESTIGATION NO. 89 15

(Permit 47) to moderately mature In the downdip Humble Oil No. 1 Collier Corporation Well (Permit 130). The thermal maturity Increases gradually with depth and, In general, appears to be approaching the levels at which considerable quantities of liquid hydrocarbons can be generated from amorphous-sapropel type kerogen. The fact that oil Is currently being produced from nearby fields supports this conclusion.
In general, the hydrocarbon generating potential of the Sunniland Formation grades from poor In the updip wells to very good to excellent in the fore-reef downdip wells. Cross sections depicting the regional




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16 BUREAU OF GEOLOGY

distribution of total organic carbon, Cis+ solvent extractable bitumen, Cis + total hydrocarbon, show the gradation in hydrocarbon generating potential (figures 11, 12,13, respectively).
The total organic carbon content (figure 11) in the sediments increases with depth, and indicates that the fore-reef sediments are richer and more capable of producing oil. Although the back-reef sediments do contain a predominance of amorphous-sapropel (algal) type kerogen, the total organic carbon contents are too low to enable the generation of producible quantities of liquid or gaseous hydrocarbons.



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REPORT OF INVESTIGATION NO. 89 17

A study made by Palacas (1978) of 134 core samples showed that the Comanchean Series carbonates have an average carbon content of 0.41 percent. This was in contrast with the average values of the Coahuilan Series, Gulfian Series, and Lower Paleocene carbonates, which had average values of 0.28 percent, 0.18 percent and 0.20 percent, respectively.
The values for the Comanchean Series carbonates are nearly twice as high in organic carbon as the average (0.24 percent) of worldwide carbonates (Palacas, 1978).



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BUREAU OF GEOLOGY


Fredericksburg Stage
A conventional core taken from Fredericksburg Stage sediments in the Humble Oil No. 1, J. A. Curry Well (Permit 222) was submitted to Geochem Laboratories for geochemical tests. The tests indicated that the Fredericksburg rocks at this location have an immature, good to very good oil and associated "wet" gas source potential. This section is predominantly the oil-prone amorphous-sapropel type kerogen.
The immature character assigned to these sediments is based on the greenish, light-yellow to yellow-orange coloration of the recognizable sediments. This coloration is consistent with an immature Maturation Index 1 + to 2- (figure 14).
The good to very good oil and associated "wet" gas source character assigned to the Fredericksburg Stage carbonates in the local area of the Humble Oil No. 1, J. A. Currey Well (Permit 222) is based on: good total organic carbon contents (mean 0.41 percent) (figure 11); the very good C,, + solvent extractable bitumen content (mean 1,665 ppm) (figure 12); the very good to excellent total extractable hydrocarbon content (mean 891 ppm) (figure 13); and on the previously mentioned predominance of the oil-prone amorphous-sapropel type kerogen.
It should be noted that the source potential of the Fredericksburg


GEOTHERMAL DIAGENETIC CRITERIA
(GEOCHEM LABORATORIES, INC,)


Figure 14. Correlation chart used to determine hydrocarbon source
quality. Values projected along a horizontal line.





REPORT OF INVESTIGATION NO. 89


Stage carbonates decreases near the bottom of the section. The samples from 9,634 feet to 9,936 feet were considerably richer than those from 9,966 to 10,038 feet.
The well was drill-stem tested by Humble Oil Company in the 9,8639,914 foot Interval for 20 hours and five minutes. Recovery with a 1/4-inch choke opening was 15 feet of oil and 27 feet of watercut mud. The results of this drill-stem test are on file at the Florida Bureau of Geology.
Geochemical evidence Is not encouraging because of the immaturity of the hydrocarbons in the Fredericksburg Stage. But the results of the drill stem test and other shows of petroleum (Winston, 1971) are mildly encouraging. A close examination of samples should be made while drilling through this unit.
CONCLUSIONS
Geological investigations indicate that the permeability of the Sunniland Formation, downdip of the reefal sediments, is too low for hydrocarbon migration. Therefore, production can be expected to occur where the porous units are juxtaposed with the organically rich, dark micrites. This appears to have occurred along the reef trend where the extensive rudistid beds separate the fore-reef sediments from the backreef sediments. Geochemical analyses confirm that the dark micrite is the source of the oil accumulations in the rudistic beds, and that the source potential of the dark micrite facies increases downdip. Therefore, new discoveries could be expected in the downdip micrite facies if zones of suitable porosity are found.
To date, exploration activity in the South Florida Basin is low compared with other producing basins. New exploration techniques and a better understanding of the regional geology should Increase the drilling activity. Hopefully, this will lead to the discovery of new oil fields.





BUREAU OF GEOLOGY


SELECTED REFERENCES
Applin, Paul L and Applin, Ester R., 1965, The Comanche Series and
Associated Rocks In the Subsurface in Central and South Florida.
U. S. Geological Survey Professional Paper 447.
Barnett, Richard S., 1975, Basement Structure of Florida and Its Tectonic Implications. Gulf Coast Association of Geologic Societies
Transactions, Vol. 25, pp. 122-142.
Bathurst, Robin G. C., 1976, Carbonate Sediments and Their Diagenesis.
Elsevier Scientific Publishing Company, Amsterdam, Oxford, New
York.
Denison, Rodger E., 1978, Petrography and Isotopic Age, Igneous
Rocks, Bass No. 1 Pumpkin Bay, Collier County, Florida. Open File,
Florida Department of Natural Resources, Bureau of Geology.
Means, J. A., 1977, Southern Florida Needs Another Look. Oil and Gas
Journal, Vol. 75, No. 5, pp. 212-223.
Oglesby, W. R., 1966, Folio of South Florida Basin, A Preliminary Study.
Map Series No. 19, Florida Department of Natural Resources,
Bureau of Geology.
Oglesby, W. R., Ball, M. M., and Chaki, Susan, 1973, Bouguer Anomaly
Map of the Florida Peninsula and Adjoining Continental Shelves.
Map Series No. 57, Florida Department of Natural Resources,
Bureau of Geology.
Palacas, James G., 1978, Distribution of Organic Carbon and Petroleum
Source Rock Potential of Cretaceous and Lower Tertiary Carbonates, South Florida Basin, Preliminary Results. U. S. Geological
Survey, Open-File Report 78-140.
Pontigo, F A., Applegate, A. V., Rooke, J. H., and Brown, Stephen W.,
1979, South Florida's Sunniland 01 Potential. Oil and Gas Journal,
Vol. 77, No. 31, pp. 226-232.
Winston, George 0., 1971, The Dollar Bay Formation of Lower Cretaceous (Fredericksburg) Age in South Florida, Its Stratigraphy and Petroleum Possibilities. Special Publication No. 15, Florida Department of Natural Resources, Bureau of Geology.






REPORT OF INVESTIGATION NO. 89


APPENDICES
Methods of Investigation





BUREAU OF GEOLOGY


APPENDIX A
GEOLOGICAL
Cores and ditch samples were studied under a binocular microscope for lithology, apparent porosity, accessory minerals, microstructures, and, where possible, fossil identification.
Wire-line logs were used to construct structural and isopachous maps, and to aid in determining porosity in the area.
Three Sunniland interval maps were prepared to help delineate the high-energy reef trend which lies between the chalky, low-energy backreef shelf beds and the deeper water, dark micrites of the fore-reef facies. These maps are:
Figure 7. Dark carbonate map.
Figure 8. Modified isoporosity map.
Figure 9. Dolomite thickness.
A modified isoporosity map (figure 8) was prepared for the Sunniland Formation by visually estimating the porosity during microscopic examination of the conventional core material. A technique used in Winston's (1971) study of the Dollar Bay Formation from the Lower Cretaceous (Fredericksburg Stage) in south Florida was used in the preparation of the isoporosity map. Porosity was estimated in Increments of 5 percent, 10 percent and 15 percent or higher. Porosity estimated at 5 percent was divided by four; porosity of 10 percent was divided by 2; and porosity of 15 percent or higher was divided by one. By this method, porosities of varying percentages were adjusted for realistic mapping of porosity trends.
A Bouguer anomaly map with a four (4) milligal contour inteval was also constructed, using some new data and data from work originally done by Oglesby, Ball, and Chaki (1973).






REPORT OF INVESTIGATION NO. 89


APPENDIX B
by
Stephen Brown

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF ORGANIC GEOCHEMICAL ANALYSES
CARRIED OUT BY GEOCHEM LABS, INC.


C-C7 HYDROCARBON
The C,-C7 hydrocarbon content and composition of sediments reflects source type, source quality and thermal maturity.
The C,-C7 hydrocarbon content of well cuttings is determined by analyzing both a sample of the cuttings and the air space at the top of the can. The results of the two analyses are summed to give an inventory of the C1-C7 hydrocarbon content of the well cuttings prior to any losses from the cuttings during the lapsed time period between collection at the well site and laboratory analysis.
The air space C1-C7 hydrocarbon analysis involves taking a measured volume of the air space gas out of the can with a syringe and injecting same into a gas chromatograph. GeoChem uses a Varian Aerograph Model 1400 instrument equipped with a Porapec Q column. The gas sample is taken through the column by a carrier gas and before reaching the detector is separated into its various C, (methane), C2 (ethane), C3 (propane), iC4 (isobutane), nC4 (normal butane), and Cs, CO, C7 hydrocarbon components.
This particular analysis gives a complete separation of the C-C4 gasrange hydrocarbons and a partial separation of the C5-C7 gasoline-range hydrocarbons. (A detailed CA-C? analysis, to be discussed later, involving a capillary column, effects a complete separation of this molecular range into its several individual molecular species.)
The electrical response of the various hydrocarbons as they reach the detector is recorded on a paper strip. chart as a peak. This response is simultaneously fed to an integrator which computes the area of each peak. The concentration of C,-C? hydrocarbons in the air space, expressed as volumes of gas per million volumes of cuttings, is determined by a calculation involving the volume of cuttings, volume of air space in the can, volume of sample injected, volume of standard gas sample used In the calibration, calibration factor for C1, C2, C3, etc., determined by gc analysis of a standard gas sample, and the gc peak response.
The C,-C7 hydrocarbon content of the cuttings is determined by degasification of a measured volume of cuttings (in a medium of a measured volume of water) in a closed blender, sampling of the air space at the top of the blender, and injection of a measured volume of gas into the gas chromatograph.
The C1C7 hydrocarbon data from the air space and cuttings gas





BUREAU OF GEOLOGY


analyses are summed to give a "restored" C-C7 hydrocarbon content of the cuttings.
SAMPLE WASHING AND HAND-PICKING OF UNCAVED LITHOLOGY SAMPLES
The cuttings samples are washed to remove all drilling mud from the cuttings. Care is taken in the washing procedure not to remove any soft clays, claystones, etc., and any loose fine sand and silt. The washed cuttings are usually kept under water cover until picked, to prevent loss of any gasoline-range hydrocarbons. Using the Ci-C hydrocarbon data profile and the electrical well log supplied to us and our visual examination of the cuttings material under the binocular microscope, we carefully hand-pick and describe a suite of uncaved lithologles representative of the various stratigraphic zones penetrated by the well. The lithological data is used to compile a gross litho percentage log which is shown on all Figures. The 2-4 gram picked lithology samples are stored underwater in small glass vials in those Instances where we wish to run detailed C,-C? hydrocarbon analyses. This sample set is used not only for the C-C? hydrocarbon analysis, but also for the visual kerogen and total organic carbon analyses. All remaining cuttings material Is dried and packaged in labelled plastic bags for possible Cis + soxhlet extraction and/or eventual return to the client. Sample material from this study will be retained at GeoChem until advised of disposition.
DETAILED C,-C HYDROCARBON
The Cd-C, gasoline-range hydrocarbon content of sediments reflects source quality, thermal maturation and organic faces. Compositional data can be used in crude oil-parent rock correlation work.
The Cd-CT hydrocarbon content and detailed molecular composition of hydrocarbon, in hand-picked lithologles, is determined by a gc analysis of the light hydrocarbon extracted from 1-2 gram cuttings samples macerated in a microblender. A measured volume of sample is placed in a sealed microblender along with a measured volume of hot water. The rock sample Is pulverized by the blades of the blender. A sample of the liberated light hydrocarbons which collect In the air space at the top of the blender Is injected into our Varlan Aerograph 1400 gc unit which is equipped with a capillary column. Data recording, computations, etc., are comparable to those used for the C,-C7 analysis discussed previously in this report. Hydrocarbon concentration is expressed as volume gas per million volumes of cuttings.

ORGANIC CARBON
The total organic carbon content of a rock is a measure of its total organic richness. This data is used, in conjunction with visual kerogen and C,-C,, C,-CT and Ciu + hydrocarbon content of a rock, to Indicate the hydrocarbon source quality of rocks.
The procedure for determining the total organic carbon content of a






REPORT OF INVESTIGATION NO. 89


rock involves drying the sample, grinding to a powder, weighing out 0.2729 gram sample into a crucible, acidizing with hot and cold hydrochloric acid to remove calcium and magnesium carbonate, and carbon analysis by combustion in a Leco carbon analyzer.
We run several blank crucibles, standards (iron rings of known carbon content) and duplicate rock samples in this analysis at no additional charge to the client for the purposes of data quality control.
Cis + SOXHLET EXTRACTION, DEASPHALTENING AND
CHROMATOGRAPHIC SEPARATION
The amount and composition of the organic matter which can be solvent-extracted from a rock reflects source quality and source type. C13/C12 carbon isotopic, high mass spectrometric and gc analyses of the paraffin-naphthene and aromatic hydrocarbon fractions of the soluble extract gives data which is used in crude oil-parent rock correlations. This analysis involves grinding of a dry rock sample to a powder and removal of the soluble organic matter by soxhlet extraction using a co-distilled toluene-methanol azeotrope solvent. Where the amount of available sample material permits, we like to use at least 100 grams of rock for this analysis.
The extracted bitumen is separated into an asphaltene (ASPH) and a pentane soluble fraction by normal pentane precipitation. The pentane soluble components are separated into a Cis + paraffin-naphthene (P-N) hydrocarbon, C,5+ aromatic hydrocarbon (AROM) and Cis+ nitrogensulfur-oxygen containing fraction (NSO) by adsorption chromatography on a silica gel-alumina column using pentane, toluene and toluene. methanol azeotrope eluants.
GC ANALYSIS OF Cs+ PARAFFIN-NAPHTHENE (P-N) HYDROCARBONS
The content and molecular composition of the heavy Cis+ paraffinnaphthene (P-N) hydrocarbons of rocks, as determined by gc analysis, reflects source quality, source type and degree of thermal maturation.
In this analysis, we subject a very small fraction of the total amount of the P-N fraction extracted from a rock sample to gc analysis. The gas chromatograph is a Varian Aerograph Model 1400 equipped with a solid rod injection system and a eutectic column.
The calculated C.PI. (carbon preference index) values for the normal paraffin data is defined as the mean of two ratios which are determined by dividing the sum of concentrations of odd-carbon numbered n-paraffins by the sum of even-carbon numbered n-paraffins. The C.P. Indices A and B were obtained by the formulas: C21 + C23 + C25 + C27 C21 + C23 + C25 + C27 C.P Index A = C22 + C + C2 + C28 + C20 + C22 + C24 + C2





BUREAU OF GEOLOGY


C25+C2+C2+C31 C25+C27+C29+C31 C.P. IndexB = C26 + C28 + C3o + C32 C24 + C2 + C28 + C30
2
VISUAL KEROGEN
A visual study of kerogen, the insoluble organic matter in rocks, can indicate the relative abundance, size, and state of preservation of the various recognizable kerogen types and thereby indicate the hydrocafbon source character of a rock. The color of the kerogen can be used to indicate the state of thermal maturity of the sediments (i.e. their timetemperature history). Thermal maturation plays an important role in the generation of hydrocarbons from organic matter, and also affects the composition of reservoired hydrocarbons.
Our procedure for visual kerogen slide preparation involves isolation of the organic matter of a rock by removal of the rock material with hydrochloric and hydrofluoric acid treatment and heavy liquid separation. This procedure is comparable to that used by the palynologist except it does not include an oxidation stage. (The oxidation treatment is deleted from our procedure because it removes a great deal of kerogen and blanches any remaining kerogen to an extent whereby it is useless for our kerogen color observations.) The kerogen residue is mounted on a glass slide and is examined visually under a high power microscope.
VITRINITE REFLECTANCE
Measurement of the reflectivity of vitrinite particles (% Ro) present in the kerogen isolated from sedimentary rocks provides a method of determining the state of maturation, and the diagnetic (time-temperature) history of the organic matter present In the sediments.
The kerogen, obtained from a 25 gram aliquot of crushed rock by the acid procedure previously discussed, is dried and embedded in a Bioplastic plug. The surface of the plug Is polished using 0.05 micron alumina and the reflectivity determined under oil using a Ziess high resolution microscope. A minimum of 40 values are required to adequately determine the Maturation Rank.
FLUORESCENCE SPECTROPHOTOMETRIC ANALYSIS
Fluorescence spectrophotometry can be used to characterize and fingerprint crude oils, establish crude oil-source rock relationships, and to measure the hydrocarbon source potential of fine-grained sediments.
A one (1) microliter aliquot of either (I) a crude oil or (ii) the solvent extractable rock bitumen, Is passed through an alumina/silica gel micro column and the Co+ aromatic hydrocarbons Isolated. The aromatic hydrocarbon is diluted and the emission and excitation spectra determined at 240 nm and 420 nm using a Perkin.Elmer Model 512 Double Beam Fluorescence Spectrophotometer.






REPORT OF INVESTIGATION NO. 89 27













APPENDIX C
RESULTS OF ANALYSES
(GeoChem Laboratories)
Summary of Total Organic Carbon and Visual Kerogen Analyses
Table Page
1 Summary of total organic carbon and visual kerogen analyses ............ 28
2 Summary of Cis+ Soxhlet extraction, deasphaltening and liquid chromatography ........................................ 30
3 Saturate hydrocarbon analyses ..................................... 33



Summary of Individual Well Organic Analyses Figure
15 Summary of organic analyses for Humble 01 No. 1, Tuscon Corp.
(Perm it 47) .................................................. 35
16 Summary of organic analyses for Oleum Corp., Ted Weiner Unit 12-4 (Perm it 662) ................................................. 36
17 Summary 6f organic analyses for Tribal.Exxon Gulf Coast Realty Unit 2-4 (Perm it 563) ................................................. 37
18 Summary of organic analyses for Humble Oil No. 1, J. A. Curry (Permit 222) ............................ ............ 38
19 Summary of organic analyses for Tribal Oil Co., Collier Corp. Unit 26-4 (Perm it 775) ................. .............................. 39
20 Summary of organic analyses for Humble Oil No. 1, Collier Corp.
(Perm it 130) ................................................. 40







BUREAU OF GEOLOGY


Table 1.
Summary of Total Organic Carbon and Visual Kerogen Analyses.
See Figure 14 for correlation chart.


VISUAL KEROGEN


Depth Interval


Organic Carbon (% of Rock)


TYPE
Am = Amorphous H = Herbaceous W = Woody C = Coaly


ALTERATION
1 = Immature to
5 = metamorphosed


0.25 0.69 0.79 0.15 0.18


0.27 0.25 0.16
0.22
0.29; 0.29R
0.20


0.16 0.61 0.23
0.24


0.36
0.12 0.17
0.42


Humble Oil No. 1 J. A. Curry Collier County Sec. 26.49S.28E

Am,H,C Am,H,C Am,C(H) Am,C(H)
Humble Oil
No. 1 Tuscon Corp. Palm Beach County Sec. 35-43S.42E


Am,C(H) Am,C(H) Am,C(H)
Am,C(H) Am,C(H)


Oleum Corp.
Ted Weiner Unit 12.4
Hendry County Sec. 12-48S-32E


Am,C(W)
Am,C,H-W Am,C,H.W
Tribal-Exxon
Gulfcoast Realty 2.4
Collier County Sec. 2-49S-30E
Am,C,H(W) AmC,H(W) AmC,H(W) Am,C,H(W)


to2to2to2to2-


9634- 9734 9740- 9839 9839- 9936 9966-10038
10048-10193


10516-10596 10590-10619 10619-10659 10659-10699 10699-10730
10730-10744


11419-11440 11440-11460 11460-11560
11560


11544-11625 11625-11685 11685-11760 11760-11817


to 2to2to2to2to2-


to 2to2
to2




to2to2to 2to 2-







REPORT OF INVESTIGATION NO. 89


Table 1 (continued). Summary of Total Organic Carbon and Visual Kerogen Analyse,-.
See Figure 14 for correlation chart.



VISUAL KEROGEN


Depth Interval


Organic Carbon (% of Rock)


TYPE
Am = Amorphous H = Herbaceous W = Woody C = Coaly


ALTERATION
1 = immature to
5 = metamorphosed


Tribal Oil Corp. Collier Corp. 26.4 Collier County Sec. 26.49S-28E
Am,C

Am,H-W.C
Humble Oil
No. 1 Collier Corp. Collier County Sec. 27-50S-26E H,Am-C
Am-H,W,C


0.45; 0.53R Am,H-C


0.71
0.21
0.59


11992-12012 12012-12020 12021-12080


12360-12372 12380-12396
12396-12412


2.52
1.48


1+ to22- to2


2 to2+ 2- to2 2- to2













Table 2. Summary of C,5 + Soxhlet extraction, deasphaltening and liquid chromatography for Humble No. 1, J. A. Curry well, Permit 222.

Table 2A. Weights of extracts and chromatographic fractions.
Well Weight of Total Precipitated N-C5 Paraffins- Eluted Noneluted
Interval Rock Extd. Extract Asphaltenes Soluble Sulfur Naphthenes Aromatics NSO'S NSO'S (feet) (grams) (grams) (grams) (grams) (grams) (grams) (grams) (grams) (grams) 9740- 9839 75.0 0.1896 0.0188 0.1708 N.D. 0.0242 0.0870 0.0565 0.0031
9966-10038 70.0 0.0492 0.0088 0.0404 N.D. 0.0065 0.0145 0.0185 0.0009
10516-10596 100.0 0.0352 0.0151 0.0201 N.D. 0.0062 0.0062 0.0069 0.0008
11440-11460 65.0 0.0474 0.0117 0.0357 N.D. 0.0118 0.0130 0.0108 0.0001
11460-11560 85.0 0.0749 0.0427 0.0322 N.D. 0.0138 0.0112 0.0072 0.0000
11544-11625 75.0 0.1063 0.0362 0.0701 N.D. 0.0282 0.0278 0.0141 0.0000
11992-12012 44.0 0.1125 0.0092 0.1033 N.D. 0.0389 0.0521 0.0123 0.0000
12021-12080 30.0 0.0722 0.0250 0.0472 N.D. 0.0131 0.0211 0.0126 0.0004
12360-12365 46.5 0.3767 0.1355 0.2412 N.D. 0.0623 0.1288 0.0470 0.0031
12380-12384 100.0 0.4457 0.1381 0.3076 N.D. 0.0667 0.1669 0.0551 0.0189
12396-12401 100.0 0.1272 0.0620 0.0652 N.D. 0.0206 0.0336 0.0099 0.0011


0

o "1







0
0
0
I-'
0
0















Table 2B. Concentration of extracted materials in rock. All ppm values are expressed on a weight/weight basis.


Hydrocarbons


Total Extract (ppm)


ParaffinNaphthene
(ppm)


Aromatic (ppm)


Total (ppm)


Nonhydrocarbons


Preciptd.
Sulfur Asphaltene (ppm) (ppm)


Eluted
NSO'S (ppm)


Noneluted
NSO'S
(ppm)


Total
(ppm)


9740- 9839 2528 323 1160 1483 251 753 41 1045, 996-10038 703 93 207 300 126 264 13 403 105,16-10596 352 62 62 124 151 69 8 228 11440-11460 729 182 200 382 180 166 2 348 11460-11560 881 162 132 294 502 85 0 587 11544-11625 1417 376 371 747 483 188 0 671 11992-12012 2557 884 1184 2068 209 280 0 489 12021-12080 2407 437 703 1140 833 420 13 1267 12360-12365 8101 1340 2770 4110 2914 1011 67 3991 12380-12384 4457 667 1669 2336 1381 551 189 2121 12396-12401 1272 206 336 542 620 99 11 730


Well Interval (feet)
















Table 2C. Composition of extracts.


Hydirocarbons


ParaffinNaphthene


Aromatic


Nonhydrocarbons


Eluted Sulfur NSO'S


Noneluted NSO'S


Preciptd. Asphaltene


HO'S


(feet) % % PN/Arom % % % % AsphINSO % HCINon HC 9740- 9839 12.8 45.9 0.28 29.8 1.6 9.9 0.32 58.6 1.42
9966-10038 13.2 29.5 0.45 37.6 1.8 17.9 0.45 42.7 0.74
10516-10596 17.6 17.6 1.00 19.6 2.3 42.9 1.96 35.2 0.54
11440-11460 24.9 27.4 0.91 22.8 0.2 24.7 1.07 52.3 1.10
11460-11560 18.4 15.0 1.23 9.6 0.0 57.0 5.93 33.4 0.50
11544-11625 26.5 26.2 1.01 13.3 0.0 34.1 2.57 52.7 1.11
11992-12012 34.6 46.3 0.75 10.9 0.0 8.2 0.75 80.9 4.23
12021-12080 18.1 29.2 0.62 17.5 0.6 34.6 1.92 47.4 0.90
12360-12365 16.5 34.2 0.48 12.5 0.8 36.0 2.70 50.7 1.03
12380-12384 15.0 37.4 0.40 12.4 4.2 31.0 1.87 52.4 1.10
12396-12401 16.2 26.4 0.61 7.8 0.9 48.7 5.64 42.6 0.74


0
o
0
0
0 0)


Well Interval















Table 3. Saturate hydrocarbon analyses for Humble No. 1, J. A. Curry, Permit 222.

Table 3A. Summary of paraffin-naphthene distribution. Well


Interval %


% C-P C.P


(feet) Paraffin Isoprenoid Naphthene Index A Index B ip19/ip2O 9740- 9839 17.5 1.2 81.4 1.00 0.76 9966-10038 12.9 0.4 86.7 1.00 0.46 10516-10596 12.2 0.5 87.3 1.09 0.91 11440-11460 14.2 0.4 85.4 0.94 0.99 0.69 11460-11560 8.5 0.4 91.1 1.04 0.57 11544-11625 11.3 0.6 88.1 1.07 1.21 0.67 11992-12012 11.3 1.0 87.7 1.07 1.14 0.60 12021-12080 10.9 0.6 88.6 1.04 1.13 0.69 12360-12365 15.1 2.2 82.6 1.05 1.01 0.68 12380-12384 19.2 1.9 78.9 1.04 1.01 0.54 12396-12401 12.8 0.5 86.7 1.00 0.97 0.32
















Table 3B. Normalized paraffin distribution.


Well
Interval % % %
(feet) nC15 nC16 nC17 9740- 9839 1.3 1.9 3.0 9966-10038 0.3 0.6 1.1 10516-10596 1.3 1.5 2.0 11440-11460 0.9 0.8 1.7 11460-11560 1.2 1.2 2.5 11544-11625 1.1 1.5 2.9 11992-12012 1.2 1.9 5.2 12021-12080 1.0 1.2 2.6 12360-12365 5.5 7.5 9.4 12380-12384 5.7 7.6 9.2 12396-12401 0.3 1.0 2.4


% % 1p19 nC18 2.7 5.5 0.8 3.2 1.8 4.2 1.2 2.9 1.6 5.2 2.1 5.6 3.0 10.0
2.0 4.9 5.1 10.4 3.2 10.5 0.9 4.9


% % % % % % % % ip20 nClB nC20 nC21 nC22 nC23 nC24 nC25 3.6 8.1 10.8 12.2 13.7 12.0 9.2 6.0 1.8 6.4 10.6 13.8 17.9 16.211.3 7.0 2.0 7.7 11.4 15.9 19.0 16.2 8.7 4.4 1.7 6.5 9.5 11.5 15.2 14.0 11.9 8.2 2.8 7.8 9.0 11.0 14.9 15.812.0 7.6 3.2 9.0 11.4 12.7 13.6 12.2 8.5 6.4 5.1 12.7 12.6 11.5 10.5 8.8 5.8 4.4 2.9 7.5 9.4 11.4 13.8 14.1 10.6 7.1 7.6 9.7 9.0 8.3 7.7 6.3 4.2 2.7 5.8 9.9 9.2 8.7 8.3 6.9 4.7 3.2 2.8 6.8 8.8 10.9 13.0 12.3 9.6 6.7


nC26 4.5 4.3
1.8 6.6 3.7
4.0 2.8 4.5 2.1 2.7 6.7


%6 % % % %
nC27 nC28 nC29 nC30 nC31 2.7 1.6 0.9 0.2 0.1 2.0 1.4 0.6 0.4 0.1 1.1 0.6 0.2 0.0 0.0 3.3 2.4 1.2 0.3 0.1 2.0 0.8 0.4 0.2 0.2 3.0 1.6 0.7 0.3 0.2 1.9 1.3 0.6 0.4 0.3 3.0 2.0 1.0 0.4 0.3 2.0 1.4 0.4 0.3 0.2 2.1 1.3 0.4 0.3 0.3 5.4 3.2 1.6 1.4 1.0


% % % % nC32 nC33 nC34 nC35 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0,0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.1 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.1 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.1 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.2 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.1 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.2 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.5 0.1 0.0 0.0










REPORT OF INVESTIGATION NO. 89






















SUMMARY OF ORGANIC ANALYSES

SOURCE CHARACTER


a 0.
P-N ASPH
C15. EXTRACTION DATA AROM NSO

0 so D 00 01 t 3


VISUAL KEROGEN
MATURATION TYPE ORGANIC MArTER
INDEX
)343


ORGANIC
CARBON
CONTENT 10500 %








10600









10700









10800


KEROGEN KEY
PR OOM NTt RYR
Al ALGAL
Am AMORPHOUS- SAPROPEL H HERBACEOUS SPORE CUTICLE W WOODY
C *COALY
U UNIDENTIFIED MATERIAL HM+ DRADED 14ERBACEOUS
RELICT AMORPHOUS


Figure 15. Summaryof organic analyses for Humble Oil No. 1, Tuscon Corp., Permit 47.


O So0 1000 0 1 2 3 4 1 34 M I LWI 04 AiI. EIlYB4 ;1*5l1 P-N PARAFFIN-NAPHTHENE HC OM. AROMATIC HYDROCARBON I ELEMENTAL FREE SULFUR P-N AROM S' NSO ASPH NSO NITROGEN-SULFUR OXYGEN COMPOUNDS MPH. ASPHALTENE S NO DATA
nC5 SOLUBLE FRACTION ASPH AFTER GEOCHEM


0 0.5 I'% oMI-.4lllT


LITHO % LOG
0 so O00%


5O 100
*LIME OLAY




0 DOLOITE







BUREAU OF GEOLOGY



















SUMMARY OF ORGANIC ANALYSES

SOURCE CHARACTER


0 A~


C154 EXTRACTION DATA


VISUAL KBROGEN MATURATION TYPE ORGANIC MATTER
INDEX


-L I j I I JAm(AI);H C(W)

5 Am(AI) C H-W




























S0.s 14% a oo 000O i 34 I 1 4 S KEROGEN KEY
P-N PARAIr1N-NEUHTHENE R4E; /OM.AROMATIC HYDROCARBON P ELEMENTAL FREE SULFUR P-N NITROWSN-SULFUR A ALGAL
OXYGE.= OUPOUSOS AMORPHOUS- SAPROPEL
___\\\\\\\\\\_\\\\\\\\\\ ASMPH. ASPKATENEo H : HERBACEOUS SPORE CUTICLE
N DATA H*WOODY
nC5 3OLU*LE FRATION ASPH 3 : UNIDEF IVIE MATERIAL AFTER NEIR D HIACEOUS AFTER GEOCHEM A AORELICT AMORPHOUS


Figure 16. Summary of organic analyses for Oleum Corp.,
Ted Weiner Unit 12-4, Permit 662.


ORGANIC CARBON CONTENT


LITHO % LOG 3I 001


30 *a"LW Cm E35










REPORT OF INVESTIGATION NO. 89


























SUMMARY OF ORGANIC ANALYSES


SOURCE CHARACTER


ORGANIC CARBON CONTENT


C154 EXTRACTION DATA 0 Soo 1OO







371 lag 483


0 0.5 10% 0 500 10G0



P-N AROM S NSO ASPH


nc SOLUBLE FRACTION ASPH


a A P-N ASPH
0 1 2 3 A ARO NSO


VISUAL KEROGEN MATURATION TYPE ORGANIC MATTER











i Am (AI) ,C H (W)


KEROGEN KEY


Al ALGAL Am AMORPHOUS- SAPROPEL N HERSACEOUS SPORE CUTICLE w WOODY C *COALY U UNIDENTIFIED MATERIAL A.+ : DEGRADED HERBACEOUS
RELICT AMORPHOUS


Figure 17. Summary of organic analyses for Tribal-Exxon,

Gulf Coast Realty-Unit 2-4, Permit 563.


LITHO % LOG
0 so IOO% .. I I ... .I


*LI NE EM SILY ECAL


O 1 2 3 4 1 3 4

P-N PARAFFIN-NAPHTHENE AC AROM. AROMATIC HYDROCARBON $ ELEMENTAL FREE SULFUR NSO NITROGEN-SULFUR
OXYGEN COMPOUNDS ASPH ASPHALTENE
0 -NO DATA


AFTER GEOCHEM









BUREAU OF GEOLOGY






















SUMMARY OF ORGANIC ANALYSES

SOURCE CHARACTER


C15 EXTRACTION DATA








I11 791 251


* A P-N ASPH AROM NSO
i z 3


s2% 9700




9800990010000 Io100




10200


VISUAL KEROGEN

MATURATION TYPE ORGANIC MATTER
INDEX
I Z 3 43









Am (--H;C









Am (A);-;C(H)


KEROGEN KEY.
PREOOMI1SAT ECNORY;TR4C
Al ALGAL
Am AMORPHOUS- SAPROPEL N HERBACEOUS SPORE CUTICLE W WOODY
U UNIDENTIFIED MATERIAL II DEGRADED HERBACEOUS
RELICT AMORPHOUS


Figure 18. Summary of organic analyses for Humble Oil No. 1, J. A. Curry, Permit 222.


LyreO % L=G

r _


I I 1 . 1 I 1 1


a 300 10 0 1 2 3 4 1 3 4
P-N PARAFFIN -RAPKTHENE HC
_________________ AIN. AROMATIC HYDROCARBON
S ELEMENTAL FREE SULFUR S OASPN Nw NITROGEN -SULFU OXYGEN COMPOUNDS ASPR-A SPHALXENE
4 vNO ATA
5 AFTER GEOCHEM


ORGANIC CARBON
CONTENT
r: %9


mcw rz


Li


HOD

.
.
9700


.

9000-.




9900:




IO00








[OZO0'


2528 k









REPORT OF INVESTIGATION NO. 89























SUMMARY OF ORGANIC ANALYSES


SOURCE CHARACTER


C15+ EXTRACTION DATA









884 1184 280 209 437 703 433 833


VISUAL KEROGEN

P-N ASPH MATURATION TYPE ORGANIC MATTER AROM NSO INDEX
0 1 2 3 4 m 3 4









57 IL I Am ;H+; C




D? *-A II Am ;- -,H-W-C


0 500 1000 01 2 3 1 2 3 PIN VAL UES ON A t918W WIGHT BASIS
P-N PARAFFIN -NAPHTHENE HC AROM- AROMATIC HYDROCARBON P'N AROM S NSO ASPH S -ELEMENTAL FREE SULFUR PN NITROGEN-SULFUR OXYGEN COMPOUNDS
__PH. ASPHALTENE
0 -NO DATA
nC5 SOLUBLE FRACTION ASPH AFTER GEOCHEM


KEROGEN KEY
PREOOMIANT SEcCR;TR4
Al ALGAL
Am AMORPHOUS- SAPROPEL H HERBACEOUS SPORE CUTICLE W .0WOOY C = ,OALY
U UNIDENTIFIED MATERIAL 1A+ D DEGRADED HERBACEOUS
+ RELICT AMORPHOUS


Figure 19. Summary of organic analyses for Tribal Oil Co.,

Collier Corp. Unit 26-4, Permit 775.


ORGANIC CARBON CONTENT


0 0.5 1,0%
MISIVOWL"3 ,,O.POS.ITE


LITHO %LOG
0 50 0o%
. . .


SO P00


CLAY
F SILT






BUREAU OF GEOLOGY


SUMMARY OF ORGANIC ANALYSES

SOURCE CHARACTER


ORGANIC
CARBON
CONTENT


VISUAL KEROGEN
U A
P-N ASPH MATURATION TYPE ORGANIC MATTER C15* EXTRACTION DATA A MW INDEX


H+;- ;Am C Am-H ;W; C Am ; 1H+-C


10a,% 0Bia,-m S,,, ao 1000 4 1t__ KEROGEN KEY

mcompown ~~~~AROU. MONATIC WOOCN PUMC"" .,ioi .W 2 -V-CRINML PFE SULFUR A
r- 3 NSO A" NhesoREN -SULPiJuR ALGAL OXYGEN COMPOUNOS A AORW- SOPE.L NoASFI4. ASPI4ALJENE N EBCOSSPORE CuTICLE
0 0 NOOATA I ,WOOOV OU-ilOOMFIED MATERIAL AFTER OEOCHEM ,+: 0O0RAOD HERIACOUS




igure 20. Summary of organic analyses for Humble Oil No. 1,
Collier Corp., Permit 130..


LfThO %LOG







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