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Reconnaissance of the ground-water resources of Baker County, Florida ( FGS: Report of investigations 52 )

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Title:
Reconnaissance of the ground-water resources of Baker County, Florida ( FGS: Report of investigations 52 )
Series Title:
( FGS: Report of investigations 52 )
Creator:
Leve, Gilbert W ( Gilbert Warren ), 1928-
Geological Survey (U.S.)
Place of Publication:
Tallahassee Fla
Publisher:
[s.n.]
Publication Date:
Language:
English
Physical Description:
vi, 24 p. : illus. ; 23 cm.

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Subjects / Keywords:
Groundwater -- Florida -- Baker County ( lcsh )
Baker County ( local )
City of Crystal River ( local )
Lake City ( local )
Nassau County ( local )
City of Ocala ( local )
City of Macclenny ( local )
Aquifers ( jstor )
Counties ( jstor )
Water wells ( jstor )
Limestones ( jstor )
Groundwater ( jstor )
Genre:
bibliography ( marcgt )
non-fiction ( marcgt )

Notes

Bibliography:
Bibliography: p. 24.
General Note:
"Prepared by the United States Geological Survey in cooperation with the Florida Board of Conservation, Division of Geology."
Statement of Responsibility:
by Gilbert W. Leve.

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Source Institution:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
The author dedicated the work to the public domain by waiving all of his or her rights to the work worldwide under copyright law and all related or neighboring legal rights he or she had in the work, to the extent allowable by law.
Resource Identifier:
028613114 ( aleph )
AEA9075 ( notis )
68066852 ( lccn )

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Full Text
STATE OF FLORIDA
STATE BOARD OF CONSERVATION
DIVISION OF GEOLOGY
Robert O. Vernon, Director
REPORT OF INVESTIGATIONS NO. 52
RECONNAISSANCE OF THE GROUND-WATER
RESOURCES
OF BAKER COUNTY, FLORIDA
By
Gilbert W. Leve U. S. Geological Survey
Prepared by the UNITED STATES GEOLOGICAL SURVEY
in cooperation with the
FLORIDA BOARD OF CONSERVATION
DIVISION OF GEOLOGY
Tallahassee, Florida 1968




FLORIDA STATE BOARD
OF
CONSERVATION
CJAUDE R. KIRK, JR.
Governor
TOM ADAMS EARL FAIRCLOTH
Secretary of State Attorney General
BROWARD WILLIAMS FRED O. DICKINSON, JR.
Treasurer Comptroller
FLOYD T. CHRISTIAN DOYLE CONNER
Superintendent of Public Instruction Commissioner of Agriculture
W. RANDOLPH HODGES Director
ii




LETTER OF TRANSMITTAL
Tallahassee
June 4, 1968
Honorable Claude R. Kirk, Jr., Chairman State Board of Conservation Tallahassee, Florida
Dear Governor Kirk:
The Division of Geology is publishing as its Report of Investigations No. 52, a report on the "Reconnaissance of the Ground-Water Resources of Baker County, Florida" prepared by Gilbert W. Leve, with the U. S. Geological Survey, as a part of the cooperative investigations of the water resources of Florida-a Division of Geology responsibility.
Ground-water is not widely used in Baker County, but the presence of a high equipotential area in the artesian system beneath the County made it necessary that the resource be understood insofar as this high affected the ground-water resources of Nassau and Duval counties which were being intensively studied and mapped.
The method and rates of movement of ground-water from one point to another in the artesian aquifer are understood more fully by use of the data in this report.
Respectfully yours,
Robert O. Vernon
Director and State Geologist
iii




Completed manuscript received
June 4, 1968
Published for the Division of Geology By St. Petersburg Printing Company
St. Petersburg, Florida
1968
iv




CONTENTS
Page
Abstract .......................... .... ..----------.....................----------------------------------------------- 1
Introduction ......................... ..------------------------------------------------------- 2
Purpose and scope ..............................................---------------------------------------------- 2
Previous investigations ............................................------------------------------------------- 3
Well-numbering system .......................................-------------------------------------.----- 3
Topography and drainage ...........................................---------------------------------------- 4
Climate and culture ...................................------------------------------- ......... --------------5
Ground-water resources ................................................--------------------------------------------- 5
Occurrence of ground water .............................................--------------------------------------- 5
Geologic framework ............................................------------------------------------------ 6
Eocene limestone formations ..............................................--------------------------------- 6
Post-Eocene deposits ...........................................--------------------------------------. 12
Aquifers ................................................----------------------------------------------------- 13
Water-table aquifer .........................................------------------------------------------ 13
Shallow artesian aquifers ...................... .......................------------------------------------- 14
Floridan aquifer ..............................................-------------------------------------------- 14
Occurrence and physical characteristics .......................------------------------....................... 16
Artesian pressure ..............................................-----------------------------------------. 16
Piezometric Surface ..........................................---------------------------------------.. 17
Quality of water ..............................................------------------------------------------------- 19
Ground-water use in Baker County .............................................-----------------------------------.. 22
Summary ............................. ...--------..........................----------------------------------------------- 22
References -------.............................----------------------------------------------- 24
V




ILLUSTRATIONS
Figure Page
1 Map of Baker County, Florida, showing the location of wells -........................ 2
2 Diagram illustrating the well-numbering system ............................................ 4
3 Graphs of data collected during the construction of Sanderson
test well, 301535N0821620.1 ...------------- ------------------------------------- 7
4 Graphs of data collected during the construction of Taylor test
well, 302620N0821735.1 ..- ------------- -.---------------------------------------. 8
5 Map of Baker County showing altitude of the top of the Crystal
River Formation ....._ --------------------....... -----------------9
6 Generalized south-north geologic section showing formations
penetrated by wells ............... ....... ------------------------------------------10
7 Generalized west-east geologic section showing formations penetratedby wells .................... ..... .. ........................--------------------------------------------- 11
8 Graphs showing the relation between artesian pressure in Taylor
test well, 302620N0821735.1, and rainfall at Glen St. Mary and
Lake Cityv .................................................-------------------------------------------------17
9 Generalized map of the piezometric surface of the Floridan
aquifer in northeast Florida, showing greater detail of the piezometric surface in Baker County, March 1964 .................................................. 18
TABLES
Table Page
1 Water levels measured at different depths in test wells
301535N0821620.1, near Sanderson, and 302620N0821735.1, near
Taylor .............................. .................... -----------------------....................... 15
2 Analyses of water from wells in Baker County---------------------.......................--........................ 20
3 Records of selected wells in Baker, Duval, and Union Counties........................ -----------21
vi




RECONNAISSANCE OF THE GROUND-WATER RESOURCES
OF BAKER COUNTY, FLORIDA By
Gilbert W. Leve
ABSTRACT
Baker County comprises approximately 585 square miles in north Florida. The surface of the area is flat with rolling terrain generally between about 100 to 150 feet above sea level which is drained by the St. Marys River and Olustee Creek, a tributary of the Suwannee River. About one-third of the 7,700 inhabitants live in the two major towns of Macclenny and Glen St. Mary.
Water supplies are obtained from three aquifers: (1) the water-table aquifer, (2) the shallow artesian aquifer, and (3) the Floridan aquifer. The greatest potential source of ground water in the county is from the Floridan aquifer. It is composed of limestone formations of Eocene age which underlie all of Baker County at altitudes ranging from less than 50 to more than 350 feet below sea level and are at least 750 to 1,000 feet thick. The Floridan aquifer is recharged to the south of Baker County and possibly in southern Baker County directly by rainfall or by downward percolation from bodies of surface water or shallower aquifers.
Seasonal fluctuations of the artesian pressure in the Floridan aquifer result primarily from changes in the rate of recharge. A progressive decline in the piezometric surface in the Floridan aquifer of 10 to 20 feet from 1945 to 1964 is related in part to increased discharge by wells in adjacent Duval and Nassau counties.
In eastern Baker and Bradford counties, on the eastern flank of the piezometric high, water in the Floridan aquifer moves toward discharge areas in Duval and Nassau counties.
Water from the water-table and shallow artesian aquifers is softer and less mineralized than water from the Floridan aquifer but it contains a higher concentration of iron. The carbonate hardness of water analyzed from wells in the Floridan aquifer ranged from 121 to 204 ppm (parts per million) and the dissolved solids concentration ranged from 141 to 217 ppm.
Most rural water supplies are from wells in the water table and shallow artesian aquifers. At present, only the City of Macclenny, the Northeast Florida State Hospital, government installations, and a few private homes obtain water from wells completed in the Floridan aquifer. Large additional quantities of ground water can be developed from the Floridan aquifer to supply forseeable future needs.




2 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY
INTRODUCTION
A reconnaissance investigation of ground water in Baker County, Florida, was conducted as a part of a more comprehensive study of the ground-water resources in adjacent Duval and Nassau counties. Baker County, located in north Florida, is bounded on the east by Nassau and Duval counties; on the south by Clay, Bradford, and Union counties; on the west by Columbia County; and on the north by the State of Georgia, as shown in figure 1. It is approximately "L" shaped and has an area of about 585 square miles.
EXPLANATION Tan
0 Well Wter table or seowdWry
EN r*t iion ociijifer"
* Welt In Mhe Flordon eqdfor
T U.S. Geogic al s or y te OII en fM Roriden eqdfar
0__ 0
NO19
MACCLENNY
AP DA WING *-E LCCATON IST MARY
2cE azxE sa.Ns'
Figure 1. Map of Baker County, Florida, showing the location of wells.
PURPOSE AND SCOPE
The purpose of this report is to locate and describe the aquifers as an aid to development of the ground-water resources in Baker County and in adjacent and near-by counties of northeast Florida and southeast Georgia.
The investigation was made by the U. S. Geological Survey as part of the statewide cooperative program with the Division of Geology,




REPORT OF INVESTGATIONS NO. 52 3
Florida Board of Conservation, to evaluate the water resources of Florida. The report presents and summarizes all of the pertinent, available data on the ground-water resources of Baker County obtained from:
1. Collection of ground-water data by inventorying wells in the
county and periodically measuring the water level in selected
wells.
2. Collection of geologic information from drillers and in the files of
the Division of Geology, Florida Board of Conservation.
3. Drilling of two deep test wells in areas where ground-water data
and geologic information were not available.
The investigation was made under the supervision of C. S. Conover, District Chief, Water Resources Division, U. S. Geological Survey.
PREVIOUS INVESTIGATIONS
No prior investigations have been made of the geology and groundwater resources of Baker County. However, a number of reports by the U. S. Geological Survey and the Division of Geology, Florida Board of Conservation have included general geologic and hydrologic information on the area. Reports by Applin and Applin (1944), Cooke (1945), Vernon (1951), and Puri (1957) include information on the geology of Baker County, and reports by Stringfield (1936, 1966) and Cooper, Kenner, and Brown (1953) include some information on the ground-water resources. The chemical character of water from a number of wells in Baker County is included in a report by Black and Brown (1951). A report by Pride (1958) describes the surface-water resources of Baker County.
WELL-NUMBERING SYSTEM
The well-numbering system used in this report is that of the Water Resources Division of the U. S. Geological Survey and is based on a one-second grid of parallels of latitude and meridians of longitude, in that order.
The well number is a composite of two numbers separated by the letter N. The first part consists of six digits; the two digits of the degrees, the two digits of the minutes, and the two digits of the seconds of latitude. The N refers to "north" latitude. The second part consists of seven digits; the three digits of the degrees, the two digits of the minutes, and the two digits of the seconds of longitude. If more than one well lies within a one-second grid, the wells are numbered consecutively and this number is placed at the end of the well number following the decimal. Therefore, the well number defines the latitude and the longitude




4 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY on the south and east sides of a one-second quadrangle in which the well is located.
Figure 2 is a diagram illustrating the well-numbering system. For example, the designation 275134N0815220.1 indicates that this is the
87 88 850 040 830 82o go 80
30o
C --- I ,
j.'.280
275134NO815220.1
270
Figure 2. Diagram illustrating the well-numbering system.
first well inventoried in the one-second grid bounded bylatitude 270 51'34" on the south and longitude 081052'20"~ on the east.
TOPOGRAPHY AND DRAINAGE Baker County is in the Central Highlands topographic region ( Cooke,
1945, p. 8), and the toorahy is flat to ently rollin with altitudes
Figure 2. Diagram lustrating the well-numbering system.
farst well inventoried in the one-second grid bounded bylatitude 2751'3411 on the south and longitude 081'52'20" on the east.
TOPOGRAPHY AND DRAINAGE Baker County is in the Central Highlands topographic region ( Cooke, 1945, p. 8), and the topography is flat to gently rolling with altitudes




REPORT OF INVESTIGATIONS No. 52 5
between about 100 to 150 feet above msl (mean sea level). A high, sandy ridge termed the "Trail Ridge" extends north-south through eastern Baker County. A number of sand hills on this ridge have altitudes of more than 200 feet.
Most of the surface drainage is by the St. Marys River and its tributaries. Small areas in western and southern Baker County are drained by Olustee Creek, a tributary of the Suwannee River. Streams are sluggish and poorly developed on the flat terrain and much of the area is marshland. The Okefenokee Swamp, which occupies a large area in southern Georgia, extends into northern Baker County.
CLIMATE AND CULTURE
The climate of Baker County is subtropical. The average annual temperature is about 690F, and the average annual rainfall is about 52 inches. Most of the rain occurs during the summer months. Rainfall of more than 10 inches per month during the summer and less than half an inch per month during the late fall is not uncommon.
According to the 1960 U. S. Census, the population of Baker County was 7,400; and, in 1965, it was estimated to be about 8,000 by the Bureau of Economic and Business Research, University of Florida. About onethird of the population lives in the major towns of Macclenny and Glen St. Mary. The major industries are lumbering, wood pulp, and cattle ranching. Two large nurseries at Glen St. Mary, a number of small farms, and the Northeast Florida State Mental Hospital add to the economy of the county.
GROUND-WATER RESOURCES
Water supplies in Baker County are available from both surface- and ground-water sources. However, surface-water sources are undependable because of droughts; and they generally are too far from the water users to be economically used. The surface-water resources of the county are discussed in a report by Pride (1958). Practically all water presently used in the county is ground water. This report discusses only the ground-water resources in the area.
OCCURRENCE OF GROUND WATER
Rain is the source of most ground water. Part of the rain is returned to the atmosphere by evapotranspiration, part drains overland into lakes and streams, and part seeps into the ground near the point where it falls, or also from lakes and streams. Only the water that reaches the




6 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY
zone of saturation-the zone saturated with water under hydrostatic pressure-becomes ground water.
The occurrence of ground water is controlled primarily by the subsurface rocks. The chemical composition, physical characteristics, and structure of the geologic formations determine the quality of the ground water, the amount of water available, and the vertical and areal distribution of ground water. In order to obtain information on the subsurface rocks in Baker County, logs of wells and cuttings obtained from wells on file with the Division of Geology, Florida Board of Conservation were examined. Also, two test wells were drilled in areas where geologic or ground-water information was lacking.
GEOLOGIC FRAMEWORK
The geologic framework that controls the occurrence and distribution of ground water in Baker County is graphically portrayed by the logs of the two test wells, figures 3 and 4, the map of the top of the Crystal River Formation, figure 5, and the geologic sections, figures 6 and 7. Although the chemical composition and the physical properties of the geologic formations may vary slightly throughout the county, the type of rocks penetrated by the test wells are essentially typical of the subsurface rocks underlying the entire county. Both wells were drilled into the Lake City Limestone, which is the deepest formation generally penetrated by water wells in northeastern Florida and southeastern Georgia.
EOCENE LIMESTONE FORMATIONS
The oldest formation shown in figures 3-7 is the Lake City Limestone of middle Eocene age. It is predominantly a tan to dark brown, hard, massive, dolomitic limestone and medium soft, finely crystalline dolomite, both containing relatively thin beds of tan, soft, chalky to granular limestone. The Lake City Limestone is about 500 feet thick and its top ranges from about 450 feet below sea level in the southwestern part of the county to more than 650 feet below sea level in the eastern part.
The Avon Park Limestone of late middle Eocene age unconformably overlies the Lake City Limestone and is similar in lithology. It is about 140 feet thick in southwestern Baker County and thins to less than 50 feet in the eastern part of the county. The top of the formation ranges from 300 feet below sea level in southwestern Baker County to more than 600 feet below sea level in the eastern part.




REPORT OF INVESTIGATIONS NO. 52 7
AGE FML qMSSTMTY LITHOGY SELF-POTENTIAL DRILLING T E CALIPER LOG TEMPETARIURE d'ruile inches
0 50 100 50 200 4 8 12 16 6266707476
9
20
200
0oo
0
300-7
6 0
u.
- 6O - -,,0 EXPLANATION
[ Datomie 500
600
9oo [ I tIgg ,o m e I I I I I I I II I I I .L
Figure 3. Graphs of data collected during the construction of Sanderson test well,
301535N0821620.1
The Ocala Group1, Inglis, Williston, and Crystal River Formations of late Eocene age consist of a relatively homogeneous sequence of cream to light gray, medium soft, chalky to granular, marine limestone, containing thin beds of hard, massive, dolomitic limestone and dolomite. 1 The classification and nomenclature of the rock units conform to the usage of the
Division of Geology, Florida Board of Conservation and, also, except for the Ocala Group and its subdivisions, with those of the U. S. Geological Survey, which regards
the Ocala as two formations, the Ocala Limestone and the Inglis Limestone.




FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY
PA nSTMT SW- POhTMAL DILU IME CALPE LOG TEMPJUM 6AMU
J-I . .
o a
0 "[" "0 40- 61 D ,SM 2__6 07
0
3c -- f twMR
IL
LL t
Figure 4. Graphs of data collected during the construction of Taylor test well,
302620NO821735.1
The Inglis and Williston Formations are generally more granular in texture than the overlying Crystal River Formation and the Inglis Formation generally is more calcitic and slightly darker in color than either the Williston or the Crystal River Formations.
The geologic sections in figures 6 and 7 show that the thickness of the Ocala Group ranges from about 220 to 310 feet in Baker County. The average thickness of the Crystal River Formation is about 150 feet and the average thickness of the Williston and Inglis Formations is about 50 feet each.




REPORT OF INVESTIGATIONS NO. 52 9
-250 -3o EXPLANATION 0'Z N _ well 0155 BAK~~ER COUNTY Wl
SNumber represents the aolitude of
FB C t the top of the Crystol River Formation in feet below mean
-200 so level
-50---I a Contour represents the .atitude. of t-326 Aa 1 the top of the Crystal River FFormation. Dashed where
-150 inferred. Contour interval 50 t feet. Datum is mean sea level ALOR 12 IA-A!
-281 Location of geologic sections Sshown in figtires 6 and 7.
-100 12
S O I 2 3 m4 5 iles
12
I:) IZ
-50 MACCLENNY
-371
1 -155 B70 10
AND SO -287 -350
-50
-300
BAKER COUNTY
-100 -150 -200 -250
A
- 50
Figure 5. Map of Baker County showing altitude of the top of the Crystal River
Formation.
The altitude and configuration of the top of the Crystal River Formation are shown by contour lines in figure 5. The top of the Crystal River Formation ranges from about 50 feet below sea level in southwestern Baker County to about 350 feet below sea level in the eastern part. Structurally, the surface of the Crystal River Formation in Baker County is a monocline which strikes approximately north-northwest-south-southeast and dips east-nrtheastward about 20 feet per mile.




SOUTH NORTH
A A'
200 In8I
PLEISOCENE .A:N[
100- UPPER MIOCENE OR PLIOCENE DEPOSIT 100
?0
0 SUWANNEE LIMESTONE 0 HAWTHORN FORMATION
100- 00
%200 300 i o -RSU carsOR soo
300 A 0 0oO WILL is 400
500A
I~vGL ---- 'ON
400 -500
6000
Vertical scale greatly exaggerated total depth 0----700 -0 3 miles 825' 00 700
Note: Location of section shown on f.g, 5 totol depth Bo 1 3349' B Figure 6. Generalized south-north geologic section showing formations penetrated by wells,




WEST EAST
B -. B'
.0l
l 200
100,
SP100
-J3
ADN
HAWTHORN FORMATION UPPER MIOENE
200 200
PLIOCENEDEPOSIT 0
S300N300 S 400 0G S
'=Vertical scale greatly e xggerated t ot e pt I
2 00- 'ICN 4EPS 00
2r00 Notes FORMATION son sow on i 5r 00 ff 04 300
6008
F u 7. 0,424 4nrlz west-est 8 sf.
BOOO
Fiur 7.0 Geeaie wetes gelgBscioohwnoomain eeraeywls




12 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY
POST-EOCENE DEPOSITS
In southwestern Baker County, the Crystal River Formation is overlain by the Suwannee Limestone of late Oligocene age. It consists of light gray to white, granular, limestone and yellowish brown, indurated, siltstone and sandstone cemented with calcium carbonate. As shown on the geologic cross sections in figure 5, the Suwannee Limestone is less than 30 feet thick in southwestern Baker County. It was not recognized in cuttings from either of the test wells in central Baker County or in cuttings from wells in the eastern part. The Suwannee Limestone either was not deposited in these areas or it was removed by erosion prior to the deposition of the Hawthorn Formation.
Where the Suwannee Limestone is absent, the Crystal River Formation is overlain by the Hawthorn Formation of middle Miocene age. The Hawthorn Formation consists of gray to olive green, phosphatic, clayey sand and sandy clay; gray to green, phosphatic, calcareous clay, interbedded with lenses of medium to coarse, phosphatic sand; and phosphatic, sandy limestone, shell and dolomite. The dolomite beds generally occur near the base of the formation and are about 20 feet thick in both of the test wells. Examination of the cuttings from a number of wells in the county show the Hawthorn Formation is overlain by beds of green, calcareous, shelly clay; white, granular limestone; and fine to medium sand. These overlying deposits are similar to those in the Hawthorn Formation but they contain no phosphate and more shells. They can be correlated to the upper Miocene or Pliocene deposits in neighboring Nassau and Duval counties (Leve, 1966) on the basis of lithology and position in the subsurface. As shown on the geologic sections, figures 6 and 7, the combined thickness of the Hawthorn Formation and the upper Miocene or Pliocene deposits range from about 120 feet in western Baker County to about 400 feet in the eastern part.
Deposits of Pleistocene and Recent age overlie the upper Miocene or Pliocene deposits and the Hawthorn Formation and blanket the surface of Baker County. Undifferentiated beds of fine to coarse sand and green to red, silty clay were deposited as marine terraces by fluctuations of the sea level during Pleistocene interglacial periods. Recent sediments are presently being deposited as alluvial sand and clay in the stream valleys and as peat and muck in the lakes, swamps, and other poorly drained areas in the county. The deposits of Pleistocene and Recent age are discontinuous and vary in texture and lithology within short distances both laterally and vertically. The combined thickness of these deposits ranges from about 30 feet in western Baker County to about 150 feet in the vicinity of Trail Ridge in the eastern part.




REPORT OF INVESTIGATIONS No. 52 13
AQUIFERS
Rocks that are sufficiently permeable to yield usable quantities of water to wells are called aquifers. The aquifers serve as conduits that distribute and store ground water. Where the aquifer is not overlain by an impermeable bed and the surface of the water is free to rise and fall, it is termed a water-table aquifer. Where the aquifer is overlain by an impermeable bed and the water in the aquifer is confined under pressure, it is termed an artesian aquifer. Both water-table and artesian aquifers occur in Baker County.
WATER-TABLE AQUIFER
The water-table aquifer occurs in upper Miocene or Pliocene deposits and Pleistocene and Recent deposits which together range in thickness from about 30 feet in western Baker County to more than 150 feet. Permeable sand and shell beds within about the uppermost 50 feet of these deposits comprise the aquifer; however, these permeable beds are discontinuous and wedge out laterally against less permeable silty clay beds. Generally, wells completed less than 30 feet deep, in the surficial sand beds, will tap part or all of the water-table aquifer.
The water-table aquifer is recharged principally by local rainfall and from surface streams and marshes. Water discharges from the water-table aquifer by evapotranspiration, by seepage into streams, lakes, and swamps when their water surface is lower than the water level in the aquifer, by downward percolation into deeper aquifers, and by pumpage from a few wells.
The water level in the water-table aquifer rises when the amount of recharge exceeds the rate of discharge and vice versa. Seasonal fluctuations of the watel level of 6 to 8 feet are not uncommon, and some wells completed in the upper part of the aquifer go dry when the water levels decline and have to be deepened. In addition, centrifugal pumps installed on some wells during periods of relatively high water levels fail when the water levels are relatively low and have to be replaced with deep-well pumps.
Water from the water-table aquifer is relatively high in iron content which stains plumbing fixtures and imparts a bad taste to the water. The high iron content of the water combined with the seasonal declines of water levels make this aquifer the least desirable source of ground water in the county. However, a number of rural domestic, stock, and irrigation supplies are obtained from this aquifer because of the relatively inexpensive cost.




14 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY
SHALLOW ARTESIAN AQUIFERS
The shallow artesian aquifers in Baker County consist of relatively thin, discontinuous lenses of sand, shell, and limestone within relatively impermeable beds of clay and clayey sand in the Hawthorn Formation and in the upper Miocene or Pliocene deposits. The relatively impermeable beds restrict the vertical movement of water and confine the water under artesian pressure within the aquifers. Similar conditions exist at places within the Pleistocene and Recent deposits during certain times of the year when the aquifer is completely saturated.
The occurrence of shallow artesian aquifers varies throughout Baker County and the exact depth and thickness of the aquifers at any location often cannot be predetermined. In test well 301535N0821620.1, near Sanderson (fig. 3), shallow artesian aquifers were located at depths of 70 to 90 feet below land surface near the base of the upper Miocene or Pliocene deposits and from 130 to 140 feet below land surface and from 160 to 180 feet below land surface in the Hawthorn Formation. In test well 302620N0821735.1, near Taylor (fig. 4), shallow artesian aquifers were located at depths from 200 to 220 feet below land surface, from 255 to 270 feet below land surface, and from 330 to 380 feet below land surface in the Hawthorn Formation.
The artesian pressure in shallow artesian aquifers differs depending on the areal location within the county and the depth of each aquifer. Table 1 shows the water level measured at different depths in test wells 301535N0821620.1 and 302620N0821735.1. The water levels in each of the shallow artesian aquifers are lower than the water level in the water-table aquifer and higher than the water level in the Floridan aquifer.
The shallow artesian aquifers are recharged locally by downward seepage of water from the water-table aquifer.
Wells completed in the shallow artesian aquifers generally yield more water with a lower iron content than wells completed in the water-table aquifer. Small-diameter wells throughout Baker County produce water from these aquifers for domestic, stock, and irrigation supplies.
FLORIDAN AQUIFER
The Floridan aquifer is the principal source of water supplies in northeastern Florida and southeastern Georgia; and, although it is presently tapped by only a few wells in Baker County, it is the greatest potential source of water supplies in the area. Development of water supplies from the aquifer in one part of the area could eventually affect hydrologic conditions over the entire area. Therefore, knowledge of the




Table 1. WATER LEVELS MEASURED AT DIFFERENT DEPTHS IN TEST WELLS 301535N0821620.1, NEAR SANDERSON, AND 302620N0821735.1, NEAR TAYLOR
Well 301535N0821620.1 Well 302620N0821735.1
Depth, feet below land surface Depth, feet below land surface
Casing Hole Water Aquifer Casing Hole Water Aquifer Level Level
20 20 10-12 Water table 46 50 17 Water table
0-40 0-55
83 83 14.5 Sec. artesian 185 208 21 Sec. artesian 70-90 200-220
165 174 20.9 Sec. artesian 230 245 18.8 Sec. artesian 160-180 255-270
282 335 99 334 370 57.8 Sec. artesian.0 330-380 c
282 425 100.7 Floridan 416 450 60 315-823
282 810 100.5 416 472 62.1 Floridan
416 905 60.9 409-905 ........




16 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY
characteristics of the Floridan aquifer in Baker County would aid future development of the aquifer in adjacent areas.
OCCURRENCE AND PHYSICAL CHARACTERISTICS
The Floridan aquifer in Baker County consists primarily of permeable limestone and dolomite beds of Eocene age. Locally, however, the Suwannee Limestone of late Oligocene age and limestone beds in the Hawthorn Formation of middle Miocene age form part of the aquifer. The aquifer underlies all of the county; and, as shown in figure 5, the top of the aquifer ranges from less than 50 feet below sea level in the western part to more than 350 feet in the eastern part. The exact thickness of the aquifer is not known; however, it is more than 1,600 feet thick in southwestern Baker County and about 1,900 feet thick in the northeastern part Most water wells penetrate less than 1,000 feet of the aquifer.
The permeable limestone and dolomite formations contain dense zones, occurring primarily in the Avon Park and Lake City Limestones, that are relatively impermeable and restrict the vertical movement of water within the aquifer. Possibly some of these zones are extensive laterally- and may separate water-producing zones within the aquifer such as occur in adjacent Duval and Nassau counties (Leve, 1964).
ARTESIAN PRESSURE
Water in the Floridan aquifer is confined under pressure by poorly permeable sandy clays in the overlying Hawthorn Formation and in the upper Miocene or Pliocene deposits. In north-central Florida, the aquifer is recharged primarily in areas where the confining beds are thin, absent, or where they are breached by streams and sinkholes and water moves downward into the aquifer. Water is discharged from the Floridan aquifer, by upward seepage, and through wells.
Artesian pressure in the Floridan aquifer continuously fluctuates, and most significant changes are those caused by recharge and discharge. When the rate of recharge exceeds the rate of discharge over a significant period of time, artesian pressures increase and vice versa.
Artesian pressure can be expressed as the altitude above a fixed datum to which water will rise in a tightly cased well. Figure 8 shows the relation between artesian pressure in well 302620N0821735.1 and rainfall at Glen St. Mary and Lake City for the period from December 1963 through February 1964. As shown, an increase in rainfall from 2.8 inches in December to 9.2 inches in January resulted in about a 3-foot rise in artesian pressure. The artesian pressure increased only 1 foot during February because of a decrease in the amount of rainfall during the month-




REPORT OF INVESTIGATIONS No. 52 17
d
59
L Taylor test well, 302620N0821735.1 o 57
56
Wd 55_____ ___I 5 10 15 20 25 I 5 10 15 20 25 I 5 1Co 5 20 25
I 5 10 15 20 25 I 5 10 15 20 25 I 5 0 15 20 25
III 1i 1111 ill IIII ll I 111 li llII IIII 1i11 I "1 l l ,IIIli H i l "
Glen St Mary Lake City Glen St. Mary
Total = 2.8" Total 92 8"*
. .. To, ,.21. ., .
DECEMBER 1963 JANUARY 1964 FEBRUARY 1964
Figure 8. Graphs showing the relation between artesian pressure in Taylor test
well, 302620N0821735.1, and rainfall at Glen St. Mary and Lake City.
PIEZOMETRIC SURFACE
The piezometric surface is an imaginary surface to which water from an aquifer will rise in tightly cased wells that penetrate the aquifer. The piezometric surface is shown by contour lines that connect points of equal altitude. Generally, water enters the aquifer in those areas where piezometric surface is high and moves downgradient in a direction approximately perpendicular to the contour lines. The velocity of the ground-water movement depends on the permeability of the aquifer and the hydraulic gradient. Piezometric maps can also be used to determine the rate of ground-water flow if the permeability and thickness of the aquifer are known.
Figure 9 shows the piezometric surface of the Floridan aquifer in Baker County and adjacent areas in March 1964. The piezometric high as shown is the northern extension of a high that centers in Alachua, Clay, and Putnam counties. The configuration of the piezometric surface in figure 9 indicates that water enters the Floridan aquifer south of Baker County and possibly within southern Baker County and moves radially away.




G q
o 'A
0 0
FERNANDINA REACH
. -.. NASSAU EXPLANATION 046. do Well Number represent altitude of
0 58,7 the piesometric )surface, feet above 58.7 mean sea level.
o
,5- Contour line represents the pleomefrlo
JACKSONVILLE /surface, feet above BAKER mean sea level,.
Sol ? DUVAL o
64.4 O MACCLENNY
COLUMBIA (5
LAKE CITY
82.5 o 49.6 P UNION
-6.2 -,-" .,/, I"C.L._Y
LAKE B-LER G
, /BRADFRD n ) GE ST. JOHNS \ I
(-' O %TAR E ~" SPRINGSJO N
Figure 9. Generalized map of the piezometric surface of the Floridan aquifer in northeast Florida, showing greater detail of the piezometric surface in Baker County, March 1964.




REPORT OF INVESTIGATIONS NO. 52 19
Much of the ground water that moves eastward in the Floridan aquifer from the piezometric high is discharged in areas in Duval and Nassau counties where large quantities of water are used by industries and cities.
QUALITY OF WATER
Rainfall entering the ground is only slightly mineralized. As the water moves through the ground, it dissolves some of the minerals that compose the rocks. Therefore, the chemical quality of ground water is primarily a result of the dissolution of minerals in the rocks through which it moves.
Table 2 lists analyses of water from selected wells in Baker County. Water in the water-table and shallow artesian aquifers is generally softer and less mineralized than water in the Floridan aquifer but has a higher iron content. As shown on table 2, water from well 301220N0822630.1, which taps the water-table or a shallow artesian aquifer, contains only 27 ppm dissolved solids. This mineral content is considerably lower than in water from the Floridan aquifer; however, the water contains 1.8 ppm of iron (over 0.3 ppm of iron is considered excessive).
Water in the Floridan aquifer is of similar chemical quality throughout Baker County. As shown in table 2, the dissolved solid content ranges from 141 to 217 ppm; and the carbonate hardness ranges from 121 to 204 ppm. Analyses of water samples collected several years apart indicate a slight, but probably insignificant, increase in the content of water in the aquifer has occurred in recent years.
The temperature of water at different depths in the Floridan aquifer was determined in test wells at Sanderson and Taylor. As shown by graphs in figures 3 and 4, the temperature of the water increased from 66%o at the top of the aquifer to 69F at the bottom of the well or an increase of about 23%oF in about 400 feet in the well at Sanderson, and it increased from 70oF at the top of the aquifer to 73oF at the bottom of the well or an increase of about 3oF in 500 feet in the well at Taylor. This represents an increase of about loF for every 160 feet penetration in the Floridan aquifer. A slight but pronounced temperature anomaly was recorded at 500 feet below land surface in the well at Taylor which may indicate the presence of a highly mineralized zone.
Water from the Floridan aquifer in Baker County, except for being relatively hard, is of good quality and may be used for domestic, agricultural, and most industrial purposes.
Records of selected wells in Baker, Duval, and Union counties are presented in table 3.




Table 2. ANALYSES OF WATER FROM WELLS IN BAKER COUNTY.
(Chemical constituents are expressed in parts per million)
Aquifer: F, Floridan; SA, secondary artesian; WT, water table. Remarks: Analysts: (1) Fla. Board Health; (2) Univ. of Fla.; (3) Black Lab-Gainesville.
Hardneu
as CaCO3
number 0
301415N0820805.1 6-11 59 650 F 0.27 32 14 20 0.3 0 156 38 16 0.85 190 140 12 7.7 5 6- 2-63 650 F 0.0 32 17 - 0 156 >10 17 0.75 192 140 12 7.8 5 1 301410N0820800.2 6-11-59 610 440 F 0.04 33 13 22.6 1.0 0 156 36 IS 0.75 163 138 10 7.8 S 1 301700N0820710.1 1.31-63 700 460 F 0.2 36 17 - 0 148 >10 25 0.50 217 160 38 7.6 5 1 301657N0820735.2 6- ?-42 595 449 F 0.10 29 12 - 142 8.3 S.S 141 121 7.4
10- 7-50 595 449 F -36 13 -- 166 30 16 204 146 7.75 2 446-59 595 449 F 0.06 40 23 - 151 65 14 0.45 202 196 72 7.7 S 2- 6-63 595 449 F 0.03 37 16 - 156 >10 15 .50 202 160 32 7.6 5 301655N0827SS.1 9- ?-42 455 330 F 0.03 27 10 - 143 6.7 7 145 108 7.25
9-15-49 455 330 F 0.05 26 14 - 146 >10 10 0.50 200 122 7.8 10-30-50 455 330 F 31 11 - 159 s15 12 172 126 7.78 2 4-10-59 455 330 F 0.50 34 12 - 0 146 17 s15 0.35 188 138 18 7.5 5 1 301240N0822320.1 2- 7-41 260 187 F& 0.7 42 21 - 243 0 8.7 233 204 12 7.7 I
SA
301220N0822630.1 2-18-41 S2 50 WT 1.8 2 2 - s15 0 8 27 22 6.2 3 (1) ._ _SA




Table 3. RECORDS OF WELLS IN BAKER, DUVAL AND UNION COUNTIES.
WELL NUMBERS: See Figure 2 for explanation of well-numbering AQUIFERS: IF, Floridan; 2H, Hawthorne-clayey sand and gravel; IM, system. Miocene-limestone; IN, Nonartesian sand aquifer.
OWNERSHIP: C, county; F, Federal government; M, city; N, company or ALTITUDE OF LAND SURFACE: To the nearest foot above mean sea corporation; S, State agency. level.
DEPTH OF WELL: To nearest foot. WATER LEVEL: To the nearest foot. Date of measurement includes WELL FINISH: X, open hole in aquifer, cased to aquifer; Z, gravel pack. month and year. METHOD DRILLED: C, cable-tool; H, hydraulic rotary; 3, jetted. CHEMICAL ANALYSES AVAILABLE: C, complete; P, partial. TYPE PUMP: J, jet;N, none; T, turbine. RANGE OF CHEMICAL CONSTITUENTS: Iron: 0, 0.00-0.05; 1, USE OF WATER: H, domestic; I, irrigation; P. municipal or public 0.06-0.1; 2, 0.11-0.30; 5, 1.1-3.0. Sulfate: 0, 010; 2, 26-50; 3,
supply; U, unused. 51-100. Chloride: 0, 0-10, 1, 11-25; Hardness: 2, 21-50;4, 101-150;
5, 151-200.
Casing Alti- Water level 8 tude Yield Period Chem. caflo Tam. Well Owner- Year Depth Well Meth- Type Use Aqul- land Above (gal- Draw- of ical Iron -Sul- Chlo- Hard- con- pernumber ship com- of Depth Dia- fin- od of of fares surface or be- Date Ions down dis- anal-. (Fe) fate ride ness duc. apie- well (feet) meter Ish drill, pump water above low(-) of per (feet) charge yses, ppm (SO4) (CI) tance ture ted (feet) (in- ed mean land meas- min- (hours) aval- ppm ppm (micro- (OF) ches) sea surface uro- ute) able mhos at level (feet) ment 25oC) BAKER COUNTY
302620N082173S. F 1963 905 417 6 X C N U IF 116 61 10-63 301535N0821620.1 F 1963 825 282 6 X C N U IF 156 98 8-.63 301106NoB22723.1 F 1957 21 18 6 z I N U IN 155 1 5-58sa 0 301423N0822611.1 F 168 3 N U IF 160 100 6-57 301655N082075S.1 M 1945 595 459 6 X T U IF 130 55 S-45 200 302615N0821435.1 C 1956 198 102 2 X N U 2H 18 12-60 30090SON0822725.1 N 1950 3043 16 H N U 145 O 301250N0822220.1 S 1957 355 243 8 X I IF 164 110 S-S7 301240N0822320.1 F 1939 260 188I 6 X H IF 170 301210N0822630.1 F 1932 52 50 2 X J H IM 165 18 6-64 P S 0 0 2
301415N0820805.1 S 650 440 8 X H T P IF 137 72 1-60 C 0 0 1 4 74 301410N0820800.2 S 1958 610 440 12 X H T P IF 1200 48 C 0 2 1 4 75 301657N082073S.23 M 1945 595 449 10 X H T P IF 127 55 5.-45 200 C 1 3 1 S 76 302920N0821240.1 N 1947 3349 1051 13 X H N U 124 301700N0820710.1 M 1960 704 460 10 X T P IF 130 900 C 2 0 1 5 72
DUVAL COUNTY
301339N081 5312.1 F 1941 980 431 10 X T P iF 79 16 3-41
UNION COUNTY
300741N0822258.1I F 11958 7241 6941 8 1 X I I N I U IF 3 90 11.88 630 73




9FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY
GROUND-WATER USE IN BAKER COUNTY
Because the water-table and shallow artesian aquifers occur at relatively shallow depths throughout Baker County, water supplies from these aquifers can be developed economically. Most rural farm homes have wells, generally two inches in diameter, developed in these aquifers which furnish the small to moderate amounts of water needed for domestic and stock use.
Large supplies of ground water for municipal, industrial, or irrigation use in Baker County can be obtained from the Floridan aquifer. In 1966, only a few wells were drilled into the Floridan aquifer because of the lack of need of large quantities of water required by industries. Only one municipal supply existed and obtained its water from the Floridan aquifer. The following are large users of water from the Floridan aquifer:
City of Macclenny-Water is obtained from two wells that are 10 inches in diameter and 595 and 700 feet deep with an emergency standby well 455 feet deep. The water is pumped from the wells to a treatment plant with a rated capacity of about 1 mgd. Municipal water use has increased from about 130,000 gpd in 1950 to about 250,000 gpd in 1963.
Northeast Florida State Hospital-This hospital, about three miles south of Macclenny, is supplied with water from the Floridan aquifer by two wells that are 8 inches in diameter and 610 and 650 feet deep respectively. The water is pumped to a treatment plant and then to the hospital and to a number of homes of personnel connected with the hospital in the area. Water use increased from about 90,000 gpd in 1959 to about 195,000 gpd in 1963.
Other-Wells in the Floridan aquifer owned by the Florida State Forestry Service, Florida Board of Parks and Historic Monuments, and the U.S. Department of Agriculture, all located in the vicinity of Olustee, supply water for domestic, public, and agricultural uses.
SUMMARY
Ground water from porous limestone, sand, and shell aquifers is the principal source of water supplies in Baker County. The formations penetrated by water wells range in age from Lake City Limestone of middle Miocene age to Recent sands and clays.
Ground water in Baker County occurs in three aquifers: (1) the water-table aquifer, (2) shallow artesian aquifer, and (3) the Floridan aquifer.
The water-table aquifer consists of surficial sand beds within the upper Miocene or Pliocene and Pleistocene and Recent deposits. This




REPORT OF INVESTIGATIONS No. 52 23
aquifer ranges from about 10 to 50 feet in thickness and is recharged by local rainfall.
The shallow artesian aquifers occur in discontinuous sand, shell, and limestone beds within the Hawthorn Formation and the upper Miocene or Pliocene deposits. The thickness and depth of these aquifers varies throughout the county but generally range from 10 to 50 feet in thickness and from 70 to 380 feet below land surface. The shallow artesian aquifers are recharged locally by downward percolation from the water table or from shallower secondary artesian aquifers.
The Floridan aquifer which occurs in the limestones of Eocene age, in the Suwannee Limestone, and limestone beds in the Hawthorn Formation is the greatest potential source of ground water in Baker County. The top of the Floridan aquifer in Baker County ranges from less than 50 to more than 350 feet below sea level. The aquifer is about 750 to 1,000 feet thick. Relatively impermeable layers within the Lake City and Avon Park Limestones may separate the lower part of the aquifer into thin, water-bearing zones.
Piezometric maps show that the water in the Floridan aquifer moves radially away from Baker Comunty toward areas of discharge. In eastern Baker and Bradford counties and western Nassau, Duval, and Clay counties, much of the water moves toward discharge areas in Duval and Nassau counties.
Water from the water-table and shallow artesian aquifers is less mineralized and softer than water from the Floridan aquifer. However, the iron content of water from the water-table and shallow artesian aquifers is generally higher than water from the Floridan aquifer. Although the water from the Floridan aquifer is more mineralized, the chemical quality is adequate for domestic, stock, agricultural, and most industrial purposes. Analyses of water from the Floridan aquifer show there has been a slight increase in the mineral content in recent years.
Most domestic and farm water supplies in Baker County are obtained from the water-table and shallow artesian aquifers. The larger water users in the county obtain water from the Floridan aquifer.
At present there is relatively little development of the ground-water supplies in Baker County. Future industrial development and population growth in the county will require a much greater development of the ground-water resources, particularly from the Floridan aquifer. This aquifer is capable of supplying sufficient quantities of good quality water provided the development of the aquifer is based on a sound water management policy. Because the Floridan aquifer extends throughout all of northeast Florida and southeast Georgia, the development of this aquifer in adjacent areas will affect and be affected to some extent by development in Baker County.




24 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY
REFERENCES
Applin, E. R. (see Applin, P. L.)
Applin. P. L
1944 (and Applin, E. R.) Regional subsurface stratigraphy and structure
of Florida and southern Georgia: Am. Assoc. Petroleum Geologists
Bull, v. 28, no. 12, p. 1673-1753.
Black, A. P.
1951 (and Brown, Eugene) Chemical character of Florida's waters1951: Florida State Board of Conserv., Div. Water Survey and
Research, Paper 6.
Brown, Eugene (see Black, A. P., and Cooper, H. H., Jr.)
Cooke, C. W.
1945 Geology of Florida: Florida Geol. Survey Bull. 29.
Cooper, H. H., Jr.
1953 (and Kenner, W. E., and Brown, Eugene) Ground water in central
and northern Florida: Florida Geol. Survey Rept. Inv. 10.
Results of transmissibility tests in Duval and Nassau Counties:
U.S. Geol. Survey open-fie release, Tallahassee, Florida.
Kenner, W. E. (see Cooper, H. H., Jr.)
Leve, G. WV.
1966 Ground water in Duval and Nassau Counties, Florida: Florida Geol. Survey Rept. Inv. 43.
Pride, R. V.
1958 Interim report on surface-water resources of Baker County, Florida: Florida Geol. Survey Inf. Circ. 20.
Puri, H. S.
1953 Zonation of the Ocala Group in peninsular Florida (abs.): Jour.
Sed. Petrology, v. 23. 1957 Stratigraphy and zonation of the Ocala Group: Florida Geol.
Survey Bull. 38.
Stringfield, V. T.
1936 Artesian water in the Florida peninsula: U.S. Geol. Survey WaterSupply Paper 773-C. 1966 Artesian water in tertiary limestone in the southeastern states: Geol. Survey Prof. Paper 517.
Vernon, R_ O.
1951 Geology of Citrus and Levy Counties, Florida: Florida Geol. Survey Bull. 33.




Full Text
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STATE OF FLORIDA STATE BOARD OF CONSERVATION DIVISION OF GEOLOGY Robert O. Vernon, Director REPORT OF INVESTIGATIONS NO. 52 RECONNAISSANCE OF THE GROUND-WATER RESOURCES OF BAKER COUNTY, FLORIDA By Gilbert W. Leve U. S. Geological Survey Prepared by the UNITED STATES GEOLOGICAL SURVEY in cooperation with the FLORIDA BOARD OF CONSERVATION DIVISION OF GEOLOGY Tallahassee, Florida 1968

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FLORIDA STATE BOARD OF CONSERVATION CLAUDE R. KIRK, JR. Governor TOM ADAMS EARL FAIRCLOTH Secretary of State Attorney General BROWARD WILLIAMS FRED O. DICKINSON, JR. Treasurer Comptroller FLOYD T. CHRISTIAN DOYLE CONNER Superintendent of Public Instruction Commissioner of Agriculture W. RANDOLPH HODGES Director ii

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LETTER OF TRANSMITTAL Tallahassee June 4, 1968 Honorable Claude R. Kirk, Jr., Chairman State Board of Conservation Tallahassee, Florida Dear Governor Kirk: The Division of Geology is publishing as its Report of Investigations No. 52, a report on the "Reconnaissance of the Ground-Water Resources of Baker County, Florida" prepared by Gilbert W. Leve, with the U. S. Geological Survey, as a part of the cooperative investigations of the water resources of Florida-a Division of Geology responsibility. Ground-water is not widely used in Baker County, but the presence of a high equipotential area in the artesian system beneath the County made it necessary that the resource be understood insofar as this high affected the ground-water resources of Nassau and Duval counties which were being intensively studied and mapped. The method and rates of movement of ground-water from one point to another in the artesian aquifer are understood more fully by use of the data in this report. Respectfully yours, Robert O. Vernon Director and State Geologist iii

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Completed manuscript received June 4, 1968 Published for the Division of Geology By St Petersburg Printing Company St. Petersburg, Florida 1968 iv

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CONTENTS Page Abstract -..----...-.....-.......---.....---..---------..---------------1 Introduction -..--................-----------------------------------2 Purpose and scope -.........--.--.. --..--..--..---..----.-------------2 Previous investigations ...-----.-......................---.---------.---3 Well-numbering system ...............-..............----------------3 Topography and drainage ----..........--.. -----------------------4 Climate and culture .-..........----.......-...--..-.--------.-----5 Ground-water resources ............-..........---------------..----.... 5-------Occurrence of ground water -...-.....-----.. ..---------..---..-----------5 Geologic framework -....------.-...------.... .....----------...-----6 Eocene limestone formations ..-...........-..------------------------6 Post-Eocene deposits ....---..--..--..---..-------------------. 12 Aquifers ..--.........--..........-------------------------.. 13 Water-table aquifer .................-----.. ..---------------.....................-------------------. 13 Shallow artesian aquifers ....--.........-............. ----......--.-----.---14 Floridan aquifer ..-......--.. ..-----------------.......................---------------------14 Occurrence and physical characteristics .....-----. .....----..............-------16 Artesian pressure .--.----..... ------------....................................------.......----------------16 Piezometric Surface --..--..-----..------..-----------------. .17 Quality of water -...................-----------------...............---------19 Ground-water use in Baker County .-..------------.......------------------.... ....... .22 Summary --.~........................ .------------........................----22 References -...........---.....--.--..-------------------------24 V

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ILLUSTRATIONS Figure Page 1 Map of Baker County, Florida, showing the location of wells-....................... 2 2 Diagram illustrating the well-numbering system ---....-..-..-.................... 4 3 Graphs of data collected during the construction of Sanderson test well, 301535N0821620.1 ...------...---...------------------7 4 Graphs of data collected during the construction of Taylor test well, 302620N0821735.1 ..----..----.....---------.--------8 5 Map of Baker County showing altitude of the top of the Crystal River Formation ....----.------------9 6 Generalized south-north geologic section showing formations penetrated by wells ...--..--------....... -.----------. .-. 10 7 Generalized west-east geologic section showing formations penetrated by wells ------------------.. ....----_....------------------11 8 Graphs showing the relation between artesian pressure in Taylor test well, 302620N0821735.1, and rainfall at Glen St. Mary and Lake City ...------------..................-------------------------.................----------.......... 17 9 Generalized map of the piezometric surface of the Floridan aquifer in northeast Florida, showing greater detail of the piezometric surface in Baker County, March 1964 ....-----......--........--.......... ..-----18 TABLES Table Page 1 Water levels measured at different depths in test wells 301535N0821620.1, near Sanderson, and 302620N0821735.1, near Taylor -...............--------.. ....... ...........-----..---. 15 2 Analyses of water from wells in Baker County ........... ................---------------20 3 Records of selected wells in Baker, Duval, and Union Counties..-----................21 vi

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RECONNAISSANCE OF THE GROUND-WATER RESOURCES OF BAKER COUNTY, FLORIDA By Gilbert W. Leve ABSTRACT Baker County comprises approximately 585 square miles in north Florida. The surface of the area is flat with rolling terrain generally between about 100 to 150 feet above sea level which is drained by the St. Marys River and Olustee Creek, a tributary of the Suwannee River. About one-third of the 7,700 inhabitants live in the two major towns of Macclenny and Glen St. Mary. Water supplies are obtained from three aquifers: (1) the water-table aquifer, (2) the shallow artesian aquifer, and (3) the Floridan aquifer. The greatest potential source of ground water in the county is from the Floridan aquifer. It is composed of limestone formations of Eocene age which underlie all of Baker County at altitudes ranging from less than 50 to more than 350 feet below sea level and are at least 750 to 1,000 feet thick. The Floridan aquifer is recharged to the south of Baker County and possibly in southern Baker County directly by rainfall or by downward percolation from bodies of surface water or shallower aquifers. Seasonal fluctuations of the artesian pressure in the Floridan aquifer result primarily from changes in the rate of recharge. A progressive decline in the piezometric surface in the Floridan aquifer of 10 to 20 feet from 1945 to 1964 is related in part to increased discharge by wells in adjacent Duval and Nassau counties. In eastern Baker and Bradford counties, on the eastern flank of the piezometric high, water in the Floridan aquifer moves toward discharge areas in Duval and Nassau counties. Water from the water-table and shallow artesian aquifers is softer and less mineralized than water from the Floridan aquifer but it contains a higher concentration of iron. The carbonate hardness of water analyzed from wells in the Floridan aquifer ranged from 121 to 204 ppm (parts per million) and the dissolved solids concentration ranged from 141 to 217 ppm. Most rural water supplies are from wells in the water table and shallow artesian aquifers. At present, only the City of Macclenny, the Northeast Florida State Hospital, government installations, and a few private homes obtain water from wells completed in the Floridan aquifer. Large additional quantities of ground water can be developed from the Floridan aquifer to supply forseeable future needs. 1

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2 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY INTRODUCTION A reconnaissance investigation of ground water in Baker County, Florida, was conducted as a part of a more comprehensive study of the ground-water resources in adjacent Duval and Nassau counties. Baker County, located in north Florida, is bounded on the east by Nassau and Duval counties; on the south by Clay, Bradford, and Union counties; on the west by Columbia County; and on the north by the State of Georgia, as shown in figure 1. It is approximately "L" shaped and has an area of about 585 square miles. a------=0 Wel i Waer table aor s uonWry EN _ -€_--t ortneio oirifel..* Wtll In th Floridon equlr ST U.S. Geo-gi -al Sur, for -e O 1Ill n Floridei oqufa MACCLENNY S _ S r-W TE LCCX ON I ST MARY SAKER CONTY ADFD CO I --.-_ .----......---~ ----" " " N IO N -,,' B ,F" C O .-1 Figure 1. Map of Baker County, Florida, showing the location of wells. PURPOSE AND SCOPE The purpose of this report is to locate and describe the aquifers as an aid to development of the ground-water resources in Baker County and in adjacent and near-by counties of northeast Florida and southeast Georgia. The investigation was made by the U. S. Geological Survey as part of the statewide cooperative program with the Division of Geology,

PAGE 9

REPORT OF INVESTIGATIONS NO. 52 3 Florida Board of Conservation, to evaluate the water resources of Florida. The report presents and summarizes all of the pertinent, available data on the ground-water resources of Baker County obtained from: 1. Collection of ground-water data by inventorying wells in the county and periodically measuring the water level in selected wells. 2. Collection of geologic information from drillers and in the files of the Division of Geology, Florida Board of Conservation. 3. Drilling of two deep test wells in areas where ground-water data and geologic information were not available. The investigation was made under the supervision of C. S. Conover, District Chief, Water Resources Division, U. S. Geological Survey. PREVIOUS INVESTIGATIONS No prior investigations have been made of the geology and groundwater resources of Baker County. However, a number of reports by the U. S. Geological Survey and the Division of Geology, Florida Board of Conservation have included general geologic and hydrologic information on the area. Reports by Applin and Applin (1944), Cooke (1945), Vernon (1951), and Puri (1957) include information on the geology of Baker County, and reports by Stringfield (1936, 1966) and Cooper, Kenner, and Brown (1953) include some information on the ground-water resources. The chemical character of water from a number of wells in Baker County is included in a report by Black and Brown (1951). A report by Pride (1958) describes the surface-water resources of Baker County. WELL-NUMBERING SYSTEM The well-numbering system used in this report is that of the Water Resources Division of the U. S. Geological Survey and is based on a one-second grid of parallels of latitude and meridians of longitude, in that order. The well number is a composite of two numbers separated by the letter N. The first part consists of six digits; the two digits of the degrees, the two digits of the minutes, and the two digits of the seconds of latitude. The N refers to "north" latitude. The second part consists of seven digits; the three digits of the degrees, the two digits of the minutes, and the two digits of the seconds of longitude. If more than one well lies within a one-second grid, the wells are numbered consecutively and this number is placed at the end of the well number following the decimal. Therefore, the well number defines the latitude and the longitude

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4 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY on the south and east sides of a one-second quadrangle in which the well is located. Figure 2 is a diagram illustrating the well-numbering system. For example, the designation 275134N0815220.1 indicates that this is the 87 8 85O 040 830 82° 810o 80 G E 0 R G I A. .--------r.*-i l ·-\ 275134NO a15220.1> i ., ' .-<----^i i " 92'0 Figure 2. Diagram illustrating the well-numbering system. first well inventoried in the one-second grid bounded bylatitude 27051'341" on the south and longitude 081052'20" on the east. TOPOGRAPHY AND DRAINAGE Baker County is in the Central Highlands topographic region (Cooke, 1945, p. 8), and the topography is flat to gently rolling with altitudes

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REPORT OF INVESTIGATIONS No. 52 5 between about 100 to 150 feet above msl (mean sea level). A high, sandy ridge termed the "Trail Ridge" extends north-south through eastern Baker County. A number of sand hills on this ridge have altitudes of more than 200 feet. Most of the surface drainage is by the St. Marys River and its tributaries. Small areas in western and southern Baker County are drained by Olustee Creek, a tributary of the Suwannee River. Streams are sluggish and poorly developed on the flat terrain and much of the area is marshland. The Okefenokee Swamp, which occupies a large area in southern Georgia, extends into northern Baker County. CLIMATE AND CULTURE The climate of Baker County is subtropical. The average annual temperature is about 690F, and the average annual rainfall is about 52 inches. Most of the rain occurs during the summer months. Rainfall of more than 10 inches per month during the summer and less than half an inch per month during the late fall is not uncommon. According to the 1960 U. S. Census, the population of Baker County was 7,400; and, in 1965, it was estimated to be about 8,000 by the Bureau of Economic and Business Research, University of Florida. About onethird of the population lives in the major towns of Macclenny and Glen St. Mary. The major industries are lumbering, wood pulp, and cattle ranching. Two large nurseries at Glen St. Mary, a number of small farms, and the Northeast Florida State Mental Hospital add to the economy of the county. GROUND-WATER RESOURCES Water supplies in Baker County are available from both surfaceand ground-water sources. However, surface-water sources are undependable because of droughts; and they generally are too far from the water users to be economically used. The surface-water resources of the county are discussed in a report by Pride (1958). Practically all water presently used in the county is ground water. This report discusses only the ground-water resources in the area. OCCURRENCE OF GROUND WATER Rain is the source of most ground water. Part of the rain is returned to the atmosphere by evapotranspiration, part drains overland into lakes and streams, and part seeps into the ground near the point where it falls, or also from lakes and streams. Only the water that reaches the

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6 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY zone of saturation-the zone saturated with water under hydrostatic pressure-becomes ground water. The occurrence of ground water is controlled primarily by the subsurface rocks. The chemical composition, physical characteristics, and structure of the geologic formations determine the quality of the ground water, the amount of water available, and the vertical and areal distribution of ground water. In order to obtain information on the subsurface rocks in Baker County, logs of wells and cuttings obtained from wells on file with the Division of Geology, Florida Board of Conservation were examined. Also, two test wells were drilled in areas where geologic or ground-water information was lacking. GEOLOGIC FRAMEWORK The geologic framework that controls the occurrence and distribution of ground water in Baker County is graphically portrayed by the logs of the two test wells, figures 3 and 4, the map of the top of the Crystal River Formation, figure 5, and the geologic sections, figures 6 and 7. Although the chemical composition and the physical properties of the geologic formations may vary slightly throughout the county, the type of rocks penetrated by the test wells are essentially typical of the subsurface rocks underlying the entire county. Both wells were drilled into the Lake City Limestone, which is the deepest formation generally penetrated by water wells in northeastern Florida and southeastern Georgia. EOCENE LIMESTONE FORMATIONS The oldest formation shown in figures 3-7 is the Lake City Limestone of middle Eocene age. It is predominantly a tan to dark brown, hard, massive, dolomitic limestone and medium soft, finely crystalline dolomite, both containing relatively thin beds of tan, soft, chalky to granular limestone. The Lake City Limestone is about 500 feet thick and its top ranges from about 450 feet below sea level in the southwestern part of the county to more than 650 feet below sea level in the eastern part. The Avon Park Limestone of late middle Eocene age unconformably overlies the Lake City Limestone and is similar in lithology. It is about 140 feet thick in southwestern Baker County and thins to less than 50 feet in the eastern part of the county. The top of the formation ranges from 300 feet below sea level in southwestern Baker County to more than 600 feet below sea level in the eastern part.

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REPORT OF INVESTIGATIONS NO. 52 7 AE FM. qSSTITY LITHXOGY SELF-POTENTIAL DRILLING TIE CALIPER LOG TEMPEMTURE " mfrIl inches F 0 50 100 150 200O 4 8 12 16 62 66 70 74 76 z 5O 40 z .;. , 00 200-0oo0 | I soo-,%"-----" ''''* --' ---,-----------.---r 6. 0 --O--0 ----,,,__2 0 EXPLANATION z l l ° 600Figure 3. Graphs of data collected during the construction of Sanderson test well, 301535N0821620.1 The Ocala Group1, Inglis, Williston, and Crystal River Formations of late Eocene age consist of a relatively homogeneous sequence of cream to light gray, medium soft, chalky to granular, marine limestone, containing thin beds of hard, massive, dolomitic limestone and dolomite. 1 The classification and nomenclature of the rock units conform to the usage of the Division of Geology, Florida Board of Conservation and, also, except for the Ocala Group and its subdivisions, with those of the U. S. Geological Survey, which regards the Ocala as two formatins, the Oala Limestone and the Iglis Limestone. the Ocala as two formations, the Ocala Limestone and the Inglis Limestone.

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& FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY PA %eSTMT. SWFPOTPMAL DILUM TI ME CALPER LOG TEMPCrUIE GAMMA o l 018-026 "0 8617351_7 0 --I::: s The Inglis and Williston Formations are generally more granuar in the Ocala Group ranges from about 220 to 310 feet in Baker County. The average thickness of the Crystal River Formation is about 150 feet and the average thickness of the Williston and Inglis Formations is about 50 feet each. M I

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REPORT OF INVESTIGATIONS NO. 52 9 -250 -30 EXPLANATION 'Z N well 0155 Is-----«<\ BAKER COUNTY ~ ~~" e l SNumber represents the olitude of F g r the top of the Crystol River SFormation in feet below meon -200 se level _50____ I Contour represents the .altitude. of to-326 Aa sthe ' top of the Crystal River S Formation. Doshted where -150 inferred. 'Contour intervaol 50 t feet. Datum is mean seo level \ LOR 12 A-A' -281 \Location .of geologic .sections I w sshown in figires 6 ond 7. S0 Ia 2 3 4 55miles --50 370 BAKER COUNTY -100 -150 -200 -250 -50 Figure 5. Map of Baker County showing altitude of the top of the Crystal River Formation. The altitude and configuration of the top of the Crystal River Formation are shown by contour lines in figure 5. The top of the Crystal River Formation ranges from about 50 feet below sea level in southwestern Baker County to about 350 feet below sea level in the eastern part. Structurally, the surface of the Crystal River Formation in Baker County is a monocline which strikes approximately north-northwest-south-southeast and dips east-northeastward about 20 feet per mile.

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SOUTH NORTH A A' 200 In SI I g1o00 PLEISTOCENE T~A 8____ I 10ooUPPER MIOCENE OR Pl 100 Z 100 -.I o S0 -SUWANNEE LIMESTONE 5 10a HAWTHORN FORMATION ScRS 0 -0oo 3000 -lo 300 00 -0400 500 00 7000 i. 2 3 4 ,5 5ile t o 25' -" -'00 Note: Location of section shown on fg. 5 tolol depth 700 700L 0 2 323,349' OOO Figure 6. Generalized south-north geologic section showing formations penetrated by wells,

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WEST EAST 4 o I PST 00 ^ B' -' y P D a ,._ SHAWTHORN FORMATION UPPER MIOENE SEE I 2T00 AWTHORN 2ORMA TION FORMATION CE 0 500 P LOON 0ENEDEPOT ~00 'U3 200 20* 4 00n . S300 00 ' Vertical scale greatly exoggerated t ol d , 0 00 0Note: Loc tion of lection shown on fig. S O 400-' ' , 1400 io, 600 Fj 400 INOLI82 AVOO Figure 7. Generalized west-east geologic section showing formations penetrated by wells.

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12 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY POST-EOCENE DEPOSITS In southwestern Baker County, the Crystal River Formation is overlain by the Suwannee Limestone of late Oligocene age. It consists of light gray to white, granular, limestone and yellowish brown, indurated, siltstone and sandstone cemented with calcium carbonate. As shown on the geologic cross sections in figure 5, the Suwannee Limestone is less than 30 feet thick in southwestern Baker County. It was not recognized in cuttings from either of the test wells in central Baker County or in cuttings from wells in the eastern part. The Suwannee Limestone either was not deposited in these areas or it was removed by erosion prior to the deposition of the Hawthorn Formation. Where the Suwannee Limestone is absent, the Crystal River Formation is overlain by the Hawthorn Formation of middle Miocene age. The Hawthorn Formation consists of gray to olive green, phosphatic, clayey sand and sandy clay; gray to green, phosphatic, calcareous clay, interbedded with lenses of medium to coarse, phosphatic sand; and phosphatic, sandy limestone, shell and dolomite. The dolomite beds generally occur near the base of the formation and are about 20 feet thick in both of the test wells. Examination of the cuttings from a number of wells in the county show the Hawthorn Formation is overlain by beds of green, calcareous, shelly clay; white, granular limestone; and fine to medium sand. These overlying deposits are similar to those in the Hawthorn Formation but they contain no phosphate and more shells. They can be correlated to the upper Miocene or Pliocene deposits in neighboring Nassau and Duval counties (Leve, 1966) on the basis of lithology and position in the subsurface. As shown on the geologic sections, figures 6 and 7, the combined thickness of the Hawthorn Formation and the upper Miocene or Pliocene deposits range from about 120 feet in western Baker County to about 400 feet in the eastern part. Deposits of Pleistocene and Recent age overlie the upper Miocene or Pliocene deposits and the Hawthorn Formation and blanket the surface of Baker County. Undifferentiated beds of fine to coarse sand and green to red, silty clay were deposited as marine terraces by fluctuations of the sea level during Pleistocene interglacial periods. Recent sediments are presently being deposited as alluvial sand and clay in the stream valleys and as peat and muck in the lakes, swamps, and other poorly drained areas in the county. The deposits of Pleistocene and Recent age are discontinuous and vary in texture and lithology within short distances both laterally and vertically. The combined thickness of these deposits ranges from about 30 feet in western Baker County to about 150 feet in the vicinity of Trail Ridge in the eastern part.

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REPORT OF INVESTIGATIONS No. 52 13 AQUIFERS Rocks that are sufficiently permeable to yield usable quantities of water to wells are called aquifers. The aquifers serve as conduits that distribute and store ground water. Where the aquifer is not overlain by an impermeable bed and the surface of the water is free to rise and fall, it is termed a water-table aquifer. Where the aquifer is overlain by an impermeable bed and the water in the aquifer is confined under pressure, it is termed an artesian aquifer. Both water-table and artesian aquifers occur in Baker County. WATER-TABLE AQUIFER The water-table aquifer occurs in upper Miocene or Pliocene deposits and Pleistocene and Recent deposits which together range in thickness from about 30 feet in western Baker County to more than 150 feet. Permeable sand and shell beds within about the uppermost 50 feet of these deposits comprise the aquifer; however, these permeable beds are discontinuous and wedge out laterally against less permeable silty clay beds. Generally, wells completed less than 30 feet deep, in the surficial sand beds, will tap part or all of the water-table aquifer. The water-table aquifer is recharged principally by local rainfall and from surface streams and marshes. Water discharges from the water-table aquifer by evapotranspiration, by seepage into streams, lakes, and swamps when their water surface is lower than the water level in the aquifer, by downward percolation into deeper aquifers, and by pumpage from a few wells. The water level in the water-table aquifer rises when the amount of recharge exceeds the rate of discharge and vice versa. Seasonal fluctuations of the watel level of 6 to 8 feet are not uncommon, and some wells completed in the upper part of the aquifer go dry when the water levels decline and have to be deepened. In addition, centrifugal pumps installed on some wells during periods of relatively high water levels fail when the water levels are relatively low and have to be replaced with deep-well pumps. Water from the water-table aquifer is relatively high in iron content which stains plumbing fixtures and imparts a bad taste to the water. The high iron content of the water combined with the seasonal declines of water levels make this aquifer the least desirable source of ground water in the county. However, a number of rural domestic, stock, and irrigation supplies are obtained from this aquifer because of the relatively inexpensive cost.

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14 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY SHALLOW ARTESIAN AQUIFERS The shallow artesian aquifers in Baker County consist of relatively thin, discontinuous lenses of sand, shell, and limestone within relatively impermeable beds of day and clayey sand in the Hawthorn Formation and in the upper Miocene or Pliocene deposits. The relatively impermeable beds restrict the vertical movement of water and confine the water under artesian pressure within the aquifers. Similar conditions exist at places within the Pleistocene and Recent deposits during certain times of the year when the aquifer is completely saturated. The occurrence of shallow artesian aquifers varies throughout Baker County and the exact depth and thickness of the aquifers at any location often cannot be predetermined. In test well 301535N0821620.1, near Sanderson (fig. 3), shallow artesian aquifers were located at depths of 70 to 90 feet below land surface near the base of the upper Miocene or Pliocene deposits and from 130 to 140 feet below land surface and from 160 to 180 feet below land surface in the Hawthorn Formation. In test well 302620N0821735.1, near Taylor (fig. 4), shallow artesian aquifers were located at depths from 200 to 220 feet below land surface, from 255 to 270 feet below land surface, and from 330 to 380 feet below land surface in the Hawthorn Formation. The artesian pressure in shallow artesian aquifers differs depending on the areal location within the county and the depth of each aquifer. Table 1 shows the water level measured at different depths in test wells 301535N0821620.1 and 302620N0821735.1. The water levels in each of the shallow artesian aquifers are lower than the water level in the water-table aquifer and higher than the water level in the Floridan aquifer. The shallow artesian aquifers are recharged locally by downward seepage of water from the water-table aquifer. Wells completed in the shallow artesian aquifers generally yield more water with a lower iron content than wells completed in the water-table aquifer. Small-diameter wells throughout Baker County produce water from these aquifers for domestic, stock, and irrigation supplies. FLORIDAN AQUIFER The Floridan aquifer is the principal source of water supplies in northeastern Florida and southeastern Georgia; and, although it is presently tapped by only a few wells in Baker County, it is the greatest potential source of water supplies in the area. Development of water supplies from the aquifer in one part of the area could eventually affect hydrologic conditions over the entire area. Therefore, knowledge of the

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Table 1. WATER LEVELS MEASURED AT DIFFERENT DEPTHS IN TEST WELLS 301535N0821620.1, NEAR SANDERSON, AND 302620N0821735.1, NEAR TAYLOR Well 301535N0821620.1 Well 302620N0821735.1 Depth, feet below land surface Depth, feet below land surface Casing Hole Casing Hole qasing Hole Water Aquifer Level Level 20 20 10-12 Water table 46 50 17 Water table 0-40 0-55 83 83 14.5 Sec. artesian 185 208 21 Sec. artesian 70-90 200-220 165 174 20.9 Sec. artesian 230 245 18.8 Sec. artesian 160-180 255-270 282 335 99 334 370 57.8 Sec. artesian P 330-380 cn 282 425 100.7 Floridan 416 450 60 315-825 282 810 100.5 416 472 62.1 Floridan 416 905 60.9 409-905 .........-

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16 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY characteristics of the Floridan aquifer in Baker County would aid future development of the aquifer in adjacent areas. OCCURRENCE AND PHYSICAL CHARACTERISTICS The Floridan aquifer in Baker County consists primarily of permeable limestone and dolomite beds of Eocene age. Locally, however, the Suwannee Limestone of late Oligocene age and limestone beds in the Hawthorn Formation of middle Miocene age form part of the aquifer. The aquifer underlies all of the county; and, as shown in figure 5, the top of the aquifer ranges from less than 50 feet below sea level in the western part to more than 350 feet in the eastern part. The exact thickness of the aquifer is not known; however, it is more than 1,600 feet thick in southwestern Baker County and about 1,900 feet thick in the northeastern part. Most water wells penetrate less than 1,000 feet of the aquifer. The permeable limestone and dolomite formations contain dense zones, occurring primarily in the Avon Park and Lake City Limestones, that are relatively impermeable and restrict the vertical movement of water within the aquifer. Possibly some of these zones are extensive laterally and may separate water-producing zones within the aquifer such as occur in adjacent Duval and Nassau counties (Leve, 1964). ARTESIAN PRESSURE Water in the Floridan aquifer is confined under pressure by poorly permeable sandy clays in the overlying Hawthorn Formation and in the upper Miocene or Pliocene deposits. In north-central Florida, the aquifer is recharged primarily in areas where the confining beds are thin, absent, or where they are breached by streams and sinkholes and water moves downward into the aquifer. Water is discharged from the Floridan aquifer, by upward seepage, and through wells. Artesian pressure in the Floridan aquifer continuously fluctuates, and most significant changes are those caused by recharge and discharge. When the rate of recharge exceeds the rate of discharge over a significant period of time, artesian pressures increase and vice versa. Artesian pressure can be expressed as the altitude above a fixed datum to which water will rise in a tightly cased well. Figure 8 shows the relation between artesian pressure in well 302620N0821735.1 and rainfall at Glen St. Mary and Lake City for the period from December 1963 through February 1964. As shown, an increase in rainfall from 2.8 inches in December to 9.2 inches in January resulted in about a 3-foot rise in artesian pressure. The artesian pressure increased only 1 foot during February because of a decrease in the amount of rainfall during the monthL

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REPORT OF INVESTIGATIONS No. 52 17 d n59 o 5 10 15 20 25 5 10 15 20 25 55 5 20 25 I 58 --------0----------20-25---5-------2025____5____ _5 \ 25 gu Taylor test well, 302620N0821735.1 b n.__ u T S 5 10 15 20 25 I 5 10 15 20 25 -5 -0 1520 25 Gen SMO La Ct Glen St. Mary ai Lak e City Total =2.8" Tolal· 9.2" Total : 8" -rDECEMBEaR 1963 JANUARY 1964 FEBRUARY 964 Figure 8. Graphs showing the relation between artesian pressure in Taylor test well, 302620N0821735.1, and rainfall at Glen St. Mary and Lake City. The piezometric surface is an imaginary surface to which water from an aquifer will rise in tightly cased wells that penetrate the aquifer. The piezometric surface is shown by contour lines that connect points of equal altitude. Generally, water enters the aquifer in those areas where piezometric surface is high and moves downgradient in a direction approximately perpendicular to the contour lines. The velocity of the ground-water movement depends on the permeability of the aquifer and the hydraulic gradient. Piezometric maps can also be used to determine the rate of ground-water flow if the permeability and thickness of the aquifer are known. Figure 9 shows the piezometric surface of the Floridan aquifer in Baker County and adjacent areas in March 1964. The piezometric high as shown is the northern extension of a high that centers in Alachua, Clay, and Putnam counties. The configuration of the piezometric surface in figure 9 indicates that water enters the Floridan aquifer south of Baker County and possibly within southern Baker County and moves radially away.

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G I oA 0 0\ FERNANDINA BEACH 7 ---. NASSAU EXPLANATION S046.58 'd Well Number represent altitude of S/ 8,7 the plesometric )., s~8 osurface, feet above 58.7 mean sea level. S 5Contour line represents JACKSONVILLE the plesomefrle JACKSONVILLE surface, feet above BAKER .'DU L mean sea level. S ,ol? DUVAL I 64,4 O MACCLENNY COLUMBIA (5 p 60.7 C~; J ./ BRADF6RD ,c ST. OHNS \ JOHNS LAKE CIY TAE " SRINGS Figure 9. Generalized map of the piezometric surface of the Floridan aquifer in northeast Florida, showing greater detail of the piezometric surface in Baker County, March 1964. metric surface in Baker County, March 1964,

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REPORT OF INVESTIGATIONS NO. 52 19 Much of the ground water that moves eastward in the Floridan aquifer from the piezometric high is discharged in areas in Duval and Nassau counties where large quantities of water are used by industries and cities. QUALITY OF WATER Rainfall entering the ground is only slightly mineralized. As the water moves through the ground, it dissolves some of the minerals that compose the rocks. Therefore, the chemical quality of ground water is primarily a result of the dissolution of minerals in the rocks through which it moves. Table 2 lists analyses of water from selected wells in Baker County. Water in the water-table and shallow artesian aquifers is generally softer and less mineralized than water in the Floridan aquifer but has a higher iron content. As shown on table 2, water from well 301220N0822630.1, which taps the water-table or a shallow artesian aquifer, contains only 27 ppm dissolved solids. This mineral content is considerably lower than in water from the Floridan aquifer; however, the water contains 1.8 ppm of iron (over 0.3 ppm of iron is considered excessive). Water in the Floridan aquifer is of similar chemical quality throughout Baker County. As shown in table 2, the dissolved solid content ranges from 141 to 217 ppm; and the carbonate hardness ranges from 121 to 204 ppm. Analyses of water samples collected several years apart indicate a slight, but probably insignificant, increase in the content of water in the aquifer has occurred in recent years. The temperature of water at different depths in the Floridan aquifer was determined in test wells at Sanderson and Taylor. As shown by graphs in figures 3 and 4, the temperature of the water increased from 66,° at the top of the aquifer to 69"F at the bottom of the well or an increase of about 23°oF in about 400 feet in the well at Sanderson, and it increased from 70°F at the top of the aquifer to 730F at the bottom of the well or an increase of about 3°F in 500 feet in the well at Taylor. This represents an increase of about 1°F for every 160 feet penetration in the Floridan aquifer. A slight but pronounced temperature anomaly was recorded at 500 feet below land surface in the well at Taylor which may indicate the presence of a highly mineralized zone. Water from the Floridan aquifer in Baker County, except for being relatively hard, is of good quality and may be used for domestic, agricultural, and most industrial purposes. Records of selected wells in Baker, Duval, and Union counties are presented in table 3.

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Table 2. ANALYSES OF WATER FROM WELLS IN BAKER COUNTY. (Chemical constituents are expressed in parts per million) Aquifer: F, Floridan; SA, secondary artesian; WT, water table. Remarks: Analysts: (1) Fla. Board Health; (2) Univ. of Fla,; (3) Black Lab-Gainesville. Hardneu as CaCO3 number 301415 N0820805.1 6-11 59 650 -F 0.27 32 14 20 0.3 0 156 38 16 0.85 190 140 12 7.7 5 62-63 650 -F 0.0 32 17 --0 156 >10 17 0.75 192 140 12 7.8 5 1i 301410N0820800.2 6-11-59 610 440 F 0.04 33 13 22.6 1.0 0 156 36 IS 0.75 163 138 10 7.8 S 1 301700N0820710.1 1-31-63 700 460 F 0.2 36 17 --0 148 >10 25 0.50 217 160 38 7.6 5 1 301657N0820735.2 6?-42 595 449 F 0.10 29 12 ---142 8.3 5.5 -141 121 -7.4 107-50 595 449 F -36 13 --166 30 16 -204 146 -7.75 4-16-59 595 449 F 0.06 40 23 ---151 65 14 0.45 202 196 72 7.7 5 26-63 595 449 F 0.03 37 16 ---156 10 15 .50 202 160 32 7.6 5 301655N082755.1 9?-42 455 330 F 0.03 27 10 ---143 6.7 7 -145 108 -7.25 9-15-49 455 330 F 0.05 26 14 ---146 >10 10 0.50 200 122 -7.8 10-30-50 455 330 F -31 11 ---159 15 12 -172 126 -7.78 4-10-59 455 330 F 0.50 34 12 --0 146 17 15 0.35 188 138 18 7.5 5 1 301240N0822320.1 27-41 260 187 F& 0.7 42 21 ---243 0 8.7 -233 204 12 7.7 -( SA 301220N0822630.1 2-18-41 52 50 WT 1.8 2 2 ---15 0 8 -27 22 -6.2 3 (1) ___SA

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Table 3. RECORDS OF WELLS IN BAKER, DUVAL AND UNION COUNTIES. WELL NUMBERS: See Figure 2 for explanation of well-numbering AQUIFERS: IF, Floridan; 2H, Hawthorne-clayey sand and gravel; IM, system. Miocene-limestone; IN, Nonartesian sand aquifer. OWNERSHIP: C, county; F, Federal government; M, city; N, company or ALTITUDE OF LAND SURFACE: To the nearest foot above mean sea corporation; S, State agency. level. DEPTH OF WELL: To nearest foot. WATER LEVEL: To the nearest foot. Date of measurement includes WELL FINISH: X, open hole in aquifer, cased to aquifer; Z, gravel pack. month and year. METHOD DRILLED; C, cable-tool; H, hydraulic rotary; , jetted. CHEMICAL ANALYSES AVAILABLE: C, complete; P, partial. TYPE PUMP: J,jet;N, none;T, turbine. RANGE OF CHEMICAL CONSTITUENTS: Iron: 0, 0.00-0.05; 1, USE OF WATER: H, domestic; I, irrigation; P. municipal or public 0.06-0,1; 2, 0.11-0.30; 5, 1.1-3.0. Sulfate: 0, 0-10; 2, 26-50; 3, supply; U, unused. 51-100. Chloride: 0, 0-10, 1, 11-25; Hardness: 2, 21-50;4, 101-150; 5, 151-200. Casing AltiWater level Spe tude Yield Period Chemcarfl Tem. Well OwnerYear Depth Well MethType Use Aqulland Above (galDrawof ical Iron .SulChloHardcon. pernumber ship coof Depth Diafinod of of fers surface or beDate Ions down disanal(Fe) fate ride ness ducapiewell (feet) meter Ish drillpump water above low(-) of per (feet) charge yses ppm (0S4) (CI) tance ture ted (feet) (ined mean land measmin(hours) availppm ppm (micro(OF) ches) sea surface uroute) able mhos at level (feet) ment 25OC) BAKER COUNTY 302620N0821735.1 F 1963 905 417 6 X C N U IF 116 61 10-63 301535N0821620.1 F 1963 825 282 6 X C N U IF 158 98 8.63 301106No822723.1 F 1957 21 18 6 Z I N U IN 155 1 5-58 301423N0822611.1 F 168 3 N U IF 160 100 6-57 301655N0820755.1 M 1945 595 459 6 X T U IF 130 55 S-45 200 302615N0821435.1 C 1956 198 102 2 X N U 2H 18 12-60 3009SON0822725.1 N 1950 3043 16 H N U 145 301250N0822220.1 S 1957 355 243 8 X I IF 164 110 5-S7 301240N0822320.1 F 1939 260 188 6 X H IF 170 301210N0822630.1 F 1932 52 50 2 X J H IM 165 18 6-64 P 5 0 0 2 301415N0820805.1 S 650 440 8 X H T P IF 137 72 1-60 C 0 0 1 4 74 301410N0820800.2 S 1958 610 440 12 X H T P IF 1200 48 C 0 2 1 4 75 301657N0820735.2 M 1945 595 449 10 X H T P IF 127 55 5.45 200 C 1 3 1 5 76 302920N0821240.1 N 1947 3349 1051 13 X H N U 124 301700N0820710.1 M 1960 704 460 10 X T P IF 130 900 C 2 0 1 5 72 DUVAL COUNTY 301339N0815312.1 F 1941 980 431 10 X T I P I 79 16 3-41 UNION COUNTY 300741N0822258.1 F 11958 724 694 8 X I N IU IF 153 90 11.8 630J I I I 1 73 ----LL-_ __1-L-----L J ---------J-LJ ---L-

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2 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY GROUND-WATER USE IN BAKER COUNTY Because the water-table and shallow artesian aquifers occur at relatively shallow depths throughout Baker County, water supplies from these aquifers can be developed economically. Most rural farm homes have wells, generally two inches in diameter, developed in these aquifers which furnish the small to moderate amounts of water needed for domestic and stock use. Large supplies of ground water for municipal, industrial, or irrigation use in Baker County can be obtained from the Floridan aquifer. In 1966, only a few wells were drilled into the Floridan aquifer because of the lack of need of large quantities of water required by industries. Only one municipal supply existed and obtained its water from the Floridan aquifer. The following are large users of water from the Floridan aquifer: City of Macclenny-Water is obtained from two wells that are 10 inches in diameter and 595 and 700 feet deep with an emergency standby well 455 feet deep. The water is pumped from the wells to a treatment plant with a rated capacity of about 1 mgd. Municipal water use has increased from about 130,000 gpd in 1950 to about 250,000 gpd in 1963. Northeast Florida State Hospital-This hospital, about three miles south of Macclenny, is supplied with water from the Floridan aquifer by two wells that are 8 inches in diameter and 610 and 650 feet deep respectively. The water is pumped to a treatment plant and then to the hospital and to a number of homes of personnel connected with the hospital in the area. Water use increased from about 90,000 gpd in 1959 to about 195,000 gpd in 1963. Other-Wells in the Floridan aquifer owned by the Florida State Forestry Service, Florida Board of Parks and Historic Monuments, and the U.S. Department of Agriculture, all located in the vicinity of Olustee, supply water for domestic, public, and agricultural uses. SUM1MARY Ground water from porous limestone, sand, and shell aquifers is the principal source of water supplies in Baker County. The formations penetrated by water wells range in age from Lake City Limestone of middle Miocene age to Recent sands and clays. Ground water in Baker County occurs in three aquifers: (1) the water-table aquifer, (2) shallow artesian aquifer, and (3) the Floridan aquifer. The water-table aquifer consists of surficial sand beds within the upper Miocene or Pliocene and Pleistocene and Recent deposits. This

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REPORT OF INVESTIGATIONS No. 52 23 aquifer ranges from about 10 to 50 feet in thickness and is recharged by local rainfall. The shallow artesian aquifers occur in discontinuous sand, shell, and limestone beds within the Hawthorn Formation and the upper Miocene or Pliocene deposits. The thickness and depth of these aquifers varies throughout the county but generally range from 10 to 50 feet in thickness and from 70 to 380 feet below land surface. The shallow artesian aquifers are recharged locally by downward percolation from the water table or from shallower secondary artesian aquifers. The Floridan aquifer which occurs in the limestones of Eocene age, in the Suwannee Limestone, and limestone beds in the Hawthorn Formation is the greatest potential source of ground water in Baker County. The top of the Floridan aquifer in Baker County ranges from less than 50 to more than 350 feet below sea level. The aquifer is about 750 to 1,000 feet thick. Relatively impermeable layers within the Lake City and Avon Park Limestones may separate the lower part of the aquifer into thin, water-bearing zones. Piezometric maps show that the water in the Floridan aquifer moves radially away from Baker County toward areas of discharge. In eastern Baker and Bradford counties and western Nassau, Duval, and Clay counties, much of the water moves toward discharge areas in Duval and Nassau counties. Water from the water-table and shallow artesian aquifers is less mineralized and softer than water from the Floridan aquifer. However, the iron content of water from the water-table and shallow artesian aquifers is generally higher than water from the Floridan aquifer. Although the water from the Floridan aquifer is more mineralized, the chemical quality is adequate for domestic, stock, agricultural, and most industrial purposes. Analyses of water from the Floridan aquifer show there has been a slight increase in the mineral content in recent years. Most domestic and farm water supplies in Baker County are obtained from the water-table and shallow artesian aquifers. The larger water users in the county obtain water from the Floridan aquifer. At present there is relatively little development of the ground-water supplies in Baker County. Future industrial development and population growth in the county will require a much greater development of the ground-water resources, particularly from the Floridan aquifer. This aquifer is capable of supplying sufficient quantities of good quality water provided the development of the aquifer is based on a sound water management policy. Because the Floridan aquifer extends throughout all of northeast Florida and southeast Georgia, the development of this aquifer in adjacent areas will affect and be affected to some extent by development in Baker County.

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24 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY REFERENCES Applin, E. R. (see Applin, P. L.) Applin. P. L. 1944 (and Applin, E. R.) Regional subsurface stratigraphy and structure of Florida and southern Georgia: Am. Assoc. Petroleum Geologists Bull, v. 28, no. 12, p. 1673-1753. Black, A. P. 1951 (and Brown, Eugene) Chemical character of Florida's waters1951: Florida State Board of Conserv., Div. Water Survey and Research, Paper 6. Brown, Eugene (see Black, A. P., and Cooper, H. H., Jr.) Cooke, C. W. 1945 Geology of Florida: Florida Geol. Survey Bull. 29. Cooper, H. H., Jr. 1953 (and Kenner, W. E., and Brown, Eugene) Ground water in central and northern Florida: Florida Geol. Survey Rept. Inv. 10. Results of transmissibility tests in Duval and Nassau Counties: U.S. Geol. Survey open-file release, Tallahassee, Florida. Kenner, W. E. (see Cooper, H. H., Jr.) Leve, G. W. 1966 Ground water in Duval and Nassau Counties, Florida: Florida Geol. Survey Rept. Inv. 43. Pride, R WV. 1958 Interim report on surface-water resources of Baker County, Florida: Florida Geol. Survey Inf. Circ. 20. Puri, H S. 1953 Zonation of the Ocala Group in peninsular Florida (abs.): Jour. Sed. Petrology, v. 23. 1957 Stratigraphy and zonation of the Ocala Group: Florida Geol. Survey Bull. 38. Stringfield, V. T. 1936 Artesian water in the Florida peninsula: U.S. Geol. Survey WaterSupply Paper 773-C. 1966 Artesian water in tertiary limestone in the southeastern states: Geol. Survey Prof. Paper 517. Vernon, R. O. 1951 Geology of Citrus and Levy Counties, Florida: Florida Geol. Survey Bull. 33.


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