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Hydrologic effects of area B flood control plan on urbanization of Dade County, Florida ( FGS: Report of investigations 47 )

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Title:
Hydrologic effects of area B flood control plan on urbanization of Dade County, Florida ( FGS: Report of investigations 47 )
Series Title:
( FGS: Report of investigations 47 )
Creator:
Kohout, Francis Anthony, 1924-
Hartwell, J. H. ( joint author )
Geological Survey (U.S.)
Central and Southern Florida Flood Control District (Fla.)
Place of Publication:
<Tallahassee>
Publisher:
State Board of Conservation, Division of Geology
Publication Date:
Language:
English
Physical Description:
vii, 61 p. : illus., maps. ; 23 cm.

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Hydrology -- Florida -- Miami-Dade County ( lcsh )
Flood control -- Florida -- Miami-Dade County ( lcsh )
City of Miami ( local )
Miami River ( local )
Biscayne Bay ( local )
Lake Okeechobee ( local )
City of Hollywood ( local )
City of Jacksonville ( local )
Canals ( jstor )
Pumps ( jstor )
Rain ( jstor )
Dams ( jstor )
Levees ( jstor )
Genre:
bibliography ( marcgt )
non-fiction ( marcgt )

Notes

Bibliography:
Bibliography: p. 60-61.
General Note:
"Prepared by U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with Central and Southern Florida Flood Control District, and Division of Geology."
Funding:
Digitized as a collaborative project with the Florida Geological Survey, Florida Department of Environmental Protection.
Statement of Responsibility:
by F. A. Kohout and J. H. Hartwell.

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Holding Location:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
The author dedicated the work to the public domain by waiving all of his or her rights to the work worldwide under copyright law and all related or neighboring legal rights he or she had in the work, to the extent allowable by law.
Resource Identifier:
020215945 ( aleph )
00070881 ( oclc )
AES0065 ( notis )
71631111 //r85 ( lccn )

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Full Text
STATE OF FLORIDA
STATE BOARD OF CONSERVATION
DIVISION OF GEOLOGY
FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY
Robert O. Vernon, Director
REPORT OF INVESTIGATIONS NO. 47
HYDROLOGIC EFFECTS OF AREA B FLOOD CONTROL PLAN ON URBANIZATION OF
DADE COUNTY, FLORIDA
By
F. A. Kohout and J. H. Hartwell
U. S. Geological Survey
Prepared by the
UNITED STATES GEOLOGICAL SURVEY
in cooperation with the
CENTRAL AND SOUTHERN FLORIDA FLOOD CONTROL DISTRICT and the
DIVISION OF GEOLOGY
1967




FLORIDA STATE BOARD
OF
-CONSERVATION
CLAUDE R. KIRK, JR.
Governor
TOM ADAMS EARL FAIRCLOTH
Secretary of State Attorney General
BROWARD WILLIAMS FRED O. DICKINSON, JR.
Treasurer Comptroller
FLOYD T. CHRISTIAN DOYLE CONNER
Superintendent of Public Instruction Commissioner of Agriculture
W. RANDOLPH HODGES Director
ii




LETTER OF TRANSMITTAL
TJXrida" geolofi cat Su rvc,
Tallahassee
May 24, 1967
Honorable Claude R. Kirk, Jr., Chairmnan State Board of Conservation
Tallahassee, Florida
Dear Governor Kirk:
The Division of Geology, of the State Board of Conservation, is publishing as Report of Investigations No. 47, a report prepared by F. A. Kohout and J. H. Hartwell entitled "Hydrologic Effects of Area B Flood Control Plan on Urbanization of Dade County, Florida."
The rapidly expanding megalopolis of South Florida requires that detailed knowledge be developed on the geology and hydrology of this area. This knowledge must be directed particularly to the extent and depth of flooding following unusual rainfall, and must recognize the economics of the cost of developing additional properties for real estate developments that cover surface zoning for human utilization. This report seeks to provide these answers and when the metropolitan areas along the Coast must be expanded to the west, all the way to the fence formned by the conservation levees, engineering and planning personnel will have available the required design data.
Respectfully yours,
Robert O. Vernon
Director and State Geologist
iii




Completed manuscript received
May 24, 1967
Printed for the Florida Geological Survey By The St. Petersburg Printing Co., Inc.
St. Petersburg, Florida
1967
iv




CONTENTS
Abstract .......................................................................................................... ....................... 1
Introduction ................................................................................................ ........................ 2
General hydrologic situation and overall flood-control plan ........................................ 4
Area B plan ....................................................................................... 6
Details of the Area B plan ............................................................................................. 9
Rainfall intensity related to flooding .................................................................................. 11
Quantitative estimates of previous investigations ......................................................... 15
Acknowledgments .................................................................................................................. 16
Future water needs and availability ............................................. .. 16
Geologic and hydrologic environment ................................................................................... 20
Present and future land-surface altitude .......................... ....................................... 22
Transmissibility of the aquifer .................................................. 25
Effect of flood-control project on ground-water level .................................................. 25
Ground-water fluctuations .............................................................................................. 25
Comparison of high-water periods ............................................................................. 27
Comparison of low-water periods ............................................................................... 27
Canal discharges .................................................................................................................... 32
Stages and discharges in the Miami Canal ................................................................ 32
Contributions to flow in the Miami River from
Conservation Area 3B, Area B, and AreaA ........................................................ 37
Total surface-water outflow from Area A .................................................................. 39
Evaluation of the Area B flood control plan ............................. ......................................... 42
W ater-level maps .................................................................................................................... 43
Analog study ............................................................................................................................ 46
Boundary conditions ........................................................................................................ 47
Results of the analog study .................................................................................................. 50
Borrow canals without isolating control dams ............................................................ 50
Borrow canals with isolating control dams ................................................................ 52
Comparison of the analog models ................................................................................ 55
Summary .....................................................................................................: .................................. 56
References ..................................................................................................................................... 60
V




ILLUSTRATIONS
Figure Page
1 Physiographic provinces in Southern Florida ........................................................... 3
2 Canal and levee system of the Central and Southern Florida Flood
Control Project in Southeastern Florida .................................................................. 5
3 Intake of pumping station S-7 which has a capacity of 2,490 cubic feet
per second under design conditions ........................................................................... 7
41 One of the 131%-inch impellers at pump station S-7 .............................................. 7
5 Major features of existing and proposed canal and levee system in
the M iam i area ............................................................................................................. 8
6 Accumulation of rainfall in 1947, 1959, and 1960 ................................................... 12
7 Rainfall for September 1960 following the passage of Hurricane Donna
and tropical storm Florence in the Miami area ....................................................... 13
8 Estimated water use between the years 1930 and 1995 for Dade County
and the Florida K eys ................................................................................................... 17
9 Primary and secondary canal system in 1964 and locations of recording
observation wells related to the investigation, in the Miami area ....................... 21
10 Generalized altitude of land surface in Area B ................................................... .. 22
11 Altitude of bed rock in AreaB ................................................................................. 23
12 Assumed altitude of compacted land surface in Area B after 100 percent loss of black-muck soils above +3 feet mnsl and 50 percent
compaction of muck soils below +3 feet msl ........................................................ 24
13 Monthly trend of water-level fluctuations in selected wells related
to rainfall, 1940-63 ........................................................................................................ 26
14 High-stage water levels in the Miami area October 11-12, 1947. Canal
C-100 did not exist and C-1 was not improved in 1947 ............................................ 28
15 Highest water-table altitude in the Miami area in September 1960
after passage of Hurricane Donna and tropical storm Florence. Canal
C.100 did not exist and C-1 was not improved in 1960 ............................................ 29
16 Record low stage of water table prior to installation of control dams
in the Miami area, May and June 1945. Canal C-100 did not exist
and C-1 was not im proved in 1945 .............................................................................. 30
17 Low stage of the water table in the Miami area in May 1962 and
extent of salt-water encroachment .............................................................................. 31
18 Monthly mean discharge in the Miami Canal at Hialeah (Sta. H)
and N.W. 36th Street (Sta. I) 1940-1963 .................................................................. 33
19 Locations of gaging stations and drainage areas of major canals in
the M iam i area ................................................................................................................ 35
20 Daily stage and discharge in Miami Canal, 1961-63 ................................................ 36
21 Discharge contributions to the Miami River at Brickell Avenue front
Conservation Area 3B, Area B, and Area A ............................................................ 38
22 Monthly runoff for the six canals draining Areas A and B ................................ 41
23 Water levels in feet above (+) or below (-) existing land surface
during September 1960, subsequent to passage of Hurricane Donna
and tropical storm Florence ...............--........................................................................... 44
vi




ILLUSTRATIONS-Continued
24 Water levels of September 1960 in feet above (+) or below (-)
assumed compacted land surface ................................................................................. 45
25 Electric analog model of Area B with no dams in the borrow canals
for L-30, L.31, and L-33 ............................................................................................... 48
26 Theoretical relations, from Manning's formula, between hydraulic
gradient, discharge, and depth for a canal 125 feet wide of rectangular
and trapezoidal cross section ....................................................................... ................. 50
27 Electric analog model of Area B with control dams that isolate the borrow canals for L.30, L.31, and L-33 from the intake side of the pumps ........ 54
TABLES
able Page 1 Proposed discharge capacity of Area B pump stations ........................................... 10
2 Landfill requirements and elevations FHA requirements .................................... 11
3 Time-regressive rainfall comparison for hurricane years 1947 and 1960 .......... 14
4 Comparison of annual-mean discharges in the Miami Canal at N.W.
36th Street with the 24-year median, 1940-63 ....................... ......................... 34
5 Key to letter designations in Figure 19 for recording stage and discharge gaging stations in canals in the Miami area .................. ....................... 37
6 Underseepage for the boundary condition of no control dams in the levee borrow canals ............................................................................... ......... ...... .. 53
vii




HYDROLOGIC EFFECTS OF AREA B FLOOD
CONTROL PLAN ON URBANIZATION OF
DADE COUNTY, FLORIDA
By
F. A. Kohout and J. H. Hartwell
ABSTRACT
Swampy low land (Area B) that fringes the Everglades west of Metropolitan Miami, Florida (Area A) probably will be urbanized in the future. Area B will be protected from flooding by huge pumps that will pump water westward from Area B over a levee system into Conservation Area 3B. The total capacity of the pumps will be about 13,400 cubic feet per second which is sufficient to lower water levels 2 inches per day in the 203 square miles of Area B. As this capacity is about equal to the highest gravity-flow discharge to the ocean through existing canals of the Miami area, a great potential will exist, not only for control of floods, but also for beneficial control and management of a major segment of the water resources in southeastern Florida.
An evaluation of flow in the Miami River during a low-water period indicates that Conservation Area 3B contributes 33 percent of the total discharge, Area B 26 percent, and Area A 41 percent. After nimplementation of the Area B plan, contributions from Area A will continue to flow seaward, whereas contributions from Area B and Conservation Area 3B, which now unavoidably are wasted to the ocean in a high-water period will be pumped westward into storage in the conservation area.
A steady-state electric-analog study was made for the 1961 Area B plan. MapgsfdLh results showed that the water-level pattern would be radically changed if water-control dams were installed to isolate the levee borrow canal from the intakes o te pump stations. 1 out the con-o- .. dams, the lowest steady-state water levels would occur at the western side of Area B and underseepage from Conservation Area 3B would be maximum. However, if dams were installed, the highest water levels would occur at the western side of Area B and underseepage would be minimized. Partial openings of the control dams probably would produce advantageous compromise solutions between the two-modeled extremes.
Estimates of population growth indicate that water use in the Miami area may amount to 1.4 billion gallons per day in 1995. This water use is equivalent to 2,170 efs (cubic feet per second), almost twice the yearly mean discharge of 1,280 cfs that flowed into the ocean from six major Miami area canals during the dry period June 1962 to May 1963. A rate
1




2 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY
of 1.4 bgd for a year's time is equivalent to the total surface runoff (about 10.5 inches of water) from an area extending 28 miles westward from the coast and 100 miles southward from Lake Okeechobee into Everglades National Park. As other coastal cities and Everglades National Park will require a share of water from this same area, improved watermanagement techniques are needed to insure a continuing supply of fresh water for southeastern Florida. In consideration of continually growing water needs, the Area B plan should be conceived as a water conservation as well as a flood control plan.
INTRODUCTION
In the near future, Miami and its surunding communities are expected to grow ar beyond their present limits. U o the present time Miami's development has been restricted largely to a broad ridge of iigh and called the Atlantic Coastl.idge, figure 1, because of the relahtive afety of this high land from flooding. Standing only 8 to 15 feet above mean sea level, the ridge is high only by Florida standards. Neverth'less, it has been of paramount importance to development of communities along the eastern coast of Florida, and were it not for the presence of the ridge, Miami probably would not be what it is today. In contrast, the area inland from the ridge has not been developed simply because it is low and subiect to perennial flooding. At this time, however, the coastal ridge is largely developed and much of the future expansion of the urban areas will have to be in the lowlands west of the ridge.
The-protection from flooding in these lowlands is a difficult problem, but agencies and land developers are making studies and devising plans
ermit urb za wlands. The possible influence of these
_ns on the Fth,,e water r0so o thew Mia ra is the subject of this report.
The basic problem is how to make this lowland area safe from floodsor ate t as safe as possible with techniques, construction methods, and concsof hydrology now available to the planners. The technical hydrologic problem is whether the proposed plans will accomplish tlieir hydrologic aims to the satisfaction of all agencies involved and the citizens
-whaAwil inarMany agencies and their offices are involved. These include: Officials of the City of Miami and Dade County, who have the civil responsibility for the protection of residents living within their boundaries; the U.S. Corps of Engineers, which is concerned with the planning and construction of protective facilities; the Central and Southern Florida Flood




REPORT OF INVESTIGATIONS No. 47 3
LAKE .
OKEECHOBEE
4MIAM
A.. BISCAYNE BAY
o- '7
FLORI
-~ 0
o o 2o 3o p 0
MILES '
Figure 1. Physiographic provinces in southern Florida.
Control District (C&SFFCD), which has the responsibility for operating the facilities built by the Corps of Engineers; and the Federal Housing Authority which has the authority to underwrite much of the money that will be used to build private dwellings in the lowland area. Because of the concern of the Federal Housing Authority the basic question should




4 FLOIRIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY
perhaps be restated-will the present plans make the lowland area sufficiently safe from flooding to be a good financial risk for banks and other lending institutions and for the Federal Housing Authority to guarantee the housing loans? In other words, will water-control facilities constructed on the basis of the present plan give sufficient assurance of protection from flood waters so that residents may get long range credit at reasonable cost on their investments in the lowland area?
The Corps of Engineers and the Central and Southern Florida Flood Control District have devised a plan known as the Area B Flood Control Plan to make the lowland area suitable for housing development. The plan calls for an integrated system of land fills, drainage canals, and large capacity pumps to control the flood hazard. It also would be part of the overall flood-control plan for southeastern Florida. Before describing the Area B plan further a brief review of the overall hydrologic situation in southern Florida and the overall flood-control plan seems to he pertinent.
GENERAL HYDROLOGIC SITUATION AND OVERALL FLOOD-CONTROL PLAN
The outstanding features of southern Florida which bear on the flood hazard are moderately high precipitation, ow land-surface altitude aird relief, highly permeable soils and rocks, a h resence of the sea.
result mainly from short periods of heavy rainfall inrainyears, but the floods o not necessarily coincide with years of reatest annual rainfall. Factors that lead up to flood conditions include onvy hiup fraiiall over several months durin ch the drainage system has
sufficient ti rmalize ater levels; this followed by intense rainfall usually associated with a huricane. A compamnion problem is maintning sufficiently high fresh-water levels and runoff to keep salt-water ncroachment at a minimum. The relief of the land is so low that during periods of draught and high tides, particularly those associated with storms, the sea may have a higher head than fresh water and as a result salt water invades inland along waterways and contaminates both surface and ground-water supplies. Thus the concepts that are applied must both minimize flood hazards hol ac e sl water.
The original drainage system of the area from Lake Okeechobee to the south and east coasts was incapable of preventing flooding in the hurricane years of 1947 and 1948. It had to be improved to permit farming and cities to prosper. A plan called the Central and Southern Florida




IREPORT OF INVESTIGATIONs No. 47 5 Flood Control Project was formulated by the Congress of the United States and the State of Florida.
The overall flood-control plan is designed to protect the developed, and potentially developable, urban, industrial and agricultural land on the east, south, and west sides of Lake Okeechobee. For,planning purposes this region has been divided into three types of areas-agricultural, conservation, and urban-industrial, shown in figure 2. Everglades Na- LAKE
OKEEGCHO BEE
S-4
S-3 S- WEST S2S-5 BACH
COu
1AGR G La 4
s-7s5 _C
01
FORT
o 0 LAUDERDALE
I3
EXPLANATION --_'
Pump station and number
Conol and number Leven and num#" w
Figure 2. Canal and levee system of the Central and Southern Florida Flood Control
project, in southeastern Florida.




6 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY
tional Park is under development by the U.S. National Park Service for recreational purposes. The agricultural areas fringe the southern part of Lake Okeechobee, and the urban areas are along the coast; behvtween them lie the conservation areas which are perennially flooded lands used for storing water. The agricultural and urban areas are not flooded as frequently as the conservation areas, because they are on slightly higher ground than the lowlands. However, the ground is not so high that it is not subject to floods occasionally, and it must be protected by levees and drainage canals. After eacha is ramd as rapidly as possible by a systeniof canals and pumping stations.
Conservation Areas 1, 2, 3A, z I a-rearge e'nough to accept excess flood waters pumped from agricultural and urban areas. In plan, this stored water will be available for release during dry seasons to help keep high water levels in the canals and adjacent lands. These water levels must be kept high enough during the dry season-first, to prevent oxidation and burning of black muck agricultural soils, and second, to prevent the encroachment of salt wvater in the canals and through the rock in coastal areas. The flow in the canals is provided by drainage from ground water in storage adjacent to the canals and by gravity drainage and pumping stations wvhich supply water from the conservation areas to the agricultural and coastal areas. In the agricultural areas south of Lake Okeechobee, individual farmers pump water from diked fields into the primary canal system; the large pumps, figures 3 and 4, of the flood control system, in turn pump the water southward to the conservation areas or northward to Lake Okeechobee. Some of the pumping stations pump as much as 5,000 cfs, the equivalent of the flow of many small rivers (for example as a comparison, the largest flowv under flood conditions in the Miami River at Hialeah in October 1947 was only 4.060 cfs (cubic feet per second)). The encroachment of salt water is also in part contained by salinity-control dams and locks near the coast which minimize the escape of fresh water to the sea and prevent the movement of salt water up the canals at times of low flows.
AREA B PLAN
Where does Area B fit into this overall picture? It is part of the land set aside for urban-industrial development but its use was held back because of construction problems presented by flood hazards. Area B is the lowland between the ridge occupied by Miami, designated as Area A, and the lowland storage reservoir designated as Conservation Area 3-B, shown in figures 2 and 5. Area B includes about 203 square




REPORT OF INVESTIGATIONS No. 47 7 Figure 3. Intake of pumping stations S-7 which has a capacity of 2,490 cubic feet per
second under design conditions.
Figure 4. One of the 131%-inch impellers at pump station S-7.




8 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY
C//
L.1 S9
HOLLYWOOD 44
BROWARD C 9 DA0E s 2o 2.
3.5 0- A' EP E
t I E P
sk T1 N
E E CA A G.S.
U4
sC
MIAMI
4 EXPLANATION 36 .. --- Transmissibllity, in million
0 w goans per day per foot GS: U.S. Geological Survey C / dOra seibity CE: U.S. Corps of Enginner, 'S., Canal and number Control dom
Pump statlon and number
0 2 4 miles Figure 5. Major features of existing and proposed canal and levee systemn in the Miami
area.
miles. It is drained by canals which carry water from the conservation areas through Miami to the sea. In its barest form, the Area B plan calls for building up the land-surface elevation by rock-fill dug from canals. The canals would serve as conduits for dewatering Area B during the




REPORT OF INVESTIGATIONS NO. 47 9
rainy season by pumping the water westward into conservation area 3-B, and by gravity drainage toward the sea through Area A. Flood water from Area B13, once it was in the conservation area, would be handled as part of the water resources of the overall plan for flood control and drainage in southeastern Florida. The plan calls for filling about 45 percent of Area B to an elevation of 5 feet above msl and 40 percent to an elevation of 4 feet above msl (mean sea level). The balance of 15 percent would be in canals and borrow lagoons.
The problem with which this report is concerned then is this: From a consideration of hydrologic factors of flooding, drainage and salt-water encroachment is the Area B plan adequate to provide the protections needed for its development?
Additionally, water control in Area B13 will strongly influence the future water resources of the Miami area generally, and as a partial evaluation of this influence, the followving main topics are considered in this report:
1. Operation of the Area B plan as pioposed in 1961.
2. Future water requirements of the Miami area.
3. A summary of past hydrologic extremes in the Miami area and
effects on the hydrology caused by works of the Central and Southern Florida Flood Control Project that were in operation
prior to 1962.
4. The results of steady-state electrical analog studies of the Arena
B plan.
The evaluation of the Area B plan contained in these pages was made at the request of the Central and Southern Florida Flood Control District (C&SFFCD). General supervision was provided by C. S. Conover, Tallahassee, l)istrict Chief of the Water Resources Division, U.S. Geological Survey.
DETAILS OF THE AREA B PLAN
Detailed description of the Area B plan is given in the survey review report by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (1961). Major constructional features of the plan are shown in figure 5. Four pump stations S-200 to S-203 will discharge water westward into Conservation Area 3B at the rates shown in table 1. The design pumping heads would vary from 8.1 to 8.7 feet for the four stations.
Existing pump station S-9 (fig. 5) has a capacity of about 2,900 cfs; its discharge is directed westward into Conservation Area 3A through the borrow canal of Levee 67 (fig. 2). Existing large canals in 1964 are




10 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY
TABLE 1.-PROPOSED DISCHARGE CAPACITY OF AREA B PUMP STATIONS.
(U. S. CORPS OF ENGINEERS, 1961, p. A-11 AND A-16).
Delsign heada
iunmping Number (ft atlove 111) Unit enpacity Total Capacity
sIti n of unit in chfs in cf Intake Discharge
-2 3 3.0 11.1 980 2.940
S-201 3 3.0 11.1 870 2,610 5 202 4 3.0 11.5 980 3.920 4.2:1 .4 3.0 11.7 9810 31.920
shown in figure 5. New large primary canals referred to as "feeder canals" by the Corps of Engineers are proposed to deliver water to stations S-202 and S-203. Because of anticipated high seepage of water eastward from Conservation Area 3B through permeable limestone underlying Levees :30 and 33, seepage-reduction levees will be constructed approximately 3,000 feet westward from the existing levees (fig. 5). The seepagereduction levees are flared near the pump outlet to permit the discharged water to spread more rapidly into the conservation area. Borrow canals located on the westward side of the seepage-reduction levees will aid in transmitting the water away from the pump stations.
The water level in Conservation Area 3B during flood conditions is expected to be about 11 feet above msl; the maximum observed head on the discharge side of S-9 during pumping was 11.62 feet on October 13, 1963. The pump discharge capacities in Table 1 are based on design water levels of 3 feet above msl at the intake side of each pumping station and 11.1 to 11.7 feet at the discharge side. Electrical analog studies presented later tend to indicate that because of the water-level gradient required to move water through the major feeder canals, an intake water level ranging from msl to 1 foot above msl may be more realistic under full capacity pumping. The pumping capacity for all pumps is designed to remove about 2 inches of water per day from the 203 square miles of Area B.
Table 2, which gives proposed land-fill requirements, is quoted from the U.S. Corps of Engineers Survey Review Report (1961, table 6, page 16):
The survey review report gives the following percentage breakdown for final land-surface elevations: "For the average size subdivision lot in a typical new development block, this would amount to 15 percent of the area being devoted to canals and borrow lagoons, 45 percent filled to elevation 5 feet on the average, and 40 percent to elevation 4 feet."




REvonT OF INVESTIGATIONS No. 47 11
TABLE 2.-LAND-FILL REQUIREMENTS AND ELEVATIONSFIIA REQUIREMENTS.
Minimum flood As~umvl enrrspondiin
Portioni of arta frequenoy fill elevation (yer) (f)
Above 5.0. floor
ElIelation of finihl ground lIne (all dwellings) .............................. I in 50 level 0.0
Cro 1 wn tf Itretct ................... ......- ....... ............ ....... 1 In 5, 0
2-.hr. drainage
Streots, wnles or ditches ......l4.................................. flh ni .n 4.0
10 yeartr tori
Fron. side. and reiquired 15.foot unablo rear d .................... 1 in 10 5.0
li anmindler (mostly furthor mback yards) ............................. ...... 4.0
The design rainfall for the Area B plan is 12.79 inches on the first day and a total of 17.22 inches for 5 days. Prior to this storm the water level for Area B is assumed to be +3 ft. msl. Under the specifications of Table 2 and the previous quotation and taking account of the storage space available as surface water (100 percent storage coefficient) and as ground water (17 percent storage coefficient, assumed), the water level after the first day of the design storm is calculated at +5 ft. msl (U.S. Corps of Engineers, 1961, table 6). The plan visualizes lowering water levels from elevation 5 feet to 4 feet by the end of the fifth day with 2 inches per day being removed by pumpage to the west and one inch per day being removed by gravity drainage to the ocean through Area A canals.
RAINFALL INTENSITY RELATED TO FLOODING
Rainfall averaies 59 inches per year, three-quarters of which falls in the May Nvember rainy season.
Qf primary concern are the periods of heav rainfall that )roduce oodin Maximum flood damae occurred in 1947 and anZ1 extensive flo=oding occurred in 1960. The following co arison shows intensit an stribution of rainfall during b ye an impoant factor in producing flood conditions. The annual rainfall in 1959 exceeded that o 1947 and 1960 by about 10 and 20 inches, respectively, shown in figure 6. In contrast, flooding was minimal in 1959 compared to the other years, in spite of the fact that many low-lying areas were urbanized by 1959. ors le flood co eavy buildup of rainfall over several months during which the drainage system has insufficient time to normalize water levels, and 2) this buildup followed by intense rainfall, usually associated with a hurricane.




12 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY
MIAMI WEATHER HIALEAH
BUREAU (AIRPORT) WEATHER STATION
100
90 1959- -- - -- 1959I _I I I
80 1947- 1947
70 "'-1960 1960-J -- -- ---
z s0 -i --
2 0 - -
n,- 40 4 .. .
P I VI
< 20.. .
-J
D
0 "-, __' 11:1
J FMA M J J ASON D J FMA M J J A S 0 N D MONTH MONTH
Figure 6. Accumulation of rainfall in 1947, 1959, and 1960.
The passage of Hurricane D)onna and two weeks later tropical storm Florence in September 1960 produced the highest single month rainfall in recent times. The isohyetal map of figure 7, adapted from an unpublished report of the C&SFFCD, shows that rainfall over Area B ranged from less than 16 inches in the northwest corner to greater than 28 inches in the southeast corner.
Improvements in the drainage system between 1947 and 1960 result in more rapid lowering of water levels between rains. A time-regressive comparison of rainfall for the two years indirectly indicates the effect of these improvements. The average of all stations (Table 3) shows that the rainfall in 1960 slightly exceeded that of 1947 for three months (including the highest month) before maximum flood conditions. In contrast, the high-water maps (p. 28 and 29) show that maximum water levels in Area B were about 3 feet lower in 1960 than in 1947. As antecedent rainfall for the two years is comparable, the relatively lower




REPORT OF INVESTIGATIONS No. 47 13
HOLLYWOOD L
BROWAR T
DADE COUNTYI
/ 1
I C7
RE AREA A
MIAMI 9
EXPLANATION
-2- Shows total rmfaMOll for Isohyst September, 1960. Inltorvl
2 niches.
C /OO 4c c ., ,
C?
a Conal and number in. Coantrol dam Pump station and number Note: Data from C e SFFCD (unpubli shed report)
0 2 4 eden
Figure 7, Rainfall for September 1960 following the passage of Hurricane Donna and
tropical storm Florence in the Miami area.
maximum water level in 1960 undoubtedly relates to improvement of the flood-control system between 1947 and 1960.




TABLE 3.-TIMEREGRESSIVE RAINFALL COMPARISON FOR HURRICANE YEARS 1947 AND 1960 Accumulated rainfall antecedent to and including the maximum month
Maximum month
4 months 3 months 2 months Annual Oct. Sept.
Location 1987 1960 1917 1960 1917 1960 1917 1960 1917 1960
Fort Lauderdale 59.75 36.77 46.10 29,19 37.25 23.59 21.55 16.07 102.36 60.48 Hialesh 43.38 37.17 33.54 32,01 28.59 28.02 17.73 20.48 78.25 68.81 1
0
Homestead 52.02 55.95 38.40 42,43 26.33 28.53 15.96 19.04 9.1.07 82.12 Kendall 30.40 44.12 19.11 37.56 1S.14 32.87 6.83 27.84 67.10 69.93 1 Miami Airport 45.62 40.13 32.11 33.82 25.45 28.55 14.85 21.40 78.39 70.26 Miami Beach 37.05 30.81 30.40 27.38 24.1.48 21.08 15.18 16.02 67.50 55,67 Pennsuco 40.98 35.32 30.37 29.00 24.62 22.25 16.29 16.31 72.28 62.53 Pennsuco 4 NW 38.42 37.93 30,43 30.28 23.35 23.45 14.74 17.97 70.39 66.37 Tamiami Canal 47.13 48.74 36.56 40.20 29.50 31.93 18.96 22.36 76.38 76.14 Tamiaml Trail
@ 40-Mile Bend 48.89 50.46 36.33 41.60 29.98 28.94 18.42 19.05 82.76 73.91
Average of all stations 44.36 41.74 33.34 33.35 26.47 26.92 16.041 19.95 78.95 68.62




REPORT OF INVESTIGATIONS No. 47 15
QUANTITATIVE ESTIMATES OF PREVIOUS INVESTIGATIONS
The U. S. Corps of Engineers (1953) performed 11 pumping tests to determine the permeability of materials underlying various parts of southern Florida. Based on several of these tests the range of underseepage beneath Levees 30 and 33 was computed at 1,380 to 1,600 cfs per mile of levee for a 10-foot head differential. Stallman (1956) described the effects on the water resources of the area and, based on analog and numerical-analysis studies, estimated the underseepage at 970 cfs per mile of levee for a 10-foot head differential under laminar flow conditions in a homogeneous aquifer. Based on measured pickup in a one-mile reach of the L-30 borrow canal near S-201 (fig. 5), Klein and Sherwood (1961) computed underseepage at 540 cfs per mile for a 10-foot head differential between the ponded conservation area and the borrow canal. The U. S. Corps of Engineers (1961, p. 17) estimated that total underseepage would amount to 3,300 cfs, under a 6-foot head differential (11-5 ft) after occurrence of the design storm. Dividing this discharge figure by 24 miles (the approximate length of levee bordering Area B), the estimated underseepage would be about 140 cfs per mile. With the addition of the seepage-reduction levees the estimated underseepage would be 2,400 cfs or about 100 cfs per mile. Thus, the estimated underseepage has been revised downward from a maximum of 1,600 cfs per mile to. a minimum of 100 cfs per mile based on additional studies and changes in the flood-control plan. Calculations to be presented later for conditions that appear representative indicate that the underseepage will be somewhat higher than the minimum estimate of 100 cfs per mile.
Water requirements for preventing salt-water encroachment during the dy season have received consideration in several reports. Based on measurements of canal discharge, Sherwood and Leach (1962) estimated that during extreme drought 50 cfs would be needed to maintain a water level of 2.75 feet above msl at the control dam in the Snapper Creek Canal (C-2, fig. 5). Outseepage from the canal into the aquifer near the coastline is a necessary part of preventing salt-water encroachment into the aquifer at depth. Leach and Sherwood (1963) in a similar study for the Snake Creek Canal (C-9, fig. 5) estimated that 36 cfs would be required to maintain a water level of 2.7 feet above msl at the control dam in that canal. These estimates were based on measured canal discharges. A water level of 2.5 feet will prevent salt-water encroachment in the Biscayne aquifer. Assuming that an average of 40 cfs per canal would be required to maintain a water level of 2.5 feet above msl, a total of about 300 cfs would adequately maintain heads at the coastal control dams in the eight major canals of Dade County.




16 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
Thanks are extended to William V. Storch and Robert L. Taylor of the Central and Southern Florida Flood Control District and F. D. R. Park and Marvin J. Brooks of the Dade County Water Control office for discussions related to this report. The writers' colleagues A. L. Higer, Howard Klein, C. B. Sherwood, and S. D. Leach provided helpful counsel during the investigation. The manuscript received the benefit of critical review by C. S. Conover, R11. WV. Pride, K. A. MacKichan, C. A. Appel, and Leo A. l leindl.
FUTURE WATER NEEDS AND AVAILABILITY
Although the primary function of the Area B plan would be flood control, its implementation also would result in conservation of water. Calculations are made in this section to demonstrate the magnitude of future water needs vs. availability and to point out the importance of the Area B plan as a water-conservation measure.
In figure 8, estimates for water use by the l)ade County Development D)t.partment (1962, sec. 30, p. 15-16) are plotted to the year 1995. Agricultural pumpage is expected to deeline because of urbanization but industrial and municipal pumpage will rise greatly. Per capita daily water use is expected to increase from about 145 gallons in 1960 to 220 gallons in 1995. The rise in population from about 1,000,000 in 1960 to 4.0(X),tK) in 1995 will cause total water use to increase from about 230 mgd (million gallons per d(lay) (345 efs) to about 1.4 bgd (billion gallons per day) (2,170 cfs).
Approximating the annual rainfall at 60 inches (a depth of 5 feet), the total water use of 1.4 bgd for a year is equivalent to the total rainfall over an area of about 500 square miles. As a comparison, the mainland area south of the Dade-Broward County line in the map of figure 5 amounts to about 500 square miles. However, as the total rainfall is not available for use, water will have to be imported from adjacent areas to supply the populace of 1995.
The following equation represents the balance between recharge by rainfall, discharge, and water storage in a drainage area:
Recharge [rainfall] = Discharge [surface-water discharge + ground
water discharge + evapotranspiration + domestic pumpage] +
[+ change in storage.]
For purposes of discussion, several elements in the equation can be eliminated from consideration because they are not likely to change in the future:




REPORT OF INVESTIGATIONS No. 47 17
YEAR
1930 1940 1950 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000
10,000 I 10,000
1000 1000
0
0
_j
0
100 100
I I
0A
o_ __ _ 0
w
cSI AGI j0 10
Figure 8. Estimated water use per day between the years 1930 and 1995 for Dade
County and the Florida Keys.
I. Rainfall cannot be expected to change significantly in the future.
2. Due to the nature of ground-water movement and the necessity
for maintaining fresh-water heads to prevent salt-water encroachment, ground-water discharge cannot be changed greatly from
its present magnitude.
3. Evapotranspiration is occurring now and will occur in the future
at about the same rate; i.e. the future water problems of the Miami area probably will be solved by storing water in the conservation areas; only under very adverse conditions during drought




18 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY
would water levels be lowered sufficiently below ground surface
to reduce evapotranspirative losses.
4. Long-term storage in the Miami area (i.e. average water levels)
are not expected to change significantly and this parameter will
average out to zero in the future.
In the above recharge-discharge equation only domestic pumpage and surface runoff can be considered as changeable. As domestic pumpage will increase six-fold, the most readily available method for maintaining the balance of the system is by prudent management of surface waters: by reducing surface-water discharge to the ocean and/or by increasing surface-water inflow to the Miami area.
A volumetric computation that balances the domestic pumpage of 1995 against surface nmoff is instructive. Langbein (Parker, et al., 1955, fig. 149) found that surface-water discharge from the Everglades Unit averaged 9.51 inches during the years 1940-46 when precipitation averaged 50.1 inches. Thus, 19 percent of precipitation could be assigned to surface runoff.
The average annual precipitation for the Everglades and Southeastern Coast as determined by the U. S. Weather Bureau is about 55 inches. Using LIangbein's percentage, 10.5 inches of this would represent average surface-water discharge. If the total water use of 1.4 billion gallons per day in 1995 were derived entirely by diversion of average surfacewater flow to the Miami well fields, consider the area over which previously excess surface runoff would have to be collected.
(Annual surface-water discharge) X (Area) = Annual pumpage
(10.5 inches/yr) X (Area) = 1.4 X 100 gal/day X 365 days/yr
12 inches/ft 7.48 gal/cu. ft.
Area = 7.85 X 1011 sq. ft. = 2,820 sq. miles.
Such an area (about 28 miles wide and 100 miles long) would extend from the east coast to the southern end of L-67 and from the middle of Lake Okeechobee on the north into Everglades National Park on the south. (See fig. 2.) All of the annual surface runoff (10.5 inches) would have to be collected from this large area so that Miami might use the water once and then dump it in the ocean. On this basis there would he no surface runoff left, above the needs of Miami, to supply replenishment water for West Palm Beach, Fort Lauderdale, and other coastal cities, or Everglades National Park. Because water is a reuseable resource, the situation will not be as bleak as indicated by this volumetric computation. However, it is clear that the various factors in the hydrologic cycle must be studied carefully so that enlightened water management can insure a continuing supply of fresh water for southeastern Florida.




REPORT OF INVESTIGATIONS No. 47 19
In the above computation a tacit assumption was made that all surface runoff would be funneled to Miami and after consumption by the populace, the water would be processed by municipal-sewage plants and thence dumped into the ocean. This would represent a total dissipation, i.e. total consumption of fresh water which is not occurring at the present time. Of about 1,000,000 total population in 1960, sewagetreatment plants served about 420,000; the effluent from a population of only 250,000 was pumped directly to Biscayne Bay or to the Gulf Stream (Dade County Development Dept., 1962, sec. 29, p. 5-13). Therefore, in 1960 only one-fourth of the population was served by sewage-treatment plants that dumped the effluent into the ocean; the remaining three-fourths were served by sewage-treatment plants or by individual septic tanks that discharged the effluent into fresh-water canals or into the Biscayne aquifer. The following quotation gives background on the present status of sewage disposal (Dade County Development Dept., 1962, sec. 29, p. 1-2):
"Shortly after World War II a local Miami firebrand named
Philip Wylie (creator of Crunch and Des) authored an article in a
national magazine calling Miami a 'Polluted Paradise.'
"Little could be said against the author's contentions for Miami
had reached a shocking state in pollution of its formerly-blue
Biscayne Bay.
"For then the waters were turgid brown and even the twice-daily
flushing action of ocean tides could hardly save marine life from extinction in the central bay area or dilute the bacteria-laden waters
that poured out of the mouth of the Miami River.
"All the raw, untreated sanitary sewage of the complete downtown area was merely collected through mains and then poured
into the river and bay through open outfalls.
"Outright warnings by health authorities and incessant campaigns
by Miami newspapers, finally aroused the citizenry and major action
was taken.
"Today, the downtown area of Biscayne Bay has noticeably
changed color as years of sanitary sedimentation washed away by
the never ceasing tides.
"Also, the City of Miami, for its major downtown and bayfront
areas, is serviced by a complete collection and treatment facility which discharges a clear effluent far offshore into the world's largest moving body of water the Gulf Stream. At present, much of the
inland residential areas are unsewered."




20 FLORInmA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY
Because sea water contains 35 times as much dissolved solids a.; sewage, it is much cheaper to purify and sanitize sewage water than to remove the salts from sea water (Wolman, 1961, p. 123). Therefore, it is doubtful that salt-water conversion plants will ever be economically justified in a high-rainfall region such as Miami. However, all surfacewater outflow from southeastern Florida cannot be stopped and funneled to Miami as conjectured by the previous computation. In the year 1995 (or eventually) it appears that some planned reuse of water will be essential if water shortages are to be avoided. Possibly half of the 1.4 billion gallons per day of water that will be required in 1995 (or eventually) could be saved for reuse by adequately planned sewagetreatment systems. In flood-prone areas, such as Area B, the septic-tank system would not be workable and municipal sewage-treatment plants would be required. However, consideration should be given to planned reuse of the water by recharging highly purified sewage-plant effluent into Area B canals. Subsequent discharge into Conservation Area 3B through the flood-control pumps wvould permit time for bacterial degradation and for the benefits of aquifer filtration to make the water esthetically reusable. In consideration of the magnitude of future water needs, the Area B plan should he conceived as a water-conservation as well as a flood-control plan.
GEOLOGIC AND HYDROLOGIC ENVIRONMENT
Although the levee system prevents surface-water outflow from Conservation Area 3B, underseepage and direct rainfall overpower the present gravity drainage system, figure 9, and the land in Area B remains swampy or partly inundated during much of the year. Figure 9 shows both primary and secondary canals, but the secondary canals will be omitted henceforth. Unusual shapes of water-level contours in later illustrations will be clarified by referring to the complete drainage system in figure 9.
The Biscayne aquifer is an important hydrologic unit that underlies southeastern Florida. It is a highly permeable water-table aquifer consisting of solution-riddled limestone and calcareous sandstone and fairly numerous layers of unconsolidated sand. Municipal and private water supplies are derived almost exclusively from wells drilled into the aquifer. The aquifer thickens toward the coast from about 50 feet at the levee system on the wvest side of Area B to 90 feet on the east side, and to as much as 200 feet near the coast. Oolitic limestone crops out over much of the coastal ridge (Area A). In Area B, a surficial blanket of peat and organic marl 3 to 4 feet thick is underlain by dense lowpermeability limestone having a thickness of about 3 feet. Highly
.1




REPOBT OF INVESTI(;ATIONS No. 47 21
R. 39 E. R 40 E. R. 41 E R. 42 E.
IC/
S9
(n HOLLYWOOD L.J
II L-- '
,
e4 I ,I,,
BROWARD 2COUNTY 9 DADE COUNT G970 S
G966 g
C\1 972
(n AREA B AREA A K,. G97G
GI
C4 GI
MIAMII
G 596 EXPLANATION e *0G553
G0858 G Obuervtion wel ond number C/ OC analo and number Conro dam
/ 5Pump sltoin Cd number
0 0 4 G55e
o ie
Figure 9. Primary and secondary canal system in 1964 and locations of recording
observalion wells related to the investigation, in the Miami area.
permeable limestone underlies this sequence from about -3 feet msl to the base of the aquifer.




__ FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY
PRESENT AND FUTURE LAND-SURFACE ALTITUDE
The ultimate altitude of land surface in Area B will be fixed by landfill requirements which will be based upon a compromise of hydraulic and physical factors. The physical factors are outlined here.
59
<0
5 HOLLYWOOD
BROWAR NTY
DA0E OUNTY
REA B AREA A
5 5
C4
M'IAMI
(b L 5% 10
EXPLANATION SContour interval, I toot. 6 7"h~ Co-tou Datumn is moon sea C 100 lvl Canal and number
z3 Control dam UE& Pump slation and numbr
0 2 4G a e n
Figure 10. Generalized altitude of land surface in Area B.




REPORT OF INVESTIGATIONS No. 47 23
Peat, black-muck, and organic-marl soils occur at the surface over most of Area B; the altitude of present land surface is given by the generalized map of figure 10, compiled from maps of the U. S. Departcil
S9
HOLLYWOOD LAJ
BROWAR C 9
DADECO ?
38
2
I CT
~0
EXPLANATION
5----- Shour altitude of bedrock I foot. Datum is mean Fie AoE Ar
Coto dam
\.- Pwmp ston and number
Figure 11. Altitude of bed rock in Area B.




24 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY
C//
s9
HOLLYWOOD ,
A
BROWAR G C 9DADE CO T
2.5 CC7
AREA A
2~ 4 1
bro
MIAMI
EXPLANATION
5 Shows assumed allutude of land surfoce after Topogrwophic Conour COmpaction. Conlour intervol, 0.5 ond I foot. /0Datum is mean sea levd C C Canal and number nc#1 Control dam S Pump station and number
0 2 4 miles
Figure 12. Assumed altitude of compacted land surface in Area B after 100 percent loss of black-muck soils above +3 feet msl and 50 percent compaction of
muck soils below +3 feet msl.
ment of Agriculture, Central and Southern Florida Flood Control District, and the U. S. Corps of Engineers. The altitude of the underlying bed-




REPORT OF INVESTIGATIONS No. 47 25
rock surface has been determined by the Corps of Engineers as shown in figure 11.
Upon exposure to air after the Area B plan is operational, the organic soils are expected to oxidize and the resulting soil loss is assumed at 100 percent from land surface to an altitude of +3 feet msl and 50 percent below 3 feet (Corps of Engineers, 1961, p. 16). The planned water level in Area B is +3 feet msl. Below +3 feet msl integration of organic soils with solid materials during land-filling will provide minimum exposure to air and this is expected to reduce oxidative loss to 50 percent. Based on the assumptions, a map of the compacted land surface has been compiled, (see figure 12). The altitudes shown in this map would be the base from which solid-material fill requirements could be estimated.
TRANSMISSIBILITY OF THE AQUIFER
The coefficient of transmissibility (T) is a measure of the ability of the aquifer to transmit water. It is defined as the rate of flow of water in gallons per day through a vertical strip of the aquifer one-foot wide extending the full saturated height of the aquifer under a unit hydraulic gradient (Ferris, et al., 1962, p. 73).
The coefficient of transmissibility has been determined at the sites shown in figure 5. The Corps of Engineers performed a number of determinations along Levees L-30 and L-33 in connection with Area B under-seepage studies. These are identified by "C.E."; determinations by the Geological Survey are identified "G.S." Near S-201 (fig. 5) independent determinations by the two agencies by different methods gave comparable results (Klein and Sherwood, 1961, p. 18). Although the density of the determinations does not warrant contouring to portray the areal variation, a region of high transmissibility occurs near Levees 30 and 31, along the western and southern boundaries of Area B. Northward and eastward the transmissibility decreases to about 4,000,000 gpd/ft near the eastern boundary of Area B.
EFFECT OF FLOOD CONTROL PROJECT ON GROUND-WATER LEVEL
GROUND-WATER FLUCTUATIONS
The adjustment of ground-water levels to drainage activities and water-control measures is shown in figure 13. The water-level peaks or lows (i.e. points of water-level reversal) in recording wells S-18, G-10, and G-72 have been selected to typify the range in fluctuation and are plotted against annual rainfall (see locations fig. 9). The decrease in




26 FLoRDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY
1940 1945 1950 1955. 196Q tm 75
MIAMI AIRPORT
IC
IC
I0 . "
WELL Gi10
SC LAND SURFACE
IC
SI, B "'.,. .. ." _'. '_ "., ___ _____-_"_.... ___... ..... ................ ........ . .
S0
.o . . .. .
A I LAND SURFACE
!tic.l"L~ I0 "...... 1 .. 7:,, "7..7.
S WELL G 72
- A A : CR F A C
S...... .... ......... ... .......
> 4
."." ...
Uj 0 1. +. ... .. .*, o .. '
Figure 13. Monthly trend of water-level fluctuations in selected wells related to
rainfall, 1940-63.
amplitude of the envelope formed by connecting the yearly peaks is the result of improvement of the drainage system over the years. For example, the highest water level after the hurricanes of September 1960 is 2 to 3 feet lower than those of hurricane years 1947 and 1948 despite equivalent rainfall conditions in 1960. The distribution of rainfall during the year has been mentioned previously as a factor in flooding. Thus, in well S-18 two individual water-level peaks at about 4 feet in 1959 correspond with two widely spaced heavy rains. Though total rainfall in 1959 was greater than in 1960, the drainage system adequately lowered or normalized water levels between the heavy rains so that the second rainfall period produced minimal flooding in 1959.
In addition to improved ability of the flood-control works to lower flood peaks, the generally rising line of the annual low-water minimum




REPORT OF INVESTIGATIONS NO. 47 27
in well S-18 indicates that progress is being made in controlling over drainage and consequently in maintaining water levels at desirable levels. However, the water level at S-18 fell to one foot above msl in May 1962. This head is insufficient to prevent salt-water encroachment. In May 1962 Conservation Area 3B in the vicinity of well G-968 (fig. 9) was dry. Ground-water level at G-968 was 2.0 feet above mean sea level, only about 0.2 foot higher than that at well G-72 (fig. 13). Thus, after four years of above average rainfall (1957-60) there was not enough surface water stored in Conservation Area 3B to carry through the dry year of 1961 and into 1962. This points up the need for water conservation. The problems of the future are not how fast the flood water can be eliminated, but rather how the flood water can be saved for future use. The Area B plan will be an instrument of water conservation. After implementation, part of the water which now is wasted to the ocean in a hurricane year such as 1960, will be pumped westward into Conservation Area 3B.
COMPARISON OF HIGH-WATER PERIODS
The highest ground-water levels prior to inception of the Flood Control Project occurred in 1947. These levels are duplicated on the general base map of this report, figure 14 (adapted from Schroeder, Klein, and Hoy, 1958, fig. 16). Water level over most of Area B was 9 to 10 feet above msl about 3 to 5 feet above land surface. Figure 15 shows the highest altitude of the water table in September 1960. The increase in secondary-canal networks associated with urbanization of Area A, and enlargement of the major canals improved total drainage capability so that water levels in Area B ranged from 5 to 8 feet above msl, 2 to 3 feet lower than those of 1947. The dense network of secondary canals adjacent to the upper reaches of canals C-7 and C-8 reduced water levels to 4 to 5 feet in 1960, compared to 7 to 8 feet in 1947. In contrast, water levels in the vicinity of canals C-1 and C-100 in south Dade County were slightly higher in 1960 than in 1947 which correlates with relatively higher rainfall in 1960 (Kendall and Homestead stations, table 3). Canal C-100 was not in existence in 1960 and C-1 has been greatly improved since that time. It is unlikely that the high heads of 1960 in the south Dade region will ever occur again.
COMPARISON OF LOW-WATER PERIODS
Salinity-control dams were not installed in most of the canals until 1946. Lowest water levels of record occurred in May and June 1945, figure 16 (adapted and expanded from Parker, et. al., 1955, fig. 45).




28 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY
S9
HOLLYWOOD LL
RWRUTlY-- C a m DADEa COUNTY u
DADE CCto damNTV
_j 86 ,
REA B AR
', j
0 M 21xmt tol
'EXPLANATION
Shows altitude of oter
-8- loble. Conour inervaol I .be.Table C t foot. Datum Is mean Canal and number
C ontrolM dam
11180 Puwmp tlian ad number Note: Adopted from Schreeder, Klin and Hoy.O
Figure 14. High-stage water levels in the Miami area October 11-12, 1947. Canal C-100
did not exist and C-1 was not improved in 1947.
The water table in Area B ranged from 0.5 to 1.5 feet above msl. Localized mounds persisted in the more populated regions near the shore and possibly give evidence of septic-tank recharge.




REPORT OF INVESTIGATIONS No. 47 29
c//
$9
(d L, OO Q
BROWARD OUNTY DADE / COUNTY
/ AE B o REA
1,,
100
C4 7
RE ~ A o\E
o
o EXPLANATION 0Shows olitude of woer
- 50- toble. Dashed where appra for-Table Conour imate. Confour interval 0.5 and I toot. Datum is mea
12 sea evel. ~ Canal and number O 4~I Control dam IO Pump slotien mnd number
30 2 4nles
Figure 15. Highest water-table altitude in the Miami area in September 1960 after
passage of Hurricane Donna and tropical storm Florence. Canal C-100 did
not exist and C-1 was not improved in 1960.
The lowest water levels of recent times occurred in May 1962 following drought conditions of 1961-62 (figure 17, adapted from Sherwood and Klein, 1963, fig. 9). The water table in Area B ranged from




30 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY
G/1
S9
Is- -- "HOLLYWOOD 14J
\ I-- 0 . .- .
BROWA COU Q
DADE COUNTY
G8
!I
AREAA
1 05 0 T
C4) 03 t
_1 1
1.0 EXPLANATION
- 0.5-- Shows attitude of water table. Contour interval, Wa lr- oble Caorkr 0.5 foot. Datum is C/00 mean sea level.
C) C? Canat and number UK Controt dam :& *Pump station and number Note: Adapted and expanded from Parker, et.ol., 1955
1955 0 2 4 dles
Figure 16. Record low stage of water table prior to installation of control dams in the MIiami area, May and June 1945. Canal C-100 did not exist and C-1 was
not improved in 1945.
1.0 to 2.5 feet above msl. No surface water was impounded in Conservation Area 3B at that time, but the major canals were draining




REPORT OF INVESTIGATIONS No. 47 31
C//
s9
t*HOLLYWOOD L I o
BROWARD OUNTY C9
DADE COUNTY
.5/ I zo
G7
o -g -AR AB REA
IM
O o M, A 4

EXPLANATION
-0.5- Shows altitude of water table. Contor intervl,
0.5 foot tu i mean seo level.
C/0 VC1 Area of salotwater encroachC ment.
Conol and number
Control dom
Pump station and number Note: Adapted from Sherwood and Klein 1963
0 2 4 miles
Figure 17. Low stage of the water table in the Miami area in May 1962 and extent
of salt-water encroachment.
ground water from storage west of the levee system and conveying it downstream to the salinity-control dams. Heads of about one foot were maintained on the upstream side of the dams. Comparison of




32 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY
figures 16 and 17 shows the expansion of the cone of depression of the Miami well field near Canal C-6 (Miami Canal) between .1945 and 1962. Pumpage increased from 40 to 80 mgd during this period. The cone of depression along Canal C-2 surrounds the Alexander Orr well field, which did not exist in 1945.
CANAL DISCHARGES
The discharge in several canals was studied to evaluate surfacewater discharge characteristic from Conservation Area 3B, Area B, and Area A. A background for the study period (Jan. 1960 to Dec. 1963) is provided by the monthly-mean discharge in the Miami Canal from 1940 to 1963, figure 18. The geographic dividing point between the "Miami River" (downstream) and the "Miami Canal" (upstream) is located approximately 4 miles inland from Biscayne Bay, figure 19. Maximum discharge usually occurs in October at the culmination of the rainy season; minimum discharge of less than about 100 cfs, generally occurs in May of each year.
The difference in magnitude of the discharges during the wet periods of 1947 and 1960 attest to the improvement of control works, and the construction of the levee system during that interval. Although rainfall in 1960 was about comparable to 1947 (table 3) the maximum monthly mean flow was 1,270 cfs in 1960 as compared with 3,600 cfs in 1947. This results from a combination of factors: (1) as noted previously, maximum water levels in Area B were 2 to 3 feet lower in 1960 than in 1947; (2) the levee system prevented direct surfacewater flow from the Everglades from reaching Area B; (3) the improved canal system permitted more rapid runoff from Areas A and B and this minimized surface- and ground-water impoundment prior to the hurricane rains.
In table 4, annual-mean discharges (1940-63) are compared with the 24-year median discharge of 530 cfs. Below average flows generally persisted during the 1960-63 study period. The above average flows in 1960 are attributable to record, antecedent rainfall in 1959 and to the heavy rains of tropical storms Donna and Florence in 1960.
STAGES AND DISCHARGES IN THE MIAMI CANAL
The Miami Canal (C-6) is the largest canal that transects Area B. Continuous recordings of stage and discharge are available at Stations F, G, I, and J since 1961 (see locations in figure 19 and key to stations




4000
z 3000
U)l
2000
w Lu
1500 -MEDIAN DISCHARGE 530 CFS (1940-63) 1000-- -- -0 W -- J.
S500- -== ----
111
0 U)
1940 1941 1942 1943 1944 1945 1946 1947 1948 1949 1950 1951 1952 953 954 1955 1956 1957 1958 1959 1960 1961 1962 1963




34 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY
TABLE 4.-COMPARISON OF ANNUAL-MEAN DISCHARGES IN THE MIAMI
CANAL AT N.W. 36th STREET WITH THE 24-YEAR MEDIAN, 1940-63.
Calendar Annual mean Percent of
year discharge (cfs) median
1940 710 134 1941 828 156 1942 753 142 l1L3 317 60 1944 312 59 1945 383 72 1946 630 119 1947 1.412 266 1948 1.178 222 1949 795 150 1950 426 80
1951 395 75 1952 514 103 1953 1130 157 1954 909 172 1955 t28 118 1956 260 49 1957 551 104 1958 802 151 1959 707 133 1960 815 159 1961 291 55 1962 157 30 1963 147 28
in table 5.) The daily discharges for the years 1961-63 are plotted in figure 20. This data provides the basis for separating the contributions to flow in the Miami Canal from Conservation Area 3B, Area B, and Area A.
The flow characteristics at the four gaging stations on the Miami Canal are influenced, depending on location, by ground-water inflov, control-dam operation, well-field pumpage, and tidal flow. At Broken Dam (F) the flow is primarily from underseepage from Conservation Area 3B. The underseepage produces a rather steady, slowly changing flow pattern. The effect of the operation of the control dam at N.W. 36th Street is usually reflected along the entire reach of the




REPORT OF INVESTIGATIONS No. 47 35
A C I
S9
r -.--- --...HLW0 OLLYWOO ,
BROWARD COUNTY C DADE S COUNTY S 32J
C7 "
AREA B Z R. A A
H
C4 L
K 0 -"-*MIAMI..
-JP
EXPLANATION
- **- Droinage divide QA Stage and dischorge gaging C/00 C~2 slton m-) Canal and number Control dam nd number CT1s. Pump station and number Note: Locatins keyed by 16tter to table 5.
0 2 4 mlks
Figure 19. Locations of gaging stations and drainage areas of major canals in the
Miami area.
canal. Control changes produce the largest fluctuations in stage and discharge at N.W. 36th Street because the gaging station is located only 100 feet upstream from the control dam. For example, on March




-4 -.
I _'A .-.___ ..,,,, J I
i- I 1_ _/,J ] ; L 1,1! -1
CqNA4




REPORT OF INVESTIGATIONS No. 47 37
TABLE 5.-KEY TO LETTER DESIGNATIONS IN FIGURE 19 FOR
RECORDING STAGE AND DISCHARGE GAGING STATIONS IN CANALS OF THE MIAMI AREA.
A. South New River Canal at S.9, near Davle, Fla.
1. Snake Creek Canal at N.W. 67th Ave., near Hiileah, Fla.
C. Snake Crock Canal at S.29, at North Miami Beach, Fla.
D). Little River Canal at 5.27, at Miami, Fain.
E. Blcayne Canal at S-28, at Miami, Fla.
F. Miami Canal at Broken Dam, near Miami, Fla.
G. Miami Canal at Palmetto By-pass. near lHialeah, Fla.
I. Miami Canal at water plant, Ilialenloah, Fla.
I. Miami Canal at N.W. 36th Street, Miami, Fain.
J. Miami River at lriekell Ave., Miami, Fla.
K. Tamiamnil Canal at State Highway 27, near Coral Gables, Fla.
L. Tamlanmi Canal near Coral Gables, Fla.
M. Coral Gables Canal at Taminami Canal, near Coral Gables. Fla.
N. Coral Gables Canal near South Miami, Fla.
O. Snapper Creek Canal near Coral Gables, Fain.
P. Snapper Creek Canal at S.22, near South Miami, Fla.
8, 1961 (fig. 20) the control was changed from fully open to nearly closed. This produced a sharp rise in stage at N.W. 36th Street and an accompanying drop in discharge. The drop in stage and discharge at Broken Dam was caused by the closing of two controls (S-32 and S-32A) in the levee-borrow canal at the same time. During the period March 22-28, controls S-32 and S-32A were opened. This produced an increase in discharge at Palmetto By-pass and N.W. 36th Street with only a slight increase in stage (fig. 20). The flows are usually larger at Palmetto By-pass than at N.W. 36th Street because water leaves the canal between the two stations to recharge the aquifer adjacent to the well field (near station I, fig. 19). Pumpage from the well field varies between 70 and 125 cfs. The stage at Brickell Avenue is not perceptibly affected by control operation because tidal fluctuation in Biscayne Bay is the over-riding influence. However, the discharge at Brickell Avenue reflects control operation to some extent. The marked drop in discharge on March 9, 1961 is an example.
CONTRIBUTIONS TO FLOW IN THE MIAMI RIVER FROM
CONSERVATION AREA 3B, AREA B, AND AREA A
The drainage areas in figure 19 show that runoff from Area B is contributed primarily to the Miami River system (C-4 and C-6). Part of the flow from the Tamiami Canal (C-4) is diverted into the




38 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY
Snapper Creek Canal (C-2) and Coral Gables Canal (C-3). With adjustments for these diversions, the flow of the Miami River was separated into contributions from Conservation Area 3B, Area B, and Area A, shown in figure 21.
2000 EXPLANATION
Flow contrilbuted from Area A
Flow contributed from Area B
_-_"'____ Seepage from Conservation Area 38
Ii.
1000
,I o ii!:-!i!
00
U
0 oi' J'A''''J's'' 'J'A's'o'.'c|/rM'dJd AS'd d J dIIdJ s 1960 1961 1962 1963
Figure 21. Discharge contributions to the Miami River at Brickell Avenue from Conservation Area 3B, Area B, and Area A.
The upper plotted line for Conservation Area 3B is the base line above which the contribution of Area B is plotted. Similarly the upper plotted line for Area B is the base line above which the contribution or loss of Area A is plotted. The significance of the diagram can be illustrated by the following examples. In March 1962, the flow of the Miami River into Area A at its western boundary was greater than the flow out of Area A into Biscayne Bay. The net loss of water from the Miami River in the reach adjacent to Area A is shown by the dip of the Area A hydrograph below the hydrograph for Area B. High easterly winds in early March coincided with high tides and the wind-driven salt water of Biscayne Bay flooded inland into storage in the aquifer. The monthly mean discharge at the Brickell Avenue gaging stations (station J in fig. 19) was 30 cfs landward (upstream).
In contrast, summation of inflow and outflow in April and May 1963 (fig. 21) again showed that water was lost from the Miami River




REPORT OF INVESTIGATIONS No. 47 39
in the Area A reach, but in this case the monthly mean discharge at the Brickell Avenue gaging station was positive or seaward (fig. 20). Except for the above two instances, the Miami River invariably gained (picked up) water from the three areas. The relative vertical distance between the individual curves is a measure of the contribution from each area.
Several runoff characteristics can be identified in figure 21. The underseepage from water stored in Conservation Area 3B is perennial and supplies a base flow of fresh water that is tapped by downstream users. However, in spring 1962 the conservation area was dry and the base flow was contributed entirely by ground-water underflow. The pickup in the Miami Canal was only about 100 cfs from Conservation Area 3B, 100 cfs from Area B, and practically none from Area A. The relative difference in percentage of flows in wet and dry seasons reflects the rapid drainage of Area A. During the dry months only a small flow accrues from Area A. Conversely, during wet periods runoff from Area A is proportionately large. Because of this rapid runoff in Area A and the necessity for maintaining low water levels in the lowlands of Area B after development, the need for additional storage of water in the conservation area in dry periods is thus evident.
The total flow in the Miami River contributed by Conservation Area 3B, Area B, and Area A was 520,000 acre-feet or about 725 cfs during the period June 1962 to May 1963 (fig. 21). The Conservation Area seepage comprised 33 percent of this total, Area B 26 percent, and Area A 41 percent.
TOTAL SURFACE-WATER OUTFLOW FROM AREA A
Area A drains to Biscayne Bay via six major canals and by direct ground-water flow along the shoreline.' Discharge has been measured continuously near the mouth of each canal as follows: Snapper Creek Canal (C-2), gage P since December 1959 Coral Gables Canal (C-3), gage N since February 1961 Miami River Canal (C-6), gage J since February 1961 Little River Canal (C-7), gage E since February 1959
Biscayne Canal (C-8), gage D since April 1962
Snake Creek Canal (C-9), gage C since January 1959
The briefness of complete record limits the analysis to that period after April 1962. Therefore, the following runoff evaluation for all Area A canals is for only one year-from June 1962 to May 1963. Canals C-1 and C-100 (fig. 5) were under construction in 1963-64 and are not included
in the analysis.




40 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY
Drainage areas for each of the six canals (fig. 19) are estimated from ground-water level divides (figs. 14 and 15) and other knaowledge of the hydrology of the Miami area. The number in the bar column at the left of figure 22 gives the percentage of the total drainage area assignable to each of the six canals.
All other factors being the same, equal rainfall over the total drainage area would produce runoff in proportion to the size of each drainage area. Thus, the monthly mean runoff in the Miami River should be about 43 percent of the total, while runoff from other canals should be similarly proportioned.
In figure 22, the monthly mean runoff from each canal is plotted as a bar graph following the same canal sequence shown by the drainage-area bar at the left. The dashed lines are for guidance in comparing month-to-month values. The internal numbers on the runoff bars are the percentages of total monthly runoff for the individual canals.
Analysis of the shift of these discharge percentages for the various canals can be used for evaluation and adjustment of water-management practices. During high-water periods, when the control dams are open, the rnmoff percentage should compare favorably with drainage-area percentage for each canal. During the dry season, when control dams theoretically should be closed to prevent loss of fresh water, the rnmoff percentage of the uncontrolled canals should increase while that of the controlled canals should decrease. Canals, other than the Miami Canal, are controlled near their mouths in Area A. The control dams in the Miami River system (C-6 and C-4) are located more than 6 miles from shore. As the Miami River system is only partly controlled it can be used as a rough comparator for evaluation of discharge in the controlled canals.
During the relatively high-water period June through September 1962, the discharge from the Miami River averaged about 45 percent of the total comparing closely with the 43 percent estimated for the drainage area. During the dry season, the percentage of total discharge for the Miami River increased to a maximum of 76 percent in March 1963 (fig. 22). This increase is a consequence of the uncontrolled condition of the Miami Canal. In April and May 1963 at a time of very little rainfall, the percentage runoff of the Miami Canal decreased, but that of the Snake Creek Canal rose considerably from a theoretical 24 percent to 45 percent in April and 46 percent in May. Gate openings in the Snake Creek Canal increased the discharge during this period and caused the shift in percentage. As a further comparison,




2500 V NUMBER INDICATES
PERCGENT OF TOTAL c
DRAINAGE AREA NUMBER INDICATES PERCENT
SEE FIG. 1o
SEf.SOf TOTAL DISCHARGE
z i \tj 2000
c SNAPPER CREEK
Z 1 CANALt :
4 CORAL GABLES 5 0, CANAL //0
< 300- 10-J) w1500
n w.
0 U
C IIt
M/AN/ CANAL
-o@
s1 oo- 1000 - -L
1/ 35
ILI 0 //1L
7 uTTLE RIVER / 5 4 S'CANAL %
A4 cc %___ ___W 9 BISCAYNE CANAL 0\34 IL % s
0 0
8 IS
24 SIAKE CREE -/n/1
SCANAL /2T4
JUNE JULY AUG SEPT OCT NOV DEC JAN FES MAR APR MAY
1962 1963




42 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY
the runoff percentage for the Snapper Creek Canal gradually decreased to zero in April and May 1963. Thus, analysis of the shift of discharge percentages can be used as a tool for evaluation and adjustment of water-management practices. For example, the previous comparisons show that dry-season discharge from the Snake Creek, Biscayne, and Little River Canals is proportionately large compared to the size of their drainage areas. Examination of the operating criteria for the control dams might lead to improved water management in these canals.
The total discharge from all canals in the Miami area was 929,000 acre feet during the period June 1962 to May 1963. This is equivalent to a yearly mean surface-water runoff of 1,280 cfs. Based on sizes of drainage areas and on the percentage contributions to the Miami River "system (see previous section), it is estimated that about 50 percent of this total discharge (about 600 cfs) can be attributed to contributions from Conservation Area 3B and Area B. After implementation of the Area B plan, division of flow will tend to occur along the boundary between Area B and Area A. Contributions from Area A will flow seaward, whereas contributions from Area B and Conservation Area 3B will be pumped westward. Thus, even in a dry period (such as the analysis period 1962-63) the Area B plan will have considerable potential for conservation of fresh water.
In order to fully capitalize on this potential, consideration should be given to supplementary installation of small pumps (100 to 400 cfs capacity) at both the levee-side and the eastern side of Area B. For intermediate-to-low water levels in the conservation area, such pumps would permit ideal flexibility of water control. At intermediate water levels in the conservation area, underseepage could be recycled back to the conservation area at the same time that water could be released eastward into Area A for prevention of salt-water encroachment. When the conservation area is dry the east-side pumps would assist in maintaining adequate fresh-water head near the coast by pumping water seaward from Area-B canals into Area-A canals.
EVALUATION OF THE AREA B FLOOD-CONTROL PLAN
Coincident with the creation of useable land for urban expansion, the flood-control plan for Area B has many features which can be utilized for improvement of the water-resources position of southeastern Florida. Steady-state electrical analog studies were made to provide insight on the vast changes in hydrology that will come about through implementation of the plan. The land-fill requirements in




REPORT OF INVESTIGATIONS No. 47 43
Area B will be arrived at as a compromise of the economics of raising the level of the land ($1,000 to $1,500 for raising an acre of land one foot) and of the cost of the pumping system needed to protect the housing developments with lowered fill requirements. This section will be devoted to an appraisal of the plan in the light of past observations of water level. The conditions of September 1960 after hurricane Donna and tropical storm Florence passed through the area are selected as the basis for the appraisal. The conditions that occurred then are immutable facts under the present semi-improved drainage system, and success of the plan must come from improvements over this recent base condition.
WATER LEVEL MAPS
The water-level contours of September 1960 (fig. 15) were superimposed on the contours of present land surface (fig. 10) to obtain the water-level map of figure 23. The water levels ranged from about 1 foot below land surface at the eastern side of Area B to more than 3 feet above land surface at the western side. The volume of water in storage above land surface amounted to about 8.6 billion cubic feet.
Consider the height to which land surface would have to be raised if this observed above-land volume of water were to be stored below land surface in the pore spaces of earth fill. Assuming that no lakes or canals were dug, approximately 5 feet of earth fill with an estimated porosity of 20 percent would have to be placed at the contour representing a water depth of +1 foot (fig. 23), 10 feet would have to be placed at the +2-foot contour, and 15 feet at the +3-foot contour in order that the water table would not rise above land surface under rainfall conditions similar to those of 1960.
Verification of this idea can be recognized in southern Dade County in the high-water contour maps of 1947 and 1960 (figs. 14 and 15). Because land surface is generally quite high in this area and because canals C-1 and C-100 did not exist in these years, the water table rose to more than 10 feet above sea level. Obviously, in Area B land-filling alone, without pumping, would be prohibitively expensive and economically infeasible.
A water-level map of the distance between the assumed compacted land surface (fig. 12) and the water surface during September 1960 is shown in figure 24. If sufficient water could be removed by pumping or by gravity drainage to hold the water level at the same altitude as that of 1960, (a recently observed level) this map would represent the minimum thickness of landfill that would be required after all peat and




44 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SUiRVEY
-------------------------- ------,- -...
$9
HOLLYWOOD LQ
BROWARt S C C 9
DADE Q
3104 ROM -- e "-EA 0 AREA A c too .
01of L, -4
{+)'
EXPLANATION
;lr C:I O ~Control dam Pump stotion ad number
Figure 23. Water levels in feet above (+) or below (-) existing land surface during September 1960, subsequent to passage of Hurricane Donna and tropical
storm Florence.
black muck had disappeared by oxidation according to the assumed compaction formula of the Corps of Engineers. (See section entitled Present and Future Land Surface Altitude.) The volume of water that




REPORT OF INVESTIGATIONS No. 47 45
C//
s9
HOLLYWOOD LJ
BROWAR ,,C 9. DADE
-.*** cr
bae0n 00on00oroe
Figure 24. Water levels o Setme 190(+)etabv +*o elw() sue
*I8
so
"*. AREA A
. 4to 5 *
MIAMI
Assumedctmpacaeddlndrsfrfac
w d t a ube sd on t 0he p oss o organic soils loo e 3f m.s.I and 50% C/O0 compaction of orgDMC SO;il Iotow 3 f. ...
0 2 4 mlie
Figure 24. Water levels of September 1960, in feet above (-}) or below (-) assumed
compacted land surface.
would have to be removed to hold the water level at the 1960 level would be that amount which could not be stored in the pore spaces of the land fill -about eight-tenths of 8.6 or 6.9 billion cubic feet. If all




46 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY
this water were necessarily pumped at the proposed total pumping rate of 13,400 cfs, 6 days would be required to remove the excess water assuming return flow by underseepage from the conservation area at zero.
The above computations tend to be academic because, after implementation of the plan, pre-storm water management probably will prevent the water from rising to the levels of 1960. The main purpose of this discussion is to demonstrate that the water levels must be low enough prior to the occurrence of the design storm (12.79 inches) to provide sufficient capacity for water storage in the sediments (20 percent porosity) and in the canals and farther backyards (100 percent storage), see table 2. The Corps of Engineers has proposed that this storage capacity be provided by reducing fill requirements to 4 feet above msl in the farther backyards (table 2). At the point where the water rises above ground surface, 100 percent storage of water will occur and further water-level rise will relate inch for inch to the amount of rainfall that exceeds the capacity of the pump system to remove it. Thus, by permitting temporary above-ground storage of water in part of the subdivision lots, the water-level rise will be minimized to a calculated level of 5 feet above msl. The pump system, supplemented by gravity drainage to the ocean, is designed to lower water levels from 5 feet to 4 feet above msl within 5 days after the design storm. The Federal Housing Authority, however, indicates that FHA backing of home loans probably would not be forthcoming for homes where water was to be temporarily stored in the farther backyards.
The Area B plan is complex and great changes in the hydrology of the Miami area will result from its full implementation. The analog models presented later give insight on future water levels in Area B. Because of this insight, the present design may be altered. Obviously, new analog studies are required to assess each new design.
ANALOG STUDY
The laminar flow of ground water through a porous medium under a hydraulic-head differential is analogous to the flow of electrical current through a conductive medium under electrical potential (voltage) difference. The correspondence between the basic laws and the continuity relationships of liquid and of electrical flow has lead to the development of several types of analog models for solving complex boundary problems (Skibitzke, 1960; Stallman, 1961; Brown, 1962; Rovinove, 1962; Walton and Prickett, 1963).
The equipment used in this study provides steady-state solutions to hydrologic problems. The known boundary conditions of hydraulic head and flow are simulated by applying D.C. voltage and current to delec-




REPORT OF INVESTIGATIONS No. 47 47
trically conductive graphite paper. Impermeable boundaries are modeled by cutting the paper; hyper-conductive boundaries such as streams or canals are usually modeled by silver paint applied to the surface of the paper. As hydraulic-head loss is observed when water moves through a canal, the highly-conductive paint (with no voltage loss) does not represent the hydraulic gradient in the canal realistically. An improvization was made in the present analog study by using resistor chains tapped into the paper at equivalent distances of about one mile. The resistor chain served as a partial short-circuit of the conductive paper and qualitative information on head distribution in Area B during pumping was provided.
BOUNDARY CONDITIONS
Many assumptions are involved in setting up the analog model for Area B. The boundary conditions in particular represent a combination of past observations and visualization of possible future parameters of the water-control system. Though the results of the analog are considered no more than qualitative, they give realistic insight of head distributions that would result from the present plans.
The applicability of the results of the analog-model study is affected by the following assumptions shown in figure 25:
1. The head in Conservation Area 3B, west of the seepage-reduction levees, was modeled at 10 feet above msl for convenience. This head is about 1.6 feet lower than the highest observed head on the discharge side of S-9, but the relative head differentials shown by the model may be adjusted to a higher base if desired. Plans (Corps of Engineers, 1963) for the area west of L-31 indicate that water in this area will not be controlled during the rainy season but will be at a level of about 8.5 feet. Near the end of the rainy season in November, the water level in this area will be lowered to 5.8 feet by pumping to permit agricultural activities. The observed water level was 8.7 feet at well G 596 in September 1960 (fig. 9 and fig. 15) and the head at L-31 is modeled at 8.5 feet.
2. A fixed hydraulic boundary of 4 feet above msl extends along the eastern side of Area B from the South New River Canal (C-11), (fig. 25) to the vicinity of C-3 and then gradually rises to 7 feet, westward along the southern edge of Area B. Referring to the high-water map of September 1960 (fig. 15), heads of 4 to 5 feet occurred along the eastern side of Area B; the 4-foot boundary was selected as realistic for the future on the basis of these observations. Heads of 8 to 9 feet above msl occurred along the southern edge of Area B after hurricane Donna. However, the improvement of Canal C-1 and the new construction of




48 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY
d ..0. . .1
we A**
L3,L3 and.0 L
C-0 can be expected /.- .e to rducmaimu wate leel in th uue '~~ ~ ~~ ~~ li Ik ---- / *-CS!,, l lt ...... ,.
tesuthern fixed bouday as ee ajusedtoassme lvel ( t
3000, =* 000 --------- ---I "
KAAREAif
MT la Iott cYToN LINVI
Sepembr 160
EXPLANATION *- I
I "" T,)t- ;
canals ...a.p x at theboudar between Area Aand-AreaB
00, P~'i lLEN ~i'+Olm
(figr 25). Eletic belogevelfAe thatsuc cno dams will almboot nesar
L-30,L-3,an.33. }-.t.
e aue fte odc mant iate we introl fi
(3,90 2 s Eti naly al grea as the rt ow dcarg eo
L e-3 %-1 an LO-cbe 13, 1947).Tee o reuit misouul tat thvesitn of uthre the southern fixed boundary has been adjusted to assumed levels (4 to Sfeet) that appear realistic for rainfall conditions similar to those o September 1960.
3. Dam s (proposed by this report) are positioned in the feeder canals approximately at the boundary between Area A and Area B (fig. 2.3). It is believed that such control dams will almost necessarily be a requisite of the flood-control plan to facilitate water control in both wet and dry periods. The design discharge of7 the larger pump stations (3,900 cfs) is nearly as great as the highest gravity-flow discharge observed in any of the existing canals (4,060 cfs, Miami Canal at llialeah, October 13, 1947). Therefore, it is doubtful that the position of the water-level divide separating westward flow to Area-B pumps and eastward flow to B.cayne Bay can be predicted. In consideration of the large discharge capacity in Area B, it would be possible for some of the food waters of Area A to move inland into Area B and thus delay the




REPORT OF INVESTIGATIONS No. 47 49
dewatering of Area B. Studies in the Snake Creek Canal (Kohout and Leach, 1964, p. 22) show that salt water can move a mile in four hours under density gradient alone. To avoid any possibility that salt water might move inland along the bottom of the canal at high tide and come under the influence of the Area-B pumps, the control dams are believed essential and are programmed into the model at arbitrary positions along the east side of Area B (fig. 25).
4. A dense, branching network of quaternary, tertiary, and secondary canals will discharge water into the feeder (primary) canals of Area B. Thus, the water-level gradients required for water to move through the feeder canals to the pump stations will be one of the major controls of head distribution throughout Area B. Although no size has been assigned specifically, the feeder canals will be large, probably comparable to the Miami Canal. The following set of data for a measurement of maximum discharge in the Miami Canal at Hialeah on October 13, 1947 illustrates the magnitude of gradient that may be encountered in the Area-B feeder canals during pumping.
Width: 107 ft.
Area of cross section: 1,320 sq. ft.
Average depth: 12.3 ft.
Discharge: 4,060 cfs Cage height at Hialeah: 7.22 ft.
Gage height at N.W. 36th Street: 4.33 ft.
Distance between stations: 2.05 miles
Gradient: 1.4 ft./mile
The coefficient of roughness (n) in Manning's formula is computed at 0.035 from the above data. The Corps of Engineers (1961, p. A-12) have indicated that a coefficient of roughness of 0.035 will be used for designing all canals. Using this coefficient in Manning's formula, a graph relating depth, gradient per mile, and discharge for a canal 125 feet wide has been prepared, figure 26. The width of 125 feet has been arbitrarily selected as a practical width for a large feeder canal. The dashed curves are for a canal of rectangular cross section; the solid curves are for a canal of trapezoidal cross section.
The discharge contemplated for two of the pump stations (S-202 and S-203, table 1) is 3,900 cfs. Figure 26 shows that in a canal 20 feet deep and 125 feet wide a discharge of 3,900 cfs would produce a gradient of 0.19 ft per mile in a canal of rectangular cross section and 0.52 ft per mile in a canal of trapezoidal cross section. Assuming that a water level of 4.0 ft at the eastern side of Area B is a correct appraisal for future flood conditions, the hydraulic gradient consistent




50 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY
Mannings formula:
Assume:
Chan ne width 1 12 ft
_'
I~n n .035
0 0 02 03 04 5 06 7 8 0.9 10 it WATER-LEVEL GRADIENT, FEET PER MILE Figure 26. Theoretical relations, from M~anning's formula, between hydraulic gradient,
discharge, and depth for a canal 125 feet wide of rectangular and trapezoidal
ull
cross setions.
with a discharge of 3,900 ofs in a feeder canal 10 miles long, would drop the head at the intake side of the pump to about 2.1 ft above msl for a rectangular canal and 1.2 ft below ms1 for a trapezoidal canal. Thus, a head near mean sea level at the intake side of the pump appears to be realistic for full-capacity pumping after the plan is implemented.
RESULTS OF THE ANALOG STUDY
Two boundary conditions are modeled: (1) In figure 25 the levee borrow canals are free to discharge water directly to the intake side of the pump: (2) In figure 27, control dams are installed to isolate the borrow canals from the pump intake.
BORROW CAAL WITHOUT ISOLATING CONTROL DAMS
In figure 25, the head at the intake side of all pumping stations is assumed to be 0.0 feet msl. Undersecoagte beneath the levee would be
HV\4,j
' .A 2.JW. '.4.,
'U~~~ ~ \\0I J ____0-0
0 Cl 02 03 04 05 06 0.7 08 0.9 .0 II., WATER-LEVEL GRADIENT, FEET PER MILE
Figure 26. Theoretical relations, from Manning's formula, between hydraulic gradient,
discharge, and depth for a canal 125 feet wide of rectangular and trapezoidal
cross sections.
with a discharge of 3,900 cfs in a feeder canal 10 miles long, would drop the head at the intake side of the pump to about 2.1 ft above msl for a rectangular canal and 1.2 ft below msl for a trapezoidal can-al. Thus, a head near mean sea level at the intake side of the pump appears to be realistic for full-capacity pumping after the plan is implemented.
RESULTS OF THE ANALOG STUDY
Two boundary conditions are modeled: (1) In figure 25 the levee borrow canals are free to discharge water directly to the intake side of the pump: (2) In figure 27, control dams are installed to isolate the borrow canals from the pump intake.
BORROW CANALS WITHOUT ISOLATING CONTROL DAMS
In figure 25, the head at the intake side of all pumping stations is assumed to be 0.0 feet msl. IUnderseepage beneath the levee would be




REPORT OF INVESTIGATIONS No. 47 51
picked up by the borrow canals and water-level gradient toward the pump stations would divide about half way between stations. This gradient in the borrow canal could not be modeled adequately and the head throughout the canal was fixed at 0.0 msl. Maximum underseepage would occur with this method of operation but in those parts of the area where seepage-reduction levees are planned, the total underseepage would be minimized. This is shown by the two schematic inset profiles pointing to the north end of L-33 and L-30 (fig. 25). In areas where seepage reduction levees are constructed (profile B), the 10-foot head differential would be spread across a distance of 3,000 feet compared to about 150 feet for profile A. If no ponding occurs between the levees, the flow of water through the aquifer would be reduced in proportion to the relative reduction of water-level gradient (profile A to profile B).
Before seepage reduction (S-R) levees were contemplated, Klein and Sherwood (1961, p. 22) computed the total underseepage for a tenfoot head differential across L-30 near S-201 at 540 cfs per mile--432 cfs by underflow through the permeable aquifer and 108 cfs through the levee itself. This quantity is based on a transmissibility of 3.6 x 100 gpd/ft. The transmissibility at the north end of L-33 is about 6.0 x 100 gpd/ft (fig. 5) and a ten-foot head differential there would result in a relatively higher underflow by a factor of about 2 times that near S-201. As a comparison with the computed underflow of 432 cfs per mile by Klein and Sherwood (1961, p. 21), the following computation indicates the magnitude of horizontal laminar flow through the permeable part of the aquifer for a 10-foot head differential across the 3,000-foot distance intervening between the S-R levee and L-30; the black muck and dense limestone will contribute a negligible amount of horizontal flow:
Q = TIL
where: Q is the flow rate in gpd, T is the transmissibility in gpd/ft, I is the hydraulic gradient in feet per foot, and L is the length of section, in feet, through which the quantity Q flows.
Q = 3,600,000 gpd/ft x 10 ft x 5,280 ft/mile 3000 ft
= 63.4 mgd per mile = 95 cfs/mile Thus, the S-R levees can be expected to reduce underflow from 432 to 95 cfs per mile, a factor of about four. The calculation assumes that water will not be ponded between the two levees. During periods of heavy rainfall some ponding probably will take place. A reasonable situation might be considered where the total head differential of 10




52 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY
feet is equally divided: 5 feet across the S-R levee and 5 feet across L-30. Using the graph and computing technique of Klein and Sherwood (1961, p. 21) for this 5-foot ponded condition, the underflow would be doubled to 127 mgd/mile or 190 efs/mile, and seepage directly through the levee materials would be 54 cfs, a total of 244 efs/mile.
Ponding between the S-R and main levees during the design storm is realistic and can be included in calculations for the entire levee system, as follows: The previous calculation indicates that the effect of ponding with a 5-foot head differential will increase the underflow beneath L-30 from 95 cfs/mile to 190 cfs/mile, a factor of two. Thus, increasing the computed quantities of underflow by a factor of two in those parts of the levee system where seepage-reduction levees are contemplated should yield a useful evaluation of the effect of 5. feet of ponding between the levees. The calculations apply to boundary conditions as set up for the analog model of figure 25. The distribution of transmissibilities in figure 5 indicates about 6 to 7 mgd/ft along the northern part of L-33 and 3 to 4 mgd/ft near S-200 and S-201. The transmissibility along the southern part of L-30 and along L-31 is assumed to be 8 mgd/ft. The effect of the S-R levee is assumed to be nil for one quarter mile on either side of a pump station. Table 6 summarizes the computations.
Based upon hypothetical, but realistic parameters, the total underseepage is computed at about 13,000 cfs for the full western side of Area B. Under the conditions set up in the analog model of figure 25, pump capacity of this amount would be necessary to produce and maintain the steady-state distribution of water levels. By the simple expedient of isolating the borrow canal south of S-203 with a control dam, 5,000 to 6,000 cfs would be removed from the total underseepage figure (table 6).
The final steady-state distribution of heads (fig. 25) indicates that maximum dewatering would occur at the western side of Area B if control dams were not placed in the levee-borrow canals to isolate them from the intake sides of the pumps. Consistent with the fixed boundary at the eastern side, no dewatering would occur there under the conditions imposed in the model. As resistor elements are the same size, this implies that the modeled canals are also uniform in size. The measured voltage at the resistor contact points indicates the water-level response of such canals to the imposed boundary conditions.
BORROW CANALS WITH ISOLATING CONTROL DAMS
The analog model of figure 27 shows the steady-state head distribution that would result if control dams were installed to isolate the




TABLE 6.-UNDERSEEPAGE FOR THE BOUNDARY CONDITION OF NO CONTROL DAMS IN THE LEVEE BORROW CANALS.
Seepago through
levee materials
(Klein and Sherwood,
Underflow 1961, p. 22.)
Assumed averago Length Q Q for 5 ft head transmissibility Q = TIL of reach in reach differential Q Location (fig. 25) (mgd/ft) (cfs/mile) (miles) (ds) (cfe/mile) in reach Total
North end of Area B to I mi. north of -5.200 5 132 3.0 7921 54 162 954 1 mile north to 14 mile south of S.200 4 465 0.5 232 54 27 259 14 mile south of S.200 to 1 mile north of S-201 4 105 0.5 1051 54 27 132 14 mile south of S-201 to % mile southwest of S.201 3.6 418 0.5 209 54 27 236 ,4 mile southwest to 1 mile southwest of -5.201 3.6 95 0.75 1421 54 40 182 1 mile southwest of 5.201 to bond in levee 5 132 3.0 7921 54 162 954 Bend in levee to 1/ mile north of S-202 6 188 3.0 1,1281 54 162 1,290 14 mile north to 14 mile south of S-202 7 813 0.5 406 54 27 433 %A mile south of S.202 to 3A mile north of S.203 8 211 3.5 1,4771 54 189 1,666
2 mile north to 4 mile south of S.203 8 930 0.5 465 54 27 492 I mile south of 8.203 to bhond in levee 8 930 1.0 930 54 54 984 Bend in levee to south end of Area B 8 898 5.5 4,939 54 297 5,236
TOTALS 22.25 11,617 1,201 12,818
1Includes multiplication by a factor of 2 to adjust for the effect of 5 feet of ponding between seepage.reduction and main levee, see text.
C1




54 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SUIRVEY
---------------------A0
.. A*O .. 1
AREA o
T -J" ~ '
" A.,
0-.4
- L 0 00
Figure 27. Electric analog model of Area B with control dams that isolate the borrow
canals for L-30, L-31, and L-33 from the intake side of the pumps.
levee-borrow canals from the intake of the pump stations. The fixed boundaries and other conditions are the same as those of the previous model. The isolation provided by the control dams permitted adjustment of current withdrawal at the pump-station terminus of the resistor chains. Pump station -202 ith a capacity of 3,900 fs and a
relatively small drainage area will produce the lowest head at the intake of the pump. A head of 0.0 ms1 was assigned to S-202. The measured current withdrawal at all other stations was proportioned relative to the current withdrawal at S-202, so that the design discharge ( table 1) of all pump stations was duplicated in the model. With the exception of S-202, fixed at 0.0 msl, the heads (i.e. voltages) at the
0 a.
Fire 27. Electric analog model of Area B with control dams that isolate the borrow
other pump-station intakesL-30, L-31, and L-33 fromong the eintake side of the pumps.canal were
lefree t-borrow canals from ththe flow of water (i.e. current) from tations. The fixed external boundaries and other conditions are the same as those of the previous model. The isolation provided by the control dams permitted adjustThe model shows f current withrat the headswal at the pump-station termintakes (of the rethan S-202) wi be above 1.1 feet msh and in the case of s-203 theand a relatively small drainage area will produce the lowest head at the intake of the pump. A head of 0.0 msl was assigned to S-202. The measured current withdrawal at all other stations was proportioned relative to the current withdrawal at S-202, so that the design discharge (table 1) of all pump stations was duplicated in the model. With the exception of S-202, fixed at 0.0 ms], the heads (i.e. voltages) at the other pump-station intakes and along the lengths of the canal were free to adjust to the flow of water (i.e. current) from the fixed external boundaries.
The model shows that the heads at the pump-station intakes (other than S-202) will be above 1.1 feet msl and in the case of S-203 the




REPORT OF INVESTIGATIONS No. 47 55
intake head will be 3 feet above msl. The drainage area of S-203 is somewhat larger than other stations, and the branching canal is exposed to higher heads along the external boundaries. The alinement of the contours in the southern part of Area B (fig. 27) indicates that water in the upper reach of the S-203 feeder canal would not flow to the S-203 pump station but would flow through the interconnecting secondary and tertiary canals to the S-202 feeder canal. A variety of changes as follows would alter the situation:
1. Increasing the capacity of the S-203 pump station to give an intake head of about 0.0 msl thus lowering the head in the S-203 canal relative to the S-202 canal.
2. Increasing the size of the S-203 canal relative to the S-202 canal. However, because the intake head at S-203 (2.99) is higher than the upstream head of S-202 (2.21), a shift of heads could be accomplished only by reducing the size of the S-202 canal. Verification of this can be obtained by analysis of figure 26.
3. Retaining earthen plugs to separate the secondary and tertiary canals of the feeder-canal systems. Because of the high permeability of the aquifer this measure may not be effective in all cases. As the drainage areas for the pump stations will be controlled to some extent by ground-water divides between feeder canals, topographic divides (i.e., the earth plugs) may not be completely reliable indicators of flow division between two canal systems.
The discharge, gradient, and size of a canal are dependent variables as indicated by the graph of figure 26, which only holds for a canal 125 feet wide. Selection of pump-station discharge, for example, leaves the size and gradient of the canal interdependent until one or the other remaining parameters has been designated. Thus, although the relative current withdrawals have been proportioned to the pump-station discharge in the analog model (fig. 27), the discharges have not been fixed. The three parameters (discharge, size, and gradient) could be varied in almost an infinite combination to give results similar to those of the steady-state model of figure 27. More sophisticated transientstate resistor-capacitor analog models that require special funding are needed to restrict these variables to an optimum combination.
COMPARISON OF THE ANALOG MODELS
Comparison of figures 25 and 27 shows that installation of control dams in the levee-borrow canals will radically change the steady-state distribution of water levels. Without control dams (fig. 25), the lowest water levels and greatest drawdowns will occur at the western side




56 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY
of Area B, but underseepage will be maximum. With isolating control dams (fig. 27), highest water levels and smallest drawdown will occur at the western side of Area B. The quantity of underseepage directly recycled by the pumps will be greatly minimized for the latter method of development in comparison to the former. This is indicated by the spread of the 10-foot head differential over several miles (fig. 27) compared to the spread over only 3,000 feet between S-R and main levees (fig. 25). However, the eastward bulge of contours between pump stations (e.g., S-201 to S-202, fig. 27) indicates that there will be some sacrifice in ability of the pump system to lower water levels in the western part of Area B if isolating control dams are installed. Thus, depending on finalized plans of construction and of the method of operation (i.e. whether controls are open or closed), the land-fill requirements could have a maximum variance of about 8 feet in the western part of Area B. Partial openings of the dams probably would produce advantageous compromise solutions between the two modeled extremes.
The Area B plan has evolved and changed with time. Each additional study has brought to light new evidence and a step-by-step process of revision has taken place. The analog study should be considered qualitative because several assumptions necessary for modeling with the simple equipment available will not be fulfilled under field conditions. Nevertheless, the models of figures 25 and 27 are helpful in visualizing the possible problems and the difference in approaches or conditions. For example, both models indicate that the close spacing of pump stations S-200 and S-201 will dewater the small triangle of land between the S-200, 201 feeder canals much more efficiently than other parts of Area B. Relocation of the S-201 pump station southward toward S-202 would result in better equalization of the drawdowns throughout the area between the S-200 and S-202 feeder canals. New analog studies are required to assess the effect of such changes.
SUMMARY
Up to the present time urban development in southeastern Florida has been primarily along a fairly broad coastal ridge of moderately high land that extends inland 10 to 20 miles from the shore. Westward from this ridge the land becomes progressively more flooded in the lowlands of the Everglades.
The high land of the coastal ridge has largely been developed and much of the future expansion of urban areas will have to take place




REPORT OF INVESTIGATIONS No. 47 57
in the lowlands west of Miami. The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers and the Central and Southern Florida Flood Control District have devised a plan known as the Area B Flood Control Plan to make part of these lowlands suitable for housing development.
Large perennially flooded tracts in the Everglades have been surrounded by levees to form water-conservation areas. The marginal lowland (elevations from 4 to 7 feet above msl) that lies between these conservation areas to the west and to the coastal ridge to the east has been designated Area B by the Corps of Engineers.
The Area B Plan calls for an integrated system of land fills, drainage canals, and large-capacity pumps to control the flood hazard. After development, huge pumps with a total capacity of 13,400 cfs are proposed to dewater Area B during the rainy season, by pumping water westward over the levee system into Conservation Area 3-B.
The ultimate altitude of the land surface for urban development in Area B will be arrived at as a compromise of the economics of land filling ($1,000 to $1,500 per acre foot) and of the cost of a pumping system needed to protect the housing developments under lower fill requirements. The basic problem is how to make this lowland area safe from floods or at least as safe as possible with techniques, construction methods and concepts of hydrology now available so that the development home sites will be sufficiently safe from flooding to be a good financial risk for banks and other lending institutions, and for the Federal Housing Authority to guarantee the housing loans. The plan is complicated by the fact that highly permeable limestone underlies the area and that the underseepage beneath the levee may be large enough under certain circumstances to be equal to the full capacity of the pumping system.
This report has gathered together basic hydrologic facts that have been accumulated over a period of more than twenty years so that the effect on water levels caused by works of the Central and Southern Florida Flood Control Project constructed between 1949 and 1962 might be evaluated. These facts show that levee construction and improvements in the drainage system caused water levels in Area B to be 2 to 3 feet lower in 1960, a hurricane year, than in 1947, also a hurricane year, despite comparable rainfall accumulation for the two years.
Under drought conditions higher fresh-water levels were maintained behind salinity-control dams in 1962, a very dry year, than in 1945, a dry year before control dams were installed. However, Conservation Area 3-B was dry in 1962 and sufficient water could not be delivered downstream to maintain fresh-water heads. Water levels upstream




58 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY
from salinity-control dams were about 1 foot above msl in the dry spring months of 1962. Such low water levels are insufficient to prevent saltwater intrusion into the underlying limestone.
Further evaluation of the Area B Plan as proposed by the Corps of Engineers Survey Review Report of 1961 was accomplished through the use of steady-state electrical analog models. Two boundary conditions-with and without water-control dams to isolate the levee borrow canals from the pump-station intakes were modeled. Without control dams the lowest water levels will occur at the western side of Area B and underseepage from Conservation Area 3-B will be maximum, controlled by an estimated 10-foot head differential across the 3,000foot distance intervening between seepage-reduction and main levees. Arithmetic calculations for this boundary condition indicate that the underseepage for a total head differential of 10 feet would amount to about 13,000 cfs if water is ponded to a depth of 5 feet between the seepage-reduction and main levees during heavy rainfall. Thus for this assumed worst expected condition almost the full capacity of the planned pumping system would be required to recycle the underseepage back to the conservation area on a steady-state basis.
If dams were installed to isolate the levee borrow canals from the intake of the pump station, the underseepage would be minimized because of the spread of the 10-foot head differential over several miles compared to the spread over only 3,000 feet between the seepage-reduction and main levees. However, highest water levels would occur at the western side of Area B and this would require higher fill requirements in that area. Compromise solutions between the two modeled extremes could be obtained by partial openings of the isolating control dams.
The designed discharge of the larger pump stations (3,900 cfs) is nearly as great as the highest gravity flow discharge observed in any of the existing canals (4,060 cfs, Miami Canal at Hialeah, October 13, 1947). In consideration of the large discharge capacity in Area B it would be possible for some of the flood waters of the presently urbanized Area A to move inland into Area B and thus delay the dewatering of Area B. Also there would be a possibility that salt water might move inland along the bottom of the canal at high tide and come under the influence of the Area B pumps. Therefore control dams are believed to be essential to fix the point of hydraulic separation between flow toward the ocean and inland flow toward the Area B pumps. It appears that the boundary between Area A and Area B is a logical location for these control dams and that the best position




REPORT OF INVESTIGATIONS No. 47 59
for the dams is in the main feeder canals approximately at this boundary. In this way water control will be facilitated in both wet and dry periods. Proper operation of the control dams will cause a division of flow so that contributions to the canal from Area A will flow seaward, whereas contributions from Area B will be pumped westward. Thus water which now unavoidably is wasted to the ocean by seaward flow in a high-water period will be pumped westward into storage in the conservation area.
The Area B Plan will have considerable potential for conservation of fresh water and in order to fully capitalize on this potential consideration should be given to supplementary installation of small pumps (100 to 400 cfs capacity) at both the levee side and the eastern side of Area B. Such pumps would permit ideal flexibility of water control. At intermediate water levels in the conservation area, underseepage could be re-cycled back to the conservation area at moderate rates at the same time that water could be released eastward into Area A for prevention of salt encroachment.
When the conservation area is dry and no water is available directly from the conservation area, the proposed east-side pumps would assist in maintaining adequate fresh-water heads near the coast by pumping water seaward from Area B canals over the proposed control dams into Area A canals.
The estimated increase in population from about 1,000,000 in 1960 to 4,000,000 in 1995 is expected to cause water use in the Miami area to increase from 230 mgd (345 cfs) to 1.4 bgd (2,170 cfs). This rate of water use for a year's time would be equal to a volume of water about 10.5 inches deep covering an area of about 2,800 square miles, or an area extending 28 miles inland from the coast and 100 miles southward from Lake Okeechobee to Everglades National Park. This volume of water is almost one-fifth of the average rainfall over the area and is equal to the average surface runoff from this area. As Fort Lauderdale, West Palm Beach, other coastal cities, agricultural interests, and Everglades National Park will require a share of this water, it becomes apparent that increasing water needs will eventually approach the availability of fresh water in the hydrologic system. In consideration of these continually growing water needs, the Area B plan should be conceived not only as a flood-control plan but also as an important factor for beneficial control and management of all water resources in southeastern Florida.




60 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY
REFERENCES
Brown. Russell H.
1962 Progress in ground-water studies with the electrical-analog model:
Jour. Am. Water Works Assoc., v. 54, no. 8, p. 943.958.
C&SFFCD
1960 Report on flood conditions in the Central and Southern Florida Flood
Control District in September 1960: mimeographed report 26 p.
Dude County Development Department
1962 Revised edition. Economic survey of Metropolitan Miami: Miami,
Florida.
Ferguson, G. E. (see Parker, G. G.)
Hoy, Nevin D. (see Schroeder, Melvin C.)
Klein, Howard (see Schroeder, Melvin C. and Sherwood, C. B.)
1961 (and Sherwood, C. B.) Hydrologic conditions in the vicinity of Levee
30, northern Dade County, Florida: Fla. Geol. Survey Rept. Inv. 24,
pt. 1, 24 p.
Kohout, F. A.
1964 (and Leach, S. D.) Salt-water movement caused by control-dam operation in the Snake Creek Canal, Miami, Florida: Fla. Geol. Survey
Rept. Inv. 24, pt. 4, 49 p.
Leach, S. D. (also see Sherwood, C. B.)
1963 (and Sherwood, C. B.) Hydrologic studies in the Snake Creek Canal
area. Dade County, Florida: Fla. Geol. Survey Rept. Inv. 24, pt. 3, 33 p.
Love, S. K. (see Parker, G. G.)
Parker. G. G.
1955 (and Ferguson, G. E., Love, S. K., and others) Water resources of
southeastern Florida, with special reference to the geology and ground water of the Miami area: U. S. Geol. Survey Water-Supply Paper 1255.
Prickett, T. A. (see Walton, W. C.)
Robinove, Charles J.
1962 Ground-water studies and analog models: U. S. Geol. Survey Circular
468, 12 p.
Schroeder, Melvin C.
1958 (and Klein, Howard, and Hoy, Nevin D.) Biscayne aqui/er of Dade
and Broward Counties, Florida: Fla. Geol. Survey Rept. Inv. 17, 56 p. Sherwood, C. B. (see Leach, S. D.)
1963 (and Klein, Howard) Surface- and ground-water relation in a highly
permeable environment: Internat. Assoc. Sci. Hydrol., Symp. Surface
Waters, Pub. 63, p. 454-468.
1962 iand Leach, S. D.) Hydrologic studies in the Snapper Creek Canal
area, Dade County, Florida: Fla. Geol. Survey Rept. Inv. 24, pt. 2, 32 p. Skihitzke, H. E.
1960 Electronic computers as an aid to the analysis of hydrologic problems:
InternaL Assoc. Sci. Hydrol., Comm. Subter. Waters Pub. 52, p. 347-358.




REPORT OF INVESTIGATIONS No. 47 61
Stallman, Robert W.
1956 Preliminary findings on ground-water conditions relative to Area B
flood-control plans, Miami, Florida: U. S. Geol. Survey open-file report,
29 p.
1961 From geologic data to aquifer analog models: Am. Geol. Inst., v. 7,
no. 7, p. 8-11.
Walton, W. C.
1963 (and Prickett, T. A.) Hydrogeologic electric analog computers: Jour.
Hydraulics Div., Am. Soc. Civ. Eng., v. 89, no. HY6, Proc. Paper 3695,
p. 67-91.
Wolman, Abel
1961 Impact of desalinization on the water economy: Jour. Am. Water Works
Assoc., v. 53, no. 2, p. 119-124.
U. S. Corps of Engineers
1953 Partial definite project report, Central and Southern Florida project,
for flood control and other purposes: Part 1, Supplement 7, U. S. Army
Engineer District, Jacksonville, Florida.
1958 Survey-review report on Central and Southern Florida project, greater
Miami area (Area B): U. S. Army Engineer District, Jacksonville,
Florida.
1961 Survey-review report on Central and Southern Florida project, greater
Miami area, (Area B): U. S. Army Engineer District, Jacksonville,
Florida.
1963 Survey-review report on Central and Southern Florida project, southwest
Dade County: U. S. Army Engineer District, Jacksonville, Florida.




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6d970bece0c8d81d43bc0c36c3e27d407484747f
'2017-03-09T14:56:27-05:00'
describe
'info:fdaE20081001_AAAAASfileF20081001_AAALQT-norm-0' 'aip-filesF20081001_AAALQT-norm-0.pdf'
990a1112c9800aba2ac4a4aebb729f4d
c2a7dbe0ad206c2498cbc4559d82e3f53911e302
'2017-03-09T14:56:34-05:00'
describe
'2017-03-09T14:56:29-05:00'
normalize
'31922' 'info:fdaE20081001_AAAAASfileF20081001_AAALQU' 'sip-files00004.pro'
4ffdb0b549aae69439a28729f448ce3a
9cdfdcc94f32415a6dcdd5b1ee70e41f26016348
'2017-03-09T14:55:17-05:00'
describe
'33213' 'info:fdaE20081001_AAAAASfileF20081001_AAALQV' 'sip-files00004.QC.jpg'
d0fea44cbd246f480caf2ba1c99bbf93
6efa7be2d53403d596448c79c5510215412712b1
'2017-03-09T14:55:14-05:00'
describe
'861300' 'info:fdaE20081001_AAAAASfileF20081001_AAALQW' 'sip-files00004.tif'
53648cc2c20210038c7538cb90861f91
eeac7d009ccc415a3c5979d75d4a92e2911ff392
'2017-03-09T14:55:15-05:00'
describe
'1436' 'info:fdaE20081001_AAAAASfileF20081001_AAALQX' 'sip-files00004.txt'
8a2630e14f685d1b6f1c51e400af4ebe
48568f47a0cad9cc7148258f14329aae72a894ca
'2017-03-09T14:53:52-05:00'
describe
'9129' 'info:fdaE20081001_AAAAASfileF20081001_AAALQY' 'sip-files00004thm.jpg'
748de8b592af76fcef03954a18a05f6f
2943d5f55bd8d2af9905517fb7c5dbbd67ad3280
'2017-03-09T14:56:05-05:00'
describe
'14063' 'info:fdaE20081001_AAAAASfileF20081001_AAALQZ' 'sip-files00005.jp2'
9d8711f4f1cffbd433d40eae1198b362
0c6c3717e2dcf8be2f79aa321d86c8b3ff178bd4
'2017-03-09T14:53:41-05:00'
describe
'17982' 'info:fdaE20081001_AAAAASfileF20081001_AAALRA' 'sip-files00005.jpg'
46b0583ab831dcb1988c250ede04e2e7
50918a02221c35ba5310fce8197c25af47feb95b
'2017-03-09T14:54:43-05:00'
describe
'7384' 'info:fdaE20081001_AAAAASfileF20081001_AAALRB' 'sip-files00005.pdf'
53603d71ecb03fc4d3c15bb7040262b2
b1bbed32eb1375f90998fd0b0f02a7e795a328cd
'2017-03-09T14:54:22-05:00'
describe
'info:fdaE20081001_AAAAASfileF20081001_AAALRB-norm-0' 'aip-filesF20081001_AAALRB-norm-0.pdf'
990a1112c9800aba2ac4a4aebb729f4d
c2a7dbe0ad206c2498cbc4559d82e3f53911e302
'2017-03-09T14:56:36-05:00'
describe
'2017-03-09T14:54:24-05:00'
normalize
'4197' 'info:fdaE20081001_AAAAASfileF20081001_AAALRC' 'sip-files00005.pro'
240bb8ed9d9c4a19e49ddc537c6649f8
57b6a6748d96cc03f8d7cd0cc460c51d5589613a
'2017-03-09T14:56:15-05:00'
describe
'6024' 'info:fdaE20081001_AAAAASfileF20081001_AAALRD' 'sip-files00005.QC.jpg'
0dd246eb2258e9dffba875a903510515
40b454e946b98e205f043c9e8fac507993faa444
'2017-03-09T14:55:37-05:00'
describe
'846672' 'info:fdaE20081001_AAAAASfileF20081001_AAALRE' 'sip-files00005.tif'
5a64081455d218309d91efdd091de81a
762b5d76add6a3a5ca7640a08e9cdc4281de1664
describe
'255' 'info:fdaE20081001_AAAAASfileF20081001_AAALRF' 'sip-files00005.txt'
e9694a8936b26a970768400ab5f3003e
1297e15011b096161ef4db6ce3e11ff5bdbf5ca8
'2017-03-09T14:54:58-05:00'
describe
'2164' 'info:fdaE20081001_AAAAASfileF20081001_AAALRG' 'sip-files00005thm.jpg'
687671d5253dc4626e59aee208a9571f
6d3691c3ccdae2f0c5271a12de2841f80681e61e
'2017-03-09T14:55:01-05:00'
describe
'105846' 'info:fdaE20081001_AAAAASfileF20081001_AAALRH' 'sip-files00006.jp2'
6840ac4f1b74ebbff0cec88fde87aa07
428a9e0efb8ad4031cfe5f50baaa0f5c6897e48f
'2017-03-09T14:52:59-05:00'
describe
'107485' 'info:fdaE20081001_AAAAASfileF20081001_AAALRI' 'sip-files00006.jpg'
968a2776fa4dac07ada2c87177ca6985
00937e7a7d8f4c5fa032dc1afde48e4783103953
describe
'41608' 'info:fdaE20081001_AAAAASfileF20081001_AAALRJ' 'sip-files00006.pdf'
0d110927250ecc71b3f858cc2d3d4bb9
efdc07d0648be67bfd066f92d7eeb5df3a2e34b7
'2017-03-09T14:54:11-05:00'
describe
'info:fdaE20081001_AAAAASfileF20081001_AAALRJ-norm-0' 'aip-filesF20081001_AAALRJ-norm-0.pdf'
990a1112c9800aba2ac4a4aebb729f4d
c2a7dbe0ad206c2498cbc4559d82e3f53911e302
'2017-03-09T14:56:40-05:00'
describe
'2017-03-09T14:54:13-05:00'
normalize
'101296' 'info:fdaE20081001_AAAAASfileF20081001_AAALRK' 'sip-files00006.pro'
f60073146bb4141231fe89f8e3732094
3307c6ab710cdfbebb09b19901409bd384ad13b2
'2017-03-09T14:55:23-05:00'
describe
'37467' 'info:fdaE20081001_AAAAASfileF20081001_AAALRL' 'sip-files00006.QC.jpg'
593ef4eb6d6c3a79424e5c21d373f35a
54674ef67667e0e7f50cc47a376dce82e585017e
'2017-03-09T14:55:27-05:00'
describe
'841408' 'info:fdaE20081001_AAAAASfileF20081001_AAALRM' 'sip-files00006.tif'
04699d5a2c67e3a542c998b2f78ed0ae
f3fe36cbc592dddb5e20929888d79ff1426b9d8f
'2017-03-09T14:52:45-05:00'
describe
'4034' 'info:fdaE20081001_AAAAASfileF20081001_AAALRN' 'sip-files00006.txt'
f1fd2c65091e9fe01960bfbc267c75c5
d91e2bb1c7bce694225e08b4dde6eda860fb22ec
'2017-03-09T14:54:15-05:00'
describe
'9138' 'info:fdaE20081001_AAAAASfileF20081001_AAALRO' 'sip-files00006thm.jpg'
30424b716c97b6f900ca78dd084f9674
e54b3afa8c24d082be65796c6c4fa4f158bc8c52
'2017-03-09T14:55:54-05:00'
describe
'160214' 'info:fdaE20081001_AAAAASfileF20081001_AAALRP' 'sip-files00007.jp2'
e52d7d2c9ebb45ff9d814d0b6f5426a6
8214c6da043a0c2a7076a4682aaa4eb0d4ed064d
'2017-03-09T14:53:25-05:00'
describe
'143095' 'info:fdaE20081001_AAAAASfileF20081001_AAALRQ' 'sip-files00007.jpg'
273bb99fdd5d6158005382ed709ae6a9
abbd423da77aea5aa27d27a85d131f300b4d04c5
'2017-03-09T14:55:57-05:00'
describe
'65853' 'info:fdaE20081001_AAAAASfileF20081001_AAALRR' 'sip-files00007.pdf'
2f0c4d0fd0a275620d27c89f31a96726
d951cca5579b5837329f79caa3717a29c37867f9
'2017-03-09T14:52:51-05:00'
describe
'35577' 'info:fdaE20081001_AAAAASfileF20081001_AAALRR-norm-0' 'aip-filesF20081001_AAALRR-norm-0.pdf'
8cbf40949b8b639101cd4e2c803d9b62
6e3842fc6d7fb92b4cf6a2346c8099c7289050d2
'2017-03-09T14:56:37-05:00'
describe
'2017-03-09T14:52:53-05:00'
normalize
'99354' 'info:fdaE20081001_AAAAASfileF20081001_AAALRS' 'sip-files00007.pro'
a84bc4aba32e72e93be3c3b09ee94aba
81f37193ef0d12ae44c00dc7f328b6d85b8ced9f
describe
'47070' 'info:fdaE20081001_AAAAASfileF20081001_AAALRT' 'sip-files00007.QC.jpg'
11cd598a2cc8728a7f226671460c7025
b5a26cedd1f2129207583a38960081d8c96b1940
'2017-03-09T14:56:17-05:00'
describe
'878008' 'info:fdaE20081001_AAAAASfileF20081001_AAALRU' 'sip-files00007.tif'
d3aed4a209588feba43613f29d8476d0
6422add2868a5986065af54177a70e03be19f5e2
describe
'4303' 'info:fdaE20081001_AAAAASfileF20081001_AAALRV' 'sip-files00007.txt'
5bc89c7a72e3cae682b70d19932a29d0
4bc8022f5b3c9f61eb29689eb64bbf843d734f0f
describe
Invalid character
WARNING CODE 'Daitss::Anomaly' Invalid character
'11478' 'info:fdaE20081001_AAAAASfileF20081001_AAALRW' 'sip-files00007thm.jpg'
16518f83c31744e33a053f545be6114e
a4b97857147614d4d593fe2a24dab67b654c1841
describe
'80126' 'info:fdaE20081001_AAAAASfileF20081001_AAALRX' 'sip-files00008.jp2'
e9789293b85e404c2d4362839a58fcc7
f68f4ecd6c466b94bb29700b18c76852d46aee29
'2017-03-09T14:53:18-05:00'
describe
'68706' 'info:fdaE20081001_AAAAASfileF20081001_AAALRY' 'sip-files00008.jpg'
af58b09283f9a67fdf70f721be1620fa
92d4e82fc1abf7c65a0106eb3fb7e9e6ada91b85
'2017-03-09T14:53:56-05:00'
describe
'33876' 'info:fdaE20081001_AAAAASfileF20081001_AAALRZ' 'sip-files00008.pdf'
df6dbaf63759cf69acba9b60f8f3b425
deb0df74941ff4fb3a8f34d784520ba736df0a49
describe
'info:fdaE20081001_AAAAASfileF20081001_AAALRZ-norm-0' 'aip-filesF20081001_AAALRZ-norm-0.pdf'
990a1112c9800aba2ac4a4aebb729f4d
c2a7dbe0ad206c2498cbc4559d82e3f53911e302
'2017-03-09T14:56:41-05:00'
describe
normalize
'42392' 'info:fdaE20081001_AAAAASfileF20081001_AAALSA' 'sip-files00008.pro'
ea9e6c260806da9b0a67d6f2e9186f7b
b8590fe742d9974f79ff2d485f8f71ba6d5bdd40
'2017-03-09T14:54:08-05:00'
describe
'22844' 'info:fdaE20081001_AAAAASfileF20081001_AAALSB' 'sip-files00008.QC.jpg'
e9028fc0d0741e4b65d9d90aed27dd2f
9ff1bd48d07d99f690c48b61590480cfe035b10b
'2017-03-09T14:55:30-05:00'
describe
'890784' 'info:fdaE20081001_AAAAASfileF20081001_AAALSC' 'sip-files00008.tif'
e9259fefe355178064ea0613feb30b10
4532906cb289a587764867abba67551599ac1c5c
'2017-03-09T14:53:36-05:00'
describe
'1887' 'info:fdaE20081001_AAAAASfileF20081001_AAALSD' 'sip-files00008.txt'
e09188d00b4b983882ee315333ad43cd
647643050a1e4a70796eb45bd51468e42b48f6fe
'2017-03-09T14:54:16-05:00'
describe
'6145' 'info:fdaE20081001_AAAAASfileF20081001_AAALSE' 'sip-files00008thm.jpg'
51252a5e2f90227b5cc334089f305b34
b29e578c01be070dee5a63dd2eb15ad620b9ead5
'2017-03-09T14:52:40-05:00'
describe
'191144' 'info:fdaE20081001_AAAAASfileF20081001_AAALSF' 'sip-files00010.jp2'
5a942779df5d32906adf2d0519e1c659
f45d23bff5474f938d938f8b5d7be7fc23181307
'2017-03-09T14:54:10-05:00'
describe
'173224' 'info:fdaE20081001_AAAAASfileF20081001_AAALSG' 'sip-files00010.jpg'
38fa85d86cba4d7feffd45edca3fdb73
e5ab7663aa35568ad2fc1c7329eca296c1ff66e8
describe
'80202' 'info:fdaE20081001_AAAAASfileF20081001_AAALSH' 'sip-files00010.pdf'
4c7a2a4f408cbdf4bcc5fe9546a9ba64
3454a73e9830f04a2ef959257fd374fa2828a227
'2017-03-09T14:53:03-05:00'
describe
'info:fdaE20081001_AAAAASfileF20081001_AAALSH-norm-0' 'aip-filesF20081001_AAALSH-norm-0.pdf'
8cbf40949b8b639101cd4e2c803d9b62
6e3842fc6d7fb92b4cf6a2346c8099c7289050d2
describe
'2017-03-09T14:53:05-05:00'
normalize
'62757' 'info:fdaE20081001_AAAAASfileF20081001_AAALSI' 'sip-files00010.pro'
04f127a784df12ca37a31ebe48cf634b
4dd80254583afcdeca4a422dd99734d6ff510559
'2017-03-09T14:55:53-05:00'
describe
'54493' 'info:fdaE20081001_AAAAASfileF20081001_AAALSJ' 'sip-files00010.QC.jpg'
7a7d8211f2c5e606b1cac1a3231a16b0
d3c216c11d6408a181c2cd2b787d7fefb87b3e43
describe
'880444' 'info:fdaE20081001_AAAAASfileF20081001_AAALSK' 'sip-files00010.tif'
264c5b8865fa0e13653a36b4f31c5236
f5a57d07b879fefd33b1ea64a912f48122047973
'2017-03-09T14:55:51-05:00'
describe
'2594' 'info:fdaE20081001_AAAAASfileF20081001_AAALSL' 'sip-files00010.txt'
6f00669308dc47cc549365452fcc07c9
090d5f84e94c232a16bc47a167536a7d8fba480b
describe
'13022' 'info:fdaE20081001_AAAAASfileF20081001_AAALSM' 'sip-files00010thm.jpg'
403d627699216b58d9a15dfb6b15fb5f
5a0a0aa6d7248c757e774447554f5efd8e94ba89
describe
'205437' 'info:fdaE20081001_AAAAASfileF20081001_AAALSN' 'sip-files00011.jp2'
23b3bc712febf6c9b75350b915cf2041
c70948d010a625c2e1b66cd3062074b13fc37b71
describe
'185499' 'info:fdaE20081001_AAAAASfileF20081001_AAALSO' 'sip-files00011.jpg'
31d0aba13bafde8abc10447eef127cb5
86659cda1b27c665d549fb05eab98bf2a21b7536
describe
'88239' 'info:fdaE20081001_AAAAASfileF20081001_AAALSP' 'sip-files00011.pdf'
f0d40443e039fb12509dfb6ae55143ec
71ab91b241ac3080dc0243067a27cce77278de7f
describe
'info:fdaE20081001_AAAAASfileF20081001_AAALSP-norm-0' 'aip-filesF20081001_AAALSP-norm-0.pdf'
990a1112c9800aba2ac4a4aebb729f4d
c2a7dbe0ad206c2498cbc4559d82e3f53911e302
describe
'2017-03-09T14:55:03-05:00'
normalize
'67500' 'info:fdaE20081001_AAAAASfileF20081001_AAALSQ' 'sip-files00011.pro'
0c0f17fe5dfdb2b4f58b885ee43d32af
03bb7f3378cca4f5c70534d53dc33fbd7b9a8335
describe
'56102' 'info:fdaE20081001_AAAAASfileF20081001_AAALSR' 'sip-files00011.QC.jpg'
5721d298a07edf23600dd9067db81f38
05c7480ccf41b89b58fc18c675599f2b1f17ff30
describe
'901448' 'info:fdaE20081001_AAAAASfileF20081001_AAALSS' 'sip-files00011.tif'
d95f1c01906b3df80232c386b1789879
8cef364d97df3bf79c2c9010dd2190013c836dca
describe
'2688' 'info:fdaE20081001_AAAAASfileF20081001_AAALST' 'sip-files00011.txt'
081ed1f73df6a5725898814a08ccfd96
d6a80400f2e708906d89a741c2136e7a48697997
describe
'13166' 'info:fdaE20081001_AAAAASfileF20081001_AAALSU' 'sip-files00011thm.jpg'
064eb08af21b87994409396db7ab01ac
d14088249e15a1081f2385d3c20a3c910575573e
'2017-03-09T14:53:46-05:00'
describe
'121161' 'info:fdaE20081001_AAAAASfileF20081001_AAALSV' 'sip-files00012.jp2'
a2b7c908dabc9c6e9dfeb857cb8dba67
447c88fa48c374b82f39dc80b23a70f894fc520f
'2017-03-09T14:55:38-05:00'
describe
'113432' 'info:fdaE20081001_AAAAASfileF20081001_AAALSW' 'sip-files00012.jpg'
e16163690bdf63c307cb6507899a7d93
7768ceacc20bf7240cb801cc45eba2960c90eb9a
'2017-03-09T14:52:54-05:00'
describe
'51943' 'info:fdaE20081001_AAAAASfileF20081001_AAALSX' 'sip-files00012.pdf'
5ec1abc3a1f00e235adf89deca85a9f0
f5ee96909d302ca3056d46d8d63c8d03ab06f2e7
'2017-03-09T14:55:12-05:00'
describe
'info:fdaE20081001_AAAAASfileF20081001_AAALSX-norm-0' 'aip-filesF20081001_AAALSX-norm-0.pdf'
990a1112c9800aba2ac4a4aebb729f4d
c2a7dbe0ad206c2498cbc4559d82e3f53911e302
describe
normalize
'15188' 'info:fdaE20081001_AAAAASfileF20081001_AAALSY' 'sip-files00012.pro'
8f0967ce9e2a2a7682025a22e5030cee
fda795767a281fa8e1f5ced6ee5d7fa0abbe7013
'2017-03-09T14:53:26-05:00'
describe
'38458' 'info:fdaE20081001_AAAAASfileF20081001_AAALSZ' 'sip-files00012.QC.jpg'
86a9a41d57417f18a2785612e79823dd
ad0aa0809814da9b3f5cd21a578c804c78a1048a
'2017-03-09T14:54:41-05:00'
describe
'862180' 'info:fdaE20081001_AAAAASfileF20081001_AAALTA' 'sip-files00012.tif'
ff9734f562206fdc57a130b830291996
7657d8642e8f8cf8e98342e1488e1c22207630bd
describe
'781' 'info:fdaE20081001_AAAAASfileF20081001_AAALTB' 'sip-files00012.txt'
291d49038e7fbf3d73431701ee7ae6f1
c608c27213f8c99dbca29729dd5d3e22263af720
'2017-03-09T14:53:15-05:00'
describe
'11055' 'info:fdaE20081001_AAAAASfileF20081001_AAALTC' 'sip-files00012thm.jpg'
78b8d2856533084f8c1c78fe38f1ead5
f9766843cfe8f979fa910a049294484d6d320861
'2017-03-09T14:56:14-05:00'
describe
'200320' 'info:fdaE20081001_AAAAASfileF20081001_AAALTD' 'sip-files00013.jp2'
071c5fefd6cdd0344a707b523c9a3eb5
70e80d9c497a57fbd62e444870cb187f0e198603
describe
'176206' 'info:fdaE20081001_AAAAASfileF20081001_AAALTE' 'sip-files00013.jpg'
83772ba1c01e93711427a04b725ea2e0
99e0f533115db843170fefe34f3e30d3bcae0066
'2017-03-09T14:56:06-05:00'
describe
'84908' 'info:fdaE20081001_AAAAASfileF20081001_AAALTF' 'sip-files00013.pdf'
78818b91453e95804c6ceca677f77aa2
449eccb84f6eb1d0063405a176048fd1ec8f42c6
'2017-03-09T14:52:43-05:00'
describe
'info:fdaE20081001_AAAAASfileF20081001_AAALTF-norm-0' 'aip-filesF20081001_AAALTF-norm-0.pdf'
8cbf40949b8b639101cd4e2c803d9b62
6e3842fc6d7fb92b4cf6a2346c8099c7289050d2
describe
'2017-03-09T14:52:44-05:00'
normalize
'66775' 'info:fdaE20081001_AAAAASfileF20081001_AAALTG' 'sip-files00013.pro'
ad015795f6fcb115366e1a65b06d5c07
8a30217717ee7018f9b3aa6d6d5fbef3437ba0e7
'2017-03-09T14:56:04-05:00'
describe
'55464' 'info:fdaE20081001_AAAAASfileF20081001_AAALTH' 'sip-files00013.QC.jpg'
e0a4f72bcdff4a322ed4fec584cf3734
bdf3257c4b01dc494995039dce0478f341a492a2
describe
'897180' 'info:fdaE20081001_AAAAASfileF20081001_AAALTI' 'sip-files00013.tif'
7868d6c5d0709f260fa0f62b3cef3d6c
b671b5e9ef3fb9df810ff16e2d239525820fbbaf
describe
'2679' 'info:fdaE20081001_AAAAASfileF20081001_AAALTJ' 'sip-files00013.txt'
5e3ac80eb3c5435d59a03ab95936911a
b447537091c333b91d85cbc4174c96dc5507df35
describe
'13416' 'info:fdaE20081001_AAAAASfileF20081001_AAALTK' 'sip-files00013thm.jpg'
25b101db5bff21f57a1eaa2efda03d94
e0d5106f109cfb2556f1c95a81719551b966e29f
describe
'145970' 'info:fdaE20081001_AAAAASfileF20081001_AAALTL' 'sip-files00014.jp2'
f60febfe2fd39c8488ec09115ca83c35
79056b69e2d0aa20ef711507865d1a8998921acc
'2017-03-09T14:54:55-05:00'
describe
'120297' 'info:fdaE20081001_AAAAASfileF20081001_AAALTM' 'sip-files00014.jpg'
97455094a95f6332de09c4681683a567
a648e6e88a5858273c48532a70b37218ee5934ce
'2017-03-09T14:53:37-05:00'
describe
'63422' 'info:fdaE20081001_AAAAASfileF20081001_AAALTN' 'sip-files00014.pdf'
a50800fc12df7c34cea4c19cd1d6d81f
3652e1dcbb9c6c316035c44dc1ce517995e9c32d
'2017-03-09T14:54:35-05:00'
describe
'info:fdaE20081001_AAAAASfileF20081001_AAALTN-norm-0' 'aip-filesF20081001_AAALTN-norm-0.pdf'
990a1112c9800aba2ac4a4aebb729f4d
c2a7dbe0ad206c2498cbc4559d82e3f53911e302
describe
'2017-03-09T14:54:37-05:00'
normalize
'15994' 'info:fdaE20081001_AAAAASfileF20081001_AAALTO' 'sip-files00014.pro'
2f3b772242888f109af7736c876b3a82
670b8b1a4c3c4d95828d0ad4346cbf49b31fd39a
describe
'40787' 'info:fdaE20081001_AAAAASfileF20081001_AAALTP' 'sip-files00014.QC.jpg'
10fb9733be5ed22ecf056c819e95f201
1b26793cdb4ca0173d7108b21b20772625df248d
'2017-03-09T14:53:06-05:00'
describe
'861592' 'info:fdaE20081001_AAAAASfileF20081001_AAALTQ' 'sip-files00014.tif'
50f988e81532559e98ee466ed2d88c7b
344927ac48ddcc63668b2b4e77617b6a65067b8b
describe
'677' 'info:fdaE20081001_AAAAASfileF20081001_AAALTR' 'sip-files00014.txt'
0da1f49aa5a271271c48021b2a27d30c
73473d80045977eb196d2f04b5709c9cd129ebe7
describe
'11757' 'info:fdaE20081001_AAAAASfileF20081001_AAALTS' 'sip-files00014thm.jpg'
1d1c90d2a06dcc1c96d8036ba4b47263
445aa7dc1d865333714bace9b676ea82274ef37a
describe
'188239' 'info:fdaE20081001_AAAAASfileF20081001_AAALTT' 'sip-files00015.jp2'
8728bb527dfb19358e492d3c6c21a893
c5b72694a83260158ac5b7c17b3176e6dc9a37d6
'2017-03-09T14:53:22-05:00'
describe
'166952' 'info:fdaE20081001_AAAAASfileF20081001_AAALTU' 'sip-files00015.jpg'
ae79e0d5c46ce20d3fa95308c39e8145
181163856f07f95c51d74963dd037c35434018ca
'2017-03-09T14:54:51-05:00'
describe
'77613' 'info:fdaE20081001_AAAAASfileF20081001_AAALTV' 'sip-files00015.pdf'
90f662436219784471122cd804553592
0bb4919a1973ca93edecacd331f6b886ea2f2a5e
'2017-03-09T14:56:01-05:00'
describe
'info:fdaE20081001_AAAAASfileF20081001_AAALTV-norm-0' 'aip-filesF20081001_AAALTV-norm-0.pdf'
990a1112c9800aba2ac4a4aebb729f4d
c2a7dbe0ad206c2498cbc4559d82e3f53911e302
'2017-03-09T14:56:38-05:00'
describe
'2017-03-09T14:56:03-05:00'
normalize
'69610' 'info:fdaE20081001_AAAAASfileF20081001_AAALTW' 'sip-files00015.pro'
64c7543d815884f6d57577c893d8a3b4
47052d412e09c58f63f5fcc6bb4ec59a32587f59
'2017-03-09T14:55:29-05:00'
describe
'52321' 'info:fdaE20081001_AAAAASfileF20081001_AAALTX' 'sip-files00015.QC.jpg'
d16d8a0138779e982eebd53c44458b17
082ba772ea7439936c81331edb89b338636c371c
'2017-03-09T14:55:58-05:00'
describe
'893780' 'info:fdaE20081001_AAAAASfileF20081001_AAALTY' 'sip-files00015.tif'
a2de07a2d11d4b7dc934df81896180e3
d13f5afe03a4bb9052e2d46f19848d2f3773ba3f
'2017-03-09T14:53:44-05:00'
describe
'2767' 'info:fdaE20081001_AAAAASfileF20081001_AAALTZ' 'sip-files00015.txt'
e9d768b1723d2de3554f73c2e039fe9a
15de49b9955efb86f1ba9dcd6e7d2e494582f5f8
describe
Invalid character
Invalid character
'12638' 'info:fdaE20081001_AAAAASfileF20081001_AAALUA' 'sip-files00015thm.jpg'
16501afcd6f9460bb983e40f0aa67111
50284a3b3a904c30fb7a7ea16ed7aba54c5892f3
'2017-03-09T14:54:52-05:00'
describe
'156666' 'info:fdaE20081001_AAAAASfileF20081001_AAALUB' 'sip-files00016.jp2'
6d05d686464e335171b175b824bc5100
50f648170cfa322daebac3526cd973aa03fa36e3
'2017-03-09T14:53:27-05:00'
describe
'106409' 'info:fdaE20081001_AAAAASfileF20081001_AAALUC' 'sip-files00016.jpg'
6ed1b9a10578a9db9404a7ebff7f74a8
b494966c244a6430b0304b64befdbea6d78b86aa
'2017-03-09T14:53:01-05:00'
describe
'66013' 'info:fdaE20081001_AAAAASfileF20081001_AAALUD' 'sip-files00016.pdf'
3608df83d05f158b8daaddb7570bfd28
49fba2f4dabd1ef0f2c98b8eb6ba334f120942f6
'2017-03-09T14:55:55-05:00'
describe
'info:fdaE20081001_AAAAASfileF20081001_AAALUD-norm-0' 'aip-filesF20081001_AAALUD-norm-0.pdf'
990a1112c9800aba2ac4a4aebb729f4d
c2a7dbe0ad206c2498cbc4559d82e3f53911e302
'2017-03-09T14:56:39-05:00'
describe
normalize
'6546' 'info:fdaE20081001_AAAAASfileF20081001_AAALUE' 'sip-files00016.pro'
677bfc205dbefebaec364e5b77f650ec
22c7a9452c79e87126a9b08cc27bd3fdf5ba0bd9
'2017-03-09T14:52:41-05:00'
describe
'29663' 'info:fdaE20081001_AAAAASfileF20081001_AAALUF' 'sip-files00016.QC.jpg'
e17a98790b081b2431c78f47921bbe4e
927ca70e7d3f12e6206e5e107340ecc200530287
describe
'871972' 'info:fdaE20081001_AAAAASfileF20081001_AAALUG' 'sip-files00016.tif'
91336a3738819c79131f35eca05dc45f
957b4e66b73a2232bf4373e963797806e3bb07a5
'2017-03-09T14:54:04-05:00'
describe
'312' 'info:fdaE20081001_AAAAASfileF20081001_AAALUH' 'sip-files00016.txt'
bb44ecfa0f595d533fc5f318d921b700
c5fc832753dff01927e7de7cbed5ff176dc61ef4
describe
Invalid character
Invalid character
'8472' 'info:fdaE20081001_AAAAASfileF20081001_AAALUI' 'sip-files00016thm.jpg'
81622dc3bafa1deacc226c33784fa17a
f5d41e39025413fd906fcad2db484b613fa1d520
describe
'144342' 'info:fdaE20081001_AAAAASfileF20081001_AAALUJ' 'sip-files00017.jp2'
c9a870f835a80f25ad9fa5cbf57ad1e3
8214035e645d9ce72823694fd0fd101140576adb
describe
'138258' 'info:fdaE20081001_AAAAASfileF20081001_AAALUK' 'sip-files00017.jpg'
e6367a82d04cd8859e5b7b2575d76820
d3822889f03a7138a04a31ba11f6f3cd28ba827c
describe
'61632' 'info:fdaE20081001_AAAAASfileF20081001_AAALUL' 'sip-files00017.pdf'
75a45b00ecd32d0e00b97b949d60991b
4d6fe4c46d88e77c4bfea9ed08de6ecdb2077e17
'2017-03-09T14:54:46-05:00'
describe
'info:fdaE20081001_AAAAASfileF20081001_AAALUL-norm-0' 'aip-filesF20081001_AAALUL-norm-0.pdf'
990a1112c9800aba2ac4a4aebb729f4d
c2a7dbe0ad206c2498cbc4559d82e3f53911e302
describe
'2017-03-09T14:54:48-05:00'
normalize
'18702' 'info:fdaE20081001_AAAAASfileF20081001_AAALUM' 'sip-files00017.pro'
a85d38a1af4b97251391ea7d8b92d3b3
a67bfff0650723e57b27ba9680a79e60d361a503
describe
'46136' 'info:fdaE20081001_AAAAASfileF20081001_AAALUN' 'sip-files00017.QC.jpg'
53d8e5aa97a3b53bbe2b1a369ae54780
ad9f1f7c3f3dca242a21fbfcdef52485093dcabc
describe
'862172' 'info:fdaE20081001_AAAAASfileF20081001_AAALUO' 'sip-files00017.tif'
dc3ac9725b9fa6f73bd4d65786abe97a
243017256aaf6defd198229ebeb12ad0b63c6e66
'2017-03-09T14:52:58-05:00'
describe
'1261' 'info:fdaE20081001_AAAAASfileF20081001_AAALUP' 'sip-files00017.txt'
e1fa1008deda4f34a2e0c417f196849e
e02a807f8f9c0f5442ab6aa0c2bdd9299100887c
describe
'12737' 'info:fdaE20081001_AAAAASfileF20081001_AAALUQ' 'sip-files00017thm.jpg'
8acb763fc9afaeb3acf9d477e2f0850b
5060f5d2a3da84e9be5212f448dea95b953218ff
describe
'171665' 'info:fdaE20081001_AAAAASfileF20081001_AAALUR' 'sip-files00018.jp2'
9eb4415e0b946966274c726aa5e064c7
1c7da112509c53a7144760dddb5cc8efb43680ad
describe
'154812' 'info:fdaE20081001_AAAAASfileF20081001_AAALUS' 'sip-files00018.jpg'
174868367ab72fbeb7de766692ff34b9
062becd9d5c619e46dbcdf438d8e1ecaabed1c07
describe
'72422' 'info:fdaE20081001_AAAAASfileF20081001_AAALUT' 'sip-files00018.pdf'
150eddcd6ab01d0bb822c5c120917742
c076e32ff35cc27b12982da6dc7e52805af58f8f
'2017-03-09T14:54:01-05:00'
describe
'info:fdaE20081001_AAAAASfileF20081001_AAALUT-norm-0' 'aip-filesF20081001_AAALUT-norm-0.pdf'
990a1112c9800aba2ac4a4aebb729f4d
c2a7dbe0ad206c2498cbc4559d82e3f53911e302
describe
normalize
'60734' 'info:fdaE20081001_AAAAASfileF20081001_AAALUU' 'sip-files00018.pro'
8329d66d1f83461cf6b291729f0fd772
88b7ec2fb7a8d4771c7a06441c4db114f473f494
describe
'49039' 'info:fdaE20081001_AAAAASfileF20081001_AAALUV' 'sip-files00018.QC.jpg'
ec86159b1234166e133281d60c60eb72
922ea135069949aef85db9bb2bcd72ab6e012bb2
describe
'879104' 'info:fdaE20081001_AAAAASfileF20081001_AAALUW' 'sip-files00018.tif'
cb53faf6d0d6d369c7aa0cebf8848958
fcaad7f42d5ebb38e4ef1ac467973824adf4a02c
'2017-03-09T14:53:59-05:00'
describe
'2468' 'info:fdaE20081001_AAAAASfileF20081001_AAALUX' 'sip-files00018.txt'
5ba1882ee811823098133e881857a7a4
87d1b86f3c3195a7070c6be4b8d6983dbe337db1
describe
'12203' 'info:fdaE20081001_AAAAASfileF20081001_AAALUY' 'sip-files00018thm.jpg'
3b382ea044d018636babfbc4f96d7e01
d571c0c8284d932259241d0b7a3187f9838359bf
'2017-03-09T14:55:52-05:00'
describe
'173356' 'info:fdaE20081001_AAAAASfileF20081001_AAALUZ' 'sip-files00019.jp2'
d67726f55955d582709453ba3e819776
63aa129adad892e123cbe1cccda3fa6b12610197
'2017-03-09T14:53:19-05:00'
describe
'158135' 'info:fdaE20081001_AAAAASfileF20081001_AAALVA' 'sip-files00019.jpg'
589f21ddbbf40d171473d3fa96b30766
9952230cc1574d963afe86e532ce7be323fe542b
describe
'72431' 'info:fdaE20081001_AAAAASfileF20081001_AAALVB' 'sip-files00019.pdf'
3da3951cf4b086f0a7f940a13bf0aa55
b42d1640613ef0d2bb6b1727d6220d0ae6ac5ec1
'2017-03-09T14:54:59-05:00'
describe
'info:fdaE20081001_AAAAASfileF20081001_AAALVB-norm-0' 'aip-filesF20081001_AAALVB-norm-0.pdf'
990a1112c9800aba2ac4a4aebb729f4d
c2a7dbe0ad206c2498cbc4559d82e3f53911e302
describe
'2017-03-09T14:55:00-05:00'
normalize
'64069' 'info:fdaE20081001_AAAAASfileF20081001_AAALVC' 'sip-files00019.pro'
5f98ba68b77d20803c0c1635fc07534f
034f4723d14653673edeffc4f3fd3cd76d07e3a7
'2017-03-09T14:52:48-05:00'
describe
'50228' 'info:fdaE20081001_AAAAASfileF20081001_AAALVD' 'sip-files00019.QC.jpg'
9c7f608df4e3e9028e78a2369fe798a2
d2a25a40257ecb2e4638130a470adb360fd09511
describe
'899300' 'info:fdaE20081001_AAAAASfileF20081001_AAALVE' 'sip-files00019.tif'
09db3674eee16d0bc7f5ad5a5badf4de
b19087b6ea1ac4e03f207ebd4eabd4549096380d
describe
'2758' 'info:fdaE20081001_AAAAASfileF20081001_AAALVF' 'sip-files00019.txt'
134e7ac7b4202db98a8bc677d9c95605
f8ddbbaa7c749a31eeee3b26fa75747294aa4f79
'2017-03-09T14:53:20-05:00'
describe
'12976' 'info:fdaE20081001_AAAAASfileF20081001_AAALVG' 'sip-files00019thm.jpg'
2b7655c080583869abf04dad9d72a3a4
8037e31d220d542e0dc3d39cda405d2aef0b9faa
describe
'179715' 'info:fdaE20081001_AAAAASfileF20081001_AAALVH' 'sip-files00020.jp2'
c43538c758e736ae801846dc2354319b
a5296a0697433b25c20cfdb606986d7801f3c6ed
'2017-03-09T14:53:30-05:00'
describe
'161834' 'info:fdaE20081001_AAAAASfileF20081001_AAALVI' 'sip-files00020.jpg'
be2ea2e140cb852d404ad275f80ba410
c617ec7b366fd8ad3e5110fe2559dcac75391e51
describe
'77202' 'info:fdaE20081001_AAAAASfileF20081001_AAALVJ' 'sip-files00020.pdf'
cdf85e29705dcb3795e7355770d0f89e
d904588a692704be391f4e1520af37ec5f883262
describe
'info:fdaE20081001_AAAAASfileF20081001_AAALVJ-norm-0' 'aip-filesF20081001_AAALVJ-norm-0.pdf'
990a1112c9800aba2ac4a4aebb729f4d
c2a7dbe0ad206c2498cbc4559d82e3f53911e302
describe
'2017-03-09T14:53:58-05:00'
normalize
'63530' 'info:fdaE20081001_AAAAASfileF20081001_AAALVK' 'sip-files00020.pro'
26281d6e85ba7fcc4b3cdde07ecf5f77
10406adede091c29933e4070a54cba4f5b253211
describe
'51826' 'info:fdaE20081001_AAAAASfileF20081001_AAALVL' 'sip-files00020.QC.jpg'
f0edff482c0e9eeb7699906af125a0aa
44197a00add112e31bde96eb5fd78416ed2aefd3
describe
'881356' 'info:fdaE20081001_AAAAASfileF20081001_AAALVM' 'sip-files00020.tif'
1052187f3673dbec93fb8d2bffe18187
db04fc413dd236a2b07c3de64a37f15a7b6e3e93
describe
'2889' 'info:fdaE20081001_AAAAASfileF20081001_AAALVN' 'sip-files00020.txt'
049d0eef7d2b0b5e082c182f977b480b
f34d2a75838762b49b514432b0fc1c4c7380a7c4
describe
'12163' 'info:fdaE20081001_AAAAASfileF20081001_AAALVO' 'sip-files00020thm.jpg'
6d04f2cc1c79aab533ed6d6c3ef8a432
5eba0b299712bb382dc3ae2d78d8523715bf0045
describe
'139150' 'info:fdaE20081001_AAAAASfileF20081001_AAALVP' 'sip-files00021.jp2'
1d098d47227f9087a1ea7ffd3cc33e95
8920967a154b1000f659561785fca3b1f3f262fd
'2017-03-09T14:53:24-05:00'
describe
'143444' 'info:fdaE20081001_AAAAASfileF20081001_AAALVQ' 'sip-files00021.jpg'
f3b64cb5bb4b5086b7d414fb41688fcf
f17ad48f294b8e1f844a34d6570d0ab9f4877af8
describe
'60427' 'info:fdaE20081001_AAAAASfileF20081001_AAALVR' 'sip-files00021.pdf'
67b17dd906087465c5ccdeb097e4d457
b3c6eccf87c371fa1442b7dd039edecc0821ffcb
describe
'info:fdaE20081001_AAAAASfileF20081001_AAALVR-norm-0' 'aip-filesF20081001_AAALVR-norm-0.pdf'
990a1112c9800aba2ac4a4aebb729f4d
c2a7dbe0ad206c2498cbc4559d82e3f53911e302
'2017-03-09T14:56:33-05:00'
describe
normalize
'30362' 'info:fdaE20081001_AAAAASfileF20081001_AAALVS' 'sip-files00021.pro'
36ea00324432bfe07df45e0d297b83c7
743446698f1569fbaad1815918bfac47be8fb156
'2017-03-09T14:53:38-05:00'
describe
'46938' 'info:fdaE20081001_AAAAASfileF20081001_AAALVT' 'sip-files00021.QC.jpg'
a724444f2517db1c728fb547ed2fdf5f
89476817115032f4e604273ebc90af01e0c4fb79
describe
'871052' 'info:fdaE20081001_AAAAASfileF20081001_AAALVU' 'sip-files00021.tif'
1c1ee1e73f5ede463f2dd0bf16c8f8cf
129527049ac59e342a1c7651a7a0f52230ebcfef
'2017-03-09T14:55:28-05:00'
describe
'1199' 'info:fdaE20081001_AAAAASfileF20081001_AAALVV' 'sip-files00021.txt'
fd8bf990658a82ace4c40e84d99aa2e1
6b584c2a0c8412bb65eca9b706e865a59a557378
describe
'11870' 'info:fdaE20081001_AAAAASfileF20081001_AAALVW' 'sip-files00021thm.jpg'
2fc3256d547c9cb9f18808c6a87d05c4
4eae10bc28f111f7d9bbc34bd8100cd4443322ee
describe
'113186' 'info:fdaE20081001_AAAAASfileF20081001_AAALVX' 'sip-files00022.jp2'
4cb80679e71415b17f980661d0e55202
5d1446db47e331002048c7dfacb7a44506df5bde
'2017-03-09T14:54:42-05:00'
describe
'113622' 'info:fdaE20081001_AAAAASfileF20081001_AAALVY' 'sip-files00022.jpg'
3bb4d551c4b67c8bc565aba231a00632
0621daf203d097456c8d00432c91039a635f089a
describe
'45594' 'info:fdaE20081001_AAAAASfileF20081001_AAALVZ' 'sip-files00022.pdf'
1844cdbc1e714575a1706ef6d7ae12d3
8801c6d179fc1b27dc3d68f1986893b471e34d03
'2017-03-09T14:53:34-05:00'
describe
'info:fdaE20081001_AAAAASfileF20081001_AAALVZ-norm-0' 'aip-filesF20081001_AAALVZ-norm-0.pdf'
990a1112c9800aba2ac4a4aebb729f4d
c2a7dbe0ad206c2498cbc4559d82e3f53911e302
describe
normalize
'7179' 'info:fdaE20081001_AAAAASfileF20081001_AAALWA' 'sip-files00022.pro'
40d1191fca497f76a271abfbf6d0e55d
1f97edd0add088a3e50415e4622adb252937d7aa
'2017-03-09T14:53:00-05:00'
describe
'41441' 'info:fdaE20081001_AAAAASfileF20081001_AAALWB' 'sip-files00022.QC.jpg'
35548b7c512489d70d9a2828b130b20a
997bc7bea77c812c8a9c47251c1fb7a4b822356f
describe
'857584' 'info:fdaE20081001_AAAAASfileF20081001_AAALWC' 'sip-files00022.tif'
2292ef10c5a924e544c45061e940a516
3c015fa2ce0087d464ba77677b08a732cfcf9554
'2017-03-09T14:53:42-05:00'
describe
'303' 'info:fdaE20081001_AAAAASfileF20081001_AAALWD' 'sip-files00022.txt'
04d8e0ddbaee127bc56cb82bbcc85953
2ee8d80c810330cac36706c05a04673d4860a079
describe
'13023' 'info:fdaE20081001_AAAAASfileF20081001_AAALWE' 'sip-files00022thm.jpg'
d410f7179c8329bfe968996d954687eb
d9fa93dc63320d292c36daa5216dcfd6eba56f39
describe
'73843' 'info:fdaE20081001_AAAAASfileF20081001_AAALWF' 'sip-files00023.jp2'
f3239ae2b9115129541bcf7dd0914ccc
249896817713f7f411537125a8d7ec6a5daf678b
describe
'39104' 'info:fdaE20081001_AAAAASfileF20081001_AAALWG' 'sip-files00023.jpg'
8df26ecb13049cf0cce8bca5cbedab7f
85325d1b1ecf387e04f4a6714e9a8e99b334f9fb
describe
'31144' 'info:fdaE20081001_AAAAASfileF20081001_AAALWH' 'sip-files00023.pdf'
61bcf89f5b9053f7dbba7ea21aec389f
7739f223b33c0945e855e1d0eed0428920115c1c
'2017-03-09T14:53:23-05:00'
describe
'info:fdaE20081001_AAAAASfileF20081001_AAALWH-norm-0' 'aip-filesF20081001_AAALWH-norm-0.pdf'
8cbf40949b8b639101cd4e2c803d9b62
6e3842fc6d7fb92b4cf6a2346c8099c7289050d2
describe
normalize
'32705' 'info:fdaE20081001_AAAAASfileF20081001_AAALWI' 'sip-files00023.pro'
d7529f64fd400c65de31213e92de2078
ebed6977c3ab2584171472d74262624beff56fbc
'2017-03-09T14:53:12-05:00'
describe
'12942' 'info:fdaE20081001_AAAAASfileF20081001_AAALWJ' 'sip-files00023.QC.jpg'
9ec8cfce29f7b8a016a0197a6ba21995
99d4cc474e258645dbbb553edbb7ae5511a69c09
describe
'888916' 'info:fdaE20081001_AAAAASfileF20081001_AAALWK' 'sip-files00023.tif'
3af6d667bd788c85a999ba8d9e30877e
fbe0850eb06a6cd07d62533fcc8bb3ecc2c05084
'2017-03-09T14:54:18-05:00'
describe
'1644' 'info:fdaE20081001_AAAAASfileF20081001_AAALWL' 'sip-files00023.txt'
2aa2f2939ac1053456d24e2c0fd7621d
8109f289329fc4777f3ef7610fb1befeb7305e53
'2017-03-09T14:55:40-05:00'
describe
Invalid character
Invalid character
'4037' 'info:fdaE20081001_AAAAASfileF20081001_AAALWM' 'sip-files00023thm.jpg'
18e2a54e6bc257db14865b26a5beaa3c
5a13e117c45a74d1610d51ca9feec9b5e368e39e
describe
'216352' 'info:fdaE20081001_AAAAASfileF20081001_AAALWN' 'sip-files00024.jp2'
d45e2e897cb9adb6b314893c7adfde64
8c9d7f20f8f6027f71783ead1d2ae44056a3f562
'2017-03-09T14:55:26-05:00'
describe
'196564' 'info:fdaE20081001_AAAAASfileF20081001_AAALWO' 'sip-files00024.jpg'
52e32ba3adc0569c030649165b88426f
efee660561d42fd5c310a05147786d79fd1720fd
'2017-03-09T14:54:17-05:00'
describe
'90591' 'info:fdaE20081001_AAAAASfileF20081001_AAALWP' 'sip-files00024.pdf'
77d155784a10284d341cf99a56840683
eea1260fac9fac453301c26b306271f71af0a84c
'2017-03-09T14:54:38-05:00'
describe
'info:fdaE20081001_AAAAASfileF20081001_AAALWP-norm-0' 'aip-filesF20081001_AAALWP-norm-0.pdf'
990a1112c9800aba2ac4a4aebb729f4d
c2a7dbe0ad206c2498cbc4559d82e3f53911e302
describe
'2017-03-09T14:54:40-05:00'
normalize
'75083' 'info:fdaE20081001_AAAAASfileF20081001_AAALWQ' 'sip-files00024.pro'
db6b858a2915451bb79cff8cfbab3b10
aaba2c4eff7f9912136baf045a76491a3c3ab72d
describe
'59964' 'info:fdaE20081001_AAAAASfileF20081001_AAALWR' 'sip-files00024.QC.jpg'
4ea7d195477a41d984ed0a68320e33d1
ea92a90b009c6c82a39105e7c7ef428556a1f975
describe
'893424' 'info:fdaE20081001_AAAAASfileF20081001_AAALWS' 'sip-files00024.tif'
13a4dbce05103b068f3b58ba6f752241
3fbbc45c2cfec4cf859de6dc3d4d860cac12e952
'2017-03-09T14:56:08-05:00'
describe
'2955' 'info:fdaE20081001_AAAAASfileF20081001_AAALWT' 'sip-files00024.txt'
85733d580f2cd819ca4a462e02842b2d
e66723e11eaaa1b4948e260f8250849ee3221c0e
describe
'14009' 'info:fdaE20081001_AAAAASfileF20081001_AAALWU' 'sip-files00024thm.jpg'
807213955cfa6b4248befbc038ef13ec
aa374fe277b291e2dad91f889c0ccd95c65b63e5
describe
'167884' 'info:fdaE20081001_AAAAASfileF20081001_AAALWV' 'sip-files00025.jp2'
eaa211dee3ee580252b04ee9f06caf99
e8ed250d9fc1f825c20651e6c7f0d35b64aeb92f
describe
'153988' 'info:fdaE20081001_AAAAASfileF20081001_AAALWW' 'sip-files00025.jpg'
b5c4d4fcd91ed537c472a8002fc1aac2
28ce3425a8086522248f1e04a357f4b6acbdbd8f
describe
'69289' 'info:fdaE20081001_AAAAASfileF20081001_AAALWX' 'sip-files00025.pdf'
280da686e7ae327f3107a6d323a4c73b
c05005a30d707f1c3c8520e243102a4b13939722
'2017-03-09T14:55:31-05:00'
describe
'info:fdaE20081001_AAAAASfileF20081001_AAALWX-norm-0' 'aip-filesF20081001_AAALWX-norm-0.pdf'
990a1112c9800aba2ac4a4aebb729f4d
c2a7dbe0ad206c2498cbc4559d82e3f53911e302
describe
'2017-03-09T14:55:33-05:00'
normalize
'62686' 'info:fdaE20081001_AAAAASfileF20081001_AAALWY' 'sip-files00025.pro'
00982dab4e99ea737d26cc2ae89aa334
52137b611024c1942f0e4d7d0c36fd2abafc3757
describe
'50150' 'info:fdaE20081001_AAAAASfileF20081001_AAALWZ' 'sip-files00025.QC.jpg'
e8c1bd899cb6b375493bef986105b00c
1f2a9c74a6ecf0bed184eca91f2239f36190b9a7
describe
'901892' 'info:fdaE20081001_AAAAASfileF20081001_AAALXA' 'sip-files00025.tif'
a07a60e431557d83e68fa327647b7963
b76f9385633fd30045af033734e2276d78471da7
'2017-03-09T14:56:13-05:00'
describe
'2524' 'info:fdaE20081001_AAAAASfileF20081001_AAALXB' 'sip-files00025.txt'
8e26aad0bd09b2c6f19429206c8b37e9
ce9a1e73e6fad899421bfac91328e2bc18d6ef71
describe
'12216' 'info:fdaE20081001_AAAAASfileF20081001_AAALXC' 'sip-files00025thm.jpg'
de8abeb5267eb8353eb948e21b52d586
5a453cbfcd6722464651bc18bb17984ed49dc68f
describe
'99937' 'info:fdaE20081001_AAAAASfileF20081001_AAALXD' 'sip-files00026.jp2'
4d7fe5bc4cc6c497a7e309b781365d2a
a9f3f97431243040572a4292886a79adb6b004b6
describe
'95317' 'info:fdaE20081001_AAAAASfileF20081001_AAALXE' 'sip-files00026.jpg'
0e55790090e30d7755444426941a9247
72f71ec74519ffb5f7a667715df261e146778e4c
describe
'40893' 'info:fdaE20081001_AAAAASfileF20081001_AAALXF' 'sip-files00026.pdf'
1f66a5d07c9ad470d62c1f8aecb926fb
7dcef9e5fca0a4d8f03a5f30f5a89b1f5e107f6c
'2017-03-09T14:54:25-05:00'
describe
'info:fdaE20081001_AAAAASfileF20081001_AAALXF-norm-0' 'aip-filesF20081001_AAALXF-norm-0.pdf'
990a1112c9800aba2ac4a4aebb729f4d
c2a7dbe0ad206c2498cbc4559d82e3f53911e302
describe
'2017-03-09T14:54:27-05:00'
normalize
'25744' 'info:fdaE20081001_AAAAASfileF20081001_AAALXG' 'sip-files00026.pro'
87f8b2d5d4f9650d3a23f56e5794002a
cede79f38dc78b1f8d50db8741ebeac712830dab
describe
'31616' 'info:fdaE20081001_AAAAASfileF20081001_AAALXH' 'sip-files00026.QC.jpg'
bd1e7f9b0ace08b4ffb84a604803fec6
7c31a60a1e0efad261de6c6d078f9cd11837796d
describe
'864032' 'info:fdaE20081001_AAAAASfileF20081001_AAALXI' 'sip-files00026.tif'
a92c44546b2e37d71ff8572794d5f57c
502a736f5fc2a495d798585c73548045c23deaea
'2017-03-09T14:53:17-05:00'
describe
'1459' 'info:fdaE20081001_AAAAASfileF20081001_AAALXJ' 'sip-files00026.txt'
94f5786899fc06c2d10195d47c5fc25d
09bf7b605e5058f2b0326045709dd7e4c6804476
describe
'9227' 'info:fdaE20081001_AAAAASfileF20081001_AAALXK' 'sip-files00026thm.jpg'
a0ec4979c540b26f23aca2c2bb4441b9
d35217c58f4719eb24956399031511eb78a98ecf
describe
'192175' 'info:fdaE20081001_AAAAASfileF20081001_AAALXL' 'sip-files00027.jp2'
400159fc8a44568da35ae2a7516407dc
4604cc628238442e405d5d87e7abf600337c3bc0
'2017-03-09T14:54:57-05:00'
describe
'175858' 'info:fdaE20081001_AAAAASfileF20081001_AAALXM' 'sip-files00027.jpg'
14899779de4022fdd39e8599bfbeaf77
f192229482e1b5763032151e7baf40ab024006fa
describe
'79524' 'info:fdaE20081001_AAAAASfileF20081001_AAALXN' 'sip-files00027.pdf'
dc8d3f0355d0c3f2f38f85aac7852d21
a57841d75a06641a7c25f0754e733d717bafe0ad
describe
'info:fdaE20081001_AAAAASfileF20081001_AAALXN-norm-0' 'aip-filesF20081001_AAALXN-norm-0.pdf'
990a1112c9800aba2ac4a4aebb729f4d
c2a7dbe0ad206c2498cbc4559d82e3f53911e302
'2017-03-09T14:56:35-05:00'
describe
normalize
'69620' 'info:fdaE20081001_AAAAASfileF20081001_AAALXO' 'sip-files00027.pro'
6e0b573836c81b1f61ebb29b6af97148
083b06e1fbedb2f43156928d229d7de6aee3b6a5
'2017-03-09T14:55:35-05:00'
describe
'55269' 'info:fdaE20081001_AAAAASfileF20081001_AAALXP' 'sip-files00027.QC.jpg'
e425289d4882e07254d680f5abc1c555
d36cd56e93371c68b6e27945657cbce35ddc1a03
describe
'900256' 'info:fdaE20081001_AAAAASfileF20081001_AAALXQ' 'sip-files00027.tif'
da4fc823af3b10b725cf138a54907d9d
e973255f6109f36878a77a6b3b1cdeba7b26d3ee
describe
'2786' 'info:fdaE20081001_AAAAASfileF20081001_AAALXR' 'sip-files00027.txt'
04b755cd3aecb22b7fcbfee8b42cfd22
d171d47a0e9250cbeca47887c74e8d2b9fe415f7
describe
Invalid character
Invalid character
'12954' 'info:fdaE20081001_AAAAASfileF20081001_AAALXS' 'sip-files00027thm.jpg'
a98219f42e0af1967a3f392b386037c6
5da086f29e1b2359f2c65e96cd6806283e7e1ebe
describe
'182578' 'info:fdaE20081001_AAAAASfileF20081001_AAALXT' 'sip-files00028.jp2'
82a67e728a8aa77d477b45580271fe6c
577e7a582055bf47edbd97629c6822ee761fd93a
describe
'169937' 'info:fdaE20081001_AAAAASfileF20081001_AAALXU' 'sip-files00028.jpg'
35a8ddf312a3b73fada907f4ef721fea
d0ee172684c5f67f5373dbe5aef26db5741c9081
describe
'75284' 'info:fdaE20081001_AAAAASfileF20081001_AAALXV' 'sip-files00028.pdf'
e82ff0256567dfa89e19d2d60a2b84f2
90416416fbdfed82a7a9a8aa0b0c25b287f3d4f1
describe
'info:fdaE20081001_AAAAASfileF20081001_AAALXV-norm-0' 'aip-filesF20081001_AAALXV-norm-0.pdf'
8cbf40949b8b639101cd4e2c803d9b62
6e3842fc6d7fb92b4cf6a2346c8099c7289050d2
describe
normalize
'63360' 'info:fdaE20081001_AAAAASfileF20081001_AAALXW' 'sip-files00028.pro'
cb9fc2b015acf8614832f6e431bf3c52
53fa80b9e6b21c65025765dd61a9690704de8deb
describe
'52903' 'info:fdaE20081001_AAAAASfileF20081001_AAALXX' 'sip-files00028.QC.jpg'
b18d08a896197bc7b36cb5dd6828bbaf
55d50525847c349ada9d200f699f6d7cb88d6384
'2017-03-09T14:53:40-05:00'
describe
'882364' 'info:fdaE20081001_AAAAASfileF20081001_AAALXY' 'sip-files00028.tif'
e80e170cced2de9541c5b00f1e2fb624
de7ffbfea9b298beb1d8b0a6f1263523e068388c
describe
'2576' 'info:fdaE20081001_AAAAASfileF20081001_AAALXZ' 'sip-files00028.txt'
681f4c12847519118de96288b9c8c0a2
8a98e7695acc758665b0b7c989f59ee8940930d6
describe
'12844' 'info:fdaE20081001_AAAAASfileF20081001_AAALYA' 'sip-files00028thm.jpg'
df501e0b2696ba7c6a19384873abc4dd
454c4836afd1a48c81e49078765f83b048ebf3e7
describe
'197609' 'info:fdaE20081001_AAAAASfileF20081001_AAALYB' 'sip-files00029.jp2'
a530df9d5d6079995040818fcd28c1fb
fb964e5ee9bd69c25097139e36de45a91795d900
describe
'178462' 'info:fdaE20081001_AAAAASfileF20081001_AAALYC' 'sip-files00029.jpg'
5773191e3d08d3e12b07bc859538216b
016ec462452c0adb2d8683c89ed60a416ac5f58c
describe
'80697' 'info:fdaE20081001_AAAAASfileF20081001_AAALYD' 'sip-files00029.pdf'
e662990bc88623927393344a68aa89fb
bc8008e758376a974ac020c6325d40ab3d8a7a69
'2017-03-09T14:52:31-05:00'
describe
'info:fdaE20081001_AAAAASfileF20081001_AAALYD-norm-0' 'aip-filesF20081001_AAALYD-norm-0.pdf'
8cbf40949b8b639101cd4e2c803d9b62
6e3842fc6d7fb92b4cf6a2346c8099c7289050d2
describe
'2017-03-09T14:52:38-05:00'
normalize
'72475' 'info:fdaE20081001_AAAAASfileF20081001_AAALYE' 'sip-files00029.pro'
f324e5122e08927870e251d0f4e2807f
84eaa1fa10a0dc9e599ca0181f058e7ce90cad74
describe
'55971' 'info:fdaE20081001_AAAAASfileF20081001_AAALYF' 'sip-files00029.QC.jpg'
ae9576804523b3a42ad62e33f8e6e3b5
ee45634403c74ba515cf30cd2075273a2b8c67c2
describe
'912680' 'info:fdaE20081001_AAAAASfileF20081001_AAALYG' 'sip-files00029.tif'
e68b8783e844ec28ffd42847d83b35de
602336a3fac7500076c9f64efb9509403ccdb645
describe
'2920' 'info:fdaE20081001_AAAAASfileF20081001_AAALYH' 'sip-files00029.txt'
78cce8308fd7462aa9bfc0b14f003151
a8e0d52ebe16140d4def53e93c1f3f3404346670
describe
'13224' 'info:fdaE20081001_AAAAASfileF20081001_AAALYI' 'sip-files00029thm.jpg'
57eec20db80d5ac078518f6f1407c3c4
ee4fc966e70430d0bf6509235811d36272f59c2a
describe
'906495' 'info:fdaE20081001_AAAAASfileF20081001_AAALYJ' 'sip-files00030.jp2'
8ccb3760d6aee08cc812f4e8eeca7a18
dea0558f5f56b5deb0b544967e9b8d02cab9418b
describe
'105091' 'info:fdaE20081001_AAAAASfileF20081001_AAALYK' 'sip-files00030.jpg'
80963f891eeabca092d8236aea830764
0b2f60c822bbab4935c76fb1699e7fa8542d95c0
'2017-03-09T14:56:10-05:00'
describe
'468253' 'info:fdaE20081001_AAAAASfileF20081001_AAALYL' 'sip-files00030.pdf'
23220a5508ec71647aad314aa232a215
3628b3085d4a7f856c6b426dcd7a225dd138c1d6
describe
'info:fdaE20081001_AAAAASfileF20081001_AAALYL-norm-0' 'aip-filesF20081001_AAALYL-norm-0.pdf'
990a1112c9800aba2ac4a4aebb729f4d
c2a7dbe0ad206c2498cbc4559d82e3f53911e302
describe
'2017-03-09T14:55:11-05:00'
normalize
'17019' 'info:fdaE20081001_AAAAASfileF20081001_AAALYM' 'sip-files00030.pro'
824ae662c6ea721ebde54b5a049b02e7
f4edbd7a158a9f67cf7bd87dbf153007790255b6
describe
'36572' 'info:fdaE20081001_AAAAASfileF20081001_AAALYN' 'sip-files00030.QC.jpg'
2a07fd622ea9e618517b9eec74a6bd93
415f3c50b15e074c7e0c06cac642649c50265f99
describe
'7275956' 'info:fdaE20081001_AAAAASfileF20081001_AAALYO' 'sip-files00030.tif'
1ee707069a67e1e5cfedc5e500251d12
023ce2643aa23df483509f7adf2e031cdacba754
describe
'909' 'info:fdaE20081001_AAAAASfileF20081001_AAALYP' 'sip-files00030.txt'
98fed82b44e76ee7dd25db22b70c1d5d
bc50573d871576f3a5bb50b7c50c77f05315a552
describe
Invalid character
Invalid character
'11337' 'info:fdaE20081001_AAAAASfileF20081001_AAALYQ' 'sip-files00030thm.jpg'
e049a1c3ef602984fc9978948f81a779
69e390b7ec4a18845f4b1aefcbe3a0e76bb7fa04
describe
'113291' 'info:fdaE20081001_AAAAASfileF20081001_AAALYR' 'sip-files00031.jp2'
139977f296a3cf6923c84a1de6a45faa
970a8976509ffd982fae1ad87f26919a7356d2e7
describe
'111220' 'info:fdaE20081001_AAAAASfileF20081001_AAALYS' 'sip-files00031.jpg'
10aaaf52400f8c5a66b73be8dbf6e78e
a01c1d3dcddec18e049b8e102ae83ed6d5d04b62
'2017-03-09T14:53:53-05:00'
describe
'45252' 'info:fdaE20081001_AAAAASfileF20081001_AAALYT' 'sip-files00031.pdf'
90a4bed2c3f9409fe9f3e85aabcf99f6
a241bbf9bab2f381cedd2ff52d26dac84fb8ead4
describe
'info:fdaE20081001_AAAAASfileF20081001_AAALYT-norm-0' 'aip-filesF20081001_AAALYT-norm-0.pdf'
8cbf40949b8b639101cd4e2c803d9b62
6e3842fc6d7fb92b4cf6a2346c8099c7289050d2
describe
normalize
'13792' 'info:fdaE20081001_AAAAASfileF20081001_AAALYU' 'sip-files00031.pro'
5577cf1ee6803d0746aa4564781221c6
bb068e1b82e2f088d3581470e44cc0d5e453343a
describe
'40542' 'info:fdaE20081001_AAAAASfileF20081001_AAALYV' 'sip-files00031.QC.jpg'
4d12c66830a1b6286cefda8c212bb3fb
ddc171cc6737e325a4139d439666e09d051130ff
describe
'875584' 'info:fdaE20081001_AAAAASfileF20081001_AAALYW' 'sip-files00031.tif'
65b395ef690a24515bb9c821337fce6e
1cfbf7d76550f7da86c2dfc26e5e1feff7d505cf
describe
'601' 'info:fdaE20081001_AAAAASfileF20081001_AAALYX' 'sip-files00031.txt'
9c8a9e488e835afcbae67a1a16e5634c
a4d6d916a151b561fdacf82fc67b2c707f1c3a12
describe
Invalid character
Invalid character
'12222' 'info:fdaE20081001_AAAAASfileF20081001_AAALYY' 'sip-files00031thm.jpg'
c4aceca7cc14a0362890f8c9afe40a26
22703e741c2085ab7fd30a502ac5597c708eb3e7
describe
'113336' 'info:fdaE20081001_AAAAASfileF20081001_AAALYZ' 'sip-files00032.jp2'
727882786b97d9567637091ced52df93
3d6a75dd88a9d2d719ba0f90663fb7da2093f011
describe
'112419' 'info:fdaE20081001_AAAAASfileF20081001_AAALZA' 'sip-files00032.jpg'
d58010fab98bbbdd0b5d3b9de35687b8
68a2407e4852f0d4de924c6b86e5eca999be33ca
describe
'46418' 'info:fdaE20081001_AAAAASfileF20081001_AAALZB' 'sip-files00032.pdf'
77ab5e55557186f996bd6248eacad9da
d373b6f822be76aa929a9443cff77ad87b078fa1
'2017-03-09T14:53:08-05:00'
describe
'info:fdaE20081001_AAAAASfileF20081001_AAALZB-norm-0' 'aip-filesF20081001_AAALZB-norm-0.pdf'
8cbf40949b8b639101cd4e2c803d9b62
6e3842fc6d7fb92b4cf6a2346c8099c7289050d2
describe
'2017-03-09T14:53:10-05:00'
normalize
'7550' 'info:fdaE20081001_AAAAASfileF20081001_AAALZC' 'sip-files00032.pro'
85223982f2831341d0361099d572e001
914c3482340f5357816b6612ab0be166fa2ae2f8
describe
'39065' 'info:fdaE20081001_AAAAASfileF20081001_AAALZD' 'sip-files00032.QC.jpg'
eb2a5abe76dbfeed9dd3b4da2424a14c
d3e9b2b59d7959a5eabc84af79db3790392852e7
describe
'862556' 'info:fdaE20081001_AAAAASfileF20081001_AAALZE' 'sip-files00032.tif'
125587c74157974ca735d688e51556a9
178f3029453df9b3892517906966520c6db9ca36
describe
'306' 'info:fdaE20081001_AAAAASfileF20081001_AAALZF' 'sip-files00032.txt'
a7a568cbb478f165b74deeab83064446
6b95c1138ca5ce1bc96e2f9ba5b6cc5bb0b42b96
describe
'11884' 'info:fdaE20081001_AAAAASfileF20081001_AAALZG' 'sip-files00032thm.jpg'
c795c2f96923f301ad4222dd2b80b342
506275f1e3fa4e9ddf47978d66724e68a2735c0f
describe
'113050' 'info:fdaE20081001_AAAAASfileF20081001_AAALZH' 'sip-files00033.jp2'
f81255a0173f83ec8fca459a2ba4be1d
00b5822a6178e959adb5d3e31adfef309a4f0d66
describe
'113387' 'info:fdaE20081001_AAAAASfileF20081001_AAALZI' 'sip-files00033.jpg'
c42e1740aec4b0046333383e53d8261f
047bb9ecf347236b02436bc0996ea553a999ed61
describe
'45430' 'info:fdaE20081001_AAAAASfileF20081001_AAALZJ' 'sip-files00033.pdf'
7c90a1f505471b443c948a4e3c382966
0e9d868f8197e312fa2249d58315901f5b4bfcc5
describe
'info:fdaE20081001_AAAAASfileF20081001_AAALZJ-norm-0' 'aip-filesF20081001_AAALZJ-norm-0.pdf'
8cbf40949b8b639101cd4e2c803d9b62
6e3842fc6d7fb92b4cf6a2346c8099c7289050d2
describe
'2017-03-09T14:52:56-05:00'
normalize
'17383' 'info:fdaE20081001_AAAAASfileF20081001_AAALZK' 'sip-files00033.pro'
f8d3dffe786d4397a1872374ddd78e0a
aead5d674ee7d68fd8e4a457157f7b9b6102e78b
describe
'40404' 'info:fdaE20081001_AAAAASfileF20081001_AAALZL' 'sip-files00033.QC.jpg'
caaa3bc7c37f55955b15ce9db611c61e
0fbd5a9f57225caf99f15c98c149545e8abedf99
describe
'863072' 'info:fdaE20081001_AAAAASfileF20081001_AAALZM' 'sip-files00033.tif'
b15e3faf698841c3125160d6e2ee28a2
cff1fe1116b29f2ce8f5bde16925a9516ea3b73c
describe
'1401' 'info:fdaE20081001_AAAAASfileF20081001_AAALZN' 'sip-files00033.txt'
d8fe8e21429390d27f886088f7a6b260
0b70eb2af70527326dd26f7bb245cbcbbc2c93dc
describe
'11969' 'info:fdaE20081001_AAAAASfileF20081001_AAALZO' 'sip-files00033thm.jpg'
11795ac3a270b92e59f8addc86b76dc3
253dea8832ea62b82d1446ebb41161fd1355e606
describe
'182572' 'info:fdaE20081001_AAAAASfileF20081001_AAALZP' 'sip-files00034.jp2'
5acec4e0cb4eac9a3925cf64e657f3c0
b19adc6354de872905dfbcb9b2b0a57e055a84f4
describe
'170249' 'info:fdaE20081001_AAAAASfileF20081001_AAALZQ' 'sip-files00034.jpg'
dcd835a84dd507fb397fa4f4199302a2
37b3e2d6f5fe521dc34f156019aa5e5cd8b18e4d
describe
'74648' 'info:fdaE20081001_AAAAASfileF20081001_AAALZR' 'sip-files00034.pdf'
3f0d8891fa48633e7c59189bcc1e5a68
e7c73c793e588ba713db663dbd4346b0e971f388
describe
'info:fdaE20081001_AAAAASfileF20081001_AAALZR-norm-0' 'aip-filesF20081001_AAALZR-norm-0.pdf'
990a1112c9800aba2ac4a4aebb729f4d
c2a7dbe0ad206c2498cbc4559d82e3f53911e302
describe
normalize
'63453' 'info:fdaE20081001_AAAAASfileF20081001_AAALZS' 'sip-files00034.pro'
fd44a986bf6a39e65272e122dc674bee
65a0e250dcdb3940f971add13ad1b026020df940
describe
'53147' 'info:fdaE20081001_AAAAASfileF20081001_AAALZT' 'sip-files00034.QC.jpg'
c9dc251ba994618dedc19bb24fbe054f
bb735e8fd4990a48a7b42add3251aa833d6e8c28
describe
'883436' 'info:fdaE20081001_AAAAASfileF20081001_AAALZU' 'sip-files00034.tif'
2e3aad46ebc48a16855adccd8b39e825
d79bae6969f425202687e58b28d582ef3134a40d
describe
'2587' 'info:fdaE20081001_AAAAASfileF20081001_AAALZV' 'sip-files00034.txt'
8d9ac6a826cfb76c62d6b4e9e949fd93
1b4ed84f715fb9f1af85603c82b7ee0f8dd28f9e
describe
'13093' 'info:fdaE20081001_AAAAASfileF20081001_AAALZW' 'sip-files00034thm.jpg'
4364d99c377e06d11b3df5aa8337bebf
e3a61eb6e81f63408f570dd82620e9963ac3f36d
describe
'178313' 'info:fdaE20081001_AAAAASfileF20081001_AAALZX' 'sip-files00035.jp2'
9e64d34b91b195e548700d1e312cc783
b2a94ce81fe52e5a4384746a65e762e5c7cbc505
describe
'155864' 'info:fdaE20081001_AAAAASfileF20081001_AAALZY' 'sip-files00035.jpg'
82adf66c98961576f92091f188b8c6c0
c69d62333f9bbf941ae94cafc3e571cb475dec12
describe
'74801' 'info:fdaE20081001_AAAAASfileF20081001_AAALZZ' 'sip-files00035.pdf'
81c720778d3b212a4ccd796e9bbe3f52
8c0e2f4e4744e4c64cdc7b06c3036eb3eb8227ac
describe
'info:fdaE20081001_AAAAASfileF20081001_AAALZZ-norm-0' 'aip-filesF20081001_AAALZZ-norm-0.pdf'
990a1112c9800aba2ac4a4aebb729f4d
c2a7dbe0ad206c2498cbc4559d82e3f53911e302
describe
'2017-03-09T14:53:55-05:00'
normalize
'30273' 'info:fdaE20081001_AAAAASfileF20081001_AAAMAA' 'sip-files00035.pro'
c4d14fc8da915e8fce3dce2b6633336b
ec76a6058419706b0ce926f8604b37fa07957726
describe
'48741' 'info:fdaE20081001_AAAAASfileF20081001_AAAMAB' 'sip-files00035.QC.jpg'
9dea6169b33aa91234ae717f684875c7
0f50df7cd83dcdf6299d50d091bf846718930309
describe
'896624' 'info:fdaE20081001_AAAAASfileF20081001_AAAMAC' 'sip-files00035.tif'
93c592d16cfa4077be8c660039062bda
7068ebb64ecc2d47c2e47911b22aa64305059369
describe
'1187' 'info:fdaE20081001_AAAAASfileF20081001_AAAMAD' 'sip-files00035.txt'
f5d0d336821624577a99f8175c51085a
f66de1ae0c8f1cacfccce744228f70fbcea6ce9f
describe
Invalid character
Invalid character
'12585' 'info:fdaE20081001_AAAAASfileF20081001_AAAMAE' 'sip-files00035thm.jpg'
10d4a78839425e2141a0bbc370b94216
9b57255e8d98f649b3c8bbe31290cd35ed9abd96
describe
'193360' 'info:fdaE20081001_AAAAASfileF20081001_AAAMAF' 'sip-files00036.jp2'
c2d726e5891df2e77accd253c732e24e
f584cf2149bd7be8564b5fc6ea5b35e7e278cb2a
describe
'179764' 'info:fdaE20081001_AAAAASfileF20081001_AAAMAG' 'sip-files00036.jpg'
86a60ddef4c0af52e5e7a8c78c6ef3d3
e7b1463ae89e1b6993236b0cb74d16ee3edb97a5
describe
'79259' 'info:fdaE20081001_AAAAASfileF20081001_AAAMAH' 'sip-files00036.pdf'
0c9927863ac321a2357fb1ff886781cc
b59c4339975b44bd2edb5142df4c339e80126b5e
describe
'info:fdaE20081001_AAAAASfileF20081001_AAAMAH-norm-0' 'aip-filesF20081001_AAAMAH-norm-0.pdf'
990a1112c9800aba2ac4a4aebb729f4d
c2a7dbe0ad206c2498cbc4559d82e3f53911e302
'2017-03-09T14:56:42-05:00'
describe
normalize
'67973' 'info:fdaE20081001_AAAAASfileF20081001_AAAMAI' 'sip-files00036.pro'
aead063bf8e9f2ffd080a825a6231de9
3287883b958ffebab00e9aa702beea3ada0ed746
describe
'55650' 'info:fdaE20081001_AAAAASfileF20081001_AAAMAJ' 'sip-files00036.QC.jpg'
84c625b6ead4e1f6e00791af09471785
f3a03551a3184e2c39fc6a79b904d564a79bdfa1
describe
'880948' 'info:fdaE20081001_AAAAASfileF20081001_AAAMAK' 'sip-files00036.tif'
ab55f0963fa49ee9d698e1d47e836268
a109327dd5a2647e7d69cabeea06b673793a1df2
describe
'2714' 'info:fdaE20081001_AAAAASfileF20081001_AAAMAL' 'sip-files00036.txt'
fec505933d4df0cb42f0dccaf36d2a70
1cd499aabb8b76e70b2d27bb2d406cb7f05777d5
describe
'13512' 'info:fdaE20081001_AAAAASfileF20081001_AAAMAM' 'sip-files00036thm.jpg'
55d12a3a628fe4b767c37d8cfc02d142
b3480ad369e0b823dc7a9178de86c20e154a6f6e
describe
'928159' 'info:fdaE20081001_AAAAASfileF20081001_AAAMAN' 'sip-files00037.jp2'
86e38dc3e5c84ce15f32b110c345ba76
95bdf394aca6809f9e69ca5e74283c8b2f1426b4
describe
'111807' 'info:fdaE20081001_AAAAASfileF20081001_AAAMAO' 'sip-files00037.jpg'
f8c5c76a3ff492d3055eff8ce38125bb
2c23606e11f25ebddea7ffdd39c8326559849212
describe
'520736' 'info:fdaE20081001_AAAAASfileF20081001_AAAMAP' 'sip-files00037.pdf'
cf1c1898c979af9687facbe1a113a664
26d6361e9227ab7c076787941cc435f0a9bdb7d2
describe
'info:fdaE20081001_AAAAASfileF20081001_AAAMAP-norm-0' 'aip-filesF20081001_AAAMAP-norm-0.pdf'
8cbf40949b8b639101cd4e2c803d9b62
6e3842fc6d7fb92b4cf6a2346c8099c7289050d2
describe
normalize
'16255' 'info:fdaE20081001_AAAAASfileF20081001_AAAMAQ' 'sip-files00037.pro'
55826e49f562bb568e89cf06516cb58c
9fe9c43062b95c5d3d23056c664d777da212f1e3
describe
'37303' 'info:fdaE20081001_AAAAASfileF20081001_AAAMAR' 'sip-files00037.QC.jpg'
fe29fbc32dfda61fe7dda3c9565a4f20
35039a80e704a7c6b976172dbc8a51c51307a782
describe
'7449720' 'info:fdaE20081001_AAAAASfileF20081001_AAAMAS' 'sip-files00037.tif'
857e5ef8b7b1a7b98648ce9e6d8530ca
a9b2ecd1a00eab48b9e573c216706bf40f924531
describe
'1064' 'info:fdaE20081001_AAAAASfileF20081001_AAAMAT' 'sip-files00037.txt'
e9e0b89fb9ea44745246a475727e053e
b317ce7b057fcc3178081d90b2073fa9d8da7cde
describe
'11538' 'info:fdaE20081001_AAAAASfileF20081001_AAAMAU' 'sip-files00037thm.jpg'
0a75c23d00af015c13e2f5dcdeabc4b6
f400b9b1b2c180a83f71036261d1302e3ff5b1bf
describe
'128714' 'info:fdaE20081001_AAAAASfileF20081001_AAAMAV' 'sip-files00038.jp2'
5c94ee232e19f95327984b65c2f9304c
ad3f73f986edf90e631388030c5c3c9afa636e7b
describe
'123985' 'info:fdaE20081001_AAAAASfileF20081001_AAAMAW' 'sip-files00038.jpg'
2a4a80e1eaac8425050ce984fcdb1916
3f2c5a1a081228629891ba7a1866c3a8810d3930
describe
'52243' 'info:fdaE20081001_AAAAASfileF20081001_AAAMAX' 'sip-files00038.pdf'
ce79b1ac7ed034c0293c89985304ce56
4015c219a8957760dc09d0be77a6f9410f848aba
describe
'info:fdaE20081001_AAAAASfileF20081001_AAAMAX-norm-0' 'aip-filesF20081001_AAAMAX-norm-0.pdf'
990a1112c9800aba2ac4a4aebb729f4d
c2a7dbe0ad206c2498cbc4559d82e3f53911e302
describe
'2017-03-09T14:53:32-05:00'
normalize
'19052' 'info:fdaE20081001_AAAAASfileF20081001_AAAMAY' 'sip-files00038.pro'
14f6bb396ef18f500e8cd543fd847995
ac488c643da235f6d15c3e1440321ddcac69231a
describe
'43509' 'info:fdaE20081001_AAAAASfileF20081001_AAAMAZ' 'sip-files00038.QC.jpg'
fc87c86c832a5c005159660f6b5ea4a5
f23e94ad377cf5c50bcfd488cd5568b36b416571
describe
'863460' 'info:fdaE20081001_AAAAASfileF20081001_AAAMBA' 'sip-files00038.tif'
970bfb681210d68cb64f057662b1d201
4f57557d60587e21f8187f0586c3d80484ee9d07
describe
'1275' 'info:fdaE20081001_AAAAASfileF20081001_AAAMBB' 'sip-files00038.txt'
c0ea31ff1e0f3037a2b616f16ed4a642
9b1531fadcef50f46b91607b17b07cc7330c95bb
describe
'12542' 'info:fdaE20081001_AAAAASfileF20081001_AAAMBC' 'sip-files00038thm.jpg'
59470a1f75cd94eb6152fd8f15a29dcc
c296f0908c7ec5c45a97a92b295d4ce9096e0cd2
describe
'876860' 'info:fdaE20081001_AAAAASfileF20081001_AAAMBD' 'sip-files00039.jp2'
2813220255c4ea3d8db79a3b13332e47
b2f40a34fd33013a0d2322787e567117cb96d566
describe
'106430' 'info:fdaE20081001_AAAAASfileF20081001_AAAMBE' 'sip-files00039.jpg'
a9402838482e41f7a9f84f0a258107a5
77fba9bc4efa7e67858374a9f249858f0d929b8e
describe
'462614' 'info:fdaE20081001_AAAAASfileF20081001_AAAMBF' 'sip-files00039.pdf'
ceeae2c127b2cf4ee7e6e17605795de5
ab614c5a0b076e57bb1d3c0d86f1a2c6a36ab651
describe
'info:fdaE20081001_AAAAASfileF20081001_AAAMBF-norm-0' 'aip-filesF20081001_AAAMBF-norm-0.pdf'
990a1112c9800aba2ac4a4aebb729f4d
c2a7dbe0ad206c2498cbc4559d82e3f53911e302
describe
normalize
'17325' 'info:fdaE20081001_AAAAASfileF20081001_AAAMBG' 'sip-files00039.pro'
ab1296261c3c6c8d6f68d102ed32efb6
b4478cf5fb864399e6b47bda12dcec6c896c92fb
describe
'37105' 'info:fdaE20081001_AAAAASfileF20081001_AAAMBH' 'sip-files00039.QC.jpg'
ad0a047bc21347f4fde6cc41cd44ffae
7402f875adcacad1a72a6ba9699ca312a9d844b9
describe
'7039652' 'info:fdaE20081001_AAAAASfileF20081001_AAAMBI' 'sip-files00039.tif'
a0dff2bb31b3c7a27d318525b0c3ddd8
a30a437c47d4b5657a819bb048bb0cc7f5ad3363
describe
'1348' 'info:fdaE20081001_AAAAASfileF20081001_AAAMBJ' 'sip-files00039.txt'
b032e4bae64e1a282b0549ae3e8ec773
95eae40a03ae525dcb177a6f3c3c9d3b03765c7b
describe
'12043' 'info:fdaE20081001_AAAAASfileF20081001_AAAMBK' 'sip-files00039thm.jpg'
b66c6884b3f4208641bbfac127a0d7ca
119e9bdd14c0a4d939bc48bad2f54b3594b4c172
describe
'122905' 'info:fdaE20081001_AAAAASfileF20081001_AAAMBL' 'sip-files00040.jp2'
8127e2b0e4a06dde2b17c7f2ee39ab85
b81b318edf660013e1a77bc8eeac66fdbcd0a253
describe
'118380' 'info:fdaE20081001_AAAAASfileF20081001_AAAMBM' 'sip-files00040.jpg'
0e1e93104beab4e7f90229fd4db2031a
b0130589ba53e4f66898cdd5a58e59198d5103c0
describe
'50047' 'info:fdaE20081001_AAAAASfileF20081001_AAAMBN' 'sip-files00040.pdf'
e76995f69fa9751278253412c6bee4fe
0256c4818e344d80fc37f5e9e4baeb221b113ddc
describe
'info:fdaE20081001_AAAAASfileF20081001_AAAMBN-norm-0' 'aip-filesF20081001_AAAMBN-norm-0.pdf'
8cbf40949b8b639101cd4e2c803d9b62
6e3842fc6d7fb92b4cf6a2346c8099c7289050d2
describe
normalize
'18394' 'info:fdaE20081001_AAAAASfileF20081001_AAAMBO' 'sip-files00040.pro'
14c3a75d187b86b028a83daa882bfff2
ab67d1b2d6c468bffc38108e9065ea9eef4b8308
describe
'40914' 'info:fdaE20081001_AAAAASfileF20081001_AAAMBP' 'sip-files00040.QC.jpg'
e705135bbe5149a0861d3bcb43a4318c
dea202ac5bc84de62b8a035cc03ace7090457fac
describe
'861228' 'info:fdaE20081001_AAAAASfileF20081001_AAAMBQ' 'sip-files00040.tif'
d9ceeebbfff50c87065b5fce1fa1de98
351922452096941281fad01540dee43e9096403f
'2017-03-09T14:54:31-05:00'
describe
'883' 'info:fdaE20081001_AAAAASfileF20081001_AAAMBR' 'sip-files00040.txt'
9ddc2e3a3a2b511e26bfc01c6939b87e
592ad26f803b318d9847f380cd21e038fa830e81
describe
'12232' 'info:fdaE20081001_AAAAASfileF20081001_AAAMBS' 'sip-files00040thm.jpg'
05f8f056c7b78a37dcf1a2d66cb0f7da
51ca48c5ac4ed115bfc119839a9f5d170e0fb6fe
describe
'178268' 'info:fdaE20081001_AAAAASfileF20081001_AAAMBT' 'sip-files00041.jp2'
70d02e1f08bb12f6c6c17a0bc44714ed
bc28a19939fc2b7be93378ba5d00a759acce2b24
describe
'162369' 'info:fdaE20081001_AAAAASfileF20081001_AAAMBU' 'sip-files00041.jpg'
f401b1ffdbd1a3c4cecde08de6efdbb7
c4bad3d478bb4b2bdd292357d646d48ab4141174
describe
'72502' 'info:fdaE20081001_AAAAASfileF20081001_AAAMBV' 'sip-files00041.pdf'
6e7e7e16ac04bb4878b8d78cea9832d8
2f839deffa2116249e82341de02c84a8a757d5f0
describe
'info:fdaE20081001_AAAAASfileF20081001_AAAMBV-norm-0' 'aip-filesF20081001_AAAMBV-norm-0.pdf'
990a1112c9800aba2ac4a4aebb729f4d
c2a7dbe0ad206c2498cbc4559d82e3f53911e302
describe
'2017-03-09T14:55:06-05:00'
normalize
'61043' 'info:fdaE20081001_AAAAASfileF20081001_AAAMBW' 'sip-files00041.pro'
27311425bfed0da7926e35126e00f80a
ef4d2f0ce94452067888311f06428ae725641263
describe
'51324' 'info:fdaE20081001_AAAAASfileF20081001_AAAMBX' 'sip-files00041.QC.jpg'
2a392fba2b6ba72fd3bcf9c3c3425b03
6e117ec88a82cf35c589f51d0ed884d79807a350
describe
'896836' 'info:fdaE20081001_AAAAASfileF20081001_AAAMBY' 'sip-files00041.tif'
359bba430a199f937b6484c555c501cf
ecc35ad08317345eacd5e2509c340bcff062dd47
describe
'2439' 'info:fdaE20081001_AAAAASfileF20081001_AAAMBZ' 'sip-files00041.txt'
c910242cb766761da3910d2568d8d2fd
3bdcc462fb2cc9aa6cc0c0da40d9a7d103d47ba9
describe
'12561' 'info:fdaE20081001_AAAAASfileF20081001_AAAMCA' 'sip-files00041thm.jpg'
98f9ac9f584004d3222a23588a7db28a
391d52931cd62c113ed77cdf89ec740bdd287ee2
describe
'69010' 'info:fdaE20081001_AAAAASfileF20081001_AAAMCB' 'sip-files00042.jp2'
dc0a7da608b63fea105f87bd20463a15
7d8fac987a033f94c20995da95b508e867fd3cd7
describe
'42413' 'info:fdaE20081001_AAAAASfileF20081001_AAAMCC' 'sip-files00042.jpg'
3cd644cd6ce06d935f5043ffc725b680
618f4e5d83d58c44e4b6b0c785977465cee4d312
describe
'29456' 'info:fdaE20081001_AAAAASfileF20081001_AAAMCD' 'sip-files00042.pdf'
1768cc26b0c4fd64dca10e512d3c6178
12d8e6c83988a5a6f9f05a9883971446b39801a2
describe
'info:fdaE20081001_AAAAASfileF20081001_AAAMCD-norm-0' 'aip-filesF20081001_AAAMCD-norm-0.pdf'
990a1112c9800aba2ac4a4aebb729f4d
c2a7dbe0ad206c2498cbc4559d82e3f53911e302
describe
'2017-03-09T14:54:54-05:00'
normalize
'533' 'info:fdaE20081001_AAAAASfileF20081001_AAAMCE' 'sip-files00042.pro'
e2a58833326b362d65b8b83032985a3e
48bc452ead8ade713bca3ee616c5a86d25e96eb2
describe
'14031' 'info:fdaE20081001_AAAAASfileF20081001_AAAMCF' 'sip-files00042.QC.jpg'
54cc71eb9527c408db2a2f9a6e5d49c7
5547eef64c7ab553083a6fa010b611693dc6ff42
'2017-03-09T14:56:11-05:00'
describe
'851652' 'info:fdaE20081001_AAAAASfileF20081001_AAAMCG' 'sip-files00042.tif'
b53a9cc77561be783c2f8422134435e4
0f192782d0486f7653913c7b40dd8fdb3845e163
describe
'58' 'info:fdaE20081001_AAAAASfileF20081001_AAAMCH' 'sip-files00042.txt'
c2c7854b9e57dd252d19631b79c8d8f4
392b5c1c7deb724427d18bfac558368839f0e70a
describe
'4201' 'info:fdaE20081001_AAAAASfileF20081001_AAAMCI' 'sip-files00042thm.jpg'
84d73ca2d8677b705f3adad5275299cc
2c6947ae22e92834891f37c43bec4c71eb741212
describe
'95895' 'info:fdaE20081001_AAAAASfileF20081001_AAAMCJ' 'sip-files00043.jp2'
267ebd0149d6f896d58991f14ce2f8d7
56dc2deb8e17c0ec11e8db96ee9c6c0f78efd4d2
describe
'86968' 'info:fdaE20081001_AAAAASfileF20081001_AAAMCK' 'sip-files00043.jpg'
cd180a94ca943e3d77adee67aabaf93f
acdfff59df600ebc46f0fc0fe0a53f2cabdfd54e
describe
'39458' 'info:fdaE20081001_AAAAASfileF20081001_AAAMCL' 'sip-files00043.pdf'
ea0c1412176985bbe04f9e321470d42d
bb186689a87d599999a7893ad63a5271810d8737
describe
'info:fdaE20081001_AAAAASfileF20081001_AAAMCL-norm-0' 'aip-filesF20081001_AAAMCL-norm-0.pdf'
990a1112c9800aba2ac4a4aebb729f4d
c2a7dbe0ad206c2498cbc4559d82e3f53911e302
describe
normalize
'30361' 'info:fdaE20081001_AAAAASfileF20081001_AAAMCM' 'sip-files00043.pro'
679e4d508730c7ddc772489f9e30274f
31f89d23ffe4b7e1298cac6832447f521f44cdb9
describe
'30009' 'info:fdaE20081001_AAAAASfileF20081001_AAAMCN' 'sip-files00043.QC.jpg'
a3b4311abcf06b927832259e3d0869d6
1e888fd694a34ba9be50549acc878b64000233b5
'2017-03-09T14:54:50-05:00'
describe
'890220' 'info:fdaE20081001_AAAAASfileF20081001_AAAMCO' 'sip-files00043.tif'
91c83c0917e6ee2fed858ef9b5aef1a1
c8414aaaaac5d06ef54574a145d27957235d2767
describe
'1337' 'info:fdaE20081001_AAAAASfileF20081001_AAAMCP' 'sip-files00043.txt'
84678eb53a6417871fcf3cbba3d96b4e
d5c4800f6098ea762c35fbf2e7c50b75a8338155
describe
'8195' 'info:fdaE20081001_AAAAASfileF20081001_AAAMCQ' 'sip-files00043thm.jpg'
6c9b9a9a9e3799ec5260cbbca4eda0ee
0a369636bfdc216df6d1d999987e04e5255aadc4
describe
'107775' 'info:fdaE20081001_AAAAASfileF20081001_AAAMCR' 'sip-files00044.jp2'
98b6187e0b1bb1a73e83ad335d1c7846
805bfe385d9c496574021c5c4b141b0e44a79776
describe
'106516' 'info:fdaE20081001_AAAAASfileF20081001_AAAMCS' 'sip-files00044.jpg'
7be3ef26b66df3f044402efc60a72551
59695ee42869ac00eaf56a0fbf09ac97d239b087
describe
'43353' 'info:fdaE20081001_AAAAASfileF20081001_AAAMCT' 'sip-files00044.pdf'
d6e01e32f1ecd1d217b09467c8b81d4f
a74de5107d62b2f0bc6110dea5e6c75a7b46322b
describe
'info:fdaE20081001_AAAAASfileF20081001_AAAMCT-norm-0' 'aip-filesF20081001_AAAMCT-norm-0.pdf'
990a1112c9800aba2ac4a4aebb729f4d
c2a7dbe0ad206c2498cbc4559d82e3f53911e302
describe
normalize
'15629' 'info:fdaE20081001_AAAAASfileF20081001_AAAMCU' 'sip-files00044.pro'
88b3ba516ab3c9796d208135b1d82c50
ed601399457ce817cb3909084d4eb9cbb2618d28
describe
'38913' 'info:fdaE20081001_AAAAASfileF20081001_AAAMCV' 'sip-files00044.QC.jpg'
d008fefa0323e24eec4c04d3eda0509e
d380cd2a8878eea46bcb023077997d26e1d963b9
describe
'858644' 'info:fdaE20081001_AAAAASfileF20081001_AAAMCW' 'sip-files00044.tif'
19276cb5541fcc92906b5448f9988fa8
e89be391d8caa490e4775dd71335728807d2932f
describe
'724' 'info:fdaE20081001_AAAAASfileF20081001_AAAMCX' 'sip-files00044.txt'
b48c3bea532fda45e060d1f0e3b8dd88
d576d18da039d5a5269c2e8d52ed7521d98657d5
describe
'11473' 'info:fdaE20081001_AAAAASfileF20081001_AAAMCY' 'sip-files00044thm.jpg'
34e7e92531187cf48c4f21fc059a8a35
c16bd462be3f3a6409e476223273ae144018cffa
describe
'91028' 'info:fdaE20081001_AAAAASfileF20081001_AAAMCZ' 'sip-files00045.jp2'
8513833a713c792264e2ac920b24ea20
dc84dde36b8638ee7b91dde701a45181185a485d
describe
'44507' 'info:fdaE20081001_AAAAASfileF20081001_AAAMDA' 'sip-files00045.jpg'
2cd5ddcbce47a18fb72882da7080e37b
715204d70cc5417242a3d1ef6889df15f9858f4e
describe
'39187' 'info:fdaE20081001_AAAAASfileF20081001_AAAMDB' 'sip-files00045.pdf'
31d045ef72bb6977c318cbbb14ba490b
a68dcee2f8980384341683256c800d205fcf9ea2
describe
'info:fdaE20081001_AAAAASfileF20081001_AAAMDB-norm-0' 'aip-filesF20081001_AAAMDB-norm-0.pdf'
990a1112c9800aba2ac4a4aebb729f4d
c2a7dbe0ad206c2498cbc4559d82e3f53911e302
describe
'2017-03-09T14:54:34-05:00'
normalize
'2173' 'info:fdaE20081001_AAAAASfileF20081001_AAAMDC' 'sip-files00045.pro'
a6cb6385836be6b5b8cc877045fb1406
ec6ca9615a9159ddd6f8d6073a26247fa1ef9693
describe
'13574' 'info:fdaE20081001_AAAAASfileF20081001_AAAMDD' 'sip-files00045.QC.jpg'
d28ed0eba6b765d1dd6e9e0a58713b9a
89c98b742471ae5624b2eb18c001e93f59b65979
'2017-03-09T14:54:20-05:00'
describe
'843336' 'info:fdaE20081001_AAAAASfileF20081001_AAAMDE' 'sip-files00045.tif'
04d91a3f6d693deea5531502ae551a70
f8c80b6d5088d4f3762fcd9fef9a928b771644bc
describe
'90' 'info:fdaE20081001_AAAAASfileF20081001_AAAMDF' 'sip-files00045.txt'
6c18e49886cf7ff809c6ea2a2423b680
5b74b1a4a82d4b0c62b1e41903d87f0363d8ee3a
describe
'3698' 'info:fdaE20081001_AAAAASfileF20081001_AAAMDG' 'sip-files00045thm.jpg'
e0f03e8d08b060437a826c46d8b58f77
5b6850dd090b6851fcb168794e2e4004aad06eac
describe
'152538' 'info:fdaE20081001_AAAAASfileF20081001_AAAMDH' 'sip-files00046.jp2'
3fad5ec23373b2269e18ebc5d4e747f9
a4ab5623777e14502e06868d57a64bcfa6245fed
describe
'143404' 'info:fdaE20081001_AAAAASfileF20081001_AAAMDI' 'sip-files00046.jpg'
108ee7628f7a4b4f7d099f70c2e9db0c
9b9c0eeab31e11fb87bd03c21f450fb0bbef63a2
describe
'63095' 'info:fdaE20081001_AAAAASfileF20081001_AAAMDJ' 'sip-files00046.pdf'
ded7af320b954923676ac769e7b83269
0ed39fb2201c955f1004c026a5f6524394086618
describe
'info:fdaE20081001_AAAAASfileF20081001_AAAMDJ-norm-0' 'aip-filesF20081001_AAAMDJ-norm-0.pdf'
990a1112c9800aba2ac4a4aebb729f4d
c2a7dbe0ad206c2498cbc4559d82e3f53911e302
describe
normalize
'60481' 'info:fdaE20081001_AAAAASfileF20081001_AAAMDK' 'sip-files00046.pro'
17f2c752ed0f0750933ad68574a997cd
3ef124904f2e42cdedbe0be0aa5f188f65426051
describe
'46992' 'info:fdaE20081001_AAAAASfileF20081001_AAAMDL' 'sip-files00046.QC.jpg'
021b7bdc61e39f17afeb9de77753dd05
b8b8ed5bd47e998aa5578efd14e73ae31c3c0455
describe
'860632' 'info:fdaE20081001_AAAAASfileF20081001_AAAMDM' 'sip-files00046.tif'
b232549eea762aec6474ef9b83449e7f
692ec607d25eb653e312751ffaaca425a5c3515c
describe
'2650' 'info:fdaE20081001_AAAAASfileF20081001_AAAMDN' 'sip-files00046.txt'
32165c478baaa1ca8fcc00b21e228464
fa5eb0e4705985dca614238cfbce69bcdb43bb25
describe
'11766' 'info:fdaE20081001_AAAAASfileF20081001_AAAMDO' 'sip-files00046thm.jpg'
fdc50f4a988112f051ba164b9f5d93f1
8ccb3eb3ec762914e26ea7bc15ce9d46397a2033
describe
'168456' 'info:fdaE20081001_AAAAASfileF20081001_AAAMDP' 'sip-files00047.jp2'
819d699f56ef6e5974e48762b984d8f2
a83a9793642004b7a87a89685fcf7eb10674eacc
describe
'134748' 'info:fdaE20081001_AAAAASfileF20081001_AAAMDQ' 'sip-files00047.jpg'
c7a612ed592276b2fbf91f23deeaf8a8
54f4e8a3499e51421aff7a4f790d24751b15a501
describe
'79447' 'info:fdaE20081001_AAAAASfileF20081001_AAAMDR' 'sip-files00047.pdf'
4eed6c7e06ac145593a5317c698c01d5
db3ab3174c4fa016e9fcd01b8e81938c2a58c738
describe
'info:fdaE20081001_AAAAASfileF20081001_AAAMDR-norm-0' 'aip-filesF20081001_AAAMDR-norm-0.pdf'
8cbf40949b8b639101cd4e2c803d9b62
6e3842fc6d7fb92b4cf6a2346c8099c7289050d2
describe
normalize
'43379' 'info:fdaE20081001_AAAAASfileF20081001_AAAMDS' 'sip-files00047.pro'
b4feb73608a38b4efa5fd0cad9a1c14b
5680a6b9a4b7389ab74ad963d2d7cfcc46a7bdbd
describe
'42397' 'info:fdaE20081001_AAAAASfileF20081001_AAAMDT' 'sip-files00047.QC.jpg'
c1160a899bb0abe478299d9d7b658a87
7b25260ca8aa09ca9b495c45a58d56b4cbe26166
describe
'897712' 'info:fdaE20081001_AAAAASfileF20081001_AAAMDU' 'sip-files00047.tif'
8f2fe54157d353a5634d294417b0644a
0ee475c75bc189ddb3ce9e1065eac09cdf5eeabe
describe
'1960' 'info:fdaE20081001_AAAAASfileF20081001_AAAMDV' 'sip-files00047.txt'
60001b086527654aa2fa73b24726a52c
eb61e28efcb3146676f9f5f4b2a8190d2c074e96
describe
Invalid character
Invalid character
'11043' 'info:fdaE20081001_AAAAASfileF20081001_AAAMDW' 'sip-files00047thm.jpg'
5f7a4acce0afaf0bc8d531da7352a919
cf734b17035f332dbc91a143f1362bec28acd04d
describe
'186154' 'info:fdaE20081001_AAAAASfileF20081001_AAAMDX' 'sip-files00048.jp2'
5ac7051ea144cfa46144ef2e11ec4ce2
87cab422e453799ce640b2b04e415154e2829989
describe
'168569' 'info:fdaE20081001_AAAAASfileF20081001_AAAMDY' 'sip-files00048.jpg'
9724fc46396de15adde66bba54d0bc8f
91e446227e092cfe1118d0858db93330f6880d5c
describe
'75695' 'info:fdaE20081001_AAAAASfileF20081001_AAAMDZ' 'sip-files00048.pdf'
c87d4d5bf4e3654272a8e14b4f8a10f2
e9d344b13d5c15d18b5c8ea279495f0ea7c55fd3
describe
'info:fdaE20081001_AAAAASfileF20081001_AAAMDZ-norm-0' 'aip-filesF20081001_AAAMDZ-norm-0.pdf'
990a1112c9800aba2ac4a4aebb729f4d
c2a7dbe0ad206c2498cbc4559d82e3f53911e302
describe
normalize
'64945' 'info:fdaE20081001_AAAAASfileF20081001_AAAMEA' 'sip-files00048.pro'
6f63a4687ec30bb31f09a2a721a54753
2bff67af4ba45a5b55c9fefaab6491d95692fef8
describe
'54359' 'info:fdaE20081001_AAAAASfileF20081001_AAAMEB' 'sip-files00048.QC.jpg'
33d068a6051321d1c4cf62549b7088cb
e3ca7f084cb7885a69be30ca1781d949ff5b3f12
describe
'883232' 'info:fdaE20081001_AAAAASfileF20081001_AAAMEC' 'sip-files00048.tif'
0b14d8a66493a2df1eaa8f7e4fb14e27
fa480a42171dc796e7a518fb414b3cd9b87fc8dc
describe
'2647' 'info:fdaE20081001_AAAAASfileF20081001_AAAMED' 'sip-files00048.txt'
99dad375918158a2298373cb30d9b1fe
6ebbc639e6037e19b98e3d03b1ba948c691b9c5c
describe
'13253' 'info:fdaE20081001_AAAAASfileF20081001_AAAMEE' 'sip-files00048thm.jpg'
722088c621c59fa500dff0f19640d81a
59efbb9aeb58f08187bba5851c6b3a1c57895e14
describe
'193424' 'info:fdaE20081001_AAAAASfileF20081001_AAAMEF' 'sip-files00049.jp2'
efbd3f2ba4dcb0dabb26d2161a292747
66e623abcf15605d08aef126d4e56458567802a0
describe
'178496' 'info:fdaE20081001_AAAAASfileF20081001_AAAMEG' 'sip-files00049.jpg'
de65013952a964ddf7c7b79aaae4cb74
a51c999a92fed724c79bcfbc442159c988bf3eaa
describe
'79612' 'info:fdaE20081001_AAAAASfileF20081001_AAAMEH' 'sip-files00049.pdf'
dd81be8d989493532a26655ba1417a65
c812d62028298a3f327b5928a6d3a49fedef2119
'2017-03-09T14:52:46-05:00'
describe
'info:fdaE20081001_AAAAASfileF20081001_AAAMEH-norm-0' 'aip-filesF20081001_AAAMEH-norm-0.pdf'
8cbf40949b8b639101cd4e2c803d9b62
6e3842fc6d7fb92b4cf6a2346c8099c7289050d2
describe
normalize
'69283' 'info:fdaE20081001_AAAAASfileF20081001_AAAMEI' 'sip-files00049.pro'
f7258d75486a2788913476e2bf7b3245
6e461a0e6ca5f1c1e89d84c5edf27b45c32195a2
describe
'56307' 'info:fdaE20081001_AAAAASfileF20081001_AAAMEJ' 'sip-files00049.QC.jpg'
3c1e8b7967535945f4c9d14122d1e052
9e245bb90e9b2fec04eb06a2c91c9d7c90c02fe7
describe
'898932' 'info:fdaE20081001_AAAAASfileF20081001_AAAMEK' 'sip-files00049.tif'
993a8d0d0e95d6b601b8a3009cd40cd8
35fc2e622b0c750bf92c62ef38f8c9d97eaa04bf
describe
'2729' 'info:fdaE20081001_AAAAASfileF20081001_AAAMEL' 'sip-files00049.txt'
06db34217e7fb69553792c44962e554c
f5182c92b8a27db5a282c5fac4809d9a906aff39
describe
'13375' 'info:fdaE20081001_AAAAASfileF20081001_AAAMEM' 'sip-files00049thm.jpg'
bfe1f64798d081b2af75b8b5c06075f9
106403f1f8834d03b1aca40f930408c4566b8354
describe
'103160' 'info:fdaE20081001_AAAAASfileF20081001_AAAMEN' 'sip-files00050.jp2'
34c3163b8a2abcb05ee85c65554a8d19
a392ea66eeff2adcc18c61aa280caca76e3abbb5
describe
'46872' 'info:fdaE20081001_AAAAASfileF20081001_AAAMEO' 'sip-files00050.jpg'
94eb827f43e919213ee915557fdeed62
8244e48c4cf8132dcaf31e58e68dfcd0f1409a89
describe
'46833' 'info:fdaE20081001_AAAAASfileF20081001_AAAMEP' 'sip-files00050.pdf'
91d89ae64c3cbbe2796bf8087170c329
22d16852cb4878b814b267733aa10fa594f62c9c
describe
'info:fdaE20081001_AAAAASfileF20081001_AAAMEP-norm-0' 'aip-filesF20081001_AAAMEP-norm-0.pdf'
8cbf40949b8b639101cd4e2c803d9b62
6e3842fc6d7fb92b4cf6a2346c8099c7289050d2
describe
normalize
'18221' 'info:fdaE20081001_AAAAASfileF20081001_AAAMEQ' 'sip-files00050.pro'
f4e6c848e367ac59556f3a2ac9c6963d
2eecf2f8ab42ab01005208ab05213122abd74121
describe
'15746' 'info:fdaE20081001_AAAAASfileF20081001_AAAMER' 'sip-files00050.QC.jpg'
85ab5438e6ee0e593e72a6bb0d7b9b81
14d73b4697702e005ca71485a07b220122c5199f
describe
'842348' 'info:fdaE20081001_AAAAASfileF20081001_AAAMES' 'sip-files00050.tif'
86c19701b67aa361b6673972d546de11
6322b7429b01b9f2d51d57b2da04ec4079ef49dd
describe
'1298' 'info:fdaE20081001_AAAAASfileF20081001_AAAMET' 'sip-files00050.txt'
2f5e937dba93643c9d793114b0715be1
e48b3d96347e32b0fd289d53ba4de838c07637bc
describe
'5146' 'info:fdaE20081001_AAAAASfileF20081001_AAAMEU' 'sip-files00050thm.jpg'
aa26fb76662e414fff86ad5dbef4bb6d
019e25bc48db609bc46f6c8864e8e191bd16f0a7
'2017-03-09T14:55:20-05:00'
describe
'196389' 'info:fdaE20081001_AAAAASfileF20081001_AAAMEV' 'sip-files00051.jp2'
3eea2670411fbbc806bd20e61958f687
ef8b8fa55ae9206c29faf08873fb73ed8c311f79
describe
'173689' 'info:fdaE20081001_AAAAASfileF20081001_AAAMEW' 'sip-files00051.jpg'
020a1a009a9ce13c0e8a9018bea58740
ffb7c447f4a26dfaedf879385ed71c69d1dcb8ff
describe
'80545' 'info:fdaE20081001_AAAAASfileF20081001_AAAMEX' 'sip-files00051.pdf'
c2001cda8562615bdc5b93cae9d7a46c
e575c34e3a2a9e2c54e4b359e29209ffa052f6a8
describe
'info:fdaE20081001_AAAAASfileF20081001_AAAMEX-norm-0' 'aip-filesF20081001_AAAMEX-norm-0.pdf'
990a1112c9800aba2ac4a4aebb729f4d
c2a7dbe0ad206c2498cbc4559d82e3f53911e302
describe
'2017-03-09T14:56:31-05:00'
normalize
'68660' 'info:fdaE20081001_AAAAASfileF20081001_AAAMEY' 'sip-files00051.pro'
14217b948a5c2d515ea9c088c0160244
3476e70da885c4e97acabadd2337bcdf449b7b8e
describe
'54108' 'info:fdaE20081001_AAAAASfileF20081001_AAAMEZ' 'sip-files00051.QC.jpg'
1394e212994a9976418a560935d919d9
9a035d07ea18345e2537879ac88920ff8abccce3
describe
'917636' 'info:fdaE20081001_AAAAASfileF20081001_AAAMFA' 'sip-files00051.tif'
74924ab91b57aa10f15a6351a26b184f
e2ea3cb32c16c3438cb5d66f694f7167a5bf233b
describe
'2709' 'info:fdaE20081001_AAAAASfileF20081001_AAAMFB' 'sip-files00051.txt'
c53cb68efd5a45143cc7c9f7582873de
63ce96752de46272301d2e98397de42762cf2376
describe
'13193' 'info:fdaE20081001_AAAAASfileF20081001_AAAMFC' 'sip-files00051thm.jpg'
cf3b039d266175286581d25e79829200
012455108ae9cb8808c7e64feb862f6d1e70960a
describe
'192872' 'info:fdaE20081001_AAAAASfileF20081001_AAAMFD' 'sip-files00052.jp2'
de6c2022e8dc6fe5f8603864af794f88
4b21f60f6c4be4aed329ca1094f1617caa3fe290
describe
'177556' 'info:fdaE20081001_AAAAASfileF20081001_AAAMFE' 'sip-files00052.jpg'
3588f33b9e953c884fd3a41476088897
d666aee8826f0d82fd3847250a78e8a8b87f1eeb
describe
'78883' 'info:fdaE20081001_AAAAASfileF20081001_AAAMFF' 'sip-files00052.pdf'
7b6dca8b447bd194ba4c896564be6e31
e112b208196974aa949beea84c7ce59aac7bba00
'2017-03-09T14:53:13-05:00'
describe
'info:fdaE20081001_AAAAASfileF20081001_AAAMFF-norm-0' 'aip-filesF20081001_AAAMFF-norm-0.pdf'
8cbf40949b8b639101cd4e2c803d9b62
6e3842fc6d7fb92b4cf6a2346c8099c7289050d2
describe
'2017-03-09T14:53:14-05:00'
normalize
'68056' 'info:fdaE20081001_AAAAASfileF20081001_AAAMFG' 'sip-files00052.pro'
b14b520a552dc26b4de736d6e5898d40
6a05a32c76d32ca332cf0e92efeab267712718a9
describe
'56081' 'info:fdaE20081001_AAAAASfileF20081001_AAAMFH' 'sip-files00052.QC.jpg'
a96f00de0a3299c381966f34111520ea
e97711ac887c555e8a1b8347e52a80e0d433940e
describe
'883480' 'info:fdaE20081001_AAAAASfileF20081001_AAAMFI' 'sip-files00052.tif'
a31433658f04b0bf0d75f4e08da0c571
864d527bb020a1e27d724193acabce5aae270a4e
describe
'2731' 'info:fdaE20081001_AAAAASfileF20081001_AAAMFJ' 'sip-files00052.txt'
ef1a0bb6f34b591764a8e02776555599
62852aba883392bf09bc22da05182ebe2f8aa5ce
describe
'13385' 'info:fdaE20081001_AAAAASfileF20081001_AAAMFK' 'sip-files00052thm.jpg'
af302e344fc8d99f326e4183e7fbafc8
3e83537ac557b697cdb0bf9b446562affead2036
describe
'121946' 'info:fdaE20081001_AAAAASfileF20081001_AAAMFL' 'sip-files00053.jp2'
a82874f90d1ef7a7294aa185e6424017
a9f4dc555cf979813341fc3e0fa4482d94f3a079
describe
'117077' 'info:fdaE20081001_AAAAASfileF20081001_AAAMFM' 'sip-files00053.jpg'
710fe73258f21d15d1a9fb6b76e47b7e
8db7c7ddb666362e9c8705f3f6c85f816d283465
describe
'49412' 'info:fdaE20081001_AAAAASfileF20081001_AAAMFN' 'sip-files00053.pdf'
c98d2e7b4423c01e9ab2dde1b2ee8513
89663b4a9767736bae25f370dd90136d334faea7
describe
'info:fdaE20081001_AAAAASfileF20081001_AAAMFN-norm-0' 'aip-filesF20081001_AAAMFN-norm-0.pdf'
990a1112c9800aba2ac4a4aebb729f4d
c2a7dbe0ad206c2498cbc4559d82e3f53911e302
describe
normalize
'13356' 'info:fdaE20081001_AAAAASfileF20081001_AAAMFO' 'sip-files00053.pro'
a19db0a1aadec0bdd9ac44bf9972f25d
b56d27eafe3a5572cfddeb022e954357cbb45e5e
describe
'39385' 'info:fdaE20081001_AAAAASfileF20081001_AAAMFP' 'sip-files00053.QC.jpg'
55aeb1483345fefc590dc48f888bc0bb
06ff44bcbccb28baa12dec190c7bef5daef83527
describe
'865284' 'info:fdaE20081001_AAAAASfileF20081001_AAAMFQ' 'sip-files00053.tif'
59c26b0491630d5e77aa27fc056ebf68
4c24a656b4c024b505132e7ee9e1a60af536015c
describe
'764' 'info:fdaE20081001_AAAAASfileF20081001_AAAMFR' 'sip-files00053.txt'
54385bed4d3e87764ef82fcc07c3d22a
2592bd8e7a5145ef1a512d47294062e558ae48a9
describe
'11608' 'info:fdaE20081001_AAAAASfileF20081001_AAAMFS' 'sip-files00053thm.jpg'
68f02ff268ca80e09f8aee396288f3c6
f52dcf83628acfa5b24b1dd694b7f3110cb77a9c
describe
'133767' 'info:fdaE20081001_AAAAASfileF20081001_AAAMFT' 'sip-files00054.jp2'
b16874dc65127eb0b5b99b30a7dfefe1
6c560c9d5c590adf35665ebaa42052bd0edf2728
describe
'125204' 'info:fdaE20081001_AAAAASfileF20081001_AAAMFU' 'sip-files00054.jpg'
e9f28bfe408ac4468ad1e1906c7234db
e401f231f83fe4d1bc9ff4dde5f41d33b4b4ac60
describe
'56118' 'info:fdaE20081001_AAAAASfileF20081001_AAAMFV' 'sip-files00054.pdf'
6118592a0c3043c24bb0332788e5b9cf
925598493c8bfcedf82940e6b0ce41d4b85a3c50
describe
'info:fdaE20081001_AAAAASfileF20081001_AAAMFV-norm-0' 'aip-filesF20081001_AAAMFV-norm-0.pdf'
8cbf40949b8b639101cd4e2c803d9b62
6e3842fc6d7fb92b4cf6a2346c8099c7289050d2
describe
normalize
'16468' 'info:fdaE20081001_AAAAASfileF20081001_AAAMFW' 'sip-files00054.pro'
63319fdbcefb8f1ffe9598bf695f3800
e523633b300539ccef3d1b1cc5ebd1be7800576d
describe
'41837' 'info:fdaE20081001_AAAAASfileF20081001_AAAMFX' 'sip-files00054.QC.jpg'
48bb4a0650061efaef3475d673f8336c
d897e9508a5c401f6006a9f281a62130bb6947df
describe
'865244' 'info:fdaE20081001_AAAAASfileF20081001_AAAMFY' 'sip-files00054.tif'
72211e517121f65bd2ee66cc9cbb8e91
04ebe18e7ced941a310e31593670020a2770d14e
describe
'1231' 'info:fdaE20081001_AAAAASfileF20081001_AAAMFZ' 'sip-files00054.txt'
e12c90b1c931cad890842ff2049b88ef
de5c626c3c5a35b12e30fc7c80bc1270cadd93be
describe
'12157' 'info:fdaE20081001_AAAAASfileF20081001_AAAMGA' 'sip-files00054thm.jpg'
924b5371ab8c14e5059294ae05128595
f21e98aae0198c7d99709cefd47e4b72eb136ec6
describe
'199647' 'info:fdaE20081001_AAAAASfileF20081001_AAAMGB' 'sip-files00055.jp2'
0c64754608ed574d4d9ad3307b181fc3
5ee6c0c3f2100c8085c26c04b739008dcb2a40f4
describe
'184132' 'info:fdaE20081001_AAAAASfileF20081001_AAAMGC' 'sip-files00055.jpg'
ed90bb66b23e2824b39528cfe4fd23b4
f181c6f4f1787492b36111b28ed0fb612561f0eb
describe
'83049' 'info:fdaE20081001_AAAAASfileF20081001_AAAMGD' 'sip-files00055.pdf'
cbdd5267725de5d776ab2a77e467ccad
92a4e827c75f9a2309ba7f8863d4cf404a775194
describe
'info:fdaE20081001_AAAAASfileF20081001_AAAMGD-norm-0' 'aip-filesF20081001_AAAMGD-norm-0.pdf'
990a1112c9800aba2ac4a4aebb729f4d
c2a7dbe0ad206c2498cbc4559d82e3f53911e302
describe
'2017-03-09T14:53:50-05:00'
normalize
'71822' 'info:fdaE20081001_AAAAASfileF20081001_AAAMGE' 'sip-files00055.pro'
f9cd7931988ba32dbceae086fc975604
762a61d7a89887e6b7f5f659ba7e25fe5b5230a0
describe
'57528' 'info:fdaE20081001_AAAAASfileF20081001_AAAMGF' 'sip-files00055.QC.jpg'
2c83bf1fe254bf6d7440c6b7b49c4dbe
6cf2a973f2054c342c670aa8aec8e36ead68f690
describe
'901620' 'info:fdaE20081001_AAAAASfileF20081001_AAAMGG' 'sip-files00055.tif'
329e76730d86b7f06c8e58abba94009d
75c1811055d79cf8d7e7290152025843b939041e
describe
'2852' 'info:fdaE20081001_AAAAASfileF20081001_AAAMGH' 'sip-files00055.txt'
02ba4c6ab2d20cad002f6a1b708179e8
82f3d232af553c9df28bdc47fdf4862e35e5ee5b
describe
'13302' 'info:fdaE20081001_AAAAASfileF20081001_AAAMGI' 'sip-files00055thm.jpg'
76fb200b9d4e7ee0868885a5c85f6c11
cbe27e47560f4da815e906e51348131d00a77d09
describe
'200211' 'info:fdaE20081001_AAAAASfileF20081001_AAAMGJ' 'sip-files00056.jp2'
4bca9520b65283d0a1f28a986f74c259
981def4f52c683fa3b99041c504aabf1d534651e
describe
'189471' 'info:fdaE20081001_AAAAASfileF20081001_AAAMGK' 'sip-files00056.jpg'
e8375dfdcb508a4c01841c3c92c5e6aa
4f24a8a5218d796a6b81f70e930683c672c18d92
describe
'84019' 'info:fdaE20081001_AAAAASfileF20081001_AAAMGL' 'sip-files00056.pdf'
87c34e902d3101471f31de61cab85492
745df1bc279a79f147018378a734806cedd53445
describe
'info:fdaE20081001_AAAAASfileF20081001_AAAMGL-norm-0' 'aip-filesF20081001_AAAMGL-norm-0.pdf'
990a1112c9800aba2ac4a4aebb729f4d
c2a7dbe0ad206c2498cbc4559d82e3f53911e302
describe
normalize
'70417' 'info:fdaE20081001_AAAAASfileF20081001_AAAMGM' 'sip-files00056.pro'
62272353cdfb3cff30fcabcf31c88590
0ff1cc67307ad4ca2b533ea220509204dc0eff51
describe
'59456' 'info:fdaE20081001_AAAAASfileF20081001_AAAMGN' 'sip-files00056.QC.jpg'
cedefbc03b329632b10f05dce5114551
2b64d3988705e781b18512a552d82fa49846eeb6
describe
'864244' 'info:fdaE20081001_AAAAASfileF20081001_AAAMGO' 'sip-files00056.tif'
e15b4417d416df1ab2921342b4ba3768
f1c1f8c5f3da21458897593b47e5bf21b54a3bad
describe
'2815' 'info:fdaE20081001_AAAAASfileF20081001_AAAMGP' 'sip-files00056.txt'
720c95f8ae8afda4da9dd0dbea57594a
a1349634e3a962367a54cdca940c75cb3ffca21d
describe
'14022' 'info:fdaE20081001_AAAAASfileF20081001_AAAMGQ' 'sip-files00056thm.jpg'
6818eac8ef5d4147177cd1d0775cb78a
83f95e33cfbb854940f76c40abd3ee671697c111
describe
'148915' 'info:fdaE20081001_AAAAASfileF20081001_AAAMGR' 'sip-files00057.jp2'
a4e7a4c76cbf508ac6b4824fe8998083
d36894225b5f3f81446e6a87967853f3a54c1879
describe
'133802' 'info:fdaE20081001_AAAAASfileF20081001_AAAMGS' 'sip-files00057.jpg'
71e2e5aba374efe0a4cb54b77645fce4
ce99bb95e118a7fb74217a73e63e3779cbe2a14b
describe
'61318' 'info:fdaE20081001_AAAAASfileF20081001_AAAMGT' 'sip-files00057.pdf'
35ac49c7a9f6466afb64dc3c3673d9c7
125e7d0cd9de5ad50214dac532f825d344b708ec
describe
'info:fdaE20081001_AAAAASfileF20081001_AAAMGT-norm-0' 'aip-filesF20081001_AAAMGT-norm-0.pdf'
990a1112c9800aba2ac4a4aebb729f4d
c2a7dbe0ad206c2498cbc4559d82e3f53911e302
describe
normalize
'31389' 'info:fdaE20081001_AAAAASfileF20081001_AAAMGU' 'sip-files00057.pro'
08cc54cf229da5caedc479c2d0273a80
e439ad746a5d27848628db95719ea386e50f1b43
describe
'43534' 'info:fdaE20081001_AAAAASfileF20081001_AAAMGV' 'sip-files00057.QC.jpg'
0dd5f4591b8a96f5b62405faa68351b7
50e85e3604f485b20a0c43f09e9028a28ec6217a
describe
'899180' 'info:fdaE20081001_AAAAASfileF20081001_AAAMGW' 'sip-files00057.tif'
94530ea3bdb098d02852e4e629e84755
1a01f2dc7fb5b6a6360736d278070b6498cb3f5e
describe
'1297' 'info:fdaE20081001_AAAAASfileF20081001_AAAMGX' 'sip-files00057.txt'
bc879c124155bcae3f7234ef6bac9d07
d7bb3c877fcf706b869e61ad72766ef083a1bb8d
describe
'11306' 'info:fdaE20081001_AAAAASfileF20081001_AAAMGY' 'sip-files00057thm.jpg'
65cb6c0ff2c08d6ae2acfa0659819035
d1a266943984dceee8e3d33af80f1889a9324006
describe
'185635' 'info:fdaE20081001_AAAAASfileF20081001_AAAMGZ' 'sip-files00058.jp2'
b04b00dcdd83e26ce4ae59f3362e6f03
6881bfffdd96be7079adcaf84f08a08b9e535bcf
describe
'169706' 'info:fdaE20081001_AAAAASfileF20081001_AAAMHA' 'sip-files00058.jpg'
0bee237cd1883803ba60848d8fbd6ea1
68afffb0cefb3f0348f2941915c11644e355e9d6
describe
'76096' 'info:fdaE20081001_AAAAASfileF20081001_AAAMHB' 'sip-files00058.pdf'
9d5776d170ea952274dda1b3fa7c0ab7
6717b8792604f3bd51b166738a879bc67fbb203c
'2017-03-09T14:56:18-05:00'
describe
'info:fdaE20081001_AAAAASfileF20081001_AAAMHB-norm-0' 'aip-filesF20081001_AAAMHB-norm-0.pdf'
990a1112c9800aba2ac4a4aebb729f4d
c2a7dbe0ad206c2498cbc4559d82e3f53911e302
describe
'2017-03-09T14:56:20-05:00'
normalize
'67775' 'info:fdaE20081001_AAAAASfileF20081001_AAAMHC' 'sip-files00058.pro'
b6db5719b788986cb3a7827d94b55588
7b7bbf087212fef39ba04d0330b6ae89348966ec
describe
'53188' 'info:fdaE20081001_AAAAASfileF20081001_AAAMHD' 'sip-files00058.QC.jpg'
fa346e578847d45552443da1163a09dc
d1a5031de31d8894ad3161b2b62957814dee2722
describe
'882252' 'info:fdaE20081001_AAAAASfileF20081001_AAAMHE' 'sip-files00058.tif'
ad6c331c1116d9bfeaf21d7183478033
9d8650b882c69d11946f1f78c22de8f46fae7881
describe
'2820' 'info:fdaE20081001_AAAAASfileF20081001_AAAMHF' 'sip-files00058.txt'
38965a04ff40943bec75db15c3bec1f1
ee1e9d552fba2315aec46700f75275fea426f982
describe
'12975' 'info:fdaE20081001_AAAAASfileF20081001_AAAMHG' 'sip-files00058thm.jpg'
8d342b572a5c96f2ec2ab5dc5603aaf7
256d460b89ade50f8832f56bee18ba0958e32838
describe
'148991' 'info:fdaE20081001_AAAAASfileF20081001_AAAMHH' 'sip-files00059.jp2'
7b678096dc193e2937b8df905fcbc759
8a2ab081cbf04836a35046395e4b7f77f490638b
describe
'139450' 'info:fdaE20081001_AAAAASfileF20081001_AAAMHI' 'sip-files00059.jpg'
36764d5a1c6072ab871eb9cc455b7362
bd24573383693e7643a43b8aaedce664acde5150
describe
'61028' 'info:fdaE20081001_AAAAASfileF20081001_AAAMHJ' 'sip-files00059.pdf'
3703dc9ecf820599d0da93a2242d9e3f
482c70fd455ccdb505f89735066a5639f90b3e72
describe
'info:fdaE20081001_AAAAASfileF20081001_AAAMHJ-norm-0' 'aip-filesF20081001_AAAMHJ-norm-0.pdf'
990a1112c9800aba2ac4a4aebb729f4d
c2a7dbe0ad206c2498cbc4559d82e3f53911e302
describe
normalize
'30709' 'info:fdaE20081001_AAAAASfileF20081001_AAAMHK' 'sip-files00059.pro'
ddc57bea02459802eae0dd85dc525379
cfa06459dd2936c52f9efb06c7764db14ee50050
describe
'45289' 'info:fdaE20081001_AAAAASfileF20081001_AAAMHL' 'sip-files00059.QC.jpg'
764bfa515bf86e1a17d147bec15f4c1b
961069e3b9224ff5537233ca6fc5b3594174e59c
describe
'862636' 'info:fdaE20081001_AAAAASfileF20081001_AAAMHM' 'sip-files00059.tif'
6b4442cee1f0055a4ed2ab5cc3aa0f4a
e9125c283e22b08e61d73dd048be91f0d524dd40
describe
'1406' 'info:fdaE20081001_AAAAASfileF20081001_AAAMHN' 'sip-files00059.txt'
81104ac4f8bb4e63fdb957202ac6df98
e04cfbc461f8b4b0dce8081d42ea8257b68a065a
describe
'12516' 'info:fdaE20081001_AAAAASfileF20081001_AAAMHO' 'sip-files00059thm.jpg'
9d32468a658ce073c8ccf40a5e8a1537
35d341a9be5e634709987b5f6af336656aa2424f
describe
'190505' 'info:fdaE20081001_AAAAASfileF20081001_AAAMHP' 'sip-files00060.jp2'
8d5eb17d9e2a1df453d3d942e2696532
c04087ae897763ac6d11b1aab3b7f0785f5386c6
describe
'181761' 'info:fdaE20081001_AAAAASfileF20081001_AAAMHQ' 'sip-files00060.jpg'
50feab449780a9f8feb1b195971feead
8a8084e104f20b498fdf715f3de8c3cec4570fc4
describe
'78245' 'info:fdaE20081001_AAAAASfileF20081001_AAAMHR' 'sip-files00060.pdf'
2d03f9813fec0b5af9f83cf95692f132
42b8b8a8343e454d27a14b2f4607119269605c3d
describe
'info:fdaE20081001_AAAAASfileF20081001_AAAMHR-norm-0' 'aip-filesF20081001_AAAMHR-norm-0.pdf'
990a1112c9800aba2ac4a4aebb729f4d
c2a7dbe0ad206c2498cbc4559d82e3f53911e302
describe
'2017-03-09T14:55:22-05:00'
normalize
'66881' 'info:fdaE20081001_AAAAASfileF20081001_AAAMHS' 'sip-files00060.pro'
9eb865d1529d037afebe7a30a21811c0
4ab803a6e3dc51177166f105a708a92ace902624
describe
'56658' 'info:fdaE20081001_AAAAASfileF20081001_AAAMHT' 'sip-files00060.QC.jpg'
8c540cc1f18965bee98d6bd7db3cacc8
a396b6d673b1a4028f80f36ecaddd090619617a7
describe
'863556' 'info:fdaE20081001_AAAAASfileF20081001_AAAMHU' 'sip-files00060.tif'
a44aca641cc5db0b10c02f818f479865
bc7f0e980ed9e8f1d65ea429ba6841c9249c5da8
describe
'2734' 'info:fdaE20081001_AAAAASfileF20081001_AAAMHV' 'sip-files00060.txt'
a65edbc344b4b6a373b10ccc22ea2528
ffa7fb234e8e5c07f7877abf3916831db1839345
describe
'13945' 'info:fdaE20081001_AAAAASfileF20081001_AAAMHW' 'sip-files00060thm.jpg'
4d1396e5619c9906521080b9d2f8c47f
f9f65b750e18d07a94b6a11cacc886b3d3d6ae3b
describe
'198864' 'info:fdaE20081001_AAAAASfileF20081001_AAAMHX' 'sip-files00061.jp2'
235f5f5c741c00eb3b80d0f0bb32b996
adddbbd5fd5e83573926efcb8ccafefb1542d795
describe
'190118' 'info:fdaE20081001_AAAAASfileF20081001_AAAMHY' 'sip-files00061.jpg'
4b3cc908974f4f93f575680f958b34b2
b4538c8073b9b66a84cadafbaf8ae0a85c683b7b
describe
'82551' 'info:fdaE20081001_AAAAASfileF20081001_AAAMHZ' 'sip-files00061.pdf'
fa2fa150eb34efe47fceb52e9c8680a6
fee8ec056e2e4f0b4203486d0c35c2c395d4008a
'2017-03-09T14:56:21-05:00'
describe
'info:fdaE20081001_AAAAASfileF20081001_AAAMHZ-norm-0' 'aip-filesF20081001_AAAMHZ-norm-0.pdf'
990a1112c9800aba2ac4a4aebb729f4d
c2a7dbe0ad206c2498cbc4559d82e3f53911e302
describe
'2017-03-09T14:56:24-05:00'
normalize
'71213' 'info:fdaE20081001_AAAAASfileF20081001_AAAMIA' 'sip-files00061.pro'
a950046991cd774281f95b62e4103e33
e37378a6ab391ddcdc08064cb06810026990124f
describe
'60063' 'info:fdaE20081001_AAAAASfileF20081001_AAAMIB' 'sip-files00061.QC.jpg'
965e491a993de826cce1460c88a9e600
5f164bea521dff91b10f03e13570306c0ac0f036
describe
'882340' 'info:fdaE20081001_AAAAASfileF20081001_AAAMIC' 'sip-files00061.tif'
e785347b69cd0d61ac4b0b42686664e5
67bc66bba931138f947964e1677885fa00d5c298
describe
'info:fdaE20081001_AAAAASfileF20081001_AAAMID' 'sip-files00061.txt'
69f47f8ca0a56b250372be1ab7cd1ed5
fc7c5b380dfda4032e01d23ce52fbb9a19d79b80
describe
'14171' 'info:fdaE20081001_AAAAASfileF20081001_AAAMIE' 'sip-files00061thm.jpg'
53c0bb85054d5dce76f33fb62f54a19e
f00bcbfb597c9dee1b701a1bf3d2626270042db0
describe
'87406' 'info:fdaE20081001_AAAAASfileF20081001_AAAMIF' 'sip-files00062.jp2'
7fbe03fbc53405c0f9bf20ce94dcf366
aba5caf1e0c537cb42b3fe4b42b6918be7418e50
describe
'46439' 'info:fdaE20081001_AAAAASfileF20081001_AAAMIG' 'sip-files00062.jpg'
8d4ad5e427d7332384e6dc381cd810ae
4967f04344ff5fccfc3d2b72416a96276d9ece99
describe
'35726' 'info:fdaE20081001_AAAAASfileF20081001_AAAMIH' 'sip-files00062.pdf'
40aa690428d43a2d11e7ceab23d4eed8
9e95f681b2d8a7deceac42249b577b33d06bad7b
describe
'info:fdaE20081001_AAAAASfileF20081001_AAAMIH-norm-0' 'aip-filesF20081001_AAAMIH-norm-0.pdf'
8cbf40949b8b639101cd4e2c803d9b62
6e3842fc6d7fb92b4cf6a2346c8099c7289050d2
describe
normalize
'52633' 'info:fdaE20081001_AAAAASfileF20081001_AAAMII' 'sip-files00062.pro'
f06382e6249fac19062f266b25455e32
b2ba686fd37c392f9a703435aaa68efa42b95aee
describe
'14989' 'info:fdaE20081001_AAAAASfileF20081001_AAAMIJ' 'sip-files00062.QC.jpg'
8967f27677d95b5104da22d503971da2
44cdcb27c631376693d8a3bbdfbb928e9750c7d9
describe
'882688' 'info:fdaE20081001_AAAAASfileF20081001_AAAMIK' 'sip-files00062.tif'
4e17dadca2733f0aea1f39ceb0aa4dee
c92efeca81c7de7cfa19f79035c3aebbb306f060
describe
'3326' 'info:fdaE20081001_AAAAASfileF20081001_AAAMIL' 'sip-files00062.txt'
cb65f4493f0d7242d4ea8d32fc82d03b
dde9b08ad6bb97c846fe87bde594b4df542bc988
describe
'4619' 'info:fdaE20081001_AAAAASfileF20081001_AAAMIM' 'sip-files00062thm.jpg'
98b093052703a919457ba4994771423c
37362cf1d2a9781fd30fa5eff3140a5b68e7fea7
describe
'135121' 'info:fdaE20081001_AAAAASfileF20081001_AAAMIN' 'sip-files00063.jp2'
b92c125d9ef91f74dde50d1371f90a70
0f9954f3b0527a5787aa61e2de78c5eae1768b1b
describe
'122076' 'info:fdaE20081001_AAAAASfileF20081001_AAAMIO' 'sip-files00063.jpg'
69fd200d79657a04ad20c42ef6bd8d34
6a0754c87574541de7a88790ec79b43c333e262d
describe
'55424' 'info:fdaE20081001_AAAAASfileF20081001_AAAMIP' 'sip-files00063.pdf'
74bdcbd1162600cf6f176745b4ff1ab8
ac95e8ccd61f4d071d730e83140bb4faf617cdce
describe
'info:fdaE20081001_AAAAASfileF20081001_AAAMIP-norm-0' 'aip-filesF20081001_AAAMIP-norm-0.pdf'
990a1112c9800aba2ac4a4aebb729f4d
c2a7dbe0ad206c2498cbc4559d82e3f53911e302
describe
'2017-03-09T14:56:26-05:00'
normalize
'48218' 'info:fdaE20081001_AAAAASfileF20081001_AAAMIQ' 'sip-files00063.pro'
25499338dca43a610c3f853cc155ed91
1fe7af32c4481a6f9a1ffc10580841c98ca91dc6
describe
'41435' 'info:fdaE20081001_AAAAASfileF20081001_AAAMIR' 'sip-files00063.QC.jpg'
b5eff9a39847530061cc0e38db1e0ed0
df3d29a73a38cdbb5040f15228547c5161adb9bd
describe
'880804' 'info:fdaE20081001_AAAAASfileF20081001_AAAMIS' 'sip-files00063.tif'
0b67f4d2bd8d7c00d7c89b38bcfb16e1
7b181d8ec88f9849789af79b28385c6165e95719
describe
'2170' 'info:fdaE20081001_AAAAASfileF20081001_AAAMIT' 'sip-files00063.txt'
ede764fbe61ccaa39355c2174a2d096b
0d3e64b33316349bc17c6ab0fc1d2052d904dbe6
describe
'10795' 'info:fdaE20081001_AAAAASfileF20081001_AAAMIU' 'sip-files00063thm.jpg'
74c26abefced9eb48bd507e228f1512f
4d9e766c5e6ddd4f8994df136144bcd5edefd6cc
describe
'194427' 'info:fdaE20081001_AAAAASfileF20081001_AAAMIV' 'sip-files00064.jp2'
7ed183fa70acc01ee0b40ad0da49d7fc
2d2946a63b566f6144c59f6cfe15d1f1163a9a7c
describe
'185920' 'info:fdaE20081001_AAAAASfileF20081001_AAAMIW' 'sip-files00064.jpg'
7e85d0db5e0a75e6147cec69ba1a5eaa
70c2e5250a5fcdb7db466696c0a2660014f35d5b
describe
'80100' 'info:fdaE20081001_AAAAASfileF20081001_AAAMIX' 'sip-files00064.pdf'
f8466641d5677c4f82d576dd501db49d
758778e78f2450d3b8f3fcf5f48dbac15b0c9ddb
describe
'info:fdaE20081001_AAAAASfileF20081001_AAAMIX-norm-0' 'aip-filesF20081001_AAAMIX-norm-0.pdf'
990a1112c9800aba2ac4a4aebb729f4d
c2a7dbe0ad206c2498cbc4559d82e3f53911e302
describe
normalize
'68571' 'info:fdaE20081001_AAAAASfileF20081001_AAAMIY' 'sip-files00064.pro'
12aadd9b5c2b4f321d6f83a87726f882
d90333eb2331527d6e826ff6d7482f78241ce784
describe
'59163' 'info:fdaE20081001_AAAAASfileF20081001_AAAMIZ' 'sip-files00064.QC.jpg'
0ebcc354c7173d7afd31474484d89800
b27929ca92ba13803ac7320ec21a41ed753a48c6
describe
'864332' 'info:fdaE20081001_AAAAASfileF20081001_AAAMJA' 'sip-files00064.tif'
d6f1629c2ff49c4a8aa37c2ff36acdf1
22301c62ca7b002e0e38d5d6f42cd6f67887c617
describe
'2743' 'info:fdaE20081001_AAAAASfileF20081001_AAAMJB' 'sip-files00064.txt'
8c7aea70f09812c01ec1b4f7b9792ed3
5df7bde5c8f1f80062ff41fc6557ec289496530c
describe
'14227' 'info:fdaE20081001_AAAAASfileF20081001_AAAMJC' 'sip-files00064thm.jpg'
1f84d431e52874f1505d1ffb28aca74f
4c34bc9002cf98f3e52aecc192c5ff3a856d591c
describe
'186272' 'info:fdaE20081001_AAAAASfileF20081001_AAAMJD' 'sip-files00065.jp2'
34d5e56f0f3d9e1ffc71f00948c5cb31
3f7236a625ef21e4c6429f6e143143d3bacd7dd6
describe
'169277' 'info:fdaE20081001_AAAAASfileF20081001_AAAMJE' 'sip-files00065.jpg'
77e3d62877ba7d26a43d4a3084653f1f
0fa942dbeca46222684233a24d417d10fa7b3529
describe
'76125' 'info:fdaE20081001_AAAAASfileF20081001_AAAMJF' 'sip-files00065.pdf'
50afa035bd9b83cdbf7ede37cc5f9f2b
bd1a0dff21083d6df2b255d386c98d3c5cf6502b
describe
'info:fdaE20081001_AAAAASfileF20081001_AAAMJF-norm-0' 'aip-filesF20081001_AAAMJF-norm-0.pdf'
990a1112c9800aba2ac4a4aebb729f4d
c2a7dbe0ad206c2498cbc4559d82e3f53911e302
describe
'2017-03-09T14:55:19-05:00'
normalize
'66270' 'info:fdaE20081001_AAAAASfileF20081001_AAAMJG' 'sip-files00065.pro'
25c745c1a5d13588da6f54c679a6b2dd
fd51c7b06b61b3df640b4f298829e33c2fa48f5e
describe
'54306' 'info:fdaE20081001_AAAAASfileF20081001_AAAMJH' 'sip-files00065.QC.jpg'
f721bf808a572acb59001a703c519333
f29b26ea094e4840062580607c82b18300bf5490
describe
'897300' 'info:fdaE20081001_AAAAASfileF20081001_AAAMJI' 'sip-files00065.tif'
891a9eb9e723f37be7ac5f95c752db86
ef53a677cd4a1b4ca310641395e305ef9b91fa7a
describe
'2637' 'info:fdaE20081001_AAAAASfileF20081001_AAAMJJ' 'sip-files00065.txt'
61ced37e4fe3e78a0828fde0fca78927
cb3de1f283d62c705501e7ed0e9effa03223e08c
describe
'13165' 'info:fdaE20081001_AAAAASfileF20081001_AAAMJK' 'sip-files00065thm.jpg'
7cfe6c1c5e3abb6cffe3f737427268f9
b0bb4a9b9ffe7b07168b5a4e012b368747285b2c
describe
'203266' 'info:fdaE20081001_AAAAASfileF20081001_AAAMJL' 'sip-files00066.jp2'
8d49cbf09e87ac4acac01d7e2147c1c0
9f4f7e87861f01048c04a578ece40fb945a64766
describe
'192622' 'info:fdaE20081001_AAAAASfileF20081001_AAAMJM' 'sip-files00066.jpg'
8f52cd7cea6d7f249c7fbfdb56c5d9a0
96c28c6fb762058b4659e186114ce227bde1fa1e
describe
'83167' 'info:fdaE20081001_AAAAASfileF20081001_AAAMJN' 'sip-files00066.pdf'
5cfb4e064e692b933ee417e2f7dc8a9a
e2734feed942acc60d26c6a1a90e536deed53a59
describe
'info:fdaE20081001_AAAAASfileF20081001_AAAMJN-norm-0' 'aip-filesF20081001_AAAMJN-norm-0.pdf'
990a1112c9800aba2ac4a4aebb729f4d
c2a7dbe0ad206c2498cbc4559d82e3f53911e302
describe
normalize
'71173' 'info:fdaE20081001_AAAAASfileF20081001_AAAMJO' 'sip-files00066.pro'
f3275de17c8f991efcacfb05b2f4627b
20b31e890cb38aed3413db4c181ef56d9ab93e73
describe
'61385' 'info:fdaE20081001_AAAAASfileF20081001_AAAMJP' 'sip-files00066.QC.jpg'
07d314f6ceede4affae7984ebf49bd8e
434a1e7ee25f0e650eb2358903f5db232b2e6a81
describe
'865684' 'info:fdaE20081001_AAAAASfileF20081001_AAAMJQ' 'sip-files00066.tif'
7327d14341c52c50c29a649b0289c728
08f15b971d6b53fec3a8e6aa89246b15b03a6760
describe
'2814' 'info:fdaE20081001_AAAAASfileF20081001_AAAMJR' 'sip-files00066.txt'
6e3e3e585cb6819fed94c645150e1608
8b285053072b45eb735a52ef47871e621a219fc8
describe
'14286' 'info:fdaE20081001_AAAAASfileF20081001_AAAMJS' 'sip-files00066thm.jpg'
77785c2653214354a5fb56aa1c274a03
7245928fe9d6e4f77c09288608000499839a7007
describe
'198582' 'info:fdaE20081001_AAAAASfileF20081001_AAAMJT' 'sip-files00067.jp2'
e5279f00aaf5838e26d802e0a6e7bc0e
e6fe045db13019e2727d425f2ea9ef3d9a5022eb
describe
'183467' 'info:fdaE20081001_AAAAASfileF20081001_AAAMJU' 'sip-files00067.jpg'
a4df1356cdf6529fd9ccbc070061a05e
eea6e6067c5a2199ce11f1ceb446289684a906d8
describe
'81477' 'info:fdaE20081001_AAAAASfileF20081001_AAAMJV' 'sip-files00067.pdf'
b12aa6e4ba6cbeac262a5c0f67e4924a
22d997416e81ee13ca14e763ae9099aa9b8389a0
'2017-03-09T14:54:44-05:00'
describe
'info:fdaE20081001_AAAAASfileF20081001_AAAMJV-norm-0' 'aip-filesF20081001_AAAMJV-norm-0.pdf'
990a1112c9800aba2ac4a4aebb729f4d
c2a7dbe0ad206c2498cbc4559d82e3f53911e302
describe
'2017-03-09T14:54:45-05:00'
normalize
'71577' 'info:fdaE20081001_AAAAASfileF20081001_AAAMJW' 'sip-files00067.pro'
cc464f6e23a3c108271f316aaec40bf9
52ba2adce176a565296cea780a90d6e879b08d98
describe
'59167' 'info:fdaE20081001_AAAAASfileF20081001_AAAMJX' 'sip-files00067.QC.jpg'
fed3c9479f58fe15b94d5b642bb4502b
6ad635a62fe374d31e93a052b6bb9b3f5573727c
describe
'879840' 'info:fdaE20081001_AAAAASfileF20081001_AAAMJY' 'sip-files00067.tif'
ce708af7e0dd24c0925fcea7a7b4d074
195b5a6738dc167fcbca5af3c3fe558039eb81d4
describe
'2818' 'info:fdaE20081001_AAAAASfileF20081001_AAAMJZ' 'sip-files00067.txt'
ab9899c2a38a9744979ee1dc3e83e60c
23f079d9610f2361de457d394f411c6305bc73f0
describe
'14175' 'info:fdaE20081001_AAAAASfileF20081001_AAAMKA' 'sip-files00067thm.jpg'
6c66343c15c46b27a099656dd49d6ffd
2f5809f9482d15f5e15dfb40d963fdc32bb6db87
describe
'187903' 'info:fdaE20081001_AAAAASfileF20081001_AAAMKB' 'sip-files00068.jp2'
e0d4f86c7f7b2dfed3f28b13136b2c29
43f5b7e6345442ad7a78844be3709cde7920ee6d
describe
'177785' 'info:fdaE20081001_AAAAASfileF20081001_AAAMKC' 'sip-files00068.jpg'
6d73c9e73582dc14e7d42c7284c79b58
bce1eb0c9253392bd00707c1db961e0d30f2f0ee
describe
'77113' 'info:fdaE20081001_AAAAASfileF20081001_AAAMKD' 'sip-files00068.pdf'
10324ecd9271c56b06e32fa018fa24c8
71cb4ab94926df789031479eb95ffc524a935410
describe
'info:fdaE20081001_AAAAASfileF20081001_AAAMKD-norm-0' 'aip-filesF20081001_AAAMKD-norm-0.pdf'
990a1112c9800aba2ac4a4aebb729f4d
c2a7dbe0ad206c2498cbc4559d82e3f53911e302
describe
normalize
'66253' 'info:fdaE20081001_AAAAASfileF20081001_AAAMKE' 'sip-files00068.pro'
f283c3ab13271ec4ac0fe0f394870a80
a5b3bf6be36f53e37eb9f785a6ef8dc7fd48b72e
describe
'55657' 'info:fdaE20081001_AAAAASfileF20081001_AAAMKF' 'sip-files00068.QC.jpg'
f3055114a66b74e8073d6cc6f1048ac3
3d26cab28c1e8b9aaf83ad52bbe8835b20f0adc7
describe
'862220' 'info:fdaE20081001_AAAAASfileF20081001_AAAMKG' 'sip-files00068.tif'
92af2a10c431501d31687491d4486390
772a20e0b922b1919ad08c281882b74f2d0f6224
describe
'2633' 'info:fdaE20081001_AAAAASfileF20081001_AAAMKH' 'sip-files00068.txt'
0a9fe763b37a19226eb7bb5c51d4040f
d46535494341de48fcc6211f9a92fe60cf5c85eb
describe
'13600' 'info:fdaE20081001_AAAAASfileF20081001_AAAMKI' 'sip-files00068thm.jpg'
c36005a460b381bae6f7e0210900c8db
091e1ce1255d1a07e4d2ef552557194238244fef
describe
'129698' 'info:fdaE20081001_AAAAASfileF20081001_AAAMKJ' 'sip-files00069.jp2'
5ffd170d584cee4c8e67804683fc693b
635ab58e1cfbd6def50c1d66ba0c888e32087338
describe
'115971' 'info:fdaE20081001_AAAAASfileF20081001_AAAMKK' 'sip-files00069.jpg'
ad4cecfdd6b69e9932309ee308bac9ba
32829f93cf3949bfe86c62ae978677c140505bd3
describe
'53120' 'info:fdaE20081001_AAAAASfileF20081001_AAAMKL' 'sip-files00069.pdf'
0dd7b5fb324cac48c8eea1ced273850b
3ca9c17e0845a33d50f788a13c7593a82c0542bb
'2017-03-09T14:55:24-05:00'
describe
'info:fdaE20081001_AAAAASfileF20081001_AAAMKL-norm-0' 'aip-filesF20081001_AAAMKL-norm-0.pdf'
990a1112c9800aba2ac4a4aebb729f4d
c2a7dbe0ad206c2498cbc4559d82e3f53911e302
describe
'2017-03-09T14:55:25-05:00'
normalize
'55733' 'info:fdaE20081001_AAAAASfileF20081001_AAAMKM' 'sip-files00069.pro'
15dbf351938acfc825e543e5eba6e800
77865f96f165582faaa7f341deb6a4675dcd9c46
describe
'38290' 'info:fdaE20081001_AAAAASfileF20081001_AAAMKN' 'sip-files00069.QC.jpg'
fef1dc1bff39406be24e5a4a51c5753c
3a73a43b117392c935f32b40df72fb467c4bb196
describe
'864944' 'info:fdaE20081001_AAAAASfileF20081001_AAAMKO' 'sip-files00069.tif'
21c941e00d67531f420b25620b24ca4e
ffd73c491d7ae5561a8e29108b8ec85ce4f91511
describe
'2655' 'info:fdaE20081001_AAAAASfileF20081001_AAAMKP' 'sip-files00069.txt'
45e368890443c554853711142e0e7ec9
7385377b79e8f0802e80e98a3027250e0e1c1e70
describe
'11037' 'info:fdaE20081001_AAAAASfileF20081001_AAAMKQ' 'sip-files00069thm.jpg'
844c541e1f69f30440d23fb8aa442cea
dca97f70d81bc79c530cc03dfc2defbbe020b06d
describe
'76071' 'info:fdaE20081001_AAAAASfileF20081001_AAAMKR' 'sip-files00070.jp2'
118be523184d7ffbe1aa4ea7c1f1a6d8
f7f78fc78158e0daab5431cab688ed6b72b6da02
describe
'72374' 'info:fdaE20081001_AAAAASfileF20081001_AAAMKS' 'sip-files00070.jpg'
273f0a2d68f52dffd86fe4b37df7fb89
0971c41ed99eb393ea4aa9508098d3777c3565a8
describe
'32326' 'info:fdaE20081001_AAAAASfileF20081001_AAAMKT' 'sip-files00070.pdf'
feef5ecbf3a5a8676bb0ca0b63dd22b8
24b1894be7db8f52f69dba89687e15b3909e2bb4
describe
'info:fdaE20081001_AAAAASfileF20081001_AAAMKT-norm-0' 'aip-filesF20081001_AAAMKT-norm-0.pdf'
8cbf40949b8b639101cd4e2c803d9b62
6e3842fc6d7fb92b4cf6a2346c8099c7289050d2
describe
normalize
'31935' 'info:fdaE20081001_AAAAASfileF20081001_AAAMKU' 'sip-files00070.pro'
48409bbb025bb1af1de9c5e2b664cce7
ec229458146252464d085c93eaa4f567fa1dcf2e
describe
'22674' 'info:fdaE20081001_AAAAASfileF20081001_AAAMKV' 'sip-files00070.QC.jpg'
1f018576d313155f848a987d0ebb7193
0bc531015ed72156a7bf5b91ae8210a8bfb3c76e
describe
'842888' 'info:fdaE20081001_AAAAASfileF20081001_AAAMKW' 'sip-files00070.tif'
8692c317050666fa1ab458de8ae769c6
bcaba8ab98c2076b114228612fdebf725b82e4c5
describe
'1542' 'info:fdaE20081001_AAAAASfileF20081001_AAAMKX' 'sip-files00070.txt'
46e864b9e5a1f139e525ee938675808f
f00d173ec017df1f09bb1c538843a1c1c34dfb3f
describe
'6626' 'info:fdaE20081001_AAAAASfileF20081001_AAAMKY' 'sip-files00070thm.jpg'
aabb93ebb064a17a2c627b34fabf03fa
61363da1594973fcc0438010bf490de7794c90ca
describe
'153168' 'info:fdaE20081001_AAAAASfileF20081001_AAAMKZ' 'sip-filescopyright.jp2'
cd965abaafb5da42dc6c8def20d374f4
b811824c94aa0ae5a5f04cfb64b27e9e0927243a
describe
'103670' 'info:fdaE20081001_AAAAASfileF20081001_AAAMLA' 'sip-filescopyright.jpg'
d028360928b6690b49cfe8211e6bb6a5
db68f5028a78f337081c164d3478ffd3e30a8a09
describe
'71620' 'info:fdaE20081001_AAAAASfileF20081001_AAAMLB' 'sip-filescopyright.pdf'
4c486e828c65bc325abdfdcbf22d266e
2ec70bc9ea377d907d30d2051fbab8e8c3eb151a
describe
'info:fdaE20081001_AAAAASfileF20081001_AAAMLB-norm-0' 'aip-filesF20081001_AAAMLB-norm-0.pdf'
8cbf40949b8b639101cd4e2c803d9b62
6e3842fc6d7fb92b4cf6a2346c8099c7289050d2
describe
normalize
'35669' 'info:fdaE20081001_AAAAASfileF20081001_AAAMLC' 'sip-filescopyright.pro'
92f8d5cf7c38d529b244a1bb018a13d1
8136dfeef8862c64440b5c24d264b847098109b9
describe
'35083' 'info:fdaE20081001_AAAAASfileF20081001_AAAMLD' 'sip-filescopyright.QC.jpg'
28180ee8185b27af4702a664eb2b5d1b
f0e1d4e0f0dcb1a265ec575f3d87a525ada2ad6d
describe
'1069752' 'info:fdaE20081001_AAAAASfileF20081001_AAAMLE' 'sip-filescopyright.tif'
b1d91d47eedf0291bd65e0b10895108d
341682517f6a7230e3c0004883f5659788ec75de
describe
'1329' 'info:fdaE20081001_AAAAASfileF20081001_AAAMLF' 'sip-filescopyright.txt'
15f2bbd34b776d39b92ffb1c4f760b27
b0251f2ed30996bc7ed3d8efa687abc9a6800fa9
describe
Invalid character
Invalid character
'10085' 'info:fdaE20081001_AAAAASfileF20081001_AAAMLG' 'sip-filescopyrightthm.jpg'
b0566b6a6e9b9bfb3fa924203ff11cf8
63d705588c1580afc86f43138330df2fe31f906d
describe
'5493008' 'info:fdaE20081001_AAAAASfileF20081001_AAAMLH' 'sip-filesUF00001234.pdf'
563d05f0058e08588fcdaca0c39f9ebe
3b5127713588bbc5294af35aaec639437ef76930
'2017-03-09T14:55:42-05:00'
describe
'info:fdaE20081001_AAAAASfileF20081001_AAAMLH-norm-0' 'aip-filesF20081001_AAAMLH-norm-0.pdf'
990a1112c9800aba2ac4a4aebb729f4d
c2a7dbe0ad206c2498cbc4559d82e3f53911e302
describe
normalize
'122669' 'info:fdaE20081001_AAAAASfileF20081001_AAAMLI' 'sip-filesUF00001234_00001.mets'
50ce48cd8be76c4bf37686175233a67b
a7561b2ab9e326f8558538b67627c4065957500f
describe
TargetNamespace.1: Expecting namespace 'http://www.uflib.ufl.edu/digital/metadata/ufdc2/', but the target namespace of the schema document is 'http://digital.uflib.ufl.edu/metadata/ufdc2/'.
'2017-03-09T14:56:52-05:00' 'mixed'
xml resolution
http://www.loc.gov/standards/xlink.xsd
BROKEN_LINK schema http://www.loc.gov/standards/xlink.xsd
TargetNamespace.1: Expecting namespace 'http://www.uflib.ufl.edu/digital/metadata/ufdc2/', but the target namespace of the schema document is 'http://digital.uflib.ufl.edu/metadata/ufdc2/'.
'172087' 'info:fdaE20081001_AAAAASfileF20081001_AAAMLL' 'sip-filesUF00001234_00001.xml'
8532893edcd40cabbce567ffb81a9bcf
d1d78fb1615e8b9fbc81bf77d0431f9d4eba2eca
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STATE OF FLORIDA STATE BOARD OF CONSERVATION DIVISION OF GEOLOGY FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY Robert O. Vernon, Director REPORT OF INVESTIGATIONS NO. 47 HYDROLOGIC EFFECTS OF AREA B FLOOD CONTROL PLAN ON URBANIZATION OF DADE COUNTY, FLORIDA By F. A. Kohout and J. H. Hartwell U. S. Geological Survey Prepared by the UNITED STATES GEOLOGICAL SURVEY in cooperation with the CENTRAL AND SOUTHERN FLORIDA FLOOD CONTROL DISTRICT and the DIVISION OF GEOLOGY 1967

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FLORIDA STATE BOARD OF SCONSERVATION CLAUDE R. KIRK, JR. Governor TOM ADAMS EARL FAIRCLOTH Secretary of State Attorney General BROWARD WILLIAMS FRED O. DICKINSON, JR. Treasurer Comptroller FLOYD T. CHRISTIAN DOYLE CONNER Superintendent of Public Instruction Commissioner of Agriculture W. RANDOLPH HODGES Director ii

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LETTER OF TRANSMITTAL TJlorida geologiccat Su rve Tallahassee May 24, 1967 Honorable Claude R. Kirk, Jr., Chairman State Board of Conservation Tallahassee, Florida Dear Governor Kirk: The Division of Geology, of the State Board of Conservation, is publishing as Report of Investigations No. 47, a report prepared by F. A. Kohout and J. H. Hartwell entitled "Hydrologic Effects of Area B Flood Control Plan on Urbanization of Dade County, Florida." The rapidly expanding megalopolis of South Florida requires that detailed knowledge be developed on the geology and hydrology of this area. This knowledge must be directed particularly to the extent and depth of flooding following unusual rainfall, and must recognize the economics of the cost of developing additional properties for real estate developments that cover surface zoning for human utilization. This report seeks to provide these answers and when the metropolitan areas along the Coast must be expanded to the west, all the way to the fence formed by the conservation levees, engineering and planning personnel will have available the required design data. Respectfully yours, Robert O. Vernon Director and State Geologist iii

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Completed manuscript received May 24, 1967 Printed for the Florida Geological Survey By The St. Petersburg Printing Co., Inc. St. Petersburg, Florida 1967 iv

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CONTENTS Abstract .......... ......................................................... ................................................. 1 Introduction .............................................................................................. ............................. 2 General hydrologic situation and overall flood-control plan ......................................... 4 Area B plan ..................................................................................... ............................... 6 Details of the Area B plan ................................................................................................ 9 Rainfall intensity related to flooding ............................. ................ 11 Quantitative estimates of previous investigations ............................................... ....... 15 Acknowledgments ..................................................................................... ........................ 16 Future water needs and availability ................................... .......... ....................... 16 Geologic and hydrologic environment ................................................................................ 20 Present and future land-surface altitude ............................................. ....................... 22 Transmissibility of the aquifer ....................... .......................................................... 25 Effect of flood-control project on ground-water level .................................................. 25 Ground-water fluctuations .............................................................................................. 25 Comparison of high-water periods .......................... ............................................ 27 Comparison of low-water periods ............................ ...................................... 27 Canal discharges .................................................................................................................... 32 Stages and discharges in the Miami Canal ........................................................... 32 Contributions to flow in the Miami River from Conservation Area 3B, Area B, and Area A ........................................................ 37 Total surface-water outflow from Area A .................................................................. 39 Evaluation of the Area B flood control plan .......................................... ........................... 42 W ater-level maps .................................................................................................................. 43 Analog study ..................................................................................... ............................... 46 Boundary conditions ........................................................................................................ 47 Results of the analog study .................................................................................................. 50 Borrow canals without isolating control dams ............................................................ 50 Borrow canals with isolating control dams ............................. ............................... 52 Comparison of the analog models ................................................................................ 55 Summary .............................................................................................. .................................. 56 References .......................................................................................................................... ....... 60 V

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ILLUSTRATIONS Figure Page 1 Physiographic provinces in Southern Florida ...................................... ........... .3 2 Canal and levee system of the Central and Southern Florida Flood Control Project in Southeastern Florida ......................................................... 5 3 Intake of pumping station S-7 which has a capacity of 2,490 cubic feet per second under design conditions .................................................................. 7 4 One of the 131½-inch impellers at pump station S-7 .......................................... .7 5 Major features of existing and proposed canal and levee system in the M iam i area .............................. .......... ...... ............ ..................................... 8 6 Accumulation of rainfall in 1947, 1959, and 1960 ............................................ 12 7 Rainfall for September 1960 following the passage of Hurricane Donna and tropical storm Florence in the Miami area .............................................. 13 8 Estimated water use between the years 1930 and 1995 for Dade County and the Florida K eys ..................................................................................................... 17 9 Primary and secondary canal system in 1964 and locations of recording observation wells related to the investigation, in the Miami area .................... 21 10 Generalized altitude of land surface in Area B ................................................ .22 11 Altitude of bed rock in Area B .......................... .. ....................... 23 12 Assumed altitude of compacted land surface in Area B after 100 percent loss of black-muck soils above +3 feet msl and 50 percent compaction of muck soils below +3 feet msl ................................ ........... .24 13 Monthly trend of water-level fluctuations in selected wells related to rainfall, 1940-63 .................................................................................................. 26 14 High-stage water levels in the Miami area October 11-12, 1947. Canal C-100 did not exist and C-1 was not improved in 1947 ............................................ 28 15 Highest water-table altitude in the Miami area in September 1960 after passage of Hurricane Donna and tropical storm Florence. Canal C-100 did not exist and C-1 was not improved in 1960 ............................................ 29 16 Record low stage of water table prior to installation of control dams in the Miami area, May and June 1945. Canal C-100 did not exist and Cwas not im proved in 1945 .............................................................................. 30 17 Low stage of the water table in the Miami area in May 1962 and extent of salt-water encroachment .............................................................................. 31 18 Monthly mean discharge in the Miami Canal at Hialeah (Sta. H) and N.W .36th Street (Sta. I) 1940-1963 .................................................................. 33 19 Locations of gaging stations and drainage areas of major canals in the M iam i area ................................................................................................................ 35 20 Daily stage and discharge in Miami Canal, 1961-63 ................................................ 36 21 Discharge contributions to the Miami River at Brickell Avenue fron Conservation Area 3B, Area B, and Area A ............................................................ 38 22 Monthly runoff for the six canals draining Areas A and B ................................ 41 23 Water levels in feet above (+) or below (-) existing land surface during September 1960, subsequent to passage of Hurricane Donna and tropical storm Florence .......................................................................................... 44 vi

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ILLUSTRATIONS-Continued 24 Water levels of September 1960 in feet above (+) or below (-) assumed compacted land surface .................................................................... ........... 45 25 Electric analog model of Area B with no dams in the borrow canals for L-30, L-31, and L-33 ............................................................................................ 48 26 Theoretical relations, from Manning's formula, between hydraulic gradient, discharge, and depth for a canal 125 feet wide of rectangular and trapezoidal cross section .............................. .................................................. 50 27 Electric analog model of Area B with control dams that isolate the borrow canals for L-30, L-31, and L-33 from the intake side of the pumps ........ 54 TABLES Table Page 1 Proposed discharge capacity of Area B pump stations ...................................... 10 2 Landfill requirements and elevations -FHA requirements .................................... 11 3 Time-regressive rainfall comparison for hurricane years 1947 and 1960 ............... 14 4 Comparison of annual-mean discharges in the Miami Canal at N.W. 36th Street with the 24-year median, 1940-63 .......................................................... 34 5 Key to letter designations in Figure 19 for recording stage and discharge gaging stations in canals in the Miami area .............................................. 37 6 Underseepage for the boundary condition of no control dams in the levee borrow canals .......................................................................... ................... .53 vii

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HYDROLOGIC EFFECTS OF AREA B FLOOD CONTROL PLAN ON URBANIZATION OF DADE COUNTY, FLORIDA By F. A. Kohout and J. H. Hartwell ABSTRACT Swampy low land (Area B) that fringes the Everglades west of Metropolitan Miami, Florida (Area A) probably will be urbanized in the future. Area B will be protected from flooding by huge pumps that will pump water westward from Area B over a levee system into Conservation Area 3B. The total capacity of the pumps will be about 13,400 cubic feet per second which is sufficient to lower water levels 2 inches per day in the 203 square miles of Area B. As this capacity is about equal to the highest gravity-flow discharge to the ocean through existing canals of the Miami area, a great potential will exist, not only for control of floods, but also for beneficial control and management of a major segment of the water resources in southeastern Florida. An evaluation of flow in the Miami River during a low-water period indicates that Conservation Area 3B contributes 33 percent of the total discharge, Area B 26 percent, and Area A 41 percent. After implementation of the Area B plan, contributions from Area A will continue to flow seaward, whereas contributions from Area B and Conservation Area 3B, which now unavoidably are wasted to the ocean in a high-water period will be pumped westward into storage in the conservation area. A steady-state electric-analog study was made for the 1961 Area B plan. Maps _the results showed that the water-level pattern would be radically changed if water-control dams were installed to isolate the levee borrow canal from the intakesot the pump stations. Witout the con-odams, the lowest steady-state water levels would occur at the western side of Area B and underseepage from Conservation Area 3B would be maximum. However, if dams were installed, the highest water levels would occur at the western side of Area B and underseepage would be minimized. Partial openings of the control dams probably would produce advantageous compromise solutions between the two-modeled extremes. Estimates of population growth indicate that water use in the Miami area may amount to 1.4 billion gallons per day in 1995. This water use is equivalent to 2,170 cfs (cubic feet per second), almost twice the yearly mean discharge of 1,280 cfs that flowed into the ocean from six major Miami area canals during the dry period June 1962 to May 1963. A rate 1

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2 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY of 1.4 bgd for a year's time is equivalent to the total surface runoff (about 10.5 inches of water) from an area extending 28 miles westward from the coast and 100 miles southward from Lake Okeechobee into Everglades National Park. As other coastal cities and Everglades National Park will require a share of water from this same area, improved watermanagement techniques are needed to insure a continuing supply of fresh water for southeastern Florida. In consideration of continually growing water needs, the Area B plan should be conceived as a water conservation as well as a flood control plan. INTRODUCTION In the near future, Miami and its urrunding communities are expected to grow ar beynd their present limits. to the present time Miami's development has been restricted largely to a broad ridge of ligh and called the Atlantic CoastaLdge, figure 1, because of the relative afety of this high land from floodin Standing only 8 to 15 feet above mean sea level, the ridge is high only by Florida standards. Nevertheless, it has been of paramount importance to development of communities along the eastern coast of Florida, and were it not for the presence of the ridge, Miami probably would not be what it is today. In contrast, the area inland from the ridge has not been developed simply because it is low and subiect o perennial flooding. At this time, however, the coastal ridge is largely developed and much of the future expansion of the urban areas will have to be in the lowlands west of the ridge. Theprotection from flooding in these lowlands is a difficult problem, but agenies and land developers are making studies and devising plans ermit urb zat wlands. The possible influence of these _pln on thef Ft,,re w-ate-04r rsocf thi Mi m rais the subject of this report. The basic problem is how to make this lowland area safe from floodsor atet as safe as possible with techniques, construction methods, and conc of hydrology now available to the planners. The technical hydrologic problem is whether the proposed plans will accomplish tieir hydirologicaims to the satisfaction of all agencies involved and the citizens -wha-vilL inhabitth area Many agencies and their offices are involved. These include: Officials of the City of Miami and Dade County, who have the civil responsibility for the protection of residents living within their boundaries; the U.S. Corps of Engineers, which is concerned with the planning and construction of protective facilities; the Central and Southern Florida Flood

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REPORT OF INVESTIGATIONS No. 47 3 LAKE . I OKEECHOBEE * 41.0k. ..... BISCA YNE --7 o 02o o o . . MILES M' Figure 1. Physiographic provinces in southern Florida. Control District (C&SFFCD), which has the responsibility for operating the facilities built by the Corps of Engineers; and the Federal Housing Authority which has the authority to underwrite much of the money that will be used to build private dwellings in the lowland area. Because of the concern of the Federal Housing Authority the basic question should 19I -4~G L FLRDA 0so0( 0 10 2 30 O MILES A Fiue1 Pyigapi rvicsi suhr Foia Coto Dsrc (&FC),wihha h esosbliyfroprtn th fciitesbultbyth Corso ngnes ndteFdra osn Auhriywhc aste uhriytoudewie uh fte oeyta wil e sd o uldprvaedwllns n h lowlnd rea Becus o thecocen o te edealHosin Athrit te asi qesionshul

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4 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY perhaps be restated-will the present plans make the lowland area sufficiently safe from flooding to be a good financial risk for banks and other lending institutions and for the Federal Housing Authority to guarantee the housing loans? In other words, will water-control facilities constructed on the basis of the present plan give sufficient assurance of protection from flood waters so that residents may get long range credit at reasonable cost on their investments in the lowland area? The Corps of Engineers and the Central and Southern Florida Flood Control District have devised a plan known as the Area B Flood Control Plan to make the lowland area suitable for housing development. The plan calls for an integrated system of land fills, drainage canals, and large capacity pumps to control the flood hazard. It also would be part of the overall flood-control plan for southeastern Florida. Before describing the Area B plan further a brief review of the overall hydrologic situation in southern Florida and the overall flood-control plan seems to he pertinent. GENERAL HYDROLOGIC SITUATION AND OVERALL FLOOD-CONTROL PLAN The outstanding features of southern Florida which bear on the flood hazard are moderately high preciitation, ow land-surface altitude and relief, highly permeable soils and rocks and resence of the sea. result mainly from short periods of heavy rainfall in rainy years, but the floods o not necessarily coincide with years of Freatest annual rainfall. Factors that lead up to flood conditions include l hovy hIridup fiaiTiall over several months durin whic the drainage system has sufficient time to rmalize ater levels; this followed by intense rainfall usually associated with a hurricane. A companion problem is maintning sufficiently high fresh-water levels and runoff to keep salt-water encroachment at a minimum. The relief of the land is so low that during periods of draught and high tides, particularly those associated with storms, the sea may have a higher head than fresh water and as a result salt water invades inland along waterways and contaminates both surface and ground-water supplies. Thus the concepts that are applied must bothminimize flood hazards a hold ack the s water. The original drainage system of the area from Lake Okeechobee to the south and east coasts was incapable of preventing flooding in the hurricane years of 1947 and 1948. It had to be improved to permit farming and cities to prosper. A plan called the Central and Southern Florida .1

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REPORT OF INVESTIGATIONS No. 47 5 Flood Control Project was formulated by the Congress of the United States and the State of Florida. The overall flood-control plan is designed to protect the developed, and potentially developable, urban, industrial and agricultural land on the east, south, and west sides of Lake Okeechobee. For,planning purposes this region has been divided into three types of areas-agricultural, conservation, and urban-industrial, shown in figure 2. Everglades NaLAKE OKEECHOBEE S-4 -3 r WEST " PALM S-5 BEACH -FORT o i 0 LAUDERDALE EXPLANATION -_ Pump kttllun and number Conol and numbet Levew and numitf | Figure 2. Canal and levee system of the Central and Southern Florida Flood Control project, in southeastern Florida.

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6 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY tional Park is under development by the U.S. National Park Service for recreational purposes. The agricultural areas fringe the southern part of Lake Okeechobee, and the urban areas are along the coast; between them lie the conservation areas which are perennially flooded lands used for storing water. The agricultural and urban areas are not flooded as frequently as the conservation areas, because they are on slightly higher ground than the lowlands. However, the ground is not so high that it is not subject to floods occasionally, and it must be protected by levees and drainage canals. After each nae ater s rai as rapidly as possibleby a svstenimof canals and pumping stations. Conservation Areas 1, 2, 3A , ian tif areargeenough to accept excess flood waters pumped from agricultural and urban areas. In plan, this stored water will be available for release during dry seasons to help keep high water levels in the canals and adjacent lands. These water levels must be kept high enough during the dry season-first, to prevent oxidation and burning of black muck agricultural soils, and second, to prevent the enroachment of salt water the enct of lt a ithe canals and through the rock in coastal areas. The flow in the canals is provided by drainage from ground water in storage adjacent to the canals and by gravity drainage and pumping stations which supply water from the conservation areas to the agricultural and coastal areas. In the agricultural areas south of Lake Okeechobee, individual farmers pump water from diked fields into the primary canal system; the large pumps, figures 3 and 4, of the flood control system, in turn pump the water southward to the conservation areas or northward to Lake Okeechobee. Some of the pumping stations pump as much as 5,000 cfs, the equivalent of the flow of many small rivers (for example as a comparison, the largest flow under flood conditions in the Miami River at Hialeah in October 1947 was only 4,060 cfs (cubic feet per second)). The encroachment of salt water is also in part contained by salinity-control dams and locks near the coast which minimize the escape of fresh water to the sea and prevent the movement of salt water up the canals at times of low flows. AREA B PLAN Where does Area B fit into this overall picture? It is part of the land set aside for urban-industrial development but its use was held back because of construction problems presented by flood hazards. Area B is the lowland between the ridge occupied by Miami, designated as Area A, and the lowland storage reservoir designated as Conservation Area 3-B, shown in figures 2 and 5. Area B includes about 203 square

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REPORT OF INVESTIGATIONS No. 47 7 'J+I·. • -'·U --A Figure 3. Intake of pumping stations S-7 which has a capacity of 2,490 cubic feet per second under design conditions. Figure 4. One of the 131%-inch impellers at pump station S-7.

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8 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY C// HOLLYWOOD 4J BROWARD C 9 2 as. DADE s o 2 0 A EPA E CC " us I E E 0 . sw as MIAMI 4 EXPLANATION r36 ..--Transmilsibllity, in million Sc aSCEl woanv per day per foot GS: U.S. Geologcal Survey C4 dTrant seibleity CE: U.S. Corps of Enginner 'S. Canal and number SContlrol dom Pump sttllan and number 0 2 4 mles Figure 5. Major features of existing and proposed canal and levee systeml in the Miami area. miles. It is drained by canals which carry water from the conservation areas through Miami to the sea. In its barest form, the Area B plan calls for building up the land-surface elevation by rock-fill dug from canals. The canals would serve as conduits for dewatering Area B during the

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REPORT OF INVESTIGATIONS NO. 47 9 rainy season by pumping the water westward into conservation area 3-B, and by gravity drainage toward the sea through Area A. Flood water from Area B, once it was in the conservation area, would be handled as part of the water resources of the overall plan for flood control and drainage in southeastern Florida. The plan calls for filling about 45 percent of Area B to an elevation of 5 feet above msl and 40 percent to an elevation of 4 feet above msl (mean sea level). The balance of 15 percent would be in canals and borrow lagoons. The problem with which this report is concerned then is this: From a consideration of hydrologic factors of flooding, drainage and salt-water encroachment is the Area B plan adequate to provide the protectioln needed for its development? Additionally, water control in Area B will strongly influence the future water resources of the Miami area generally, and as a partial evaluation of this influence, the following main topics are considered in this report: 1. Operation of the Area B plan as pioposed in 1961. 2. Future water requirements of the Miami area. 3. A summary of past hydrologic extremes in the Miami area and effects on the hydrology caused by works of the Central and Southern Florida Flood Control Project that were in operation prior to 1962. 4. The results of steady-state electrical analog studies of the Area B plan. The evaluation of the Area B plan contained in these pages was made at the request of the Central and Southern Florida Flood Control District (C&SFFCD). General supervision was provided by C. S. Conover, Tallahassee, lDistrict Chief of the Water Resources Division, U.S. Geological Survey. DETAILS OF THE AREA B PLAN Detailed description of the Area B plan is given in the survey review report by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (1961). Major constructional features of the plan are shown in figure 5. Four pump stations S-200 to S-203 will discharge water westward into Conservation Area 3B at the rates shown in table 1. The design pumping heads would vary from 8.1 to 8.7 feet for the four stations. Existing pump station S-9 (fig. 5) has a capacity of about 2,900 cfs; its discharge is directed westward into Conservation Area 3A through the borrow canal of Levee 67 (fig. 2). Existing large canals in 1964 are

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10 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY TABLE 1.-PROPOSED DISCHARGE CAPACITY OF AREA B PUMP STATIONS. (U. S. CORPS OF ENGINEERS, 1961, p. A-11 AND A-16). D)riIgn lrada i'umnpilng Numlnbr (ft aliove n11*1) Unit enipcity Tutal capacity 1,1tit n of unit. in cls ill cf Intake Disclharg 5.l>o 3 3.0 11.1 980 2.940 -'201 3 3.0 11.1 870 2,610 5 202 4 3.0 11.5 980 3.920 4.2t:1 .3.0 11.7 9810 1.920 shown in figure 5. New large primary canals referred to as "feeder canals" by the Corps of Engineers are proposed to deliver water to stations S-202 and S-203. Because of anticipated high seepage of water eastward from Conservation Area 3B through permeable limestone underlying Levees :30 and 33, seepage-reduction levees will be constructed approximately 3,000 feet westward from the existing levees (fig. 5). The seepagereduction levees are flared near the pump outlet to permit the discharged water to spread more rapidly into the conservation area. Borrow canals located on the westward side of the seepage-reduction levees will aid in transmitting the water away from the pump stations. The water level in Conservation Area 3B during flood conditions is expected to be about 11 feet above msl; the maximum observed head on the discharge side of S-9 during pumping was 11.62 feet on October 13, 1963. The pump discharge capacities in Table 1 are based on design water levels of 3 feet above msl at the intake side of each pumping station and 11.1 to 11.7 feet at the discharge side. Electrical analog studies presented later tend to indicate that because of the water-level gradient required to move water through the major feeder canals, an intake water level ranging from msl to 1 foot above msl may be more realistic under full capacity pumping. The pumping capacity for all pumps is designed to remove about 2 inches of water per day from the 203 square miles of Area B. Table 2, which gives proposed land-fill requirements, is quoted from the U.S. Corps of Engineers Survey Review Report (1961, table 6, page 16): The survey review report gives the following percentage breakdown for final land-surface elevations: "For the average size subdivision lot in a typical new development block, this would amount to 15 percent of the area being devoted to canals and borrow lagoons, 45 percent filled to elevation 5 feet on the average, and 40 percent to elevation 4 feet." .1

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REPonT OF INVESTIGATIONS No. 47 11 TABLE 2.-LAND-FILL REQUIREMENTS AND ELEVATIONSFIIA REQUIREMENTS. Minimum flood As~uedvl eotrrt pondilni Portion of nrac frcquenoy fill elevation (yeor) (ft) Above 5.0. floor E:lcvition of flitnih ground lIne (all dwc lliings) ................... ....... I in 50 level 6.0 Crdtown of lrrect ............. ... ......... .... ..... ...... ........ .. 1 I 0n I5,0 2-1-lr. drainage Strcot n, swnlie or ditches................................... .. ... ....... fo.llowi.. l g d .in. 4.0 10 yrter oturi Fronl. side. and rieq ired 15.foot unalbleo rear y d.tld ...... ...... .. 1 in 10 5.0 lr ainlt dler (mostly furthor lack yards) ........................................ 4.0 The design rainfall for the Area B plan is 12.79 inches on the first day and a total of 17.22 inches for 5 days. Prior to this storm the water level for Area B is assumed to be +3 ft. msl. Under the specifications of Table 2 and the previous quotation and taking account of the storage space available as surface water (100 percent storage coefficient) and as ground water (17 percent storage coefficient, assumed), the water level after the first day of the design storm is calculated at +5 ft. msl (U.S. Corps of Engineers, 1961, table 6). The plan visualizes lowering water levels from elevation 5 feet to 4 feet by the end of the fifth day with 2 inches per day being removed by pumpage to the west and one inch per day being removed by gravity drainage to the ocean through Area A canals. RAINFALL INTENSITY RELATED TO FLOODING Rainfall averages 59 inches per year, three-quarters of which falls in the Mly tal nvember rainy season. f primary concern are the periods of heavy rainfall that produce oodin. Maximum flood damae occurred in 1947 and I8, an exesive flooding occurred in 1960. The followin comarison shows intensity anc distribution of rainfall during teyearian impoant factor in producing flood conditions. The annual rainfall in 1959 exceeded tat of 1947ýTand 1960 by about 10 and 20 inches, respectively, shown in figure 6. In contrast, flooding was minimal in 1959 compared to the other years, in spite of the fact that many low-lying areas were urbanized by 1959. ors le o flood eavy buildup of rainfall over several months during which the drainage system has insufficient time to normaize water levels, and 2) this buildup followed by intense rainfall, usually associated with a hurricane.

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12 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY MIAMI WEATHER HIALEAH BUREAU (AIRPORT) WEATHER STATION 100 90 1959---------1959I _I I I 80 1947-1947S70 --19601960 -60 ---.------. / ------/ ---S60-----Z 50 -n, 40 4 .. 30 P I VI < 20 .. . -J 5 0io__ __ --___ 111 _0 __ _ _ _ "-i __-F-I JFMAMJ JASOND JFMAMJ JASOND MONTH MONTH Figure 6. Accumulation of rainfall in 1947, 1959, and 1960. The passage of Hurricane Donna and two weeks later tropical storm Florence in September 1960 produced the highest single month rainfall in recent times. The isohyetal map of figure 7, adapted from an unpublished report of the C&SFFCD, shows that rainfall over Area B ranged from less than 16 inches in the northwest corner to greater than 28 inches in the southeast corner. Improvements in the drainage system between 1947 and 1960 result in more rapid lowering of water levels between rains. A time-regressive comparison of rainfall for the two years indirectly indicates the effect of these improvements. The average of all stations (Table 3) shows that the rainfall in 1960 slightly exceeded that of 1947 for three months (including the highest month) before maximum flood conditions. In contrast, the high-water maps (p. 28 and 29) show that maximum water levels in Area B were about 3 feet lower in 1960 than in 1947. As antecedent rainfall for the two years is comparable, the relatively lower

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REPORT OF INVESTIGATIONS No. 47 13 HOLLYWOOD BROWAR T C9 DADE / COUNTY / , I C7 AiRE AREA A MIAMI J L 0 EXPLANATION S-2Shows toOtl troi for SIohyst September, 1960. Inltrvol 2 inches. C /OO C? C Conal and nuer ain n Coatrol dom c Pump station and number Not: Daot from C & SFFCD (unpublished rport) 0 2 4 ed4en Figure 7, Rainfall for September 1960 following the passage of Hurricane Donna and tropical storm Florence in the Miami area. maximum water level in 1960 undoubtedly relates to improvement of the flood-control system between 1947 and 1960.

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ý-1 TABLE 3.-TIME.REGRESSIVE RAINFALL COMPARISON FOR HURRICANE YEARS 1947 AND 1960 Accumulated rainfall antecedent to and including the maximum month Maximum month 4 months 3 months 2 monnths Annual Oct. Sept. Location 1987 1960 1917 1960 1917 1960 1917 1960 1917 1960 Fort Laudcrdale 59.75 36.77 46.10 29,19 37.25 23.59 21.55 16,07 102.36 60.48 Hialeah 43.38 37.17 33.54 32,01 28.59 28.02 17.73 20.48 78.25 68.81 Homestead 52.02 55.95 38.40 42,43 26.33 28.53 15.96 19.04 91.07 82.12 Kendall 30.40 44.12 19.11 37.56 15.14 32.87 6.83 27.84 67.10 69.93 Miami Airport 45.62 40.13 32.11 33.82 25.45 28.55 14.85 21.40 78.39 70.26 Miami Beach 37.05 30.81 30.40 27.38 21.48 21.08 15.18 16.02 67.50 55.67 W Pennsuco 40.98 35.32 30.37 29.00 24.62 22.25 16.29 16.31 72.28 62.53 Pennsuco 4 NW 38.42 37.93 30.43 30.28 23.35 23.45 14.74 17.97 70.39 66.37 Tamiami Canal 47.13 48.74 36.56 40.20 29.50 31.93 18.96 22.36 76.38 76.14 Tamiami Trail @ 40-Mile Bend 48.89 50.46 36.33 41.60 29.98 28.94 18.42 19.05 82.76 73.91 Average of all stations 44.36 41.74 33.34 33.35 26.47 26.92 16.01 19.95 78.95 68.62

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REPORT OF INVESTIGATIONS No. 47 15 QUANTITATIVE ESTIMATES OF PREVIOUS INVESTIGATIONS The U. S. Corps of Engineers (1953) performed 11 pumping tests to determine the permeability of materials underlying various, parts of southern Florida. Based on several of these tests the range of underseepage beneath Levees 30 and 33 was computed at 1,380 to 1,600 cfs per mile of levee for a 10-foot head differential. Stallman (1956) described the effects on the water resources of the area and, based on analog and numerical-analysis studies, estimated the underseepage at 970 cfs per mile of levee for a 10-foot head differential under laminar flow conditions in a homogeneous aquifer. Based on measured pickup in a one-mile reach of the L-30 borrow canal near S-201 (fig. 5), Klein and Sherwood (1961) computed underseepage at 540 cfs per mile for a 10-foot head differential between the ponded conservation area and the borrow canal. The U. S. Corps of Engineers (1961, p. 17) estimated that total underseepage would amount to 3,300 cfs, under a 6-foot head differential (11-5 ft) after occurrence of the design storm. Dividing this discharge figure by 24 miles (the approximate length of levee bordering Area B), the estimated underseepage would be about 140 cfs per mile. With the addition of the seepage-reduction levees the estimated underseepage would be 2,400 cfs or about 100 cfs per mile. Thus, the estimated underseepage has been revised downward from a maximum of 1,600 cfs per mile to. a minimum of 100 cfs per mile based on additional studies and changes in the flood-control plan. Calculations to be presented later for conditions that appear representative indicate that the underseepage will be somewhat higher than the minimum estimate of 100 cfs per mile. Water requirements for preventing salt-water encroachment during the dry season have received consideration in several reports. Based on measurements of canal discharge, Sherwood and Leach (1962) estimated that during extreme drought 50 cfs would be needed to maintain a water level of 2.75 feet above msl at the control dam in the Snapper Creek Canal (C-2, fig. 5). Outseepage from the canal into the aquifer near the coastline is a necessary part of preventing salt-water encroachment into the aquifer at depth. Leach and Sherwood (1963) in a similar study for the Snake Creek Canal (C-9, fig. 5) estimated that 36 cfs would be required to maintain a water level of 2.7 feet above msl at the control dam in that canal. These estimates were based on measured canal discharges. A water level of 2.5 feet will prevent salt-water encroachment in the Biscayne aquifer. Assuming that an average of 40 cfs per canal would be required to maintain a water level of 2.5 feet above msl, a total of about 300 cfs would adequately maintain heads at the coastal control dams in the eight major canals of Dade County.

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16 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY ACKNOWLEDGMENTS Thanks arc extended to William V. Storch and Robert L. Taylor of the Central and Southern Florida Flood Control District and F. D. R. Park and Marvin J. Brooks of the Dade County Water Control office for discussions related to this report. The writers' colleagues A. L. Higer, Howard Klein, C. B. Sherwood, and S. D. Leach provided helpful counsel during the investigation. The manuscript received the benefit of critical review by C. S. Conover, R. W. Pride, K. A. MacKichan, C. A. Appel, and Leo A. Ileindl. FUTURE WATER NEEDS AND AVAILABILITY Although the primary function of the Area B plan would be flood control, its implementation also would result in conservation of water. Calculations are made in this section to demonstrate the magnitude of future water needs vs. availability and to point out the importance of the Area B plan as a water-conservation measure. In figure S, estimates for water use by the Dade County Development D)tpartment (1962, sec. 30, p. 15-16) are plotted to the year 1995. Agricultural pumpage is expected to decline because of urbanization but industrial and municipal pumpage will rise greatly. Per capita daily water use is expected to increase from about 145 gallons in 1960 to 220 gallons in 1995. The rise in population from about 1,000,000 in 1960 to 4.0(X),HK) in 1995 will cause total water use to increase from about 230 mgd ( million gallons per day) (345 efs) to about 1.4 bgd (billion gallons per day) (2,170 cfs). Approximating the annual rainfall at 60 inches (a depth of 5 feet), the total water use of 1.4 bgd for a year is equivalent to the total rainfall over an area of about 500 square miles. As a comparison, the mainland area south of the Dade-Broward County line in the map of figure 5 amounts to about 500 square miles. However, as the total rainfall is not available for use, water will have to be imported from adjacent areas to supply the populace of 1995. The following equation represents the balance between recharge by rainfall, discharge, and water storage in a drainage area: Recharge [rainfall] = Discharge [surface-water discharge + ground water discharge + evapotranspiration + domestic pumpage] + [change in storage.] For purposes of discussion, several elements in the equation can be eliminated from consideration because they are not likely to change in the future:

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REPORT OF INVESTIGATIONS No. 47 17 YEAR 1930 1940 1950 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000 10,000 ---I I 10,000 W1000 1 000 0 ) -z / 0 0 0 z St100 1 00 S^-~ ---/ -~----10 Figure 8. Estimated water use per day between the years 1930 and 1995 for Dade County and the Florida Keys. I. Rainfall cannot be expected to change significantly in the future. 2. Due to the nature of ground-water movement and the necessity for maintaining fresh-water heads to prevent salt-water encroachment, ground-water discharge cannot be changed greatly from its present magnitude. 3. Evapotranspiration is occurring now and will occur in the future at about the same rate; i.e. the future water problems of the Miami area probably will be solved by storing water in the conservation areas; only under very adverse conditions during drought

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18 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY would water levels be lowered sufficiently below ground surface to reduce evapotranspirative losses. 4. Long-term storage in the Miami area (i.e. average water levels) are not expected to change significantly and this parameter will average out to zero in the future. In the above recharge-discharge equation only domestic pumpage and surface runoff can be considered as changeable. As domestic pumpage will increase six-fold, the most readily available method for maintaining the balance of the system is by prudent management of surface waters: by reducing surface-water discharge to the ocean and/or by increasing surface-water inflow to the Miami area. A volumetric computation that balances the domestic pumpage of 1995 against surface ninoff is instructive. Langbein (Parker, et al., 1955, fig. 149) found that surface-water discharge from the Everglades Unit averaged 9.54 inches during the years 1940-46 when precipitation averaged 50.1 inches. Thus, 19 percent of precipitation could be assigned to surface runolf. The average annual precipitation for the Everglades and Southeastern Coast as determined by the U. S. Weather Bureau is about 55 inches. Using Langbein's percentage, 10.5 inches of this would represent average surface-water discharge. If the total water use of 1.4 billion gallons per day in 1995 were derived entirely by diversion of average surfacewater flow to the Miami well fields, consider the area over which previously excess surface runoff would have to be collected. (Annual surface-water discharge) X (Area) = Annual pumpage (10.5 inches/yr) X (Area) = 1.4 X 10° gal/day X 365 days/yr 12 inches/ft 7.48 gal/cu. ft. Area = 7.85 X 1010 sq. ft. = 2,820 sq. miles. Such an area (about 28 miles wide and 100 miles long) would extend from the east coast to the southern end of L-67 and from the middle of Lake Okeechobee on the north into Everglades National Park on the south. (See fig. 2.) All of the annual surface runoff (10.5 inches) would have to be collected from this large area so that Miami might use the water once and then dump it in the ocean. On this basis there would be no surface runoff left, above the needs of Miami, to supply replenishment water for West Palm Beach, Fort Lauderdale, and other coastal cities, or Everglades National Park. Because water is a reuseable resource, the situation will not be as bleak as indicated by this volumetric computation. However, it is clear that the various factors in the hydrologic cycle must be studied carefully so that enlightened water management can insure a continuing supply of fresh water for southeastern Florida. IF

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REPORT OF INVESTIGATIONS No. 47 19 In the above computation a tacit assumption was madethat all surface runoff would be funneled to Miami and after consumption by the populace, the water would be processed by municipal-sewage plants and thence dumped into the ocean. This would represent a total dissipation, i.e. total consumption of fresh water which is not occurring at the present time. Of about 1,000,000 total population in 1960, sewagetreatment plants served about 420,000; the effluent from a population of only 250,000 was pumped directly to Biscayne Bay or to the Gulf Stream (Dade County Development Dept., 1962, sec. 29, p. 5-13). Therefore, in 1960 only one-fourth of the population was served by sewage-treatment plants that dumped the effluent into the ocean; the remaining three-fourths were served by sewage-treatment plants or by individual septic tanks that discharged the effluent into fresh-water canals or into the Biscayne aquifer. The following quotation gives background on the present status of sewage disposal (Dade County Development Dept., 1962, sec. 29, p. 1-2): "Shortly after World War II a local Miami firebrand named Philip Wylie (creator of Crunch and Des) authored an article in a national magazine calling Miami a 'Polluted Paradise.' "Little could be said against the author's contentions for Miami had reached a shocking state in pollution of its formerly-blue Biscayne Bay. "For then the waters were turgid brown and even the twice-daily flushing action of ocean tides could hardly save marine life from extinction in the central bay area or dilute the bacteria-laden waters that poured out of the mouth of the Miami River. "All the raw, untreated sanitary sewage of the complete downtown area was merely collected through mains and then poured into the river and bay through open outfalls. "Outright warnings by health authorities and incessant campaigns by Miami newspapers, finally aroused the citizenry and major action was taken. "Today, the downtown area of Biscayne Bay has noticeably changed color as years of sanitary sedimentation washed away by the never ceasing tides. "Also, the City of Miami, for its major downtown and bayfront areas, is serviced by a complete collection and treatment facility which discharges a clear effluent far offshore into the world's largest moving body of waterthe Gulf Stream. At present, much of the inland residential areas are unsewered."

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20 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY Because sea water contains 35 times as much dissolved solids a;s sewage, it is much cheaper to purify and sanitize sewage water than to remove the salts from sea water (Wolman, 1961, p. 123). Therefore, it is doubtful that salt-water conversion plants will ever be economically justified in a high-rainfall region such as Miami. However, all surfacewater outflow from southeastern Florida cannot be stopped and funneled to Miami as conjectured by the previous computation. In the year 1995 (or eventually) it appears that some planned reuse of water will be essential if water shortages are to be avoided. Possibly half of the 1.4 billion gallons per day of water that will be required in 1995 (or eventually) could be saved for reuse by adequately planned sewagetreatment systems. In flood-prone areas, such as Area B, the septic-tank system would not be workable and municipal sewage-treatment plants would be required. However, consideration should be given to planned reuse of the water by recharging highly purified sewage-plant effluent into Area B canals. Subsequent discharge into Conservation Area 3B through the flood-control pumps would permit time for bacterial degradation and for the benefits of aquifer filtration to make the water estheticallv reusable. In consideration of the magnitude of future water needs, the Area B plan should be conceived as a water-conservation as well as a flood-control plan. GEOLOGIC AND HYDROLOGIC ENVIRONMENT Although the levee system prevents surface-water outflow from Conservation Area 3B, underseepage and direct rainfall overpower the present gravity drainage system, figure 9, and the land in Area B remains swampy or partly inundated during much of the year. Figure 9 shows both primary and secondary canals, but the secondary canals will be omitted henceforth. Unusual shapes of water-level contours in later illustrations will be clarified by referring to the complete drainage system in figure 9. The Biscayne aquifer is an important hydrologic unit that underlies southeastern Florida. It is a highly permeable water-table aquifer consisting of solution-riddled limestone and calcareous sandstone and fairly numerous layers of unconsolidated sand. Municipal and private water supplies are derived almost exclusively from wells drilled into the aquifer. The aquifer thickens toward the coast from about 50 feet at the levee system on the west side of Area B to 90 feet on the east side, and to as much as 200 feet near the coast. Oolitic limestone crops out over much of the coastal ridge (Area A). In Area B, a surficial blanket of peat and organic marl 3 to 4 feet thick is underlain by dense lowpermeability limestone having a thickness of about 3 feet. Highly .1

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REPORT OF INVESTIGATIONS NO. 47 21 R. 39 E. R, 40 E. R. 41 E. R. 42 E. cS9/ ss SN1HOLLYWOOD 00 -IBROWARD I372COUNTY DADE G 9 CGOUNT 970 S 6966 S972 G973 -C L MIAMI 978 it r Ci I ( ~t* S observaGion wells related to h invesiganion, in l Miani area. Control dom Pump station an4 number Figure 9. Primary and secondary canal system in 1964 and locations of recording permeable limestone underlies this sequence from about -3 feet msl to the base of the aquifer.

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22 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY PRESENT AND FUTURE LAND-SURFACE ALTITUDE The ultimate altitude of land surface in Area B will be fixed by landfill requirements which will be based upon a compromise of hydraulic and physical factors. The physical factors are outlined here. 59 5 HOLLYWOOD L BROWAR C OUNTY DA0E OUNTY -8 REA B AREA A C4 ,M'IAMI SEXPLANATION -Contour nltervl, I tool. /Bl*^Wh' C -n*or Dotum is mon seao C/ ~3 Conoal and number 3 Control dam E& Pump slotion and numbr 0 2 4 mlle Figure 10. Generalized altitude of land surface in Area B.

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REPORT OF INVESTIGATIONS No. 47 23 Peat, black-muck, and organic-marl soils occur at the surface over most of Area B; the altitude of present land surface is given by the generalized map of figure 10, compiled from maps of the U. S. DepartS9 HOLLYWOOD LAJ BROWAR C 9 DADE CO I C SAREA A MIAMI EXPLANATION U5---Showm oltitude of bedrock B) edr 0 Cmf rfoce. ontO r inteV0 w I foot. Daotm is mean C/0 s oo e r levtl. C3 C Co7 and number uzCo CMnW dam \ I --4 Pwmp tation and number Figure 11. Altitude of bed rock in Area B.

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24 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY C // s9 HOLLYWOOD l L --"1 BROWAR G COC 9 DADE CO T 2.5 8 C8 C7 AREA A 25 4 MIAMI " EXPLANATION S Shows assumed allutude of land surfoce after SToporophic Conour compaction. Conlour intervol, 0.5 ond I fool. C/0 Datum is mean sea levd Cj C2 Canal and number 1 }clý Control dam -& Pump station and number 0 2 4 miles Figure 12. Assumed altitude of compacted land surface in Area B after 100 percent loss of black-muck soils above +3 feet msl and 50 percent compaction of muck soils below +3 feet msl. ment of Agriculture, Central and Southern Florida Flood Control District, and the U. S. Corps of Engineers. The altitude of the underlying bed-

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REPORT OF INVESTIGATIONS No. 47 25 rock surface has been determined by the Corps of Engineers as shown in figure 11. Upon exposure to air after the Area B plan is operational, the organic soils are expected to oxidize and the resulting soil loss is assumed at 100 percent from land surface to an altitude of +3 feet msl and 50 percent below 3 feet (Corps of Engineers, 1961, p. 16). The planned water level in Area B is +3 feet msl. Below +3 feet msl integration of organic soils with solid materials during land-filling will provide minimum exposure to air and this is expected to reduce oxidative loss to 50 percent. Based on the assumptions, a map of the compacted land surface has been compiled, (see figure 12). The altitudes shown in this map would be the base from which solid-material fill requirements could be estimated. TRANSMISSIBILITY OF THE AQUIFER The coefficient of transmissibility (T) is a measure of the ability of the aquifer to transmit water. It is defined as the rate of flow of water in gallons per day through a vertical strip of the aquifer one-foot wide extending the full saturated height of the aquifer under a unit hydraulic gradient (Ferris, et al., 1962, p. 73). The coefficient of transmissibility has been determined at the sites shown in figure 5. The Corps of Engineers performed a number of determinations along Levees L-30 and L-33 in connection with Area B under-seepage studies. These are identified by "C.E."; determinations by the Geological Survey are identified "G.S." Near S-201 (fig. 5) independent determinations by the two agencies by different methods gave comparable results (Klein and Sherwood, 1961, p. 18). Although the density of the determinations does not warrant contouring to portray the areal variation, a region of high transmissibility occurs near Levees 30 and 31, along the western and southern boundaries of Area B. Northward and eastward the transmissibility decreases to about 4,000,000 gpd/ft near the eastern boundary of Area B. EFFECT OF FLOOD CONTROL PROJECT ON GROUND-WATER LEVEL GROUND-WATER FLUCTUATIONS The adjustment of ground-water levels to drainage activities and water-control measures is shown in figure 13. The water-level peaks or lows (i.e. points of water-level reversal) in recording wells S-18, G-10, and G-72 have been selected to typify the range in fluctuation and are plotted against annual rainfall (see locations fig. 9). The decrease in

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26 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY 1940 1945 1950 1955. 196 . t 0 75 MIAMI AIRPORT 10-.----------------------------.-.-.-'-. SWELL SIB-LAND SURFACE 3 WELL G 10 ..... LAND SURFACE .... .............. ..... ... ..... ...... ... ......... u 0 ____ ............... .. WELL G 12 Figure 13. Monthly trend of water-level fluctuations in selected wells related to rainfall, 1940-63. amplitude of the envelope formed by connecting the yearly peaks is the result of improvement of the drainage system over the years. For example, the highest water level after the hurricanes of September 1960 is 2 to 3 feet lower than those of hurricane years 1947 and 1948 despite equivalent rainfall conditions in 1960. The distribution of rainfall during the year has been mentioned previously as a factor in flooding. Thus, in well S-18 two individual water-level peaks at about 4 feet in 1959 correspond with two widely spaced heavy rains. Though total rainfall in 1959 was greater than in 1960, the drainage system adequately lowered or normalized water levels between the heavy rains so that the second rainfall period produced minimal flooding in 1959. In addition to improved ability of the flood-control works to lower flood peaks, the generally rising line of the annual low-water minimum

PAGE 34

REPORT OF INVESTIGATIONS NO. 47 27 in well S-18 indicates that progress is being made in controlling over drainage and consequently in maintaining water levels at desirable levels. However, the water level at S-18 fell to one foot above msl in May 1962. This head is insufficient to prevent salt-water encroachment. In May 1962 Conservation Area 3B in the vicinity of well G-968 (fig. 9) was dry. Ground-water level at G-968 was 2.0 feet above mean sea level, only about 0.2 foot higher than that at well G-72 (fig. 13). Thus, after four years of above average rainfall (1957-60) there was not enough surface water stored in Conservation Area 3B to carry through the dry year of 1961 and into 1962. This points up the need for water conservation. The problems of the future are not how fast the flood water can be eliminated, but rather how the flood water can be saved for future use. The Area B plan will be an instrument of water conservation. After implementation, part of the water which now is wasted to the ocean in a hurricane year such as 1960, will be pumped westward into Conservation Area 3B. COMPARISON OF HIGH-WATER PERIODS The highest ground-water levels prior to inception of the Flood Control Project occurred in 1947. These levels are duplicated on the general base map of this report, figure 14 (adapted from Schroeder, Klein, and Hoy, 1958, fig. 16). Water level over most of Area B was 9 to 10 feet above msl about 3 to 5 feet above land surface. Figure 15 shows the highest altitude of the water table in September 1960. The increase in secondary-canal networks associated with urbanization of Area A, and enlargement of the major canals improved total drainage capability so that water levels in Area B ranged from 5 to 8 feet above msl, 2 to 3 feet lower than those of 1947. The dense network of secondary canals adjacent to the upper reaches of canals C-7 and C-8 reduced water levels to 4 to 5 feet in 1960, compared to 7 to 8 feet in 1947. In contrast, water levels in the vicinity of canals C-1 and C-100 in south Dade County were slightly higher in 1960 than in 1947 which correlates with relatively higher rainfall in 1960 (Kendall and Homestead stations, table 3). Canal C-100 was not in existence in 1960 and C-1 has been greatly improved since that time. It is unlikely that the high heads of 1960 in the south Dade region will ever occur again. COMPARISON OF LOW-WATER PERIODS Salinity-control dams were not installed in most of the canals until 1946. Lowest water levels of record occurred in May and June 1945, figure 16 (adapted and expanded from Parker, et. al., 1955, fig. 45).

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28 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY s9 HOLLY WOOD0 L1 DADE COUNTY j G8 -^w, um s lho n a' d of oiber ---RE A B A " \0 // EXPL"TION S aotltitude of wler S oble. Contour inervol, I Si.Tabl, C~oar fWol. Datum is meon C3Cmal and lumber 1 M Control dam SPump lotion and number Not*: Adapted fromrn Schroeder, itinh and Hoy. S6 Figure 14. High-stage water levels in the Miami area October 11-12, 1947. Canal C-100 did not exist and C-1 was not improved in 1947. The water table in Area B ranged from 0.5 to 1.5 feet above msl. Localized mounds persisted in the more populated regions near the shore and possibly give evidence of septic-tank recharge.

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REPORT OF INVESTIGATIONS No. 47 29 c// "1fi " "T'"-I ?LLYw0or ' DADE _CONTY" / AE BL, R E oj 9/ 70 C4 I S~ EXPLANATION SShows oltitude of wtoer -50-toble. Dashed where app=r foter-Tible Cntour imate. Contour interval, 0.5 / and I toot. Datum is mea C2 sea level. f C Canal and number 0 U4Q\I. Control dam 0 N0 Pump stotion and number 0 2 4 miles Figure 15. Highest water-table altitude in the Miami area in September 1960 after passage of Hurricane Donna and tropical storm Florence. Canal C-100 did not exist and C-1 was not improved in 1960. The lowest water levels of recent times occurred in May 1962 following drought conditions of 1961-62 (figure 17, adapted from Sherwood and Klein, 1963, fig. 9). The water table in Area B ranged from

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30 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY Ci/ S9 HOLLYWOOD LU .1 ---I-.OL---. BROWAR COUDADE COUNTY -0 --'-'-Shows attitude of water 0 5table. Contour interval, SW tw-Bbla COnia, 0.5 foot. Doatum is C/OO meaoon sea level. C --' = Conol and number j Control dam S-J Pump station and .number Note: Adapted and expanded from Parker, et. al., 0 2 4 n mles Figure 16. Record low stage of water table prior to installation of control dams in the Miami area, May and June 1945. Canal C-100 did not exist and C-1 was not improved in 1945. 1.0 to 2.5 feet above msl. No surface water was impounded in Conservation Area 3B at that time, but the major canals were draining n.

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REPORT OF INVESTIGATIONS No. 47 31 C// s9 SHOLLYWOOD LU SI 1 BROWARD OUNTY C9 DADE COUNTY 1.5 I zo G7 o ~-I MIA lM A RA 4\ R . L , h-r EXPLANATION S S----hows oltitude of woter tarble. contour intert l, |\0 ) " -0.5 foot. Datum is mean se level. •C/0O -vVv Area of soltwoler encaroch? C ment. SConol and number \ Control dom ImI (Pump station and number Note: Adopted from Sherwood and Klein.1963 0 2 4 miles Figure 17. Low stage of the water table in the Miami area in May 1962 and extent of salt-water encroachment. ground water from storage west of the levee system and conveying it downstream to the salinity-control dams. Heads of about one foot were maintained on the upstream side of the dams. Comparison of

PAGE 39

32 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY figures 16 and 17 shows the expansion of the cone of depression of the Miami well field near Canal C-6 (Miami Canal) between 1945 and 1962. Pumpage increased from 40 to 80 mgd during this period. The cone of depression along Canal C-2 surrounds the Alexander Orr well field, which did not exist in 1945. CANAL DISCHARGES The discharge in several canals was studied to evaluate surfacewater discharge characteristic from Conservation Area 3B, Area B, and Area A. A background for the study period (Jan. 1960 to Dec. 1963) is provided by the monthly-mean discharge in the Miami Canal from 1940 to 1963, figure 18. The geographic dividing point between the "Miami River" (downstream) and the "Miami Canal" (upstream) is located approximately 4 miles inland from Biscayne Bay, figure 19. Maximum discharge usually occurs in October at the culmination of the rainy season; minimum discharge of less than about 100 cfs, generally occurs in May of each year. The difference in magnitude of the discharges during the wet periods of 1947 and 1960 attest to the improvement of control works, and the construction of the levee system during that interval. Although rainfall in 1960 was about comparable to 1947 (table 3) the maximum monthly mean flow was 1,270 cfs in 1960 as compared with 3,600 cfs in 1947. This results from a combination of factors: (1) as noted previously, maximum water levels in Area B were 2 to 3 feet lower in 1960 than in 1947; (2) the levee system prevented direct surfacewater flow from the Everglades from reaching Area B; (3) the improved canal system permitted more rapid runoff from Areas A and B and this minimized surfaceand ground-water impoundment prior to the hurricane rains. In table 4, annual-mean discharges (1940-63) are compared with the 24-year median discharge of 530 cfs. Below average flows generally persisted during the 1960-63 study period. The above average flows in 1960 are attributable to record, antecedent rainfall in 1959 and to the heavy rains of tropical storms Donna and Florence in 1960.. STAGES AND DISCHARGES IN THE MIAMI CANAL The Miami Canal (C-6) is the largest canal that transects Area B. Continuous recordings of stage and discharge are available at Stations F, G, I, and J since 1961 (see locations in figure 19 and key to stations

PAGE 40

-I 4000 1500 --MEDIAN DISCHARGE 530 CFS (1940-63) S5000 --" .. 1940 1941 1942 1943 1944 1945 1946 1947 1948 1949 1950 1951 1952 953 95 5 195 1957 158 1959 1960 196 1962 1963 w;N W

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34 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY TABLE 4.-COMPARISON OF ANNUAL-MEAN DISCHARGES IN THE MIAMI CANAL AT N.W. 36th STREET WITH THE 24-YEAR MEDIAN, 1940-63. Calendar Annual mean Percent of year discharge (cfs) median 1940 710 134 1941 828 156 1942 753 142 1943 317 60 1944 312 59 1945 383 72 1946 630 119 1947 1.412 266 1948 1.178 222 194-9 795 150 1950 426 80 1951 395 75 1952 544 103 1953 1130 157 1954 909 172 1955 (28 118 1956 260 49 1957 551 104 1958 802 151 1959 707 133 1960 815 159 1961 291 55 1962 157 30 1963 117 28 in table 5.) The daily discharges for the years 1961-63 are plotted in figure 20. This data provides the basis for separating the contributions to flow in the Miami Canal from Conservation Area 3B, Area B, and Area A. The flow characteristics at the four gaging stations on the Miami Canal are influenced, depending on location, by ground-water inflov, control-dam operation, well-field pumpage, and tidal flow. At Broken Dam (F) the flow is primarily from underseepage from Conservation Area 3B. The underseepage produces a rather steady, slowly changing flow pattern. The effect of the operation of the control dam at N.W. 36th Street is usually reflected along the entire reach of the 4;

PAGE 42

REPORT OF INVESTIGATIONS No. 47 35 A C // S9 .f. -------...IL LOLLY WOO I I--L-'I" t. BROWARD COUNTY '-DADE 3 COUNTY S32 C7 ". AREA B RE. A A H C4 L * EXPLANATION 1. Pump station and number Note: Locations keyed by litter ---7` rino able divide Figure 19. Locations of gaging stations and drainage areas of major canalse in the 0 co o,,o,.2 lollor Miami area. canal. Control changes produce the largest fluctuations in stage and Noate: Lacalions keyed by 1Mtter 8 to toble 5. ) 0 2 4 milem Figure 19. Locations of gaging stations and drainage areas of major canals in the Miami area. canal. Control changes produce the largest fluctuations in stage and discharge at N.W. 36th Street because the gaging station is located only 100 feet upstream from the control dam. For example, on March

PAGE 43

II44 I ' Az ..-, J I 1 In 0-0 nfur IMIAM/ CAfVAtJ -t IJ~L WI a' *l l L IIl· n r~~ i·nY 7 "W .j 1fwoa L

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REPORT OF INVESTIGATIONS No. 47 37 TABLE 5.-KEY TO LETTER DESIGNATIONS IN FIGURE 19 FOR RECORDING STAGE AND DISCHARGE GAGING STATIONS IN CANALS OF THE MIAMI AREA. A. South New River Canal at S-9, near Davla, Fla. II. Snake Creek Canal at N.W. 67th Ave., near Hiialanh, Fla. C. Snake Crock Canal at S.29, at North Miami Beach, Fla. 1). Little River Canal at 5.27, at Miami, Fla. E. Bircayne Canal at S-28, at Miami, Fla. F. Minmi Canal at Broken Dam, near Miami, Fla. G. Miami Canal at Palmetto Dy-pass. near Hialeah, Fla. 1I. Miami Canal at water plant, Ilnaloah, Fla. I. Miami Canal at N.W. 36lh Street, Miami, Fla. J. Miami River at Hrickoll Ave., Miami, Fla. K. Taminain Canal at State Highway 27, near Coral Gables, Fla. L. Taminill Canal near Coral Gables, Fla. M. Coral Gables Canal at Tamiami Canal, near Coral Gables, Fla. N. Coral Gables Canal near South Miami, Fla. 0. Snapper Creek Canal near Coral Gables, Fla. P. Snapper Creek Canal at S.22, near South Miami, Fla. 8, 1961 (fig. 20) the control was changed from fully open to nearly closed. This produced a sharp rise in stage at N.W. 36th Street and an accompanying drop in discharge. The drop in stage and discharge at Broken Dam was caused by the closing of two controls (S-32 and S-32A) in the levee-borrow canal at the same time. During the period March 22-28, controls S-32 and S-32A were opened. This produced an increase in discharge at Palmetto By-pass and N.W. 36th Street with only a slight increase in stage (fig. 20). The flows are usually larger at Palmetto By-pass than at N.W. 36th Street because water leaves the canal between the two stations to recharge the aquifer adjacent to the well field (near station I, fig. 19). Pumpage from the well field varies between 70 and 125 cfs. The stage at Brickell Avenue is not perceptibly affected by control operation because tidal fluctuation in Biscayne Bay is the over-riding influence. However, the discharge at Brickell Avenue reflects control operation to some extent. The marked drop in discharge on March 9, 1961 is an example. CONTRIBUTIONS TO FLOW IN THE MIAMI RIVER FROM CONSERVATION AREA 3B, AREA B, AND AREA A The drainage areas in figure 19 show that runoff from Area B is contributed primarily to the Miami River system (C-4 and C-6). Part of the flow from the Tamiami Canal (C-4) is diverted into the

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38 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY Snapper Creek Canal (C-2) and Coral Gables Canal (C-3). With adjustments for these diversions, the flow of the Miami River was separated into contributions from Conservation Area 3B, Area B, and Area A, shown in figure 21. 2000 EXPLANATION Flow contributed from Aroe A Flow contributed from Area B -"-_ Sep_ See ge from Conservotion Area 38 1000 500 o0 4'r'M'a'.M'J'J'A'S'O'N'oJ'MA'M'J''a'J'A'sIo' M'c|/ r J'A'S'dO d N dljf IIJYS 1960 1961 1962 1963 Figure 21. Discharge contributions to the Miami River at Brickell Avenue from Conservation Area 3B, Area B, and Area A. The upper plotted line for Conservation Area 3B is the base line above which the contribution of Area B is plotted. Similarly the upper plotted line for Area B is the base line above which the contribution or loss of Area A is plotted. The significance of the diagram can be illustrated by the following examples. In March 1962, the flow of the Miami River into Area A at its western boundary was greater than the flow out of Area A into Biscayne Bay. The net loss of water from the Miami River in the reach adjacent to Area A is shown by the dip of the Area A hydrograph below the hydrograph for Area B. High easterly winds in early March coincided with high tides and the wind-driven salt water of Biscayne Bay flooded inland into storage in the aquifer. The monthly mean discharge at the Brickell Avenue gaging stations (station J in fig. 19) was 30 cfs landward (upstream). In contrast, summation of inflow and outflow in April and May 1963 (fig. 21) again showed that water was lost from the Miami River

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REPORT OF INVESTIGATIONS No. 47 39 in the Area A reach, but in this case the monthly mean discharge at the Brickell Avenue gaging station was positive or seaward (fig. 20). Except for the above two instances, the Miami River invariably gained (picked up) water from the three areas. The relative vertical distance between the individual curves is a measure of the contribution from each area. Several runoff characteristics can be identified in figure 21. The underseepage from water stored in Conservation Area 3B is perennial and supplies a base flow of fresh water that is tapped by downstream users. However, in spring 1962 the conservation area was dry and the base flow was contributed entirely by ground-water underflow. The pickup in the Miami Canal was only about 100 cfs from Conservation Area 3B, 100 cfs from Area B, and practically none from Area A. The relative difference in percentage of flows in wet and dry seasons reflects the rapid drainage of Area A. During the dry months only a small flow accrues from Area A. Conversely, during wet periods runoff from Area A is proportionately large. Because of this rapid runoff in Area A and the necessity for maintaining low water levels in the lowlands of Area B after development, the need for additional storage of water in the conservation area in dry periods is thus evident. The total flow in the Miami River contributed by Conservation Area 3B, Area B, and Area A was 520,000 acre-feet or about 725 cfs during the period June 1962 to May 1963 (fig. 21). The Conservation Area seepage comprised 33 percent of this total, Area B 26 percent, and Area A 41 percent. TOTAL SURFACE-WATER OUTFLOW FROM AREA A Area A drains to Biscayne Bay via six major canals and by direct ground-water flow along the shoreline.1 Discharge has been measured continuously near the mouth of each canal as follows: Snapper Creek Canal (C-2), gage P since December 1959 Coral Gables Canal (C-3), gage N since February 1961 Miami River Canal (C-6), gage J since February 1961 Little River Canal (C-7), gage E since February 1959 Biscayne Canal (C-8), gage D since April 1962 Snake Creek Canal (C-9), gage C since January 1959 The briefness of complete record limits the analysis to that period after April 1962. Therefore, the following runoff evaluation for all Area A canals is for only one year-from June 1962 to May 1963. 'Canals C-1 and C-100 (fig. 5) were under construction in 1963-64 and are not included in the analysis.

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40 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY Drainage areas for each of the six canals (fig. 19) are estimated from ground-water level divides (figs. 14 and 15) and other knowledge of the hydrology of the Miami area. The number in the bar column at the left of figure 22 gives the percentage of the total drainage area assignable to each of the six canals. All other factors being the same, equal rainfall over the total drainage area would produce runoff in proportion to the size of each drainage area. Thus, the monthly mean runoff in the Miami River should be about 43 percent of the total, while runoff from other canals should be similarly proportioned. In figure 22, the monthly mean runoff from each canal is plotted as a bar graph following the same canal sequence shown by the drainage-area bar at the left. The dashed lines are for guidance in comparing month-to-month values. The internal numbers on the runoff bars are the percentages of total monthly runoff for the individual canals. Analysis of the shift of these discharge percentages for the various canals can be used for evaluation and adjustment of water-management practices. During high-water periods, when the control dams are open, the runoff percentage should compare favorably with drainage-area percentage for each canal. During the dry season, when control dams theoretically should be closed to prevent loss of fresh water, the runoff percentage of the uncontrolled canals should increase while that of the controlled canals should decrease. Canals, other than the Miami Canal, are controlled near their mouths in Area A. The control dams in the Miami River system (C-6 and C-4) are located more than 6 miles from shore. As the Miami River system is only partly controlled it can be used as a rough comparator for evaluation of discharge in the controlled canals. During the relatively high-water period June through September 1962, the discharge from the Miami River averaged about 45 percent of the total comparing closely with the 43 percent estimated for the drainage area. During the dry season, the percentage of total discharge for the Miami River increased to a maximum of 76 percent in March 1963 (fig. 22). This increase is a consequence of the uncontrolled condition of the Miami Canal. In April and May 1963 at a time of very little rainfall, the percentage runoff of the Miami Canal decreased, but that of the Snake Creek Canal rose considerably from a theoretical 24 percent to 45 percent in April and 46 percent in May. Gate openings in the Snake Creek Canal increased the discharge during this period and caused the shift in percentage. As a further comparison,

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2500 V aoo rI a NUMBER INDICATES PERCENT OF TOTAL -c DRAINAGE AREA NUMBER INDICATES PERCENT SE FIG. 19 S. , S OF TOTAL DISCHARGE z i-t)-C 2000t SSNAPPER CREEK I 2 1s CANAL a' 4 CORAL GABLES i 5 0z CANAL -// SR-) 6 -U7 LITTLE RIVER S t n E J AKE CREEK M CANAL o IC-i N 14 . 9 c JNE JULY AUG SEPT OCT NOV DCC JAN F-S MAR APR MAY 1962 1963 0 JUNE JUL AU SET OT NV DE JA FE MA AP MA 1962 196

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42 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY the runoff percentage for the Snapper Creek Canal gradually decreased to zero in April and May 1963. Thus, analysis of the shift of discharge percentages can be used as a tool for evaluation and adjustment of water-management practices. For example, the previous comparisons show that dry-season discharge from the Snake Creek, Biscayne, and Little River Canals is proportionately large compared to the size of their drainage areas. Examination of the operating criteria for the control dams might lead to improved water management in these canals. The total discharge from all canals in the Miami area was 929,000 acre feet during the period June 1962 to May 1963. This is equivalent to a yearly mean surface-water runoff of 1,280 cfs. Based on sizes of drainage areas and on the percentage contributions to the Miami River system (see previous section), it is estimated that about 50 percent of this total discharge (about 600 cfs) can be attributed to contributions from Conservation Area 3B and Area B. After implementation of the Area B plan, division of flow will tend to occur along the boundary between Area B and Area A. Contributions from Area A will flow seaward, whereas contributions from Area B and Conservation Area 3B will be pumped westward. Thus, even in a dry period (such as the analysis period 1962-63) the Area B plan will have considerable potential for conservation of fresh water. In order to fully capitalize on this potential, consideration should be given to supplementary installation of small pumps (100 to 400 cfs capacity) at both the levee-side and the eastern side of Area B. For intermediate-to-low water levels in the conservation area, such pumps would permit ideal flexibility of water control. At intermediate water levels in the conservation area, underseepage could be recycled back to the conservation area at the same time that water could be released eastward into Area A for prevention of salt-water encroachment. When the conservation area is dry the east-side pumps would assist in maintaining adequate fresh-water head near the coast by pumping water seaward from Area-B canals into Area-A canals. EVALUATION OF THE AREA B FLOOD-CONTROL PLAN Coincident with the creation of useable land for urban expansion, the flood-control plan for Area B has many features which can be utilized for improvement of the water-resources position of southeastern Florida. Steady-state electrical analog studies were made to provide insight on the vast changes in hydrology that will come about through implementation of the plan. The land-fill requirements in

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REPORT OF INVESTIGATIONS No. 47 43 Area B will be arrived at as a compromise of the economics of raising the level of the land ($1,000 to $1,500 for raising an acre of land one foot) and of the cost of the pumping system needed to protect the housing developments with lowered fill requirements. This section will be devoted to an appraisal of the plan in the light of past observations of water level. The conditions of September 1960 after hurricane Donna and tropical storm Florence passed through the area are selected as the basis for the appraisal. The conditions that occurred then are immutable facts under the present semi-improved drainage system, and success of the plan must come from improvements over this recent base condition. WATER LEVEL MAPS The water-level contours of September 1960 (fig. 15) were superimposed on the contours of present land surface (fig. 10) to obtain the water-level map of figure 23. The water levels ranged from about 1 foot below land surface at the eastern side of Area B to more than 3 feet above land surface at the western side. The volume of water in storage above land surface amounted to about 8.6 billion cubic feet. Consider the height to which land surface would have to be raised if this observed above-land volume of water were to be stored below land surface in the pore spaces of earth fill. Assuming that no lakes or canals were dug, approximately 5 feet of earth fill with an estimated porosity of 20 percent would have to be placed at the contour representing a water depth of +1 foot (fig. 23), 10 feet would have to be placed at the +2-foot contour, and 15 feet at the +3-foot contour in order that the water table would not rise above land surface under rainfall conditions similar to those of 1960. Verification of this idea can be recognized in southern Dade County in the high-water contour maps of 1947 and 1960 (figs. 14 and 15). Because land surface is generally quite high in this area and because canals C-1 and C-100 did not exist in these years, the water table rose to more than 10 feet above sea level. Obviously, in Area B land-filling alone, without pumping, would be prohibitively expensive and economically infeasible. A water-level map of the distance between the assumed compacted land surface (fig. 12) and the water surface during September 1960 is shown in figure 24. If sufficient water could be removed by pumping or by gravity drainage to hold the water level at the same altitude as that of 1960, (a recently observed level) this map would represent the minimum thickness of landfill that would be required after all peat and

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44 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY I---------------------------------------------$9 HOLLYWOOD Ij BROWARC S CISC 9 -DADE ~D Q 314-RE -" ---"-**(+), -Ao SEA.PL AREA AAO Ito 2 ,;n -jR ^I .... . -0001 e L 010y, 4" 'W EXPLANATION S CO C: r Control dam Pump stotion ad number Figure 23. Water levels in feet above (+) or below (-) existing land surface during September 1960, subsequent to passage of Hurricane Donna and tropical storm Florence. black muck had disappeared by oxidation according to the assumed compaction formula of the Corps of Engineers. (See section entitled Present and Future Land Surface Altitude.) The volume of water that

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REPORT OF INVESTIGATIONS No. 47 45 C// s9 HOLLYWOOD LLJ BROWAR ,,C 9.E DADE *I "*:. AREA A MIAMI w d tt o hI c o d on t 0he p osso ofr,'n;c tfon cubi ottonf et ifll C /0 below 3\' r.. I. 0 2 4 mWlfe Figure 24. Water levels of September 1960, in feet above (+) or below (-) assumed compacted land surface. would have to be removed to hold the water level at the 1960 level would be that amount which could not be stored in the pore spaces of the land fill -about eight-tenths of 8.6 or 6.9 billion cubic feet. If all

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46 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY this water were necessarily pumped at the proposed total pumping rate of 13,400 cfs, 6 days would be required to remove the excess water assuming return flow by underseepage from the conservation area at zero. The above computations tend to be academic because, after implementation of the plan, pre-storm water management probably will prevent the water from rising to the levels of 1960. The main purpose of this discussion is to demonstrate that the water levels must be low enough prior to the occurrence of the design storm (12.79 inches) to provide sufficient capacity for water storage in the sediments (20 percent porosity) and in the canals and farther backyards (100 percent storage), see table 2. The Corps of Engineers has proposed that this storage capacity be provided by reducing fill requirements to 4 feet above msl in the farther backyards (table 2). At the point where the water rises above ground surface, 100 percent storage of water will occur and further water-level rise will relate inch for inch to the amount of rainfall that exceeds the capacity of the pump system to remove it. Thus, by permitting temporary above-ground storage of water in part of the subdivision lots, the water-level rise will be minimized to a calculated level of 5 feet above msl. The pump system, supplemented by gravity drainage to the ocean, is designed to lower water levels from 5 feet to 4 feet above msl within 5 days after the design storm. The Federal Housing Authority, however, indicates that FHA backing of home loans probably would not be forthcoming for homes where water was to be temporarily stored in the farther backyards. The Area B plan is complex and great changes in the hydrology of the Miami area will result from its full implementation. The analog models presented later give insight on future water levels in Area B. Because of this insight, the present design may be altered. Obviously, new analog studies are required to assess each new design. ANALOG STUDY The laminar flow of ground water through a porous medium under a hydraulic-head differential is analogous to the flow of electrical current through a conductive medium under electrical potential (voltage) difference. The correspondence between the basic laws and the continuity relationships of liquid and of electrical flow has lead to the development of several types of analog models for solving complex boundary problems (Skibitzke, 1960; Stallman, 1961; Brown, 1962; Rovinove, 1962; Walton and Prickett, 1963). The equipment used in this study provides steady-state solutions to hydrologic problems. The known boundary conditions of hydraulic head and flow are simulated by applying D.C. voltage and current to elec-

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REPORT OF INVESTIGATIONS No. 47 47 trically conductive graphite paper. Impermeable boundaries are modeled by cutting the paper; hyper-conductive boundaries such as streams or canals are usually modeled by silver paint applied to the surface of the paper. As hydraulic-head loss is observed when water moves through a canal, the highly-conductive paint (with no voltage loss) does not represent the hydraulic gradient in the canal realistically. An improvization was made in the present analog study by using resistor chains tapped into the paper at equivalent distances of about one mile. The resistor chain served as a partial short-circuit of the conductive paper and qualitative information on head distribution in Area B during pumping was provided. BOUNDARY CONDITIONS Many assumptions are involved in setting up the analog model for Area B. The boundary conditions in particular represent a combination of past observations and visualization of possible future parameters of the water-control system. Though the results of the analog are considered no more than qualitative, they give realistic insight of head distributions that would result from the present plans. The applicability of the results of the analog-model study is affected by the following assumptions shown in figure 25: 1. The head in Conservation Area 3B, west of the seepage-reduction levees, was modeled at 10 feet above msl for convenience. This head is about 1.6 feet lower than the highest observed head on the discharge side of S-9, but the relative head differentials shown by the model may be adjusted to a higher base if desired. Plans (Corps of Engineers, 1963) for the area west of L-31 indicate that water in this area will not be controlled during the rainy season but will be at a level of about 8.5 feet. Near the end of the rainy season in November, the water level in this area will be lowered to 5.8 feet by pumping to permit agricultural activities. The observed water level was 8.7 feet at well G 596 in September 1960 (fig. 9 and fig. 15) and the head at L-31 is modeled at 8.5 feet. 2. A fixed hydraulic boundary of 4 feet above msl extends along the eastern side of Area B from the South New River Canal (C-11), (fig. 25) to the vicinity of C-3 and then gradually rises to 7 feet, westward along the southern edge of Area B. Referring to the high-water map of September 1960 (fig. 15), heads of 4 to 5 feet occurred along the eastern side of Area B; the 4-foot boundary was selected as realistic for the future on the basis of these observations. Heads of 8 to 9 feet above msl occurred along the southern edge of Area B after hurricane Donna. However, the improvement of Canal C-1 and the new construction of

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48 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY ..... ,, _ .. ... " ----------------....... ..A .a ,, Fay \ \ o -, t m a .-C SA / ** 2 ancur . ml "o 1a n L 0 a* 000 L-o-1 ondL-------S r r 'oft ,m EXPLAN eTlON a /r a "t -°ig"..e., f t Bi a B -,. i IM o ft OF %Alto y... e.. ", Figure 25. Electric analog model of Area B with no dams in the borrow canals for L-30, L-31, and L.33. C-100 can be expected to reduce maximum water levels in the future; the southern fixed boundary has been adjusted to assumed levels (4 to 7 feet) that appear realistic for rainfall conditions similar to those of September 1960. 3. Dams (proposed by this report) are positioned in the feeder canals approximately at the boundary between Area A and Area B (fig. 2.5). It is believed that such control dams will almost necessarily be a requisite of the flood-control plan to facilitate water control in both wet and dry periods. The design discharge of the larger pump stations (3,900 cfs) is nearly as great as the highest gravity-flow discharge observed in any of the existing canals (4,060 cfs, Miami Canal at Hialeah, October 13, 1947). Therefore, it is doubtful that the position of the water-level divide separating westward flow to Area-B pumps and eastward flow to B.cayne Bay can be predicted. In consideration of the large discharge capacity in Area B, it would be possible for some of the flood waters of Area A to move inland into Area B and thus delay the

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REPORT OF INVESTIGATIONS No. 47 49 dewatering of Area B. Studies in the Snake Creek Canal (Kohout and Leach, 1964, p. 22) show that salt water can move a mile in four hours under density gradient alone. To avoid any possibility that salt water might move inland along the bottom of the canal at high tide and come under the influence of the Area-B pumps, the control dams are believed essential and are programmed into the model at arbitrary positions along the east side of Area B (fig. 25). 4. A dense, branching network of quaternary, tertiary, and secondary canals will discharge water into the feeder (primary) canals of Area B. Thus, the water-level gradients required for water to move through the feeder canals to the pump stations will be one of the major controls of head distribution throughout Area B. Although no size has been assigned specifically, the feeder canals will be large, probably comparable to the Miami Canal. The following set of data for a measurement of maximum discharge in the Miami Canal at Hialeah on October 13, 1947 illustrates the magnitude of gradient that may be encountered in the Area-B feeder canals during pumping. Width: 107 ft. Area of cross section: 1,320 sq. ft. Average depth: 12.3 ft. Discharge: 4,060 cfs Cage height at Hialeah: 7.22 ft. Gage height at N.W. 36th Street: 4.33 ft. Distance between stations: 2.05 miles Gradient: 1.4 ft./mile The coefficient of roughness (n) in Manning's formula is computed at 0.035 from the above data. The Corps of Engineers (1961, p. A-12) have indicated that a coefficient of roughness of 0.035 will be used for designing all canals. Using this coefficient in Manning's formula, a graph relating depth, gradient per mile, and discharge for a canal 125 feet wide has been prepared, figure 26. The width of 125 feet has been arbitrarily selected as a practical width for a large feeder canal. The dashed curves are for a canal of rectangular cross section; the solid curves are for a canal of trapezoidal cross section. The discharge contemplated for two of the pump stations (S-202 and S-203, table 1) is 3,900 cfs. Figure 26 shows that in a canal 20 feet deep and 125 feet wide a discharge of 3,900 cfs would produce a gradient of 0.19 ft per mile in a canal of rectangular cross section and 0.52 ft per mile in a canal of trapezoidal cross section. Assuming that a water level of 4.0 ft at the eastern side of Area B is a correct appraisal for future flood conditions, the hydraulic gradient consistent

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50 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY Mannings formula: I Assume: * 11 | I\Chonn l width -IR ft 1IVi \7 ^ -\\ _ __ \_ n * .033 I \I N .. 0 01 02 03 04 05 06 0.7 08 0.9 10 I. WATER-LEVEL GRADIENT, FEET PER MILE Figure 26. Theoretical relations, from Manning's formula, between hydraulic gradient, discharge, and depth for a canal 125 feet wide of rectangular and trapezoidal cross sections. with a discharge of 3,900 cfs in a feeder canal 10 miles long, would drop the head at the intake side of the pump to about 2.1 ft above msl for a rectangular canal and 1.2 ft below msl for a trapezoidal canal. Thus, a head near mean sea level at the intake side of the pump appears to be realistic for full-capacity pumping after the plan is implemented. RESULTS OF THE ANALOG STUDY Two boundary conditions are modeled: (1) In figure 25 the levee borrow canals are free to discharge water directly to the intake side of the pump: (2) In figure 27, control dams are installed to isolate the borrow canals from the pump intake. BORROW CANALS WITHOUT ISOLATING CONTROL DAMS In figure 25, the head at the intake side of all pumping stations is assumed to be 0.0 feet msl. Underseepage beneath the levee would be

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REPORT OF INVESTIGATIONS No. 47 51 picked up by the borrow canals and water-level gradient toward the pump stations would divide about half way between stations. This gradient in the borrow canal could not be modeled adequately and the head throughout the canal was fixed at 0.0 msl. Maximum underseepage would occur with this method of operation but in those parts of the area where seepage-reduction levees are planned, the total underseepage would be minimized. This is shown by the two schematic inset profiles pointing to the north end of L-33 and L-30 (fig. 25). In areas where seepage reduction levees are constructed (profile B), the 10-foot head differential would be spread across a distance of 3,000 feet compared to about 150 feet for profile A. If no ponding occurs between the levees, the flow of water through the aquifer would be reduced in proportion to the relative reduction of water-level gradient (profile A to profile B). Before seepage reduction (S-R) levees were contemplated, Klein and Sherwood (1961, p. 22) computed the total underseepage for a tenfoot head differential across L-30 near S-201 at 540 cfs per mile-432 cfs by underflow through the permeable aquifer and 108 cfs through the levee itself. This quantity is based on a transmissibility of 3.6 x 100 gpd/ft. The transmissibility at the north end of L-33 is about 6.0 x 100 gpd/ft (fig. 5) and a ten-foot head differential there would result in a relatively higher underflow by a factor of about 2 times that near S-201. As a comparison with the computed underflow of 432 cfs per mile by Klein and Sherwood (1961, p. 21), the following computation indicates the magnitude of horizontal laminar flow through the permeable part of the aquifer for a 10-foot head differential across the 3,000-foot distance intervening between the S-R levee and L-30; the black muck and dense limestone will contribute a negligible amount of horizontal flow: Q = TIL where: Q is the flow rate in gpd, T is the transmissibility in gpd/ft, I is the hydraulic gradient in feet per foot, and L is the length of section, in feet, through which the quantity Q flows. Q = 3,600,000 gpd/ft x 10 ft x 5,280 ft/mile 3000 ft = 63.4 mgd per mile = 95 cfs/mile Thus, the S-R levees can be expected to reduce underflow from 432 to 95 cfs per mile, a factor of about four. The calculation assumes that water will not be ponded between the two levees. During periods of heavy rainfall some ponding probably will take place. A reasonable situation might be considered where the total head differential of 10

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52 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY feet is equally divided: 5 feet across the S-R levee and 5 feet across L-30. Using the graph and computing technique of Klein and Sherwood (1961, p. 21) for this 5-foot ponded condition, the underflow would be doubled to 127 mgd/mile or 190 cfs/mile, and seepage directly through the levee materials would be 54 cfs, a total of 244 cfs/mile. Ponding between the S-R and main levees during the design storm is realistic and can be included in calculations for the entire levee system, as follows: The previous calculation indicates that the effect of ponding with a 5-foot head differential will increase the underflow beneath L-30 from 95 cfs/mile to 190 cfs/mile, a factor of two. Thus, increasing the computed quantities of underflow by a factor of two in those parts of the levee system where seepage-reduction levees are contemplated should yield a useful evaluation of the effect of 5. feet of ponding between the levees. The calculations apply to boundary conditions as set up for the analog model of figure 25. The distribution of transmissibilities in figure 5 indicates about 6 to 7 mgd/ft along the northern part of L-33 and 3 to 4 mgd/ft near S-200 and S-201. The transmissibility along the southern part of L-30 and along L-31 is assumed to be 8 mgd/ft. The effect of the S-R levee is assumed to be nil for one quarter mile on either side of a pump station. Table 6 summarizes the computations. Based upon hypothetical, but realistic parameters, the total underseepage is computed at about 13,000 cfs for the full western side of Area B. Under the conditions set up in the analog model of figure 25, pump capacity of this amount would be necessary to produce and maintain the steady-state distribution of water levels. By the simple expedient of isolating the borrow canal south of S-203 with a control dam, 5,000 to 6,000 cfs would be removed from the total underseepage figure (table 6). The final steady-state distribution of heads (fig. 25) indicates that maximum dewatering would occur at the western side of Area B if control dams were not placed in the levee-borrow canals to isolate them from the intake sides of the pumps. Consistent with the fixed boundary at the eastern side, no dewatering would occur there under the conditions imposed in the model. As resistor elements are the same size, this implies that the modeled canals are also uniform in size. The measured voltage at the resistor contact points indicates the water-level response of such canals to the imposed boundary conditions. BORROW CANALS WITH ISOLATING CONTROL DAMS The analog model of figure 27 shows the steady-state head distribution that would result if control dams were installed to isolate the

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TABLE 6.-UNDERSEEPAGE FOR THE BOUNDARY CONDITION OF NO CONTROL DAMS IN THE LEVEE BORROW CANALS. Seepage through levee materials (Klein and Sherwood, Underflow 1961, p. 22.) Assumed average Length Q Q for 5 ft head transmissibility Q = TIL of reach in reach differential Q Location (fig. 25) (mgd/ft) (cfs/mile) (miles) (cs) (cfe/mile) in reach Total North end of Area B to , mi. north of S-200 5 132 3.0 7921 54 162 954 % mile north to 1 mile south of S.200 4 465 0.5 232 54 27 259 14 mile south of S.200 to 1 mile north of S-201 4 105 0.5 1051 54 27 132 14 mile south of S-201 to 14 mile southwest of S.201 3.6 418 0.5 209 54 27 236 14 mile southwest to 1 mile southwest of S-201 3.6 95 0.75 1421 54 40 182 1 mile southwest of S-201 to bend in levee 5 132 3.0 7921 54 162 954 Bend in levee to % mile north of S-202 6 188 3.0 1,1281 54 162 1,290 %1 mile north to 1% mile south of S-202 7 813 0.5 406 54 27 433 %, mile south of S.202 to 3% mile north of S-203 8 211 3.5 1,4771 54 189 1,666 % mile north to 4 mile south of S.203 8 930 0.5 465 54 27 492 14 mile south of 8.203 to bend in levee 8 930 1.0 930 54 54 984 Bend in levee to south end of Area B 8 898 5.5 4,939 54 297 5,236 TOTALS ..22.25 11,617 1,201 12,818 1 Includes multiplication by a factor of 2 to adjust for the effect of 5 feet of ponding between seepage-reduction and main levee, see text. C0

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54 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY ----'-----'--------------, A40 i o -,,. ,evee-borrow canals from the intake of the pump stations. The fixed intake f the pump. A head of 0.0 ms was assigned to S-202. The exeption of S-202, fixed at 00 msl, the heads (i.e. voltages) at the 0-.4 co-'^x M--------------------------------*-y 0Am 00.Cml, a" «a'< ' \ boun Paaries. Figure 27. Electric analog model of Area B with control dams that isolate the borrow canals for L-30, L.31, and L-33 from the intake side of the pumps. levee-borrow canals from the intake of the pump stations. The fixed boundaries and other conditions are the same as those of the previous model. The isolation provided by the control dams permitted adjustment of current withdrawal at the pump-station terminus of the resistor chains. Pump station S-202 with a capacity of 3,900 cfs and a relatively small drainage area will produce the lowest head at the intake of the pump. A head of 0.0 msl was assigned to S-202. The measured current withdrawal at all other stations was proportioned relative to the current withdrawal at S-202, so that the design discharge (table 1) of all pump stations was duplicated in the model. With the exception of S-202, fixed at 0.0 msl, the heads (i.e. voltages) at the other pump-station intakes and along the lengths of the canal were free to adjust to the flow of water (i.e. current) from the fixed external boundaries. The model shows that the heads at the pump-station intakes (other than S-202) will be above 1.1 feet msl and in the case of S-203 the

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REPORT OF INVESTIGATIONS No. 47 55 intake head will be 3 feet above msl. The drainage area of S-203 is somewhat larger than other stations, and the branching canal is exposed to higher heads along the external boundaries. The alinement of the contours in the southern part of Area B (fig. 27) indicates that water in the upper reach of the S-203 feeder canal would not flow to the S-203 pump station but would flow through the interconnecting secondary and tertiary canals to the S-202 feeder canal. A variety of changes as follows would alter the situation: 1. Increasing the capacity of the S-203 pump station to give an intake head of about 0.0 msl thus lowering the head in the S-203 canal relative to the S-202 canal. 2. Increasing the size of the S-203 canal relative to the S-202 canal. However, because the intake head at S-203 (2.99) is higher than the upstream head of S-202 (2.21), a shift of heads could be accomplished only by reducing the size of the S-202 canal. Verification of this can be obtained by analysis of figure 26. 3. Retaining earthen plugs to separate the secondary and tertiary canals of the feeder-canal systems. Because of the high permeability of the aquifer this measure may not be effective in all cases. As the drainage areas for the pump stations will be controlled to some extent by ground-water divides between feeder canals, topographic divides (i.e., the earth plugs) may not be completely reliable indicators of flow division between two canal systems. The discharge, gradient, and size of a canal are dependent variables as indicated by the graph of figure 26, which only holds for a canal 125 feet wide. Selection of pump-station discharge, for example, leaves the size and gradient of the canal interdependent until one or the other remaining parameters has been designated. Thus, although the relative current withdrawals have been proportioned to the pump-station discharge in the analog model (fig. 27), the discharges have not been fixed. The three parameters (discharge, size, and gradient) could be varied in almost an infinite combination to give results similar to those of the steady-state model of figure 27. More sophisticated transientstate resistor-capacitor analog models that require special funding are needed to restrict these variables to an optimum combination. COMPARISON OF THE ANALOG MODELS Comparison of figures 25 and 27 shows that installation of control dams in the levee-borrow canals will radically change the steady-state distribution of water levels. Without control dams (fig. 25), the lowest water levels and greatest drawdowns will occur at the western side

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56 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY of Area B, but underseepage will be maximum. With isolating control dams (fig. 27), highest water levels and smallest drawdown will occur at the western side of Area B. The quantity of underseepage directly recycled by the pumps will be greatly minimized for the latter method of development in comparison to the former. This is indicated by the spread of the 10-foot head differential over several miles (fig. 27) compared to the spread over only 3,000 feet between S-R and main levees (fig. 25). However, the eastward bulge of contours between pump stations (e.g., S-201 to S-202, fig. 27) indicates that there will be some sacrifice in ability of the pump system to lower water levels in the western part of Area B if isolating control dams are installed. Thus, depending on finalized plans of construction and of the method of operation (i.e. whether controls are open or closed), the land-fill requirements could have a maximum variance of about 8 feet in the western part of Area B. Partial openings of the dams probably would produce advantageous compromise solutions between the two modeled extremes. The Area B plan has evolved and changed with time. Each additional study has brought to light new evidence and a step-by-step process of revision has taken place. The analog study should be considered qualitative because several assumptions necessary for modeling with the simple equipment available will not be fulfilled under field conditions. Nevertheless, the models of figures 25 and 27 are helpful in visualizing the possible problems and the difference in approaches or conditions. For example, both models indicate that the close spacing of pump stations S-200 and S-201 will dewater the small triangle of land between the S-200, 201 feeder canals much more efficiently than other parts of Area B. Relocation of the S-201 pump station southward toward S-202 would result in better equalization of the drawdowns throughout the area between the S-200 and S-202 feeder canals. New analog studies are required to assess the effect of such changes. SUMMARY Up to the present time urban development in southeastern Florida has been primarily along a fairly broad coastal ridge of moderately high land that extends inland 10 to 20 miles from the shore. Westward from this ridge the land becomes progressively more flooded in the lowlands of the Everglades. The high land of the coastal ridge has largely been developed and much of the future expansion of urban areas will have to take place

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REPORT OF INVESTIGATIONS No. 47 57 in the lowlands west of Miami. The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers and the Central and Southern Florida Flood Control District have devised a plan known as the Area B Flood Control Plan to make part of these lowlands suitable for housing development. Large perennially flooded tracts in the Everglades have been surrounded by levees to form water-conservation areas. The marginal lowland (elevations from 4 to 7 feet above msl) that lies between these conservation areas to the west and to the coastal ridge to the east has been designated Area B by the Corps of Engineers. The Area B Plan calls for an integrated system of land fills, drainage canals, and large-capacity pumps to control the flood hazard. After development, huge pumps with a total capacity of 13,400 cfs are proposed to dewater Area B during the rainy season, by pumping water westward over the levee system into Conservation Area 3-B. The ultimate altitude of the land surface for urban development in Area B will be arrived at as a compromise of the economics of land filling ($1,000 to $1,500 per acre foot) and of the cost of a pumping system needed to protect the housing developments under lower fill requirements. The basic problem is how to make this lowland area safe from floods or at least as safe as possible with techniques, construction methods and concepts of hydrology now available so that the development home sites will be sufficiently safe from flooding to be a good fnancial risk for banks and other lending institutions, and for the Federal Housing Authority to guarantee the housing loans. The plan is complicated by the fact that highly permeable limestone underlies the area and that the underseepage beneath the levee may be large enough under certain circumstances to be equal to the full capacity of the pumping system. This report has gathered together basic hydrologic facts that have been accumulated over a period of more than twenty years so that the effect on water levels caused by works of the Central and Southern Florida Flood Control Project constructed between 1949 and 1962 might be evaluated. These facts show that levee construction and improvements in the drainage system caused water levels in Area B to be 2 to 3 feet lower in 1960, a hurricane year, than in 1947, also a hurricane year, despite comparable rainfall accumulation for the two years. Under drought conditions higher fresh-water levels were maintained behind salinity-control dams in 1962, a very dry year, than in 1945, a dry year before control dams were installed. However, Conservation Area 3-B was dry in 1962 and sufficient water could not be delivered downstream to maintain fresh-water heads. Water levels upstream

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58 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY from salinity-control dams were about 1 foot above msl in the dry spring months of 1962. Such low water levels are insufficient to prevent saltwater intrusion into the underlying limestone. Further evaluation of the Area B Plan as proposed by the Corps of Engineers Survey Review Report of 1961 was accomplished through the use of steady-state electrical analog models. Two boundary conditions-with and without water-control dams to isolate the levee borrow canals from the pump-station intakes were modeled. Without control dams the lowest water levels will occur at the western side of Area B and underseepage from Conservation Area 3-B will be maximum, controlled by an estimated 10-foot head differential across the 3,000foot distance intervening between seepage-reduction and main levees. Arithmetic calculations for this boundary condition indicate that the underseepage for a total head differential of 10 feet would amount to about 13,000 cfs if water is ponded to a depth of 5 feet between the seepage-reduction and main levees during heavy rainfall. Thus for this assumed worst expected condition almost the full capacity of the planned pumping system would be required to recycle the underseepage back to the conservation area on a steady-state basis. If dams were installed to isolate the levee borrow canals from the intake of the pump station, the underseepage would be minimized because of the spread of the 10-foot head differential over several miles compared to the spread over only 3,000 feet between the seepage-reduction and main levees. However, highest water levels would occur at the western side of Area B and this would require higher fill requirements in that area. Compromise solutions between the two modeled extremes could be obtained by partial openings of the isolating control dams. The designed discharge of the larger pump stations (3,900 cfs) is nearly as great as the highest gravity flow discharge observed in any of the existing canals (4,060 cfs, Miami Canal at Hialeah, October 13, 1947). In consideration of the large discharge capacity in Area B it would be possible for some of the flood waters of the presently urbanized Area A to move inland into Area B and thus delay the dewatering of Area B. Also there would be a possibility that salt water might move inland along the bottom of the canal at high tide and come under the influence of the Area B pumps. Therefore control dams are believed to be essential to fix the point of hydraulic separation between flow toward the ocean and inland flow toward the Area B pumps. It appears that the boundary between Area A and Area B is a logical location for these control dams and that the best position

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REPORT OF INVESTIGATIONS No. 47 59 for the dams is in the main feeder canals approximately at this boundary. In this way water control will be facilitated in both wet and dry periods. Proper operation of the control dams will cause a division of flow so that contributions to the canal from Area A will flow seaward, whereas contributions from Area B will be pumped westward. Thus water which now unavoidably is wasted to the ocean by seaward flow in a high-water period will be pumped westward into storage in the conservation area. The Area B Plan will have considerable potential for conservation of fresh water and in order to fully capitalize on this potential consideration should be given to supplementary installation of small pumps (100 to 400 cfs capacity) at both the levee side and the eastern side of Area B. Such pumps would permit ideal flexibility of water control. At intermediate water levels in the conservation area, underseepage could be re-cycled back to the conservation area at moderate rates at the same time that water could be released eastward into Area A for prevention of salt encroachment. When the conservation area is dry and no water is available directly from the conservation area, the proposed east-side pumps would assist in maintaining adequate fresh-water heads near the coast by pumping water seaward from Area B canals over the proposed control dams into Area A canals. The estimated increase in population from about 1,000,000 in 1960 to 4,000,000 in 1995 is expected to cause water use in the Miami area to increase from 230 mgd (345 cfs) to 1.4 bgd (2,170 cfs). This rate of water use for a year's time would be equal to a volume of water about 10.5 inches deep covering an area of about 2,800 square miles, or an area extending 28 miles inland from the coast and 100 miles southward from Lake Okeechobee to Everglades National Park. This volume of water is almost one-fifth of the average rainfall over the area and is equal to the average surface runoff from this area. As Fort Lauderdale, West Palm Beach, other coastal cities, agricultural interests, and Everglades National Park will require a share of this water, it becomes apparent that increasing water needs will eventually approach the availability of fresh water in the hydrologic system. In consideration of these continually growing water needs, the Area B plan should be conceived not only as a flood-control plan but also as an important factor for beneficial control and management of all water resources in southeastern Florida.

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60 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY REFERENCES Brown. Russell H. 1962 Progress in ground-water studies with the electrical-analog model: Jour. Am. Water Works Assoc., v. 54, no. 8, p. 943-958. C&SFFCD 1960 Report on flood conditions in the Central and Southern Florida Flood Control District in September 1960: mimeographed report 26 p. Dude County Development Department 1962 Revised edition. Economic survey of Metropolitan Miami: Miami, Florida. Ferguson, G. E. (see Parker, G. G.) Hoy, Nevin D. (see Schroeder, Melvin C.) Klein, Howard (see Schroeder, Melvin C. and Sherwood, C. B.) 1961 (and Sherwood, C. B.) Hydrologic conditions in the vicinity of Levee 30, northern Dade County, Florida: Fla. Geol. Survey Rept. Inv. 24, pt. 1, 24 p. Kohout, F. A. 1964 (and Leach, S. D.) Salt-water movement caused by control-dam operation in the Snake Creek Canal, Miami, Florida: Fla. Geol. Survey Rept. Inv. 24, pt. 4, 49 p. Leach, S. D. (also see Sherwood, C. B.) 1963 (and Sherwood, C. B.) Hydrologic studies in the Snake Creek Canal area, Dade County, Florida: Fla. Geol. Survey Rept. Inv. 24, pt. 3, 33 p. Love, S. K. (see Parker, G. G.) Parker. G. G. 1955 (and Ferguson, G. E., Love, S. K., and others) Water resources of southeastern Florida, with special reference to the geology and ground water of the Miami area: U. S. Geol. Survey Water-Supply Paper 1255. Prickett, T. A. (see Walton, W. C.) Robinove, Charles J. 1962 Ground-water studies and analog models: U. S. Geol. Survey Circular 468, 12 p. Schroeder, Melvin C. 1958 (and Klein, Howard, and Hoy, Nevin D.) Biscayne aquifer of Dade and Broward Counties, Florida: Fla. Geol. Survey Rept. Inv. 17, 56 p. Sherwood, C. B. (see Leach, S. D.) 1963 (and Klein, Howard) Surfaceand ground-water relation in a highly permeable environment: Internat. Assoc. Sci. Hydrol., Symp. Surface Waters, Pub. 63, p. 454-468. 1962 (and Leach, S. D.) Hydrologic studies in the Snapper Creek Canal area, Dade County, Florida: Fla. Geol. Survey Rept. Inv. 24, pt. 2, 32 p. Skibitzke, H. E. 1960 Electronic computers as an aid to the analysis of hydrologic problems: Internal Assoc. Sci. Hydrol., Comm. Subter. Waters Pub. 52, p. 347-358.

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REPORT OF INVESTIGATIONS No. 47 61 Stallman, Robert W. 1956 Preliminary findings on ground-water conditions relative to Area B flood-control plans, Miami, Florida: U. S. Geol. Survey open-file report, 29 p. 1961 From geologic data to aquifer analog models: Am. Geol. Inst., v. 7, no. 7, p. 8-11. Walton, W. C. 1963 (and Prickett, T. A.) Hydrogeologic electric analog computers: Jour. Hydraulics Div., Am. Soc. Civ. Eng., v. 89, no. HY6, Proc. Paper 3695, p. 67-91. Wolman, Abel 1961 Impact of desalinization on the water economy: Jour. Am. Water Works Assoc., v. 53, no. 2, p. 119-124. U. S. Corps of Engineers 1953 Partial definite project report, Central and Southern Florida project, for flood control and other purposes: Part 1, Supplement 7, U. S. Army Engineer District, Jacksonville, Florida. 1958 Survey-review report on Central and Southern Florida project, greater Miami area (Area B): U. S. Army Engineer District, Jacksonville, Florida. 1961 Survey-review report on Central and Southern Florida project, greater Miami area, (Area B): U. S. Army Engineer District, Jacksonville, Florida. 1963 Survey-review report on Central and Southern Florida project, southwest Dade County: U. S. Army Engineer District, Jacksonville, Florida.


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