Citation
Geology and ground-water resources of Highlands County Florida ( FGS: Report of investigations 15 )

Material Information

Title:
Geology and ground-water resources of Highlands County Florida ( FGS: Report of investigations 15 )
Series Title:
( FGS: Report of investigations 15 )
Creator:
Bishop, Ernest W
Florida Geological Survey
Geological Survey (U.S.)
Place of Publication:
Tallahassee, Fla.
Publisher:
s.n.
Publication Date:
Language:
English
Physical Description:
vi, 115 p. : illus. maps. (part fold.) ; 23 cm.

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Water-supply -- Florida -- Highlands County ( lcsh )
Highlands County ( local )
City of Ocala ( local )
Lake City ( local )
Town of Suwannee ( local )
City of Sebring ( local )
City of Vernon ( local )
Limestones ( jstor )
Highlands ( jstor )
Quartz ( jstor )
State highways ( jstor )
Cream ( jstor )
Genre:
bibliography ( marcgt )
non-fiction ( marcgt )

Notes

Bibliography:
Bibliography: p. 114-115
General Note:
"Prepared by the United States Geological Survey in cooperation with the Florida Geological Survey."
General Note:
Errata sheet pasted inside front cover.

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Holding Location:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
The author dedicated the work to the public domain by waiving all of his or her rights to the work worldwide under copyright law and all related or neighboring legal rights he or she had in the work, to the extent allowable by law.
Resource Identifier:
000958531 ( aleph )
01723652 ( oclc )
AES1341 ( notis )
a 56009879 ( lccn )

Downloads

This item has the following downloads:


Full Text
tE R ATA
Florida Geological Survey Report of Investigations No. 15
Geology and Ground-Water Resources of Highlands County, Florida Page 8 (9th line fromrnbottom of page)occurring hot accurring, Page 12 (16th line from bottom of page) p. 233 not p. 223. Page 16 (17th line) unconfovrmably not uncomformably. Page 21 (10th line from bottom of page) Discorinopsis not Dig
corpinopsis.
Page 25 (5th line) 1, 300 not 13,000. Page 25 (16th line) unconformity not uncomformity. Page 26 (23rd line) fig. 4 not fig. 4c. Page 27 (1th line from bottom of page) p. 137-138 not p. 137318.
Page 28 (17th line) p. 77-79). not p, 138, 139). Page 38 (18th line) 7.4 feet not 10. 17 feet. Page 53 There aretwo wells numbered 358. Thefirstone should
be 357.
Page 62- Under remarks, the references to figures 7a and 7b
should be to figure 7.
Page 75 Under use, well 432, D not F. Page 79 (18th line) formation not formations. Page 101 Surface altitude at well 428 should be 80*10 not 80+10. Page 113 (6th line from bottom of page) Moodys Branch (?) not
Ocala.
Page 115 (14th line from bottom of page) Delete (in press).




STATE OF FLORIDA
STATE BOARD OF CONSERVATION
Ernest Mitts, Director
FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY
Herman Gunter, Director
REPORT OF INVESTIGATIONS NO. 15
GEOLOGY AND GROUND-WATER RESOURCES OF
HIGHLANDS COUNTY, FLORIDA
By
ERNEST W. BISHOP
U. S. GEOLOGICAL SURVEY
MIAMI, FLORIDA
Prepared by the
UNITED STATES GEOLOGICAL SURVEY
in cooperation with the
FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY
TALLAHASSEE FLORIDA
1956
i




FLORIDA STATE BOARD cuLT^ OF LIBRARY CONSERVATION
LEROY COLLINS
Governor
H. A. GRAY NATHAN MAYO
Secretar? of State Commissioner of Agriculture J. EI)\ IN LARSON THOMAS D. BAILEY
Treasurer Superintendent Public Instruction R,\Y E. G(;REEN RICHARD ERVIN Comptroller Attorney General ERNEST MITTS
Supervisor of Conservation
11




LETTER OF TRANSMITTAL
9foL vc1'a ow[oy lcf SwEy
August 6, 1956
Mr. Ernest Mitts, Director
Florida State Board of Conservation Tallahassee, Florida
Dear Mr. Mitts:
I am transmitting a report entitled "GEOLOGY AND GROUNDWATER RESOURCES OF HIGHLANDS COUNTY, FLORIDA", prepared by Ernest W. Bishop, Geologist, formerly with the United States Geological Survey, but now employed by the Florida Geological Survey. This study presents the basic data necessary for the intelligent development of the water resources of Highlands County and also contributes considerably to our knowledge of the geology of the State.
This study, undertaken by the United States and Florida Geological Surveys, is being published as Report of Investigations No. 15.
Respectfully,
Herman Gunter, Director
111




CONTENTS
Page
Abstract ........................................................................................................................ 1
Introduction .................................................................................................................. 2
Purpose and scope of the Investigation........................................................... 2
Location and extent of the area ....................................................................... 2
Previous investigations .................................................................................... 3
Acknowledgments ............................................................................................... 4
Geography .................................................................................................................... 4
Topography and drainage ................................................................................. 4
W estern Flatlands ....................................................................................... 6
H ighlands Ridge ....................................................................................... 6
Istokpoga-Indian Prairie Blasin ................................................................... 6
Eastern Flatlands ....................................................................................... 7
Population and development ............................................................................ 7
Transportation .................................................................................................... 8
Climate ................................................................................................................. 8
M ineral resources ................................................................................................. 10
Indian occupation .............................................................................................. 10
Geologic formations and their water-bearing properties ........................................... 12
Summary of stratigraphy .................................................................................. 12
Pre-Tertiary rocks .............................................................................................. 13
Tertiary system ................................................................................................ 15
Paleocene series ................................................................................................... 15
Cedar Keys limestone ............................................................................... 15
Eocene series ....................................................................................................... 16
Oldsmar limestone .................................................................................. 16
Lake City limestone .................................................................................. 16
Avon Park limestone .................................................................................. 18
M oodys Branch formation* ..................................... .................................. 20
Ocala limestone* ...................................................................................... 22
'*The nomenclature and classification of this report accord with those of the U. S. Geological Survey except for the Moodys Branch formation, which has not been accepted for official use in Florida by the U. S. Geological Survey, and the Ocala limestone, which is here restricted
by the separation of the Moodys Branch.
Oligocene series ................................................................................................ 23
Suwannee limestone .................................................................................. 23
M iocene series ..................................................................................................... 24
Hawthorn formation .................................................................................. 24
Tamiam i formation ..................................................................................... 28
Q uaternary system ........................................................................................... 29
Pleistocene series ......................................................................................... 29
Introduction ......................................................................................... 29
Pleistocene deposits ................................................................................. 31
Recent series .............................................................................................. 32
Introduction ......................................................................................... 32
Dune sand ........................................................................................ 32
Peat deposits ....................................................................................... 32
Alluvium ............................................................................................. 33
iv




Page
Ground water ............................................................................................................. 33
Nonartesian water .............................................................................................. 33
Source ........................................................................................................ 33
O ccurrence ................................................................................................. 33
The water table and movement of nonartesian ground water.............. 35
Shape and slope ................................................................................ 36
Relation to topography .................................................................... 37
Fluctuations of the water table .......................... ........................... 37
Recharge .................................................................................................... 38
Recharge from local rainfall ............................................................. 38
Recharge from lakes and stream s ................................................... 38
Recharge from irrigation .................................................................. 40
Subsurface inflow ............................................................................. 40
Discharge .................................................................................................... 40
D ischarge by evapotranspiration ............................................................. 40
D ischarge into lakes and stream s .................................................... 40
Subsurface outflow ............................................................................. 41
D ischarge from wells .......... ................................................................. 41
Artesian water ..................................................................................................... 41
Source .......................................................................................................... 41
O ccurrence ................................................................................................... 41
The piezometric surface and movement of artesian water .................... 42
Shape and slope ................................................................................ 43
Relation to topography .................................................................... 44
Fluctuations of the piezom etric surface .......................................... 44
Rainfall ....................................................................................... 45
Changes in atm ospheric pressure ............................................... 45
Pum page and flow ................................................................. 45
Recharge .................................................................................................... 46
D ischarge .................................................................................................... 48
N atural discharge ............................................................................ 48
Shallow artesian system ............................................................. 48
Floridan aquifer ......................................................................... 48
D ischarge from wells ...................................................................... 50
Shallow artesian wells ................................................................ 50
W ells in the Floridan aquifer .................................................... 50
U tilization ........................................................................................................... 50
D om estic supplies ....................................................................................... 50
Irrigation supplies ....................................................................................... 50
Stock-water supplies .................................................................................. 51
Public supplies ............................................................................................ 51
Q uality of water ................................................................................................ 52
Chem ical constituents in relation to use .................................................. 52
Chem ical character in relation to stratigraphy ...................................... 57
The Floridan aquifer ......................................................................... 57
Aquifers in the upper part of, the Hawthorn
and in younger form ations ...................................................... 57
Sum m ary and conclusions ........................................................................................ 57
V.




Page
M easured geologic sections ....................................................................................... 77
W ell logs ........................................................................................................................ 79
R eferences .................................................................................................................... 114
ILLUSTRATIONS
Figure Page I. Map of Florida showing area of investigation .............................................. 3
2. Map of Highlands County showing physiographic regions.....................5
3. Monthly distribution of rainfall at Avon Park for 53-year period of record through 1950 ...................................................................................... 9
4. G eologic cross sections ..................................................................................... 14a
5. Diagram showing several types of rock interstices and the relation of rock texture to porosity ............................................................................... 34
6. Diagram showing divisions of subsurface water ............................................. 36
7. Hydrographs of seven observation wells and the cumulative departure from normal rainfall at Avon Park ............................................................ 39
8. Diagram showing generalized artesian conditions ......................................... 42
9. Map showing the piezometric surface of the Floridan aquifer in Florida.... 43 10. Map showing the piezometric surface of the Floridan aquifer in
H ighlands C ounty ........................................................................................... 44
11. Idealized geologic section between stations 401 and 426 ........................... 78
12. Map of Highlands County showing location of geologic cross sections
and selected w ells ...............................................................................................112a
TABLES
Table Page
1. Average monthly rainfall at Avon Park for 53-year period of record
through 1950 ..................................................................................................... 9
2. Geologic formations of the Tertiary and Quaternary systems in Highlands C ounty .................................................................................................... 14
3. Yield, drawdown, and specific capacity of well 403 at 1,215 and 1,301 feet below land surface ........................................................................... 18
4. Water-level measurements made during drilling of well 358...................... 47
5. Water-level measurements made during drilling of well 400...................... 47
6. Water-level measurements made during drilling of well 183 ...................... 48
7. Water-level measurements made during drilling of well 408 ...................... 49
8. Water-level measurements made during drilling of well GL 22.................. 49
9. Chemical analyses of ground water in Highlands County ........................... 53
10. Chemical analyses of water from the two major ground-water sources in Highlands County ........................................................ .......................... 58
11. Records of selected wells in Highlands County.............................................. 62
vi




GEOLOGY AND GROUND-WATER RESOURCES
OF HIGHLANDS COUNTY, FLORIDA
By
Ernest W. Bishop
U. S. Geological Survey
Miami, Florida
ABSTRACT
The area of Highlands County consists of rolling hills and flat marine-terrace plains. The climate is subtropical and the average annual rainfall is 52.22 inches. Citrus culture, winter-vegetable farming, and livestock raising are the principal occupations. Irrigation of citrus groves from lakes, streams, and wells is practiced extensively.
The rocks exposed in Highlands County are of Tertiary and Quaternary age.' The county is almost completely mantled by marine deposits of Pleistocene age. The Hawthorn formation of early and middle Miocene age is the oldest outcropping formation and is exposed in clay pits on some of the highest hills. The county is underlain by 9,000 to 13,000 feet of sedimentary rocks ranging in age from Early Cretaceous to Recent.
Ground water is obtained from two major sources: (1) the Floridan aquifer, which consists of the Eocene and younger formations underlying the confining clays of the Hawthorn formation, and (2) the aquifers in the upper part of the Hawthorn and in overlying formations.
The Floridan aquifer, which is under artesian pressure, is recharged by rain that falls on the topographic high that is centered in northern Polk County and extends into western Highlands County. In Highlands County almost all large supplies of water (over 500 gpm) from the Floridan aquifer are obtained from the very permeable Lake City limestone of Eocene age. In the western part of the county water from the Floridan aquifer has a low mineral content, whereas in the southeastern part there are indications of contamination by trapped sea e water. The Floridan aquifer furnishes water to many irrigation wells. Also, the towns of Sebring and Avon Park draw upon this aquifer for their municipal supplies.
The aquifers in the upper part of the Hawthorn and in younger formations are recharged principally by local rainfall, and they furnish water to most domestic and stock wells and to the town of DeSoto City. Large supplies of water are available in the coarse clastic deposits in the uppner part of the Hawth6mrn formation in the western part of the




2 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY
county. Part of the water in the Hawthorn and the Tamiami formations in that part of the county is under artesian pressure in the low areas. Water from the upper part of the Hawthorn and in younger formations has a great range in chemical composition, though it is uniformly more mineralized in the southeastern part of the county.
A discussion of the principal chemical constituents of ground water in relation to use and geologic occurrence of the water is based on analyses of 36 samples of ground water. The water analyzed ranges from excellent to satisfactory for most purposes.
The hydrologic and geologic data for this report were obtained in the field during the years 1950 and 1951. Records for 439 wells were obtained and some of these data were used to prepare a piezometric map. Geologic cross sections were prepared from a study of the surface and subsurface stratigraphy. The field data are included in this report.
INTRODUCTION
PURPOSE AND SCOPE OF THE INVESTIGATION
The investigation upon which this report is based was begun in March 1950 as part of a program of ground-water studies in Florida by the United States Geological Survey in cooperation with the Florida Geological Survey. Several similar areal investigations have been completed since this program was begun in 1930 and several are now being made in other parts of the State.
The principal purpose of the investigation has been to provide basic information necessary to the useful development of irrigation, industrial, municipal, stock, and domestic ground-water supplies.
The investigation was made under the general supervision of A. N. Sayre, Chief, Ground Water Branch, U. S. Geological Survey, and Dr. Herman Gunter, Director, Florida Geological Survey; immediate supervision was given by Nevin D. Hoy, District Geologist, U. S. Geological Survey, Miami. Julia Gardner and F. S. MacNeil of the U. S. Survey identified some of the fossil material collected during this investigation. Robert L. Taylor also of the Federal Survey, at Sebring, Fla., gave valuable assistance in many surface-water phases of the investigation.
LOCATION AND EXTENT OF THE AREA
Highlands County includes an area of about 1,090 square miles in the south-central part of the Florida Peninsula. Prior to 1921 the area considered in this report was part of DeSoto County which, in




REPORT OF INVESTIGATIONS No. 15 3
turn, was created from Manatee County in 1887. Its location with respect to adjoining counties is shown in Figure 1.
PREVIOUS INVESTIGATIONS
A detailed study of the geology and ground-water resources of Highlands County has not been undertaken previously. However, other studies have been made that have a bearing on the county, and the most important of these are listed below. Specific references are made at appropriate places in the text to publications that are listed at the end of this report.
NAM. M1A M A u HOLAoESc "
I DERTYA WAJL ACKT Y OR SU AN E
GULF F AKm k
P.4- I-,., HA LT,. OJO ofvl
"9'MA clN V U SI F RMp F d o Saa o ne
w;7" rto++, 1, ,.,
PASCO
DrMnEp. 2SC 9)LA
A repot on te cheical caracteofmFoda' water byIAN in
arp 2t. water
X%.. LCAI E
DIRS 4 E OTO
%SASDTAL MA TN
LEEADO HRNE Y PAM% tC
COLLIERO ..DWR
A HILLOOROU NOEL
., I I- D D
8 7*1 8 ..8. I8, B/ L' L i D--- SOT I .. 5 ,/'.//l./ -T .Uk,
FIUE1.-MpofFoia hwn are f -'-,,,Oisiaion.~
- orSOt O MART~l+A I'F ,, I N'-f
Anealyreorb.atonr ( ,- p 2
2*--- COLLIER l lO 1
A report on-. the chmclchrce ofl Fllord' wtr byClln
ndI a e o.ae
W? 86. 85" 64- 63* Oll81*
FIGURE 1. Map of Florida showing area of investigation.
An early, report by Matson and Sanford (1913, p. 294-296) contains information on Highlands (County (then part of DeSoto County). A report on the chemical character of Florida's water, by Collins
- and .Howard (1928 p. 91(;-917)- contains analyses, of water from




4 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY
Sebring and Avon Park. A report on the geology of Florida by Cooke and Mossom (1929, p. 150, 181, 191) contains references to the geology of the county. An important paper on artesian water in peninsular Florida, by Stringfield, was published in 1936. The phosphate reserves of the county are discussed in a report by Mansfield (1942, p. 35, 69, pl. 5). Davis (1943, p. 40-58, fig. 1) described and mapped 10 physiographic regions of southern Florida, 4 of which extend into Highlands County. He also described (1946, p. 129-132) the peat deposits of the Lake Istokpoga area. Parker and Cooke (1944, pl. 3) mapped the Pleistocene marine terraces of southern Florida. Cooke's "Geology of Florida" (1945, p. 208, 233, 290, and pl. 1) mentions formations in Highlands County. Gunter (1948, fig. 1, p. 40-41) gives information on oil-exploratory wells in the county. A report on Pleistocene shorelines by MacNeil (1949, p. 98, 101, pl. 19), contains references to the county.
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
Appreciation is extended to the many residents of the county who readily gave information regarding their wells. Special acknowledgment is given to the owners and drillers of the following well-drilling companies in Florida, whose cooperation facilitated the preparation of this report: C. M. Beels & Son, Arcadia; C. P. Cannon & Sons, Palmetto; Layne-Atlantic, Orlando; Curtis Dansby, Auburndale; E. W. "George" Dansby, Wauchula; Libby and Freeman, Orlando; E. W. Kelsey (deceased), Lake Placid; May Brothers Co., Tampa; Meredith Bros., Orlando; M. M. Martin, Okeechobee; and Kenneth Turley, Lake Placid. Gratitude is expressed to John W. Griffin, State Archaeologist, for his interest and aid in preparing the section on Indian occupation. Dr. Herman Gunter, Director of the Florida Geological Survey, and Dr. Robert O. Vernon, Assistant Director, were especially helpful in furnishing many valuable data regarding the geology of the area.
GEOGRAPHY
TOPOGRAPHY AND DRAINAGE
Highlands County lies in the Atlantic Coastal Plain physiographic ground-water province (Meinzer, 1923a, pls. XXVIII, XXXI) and is subdivided into four physiographic regions (after Davis, 1943, p. 45-51, fig. 1) : (1) the Western Flatlands, (2) the Highlands Ridge,
(3) the Istokpoga-Indian Prairie Basin, and (4) the Eastern Flatlands (see fig. 2). The Western Flatlands are a part of Cooke's (1939,




REPORT OF INVESTIGATIONS No. 15 5
!K
AVON t0 PARK
' SEBRINC ,/,,
'LITTLE
CHARLEY
k A"
CREE 00 PLLKAIDo~
SCALE IN MILES
0 2 4 6 8 10 FIGURE 2. Map of Highlands County showing physiographic regions.
p. 15-16) Coastal Lowlands unit and Vernon's (1951, p. 16) Terraced Coastal Lowland. The Highlands Ridge province is the southern end of the central Highlands of Cooke (1939, p. 21-23) and Vernon's (1951, p. 16) Delta Plains Highlands in peninsular Florida.
The Western Flatlands, the Istokpoga-Indian Prairie Basin, and the Eastern Flatlands are similar in that they are relatively flat and poorly drained, whereas the Highlands Ridge is an area of rolling hills separated from the other regions by steep escarpments. The Highlands




6 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY
Ridge, being surrounded by low areas, has the appearance of an island or a peninsula.
WESTERN FLATLANDS
The Western Flatlands region includes the area of flat marineterrace plains in the extreme southern and southwestern parts of the county. It slopes gently from an elevation of about 90 feet in the northern part to about 40 feet in the southern part. The area is a flat, monotonous, almost treeless plain containing many shallow depressions, which are filled with water during the rainy season. It contains two streams: Little Charley Bowlegs Creek in the northern part, and Fisheating Creek in the southern part. These streams, while having fairly well defined channels, have not cut back into the terraced plains far enough to drain the numerous ponds and marshes.
HIGHLANDS RIDGE
The Highlands Ridge region includes the narrow, elongated area of rolling uplands that extends from the northwestern part of the county south-southeastward almost to the Glades-Highlands County line. This region ranges in elevation from about 40 feet to more than 200 feet and contains numerous hills and lakes. The hills are of two types: those formed by differential erosion of the Miocene land surface and now mantled by sands of Pleistocene age; and in the eastern part of the area, coastal bars formed during the Pleistocene.
Most of the lakes in the Highlands Ridge region are fairly deep and either are circular or have outlines that resemble two or more intersecting circles. It is believed that these lakes were created as a result of local subsidence due to collapse of subterranean limestone caverns. A few small ponds exist during periods of heavy rainfall in some of the swales between the coastal bars.
The Highlands Ridge area north of Sebring is drained by tributaries of Arbuckle Creek, and that south of Sebring by Josephine Creek and its tributaries. Many of the lakes in this area are in closed depressions and have no surface outlets.
ISTOKPOGA-INDIAN PRAIRIE BASIN
The Istokpoga-Indian Prairie Basin covers the flat, very poorly drained area of swamps and marshes in the southeastern part of the county between the Highlands Ridge on the west and the Eastern Flatlands. Elevations of the land-surface area range from about 25 to 40 feet. Lake Istokpoga, which is at the head of the basin, occupies




REPORT OF INVESTIGATIONS No. 15 7
an area of about 44 square miles and has a maximum depth of about 10 feet. The natural drainage of the lake is south through the Indian Prairie Basin, but the construction of dikes and canals has now diverted a large portion of the drainage through the Istokpoga Canal into the Kissimmee River. The Indian Prairie and Harney Pond canals have been dug to drain the area south of the lake. Prior to the construction of canals the surface water was not confined to any definite channel but moved by sheet flow south toward Lake Okeechobee.
EASTERN FLATLANDS
The Eastern Flatlands region comprises the flat areas in the eastern and north-central parts of the county and is bounded on the northwest by the Highlands Ridge and on the southwest by the Istokpoga-Indian Prairie Basin. It extends into adjoining counties on the north, east and south. This area,"in general, is better drained than either the Western Flatlands or the Istokpoga-Indian Prairie Basin, although locally it contains ponds and marshes. The streams draining the region are the Kissimmee River and Arbuckle Creek. Land-surface elevations in this area range from about 30 to 100 feet, although a long, narrow northsouth ridge between Arbuckle Creek and the Kissimmee River has a maximum elevation of 146 feet.
POPULATION AND DEVELOPMENT
According to the 1950 census, Highlands County has a population of 13,636, which represents an increase of about 46 percent since 1940. Sebring, the county seat and largest town, has a population of 5,006 and Avon Park 4,612. The towns of Lake Placid and DeSoto City have populations of 417 and 220, respectively.
Agriculture is the dominant economic activity in Highlands County, chief agricultural products being citrus fruits, cattle, and winter vegetables. According to V. T. Oxer, County Agricultural Agent, there are more than 20,000 acres of bearing citrus trees and between 65,000 and 75,000 head of cattle on about 500,000 acres of pastureland. In addition to the citrus fruits the county produces mangoes, avocados, pineapples, bananas, and other tropical and semitropical fruits. The leading winter truck crops are tomatoes, green beans, green peas, and cabbage. Strawberries, blackberries, grapes, corn, Irish potatoes, sweet potatoes, sugar cane, and forage crops also are grown.
The only other economic activity of great importance is the tourist industry, which is estimated to increase the population of the towns in Highlands County as much as 15 percent during the winter months.




8 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY
The Highlands Ridge region contains most of the population of the county and is the center of the tourist industry. Citrus and tropical fruits are the chief agricultural products of this region.
The Eastern Flatlands region is sparsely populated but contains a population second to that of the Highlands Ridge. Almost the entire region is devoted to cattle raising.
The Western Flatlands region is very sparsely populated and the agricultural effort is devoted entirely to the raising of cattle.
The Istokpoga-Indian Prairie Basin also is very sparsely populated. The area of deep peat just south of the lake is devoted to truck crops and lily bulbs, with cattle being raised in much of the basin.
TRANSPORTATION
Highlands County is served by two railroad lines: the Seaboard Air Line Railroad, passing through Avon Park, Sebring, Lorida, and Fort Bassinger, and the Atlantic Coast Line, passing through Avon Park, Sebring, DcSoto City, Lake Placid, and Venus.
State and national highways cross the county from north to south and east to west. U. S. Highway 27, passing through Avon Park, Sebring, and Lake Placid is one of the principal north-south routes in the central part of the State, connects Miami with cities to the north, and affords relief from the congested coastal routes. State Highway 70 is the principal east-west route and connects Highlands County with cities on the Atlantic and Gulf coasts. The county also has many roads of minor importance ranging from well-paved roads to sandy trails cut through the palmettos.
CLIMATE
The climate of Highlands County is subtropical, with seasonal rainfall and abundant sunshine. The mean temperature at Avon Park is 73.1oF. The maximum and minimum mean monthly temperatures are 82.00 and 63.2F., accurring in August and January, respectively.
Rainfall has been recorded by the United States Weather Bureau at stations near Avon Park almost continuously since 1892. The normal annual rainfall at Avon Park is 52.22 inches, of which 75 percent falls in the months of May through October. Deviations from the mean, however, are frequent and extreme, (see fig. 3). The recorded annual rainfall at Avon Park ranged from a minimum of 35.88 inches in 1927 to a maximum of 75.20 inches in 1930. The distribution of the normal rainfall by months at Avon Park is given in table 1.




REPORT OF INVESTIGATIONS No. 15 9
20
182
kl
0 MIMUM
JAN FBMA. APR. MAY JUNE JULY AUG. SEPT OCT NOV. DEC.
kI
FIGURE 3. Monthly distribution of rainfall at Avon Park for 53-year period of record through 1950.
4
0/
Table I. AVERAGE MONTHLY RAINFALL AT AVON PARK FOR 53YEAR PERIOD OF RECORD THROUGH 1950
Rainfall Rainfall Month (inches) Month (inches) January 2.22 July 8.18 February 2.43 August 7.83 March 2.17 September 6.67 April 2.37 October 4.04 May 4.52 November 1.56 June 8.13 December 2.10
During the summer months, rain usually occurs in Highlands County in squalls that cover a small area with an intense downpour; therefore, rainfall records are valid only in the immediate vicinity of a given gage. An extreme example of this is shown by the amount of rainfall measured at two stations, one at Avon Park and the other at Venus, in the year 1946. The amount of rainfall at the Avon Park station was 50.70 inches, while that at Venus, about 35 miles to the south, was only 29.65 inches.




10 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY
MINERAL RESOURCES
Although a large part of Highlands County is underlain by deposits of pebble phosphorite in the Hawthorn formation, most of these deposits are probably too deep and poor to be mined economically.
The Hawthorn formation contains sandy clay which is used as road-surfacing material and has been mined from small pits in the vicinity of Avon Park and DeSoto City, south of Highlands Hammock, and at Childs. Large amounts of the material are still available from beneath a thin overburden in the Avon Park area, but it is not now being mined because the land is more valuable for citrus culture.
The minerals ilmenite, zircon, and rutile are commonly present in the terrace sands of the Highlands Ridge region. The writer has noted concentrations of these minerals in the beach sands of many lakes in the ridge section. It is possible that economic deposits of these minerals may be present in Highlands County, especially along Pleistocene strand lines, but their discovery will undoubtedly entail extensive prospecting.
INDIAN OCCUPATION
During the field work for this report, artifacts and faunal remains were collected from the surface of an aboriginal midden deposit in Highlands County and sent to John W. Griffin, State Archaeologist, for determination. Concerning this collection and summarizing the archaeology of the county, Mr. Griffin (in a personal communication to the writer May 28, 1951) states:
"Very little is known of the archaeology of this county, and although there are doubtless many sites, only nine, including the present one, are listed in the files of the Department of Sociology and Anthropology of the University of Florida, and the Archaeological Survey of the Florida Park Service. The only excavations made under modern controlled methods are those of the Florida Park Service at the Goodnow Mound and Skipper site on Lake Josephine.' "So far as cultural sequence is concerned the area is largely a blank. Prehistoric and historic burial sites can be separated on the basis of the presence or absence of European trade materials, but the dominance of a single undecorated pottery type over a long period of time hinders further subdivision. More intensive work will doubtless reveal sites containing trade pottery from other portions of Florida which can be placed in a time sequence. SGriffin, John W., and Smith, Hale G., The Goodnow Mound, Highlands County, Fla.: Contributions to the Archaeology of Florida, no. 1, Tallahassee, 1948.




REPORT OF INVESTIGATIONS No. 15 11
"The site discovered by the U. S. Geological Survey, which we may call the Hen Scratch Midden, is in the northwest corner NE V4 SE4 sec. 35, T. 36 S., R. 28 E. The site, consisting of gray, carbonaceous sand containing pottery and midden refuse, is from one to three feet thick, lying under much, if not all, of a ten-acre hammock in the midst of a drained marsh or prairie.
"The following mammal bones were present in the deposit: portions of deer jaws (Odocoileus virginianus), the upper cheek teeth of a rabbit (Sylvilagus), the lower jaw of a round-tailed muskrat (Neofiber alleni), and the lower jaw of a raccoon (Procyon lotor)." Dr. Sherman notes that the larger deer teeth are about the size of O. v. virginianus, while one of the jaws is smaller than usual for this subspecies. Amphibian and reptile remains included a vertebra of a salamander (Siren), 2 vertebrae of unidentified snakes, and a number of unidentified turtle bones.'
"Mollusca included only fresh water and land forms, except for two marine species which had been worked into artifacts as described below. Pomacea paludosa is readily identified, but lacking adequate comparative collections the most common fresh water species at the site, one univalve and the other bivalve, have not been identified. The land snail Euglandina rosea, common in many Florida sites, was represented in the collection.
"The only non-ceramic artifacts consist of fragments of two marine shells. One of these, a Busycon perversum, is a portion of a shell pick, with the beak ground down, but the whorl is too broken to permit identification of the type of hafting. The other specimen is a portion of a Fasciolaria gigantes with some evidence of smoothing at the margin of the orifice, but it is too fragmentary to permit identification of artifact type.
"Ceramics consist of 96 potsherds, 93 of which are Belle Glade Plain.' One sherd is a probable Belle Glade Plain piece which once had an added rim strip. There are also 2 rather nondescript gritty plain sherds. Twenty of the Belle Glade sherds are rim sherds, and 16 of these have a flat inward cambered lip so characteristic of the type. Of the remaining rim sherds, 3 have rounded lips and one has a flat lip slightly rounded. Five of the Belle Glade Plain sherds possess socalled 'lacing' or 'patch' holes.
2 Identifications by Dr. H. B. Sherman, Department of Biology, University of Florida, Gainesville.
' Examined by Dr. Coleman Goin, Department of Biology, University of Florida.
' Belle Glade Plain is defined by Gordon R. Willey, in 'Excavations in Southeast Florida,': Yale University Publications in Anthropology, no. 42, p. 25-26, New Haven, 1949.




12 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY
"It is, unfortunately, impossible to date this site within close limits. The pottery type Belle Glade Plain is characteristic of the OkeechobeeKissimmee area over a considerable period of time, usually estimated to extend from about the first into the seventeenth century. The present evidence does not permit us to narrow this range further.
"The small collection gives us indications of both the hunting and the collecting of a shell-fish as sources for food. Most of the bones and shells found in the deposit are probably food refuse, although some may have become naturally included. The two marine shell artifacts indicate trade with the sea coast."
GEOLOGIC FORMATIONS AND THEIR WATER-BEARING PROPERTIES
SUMMARY OF STRATIGRAPHY
The rocks exposed in Highlands County are of Miocene, Pleistocene, and Recent ages. The oldest outcropping formation is the Hawthorn of early and middle Miocene age, which is exposed in clay pits on the Highlands Ridge. The Tamiami formation of late Miocene age wedges out against the eastern flank of the Highlands Ridge and is completely covered by Pleistocene deposits. The formations of Pleistocene age mantle the entire county and are overlain locally by Recent deposits of dune sand, peat, and alluvium.
The writer did not find or recognize any deposits of Pliocene age in Highlands County. The Citronelle formation, as identified by Cooke (1945, p. 223) in Highlands County, tentatively is included in the Hawthorn formation. The Caloosahatchee marl was extended from its outcrop area in Glades County by Cooke (1945, pl. 1) on the premise that it merged with the Citronelle formation of Highlands County, supposedly a near-shore or beach deposit of the same sea in which the shell marl of the Caloosahatchee accumulated. Cooke did not list any exposures of the Caloosahatchee in Highlands County nor did the author find any exposures or any suggestion of the formation in well cuttings. It is possible that deposits of the Caloosahatchee marl underlie parts of the Western Flatlands, the Istokpoga-Indian Prairie Basin, and the Eastern Flatlands.
Cooke (1945, p. 208) extended the Bone Valley formation into the northeastern part of the county on the basis of the occurrence of the pebble phosphorite reported by Mansfield (1942, p. 6-7, pl. 5). The writer has examined cuttings from several wells scattered throughout the part of the county mapped as Bone Valley by Cooke, and




REPORT OF INVESTIGATIONS No. 15 13
has found phosphorite pebbles in some, but he has failed to find any material that could definitely be referred to the Bone Valley. The phosphorite pebbles were in sediments lithologically similar to those that have been referred to the Hawthorn formation in other parts of the peninsula.
Information derived from the logs of water wells and deep oil-test wells shows that the area is underlain by 9,000 to 13,000 feet of relatively flat lying sedimentary rocks overlying rocks of volcanic origin. The pre-Miocene sedimentary deposits in the county record shallow-water, offshore marine environments, with the shoreline far to the north. Clastic materials were deposited for the first time during Miocene time. At the close of the middle Miocene a finger of a large delta extended south across the western part of the county. The advances of the sea during late Miocene and Pleistocene times deposited near-shore material and modified the middle Miocene land surface. The withdrawal of the Pleistocene seas ended large-scale deposition in the county.
The nature of the geologic formations and the character of the contained ground-water supplies in Highlands County are described briefly in the generalized section (table 2) and in more detail in the following pages of this report.
PRE-TERTIARY ROCKS
Evidence as to the age and lithology of the older rocks underlying Highlands County is afforded by a deep oil-test well, the Carlton no. 1, drilled by Humble Oil & Refining Co., about 5 miles northwest of Venus in the center of the SW4NWV4 sec. 34, T. 38 S., R. 29 E., to a depth of 12,985 feet. According to Applin (1951), this well entered pre-Mesozoic rocks at 12,618 feet and penetrated 367 feet of basalt, rhyolite porphyry, and related volcanic rocks which he tentatively classified as early Paleozoic or possibly pre-Cambrian.
The surface of the Pre-Mesozoic rocks range from about 9,000 feet below sea level at Avon Park to about 13,000 feet below sea level at Venus (Applin, 1951, fig. 2), and is overlain unconformably by rocks of Cretaceous age.
Cretaceous rocks were penetrated in the Carlton well between the depths of 5,096 and 12,618 feet. The upper 2,500 feet of these rocks, which consists primarily of limestone and some dolomite, has been referred to the Gulf series. The remainder of the section, which consists of limestone, anhydrite, and some dolomite overlying basal sand, has been referred to the Comanche series. The presence of anhydrite in the




Table 2. GEOLOGIC FORMATIONS OF THE TERTIARY AND QUARTERNARY SYSTEMS IN HIGHLANDS COUNTY
Thickness
Series Formation (feet) Physical character Water supply
Recent 0-20 Dune sand, peat, and alluvium. Not used as a source of water. Pleistocene Undifferen- 1-100 Gray-orange to white medium to coarse Furnishes domestic and stock supplies tiated quartz sand in high areas of the county; locally throughout the county. deposits fine to medium clayey, calcareous quartz sand in the low areas.
Tamiami 0-100 Dark-blue to white clayey, sandy shell A source of domestic and stock supplies formation marl; quartz sand and sandy clay. in the eastern part of the county.
Hawthorn 300-650 Dark-green to white montmorillonitic The deltaic part of the formation is a 0 Miocene formation clay; white to cream dense sandy phos- very important source of large supplies phatic limestone; fine to pebble-size of water locally in the Ridge section. quartz sand and phosphoite; white to The marine part of the formation furnred kaolinitic sand. ishes small to medium supplies of water 0 from thin beds of limestone and sand.
Oligocene Suwannee 0-80 Cream-colored soft chalky, slightly crys- Not an important source of large sup- t limestone talline, porous limestone, plies of water; permeable. 2 Ocala 150-250 Light-gray to cream-colored soft, chalky Not an important source of large suplimestone foraminiferal limestone. plies of water except in the southeastern "
part of the county; permeable.
Moodys Branch 50-150 Cream to tan-gray granular to chalky Not an important source of large supformation foraminiferal limestone, plies of water; permeable.
Avon Park 200-350 Light-gray to light-brown soft to hard Not an important source of large supEocene limestone granular to chalky, slightly porous lime- plies of water; permeable.
stone, with secondary calcite and some
dolomitic limestone.
Lake City 400t Brown hard crystalline dolomite and A very important source of large suplimestone cream-colored permeable limestone and plies of water throughout the county; dolomitic limestone, highly permeable.
Oldsmar 670t Fragmental limestone, partly to com- Little is known about the water supply
limestone pletely dolomitized. of this formation.
Paleocene Cedar Keys 1,670- White to cream fragmental limestone No wells in the county are known to oblimestone and some gypsum. tain water from this formation.




A 10i 0
4 00 2004 i ~~~~~~~ 4 ji~l l"i1
0 0 ,-4 J_ a z 0
ILI
"200V2 lI OCL LIE T ooo M O c MO DY0B AN H F RAT ON FO M T N eco.CN soo
so AVON z4 PLONE AKIME
lo o . . . . ..._6 0
"SCOL.INOMLESA LIME STO N -1" .00 -.. . . ..... "---.oo .o I o LAE CT LIM STO E...- 1.200 OCLAE CT LIMESTONE 100
L I
100 46 00
--------- .. - 0 O
LESO N DENDEXT MAP urac
0...too
--200-
YS RN FORMATION 300 HAWTHORN FORMATION 300 00 S400'4 A. PARK ESUWANNEE LIMESTONE
. LAE CT IM SO-.--- -oo PLEISTOCENE 0060OCALA LIMESTONE k -600 t4 700
HAW d 00MMTIHRANCH FORMATION
o. c AVN AR LMETO
TooDE MAPDY
100
,oo .. -- "Soo
'1,100sr -- - 1 LK CI LIETLA4KELA CY LM
CHILOS 10
~~~~~HAWTHORN FORMATION \O MT
0 C 1L C marinee deposits) CT HAWTON
1,300'
AAN
.-a- (nn orn d psis
A' oNDE MMALEPN MILES o (morun deposit 20 ID MAI
-,
PLE E PLEISTOCENE q
100
Q, PLEISOCENE w DEPOSIT
21 to Ok ft*
161 a
HAWTHORN FORMATION HATHR FORRMATION (m rn depoits (nonmarine deposits)
ZZ -%
ssr
CHILOS
HAWTHORN FORMATION
200 C4ILOS(marine deposits) FIGURE 4. -Geologic cross sections. 'C 3FA 80 LAKE ~ A2
AN'NIE
356, INDEX MAP SCALE IN MILES
0 1 3 4 MILES 0 I 2 "




REPORT OF INVESTIGATIONS No. 15 15
Comanche series indicates restricted areas of supersaline seas and evaporite conditions, and according to the principles discussed by Ver Wiebe (1950, p. 145-146), it suggests the possibility that great reefs which are potential oil reservoirs may have been formed in this part of the United States during Cretaceous time.
TERTIARY SYSTEM
Paleocene Series
CEDAR KEYS LIMESTONE
Name. The name Cedar Keys limestone, taken from the town of Cedar Keys, Levy County, was proposed by Cole (1944, p. 27-28) for limestones known only "in wells in peninsular and northern Florida from the first appearance of the Borelis fauna to the top of the Upper Cretaceous."
Lithology. Vernon (1951, p. 85) states: "The Paleocene of peninsular Florida is white, cream and gray, pasty to fragmental limestones, which have rare lenses of oolitic limestone. The porosity of the rock is impregnated by gypsum, giving it a speckled appearance."
Distribution and stratigraphic relations. Cooke (1945, p. 33) states: "The Cedar Keys limestone probably underlies all of Florida except the northwestern part, where the equivalent formation is the Porters Creek clay." Concerning the stratigraphic relations of the Cedar Keys, Vernon (p. 85) states: "It lies below a definite Salt Mountain fauna of lower Eocene, Wilcox age, and conformably upon transitional Upper Cretaceous beds. It thus occupies the interval represented elsewhere by the beds of Midway age."
Thickness. The thickness of the Cedar Keys limestone in Highlands County is not known, but Applin and Applin (1944, p. 1704, 1707) report a total thickness of 1,670 feet in Pioneer Oil Co.'s no. 1 Hecksher-Yarnell well in sec. 28, T. 30 S., R. 25 E., Polk County.
Paleogeography. According to Cooke (1945, p. 33-34): "The Cedar Keys limestone was deposited in the open ocean. The shoreline extended across Alabama and Georgia, circling northwestward up the Mississippi Embayment, in and near which the Porters Creek clay was deposited contemporaneously."
Paleontology. Applin and Jordan (1945, p. 131) consider the following Foraminifera diagnostic of the formation: Borelis floridanus Cole
Borelis gunteri Cole
Cribrospira? bushnellensis Applin and Jordan
Planispirina? kissengenensis Applin and Jordan
Valvulammina nassauensis Applin and Jordan




16 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY
Water Supply. No water wells are known to obtain their supplies from this formation in Highlands County.
Eocene Series
OLDSMAR LIMESTONE
Name. -- The name Oldsmar limestone is applied by Applin and A.\pplin (1944, p. 1702) to limestone of Wilcox age penetrated between depths of 2,165 and 3,090 feet in R. V. Hill's "Oldsmar well" (sec. 18, T. 38 S., R. 17 E.) in Hillsborough County.
Lithology. -- Concerning the Oldsmar limestone, Vernon (1951, p. 87) states: "It is composed essentially of fragmental marine limestones, partially to completely dolomitized and containing irregular and rare lenses of chert, impregnations of gypsum and thin shale beds."
Distribution and stratigraphic relations. According to Cooke (1945, p. 40), the Oldsmar limestone underlies the peninsula, the northeastern part of Florida, and the southeastern part of Georgia, probably rests unconformably on formations of the Midway group, and is overlain uncomformably by formations of the Claiborne group.
Thickness. The thickness of the Oldsmar limestone in Highlands County is not known. Applin and Applin (1944, p. 1702) report a total thickness of 670 feet in the no. 1 Hecksher-Yarnell well in Polk County.
Paleogeography. The Oldsmar limestone was deposited in an open sea. According to Cooke (1945, p. 41), the boundary between the area of elastic and nonclastic deposition shifted back and forth several times across northwestern Florida and southern Alabama.
Paleontology. -- The fauna of the Oldsmar consists for the most part of Foraminifera, of which the following are considered by Applin and Jordan (1945, p. 131) to be diagnostic of the formation:
Clavulina floridana Cole
Coskinolina elongata Cole
Hlelicostegina gyralis Barker and Grimsdale
Lituonella elegans Cole
Lockhartia cushmani Applin and Jordan
Miscellanea nassauensis Applin and Jordan
M. nassauensis var. reticulosus Applin and Jordan
Pseudophragmina (Proporocyclina) cedarkeysensis Cole
Water supply. Little is known about the water supply of this formation in Highlands County.
IAKE CITY LIMESTONE
Name.- The name Lake City limestone is applied by Applin and AppDDlin (1944, p. 1697) to limestone of Claiborne age penetrated be-




REPORT OF INVESTIGATIONS No. 15 17
tween depths of 492 and 1,010 feet in a city well at Lake City, Columbia County.
Lithology. The Lake City limestone, in Highlands County, consists of layers of hard, brown, porous, crystalline dolomite and hard, tan to cream, porous limestone and dolomitic limestone.
Distribution and stratigraphic relations. -- The Lake City limestone underlies the entire Florida Peninsula and probably rests unconformably on the Oldsmar limestone. It is possible that some of the beds referred to the Lake City in this report belong to the Oldsmar, but because of the lack of diagnostic fossils they cannot be placed in that formation with certainty. In Highlands County the Lake City limestone is conformably overlain by the Avon Park limestone, which also is of Claiborne age. In Highlands County the Lake City limestone apparently has an east-west strike and dips south an average of about 5 feet per mile, the top of the formation ranging from about 900 feet below sea level in the northern part of the county to about 1,100 feet below sea level in the southern part.
Thickness. According to Cooke (1945, p. 46), the Lake City limestone ranges in thickness from 400 to 500 feet in the northern part of Florida, and from 200 to 250 feet in the southern part of the peninsula.
Paleogeography. Cuttings from the Lake City limestone in Highlands County indicate that it was an offshore deposit which received very little clastic sediment. Applin and Applin (1944, p. 1696) have recognized a clastic facies in northwestern Florida that is probably equivalent to the Lake City limestone. According to Cooke (1945, p. 46), the shoreline, during the time that the Lake City was being deposited, extended across the southern part of Alabama and northeast across central Georgia, the northwestern part of Florida being nearest the land.
Paleontology. Foraminifera make up the large percentage of fauna in the Lake City limestone. Applin and Jordan (1945, p. 131) consider the following to be diagnostic of the formation: Amphistegina lopeztrigoi D. K. Palmer
Amphistegina nassauensis Applin and Jordan
Archaias columbiensis Applin and Jordan
Asterigerina cedarkeysensis Cole
Dictyoconus americanus (Cushman)
Discocyclina (Asterocyclina) monticellensis Cole and Ponton
Discorbis inornatus Cole
Eodictyoconus cubensis (Cushman and Bermudez)
Epistomaria semimarginata (d'Orbigny)
Eponides gunteri Cole
Fabularia gunteri Applin and Jordan




18 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY
Fabularia vaughani Cole and Ponton
G;unteria floridana Cushman and Ponton
Lepidocyclina (Polylepidina) antillea Cushman
Lepidocyclina (Pliolepidina) cedarkeysensis Cole
Linderina floridensis Cole
Lockhartia cushmani Applin and Jordan
Operculinoides jennyi Barker
Water supply. -- The Lake City limestone, because of its high permeability, is a highly productive aquifer in Highlands County and is utilized to a large extent wherever large quantities (500 to 1,500 gallons per minute) of ground water are needed for municipal and irrigation supplies.
The permeability of the formation compared with the overlying formations in the Floridan aquifer is indicated by pumping tests made by Briley & Wild, consulting engineers of Daytona Beach, during the drilling of well 403 (see table 3). This table shows that 85 feet of additional penetration into the Lake City limestone, after 915 feet of the Floridan aquifer had been penetrated, increased the yield at a drawdown of 25 feet from 463 to 636 gallons per minute.
Water from the Lake City limestone ranges from soft to hard, the hardness increasing toward the southern end of the county. Locally there is an excessive amount of iron, more than 0.3 part per million, some of which may be from the well casings, but in general the water is satisfactory (see table 9).
Table 3. YIELD, DRAWDOWN, AND SPECIFIC CAPACITY OF WELL 403
AT 1,216 AND 1,301 FEET BELOW LAND SURFACE Depth Yield Drawdown Specific (ft.) (gpm) (ft.)' capacity2 Remarks
1,216 145 7 20.7 915 feet of open hole in the Floridan 1,216 205 10 20.5 aquifer; 90 feet of the Lake City lime1,216 243 12 20.2 stone penetrated.
1,2 16 463 25 18.5 1,216I 633 36 17.6
1,301 175 4 43.7 1,000 feet of open hole in the Floridan 1,30)1 200 5 40.0 aquifer; 175 feet of the Lake City
1,301 292 8 36.5 limestone penetrated.
1,301 408 13 31.4 1,301 508 17 29.9 1,301 609 23 26.5 1,301 636 25 25.4 1,301 818 35 23.4
' Pumping time not recorded.
The specific capacity of a well is the yield in gallons per minute per foot of drawdown.
AVON PARK LIMESTONE
Name. - The name Avon Park limestone is applied by Applin and Applin (1944, p. 1680) to limestone of Claiborne age pentrated be-




REPORT OF INVESTIGATIONs No. 15 19
tween depths of 600 and 930 feet in a well drilled at the Avon Park Bombing Range (sec. 31, T. 32 S., R. 30 E.) in Polk County.
Lithology. The Avon Park limestone, in Highlands County, consists of layers of light-gray to light-brown, soft to hard, slightly porous, granular to chalky limestone with considerable secondary calcite and some dolomitic limestone.
Distribution and stratigraphic relations. The Avon Park limestone underlies most of the Florida Peninsula and rests conformably on the Lake City limestone. In Highlands County the Avon Park limestone is unconformably overlain by the basal member of the Moodys Branch formation of Jackson age.
Thickness and structure. The Avon Park limestone, in Highlands County, ranges in thickness from about 200 to 350 feet, the top of the formation ranging from about 500 feet below sea level in the northern part of the county to about 900 feet below sea level in the southern part. The Avon Park strikes east-west and dips south an average of about 10 feet per mile.
Paleogeography. The Avon Park limestone was deposited in the open sea and received very little clastic sediment. According to Cooke (1945, p. 51, 52) the entire Florida plateau was probably submerged, but the position of the shoreline is unknown.
Paleontology. The most distinctive fossil in the Avon Park in this area is the small echinoid Peronella dalli (Twitchell), which is very common in the upper part of the formation. Cuttings from this zone in some of the wells consist almost entirely of calcitic fragments or whole specimens of this species. The foraminiferal fauna of the Avon Park is also very abundant and distinctive. Applin and Jordan (1945, p. 130, 131) list the following Foraminifera as diagnostic: Coskinolina floridana Cole
Cribrobulimina cushmani Applin and Jordan
Cyclammina watersi Applin and Jordan
Dictyoconus cookei (Moberg)
Discorinopsis gunteri Cole
Flintina avonparkensis Applin and Jordan
Lituonella floridana Cole
Rotalia avonparkensis Applin and Jordan
Spirolina coryensis Cole
Textularia coryensis Cole
Valvulammina minuta Applin and Jordan
Valvulina avonparkensis Applin and Jordan
Valvulina intermedia Applin and Jordan Valvulina martii Cushman and Bermudez
Water supply. The Avon Park limestone is not an important source of large water supplies in Highlands County, but it is utilized




2() FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY
locally in the area around the town of Avon Park. In other parts of the county it contributes some water to wells that penetrate the underlying Lake City limestone.
MOODY BRANCH FORMATION*
Name. The Moodys Branch formation was named for exposures of Jackson age along Moodys Branch of the Pearl River in the city of Jackson, Miss. The name Moodys Branch was first used in connection with deposits of Jackson age in Mississippi by Otto Meyer (1885, p. 435). E. N. Lowe (1915, p. 80) described Moodys Branch green marls as a formation of the Jackson group and thought the bed overlay the Yazoo clay marl. Cooke (1918, p. 186-198) describes the Moodys calcareous marl member as the basal member of the Jackson formation and that it rests conformably on the Yegua formation of Claiborne age and is overlain by the Yazoo clay member of the Jackson formation. The Mississippi Geological Survey now divides the Jackson formation into the Yazoo clay at the top and the Moodys marl at the base. In southern Alabama the Jackson group is composed of two formations: the Ocala limestone at the top and the Moodys Branch formation at the base.
For many years the beds representing the base of the Jackson group in Florida have been referred to the Ocala limestone. R. O. Vernon (1951, p. 115) correlated these beds with the basal Jackson in southern Alabama, which have been traced from Mississippi, and has proposed the name Moodys Branch formation to include two members, the Inglis member at the base and the Williston member at the top, for beds in the lower part of the Jackson group in Florida.
Puri (1953, p. 130) has raised the rank of the two members to formations and no longer uses the name Moodys Branch in Florida.
Lithology. The Moodys Branch formation in Highlands County consists of cream to tan-gray, slightly hard to soft, granular to chalky, foraminiferal limestones which locally contain some crystalline calcite. In some areas of the county the hardness of the formation increases toward the base. The limestones in the upper part of the formation are so similar to the overlying Ocala limestone that the contact between the two formations is not clearly defined. In this report no attempt
* After the manuscript for this report was completed Puri (1953, p. 130) and Purl
in Vernon and Puri (1956, p. 35-38) proposed the following classification of the upper
Eocene in Florida.
SCrystal River formation
Ocala Group Williston formation
SInglis formation
This classification is presently in use by various workers in the field and is officially
accepted by the Florida Geological Survey.




REPORT OF INVESTIGATIONS No. 15 21
has been made to differentiate between the two members of the formation.
Distribution and stratigraphic relations. The Moodys Branch formation is known to underlie a large portion of the central and northwestern parts of the Florida Peninsula. It rests unconformably on rocks of Claiborne age and is conformably overlain by the Ocala limestone.
Thickness and structure. The Moodys Branch formation in Highlands County apparently ranges in thickness from about 50 to 150 feet, the top of the formation ranging from about 500 feet below sea level in the northern part of the county to about 750 feet below sea level in the southern part. The formation strikes east-west and dips south an average of about 4 feet per mile.
Paleogeography. The Moodys Branch formation was deposited in a shallow sea, \the shoreline probably extending across southern Mississippi and Alabama, and northeast across central Georgia. At its type locality, according to Cooke (1918, p. 186-198), the formation grades from a bed of quartz sand, glauconite, and shells at the base to indurated marl or impure limestone at the top, indicating that the shoreline moved slowly north during the time the formation was being deposited.
Paleontology. The most conspicuous elements of the Moodys Branch formation in this area are the Foraminifera. Concerning the Foraminifera of the Inglis member, Vernon (1951, p. 118) states: "Miliolids are very abundant, but are usually so poorly preserved that specific identification can rarely be made. Only one large Foraminifera, Camerina vanderstoki (Rutten and Vermunt) is present and it is limited to the upper few feet. Amphistegina pinarensis cosdeni Applin and Jordan, Nonion advenum (Cushman), Rotalia cushmani Applin and Jordan, Camegueyia perplexa Cole and Bermudez, Fabiania cubensis (Cushman and Bermudez), Spiroloculina seminolensis Applin and Jordan, Elphidium sp. 'A'. Peneroplid Sp. 'X' and Discorpinopsis gunteri Cole characterize the bed."
Concerning the Foraminifera of the Williston member, Vernon
(1951, p. 142) states: "Miliolids are the most abundant fauna in the Williston member outranking the camerinids in numbers of individuals but being less by volume. The miliolids are largely undescribed and are generally so poorly preserved that specific identification is prevented. .. . The most common species and greatest number of specimens in the bed is Camerina vanderstoki (Rutten and Vermunt) with minor percentages of C. guayabalensis Barker, C. sp. cf. C. moodybranchensis




22 IFLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY
Gravcll and Hanna, Operculinoides floridensis (Heilprin), O. vaughani (Cushman) var. (noded septae). Lepidocyclina ocalana Cushman and Ileterostegina ocalana Cushman are rare throughout the bed and more coinon at the top than at the base."
"ater supply. -- The Moodys Branch formation probably is not capable of producing large supplies of water for irrigation and municipal needs in Highlands County, but it does contribute some water to wells that penetrate underlying formations.
()OCALA LIMESTONE
Name. -The Ocala limestone was named for exposures in the vicinity of Ocala, Marion County, by Dall and Harris (1892, p. 103, 157, 311), who assigned them to the Eocene or Oligocene. Later studies by Cooke (1926, p. 251-297) proved the limestone to be of Jackson (late Eocene) age, and Cooke and Mossom (1929, p. 47-48) defined the Ocala to include "all rocks of Eocene age exposed in Florida.
Vernon (195 1, p. 156-159) restricted the term Ocala to include only the late Jackson and assigned the basal beds to the Moodys Branch formation of early Jackson age.
Piuri (1953, p. 130) has redefined Vernon's Ocala (restricted) and nattied it the Crystal River formation. He has included the Crystal River, Williston, and Inglis formations in the Ocala group.
Lithology. -The Ocala limestone in Highlands County is a lightgray to cream, soft, chalky, coquina limestone composed almost entirely of tests of large Foraminifera.
Distribution and stratigraphic relations. -- The Ocala limestone un(derlies most of Florida and extends westward across Alabama to the 'l'ombighee River, and northward to Twiggs and Wilkinson Counties in Georgia (Cooke, 1945, p. 55-57). In Highlands County the Ocala rests conformably on the Moodys Branch formation. In the western part of the county it is overlain unconformably by the Suwannee limestone of Oligocene age; in the eastern part of the county, however, it is unconformably overlain by the Hawthorn formation of Miocene age.
Thickness and structure. The Ocala limestone in Highlands County apparently ranges in thickness from about 150 to 250 feet, the top of the formation occurring about 250 feet below sea level in the northern part of the county and about 650 feet below sea level in the southern part. The formation strikes roughly east-west and dips south an average of about 10 feet per mile.




REPORT OF INVESTIGATIONS No. 15 23
Paleogeography. The Ocala limestone was deposited in an open, fairly shallow sea, the shoreline, according to Cooke (1945, p. 57), extending across Alabama from Choctaw County to Houston County and northeast across Georgia past Macon to Augusta. Equivalent nearshore deposits are the Yazoo clay in Mississippi and western Alabama and the Barnwell formation composed chiefly of sand, in Georgia.
Paleontology. The most conspicuous fossils found in the Ocala limestone in Highlands County are the numerous specimens of Lepidocyclina ocalana Cushman and varieties. Applin and Jordan (1945, p. 130) list 15 species of Foraminifera as diagnostic of the Ocala limestone, but as the Ocala of their paper comprises both the Ocala limestone (restricted) and the Williston member of the Moodys Branch formation, the list includes species that are now known to be characteristic of the Moodys Branch as well as the Ocala.
Water supply. Data furnished by well drillers, as well as those obtained during actual drilling, indicate that the ground-water yield from the Ocala limestone is not as large as the yield from deeper Eocene formations. The smaller yield from the Ocala may be due to the presence of localized less permeable zones within the limestone, for in some parts of southeastern Highlands County the Ocala limestone is capable of producing fairly large volumes of water. Information on the depths of wells penetrating the Floridan aquifer suggests that in the ridge area sufficient water for large-scale irrigation is not available in either the Ocala or the Avon Park limestone, and that wells must penetrate the Lake City for the required quantities.
Oligocene Series
SUWANNEE LIMESTONE
Name. The name Suwannee limestone was proposed by Cooke and Mansfield (1936, p. 71) for the yellowish limestone typically exposed along the Suwannee River in Hamilton and Suwannee Counties.
Lithology. The Suwannee limestone in Highlands County consists predominantly of cream-colored, slightly porous, soft, chalky to slightly crystalline limestone.
Distribution and stratigraphic relations. Well cuttings indicate that the Suwannee limestone is not continuous in the subsurface of peninsular Florida. In Highlands County it is present only in the western part of the county, where it rests uncomformably on the Ocala limestone and is unconformably overlain by the Hawthorn formation.
Thickness and structure. The maximum thickness of the Suwan-




24 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY
nee limestone in Highlands County is only about 80 feet, the top of the formation ranging from about 200 feet below sea level in the northern part of the county to about 550 feet below sea level in the southern part. The Suwannee strikes east-west and dips south an average of about 6 feet per mile.
Paleogeography. The Suwannee limestone was deposited in a fairly shallow open ocean, the shoreline, according to Cooke (1945, p. 89), extending across Alabama from Washington County to Henry County across Georgia to Burke County. The Flint River formation, containing much clastic material, is thought to be the near-shore equivalent of the Suwannee limestone in northwestern Florida, southeastern Alabama, and southern Georgia, and the Chickasawhay limestone, also containing clastic material, is probably the equivalent in southwestern Alabama and southeastern Mississippi (Cooke, 1945, p. 88-89).
Paleontology. -' The Suwannee limestone contains echinoids, mollusks, and forams. The echinoid Cassidulus gouldii (Bouvi) is the most conspicuous and widespread fossil in the outcrop areas. In Highlands County, where the Suwannee limestone is known only from well cuttings, the most conspicuous fossils are Foraminifera of which Rotalia mexicana is the most common. Applin and Jordan (1945, p. 129, 130) consider the following Foraminifera to be diagnostic of the formation:
Asterigerina subacuta floridensis Applin and Jordan
Coskinolina floridana Cole
Dictyoconus cookei (Moberg)
Elphidiumn leonensis Applin and Jordan
Elphidium a/ll. E. poeyanum (d'Orbigny)
fleterostegina texana Gravell and M. A. Hanna
Miogypsina (Miogypsina) gunteri Cole
Nonion advenum (Cushman)
Nonionella leonensis Applin and Jordan
Operculinoides vicksburgensis Vaughn and Cole
Quinqueloculina leonensis Applin and Jordan
Rotalia byramensis Cushman
Rotalia mexicana Nuttall
Rotalia mexicana mecatepecensis Nuttall
Valvulammina? sp.
Water supply. The Suwannee limestone is not an important aquifer in Highlands County, although locally it is used for small domestic supplies.
Miocene Series
HAWTHORN FORMATION
Name. The Hawthorn formation was named for exposures of early and middle Miocene age in the vicinity of Hawthorn in Alachua County, Fla., by Dall and Harris (1892, p. 107). The Hawthorn for-




REPORT OF INVESTIGATIONS No. 15 25
mation of this report includes all marine, littoral and deltaic beds of early and middle Miocene age in Highlands County.
Cooke (1945, p. 109) recognized the three divisions early, middle, and upper of the Miocene in peninsular Florida. Vernon (1951, p. 179) studied sediments from more than 13,000 wells drilled in 35 counties extending from Jefferson County to Hillsborough County. In this area he definitely identified material of Tampa (early Miocene) age only in Hernando, Hillsborough, Pasco, Pinellas, and Polk Counties, and he identified it questionably in southern Citrus, Jefferson, Indian River, southern Lake, and Osceola Counties. In the outcrop area in the vicinity of Tampa Bay, the Tampa limestone' is a cream to white sandy limestone containing specimens of Archaias and Sorites. Vernon (1951, p. 181) indicates a definite time break between the end of Tampa and the beginning of Hawthorn deposition and thus restricts Tampa deposition to early Miocene, and the Hawthorn formation to middle Miocene. However, the extent of the uncomformity is not known, and Cooke (1945, p. 115, 145) indicates uncertainty concerning the time break. Regardless of the presence of an unconformity, there is no evidence that it is a division marker between early and middle Miocene.
In his examination of well cuttings in Highlands County, the author found material that might be equivalent to the sandy limestone of the Tampa in only the northern part of the county. These limestones were included in the Hawthorn. In western Highlands County typical marine sediments of the Hawthorn were found to overlie the Suwannee limestone unconformably, and in the eastern part of the county a similar relationship was noted with the Ocala limestone.
It may be that Highlands County was a high, exposed area from post-Oligocene to middle Miocene time, and that no material of Tampa age was deposited in the area. It is possible also that the lower Miocene Tampa sea covered the county with thin deposits of limestone which were subsequently removed during the pre-middle Miocene erosion interval. If the transgressing sea during Tampa time was shallow and of limited extent, the Tampa limestone might occur only locally, possibly in depression on the pre-Miocene erosion surface. A third possibility seems apparent, whereby Highlands County remained submerged by shallow seas during both early and middle Miocene times and deposition was continuous throughout that time interval. If the greater percentage of the materials brought down and deposited in eastern High5 Tampa limestone, as officially used by the U. S. Geological Survey, is referred to as the Tampa formation by the Florida Geological Survey.




26 FILORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY
lands County and southeastern Florida during early Miocene time were plastics, then sand, silt, and clay would predominate rather than carbonates, as in western Florida. Therefore, marine clastics in the lower part of the Hawthorn formation at some places in southern Florida may be equivalent to limestone of Tampa age in other areas. Cooke (1945, p. 145) appears to favor the probability that the Hawthorn sea was an expanded Tampa sea.
In extending the Citronelle formation into northwestern Highlands County, Cooke (1945, p. 233) stated: "The high ridge that extends northward from Sebring is capped with coarse red sand that probably represents the Citronelle formation, though some of it may be Pleistocene." The deposit of coarse red sand referred to by Cooke extends as far south as Childs. The writer has concluded from his examination of well cuttings that this deposit grades downward and laterally through coarse, micaceous, quartz sand, locally containing quartzite pebbles and white kaolinite, into typical marine Hawthorn, and that the deposit must, therefore, be a part of the Hawthorn formation. These red, clayey sands have thus been included in the Hawthorn formation of this report.
That the deposits which overlie the typical marine Hawthorn are themselves Hawthorn in age is confirmed by the fact that the Tamiami formation of late Miocene age wedges out against their flanks. (See cross section C-C', fig. 4c). A further indication that they are of Hawthorn age is that they contain quartz pebbles like those found in typical marine Hawthorn deposits in other parts of the peninsula.
Trhe stratification of these deposits and the presence of quartz pebbles in them suggest that they were deposited by streams rather than by ocean currents. Deltaic s' ratification can be seen in the sandpits just north of Davenport in Polk County, sec. 27, T. 26 S., R. 27 E., where sand-mining operations have exposed large, well-developed foreset beds.
The evidence found by the writer suggests to him that a large river exisited in peninsular Florida during Hawthorn time and that the thick section of coarse clastic material in Highlands and Polk Counties is in reality an extension of the deltaic facies of the Hawthorn formation. A middle Miocene delta plain was proposed by Vernon (1951, p. 184) for the panhandle and peninsular sections of Florida. The deposits in Highlands County may be an extension of this delta plain built by a river flowing southward between structural irregularities developed along the Ocala uplift during the Miocene epoch.
Trhe presence of pebbles in the marine Hawthorn suggests that the immediate source of its clastic material, possibly a beach or an estuary,




REPORT OF INVESTIGATIONS NO. 15 27
was much nearer than has heretofore been supposed. James B. Cathcart of the U. S. Geological Survey (personal communication, 1952), in his work on the phosphorite deposits of southern Florida, has observed quartz pebbles in the Hawthorn formation underlying the Bone Valley formation and believes that the volume of such material is too great to be accounted for by rafting or other minor forms of transportation.
Lithology. The marine deposits of the Hawthorn formation in the county are composed primarily of beds of dark-green to white, phosphatic clay and lenticular bodies of white to cream, dense, sandy, phosphatic limestone, phosphorite pebbles, and quartz sand.
The deltaic deposits consist of quartz ranging from fine sand to pebble gravel and some phosphorite, mica, and kaolinite.
Distribution and stratigraphic relations. The marine deposits of the Hawthorn underlie all the county and rest unconformably on the Suwannee or Ocala limestone. In the eastern and possibly the southwestern parts of the county the formation is overlain unconformably(?) by the Tamiami formation. In the ridge section the marine deposits are overlain conformably by the deltaic beds.
The deltaic beds, which are unconformably overlain by Pleistocene deposits, apparently grade horizontally into typically marine deposits, the marine nonclastics being represented at the same stratigraphic level as coarse sands and clays in the deltaic beds. As the marine deposits contain some of the coarse material found in the deltaic beds, there must be some interfingering of the deposits laterally.
Thickness. In Highlands County the Hawthorn formation ranges in thickness from about 300 feet in the low areas in the northern part of the county to about 650 feet in the Lake Placid area.
Paleogeography. Cooke (1945, p. 137-318) states: "During Alum Bluff time the sea extended across the southern tip of South Carolina, across southern Georgia almost to the Fall Line, across all of Florida, southern Alabama, and westward to Texas. East of the Apalachicola River it deposited the Hawthorn formation; west of it successively the Chipola and the Shoal River formations in Florida and the Hattiesburg clay in Mississippi and Louisiana."
Vernon (1951, p. 181-184) does not agree that the Hawthorn sea covered all of Florida and states: "During the time that early and middle Miocene seas were encroaching upon the State, the land mass created by the Ocala uplift probably stood as a broad plain or a series of undulating hills forming a large insular area or a narrow




28 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY
peninsula that extended south from Georgia along the western part of peninsular Florida."
A study of the subsurface geology indicates that a large part of Highlands County was probably above the sea at the beginning of Hawthorn time. As the sea rose and covered the county, shifting currents deposited a great thickness of phosphatic clay containing lenses of limestone, sandl, and phosphorite of small areal extent. Before the close of Hawthorn time a finger of a large delta had moved across the county to about the Glades-Highlands County line. The remnant of this delta is the core of the present Highlands Ridge.
Paleontology. Mollusks, echinoids, shark teeth, coral, and a few foraminifers are found in the Hawthorn formation in Highlands County, but none appear to be diagnostic of the formation.
Geologic exposures. The Hawthorn is the oldest formation exposed in the county and can be seen in the many claypits on the ridge from Avon Park south to Lake Annie (see measured sections 407-410, p. 138, 139).
Water supply. -- The deltaic beds of the Hawthorn formation are an important source of water supply and are tapped by an increasing number of screened wells developed at depths generally less than 200 feet. A 12-inch well near Avon Park, 180 feet deep and containing 120 feet of slotted casing, yields 1,800 gallons per minute from this aquifer.
Most of the marine beds are of low permeability, but the limestone units of the marine beds of the formation furnish small to moderate supplies of water locally.
'AMIAMI FORMATION
Name. -The name Tamiami limestone was first used by Mansfield (1939, p. 8) for the beds exposed in the shallow ditches along the Tamiami Trail in the Big Cypress Swamp. Cooke and Mossom ( 1929, p. 156) regarded the beds as a different facies of the Caloosahatchee marl of Pliocene age and did not offer a different formational name. Because of the sandy nature of the rock, Parker and Cooke (1944, p. 62) called it the Tamiami formation. Parker (1951, p. 822823) assigned the deposits to the upper Miocene and included in the Tamiami formation the Buckingham limestone of Mansfield (1939) and the upper part of the Hawthorn formation of Parker and Cooke (1944). As thus defined, the Tamiami formation includes all deposits of late Miocene age in southern Florida.
Lithology. The Tamiami formation in Highlands County is com-




REPORT OF INVESTIGATIONS No. 15 29
posed of beds of dark-blue to white, clayey, sandy, shell marl, quartz sand, phosphorite, and sandy clay.
Distribution and stratigraphic relations. The Tamiami formation probably underlies all of Florida south and east of the Highlands Ridge. In Highlands County it has been found in the low area east of the ridge, but it possibly underlies also the low areas in the southwestern part of the county. The Tamiami rests unconformably(?) on the Hawthorn formation and is overlain unconformably by Pleistocene deposits.
Thickness. The Tamiami formation ranges in thickness from a featheredge on the east side of the Highlands Ridge to a probable maximum of about 100 feet near the Kissimmee River in the extreme southeastern part of the county.
Paleogeography. "- During late Miocene time the Highlands Ridge was a peninsula that formed the southernmost dry land in Florida.
Paleontology. The Tamiami formation is abundantly fossiliferous in Highlands County and contains the remains of mollusks, echinoids, barnacles, and foraminifers.
Water supply.- The Tamiami formation is used as a source of domestic and stock-water supplies in the eastern part of the county, though locally it contains moderately mineralized water.
QUATERNARY SYSTEM
Pleistocene Series
INTRODUCTION
The Pleistocene epoch in the United States has been divided into glacial stages (periods of maximum accumulation of ice) and interglacial stages (periods of minimum accumulation of ice). These glacial and interglacial stages are listed from the oldest to the youngest as follows:
Pleistocene series
Nebraskan glacial
Aftonian interglacial
Kansan glacial
Yarmouth interglacial
Illinoian glacial
Sangamon interglacial
Wisconsin glacial
Recent series




3(0 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY
The glacial advances lowered the sea level by storing large volumes of the earth's water as ice. During the interglacial stages the water was returned to the sea, thereby causing a rise in its level. The greatest rise of the sea during the Pleistocene is estimated by Cooke (1939, p. 34) to have been to about 270 feet above present sea level, and the greatest lowering is thought to have been to about 300 feet below present sea level.
The fluctuations of sea level in Florida produced great changes in the pre-Pleistocene land surface. In Highlands County the most important changes were brought about by coastal erosion and deposition, resulting in marine terraces and coastal bars. A part of, or possibly all, the solution that created the circular lakes and depressions probably occurred during low stages of the Pleistocene seas.
Parker and Cooke (1944, pl. 3) show five Pleistocene marine terraces in Highlands County, the Pamlico, Talbot, Penholoway, Wicomico, and Sunderland, with shorelines at 25, 52, 70, 100, and 170 feet, respectively, above present sea level. MacNeil (1949, pl. 19) mapped three Pleistocene shorelines in Highlands County, the Pamlico at 30 feet, the Wicomico at 100 feet, and the Okefenokee at 150 feet. The maps of the above-mentioned investigators were made from aerial photographs without vertical control in Highlands County.
During the course of the present investigation detailed topographic maps on a 5-foot contour interval, prepared for the Corps of Engineers, U. S. Army, were obtained for a part of the ridge section. These maps show that some of the Pleistocene terraces have been tilted and possibly faulted.
The pattern of tilting is confusing but, in general, the affected area lies east of a line that touches points about a mile west of Lake Childs and Lake Jackson and west of a parallel line that crosses the western side of Lake Istokpoga. The tilted area extends from about 6 miles south of Lake Annie into southern Polk County. The only part of this area that presents a clear picture of the tilting is the southeastern part of the ridge section in T. 38 S., R. 30 E. Here the 150-foot contour crosses a well-developed marine scarp, about 35 feet high, in a distance of less than 3 miles. The tilting is to the north in this area.
Throughout the tilted area of Highlands County there are what seem to be zones of faulting, which further complicate the picture. The chain of lakes lying between Lake Jackson and Lake Annie are in a graben-shaped depression (see cross section C-C', fig. 4), which is lowest in the Josephine Creek area, where circular lakes of the type




REPORT OF INVESTIGATIONS No. 15 31
mentioned by MacNeil (1949, p. 101) are present below the 100-foot contour. Topographic features that have the appearance of fault scarps have been noted near Avon Park and Lake Placid. The feature near Avon Park (secs. 7 and 8, T. 33 S., R. 29 E.) is a very straight south-facing scarp on the edge of a filled-in lake or sheltered bay. This feature is hard to explain on the basis of wave erosion or longshore currents because of its sheltered position. The feature near Lake Placid (secs. 8 and 9, T. 37 S., R. 30 E.) is a north-facing scarp that seems to have no relation to the nearby marine scarps.
Aerial photographs of the area between Arbuckle Creek and the Highlands Ridge show the drainage pattern to be somewhat rectangular and suggest that the streams may be fault controlled.
Because of the difficulty of correlating the terraces, all deposits of Pleistocene age in Highlands County are herein grouped together. PLEISTOCENE DEPOSITS
Lithology. The Pleistocene deposits in the Highlands Ridge area consist of gray-orange to white, medium to coarse, quartz sand, with locally interbedded brown clayey zones near the basal contact with the Hawthorn formation. Fine to medium, clayey, calcareous, quartz sand is predominant in the lower areas of the county.
Distribution and stratigraphic relations. The Pleistocene deposits crop out over most of the county, lying unconformably on the Hawthorn formation in the western part of the county, and on the Tamiami formation east of the ridge. In the ridge section, good exposures can be seen in many of the road and railroad cuts (see measured sections).
Thickness. Pleistocene deposits in Highlands County range in thickness from about a foot in the low area west of the ridge to about 100 feet in the coastal bars on the east side of the ridge.
Paleogeography. Several advances and retreats of the shoreline over Highlands County occurred during the Pleistocene epoch. During the Aftonian interglacial stage the area was either completely covered by the sea or completely covered except for a few islands in the ridge section. During the Kansan glacial stage the county was dry land. This cycle was repeated during the following glacial and interglacial stages, a smaller portion of the county being submerged by each succeeding advance of the sea.
During the interglacial stages of the early Pleistocene the Highlands Ridge apparently separated an area of relatively deep open water to the east from an area of shallow water immediately to the west. Because of this, the eastern part of the ridge was subjected to the action of long-




32 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY
shore currents and large waves, resulting [n the formation of numerous coastal bars. The western side of the ridge escaped violent wave action and a fairly smooth marine plain developed, with very little material being deposited in the area to the west of the plain.
'[The lakes of Highlands County are post-middle Miocene in age, probably early Pleistocene, and were formed at a time when the sea level stood below its present level. A lowering of the water table probably accompanied the drop in sea level and resulted in an increase in the rate of circulation of water in the limestone below the clay of the Hlawthorn formation. Solution caverns which developed in the limestone later collapsed to form many of the lakes of the area.
Paleontology. The marine fossils of the Pleistocene deposits of the county consist almost entirely of Foraminifera which are found in the lower part of the deposits in the low areas east of the ridge; of these, the following have been identified:
Elphidiumn gunteri Cole
Nonion pomnpilioides (Fichtel and Moll)
Rotalia beccarii (Linn6) var. tepida Cushman
Rotalia beccarii (Linn6) var. ornata? Cushman
The remains of terrestrial vertebrates have been reported in several of the swamps and lakes in the county.
Water supply. -- The Pleistocene deposits furnish small to moderate supplies of water to stock and domestic wells in places throughout the coutntN\.
Recent Series
INTRODUctc'rON
The Recent deposits in Highlands County consist of dune sand, peat, and alluvium. It is likely that some of these deposits were beginning to form during the Pleistocene epoch, but as there are insufficient data available to subdivide them as to age, and as they are still being formed, they are all tentatively placed in the Recent series. DUNE SAND
Dune sand occurs near many of the larger lakes in the county and also forms thin coverings over the Pleistocene coastal bars in the southern part of the ridge. The sand is composed predominantly of white, medium to coarse, quartz sand, but includes a small amount of organic material. As the dune sand lies above the water table no water is obtained from it. PEAr DEPOSITS
Many marshes and swamps in the county contain peat deposits of varying thickness and purity. The largest deposit is in the area south of




REPORT OF INVESTIGATIONS No. 15 33
Lake Istokpoga and, according to Davis (1946, p. 129), underlies an area of approximately 35,000 acres, most of the deposit being between 3 and 8 feet thick. No wells obtain water from these peat deposits in the county.
ALLUVIUM
Well-developed flood plains are present in the valleys of the Kissimmee River and Arbuckle Creek, and along the lower portion of Fisheating Creek. The flood-plain deposits are made up almost entirely of fine to medium sand and organic material mixed in varying degree and ranging from small deposits of sandy peat to bars of pure sand. The deposits reach a probable maximum thickness of about 20 feet in the Kissimmee River valley. No wells are known to obtain water from alluvial deposits in Highlands County.
GROUND WATER
Ground water is the water occurring in the pores or openings of the earth's crust within the zone of saturation. The zone of saturation is defined as that in which the rocks are saturated with water under hydrostatic pressure. It is the zone of saturation that supplies water to wells and springs.
In this report ground water will be discussed under two different headings based on occurrence: (1) nonartesian water, the water that is unconfined in the earth's crust; and (2) artesian water, the water that is confined under pressure between relatively impermeable beds.
NONARTESIAN WATER
Source
In Highlands County the nonartesian ground water is derived almost entirely from rain falling within the county. Part of the water that falls as rain evaporates, part of it is absorbed by plants and transpired into the atmosphere, and part of it is carried away by surface runoff. The remaining part which escapes evaporation, transpiration, and surface runoff moves downward through the underlying strata until it reaches the zone of saturation and becomes part of the body of ground water. Unconfined ground water moves at varying rates through the aquifer, under the influence of gravity.
Occurrence
The following discussion of the principles governing the occurrence of ground water has been adapted from Meinzer (1923a).
Ground water occurs in Highlands County in the numerous open




34 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY
spaces in rock material below the water table. These open spaces range in size from minute pores of microscopic dimensions to openings several inches in width. It is from these openings that wells obtain their water.
The amount of water that can be stored in a water-bearing rock is determinedd by the porosity of the rock. Porosity is expressed as the percentage of the total volume of rock that is occupied by openings. When all the openings in a rock are filled with water, the rock is saturated. The porosity of the water-bearing material underlying Highlands County is controlled by (1) the degree of assortment of the constituent particles; (2) the shape and arrangement of the particles; (3) the degree of cementation and compaction; and (4) the degree to which percolating water has removed soluble mineral matter. Fracturing is not an important contributor to the porosity of the rocks in the county. Well-sorted sedimentary rocks generally have a high porosity, whereas poorly sorted deposits have a much lower porosity because the fine material fills the open spaces in the coarse material. Several common types of open spaces, or interstices, and the relation of texture to porosity are shown in figure 5. The specific yield is a measure of the capacity of a saturated rock to yield water from storage. It may be defined as the ratio of (1) the volume of water which, after being saturated, it will yield by gravity to (2) its own volume.
A C E
8 0 F
A, Well-sorted sedimentary deposit having a high porosity; B, poorly sorted sedimentary deposit having low porosity; C, well-sorted sedimentary deposit consisting of pebbles that are themselves porous so that the deposit as a whole has a very high porosity; D, well-sorted sedimentary deposit whose porosity has been diminished by the deposition of mineral matter in the interstices; E, rock rendered porous by solution; F, rock rendered porous by fracturing. (From 0. E. Neinser.)
'I("6URE 5. - Diagram showing several types of rock interstices and the relation of rock texture to porosity.
The amount of water that rock material can hold is determined by




REPORT OF INVESTIGATIONS No. 15 35
its porosity, but the rate at which it will yield water to wells is determined by its permeability. The permeability of a rock is its capacity for transmitting water under a hydraulic gradient, and it is measured by the rate at which it will transmit water through a given cross section under a given loss of head per unit of distance. Beds of dense clay may have higher porosity than beds of coarse sand, but because of the small size of their pores they may transmit no appreciable amount of water and may be considered to be relatively impermeable.
The porosity and permeability of limestone vary greatly. The thick section of limestone composing the Floridan aquifer is porous and permeable, although it varies both laterally and vertically. The porosity of the limestone beneath the land surface in Highlands County is the result of percolating waters dissolving the limestone as they descended to the water table when the region stood much higher above sea level than it does now. This condition occurred several times during the Pleistocene, when there were eustatic changes in sea level, and probably in early periods of the late Cenozoic, when the region was uplifted in relation to sea level. The leaching during those periods in the Pleistocene and early Tertiary produced a porous and cavernous limestone which is now saturated with water. The logs and information gained from well drillers do not indicate extensive cavernous zones beneath this area, however. The measurements listed in the logs for wells 183, 358, 400, 401, 403, 408, Glades 22, and Okeechobee 23 indicate a differing degree of permeability of the limestone laterally and vertically.
The Water Table and Movement
of Nonartesian Ground Water
The water table is defined as the upper surface of the zone of saturation except where that surface is formed by an impermeable body. When water enters the earth at the surface of the ground, part of it moves down through the zone of aeration to the zone of saturation, or the body of unconfined ground water, but part of it is retained in the zone of aeration by capillary action. The amount of water that is retained by capillarity is determined by the size of the openings in the zone of aeration. At the bottom of the zone of aeration is a belt, called the capillary fringe, in which moisture is held up by capillarity above the water table. In fine-grained material this belt may be several feet thick. Water in the zone of aeration, whether in transit or in the capillary fringe, is not available to wells but may be utilized by plants. Wells must penetrate the zone of saturation before water -enters them. The relation of the zone of saturation to the zone of aeration is shown in figure 6.




36 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY 4'
LAND SURFACE
Belt of
soil water SOIL WATER
ZI
o
W
SIntermediate INTERMEDIATE VADOSE WATER
W belt
W
W o
Cr. 0 z W
Capillary FRINGE WATER
W
fringe
W
o WATER TABLE
O4
zz
O O
0
o 0 N W GROUND WATER Z
CC
U.
0
w
2
O
w
0W
INTERNAL WATER
r.
0
WWA z
NO
0
I I
FI(;URE 6. - Diagram showing division of subsurface water
(From Meinzer, 1923b, fig. 2)
SHAPE AND SLOPE OF WATER TABLE The water table is a sloping surface having many local irregularities due to differences in permeability of,.the water-bearing material and to




REPORT OF INVESTIGATIONS No. 15 37
discharge or recharge of the ground-water reservoir. The frictional resistance to the movement of the water in coarse-grained material is less than in fine-grained material and therefore the slope of the water table decreases as the grain size increases.
Ground water moves in the direction of maximum slope, which is at right angles to contours drawn on the water table. RELATION TO TOPOGRAPHY
In the low, flat areas of the county the water table is less than 10 feet below the land surface and has about the same relief as the land surface. Contours drawn on the water table in Highlands County would be roughly parallel to the topographic contours.
In the Highlands Ridge section the water table follows the configuration of the land surface in a general way but has far less relief. Its maximum depth below the land surface is about 60 feet. FLUCTUATIONS OF THE WATER TABLE
The water table is a fluctuating surface that rises when the rate of recharge exceeds the rate of discharge and declines when the recharge is less than the discharge.
The factors that tend to lower the water table in Highlands County are: (1) evaporation and transpiration; (2) seepage into streams and lakes; (3) draft from wells; and (4) subsurface movement of water out of the county.
The factors that tend to raise the water table in the county are:
(1) precipitation within the county that passes through the surficial material and descends to the water table; (2) seepage from the Kissimmee River and some of the creeks and lakes, at times when the water level in these bodies of water is higher than the adjoining water table;
(3) seepage of water from irrigated lands; and (4) subsurface movement of water into the county.
In September 1948, seven test-observation wells (nos. 9 through 15) were drilled in Highlands County. Equipped with automatic water-stage recorders, they furnish continuous records of the fluctuations of the water table. Descriptions of the wells and the water-level measurements for 1948-49 are given in the 1949 annual water-level report of the U. S. Geological Survey (Clark and Schroeder, 1952, p. 64-67). Subsequent water-level measurements will be published in ensuing annual reports. Descriptions of the wells are included also in table 11.
Of the 7 wells, 2 (nos. 10 and 14) are on the Highlands Ridge, .1 (no. 15) is in the Western Flatlands, and the remainder are in the Eastern Flatlands. The hydrographs of these wells, representing the




38 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY
averages of the daily high and low readings, and the cumulative departure from normal rainfall at Avon Park are shown in figure 7.
Some correlation is apparent between the cumulative departures from normal rainfall and the hydrographs of wells 10 and 14. The hydrographs of the other wells have very little correlation with the rainfall plot, partly because of local variations in the distribution of rainfall, but probably more because of the small storage capacity of the water-bearing materials. In many parts of the low areas of the county, especially the Istokpoga-Indian Prairie Basin, the water table stands near the land surface even during the dry season. At the beginning of the rainy season the small amount of storage space above the water table is rapidly filled, so that the water table rises to the land surface before the rainy season is over. Additional rainfall does not then cause a rise in the water table, but instead contributes to surface runoff. This condition is reflected in the observation wells by a rise of water levels to a maximum height before the bulk of the rain falls.
Water-level fluctuations recorded in these wells during the years 1949 through 1951 ranged from 4.63 feet in well 15 to 10.17 feet in well 14 (see fig. 7).
Recharge
RECHARGE FROM LOCAL RAINFALL
Nearly all the recharge to the unconfined aquifers in the county is derived from local rainfall, which averages about 52 inches annually. Because the surficial material is very permeable, no appreciable surface runoff occurs except in places where the water table is near, or coincides with, the land surface. Tests made by the Soil Conservation Service in Highlands County indicate that rainfall would have to be more than 80 inches an hour to cause surface runoff from some of the sandy soils on the Highlands Ridge. RECHARGE FROM LAKES AND STREAMS
The recharge from lakes and streams probably accounts for only a small amount of the total recharge, but it occurs locally at times when the surface of the lakes and streams are higher than the water table, because of irregular distribution of rainfall and topographic peculiarities. The most notable example of this type of recharge is in the Indian Prairie Basin, where the land surface slopes away from the southern end of Lake Istokpoga. Some recharge occurs when the level of the lake stands higher than the water table immediately to the south. At times the lake level is higher even than the land surface to the south, but surface-water flow is prevented by a system of dikes.




9
't
91
II
go
.I . . . .
SAn I* A .
1949 1950 1951
Kk,
gIg
0 I---N-N
1949 1150 1951
I, 44
FIGURE 7. Hydrographs of seven observation wells and the cumulative
departure from normal rainfall at Avon Park.




40 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY
RECHARGE FROM IRRIGATION
Some of the water applied for irrigation descends to the water table.
SUBSURFACE INFLOW
A small amount of unconfined ground water moves into the groundwater reservoir of northeastern Highlands County from aquifers in southern Polk County, where the slope of the water table is to the southeast. Inflow probably occurs also in the southwestern part of Highlands County, in the Fisheating Creek area. Some inflow occurs also from shallow artesian aquifers.
Discharge
DISCHARGE BY EVAPOTRANSPIRATION
In Highlands County a large amount of unconfined ground water is lost by evapotranspiration, especially in those areas where the water table is at or near the surface. Charts from all the observation wells, except wells 10 and 14, show distinct, steplike declines of the water table, most pronounced (luring the afternoons of days that are relatively hot and dry. These declines amount to as much as 0.05 of a foot per day in some localities.
In the high areas, where the water table is below the reach of most plant roots, the plants obtain their water from the zone of soil moisture, thereby reducing the recharge to the shallow ground-water reservoir.
DISCHARGE INTO LAKES AND STREAMS
Streams and lakes whose surfaces stand lower than the water table in adjacent areas receive water from the zone of saturation. Examples of this type of ground-water discharge may be noted in Highlands County by observing the water levels in small lakes that are subjected to intense pumping for a short period of time. If water is pumped out of a lake faster than it is replenished from ground water the lake level will drop, but when pumping has ceased the lake level will rise nearly to its original level. The amount and rate of drawdown caused by pumping from the lake and the rate of recovery after pumping stops depend in part upon the rate and duration of pumping and in part upon the permeability of the water-bearing materials. Heavier pumping throughout longer periods causes large drawdowns and more rapid recovery after pumping ceases. Also, with lower permeability the drawdown will be larger and initial rate of recovery more rapid. In Highlands County, ground water is almost constantly feeding into streams




REPORT OF INVESTIGATIONS No. 15 41
and lakes, because the surfaces of most of these open bodies of water are normally lower than the water table as a result of evaporation and flow out of the area.
SUBSURFACE OUTFLOW
In addition to discharge into lakes and streams, which removes ground water from the area, there is some seepage into ground-water reservoirs outside the county. Ground water is moving out of the county into adjacent counties along the southern and northwestern boundaries, as evidenced by the slope of the water table. DISCHARGE FROM WELLS
Natural discharge, discussed above, seems to account for most of the discharge of unconfined ground water from the county; the rest is through wells.
Most domestic and stock wells in Highlands County draw water from the unconsolidated aquifer containing nonartesian ground water. The most common type of well in the unconsolidated materials is the driven well, which consists of a 1 /4 to 1 2 inch metal pipe equipped with a screened drive point. These wells are driven into the aquifer and are usually pumped with a pitcher pump. Another type used in unconsolidated deposits is the screened well, which is similar in principle but is usually larger in diameter, and its screen is placed at the bottom of a drilled hole instead of being driven. Gravel is commonly placed around the screen to increase the effective diameter of the well and thus reduce the drawdown, and to reduce the velocity of the incoming water sufficiently to prevent fine material from moving into the well.
ARTESIAN WATER
Artesian water is ground water that rises above the level at which it is encountered in wells (Meinzer and Wenzel, 1942, p. 451). Artesian conditions exist where water in permeable water-bearing beds is confined between relatively impermeable beds. (See fig. 8.) Source
The piezometric map of the State (fig. 9) indicates that the artesian water in Highlands County is derived from rainfall on the topographically high area extending southward from northern Polk County.
Occurrence
Artesian water in Highlands County occurs at depths ranging from less than 10 feet to more than 1,500 feet. There are two distinct artesian systems in the area: (1) the Floridan aquifer, which consists of the




42 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY
C,
REC ARGE /AREA FOR ; ,
ARTESIAN AQUIFER / /-S I NKNONARTES/AN AOU/rER
I0
ARTESIAN AOUIFER
CONFINING LAYER
...
FIGURE 8.- Diagram showing generalized artesian conditions.
group of water-bearing limestones that are overlain by the confining clays of the Hawthorn formation, and (2) the shallow artesian system which consists of the unconsolidated aquifers in the upper part of the Hawthorn and in the Tamiami formation.
The name Floridan aquifer was proposed by Parker (1951) for the principal artesian aquifer of the State, which is composed largely of limestones of Tertiary age underlying the thick clay section of the Hawthorn formation. The Floridan aquifer underlies all the State, except possibly the extreme western part, and extends into southern Georgia, southwestern South Carolina, and southeastern Alabama.
The shallow artesian aquifers are present only locally under the low areas adjacent to the Highlands Ridge.
The Piezometric Surface and Movement of Artesian Water The piezometric surface, or pressure-head-indicating surface, is an imaginary surface to which the water from a given artesian aquifer




REPORT OF INVESTIGATIONS No. 15 43
O6' , on /, o,* 1*** -,
FIUR apsown pizoeti tsrfc of,. the \ loridan aquife
i t cl tr te a r It i
4P4 AL H PU N t0
Ha t o fo oau 10se)10 IA I .
, f, i MA .SN
,,,Tmp P L
Mov tof waer in af fro ae o h ig
dichre and shows uates e oA sa re -u feq f wictiofwl rsisitfnce to me so om.ir
Contour inervl 20 feet. i
FIGURE 9. Map showing piezometric surface of the Floridan aquifer in Florida.
will rise in tightly cased wells that penetrate the aquifer. It is generally represented by a piezometric contour map. Such a map has been prepared for Highlands County showing approximately the height to which water will rise in wells terminating in beds below the clays of the Hawthorn formation (fig. 10).
Movement of water in an artesian aquifer is from areas of high artesian pressure head toward areas of lower head at right angles to the contour lines representing the piezometric surface. SHAPE AND SLOPE
The piezometric surface slopes from areas of recharge to areas of discharge and shows irregularities due to unequal discharge and recharge and unequal frctional resistance to the flow of water offered by materials comprising the amufer.




44 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY
00
0 o
AVON 00 0
0(
avon O
0 SEBRING *
LAKE
ISTOK(POGA
PLC
EX PLANATION
ro_ o i Contour lines represent approxSimotely the height, in feet, to which water will rise above meoon 2 sea level in tightly cased wells that penetrate the Floridon aquiI fer, 1951.
I I.
SCALE IN MILES
0 2 4 6 8 10 "I(;UR E 10. Map showing the piezometric surface of the Floridan aquifer in Highlands Couqty. RELATION TO TOPOGRAPHY
Topography is the controlling factor in determining whether or not
a tightly cased artesian well will flow at land surface. An artesian well will flow if the piezometric surface is higher than the land surface;
it will not flow if the piezometric surface is below the land surface.
I" LU CTUATIONS OF THE PIEZOMETRIC SURFACE
Measurements of artesian water levels show that the piezometric




REPORT OF INVESTIGATIONS No. 15 45
surface is not a stationary surface, but that it fluctuates almost constantly. In Highlands County fluctuation in artesian wells is caused by rainfall, by changes in atmospheric pressure, and discharge from wells.
Rainfall. The effects of rainfall are most noticeable in some aquifers of the shallow artesian system. Many owners of shallow artesian wells report a rise in head accompanied by an increase in flow after heavy rains. The effects of rainfall on the artesian pressure in the Floridan aquifer were not evaluated in Highlands County because of the scarcity of measureable wells. Most wells in the Floridan aquifer are irrigation wells that are not used during periods of rainfall. It is quite possible, therefore, that some of the increase in head during these periods is due to cessation of pumping rather than to rainfall.
Changes in atmospheric pressure. No studies were made in Highlands County of the relation between changes in atmospheric pressure and fluctuations of the piezometric surface, but as such a relationship is quite common in artesian systems (Stringfield, 1936, p. 139) it is assumed to exist in the area of this report. Concerning this phenomenon, Meinzer (1932, p. 141-142) states: "If a well ends in an artesian formation and this formation or the overlying confining beds have sufficient strength to resist deformation by slight changes in pressure at the surface, the well will act as a barometer. The fluctuations of its water level will have virtually the same range of fluctuations as would be shown by a water barometer, or 13.5 times the range in a mercury barometer. However, for obvious reasons, the movements of the water level in the well will always be in the opposite direction from those in an ordinary mercury barometer. . .
"If a well ends in an artesian formation that has volume elasticity, such as incoherent sand, and is confined beneath beds of soft shale that is impermeable but yields to even slight pressure, its water level will have smaller fluctuations resulting from atmospheric changes than that of a water barometer. . ."
Pumpage and flow. Locally, large fluctuations of the piezometric surface are caused by variations in draft from artesian wells. This is most noticeable in the northeastern part of the county where most of the deep irrigation wells are located. Many of the well owners report sporadic fluctuations during the irrigation season and a loss of head when neighboring wells are being used.




46 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY
Recharge
Recharge of an artesian aquifer takes place in the high areas of the system where the confining bed is absent or is penetrated by openings such as sinkholes. In such areas the water moves down from the unconfined water body, the zone of aeration, or surface water bodies until it enters the artesian aquifer. It then moves beneath the confining bed toward the points of discharge, under the influence of gravity. In areas where the confining bed is present and the water table stands higher than the piezometric surface, the difference between the head of the water in the artesian aquifer and that of the nonartesian aquifer may cause water to move through the confining bed, thereby recharging the artesian aquifer. The rate of this recharge depends upon the relative permeability and thickness of the confining bed and the difference in head between the artesian and free water.
In Highlands County the fact that the piezometric highs of both the deep and the shallow artesian systems coincide with the topographic high suggests that some recharge takes place along the Highlands Ridge. Well logs indicate that the confining bed of the Floridan aquifer, in the area north of Sebring, is thin and fairly permeable, being composed predominantly of sandy material and minor amounts of clay. South of Sebring it is much thicker but probably has sand-filled openings beneath some of the lakes. Data obtained during the drilling of wells 358 and 400, south of Lake Childs, indicate that some recharge is occurring even near the southern end of the ridge. The upper 300 feet of material penetrated by well 358 is chiefly quartz sands of medium permeability. Underlying the sands to a depth of 680 feet is a section of interbedded or interfingered clays, sands, and limestones. Some of the water-bearing beds of the underlying Floridan aquifer are separated by beds of relatively low permeability in the Ocala, Moodys Branch, and Avon Park formations which impede the downward movement of water, causing the head to be much higher in the upper parts of the aquifer.
Tables 4 and 5 are measurements of water levels made during the drilling of wells 358 and 400, respectively. The water-level measurements show a net decline in head of 50 to 60 feet between the shallow water-bearing beds in the Hawthorn formation or Suwannee limestone and the deeper beds in the Avon Park or Lake City limestones. Head differentials of this magnitude indicate that appreciable recharge moves to deep, more permeable parts of the aquifer from the shallower material.




REPORT OF INVESTIGATIONS No. 15 47
Table 4. WATER-LEVEL MEASUREMENTS MADE DURING DRILLING OF
WELL 358. WELL CASED TO 517 FEET.
Date Depth of hole Formation Water level, feet 1950 (feet) penetrated below land surface
July 13 690 Suwannee 66.2 July 20 710 do. 62.0 July 26 735 do. 70.5 Aug. 2 1,000 Moodys Branch(?) 99.5 Aug. 16 1,138 Avon Park 98.0 Aug. 25 1,259 Lake City(?) 126.0 Aug. 30 1,323 do. 125.5 Sept. 8 1,371 do. 124.2 Sept. 21 1,474 do. 126.5 Sept. 29 1,526 do. 127.9 Oct. 2 1,550 do. 126.8
Table 5. WATER-LEVEL MEASUREMENTS MADE DURING DRILLING OF
WELL 400
Well Water level, Date Depth of cased Formation feet below 1951 hole (feet) to penetrated land surface
May 21 548 540 Hawthorn 66.5 May 24 670 660 Suwannee 103.0 May 31 740 700 do. 113.0 June 4 805 700 Ocala 114.0 June 6 940 700 Moodys Branch(?) 124.0 June 8 960 700 do. 122.0 June 12 1,080 700 Avon Park 119.5 June 14 1,095 700 do. 117.0 June 19 1,095 700 do. 116.5 June 22 1,095 700 do. 115.5 July 6 1,095 700 do. 117.0 July 13 1,095 700 do. 116.0 July 27 1,095 700 do. 116.0 Aug. 3 1,095 700 do. 117.0 Aug. 17 1,095 700 do. 116.0 Aug. 24 1,130 700 do. 118.0 Aug. 31 1,205 700 do. 118.0 Sept. 7 1,260 700 Lake City(?) 117.0 Sept. 13 1,300 700 do. 117.0 Sept. 21 1,350 700 do. 116.5 Sept. 27 1,380 700 do. 117.0 Oct. 4 1,400 700 do. 117.0 Oct. 15 1,439 700 do. 115.0
Figure 10 indicates the piezometric surface in the vicinity of wells 358 and 400 is at an elevation of about 60 feet. Land surface elevations in the area range from 150 feet to 200 feet and average about 175 feet. The topography is chiefly rolling sandy hills and shallow valleys which form very effective catchment areas where little or no runoff occurs. Although data are not available, the elevation of the water table beneath this portion of the ridge probably ranges from 100 to 125 feet, or higher. This assumption seems to be borne out by the occurrence of springs




48 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY
along the western scarp of the ridge and a piezometric elevation of 70 to 80 feet in shallow artesian wells, just off the scarp, east of Lake Annie. The source of water for the springs and shallow artesian wells is the shallow water-bearing sands beneath the ridge. Although, the major portion of the unconfined water movement is horizontal, a part moves downward by gravity through the impeding beds to the Floridan aquifer where water levels are lower.
Discharge
Artesian water is discharged in the area both naturally and from wells.
NATURAL DISCHARGE
Shallow artesian system. This system loses its artesian pressure within a few miles of the recharge area because of leaky confining beds. The water seeps into and joins the unconfined water body.
Floridan aquifer. Very few data are available on the natural discharge of water from the Floridan aquifer in Highlands County. It is assumed that there is some leakage upward in the low areas where the piezometric surface is higher than the water table. The amount is probably small because of the great thickness and impermeability of the confining bed. Drillers have reported that the clays of the Hawthorn formation are thin or absent beneath many of the circular depressions, probably filled-in sinks, that occur throughout southern Florida. If this is true, then some natural discharge probably occurs through these openings on low ground, just as recharge through them occurs on high ground.
Water level rises were observed during the drilling of wells 183 and 408 in the Sebring-Avon Park area, and well 22, south of the ridge in Glades County. The changes in water levels with depth in these wells are shown in tables 6, 7, and 8, respectively.
Table 6. -- WATER-LEVEL MEASUREMENTS MADE DURING DRILLING OF WELL 183. WELL CASED TO 304 FEET.
Date Depth of hole Formation Water level, feet 1950 (feet) penetrated below land surface May 31 300 Hawthorn 20.80 June 8 850 Avon Park 17.00 June 12 915 do. 16.00 June 15 945 do. 15.20 June 21 1,066 do. 16.20 June 23 1,102 Lake City 16.20 June 29 1,192 do. 16.00




REPORT OF INVESTIGATIONS No. 15 49
Table 7.- WATER-LEVEL MEASUREMENTS MADE DURING DRILLING OF
WELL 408. WELL CASED TO 463.5 FEET.
Date Depth of hole Formation Water level, feet 1951 (feet) penetrated below land surface May 5 525 Ocala 67.30 June 1 980 Avon Park 56.50 June 4 1,035 do. 54.20 June 6 1,160 Lake City 61.00 June 7 1,183 do. 60.20 June 8 1,185 do. 60.00 June 12 1,205 do. 57.60 June 14 1,268 do. 61.40 June 19 1,305 do. 56.30 June 22 1,390 do. 55.00 June 25 1,400 do. 55.00 July 7 1,400 do. 54.50
Table 8. WATER-LEVEL MEASUREMENTS MADE DURING DRILLING OF WELL GL 22.
Date Depth of hole Formation Water level, feet 1951 (feet) penetrated above land surface Feb. 27 515 Hawthorn 6.0 Feb. 28 573 do. 6.0 Mar. 1 610 do. 30.0 Mar. 1 632 Ocala 32.0 Mar. 1 760 Moodys Branch(?) 31.0 Mar. 6 1,190 Lake City(?) 30.0 Mar. 6 1,215 do. 31.0
The observed rises in water levels, with a deepening of the wells, indicate the probability of ground-water discharge by upward flow from the deeper zones of high permeability in the aquifer to shallower zones, and seepage through the fairly permeable confining bed, as a result of head differentials. The process of discharge from deeper material under high head is in effect the reverse of that of recharge from shallow materials which occurs in the southern part of the ridge.
The piezometric surface of the Floridan aquifer in the Sebring-Avon Park area ranges in elevation from 90 to 95 feet. The land surface elevation near well 183 is about 105 feet, however, the well is located on the eastern edge of the ridge and surface elevations to the east average about 85 feet. Water-table measurements are not available but topography indicates that the drainage of the ridge area is eastward and the elevation of the water table in the vicinity of well 183 is generally lower than the regional piezometric surface of the artesian aquifers; thus, leakage is upward from the Floridan aquifer.
A similar situation exists in the vicinity of well 408, although the
land surface elevation is considerably higher (150 feet) than at well 183. The drainage of shallow ground water from beneath the ridge is




50 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY
generally north or northeast into the Carter Creek system and the water table in the area north of Sebring is lowered sufficiently to permit upward seepage of artesian water through the impeding beds.
The magnitude of head differential of the water surface in the Florid(Ian aquifer and the water-table aquifers in areas south of the ridge presupposes the occurrence of appreciable upward leakage through the confining bed. The average water-table elevation near well 22 in Glades County is below 25 feet, whereas the piezometric surface of the Floridan aquifer is in the order of 55 feet. Thus, appreciable losses by upward leakage from the artesian aquifer must occur throughout the areas of low elevation.
DISCHARGE FROM WELLS
Shallow artesian wells. Wells terminating in the shallow artesian aquifer flow as much as 50 gallons per minute. They are cased to the bottom, allowing entrance of the water only at the open end of the casing. Many of the holes extended below the casing when they were drilled but they have since filled in with unconsolidated sediments. The caving has diminished the flow in some wells, but not in all.
Wells in the Floridan aquifer. Wells terminating in the Floridan aquifer are generally 10 to 14 inches in diameter and yield 500 to 1,500 gallons per minute by pumping. They are cased through the overlying unconsolidated material and are left open in the limestones of the Flori. (Ian aquifer to allow water to enter from all the water-bearing beds. It is estimated that the withdrawal from wells developed in this aquifer, for public supplies and irrigational use, amounted to 1 V billion gallons of water in 1951.
UTILIZATION
Domestic Supplies
Most of the domestic supplies in the rural areas and small towns that have no public supplies are obtained from wells. A large number of these are shallow sand-point wells equipped with hand pumps. These shallow wells are quite satisfactory in some areas of the county but are unsatisfactory in others, owing to the rather high content of iron and organic impurities in water obtained at shallow depths. (See Quality of Water section, p. 98.) The present trend in drilling domestic wells in the ridge section is to tap aquifers of the Hawthorn formation, which generally furnish more satisfactory water than the formations of Pleistocene age. A few domestic supplies are obtained from lakes.
Irrigation Supplies
Farmers in central Florida have practiced irrigation more extensively




REPORT OF INVESTIGATIONS No. 15 51
during the last few years because they have found that it enables them to realize a better return from their investment. Where sufficient water is not available from lakes and streams, irrigation wells are drilled. These range from shallow wells, 2 inches in diameter, used to irrigate truck crops, to deep wells, 14 inches in diameter, capable of producing 1,500 gallons per minute and used to irrigate large citrus groves. There is also a growing interest in the use of Well water for irrigating pastureland.
The average yearly use of water from wells for irrigation in Highlands County is estimated to be about 650 million gallons. The average yearly use of surface water (derived from lakes which themselves are fed by ground water) for irrigation is estimated to be about 3 billion gallons.
Stock-Water Supplies
Practically all stock in Highlands County is raised in the low flat areas. Even though there are many marshes and small ponds in these areas, a large number of wells are used to obtain water. Ranchers increasingly tend to furnish well water for their animals rather than let them drink from the marshes and ponds, many of which are infested with parasites. Most wells used are sand-point wells equipped with windmills, and draw their supplies from the shallow ground-water body. In the areas near the Highlands Ridge, flowing wells that tap the shallow artesian aquifers yield some of the stock supplies.
Public Supplies
Four towns in Highlands County have public water systems: Avon Park, Sebring, DeSoto City, and Lake Placid. All except Lake Placid, which uses the water of Lake Sirena, obtain their supplies from wells. (For more complete information concerning public-supply wells in Highlands County see tables 9 and 11.) AVON PARK
The water supply for Avon Park is obtained from three wells (391, 392, and 403) that draw from the Floridan aquifer. Well 391 is 1,040 feet deep and is cased to 350 feet with 10-inch pipe. Well 392 is 1,153 feet deep and is cased to 260 feet with 15-inch casing. Well 403 is 1,301 feet deep and is cased to 301 feet with 10-inch pipe. The three wells together can produce about 1,800 gallons per minute with the present pumps. The estimated total pumpage for the year 1950 was about 375,000,000 gallons.
SEBRING
The town of Shebring obtains its water supply from three wells




52 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY
(22, 23, and 24) in the Floridan aquifer, which according to D. H. Durrance, Water Superintendent, can produce a combined total of 4,000 gallons per minute with the present pumps. Well 22 is 1,278 feet deep and is cased to an unknown depth with 8-inch pipe. Wells 23 and 24 are both 1,400 feet deep and are cased to unknown depths with 8- and 10-inch pipes, respectively. The total pumpage for the year 1950 was 385,670,000 gallons.
DESOTO CITY
The water supply for the town of DeSoto City is obtained from a screened well (394) drawing from the Hawthorn formation. The well is 88 feet deep, is cased to 68 feet with 4-inch pipe, and is finished with a 20-foot screen. The estimated yearly pumpage for 1950 was about 15,000,000 gallons.
LAKE PLACID
The water supply for the town of Lake Placid is obtained from Lake Sirena, a small lake just south of the town. The total annual pumpage in 1950 was 24,820,000 gallons.
QUALITY OF WATER
The chemical character of ground water in Highlands County is shown by analyses, made by the U. S. Geological Survey, of water collected from 36 wells distributed as uniformly as practicable within the area and among the water-bearing formations (table 9). The analyses show only the dissolved mineral content and do not indicate the sanitary condition of the water.
Chemical Constituents in Relation to Use IRON (Fe)
Iron is dissolved from many rock materials and the quantity in ground water may differ greatly from place to place even within the same aquifer. If the iron content is much more than 0.1 part per million, the excess may separate out as a reddish sediment, which stains bathroom fixtures, cooking utensils, and fabrics. An excess of iron may also cause an offensive taste and odor, and cause clogging as well, by promoting bacterial growth in the water mains (Ryan, 1937, p. 199).
Excess iron may be removed from most water by simple aeration and settling or filtration. In some water, especially that which is soft or has a low pH, aeration must be supplemented by chemical treatment with lime or soda ash.
Of the 36 samples of water collected from wells in Highlands County,




Table 9. CHEMICAL ANALYSES OF GROUND WATER IN HIGHLANDS COUNTY
(CHEMICAL CONSTITUENTS IN PARTS PER MILLION)
Tern- Total Sodium
Well Depth Principal geologic pera.- hard- Iron Cal- Magne- and po- Bicar- Sul- Chlo- Fluo- NiNo. (feet) source ture pH Color ness as (Fe) cium sium tassium bonate fate ride ride trate
(oF) CaCOs (Ca) (Mg) (Na+K) (HCO3) (SO4) (Cl) (F) (NOs)
1 640 Ocala ............... 77 7.8 0 840 0.00 61 46 43 111 180 110 0.5 0.1
16 1,410 Lake City........... 79 7.7 0 118 .00 82 9.6 6.1 90 44 9 .0 .5 0
20 624 Moodys Branch...... 76 7.7 0 55 .00 17 8.8 4.5 68 0 7 .0 .2
24 1,400 Lake City........... 81 7.9 0 66 .00 18 4.9 3.8 74 4.0 6 .0 .1
26 85 Hawthorn........... 77 6.2 0 8 .01 .7 6.8 ........ 6 2.0 11 .0 .2
28 750 Avon Park.......... 77 7.9 0 66 .00 24 1.5 14 110 0 5 .0 .2
87 554 Ocala............... 76 8.0 0 72 .00 20 5.1 4.8 89 0 5 .0 .1
38 1,440 Lake City........... 77 7.7 0 72 .00 18 6.6 4.8 86 0 10 .1 .1
40 815 Hawthorn ........... 74 8.0 0 64 .00 18 4.4 6.5 85 0 5 .1 .1
64 1,150 Lake City........... 81 8.0 0 70 .00 17 6.6 8.8 85 0 5 .0 .0
87 979 Avon Park.......... 76 8.0 0 56 .00 18 8.0 5.0 71 0 7 .0 .1
112 508 Ocala (?) ............ 7.9 0 82 .01 21 7.2 7.6 108 0 7 .0 .1
126 1,150 Lake City........... 77. 7.5 2 50 .~8 18 1.1 7.4 65 .5 9 .0 .1
128 90 Hawthorn........... 73 6.4 2 2 .00 ............ .. 7.3 9 1 6 .0 .6
181 125 Hawthorn........... 78 7.2 18 181 1.9 67 3.2 8.7 232 1 9 .1 .2
141 280 Hawthorn........... 76 7.5 6 175 .04 55 9.0 18 284 1 6 .0 .5
149 24 Hawthorn ........... 74 5.2 1 7 .01 2.3 .4 13 6 9 10 .0 8.0
161 670 Ocala ............... 75 7.6 2 73 .00 16 8.1 5.7 88 4 6 .3 .1 Z
179 80 Pleistocene.......... 73 5.1 4 5 .08 1.5 .4 9.4 6 .8 14 .1 .1
182 240 Hawthorn........... 74 7.6 7 188 .00 34 12 13 184 28 15 .8 .1
211 1,450 Lake City ........... 81 7.6 7 141 .88 37 12 10 167 10 12 .1 .2
214 86 Hawthorn........... 77 6.1 3 2 .06 .8 .1 8.2 9 1.5 6 .0 8.6
285 25 Hawthorn........... 74 4.7 80 14 .50 2.4 2.0 4.9 2 89 57 .0 .5
269 187 Hawthorn ........... 78 6.8 18 30 1.1 8.8 2.0 9.9 42 7 8 .5 .4
278 65 Tamiami ........... 74 6.2 7 22 1.1 7.9 .6 4.0 28 1 6 .4 .5
330 49 Hawthorn........... 76 5.9 7 9 .00 1.9 1.0 4.4 12 .8 5 .1 .5
384 88 Tamiami............ 78 7.3 104 446 1.2 91 53 219 580 20 830 .2 .9
837 45 Pleistocene.......... 74 7.3 60 255 .72 89 7.8 12 310 0 20 .2 .9
344 252 Hawthorn........... 74 7.7 25 217 .06 78 5.7 29 266 0 44 .8 .5
851 85 Pleistocene.......... 74 5.4 5 18 .00 8.6 1.0 13 6 1.0 16 .0 18
858 80 Hawthorn........... 78 6.3 80 48 8.2 9.9 4.5 6.3 64 8 6 .4 .7
858 1,550 Lake City........... 82 7.4 7 185 .00 40 21 5.3 128 78 14 .3 .3
876 20 Hawthorn........... 75 5.7 7 14 .62 8.5 1.3 7.7 20 1 9 .2 .2
891 1,040 Avon Park.......... 77 7.7 7 106 .62 26 11 1.4 128 .8 6 .2 .2
898 80 Hawthorn........... 74 5.8 12 27 1.1 7.5 2.0 20 29 4.5 .6 .5 ........
894 88 Hawthorn........... 78 5.2 7 2 .00 .4 .2 4.3 8 .2 4 .0 3.4




54 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY
24 contained less than 0.1 ppm of iron, 6 contained between 0.1 and 1.0 ppm, 5 contained between 1.0 and 3.0 ppm, and 1 contained
3.2 ppm.
CA.LCuM (Ca)
In southern Florida calcium is dissolved from rock materials containing calcium carbonate (limestone, dolomite, marl, and shells) by water containing carbon dioxide. Calcium is the main cause of hardness of the water in Highlands County. The calcium content of the 36 samples collected ranged from 0.4 to 91 ppm. fAG;NESIUM (Mg)
In southern Florida magnesium is dissolved from sedimentary rock material that contains magnesium carbonate. Magnesium is present also in sea water, and the relative abundance of the element in some wells in southeastern Highlands County may be due in part to contamination by trapped sea water. Next to calcium, magnesium is the principal cause of the hardness of water in this area. The magnesium content of the 36 samples collected ranged from 0.1 to 53 ppm. So)IuMt (Na) AND POTASSIUM (K)
Sodium and potassium are dissolved from most rock materials and are normally present in small amounts in the water of this area. Small to moderate amounts of these constituents have little or no effect on the suitability of water used for most purposes. However, if the sodium content is much higher than 100 ppm it may cause foaming in steam boilers. Of the 36 samples, all but 1 contained less than 50 ppm of sodium and potassium. The water from well 334 contained 219 ppm, probably as a result of contamination by trapped sea water. BICARBONA'rE (HCO:,)
Bicarbonate is derived from the solution of carbonate rocks by water containing carbon dioxide. Bicarbonate, as such, has little effect on the use of water. The bicarbonate content of the samples ranged from 2 to 53 ()ppm.
SULFATE (SO.,)
Sulfate in this area is dissolved from sedimentary rocks containing sodium and calcium sulfate, which may be salts from trapped sea water. Sulfate itself has little effect on the general use of water, but if it is present in sufficient quantity in hard water it may contribute to boiler scale. Sodium and magnesium sulfate, if present in sufficient quantity, give a bitter taste to water and produce a laxative effect. Of the 36




REPORT OF INVESTIGATIONS No. 15 55
samples collected, 10 contained no measurable quantity of sulfate, 20 contained 10 ppm or less, 5 contained between 10 and 100 ppm, and
1 contained 180 ppm.
CHLORIDE (C1)
In this area chloride is dissolved in small quantities from most sedimentary rocks and in larger quantities from sea salts or trapped sea water. Chloride has little effect on the suitability of water for most uses, unless there is enough to affect the taste. However, large quantities of chloride may affect the suitability of water for industrial use, as it increases the corrosiveness when combined with large quantities of calcium and magnesium. Of the samples analyzed, 25 contained 10 ppm or less of chloride, 7 contained more than 10 but no more than 20 ppm, 2 contained more than 21 but no more than 60 ppm. One contained 110 ppm and 1 contained 330 ppm. FLUORIDE (F)
Fluoride is dissolved in small quantities from some of the sedimentary rocks. It is known to affect the suitability of water only in its relation to dental growth in children; water containing more than 1.5 ppm of fluoride is likely to produce mottled enamel (Dean, 1936, p. 1269-1272). However, small quantities of fluoride, not sufficient to cause mottled enamel, are likely to be beneficial by inhibiting tooth decay (Dean, Arnold, and Elvove, 1942, p. 1155-1179). Of the 36 samples analyzed 17 contained no fluoride, and 19 contained 0.1 to 0.8 ppm.
NITRATE (NO3)
Nitrate is generally formed from the oxidation of ammonium compounds, which, in turn, are derived from decaying organic matter (Ryan, 1937, p. 42). Small quantities of nitrate have no effect on water for ordinary uses, but large quantities may indicate pollution. Of the 36 samples analyzed, 32 contained less than 1.0 ppm of nitrate and 4 contained more than 1.0 but no more than 18.0 ppm. TOTAL HARDNESS AS CaCO,
The hardness of water, which is the property that generally receives the most attention, is commonly recognized by the increased amount of soap needed to produce a lather, and by the sticky, insoluble precipitate that it forms with soap. Calcium and magnesium cause most of the hardness. These constituents are also the active agents in the formation of most of the scale in vessels in which water is heated or evaporated.




56 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY
Water having a hardness of no more than 50 ppm is generally rated as soft, and its treatment under ordinary circumstances is not n(ec('ssary. Hardness of 50 to 150 ppm does not seriously interfere with the use( of water for most purposes, but it does increase the consumption of soap). It is usually profitable for laundries, or other industries that use large quantities of soap, to soften such water. Water in the upper part of this range of hardness will cause considerable scale in steam boilers. Hardness of more than 150 ppm is very noticeable, and if the hardness is much over 200 ppm it is common practice to soften the water for household use or to obtain softer water from some other source.
''he samples of water collected range in hardness from 2 to 446 ppnm. Of these samples of water 15 had a hardness of 50 ppm or less, 14 had a hardness of more than 50 but no more than 150 ppm, 3i a hardness of more than 150 but no more than 200 ppm, 3 a hardness between 300() and 40()0 ppin, and 1 a hardness of 446 ppm. ( COLOR
'The materials that color ground water in this area are derived froi organic matter and are in themselves harmless. Color is measured in terms of an arbitrary color standard. Color of less than 10, according to this standard, is not objectionable to those who have not been accustoned to colorless water. Color generally may be removed from water I)y coagulation and filtration.
Of the 36 samples analyzed for this report, 12 were colorless, 16 had color of less than 10, and 8 had color ranging from 12 to 104.
I
'lhe( term pH is used to express acidity or alkalinity. Water that is neither acid nor alkaline is said to be neutral and has a pH value o)f 7. Water having an alkaline reaction has a pH higher than 7, whereas water having an acid reaction has a pH less than 7. The Ipresncice of alkaline salts causes a high pH in water, and the presence of dissolvedd carbon dioxide gas in the form of carbonic acid is the most c(,nlon cause of a low pH. For all practical purposes the pH of a water depends on the ratio of the alkaline salts to the dissolved carb)(n dioxide. The suitability of a water is affected by its pH in that the lower the pH the greater the corrosiveness to metals, although not all water having the same pH is equally corrosive.
Of the 36 samples analyzed for this report 22 gave an alkaline reaction and 14 gave an acid reaction, the pH for all the samples ranging from 4.7 to 8.0.




REPORT OF INVESTIGATIONS No. 15 57
TEMPERATURE
The temperature of the water from wells in the county ranges from about 70' to as high as 80'F. The lower temperatures are found in the relatively shallow wells, and the higher ones in deeper wells. The temperatures in the shallow wells vary slightly with the seasons, but those in the deeper wells remain fairly constant throughout the year. HYDROGEN SULFIDE (H.,S)
Hydrogen sulfide gas, probably formed by the reduction of sulfate in the rocks, occurs in many wells in Highlands County. The hydrogen sulfide contents are not listed in table 4, however, as any gas that was in the samples when they were collected had been dissipated by the time they reached the laboratory. Hydrogen sulfide has the odor of rotten eggs and is found in small quantities in much of the water of this area. It usually disappears quickly when water is aerated or allowed to stand in an open vessel.
Chemical character in relation to stratigraphy
The ground water in Highlands County is derived from two major sources: (1) the Floridan aquifer, and (2) the aquifers in the upper part of the Hawthorn and in younger formations. Locally, in the southeastern part of the county, water from both sources has a relatively high mineral content, probably as a result of contamination by sea water trapped during high stages of the Pleistocene sea. A summary of the quality of water from the two major sources is given in table 10. THE FLORIDAN AQUIFER
In the ridge section of the county, water from the Floridan aquifer has a low mineral content and does not differ greatly in quality from one to the other of the formations composing the aquifer. In the southeastern part of the county water from the aquifer has a much higher mineral content.
AQUIFERS IN THE UPPER PART OF THE HAWTHORN AND IN YOUNGER FORMATIONS
Water from the Hawthorn and younger formations in all the county, except the southeastern part, ranges widely in chemical composition. That in the southeastern part of the county, east of the shallow artesian system, has a uniformly high mineral content.
SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS
Ground water occurs in at least three distinct aquifers of unequal importance the water-table, or unconfined aquifer, local shallow artesian aquifers, and the Floridan artesian aquifer.




Table 10 -- CHEMICAL ANALYSES, IN PARTS PER MILLION, OF WATER
FROM THE TWO MAJOR GROUND-WATER SOURCES IN HIGHLANDS COUNTY
AQUIFERS IN THE HAWTHORN AND
FLORIDAN AQUIFER YOUNGER FORMATIONS
Ridge section of Southeastern All of county Southeastern part of county Highlands County part of county except southeastern east of area of shallow (Samples from (Samples from part (Samples from artesian flow (Samples 14 wells) well no. 1) 18 wells) from 3 wells)
Iron (Fe) 0 to 0.62 0 0 to 3.2 0.06 to 1.2 Calcium (Ca) 16 to 40 61 .4 to 67 78 to 91 Magnesium (Mg) 1.1 to 21 46 .1 to 12 5.7 to 53 Sodium and potassium 1.4 to 14 43 4.0 to 20 15 to 219 Bicarbonate (HCO3) 65 to 167 111 2.0 to 234 266 to 530 Sulfate (SO.) 0 to 73 180 0 to 39 0 to 20 Chloride (Cl) 5 to 14 110 .6 to 57 20 to 332 0 Fluoride (F) 0 to .3 .5 0 to .8 .2 to .3 Nitrate (NO3) 0 to .5 .1 .1 to 18 .5 to .9 Hardness as CaCO3 50 to 185 340 2 to 181 217 to 446 Specific conductance at 25C (micromhos) 130 to 400 928 26.7 to 380 540 to 1780" Color 0 to 7 0 0 to 30 25 to 104 pH 7.4 to 8.0 7.8 4.7 to 7.6 7.3 to 7.7 Temperature, IF 74 to 82 77.5 73 to 78+ 73 to 74.5+




REPORT OF INVESTIGATIONS No. 15 59
The water-table aquifer in the Highlands Ridge area is composed of Pleistocene sand deposits and the deltaic portion of the Hawthorn, made up of white to red, kaolinitic, quartz sand containing pebbles of quartz and, in places, of phosphorite. In the rest of the area the aquifer is composed of post-Miocene sands, the Tamiami formation, and, locally, the upper part of the Hawthorn formation. The beds of coarse sand and gravel in the Hawthorn in the ridge and the area west of it are an important source of water and are being utilized by an increasing number of screened and gravel-packed wells developed at depths of 120 to 200 feet. In the remainder of the county the water-table aquifer is a source of water for stock and domestic supplies.
Recharge to the unconfined ground-water body is derived principally from local rainfall, which averages about 52 inches a year. Because of the permeability of the surficial material throughout the county, the rainfall percolates rapidly down into the water-table aquifer, surface runoff occurring only where the aquifer is so full that it rejects the recharge. A few lakes and streams also are a source of recharge, at least at times, to the unconfined ground-water body. Some recharge is derived also from seepage from the shallow artesian aquifers, and from downward seepage of irrigation water.
Discharge of unconfined ground water occurs through evapotranspiration, streams, lakes, canals, and wells. Evapotranspiration accounts for a large percentage of the total ground-water discharge in areas where the water table is near the land surface. Studies have not been made of the evapotranspiration losses in the area, but they are estimated to exceed half the average annual rainfall. Ground water also is constantly being discharged into the streams and canals of the area, which during periods of low flow are maintained almost entirely from groundwater storage. Wells account for only a small amount of the total discharge. However, the amount of ground water discharged into lakes when they are being pumped for citrus irrigation is large, probably amounting to about 3 billion gallons in 1951.
Shallow artesian aquifers of minor importance, composed of coarse sand, gravel, or shell beds, occur locally in the Tamiami formation and the upper part of the Hawthorn in the area east of the ridge. They are found mainly on the flanks of the Highlands Ridge; the recharge area on the ridge and the upper reaches of its flanks have sufficient relief to provide an artesian head in the aquifers. The shallowest aquifers can be tapped by wells 10 to 15 feet deep, but because of very leaky confining beds their areal extent is small. In the Kissimmee




60 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY
Valley area within the county an artesian aquifer occurs locally at depths of 125 to 150 feet below the land surface.
Recharge to the shallow artesian aquifers is by rainfall on and along the flanks of the ridge. Although a small amount of water from the aquifers is utilized for stock and domestic needs, most of it is discharged through leaky confining beds upward into the water-table aquifer.
The Floridan, or principal artesian, aquifer underlies the entire county and is the most important aquifer in the area. In the northwestern and southwestern parts of the county the top of the aquifer is respectively about 150 and 500 feet below mean sea level. The marine clay marls of the Hawthorn, which underlie the water-bearing gravel and sands of the deltaic part of that formation, compose the confining beds of the Floridan aquifer. Limestones in the lower part of the Hawthorn and the limestones of the Suwannee, Ocala, Moodys Branch, Avon Park, and Lake City formations constitute the part of the aquifer utilized in Highlands County. This upper 1,000 feet of the aquifer represents about one-third of the total thickness of the Tertiary limestone section, of which an undetermined thickness constitutes the Floridan aquifer. The Lake City limestone is the most important water-producing formation in the aquifer and is the principal source of many large water supplies for municipal use and irrigation. A 16-inch well drilled to a depth of 1,300 feet was reported to yield 2,000 gpmni with a drawdown of 26 feet. The limestones of the lower part of the Hawthorn and of the Suwannee, Ocala, Moodys Branch, and Avon Park are not as permeable as the Lake City. These limestones are not in themselves important sources of water supplies, but as components of the Floridan aquifer they contribute water to wells that penetrate the lower formations; also, of course, water must pass through these limestones to reach the Lake City limestone. In the northwestern part of the county, the lower part of the Hawthorn is sufficiently permeable to be a potential source of medium to large supplies of water.
The piezometric surface of the Floridan aquifer ranges from about 95 feet above mean sea level at Avon Park to 55 feet at Brighton. It slopes in a general southeasterly direction, the piezometric high corresponding roughly to the topographic high.
Although the entire ridge section of Highlands County is in the recharge area for the Floridan aquifer, most of the recharge to the aquifer occurs north of Sebring. Cuttings from wells in the area north of Sebring indicate that the beds overlying the limestones of the Floridan aquifer are thin and fairly permeable. The recharge area extends north-




REPORT OF INVESTIGATIONS No. 15 61
ward into Polk County, where the principal recharge to the aquifer occurs.
Discharge from the Floridan aquifer in Highlands County is by wells and the upward percolation in low areas through sand-filled sinks or collapse basins. About 1/2 billion gallons of water for public and irrigation supplies is estimated to have been pumped in 1951 from the Floridan aquifer.




Table 11. RECORD OF SELECTED WELLS INs HIGHLANDS COUNTY
1I D. domestic: I. irrigation: O. observation; P. public supply: S. stock: T. tct) < Water level. in feet. above (-) or below (-) land surface)
Well Location Owner Depth Diam- Casing Probable Use I Remarks No. (ft.) eter depth geologic (in.) (ft.) source
I About 17 miles west of Okeechobee on the south side Lykes Bros....... 640 8-6 ......... Oeala........... D Water level +22 ft,2 Oct.
of State Highway 70, SW %SE j sec. 26, T. 37 S., 10, 1952. Well 1 in W.S.
R. 32 E. P. 773-C. See table 9.
5 10 feet west of the aerator of the Hendricks Army Air U. S. Air Force 176 8 ........ Hawthorn ........ D Gravel-packed well. See log.
Field water-treatment plant, about 6.3 miles south- F.G.S. well W595.
east of Sebring, SE YSE sec. 7, T. 35 S., R. 30E. F w
9 12 miles east of State Highway 64 on the south side of J. S. Geological 26 6 22 Pleistocene ..... O See fig. 7a; log.
the road to Fort Kissmmee, NE ~NW sec. 7,T. Survey
33 S., R. 31. E.
10 0.9 mile west of State Highway 17 on the south sideof do.............. 45 6 41 Hawthorn (?).... 0 See fig. 7a.
State Highway 623, about 4 miles southeast ofi ..
Sebring, NE MSE Y see. 2, T. 85 S., R. 29 E.
11 3.1. miles northwest of the Istokpoga Canal on the do.............. 16 6 13 Pleistocene ...... 0 See fig. 7a.
south side of State Highway 66, NW ,3SW Y see. 14,
T. 35 S., R. 31 E.
12 3.7 mile west of the Kissimmee River on the north side U. S. Geological 21 6 18 Pleistocene ...... 0 See fig. 7b; log.
of State Highway 100, NEXSWY4 see. 7, T. 36 S., Survey
R. 33 E.
13 0.5 mile west of the Kissimmee River on the north side do.............. 20 6 16 Pleistocene ...... See fig. 7b.
of State Highway 70, NE XNE M see. 26, T. 37 S., t
R. 33 E.
14 3.1 mi!e south of State Highway 70, on the east side of do.............. 35 6 29 Hawthorn (?) .... O See fig. 7T.
State Highway 25, NE MNW Y see. 4, T. 38 S.,
R. 30 E.
15 0.1 mile north of the Highlands-Glades County line on do.............. 23 6 19 Hawthorn (? ... See fig. 7b.
the east side of State Highway 25, SW XSE X see. 32,
T. 39 S., R. 30 E.
16 0.4 mile east of State Highway 25, and then 0.4 mile S. Kahn........... 1,410 12 ........ Lake City....... I See table 9.
north on east side of clay road, NW34SW 4 sec. 3,
T. 35 S., R. 29 E.
4.3 mile east of Atlantic Coast Line Railroad station at J. C. Ragsdale ... 125+ 2 125 Hawthorn........ D,S
18 Avon Park on east side of State Highway 64, SE I
SE X see. 17, T. 33 S., R. 29 E.




Table 11. Continued
Well Location Owner Depth Diam- Casing Probable Use' Remarks No. (ft.) eter depth geologic (in.) (ft.) source
20 2.8 miles east of Atlantic Coast Line Railroad Station Rex Beach Estate.. 624 8 ........ Moodys Branch.. D,S,I See table 9.
at Avon Park on State Highway 64, then 0.6 mile east of clay road and 0.4 mile south on east side of
private road, SE 3/SE see. 19, T. 33 S., R. 29 E.
21 2.5 miles east of Atlantic Coast Line Railroad Station W. F. Ward . . . 56 2 ........ Hawthorn....... D Sand-point well.
at Avon Park on State Highway 64, then 0.1 mile south on west side of road, NWY4SWY4 see. 19, T.
35 S., R. 29 E.
22 West side of Park Street at intersection of Pine Street, Town of Sebring... 1,278 8 ........ Lake City....... P F.G.S. well W894. See log.
Sebring, NE NW3~ sec. 29, T. 84 S., R. 29 E. 0
23 Northeast corner of Cypress Street and Franklin Street, do.............. 1,400 12-8 .........do............ P
Sebring, SW MSW 4 see. 20, T. 84 S., R. 29 E.
24 South of intersection of Eucalyptus Street and Avocado do.............. 1,400 12-10 ........ do.. ......... P See table 9.
Street, Sebring, SE MSWM see. 20, T. 34 S., R. 29 E.
26 0.8 mile south of Polk County line on State Highway M. Staggers . . . 35 2 ........ Hawthorn....... D See table 9.
25, then 0.2 mile southwest of private road, SW3 0
NWN see. 4, T. 8833 S., R. 28 E.
0-3
28 1.1 miles south of Polk County line on State Highway S. Wittenstein ... 750 2 ........ Avon Park . . D See table 9.
25, then 0.4 mile southwest of clay road, SW NSE Y z
see. 4, T. 83 S., R. 28 E.
31 2.6 miles north from State Highway 64 at Avon Park Episcopal Church.. 25+ 60 5 Pleistocene (?)... D Concrete curbing.
on State Highway 25, then 1.0 mile northeast on clay road to east side of road on edge of lake, NW HNW Y4
see. 4, T. 83 S., R. 28 E.
32 2.0 miles north from State Highway 64 at Avon Park C. H. Shepard .... 35 2 ........ Hawthorn (?) .... D
on State Highway 25, then 0.6 mile southwest on west side of clay road around Lake Byrd, NW MSE Y
see. 9, T. 38 S., R. 28 E.
86 1.5 miles north from State Highway 64 at Avon Park Avon Park Citrus 1,167 12 ........ Lake City ........ I Water level, -77.67, Oct.
on State Highway 25, then 1.0 mile west and 0.8 mile Co. 15,1952. Yield 1,400 gpm.
south on clay road, and then 0.2 mile west of road,
NE MSE Y see. 17, T. 33 S., R. 28 E.
37 1.0 mile north from State Highway 64 at Avon Park on do............ 554 4 ........Ocala........... D See table 9.
State Highway 25, then 0.6 mile west on north side of clay road, SE 4NW Y see. 16, T. 33 S., R. 28 E.




Table 11. Continued
Well Location Owner Depth Diam- Casing Probable Use Remarks No. (ft.) eter depth geologic
S_ (in.) (ft.) source
38 3.0 miles north from Seaboard Air Line Railroad cross- Avon Park Citrus 554 12 ...... Lake City........ I See table 9.
ing south of Lake Letta on State Highway 17, then Co.
0.5 mile east on clay road, then 0.1 mile north of
road, NE MSW Y sec. 20, T. 33 S., R. 29 E.
40 1.9 miles north from State Highway 64 at Avon Park J. P. Garber ....... 315 2 H ........ Hawthorn....... D do.
on State Highways 25 and 17, then 0.4 mile southwest on South side of clay road, SE MSE M see. 9,
T. 88 S., R. 28 E.
43 1.7 miles north from State Highway 64 at Avon Park L. S. Pickett....... 29 1 % ........ Pleistocene (?)... D Sand-point well.
on State Highways 25 and 17, then 0.5 mile east on
private road on north side, SWY4SWY& see. 10, T.
33 S., R. 28 E.
48 1.5 miles north from State Highway 64 at Avon Park C. L. Armstrong... 60 2 ......... Hawthorn (?) .... D do.
on State Highways 17 and 25, then 0.3 mile east and
0.1 mile south on east side of clay road, NE N.NW 0
see. 15, T. 83 S., R. 28 E.
49 1.5 miles north from State Highway 64 at Avon Park A. R. Klemm 43 1I ........ do ............ D do.
on State Highways 17 and 25, then 1.0 mile east and 0.2 mile north on east side of road, SWYASWX see.
11, T. 33 S., R. 28 E.
61 1.5 miles north from State Highway 64 at Avon Park Minute Maid Corp. 107 3 100 Hawthorn....... D Screened well.
on State Highways 17 and 25, then 1.8 miles east on north side of road, SE ~SE ~ see. 11, T. 33 S.,
R. 28 E.
64 1.5 miles north from State Highway 64 at Avon Park do.............. 1,150 12 ......... Lake City ........ I See table 9.
on State Highways 17 and 25, then 1.9 miles north and 1.4 miles east on south side of clay road, SE Y4
NEX see. 1, T. 33 S., R. 28 E.
68 1.1 miles west from State Highways 17 and 25 at Avon C. H. Ellis......... 48 1 Y ........ Hawthorn....... D Sand-point well.
Park, on State Highway 64, then 0.1 mile south on private road, NE YSE Y se. 20, T. 33 S., R. 28 E.
70 2.6 miles west from State Highways 17 and 25 at Avon G. S. Sloman....... 38 1 Y ........ Hawthorn (?) .... D do.
Park on State Highway 64 on northwest corner of
clay road, SWMNE M see. 19, T. 33 S., R. 28 E.
72 1.5 miles north from State Highway 64 at Avon Park H. A. Jackson ...... 80 2 ......... Hawthorn ....... D do.
on State Highways 17 and 25, then 2.0 miles east and 0.4 mile south on west side of clay road, SE 3
NEM Ysec. 14, T. 33 S., R. 28 E.




Table 11. Continued
Well Location Owner Depth Diam- Casing Probable Use, Remarks No. (ft.) eter depth geologic (in.) (ft.) source
77 1.8 miles east from State Highways 17 and 25 at Avon T. H. Maxwell ..... 85 3 ........ Hawthorn....... D Sand-point well.
Park on State Highway 64, then 0.3 mile north and 0.4 mile east on north side of clay road,.NWMNE M
see. 23, T. 33 S., R. 28 E.
82 2.0 miles east from State Highways 17 and 25 at Avon D. M. Ellis ........ 64 2 ........ Hawthorn (?) .... D do.
Park on State Highway 64, then 1.0 mile north and then 0.8 mile east on north side of clay road, SE Y NWY4 sec. 18, T. 33 S., R. 28 E.
88 0.5 mile south of intersection of State Highways 17 and S. McKenzie....... 78 3 ........ Hawthorn....... D do.0
64 at Avon Park on east side of clay road, SW~ 0
SWY sec. 22, T. 88 S., R. 28 E.
86 0.8 mile south of intersection of State Highways 17 and W. O. Skipper . . 38 2 ........ Hawthorn (?) .... D do.64 on clay road, then 0.25 mile east on south side of
clay road, SW%*NW% sec. 27, T. 33 S., R. 28 E.
87 3.4 miles east of State Highway 17 on State Highway Snow Crop Corp. . 979 8-5 350 Avon Park ...... D, I See table 9.
64, then 0.5 mile south on east side of road, NE Y
NW3M see. 80, T. 33 S., R. 29 E.
88 2.9 miles north of Seaboard Railroad crossing on State H. C. Maddox ... 26 2 ........ Hawthorn (?) .... S Sand-point well.
Highway 17, then 1.6 miles east and 0.5 mile north on west side of road, SW3 ~NE Y sec. 29, T. 33 S.,
R. 29 E.
90 2.2 miles south of State Highway 64 on east side of W. Kluberge....... 35 1M ........ Pleistocene (?)... D Sand-point well.
State Highway 17, NWNE 3 sec. 25, T. 33 S.,
R. 28 E.
92 8.3 miles north of Seaboard Railroad crossing on State C. E. Hyde . . . 94 2 ........ Hawthorn (?) .... D do.
Highway 17, then 0.8 mile west and south on west side of clay road, NW YNE Y see. 86, T. 33 S.,
R. 28 E.
96 1.5 miles south of State Highway 64, then 0.8 mile L. D. Bigoney ..... 28 2 ........ Pleistocene (?)... D do.
southeast to Lake Lotela, SW ~NE 3 sec. 85, T.
83 S., R. 28 E.
101 1.9 miles south of State Highway 64, then 0.6 mile west G. E. Shaffer ...... 87 1 ........ Hawthorn (?) .... D do.
to Lake Lelia, SE MNE M sec. 34, T. 88 S., R. 28 E.
104 2.5 miles south of State Highway 64, then 0.2 mile S. P. Durrance . . 30 1 4 ........ Pleistocene (?).. D do.
southeast to Lake Denton, NE MNW Y sec. 2, T. 34 ""
S., R. 28 E. __




Table 11.- Continued
Well Location Owner Depth Diam- Casing Probable Use Remarks No. (ft.) eter depth geologic (in.) (ft.) source
107 4.7 miles south of State Highway 64 to Lake Sebring, Maxcy Securities, 1,130 8 ........ Lake City ....... D, S
then 0.9 mile west on north side of road, SE MSE 6 Inc.
sec. 10, T. 84 S., R. 28 E.
112 2.5 miles north of Seaboard Railroad on State High- F. Addinsell....... 508 6-4 ........ Oeala (?) ........ D See table 9.
way 17, then 1.5 miles south, SW HNW Y see. 31, T.
33 S., R. 29 E.
114 2.0 miles north of Seaboard Railroad on west side of H. Jines........... 11 1 3........ Pleistocene ....... D Sand-point well.
State Highway 17, NE SWY4 sec. 31, T. 33 S., 0
R. 29 E.
119 0.8 mile north of Seaboard Railroad on State High- G. M. Towne ...... 115 2 ........ Hawthorn....... D do.
way 17, then 0.7 mile east on north side of road,
SW MSW M see- 5, T. 84 S., R. 29 E.
126 0.6 mile south of Seaboard Railroad on State High- N. Wolf ........... 1,150 12 ........ Lake City ....... I See table 9.
way 17, then 1.8 miles east and 0.1 mile south on
east side of road, SW MSW Y see. 9, T. 34 S., R. 29 E.
128 0.5 mile south of Seaboard Railroad on State High- W. C. Waldron ..... 90 2 ........ Hawthorn ....... D do.
way 17, then 1.3 miles east, 0.8 mile south and 0.8 mile east on south side of road, NE %SW Y sec. 16,
T. 84 S., R. 29 E.
181 0.6 mile south of Seaboard Railroad on State Highway 0. Murphey....... .125 2 80 do............ S Water level +5 ft., May 9, C
17, then 8.9 miles east on north side of road, NW3 1950. See table 9.
SWA see. 81, T. 83 S., R. 20 E.
182 0.6 mile south of Seaboard Railroad on State Highway C. Redwine. . . .. 180 2 ........ Hawthorn....... D, S
17, then 11.6 miles east on north side of road, SWY
see. 26, T. 34 S., R. 30 E.
133 2.6 miles south from traffic circle in Sebring on State H. W. Harris . . 70 2 ........ Hawthorn (?) .... D
Highway 25, on west side of highway, SE 3NE M
see. 5, T. 85 S., R. 29 E.
189 1.7 miles south from Seaboard Railroad crossing south R. Kosman........ 55 1 Y ........ do............ D
of Lake Letta on State Highways 17 and 25 at tourist court on east side of Highway, SW MSE Y see. 18,
T. 84 S., R. 29 E.
141 5.9 miles westof State Highway 25 on State road 634, Highlands 230 4 102 Hawthorn....... D See table 9.
then 0.5 mile north to Highlands Hammock State Hammock
Park Office, NE MSE Y see. 32, T. 34 S., R. 28 E.




Table 11. Continued
Well Location Owner Depth Diam- Casing Probable Use' Remarks No. (ft.) eter depth geologic (in.) (ft.) source
147 0.6 mile west of State Highway 25 on State Road 634, W. H. Calhoun .... 45 1 3 ........ Hawthorn (?) .... D
then 2.8 miles south on graded road to edge of Lake
Buck, SE N WY see. 17, T. 85 S., R. 29 E.
148 8.2 miles west from State Highway 25 on State Road L. D. Mather ...... 40 3 ........ do............ D, I Screened well.
684 then 0.2 mile north on west side of road, SE Y
SEP, see. 35, T. 34 S., R. 28 E.
149 5.0 miles east of State Highway 25 on State Road 634, J. Vaughn......... 24+ 30 24 Hawthorn....... D Concrete curbing. See table
then 1.9 miles south, and then 1.8 miles west on west 9.
side of road, SWXSW% see. 8, T. 85 S., R. 28 E.
150 1.4 miles north from State Highway 700 on State High- A. H. Bee.......... 82 2 ......... Hawthorn (?) .... D Sand-point well.
way 25, then 0.2 mile east at end of road, NW
SWU. see. 10, T. 85 S., R. 29 E.
157 0.4 mile east from State Highway 25 on State Highway W. H. Brooker ..... 22 1 X ........ Pleistocene (?)... D do.
700, then northeast and north 8.0 miles on old highway, and then west 0.5 mile on north side of clay
road, SW3 NE 3 sec. 8, T. 85 S., R. 29 E.
161 0.4 mile east from State Highway 25 on State Highway J. R. Ramer ....... .670 4 ........ Ocala........... S See table 9. ]700, then northeast and north 4.0 miles on old high- C
way, and then 0.4 mile east to dairy, NE MSE M see.
84, T. 84 S., R. 29 E.
170 1.8 miles north from State Highway 700 on State High- A. I. Young ........ 35 2 ........ Pleistocene (?)... D Sand-point well.
way 25, then east 0.2 mile on clay road, then north
1.6 miles, then west 1.0 mile, and then north 0.4 mile *
on east side of road, NWySW 3 see. 33, T. 84 S.,
R. 29 E.
178 8.8 miles east from State Highway 25 on State High- R. X. Droit........ 21 1 ........ Pleistocene (?).. D Sand-point well.
way 700, north side, SWY4 NWY sec. 18, T. 85
S., R. 80 E.
179 8.5 miles east from State Highway 25 on south side of A. C. Ponder........ 80 1 ........ do............ D See table 9.
State Highway 700, NWYSW sec. 12, T. 85 S.,
R. 80 E.
182 8.8 miles east from State Highway 25 on south side of L. Waldron ........ 240 2 ........ Hawthorn....... D Flowing sand-point well.
State Highway 700, NE 4SWM see. 12, T. 85 S., See table 9.
R. 80 E. .




Table 11. Continued
WeLl Location Owner Depth Diam- Casing Probable Use Remarks No. (ft.) eter depth geologic (in.) (ft.) source
183 3.0 miles north from Seaboard Railroad crossing south Avon Park Citrus 1,212 304 Lake City ....... D Water level 15.5 ft., June
of Lake Letta on State Highway 25, then 1.9 miles Corp. 29, 1952. Log included.
east on north side of clay road, NE .SE Y see. 30, F.G.S. well W2397.
T. 33 S., R. 29 E.
192 10.9 miles east from State Highway 25 at DeSoto City, R. L. Stokes........ 20 1 Y ........ Pleistocene (?)... D Sand-point well.
on State Highway 700, 100 feet east of Post Office at
Lorida, SW 4SW31 see. 8, T. 35 S., R. 31 E.
195 About 11 miles east from State Highway 25 at DeSoto E. Boney .......... 235 2 ........ Hawthorn ........ D
City, on the north side of State Highway 700, on the owner's property, SE MSW Y sec. 8, T. 35 S., R. 31 E.
201 3.4 miles east from State Highway 25 at DeSoto City C. A. Causey ...... 223 3 211 Hawthorn........ D
on the north side of State Highway 700 at the junetion with the road to Hendricks field, SW Y NW Y4
sec. 18, T. 385 S., R. 80 E.
203 1.2 miles south from State Highway 700 at DeSot L. C. Smith........ .110 2 ........ do........... D Sand-point well.
City on State Highway 25, then 1.2 miles west on the south side of clay road, NE YNE Y see. 29, T. 35 S.,
. 29 E.
204 1.2 miles south from State Highway 700 at DeSoto do.............. 20 1 X ........ Pleistocene (?)... D do.
City on State Highway 25, then 1.5 miles west on the south side of clay road, NW NE Y see. 29, T. 35
S., R. 29 E.
211 1.0 mile east from State Highway 25 at DeSoto City on Maxcy Securities, 1,455 12-10 ........ Lake City ....... .D, I See table 9; log. F. G. S.
State Highway 700, then 1.8 miles south on paved Inc. well W1464.
road, then 0.4 mile west on clay road, and then 0.1 mile north on the west side of private road, NW Y
SE X see. 27, T. 35 S., R. 29 E.
212 1.0 mile east from State Highway 25 at DeSoto City on J. H. Twitty........ 58 2 .......... Hawthorn ....... D Sand-point well.
State Highway 700, then 1.8 miles south on paved road, then 0.8 mile west on clay road, and then 0.5 mile north on the east side of unimproved road, SE 4
NW see. 27, T. 35 S., R. 29 E.
214 1.0 mile east from State Highway 25 at DeSoto City on F. B. Tauchen ... 86 2 ........ Hawthorn ....... D Sand-point well See table
State Highway 700, then 3.2 miles south on paved 9
road, and then 0.5 mile east to end of clay road, SE Y
SE X see. 35, T. 35 S., R. 29 E.




Table 11. Continued
Well Location Owner Depth Diam- Casing Probable Use' Remarks No. (ft.) eter depth geologic
(in.) (ft.) source
217 2.5 miles south from State Highway 700 at DeSoto J. E. Wilson....... 30 2 ........ Hawthorn (?) .... D Sand-point well.
City on State Highway 25, then 0.1 mile west on the north side of private road, NWhNWY4 see. 84, T.
85 S., R. 29 E.
222 6.2 miles south from State Highway 700 at DeSoto J. L. McLure ...... 51 2 ......... do............ D, I Screened well.
City on west side of State Highway 25, at fruit stand,
SE YM sec. 14, T. 36 S., R. 29 E. O
230 0.3 mile north from Atlantic Coast Line Railroad cross- P. B. Hartman..... 37 1 X ........ Pleistocene (?) ... D Sand-point well.
ing, which is about 1 mile north of Lake Placid, on
State Highway 25, then 0.6 mile west on south side of road to Hen Scratch, SW4SW3 see. 25, T. 36 S.,
R. 29 E.
285 0.3 mile north from Atlantic Coast Line Railroad cross- M. P. Miller....... 25 1 X ........ Hawthorn ....... D do. See table 9.
ing which is about 1 mile north of Lake Placid on
State Highway 25, then 4.10 miles west on road to Hen Scratch, and then 0.2 mile north at end of private road, NE 3NE j see. 28, T. 36 S., R. 29 E.
286 0.3 mile north from At!antic Coast Line Railroad cross- J. K. Roosevelt .... 50 2 ........ Hawthorn ....... D Sand-point well.
ing, which is about 1 mile north of Lake Placid, on
State Highway 25, then 8.3 miles west on the north
side of road to Hen Scratch, NE jNW Y sec. 25, ci
T. 86 S., R. 28 E.
241 About 0.1 mile west of Atlantic Coast Line Railroad I. Boriss........... 46 2 ........ do............ D do.
crossing, which is about 1 mile north of Lake Placid
on State Highway 25 near the east shore of Lake
Stearns, SE MSW Y see. 30, T. 36 S., R. 30 E.
251 0.5 mile east from State Highway 25 at Lake Placid on A. Blair........... 115 2 95 do............ D 20 ft. of screen; see log.
State Highway 621, then 0.2 mile south on east side F.G.S. well W2850.
of private road, SE jSE Y see. 31, T. 86 S., R. 30 E.
255 1.4 miles east from State Highway 25 at Lake Placid on C. Tompkins...... 48 1 3 ........ Pleistocene (?) . D Sand-point well.
State Highway 621, then 0.5 mile north on west side
of road, NW3NE Y4 see. 32, T. 36 S., R. 30 E.
260 1.7 miles east from State Highway 25 at Lake Placid on G. Parks .......... 26 2 ........ Pleistocene .... D Sand-point well.
State Highway 621, then 1.9 miles south, and then 0.1 mile west at the end of private road, SE 4 NEY4
see. 8, T. 37 S., R. 30 E.




Table 11. Continued
Well Location Owner Depth Diam- Casing Probable Use' Remarks No. ; (ft.) eter depth geologic (in.) (ft.) source
269 1.8 miles east from State Highway 25 at Lake Placid on1J. R. Hendry. ..... 137 3 90 Hawthorn ....... D Water level + 15 ft., July
State Highway 621, then 1.4 miles northwest, thenI 18, 1950. See table 9.
0.2 mile south, and 0.1 mile east on south side of road,I
SWY4SWX sec. 27, T. 36 S., R. 80 E.
278 2.9 miles east from State Highway 25 at Lake Placid on J. J. Hendry....... 65 2 35 Tamiami......... I Water level + 16 ft., July
State Highway 621, then 8.9 miles south on clay 19, 1950. See table 9.
road, and then about 300 feet east of road, SW X
NW X see. 23, T. 37 S., R. 30 E.
284 6 miles east from State Highway 25 at Lake Placid on O. Reynolds....... 580 6 ........ Suwannee (?) .... D Water level + 16.5 ft., April
south side of State Highway 621, NW NW3M sec. 11, 1951. Reported flow
6, T. 37 S., R. 81 E. 300 gpm.
286 6 miles east from State Highway 25 at Lake Placid on Lykes Bros......... 150 1 ........ Hawthorn ....... D D
State Highway 621, then 6.6 miles northwest on road, and then 800 feet west of road, SW NW ~ see. 10,
T. 86 S., R. 81 E.
287 6 miles east from State Highway 25 at Lake Placid on Lykes Bros........ 35 1 Y ........ Pleistocene .... D Sand-point well.
State Highway 621, then 7.4 miles northwest on road, m
then 0.2 mile west on north side of private road,
SW MSE % see. 3, T. 86 S., R. 31 E.
292 11.3 miles east from State Highway 25 at DeSoto City A. Boney .......... 214 2 .......... Hawthorn ........ D
on State Highway 700, then 0.7 mile southeast on sand road, and then 8.2 miles south on west side of
sand road, NEMNWM sec. 33, T. 85 S., R. 31 E.
293 11.3 miles east from State Highway 25 at DeSoto City do.............. 20 3 ........ Pleistocene ..... S Sand-point well.
on State Highway 700, then 0.7 mile southeast on sand road, then 2.3 miles south on road, and then 0.4 miles east on north side of road, SW 3SW M see. 28,
T. 35 S., R. 31 E.
295 0.6 mile south from State Highway 621 at Lake Placid G. L. Pendarvis .... 30 2 ........ Pleistocene (?)... D
on State Highway 25, then 0.5 mile east on elay road, and then 0.2 mile north on west side of road, NW4
NW3M sec. 5, T. 37 S., R. 30 E.
299 0.8 mile south from State Highway 621 at Lake Placid G. Smoak ......... 90 4 ........ Hawthorn (?) .... D
on State Highway 25 at the southwest corner of junetion with paved road, NW3MSE & see. 6, T. 37 S.,
R. 30 E.




Table 11. Continued
Well Location Owner Depth Diam- Casing Probable Use2 Remarks No. (ft.) eter depth geologic
(in.) (ft.) source
305 0.5 mile north from junction of State Highways 17 and R. H. Lawhon ..... 1,230 12-10 345 Lake City....... I Water level 67.5 ft., Aug.
64 near Lake Verona in Avon Park, then 0.3 mile 15, 1950. Reported yield east on the north side of road, SW34SE34 see. 14, 1,500 gpm. See log.
T. 88 S., R. 28 E. F.G.S. well W2398.
812 1.6 miles south from State Highway 621 at Lake Placid L. L. Henderson.... 10 1 3 ........ Pleistocene (?) ... D Sand-point well.
on State Highway 25, then 1 mile west on unim- 0O
proved road, then 0.3 mile north on east side of road,
NWMSWM see. 7, T. 37 S., R. 30 E.
820 8.5 miles west from State Highway 25 on State High- G. McSwain....... 18 1 ........ Pleistocene ...... None do.
way 70, then 2.1 miles north on west side of clay and
sand road, NWNWM see. 25, T. 37 S., R. 29 E.
z
325 3.5 miles west from State Highway 25 on State High- J. C. Rails.......... 65 1 ........ Hawthorn (?) .... D do.
way 70, then 1.5 miles north on clay and sand road, .
and then 0.2 mile east on private road to well, NW Y M
SWX see. 25, T. 39 S., R. 29 E.
327 3.4 miles north from State Highway 70 on State High- E. W. Kelsey ...... 80 3 ........ Hawthorn....... D Screened well.
way 25, then 0.2 mile west on south side of road, H
SEY4SWY3 see. 17, T. 37 S., R. 30 E.
829 1.6 miles north from State Highway 70 on west side of E. L. Taylor....... 21 2 ........ Pleistocene (?).. D Sand-point well. t
State Highway 25, SW4NWY4 sec. 28, T. 87 S.,
R. 80 E.
33880 2.8 miles west from State Highway 25 on the north side A. J. Reynolds ..... 49 4 45 Hawthorn (?) .... D Flowing well. See table 9.
of State Highway 70, SE3SW sec. 35, T. 37 S.,
R. 80 E.
Cn;
383 7.5 miles west from State Highway 25 on State High- T. J. Durrance. . . 100 3 ........ Tamiami........ D
way 70, then about 0.1 mile south of road, NW .
NE X sec. 8, T. 88 S., R. 81 E.
334 9.1 miles west from State Highway 25 on State High- G. H. Tucker ...... 88 1 4 ........ do............ D See table 9.
way 70, then 0.1 mile north on east side of private
road, SWYSSW M see. 86, T. 37 S., R. 31 E.
337 19.0 miles east from State Highway 25 on State High- W. F. Underhill.... 45 2 ........ Pleistocene ...... D do.
way 70, then 4.3 miles north and then 1.7 miles east
on sand road, SE XSE Y see. 33, T. 36 S., R. 33 E.
- I ~ IIIII"




Table 11. Continued
Well Location Owner Depthi Diam- Casing Probable Use Remarks No. (ft.j eter depth geologic (in.) ft.) source
342 19.0 miles east from State Highway 25 on State High- L L. Williams ... 171 1 ........ Hawthorn ....... D
way 70, then 9.0 miles north, then 2.5 miles northwest and then 0.2 mile north on sand road, NW 4
SE N sec. 2, T. 36 S., R. 32 E.
343 19.0 miles east from State Highway 25 on State High-J. Deadwyler ....... 82 2 44 Taimim........ D
way 70, then 9.0 miles north, then 2.9 miles northwest, and then 0.1 mile north to fish camp, center of
west half, see. 2, T. 36 S., R. 32 E.
344 19.0 miles east from State Highway 25 on State High- R. Durrance....... ..252 2 155 Hawthorn....... D See table 9.
way 70, then 9.0 miles north and 4.1 miles north-I west, and then 0.1 mile north to fish camp, SW M,
SE Y sec. 84, T. 35 S., R. 32 E.
345 19.0 miles east from State Highway 25 on State High- S. McClelland...... 43 1 4 ........ Pleistocene....... D
way 70, then 9.0 miles north and then 7.3 miles northwest on north side of road, NE MSE K sec. 30, T.
35 S., R. 2 E.
351 2.9 mile south from State Highway 70 on State High- J. C. Carlton ...... 34 1 X ........ Pleistocene (?)... D See table 9.
way 17, then 0.1 miles west on clay road, SW Y4
SWX see. 17, T. 38 S., R. 30 E.
357 10.2 miles south from State Highway 70 on State High- S. Miller .......... 30 1 X 11 Hawthorn ....... D do. Well caves. C
way 17, then 2.4 miles west and northwest, and then
0.2 mile northeast, NEV4NW4 see. 8, T. 39 S.,
R. 29 E.
358 2.6 miles south from State Highway 70 on State High- Sebring Packing Co. 1,550 12-10 517 Lake City ........ I See table 9; see log. F.G.S.
way 17, then 0.2 zile east of highway in grove, cen- well W2399
ter see. 17, T. 38 S., R. 30 E.
362 1.3 miles north from State Highway 731 on State High- N. E. Browning.... 18 1 M ........ Hawthorn (?) .... D Sand-point well.
way 17, then 2.6 miles northwest, then 2.1 miles west, then 0.2 mile south, NE34NWY4 sec. 5, T. 39 S.,
R. 29 E.
370 3.8 miles west from State Highway 25 on State High- N. B. Jackson ...... 35 1 ........ Pleistocene (?)... D do.
way 731, then 0.6 mile north and then 0.2 mile east on north side of road, NE34SW34 see. 14, T. 39 S.,
R. 29 &E.
376 3.5 miles west from State Highway 25 on State High- B. Hope............ 20 2 10 Hawthorn ....... D Water level +1.5 ft., Oct.
way 731, then 0.6 mile south on west side of road, 4, 1950. See table 9.
SE Y4SW X see. 23, T. 39 S., R. 29 E. I




Table 11. Continued
Well Location Owner Depth Diam- Casing Probable UseZ Remarks No. (ft.) eter depth geologic (in.) (ft.) source
879 2.0 miles west from State Highway 25 on State High- W. J. Espenlaub 125+ 2 125 Hawthorn D Well flows during rainy
way 781, north side, at garage, SE34NE34 see. 24, T. 39 season
S., R. 29E.
384 1.8 miles west from State Highway 25 on State High- N. B. Jackson ...... 23 1 ........ Hawthorn (?) .... D Well flows after local rains.
way 731, then 0.5 mile south, and then 0.7 mile west on south side of road, NW3jNE see. 25, T. 39 S.,
R. 29 E.
387 0. mile north from Highlands-Glades County line on X. H. Peoples ...... 25 1 ........ Pleistocene (?).... D Sand-point well. 0
State Highway 25, then 0.1 mile east on private road,
NWXSEY4 see. 32, T. 39 S., R. 30 E.
0
389 1.0 miles north from Highlands-Glades County line on R. 3. Hargrove..... 30 1 ........ do............ D do.
west side of State Highway 25, NE YNE Y sec. 17,
T. 39 S., R. 30 E.
z
390 Southwest corner of intersection of State Highways 25 H. R. Blair ........ 96 4 ........ Hawthorn (?)... D Screened well.
and 70, NWYMNWV4 see. 4, T. 38 S., R. 30 E.
391 300 feet south of State Highways 64 and 17 in Avon Town of Avon Park 1,040 10 350 Avon Park ...... P See table 9. Well listed in
Park between Seaboard Air Line and Atlantic Coast W.S.P. 596-G.
Line railroad tracks, NWNSE M see. 22, T. 33 S.,
R. 28 E.
0
392 0.6 mile south from State Highway 64 at Avon Park on Florida Power Corp. 1,153 15 260 Lake City, P
State Highways 17 and 27, then 0.8 mile south ana Avon Park 02
then 0.1 mile east to power plant, SE MSW 4 see. 26,
T. 33 S., R. 28 E. z
393 14.5 miles west from State Highway 25 on north side of C. C. Carlton ...... 80 1 4 ........ Hawthorn........ S See table 9.
State Highway 70, SWy4SW T sec. 31, T. 37 S.,
R. 28 E.
394 0.8 mile north from State Highway 700 on State High- DeSoto City....... 88 4 68 do ............ P 20 feet of screen. See table 9.
way 17, then 300 feet south on west side of clay road,
SWYMNE M sec. 15, T. 35 S., R. 29 E.
396 3.8 miles west from State Highway 25 on State High- C. Arnold. ........ . 23+ 1 Y 23 Hawthorn (?) .... D Flows 7 gpm.
way 781, then 1.1 miles north on State Highway 17, and then 3.0 miles west and 0.4 mile south on clay
road, NEY4NWM see. 17, T. 39 S., R. 29 E.
399 10.9 miles east from State Highway 25 at DeSoto City R. C. Carlton...... 1,106 6 294 Lake City........ I Water level +10.5 ft., Mar.
on State Highway 700, then 2.5 miles south on sand 11, 1951. See log. F.G.S.
road, 50 feet west of post office at Lorida, NW3M well W2401.
NE X ser. 29, T. .5 S.. R. 31 E.
0




Table 11. Continued
Well Location Owner Depth Diam- Casing Probable Use Remarks No. (ft.) eter depth geologic (in.) (ft.) source
400 3.9 miles south from Starte Highway 70 on State High- C. Brown..... . . 1,439 12-10 700 do......... I Water level 115 ft., Oct.
way 25, then 0.4 mile west on clay road, and then 15, 1951. See log. F.G.S.
about 0.2 mile north of road, NE YSE sec. 20, well 5, 1951. See log. F.G.S.
T. 38 S., R. 30 E.
401 0.8 mile west from State Highway 17 on State High-1 Minute Maid Corp. 1,301 16-12 455 Lake City ....... I Water level 87 ft., Feb.
way 64, then 1.8 miles north on clay road, and then 27, 1951.Yield 2,565 gpm.
0.3 mile west on south side of sand road, SW NSW 4 See log. F.GS. well
see. 12, T. 33 5., R. 28E. W2378.
403 ).5 mile north from State Highway 64 on west side of Town of Avon Park 1,301 10 301 do............ P Water level -74 ft., Apr. S
Seaboard Air Line and Atlantic Coast Line railroad 11, 1951. Yield 636 gpm.
tracks in Avon Park, then 0.2 mile west on south side See log. F.G.S. well
of dlay road, NEy4NWY sec. 22, T. 33 S, R. 28 E. W2843.
405 ).8 mile south from trafic circle in Sebring on State T. O. Kuhl ........ 120 2 ........ Hawthorn ........ T See log. F.G.S. well W2849.
Highway 25, then 1.3 miles east of State Highway 17, and then 0.8 mile south on east side of roaa,
NW XSW X see. 34, T. 34 S., R. 29 E.
406 1.5 miles north from State Highway 64 in Avon Park N. Gumenick ...... 590 4-3 ........ Ocala ............ I Water level -55 ft., June
on ztate highway 25, then 3.0 miles east on clay road, 11, 1951.
then 0.5 mite north on clay road, then 0.9 mile northeast on clay road, and then about 0.2 mile north of
road, NW )NE Y see. 7, T. 33 S., R. 29 E.
407 ).8 mile west on road from Atlantic Coast Line railroad T. U. Jackson ...... 200 2 ........ Hawthorn ....... T See log. F.G.S. well W2845.
station in Lake Placid, and 70 feet north of road,
SW SWX see. 36, T. 36 S., R. 29 E.
408 1.3 miles south from Seaboard Air Line Railroad cross- B. F. Conner ...... 1,400 14 464 Lake City........ I Water level -55 ft., June
ing near Lakemont on State Highway 17, and then 25, 1951.Yield 1,200 gpm.
0.4 mile west on north side of clay road, SE -NW Y See log. F.G.S. well
see. 18, T. 34 S, R. 29 E. W2859.
409 4.1 miles south from State Highway 634 at the entrance I. C. Hart.......... 20 ................ hawthornrn ........ S Water level +3 ft., July 13,
of iHighlands Hammock State Park on sand road, 195L Well is large reethen LO mile west on sand road, and then 0.4 mile tangular ditch,
south on winding sand trail, NW34NWY4 see. 28,
T. 35 S., R. 28 E.
411 3.9 miles south from State Highway 70 on State High- A. M. Huff ........ 200 10 110 do............ I Gravel-packed well with 90
way 25, then 0.5 mile west on clay road, and then 0.1 ft. of slotted pipe. Est.
mile south of road, S MSE 3 see. 20, T. 38 S., R. 30 E. yield 1,200 gpm.




Table 11. Continued
Well Location Owner Depth Diam- Casing Probable Usel Remarks No. (ft.) eter depth geologic (in.) (ft.) source
414 iLI miles north from Seaboard Air Line Railroad cross- Floyd Theaters, 120 4 110 do ............ P Gravel-packed well with 10
ing near Lakemont on the west side of State High In-c. ft. of screen. See log.
way 17 in a drive-in-theatre, N %NE 4 see. 6, T. F.G.S. well W2846.
34 S., R. 29 E.
415 2.3 miles north from Seaboard Air Line Railroad cross- B. H. Griffin..... 1,140 12-10 397 Lake City........ I Water level -35.5 ft., Nov.
ing near Lakemont on State Highway 17, and then 21, 1951. Est. yield %
west 0.7 mile on south side of clay road, SE 3NE M 1,400 gpm.
see. 31, T. 33 S., R. 29 E. 0O
416 0.9 mile north from State Highway 621 on west side of M. A. Smoak.... 250 10 150 Hawthorn....... I Gravel-packed well with
State Highway 25, NE NW% see. 31, T. 36 S., 100 ft. of slotted pipe. 0
R.0 E Yield 1,320 gpm.
417 2.1 miles south from State Highway 70 on State High- G. McSwain 130 8 80 do ............. I Gravel-packed well with 50
way 25, then 0.3 mile west on clay road, and : then 1.3 ft. of slotted pipe.
miles north on east side of clay road, NWNSW see. 4, T. 38 S., R. 30 E.
421 1.3 miles north from the Seaboard Air Line Railroad J. M. Stiles ...... 180 12-10 60 do........... I Water level -22 ft., Dee.
crossing near Lakemont on State Highway 17, then 11, 1951. Gravel-packed 0 0.7 mile east on clay road, and then 0.2 mile north of well with 120 ft. of slotted > road, SEYMSWY4 see. 82, T. 38 S., R. 29 E. pipe. Est. yield 1,800 gpm.
422 0.8 mile north from State Highway 70 on State High- J. K. Roosevelt.. 100 2 ........ do............ F See log. F.G.S. well W2847. Z
way 25, then 0. mile east on north side of private
road, NWYMSEX see. 383, T. 37 S., R. 30 E.
428 4.0 miles north from Highlands-Glades County line on H. B. Snivley.... 82 4 74 do............ D 8 ft. of screen. Yield 60
State Highway 25, northwest corner see. 16, T. 39 S., gpm. See log. F.G.S. well
R. 30 E. W2840. .
424 2.2 miles east from State Highway 25 on north side of U. S. Geological 21 6 18 Pleistocene (?)... 0
State Highway 70, SE 3SW% see. 35, T. 37 S., Survey
R. 30 E.
425 4.8 miles east from State Highway 25 on State High- U. S. Geological 125 4 65 ................ T See log.
way 70, then 0.1 mile north of road, SW ,SW M sec. Survey
31, T. 37 S, R. 31 E.
426 1 mile east from Lake Istokpoga on south side of Istok- do.............. 65 4 54 ................. T do.
poga Canal, NWkHNW3. see. 3, T. 36 S., R. 31 E.
427 300 feet west of bridge over the Kissimmee River on do............... 101 4 94 ................ T do.
north side of State Highway 700, NW .NW see.
8, T. 36 S., R. 33 E.




Table 11. -- Continued
Well Location Owner Depth Diam- Casing Probable Use Remarks No. (ft.) eter depth geologic (in.) (ft.) source
428 In Highlands Hammock State Park, NW YNW Y sec. Florida Park Service 48 2 ..-.... ....................T do.
5, T. 35 S., R. 28 E.
433 3.2 miles east from State Highway 25 on the north side U. S. Geological 130 ........ ...... ................. T do.
of State Highway 70, SE MSW Y sec. 36, T. 37 S., Survey
RH. 30 E.
434 2.7 miles east from State Highway 25 on the south side do .............. 60 ................................ T do.
of State Highway 70, NE YNE M see. 2, T. 38 S.,
R. 80 E.
435 .2 mileseastfromStateHighway25onthenorthside do .............. '20 ........ ........................ T do.
of State Highway 70, SE MSW Y se-. 35, T. 37 S.,
RH. 80 E.
436 1.4 miles east from State Highway 25 on south side of U. S. Geological 140 ........................ T See log.
State Highway 70, NW ~NEX sec. 3, T. 38 S., R. Survey
36 E.
437 4.2 miles west from State Highway 25 on south side of do.............. 160 ................................ T do.
State Highway 70, NW 4NW Y see. 2, T. 38 S.,
R. 29 E.
438 6.5 miles west from State Highway 25 on south side of do.............. .. 60 ................ ................ T do.
State Highway 70, NE NE Y4 sec. 5, T. 38 S., C
R. 29 E.
439 10.1 miles south from State Highway 70 on State High- do.............. 210 ................ ................ T do.
way 25, then 3.7 miles west on south side of State
Highway 17, SE XNW X see. 23, T. 39 S., R. 29 E.




REPORT OF INVESTIGATIONS NO. 15 77
MEASURED GEOLOGIC SECTIONS
The Hawthorn formation and formations of Pleistocene age are exposed in many of the clay pits, road cuts, and drainage ditches in Highlands County. Some of the best exposures are listed below; all the material described is nonfossiliferous.
Stations 401 and 426.- Road-metal pit in the NE/4NE/4 sec. 11, T. 33 S., R. 28 E., 3 miles north of Avon Park. The geologic section exposed in this pit shows the unconformable contact between the Hawthorn formation and formations of Pleistocene age and also gives some indication of the unevenness of the pre-Pleistocene land surface. (See figure 11.)
Station 407.- Abandoned road-metal pit in the SW4SE 4 sec. 16, T. 35 S., R. 29 E., 1 mile west of DeSoto City. Surface altitude 110 feet.
SECTION THICKNESS (FEET)
Pleistocene deposits:
2b. Sand, fine to medium, carbonaceous, tan-gray............................ 0.5
2a. Sand, medium to coarse, slightly clayey, light-gray-orange
to orange .................................................................................. 22.0
Hawthorn formation:
lb. Clay, sandy (medium to very coarse), red-orange; nodules
of yellow to white sandy clay. Hardens on exposure,
stands in vertical cuts ............................................................. 6.0
la. Sand, medium to very coarse, clayey, tan-gray to orange............ 1.5
Station 410. Stream bank and auger hole in the northwest corner, SE 4NW 4 sec. 3, T. 39 S., R. 29 E., 4 miles northwest of Venus. Surface altitude 905 feet.
SECTION THICKNESS (FEET)
Pleistocene deposits:
2b. Sand, fine to medium, quartz, carbonaceous, light-gray
to brown. Grades into bed below ............................................ 3.0
2a. Sand, quartz, fine to medium, with some coarse sand
at bottom of bed, tan .............................................................. 2.0
Hawthorn (?) formation:
Ic. Clay, sandy, medium to coarse, plastic, tan, stained with
lim onite ................................................................................ 2.0
lb. Same as bed ic but clay is tan to turquoise .............................. 1.0
la. Sand, quartz, medium to coarse, with some tan clay .................. 0.5
Station 415. -Road cut in the NE/4SE4 sec. 12, T. 35 S., R. 29 E., 6 miles southeast of Sebring. Surface altitude 1155 feet.
SECTION THICKNESS (FEET)
Pleistocene deposits:
lb. Sand, quartz, fine to coarse (average medium), rounded,
frosted, light-yellow-orange .................................................... 0.5
l a. Sand, quartz, medium to coarse, (average coarse),
rounded, partially frosted, gray-orange, with a.large
amount of heavy minerals 30.0




78 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY
Bed la is typical of the material comprising the many coastal bars in the eastern and southern parts of the Highlands Ridge.
Station 408. Road-metal pit in the center of the NE',4 sec. 32, T. 37 S., R. 30 E., 6 miles south of the town of Lake Placid. Surface altitude 165'5 feet.
SECTION THICKNESS (FEET)
Phleistocene deposits:
2. Sand, quartz, medium to coarse, cream-orange ....................... 4.0
Ilawthorn formation:
1. Clay, sandy (medium to very coarse), brick-red to brown;
nodules of white sandy kaolinite and ironstones.
Stands in vertical cuts ........................................................... 5.0
S 0. 15 MI. >- N
Station 401 Station 426
Land surfoce is /65 feel obove meon sea leve/~0 04%. "" " ..
.. .~ < . .
- 0- i o-- -0 "
100
-o--.----o-*_--o-'-o--'._.--.-10 -* -15-- ---O ---
5o- 0z-020 ---.I_" o- o o- o-oO.- -o
20-~~~- o 0 --- -oa
EXPLANATION
.. .. Sand, quartz, light gray-orange, medium to coarse. This
.'.:4bed contains numerous rounded ironstones at station 401
.with the stones increasing in number toward base of bed.
(Pleistocene) .
.. Sand, quartz, light gray to orange, medium to coarse with
layers of red-brown to yellow-brown clayey sand becoming massive toward bottom of bed. Upper part of bed
shows some stratification on weathered surfaces.
(Pleistocene).
-T-. Sand, quartz, white, coarse. This bed forms a thin layer
between beds I and 3. Spring line. (Pleistocene).
- of ironstone and nodules and pipes of yellow-brown -o- sandy clay. Sand fine to coarse, average coarse.
Bed is capped locally with hard limonitic sandstone.
Stands in vertical cuts. (Hawthorn formation).
FIGURE 11.- Idealized geologic section between stations 401 and 426.




REPORT OF INVESTIGATIONS No. 15 79
Station 409. Drainage ditch in the center of section 11, T. 36 S.,
R. 28 E., about 8 miles southwest of DeSoto City. Surface altitude
70 10 feet.
SECTION THICKNESS (FEET)
Plecistocene deposits:
2. Sand, quartz, carbonaceous, medium to fine, gray ................... 1.5
Hawthorn (?) formation:
1. Marl, sandy, light-gray to tan-gray, hardens to limestone
on exposure .............................................................................. 1.5
WELL LOGS
Well 22
(F. G. S. no. 894)
At Sebring near power plant. Surface altitude 120 feet.
MATERIAL DEPTH, IN FEET
BELOW LAND SURFACE
N o sam ple ............................................................................. 0- 130
Hawthorn formations:
Q uartz sand ............................................................................. 130- 180
Sand, fine to granule-size, quartz, brown and
black phosphorite ........................................................... 180- 190
Sand, sandy limestone, shell fragments, and
brown phosphorite ........................................................... 190- 305
Limestone, phosphatic, coarsely sandy ................................... 305- 315
As above, and sand ................................................................. 315- 345
Limestone, impure, 50 percent black phosphorite ............... 345- 355
As above, and sand ................................................................. 355- 375
Limestone, impure, black phosphorite ................................... 375- 395
Dolomite, "sugary", light-tan; "sugary"
phosphatic limestone ..................................................... 395- 415
Limestone, sandy, phosphatic ................................................. 415- 435
Sand and phosphorite ........................................................... 435- 445
Sand, phosphorite, and limestone ......................................... 445- 515
Suwannee limestone:
Limestone, chalky, white to very light tan,
R otalia m exicana ........................................................... 515- 585
Ocala limestone:
Limestone, cream-colored, very granular, Lepidocyclina
ocalana, Eponides jacksonensis, Gypsina globula,
Operculinoides sp .......................... ................................. 585-?
Avon Park limestone:
Limestone, chalky-white to light-tan, mostly aggregate
of calcite rhombs. Discorinopsis gunteri, Coskinolina floridana, at 1,000 feet Spirolina coryensis ........ ?-1,040 Lake City limestone at 1,110 feet: As above, and 10 percent brown "sugary" dolomite
with Fabularia vaughani at 1,110 feet ......................... 1,040-1,200
Dolomite, dark-tan, dense ................................................... 1,200-1,240
Dolomite, dark-tan, and nearly white limestone with
Dictyoconus cookei ......................................................... 1,240-1,260
No sample ......................................................................... 1,260-1,278




80 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY
Well 5
(F. G. S. no. 595)
Near DeSoto City, 400 feet west of the southeast corner of sec. 7, T. 35 S., R. 30 E.
Surface altitude, 60.5 feet.
MATERIAL DEPTH, IN FEET
BELOW LAND SURFACE
Undifferentiated Pleistocene deposits:
Sand, quartz, white to brown, very fine to coarse (average fine), rounded to angular, frosted ........................... 0- 20
Sand, quartz, brown, very fine to coarse, average medium, rounded to angular, frosted; some organic
m aterial ........................................................................... 20- 35
As above, plus about 40 percent silty or clayey organic
m aterial ........................................................................... 35- 37
Sand, quartz, black, carbonaceous, containing thin
pieces of laminated peat ................................................. 37- 42
Sand, quartz, gray-brown, silty ............................................. 42- 45
As above, plus some gray clay ................................................. 45- 50
Sand, quartz, gray-white, with only a small amount of
silt, sand grains (average fine) ....................................... 50- 55
As above, very fine to coarse (average medium) ................. 55- 60
As above, plus a few medium, sand-size phosphorite
grains ............................................................................... 60- 70
Sand, quartz, tan-gray (average medium) ........................... 70- 75
Sand, quartz, gray-white, very fine to medium (average fine) 75- 90 As above, but very fine to coarse (average medium) ............ 90- 94
As above, plus some peat and carbonaceous sandstone ........ 94- 100
As above, but sand is cream white, very fine to coarse
(average m edium ) ......................................................... 100- 105
Tamiami formation:
Shell marl, green-gray, very finely sandy and silty.
Shells compose 20-30 percent of sample, mainly
pelecypod fragments ....................................................... 105- 113
As above, plus some muscovite and numerous small
grains of brown to black phosphorite. Sparse foram fauna, principally Rotalla beccarii var.; also a few unidentified ostracods and fish bones. Mollusk
fragments compose about 5-10 percent of sample .......... 113- 118
As above, but with more muscovite and phosphorite,
and fewer shell fragments. Eponides cf. mansfieldi,
Elphidium incertum? and other forams ....................... 118- 143
Shell marl, slightly silty and clayey, sandy, fine to coarse
(average m edium ) ......................................................... 143- 148
Hawthorn(?) formation:
Sand, quartz, white, very fine to coarse, (average medium), with phosphorite grains, some as large as 9 mm in diameter. Few shell fragments, very sparse
foram fauna ..................................................................... 148- 150
As above, but phosphorite grains smaller in size ................... 150- 176




REPORT OF INVESTIGATIONS No. 15 81
Well 9
In the NEY4NW4 sec. 7, T. 33 S., R. 31 E., Highlands County.
Surface altitude 131 feet.
MATERIAL DEPTH, IN FEET
BELOW LAND SURFACE
Undifferentiated Pleistocene deposits:
Sand, quartz, white, fine to medium..................................... 0- 4
Sand, quartz, brown to gray-white, fine to medium
(average fine) ............................................................ 4- 18
Sand, quartz, grayish-white, fine to medium (average
m edium ) ......................................................................... 18- 24
Sand, quartz, dirty gray-white, fine to medium ................... 24- 26
Well 10
In the NEY4SEN4 sec. 2, T. 35 S., R. 29 E., Highlands County.
Surface altitude 117.8 feet.
MATERIAL DEPTH, IN FEET
BELOW LAND SURFACE
Pleistocene deposits and Hawthorn(?)
formation undifferentiated:
Sand, quartz, brown, fine to medium (average medium) .... 0- 35
Sand, quartz, tan, fine to medium (average medium) ........ 35- 40.5
Sand, quartz, gray-white, tan, fine to medium (average
m edium ) ......................................................................... 40.5- 45
Well 11
In the NW4SW4 sec. 14, T. 35 S., R. 31 E., Highlands County.
Surface altitude 51.2 feet.
MATERIAL DEPTH, IN FEET
BELOW LAND SURFACE
Undifferentiated Pleistocene deposits: Sand, quartz, gray-brown, fine to medium (average
m edium ) ......................................................................... 0- 12
Sand, quartz, grayish-white, fine to medium (average
m edium ) ......................................................................... 12- 16
Clay, gray, sticky, and very fine quartz sand ........................ 16
Well 12
In the NE,4SW'A sec. 7, T. 36 S., R. 33 E., Highlands County.
Surface altitude 45.6 feet.
MATERIAL DEPTH, IN FEET
BELOW LAND SURFACE
Undifferentiated Pleistocene deposits: Sand, quartz, grayish-white, fine to medium (average
fine) ....................... ..................................... 0- 16
Sand, quartz, grayish-brown, fine to medium ..................... 16- 18
Sand, quartz, light-tan, fine to medium ......................... 18- 21




82 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY
Well 13
In the NEANEV4 sec. 26, T. 37 S., R. 33 E., Highlands County.
Surface altitude 29.2 feet.
MATERIAL DEPTH, IN FEET
BELOW LAND SURFACE
Undifferentiated Pleistocene deposits:
Sand, quartz, white, fine to medium (average fine) ............ 0- 15
Sand, quartz, brown, fine to medium ................................... 15- 20
Well 14
In the NE NW sec. 4, T. 38 S., R. 30 E., Highlands County.
Surface altitude 136 feet.
MATERIAL DEPTH, IN FEET
BELOW LAND SURFACE
Pleistocene deposits and Hawthorn(?)
formation undifferentiated:
Sand, quartz, grayish-white, fine to medium ....................... 0- 2
Sand, quartz, brown, fine to medium (average medium)...... 2- 19 Sand, quartz, tan, fine to medium (average medium)........ 19- 30
Sand, quartz, light-tan, grayish-white, fine to medium
(average m edium ) ......................................................... 30- 35
Well 15
In the SW4SEY4 sec. 32, T. 39 S., R. 30 E., Highlands County.
Surface altitude 58.5 feet.
MATERIAL DEPTH, IN FEET
BELOW LAND SURFACE
Pleistocene deposits and Hawthorn(?) formation undifferentiated:
Sand, quartz, carbonaceous, black ....................................... 0- 0.3
Sand, quartz, brown, grayish-white, fine to medium
(average m edium ) ....................................................... 0.3- 14
Sand, quartz, brown, fine to coarse (average mediumcoarse) ........................................................................... 14- 17
Sand, quartz, tan, fine to coarse (average medium to
coarse) ........................................................................... 17- 20
Sand, quartz, grayish-white, fine to medium (average
m edium ) ......................................................................... 20- 23
Well 183
(F.G.S. no. 2397)
Three miles southeast of Avon Park in the NE SE4 sec. 30, T. 33 S., R. 29 E. Surface altitude 105 feet. MATERIAL DEPTH, IN FEET
BELOW LAND SURFACE
N o sam ples ............................................................................. 0- 177
Hawthorn formation:
Sand, quartz, micaceous, white, fine to granule-size,
rounded to angular, and some white clay ................... 177- 188
Sand, quartz, micaceous, light-yellow to tan-gray, fine
to small pebbles, with pebbles of phosphorite and
white clay nodules ......................................................... 188- 199
As above, plus some blue-green clay and gastropods ........... 199- 222
Sand, quartz, light-cream, fine to pebble-size, with
phosphorite pebbles up to 6 mm in diameter........... 222- 242




REPORT OF INVESTIGATIONS No. 15 83
MATERIAL DEPTH, IN FEET
BELOW LAND SURFACE
As above, plus some very sandy white limestone. Phosphorite makes up about 30 percent of this sample.
M ollusk fragments ......................................................... 242- 254
Clay, tan-gray, sandy, phosphatic, with some limestone
as above ......................................................................... 254- 310
Sand, quartz, gray, medium to coarse, with some dense
crystalline phosphatic limestone. Shark's teeth and
echinoid fragments ......................................................... 310- 321
Limestone, cream, dense, finely crystalline, with phosphorite and some very coarse quartz sand..... .......... 321- 360
Limestone, clayey, dark-gray, dense, hard, with some
limestone, as above, and phosphorite pebbles .............. 360- 375
Limestone, quartz sand, phosphorite pebbles, and clay;
limestone, white to dark-gray, dense, hard to soft, finely crystalline, sandy, phosphatic; quartz sand, clear to gray, fine to very coarse; phosphorite pebbles up to 5 mm in diameter; clay, dark-green.
Echinoid spines, shark's teeth, mollusk fragments,
ostracods and Foraminifera ........................................... 375- 435
Suwannee limestone:
Limestone, slightly sandy, cream, soft, porous, crystalline; calcite rhombs and some phosphorite. Echinoid spines, Foraminifera, Rotalia mexicana and
others ............................................................................. 435- 450
Limestone, slightly sandy, cream, soft, chalky, a few
phosphorite pebbles and pieces of dark dense limestone. Numerous Foraminifera, Rotalia mexicana,
Elphidium leonensis and others ..................................... 450- 495
Ocala limestone:
Limestone, large foraminiferal coquina, cream, soft,
porous; with some material as above. Lepidocyclina
ocalana, Operculinoides ocalanus, and others ............... 495- 615
N o sam ples ............................................................................... 615- 635
Moodys Branch (?) formation:
Limestone, cream, hard, calcitic. Few large foraminifera ...... 635- 665
Limestone, large foraminiferal coquina, cream, hard,
porous, some soft chalky limestone ................................. 665- 720
Limestone, large foraminiferal coquina, light-gray. Camerinidae numerous ........................................................... 720- 735
N o sam ples ............................................................................... 735- 765
Avon Park limestone:
Limestone, light-tan-gray, hard, crystalline, with some
white chalky limestone. Gastropods, Foraminifera
and echinoids; Coskinolina floridana, Peronella dalli .... 765- 825
Limestone, cream, hard, porous. Dictyoconus cookei ............ 825- 840
As above, plus some white dense crystalline limestone.
Fossiliferous ................................................................... 840- 975
Limestone, cream to tan, hard, porous. Fossiliferous ............ 975-1,000
As above, plus Spirolina coryensis and numerous miliolids .... 1,000-1,050
Dolomite, tan to light-brown, dense, waxy, crystalline,
with some limestone, as above ......................................... 1,050-1,057
As above, plus some dense dark limestone ............................. 1,057-1,066
As above, plus some soft white limestone ............................... 1,066-1,085
Lake City limestone:
As above, plus Dictyoconus americanus ................................. 1,085-1,100
Dolomite, light-brown, finely crystalline, waxy; with
some hard white porous limestone. Fossiliferous ............ 1,100-1,155
Sand, dolomite, with some chalky, white porous limestone .... 1,155-1,212




84 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY
Water-level measurements made during drilling of well. Well cased to 304 feet. Date Depth of hole Formation Water level, feet 1950 (feet) penetrated below land surface May 31 330 Hawthorn 20.80 June 8 850 Avon Park 17.00 June 12 915 do. 16.00 une 15 945 do. 15.20 June 21 1,066 do. 16.20 June 23 1,102 Lake City 16.20 Junt. 29 1,192 do. 16.00 Well 211
(F. G. S. no. 1464)
Two miles south of DeSoto City in the NW SE4 sec. 27, T. 35 S., R. 29 E. Surface
altitude 135 feet. (Adapted from a log by Robert O. Vernon, Florida Geological Survey)
MATERIAl DEPTH, IN FEET
BELOW LAND SURFACE
Hawthorn formation:
Sand, quartz, medium to fine, poorly sorted, red ................. 20- 70
As above, but white ................................................................. 70- 100
Sand as above, and sandy cream to light-gray limestone
containing phosphorite ................................................... 100- 140
Sand, quartz, coarse to fine ................................................... 140- 165
As above, fine to medium ....................................................... 165- 185
Sand, quartz, fine to medium and sandy gray-green
fuller's earth clay ........................................................... 185- 200
As above, plus a sandy carbonaceous clay ........................... 200- 210
Sand, quartz, fine to medium; black carbonaceous clay;
cream sandy phosphatic limestone ................................. 210- 215
Sand, quartz, coarse to fine, and phosphorite ....................... 215- 240
Limestone, tan, finely crystalline, sandy, phosphatic,
many mollusk fragments ................................................. 240- 252
N o sam ple ............................................................................... 252- 270
Sand, quartz, coarse to fine, and brown sandy waxy clay.... 270- 295 Sand, quartz, fine to medium, and phosphorite ................... 295- 325
Sand, quartz, coarse to medium, phosphorite, and finely
crystalline lim estone ....................................................... 325- 335
As above, plus tan impure dense limestone ........................... 335- 340
As above, but increased phosphorite and tan limestone ........ 340- 345
Sand, quartz; dense argillaceous gray limestone; and
fissile gray clay ............................................................... 345- 350
N o sam ple ............................................................................... 350- 368
Limestone, dense, finely crystalline, cream, containing
phosphorite and mollusk shell fragments ....................... 368- 375
As above, more phosphorite ................................................... 375- 400
Limestone as above and dense brownish-gray hard phosphatic lim estone ............................................................. 400- 405
Limestone as above and cream finely crystalline dense
sandy phosphatic limestone ........................................... 405- 440
Limestone, dense, cream, finely crystalline; sand and
lim estone as above ........................................................... 440- 451
Limestone, dark-gray, dense, hard, phosphatic ..................... 451- 460
Limestone as above, mottled brown and made porous by
many mollusk and coral remains; much phosphorite
and sand ......................................................................... 460- 465
Clay, micaceous, dark-greenish-gray, and dark-gray
dense phosphatic limestone ........................................... 480- 500
Sand, quartz, fine to medium, with phosphorite and
rock above ..... .... ....................................... 500- 505




REPORT OF INVESTIGATIONS No. 15 85
MATERIAL DEPTH, IN FEET
BELOW LAND SURFACE
As above, plus light-green fissile fuller's earth clay ............... 505- 510
Sand as at 500-505 ................................................................. 510- 515
N o sam ple ............................................................................... 515- 541
Suwannee limestone:
Limestone, granular, cream, porous, soft, Rotalia mexicana, Cytheridea blanpiedi(?) Starfish ossicles .......... 541- 565
N o sam ple ............................................................................... 565- 575
Limestone, porous, white to cream, soft. Fossils above;
crab claws ....................................................................... 575- 590
As above, plus quartz sand ................................................. 590- 600
Limestone, porous, cream, soft, chalky ................................. 600- 610
Ocala limestone:
Limestone as above. Lepidocyclina ocalana, Lepidocyclina fragilis ..................................................................... 61 0- 635
N o sam ple ............................................................................... 635- 640
Limestone as above, foraminiferal coquina. Operculina,
Camerina, Lepidocyclina ............................................... 640- 695
Coquina limestone, cream, soft, porous; composed of
Lepidocyclina, Bryozoa, echinoids and camerinids ...... 695- 745
Coquina limestone, cream, soft, porous, large foraminifers 745- 840 Moody's Branch(?) formation:
Coquina limestone as above, the camerinids making up a
greater percentage of the total Foraminifera ............... 840- 889
Limestone, cream, soft, massive, porous, containing
many flat echinoids, crab claws, and large Foraminifera 889- 895
Same as above, but containing many calcite clusters
and vugs, and more granular, with fewer large fossils. Amphistegina pinarensis var ............................... 895- 900
Avon Park limestone:
Limestone, cream, granular, soft, massive, porous, fossils as above, and a large rotalid foram ......................... 900- 910
Limestone, cream, granular, soft, massive, porous, with
fossils from above. Coskinolina sp. large rotalid ............ 910- 920
Limestone as above, many Coskinolina and associated
forams and also fossils caved from above ....................... 920- 935
Limestone, light-gray to brownish-gray, granular, soft,
massive, slightly porous. Spirolina coryensis,
Lituonella, Coskinolina and cavings from above ......... 935- 980
Limestone, cream to light-gray, granular, moderately
hard, rather dense, massive, foraminiferal; composed of a mass of forams set in a light-gray chalky
matrix. Coskinolina relatively abundant ....................... 980-1,005
Limestone, light-gray, granular, soft, massive, foraminiferal; fossils as above, but rare. Calcite rhombs ............ 1,005-1,025
Limestone as above but harder, having more cement
and more fossils; species as above ................................. 1,025-1,065
Limestone as above and tan finely crystalline, soft massive porous dolomite; limestone and associated fossils caved from above ..................................................... 1,065-1,085
Limestone, cream to tan, granular, soft, massive, dense to
porous, with cavings from above ................................... 1,085-1,105
Limestone, cream to light-gray, granular, dense to porous, hard but containing soft streaks, massive; made up of forams in a light-gray chalky matrix, which
has been recrystallized in places ................................... 1,105-1,125
Limestone as above and light-gray porous soft chalky
limestone; many Coskinolina, Lituonella, Spirolina,
Textulariella, and other Gulf Hammock fauna ......... 1,125-1,145




86 FIORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY
MATERIAL DEPTH, IN FEET
BELOW LAND SURFACE
Limestone as above and tan dense brittle fine-grained
to granular, hard, fossiliferous limestone; the fossils appear to be somewhat rounded by abrasion. Fabularia sp ........................................................................... 1,145-1,185
Top of Lake City limestone at 1,150:
Limestone, tan to light-brown, dense, with porous layers,
fine granular to crystalline; some pieces are waxy and very dense and others are somewhat laminated with carbonaceous plant remains, small amounts of
pyrite; fragments of limestone from above ................... 1,185-1,195
Limestone as above and fragments of cream dense soft
chalky limestone with harder limestone granules
embedded in the matrix. Dictyoconus americanus ........ 1,195-1,225
Limestone, tan to light-brown, dense, hard and brittle
to soft and waxy, fine-grained to chalky. Dictyoconus p .................................................................... 1,225-1,265
Limestone as above and tan to light-gray dense finegrained to chalky massive limestone with much secondary calcite. Some particles seem to be argillaceous, to have laminated carbonaceous plant remains, and to be waxy. Many Foraminifera.
Dictyoconus americanus ................................................. 1,265-1,285
Limestone, tan to cream, finely ground and possibly
granular, dense, very fine grained, hard, foraminiferal. Dictyoconus americanus, Spirolina sp ............... 1,285-1,315
Limestone, cream, granular, soft, massive, slightly porous, foraminiferal, with calcitic secondary growths.
A large percentage of the sample is composed of whole and broken specimens of Dictyoconus and
Coskinolina ...................................................................... 1,315-1,325
Limestone as above in larger fragments and fragments
of dark-brown finely crystalline soft dense dolomite. Dictyoconus americanus ....................................... 1,325-1,365
Limestone and dolomite, as at 1,325-1,365 feet, in fine
grains of about equal proportions ............................... 1,365-1,375
Top (?) of the Oldsmar limestone at 1,375:
Sample predominantly brown finely crystalline dense
hard dolomite and limestone, as above. A fragment that is questionably referred to Helicostegina gyralis (?), at 1,375-1,385 feet, and an unidentifiable
Lepidocyclina, at 1,385-1,395 feet ............................... 1,375-1,415
Predominantly dark-brown to black finely crystalline soft
slightly porous massive dolomite and limestone as
above ............................................................................... 1,415-1,435
Dolomitic limestone, tan to light-brown, finely crystalline, soft, porous, and limestone as above. No
new fossils ....................................................................... 1,435-1,455
Well 251
(F. G. S. no. 2850)
One mile east of Lake Placid in the SEY4SE sec. 31, T. 36 S., R. 30 E., Highlands County. Surface altitude 90 feet. MATERIAL DEPTH, IN FEET
BELOW LAND SURFACE
Pleistocene deposits and Hawthorn formation, undifferentiated: Sand, quartz, medium to coarse, frosted light-gray .............. 0- 1
Sand, quartz, medium to coarse, frosted, gray-orange .......... 1- 7
Sand, quartz, medium to very coarse, frosted, dark-brown .... 7- 8




REPORT OF INVESTIGATIONS No. 15 87
MATERIAL DEPTH, IN FEET
BELOW LAND SURFACE
As above but lighter in color ................................................. 8- 11
Sand, quartz, carbonaceous, medium to coarse, frosted,
gray-orange ..................................................................... 11- 15
Sand, quartz, fine to coarse, frosted, red-brown ................... 15- 18
Sand, quartz, fine to elongated pebbles 8 mm in length,
poorly sorted, frosted, light-brown ............................... 18- 50
Clay, lilac-colored, and fine to coarse frosted sand ................ 50- 58
As at 18-50 feet ..................................................................... 58- 60
Sand, quartz, medium to coarse, frosted, light-brown ............ 60- 65
Sand, quartz, fine to pebble-size, frosted, and some
light-brown clay ............................................................. 65- 82
Clay, sandy, fissile, yellow-green, very micaceous, numerous small grains of' ilmenite, and round clear
quartz sand grains ......................................................... 82- 87
Sand, quartz, medium to very coarse, frosted to clear,
with some dark-lilac clay coating the grains ................ 87- 88
Clay, sandy, orange to gray-orange, some white clay,
and clear medium to coarse quartz sand ....................... 88- 94
Sand, quartz, medium to coarse, frosted to clear, yellowcream, some mica and white calcareous clay particles .... 94- 115
Well 305
(F. G. S. no. 2398)
One mile northeast of Avon Park, in the southwest corner, SWI4SEA sec. 14, T. 33 S., R. 28 E., Highlands County. Surface altitude 160 feet.
MATERIAL DEPTH, IN FEET
BELOW LAND SURFACE
N o sam ples ............................................................................. 0- 220
Hawthorn formation:
Phosphorite, clayey, calcareous; black phosphorite in
light-green nonplastic clay, phosphorite pebbles up
to 12 mm in diameter; numerous small calcite rhombs .. 220- 260
Clay (fuller's earth) and phosphorite, slightly sandy,
calcareous, light-green to olive-drab ............................. 260- 295
Limestone, phosphatic, finely crystalline, white. Mollusk fragm ents ................................................................. 295- 345
Limestone, phosphorite, and sand; limestone finely crystalline to porcelaneous, dense, phosphorite brown to black. Mollusks, echinoid spines and Foraminifera-Elphidium sp. and others ................................... 345- 440
Suwannee limestone:
Limestone, hard, white, chalky, porous, with some dense
hard gray limestone and sand, possibly from above.
Mollusks, echinoid fragments, and numerous Foraminifera-Rotalia mexicana, miliolids ......................... 440- 500
Ocala limestone:
Limestone, hard to soft, cream, chalky, porous, highly
fossiliferous; Lepidocyclina ocalana and other Foraminifera common to the Ocala limestone ................... 500- 640
Limestone, large foraminiferal coquina harder than
above, cream to tan-gray. Lepidocyclina ocalana,
Heterostegina ocalana, and Camerinidae ..................... 640- 680
Moodys Branch(?) formation:
Limestone, large foraminiferal coquina, hard, cream to
tan-gray. Camerina moodybranchensis ......................... 680- 730
As above, plus some hard, dense gray limestone ................... 730- 760
Avon Park limestone:




18 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY
MATERIAL DEPTH, IN FEET
BELOW LAND SURFACE
Limestone, hard, cream, highly calcitic. Foraminifera
and echinoids, Coskinolina floridana, Dictyoconus
cookei, Peronella dalli .................................................. 760- 820
Limeistone, hard, light-brown, calcitic, porous. Fauna
as above ........................................................................ 820- 860
As above, plus some soft chalky limestone ........................... 860- 880
As at 820-860 feet, plus Spirolina coryensis ......................... 880- 960
LIimestone, hard, cream, calcitic, porous. Fauna as above.... 960-1,050
As above, plus some very finely crystalline dense hard
light-brown dolom ite ..................... ............................ 1,050-1,100
Limestone, hard, cream, calcitic, porous. Poorly preserved F oram inifera ....................................................... 1,100-1,120
lake (City limniestone:
Dolomite, hard, dark red-brown, crystalline, with limestone as above. Dictyoconus americanus ....................... 1,120-1,140
Limestone, fairly hard, white, porous, chalky, with some
tan granular limestone. Gastropod and echinoid
fragm ents ......................................................................... 1,140-1,160
D)olomite, hard, brown, finely crystalline, dense, waxy,
with limestone as above. Echinoid spines, Foraminifera 1,160-1,180
D)olomite, hard, brown, granular, porous, waxy, with
some hard white chalky limestone and numerous
brown rhombic crystals .................................. ............. 1,180-1,220
N o sam ples ............................................................ .............. 1,220-1,230
Water-level measurements made during drilling. Well cased to 345 feet.
Date Depth of hole Formation Water level, feet 1950 (feet) penetrated below land surface Aug. 2 1,120 Lake City 68.0 Aug. 9 1,215 (10o. 67.0 Aqg. Ii 1,230 do. 67.5 Sept. 7 1,230 (1do. 65.0
Well 358
(F. G. S. no. 2399)
Sevll miles north of Venus, in the center of sec. 17, T. 38 8., R. 30 E., Highlands County. Surface altitude 18112 feet.
MA'rTERIAL DEPTH, IN FEET
BELOW LAND SURFACE
PI'leistocene deposits:
Sand, quartz, dark-gray-orange, medium to coarse, frosted 0- 10 IHawthorn(?) formation:
Sand, quartz, cream to creamn-orange, medium to
coarse, frosted ............................................................... 10- 70
Sand, quartz, white to cream, medium to coarse, frosted .... 70- 100 Sand, quartz, white to light-gray, coarse, frosted ................. 100- 140
Sand, (quartz, cream to light-tan-gray, medium to very
coarse, partly frosted, with some hard, white clay ........ 140- 200
Sand, quartz, micaceous, cream to light-yellow, fine
to very coarse, partly frosted, with some white
to cream clay ................................................................. 200- 270
Clay, sandy, very micaceous, light-green, fissile, plastic ........ 270- 290 N o sam ple ................................................................................ 290- 300
Sand, quartz, minicacecous, gray, fine to medium, angular,
clear, with some gray to gray-orange clay ..................... 300- 340
As above, plus some light-red-brown clay ............................. 340- 360
Sand, quartz, micaceous, gray-green, fine to coarse,
angular to subrounded, clear to frosted, with some
slightly calcareous olive-drab clay .................................. 360- 380




REPORT OF INVESTIGATIONS No. 15 89
MATERIAL DEPTH, IN FEET
BELOW LAND SURFACE
Clay, fuller's earth, slightly sandy, calcareous, micaceous,
dark-green, with some white clay, dark crystalline calcite, dark chert, and small particles of organic
m aterial ........................................................................... 380- 440
Limestone, slightly sandy, cream, dense, finely crystalline, with some dark-gray dense limestone, chert, sand, clay as above, and phosphorite pebbles. Mollusk fragments and shark's teeth ................................... 440- 450
Clay, sandy, calcareous, phosphatic, white to darkgreen in lower part; some finely crystalline sandy
dense white limestone. Mollusk fragments ................... 450- 470
N o sam ple ............................................................................... 470- 480
Sand, quartz, clayey, tan-gray, fine to coarse, some
phosphorite ..................................................................... 480- 490
Clay, fuller's earth, sandy, phosphatic, light-tan-gray
to gray ............................................................................. 490- 500
Clay, fuller's earth, phosphatic, gray-green to darkgreen; some finely crystalline dense white clay ............ 500- 520
Limestone, cream, finely crystalline, dense, with phosphorite and sand. Mollusk fragments ........................... 520- 530
As above, plus some light-brown dense limestone ............... 530- 540
Clay, white to gray, phosphatic ............................................. 540- 550
Limestone, as at 520-530 feet plus clay as above ................. 550- 570
Limestone, cream, finely crystalline, dense, with some
dark dense limestone; some very sandy cream limestone; phosphorite, and clay as at 540-550 feet ............ 570- 580
Clay, light-gray to gray, sandy, calcareous, phosphatic ........ 580- 590
Clay, fuller's earth, gray-green to green, slightly sandy,
phosphatic; some white clay. Lower 10 feet contains
some tan dense limestone ............................................... 590- 680
Suwannee limestone:
Limestone, cream, chalky to granular, soft, porous. Foraminifera numerous, Rotalia mexicana and others ........ 680- 710
Limestone, cream, crystalline, porous, fossiliferous .............. 710- 730
Limestone, cream, soft, chalky, porous, fossiliferous ............ 730- 750
Limestone, cream, hard, crystalline, porous ......................... 750- 760
Ocala limestone:
Limestone, cream, chalky, soft. Numerous large Foraminifera-Lepidocyclina ocalana and others ............... 760- 770
Limestone, foraminiferal coquina, light-gray to tan-gray,
soft, porous. Fauna as above ......................................... 770- 830
As above, but Camerinidae more numerous ......................... 830- 920
Moodys Branch(?) formation:
As above but harder. Foraminifera mostly Camerinidae ...... 920- 940 As above, plus some soft chalky limestone ............................. 940- 990
Limestone, tan-gray, soft, chalky, Foraminifera and mollusk fragm ents ............................................................... 990-1,000
Limestone, foraminiferal coquina, tan-gray; some chalky
limestone as above and some fairly hard granular
lim estone ......................................................................... 1,000-1, 010
As above, but with more hard limestone ........................... 1,010-1,020
As above, plus some gray-green to gray-brown chert ............ 1,020-1,030
Limestone, foraminiferal coquina, tan-gray, fairly hard;
some soft, chalky limestone ......................................... 1,030-1,050
Limestone, foraminiferal coquina, tan-gray, chalky, soft,
with some hard dense, crystalline limestone. Numerous echinoid spines ................................................... 1,050-1,060




90 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY
MATERIAL DEPTH, IN FEET
BELOW LAND SURFACE
Avon Park limestone:
Limestone, tan to light-lilac, hard, finely crystalline.
Very few large Foraminifera, many Coskinolina
floridana .......................................................................... 1,060-1,070
As above, plus some dark dense limestone and calcite
rhom bs ............................................................................. 1,070-1,130
Limestone, light-gray, soft, chalky, slightly porous, and
limestone as at 1,070-1,130 feet ..................................... 1,130-1,140
Limestone, cream, granular, hard, slightly porous ............... 1,140-1,150
As above, plus many large Foraminifera and some crystalline calcite ................................................................. 1,150-1,160
As above, plus some soft chalky limestone, and some
hard, dense white limestone ........................................... 1,160-1,170
Limestone, cream to light-gray, hard, with much secondary calcite and hard, dense light-blue limestone .......... 1,170-1,180
N o sam ple ............................................................................... 1,180-1,190
As at 1,170-1,180 feet ............................................................. 1,190-1,200
As above, plus numerous Coskinolina floridana ................... 1,200-1,220
Limestone, cream to light-gray, hard, granular, with
secondary calcite in a light-gray chalky matrix ............ 1,220-1,250
Lake City(?) limestone:
Limestone, dolomitic, light-brown, hard, granular to
crystalline, with some dense hard light-gray limestone and some dense brown waxy dolomite. Foram inifera num erous ......................................................... 1,250-1,290
Limestone, tan, granular to crystalline, with some brown
dolomite in a light-gray chalky matrix ........................... 1,290-1,310
Limestone, tan, finely granular, with some white hard
dense limestone and some blue dense limestone ............ 1,310-1,320
As above, plus some very hard porous white limestone
and secondary calcite ..................................................... 1,320-1,330
Limestone, tan, granular, hard, with some white hard
porous limestone and brown waxy dolomite ................. 1,330-1,340
Dolomite, light-brown, finely crystalline, dense, waxy,
with some dense white limestone ................................... 1,340-1,350
As above, plus some soft light-gray limestone ....................... 1,350-1,370
Limestone, tan, granular to crystalline hard, in a lighttan-gray soft slightly claycy chalky matrix ..................... 1,370-1,410
Foraminiferal coquina, brown, hard, very porous. Driller reported small cavities in this interval ..................... 1,410-1,520
N o sam ple ............................................................................... 1,520-1,530
Limestone, light-pink, granular, hard to soft, porous.
Some particles appear to be laminated ......................... 1,530-1,540
As above, but with more soft limestone .............................. 1,540-1,550
Water-level measurements made during drilling. Well cased to 517 feet.
Date Depth of hole Formation Water level, feet 1950 (feet) penetrated below land surface
July 13 690 Suwannee 66.2 July 20 710 do. 62.0 July 26 735 do. 70.5 Aug. 2 1,000 Moodys Branch(?) 99.5 Aug. 16 1,138 Avon Park 98.0 Aug. 25 1,259 Lake City(?) 126.0 Aug. 30 1,323 do. 125.5 Sept. 8 1,371 do. 124.2 Sept. 21 1,474 do. 126.5 Sept. 29 1,526 do. 127.9
()ct 2 1,550 do. 126.8




REPORT OF INVESTIGATIONS No. 15 91
Well 399
(F. G. S. no. 2401)
East side of Lake Istokpoga, in the NWV4NEV4 sec. 29, T. 35 S., R. 31 E., Highlands County. Surface altitude 44 feet. MATERIAL DEPTH, IN FEET
BELOW LAND SURFACE
N o sam ples ............................................................................. 0- 960
Avon Park limestone:
Limestone, tan-gray to light-gray, hard, dense, chalky ........ 960- 970
Limestone, tan-gray, soft, crystalline to chalky. Dictyoconus cookei, Lituonella floridana, Coskinolina
floridana, Spirolina coryensis, Lepidocyclina sp.,
and m iliolids ................................................................... 970-1,000
Limestone, tan-gray, hard to soft, dense; fauna as above .... 1,000-1,050 Dolomite, light-brown, hard, crystalline. Foraminifera ........ 1,050-1,070
Lake City limestone:
Limestone, dolomitic, brown to dark-gray, soft, porous.
Foraminifera, numerous Dictyoconus americanus
and others ........................................ ............................... 1,070-1,090
N o sam ples ............................................................................. 1,090-1,106
Well 400
(F. G. S. no. 2848)
Six miles north of Venus in the NE',4SEY4 sec. 20, T. 38 S., R. 30 E., Highlands County. Surface altitude 175 feet. MATERIAL DEPTH, IN FEET
BELOW LAND SURFACE
N o sam ples ............................................................................. 0- 320
Hawthorn formation:
Sand, quartz, micaceous, fine to very coarse, angular,
gray, with gray-orange to light gray fissile clay........ 320- 350
As above, plus some white sandy clay............................... 350- 360
Sand, quartz, silty, slightly clayey, micaceous, grayorange, fine to coarse, with small particles of
white clay ....................................................................... 360- 400
Clay, fuller's earth, slightly sandy, micaceous, greenishbrown, non-phosphatic ................................................. 400- 410
Clay, limestone and phosphorite; clay, fuller's earth,
phosphatic, white to dark-green; limestone, sandy, crystalline, phosphatic, white; phosphorite, black to dark-brown with some small quartz pebbles.
Mollusk fragments ......................................................... 410- 420
As above, minus the dark-green clay................................... 420- 430
As above, plus phosphorite pebbles up to 10 mm
across. Barnacles ........................................................... 430- 450
As above, plus light-greenish-brown clay........................... 450- 470
N o sam ples ............................................................................. 470-1,078
Avon Park limestone:
Limestone, finely crystalline, hard, tan, with some
hard chalky limestone. Large Foraminifera, molds
of mollusks, numerous Peronella dalli......................... 1,078-1,090
Limestone, chalky, hard, tan. Small gastropods,
elecypod fragments, Peronella dalli, Coskinolina
floridana, Dictyoconus cookei ..................................... 1,090-1,110
Limnestone, chalky to crystalline, soft, tan. Forams............ 1,110-1,120
As above, plus hard chalky limestone and mollusk
fragm ents ....................................................................... 1,120-1,140
As above, plus numerous Coskinolina floridana ................... 1,140-1,145
Limestone, chalky, soft, cream. Mollusk fragments,
forams as above, plus Spirolina coryensis ................... 1,145-1,155
As above, but hard ............................................................... 1,155-1,205




'2 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY
MATERIAL DEPTH, IN FEET
BELOW LAND SURFACE
Limenwstone, chalky, hard, light-tan; coral forams, ostracods, starfish ossicles, Lituonella floridana................... 1,205-1,225
Limestone, dense, hard, light-tan. Forams ....................... 1,225-1,235
Lake City (?) limestone:
As above, plus some tan finely crystalline dolomite............ 1,235-1,255
Limestone, hard, granular, light-tan. Forams, Peronella.... 1,255-1,310 Limestone, hard, chalky, light-tan. Forams......................... 1,310-1,320
As above, but granular with some hard to soft white
chalky limestone. Forams ............................................. 1,320-1,340
Limestone, hard, granular, tan. Forams mostly miliolids.... 1,340-1,350 As above, plus some hard chalky porous limestone............ 1,350-1,360
Limestone, very hard, slightly porous, cream. Mollusk
m olds and foram s ......................................................... 1,360-1,370
Limestone, hard, granular, tan, with some hard chalky
white limestone. Forams ............................................... 1,370-1,380
Limestone, dolomitic, hard, granular to crystalline,
d(lark-tan, in a tan slightly claycy chalky matrix.
Foram s ........................................................................... 1,380-1,390
N o sam ples ............................................................................. 1,390-1,439
Water-level measurements made during drilling.
DATE DEPTH OF WELL CASED FORMATION WATER LEVEL, 1951 HOLE (FEET) TO PENETRATED FEET BELOW LAND SURFACE
May 21 548 540 Hawthorn 66.5 May 24 670 660 Suwannee 103.0 May 31 740 700 do. 113.0 June 4 805 700 Ocala 114.0 June 6 940 700 Moodys Branch (?) 124.0 June 8 960 700 do. 122.0 June 12 1,0(80 700 Avon Park 119.5 June 14 1,095 700 do. 117.0 June 19 1,095 700 do. 116.5 June 22 1,095 700 do. 115.5 July 6 1,095 700 do. 117.0 July 13 1,095 700 do. 116.0 July 27 1,095 700 do. 116.0 Aug. 3 1,095 700 do. 117.0 Aug. 17 1,095 700 do. 116.0 Aug. 24 1,130 700 do. 118.0 Aug. 31 1,205 700 do. 118.0 Sept. 7 1,260 700 Lake City(?) 117.0 Sept. 13 1,300 700 do. 117.0 Sept. 21 1,350 700 do. 116.5 Sept. 27 1,380 700 do. 117.0
()t. 4 1,400 700 do. 117.0 Oct. 15 1,439 700 do. 115.0
Well 401
(F.G.S. no. 2378)
'l'hree miles northeast of Avon Park in the SWYSWYA sec. 12, T. 33 S., R. 28 E., Highlands County. Surface altitude 176 feet. MATERIAL DEPTH, IN FEET
BELOW LAND SURFACE
N o sam ples ............................................................................. 0- 420
Hawthorn formation:
Sand, quartz, coarse to very coarse, with some darkgray to white dense limestone and phosphorite




Full Text
xml version 1.0 encoding UTF-8
REPORT xmlns http:www.fcla.edudlsmddaitss xmlns:xsi http:www.w3.org2001XMLSchema-instance xsi:schemaLocation http:www.fcla.edudlsmddaitssdaitssReport.xsd
INGEST IEID EA62V879K_X9YHEC INGEST_TIME 2017-05-03T18:47:15Z PACKAGE UF00001199_00001
AGREEMENT_INFO ACCOUNT UF PROJECT UFDC
FILES



PAGE 1

SERRATA Florida Geological Survey Report of Investigations No. 15 Geology and Ground-Water Resources of Highlands County, Florida Page 8 -(9th line frombottom of page)occurring hot accurring. Page 12 -(16th line from bottom of page) p. 233 not p. 223. Page 16 -(17th line) unconformably not uncomformably. Page 21 -(10th line from bottom of page) Discorinopsis not Digcorpinopsis. Page 25 -(5th line) 1,300 not 13,000. Page 25 -(16th line) unconformity not uncomformity. Page 26 -(23rd line) fig. 4 not fig. 4c. Page 27 -(13th line from bottom of page) p. 137-138 not p. 137318. Page 28 -(17th line) p. 77-79). not p, 138, 139). Page 38 -(18th line) 7.4 feet not 10. 17 feet. Page 53 -There are two wellsnumbered 358. Thefirstone should be 357. Page 62 -Under remarks, the references to figures 7a and 7b should be to figure 7. Page 75 -Under use, well 422, D not F. Page 79 -(18th line) formation not formations. Page 101 -Surface altitude at well 428 should be 80*10 not 80+10. Page 113 -(6th line from bottom of page) Moodys Branch (?) not Ocala. Page 115 -(14th line from bottom of page) Delete (in press).

PAGE 2

STATE OF FLORIDA STATE BOARD OF CONSERVATION Ernest Mitts, Director FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY Herman Gunter, Director REPORT OF INVESTIGATIONS NO. 15 GEOLOGY AND GROUND-WATER RESOURCES OF HIGHLANDS COUNTY, FLORIDA By ERNEST W. BISHOP U. S. GEOLOGICAL SURVEY MIAMI, FLORIDA Prepared by the UNITED STATES GEOLOGICAL SURVEY in cooperation with the FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY TALLAHASSEE FLORIDA 1956 i

PAGE 3

FLORIDA STATE BOARD cu^L OF LIBRARY CONSERVATION LEROY COLLINS Governor H. A. GRAY NATHAN MAYO Secretary of State Commissioner of Agriculture J. EI)\D IN LARSON THOMAS D. BAILEY Treasurer Superintendent Public Instruction RAHY E. ;REEN RICHARD ERVIN Comptroller Attorney General ERNEST MITTS Supervisor of Conservation 11

PAGE 4

LETTER OF TRANSMITTAL 9Loca w o[oy tca Swy August 6, 1956 Mr. Ernest Mitts, Director Florida State Board of Conservation Tallahassee, Florida Dear Mr. Mitts: I am transmitting a report entitled "GEOLOGY AND GROUNDWATER RESOURCES OF HIGHLANDS COUNTY, FLORIDA", prepared by Ernest W. Bishop, Geologist, formerly with the United States Geological Survey, but now employed by the Florida Geological Survey. This study presents the basic data necessary for the intelligent development of the water resources of Highlands County and also contributes considerably to our knowledge of the geology of the State. This study, undertaken by the United States and Florida Geological Surveys, is being published as Report of Investigations No. 15. Respectfully, Herman Gunter, Director i1

PAGE 5

CONTENTS Page Abstract ....................................................................................................................... 1 Introduction .................................................................................................................. 2 Purpose and scope of the Investigation................................... ............... 2 Location and extent of the area.............................................. ................ 2 Previous investigations ................. ........................................... ................. 3 Acknowledgm ents .......................................................................................... 4 Geography .................................................................................................................... 4 Topography and drainage ..................................................... ................... 4 W estern Flatlands ......................................................... ...................... 6 H ighlands Ridge ...................................... ......... ........................................ 6 Istokpoga-Indian Prairie Basin ............................................. ............. 6 Eastern Flatlands ......................................................... ..................... 7 Population and developm ent .................................................. .................... 7 Transportation .............................................................................................. 8 Clim ate ........................................................................................................... 8 M ineral resources ............................................................................................ 10 Indian occupation .......................................................................................... 10 Geologic form ations and their water-bearing properties ........................................ 12 Sum mary of stratigraphy ......................................................... ................... 12 Pre-Tertiary rocks ................................................................................. ........ 13 Tertiary system ............................................................................................ 15 Paleocene series .............................................................................................. 15 Cedar K eys lim estone ...................................................... .................. 15 Eocene series .................................................................................................. 16 O ldsm ar lim estone ............................................ .............................. .... 16 Lake City lim estone ......................................................... ................... 16 Avon Park lim estone ......................................................... ................... 18 M oodys Branch form ation* ....................................................................... 20 O cala lim estone* ................................................................................... 22 *The nomenclature and classification of this report accord with those of the U. S. Geological Survey except for the Moodys Branch formation, which has not been accepted for official use in Florida by the U. S. Geological Survey, and the Ocala limestone, which is here restricted by the separation of the Moodys Branch. O ligocene series ............................................................................................ 23 Suwannee lim estone ..................................... .............. ......................... 23 M iocene series ................................................................................................. 24 H awthorn form ation ......................................................... ................... 24 Tam iam i form ation .......................................................... .................... 28 Q uaternary system .............................................................................................. 29 Pleistocene series ....................................... ............... ............................ 29 Introduction ....................................... ............... ............................ 29 Pleistocene deposits ..................................... ........ ......................... 31 Recent series ......................................... ................. .............................. 32 Introduction ..................................... ................ ............................. 32 D une sand ........................................ .............. ............................ 32 Peat deposits .......................................................... ..................... 32 Alluvium .......................................... ............... ............................. 33 iv

PAGE 6

Page Ground water ........................................................................................................ 33 Nonartesian water ........................................................................................ 33 Source .................................................................................................... 33 Occurrence .......................................................................................... 33 The water table and movement of nonartesian ground water............. .35 Shape and slope .......................................................................... 36 Relation to topography ................................................................... 37 Fluctuations of the water table ....-................................................. 37 Recharge ................................................................................................ 38 Recharge from local rainfall ....................................... .......... 38 Recharge from lakes and streams .................................................. 38 Recharge from irrigation .................................................................. 40 Subsurface inflow ................................................... ..... ... 40 Discharge ................................................................................................ 40 Discharge by evapotranspiration ................................ ................. 40 Discharge into lakes and streams ................................... .......... .40 Subsurface outflow ............................................................................ 41 Discharge from wells ........................................................................ 41 Artesian water ........................................................................................... ..... 41 Source ...................................................................................................... 41 Occurrence ................................................................................................... 41 The piezometric surface and movement of artesian water ................. .42 Shape and slope .......................................................................... 43 Relation to topography ................................................................ 44 Fluctuations of the piezometric surface ......................................... 44 Rainfall ................................................................................ 45 Changes in atmospheric pressure ........................................ 45 Pumpage and flow ................................................................ 45 Recharge ................................................................................................ 46 Discharge ................................................................................................ 48 Natural discharge ............................................................................ 48 Shallow artesian system ............................................................ 48 Floridan aquifer .......................................... ....................... 48 Discharge from wells ............................................................... 50 Shallow artesian wells ........................................................ 50 Wells in the Floridan aquifer ........................................ .... 50 Utilization ....................................................................................................... 50 Domestic supplies ............................................................................... 50 Irrigation supplies .......................................................... ..................... 50 Stock-water supplies .............................................. ........ ................ 51 Public supplies ...................................................................................... 51 Quality of water .............................................. ....... 52 Chemical constituents in relation to use .................................................. 52 Chemical character in relation to stratigraphy ...................................... 57 The Floridan aquifer ..................................................................... 57 Aquifers in the upper part of, the Hawthorn and in younger formations .................................................. 57 Summary and conclusions ........................................................ ........................ 57 V

PAGE 7

Page M easured geologic sections ................................................................................... 77 W ell logs ........................................................................................................................ 79 R eferences ........................................1............................................................................ 14 ILLUSTRATIONS Figure Page 1. Map of Florida showing area of investigation .......................................... .3 2. Map of Highlands County showing physiographic regions............................ 5 3. Monthly distribution of rainfall at Avon Park for 53-year period of record through 1950 ..................................................... .............. ........ 9 4. Geologic cross sections ...................................................................................... 14a 5. Diagram showing several types of rock interstices and the relation of rock texture to porosity ............................................................. ................ 34 6. Diagram showing divisions of subsurface water .......................................... 36 7. Hydrographs of seven observation wells and the cumulative departure from normal rainfall at Avon Park......................................................... 39 8. Diagram showing generalized artesian conditions ........................................ 42 9. Map showing the piezometric surface of the Floridan aquifer in Florida.... 43 10. Map showing the piezometric surface of the Floridan aquifer in H ighlands C ounty .............................................................................................. 44 11. Idealized geologic section between stations 401 and 426 ........................ 78 12. Map of Highlands County showing location of geologic cross sections and selected wells ............................................................ ............................ 12a TABLES Table Page 1. Average monthly rainfall at Avon Park for 53-year period of record through 1950 ...................................................................................................... 9 2. Geologic formations of the Tertiary and Quaternary systems in Highlands C ounty ...................................................................................................... 14 3. Yield, drawdown, and specific capacity of well 403 at 1,215 and 1,301 feet below land surface .................................................................... 18 4. Water-level measurements made during drilling of well 358...................... 47 5. Water-level measurements made during drilling of well 400...................... 47 6. Water-level measurements made during drilling of well 183 ...................... 48 7. Water-level measurements made during drilling of well 408 ................... .49 8. Water-level measurements made during drilling of well GL 22.................. 49 9. Chemical analyses of ground water in Highlands County ....................... .53 10. Chemical analyses of water from the two major ground-water sources in Highlands County ............................................. ....................... 58 11. Records of selected wells in Highlands County................................................ 62 vi

PAGE 8

GEOLOGY AND GROUND-WATER RESOURCES OF HIGHLANDS COUNTY, FLORIDA By Ernest W. Bishop U. S. Geological Survey Miami, Florida ABSTRACT The area of Highlands County consists of rolling hills and flat marine-terrace plains. The climate is subtropical and the average annual rainfall is 52.22 inches. Citrus culture, winter-vegetable farming, and livestock raising are the principal occupations. Irrigation of citrus groves from lakes, streams, and wells is practiced extensively. The rocks exposed in Highlands County are of Tertiary and Quaternary age.'The county is almost completely mantled by marine deposits of Pleistocene age. The Hawthorn formation of early and middle Miocene age is the oldest outcropping formation and is exposed in clay pits on some of the highest hills. The county is underlain by 9,000 to 13,000 feet of sedimentary rocks ranging in age from Early Cretaceous to Recent. Ground water is obtained from two major sources: (1) the Floridan aquifer, which consists of the Eocene and younger formations underlying the confining clays of the Hawthorn formation, and (2) the aquifers in the upper part of the Hawthorn and in overlying formations. The Floridan aquifer, which is under artesian pressure, is recharged by rain that falls on the topographic high that is centered in northern Polk County and extends into western Highlands County. In Highlands County almost all large supplies of water (over 500 gpm) from the Floridan aquifer are obtained from the very permeable Lake City limestone of Eocene age. In the western part of the county water from the Floridan aquifer has a low mineral content, whereas in the southeastern part there are indications of contamination by trapped sea water. The Floridan aquifer furnishes water to many irrigation wells. Also, the towns of Sebring and Avon Park draw upon this aquifer for their municipal supplies. The aquifers in the upper part of the Hawthorn and in younger formations are recharged principally by local rainfall, and they furnish water to most domestic and stock wells and to the town of DeSoto City. Large supplies of water are available in the coarse clastic deposits in the upper part of the Hawthrn formation in the western part of the

PAGE 9

2 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY county. Part of the water in the Hawthorn and the Tamiami formations in that part of the county is under artesian pressure in the low areas. Water from the upper part of the Hawthorn and in younger formations has a great range in chemical composition, though it is uniformly more mineralized in the southeastern part of the county. A discussion of the principal chemical constituents of ground water in relation to use and geologic occurrence of the water is based on analyses of 36 samples of ground water. The water analyzed ranges from excellent to satisfactory for most purposes. The hydrologic and geologic data for this report were obtained in the field during the years 1950 and 1951. Records for 439 wells were obtained and some of these data were used to prepare a piezometric map. Geologic cross sections were prepared from a study of the surface and subsurface stratigraphy. The field data are included in this report. INTRODUCTION PURPOSE AND SCOPE OF THE INVESTIGATION The investigation upon which this report is based was begun in March 1950 as part of a program of ground-water studies in Florida by the United States Geological Survey in cooperation with the Florida Geological Survey. Several similar areal investigations have been completed since this program was begun in 1930 and several are now being made in other parts of the State. The principal purpose of the investigation has been to provide basic information necessary to the useful development of irrigation, industrial, municipal, stock, and domestic ground-water supplies. The investigation was made under the general supervision of A. N. Sayre, Chief, Ground Water Branch, U. S. Geological Survey, and Dr. Herman Gunter, Director, Florida Geological Survey; immediate supervision was given by Nevin D. Hoy, District Geologist, U. S. Geological Survey, Miami. Julia Gardner and F. S. MacNeil of the U. S. Survey identified some of the fossil material collected during this investigation. Robert L. Taylor also of the Federal Survey, at Sebring, Fla., gave valuable assistance in many surface-water phases of the investigation. LOCATION AND EXTENT OF THE AREA Highlands County includes an area of about 1,090 square miles in the south-central part of the Florida Peninsula. Prior to 1921 the area considered in this report was part of DeSoto County which, in

PAGE 10

REPORT OF INVESTIGATIONS No. 15 3 turn, was created from Manatee County in 1887. Its location with respect to adjoining counties is shown in Figure 1. PREVIOUS INVESTIGATIONS A detailed study of the geology and ground-water resources of Highlands County has not been undertaken previously. However, other studies have been made that have a bearing on the county, and the most important of these are listed below. Specific references are made at appropriate places in the text to publications that are listed at the end of this report. A,. 0 L, -, &. HOL"ES I D TLOO SW JACKUSO NNE UL \ -T. .m I LA .Y ~ L N A DIS LUSI ".X --Prer A tains info n on HDofenpo to CountL Arepr -a, -'b Co a H d 2. n o d 9 .n e wter fo" I A *RO WARD '--A X COLLSIE % H. N ..N i, I T LUG % DE!\ eTl A 0 » SO» ,CHA L O SCEOLAD ---COLLIER IV ARD | I I -... .I . 8-* BE" 85" B«4 _* SlT 81 L' FIGURE 1.Map of Florida showing area of investigation. An early report by Matson and Sanford (1913, p. 294-296) contains information on Highlands County (then part of DeSoto County). A report on the chemical character of Florida's water, by Collins and Howard (1928, p. 216-217), contains analyses of water from

PAGE 11

4 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY Sebring and Avon Park. A report on the geology of Florida by Cooke and Mossom (1929, p. 150, 181, 191) contains references to the geology of the county. An important paper on artesian water in peninsular Florida, by Stringfield, was published in 1936. The phosphate reserves of the county are discussed in a report by Mansfield (1942, p. 35, 69, pl. 5). Davis (1943, p. 40-58, fig. 1) described and mapped 10 physiographic regions of southern Florida, 4 of which extend into Highlands County. He also described (1946, p. 129-132) the peat deposits of the Lake Istokpoga area. Parker and Cooke (1944, pl. 3) mapped the Pleistocene marine terraces of southern Florida. Cooke's "Geology of Florida" (1945, p. 208, 233, 290, and pl. 1) mentions formations in Highlands County. Gunter (1948, fig. 1, p. 40-41) gives information on oil-exploratory wells in the county. A report on Pleistocene shorelines by MacNeil (1949, p. 98, 101, pl. 19), contains references to the county. ACKNOWLEDGMENTS Appreciation is extended to the many residents of the county who readily gave information regarding their wells. Special acknowledgment is given to the owners and drillers of the following well-drilling companies in Florida, whose cooperation facilitated the preparation of this report: C. M. Beels & Son, Arcadia; C. P. Cannon & Sons, Palmetto; Layne-Atlantic, Orlando; Curtis Dansby, Auburndale; E. W. "George" Dansby, Wauchula; Libby and Freeman, Orlando; E. W. Kelsey (deceased), Lake Placid; May Brothers Co., Tampa; Meredith Bros., Orlando; M. M. Martin, Okeechobee; and Kenneth Turley, Lake Placid. Gratitude is expressed to John W. Griffin, State Archaeologist, for his interest and aid in preparing the section on Indian occupation. Dr. Herman Gunter, Director of the Florida Geological Survey, and Dr. Robert O. Vernon, Assistant Director, were especially helpful in furnishing many valuable data regarding the geology of the area. GEOGRAPHY TOPOGRAPHY AND DRAINAGE Highlands County lies in the Atlantic Coastal Plain physiographic ground-water province (Meinzer, 1923a, pls. XXVIII, XXXI) and is subdivided into four physiographic regions (after Davis, 1943, p. 45-51, fig. 1): (1) the Western Flatlands, (2) the Highlands Ridge, (3) the Istokpoga-Indian Prairie Basin, and (4) the Eastern Flatlands (see fig. 2). The Western Flatlands are a part of Cooke's (.1939,

PAGE 12

REPORT OF INVESTIGATIONS No. 15 5 AVON t0 PARK -. ' -S E B R IN C ,I. S CHARLEY REEK LAKE Joseq /STOKPOGA SCALE IN MILES o0 2 4 6 8 10 FIGURE 2. -Map of Highlands County showing physiographic regions. p. 15-16) Coastal Lowlands unit and Vernon's (1951, p. 16) Terraced Coastal Lowland. The Highlands Ridge province is the southern end of the central Highlands of Cooke (1939, p. 21-23) and Vernon's (1951, p. 16) Delta Plains Highlands in peninsular Florida. The Western Flatlands, the Istokpoga-Indian Prairie Basin, and the Eastern Flatlands are similar in that they are relatively flat and poorly drained, whereas the Highlands Ridge is an area of rolling hills separated from the other regions by steep escarpments. The Highlands LnL N IE FIUR .MpofHihans ont hoin hyiorpVIAeios p.1-6)Cata olad ni n ero' (91 p 6 Mrae CosalLwln.Th iglns igepoineistesote% n of hecetrl iglans f ooe 199,p. 1-3)an VrG1'

PAGE 13

6 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY Ridge, being surrounded by low areas, has the appearance of an island or a peninsula. WESTERN FLATLANDS The Western Flatlands region includes the area of flat marineterrace plains in the extreme southern and southwestern parts of the county. It slopes gently from an elevation of about 90 feet in the northern part to about 40 feet in the southern part. The area is a flat, monotonous, almost treeless plain containing many shallow depressions, which are filled with water during the rainy season. It contains two streams: Little Charley Bowlegs Creek in the northern part, and Fisheating Creek in the southern part. These streams, while having fairly well defined channels, have not cut back into the terraced plains far enough to drain the numerous ponds and marshes. HIGHLANDS RIDGE The Highlands Ridge region includes the narrow, elongated area of rolling uplands that extends from the northwestern part of the county south-southeastward almost to the Glades-Highlands County line. This region ranges in elevation from about 40 feet to more than 200 feet and contains numerous hills and lakes. The hills are of two types: those formed by differential erosion of the Miocene land surface and now mantled by sands of Pleistocene age; and in the eastern part of the area, coastal bars formed during the Pleistocene. Most of the lakes in the Highlands Ridge region are fairly deep and either are circular or have outlines that resemble two or more intersecting circles. It is believed that these lakes were created as a result of local subsidence due to collapse of subterranean limestone caverns. A few small ponds exist during periods of heavy rainfall in some of the swales between the coastal bars. The Highlands Ridge area north of Sebring is drained by tributaries of Arbuckle Creek, and that south of Sebring by Josephine Creek and its tributaries. Many of the lakes in this area are in closed depressions and have no surface outlets. ISTOKPOGA-INDIAN PRAIRIE BASIN The Istokpoga-Indian Prairie Basin covers the flat, very poorly drained area of swamps and marshes in the southeastern part of the county between the Highlands Ridge on the west and the Eastern Flatlands. Elevations of the land-surface area range from about 25 to 40 feet. Lake Istokpoga, which is at the head of the basin, occupies

PAGE 14

REPORT OF INVESTIGATIONS No. 15 7 an area of about 44 square miles and has a maximum depth of about 10 feet. The natural drainage of the lake is south through the Indian Prairie Basin, but the construction of dikes and canals has now diverted a large portion of the drainage through the Istokpoga Canal into the Kissimmee River. The Indian Prairie and Harney Pond canals have been dug to drain the area south of the lake. Prior to the construction of canals the surface water was not confined to any definite channel but moved by sheet flow south toward Lake Okeechobee. EASTERN FLATLANDS The Eastern Flatlands region comprises the flat areas in the eastern and north-central parts of the county and is bounded on the northwest by the Highlands Ridge and on the southwest by the Istokpoga-Indian Prairie Basin. It extends into adjoining counties on the north, east and south. This area, "in general, is better drained than either the Western Flatlands or the Istokpoga-Indian Prairie Basin, although locally it contains ponds and marshes. The streams draining the region are the Kissimmee River and Arbuckle Creek. Land-surface elevations in this area range from about 30 to 100 feet, although a long, narrow northsouth ridge between Arbuckle Creek and the Kissimmee River has a maximum elevation of 146 feet. POPULATION AND DEVELOPMENT According to the 1950 census, Highlands County has a population of 13,636, which represents an increase of about 46 percent since 1940. Sebring, the county seat and largest town, has a population of 5,006 and Avon Park 4,612. The towns of Lake Placid and DeSoto City have populations of 417 and 220, respectively. Agriculture is the dominant economic activity in Highlands County, chief agricultural products being citrus fruits, cattle, and winter vegetables. According to V. T. Oxer, County Agricultural Agent, there are more than 20,000 acres of bearing citrus trees and between 65,000 and 75,000 head of cattle on about 500,000 acres of pastureland. In addition to the citrus fruits the county produces mangoes, avocados, pineapples, bananas, and other tropical and semitropical fruits. The leading winter truck crops are tomatoes, green beans, green peas, and cabbage. Strawberries, blackberries, grapes, corn, Irish potatoes, sweet potatoes, sugar cane, and forage crops also are grown. The only other economic activity of great importance is the tourist industry, which is estimated to increase the population of the towns in Highlands County as much as 15 percent during the winter months.

PAGE 15

8 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY The Highlands Ridge region contains most of the population of the county and is the center of the tourist industry. Citrus and tropical fruits are the chief agricultural products of this region. The Eastern Flatlands region is sparsely populated but contains a population second to that of the Highlands Ridge. Almost the entire region is devoted to cattle raising. The Western Flatlands region is very sparsely populated and the agricultural effort is devoted entirely to the raising of cattle. The Istokpoga-Indian Prairie Basin also is very sparsely populated. The area of deep peat just south of the lake is devoted to truck crops and lily bulbs, with cattle being raised in much of the basin. TRANSPORTATION Highlands County is served by two railroad lines: the Seaboard Air Line Railroad, passing through Avon Park, Sebring, Lorida, and Fort Bassinger, and the Atlantic Coast Line, passing through Avon Park, Sebring, DcSoto City, Lake Placid, and Venus. State and national highways cross the county from north to south and east to west. U. S. Highway 27, passing through Avon Park, Sebring, and Lake Placid is one of the principal north-south routes in the central part of the State, connects Miami with cities to the north, and affords relief from the congested coastal routes. State Highway 70 is the principal east-west route and connects Highlands County with cities on the Atlantic and Gulf coasts. The county also has many roads of minor importance ranging from well-paved roads to sandy trails cut through the palmettos. CLIMATE The climate of Highlands County is subtropical, with seasonal rainfall and abundant sunshine. The mean temperature at Avon Park is 73.1°F. The maximum and minimum mean monthly temperatures are 82.0° and 63.2°F., accurring in August and January, respectively. Rainfall has been recorded by the United States Weather Bureau at stations near Avon Park almost continuously since 1892. The normal annual rainfall at Avon Park is 52.22 inches, of which 75 percent falls in the months of May through October. Deviations from the mean, however, are frequent and extreme, (see fig. 3). The recorded annual rainfall at Avon Park ranged from a minimum of 35.88 inches in 1927 to a maximum of 75.20 inches in 1930. The distribution of the normal rainfall by months at Avon Park is given in table 1.

PAGE 16

REPORT OF INVESTIGATIONS No. 15 9 20 ; MAAXIMUM $ 14 12 kl F ^NORMAL MINIMUM JAN. FEB. MAR. APR. MAY JUNE JULY AUG. SEPT OCT NOV. DEC. FIGURE 3. -Monthly distribution of rainfall at Avon Park for 53-year period of record through 1950. Table 1. -AVERAGE MONTHLY RAINFALL AT AVON PARK FOR 53YEAR PERIOD OF RECORD THROUGH 1950 Rainfall Rainfall Month (inches) Month (inches) January 2.22 July 8.18 February 2.43 August 7.83 March 2.17 September 6.67 April 2.37 October 4.04 May 4.52 November 1.56 June 8.13 December 2.10 During the summer months, rain usually occurs in Highlands County in squalls that cover a small area with an intense downpour; therefore, rainfall records are valid only in the immediate vicinity of a given gage. An extreme example of this is shown by the amount of rainfall measured at two stations, one at Avon Park and the other at Venus, in the year 1946. The amount of rainfall at the Avon Park station was 50.70 inches, while that at Venus, about 35 miles to the south, was only 29.65 inches.

PAGE 17

10 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY MINERAL RESOURCES Although a large part of Highlands County is underlain by deposits of pebble phosphorite in the Hawthorn formation, most of these deposits are probably too deep and poor to be mined economically. The Hawthorn formation contains sandy clay which is used as road-surfacing material and has been mined from small pits in the vicinity of Avon Park and DeSoto City, south of Highlands Hammock, and at Childs. Large amounts of the material are still available from beneath a thin overburden in the Avon Park area, but it is not now being mined because the land is more valuable for citrus culture. The minerals ilmenite, zircon, and rutile are commonly present in the terrace sands of the Highlands Ridge region. The writer has noted concentrations of these minerals in the beach sands of many lakes in the ridge section. It is possible that economic deposits of these minerals may be present in Highlands County, especially along Pleistocene strand lines, but their discovery will undoubtedly entail extensive prospecting. INDIAN OCCUPATION During the field work for this report, artifacts and fan'al remains were collected from the surface of an aboriginal midden deposit in Highlands County and sent to John W. Griffin, State Archaeologist, for determination. Concerning this collection and summarizing the archaeology of the county, Mr. Griffin (in a personal communication to the writer May 28, 1951) states: "Very little is known of the archaeology of this county, and although there are doubtless many sites, only nine, including the present one, are listed in the files of the Department of Sociology and Anthropology of the University of Florida, and the Archaeological Survey of the Florida Park Service. The only excavations made under modern controlled methods are those of the Florida Park Service at the Goodnow Mound and Skipper site on Lake Josephine.' "So far as cultural sequence is concerned the area is largely a blank. Prehistoric and historic burial sites can be separated on the basis of the presence or absence of European trade materials, but the dominance of a single undecorated pottery type over a long period of time hinders further subdivision. More intensive work will doubtless reveal sites containing trade pottery from other portions of Florida which can be placed in a time sequence. SGriffin, John W., and Smith, Hale G., The Goodnow Mound, Highlands County, Fla.: Contributions to the Archaeology of Florida, no. 1, Tallahassee, 1948.

PAGE 18

REPORT OF INVESTIGATIONS No. 15 11 "The site discovered by the U. S. Geological Survey, which we may call the Hen Scratch Midden, is in the northwest corner NEV4 SE/4 sec. 35, T. 36 S., R. 28 E. The site, consisting of gray, carbonaceous sand containing pottery and midden refuse, is from one to three feet thick, lying under much, if not all, of a ten-acre hammock in the midst of a drained marsh or prairie. "The following mammal bones were present in the deposit: portions of deer jaws (Odocoileus virginianus), the upper cheek teeth of a rabbit (Sylvilagus), the lower jaw of a round-tailed muskrat (Neofiber alleni), and the lower jaw of a raccoon (Procyon lotor)." Dr. Sherman notes that the larger deer teeth are about the size of O. v. virginianus, while one of the jaws is smaller than usual for this subspecies. Amphibian and reptile remains included a vertebra of a salamander (Siren), 2 vertebrae of unidentified snakes, and a number of unidentified turtle bones.3 "Mollusca included only fresh water and land forms, except for two marine species which had been worked into artifacts as described below. Pomacea paludosa is readily identified, but lacking adequate comparative collections the most common fresh water species at the site, one univalve and the other bivalve, have not been identified. The land snail Euglandina rosea, common in many Florida sites, was represented in the collection. "The only non-ceramic artifacts consist of fragments of two marine shells. One of these, a Busycon perversum, is a portion of a shell pick, with the beak ground down, but the whorl is too broken to permit identification of the type of hafting. The other specimen is a portion of a Fasciolaria gigantes with some evidence of smoothing at the margin of the orifice, but it is too fragmentary to permit identification of artifact type. "Ceramics consist of 96 potsherds, 93 of which are Belle Glade Plain.4 One sherd is a probable Belle Glade Plain piece which once had an added rim strip. There are also 2 rather nondescript gritty plain sherds. Twenty of the Belle Glade sherds are rim sherds, and 16 of these have a flat inward cambered lip so characteristic of the type. Of the remaining rim sherds, 3 have rounded lips and one has a flat lip slightly rounded. Five of the Belle Glade Plain sherds possess socalled 'lacing' or 'patch' holes. 2 Identifications by Dr. H. B. Sherman, Department of Biology, University of Florida, Gainesville. ' Examined by Dr. Coleman Goin, Department of Biology, University of Florida. 4 Belle Glade Plain is defined by Gordon R. Willey, in 'Excavations in Southeast Florida,': Yale University Publications in Anthropology, no. 42, p. 25-26, New Haven, 1949.

PAGE 19

12 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY "It is, unfortunately, impossible to date this site within close limits. The pottery type Belle Glade Plain is characteristic of the OkeechobeeKissimmee area over a considerable period of time, usually estimated to extend from about the first into the seventeenth century. The present evidence does not permit us to narrow this range further. "The small collection gives us indications of both the hunting and the collecting of a shell-fish as sources for food. Most of the bones and shells found in the deposit are probably food refuse, although some may have become naturally included. The two marine shell artifacts indicate trade with the sea coast." GEOLOGIC FORMATIONS AND THEIR WATER-BEARING PROPERTIES SUMMARY OF STRATIGRAPHY The rocks exposed in Highlands County are of Miocene, Pleistocene, and Recent ages. The oldest outcropping formation is the Hawthorn of early and middle Miocene age, which is exposed in clay pits on the Highlands Ridge. The Tamiami formation of late Miocene age wedges out against the eastern flank of the Highlands Ridge and is completely covered by Pleistocene deposits. The formations of Pleistocene age mantle the entire county and are overlain locally by Recent deposits of dune sand, peat, and alluvium. The writer did not find or recognize any deposits of Pliocene age in Highlands County. The Citronelle formation, as identified by Cooke (1945, p. 223) in Highlands County, tentatively is included in the Hawthorn formation. The Caloosahatchee marl was extended from its outcrop area in Glades County by Cooke (1945, pl. 1) on the premise that it merged with the Citronelle formation of Highlands County, supposedly a near-shore or beach deposit of the same sea in which the shell marl of the Caloosahatchee accumulated. Cooke did not list any exposures of the Caloosahatchee in Highlands County nor did the author find any exposures or any suggestion of the formation in well cuttings. It is possible that deposits of the Caloosahatchee marl underlie parts of the Western Flatlands, the Istokpoga-Indian Prairie Basin, and the Eastern Flatlands. Cooke (1945, p. 208) extended the Bone Valley formation into the northeastern part of the county on the basis of the occurrence of the pebble phosphorite reported by Mansfield (1942, p. 6-7, pl. 5). The writer has examined cuttings from several wells scattered throughout the part of the county mapped as Bone Valley by Cooke, and

PAGE 20

REPORT OF INVESTIGATIONS No. 15 13 has found phosphorite pebbles in some, but he has failed to find any material that could definitely be referred to the Bone Valley. The phosphorite pebbles were in sediments lithologically similar to those that have been referred to the Hawthorn formation in other parts of the peninsula. Information derived from the logs of water wells and deep oil-test wells shows that the area is underlain by 9,000 to 13,000 feet of relatively flat lying sedimentary rocks overlying rocks of volcanic origin. The pre-Miocene sedimentary deposits in the county record shallow-water, offshore marine environments, with the shoreline far to the north. Clastic materials were deposited for the first time during Miocene time. At the close of the middle Miocene a finger of a large delta extended south across the western part of the county. The advances of the sea during late Miocene and Pleistocene times deposited near-shore material and modified the middle Miocene land surface. The withdrawal of the Pleistocene seas ended large-scale deposition in the county. The nature of the geologic formations and the character of the contained ground-water supplies in Highlands County are described briefly in the generalized section (table 2) and in more detail in the following pages of this report. PRE-TERTIARY ROCKS Evidence as to the age and lithology of the older rocks underlying Highlands County is afforded by a deep oil-test well, the Carlton no. 1, drilled by Humble Oil & Refining Co., about 5 miles northwest of Venus in the center of the SW4NWV4 sec. 34, T. 38 S., R. 29 E., to a depth of 12,985 feet. According to Applin (1951), this well entered pre-Mesozoic rocks at 12,618 feet and penetrated 367 feet of basalt, rhyolite porphyry, and related volcanic rocks which he tentatively classified as early Paleozoic or possibly pre-Cambrian. The surface of the Pre-Mesozoic rocks range from about 9,000 feet below sea level at Avon Park to about 13,000 feet below sea level at Venus (Applin, 1951, fig. 2), and is overlain unconformably by rocks of Cretaceous age. Cretaceous rocks were penetrated in the Carlton well between the depths of 5,096 and 12,618 feet. The upper 2,500 feet of these rocks, which consists primarily of limestone and some dolomite, has been referred to the Gulf series. The remainder of the section, which consists of limestone, anhydrite, and some dolomite overlying basal sand, has been referred to the Comanche series. The presence of anhydrite in the

PAGE 21

Table 2. -GEOLOGIC FORMATIONS OF THE TERTIARY AND QUARTERNARY SYSTEMS IN HIGHLANDS COUNTY Thickness Series Formation (feet) Physical character Water supply Recent 0-20 Dune sand, peat, and alluvium. Not used as a source of water. Pleistocene Undifferen1-100 Gray-orange to white medium to coarse Furnishes domestic and stock supplies tiated quartz sand in high areas of the county; locally throughout the county. deposits fine to medium clayey, calcareous Squartz sand in the low areas. Tamiami 0-100 Dark-blue to white clayey, sandy shell A source of domestic and stock supplies formation marl; quartz sand and sandy clay. in the eastern part of the county. Hawthorn 300-650 Dark-green to white montmorillonitic The deltaic part of the formation is a Miocene formation clay; white to cream dense sandy phosvery important source of large supplies phatic limestone; fine to pebble-size of water locally in the Ridge section. quartz sand and phosphonite; white to The marine part of the formation furnred kaolinitic sand. ishes small to medium supplies of water 0 from thin beds of limestone and sand. Oligocene Suwannee 0-80 Cream-colored soft chalky, slightly crysNot an important source of large supt limestone talline, porous limestone. plies of water; permeable. g Ocala 150-250 Light-gray to cream-colored soft, chalky Not an important source of large suplimestone foraminiferal limestone, plies of water except in the southeastern " part of the county; permeable. C Moodys Branch 50-150 Cream to tan-gray granular to chalky Not an important source of large supformation foraminiferal limestone. plies of water; permeable. Avon Park 200-350 Light-gray to light-brown soft to hard Not an important source of large supEocene limestone granular to chalky, slightly porous limeplies of water; permeable. stone, with secondary calcite and some dolomitic limestone. Lake City 400t Brown hard crystalline dolomite and A very important source of large suplimestone cream-colored permeable limestone and plies of water throughout the county; dolomitic limestone, highly permeable. Oldsmar 670t Fragmental limestone, partly to comLittle is known about the water supply limestone pletely dolomitized. of this formation. Paleocene Cedar Keys 1,670White to cream fragmental limestone No wells in the county are known to oblimestone and some gypsum. tain water from this formation.

PAGE 22

A c!i ci. A "' B, B A' BB J J 0,0 ' 0 ' o j 0 2 TA --w 2 j SXo 100 S200 0 SPLES OC UWANNEE LIMESTONE .00 00 OCALA LIMESTONEFOR 1 600 700 T HAWHOR MOODYS BRHANCH FORMATION 300 O.4oo oo 's AVON P-AVON PARK LIMESTONE 400 5A00 o .SUWANN EE LIMESTONE SS.ooo ----..0 -SCALE IN MILES --1100 ---.-SLAKE CITY LIMESTONE--100 LAKE CITY LIMESTONE St 1,300 A OCALE MLMESTONE 4 0RANH FORMATION So0 O00 I A SAVON PLEISTOCARK LIMESTONE AVON PARK LIMESTONE -1,000 SCALE IN MILES 1,100ITS 0 ^ l \ \10 SA TL S --., C o INDEX MAP | P' -IrEN DEPOSITS ' 0 I 00* d .D,'DEPOSITS O k, oo0 ..--"" ' /TAMIAMI HAWTHORN FORMAION FOIMATION FRAI ·(morine deposits) / -HAWTHORN FORMATION r --d(nonmarine deposits) LAKE " ' --"~ HAWTHORN FORMATION 200 .IDLOS 42 (morine deposits) FL A .70 -.. FIGURE 4. -Geologic cross sections. LAKE4 C ANNIE 358, INDEX MAP SCALE IN MILES SZ 0 1 3 4 MILES 0 I 2 3

PAGE 23

REPORT OF INVESTIGATIONS No. 15 15 Comanche series indicates restricted areas of supersaline seas and evaporite conditions, and according to the principles discussed by Ver Wiebe (1950, p. 145-146), it suggests the possibility that great reefs which are potential oil reservoirs may have been formed in this part of the United States during Cretaceous time. TERTIARY SYSTEM Paleocene Series CEDAR KEYS LIMESTONE Name. -The name Cedar Keys limestone, taken from the town of Cedar Keys, Levy County, was proposed by Cole (1944, p. 27-28) for limestones known only "in wells in peninsular and northern Florida from the first appearance of the Borelis fauna to the top of the Upper Cretaceous." Lithology. -Vernon (1951, p. 85) states: "The Paleocene of peninsular Florida is white, cream and gray, pasty to fragmental limestones, which have rare lenses of oolitic limestone. The porosity of the rock is impregnated by gypsum, giving it a speckled appearance." Distribution and stratigraphic relations. -Cooke (1945, p. 33) states: "The Cedar Keys limestone probably underlies all of Florida except the northwestern part, where the equivalent formation is the Porters Creek clay." Concerning the stratigraphic relations of the Cedar Keys, Vernon (p. 85) states: "It lies below a definite Salt Mountain fauna of lower Eocene, Wilcox age, and conformably upon transitional Upper Cretaceous beds. It thus occupies the interval represented elsewhere by the beds of Midway age." Thickness. -The thickness of the Cedar Keys limestone in Highlands County is not known, but Applin and Applin (1944, p. 1704, 1707) report a total thickness of 1,670 feet in Pioneer Oil Co.'s no. 1 Hecksher-Yarnell well in sec. 28, T. 30 S., R. 25 E., Polk County. Paleogeography. -According to Cooke (1945, p. 33-34): "The Cedar Keys limestone was deposited in the open ocean. The shoreline extended across Alabama and Georgia, circling northwestward up the Mississippi Embayment, in and near which the Porters Creek clay was deposited contemporaneously." Paleontology. -Applin and Jordan (1945, p. 131) consider the following Foraminifera diagnostic of the formation: Borelis floridanus Cole Borelis gunteri Cole Cribrospira? bushnellensis Applin and Jordan Planispirina? kissengenensis Applin and Jordan Valvulammina nassauensis Applin and Jordan

PAGE 24

16 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY Water Supply. -No water wells are known to obtain their supplies from this formation in Highlands County. Eocene Series OLDSMAR LIMESTONE Name. -The name Oldsmar limestone is applied by Applin and Applin (1944, p. 1702) to limestone of Wilcox age penetrated between depths of 2,165 and 3,090 feet in R. V. Hill's "Oldsmar well" (sec. 18, T. 38 S., R. 17 E.) in Hillsborough County. Lithology. -Concerning the Oldsmar limestone, Vernon (1951, p. 87) states: "It is composed essentially of fragmental marine limestones, partially to completely dolomitized and containing irregular and rare lenses of chert, impregnations of gypsum and thin shale beds." Distribution and stratigraphic relations. -According to Cooke (1945, p. 40), the Oldsmar limestone underlies the peninsula, the northeastern part of Florida, and the southeastern part of Georgia, probably rests unconformably on formations of the Midway group, and is overlain uncomformably by formations of the Claiborne group. Thickness. -The thickness of the Oldsmar limestone in Highlands County is not known. Applin and Applin (1944, p. 1702) report a total thickness of 670 feet in the no. 1 Hecksher-Yarnell well in Polk County. Paleogeography. -The Oldsmar limestone was deposited in an open sea. According to Cooke (1945, p. 41), the boundary between the area of elastic and nonclastic deposition shifted back and forth several times across northwestern Florida and southern Alabama. Paleontology. -The fauna of the Oldsmar consists for the most part of Foraminifera, of which the following are considered by Applin and Jordan (1945, p. 131) to be diagnostic of the formation: Clavulina floridana Cole Coskinolina elongata Cole Helicostegina gyralis Barker and Grimsdale Lituonella elegans Cole Lockhartia cushmani Applin and Jordan Miscellanea nassauensis Applin and Jordan M. nassauensis var. reticulosus Applin and Jordan Pseudophragmina (Proporocyclina) cedarkeysensis Cole Water supply. -Little is known about the water supply of this formation in Highlands County. IAKE CITY LIMESTONE Name.-The name Lake City limestone is applied by Applin and Applin (1944, p. 1697) to limestone of Claiborne age penetrated be-

PAGE 25

REPORT OF INVESTIGATIONS No. 15 17 tween depths of 492 and 1,010 feet in a city well at Lake City, Columbia County. Lithology. -The Lake City limestone, in Highlands County, consists of layers of hard, brown, porous, crystalline dolomite and hard, tan to cream, porous limestone and dolomitic limestone. Distribution and stratigraphic relations. -The Lake City limestone underlies the entire Florida Peninsula and probably rests unconformably on the Oldsmar limestone. It is possible that some of the beds referred to the Lake City in this report belong to the Oldsmar, but because of the lack of diagnostic fossils they cannot be placed in that formation with certainty. In Highlands County the Lake City limestone is conformably overlain by the Avon Park limestone, which also is of Claiborne age. In Highlands County the Lake City limestone apparently has an east-west strike and dips south an average of about 5 feet per mile, the top of the formation ranging from about 900 feet below sea level in the northern part of the county to about 1,100 feet below sea level in the southern part. Thickness. -According to Cooke (1945, p. 46), the Lake City limestone ranges in thickness from 400 to 500 feet in the northern part of Florida, and from 200 to 250 feet in the southern part of the peninsula. Paleogeography. -Cuttings from the Lake City limestone in Highlands County indicate that it was an offshore deposit which received very little clastic sediment. Applin and Applin (1944, p. 1696) have recognized a clastic facies in northwestern Florida that is probably equivalent to the Lake City limestone. According to Cooke (1945, p. 46), the shoreline, during the time that the Lake City was being deposited, extended across the southern part of Alabama and northeast across central Georgia, the northwestern part of Florida being nearest the land. Paleontology. -Foraminifera make up the large percentage of fauna in the Lake City limestone. Applin and Jordan (1945, p. 131) consider the following to be diagnostic of the formation: Amphistegina lopeztrigoi D. K. Palmer Amphistegina nassauensis Applin and Jordan Archaias columbiensis Applin and Jordan Asterigerina cedarkeysensis Cole Dictyoconus americanus (Cushman) Discocyclina (Asterocyclina) monticellensis Cole and Ponton Discorbis inornatus Cole Eodictyoconus cubensis (Cushman and Bermudez) Epistomaria semimarginata (d'Orbigny) Eponides gunteri Cole Fabularia gunteri Applin and Jordan

PAGE 26

18 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY Fabularia vaughani Cole and Ponton ;unteria floridana Cushman and Ponton Lepidocyclina (Polylepidina) antillea Cushman Lepidocyclina (Pliolepidina) cedarkeysensis Cole Linderina floridensis Cole Lockhartia cushmani Applin and Jordan Operculinoides jennyi Barker Water supply. -The Lake City limestone, because of its high permeability, is a highly productive aquifer in Highlands County and is utilized to a large extent wherever large quantities (500 to 1,500 gallons per minute) of ground water are needed for municipal and irrigation supplies. The permeability of the formation compared with the overlying formations in the Floridan aquifer is indicated by pumping tests made by Briley & Wild, consulting engineers of Daytona Beach, during the drilling of well 403 (see table 3). This table shows that 85 feet of additional penetration into the Lake City limestone, after 915 feet of the Floridan aquifer had been penetrated, increased the yield at a drawdown of 25 feet from 463 to 636 gallons per minute. Water from the Lake City limestone ranges from soft to hard, the hardness increasing toward the southern end of the county. Locally there is an excessive amount of iron, more than 0.3 part per million, some of which may be from the well casings, but in general the water is satisfactory (see table 9). Table 3. -YIELD, DRAWDOWN, AND SPECIFIC CAPACITY OF WELL 403 AT 1,216 AND 1,301 FEET BELOW LAND SURFACE Depth Yield Drawdown Specific (ft.) (gpm) (ft.)' capacity2 Remarks 1,216 145 7 20.7 915 feet of open hole in the Floridan ,216 205 10 20.5 aquifer; 90 feet of the Lake City lime1,216 243 12 20.2 stone penetrated. 1,216 463 25 18.5 ,216 633 36 17.6 1,301 175 4 43.7 1,000 feet of open hole in the Floridan 1,30)1 200 5 40.0 aquifer; 175 feet of the Lake City 1,301 292 8 36.5 limestone penetrated. 1,301 408 13 31.4 1 ,301 508 17 29.9 1,301 609 23 26.5 1,301 636 25 25.4 1,301 818 35 23.4 ' Pumping time not recorded. SThe specific capacity of a well is the yield in gallons per minute per foot of drawdown. AVON PARK LIMESTONE Name. --The name Avon Park limestone is applied by Applin and Applin (1944, p. 1680) to limestone of Claiborne age pentrated be-

PAGE 27

REPORT OF INVESTIGATIONS No. 15 19 tween depths of 600 and 930 feet in a well drilled at the Avon Park Bombing Range (sec. 31, T. 32 S., R. 30 E.) in Polk County. Lithology. -The Avon Park limestone, in Highlands County, consists of layers of light-gray to light-brown, soft to hard, slightly porous, granular to chalky limestone with considerable secondary calcite and some dolomitic limestone. Distribution and stratigraphic relations. -The Avon Park limestone underlies most of the Florida Peninsula and rests conformably on the Lake City limestone. In Highlands County the Avon Park limestone is unconformably overlain by the basal member of the Moodys Branch formation of Jackson age. Thickness and structure. -The Avon Park limestone, in Highlands County, ranges in thickness from. about 200 to 350 feet, the top of the formation ranging from about 500 feet below sea level in the northern part of the county to about 900 feet below sea level in the southern part. The Avon Park strikes east-west and dips south an average of about 10 feet per mile. Paleogeography. -The Avon Park limestone was deposited in the open sea and received very little clastic sediment. According to Cooke (1945, p. 51, 52) the entire Florida plateau was probably submerged, but the position of the shoreline is unknown. Paleontology. -The most distinctive fossil in the Avon Park in this area is the small echinoid Peronella dalli (Twitchell), which is very common in the upper part of the formation. Cuttings from this zone in some of the wells consist almost entirely of calcitic fragments or whole specimens of this species. The foraminiferal fauna of the Avon Park is also very abundant and distinctive. Applin and Jordan (1945, p. 130, 131) list the following Foraminifera as diagnostic: Coskinolina floridana Cole Cribrobulimina cushmani Applin and Jordan Cyclammina watersi Applin and Jordan Dictyoconus cookei (Moberg) Discorinopsis gunteri Cole Flintina avonparkensis Applin and Jordan Lituonella floridana Cole Rotalia avonparkensis Applin and Jordan Spirolina coryensis Cole Textularia coryensis Cole Valvulammina minuta Applin and Jordan Valvulina avonparkensis Applin and Jordan Valvulina intermedia Applin and Jordan Valvulina martii Cushman and Bermudez Water supply.-The Avon Park limestone is not an important source of large water supplies in Highlands County, but it is utilized

PAGE 28

2(0 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY locally in the area around the town of Avon Park. In other parts of the county it contributes some water to wells that penetrate the underlying Lake City limestone. MOODYS BRANCH FORMATION* Name. -The Moodys Branch formation was named for exposures of Jackson age along Moodys Branch of the Pearl River in the city of Jackson, Miss. The name Moodys Branch was first used in connection with deposits of Jackson age in Mississippi by Otto Meyer (1885, p. 435). E. N. Lowe (1915, p. 80) described Moodys Branch green marls as a formation of the Jackson group and thought the bed overlay the Yazoo clay marl. Cooke (1918, p. 186-198) describes the Moodys calcareous marl member as the basal member of the Jackson formation and that it rests conformably on the Yegua formation of Claiborne age and is overlain by the Yazoo clay member of the Jackson formation. The Mississippi Geological Survey now divides the Jackson formation into the Yazoo clay at the top and the Moodys marl at the base. In southern Alabama the Jackson group is composed of two formations: the Ocala limestone at the top and the Moodys Branch formation at the base. For many years the beds representing the base of the Jackson group in Florida have been referred to the Ocala limestone. R. 0. Vernon (1951, p. 115) correlated these beds with the basal Jackson in southern Alabama, which have been traced from Mississippi, and has proposed the name Moodys Branch formation to include two members, the Inglis member at the base and the Williston member at the top, for beds in the lower part of the Jackson group in Florida. Puri (1953, p. 130) has raised the rank of the two members to formations and no longer uses the name Moodys Branch in Florida. Lithology. -The Moodys Branch formation in Highlands County consists of cream to tan-gray, slightly hard to soft, granular to chalky, foraminiferal limestones which locally contain some crystalline calcite. In some areas of the county the hardness of the formation increases toward the base. The limestones in the upper part of the formation are so similar to the overlying Ocala limestone that the contact between the two formations is not clearly defined. In this report no attempt * After the manuscript for this report was completed Puri (1953, p. 130) and Purl in Vernon and Puri (1956, p. 35-38) proposed the following classification of the upper Eocene in Florida. Crystal River formation Ocala Group Williston formation Inglis formation This classification is presently in use by various workers in the field and is officially accepted by the Florida Geological Survey.

PAGE 29

REPORT OF INVESTIGATIONS No. 15 21 has been made to differentiate between the two members of the formation. Distribution and stratigraphic relations. -The Moodys Branch formation is known to underlie a large portion of the central and northwestern parts of the Florida Peninsula. It rests unconformably on rocks of Claiborne age and is conformably overlain by the Ocala limestone. Thickness and structure. -The Moodys Branch formation in Highlands County apparently ranges in thickness from about 50 to 150 feet, the top of the formation ranging from about 500 feet below sea level in the northern part of the county to about 750 feet below sea level in the southern part. The formation strikes east-west and dips south an average of about 4 feet per mile. Paleogeography. -The Moodys Branch formation was deposited in a shallow sea, !the shoreline probably extending across southern Mississippi and Alabama, and northeast across central Georgia. At its type locality, according to Cooke (1918, p. 186-198), the formation grades from a bed of quartz sand, glauconite, and shells at the base to indurated marl or impure limestone at the top, indicating that the shoreline moved slowly north during the time the formation was being deposited. Paleontology. -The most conspicuous elements of the Moodys Branch formation in this area are the Foraminifera. Concerning the Foraminifera of the Inglis member, Vernon (1951, p. 118) states: "Miliolids are very abundant, but are usually so poorly preserved that specific identification can rarely be made. Only one large Foraminifera, Camerina vanderstoki (Rutten and Vermunt) is present and it is limited to the upper few feet. Amphistegina pinarensis cosdeni Applin and Jordan, Nonion advenum (Cushman), Rotalia cushmani Applin and Jordan, Camegueyia perplexa Cole and Bermudez, Fabiania cubensis (Cushman and Bermudez), Spiroloculina seminolensis Applin and Jordan, Elphidium sp. 'A'. Peneroplid Sp. 'X' and Discorpinopsis gunteri Cole characterize the bed." Concerning the Foraminifera of the Williston member, Vernon (1951, p. 142) states: "Miliolids are the most abundant fauna in the Williston member outranking the camerinids in numbers of individuals but being less by volume. The miliolids are largely undescribed and are generally so poorly preserved that specific identification is prevented. ...The most common species and greatest number of specimens in the bed is Camerina vanderstoki (Rutten and Vermunt) with minor percentages of C. guayabalensis Barker, C. sp. cf. C. moodybranchensis

PAGE 30

2 IFLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY Gravcll and Hanna, Operculinoides floridensis (Heilprin), 0. vaughani (Cushman) var. (noded septae). Lepidocyclina ocalana Cushman and Ileterostegina ocalana Cushman are rare throughout the bed and more coinmon at the top than at the base." W4ater supply. -The Moodys Branch formation probably is not capable of producing large supplies of water for irrigation and municipal needs in Highlands County, but it does contribute some water to wells that penetrate underlying formations. (CALA LIMESTONE Name. -The Ocala limestone was named for exposures in the vicinity of Ocala, Marion County, by Dall and Harris (1892, p. 103, 157, 311), who assigned them to the Eocene or Oligocene. Later studies by Cooke (1926, p. 251-297) proved the limestone to be of Jackson (late Eocene) age, and Cooke and Mossom (1929, p. 47-48) defined the Ocala to include "all rocks of Eocene age exposed in Florida." Vernon (1951, p. 156-159) restricted the term Ocala to include only the late Jackson and assigned the basal beds to the Moodys Branch formation of early Jackson age. Puri (1953, p. 130) has redefined Vernon's Ocala (restricted) and Inamted it the Crystal River formation. He has included the Crystal River, WVilliston, and Inglis formations in the Ocala group. lithology. -The Ocala limestone in Highlands County is a lightgray to cream, soft, chalky, coquina limestone composed almost entirely of tests of large Foraminifera. Distribution and stratigraphic relations. -The Ocala limestone underlies 1most of Florida and extends westward across Alabama to the ''ombighee River, and northward to Twiggs and Wilkinson Counties in Georgia (Cooke, 1945, p. 55-57). In Highlands County the Ocala rests conformably on the Moodys Branch formation. In the western part of the county it is overlain unconformably by the Suwannee limestone of Oligocene age; in the eastern part of the county, however, it is unconformably overlain by the Hawthorn formation of Miocene age. Thickness and structure. -The Ocala limestone in Highlands County apparently ranges in thickness from about 150 to 250 feet, the top of the formation occurring about 250 feet below sea level in the northern part of the county and about 650 feet below sea level in the southern part. The formation strikes roughly east-west and dips south an average of about 10 feet per mile.

PAGE 31

REPORT OF INVESTIGATIONS No. 15 23 Paleogeography. -The Ocala limestone was deposited in an open, fairly shallow sea, the shoreline, according to Cooke (1945, p. 57), extending across Alabama from Choctaw County to Houston County and northeast across Georgia past Macon to Augusta. Equivalent nearshore deposits are the Yazoo clay in Mississippi and western Alabama and the Barnwell formation composed chiefly of sand, in Georgia. Paleontology. -The most conspicuous fossils found in the Ocala limestone in Highlands County are the numerous specimens of Lepidocyclina ocalana Cushman and varieties. Applin and Jordan (1945, p. 130) list 15 species of Foraminifera as diagnostic of the Ocala limestone, but as the Ocala of their paper comprises both the Ocala limestone (restricted) and the Williston member of the Moodys Branch formation, the list includes species that are now known to be characteristic of the Moodys Branch as well as the Ocala. Water supply. -Data furnished by well drillers, as well as those obtained during actual drilling, indicate that the ground-water yield from the Ocala limestone is not as large as the yield from deeper Eocene formations. The smaller yield from the Ocala may be due to the presence of localized less permeable zones within the limestone, for in some parts of southeastern Highlands County the Ocala limestone is capable of producing fairly large volumes of water. Information on the depths of wells penetrating the Floridan aquifer suggests that in the ridge area sufficient water for large-scale irrigation is not available in either the Ocala or the Avon Park limestone, and that wells must penetrate the Lake City for the required quantities. Oligocene Series SUWANNEE LIMESTONE Name. -The name Suwannee limestone was proposed by Cooke and Mansfield (1936, p. 71) for the yellowish limestone typically exposed along the Suwannee River in Hamilton and Suwannee Counties. Lithology. -The Suwannee limestone in Highlands County consists predominantly of cream-colored, slightly porous, soft, chalky to slightly crystalline limestone. Distribution and stratigraphic relations. -Well cuttings indicate that the Suwannee limestone is not continuous in the subsurface of peninsular Florida. In Highlands County it is present only in the western part of the county, where it rests uncomformably on the Ocala limestone and is unconformably overlain by the Hawthorn formation. Thickness and structure. -The maximum thickness of the Suwan-

PAGE 32

24 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY nee limestone in Highlands County is only about 80 feet, the top of the formation ranging from about 200 feet below sea level in the northern part of the county to about 550 feet below sea level in the southern part. The Suwannee strikes east-west and dips south an average of about 6 feet per mile. Paleogeography. -The Suwannee limestone was deposited in a fairly shallow open ocean, the shoreline, according to Cooke (1945, p. 89), extending across Alabama from Washington County to Henry County across Georgia to Burke County. The Flint River formation, containing much clastic material, is thought to be the near-shore equivalent of the Suwannee limestone in northwestern Florida, southeastern Alabama, and southern Georgia, and the Chickasawhay limestone, also containing clastic material, is probably the equivalent in southwestern Alabama and southeastern Mississippi (Cooke, 1945, p. 88-89). Paleontology. -The Suwannee limestone contains echinoids, mollusks, and forams. The echinoid Cassidulus gouldii (Bouve) is the most conspicuous and widespread fossil in the outcrop areas. In Highlands County, where the Suwannee limestone is known only from well cuttings, the most conspicuous fossils are Foraminifera of which Rotalia mexicana is the most common. Applin and Jordan (1945, p. 129, 130) consider the following Foraminifera to be diagnostic of the formation: Asterigerina subacuta floridensis Applin and Jordan Coskinolina floridana Cole Dictyoconus cookei (Moberg) Elphidiurn leonensis Applin and Jordan Elphidium afl. E. poeyanum (d'Orbigny) fleterostegina texana Gravell and M. A. Hanna Miogypsina (Miogypsina) gunteri Cole Nonion advenum (Cushman) Nonionella leonensis Applin and Jordan Operculinoides vicksburgensis Vaughn and Cole Quinqueloculina leonensis Applin and Jordan Rotalia byramensis Cushman Rotalia mexicana Nuttall Rotalia mexicana mecatepecensis Nuttall Valvulammina? sp. Water supply. -The Suwannee limestone is not an important aquifer in Highlands County, although locally it is used for small domestic supplies. Miocene Series HAWTHORN FORMATION Name. -The Hawthorn formation was named for exposures of early and middle Miocene age in the vicinity of Hawthorn in Alachua County, Fla., by Dall and Harris (1892, p. 107). The Hawthorn for-

PAGE 33

REPORT OF INVESTIGATIONS No. 15 25 mation of this report includes all marine, littoral and deltaic beds of early and middle Miocene age in Highlands County. Cooke (1945, p. 109) recognized the three divisions -early, middle, and upper -of the Miocene in peninsular Florida. Vernon (1951, p. 179) studied sediments from more than 13,000 wells drilled in 35 counties extending from Jefferson County to Hillsborough County. In this area he definitely identified material of Tampa (early Miocene) age only in Hernando, Hillsborough, Pasco, Pinellas, and Polk Counties, and he identified it questionably in southern Citrus, Jefferson, Indian River, southern Lake, and Osceola Counties. In the outcrop area in the vicinity of Tampa Bay, the Tampa limestone5 is a cream to white sandy limestone containing specimens of Archaias and Sorites. Vernon (1951, p. 181) indicates a definite time break between the end of Tampa and the beginning of Hawthorn deposition and thus restricts Tampa deposition to early Miocene, and the Hawthorn formation to middle Miocene. However, the extent of the uncomformity is not known, and Cooke (1945, p. 115, 145) indicates uncertainty concerning the time break. Regardless of the presence of an unconformity, there is no evidence that it is a division marker between early and middle Miocene. In his examination of well cuttings in Highlands County, the author found material that might be equivalent to the sandy limestone of the Tampa in only the northern part of the county. These limestones were included in the Hawthorn. In western Highlands County typical marine sediments of the Hawthorn were found to overlie the Suwannee limestone unconformably, and in the eastern part of the county a similar relationship was noted with the Ocala limestone. It may be that Highlands County was a high, exposed area from post-Oligocene to middle Miocene time, and that no material of Tampa age was deposited in the area. It is possible also that the lower Miocene Tampa sea covered the county with thin deposits of limestone which were subsequently removed during the pre-middle Miocene erosion interval. If the transgressing sea during Tampa time was shallow and of limited extent, the Tampa limestone might occur only locally, possibly in depression on the pre-Miocene erosion surface. A third possibility seems apparent, whereby Highlands County remained submerged by shallow seas during both early and middle Miocene times and deposition was continuous throughout that time interval. If the greater percentage of the materials brought down and deposited in eastern High6 Tampa limestone, as officially used by the U. S. Geological Survey, is referred to as the Tampa formation by the Florida Geological Survey.

PAGE 34

26) FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY lands County and southeastern Florida during early Miocene time were clastics, then sand, silt, and clay would predominate rather than carbonates, as in western Florida. Therefore, marine clastics in the lower part of the Hawthorn formation at some places in southern Florida may be equivalent to limestone of Tampa age in other areas. Cooke (1945, p. 145) appears to favor the probability that the Hawthorn sea was an expanded Tampa sea. In extending the Citronelle formation into northwestern Highlands County, Cooke (1945, p. 233) stated: "The high ridge that extends northward from Sebring is capped with coarse red sand that probably represents the Citronelle formation, though some of it may be Pleistocene." The deposit of coarse red sand referred to by Cooke extends as far south as Childs. The writer has concluded from his examination of well cuttings that this deposit grades downward and laterally through coarse, micaceous, quartz sand, locally containing quartzite pebbles and white kaolinite, into typical marine Hawthorn, and that the deposit must, therefore, be a part of the Hawthorn formation. These red, clayey sands have thus been included in the Hawthorn formation of this report. That the deposits which overlie the typical marine Hawthorn are themselves Hawthorn in age is confirmed by the fact that the Tamiami formation of late Miocene age wedges out against their flanks. (Sec cross section C-C', fig. 4c). A further indication that they are of Hawthorn age is that they contain quartz pebbles like those found in typical marine Hawthorn deposits in other parts of the peninsula. Tlhe stratification of these deposits and the presence of quartz pebbles in them suggest that they were deposited by streams rather than by ocean currents. Deltaic stratification can be seen in the sandpits just north of Davenport in Polk County, sec. 27, T. 26 S., R. 27 E., where sand-mining operations have exposed large, well-developed foreset beds. The evidence found by the writer suggests to him that a large river exisited in peninsular Florida during Hawthorn time and that the thick section of coarse clastic material in Highlands and Polk Counties is in reality an extension of the deltaic facies of the Hawthorn formation. A middle Miocene delta plain was proposed by Vernon (1951, p. 184) for the panhandle and peninsular sections of Florida. The deposits in Highlands County may be an extension of this delta plain built by a river flowing southward between structural irregularities developed along the Ocala uplift during the Miocene epoch. The presence of pebbles in the marine Hawthorn suggests that the immediate source of its clastic material, possibly a beach or an estuary,

PAGE 35

REPORT OF INVESTIGATIONS NO. 15 27 was much nearer than has heretofore been supposed. James B. Cathcart of the U. S. Geological Survey (personal communication, 1952), in his work on the phosphorite deposits of southern Florida, has observed quartz pebbles in the Hawthorn formation underlying the Bone Valley formation and believes that the volume of such material is too great to be accounted for by rafting or other minor forms of transportation. Lithology.--The marine deposits of the Hawthorn formation in the county are composed primarily of beds of dark-green to white, phosphatic clay and lenticular bodies of white to cream, dense, sandy, phosphatic limestone, phosphorite pebbles, and quartz sand. The deltaic deposits consist of quartz ranging from fine sand to pebble gravel and some phosphorite, mica, and kaolinite. Distribution and stratigraphic relations. -The marine deposits of the Hawthorn underlie all the county and rest unconformably on the Suwannee or Ocala limestone. In the eastern and possibly the southwestern parts of the county the formation is overlain unconformably(?) by the Tamiami formation. In the ridge section the marine deposits are overlain conformably by the deltaic beds. The deltaic beds, which are unconformably overlain by Pleistocene deposits, apparently grade horizontally into typically marine deposits, the marine nonclastics being represented at the same stratigraphic level as coarse sands and clays in the deltaic beds. As the marine deposits contain some of the coarse material found in the deltaic beds, there must be some interfingering of the deposits laterally. Thickness. -In Highlands County the Hawthorn formation ranges in thickness from about 300 feet in the low areas in the northern part of the county to about 650 feet in the Lake Placid area. Paleogeography. -Cooke (1945, p. 137-318) states: "During Alum Bluff time the sea extended across the southern tip of South Carolina, across southern Georgia almost to the Fall Line, across all of Florida, southern Alabama, and westward to Texas. East of the Apalachicola River it deposited the Hawthorn form'ation; west of it successively the Chipola and the Shoal River formations in Florida and the Hattiesburg clay in Mississippi and Louisiana." Vernon (1951, p. 181-184) does not agree that the Hawthorn sea covered all of Florida and states: "During the time that early and middle Miocene seas were encroaching upon the State, the land mass created by the Ocala uplift probably stood as a broad plain or a series of undulating hills forming a large insular area or a narrow

PAGE 36

28 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY peninsula that extended south from Georgia along the western part of peninsular Florida." A study of the subsurface geology indicates that a large part of Highlands County was probably above the sea at the beginning of Hawthorn time. As the sea rose and covered the county, shifting currents deposited a great thickness of phosphatic clay containing lenses of limestone, sand, and phosphorite of small areal extent. Before the close of Hawthorn time a finger of a large delta had moved across the county to about the Glades-Highlands County line. The remnant of this delta is the core of the present Highlands Ridge. Paleontology. -Mollusks, echinoids, shark teeth, coral, and a few foraminifers are found in the Hawthorn formation in Highlands County, but none appear to be diagnostic of the formation. Geologic exposures. -The Hawthorn is the oldest formation exposed in the county and can be seen in the many claypits on the ridge from Avon Park south to Lake Annie (see measured sections 407-410, p. 138, 139). Water supply. -The deltaic beds of the Hawthorn formation are an important source of water supply and are tapped by an increasing number of screened wells developed at depths generally less than 200 feet. A 12-inch well near Avon Park, 180 feet deep and containing 120 feet of slotted casing, yields 1,800 gallons per minute from this aquifer. Most of the marine beds are of low permeability, but the limestone units of the marine beds of the formation furnish small to moderate supplies of water locally. TAMIAMI FORMATION Name. --The name Tamiami limestone was first used by Mansfield (1939, p. 8) for the beds exposed in the shallow ditches along the Tamiami Trail in the Big Cypress Swamp. Cooke and Mossom (1929, p. 156) regarded the beds as a different facies of the Caloosahatchee marl of Pliocene age and did not offer a different formational name. Because of the sandy nature of the rock, Parker and Cooke (1944, p. 62) called it the Tamiami formation. Parker (1951, p. 822823) assigned the deposits to the upper Miocene and included in the Tamiami formation the Buckingham limestone of Mansfield (1939) and the upper part of the Hawthorn formation of Parker and Cooke (1944). As thus defined, the Tamiami formation includes all deposits of late Miocene age in southern Florida. Lithology. -The Tamiami formation in Highlands County is com-

PAGE 37

REPORT OF INVESTIGATIONS No. 15 29 posed of beds of dark-blue to white, clayey, sandy, shell marl, quartz sand, phosphorite, and sandy clay. Distribution and stratigraphic relations. -The Tamiami formation probably underlies all of Florida south and east of the Highlands Ridge. In Highlands County it has been found in the low area east of the ridge, but it possibly underlies also the low areas in the southwestern part of the county. The Tamiami rests unconformably(?) on the Hawthorn formation and is overlain unconformably by Pleistocene deposits. Thickness. -The Tamiami formation ranges in thickness from a featheredge on the east side of the Highlands Ridge to a probable maximum of about 100 feet near the Kissimmee River in the extreme southeastern part of the county. Paleogeography. -During late Miocene time the Highlands Ridge was a peninsula that formed the southernmost dry land in Florida. Paleontology. -The Tamiami formation is abundantly fossiliferous in Highlands County and contains the remains of mollusks, echinoids, barnacles, and foraminifers. Water supply.The Tamiami formation is used as a source of domestic and stock-water supplies in the eastern part of the county, though locally it contains moderately mineralized water. QUATERNARY SYSTEM Pleistocene Series INTRODUCTION The Pleistocene epoch in the United States has been divided into glacial stages (periods of maximum accumulation of ice) and interglacial stages (periods of minimum accumulation of ice). These glacial and interglacial stages are listed from the oldest to the youngest as follows: Pleistocene series Nebraskan glacial Aftonian interglacial Kansan glacial Yarmouth interglacial Illinoian glacial Sangamon interglacial Wisconsin glacial Recent series

PAGE 38

30 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY The glacial advances lowered the sea level by storing large volumes of the earth's water as ice. During the interglacial stages the water was returned to the sea, thereby causing a rise in its level. The greatest rise of the sea during the Pleistocene is estimated by Cooke (1939, p. 34) to have been to about 270 feet above present sea level, and the greatest lowering is thought to have been to about 300 feet below present sea level. The fluctuations of sea level in Florida produced great changes in the pre-Pleistocene land surface. In Highlands County the most important changes were brought about by coastal erosion and deposition, resulting in marine terraces and coastal bars. A part of, or possibly all, the solution that created the circular lakes and depressions probably occurred during low stages of the Pleistocene seas. Parker and Cooke (1944, pl. 3) show five Pleistocene marine terraces in Highlands County, the Pamlico, Talbot, Penholoway, Wicomico, and Sunderland, with shorelines at 25, 52, 70, 100, and 170 feet, respectively, above present sea level. MacNeil (1949, pl. 19) mapped three Pleistocene shorelines in Highlands County, the Pamlico at 30 feet, the Wicomico at 100 feet, and the Okefenokee at 150 feet. The maps of the above-mentioned investigators were made from aerial photographs without vertical control in Highlands County. During the course of the present investigation detailed topographic maps on a 5-foot contour interval, prepared for the Corps of Engineers, U. S. Army, were obtained for a part of the ridge section. These maps show that some of the Pleistocene terraces have been tilted and possibly faulted. The pattern of tilting is confusing but, in general, the affected area lies east of a line that touches points about a mile west of Lake Childs and Lake Jackson and west of a parallel line that crosses the western side of Lake Istokpoga. The tilted area extends from about 6 miles south of Lake Annie into southern Polk County. The only part of this area that presents a clear picture of the tilting is the southeastern part of the ridge section in T. 38 S., R. 30 E. Here the 150-foot contour crosses a well-developed marine scarp, about 35 feet high, in a distance of less than 3 miles. The tilting is to the north in this area. Throughout the tilted area of Highlands County there are what seem to be zones of faulting, which further complicate the picture. The chain of lakes lying between Lake Jackson and Lake Annie are in a graben-shaped depression (see cross section C-C', fig. 4), which is lowest in the Josephine Creek area, where circular lakes of the type

PAGE 39

REPORT OF INVESTIGATIONS No. 15 31 mentioned by MacNeil (1949, p. 101) are present below the 100-foot contour. Topographic features that have the appearance of fault scarps have been noted near Avon Park and Lake Placid. The feature near Avon Park (secs. 7 and 8, T. 33 S., R. 29 E.) is a very straight south-facing scarp on the edge of a filled-in lake or sheltered bay. This feature is hard to explain on the basis of wave erosion or longshore currents because of its sheltered position. The feature near Lake Placid (secs. 8 and 9, T. 37 S., R. 30 E.) is a north-facing scarp that seems to have no relation to the nearby marine scarps. Aerial photographs of the area between Arbuckle Creek and the Highlands Ridge show the drainage pattern to be somewhat rectangular and suggest that the streams may be fault controlled. Because of the difficulty of correlating the terraces, all deposits of Pleistocene age in Highlands County are herein grouped together. PLEISTOCENE DEPOSITS Lithology. -The Pleistocene deposits in the Highlands Ridge area consist of gray-orange to white, medium to coarse, quartz sand, with locally interbedded brown clayey zones near the basal contact with the Hawthorn formation. Fine to medium, clayey, calcareous, quartz sand is predominant in the lower areas of the county. Distribution and stratigraphic relations. -The Pleistocene deposits crop out over most of the county, lying unconformably on the Hawthorn formation in the western part of the county, and on the Tamiami formation east of the ridge. In the ridge section, good exposures can be seen in many of the road and railroad cuts (see measured sections). Thickness. -Pleistocene deposits in Highlands County range in thickness from about a foot in the low area west of the ridge to about 100 feet in the coastal bars on the east side of the ridge. Paleogeography. -Several advances and retreats of the shoreline over Highlands County occurred during the Pleistocene epoch. During the Aftonian interglacial stage the area was either completely covered by the sea or completely covered except for a few islands in the ridge section. During the Kansan glacial stage the county was dry land. This cycle was repeated during the following glacial and interglacial stages, a smaller portion of the county being submerged by each succeeding advance of the sea. During the interglacial stages of the early Pleistocene the Highlands Ridge apparently separated an area of relatively deep open water to the east from an area of shallow water immediately to the west. Because of this, the eastern part of the ridge was subjected to the action of long-

PAGE 40

32 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY shore currents and large waves, resulting in the formation of numerous coastal bars. The western side of the ridge escaped violent wave action and a fairly smooth marine plain developed, with very little material being deposited in the area to the west of the plain. 'he lakes of Highlands County are post-middle Miocene in age, probably early Pleistocene, and were formed at a time when the sea level stood below its present level. A lowering of the water table probably accompanied the drop in sea level and resulted in an increase in the rate of circulation of water in the limestone below the clay of the Hawthorn formation. Solution caverns which developed in the limestone later collapsed to form many of the lakes of the area. Paleontology. -The marine fossils of the Pleistocene deposits of the county consist almost entirely of Foraminifera which are found in the lower part of the deposits in the low areas east of the ridge; of these, the following have been identified: Elphidium gunteri Cole Nonion pompilioides (Fichtel and Moll) Rotalia beccarii (Linne) var. tepida Cushman Rotalia beccarii (Linn6) var. ornata? Cushman The remains of terrestrial vertebrates have been reported in several of the swamps and lakes in the county. Water supply. -The Pleistocene deposits furnish small to moderate supplies of water to stock and domestic wells in places throughout the county. Recent Series INTRODU'rION The Recent deposits in Highlands County consist of dune sand, peat, and alluvium. It is likely that some of these deposits were beginning to form during the Pleistocene epoch, but as there are insufficient data available to subdivide them as to age, and as they are still being formed, they are all tentatively placed in the Recent series. DUNE SAND Dune sand occurs near many of the larger lakes in the county and also forms thin coverings over the Pleistocene coastal bars in the southern part of the ridge. The sand is composed predominantly of white, medium to coarse, quartz sand, but includes a small amount of organic material. As the dune sand lies above the water table no water is obtained from it. PEAT'r DEPOSITS Many marshes and swamps in the county contain peat deposits of varying thickness and purity. The largest deposit is in the area south of

PAGE 41

REPORT OF INVESTIGATIONS No. 15 33 Lake Istokpoga and, according to Davis (1946, p. 129), underlies an area of approximately 35,000 acres, most of the deposit being between 3 and 8 feet thick. No wells obtain water from these peat deposits in the county. ALLUVIUM Well-developed flood plains are present in the valleys of the Kissimmee River and Arbuckle Creek, and along the lower portion of Fisheating Creek. The flood-plain deposits are made up almost entirely of fine to medium sand and organic material mixed in varying degree and ranging from small deposits of sandy peat to bars of pure sand. The deposits reach a probable maximum thickness of about 20 feet in the Kissimmee River valley. No wells are known to obtain water from alluvial deposits in Highlands County. GROUND WATER Ground water is the water occurring in the pores or openings of the earth's crust within the zone of saturation. The zone of saturation is defined as that in which the rocks are saturated with water under hydrostatic pressure. It is the zone of saturation that supplies water to wells and springs. In this report ground water will be discussed under two different headings based on occurrence: (1) nonartesian water, the water that is unconfined in the earth's crust; and (2) artesian water, the water that is confined under pressure between relatively impermeable beds. NONARTESIAN WATER Source In Highlands County the nonartesian ground water is derived almost entirely from rain falling within the county. Part of the water that falls as rain evaporates, part of it is absorbed by plants and transpired into the atmosphere, and part of it is carried away by surface runoff. The remaining part which escapes evaporation, transpiration, and surface runoff moves downward through the underlying strata until it reaches the zone of saturation and becomes part of the body of ground water. Unconfined ground water moves at varying rates through the aquifer, under the influence of gravity. Occurrence The following discussion of the principles governing the occurrence of ground water has been adapted from Meinzer (1923a). Ground water occurs in Highlands County in the numerous open

PAGE 42

34 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY spaces in rock material below the water table. These open spaces range in size from minute pores of microscopic dimensions to openings several inches in width. It is from these openings that wells obtain their water. The amount of water that can be stored in a water-bearing rock is determined by the porosity of the rock. Porosity is expressed as the percentage of the total volume of rock that is occupied by openings. When all the openings in a rock are filled with water, the rock is saturated. The porosity of the water-bearing material underlying Highlands County is controlled by (1) the degree of assortment of the constituent particles; (2) the shape and arrangement of the particles; (3) the degree of cementation and compaction; and (4) the degree to which percolating water has removed soluble mineral matter. Fracturing is not an important contributor to the porosity of the rocks in the county. Well-sorted sedimentary rocks generally have a high porosity, whereas poorly sorted deposits have a much lower porosity because the fine material fills the open spaces in the coarse material. Several common types of open spaces, or interstices, and the relation of texture to porosity are shown in figure 5. The specific yield is a measure of the capacity of a saturated rock to yield water from storage. It may be defined as the ratio of (1) the volume of water which, after being saturated, it will yield by gravity to (2) its own volume. A C E 8 0 F A, Well-sorted sedimentary deposit having a high porosity; B, poorly sorted sedimentary deposit having low porosity; C, well-sorted sedimentary deposit consisting of pebbles that are themselves porous so that the deposit as a whole has a very high porosity; D, well-sorted sedimentary deposit whose porosity has been diminished by the deposition of mineral matter in the interstices; E, rock rendered porous by solution; F, rock rendered porous by fracturing. (From 0. E. Neinier.) 1'I(;URE 5.Diagram showing several types of rock interstices and the relation of rock texture to porosity. The amount of water that rock material can hold is determined by

PAGE 43

REPORT OF INVESTIGATIONS No. 15 35 its porosity, but the rate at which it will yield water to wells is determined by its permeability. The permeability of a rock is its capacity for transmitting water under a hydraulic gradient, and it is measured by the rate at which it will transmit water through a given cross section under a given loss of head per unit of distance. Beds of dense clay may have higher porosity than beds of coarse sand, but because of the small size of their pores they may transmit no appreciable amount of water and may be considered to be relatively impermeable. The porosity and permeability of limestone vary greatly. The thick section of limestone composing the Floridan aquifer is porous and permeable, although it varies both laterally and vertically. The porosity of the limestone beneath the land surface in Highlands County is the result of percolating waters dissolving the limestone as they descended to the water table when the region stood much higher above sea level than it does now. This condition occurred several times during the Pleistocene, when there were eustatic changes in sea level, and probably in early periods of the late Cenozoic, when the region was uplifted in relation to sea level. The leaching during those periods in the Pleistocene and early Tertiary produced a porous and cavernous limestone which is now saturated with water. The logs and information gained from well drillers do not indicate extensive cavernous zones beneath this area, however. The measurements listed in the logs for wells 183, 358, 400, 401, 403, 408, Glades 22, and Okeechobee 23 indicate a differing degree of permeability of the limestone laterally and vertically. The Water Table and Movement of Nonartesian Ground Water The water table is defined as the upper surface of the zone of saturation except where that surface is formed by an impermeable body. When water enters the earth at the surface of the ground, part of it moves down through the zone of aeration to the zone of saturation, or the body of unconfined ground water, but part of it is retained in the zone of aeration by capillary action. The amount of water that is retained by capillarity is determined by the size of the openings in the zone of aeration. At the bottom of the zone of aeration is a belt, called the capillary fringe, in which moisture is held up by capillarity above the water table. In fine-grained material this belt may be several feet thick. Water in the zone of aeration, whether in transit or in the capillary fringe, is not available to wells but may be utilized by plants. Wells must penetrate the zone of saturation before water enters them. The relation of the zone of saturation to the zone of aeration is shown in figure 6.

PAGE 44

36 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY LAND SURFACE Belt of soil water SOIL WATER z Cr. M Intermediate INTERMEDIATE VADOSE WATER W belt o W Wo ur i1 w X N W) W U Capillary FRINGE WATER o< Y fringe U. o WATER TABLE 0 zW z o N C GROUND WATER z INO w 0 0 S HAINTERNAL WATER 0 _j N O 0 FIG;URE 6. -Diagram showing division of subsurface water (From Meinzer, 1923b, fig. 2) SHAPE AND SLOPE OF WATER TABLE The water table is a sloping surface having many local irregularities due to differences in permeability of the water-bearing material and to

PAGE 45

REPORT OF INVESTIGATIONS No. 15 37 discharge or recharge of the ground-water reservoir. The frictional resistance to the movement of the water in coarse-grained material is less than in fine-grained material and therefore the slope of the water table decreases as the grain size increases. Ground water moves in the direction of maximum slope, which is at right angles to contours drawn on the water table. RELATION TO TOPOGRAPHY In the low, flat areas of the county the water table is less than 10 feet below the land surface and has about the same relief as the land surface. Contours drawn on the water table in Highlands County would be roughly parallel to the topographic contours. In the Highlands Ridge section the water table follows the configuration of the land surface in a general way but has far less relief. Its maximum depth below the land surface is about 60 feet. FLUCTUATIONS OF THE WATER TABLE The water table is a fluctuating surface that rises when the rate of recharge exceeds the rate of discharge and declines when the recharge is less than the discharge. The factors that tend to lower the water table in Highlands County are: (1) evaporation and transpiration; (2) seepage into streams and lakes; (3) draft from wells; and (4) subsurface movement of water out of the county. The factors that tend to raise the water table in the county are: (1) precipitation within the county that passes through the surficial material and descends to the water table; (2) seepage from the Kissimmee River and some of the creeks and lakes, at times when the water level in these bodies of water is higher than the adjoining water table; (3) seepage of water from irrigated lands; and (4) subsurface movement of water into the county. In September 1948, seven test-observation wells (nos. 9 through 15) were drilled in Highlands County. Equipped with automatic water-stage recorders, they furnish continuous records of the fluctuations of the water table. Descriptions of the wells and the water-level measurements for 1948-49 are given in the 1949 annual water-level report of the U. S. Geological Survey (Clark and Schroeder, 1952, p. 64-67). Subsequent water-level measurements will be published in ensuing annual reports. Descriptions of the wells are included also in table 11. Of the 7 wells, 2 (nos. 10 and 14) are on the Highlands Ridge, .1 (no. 15) is in the Western Flatlands, and the remainder are in the Eastern Flatlands. The hydrographs of these wells, representing the

PAGE 46

38 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY averages of the daily high and low readings, and the cumulative departure from normal rainfall at Avon Park are shown in figure 7. Some correlation is apparent between the cumulative departures from normal rainfall and the hydrographs of wells 10 and 14. The hydrographs of the other wells have very little correlation with the rainfall plot, partly because of local variations in the distribution of rainfall, but probably more because of the small storage capacity of the water-bearing materials. In many parts of the low areas of the county, especially the Istokpoga-Indian Prairie Basin, the water table stands near the land surface even during the dry season. At the beginning of the rainy season the small amount of storage space above the water table is rapidly filled, so that the water table rises to the land surface before the rainy season is over. Additional rainfall does not then cause a rise in the water table, but instead contributes to surface runoff. This condition is reflected in the observation wells by a rise of water levels to a maximum height before the bulk of the rain falls. Water-level fluctuations recorded in these wells during the years 1949 through 1951 ranged from 4.63 feet in well 15 to 10.17 feet in well 14 (see fig. 7). Recharge RECHARGE FROM LOCAL RAINFALL Nearly all the recharge to the unconfined aquifers in the county is derived from local rainfall, which averages about 52 inches annually. Because the surficial material is very permeable, no appreciable surface runoff occurs except in places where the water table is near, or coincides with, the land surface. Tests made by the Soil Conservation Service in Highlands County indicate that rainfall would have to be more than 80 inches an hour to cause surface runoff from some of the sandy soils on the Highlands Ridge. RECHARGE FROM LAKES AND STREAMS The recharge from lakes and streams probably accounts for only a small amount of the total recharge, but it occurs locally at times when the surface of the lakes and streams are higher than the water table, because of irregular distribution of rainfall and topographic peculiarities. The most notable example of this type of recharge is in the Indian Prairie Basin, where the land surface slopes away from the southern end of Lake Istokpoga. Some recharge occurs when the level of the lake stands higher than the water table immediately to the south. At times the lake level is higher even than the land surface to the south, but surface-water flow is prevented by a system of dikes.

PAGE 47

DPdNAROO IN HcS f orptj o po WS f t l f -0 PI I f Pepoef FO -oo -~ I > b .1ib. 2 "1A a , N So 0:t= 0t 0 0 -a 0r nI; -I'

PAGE 48

40 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY RECHARGE FROM IRRIGATION Some of the water applied for irrigation descends to the water table. SUBSURFACE INFLOW A small amount of unconfined ground water moves into the groundwater reservoir of northeastern Highlands County from aquifers in southern Polk County, where the slope of the water table is to the southeast. Inflow probably occurs also in the southwestern part of Highlands County, in the Fisheating Creek area. Some inflow occurs also from shallow artesian aquifers. Discharge DISCHARGE BY EVAPOTRANSPIRATION In Highlands County a large amount of unconfined ground water is lost by evapotranspiration, especially in those areas where the water table is at or near the surface. Charts from all the observation wells, except wells 10 and 14, show distinct, steplike declines of the water table, most pronounced (luring the afternoons of days that are relatively hot and dry. These declines amount to as much as 0.05 of a foot per day in some localities. In the high areas, where the water table is below the reach of most plant roots, the plants obtain their water from the zone of soil moisture, thereby reducing the recharge to the shallow ground-water reservoir. DISCHARGE INTO LAKES AND STREAMS Streams and lakes whose surfaces stand lower than the water table in adjacent areas receive water from the zone of saturation. Examples of this type of ground-water discharge may be noted in Highlands County by observing the water levels in small lakes that are subjected to intense pumping for a short period of time. If water is pumped out of a lake faster than it is replenished from ground water the lake level will drop, but when pumping has ceased the lake level will rise nearly to its original level. The amount and rate of drawdown caused by pumping from the lake and the rate of recovery after pumping stops depend in part upon the rate and duration of pumping and in part upon the permeability of the water-bearing materials. Heavier pumping throughout longer periods causes large drawdowns and more rapid recovery after pumping ceases. Also, with lower permeability the drawdown will be larger and initial rate of recovery more rapid. In Highlands County, ground water is almost constantly feeding into streams

PAGE 49

REPORT OF INVESTIGATIONS No. 15 41 and lakes, because the surfaces of most of these open bodies of water are normally lower than the water table as a result of evaporation and flow out of the area. SUBSURFACE OUTFLOW In addition to discharge into lakes and streams, which removes ground water from the area, there is some seepage into ground-water reservoirs outside the county. Ground water is moving out of the county into adjacent counties along the southern and northwestern boundaries, as evidenced by the slope of the water table. DISCHARGE FROM WELLS Natural discharge, discussed above, seems to account for most of the discharge of unconfined ground water from the county; the rest is through wells. Most domestic and stock wells in Highlands County draw water from the unconsolidated aquifer containing nonartesian ground water. The most common type of well in the unconsolidated materials is the driven well, which consists of a 1 4 to 1/2 inch metal pipe equipped with a screened drive point. These wells are driven into the aquifer and are usually pumped with a pitcher pump. Another type used in unconsolidated deposits is the screened well, which is similar in principle but is usually larger in diameter, and its screen is placed at the bottom of a drilled hole instead of being driven. Gravel is commonly placed around the screen to increase the effective diameter of the well and thus reduce the drawdown, and to reduce the velocity of the incoming water sufficiently to prevent fine material from moving into the well. ARTESIAN WATER Artesian water is ground water that rises above the level at which it is encountered in wells (Meinzer and Wenzel, 1942, p. 451). Artesian conditions exist where water in permeable water-bearing beds is confined between relatively impermeable beds. (See fig. 8.) Source The piezometric map of the State (fig. 9) indicates that the artesian water in Highlands County is derived from rainfall on the topographically high area extending southward from northern Polk County. Occurrence Artesian water in Highlands County occurs at depths ranging from less than 10 feet to more than 1,500 feet. There are two distinct artesian systems in the area: (1) the Floridan aquifer, which consists of the

PAGE 50

42 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY C,. RECHARGE /AREA FOR r, SARTESIAN AQUIFER // W Pis o03tric SIN KNONARTESIAN AOUIFER ARTESIAN AOUIFER CONFINING LAYER FIGURE 8. -Diagram showing generalized artesian conditions. group of water-bearing limestones that are overlain by the confining clays of the Hawthorn formation, and (2) the shallow artesian system which consists of the unconsolidated aquifers in the upper part of the Hawthorn and in the Tamiami formation. The name Floridan aquifer was proposed by Parker (1951) for the principal artesian aquifer of the State, which is composed largely of limestones of Tertiary age underlying the thick clay section of the Hawthorn formation. The Floridan aquifer underlies all the State, except possibly the extreme western part, and extends into southern Georgia, southwestern South Carolina, and southeastern Alabama. The shallow artesian aquifers are present only locally under the low areas adjacent to the Highlands Ridge. The Piezometric Surface and Movement of Artesian Water The piezometric surface, or pressure-head-indicating surface, is an imaginary surface to which the water from a given artesian aquifer

PAGE 51

REPORT OF INVESTIGATIONS NO. 15 43 FIRE-9. -Map s .---piomtc surface Flr aquifert=» w rsei t l th n t af It i which wate wil riSin el term ia n in b beow 60 ths thecntour lines represep ioeEz r co The pi Cometric aepeent opproxi esely the height, in areas og to ar feet to which woer will rise with reference to tmen so o a o b m level n ighly csed 'wells hat peneroe he Floridn" -/' Contour in ervl 20 fee. .A o"1 \ V .'r% FIGURE 9. -Map showing piezometric surface of the Floridan aquifer artesian pressure head toward areas of lower head at right angles to SHAPE AND SLOPE The piezometric surface slopes from areas of recharge to areas of discharge and shows irregularities due to unequal discharge and recharge and unequal ficional resistance to the flow of water offered by mat erials comprising the aquifer. Contour intervl 20 feet. 0 ' .'o _ Hawthorn formation (fig. 10). the contour lines representing the piezometric surface. The piezometric surface slopes from areas of recharge to areas of and uinequal frictional resistance to the flow of water offered by materials comprising the aquifer.

PAGE 52

44 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY T ..*. ./I/ -I _ 00 0O o I °o .O O A VON 0 0 0 0 I 90 SEBRING */ LAKE ISTOKPOGA * LACI EXPLANATION -1o 0 Contour lines represent approxI imotely the heighl, in feel, to which water will rise above meon 2 .sea level in tightly cased wells that penelrote the Floridon oquiSfoer, 1951. I i ' SCALE IN MILES 0 2 4 6 8 10 'I(;UREF 10. -Map showing the piezometric surface of the Floridan aquifer in Highlands County. RELATION TO TOPOGRAPHY Topography is the controlling factor in determining whether or not a tightly cased artesian well will flow at land surface. An artesian well will flow if the piezometric surface is higher than the land surface; it will not flow if the piezometric surface is below the land surface. IFLUCTUATIONS OF THE PIEZOMETRIC SURFACE Measurements of artesian water levels show that the piezometric

PAGE 53

REPORT OF INVESTIGATIONS No. 15 45 surface is not a stationary surface, but that it fluctuates almost constantly. In Highlands County fluctuation in artesian wells is caused by rainfall, by changes in atmospheric pressure, and discharge from wells. Rainfall. -The effects of rainfall are most noticeable in some aquifers of the shallow artesian system. Many owners of shallow artesian wells report a rise in head accompanied by an increase in flow after heavy rains. The effects of rainfall on the artesian pressure in the Floridan aquifer were not evaluated in Highlands County because of the scarcity of measureable wells. Most wells in the Floridan aquifer are irrigation wells that are not used during periods of rainfall. It is quite possible, therefore, that some of the increase in head during these periods is due to cessation of pumping rather than to rainfall. Changes in atmospheric pressure. -No studies were made in Highlands County of the relation between changes in atmospheric pressure and fluctuations of the piezometric surface, but as such a relationship is quite common in artesian systems (Stringfield, 1936, p. 139) it is assumed to exist in the area of this report. Concerning this phenomenon, Meinzer (1932, p. 141-142) states: "If a well ends in an artesian formation and this formation or the overlying confining beds have sufficient strength to resist deformation by slight changes in pressure at the surface, the well will act as a barometer. The fluctuations of its water level will have virtually the same range of fluctuations as would be shown by a water barometer, or 13.5 times the range in a mercury barometer. However, for obvious reasons, the movements of the water level in the well will always be in the opposite direction from those in an ordinary mercury barometer. ... "If a well ends in an artesian formation that has volume elasticity, such as incoherent sand, and is confined beneath beds of soft shale that is impermeable but yields to even slight pressure, its water level will have smaller fluctuations resulting from atmospheric changes than that of a water barometer. ..." Pumpage and flow. -Locally, large fluctuations of the piezometric surface are caused by variations in draft from artesian wells. This is most noticeable in the northeastern part of the county where most of the deep irrigation wells are located. Many of the well owners report sporadic fluctuations during the irrigation season and a loss of head when neighboring wells are being used.

PAGE 54

46 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY Recharge Recharge of an artesian aquifer takes place in the high areas of the system where the confining bed is absent or is penetrated by openings such as sinkholes. In such areas the water moves down from the unconfined water body, the zone of aeration, or surface water bodies until it enters the artesian aquifer. It then moves beneath the confining bed toward the points of discharge, under the influence of gravity. In areas where the confining bed is present and the water table stands higher than the piezometric surface, the difference between the head of the water in the artesian aquifer and that of the nonartesian aquifer may cause water to move through the confining bed, thereby recharging the artesian aquifer. The rate of this recharge depends upon the relative permeability and thickness of the confining bed and the difference in head between the artesian and free water. In Highlands County the fact that the piezometric highs of both the deep and the shallow artesian systems coincide with the topographic high suggests that some recharge takes place along the Highlands Ridge. Well logs indicate that the confining bed of the Floridan aquifer, in the area north of Sebring, is thin and fairly permeable, being composed predominantly of sandy material and minor amounts of clay. South of Sebring it is much thicker but probably has sand-filled openings beneath some of the lakes. Data obtained during the drilling of wells 358 and 400, south of Lake Childs, indicate that some recharge is occurring even near the southern end of the ridge. The upper 300 feet of material penetrated by well 358 is chiefly quartz sands of medium permeability. Underlying the sands to a depth of 680 feet is a section of interbedded or interfingered clays, sands, and limestones. Some of the water-bearing beds of the underlying Floridan aquifer are separated by beds of relatively low permeability in the Ocala, Moodys Branch, and Avon Park formations which impede the downward movement of water, causing the head to be much higher in the upper parts of the aquifer. Tables 4 and 5 are measurements of water levels made during the drilling of wells 358 and 400, respectively. The water-level measurements show a net decline in head of 50 to 60 feet between the shallow water-bearing beds in the Hawthorn formation or Suwannee limestone and the deeper beds in the Avon Park or Lake City limestones. Head differentials of this magnitude indicate that appreciable recharge moves to deep, more permeable parts of the aquifer from the shallower material.

PAGE 55

REPORT OF INVESTIGATIONS No. 15 47 Table 4. -WATER-LEVEL MEASUREMENTS MADE DURING DRILLING OF WELL 358. WELL CASED TO 517 FEET. Date Depth of hole Formation Water level, feet 1950 (feet) penetrated below land surface July 13 690 Suwannee 66.2 July 20 710 do. 62.0 July 26 735 do. 70.5 Aug. 2 1,000 Moodys Branch(?) 99.5 Aug. 16 1,138 Avon Park 98.0 Aug. 25 1,259 Lake City(?) 126.0 Aug. 30 1,323 do. 125.5 Sept. 8 1,371 do. 124.2 Sept. 21 1,474 do. 126.5 Sept. 29 1,526 do. 127.9 Oct. 2 1,550 do. 126.8 Table 5. -WATER-LEVEL MEASUREMENTS MADE DURING DRILLING OF WELL 400 Well Water level, Date Depth of cased Formation feet below 1951 hole (feet) to penetrated land surface May 21 548 540 Hawthorn 66.5 May 24 670 660 Suwannee 103.0 May 31 740 700 do. 113.0 June 4 805 700 Ocala 114.0 June 6 940 700 Moodys Branch(?) 124.0 June 8 960 700 do. 122.0 June 12 1,080 700 Avon Park 119.5 June 14 1,095 700 do. 117.0 June 19 1,095 700 do. 116.5 June 22 1,095 700 do. 115.5 July 6 1,095 700 do. 117.0 July 13 1,095 700 do. 116.0 July 27 1,095 700 do. 116.0 Aug. 3 1,095 700 do. 117.0 Aug. 17 1,095 700 do. 116.0 Aug. 24 1,130 700 do. 118.0 Aug. 31 1,205 700 do. 118.0 Sept. 7 1,260 700 Lake City(?) 117.0 Sept. 13 1,300 700 do. 117.0 Sept. 21 1,350 700 do. 116.5 Sept. 27 1,380 700 do. 117.0 Oct. 4 1,400 700 do. 117.0 Oct. 15 1,439 700 do. 115.0 Figure 10 indicates the piezometric surface in the vicinity of wells 358 and 400 is at an elevation of about 60 feet. Land surface elevations in the area range from 150 feet to 200 feet and average about 175 feet. The topography is chiefly rolling sandy hills and shallow valleys which form very effective catchment areas where little or no runoff occurs. Although data are not available, the elevation of the water table beneath this portion of the ridge probably ranges from 100 to 125 feet, or higher. This assumption seems to be borne out by the occurrence of springs

PAGE 56

48 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY along the western scarp of the ridge and a piezometric elevation of 70 to 80 feet in shallow artesian wells, just off the scarp, east of Lake Annie. The source of water for the springs and shallow artesian wells is the shallow water-bearing sands beneath the ridge. Although, the major portion of the unconfined water movement is horizontal, a part moves downward by gravity through the impeding beds to the Floridan aquifer where water levels are lower. Discharge Artesian water is discharged in the area both naturally and from wells. NATURAL DISCHARGE Shallow artesian system. -This system loses its artesian pressure within a few miles of the recharge area because of leaky confining beds. The water seeps into and joins the unconfined water body. Floridan aquifer. -Very few data are available on the natural discharge of water from the Floridan aquifer in Highlands County. It is assumed that there is some leakage upward in the low areas where the piezometric surface is higher than the water table. The amount is probably small because of the great thickness and impermeability of the confining bed. Drillers have reported that the clays of the Hawthorn formation are thin or absent beneath many of the circular depressions, probably filled-in sinks, that occur throughout southern Florida. If this is true, then some natural discharge probably occurs through these openings on low ground, just as recharge through them occurs on high ground. Water level rises were observed during the drilling of wells 183 and 408 in the Sebring-Avon Park area, and well 22, south of the ridge in Glades County. The changes in water levels with depth in these wells are shown in tables 6, 7, and 8, respectively. Table 6. --WATER-LEVEL MEASUREMENTS MADE DURING DRILLING OF WELL 183. WELL CASED TO 304 FEET. Date Depth of hole Formation Water level, feet 1950 (feet) penetrated below land surface May 31 300 Hawthorn 20.80 June 8 850 Avon Park 17.00 June 12 915 do. 16.00 June 15 945 do. 15.20 June 21 1,066 do. 16.20 June 23 1,102 Lake City 16.20 June 29 1,192 do. 16.00

PAGE 57

REPORT OF INVESTIGATIONS No. 15 49 Table 7.WATER-LEVEL MEASUREMENTS MADE DURING DRILLING OF WELL 408. WELL CASED TO 463.5 FEET. Date Depth of hole Formation Water level, feet 1951 (feet) penetrated below land surface May 5 525 Ocala 67.30 June 1 980 Avon Park 56.50 June 4 1,035 do. 54.20 June 6 1,160 Lake City 61.00 June 7 1,183 do. 60.20 June 8 1,185 do. 60.00 June 12 1,205 do. 57.60 June 14 1,268 do. 61.40 June 19 1,305 do. 56.30 June 22 1,390 do. 55.00 June 25 1,400 do. 55.00 July 7 1,400 do. 54.50 Table 8. -WATER-LEVEL MEASUREMENTS MADE DURING DRILLING OF WELL GL 22. Date Depth of hole Formation Water level, feet 1951 (feet) penetrated above land surface Feb. 27 515 Hawthorn 6.0 Feb. 28 573 do. 6.0 Mar. 1 610 do. 30.0 Mar. 1 632 Ocala 32.0 Mar. 1 760 Moodys Branch(?) 31.0 Mar. 6 1,190 Lake City(?) 30.0 Mar. 6 1,215 do. 31.0 The observed rises in water levels, with a deepening of the wells, indicate the probability of ground-water discharge by upward flow from the deeper zones of high permeability in the aquifer to shallower zones, and seepage through the fairly permeable confining bed, as a result of head differentials. The process of discharge from deeper material under high head is in effect the reverse of that of recharge from shallow materials which occurs in the southern part of the ridge. The piezometric surface of the Floridan aquifer in the Sebring-Avon Park area ranges in elevation from 90 to 95 feet. The land surface elevation near well 183 is about 105 feet, however, the well is located on the eastern edge of the ridge and surface elevations to the east average about 85 feet. Water-table measurements are not available but topography indicates that the drainage of the ridge area is eastward and the elevation of the water table in the vicinity of well 183 is generally lower than the regional piezometric surface of the artesian aquifers; thus, leakage is upward from the Floridan aquifer. A similar situation exists in the vicinity of well 408, although the land surface elevation is considerably higher (150 feet) than at well 183. The drainage of shallow ground water from beneath the ridge is

PAGE 58

50 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY generally north or northeast into the Carter Creek system and the water table in the area north of Sebring is lowered sufficiently to permit upward seepage of artesian water through the impeding beds. The magnitude of head differential of the water surface in the Floridan aquifer and the water-table aquifers in areas south of the ridge presupposes the occurrence of appreciable upward leakage through the confining bed. The average water-table elevation near well 22 in Glades County is below 25 feet, whereas the piezometric surface of the Floridan aquifer is in the order of 55 feet. Thus, appreciable losses by upward leakage from the artesian aquifer must occur throughout the areas of low elevation. DISCHARGE FROM WELLS Shallow artesian wells. -Wells terminating in the shallow artesian aquifer flow as much as 50 gallons per minute. They are cased to the bottom, allowing entrance of the water only at the open end of the casing. Many of the holes extended below the casing when they were drilled but they have since filled in with unconsolidated sediments. The caving has diminished the flow in some wells, but not in all. Wells in the Floridan aquifer. -Wells terminating in the Floridan aquifer are generally 10 to 14 inches in diameter and yield 500 to 1,500 gallons per minute by pumping. They are cased through the overlying unconsolidated material and are left open in the limestones of the Florid(an aquifer to allow water to enter from all the water-bearing beds. It is estimated that the withdrawal from wells developed in this aquifer, for public supplies and irrigational use, amounted to 1 Y billion gallons of water in 1951. UTILIZATION Domestic Supplies Most of the domestic supplies in the rural areas and small towns that have no public supplies are obtained from wells. A large number of these are shallow sand-point wells equipped with hand pumps. These shallow wells are quite satisfactory in some areas of the county but are unsatisfactory in others, owing to the rather high content of iron and organic impurities in water obtained at shallow depths. (See Quality of Water section, p. 98.) The present trend in drilling domestic wells in the ridge section is to tap aquifers of the Hawthorn formation, which generally furnish more satisfactory water than the formations of Pleistocene age. A few domestic supplies are obtained from lakes. Irrigation Supplies Farmers in central Florida have practiced irrigation more extensively

PAGE 59

REPORT OF INVESTIGATIONS No. 15 51 during the last few years because they have found that it enables them to realize a better return from their investment. Where sufficient water is not available from lakes and streams, irrigation wells are drilled. These range from shallow wells, 2 inches in diameter, used to irrigate truck crops, to deep wells, 14 inches in diameter, capable of producing 1,500 gallons per minute and used to irrigate large citrus groves. There is also a growing interest in the use of Well water for irrigating pastureland. The average yearly use of water from wells for irrigation in Highlands County is estimated to be about 650 million gallons. The average yearly use of surface water (derived from lakes which themselves are fed by ground water) for irrigation is estimated to be about 3 billion gallons. Stock-Water Supplies Practically all stock in Highlands County is raised in the low flat areas. Even though there are many marshes and small ponds in these areas, a large number of wells are used to obtain water. Ranchers increasingly tend to furnish well water for their animals rather than let them drink from the marshes and ponds, many of which are infested with parasites. Most wells used are sand-point wells equipped with windmills, and draw their supplies from the shallow ground-water body. In the areas near the Highlands Ridge, flowing wells that tap the shallow artesian aquifers yield some of the stock supplies. Public Supplies Four towns in Highlands County have public water systems: Avon Park, Sebring, DeSoto City, and Lake Placid. All except Lake Placid, which uses the water of Lake Sirena, obtain their supplies from wells. (For more complete information concerning public-supply wells in Highlands County see tables 9 and 11.) AVON PARK The water supply for Avon Park is obtained from three wells (391, 392, and 403) that draw from the Floridan aquifer. Well 391 is 1,040 feet deep and is cased to 350 feet with 10-inch pipe. Well 392 is 1,153 feet deep and is cased to 260 feet with 15-inch casing. Well 403 is 1,301 feet deep and is cased to 301 feet with 10-inch pipe. The three wells together can produce about 1,800 gallons per minute with the present pumps. The estimated total pumpage for the year 1950 was about 375,000,000 gallons. SEBRING The town of Sebring obtains its water supply from three wells

PAGE 60

52 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY (22, 23, and 24) in the Floridan aquifer, which according to D. H. Durrance, Water Superintendent, can produce a combined total of 4,000 gallons per minute with the present pumps. Well 22 is 1,278 feet deep and is cased to an unknown depth with 8-inch pipe. Wells 23 and 24 are both 1,400 feet deep and are cased to unknown depths with 8and 10-inch pipes, respectively. The total pumpage for the year 1950 was 385,670,000 gallons. DESOTO CITY The water supply for the town of DeSoto City is obtained from a screened well (394) drawing from the Hawthorn formation. The well is 88 feet deep, is cased to 68 feet with 4-inch pipe, and is finished with a 20-foot screen. The estimated yearly pumpage for 1950 was about 15,000,000 gallons. LAKE PLACID The water supply for the town of Lake Placid is obtained from Lake Sirena, a small lake just south of the town. The total annual pumpage in 1950 was 24,820,000 gallons. QUALITY OF WATER The chemical character of ground water in Highlands County is shown by analyses, made by the U. S. Geological Survey, of water collected from 36 wells distributed as uniformly as practicable within the area and among the water-bearing formations (table 9). The analyses show only the dissolved mineral content and do not indicate the sanitary condition of the water. Chemical Constituents in Relation to Use IRON (Fe) Iron is dissolved from many rock materials and the quantity in ground water may differ greatly from place to place even within the same aquifer. If the iron content is much more than 0.1 part per million, the excess may separate out as a reddish sediment, which stains bathroom fixtures, cooking utensils, and fabrics. An excess of iron may also cause an offensive taste and odor, and cause clogging as well, by promoting bacterial growth in the water mains (Ryan, 1937, p. 199). Excess iron may be removed from most water by simple aeration and settling or filtration. In some water, especially that which is soft or has a low pH, aeration must be supplemented by chemical treatment with lime or soda ash. Of the 36 samples of water collected from wells in Highlands County,

PAGE 61

Table 9. -CHEMICAL ANALYSES OF GROUND WATER IN HIGHLANDS COUNTY (CHEMICAL CONSTITUENTS IN PARTS PER MILLION) TerTotal Sodium Well Depth Principal geologic perahardIron CalMagneand poBicarSulChloFluoNiNo. (feet) source ture pH Color ness as (Fe) cium sium tassium bonate fate ride ride trate (oF) CaCOs (Ca) (Mg) (Na+K) (HCO3) (S04) (Cl) (F) (NOa) 1 640 Ocala. .............. 77 7.8 0 340 0.00 61 46 43 111 180 110 0.5 0.1 16 1,410 Lake City........... 79 7.7 0 118 .00 82 9.6 " 6.1 90 44 9 .0 .5 20 624 Moodys Branch...... 76 7.7 0 55 .00 17 3.8 4.5 68 0 7 .0 .2 24 1,400 Lake City........... 81 7.9 0 66 .00 18 4.9 3.8 74 4.0 6 .0 .1 26 85 Hawthorn........... 77 6.2 0 8 .01 .7 6.8 ........ 6 2.0 11 .0 .2 28 750 Avon Park.......... 77 7.9 0 66 .00 24 1.5 14 110 0 5 .0 .2 87 554 Ocala.............. 76 8.0 0 72 .00 20 5.1 4.8 89 0 5 .0 .1 38 1,440 Lake City........... 77 7.7 0 72 .00 18 6.6 4.8 86 0 10 .1 .1 40 815 Hawthorn........... 74 8.0 0 64 .00 18 4.4 6.5 85 0 5 .1 .1 64 1,150 Lake City........... 81 8.0 0 70 .00 17 6.6 3.3 85 0 5 .0 .0 87 979 Avon Park.......... 76 8.0 0 56 .00 18 3.0 5.0 71 0 7 .0 .1 112 508 Ocala (?)............ 7.9 0 82 .01 21 7.2 7.6 108 0 7 .0 .1 126 1,150 Lake City........... 77 7.5 2 50 .~ 18 1.1 7.4 65 .5 9 .0 .1 128 90 Hawthorn........... 73 6.4 2 2 .00 ............ ... 7.3 9 1 6 .0 .6 131 125 Hawthorn........... 73 7.2 18 181 1.9 67 3.2 8.7 232 1 9 .1 .2 141 230 Hawthorn........... 76 7.5 6 175 .04 55 9.0 13 234 1 6 .0 .5 149 24 Hawthorn........... 74 5.2 1 7 .01 2.3 .4 13 6 9 10 .0 8.0 161 670 Ocala ............... 75 7.6 2 73 .00 16 8.1 5.7 88 4 6 .3 .1 179 80 Pleistocene.......... 73 5.1 4 5 .08 1.5 .4 9.4 6 .8 14 .1 .1 182 240 Hawthorn .......... 74 7.6 7 183 .00 34 12 13 134 28 15 .8 .1 211 1,450 Lake City........... 81 7.6 7 141 .88 37 12 10 167 10 12 .1 .2 214 86 Hawthorn........... 77 6.1 3 2 .06 .8 .1 8.2 9 1.5 6 .0 8.6 285 25 Hawthorn........... 74 4.7 80 14 .50 2.4 2.0 4.9 2 89 57 .0 .5 269 137 Hawthorn........... 78 6.8 18 30 1.1 8.8 2.0 9.9 42 7 8 .5 .4 273 65 Tamiami ........... 74 6.2 7 22 1.1 7.9 .6 4.0 28 1 6 .4 .5 330 49 Hawthorn........... 76 5.9 7 9 .00 1.9 1.0 4.4 12 .8 5 .1 .5 334 88 Tamiami............ 73 7.3 104 446 1.2 91 53 219 530 20 830 .2 .9 337 45 Pleistocene........... 74 7.3 60 255 .72 89 7.8 12 310 0 20 .2 .9 344 252 Hawthorn........... 74 7.7 25 217 .06 78 5.7 29 266 0 44 .3 .5 351 35 Pleistocene.......... 74 5.4 5 18 .00 3.6 1.0 13 6 1.0 16 .0 18 858 30 Hawthorn............ 78 6.3 30 43 3.2 9.9 4.5 6.3 64 3 6 .4 .7 358 1,550 Lake City........... 82 7.4 7 185 .00 40 21 5.3 123 73 14 .3 .3 876 20 Hawthorn........... 75 5.7 7 14 .62 8.5 1.3 7.7 20 1 9 .2 .2 891 1,040 Avon Park.......... 77 7.7 7 106 .62 26 11 1.4 128 .8 6 .2 .2 393 80 Hawthorn............ 74 5.8 12 27 1.1 7.5 2.0 20 29 4.5 .6 .5 ........ 894 88 Hawthorn........... 78 5.2 7 2 .00 .4 .2 4.3 3 .2 4 .0 3.4 ____ ______________________ ____ _____ _____ ------------------------------------------0 05

PAGE 62

54 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY 24 contained less than 0.1 ppm of iron, 6 contained between 0.1 and 1.0 ppm, 5 contained between 1.0 and 3.0 ppm, and 1 contained 3.2 ppm. CA.LCIUM (Ca) In southern Florida calcium is dissolved from rock materials containing calcium carbonate (limestone, dolomite, marl, and shells) by water containing carbon dioxide. Calcium is the main cause of hardness of the water in Highlands County. The calcium content of the 36 samples collected ranged from 0.4 to 91 ppm. MfAGNESIUM (Mg) In southern Florida magnesium is dissolved from sedimentary rock material that contains magnesium carbonate. Magnesium is present also in sea water, and the relative abundance of the element in some wells in southeastern Highlands County may be due in part to contamination by trapped sea water. Next to calcium, magnesium is the principal cause of the hardness of water in this area. The magnesium content of the 36 samples collected ranged from 0.1 to 53 ppm. SoDIUMv (Na) AND POTASSIUM (K) Sodium and potassium are dissolved from most rock materials and are normally present in small amounts in the water of this area. Small to moderate amounts of these constituents have little or no effect on the suitability of water used for most purposes. However, if the sodium content is much higher than 100 ppm it may cause foaming in steam boilers. Of the 36 samples, all but 1 contained less than 50 ppm of sodium and potassium. The water from well 334 contained 219 ppm, probably as a result of contamination by trapped sea water. BICARBONA'TE (HCO:,) Bicarbonate is derived from the solution of carbonate rocks by water containing carbon dioxide. Bicarbonate, as such, has little effect on the use of water. The bicarbonate content of the samples ranged from 2 to 530 ppm. SULFATE (SO,) Sulfate in this area is dissolved from sedimentary rocks containing sodium and calcium sulfate, which may be salts from trapped sea water. Sulfate itself has little effect on the general use of water, but if it is present in sufficient quantity in hard water it may contribute to boiler scale. Sodium and magnesium sulfate, if present in sufficient quantity, give a bitter taste to water and produce a laxative effect. Of the 36

PAGE 63

REPORT OF INVESTIGATIONS No. 15 55 samples collected, 10 contained no measurable quantity of sulfate, 20 contained 10 ppm or less, 5 contained between 10 and 100 ppm, and 1 contained 180 ppm. CHLORIDE (C1) In this area chloride is dissolved in small quantities from most sedimentary rocks and in larger quantities from sea salts or trapped sea water. Chloride has little effect on the suitability of water for most uses, unless there is enough to affect the taste. However, large quantities of chloride may affect the suitability of water for industrial use, as it increases the corrosiveness when combined with large quantities of calcium and magnesium. Of the samples analyzed, 25 contained 10 ppm or less of chloride, 7 contained more than 10 but no more than 20 ppm, 2 contained more than 21 but no more than 60 ppm. One contained 110 ppm and 1 contained 330 ppm. FLUORIDE (F) Fluoride is dissolved in small quantities from some of the sedimentary rocks. It is known to affect the suitability of water only in its relation to dental growth in children; water containing more than 1.5 ppm of fluoride is likely to produce mottled enamel (Dean, 1936, p. 1269-1272). However, small quantities of fluoride, not sufficient to cause mottled enamel, are likely to be beneficial by inhibiting tooth decay (Dean, Arnold, and Elvove, 1942, p. 1155-1179). Of the 36 samples analyzed 17 contained no fluoride, and 19 contained 0.1 to 0.8 ppm. NITRATE (NOs) Nitrate is generally formed from the oxidation of ammonium compounds, which, in turn, are derived from decaying organic matter (Ryan, 1937, p. 42). Small quantities of nitrate have no effect on water for ordinary uses, but large quantities may indicate pollution. Of the 36 samples analyzed, 32 contained less than 1.0 ppm of nitrate and 4 contained more than 1.0 but no more than 18.0 ppm. TOTAL HARDNESS AS CaCO, The hardness of water, which is the property that generally receives the most attention, is commonly recognized by the increased amount of soap needed to produce a lather, and by the sticky, insoluble precipitate that it forms with soap. Calcium and magnesium cause most of the hardness. These constituents are also the active agents in the formation of most of the scale in vessels in which water is heated or evaporated.

PAGE 64

56 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY Water having a hardness of no more than 50 ppm is generally rated as soft, and its treatment under ordinary circumstances is not n(iecssary. Hardness of 50 to 150 ppm does not seriously interfere with the use of water for most purposes, but it does increase the consumption of soiap. It is usually profitable for laundries, or other industries that use large quantities of soap, to soften such water. Water in the upper part of this range of hardness will cause considerable scale in steam boilers. Hardness of more than 150 ppm is very noticeable, and if the hardness is much over 200 ppm it is common practice to soften the water for household use or to obtain softer water from some other source. ''he samples of water collected range in hardness from 2 to 446 ppm. Of these samples of water 15 had a hardness of 50 ppm or less, 14 had a hardness of more than 50 but no more than 150 ppm, 3: a hardness of more than 150 but no more than 200 ppm, 3 a hardness between 30() and 40() ppim, and 1 a hardness of 446 ppm. ( OI)O) The miaterials that color ground water in this area are derived fromn organic matter and are in themselves harmless. Color is measured in terms of an arbitrary color standard. Color of less than 10, according to this standard, is not objectionable to those who have not been accustomed to colorless water. Color generally may be removed from water by coagulation and filtration. Of the 36 samples analyzed for this report, 12 were colorless, 16 had (olor of less than 10, and 8 had color ranging from 12 to 104. 'lhe terml pH is used to express acidity or alkalinity. Water that is neither acid nor alkaline is said to be neutral and has a pH value of 7. Water having an alkaline reaction has a pH higher than 7, whereas water having an acid reaction has a pH less than 7. The Ipresnc'e of alkaline salts causes a high pH in water, and the presence of dissolved carbon dioxide gas in the form of carbonic acid is the mlost (oninon cause of a low pH. For all practical purposes the pH of a water depends on the ratio of the alkaline salts to the dissolved carbn dioxide. The suitability of a water is affected by its pH in that the lower the pH the greater the corrosiveness to metals, although not all water having the same pH is equally corrosive. Of the 36 samples analyzed for this report 22 gave an alkaline reaction and 14 gave an acid reaction, the pH for all the samples ranging from 4.7 to 8.0.

PAGE 65

REPORT OF INVESTIGATIONS No. 15 57 TEMPERATURE The temperature of the water from wells in the county ranges from about 70° to as high as 80°F. The lower temperatures are found in the relatively shallow wells, and the higher ones in deeper wells. The temperatures in the shallow wells vary slightly with the seasons, but those in the deeper wells remain fairly constant throughout the year. HYDROGEN SULFIDE (H.S) Hydrogen sulfide gas, probably formed by the reduction of sulfate in the rocks, occurs in many wells in Highlands County. The hydrogen sulfide contents are not listed in table 4, however, as any gas that was in the samples when they were collected had been dissipated by the time they reached the laboratory. Hydrogen sulfide has the odor of rotten eggs and is found in small quantities in much of the water of this area. It usually disappears quickly when water is aerated or allowed to stand in an open vessel. Chemical character in relation to stratigraphy The ground water in Highlands County is derived from two major sources: (1) the Floridan aquifer, and (2) the aquifers in the upper part of the Hawthorn and in younger formations. Locally, in the southeastern part of the county, water from both sources has a relatively high mineral content, probably as a result of contamination by sea water trapped during high stages of the Pleistocene sea. A summary of the quality of water from the two major sources is given in table 10. THE FLORIDAN AQUIFER In the ridge section of the county, water from the Floridan aquifer has a low mineral content and does not differ greatly in quality from one to the other of the formations composing the aquifer. In the southeastern part of the county water from the aquifer has a much higher mineral content. AQUIFERS IN THE UPPER PART OF THE HAWTHORN AND IN YOUNGER FORMATIONS Water from the Hawthorn and younger formations in all the county, except the southeastern part, ranges widely in chemical composition. That in the southeastern part of the county, east of the shallow artesian system, has a uniformly high mineral content. SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS Ground water occurs in at least three distinct aquifers of unequal importance -the water-table, or unconfined aquifer, local shallow artesian aquifers, and the Floridan artesian aquifer.

PAGE 66

Table 10 -CHEMICAL ANALYSES, IN PARTS PER MILLION, OF WATER FROM THE TWO MAJOR GROUND-WATER SOURCES IN HIGHLANDS COUNTY AQUIFERS IN THE HAWTHORN AND FLORIDAN AQUIFER YOUNGER FORMATIONS Ridge section of Southeastern All of county Southeastern part of county Highlands County part of county except southeastern east of area of shallow (Samples from (Samples from part (Samples from artesian flow (Samples 14 wells) well no. 1) 18 wells) from 3 wells) Iron (Fe) 0 to 0.62 0 0 to 3.2 0.06 to 1.2 Calcium (Ca) 16 to 40 61 .4 to 67 78 to 91 Magnesium (Mg) 1.1 to 21 46 .1 to 12 5.7 to 53 Sodium and potassium 1.4 to 14 43 4.0 to 20 15 to 219 Bicarbonate (HCO3) 65 to 167 111 2.0 to 234 266 to 530 Sulfate (SO.) 0 to 73 180 0 to 39 0 to 20 Chloride (C1) 5 to 14 110 .6 to 57 20 to 332 Fluoride (F) 0 to .3 .5 0 to .8 .2 to .3 Nitrate (NO3) 0 to .5 .1 .1 to 18 .5 to .9 Hardness as CaCO3 50 to 185 340 2 to 181 217 to 446 Specific conductance at 250C (micromhos) 130 to 400 928 26.7 to 380 540 to 1780 Color 0 to 7 0 0 to 30 25 to 104 pH 7.4 to 8.0 7.8 4.7 to 7.6 7.3 to 7.7 Temperature, °F 74 to 82 77.5 73 to 78+ 73 to 74.5+

PAGE 67

REPORT OF INVESTIGATIONS No. 15 59 The water-table aquifer in the Highlands Ridge area is composed of Pleistocene sand deposits and the deltaic portion of the Hawthorn, made up of white to red, kaolinitic, quartz sand containing pebbles of quartz and, in places, of phosphorite. In the rest of the area the aquifer is composed of post-Miocene sands, the Tamiami formation, and, locally, the upper part of the Hawthorn formation. The beds of coarse sand and gravel in the Hawthorn in the ridge and the area west of it are an important source of water and are being utilized by an increasing number of screened and gravel-packed wells developed at depths of 120 to 200 feet. In the remainder of the county the water-table aquifer is a source of water for stock and domestic supplies. Recharge to the unconfined ground-water body is derived principally from local rainfall, which averages about 52 inches a year. Because of the permeability of the surficial material throughout the county, the rainfall percolates rapidly down into the water-table aquifer, surface runoff occurring only where the aquifer is so full that it rejects the recharge. A few lakes and streams also are a source of recharge, at least at times, to the unconfined ground-water body. Some recharge is derived also from seepage from the shallow artesian aquifers, and from downward seepage of irrigation water. Discharge of unconfined ground water occurs through evapotranspiration, streams, lakes, canals, and wells. Evapotranspiration accounts for a large percentage of the total ground-water discharge in areas where the water table is near the land surface. Studies have not been made of the evapotranspiration losses in the area, but they are estimated to exceed half the average annual rainfall. Ground water also is constantly being discharged into the streams and canals of the area, which during periods of low flow are maintained almost entirely from groundwater storage. Wells account for only a small amount of the total discharge. However, the amount of ground water discharged into lakes when they are being pumped for citrus irrigation is large, probably amounting to about 3 billion gallons in 1951. Shallow artesian aquifers of minor importance, composed of coarse sand, gravel, or shell beds, occur locally in the Tamiami formation and the upper part of the Hawthorn in the area east of the ridge. They are found mainly on the flanks of the Highlands Ridge; the recharge area on the ridge and the upper reaches of its flanks have sufficient relief to provide an artesian head in the aquifers. The shallowest aquifers can be tapped by wells 10 to 15 feet deep, but because of very leaky confining beds their areal extent is small. In the Kissimmee

PAGE 68

60 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY Valley area within the county an artesian aquifer occurs locally at depths of 125 to 150 feet below the land surface. Recharge to the shallow artesian aquifers is by rainfall on and along the flanks of the ridge. Although a small amount of water from the aquifers is utilized for stock and domestic needs, most of it is discharged through leaky confining beds upward into the water-table aquifer. The Floridan, or principal artesian, aquifer underlies the entire county and is the most important aquifer in the area. In the northwestern and southwestern parts of the county the top of the aquifer is respectively about 150 and 500 feet below mean sea level. The marine clay marls of the Hawthorn, which underlie the water-bearing gravel and sands of the deltaic part of that formation, compose the confining beds of the Floridan aquifer. Limestones in the lower part of the Hawthorn and the limestones of the Suwannee, Ocala, Moodys Branch, Avon Park, and Lake City formations constitute the part of the aquifer utilized in Highlands County. This upper 1,000 feet of the aquifer represents about one-third of the total thickness of the Tertiary limestone section, of which an undetermined thickness constitutes the Floridan aquifer. The Lake City limestone is the most important water-producing formation in the aquifer and is the principal source of many large water supplies for municipal use and irrigation. A 16-inch well drilled to a depth of 1,300 feet was reported to yield 2,000 gpm with a drawdown of 26 feet. The limestones of the lower part of the Hawthorn and of the Suwannee, Ocala, Moodys Branch, and Avon Park are not as permeable as the Lake City. These limestones are not in themselves important sources of water supplies, but as components of the Floridan aquifer they contribute water to wells that penetrate the lower formations; also, of course, water must pass through these limestones to reach the Lake City limestone. In the northwestern part of the county, the lower part of the Hawthorn is sufficiently permeable to be a potential source of medium to large supplies of water. The piezometric surface of the Floridan aquifer ranges from about 95 feet above mean sea level at Avon Park to 55 feet at Brighton. It slopes in a general southeasterly direction, the piezometric high corresponding roughly to the topographic high. Although the entire ridge section of Highlands County is in the recharge area for the Floridan aquifer, most of the recharge to the aquifer occurs north of Sebring. Cuttings from wells in the area north of Sebring indicate that the beds overlying the limestones of the Floridan aquifer are thin and fairly permeable. The recharge area extends north-

PAGE 69

REPORT OF INVESTIGATIONS No. 15 61 ward into Polk County, where the principal recharge to the aquifer occurs. Discharge from the Floridan aquifer in Highlands County is by wells and the upward percolation in low areas through sand-filled sinks or collapse basins. About 1/2 billion gallons of water for public and irrigation supplies is estimated to have been pumped in 1951 from the Floridan aquifer.

PAGE 70

Table 11. -RECORD OF SELECTED WELLS IN HIGHLANDS COUNTY (1 D. domestic; I. irrigation: 0. observation; P. public supply: S. stock: T. testi k Water level, in feet. above (-) or below (-) land surface) Well Location Owner Depth DiamCasing Probable Use Remarks No. (ft.) eter depth geologic (in.) (ft.) source 1 About 17 miles west of Okeechobee on the south side Lykes Bros........ 640 8-6 ........ Ocala. .......... D Water level +22 ft,' Oct. of State Highway 70, SW %SE sec. 26, T. 37 S., 10, 1952. Well 1 in W.S. R. 32 E. P. 773-C. See table 9. 5 10 feet west of the aerator of the Hendricks Army Air U. S. Air Force..... 176 8 ........ Hawthorn ....... D Gravel-packed well. See log. Field water-treatment plant, about 6.3 miles southF.G.S. well W595. east of Sebring, SE 3SE see. 7, T. 35 S., R. 30E. I 9 12 miles east of State Highway 64 on the south side of J. S. Geological 26 6 22 Pleistocene...... O See fig. 7a; log. the road to Fort Kissimmee, NE JNW sec. 7, T. Survey 33 S., R. 31. E. 10 0.9 mile west of State Highway 17 on the south side of do.............. 45 6 41 Hawthorn (?).... 0 See fig. 7a. State Highway 623, about 4 miles southeast ofi .. Sebring, NE %SE Y sec. 2,T. 85 S., R. 29 E. 11 3.1. miles northwest of the Istokpoga Canal on the do.............. 16 6 13 Pleistocene ...... 0 See fig. 7a. south side of State Highway 66, NW ,SW Y sec. 14, T. 35 S., R. 31 E. 12 3.7 mile west of the Kissimmee River on the north side CU. S. Geological 21 6 18 Pleistocene...... 0 See fig. 7b; log. of State Highway 100, NEXSWY sec. 7, T. 36 S., Survey R. 33 E. 13 0.5 mile west of the Kissimmee River on the north side do.............. 20 6 16 Pleistocene...... 0 See fig. 7b. of State Highway 70, NE NEY see. 26, T. 37 S., W R. 33 E. 14 3.1 mi!e south of State Highway 70, on the east side of do.............. 35 6 29 Hawthorn (?).... O See fig. 7b. State Highway 25, NE 3NW 3 sec. 4, T. 38 S., R. 30 E. 15 0.1 mile north of the Highlands-Glades County line on do.............. 23 6 19 Hawthorn (? ... See fig. 7b. the east side of State Highway 25, SW 3SE 3 sec. 32, T. 39 S., R. 30 E. 16 0.4 mile east of State Highway 25, and then 0.4 mile S. Kahn........... 1,410 12 ........ Lake City....... I See table 9. north on east side of clay road, NW 3SW34 sec. 3, T. 35 S., R. 29 E. 4.3 mile east of Atlantic Coast Line Railroad station at J. C. Ragsdale..... 125+ 2 % 125 Hawthorn........ D, S 18 Avon Park on east side of State Highway 64, SE 3 SE X sec. 17, T. 33 S., R. 29 E.

PAGE 71

Table 11. -Continued Well Location Owner Depth DiamCasing Probable Use1 Remarks No. (ft.) eter depth geologic (in.) (ft.) source 20 2.8 miles east of Atlantic Coast Line Railroad Station Rex Beach Estate.. 624 8 ........ Moodys Branch.. D,S,I See table 9. at Avon Park on State Highway 64, then 0.6 mile east of clay road and 0.4 mile south on east side of private road, SE 3SE V sec. 19, T. 33 S., R. 29 E. 21 2.5 miles east of Atlantic Coast Line Railroad Station W. F. Ward. ...... 56 2 ........ Hawthorn ....... D Sand-point well. at Avon Park on State Highway 64, then 0.1 mile south on west side of road, NWYSWY sec. 19, T. 35 S., R. 29 E. 22 West side of Park Street at intersection of Pine Street, Town of Sebring... 1,278 8 ........ Lake City....... P F.G.S. well W894. See log. Sebring, NE NW , sec. 29, T. 84 S., R. 29 E. 0 23 Northeast comer of Cypress Street and Franklin Street, do.............. 1,400 12-8 ........do............ P Sebring, SW 3SW 3sec. 20, T. 84 S., R. 29 E. 24 South of intersection of Eucalyptus Street and Avocado do.............. 1,400 12-10 ........ do.. ......... P See table 9. Street, Sebring, SE 3SW3 sec. 20, T. 34 S., R. 29 E. 26 0.8 mile south of Polk County line on State Highway M. Staggers. ...... 35 2 ........ Hawthorn ....... D See table 9. 25, then 0.2 mile southwest of private road, SWY 0 NW3 sec. 4, T. 88 S., R. 28 E. > 28 1.1 miles south of Polk County line on State Highway S. Wittenstein..... 750 2 ........ Avon Park..... D See table 9. 25, then 0.4 mile southwest of clay road, SW 3SE Y see. 4, T. 83 S., R. 28 E. 31 2.6 miles north from State Highway 64 at Avon Park Episcopal Church.. 25+ 60 5 Pleistocene (?)... D Concrete curbing. on State Highway 25, then 1.0 mile northeast on clay road to east side of road on edge of lake, NW 3NW Y4 sec. 4, T. 83 S., R. 28 E. 32 2.0 miles north from State Highway 64 at Avon Park C. H. Shepard..... 35 2 ........ Hawthorn (?).... D on State Highway 25, then 0.6 mile southwest on west side of clay road around Lake Byrd, NW 3SE Y sec. 9, T. 38 S., R. 28 E. 86 1.5 miles north from State Highway 64 at Avon Park Avon Park Citrus 1,167 12 ........ Lake City....... I Water level, -77.67, Oct. on State Highway 25, then 1.0 mile west and 0.8 mile Co. 15,1952. Yield 1,400 gpm. south on clay road, and then 0.2 mile west of road, NE YSE Y sec. 17, T. 33 S., R. 28 E. 87 1.0 mile north from State Highway 64 at Avon Park on do............ 554 4% ........ Ocala........... D See table 9. State Highway 25, then 0.6 mile west on north side of clay road, SE 3NW sec. 16, T. 33 S., R. 28 E. I

PAGE 72

Table 11. -Continued Well Location Owner Depth DiamCasing Probable Use Remarks No. (ft.) eter depth geologic S__ (in.) (ft.) source i 38 3.0 miles north from Seaboard Air Line Railroad crossAvon Park Citrus 554 12 .Lake City....... I See table 9. ing south of Lake Letta on State Highway 17, then Co. 0.5 mile east on clay road, then 0.1 mile north of road, NE YSW Y sec. 20, T. 33 S., R. 29 E. 40 1.9 miles north from State Highway 64 at Avon Park J. P. Garber ....... 315 2 H ........ Hawthorn....... D do. on State Highways 25 and 17, then 0.4 mile southwest on South side of clay road, SE 3SE Y sec. 9, T. 38 S., R. 28 E. 48 1.7 miles north from State Highway 64 at Avon Park L. S. Pickett. ...... 29 1% ........ Pleistocene (?)... D Sand-point well. on State Highways 25 and 17, then 0.5 mile east on private road on north side, SWY4SWY& see. 10, T. 33 S., R. 28 E. 48 1.5 miles north from State Highway 64 at Avon Park C. L. Armstrong... 60 2 ... .... Hawthorn (?) .... D do. on State Highways 17 and 25, then 0.8 mile east and 0.1 mile south on east side of clay road, NE YNW^ 0Y see. 15, T. 33 S., R. 28 E. 49 1.5 miles north from State Highway 64 at Avon Park A. R. Klemm 43 1i ........ do............ D do. on State Highways 17 and 25, then 1.0 mile east and 0.2 mile north on east side of road, SWYASWX see. 11, T. 33 S., R. 28 E. 61 1.5 miles north from State Highway 64 at Avon Park Minute Maid Corp. 107 3 100 Hawthorn....... D Screened well. on State Highways 17 and 25, then 1.8 miles east on north side of road, SE ~SE ~ sec. 11, T. 33 S., R. 28 E. 64 1.5 miles north from State Highway 64 at Avon Park do.............. 1,150 12 ........ Lake City ....... I See table 9. on State Highways 17 and 25, then 1.9 miles north and 1.4 miles east on south side of clay road, SE Y4 NEX see. 1, T. 33 S., R. 28 E. 68 1.1 miles west from State Highways 17 and 25 at Avon C. H. Ellis......... 48 1 Y ........ Hawthorn....... D Sand-point well. Park, on State Highway 64, then 0.1 mile south on private road, NE YSE Y sec. 20, T. 33 S., R. 28 E. 70 2.6 miles west from State Highways 17 and 25 at Avon G. S. Sloman....... 38 1 4 ......... Hawthorn (?).... D do. Park on State Highway 64 on northwest corner of clay road, SWINE % see. 19, T. 33 S., R. 28 E. 72 1.5 miles north from State Highway 64 at Avon Park H. A. Jackson ...... 80 2 ........ Hawthorn ....... D do. on State Highways 17 and 25, then 2.0 miles east and 0.4 mile south on west side of clay road, SE 3 NEM sec. 14, T. 33 S., R. 28 E.

PAGE 73

Table 11. -Continued Well Location Owner Depth DiamCasing Probable Use1 Remarks No. (ft.) eter depth geologic (in.) (ft.) source 77 1.8 miles east from State Highways 17 and 25 at Avon T. H. Maxwell..... 85 3 ........ Hawthorn....... D Sand-point well. Park on State Highway 64, then 0.3 mile north and 0.4 mile east on north side of clay road, NWNE Y sec. 23, T. 33 S., R. 28 E. 82 2.0 miles east from State Highways 17 and 25 at Avon D. M. Ellis........ 64 2 ........ Hawthorn (?).... D do. Park on State Highway 64, then 1.0 mile north and W then 0.8 mile east on north side of clay road, SE Y I NW% sec. 13, T. 33 S., R. 28 E. 88 0.5 mile south of intersection of State Highways 17 and S. McKenzie....... 78 3 ........ Hawthorn....... D do. 64 at Avon Park on east side of clay road, SW 0 SWY sec. 22, T. 88 S., R. 28 E. 1 86 0.8 mile south of intersection of State Highways 17 and W. O. Skipper. .... 38 2 ........ Hawthorn (?).... D do. 64 on clay road, then 0.25 mile east on south side of 2 clay road, SWNW% sec. 27, T. 33 S., R. 28 E. 87 3.4 miles east of State Highway 17 on State Highway Snow Crop Corp... 979 8-5 350 Avon Park. .....D, I See table 9. 64, then 0.5 mile south on east side of road, NE Y NW% sec. 30, T. 33 S., R. 29 E. 88 2.9 miles north of Seaboard Railroad crossing on State H. C. Maddox .... 26 2 ........ Hawthorn (?).... S Sand-point well. Highway 17, then 1.6 miles east and 0.5 mile north on west side of road, SW3NE Y sec. 29, T. 33 S., Z R. 29 E. 90 2.2 miles south of State Highway 64 on east side of W. Kluberge....... 35 1 M ........ Pleistocene (?)... D Sand-point well. State Highway 17, NW MNE sec. 25, T. 33 S., R. 28 E. 92 8.3 miles north of Seaboard Railroad crossing on State C. E. Hyde......... 94 2 ........ Hawthorn (?).... D do. -" Highway 17, then 0.8 mile west and south on west side of clay road, NW YNE sec. 36, T. 33 S., R. 28 E. 96 1.5 miles south of State Highway 64, then 0.8 mile L. D. Bigoney ..... 28 2 ........ Pleistocene (?)... D do. southeast to Lake Lotela, SW NE sec. 35, T. 83 S., R. 28 E. 101 1.9 miles south of State Highway 64, then 0.6 mile west G. E. Shaffer...... 87 1M ........ Hawthorn (?).... D do. to Lake Lelia, SE YNE 3 sec. 34, T. 88 S., R. 28 E. 104 2.5 miles south of State Highway 64, then 0.2 mile S. P. Durrance..... 30 1 4 ........ Pleistocene (?)... D do. southeast to Lake Denton, NE YNW Y sec. 2, T. 34 "" S., R. 28 E. __

PAGE 74

Table 11.Continued Well Location Owner Depth DiamCasing Probable Use 1 Remarks No. (ft.) eter depth geologic (in.) (ft.) source 107 4.7 miles south of State Highway 64 to Lake Sebring, Maxcy Securities, 1,130 8 ........ Lake City....... D, S then 0.9 mile west on north side of road, SE YSE f Inc. sec. 10, T. 34 S., R. 28 E. 112 2.5 miles north of Seaboard Railroad on State HighF. Addinsell....... 508 6-4 ........ Ocala (?)........ D See table 9. way 17, then 1.5 miles south, SW YNW Y sec. 31, T. 33 S., R. 29 E. 114 2.0 miles north of Seaboard Railroad on west side of H. Jines........... 11 1 ........ Pleistocene...... .D Sand-point well. State Highway 17, NE SWY sec. 31, T. 33 S., R. 29 E. 119 0.8 mile north of Seaboard Railroad on State HighG. M. Towne ...... 115 2 ........ Hawthorn.. ..... D do. way 17, then 0.7 mile east on north side of road, SWY4SWM sec. 5, T. 34 S., R. 29 E. 126 0.6 mile south of Seaboard Railroad on State HighN. Wolf........... 1,150 12 ........ Lake City ....... I See table 9. way 17, then 1.8 miles east and 0.1 mile south on east side of road, SW %SW Y sec. 9, T. 34 S., R. 29 E. 128 0.5 mile south of Seaboard Railroad on State HighW. C. Waldron..... 90 2 ........ Hawthorn ....... D do. way 17, then 1.3 miles east, 0.8 mile south and 0.8 mile east on south side of road, NE 3SW3j sec. 16, T. 34 S., R. 29 E. 131 0.6 mile south of Seaboard Railroad on State Highway O. Murphey....... 125 2 80 do............ S Water level +5 ft., May 9, 17, then 8.9 miles east on north side of road, NW3 1950. See table 9. SW~ sec. 81, T. 33 S., R. 20 E. 132 0.6 mile south of Seaboard Railroad on State Highway C. Redwine........ 180 2 ........ Hawthorn....... D, S 17, then 11.6 miles east on north side of road, SW% sec. 26, T. 34 S., R. 30 E. 133 2.6 miles south from traffic circle in Sebring on State H. W. Harris ..... 70 2 ........ Hawthorn (?).... D Highway 25, on west side of highway, SE 4NE sec. 5, T. 85 S., R. 29 E. 139 1.7 miles south from Seaboard Railroad crossing south R. Kosman........ 55 1 ........ do............ D of Lake Letta on State Highways 17 and 25 at tourist court on east side of Highway, SW 3SE Y sec. 18, T. 34 S., R. 29 E. 141 5.9 miles westof State Highway 25 on State road 634, Highlands 230 4 102 Hawthorn....... D See table 9. then 0.5 mile north to Highlands Hammock State Hammock Park Office, NE MSE 3 sec. 32, T. 34 S., R. 28 E.

PAGE 75

Table 11. -Continued Well Location Owner Depth DiamCasing Probable Use Remarks No. (ft.) eter depth geologic (in.) (ft.) source 147 0.6 mile west of State Highway 25 on State Road 634, W. H. Calhoun..... 45 1 3 ........ Hawthorn (?).... D then 2.8 miles south on graded road to edge of Lake Buck, SE 4NWY sec. 17, T. 35 S., R. 29 E. 148 8.2 miles west from State Highway 25 on State Road L. D. Mather...... 40 3 ........ do............ D, I Screened well. 684 then 0.2 mile north on west side of road, SE 3 wJ SE sec. 35, T. 84 S., R. 28 E. 149 5.0 miles east of State Highway 25 on State Road 634, J. Vaughn......... 24+ 30 24 Hawthorn ....... D Concrete curbing. See table then 1.9 miles south, and then 1.8 miles west on west 9. side of road, SWXSW% sec. 8, T. 85 S., R. 28 E. O 150 1.4 miles north from State Highway 700 on State HighA. H. Bee......... 82 2 ....... Hawthorn (?).... D Sand-point well. way 25, then 0.2 mile east at end of road, NW Y SW.T see. 10, T. 85 S., R. 29 E. Z 157 0.4 mile east from State Highway 25 on State Highway W. H. Brooker..... 22 1 ........ Pleistocene (?)... D do. 700, then northeast and north 8.0 miles on old highway, and then west 0.5 mile on north side of clay road, SW 3NE 3 sec. 3, T. 85 S., R. 29 E. 161 0.4 mile east from State Highway 25 on State Highway J. R. Ramer....... 670 4 ........ Ocala........... S See table 9. ] 700, then northeast and north 4.0 miles on old higho way, and then 0.4 mile east to dairy, NE 3SE % sec. 4, T. 84 S., R. 29 E. 170 1.8 miles north from State Highway 700 on State HighA. I. Young....... 35 2 ........ Pleistocene (?)... D Sand-point well. way 25, then east 0.2 mile on clay road, then north 1.6 miles, then west 1.0 mile, and then north 0.4 mile on east side of road, NWySW sec. 33, T. 84 S., R. 29 E. 178 8.8 miles east from State Highway 25 on State HighR. X. Droit........ 21 1 ......... Pleistocene (?).. D Sand-point well. way 700, north side, SWY NWY sec. 18, T. 35 S., R. 80 E. 179 8.5 miles east from State Highway 25 on south side of A. C. Ponder....... 80 1 ........ do......... D See table 9. State Highway 700, NWYTSW sec. 12, T. 85 S., R. 80 E. 182 8.8 miles east from State Highway 25 on south side of L. Waldron........ 240 2 ........ Hawthorn....... D Flowing sand-point well. State Highway 700, NE SWY sec. 12, T. 85 S., See table 9. R. 80 E. C 1 I CD

PAGE 76

Table 11.Continued Well Location Owner Depth DiamCasing Probable Use Remarks No. (ft.) eter depth geologic (in.) (ft.) source 183 3.0 miles north from Seaboard Railroad crossing south Avon Park Citrus 1,212 304 Lake City ....... D Water level -15.5 ft., June of Lake Letta on State Highway 25, then 1.9 miles Corp. 29, 1952. Log included. east on north side of clay road, NE .SE Y sec. 30, F.G.S. well W2397. T. 33 S., R. 29 E. 192 10.9 miles east from State Highway 25 at DeSoto City, R. L. Stokes....... 20 1 i ........ Pleistocene (?).. D Sand-point well. on State Highway 700, 100 feet east of Post Office at Lorida, SWSW 3 sec. 8, T. 35 S., R. 31 E. 195 About 11 miles east from State Highway 25 at DeSoto E. Boney.......... 235 2 ........ Hawthorn....... D City, on the north side of State Highway 700, on the owner's property, SE 3SW Y sec. 8, T. 35 S., R. 31 E. 201 3.4 miles east from State Highway 25 at DeSoto City C. A. Causey ...... 223 3 211 Hawthorn....... D on the north side of State Highway 700 at the junetion with the road to Hendricks field, SW NW Y sec. 18, T. 85 S., R. 30 E. 203 1.2 miles south from State Highway 700 at DeSotc L. C. Smith........ 110 2 ........do........... D Sand-point well. City on State Highway 25, then 1.2 miles west on the south side of clay road, NE YNE Y see. 29, T. 35 S., R. 29 E. 204 1.2 miles south from State Highway 700 at DeSoto do.............. 20 1 3 ........ Pleistocene (?)... D do. City on State Highway 25, then 1.5 miles west on the south side of clay road, NW3~NE sec. 29, T. 35 S., R. 29 E. 211 1.0 mile east from State Highway 25 at DeSoto City on Maxcy Securities, 1,455 12-10 ........ Lake City....... D, I See table 9; log. F. G. S. State Highway 700, then 1.8 miles south on paved Inc. well W1464. road, then 0.4 mile west on clay road, and then 0.1 mile north on the west side of private road, NW SE 3 se. 27, T. 35 S., R. 29 E. 212 1.0 mile east from State Highway 25 at DeSoto City on J. H. Twitty....... 58 2 ........ Hawthorn....... D Sand-point well State Highway 700, then 1.8 miles south on paved road, then 0.8 mile west on clay road, and then 0.5 mile north on the east side of unimproved road, SE 4 NWW sec. 27, T. 35 S., R. 29 E. 214 1.0 mile east from State Highway 25 at DeSoto City on F. B. Tauchen..... 86 2 ........ Hawthorn....... D Sand-point well See table State Highway 700, then 3.2 miles south on paved 9. road, and then 0.5 mile east to end of clay road, SE Y SE ~ see. 35, T. 35 S., R. 29 E.

PAGE 77

Table 11. -Continued Well Location Owner Depth DiamCasing Probable Usel Remarks No. (ft.) eter depth geologic (in.) (ft.) source 217 2.5 miles south from State Highway 700 at DeSoto J. E. Wilson....... 30 2 ........ Hawthorn (?).... D Sand-point well. City on State Highway 25, then 0.1 mile west on the north side of private road, NWNWY sec. 34, T. 35 S., R. 29 E. 222 6.2 miles south from State Highway 700 at DeSoto J. L. McLure ...... 51 2 ........ do............ D, I Screened well. City on west side of State Highway 25, at fruit stand, SE NEX sec. 14, T. 36 S., R. 29 E. 230 0.3 mile north from Atlantic Coast Line Railroad crossP. B. Hartman..... 37 1 ~ ........ Pleistocene (?)... D Sand-point well. ing, which is about 1 mile north of Lake Placid, on State Highway 25, then 0.6 mile west on south side of road to Hen Scratch, SW4SW3 se. 25, T. 36 S., R. 29 E. 285 0.3 mile north from Atlantic Coast Line Railroad crossM. P. Miller....... 25 1 X ........ Hawthorn ....... D do. See table 9. ing which is about 1 mile north of Lake Placid on State Highway 25, then 4.10 miles west on road to 3 Hen Scratch, and then 0.2 mile north at end of private road, NE3 NE3 sec. 28, T. 36 S., R. 29 E. 236 0.3 mile north from At!antic Coast Line Railroad crossJ. K. Roosevelt.... 50 2 ........ Hawthorn....... D Sand-point well. ing, which is about 1 mile north of Lake Placid, on State Highway 25, then 8.3 miles west on the north z side of road to Hen Scratch, NE NW sec. 25, Z T. 86 S., R. 28 E. 241 About 0.1 mile west of Atlantic Coast Line Railroad I. Boriss........... 46 2 ....... do............ D do. crossing, which is about 1 mile north of Lake Placid on State Highway 25 near the east shore of Lake Stearns, SE ~SW sec. 30, T. 36 S., R. 30 E. 251 0.5 mile east from State Highway 25 at Lake Placid on A. Blair........... 115 2 95 do............ D 20 ft. of screen; see log. State Highway 621, then 0.2 mile south on east side F.G.S. well W2850. of private road, SE jSE Y see. 31, T. 86 S., R. 30 E. 255 1.4 miles east from State Highway 25 at Lake Placid on C. Tompkins......... 48 1 ......... Pleistocene (?).. D Sand-point well. State Highway 621, then 0.5 mile north on west side of road, NW NE Y sec. 32, T. 36 S., R. 30 E. 260 1.7 miles east from State Highway 25 at Lake Placid on G. Parks.......... 26 2 ........ Pleistocene...... D Sand-point well. State Highway 621, then 1.9 miles south, and then 0.1 mile west at the end of private road, SE 4 NE4 sec. 8, T. 37 S., R. 30 E.

PAGE 78

Table 11. -Continued Well Location Owner Depth DiamCasing Probable Use1 Remarks No. ; (ft.) eter depth geologic (in.) (ft.) source 269 1.8 miles east from State Highway 25 at Lake Placid on J. R. Hendry...... 137 3 90 Hawthorn ....... D Water level +15 ft., July State Highway 621, then 1.4 miles northwest, thenj 18, 1950. See table 9. 0.2 mile south, and 0.1 mile east on south side of road, SW3~SW% sec. 27, T. 36 S., R. 30 E. 273 2.9 miles east from State Highway 25 at Lake Placid on J. J. Hendry....... 65 2 35 Tamiami........ I Water level +16 ft., July State Highway 621, then 8.9 miles south on clay 19, 1950. See table 9. road, and then about 300 feet east of road, SW 3X NW3. see. 23, T. 37 S., R. 30 E. 284 6 miles east from State Highway 25 at Lake Placid on 0. Reynolds ....... 580 6 ........ Suwannee (?).... D Water level + 16.5 ft., April south side of State Highway 621, NWNW3T see. 11, 1951. Reported flow 6, T. 37 S., R. 81 E. 300 gpm. 286 6 miles east from State Highway 25 at Lake Placid on Lykes Bros......... 150 1 .......... Hawthorn....... D . State Highway 621, then 6.6 miles northwest on road, and then 800 feet west of road, SW 3NW 3 sec. 10, T. 86 S., R. 31 E. 287 6 miles east from State Highway 25 at Lake Placid on Lykes Bros........ 35 1 Y ........ Pleistocene...... D Sand-point well. State Highway 621, then 7.4 miles northwest on road, then 0.2 mile west on north side of private road, SW fSE % sec. 3, T. 86 S., R. 31 E. CR 292 11.3 miles east from State Highway 25 at DeSoto City A. Boney.......... 214 2 ........ Hawthorn....... D C on State Highway 700, then 0.7 mile southeast on sand road, and then 8.2 miles south on west side of sand road, NE 3NW3 sec. 33, T. 85 S., R. 31 E. 293 11.S miles east from State Highway 25 at DeSoto City do.............. 20 3 ........ Pleistocene ..... S Sand-point well. on State Highway 700, then 0.7 mile southeast on sand road, then 2. miles south on road, and then 0.4 miles east on north side of road, SW 3SW Y sec. 28, T. 85 S., R. 31 E. 295 0.6 mile south from State Highway 621 at Lake Placid G. L. Pendarvis.... 30 2 ........ Pleistocene (?)... D on State Highway 25, then 0.5 mile east on clay road, and then 0.2 mile north on west side of road, NW4 NWY sec. 5, T. 37 S., R. 30 E. 299 0.8 mile south from State Highway 621 at Lake Placid G. Smoak ......... 90 4 ........ Hawthorn (?).... D on State Highway 25 at the southwest corner of junction with paved road, NW3SE & sec. 6, T. 37 S., R. 30 E.

PAGE 79

Table 11. -Continued Well Location Owner Depth DiamCasing Probable Use2 Remarks No. (ft.) eter depth geologic (in.) (ft.) source 305 0.5 mile north from junction of State Highways 17 and R. H. Lawhon..... 1,230 12-10 345 Lake City....... I Water level -67.5 ft., Aug. 64 near Lake Verona in Avon Park, then 0.3 mile 15, 1950. Reported yield east on the north side of road, SWMSE4 sec. 14, 1,500 gpm. See log. T. 88 S., R. 28 E. F.G.S. well W2398. 312 1.6 miles south from State Highway 621 at Lake Placid L. L. Henderson.... 10 1 ........ Pleistocene (?)... D Sand-point well. on State Highway 25, then 1 mile west on unim0 proved road, then 0.3 mile north on east side of road, NW3SW3 sec. 7, T. 37 S., R. 30 E. 320 3.5 miles west from State Highway 25 on State HighG. McSwain....... 18 1 .... Pleistocene ......None do. way 70, then 2.1 miles north on west side of clay and sand road, NWNW% sec. 25, T. 37 S., R. 29 E. 325 3.5 miles west from State Highway 25 on State HighJ. C. Rails ......... 65 1 ........Hawthorn (?).... D do. way 70, then 1.5 miles north on clay and sand road, . and then 0.2 mile east on private road to well, NW Y M SW3 sec. 25, T. 39 S., R. 29 E. 327 3.4 miles north from State Highway 70 on State HighE. W. Kelsey...... 80 3 ........ Hawthorn....... D Screened well. way 25, then 0.2 mile west on south side of road, H SEY4SWY~ sec. 17, T. 87 S., R. 30 E. 829 1.6 miles north from State Highway 70 on west side of E. L. Taylor....... 21 2 ....... Pleistocene (?)... D Sand-point well. to State Highway 25, SWYNWY4 sec. 28, T. 87 S., R. 80 E. 880 2.8 miles west from State Highway 25 on the north side A. J. Reynolds ..... 49 4 45 Hawthorn (?).... D Flowing well. See table 9. of State Highway 70, SE3j SW sec. 35, T. 37 S., R. 80 E. Cn 333 7.5 miles west from State Highway 25 on State HighT. J. Durrance..... 100 3 ........Tamiami........ D way 70, then about 0.1 mile south of road, NW . NE X sec 3, T. 38 S., R. 31 E. 334 9.1 miles west from State Highway 25 on State HighG. H. Tucker ..... 88 1 4 ........ do............ D See table 9. way 70, then 0.1 mile north on east side of private road, SWYSSW4 sec. 36, T. 37 S., R. 31 E. 337 19.0 miles east from State Highway 25 on State HighW. F. Underhill. ... 45 2 ........ Pleistocene...... D do. way 70, then 4.3 miles north and then 1.7 miles east on sand road, SE XSE 3 sec. 33, T. 36 S., R. 33 E. .II

PAGE 80

Table 11. -Continued Wel Location Owner Depth DiamCasing Probable Use Remarks No. (ft.j eter depth geologic (in.) ft.) source 342 19.0 miles east from State Highway 25 on State HighL. L. Williams..... 171 1 ........ Hawthorn ....... D way 70, then 9.0 miles north, then 2.5 miles northwest and then 0.2 mile north on sand road, NW 3 SE 3 sec. 2, T. 36 S., R. 32 E. 343 19.0 miles east from State Highway 25 on State High-4J. Deadwyler ...... 82 2 44 Tamiami. ...... D way 70, then 9.0 miles north, then 2.9 miles northwest, and then 0.1 mile north to fish camp, center ofi i , west half, see. 2, T. 36 S., R. 32 E. 344 19.0 miles east from State Highway 25 on State HighR. Durrance........ 252 2 155 Hawthorn....... D See table 9. way 70, then 9.0 miles north and 4.1 miles north-I west, and then 0.1 mile north to fish camp, SW , SE Y sec. 34, T. 35 S., R. 32 E. 345 19.0 miles east from State Highway 25 on State HighS. McClelland...... 43 1 4 ........ Pleistocene ...... D . way 70, then 9.0 miles north and then 7.3 miles northwest on north side of road, NE YSE sec. 30, T. 35 S., R. 32 E. 351 29 miles south from State Highway 70 on State HighJ. C. Carlton...... 34 1 X ........ Pleistocene (?)... D See table 9. way 17, then 0.1 miles west on clay road, SW W SW3 sec. 17, T. 38 S., R. 30 E. r357 10.2 miles south from State Highway 70 on State HighS. Miller ......... .30 1 11 Hawthorn....... D do. Well caves. way 17, then 2.4 miles west and northwest, and then 0.2 mile northeast, NE4NW4 see. 3, T. 39 S., R.29E. 358 2.6 miles south from State Highway 70 on State HighSebring Packing Co. 1,550 12-10 517 Lake City....... I See table 9; see log. F.G.S. < way 17, then 0.2 mile east of highway in grove, cenwell W299. ter sec. 17, T. 38 S., R. 30 E. 362 13 miles north from State Highway 731 on State HighN. E. Browning.... 18 1 ........ Hawthorn (?) .... D Sand-point well. way 17, then 2.6 miles northwest, then 2.1 miles west, then 0.2 mile south, NE4NW~m sec. 5, T. 39 S., R. 29 E. 370 3.8 miles west from State Highway 25 on State HighN. B. Jackson...... 35 1 ........ Pleistocene (?)... D do. way 731, then 0.6 mile north and then 0.2 mile east on north side of road, NE34SW34 sec. 14, T. 39 S., R. 29E. 376 3.5 miles west from State Highway 25 on State HighB. Hope............ 20 2 10 Hawthorn....... D Water level +1.5 ft., Oct. way 731, then 0.6 mile south on west side of road, 4, 1950. See table 9. SE 34SW j sec. 23, T. 39 S., R. 29 E.

PAGE 81

Table 11. -Continued Well Location Owner Depth DiamCasing Probable UseZ Remarks No. (ft.) eter depth geologic (in.) (ft.) source 879 2.0 miles west from State Highway 25 on State HighW. J. Espenlaub 125+ 2 125 Hawthorn D Well flows during rainy way 731, north side, at garage, SE4NE3 sec. 24, T. 39 season S., R. 29 E. 384 1.8 miles west from State Highway 25 on State HighN. B. Jackson...... 23 1 Y ........ Hawthorn (?).... D Well flows after local rains. way 731, then 0.5 mile south, and then 0.7 mile west on south side of road, NW3NE X see. 25, T. 39 S., R. 29 E. 387 .O mile north from Highlands-Glades County line on J. H. Peoples ...... 25 1 Y ........ Pleistocene (?)... D Sand-point well. . State Highway 25, then 0.1 mile east on private road, NW`SEY sec. 32, T. 39 S., R. 30 E. 0 389 1.0 miles north from Highlands-Glades County line on R. J. Hargrove..... 30 1 ......... do............ D do. west side of State Highway 25, NE YNE Y sec. 17, T. 39 S., R. 30 E. zZ 390 Southwest corner of intersection of State Highways 25 H. R. Blair........ 96 4 ........ Hawthorn (?).... D Screened well. and 70, NW3~NW3j see. 4, T. 38 S., R. 30 E. . 391 300 feet south of State Highways 64 and 17 in Avon Town of Avon Park 1,040 10 350 Avon Park...... P See table 9. Well listed in Park between Seaboard Air Line and Atlantic Coast W.S.P. 596-G. Line railroad tracks, NWYSE3 sec. 22, T. 33 S., R. 28 E. 392 0.6 mile south from State Highway 64 at Avon Park on Florida Power Corp. 1,153 15 260 Lake City, P Z State Highways 17 and 27, then 0.8 mile south anc Avon Park U1 then 0.1 mile east to power plant, SE 3SW Y sec. 26, T. 33 S., R. 28 E. 393 14.5 miles west from State Highway 25 on north side of C. C. Carlton...... 80 1 4 ........ Hawthorn....... S See table 9. State Highway 70, SWy4SW sec. 31, T. 37 S., R. 28 E. 394 0.8 mile north from State Highway 700 on State HighDeSoto City....... 88 4 68 do............ P 20 feet of screen. See table 9. way 17, then 300 feet south on west side of clay road, SWENE t sec. 15, T. 35 S., R. 29 E. 396 3.8 miles west from State Highway 25 on State HighC. Arnold......... 23+ 1 Y 23 Hawthorn (?).... D Flows 7 gpm. way 781, then 1.1 miles north on State Highway 17, and then 3.0 miles west and 0.4 mile south on clay road, NE 4NWY see. 17, T. 39 S., R. 29 E. 399 10.9 miles east from State Highway 25 at DeSoto City R. C. Carlton...... 1,106 6 294 Lake City....... I Water level +10.5 ft., Mar. on State Highway 700, then 2.5 miles south on sand 11, 1951. See log. F.G.S. road, 50 feet west of post office at Lorida, NW34 well W2401. NE X ser. 29, T. 3 5 S.. R. 31 E. *

PAGE 82

Table 11. -Continued Well Location Owner Depth DiamCasing Probable Use Remarks No. (ft.) eter depth geologic (in.) (ft.) source 400 3.9 miles south from State Highway 70 on State HighC. Brown......... .1,439 12-10 700 do............ I Water level -115 ft., Oct. way 25, then 0.4 mile west on ciay road, and then 15, 1951. See log. F.G.S. about 0.2 mile north of road, NEY SE Y sec. 20, well W2848. T. 38 S., R. 30 E. 401 0.8 mile west from State Highway 17 on State High-! Minute Maid Corp. 1,301 16-12 455 Lake City ....... I Water level --87 ft., Feb. way 64, then 1.8 miles north on lay road, and then 27, 1951.Yield 2,565 gpm. 0.3 mile west on south side of sand road, SW YSW 4 See log. F.GS. well se. 12, T. 33 S, R. 28 E. W2378. 403 ).5 mile north from State Highway 64 on west side of Town of Avon Park 1,301 10 301 do............ P Water level -74 ft., Apr. Seaboard Air Line and Atlantic Coast Line railroad 11, 1951. Yield 636 gpm. tracks in Avon Park, then 0.2 mile west on south side See log. F.G.S. well of day road, NEy NWY sec. 22, T. 33 S, R. 28 E. W2843. 405 3.8 mile south from trafic circle in Sebring on State T. O. Kuhl........ 120 2 ........ Hawthorn ....... T See log. F.G.S. well W2849. Highway 25, then 1.3 miles east of State Highway 17, and then 0.8 mile south on east side of roaa, O NWV SW sec. 34, T. 34 S., R. 29 E406 1.5 miles north from State Highway 64 in Avon Park N. Gumenick...... 590 4-3 ........ Ocala ........... I Water level -55 ft., June on ztate 1ighway 25, then 3.0 miles east on day road, 11, 1951. then 0.5 mile north on day road, then 0.9 mile northeast on clay road, and then about 0.2 mile north of road, NW) NE Y see. 7, T. 33 S., R. 29 E. 407 ).8 mile west on road from Atlantic Coast Line railroad T. U. Jackson...... 200 2 ........ Hawthorn....... T See log. F.G.S. well W2845. station in Lake Placid, and 70 feet north of road, SW3XSWX see. 36, T. 36 S., R. 29 E. 408 1.3 miles south from Seaboard Air Line Railroad crossB. F. Conner...... 1,400 14 464 Lake City ....... I Water level -55 ft, June ing near Lakemont on State Highway 17, and then 25, 1951.Yield 1,200 gpm. 0.4 mile west on north side of day road, SE -NW ~ See log. F.G.S. well see. 18, T. 34 S, R. 29 E. W2859. 409 4.1 miles south from State Highway 634 at the entrance I. C. Hart......... 20 ............... .lawthorn ....... S Water level +3 ft., July 13, of Highlands Hammock State Park on sand road, 1951 Well is large recthen LO mile west on sand road, and then 0.4 mile tangular ditchsouth on winding sand trail, NW34NWY sec. 28, T. 35 S., R. 28 E. 411 3.9 miles south from State Highway 70 on State HighA. M. Huff........ 200 10 110 do............ I Gravel-packed well with 90 way 25, then 0.5 mile west on clay road, and then 0.1 ft. of slotted pipe. Eat. mile south of road, S MSE 3 sec. 20, T. 38 S., R. 30 E. yield 1,200 gpm.

PAGE 83

Table 11. -Continued Well Location Owner Depth DiamCasing Probable Usel Remarks No. (ft.) eter depth geologic (in.) (ft.) source 414 11 miles north from Seaboard Air Line Railroad crossFloyd Theaters, 120 4 110 do............ P Gravel-packed well with 10 ing near Lakemont on the west side of State High Inc. ft. of screen. See log. way 17 in a drive-in-theatre, NWNE see. 6, T. F.G.S. well W2846. 34 S., R. 29 E. 415 2.3 miles north from Seaboard Air Line Railroad crossB. H. Griffin..... 1,140 12-10 397 Lake City ....... I Water level -35.5 ft., Nov. ing near Lakemont on State Highway 17, and then 21, 1951. Est. yield west 0.7 mile on south side of clay road, SE 3NE Y 1,400 gpm. see. 31, T. 33 S., R. 29 E. 0 416 0.9 mile north from State Highway 621 on west side of M. A. Smoak. ... 250 10 150 Hawthorn....... I Gravel-packed well with State Highway 25, NENW% sec. 31, T. 36 S., 100 ft. of slotted pipe. R. 30 E. Yield 1,320 gpm. 417 2.1 miles south from State Highway 70 on State HighG. McSwain.. 130 8 80 do........... I Gravel-packed well with 50 way 25, then 0.3 mile west on clay road, and' then 1.3 ft. of slotted pipe. Z miles north on east side of cay road, NWYSW3 p see. 4, T. 38 S., R. 30 E. 421 1.3 miles north from the Seaboard Air Line Railroad J. M. Stiles...... 180 12-10 60 do.. ......... I Water level -22 ft, Dee. crossing near Lakemont on State Highway 17, then 11, 1951. Gravel-packed 0 0.7 mile east on clay road, and then 0.2 mile north of well with 120 ft. of slotted road, SE3~SW3 see. 82, T. 33 S., R. 29 E. pipe. Est. yield 1,800 gpm. 422 0.3 mile north from State Highway 70 on State HighJ. K. Roosevelt .. 100 2 ........ do............ F See log. F.G.S. well W2847. Z way 25, then 0. mile east on north side of private road, NWYSEX sec. 33, T. 37 S., R. 30 E. 428 4.0 miles north from Highlands-Glades County line on H. B. Snivley .... 82 4 74 do............ D 8 ft. of screen. Yield 60 O State Hiway 25, northwest corner sec. 16, T. 39 S., gpm. See log. F.G.S. well R. 30 E. W2840. . 424 2.2 miles east from State Highway 25 on north side of U. S. Geological 21 6 18 Pleistocene (?)... 0 State Highway 70, SE /SW% sec. 35, T. 37 S., Survey R. 30E. 425 4.8 miles east from State Highway 25 on State HighU. S. Geological 125 4 65 ................ T See log. way 70, then 0.1 mile north of road, SW ,SW M sec. Survey 31, T. 37 S, R. 31 E. 426 1 mile east from Lake Istokpoga on south side of Istokdo.............. 65 4 54 ................ .T do. poga Canal, NWk4NW3 sec. 3, T. 36 S., R. 31 E. 427 300 feet west of bridge over the Kissimmee River on do.............. 101 4 94 T do. north side of State Highway 700, NW .NW .sec. 8, T. 36 S., R. 33 E.

PAGE 84

Table 11. -Continued Well Location Owner Depth DiamCasing Probable UseL Remarks No. (ft.) eter depth geologic (in.) (ft.) source 428 In Highlands Hammock State Park, NW JNWY sec. Florida Park Service 48 2 ................ ....... T do. 5, T. 35 S., R. 28 E. 433 3.2 miles east from State Highway 25 on the north side U. S. Geological 130 ........ .. .... ................. T do. of State Highway 70, SE 3SW Y sec. 36, T. 37 S., Survey R. 30 E. 434 2.7 miles east from State Highway 25 on the south side do.............. 60 ........ ... .................... T do. of State Highway 70, NE %NE Y see. 2, T. 38 S., R. 30 E. 0 435 .2 miles east from State Highway 25 on the north side do .............. 220 ............... ................ T do. of State Highway 70, SE %SW Y sec. 35, T. 37 S., R. 80 E. 436 1.4 miles east from State Highway 25 on south side of U. S. Geological 140 ................................. T See log. State Highway 70, NW ~NEX sec. 3, T. 38 S., R. Survey o 36 E. 437 4.2 miles west from State Highway 25 on south side of do.............. 160 ................. ................ T do. State Highway 70, NW 4NW Y sec. 2, T. 38 S., R. 29E. 438 6.5 miles west from State Highway 25 on south side of do.............. 60 ........ ................ T do. State Highway 70, NE XNE Y sec. 5, T. 38 S., R.29 E. 439 10.1 miles south from State Highway 70 on State Highdo.............. 210 ........ ........ ................ T do. way 25, then 3.7 miles west on south side of State Highway 17, SE XNW X sec. 23, T. 39 S., R. 29 E. _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ I _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _

PAGE 85

REPORT OF INVESTIGATIONS No. 15 77 MEASURED GEOLOGIC SECTIONS The Hawthorn formation and formations of Pleistocene age are exposed in many of the clay pits, road cuts, and drainage ditches in Highlands County. Some of the best exposures are listed below; all the material described is nonfossiliferous. Stations 401 and 426. -Road-metal pit in the NE/4NE/4 sec. 11, T. 33 S., R. 28 E., 3 miles north of Avon Park. The geologic section exposed in this pit shows the unconformable contact between the Hawthorn formation and formations of Pleistocene age and also gives some indication of the unevenness of the pre-Pleistocene land surface. (See figure 11.) Station 407.-Abandoned road-metal pit in the SW/4SE sec. 16, T. 35 S., R. 29 E., 1 mile west of DeSoto City. Surface altitude 110 feet. SECTION THICKNESS (FEET) Pleistocene deposits: 2b. Sand, fine to medium, carbonaceous, tan-gray............................ 0.5 2a. Sand, medium to coarse, slightly clayey, light-gray-orange to orange ............................................................................... 22.0 Hawthorn formation: lb. Clay, sandy (medium to very coarse), red-orange; nodules of yellow to white sandy clay. Hardens on exposure, stands in vertical cuts ..................... ...................................... 6.0 la. Sand, medium to very coarse, clayey, tan-gray to orange............ 1.5 Station 410. -Stream bank and auger hole in the northwest corner, SE4NW/4 sec. 3, T. 39 S., R. 29 E., 4 miles northwest of Venus. Surface altitude 90*5 feet. SECTION THICKNESS (FEET) Pleistocene deposits: 2b. Sand, fine to medium, quartz, carbonaceous, light-gray to brown. Grades into bed below .......................................... 3.0 2a. Sand, quartz, fine to medium, with some coarse sand at bottom of bed, tan.............................................................. 2.0 Hawthorn (?) formation: Ic. Clay, sandy, medium to coarse, plastic, tan, stained with lim onite ............................................................................ 2.0 lb. Same as bed Ic but clay is tan to turquoise ............................ 1.0 la. Sand, quartz, medium to coarse, with some tan clay ................. 0.5 Station 415.Road cut in the NE/4SE/4 sec. 12, T. 35 S., R. 29 E., 6 miles southeast of Sebring. Surface altitude 115Y5 feet. SECTION THICKNESS (FEET) Pleistocene deposits: lb. Sand, quartz, fine to coarse (average medium), rounded, frosted, light-yellow-orange ............................................. 0.5 la. Sand, quartz, medium to coarse, (average coarse), rounded, partially frosted, gray-orange, with a.large amount of heavy minerals ..........................30.0

PAGE 86

78 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY Bed la is typical of the material comprising the many coastal bars in the eastern and southern parts of the Highlands Ridge. Station 408. -Road-metal pit in the center of the NE,4 sec. 32, T. 37 S., R. 30 E., 6 miles south of the town of Lake Placid. Surface altitude 165'5 feet. SECTION THICKNESS (FEET) Pleistocene deposits: 2. Sand, quartz, medium to coarse, cream-orange ...................... 4.0 llawthorn formation: 1. Clay, sandy (medium to very coarse), brick-red to brown; nodules of white sandy kaolinite and ironstones. Stands in vertical cuts .......................................................... 5.0 S .0.15 MI. --N Stotion 401 Station 426 Land surfoce is /65 feel obove meon sea levels 00 04% " " .. ..... .*.· . I 0 _ .--"-2--o --o-oS _ " "o o -0 EXPLANATI ON Sand, quartz, light gray-orange, medium to coarse. This bed contains numerous rounded ironstones at station 401 with the stones Increasing in number toward base of bed. S5 -0-.0 (Pleistocene) . -O-o-O-o EXPLANATION .. .' ' Sand, quartz, light gray to orange, medium to coarse This .'.:.4.bed contains numerous rounded ironstones at station 401 .." with the stones increasing in number toward base of bed. (Pleistocene) . ... Sand, quartz, light gray to orange, medium to coarse with layers of red-brown to yellow-brown clayey sand becoming massive toward bottom of bed. Upper part of bed shows some stratification on weathered surfaces. (Pleistocene). :-.. , Sand, quartz, white, coarse. This bed forms a thin layer S between beds 1 and 3. Spring line. (Pleistocene). ..-. Clay, sandy, massive, orange to red-orange, with nodules o"| of Ironstone and nodules and pipes of yellow-brown -osandy clay. Sand fine to coarse, average coarse. Bed is capped locally with hard limonitic sandstone. Stands in vertical cuts. (Hawthorn formation). FIGURE 1. -Idealized geologic section between stations 401 and 426.

PAGE 87

REPORT OF INVESTIGATIONS No. 15 79 Station 409. -Drainage ditch in the center of section 11, T. 36 S., R. 28 E., about 8 miles southwest of DeSoto City. Surface altitude 70 10 feet. SECTION THICKNESS (FEET) Pleistocene deposits: 2. Sand, quartz, carbonaceous, medium to fine, gray .................. 1.5 Hawthorn (?) formation: 1. Marl, sandy, light-gray to tan-gray, hardens to limestone on exposure .............................................................................. 1.5 WELL LOGS Well 22 (F. G. S. no. 894) At Sebring near power plant. Surface altitude 120 feet. MATERIAL DEPTH, IN FEET BELOW LAND SURFACE N o sam ple .............................................................................. 0130 Hawthorn formations: Q uartz sand ......................................................................... 130180 Sand, fine to granule-size, quartz, brown and black phosphorite .......................................................... 180190 Sand, sandy limestone, shell fragments, and brown phosphorite .......................................................... 190305 Limestone, phosphatic, coarsely sandy .................................. 305315 As above, and sand .............................................................. 315345 Limestone, impure, 50 percent black phosphorite ................ 345355 As above, and sand ................................................................ 355375 Limestone, impure, black phosphorite .................................. 375395 Dolomite, "sugary", light-tan; "sugary" phosphatic limestone .................................................... 395415 Limestone, sandy, phosphatic ................................................ 415435 Sand and phosphorite .......................................................... 435445 Sand, phosphorite, and limestone ........................................ 445515 Suwannee limestone: Limestone, chalky, white to very light tan, Rotalia mexicana .......................................................... 515585 Ocala limestone: Limestone, cream-colored, very granular, Lepidocyclina ocalana, Eponides jacksonensis, Gypsina globula, Operculinoides sp. ............................................................ 585-? Avon Park limestone: Limestone, chalky-white to light-tan, mostly aggregate of calcite rhombs. Discorinopsis gunteri, Coskinolina floridana, at 1,000 feet Spirolina coryensis ........ ?-1,040 Lake City limestone at 1,110 feet: As above, and 10 percent brown "sugary" dolomite with Fabularia vaughani at 1,110 feet ........................ 1,040-1,200 Dolomite, dark-tan, dense ............................................... 1,200-1,240 Dolomite, dark-tan, and nearly white limestone with Dictyoconus cookei ........................................................ 1,240-1,260 N o sam ple ................................................................................ 1,260-1,278

PAGE 88

80 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY Well 5 (F. G. S. no. 595) Near DeSoto City, 400 feet west of the southeast corner of sec. 7, T. 35 S., R. 30 E. Surface altitude, 60.5 feet. MATERIAL DEPTH, IN FEET BELOW LAND SURFACE Undifferentiated Pleistocene deposits: Sand, quartz, white to brown, very fine to coarse (average fine), rounded to angular, frosted .......................... 020 Sand, quartz, brown, very fine to coarse, average medium, rounded to angular, frosted; some organic m aterial ............................................................................ 2035 As above, plus about 40 percent silty or clayey organic m aterial ............................................................................ 3537 Sand, quartz, black, carbonaceous, containing thin pieces of laminated peat ................................................ 3742 Sand, quartz, gray-brown, silty ............................................ 4245 As above, plus some gray clay ................................................ 4550 Sand, quartz, gray-white, with only a small amount of silt, sand grains (average fine) ...................................... 5055 As above, very fine to coarse (average medium) .................. 5560 As above, plus a few medium, sand-size phosphorite grains ........................................................................... 6070 Sand, quartz, tan-gray (average medium) .......................... 7075 Sand, quartz, gray-white, very fine to medium (average fine) 7590 As above, but very fine to coarse (average medium) ............ 9094 As above, plus some peat and carbonaceous sandstone ........ 94100 As above, but sand is cream white, very fine to coarse (average medium ) ........................................................ 100105 Tamiami formation: Shell marl, green-gray, very finely sandy and silty. Shells compose 20-30 percent of sample, mainly pelecypod fragments ...................................................... 105113 As above, plus some muscovite and numerous small grains of brown to black phosphorite. Sparse foram fauna, principally Rotalia beccarii var.; also a few unidentified ostracods and fish bones. Mollusk fragments compose about 5-10 percent of sample .......... 113118 As above, but with more muscovite and phosphorite, and fewer shell fragments. Eponides cf. mansfieldi, Elphidium incertum? and other forams ........................ 118143 Shell marl, slightly silty and clayey, sandy, fine to coarse (average medium ) ........................................................ 143148 Hawthorn(?) formation: Sand, quartz, white, very fine to coarse, (average medium), with phosphorite grains, some as large as 9 mm in diameter. Few shell fragments, very sparse foram fauna ...................................................................... 148150 As above, but phosphorite grains smaller in size .................... 150176

PAGE 89

REPORT OF INVESTIGATIONS No. 15 81 Well 9 In the NEYNWY4 sec. 7, T. 33 S., R. 31 E., Highlands County. Surface altitude 131 feet. MATERIAL DEPTH, IN FEET BELOW LAND SURFACE Undifferentiated Pleistocene deposits: Sand, quartz, white, fine to medium.................................... 04 Sand, quartz, brown to gray-white, fine to medium (average fine) .................................... ..... .......... 418 Sand, quartz, grayish-white, fine to medium (average m edium ) .......................................................................... 1824 Sand, quartz, dirty gray-white, fine to medium .................... 2426 Well 10 In the NEY4SE 4 sec. 2, T. 35 S., R. 29 E., Highlands County. Surface altitude 117.8 feet. MATERIAL DEPTH, IN FEET BELOW LAND SURFACE Pleistocene deposits and Hawthorn(?) formation undifferentiated: Sand, quartz, brown, fine to medium (average medium) .... 035 Sand, quartz, tan, fine to medium (average medium) ........ 3540.5 Sand, quartz, gray-white, tan, fine to medium (average m edium ) .................................................................... 40.545 Well 11 In the NW/4SW/4 sec. 14, T. 35 S., R. 31 E., Highlands County. Surface altitude 51.2 feet. MATERIAL DEPTH, IN FEET BELOW LAND SURFACE Undifferentiated Pleistocene deposits: Sand, quartz, gray-brown, fine to medium (average m edium ) .................................................................... 012 Sand, quartz, grayish-white, fine to medium (average m edium ) ..................................................................... 1216 Clay, gray, sticky, and very fine quartz sand ......................... 16 Well 12 In the NE,4SWW4 sec. 7, T. 36 S., R. 33 E., Highlands County. Surface altitude 45.6 feet. MATERIAL DEPTH, IN FEET BELOW LAND SURFACE Undifferentiated Pleistocene deposits: Sand, quartz, grayish-white, fine to medium (average fine) ............................................. ................... ....... 016 Sand, quartz, grayish-brown, fine to medium ...................... 1618 Sand, quartz, light-tan, fine to medium ................................ 1821

PAGE 90

82 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY Well 13 In the NEV4NEV4 sec. 26, T. 37 S., R. 33 E., Highlands County. Surface altitude 29.2 feet. MATERIAL DEPTH, IN FEET BELOW LAND SURFACE Undifferentiated Pleistocene deposits: Sand, quartz, white, fine to medium (average fine) ............ 015 Sand, quartz, brown, fine to medium .................................. 1520 Well 14 In the NE¼NW¼ sec. 4, T. 38 S., R. 30 E., Highlands County. Surface altitude 136 feet. MATERIAL DEPTH, IN FEET BELOW LAND SURFACE Pleistocene deposits and Hawthorn(?) formation undifferentiated: Sand, quartz, grayish-white, fine to medium ...................... 02 Sand, quartz, brown, fine to medium (average medium)...... 219 Sand, quartz, tan, fine to medium (average medium)........ 1930 Sand, quartz, light-tan, grayish-white, fine to medium (average medium ) ........................................................ 3035 Well 15 In the SW4SEY4 sec. 32, T. 39 S., R. 30 E., Highlands County. Surface altitude 58.5 feet. MATERIAL DEPTH, IN FEET BELOW LAND SURFACE Pleistocene deposits and Hawthorn(?) formation undifferentiated: Sand, quartz, carbonaceous, black ...................................... 00.3 Sand, quartz, brown, grayish-white, fine to medium (average medium ) ..................................................... 0.314 Sand, quartz, brown, fine to coarse (average mediumcoarse) ............................................................................ 1417 Sand, quartz, tan, fine to coarse (average medium to coarse) ............................................................................ 1720 Sand, quartz, grayish-white, fine to medium (average m edium ) .......................................................................... 2023 Well 183 (F.G.S. no. 2397) Three miles southeast of Avon Park in the NE¼SE/ sec. 30, T. 33 S., R. 29 E. Surface altitude 105 feet. MATERIAL DEPTH, IN FEET BELOW LAND SURFACE N o sam ples .............................................................................. 0177 Hawthorn formation: Sand, quartz, micaceous, white, fine to granule-size, rounded to angular, and some white clay .................... 177188 Sand, quartz, micaceous, light-yellow to tan-gray, fine to small pebbles, with pebbles of phosphorite and white clay nodules ........................................................ 188199 As above, plus some blue-green clay and gastropods............ 199222 Sand, quartz, light-cream, fine to pebble-size, with phosphorite pebbles up to 6 mm in diameter................ 222242

PAGE 91

REPORT OF INVESTIGATIONS No. 15 83 MATERIAL DEPTH, IN FEET BELOW LAND SURFACE As above, plus some very sandy white limestone. Phosphorite makes up about 30 percent of this sample. Mollusk fragments ....................................................... 242254 Clay, tan-gray, sandy, phosphatic, with some limestone as above ...................................................................... 254310 Sand, quartz, gray, medium to coarse, with some dense crystalline phosphatic limestone. Shark's teeth and echinoid fragments ........................................................ 310321 Limestone, cream, dense, finely crystalline, with phosphorite and some very coarse quartz sand................... 321360 Limestone, clayey, dark-gray, dense, hard, with some limestone, as above, and phosphorite pebbles .............. 360375 Limestone, quartz sand, phosphorite pebbles, and clay; limestone, white to dark-gray, dense, hard to soft, finely crystalline, sandy, phosphatic; quartz sand, clear to gray, fine to very coarse; phosphorite pebbles up to 5 mm in diameter; clay, dark-green. Echinoid spines, shark's teeth, mollusk fragments, ostracods and Foraminifera ................................... 375435 Suwannee limestone: Limestone, slightly sandy, cream, soft, porous, crystalline; calcite rhombs and some phosphorite. Echinoid spines, Foraminifera, Rotalia mexicana and others .............................................................................. 435450 Limestone, slightly sandy, cream, soft, chalky, a few phosphorite pebbles and pieces of dark dense limestone. Numerous Foraminifera, Rotalia mexicana, Elphidium leonensis and others .................................... 450495 Ocala limestone: Limestone, large foraminiferal coquina, cream, soft, porous; with some material as above. Lepidocyclina ocalana, Operculinoides ocalanus, and others ............... 495615 No sam ples ................................................................................ 615635 Moodys Branch (?) formation: Limestone, cream, hard, calcitic. Few large foraminifera ...... 635665 Limestone, large foraminiferal coquina, cream, hard, porous, some soft chalky limestone ............................... 665720 Limestone, large foraminiferal coquina, light-gray. Camerinidae numerous ......................................................... .720735 No sam ples ................................................................................ 735765 Avon Park limestone: Limestone, light-tan-gray, hard, crystalline, with some white chalky limestone. Gastropods, Foraminifera and echinoids; Coskinolina floridana, Peronella dalli .... 765825 Limestone, cream, hard, porous. Dictyoconus cookei ............ 825840 As above, plus some white dense crystalline limestone. Fossiliferous ................................................................ 840975 Limestone, cream to tan, hard, porous. Fossiliferous ............ 975-1,000 As above, plus Spirolina coryensis and numerous miliolids .... 1,000-1,050 Dolomite, tan to light-brown, dense, waxy, crystalline, with some limestone, as above ........................................ 1,050-1,057 As above, plus some dense dark limestone ............................ 1,057-1,066 As above, plus some soft white limestone .............................. 1,066-1,085 Lake City limestone: As above, plus Dictyoconus americanus .................................. 1,085-1,100 Dolomite, light-brown, finely crystalline, waxy; with some hard white porous limestone. Fossiliferous ............ 1,100-1,155 Sand, dolomite, with some chalky, white porous limestone .... 1,155-1,212

PAGE 92

84 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY Water-level measurements made during drilling of well. Well cased to 304 feet. Date Depth of hole Formation Water level, feet 1950 (feet) penetrated below land surface May 31 330 Hawthorn 20.80 June 8 850 Avon Park 17.00 June 12 915 do. 16.00 fune 15 945 do. 15.20 June 21 1,066 do. 16.20 June 23 1,102 Lake City 16.20 June 29 1,192 do. 16.00 Well 211 (F. G. S. no. 1464) Two miles south of DeSoto City in the NW¼SE/ sec. 27, T. 35 S., R. 29 E. Surface altitude 135 feet. (Adapted from a log by Robert O. Vernon, Florida Geological Survey) MATERIAL DEPTH, IN FEET BELOW LAND SURFACE Hawthorn formation: Sand, quartz, medium to fine, poorly sorted, red ................ 2070 As above, but white ........................................... ............ ..... 70100 Sand as above, and sandy cream to light-gray limestone containing phosphorite .................................................. 100140 Sand, quartz, coarse to fine .................................................. 140165 As above, fine to medium ...................................................... 165185 Sand, quartz, fine to medium and sandy gray-green fuller's earth clay .......................................................... 185200 As above, plus a sandy carbonaceous clay .......................... 200210 Sand, quartz, fine to medium; black carbonaceous clay; cream sandy phosphatic limestone ................................ 210215 Sand, quartz, coarse to fine, and phosphorite ...................... 215240 Limestone, tan, finely crystalline, sandy, phosphatic, many mollusk fragments ............................................... 240252 N o sam ple .................. ............................................................... 252270 Sand, quartz, coarse to fine, and brown sandy waxy clay.... 270295 Sand, quartz, fine to medium, and phosphorite ............... 295325 Sand, quartz, coarse to medium, phosphorite, and finely crystalline limestone .................................................. 325335 As above, plus tan impure dense limestone .......................... 335340 As above, but increased phosphorite and tan limestone ........ 340345 Sand, quartz; dense argillaceous gray limestone; and fissile gray clay ................................................................ 345350 N o sam ple .................. ............................................................... 350368 Limestone, dense, finely crystalline, cream, containing phosphorite and mollusk shell fragments ...................... 368375 As above, more phosphorite .................................................. 375400 Limestone as above and dense brownish-gray hard phosphatic limestone ...................................................... .400405 Limestone as above and cream finely crystalline dense sandy phosphatic limestone .......................................... 405440 Limestone, dense, cream, finely crystalline; sand and limestone as above .......................................................... 440451 Limestone, dark-gray, dense, hard, phosphatic .................... 451460 Limestone as above, mottled brown and made porous by many mollusk and coral remains; much phosphorite and sand .......................................................................... 460465 Clay, micaceous, dark-greenish-gray, and dark-gray dense phosphatic limestone ....................................... 480500 Sand, quartz, fine to medium, with phosphorite and rock above ....................................................................... 500505

PAGE 93

REPORT OF INVESTIGATIONS No. 15 85 MATERIAL DEPTH, IN FEET BELOW LAND SURFACE As above, plus light-green fissile fuller's earth clay ................ 505510 Sand as at 500-505 ............................................................. 510515 N o sam ple ..... ................................ ........................................ 515541 Suwannee limestone: Limestone, granular, cream, porous, soft, Rotalia mexicana, Cytheridea blanpiedi(?) Starfish ossicles .......... 541565 N o sam ple .................. ............................................................... 565575 Limestone, porous, white to cream, soft. Fossils above; crab claws ........... .......... .................................................. 575590 As above, plus quartz sand ..................................................... 590600 Limestone, porous, cream, soft, chalky ................................ 600610 Ocala limestone: Limestone as above. Lepidocyclina ocalana, Lepidocyclina fragilis ................................................................... 610635 N o sam ple ........................................................................... 635640 Limestone as above, foraminiferal coquina. Operculina, Camerina, Lepidocyclina ................................................ 640695 Coquina limestone, cream, soft, porous; composed of Lepidocyclina, Bryozoa, echinoids and camerinids ...... 695745 Coquina limestone, cream, soft, porous, large foraminifers 745840 Moody's Branch(?) formation: Coquina limestone as above, the camerinids making up a greater percentage of the total Foraminifera ............... 840889 Limestone, cream, soft, massive, porous, containing many flat echinoids, crab claws, and large Foraminifera 889895 Same as above, but containing many calcite clusters and vugs, and more granular, with fewer large fossils. Amphistegina pinarensis var. .............................. 895900 Avon Park limestone: Limestone, cream, granular, soft, massive, porous, fossils as above, and a large rotalid foram ........................ 900910 Limestone, cream, granular, soft, massive, porous, with fossils from above. Coskinolina sp. large rotalid ............ 910920 Limestone as above, many Coskinolina and associated forams and also fossils caved from above ...................... 920935 Limestone, light-gray to brownish-gray, granular, soft, massive, slightly porous. Spirolina coryensis, Lituonella, Coskinolina and cavings from above......... 935980 Limestone, cream to light-gray, granular, moderately hard, rather dense, massive, foraminiferal; composed of a mass of forams set in a light-gray chalky matrix. Coskinolina relatively abundant ...................... 980-1,005 Limestone, light-gray, granular, soft, massive, foraminiferal; fossils as above, but rare. Calcite rhombs ............ 1,005-1,025 Limestone as above but harder, having more cement and more fossils; species as above ................................ 1,025-1,065 Limestone as above and tan finely crystalline, soft massive porous dolomite; limestone and associated fossils caved from above .................................................... 1,065-1,085 Limestone, cream to tan, granular, soft, massive, dense to porous, with cavings from above .................................. 1,085-1,105 Limestone, cream to light-gray, granular, dense to porous, hard but containing soft streaks, massive; made up of forams in a light-gray chalky matrix, which has been recrystallized in places ................................. 1,105-1,125 Limestone as above and light-gray porous soft chalky limestone; many Coskinolina, Lituonella, Spirolina, Textulariella, and other Gulf Hammock fauna ............ 1,125-1,145

PAGE 94

86 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY MATERIAL DEPTH, IN FEET BELOW LAND SURFACE Limestone as above and tan dense brittle fine-grained to granular, hard, fossiliferous limestone; the fossils appear to be somewhat rounded by abrasion. Fabularia sp. ............................................................................ 1,145-1,185 Top of Lake City limestone at 1,150: Limestone, tan to light-brown, dense, with porous layers, fine granular to crystalline; some pieces are waxy and very dense and others are somewhat laminated with carbonaceous plant remains, small amounts of pyrite; fragments of limestone from above .................. 1,185-1,195 Limestone as above and fragments of cream dense soft chalky limestone with harder limestone granules embedded in the matrix. Dictyoconus americanus ........ 1,195-1,225 Limestone, tan to light-brown, dense, hard and brittle to soft and waxy, fine-grained to chalky. Dictyoconus sp. ............................................................. 1,225-1,265 Limestone as above and tan to light-gray dense finegrained to chalky massive limestone with much secondary calcite. Some particles seem to be argillaceous, to have laminated carbonaceous plant remains, and to be waxy. Many Foraminifera. Dictyoconus americanus ................................................ 1,265-1,285 Limestone, tan to cream, finely ground and possibly granular, dense, very fine grained, hard, foraminiferal. Dictyoconus americanus, Spirolina sp. ................ 1,285-1,315 Limestone, cream, granular, soft, massive, slightly porous, foraminiferal, with calcitic secondary growths. A large percentage of the sample is composed of whole and broken specimens of Dictyoconus and Coskinolina .................. ................ 1,315-1,325 Limestone as above in larger fragments and fragments of dark-brown finely crystalline soft dense dolomite. Dictyoconus americanus ...................................... 1,325-1,365 Limestone and dolomite, as at 1,325-1,365 feet, in fine grains of about equal proportions .............................. 1,365-1,375 Top (?) of the Oldsmar limestone at 1,375: Sample predominantly brown finely crystalline dense hard dolomite and limestone, as above. A fragment that is questionably referred to Helicostegina gyralis (?), at 1,375-1,385 feet, and an unidentifiable Lepidocyclina, at 1,385-1,395 feet .............................. 1,375-1,415 Predominantly dark-brown to black finely crystalline soft slightly porous massive dolomite and limestone as above ........................................................................ 1,415-1,435 Dolomitic limestone, tan to light-brown, finely crystalline, soft, porous, and limestone as above. No new fossils ........................................................................ 1,435-1,455 Well 251 (F. G. S. no. 2850) One mile east of Lake Placid in the SEY4SE¼ sec. 31, T. 36 S., R. 30 E., Highlands County. Surface altitude 90 feet. MATERIAL DEPTH, IN FEET BELOW LAND SURFACE Pleistocene deposits and Hawthorn formation, undifferentiated: Sand, quartz, medium to coarse, frosted light-gray .............. 01 Sand, quartz, medium to coarse, frosted, gray-orange .......... 17 Sand, quartz, medium to very coarse, frosted, dark-brown .... 78

PAGE 95

REPORT OF INVESTIGATIONS No. 15 87 MATERIAL DEPTH, IN FEET BELOW LAND SURFACE As above but lighter in color ................................................ 811 Sand, quartz, carbonaceous, medium to coarse, frosted, gray-orange ....... .... ................. .................................... 1115 Sand, quartz, fine to coarse, frosted, red-brown .................. 1518 Sand, quartz, fine to elongated pebbles 8 mm in length, poorly sorted, frosted, light-brown ................................ 1850 Clay, lilac-colored, and fine to coarse frosted sand ................ 5058 As at 18-50 feet ..................................................................... 5860 Sand, quartz, medium to coarse, frosted, light-brown ............ 6065 Sand, quartz, fine to pebble-size, frosted, and some light-brown clay .............................................................. 6582 Clay, sandy, fissile, yellow-green, very micaceous, numerous small grains of ilmenite, and round clear quartz sand grains ..................... ........................................ 8287 Sand, quartz, medium to very coarse, frosted to clear, with some dark-lilac clay coating the grains ................ 8788 Clay, sandy, orange to gray-orange, some white clay, and clear medium to coarse quartz sand ...................... 8894 Sand, quartz, medium to coarse, frosted to clear, yellowcream, some mica and white calcareous clay particles .... 94115 Well 305 (F. G. S. no. 2398) One mile northeast of Avon Park, in the southwest corner, SWI4SEA sec. 14, T. 33 S., R. 28 E., Highlands County. Surface altitude 160 feet. MATERIAL DEPTH, IN FEET BELOW LAND SURFACE N o sam ples .............................................................................. 0220 Hawthorn formation: Phosphorite, clayey, calcareous; black phosphorite in light-green nonplastic clay, phosphorite pebbles up to 12 mm in diameter; numerous small calcite rhombs.. 220260 Clay (fuller's earth) and phosphorite, slightly sandy, calcareous, light-green to olive-drab ............................ 260295 Limestone, phosphatic, finely crystalline, white. Mollusk fragments ............................................................... 295345 Limestone, phosphorite, and sand; limestone finely crystalline to porcelaneous, dense, phosphorite brown to black. Mollusks, echinoid spines and Foraminifera-Elphidium sp. and others .................................. 345440 Suwannee limestone: Limestone, hard, white, chalky, porous, with some dense hard gray limestone and sand, possibly from above. Mollusks, echinoid fragments, and numerous Foraminifera-Rotalia mexicana, miliolids ........................ 440500 Ocala limestone: Limestone, hard to soft, cream, chalky, porous, highly fossiliferous; Lepidocyclina ocalana and other Foraminifera common to the Ocala limestone .................... 500640 Limestone, large foraminiferal coquina harder than above, cream to tan-gray. Lepidocyclina ocalana, Heterostegina ocalana, and Camerinidae .................... 640680 Moodys Branch(?) formation: Limestone, large foraminiferal coquina, hard, cream to tan-gray. Camerina moodybranchensis ........................ 680730 As above, plus some hard, dense gray limestone .................... 730760 Avon Park limestone:

PAGE 96

10i FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY MATERIAL DEPTH, IN FEET BELOW LAND SURFACE Limestone, hard, cream, highly calcitic. Foraminifera and echinoids, Coskinolina floridana, Dictyoconus cookei, Peronella dalli .................................................. 760820 Limeistone, hard, light-brown, calcitic, porous. Fauna as above ........................................................................ 820860 As above, plus some soft chalky limestone ........................ 860880 As at 820-860 feet, plus Spirolina coryensis ........................ 880960 Limestone, hard, cream, calcitic, porous. Fauna as above.... 960-1,050 As above, plus some very finely crystalline dense hard light-brow n dolom ite ...................................................... 1,050-1,100 Limiestone, hard, cream, calcitic, porous. Poorly preserved F oram inifera .................................................... 1,100-1,120 L.ake City limestone: Dolomite, hard, dark red-brown, crystalline, with limestone as above. Dictyoconus americanus ...................... 1,120-1,140 Limestone, fairly hard, white, porous, chalky, with some tan granular limestone. Gastropod and echinoid fragm ents ........ ... .......... ..................................................... 1,140-1,160 Dolomite, hard, brown, finely crystalline, dense, waxy, with limestone as above. Echinoid spines, Foraminifera 1,160-1,180 Dolomite, hard, brown, granular, porous, waxy, with some hard white chalky limestone and numerous brown rhombic crystals ............................... .............. 1,180-1,220 N o sam ples ........ ............................................................... 1,220-1,230 Water-level measurements made during drilling. Well cased to 345 feet. Date Depth of hole Formation Water level, feet 1950 (feet) penetrated below land surface Aug. 2 1,120 Lake City 68.0 Aug. 9 1,215 d(o. 67.0 Aug. Ii 1,230 do. 67.5 Sept. 7 1,230 do. 65.0 Well 358 (F. G. S. no. 2399) Sevrlln miiles north of Venus, in the center of sec. 17, T. 38 8., R. 30 E., Highlands County. Surface altitude 182 feet. MATERIAL DEPTH, IN FEET BELOW LAND SURFACE 'leistocene deposits: Sand, quartz, dark-gray-orange, medium to coarse, frosted 010 Hlawthorn(?) formation: Sand, quartz, cream to cream-orange, medium to coarse, frosted .............................................................. 1070 Sand, quartz, white to cream, medium to coarse, frosted .... 70100 Sand, quartz, white to light-gray, coarse, frosted ................ 100140 Sand, quartz, cream to light-tan-gray, medium to very coarse, partly frosted, with some hard, white clay ........ 140200 Sand, quartz, micaceous, cream to light-yellow, fine to very coarse, partly frosted, with some white to crea clay ........................................................ .. 200270 Clay, sandy, very micaceous, light-green, fissile, plastic ........ 270290 N o sam ple ............................................................................... 290300 Sand, quartz, micaceous, gray, fine to medium, angular, clear, with some gray to gray-orange clay ...................... 300340 As above, plus some light-red-brown clay ............................ 340360 Sand, quartz, micaceous, gray-green, fine to coarse, angular to subrounded, clear to frosted, with some slightly calcareous olive-drab clay ................................ 360380

PAGE 97

REPORT OF INVESTIGATIONS No. 15 89 MATERIAL DEPTH, IN FEET BELOW LAND SURFACE Clay, fuller's earth, slightly sandy, calcareous, micaceous, dark-green, with some white clay, dark crystalline calcite, dark chert, and small particles of organic m aterial ............................................................................ 380440 Limestone, slightly sandy, cream, dense, finely crystalline, with some dark-gray dense limestone, chert, sand, clay as above, and phosphorite pebbles. Mollusk fragments and shark's teeth .................................. 440450 Clay, sandy, calcareous, phosphatic, white to darkgreen in lower part; some finely crystalline sandy dense white limestone. Mollusk fragments .................... 450470 N o sam ple ................................................................................ 470480 Sand, quartz, clayey, tan-gray, fine to coarse, some phosphorite ................................................................. .480490 Clay, fuller's earth, sandy, phosphatic, light-tan-gray to gray ......................................................................... 490500 Clay, fuller's earth, phosphatic, gray-green to darkgreen; some finely crystalline dense white clay ............ 500520 Limestone, cream, finely crystalline, dense, with phosphorite and sand. Mollusk fragments .......................... 520530 As above, plus some light-brown dense limestone................ 530540 Clay, white to gray, phosphatic ............... ................. ... 540550 Limestone, as at 520-530 feet plus clay as above ................. 550570 Limestone, cream, finely crystalline, dense, with some dark dense limestone; some very sandy cream limestone; phosphorite, and clay as at 540-550 feet ............ 570580 Clay, light-gray to gray, sandy, calcareous, phosphatic ........ 580590 Clay, fuller's earth, gray-green to green, slightly sandy, phosphatic; some white clay. Lower 10 feet contains some tan dense limestone ............................................. 590680 Suwannee limestone: Limestone, cream, chalky to granular, soft, porous. Foraminifera numerous, Rotalia mexicana and others ........ 680710 Limestone, cream, crystalline, porous, fossiliferous .............. 710730 Limestone, cream, soft, chalky, porous, fossiliferous ............ 730750 Limestone, cream, hard, crystalline, porous ........................ 750760 Ocala limestone: Limestone, cream, chalky, soft. Numerous large Foraminifera-Lepidocyclina ocalana and others ................ 760770 Limestone, foraminiferal coquina, light-gray to tan-gray, soft, porous. Fauna as above ................................... 770830 As above, but Camerinidae more numerous ....................... 830920 Moodys Branch(?) formation: As above but harder. Foraminifera mostly Camerinidae ...... 920940 As above, plus some soft chalky limestone ......................... .940990 Limestone, tan-gray, soft, chalky, Foraminifera and mollusk fragments .......... ............ ..................................... 990-1,000 Limestone, foraminiferal coquina, tan-gray; some chalky limestone as above and some fairly hard granular limestone ................................................ ................ 1,000-1,010 As above, but with more hard limestone ................................ 1,010-1,020 As above, plus some gray-green to gray-brown chert ............ 1,020-1,030 Limestone, foraminiferal coquina, tan-gray, fairly hard; some soft, chalky limestone ..................................... 1,030-1,050 Limestone, foraminiferal coquina, tan-gray, chalky, soft, with some hard dense, crystalline limestone. Numerous echinoid spines ................................................... 1,050-1,060

PAGE 98

90 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY MATERIAL DEPTH, IN FEET BELOW LAND SURFACE Avon Park limestone: Limestone, tan to light-lilac, hard, finely crystalline. Very few large Foraminifera, many Coskinolina floridana ......... ... ............................................................. 1,060-1,070 As above, plus some dark dense limestone and calcite rhom bs .............................................................................. 1,070-1,130 Limestone, light-gray, soft, chalky, slightly porous, and limestone as at 1,070-1,130 feet .................................... 1,130-1,140 Limestone, cream, granular, hard, slightly porous ................ 1,140-1,150 As above, plus many large Foraminifera and some crystalline calcite ................................................................ 1,150-1,160 As above, plus some soft chalky limestone, and some hard, dense white limestone .......................................... 1,160-1,170 Limestone, cream to light-gray, hard, with much secondary calcite and hard, dense light-blue limestone .......... 1,170-1,180 N o sam ple ................................................................................ 1,180-1,190 As at 1,170-1,180 feet ............................................................ 1,190-1,200 As above, plus numerous Coskinolina floridana .................... 1,200-1,220 Limestone, cream to light-gray, hard, granular, with secondary calcite in a light-gray chalky matrix ............ 1,220-1,250 Lake City(?) limestone: Limestone, dolomitic, light-brown, hard, granular to crystalline, with some dense hard light-gray limestone and some dense brown waxy dolomite. Foraminifera numerous ........................................................ 1,250-1,290 Limestone, tan, granular to crystalline, with some brown dolomite in a light-gray chalky matrix ........................... 1,290-1,310 Limestone, tan, finely granular, with some white hard dense limestone and some blue dense limestone ............ 1,310-1,320 As above, plus some very hard porous white limestone and secondary calcite .................................................... 1,320-1,330 Limestone, tan, granular, hard, with some white hard porous limestone and brown waxy dolomite .................. 1,330-1,340 Dolomite, light-brown, finely crystalline, dense, waxy, with some dense white limestone .................................... 1,340-1,350 As above, plus some soft light-gray limestone ...................... 1,350-1,370 Limestone, tan, granular to crystalline hard, in a lighttan-gray soft slightly clayey chalky matrix .................... 1,370-1,410 Foraminiferal coquina, brown, hard, very porous. Driller reported small cavities in this interval .................... 1,410-1,520 No sam ple ................................................................................ 1,520-1,530 Limestone, light-pink, granular, hard to soft, porous. Some particles appear to be laminated ........................ 1,530-1,540 As above, but with more soft limestone ................................. 1,540-1,550 Water-level measurements made during drilling. Well cased to 517 feet. Date Depth of hole Formation Water level, feet 1950 (feet) penetrated below land surface July 13 690 Suwannee 66.2 July 20 710 do. 62.0 July 26 735 do. 70.5 Aug. 2 1,000 Moodys Branch(?) 99.5 Aug. 16 1,138 Avon Park 98.0 Aug. 25 1,259 Lake City(?) 126.0 Aug. 30 1,323 do. 125.5 Sept. 8 1,371 do. 124.2 Sept. 21 1,474 do. 126.5 Sept. 29 1,526 do. 127.9 ()ct. 2 1,550 do. 126.8

PAGE 99

REPORT OF INVESTIGATIONS No. 15 91 Well 399 (F. G. S. no. 2401) East side of Lake Istokpoga, in the NWV4NE/4 sec. 29, T. 35 S., R. 31 E., Highlands County. Surface altitude 44 feet. MATERIAL DEPTH, IN FEET BELOW LAND SURFACE N o sam ples .............................................................................. 0960 Avon Park limestone: Limestone, tan-gray to light-gray, hard, dense, chalky ........... 960970 Limestone, tan-gray, soft, crystalline to chalky. Dictyoconus cookei, Lituonella floridana, Coskinolina floridana, Spirolina coryensis, Lepidocyclina sp., and m iliolids .................................................................... 970-1,000 Limestone, tan-gray, hard to soft, dense; fauna as above .... 1,000-1,050 Dolomite, light-brown, hard, crystalline. Foraminifera ........ 1,050-1,070 Lake City limestone: Limestone, dolomitic, brown to dark-gray, soft, porous. Foraminifera, numerous Dictyoconus americanus and others ........................................ ............................. 1,070-1,090 N o sam ples .............................................................................. 1,090-1,106 Well 400 (F. G. S. no. 2848) Six miles north of Venus in the NE/4SEY4 sec. 20, T. 38 S., R. 30 E., Highlands County. Surface altitude 175 feet. MATERIAL DEPTH, IN FEET BELOW LAND SURFACE N o sam ples .............................................................................. 0320 Hawthorn formation: Sand, quartz, micaceous, fine to very coarse, angular, gray, with gray-orange to light gray fissile clay........ 320350 As above, plus some white sandy clay.............................. 350360 Sand, quartz, silty, slightly clayey, micaceous, grayorange, fine to coarse, with small particles of white clay ....................................................................... 360400 Clay, fuller's earth, slightly sandy, micaceous, greenishbrown, non-phosphatic ........................................... 400410 Clay, limestone and phosphorite; clay, fuller's earth, phosphatic, white to dark-green; limestone, sandy, crystalline, phosphatic, white; phosphorite, black to dark-brown with some small quartz pebbles. Mollusk fragments .................................................... 410420 As above, minus the dark-green clay.................................. 420430 As above, plus phosphorite pebbles up to 10 mm across. Barnacles ...................................................... 430450 As above, plus light-greenish-brown clay.......................... 450470 No samples ....................................................................... 470-1,078 Avon Park limestone: Limestone, finely crystalline, hard, tan, with some hard chalky limestone. Large Foraminifera, molds of mollusks, numerous Peronella dalli.......................... 1,078-1,090 Limestone, chalky, hard, tan. Small gastropods, pelecypod fragments, Peronella dalli, Coskinolina floridana, Dictyoconus cookei ...................................... 1,090-1,110 Limestone, chalky to crystalline, soft, tan. Forams............ 1,110-1,120 As above, plus hard chalky limestone and mollusk fragm ents ................... .................... ........................... 1,120-1,140 As above, plus numerous Coskinolina floridana .................. 1,140-1,145 Limestone, chalky, soft, cream. Mollusk fragments, forams as above, plus Spirolina coryensis .................. 1,145-1,155 As above, but hard .................................................................. 1,155-1,205

PAGE 100

I2 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY MATERIAL DEPTH, IN FEET BELOW LAND SURFACE Limestone, chalky, hard, light-tan; coral forams, ostracods, starfish ossicles, Lituonella floridana.................... 1,205-1,225 Limestone, dense, hard, light-tan. Forams ...................... 1,225-1,235 Lake City (?) limestone: As above, plus some tan finely crystalline dolomite............ 1,235-1,255 Limestone, hard, granular, light-tan. Forams, Peronella.... 1,255-1,310 Limestone, hard, chalky, light-tan. Forams........................ 1,310-1,320 As above, but granular with some hard to soft white chalky limestone. Forams ............................................ 1,320-1,340 Limestone, hard, granular, tan. Forams mostly miliolids.... 1,340-1,350 As above, plus some hard chalky porous limestone............ 1,350-1,360 Limestone, very hard, slightly porous, cream. Mollusk molds and forams ........................................................ 1,360-1,370 Limestone, hard, granular, tan, with some hard chalky white limestone. Forams .............................................. 1,370-1,380 Limestone, dolomitic, hard, granular to crystalline, dark-tan, in a tan slightly clayey chalky matrix. Foram s ............................................................................ 1,380-1,390 No sam ples .............................................................................. 1,390-1,439 Water-level measurements made during drilling. DATE DEPTH OF WELL CASED FORMATION WATER LEVEL, 1951 HOLE (FEET) TO PENETRATED FEET BELOW LAND SURFACE May 21 548 540 Hawthorn 66.5 May 24 670 660 Suwannee 103.0 May 31 740 700 do. 113.0 June 4 805 700 Ocala 114.0 June 6 940 700 Moodys Branch (?) 124.0 June 8 960 700 do. 122.0 June 12 1,080 700 Avon Park 119.5 June 14 1,095 700 do. 117.0 June 19 1,095 700 do. 116.5 June 22 1,095 700 do. 115.5 July 6 1,095 700 do. 117.0 July 13 1,095 700 do. 116.0 July 27 1,095 700 do. 116.0 Aug. 3 1,095 700 do. 117.0 Aug. 17 1,095 700 do. 116.0 Aug. 24 1,130 700 do. 118.0 Aug. 31 1,205 700 do. 118.0 Sept. 7 1,260 700 Lake City(?) 117.0 Sept. 13 1,300 700 do. 117.0 Sept. 21 1,350 700 do. 116.5 Sept. 27 1,380 700 do. 117.0 ()t. 4 1,400 700 do. 117.0 (ct. 15 1,439 700 do. 115.0 Well 401 (F.G.S. no. 2378) 'lhree miles northeast of Avon Park in the SW4SW/4 sec. 12, T. 33 S., R. 28 E., Highlands County. Surface altitude 176 feet. MATERIAL DEPTH, IN FEET BELOW LAND SURFACE No sam ples ..................... .......................................................... 0420 Hawthorn formation: Sand, quartz, coarse to very coarse, with some darkgray to white dense limestone and phosphorite

PAGE 101

REPORT OF INVESTIGATIONS No. 15 93 MATERIAL DEPTH, IN FEET BELOW LAND SURFACE pebbles. Mollusk fragments, fish teeth, and echinoid spines ..................................................................... 420425 Clay, gray-green, with material as above .......................... 425435 Sand as at 420-425 feet plus clay as above ........................ 435440 As above, plus shell fragments and some soft chalky cream limestone ............................................................ 440445 Suwannee limestone: Limestone, tan-gray, soft, chalky, porus. Mollusk fragments, star-fish ossicles and miliolids ........................ 445470 Limestone, cream, soft, chalky to granular. Mollusk fragments and forams .................................................. 470500 Ocala limestone: As above, plus Lepidocyclina ocalana ................................. 500540 Limestone, foraminiferal coquina, cream, chalky, soft, porus. Lepidocyclina and Camerina ............................ 540690 Moodys Branch(?) formation: As above, plus numerous specimens of Camerina moodybranchensis? ..................................................... 690720 Limestone, foraminiferal coquina, cream, porous, granular, harder than above. Numerous Camerinidae .............. ................................................................... 720770 Avon Park limestone: Limestone, light-tan, hard, granular, dense to porous, calcitic. Numerous Peronella dalli ................ 770820 Limestone, tan to light-brown, dense, hard, calcitic. Coskinolina floridana, Dictyoconus cookei, Peronella dalli ......... ............. ..................................................... 820830 Limestone, tan, hard, granular. Echinoid spines................ 830860 Limestone, tan-gray, hard and soft layers, granular to chalky. Forams ........................................................ 860980 Limestone as above, plus small echinoids .......................... 980-1,000 Limestone, cream, hard, granular, with some tan dense crystalline limestone. Forams ...................................... 1,000-1,010 Limestone, cream, hard, chalky. Forams .......................... 1,010-1,020 Dolomite, brown, hard, crystalline, with some material as above ............................................................ 1,020-1,030 Limestone, cream, hard, chalky, with some dense tangray limestone. Miliolids numerous .......................... 1,030-1,060 Limestone, cream, hard, chalky, calcitic, with some brown dolomite as at 1020-1030 feet. Textularia coryensis, miliolids ........................................................ 1,060-1,070 Limestone, cream, hard, granular ...................................... 1,070-1,080 Dolomite, light-brown, hard, granular, with some white dense limestone and tan to dark-brown chert ............ 1,080-1,090 Limestone, tan, hard, granular, with some white chalky limestone and brown granular dolomite ...................... 1,090-1,100 Lake City limestone: Limestone, tan, hard, chalky, with some dense gray to black limestone. Dictyoconus americanus .................... 1,100-1,110 As above, plus some brown hard crystalline dolomite........ 1,110-1,140 Limestone, tan, hard, chalky, granular .............................. 1,140-1,150 Limestone as above, plus about 30 percent hard brown crystalline dolomite ...................................................... 1,150-1,160 Limestone, tan, hard, porous, granular. Dictyoconus americanus ................................................................... 1,160-1,170 Limestone, tan, hard, granular, with some hard brown crystalline dolomite with dark-gray chert .................. 1,170-1,180 Limestone, tan, hard, granular, with some white dense chalky limestone. Forams .................................... 1,180-1,210

PAGE 102

!4 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY MATERIAL DEPTH, IN FEET BELOW LAND SURFACE Dolomite, dark-brown, hard, crystalline, porous, with some white chalky limestone ...................................... 1,210-1,220 Dolomite, red-brown, hard crystalline, waxy, with some white chalky limestone ...................................... 1,220-1,230 As at 1210-1220 feet .......................................................... 1,230-1,240 As at 1220-1230 feet .......................................................... 1,240-1,290 As above, but lighter in color .............................................. 1,290-1,301 Water-level measurements made during drilling. Well cased to 455 feet. Date Depth of hole Formation Water level, feet 1951 (feet) penetrated below land surface Feb. 9 1,170 Lake City 90.0 Feb. 14 1,250 do. 88.7 Feb. 19 1,275 do. 87.4 Feb. 23 1,300 do. 88.6 Feb. 27 1,301 do. 87.2 Well 403 (F.G.S. no. 2843) At Avon Park, in the NE¼NW 4 sec. 22, T. 33 S., R. 28 E., Highlands County. Surface altitude 166 feet. Total depth of well 1,301 feet; cuttings not examined below 560 feet. MATERIAl DEPTH, IN FEET BELOW LAND SURFACE Pleistocene deposits: Sand, quartz, cream-orange to tan-gray, medium to coarse, frosted, with numerous heavy minerals ............ 050 As above, plus some very coarse quartz sand...................... 50110 lHawthorn formation: As above, plus some very pure brown plastic clay ............... 110120 Sand, quartz, very clayey, pink to cream, fine to coarse, frosted to clear ........................................................... 120140 As above, plus very coarse sand .......................................... 140160 As above, plus some mica .................................................... 160170 N o sam ple ............. ................................................................... 170180 As at 160-170 feet, plus a few phosphorite pebbles.............. 180190 As above, but cream in color and containing many white to brown phosphorite pebbles, some as large as 5 mm across. Mollusk fragments ............................ 190230 Sand, quartz, cream, coarse to pebble size, with many brown to black phosphorite pebbles as large as 5 m m across ............................................................... 230240 Clay, sandy, pebbly, phosphatic, dark-gray-green ................ 240260 N o sam ple ................................................................................ 260280 Marl, slightly sandy, pebbly, phosphatic, light-gray, with some light-gray dense phosphatic limestone. Phosphatized molds of mollusks .............................. 280290 No sam ple .............. ................................................................. 290300 Limestone and marl, sandy, silty, phosphatic, dense, light-gray to light-brown, with quartz and phosphorite pebbles. Mollusk fragments .............................. 300350 Limestone, white to gray, phosphatic, sandy, chalky, medium hard, with phosphorite pebbles, mollusk fragments and gray silty marl and clay ...................... 350430 Limestone, dark-gray, dense, with dark-colored chert and material as above .................................................. 430450 No sam ple .............................................................................. 450460

PAGE 103

REPORT OF INVESTIGATIONS No. 15 95 MATERIAL DEPTH, IN FEET BELOW LAND SURFACE Suwannee limestone: Limestone, light-gray to cream, soft, chalky, slightly phosphatic. Numerous reef organisms Rotalia mexicana(?) ............................................................... 460540 Ocala limestone: Limestone, foraminiferal coquina, cream, soft, chalky. Lepidocyclina ocalana, Camerina sp., and others ........... 540560 Water-level measurements made during drilling. Well cased to 301 feet. Date Depth of hole Formation Water level, in feet 1951 (feet) penetrated below land surface Feb. 26 1,020 Avon Park 71.2 Feb. 27 1,045 do. 71.2 Mar. 5 1,070 do. 72.2 Mar. 6 1,100 do. 72.9 Mar. 7 1,120 Lake City(?) 73.1 Mar. 8 1,140 Lake City 73.3 Mar. 9 1,155 do. 73.1 Mar. 12 1,185 .do. 72.4 Mar. 14 1,200 do. 72.8 Mar. 15 1,216 do. 73.3 Apr. 4 1,290 do. 73.6 Apr. 11 1,301 Lake City(?) 73.6 Well 405 (F.G.S. no. 2849) Two miles southeast of Sebring, in the NW4SW¼ sec. 34, T. 34 S., R. 29 E., Highlands County. Surface altitude 115 feet. MATERIAL DEPTH, IN FEET BELOW LAND SURFACE Undifferentiated Pleistocene deposits: Sand, quartz, gray-orange, medium to coarse (averages medium ), frosted .......................................................... 026 Sand, quartz, light-gray, medium to coarse (averages coarse), frosted to clear .............................................. 2633 Hawthorn formation: Sand, quartz, clayey, red-orange, medium to coarse (averages coarse), frosted to clear .............................. 3345 Sand, quartz, tan-gray to light-gray, medium to coarse (averages coarse), clear .............................................. 45120 Well 407 (F.G.S. no. 2845) At Lake Placid, in the SW4SWV4 sec. 36, T. 36 S., R. 29 E., Highlands County. Surface altitude 120 feet. MATERIAL DEPTH, IN FEET BELOW LAND SURFACE Undifferentiated Pleistocene deposits: Sand, quartz, gray-orange, medium to coarse (averages medium ), frosted .......................................................... 010 As above, but light-orange in color ...................................... 1040 Sand, quartz, white to cream, medium to coarse (averages medium), frosted to clear .................................... 4050 Hawthorn formation: Sand, quartz, cream, slightly micaceous, medium to coarse (averages coarse), frosted to clear; contains small particles of white clay ............................. 50100

PAGE 104

96 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY MATERIAL DEPTH, IN FEET BELOW LAND SURFACE Sa;nl, quartz, light gray-orange, micaceous, coarse, frosted to clear, with small particles of white clay................... 100120 As above, but average sand size is medium........................ 120130 As at 100-120 feet ........................................................ 130150 Sand, quartz, light gray-orange to bright orange, slightly clayey, medium to very coarse (averages coarse), frosted to clear ........ .......... ........................................ 150160 As above, plus m ica ............................................................ 160180 As above, but tan-gray in color...................................... .. 180200 Well 408 (F.G.S. no. 2859) Two mliles northwest of Sebring, in the SE/4NW!4 sec. 18, T. 34 S., R. 29 E., Highlands County. Surface altitude 150 feet. MATERIAL DEPTH, IN FEET BELOW LAND SURFACE Pleistocene deposits: Sand, quartz, gray-brown, medium to coarse (averages coarse), carbonaceous .................................................. 05 Sand, quartz, cream-orange, slightly clayey, medium to coarse (averages coarse), rounded to subrounded, frosted .............................................................. 535 iHawthorn formation: Sand, quartz, light-orange, slightly clayey, medium to coarse (averages coarse), rounded to subrounded, frosted, with a few small particles of hard, white clay ............................................................. 3550 As above, but sand is light gray in color and clear................ 5060 As above, but medium sand ................................................ 6075 Sand, quartz, white, coarse, subrounded to subangular, clear to frosted ................................................... 75100 As above, but cream in color and many heavy minerals........ 100105 Sand, quartz, light-orange, medium to coarse (averages medium), subrounded to subangular, clear to frosted; heavy minerals numerous .............................. 105130 Sand, quartz, white, coarse to very coarse (averages coarse), rounded to subangular, clear to frosted ........ 130145 Sand, quartz, micaceous, slightly clayey, silty, cream, fine to coarse (averages fine), rounded to subangular, clear to frosted .............................................. 145150 As above, plus green clay and quartz granules 4 mm across ........... .. ................................................................. 150160 Sand, quartz, micaccous, white clean, fine to very coarse (averages coarse), rounded to subrounded, clear to frosted, with phosphorite pebbles to 6 mm in length; phosphorite, white to dark brown; some crystalline calcite. Numerous mollusk fragments, barnacles and shark's teeth .......................................... 160180 As above, plus quartz pebbles 4 to 7 mm long...................... 180220 As above, plus silt .................................................................... 220230 As at 160-180 feet .................................................................. 230275 Clay, gray-green to light-gray, pure, sticky, with small to large phosphorite pebbles ........................................ 275280 As above, tan-gray, sandy .................................................... 280285 As above, plus tan-gray hard dense phosphatic limestone.... 285290 Clay, gray to olive-drab, slightly sandy, with limestone as above, dark-colored phosphorite pebbles and shark's teeth ...................................... ......................... 290365 Limestone, white, sandy, phosphatic, dense, with some

PAGE 105

REPORT OF INVESTIGATIONS No. 15 97 MATERIAL DEPTH, IN FEET BELOW LAND SURFACE white crystalline limestone, blue chert and phosphorite pebbles .............................................................. 365375 Clay, white to gray-green, slightly sandy, with material as above ..................................................................... .375400 Sand, quartz, slightly clayey, gray-green, medium to coarse (averages coarse), clear with small grains of phosphorite and smoky quartz ................................ 400405 Clay, dark-gray-green to olive-drab, slightly sandy, with phosphorite pebbles and some chert .................... 405425 Sand, quartz, tan-gray, fine to very coarse (averages medium), clear, with fragments of cream dense sandy limestone, phosphorite pebbles, chert and dark-green clay ......................................................... 425435 Limestone, tan-gray, granular, hard to soft, slightly phosphatic, slightly sandy, with fragments of chert, dark green clay, and phosphorite pebbles. Mollusk fragments, shark's teeth .............................................. 435445 Limestone, tan-gray, granular, hard, slightly phosphatic, slightly sandy; mollusk fragments...................... 445480 Limestone, tan-gray, chalky, hard to soft, porous, slightly sandy. Small gastropods and pelecypods................. 480490 Sand, quartz, light gray, medium to very coarse (averages medium), clear, rounded to subangular, with some dense porcelaneous limestone, tan-gray phosphatic limestone, chert and phosphorite pebbles. Mollusk fragments and fish teeth .............................. 490495 Suwannce limestone: As above, plus soft white chalky limestone ...................... 495510 Ocala limestone: Limestone, tan-gray, granular to chalky, hard to soft, dense. Large and small Foraminifera. Lepidocyclina ocalana and others ........................................... 510605 Limestone, foraminiferal coquina, cream, soft, chalky, porous. Lepidocyclina ocalana and others, mollusk fragm ents ........................................................................ 605650 As above, but not as chalky .................................................. 650680 Moodys Branch(?) formation: As at 605-650 feet, but containing numerous Camerinidae.. 690735 As above, but fewer forams .................................................. 690735 Avon Park limestone: Limestone, tan-gray, moderately hard, granular, calcitic. Few large Foraminifera, numerous worn Peronella type echinoids, mollusk fragments................. 735785 Lithology as above. Coskinolina floridana. Peronella numerous but not as worn as above ............................ 785795 As above, but Coskinolina floridana very numerous.............. 795805 As above, plus dark brown crystalline dolomite.................... 805810 Limestone, cream, hard, calcitic, granular, slightly chalky. Fauna as above ................................................ 810845 As above, plus some soft, chalky limestone .......................... 845850 As above, plus some finely crystalline dolomite. No echinoids noted ........................................................... 850870 Limestone, tan, hard, calcitic, granular, with some lightbrown hard porous finely crystalline dolomite. Coskinolina floridana .................................................... 870880 As above, plus soft chalky tan limestone .............................. 880905 Limestone, tan, hard, slightly calcitic, granular. Coskinolina floridana numerous; mollusk fragments......... 905975 As above, plus cream hard dense limestone........................ 975980

PAGE 106

98 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY MATERIAL DEPTH, IN FEET BELOW LAND SURFACE As at 905-975 feet, plus some gray hard dense limestone; Peronella type cchinoids .................................. 980985 Limestone, cream to tan, slightly chalky, hard, granular. Few Foraminifera, mollusk fragments ........................ 985-1,020 Dolomite, light brown, crystalline, hard, with limestone as above ......................................................................... 1,020-1,025 As above, plus some soft gray siltstone ................................ 1,025-1,035 Limestone, tan, hard, granular, with some light-brown finely crystalline dolomite. Foraminifera, mostly M iliolidace ....................................................................... 1,035-1,040 Limestone, cream, hard, granular, slightly chalky, with dense white limestone. Foraminifera, mollusk fragm ents ........................................................................... 1,040-1,050 Limestone, tan-gray, soft, chalky .......................................... 1,050-1,055 As at 1,040-1,050 feet .......................................................... 1,055-1,065 Limestone, tan, hard, granular, with some light-brown finely crystalline dolomite ....................................... 1,065-1,070 As at 1,040-1,050 feet ...................................................... 1,070-1,075 Lake City limestone: Limestone, tan to cream, hard, finely crystalline to granular, slightly chalky, with some crystalline brown dolomite and dark-colored chert. Foraminifera, Dictyoconus americanus ...................................... 1,075-1,100 Limestone, dolomitic, tan, hard, granular, with light to (lark chert. Foraminifera, Dictyoconus americanus, mollusk fragments ........................................................ 1,100-1,115 Limestone, cream, granular, medium-hard, slightly chalky, with light to dark chert ................................. 1,115-1,130 Limestone, tan, hard, granular to dense and chert. Echinoid and mollusk fragments ........................................ 1,130-1,150 As at 1,130-1,140 feet .......................................................... 1,150-1,155 Limestone, tan, granular, hard to soft, with brown crystalline dolomite. Mollusk fragments .......................... 1,155-1,165 Dolomite, dark-brown, crystalline, hard, with limestone as above and chert .............................................. 1,165-1,170 Limestone, cream to gray, hard, granular, with some dolomite as above and chert. Foraminifera ................ 1,170-1,200 Limestone, cream, chalky, soft, with dark crystalline dolom ite ...................................................................... 1,200-1,205 Dolomite, light-brown, crystalline, hard, with limestone as above. Foraminifera ................................................ 1,205-1,210 Limestone, cream, hard, granular to dense, with dolomite as above. Mollusk fragments ................................ 1,210-1,230 Dolomite, dark-brown, hard, granular, with some chert........ 1,230-1,235 As above, plus some white mollusk fragments .................... 1,235-1,240 Dolomite as above, plus cream granular limestone. Forams and mollusk fragments .................................. 1,240-1,260 Limestone, tan, hard, granular, with light-brown dolomite. Mollusk fragments and Foraminifera .................. 1,260-1,295 Dolomite, brown, granular, very porous, hard, with light-colored chert and limestone as above .................... 1,295-1,300 Limestone, tan, hard, granular, with a small amount of dolomite and chert as above ........................................ 1,300-1,305 Dolomite, dark-tan, granular hard....................................... 1,305-1,320 Limestone as at 1,300-1,305 feet .......................................... .1,320-1,330 Dolomite, brown, hard, granular, very porous and white limestone containing mollusk fragments and forams.... 1,330-1,355 As above, but tan to brown and containing chert ................ 1,355-1,375 Dolomite, brown, granular, hard ................................... 1,375-1,385 Dolomite, tan, hard, granular, with some white dense

PAGE 107

REPORT OF INVESTIGATIONS No. 15 99 MATERIAL DEPTH, IN FEET BELOW LAND SURFACE limestone and chert. Mollusk fragments, Foraminifera .................................................................. 1,385-1,395 Dolomite, brown to tan, hard, granular, porous, with cream limestone and chert. Foraminifera .................... 1,395-1,400 Water-level measurements made during drilling. Well cased to 463.5 feet. Date Depth of hole, Formation Water level, in feet 1951 (feet) penetrated below land surface May 5 525 Ocala 67.30 June 1 980 Avon Park 56.50 June 4 1,035 do. 54.20 June 6 1,160 Lake City 61.00 June 7 1,183 do. 60.20 June 8 1,185 do. 60.00 June 12 1,205 do. 57.60 June 14 1,268 do. 61.40 June 19 1,305 do. 56.30 June 22 1,390 do. 55.00 June 25 1,400 do. 55.00 July 7 1,400 do. 54.50 Pumping tests run at 1,185 and 1,400 feet DEPTH OF WELL PUMPING RATE DRAWDOWN (FEET) (OPM) (FEET) 1,185 200 28+ 1,400 1,212 39 Well 414 (F.G.S. no. 2846) Four miles north of Sebring, in the NW/4NE'4 sec. 6, T. 34 S., R. 29 E., Highlands County. Surface altitude 107 feet. MATERIAL DEPTH, IN FEET BELOW LAND SURFACE Pleistocene deposits, undifferentiated: N o sam ple ....................................................... ........ .......... 010 Sand, quartz, gray-orange, medium to coarse (averages coarse), frosted ................................................................ 1020 As above, but gray in color ................................. ................ 2030 Sand, quartz, dark gray, medium to coarse (averages coarse), frosted to clear, with some organic m aterial ............................................................................ 3040 Sand, quartz, tan-gray, medium to coarse (averages coarse), frosted to clear ....................................... 4060 As above, but light-gray in color...................................... 60110 Sand, quartz, light-gray, coarse to very coarse (averages very coarse), clear to some frosted, with some smoky quartz ................................................. 110120 Well 422 Five miles south of Lake Placid in the NWV4SEY4 sec. 33, T. 37 S., R. 30 E., Highlands County. Surface altitude 120 feet. MATERIAL DEPTH, IN FEET BELOW LAND SURFACE Pleistocene deposits: Sand, quartz, brown to white, medium to coarse (averages coarse), rounded to subrounded, frosted.... 010

PAGE 108

10)) FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY MATERIAL DEPTH, IN FEET BELOW LAND SURFACE Sand, quartz, cream, medium, rounded to subrounded, clear to frosted with a large amount of sand as above ........................................................................ 1020 Sand, quartz, slightly micaceous, cream, coarse to very coarse, (averages coarse), rounded to subangular, frosted ............................................................................. 2030 lawthorn formation: Sand, quartz, slightly micaceous, cream, coarse, rountded to subangular, frosted, with a few small hard particles of white kaolin .................................. 3040 Sand, quartz, light-cream, coarse, subrounded to subangular, frosted ....................................................... 4050 Sand, quartz, light-cream, medium to very coarse, (averages coarse), rounded to subangular, frosted, with a few particles of hard white kaolin.................... 5060 Sand, quartz, slightly micaceous, light-gray, medium to very coarse, (averages coarse), rounded to subangular, frosted, with many small particles of hard w hite kaolin .................................................................... 6070 As above, but more mica ................................................ 70100 Well 423 'wo miles northeast of Venus, in the northwest corner sec. 16, T. 39 S., R. 30 E., Highlands County. Surface altitude 125"10 feet. MATERIAL DEPTH, IN FEET BELOW LAND SURFACE Pleistocene deposits and Hawthorn(?) formation, undifferentiated: Sand, quartz, slightly micaceous, light-cream, medium to coarse, (averages medium), rounded to subrounded, frosted, with some medium to coarse heavy m inerals................................................................... 020 Sand, quartz, carbonaceous, dark-brown, medium to very coarse, (averages coarse), rounded to subrounded, frosted ......................................................... 2030 Sand as above, but medium to coarse, (averages medium), plus some medium rounded to subrounded frosted white sand ........................................ 3040 Sand, quartz, carbonaceous, slightly micaceous, darkbrown, medium to very coarse, (averages coarse), rounded to subrounded, frosted .................................. 4060 Sand, quartz, slightly micaceous, dark-gray-orange, coarse to very coarse, (averages coarse), rounded to subrounded, frosted ............................................. 6070 As above, but lighter in color ............................................ 7082 Well 425 Five miles cast of Lake Annie in the SW4SW/4 sec. 31, T. 37 S., R. 31 E., Highlands County. Surface altitude 36 feet. MATERIAL DEPTH, IN FEET BELOW LAND SURFACE Undifferentiated Pleistocene deposits: Sand, carbonaceous, black .................................................. 00.5 Sand, quartz, medium to coarse, tan, and some clay........ 0.532 Tamiami formation(?): Limestone, sandy, gray, containing small amount of sandy clay and few phosphate pebbles ...................... 3246 Clay, shelly, and gravel with thin layers of calcareous sandstone ..................................................................... 4667

PAGE 109

REPORT OF INVESTIGATIONS No. 15 101 MATERIAL DEPTH, IN FEET BELOW LAND SURFACE Sand, quartz, very fine, gray .............................................. 6770 Sandstone, calcareous, soft, and thin beds of clay with pieces of chalk .......................................................... .7081 Sand, quartz, partly indurated, coarse, gray, and thin layers of clay ....................... ........................................... 8189 Sandstone, calcareous, gray, soft, containing alternate layers of quartz sand, and thin beds of clay. Thin layers of sandy shelly marl from 99 to 108 feet.......... 89108 Hawthorn formation(?): Marl, sandy, green, and thin layers of soft calcareous sandstone from 108 to 118 feet ................................ 108125 Well 426 About one mile east of Lake Istokpoga in the NWV4NW'4 sec. 3, T. 36, S., R. 31 E., Highlands County. Surface altitude 39 feet. MATERIAL DEPTH, IN FEET BELOW LAND SURFACE Undifferentiated Pleistocene deposits: Sand, carbonaceous, brown ................................................ 03 Sand, clayey, gray, and alternating beds of medium quartz sand .................................................................... 39 Sand, clayey, brown .............................................................. 919 Sand, quartz, medium, gray .............................................. 1932 Clay, sandy, gray-green, plastic .......................................... 3246 Sand, quartz, fine to medium, gray .................................. 4653 Tamiami formation: Marl, sandy, shelly, blue-green to gray-white .................. 5365 Well 427 Near Fort Bassinger in the NWVANWY4 sec. 8, T. 36 S., R. 33 E., Highlands County. Surface altitude about 30 feet. MATERIAL DEPTH, IN FEET BELOW LAND SURFACE Undifferentiated Pleistocene deposits: Sand, quartz, gray ............................................................ .02 Sand, quartz, indurated, reddish-brown .............................. 220 Sand, quartz, gray, with a small amount of clay .............. 2030 Clay, sandy (medium to coarse), dark-gray ...................... 3036 Sand, clayey, medium to coarse, dark-gray .................... 3648 Tamiami formation: Shell marl, sandy, grayish-green, with a small amount of calcarcous sandstone ............................................... 4865 Marl, sandy, green. Few shells .......................................... 6570 Marl, shelly, sandy, gray .................................................... 7085 Hawthorn formation: Marl, clayey, bright green, containing very little sand or shells ............................................................................. 85101 Well 428 Six miles west of Sebring, in the NW 4NW4 sec. 5, T. 35 S., R. 28 E., Highlands County. Surface altitude 80+10 feet. MATERIAL DEPTH, IN FEET BELOW LAND SURFACE Pleistocene deposits(?) and Hawthorn formation, undifferentiated: Clay, dark-brown, sandy, carbonaceous ............................ 0.06.5 Sand and clay interbedded; sand, quartz, clayey, micaceous, very fine to some coarse, light tangray; clay, sandy, light-green .....................6.536

PAGE 110

1(2 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY MATERIAL, DEPTH, IN FEET BELOW LAND SURFACE Sand and black phosphorite. Sand, quartz, medium to some 6i nmn long (averages coarse), clear to frosted. Phosphorite (30 percent of sample), medium to some 5 nmn long, polished, with tlome light-green clay. A few shell fragments and fish teeth ................................................................................ 36. 44 Shell mnarl, sandy, clayey, phosphatic. Gastropods, pelecypods and echinoid spines ........................................ 4448 Well 433 lour and four-tenths miles east of Lake Annie in the SEV4SW'4 sec. 36, T. 37 S., R. 30 E., Highlands County. Surface altitude 40 feet. MATERIA, DEPTH, IN FEET BELOW LAND SURFACE U dtlifferentiated Pleistocene deposits: Sand, quartz, black, fine to medium ................................ 00.5 Sand, (qlartz, ('ream, medium to coarse (averages coarse).. 0.52.5 Sand, quartz, brown, very carbonaceous, medium to coarse ...................................... ............................. 2.55.0 Sand, quartz, tan, medium to coarse (averages coarse)...... 5.010 Sand, quartz, tan to cream medium to some granules (averages coarse), with small particles of brown clay ........................................................ ....................... 102 1 Clay, brown to blue, slightly calcareous, fine to coarse; contains finely crystalline pyrite .............................. 2121.5 Sand, quartz, cream, fine to coarse, with thin layers of brown, blue to cream sandy clay, and pyrite as above ............................................................................... 21.527 'aiamiani formation: Clay, gray-blue, slightly sandy, slightly micaceous, plastic .......................................................................... 2734.5 Shells in light-blue slightly sandy clay. Shells mostly small fragments, sparse foramn fauna-Rotalia....... beccarii .......................................................................... 34.537 Clay, light-blue silty, slightly micaccous, hard .................. 3738 Clay, tan to blue-gray, slightly sandy, plastic, shelly, with some yellow clay in lower part. Buliminella elegantissima abundant ................................................ 3845 Sandstone, tan calcareous, hard, with some small quartz pebbles and black to rose colored mollusk fragm ents ........................................................................ 4550 Sand, quartz, white to cream, micaceous, coarse to pebbles (6 mm across). Shallow artesian aquifer........ 5052 Limlestone, tan, chalky, hard to soft, with a few shell fragm ents ................................................................... 5252.3 As at 50-52 feet .................................................................... 52.356 Sandstone, tan, micaceous, with some cream clay.............. 5658 Sandstone, cream, clayey, micaceous, (sand, fine to medium), with thin layers of coarse to pebble size quartz sand ....................................... ............ ............ 5869.5 Sand, cream, coarse to pebble size, micaccous, with some brown to black phosphorite particles, mollusk fragments, shark's teeth, and cream limestone.... 69.571.5 Hawthorn formation: Sand quartz cream, coarse to pebble size, with thin ayers of yellow clay. No phosphorite or mollusk fragm ents ........ ........... ................................................... 71.580 Clay, cream to orange, micaceous, finely sandy becoming coarsely sandy toward bottom, with inter-

PAGE 111

REPORT OF INVESTIGATIONS No. 15 103 MATERIAL DEPTH, IN FEET BELOW LAND SURFACE bedded cream medium to pebble size quartz sand and some brown to black phosphorite pebbles............ 80100 As above, but with more phosphorite plus some lightblue soft sandy clay. A few mollusk fragments, Nonion glabrella, Bullminella elegantissima ................ 108117 Clay, light-blue, with medium to pebble size quartz sand, hard cream calcareous clay and some finely phosphatic gray limestone .................................... 117121 Clay, dark olive-drab, sandy, micaceous, tough, with shell fragments and some coarse to pebble size quartz sand and phosphorite. Buliminella elegantissima, Nonion glabrella, both species very abundant ....... ............. .................................................... 121130 Well 434 Three and nine-tenths miles east of Lake Annie in the NEf4NEV4 sec. 2, T. 38 S., R. 30 E., Highlands County. Surface altitude 50 feet. MATERIAL DEPTH, IN FEET BELOW LAND SURFACE Undifferentiated Pleistocene and Recent deposits: Peat pure, black ..................... ............... .--....... 02 Sand, quartz, white, medium to coarse ............................ 25 Tamiani formation: Clay, gray-green to tan, sandy, with a few shell fragm ents ....... ................................................................ 59 Clay, brown to orange, sandy (fine to very coarse grains) ...................... .............................. .......... ..... 910 Clay, light-green in upper part, brown to lavender in lower part, sandy ...... .................................. ..... 1019 Clay, lavender to cream, very micaceous, sandy.................. 1923 Clay, yellow-orange, cream to green, sandy, very micaccous ........ ........................ ................ ............ ..... 2333.5 Clay, cream, sandy; one phosphorite pebble noted. Mollusk fragments, sponge spicules, Rotalia beccarii, Nonion glabrella? ................................................ 33.539 Sand, quartz, cream, coarse to pebbles, with some cream clay, mollusk fragments. Shallow artesian aquifer ........................................................................ 3939.5 Sandstone, cream, hard, with hard chalky limestone and brown phosphorite and chert ............................. 39.539.7 Limestone, cream, hard, chalky ................................... .39.740 Sand, quartz, white to yellow, micaceous, coarse to pebbles, with phosphorite pebbles, yellow sandy clay and hard chalky cream limestone. A few mollusk fragments, Foraminifera abundant and poorly preserved, Cibicides americanus? Buliminella elegantissim a ........................................................ ..... 4058 As above, plus fine to medium consolidated micaceous quartz sand ................................. .................. ...... 5860 Well 435 Three and four-tenths miles east of Lake Annie in the SE%4SW4g sec. 35, T. 37 S., R. 30 E., Highlands County. Surface altitude 90 feet. MATERIAL DEPTH, IN FEET BELOW LAND SURFACE Undifferentiated Pleistocene deposits: Sand, quartz, gray-orange, medium to coarse (averages coarse) ............. ..... ........................... ........... 019.5 Sand, quartz, red, clayey, limonitic .................................... 19.520

PAGE 112

1(4 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY MATIRIAL DEPTH, IN FEET BELOW LAND SURFACE Sand, quartz, crealm to gray-orange, medium to very coarse (averages coarse) ............... ............................. 2030 As above, but cream in color .............................................. 3045 PeatI pure, black, ignites readily ....................................... 4550 Sand, white to light-gray, fine to medium ........................ 5055 Tl'auiami formation: (lay, pale-green, sandy ..................................................... 5558 As above, plus coarse to granule size quartz sand ............ 5865 Sand, quartz, brown to orange-gray, clayey, micaceous fine to very coarse, with some particles of hard white kaolin ................................................................... 6568 Clay, light-green, sandy ........................... ........................ 6869 :lay, tan to gray, sandy tough, limonitic ........................ 6973 As above, plus white calcareous clay ........................... 7375 As at 69-73 feet, plus thin layers of tan to green clay........ 7577 (:lay, sandy, lavender to orange, with granule quartz grains, shell fragments and a few small particles of phosphorite. Foraminifera abundant. Buliminella elegantissima, Rotalia beccarii, Nonion glabrella...... 7785 Sand, quartz, clayey, tan, medium to granules (averages medium), with a few shell fragments and foram s as above .......................................................... 8592 Sand, quartz, white to tan, micaceous, very coarse to granules (averages very coarse), with thin layers of cream, orange to brown sandy clay....................... 9299 Hawthorn formation: Sand, quartz, cream, micaccous coarse to very coarse (averages coarse) with thin layers of clay as above, plus some bard white kaolin .......................... 99111 Clay, white to orange, very micaceous sandy (medium to granules), with layers of hard white kaolin at 116 feet and below ................................................. 111124 Clay, cream, pure, with some kaolin as above.................. 124129 As above, plus fine white to cream clayey micaceous consolidated sand and some medium to granule size quartz sand ............ ......... ....................................... 129139 Sand, quartz, clayey, micaceous, white to gray, medium to granules (averages very coarse), with hard to soft white to tan clay, and a few brown to black phosphorite grains .................................................... 139152 As above, plus sandy white kaolin ...................................... 152160 Sand, quartz, clayey, micaceous cream, coarse to very coarse, with brown to black phosphorite and thin beds of hard white sandy kaolin.................................. 160218 Clay, dark-olive-drab, tough, pure to sandy, nonfossiliferous and noncalcareous .................................. 218220 Well 436 Tl'wo and six-tenths miles cast of Lake Annie in the NW4NE'/ sec. 3, T. 38 S., R. 30 E., Highlands County. Surface altitude 113 feet. MATERIAL DEPTH, IN FEET BELOW LAND SURFACE Pleistocene deposits, undifferentiated: Sand, quartz, white to gray, medium to coarse (averages coarse) ............. ........................ .......................... 022 C lay, tan, sandy ..................................................................... 2222.2 Sand, dark-tan, medium to granules (averages coarse)........ 22.228 As above, but dark brown (carbonaceous).......................... 2833 Clay, brown, cream to green, silty, sandy (fine to very coarse) ............ .. ............................................................. 3337

PAGE 113

REPORT OF INVESTIGATIONS No. 15 105 MATERIAL DEPTH, IN FEET BELOW LAND SURFACE Clay, cream, silty, sandy (fine to coarse), with some white clay ...................................................................... .... 3745 As above, but less sandy ................................................. ... 4550 Clay, white, sandy (fine) .................................................. .5065 Tamiami formation: Clay, white, very sandy (fine to very coarse, averages coarse), micaceous, with some light-green to lavender clay ............ .................... .................... 6570 As above, but less sandy (fine sand) ................................... 7082 Clay, light-green, micaceous, sandy, (averages fine), with some particles of slightly calcareous hard white clay ..................................................................... 8284 Clay, yellow to orange, micaceous, sandy, (averages fine), with some hard white calcareous clay. A few Foram inifera? .......................................................... 8487 Sand, quartz, cream, coarse to granules (averages very coarse), with some orange to white hard sandy clay .............................................................. 8790 As above, but contains quartz grains up to 6 mm across ............................................................................. 90105 Hawthorn formation: Sand, quartz, cream to white, medium to very coarse (averages coarse), clayey, micaceous, with particles of hard white kaolin ............................................. 105126 Clay, cream, tan to orange, sandy (fine to very coarse, averages medium ) ...................................................... 126137 Sand, quartz, cream, micaceous, coarse to very coarse (averages coarse), clayey .............................................. .137140 Well 437 Two and four-tenths miles west of Lake Annie in the NW/4NWV4 sec. 2, T. 38 S., R. 29 E., Highlands County. Surface altitude 140 feet. MATERIAL DEPTH, IN FEET BELOW LAND SURFACE Undifferentiated Pleistocene deposits: Sand, quartz, black, carbonaceous, medium to coarse........ 03 Sand, quartz, cream to light-gray, medium to coarse .(averages coarse) ..................................................... 324 As above, but carbonaceous ................................ ......... 2437 Hawthorn(?) formation: Sand, quartz, dark-brown, medium to coarse (averages coarse), carbonaceous .. I ........... ........ ................ ........ 3756 As above, plus thin streaks of hard brittle jet black organic material (coal?) ............................................. 5660 As at 37-56 feet ..................... ............................................... 6087 Sand, quartz, tan-gray to light-brown, coarse to very coarse (averages coarse), with a few particles of cream sandy clay ........................................................... 8798 Clay, cream, very sandy (medium to very coarse)................ 98107 Clay, tan to light-green, pure to sandy, (averages coarse) with pyrite, clear calcite and black to brown phosphorite. Shell fragments, shark's teeth........ 107110 As above plus a thin streak of hard brittle sandy blue to black limestone. Phosphorized mollusk fragments.... 110112 Sand, quartz, cream-gray, coarse to very coarse, with some hard cream clay and black phosphorite grains.... 112120 Clay, light-green, micaceous, with some hard tan sandy clay and fine to granule size quartz sand and phosphorite ............ ........... .............. ..................... 120128

PAGE 114

10)( FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY MATERIAL DEPTH, IN FEET BELOW LAND SURFACE Satnd, quartz, tan-gray, medium to very coarse (averages coarse) .................................................................... 128132 Clay, dark-olive-drab, very sandy, micaceous with much fine to granule size quartz grains and a few scattered phosphorite grains. Mollusk or echinoid fragm ents .......................................................................... 132160 Well 438 Four and seven-tenths miles west of Lake Annie in the NE4NEY4 sec. 5, T. 38 S., R. 29 E., Highlands County. Surface altitude 91.5 feet. MATERIAL DEPTH, IN FEET BELOW LAND SURFACE Pleistocene de'posits, undifferentiated: Sand, quartz, black, carbonaceous, fine to medium............ 00.5 Sand, quartz, cream, fine to medium.................................... 0.51.0 Sand, dark-brown to black, carbonaceous, fine to coarse (averages medium ) ........................................... 1.02 Sand, light-brown, fine to coarse, with small limonitic concretions ...................................................................... 24 Clay, cream, very sandy (fine to very coarse) ................... 47 As above, plus some light-blue clay .................................... 710 Hlawthorn formation: Clay, blue-green to orange (sandy, fine to coarse) with a few phosphatized mollusk fragments and shark's teeth ................................................................... 1018 Clay, cream, sandy (fine to coarse) with cream to black phosphorite and chert? Phosphatized mollusk fragm ents ................................................................ 1825 Limestone, clay and shell; limestone, cream, sandy, hard, fossiliferous; clay, cream, sandy (fine to very coarse); black phosphorite particles. Crab claws, coiled gastropods and well preserved cchinoid fragm ents ............................................................ 2534 Clay, light-blue-green to gray, very sandy (coarse to very coarse), with limestone, phosphorite and fossilss as above, plus shark's teeth .................................. 3443 Clay, dark-olive-drab, very micaceous, sandy. Fossils as above, plus barnacles .................................. ....... 4355 As above, but contains echinoid fragments and coiled gastropods ........................................................................ 5560 Well 439 'Two miles west of Venus in the SE'4NW 4 sec. 23, T. 39 S., R. 29 E., Highlands County. Surface altitude 105 feet. MATERIAL DEPTH, IN FEET BELOW LAND SURFACE IUndifferentiated Pleistocene deposits: Sand, quartz, white, very fine to coarse (averages fine .) ............................................................................... 0 -7.5 Sand, quartz, brown, very fine to coarse (averages medium), carbonaceous ......................................... 7.511 Ilawthorn formation: Sand, quartz, dark-brown, fine to very coarse (averages medium) some grains smoky ...................................... 1114 Clay, dark-brown to cream, brittle, sandy, (averages medium); almost a sandstone; smoky grains as above ................................................................................ 1418 As above, but lighter in color and granule size sand grains ....................... ............................................................. 1820

PAGE 115

REPORT OF INVESTIGATIONS No. 15 107 MATERIAL DEPTH, IN FEET BELOW LAND SURFACE Clay, light-brown, sandy, medium to very coarse (averages coarse) ................................................................... 2022 Sand, quartz, cream, medium to very coarse (averages very coarse) .................................................................. .2228 As above, plus brown sandy micaceous clay ................. 2830 Thin layers (about one-eighth inch) of hard dense pure dark-brown to black shale and fine to very coarse red-brown clayey very micaceous quartz sand................ 3041 Sand, quartz, cream, coarse to very coarse (averages coarse), with thin layers of shale as above, but lighter in color and sandier ................. ............................ 4144 Clay, tan, pure to sandy, micaceous, with medium to very coarse quartz sand ................................................ 4447 Sand, quartz, cream, fine to coarse (averages medium), m icaccous .................................. ........................ 4751 Clay, dark-olive-drab, sandy, micaceous, with medium to very coarse (averages coarse) quartz sand; some grains are smoky and contain micaceous inclusions ........................................... ..................... 5160 As above, but olive-drab clay is pure to sandy, with cream to tan sandy clay ............................................ 6080 Sand, quartz, light-green, fine to coarse (averages coarse), micaceous, with thin beds of sandy olivedrab clay ........ ... ......... ..................................................... 8090 Sand, quartz, greenish-gray, coarse to very coarse, with a thin olive-drab to cream clay zone at 98.5 feet; many smoky and micaceous quartz grains.................... 90108 Sand as above, but not as coarse; thin zones of olivedrab clay ......................................... ........................ 108112 Clay, olive-drab to cream, sandy, medium to coarse, m icaceous ................................................................... 112116 As at 108-112 feet .................................................................. 116120 Sand, quartz, gray, fine to coarse (averages coarse)............ 120128 Clay, olive-drab, sandy ........................................................ 128129 As at 120-128 feet .............................................................. 129130 Clay as at 128-129 feet ........ ............ .................................. 130131 Sand, quartz, gray, medium to coarse (averages coarse)...... 131139 Clay olive-drab, sandy .......................................................... 139140 Sand as at 131-139 feet ........................................................ 140145 Clay, olive-drab, sandy .......................................................... 145145.5 Sand, quartz, gray, coarse to very coarse, with thin beds of sandy olive-drab clay at 155, 158, and 168 feet .......................................................................... 145.5176 Sand, quartz, gray, coarse to some granules, with thin streaks of sandy, olive-drab clay at 176; many smoky and micaceous quartz grains ............................ 176202 Phosphorite, quartz sand and blue-gray clay. Phosphorite (about 20 percent of sample), black to brown, rounded, polished, calcareous, to 5 mm across. Sand, quartz, coarse to granules (averages coarse); many smoky and micaceous quartz grains; some cream hard limestone and olive-drab clay. Phosphatized gastropod fragments and fish teeth ................................................................................ 202204 Limestone, cream to light-blue, hard, dense, fine grained; with gray-blue clay, sand, as above and some phosphorite, as above .......................................... 204208.5 Clay, cream to gray, sandy, with cream to tan hard dense sandy limestone. Phosphorite and sand, as above Fish teeth ......................................................... 208.5210

PAGE 116

1)08 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAI SURVEY Well P 54 (F.G.S. no. 2842) Four miles north of Avon Park in the southeast corner of the NE/NWA4 sec. 35, ''. 32 S., R. 28 E., Polk County. Surface altitude 113 feet. MATERIAL DEPTH, IN FEET BELOW LAND SURFACE Pleistocene deposits: Sand, quartz, medium to coarse, rounded to subrounded, frosted, gray-orange to light-cream; some grains are coated with clay ........................................ 050 Hawthorn formation: As above, but white in color and more clay........................ 50100 Sand, quartz, medium to granule size, rounded to subangular, frosted, white ................................................ 100130 As above, plus particles of white kaolin.............................. 130150 Sand, quartz, clayey, micaceous, very fine to fine, with a few granule size sand grains, white.................... 150210 Sand, quartz, clayey, micaceous, fine to coarse, poorly sorted, white, with some phosphorite. Shark's teeth...... 210230 Phosphorite and quartz sand, clayey, micaceous, fine to granule size, poorly sorted, light-brown .................. 230240 Clay, calcareous, sandy, tan-gray, with some dense hard white limestone, dense, hard black limestone, sandy limestone, quartz and phosphorite gravel. Phosphatized mollusk fragments ................................ 240250 Clay, fuller's earth, calcareous, slightly sandy, graybrown to olive-drab; numerous very small rhombic crystals and some phosphorite .................................... 250260 Clay, calcareous, sandy, tan-gray, with some dense hard finely crystalline limestone and some phosphorite. Mollusk fragments ......................................... 260290 Limestone, hard, finely crystalline, tan-gray to tan, with phosphorite pebbles. Gastropods, shark's teeth...... 290300 Clay, calcareous, sandy, tan-gray, with some finely crystalline white limestone, brown chert and phosphorite. Shark's teeth .................................................... 300310 Clay, calcareous, sandy, light-gray, with some hard sandy phosphatic tan limestone .................................. 310330 Sulwanne limestone: Limestone, medium hard, chalky, porous, cream, with some sand and phosphorite. Echinoid fragments, gastropods, pelecypods. Quinqueloculina sp ............... 330350 Ocala limestone and Moodys Branch(?) formation: Limestone, soft, chalky, porous, cream. Echinoid fragments, numerous forams, Rotalia mexicana, and Lepidocyclina ocalana .................................................. 350410 As above. Camerinids ........... ............................................... 410440 As above, but not as fossiliferous ...................................... 440450 Limestone, soft, chalky, porous, cream. Lepidocyclina ocalana, coral .................................................................. 450460 No sam ple ............................................................................... 460470 As at 410-440 feet .................................................................. 470520 No sam ple ........... ........... ......................................................... 520550 As at 410-440 feet. Ifeterostegina ocalana numerous............ 550580 N o sam ple. ............................................................................... 580590 As at 410-440 feet ............................................................. 590620 Avon Park limestone: As above, plus some secondary calcite. Peronella dalli........ 620630 Limestone, hard, calcitic, porous, cream, with many calcite clusters and vugs. Badly worn gastropods and few large forams. Camerina moodybranchen-

PAGE 117

REPORT OF INVESTIGATIONS No. 15 109 MATERIAL DEPTH, IN FEET BELOW LAND SURFACE sis, Peronella dalli ....................................................... 630640 As above, plus sponge spicules and echinoid fragments........ 640650 No sam ple .......................................................................... .650660 As at 640-650 feet ....... ... ........... ............................................ 660670 N o sam ple .............. ................................................................. 670690 As at 640-650 feet, plus some badly worn specimens of Coskinolina floridana ................................................ 690700 N o sam ple .................. ............................................................... 700710 Limestone, hard, calcitic, porous, cream. Numerous echinoid fragments, and specimens of Coskinolina floridana ................................................................... 710720 N o sam ple .............................................................................. 720750 Limestone, hard, chalky, cream to light-brown. Numerous echinoid spines and small echinoid Peronella dalli; very few large forams .................................... 750780 Limestone, hard, crystalline, tan. Coskinolina floridana and Dictyoconus cookei ................................................ 780860 As above, plus some dense hard dark-colored limestone........ 860890 As above, plus some hard finely crystalline brown limestone. Miliolids ................................................ 890940 Limestone, hard to medium-hard, chalky, porous, cream, with some finely crystalline cream limestone and secondary calcite. Very fossiliferous............ 940-1,000 Lake City(?) limestone: Limestone, hard, porous, cream to brown. Forams............ 1,000-1,020 Limestone, clayey, soft, porous, cream to brown, with numerous calcite rhombs.............................................. 1,020-1,030 Limestone, clayey, hard, porous, calcitic, cream. Forams numerous. Valvulammina minuta .................... 1,030-1,050 As above, plus some finely crystalline dense hard lightbrown limestone and numerous calcite rhombs. Forams, miliolids numerous ........................................ 1,050-1,100 Limestone, dolomitic, hard, finely crystalline, waxy, brown, with some finely crystalline to chalky cream limestone ............................................................ 1,100-1,120 No sam ple .......................................................................... 1,120-1,130 Limestone, soft, chalky, cream, with some crystalline calcite. Few fossils. .............................................. 1,130-1,140 As at 1,100-1,120 feet plus echinoid fragments.................. 1,140-1,150 Limestone, soft, finely crystalline, cream to light brown. Forams .............................................................. 1,150-1,160 As above, but darker in color ............................................ 1,160-1,170 Limestone, brown, dolomitic, hard, porous, finely crystalline, waxy. Some large cream-colored forams...... 1,170-1,180 As above, plus some chalky cream fossiliferous limestone ......................................................................... 1,180-1,200 Limestone, brown, dolomitic, hard, porous, finely crystalline, waxy, with some chalky hard porous fossiliferous cream limestone. Forams, sponge spicules, gastropods, and echinoid fragments.............. 1,200-1,238 Water-level measurements made during drilling. Date Depth of hole Formation Water level, feet 1950 (feet) penetrated below land surface Sept. 7 1,075 Lake City 22.0 Sept. 15 1,105 do. 23.0 Sept. 21 1,130 do. 23.9 Sept. 28 1,180 do. 22.7 Oct. 6 1,210 do. 21.9

PAGE 118

110 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY Well OK 23 (F.G.S. no. 2844) Near Okeechobec City, in the SE/4NW/4 sec. 17, T. 37 S., R. 35 E., Okeechobee County. Surface altitude 34*2 feet. MATERIAL DEPTH, IN FEET BELOW LAND SURFACE N o sam ples .............. .................................... ........................ 065 Tamniami formation: Sand, quartz, light-gray, fine to coarse, clear, with many mollusk shells ................................................... 6573 Sand, quartz, micaceous, clayey, fine to medium, with small particles of dark phosphorite and small amount of hard gray sandy phosphatic limestone and a few shell fragments .......................................... 73100 Silt, clayey, sandy, micaceous, light-gray-green, with small particles of dark phosphorite and fragments of Pectinidae ................................... ........ 100135 Clay, sandy and phosphatic, silty, micaceous, darkgray-green, with a few mollusk fragments.................... 135150 Hawthorn(?) formation: Clay as above, but dark-blue-green, with mollusk fragments and light to dark phosphorite pebbles to 10 mm across .............................................................. 150165 Clay, micaceous, pure, fissile, dark-greenish-brown.............. 165175 Sand, quartz, clayey, olive-drab, medium to coarse, with small dark phosphorite particles and numerous mollusk fragments ........................................ 175205 Clay, very sandy, micaceous, dark-greenish-brown; sand fine to very coarse (averages medium), with phosphorite as above; very few mollusk fragments........ 205275 As above, plus some plastic blue-green shale ............. 275285 As above, plus a small amount of hard-gray-brown sandy phosphatic limestone ........................................ 285300 Clay, sandy, micaceous, olive-drab, and sand fine to coarse ....................... .......................................................... 300380 Clay, slightly sandy, micaceous, plastic, dark-graygreen, with numerous small phosphorite particles........ 380400 Clay, pure, gray-green to blue-green .................................. 400450 Clay, slightly sandy, phosphatic, gray-green with a small amount of tan hard sandy phosphatic limestone and some mollusk fragments .............................. 450460 Clay as above, plus some finely crystalline tan limestone; finely sandy and phosphatic gray to darkgray limestone, dark chert and phosphorite pebbles to 5 mm across. Worn mollusk fragments............ 460470 Clay, pure, plastic, gray-green, phosphatic, with some m aterial as above ............................................................ 470515 As above, plus large phosphorite pebbles and numerous mollusk fragments ...................................... 515525 Clay, tan-gray, with pebbles of phosphorite to 4 mm across. Mollusk fragments, coral, Bryozoa and foram s .............................................................................. 525540 As above, plus some light-gray-green clay .......................... 540550 Clay, tan-gray with phosphorite pebbles and chert. Mollusk fragments, coral and echinoid spines................ 550602 Limestone, tan-gray, hard, with phosphorite and quartz sand; cuttings very fine .................................... 602625 Ocala limestone: Limestone, tan, hard; cuttings very fine .......................... 625635 As above, plus a few forams. Lepidocyclina ocalana, Camerma sp., coral ............................................... 635670

PAGE 119

REPORT OF INVESTIGATIONS No. 15 111 MATERIAL DEPTH, IN FEET BELOW LAND SURFACE Foraminiferal coquina, cream. Forams mostly Lepidocyclina and Camerina .................................................. 670690 As above, plus some cream chalky limestone. Some forams are dark in color .............................................. 690750 Moodys Branch(?) formation: Limestone, cream, harder than above, with some dark-gray crystalline limestone. Camerina is the most abundant foram; few Lepidocyclina.................... 750765 As above, plus some crystalline calcite and chalky limestone. Camerina moodybranchensis, coiled calcareous tubes ............................................................ 765775 Avon Park limestone: Limestone, Peronella coquina, tan, hard, with some finely crystalline porous hard cream limestone. Sample composed almost entirely of crystalline fragments and well preserved specimens of Peronella dalli, with a few Dictyoconus cookei and Coskinolina floridana .......................................... 775805 Limestone, cream, hard, chalky, porous, with many tan crystalline fragments of Peronella ........................ 805830 Limestone, cream, hard to soft, chalky, porous, with echinoid fragments as above, and Foraminifera ........ 830850 As above, plus some cream hard dense limestone .............. 850925 Flow measurements made during drilling DEPTH OF HOLE FORMATION FLOW (FEET) PENETRATED (GPM) 520 Hawthorn Trace 602 do. 100+ 660 Ocala 350 675 do. 450 925.5 Avon Park 525 Well GL 22 (F.G.S. no. 2396) About 15 miles southwest of Okeechobee City, in sec. 20, T. 38 S., R. 34 E., Glades County. Surface altitude about 25 feet. MATERIAL DEPTH, IN FEET BELOW LAND SURFACE N o sam ples ........................................................................... 065 Tamiami formation: Marl, gray, sandy, phosphatic. Fragments of echinoids and Pectens .............................................. .......... 65110 N o sam ples .............................................................................. 110188 Hawthorn formation: Clay, dark-blue green, sandy, coarse, phosphatic. Pelecypods numerous, mostly Pecten and Chlamys, numerous specimens of Chlamys Plagioctenium sp ..................................... ......................................... .188314 Clay, olive-drab, sandy, phosphatic. Many pelecypod fragments, mostly Venus and Dosinia? ........................ 314337 No samples ......................................................................... .337346 Clay, olive-drab, very sandy, fine ...................................... 346357 Clay, light-gray-green, plastic. Mollusk fragments.............. 357358 Clay, olive-drab to dark-gray-blue, plastic, with some very fine sand and mica ................................................ 358378

PAGE 120

112 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY MATERIAL DEPTH, IN FEET BELOW LAND SURFACE Clay, dark-olive-drab, sandy, medium to coarse................ 378388 Clay, blue-gray, plastic, with sand and mica. Mollusk fragm ents .................................................................. .388400 Clay, dark-gray-green, sandy, plastic, with rounded dark phosphorite pebbles to 5 mm across. Fragments of oyster shells ............................................. 400409 (lay, same as at 400-409 feet, but lighter color ............... 409418 Clay, dark-green, very plastic, with phosphorite pebbles as above. Mollusk fragments ................................ 418428 Clay, gray to light-green, plastic, with phosphorite pebbles to 10 mm across and some clay as above. M ollusk fragments .................................................... 428465 No sam ple ....................................................................... 465476 Clay, gray, phosphatic. Mollusk fragments ................ 476480 Limestone, white, hard, dense, phosphatic. Mollusk fragm ents .................................................................. .480505 Phosphorite pebbles, black to brown to 8 mm across, with some limestone as above ................................. 505516 Clay, tan to dark-green, plastic, phosphatic, with some gray dense phosphatic limestone. Mollusk fragm ents .......................................................................... .516527 Clay, gray-brown, plastic, with numerous small particles of dark phosphorite and material as above.................. 527537 Clay, white to tan-gray, plastic, with many small particles of phosphorite. Fragments of pelecypods and echinoid spines .......................................................... 537575 Washed samples containing dark green shale, quartz sand, phosphorite pebbles, gray sandy phosphatic limestone, and mollusk fragments .............................. 575590 Limestone, cream, hard, porous, granular, phosphatic, with some tan hard porous crystalline limestone. Fragments of mollusks and a small echinoid................ 590610 Limestone, cream, hard, porous, finely granular, with phosphorite and quartz sand ...................................... 610620 Ocala limestone: Limestone, foraminiferal coquina, cream, soft, porous, chalky. Several varietal forms of Lepidocyclina (Lepidocyclina) ocalana ......................................... 620667 Moodys Branch(?) formation: Limestone, cream, harder than above, granular. No large forams .............................................................. .667687 Limestone, foraminiferal coquina, cream, soft, porous, granular. Camerinids most abundant foram ................ 687814 Limestone as at 687-814 feet, but fewer forams................... 814854 Avon Park limestone: Limestone, tan, hard, porous, calcitic. Numerous Peronella type echinoids and coiled calcareous worn tubes .................................................................. 854888 Limestone, as at 854-888 feet plus Dictyoconus cookei, Coskinolina floridana .............................................. 888909 Limestone, tan, hard, porous, calcitic, granular. Numerous Peronella type echinoids, Coskinolina floridana and coiled calcareous worn tubes............ 909958 Limestone, tan, hard, calcitict granular, porous, with some white soft chalky limestone. Spirolina coryensis 985-1,022 Limestone, as at 985-1,022 feet plus a Peronella type echinoid and numerous Coskinolina floridana ............ 1,022-1,036 Limestone as at 1,022-1,036 feet minus the echinoid............ 1,036-1,084 Limestone as at 1,036-1,084 feet but softer, plus some large forams ............................. 1,084-1,134

PAGE 121

R 28 A I R 29 E .R 30 E R 31 E R 32 E R 33 E 90 4o. *406 3 *04 S01STAS. 40 ond 426 T 36 O 48O S 68 830 N PAR E 2 183 I IO TL 1 2 4 131 7 S104 I11026 ,34 40 139 128 F2 24REE HIGHLANDS HAMMOCK LAK2 SEBRING 132 ISTATE PARK 161 A 1 1Y3 o4 o CKSOJ 170 1* S148 * 7405 333 7 i 1-16 150 10 STA. 415 179 182 149 %E SOTO CI Y 2 LORIDA S147 394 19 195 T B' I +;" T LTLE CHAR EY 173 ATE I BOWLEGS CR. 201 \ a STA. L47 RED iEACH LAKE S GOODNOW 204 20 212 399 \*-ISTOKPOGA CANAL 409 MOUND 4 293 SSKIPPER SITE J IN 217 LAK 4292 5 SIS OKPOGA 342 STA.409* 222 86 36 .FRAN ES FORT BASSEN ER S 236 235 A HEN SCRATCH 269 LAK-E C 4q4 -HEN SCRATCH MIDDEN-'--S R' 4 N PLAI 295L] 295 3374 \ 60 r 37 *A GRASSY 87 37 AKE *3 0S S 320 CH/L OS 329 • HIGHWAY 10--1 CHIDS , I CA O STA. 408 NO |22g 330 424 425'n1 334 BRIGHTON ýSTATE HIGHWAY 7T 437 AC435 *1 .... 393 4 LK A4NN'E -390P14 43 436 433 333 Line of cross section\417 T 3587._ S 400 f*j GL. 22 CARLTON NO. I PONDJ OIL TEST WELLe Line of cross section io V 357 / 362 *STA. 410 T 396 389 3 T 31370 |T*4235 39 o 4390 VENUS S S i '. 376% 379 X1 384 i 387 .... ... -5 ....SCALE IN MILES A' 0 2 4 6 8." 10 FIGURE 12.Map of Highlands County showing location of geologic cross sections and selected wells.

PAGE 122

REPORT OF INVESTIGATIONS No. 15 113 MATERIAL DEPTH, IN FEET BELOW LAND SURFACE Lake City(?) limestone: Limestone, tan to light-brown, hard, calcitic, granular, porous, with some dark gray dense limestone. Forams and mollusk fragments ......-----.....---..---........ .1,134-1,190 Limestone as at 1,134-1,190 feet, plus some lightbrown porous finely crystalline dolomitic limestone.... 1,190-1,215 Water-level and flow measurements made during drilling. DATE DEPTH OF HOLE FORMATION WATER LEVEL, IN FEET 1951 (FEET) PENETRATED ABOVE LAND SURFACE. Feb. 27 515 Hawthorn 6.0 Feb. 28 573 do. 6.0 Mar. 1 610 do. 30.0 Mar. 1 632 Ocala 32.0 Mar. 1 760 Moodys Branch (?) 31.0 Mar. 6 1,190 Lake City(?) 30.0 Mar. 6 1,215 do. 31.0 DATE DEPTH OF HOLE FORMATION FLOW 1951 (FEET) PENETRATED (GPM) Feb. 24 501 Hawthorn Trace Mar. 1 610 do. 200t Mar. 1 616 do. 290 Mar. 1 667 Ocala 310 Mar. 1 677 do. 340 Mar. 2 854 Moodys Branch(?) 395 Mar. 5 1,119 Avon Park 420 Mar. 5 1,134 do. 445 Mar. 5 1,164 Lake City(?) 480 Mar. 5 1,190 do. 565

PAGE 123

114 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY REFERENCES Applin, Paul L., 1951, Preliminary report on buried pre-Mesozoic rocks in Florida and adjacent States: U. S. Geol. Survey Circ. 91, 28 p. Applin, Paul L., and Applin, Esther R., 1944, Regional subsurface stratigraphy and structure of Florida and southern Georgia: Am. Assoc. Petroleum Geologists Bull., v. 28, no. 12, p. 1673-1753. Applin, Esther R., and Jordan, Louise, 1945, Diagnostic Foraminifera from subsurface formations in Florida: Jour. Paleontology, v. 19, no. 2, p. 129-148. Clark, W. E., and Schroeder, M. C., 1952, Florida, in Sayre, A. N., and others, Water levels and artesian pressure in observation wells in the United States in 1949, Part 2, Southeastern States: U. S. Geol. Survey Water-Supply Paper 1157, p. 15-110. Cole, W. Storrs, 1944, Stratigraphic and paleontologic studies of wells in Florida: Fla. Geol. Survey Bull. 26, 168 p., 29 pls., 5 figs. Collins, W. D., and Howard, C. S., 1928, Chemical character of waters of Florida: U. S. Geol. Survey Water-Supply Paper 596-G, p. 177-233, 8 figs. Cooke, C. Wythe, 1918, Correlation of the deposits of Jackson and Vicksburg ages in Mississippi and Alabama: Wash. Acad. Sci. Jour., v. 8, no. 7, p. 186-198. __ , 1926, Geology of Alabama; The Cenozoic formations: Ala. Geol. Survey Special Rept. 14, p. 251-297, 5 pls. , 1939, Scenery of Florida, Interpreted by a Geologist: Fla. Geol. Survey Bull. 17, 118 p., 58 figs. __, 1945, Geology of Florida: Fla. Geol. Survey Bull. 29, 339 p., 1 pl., 47 figs. Cooke, C. Wythe, and Mansfield, W. C., 1936, Suwannee limestone of Florida (abs.): Geol. Soc. American Proc. for 1936, p. 71-72. Cooke, C. Wythe, and Mossom, Stuart, 1929, Geology of Florida: Fla. Geol. Survey 20th Ann. Rept., p. 29-227, 29 pls. Dall, William H., and Harris, Gilbert D., 1892, The Neocene of North America: U. S. Geol. Survey Bull. 84, 349 p., 3 pls. Davis, John H., Jr., 1943, The natural features of southern Florida, especially the vegetation, and the Everglades: Fla. Geol. Survey Bull. 25, 311 p., 4 pls., 70 figs. , 1946, The peat deposits of Florida, their occurrence, development, and uses: Fla. Geol. Survey Bull. 30, 247 p., 1 pl. 36 figs. Dean, H. T., 1936, Chronic endemic dental fluorosis: Am. Med. Assoc. Jour., v. 107, p. 1269-1272. Dean, IH. T., and Arnold, F. A., and Elvoloe, Elias, 1942, Domestic water and dental caries: Public Health Repts., v. 57, no. 32., p. 1155-1179. Gunter, Herman, 1948, Exploration for oil and gas in Florida: Fla. Geol. Survey Inf. Circ. 1, 68 p., 2 figs. Johnson, Lawrence C., 1888, The structure of Florida: Am. Jour. Sci., ser. 3, v. 36, p. 230-236. Lowe, E. N., 1915, Mississippi, its geology, geography, soils, and mineral resources: Miss. State Geol. Survey Bull. 12, 335 p. MacNeil, F. Stearns, 1949, Pleistocene shore lines in Florida and Georgia: U. S. Geol. Survey Prof. Paper 221-F, p. 95-107, 7 pls. Mansfield, George R., 1942, Phosphate resources of Florida: U. S. Geol. Survey Bull. 934, 82 p., 8 pis., 1 fig.

PAGE 124

REPORT OF INVESTIGATIONS No. 15 115 Mansfield, W. C., 1937, Mollusks of the Tampa and Suwannee limestones ol Florida: Fla. Geol. Survey Bull. 15, 334 p., 23 pls., 10 figs. , 1939, Notes on the upper Tertiary and Pleistocene mollusks of Peninsular Florida: Fla. Geol. Survey Bull. 18, 75 p., 4 pls., 2 figs. Matson, George C., and Sanford, Samuel, 1913, Geology and ground waters of Florida: U. S. Geol. Survey Water-Supply Paper 319, 445 p., 17 pls., 7 figs. Meinzer, O. E., 1923a, The occurrence of grounl water in the United States, with a discussion of principles: U: S. Geol. Survey Water-Supply Paper 489, 321 p., 31 pls., 110 figs. , 1923b, Outline of ground-water hydrology, with definitions: U. S. Geol. Survey Water-Supply Paper 494, 71 p., 35 figs. , 1932, Outline of methods for estimating ground-water supplies: U. S. Geol. Survey Water-Supply Paper 638-C, p. 99-144. Meinzer, O. E., and Wenzel, L. K., 1942, Movement of ground water and its relation to head, permeability, and storage: Natl. Research Council, Physics of the Earth ser., v. 9, Hydrology, p. 444-477, New York, McGraw-Hill Book Co., Inc. Meyer, Otto, 1885, The genealogy and the age of the species in the southern old Tertiary: Am. Jour. Sci. 3d ser., v. 30, p. 421-435. Parker, G. G., 1951, Geologic and hydrologic factors in the perennial yield of the Biscayne aquifer: Am. Water Works Assoc. Jour., v. 43, p. 817-834. Parker, G. G., and Cooke, C. Wythe, 1944, Late Cenozoic geology of southern Florida, with a discussion of the ground water: Fla. Geol. Survey Bull. 27, 119 p., 26 pls., 4 figs. Parker, G. G., Ferguson, G. E., and Love, S. K., 1955, Water resources of southeastern Florida with special reference to the geology and ground water of the Miami area: U. S. Geol. Survey Water-Supply Paper 1255 (in press). Puri, H. S., 1953, Zonation of the Ocala group in peninsular Florida: Jour. Sed. Petrology, v. 23, no. 2, p. 130. Ryan, William J., 1937, Water treatment and purification: 242 p., New York, McGraw-Hill Book Co., Inc. Stringfield, V. T., 1936, Artesian water in the Florida Peninsula: U. S. Geol. Survey Water-Supply Paper 773-C, p. 115-195, 11 pls., 9 figs. Vernon, R. 0., 1951, Geology of Citrus and Levy Counties, Fla.: Fla. Geol. Survey Bull. 33, 256 p., 2 pls., 40 figs. Vernon, R. 0., and Puri H. S., 1956, A summary of the geology of Panhandle Florida and a guidebook to the surface exposures: Fla. Geol. Survey for the Southeastern Section of the G.S.A., 83 p., 2 pls., 7 figs., 2 tables. Ver Wiebe, W. A., 1950, North American and Middle East oil fields: 259 p., Wichita, Kans., Edward Bros., Inc.