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Geology of the state parks in the Florida Keys ( FGS: Leaflet 14 )

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Title:
Geology of the state parks in the Florida Keys ( FGS: Leaflet 14 )
Series Title:
( FGS: Leaflet 14 )
Creator:
Lane, E.
Place of Publication:
Tallahassee
Publisher:
Florida Geological Survey
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Language:
English

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Subjects / Keywords:
Florida Keys (Fla.)
Key Largo ( local )
City of Miami ( local )
Lignumvitae Key ( local )
City of Key West ( local )
John Pennekamp Coral Reef State Park ( local )
Mangrove Island ( local )
Keys ( jstor )
Coral reefs ( jstor )
Geology ( jstor )
Limestones ( jstor )
Rocks ( jstor )
Spatial Coverage:
Florida -- Florida Keys

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University of Florida
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University of Florida
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The author dedicated the work to the public domain by waiving all of his or her rights to the work worldwide under copyright law and all related or neighboring legal rights he or she had in the work, to the extent allowable by law.
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AAA0582 ( notis )
AJW7430 ( notis )

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Full Text
STATE OF FLORIDA
DEPARTMENT OF NATURAL RESOURCES Elton J. Gissendanner, Executive Director
DIVISION OF RESOURCE MANAGEMENT
Art Wilde, Director
BUREAU OF GEOLOGY
Walter Schmidt, Chief
Leaflet No. 14
GEOLOGY OF THE STATE PARKS
IN THE
FLORIDA KEYS
by
Ed Lane
Published for the
FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY
TALLAHASSEE
1986




ii




DEPARTMENT
OF
NATURAL RESOURCES
BOB GRAHAM Governor
GEORGE FIRESTONE JIM SMITH Secretary of State Attorney General
BILL GUNTER GERALD A. LEWIS
Treasurer Comptroller
RALPH D. TURLINGTON DOYLE CONNER Commissioner of Education Commissioner of Agriculture
ELTON J. GISSENDANNER
Executive Director
iii




iv




Printed for the
FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY
Tallahassee
1986
MV




TABLE OF CONTENTS
Page
Acknowledgements ....................................... viii
Geological History ........................................ 1
Environm ent ............................................ 5
State Parks
Visitors' Information .................................. 15
John Pennekamp Coral Reef State Park ................. 15
Lignumvitae Key State Botanical Site .................... 18
Indian Key State Historical Site ........................ 20
Long Key State Recreation Area ....................... 21
Bahia Honda State Recreation Area ..................... 24
Selected Bibliography ..................................... 28
vi




FIGURES
Figure Page
1 Map of the Florida Keys, showing State parks and extent of the Key Largo Limestone and the Miami Limestone ... 2 2 Oblique view of the Floridan Plateau .................. 4
3 Mangrove trees, showing thickly tangled prop roots ...... 8
4 Mangrove seedlings in the process of colonizing a shallow lim e-m ud bank .................................... 9
5 Aerial view of part of John Pennekamp Park ........... 10
6 Gumbolimbo tree .................................. 11
7 Florida Poisontree ................................. 11
8 West Indies Mahogany tree ......................... 12
9 M astic tree ....................................... 12
10 Jamaica Dogwood ................................. 13
11 Pigeon Plum tree ................................... 13
12 Florida Strangler Fig ................................ 14
13 Lignumvitae tree .................................. 14
14 John Pennekamp Coral Reef State Park, showing points
of interest on the reef tract .......................... 16
15 Map of John Pennekamp Coral Reef State Park ........ 17 16 Map of Lignumvitae Key State Botanical Site and Indian
Key State Historical Site ............................ 19
17 Aerial view of Indian Key ........................... 22
18 Map of Indian Key showing archeological sites .......... 23 19 Ocean-facing beach at Long Key showing erosion ....... 25 20 Map of Long Key State Recreation Area ............... 26
21 Map of Bahia Honda State Recreation Area ............ 27
vii




ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
The author gratefully acknowledges the assistance of the following Rorida park personnel for the information and photographs that they provided: Dr. Renate Skinner, Major Russell Danser, Mark Yelvington, and Larry Gavagni.
viii




LEAFLET 14 1
GEOLOGY OF THE STATE PARKS IN THE FLORIDA KEYS
by
Ed Lane
The chain of sun-drenched islands of the Florida Keys and associated coral reefs are unique in the continental United States. There are five state parks in the Keys, each with its own special features that will enhance a visit to this subtropical realm. The state parks are: John Pennekamp Coral Reef, Lignumvitae Key, Indian Key, Long Key, and Bahia Honda (Figure 1). The geological history of the Florida Keys is an interesting story that will add to one's enjoyment of these parks.
The Florida Keys lie along an arc from Miami to Key West, a distance of about 135 miles. The islands have been divided into Upper and Lower Keys, based on their orientations and on the differences between the two types of limestone that compose them. The Upper Keys, composed of the Key Largo Limestone, extend from Biscayne Bay southwest to Big Pine Key. The Lower Keys, made of the Miami Limestone, encompass Big Pine Key to Key West (Figure 1). Figure 1 also shows the distinctive orientations which characterize the Upper and Lower Keys. The Upper Keys are oriented in a linear northeast-southwest direction, while the Lower Keys are oriented perpendicular to them, in a northwest-southeast direction. The reasons for their orientations are discussed below.
GEOLOGICAL HISTORY
The Florida peninsula is the emergent portion of a wide, relatively flat geologic feature called the Floridan Plateau, which forms a rampart between the deep waters of the Gulf of Mexico and the Atlantic Ocean (Figure 2). The Florida peninsula is located on the eastern side of the plateau. The edge of the plateau lies over 100 miles west of Tampa, while on the east it lies only three or four miles off the coast from Miami to Palm Beach.
Near the southern rim of the plateau's escarpment lies a fringeline of living and dead coral reefs. The dead coral reefs form the islands of the Florida Keys. The edge of the Floridan Plateau, marked by the 300-feet depth contour line, lies four to eight miles south of the Keys. Today, living coral reefs grow in the shallow waters seaward of the Keys. This environ-




2 BUREAU OF GEOLOGY
-KEY LARGO LIMESTONE. Upper Keys. [:" MIAMI LIMESTONE. Lower Keys w STATE PARK MMA
- -3oo Water depth, feot below sea level.
0
Miles
\ ocoI '
JOHN PENNEKAMP
LIGNUMVITAE KEY 0-A V /-. 4 INDIAN KEY
V ONG KEY
PBANIA NONDA 0
- Ur
Figure 1. The Florida Keys, showing locations of the State parks, and the extent of the Key Largo Limestone and the Miami Limestone geological formations.




LEAFLET 14 3
ment is ideal for the growth of coral: a shallow-water shelf, subtropical latitude, and the warm Gulf Stream nearby.
The geological history of the Florida Keys began about three million years ago, when a shallow sea covered what is now south Florida. During the next 2.8 million years, often called the Pleistocene Ice Ages, world sea levels underwent many fluctuations of several hundred feet, both above and below present sea level, in response to the waxing and waning of the great glaciers. Colonies of coral became established in the shallow sea along the rim of the broad, flat Floridan Plateau. The subtropical climate allowed the corals to proliferate, forming reefs. As sea levels fluctuated the corals maintained footholds along the edge of the plateau: their reefs grew upward when sea levels rose, and their colonies retreated to lower depths along the plateau's rim when sea levels fell. During times of rising sea levels, dead reefs provided good substrates for new coral growth. In this manner, during successive phases of growth, the Key Largo Limestone accumulated up to 200-feet thick in places. The Key Largo Limestone is a white to tan limestone that is primarily the skeletal remains of corals, with invertebrate shells, marine plant and algal debris, and lime-sand. The Key Largo Limestone varies irregularly in thickness from about 75 feet to over 200 feet. In the Lower Keys the Key Largo Limestone is covered by the Miami Limestone. The last major drop in sea level exposed the ancient reefs, which are the present Keys.
During reef growth, carbonate sand banks periodically accumulated behind the reef in environments similar to the Bahamas today. One such lime-sand bank covered the southwestern end of the coral reefs and, when sea level last dropped, the exposed lime-sand or ooid bank formed the Lower Keys. This white to light tan granular rock, the Miami Limestone, is composed of tiny ooliths, lime-sand and shells. Ooliths may be up to 2.0 mm in diameter and are made of concentric layers of calcium carbonate deposited around a nucleus of sand, shell, or other foreign matter. Throughout the Lower Keys the Miami Limestone lies on top of the coralline Key Largo Limestone, and varies from a few feet up to 35 feet in thickness. The northwest-southeast aligned channels between islands of the Lower Keys were cut in the broad, soft, oolite bank by tidal currents. Then, as today, the currents flowed rapidly into and out of the shallow bay behind the reefs, keeping the channels scoured clean.
Exposures of the Key Largo Limestone and Miami Limestone can be seen in many places along the Keys: in canal cuts, at shorelines, and in construction spoil piles.




4 BUREAU OF GEOLOGY
x -300 DepM in feet below sea level.
- Edge of Floridan Plateau x -300
-X 0 AMPA
, .: :t \ -100 x -':":>: 200 x.
,..V -4,oo -.
A/,
-~300 .3 00 X
-20600
3.0x-300
-lo, aoo x /:'.
wGua: of rax/1/i
MEXICO - -. "
,,.- ;,,!7 ..
Figure 2. Oblique view of the Floridan Plateau, showing the islands of the Florida Keys fringing its southern rim.




LEAFLET 14 5
ENVIRONMENT
The climate of the Florida Keys is subtropical to tropical, with rare, brief, below-freezing temperatures. The plants, animals, and ecosystems are a blend of temperate and tropical species.
Because the Keys receive some of the lowest amounts of rainfall in
Florida, because they are surrounded by salt water, and because the rocks of the Keys are permeable, obtaining adequate supplies of fresh water has always been a problem. There are no reliable natural sources of potable groundwater, although some small, unpredictable and fluctuating lenses of fresh-to-brackish water occur at shallow depths. Fresh water must be obtained by the pioneers' technique of capturing rain runoff in cisterns, by importation via the pipeline along US 1, or by desalinization.
Elevations over most of the Keys are less than 10 feet above mean sea level, although Key Largo and Key West have small areas that rise slightly over 15 feet. The islands slope very gradually up from the sea to flattened, gently rounded tops. Relief is slight on the bedrock surfaces, seldom exceeding one or two feet. Irregularities of the rock surfaces are a result of the heterogeneous topography of the coral reefs that created the islands, and also the result of erosion and solution of the limestone rocks after exposure above the sea. Solution features, such as pitted and pinnacled surfaces, occur everywhere on the Keys. Sinkholes, up to several feet in diameter and several feet deep, are abundant but many are filled with peat or carbonate sediments, which masks them from casual detection. Vegetation preferentially takes root in them, providing clues to their location.
Compared to the rest of Florida, there is very little quartz sand on the Keys. Most of the sand is of carbonate origin, not quartz sand. Carbonate sand is derived from the erosion of limestone, from particles precipitated in water, or as by-products in the life processes of some marine plants and animals. A few islands, notably Long Key and Bahia Honda, have beaches of loose carbonate sand that veneers the bedrock; most other beaches are exposed, pitted and pinnacled limestone. Extensive commercial development and construction has resulted in large quantities of crushed limestone "fill" covering many areas of the Keys.
The subtropical Florida Keys present somewhat of a paradox with respect to vegetation. In contrast to the usual picture of tropical, verdant rainforests and luxuriant plant cover, large areas of the islands present




6 BUREAU OF GEOLOGY
bare, rocky surfaces or sparse grass cover. Several factors combine to create a stressful environment for many types of plants. Top soil, in the usual sense, is almost non-existent on the islands. The "soil" consists of weathering byproducts of limestone or carbonate debris, which provides few nutrients and limited rooting material. The mean annual rainfall for the Keys is the lowest of any part of Florida, averaging as much as 50 percent less than the wettest areas of the State. Rainfall on the Keys decreases from about 50 inches per year at Key Largo to as little as 25 inches per year at Key West. In addition, the rainfall is rapidly lost through high evaporation or it readily percolates downward through the few feet of porous rock to the underlying brackish water table. Any plant attempting to colonize the islands must also be salt-tolerant, since the atmosphere is laden with salt spray. These conditions restrict the types of plants that can grow on the islands, and they curtail the growth of the plants that do gain footholds.
The foundations of the islands are ancient, dead coral reefs. However, more recent changes in the Keys are the result of natural and biological forces acting as geological agents, which are constantly at odds in adding to or eroding the islands. Perhaps the most important constructional biological agents are mangrove trees, which are ubiquitous in the Keys. Mangroves are salt-tolerant trees that thrive in the tidal zones along subtropical and tropical coastlines (Figure 3). In south Florida and the Keys mangroves are one of the most important components in the coastal marsh ecosystems. Figures 3, 4 and 5 illustrate the effects of mangroves along the islands' shorelines. A mangrove's thick tangle of aerial prop roots act as a baffle that catches and holds sediments, from both landward and seaward directions. Figure 4 shows a carbonate mud bank forming around a stand of mangroves. The lime mud accumulating in shallow water (lighter toned) is an ideal substrate for young mangrove seedlings, seen here in progressively younger generations offshore, reaching to join the main island to the small mangrove island in the right background. In this typical fashion, mangroves stabilize shorelines and add new land to the Keys. The labyrinthine mangrove islands and tidal channels shown in Figure 5 are the result of such mangrove growth and sediment accumulation. Conversely. mangrove roots also provide convenient supports for new colonies of oysters, which may provide rock foundations for future generations of mangroves.




LEAFLET 14 7
Some marine animals are intensively destructive to the limestone islands, and a significant portion of modern erosion on the rock coasts of the Keys has been attributed to the direct action of organisms that bore and burrow into the rocks. Marine animals whose growth and feeding requirements are destructive include certain sponges, worms, barnacles, clams, echinoids, and chitons. Many of these animals can be seen by exploring along the rocky shorelines of the islands. The pinnacles and pits of the limestone should be examined closely, however, because some of the animals' camouflage blends with the rocks.
Hurricanes and tropical storms are agents of destruction, altering exposed shorelines by erosion, salting the land by storm-surge flooding, and damaging the coastal marshes that act as buffer zones between high land and sea. While rains associated with them bring large amounts of fresh water to the region, from man's viewpoint they tend to be more destructive than useful.
STATE PARKS
The Florida Keys are geologically and botanically unique in North America. The vegetation of the Keys is of West Indian, or Caribbean, origin. Extensive mangrove swamps fringe the Keys, while tropical hardwood hammocks cover upland areas. A great variety of trees and shrubs are found in the hammocks, including species with exotic sounding names, such as gumbolimbo, Florida poisontree, mahogany, mastic, Jamaica dogwood, pigeon plum, strangler fig, and lignumvitae (Figures 6 to 13). During Florida's colonial period, many stands of these tropical trees were felled to supply commercial and shipbuilding demands of various countries. In order to preserve and protect the remaining populations of plants and animals, Florida's state park lands are managed to appear as they did when the first Europeans arrived. Consumptive uses, including hunting, livestock grazing and timber removal, are not permitted. Florida's state parks fulfill an important purpose as representative examples of "Original Natural Florida."




0
on
Figure 3. Mangrove trees, showing thickly tangled prop roots. Note the many mangrove seedlings sprouting in the shallow water. Photo by Dr. Renate Skinner.




t ft A
r"
Figure 4. Mangrove seedlings in the process of colonizing a shallow limemud bank (the light-toned band across middle of picture). In time the small mangrove island in the background will be joined to the main island, on the left. Photo by the author.
Co




O
C
Figure 5. Aerial view of part of John Pennekamp park. The labyrinth, of tidal channels through the mangroves serve an important function as a nursery In the ecosystem of the Keys, providlng food and shelter to many marine animals. Another Important function of such mangrove jungles that fringe coastlines Is to protect the shorelines from erosion. Photo by Dr. Renate Skinner.




LEAFLET 14 11
Figure 6. The gumbolimbo tree (West Indian Birch) (Bursera simaruba) has smooth bark, is up to 60 feet high, with a trunk up to three feet in diameter. The fruit is rounded, triangular, in clusters, with a thick, dark red covering (from Fla. Div. of Forestry, 1980).
Figure 7. The Florida Poisontree (Hog Gum) (Metopium toxiferum) has thin, reddish or orange-brown bark, often spotted from exuded dried gum which has caustic properties. It grows up to 40 feet high and resembles-the nonpoisonous gumbolimbo. WARNING: Precautions should be taken inidentifying this tree, as it is as poisonous as poison ivy. All parts of thistree act as a contact skin-poison to many-people (frorn Fla. Div. of Forestry, 1980).




12 BUREAU OF GEOLOGY
Figure 8. The West Indies Mahogany (Meiaceae = Chinaberry Family) grows to 50 feet high, up to two feet in diameter, with thick, reddish-brown, scaly bark. Fruits are dark reddish-brown, ovate, up to five inches long (from West and Arnold, 1946).
Figure 9. The Mastic tree (Jungleplum or Wild Olive) (Sideroxylon kissimh1um) grows up to 70 feet high with a trunk up to four feet in diameter. Fruits are olive-shaped, with firm yellow skin (from Fla. Div. of Forestry, 1980)_




LEAFLET 14 13
Figure 10. The Jamaica dogwood (Florida Fishfuddle tree) (Piscidia communis) grows up to 50 feet high and up to three feet in diameter. The fruit is a four-winged pod, three or four inches long. Natives of the Caribbean made a poison from the bark of the roots, leaves, and young branches, which stupified fish so they could be picked out of the water (from Fla. Div. of Forestry, 1980).
Figure 11. The Pigeon Plum (Pigeon Seagrape) (Coccolobis floridana) grows to heights of 70 feet, with trunks up to two feet in diameter. The fruit is a dark red to black berry about one-third inch long (from Fla. Div. of Forestry, 1980).




14 BUREAU OF GEOLOGY
Figure 12. The Florida Strangler Fig (Golden Fig) (Ficus aurea) seedlings develop on the upper branches and trunks of other trees. As the roots grow down the host's trunk, a dense crown of foliage shades out the host's crown. In time the fig is firmly rooted in the ground and the host is nearly or totally dead. Aerial roots drop from branches to the ground, forming additional trunks. It grows to 50 feet high, with trunks up to three feet in diameter. Fruits are red, round to ovate, 3/4-inch long, and stalkless (from Ra. Div. of Forestry, 1980).
Figure 13. The Lignumvitae tree ("Tree of Life") (Zygophyllaceae = Beancaper Family) grows up to 25 feet high, with trunks up to two feet in diameter. Fruits are bright orange, ovate, five-angled, about 3/4-inch long (from West and Arnold, 1946).




LEAFLET 14 15
VISITORS' INFORMATION
All plant and animal life is protected in state parks, as are non-living materials, such as rock and mineral specimens or artifacts. Parks open at 8 a.m. and close at sunset year-round. For visitors' safety, regulations prohibiting the feeding of animals are enforced. Pets must be on a sixfoot, hand-held leash at all times. They are not permitted in campgrounds, swimming areas, or any park buildings. Intoxicants are not permitted in any area of state parks. Some activities and facilities are accessible to the handicapped. Inquire at the respective park.
Snorkeling and diving are the best ways to observe the coral reefs and associated marine life. The DIVERS DOWN flag must be displayed while in the water. NEVER swim alone. Do not touch anything you are unsure of and treat all underwater life with respect. Do not touch, grasp, or stand on coral, for it will die. Anchors are very destructive when dropped into coral; therefore, anchor only in sandy bottom areas. Spearfishing is prohibited in state parks.
JOHN PENNEKAMP CORAL REEF STATE PARK
John Pennekamp Coral Reef State Park is the first underwater state park in the United States. Pennekamp and the adjacent Key Largo Coral Reef National Marine Sanctuary extend 8.5 nautical miles into the Atlantic and are 21 nautical miles long (approximately 10 by 25 miles), covering about 178 square nautical miles. These areas were established to protect and preserve a portion of the only living coral reef in the continental United States. The park is named for the late John Pennekamp, a Miami newspaper editor who contributed to the establishment of the Everglades National Park and to the perpetuation of Florida's park system. Tropical vegetation, shore birds and marine life may be seen within the park. The mangrove swamp, with a boardwalk through it, allows visitors to explore the swamp's ecosystem. On the upland areas the tropical hardwood hammock's nature trail provides views of numerous exotic trees. Boulders around the swimming areas are Key Largo Limestone, showing examples of the coral reef lithology of this geological formation. The park's living reef is a modern counterpart of the ancient reef that produced these rocks. The present reef is made of the same plant and animal communities




16 BUREAU OF GEOLOGY
KEY
- 6 4
PJARK "0--aNN A DEPTH CONTOUR. APPROXIMATE FEET PARKBELOW MEAN LOIN WATER
@7
R E E F S 012mie
- ---- 100 ..........
- S OF r '.oftl
Figure 14 John Pennekamp Coral Reef State Park, showing points of interest on the reef tract: 1) Molasses Reef is toured by the Park's glassbottomed boat; 2) White Banks Dry Rocks, with 5 to 15 feet of water, is a good reef to snorkel; 3) French Reef has underwater caves, cliffs, and canyons; 4) the Benwood Wreck, the hull of a World War II freighter that was torpedoed by a German sub; 5) Garret's Reef and the Cannon Patch, less than 10 feet under water, has several coral encrusted cannon; 6) Grecian Rocks, an easy reef to snorkel, averaging about six-feet deep; 7) Key Largo Dry Rocks has a nine-feet tall bronze statue, "Christ of the Deep," in water less than 20-feet deep; 8) The Elbow has several ship wrecks and shallow water for diving; 9) Carysfort Reef, with depths from five to 40 feet, and Carysfort Reef Light Station, built in 1882, provides some of the best diving conditions in the Keys. Map compiled from NOAA Nautical Chart 11451, U.S. Geological Survey topographic maps, and park information guides.




* JOHN PENNEKAMP CORAL REEF STATE PARK,'
(orneStationPincSetr 1
Mangrove Trai Ar
V Swim
FiueO5 Joh Penneap Crenal efSatak
,",:,!:.:,'.... ,.ii+ o,.. .soo~o:.,,,...
= 7, ;;.. ,.... . :. ., .. .. ... ,: .. .. '..... .. ..i... ...
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Figure 15. John Pennekamnp Coral Reef State Park,




18 BUREAU OF GEOLOGY
that created the emergent islands of the Keys.
Although the park and marine sanctuary encompass hardwood hammocks, mangrove swamps, seagrass beds, and coral reefs, the coral formations and associated marine life attracts the most visitors. Coral reefs are among the most beautiful and interesting of all living communities. They represent a colorful, very complex and prolific ecosystem. Daily, glassbottom boat tours are available for visitors who do not wish to dive onto the reef. Figure 14 shows the locations of points of special interest on the reef tract.
The park offers a variety of recreational facilities, including a visitor center with nautical history exhibits and slide programs, concessions, a dive shop, sailboat and canoe rentals, boat launching ramp, picnic and camping areas, and swimming areas with bathhouses (Figure 15).
Park Rangers provide special snorkeling programs to familiarize visitors with the most desirable method of observing the coral reefs. Maps and instructions are available for the most interesting sites on the reef. Campfire programs are provided during the winter season. Guided walks and canoe trips are provided year-round. For further information, write or phone John Pennekamp Coral Reef State Park, P. 0. Box 487, Key Largo, FL 33037. Telephone (305) 451-1202.
LIGNUMVITAE KEY STATE BOTANICAL SITE
The serenity and isolation of remote islands have always captured man's imagination. Lignumvitae Key is no exception. To step ashore here is to take a step back into the past (see Figure 16).
The Matheson House, built in 1919, has changed little over the years. A windmill provides power, and fresh water is supplied from a cistern which is filled by rain falling on the roof. This is how island people lived during pioneer times when most of their needs were met by the land and sea around them.
This island is an ancient counterpart of a modern patch reef. Patch reefs are smaller reef complexes that grow in relative isolation, often behind the main reef line. The patch reef that became Lignumvitae Key grew behind its main reef, now the Florida Keys. Numerous modern patch reefs can be seen in the shallow water between the Keys and the main reef line that fringes the Florida Straits.




LEAFLET 14 19
S Miami S
.'Shell Key..
Llgnumvltae Key,-, 0vo
OW State Preserve (closed)
Upper Matecumbe Key Matheson House
v'Dock '
LIGNUMVITAE KEY
Public Boat Launch
Lower Matecumbe Key AO
0 1000
Feet
INDIAN KEY State Historical Site
SDock-Figure 16. Lignumvitae Key State Botanical Site, showing the location of Indian Key State Historical Site southeast of Lower Matecumbe Key.




20 BUREAU OF GEOLOGY
Thousands of years ago, the island began as a living coral reef jutting up from the sea floor. As great quantities of water began to freeze into glaciers at the earth's poles, the sea level dropped, exposing the top of the reef and forming an island composed of fossilized coral rock.
As time passed, storm tides and waves left seaweed, driftwood, and other organic debris stranded on the bare rock. This material began decaying and forming small pockets of soil in depressions in the coral rocks. Then a few seeds arrived from other tropical islands some floating on the sea or carried by the winds, while others came in the digestive tracts of migrating birds. The seeds sprouted and began to grow, drop leaves, produce flowers and seeds, mature, die, and decay. With the passing of each generation. a complex and diverse tropical hammock colonized the remains of this ancient coral reef.
The virgin tropical forest that thrives here is typical of the kind of scenery that was once enjoyed on most of Florida's Upper Keys. As the Keys were developed to accommodate an increasing number of people, most of the unique vegetation was scraped away making the tropical forest of Lignumvitae Key a very rare and special place. Here, a visitor can walk in the shade of trees with strange names like strangler fig, poisonwood, lignumvitae, and gumbolimbo.
Access to the Key is limited to privately owned boats or charter boats available at nearby marinas. A two-hour guided tour of the island and the Matheson House is given at 9 AM and a one-hour tour at 1 PM and 3 PM from Wednesday through Sunday. The visitor should wear walking shoes and bring mosquito repellent. To protect the fragile vegetation and environment of the Key, visitors must stay within the clearing except in the company of the interpretive guide or ranger. For further information, write or phone Ugnumvitae Key State Botanical Site, c/o Long Key State Recreaban Area, P. 0. Box 776, Long Key, FL 33001. Telephone: (305) 664-4815.
INDIAN KEY STATE HISTORICAL SITE
Indian Key is located about three-quarters of a mile to the southeast of the north end of Lower Matecumbe Key (Figures 16, 17 and 18). Even though it is in front of the main reef tract the geological history of Indian Key is similar to Lignumvitae Key, discussed above. A small patch reef, exposed by falling sea level, formed the limestone foundation for Indian Key.




LEAFLET 14 21
This small coral island, little more than 10 acres in area, figures prominently in Florida's early history, from pre-historic Indians to the 1830's. Archeological excavations have shown that Calusa Indians lived in the Keys for several thousand years prior to the arrival of the first Spanish explorers, who discovered Florida in 1513. The eastward-flowing Gulf Stream provided a quick route home for the treasure-laden Spanish fleets. The shoals and reefs south of the Keys proved to be extremely dangerous when tropical storms or hurricanes blew up unexpectedly. Many treasurefleets were sunk on the reefs along the Keys, to the profit of the Indians. Later, in the mid-1700s, salvaging shipwrecks, or "wrecking," as it was called, became so profitable for local fishermen that the practice attracted pirates. American occupation of Florida in 1821 put an end to pirating. Key West became the wealthy center of the salvage-wrecking industry.
A newcomer, Jacob Housman, challenged the monopoly of Key West in 1831, when he bought Indian Key and built his own wrecking colony there. A few years of prosperity followed, during which Housman's political activities established the new Dade County, with Indian Key as the county seat. His fortunes declined rapidly, forcing him to mortgage the island. In 1840, during the Second Seminole War, a large band of Indians attacked the community, killing several people and destroying buildings. No one has lived on Indian Key since the late-1800s. The archeological excavations, the foundations of buildings, cisterns, and partially restored buildings provide the visitor with a sense of the colorful, adventurous lives of these "wreckers."
An observation tower, boat dock, shelter, and trails are provided. There are no rest rooms. Most facilities and activities are not accessible to the handicapped. For further information, write or phone the Park Manager, Long Key State Recreation Area, P. 0. Box 776, Long Key, FL 33001. Telephone: (305) 664-4815.
LONG KEY STATE RECREATION AREA
The bedrock of Long Key is Key Largo Limestone, although much of it is thinly covered by carbonate sand, Figures 19 and 20. The park beach in Figure 19 shows the vulnerability of the key's shoreline to wave erosion; the shoreline has been cut back to a point where trees are being undermined. Comparing this exposed, eroding beach with the shoreline in Figure 4, which is accreting seaward due to mangrove growth, illustrates the importance of mangroves as a geological agent and as a buffer against storm damage.




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Figure 17. Indian Key State Historical Site, a Pleistocene age patch reef, now exposed above sea level. The darker tones in the water locate deeper channels that are scoured by strong tidal currents between the islands of the Keys. Photo by Dr. Renate Skinner.




LEAFLET 14 23
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OSITAL I ..
*OFFICE
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OBSERVATIO
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M. T .S AI
Fiur 1. apofISda ER showing arhooilsts




24 BUREAU OF GEOLOGY
The shallow flats seaward of Long Key and the mangrove-lined lagoons support an abundance of marine life. Wading-bird populations can be readily observed in these areas, particularly during the winter months. A trail winds through natural areas of the key, along the beach, and over a mangrove-lined lagoon.
Long Key State Recreation Area provides an opportunity to enjoy the natural values of a typical Florida Key. The subtropical climate, clear waters and abundance of marine life associated with the Florida Keys have attracted man since early times. The Calusa Indians lived off the abundant plant and animal life long before the first Spanish explorers arrived. After the Spanish occupation, the keys attracted settlers from other islands, such as the Bahamas, who made their living from the sea.
These remote keys were no longer isolated when, in 1912, the Key West Extension of the Florida East Coast Railroad was completed. The viaduct west of Long Key was the first bridge built by the railroad crews, and was the trademark of the Henry Flagler railroad.
Long Key was an important depot during the days of the railroad. Flagler established the Long Key Fishing Club as a mecca for the world's greatest saltwater fishermen. The era came to an end on September 2, 1935, when a hurricane destroyed the fishing club and the railroad.
Park Rangers present campfire programs and lead guided walks yearround. They also offer informative programs on snorkeling, fishing, canoeing, and the marine ecology of the area. For further information, write or phone Long Key State Recreation Area, P. 0. Box 776, Long Key, FL 33001. Telephone: (305) 664-4815.
BAHIA HONDA STATE RECREATION AREA
In Spanish, Bahia Honda means "deep bay." This southernmost state recreation area's bondy skeleton is an ancient coral reef thinly covered by beaches and dunes of carbonate sand, and mangroves (Figure 21). Bedrock is Key Largo Limestone.
The very shallow, clear water around the island provides an opportunityr to observe marine plants and animals that inhabit the carbonate-sand sea bed_ Bahia Honda has a number of tropical plants that are not often found on the other islands. Among the rarer species are the satinwood tree, spiny catesbaea and dwarf morning glory. The birdlife of Bahia Honda includes beautiful and rare species such as the white-crowned pigeon, great white heron, roseate spoonbill, reddish egret, osprey, brown pelican, and least tern.




m
Figure 19. Ocean-facing beach at Long Key showing erosion. The trees are rooted in thin carbonate sand that covers bedrock. Photo by the author.




26 BUREAU OF GEOLOGY
VICMTYt MAP=
G.
FLORIDA BAY MWnfron* K.
' Observation
Areas Tower
tATLANTIC OCEAN
0 1200 STATE RECREATION AREA
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Figure 21. Bahia Honda State Recreation Area.
4




23 BUREAU OF GEOLOGY
The island remained fairly isolated and remote until the railroad spanned the channels with bridges of steel and concrete to link Key West with the mainland. The island became part of land holdings of the Florida East Coast Railroad until the company abandoned the line ifter the 1935 hurricane destroyed the railroad. The original train trestle is still visible as part of the old Bahia Honda Bridge.
Regular campfire programs and guided walks are provided during the winter season, with special interpretive programs provided to groups by reservation. At the northeast end of Sandspur Beach, a nature trail follows tne shore of a tidal lagoon, goes through a coastal strand hammock and returns along the beach. For further information, write or phone Bahia Honda State Recreation Area, Route 1, Box 782, Big Pine Key, FL 33043. Telephone: (305) 872-2353.
SELECTED BIBLIOGRAPHY
Florida State Park leaflets, available at the respective parks. Florida Division of Forestry, 1980, Forest Trees of Florida: 102 pp. lkuiter H. Gray, 1971, Field Guide to Some Carbonate Rock Environments,
Florida Keys and Western Bahamas: Miami Geological Society, Miami,
FL. 158 pp.
West. Erdman and Lillian E. Arnold, 1946, The Native Trees of Florida:
Univ. of Florida Press, 212 pp.




FLORIDA DEPARTMENT OF" NATURAL: RESOURCES
BUREAU OF GEOLOGY
FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY
Walter Schmidt, Chief
Peter M. Dobbins, Admin. Asst. Alison Lewis, Librarian Jessie HawkinS, Custodian Sandie Ray, Secretary
-GEOLOGICAL INVESTIGATIONS SECTION
Thomas M. Scott, Senior Geologist/Administrator Albert Applegate, Geologist Ted Kiper, Draftsman Brian Caldwell, Research Asst. Susan Kruhm, Staff Asst. Ken CampbelI, Geologist, Ed Lane, Geologist CindyCollier, Secretary Jacqueline M. Lloyd, Geologist Don Harris, Research Asst. Teresa Meyer, Staff Asst. Richard Howard, Laboratory Tech. John Morrill, Core Driller Richard Johnson, Geologist Albert Phillips, Asst. Driller Jim Jones, Draftsman -Frank Rupert, Geologist
MINERAL RESOURCE INVESTIGATIONS AND
ENVIRONMENTAL GEOLOGY SECTION
J. William Yon, Senior Geologist/Administrator
Paulette Bond, Geologist Connie Garrett, Research Asst. Laura Cummins, Research Asst. Shelton Graves, Research Asst. Diane Donnally, Research Asst. Ron Hoenstine, Geologist Steve Spencer, Geologist
OIL AND GAS SECTION
L. David Curry, Administrator
Clarence Babcock, Eh ginee Joan Gruber, Secretary Brenda Brackin, Secretary- i y, David Poe; Geologist Robert Caughey,Geologisti Joan- Ragiand Geologist Cynthia Cok, Geologist Gwendolypn Staten, Secretary
.... ........... rcharles Tootle1 Engineer! ;: ~ii




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describe
'info:fdaE20080903_AAACDIfileF20080904_AABVKN-norm-0' 'aip-filesF20080904_AABVKN-norm-0.pdf'
8cbf40949b8b639101cd4e2c803d9b62
6e3842fc6d7fb92b4cf6a2346c8099c7289050d2
describe
normalize
'42910' 'info:fdaE20080903_AAACDIfileF20080904_AABVKO' 'sip-files00008.pro'
41fcc2a7200c08eb275013928e56f602
f5253f43ce1345ca20f4cc50f885a618ad2be702
'2017-03-09T12:51:36-05:00'
describe
'29773' 'info:fdaE20080903_AAACDIfileF20080904_AABVKP' 'sip-files00008.QC.jpg'
32bf3eef41ebc6dfd3d4ef8d04e3b06b
bee512e8472efab6fc247e97893206091a2f7230
describe
'976928' 'info:fdaE20080903_AAACDIfileF20080904_AABVKQ' 'sip-files00008.tif'
bf2e5b8c7f701b35748348d88c9db60e
50fb52ac23e0f1c8c60ebe2a6aee992b12b14c68
'2017-03-09T12:51:55-05:00'
describe
'1711' 'info:fdaE20080903_AAACDIfileF20080904_AABVKR' 'sip-files00008.txt'
d28d1a846266c7858122fe4ba667bcd3
ea76341b30aac0806b67c3c8575895ccfb97be0e
describe
'7891' 'info:fdaE20080903_AAACDIfileF20080904_AABVKS' 'sip-files00008thm.jpg'
8fc362790d3fe0dd10ceb39f4c584b2c
799b4b70d5b44e000fc224a7582d47724a51fdb2
describe
'22621' 'info:fdaE20080903_AAACDIfileF20080904_AABVKT' 'sip-files00009.jp2'
73d49baff9481740490ab187e9176b1b
1db863224517a467cff00af0f4ca0e8029e2f186
describe
'26096' 'info:fdaE20080903_AAACDIfileF20080904_AABVKU' 'sip-files00009.jpg'
430671214b00e9dc106d7264a583b4af
df2c3f529442f91b04aa936fdd6297d6c1cddf97
describe
'11115' 'info:fdaE20080903_AAACDIfileF20080904_AABVKV' 'sip-files00009.pdf'
d122f2c840486f069c6c7991fd3ee02a
039e9ef1154e6db439309dc92103f1d95390a321
describe
'info:fdaE20080903_AAACDIfileF20080904_AABVKV-norm-0' 'aip-filesF20080904_AABVKV-norm-0.pdf'
8cbf40949b8b639101cd4e2c803d9b62
6e3842fc6d7fb92b4cf6a2346c8099c7289050d2
'2017-03-09T12:53:01-05:00'
describe
normalize
'7006' 'info:fdaE20080903_AAACDIfileF20080904_AABVKW' 'sip-files00009.pro'
cc70d706afad76d97a1fb658e5e2d28d
df9dc9cf8c96c3312d9ae869b800423af8b90ff2
'2017-03-09T12:51:02-05:00'
describe
'8307' 'info:fdaE20080903_AAACDIfileF20080904_AABVKX' 'sip-files00009.QC.jpg'
e6a33b938d03d6c58905b17ed12b296f
d64e23df10edea506de04403254e8f29b059200c
describe
'971376' 'info:fdaE20080903_AAACDIfileF20080904_AABVKY' 'sip-files00009.tif'
1b567070f8684a9aca493b941a1a0366
6c8f396842fe6f8a4509bff53efedee512d2a1da
'2017-03-09T12:51:42-05:00'
describe
'268' 'info:fdaE20080903_AAACDIfileF20080904_AABVKZ' 'sip-files00009.txt'
49991578a0fae05ff81bd8678fda95e3
cbe49620ed04ae30d445f018d4bd025b5f4f7391
'2017-03-09T12:52:26-05:00'
describe
'2737' 'info:fdaE20080903_AAACDIfileF20080904_AABVLA' 'sip-files00009thm.jpg'
907b9e16f1398c7c43d3e8cd2dcd41b9
800714ec435aff7a3185bd92013e5b1170e9406c
describe
'152358' 'info:fdaE20080903_AAACDIfileF20080904_AABVLB' 'sip-files00010.jp2'
1941c86ae22200fdf68cf0f49f41f987
2b3cd9333c2f6e4e482f606d47354ddf6d99f377
'2017-03-09T12:51:04-05:00'
describe
'142080' 'info:fdaE20080903_AAACDIfileF20080904_AABVLC' 'sip-files00010.jpg'
dc87a7edda1729c2cb1d947dba9c7bf0
2e3c35d9a85a6644ad59a5a58007a6117b4d8504
describe
'63900' 'info:fdaE20080903_AAACDIfileF20080904_AABVLD' 'sip-files00010.pdf'
b2068e88336f40e216635279518c23e7
2eaa2f4b879a6d1a0b345d89fa8649b41cfdce12
'2017-03-09T12:52:35-05:00'
describe
'info:fdaE20080903_AAACDIfileF20080904_AABVLD-norm-0' 'aip-filesF20080904_AABVLD-norm-0.pdf'
8cbf40949b8b639101cd4e2c803d9b62
6e3842fc6d7fb92b4cf6a2346c8099c7289050d2
'2017-03-09T12:53:02-05:00'
describe
'2017-03-09T12:52:37-05:00'
normalize
'60674' 'info:fdaE20080903_AAACDIfileF20080904_AABVLE' 'sip-files00010.pro'
d345eaf297aae9d3d695233f0cc3e385
f938e46500542fd0ae17d5a2ec0fbb3872ed2123
'2017-03-09T12:51:28-05:00'
describe
'42273' 'info:fdaE20080903_AAACDIfileF20080904_AABVLF' 'sip-files00010.QC.jpg'
c726baad50e8b1cad9df07f2e24f6015
0db3307e9bd0766773af5499116d7c89ad349939
describe
'978720' 'info:fdaE20080903_AAACDIfileF20080904_AABVLG' 'sip-files00010.tif'
6c38ef809176273da6e66ae533c7b636
91ae4af6847a186f68195c93ff19d15e2bf0afe8
describe
'2307' 'info:fdaE20080903_AAACDIfileF20080904_AABVLH' 'sip-files00010.txt'
9996051ca908b867a099c9edce03fe33
ec28c907bb3ce8d99abbd47e468e49d4f36bd8a2
describe
'10872' 'info:fdaE20080903_AAACDIfileF20080904_AABVLI' 'sip-files00010thm.jpg'
a6fa014f442725ffac1559555c163115
f422567e0cd9c4a952ec29b604cef9467af97f18
'2017-03-09T12:52:56-05:00'
describe
'71390' 'info:fdaE20080903_AAACDIfileF20080904_AABVLJ' 'sip-files00011.jp2'
03efa9a5ca431da4274bfb140721ffa9
8238fc3d11efd61ef2d8d49f61ab3fbe04c1a516
describe
'62445' 'info:fdaE20080903_AAACDIfileF20080904_AABVLK' 'sip-files00011.jpg'
649e10ce565c2d1719b0353d55a86893
b0cdfe006afb6850c56310b94ed2130cede1a5f9
'2017-03-09T12:51:13-05:00'
describe
'28144' 'info:fdaE20080903_AAACDIfileF20080904_AABVLL' 'sip-files00011.pdf'
8d3d169bd5a138302de983f4f6136271
c9175a9deb2ad61c2593d21ce08278c858e325c3
'2017-03-09T12:52:14-05:00'
describe
'info:fdaE20080903_AAACDIfileF20080904_AABVLL-norm-0' 'aip-filesF20080904_AABVLL-norm-0.pdf'
8cbf40949b8b639101cd4e2c803d9b62
6e3842fc6d7fb92b4cf6a2346c8099c7289050d2
describe
'2017-03-09T12:52:16-05:00'
normalize
'5089' 'info:fdaE20080903_AAACDIfileF20080904_AABVLM' 'sip-files00011.pro'
403b287f0c8d6aa7338dbe86d2c7c948
c8d7f11c7545c029d6902af50fdaee16a5e56f7e
describe
'22209' 'info:fdaE20080903_AAACDIfileF20080904_AABVLN' 'sip-files00011.QC.jpg'
f9b7f16c92a6cb56917e380b38e907eb
881bf917e94780f7c72b4a9ccb7a4d00a7d30065
'2017-03-09T12:51:26-05:00'
describe
'1016788' 'info:fdaE20080903_AAACDIfileF20080904_AABVLO' 'sip-files00011.tif'
234ad60e6a0c263f9017f5d08b8f0524
e9d0f89cedd170574768926fb5430ebde0fb35ff
describe
'190' 'info:fdaE20080903_AAACDIfileF20080904_AABVLP' 'sip-files00011.txt'
78154af22517fe044525836c581cec9f
5c96dd76dd84b42fba5492977c4c65f72c5d602f
describe
'6781' 'info:fdaE20080903_AAACDIfileF20080904_AABVLQ' 'sip-files00011thm.jpg'
7b22b2cc55fe6908cddd4077ce2098be
aea573f33f8cf0b88593ae7f940064ab127d66a8
describe
'190794' 'info:fdaE20080903_AAACDIfileF20080904_AABVLR' 'sip-files00012.jp2'
c190c42eb608a09b978f3810d5416b1a
d49dd21ab2cd1b2955fc356092912eab9835b727
describe
'165421' 'info:fdaE20080903_AAACDIfileF20080904_AABVLS' 'sip-files00012.jpg'
d7435afcdc937e27fbc8295247f35443
2737d466c94d1e1e2b8ba816fc08d7154dec3f92
describe
'80087' 'info:fdaE20080903_AAACDIfileF20080904_AABVLT' 'sip-files00012.pdf'
bab6f2fd72fe6e792f1e739e19c52cc4
319ec960814a74b40610230651b28d28bc05dfe0
'2017-03-09T12:51:18-05:00'
describe
'info:fdaE20080903_AAACDIfileF20080904_AABVLT-norm-0' 'aip-filesF20080904_AABVLT-norm-0.pdf'
8cbf40949b8b639101cd4e2c803d9b62
6e3842fc6d7fb92b4cf6a2346c8099c7289050d2
describe
'2017-03-09T12:51:19-05:00'
normalize
'76512' 'info:fdaE20080903_AAACDIfileF20080904_AABVLU' 'sip-files00012.pro'
deab90e4991c27ef1e3bef8ab738d63c
e03c67cc8694999d29e65e63fae49951d3b4a00b
describe
'48663' 'info:fdaE20080903_AAACDIfileF20080904_AABVLV' 'sip-files00012.QC.jpg'
2b7459eed05f10a9a49787ae6a6001d6
cb11450fc93f2e646fa54c2ff2b9d3ba5808b2f7
describe
'1021916' 'info:fdaE20080903_AAACDIfileF20080904_AABVLW' 'sip-files00012.tif'
dd45c6cd4a0ddc7e32323e2b8a3b054a
4ca1fe70f1572351bef2785cd359222cb8e70724
describe
'2788' 'info:fdaE20080903_AAACDIfileF20080904_AABVLX' 'sip-files00012.txt'
32ee8f7a1635ed1e04f2845bc12c9161
eeb117da5e008cc7b3701d3accada92bc61ccca0
describe
'10996' 'info:fdaE20080903_AAACDIfileF20080904_AABVLY' 'sip-files00012thm.jpg'
518d0d7f15a0443d8df89d5acfad4277
f05f203aa1da28baa4097f4f543184ccabd16773
describe
'92608' 'info:fdaE20080903_AAACDIfileF20080904_AABVLZ' 'sip-files00013.jp2'
fa366ce5ad09c09dbaa1886583444c15
8f89f2a842ded2de4ac2857c2c99c85c8cc2791f
'2017-03-09T12:52:28-05:00'
describe
'77258' 'info:fdaE20080903_AAACDIfileF20080904_AABVMA' 'sip-files00013.jpg'
54810eb38acf47dcc0573a27ca8f544d
9a823d4b764523908d5dc0660ce6ef176e725178
'2017-03-09T12:52:21-05:00'
describe
'36554' 'info:fdaE20080903_AAACDIfileF20080904_AABVMB' 'sip-files00013.pdf'
c9655459fb7944a8ffab422d681644fe
fa44c42c97369346dfbd147d4ce57c65f7b34b4e
describe
'info:fdaE20080903_AAACDIfileF20080904_AABVMB-norm-0' 'aip-filesF20080904_AABVMB-norm-0.pdf'
8cbf40949b8b639101cd4e2c803d9b62
6e3842fc6d7fb92b4cf6a2346c8099c7289050d2
describe
normalize
'8355' 'info:fdaE20080903_AAACDIfileF20080904_AABVMC' 'sip-files00013.pro'
0501cfaf4e7a99766670311164257ae6
6e29dbabef3fad6a565474a9b614a50bf62c218a
'2017-03-09T12:52:51-05:00'
describe
'25656' 'info:fdaE20080903_AAACDIfileF20080904_AABVMD' 'sip-files00013.QC.jpg'
ccbb985c7c59426007fc7c4bb7a1e63b
ed8f62e7793c3b994b641359102d8a97a2364fd7
describe
'991088' 'info:fdaE20080903_AAACDIfileF20080904_AABVME' 'sip-files00013.tif'
76e9a7c9e30a145a12bf3641c88b4869
8c0536581588a1557dd7c2e887f9cf079ed8c5e6
describe
'353' 'info:fdaE20080903_AAACDIfileF20080904_AABVMF' 'sip-files00013.txt'
933f977aec6fd968cc2334f91c6acd07
1dc226c1d784e9fcf86f6b46f94352f4a7e9b8c1
'2017-03-09T12:51:31-05:00'
describe
'8261' 'info:fdaE20080903_AAACDIfileF20080904_AABVMG' 'sip-files00013thm.jpg'
01b3db6bcf632b3d7e3cf20b0d92ab73
1eda5c983c0229dc37ed4d94aaa13e6a5b98fd19
describe
'177529' 'info:fdaE20080903_AAACDIfileF20080904_AABVMH' 'sip-files00014.jp2'
b01f80e652679a62d55e94d22a7fa3ff
48fc29621fe03b564c0b97ba005aa7b7c98726ff
describe
'152049' 'info:fdaE20080903_AAACDIfileF20080904_AABVMI' 'sip-files00014.jpg'
b7b50fd60728bcb572048b35092b8798
1947cfff9225976526e2d20d32b8711d2b66923a
describe
'74782' 'info:fdaE20080903_AAACDIfileF20080904_AABVMJ' 'sip-files00014.pdf'
e75ec479650b6e731ff2f037627fe3bf
9243a650521f0bf2d15c2617e628122f080b7f94
describe
'info:fdaE20080903_AAACDIfileF20080904_AABVMJ-norm-0' 'aip-filesF20080904_AABVMJ-norm-0.pdf'
8cbf40949b8b639101cd4e2c803d9b62
6e3842fc6d7fb92b4cf6a2346c8099c7289050d2
'2017-03-09T12:53:00-05:00'
describe
normalize
'71102' 'info:fdaE20080903_AAACDIfileF20080904_AABVMK' 'sip-files00014.pro'
b1f26f7b0d31bb17a770f71e9f9222c2
8fcdc3447ad92b757d0423c74ec8ea56fc82fbd8
describe
'44614' 'info:fdaE20080903_AAACDIfileF20080904_AABVML' 'sip-files00014.QC.jpg'
5966fd6c67f7c8bc8013344269959295
cc2730e1f7476fa639028c1e07b36c5168645f1c
describe
'1014080' 'info:fdaE20080903_AAACDIfileF20080904_AABVMM' 'sip-files00014.tif'
ca6c7d62f66c853f1aae75813852f312
d5498a082d1fbbfd167699be7cd1239a5cd7d8b2
describe
'2618' 'info:fdaE20080903_AAACDIfileF20080904_AABVMN' 'sip-files00014.txt'
2e12806a81052a7d0fe3a8593c7d2f59
25ef05573287b06a35452fabdbdfc8babbdac4b0
'2017-03-09T12:52:43-05:00'
describe
'10183' 'info:fdaE20080903_AAACDIfileF20080904_AABVMO' 'sip-files00014thm.jpg'
034b4333228e38e741413e2b1b189a9e
03631002500cf833591b4fcc4112cf7dbf69cc58
describe
'185104' 'info:fdaE20080903_AAACDIfileF20080904_AABVMP' 'sip-files00015.jp2'
be036893ed9b176e08c5dfdb08402622
62390403a6500e12454b274938db7dd447477499
describe
'158036' 'info:fdaE20080903_AAACDIfileF20080904_AABVMQ' 'sip-files00015.jpg'
6d7851e1ed48f036c6937fb11e966740
c0a1e4f7afcc99d9ac781a9af38984b8be5354b6
describe
'80586' 'info:fdaE20080903_AAACDIfileF20080904_AABVMR' 'sip-files00015.pdf'
0073f21e5bb381c9b40aabc0442bfa8a
84395d31fd2dcdc77e582d9be6f0a77bfd7bb77f
describe
'info:fdaE20080903_AAACDIfileF20080904_AABVMR-norm-0' 'aip-filesF20080904_AABVMR-norm-0.pdf'
8cbf40949b8b639101cd4e2c803d9b62
6e3842fc6d7fb92b4cf6a2346c8099c7289050d2
describe
normalize
'73216' 'info:fdaE20080903_AAACDIfileF20080904_AABVMS' 'sip-files00015.pro'
3048918651fab3e947ff1c523de099ab
bbc5faad14e39210a42df49a4ce4ffdf259f2aa1
describe
'46419' 'info:fdaE20080903_AAACDIfileF20080904_AABVMT' 'sip-files00015.QC.jpg'
948088ebd5adeed2196173958672eb4a
e40c2a536d7e4ce450a997c210a0c02ac8775c85
describe
'1013972' 'info:fdaE20080903_AAACDIfileF20080904_AABVMU' 'sip-files00015.tif'
9518ba35b7a6e2a0d88e291d920fc9d6
cec982e93680842852623a688c7773f2c341b099
describe
'2656' 'info:fdaE20080903_AAACDIfileF20080904_AABVMV' 'sip-files00015.txt'
40e2b029ad84863e8ef83c2cb60d5c64
07aabd5cb925b1223926c07f4ee48d51662c8b60
describe
'10819' 'info:fdaE20080903_AAACDIfileF20080904_AABVMW' 'sip-files00015thm.jpg'
8e9d6d849e24ff71264a4c680df701ec
299c4d1904b890b38514dbc5f9e8e8912e1077c0
describe
'146992' 'info:fdaE20080903_AAACDIfileF20080904_AABVMX' 'sip-files00016.jp2'
bc7c5283aeb03214cb15966c6c4dfd20
fa0b2bf227f0c6ae6b2ed87827cf22762ab89943
describe
'130504' 'info:fdaE20080903_AAACDIfileF20080904_AABVMY' 'sip-files00016.jpg'
5160a43b0265cddeeb205efe5264f4c3
7f4a6bd2eb1a82d9923e80a24aed4dcce7d7b4c4
describe
'61862' 'info:fdaE20080903_AAACDIfileF20080904_AABVMZ' 'sip-files00016.pdf'
e5760d30442e9fd981f93281e1e958e6
2885b74257525281d4ee02f69e4c97e6447397a7
'2017-03-09T12:51:11-05:00'
describe
'info:fdaE20080903_AAACDIfileF20080904_AABVMZ-norm-0' 'aip-filesF20080904_AABVMZ-norm-0.pdf'
8cbf40949b8b639101cd4e2c803d9b62
6e3842fc6d7fb92b4cf6a2346c8099c7289050d2
describe
normalize
'57662' 'info:fdaE20080903_AAACDIfileF20080904_AABVNA' 'sip-files00016.pro'
3575c83775b7ed241b6155674e3beb02
74a835af5f28cbf3156baf771e88518378ac4841
'2017-03-09T12:52:19-05:00'
describe
'39180' 'info:fdaE20080903_AAACDIfileF20080904_AABVNB' 'sip-files00016.QC.jpg'
92a348c676fad1aaeafb306ea9cc0902
af5518f03452ae3cdceac3c88f4174dcd4968989
describe
'991296' 'info:fdaE20080903_AAACDIfileF20080904_AABVNC' 'sip-files00016.tif'
e9b2d80e344c3fe2325e8f2ad3b3d041
6ca4575e5b28d6f74b995daf3b4fcd561692d266
describe
'2126' 'info:fdaE20080903_AAACDIfileF20080904_AABVND' 'sip-files00016.txt'
43b35180bc6d8fd7291cbcc101b0860c
482aa26b513716d8f9afcbf6778383e6e5f98794
describe
'9255' 'info:fdaE20080903_AAACDIfileF20080904_AABVNE' 'sip-files00016thm.jpg'
35a18a836b58cf9b2fa0a354df31c667
7fac73921b09d9a82f288eb66031296a99464338
describe
'99206' 'info:fdaE20080903_AAACDIfileF20080904_AABVNF' 'sip-files00017.jp2'
8b73daaeb36207fe31afc00e604b19e7
5794575e2a3a801b79d93b56a40b7f5996416bde
describe
'31803' 'info:fdaE20080903_AAACDIfileF20080904_AABVNG' 'sip-files00017.jpg'
f1fa2f954f77a23b5cda0ed83f08aa1e
5d1866e5ddeb59107f3e49232a02a94ade9838b2
describe
'54151' 'info:fdaE20080903_AAACDIfileF20080904_AABVNH' 'sip-files00017.pdf'
d65870a2d8faad5daaf431642acd88d4
90cbbd3e8ade654d9218d41f98b179779e9fc9a3
describe
'info:fdaE20080903_AAACDIfileF20080904_AABVNH-norm-0' 'aip-filesF20080904_AABVNH-norm-0.pdf'
8cbf40949b8b639101cd4e2c803d9b62
6e3842fc6d7fb92b4cf6a2346c8099c7289050d2
describe
'2017-03-09T12:51:45-05:00'
normalize
'5075' 'info:fdaE20080903_AAACDIfileF20080904_AABVNI' 'sip-files00017.pro'
c9e055955edfe386c4aadab8a1502c8c
b95be5fd56d0d56601d21188e539c8e5d7f4fef3
describe
'10111' 'info:fdaE20080903_AAACDIfileF20080904_AABVNJ' 'sip-files00017.QC.jpg'
dd157e6ac6ff01031ed314971ecde350
706f276982255ae75f10e79f3188fee492c89649
describe
'992968' 'info:fdaE20080903_AAACDIfileF20080904_AABVNK' 'sip-files00017.tif'
7f44af524c34bb6eed397873e9cfe28b
8025e23e18519066263a5bd9e4c72d76f819161a
'2017-03-09T12:52:30-05:00'
describe
'498' 'info:fdaE20080903_AAACDIfileF20080904_AABVNL' 'sip-files00017.txt'
155cdcf5b430ef87e04068c54581166b
c8eef732ba24a911cdb5eed02692a07e1d947e86
describe
'3607' 'info:fdaE20080903_AAACDIfileF20080904_AABVNM' 'sip-files00017thm.jpg'
734625dd2962fec34b2df219f3e52253
92e2bf73ea9f67ff5ebce1ba52b0189b55a81030
describe
'118376' 'info:fdaE20080903_AAACDIfileF20080904_AABVNN' 'sip-files00018.jp2'
6e503c98bb36fc272d5d290895ce4e60
eff1b904b88993dafe41c54d63cb64d9c28cda3e
describe
'32340' 'info:fdaE20080903_AAACDIfileF20080904_AABVNO' 'sip-files00018.jpg'
deef4d722903cfcee048399dadd236a3
fadb32a51ae0ffb76c243bd0b9124bb3fd31f9a4
describe
'81943' 'info:fdaE20080903_AAACDIfileF20080904_AABVNP' 'sip-files00018.pdf'
d74d988f70a9b53d785761f46e20c531
7ad0cc6fc508bd3826cfd828ffe4708f75765fe9
describe
'info:fdaE20080903_AAACDIfileF20080904_AABVNP-norm-0' 'aip-filesF20080904_AABVNP-norm-0.pdf'
8cbf40949b8b639101cd4e2c803d9b62
6e3842fc6d7fb92b4cf6a2346c8099c7289050d2
describe
normalize
'7547' 'info:fdaE20080903_AAACDIfileF20080904_AABVNQ' 'sip-files00018.pro'
b791035801f58f84aae363926ff96b66
7786108b5697d5e0e61ad37a768acb97e8a6f469
describe
'8754' 'info:fdaE20080903_AAACDIfileF20080904_AABVNR' 'sip-files00018.QC.jpg'
73f2f5268dc5c512ddacb6cfee151e5a
26e9ec079a1e73738cdfe8cd773d9c9ae1924da8
describe
'988592' 'info:fdaE20080903_AAACDIfileF20080904_AABVNS' 'sip-files00018.tif'
16fff5c6a3bc751f021619ce1807bdac
2574777529771166dac50b45033bb801d313da0a
describe
'506' 'info:fdaE20080903_AAACDIfileF20080904_AABVNT' 'sip-files00018.txt'
859ab9c3332292bec31562be18aed6de
fe9c8388ab6e1cea8a89840bc13a64a2fa47bdaf
describe
'2833' 'info:fdaE20080903_AAACDIfileF20080904_AABVNU' 'sip-files00018thm.jpg'
8667833fe6c13ffaccde021cbf858be7
eb02f18306832fa03994729902638b50af5a50ad
describe
'699521' 'info:fdaE20080903_AAACDIfileF20080904_AABVNV' 'sip-files00019.jp2'
f3d23ce36fa6e8972474b6336454f9e0
f84c1ead8eed31d1d9f4bc4964acb44b458dbce8
describe
'29052' 'info:fdaE20080903_AAACDIfileF20080904_AABVNW' 'sip-files00019.jpg'
a8db82e5f057461a43e682e15a2b7625
c2a5fb000158e531b911b960bfb3e8a601a5f03d
describe
'326612' 'info:fdaE20080903_AAACDIfileF20080904_AABVNX' 'sip-files00019.pdf'
1193f9949b3ac03569bbb87748b9bac7
1306fba6fa1b68f4f1149f56298efcd916dd3ad3
describe
'info:fdaE20080903_AAACDIfileF20080904_AABVNX-norm-0' 'aip-filesF20080904_AABVNX-norm-0.pdf'
8cbf40949b8b639101cd4e2c803d9b62
6e3842fc6d7fb92b4cf6a2346c8099c7289050d2
describe
normalize
'11232' 'info:fdaE20080903_AAACDIfileF20080904_AABVNY' 'sip-files00019.pro'
8d591e69702e7d19607e595b231abc43
9c955072158e6f60a8c39d4cfb3d5a035d85097d
describe
'9333' 'info:fdaE20080903_AAACDIfileF20080904_AABVNZ' 'sip-files00019.QC.jpg'
562b1972a7fc5a48483cce5aeb83e261
98307ae22cc0197f1f9b061379a7369de13db77d
describe
'10832092' 'info:fdaE20080903_AAACDIfileF20080904_AABVOA' 'sip-files00019.tif'
d0f3ee1885a842b77b386e07b6e17217
9dd5bbe2b20b97ccc420cafcd33e2ae3eb115cde
describe
'465' 'info:fdaE20080903_AAACDIfileF20080904_AABVOB' 'sip-files00019.txt'
f8c816d27eb01d998658218d3a11953f
b7a22a906cd58e1878e7096575f4e628e268fb4c
describe
Invalid character
WARNING CODE 'Daitss::Anomaly' Invalid character
'3858' 'info:fdaE20080903_AAACDIfileF20080904_AABVOC' 'sip-files00019thm.jpg'
ddc548beb320b026dc89735c76d6f532
893666bba70e291717b7125c334ed2f31635e057
describe
'108299' 'info:fdaE20080903_AAACDIfileF20080904_AABVOD' 'sip-files00020.jp2'
bbb557ed0ca78e998df0078f72fa4df7
f8acb805abc9a692075820e4d6a85a59fb87adc4
describe
'88153' 'info:fdaE20080903_AAACDIfileF20080904_AABVOE' 'sip-files00020.jpg'
c022603d3e45825c5916187e2d6ef2ba
11bbda5d37ece94de7c625b09e6ae00553a35e63
describe
'46194' 'info:fdaE20080903_AAACDIfileF20080904_AABVOF' 'sip-files00020.pdf'
ae2759188d9f6d43161372f71e80988b
023c829db6c816791ef4b8ff59592c360de11cd6
'2017-03-09T12:52:41-05:00'
describe
'info:fdaE20080903_AAACDIfileF20080904_AABVOF-norm-0' 'aip-filesF20080904_AABVOF-norm-0.pdf'
8cbf40949b8b639101cd4e2c803d9b62
6e3842fc6d7fb92b4cf6a2346c8099c7289050d2
describe
normalize
'20716' 'info:fdaE20080903_AAACDIfileF20080904_AABVOG' 'sip-files00020.pro'
8b883f84935513bd16a5719ef8f85be9
277b023717ff81a79df107b4b7ddb05808a3be14
describe
'26384' 'info:fdaE20080903_AAACDIfileF20080904_AABVOH' 'sip-files00020.QC.jpg'
0de6e7d880a8492eaccaffc5d3e69a0f
bcc59afe8dc6417693b67228930ec6ee64fc5ec6
describe
'955232' 'info:fdaE20080903_AAACDIfileF20080904_AABVOI' 'sip-files00020.tif'
936138cdb0bc6f523c7147db495102cd
8c1ff24ea338c8a3642d309efcb476733bdb6f9e
describe
'755' 'info:fdaE20080903_AAACDIfileF20080904_AABVOJ' 'sip-files00020.txt'
bbf03ee812875b10895bc7c5974e4390
6350a8d605c9e5f0e7f2d3bbd4ad6d880f7da04a
describe
'7144' 'info:fdaE20080903_AAACDIfileF20080904_AABVOK' 'sip-files00020thm.jpg'
d9b32a7c31ed1c86a76d23ddb1c83331
9f7bba35a1c9e3c8e62c11884aca7e73a48ede16
describe
'70971' 'info:fdaE20080903_AAACDIfileF20080904_AABVOL' 'sip-files00021.jp2'
db29d5a2b71a040e8259854fdf68511e
9c9ee1866854bd556d3afbfc415e20e0fdf9d936
describe
'56830' 'info:fdaE20080903_AAACDIfileF20080904_AABVOM' 'sip-files00021.jpg'
370b4cfc63d903b8816d014f88908348
8310028143911b1881385be1f77f922ab77e6517
describe
'30228' 'info:fdaE20080903_AAACDIfileF20080904_AABVON' 'sip-files00021.pdf'
9b66bf5db2a8d769d46c23e922128e67
f316df6d56226fe8eeb96a11f718b1cdba710488
'2017-03-09T12:51:40-05:00'
describe
'info:fdaE20080903_AAACDIfileF20080904_AABVON-norm-0' 'aip-filesF20080904_AABVON-norm-0.pdf'
8cbf40949b8b639101cd4e2c803d9b62
6e3842fc6d7fb92b4cf6a2346c8099c7289050d2
describe
normalize
'14190' 'info:fdaE20080903_AAACDIfileF20080904_AABVOO' 'sip-files00021.pro'
f0c9ec1aff9e42597b2c26d9ac9ab0d1
4ef787d2b0eb333a2f090a2137a8dd297ba2fd5f
describe
'18690' 'info:fdaE20080903_AAACDIfileF20080904_AABVOP' 'sip-files00021.QC.jpg'
038af51ccafc452e62ecd921b022efe1
cc215617b61cfae28b589a55531e6e7fde365c47
describe
'1000484' 'info:fdaE20080903_AAACDIfileF20080904_AABVOQ' 'sip-files00021.tif'
855b96ef15ad98a1552a5d0e859e6d86
904c59af63e269af6593286dc9e9de76f839708e
describe
'521' 'info:fdaE20080903_AAACDIfileF20080904_AABVOR' 'sip-files00021.txt'
7d067c4dfae5c3f65a96201f5ef48598
eada6adc9894501e97b26d229b1e89a9f4c661aa
describe
'5358' 'info:fdaE20080903_AAACDIfileF20080904_AABVOS' 'sip-files00021thm.jpg'
2907a8e3e864eb35963a75527aa6710b
b8c72b593331ca0adee5c6999c2ea233ecc03ec3
describe
'101964' 'info:fdaE20080903_AAACDIfileF20080904_AABVOT' 'sip-files00022.jp2'
92b441d27373b6b704d9a2106a6af569
2485e4607f2922b4cb148d6a8ae3807c90546175
describe
'77368' 'info:fdaE20080903_AAACDIfileF20080904_AABVOU' 'sip-files00022.jpg'
ff0ad366b14c5c8dd4fafadc4a145466
e2182cd8698fcda1003e247996fb22598590e02c
describe
'43372' 'info:fdaE20080903_AAACDIfileF20080904_AABVOV' 'sip-files00022.pdf'
c9d909519659d79ab6c7ee678e429e56
3c0ad9ade0dd2b7f512c5ea929b955ec3a8c5f39
'2017-03-09T12:52:48-05:00'
describe
'info:fdaE20080903_AAACDIfileF20080904_AABVOV-norm-0' 'aip-filesF20080904_AABVOV-norm-0.pdf'
8cbf40949b8b639101cd4e2c803d9b62
6e3842fc6d7fb92b4cf6a2346c8099c7289050d2
describe
normalize
'18211' 'info:fdaE20080903_AAACDIfileF20080904_AABVOW' 'sip-files00022.pro'
ba41903ba28112de755862eab4df73b8
2af903cee60155c8d11cc304c797eb0a54c1eb5d
describe
'23389' 'info:fdaE20080903_AAACDIfileF20080904_AABVOX' 'sip-files00022.QC.jpg'
4f3ecb4e0ad61b3e6a3ba9ea4d76ad93
b0fd57d174dc7d1fcf58f47987d24b72a648c471
describe
'989560' 'info:fdaE20080903_AAACDIfileF20080904_AABVOY' 'sip-files00022.tif'
88f4bead07f642f5e3366540698150aa
a88bc4f7b59bc0bbc5466fe01e4fff0f1fe24fd9
describe
'699' 'info:fdaE20080903_AAACDIfileF20080904_AABVOZ' 'sip-files00022.txt'
df4bdf53610bd3e08a33d5c8700496e3
f3820f47e363b3e0c2dce9e44f70d723c8f5e735
describe
'6194' 'info:fdaE20080903_AAACDIfileF20080904_AABVPA' 'sip-files00022thm.jpg'
a139eb1e33beb7bc3712dd461300f919
b4203192cc5984f6e40b15fa69850bceb993d63f
describe
'117733' 'info:fdaE20080903_AAACDIfileF20080904_AABVPB' 'sip-files00023.jp2'
b72c70d44ce5f8db574295e38282d42d
f15e1308c914b7a2733f6243680747f1e37ba9a4
describe
'88824' 'info:fdaE20080903_AAACDIfileF20080904_AABVPC' 'sip-files00023.jpg'
98bbdf6b8ad1fbbd47938da9b02da9ae
e139854af9f5ea49b230c1d050946cf3e7816a64
describe
'50648' 'info:fdaE20080903_AAACDIfileF20080904_AABVPD' 'sip-files00023.pdf'
2d3ee63f93d325b4eea291116fe62972
cf88ad32c41877d621bbcfccb2f33b0dfbd53e32
describe
'info:fdaE20080903_AAACDIfileF20080904_AABVPD-norm-0' 'aip-filesF20080904_AABVPD-norm-0.pdf'
8cbf40949b8b639101cd4e2c803d9b62
6e3842fc6d7fb92b4cf6a2346c8099c7289050d2
describe
normalize
'23268' 'info:fdaE20080903_AAACDIfileF20080904_AABVPE' 'sip-files00023.pro'
a113d4f902d42fef299f6070800bf7f2
81673b86323daceabc1f33332449d82f3ab39057
describe
'26951' 'info:fdaE20080903_AAACDIfileF20080904_AABVPF' 'sip-files00023.QC.jpg'
d07109011c6364ef4886837d1c407945
27ccb0aeea755b7624b1bf2c0deacc7f018328b7
'2017-03-09T12:51:34-05:00'
describe
'1031312' 'info:fdaE20080903_AAACDIfileF20080904_AABVPG' 'sip-files00023.tif'
1c5be6cf42b6dfc2cfcd1d50efb17761
50ca628571859d4ffa0b901a7f4b6fa9511f2553
describe
'848' 'info:fdaE20080903_AAACDIfileF20080904_AABVPH' 'sip-files00023.txt'
42f578456da0dd9c6e9c5a794d0a1ae0
bc71bfaddae59865e85e71f59e6a8a0890802e80
describe
'7375' 'info:fdaE20080903_AAACDIfileF20080904_AABVPI' 'sip-files00023thm.jpg'
dafccfa701ad908adf2072571090b9ac
a80808063c7c66c24480d3f05efef6c123313297
describe
'164691' 'info:fdaE20080903_AAACDIfileF20080904_AABVPJ' 'sip-files00024.jp2'
ca50bf58301a626e15048019d39db66e
5e4196fbe99314cde648090e38870f6df1e423ba
describe
'147376' 'info:fdaE20080903_AAACDIfileF20080904_AABVPK' 'sip-files00024.jpg'
b69522bf27b793236cec06d5a099a738
796f10dae63712496cf00c514f63a316efe1ccea
'2017-03-09T12:51:50-05:00'
describe
'69714' 'info:fdaE20080903_AAACDIfileF20080904_AABVPL' 'sip-files00024.pdf'
66a55cb75595251e88d0c01cb1f1a520
dc27e297fc9e0270339149a473855738c4fc1345
'2017-03-09T12:51:51-05:00'
describe
'info:fdaE20080903_AAACDIfileF20080904_AABVPL-norm-0' 'aip-filesF20080904_AABVPL-norm-0.pdf'
8cbf40949b8b639101cd4e2c803d9b62
6e3842fc6d7fb92b4cf6a2346c8099c7289050d2
describe
'2017-03-09T12:51:53-05:00'
normalize
'65186' 'info:fdaE20080903_AAACDIfileF20080904_AABVPM' 'sip-files00024.pro'
e1d73d77bf5eaac504ef9aee978f7add
f3c0f109386a68f6196ab82453c8ce65b8d0bdf0
describe
'44181' 'info:fdaE20080903_AAACDIfileF20080904_AABVPN' 'sip-files00024.QC.jpg'
3515265b56d99a13dfb254922dc9da0d
cd753a4e9b5fd16c5f660161a89754b8b4ae8609
describe
'1000360' 'info:fdaE20080903_AAACDIfileF20080904_AABVPO' 'sip-files00024.tif'
29c11b033fc8f0d495ee5ba167c4f960
3d7a2fc7b4f052fe56bd7bf1c1ee2e9fdff3ed6f
describe
'2422' 'info:fdaE20080903_AAACDIfileF20080904_AABVPP' 'sip-files00024.txt'
69300c829b84297ead75e7e774deba10
b0f4c54bc6957c736301a1d34560c697291c2c77
describe
'10524' 'info:fdaE20080903_AAACDIfileF20080904_AABVPQ' 'sip-files00024thm.jpg'
65f01d4a8f1d836b1a2ffdcca720ce75
0b3546f9fb612c6607bfd7135dc581f57bbac2ff
describe
'115964' 'info:fdaE20080903_AAACDIfileF20080904_AABVPR' 'sip-files00025.jp2'
059399cb5ab3b3b3098dfc0a5d07ceef
a768acf5495c1244eec3303733fd8ecbde951572
describe
'98830' 'info:fdaE20080903_AAACDIfileF20080904_AABVPS' 'sip-files00025.jpg'
f9850c5f217762483dbb6d874a423875
4e1de9dc8628d120621447e94e7c33ee58bbd51e
describe
'48681' 'info:fdaE20080903_AAACDIfileF20080904_AABVPT' 'sip-files00025.pdf'
7d814128236f8aaf2808a72a4adaa9d0
6014f9e5f6744e4e1e63014b144d74ca5aa7f811
describe
'info:fdaE20080903_AAACDIfileF20080904_AABVPT-norm-0' 'aip-filesF20080904_AABVPT-norm-0.pdf'
8cbf40949b8b639101cd4e2c803d9b62
6e3842fc6d7fb92b4cf6a2346c8099c7289050d2
describe
normalize
'29702' 'info:fdaE20080903_AAACDIfileF20080904_AABVPU' 'sip-files00025.pro'
adbfa1e4c0b2b78d0ae9bb2bbc8fa38b
114b8fba8a8c41c387d9e3c36c4aedad5753f65c
describe
'31458' 'info:fdaE20080903_AAACDIfileF20080904_AABVPV' 'sip-files00025.QC.jpg'
a46261dbfee9de99c9e4da349609f853
e70ef62cf85984171188af4af4f09eab1d9f0aaf
describe
'1021176' 'info:fdaE20080903_AAACDIfileF20080904_AABVPW' 'sip-files00025.tif'
06ffacc189de1aebdc21b49e859b6615
31a6669bbbb99a24c025dbf7f6f34995f6f3fcec
describe
'1079' 'info:fdaE20080903_AAACDIfileF20080904_AABVPX' 'sip-files00025.txt'
837fc59151ff3ab46d670ade7adda619
285d087db50ca476ca6650dcfb5dab2933de6d3e
describe
'8298' 'info:fdaE20080903_AAACDIfileF20080904_AABVPY' 'sip-files00025thm.jpg'
d6879d2676223429d15e7251e97a4f86
7f9c7167891a4c2a6793f9322d4a0639d366d5b9
describe
'149962' 'info:fdaE20080903_AAACDIfileF20080904_AABVPZ' 'sip-files00026.jp2'
a075ef55c4b1b77af58ad858c6b77587
db3a0d49cf062630ffbe6c9dd5613851dd120b4c
describe
'62181' 'info:fdaE20080903_AAACDIfileF20080904_AABVQA' 'sip-files00026.jpg'
b34fec94f982ef482b477d369a4b4052
46ab204f3e36997e26d7ff51a537e0bf5ecde17f
describe
'59834' 'info:fdaE20080903_AAACDIfileF20080904_AABVQB' 'sip-files00026.pdf'
bab4e164f1ab51fe77a6e8f8850789cc
3ca2753e58290e96cfa576779dd2b642c8fe2652
describe
'info:fdaE20080903_AAACDIfileF20080904_AABVQB-norm-0' 'aip-filesF20080904_AABVQB-norm-0.pdf'
8cbf40949b8b639101cd4e2c803d9b62
6e3842fc6d7fb92b4cf6a2346c8099c7289050d2
describe
normalize
'4705' 'info:fdaE20080903_AAACDIfileF20080904_AABVQC' 'sip-files00026.pro'
6fc8c6e8e31800b3e63a94f6974a2576
75a580b06cafeba70b5929e4183af0de431c6864
describe
'17863' 'info:fdaE20080903_AAACDIfileF20080904_AABVQD' 'sip-files00026.QC.jpg'
7df115395118095da19aa3df87846802
80716ef1bdd38f0f5090a20b8b1d3d1dd8b0ab87
describe
'976012' 'info:fdaE20080903_AAACDIfileF20080904_AABVQE' 'sip-files00026.tif'
b0a792d9f378988c9321dedc9db74388
e062fbdf930dba8de2d3c549c4cde100cd4fe0f8
describe
'479' 'info:fdaE20080903_AAACDIfileF20080904_AABVQF' 'sip-files00026.txt'
3a6bcc2a7290dae402f752dd8240a77a
9c63d276790240a86da5bb7237ac97576237a7c2
describe
'5239' 'info:fdaE20080903_AAACDIfileF20080904_AABVQG' 'sip-files00026thm.jpg'
4b604ffe29df0b9090bbf8d11ea2a9cf
3480cd2cc0d70a0e6a9ce59fc4b9abe30c1dfa10
describe
'164878' 'info:fdaE20080903_AAACDIfileF20080904_AABVQH' 'sip-files00027.jp2'
12368e08fc72a09eb92ff0cfca942dfe
7f27bce2498842448c6ba45f9ffa2262df09d599
describe
'141474' 'info:fdaE20080903_AAACDIfileF20080904_AABVQI' 'sip-files00027.jpg'
465207eccc2e7074fdafa0b96aa1cb18
4f2d1d8395a6c71a6c8d88987fc349ece3e1fc95
describe
'71021' 'info:fdaE20080903_AAACDIfileF20080904_AABVQJ' 'sip-files00027.pdf'
dac553b8f7ef916b5fbc3385f764cc85
aa6718e174d98c21f758991b17890474cfd0dd5a
'2017-03-09T12:51:21-05:00'
describe
'info:fdaE20080903_AAACDIfileF20080904_AABVQJ-norm-0' 'aip-filesF20080904_AABVQJ-norm-0.pdf'
8cbf40949b8b639101cd4e2c803d9b62
6e3842fc6d7fb92b4cf6a2346c8099c7289050d2
describe
'2017-03-09T12:51:22-05:00'
normalize
'63690' 'info:fdaE20080903_AAACDIfileF20080904_AABVQK' 'sip-files00027.pro'
516eb35d21b787601b26c536cc79bcb7
4adfc357c23f459d65c5cfbb6c05bfb357645a50
describe
'43815' 'info:fdaE20080903_AAACDIfileF20080904_AABVQL' 'sip-files00027.QC.jpg'
34f4eaa37bcfcf8dad149985e86320f6
0865184eb5b9086106699ba4d6dec6e2f927fff2
describe
'1014464' 'info:fdaE20080903_AAACDIfileF20080904_AABVQM' 'sip-files00027.tif'
7710cd1a278cccefb32819bee59e23a5
bed1c8e29999836168ee9a022cf3c8d18dfff658
describe
'2352' 'info:fdaE20080903_AAACDIfileF20080904_AABVQN' 'sip-files00027.txt'
b41570a3ed78ec43b7f20db087baa05a
3d6d48e4a96962022f90c621ed0f579e8b505096
describe
'10678' 'info:fdaE20080903_AAACDIfileF20080904_AABVQO' 'sip-files00027thm.jpg'
05ebd0e2a6ae8ea5d30fd62c9b76326f
fb10b6acbbfc7b167652e249458029149956081f
describe
'66228' 'info:fdaE20080903_AAACDIfileF20080904_AABVQP' 'sip-files00028.jp2'
2c2bdca65df7c509904f69d4ebb3e6e6
e3cd27060d0a392ba7789edc52ba530db9daee01
describe
'60103' 'info:fdaE20080903_AAACDIfileF20080904_AABVQQ' 'sip-files00028.jpg'
890e7912c8db71cf5924d77e25a16baf
0758979c5ef044bb46c66af32b209c7e21a0f89c
describe
'25940' 'info:fdaE20080903_AAACDIfileF20080904_AABVQR' 'sip-files00028.pdf'
5ffc3187c57bbc61b2b81537c622c71d
6855caa03d4315bd12a5ae2fc68d096910544cc4
describe
'info:fdaE20080903_AAACDIfileF20080904_AABVQR-norm-0' 'aip-filesF20080904_AABVQR-norm-0.pdf'
8cbf40949b8b639101cd4e2c803d9b62
6e3842fc6d7fb92b4cf6a2346c8099c7289050d2
describe
normalize
'8820' 'info:fdaE20080903_AAACDIfileF20080904_AABVQS' 'sip-files00028.pro'
daedb6fae91cb79acb7e67e933992ef1
f236780ecd8f8b906eb72a17fb15f3b0e1e096f8
describe
'21762' 'info:fdaE20080903_AAACDIfileF20080904_AABVQT' 'sip-files00028.QC.jpg'
08d94112359a061c9a72488a530dbef0
f1bc847b4a49df3574e2e56caf3f1853e7f1b5f5
describe
'1000208' 'info:fdaE20080903_AAACDIfileF20080904_AABVQU' 'sip-files00028.tif'
d57ce21d15d0d22bbdc95f4328e6b1e9
2f53ddc43741853fc8d95f0ac8d1c177de04cd72
describe
'367' 'info:fdaE20080903_AAACDIfileF20080904_AABVQV' 'sip-files00028.txt'
6a42d5ad6af553a218d580196fab4545
4bd3fdbb85837a1ae6dbcfa6576bc7df3e4d218b
describe
'6657' 'info:fdaE20080903_AAACDIfileF20080904_AABVQW' 'sip-files00028thm.jpg'
5ac048adbf44c256b46d7bad02750422
1f51cbcba5b33f0092a1ee399fa3ca99276632d8
describe
'173753' 'info:fdaE20080903_AAACDIfileF20080904_AABVQX' 'sip-files00029.jp2'
542ac7254e3813392d4e3d54231f0031
eff25da99d505439536ff10fad31e82050b41bf2
describe
'150671' 'info:fdaE20080903_AAACDIfileF20080904_AABVQY' 'sip-files00029.jpg'
f6e8a0fdcdb1fccab5040278702980ab
7efcc4a2b6247cf30d89ab8e027582c6d7183a00
describe
'74303' 'info:fdaE20080903_AAACDIfileF20080904_AABVQZ' 'sip-files00029.pdf'
7812f6e6d56a0226fde0bec21f7f0023
731804c461aa4541ef240a9905035a5878ba00d5
describe
'info:fdaE20080903_AAACDIfileF20080904_AABVQZ-norm-0' 'aip-filesF20080904_AABVQZ-norm-0.pdf'
8cbf40949b8b639101cd4e2c803d9b62
6e3842fc6d7fb92b4cf6a2346c8099c7289050d2
describe
normalize
'68477' 'info:fdaE20080903_AAACDIfileF20080904_AABVRA' 'sip-files00029.pro'
07c4684b40c012000f2d0a042d364dd2
376f00ffba70b2e823bbcfa081e75891dd9801c3
describe
'45838' 'info:fdaE20080903_AAACDIfileF20080904_AABVRB' 'sip-files00029.QC.jpg'
a0555643d2f91fd59b7c1b352ada8f6f
49a72b7299bfd7d8bf001d1f48b394399649a5d6
describe
'1025204' 'info:fdaE20080903_AAACDIfileF20080904_AABVRC' 'sip-files00029.tif'
b3a851acd4ab1be4991fb21a509e4a6e
b01a4324f199e66cf987faaa33644633158f19ab
describe
'2513' 'info:fdaE20080903_AAACDIfileF20080904_AABVRD' 'sip-files00029.txt'
10652ec2f98dd4e70a96b0de0a2e3b7d
8de5492392e29989cca017c5da772e36dda75a67
describe
'10795' 'info:fdaE20080903_AAACDIfileF20080904_AABVRE' 'sip-files00029thm.jpg'
f775116d882115139e7e6341905818b9
bf53f9e90936aa2096a1d6e520ee6f9b24252b59
describe
'184362' 'info:fdaE20080903_AAACDIfileF20080904_AABVRF' 'sip-files00030.jp2'
6876a79fa578fe87ec09d9bb54fda3d7
c485cd5038041861eee51c45dc3181ce456f708b
describe
'160779' 'info:fdaE20080903_AAACDIfileF20080904_AABVRG' 'sip-files00030.jpg'
b434e4f56af94f72df0c0295aff4986a
00d039d45cd67ca02dff0287d136aae03d6f2fe8
describe
'77183' 'info:fdaE20080903_AAACDIfileF20080904_AABVRH' 'sip-files00030.pdf'
a25b282598255045bdb21f28b09dba17
c703de7e139e4708e0ca5f47d81d9de501076495
describe
'info:fdaE20080903_AAACDIfileF20080904_AABVRH-norm-0' 'aip-filesF20080904_AABVRH-norm-0.pdf'
8cbf40949b8b639101cd4e2c803d9b62
6e3842fc6d7fb92b4cf6a2346c8099c7289050d2
describe
normalize
'72286' 'info:fdaE20080903_AAACDIfileF20080904_AABVRI' 'sip-files00030.pro'
a45c31d189ba0fdd0903616acc7a9ae9
0abf488b164432405f19dc22b4b93d6ba2b65e4f
'2017-03-09T12:52:24-05:00'
describe
'48021' 'info:fdaE20080903_AAACDIfileF20080904_AABVRJ' 'sip-files00030.QC.jpg'
bec0be5a9b57b7465d4b9541ccac4b07
b8630342d23c607aa5b89c52047b0e69b6fb3baf
describe
'1011696' 'info:fdaE20080903_AAACDIfileF20080904_AABVRK' 'sip-files00030.tif'
1b76b580cfef2d72e244092706f5a6df
cc4f3ec4ad7c5b48e91b8c76cc39daa46acb1d43
describe
'2655' 'info:fdaE20080903_AAACDIfileF20080904_AABVRL' 'sip-files00030.txt'
afff7a0d2e41c72994552befa8cc8b33
d69f32140bb143c61eca88df0c2b3212328b501d
describe
'11163' 'info:fdaE20080903_AAACDIfileF20080904_AABVRM' 'sip-files00030thm.jpg'
e5b70f7a8db353d48cb4ad1bc69e3509
1d0e46bdf5f096ecf469c96a361d9ae619122439
describe
'136596' 'info:fdaE20080903_AAACDIfileF20080904_AABVRN' 'sip-files00031.jp2'
87030a4b91ca8a6ce552408fcae2df31
3ec7c6825a981d668ab2b8e441e222cc84943103
describe
'42510' 'info:fdaE20080903_AAACDIfileF20080904_AABVRO' 'sip-files00031.jpg'
9ea010545bd4314c1013d5071690ac54
9c58796debe1191a584fac9caa71eefb07f8103b
describe
'78870' 'info:fdaE20080903_AAACDIfileF20080904_AABVRP' 'sip-files00031.pdf'
bfdc96a0a947d5ab4a778f0bef173443
687fa605e8ae564959a3c8bcfa0696ca9ab4e11e
describe
'info:fdaE20080903_AAACDIfileF20080904_AABVRP-norm-0' 'aip-filesF20080904_AABVRP-norm-0.pdf'
8cbf40949b8b639101cd4e2c803d9b62
6e3842fc6d7fb92b4cf6a2346c8099c7289050d2
describe
normalize
'11448' 'info:fdaE20080903_AAACDIfileF20080904_AABVRQ' 'sip-files00031.pro'
a57e76de08239f915758b177b8bf2e9a
a94502a9e25a551899c30d2dad666b049f942408
describe
'12240' 'info:fdaE20080903_AAACDIfileF20080904_AABVRR' 'sip-files00031.QC.jpg'
b13cf867cd3d0c8d4b679500b760bf39
82b930fee0bb704474baf3f027ca8ec8d0169409
describe
'1013736' 'info:fdaE20080903_AAACDIfileF20080904_AABVRS' 'sip-files00031.tif'
b908eb07543ff9e90c0fbba98ad6798d
d9455ef563e8ba42786ef737ed989641f423615e
describe
'500' 'info:fdaE20080903_AAACDIfileF20080904_AABVRT' 'sip-files00031.txt'
fc0bb85eb98e518a3eeccffbc12a9cd4
62a17366e90fbb5c2b62ac128e6d5f46d76b69a9
describe
Invalid character
Invalid character
'3827' 'info:fdaE20080903_AAACDIfileF20080904_AABVRU' 'sip-files00031thm.jpg'
b6de822674164900a769da0facdd222b
6996e6cc80cacef6ba274bc6121902eb4335c0a9
describe
'73327' 'info:fdaE20080903_AAACDIfileF20080904_AABVRV' 'sip-files00032.jp2'
99d1054b7a5ba9009efc6780e0786137
d213f1a0e5ba7a81e82d4ce95a38c046f9ebcf97
describe
'68851' 'info:fdaE20080903_AAACDIfileF20080904_AABVRW' 'sip-files00032.jpg'
78e9ee236f3706fe64986590309cf039
5ca1503b535e437721e9176c6ea50dcfe682d6e2
describe
'29791' 'info:fdaE20080903_AAACDIfileF20080904_AABVRX' 'sip-files00032.pdf'
d663cc1066098b7e35807485a22ccb3e
e2fad01b2ca2d81bd8fd8aaae039c6aeb50e009d
describe
'info:fdaE20080903_AAACDIfileF20080904_AABVRX-norm-0' 'aip-filesF20080904_AABVRX-norm-0.pdf'
8cbf40949b8b639101cd4e2c803d9b62
6e3842fc6d7fb92b4cf6a2346c8099c7289050d2
describe
normalize
'3335' 'info:fdaE20080903_AAACDIfileF20080904_AABVRY' 'sip-files00032.pro'
b6620d4a87d0f18a1911c641d0681634
5e20378631761fb294c16b667523048e7491cda7
describe
'22159' 'info:fdaE20080903_AAACDIfileF20080904_AABVRZ' 'sip-files00032.QC.jpg'
6c515c54cb8294bf51749e56cc1a248c
0d70756cc1ca6d2d87857da1af7f8f486eec333b
describe
'977160' 'info:fdaE20080903_AAACDIfileF20080904_AABVSA' 'sip-files00032.tif'
a140fbc25a8096355dacf486de7b33f1
218c44c72030cca0a4806f70cbc70282fee3a0d7
describe
'154' 'info:fdaE20080903_AAACDIfileF20080904_AABVSB' 'sip-files00032.txt'
893458b29eb3cc9707783f0b1988c34d
c950f5e6c134354a027c08e5a856d894871fe548
describe
Invalid character
Invalid character
'7138' 'info:fdaE20080903_AAACDIfileF20080904_AABVSC' 'sip-files00032thm.jpg'
1bcfe36af56704175f28c733c1476f42
7450d37b2a7a56b6a25a3f00bad977555ed1bbe2
describe
'179204' 'info:fdaE20080903_AAACDIfileF20080904_AABVSD' 'sip-files00033.jp2'
b0ed40b93d7ff0a91e9652e974c19066
81ef6164d44a9dbeeba758b413a8f50132c2304f
describe
'152289' 'info:fdaE20080903_AAACDIfileF20080904_AABVSE' 'sip-files00033.jpg'
cc335e8b71341598b4b6a029fa8d2b2d
bda1f00f5989e7b253667d2a98abaacc2e0c6336
describe
'75272' 'info:fdaE20080903_AAACDIfileF20080904_AABVSF' 'sip-files00033.pdf'
843d8b23ba38a2c717a936112a48a171
bcdb34c21e5cab4ea143a44c41e23686ce5f9796
'2017-03-09T12:51:35-05:00'
describe
'info:fdaE20080903_AAACDIfileF20080904_AABVSF-norm-0' 'aip-filesF20080904_AABVSF-norm-0.pdf'
8cbf40949b8b639101cd4e2c803d9b62
6e3842fc6d7fb92b4cf6a2346c8099c7289050d2
describe
normalize
'69736' 'info:fdaE20080903_AAACDIfileF20080904_AABVSG' 'sip-files00033.pro'
29cfd52acf1377384fcd127c818f5c2b
865387c28c925d590658b8745064dcdb8d52f02d
describe
'45457' 'info:fdaE20080903_AAACDIfileF20080904_AABVSH' 'sip-files00033.QC.jpg'
24ef6b28972720fb17b9fa8c76f07b15
f1f5088e871fcc5167a9443053a1a0541884f359
describe
'1036996' 'info:fdaE20080903_AAACDIfileF20080904_AABVSI' 'sip-files00033.tif'
1aa4a045a4dd376572ad0dd5c25e10e2
ecf341d09b794b5c1a647170342b414c30c6954e
describe
'2571' 'info:fdaE20080903_AAACDIfileF20080904_AABVSJ' 'sip-files00033.txt'
001e49e619ee9957b2bb8dc309c3f01a
30416b78924669f1e1c0efbe262fe3df756139a9
describe
'10941' 'info:fdaE20080903_AAACDIfileF20080904_AABVSK' 'sip-files00033thm.jpg'
f088ccb815eee2c8d1a54d4306dce280
2374b98a4ca88ee3998bd3cc8cb5e4a389d4768e
describe
'79466' 'info:fdaE20080903_AAACDIfileF20080904_AABVSL' 'sip-files00034.jp2'
628be0e8cf88050d451126a078d5b505
96d14425d48d52347155252669f8a5c13869aa89
describe
'29316' 'info:fdaE20080903_AAACDIfileF20080904_AABVSM' 'sip-files00034.jpg'
b810327a7afb0df32182d7dc3d0d1b3c
b4172db5d77e4e9416d8f4a273ae14eaa7815106
describe
'41522' 'info:fdaE20080903_AAACDIfileF20080904_AABVSN' 'sip-files00034.pdf'
9b8079ba49ac368659763ba931947daf
3310851d466133e9241e56a20c83ef2193f3097d
'2017-03-09T12:52:02-05:00'
describe
'info:fdaE20080903_AAACDIfileF20080904_AABVSN-norm-0' 'aip-filesF20080904_AABVSN-norm-0.pdf'
8cbf40949b8b639101cd4e2c803d9b62
6e3842fc6d7fb92b4cf6a2346c8099c7289050d2
describe
normalize
'4355' 'info:fdaE20080903_AAACDIfileF20080904_AABVSO' 'sip-files00034.pro'
ffad8bd0eb4e420738d1380021dd5f48
bfb1a44e055e66d21dd30190466c33c8fdaaa4f0
describe
'8688' 'info:fdaE20080903_AAACDIfileF20080904_AABVSP' 'sip-files00034.QC.jpg'
0dde8a88c3af62151fd268e4409f89c3
d063aa4bbb42be66af0cc12ac402419f901096f7
describe
'982288' 'info:fdaE20080903_AAACDIfileF20080904_AABVSQ' 'sip-files00034.tif'
53c1932f86354daf413cf4a7f77187c4
0808808e375a22c151dc71a371e27213d8221046
describe
'398' 'info:fdaE20080903_AAACDIfileF20080904_AABVSR' 'sip-files00034.txt'
e3ecc346f7ee67f8d07e790c4e5043d4
1394224a3e988efdc140728cc395e03cfe661345
describe
Invalid character
Invalid character
'2984' 'info:fdaE20080903_AAACDIfileF20080904_AABVSS' 'sip-files00034thm.jpg'
c6fb6182af1d197af9ab556c8b8cdd3e
6371b632f078df6a381183860287d0c43a2918df
describe
'75378' 'info:fdaE20080903_AAACDIfileF20080904_AABVST' 'sip-files00035.jp2'
257d734bfb5427114de0926b7b4ad258
2f09b1c9aaed08b15d14a5822b9672c51dae9f16
describe
'73319' 'info:fdaE20080903_AAACDIfileF20080904_AABVSU' 'sip-files00035.jpg'
9b0b4e17d07020bcbdf79a25a4086b1b
83260faa1940150e54a6f7177fe21df9fe462dd3
describe
'31531' 'info:fdaE20080903_AAACDIfileF20080904_AABVSV' 'sip-files00035.pdf'
24bd885df78988d16f252b4f810288ba
2aedd745c5c9e6b74c7974252c4f27bcf1aa0778
describe
'info:fdaE20080903_AAACDIfileF20080904_AABVSV-norm-0' 'aip-filesF20080904_AABVSV-norm-0.pdf'
8cbf40949b8b639101cd4e2c803d9b62
6e3842fc6d7fb92b4cf6a2346c8099c7289050d2
describe
normalize
'6154' 'info:fdaE20080903_AAACDIfileF20080904_AABVSW' 'sip-files00035.pro'
3de86e5da86a080f8302be215f7d4a62
ab62e8cc428d8d8a0325ca726f651ea13420c716
describe
'25237' 'info:fdaE20080903_AAACDIfileF20080904_AABVSX' 'sip-files00035.QC.jpg'
0b2f67d2dae3052eee33d84881815247
4d636061ec31dd891a03b34fe33815a3ed7fa5b1
describe
'992452' 'info:fdaE20080903_AAACDIfileF20080904_AABVSY' 'sip-files00035.tif'
ab5fd4f3ce30b2ae2f38880d17031d35
d97c9c9072467e0e2d33848e74fbcc83aecd8f04
describe
'292' 'info:fdaE20080903_AAACDIfileF20080904_AABVSZ' 'sip-files00035.txt'
2da5252bd71c4f2e26f0816cace6efb0
db3c8277df5fdf3383e2b47521f539300a7573c6
describe
Invalid character
Invalid character
'7680' 'info:fdaE20080903_AAACDIfileF20080904_AABVTA' 'sip-files00035thm.jpg'
f10116f0c0e97de79d9937584004e5c4
1a2ef0a65c597da49b410fdced155871a8d4f029
describe
'89604' 'info:fdaE20080903_AAACDIfileF20080904_AABVTB' 'sip-files00036.jp2'
5031c35d93ee11e3ab7330848762e396
f6ff17472ec35d192e2631b21c6b499698862af8
describe
'43976' 'info:fdaE20080903_AAACDIfileF20080904_AABVTC' 'sip-files00036.jpg'
e1f0a6d40d5cb3055a7bb6689cd75e81
e2593198ede687ba0c44ead40dd2ef55ab1c43a6
describe
'35683' 'info:fdaE20080903_AAACDIfileF20080904_AABVTD' 'sip-files00036.pdf'
37729a9032ca0ab40dd54c3594eb4a29
76c6005bb8410c4ffc7bfe022ef9281a0c251ca7
describe
'info:fdaE20080903_AAACDIfileF20080904_AABVTD-norm-0' 'aip-filesF20080904_AABVTD-norm-0.pdf'
8cbf40949b8b639101cd4e2c803d9b62
6e3842fc6d7fb92b4cf6a2346c8099c7289050d2
describe
normalize
'3601' 'info:fdaE20080903_AAACDIfileF20080904_AABVTE' 'sip-files00036.pro'
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PAGE 1

STATE OF FLORIDA DEPARTMENT OF NATURAL RESOURCES Elton J. Gissendanner, Executive Director DIVISION OF RESOURCE MANAGEMENT Art Wilde, Director BUREAU OF GEOLOGY Walter Schmidt, Chief Leaflet No. 14 GEOLOGY OF THE STATE PARKS IN THE FLORIDA KEYS by Ed Lane Published for the FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY TALLAHASSEE 1986 I

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ii

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DEPARTMENT OF NATURAL RESOURCES BOB GRAHAM Governor GEORGE FIRESTONE JIM SMITH Secretary of State Attorney General BILL GUNTER GERALD A. LEWIS Treasurer Comptroller RALPH D. TURLINGTON DOYLE CONNER Commissioner of Education Commissioner of Agriculture ELTON J. GISSENDANNER Executive Director iii

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iv

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Printed for the FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY Tallahassee 1986 M.-_::~_ --

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TABLE OF CONTENTS Page Acknowledgements ...................................... viii Geological History ........................................ 1 Environment .......................................... 5 State Parks Visitors' Information ................................. 15 John Pennekamp Coral Reef State Park ................. 15 Lignumvitae Key State Botanical Site ................... 18 Indian Key State Historical Site ........................ 20 Long Key State Recreation Area ........................ 21 Bahia Honda State Recreation Area ..................... 24 Selected Bibliography .................................... 28 vi

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FIGURES Figure Page 1 Map of the Florida Keys, showing State parks and extent of the Key Largo Limestone and the Miami Limestone ... 2 2 Oblique view of the Floridan Plateau .................. 4 3 Mangrove trees, showing thickly tangled prop roots...... 8 4 Mangrove seedlings in the process of colonizing a shallow lime-mud bank ................................... 9 5 Aerial view of part of John Pennekamp Park ........... 10 6 Gumbolimbo tree .................................. 11 7 Florida Poisontree ................................ 11 8 West Indies Mahogany tree ......................... 12 9 Mastic tree ................. ..................... 12 10 Jamaica Dogwood ................................ 13 11 Pigeon Plum tree ................................. 13 12 Florida Strangler Fig .............................. 14 13 Lignumvitae tree ................................. 14 14 John Pennekamp Coral Reef State Park, showing points of interest on the reef tract ......................... 16 15 Map of John Pennekamp Coral Reef State Park ........ 17 16 Map of Lignumvitae Key State Botanical Site and Indian Key State Historical Site ........................... 19 17 Aerial view of Indian Key ........................... 22 18 Map of Indian Key showing archeological sites.......... 23 19 Ocean-facing beach at Long Key showing erosion ....... 25 20 Map of Long Key State Recreation Area ............... 26 21 Map of Bahia Honda State Recreation Area ............ 27 vii

PAGE 8

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS The author gratefully acknowledges the assistance of the following Rorida park personnel for the information and photographs that they provided: Dr. Renate Skinner, Major Russell Danser, Mark Yelvington, and Larry Gavagni. viii

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LEAFLET 14 1 GEOLOGY OF THE STATE PARKS IN THE FLORIDA KEYS by Ed Lane The chain of sun-drenched islands of the Florida Keys and associated coral reefs are unique in the continental United States. There are five state parks in the Keys, each with its own special features that will enhance a visit to this subtropical realm. The state parks are: John Pennekamp Coral Reef, Lignumvitae Key, Indian Key, Long Key, and Bahia Honda (Figure 1). The geological history of the Florida Keys is an interesting story that will add to one's enjoyment of these parks. The Florida Keys lie along an arc from Miami to Key West, a distance of about 135 miles. The islands have been divided into Upper and Lower Keys, based on their orientations and on the differences between the two types of limestone that compose them. The Upper Keys, composed of the Key Largo Limestone, extend from Biscayne Bay southwest to Big Pine Key. The Lower Keys, made of the Miami Limestone, encompass Big Pine Key to Key West (Figure 1). Figure 1 also shows the distinctive orientations which characterize the Upper and Lower Keys. The Upper Keys are oriented in a linear northeast-southwest direction, while the Lower Keys are oriented perpendicular to them, in a northwest-southeast direction. The reasons for their orientations are discussed below. GEOLOGICAL HISTORY The Florida peninsula is the emergent portion of a wide, relatively flat geologic feature called the Floridan Plateau, which forms a rampart between the deep waters of the Gulf of Mexico and the Atlantic Ocean (Figure 2). The Florida peninsula is located on the eastern side of the plateau. The edge of the plateau lies over 100 miles west of Tampa, while on the east it lies only three or four miles off the coast from Miami to Palm Beach. Near the southern rim of the plateau's escarpment lies a fringeline of living and dead coral reefs. The dead coral reefs form the islands of the Florida Keys. The edge of the Floridan Plateau, marked by the 300-feet depth contour line, lies four to eight miles south of the Keys. Today, living coral reefs grow in the shallow waters seaward of the Keys. This environ-

PAGE 10

2 BUREAU OF GEOLOGY I KEY LARGO LIMESTONE. Upper Keys. [ : MIAMI LIMESTONE. Lower Keys w STATE PARK M --3oo Water depth, feet below sea level. i 0 a to Miles S co I ' ' SJOHN PENNEKAMP LIGNUMVITAE KEYA ) ,* INDIAN KEY V LONG KEY SBANIA HOONDAý D0 -r Figure 1. The Florida Keys, showing locations of the State parks, and the extent of the Key Largo Limestone and the Miami Limestone geological formations.

PAGE 11

LEAFLET 14 3 ment is ideal for the growth of coral: a shallow-water shelf, subtropical latitude, and the warm Gulf Stream nearby. The geological history of the Florida Keys began about three million years ago, when a shallow sea covered what is now south Florida. During the next 2.8 million years, often called the Pleistocene Ice Ages, world sea levels underwent many fluctuations of several hundred feet, both above and below present sea level, in response to the waxing and waning of the great glaciers. Colonies of coral became established in the shallow sea along the rim of the broad, flat Floridan Plateau. The subtropical climate allowed the corals to proliferate, forming reefs. As sea levels fluctuated the corals maintained footholds along the edge of the plateau: their reefs grew upward when sea levels rose, and their colonies retreated to lower depths along the plateau's rim when sea levels fell. During times of rising sea levels, dead reefs provided good substrates for new coral growth. In this manner, during successive phases of growth, the Key Largo Limestone accumulated up to 200-feet thick in places. The Key Largo Limestone is a white to tan limestone that is primarily the skeletal remains of corals, with invertebrate shells, marine plant and algal debris, and lime-sand. The Key Largo Limestone varies irregularly in thickness from about 75 feet to over 200 feet. In the Lower Keys the Key Largo Limestone is covered by the Miami Limestone. The last major drop in sea level exposed the ancient reefs, which are the present Keys. During reef growth, carbonate sand banks periodically accumulated behind the reef in environments similar to the Bahamas today. One such lime-sand bank covered the southwestern end of the coral reefs and, when sea level last dropped, the exposed lime-sand or ooid bank formed the Lower Keys. This white to light tan granular rock, the Miami Limestone, is composed of tiny ooliths, lime-sand and shells. Ooliths may be up to 2.0 mm in diameter and are made of concentric layers of calcium carbonate deposited around a nucleus of sand, shell, or other foreign matter. Throughout the Lower Keys the Miami Limestone lies on top of the coralline Key Largo Limestone, and varies from a few feet up to 35 feet in thickness. The northwest-southeast aligned channels between islands of the Lower Keys were cut in the broad, soft, oolite bank by tidal currents. Then, as today, the currents flowed rapidly into and out of the shallow bay behind the reefs, keeping the channels scoured clean. Exposures of the Key Largo Limestone and Miami Limestone can be seen in many places along the Keys: in canal cuts, at shorelines, and in construction spoil piles.

PAGE 12

4 BUREAU OF GEOLOGY x -300 Depth in feet below sea level. -. Edge of Floridan Plateau x -300 Not 4to sale. : X -50 -50 x .AMPA -300 x /~,.x A/ S:-200 x.-4,ooo0 .".. -.ýX0300 w"a of3-10,00 x/ GMLF of MEXICOFigure 2. Oblique view of the Floridan Plateau, showing the islands of the Florida Keys fringing its southern rim.

PAGE 13

LEAFLET 14 5 ENVIRONMENT The climate of the Florida Keys is subtropical to tropical, with rare, brief, below-freezing temperatures. The plants, animals, and ecosystems are a blend of temperate and tropical species. Because the Keys receive some of the lowest amounts of rainfall in Florida, because they are surrounded by salt water, and because the rocks of the Keys are permeable, obtaining adequate supplies of fresh water has always been a problem. There are no reliable natural sources of potable groundwater, although some small, unpredictable and fluctuating lenses of fresh-to-brackish water occur at shallow depths. Fresh water must be obtained by the pioneers' technique of capturing rain runoff in cisterns, by importation via the pipeline along US 1, or by desalinization. Elevations over most of the Keys are less than 10 feet above mean sea level, although Key Largo and Key West have small areas that rise slightly over 15 feet. The islands slope very gradually up from the sea to flattened, gently rounded tops. Relief is slight on the bedrock surfaces, seldom exceeding one or two feet. Irregularities of the rock surfaces are a result of the heterogeneous topography of the coral reefs that created the islands, and also the result of erosion and solution of the limestone rocks after exposure above the sea. Solution features, such as pitted and pinnacled surfaces, occur everywhere on the Keys. Sinkholes, up to several feet in diameter and several feet deep, are abundant but many are filled with peat or carbonate sediments, which masks them from casual detection. Vegetation preferentially takes root in them, providing clues to their location. Compared to the rest of Florida, there is very little quartz sand on the Keys. Most of the sand is of carbonate origin, not quartz sand. Carbonate sand is derived from the erosion of limestone, from particles precipitated in water, or as by-products in the life processes of some marine plants and animals. A few islands, notably Long Key and Bahia Honda, have beaches of loose carbonate sand that veneers the bedrock; most other beaches are exposed, pitted and pinnacled limestone. Extensive commercial development and construction has resulted in large quantities of crushed limestone "fill" covering many areas of the Keys. The subtropical Florida Keys present somewhat of a paradox with respect to vegetation. In contrast to the usual picture of tropical, verdant rainforests and luxuriant plant cover, large areas of the islands present

PAGE 14

6 BUREAU OF GEOLOGY bare, rocky surfaces or sparse grass cover. Several factors combine to create a stressful environment for many types of plants. Top soil, in the usual sense, is almost non-existent on the islands. The "soil" consists of weathering byproducts of limestone or carbonate debris, which provides few nutrients and limited rooting material. The mean annual rainfall for the Keys is the lowest of any part of Florida, averaging as much as 50 percent less than the wettest areas of the State. Rainfall on the Keys decreases from about 50 inches per year at Key Largo to as little as 25 inches per year at Key West. In addition, the rainfall is rapidly lost through high evaporation or it readily percolates downward through the few feet of porous rock to the underlying brackish water table. Any plant attempting to colonize the islands must also be salt-tolerant, since the atmosphere is laden with salt spray. These conditions restrict the types of plants that can grow on the islands, and they curtail the growth of the plants that do gain footholds. The foundations of the islands are ancient, dead coral reefs. However, more recent changes in the Keys are the result of natural and biological forces acting as geological agents, which are constantly at odds in adding to or eroding the islands. Perhaps the most important constructional biological agents are mangrove trees, which are ubiquitous in the Keys. Mangroves are salt-tolerant trees that thrive in the tidal zones along subtropical and tropical coastlines (Figure 3). In south Florida and the Keys mangroves are one of the most important components in the coastal marsh ecosystems. Figures 3, 4 and 5 illustrate the effects of mangroves along the islands' shorelines. A mangrove's thick tangle of aerial prop roots act as a baffle that catches and holds sediments, from both landward and seaward directions. Figure 4 shows a carbonate mud bank forming around a stand of mangroves. The lime mud accumulating in shallow water (lighter toned) is an ideal substrate for young mangrove seedlings, seen here in progressively younger generations offshore, reaching to join the main island to the small mangrove island in the right background. In this typical fashion, mangroves stabilize shorelines and add new land to the Keys. The labyrinthine mangrove islands and tidal channels shown in Figure 5 are the result of such mangrove growth and sediment accumulation. Conversely, mangrove roots also provide convenient supports for new colonies of oysters, which may provide rock foundations for future generations of mangroves.

PAGE 15

LEAFLET 14 7 Some marine animals are intensively destructive to the limestone islands, and a significant portion of modern erosion on the rock coasts of the Keys has been attributed to the direct action of organisms that bore and burrow into the rocks. Marine animals whose growth and feeding requirements are destructive include certain sponges, worms, barnacles, clams, echinoids, and chitons. Many of these animals can be seen by exploring along the rocky shorelines of the islands. The pinnacles and pits of the limestone should be examined closely, however, because some of the animals' camouflage blends with the rocks. Hurricanes and tropical storms are agents of destruction, altering exposed shorelines by erosion, salting the land by storm-surge flooding, and damaging the coastal marshes that act as buffer zones between high land and sea. While rains associated with them bring large amounts of fresh water to the region, from man's viewpoint they tend to be more destructive than useful. STATE PARKS The Florida Keys are geologically and botanically unique in North America. The vegetation of the Keys is of West Indian, or Caribbean, origin. Extensive mangrove swamps fringe the Keys, while tropical hardwood hammocks cover upland areas. A great variety of trees and shrubs are found in the hammocks, including species with exotic sounding names, such as gumbolimbo, Florida poisontree, mahogany, mastic, Jamaica dogwood, pigeon plum, strangler fig, and lignumvitae (Figures 6 to 13). During Florida's colonial period, many stands of these tropical trees were felled to supply commercial and shipbuilding demands of various countries. In order to preserve and protect the remaining populations of plants and animals, Florida's state park lands are managed to appear as they did when the first Europeans arrived. Consumptive uses, including hunting, livestock grazing and timber removal, are not permitted. Florida's state parks fulfill an important purpose as representative examples of "Original Natural Florida."

PAGE 16

c0 on Figure 3. Mangrove trees, showing thickly tangled prop roots. Note the many mangrove seedlings sprouting in the shallow water. Photo by Dr. Renate Skinner.

PAGE 17

,,, t , ;..io ., rFigure 4. Mangrove seedlings in the process of colonizing a shallow limemud bank (the light-toned band across middle of picture). In time the small mangrove island in the background will be joined to the main island, on the left. Photo by the author. (0

PAGE 18

'-4CFigure 5. Aerial view of part of John Pennekamp park. The labyrinth oftidal channels through the mangroves serve an important function as anursery in the ecosystem of the Keys, providing food and shelter to manymarine animals. Another important function of such mangrove jungles thatfringe coastlines is to protect the shorelines from erosion. Photo by Dr.Renate Skinner.

PAGE 19

LEAFLET 14 11 Figure 6. The gumbolimbo tree (West Indian Birch) (Bursera simaruba) has smooth bark, is up to 60 feet high, with a trunk up to three feet in diameter. The fruit is rounded, triangular, in clusters, with a thick, dark red covering (from Fla. Div. of Forestry, 1980). Figure 7. The Florida Poisontree (Hog Gum) (Metopium toxiferum) has thin, reddish or orange-brown bark, often spotted from exuded dried gum which has caustic properties. It grows up to 40 feet high and resembles the nonpoisonous gumbolimbo. WARNING: Precautions should be taken inridentifying this tree, as it is as poisonous as poison ivy. All parts of this tree act as a contact skin-poison to many people (from Fla. Div. of Forestry, 1980).

PAGE 20

12 BUREAU OF GEOLOGY Figure 8. The West Indies Mahogany (Meliaceae = Chinaberry Family) grows to 50 feet high, up to two feet in diameter, with thick, reddish-brown, scaly bark. Fruits are dark reddish-brown, ovate, up to five inches long (from West and Arnold, 1946). Figure 9. The Mastic tree (Jungleplum or Wild Olive) (Sideroxylon betkisssinum) grows up to 70 feet high with a trunk up to four feet in diameter. Fruits are olive-shaped, with firm yellow skin (from Fla. Div. of Forestry, 1980).

PAGE 21

LEAFLET 14 13 Figure 10. The Jamaica dogwood (Florida Fishfuddle tree) (Piscidia communis) grows up to 50 feet high and up to three feet in diameter. The fruit is a four-winged pod, three or four inches long. Natives of the Caribbean made a poison from the bark of the roots, leaves, and young branches, which stupified fish so they could be picked out of the water (from Fla. Div. of Forestry, 1980). Figure 11. The Pigeon Plum (Pigeon Seagrape) (Coccolobis floridana) grows to heights of 70 feet, with trunks up to two feet in diameter. The fruit is a dark red to black berry about one-third inch long (from Fla. Div. of Forestry, 1980).

PAGE 22

14 BUREAU OF GEOLOGY Figure 12. The Florida Strangler Fig (Golden Fig) (Ficus aurea) seedlings develop on the upper branches and trunks of other trees. As the roots grow down the host's trunk, a dense crown of foliage shades out the host's crown. In time the fig is firmly rooted in the ground and the host is nearly or totally dead. Aerial roots drop from branches to the ground, forming additional trunks. It grows to 50 feet high, with trunks up to three feet in diameter. Fruits are red, round to ovate, 3/4-inch long, and stalkless (from Fa. Div. of Forestry, 1980). Figure 13. The Lignumvitae tree ("Tree of Life") (Zygophyllaceae = Beancaper Family) grows up to 25 feet high, with trunks up to two feet in diameter. Fruits are bright orange, ovate, five-angled, about 3/4-inch long (from West and Arnold, 1946).

PAGE 23

LEAFLET 14 15 VISITORS' INFORMATION All plant and animal life is protected in state parks, as are non-living materials, such as rock and mineral specimens or artifacts. Parks open at 8 a.m. and close at sunset year-round. For visitors' safety, regulations prohibiting the feeding of animals are enforced. Pets must be on a sixfoot, hand-held leash at all times. They are not permitted in campgrounds, swimming areas, or any park buildings. Intoxicants are not permitted in any area of state parks. Some activities and facilities are accessible to the handicapped. Inquire at the respective park. Snorkeling and diving are the best ways to observe the coral reefs and associated marine life. The DIVERS DOWN flag must be displayed while in the water. NEVER swim alone. Do not touch anything you are unsure of and treat all underwater life with respect. Do not touch, grasp, or stand on coral, for it will die. Anchors are very destructive when dropped into coral; therefore, anchor only in sandy bottom areas. Spearfishing is prohibited in state parks. JOHN PENNEKAMP CORAL REEF STATE PARK John Pennekamp Coral Reef State Park is the first underwater state park in the United States. Pennekamp and the adjacent Key Largo Coral Reef National Marine Sanctuary extend 8.5 nautical miles into the Atlantic and are 21 nautical miles long (approximately 10 by 25 miles), covering about 178 square nautical miles. These areas were established to protect and preserve a portion of the only living coral reef in the continental United States. The park is named for the late John Pennekamp, a Miami newspaper editor who contributed to the establishment of the Everglades National Park and to the perpetuation of Florida's park system. Tropical vegetation, shore birds and marine life may be seen within the park. The mangrove swamp, with a boardwalk through it, allows visitors to explore the swamp's ecosystem. On the upland areas the tropical hardwood hammock's nature trail provides views of numerous exotic trees. Boulders around the swimming areas are Key Largo Limestone, showing examples of the coral reef lithology of this geological formation. The park's living reef is a modern counterpart of the ancient reef that produced these rocks. The present reef is made of the same plant and animal communities

PAGE 24

16 BUREAU OF GEOLOGY KEY -_ 6 416 JOHN PENNEKAMP JOHN PE MP 30 -DEPTH CONTOUR APPROXIMATE FEET PARK BELOW MEAN LOW WATER 0 1 2 miles s-3ST, sR E E F .oSo -F---OR100 __OF _STBf OF Figure 14. John Pennekamp Coral Reef State Park, showing points of interest on the reef tract: 1) Molasses Reef is toured by the Park's glassbottomed boat; 2) White Banks Dry Rocks, with 5 to 15 feet of water, is a good reef to snorkel; 3) French Reef has underwater caves, cliffs, and canyons; 4) the Benwood Wreck, the hull of a World War II freighter that was torpedoed by a German sub; 5) Garret's Reef and the Cannon Patch, less than 10 feet under water, has several coral encrusted cannon; 6) Grecian Rocks, an easy reef to snorkel, averaging about six-feet deep; 7) Key Largo Dry Rocks has a nine-feet tall bronze statue, "Christ of the Deep," in water less than 20-fe.et deep; 8) The Elbow has several ship wrecks and shallow water for diving; 9) Carysfort Reef, with depths from five to 40 feet, and Carysfort Reef Light Station, built in 1882, provides some of the best diving conditions in the Keys. Map compiled from NOAA Nautical Chart 11451, U.S. Geological Survey topographic maps, and park information guides.

PAGE 25

*' JOHN PENNEKAMP CORAL REEF STATE PARK:,Entrance StationPicnic Shelters. 1 .. •s .o .Swmm e ro mp Mangrov Trail A Roe ,ena,. Ar Div" Shop " ':&' ". :. . N Boat Rental ot Ro Mangrove Trail cIah u iPennekomp S r o Coral Reef Figure 15. John Pennekamp Coral Reef State Park.

PAGE 26

18 BUREAU OF GEOLOGY that created the emergent islands of the Keys. Although the park and marine sanctuary encompass hardwood hammocks, mangrove swamps, seagrass beds, and coral reefs, the coral formations and associated marine life attracts the most visitors. Coral reefs are among the most beautiful and interesting of all living communities. They represent a colorful, very complex and prolific ecosystem. Daily, glassbottom boat tours are available for visitors who do not wish to dive onto the reef. Figure 14 shows the locations of points of special interest on the reef tract. The park offers a variety of recreational facilities, including a visitor center with nautical history exhibits and slide programs, concessions, a dive shop, sailboat and canoe rentals, boat launching ramp, picnic and camping areas, and swimming areas with bathhouses (Figure 15). Park Rangers provide special snorkeling programs to familiarize visitors with the most desirable method of observing the coral reefs. Maps and instructions are available for the most interesting sites on the reef. Campfire programs are provided during the winter season. Guided walks and canoe trips are provided year-round. For further information, write or phone John Pennekamp Coral Reef State Park, P. O. Box 487, Key Largo, FL 33037. Telephone (305) 451-1202. LIGNUMVITAE KEY STATE BOTANICAL SITE The serenity and isolation of remote islands have always captured man's imagination. Lignumvitae Key is no exception. To step ashore here is to take a step back into the past (see Figure 16). The Matheson House, built in 1919, has changed little over the years. A windmill provides power, and fresh water is supplied from a cistern which is filled by rain falling on the roof. This is how island people lived during pioneer times when most of their needs were met by the land and sea around them. This island is an ancient counterpart of a modern patch reef. Patch reefs are smaller reef complexes that grow in relative isolation, often behind the main reef line. The patch reef that became Lignumvitae Key grew behind its main reef, now the Florida Keys. Numerous modern patch reefs can be seen in the shallow water between the Keys and the main reef line that fringes the Florida Straits.

PAGE 27

LEAFLET 14 19 Miami '/ .' Shell Key K Lignumvitae Key, 0,t State Preserve tf, (closed) Upper Matecumbe Key Matheson House v'Dock \. LIGNUMVITAE KEY Public Boat Launch Lower Matecumbe Key A. N 0 1000 Feet INDIAN KEY State Historical Site Dock -Figure 16. Lignumvitae Key State Botanical Site, showing the location of Indian Key State Historical Site southeast of Lower Matecumbe Key.

PAGE 28

20 BUREAU OF GEOLOGY Thousands of years ago, the island began as a living coral reef jutting up from the sea floor. As great quantities of water began to freeze into glaciers at the earth's poles, the sea level dropped, exposing the top of the reef and forming an island composed of fossilized coral rock. As time passed, storm tides and waves left seaweed, driftwood, and other organic debris stranded on the bare rock. This material began decaying and forming small pockets of soil in depressions in the coral rocks. Then a few seeds arrived from other tropical islands -some floating on the sea or carried by the winds, while others came in the digestive tracts of migrating birds. The seeds sprouted and began to grow, drop leaves, produce flowers and seeds, mature, die, and decay. With the passing of each generation, a complex and diverse tropical hammock colonized the remains of this ancient coral reef. The virgin tropical forest that thrives here is typical of the kind of scenery that was once enjoyed on most of Florida's Upper Keys. As the Keys were developed to accommodate an increasing number of people, most of the unique vegetation was scraped away -making the tropical forest of Lignumvitae Key a very rare and special place. Here, a visitor can walk in the shade of trees with strange names like strangler fig, poisonwood, lignumvitae, and gumbolimbo. Access to the Key is limited to privately owned boats or charter boats available at nearby marinas. A two-hour guided tour of the island and the Matheson House is given at 9 AM and a one-hour tour at 1 PM and 3 PM from Wednesday through Sunday. The visitor should wear walking shoes and bring mosquito repellent. To protect the fragile vegetation and environment of the Key, visitors must stay within the clearing except in the company of the interpretive guide or ranger. For further information, write or phone Ugnumvitae Key State Botanical Site, c/o Long Key State Recreation Area, P. O. Box 776, Long Key, FL 33001. Telephone: (305) 664-4815. INDIAN KEY STATE HISTORICAL SITE Indian Key is located about three-quarters of a mile to the southeast of the north end of Lower Matecumbe Key (Figures 16, 17 and 18). Even though it is in front of the main reef tract the geological history of Indian Key is similar to Lignumvitae Key, discussed above. A small patch reef, exposed by falling sea level, formed the limestone foundation for Indian Key.

PAGE 29

LEAFLET 14 21 This small coral island, little more than 10 acres in area, figures prominently in Florida's early history, from pre-historic Indians to the 1830's. Archeological excavations have shown that Calusa Indians lived in the Keys for several thousand years prior to the arrival of the first Spanish explorers, who discovered Florida in 1513. The eastward-flowing Gulf Stream provided a quick route home for the treasure-laden Spanish fleets. The shoals and reefs south of the Keys proved to be extremely dangerous when tropical storms or hurricanes blew up unexpectedly. Many treasurefleets were sunk on the reefs along the Keys, to the profit of the Indians. Later, in the mid-1700s, salvaging shipwrecks, or "wrecking," as it was called, became so profitable for local fishermen that the practice attracted pirates. American occupation of Florida in 1821 put an end to pirating. Key West became the wealthy center of the salvage-wrecking industry. A newcomer, Jacob Housman, challenged the monopoly of Key West in 1831, when he bought Indian Key and built his own wrecking colony there. A few years of prosperity followed, during which Housman's political activities established the new Dade County, with Indian Key as the county seat. His fortunes declined rapidly, forcing him to mortgage the island. In 1840, during the Second Seminole War, a large band of Indians attacked the community, killing several people and destroying buildings. No one has lived on Indian Key since the late-1800s. The archeological excavations, the foundations of buildings, cisterns, and partially restored buildings provide the visitor with a sense of the colorful, adventurous lives of these "wreckers." An observation tower, boat dock, shelter, and trails are provided. There are no rest rooms. Most facilities and activities are not accessible to the handicapped. For further information, write or phone the Park Manager, Long Key State Recreation Area, P. O. Box 776, Long Key, FL 33001. Telephone: (305) 664-4815. LONG KEY STATE RECREATION AREA The bedrock of Long Key is Key Largo Limestone, although much of it is thinly covered by carbonate sand, Figures 19 and 20. The park beach in Figure 19 shows the vulnerability of the key's shoreline to wave erosion; the shoreline has been cut back to a point where trees are being undermined. Comparing this exposed, eroding beach with the shoreline in Figure 4, which is accreting seaward due to mangrove growth, illustrates the importance of mangroves as a geological agent and as a buffer against storm damage.

PAGE 30

Ri IIn -Il Figure 17. Indian Key State Historical Site, a Pleistocene age patch reef, now exposed above sea level. The darker tones in the water locate deeper channels that are scoured by strong tidal currents between the islands of the Keys. Photo by Dr. Renate Skinner.

PAGE 31

LEAFLET 14 23 I V PERRINE HOWE POST SOFFICE ^ i: ~ OBSERVATION WHARVES."Y TOWER ^^^TSMITH cO1 **OMMOT T CISTE O I^Cs ER -RAVE E STURDY CISTERNS NAVY I WAREHOUSES HOSPITAL \ . : -ENGLISH Figure 18. Map of Indian Key showing archeological sites.

PAGE 32

24 BUREAU OF GEOLOGY The shallow flats seaward of Long Key and the mangrove-lined lagoons support an abundance of marine life. Wading-bird populations can be readily observed in these areas, particularly during the winter months. A trail winds through natural areas of the key, along the beach, and over a mangrove-lined lagoon. Long Key State Recreation Area provides an opportunity to enjoy the natural values of a typical Florida Key. The subtropical climate, clear waters and abundance of marine life associated with the Florida Keys have attracted man since early times. The Calusa Indians lived off the abundant plant and animal life long before the first Spanish explorers arrived. After the Spanish occupation, the keys attracted settlers from other islands, such as the Bahamas, who made their living from the sea. These remote keys were no longer isolated when, in 1912, the Key West Extension of the Florida East Coast Railroad was completed. The viaduct west of Long Key was the first bridge built by the railroad crews, and was the trademark of the Henry Flagler railroad. Long Key was an important depot during the days of the railroad. Flagler established the Long Key Fishing Club as a mecca for the world's greatest saltwater fishermen. The era came to an end on September 2, 1935, when a hurricane destroyed the fishing club and the railroad. Park Rangers present campfire programs and lead guided walks yearround. They also offer informative programs on snorkeling, fishing, canoeing, and the marine ecology of the area. For further information, write or phone Long Key State Recreation Area, P. O. Box 776, Long Key, FL 33001. Telephone: (305) 664-4815. BAHIA HONDA STATE RECREATION AREA In Spanish, Bahia Honda means "deep bay." This southernmost state recreation area's boney skeleton is an ancient coral reef thinly covered by beaches and dunes of carbonate sand, and mangroves (Figure 21). Bedrock is Key Largo Limestone. The very shallow, clear water around the island provides an opportunity to observe marine plants and animals that inhabit the carbonate-sand sea bed. Bahia Honda has a number of tropical plants that are not often found on the other islands. Among the rarer species are the satinwood tree, spiny catesbaea and dwarf morning glory. The birdlife of Bahia Honda includes beautiful and rare species such as the white-crowned pigeon, great white heron, roseate spoonbill, reddish egret, osprey, brown pelican, and least tern.

PAGE 33

m Figure 19. Ocean-facing beach at Long Key showing erosion. The trees are rooted in thin carbonate sand that covers bedrock. Photo by the author. 01

PAGE 34

26 BUREAU OF GEOLOGY ) vtICiMT' MAP PLOmOs Ba, Loww MWecwkbe K"t FLORIDA BAY Enfrance P' n Observation Y Areos Tower Swimming Campfire Y'Gote ATLANTIC OCEAN Circle Lco4,, C LONG KEY 0 1200 STATE RECREATION AREA Feet Figure 20. Map of Long Key State Recreation Area.

PAGE 35

K BAHIA HONDA 0 0" O' *0 " Bath WPrimitive . Camping Pcic Area Area : -mping Entrance Station Camping Marina eA Dive Shop \I 0 400 * /Concession Feet o ' o Boat Ramp *'." CCampfire Circle Figure 21. Bahia Honda State Recreation Area. 4

PAGE 36

28 BUREAU OF GEOLOGY The island remained fairly isolated and remote until the railroad spanned the channels with bridges of steel and concrete to link Key West with the mainland. The island became part of land holdings of the Florida East Coast Railroad until the company abandoned the line after the 1935 hurricane destroyed the railroad. The original train trestle is still visible as part of the old Bahia Honda Bridge. Regular campfire programs and guided walks are provided during the winter season, with special interpretive programs provided to groups by reservation. At the northeast end of Sandspur Beach, a nature trail follows the shore of a tidal lagoon, goes through a coastal strand hammock and returns along the beach. For further information, write or phone Bahia Honda State Recreation Area, Route 1, Box 782, Big Pine Key, FL 33043. Telephone: (305) 872-2353. SELECTED BIBLIOGRAPHY Florida State Park leaflets, available at the respective parks. Florida Division of Forestry, 1980, Forest Trees of Florida: 102 pp. Multer H. Gray, 1971, Field Guide to Some Carbonate Rock Environments, Florida Keys and Western Bahamas: Miami Geological Society, Miami, FL. 158 pp. West. Erdman and Lillian E. Arnold, 1946, The Native Trees of Florida: Univ. of Florida Press, 212 pp.

PAGE 37

FLORIDA DEPARTMENT OF NATURAL RESOURCES BUREAU OF GEOLOGY FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY Walter Schmidt, Chief Peter M. Dobbins, Admin. Asst. Alison Lewis, Librarian Jessie Hawkins, Custodian Sandie Ray, Secretary GEOLOGICAL INVESTIGATIONS SECTION Thomas M. Scott, Senior Geologist/Administrator Albert Applegate, Geologist Ted Kiper, Draftsman Brian Caldwell, Research Asst. Susan Kruhm, Staff Asst. Ken Campbell, Geologist Ed Lane, Geologist Cindy Collier, Secretary Jacqueline M. Lloyd, Geologist Don Harris, Research Asst. Teresa Meyer, Staff Asst. Richard Howard, Laboratory Tech. John Morrill, Core Driller Richard Johnson, Geologist Albert Phillips, Asst. Driller Jim Jones, Draftsman Frank Rupert, Geologist MINERAL RESOURCE INVESTIGATIONS AND ENVIRONMENTAL GEOLOGY SECTION J. William Yon, Senior Geologist/Administrator Paulette Bond, Geologist Connie Garrett, Research Asst. Laura Cummins, Research Asst. Shelton Graves, Research Asst. Diane Donnally, Research Asst. Ron Hoenstine, Geologist Steve Spencer, Geologist OIL AND GAS SECTION SL. David Curry, Administrator Clarence Babcock, Engineer Joan Gruber, Secretary Brenda Brackinr Secretary David Poe; Geologist Robert CaugheyGeologisti Joan Ragland, Geologist Cynthia iok, Geologist:i G .Gwendolyn Staten, Secretary Charles Tootle1Engineer


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PDF1 applicationpdf dd401c160288e84b73b1999304dd7504 1751116
UF00001182.pdf
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UF00001182_00001.mets
METS:structMap STRUCT1 physical
METS:div DMDID ADMID ORDER 0 main
PDIV1 1 Title Page
PAGE1 i
METS:fptr FILEID
PAGE2 ii 2
PDIV2 Front Matter
PAGE3 iii
PAGE4 iv
PAGE5 v 3
PDIV3 Table Contents
PAGE6 vi
PAGE7 vii
PDIV4 4 Acknowledgement
PAGE8 viii
PDIV5 5 Main
PAGE9
PAGE10
PAGE11
PAGE12
PAGE13
PAGE14 6
PAGE15 7
PAGE16
PAGE17 9
PAGE18 10
PAGE19 11
PAGE20 12
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PAGE28 20
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PAGE36 28
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STRUCT2 other
ODIV1
FILES1
FILES2