Citation
Salt intrusion can be controlled ( FGS: Leaflet 7 )

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Title:
Salt intrusion can be controlled ( FGS: Leaflet 7 )
Series Title:
( FGS: Leaflet 7 )
Creator:
Klein, Howard
Publisher:
Florida Geological Survey
Publication Date:
Language:
English

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Saltwater encroachment -- Florida
Canals ( jstor )
Saltwater ( jstor )
Dams ( jstor )
Geological surveys ( jstor )
Rivers ( jstor )

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Holding Location:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
The author dedicated the work to the public domain by waiving all of his or her rights to the work worldwide under copyright law and all related or neighboring legal rights he or she had in the work, to the extent allowable by law.
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AAA0582 ( notis )
AJW7430 ( notis )

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Full Text
STATE OF FLORIDA
STATE BOARD OF CONSERVATION DIVISION OF GEOLOGY
FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY
Robert 0. Vernon, Director
LEAFLET NO. 7
SALT INTRUSION
CAN BE CONTROLLED
By
Howard Klein
Prepared by the
UNITED STATES GEOLOGICAL SURVEY
in cooperation with
DADE COUNTY
and the
FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY
TALLAHASSEE
1965




N1
Completed manuscript received
September 2, 1965
Printed by the Florida Geological Survey
Tallahassee
110




SALT INTRUSION CAN BE CONTROLLED
By
Howard Klein
Salt-water intrusion is the chief threat to the 'resh-water Supplies of Dade County. Intensive nvestigations of the geology and hydrology of Dade ,ounty by the U. S. Geological Survey in cooperaion with the county show that uncontrolled drainage ,anals have been the primary cause of salt-water ntrusion in the Biscayne aquifer, the highly perneable limestone reservoir rock that yields all of )ur drinking water. Intrusion occurs by two proesses:
(1) Uncontrolled canals drain fresh ground water stored in the aquifer, waste it to the ocean, ind cause water levels to decline excessively;
-his permits salty ground water at depth to move inland;
(2) Uncontrolled canals carry salt water seve-al miles inland from Biscayne Bay, and during dry periods the salt water infiltrates outward from the canals and contaminates adjacent parts of the aquifer.
The maps in figure 1 show the areas progressively affected by salt-water intrusion. The major advance Of salt water took place before 1946 when ihere were no control dams in the major canals to prevent the waste of fresh water from the aquifer. The situation was critical along the Miami Canal during the dry season of 1946. Several supply wells in the Miami well field were contaminated by salt water from the canal. Because the pattern of saltwater intrusion closely followed the individual canal channels, there was no doubt that the contamination Was a direct result of canal construction and drainage.
Late in 1946 control dams were erected in all major canals connected to Biscayne Bay. As -a result, the salt water retreated seaward along most ,of the canal systems (compare 1946 and 1950 maps) and the Miami well field was maintained secure. The improvement in the fresh-water picture demonstrated that salt intrusion could be controlled by




-2. 5 7
BISCAYNE CANAL
UW IL 36 ST
G MIAMI JMIAMI
MILESMIE
1943 -!1946 MLES
N. MIAMI
WELL
PROPOSED-.
DAM
MIAMI MIAMI
1950 MILES 1963;-' MILES
- = CANAL & CONTROL DAM
Figure 1. Maps of eastern Dade County showing areas
progressively affected by salt-water intrusion.
relatively simple methods -- chiefly through water conservation and maintenance of water levels at proper elevations.
A comparison of the 1950 map with the 1963 map shows a continued inland intrusion of salt water along the Tamiami Canal toward Miami's municipal well field, and east of the Biscayne Canal near North Miami's municipal well field. These later movements were due to the fact that the control dams in those two canals were located, too far inland to give continuous protection to the




well fields. In 1960 the con trol dam in the Biscayne Canal was moved from its original location, opposite the North Miami well field to a site two miles downstream. However, the move was too late and the field was contaminated by a massive slug of salt water. Recent samplings of water in that area indicate a slow freshening as a result of relocating the barrier. A boat lock and control dam have been proposed in the Miami Canal at 27th Avenue. This would furnish effective control for both the Miami and Tamiami Canals and give good protection to Miami's well field.
A perennial problem in the urban and agricultural expansion in Dade County is that of flood prevention during rainy seasons. Flood control has been and is being provided by a network of levees and drainage canals. Hdwever, the area must not be drained excessively; to do so would endanger the water supplies during prolonged drought. Many troublesome areas result where property of low elevations is developed without placement of sufficient fill to proper flood-control elevations. These areas must be protected against flooding. One such area is in North Miami Beach along the Oleta River.
Provision for adequate drainage in the North Miami Beach area necessitates deepening and widening the downstream reach of the Oleta River channel. The existing unimproved drainage condition approximates condition A in figure 2. The diagram, figure 2, shows the relative changes in-the position of the salt front in an aquifer within an area where a drainage system is being developed. Improvement of the Oleta River channel without a control dam would result in effective surficial drainage of the surrounding area, but also in a general lowering of ground-water levels, and an inland movement of salt water along the stream channel and in the Biscayne aquifer beneath and adjacent to the river. This condition would be comparable to position B in figure 2.
Prevention of excessive drainage and of coincident salt intrusion necessitates that a control dam be provided. Proper operation of the control




~ Position-B: River is deepened, channel
improved; drainage is facilitated and un-controlled, causing low water levels;
. .. . .. salt water moves upstream. Position-C: Improved channel is sl ws controlled, water .levels regulated; X, 11 salt water, blocked by control, moves \ / seaward. N,1 CONTROL DAM
seaward. I "
I o ? .;..
o,IV / _\ 0
.0oo' AT FRONT-- t o
A
Position-A: River is shallow, channel is 0 unimproved; poor drainage and high water levels; salt water near coast.
Figure 2. Sketch showing relative change in salt-front pattern in an aquifer where a drainage system is being developed.
dam would insure not only protection against flooding but also protection to the water resources. This condition is shown by position C, figure 2, where the salt front has stabilized between its original position, before improvement, and its probable position if no control dam were installed. Position C represents a medium condition that provides the maximum possible combined protection from both, flooding and salt-wa i
The map of No "II each an vicinity, figure 3, shows the location of the Oleta River with respect to the Snake Creek Canal. The Snake Creek Canal is a primary canal of the regional watercontrol system. It extends westward for several miles and serves as the main drainage for all of northern Dade County. During the dry season the control dam, near the coast, (shown in figure 3) is closed in order to maintain -the upstream water level at as high an elevation as possible.
Improvement of drainage along the Oleta River could reduce the ability of the control in the Snake Creek Canal to maintain high water levels. If the Oleta River should be improved but not 'Controlled,; eastward outseepage will occur from the Snake.




NAr L
WEII--lo
FIELD
CONTROL4ti]
I I A
- -.
I
CONTROL ,:s.. ::'"(
DAMS ,"
I II
Figure 3. Map of North Miami Beach showing location
of Oleta River with respect to Snake Creek Canal.
Creek Canal system to the Oleta River under a high gradient. However, if the 0le.ta River should be improved and controlled, the outseepage from Snake Creek Canal would occur under a lower gradient, thereby decreasing the waste of fresh water. The control qt salt intrusion in north Dade County depends entirely upon maintaining a high water level in the Snake Creek Canal system. If water losses from the Snake Creek Canal should become great enough to lower water levels excessively, the salt front would begin to move inland and would




pose a threat to the municipal well field for Nort Miami Beach (figure 3).
Oade County is one of the fastest growin areas in the country. If growth is to continuE constant consideration must be given to the prc tection of the water resources of the area. Thi means in part that the amount of water wasted b canal discharge each year must be decreased an salt-water intrusion controlled. In 1963 Dade Coun ty's water needs were about 200 million gallons day. It has been predicted that in 25 years Dad, County will be using nearly 1 billion gallons i day. That quantity will not be available unles wastage to the ocean is controlled and the wate resources are carefully conserved and properl: managed.
Several reports have been prepared whic] describe in more detail the problem of salt intrt sion in Dade County. They are available to in terested persons at the office of the County Engf neer, the Florida Geological Survey, and of th4 U. S. Geological Survey as well as at most loca libraries. Information contained in the reports in cude: 01, j V
(1) Explanation of principles governing salt. water intrusion.
(2) Description of the mechanics of salt-watei intrusion.
(3) Results of research on salt-water intru. sion.
(4) Methods of combating salt-water intrusion.
(5) Description of areas affected by salt-watei intrusion.
(6) Local problems of salt-water intrusion.
(7) Evaluation of water resources of Dadc County.




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describe
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d18f16165af57b332fdb2b194eaed883
84d2fb43f9b71cc330a69ee19992c9c1a2393dfe
describe
'58922' 'info:fdaE20080623_AAAACUfileF20080624_AAAEPG' 'sip-files00004.pdf'
ce8c8e6d15acc8d2834cd18a1f8ea8b9
9db4054f236abe05235bfb0b2ebe9d7910aeb1e3
'2017-03-09T10:17:36-05:00'
describe
'info:fdaE20080623_AAAACUfileF20080624_AAAEPG-norm-0' 'aip-filesF20080624_AAAEPG-norm-0.pdf'
8cbf40949b8b639101cd4e2c803d9b62
6e3842fc6d7fb92b4cf6a2346c8099c7289050d2
describe
normalize
'48595' 'info:fdaE20080623_AAAACUfileF20080624_AAAEPH' 'sip-files00004.pro'
737bc302f741b297d8a5299ae4aa94d2
cafb4827c68f86670707151e9c5020f00725c4f3
'2017-03-09T10:17:59-05:00'
describe
'41034' 'info:fdaE20080623_AAAACUfileF20080624_AAAEPI' 'sip-files00004.QC.jpg'
ae2114b8640069479d103f7ae3b94760
dd74e3e30b696a8e38ca7eb6a48be4b9e4800d70
describe
'724172' 'info:fdaE20080623_AAAACUfileF20080624_AAAEPJ' 'sip-files00004.tif'
2fc24816c8dd25a482d7f3b13afbdc43
3154f779d539cb732f3d94b1e668ef640b09c3dd
describe
'1991' 'info:fdaE20080623_AAAACUfileF20080624_AAAEPK' 'sip-files00004.txt'
6549f39d3ce188feab7bb7f0592d27ef
b6afbe971e9e704238b093afb833a0634fffe6e9
describe
'15703' 'info:fdaE20080623_AAAACUfileF20080624_AAAEPL' 'sip-files00004thm.jpg'
5c8e16bd787c2f2f3eebc0c593531747
d6f1027299bd0f1dfa25dd6a7832c2c791445c4d
describe
'118835' 'info:fdaE20080623_AAAACUfileF20080624_AAAEPM' 'sip-files00005.jp2'
2b075f15ba7a669c548fa0e0202af879
813cf43d86f185a273fb93f499f4df745259ed7f
'2017-03-09T10:17:30-05:00'
describe
'96423' 'info:fdaE20080623_AAAACUfileF20080624_AAAEPN' 'sip-files00005.jpg'
7de060c5a731ee85d0052a27e2bef73c
eb46948d17ee5cf67e552216f9b59e6f870b16f5
'2017-03-09T10:17:52-05:00'
describe
'48281' 'info:fdaE20080623_AAAACUfileF20080624_AAAEPO' 'sip-files00005.pdf'
15131c7b8b7b9d842de3aa408173cce1
ca638485284edf80a4fdc6ccb8a99f95ebaa86d2
'2017-03-09T10:17:56-05:00'
describe
'info:fdaE20080623_AAAACUfileF20080624_AAAEPO-norm-0' 'aip-filesF20080624_AAAEPO-norm-0.pdf'
8cbf40949b8b639101cd4e2c803d9b62
6e3842fc6d7fb92b4cf6a2346c8099c7289050d2
describe
'2017-03-09T10:17:57-05:00'
normalize
'20071' 'info:fdaE20080623_AAAACUfileF20080624_AAAEPP' 'sip-files00005.pro'
9e7c6a24bdb0b734e02bf8f61dee2745
91e23bfdbdd450fd4200b1db8205eb1c61874512
describe
'32192' 'info:fdaE20080623_AAAACUfileF20080624_AAAEPQ' 'sip-files00005.QC.jpg'
9c03933b8550d6eb4cf8074fb8cf11cc
53528a3ade4f91de7b3db7b2436990c3565362a1
describe
'754608' 'info:fdaE20080623_AAAACUfileF20080624_AAAEPR' 'sip-files00005.tif'
4dad48b087ec5c4fe5c24d24a000c3d4
ec799fd085fb84015b8c36780d14653cf28ab36c
describe
'1034' 'info:fdaE20080623_AAAACUfileF20080624_AAAEPS' 'sip-files00005.txt'
20da4c1261846cc957fc99c024203ba3
0cec70c080a6ca699fe3f10615ab78d3e708a605
describe
'12680' 'info:fdaE20080623_AAAACUfileF20080624_AAAEPT' 'sip-files00005thm.jpg'
4864f5b96b2113efbd1dab9c542c36e8
d924a3298d3b5183be6df3b140e3f860c02fd352
describe
'165216' 'info:fdaE20080623_AAAACUfileF20080624_AAAEPU' 'sip-files00006.jp2'
d1b58e7206cf66094e9fb26ed52c408e
d14858008a9b735eeeed62ca279c8830fb6d0830
describe
'137884' 'info:fdaE20080623_AAAACUfileF20080624_AAAEPV' 'sip-files00006.jpg'
f45a78b5a7bc388fd8b4002b01a3a14c
48958ac833de87d5ac2ae6cc18709c9b27d0c5cf
describe
'67644' 'info:fdaE20080623_AAAACUfileF20080624_AAAEPW' 'sip-files00006.pdf'
3569a8b9f7998f447323ac9e446f387f
d63f917ba933387e693c092e79660fb9e4cd764f
describe
'info:fdaE20080623_AAAACUfileF20080624_AAAEPW-norm-0' 'aip-filesF20080624_AAAEPW-norm-0.pdf'
8cbf40949b8b639101cd4e2c803d9b62
6e3842fc6d7fb92b4cf6a2346c8099c7289050d2
describe
normalize
'54352' 'info:fdaE20080623_AAAACUfileF20080624_AAAEPX' 'sip-files00006.pro'
5257ea2aad66cc5acbe0b0b8c82f0d13
11334766cb637408c702e731d7525f2147ae99ef
describe
'43357' 'info:fdaE20080623_AAAACUfileF20080624_AAAEPY' 'sip-files00006.QC.jpg'
e105e2222640696acbd08ca7ac9e17df
53282b5569f04fe667c734663e702ed4962c11c5
describe
'820568' 'info:fdaE20080623_AAAACUfileF20080624_AAAEPZ' 'sip-files00006.tif'
3d92984ae212a32d88aa7bb4b1e6a963
91b8f89c7525328c7fee453e068b3d6d36eda3ca
describe
'2171' 'info:fdaE20080623_AAAACUfileF20080624_AAAEQA' 'sip-files00006.txt'
3e7c0fdd728535854a09847de0fabe42
a66672f1e8eb61af928a77a1b30bd430e15b37d7
describe
'15479' 'info:fdaE20080623_AAAACUfileF20080624_AAAEQB' 'sip-files00006thm.jpg'
e09a963a8095cb375ac65f2e2436f729
17b7c33e7de795119c1c8b9ab597b3076bd8e316
describe
'142140' 'info:fdaE20080623_AAAACUfileF20080624_AAAEQC' 'sip-files00007.jp2'
c9365e8f4d44cb1758ffa11aac2948af
5aa3f36b1544f2f24c1c852ab692d26739cb7848
describe
'119722' 'info:fdaE20080623_AAAACUfileF20080624_AAAEQD' 'sip-files00007.jpg'
51302d29b58770bf457de20a36e83766
6c9b1b5a0ff60d8d3755a389021a4ae152faff50
describe
'59351' 'info:fdaE20080623_AAAACUfileF20080624_AAAEQE' 'sip-files00007.pdf'
647ef7a7f10a0e0705775df7ca897c33
46f6742480d132d12800690c3a410ad0e8adaa7d
'2017-03-09T10:17:58-05:00'
describe
'info:fdaE20080623_AAAACUfileF20080624_AAAEQE-norm-0' 'aip-filesF20080624_AAAEQE-norm-0.pdf'
8cbf40949b8b639101cd4e2c803d9b62
6e3842fc6d7fb92b4cf6a2346c8099c7289050d2
describe
normalize
'46556' 'info:fdaE20080623_AAAACUfileF20080624_AAAEQF' 'sip-files00007.pro'
ae53e38fcaa06cbb29fe4fd2127f6c16
8d000f8b62faa5a9697e2577dd671efdf6cce6b3
describe
'37726' 'info:fdaE20080623_AAAACUfileF20080624_AAAEQG' 'sip-files00007.QC.jpg'
c2e47e7ebd0ce217283843b5a25046bb
aa57d20048ccfe6e49a91fa9cee9a7e27ae480aa
describe
'772632' 'info:fdaE20080623_AAAACUfileF20080624_AAAEQH' 'sip-files00007.tif'
b0e23f5e33af4ffcb5082f7d477d6396
6069a30b575851a686cfe1ae35f84199f90edd36
describe
'2034' 'info:fdaE20080623_AAAACUfileF20080624_AAAEQI' 'sip-files00007.txt'
5818d12b96434d41430701f40435ccb2
22ae80079afb00ad2a72c6cf0b5c0d356f963f3f
describe
Invalid character
WARNING CODE 'Daitss::Anomaly' Invalid character
'14195' 'info:fdaE20080623_AAAACUfileF20080624_AAAEQJ' 'sip-files00007thm.jpg'
9486a56762affab6ea232f739f42c8e7
4b50262ddd65f63e9074b35b2d756c254a9663fa
describe
'106765' 'info:fdaE20080623_AAAACUfileF20080624_AAAEQK' 'sip-files00008.jp2'
88e6ae7f5b2f7b8bb70049b4a1de443a
8543dacad05501a53b065f6a572e27f691439b7c
describe
'95919' 'info:fdaE20080623_AAAACUfileF20080624_AAAEQL' 'sip-files00008.jpg'
de903e7d44fa622ca4c416d7bdd29f64
c652c41dfb0e75268ec1ebbe8bfc15ff42dea9a1
describe
'42989' 'info:fdaE20080623_AAAACUfileF20080624_AAAEQM' 'sip-files00008.pdf'
505227e8f79439f58450b4bdffe7b2a5
ef9839a0c7417e69b0956f6b6b20dc717166718d
'2017-03-09T10:17:44-05:00'
describe
'info:fdaE20080623_AAAACUfileF20080624_AAAEQM-norm-0' 'aip-filesF20080624_AAAEQM-norm-0.pdf'
8cbf40949b8b639101cd4e2c803d9b62
6e3842fc6d7fb92b4cf6a2346c8099c7289050d2
describe
normalize
'16697' 'info:fdaE20080623_AAAACUfileF20080624_AAAEQN' 'sip-files00008.pro'
abf4927da98330410cbb199321fbc102
2f2e6d8acc8b5a872800dd0a8bb230242e283477
describe
'31256' 'info:fdaE20080623_AAAACUfileF20080624_AAAEQO' 'sip-files00008.QC.jpg'
3f9c2aea4fd9c7c5cf538a900e6ab1d5
1406c4853090ae98a3c20f75ebd70adebdfe10c0
describe
'679088' 'info:fdaE20080623_AAAACUfileF20080624_AAAEQP' 'sip-files00008.tif'
2f0e7a277b4303d95c9bc39ac2d158c5
6ad58b88f4a8b9bc5ab22389b17914763b646d19
describe
'738' 'info:fdaE20080623_AAAACUfileF20080624_AAAEQQ' 'sip-files00008.txt'
6b6460052fa40a9f9fc3580ba44c3049
21e81e040e0f7cb0944628061c33dbd8b85732fe
describe
'12482' 'info:fdaE20080623_AAAACUfileF20080624_AAAEQR' 'sip-files00008thm.jpg'
2dfb7ab23b565ba4604792c72a4d8838
be23c1e8c2c9a33a02e1b5210e4c89cb1dc2ad95
describe
'109201' 'info:fdaE20080623_AAAACUfileF20080624_AAAEQS' 'sip-files00009.jp2'
6c6aa30ad943cdef900b5602bf1a88fe
0fb4f06537f9885477d69d297d7fd544742ba0b4
describe
'93243' 'info:fdaE20080623_AAAACUfileF20080624_AAAEQT' 'sip-files00009.jpg'
2d8bbc4065bf5db8dd81aa46a31eb78b
f60fd342a1864f9967dcee80a6b8aecd70face53
describe
'44524' 'info:fdaE20080623_AAAACUfileF20080624_AAAEQU' 'sip-files00009.pdf'
43039c911941b6f592eee7a9b57d5c4c
cad511dffec54a5419b2f9730cc05f3736d12c87
describe
'info:fdaE20080623_AAAACUfileF20080624_AAAEQU-norm-0' 'aip-filesF20080624_AAAEQU-norm-0.pdf'
8cbf40949b8b639101cd4e2c803d9b62
6e3842fc6d7fb92b4cf6a2346c8099c7289050d2
describe
normalize
'37720' 'info:fdaE20080623_AAAACUfileF20080624_AAAEQV' 'sip-files00009.pro'
68aea2ed9d90b4cba1c9d7d9a01bbfa3
fc4bdda0309b0c50216c018f075d9004ec7bdc0f
describe
'31139' 'info:fdaE20080623_AAAACUfileF20080624_AAAEQW' 'sip-files00009.QC.jpg'
94e3c2332b6ffae22797630c0330ba92
3a8b87b3039c3179d5a647d36d49c412d80cd9de
describe
'780128' 'info:fdaE20080623_AAAACUfileF20080624_AAAEQX' 'sip-files00009.tif'
199b184930b19c747499b1136688591d
b1da9d326aef717fe5239bc23591493bf3d87d25
describe
'1536' 'info:fdaE20080623_AAAACUfileF20080624_AAAEQY' 'sip-files00009.txt'
e6db1fd2f00b485ef7e50c547dd1e8c4
9325b267094f0a7f79d69d252d19b291ece2b974
describe
'11508' 'info:fdaE20080623_AAAACUfileF20080624_AAAEQZ' 'sip-files00009thm.jpg'
65f3f905f4ae11485a24cc12ddbc0189
00983d998d1cfb67305738836efbca7d6be75e27
describe
'153168' 'info:fdaE20080623_AAAACUfileF20080624_AAAERA' 'sip-filescopyright.jp2'
cd965abaafb5da42dc6c8def20d374f4
b811824c94aa0ae5a5f04cfb64b27e9e0927243a
describe
'103670' 'info:fdaE20080623_AAAACUfileF20080624_AAAERB' 'sip-filescopyright.jpg'
d028360928b6690b49cfe8211e6bb6a5
db68f5028a78f337081c164d3478ffd3e30a8a09
describe
'71602' 'info:fdaE20080623_AAAACUfileF20080624_AAAERC' 'sip-filescopyright.pdf'
2a8b635638b2d2d272fa55efca2cb948
f1b01ff231a3902f8217da2eb176640f61a3a7bb
describe
'info:fdaE20080623_AAAACUfileF20080624_AAAERC-norm-0' 'aip-filesF20080624_AAAERC-norm-0.pdf'
8cbf40949b8b639101cd4e2c803d9b62
6e3842fc6d7fb92b4cf6a2346c8099c7289050d2
describe
normalize
'35816' 'info:fdaE20080623_AAAACUfileF20080624_AAAERD' 'sip-filescopyright.pro'
945961728a8c6acad13bbb3ee2143bd1
40217a84eb3eec087a43fe98c17c311af99e25eb
describe
'35083' 'info:fdaE20080623_AAAACUfileF20080624_AAAERE' 'sip-filescopyright.QC.jpg'
28180ee8185b27af4702a664eb2b5d1b
f0e1d4e0f0dcb1a265ec575f3d87a525ada2ad6d
describe
'1060564' 'info:fdaE20080623_AAAACUfileF20080624_AAAERF' 'sip-filescopyright.tif'
23f20d377564167c4de2411935aa2e68
a9feb941506bbfb3706930e8cabc8e3ce6e9134f
describe
'1329' 'info:fdaE20080623_AAAACUfileF20080624_AAAERG' 'sip-filescopyright.txt'
15f2bbd34b776d39b92ffb1c4f760b27
b0251f2ed30996bc7ed3d8efa687abc9a6800fa9
describe
Invalid character
Invalid character
'10085' 'info:fdaE20080623_AAAACUfileF20080624_AAAERH' 'sip-filescopyrightthm.jpg'
b0566b6a6e9b9bfb3fa924203ff11cf8
63d705588c1580afc86f43138330df2fe31f906d
describe
'426721' 'info:fdaE20080623_AAAACUfileF20080624_AAAERI' 'sip-filesUF00001175.pdf'
6e39b267559136186ebb4eb741b8c34e
decc93aca4b88951d395ae330b87816b09f250af
describe
'info:fdaE20080623_AAAACUfileF20080624_AAAERI-norm-0' 'aip-filesF20080624_AAAERI-norm-0.pdf'
8cbf40949b8b639101cd4e2c803d9b62
6e3842fc6d7fb92b4cf6a2346c8099c7289050d2
describe
'2017-03-09T10:17:43-05:00'
normalize
'21045' 'info:fdaE20080623_AAAACUfileF20080624_AAAERJ' 'sip-filesUF00001175_00001.mets'
0ec1003f890ce0229af842e4d1d167b1
5248800b40170478801e5428ce0ec5b3f2b509a7
describe
TargetNamespace.1: Expecting namespace 'http://www.uflib.ufl.edu/digital/metadata/ufdc2/', but the target namespace of the schema document is 'http://digital.uflib.ufl.edu/metadata/ufdc2/'.
'2017-03-09T10:18:05-05:00' 'mixed'
xml resolution
http://www.loc.gov/standards/xlink.xsd
BROKEN_LINK schema http://www.loc.gov/standards/xlink.xsd
TargetNamespace.1: Expecting namespace 'http://www.uflib.ufl.edu/digital/metadata/ufdc2/', but the target namespace of the schema document is 'http://digital.uflib.ufl.edu/metadata/ufdc2/'.
'25780' 'info:fdaE20080623_AAAACUfileF20080624_AAAERM' 'sip-filesUF00001175_00001.xml'
dad20169dbeef6881f4bae6d20c6d704
0bacbc1f5e369da56b66d3d778776c77b2f7ccb3
describe
xml resolution
http://www.loc.gov/standards/xlink.xsd
http://www.loc.gov/standards/xlink.xsd



PAGE 1

STATE OF FLORIDA STATE BOARD OF CONSERVATION DIVISION OF GEOLOGY FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY Robert 0. Vernon, Director LEAFLET NO. 7 SALT INTRUSION CAN BE CONTROLLED By Howard Klein Prepared by the UNITED STATES GEOLOGICAL SURVEY in cooperation with DADE COUNTY and the FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY TALLAHASSEE 1965

PAGE 2

N1 Completed manuscript received September 2, 1965 Printed by the Florida Geological Survey Tallahassee 110

PAGE 3

I SALT INTRUSION CAN BE CONTROLLED By Howard Klein Salt-water intrusion is the chief threat to the resh-water supplies of Dade County. Intensive nvestigations of the geology and hydrology of Dade ,ounty by the U. S. Geological Survey in coopera,ion with the county show that uncontrolled drainage ,anals have been the primary cause of salt-water ntrusion in the Biscayne aquifer, the highly perneable limestone reservoir rock that yields all of )ur drinking water. Intrusion occurs by two proesses: (1) Uncontrolled canals drain fresh ground vater stored in the aquifer, waste it to the ocean, ind cause water levels to decline excessively; -his permits salty ground water at depth to move inland; (2) Uncontrolled canals carry salt water seve-al miles inland from Biscayne Bay, and during dry periods the salt water infiltrates outward from the canals and contaminates adjacent parts of the aquifer. The maps in figure 1 show the areas progressively affected by salt-water intrusion. The major advance of salt water took place before 1946 when there were no control dams in the major canals to prevent the waste of fresh water from the aquifer. The situation was critical along the Miami Canal during the dry season of 1946. Several supply wells in the Miami well field were contaminated by salt water from the canal. Because the pattern of saltwater intrusion closely followed the individual canal channels, there was no doubt that the contamination was a direct result of canal construction and drainage. Late in 1946 control dams were erected in all major canals connected to Biscayne Bay. As -a result, the salt water retreated seaward along most ,of the canal systems (compare 1946 and 1950 maps) and the Miami well field was maintained secure. The improvement in the fresh-water picture demonstrated that salt intrusion could be controlled by

PAGE 4

^5-7. 5BISCAYNE CANAL W*EL FIELD 36 ST MIAMI MIAMI 1943 o 1946 ML N. MIAMI WELL 4 FIELD PROPOSED-. MIAMI MIAMI 1950 MILES 1963; MILES -I--CANAL & CONTROL DAM Figure 1. Maps of eastern Dade County showing areas progressively affected by salt-water intrusion. relatively simple methods -chiefly through water conservation and maintenance of water levels at proper elevations. A comparison of the 1950 map with the 1963 map shows a continued inland intrusion of salt water along the Tamiami Canal toward Miami's municipal well field, and east of the Biscayne Canal near North Miami's municipal well field. These later movements were due to the fact that the control dams in those two canals were located too far inland to give continuous protection to the

PAGE 5

well fields. In 1960 the control dam in the Biscayne Canal was moved from its original location, opposite the North Miami well field to a site two miles downstream. However, the move was too late and the field was contaminated by a massive slug of salt water. Recent samplings of water in that area indicate a slow freshening as a result of relocating the barrier. A boat lock and control dam have been proposed in the Miami Canal at 27th Avenue. This would furnish effective control for both the Miami and Tamiami Canals and give good protection to Miami's well field. A perennial problem in the urban and agricultural expansion in Dade County is that of flood prevention during rainy seasons. Flood control has been and is being provided by a network of levees and drainage canals. Hdwever, the area must not be drained excessively; to do so would endanger the water supplies during prolonged drought. Many troublesome areas result where property of low elevations is developed without placement of sufficient fill to proper flood-control elevations. These areas must be protected against flooding. One such area is in North Miami Beach along the Oleta River. Provision for adequate drainage in the North Miami Beach area necessitates deepening and widening the downstream reach of the Oleta River channel. The existing unimproved drainage condition approximates condition A in figure 2. The diagram, figure 2, shows the relative changes in the position of the salt front in an aquifer within an area where a drainage system is being developed. Improvement of the Oleta River channel without a control dam would result in effective surficial drainage of the surrounding area, but also in a general lowering of ground-water levels, and an inland movement of salt water along the stream channel and in the Biscayne aquifer beneath and adjacent to the river. This condition would be comparable to position B in figure 2. Prevention of excessive drainage and of coincident salt intrusion necessitates that a control dam be provided. Proper operation of the control

PAGE 6

S Position-B: River is deepened, channel improved; drainage is facilitated and un-controlled, causing low water levels; ... .... .." salt water moves upstream. Position-C: Improved channel is salt water moves upstream controlled, water .levels regulated; X\1 / salt water, blocked by control, moves \ "\ / seaward. N,1 CONTROL DAM rI * I • o .-? 0.;.. o,,IV / _\ 0 A Position-A: River is shallow, channel is 0 unimproved; poor drainage and high water levels; salt water near coast. Figure 2. Sketch showing relative change in salt-front pattern in an aquifer where a drainage system is being developed. dam would insure not only protection against flooding but also protection to the water resources. This condition is shown by position C, figure 2, where the salt front has stabilized between its original position, before improvement, and its probable position if no control dam were installed. Position C represents a medium condition that provides the maximum possible combined protection from both. flooding and salt-war in sln The map of No r l B each and vicinity, figure 3, shows the location of the Oleta River with respect to the Snake Creek Canal. The Snake Creek Canal is a primary canal of the regional watercontrol system. It extends westward for several miles and serves as the main drainage for all of northern Dade County. During the dry seasons the control dam, near the coast, (shown in figure 3) is closed in order to maintain the upstream water level at as high an elevation as possible. Improvement of drainage along the Oleta River could reduce the ability of the control in the Snake Creek Canal to maintain high water levels. If the Oleta River should be improved but not controlled,; eastward outseepage will occur from the Snake

PAGE 7

NrA L FIELD CONTROLt , ] I MILE DAM CONTROL DAMS ,"h Figure 3. Map of North Miami Beach showing location of Oleta River with respect to Snake Creek Canal. Creek Canal system to the Oleta River under a high gradient. However, if the Oleta River should be improved and controlled, the outseepage from Snake Creek Canal would occur under a lower gradient, thereby decreasing the waste of fresh water. The control ýq salt intrusion in north Dade County depends entirely upon maintaining a high water level in the Snake Creek Canal system. If water losses from the Snake Creek Canal should become great enough to lower water levels excessively, the salt front would begin to move inland and would

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pose a threat to the municipal well field for Nort Miami Beach (figure 3). bade County is one of the fastest growin areas in the country. If growth is to continue constant consideration must be given to the prc tection of the water resources of the area. Thi means in part that the amount of water wasted b canal discharge each year must be decreased an salt-water intrusion controlled. In 1963 Dade Coun ty's water needs were about 200 million gallons ; day. It has been predicted that in 25 years Dad, County will be using nearly 1 billion gallons i day. That quantity will not be available unles wastage to the ocean is controlled and the wate resources are carefully conserved and properl: managed. Several reports have been prepared whic] describe in more detail the problem of salt intrt sion in Dade County. They are available to in terested persons at the office of the County Engi neer, the Florida Geological Survey, and of th4 U. S. Geological Survey as well as at most loca libraries. Information contained in the reports in clude: ., V!., (1) Explanation of principles governing salt water intrusion. (2) Description of the mechanics of salt-watel intrusion. (3) Results of research on salt-water intrusion. (4) Methods of combating salt-water intrusion. (5) Description of areas affected by salt-watei intrusion. (6) Local problems of salt-water intrusion. (7) Evaluation of water resources of Dade County.

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