Citation
Your water resources

Material Information

Title:
Your water resources storage, origin, needs, uses, movement, conservation ( FGS: Leaflet 1 )
Series Title:
( FGS: Leaflet 1 )
Creator:
Florida Geological Survey
Place of Publication:
Tallahassee Fla
Publisher:
Florida Geological Survey
Publication Date:
Language:
English
Physical Description:
24 p. : ill. ; 25 x 11 cm.

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Water-supply -- Florida ( lcsh )
Water resources development -- Florida ( lcsh )
Bodies of water ( jstor )
Groundwater ( jstor )
Water usage ( jstor )
Surface water ( jstor )
Streams ( jstor )
Genre:
non-fiction ( marcgt )

Notes

General Note:
Title from cover.
Statement of Responsibility:
Florida Geological Survey.

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Holding Location:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
The author dedicated the work to the public domain by waiving all of his or her rights to the work worldwide under copyright law and all related or neighboring legal rights he or she had in the work, to the extent allowable by law.
Resource Identifier:
028102678 ( aleph )
27055109 ( oclc )
AJJ2216 ( notis )

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Full Text
O U RIIIIIIIII
4352
VATER .ES
............ ..
USES-*COSEWMN
FLORIDA
GEOLOGICAL SURVEY
1960







INTRODUCTION
Florida has a high annual rainfall; more than 30,000 named lakes; one of the largest, most pro lific ground-water reservoirs in the world; and numerous springs, of which 66 each discharge in excess of six million gallons of water per day. Seventeen of these springs produce at rates that exceed 65 million gallons of water per day. The runoff from this wealth of water has established itself into 12 large stream basins and many other smaller ones.
Water is the State's most important natural resource, and since there appears to be such an abundance of this resource, what are the problems? Why the growing concern over it? Do we have lessthan we enjoyed in the past-and sometimes more?
Problems of supply and demand arise out of the irregular distribution and movement of water. The values for rainfall, stream flow, spring discharge, lake levels, and water levels in wells reflect periods of great drought and excess of water. It is this irregularity and variability of occurrence that creates problems. Problems in Florida, for the most part, arise out of not -having the water arrive at the place at the time it is needed; although flooding, pollution, contamination, and heavy mineralization are locally troublesome.
1




WHERE DOES OUR WATER ORIGINATE?
/ I /, I /,\G
a I. ........ ....... ...............
PERCOLAT..... .
Contrary to some popular opinions, our water resources come entirely from precipitation (rain, snow, hail, and sleet), that falls on Florida, southern Georgia, and southern Alabama. The water cycle, from atmosphere to land and water and back to the atmosphere, constantly renews and revitalizes the supply.
Water goes into the atmospheric cycle by evaporation from open bodies of water and from land surfaces. Vegetation helps this process. Once into the air as vapor, water collects into clouds to be transported and condensed into precipitation to return to the earth. That which falls on the land surface is the potential for our drinkable water supply. Most of this water runs off to the sea or goes back into the air by evaporation. Some of it goes into ponds and lakes to form a reserve supply for ground and surface water. A part of that which goes into the ground forms a near-surface groundwater supply which can be tapped by shallow wells. The rest goes into deeper porous rocks, through which the water travels under pressure from the point of entry or recharge to remote regions of the State. This is the principal source of ground water.
About 73 percent of the water falling as rain is used by vegetation or evaporates from exposed water and land surfaces.
2




Both surface and ground waters are used in the needs' of industry, nunicipalities, domestic and farm areas, recreation, power, and irrigation-but ground water supplies about 59 percent, of the consumptive needs of the State.
HOW IS ONE WATERSHED SEPARATED FROM ANOTHER?
Because of climatic controls, rainfall is not uniform throughout the State and varies from an annual average of 38 inches at Key West to 64 inches at DeFuniak Springs. Each city in Florida receives varying amounts of rainfall.
Water that has fallen upon the State is sepa\ \ I //
ratedinto watersheds, composed of all the land that directs water into a common stream or body of water There are approximately 50 clearly defined watersheds in Florida.
3
-_ _ ,.,. -- -.->
.-S-
Water that has fallen upon the State is separated into watersheds, composed of all the land that directs water into a comnon stream or body of water. There are approximately 50 clearly defined watersheds in Florida.




However, where water enters the ground in high areas of a watershed it moves toward and discharges into streams, lakes, and the ocean. The direction of flow may cause the ground water to cross beneath watershed boundaries established for surface water. The slope of the ground surface, size of channel and the volume of water, control the rate of flow in surface streams, but the amount of voids or space in the rock (porosity), the degree of connections of the voids (permeability), and the slope of the surface of the ground water (gradient) controls rate of flow in ground water.
Once surface water enters a watershed it can not cross watershed boundaries (divides), but ground water can pass beneath these watershed boundaries moving downgradient from high areas where it emerges in low areas as surface water. Surface-water problems, therefore, are local ones caused by floods and droughts, whereas groundwater problems may affect broader areas.
Water can only be taken from one watershed and diverted for use in another with the permission of the State Board of Conservation. Problems of flood, erosion, drought, contamination, and sedimentation must usually be met within the boundaries of each watershed.
Most streams originate in the highlands of Florida and adjoining states and are separated by rolling hills or stream divides which are composed of several kinds of sediment and rock.
There are some rivers and streams that originate in the coastal lowlands and the divides are fiat marshy areas with very little relief.
Elevations of the ground surface in Florida range from sea level to a little above 350 feet. This low relief generally does not allow the development of deep ravines in the divides, nor does it create steep slopes.
4




HOW DOES THE LAND INFLUENCE
THE SUPPLY?
Because Florida has a very sandy soil and a flat terrain broken by numerous sinkholes, lakes, and swamps, much of the water falling on the land is retained at the surface or enters the ground. Because of this, the percentage of water that runs off is moderate.
The amount that enters the ground or runs off depends in part upon the slope of the land, the vegetative cover, type of soil, condition of the soil by mulching and tilling, and by terracing of slopes.
Loose, mulched soil can retain large quantities of soil moisture for plant use. Soil management by the farmers, growers, and ranchers is the first step in water control and management
Land regulates the amount of water that enters the basins. Sloping surfaces are drained faster than flatlands. Sandy land absorbs water more readily than clayey lands. In some areas of Florida there is a layer of dense, organic sand, called hardpan, just under the surface, which may retard the movement of water into the ground.
Sandy soils allow water to enter the ground rapidly and permit its storage as ground water for dry times. Clayey soil will absorb and store less water.
5




The lakes and sinkholes of Florida are storage basins through which the ground water is being continuously replenished.
HOW MUCH WATER DO WE HAVE?
The State of Florida has an average annual rainfall of 53 inches. This amounts to an average of 148 billion gallons of water falling upon Florida i in a day. This is the principal source for our streams and thousands of lakes as well as the water in the ground. Beneath Florida lies one of the most extensive and productive ground-water reservoirs in the Nation. The volume of water in this reservoir has been estimated to be several times that impounded behind Hoover Dam, the Nation's largest man-made lake. There also are several less extensive water-bearing rocks that supply areas such as Miami and Pensacola. Certainly Florida has more fresh, drinkable water available than is now used or will be used for some time to come, but this condition may prevail only if this resource is wisely managed.
For all purposes of planning, the daily discharge of streams, estimated at 40 billion gallons of water per day, is the amount available for future use. This is about 17 times the State's requirements today for consumptive uses.
SURFACE WATER RESOURCES
Surface water occupies defined channels upon
the ground surface to form rivers, brooks, creeks, lakes, ponds, swamps, marshes, and variations and combinations of these. Man-made dams may create additional reservoirs in these surface channels to increase the water storage, or ditches and -anals
may be constructed to increase the discharge.
Surface water supplies the primary needs of
irrigation for citrus growers and farmers. Only four
6




hydroelectric power dams are operated in Florida: Jim Woodruff Dam on the Apalachicola River at Chattahoochee, Inglis Dam at Inglis on the Withlacoochee River, Talquin Dam on the Ochlockonee River at Bloxham, and a small dam at Moss Bluff on the Oklawaha River. These dams store in excess of 575,000 acre-feet of water for use in power generation, navigation, recreation, and conservation. It requires 325,850 gallons of water to cover an acre to a depth of one foot.
-t --_-
With the completion of the large water-manageminent project, now utinder development by the Central and Southern Florida Flood Control District, 4% million acre-feet of water can be stored during periods of abundant rainfall in three conservation districts for release during droughts.
In addition, under the U. S. Soil Conservation Service, more than 3,350 small ponds in Florida have been constructed on farms and store about 28,764 acre-feet of water in areas where irregular patterns of rainfall make these most useful.
The use of land in Florida changes from year to year, and roads, building, poor mulching, and soil conditioning, lack of terracing in high lands, and destruction of forests may increase the amount of ,vater that runs off. Any changes in land use mnay also alter the timing and peak flow of streams, the levels of lakes, amount of-recharge to ground water, and quality.
7




Florida streams generally have moderate to slow rates of flow because of the flat terrain and low slopes. Much of the rainfall is trapped in basins or by the sandy soil and enters the ground as ground water. About 50 stream basins drain the State, but south of Lake Okeechobee the water stood in shallow sheets or moved as sheet flow slowly through the Everglades until controlled by man. Drainage canals and conservation districts now concentrate this water and make the peaty soils available for cultivation.
Because of differences in the soils, rocks, climate, terrain, vegetation, and evaporation, twice as much water runs off the land into streams in Panhandle Florida as in the peninsula. Springs add to the amount of water in streams. Silver Springs, at more than 500 million gallons per day, and Rainbow Springs, at about 450 million gallons per day, are among the larger springs in the world. Of the 53 inches of annual rainfall, 39 inches are lost to evaporation and used by vegetation, and 14 inches enters the ground or runs off of Florida in streams that empty into salt water. This measurement of runoff does not include water entering the State from Georgia or Alabama and water emerging as springs under salt water.
GROUND WATER RESOURCES
. ., "" r
The State is blessed in having some of the best and most productive ground-water reservoirs in the world. Several thousand feet of porous
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limestones, that make up the principal ground water reservoir, contain an estimated 1,600 cubic miles of fresh water, better than 44,000 times the average daily stream discharge of 40 billion gallons.
At least 100 named springs are known, most of which are fed by water rising from the porous limestones under pressure. Florida has more large springs than any other state, and Silver Springs alone discharges enough water to satisfy all of Florida's municipal and rural domestic needs, if it could be distributed to the place of need.
In areas along some of the coastal margins and where the deep ground water is heavily mineralized, shallow porous sand, shell, and limestone contain sufficient amounts of water to supply the needs of these areas. Miami, in particular, relies upon highly permeable sediments that lie at or near the ground surface of the area.
About 1.5 billion gallons of water per day are drawn from ground water by domestic, municipal, industrial, and agricultural users.
WHAT DOES THE WATER CONTAIN?
Rain falling on the earth is practically pure, containing only a small amount of carbon dioxide and oxygen dissolved from the atmosphere. As the water soaks into the soil and becomes part of the ground water, it begins to dissolve mineral matter from the materials through which it passes.
The substances most comnonly found dissolved in Florida waters are hydrogen sulfide, calcium and magnesium sulfates and bicarbonates, and sodium chloride. Iron and organic materials are also present, more commonly in water at the surface and in shallow wells. Sodium is usually restricted to highly mineralized
9




waters, or in waters affected by salt-water intrusion. Strontium and fluorine are also present in some Florida waters although usually in very small quantities.
CHEMICAL CONSTITUENTS AND WATER USE
Constituent Effect on Water Quality
IRON More than 0.3 ppm (parts per million) of dissolved iron will cause staining, discoloration ("'red water''), and an unpleasant taste.
HYDROGEN Gives the water an unpleasant odor, SULFIDE but is harmless and easily removed by aeration.
Calcium. Magnesium) Gives water a bitter taste if concen*
SULFATE tration is greater than 500 ppm.
CALCIUM Main cause of hardness in water.
MAGNESIUM Second most inportant cause of hardness.
SODIUM Public sapplies must contain less than
CHLORIDE 250 ppm. Larger amounts give a saline taste and increases the corrosion. SODIUM AND The amount normally found in drinkable
POTASSIUM water is of little significance. High concentrations sometimes found in very deep wells may be harmful when used directly for irrigation.
(Fluorine in Concentrations of 0.7 to 1.5 ppm are the form of) helpful in preventing dental caries.
FLUORIDE Large concentration may cause mottling of teeth. Concentrations of this element in Florida ranges from a trace to
2.5 ppm.
(Calcium, Magnesium) Contributes to hardness of water, BICARBONATE
10




IS IT GOOD WATER?
X/
_7771
Water which is considered good for one purpose may be unsuitable for another. Water from wells which penetrate covered limestone rocks containing water under some pressure is less subject to contamination from surface sources and is low in iroi. It is, however, usually hard and, in some places, salty enough to be unpleasant tasting and corrosive to plumbing. Surface water and water from.shallow wells often contains enough iron to cause staining and give the water an unpleasant taste.
For the most part drinkable water of high purity is available over most of the State from streams, lakes, ponds, deep wells, and from shallow wells in areas where the deeper well water is highly mineralized.
HOW MUCH WATER WILL WE
USE IN THE FUTURE?
J4 O 'TUTUIE
Gallons 5 __1INS~
per ----day L3-hN?Billions 1-56 '60 65 '7b 75




It has been estimated that in 1975 the Nation as a whole will be using twice the amount of water that was used in 1956. As the rate of growth of Florida is much greater than that of the Nation we can expect a greater proportional increase in water use. The estimated 1956 consumptive use in the State was about 2.3 billion gallons per day. The 1975 consumptive use will probably amount to about
5 billion gallons per day.
WHAT ARE THE CURRENT USES?
The uses of Florida's water are as diverse as the many activities in the State. The major uses range through agricultural, municipal, rural, domestic and livestock, industrial, power, and recreational The last two uses cannot be evaluated quantitatively in a manner similar to that of the other principal uses. A summary of consumptive-water use ir Florida in million gallons per day (mgd) for 1951 and projected to 1975 is as follows:
1956 1975 % Increase Agricultural I, 182 2,500 111 Industrial 839 1,550 142 Municipal 390 750 92 Rural 104 200 92
Total (mgd) 2,315 5,000 111
HOW MUCH WATER FOR CITIES AND TOWNS?
The foremost priority for an area's water resources is a safe and drinkable supply. In general, the requirements for water are based upon the number of people served, with proper allowance for the standard of living of the population. The present daily per capita consumption, of persons served by public systems in Florida, is 131 gallons with the
12




national daily average of 153 gallons. The urbanizational trend and rapid population growth indicates that by 1975 the average water demand n Florida should exceed 150 gallons daily per person. Better than 90 percent of municipal requirements for water comes from ground water.
PER CAPITA CONSUMPTION
PER CAPITA CONSUMPTION
131 GALLONS,,
Cities and areas of industrial development use from 300 to 500 gallons per person per day. As Florida develops Industrially it can be anticipated that its per capita use of water will accelerate.
FROM WHERE WILL THE WATER FOR LIVESTOCK AND FARM HOMES COME?
Practically all farm water supplies are obtained from privately developed wells which furnish water at a fairly constant temperature and quality throughout the year. In some areas wells flow naturally making pumping unnecessary. In most areas, however, a pump is needed to furnish an adequate supply.
Daily requirements for farm use are estimated at 35 gallons for each person, 12 gailons each for
13




horses and beef cattle, 25.30 gallons each day for dairy cattle, and about 2 gallons each for small stock.
VU
The use of wells for watering livestock has greatly increased because wells are more dependable as a supply than surface sources.
HOW ABOUT IRRIGATION?
In Florida more water is used for irrigation than for any other consumptive purpose. A large amount of water is supplied for crops and groves by rain falling on the area where it is to be used, or by surface water stored in adjacent areas. Due to the seasonal nature of rainfall in Florida, it is sometimes necessary to supply additional water to growing crops, especially when the rainy season does not correspond with the growing season. A large number of wells are now in use for this pur1
14




pose, many flowing naturally and others being pumped. Use of water for Irrigation can be expected to increase as more land is put into cultivation.
Surface water supplies about 70 percent of the requirements for agriculture, this being the largest consumptive use of water in Florida. When spread out on cultivated land, large amounts of water are utilized by vegetation, but the greatest loss is through evaporation.
WILL INDUSTRY HAVE ALL THE
WATER IT NEEDS?
The water requirements for industry are more diverse than those for other uses. Some industries use very large volumes of water while others use practically none. The quality requirements also vary greatly depending upon the type of industry some requiring water of the highest purity while others can use water of almost any quality.
for Aeedr?
In all uses conservation should be undertaken by reusing water whenever possible, and by reclaiming it where desirable and necessary. However, it is not expected that there will be a shortage of water for industrial use in the foreseeable future, provided that intelligent plans for water supply are made prior to the location of new industrial sites, or expansion of present plants.
15




There are four major industrial users of water in Florida: (1) Electric power installations 1,590 million gallons per day, of this only about 4 percent was actually consumed, the remainder was returned to the reservoirs; (2) pulp and paper and chemical industries 354 million gallons per day; (3) citrus processing industry 94 million gallons per day; and (4) the mining industry 191 million gallons per day.
OTHER IMPORTANT USES
The use of water resources may be divided into consumptive and nonconsumptive uses. Irrigation, domestic and municipal, are examples of consumptive uses, whereas, recreational, power and transportation uses are nonconsumptive. In dollars and cents value to the State probably the most important use is that of recreation. The money spent in boating, swimming, fishing, skiing, and other recreational activities utilizing water cannot be accurately given, but because of the unique appeal of Florida and its great attraction to tourists, estimates of the recreational value of water run to several hundred million dollars, including more than 300 million dollars spent annually on the purchase of boats, their upkeep, and operation.
Florida has a coastline of about 8,500 miles measured to tidal water limits, or upstream to a width of 100 feet. The total water area, including lakes and streams, exceeds 3,800 square miles.
16




Few states have as many natural waterways and Im)roved harbors. Eight seaports, having a depth of 30 or more feet, and eight having 21-28 feet, handle millions of tons of commerce. Tampa, Jacksonville, and Miami are the largest. Petroleum, chemicals, paper and its products, phosohate, oyster shell and limestone, are the principal commodities transported.
Because of the unique appeal of the State's climate and recreational possibilities, the many miles of navigable waterways are extremely important in the economy of the State. A coordinated waterway program is underway and will be develope(d.
HOW ABOUT THE NEEDS FOR RECREATION AND WILDLIFE?
*-,
Ini any local or statewide long-range planning for the use of our water resources, the preservation of uncontaminated surface waters for recreation and wildlife must be considered. In 1955 it was estimated that $381 million was spent by the public in the use of our fresh-water resources for recreation. The chief threats to our recreational use of water are pollution and restriction of public access.
17




Water used for recreation, boating, and wildlife is not consumed or changed by that use, but consumptive uses may reduce the amount available for game and fish and other recreation management.
With a tidal coastline of about 8,500 miles, along with numerous streams, springs, and lakes, the State is adequately endowed for recreationalpurposes and wildlife management.
WHAT ARE THE PROSPECTS OF
USING WATER FOR POWER?
Because of the low relief and terrain natural to Florida, and the resulting sluggish streams, there are very few sites available for the development of dams suitable for power production. At the present time, small plants are operated at Inglis, Bloxham, and Chattahoochee. The Jim Woodruff Dam at Chattahoochee is the largest of the three, and it is designed to produce an average of 212 million kilowatt hours of electricity, but that only during times when the head pool is higher than the tail pool. Almost any quality of water can be used for power production.
Steam-generation installations used in excess of 1,600 million gallons of water per day during 1956, of which only 2 to 3 percent was obtained from ground water.
18




HOW DO WE LOSE WATER?
Much of the fresh water of the State runs rapidly off to the ocean. This loss could be reduced greatly by more adequate storage facilities, but when developing and improving water-storage facilities we should consider the increased loss of water by evaporation. Any method-whereby the water can be retained upon the land for a longer period of time will reduce the loss from runoff. Mulching and tilling of the soil, terracing, farm pond construction, and winter crops help in this conservation.
Great quantities of municipal and industrial wastes find their way into streams, lakes, and ground water. Contaminated and polluted water is not suitable for most uses. Some of our streams are being contaminated to a degree that they can be used only as running cesspools for disposal of industrial wastes.
The former reckless drainage of the Everglades, coastal marshes, and other storage basins has not only wasted the State's water but allowed the very rapid oxidation of organic soils.
In areas of artesian flow, water is lost through leaking valves, open casings, valves deliberately or carelessly left open, abandoned and rotted casings, and wasteful irrigation practices.
Contamination of ground water is another cause for water loss. Disposal of industrial and city wastes into the ground can cause the water supply to be unfit for many purposes. In some areas the absence of streams make it necessary to dispose of surface water through wells. In this manner lake levels can be controlled and street drainage carried underground. Some industrial wastes have also been placed in these wells, and their disintegration has produced inflammable gas which has accumulated in the porous limestones that underlie the area.
19




Overpumping of a ground-water source may draw salt water into the aquifer from the sea, or from below, and will increase the mineral content of water in wells of the area. A number of our communities have experienced this problem and have had to relocate their well fields.
CAN WE HAVE TOO MUCH WATER?
Much of the recent damage and difficulty occurring from too much water has stemmed from Florida's rapid population growth, and the ensuing encroachment into the lakes and river basins in the neverending search for water-front property. Since most of Florida is within 60 miles I ~, of the sea, and less than 350 ( bi feet above sea level, drainage is often inadequate dur- Jo) ing heavy seasonal rains. Not only do some sections of the State suffer from seasonal stream flooding, but also from a high water table and raised lake levels accom- panied by waterlogged soils and temporary ponds. The problem of too much water is being studied and attacked not only from the standpoint of single watershed areas, but also within much larger areas involving several counties.
Flooding in Florida is frequent because of the flatlands, the concentration of much of the annual rainfall over short periods, and absence of protective water-control facilities.
HOW CAN WE PROTECT AND CONSERVE OUR WATER RESOURCES?
e can best protect and conserve our water resources by developing a comprehensive statewide
20




long-range water plan. This plan should be based on a complete understanding of the natural and manmade controls that regulate the storage, movement and quality of water conditional to the availability and need for water, fairly apportioned among the users.
Ground-water management must be statewide but surface-water management is a watershed problemand must be approached within each watershed. A coordinated district action is required and usually a soil conservation program is included. The construction of terraces to reduce slope wash, the encouragement of good soil tilling and mulching practices, the planting of protective vegetative cover, all work toward soil and water conservation.
C 0 N S E RVATION
\....I /
The Watershed Protection and.Flood Prevention Act (U. S. Public Laws 566 and 1018) provides for management and use of water by upper watershed control structures. Flood control and agricultural benefits can be combined with improvements for industrial and municipal supplies, wildlife management, and recreational facilities with these sharing in the costs of construction according to the value and degree of the benefits.
WHO OWNS THE WATER IN FLORIDA?
Florida follows the general rule of riparian rights, which essentially guarantees that each ri21




parian proprietor is entitled to make use of any water resources on his land, provided his use does not unreasonably affect the rights of adjacent riparian owners. This right implies "reasonable use," but this term has never been clearly defined by legislative or judicial authority in Florida.
In 1955 the Legislature of the State of Florida declared that the, "Waters in the state are a natural resource," and that, "The ownership, control of development and use of waters for all beneficial purposes is within the jurisdiction of the state which in the exercise of its powers may establish measures to effectuate the proper and comprehensive utilization and protection of the waters."
Such implementation of this policy must be within the framework of judicial opinion relative to the riparian doctrine. Irrigation is necessary in Florida. The construction of surface reservoirs and the use of waste waters for this purpose should be encouraged. But irrigation is not possible without the loss of water through evaporation, and large losses might exceed the "reasonable use" provision of the riparian doctrine.
0
The laws of Florida should anticipate the relative rights of human -needs, stock requirements, irrigation, industrial, and recreational uses, and should adopt means to fairly apportion such rights to the extent to which they are most reasonably capable. In this way, waste and unreasonable use of water should be prevented.
22




The Department of waterResources was created in 1957 for the purpose of implementing the water policy of Florida. This department primarily exercises control over and manages our water resources, formulating reasonable rules and regulations to implement the policy. The Florida Geological Survey is designated by the Legislature as the primary state agency for the collection of data on water' resources, and joins the U. S. Geological Survey, State universities, Salt Water Fish Commission, and the State Game and Fresh Water Fish Commission to provide specialized data on water resources relating to specialized fields of responsibility.
SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS
Florida's water supply is adequate to meet all presentneeds for many years to come, with a surplus 6f water for future development. This surplus is sufficient for the expected increases in water use for all purposes. Industry has been, and will be, 4ttracted by large volumes of good water combined vith extensive tracts of available land, good research facilities, and an unexcelled climate, beaches And recreational facilities. While the State has large quantities of available water resources now, esponsible public officials must take a long-range Mlanning view of the total quantity and quality of Available water. Excluding storage, it has been estimated that we have a surplus runoff of about 17 limes the amount of water used in Florida at the present time. This water is available for additional pnd increased uses. The limited problems.that have
*risen in the use of the State's water resources can te eliminated for the most part by wise management nd control.
How we use our water resources, whether Iisely or unwisely, will rest upon each citizen of Florida. Floridians can look to the future with pptimism.
23




TEXT PREPARED BY: Vernon, Robert 0.; Sproul, C. R.; Lavender, J. A.; Hendry, C. W., Jr.; Bishop, E. W.
ILLUSTRATIONS BY: Whitehead, Harry; Janson, Andrew.
24




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'827252' 'info:fdaE20080623_AAAACOfileF20080624_AAADDH' 'sip-files00002.tif'
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2604c78fa074fc3ef5ec34f0c956be5cfc5e7306
'2017-03-09T08:47:32-05:00'
describe
'128' 'info:fdaE20080623_AAAACOfileF20080624_AAADDI' 'sip-files00002.txt'
1f0b0fc1c7cb30f4d2cb890edf1a7d62
9f8442aca0b4ed43c0707cbd3a31fc9e2e28e0d3
'2017-03-09T08:47:17-05:00'
describe
'12609' 'info:fdaE20080623_AAAACOfileF20080624_AAADDJ' 'sip-files00002thm.jpg'
704a195767e96ec8a06b567b9d668f23
c754ad8cdfa6201458878a2429c423e2bd11fab7
'2017-03-09T08:47:05-05:00'
describe
'2524' 'info:fdaE20080623_AAAACOfileF20080624_AAADDK' 'sip-files00003.jp2'
6e754d1e8299509f0fe6229a2da421c1
071e4e6d461a9f876bc31cdc85f8aed142625c12
'2017-03-09T08:46:37-05:00'
describe
'8327' 'info:fdaE20080623_AAAACOfileF20080624_AAADDL' 'sip-files00003.jpg'
bdce8262bee6085308bab339f7cc7740
b2580a335e332fcf42d07849d189f8633efc664c
describe
'3593' 'info:fdaE20080623_AAAACOfileF20080624_AAADDM' 'sip-files00003.pdf'
d9569e168f6effd2dec0bee27669a828
6891533c45bb970076a4e6886929a1d0dd2dbaa6
describe
'info:fdaE20080623_AAAACOfileF20080624_AAADDM-norm-0' 'aip-filesF20080624_AAADDM-norm-0.pdf'
8cbf40949b8b639101cd4e2c803d9b62
6e3842fc6d7fb92b4cf6a2346c8099c7289050d2
'2017-03-09T08:47:43-05:00'
describe
'2017-03-09T08:47:40-05:00'
normalize
'217' 'info:fdaE20080623_AAAACOfileF20080624_AAADDN' 'sip-files00003.pro'
7352765cb2293b5a4688580c1c655597
5b0e45dd89c26d4a4b090ce1e3dc5fa3f8c2afb5
'2017-03-09T08:47:29-05:00'
describe
'2647' 'info:fdaE20080623_AAAACOfileF20080624_AAADDO' 'sip-files00003.QC.jpg'
c70a42e69600c916c81fc38062a75678
adfc6a695b7f04119afe1c6229a07efe4c663bb9
'2017-03-09T08:47:12-05:00'
describe
'601820' 'info:fdaE20080623_AAAACOfileF20080624_AAADDP' 'sip-files00003.tif'
02fa46a718247263de8e3f9c533b0d51
caddc826473bcc0d6f826ab4b69873f07303a6d8
describe
'3' 'info:fdaE20080623_AAAACOfileF20080624_AAADDQ' 'sip-files00003.txt'
bc949ea893a9384070c31f083ccefd26
cbb8391cb65c20e2c05a2f29211e55c49939c3db
'2017-03-09T08:46:22-05:00'
describe
'1405' 'info:fdaE20080623_AAAACOfileF20080624_AAADDR' 'sip-files00003thm.jpg'
336d391011bb02e4f8287c94b5a363d9
9746d48ee36f68118d481495097d7f12738d69b3
describe
'92092' 'info:fdaE20080623_AAAACOfileF20080624_AAADDS' 'sip-files00004.jp2'
3f81fdbbf2dc6c3041679f1aecbd2496
8116f339a3dd975d29eec40501c73655ccb7e286
'2017-03-09T08:46:51-05:00'
describe
'96208' 'info:fdaE20080623_AAAACOfileF20080624_AAADDT' 'sip-files00004.jpg'
fe57943bae7ecdaec804f81e0b9758b8
ad9858b4e8b2a2aa9f84487a80746bd83c673300
'2017-03-09T08:47:23-05:00'
describe
'39662' 'info:fdaE20080623_AAAACOfileF20080624_AAADDU' 'sip-files00004.pdf'
0590ff5dce119043ca42f671c9c5b71f
3d46b84236263ab83a900d23027b03ebc0ca1f8a
'2017-03-09T08:46:29-05:00'
describe
'info:fdaE20080623_AAAACOfileF20080624_AAADDU-norm-0' 'aip-filesF20080624_AAADDU-norm-0.pdf'
8cbf40949b8b639101cd4e2c803d9b62
6e3842fc6d7fb92b4cf6a2346c8099c7289050d2
describe
'2017-03-09T08:46:31-05:00'
normalize
'32477' 'info:fdaE20080623_AAAACOfileF20080624_AAADDV' 'sip-files00004.pro'
001025eea3e3f630aa3904466ec139db
8309e9e554cca10d461200d25caa17e51722485f
'2017-03-09T08:47:33-05:00'
describe
'32559' 'info:fdaE20080623_AAAACOfileF20080624_AAADDW' 'sip-files00004.QC.jpg'
1bc4c0a9134acbed2b036dcabdb47ad0
801bb458d75e16bad7ac790e2a72117e78a9cef7
describe
'607324' 'info:fdaE20080623_AAAACOfileF20080624_AAADDX' 'sip-files00004.tif'
33b6dff47f47c539ef7bbb3fdf1a7a92
3abf818614ee5d06f378c5c5dc279f1efa2918b3
describe
'1323' 'info:fdaE20080623_AAAACOfileF20080624_AAADDY' 'sip-files00004.txt'
3c908d3540848c20a4abf0f16e910f65
75ae2455b67d2ddf2e99a1454804bc8fb7d35d59
'2017-03-09T08:47:04-05:00'
describe
'12281' 'info:fdaE20080623_AAAACOfileF20080624_AAADDZ' 'sip-files00004thm.jpg'
7ae16776cc833221ca2390b9d440284e
a5fb4ee3e88e12148573980a156f9e0a2e6e0540
describe
'129347' 'info:fdaE20080623_AAAACOfileF20080624_AAADEA' 'sip-files00005.jp2'
d7e91bfeb7c0f2789ec6189276bf3451
435f7ed4d7b04c15184b0d7f88e7b91ab59a9de3
describe
'100547' 'info:fdaE20080623_AAAACOfileF20080624_AAADEB' 'sip-files00005.jpg'
5c990f2d6db158bed0da3544dca17514
1576dd3c1cf5a9bcd2941ea4678f9afc45ab9217
'2017-03-09T08:47:31-05:00'
describe
'47315' 'info:fdaE20080623_AAAACOfileF20080624_AAADEC' 'sip-files00005.pdf'
3bd933cb7aaebab3d94fabd0ee571728
1dcc050c4ea0487dea99c98c7a8e7bfae96b7ef6
'2017-03-09T08:46:46-05:00'
describe
'info:fdaE20080623_AAAACOfileF20080624_AAADEC-norm-0' 'aip-filesF20080624_AAADEC-norm-0.pdf'
8cbf40949b8b639101cd4e2c803d9b62
6e3842fc6d7fb92b4cf6a2346c8099c7289050d2
'2017-03-09T08:47:45-05:00'
describe
'2017-03-09T08:46:48-05:00'
normalize
'36328' 'info:fdaE20080623_AAAACOfileF20080624_AAADED' 'sip-files00005.pro'
90381d53d94a1482449789fbe31e9f73
5d2994a4cc51f233232e99137d7b06ccad3ab976
'2017-03-09T08:46:21-05:00'
describe
'32273' 'info:fdaE20080623_AAAACOfileF20080624_AAADEE' 'sip-files00005.QC.jpg'
ecd28d25e4421d541b6e416705fa7126
b7eba1a2c45549eca8689b42068f29958ec5b4ab
'2017-03-09T08:46:57-05:00'
describe
'711852' 'info:fdaE20080623_AAAACOfileF20080624_AAADEF' 'sip-files00005.tif'
7bbc8db48449e74a951f3e32175bf6a3
c3b02f871dc76ad301abda9ba99835156d84f199
describe
'1550' 'info:fdaE20080623_AAAACOfileF20080624_AAADEG' 'sip-files00005.txt'
4f80b344b605e612638fc7c530edb3e1
36a1cb5834e907d2146ea09d4d27a28e9949abb8
describe
Invalid character
WARNING CODE 'Daitss::Anomaly' Invalid character
'12777' 'info:fdaE20080623_AAAACOfileF20080624_AAADEH' 'sip-files00005thm.jpg'
4c308d7a13ba04c5b4f433d90989c655
1eb620dd015fd8aa27f76c17c4d95c167eded7b3
'2017-03-09T08:46:26-05:00'
describe
'170905' 'info:fdaE20080623_AAAACOfileF20080624_AAADEI' 'sip-files00006.jp2'
bc8d35baca894794ba73aa9e1f2ebc90
335a87cbb2035b9f8ee945846f129a68925bc4b1
describe
'99114' 'info:fdaE20080623_AAAACOfileF20080624_AAADEJ' 'sip-files00006.jpg'
88b1972466120b16b4584e84600fbef3
5c2ba2a2da6a324599c65d265a6099fbfc24b770
describe
'83021' 'info:fdaE20080623_AAAACOfileF20080624_AAADEK' 'sip-files00006.pdf'
fd8a7fd1ac326a0167fa1863ec632e72
2d6d2881cee0afc6b635245e81995dae3080c76a
describe
'info:fdaE20080623_AAAACOfileF20080624_AAADEK-norm-0' 'aip-filesF20080624_AAADEK-norm-0.pdf'
8cbf40949b8b639101cd4e2c803d9b62
6e3842fc6d7fb92b4cf6a2346c8099c7289050d2
describe
'2017-03-09T08:47:42-05:00'
normalize
'19824' 'info:fdaE20080623_AAAACOfileF20080624_AAADEL' 'sip-files00006.pro'
5a8935d5d3b12dd8db65f39efbe582bc
48f465d68036b8554f532799a8545e89a2657caa
describe
'27870' 'info:fdaE20080623_AAAACOfileF20080624_AAADEM' 'sip-files00006.QC.jpg'
7e9613e938d6fce28802b1c00e638eca
da1d83d393ac2fd3ee38e32bf41a8d4c057ac293
describe
'712032' 'info:fdaE20080623_AAAACOfileF20080624_AAADEN' 'sip-files00006.tif'
53d163e7c1dec2f994a8f1a7e21cadd6
5f2ad50f18cba78adf53edbd1df8a162dd34c0c2
describe
'1034' 'info:fdaE20080623_AAAACOfileF20080624_AAADEO' 'sip-files00006.txt'
752c7baf1977158635b7791bdca087ec
80f63def9e874c81be099e1be8f30301130f441c
describe
Invalid character
Invalid character
'10422' 'info:fdaE20080623_AAAACOfileF20080624_AAADEP' 'sip-files00006thm.jpg'
42d2b1717e6e13851ef48d92919fe794
5f9d7c13151400eae9a785f96ddbfc030d1d058c
describe
'121650' 'info:fdaE20080623_AAAACOfileF20080624_AAADEQ' 'sip-files00007.jp2'
366835f77c092824fcdf47767ecae5c1
803ff1070f88a635b3be5073e38ca21aca8655f4
'2017-03-09T08:46:12-05:00'
describe
'101056' 'info:fdaE20080623_AAAACOfileF20080624_AAADER' 'sip-files00007.jpg'
55e83f61a02fedf762097d97148030e8
b35b70d45a1e80e76d43d1f22236bc56f641cb05
'2017-03-09T08:46:20-05:00'
describe
'49879' 'info:fdaE20080623_AAAACOfileF20080624_AAADES' 'sip-files00007.pdf'
3ab7935e24eff22bbe06634d6009d872
0ee0e69c4c42d0472f7721eecd25be9ad2c79e0b
'2017-03-09T08:46:41-05:00'
describe
'info:fdaE20080623_AAAACOfileF20080624_AAADES-norm-0' 'aip-filesF20080624_AAADES-norm-0.pdf'
8cbf40949b8b639101cd4e2c803d9b62
6e3842fc6d7fb92b4cf6a2346c8099c7289050d2
'2017-03-09T08:47:44-05:00'
describe
'2017-03-09T08:46:43-05:00'
normalize
'46254' 'info:fdaE20080623_AAAACOfileF20080624_AAADET' 'sip-files00007.pro'
67b336f770d1ac60c040f9f639244356
62548c775b8c3939fd26ab7f32954ac127342840
describe
'34303' 'info:fdaE20080623_AAAACOfileF20080624_AAADEU' 'sip-files00007.QC.jpg'
2dcc30fc6c93eaedd58b0df25d80f830
69a8f8c6595bebb261fbe0e2a20a80af153d83a4
describe
'760832' 'info:fdaE20080623_AAAACOfileF20080624_AAADEV' 'sip-files00007.tif'
0f7ff05a5de713f855742288ee7af2f2
33e607bf7d8e63586de387468b8b688921bc03f7
'2017-03-09T08:46:35-05:00'
describe
'1867' 'info:fdaE20080623_AAAACOfileF20080624_AAADEW' 'sip-files00007.txt'
399624fbd5f11de0c63341c74e77a259
b0d8d4b72f5ff40d75f098978ad2689bede8f83d
'2017-03-09T08:46:32-05:00'
describe
'12621' 'info:fdaE20080623_AAAACOfileF20080624_AAADEX' 'sip-files00007thm.jpg'
b69f3fe12e87b7becdf1cb456a542adc
05df612939c9f193bc80d3f70a8a53f7ef70958d
describe
'127480' 'info:fdaE20080623_AAAACOfileF20080624_AAADEY' 'sip-files00008.jp2'
2e2dca7f2149eb12ea826f20b415876d
691bb2296c6879f0f85c5b2c9d3de07e80ed9b15
'2017-03-09T08:47:07-05:00'
describe
'100195' 'info:fdaE20080623_AAAACOfileF20080624_AAADEZ' 'sip-files00008.jpg'
2f8241657ae1d4e307fc9fd151ce74ec
c83273a7b07df812a04abc83d77085a1f043301f
describe
'55060' 'info:fdaE20080623_AAAACOfileF20080624_AAADFA' 'sip-files00008.pdf'
7c6ee3317f342c7a1602a39840957ace
19400f00e9961ad934b0c149f7a494e7d35281cc
'2017-03-09T08:46:24-05:00'
describe
'info:fdaE20080623_AAAACOfileF20080624_AAADFA-norm-0' 'aip-filesF20080624_AAADFA-norm-0.pdf'
8cbf40949b8b639101cd4e2c803d9b62
6e3842fc6d7fb92b4cf6a2346c8099c7289050d2
describe
normalize
'30596' 'info:fdaE20080623_AAAACOfileF20080624_AAADFB' 'sip-files00008.pro'
3efbb0bf9dfc893b7dc8a9ce71be2370
566c9fc8c9c7e584178161046a8b7b955f015f99
describe
'32456' 'info:fdaE20080623_AAAACOfileF20080624_AAADFC' 'sip-files00008.QC.jpg'
6f938983ed1b2a30f341ce21577c498e
03aa968b63264c5048c77f20ceff9e94cb67c51c
'2017-03-09T08:46:56-05:00'
describe
'746688' 'info:fdaE20080623_AAAACOfileF20080624_AAADFD' 'sip-files00008.tif'
7a29e2de3ac9ff407eb0b6a274d9d6ed
dbc4fb1fad9c447aeb63403dfe692a6300117e40
describe
'1299' 'info:fdaE20080623_AAAACOfileF20080624_AAADFE' 'sip-files00008.txt'
b9a02ec327f84e1e2432c6d748cb038b
4f9e0499e2ad4b231ca7e9b2094c3ad762facb99
describe
'12143' 'info:fdaE20080623_AAAACOfileF20080624_AAADFF' 'sip-files00008thm.jpg'
e517bc061e82c8eef6a1fa95e7e525a1
0453853db377c66224b2bcc83934741f7b55ce71
describe
'116161' 'info:fdaE20080623_AAAACOfileF20080624_AAADFG' 'sip-files00009.jp2'
57fed76595d7b2e98984b1c5b7fc779c
6fcafa84d49bb24e817eeb34c746af3b2236b004
describe
'97817' 'info:fdaE20080623_AAAACOfileF20080624_AAADFH' 'sip-files00009.jpg'
8d5d2f2d8554462c81bbcab7ba7ec6ba
e60d8499c0b82ab48907ec7c1678eb243158f7d0
describe
'47867' 'info:fdaE20080623_AAAACOfileF20080624_AAADFI' 'sip-files00009.pdf'
a86f19dc67b10ef2cddaa9a41ac09ccb
75b1990cec7321e77dfca493adb6bd76bc5859c8
describe
'info:fdaE20080623_AAAACOfileF20080624_AAADFI-norm-0' 'aip-filesF20080624_AAADFI-norm-0.pdf'
8cbf40949b8b639101cd4e2c803d9b62
6e3842fc6d7fb92b4cf6a2346c8099c7289050d2
describe
'2017-03-09T08:47:19-05:00'
normalize
'43409' 'info:fdaE20080623_AAAACOfileF20080624_AAADFJ' 'sip-files00009.pro'
066939b8b7e7c2cfca63aea964cea8e6
ae81d3a6f6db1ac0511ac7fc5047b6d1b7596922
'2017-03-09T08:47:24-05:00'
describe
'32276' 'info:fdaE20080623_AAAACOfileF20080624_AAADFK' 'sip-files00009.QC.jpg'
9f7c653d4d025a93bd17e9ca890c6dcf
1a3b38ebb61c56e15a200154cf796e6a22719d2b
describe
'770532' 'info:fdaE20080623_AAAACOfileF20080624_AAADFL' 'sip-files00009.tif'
58f5760699349b6f80d482de79f84ec1
979afca01130e08aa71eb2c8c4370a0415530cc5
describe
'1794' 'info:fdaE20080623_AAAACOfileF20080624_AAADFM' 'sip-files00009.txt'
a0438ac965c703864e122c990b1f7402
f49bbece786dfd06b9dff1a59937603ac7a0742c
describe
'12751' 'info:fdaE20080623_AAAACOfileF20080624_AAADFN' 'sip-files00009thm.jpg'
3094591dc3b1f4f9ca12ae4046c6db70
9bffdb53d76a95e4e1ab14ebc0c1728f48a5d13a
describe
'132791' 'info:fdaE20080623_AAAACOfileF20080624_AAADFO' 'sip-files00010.jp2'
dd73deca16085036b7fad24d4a11dbda
f462037b5e06567a68f6e4a2cfa140f8207f9158
describe
'101820' 'info:fdaE20080623_AAAACOfileF20080624_AAADFP' 'sip-files00010.jpg'
d34e5fdf4e1b5b337e9cc049100a30a9
e249057b5312c02961e35fa75bdc6012bca73610
'2017-03-09T08:46:11-05:00'
describe
'59341' 'info:fdaE20080623_AAAACOfileF20080624_AAADFQ' 'sip-files00010.pdf'
56671309a129825d08bcebf2add89af4
3fa23bfffa2e2e1e10125073bdbd63d03575308a
'2017-03-09T08:46:54-05:00'
describe
'info:fdaE20080623_AAAACOfileF20080624_AAADFQ-norm-0' 'aip-filesF20080624_AAADFQ-norm-0.pdf'
8cbf40949b8b639101cd4e2c803d9b62
6e3842fc6d7fb92b4cf6a2346c8099c7289050d2
'2017-03-09T08:47:47-05:00'
describe
normalize
'37418' 'info:fdaE20080623_AAAACOfileF20080624_AAADFR' 'sip-files00010.pro'
6907abace2b347106fed43c9aef38051
a9abdce0b9e4f01650763cbb0b75d31d453043b0
describe
'32424' 'info:fdaE20080623_AAAACOfileF20080624_AAADFS' 'sip-files00010.QC.jpg'
e88623fe14810683ca3814522db6eabd
f9e9334110dca92477a834e47f225c1cae60859f
'2017-03-09T08:47:08-05:00'
describe
'756620' 'info:fdaE20080623_AAAACOfileF20080624_AAADFT' 'sip-files00010.tif'
75ffb7b9373a5d262e2f4f10f1b4779d
8a8960e88ed37e865f0e463f58d9b481919d2af9
describe
'1558' 'info:fdaE20080623_AAAACOfileF20080624_AAADFU' 'sip-files00010.txt'
0d7a3935f59a7a087807f2e25510a61b
7b1f4094402c95f6ac4284b4843c61ab1e881012
'2017-03-09T08:47:22-05:00'
describe
'12446' 'info:fdaE20080623_AAAACOfileF20080624_AAADFV' 'sip-files00010thm.jpg'
ce1cf0bc471c9d85f687af6f0651888c
892745bbf153fb778c51282d9508c68998bd3077
describe
'124555' 'info:fdaE20080623_AAAACOfileF20080624_AAADFW' 'sip-files00011.jp2'
e4594169bc99c1fe024c7729ed2e6151
9c799f408ab5db7741782228c2f54a709c94817e
describe
'98745' 'info:fdaE20080623_AAAACOfileF20080624_AAADFX' 'sip-files00011.jpg'
59a9d95151a4b4ebd16d63a9e22c0d10
7ce55c0fa59023c43e9c901be884cfe600a7bcda
describe
'52103' 'info:fdaE20080623_AAAACOfileF20080624_AAADFY' 'sip-files00011.pdf'
fac48d363b3bc653275f51c4f575b624
98c233e94ed58f73c0c2554d0e8a0bf721a5aac8
'2017-03-09T08:46:38-05:00'
describe
'info:fdaE20080623_AAAACOfileF20080624_AAADFY-norm-0' 'aip-filesF20080624_AAADFY-norm-0.pdf'
8cbf40949b8b639101cd4e2c803d9b62
6e3842fc6d7fb92b4cf6a2346c8099c7289050d2
describe
'2017-03-09T08:46:40-05:00'
normalize
'35514' 'info:fdaE20080623_AAAACOfileF20080624_AAADFZ' 'sip-files00011.pro'
cf9678d6387a404b621414b2ba007c20
ba1f664f01f91abdfff1997a193e3235a6abec79
describe
'31311' 'info:fdaE20080623_AAAACOfileF20080624_AAADGA' 'sip-files00011.QC.jpg'
97cf015f78b5c21533d013177967ad0a
e1af42d85bd590eee414ff8c2dc74cd21c63dc8f
describe
'734076' 'info:fdaE20080623_AAAACOfileF20080624_AAADGB' 'sip-files00011.tif'
0ddf1acd7a3fe0de2b3f12d964e8e201
2c4f692b5d7280fda2af6f932304a898819b2e29
describe
'1477' 'info:fdaE20080623_AAAACOfileF20080624_AAADGC' 'sip-files00011.txt'
3af46f2c1f441bb3ef8e368a3db9b034
a2c2452900eb02ef5c152ca490430868bfdb6401
describe
'11883' 'info:fdaE20080623_AAAACOfileF20080624_AAADGD' 'sip-files00011thm.jpg'
b33854449d19e053b8e030c2cd6b9830
bc1d7d0d9cfc65407fe468ba3012a29180e77f54
describe
'125287' 'info:fdaE20080623_AAAACOfileF20080624_AAADGE' 'sip-files00012.jp2'
2e43f3f12898a1e7136757bd67cf840f
889f9803f99f104e70460ec79cdb0841aa38c024
describe
'101613' 'info:fdaE20080623_AAAACOfileF20080624_AAADGF' 'sip-files00012.jpg'
ae0111af4122910f10ade18002c26746
ab14c90fc7f728d86a75f599f4eee90bc062a1fb
describe
'50475' 'info:fdaE20080623_AAAACOfileF20080624_AAADGG' 'sip-files00012.pdf'
4a188d35625e2d548b3dfa9d87bd1dd5
b84c928c1c946d726bda193899def26fe0ddd1a9
describe
'info:fdaE20080623_AAAACOfileF20080624_AAADGG-norm-0' 'aip-filesF20080624_AAADGG-norm-0.pdf'
8cbf40949b8b639101cd4e2c803d9b62
6e3842fc6d7fb92b4cf6a2346c8099c7289050d2
describe
normalize
'40954' 'info:fdaE20080623_AAAACOfileF20080624_AAADGH' 'sip-files00012.pro'
da78a36cab2de3e593684b3e70163baf
aa500bc31e923b51ffef3a9ea845c42e955b4232
describe
'33223' 'info:fdaE20080623_AAAACOfileF20080624_AAADGI' 'sip-files00012.QC.jpg'
9b28d153a0754c82c37185121a801db2
a6d978b2852671c00227d4496c05d8a6579d1f2f
'2017-03-09T08:47:13-05:00'
describe
'723120' 'info:fdaE20080623_AAAACOfileF20080624_AAADGJ' 'sip-files00012.tif'
53edb5f3c6b9b7c240cd5993a552d47a
78590c14048aad6b2765b92c13c86d0ccb05933d
'2017-03-09T08:47:11-05:00'
describe
'1748' 'info:fdaE20080623_AAAACOfileF20080624_AAADGK' 'sip-files00012.txt'
ff5b5c93de463471ba0b61d20cf8fb84
f08ec1b6529980801e946d539bf49aff26807139
describe
'12165' 'info:fdaE20080623_AAAACOfileF20080624_AAADGL' 'sip-files00012thm.jpg'
141b651f3add6b32bc9af2d1dcdb8dbd
8e911ccc67e454a4c11ae0a7796faae4b43c7b00
describe
'83720' 'info:fdaE20080623_AAAACOfileF20080624_AAADGM' 'sip-files00013.jp2'
c585c99d36e352fb8397b3fd156d16a2
9d543c3597c253e64986a6d3829bc8b1285172f4
describe
'75800' 'info:fdaE20080623_AAAACOfileF20080624_AAADGN' 'sip-files00013.jpg'
ee2de075908a8e42c1b218294eeb54f9
1b9492643b83235f57278287249076abb5ee3785
describe
'35161' 'info:fdaE20080623_AAAACOfileF20080624_AAADGO' 'sip-files00013.pdf'
6c44a6c1181664273fb7b31f0e659d48
7fc8898f0d3ea245c982796168413db0616dcbe5
'2017-03-09T08:47:20-05:00'
describe
'info:fdaE20080623_AAAACOfileF20080624_AAADGO-norm-0' 'aip-filesF20080624_AAADGO-norm-0.pdf'
8cbf40949b8b639101cd4e2c803d9b62
6e3842fc6d7fb92b4cf6a2346c8099c7289050d2
describe
normalize
'36201' 'info:fdaE20080623_AAAACOfileF20080624_AAADGP' 'sip-files00013.pro'
038245b2ff2de8c198511b3cba30eb54
6f41941146f346489c3235177bf8dfeeddeb33b7
describe
'25775' 'info:fdaE20080623_AAAACOfileF20080624_AAADGQ' 'sip-files00013.QC.jpg'
569f3b92a4584541e9ab7a5d426a9955
e73966a262f672ab77fa749cea9d4a354c9120f3
describe
'727052' 'info:fdaE20080623_AAAACOfileF20080624_AAADGR' 'sip-files00013.tif'
7dac47cf8886c7d864e0e4826045ad17
780dd0515f0ce6121a7ff14b22bde231ed9c7cff
describe
'1769' 'info:fdaE20080623_AAAACOfileF20080624_AAADGS' 'sip-files00013.txt'
72136ef4b9b4bad46fdd165a0f42421d
77023c9c1fef73bd18cdab3d71f3bd76d4c8f5a0
describe
'10179' 'info:fdaE20080623_AAAACOfileF20080624_AAADGT' 'sip-files00013thm.jpg'
96b1cfce1240874d1f10bae3414c0965
cf0eda986f9759bd4d1dea60d3dd4943e67961c5
describe
'116581' 'info:fdaE20080623_AAAACOfileF20080624_AAADGU' 'sip-files00014.jp2'
0b8fd42bc569174482f709ba97515c29
20d997852201274d457577a896fcbd43f93c1480
describe
'89025' 'info:fdaE20080623_AAAACOfileF20080624_AAADGV' 'sip-files00014.jpg'
704b1f3cc22ccba906e5c11e77169a15
ae87a8a3aa36a3acfa19e4e4fb80ed30f8d1b8c7
describe
'53344' 'info:fdaE20080623_AAAACOfileF20080624_AAADGW' 'sip-files00014.pdf'
c5b1c7e8f594bcfbe1c0a924ac4cf6ee
168567f4e3c33b0660a696f5f3077b0fc0aafdfd
describe
'info:fdaE20080623_AAAACOfileF20080624_AAADGW-norm-0' 'aip-filesF20080624_AAADGW-norm-0.pdf'
8cbf40949b8b639101cd4e2c803d9b62
6e3842fc6d7fb92b4cf6a2346c8099c7289050d2
describe
normalize
'20995' 'info:fdaE20080623_AAAACOfileF20080624_AAADGX' 'sip-files00014.pro'
5e571ad12c7680d075493f0072cc65f0
8d4c2b9a8baa735b663445e613a5f95c04398915
'2017-03-09T08:46:50-05:00'
describe
'28204' 'info:fdaE20080623_AAAACOfileF20080624_AAADGY' 'sip-files00014.QC.jpg'
ce84884330cf9a5390d1ef675c0e4c64
fd80f9661a409f2ab85bc731309802ae9b9b359d
describe
'712444' 'info:fdaE20080623_AAAACOfileF20080624_AAADGZ' 'sip-files00014.tif'
c4c3d9c620d383ca2e59e77180aa6691
112f3323b5081e507445a7476d6c4a52b0cb612c
'2017-03-09T08:47:02-05:00'
describe
'866' 'info:fdaE20080623_AAAACOfileF20080624_AAADHA' 'sip-files00014.txt'
c0674bd4f0b6a1342b3c908c151fe4c1
2faf94f78df02239d39e0d1a4c813688fc0c888e
describe
'10862' 'info:fdaE20080623_AAAACOfileF20080624_AAADHB' 'sip-files00014thm.jpg'
4c60341c820008308d01de8c453a637f
9c79308173f41a40a80ee3214570da290bfd5338
describe
'107191' 'info:fdaE20080623_AAAACOfileF20080624_AAADHC' 'sip-files00015.jp2'
f61804ee7f449f36c98b9aa98634f1a5
7861b44dc691ac1895827512e05074370a151184
describe
'93283' 'info:fdaE20080623_AAAACOfileF20080624_AAADHD' 'sip-files00015.jpg'
7e7794a738c84b2b5c913b0bb5e5c6b5
f129c578260a7292d3c77cbad225310f16965740
describe
'44165' 'info:fdaE20080623_AAAACOfileF20080624_AAADHE' 'sip-files00015.pdf'
8d0e824235199383b65b048ad3a8a670
a3757eca1e39b4b49c0ed98332c04aa8665ff6a5
describe
'info:fdaE20080623_AAAACOfileF20080624_AAADHE-norm-0' 'aip-filesF20080624_AAADHE-norm-0.pdf'
8cbf40949b8b639101cd4e2c803d9b62
6e3842fc6d7fb92b4cf6a2346c8099c7289050d2
describe
'2017-03-09T08:46:53-05:00'
normalize
'38319' 'info:fdaE20080623_AAAACOfileF20080624_AAADHF' 'sip-files00015.pro'
b0584fd0bd5a35937097a968c760496d
78bed7a18f5a4450fb8282e3cdffc18aa20dc4f4
describe
'30472' 'info:fdaE20080623_AAAACOfileF20080624_AAADHG' 'sip-files00015.QC.jpg'
4a761a68d4b2161fd6a8084278245639
981950736e2da6f17e89ecffa67cd7224ecec6bb
describe
'799172' 'info:fdaE20080623_AAAACOfileF20080624_AAADHH' 'sip-files00015.tif'
a927e7f2f6813ef2897b22aa66bd1ba3
5cabaa31fb21c6c8d152a86c196f0ab3e053e683
'2017-03-09T08:46:27-05:00'
describe
'1669' 'info:fdaE20080623_AAAACOfileF20080624_AAADHI' 'sip-files00015.txt'
1bc274bcd51b6394e4f1b9065b816388
f4cc66e5bbf21b4a0f043ea52c8d9e0ff4509990
describe
'11482' 'info:fdaE20080623_AAAACOfileF20080624_AAADHJ' 'sip-files00015thm.jpg'
6f36f00d3fccf712313c2057f328d65f
5c0de4764a7bbab223fb990e64e427aa84f979bf
describe
'110184' 'info:fdaE20080623_AAAACOfileF20080624_AAADHK' 'sip-files00016.jp2'
d65c2d7214fa8a591b8813476b894369
ae90016e9195f2547853f40fa759d8cfcae2ddaf
describe
'81685' 'info:fdaE20080623_AAAACOfileF20080624_AAADHL' 'sip-files00016.jpg'
14b01e81ab3201057a0eef0350b796dd
751422961a8fa13300d7504d8fdfc901c7babc63
describe
'47668' 'info:fdaE20080623_AAAACOfileF20080624_AAADHM' 'sip-files00016.pdf'
21b89fbd63c7e705bc169ac5124a4271
2bea8bc86af2e10fdbefa5a9fba82574671eaaf0
describe
'info:fdaE20080623_AAAACOfileF20080624_AAADHM-norm-0' 'aip-filesF20080624_AAADHM-norm-0.pdf'
8cbf40949b8b639101cd4e2c803d9b62
6e3842fc6d7fb92b4cf6a2346c8099c7289050d2
describe
normalize
'24739' 'info:fdaE20080623_AAAACOfileF20080624_AAADHN' 'sip-files00016.pro'
fce6940ca721c47732e7381d02cf0972
d470e2baa601996044150ce1360239205f0e2136
describe
'26712' 'info:fdaE20080623_AAAACOfileF20080624_AAADHO' 'sip-files00016.QC.jpg'
0fc66fa4c0bf63eff2d9f8069c7c2d6a
6cd86c1851dd53bbf8ddd48a21b5debda15017a7
'2017-03-09T08:47:37-05:00'
describe
'785244' 'info:fdaE20080623_AAAACOfileF20080624_AAADHP' 'sip-files00016.tif'
c62893ae855dc9a39343ff71bf6ccb4f
f1c7cf17527b9bf351d20423532b4656e6ac2822
describe
'1018' 'info:fdaE20080623_AAAACOfileF20080624_AAADHQ' 'sip-files00016.txt'
8a154134112dbf3147193c42a5d08a16
359babc6181b5b8885a78d3c602780a5a6d723e3
describe
'10381' 'info:fdaE20080623_AAAACOfileF20080624_AAADHR' 'sip-files00016thm.jpg'
30ed07cad2dd5309b94de0bf81d4c854
33e2e3528c0cd397a515b1e6735817909f74acb7
describe
'87471' 'info:fdaE20080623_AAAACOfileF20080624_AAADHS' 'sip-files00017.jp2'
a897c535d4728499379276fb12c652e8
1e4bf0d349fa69bbb8e81e5e648bbd74aa0832c0
describe
'74327' 'info:fdaE20080623_AAAACOfileF20080624_AAADHT' 'sip-files00017.jpg'
fb67c051b7d583326586e74e3a6608d1
b44426dc2dae4d904688fda5e11340da29a61921
describe
'37411' 'info:fdaE20080623_AAAACOfileF20080624_AAADHU' 'sip-files00017.pdf'
d00292d18f779b52334728be2f80a9fa
d861c4988bf4a05e8fbcf8249cc29abc330c4066
describe
'info:fdaE20080623_AAAACOfileF20080624_AAADHU-norm-0' 'aip-filesF20080624_AAADHU-norm-0.pdf'
8cbf40949b8b639101cd4e2c803d9b62
6e3842fc6d7fb92b4cf6a2346c8099c7289050d2
describe
normalize
'19839' 'info:fdaE20080623_AAAACOfileF20080624_AAADHV' 'sip-files00017.pro'
4da7efc918f5c29c9b8df488f4baabc8
4bf67fb6f328ff98c70ec8b9cf63f14167bba495
describe
'24175' 'info:fdaE20080623_AAAACOfileF20080624_AAADHW' 'sip-files00017.QC.jpg'
0a82e2ce75dad2cb04a4082dc9c00650
585ddfd96a5c71c3156b68fb4ae23c4001801912
describe
'756568' 'info:fdaE20080623_AAAACOfileF20080624_AAADHX' 'sip-files00017.tif'
94230f5efb54483d67eee8aa8d41b871
b2f3d0f73636550fc093f1fae56d686ef11861d7
describe
'849' 'info:fdaE20080623_AAAACOfileF20080624_AAADHY' 'sip-files00017.txt'
7580647d081edb00b6fc10db535a4017
6b7ecb1dc210452cf3a993f6b7d5b5d5c2d40b7a
describe
'9808' 'info:fdaE20080623_AAAACOfileF20080624_AAADHZ' 'sip-files00017thm.jpg'
f32b91eaf9c5c807b945d713b071a4ff
0532c663b16d46ca9376e8f4a3991312c308ed7d
describe
'106987' 'info:fdaE20080623_AAAACOfileF20080624_AAADIA' 'sip-files00018.jp2'
51e5da571dfe875f094bab1925312a6f
8e7650a76dc9d9734bea005f47d934a735a133cc
describe
'92355' 'info:fdaE20080623_AAAACOfileF20080624_AAADIB' 'sip-files00018.jpg'
afdb559b3cf8da92128fc6623fb7b99c
fce0e5e318140df4fcec43dfbca710a79dde928d
describe
'44598' 'info:fdaE20080623_AAAACOfileF20080624_AAADIC' 'sip-files00018.pdf'
960f2e95e198e43cb940e170e7ba452b
fac8297249673003bb8df344ca22540e6ecf0988
describe
'info:fdaE20080623_AAAACOfileF20080624_AAADIC-norm-0' 'aip-filesF20080624_AAADIC-norm-0.pdf'
8cbf40949b8b639101cd4e2c803d9b62
6e3842fc6d7fb92b4cf6a2346c8099c7289050d2
describe
normalize
'31160' 'info:fdaE20080623_AAAACOfileF20080624_AAADID' 'sip-files00018.pro'
0d68dff605d50990d20e89ba044d5a71
e2ca7dab1d53aba7c7dddcc86569412a204c33e9
describe
'31567' 'info:fdaE20080623_AAAACOfileF20080624_AAADIE' 'sip-files00018.QC.jpg'
73373b199517fae76db2229cf5150b83
8f34b31e0fb747069ec5975c257a43e203133574
describe
'710980' 'info:fdaE20080623_AAAACOfileF20080624_AAADIF' 'sip-files00018.tif'
036f1e9e14a5ec4b1e8e8d588374040f
017af9b30dc592c12d1ac9bbed0ef714755eda82
describe
'1318' 'info:fdaE20080623_AAAACOfileF20080624_AAADIG' 'sip-files00018.txt'
043fd941a8228a9c3971978578564ddb
efa06374d50c542294611951448f1fb390a881e6
describe
'12158' 'info:fdaE20080623_AAAACOfileF20080624_AAADIH' 'sip-files00018thm.jpg'
a522c2fbb168bc343fac73133904e033
d6519dac7ea805b0d6367156489d92fdbc963aa7
describe
'108035' 'info:fdaE20080623_AAAACOfileF20080624_AAADII' 'sip-files00019.jp2'
45adf8e18788497c7df914a2910250a8
d383f5239759c0a43db15389e113d112f1ef8487
describe
'93156' 'info:fdaE20080623_AAAACOfileF20080624_AAADIJ' 'sip-files00019.jpg'
17cc0a97689d4bd239951ce55ef04607
c7c4853533b64ef4e57a79c8908ce76f4f1d7e9b
describe
'45753' 'info:fdaE20080623_AAAACOfileF20080624_AAADIK' 'sip-files00019.pdf'
c5fac27a4d65f9aa9cef89011d66754b
47d9667c288ed2460385a0006211e7774a9dfede
describe
'info:fdaE20080623_AAAACOfileF20080624_AAADIK-norm-0' 'aip-filesF20080624_AAADIK-norm-0.pdf'
8cbf40949b8b639101cd4e2c803d9b62
6e3842fc6d7fb92b4cf6a2346c8099c7289050d2
describe
'2017-03-09T08:47:35-05:00'
normalize
'36153' 'info:fdaE20080623_AAAACOfileF20080624_AAADIL' 'sip-files00019.pro'
9d0e6f3f03a6ecb32f7e6a7632118049
380af6b5f41a66874d65fa2f5c85d6ef50e617ac
describe
'30655' 'info:fdaE20080623_AAAACOfileF20080624_AAADIM' 'sip-files00019.QC.jpg'
24cdddec8b1e87b97ed01075470671aa
ff92932e190a70b706daae45a103d8fd02dea8f4
describe
'766624' 'info:fdaE20080623_AAAACOfileF20080624_AAADIN' 'sip-files00019.tif'
6fc03b692768c72f428b10c3e395c4dd
4643791d431f46370b2714ad2d1fb8bf5bde97e5
describe
'1497' 'info:fdaE20080623_AAAACOfileF20080624_AAADIO' 'sip-files00019.txt'
7dd70927da32c16b88694c933d54b16c
2c90c72b3bc8f7e3dbfd04d4d5e2c3b36454775a
describe
'11534' 'info:fdaE20080623_AAAACOfileF20080624_AAADIP' 'sip-files00019thm.jpg'
56fa53dd1888f772601346bcf0c75124
3b5e6444eb445aae6c2f9f7393ccf9c9c4e085b8
describe
'136223' 'info:fdaE20080623_AAAACOfileF20080624_AAADIQ' 'sip-files00020.jp2'
9cc811bf06eb7778b4d3aa432be97563
c2540440fd445aafabc13deea8f63bce549cbbd5
describe
'100047' 'info:fdaE20080623_AAAACOfileF20080624_AAADIR' 'sip-files00020.jpg'
690c4607758664208e065405950b22b5
7eca820a64a1b716e05c76252f9c882b6056b906
describe
'61022' 'info:fdaE20080623_AAAACOfileF20080624_AAADIS' 'sip-files00020.pdf'
8aabfb9cf8147d0634153a725c6a4945
5b2d2dd704556633fffbee9920a9d39aa8da9182
describe
'info:fdaE20080623_AAAACOfileF20080624_AAADIS-norm-0' 'aip-filesF20080624_AAADIS-norm-0.pdf'
8cbf40949b8b639101cd4e2c803d9b62
6e3842fc6d7fb92b4cf6a2346c8099c7289050d2
describe
normalize
'27756' 'info:fdaE20080623_AAAACOfileF20080624_AAADIT' 'sip-files00020.pro'
195c3fde636a788f39ee31a2dbf38af0
e6e9a612daa551cbaaf5258ae17d21c3938b0447
describe
'31015' 'info:fdaE20080623_AAAACOfileF20080624_AAADIU' 'sip-files00020.QC.jpg'
43c57fe658b68145913801681af31e22
9d98ae3127bf9f7d0071019d58e72c8f0049e346
describe
'767776' 'info:fdaE20080623_AAAACOfileF20080624_AAADIV' 'sip-files00020.tif'
5c2dde38f2b0dcbad0826296277fa954
1efa240233c59e612fde93d11a690230f2aa4096
describe
'1309' 'info:fdaE20080623_AAAACOfileF20080624_AAADIW' 'sip-files00020.txt'
ea3e91e7e663c3d0e6e2890c8a103420
466ca02becdbe22baa47f30fc6ad6b543c9f0fa4
describe
'11731' 'info:fdaE20080623_AAAACOfileF20080624_AAADIX' 'sip-files00020thm.jpg'
be87344ad0daff15a69541606b4b2e95
602cc2f5ace090bfb2ab7bccbe6498bbe43e1eb3
describe
'107430' 'info:fdaE20080623_AAAACOfileF20080624_AAADIY' 'sip-files00021.jp2'
a849d162bbaa508b05645f2c4d1bd55d
6fbc19faea9b5fd615bf18b93966833f887853ae
describe
'87898' 'info:fdaE20080623_AAAACOfileF20080624_AAADIZ' 'sip-files00021.jpg'
d8ddc3942b8549559c393d6d7fd4e7ec
20712961efe2a65501b49f46b6f7f269698eafea
describe
'45954' 'info:fdaE20080623_AAAACOfileF20080624_AAADJA' 'sip-files00021.pdf'
12261d4a51f1bfc03b07b7cc34b5c00b
9615743971b76e8bd2ec4770da5fe7849aa3409b
describe
'info:fdaE20080623_AAAACOfileF20080624_AAADJA-norm-0' 'aip-filesF20080624_AAADJA-norm-0.pdf'
8cbf40949b8b639101cd4e2c803d9b62
6e3842fc6d7fb92b4cf6a2346c8099c7289050d2
describe
normalize
'29510' 'info:fdaE20080623_AAAACOfileF20080624_AAADJB' 'sip-files00021.pro'
bacbb79654359ca1c24b500161531d3e
21774e1daf73bc42eb5a9de403ee574f3b4195f0
describe
'28878' 'info:fdaE20080623_AAAACOfileF20080624_AAADJC' 'sip-files00021.QC.jpg'
525721337bff2b2af74b227d5eb6941b
fcaa76e5c43ced52cfd5ae27fcaacaa8b97641d3
describe
'782056' 'info:fdaE20080623_AAAACOfileF20080624_AAADJD' 'sip-files00021.tif'
9a2b2232b2e3d9081ac190efe3728893
a4fe7f637f1d96e461d97e9aa70915d43708edf1
describe
'1292' 'info:fdaE20080623_AAAACOfileF20080624_AAADJE' 'sip-files00021.txt'
193533f8e84858720c2101d85098e642
c77bb6cb64f178820c6e2184a75eb5a24bc376e2
describe
'11224' 'info:fdaE20080623_AAAACOfileF20080624_AAADJF' 'sip-files00021thm.jpg'
a7081bba2f365c69d787803f821453a1
b75af783ecf97930e4f6b98c67d024d2ec0c7712
describe
'123215' 'info:fdaE20080623_AAAACOfileF20080624_AAADJG' 'sip-files00022.jp2'
39cfe7fd015f579a68b42636986f91db
01b60ddd95da3b15c6ebdd64a9c174b72dfe7def
describe
'104780' 'info:fdaE20080623_AAAACOfileF20080624_AAADJH' 'sip-files00022.jpg'
d607fbebd443b9227a7113046a183705
fff6b7d38fb22c09484c9ae5d6a7c02652f61928
describe
'51233' 'info:fdaE20080623_AAAACOfileF20080624_AAADJI' 'sip-files00022.pdf'
b2ac5b209be12d550e19b35365a9c1fc
c8036c592f5c0336a6c1d395cf9668330df48d5b
'2017-03-09T08:47:15-05:00'
describe
'info:fdaE20080623_AAAACOfileF20080624_AAADJI-norm-0' 'aip-filesF20080624_AAADJI-norm-0.pdf'
8cbf40949b8b639101cd4e2c803d9b62
6e3842fc6d7fb92b4cf6a2346c8099c7289050d2
describe
normalize
'45864' 'info:fdaE20080623_AAAACOfileF20080624_AAADJJ' 'sip-files00022.pro'
8d9fcd70465a8f3cc8ca2fada05452f9
6c5c634128bd7f2a5395bc788281f29ec57bdd6e
describe
'34361' 'info:fdaE20080623_AAAACOfileF20080624_AAADJK' 'sip-files00022.QC.jpg'
3dea3fd685ef729c7e6c79d43c3775f3
cd2ba185075aa8563d45efdb4bc25f19f85e47f3
describe
'769300' 'info:fdaE20080623_AAAACOfileF20080624_AAADJL' 'sip-files00022.tif'
1ff3c3bb8251b718ade2aae9388cb9f3
49b00eab642bf0cfcb11288f99dd7994f66a69f9
describe
'1871' 'info:fdaE20080623_AAAACOfileF20080624_AAADJM' 'sip-files00022.txt'
052f926c12d1ea06ebd1fdbff2c69de2
96a6824ced8b44fedc348b987c2502a21f90cd4a
describe
'12739' 'info:fdaE20080623_AAAACOfileF20080624_AAADJN' 'sip-files00022thm.jpg'
2b3e9258a25062c0762a46ff0c6e9c1f
1db6b3e8da87ca107fdd4c3708b396bf91ca94cf
describe
'115718' 'info:fdaE20080623_AAAACOfileF20080624_AAADJO' 'sip-files00023.jp2'
f55f55666f2f14846d8006438b89693e
6096a85f6c1d1e2ab389eac372b0f5c15bbbcf94
describe
'97412' 'info:fdaE20080623_AAAACOfileF20080624_AAADJP' 'sip-files00023.jpg'
32ff045e97bccd85bc359f64c83cd6a2
88a08606d0871ee0cb05979d7d8bb091658de446
describe
'48193' 'info:fdaE20080623_AAAACOfileF20080624_AAADJQ' 'sip-files00023.pdf'
5488f1a6c745a3ebfafee038f891946a
2afc0b7a59577706ea5385e4fb50864b3fba8d62
describe
'info:fdaE20080623_AAAACOfileF20080624_AAADJQ-norm-0' 'aip-filesF20080624_AAADJQ-norm-0.pdf'
8cbf40949b8b639101cd4e2c803d9b62
6e3842fc6d7fb92b4cf6a2346c8099c7289050d2
describe
normalize
'38014' 'info:fdaE20080623_AAAACOfileF20080624_AAADJR' 'sip-files00023.pro'
b2da56be71d58f5ed80037461bf4b703
9e60717c37d3d032a08e86d7396ae8cd342785b6
describe
'30922' 'info:fdaE20080623_AAAACOfileF20080624_AAADJS' 'sip-files00023.QC.jpg'
6f84a197205292336c38bdf7931e3f76
31f70e6fc53c6ea7e260631bbb55f2dcf0290a12
describe
'778672' 'info:fdaE20080623_AAAACOfileF20080624_AAADJT' 'sip-files00023.tif'
c30bc01cc2e616e2718668fee10877a0
0bb6cf97df31c13bd320866db825da6c3d91e1fe
describe
'1569' 'info:fdaE20080623_AAAACOfileF20080624_AAADJU' 'sip-files00023.txt'
f2fc71320bcd51a08325c64efc909394
fa359426a462ff62642a6c45bdf75c189eb7afbc
describe
'12591' 'info:fdaE20080623_AAAACOfileF20080624_AAADJV' 'sip-files00023thm.jpg'
0a54f218f6bbf5e4549cbfb51e57e59b
f585c8de3b36bb0cb97b6b151423af3a5971d922
describe
'122337' 'info:fdaE20080623_AAAACOfileF20080624_AAADJW' 'sip-files00024.jp2'
bd6e5eb6c0d4a5f6cd1242c612bd2d4f
252275895ac7bfa15cb3bcee8fd4dc9c8ca28e95
describe
'101157' 'info:fdaE20080623_AAAACOfileF20080624_AAADJX' 'sip-files00024.jpg'
6aabdc6fee845162a4e4d63af899bc21
d61b8935fb2b9f93d30c8189b22023b6b0877313
describe
'52566' 'info:fdaE20080623_AAAACOfileF20080624_AAADJY' 'sip-files00024.pdf'
44e89a6ab986e86c6e8049f6a0590734
02f286f1081b497d8ff5476bab564858175db83b
describe
'info:fdaE20080623_AAAACOfileF20080624_AAADJY-norm-0' 'aip-filesF20080624_AAADJY-norm-0.pdf'
8cbf40949b8b639101cd4e2c803d9b62
6e3842fc6d7fb92b4cf6a2346c8099c7289050d2
describe
normalize
'32396' 'info:fdaE20080623_AAAACOfileF20080624_AAADJZ' 'sip-files00024.pro'
a0bf7f208125aecc912650537e2f5e52
bb6699d7dbfd277f92e9b1021a391a2e0ff8586e
describe
'32524' 'info:fdaE20080623_AAAACOfileF20080624_AAADKA' 'sip-files00024.QC.jpg'
4d0296d9f3878e348581b7b6e046ba1b
e4ce02d06e0dfdd0060a3db0b6b3c86d31513a78
describe
'764876' 'info:fdaE20080623_AAAACOfileF20080624_AAADKB' 'sip-files00024.tif'
db015447a46c544b133c2320c5a9b5a8
6958b26b1cf0c06f05bad43649583d1dc52cf3c3
describe
'1386' 'info:fdaE20080623_AAAACOfileF20080624_AAADKC' 'sip-files00024.txt'
d7400dee62d847783d17731f111ccb90
da8f98ab40ef07a70a4c87cb1c05984149f5ef17
describe
'12720' 'info:fdaE20080623_AAAACOfileF20080624_AAADKD' 'sip-files00024thm.jpg'
e8526b846c163a983a81bbc7a7557117
28dd33f1a2887846ec8448abc250ad626dcdc47d
describe
'128120' 'info:fdaE20080623_AAAACOfileF20080624_AAADKE' 'sip-files00025.jp2'
913a8574abe104825e03e231aed1ecad
bc910fcc1d17b284ba15e55d7c5502c0714fffc2
describe
'104953' 'info:fdaE20080623_AAAACOfileF20080624_AAADKF' 'sip-files00025.jpg'
e2a744c3421f4de0fb0e47f453519df1
1c603fedcb0f2fbe48b633fbc0021fda621990d5
describe
'55677' 'info:fdaE20080623_AAAACOfileF20080624_AAADKG' 'sip-files00025.pdf'
a40dc9a328303c03468ea60e0ebff36e
205f52fc4b49b1d0f4553e0287cdb2fe0790a6e0
'2017-03-09T08:47:09-05:00'
describe
'info:fdaE20080623_AAAACOfileF20080624_AAADKG-norm-0' 'aip-filesF20080624_AAADKG-norm-0.pdf'
8cbf40949b8b639101cd4e2c803d9b62
6e3842fc6d7fb92b4cf6a2346c8099c7289050d2
describe
'2017-03-09T08:47:10-05:00'
normalize
'38211' 'info:fdaE20080623_AAAACOfileF20080624_AAADKH' 'sip-files00025.pro'
6fdd33ee803e603fe1df35f0910667cd
ea1b945106fc4ace911426233d12d961ea780b96
describe
'33783' 'info:fdaE20080623_AAAACOfileF20080624_AAADKI' 'sip-files00025.QC.jpg'
17d70b97d17b354cdbdf38ec7523577d
8754443b2d6d0752d5c4784fc75a1bd500968d63
describe
'746772' 'info:fdaE20080623_AAAACOfileF20080624_AAADKJ' 'sip-files00025.tif'
a2f3efa8672fd53437442b7424b27f50
c29deea6e4fb4028e53bea1ba13cdd0da7f1fdc4
describe
'1567' 'info:fdaE20080623_AAAACOfileF20080624_AAADKK' 'sip-files00025.txt'
cf8c12553eed1d5ef5f875769495bcaa
74edcdde73e21292d012095739e4260659c56df1
describe
'13068' 'info:fdaE20080623_AAAACOfileF20080624_AAADKL' 'sip-files00025thm.jpg'
46aeb43351ac6c6b45ff32bb216a6442
80d98a49d64435594ff7fe373f6a4725a193b848
describe
'127965' 'info:fdaE20080623_AAAACOfileF20080624_AAADKM' 'sip-files00026.jp2'
ed443df91520a4368398d863866b0a21
5083e460210565dd76bd088425b13d9e18b85e91
describe
'106908' 'info:fdaE20080623_AAAACOfileF20080624_AAADKN' 'sip-files00026.jpg'
61f5a008745853c87332fff8febf465f
27e14c1174ebd97f4a858dd7dcf2a1c1c46537bf
describe
'54288' 'info:fdaE20080623_AAAACOfileF20080624_AAADKO' 'sip-files00026.pdf'
8b0fb468489c0b26bfa2ffe718a3ebaa
6032c4f0de453e1215f004c9f72b0cefb389fee9
describe
'info:fdaE20080623_AAAACOfileF20080624_AAADKO-norm-0' 'aip-filesF20080624_AAADKO-norm-0.pdf'
8cbf40949b8b639101cd4e2c803d9b62
6e3842fc6d7fb92b4cf6a2346c8099c7289050d2
describe
normalize
'46776' 'info:fdaE20080623_AAAACOfileF20080624_AAADKP' 'sip-files00026.pro'
fea855df554fc8a7194543c9d47cc903
a984954025766ced542a4bb6aa47996c791a3d87
describe
'34224' 'info:fdaE20080623_AAAACOfileF20080624_AAADKQ' 'sip-files00026.QC.jpg'
899ad3c2e2c48e81af4b307256e6cec7
3364f49613119dc124216609a753ed3b2a16dac5
describe
'782700' 'info:fdaE20080623_AAAACOfileF20080624_AAADKR' 'sip-files00026.tif'
ce87526dbfb98e023ed3e20f1a0f1056
31de199e66b50dc1dd317983df431bb75b1390e6
describe
'1913' 'info:fdaE20080623_AAAACOfileF20080624_AAADKS' 'sip-files00026.txt'
906c330f085d728a48200240935cb99f
6fd0515507009fbaadfe0a87281d4edf30706466
describe
'12687' 'info:fdaE20080623_AAAACOfileF20080624_AAADKT' 'sip-files00026thm.jpg'
774097e2c94d08b54e6e5e3c0a0de204
06340ca6025612bad9e4383f4cffe8908d109e72
describe
'18024' 'info:fdaE20080623_AAAACOfileF20080624_AAADKU' 'sip-files00027.jp2'
e4b192f2a1b944a60526ddf40ec31773
c93f68347dadf44ae0c039a9d49405ba911c145d
describe
'19528' 'info:fdaE20080623_AAAACOfileF20080624_AAADKV' 'sip-files00027.jpg'
a0c24c736b8927d8ff74962bf2db46b2
c6a2bde8a5655b5ab55dc2b3b61f5bc916d0b64d
describe
'8725' 'info:fdaE20080623_AAAACOfileF20080624_AAADKW' 'sip-files00027.pdf'
fc7d0731fb432da61e9a0bd466b563a2
cdaeba4da61ee68dde9fbf9fdaccb3284f2a2e7d
describe
'info:fdaE20080623_AAAACOfileF20080624_AAADKW-norm-0' 'aip-filesF20080624_AAADKW-norm-0.pdf'
8cbf40949b8b639101cd4e2c803d9b62
6e3842fc6d7fb92b4cf6a2346c8099c7289050d2
describe
'2017-03-09T08:47:14-05:00'
normalize
'4382' 'info:fdaE20080623_AAAACOfileF20080624_AAADKX' 'sip-files00027.pro'
42fc4a7e4cb0c4965845cb731ca0f5a0
06e9d7d3875dd99d2266d46a8a23e9f241eff7aa
describe
'6739' 'info:fdaE20080623_AAAACOfileF20080624_AAADKY' 'sip-files00027.QC.jpg'
503474a296ac8bc338ce24182d0e75d0
bf170e8bfff48341521e91b726362b6f41329b25
describe
'696528' 'info:fdaE20080623_AAAACOfileF20080624_AAADKZ' 'sip-files00027.tif'
6200ee97941caf22ced969d866975e22
8a7035f10131f8f9e77d6f825263d740a5963818
describe
'300' 'info:fdaE20080623_AAAACOfileF20080624_AAADLA' 'sip-files00027.txt'
0b5577b066389af370575bfc83e9451b
31ae4365fbc317f28410348815de35013ca91173
describe
'3144' 'info:fdaE20080623_AAAACOfileF20080624_AAADLB' 'sip-files00027thm.jpg'
5578bc37445291256945c544e0793e37
801a43d08ccd872fb8ab3ef24af11e8727babaf7
describe
'153168' 'info:fdaE20080623_AAAACOfileF20080624_AAADLC' 'sip-filescopyright.jp2'
cd965abaafb5da42dc6c8def20d374f4
b811824c94aa0ae5a5f04cfb64b27e9e0927243a
describe
'103670' 'info:fdaE20080623_AAAACOfileF20080624_AAADLD' 'sip-filescopyright.jpg'
d028360928b6690b49cfe8211e6bb6a5
db68f5028a78f337081c164d3478ffd3e30a8a09
describe
'71602' 'info:fdaE20080623_AAAACOfileF20080624_AAADLE' 'sip-filescopyright.pdf'
e0cb0038c50b20eec0978f30b59b470d
3f353e3224e754f12244fd647268fa883ad0ff27
describe
'info:fdaE20080623_AAAACOfileF20080624_AAADLE-norm-0' 'aip-filesF20080624_AAADLE-norm-0.pdf'
8cbf40949b8b639101cd4e2c803d9b62
6e3842fc6d7fb92b4cf6a2346c8099c7289050d2
describe
normalize
'35816' 'info:fdaE20080623_AAAACOfileF20080624_AAADLF' 'sip-filescopyright.pro'
6333ecf05ecb90764ee30c82348474ab
44b1d6d35c0108c5c14325733d9c78c0c6e8aadd
describe
'35083' 'info:fdaE20080623_AAAACOfileF20080624_AAADLG' 'sip-filescopyright.QC.jpg'
28180ee8185b27af4702a664eb2b5d1b
f0e1d4e0f0dcb1a265ec575f3d87a525ada2ad6d
describe
'1060432' 'info:fdaE20080623_AAAACOfileF20080624_AAADLH' 'sip-filescopyright.tif'
880e8433ffe865126410a066a068e32e
451a538583dd48fbb25b509a2ffaf8f8896446bf
describe
'1329' 'info:fdaE20080623_AAAACOfileF20080624_AAADLI' 'sip-filescopyright.txt'
15f2bbd34b776d39b92ffb1c4f760b27
b0251f2ed30996bc7ed3d8efa687abc9a6800fa9
describe
Invalid character
Invalid character
'10085' 'info:fdaE20080623_AAAACOfileF20080624_AAADLJ' 'sip-filescopyrightthm.jpg'
b0566b6a6e9b9bfb3fa924203ff11cf8
63d705588c1580afc86f43138330df2fe31f906d
describe
'1314442' 'info:fdaE20080623_AAAACOfileF20080624_AAADLK' 'sip-filesUF00001169.pdf'
b3b82e89f68ef972305bd1e5884dfd7f
4054bb2bb167d5b843cb6d3e42a61f6e4b712e07
describe
'info:fdaE20080623_AAAACOfileF20080624_AAADLK-norm-0' 'aip-filesF20080624_AAADLK-norm-0.pdf'
8cbf40949b8b639101cd4e2c803d9b62
6e3842fc6d7fb92b4cf6a2346c8099c7289050d2
describe
'2017-03-09T08:47:01-05:00'
normalize
'54029' 'info:fdaE20080623_AAAACOfileF20080624_AAADLL' 'sip-filesUF00001169_00001.mets'
9efd2a62c3ffe24fbe68a85c5dd688f0
5bf93c042f95846b2a317517765a14e178bd1acf
describe
TargetNamespace.1: Expecting namespace 'http://www.uflib.ufl.edu/digital/metadata/ufdc2/', but the target namespace of the schema document is 'http://digital.uflib.ufl.edu/metadata/ufdc2/'.
'2017-03-09T08:47:52-05:00' 'mixed'
xml resolution
http://www.loc.gov/standards/xlink.xsd
BROKEN_LINK schema http://www.loc.gov/standards/xlink.xsd
TargetNamespace.1: Expecting namespace 'http://www.uflib.ufl.edu/digital/metadata/ufdc2/', but the target namespace of the schema document is 'http://digital.uflib.ufl.edu/metadata/ufdc2/'.
'72134' 'info:fdaE20080623_AAAACOfileF20080624_AAADLO' 'sip-filesUF00001169_00001.xml'
91977d461a52cbbf17f27bb0d59e0482
69479409046a2af936b6b3afcd1bc0bdf45d9de1
describe
xml resolution
http://www.loc.gov/standards/xlink.xsd
http://www.loc.gov/standards/xlink.xsd


xml version 1.0 encoding UTF-8 standalone no
fcla fda yes
!-- Your water resources ( Book ) --
METS:mets OBJID UF00001169_00001
xmlns:METS http:www.loc.govMETS
xmlns:xlink http:www.w3.org1999xlink
xmlns:xsi http:www.w3.org2001XMLSchema-instance
xmlns:daitss http:www.fcla.edudlsmddaitss
xmlns:mods http:www.loc.govmodsv3
xmlns:sobekcm http:digital.uflib.ufl.edumetadatasobekcm
xmlns:lom http:digital.uflib.ufl.edumetadatasobekcm_lom
xsi:schemaLocation
http:www.loc.govstandardsmetsmets.xsd
http:www.fcla.edudlsmddaitssdaitss.xsd
http:www.loc.govmodsv3mods-3-4.xsd
http:digital.uflib.ufl.edumetadatasobekcmsobekcm.xsd
METS:metsHdr CREATEDATE 2017-04-10T11:06:31Z ID LASTMODDATE 2009-08-11T13:07:56Z RECORDSTATUS COMPLETE
METS:agent ROLE CREATOR TYPE ORGANIZATION
METS:name UF,University of Florida
OTHERTYPE SOFTWARE OTHER
Go UFDC FDA Preparation Tool
INDIVIDUAL
UFAD\renner
METS:note Per DLC request.
METS:dmdSec DMD1
METS:mdWrap MDTYPE MODS MIMETYPE textxml LABEL Metadata
METS:xmlData
mods:mods
mods:accessCondition type restrictions on use displayLabel Rights [cc0] The author dedicated the work to the public domain by waiving all of his or her rights to the work worldwide under copyright law and all related or neighboring legal rights he or she had in the work, to the extent allowable by law.
mods:genre authority marcgt government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)
non-fiction
mods:identifier aleph 001769007
oclc 27055109
notis AJJ2216
mods:language
mods:languageTerm text English
code iso639-2b eng
mods:location
mods:physicalLocation UF
mods:url access object in context http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00001169/00001
mods:name corporate NAM1
mods:namePart Florida Geological Survey
mods:note statement of responsibility Florida Geological Survey.
Title from cover.
mods:originInfo
mods:publisher Florida Geological Survey
mods:place
mods:placeTerm marccountry flu
mods:dateIssued marc 1960
point start 1960
mods:recordInfo
mods:recordIdentifier source sobekcm UF00001169_00001
mods:recordCreationDate 921203
mods:recordOrigin Imported from (ALEPH)001769007
mods:recordContentSource University of Florida
marcorg FUG
mods:languageOfCataloging
English
eng
mods:relatedItem original
mods:physicalDescription
mods:extent 24 p. : ill. ; 25 x 11 cm.
series
mods:titleInfo
mods:title ( FGS: Leaflet 1 )
mods:subject SUBJ650_1 lcsh
mods:topic Water-supply
mods:geographic Florida
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Water resources development
Florida
Your water resources
mods:subTitle storage, origin, needs, uses, movement, conservation ( FGS: Leaflet 1 )
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PAGE 1

43UR52 ATER USES FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY 1960

PAGE 3

INTRODUCTION Florida has a high annual rainfall; more than 30,000 named lakes; one of the largest, most pro lific ground-water reservoirs in the world; and numerous springs, of which 66 each discharge in excess of six million gallons of water per day. Seventeen of these springs produce at rates that exceed 65 million gallons of water per day. The runoff from this wealth of water has established itself into 12 large stream basins and many other smaller ones. Water is the State's most important natural resource, and since there appears to be such an abundance of this resource, what are the problems? Why the growing concern over it? Do we have lessthan we enjoyed in the past-and sometimes more? Problems of supply and demand arise out of the irregular distribution and movement of water. The values for rainfall, stream flow, spring discharge, lake levels, and water levels in wells reflect periods of great drought and excess of water. It is this irregularity and variability of occurrence that creates problems. Problems in Florida, for the most part, arise out of not having the water arrive at the place at the time it is needed; although flooding, pollution, contamination, and heavy mineralization are locally troublesome. 1

PAGE 4

WHERE DOES OUR WATER ORIGINATE? -/\// \\ DFEP PERCOLATI Contrary to some popular opinions, our water resources come entirely from precipitation (rain, snow, hail, and sleet), that falls on Florida, southern Georgia, and southern Alabama. The water cycle, from atmosphere to land and water and back to the atmosphere, constantly renews and revitalizes the supply. Water goes into the atmospheric cycle by evaporation from open bodies of water and from land surfaces. Vegetation helps this process. Once into the air as vapor, water collects into clouds to be transported and condensed into precipitation to return to the earth. That which falls on the land surface is the potential for our drinkable water supply. Most of this water runs off to the sea or goes back into the air by evaporation. Some of it goes into ponds and lakes to form a reserve supply for ground and surface water. A part of that which goes into the ground forms a near-surface groundwater supply which can be tapped by shallow wells. The rest goes into deeper porous rocks, through which the water travels under pressure from the point of entry or recharge to remote regions of the State. This is the principal source of ground water. About 73 percent of the water falling as rain is used by vegetation or evaporates from exposed water and land surfaces. 2 ,i

PAGE 5

Both surface and ground waters are used in the needs' of industry, nunicipalities, domestic and farm areas, recreation, power, and irrigation-but ground water supplies about 59 percent: of the consumptive needs of the State. HOW IS ONE WATERSHED SEPARATED FROM ANOTHER? Because of climatic controls, rainfall is not uniform throughout the State and varies from an annual average of 38 inches at Key West to 64 inches at DeFuniak Springs. Each city in Florida receives varying amounts of rainfall. are"WAT Water that has fallen upon the State is separated into watersheds, composed of all the land that directs water into a comnon stream or body of water. There are approximately 50 clearly defined watersheds in Florida. 3

PAGE 6

However, where water enters the ground in high areas of a watershed it moves toward and discharges into streams, lakes, and the ocean. The direction of flow may cause the ground water to cross beneath watershed boundaries established for surface water. The slope of the ground surface, size of channel and the volume of water, control the rate of flow in surface streams, but the amount of voids or space in the rock (porosity), the degree of connections of the voids (permeability), and the slope of the surface of the ground water (gradient) controls rate of flow in ground water. Once surface water enters a watershed it can not cross watershed boundaries (divides), but ground water can pass beneath these watershed boundaries moving downgradient from high areas where it emerges in low areas as surface water. Surface-water problems, therefore, are local ones caused by floods and droughts, whereas groundwater problems may affect broader areas. Water can only be taken from one watershed and diverted for use in another with the permission of the State Board of Conservation. Problems of flood, erosion, drought, contamination, and sedimentation must usually be met within the boundaries of each watershed. Most streams originate in the highlands of Florida and adjoining states and are separated by rolling hills or stream divides which are composed of several kinds of sediment and rock. There are some rivers and streams that originate in the coastal lowlands and the divides are flat marshy areas with very little relief. Elevations of the ground surface in Florida range from sea level to a little above 350 feet. This low relief generally does not allow the development of deep ravines in the divides, nor does it create steep slopes. 4

PAGE 7

HOW DOES THE LAND INFLUENCE THE SUPPLY? Because Florida has a very sandy soil and a flat terrain broken by numerous sinkholes, lakes, and swamps, much of the water falling on the land is retained at the surface or enters the ground. Because of this, the percentage of water that runs off is moderate. The amount that enters the ground or runs off depends in part upon the slope of the land, the vegetative cover, type of soil, condition of the soil by mulching and tilling, and by terracing of slopes. Loose, mulched soil can retain large quantities of soil moisture for plant use. Soil management by the farmers, growers, and ranchers is the first step in water control and management Land regulates the amount of water that enters the basins. Sloping surfaces are drained faster than flatlands. Sandy land absorbs water more readily than clayey lands. In some areas of Florida there is a layer of dense, organic sand, called hardpan, just under the surface, which may retard the movement of water into the ground. Sandy soils allow water to enter the ground rapidly and permit its storage as ground water for dry times. Clayey soil will absorb and store less water. 5

PAGE 8

The lakes and sinkholes of Florida are storage basins through which the ground water is being continuously replenished. HOW MUCH WATER DO WE HAVE? The State of Florida has an average annual rainfall of 53 inches. This amounts to an average of 148 billion gallons of water falling upon Florida i in a day. This is the principal source for our streams and thousands of lakes as well as the water in the ground. Beneath Florida lies one of the most extensive and productive ground-water reservoirs in the Nation. The volume of water in this reservoir has been estimated to be several times that impounded behind Hoover Dam, the Nation's largest man-made lake. There also are several less extensive water-bearing rocks that supply areas such as Miami and Pensacola. Certainly Florida has more fresh, drinkable water available than is now used or will be used for some time to come, but this condition may prevail only if this resource is wisely managed. For all purposes of planning, the daily discharge of streams, estimated at 40 billion gallons of water per day, is the amount available for future use. This is about 17 times the State's requirements today for consumptive uses. SURFACE WATER RESOURCES Surface water occupies defined channels upon the ground surface to form rivers, brooks, creeks, lakes, ponds, swamps, marshes, and variations and combinations of these. Man-made dams may create additional reservoirs in these surface channels to increase the water storage, or ditches and -anals may be constructed to increase the discharge. Surface water supplies the primary needs of irrigation for citrus growers and farmers. Only four 6

PAGE 9

hydroelectric power dams are operated in Florida: Jim Woodruff Dam on the Apalachicola River at Chattahoochee, Inglis Dam at Inglis on the Withlacoochee River, Talquin Dam on the Ochlockonee River at Bloxham, and a small dam at Moss Bluff on the Oklawaha River. These dams store in excess of 575,000 acre-feet of water for use in power generation, navigation, recreation, and conservation. It requires 325,850 gallons of water to cover an acre to a depth of one foot. ' -_ ---. .y--; * -"' _--"-'-_._ :--t -ý4_. -* With the completion of the large water-management project, now under development by the Central and Southern Florida Flood Control District, 4% million acre-feet of water can be stored during periods of abundant rainfall in three conservation districts for release during droughts. In addition, under the U. S. Soil Conservation Service, more than 3,350 small ponds in Florida have been constructed on farms and store about 28,764 acre-feet of water in areas where irregular patterns of rainfall make these most useful. The use of land in Florida changes from year to year, and roads, building, poor mulching, and soil conditioning, lack of terracing in high lands, and destruction of forests may increase the amount of ,vater that runs off. Any changes in land use may also alter the timing and peak flow of streams, the levels of lakes, amount of-recharge to ground water, and quality. 7

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Florida streams generally have moderate to slow rates of flow because of the flat terrain and low slopes. Much of the rainfall is trapped in basins or by the sandy soil and enters the ground as ground water. About 50 stream basins drain the State, but south of Lake Okeechobee the water stood in shallow sheets or moved as sheet flow slowly through the Everglades until controlled by man. Drainage canals and conservation districts now concentrate this water and make the peaty soils available for cultivation. Because of differences in the soils, rocks, climate, terrain, vegetation, and evaporation, twice as much water runs off the land into streams in Panhandle Florida as in the peninsula. Springs add to the amount of water in streams. Silver Springs, at more than 500 million gallons per day, and Rainbow Springs, at about 450 million gallons per day, are among the larger springs in the world. Of the 53 inches of annual rainfall, 39 inches are lost to evaporation and used by vegetation, and 14 inches enters the ground or runs off of Florida in streams that empty into salt water. This measurement of runoff does not include water entering the State from Georgia or Alabama and water emerging as springs under salt water. GROUND WATER RESOURCES .,^,"". -1 / r 2p The State is blessed in having some of the best and most productive ground-water reservoirs in the world. Several thousand feet of porous 8

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limestones, that make up the principal ground water reservoir, contain an estimated 1,600 cubic miles of fresh water, better than 44,000 times the average daily stream discharge of 40 billion gallons. At least 100 named springs are known, most of which are fed by water rising from the porous limestones under pressure. Florida has more large springs than any other state, and Silver Springs alone discharges enough water to satisfy all of Florida's municipal and rural domestic needs, if it could be distributed to the place of need. In areas along some of the coastal margins and where the deep ground water is heavily mineralized, shallow porous sand, shell, and limestone contain sufficient amounts of water to supply the needs of these areas. Miami, in particular, relies upon highly permeable sediments that lie at or near the ground surface of the area. About 1.5 billion gallons of water per day are drawn from ground water by domestic, municipal, industrial, and agricultural users. WHAT DOES THE WATER CONTAIN? Rain falling on the earth is practically pure, containing only a small amount of carbon dioxide and oxygen dissolved from the atmosphere. As the water soaks into the soil and becomes part of the ground water, it begins to dissolve mineral matter from the materials through which it passes. The substances most comnonly found dissolved in Florida waters are hydrogen sulfide, calcium and magnesium sulfates and bicarbonates, and sodium chloride. Iron and organic materials are also present, more commonly in water at the surface and in shallow wells. Sodium is usually reI stricted to highly mineralized 9

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waters, or in waters affected by salt-water intrusion. Strontium and fluorine are also present in some Florida waters although usually in very small quantities. CHEMICAL CONSTITUENTS AND WATER USE Constituent Effect on Water Quality IRON More than 0.3 ppm (parts per million) of dissolved iron will cause staining, discoloration (*'red water''), and an unpleasant taste. HYDROGEN Gives the water an unpleasant odor, SULFIDE but is harmless and easily removed by aeration. Calcium. Magnesium) Gives water a bitter taste if concenSULFATE tration is greater than 500 ppm. CALCIUM Main cause of hardness in water. MAGNESIUM Second most inportant cause of hardness. SODIUM Public supplies must contain less than CHLORIDE 250 ppm. Larger amounts give a saline taste and increases the corrosion. SODIUM AND The amount normally found in drinkable POTASSIUM water Is of little significance. High concentrations sometimes found in very deep wells may be harmful when used directly for irrigation. (Fluorine in Concentrations of 0.7 to 1.5 ppm are the form of) helpful in preventing dental caries. FLUORIDE Large concentration may cause mottling of teeth. Concentrations of this element in Florida ranges from a trace to 2.5 ppm. (Calcium. Magnesium) Contributes to hardness of water. BICARBONATE 10

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IS IT GOOD WATER? W ater which is considered good for one purpose may be unsuitable for another. Water from wells which penetrate covered limestone rocks containing water under some pressure is less subject to contamination from surface sources and is low in iroi. It is, however, usually hard and, in some places, salty enough to be unpleasant tasting and corrosive to plumbing. Surface water and water from .shallow wells often contains enough iron to cause staining and give the water an unpleasant taste. For the most part drinkable water of high purity is available over most of the State from streams, lakes, ponds, deep wells, and from shallow wells in areas where the deeper well water is highly mineralized. HOW MUCH WATER WILL WE USE IN THE FUTURE? J4OW0 'PUTUI2E Gallons 5 9__1 NSo per ---day L35 GALNo s Billions _196 '60 65 '7b 75 11

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It has been estimated that in 1975 the Nation as a whole will be using twice the amount of water that was used in 1956. As the rate of growth of Florida is much greater than that of the Nation we can expect a greater proportional increase in water use. The estimated 1956 consumptive use in the State was about 2.3 billion gallons per day. The 1975 consumptive use will probably amount to about 5 billion gallons per day. WHAT ARE THE CURRENT USES? The uses of Florida's water are as diverse as the many activities in the State. The major uses range through agricultural, municipal, rural, domestic and livestock, industrial, power, and recreational The last two uses cannot be evaluated quantitatively in a manner similar to that of the other principal uses. A summary of consumptive-water use ir Florida in million gallons per day (mgd) for 195f and projected to 1975 is as follows: 1956 1975 % Increase Agricultural 1, 182 2,500 111 Industrial 639 1.550 142 Municipal 390 750 92 Rural 104 200 92 Total (mgd) 2,315 5,000 111 HOW MUCH WATER FOR CITIES AND TOWNS? The foremost priority for an area's water resources is a safe and drinkable supply. In general, the requirements for water are based upon the number of people served, with proper allowance for the standard of living of the population. The present daily per capita consumption, of persons served by public systems in Florida, is 131 gallons with the 12

PAGE 15

national daily average of 153 gallons. The urbanizational trend and rapid population growth indicates that by 1975 the average water demand in Florida should exceed 150 gallons daily per person. Better than 90 percent of municipal requirements for water comes from ground water. PER CAPITA CONSUMPTION PER CAPITA CONSUMPTION 131 GALLONS, Cities and areas of industrial development use from 300 to 500 gallons per person per day. As Florida develops industrially it can be anticipated that its per capita use of water will accelerate. FROM WHERE WILL THE WATER FOR LIVESTOCK AND FARM HOMES COME? Practically all farm water supplies are obtained from privately developed wells which furnish water at a fairly constant temperature and quality throughout the year. In some areas wells flow naturally making pumping unnecessary. In most areas, however, a pump is needed to furnish an adequate supply. Daily requirements for farm use are estimated at 35 gallons for each person, 12 gailons each for 13

PAGE 16

horses and beef cattle, 25.30 gallons each day for dairy cattle, and about 2 gallons each for small stock. The use of wells for watering livestock has greatly increased because wells are more dependable as a supply than surface sources. HOW ABOUT IRRIGATION? In Florida more water is used for irrigation than for any other consumptive purpose. A large amount of water is supplied for crops and groves by rain falling on the area where it is to be used, or by surface water stored in adjacent areas. Due to the seasonal nature of rainfall in Florida, it is sometimes necessary to supply additional water to growing crops, especially when the rainy season does not correspond with the growing season. A large number of wells are now in use for this pur014 14

PAGE 17

pose, many flowing naturally and others being pumped. Use of water for Irrigation can be expected to increase as more land is put into cultivation. Surface water supplies about 70 percent of the requirements for agriculture, this being the largest consumptive use of water in Florida. When spread out on cultivated land, large amounts of water are utilized by vegetation, but the greatest loss is through evaporation. WILL INDUSTRY HAVE ALL THE WATER IT NEEDS? The water requirements for industry are more diverse than those for other uses. Some industries use very large volumes of water while others use practically none. The quality requirements also vary greatly depending upon the type of industry some requiring water of the highest purity while others can use water of almost any quality. for Meed'? In all uses conservation should be undertaken by reusing water whenever possible, and by reclaiming it where desirable and necessary. However, it is not expected that there will be a shortage of water for industrial use in the foreseeable future, provided that intelligent plans for water supply are made prior to the location of new industrial sites, or expansion of present plants. 15

PAGE 18

There are four major industrial users of water in Florida: (1) Electric power installations -1,590 million gallons per day, of this only about 4 percent was actually consumed, the remainder was returned to the reservoirs; (2) pulp and paper and chemical industries -354 million gallons per day; (3) citrus processing industry -94 million gallons per day; and (4) the mining industry -191 million gallons per day. OTHER IMPORTANT USES The use of water resources may be divided into consumptive and nonconsumptive uses. Irrigation, domestic and municipal, are examples of consumptive uses, whereas, recreational, power and transportation uses are nonconsumptive. In dollars and cents value to the State probably the most important use is that of recreation. The money spent in boating, swimming, fishing, skiing, and other recreational activities utilizing water cannot be accurately given, but because of the unique appeal of Florida and its great attraction to tourists, estimates of the recreational value of water run to several hundred million dollars, including more than 300 million dollars spent annually on the purchase of boats, their upkeep, and operation. Florida has a coastline of about 8,500 miles measured to tidal water limits, or upstream to a width of 100 feet. The total water area, including lakes and streams, exceeds 3,800 square miles. 16

PAGE 19

Few states have as many natural waterways and im)roved harbors. Eight seaports, having a depth of )0 or more feet, and eight having 21-28 feet, handle millions of tons of commerce. Tampa, Jacksonville, and Miami are the largest. Petroleum, chemicals, paper and its products, phosohate, oyster shell and limestone, are the principal commodities transported. Because of the unique appeal of the State's climate and recreational possibilities, the many miles of navigable waterways are extremely important in the economy of the State. A coordinated waterway program is underway and will be developed. HOW ABOUT THE NEEDS FOR RECREATION AND WILDLIFE? In any local or statewide long-range planning for the use of our water resources, the preservation of uncontaminated surface waters for recreation and wildlife must be considered. In 1955 it was estimated that $381 million was spent by the public in the use of our fresh-water resources for recreation. The chief threats to our recreational use of water are pollution and restriction of public access. 17

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Water used for recreation, boating, and wildlife is not consumed or changed by that use, but consumptive uses may reduce the amount available for game and fish and other recreation management. With a tidal coastline of about 8,500 miles, along with numerous streams, springs, and lakes, the State is adequately endowed for recreationalpurposes and wildlife management. WHAT ARE THE PROSPECTS OF USING WATER FOR POWER? Because of the low relief and terrain natural to Florida, and the resulting sluggish streams, there are very few sites available for the development of dams suitable for power production. At the present time, small plants are operated at Inglis, Bloxham, and Chattahoochee. The Jim Woodruff Dam at Chattahoochee is the largest of the three, and it is designed to produce an average of 212 million kilowatt hours of electricity, but that only during times when the head pool is higher than the tail pool. Almost any quality of water can be used for power production. Steam-generation installations used in excess of 1,600 million gallons of water per day during 1956, of which only 2 to 3 percent was obtained from ground water. 18

PAGE 21

HOW DO WE LOSE WATER? Much of the fresh water of the State runs rapidly off to the ocean. This loss could be reduced greatly by more adequate storage facilities, but when developing and improving water-storage facilities we should consider the increased loss of water by evaporation. Any method-whereby the water can be retained upon the land for a longer period of time will reduce the loss from runoff. Mulching and tilling of the soil, terracing, farm pond construction, and winter crops help in this conservation. Great quantities of municipal and industrial wastes find their way into streams, lakes, and ground water. Contaminated and polluted water is not suitable for most uses. Some of our streams are being contaminated to a degree that they can be used only as running cesspools for disposal of industrial wastes. The former reckless drainage of the Everglades, coastal marshes, and other storage basins has not only wasted the State's water but allowed the very rapid oxidation of organic soils. In areas of artesian flow, water is lost through leaking valves, open casings, valves deliberately or carelessly left open, abandoned and rotted casings, and wasteful irrigation practices. Contamination of ground water is another cause for water loss. Disposal of industrial and city wastes into the ground can cause the water supply to be unfit for many purposes. In some areas the absence of streams make it necessary to dispose of surface water through wells. In this manner lake levels can be controlled and street drainage carried underground. Some industrial wastes have also been placed in these wells, and their disintegration has produced inflammable gas which has accumulated in the porous limestones that underlie the area. 19

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Overpumping of a ground-water source may draw salt water into the aquifer from the sea, or from below, and will increase the mineral content of water in wells of the area. A number of our communities have experienced this problem and have had to relocate their well fields. CAN WE HAVE TOO MUCH WATER? Much of the recent damage and difficulty occurring from too much water has stemmed from Florida's rapid population growth, and the ensuing encroachment into the lakes and river basins in the neverending search for water-front property. Since most of Florida is within 60 miles e ,s of the sea, and less than 350 fl feet above sea level, drainage is often inadequate durJoj) ing heavy seasonal rains. Not only do some sections of the State suffer from seasonal stream flooding, but also from a high water table , and raised lake levels accom-panied by waterlogged soils and temporary ponds. The problem of too much water is being studied and attacked not only from the standpoint of single watershed areas, but also within much larger areas involving several counties. Flooding in Florida is frequent because of the flatlands, the concentration of much of the annual rainfall over short periods, and absence of protective water-control facilities. HOW CAN WE PROTECT AND CONSERVE OUR WATER RESOURCES? We can best protect and conserve our water resources by developing a comprehensive statewide 20

PAGE 23

long-range water plan. This plan should be based on a complete understanding of the natural and manmade controls that regulate the storage, movement and quality of water conditional to the availability and need for water, fairly apportioned among the users. Ground-water management must be statewide but surface-water management is a watershed problemand must be approached within each watershed. A coordinated district action is required and usually a soil conservation program is included. The construction of terraces to reduce slope wash, the encouragement of good soil tilling and mulching practices, the planting of protective vegetative cover, all work toward soil and water conservation. CONSE RVATION The Watershed Protection and.Flood Prevention Act (U. S. Public Laws 566 and 1018) provides for management and use of water by upper watershed control structures. Flood control and agricultural benefits can be combined with improvements for industrial and municipal supplies, wildlife management, and recreational facilities with these sharing in the costs of construction according to the value and degree of the benefits. WHO OWNS THE WATER IN FLORIDA? Florida follows the general rule of riparian rights, which essentially guarantees that each ri21

PAGE 24

parian proprietor is entitled to make use of any water resources on his land, provided his use does not unreasonably affect the rights of adjacent riparian owners. This right implies "reasonable use, " but this term has never been clearly defined by legislative or judicial authority in Florida. In 1955 the Legislature of the State of Florida declared that the, "Waters in the state are a natural resource," and that, "The ownership, control of development and use of waters for all beneficial purposes is within the jurisdiction of the state which in the exercise of its powers may establish measures to effectuate the proper and comprehensive utilization and protection of the waters." Such implementation of this policy must be within the framework of judicial opinion relative to the riparian doctrine. Irrigation is necessary in Florida. The construction of surface reservoirs and the use of waste waters for this purpose should be encouraged. But irrigation is not possible without the loss of water through evaporation, and large losses might exceed the "reasonable use" provision of the riparian doctrine. The laws of Florida should anticipate the relative rights of human .needs, stock requirements, irrigation, industrial, and recreational uses, and should adopt means to fairly apportion such rights to the extent to which they are most reasonably capable. In this way, waste and unreasonable use of water should be prevented. 22

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The Department of waterResources was created in 1957 for the purpose of implementing the water policy of Florida. This department primarily exercises control over and manages our water resources, formulating reasonable rules and regulations to implement the policy. The Florida Geological Survey is designated by the Legislature as the primary state agency for the collection of data on water' resources, and joins the U. S. Geological Survey, State universities, Salt Water Fish Commission, and the State Game and Fresh Water Fish Commission to provide specialized data on water resources relating to specialized fields of responsibility. SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS Florida's water supply is adequate to meet all present needs for many years to come, with a surplus 6f water for future development. This surplus is sufficient for the expected increases in water use for all purposes. Industry has been, and will be, attracted by large volumes of good water combined wvith extensive tracts of available land, good research facilities, and an unexcelled climate, beaches And recreational facilities. While the State has large quantities of available water resources now, lesponsible public officials must take a long-range Mlanning view of the total quantity and quality of Available water. Excluding storage, it has been estimated that we have a surplus runoff of about 17 limes the amount of water used in Florida at the present time. This water is available for additional |nd increased uses. The limited problems.that have arisen in the use of the State's water resources can fe eliminated for the most part by wise management nd control. How we use our water resources, whether Ivisely or unwisely, will rest upon each citizen of Florida. Floridians can look to the future with pptimism. 23

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TEXT PREPARED BY: Vernon, Robert 0.; Sproul, C. R.; Lavender, J. A.; Hendry, C. W., Jr.; Bishop, E. W. ILLUSTRATIONS BY: Whitehead, Harry; Janson, Andrew. 24

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-FLORIDA-GEOLOGICAL-SURVEY COPYRIGHT NOTICE © [year of publication as printed] Florida Geological Survey [source text] The Florida Geological Survey holds all rights to the source text of this electronic resource on behalf of the State of Florida. The Florida Geological Survey shall be considered the copyright holder for the text of this publication. Under the Statutes of the State of Florida (FS 257.05; 257.105, and 377.075), the Florida Geologic Survey (Tallahassee, FL), publisher of the Florida Geologic Survey, as a division of state government, makes its documents public (i.e., published) and extends to the state's official agencies and libraries, including the University of Florida's Smathers Libraries, rights of reproduction. The Florida Geological Survey has made its publications available to the University of Florida, on behalf of the State University System of Florida, for the purpose of digitization and Internet distribution. The Florida Geological Survey reserves all rights to its publications. All uses, excluding those made under "fair use" provisions of U.S. copyright legislation (U.S. Code, Title 17, Section 107), are restricted. Contact the Florida Geological Survey for additional information and permissions.


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