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The mineral industry of Florida, 1983

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Title:
The mineral industry of Florida, 1983
Series Title:
Information circular State of Florida, Department of Natural Resources, Division of Resource Management, Bureau of Geology
Creator:
Boyle, James Reid
Hendry, Charles W
Florida -- Bureau of Geology
United States -- Bureau of Mines
Place of Publication:
Tallahassee Fla
Publisher:
Bureau of Geology, Division of Resource Management, Florida Dept. of Natural Resources :
in cooperation with United States Department of the Interior, Bureau of Mines
Publication Date:
Language:
English
Physical Description:
12 p. : ; 22 cm.

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Subjects / Keywords:
Mineral industries -- Florida ( lcsh )
Mineral industries -- Statistics -- Florida ( lcsh )
City of Jacksonville ( local )
City of Tampa ( local )
Phosphates ( jstor )
Gravel ( jstor )
Minerals ( jstor )
Genre:
bibliography ( marcgt )
statistics ( marcgt )
non-fiction ( marcgt )

Notes

Bibliography:
Includes bibliographical references.
General Note:
Cover title.
Statement of Responsibility:
by James R. Boyle and C.W. Hendry, Jr.

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Source Institution:
University of Florida
Holding Location:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
The author dedicated the work to the public domain by waiving all of his or her rights to the work worldwide under copyright law and all related or neighboring legal rights he or she had in the work, to the extent allowable by law.
Resource Identifier:
021125556 ( ALEPH )
12843659 ( OCLC )
ACV4714 ( NOTIS )

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The Mineral Industry of


Florida



This chapter has been prepared under a Memorandum of Understanding between the Bureau of Mines, U.S. Department of the Interior, and the Florida Bureau of Geology for collecting information on all nonfuel minerals.



By James R. Boyle, and Charles W. Hendry, Jr.2




The value of nonfuel mineral production portland cement. Staurolite and zircon conin 1983 in Florida was nearly $1.3 billion, an centrates were produced only in Florida. increase of $52 million over that of 1982. Principal nonmetals, in order of value, were Nearly all the minerals produced in the phosphate rock, stone, cement, sand and
State had increased outputs in 1983. Florida gravel, and clays. ranked fifth nationally in total value of Florida remained the predominant prononfuel minerals produced, and nonmetals ducer of phosphate rock, and for the 90th
accounted for over 97% of the value of the consecutive year supplied more than any State mineral output. The State ranked other State. Florida and North Carolina
first in the production of phosphate rock supplied 84.5% of the domestic phosphate and masonry cement; second in crushed rock output, with Florida supplying most of
stone, fuller's earth, and peat; and sixth in the exports.


Table 1.-Nonfuel mineral production in Florida,

1982 1983
Mineral Quantity (th usads) Quantity (thu


Cement:
Masonry ------------------- thousand short tons-_ 231 $16,267 313 $19,557
Portland ---------------------------_ _ do_ 2,651 136,190 3,329 164,048
Clays -------------------------------- do---- 672 231,339 684 31,566
Gemstones- -------------------------------- NA 6 NA 6
Lime---------------------- thousand short tons_ 103 5,828 W 13,881
Peat ------------------------------_-- _do_---- 120 1,575 114 1,999
Sand and gravel:
Construction ----------------------- ---do_ r13,616 r30,081 e14,900 e31,500
Industrial --------------------------- do ---- 341 4,257 329 3,447
Stone(crushed) -------------------------_do---- e53,100 e182,300 57,282 235,700
Combined value of clays (kaolin, 1982),magnesium compounds, phosphate rock, rare-earth metal concentrate, staurolite, titanium concentrates (ilmenite and rutile), and zircon concentrate XX 815,155 XX 773,275 Total-------------------------------------- XX- r1,222,998 XX 1,274,979

'Estimated..rRevised. NA Not available. W Withheld to avoid disclosing company proprietary data. XX Not applicable. 'Production as measured by mine shipments, sales, or marketable production (including consumption by producers). 2Excludes kaolin; value included with "Combined value" figure.




MINERALS YEARBOOK, 1983


Florida's economy eased out of the reces- 16%, but by midyear it was in excess of sion in 1983, resulting in an unemployment 25%, with the number of unemployed exrate of 7.4% at yearend, compared with ceeding the previous high established in
9.5% at yearend 1982. The unemployment mid-1982. By late 1983, the rate had
rate in the phosphate industry was much dropped as demand for phosphate rock imhigher. Early in 1983, the rate was about proved.



Table 2.-Value of nonfuel mineral production in Florida, by county,
(Thousands)

County 1981 1982 Minerals produced in 1982
in order of value

Alachua --------------$3,429 (2)
Bay ----------------- (3) W Sand and gravel (construction).
Brevard --------------W W Clays, sand and gravel (construction), sand
.,01 and gravel (industrial).
Broward ----------------29,778 $3,041 Sand andgravel (construction).
Calhoun -------------- (3) 75 Do.
Char!otte -------------1,350 (2)
Cit-us 4,248 (2)
Clay ---------------- 31,954 32,069 Ilmenite, zircon, rutile, staurolite, sand and

Collier -9,500 (2) gravel (construction), clays, monazite.
Dade -- W W Cement, sand and gravel (construction).
Eacambia (3) W Sand and gravel (construction), sand and
gravel (industrial).
Gadsden --------------20,230 W Clays, sand and gravel (construction), sand
and gravel (industrial).
Glades --------------- W W Sand and gravel (construction), sand and
gravel (industrial).
Gulf ---- ----------- W W Magnesium compounds, lime.
Hamilton W W Phosphate rock.
Hardee -------------- W W Do.
Hendry --------------319
Hernando -------------W W Cement, lime, clays.
Highlands -------------W W Peat.
Hillsborough -----------139,401 81,672 Phosphate rock, cement, peat.
Jackson --------------W (2)
Lake ----------------W W Sand and gravel (construction), peat, clays.
Lee ----------------- 14,484 (2)
Leon ----------------(3) 267 Sand and gravel (construction).
Levy ----------------4,127 (2)
Manatee -------------- W W Phosphate rock, cement.
Marion --------------W W Clays, sand and gravel (construction).
Monroe---------------- W (2)
Okaloosa ------------ (3)
Orange ---- -------------- 42 (2)
Palm Beach ------------ 3,196 (2y.
Pasco----------------- ?---2,883 (2)
Polk ---- ------------ 869,928 W Phosphate rock, sand and gravel (construction), sand and gravel (industrial), peat.
Putnam -------------- ----W 5.670 Sand and gravel (industrial), clays, sand and
gravel (construction), peat.
St. Lucie -------------- --- 902 W Sand and gravel (construction).
Sarasota-------------- ------ 660 393 Do.
Sumter --------------------- W W Lime.
Suwannee------------- ---- --957 (2)
Taylor --------------- ----------2,591 (2)
Walton ------------------------- (3) W Sand and gravel (construction).
Undistributed ----------- --- -557,312 917,511
Sand and gravel (construction) -30,600 XX
Stone (crushed) ----------- XX 182,300

Total -------------- 51,727,889 1,222.998

Estimated. W Withheld to avoid disclosing company proprietary data; included with "Undistributed." XX Not applicable.
'The foig counties are not listed because no nonfuel mineral production was reported: Baker, Bradford, Columbia, De Soto, Dixie, Duval, Flagler, Franklin, Gilchrist, Holmes, Indian River, Jefferson, Lafayette, Liberty, Madison, Martin, Nassau. Okeechobee. Osceola, Pinellas, St. Johns, Santa Rosa, Seminole, Union, Volusia, Wakulla, and Washington. County distribution for construction sand and gravel (1981) and crushed stone (1982) is not available; total State values shown separately under "Sand and gravel (constructionY' or "Stone (crushed)."
2Crushed stone was produced, data not available by county.
3Construction sand and gravel was produced; data not available by county.
"Includes gem stones that cannot be assigned to specific counties, and values indicated by symbol W.
3Data do not add to total shown because of independent rounding.





THE MINERAL INDUSTRY OF FLORIDA 3


Table 3.-Indicators of Florida business activity

1982 1983P Change,
percent

Employment and labor force, annual average:
Total civilian labor force ----------------------------thousands- 4,682.3 4,984.4 +6.4
Unemployment-------------------------------------do-- 444.3 367.0 -17.4

Employment (nonagricultural):
Mining-------------------------------------_--do---- 9.3 10.1 +8.6
Manufacturing -----------------------------------do--- 450.7 493.5 +9.5
Contractconstruction -------------------------------_-do--. 242.5 288.0 +18.8
Transportation and public utilities------------------_--_---do ---- 230.2 229.1 -.5
Wholesale and retail trade ------------------------- --do--- 1,012.6 1,102.4 +8.9
Finance, insurance, real estate ------------------------- do--. 276.3 300.9 +8.9
Services------------------------------ ---------do..._ 947.3 995.0 +5.0
Government ------------------------------------do---- 647.2 640.0 -1.1

Total nonagricultural employment --------------------- -do--- 3,816.1 4,059.0 +6.4
Personal income:
Total ----------------------------------------- millions.-- $114,356 $123,804 +8.3
Per capita ----- --- _--_----------------------- ----_------ $10,907 $11,592 +6.3
Construction activity:
Number of private and public residential units authorized ------------ ---- 103,813 186,759 +79.9
Value of nonresidential construction ---------------------- millions- $3,257.7 $4,102.1 +25.9
Value ofState road contract awards ------------------------ do _-- $391.0 $340.0 -13.0
Shipments of portland and masonry cement to and within the State
thousand short tons_ 4,398 5,262 +19.6 Nonfuel mineral production value:
Total crude mineral value -- ---------------------------- millions_ $1,223.0 $1,275.0 +4.2
Value per capita, resident population --------------------------------_---- -$117 $119 +1.7
Value per square mile ------------------------------------- $20,891 $21,734 +4.0

PPreliminary.
'Includes oil and gas extraction.
Sources: U.S. Department of Commerce, U.S. Department of Labor, Highway and Heavy Construction Magazine, and U.S. Bureau of Mines.




3,000








C/)
2,000






Z TOTAL
0



:1-,000









0

1977 1980 1985

Figure 1.-Total value of nonfuel mineral production in Florida.





4 MINERALS YEARBOOK, 1983

Trends and Developments.-During the The plant has a capacity for 500 tons per year. nearly all phases of construction re- day of oxygen, nitrogen, and argon. bounded substantially, providing a strong Total oil and gas production in Florida boost to the overall economy, especially the declined for the fifth consecutive year. Oil minerals segment. According to the Federal production dropped from 25.3 million barReserve Bank of Atlanta,3 Florida's total rels in 1982 to 19.6 million barrels in 1983; capital needs for transportation, water, and gas production dropped from 26.9 billion waste water, including backlog require- cubic feet in 1982 to 24.2 billion cubic feet in ments, total $41 billion through the year 1983. Twenty-seven wells were drilled in 2000. Approximately 90% of these capital 1983: 15 wildcats, all dry; 9 development needs are for transportation, mainly roads. wells, all producers; and 3 service wells for The projections indicate a long-term high saltwater disposal. demand for construction minerals such as Legislation and Government Procement, sand and gravel, and crushed stone. grams.-The U.S. Bureau of Land ManageTo generate revenue for education re- ment reported $234,379 in mineral lease quirements, Florida's corporate income tax payments to the State in 1983. The Federal was increased in 1983 through changes Government divides bonuses, rentals, and which increase the tax base for some compa- royalties received from Federal mineral nies. The changes include a repeal of Flori- leasing activities on public lands equally da's existing exemption of foreign source with the States in which the minerals occur. income as taxable corporate profits, a The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and change in the definition of Florida sales, the U.S. Bureau of Mines conducted minerand a provision for worldwide unity appor- al. energy, geochemical, and marine geology tionment for determining the corporate in- studies in and offshore Florida. The studies come tax. Among those affected would be included mineral potential in several Roadmost of the phosphate, cement, and other less Area Review and Evaluation (RARE II) mineral-related companies. Under world- areas, and resource studies on titanium, wide unitary apportionment, a company's heavy minerals, and phosphate. During the worldwide operating income is included in year, the USGS published several Miscellataxable corporate profits. Companies oper- neous Field Studies Maps pertaining to the ating primarily in Florida will experience RARE II studies, which are a joint effort little change in taxes, while multinationals with the Bureau. The maps included "Mincould be heavily impacted. Review and pos- eral Resource Potential Map of the Sasible modification of the unitary tax was vannah Roadless Area, Liberty County, underway because of the adverse reaction Florida" (MF-1470), "Mineral Resource Poby corporations in the State. tential of the Clear Lake Roadless Area,
The Port of Tampa handled nearly 44 Leon County, Florida" (MF-1479), and "Minmillion tons of cargo in 1983, up nearly 11% eral Resource Potential Map of the Natural from that of 1982. The major portion of Area Roadless Area, Baker County, Floriexported phosphate was shipped out of that da" (MF-1572-B). port. Phosphate rock exports totaled nearly Since 1972, the U.S. Bureau of Mines 15 million tons, compared with 13 million Tuscaloosa Research Center has been tons in 19S2. Total earnings of phosphate involved with various projects related to exporters, however, were 7% lower than in dewatering phosphate waste slimes, up1982 because of lower world prices. Other grading marginal ore, and developing minerals exported through the port includ- means to improve the post-mining environed clay and industrial sand. ment. In-house Bureau project activity durThe Port of Tampa also imported about ing 1983 included research on beneficiation 670,000 tons of aragonite from The Baha- of dolomitic phosphate ores, dewatering of mas for use in the manufacture of cement, waste phosphate clay slime by flocculation up slightly from that imported in 1982. utilizing a field test unit, recovery of phosOther minerals imported included cement, phate from dewatered slimes, and procecoal, gypsum rock, potash, salt, and liquid dures for reestablishment of wetland ecosulfur. systems after mining.
Union Carbide Corp. announced a $9 Bureau Reports of Investigation (RI) million modernization program at its indus- issued during the year pertaining to the trial gases facility at Mims. To be completed mineral industry of Florida included RI in 1984, the program will include upgrading 8731, "Recovery of Phosphate From Florida process liquefaction and computer control. Phosphate Operations Slimes," and RI 8776,





THE MINERAL INDUSTRY OF FLORIDA 5

"Evaluation of Radium and Toxic Element Resources of the Upper Suwannee River Leaching Characteristics of Florida Basin, Florida," and several map series Phosphogypsum Stockpiles." Information concerning water use within the State. In Circulars (IC) issued included IC 8914, "The September, the reclamation program, Florida Phosphate Industry's Technological which had been assigned to the Bureau of Environmental Problems, A Review"; IC Geology, was elevated to Bureau status and 8926, "Minerals Availability Commodity Di- became a separate entity. rectory on Phosphate"; IC 8929, "Economic The Florida Institute of Phosphate ReEvaluation of Borehole and Conventional search continued its funding of research Mining Systems in Phosphate Deposits"; IC activities with respect to mining and proc8932, "Costs and Effects of Environmental essing phosphate rock and reclamation of Protection Controls Regulating U.S. Phos- disturbed lands. The Institute's funding for phate Rock Mining"; and IC 8937, "Phos- research exceeds $3 million annually with phate Rock Availability-Domestic." the major areas of study including utilizaDuring the year, the Florida Bureau of tion of byproduct gypsum, reduction of Geology continued its geologic investiga- slime pond areas, evaluation of waste clay tions in the State. Projects underway in- handling techniques, and reclamation of cluded stratigraphy of South Florida, a phosphate lands. Other areas of concern summary of peat deposits, a summary of were innovative beneficiation and mining geologic parameters to be assessed for haz- concepts and effects of radiation. About 50 ardous waste disposal, geomorphology of projects were funded to some level during Northwest Florida, a summary of the eco- 1983. Florida Statute 378.101, relating to nomic minerals of Florida, and other basic phosphate research, was amended by the geologic studies within the State. Publica- legislature and approved by the Governor tions released during the year included in May. The amendment increased the "Earthquakes and Seismic History of Flori- Board of Directors from three to five memda," "The Hawthorn Formation of North- bers, with the new members appointed in eastern Florida," "The Geology and Water December.

REVIEW BY NONFUEL MINERAL COMMODITIES

NONMETALS remainder being consumed by other contractors and governmental agencies.
Cement.-Shipments of portland and ma- Most raw materials used to manufacture sonry cement increased 25.6% and 35.7%, cement were mined within the State and respectively, from those of 1982. Cement included limestone, clays, sand, and staurowas the third leading commodity in value in lite. Oolitic aragonite imported from The the State. Production of masonry cement in Bahamas was used, as were small amounts Florida ranked first nationally, while that of gypsum, clinker, fly ash, iron ore, and of portland cement ranked sixth. Increased slag; most were obtained from out-of-State construction activity impacted favorably on sources. the cement industry with masonry cement Ten rotary kilns were operated at the five output at its highest level in over 10 years plants-eight were wet process and two and portland cement output approaching were dry process. About 446 million kilothe record-high year production of 1980. watt hours of electrical energy, in addition Four companies produced portland cement to natural gas, fuel oil, and coal, were used at five plants; masonry was also produced at in the manufacture of cement. five plants. A fifth company operated a Atlantic Cement Co. purchased 50% of grinding plant to produce portland cement Continental Cement Co.'s terminals in Cape from imported clinker. Most of the output of Canaveral and Port Everglades for $9 milboth cement types was used within the lion. Both firms will use designated silos for State; Florida was a net importer of cement deliveries from oceangoing vessels. Ideal with about 1.5 million tons being shipped Basic Industries Inc. sold its Palm Beach into the State, up from about 700,000 tons in terminal to Eagle Cement Co. Eagle plans 1982. Portland cement shipments, mainly in to handle about 250,000 tons per year bulk form, were made by truck and rail. through the terminal; most of the cement Principal consumers were ready-mix con- will come from Mexico. tractors, building materials dealers, and Florida Crushed Stone Co. continued with concrete products manufacturers, with the plans to build a 600,000-ton-per-year cement




6 MINERALS YEARBOOK, 1983

plant at Brooksville for an estimated $80 plant in Hillsborough County. United million. Construction was delayed awaiting States Gypsum Co., Jim Walter Corp., and permits for the cement plant, which were National Gypsum Co. calcined gypsum in received by yearend. The company was also kettles, a rotary kiln, and holoflite unit, seeking approval to construct a coal-fired respectively, prior to wallboard manufac120-megawatt powerplant for the cement ture. In terms of annual output, Florida operation. Permission had not been receiv- ranked fourth nationally in the manufaced by yearend. When approved, construc- ture of wallboard. U.S. Gypsum's plant tion was expected to take 2 years. Construc- ranked third nationally in output, while tion of the cement plant was contingent on National Gypsum's plant ranked seventh. approval of the powerplant. A local bond Production and value increased 40% and issue had been passed for financing the 50%, respectively, over those of 1982. Flori. venture. da gypsum wallboard was marketed primarClays.-Clays mined in Florida included ily in southern Georgia and Florida. By. common clay, fuller's earth, and kaolin. product gypsum was recovered by Occiden. Total clay production increased 12,000 tons, tal Chemical Co. at its plant in Hamilton while value decreased $1.5 million. County; output increased over that of 1982.
Common clay output and value increased Lime.-Quicklime and hydrated lime 13.8% and 56.4%, respectively, over those of were produced in Florida, with output of 1982. Common clay was produced by three both increasing over that of 1982. Quicklime companies at three pits in Clay, Hernando, was produced by Basic Magnesia Inc., Gul and Lake Counties in the northern part of County; Chemical Lime Inc., Hernando the State. The clay was used in the manu- County; and Dixie Lime & Stone Co., Sumfacture of cement and lightweight aggre- ter County. Hydrated lime was also progate. duced by Chemical Lime. Production and
Florida ranked second in the Nation in value of lime increased significantoutput of fuller's earth with production and ly, over those of 1982; output was at its value decreasing compared with that of highest level in over 10 years. Historically, 1982. Fuller's earth was mined by four Florida markets have consumed significantproducers at four pits in Gadsden and ly more lime than was produced in the Marion Counties. Main end uses were for State, with out-of-State producers supplying pet waste absorbents and oil and grease the markets. Lime was used in magnesia absorbents, and in fertilizers, pesticides, recovery from seawater sewage treatment and saltwater drilling muds. Material systems and in animal food. mined was a montmorillonite-attapulgite Magnesium Compounds.-Florida rankproduct, which was crushed, sized, and ed second in the Nation in the recovery of dried. End products were shipped nation- magnesium compounds from seawater. Bawide. Excel Minerals Inc. constructed a sic Magnesia, Gulf County, produced caustic packaging plant in Quincy to distribute pet calcined magnesia and refractory-grade waste absorbent clays supplied by the Flori- magnesia from seawater. Shipments and din Co. in Quincy. value increased 4.0% and 9.6%, respectiveKaolin was produced by one company in ly, over those of 1982, indicating an increase Putnam County with production increasing in unit value. 11.5% over that of 1982. Principal uses were Peat.-Florida ranked second nationally electrical porcelain, whiteware, and wall in peat sales in 1983. Reported production tile. with major markets in the Southeast. decreased from that of 1982. Five companies Byproduct industrial sand was recovered reported production of moss, reed-sedge, for glass and other industrial uses. Glass and humus peat from five counties. Most of sand was shipped to plants in Alabama, the peat, shipped in bulk, was used for Florida, and Tennessee. general soil improvement and for potting
Fluorine.-Fluorine in the form of fluo- soils.
silicic acid was recovered as a byproduct of The Natural Resources Committee in the wet-process phosphoric acid manufacture. Florida House of Representatives approved Fluosilicic acid was used to produce cryolite, a 1-year ban on the issuance of permits for aluminum fluoride, and sodium silicofluo- peat mining for nonagricultural purposes in ride, and was also used in water fluorida- Florida swamps. The Department of Natution- ral Resources (DNR) was directed to deny
Gypsum.-Imported gypsum was calcined approval of any such activities until after at two plants in Duval County and one July 1, 1984. The bill provided that DNR




THE MINERAL INDUSTRY OF FLORIDA 7

conduct a study of the effects of peat mining To reduce power costs at their sulfuric on the State's wetlands and make recom- acid plants, Conserve Inc, IMC, and The mendations concerning restrictions on non- Royster Co. were retrofitting their units to agricultural peat mining. recover high-pressure steam and cogenerate
Perlite (Expanded).-Four companies electricity. Increased electrical costs justiproduced expanded perlite from crude ore fied the capital expenditures. Excess genshipped into the State. Production decreas- erated power will be sold to the Tampa ed to 21,200 tons, while value decreased to Electric Co. $3.5 million. Perlite was expanded at plants The industry reduced electric power exin Broward, Duval, Escambia, and Indian penses from $158 million in 1982 to $150 River Counties, and was used for construc- million in 1983. Cogeneration plants altion aggregate, horticultural purposes, insu- lowed energy use to increase from 2.9 billation, and fillers. lion kilowatt hours in 1982 to 3.5 billion
Phosphate Rock.-Florida ranked first in kilowatt hours in 1983 without a correthe Nation in the production of phosphate sponding rise in costs. rock. The phosphate industry continued to Land-pebble phosphate was produced at be the principal mineral industry in the 20 mines by 12 companies in Hamilton, State. Marketable production of phosphate Hardee, Hillsborough, Manatee, and Polk rock in 1983 increased 7.5% in quantity but Counties. Of the 12 companies with facilidecreased 6.1% in value from that of 1982. ties, 6 increased production in 1983, 5 Phosphate rock production remained at a decreased production, and 1 purchased malow level during the year, resulting in terial and utilized inventories. Seven comtemporary closure of, or reduction of output panies increased export tonnage in 1983, from, most of the area's mines. The decreas- two remained at about the same level, one ed output was caused by reduced demand decreased exports, and two did not export. for both domestic fertilizers and exports. At In 1983, agricultural uses accounted for all midyear, over 26% of the work force was of the production. Normal superphosphate, unemployed with mines and plants either triple superphosphate, wet-process phosshut down temporarily or operating on phoric acid, phosphate rock for direct applireduced schedules. The industry rebounded cation, and defluorinated phosphate rock late in the year, reducing the unemploy- were produced for agricultural purposes. ment rate to about 9%, but still operated All of the companies produced wet-process well below capacity levels. phosphoric acid, five produced triple superAccording to the Florida Phosphate Coun- phosphate, four produced normal supercil, 1983 output of all major finished prod- phosphate, three produced direct applicaucts increased over that of 1982: phosphoric tion material, and one produced defluorinaacid (80%), triple superphosphate (29%), ted rock. diammonium phosphate (72%), monoammo- Agrico Chemical Co. operated the Fort
nium phosphate (103%), and animal feed Green, Payne, and Saddle Creek Mines supplements (3%). The council also reported during the year. The Saddle Creek Mine, that capital spending declined from $410 down since August 1981, reopened in April million in 1982 to $88 million in 1983. on a 5-day schedule which increased to a 7Employment decreased from 14,600 in 1980, day operation by December. The South the peak year, to 11,540 at yearend 1983. Pierce chemical operations, which functionThe industry paid nearly $110 million in ed at reduced levels during the year, were State and county taxes, with severance running at design capacity by yearend. taxes of over $67 million. The severance tax Agrico announced plans to import prilled of $1.84 per ton in 1982 was increased to sulfur from Canada to replace liquid sulfur $2.10 per ton in 1983, with a portion (5%) used to produce sulfuric acid. Permits were returned to the individual producing coun- applied for and were pending at yearend. ties. Agrico initiated the permitting process to
During the year, Zen-Noh, a Japanese continue testing borehole mining of deep trade organization, contracted with Estech phosphate in St. Johns County. Primary Inc. and International Minerals & Chemical testing was done in cooperation with the Corp. (IMC) for multiyear supplies of phos- U.S. Bureau of Mines. Phase 2, by Agrico, phate rock. Estech will supply 460,000 met- would include drilling six slurry wells in ric tons per year for 8 years and IMC will 1984 and continuing feasibility testing; supply 317,000 metric tons per year for 13 phase 3 would be full-scale production. years. AMAX Phosphate Inc. operated the Big




8 MINERALS YEARBOOK, 1983

Four Mine intermittently during the year. permitting stage since 1977 and at yearend The mine was closed in April 1982 and reportedly needed three more permits; one reopened in mid-1983. The Piney Point fer- for dredge and fill and two watershed pertilizer plant, which also closed in April mits. Startup for the proposed mine remain1982. reopened late in 1983 and was oper- ed indefinite at yearend. ating at full capacity by yearend. AMAX's Gardinier Inc. produced phosphate rock Pine Level Mine development in De Soto at its Fort Meade Mine in Polk County. and Manatee Counties was deferred with an Gardinier filed to extend its mine into 5,400 uncertain projected startup date. The $300 acres in Hardee County. The company plans to $600 million development reportedly was to mine nearly 3,800 acres, leaving land planned to produce 4.5 million tons per around creeks undisturbed. year. W. R. Grace & Co. operated its Bonny
Beker Phosphate Corp. operated its Win- Lake and Hookers Prairie Mines in Polk gate Creek Mine in Manatee County using County during the year. Because of depleted two floating dredges to remove overburden reserves, the Bonny Lake Mine was exand matrix. The mine was closed for a short pected to be mined out early in 1984. W. R. period early in the year. Phosphate rock Grace purchased a deposit of phosphate was trucked to Port Manatee for shipment rock reserves from Agrico for $25 million. to Beker's fertilizer plant in Louisiana. The addition of an estimated 16 million tons Controversy over truck transportation to of reserves will extend the life of the Hookthe port continued during the year as Beker ers Prairie Mine an additional 5 to 6 years. had difficulty obtaining rights of way for a The startup of W. R. Grace's Four Corner rail line. By yearend, county officials had Mine, a joint venture with IMC, was postdenied an extension of an agreement to ship poned until early 1985. W. R. Grace will by truck. operate the 5-million-ton-per-year mine
Brewster Phosphates, a partnership be- with 50% of the production going to IMC. tween American Cyanamid Co. and Kerr- Hopewell Land Co., a subsidiary of NorMcGee Corp., operated the Haynsworth and anda Inc., continued development of its Lonesome Mines at various work schedules 550,000-ton-per-year mine in Hillsborough during the year. Most of the output was County. Production was scheduled for late shipped to an acid plant in Louisiana 1984, with about one-half of the output through the Port of Tampa. going to the company's fertilizer plant in
CF Industries Inc.'s Hardee Complex Canada and the remaining output sold.
No. I operated intermittently during the IMC, the world's largest private producer year. Late in the year, the company restart- of phosphate and phosphate chemical proded its sulfuric acid plant at Bartow, which ucts, operated the Clear Springs, Noralyn, had been shut down in February. and Kingsford Mines. The mines operated
Estech operated the Silver City and Wat- at reduced schedules early in the year with son Mines in Polk County, with the Silver output increasing later in 1983. Although City Mine being shut down in January for the mines did not operate at design capacian indefinite period. The two mines have a ty, IMC's production levels were not reduccombined capacity of about 2 million tons ed by weak demand as much as those of per year with depletion of deposits antici- other Florida companies. IMC's New Wales pated by the early 1990's. Estech continued chemical complex also operated below cain its attempts to develop its Duette Mine in pacity during 1983. Manatee County. Environmental concerns Mobil Chemical Corp. operated the have delayed development of the proposed Nichols and Fort Meade Mines in Polk 3-million-ton-per-year mine since 1975. County. Early in the year, the Nichols Mine Estech, at yearend, reportedly needed two was shut down, and Mobil overhauled its 40more permits, for a total of 31, before cubic-yard dragline at a cost of $1.2 million. development of the mine. After the last Mobil also shut down its elemental phospermits were issued, it would still be about phorus furnaces at Pierce and will-purchase 3 years before mining would begin. The its requirements from Monsanto Co. in company has reportedly expended over $10 Tennessee. Mobil proceeded with the permillion in its attempts to develop the mine. mitting process to develop the 3-million-tonFarmland Industries Inc. continued at- per-year South Fort Meade Mine. Early in tempts to obtain permits for its proposed 2- the year, the State rejected Mobil's proposmillion-ton-per-year Hickory Creek Mine in ed reclamation plan for the South Fort Hardee County. Farmland has been in the Meade Mine. Late in the year, Mobil an-





THE MINERAL INDUSTRY OF FLORIDA

nounced it will test electroendosmosis to Construction.-Construction sand and determine if the method can be used to gravel production is surveyed by the U.S. shorten the time required to reclaim clay Bureau of Mines for even-numbered years settling areas. only; therefore, this chapter contains only
Occidental Chemical produced phosphate estimates for 1983. The data are based on rock from its Suwannee River Mine and its annual company estimates made before Swift Creek Mine. During the year, both yearend. facilities operated intermittently with out- Output of construction sand and gravel put increasing by yearend. The Swift Creek was estimated to have increased slightly, Mine closed in December. while unit value decreased. Many sand and
U.S.S. Agri-Chemicals Inc., which had gravel facilities operated at reduced levels closed its Rockland Mine in May 1982, early in the year, with demand increasing eliminated all maintenance activities at the late in the year. mine in March 1983. United States Steel Industrial.-Five companies produced inCorp. announced that its phosphoric acid dustrial sand and gravel, one as byproduct plant in Bartow, inactive since 1981, would of kaolin operations. Production decreased be shut down permanently in January 1984. 3.5% with value decreasing 19% from that Sand and Gravel.-Florida produced both of 1982. Unit value decreased 16%. Indusconstruction and industrial sand and gravel trial sand was used for glass manufacture in 1983. Total sand and gravel production and for foundry sands with markets in and value were estimated to have increased Alabama, Florida, and Tennessee. over those in 1982; unit values decreased.


Table 4.-Florida: Sand and gravel sold or used by producers
1982 1983
quantity Value Value Quantity Value Value (thousand (thou- per (thousand (thou- per short tons) sands) ton short tons) sands) ton Construction:
Sand----------------_---_--_-_--------- NA NA NA NA NA NA
Gravel----.-- -._ ----------------------- NA NA NA NA NA NA
Sand and gravel (unprocessed) ------------- ----- NA NA NA NA NA NA
Total or average ----- -------------- r13,616 r$30,081 r$2.21 e14 900 e$31,500 e$2.11
Industrial:
Sand --_ ------- ------------------------- 341 4,257 r12.48 327 3,417 10.44
Gravel -- ------------------------------ -- -- -- 2 30 15.00
Total or average ----_-_.------------------- 341 4,257 r12.48 329 3,447 10.48
Grand total or average --------------- r13,957 r34,338 r2.46 e15,229 e34,947 e229
Estimated. rRevised. NA Not available.

Staurolite.-Florida was the only State Data for even-numbered years are based on with a recorded production of staurolite, an annual company estimates made before iron-aluminum silicate low in free silica. yearend. Florida ranked second in the NaStaurolite was recovered as a byproduct of tion in crushed stone production, which ilmenite processing in Clay County by E. I. included limestone, dolomite, marl, and oydu Pont de Nemours & Co. Inc. and by stershell. Output increased, reversing a
Associated Minerals (USA) Ltd. Inc. The downward trend started in 1980. Unit prices staurolite was recovered by electrical and increased about 20%. Increased construcmagnetic separation from heavy minerals tion activity directly affected output of concentrates. Production and value increas- crushed stone and other aggregate. ed 4.8% and 1.7%, respectively, over those Crushed stone was produced by 81 compaof 1982. Staurolite was used primarily in nies at 113 quarries in 24 counties. Leading foundry applications and in sandblasting; counties were Dade, Hernando, and Browdemand was down because of discontinu- ard, which supplied 66.2% of the State's ance of its use in cement. output. Fifteen quarries produced over 1
Stone.--Stone production is surveyed by million tons each and accounted for 57.4% the U.S. Bureau of Mines for odd-numbered of the State's production. years only; the 1982 chapter gave estimates.





10 MINERALS YEARBOOK, 1983


Table 5.-Florida: Crushed stone' sold or used by producers in 1983, by use (Thousand short tons and thousand dollars)

Use Quantity Valu

Coarse aggregate (+1-1/2 inch)
Riprap and jetty stone ---- ----------- -----------_------------------ 40 173
Filter stone ------- ------------------------------------_------ 504 3,162
Coarse aggregate, gradedConcrete aggregate, coarse -- ------------------------------- --------- 15,780 73,246
Bituminousaggregate, coarse -- ------------------------------------------- 2,437 12,605
Bituminous surface treatment aggregate_ --__--------------------------------__ _- W W
Railroadballast -- ------------------------------------------------ 459 2,603
Other graded coarse aggregate _---__--_-----__---------------------------__---------- W W
Fine aggregate (-3/8 inch
Stone sand, concrete ---- ------------------------------ --------- 3,523 16,200
Stone sand, bituminous mix or seal ---------- -------------------------------------- 1,026 5,744
Screening, undesignated ------------------------------------------------------ 1,874 8,931
Otherfineaggregate--- -------------------------------------------------_--- W W
Coarse and fine aggregate:
Graded road base or subbase ---------------------------------------- -- 12,767 33,800
Unpaved road surfacing --- ------------------------------- ---------- 1,485 3,470
Crusher run or fill or waste- ------------------------------------------ 1,633 3,290
Othercoarseandfineaggregate --- ------------------_-----------_ ------- W W
Agricultural:
Agricultural limestone ----------- --------------------------------------------- 346 1,822
Poultry grit and mineral food ----------------------------------------- 284 814
Other agricultural uses -------------------------------------------- W W
Chemical and metallurgical:
Cement manufacture ---- ----- ------------------------------------- 3,663 15,598
Lime manufacture -------- ------------------------------------------------ W W
Special:
Asphaltfillersorextenders ---------------------------------------------_---- W W
Whiting or whiting substitute -----__------------------------------------------------- 46 101
Other fillers or extenders - ------------------------ ------ ----------- W W
Other --_ -------------------------------------------------------------- 11,416 54,140
Tota2-- --------- ----------------------------------------------------- 57,282 235,700

W Withheld to avoid disclosing company proprietary data; included with "Special: Other."
'Includes limestone, dolomite, marl, and shell.
2Data do not add to totals shown because of independent rounding.


Crushed stone was transported mainly by largest minimill operator, with five plants truck and railroad and was used for dense- and a rated total capacity of 1.6 million tons graded road base, concrete and bituminous per year. Although markets became stronaggregate, and cement manufacture. Eight ger during the year, the demand was not companies processed oystershell for roadbed sufficient to reopen the company's facilities material. at Indiantown.
Sulfur (Recovered).-Florida ranked According to the Directory of Florida
eighth in the Nation in the production of Industries, 10 gray iron foundries and 9 byproduct elemental sulfur. Recovered sul- steel foundries operated intermittently durfur from Exxon Corp.'s natural gas desul- ing 1983. With the exception of a foundry in furization plant in Santa Rosa County Jacksonville and one in Tampa, all founddecreased for the fifth straight year. ries were relatively small.
Vermiculite (Exfoliated).-Exfoliated Shipments of ferroalloys decreased 3.5%, vermiculite was produced by two companies while value increased slightly. at four plants in Broward, Duval, and Mineral Sands.-Du Pont and Associated
Hillsborough Counties from crude ore Minerals produced concentrates from its shipped into the State. Production increas- heavy minerals operations in Clay County. ed 10.8% while value decreased 1%, mdi- Rutile and ilmenite shipments increased eating a drop in unit price from that of 1982. 28.6% and 52.2%, respectively, over those of Principal uses were for concrete aggregate, 1982; unit prices of both decreased. Florida horticulture, and insulation. was the only reported State with shipments

METALS of rutile, and one of two States with shipments of ilmenite. Du Pont, which operates
Iron and Steel.-Florida Steel Corp., one two dredges, was building another to reof the top 15 steelmakers in the Nation, place an older unit. Du Pont expanded operated minimills at Jacksonville and capacity to 72,000 tons per year by improvTampa during the year. The company, with ing processing, and with the addition of a five plants in the Nation, was the fourth new cone section planned to boost capacity






THE MINERAL INDUSTRY OF FLORIDA 11


to 77,000 tons per year by the end of 1983.4 Minerals operations in Clay County increasUnion Camp Corp. planned to build an ed 5.2% and 0.3%, respectively, over those
8,000-ton-per-year humate processing plant of 1982. Florida was the only producer of
in Jacksonville with scheduled completion zircon in the United States; it was recovered
in 1984. Humate is an organic byproduct of as a byproduct of mineral sands operations.
the mining of heavy mineral sands. Principal markets were in the foundry,
Rare-Earth Minerals.-Florida was the ceramic, and refractory industries. Markets
only producer of rare earths from mineral in the foundry industry were down, but
sands mining. Associated Minerals recov- refractory applications picked up late in the
ered monazite concentrate as a byproduct of year.
its operation in Clay County. Production increased slightly, while value decreased (State Liaison Officer, Bureau of Mines, Tuscaloosa, AL.
State geologist, Florida Bureau of Geology, Tallahassee, from that of 1982. FL.
Zircon.-Production and value of zircon 'Federal Reserve Bank of Atlanta. Economic Review.
Feb. 1984, pp. 6-20.
concentrate from Du Pont and Associated "Industrial Minerals (London). Dec. 1983, p. 32.



Table 6.-Principal producers

Commodity and company Address Type of activity County

Cement:
General Portland Inc ------ 12700 Park Central Pl. Plants ------- -Dade and
Suite 2100 Hillsborough.
Dallas, TX 75251
Lonestar Florida Pennsuco Inc Box 2035 PVS Plant ------- Dade.
Hialeah, FL 33012
Moore McCormack Resources Box 23965 -- do ------ -Hernando.
Inc. Tampa, FL 33622
Rinker Portland Cement Corp Box 650679 -- _do ------ --Dade.
Miami, FL 33165
slys:
Engelhard Minerals & Menlo Park Open pit mines Brevard.
Chemical Corp. Edison, NJ 08817 and plant.
Mid-Florida Mining Co ----- -Box 68-F -- ._do ------ -Marion.
Lowell, FL 32663
Pennsylvania Glass Sand Corp Berkeley Springs, WV 25411 -------_ _-_do------- Gadsden.
ypsum (calcined:
Jim Walter Corp -------- Box 135 Plant ------- --Duval.
Jacksonville, FL 32226
National Gypsum Co ------ 4100 First International Bldg. --- .do ------ -Hillsborough.
Dallas, TX 57270
United States Gypsum Co _-_ 101 South Wacker Dr. _- do ------ -Duval.
Chicago, IL 60606
e:
Basic Magnesia Inc ------- Box 160 --- _do ------ -Gulf.
Port St. Joe, FL 32456
Chemical Lime Inc ------- -_ Box 317 _---- _do ------ Hernando.
Leesburg, FL 32748
Dixie Lime & Stone Co.' --_-_-_ Drawer 217 _-- do ------ Sumter.
Sumterville, FL 33585
agnesia:
Basic Magnesia Inc ------- Box 160 _-- do ------ -Gulf.
Port St. Joe, FL 32456
eat:
Peace River Peat Co ------ -_ Box 1192 Bog -------- --- Polk.
Bartow, FL 33830
Superior Peat & Soil Co ---_ Box 1688 Bog -------- Highlands.
Sebring, FL 33870
rlite (expanded):
Airlite Processing Corp. of Route 2, Box 740 Plant ------- -_ Indian River.
Florida. Vero Beach, FL 32960
Armstrong Cork Co ------- Box 1991 --- do ------ Escambia.
Pensacola, FL 35289
Chemrock Corp --------- -End of Osage St. --- _do ------ Duval.
Nashville, TN 37208
W. R. Grace & Co.2 --------- 62 Whittemore Ave. --- do ------ Broward.
Cambridge, MA 02140
See footnotes at end of table.





12 MINERALS YEARBOOK, 1983


Table 6.-Principal producers -Continued

Commodity and company Address Type of activity ..County


Phosphate rack:
Agrico Chemica Co ------- Box 1110 Open pit mines Polk.
Mulberry, FL 33860 and plants.
AMAX Chemical Inc ------ 402 South Kentucky Ave. Open pit mine Hillsborough.
Lakeland, FL 33801 and plant.
Baker Phosphate Corp ----- Box 9034 _ do------ Manatee.
Bradenton, FL 33506
Brewster Phosphates ------ Bradley, FL 33835------------ Open pit mines Hillsborough and
and plant. Polk.
CF Industries Inc --------_ __ Box 790 Open pit mine Hardee.
Plant City, FL 33566 and plant.
Estech Inc - -- - ----- Box 208 Open pit mines POL
Bartow, FL 33830
Gardinier Inc ---------- -- Box 3269 Open pit mine Do.
Tampa, FL 33601 and plant.
W. R. Grace & Co -------- Box 471 Open pit mines Do.
Bartow, FL 33830 and plant.
International Minerals & Box 867 --- do Do.
Chemical Corp. Bartow, FL 33830
Mobil Chemical Corp.3 --- Box 311 do------ Do.
Nichols, FL 33863
Occidental Chemical Co ---- White Springs, FL 32096 -------- -- do------- Hamilton.
U.S.S. Agri-Chemicals Inc - Box 867 Open pit mine Polk.
Fort Meade, FL 33841 and plant.
Sand and gravel (1982):
Florida Rock Industries Inc., Box 4667 Pits -------_- Clay, Glades,
Shands & Baker. Jacksonville, FL 32216 Lake, Marion,
Polk, Putnam.
General Development Corp 1111 South Bayshore Dr. --- .do ------ Henry, St. Lucie,
Miami, FL 33131 Sarasota.
E. R. Jahna Industries Inc., First & East Tillman _-_..do------ Glades,
Ortona Sand Co. Div. Lake Wales, FL 33853 Lake, Polk.
Silver Sand Co. of Clermont Route 1, Box US 1 Pit ---------- Lake.
Inc. Clermont, FL 32711
Staurolite:
Associated Minerals (USA) Green Cove Springs, FL 32043 -- - Mine and plant Clay.
Ltd. Inc.
F L du Pont de Nemours & Co. DuPont Bldg. D-10084 Mines and plants Do.
Inc. Wilmington, DE 19898
Stone:
Florida Crushed Stone Co - Box 317 Quarries ----- Hernando
Leesbu, FL 32748 and Sumter.
Florida Rock Industries Inc Box 46 _ do ------ Alachna, Collier,
Jacksonville, FL 32216 Hernando, Lee,
Levy, St. Lucie,
Taylor.
Lone Star Florida Inc ------ Box 6097 Quarry ------ Dade.
Fort Lauderdale, FL 33310
Rinker Southeastern Materials Box 5230 Quarries ----- Do.
Inc. Hialeah, FL 33014
Vulcan Materials Co ------ Box 660097 -- do------ Broward and
Miami Spring, FL 33166 Dade.
Titanium concentrates:
Associated Minerals (USA) Green Cove Springs, Mine and plant Clay.
Ltd. Inc. FL 32043
E. L du Pont de Nemours & Co. DuPont Bldg. D-10084 Mines and plants Do.
4 Inc. Wilmington, DE 19898
'Also stone.
*Also exfoliated vermiculite.
'Also elemental phosphorus.




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PAGE 1

The Mineral Industry of Florida This chapter has been prepared under a Memorandum of Understanding between the Bureau of Mines, U.S. Department of the Interior, and the Florida Bureau of Geology for collecting information on all nonfuel minerals. By James R. Boyle, and Charles W. Hendry, Jr.2 The value of nonfuel mineral production portland cement. Staurolite and zircon conin 1983 in Florida was nearly $1.3 billion, an centrates were produced only in Florida. increase of $52 million over that of 1982. Principal nonmetals, in order of value, were Nearly all the minerals produced in the phosphate rock, stone, cement, sand and State had increased outputs in 1983. Florida gravel, and clays. ranked fifth nationally in total value of Florida remained the predominant prononfuel minerals produced, and nonmetals ducer of phosphate rock, and for the 90th accounted for over 97% of the value of the consecutive year supplied more than any State mineral output. The State ranked other State. Florida and North Carolina first in the production of phosphate rock supplied 84.5% of the domestic phosphate and masonry cement; second in crushed rock output, with Florida supplying most of stone, fuller's earth, and peat; and sixth in the exports. Table 1.-Nonfuel mineral production in Floridal 1982 1983 Mineral Value Value Mineral Quantity (thousands) Quantity (thousands) Cement: Masonry ----------------thousand short tons__ 231 $16,267 313 $19,557 Portland --------------------------do_ .2,651 136,190 3,329 164,048 Clays -------------------------------do. -672 231,339 684 31,566 Gem stones --------------------------------NA 6 NA 6 Lime ---------------------thousand short tons_-103 5,828 W 13,881 Peat --------------------------------do.__ 120 1,575 114 1,999 Sand and gravel: Construction -------------------------do ---. r13,616 r30,081 e14,900 e31,500 Industrial ----------------------------do -341 4,257 329 3,447 Stone (crushed) -------------------do e53,100 e182,300 57,282 235,700 Combined value of clays (kaolin, 1982),magnesium compounds, phosphate rock, rare-earth metal concentrate, staurolite, titanium concentrates (ilmenite and rutile), and zircon concentrate XX 815,155 XX 773,275 Total -----------_ ------------------XX rl,222,998 XX 1,274,979 eEstimated. -rRevised. NA Not available. W Withheld to avoid disclosing company proprietary data. XX Not applicable. 'Production as measured by mine shipments, sales, or marketable production (including consumption by producers). 2Excludes kaolin; value included with "Combined value" figure. 1

PAGE 2

2 MINERALS YEARBOOK, 1983 Florida's economy eased out of the reces16%, but by midyear it was in excess of sion in 1983, resulting in an unemployment 25%, with the number of unemployed exrate of 7.4% at yearend, compared with ceeding the previous high established in 9.5% at yearend 1982. The unemployment mid-1982. By late 1983, the rate had rate in the phosphate industry was much dropped as demand for phosphate rock imhigher. Early in 1983, the rate was about proved. Table 2.-Value of nonfuel mineral production in Florida, by county, (Thousands) County 1981 1982 Minerals produced in 1982 in order of value Alachua --------$3.429 (2) Bay --------------(3) W Sand and gravel (construction). Brevard ---------W W Clays, sand and gravel (construction), sand and gravel (industrial). Broward ------------29,778 $3,041 Sand and gravel (construction). Calhoun-----------(3) 75 Do. Char!ot-e -----------1,350 (2) Citrus 4,248 (2) Clay --------------31,954 32,069 Ilmenite, zircon, rutile, staurolite, sand and gravel (construction), clays, monazite. Collier -----------9,500 (2) Dade -W W Cement, sand and gravel (construction). Eacambia (3) W Sand and gravel (construction), sand and gravel (industrial). Gadsden -----------20,230 W Clays, sand and gravel (construction), sand and gravel (industrial). Glades _ _ ---------W W Sand and gravel (construction), sand and gravel (industrial). Gulf -----------W W Magnesium compounds, lime. Hamilton W W Phosphate rock. Hardee W W Do. Hendry -----------319 Hernando -------------_ W W Cement, lime, clays. Highlands ------------W W Peat. Hillsborough -----------139,401 81,672 Phosphate rock, cement, peat. Jackson -----------W (2) Lake --------------W W Sand and gravel (construction), peat, clays. Lee --_--------------14,484 (2) Leon---------------(3) 267 Sand and gravel (construction). Levy --------------4,127 (2) Manatee ------------------W W Phosphate rock, cement. Marion -------------W W Clays, sand and gravel (construction). Monroe -------------W (2) Okaloosa (3)Orange -----------42 (2) Palm Beach -----------3,196 (2 Pasco --------_---2------,883 (2) Polk -------------869,928 W Phosphate rock, sand and gravel (construction), sand and gravel (industrial), peat. Putnam --------------W 5.670 Sand and gravel (industrial), clays, sand and gravel (construction), peat. St. Lucie------------902 W Sand and gravel (construction). Sarasota------------660 393 Do. Sumter -------------W W Lime. Suwannee -------------957 (2) Taylor 2,591 (2) Walton -------------(3) W Sand and gravel (construction). Undistributed -----------557,312 917.511 Sand and gravel (construction) e30,600 XX Stone (crushed)--------XX e182,300 Total --_ ---------1,727,889 1,222.998 aEstimated. W Withheld to avoid disclosing company proprietary data; included with "Undistributed." XX Not applicable. The following counties are not listed because no nonfuel mineral production was reported: Baker, Bradford, Columbia, De Soto. Dixie, Duval, Flagler, Franklin, Gilchrist, Holmes, Indian River, Jefferson, Lafayette, Liberty, Madison, Martin, Nassau. Okeechobee. Osceola, Pinellas, St. Johns, Santa Rosa, Seminole, Union, Volusia, Wakulla, and Washington. County distribution for construction sand and gravel (1981) and crushed stone (1982) is not available; total State values shown separately under "Sand and gravel (construction)" or "Stone (crushed)." 'Crushed stone was produced, data not available by county. 'Construction sand and gravel was produced; data not available by county. *Includes gem stones that cannot be assigned to specific counties, and values indicated by symbol W. 'Data do not add to total shown because of independent rounding.

PAGE 3

THE MINERAL INDUSTRY OF FLORIDA 3 Table 3.-Indicators of Florida business activity 1982 1983p Change, _percent Employment and labor force, annual average: Total civilian labor force --------------------------thousands__ 4,682.3 4,984.4 +6.4 Unemployment --------------------------------do-... 444.3 367.0 -17.4 Employment (nonagricultural): Mining --do--------------------------------------. 9.3 10.1 +8.6 Manufacturing -----------------------------do ---450.7 493.5 +9.5 Contract construction -------------------------------do... 242.5 288.0 +18.8 Transportation and public utilities---------------------do .... 230.2 229.1 -.5 Wholesale and retail trade ---------------------------do .--.. 1,012.6 1,102.4 +8.9 Finance, insurance, real estate ----------------------do ... 276.3 300.9 +8.9 Services ---------------------------------------do ... 947.3 995.0 +5.0 Government ----------------------_-_--do-.. 647.2 640.0 -1.1 Total nonagricultural employment1 ---------------------do -3,816.1 4,059.0 +6.4 Personal income: Total ---------------------------------------millions-$114,356 $123,804 +8.3 Per capita ----------------------------------------------$10,907 $11,592 +6.3 Construction activity: Number of private and public residential units authorized ---------------103,813 186,759 +79.9 Value of nonresidential construction ---------------------millions_ $3,257.7 $4,102.1 +25.9 Value of State road contract awards ------------do ..$391.0 $340.0 -13.0 Shipments of portland and masonry cement to and within the State thousand short tons_4,398 5,262 +19.6 Nonfuel mineral production value: Total crude mineral value --------------------------millions, -$1,223.0 $1,275.0 +4.2 Value per capita, resident population -----------------------$117 $119 +1.7 Value per square mile ------------------------------------$20,891 $21,734 +4.0 PPreliminary. 'Includes oil and gas extraction. Sources: U.S. Department of Commerce, U.S. Department of Labor, Highway and Heavy Construction Magazine, and U.S. Bureau of Mines. / 3,000 U) c 2,000 -J 0 z TOTAL -J _ 1,000 o0 I I I I I I 1977 1980 1985 Figure 1.-Total value of nonfuel mineral production in Florida.

PAGE 4

4 MINERALS YEARBOOK, 1983 Trends and Developments.-During the The plant has a capacity for 500 tons per year. nearly all phases of construction reday of oxygen, nitrogen, and argon. bounded substantially, providing a strong Total oil and gas production in Florida boost to the overall economy, especially the declined for the fifth consecutive year. Oil minerals segment. According to the Federal production dropped from 25.3 million barReserve Bank of Atlanta,3 Florida's total rels in 1982 to 19.6 million barrels in 1983; capital needs for transportation, water, and gas production dropped from 26.9 billion waste water, including backlog requirecubic feet in 1982 to 24.2 billion cubic feet in ments, total $41 billion through the year 1983. Twenty-seven wells were drilled in 2000. Approximately 90% of these capital 1983: 15 wildcats, all dry; 9 development needs are for transportation, mainly roads. wells, all producers; and 3 service wells for The projections indicate a long-term high saltwater disposal. demand for construction minerals such as Legislation and Government Procement, sand and gravel, and crushed stone. grams.-The U.S. Bureau of Land ManageTo generate revenue for education rement reported $234,379 in mineral lease quirements, Florida's corporate income tax payments to the State in 1983. The Federal was increased in 1983 through changes Government divides bonuses, rentals, and which increase the tax base for some comparoyalties received from Federal mineral nies. The changes include a repeal of Florileasing activities on public lands equally da's existing exemption of foreign source with the States in which the minerals occur. income as taxable corporate profits, a The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and change in the definition of Florida sales, the U.S. Bureau of Mines conducted minerand a provision for worldwide unity apporal. energy, geochemical, and marine geology tionment for determining the corporate instudies in and offshore Florida. The studies come tax. Among those affected would be included mineral potential in several Roadmost of the phosphate, cement, and other less Area Review and Evaluation (RARE II) mineral-related companies. Under worldareas, and resource studies on titanium, wide unitary apportionment, a company's heavy minerals, and phosphate. During the worldwide operating income is included in year, the USGS published several Miscellataxable corporate profits. Companies operneous Field Studies Maps pertaining to the ating primarily in Florida will experience RARE II studies, which are a joint effort little change in taxes, while multinationals with the Bureau. The maps included "Mincould be heavily impacted. Review and poseral Resource Potential Map of the Sasible modification of the unitary tax was vannah Roadless Area, Liberty County, underway because of the adverse reaction Florida" (MF-1470), "Mineral Resource Poby corporations in the State. tential of the Clear Lake Roadless Area, The Port of Tampa handled nearly 44 Leon County, Florida" (MF-1479), and "Minmillion tons of cargo in 1983, up nearly 11% eral Resource Potential Map of the Natural from that of 1982. The major portion of Area Roadless Area, Baker County, Floriexported phosphate was shipped out of that da" (MF-1572-B). port. Phosphate rock exports totaled nearly Since 1972, the U.S. Bureau of Mines 15 million tons, compared with 13 million Tuscaloosa Research Center has been tons in 1982. Total earnings of phosphate involved with various projects related to exporters, however, were 7% lower than in dewatering phosphate waste slimes, up1982 because of lower world prices. Other grading marginal ore, and developing minerals exported through the port includmeans to improve the post-mining environed clay and industrial sand. ment. In-house Bureau project activity durThe Port of Tampa also imported about ing 1983 included research on beneficiation 670,000 tons of aragonite from The Bahaof dolomitic phosphate ores, dewatering of mas for use in the manufacture of cement, waste phosphate clay slime by flocculation up slightly from that imported in 1982. utilizing a field test unit, recovery of phosOther minerals imported included cement, phate from dewatered slimes, and procecoal, gypsum rock, potash, salt, and liquid dures for reestablishment of wetland ecosulfursystems after mining. Union Carbide Corp. announced a $9 Bureau Reports of Investigation (RI) million modernization program at its indusissued during the year pertaining to the trial gases facility at Mims. To be completed mineral industry of Florida included RI in 1984, the program will include upgrading 8731, "Recovery of Phosphate From Florida process liquefaction and computer control. Phosphate Operations Slimes," and RI 8776,

PAGE 5

THE MINERAL INDUSTRY OF FLORIDA 5 "Evaluation of Radium and Toxic Element Resources of the Upper Suwannee River Leaching Characteristics of Florida Basin, Florida," and several map series Phosphogypsum Stockpiles." Information concerning water use within the State. In Circulars (IC) issued included IC 8914, "The September, the reclamation program, Florida Phosphate Industry's Technological which had been assigned to the Bureau of Environmental Problems, A Review"; IC Geology, was elevated to Bureau status and 8926, "Minerals Availability Commodity Dibecame a separate entity. rectory on Phosphate"; IC 8929, "Economic The Florida Institute of Phosphate ReEvaluation of Borehole and Conventional search continued its funding of research Mining Systems in Phosphate Deposits"; IC activities with respect to mining and proc8932, "Costs and Effects of Environmental essing phosphate rock and reclamation of Protection Controls Regulating U.S. Phosdisturbed lands. The Institute's funding for phate Rock Mining"; and IC 8937, "Phosresearch exceeds $3 million annually with phate Rock Availability-Domestic." the major areas of study including utilizaDuring the year, the Florida Bureau of tion of byproduct gypsum, reduction of Geology continued its geologic investigaslime pond areas, evaluation of waste clay tions in the State. Projects underway inhandling techniques, and reclamation of cluded stratigraphy of South Florida, a phosphate lands. Other areas of concern summary of peat deposits, a summary of were innovative beneficiation and mining geologic parameters to be assessed for hazconcepts and effects of radiation. About 50 ardous waste disposal, geomorphology of projects were funded to some level during Northwest Florida, a summary of the eco1983. Florida Statute 378.101, relating to nomic minerals of Florida, and other basic phosphate research, was amended by the geologic studies within the State. Publicalegislature and approved by the Governor tions released during the year included in May. The amendment increased the "Earthquakes and Seismic History of FloriBoard of Directors from three to five memda," "The Hawthorn Formation of Northbers, with the new members appointed in eastern Florida," "The Geology and Water December. REVIEW BY NONFUEL MINERAL COMMODITIES NONMETALS remainder being consumed by other contractors and governmental agencies. Cement.-Shipments of portland and maMost raw materials used to manufacture sonry cement increased 25.6% and 35.7%, cement were mined within the State and respectively, from those of 1982. Cement included limestone, clays, sand, and staurowas the third leading commodity in value in lite. Oolitic aragonite imported from The the State. Production of masonry cement in Bahamas was used, as were small amounts Florida ranked first nationally, while that of gypsum, clinker, fly ash, iron ore, and of portland cement ranked sixth. Increased slag; most were obtained from out-of-State construction activity impacted favorably on sources. the cement industry with masonry cement Ten rotary kilns were operated at the five output at its highest level in over 10 years plants-eight were wet process and two and portland cement output approaching were dry process. About 446 million kilothe record-high year production of 1980. watt hours of electrical energy, in addition Four companies produced portland cement to natural gas, fuel oil, and coal, were used at five plants; masonry was also produced at in the manufacture of cement. five plants. A fifth company operated a Atlantic Cement Co. purchased 50% of grinding plant to produce portland cement Continental Cement Co.'s terminals in Cape from imported clinker. Most of the output of Canaveral and Port Everglades for $9 milboth cement types was used within the lion. Both firms will use designated silos for State; Florida was a net importer of cement deliveries from oceangoing vessels. Ideal with about 1.5 million tons being shipped Basic Industries Inc. sold its Palm Beach into the State, up from about 700,000 tons in terminal to Eagle Cement Co. Eagle plans 1982. Portland cement shipments, mainly in to handle about 250,000 tons per year bulk form, were made by truck and rail. through the terminal; most of the cement Principal consumers were ready-mix conwill come from Mexico. tractors, building materials dealers, and Florida Crushed Stone Co. continued with concrete products manufacturers, with the plans to build a 600,000-ton-per-year cement

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6 MINERALS YEARBOOK, 1983 plant at Brooksville for an estimated $80 plant in Hillsborough County. United million. Construction was delayed awaiting States Gypsum Co., Jim Walter Corp., and permits for the cement plant, which were National Gypsum Co. calcined gypsum in received by yearend. The company was also kettles, a rotary kiln, and holoflite unit, seeking approval to construct a coal-fired respectively, prior to wallboard manufac120-megawatt powerplant for the cement ture. In terms of annual output, Florida operation. Permission had not been receivranked fourth nationally in the manufaced by yearend. When approved, constructure of wallboard. U.S. Gypsum's plant tion was expected to take 2 years. Construcranked third nationally in output, while tion of the cement plant was contingent on National Gypsum's plant ranked seventh. approval of the powerplant. A local bond Production and value increased 40% and issue had been passed for financing the 50%, respectively, over those of 1982. Floriventure. da gypsum wallboard was marketed primarClays.-Clays mined in Florida included ily in southern Georgia and Florida. Bycommon clay, fuller's earth, and kaolin, product gypsum was recovered by Occiden. Total clay production increased 12,000 tons, tal Chemical Co. at its plant in Hamilton while value decreased $1.5 million. County; output increased over that of 1982. Common clay output and value increased Lime.-Quicklime and hydrated lime 13.8% and 56.4%, respectively, over those of were produced in Florida, with output of 1982. Common clay was produced by three both increasing over that of 1982. Quicklime companies at three pits in Clay, Hernando, was produced by Basic Magnesia Inc., Gulf and Lake Counties in the northern part of County; Chemical Lime Inc., Hernando the State. The clay was used in the manuCounty; and Dixie Lime & Stone Co., Sumfacture of cement and lightweight aggreter County. Hydrated lime was also progate. duced by Chemical Lime. Production and Florida ranked second in the Nation in value of lime increased significantoutput of fuller's earth with production and ly, over those of 1982; output was at its value decreasing compared with that of highest level in over 10 years. Historically, 1982. Fuller's earth was mined by four Florida markets have consumed significantproducers at four pits in Gadsden and ly more lime than was produced in the Marion Counties. Main end uses were for State, with out-of-State producers supplying pet waste absorbents and oil and grease the markets. Lime was used in magnesia absorbents, and in fertilizers, pesticides, recovery from seawater sewage treatment and saltwater drilling muds. Material systems and in animal food. mined was a montmorillonite-attapulgite Magnesium Compounds.-Florida rankproduct, which was crushed, sized, and ed second in the Nation in the recovery of dried. End products were shipped nationmagnesium compounds from seawater. Bawide. Excel Minerals Inc. constructed a sic Magnesia, Gulf County, produced caustic packaging plant in Quincy to distribute pet calcined magnesia and refractory-grade waste absorbent clays supplied by the Florimagnesia from seawater. Shipments and din Co. in Quincy. value increased 4.0% and 9.6%, respectiveKaolin was produced by one company in ly, over those of 1982, indicating an increase Putnam County with production increasing in unit value. 11.5% over that of 1982. Principal uses were Peat.-Florida ranked second nationally electrical porcelain, whiteware, and wall in peat sales in 1983. Reported production tile. with major markets in the Southeast. decreased from that of 1982. Five companies Byproduct industrial sand was recovered reported production of moss, reed-sedge, for glass and other industrial uses. Glass and humus peat from five counties. Most of sand was shipped to plants in Alabama, the peat, shipped in bulk, was used for Florida, and Tennessee. general soil improvement and for potting Fluorine.-Fluorine in the form of fluosoils. silicic acid was recovered as a byproduct of The Natural Resources Committee in the wet-process phosphoric acid manufacture. Florida House of Representatives approved Fluosilicic acid was used to produce cryolite, a 1-year ban on the issuance of permits for aluminum fluoride, and sodium silicofluopeat mining for nonagricultural purposes in ride, and was also used in water fluoridaFlorida swamps. The Department of Natutionral Resources (DNR) was directed to deny Gypsum.-Imported gypsum was calcined approval of any such activities until after at two plants in Duval County and one July 1, 1984. The bill provided that DNR

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THE MINERAL INDUSTRY OF FLORIDA 7 conduct a study of the effects of peat mining To reduce power costs at their sulfuric on the State's wetlands and make recomacid plants, Conserve Inc, IMC, and The mendations concerning restrictions on nonRoyster Co. were retrofitting their units to agricultural peat mining, recover high-pressure steam and cogenerate Perlite (Expanded).-Four companies electricity. Increased electrical costs justiproduced expanded perlite from crude ore fled the capital expenditures. Excess genshipped into the State. Production decreaserated power will be sold to the Tampa ed to 21,200 tons, while value decreased to Electric Co. $3.5 million. Perlite was expanded at plants The industry reduced electric power exin Broward, Duval, Escambia, and Indian penses from $158 million in 1982 to $150 River Counties, and was used for construcmillion in 1983. Cogeneration plants altion aggregate, horticultural purposes, insulowed energy use to increase from 2.9 billation, and fillers. lion kilowatt hours in 1982 to 3.5 billion Phosphate Rock.-Florida ranked first in kilowatt hours in 1983 without a correthe Nation in the production of phosphate sponding rise in costs. rock. The phosphate industry continued to Land-pebble phosphate was produced at be the principal mineral industry in the 20 mines by 12 companies in Hamilton, State. Marketable production of phosphate Hardee, Hillsborough, Manatee, and Polk rock in 1983 increased 7.5% in quantity but Counties. Of the 12 companies with facilidecreased 6.1% in value from that of 1982. ties, 6 increased production in 1983, 5 Phosphate rock production remained at a decreased production, and 1 purchased malow level during the year, resulting in terial and utilized inventories. Seven comtemporary closure of, or reduction of output panies increased export tonnage in 1983, from, most of the area's mines. The decreastwo remained at about the same level, one ed output was caused by reduced demand decreased exports, and two did not export. for both domestic fertilizers and exports. At In 1983, agricultural uses accounted for all midyear, over 26% of the work force was of the production. Normal superphosphate, unemployed with mines and plants either triple superphosphate, wet-process phosshut down temporarily or operating on phoric acid, phosphate rock for direct applireduced schedules. The industry rebounded cation, and defluorinated phosphate rock late in the year, reducing the unemploywere produced for agricultural purposes. ment rate to about 9%, but still operated All of the companies produced wet-process well below capacity levels, phosphoric acid, five produced triple superAccording to the Florida Phosphate Counphosphate, four produced normal supercil, 1983 output of all major finished prodphosphate, three produced direct applicaucts increased over that of 1982: phosphoric tion material, and one produced defluorinaacid (80%), triple superphosphate (29%), ted rock. diammonium phosphate (72%), monoammoAgrico Chemical Co. operated the Fort nium phosphate (103%), and animal feed Green, Payne, and Saddle Creek Mines supplements (3%). The council also reported during the year. The Saddle Creek Mine, that capital spending declined from $410 down since August 1981, reopened in April million in 1982 to $88 million in 1983. on a 5-day schedule which increased to a 7Employment decreased from 14,600 in 1980, day operation by December. The South the peak year, to 11,540 at yearend 1983. Pierce chemical operations, which functionThe industry paid nearly $110 million in ed at reduced levels during the year, were State and county taxes, with severance running at design capacity by yearend. taxes of over $67 million. The severance tax Agrico announced plans to import prilled of $1.84 per ton in 1982 was increased to sulfur from Canada to replace liquid sulfur $2.10 per ton in 1983, with a portion (5%) used to produce sulfuric acid. Permits were returned to the individual producing counapplied for and were pending at yearend. ties. Agrico initiated the permitting process to During the year, Zen-Noh, a Japanese continue testing borehole mining of deep trade organization, contracted with Estech phosphate in St. Johns County. Primary Inc. and International Minerals & Chemical testing was done in cooperation with the Corp. (IMC) for multiyear supplies of phosU.S. Bureau of Mines. Phase 2, by Agrico, phate rock. Estech will supply 460,000 metwould include drilling six slurry wells in ric tons per year for 8 years and IMC will 1984 and continuing feasibility testing; supply 317,000 metric tons per year for 13 phase 3 would be full-scale production. years. AMAX Phosphate Inc. operated the Big

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8 MINERALS YEARBOOK, 1983 Four Mine intermittently during the year. permitting stage since 1977 and at yearend The mine was closed in April 1982 and reportedly needed three more permits; one reopened in mid-1983. The Piney Point ferfor dredge and fill and two watershed pertilizer plant, which also closed in April mits. Startup for the proposed mine remain1982, reopened late in 1983 and was opered indefinite at yearend. ating at full capacity by yearend. AMAX's Gardinier Inc. produced phosphate rock Pine Level Mine development in De Soto at its Fort Meade Mine in Polk County. and Manatee Counties was deferred with an Gardinier filed to extend its mine into 5,400 uncertain projected startup date. The $300 acres in Hardee County. The company plans to $600 million development reportedly was to mine nearly 3,800 acres, leaving land planned to produce 4.5 million tons per around creeks undisturbed. year. W. R. Grace & Co. operated its Bonny Beker Phosphate Corp. operated its WinLake and Hookers Prairie Mines in Polk gate Creek Mine in Manatee County using County during the year. Because of depleted two floating dredges to remove overburden reserves, the Bonny Lake Mine was exand matrix. The mine was closed for a short pected to be mined out early in 1984. W. R. period early in the year. Phosphate rock Grace purchased a deposit of phosphate was trucked to Port Manatee for shipment rock reserves from Agrico for $25 million. to Beker's fertilizer plant in Louisiana. The addition of an estimated 16 million tons Controversy over truck transportation to of reserves will extend the life of the Hookthe port continued during the year as Beker ers Prairie Mine an additional 5 to 6 years. had difficulty obtaining rights of way for a The startup of W. R. Grace's Four Corner rail line. By yearend, county officials had Mine, a joint venture with IMC, was postdenied an extension of an agreement to ship poned until early 1985. W. R. Grace will by truck. operate the 5-million-ton-per-year mine Brewster Phosphates, a partnership bewith 50% of the production going to IMC. tween American Cyanamid Co. and KerrHopewell Land Co., a subsidiary of NorMcGee Corp., operated the Haynsworth and anda Inc., continued development of its Lonesome Mines at various work schedules 550,000-ton-per-year mine in Hillsborough during the year. Most of the output was County. Production was scheduled for late shipped to an acid plant in Louisiana 1984, with about one-half of the output through the Port of Tampa. going to the company's fertilizer plant in CF Industries Inc.'s Hardee Complex Canada and the remaining output sold. No. I operated intermittently during the IMC, the world's largest private producer year. Late in the year, the company restartof phosphate and phosphate chemical proded its sulfuric acid plant at Bartow, which ucts, operated the Clear Springs, Noralyn, had been shut down in February. and Kingsford Mines. The mines operated Estech operated the Silver City and Watat reduced schedules early in the year with son Mines in Polk County, with the Silver output increasing later in 1983. Although City Mine being shut down in January for the mines did not operate at design capacian indefinite period. The two mines have a ty, IMC's production levels were not reduccombined capacity of about 2 million tons ed by weak demand as much as those of per year with depletion of deposits anticiother Florida companies. IMC's New Wales pated by the early 1990's. Estech continued chemical complex also operated below cain its attempts to develop its Duette Mine in pacity during 1983. Manatee County. Environmental concerns Mobil Chemical Corp. operated the have delayed development of the proposed Nichols and Fort Meade Mines in Polk 3-million-ton-per-year mine since 1975. County. Early in the year, the Nichols Mine Estech, at yearend, reportedly needed two was shut down, and Mobil overhauled its 40more permits, for a total of 31, before cubic-yard dragline at a cost of $1.2 million. development of the mine. After the last Mobil also shut down its elemental phospermits were issued, it would still be about phorus furnaces at Pierce and will purchase 3 years before mining would begin. The its requirements from Monsanto Co. in company has reportedly expended over $10 Tennessee. Mobil proceeded with the permillion in its attempts to develop the mine. mitting process to develop the 3-million-tonFarmland Industries Inc. continued atper-year South Fort Meade Mine. Early in tempts to obtain permits for its proposed 2the year, the State rejected Mobil's proposmillion-ton-per-year Hickory Creek Mine in ed reclamation plan for the South Fort Hardee County. Farmland has been in the Meade Mine. Late in the year, Mobil an-

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THE MINERAL INDUSTRY OF FLORIDA 9 nounced it will test electroendosmosis to Construction.-Construction sand and determine if the method can be used to gravel production is surveyed by the U.S. shorten the time required to reclaim clay Bureau of Mines for even-numbered years settling areas. only; therefore, this chapter contains only Occidental Chemical produced phosphate estimates for 1983. The data are based on rock from its Suwannee River Mine and its annual company estimates made before Swift Creek Mine. During the year, both yearend. facilities operated intermittently with outOutput of construction sand and gravel put increasing by yearend. The Swift Creek was estimated to have increased slightly, Mine closed in December. while unit value decreased. Many sand and U.S.S. Agri-Chemicals Inc., which had gravel facilities operated at reduced levels closed its Rockland Mine in May 1982, early in the year, with demand increasing eliminated all maintenance activities at the late in the year. mine in March 1983. United States Steel Industrial.-Five companies produced inCorp. announced that its phosphoric acid dustrial sand and gravel, one as byproduct plant in Bartow, inactive since 1981, would of kaolin operations. Production decreased be shut down permanently in January 1984. 3.5% with value decreasing 19% from that Sand and Gravel.-Florida produced both of 1982. Unit value decreased 16%. Indusconstruction and industrial sand and gravel trial sand was used for glass manufacture in 1983. Total sand and gravel production and for foundry sands with markets in and value were estimated to have increased Alabama, Florida, and Tennessee. over those in 1982; unit values decreased. Table 4.-Florida: Sand and gravel sold or used by producers 1982 1983 Quantity Value Value Quantity Value Value (thousand (thouper (thousand (thouper short tons) sands) ton short tons) sands) ton Construction: Sand ----_ -_ -----------_ -NA NA NA NA NA NA Gravel _ _ ---NA NA NA NA NA NA Sand and gravel (unprocessed) ------------NA NA NA NA NA NA Total or average --------r----------13,616 r$30,081 r$2.21 e14,900 e$31,500 e$2.11 Industrial: Sand ----------------------------341 4,257 r12.48 327 3,417 10.44 Gravel ---------------------------2 30 15.00 Total or average ------------------_-341 4,257 r12.48 329 3,447 10.48 Grand total or average r13,957 r34,338 r2.46 e15,229 e34,947 e2.29 eEstimated, rRevised. NA Not available. Staurolite.-Florida was the only State Data for even-numbered years are based on with a recorded production of staurolite, an annual company estimates made before iron-aluminum silicate low in free silica. yearend. Florida ranked second in the NaStaurolite was recovered as a byproduct of tion in crushed stone production, which ilmenite processing in Clay County by E. I. included limestone, dolomite, marl, and oydu Pont de Nemours & Co. Inc. and by stershell. Output increased, reversing a Associated Minerals (USA) Ltd. Inc. The downward trend started in 1980. Unit prices staurolite was recovered by electrical and increased about 20%. Increased construcmagnetic separation from heavy minerals tion activity directly affected output of concentrates. Production and value increascrushed stone and other aggregate. ed 4.8% and 1.7%, respectively, over those Crushed stone was produced by 81 compaof 1982. Staurolite was used primarily in nies at 113 quarries in 24 counties. Leading foundry applications and in sandblasting; counties were Dade, Hernando, and Browdemand was down because of discontinuard, which supplied 66.2% of the State's ance of its use in cement. output. Fifteen quarries produced over 1 Stone.--Stone production is surveyed by million tons each and accounted for 57.4% the U.S. Bureau of Mines for odd-numbered of the State's production. years only; the 1982 chapter gave estimates.

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10 MINERALS YEARBOOK, 1983 Table 5.-Florida: Crushed stone' sold or used by producers in 1983, by use (Thousand short tons and thousand dollars) Use Quantity Value Coarse aggregate ( +1-1/2 inch): Riprap and jetty stone --------------------------------------40 173i Filter stone --------------------------------------------504 3,162 Coarse aggregate, graded: Concrete aggregate, coarse ------------------------------15,780 73,246 Bituminous aggregate, coarse ----------------------------------------2,437 12,605 Bituminous surface treatment aggregate ----------------------------------W W Railroad ballast -------------------------------------------------459 2,603 Other graded coarse aggregate --------------------------------------------------W W Fine aggregate (-3/8 inch): Stone sand, concrete ----------------------------------------------------3,523 16,200 Stone sand, bituminous mix or seal ------------------------1,026 5,744 Screening, undesignated -----------------------------------1,874 8,931 Other fine aggregate ---------------------------------------------------W W Coarse and fine aggregate: Graded road base or subbase --------------------------------12,767 33,800 Unpaved road surfacing ------------------------------1,485 3,470 Crusher run or fill or waste ------------------------------------------1,633 3,290 Other coarse and fine aggregate ----------------------------------------W W Agriculturall Agricultural limestone -----------------------------------------346 1,822 Poultry grit and mineral food ----------------------------284 814 Other agricultural uses ------------------------------W W Chemical and metallurgical: Cement manufacture ------------------------------3,663 15,598 Lime manufacture -----------------------------------------------W W Special: Asphalt fillers or extenders ------------------------------------------W W Whiting or whiting substitute -----------------------------------------46 101 Other fillers or extenders ---------------------------------W W Other -----------------------------------------------------11,416 54,140 Tota2 ---------------------------------------57,282 235,700 W Withheld to avoid disclosing company proprietary data; included with "Special: Other." 'Includes limestone, dolomite, marl, and shell. 2Data do not add to totals shown because of independent rounding. Crushed stone was transported mainly by largest minimill operator, with five plants truck and railroad and was used for denseand a rated total capacity of 1.6 million tons graded road base, concrete and bituminous per year. Although markets became stronaggregate, and cement manufacture. Eight ger during the year, the demand was not companies processed oystershell for roadbed sufficient to reopen the company's facilities material, at Indiantown. Sulfur (Recovered).-Florida ranked According to the Directory of Florida eighth in the Nation in the production of Industries, 10 gray iron foundries and 9 byproduct elemental sulfur. Recovered sulsteel foundries operated intermittently durfur from Exxon Corp.'s natural gas desuling 1983. With the exception of a foundry in furization plant in Santa Rosa County Jacksonville and one in Tampa, all founddecreased for the fifth straight year. ries were relatively small. Vermiculite (Exfoliated).-Exfoliated Shipments of ferroalloys decreased 3.5%, vermiculite was produced by two companies while value increased slightly. at four plants in Broward, Duval, and Mineral Sands.-Du Pont and Associated Hillsborough Counties from crude ore Minerals produced concentrates from its shipped into the State. Production increasheavy minerals operations in Clay County. ed 10.8% while value decreased 1%, indiRutile and ilmenite shipments increased cating a drop in unit price from that of 1982. 28.6% and 52.2%, respectively, over those of Principal uses were for concrete aggregate, 1982; unit prices of both decreased. Florida horticulture, and insulation. horticulture, and insulation. was the only reported State with shipments METALS of rutile, and one of two States with shipments of ilmenite. Du Pont, which operates Iron and Steel.-Florida Steel Corp., one two dredges, was building another to reof the top 15 steelmakers in the Nation, place an older unit. Du Pont expanded operated minimills at Jacksonville and capacity to 72,000 tons per year by improvTampa during the year. The company, with ing processing, and with the addition of a five plants in the Nation, was the fourth new cone section planned to boost capacity

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THE MINERAL INDUSTRY OF FLORIDA 11 to 77,000 tons per year by the end of 1983.4 Minerals operations in Clay County increasUnion Camp Corp. planned to build an ed 5.2% and 0.3%, respectively, over those 8,000-ton-per-year humate processing plant of 1982. Florida was the only producer of in Jacksonville with scheduled completion zircon in the United States; it was recovered in 1984. Humate is an organic byproduct of as a byproduct of mineral sands operations. the mining of heavy mineral sands. Principal markets were in the foundry, Rare-Earth Minerals.-Florida was the ceramic, and refractory industries. Markets only producer of rare earths from mineral in the foundry industry were down, but sands mining. Associated Minerals recovrefractory applications picked up late in the ered monazite concentrate as a byproduct of year. its operation in Clay County. Production increased slightly, while value decreased 'State Liaison Officer, Bureau of Mines, Tuscaloosa, AL. increased sig w e value decrea State geologist, Florida Bureau of Geology, Tallahassee, from that of 1982. FL. Zircon.-Production and value of zircon Federal Reserve Bank of Atlanta. Economic Review. Zircontra-Pfromductiont and vAluesofzin Feb. 1984, pp. 6-20. concentrate from Du Pont and Associated 4Industrial Minerals (London). Dec. 1983, p. 32. Table 6.-Principal producers Commodity and company Address Type of activity County Cement: General Portland Inc_ ----_ 12700 Park Central P1. Plants ------Dade and Suite 2100 Hillsborough. Dallas, TX 75251 Lonestar Florida Pennsuco Inc Box 2035 PVS Plant ------Dade. Hialeah, FL 33012 Moore McCormack Resources Box 23965 -..do -----Hernando. Inc. Tampa, FL 33622 Rinker Portland Cement Corp Box 650679 -...do -----Dade. Miami, FL 33165 Days: Engelhard Minerals & Menlo Park Open pit mines Brevard. Chemical Corp. Edison, NJ 08817 and plant. Mid-Florida Mining Co ----Box 68-F __do -----Marion. Lowell, FL 32663 Pennsylvania Glass Sand Corp Berkeley Springs, WV 25411 -------do -----Gadsden. ypsum (calcined) Jim Walter Corp -------Box 135 Plant ------Duval. Jacksonville, FL 32226 National Gypsum Co -----4100 First International Bldg. -..do -----Hillsborough. Dallas, TX 57270 United States Gypsum Co _-101 South Wacker Dr. ..---do -----Duval. Chicago, IL 60606 e: Basic Magnesia Inc ------Box 160 .... do -----Gulf. Port St. Joe, FL 32456 Chemical Lime Inc ------Box 317 .... do -----Hernando. Leesburg, FL 32748 Dixie Lime & Stone Co.' .... Drawer 217 .... do -----Sumter. Sumterville, FL 33585 agnesia: Basic Magnesia Inc ------Box 160 ....-do -----Gulf. Port St. Joe, FL 32456 eat: Peace River Peat Co ------_ Box 1192 Bog -------Polk. Bartow, FL 33830 Superioi Peat & Soil Co Box 1688 Bog -------Highlands. Sebring, FL 33870 erlite (expanded): Airlite Processing Corp. of Route 2, Box 740 Plant ------Indian River. Florida. Vero Beach, FL 32960 Armstrong Cork Co------Box 1991 ._-_do -----Escambia. Pensacola, FL 35289 Chemrock Corp ---------_ End of Osage St. -....do -----Duval. Nashville, TN 37208 W. R. Grace & Co.2 -------62 Whittemore Ave. .do -----Broward. Cambridge, MA 02140 See footnotes at end of table.

PAGE 12

12 MINERALS YEARBOOK, 1983 Table 6.-Principal producers -Continued Commodity and company Address Type of activity County Phosphate rock Agrico Chemical Co ------Box 1110 Open pit mines Polk. Mulberry, FL 33860 and plants. AMAX Chemical Inc -----402 South Kentucky Ave. Open pit mine Hillsborough. Lakeland, FL 33801 and plant. Beker Phosphate Corp ----Box 9034 --_ _ _ _do-----Manatee. Bradenton, FL 33506 Brewster Phosphates -----Bradley, FL 33835 -----------Open pit mines Hillsborough and and plant. Polk. CF Industries Inc -------Box 790 Open pitmine Hardee. Plant City, FL 33566 and plant. Estech Inc ---_------Box 208 Open pit mines Polk. Bartow, FL 33830 Gardinier Inc --------Box 3269 Openpit mine Do. Tampa, FL 33601 and plant W. R. Grace & Co -------Box 471 Open pit mines Do. Bartow, FL 33830 and plant. International Minerals & Box 867 -___do --Do. Chemical Corp. Bartow, FL 33830 Mobil Chemical Corp.3 ..... Box 311 _ _ _ do -Do. Nichols, FL 33863 Occidental Chemical Co --White Springs, FL 32096 ----------_do -----Hamilton. USS. Agri-Chemicals Inc___ Box 867 Open pit mine Polk. Fort Meade, FL 33841 and plant. Sand and gravel (1982): Florida Rock Industries Inc., Box 4667 Pits -------Clay, Glades, Shands & Baker. Jacksonville, FL 32216 Lake, Marion, Polk, Putnam. General Development Corp _ 1111 South Bayshore Dr. _--_do -----Henry, St. Lucie, Miami, FL 33131 Sarasota. _. R. Jahna Industries Inc., First & East Tillman ---_ _ do.-----Glades, Ortona Sand Co. Div. Lake Wales, FL 33853 Lake, Polk. Silver Sand Co. of Clermont Route 1, Box US 1 Pit --------Lake. Inc. Clermont, FL 32711 Staurolite: Associated Minerals (USA) Green Cove Springs, FL 32043 -_-Mine and plant _ Clay. Ltd. Inc. E. L du Pont de Nemours & Co. DuPont Bldg. D-10084 Mines and plants Do. Inc. Wilmington, DE 19898 Stone: Florida Crushed Stone Co _-_ Box 317 Quarries ----Hernando Leesburg, FL 32748 and Sumter. Florida Rock Industries Inc _ Box 4667 ---..do-----Alachna, Collier, Jacksonville, FL 32216 Hernando, Lee, Levy, St. Lucie, Taylor. Lone Star Florida Inc. -----Box 6097 Quarry -.---Dade. Fort Lauderdale, FL 33310 Rinker Southeastern Materials Box 5230 Quarries ---Do. Inc. Hialeah, FL 33014 Vulcan Materials Co -----Box 660097 --do-----Broward and Miami Spring, FL 33166 Dade. Titanium concentrates: Associated Minerals (USA) Green Cove Springs, Mine and plant -Clay. Ltd. Inc. FL 32043 E. L du Pont de Nemours & Co. DuPont Bldg. D-10084 Mines and plants Do. Inc. Wilmington, DE 19898 'Also stone. zAlso exfoliated vermiculite. 'Also elemental phosphorus.

PAGE 13

-FLORIDA-GEOLOGICAL-SURVEY COPYRIGHT NOTICE © [year of publication as printed] Florida Geological Survey [source text] The Florida Geological Survey holds all rights to the source text of this electronic resource on behalf of the State of Florida. The Florida Geological Survey shall be considered the copyright holder for the text of this publication. Under the Statutes of the State of Florida (FS 257.05; 257.105, and 377.075), the Florida Geologic Survey (Tallahassee, FL), publisher of the Florida Geologic Survey, as a division of state government, makes its documents public (i.e., published) and extends to the state's official agencies and libraries, including the University of Florida's Smathers Libraries, rights of reproduction. The Florida Geological Survey has made its publications available to the University of Florida, on behalf of the State University System of Florida, for the purpose of digitization and Internet distribution. The Florida Geological Survey reserves all rights to its publications. All uses, excluding those made under "fair use" provisions of U.S. copyright legislation (U.S. Code, Title 17, Section 107), are restricted. Contact the Florida Geological Survey for additional information and permissions.


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normalize
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normalize
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describe
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describe
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normalize
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describe
'239576' 'info:fdaE20080623_AAAACFfileF20080623_AAAQYU' 'sip-files00008.jpg'
5f39956747da3aa0d0a2153a00fba24b
ff80b1c9e9501365a93f0f07aba75c3394aa7d98
describe
'118483' 'info:fdaE20080623_AAAACFfileF20080623_AAAQYV' 'sip-files00008.pdf'
b236e8d09b3ee9fcb1f465d56e65a98b
17bc30448185cdcc1dcc909c8c1feaadf90ceff8
'2017-03-09T12:13:16-05:00'
describe
'info:fdaE20080623_AAAACFfileF20080623_AAAQYV-norm-0' 'aip-filesF20080623_AAAQYV-norm-0.pdf'
8cbf40949b8b639101cd4e2c803d9b62
6e3842fc6d7fb92b4cf6a2346c8099c7289050d2
describe
'2017-03-09T12:13:18-05:00'
normalize
'119549' 'info:fdaE20080623_AAAACFfileF20080623_AAAQYW' 'sip-files00008.pro'
350645714252be87ef7047dd870386e5
ee4c191c4ee74f98dc14e56294ca9e592663374b
describe
'66257' 'info:fdaE20080623_AAAACFfileF20080623_AAAQYX' 'sip-files00008.QC.jpg'
47457ef812909bdb2c4d60be28cfcd72
26f9cbbd080f687cf32f4ff00756e671927907bf
describe
'907084' 'info:fdaE20080623_AAAACFfileF20080623_AAAQYY' 'sip-files00008.tif'
c7b9d37b194c5ebd6e05d818786b11a7
af60bd882c101705eb9a2754bb0d772698252b83
'2017-03-09T12:12:36-05:00'
describe
'5015' 'info:fdaE20080623_AAAACFfileF20080623_AAAQYZ' 'sip-files00008.txt'
b32f4956ff0965f81485716e966b79a2
4caaac7d341061ce785d5b90cd3b59293f35bcb2
describe
'14918' 'info:fdaE20080623_AAAACFfileF20080623_AAAQZA' 'sip-files00008thm.jpg'
9207d71c272d2d1ee09d837d7229ce02
3ee455ecb166e5a6ec316184a36fef56d201c37d
describe
'274522' 'info:fdaE20080623_AAAACFfileF20080623_AAAQZB' 'sip-files00009.jp2'
f20333ea17fcdffcedf5a910aa6004eb
e556c7e2dd4f1854a42d8d467d063b5f1e4d4c18
'2017-03-09T12:12:49-05:00'
describe
'235178' 'info:fdaE20080623_AAAACFfileF20080623_AAAQZC' 'sip-files00009.jpg'
43c64e72f2a07ab5e3e49e28310a8bd3
ac8314bc91a6fd7fb62c2834bd5978abe984e285
'2017-03-09T12:13:12-05:00'
describe
'115606' 'info:fdaE20080623_AAAACFfileF20080623_AAAQZD' 'sip-files00009.pdf'
3e74b1e479ed9ea976ff358e41ce1e5d
f3fa7de2d4b897d3b5ec235bb57ad7f45193fbec
'2017-03-09T12:12:44-05:00'
describe
'info:fdaE20080623_AAAACFfileF20080623_AAAQZD-norm-0' 'aip-filesF20080623_AAAQZD-norm-0.pdf'
8cbf40949b8b639101cd4e2c803d9b62
6e3842fc6d7fb92b4cf6a2346c8099c7289050d2
describe
normalize
'121057' 'info:fdaE20080623_AAAACFfileF20080623_AAAQZE' 'sip-files00009.pro'
e270c0f48c8d0ec3fd1145cc0130e435
92cdfbb52c981cecdf6a9a2d9349c0f1097ad4c8
'2017-03-09T12:13:22-05:00'
describe
'64964' 'info:fdaE20080623_AAAACFfileF20080623_AAAQZF' 'sip-files00009.QC.jpg'
cef5ed418578bcdf97a42d19dd0b8c00
2abaa68e4db7fe087710e6ed3fb03f95b7ead1d1
describe
'926980' 'info:fdaE20080623_AAAACFfileF20080623_AAAQZG' 'sip-files00009.tif'
28593d6f50d84741dae81bda80c1decf
3113059e5043cd237bebbffaff00b386870bc197
'2017-03-09T12:12:41-05:00'
describe
'5055' 'info:fdaE20080623_AAAACFfileF20080623_AAAQZH' 'sip-files00009.txt'
ae7ccaa4aab55e8b80363048a43fc737
548abe50aa97a3db453f234c3dfcdb9ed5df6c9e
'2017-03-09T12:13:11-05:00'
describe
'14971' 'info:fdaE20080623_AAAACFfileF20080623_AAAQZI' 'sip-files00009thm.jpg'
c6d0b8cd75f7677478ff5f9c2961d43f
73b645b649dc16bf385382e67e4c1d21b27394ca
describe
'225405' 'info:fdaE20080623_AAAACFfileF20080623_AAAQZJ' 'sip-files00010.jp2'
6362a6ea899b739c28a10743f358393f
eae9eeb9e6dc2427caa92e7b7510825f201a33a7
'2017-03-09T12:12:07-05:00'
describe
'199953' 'info:fdaE20080623_AAAACFfileF20080623_AAAQZK' 'sip-files00010.jpg'
ebff924ebbcec41368b560db48655d4f
d48eb1a1f7e39aead39d0b5636a53579e9d01048
describe
'94687' 'info:fdaE20080623_AAAACFfileF20080623_AAAQZL' 'sip-files00010.pdf'
e2024b837cb87ff8d5186dd2cb6d0132
84edf8a402ebdfa989425824217aca04df37adb3
describe
'info:fdaE20080623_AAAACFfileF20080623_AAAQZL-norm-0' 'aip-filesF20080623_AAAQZL-norm-0.pdf'
8cbf40949b8b639101cd4e2c803d9b62
6e3842fc6d7fb92b4cf6a2346c8099c7289050d2
describe
normalize
'100620' 'info:fdaE20080623_AAAACFfileF20080623_AAAQZM' 'sip-files00010.pro'
32611869980954a0fcc57c332a2b962b
310730afef667f43a111abdcf315e3c668482702
describe
'57729' 'info:fdaE20080623_AAAACFfileF20080623_AAAQZN' 'sip-files00010.QC.jpg'
3f6b14900f5d58abd2875602c8d38a04
daadef2db1c41ab6ee392a388dbbac157e65dae2
describe
'895232' 'info:fdaE20080623_AAAACFfileF20080623_AAAQZO' 'sip-files00010.tif'
0099cc2a50d68adc3536320317e3fc81
53260c4b10576ba78ba67825671a6f2c6dacdb1d
describe
'4485' 'info:fdaE20080623_AAAACFfileF20080623_AAAQZP' 'sip-files00010.txt'
9bacef9b45bba433de92ece6b93f3d81
e0767859075a075849fe42d3c78506b7e7b34e58
describe
'14108' 'info:fdaE20080623_AAAACFfileF20080623_AAAQZQ' 'sip-files00010thm.jpg'
69d538227c78e4a5ed3dfbef74c49326
aaf44a05e62563eca7b9e02deeea751f3628c305
'2017-03-09T12:12:23-05:00'
describe
'212903' 'info:fdaE20080623_AAAACFfileF20080623_AAAQZR' 'sip-files00011.jp2'
6e963c8ae469cdf7f8b9eb153f4c2e75
06fef15daa14eff5ee81339491f5125eb227ae1e
describe
'181059' 'info:fdaE20080623_AAAACFfileF20080623_AAAQZS' 'sip-files00011.jpg'
9f5ce47e10d29395ed6fb2ec4cce8473
f874fadb6a5a0d1975bf40797315150fedcd126f
'2017-03-09T11:44:36-05:00'
describe
'90928' 'info:fdaE20080623_AAAACFfileF20080623_AAAQZT' 'sip-files00011.pdf'
c6be92f3d25d96d56267bb3f4e84a546
bfaaae18c835495f27cd733d046c6aec2048b878
describe
'info:fdaE20080623_AAAACFfileF20080623_AAAQZT-norm-0' 'aip-filesF20080623_AAAQZT-norm-0.pdf'
8cbf40949b8b639101cd4e2c803d9b62
6e3842fc6d7fb92b4cf6a2346c8099c7289050d2
describe
'2017-03-09T12:12:51-05:00'
normalize
'103350' 'info:fdaE20080623_AAAACFfileF20080623_AAAQZU' 'sip-files00011.pro'
eb39c0b7379e434dfa248f0c63889a67
baff07989f3db5fec0312f624cd9674db0bfb0b7
describe
'50946' 'info:fdaE20080623_AAAACFfileF20080623_AAAQZV' 'sip-files00011.QC.jpg'
21645b5590db0653bf94cdd4e8355dca
aeaf8090f0eafb77b28a6fbea6a3e8c66b6c24fd
describe
'933856' 'info:fdaE20080623_AAAACFfileF20080623_AAAQZW' 'sip-files00011.tif'
7886cb45a3bd638ba99294be45982692
48221f913b56d99cb6e3b84d1aa657cd1d05065e
describe
'4855' 'info:fdaE20080623_AAAACFfileF20080623_AAAQZX' 'sip-files00011.txt'
449f11fd15065638620b67cea6558b59
f6206eb3865348beacccde381bd5f7c007d0b2e3
describe
'12459' 'info:fdaE20080623_AAAACFfileF20080623_AAAQZY' 'sip-files00011thm.jpg'
a9bfaec4593bdaf0e5e8303072e53ca5
ce83dcf0fd4027a366e30ce0dee075722ef4d84e
describe
'158920' 'info:fdaE20080623_AAAACFfileF20080623_AAAQZZ' 'sip-files00012.jp2'
a7c0e635dfa0b8efc511440ccc2f47c1
9c8ec286ea1a3fe9a945026c94cb97c41678b911
describe
'132189' 'info:fdaE20080623_AAAACFfileF20080623_AAARAA' 'sip-files00012.jpg'
b0064432814be12cac3b75e102cdea71
7e065453f92438670aab8e6de5920ce0324c98aa
describe
'67899' 'info:fdaE20080623_AAAACFfileF20080623_AAARAB' 'sip-files00012.pdf'
cfdcd855479a34b0d3f30ebbc5e158cc
674feefba2289b879ee3ea7a461f56b2b60b068d
describe
'info:fdaE20080623_AAAACFfileF20080623_AAARAB-norm-0' 'aip-filesF20080623_AAARAB-norm-0.pdf'
8cbf40949b8b639101cd4e2c803d9b62
6e3842fc6d7fb92b4cf6a2346c8099c7289050d2
'2017-03-09T12:13:27-05:00'
describe
'2017-03-09T12:13:20-05:00'
normalize
'79231' 'info:fdaE20080623_AAAACFfileF20080623_AAARAC' 'sip-files00012.pro'
c8b2c1ded28b92b8012829508ced9e90
7ca381b4c61be9c2ea118d20193f6a2d9034df97
'2017-03-09T12:13:06-05:00'
describe
'40496' 'info:fdaE20080623_AAAACFfileF20080623_AAARAD' 'sip-files00012.QC.jpg'
96eec09aa66647d974856758bbcf5f1e
2e1183c7811cc7773c78f7ff38b9b64c614071fd
describe
'906340' 'info:fdaE20080623_AAAACFfileF20080623_AAARAE' 'sip-files00012.tif'
7ac5a8eb7abe7a16f1920c8f2508193c
9bc3e8fc76f68a062817f50728a6853ba4e775dd
'2017-03-09T12:12:42-05:00'
describe
'3474' 'info:fdaE20080623_AAAACFfileF20080623_AAARAF' 'sip-files00012.txt'
984ed650534351144671736578e3d791
e77d47be5a38b7a0a28b0b615c14c6302b9c6896
describe
'10459' 'info:fdaE20080623_AAAACFfileF20080623_AAARAG' 'sip-files00012thm.jpg'
9cd14393a1a65e27123d49d061014a61
aa9ca87f30f74d644767a02abe1b652c031febc9
describe
'122659' 'info:fdaE20080623_AAAACFfileF20080623_AAARAH' 'sip-files00013.jp2'
14c56c1ff95c24c5bfbad8a19751a3f6
1e4f054f31252438ee24708f40291cc45c827ccc
describe
'100583' 'info:fdaE20080623_AAAACFfileF20080623_AAARAI' 'sip-files00013.jpg'
e0131719d4f258dbb02a0c6c393d7720
6e96ba3db0479f2f94a8af227e24564969b6f678
describe
'52508' 'info:fdaE20080623_AAAACFfileF20080623_AAARAJ' 'sip-files00013.pdf'
c6148e048c09c9903a5ae81d68cf69e7
3e2b28e6082a4ff3f1bc7b5b1048effd4410c613
'2017-03-09T12:13:23-05:00'
describe
'info:fdaE20080623_AAAACFfileF20080623_AAARAJ-norm-0' 'aip-filesF20080623_AAARAJ-norm-0.pdf'
8cbf40949b8b639101cd4e2c803d9b62
6e3842fc6d7fb92b4cf6a2346c8099c7289050d2
describe
normalize
'69197' 'info:fdaE20080623_AAAACFfileF20080623_AAARAK' 'sip-files00013.pro'
c82b36dab6c90d94a7567197c2612fa0
922083431209a8d9dd358cf0b3e355a0dc3696bc
describe
'32135' 'info:fdaE20080623_AAAACFfileF20080623_AAARAL' 'sip-files00013.QC.jpg'
38a269b39f9b83f27f031dc8c2dee7c7
fc6559cad7fb8c0c51674a920f87964c994c26e9
describe
'889916' 'info:fdaE20080623_AAAACFfileF20080623_AAARAM' 'sip-files00013.tif'
7ce629ff1e0bedf0ff51822301babb3d
070e23ad00b84330f8a5becbb148f8dc43e1a38e
describe
'3365' 'info:fdaE20080623_AAAACFfileF20080623_AAARAN' 'sip-files00013.txt'
2fd15189b14cc3641e45b05f33781ee0
3048bd542d0425fa70063f3b6b7077277ff37544
describe
'9450' 'info:fdaE20080623_AAAACFfileF20080623_AAARAO' 'sip-files00013thm.jpg'
de6f16b6d276e8fe938a63d8ff64854d
37eecb7a8a1a5d13c10f8a4984970fe4b40da0e7
describe
'153168' 'info:fdaE20080623_AAAACFfileF20080623_AAARAP' 'sip-filescopyright.jp2'
cd965abaafb5da42dc6c8def20d374f4
b811824c94aa0ae5a5f04cfb64b27e9e0927243a
describe
'103670' 'info:fdaE20080623_AAAACFfileF20080623_AAARAQ' 'sip-filescopyright.jpg'
d028360928b6690b49cfe8211e6bb6a5
db68f5028a78f337081c164d3478ffd3e30a8a09
describe
'71602' 'info:fdaE20080623_AAAACFfileF20080623_AAARAR' 'sip-filescopyright.pdf'
d9de028185a91f10145de3d1660e49cf
67dc595d33e96bf36d8c529be162aff9a2728bee
describe
'info:fdaE20080623_AAAACFfileF20080623_AAARAR-norm-0' 'aip-filesF20080623_AAARAR-norm-0.pdf'
8cbf40949b8b639101cd4e2c803d9b62
6e3842fc6d7fb92b4cf6a2346c8099c7289050d2
describe
normalize
'35816' 'info:fdaE20080623_AAAACFfileF20080623_AAARAS' 'sip-filescopyright.pro'
3792e847d729bb6ec8ecdd76a37fbe6d
ea0e8ccbfdc1bf365063371a387fa70bf981c191
describe
'35083' 'info:fdaE20080623_AAAACFfileF20080623_AAARAT' 'sip-filescopyright.QC.jpg'
28180ee8185b27af4702a664eb2b5d1b
f0e1d4e0f0dcb1a265ec575f3d87a525ada2ad6d
describe
'1060432' 'info:fdaE20080623_AAAACFfileF20080623_AAARAU' 'sip-filescopyright.tif'
64f2b49688ae15a70c58ec394a8848fc
658ded2f87f32e2efa839a835d960785274a1ef5
describe
'1329' 'info:fdaE20080623_AAAACFfileF20080623_AAARAV' 'sip-filescopyright.txt'
15f2bbd34b776d39b92ffb1c4f760b27
b0251f2ed30996bc7ed3d8efa687abc9a6800fa9
describe
Invalid character
WARNING CODE 'Daitss::Anomaly' Invalid character
'10085' 'info:fdaE20080623_AAAACFfileF20080623_AAARAW' 'sip-filescopyrightthm.jpg'
b0566b6a6e9b9bfb3fa924203ff11cf8
63d705588c1580afc86f43138330df2fe31f906d
describe
'1139856' 'info:fdaE20080623_AAAACFfileF20080623_AAARAX' 'sip-filesUF00001160.pdf'
3b0fbb81eda0c3f438c17b67cfedc575
edb08477f0229bb387eff69b9b78dbeac1de7e42
'2017-03-09T12:12:56-05:00'
describe
'info:fdaE20080623_AAAACFfileF20080623_AAARAX-norm-0' 'aip-filesF20080623_AAARAX-norm-0.pdf'
8cbf40949b8b639101cd4e2c803d9b62
6e3842fc6d7fb92b4cf6a2346c8099c7289050d2
describe
normalize
'27755' 'info:fdaE20080623_AAAACFfileF20080623_AAARAY' 'sip-filesUF00001160_00001.mets'
026b6dfa491ad886bb5e4cc3cf027fb5
086856a8c62be794a5eef787a63a17501e5f666c
describe
TargetNamespace.1: Expecting namespace 'http://www.uflib.ufl.edu/digital/metadata/ufdc2/', but the target namespace of the schema document is 'http://digital.uflib.ufl.edu/metadata/ufdc2/'.
'2017-03-09T12:13:30-05:00' 'mixed'
xml resolution
http://www.loc.gov/standards/xlink.xsd
BROKEN_LINK schema http://www.loc.gov/standards/xlink.xsd
TargetNamespace.1: Expecting namespace 'http://www.uflib.ufl.edu/digital/metadata/ufdc2/', but the target namespace of the schema document is 'http://digital.uflib.ufl.edu/metadata/ufdc2/'.
'35409' 'info:fdaE20080623_AAAACFfileF20080623_AAARBB' 'sip-filesUF00001160_00001.xml'
66454720a14f7604a3c4e150660ab253
c23bb141e1fe78000dc8d02d8e737abc133672aa
describe
'2017-03-09T12:13:29-05:00'
xml resolution
http://www.loc.gov/standards/xlink.xsd
http://www.loc.gov/standards/xlink.xsd


xml version 1.0 encoding UTF-8 standalone no
fcla fda yes
!-- mineral industry of Florida, 1983 ( Book ) --
METS:mets OBJID UF00001160_00001
xmlns:METS http:www.loc.govMETS
xmlns:xlink http:www.w3.org1999xlink
xmlns:xsi http:www.w3.org2001XMLSchema-instance
xmlns:daitss http:www.fcla.edudlsmddaitss
xmlns:mods http:www.loc.govmodsv3
xmlns:sobekcm http:digital.uflib.ufl.edumetadatasobekcm
xmlns:lom http:digital.uflib.ufl.edumetadatasobekcm_lom
xsi:schemaLocation
http:www.loc.govstandardsmetsmets.xsd
http:www.fcla.edudlsmddaitssdaitss.xsd
http:www.loc.govmodsv3mods-3-4.xsd
http:digital.uflib.ufl.edumetadatasobekcmsobekcm.xsd
METS:metsHdr CREATEDATE 2017-04-10T11:24:13Z ID LASTMODDATE 2009-03-04T13:12:23Z RECORDSTATUS COMPLETE
METS:agent ROLE CREATOR TYPE ORGANIZATION
METS:name UF,University of Florida
OTHERTYPE SOFTWARE OTHER
Go UFDC FDA Preparation Tool
INDIVIDUAL
UFAD\renner
METS:note Per DLC request.
METS:dmdSec DMD1
METS:mdWrap MDTYPE MODS MIMETYPE textxml LABEL Metadata
METS:xmlData
mods:mods
mods:accessCondition type restrictions on use displayLabel Rights [cc0] The author dedicated the work to the public domain by waiving all of his or her rights to the work worldwide under copyright law and all related or neighboring legal rights he or she had in the work, to the extent allowable by law.
mods:genre authority marcgt government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)
bibliography
statistics
non-fiction
mods:identifier ALEPH 000531966
OCLC 12843659
NOTIS ACV4714
mods:language
mods:languageTerm text English
code iso639-2b eng
mods:location
mods:physicalLocation UF
mods:url access object in context http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00001160/00001
mods:name personal
mods:namePart Boyle, James Reid
given James Reid
family Boyle
mods:role
mods:roleTerm Main Entity
Hendry, Charles W
Charles W
Hendry
corporate
Florida -- Bureau of Geology
United States -- Bureau of Mines
mods:note bibliography Includes bibliographical references.
statement responsibility by James R. Boyle and C.W. Hendry, Jr.
Cover title.
mods:originInfo
mods:publisher Bureau of Geology, Division of Resource Management, Florida Dept. of Natural Resources :
in cooperation with United States Department of the Interior, Bureau of Mines
mods:place
mods:placeTerm marccountry flu
mods:dateIssued marc 1985
point start 1985
mods:recordInfo
mods:recordIdentifier source sobekcm UF00001160_00001
mods:recordCreationDate 851125
mods:recordOrigin Imported from (ALEPH)000531966
mods:recordContentSource University of Florida
marcorg FUG
mods:languageOfCataloging
English
eng
mods:relatedItem original
mods:physicalDescription
mods:extent 12 p. : ; 22 cm.
series
mods:titleInfo
mods:title Information circular State of Florida, Department of Natural Resources, Division of Resource Management, Bureau of Geology
mods:subject SUBJ650_1 lcsh
mods:topic Mineral industries
mods:geographic Florida
SUBJ650_2
Mineral industries
Florida
Statistics
mods:nonSort The
mineral industry of Florida, 1983
mods:typeOfResource text
DMD2
OTHERMDTYPE SOBEKCM SobekCM Custom
sobekcm:procParam
sobekcm:Aggregation ALL
SCIENCES
FAST1
FGS
FEOL
IUF
sobekcm:MainThumbnail 00002thm.jpg
sobekcm:Wordmark FGS
sobekcm:bibDesc
sobekcm:BibID UF00001160
sobekcm:VID 00001
sobekcm:EncodingLevel I
sobekcm:Publisher
sobekcm:Name Bureau of Geology, Division of Resource Management, Florida Dept. of Natural Resources :
sobekcm:PlaceTerm Tallahassee Fla
in cooperation with United States Department of the Interior, Bureau of Mines
sobekcm:Source
sobekcm:statement UF University of Florida
METS:amdSec
METS:digiprovMD DIGIPROV1
DAITSS Archiving Information
daitss:daitss
daitss:AGREEMENT_INFO ACCOUNT PROJECT UFDC
METS:techMD TECH1
File Technical Details
sobekcm:FileInfo
sobekcm:File fileid JP21 width 2080 height 3266
JPEG1 630 989
JPEG2 980
JP22 2144 3335
JPEG3 983
JP23 3345
JPEG4
JP24 3347
JPEG5 990
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UF00001160.pdf
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METS:structMap STRUCT1 physical
METS:div DMDID ADMID The ORDER 0 main
PDIV1 1 Main
PAGE1 Page
METS:fptr FILEID
PAGE2 2
PAGE3 3
PAGE4 4
PAGE5 5
PAGE6 6
PAGE7 7
PAGE8 8
PAGE9 9
PAGE10 10
PAGE11 11
PAGE12 12
STRUCT2 other
ODIV1
FILES1
FILES2