Mineral industry of Florida...


Mineral industry of Florida 1974
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Title: Mineral industry of Florida 1974
Series Title: Information Circular (Florida Geological Survey) ; no.
Physical Description: Book
Publisher: Florida Geological Survey
Publication Date: 1974
Funding: Digitized as a collaborative project with the Florida Geological Survey, Florida Department of Environmental Protection.
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Table of Contents
    Mineral industry of Florida 1974
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Full Text

The MineralIndustry of Florida

This chapter has been prepared under a cooperative agreement between the Bureau of
Mines, U.S. Department of the Interior, and the Florida Bureau of Geology.

By John W. Sweeney and Charles W. Hendry Jr.2

The value of mineral production in
Florida totaled over $1 billion in 1974,
more than $400 million or 74% above that
of 1973. This increase was directly attribut-
able to the 134% increase in value of
petroleum production and a 114% increase
in phosphate rock production value. Peat,
lime, natural gasoline, magnesium' com-
pounds, and zircon concentrates showed
significant increases in production over
1973 levels.
For the 81st consecutive year, Florida
led 'the nation in phosphate rock output.
Florida also ranked first in the production
of fuller's earth, zircon, and mnonazite; sec-
ond in ilmenite, third in peat and Florida
was the only producer of rutile and stauro-
Florida ard 'North Carolina supplied
81% of the domestic phosphate rock mar-
ket and was the second leading exporter
to world markets. Fl6rida exports were
through the Ports of Tampa, Boca Grande,
and! Jacksonville.
During the year the phosphate industry
added 68,000 kw of new load to Tampa
Electric Co.'s -system, and it is planned
that an additional 120,000 kw of demand
will be required over the -next 5 years 'to
meet increased' production by- the phos-
phate industry.
Uranium Recovery Corp. announced
construction of a $4:to $5 million -uranium'
recovery plant -to' go onstream inh late
1975. The operation reportedly will be lo-
cated in Polk County in close proximity
to existing phosphate mining arid fertilizer
operations. The system Jincludes uranium
recovery equipment' at several, wet-acid
plants to strip the uranium from the phos-

phoric acid. Uranium Recovery has signed
contracts to recover uranium from Inter-
national Minerals & Chemicals Corp. and
W. R. Grace & Co.
Gulf Oil Corp., one of the Nation's larg-
est uranium 'producers, announced it is ar-
ranging joint ventures with phosphate
mining companies in Polk and Hillsbo-
rough Counties to extract uranium from
phosphates. Gulf has demonstrated its proc-
ess in a $500,000 pilot operation at Agrico
Chemical Co.'s operation at Pierce. It is
expected that -the first 300,000-pounds-per-
year extracting plant will go onstream
Westinghouse Corp. also actively explored
the possibility of extracting uranium from
phosphoric acid process streams. The com-
pany has been working with Gardinier Inc.
on a uranium extraction pilot plant, which
has demonstrated the basic feasibility of its
process, according to Westinghouse.
Ashland Oil Co. announced that it was
considering building an oil refinery, an off-
shore port, and a sizable town in St. Lucie
County on Florida's east coast. The com-
pany was considering a medium-size refin-
ery with a capacity to process 250,000
barrels a day. The refinery would be sup-
ported by an offshore port facility where
medium and small tankers could pipe
crude oil, via a submarine line, to the on-
shore 'refinery.
The Belcher Oil Co. of Miami proposed
to construct an oil refinery at Port Mana-
'1 State Liaison Officer, Bureau of Mines, Talla-
hassee,,Fla.: ,-
2 Chief Bureau of Geology, Flcrida Department
of--Natiral Resources.:
a Tampa Electric Co., 1974 Annual Report, 1974,
p. 7.


tee that would be connected to a deep-
water tanker terminal offshore in the Gulf
by two 48-inch submarine pipelines. The
terminal, first of its kind off U.S. coastal
waters, is slated to be located 24 miles
west from Anna Maria Island. The refin-
ery would have a capacity to process
200,000 barrels a day initially with the
capability of expanding to 400,000 barrels.
Tampa Electric Co. purchased the re-
maining 50% of the Cal-Glo Coal. Co. of
Harlan, Ky. The Kentucky mine has a
present annual output of 275,000 tons. It
is estimated that production can be in-
creased to 750,000 tons annually. The coal
contains about 1.3% sulfur and reserves
are estimated at 26 million tons, or enough
to last 30 years at an annual production
rate of 750,000 tons.
Oil exploration began on the Outer Con-
tinental Shelf (OCS) leases in the eastern
Gulf of Mexico off Florida's coast. Exxon
Corp., Shell Oil Co., Sunoco Oil Co., and
Texaco Oil Co. drilled exploratory wells
on their OCS leases. No oil or gas were
found in commercial quantities.
Exxon Corp. began operating a sulfur
recovery unit at its Black Jack Creek field
in Santa Rosa County.
The Jay Oil field, composed of 85 pro-
ducing wells on 13,000 acres, was unitized
to extend the life of the field. Without
unitization it was estimated the field would
last through 1977, and with unitization the
field should produce at least until 1995.
Exxon Corp. was named as the operator.
The Blackjack Creek Oil field was uni-
tized in December 1974. The unitization
was completed before any wells were pro-
ducing. This action authorized pressure
maintenance procedures in the reservoir to
be instituted immediately and it is calcu-
lated that the total oil produced will be
Legislation and Government Programs.-
The U.S. Congress passed Public Law 93-
440. This Act established the Big Cypress
National Preserve in the State of Florida.
Under the Act the Secretary of the In-
terior shall develop rules and regulations
as he deems necessary and appropriate
to limit or control the use of Federal lands
and waters with respect to: Exploration
for and extraction of oil, gas, and other
minerals; and such other uses the Secretary
determines must be limited.
Public hearings were held on phosphate
leasing in the Osceola National Forest. The

Secretary of the Interior has taken the
testimony under advisement and requested
additional studies covering the economic
impact of mining in the Osceola National
The Governor and Cabinet, sitting as
the Administrative Commission on January
15, 1974, created the Office of Petroleum
Allocation and Energy Conservation for
the express purpose of dealing with hard-
ship cases of fuel shortages caused by the
Organization of Petroleum Exporting Coun-
tries (OPEC) oil embargo. The two func-
tions of the office were allocation to ad-
minister the State-set aside, and conserva-
tion and planning to develop appropriate
plans relating to energy conservation,
provision of fuel to meet emergencies,
and to develop emergency distribution and
availability plans.
The Florida Energy Committee respon-
sible for: (1) Studying in detail the pres-
ent policies affecting energy conservation
and use in Florida; (2) studying the avail-
able sources of energy for use in Florida;
(3) recommending a comprehensive sys-
tem of energy policies to meet the needs of
Florida; and (4) recommending any other
administrative, statutory, or constitutional
changes which the Committee deems nec-
essary to improve energy policies, pub-
lished its first report entitled Energy in
The Governor of Florida signed into
law a bill entitled, the Florida Resource
Recovery Management Act. The Act pro-
vides for State and local resource recovery
and management programs; establishes a
resource recovery and management grant
fund and advisory council; provides for a
State pilot project; and where econom-
ically feasible, may require municipalities
to operate a resource recovery program.
The Act will be administered by the Flor-
ida Department of Pollution Control.
Florida's tough oil spill law was modified
by the 1974 legislature. The previous law
placed unlimited liability on the owner of
a vessel that had a spill, it was contended
that it made it difficult for some munici-
palities to obtain bids for oil. The law
has been altered in the following manner:
A $14 million liability or $100 per
gross ton, whichever is less, has been
established for shippers to pay for the

*Florida Energy Committee. Energy In Florida,
A Report and Recommendatios ons on Energy and
Energy Policy In Florida To the Governor and
the Florida Legislation. Mar. 1, 1974, 191 pp.


cost of an oil spill or other pollutants in
Florida waters. The liability for ter-
minals is $8 million. A $35 million trust
fund is being created to pay for damages
to private and personal property. This
fund will be financed by a 2-cent per
gallon tax on oil shipped to Florida
The phosphate slimes dewatering coop-
erative program between the Federal Bu-
reau of Mines and the Florida Phosphate
Council, representing 10 phosphate rock
mining companies, was continued for a sec-
ond year at a total funding level of about
$600,000. During the year characteriza-
tion, electrophoretic mobility, cation ex-
change capacities, quantitative mineral com-
position, flocculation, and other studies
were carried out under the project.
The Bureau of Mines Tuscaloosa (Ala.)
Metallurgy Research Laboratory also
worked on upgrading waste gypsum from
phosphate rock processing; and beneficia-
tion of the phosphate-bearing Hawthorne
Formation limestone to determine if re-
covery of the phosphorite in the Formation
is feasible. Under the cooperative clay test-
ing and utilization program waste clays
from a Florida sand operation were benefi-

ciated, tested, and found to be a high-
quality ball clay, suitable for ceramics
The Bureau's Albany (Oreg.) Metal-
lurgy Research Center, continued to work
on direct acidulation of Florida phosphate
matrix to improve P20s recovery and to
eliminate slimes. Results on a number of
Bureau of Mines programs relating to
Florida were published.5
The Florida Bureau of Geology, Depart-
ment of Natural Resources continued stud-
ies of mineral resources throughout the
State and published the second in its En-
vironmental Geology Studies.6
Hillsborough County passed a mine con-
trol ordinance modeled after the State's
oil spill law. Manatee, Hardee, DeSoto, and
Bradford Counties also passed mine con-
trol ordinances.

5 Edgerton, C. D. Effects of Urbanization Upon
the Availability of Construction Minerals in South-
eastern Florida. BuMines IC 8664, 1974, 20 pp.
Wang, K-L., B. W. Klein, and A. F. Powell.
Economic Significance of the Florida Phosphate
Industry. BuMines IC 8653. 1974, 51 pp.
6 Wright, A. P. Environmental Geology and
Hydrology, Tampa Area, Florida. Bureau of Geol-
ogy, Florida Department of Natural Resources,
1974, 94 pp.

Table 1.-Mineral production in Florida'

1973 1974
Mineral Value Value
Quantity (thou- Quantity (thou-
sands) sands)
Masonry ........---- thousand short tons -- 256 $8,706 235 $4,737
Portland ----------------------- do ---- 2,725 72,666 2,562 75,133
Clays ---------------------------- do ---- 1,139 13,718 2808 214,261
Lime ---------------------------- do --- 187 4,026 185 5,315
Natural gas ----------- million cubic feet -- 33,857 11,613 38,137 20,441
Peat ---------------- thousand short tons 44 384 67 616
Petroleum (crude)
thousand 42-gallon barrels -- 32,695 150,070 86,351 351,331
Titanium concentrates (rutile) short tons 9,045 1,212 6,446 996
Sand and gravel ..... thousand short tons .. 20,167 21,415 24,372 33,400
Stone --------------------------- do ..--.. 61,735 103,595 64,560 100,378
Value of items that cannot be disclosed:
Clays, (kaolin) (1974), kynite, magnesium
compounds, natural gas liquids, phos-
phate rock, rare-earth metals, stauro-
lite, stone (dimension), titanium con-
centrates, and zircon concentrate ...... XX r 218,695 XX 437,287
Total --------------------------------- XX 601,100 XX 1,043,895
Total 1967 constant dollars ------------ XX 440,666 XX P 499,191
P Preliminary. r Revised. XX Not applicable.
1 Production as measured by mine shipments, sales, or marketable production (including consump-
tion by producers).
SExcludes kaolin; included with "Value of items that cannot be disclosed."
8 Excludes dimension stone and shell: included with "Value of items that cannot be disclosed."


Table 2.-Value of mineral production in Florida, by county "
Minerals produced in 1974
County 1973 1974 in order of value


Brevard .
Calhoun .

Escambia _
Gilchrist --
Hilaborough -

T-nh -------------_
Tjpnr -----------

Palm Beach
Pinenas __

St. Lucie
Santa Rosa -
Undistributed ______________
Total --

Sand and gravel.
Natural gas.
Stone, sand and gravel.
Sand and gravel.






601,100 1,043,895

W Withheld to avoid disclosing individual company confidential data; included with "Undis-
SThe following counties are not listed because no production was reported: Baker, Columbia,
Dixie. Duval Flagler, Hardee, Holmes, Indian River, Jefferson, Lafayette, Liberty, Madison, Nassau,
Osceola. St. Johns, Seminole. Union. Volusla, and Wakulla.
2 Values of petroleum are based on an average price per barrel for the State.
County data for 1974 petroleum and natural gas are not available.
Includes values of counties-indicated by W and petroleum and natural gas values for 1974.
Values may not add to totals shown because of independent rounding.






Stone, phosphate rock.
Ilmenite, zircon, rutile, staurolite,
sand and gravel, clays, monazite.
Cement, stone, sand and gravel.
Sand and gravel.
Sand and gravel, clays.
Sand and gravel.
Clays, sand and gravel.
Sand and gravel.
Magnesium compounds, lime.
Phosphate rock.
Sand and gravel.
Stone, lime, clays, phosphate rock.
Cement, sand and gravel, stone,
Stone, sand and gravel.
Sand and gravel.
Sand and gravel.
Cement, stone.
Stone, clays, sand and gravel,
phosphate rock.
Sand and gravel.
Sand and gravel.
Sand and gravel, peat.
Stone, sand and gravel.
Phosphate rock, sand and gravel,
peat, stone.
Sand and gravel, clays, peat.
Sand and gravel.
Sand and gravel.
Stone, lime, peat.
Sand and gravel.


Table 3.-Indicators of Florida business activity

o1978 1974 P percent
Employment and labor force, annual average:
Total nonagricultural employment .--...---------.... thousands -_ 2,756.5 2,887.5 +2.9
Manufacturing --------------------------------- do .... 878.8 878.7
Mining ---------------------- do .... 9.8 10.8 +10.8
Contract construction -----------------do .... 277.8 265.1 -4.4
Other nonagricultural employment .------- do .... 2,096.1 2,188.4 +4.4
Personal income:
Total --------------------------------- millions $87,799 $42,852 +12.0
Per capital -------------------------- $4,880 $5,285 +7.8
Construction activity:
Housing units authorized ---------- ------ --- 266,982 116,645 -56.8
Value of nonresidential construction .......... millions -_ $1,446.1 1,185.7 -18.0
Highway construction contract awards ------------ do .... $366.8 $815.0 -14.0
Farm marketing receipts --------------------------- do .... $1,921 NA NA
Mineral production value --------------- ....... ------------ do _. $601.1 $1,048.9 +78.7
P Preliminary. NA Not available.
SIncludes transportation and public utilities; wholesale and retail trade; finance, insurance, and
real estate; service; and government.
Sources: Survey of Current Business; Employment and Earnings; Farm Income Situation; Con-
struction Review; Area Trends in Employment and Unemployment; Roads and Streets; High-
lights of U.S. Export and Import Trade; and Federal Bureau of Mines.















Figure 1.-Value of phosphate rock, stone, and total value of mineral production in Florida.


Nonmetals accounted for 61%, fuels
37%, and metals 2% of the State's total
mineral production value in 1974. The
-principal nonmetals produced, listed: in
order of value, were phosphate rock, stone,
cement, sand and gravel, and clays.

Cement.-Shipments of masonry cement
decreased both in quantity and value. Ship-
ments of portland cement decreased 6%
in quantity but increased 3% in value,
reflecting the slowdown in Florida build-
ing construction and continued high prices
paralleling that of the Nation.



Stone .i..,...
............. ... ^^ "----- ^ ---lllll_



Types I and II (general-use and moder-
ate heat), Type III (high-early-strength),
white cement, and pozzolan cements were
produced. Most of the shipments were
made within the State. Masonry cement
shipments were principally within the State.
Portland cement shipments, mainly in
bulk form, were made by truck (95%)
and by rail (5%). Principal consumers
were ready mix concrete companies, con-
crete products manufacturers, and building
materials dealers.
Raw materials used in manufacture of
cement were mined principally within the
State and included limestone, clay, sand,
and staurolite. Oolitic aragonite imported
from the Bahamas was used exclusively by
one company. Small amounts of blast fur-
nace slag and gypsum were used, but it
was obtained from out-of-State sources.
Twelve rotary kilns were operated at the
four plants. All plants used the wet proc-
ess. Over 300 million kilowatt-hours of
electrical energy were consumed in the
manufacture of cement; 100% of the power
was purchased.
Florida Mining and Materials Corp. of
Tampa announced that they will construct
a 3-million-barrel-per-year cement plant
near Brooksville, Fla. The $35 million proj-
ect will be located adjacent to their 4,000
area holdings, and adjacent to the quarry.
The mill is expected to go onstream late
in 1975.
Clays.--Total clay output decreased 29%,
while the value increased 4%.
Florida's fuller's earth production ranked
second highest in the Nation. Fuller's earth
output remained the same but its value
increased 14%. Three producers were ac-
tive in Gadsden County and one produced
in Marion County. Fuller's earth was used
for fillers, absorbents, pesticides, drilling
mud, filter aids, and other uses.
Kaolin output decreased 2% and the
value increased 13% from that of 1973.
Kaolin was produced by one company in
Putnam County; principal uses were in
whiteware, pottery, and wall tile.
Miscellaneous clay output decreased
47% and the value decreased 41% from
that of 1973. The decreases were in the
clays used for cement and lightweight
aggregate. The clays were used in the
manufacture of cement, lightweight ag-
gregate, and building buck. Mines were
operated in Clay, Escambia, and Hernando
Counties in 1974.
Fluorine.-Fluorine in the form of fluo-

silicic acid was recovered from six plants
as a byproduct of wet-process phosphoric
acid manufacture. The fluosilicic acid was
used to produce cryolite, aluminum fluo-
ride, sodium silica fluoride, and for water
fluoridation. The value of fluorine byprod-
ucts is not included in the State mineral
production statistics.
Gypsum.-Imported crude gypsum was
calcined by three companies for use in the
manufacture of gypsum building products.
U.S. Gypsum Co. and Kaiser Cement &
Gypsum Corp. operated plants near Jack-
sonville, Duval County; and National Gyp-
sum Co. operated a plant near Tampa,
Hillsborough County. The three plants
used calcining kettles, one rotary kiln, and
one holoflite in processing gypsum and
manufacturing of gypsum products, total
capacity of the plants was about 1 million
tons of calcined products. Crude ore for
most operations was transported by ship
from company-owned deposits in Nova
Scotia, Canada, and Jamaica. A total of
547,000 short tons of calcined gypsum was
produced, a decrease of 15% from 1973
Approximately 100,000 tons of byprod-
uct gypsum was sold by several phosphate
fertilizer manufacturers for agricultural .
Lime.-Basic Magnesia, Inc. in Gulf
County, Chemical Lime, Inc. in Hernando
County, and Dixie Lime & Stone Co. in
Sumter County produced 185,000 tons of
lime for magnesia, water treatment, sewage
disposal, and other uses. Output was 1%
below the 1973 record. The lime was used
in Florida. Consumption of lime in Florida
was 382,500 tons.
Magnesia.-Basic Magnesia, Inc. pro-
duced caustic-calcined magnesia, refractory
grade magnesia, and magnesia hydroxides
from seawater. Production was less than
plant design of 60,000 tons per year. Ship-
ments decreased 3% but value increased
64% compared with that of 1973.
Perlite.-Four companies produced ex-
panded perlite from ore mined in Colorado
and New Mexico. Production increased to
24,066 short tons in 1974 from 23,378
short tons in 1973. The 24,038 short tons
sold or used was an increase of 6% over
that of 1973. The value of the quantity
sold or used was $1,403,000, an increase of
9% over the 1973 value. Production from
plants in Dade, Duval, Escambia, and In-
dian River Counties was used in plaster


aggregate, concrete aggregate, formed
products, horticultural aggregate, and mis-
cellaneous filter aids and fillers.
Phosphate Rock.-Marketable production
of phosphate rock increased 6% in quan-
tity and 114% in value reflecting a wid-
ening gap between supply and demand.
Florida's 1974 production data is com-
bined with that of North Carolina to con-
ceal the latter's output, because there is
only one producing company in North
Carolina. Combined marketable production
from both States in 1974 was 36,980 mil-
lion short tons, valued at $409 million and
represented 81% of the total national out-
put. Marketable production sold or used
totaled 39,920 million tons valued at
$437,158 million, an 8% increase over the
36,916 tons in 1973. Agricultural uses ac-
counted for 26 million tons or 66%, indus-
trial uses and exports accounted for the
remainder. Exports from the two States
were valued at $183 million. Agricultural
uses were for ordinary superphosphate,
triple superphosphate, wet-process phos-
phoric acid, direct application to the soil,
stock and poultry feed, and fertilizer filler.
Industrial uses included the manufacture of
elemental phosphorus.
Mine production of crude dry ore in
Florida and North Carolina was 142 mil-
lion tons with a PsOs content of 18 million
Land-pebble phosphate was produced at
16 mines by 10 companies in 2 counties.
One company processed tailings from an
abandoned mine.
Soft-rock phosphate was produced by
four companies operating five mines in
two counties. Total mine production was
38,813 tons with a P205 content of 7,700
tons, valued at $571,000. The soft rock was
,used for direct application to the soil, in
stock and poultry feed, and as fertilizer
Marketable phosphate rock was produced
from Florida land-pebble phosphate mines
by Agrico Chemical Co., Borden, Inc.;
Brewster Phosphates; Gardinier, Inc.; W.
R. Grace & Co.; International Minerals &
Chemical Corp.; Mobil Oil Corp.; Posei-
don Mines, Inc.; Occidental Petroleum
Corp.; U.S.S. Agri-Chemicals, Inc.; and
Swift Chemical Co.
Agrico Chemical Co. began development
of its new Ft. Green mine in Polk County.
Construction of a washer and flotation

plant began. Design capacity of the opera-
tion is 3.5 million tons per year.
Construction of an $18 million wet-
phosphate rock shipping terminal at Big
Bend, Hillsborough County began. The
terminal will handle about 2 million tons
of wet rock annually to be shipped by
barge for domestic conversion to upgraded
fertilizer products.
Beker Industries Corp., exercised its op-
tion to acquire about 9,000 acres of- phos-
phate reserves from PPG Industries, Inc.
It also acquired several other tracts for a
total holding of 11,000 acres in Manatee
County, 6,000 of which are to be mined.
Most of the regional and State approvals
were received and mine development was
scheduled for late 1975, contingent upon
approval of a Manatee County mining per-
mit and a water-use permit.
Brewster Phosphates was granted a min-
ing permit from Hillsborough County to
operate a phosphate mine on its 18,000
acres in the Ft. Lonesome area of Hills-
borough County. Of the 18,000 acres, only
9,800 contain marketable reserves. Brewster
plans to produce about 3 million tons of
marketable phosphate for 18 years at its
Lonesome mine. Mine development was
expected in early 1975, with the operations
going onstream in 1976.
CF Industries' new 800-ton-a-day P2Os
wet-process phosphoric acid plant at Plant
City went onstream during the year.
W. R. Grace & Co. expressed its inten-
tions to submit a Development of Regional
Impact Report on mining plans for its
12,000-acre tract in the Ft. Lonesome area
lying in parts of Polk, Hillsborough, and
Manatee Counties.7 Construction at its 2.5-
million-ton-per-year Hooker Prairie mine
International Minerals & Chemical Corp.
was granted a mining permit by the Hills-
borough County Commission to develop its
new East Kingsford mine covering 6,000
acres in Hillsborough County.8 The Phos-
phoria mine and washer went onstream
during the year.
Mobil Oil Corp. announced its intentions
to open a phosphate mine in Hardee Coun-
ty in 1979.9
Occidental Petroleum Corp. of the
United States, signed six contracts with the
7The Tampa Tribune. Apr. 5, 1974.
s The Tampa Tribune. Apr. 5, 1974.
9 The Herald-Advocate-Wauchula. Aug. 29, 1974.


Soviet Union worth $20 billion in a chem-
ical fertilizer barter. Under the 20-year
agreement, Occidental's Florida plants
will provide up to 1 million tons a year of
superphosphoric acid to the Soviets. It will
get in return, Soviet ammonia and urea."
Occidental announced a two-phase ex-
pansion at its White Springs operations.
Phase I included the addition of a 45-
cubic-yard dragline at its Suwannee River
mine and a 150% expansion at its existing
chemical facilities. Development of a sec-
ond mine in Hamilton County reportedly
began with approximately a 3-million-ton-
per-year capacity; reportedly it will utilize
3 additional 45-cubic-yard draglines. The
second mine was scheduled to go onstream
in January 1976. Phase II encompassed
additional facilities required for the
U.S.S.R. trade agreement that would in-
clude a third mine to be located in north-
ern Columbia County, and a second chem-
ical complex to be located in Hamilton
County with an anticipated starting date
in 1979.'a
Phillips Petroleum started pumping tests
on its properties in Manatee and DeSoto
Counties. The company owns 15,000 acres
in these counties."
Swift Chemical Co. announced that it
planned to seek permits to mine phosphate
rock on 11,000 acres it owns in Manatee

Sand and Gravel.-Sand and gravel out-
put totaled': 24. million tons valued at $33
million in 1974. This increased production
was primarily due to increased statistical
coverage. Polk County was the leading pro-
ducer of sand'-used for building purposes
and accounted for 17% of the output and
20% of the value. Nearly all of the sand
was produced by commercial operators.
There were 67 sand and gravel operations
during the year; of these 20 produced be-
tween 500,000 and 1,000,000 tons, 27 pro-
duced between 100,000 and 500,000 tons,
and 20 produced less than 100,000 tons.
Ninety-one percent of the commercial out-
put was transported by truck, 8% by rail,
and 1% by water. The sand and gravel
was mainly used for construction purposes
with a small amount going into industrial
Staurolite.-Staurolite was recovered as
a byproduct of ilmenite production at the
Highland and Trail Ridge plants of E. I.
du Pont de Nemours & Co., Inc. in Clay
County. Both output and value increased
over 1973 levels. It was principally used
in sand blasting and minor amounts for
cement. Florida is the only State with a
recorded production of staurolite.

0oBusiness Week. Aug. 13 1974.
"Live Oak Independent Post. Sept. 3, 1974.
"Bradenton Herald. Nov. 5, 1974.
"Bradenton Herald. Nov. 5. 1974.

Table 4.-Florida: Sand and gravel sold or used by producers, by county
(Thousand short tons and thousand dollars)
1978 1974
County Number Number
of Quantity Value of Quantity Value
mines mines
Brevard 1 57 165 1 W W
Broward 8 3 1,430 1,455 6 8,461 4,990
Dade 5 2,541 8,889 5 8,414 5,809
Escanmba -- __ 5 506 688 5 525 1,025
Hendry 1 1,529 1,816 2 W W
HEllabormouh __ 1 268 W 1 288 W
Lake 4 2,187 2,166 8 8,588 3,869
Polk 8 4,871 5,667 14 4,180 6,659
St. Lude -- _. 1 574 888
Other 28 7,885 6,175 24 8,849 10,667
Totals ______ 1 20,167 21,415 67 24,872 88,400
W Withheld to avoid disclosing individual company confidential data: included with "Other."
SIncludeas Bay, Calhoun, Clay, DeSoto, Franklin. Gadsden, Glades, Jackson, Leon, Marion, Martin,
Okaloosa. Orange, Pinellas, Putnam, Sarasota, Walton, and Washington Counties.
*Data may not add to totals shown because of independent rounding.


Table 5.-Florida: Construction and industrialsand and gravel sold or used by producers
(Thousand short tons and thousand dollars)
1978 1974
Quantity Value Quantity Value1
Sand ----------------------- ----------- 4,265 18,055
Unprocessed: 19,466 18,678 I
Sand and gravel 5------- -------------- 5,829 8,995
Industrial: -
Gravd---------el --------------- 701 2,837 77 ,
G r vel --- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- --
Total ------------------------------------------ 20,167 21,415 24,872 883,254
Value data may not be directly comparable to that in tables 1, 4, 6, and 7 because unit value of
construction aggregate may be higher than the individual unit values for sand or gravel.

Table 6.-Florida: Construction aggregate and industrial sand and gravel sold
or used commercially by producers
(Thousand short tons and thousand dollars)
Quantity Value1
Construction aggregates:
Nonresidential and residential construction ------------------------ 6,746 9,882
Highway and bridge construction -------- ---------------- 1,075 1,816
Other uses such as dams, waterworks, airports, etc. ---------- 195 301
Concrete products (cement blocks, bricks, pipe, etc.) ------- 3,749 5,141
Bituminous paving (asphalt and tar paving) ----------------------- 529 672
Roadbase and subbase ---------------------------------- 755 1,227
Unprocessed aggregate ---------------------------------------- 103 3,936
Fill --------------------------------- ---------------------- 1,236 1,101
Other uses --------------------------------------- ------- -------- 727 3,940
Industrial sand and gravel ...........----------------........--- ----- ...
Total ----------------------------------- ----- ---------- 20,115 27,516
SUnit value of construction aggregate may be higher than unit value of sand or gravel.

Table 7.-Florida: Construction aggregate sold or used
for publicly funded projects by producers
(Thousand short tons and thousand dollars)
Quantity Value 1
Construction aggregates:
Nonresidential and residential construction ------------ W W
Highway and bridge construction --- --------------- 1,849 2,111
Other uses such as dams, waterworks, airports, etc. ---------------- 1,119 1,594
Concrete products (cement blocks, bricks, pipe, etc.) ------.......----
Bituminous paving (asphalt and tar paving) -------------------------- W W
Roadbase and subbase ------------------------------------- -- 1,289 2,180
Unprocessed aggregate ------------------------------------------------W W
Fill -------------------------------------- W W
Other --------------------------------------------------------- --
Total ---------------------------- 4,257 5,885
W Withheld to avoid disclosing individual company confidential data; included with "Other uses
such as dams, waterworks, airports, etc.".
I Unit value of construction aggregate may be higher than unit value of sand or gravel.


Stane.-Florida stone (all limestone) is
divided into two types-hard-rock and
soft-rock. Each type has a different end use
and value. Hard-rock is used as concrete,
bituminous and macadam aggregates, and
ranges in value from $0.80 to over $4.00
per ton. Soft-rock limestone is used as
dense-graded roadbase material, surface
treatment aggregate, and in the manufac-
ture of lime; it ranges in value from $0.64
to over $2.50 per ton.
Hard-rock limestone was produced in
Broward, Collier, Dade, Hernando, Lee,
Monroe, Okeechobee, Palm Beach, and
Suwanee Counties. Soft-rock limestone was
produced in all of the counties listed in
table 8. Soft rock limestone accounted for
approximately 63% of the output and
57% of the value .of the crushed limestone
produced in 1974.
Crushed limestone output was 55 mil-
lion tons valued at $100 million, a decrease

Table 8.-Florida:

of 12% in tonnage and 3% in value from
1973 level. The decreases were directly at-
tributed to the slowdown in the construc-
tion and road building industries. Output
came from 96 quarries in 19 counties
compared with 89 quarries in 18 counties
in 1973. The three leading producing
counties were Dade, Broward, and Her-
nando, which supplied 66% of the State's
total tonnage and 67% of the value. Eigh-
teen companies operating 37 quarries ac-
counted for 75% of the crushed stone out-
put and 76% of the value. Of the total
crushed limestone sold or used, agricultural
stone accounted for 3% of the quantity
and 5% of the value; concrete aggregate,
27% and 32% respectively; bituminous
aggregate, 9% and 10%, respectively; and
dense-graded roadbase stone, 35% and
24%, respectively. One company processed
oyster shells for roadbase material.

Crushed limestone and dolomite sold or used by producers, by county
(Thousand short tons and thousand dollars)

1978 1974
County Number Number
of Quantity Value of Quantity Value
quarries quarries
AJachua 4 2,438 1,971 4 8,449 3,245
Brevard 1 196 227 1 178 220
Broward 17 10,271 18,891 18 9,185 17,563
Citrus 5 1,072 1,593 5 953 1,336
Collier __ 9 2,705 5,473 10 2,628 6,008
Dade 19 23,185 33,478 18 18,361 28,488
Hernando 5 10,399 21,853 8 8,670 20,838
Levy 3 304 W 3 286 247
Marian 6 1,543 3,032 7 1,255 8,119
Manroe 1 625 1,336 1 550 1,296
Okeechobee _._ 1 66 W
Pahn Beach 3 313 326 4 W W
Pasco 1 800 420 2 352 611
Polk 1 127 145 1 112 141
Sumter 4 5,274 W 4 4,163 5,865
UndisiHtr ted __ 10 2,983 14,851 9 4,409 11,401
Total' _89 61,785 103,595 96 54,560 100,878
W Withheld to avoid disclosing individual company confidential data; included with "Undis-
I Includes Jackson, Lee, Manatee, Suwanee, and Taylor Counties.
2 Data. may not add to totals shown because of independent rounding.


Table 9.-Florida: Crushed limestone and dolomite sold or used by producers, by use
(Thousand short tons and thousand dollars)
1973 1974
Quantity Value Quantity Value
Bituminous aggregate ------------------------ 2,671 4,424 4,930 10,341
Concrete aggregate --------------------------- 20,067 40,176 14,918 32,309
Dense graded roadbase stone ----------------- 22,930 34,139 19,114 24,590
Macadam aggregate -------------------------- 1,446 2,612 260 458
Surface treatment aggregate ----------------- 828 1,392 5,407 13,699
Unspecified construction aggregate and roadstone 5,399 4,877 2,089 3,479
Agricultural purposes 1 ----------------------- 1,425 4,326 1,478 5,154
Cement manufacture -------------------------. 1,775 2,271 1,840 2,412
Fill -------------------- --------------------- 1,020 1,476 1,802 2,756
Manufactured fine aggregate (stone sand) --- 2,210 3,297 1,779 3,130
Railroad ballast 295 566 W W
Riprap and jetty stone --- --- W W 218 547
Other uses2 ----------------------------------- 1,669 4,039 725 1,504
Total --------------------------------- 61,734 103,537 54,560 100,378
W Withheld to avoid disclosing individual company confidential data; included with "Other uses."
I Data include agricultural Hmestone, other soil conditioners, and stone used in poultry grit and
mineral food.
a Data include stone used in other fillers and lime manufacture. 1973 data also include stone used
in drain fields and uses not specified.
8 Data may not add to totals shown because of independent rounding.

Sulfur.--Recovered sulfur from petroleum
production in Escambia and Santa Rosa
Counties increased from 224,416 long tons
in 1973 to 249,929 long tons in 1974. Sul-
fur sales increased from 225,407 long tons
in 1973 to 248,627 long tons in 1974.
Vermiculite.-Exfoliated vermiculite was
produced by two operators from four plants
in Broward, Duval, and Hillsborough
Counties from crude material shipped into
the State. The vermiculite was used for
lightweight aggregate, plaster aggregate,
insulation, and other uses.


Metals accounted for only 2% of the
State's total mineral production value.
Ferroalloys.-Two companies produced
ferrophosphorus as a byproduct of elemen-
tal phosphorus manufacture. The value of
ferroalloys is not included in the total
State mineral production value.
Rare Earth Minerals.-Titanium Enter-
prises produced monazite concentrate from
its Green Cove Springs plant. The mona-
zite concentrate contains rare earth metals
and thorium oxide.
Titanium Concentrates.-Shipments of il-
menite concentrate decreased 13% in ton-
nage but increased 10% in value from that
of 1973, reflecting the worldwide increase
in price.
E. I. du Pont de Nemours & Co. and
Titanium Enterprises produced ilmenite

concentrate from their plants in Clay
County. NL Industries, Inc. moved its
dredge from the Folkston, Ga. mine into the
Boulogne, Fla. area. The concentrate will
be trucked back to its Folkston plant for
Titanium Enterprises produced rutile
concentrate from its Green Cove Springs
plant. Shipments decreased 29% in ton-
nage and 18% in value from that of 1973.
Zircon Concentrate.-Production of zir-
con concentrate at E. I. du Pont de Ne-
mours & Co.'s Trail Ridge plant and Ti-
tanium Enterprises Green Cove Spring op-
erations, both in Clay County, increased
16% over that of 1973. The value was
117% higher than that reported in 1973.
The zircon sands were used in ferrous
foundries, refractory shapes, and ceramics.


Mineral fuels produced were natural gas,
natural gas liquids, crude petroleum, and
Natural Gas.-Total net sales of natural
gas in Florida in 1974 was about 31 billion
cubic feet. The difference between the total
net sales volume and the 38.1 billion cubic
feet measured at the wellhead was a 12.3%
H2S, C02, and N2 content, plus plant losses
and in plant consumption for combustion
purposes. All of the gas sold was from the
Jay field, except for a small quantity that
was produced from the nearby Mt. Carmel


field. The Florida Gas Transmission Pipe-
line Co. marketed most of the sales volume
for intrastate consumption. The remainder
was sold through Five Flags Pipeline Co. to
industrial customers in the Pensacola area.
Prior to distribution by the Florida Gas
Transmission Pipeline Co., the gas was
stripped of natural gas liquids at its proc-
essing plant in north-central Florida. The
British thermal unit value of the gas was
reduced from 1,450 to 1,040 Btu per cubic
foot before distribution through the intra-
state pipeline.
Peat.-Peat production increased from
43,800 short tons valued at $384,000 in
1973 to 67,300 short tons valued at
$616,000 in 1974. The 53.6% increase in
production was accompanied by a 60.4%
increase in value. Nine companies produced
moss, reed-sedge, and humus peat. Ship-
ments totaled 67,000 short tons and con-
sisted of 34% moss, 14% reed-sedge, and
52% humus peat. All but a few tons were
shipped in bulk and used to pack flowers,
plants, and shrubs; for general soil im-
provement and potting soils; and for earth-
worm culture.
Petroleum.-Total oil production in Flo-
rida was 36.4 million barrels in 1974. The
11% increase was primarily attributed to
further development of the Jay field. The
Jay field yielded 86.8% of the total crude
oil production in the State. The wellhead

value, of northwest Florida high-grade
crude ranged from $9.07 per barrel in
January 1974 to $10.22 per barrel in De-
cember 1974.1" The yearly average value
was approximately $9.66 per barrel. North-
west Florida's oil production was primarily
derived from the Jurassic Age Smackover
Limestone Formation. Additional produc-
tion from Blackjack Creek: field, some 10
miles from Jay, was scheduled for 1975.
Crude petroleum production from south
Florida was derived entirely from the
Lower Cretaceous Age Sunniland Lime-
stone Formation. The average depth of a
development well in the Sunniland trend
is about 11,500 feet. There are 72 produc-
ing wells in 8 fields in this trend. A new
field in Hendry County, discovered in No-
vember 1973, was designated Seminole
field. In July 1974, Exxon discovered Le-
high Park field 10 miles east of Ft. Myers.
Approximately 4.6 million barrels of
crude oil ranging from 25 API to 320
API gravity, representing 12.6% of Flor-
ida's total production, was produced from
south Florida's fields. Wellhead prices
ranged from $5.66 per barrel in January to
over $5.88 per barrel in December 1974
for old and new oil combined.

14 Based on 5% Gross Production Tax reported
to Florida Dept. of Revenue.

Table 10.--Florida: Oil and gas well drilling completions, by county
Proved field wells1 Exploratory wells Total
CuOil Gas Dry Oil Gas Dry ofwe Footage

AlacTh na ______ 1 1 3,840
Collier -2 .. 4 6 74,852
Eacambia 3 -- .- 3 47,421
Gulf ________________ --- -- 1 1 18,284
Hendry -- 1 1 2 4 46,844
Homes .. 1 1 11,201
Lafayette .- -- 2 2 6,760
Lee 1 1 1 3 6 71,285
Leon __ -.. 1 1 10,466
Liberty 2 2 24,531
Okalbosa _____ 1 1 15,260
Okeechobee .._. -- -- 2 2 22,051
Paseo .. .. .. .. 2 2 18,794
Santa Rosa 1 -- 6 1 8 130,042
Suwannee _-- -- 2 2 9,016
Wakulla ______ -- 1 1 13,489
Walton -- -.. .. 1 1 14,615
Washington -- 1 1 14,044
Total 7 8 2 28 45 541,686
f Development wells as defined by American Petroleum Institute.
Source: American Petroleum Institute.


STablel 11.--Principal producers

Commodity and company Address Type of activity County

General Portland Inc ....----

Lehigh Portland Cement Co.1 -

Pennsuco Cement &
Engelhard Minerals &
Chemicals Corp.
Mid-Florida Mining ------.........

Pennsylvania Glass Sand Corp.

Gypsum calcinedd) :
Kaiser Cement & Gypsum Corp.

National Gypsum Co .........
U.S. Gypsum Co -----

Chemical Lime, Inc ------

Dixie Lime & Stone Co.1 ---

Magnesium compounds:
Basic Magnesia, Inc. ---

Raymond Johnson -------
Oxford Peat Co ------

Peace River Peat, Inc ........

F. E. Stearns Peat -----

Traxler Peat Co ---------

Perlite (expanded) :
Airlite Processing Corp. of
Armstrong Cork Co ..........

Chemrock Corp -------- -

W. R. Grace & Co.8 ----

Petroleum (crude):
Exxon Co., U.S.A -------
Sun Oil Co --------

Petroleum (refined) :
Seminole Asphalt Refining, Inc.

Phosphate rock:
Agrico Chemical Co ..........--
Borden, Inc --------

Brewster Phosphates -----
Gardiner, Inc ----------

International Minerals &
Chemical Corp.
Mobil Oil Corp.* -----

Occidental Petroleum Corp ---
Swift Chemical Co ------
U.S.S. Agri-Chemicals, Inc ---

See footnotes at end of table.

4400 Republic National
Bank Tower, Box 324
Dallas, Tex. 75221
718 Hamilton St.
Allentown, Pa. 18105,
P.O. Box 2035 PVS
Hialeah, Fla. 833012

Menlo Park
Edison, N.J. 08817
Box 68-F
Lowell, Fla. 32663
Berkeley Springs, W.Va.

300 Lakeside Dr.
Oakland, Calif. 94612
325 Delaware Ave.
Buffalo, N.Y. 14202
101 S. Wacker Dr.
Chicago, Ill. 60606

Box 250
Ocala, Fla. 32670
Drawer 217
Ocala/Fla. 32670

Box 160
Port St. Joe, Fla. 32456

Box 555
Zellwood, Fla. 32798
Box 154'
Oxford, Fla. 32684
P.O. Box 1192
Bartow, Fla. 33830
Rt. 1 Box 347-I
Valrico, Fla. 33594
Box 10
Florahome, Fla. 32635

Rt. 2 Box 740
Vero Beach, Fla. 32960
Box 1991
Pensacola, Fla. 32589
End of Osage St.
Nashville, Tenn. 37208
62 Whittemore Ave.
Cambridge, Mass. 02140

Box 2024
Houston, Tex. 77001
Box 2880
Dallas, Tex. 75221

Box 128
St. Marks, Fla. 32855

Box 3166
Tulsa, Okla. 74101
Box 790
Plant City,'Fla. 33566
Bradley, Fla. 33835 ---
Box 3269
Tampa, Fla. 33601
Box 867
Bartow, Fla. 38830
Box 311
Nichols, Fla. 33863
White Springs, Fla. 32096
Box 208
Bartow, Fla. 33830
Box 867
Ft. Meade, Fla. 33841

Plants ........

Plant ........----

---- do -------

Open pit mines.
.... do -------.

---- do --.....

Plant -------

--.... do ----.......
.... do .......

Dade and




Duval. -


---- do .-----. Hernando.
.... do ----....... Sumter.

--.. do ------- Gulf.

Bog .........
Bog .........

Bog .........
Bog .........
Bog .........

Plant ....---.....

.... do .......

.... do .......

.... do .......

Wells ---------

.... do .......

Refinery ......-

Open pit mines
and plants.
Open pit mine
and plant.
-- do ---
.... do ...

Open pit
---- do ...---

Open pit mine -
Open pit
Open pit mine -



Indian River.




Santa Rosa.

Collier and









Table 11.-Principal producers-Continued

Commodity and company Address Type of activity County

Sand and gravel:
General Development Corp ----
Ortona Sand Co ----------
Seminole Rock Products, Inc -

Standard Sand & Silica Co --

Warren Bros. Co
E. L duPont de Nemours & Co.5

Florida Crushed Stone Co ..-
Florida Mining and Materials
Florida Rock Industries, Inc." _

Houdaille-Duvall-Wright Co _-

Maule Industries. Ine
Sterling Crushed Stone Co
Titanium concentrates:
Titanium Enterprises T ......-

1111 S. Bayshore Dr.
Miami, Fla. 33131
First & East Tillman
Lake Wales, Fla. 33853
8100 N.W. 74th St.
Miami, Fla. 33166
Box 35
Davenport, Fla. 33837
Fairfield, Maine 04937 ---

DuPont Bldg. D-10084
Wilmington, Del. 19898

P.O. Box 668
Ocala, Fla. 32670
Box 59351
Miami, Fla. 33159
Box 4667
Jacksonville, Fla. 32201

Box 1588
Jacksonville, Fla. 32201
Box 2601
Hialeah, Fla. 33012
Miami, Fla. 33163 ----

Box 1036
Greencove Springs, Fla.

Pits _----
Dredge ---

Pit ..........-------

Pit -----------

Plant -....----..--

Quarries .....-
Quarry --....

Quarries --

Dredge ---

Quarries ---
-- do .......-

Mine and

Brevard and
St. Lucie.




Collier, Her-
nando, Lee,

Broward and


'Also stone.
Also lime.
Also phosphate rock and exfoliated vermiculite.
4 Also elemental phosphorous.
3Also titanium and zirconium concentrates.
8 Also sand and gravel.
, Also zircon concentrate, and rare-earth oxides and thorium oxide in monazite concentrate.

-".Sand and gravel resources of Florid Main
-... r -.-.. ..' ._.4.....SandandQE99 A32 no 90

-* adan 9 a.* i -n

*i-. g


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