Mineral industry of Florida...


Mineral industry of Florida 1973
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Title: Mineral industry of Florida 1973
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Subjects / Keywords: Mineral industry -- Statistics -- Florida
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Table of Contents
    Mineral industry of Florida 1973
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Full Text

The Mineral Industry of Florida

Uhis chapter has been prepared under a cooperative agreement between the Bureau of
lines, U.S. Department of the Interior, and the Florida Bureau of Geology.

By William F. Stowasser 1 and Charles W. Hendry, Jr.2

The value of mineral production in Flor-
,da increased from $426.6 million in 1972
to $601.1 million in 1973. The increase of
$174.5 million, or 41% more than the
value in 1972, was principally caused by
increases in the value of crude petroleum,
natural gas, cement, stone, and phosphate
rock. A general increase in the value of all
minerals produced helped to create this
record reported value.
Of the 42.1 million tons of phosphate
rock produced in the United States, Flor-
ida and North Carolina produced 34.4
million. Of this total, Florida was the
predominant producer and, for the 80th
consecutive year, supplied more than any
other State. The State ranked first in the
value of fuller's earth, second in the value
of production of titanium concentrates, and
third in the value of peat and kyanite
production. Staurolite was produced only
in Florida. Florida and North Carolina
supplied 82% of the domestic phosphate
rock market and about 95% of the ex-
ports from the United States. Only Moroc-
co exported more phosphate rock than was
exported from the ports of Tampa, Boca
Grande, and Jacksonville. Shipments were
ents were West Germany, Canada, and
, Crude petroleum production from the
Jay field in the northern Panhandle near
the Alabama border was responsible for
the State's surge in production, from 16.9
million barrels in 1972 to 32.7 million bar-
rels in 1973. Florida's onshore oil produc-
tion was important, but interest in 1973
shifted to offshore sites. On December 20,
1973, the Bureau of Land Management,
U.S. Department of the Interior, opened

sealed bids made by some 51 oil firms on
147 tracts off Mississippi, Alabama, and
Florida (MAFLA). The industry winners
spent $1.491 billion for the right to drill
on 87 tracts covering 485,000 acres of
ocean floor. The Bureau of Land Manage-
ment estimated the reserves in the Decem-
ber MAFLA sale as 2 to 3.2 billion barrels
of oil and 2.4 to 3.9 trillion cubic feet of
gas. Recovery of the petroleum will require
925 to 1,500 wells drilled from 100 to 300
platforms. Some 500 to 800 miles of pipe-
line will be needed to transport the crude
oil to shore facilities. The MAFLA sale
was divided into four sections. Twenty-
nine tracts were identified in the Pasca-
goula, La., to Pensacola area. Another 32
tracts are located in the Gulf of Mexico,
about halfway between Fort Walton Beach
and Panama City, called the Apalachicola
South area. Fourteen tracts are located
south of Tallahassee and west of Homosas-
sa. Twelve tracts are located west of Tar-
pon Springs. Most are located between 50
and 150 miles out into the Gulf of Mexico.
Legislation and Government Programs.-
The State did not enact any new significant
legislation that directly concerned mineral
production. The Department of Natural
Resources issued interim guidelines for
State acquisition of environmentally en-
dangered lands. The criteria for identifying
these lands will be their ecological value,
their vulnerability, and their endangerment.
Priority will be given where the degree of
urgency for environmental protection is
high and where specific objectives are iden-

1 Physical scientist, Division of Nonmetallic Min-
erals-Mineral Supply.
2 Chief, Bureau of Geology, Florida Department
of Natural Resources.


tified for land protection; if possible, other
laws will be used to acquire land rather
than direct purchase by the State.
On June 10, 1973, the Governor signed
into law the act creating an Energy Study
Commission. The law is designed to assure
monitoring of the State's resources. The
Commission will be required to study the
national energy situation and its relation-
ship to the Florida energy position. The
Commission will also be required to recom-
mend comprehensive energy policies to as-
sure that Florida will have sufficient en-
ergy for future needs.
Florida's oil spill law was ruled valid
by a unanimous U.S. Supreme Court deci-
sion. The law imposes absolute and unlim-
ited liability on shipowners whose vessels
pollute and damage the State's territorial
waters and coastal zone. The State Depart-
ment of Natural Resources will enforce the
The Governor and cabinet approved the
drilling of one 13,000-foot oil well in the
Apalachicola National Forest on October
The Bureau of Mines Albany Metal-
lurgy Research Center, Albany, Oreg., initi-
ated studies to demonstrate the physical
and economic feasibility of phosphoric acid
manufacture by direct sulfuric acid diges-
tion of Florida land-pebble matrix. It was
shown that direct sulfuric acid digestion
of a Florida phosphate matrix sample
could be controlled to produce phosphoric
acid and achieve a high P.Os recovery.
The waste product, a quartz-gypsum filter
cake, was characterized as sandy, readily
dewatered, and suitable for backfilling
mined-out areas to reclaim land. Elimina-
tion of the slime storage areas that cover
up to 70% of Florida phosphate mined
land, and a 20% to 30% increase in phos-
phate recovery were the principal justifica-
tions for developing a process to produce
phosphoric acid directly from Florida phos-
phate matrix.
A number of samples from operating
mines in Florida were tested in a continu-
ous-circuit miniplant. Phosphoric acid, con-
taining from 21% to 30% P.Os, was pro-
duced with recoveries ranging from 90%
to 935%. A larger pilot plant capable of
processing 100 pounds per 24-hour day was
designed and is under construction. It will
have an acid attack-gypsum crystalliza-
tion section and a matching rotating tilting
pan filter.

The Bureau of Mines Tuscaloosa Metal-
lurgy Research Laboratory, Tuscaloosa,
Ala., had seven active programs related to
Florida phosphate mining and beneficia-
tion problems.
The Florida Hawthorn Formation that
underlies the phosphate matrix contains
some phosphate minerals. The Hawthorn
is characterized, for the most part, as a
tan, cream- or white-colored, sandy argil-
laceous-appearing, hard dolomitic lime.
stone. The upper part of the formation
contains traces to large amounts of black!
phosphate nodules. Recovery of the phos-
phate minerals was attempted by calcininj
and slaking a sized fraction of the material
to separate the lime from the phosphate.
Laboratory flotation tests were also made
on Hawthorn Formation samples. Floating
the phosphate minerals from the dolomitic
gangue was attempted with petroleum sul-
fonate. The results from these tests were
not promising.
The research program to develop a sys-
tem to dewater phosphate slimes sponsored
by the Florida Phosphate Council, repre-
senting 10 operating Florida companies,
and the Bureau of Mines continued
through 1973. The program, conducted by
The Tuscaloosa Metallurgy Research Lab.
oratory, was divided into a number of stud.
ies. Phosphate slime samples were charac.
terized, and the identification of attapulgite
clay as the major factor responsible for the
poor settling rate of the slimes was con-
firmed. The study also confirmed that the
quantity and character of slime solids dis-
charged to settling ponds were highly vari-
able. The relationship of electrophoretic
mobilities and cation exchange capacities
of phosphate slimes to their mineralogical,
chemical, and physical properties was in-
vestigated during the year. Results indi-
cated that the hydrogen ion was potential-
determining for the slime systems, and the
mobility was reduced to zero at a pH of
about 2.5. Anions in the slime systems were
also found to have significant effects om
particle mobility. The studies indicated
that the conditions for maximum inobilit)
correspond to conditions for minimum slime
viscosity and minimum amount of floc-
culant needed to agglomerate and settle
the slime particles.
Studies were made of phosphate roc
matrix in place to determine if selective
mining could be used to reduce the quan
tity of attapulgite in the feed to washing!


plants. In one pit attapulgite did occur ionic polymers. Dow AP-30 was found to
near the bottom, thus opening the poten- be most effective.
Research on the consolidation behavior
tial for selective mining. of sand-slime mixtures showed that addi-
Flocculation studies were made with a tion of sand tailings to slime improved
wide variety of anionic, cationic, and non- dewatering rates.

Table 1.-Mineral production in Florida 1

1972 1973
Mineral Quantity Value Quantity Value
(thousands) (thousands)
Masonry --- thousand short tons 213 $6,901 266 $8,706
Portland ----------------- do ---- 2,425 59,773 2,725 72,666
Clays --------------------------do --- "922 210,836 1,139 13,718
Lime -------------------------- do --- 180 3,527 187 4,026
Natural gas -------- million cubic feet 15,521 4,967 33,857 11,613
Peat ... .------.. thousand short tons -- 45 362 44 384
Petroleum (crude)
thousand 42-gallon barrels 16,897 W 32,695 150,070
Sand and gravel -_ thousand short tons r 22,863 r 17,009 20,167 21,415
Stone ......------------------------- do .... 53,093 81,621 61,735 103,595
Value of items that cannot be disclosed:
Clay (kaolin, 1972), kyanite, magne-
sium compounds, natural gas liquids,
phosphate rock, rare-earth metal con-
centrates, staurolite, stone (shell),
titanium concentrates, zircon concen-
trates, and values indicated by sym-
bol W ------------------------------ XX r 242,136 XX 214,907
Total ---------------------------- XX r 426,632 XX 601,100
Total 1967 constant dollars ------ XX 352,014 XX P 441,328
P Preliminary. r Revised. W Withheld to avoid disclosing individual company confidential
data; included with "Value of items that cannot be disclosed." XX Not applicable.
Production as measured by mine shipments, sales, or marketable production (including con-
sumption by producers).
2 Excludes kaolin: included with "Value of items that cannot be disclosed."
.0 Excludes shell; included with "Value of items that cannot be disclosed."

Table 2.-Value of mineral production in Florida, by county. s

County 1972 1973 Minerals produced in 1973 in order of value

Alachua ------------
Bay ----------------
Bradford -----------
Brevard -----------
Broward ----------
Calhoun ------------
Charlotte ----------
Citrus -------------
Clay ----------------

Collier --------------
Dade ---------------
Escambia -----------
Franklin -----------
Gadsden -----------..
Gilchrist ----------
Gulf ------------..---
Hamilton _-----------
Hendry ------------
Hernando ----------
Hillsborough _-
Indian River .......-
Jackson _---------
Lake ----------
Lee ....------------
Leon -------------
Levy. ------------
Manatee ----------
Marion ----------
Monroe ------------





Sand and gravel.
Natural gas liquids.
Stone, sand and gravel.
Stone, sand and gravel.
Sand and gravel.
Stone, clays, phosphate rock.
Titanium concentrates, zircon, staurolite, clays,
rare-earth metal concentrates, kyanite.
Stone, petroleum, natural gas.
Cement, stone, sand and gravel.
Petroleum, natural gas, sand and gravel, clays.
Peat, sand and gravel.
Clays, sand and gravel.
Phosphate rock.
Magnesium compounds, lime.
Phosphate rock.
Petroleum, sand and gravel, natural gas.
Stone, lime, phosphate rock.
Cement, sand and gravel, peat.

Stone, sand and gravel.
Sand and gravel.
Stone, petroleum, natural gas.
Sand and gravel.
Stone, clays, sand and gravel, phosphate rock.

See footnotes at end of table.


Table 2.-Value of mineral production in Florida, by county I-Continued
County 1972 1978 Minerals produced in 1978 in order of value

Okaloosa ...........
Orange -------
Palm Beach -------
Pasco -. ........---
Pinells -------. ----
Polk ..............---
Putnam ------------
Putnam ............
St. Lucie _------
Santa Rosa ..-......
Sarasota ----------
Sumter -----------
Suwanee -------..........----
Taylor ------
Walton ------
Unditstributed3 ---
Total ---........

W $826
$155,238 175,605
1,571 W
85,625 110,404
7,185 W
r 107,968 188,092
r 426,682 601,100

Sand and gravel.
Stone, sand and gravel.
Phosphate rock, sand and
Sand and gravel, clays, peat.
Sand and gravel.
Petroleum, natural gas.
Stone, lime, peat.
Sand and gravel.

gravel, stone, peat.

r Revised. W Withheld to avoid disclosing Individual company confidential data; included
with "Undistributed."
The following counties are not listed because no production was reported: Baker, Columbia, Dc
Soto Dixie. Duval. Flagler. Glades, Hardee, Highlands, Holmes, Jefferson Lafayette, Liberty,
Madison. Martin. Nassau. Okeechobee, Osceola, St. Johns. Seminole, Union, Volusia, and Wakulla.
2 Values of petroleum are based on an average price per barrel for the State.
Includes value of counties indicated by symbol W.
Data may not add to totals shown because of independent rounding.

Table 3.-Indicators of Florida business activity
1972 1978 P percent

Employment and labor force, annual average:
Total nonagrricultural employment .... thousands -.
Manufacturing .....................----------------------- do ....
Mining ------------------------------- do ---
Contract construction ----------.---------- do ----
Other nonagricultural employment t -------..... do ....
Personal income:
Total ----.....................----------..... millions --
Per capital ..............-----------------------------------
Construction activity:
Housing units authorized ....------------------------
Value of nonresidential construction ....- millions --
Highway construction contract awards .... do ....
Farm marketing receipts ....---------------------. do ....
Mineral production value ------------------ do --
Export trade .......------------------------------.. do -...
Import trade .....------------------------ do ....
Estimate. P Preliminary.
*Includes transportation and public utilities: wholesale
real estate: service: and government.

2,474.0 2,708.2
844.0 872.5
9.1 8.9
221.0 265.7
1.900.5 2,061.1
$(1,779 $85,680
$4,878 $4,647

" $210.0


and retail trade; finance, insurance, and

Sources: Survey of Current Business: Employment and Earnings; Farm Income Situation: Con-
struetion Review: Area Trends in Employment and Unemployment; Roads and Streets; Highlights
of U.S. Export and Import Trade: and U.S. Bureau of Mines.



Figure 1.-Value of phosphate rock, stone, and total value
of mineral production in Florida.



Nonmetals represented 70%, fuels 28%,
and metals 2% of the total value of the
State's mineral production in 1973. The
principal nonmetals produced were, in de-
creasing order of value, phosphate rock,
stone, cement, sand and gravel, and clays.
Cement.-Although shipments of both
portland and masonry cement significantly
increased over 1972 levels, 12% and 20%
respectively, the supply was insufficient
to meet the demand. Portland cement ship-
ments were 2.7 million short tons, and
masonry cement shipments were 256,000
short tons. The value of portland and ma-
sonry cement shipments was $72.7 million
and $8.7 million respectively. The gains
in values were 22% for portland cement
and _26% for masonry cement compared
with values reported in 1972.
The number of cement plants in Florida
has remained constant since 1966. The
expansion of existing plants has accounted
for the annual increases in production. The
consumption pattern of portland cement
in the State was 66% to ready-mix con-
crete companies, 8% to building material
dealers, 15% to concrete product maniu-

facturers, and 11% for miscellaneous ap-
Maule Industries, Inc., Miami, is ex-
panding its cement mill capacity from 0.43
to 1.2 million tons per year. The new
capacity is expected to become available
in May 1974. Plans to increase the mill's
capacity to 2.1 million tons per year were
authorized. The scheduled completion date
was the end of 1975.'
Florida Mining and Materials Corp.,
Tampa, announced construction of a 0.56-
million-ton-per-year cement plant in Brook-
ville. The plant is scheduled to go on-
stream in the fourth quarter of 1975.'
Clays.-Total clay production and value
increased from 1972 levels by 24% and
33% respectively.
Fuller's earth production increased 19%
and its value increased 24% above those
of 1972. Florida's fuller's earth production
ranked second highest in the Nation. Three
mines were operating in Gadsden County,
and one operated in Marion County. Full-
s Pit & Quarry. Maule To Expand Florida Ag-
gregate Plant Cement Mill. V. 65, No. 10, April
1973 p. 19..
SRock Products. V. 77, No. 3, March 1974, p.

Stone -- s
--" '



her's earth was used for fillers, absorbers,
pesticides, drilling mud, filter aids, and
other purposes.
Kaolin production increased 3% and its
value increased 7%. Kaolin was produced
from one mine in Putnam County. It was
principally used for manufacturing china
and dinnerware.
Production of common clay used to man-
ufacture cement, lightweight aggregate, and
building brick increased 22% in quantity,
and 48% in value. Four mines in Citrus,
Clay, Escambia, and Gadsden Counties
operated in 1973.
Gypsum.---Crude gypsum was imported
from mines in Nova Scotia, Canada, and
processed into various building products at
two plants in Duval County and one plant
in Hillsborough County. U.S. Gypsum Co.,
National Gypsum Co., and Kaiser Cement
& Gypsum Corp. calcined crude gypsum in
kettles, a rotary kiln, and a Holoflite unit.
A total of 642,000 short tons of calcined
gypsum was produced, an increase of 8%
over 1972 production. The value of the
production increased 17% over that of
1972 to $8.2 million.
Kyanite.--E. I. du Pont de Nemours &
Co. recovered a small quantity of a kya-
nite-sillimanite mixture from a beach sand
deposit in Clay County. It is a byproduct
of a titanium mineral recovery operation.
Both production and value decreased 76%
from 1972 levels. The kyanite-sillimanite
mixture was sold to refractory manufac-
Lime.-Quicklime and lime hydrate
were produced by Basic Magnesia, Inc.,
Gulf County; Chemical Lime, Inc., Her-
nando County; and Dixie Lime & Stone
Co., Sumter County. The total sold or used
was 186,769 short tons and was valued at
$4 million. Compared with those of 1972,
quantity and value increased 3.9% and
14.1% respectively. The lime was con-
sumed in pulp and paper industries, in the
recovery of magnesia from seawater, in
construction, and in waste neutralization,
water treatment, and other chemical proc-
esses. Lime consumption exceeded the pro-
duction in the State.
Magnesia.-Basic Magnesia, Inc., Port
St. Joe, Gulf County, produced caustic-
calcined magnesia and refractory-grade
magnesia from seawater. Production was
less than the plant's design capacity of

60,000 short tons per year. Shipments in-
creased 8.5% and the value increased
22.3% compared with 1972 shipments and
Perlite.-Four companies produced ex-
panded perlite from ore mined in Colorado
and New Mexico. Production increased to
23,378 short tons in 1973 from 19,124
short tons in 1972. The quantity sold or
used was 22,613 short tons, an increase of
24% over that of 1972. The value of the
quantity sold or used was $1,287,000, an
increase of 29% over the comparable value
in 1972. Production from plants in Bro-
ward, Duval, Escambia, and Indian River
Counties was used in plaster aggregate,
concrete aggregate, formed products, horti-
cultural aggregate, and miscellaneous filter
aids and fillers.
Phosphate Rock.--Because Texasgulf,
Inc., was the only phosphate rock pro-
ducing company in North Carolina and it
was necessary to conceal that company's
production data, North Carolina and Flor-
ida statistics were combined. Combined
production was 34.4 million short tons, an
increase of 0.9% over that of 1972. The
value of the marketable rock increased to
$192 million, 10% greater than the 1972
value. Florida and North Carolina pro-
duced 81.7% of the total production in
the United States.
The quantity of marketable rock sold
or used from Florida and North Carolina
was similar to that of 1972, 36.9 million
short tons; however, its value was $205
million, an increase of 9% over that of
1972. With sales and consumption continu-
ing to exceed production, stocks declined
from 10.5 to 8.5 million short tons during
the year.
Of the total sold or used, 63% was used
to produce fertilizer and 36% was exported.
The minor balance was used in industrial
applications and as animal feed supple-
ments. The distribution pattern of this
fraction was 0.2% for elemental phos-
phorus and 1.2% for defluorinated rock
and other miscellaneous applications.
Most of the 13,173,000 short tons of
marketable phosphate rock exported from
Florida and North Carolina was from
Florida. Exports declined 3% from 1972
The percent distribution by grade of


marketable rock sold or used from Florida phosphoric acid plant and a 100-ton-per-
and North Carolina was as follows: hour single-train diammonium phosphate
Percent plant at Faustina, La., that will use Flor-
Grade, percent BPLx distribution ida rock. Plans were advanced to design
Less than 60 0.3 and construct the Fort Green mine in
60 to 66 ------------------ 9.7 Polk County to produce 3.5 million short
6670 to 72 14.1 tons---------------- 4tons per year of marketable phosphate
70 to 72 ------------------------14.1
72 to 74 ---------------------- 18.5 rock.
Over 74 ------------------ 11.5 Beker Industries Corp., Greenwich,
1 1.0 BPL (bone phosphate of lime or trical- Conn., signed options to purchase 8,000
cium phosphate) = 0.458% P20,. acres of phosphate reserves from PPG In-
dustries, Inc., Pittsburgh, Pa. From these
The average grade of phosphate ore reserves, located in eastern Manatee Coun-
mined was 12.8% P205 and the average ty, Beker plans to produce 3 million tons
grade of marketable rock was 31.9% P205. per year of marketable phosphate rock to
These are less than the reported 1972 supply fertilizer plants in Illinois and
average ore grade of 13.9% P20s and the Louisiana.
average marketable rock grade of 32.2% Conserve, Inc., Nichols, Fla., started op-
P.Os and reflect the continuing trend in rating the modernized fertilizer plant at
the reduction of matrix grade and the dif- this location and produced the first mono-
ficulty of maintaining an acceptable prod- ammonium phosphate in commercial quan-
uct grade. The average weight recovery titles in the United States.
of concentrate was 27% compared with CF Industries completed and dedicated
29.1% in 1972, and the average P2Os re- a new phosphate fertilizer terminal on
cover was 67.4%, about the same as re- Tampa Bay. The terminal has the capabil-
ported in 1972. Production capacity of ity of handling 500,000 tons per year.
Florida and North Carolina phosphate Vessels and barges loaded on Tampa Bay
mines was limited in 1973 to less than 34.5 can distribute fertilizer to farm cooperatives
million short tons of marketable rock. in the Midwest and Canada. CF Industries
This capacity is considerably less than that is constructing an 800-ton-per-day PsOs
estimated in prior years. The new assess- wet-process phosphoric acid plant in Plant
ment of the industry's capacity recognizes City, Fla. Completion is scheduled for 1974.
closing of older plants, power interruptions, The Cities Service Co. sold its Tampa
lower grade ores, and plant breakdowns. Agricultural Chemical Operations to So-
Soft phosphate rock was produced by ci6t6 des Participation Gardinier of Paris,
four companies operating six open pit France. The new name will be Gardinier,
mines in four Florida counties. Total soft Inc.-U.S. Phosphoric Products.'
rock sold or used was 22,028 short tons, W. R. Grace & Co. announced plans to
equivalent to 4,426 short tons POs5 and expand its chemical plant at Bartow, Fla.,
was valued at $154,828. It was sold for with a 250,000-ton-per-year phosphoric
direct application to soil and for animal acid plant and a 700,000-ton-per-year sul-
feed supplements. furic acid plant. A 60-cubic-yard dragline
Marketable rock was produced from was ordered for Hooker's Prairie mine,
Florida land-pebble phosphate mines by planned for Polk County in 1977.'
Agrico Chemical Co., Borden, Inc., International Minerals & Chemical Corp.
Brewster Phosphates, Gardinier, Inc., W. started construction on a 600,000-ton-per-
R. Grace & Co., International Minerals year PsO fertilizer plant near Bartow, Fla.
& Chemical Corp., Mobil Oil Corp., Po- Mining rights to 20 million tons of Florida
seidon Mines, Inc., P.S.A. Enterprises, Oc- phosphate rock reserves were acquired in
cidental Petroleum Corp., U.S.S. Agri- 1973.- The screening plant at the Phos-
Chemicals, Inc., and Swift Chemical Co. phoria mine is scheduled to start in 1974.
Agrico Chemical Co., a subsidiary of Deslimed ore will be pumped 6 miles to
Agrico Chemical Co., a subsidiary of the Noralyn recovery plant.
the Williams Co. of Tulsa, Okla., awarded pat
contracts for an 80-ton-per-hour granular Occidental Petroleum Corp. purchased
triple superphosphate plant and a 1,800- 24,000 acres of phosphate reserves from
ton-per-day sulfuric acid complex at South 5 Phos Pholks. V. 9, No. 1, February 1973.
Pierce, Fla. In addition, contracts were Engineering and Mining Journal. V. 147, No.
awarded for a 200000-ton-per-year PO Minerals, No. 69, June 1973.
awarded for a 200,000-ton-per-year P205 7 Industrial Minerals, No. 69, June 1973, p. 41.


Owens-Illinois Corp. and Monsanto Co.
Occidental estimated that 23 million short
tons of marketable phosphate rock could
be recovered from this reserve, located near
the Suwannee River phosphate mine and
chemical complex." A 45-cubic-yard drag-
line was assembled and will be used to in-
crease mining capability. The washing
plant expansion will increase capacity to
3.5 million short tons per year of market-
able phosphate rock. The Suwanee River
complex will increase phosphoric acid ca-
pacity by 350,000 tons of PsOs per year,
and diammonium phosphate capacity will
be increased by 350,000 tons per year. A
new but unspecified amount of sulfuric
acid capacity will be added to furnish suf-
ficient acid for rock digestion.
Sand and Gravel.-Sand and gravel pro-
duction totaled 20.2 million tons valued at
$21.4 million. Production decreased 10%
from that of 1972 because of reduced out-
put of fill sand. The value increased 26%
over that of 1972. The distribution pattern
of sand and gravel in commercial opera-
tions was building sand 51%, fill sand 31%,
paving sand 11%, and other sand and
gravel uses 7%.

Stone.--Crushed limestone and dolomite
were produced from 89 quarries in 18 coun-
ties in 1973, compared with production
from 75 quarries in 16 counties in 1972.
Production increased from 53.1 million
tons in 1972 to 61.7 million tons in 1973.
The value increased correspondingly from
$81.6 million to $103.6 million. Dade, Her-
nando, and Broward Counties, in that
order, were the principal producing coun-
ties in the State, supplying 71% of the
total production and accounting for 72%
of the total value. Sixteen companies pro-
duced 76% of the total tonnage and gen-
erated 77% of the total value. This pro-
duction was from 37 of the State's 91 op-
erating quarries. Eighty-five percent of the
stone was hauled by truck, 12% was moved
by rail, and the remaining 3% was un-
specified. One company processed oyster-
shells for roadbase material. Of the total
crushed limestone and dolomite sold or
used by producers, 78% was used for con-
crete aggregate, dense graded roadbed
stone, construction aggregate, and road-
The Tampa Tribune. Aug. 1, 1973. .

Table 4.-Florida: Sand and gravel sold or used by producers, by county
(Thousand short tons and thousand dollars)
1972 1978
Number Number
County of of
mines Quantity Value mines Quantity Value
Breard -------------- 1 W, W 1 67 165
Broward -------- -..---. 8 780 W 8 1,480 1,465
Da .----------. ..---- 6 W W 6 2,541 8,889
Ecabia .----------------.. 8 978 622 5 506 688
Hendrr ---------------- 2 W W 1 1,529 1,816
HUllborough -..---..... 1 W W 1 268 W
Lake ...--------------------... .. 1,862 1,767 4 2,187 2,160
Polk ---------------------. 8,760 4,645 8 4,871 5,567
Santa Rova -------------- 1 8 (1)
Undistrlbuted -- ----- r 25 r 15,009 r 9,974 28 7,885 6,176
Total -.---.-...... '60 '22,868 '17,009 51 20,167 21,416
Re vised. W Withheld to avoid disclosing individual company confidential data; included
with '"Undistributed."
SLaes than % unit.
2 Includes Bay. Calhoun. Charlotte, Franklin, Gadsden, Indian River (1972), Jackson, Leon, Marion,
Okalooss. Pinellas. Putnam, St. Lucie, Sarasota (1972), Walton, and Washington Counties (1978).
Data may not add to totals shown because of Independent rounding.


Table 5.-Florida: Sand and gravel sold or used by producers,
by class of operation and use
(Thousand short tons and thousand dollars)
1972 1978
Class of operation and use Quantity Value Quantity Value
Commercial operations: Sand:
Building .......------------------------- r 7,446 r 7,601 10,299 11,522
Paving ......--------------------------..... r 4,844 r 4,556 2,246 2,758
Fill -------------------------W W 6,183 3,128
Other sand and gravel 1 r 10,573 r 4,851 1,489 4,007
Total ---------___----___ r 22,868 r 17,009 20,167 21,415
r Revised. W Withheld to avoid disclosing individual company confidential data; included
with "Other sand and gravel."
1 Includes glass, blast, engine, filtration, filler (1978), and other sands; building gravel, paving
gravel, fill gravel (1978), and railroad ballast (1973).
2 Data may not add to totals shown because of independent rounding.

Table 6.-Florida:

Crushed limestone and dolomite sold or used by producers, by county
(Thousand short tons and thousand dollars)

1972 1978
Number Number
County of of
quarries Quantity Value quarries Quantity Value
Alachua ----------------- 4 2,166 1,741 4 2,48 1,971
Brevard ------------------ 1 185 192 1 196 227
Broward ----------------- 19 9,278 14,613 17 10,271 18,891
Citrus ------------------- 4 W 1,039 5 1,072 1,593
Collier ------------------- 4 1,766 W 9 2,705 5,473
Dade -------------------- 15 21,100 26,752 19 23,185 33,478
Hernando ---------------- 5 8,617 17,186 5 10,399 21,853
Levy --------------------- 415 W 3 304 W
Marion ----------------- 5 1,099 2,486 6 1,543 3,032
Monroe ------------------ 1 W W 1 625 1,336
Palm Beach -------------- 8 W W 3 313 326
Pasco ------- ------------ -- 1 300 420
Polk ------------------- -- -- 1 127 145
Sumter ------------------- 8 4,698 W 4 5,274 W
Undistributed ---- --- 8 3,778 17,611 10 2,982 14,792
Total ------------- 75 58,093 81,621 83 61,734 103,536
W Withheld to avoid disclosing individual company confidential data; included with "Undistributed."
1 Includes Jackson, Lee, Suwannee and Taylor Counties.
a Data may not add to totals shown because of independent rounding.

Table 7.-Florida: Crushed limestone and dolomite sold or used by producers, by use
(Thousand short tons and thousand dollars)
1972 1973
Quantity Value Quantity Value
Bituminous aggregate --------------------------- 3.,843 6,488 2,671 4,424
Concrete aggregate ------------------------------ 16,573 28,042 20,067 40,176
Dense graded roadbase stone -------------------- 17,270 24,678 22,930 34,189
Macadam aggregate ----------------------------- 348 492 1,446 2,612
Surface treatment aggregate -------------------- W W 828 1,392
Unspecified construction aggregate and roadstone 4,324 4,249 5,399 4,877
Agricultural purposes ----- ------- 1,034 4,273 1,425 4,326
Cement manufacture ---------------------------- W W 1,775 2,271
Fill --------------------------------------------- 3,029 3,219 1,020 1.476
Manufactured fine aggregate (stone sand) ---- 2,335 3,100 2,210 3,297
Railroad ballast ------------------------------ 361 .683 295 566
Other uses .----------------------------- -------- 8,977 6,448 1,668 3,980
Total ....------------------------------------ 58,098 81,621 61,734 103,536
W Withheld to avoid disclosing individual company confidential data; included with "Other uses."
1Data include agricultural limestone and stone used in poultry grit and mineral food.
Data include stone used in other fillers, lime manufacture, rip rap and jetty stone and uses not
specified. 1978 data also include stone used in drain fields.
3 Data may not add to totals shown because of independent rounding.


Staurolite.-This complex iron and alu-
minum silicate mineral was recovered as a
byproduct from the heavy minerals separa-
tion plants of E. I. du Pont de Nemours &
Co. at its Highland and Trail Ridge plants.
Florida was the only State that produced
commercial quantities of staurolite. It was
principally used in sand blasting equip-
ment. Production increased 22% and its
value increased 37%, compared with re-
spective production and value in 1972.
Sulfur.-Recovered sulfur from oil and
natural gas production in Escambia and
Santa Rosa Counties increased from 87,842
long tons in 1972 to 224,416 long tons in
1973. Sulfur sales increased from 85,915
long tons in 1972 to 225,407 long tons with
a reported value of $3.5 million. As oil
and gas production increase, byproduct
sulfur is expected to proportionately in-
crease in Florida.
Vermiculite.-Exfoll ited vermiculite was
produced at four plants in Broward, Duval,
and Hillsborough Counties. Production, the
quantity sold or used, and the value of sales
increased over those of 1972 by 28%, 68%,
and 72% respectively.


Ferroalloys.-Two companies produced
ferrophosphorus as a coproduct with ele-
mental phosphorus from electric furnace
smelting of phosphate rock in Florida. The
value of ferroalloys is not included in the
State mineral production statistics.
Rare Earth Minerals.-Production of
monazite concentrate from the Green Cove
Springs plant of Titanium Enterprises in-
creased 330% over that of 1972. The value
increased 336%. The monazite concen-
trate contains rare-earth metals and thori-
um oxide. Production and value cannot be
Titanium Concentrates.-Both E. I. du
Pont de Nemours & Co. and Titanium
Enterprises produced ilmenite concentrate
from plants in Clay County. Shipments de-
clined 2% and value increased 2% over
that of 1972. Titanium Enterprises in-
creased the production and value of rutile
151% and 145% respectively, compared
with 1972 levels, from the Green Cove
Springs mine in Clay County.
Zircon Concentrates.-Production of zir-
con concentrates from the E. I. du Pont
de Nemours & Co. Trail Ridge plant, and
Titanium Enterprises Green Cove Springs

mine in Clay County increased 29% over
that of 1972. The value was 37% higher
than that reported in 1972. The zirconium
sands were used in ferrous foundries, re-
fractory shapes, and ceramics.

Mineral fuels produced were natural gas,
natural gas liquids, crude petroleum, and
Natural Gas.-Total net sales of natural
gas in Florida in 1973 was about 27 billion
cubic feet. The difference between the total
net sales volume and the 34 billion cubic
feet measured at the wellhead was a 12.3%
H..-S, C02, and N2 content, plus plant losses
and inplant consumption for combustion
purposes. All of the gas sold was from the
Jay field, except a small quantity that was
produced from the nearby Mt. Carmel
field. The Florida Gas Transmission Pipe-
line Co. marketed over 90% of the sales
volume for intrastate consumption. The re-
inainder was sold through Five Flags Pipe-
line Co. to industrial customers in the
Pensacola area.
Prior to distribution by the Florida Gas
Transmission Pipeline Co., the gas was
stripped of natural gas liquids at its proc-
essing plant in north-central Florida. The
Btu value of the gas was reduced from
1,450 to 1,040 Btu per cubic foot before
distribution through the intrastate pipeline.
Peat.-Peat production decreased from
45,000 short tons valued at $362,000 in
1972 to 43,800 short tons valued at
$384,000 in 1973. The 3% decrease in
production was accompanied by a 6% in-
crease in value. Eight companies pro-
duced moss, reed-sedge, and humus peat.
Shipments totaled 44,000 short tons and
consisted of 38% moss, 20% reed-sedge,
and 42% humus peat. All but a few tons
were shipped in bulk and used to pack
flowers, plants, and shrubs; for general
soil improvement and potting soils; and
for earthworm culture.
Petroleum.-Total oil production in Flor-
ida was nearly 33 million barrels in 1973.
This was almost double the 17 million bar-
rels produced in 1972. The increase was
primarily attributed to further development
of the Jay field. The Jay field yielded
85.3% of the total crude oil production
in the State. The wellhead value of north-
west Florida high-grade crude ranged from
$3.64 per barrel in January 1973 to $10.06
per barrel in December 1973. The yearly


average value was approximately $5.88 per
barrel. Northwest Florida's oil production
was primarily derived from the Smackover
Limestone Formation. Additional produc-
tion from the Blackjack Creek field, some
10 miles from Jay, is scheduled. A 12,000-
barrel-per-day facility was being readied
to be operational by the end of 1974. The
field life was estimated to be 20 years.
Crude petroleum production from south
Florida was derived entirely from the
Lower Cretaceous Sunniland Limestone
Formation. The average depth of a devel-
opment well in the Sunniland trend is

about 11,500 feet. There are 66 produc-
ing wells in 7 fields in this trend. A new
field in Hendry County, not named, was
brought in by Weiner Oil Properties in
November 1973. No other discoveries were
made in 1973.
Approximately 4.6 million barrels of
crude oil ranging from 25 to 32 API grav-
ity, representing 14% of Florida's total
production, was produced from south Flor-
ida's fields. Wellhead prices ranged from
$2.58 per barrel in January to over $8 per
barrel in December 1973 for new oil.

Table 8.-Florida: Oil and gas well drilling completions, by county
Proved field wells Exploratory wells Total
County Number
Oil Gas Dry Oil Gas Dry of wells Footage
Bay ---------------- 1 1 12,818
Charlotte-- -------------- 1 1 11,00
Collier ---------... ...------ 1 -- 7 8 96,071
Columbia ------------------ 2 2 6,086
De Soto ------------------- 1 1 1,000
Escambia --------------- 4 -. 1 5 80,885
Gulf -.------------------------.. 1 1 14,297
Hendry -------------------- -- 1 .. 2 6 69,70
Lake ---------------------- 1 1 5,778
Lee ----------------------- 3 6 58,286
Pasco --------------------- 1 1 9,600
Santa Rosa ---------------- 14 -- 5 2 9 80 485,259
Union --------------------- 3 8 9,111
Washington ---------------- 1 1 11,698
Total ---------------- 21 9 3 34 67 878,432
1Development wells as defined by American Petroleum Institute.
Source: American Petroleum Institute.

Table 9.-Principal producers

Commodity and company Address Type of activity County

Cement, portland and masonry:
General Portland, Inc.,
Florida Division.
Lehigh Portland Cement Co -

4400 Republic National
Bank Tower Box 824
Dallas, Tex. 75221
718 Hamilton St.
Allentown, Pa. 18105

Pennsuco Cement & Aggregates,
a subsidiary of Maule P.O. Box 2085 P V S
Industries, Inc. Hialeah, Fla. 88012

Fuller's earth:
Engelhard Minerals &
Chemicals Corp.
Floridin Co ---...---------

Mid-Florida Mining -

Edgar Plastic Kaolin Co _-
Appalachee Correctional
Bickerstaff Clay Products
Co. Inc.
Florida Solite Co .....-..

Menlo Park
Edison, N. J. 08817
Box 187
Berkley Springs,
W. Va. 25411
Box 68-F
Lowell, Fla. 82668

2 plants ------

Plant ------------

-- do -----

Open pit mines _-
Open pit mine --

Sdo ---------- Marion.

Edgar. Fla. 82049 --- --- do ----------

Box 699
Sneads, Fla. 82460
Box 1178
Columbus, Ga. 81902
P.O. Box 27211
Richmond, Va. 28261

---- do --------
Open pit mine and
Open pit mine and

Dade and





Table 9.-Principal producers-Continued

Commodity and company
General Portland Cement
Gypsum. calcined:
Kaiser Cement & Gypsum Corp

National Gypsum Co ---------

U.S. Gypsum Co ------

Lime: Primary:
Basti Magnesia, Inc --.----

Chemical Lime, Inc -----

Dixie Lime & Stone Co .. -

Magnesium compounds:
Basic Magnesia, Inc -----

Oxford Peat Co --------

Peace River Peat, Inc --------

F. E. Stearns Peat ---------

Tradxer Peat Co ---------

Raymond Johnson -- ----

Perlite. expanded:
Airlite Processing Corp. of
Armatrong Cork Co ....

Chemrock Corp --- ----
W. R. Grace & Co ---

Exxon Co., U.S.A ------
Sun Oil Company

Refinery: Seminole Asphalt
Refining. Inc.
Phosphate rock:
Land pebble:
Agrico Chemical Co ...--.

Borden. Inc
Brewster Phosphates -. .
Gardinier, Inc ------------

W.R. Grace & Co --------

International Minerals &
Chemical Corp.
Mobil Oil Corp..
Chemical Div.
Occidental Petroleum Corp.,
Suwannee River
Phosphate Div.
Swift Chemical Co

U.S.S. Agri-Chemicals, Inc

Phosphorus, elemental:
Mobil Chemical Co ___

Address Type of activity County

Box 22348
Tampa, Fla. 83622

800 Lakeside Dr.
Oakland, Calif. 94612
825 Delaware Ave.
Buffalo, N.Y. 14202
101 South Wacker Dr.
Chicago, IlL 60606

Box 160
Port St. Joe. Fla. 82456
Box 250
Ocala, Fla. 82670
Drawer 217
Ocala, Fla. 82670

Box 160
Port St. Joe, Fla. 82456

Box 154
Oxford, Fla. 82684
P.O. Box 1192
Bartow, Fla. 88880
Rt. 1 Box 847-I
Valrico, Fla. 88594
Box 10
Florahome, Fla. 82685
Box 555
Zellwood, Fla. 32798

Rt. 2 Box 740
Vero Beach, Fla. 82960
Box 1991
Pensacola, Fla. 82589
End of Osage St.
Nashville, Tenn. 87208
62 Whittemore Ave.
Cambridge, Mass. 02140

Box 2024
Houston, Tex. 77001
Box 2880
Dallas, Tex. 75221
Box 128
St. Marks, Fla. 82855

Box 8166
Tulsa, Okla. 74101
Box 790
Plant City, Fla. 88566
Wayne, N.J. 07470 ---
Box 8269
Tampa, Fla. 88601
Box 471
Bartow, Fla. 88880
Box 867
Bartow, Fla. 88880
Box 811
Nichols, Fla. 388868
White Springs, Fla.

Box 208
Bartow, Fla. 88880
Box 867
Ft. Meade, Fla. 88841

Box 811
Nichols, Fla. 88868

Open pit mine -... Citrus.

Plant -------

---- do -----

---- do ....-....

---- do -----

---- do -----------

---- do -----------







---- do --------- Gulf.


Bog ------

Bog --------

Bog ----- --

Bog ------

Plant ---------

-- do -----

.... do ---...-
---- do ----------

Jay field ---------
Sunoco-Felda field.

Plant ------------

8 open pit mines --

Open pit mine ...-
--. do ----
.... do -----

..-- do ------

8 open pit mines __

2 open pit mines -

Open pit mine ----






Indian River.



Santa Rosa.
Collier and







2 open pit mines -- Polk.

Open pit mine -- Do.

Electric furnace -_



Table 9.-

Commodity and company
Sand and gravel:
General Development Corp ----

E. R. Jahana Industries, Inc _
Ortona Sand Co. .
Semiinole Rock Products, Inc
Standard Sand & Silica Co ---

Staurolite: E. I. du Pont de
Nemours & Co.
Limestone, crushed:
Florida Crushed Stone Co
Florida Mining and Mate-
rials Corp., Div. of
Miami Stone Co.
Florida Rock Industries

Maule Industries, Inc --
Sterling Crushed Stone Co

Bay Dredging &
Construction Co.
Benton & Company, Inc -

Houdaille-Duval-Wright Co
Radcliff Materials, Inc --

Titanium concentrates:
E. I. du Pont de Nemours &. Co
Titanium Enterprises

-Principal producers-Continued

Address Type of activity County

1111 South Bayshore
Miami, Fla. 88181
First & East Tillman
Lake Wales, Fla. 83863
-- do -------
8100 NW. 74th St.
Miami, Fla. 88166
Box 85
Davenport, Fla. 88887
Du Pont Bldg., D-10084
Wilmington, DeL 19898

P.O. Box 668
Ocala, Fla. 82670
Box 59851
Miami, Fla. 88159
Box 4667
Jacksonville, Fla.82201

Box 2601
Hialeah, Fla. 88012
Box 680877 OJUS
Miami, Fla. 88168

Box 1484
Tampa, Fla. 88601
Box 1847
St. Petersburg, Fla.
Box 1588
Jacksonville, Fla. 82201
Box 1288
Mobile, Ala. 86601

Du Pont Bldg. D-10084
Wilmington, Del. 19898
Box 1086
Greencove Springs,
Fla. 82048

Vermiculite, exfoliated:
W. R. Grace & Company ---. 62 Whittemore Ave.
Cambridge, Mass. 021*40

8 open pit mines --

Open pit mine ---
Dredge -----
--- do ----
Open pit mine ----

Plant ------------

2 quarries --------

Quarry ------
6 quarries --------

2 quarries ----..
--. do -----

St. Lucle.
Lake and Polk.



Collier, Her-
nando, Lee,
Broward and

Dredge -----------Hillsborough.
-- do -----------Pinellas.

---- do ----- Duval.
--- do -------- Walton.

2 dredges and
Mine and plant -


3 plants --------- Broward, Duval,

Zircon concentrates:
E. I. du Pont de Nemours & Co
Titanium Enterprises -- --

Du Pont Bldg. D-10084
Wilmington, Del. 19898
Box 1086
Greencove Springs,
Fla. 82048

Mine and plant Clay.
-- do ----------- Do.

r U.S. Government Printing Office: 1976-586-539/229


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