Citation
Flow and chemical characteristics of the St. Johns River at Jacksonville, Florida ( FGS: Information circular 82 )

Material Information

Title:
Flow and chemical characteristics of the St. Johns River at Jacksonville, Florida ( FGS: Information circular 82 )
Series Title:
FGS: Information circular
Creator:
Anderson, Warren
Goolsby, D. A. ( joint author )
Geological Survey (U.S.)
Florida -- Bureau of Geology
Jacksonville (Fla.)
Place of Publication:
Tallahassee
Publisher:
State of Florida, Dept. of Natural Resources, Division of Interior Resources, Bureau of Geology
Publication Date:
Language:
English
Physical Description:
viii, 57 p. : ill. ; 23 cm.

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Stream measurements -- Florida -- Saint Johns River ( lcsh )
Water chemistry ( lcsh )
St. Johns River, FL ( local )
City of Jacksonville ( local )
City of Palatka ( local )
City of Tallahassee ( local )
Rivers ( jstor )
Chlorides ( jstor )
Estuaries ( jstor )
River water ( jstor )
Sea water ( jstor )
Genre:
bibliography ( marcgt )
non-fiction ( marcgt )

Notes

Bibliography:
Bibliography: p. 57.
Funding:
Digitized as a collaborative project with the Florida Geological Survey, Florida Department of Environmental Protection.
Statement of Responsibility:
by Warren Anderson and D. A. Goolsby, prepared by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the Bureau of Geology, Florida Dept. of Natural Resources, and the consolidated city of Jacksonville.

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Holding Location:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
The author dedicated the work to the public domain by waiving all of his or her rights to the work worldwide under copyright law and all related or neighboring legal rights he or she had in the work, to the extent allowable by law.
Resource Identifier:
026769980 ( ALEPH )
01254778 ( OCLC )
AAM4232 ( NOTIS )
74622737 ( LCCN )

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Full Text







STATE OF FLORIDA DEPARTMENT OF NATURAL RESOURCES
Randolph Hodges, Executive Director





DIVISION OF INTERIOR RESOURCES R. 0. Vernon, Director




BUREAU OF GEOLOGY C. W. Hendry, Jr., Chief




Information Circular No. 82




FLOW AND CHEMICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF
THE ST. JOHNS RIVER AT JACKSONVILLE, FLORIDA





By
Warren Anderson and D. A. Goolsby





Prepared by the UNITED STATES GEOLOGICAL SURVEY in cooperation with the BUREAU OF GEOLOGY FLORIDA DEPARTMENT OF NATURAL RESOURCES and the
CONSOLIDATED CITY OF JACKSONVILLE


TALLAHASSEE 1973








.1 DEPARTMENT
FG 63 l &OF
ho, 0a NATURALRESOURCES


REUBIN O'D. ASKEW Governor





RICHARD (DICK) STONE ROBERT L. SHEVIN
Secretary of State Attorney General




THOMAS D. O'MALLEY 9 0. DICKINSON, JR.
Treasurer )Comptroller




FLOYD T. CHRISTIAN DOYLE CONNER
Commissioner of Education Commissioner ofAgriculture




W. RANDOLPH HODGES Executive Director







LETTER OF TRANSMITTAL









Bureau of Geology Tallahassee
August 24, 1973



Honorable Reubin O'D. Askew, Chainnan Department of Natural Resources Tallahassee, Florida


Dear Governor Askew:


The Bureau of Geology of the Division of Interior Resources is printing as its Information Circular No. 82 a report prepared by Warren Anderson and D. A. Goolsby of the U. S. Geological Survey entitled, "Flow and Chemical Characteristics of the St. Johns River at Jacksonville, Florida".

This report will be of substantial value to water managers in developing the St. Johns River as a multiple resource. Evaluation of the capacity of the river to accept pollutants without adversely affecting other uses requires detailed data of flow and chemical characteristics and an understanding of how they interact.


Respectfully yours,



Charles W. Hendry, Jr., Chief Bureau of Geology




iii
























































Completed manuscript received June 27, 1973 Printed for the Florida Department of Natural Resources
Division of Interior Resources
Bureau of Geology
by Ambrose the Printer
Jacksonville, Florida



iv









CONTENTS


Page
Abstract . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2
Purpose and Scope . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . 2
Data collection and computation of flow records . . . . . . . . . 3
Acknowledgments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
Previous investigations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
Description of the system . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
Factors affecting the river flow and quality . . . . . . . . . . . 9
Tides . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
The tidal cycle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
Relation of chloride concentration to the tidal cycle . . . . . . . 11
Non-tidal factors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
Wind......... .................................. .... 15
Fresh-water input . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
Storage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
Flow statistics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22
Flow distribution and frequency . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24
Maximum periods of flow deficienty . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34
Chemical characteristics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37
Variations in chemical characteristics
at Main Street Bridge . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37
Variations in chloride concentration
in the Lower St. Johns River . . . ... . . . . . . . . . 41
Seasonal variation in flow and chloride concentration . . . . . . . . 46
Temperature . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48
Relation of flow and quality characteristics to use of the river . . . . . . 51
Summary and conclusions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52
Continuing and future studies . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . 54
References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57






















V








ILLUSTRATIONS

Figure Page
1. Map of northeastern Florida showing major elements of the St. Johns River system . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4

2. Map of the lower St. Johns River in the vicinity of Jacksonville . . . . 5

3. Relation of point velocity at Station 1300 to discharge of the St. Johns River at Main Street Bridge . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6

4. Relation of area between superimposed stage graphs to volume of tidal flow at Main Street Bridge . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7

5. Superimposed state graphs for the St. Johns River at Jacksonville . . . 7

6. Diagram of a tidal cycle in the St. Johns River at Jacksonville showing variations of point velocity, discharge, gage heights, cumulative flow volume, and chloride concentration with time and gage heights and times of mean tidal
levels . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12

7A. Relation of the observed times of occurrence of maximu velocities to the
predicted times of occurrence . . . . . . . . . . . . 14

TB. Relation of the observed maximum dishcarges at Jacksonville to the predicted
maximum current velocities at St. Johns River Entrance during 28 tidal cycles
observed in 1954, 1955, 1956, 1963 and 1964 . . . . . . . . 14

8. Relation of adjusted yearly average downstream and upstream tidal flow per cycle to yearly average net flow per tidal cycle . . . . . . . . 16

9. Relation of average volume of tidal flow at Jacksonville to range of tide at Mayport . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17

10. Graph showing the monthly average change in storage in the St. Johns River
estuary, the monthly average difference in the estimated monthly rainfall on and evapotranspiration from the estuary, and the average annual variation in
sea level . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19

11. Relation of yearly average discharge at Jacksonville to proportional yearly
average inflow to the estuary . . . . . . . . . . . . 21

12. Hydrographs showing monthly mean flow volumes (graph A), monthly
averages of the monthly meandlow volumes (graph B), and monthly mean net flow volumes (graph D) at Jacksonville and monthly mean predicted tidal
range (graph C) at Mayport from March 1954 to September 1966 . . . 23

13. Flow distribution and cumulative flow-distribution curves for downstream
flow at Main Street Bridge . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26

14. Flow distribution and cumulative flow-distribution curves for upstream flow
at Main Street Bridge . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27

vi










ILLUSTRATIONS continued

15. Cumulative flow-distribution curve of daily net flow of the St. Johns River at
Main Street Bridge . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28

16. Frequency of monthly and annual maximum downstream flows in the St.
Johns River at Main Street Bridge . . . . . . . . . . . 29

17. Frequency of monthly and annual maximum upstream flows in the St. Johns
River at Main Street Bridge . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30

18. Frequency of monthly and annual minimum downstream flows in the St.
Johns River at Main Street Bridge . . . . . . . . . . . 31

19. Frequency of monthly and annual minimum upstream flows in the St. Johns
River at Main Street Bridge . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32

20. Frequency of monthly and annual maximum daily net flow in the St. Johns
River at Main Street Bridge . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33

21. Frequency of monthly and annual minimum daily net flow in the St. Johns
River at Main Street Bridge . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35

22. Maximum periods of deficient daily net flow in the St. Johns River at Jacksonville . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36

23. Relation of specific conductance to concentration of major chemical
constituents in the St. Johns River at Main Street Bridge . . . . . 38

24. Daily maximum specific conductance near the surface of the St. Johns River
at Main Street Bridge, October 1966 to April 1967 . . . . . . . 38

25. Cumulative discharge and specific conductance at the end of each tidal flow
beginning December 12, 1966 and ending January 31, 1967 . . . . 40

26. Duration curves of major chemical constituents in the St. Johns River at Jack
sonville . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42

27. Longitudinal and vertical variation in specific conductance of the water in the
lower St. Johns River from river mile 12 to river mile 31 at slack water on
selected days . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43

28. Variations with time in the specific conductance of the St. Johns River near
the surface and bottom at selected points in the Jacksonville area . . . 45

29. Relation of maximum chloride concentration at Main Street Bridge to
maximum chloride concentration at Orange Park and Drummond Point at
slack before the downstream flow of common tidal cycles. . . . . . 46

30. Approximate longitudinal variation in the daily maximum chloride
concentration which will be exceeded less than 7 percent of the days and 50
percent of the days in the lower St. Johns River . . . . . . . . 47

vii









ILLUSTRATIONS continued

31. Graphs showing the highest, lowest, and average monthly mean net discharge
of the St. Johns River at Jacksonville . . . . . . . . . . 49

32. Graphs showing the average net flow and the average maximum and minimum
chloride concentrations in the St. Johns River at Jacksonville for alternate
months. Flow records and chloride records June 1959 to October 1966. . 50 33. Approximate average daily water temperatures of the St. Johns River at Main
Street Bridge and ground-water at specified depths . . . . . . . 51







TABLES

Tables Page
1. Selected flow statistics for the St. Johns River at Jacksonville. . . . . 22

2. Chemical analyses of the St. Johns River at Jacksonville, Florida (samples colected at Main Street Bridge) . . . . . . . . . . . 39






























Vii








FLOW AND CHEMICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF
THE ST. JOHNS RIVER AT JACKSONVILLE, FLORIDA


by
Warren Anderson and D. A. Goolsby


ABSTRACT

The St. Johns River at Jacksonville, which is 21 miles upstream from the ocean, is part of a tidal estuary that for practical purposes may be considered to end at Lake George, 106 miles upstream from the ocean. Occasionally, tidal effects are noted 161 miles upstream.

The channel of the estuary above Jacksonville is capable of storing huge amounts of water, and rising ocean tides at the mouth of the river force large amounts of water up the river past Jacksonville. Most of this water subsequently flows back past Jacksonville as the ocean tide falls. These tidal flows average 87,000 cubic feet per second at Jacksonville, and peak flows exceeding 150,000 cubic feet per second are common. The average tidal flows are more than seven times as large as the average net or fresh-water flow.

Fresh water draining from the estuary increases the volume and duration of ebb tidal flows (downstream) and diminishes the volume and duration of flood tidal flows (upstream). About a quarter of the fresh water that flows into the estuary from April through September is released to the ocean from October through March. When evapotranspiration from the estuary above Jacksonville exceeds rainfall and fresh-water inflow into the estuary, the net loss of water tends to cause the volume and duration of the upstream flows to exceed those of the downstream flows.

The net flow of the St. Johns River at Main Street Bridge in Jacksonville was downstream about 70 percent of the days of record and upstream about 30 percent of the days of record. Zero net flow occurred on 13 of the 4,597 days of record, or 0.3 percent of the time. The greatest number of consecutive days that the net flow was zero or upstream was 14 days.

Sea water moving upstream from the mouth of the St. Johns River mixes with the fresher water already in the river channel to form a zone of transition. The chloride concentration in this zone varies from that of sea water to that of the fresh-water input. When the zone of transition extends upstream from Jacksonville, the chloride concentration in the river at Jacksonville increases with upstream flow and decreases with downstream flow. During a particular tidal cycle, the magnitude and range in chloride concentration in the river at








2 BUREAU OF GEOLOGY

Jacksonville depends on the length and gradient of the zone of transition and on the volumes of the tidal flows. About 80 percent of the time the chloride concentration at Main Street Bridge exceeds 250 milligrams per liter.

Between Jacksonville and the ocean the river shows some stratification between the sea water and overlying river water. However, stratification tends to weaken or disappear in the vicinity of Jacksonville, probably because of increased turbulence caused by channel constriction and bridge piers. The temperature of the river averages less than 150 C (Celsius) (590 F) in January and February and more than 280 C (820 F) in summer.


INTRODUCTION

The St. Johns River, which flows through the city of Jacksonville, discharges about one tenth of the 40-billion-gallon average daily surface runoff from the State of Florida -- a generous share of the 150-billion-gallon average daily rainfall on the State. This prodigious and continually renewed resource can be used for diverse and, in some instances, conflicting purposes such as water supply, waste disposal, transportation, heat disposal, fisheries, and recreation. In the Jacksonville area, the river (a tidal estuary) is used for all these purposes except water supply.

There is continuing concern about the effect that the rapidly growing population and economy in the St. Johns River basin will have on the potential for pollution of the river by industrial and domestic waste. Evaluation of the capacity of the river to accept pollutants without adversely affecting other uses requires detailed data on flow and chemical characteristics and an understanding of how they interact.


PURPOSE AND SCOPE

This report was prepared to present and interpret information on the flow and chemical characteristics of the lower St. Johns River in the vicinity of Jacksonville (figs. 1 and 2). It is intended that the report (1) describe the flow and chemical characteristics with respect to variations with time, frequency of occurrence, and magnitude of tidal flows; (2) indicate the factors that affect flow and portray the manner in which they interact to product characteristic flow patterns; and (3) relate the chemical quality of the river to the flow regime.

Flow records computed through September 30, 1966 for the lower St. Johns River and chemical quality data obtained through May 1967 were








INFORMATION CIRCULAR NO. 82 3

analyzed during preparation of this report. The procedures used in the procurement and computation of the flow data are described in the following section. Field reconnaissance trips and special observation of water quality and flow characteristics were also necessary to this analysis.

This report is one of several to result from a comprehensive investigation of the water resources of Duval County by the U. S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the Consolidated City of Jacksonville and the Bureau of Geology, Florida Department of Natural Resources.

The report was prepared under the direct supervision of L. J. Snell, former Subdistrict Chief, Joel 0. Kimrey, Subdistrict Chief, and B. F. Joyner, District Laboratory Chief, Ocala, and under the general supervision of C. S. Conover, District Chief, Tallahassee, all of the U. S. Geological Survey.


DATA COLLECTION AND COMPUTATION OF FLOW RECORDS

Stage data used in the computation of flow records for the St. Johns River at Jacksonville are obtained at Main Street Bridge, at the Naval Air Station 8.2 miles upstream from Main Street Bridge and at the U. S. Corps of Engineers Dredge Depot 4.8 miles downstream from Main Street Bridge. The upstream and downstream gages are set at datums 10.00 feet below mean sea level and the base gage is set at a datum 9.99 feet below mean sea level. The stage record collected at Main Street Bridge is only used for flow computation if record is lost at one of the other two gages.

Discharge measurements and point-velocity measurements are made from the downstream (east) side of Main Street Bridge. Point-velocity measurements are made at station 1,300, which is 1,005 feet from the south bank of the river. The point velocity consists of the average of current-meter readings taken at 0.2 and 0.8 of the depth at station 1,300. Rapid discharge measurements, which include velocity determinations at station 1,300 are occasionally made with four current meters. The discharges and point velocities thus obtained are plotted against each other for both upstream and downstream flow as shown in figure 3. These relations, though they differ slightly, are linear. The discharge during a tidal cycle is determined from frequent point-velocity readings (see fig. 6) by use of these curves of relation. The volume of flow during the tidal cycle, both upstream and downstream, is computed from the area under the discharge graph thus obtained. As shown by figure 4, the volumes of flow are then plotted against the area between the superimposed stage graphs (see fig. 5) obtained by the gages at the Naval Air Station and the Dredge Depot. The volume of each upstream and downstream flow is then determined from the stage record using this latter curve of relation.










4 BUREAU OF GEOLOGY

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LAKE GEORGE

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LS DORA NARNEY
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LAKE APOPIA
OORLANDO










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2W* 280'

820 81'

Figme 1. Map of northeastern Florida showing major elements of the St.
Johuns River system.














INFORMATION CIRCULAR NO. 82 5



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30' 25! RMOD O 25'











30- -S 30* 25'
FULTON MYPORT


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Figure 2. Map of the lower St. Johns River in the vicinity of Jacksonville.

















Flow records computed for February 10, 1954, to September 30, 1966, were used in this analysis. A year of record beginning on October 1 and ending the following September 30 is called a water year. For example, the 1955 water year began on October 1, 1954 and ended on September 30, 1955.













6 BUREAU OF GEOLOGY














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UPSTREAM DISCHARGE DOWNSTREAM DISCHARGE


-200,000 -150,000 -100,000 -50,000 0 50,000 100,000 15OP00 .200,000

DISCHARGE, CUBIC FEET PER SECOND Figure 3. Relation of point velocity at Station 1300 to discharge of the St.

Johns River at Main Street Bridge.











INFORMATION CIRCULAR NO. 82 7


5
UPSTREAM FLOW DOWNSTREAM FLOW



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S- .e .,

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00
00
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NOTE: FALL IS DIFFERENCE IN GAGE TIME IS DURATION, IN HOURS, OF
HEIGHT AT THE CORPS OF PERIODS BETWEEN OCCURRENCES
ENGINEERS DREDGE DEPOT AND OF EQUAL GAGE HEIGHT AT THE
AT THE JACKSONVILLE NAVAL TWO GAGES
AIR STATION

SI I I I I I
-4,0O0 -3,000 -2,000 -1,000 0 1,000 2,000 3,000 4,000
TIDAL FLOW, MILLIONS OF CUBIC FEET Figure 4. Relation of area between superimposed stage graphs to volume
of tidal flow at Main Street Bridge.
TIME AT JACKSONVILLE NAVAL AIR STATION 2400 0600 1200 1800 2400 0600
12.5




12.0




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11.









o10.5 NAVAL AIR
< STATION
11.0





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_DREDGE
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MAY 23, 1955 MAY 24,1955
9.0 I I I I
2400 0600 1200 1800 2400 0600
TIME AT CORPS OF ENGINEERS DREDGE DEPOT Figure 5. Superimposed stage graphs for the St. Johns River at
Jacksonville.







8 BUREAU OF GEOLOGY

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

The authors express their appreciation to the following employees of the city of Jacksonville: Tom Ard, Director, Air and Water Pollution Control, Department of Health, Welfare and Bioenvironmental Services; E. T. Owens, Engineer, and S. Hay, Assistant Engineer, City Engineering Department; who provided valuable data and assisted in tests; and to Messrs. James English, Director of Public Works and Robert B. Nord, Director, Water and Sewer Department, whose valuable assistance enhanced the collection of basic data. The contribution of E. T. Owens is especially appreciated, as it was he who fostered the data-collection program from its inception.


PREVIOUS INVESTIGATIONS

The earliest investigation to yield data applicable to the present physical conditions in the St. Johns River estuary was led by E. F. Hicks in the winter of 1933-34. The results of this investigation were reported by F. J. Haight in 1938. Measurements of the stage, velocity, and discharge of the river at Jacksonville were made by the U. S. Geological Survey on May 10, 1945. The U. S. Geological Survey investigated the river August 16-24, 1945, to determine the change in position from Main Street Bridge of a particle of river water during the course of a tidal cycle. E. E. Pyatt investigated the distribution of pollutants in the river in 1959.


DESCRIPTION OF THE SYSTEM

The source of the St. Johns River is a marsh near Fort Pierce, Florida, 312 miles from its mouth near Mayport. The river flows on a. generally northward course to Jacksonville and then eastward to the ocean. The topographic drainage area of the St. Johns River is 9,430 square miles, nearly one-sixth of the land area of Florida.

From the ocean to Jacksonville, the river ranges in width from about 1,250 feet at Main Street Bridge to more than 2 miles at Mill Cove, and in the reach from Jacksonville to Palatka the width ranges from 1 to 3 miles. From just south of Palatka to Lake George, the river narrows to generally less than half a mile and in one place to only about 600 feet. Lake George, the largest expansion in width (nearly 7 miles) along the entire river, is about 70 square miles in area and normally shows no tidal fluctuation. South of Lake George, the river channel is generally much narrower than to the north, although several large lakes or widenings of the river exist. The shore line of the river north of Palatka is indented by many coves and enlarged mouths of tributaries.








INFORMATION CIRCULAR NO. 82 9

The Corps of Engineers, U. S. Army, maintains a navigation channel in the river. The channel is 34 feet deep and 400 to 900 feet wide between the ocean and Jacksonville, 13 feet deep and 200 feet wide between Jacksonville and Palatka, 12 feet deep and 100 feet wide between Palatka and Sanford, and 5 feet deep and 100 feet wide between Sanford and Lake Harney.

At low water, the flood plain of the St. Johns River contains openwater areas totaling more than 300 square miles. Lake George, Crescent Lake, and the river between Lake George and the ocean occupy about two-thirds of this area.

At the mouth of the St. Johns River the tidal range averages 4.9 feet. The ocean tide generates a progressive tidal wave that moves up the river with gradually diminishing amplitude until at Orange Park the range is only 0.7 foot. From Orange Park southward; the amplitude of the wave increases until at Palatka the range is 1.2 feet, the same as that at Main Street Bridge in Jacksonville. From Palatka to Lake George, the amplitude again decreases and becomes practically zero at the outlet of Lake George, 106 miles upstream from the mouth of the river (Haight, 1938).

Occasionally, during severe droughts, high tide and northeasterly winds combine to cause upstream flow at the outlet of Lake Monroe 161 miles upstream from the mouth of the river. During the drought in 1945, a river stage of 0.42 foot below mean sea level was recorded south of Lake Harney, 191 miles upstream from the mouth of the river.




FACTORS AFFECTING THE RIVER FLOW AND QUALITY

The flow of the St. Johns River at Jacksonville is affected by the ocean tide, wind, runoff from the land in the river basin, rainfall, and evapotranspiration. The extent to which these factors can affect the flow is controlled by the channel geometry and available storage capacity upstream from Jacksonville. Therefore, the interaction of these factors cause wide variations in the volume of flow at Jacksonville.

Normally, tides are the dominant flow-producing factor at Jacksonville, but winds as strong as those associated with Hurricane Dora in September 1964 can completely offset or significantly accentuate the effect of tide. The factors that affect the flow of the river also affect the chemical characteristics of the water and cause it to range from relatively fresh water to a mixture of fresh and marine water consisting of more than 60 percent sea water.







10 BUREAU OF GEOLOGY

TIDES

The gravitational interaction of the earth, moon, and sun cause a vertical motion of the ocean surface, called tide, and a horizontal motion of the water, called tidal current. The amount of vertical motion of the surface is called range of tide, and the limits of the motion are called high water and low water..Tidal heights are referenced by the NOS (National Ocean Survey) (formerly the U. S. Coast and Geodetic Survey) to mean low water, which at Jacksonville is 0.6 foot below mean sea level. In an estuary such as the lower St. Johns River, the current flows both upstream and downstream. The current first increases in one direction from zero velocity (called slack water) to a maximum velocity (called strength of the current), then decreases to slack water. The process is then repeated in the opposite direction.

In a progressive tidal wave the time of slack water comes, theoretically, exactly midway between high and low tide. Also, maximum upstream current velocity (flood strength) occurs, theoretically, at high water; and maximum downstream current velocity (ebb strength) occurs, theoretically, at low water (Haight, 1938). The range of tide and strength of current resulting solely from gravitational tide-producing forces are closely but not precisely related. The relation is not precise because forces involving the angular distances of the sun and moon from the equator (declination) affect the range of tide about twice as much as they affect the strength of current.

Yearly tables, which give the predicted times of occurrence and heights of high and low tides, are published by the NOS. The NOS also publishes yearly tidal current tables, which give the predicted times of occurrence of slack water, flood strength, and ebb strength and the magnitudes of the flood and ebb strengths. Tables from the tide at Mayport and the tidal current at St. Johns Entrance are included in these publications. The tide tables and tidal current tables published by the NOS for 1954-66 were used extensively in this analysis.





THE TIDAL CYCLE

A graphic representation of the rise and fall of the tide, in which time is represented by the abscissas and the height of the tide by ordinates, is called a tide curve. A graphic representation of a reversing type of current, in which time is represented by the abscissas and the velocity by the ordinates, is called a current curve. In general, these curves approximate a cosine curve (Schureman, 1963).








INFORMATION CIRCULAR NO. 82 11

The NOS designates flood velocity (upstream velocity) positive and ebb velocity (downstream velocity) negative so that tide curves and current curves will be in phase. However, designating the signs in this manner results in the average net current -- and, therefore the average net discharge -- being negative. In this report, upstream flow is considered negative, and downstream flow is considered positive, and therefore, the current and discharge curves are theoretically 1800 out of phase with the tide curve.

The current or velocity curve and the corresponding discharge curve for a tidal cycle measured August 5, 1955, is shown by figure 6. The tide curve for this tidal cycle is also shown on figure 6, with height of tide given as gage height above a datum 9.99 feet below mean sea level rather than heights above MLW (mean low water), which is the datum used for tide predictions by the NOS. The datum of 9.99 feet below mean sea level is used to avoid negative water-level readings. The tidal cycle measured August 5, 1955, was used to illustrate flow and stage relations because the volumes of flow measured during this tidal cycle more nearly approximate those of an average tidal cycle than any other cycle measured from February 1954 to September 1966. Also, determinations of the chloride concentration in the river at Main Street Bridge were made while this tidal cycle was being measured.

The curves in figure 6 show that the actual time relationships of the tidal cycle do not conform to the previously discussed theoretical time relationships for a progressive tidal wave. Instead, the current curves, represented by the point-velocity and discharge curves, lag the tide curve, represented by the gage-height curve, by 20 to 60 minutes.during this particular cycle.


RELATION OF CHLORIDE CONCENTRATION TO THE TIDAL CYCLE

Curves of the cumulative volume of flow and the variation in the chloride concentration near the bottom of the river at the Main Street Bridge during the tidal cycle measured August 5, 1955, are also shown on figure 6. As shown, the chloride concentration increased with increasing upstream flow volume and reached a maximum when upstream flow stopped. The concentration subsequently decreased as the water stored during upstream flow moved back out during the downstream flow. When the volumes of downstream and upstream flow were equal the chloride concentration was about the same as that at the beginning of upstream flow. Subsequently, the concentration continued to decline because the volume of the downstream flow exceeded that of the upstream flow. Therefore, the curve of the chloride concentration for the ensuing cycle began at a lower base concentration. Had the volume of the downstream flow been less than that of the upstream flow, the ensuing cycle







12 BUREAU OF GEOLOGY


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sown ar atosopon eotydshrgggheh,
i00OIAM TRIIA M LO
iff

...... .. ........16W













cumulative flow volume, and chloride concentration with time
and gage heights and times of mean tidal levels.
would have begun at a higher base chloride concentration. Changing of the base chloride concentrations as a result of unequal volumes during consecutive tidal flows is the cause of the wide variation in the chloride concentration in the river.
The chemical characteristics of the lower St. Johns River vary from that of sea water near the ocean to that of the fresh-water input farther inland. Fresh-water input consists of a mixture of rainfall directly Into the river, direct runoff from the land, and ground-water inflow. The reach of river in which sea water and fresh water are mixed is called the zone of transition in this report. This zone of transition shifts bodily toward the ocean and thus shortens with each downstream flow. The opposite occurs with each upstream flow.
The length and gradient of the zone of transition varies with changes in the general level of the ocean and fresh-water runoff as these factors affect the individual tidal flows. The length of the zone of transition is reduced, and its average gradient is increased by downstream movement of the terrestrial end of the zone, which results from a series of cycles having predominantly excessive downstream flow volumes. After a prolonged period of high fresh-water runoff,








INFORMATION CIRCULAR NO. 82 13

the zone of transition sometimes becomes so short that the entire zone remains downstream from the Main Street Bridge. During such periods, the chloride concentration at Main Street Bridge is nearly constant at the level of the fresh-water runoff.

When the balance between the ocean level and runoff favors upstream flow, the zone of transition lengthens in increments proportional to the excess in volume of the upstream flows over the downstream flows. The terrestrial end of the zone of transition does not migrate upstream as the result of a continuous series of tidal cycles during which all the upstream flows are excessive. Instead, it migrates upstream as the result of a series of cycles, some of which have excessive downstream flows but most of which have excessive upstream flows. Sometimes, especially during droughts, predominance of excessive upstream flows causes the zone of transition to extend a considerable distance upstream from Jacksonville.
After each incremental increase in the length of the zone of transition, the river at Main Street Bridge is more saline, and the magnitude of the chloride concentration depends on how far upstream the zone of transition extends. Conceivably, the chloride concentration at Main Street Bridge could approach that of sea water diluted only by local inflow if the entire zone of transition moved upstream from the bridge, but this condition has not been observed.

NON-TIDAL FACTORS
Although tide exerts the greatest influence on the flow regime of the St. Johns River at Jacksonville, the regime is continually affected by other factors, which are non-tidal in origin. These factors, which include wind, runoff, channel storage, rainfall, and evapotranspiration may interact in any number of combinations to superimpose their combined effect on the tidal flow regime. It is thus not possible to distinguish the proportionate effect of the individual factors on a single tidal event. However, the net effect can be shown by comparing characteristics of observed tidal events with those of the theoretical event. Both the time of occurrence and the magnitude of flood and ebb strengths caused by the gravitational tide-producing forces are theoretically fixed and predictable. The predicted times and maximum velocities of the tidal currents at St. Johns River Entrance and at Jacksonville near the Main Street Bridge are published by the NOS. A constant relation exists between the times that maximum velocity occurs at these two sites and also between the maximum velocities attained.

The scatter of the points in figure 7A around the line of agreement between predicted and observed data shows the net effect of non-tidal factors on the time of occurrence of maximum velocity in the St. Johns River during 28 tidal cycles for which the actual times of ebb and flood strength were observed. A small part of the departures from the line may be owing to difficulty in determining the exact time of -maximum velocity by observation.



















25! 200


18o
0
00



t A 140 GoBo ot
6.0 0
~CM

0 e
15 -0 120 0 0
20
C z 8
0PW0 0 0 0
~I 00~I2 0 0 8:
0 0



0
600


N 22 0 0
.j 400

xa

0 LINE OF SIMULTANEOUS OCCURENCE U
20 UPSTREAM DOWNSTREAM


0 1 03 11
0 5 10 15 20 25 3 2 1 0 I 2 3
PREDICTED TIME OF MAXIMUM VELOCITY, HOURS PREDICTED MAXIMUM VELOCITY, KNOTS AT ST. JOHNS RIVER ENTRANCE



Figure 7B. Relation of the observed maximum dkcharges at Jacksonville to the predicted maximum current veloFigure 7A. Relation of the observed times of occurence cities at St. Johns River Entrance during 28 tidal
of maximum velocities to the predicted cycles observed in 1954, 1955, 1956, 1963 and
times of occurence. Cycles observed in 1954, 1955,1956,1963 and 1964.








INFORMATION CIRCULAR NO. 82 15

Comparisons of the maximum upstream and downstream discharges at Main Street Bridge with the concurrent predicted maximum velocities at St. Johns River Entrance during the 28 observed tidal cycles are shown on figure 7B. The peak discharges at Main Street Bridge may be compared directly with the current strengths at St. Johns Entrance because the peak discharge is directly proportional to the maximum velocity at Jacksonville (fig. 3), and the maximum velocity at Jacksonville has a fixed relation to the maximum velocity at St. Johns River Entrance. (See annual tidal current tables.) The linear curves, representing unaltered tidal flow, pass through the average maximum upstream and downstream discharges at Main Street Bridge and the average maximum upstream and downstream velocities of St. Johns River Entrance. The departures from the curves represent the influence of non-tidal factors.

WIND
In general, winds from the northern quadrants increase the upstream flow and decrease the downstream flow; whereas winds from the southern quadrants have the opposite effect. The greatest effects from winds of comparable speed are those caused by winds blowing from the northeast or southwest. Winds that add energy to the system elsewhere can affect the flow at Jacksonville. As stated earlier, occasionally wind effect is greater than the tidal effect.
FRESH-WATER INPUT
Fresh water enters the estuary as direct runoff, spring flow and ground-water seepage, and direct rainfall; the total from these sources minus the evapotranspiration from the estuary is the fresh-water input. When the input is positive, that is when evapotranspiration is exceeded by the total of the other elements of input, it tends to increase the duration and volume of downstream flows and to decrease the duration and volume of upstream flows. However, especially during droughts, evapotranspiration sometimes exceeds the total of the other elements of input, and fresh-water input is negative. During such periods, if insufficient water is stored in the estuary to keep its level higher than the level of the ocean, ocean water will flow upstream. When this happens, the duration and volume of the upstream flows tend to be greater than those of the downstream flows and the zone of transition moves upstream relatively fast.

The effect of fresh-water inflow to the estuary on the volumes of both the upstream and downstream flows is shown by figure 8. The average volume of the downstream flows during the water years 1955 to 1966 was computed to be 2,076 mcf (million cubic feet) and that of upstream flows 1,806 mcf. Thus, the computed average net (fresh-water) flow, was 270 mcf per tidal cycle in the downstream direction. Had the net, or fresh-water flow, not been superimposed on the tidal flow during this period, the average volume of a tidal flow would have been the average of the computed upstream and downstream volumes or, 1,941 mcf. Thus, the average relation of the computed tidal flow volumes to the computed net fresh-water volumes is as shown by the two linear curves in figure
8.









16 BUREAU OF GEOLOGY


2,300











00
S2,200











1,o


7000
O 2,1002________, 2,000


Y A G MEAN TIDAL FLOW
0

o1900 ___UJ
0
< 1,800




>. 1,700

O DOWNSTREAM
UPSTREAM
WATER YEARS 1955-66 ADJUSTED FOR *
1,0, ANNUAL_ AVERAGETIDALRANGE _________0 100 200 300 400 500 600
YEARLY A'.ERAGE NET FLOW PER TIDAL CYCLE, MILLIONS OF CUBIC FEET

Figre & Relation of adusted yearly average downstream and upstream
tidal flow.per cycle to yearly average net flow per tidal cycle.

The data for the individual water years would be expected to plot on these curves if the average range of tide for the individual years were the same as that for the 12-year period. However, the average ranges of tide determined from the tide tables for Mayport were not the same for the individual years. Therefore, the average tidal volumes for the individual years were adjusted to allow for these differences. These adjustments were based on the linear curve of relation shown on figure 9. This curve passes through the average range of tide (4.57 feet) at Mayport and the average volume of tidal flow (1,941 mcf) at Jacksonville. The curve is nearly parallel to the plot of average volume of flow against range of tide shown by the solid circles on figure 9, especially in the










INFORMATION CIRCULAR NO. 82 17

36000

0 AVERAGE VOLUME OF THE TIDAL FLOWS THAT U. OCCURED IN 1960,1962 AND 1965 WHEN
PREDICTED RANGE OF TIDE WAS THAT INDICATED 0000 0
S2,5000
IA..0
0 MINIMUM YEARLY AVERAGE PREDICTED
RANGE OF TIDE (1955-66)
02,000-J
080 MAXIMUM YEARLY
so AVERAGE PREDICTED
RANGE OF TIDE (1955-66)
1,500.4.
4e


0 1,000
W
-J
0
W 500- LINEAR CURVE THROUGH AVERAGE VOLUME OF
TIDAL FLOW (1954-66) AND AVERAGE RANGE OF TIDE



0
0 I 2 3 4 5 6 7
PREDICTED RANGE OF TIDE, FEET

Figure 9. Relation of average volume of tidal flow at Jacksonville to range
of tide at Mayport.



range between the maximum and minimum yearly average predicted ranges of tide from 1955 to 1966. Thus, the difference between values derived from the linear curve of relation and those that would be derived from a curve based on all the data for the 12-year period is considered negligible.

The plot of solid circles on figure 9 was obtained by matching each range of tide on rising tide at Mayport with the volume of the ensuing upstream tidal flow at Jacksonville and each range of tide on falling tide with the volume of the ensuing downstream tidal flow at Jacksonville. Thus, each time the range of tide was a specific value, the corresponding volume of tidal flow was listed under that value. The volumes of tidal flow plotted on figure 9 are the averages of these lists of volumes.

The linear relation through the average volume of tidal flow and the average range of tide indicates a volume adjustment of 425 mcf per foot of departure of the yearly average range of tide from the 12-year average range of tide. Thus, if the average range of tide during a year were 0.1 foot less than the 12-year average, 42.5 mcf were added to the volumes of tidal flow for that year.







18 BUREAU OF GEOLOGY
The adjusted yearly average volumes of downstream tidal flow are plotted against the corresponding average net flow per tidal cycle on the upper curve, and those of the upstream tidal flows, on the lower curve, in figure 8. The departures from the curves for the 12-year period are probably caused mostly by errors in determining the volumes of tidal flow. The maximum departure is 5.7 percent and the average departure is 2.7 percent.

STORAGE
Water enters the reach of the St. Johns River estuary that lies between Jacksonville and De Land as downstream flow at De Land, upstream flow at Jacksonville, inflow from the- intervening tributaries, ground-water inflow, and rainfall directly onto the estuary. Water leaves this reach of the estuary as upstream flow at De Land, downstream flow at Jacksonville, and evapotranspiration from the estuary. These eight factors can interact in any number of combinations to change the amount of water stored in the estuary. If these factors interact to increase storage, the effect is to decrease the volumes and durations of downstream flows and to increase the volumes and durations of upstream flows at Jacksonville. If they interact to reduce storage, the effect is to increase downstream flows and decrease upstream flows. Most of the time storage in the estuary -- and, therefore, the flow at Jacksonville -- is affected more by fresh-water inflow and outflow than by rainfall and evapotranspiration.
Figure 10 shows for the period of record, March 1, 1954 to September 30, 1966, the average monthly change in storage in the estuary and the estimated average monthly difference in rainfall and evapotranspiration. The average annual variation in sea level is also shown in figure 10 because it has a pronounced effect on the flow at Jacksonville and, therefore the storage in the estuary.
Storage changes in the reach of the estuary between De Land and Jacksonville, which are shown by figure 10, were computed as follows:
1. The average discharge at Jacksonville was computed for the entire
period of record and for the individual months by subtracting the
computed upstream flow from the computed downstream flow.
2. Rainfall and evapotranspiration were assumed equal for the
12-year period, and change in storage over the period relative to the total flow during the period was considered negligible, so that
total average inflow equals average discharge at Jacksonville.
3. The average gaged inflow to the estuary upstream from
Jacksonville during the 12-year period was computed for the individual months, and the percentage of the total average gaged
inflow occurring in each month was determined.
4. The average discharge at Jacksonville was multiplied by the
percentage of gaged inflow determined for the individual months
to obtain the total average monthly inflow.
5. The average monthly discharges at Jacksonville were subtracted
algebraically from the total average monthly inflow to obtain the
average monthly change in storage.









INFORMATION CIRCULAR NO. 82 19


4,000

z

0 ,0 -0----- ----- -- -_
0
U) WU
W 2,000
0 W WO~






W -W W_ I
0





0




LS CHANGE IN STORAGE IN ESTUARY
R RAINFALL ON ESTUARY
ET EVAPTRANSPIRATION FROM ESTUARY
I
W AVERAGE ANNUAL VARIATIONd
0.5



-.......MEAN SEA LEVEL
0) (AFTER MARMER, 1951)
JAN. FEB. MAR. APR. MAY JUNE JULY AUG. SEPT OCT NOV. DEC.


Figure 10. Graph showing the monthly average change in storage in the St.
Johns River estuary, the monthly average difference in the estimated monthly rainfall on and evapotranspiration from the
estuary, and the average annual variation in sea level.



Average monthly rainfall and evapotranspiration were estimated on the basis of Weather Bureau record at various places in the St. Johns River basin.


The results of these procedures indicate that, on the average, storage increases about 1,250 cfs in April and May, even though evapotranspiration exceeds rainfall by about 700 cfs (fig. 10). This is because backwater from rising sea level during these months holds back the outflow, so that the average inflow exceeds the average outflow by about 1,950 cfs. Even in very dry years storage increases during April and May, because, if fresh-water input is insufficient to hold the estuary at a level at least as high as that of the ocean, sea water flows







20 BUREAU OF GEOLOGY

upstream into the estuary, where it is stored until the level of the estuary becomes higher than the level of the ocean.

The tendency for sea water to move upstream, when the amount of water stored in the estuary is low in March and fresh-water inflow is small during the subsequent period of rising sea level, is illustrated by the period March to September 1956. Inflow to the estuary for this period was estimated to be 3,720 cfs. Fresh-water input accounted for 2,160 cfs of this inflow, and upstream flow of sea water accounted for the other 1,560 cfs. Evaporation from the surface of the estuary was estimated to have exceeded rainfall onto the surface during the period by only 300 cfs. This indicates that the long periods of average net upstream flow at Jacksonville result more from the coincidence of low storage in the estuary at the start of the annual general rise in sea level than from an excess in evaporation over rainfall. In fact, May 1962 was the only month during the period March 1954 to September 1966 that the inflow of fresh water was estimated to be less than the excess of evaporation over rainfall.

Figure 10 shows, further, that storage in the estuary on the average continues to increase from June through September. Average input is greater than average output during this period because of increasing backwater from rising sea level during much of the period and because average rainfall exceeds average evaporation throughout the period. On the average, fresh-water inflow in July increases so rapidly that storage in the estuary increases despite a small decline in sea level.

Figure 10 also shows that from October through March fresh-water input shows a general decline in concert with the annual decline in sea level, which results in the release of the water stored from April through September. On the average, only about three quarters of the water that enters the estuary from April through September is discharged at Jacksonville during that period. The rest is stored and released from October through March.

Figure 11 compares average discharge at Jacksonville during each water year with the proportional yearly average inflow to the estuary from 1954 to 1966- The departures of the individual years from the equal-flow line represent the changes in storage in the estuary during the individual water years. The average yearly discharge at Jacksonville was computed by subtracting the upstream flow from the downstream flow for each year. The proportional yearly average inflow was computed by totaling the yearly average discharges at the gaging stations contributing to the estuary, computing the ratio of these totals to the total of the 12-year average discharges at these stations, and multiplying the 12-year average discharge at Jacksonville by these ratios. This procedure presupposes that rainfall on the estuary and evapotranspiration from the estuary









INFORMATION CIRCULAR NO. 82 21



12,000
1959 1960\0



10,000 1964
1961

1958

8,000
) 1955



6,000 494,000


1966
1965
2,000 1963 1957


1956

1962
0
0 2,000 4,000 6,000 8,000 10,000 12,000
PROPORTIONAL AVERAGE INFLOW TO ESTUARY, CUBIC FEET PER SECOND

Figure 11. Relation of yearly average discharge at Jacksonville to proportional yearly average inflow to the estuary.




during the 12-year period were equal and that the change in storage over the 12-year period was insignificant.


The years that fall to the right of the equal flow line in figure 11 are those during which storage in the estuary increased, and those that fall to the left are those during which storage decreased. The amount of water in the estuary at the onset of rising sea level in the years to the right was relatively small, and, therefore, much capacity was available for added storage. In fact, the water level in the estuary was so low in each of these years that the net flow at Jacksonville was upstream for at least 1 month. In the years to the left, high water levels at







22 BUREAU OF GEOLOGY

the onset of rising sea level coupled with exceptionally high rates of outflow during the period of falling sea level resulted in decreases in storage comparable to the increases during the years that fall to the right. Parts of the storage changes resulted from the imbalance in the yearly rainfall and evapotranspiration totals, but, as indicated earlier, these imbalances play a minor role in the storage regime.


FLOW STATISTICS

Flow statistics for the St. Johns River at Jacksonville, based on the records computed for the period March 1, 1954 to September 30, 1966 are given in table 1. This period covers 4,597 days, during which 8,883 tidal cycles occurred. Therefore, the average duration of a tidal cycle during the period was, 0.5175 day, or 12.42 hours.





Table 1. Selected flow statistics for the St. Johns River at Jacksonville.

Direction of Flow
Statistic Downstream Upstream


Average discharge, cfs 46,419 40,536

Average net dischargecfs 5,883

Maximum daily net flow, cfs 87,000

Minimum daily net flow, cfs 51,500

Average volume per tidal 2,075.5 1,812.4
cycle, mcf

Average net volume per tidal 263.1
cycle, mcf

Maximum volume per tidal 5,280 4,410
cycle, mcf

Minimum volume per tidal 0 0
cycle, mcf








INFORMATION CIRCULAR NO. 82 23
2,000 rM N'T ,n nn qanzqmTI"T" yqmpqTqi *yM q qq "ryqp qqqqTqmtII0NET F LOW DOWNSTREAM
2400 .oDOWNSTREAM

2,000 A


UPSTREAM--1,200MONTHLY AVERAGE OF MONTHLY MEAN VOLUMES OF UPSTREAM AND
A 0 M DOWNSTREAM FLOW, MILLIONS OF CUBIC FEET
1,000 n nArA Nn

600 AVERAGE MONTHLY MEAN RANGE IN TIDE AT MAYPORT (PREDICTED)

ul C
"I ~i11TU'Sf IAVERHAG E

U 00o 4

V,
400 l

J0


1194 19551 1956 I0? 1 1958 1959 1960 196I1 1962 1193 194n96 19r6

Figure 12. Hydrographs showing monthly mean flow volumes (graph A),
monthly averages of the monthly mean flow volumes (graph B), and monthly mean not flow volumes (graph D) at Jacksonville and monthly mean predicted tidal range (graph C) at Mayport
from March 1954 to September 1966.
The monthly mean upstream and downstream volumes of flow per tidal event for the period indicated are shown by graph A on figure 12. This graph is the composite of the flow caused by both tidal and non-tidal factors. Graph B on figure 12 shows the averages of the upstream and downstream volumes of flow shown in graph A. These volumes represent the part of the composite flow caused by the tide because non-tidal factors that tend to increase flow in one direction also tend to decrease flow in the other direction, so that averaging the flow in both directions cancels the non-tidal influences. As indicated previously, the flow is approximately proportional to the range of tide, and over the period of a month it is very nearly proportional, as the effects of lunar declination are largely self cancelling. Therefore, the distribution of the values in graph B about the mean value should be similar to the distribution of the monthly average predicted ranges of tide about the mean of the predicted range of tide during the







24 BUREAU OF GEOLOGY

same period as shown by graph C on figure 12. However, a comparison of graphs B and C shows that the distributions about the means are not similar. For example, in October 1958, when the indicated flow caused by tide was the smallest during the period of record, the mean predicted range of tide was 0.9 foot above the average value. Conversely, in January 1964, when the indicated tidal flow was the greatest during the period of record, the mean predicted range of tide was 0.6 foot below the average value. Some of this nonconformity may be caused by errors in the computation of the flow values.

Graph D on figure 12 shows the monthly mean net flow per tidal cycle in the St. Johns River at Jacksonville. The monthly mean net volume of flow per tidal cycle for each month is the algebraic difference in the monthly mean volume of downstream flows and the monthly mean volume of upstream flows, shown by graph A, for the corresponding month. The mean net volume of flow per tidal cycle for each month is equal to the average fresh-water inflow into the estuary per tidal cycle, plus the average rainfall on the estuary per tidal cycle, minus the average evapotranspiration from the estuary per tidal cycle, plus or minus the average change in storage per tidal cycle during the month. If the sum of fresh-water inflow and rainfall is greater than evapotranspiration plus or minus the change in storage in a month, the average net flow per tidal cycle will be downstream. If the sum of fresh-water inflow and rainfall is less than evapotranspiration plus or minus the change in storage in a month, the average net flow per tidal cycle will be upstream.

The 21 months during which the average net flow was upstream all occurred during the dry season in exceptionally dry years except, possibly, February 1966, which followed the very dry year 1965. During these months, storage in the estuary was relatively small, and this condition coupled with high losses by evapotranspiration permitted more water to flow upstream into the estuary than flowed out. In 1962, the excess of upstream flow was so great that enough sea water entered the estuary to cause the chloride concentration to exceed 2,000 mg/I (milligrams per liter) at Green Cover Springs, where the chloride concentration is ordinarily less than 400 mg/l.




FLOW DISTRIBUTION AND FREQUENCY

The distribution of the volumes of tidal flows in the St. Johns River at Main Street Bridge in Jacksonville is shown in figures 13 and 14. The distribution of flow volumes during tidal flows in increments of 100 million cubic feet is shown as percentages of the total number of tidal flows.







INFORMATION CIRCULAR NO. 82 25

A cumulation of a flow-distribution curve of data for flow occurring continuously in time is called a flow-duration curve. Tidal flow is not continuous in one direction, and, therefore, the duration of flow in any one duration can be described only in terms of percentage of the total number of tidal flows during which the flow was in that direction. The volume of a tidal flow is a function of both the duration of and the average discharge during the tidal flow. The relation between these three parameters is not constant, and, therefore, the volume of an individual tidal flow does not determine its duration. Therefore, in this report, the cumulation of flow-distribution curves.

Cumulative flow-distribution curves that show the percentage of the total number of tidal flows during which specific volumes were equaled or exceeded during tidal flows are defined by the open circles on figures 13 and 14. Cumulative flow-distribution curves that show the percentage of the total number of days of record during which specific total daily volumes of downstream or upstream flow were equaled or exceeded are defined by the solid circles in figures 13 and 14. Values for equal percentages in figures 13 and 14 cannot be subtracted to obtain the net flow for that percentage because it is necessary to take the algebraic sum of consecutive downstream and upstream flows to obtain the net flow for a tidal cycle. Figure 15 is a cumulative flow-distribution curve of the daily net flow in the St. Johns River at Main Street Bridge. The curve was computed using the algebraic sum of the daily downstream and upstream volumes of flow. The volumes of downstream and upstream flows are increasingly large in comparison with the net flow volume as the net flow volume approaches zero, and, therefore, the computed net flow volume is subject to increasingly greater percentage error as the net flow volume approaches zero. However, the smooth transition of the cumulative flow distribution curve from positive to negative net flow indicates that, although values for individual days may be grossly erroneous, the errors may be mutually compensating, and the curve may be approximately correct.

The average recurrence intervals in months and years of specific monthly and yearly extremes in volumes of tidal flow are shown by figures 16 through 21. The curves are based on data obtained between March 1954 and September 1966. The following discussions of the figures presuppose that conditions during the period of record are representative of long-term conditions.

Figure 16 shows the average recurrence intervals in months and years of downstream tidal flow volumes that occur as monthly and yearly maximums. For example, the average recurrence interval of monthly maximum downstream tidal flows of 4,000 mcf or more is 60 months. Likewise, the average recurrence interval of yearly maximum downstream tidal flows of 4,000 mcf or more is 6.7 years.







26 BUREAU OF GEOLOGY



9 %00 .- - ......I..
VOLUME OF DOWNSTREAM FLOW PER DAY
-- 0 VOLUME OF DOWNSTREAM FLOW PER TIDAL CYCLE
I INCREMENT OF VOLUME OF DOWNSTREAM
FLOW PER TIDAL CYCLE



00 -- - -- ---- .- ...PERIOD OF RECORD: FEBRUARY 1954 TO SEPTE MBER 1966
~ i...L I I I I I I I I ______001 00501 02 05 1 2 5 10 2030 40 5060 7060 90 95 98 99 99.99999 99.99
PERCENTAGE OF DAYS OR TIDAL CYCLES THAT INDICATED VOLUME OF DOWSTREAM FLOW WAS EQUALED OR EXCEEDED
AND PERCENTAGE OF TIDAL CYCLES THAT VOLUME OF DOWNSTREAM FLOW FELL WITHIN INCREMENT INDICATED
Figure 13. Flow distribution and cumulative flow-distribution curves for downstream flow at Main Street Bridge.



Figure 17 shows the same information for upstream flows that figure 16 shows for downstream flows. For example, the average recurrence interval of monthly maximum upstream tidal flows of 3,400 mcf or more is 60 months. The average recurrence interval of yearly maximum upstream tidal flows of 3,400 mcf or more is 4.2 years.


Figure 18 shows the average recurrence intervals in months and years of downstream tidal flow volumes that occur as monthly and yearly minimums. For example, the average recurrence interval of monthly minimum downstream tidal flows of 1,000 mcf or less is 5 months, and the average recurrence interval of yearly minimum downstream tidal flows of 1,000 mcf or less is 1.18 years.


Figure 19 shows the same information for upstream flows that figure 18 shows for downstream flows. For example, the average recurrence interval of monthly minimum upstream tidal flows of zero flow is about 86 months, and the average recurrence interval of yearly minimum upstream tidal flows of zero flow is 7.2 years.












INFORMATION CIRCULAR NO. 82 27






8,000

-MAXIMUM DAY 7,000




6900 '




5,000




4000




3,000




LW 2,000 -____ ________ ________ ________ _______1,000- -0
0

0





-1,000




-2,000




-3000




-4,000

MINIMUM DAY


-5,000

PERIOD OF RECORD: FEBRUARY 1954 TO SEPTEMBER 1966




--?000


0 0 20 30 40 50 60 70 so 90 100
PERCENTAGE OF DAYS NET DOWNSTREAM FLOW EQUALED OR EXCEEDED THAT SHOWN


Figure 14. Flow distribution and cumulative flow-distribution curves for upstream flow at Main Street Bridge.








00







z I I I I I
6jOO0
E VOLUME OF UPSTREAM FLOW PER DAY

5 PERCENTAGE OF --- - --- ---- -- 0 VOLUME OF UPSTREAM FLOW PE WR TIDAL CYCLE
I INCREMENT OF VOLUME OF UPSTREAM FLOW PER TIDAL CYCLE

4,000 - - - - - -- - ..




E










3 10Jo ns-Ri-e- ---M--- ---e---B---g-PEzDO EOD ERAY15 OSPEBR16
0
3 .PO 0 . .5 t 2 5 1 0 3 0 506 0 8 0 9 8999. 9 9 99 PECNTG 1FDY RTDLCCE HTIDCTDVLMEO PTEMFO A QAE ECEE AND PECNAEO 2A YCE HTVLM FUPTA LWFL IHI NRMN NOAE

FU.e1. Cmltv lwdsrbtincreo ayntDwo h t
J0m ie tMinSre rde




6,000 rr



PERIOD: 1954-66

W HURRICANE DORA
w





0 ~YEARS


S4000 --- --- -- ---- -
iz





\MONTHS 10
U



00 21 -.---0
3,0002,000
1.01 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.5 1.72 3 4 5 7 10 20 30 40 50 70 100
RECURRENCE INTERVAL, IN YEARS AND MONTHS
Figure 16. Frequency of monthly and annual maximum downstream flows
in the St. Johns River at Main Street Bridge.











51000



5,000 --------- --Fr

w PERIOD: 1954-66


HURRICANE DORA L. 4,000
* ,
00

z
0
-J


U.
0
w




2,L02 0 ------- -J ---- -J W
1.01 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.5 1.7 2 3 4 5 7 10 20 30 40 50 70 100 200
RECURRENCE INTERVAL, IN YEARS AND MONTHS










2,000 -- --- -- T TF r -1-2PO
PERIOD: 1954-66

00

MONTHS
1,000 -ma ea



3F ~YEARS 1
,0
010

Li.

HURRICANE DORA z
. .
00
1.01 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.5 1.7 2 3 4 5 7 10 20 30 40 50 70 100 200
RECURRENCE INTERVAL, IN YEARS AND MONTHS






Figure 18. Frequency of monthly and annual minimum downstream flows
in the St. Johns River at Main Street Bridge.











2,000 -- -r

U
UPERIOD 1954-66

U

U ,000 -t-- - -o-- - - - -

M NTH S

Y E A R S
U.



0 0

R %*- I-1H.11RIC NE DORA
i I i i




1.01 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.5 1.7 2 3 4 5 7 10 20 30 40 50 70 100 200
RECURRENCE INTERVAL, IN YEARS AND MONTHS
0









Figure 19. Frequency of monthly and annual minimum upstream flowis in the St. Johns River at Main Street Bridge.





9,000 - - II

PERIOD: 1954-66

8,000 I HURRICANE DORA



7,000
U
Uj


U
UI
5,000


MONTHS
-4,000
0
iS



ag
OR2,000p

00
1,000 00 11



1.01 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.5 1.7 2 3 4 5 7 10 20 30 40 50 70 100 200
RECURRENCE INTERVAL, IN YEARS AND MONTHS

Figure 20. Frequency of monthly and annual maximum daily net flow in
the St. Johns River at Main Street Bridge.







34 BUREAU OF GEOLOGY

Figure 20 shows the average recurrence intervals in months and years of daily net flows that occur as monthly and yearly maximums. For example, the average recurrence interval of monthly maximum net flows of 5,000 mcf or more is 120 months, and the average recurrence interval of yearly maximum net flows of 5,000 mcf or more is 10.3 years.

Figure 21 shows the average recurrence intervals in months and years of daily net flows that occur as monthly and yearly minimums. For example, the average recurrence interval of monthly minimum net flows of minus 3,000 mcf or less is about 74 months, and the average recurrence interval of yearly minimum net flows of minus 3,000 mcf or less is 6.3 years.

The extremes caused by Hurricane Dora do not fit these relations except, possibly, the minimum upstream flow. This is probably because the conditions that caused the extremes are unlikely to occur frequently. The minimum upstream flow, however, is more likely to occur than the other extremes because the conditons required to cause small upstream flows occur much more frequently than the conditions required to cause the other extremes. In fact, the volumes of four upstream flows during the period of record were less than 100 million cubic feet.


MAXIMUM PERIODS OF FLOW DEFICIENCY

Figure 22 shows the maximum number of consecutive days that the daily net flow was less than specified amounts between October 1954 and September 1966. However, the figure does not indicate how much less than a specific amount the daily net flow was for any specific number of days. The number of consecutive days that the flow remains below a specific volume has no relation to the total amount of net flow during those days. For example, even though the net flow was upstream in excess of 518 million cubic feet per day for 7 consecutive days in both 1963 and 1966, during the 1963 period the average net flow was only 8,660 cfs upstream, whereas during the 1966 period the average net flow was 22,720 cfs upstream.

Between March 3 and October 15, 1956, the cumulative net upstream flow was 34 billion cubic feet, an average of 150 million cubic feet per day. Between January 26 and August 14, 1962, the cumulative net upstream flow was 39 billion cubic feet, an average of about 200 million cubic feet per day. Most of this flow was sea water moving in to replace water lost by evaporation or to provide the normal increase in channel storage that results from the annual rise in sea level from March to October. In wet years this water is provided by fresh-water inflow.





1,000 1 A

PERIOD: 1954 -66
W 0A-,l00 0 ih



-1,000 M
o
-j

U. -,000

LL.i
0

00

-5,00 HURRICANE DORAf-"" Z
1.01 1.1 1.2 1.3 15 1.7 2 3 4 5 7 10 20 30 40 50 70 100 200
RECURRENCE INTERVAL, IN YEARS AND MONTHS



Figure 21. Frequency of monthly and annual minimum daily net flow in the St. Johns River at Main Street Bridge.









3,000 -- --- -r

PERIOD: 1954-66





U

LAL
0 13000 m __00
z



00

00









S2 3 0 7 20 50 70 100 20 300 500 1,000
MAXIMUM NUMBER OF CONSECUTIVE DAYS IN WHICH THE DAILY NET FLOW WAS LESS THAN THAT INDICATED

Figure 22. MaxImum periods of deficient daily net flow in the St. Johns River at Jacksonville.








INFORMATION CIRCULAR NO. 82 37

CHEMICAL CHARACTERISTICS

Variation in the flow of the St. Johns River at Jacksonville is accompanied by variations in the chemical characteristics of the water in the river. Ocean water advances up the lower St. Johns River during each upstream flow and recedes from the river during each downstream flow. While it is in the river, some of the ocean water mixes with fresh water within a zone in which a transition from water having the chemical characteristics of ocean water at its downstream end to water having the chemical characteristics of the fresh water at its upstream end takes place. This zone of transition was discussed in the section of this report on the relation of chloride concentration in the river to the tidal cycle.

Reliable estimates of the concentration of dissolved chemical constituents in the St. Johns River can be made quickly and conveniently by use of the curves of relation shown in figure 23 between the concentration of the chemical constituents and the specific conductance of the water in the river (specific conductance is a measure of the ability of water to conduct electricity, and it is reported in micromhos per centimeter at 25 0C).

Chemical analyses of samples of water from the St. Johns River at Main Street Bridge, obtained from April 1966 through May 1967, are given in table 2. The curves shown in figure 23 are based primarily on the data given in table 2.




VARIATIONS IN CHEMICAL CHARACTERISTICS AT MAIN STREET BRIDGE
The relation of specific conductance to the concentration of chemical constituents was used in evaluating the variations in chemical characteristics of the St. Johns River at Main Street Bridge.

In 1966, an instrument was installed at Main Street Bridge to obtain a continuous record of the specific conductance of the river. The daily maximum specific conductance near the surface of the river recorded by this instrument from October 1, 1966, to April 21, 1967, is shown in figure 24. The extreme variability in chemical quality is indicated by the changes in specific conductance from November 19-28, 1966. The specific conductance increased from about 8,000 micromhos on the 19th to more than 30,000 micromhos on the 23rd and then decreased to about 8,000 micromhos by the 28th. Changes in specific conductance of as much as 12,000 micromhos during a single tidal cycle are common. (See fig. 15).











38 BUREAU OF GEOLOGY










U ,- 0 _--- -o













I0 I t IO I00
+ 0__ am 0 0




U 0

00







a


0 1001,000IOOOO











CONCENTRATION OF CHEMICAL CONSTITUENT, MILLIGRAMS PER LITER

Figure 23. Region of specific conductance to concentration of major
chemical constituents in the St. Johns River at Main Street

Bridge.
ICMI








I 00I


A |








CL
























OCTOBER riavEadER DECEMBER JANUARY FEBRUARY U ARCH APRIL
1966 1967


Figure 24. Daiy maximum specifc conductance near the surface of the St.
Johns River at Main Street Bridge, October 1966 to April1967.





Table 2. Chemical analyses of the St. Johns River at Jacksonville, Florida (samples collected at Main Street Bridge).

milligrams per liter

Dissolved Hardness
0%
solids as CaCO3


0 -0
0 z 0 $ 4 0 i
Date of S1ZU .=



1966 0
b Apr. 26 0.7 0.01 41 26 201 7.3 66 88 359 0.3 0.1 0.00 765 820 210 156 1470 7.3 70 Z
t Oct. 5 4.7 .05 1.04 274 2320 84 80 571 4090 .5 2.1 .16 7490 7830 1390 1320 1300 7.0 100 1.8 b Oct. 5 2.4 .00 138 377 3240 119 84 750 5690 .6 3.3 .20 10400 10500 1900 1830 17500 7.1 80 2.4
t Oct. 10 3.6 .05 29 14 95 3.6 64 42 176 .3 .1 .15 396 459 130 78 790 7.0 100 .54 0 b Oct. 10 3.9 .05 28 14 96 3.6 60 43 174 .3 .2 .26 394 462 128 79 790 6.8 100 .54 C

t Nov. 3 4.6 .04 27 10 71 2.6 40 34 136 .3 .2 .11 306 360 109 76 618 6.9 120 .55 b Nov. 3 2.6 .13 27 10 72 2.6 78 28 128 .3 .3 .10 310 363 109 45 770 6.8 110 .52 t Nov. 16 5.2 .08 211 608 5340 196 85 1240 9470 .9 1.5 .26 17100 18200 3030 2960 28000 7.0 40' .3.5 z
b Nov. 16 2.5 .05 225 633 5520 200 109 1320 9720 .9 11 .24 17700 18700 3170 3080 30000 7.1 60 3.7
t Nov. 21 4.6 .11 104 263 2310 82 84 563 4090 .6 1.2 .30 7460 7560 1340 1270 12500 7.1 120 1.8 0

b Nov. 21 3.4 .10 131 351 3110 122 112 756 5540 .6 6.3 .22 10100 10600 1770 1680 18000 7.0 100 2.4
t Dec. 22 3.4 .12 72 141 1180 46 78 304 2100 .3 1.1 .18 3890 4150 760 696 6700 7.1 100 1.2

1967
t-May 10 3.6 .05 215 448 3690 143 95 933 6800 .7 5.7 .32 12300 2380 2310 20800 6.9 45 4.8

(t) top sample
(b) bottom sample







40 BUREAU OF GEOLOGY









'














DECEMBER I9966 JANUARY 1967
40I














Figure 25. Cumulative discharge and specific conductance at the end of
each tidal flow beginning December 12,1966 and ending January
31, 1967.
The specific conductance at the end of each tidal flow and the cumulative discharge at Main Street Bridge is shown by figure 25 for the period December 12, 1966, to January 31, 1967. The scale on the cumulative discharge graph is inverted so that the graphs may be more easily compared. The graphs show that as long as the zone of transition extends upstream from Main Street Bridge the specific conductance of the river at Main Street Bridge decreases with increasing discharge accumulation and increases with decreasing discharge accumulation. Discharge accumulation increases with downstream flow and decreases with upstream flow.

The amount of change in the specific conductance of the river is not always the same for a specific change in cumulative discharge because the rate of change in specific conductance is dependent on the gradient of the zone of








INFORMATION CIRCULAR NO.82 41

transition. If the zone of transition is entirely downstream from the Main Street Bridge when cumulative downstream flow begins, little or no change in specific conductance occurs at Main Street Bridge as a result of tidal action. The specific conductance would be that of the fresh-water input. Conversely, if enough cumulative upstream flow were to occur, the specific conductance of the river at Main Street Bridge could approximate that of sea water; however, this conditon has not been observed. The specific conductance near the surface of the river also tends to increase during periods of non-accumulating flow because of mixing in of water with higher conductance from greater depth. It follows that the specific conductance at greater depth decreases during such periods. However, this hypothesis has not been verified.

From October 1954 to September 1966, the Jacksonville Department of Public Health obtained water-quality data at the Main Street Bridge at about 2-month intervals in each year except 1956. These data were collected throughout a total of 63 complete tidal cycles. The chloride concentration was determined by chemical analysis of samples collected hourly during each of the tidal cycles. Concentrations of sulfate, sodium, hardness and dissolved solids during these cycles were calculated from their relation to the chloride concentration using figure 23. Duration curves of these chemical constituents in the river during the 63 tidal cycles sampled are shown in figure 26. Although in a strict sense the data apply only to the cycles sampled, they are considered fairly representative of the long-term duration because the sampling was done at uniform intervals. However, had continuous data been available for the period, the durations, especially the extremes, probably would differ some from those shown in figure 26. The curves show the percentage of time that the concentration of any of the major constituents is equal to or more than any specified amount. For example, the curve for duration of chloride concentration shows that the chloride concentration equals or exceeds 250 mg/l 82 percent of the time.

VARIATIONS IN CHLORIDE CONCENTRATION IN THE LOWER ST. JOHNS RIVER

Chloride concentrations in the lower St. Johns River were investigated by measuring the specific conductance of the water in mid-channel at selected points on May 18, October 18, and December 12, 1966. Figure 27 shows the results of these measurements for the reach of the river from 12 to 31 miles upstream from its mouth. The measurements were made near both the bottom and surface of the river at each of the points indicated. On May 18 and October 18, 1966, measurements were made at slack water before both downstream and upstream flow, but. on December 12, 1966, measurements were made at slack water before the downstream flow only. The average daily net flow was 3,120











42 BUREAU OF GEOLOGY





!CC,CC















Dissolved
Solids




:C,CCO --- Chionde




Sodium


Tota































CL
rJSufJtk

Cr~c

07









rIC OI I_
































I0 C.090 02 0.5 I 2 5 t0 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 95 99 99 995993 999 9999 PERCENTAGE OF TIME INDICATED CONCENTRATION WAS EO'!ALED OR EXCEEDED Fir 26& Duration curves of major chemical constituents in the St. Johns

River at Jacksonville.











INFORMATION CIRCULAR NO. 82 43


32 I I I I I I 1




28 SLACK WATER BEFORE
DOWNSTREAM FLOW
SLACK WATER BEFORE
UPSTREAM FLOW

o 24 0 BOTTOM OF RIVER
2 V) 0 TOP OF RIVER

0 BOTTOM AND TOP OF RIVER

20



AaRG NE FLW032 UI

12
oz CL



AVRAENEJF NJ.., \ VRGNEJLO ,2 UI
In 0
c" 160
CE DECEMBER 12,196A6
4 0 AVERAGE NET FLOW 5,320 CUBIC
S EN FEET PER SECOND UPSTREAM

3 12 422
oz

o NJ

U BL


OCTOBER UlB 1966 T F MATU ,1966
AVERAGE NET FLOW i. h AVERAGE NET FLOW 3120 CUBIC
9,370 CI FE y PERse FEET PER SECOND UPSTREAM
,SECOND DOWNSTREAM



01
12 14 IA lB 20 22 24 26 28 30 32
DISTANCE UPSTREAM FROM MOUTH OF ST. JOHNS RIVER, STATUTE MILES

Figure 27. Longitudinal and vertical variation in specific conductance of the
water in the lower St. Johns River from river mile 12 to river

mile 31 at slack water on selected days.




cfs upstream on May 18, 9,370 cfs downstream on October 18, and 5,32et 0 cfs

upstream on December 12. Although the general level of the specific conductance and chloride concentration do not depend wholly on the net flow of the river for any single day but rather on the cumulative flow over many days, the specific conductance was higher on May 18 and December 12, when the net flow was upstream, than it was on October 18, when the net flow was downstream. Further, both the specific conductance and the rate of increase in specific conductance with river mileage were higher on December 12, when the average net flow was 5,320 cfs upstream, than on May 18, when the average net flow was only 3,120 cfs upstream. Also, at slack water before downstream flow on October 18, the specific conductance near the surface was lower at river miles 12.2 and 15 than at some points farther upstream. This was pro caused by

high ftesh-water inflow to the St. Johns River from Trout River and other nearby tributaries, as indicated by high discharges recorded on nearby Ortega River. At slack water before upstream flow on October 18, virtually fresh water was observed as far downstream as the mouth of Trout River.








44 BUREAU OF GEOLOGY

A vertical gradient in chloride concentration tends to exist in estuaries such as the St. Johns River because the lighter fresh water tends to override the denser sea water. In a straight and uniform river channel, sea water enters and recedes from the channel as a wedge of salt water between the river bottom and the overlying fresh water and mixing is caused primarily by turbulence at the salt-water-fresh-water interface. However, the channel of the St. Johns River is neither straight nor uniform. Instead, it bends and varies in both width and depth, so that a well defined interface between salt water and fresh water does not exist in the river in the Jacksonville area. Thus, the river either has no vertical gradient in chloride concentration or has a uniform increase in chloride concentration with depth.

The change with time in specific conductance, which is indicative of the chloride concentrations near the surface and the bottom of the river, is shown in figure 28 for four of the points measured May 18, 1966. The amount of vertical variation in specific conductance is indicated by the shaded areas. The data show that vertical variation in specific conductance increases with distance downstream from the river constriction and bridge piers near Main Street Bridge (river mile 21) but changes little with distance upstream from the constriction. This indicates that the vertical variation in chloride concentration, which tends to decrease gradually between the ocean and Main Street Bridge during upstream flows, is almost eliminated by the turbulence and eddies created by the constriction and bridge piers. At the beginning of the measurement period (figure 28), flow was upstream, and the major change in the vertical variation in chloride concentration took place between Commodore Point and Acosta Bridge, showing the great effect of the constriction and piers on the vertical variation in chloride concentration. Near the end of the measurement period, however, the major change in the vertical variation in chloride concentration took place between Commodore Point and Dredge Depot. By this time, the flow had been downstream for more than 6 hours and then upstream for about 2 hours, and the shift in the reach of major change in variation represents the displacement of the zone of transition by the downstream flow. The greater vertical variation in chloride concentration at Dredge Depot at the end of the measurement period than at the beginning is probably related to the tendency for sea water to flow upstream beneath the fresh water late in the downstream part of the tidal cycle. This results in greater vertical variation in chloride concentration in the early stages than in later stages of the upstream part of the cycle.

Data from the survey shown in figure 27 and from pollution surveys by the Jacksonville Department of Public Health indicate that there is no fixed relation between chloride concentrations at different sampling points along the river. However, a fair relation was indicated between the maximum chloride










INFORMATION CIRCULAR NO. 82 45


16 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
0 I. CORPS OF ENGINEERS DREDGE
DEPOT, MILE 170
0: Z) -- 2. COMMODODORE POINT, MILE 20O
_j-BOTTOM-,- 3. ACOSTA BRIDGE, MILE 22.4
U- U 2- 1. POINT L VISTA, MILE 26.5

z W TOP---0
~U )





HOUR


Jaksniaeara
Z W
3W BOTTOM,,
Z z4


0 W

080 090M00A0010 130 10,10110910610610

HOURS
Figure 28. Variations with time in the specific conductance of the St. Johns
River near the 'surface and bottom at selected points in the
Jacksonville area.
concentrations at different sampling points at slack before the downstream flow of common tidal cycles. Figure 29 shows the relation between the maximum chloride concentration at the Main Street Bridge and those upstream at Orange Park and downstream at Drummond Point for the same tidal cycle. The figure shows that, with increasing chloride concentration at Main Street Bridge, the chloride concentration at Orange Park at first increases less rapidly but later on increases more rapidly than at Main Street Bridge. The opposite relation prevails between the chloride concentrations at Drummond Point and Main Street Bridge.

The maximum chloride concentration observed at the Main Street Bridge from October 1954 to October 1966 was 12,700 mg/l on February 12, 1962. Extrapolation of the relation in figure 29 indicates that the maximum chloride concentrations at Orange Park and Drummond Point on February 12, 1962, may have been about 10,000 and 17,000 mg/1, respectively.

The longitudinal variation in the chloride concentration at slack water before the downstream flows of common tidal cycles in the St. Johns River between its mouth and Palatka, which would be exceeded as the daily maximum less than 7 percent of the days, is shown in figure 30. The longitudinal variation






46 BUREAU OF GEOLOGY




9
12' .0
If/


II /RNEPR
.01
2 9
4





0 42
3







0- 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 a 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 Is MAXIMUM CHLORIDE CONCENAT AT ORANGE PARK A DRUMOD PIN. TOUAND O MILIRAM PRUMN POINT





Figure 29. Relation of maximum chloride concentration at Main Street Bridge to maximum chloride concentration at Orange Park and Drummond Point at slack before the downstream flow of common tidal cycles.
in chloride concentration which would be exceeded as the daily maximum 50 percent of the days is similarly shown for the reach between Drummond Point and Orange Park. The chloride concentrations for all points shown in the figure other than at Main Street Bridge were derived from relations like those shown in Figure 29.


SEASONAL VARIATION IN FLOW AND CHLORIDE CONCENTRATION

The average monthly mean tidal flow at Jacksonville during the period of record from March, 1954, to September, 1966, should be about the same for every month. Thus, there should be no seasonal variation in the tide induced flow. This is because the tidal flow is approximately proportional to the range of tide (Haight, 1938) and the monthly mean ranges of tide as determined from the tide tables for the period of record were almost the same for every month. The difference between the highest and lowest monthly mean range of tide was 0.027 foot. The record shows a differentof all points the highest and lowest monthly mean tidal flow which ranged from 7.4 less than to 4.7 percent more than the mean tidal flow.





2a 2


20 CONDITION A CHLORIDE CONCENTRATION WHICH WOULD
BE EXCEEDED LESS THAN 7 PERCENT OF THE DAYS AS THE DAILY MAXIMUM
18
2 ~ z CONDITION B CHLORIDE CONCENTRATION WHICH WOULD
01 X- 0
W 0 BE EXCEEDED 50 PERCENT OF THE DAYS
t -AS THE DAILY MAXIMUM
4

8w
W
a -4

S0W


z :I
0

22

06-
... 0
S 40 Z
4dx s
0 yy

2
0 CONDITION 8 CONDITION A a<


0 4 8 12 16. 20 24 28 32 36 40 44 48 52 56 60 64 68 72 76 80
APPROXIMATE DISTANCE UPSTREAM FROM ST JOHNS RIVER ENTRIANCE, STATUTE MILES

Figure 30. Approximate longitudinal variation in the daily maximum chloride concentration which will be exceeded less than 7 percent of the days and 50 percent of the days in the lower St. Johns River.








48 BUREAU OF GEOLOGY

Because, as indicated by the foregoing discussion, all average monthly mean tidal flows should be almost the same, any seasonal variation in the flow of the river is manifested by the net flow. Determination of the net flow of the river can be no more accurate than that of the tidal flow and on a percentage basis, it must be considerably poorer. This is especially true for periods when the net flow is small. The inaccuracy of the record is indicated by the computed average net flow of only 5,883 cfs whereas the average net flow based on the gaged inflow and estimated inflow from ungaged areas is about 8,100 cfs. Nevertheless, the average and extreme monthly mean discharges based on the records for the river at Jacksonville are shown by figure 31. The distribution pattern, if not the values, is probably valid as is the departure from average conditions indicated by the extremes.

Figure 31 shows the seasonal net flow regime of the St. Johns River at Jacksonville to consist of four periods, which result from the interplay of the rainy season from June through October, the dry season from November through May, the period of increasing storage from April through September, and the period of decreasing storage from October through March. The four periods are that of low net discharge in May and June, that of increasing net discharge from July through September, that of high net discharge from October through January, and that of decreasing net discharge from February through April.

Some insight into the seasonal variation in chloride concentration was obtained from the bimonthly chloride data collected by the Jacksonville Department of Public Health. A generalized comparison between the average of extremes in chloride concentration and average net outflow at Jacksonville for the same months is shown in figure 32. As would be expected, there is an inverse relation between chloride concentration and net discharge. The range between the average maximum and average minimum chloride concentration at Jacksonville is greatest when net outflow is low because the gradient of the zone of transition is steeper at Jacksonville under these conditions than when net outflow is high. That is, low net outflow places Main Street Bridge closer to the sea-water end of the zone of transition, where the gradient is steep; whereas, high net outflow places Main Street Bridge near the fresh-water end of the zone, where the gradient is gentle.


TEMPERATURE

In 1966, about 180 million gallons of water per day was withdrawn from aquifers in the Jacksonville area (Lave, 1969). Perhaps 30 to 50 mgd (million gallons per day) of this water was used for cooling in various processes. If











INFORMATION CIRCULAR NO. 82 49




22 20 18 16
z
u











a- 2
LOWEHT






-4
u- 12




u
-10


0
2

0


~LO WEST S-2 Z -4


-6


-8


-10 JAN. FEB. MAR. APR. MAY JUNE JULY AUG. SEPT. OCT NOV. DEC.
Figure 31. Graphs showing the highest, lowest, and average monthly mean
net discharge of the St. Johns River at Jacksonville.










50 BUREAU OF GEOLOGY





(X 10
NOTE: CHLORIDE DATA AVAILABLE IN FEB., APR.,
JUNE, AUG., OCT, AND DEC. ONLY
0 a
U


C_ AVERAGEMAXIMUM CHLORIDE CONCENTRATION




Z AVERAGE NET FLOW
/\
LU


0 \
zz4




__VER G /I AVECR.ARGE CNEETTRLTOW
0
0

0Zz
LAI
/ C3I





0JAM. FEB. MAR. APR. MAY JUNE JULY AUG. SEPT OCT NOV DEC.


Figure 32. Graphs wingg the average net flow and the average maximum
and minimum chloride concentrations in the St. Johns River at Jacksonville for alternate months. Flow records and chloride
records June 1959 to October 1966.




surface-water sources such as the St. Johns River could be substituted for ground-water sources to provide this cooling water, all the projected increase in water demand from 1966 to 1980 could be met without increasing the rate of withdrawal of water from the aquifers.



Water-temperature measurements of the St. Johns River taken at random over a period of several years and temperature of ground water at different depths in the area are protrayed by figure 33. Water tempatures in the artesian









INFORMATION CIRCULAR NO. 82 51
5 1 1 1 1 1 1 95

90


-J GROUND WATR __- WELLS GREATER THAN 1,000 FEET DEEP ---- ----- GNWAE
_GROUND WATER
25 WELLS 800 TO 1,000 FEET DEEP----------- LL ---U E
WELLS 500 TO 800 FEET DEEP- - GROUNDWAT
C
4 TO Z
1W 20 I
65 2W


55

JAN. FEB. MAR APR. MAY JUNE JULY AUG. SEPT OCT NOV. DEC.
Figure 33. Approximate average daily water temperatures of the St. Johns River at Main Street Bridge and ground-water at specified depths.


aquifer in the area are nearly constant but increase with depth. The temperature of water from wells 500 to 800 feet deep averages about 24"C (75 *F) and that of water from wells greater than 1,000 feet deep about 27 "C (81 OF).

Figure 33 shows that the water in the St. Johns River has a lower temperature, and, therefore, a greater cooling capacity than any water from the artesian aquifer from November through April. In January and February, the temperature of the river water averages less than 15 C (59 F). The temperature of the river water is higher than that of all water now being withdrawn from the artesian aquifer only from June through mid September when the temperature of the river water averages more than 28 'C (82 'F). Thus, use of ground water in the Jacksonville area could be reduced if installations now perennially using ground water for cooling were to use river water from November through April, with the realization of some gain in efficiency of the installations.

RELATION OF FLOW AND QUALITY CHARACTERISTICS TO USE OF THE RIVER


Most uses of the St. Johns River at Jacksonville depend on the chemical and biological quality of the river. The water quality of the river is controlled by the flow of the river. The flow characteristics of the river are such that the river at Jacksonville can become saline, as a result of upstream flow, or severely








52 BUREAU OF GEOLOGY

polluted with wastes as a result of low net flow. High chloride concentrations restrict use of the river for public water supply and industrial processes. High concentrations of wastes in the river, which can persist after the resumption of net upstream or downstream flow, adversely affect the esthetic and recreational value of the river.




SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS

The St. Johns River drains about one-sixth of the State of Florida and in its lower reaches is a tidal estuary in which about 1 in every 10 gallons of water that drains from Florida passes beneath the Main Street Bridge at Jacksonville. Daily tidal effects are evident as far upstream as Lake George, and, during droughts, the higher tides aided by northeasterly winds sometimes cause tidal fluctuations as far upstream as Lake Monroe. River levels below mean sea level have been observed near the southern end of Lake Harney.

The tide generates progressive tidal waves, which move up the river in cycles accompanied by tidal currents. When the tide at Jacksonville is about midrange, the current is slack. When the tide rises above about midrange, the current sets inland as upstream flow and reaches a maximum velocity at near high tide. When the tide falls below about midrange, the current sets seaward as downstream flow and reaches a maximum velocity at about low tide. Slack water does not occur at exactly midrange nor do the maximum velocities occur at exactly high and low tides. Instead, the tidal currents slightly lag the tides because of inertia and channel friction.

The main variable factors controlling the amounts of water flowing back and forth at Jacksonville are the height of the tides, the tidal range, and wind. The height of the tides varies annually and over even longer periods. The tidal range varies more rapidly, reaching a maximum and a minimum once in each lunar month. Both the tidal height and range are uniformly periodic in response to gravitational forces. The effect of wind on the flow of the St. Johns River at Jacksonville ranges from none at all to more than that of the tide.

Tidal and wind effects can work in concert or in opposition and thereby increase the variation in their net effect on the flow. The long-term effect of both tide and wind on the net downstream flow at Jacksonville is negligible, although, when evapotranspiration exceeds fresh-water input, tidal effect causes a small net upstream flow, which eventually is approximately offset by rainfall on the estuary.








INFORMATION CIRCULAR NO. 82 53

Fresh-water input affects the tidal flow appreciably during very wet periods, but it is unlikely that its effect is ever sufficient to offset even the lesser tidal effects. When fresh-water input is equal to or less than evapotranspiration from the estuary, it cannot cause net downstream flow at Jacksonville. The average net or fresh-water flow at Jacksonville is about 14 percent of the average tide-induced flow.

Volumes of flow induced by tide average 1,944 mcf and range from about 1,250 mcf to about 2,750 mcf per tidal event. Average fresh-water flow computed from the flow records is 264 mcf per tidal cycle. The maximum effect of fresh-water flow and wind on tidal flow cannot be determined, but their minimum effect is zero.

Evapotranspiration from the river surface exceeds the sum of the rainfall on the river and the fresh-water inflow to the river during some droughts. When these conditions prevail at a time when storage in the estuary is low, they may work in concert with the annual rise in sea level to cause a cumulative net inflow of as much as 40 billion cubic feet of sea water over a period of months. The river becomes salty for many miles upstream from Jacksonville when this happens.

Frequency analysis of the flow records indicate that extremes in flow volume such as those caused by Hurricane Dora in September 1964 are rare, except for the minimum upstream flow volume, which was zero. The analysis indicates that the minimum upstream flow will-be zero on an average of once in 7 years, whereas occurrences of the maximum and minimum downstream flow volumes of record and the maximum upstream flow volume of record are much less frequent.

The average seasonal flow regime of the St. Johns River can be divided into four periods, that of low net outflow in May and June, that of increasing net outflow from July through September, that of high net outflow from October through January, and that of decreasing net outflow from February through April. Wide departures from the average seasonal net flow regime can and often do occur as a result of abnormal rainfall.

The seasonal variation in chemical quality on the St. Johns River, as indicated by the chloride concentration in the water, is inversely related to the seasonal net outflow. The chloride concentration is generally lowest and varies the least as a result of tidal flow during the high net-flow period and is generally highest and varies the most as a result of tidal flow during the low net-flow period. The chloride concentration in the river generally increases during the period of decreasing flow and decreases during the period of increasing flow.








54 BUREAU OF GEOLOGY

The quality and chemical composition of water in the St. Johns River is highly variable in the vicinity of Jacksonville. The chloride concentration may increase or decrease more than fourfold in a matter of a few hours and more than tenfold in several days. Variations in quality are controlled by the flow characteristics of the river. Chloride concentration in the river sometimes shows considerable vertical variation, which seems to be greatest at the time the river begins to flow downstream. There is some correlation between maximum chloride concentrations at Main Street Bridge and at other points on the river.

From November to April, water in the St. Johns River is cooler than ground-water at any depth, and, from October to May, river water is cooler than ground water at depths greater than 1,000 feet. Use of river water for industrial cooling would reduce the demand for ground-water supplies.

The flow and chemical characteristics of the St. Johns River at Jacksonville are dominated by tide, on a tide-to-tide, monthly, and annual basis. Fresh-water drainage from the river basin is the only factor that has a significant cumulative long-term effect on the flow of the river. all other factors, which include wind, rainfall, and evapotranspiration along with tide, are virtually self cancelling and have no cumulative effect on the flow of the river. The seasonal and short-term interaction of the factors that affect the flow of river are greatly modified by the availability of huge storage capacity in the tidal estuary upstream from Jacksonville.

The chemical characteristics and esthetic condition of the river are controlled by the flow characteristics of the river, which cause high concentrations of chemical constituents to occur at Jacksonville as a result of excessive upstream flow and, possibly, high concentrations of wastes in the river as a result of periods of little or no net river movement.



CONTINUING AND FUTURE STUDIES

One of the concerns for the future of the St. Johns River is the potential for pollution from industrial and domestic wastes. In addition to knowledge about the flow and chemical and temperature variations in the river, knowledge about the variations in dissolved oxygen, coliform populations, and eddy and turbulence regimes is essential in attaching the problems of pollution evaluation and control. Further, knowledge of the movements of the water and its contents, both areally and chronologically, is necessary to determine where wastes enter the river at Jacksonville, where they subsequently go, and how long they reside at a particular locale;








INFORMATION CIRCULAR NO. 82 55

To help meet the. need for information, continuous records of the stage, flow, conductivity, dissolved oxygen content, temperature, and pH of the river are being collected.

Study of the tidal parts of tributaries to the St. Johns River in and near Jacksonville by the U. S. Geological Survey show that very poor quality conditions sometimes exist in the tributaries. However, more definitive studies of the water quality in the tributaries are needed to determine the magnitude and duration of this problem.








56 BUREAU OF GEOLOGY









57 INFORMATION CIRCULAR NO. 82

REFERENCES

Haight, F. J.
1938 Currents in the St. Johns River, Savannah River and intervening waterways: U.
S. Department of Commerce, Coast and Geodetic Survey Spec. Pub. No. 211.

Keighton, W. B.
1965 Fresh-water discharge salinity relations in the tidal Delaware River: U. S.
Geol. Survey Open-File report.

Leve, G. W.
1969 (and Goolsby, D.A.) Production and utilization of water in the metropolitan
area of Jacksonville, Florida: Florida Board of Conservation, Division of Geol.
Inf. Circ. 58.

Marmer, H. A.
1951 Tidal datum planes: U. S. Department of Commerce, Coast and Geodetic
Survey Spec. Pub. No. 135.

Pillsbury, G. B.
1939 Tidal hydraulics: War Department, Corps of Engineers, U. S. Army, Prof.
Paper of the Corps of Engineers No. 34.

Pyatt, E. E.
1964 On determining pollutant distribution in tidal estuaries: U. S. Geol. Survey
Water-Supply Paper 1586-F.

Schureman, Paul
1941 Manual of harmonic analysis and prediction of tides: U. S. Department of
Commerce, Coast and Geodetic Survey Spec. Pub. No. 98.

1963 Tide and current glossary: U. S. Department of Commerce, Coast and
Geodetic Survey Spec. Pub. No. 228.

Snell, L. J.
1970 (and Anderson, Warren) Water resources of northeast Flordia (St. Johns River
and adjacent coastal areas): Florida Department of Natural Resources, Bureau
of Geol. Rept. Inv. 54.

U. S. Department of Commerce, Coast and Geodetic Survey 1954-66 Tide tables, east coast of North and South America, including Greenland.

1954-66 Tidal current tables, Atlantic Coast of North America.

U. S. Geological Survey
1958-60 Surface water supply of the United States, Part 2-B: U. S. Geol. Survey Water-Supply Papers 1554, 1624, 1704.

1961-64 Surface water records of Florida: V. 1 streams.

196S-66 Water resources data for Florida, part 1, surface water records.




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'62684' 'info:fdaE20080606_AAAAOVfileF20080608_AAANNH' 'sip-files00011.pro'
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aa78f35b3cb9ef7508265c10d7db7dc7a3ef80e3
'2017-03-07T12:19:26-05:00'
describe
'44350' 'info:fdaE20080606_AAAAOVfileF20080608_AAANNI' 'sip-files00011.QC.jpg'
55693e9469b699ba9f73680f9c592861
ce6782475b161908d729660fb7b3dde2d6aae4a5
'2017-03-07T12:20:06-05:00'
describe
'981260' 'info:fdaE20080606_AAAAOVfileF20080608_AAANNJ' 'sip-files00011.tif'
9233f56f8a168fdec7187e3b4a7cb271
345d0652d3c84a12bf47a5fd63fcf784bb97f0b7
describe
'2579' 'info:fdaE20080606_AAAAOVfileF20080608_AAANNK' 'sip-files00011.txt'
8dfb2e5edbee2489d979daf4b3618206
9eb1c48916b5ff24f8ab109540d4625d942996d4
describe
Invalid character
WARNING CODE 'Daitss::Anomaly' Invalid character
'11340' 'info:fdaE20080606_AAAAOVfileF20080608_AAANNL' 'sip-files00011thm.jpg'
5d8da4a6a1df6d205c36663bf9777354
e66d32da7e355daa592bfebe82a3bd587840b843
'2017-03-07T12:19:49-05:00'
describe
'193798' 'info:fdaE20080606_AAAAOVfileF20080608_AAANNM' 'sip-files00012.jp2'
c8def56366b9c8d2f250540415cab259
91844f5605e6c5cdde90a51ef30bf91e6c00c77e
describe
'167962' 'info:fdaE20080606_AAAAOVfileF20080608_AAANNN' 'sip-files00012.jpg'
619acec08a71f79f93b24c3acc1b99c3
6c75f12e51e4aacb01be7a73e102dc3f02d6e959
describe
'72588' 'info:fdaE20080606_AAAAOVfileF20080608_AAANNO' 'sip-files00012.pro'
a2d8eeea8dfa144e988f33399983dc62
752e918308d231489511f42763d3e5cbf2e57a66
'2017-03-07T12:19:34-05:00'
describe
'52185' 'info:fdaE20080606_AAAAOVfileF20080608_AAANNP' 'sip-files00012.QC.jpg'
532f411db0d2a896fde56b7acbdd885f
7161ed2720c854e8dfebe72db406623ee9328e2f
describe
'969912' 'info:fdaE20080606_AAAAOVfileF20080608_AAANNQ' 'sip-files00012.tif'
4f8bb4e6384e9e6a9eea6632cf8ee14c
27dddac68466838e823ce4c160f0fa57f0b40f55
describe
'2898' 'info:fdaE20080606_AAAAOVfileF20080608_AAANNR' 'sip-files00012.txt'
800ee11c5d6af8ee208e650a85d88962
d8632fb6fa51bbdf5b02eba6caa15d8c23696d0f
describe
'13043' 'info:fdaE20080606_AAAAOVfileF20080608_AAANNS' 'sip-files00012thm.jpg'
fda664db6573f8339232906902ad8704
c95a064d9cf621bc64e3a4209d07abf5a164caed
'2017-03-07T12:20:21-05:00'
describe
'817867' 'info:fdaE20080606_AAAAOVfileF20080608_AAANNT' 'sip-files00013.jp2'
357e7302994ecc94a3f4f937323044fa
5fb0c8dbb9a71009f42e0807cd562ed2c6f04984
'2017-03-07T12:19:50-05:00'
describe
'63525' 'info:fdaE20080606_AAAAOVfileF20080608_AAANNU' 'sip-files00013.jpg'
d194c1f230c7b592849bc3aac3543725
d95cfe8134ca8f5c897d8cade38eb180f76c8fc9
'2017-03-07T12:19:33-05:00'
describe
'11420' 'info:fdaE20080606_AAAAOVfileF20080608_AAANNV' 'sip-files00013.pro'
734ca4ce9ab104c140256f647e32aaaa
187864eec1341e220a8152ef37b93bb29279d743
describe
'21007' 'info:fdaE20080606_AAAAOVfileF20080608_AAANNW' 'sip-files00013.QC.jpg'
80f1b6e9570672cb29202f2e4349e7fa
71ebbbf796835905aa64436308658244396ca6f0
describe
'8561804' 'info:fdaE20080606_AAAAOVfileF20080608_AAANNX' 'sip-files00013.tif'
62ab1d292358ee2c77a1c35a64e3a402
2ff65521302fc07513fbafaf6c24a7a4b283082c
'2017-03-07T12:19:39-05:00'
describe
'809' 'info:fdaE20080606_AAAAOVfileF20080608_AAANNY' 'sip-files00013.txt'
09396b707423e7a20f984020d1fa3895
25addf9d5dd3a76bb35a84027060a2fb5ac4f982
describe
'6792' 'info:fdaE20080606_AAAAOVfileF20080608_AAANNZ' 'sip-files00013thm.jpg'
f499016e4af7e9428accb7d5723d7695
cc5bf7cc3bf96213bc23b08695eb38821a0b6be9
describe
'95892' 'info:fdaE20080606_AAAAOVfileF20080608_AAANOA' 'sip-files00014.jp2'
6434040455cb643a6bcfe66a6ac73c9b
3cbc745f70a270256526919024cf5d48f20f3f83
describe
'80696' 'info:fdaE20080606_AAAAOVfileF20080608_AAANOB' 'sip-files00014.jpg'
898a3546134e8a5d81ee6356a45e8270
a7792392ebf29a20a4e1372ff500ac974bdd409a
describe
'10438' 'info:fdaE20080606_AAAAOVfileF20080608_AAANOC' 'sip-files00014.pro'
5e631a141bf06782ac0c0639407a4902
a15c2ebc8e301c25e9f3d1f1cf2b8d591f6a8616
describe
'27173' 'info:fdaE20080606_AAAAOVfileF20080608_AAANOD' 'sip-files00014.QC.jpg'
55b50cbebadec539ed33f84b886750d3
63662498ca02d6e8f61110719317b255c22864df
'2017-03-07T12:20:19-05:00'
describe
'981196' 'info:fdaE20080606_AAAAOVfileF20080608_AAANOE' 'sip-files00014.tif'
f4de5de42bd0c09fc41da31844b68c17
ba5c18e247dc26ea4e5526ffebb652622f8c09f4
describe
'445' 'info:fdaE20080606_AAAAOVfileF20080608_AAANOF' 'sip-files00014.txt'
b300163fd53ea9540fdff41eaba50654
e5a0a3f4978536db79257394a635527069c6178a
describe
'8004' 'info:fdaE20080606_AAAAOVfileF20080608_AAANOG' 'sip-files00014thm.jpg'
2351e02f3c8bd15ce72d5cab41c7a8f2
e5f86480a885ace73a076a819b9497b8c9a48144
describe
'45966' 'info:fdaE20080606_AAAAOVfileF20080608_AAANOH' 'sip-files00015.jp2'
8c389d12a773b792b0f5da7228894008
6ecfa624af5d3d6dc6a0c7b0b19fa0276ed21844
describe
'42878' 'info:fdaE20080606_AAAAOVfileF20080608_AAANOI' 'sip-files00015.jpg'
7dee8c9de51f5a2bbf573c9088a70fa5
523f4c399ef875f5e9ee636d1e73958383f0200d
describe
'5929' 'info:fdaE20080606_AAAAOVfileF20080608_AAANOJ' 'sip-files00015.pro'
436fc4a842cd0c7fa87c70ba2ba8ba2e
96f019d0e6c27b2870bc2f359996d34f5b57253e
describe
'15920' 'info:fdaE20080606_AAAAOVfileF20080608_AAANOK' 'sip-files00015.QC.jpg'
5d4329bd7464b2d1eff7ff00a5cd430f
4d10caa41e897dbc16b066435d1eabc1bd6b9651
'2017-03-07T12:20:10-05:00'
describe
'975152' 'info:fdaE20080606_AAAAOVfileF20080608_AAANOL' 'sip-files00015.tif'
fcecc3ac33c4ed45b1ffc89a98e6a2cc
1a43628b1beb54b0784239d8f0194569c7a7f784
'2017-03-07T12:19:56-05:00'
describe
'309' 'info:fdaE20080606_AAAAOVfileF20080608_AAANOM' 'sip-files00015.txt'
5fe15b86cff6e3ed38c0e48564b2f1d6
3544d5df064e168c808c64100bf9bed53c47663b
describe
'5056' 'info:fdaE20080606_AAAAOVfileF20080608_AAANON' 'sip-files00015thm.jpg'
2f6b6538f051ae09b4e2a7b89d4f9091
d3f10c373667335bc099e1f248494ccb4ebaff9e
describe
'83708' 'info:fdaE20080606_AAAAOVfileF20080608_AAANOO' 'sip-files00016.jp2'
c6950b448f311f610f41597d64644598
a9af3801ad17b458d046b4a3b951883526dd2f73
describe
'74253' 'info:fdaE20080606_AAAAOVfileF20080608_AAANOP' 'sip-files00016.jpg'
1276c267d36eb8476e574731489c423f
94be5918adc14855903f9eca1c18318a4371a12b
describe
'29155' 'info:fdaE20080606_AAAAOVfileF20080608_AAANOQ' 'sip-files00016.pro'
16b727f6ebe4aa79b40545d8338f221b
8ce2fa707f41d845f537637121d55b4be26344d7
'2017-03-07T12:19:48-05:00'
describe
'25803' 'info:fdaE20080606_AAAAOVfileF20080608_AAANOR' 'sip-files00016.QC.jpg'
72649933c7980b111b3500e33004c362
a20df371d4334308ad72d7f0ab7137387f57f5d9
describe
'998948' 'info:fdaE20080606_AAAAOVfileF20080608_AAANOS' 'sip-files00016.tif'
3789b762ab01d03c213c2c8e38e7cea2
7db981bf5175d2e559a50714ce8be80a4609ee68
describe
'1604' 'info:fdaE20080606_AAAAOVfileF20080608_AAANOT' 'sip-files00016.txt'
8c538a3416f511df599b430a43c99fe7
2f79c98d4b02af0911b61a6d38cd651c45108731
'2017-03-07T12:20:29-05:00'
describe
Invalid character
Invalid character
'8300' 'info:fdaE20080606_AAAAOVfileF20080608_AAANOU' 'sip-files00016thm.jpg'
a2a98ea4f4da7546d678f27a1a8e1268
28b4fcebbb42a46d30b141ccbf63b28cec8c20b4
'2017-03-07T12:20:45-05:00'
describe
'170466' 'info:fdaE20080606_AAAAOVfileF20080608_AAANOV' 'sip-files00017.jp2'
ed70bf68f40968fda44387124cc06e48
604a421803426e2ade0756981e52ad4e53a6b9af
'2017-03-07T12:20:43-05:00'
describe
'152078' 'info:fdaE20080606_AAAAOVfileF20080608_AAANOW' 'sip-files00017.jpg'
2917aa9b1f8875cf860f604da0ebe248
455c56dd520a37113fef057c803381add2871204
describe
'65200' 'info:fdaE20080606_AAAAOVfileF20080608_AAANOX' 'sip-files00017.pro'
c7b73943646c2bb000e1348d4105fe55
52a2f9a119dcef0840f00bddd902272f63351ccf
describe
'46712' 'info:fdaE20080606_AAAAOVfileF20080608_AAANOY' 'sip-files00017.QC.jpg'
0de8e533742c5bb6b07729c137e64fa2
202fe00ea55ce115f5f840f8c6afdf49be8ddd50
describe
'981420' 'info:fdaE20080606_AAAAOVfileF20080608_AAANOZ' 'sip-files00017.tif'
3278200c3411a41e62fa1e0e48e461ae
57034255ffb6cc8f8f46cf35539b6cbd6d1a4a88
describe
'2655' 'info:fdaE20080606_AAAAOVfileF20080608_AAANPA' 'sip-files00017.txt'
0409ae0a08db9509954f4389a944d8ac
a925552defba145390ea4858f74824ccc2b736ad
'2017-03-07T12:19:42-05:00'
describe
'11736' 'info:fdaE20080606_AAAAOVfileF20080608_AAANPB' 'sip-files00017thm.jpg'
5566a1fa5b08a3ce3c1a8eae905ecfd9
39ffa2c73cce01bca6d818aebaf9380263598509
describe
'171065' 'info:fdaE20080606_AAAAOVfileF20080608_AAANPC' 'sip-files00018.jp2'
62b81da71b6162e6f670d85a4eccf6fe
ea00a025f19015fadc1281d57a4076971a540cfc
describe
'150151' 'info:fdaE20080606_AAAAOVfileF20080608_AAANPD' 'sip-files00018.jpg'
ed58bbb4afcc7e47f882a0c994f895b8
b440ff9632366afc95607b3ce0e2b609e5299cc5
describe
'63737' 'info:fdaE20080606_AAAAOVfileF20080608_AAANPE' 'sip-files00018.pro'
27fda0d113038ee6c91662df458d5834
009026bed9917a128c8db45b363331d42fdb8548
describe
'46161' 'info:fdaE20080606_AAAAOVfileF20080608_AAANPF' 'sip-files00018.QC.jpg'
cf895b0af7991a37c8568b80ab8a8d95
51ec0df764ae1eddf807e98ab4ed6c0ef3ab7dfe
describe
'983428' 'info:fdaE20080606_AAAAOVfileF20080608_AAANPG' 'sip-files00018.tif'
e5c96ebe1093c3f2a251eb3679f4c21a
eb4091a4cfe828676178cb7bc5123217fa2ccfda
describe
'info:fdaE20080606_AAAAOVfileF20080608_AAANPH' 'sip-files00018.txt'
57175e6ac402c680f79c44084b4bc8a8
97520404c026ade7fd51f7a437cbc9c9d514d39c
describe
'11598' 'info:fdaE20080606_AAAAOVfileF20080608_AAANPI' 'sip-files00018thm.jpg'
62c54f6a23ba044205d85152e830f9da
8d60312f79f431a068d9749577e730053262ad4d
describe
'166726' 'info:fdaE20080606_AAAAOVfileF20080608_AAANPJ' 'sip-files00019.jp2'
74afaa600a6e4700121e23ed2b34b57f
1939f2e2bd1e1a495dc787291d7a4b7afd2912c9
describe
'142507' 'info:fdaE20080606_AAAAOVfileF20080608_AAANPK' 'sip-files00019.jpg'
3a40f953cfadfe42290e065f40ab9042
aec0696fb69935e5bfdba955f75ada402b3e119c
describe
'65241' 'info:fdaE20080606_AAAAOVfileF20080608_AAANPL' 'sip-files00019.pro'
84299e331c11b1cb9240d77b17e8646d
48ac10874a14347a6a6d42e9901df40a388923dd
describe
'43216' 'info:fdaE20080606_AAAAOVfileF20080608_AAANPM' 'sip-files00019.QC.jpg'
a2c2585eaf2f9a186476e015f09870c3
e0565de8cb47a777324ce679b7d837319285665d
describe
'1017272' 'info:fdaE20080606_AAAAOVfileF20080608_AAANPN' 'sip-files00019.tif'
074214fbd7603e67d5e4d0d84a55eb55
d2efb23d54e81337fe04bc54e79775d5687aa151
describe
'2652' 'info:fdaE20080606_AAAAOVfileF20080608_AAANPO' 'sip-files00019.txt'
320060363c143582f517939b5e7759c3
d1abf47007a5bb40ad438e951a933d809b80afbd
describe
'10892' 'info:fdaE20080606_AAAAOVfileF20080608_AAANPP' 'sip-files00019thm.jpg'
945cd6d4895f835886ccca4c184e4cbc
693d5c4ec1284d3a99e4b6af21728193e165d3d1
describe
'196013' 'info:fdaE20080606_AAAAOVfileF20080608_AAANPQ' 'sip-files00020.jp2'
2d29b123ec019539b83537293c5c6cd3
8656c04f2a5fecdcf74b336a1b4eaf69cee459a4
describe
'169265' 'info:fdaE20080606_AAAAOVfileF20080608_AAANPR' 'sip-files00020.jpg'
d30a6b59884685cc94323fb45a2e531d
3ac1dd51dc25e9b2233ada602024cba22664bcc2
'2017-03-07T12:19:46-05:00'
describe
'73610' 'info:fdaE20080606_AAAAOVfileF20080608_AAANPS' 'sip-files00020.pro'
d3612cea08d1d3ddb75435619589705f
1e679a54c495c5a4fbdfa54a09c7b1dc12cb69dc
describe
'50977' 'info:fdaE20080606_AAAAOVfileF20080608_AAANPT' 'sip-files00020.QC.jpg'
30ee1dd8bfbee0114483d67869bc1040
56abe01460b269abf4d4cbe6974968394ce321dd
describe
'1000112' 'info:fdaE20080606_AAAAOVfileF20080608_AAANPU' 'sip-files00020.tif'
50401fb747cd9eef65d02963b264db22
d5cc7d1324038db2f8a61f071d30fa5e4b941277
'2017-03-07T12:20:11-05:00'
describe
'2949' 'info:fdaE20080606_AAAAOVfileF20080608_AAANPV' 'sip-files00020.txt'
b43bb57bc821e68ef97c06c82c0c8d51
7083aa4499fbf9adc115134c90c3d8936d6d995a
describe
'12048' 'info:fdaE20080606_AAAAOVfileF20080608_AAANPW' 'sip-files00020thm.jpg'
b51e38f8819c3758c09559da291c45bf
c5709977f2149eb7e9e92488f4757dbf28183895
describe
'158996' 'info:fdaE20080606_AAAAOVfileF20080608_AAANPX' 'sip-files00021.jp2'
0525c0632a8eb59407b56e8acb97a454
cd3e35b4875bd8e246af83a055af3d95220757a8
'2017-03-07T12:20:24-05:00'
describe
'139038' 'info:fdaE20080606_AAAAOVfileF20080608_AAANPY' 'sip-files00021.jpg'
181a4aa3d925c7e65aa4f7d6b85cf5bf
9c649ea9e701d151e4968748886026412431c2ee
describe
'48225' 'info:fdaE20080606_AAAAOVfileF20080608_AAANPZ' 'sip-files00021.pro'
114fb71a2225f8e4a34ee2a61782d765
541d4c5358abb1ac14f5fcdb685b13774cb75a47
'2017-03-07T12:20:13-05:00'
describe
'44175' 'info:fdaE20080606_AAAAOVfileF20080608_AAANQA' 'sip-files00021.QC.jpg'
490d0bdf89ec017e1ff762cb8e762ec2
d935bc0c94183525bec039f86dee60842f4bb201
describe
'982576' 'info:fdaE20080606_AAAAOVfileF20080608_AAANQB' 'sip-files00021.tif'
bd3180a6cc0828d93183bcf519e9cbc3
1fda0185325374f1d5757017b4039ae7819dd4e2
describe
'2100' 'info:fdaE20080606_AAAAOVfileF20080608_AAANQC' 'sip-files00021.txt'
efb7f3c259400cd1da8caf4a73c2d715
b98de854901eb3e5476ea578ed2bdae46464aacc
describe
Invalid character
Invalid character
'11098' 'info:fdaE20080606_AAAAOVfileF20080608_AAANQD' 'sip-files00021thm.jpg'
5f87010811b5d167f3c5a72a3b0e5cf7
00cff09797a0a796f621014c4ac5b0c09c91e914
describe
'206999' 'info:fdaE20080606_AAAAOVfileF20080608_AAANQE' 'sip-files00022.jp2'
d53f8111a1318e432b36696455aba2bf
3df05e8700b5a67bfb461bf2cf6a800a9ba9f514
describe
'170337' 'info:fdaE20080606_AAAAOVfileF20080608_AAANQF' 'sip-files00022.jpg'
ce81bb4c729ff373f473a7e3853df699
f9602beb5f3adcf254b0725e53d3158ca373f45a
describe
'78567' 'info:fdaE20080606_AAAAOVfileF20080608_AAANQG' 'sip-files00022.pro'
04ae8378a263689f0d02125181b93eb2
f1699e9834b710da4d2003c9a58a022831df54d6
describe
'51517' 'info:fdaE20080606_AAAAOVfileF20080608_AAANQH' 'sip-files00022.QC.jpg'
fcdca0dcd1b709a04c9389bf61acc8b1
3d8d3de60e79cb5951db0f42d9a4050f98681c0e
describe
'1023764' 'info:fdaE20080606_AAAAOVfileF20080608_AAANQI' 'sip-files00022.tif'
c781e3c0d5f5666e4c50291cbf062fa5
137b71eb976ed974e217702713aa35cbbd158f96
describe
'3142' 'info:fdaE20080606_AAAAOVfileF20080608_AAANQJ' 'sip-files00022.txt'
7cae845e0648678a0ad4bfec5e6e564d
e737eff6c7917c710b4decebae13a217a951817b
describe
'11992' 'info:fdaE20080606_AAAAOVfileF20080608_AAANQK' 'sip-files00022thm.jpg'
a5704ab9d041e0c03416c2e07e5c447e
8d252121a2a954c3fbd541725d402769026c7729
describe
'69031' 'info:fdaE20080606_AAAAOVfileF20080608_AAANQL' 'sip-files00023.jp2'
8d1cba030f366f2b784419867856baad
b72ca541647bdbea72d50336278526f19c95e24b
'2017-03-07T12:20:04-05:00'
describe
'30466' 'info:fdaE20080606_AAAAOVfileF20080608_AAANQM' 'sip-files00023.jpg'
fef13faad8436ac760fb6fc5ddd99da7
cfaca37998a325d0fbec0224745ff273a4369fcf
describe
'14841' 'info:fdaE20080606_AAAAOVfileF20080608_AAANQN' 'sip-files00023.pro'
ed58d5833adb6a68cf41c1e2b6d6fc54
4cf5c0c73ce7b86dcefee701b5f5038517ae3ce8
describe
'10589' 'info:fdaE20080606_AAAAOVfileF20080608_AAANQO' 'sip-files00023.QC.jpg'
81df432ca9d4b1301cc168776087a0a4
ec4e24618cf2a00edb35b9e87e850e87e65f7188
describe
'965752' 'info:fdaE20080606_AAAAOVfileF20080608_AAANQP' 'sip-files00023.tif'
67f77de65ee6970e3cb1b808ef15720c
3bbbd3c1488bb7d36f5cc9f4b7b6a8ffc3f3bf0a
describe
'797' 'info:fdaE20080606_AAAAOVfileF20080608_AAANQQ' 'sip-files00023.txt'
92f5768ec80216e3a516839d96f91a0f
372d76a4a8d7896f80a9bcc3de1d6166221a8ca9
describe
Invalid character
Invalid character
'3656' 'info:fdaE20080606_AAAAOVfileF20080608_AAANQR' 'sip-files00023thm.jpg'
d3e90997263e40be5f48c42622486692
441314b219c70a94fdd71554cb8ae39c89d38051
describe
'211157' 'info:fdaE20080606_AAAAOVfileF20080608_AAANQS' 'sip-files00024.jp2'
141cafde15408b38a677bb7d797496f6
2fcc3dbe9850583881ea6d840a2d03a1c8fa815b
describe
'177520' 'info:fdaE20080606_AAAAOVfileF20080608_AAANQT' 'sip-files00024.jpg'
55e7c45d52aa81df4bd794aaea904bec
5da8dc34e189aae78c25f52cc0fd70c1fbce906e
describe
'80830' 'info:fdaE20080606_AAAAOVfileF20080608_AAANQU' 'sip-files00024.pro'
bcf087bc8dc104e32676f61a2ea600aa
b4f4f35f9935a87f1d21d26cd2a70411981c7bb6
describe
'50325' 'info:fdaE20080606_AAAAOVfileF20080608_AAANQV' 'sip-files00024.QC.jpg'
c8666ed1b11d404083e8e6d5e49b93fd
9815b5173df91c9f876e673f18871d07703a91a9
describe
'1001844' 'info:fdaE20080606_AAAAOVfileF20080608_AAANQW' 'sip-files00024.tif'
4ab2f5475a7636f2ce76c69206d43b33
41f106a06301a6b849f5e9b67a67078687f2b60d
'2017-03-07T12:19:36-05:00'
describe
'3283' 'info:fdaE20080606_AAAAOVfileF20080608_AAANQX' 'sip-files00024.txt'
ef2468b9f10caa2bf94c9e883a1839aa
6d7f1298fac174fb282e75b8911bab28f34d0d1b
describe
'11891' 'info:fdaE20080606_AAAAOVfileF20080608_AAANQY' 'sip-files00024thm.jpg'
9b20c2d31068beeb1933301b809e62da
38067cf85c9033a09a5c1463e0c89fcec649819d
describe
'114020' 'info:fdaE20080606_AAAAOVfileF20080608_AAANQZ' 'sip-files00025.jp2'
7d2fd6e75c690ee13274581836cf4422
69fcd379fa58e5f064742227981fb5a7ff4c4a74
describe
'100160' 'info:fdaE20080606_AAAAOVfileF20080608_AAANRA' 'sip-files00025.jpg'
f160c507bea6725df6f7d7608fba27fb
55ea080107a63ccf72451e9ea96d784877c5cbe4
describe
'30397' 'info:fdaE20080606_AAAAOVfileF20080608_AAANRB' 'sip-files00025.pro'
6a9cfc680f20389ef2648d4f88de3694
d7b8c2e6422c13716ab74b89d5a98464ebbaf269
'2017-03-07T12:19:32-05:00'
describe
'33227' 'info:fdaE20080606_AAAAOVfileF20080608_AAANRC' 'sip-files00025.QC.jpg'
a48ca5eb232574e6365396938bb6a6b9
98e4b55bf6b69c9174cde396eae4f909d20a5396
describe
'996768' 'info:fdaE20080606_AAAAOVfileF20080608_AAANRD' 'sip-files00025.tif'
72b1d5a15dea7bbcb9d1d73daa50ea08
bcfadd5106e0c112ae39c8f507dc4bfc64c5a568
describe
'1293' 'info:fdaE20080606_AAAAOVfileF20080608_AAANRE' 'sip-files00025.txt'
103edc508b8b5c3d7851c54132c82430
14d6ed28b08cc9a29e9a552bc44d78d77bba41ba
describe
'9344' 'info:fdaE20080606_AAAAOVfileF20080608_AAANRF' 'sip-files00025thm.jpg'
1a6fa1a9104b1d718375119a9591902b
fbc8133182944ea207e4037f6da5d3d36f7c7ad8
describe
'129568' 'info:fdaE20080606_AAAAOVfileF20080608_AAANRG' 'sip-files00026.jp2'
fff4a31a7278e962a50582c7b11a6e41
18d0dca2c2a882eeb8e8ead117a7d252d65b574d
describe
'111786' 'info:fdaE20080606_AAAAOVfileF20080608_AAANRH' 'sip-files00026.jpg'
237b76f97d8a3995afb210ab64a398ec
43a7d0c142e4f3dcdc993173d69374f2c9001695
describe
'50131' 'info:fdaE20080606_AAAAOVfileF20080608_AAANRI' 'sip-files00026.pro'
9f0867bc7e5e638560216a3edcec8e23
e8f8e27a6f17709077bbd918457a37bd1aa2d2fc
describe
'35033' 'info:fdaE20080606_AAAAOVfileF20080608_AAANRJ' 'sip-files00026.QC.jpg'
73ac3691de1f17cbeb81c3812ee0bad7
337562c0a997671e0723b36160a0adb5ceeea56c
describe
'999232' 'info:fdaE20080606_AAAAOVfileF20080608_AAANRK' 'sip-files00026.tif'
fb7de998b3216801413ab9cde6efa5dd
7ff48534b57eba71d890255ae3276bfcd69b43a0
describe
'2527' 'info:fdaE20080606_AAAAOVfileF20080608_AAANRL' 'sip-files00026.txt'
b4c53289fc9c0af6084c490cc9060fdb
8992249d236bab1a1d5e6392e1e35a4ad26a54aa
describe
'9689' 'info:fdaE20080606_AAAAOVfileF20080608_AAANRM' 'sip-files00026thm.jpg'
b33817ed348ca00469622c38345ca9bc
24466c6a977b9ac936ec389fb4cd090ca34ba95b
describe
'202235' 'info:fdaE20080606_AAAAOVfileF20080608_AAANRN' 'sip-files00027.jp2'
9890e77e59164edb98efd82a9c11454f
4571d4a2b923815e8df5fa94824ecee5a735b4ba
describe
'168038' 'info:fdaE20080606_AAAAOVfileF20080608_AAANRO' 'sip-files00027.jpg'
7c3a03014c5c431c4ffb29a0694aa2bb
616f8f2f0f23506da9be3fdc879fb532f9f8141f
describe
'79516' 'info:fdaE20080606_AAAAOVfileF20080608_AAANRP' 'sip-files00027.pro'
0346802b3df991c1186b4312d295b7cb
3155df6a6a40940d7c8f635081256662874c6879
describe
'49229' 'info:fdaE20080606_AAAAOVfileF20080608_AAANRQ' 'sip-files00027.QC.jpg'
e02781103b82d9613ec81bd72769802d
0f12a10a1935dbd33362ed1d38f5894b1ed173a4
describe
'1018476' 'info:fdaE20080606_AAAAOVfileF20080608_AAANRR' 'sip-files00027.tif'
cb07f3b95733ab630f58b8842b939ecc
9be997a7420d0e08b036843f6010000067518445
describe
'3374' 'info:fdaE20080606_AAAAOVfileF20080608_AAANRS' 'sip-files00027.txt'
c308dd0bc33b2adef3e4464903178f1a
744714437b066d16521af934a24b114c6bf51a89
describe
'11722' 'info:fdaE20080606_AAAAOVfileF20080608_AAANRT' 'sip-files00027thm.jpg'
fc07ea4e50c1b273b25d96fdedc1ab22
775f8bf58cc3943ea5815745a4f9f7b036d23b02
describe
'133139' 'info:fdaE20080606_AAAAOVfileF20080608_AAANRU' 'sip-files00028.jp2'
a1375a3b40d6d9f6db3178e011b0c7ac
6b61fdf8dcac5283cb74e02013fd772e8b6a4ff6
describe
'116556' 'info:fdaE20080606_AAAAOVfileF20080608_AAANRV' 'sip-files00028.jpg'
5b56575ef64bc0bbb714c75ab098ee5c
b6a770098c7ba7d8680c18d1574e6b89223a030b
describe
'34347' 'info:fdaE20080606_AAAAOVfileF20080608_AAANRW' 'sip-files00028.pro'
f05f9a44ece0c96461a90862a988c558
8e00517d874074e41b0eeeb4b281dc43eafbc83f
describe
'38507' 'info:fdaE20080606_AAAAOVfileF20080608_AAANRX' 'sip-files00028.QC.jpg'
3c44077d2a36b7da1d88ed945d1ec521
910da7b7877a2b04c35e4b588cfd663953510c63
describe
'1002108' 'info:fdaE20080606_AAAAOVfileF20080608_AAANRY' 'sip-files00028.tif'
f0b3c45069890f7a6ec25404f11461de
516ce3dfadaa0c2a563532b7a77fcc63ddbb44b7
describe
'1530' 'info:fdaE20080606_AAAAOVfileF20080608_AAANRZ' 'sip-files00028.txt'
42cceac73242020b808aaba8aa2b0078
fd05e99ab72a23d276c639484fc54758c1104c3d
describe
'10924' 'info:fdaE20080606_AAAAOVfileF20080608_AAANSA' 'sip-files00028thm.jpg'
136c9049a12ec68f3b602651bdc98ee9
64bf71f3b903c93c21192bf82d03a8a82db9d675
describe
'197888' 'info:fdaE20080606_AAAAOVfileF20080608_AAANSB' 'sip-files00029.jp2'
69c4d9492823c3ca3d7b1f5af856dfd1
40562bd02084aa83a1cb8ebdbf020c60c2d8db8e
'2017-03-07T12:20:28-05:00'
describe
'173503' 'info:fdaE20080606_AAAAOVfileF20080608_AAANSC' 'sip-files00029.jpg'
304ea709b6428993f0e2fecacb74ec9c
021704c19d72cd08b59df492784e7bb062525d4e
describe
'76715' 'info:fdaE20080606_AAAAOVfileF20080608_AAANSD' 'sip-files00029.pro'
a8bdef2909775b330a668290f3ebbbce
44acd9c04115c18162e20a3220986ab25fc356e2
describe
'53683' 'info:fdaE20080606_AAAAOVfileF20080608_AAANSE' 'sip-files00029.QC.jpg'
f33dbacaa53f6753855742ad71c1692f
7e9485e3369d4ba304bf2f421f9117c6d1e7bab6
describe
'974560' 'info:fdaE20080606_AAAAOVfileF20080608_AAANSF' 'sip-files00029.tif'
f3f9241c53e41bf64c3383d88c4af1e4
9ada50d36476f8a0be85cdddd1a70d602fa14e4c
describe
'3025' 'info:fdaE20080606_AAAAOVfileF20080608_AAANSG' 'sip-files00029.txt'
2094ecf315741e246aab714ac1fc9f53
f2bf9ec61de30da2df3f0709f6bdfdc4f5877a0f
describe
'12943' 'info:fdaE20080606_AAAAOVfileF20080608_AAANSH' 'sip-files00029thm.jpg'
4e281d015b96b89dfe678adc2ad4ddea
434e5cc2abb41e54f05b13488b4628b43c8ed4c3
describe
'97090' 'info:fdaE20080606_AAAAOVfileF20080608_AAANSI' 'sip-files00030.jp2'
b65c926af786612853234fbc1feaf43f
0923ce85bac5e1d70825e49970c7a9358f1482e3
describe
'82522' 'info:fdaE20080606_AAAAOVfileF20080608_AAANSJ' 'sip-files00030.jpg'
442d03c87cb8e6260ef07c885eb121ef
b987c96555fa58b1c8465de2f08138856c656d7e
'2017-03-07T12:19:35-05:00'
describe
'26767' 'info:fdaE20080606_AAAAOVfileF20080608_AAANSK' 'sip-files00030.pro'
efe45fbcd1cff022cbf2d862c2464ca6
07c7bd6644073e64db68541d98f80547ec059ea6
describe
'28079' 'info:fdaE20080606_AAAAOVfileF20080608_AAANSL' 'sip-files00030.QC.jpg'
b447cb11b355263eb8b38a3a21214f5e
eda650ff3f7b80f59f751378747263e82bdba487
describe
'994064' 'info:fdaE20080606_AAAAOVfileF20080608_AAANSM' 'sip-files00030.tif'
eca968d21fa50a3bd112bc8316be6a8b
faa9bd39f9d917d3d3f5067eb6f1b135fd255de5
describe
'1224' 'info:fdaE20080606_AAAAOVfileF20080608_AAANSN' 'sip-files00030.txt'
6f197b572a23055ac8b9bcc8a75b29c1
ac0e1ff252cae40ac46b74abed4315ea0feda66c
describe
'8859' 'info:fdaE20080606_AAAAOVfileF20080608_AAANSO' 'sip-files00030thm.jpg'
57a2ecd2d47b79049d34b54eddfdd3cd
40489f9fddecc64335c0574ecea7611d2e8cfe40
describe
'97277' 'info:fdaE20080606_AAAAOVfileF20080608_AAANSP' 'sip-files00031.jp2'
83779ed7f70ee5bc1edd6e21a8f3a7f9
71d32ae8b8096dfae004c74984290f0bda4b42d2
describe
'88156' 'info:fdaE20080606_AAAAOVfileF20080608_AAANSQ' 'sip-files00031.jpg'
12c4e4368e4e3ede2cd1b759e64fe9d4
b92cb15d1d8aba07810d14dfa7dfb4f7fac2848b
'2017-03-07T12:20:42-05:00'
describe
'36397' 'info:fdaE20080606_AAAAOVfileF20080608_AAANSR' 'sip-files00031.pro'
4e865d5197499038a02b689387c17c58
5d411760877d288555a59426f4fbad8e0941e610
describe
'29640' 'info:fdaE20080606_AAAAOVfileF20080608_AAANSS' 'sip-files00031.QC.jpg'
e3af2f093638581b6b5614403ec551b5
761e82398371857931d1c84fe6aee2cc2cae667f
describe
'992408' 'info:fdaE20080606_AAAAOVfileF20080608_AAANST' 'sip-files00031.tif'
36c751dd5425ee202eba043b17f76f20
c70a0a4292badb2bab089e3b72a5d832ac40d6a2
describe
'1737' 'info:fdaE20080606_AAAAOVfileF20080608_AAANSU' 'sip-files00031.txt'
857a97b2350785849e1476e6fb083b4c
93b17449372c281daf3611cab2a9fdf0b2bca1e4
describe
'8705' 'info:fdaE20080606_AAAAOVfileF20080608_AAANSV' 'sip-files00031thm.jpg'
16edcd99e59ed92d79b350acd1284f4c
5a5f3136ece9e481486a2f4652b9e1e9d70320b9
describe
'158155' 'info:fdaE20080606_AAAAOVfileF20080608_AAANSW' 'sip-files00032.jp2'
6bf215dc1e2d289bd0cb24c597d44e07
a9d1741ff8a332244db2da2ecf4cfb31e57f3585
describe
'140538' 'info:fdaE20080606_AAAAOVfileF20080608_AAANSX' 'sip-files00032.jpg'
677ad1296ab13e824a1f6338c07840c0
6330dce5e32f4f63956b15429fa2b3638a10b701
describe
'35285' 'info:fdaE20080606_AAAAOVfileF20080608_AAANSY' 'sip-files00032.pro'
1c719b347ded03e916acc577fcfccd04
c7d0b10d0ff8c613c85fd9530b4f64a00fe478ef
describe
'45620' 'info:fdaE20080606_AAAAOVfileF20080608_AAANSZ' 'sip-files00032.QC.jpg'
2082bbe0a4c906590e504a0366e7d108
a0427e6dedc5c85e6eb6180e21d5224d5f71edd3
describe
'961248' 'info:fdaE20080606_AAAAOVfileF20080608_AAANTA' 'sip-files00032.tif'
3999e2c705c8673ecca6082d7905aed0
f1b399241a8f3c14e93bbdf82e222e1b98530ccb
describe
'1465' 'info:fdaE20080606_AAAAOVfileF20080608_AAANTB' 'sip-files00032.txt'
73372409e0aa40f46aafc7f0d2dcc60f
774474d36b91f4dd718bf3b8757b0b2fa971ea0b
describe
'12346' 'info:fdaE20080606_AAAAOVfileF20080608_AAANTC' 'sip-files00032thm.jpg'
43a1bfaa6a83dc749a0ccbf758baca86
84cb72961f2db9a30294e016db289c16f1fd79fe
describe
'176629' 'info:fdaE20080606_AAAAOVfileF20080608_AAANTD' 'sip-files00033.jp2'
142fc022255b5583fb49d22126b960ba
5aaab80ba969d82d3a1b77bd55298d366a93627f
'2017-03-07T12:19:31-05:00'
describe
'158299' 'info:fdaE20080606_AAAAOVfileF20080608_AAANTE' 'sip-files00033.jpg'
0c0cdb5b5b0ca62807b389bc9825305a
69e9ec4dd459d39c276447ee8395f6a0a393239d
describe
'69692' 'info:fdaE20080606_AAAAOVfileF20080608_AAANTF' 'sip-files00033.pro'
f8255a0b93eafa6bfb5c150373b928c6
b59827fb3db131ad1ae805feac77d65cbeb2626d
describe
'50159' 'info:fdaE20080606_AAAAOVfileF20080608_AAANTG' 'sip-files00033.QC.jpg'
887d2402e3ee966d467e80105d3abaf1
431582d2a2cccf4a3b3bbfce29e70c96c4858a11
describe
'980076' 'info:fdaE20080606_AAAAOVfileF20080608_AAANTH' 'sip-files00033.tif'
92a8d84efd3c3795d2ffd9e7368525ab
9dd301897d777b4f305322173e47a9c6232b69ba
describe
'2758' 'info:fdaE20080606_AAAAOVfileF20080608_AAANTI' 'sip-files00033.txt'
7858cd12d1af579c578af93b7c3c3152
33c5b436917b854ede310b2346aa51e1b5045e58
describe
'12176' 'info:fdaE20080606_AAAAOVfileF20080608_AAANTJ' 'sip-files00033thm.jpg'
c3119cb2452fccac0630d71483a5350a
c9dbd420aa6496a59311b90a1515db1f4ceea066
describe
'200215' 'info:fdaE20080606_AAAAOVfileF20080608_AAANTK' 'sip-files00034.jp2'
60f6a4d525eb14119277654a0879c8db
06dcce4186ac4aa76bdaf1de51bf351e07738cd5
describe
'172622' 'info:fdaE20080606_AAAAOVfileF20080608_AAANTL' 'sip-files00034.jpg'
9e1057ae427d5a9884f324ee8fcb2baf
eb41d486fb45db4eedca8b7328cd1752f89a2893
describe
'77352' 'info:fdaE20080606_AAAAOVfileF20080608_AAANTM' 'sip-files00034.pro'
2fe65b2cd7524f56ba8d20fe0131ea1c
8e4af33517925a23367bfe4d811028ded1951a4b
describe
'52357' 'info:fdaE20080606_AAAAOVfileF20080608_AAANTN' 'sip-files00034.QC.jpg'
8c86d076cde278c71764451be44df9da
09b9a6847622cebc065c46dd78ca31dd2e5379dd
'2017-03-07T12:19:24-05:00'
describe
'1001388' 'info:fdaE20080606_AAAAOVfileF20080608_AAANTO' 'sip-files00034.tif'
eff6ed76d4831189080c3f9f94d5dbf7
c3045a95ea084c50725471859afce65246fe85b2
describe
'3062' 'info:fdaE20080606_AAAAOVfileF20080608_AAANTP' 'sip-files00034.txt'
b3cc806a68fe189253ee574058c607e6
ddf38596ce42ba3c3432b666b4a5efb2d8efbfc0
describe
'12599' 'info:fdaE20080606_AAAAOVfileF20080608_AAANTQ' 'sip-files00034thm.jpg'
bb9c3e92dcaf622218e07b74507ff06d
15a4c2a35f53d0ab96a9464f5d1e5c7161291e63
describe
'137819' 'info:fdaE20080606_AAAAOVfileF20080608_AAANTR' 'sip-files00035.jp2'
46bfc1ac8a1a7b9a1859290419b85c3b
31334d0c0faeaeca68fcc6d50818731abe8c5bd7
describe
'126958' 'info:fdaE20080606_AAAAOVfileF20080608_AAANTS' 'sip-files00035.jpg'
2abaa4017fae710d7fd51f53b012a8f0
344290b198be88d385cf20e39d2639f4be518116
describe
'39300' 'info:fdaE20080606_AAAAOVfileF20080608_AAANTT' 'sip-files00035.pro'
2eb76a37087c3965e0fc6b93048dc2ba
8e6703e8d23509d4d2afc92fa079f2b629460a86
describe
'39813' 'info:fdaE20080606_AAAAOVfileF20080608_AAANTU' 'sip-files00035.QC.jpg'
d82e10e3c323f7d4ece7e319ca11b84d
4cd9f0be55770f8438eb8ec121807e616ca2b39a
describe
'957448' 'info:fdaE20080606_AAAAOVfileF20080608_AAANTV' 'sip-files00035.tif'
34c6804d566077b268963b568b2d494a
9187ae4f4f97aa31858a083ea47fe6b18b0ef3d6
describe
'1605' 'info:fdaE20080606_AAAAOVfileF20080608_AAANTW' 'sip-files00035.txt'
2c64ae9a48f4cd36107314c75c7df1d5
84502b5d5ccdb039aeca59ea448a3d4ebe81ca74
describe
'10563' 'info:fdaE20080606_AAAAOVfileF20080608_AAANTX' 'sip-files00035thm.jpg'
2aeded3d41fde6811cddcd650cb04331
f932c91d73b7c2275b00fb0d1d1b716b7915dab3
describe
'74947' 'info:fdaE20080606_AAAAOVfileF20080608_AAANTY' 'sip-files00036.jp2'
25c7b3c32b5295526c95edf9f8bd843e
e5558ed80cd6de683f4343cd96d1bf456a9127ff
describe
'70546' 'info:fdaE20080606_AAAAOVfileF20080608_AAANTZ' 'sip-files00036.jpg'
e90fc4d21fe2e985b995724dd085672c
2e0bb51eeb0e0a5b114479853fe95437f729300d
describe
'15090' 'info:fdaE20080606_AAAAOVfileF20080608_AAANUA' 'sip-files00036.pro'
f80fa2d223b0bad5a2e6eeb948732808
8e0435bf001d8c7c80772418c2b9f8837c0d2bdb
describe
'24751' 'info:fdaE20080606_AAAAOVfileF20080608_AAANUB' 'sip-files00036.QC.jpg'
e98b56310803d3a43cee7c9e5cc090e5
bdeee18116251ffcf899792392ad9496755a554c
describe
'976408' 'info:fdaE20080606_AAAAOVfileF20080608_AAANUC' 'sip-files00036.tif'
e6bbf432d0718f99953dbbc92ac931d3
0f46856232d7f9efdc953071b09ac463f71bc672
describe
'816' 'info:fdaE20080606_AAAAOVfileF20080608_AAANUD' 'sip-files00036.txt'
4dc5fbdfcb65f57a6be7e08540889e5b
e10ffc91f747a3233e39d9f56e0259c2137ee71e
describe
Invalid character
Invalid character
'7740' 'info:fdaE20080606_AAAAOVfileF20080608_AAANUE' 'sip-files00036thm.jpg'
f166ce5cc878a6f3f1ca441be0685cd2
3cf9baf3580853b362d5eaa7de231e7400662962
describe
'80627' 'info:fdaE20080606_AAAAOVfileF20080608_AAANUF' 'sip-files00037.jp2'
0d45778e133df8150826c21240257454
78f6186828bd9fe0afb5ab7165e8c784ee9509f3
describe
'43419' 'info:fdaE20080606_AAAAOVfileF20080608_AAANUG' 'sip-files00037.jpg'
4618adc325611bf893812d78c0e72055
6f7b69e51cecbced33f84e516afe2d1d8d891cda
describe
'25350' 'info:fdaE20080606_AAAAOVfileF20080608_AAANUH' 'sip-files00037.pro'
c1967e82c9a09b83ad7abe731908b363
5a8cc73891cf7919aa9f7e74b3ab3cb7146a3b35
describe
'14618' 'info:fdaE20080606_AAAAOVfileF20080608_AAANUI' 'sip-files00037.QC.jpg'
44510a07eaa8b6c2421e95576c9c8b49
6fb658509f93ebe972d7523195d3e12b5edcd14f
describe
'945376' 'info:fdaE20080606_AAAAOVfileF20080608_AAANUJ' 'sip-files00037.tif'
f71a66186272a16263fd93e9f8e12925
4362443b37cda1d4646305b9aacb23980b7e6ccb
describe
'1278' 'info:fdaE20080606_AAAAOVfileF20080608_AAANUK' 'sip-files00037.txt'
b4bd982b87beaf6b0349c71c7f114827
f9a0044414dea0885f1938a34c0075f81ff672b0
describe
Invalid character
Invalid character
'4306' 'info:fdaE20080606_AAAAOVfileF20080608_AAANUL' 'sip-files00037thm.jpg'
07e3eb3ce035a0ad579d771c0a7ba3eb
c284f2e544d18f2d1c947e3e6f7fb58c6e672b8e
describe
'69952' 'info:fdaE20080606_AAAAOVfileF20080608_AAANUM' 'sip-files00038.jp2'
9107db814ecaadc02665fc2c92fc9b33
f1f2596af37b1db5a37be9f937f2335b0a836210
describe
'37726' 'info:fdaE20080606_AAAAOVfileF20080608_AAANUN' 'sip-files00038.jpg'
8d54284c9a8c628288ac40929bfe5abf
f0c2b2038437657243be51497616b7ef4b0b3391
describe
'8683' 'info:fdaE20080606_AAAAOVfileF20080608_AAANUO' 'sip-files00038.pro'
7c3d287849b8158b61d5e7cafe1eb2e6
eae853c8e78a337f42e1c6663125e5960d9a1c73
describe
'13327' 'info:fdaE20080606_AAAAOVfileF20080608_AAANUP' 'sip-files00038.QC.jpg'
9f06e5957869f81ddb1be4bbd0d01e54
c3b532d906517140a9f601559aa212fbda723bb7
describe
'945540' 'info:fdaE20080606_AAAAOVfileF20080608_AAANUQ' 'sip-files00038.tif'
07c39447e121dd191f5897e883a6d648
284e8b34b756a70441971d978e08bba798516996
describe
'448' 'info:fdaE20080606_AAAAOVfileF20080608_AAANUR' 'sip-files00038.txt'
850c34562160aa52cb1261ffe92dda16
a8e32907ba8ead7ae7ebcd01f83811693684c984
describe
'4023' 'info:fdaE20080606_AAAAOVfileF20080608_AAANUS' 'sip-files00038thm.jpg'
ea5809ebaf735eca9727dc711fa5d6f1
08d20ce751c195d7d7c40f673c58a72114b12f97
describe
'51134' 'info:fdaE20080606_AAAAOVfileF20080608_AAANUT' 'sip-files00039.jp2'
85258c17e344039a7ab557283edb6087
837e4c10355edaa4e419ab7c8afa2d20bce3b887
describe
'30926' 'info:fdaE20080606_AAAAOVfileF20080608_AAANUU' 'sip-files00039.jpg'
105a636215f15bfe1e2383e284eaf725
098ac004221dcea0c88060539d4b5c4abe702445
describe
'7693' 'info:fdaE20080606_AAAAOVfileF20080608_AAANUV' 'sip-files00039.pro'
562687feb45bc574bf0137c9f8f0cf5b
0efbfa5077391d229ab4529ea8821c5f307eba0a
describe
'10874' 'info:fdaE20080606_AAAAOVfileF20080608_AAANUW' 'sip-files00039.QC.jpg'
209898556a5ddf3454cf9738015e1588
20da4b9c561731adc2d618c24a97bc0e5528a9b9
describe
'951216' 'info:fdaE20080606_AAAAOVfileF20080608_AAANUX' 'sip-files00039.tif'
fc51b7820422f2cc6b1f553a56a980b3
3383e55d36134886e86564f8ab373cfa01c87754
describe
'506' 'info:fdaE20080606_AAAAOVfileF20080608_AAANUY' 'sip-files00039.txt'
59ed211303625d6c0c0bfb0c3a1dc499
b875df2cf3fa1cd519b6a43149baef5bf250c1fa
describe
Invalid character
Invalid character
'3844' 'info:fdaE20080606_AAAAOVfileF20080608_AAANUZ' 'sip-files00039thm.jpg'
de3504228c5fa64fd45dd2e46275e3e8
22a780848d36820bcb983f91e37d54da2b6542b6
describe
'55054' 'info:fdaE20080606_AAAAOVfileF20080608_AAANVA' 'sip-files00040.jp2'
49ed19d485da798ee8d45d99c9f0a6c0
8f3cf588417f7b3929161b2b973590b55218469f
describe
'30831' 'info:fdaE20080606_AAAAOVfileF20080608_AAANVB' 'sip-files00040.jpg'
23c8f23031a184ae9256e859eac23b11
ca96826251885a14237aa92831c4f15273af91b9
describe
'16884' 'info:fdaE20080606_AAAAOVfileF20080608_AAANVC' 'sip-files00040.pro'
e1bff4df9e6844d8431981e6818ce7ad
f37279ae615d284df4d443574e8b6020c53fbe01
describe
'11091' 'info:fdaE20080606_AAAAOVfileF20080608_AAANVD' 'sip-files00040.QC.jpg'
b6899167ef35f209a20e6b1d14d0eb21
94d93e0d93973aae61d06890e0c6e91c51d4757d
describe
'940320' 'info:fdaE20080606_AAAAOVfileF20080608_AAANVE' 'sip-files00040.tif'
1c9ac4e9ce6940e54126d61b151d70a8
a4f0f7aeb02325beac3e9836be437d9ad1cf4bd9
describe
'1263' 'info:fdaE20080606_AAAAOVfileF20080608_AAANVF' 'sip-files00040.txt'
1fa3c7956dea40517919e3d94146b393
57cefb3eb6faad306e6b42fb73109c7ebd1baf3e
describe
'3615' 'info:fdaE20080606_AAAAOVfileF20080608_AAANVG' 'sip-files00040thm.jpg'
685f69c6293120f6a03f9e5dc577035e
cee130ea02c85ed2491e007b714fc6e8e640aedf
describe
'54474' 'info:fdaE20080606_AAAAOVfileF20080608_AAANVH' 'sip-files00041.jp2'
c5f60bbea5aace3af6bb65221d818bd4
2d24fb6666420193c7d129061041698aee217ecd
describe
'30535' 'info:fdaE20080606_AAAAOVfileF20080608_AAANVI' 'sip-files00041.jpg'
fff5946e20e3d122197474bef020f4f0
68dad01363597f18339a9fc0320e4e64fe797ae2
describe
'8232' 'info:fdaE20080606_AAAAOVfileF20080608_AAANVJ' 'sip-files00041.pro'
a91d2855af25d41f31a4feff63074119
f36241f13ed0aceecf7efd755b296f7ebf14d8a2
describe
'11243' 'info:fdaE20080606_AAAAOVfileF20080608_AAANVK' 'sip-files00041.QC.jpg'
202cfb07e5aacbf6cb63dbd5ff2f6453
194e7d68a31ba2a8c4234b9ed24097a8f90c575b
describe
'958976' 'info:fdaE20080606_AAAAOVfileF20080608_AAANVL' 'sip-files00041.tif'
a546085c562fc58f45f57ce66cba7ea3
c80356b06a09bfb7d174c80647df7316ba5e0d0b
describe
'439' 'info:fdaE20080606_AAAAOVfileF20080608_AAANVM' 'sip-files00041.txt'
230ef6c41cad18b911281ce15741fe78
02e2fbeabe6b54d34986d96ffdfbed5e083eef13
describe
'3666' 'info:fdaE20080606_AAAAOVfileF20080608_AAANVN' 'sip-files00041thm.jpg'
0388cb7c02d4582a4b6abf7e46de10c1
9179be46d2809c0f9e14032ea762dd104cab3c4f
describe
'75364' 'info:fdaE20080606_AAAAOVfileF20080608_AAANVO' 'sip-files00042.jp2'
4678a7dd43ff09aa1a6f89019fbda3d3
5794d60678b5fead46307807a0372b99e3b5dfd2
describe
'37865' 'info:fdaE20080606_AAAAOVfileF20080608_AAANVP' 'sip-files00042.jpg'
2cfd8c06ce599d7409a861edf12fd43e
50af76e7b666ea2cc1f00f2ab6dc6be08cda5b28
describe
'7577' 'info:fdaE20080606_AAAAOVfileF20080608_AAANVQ' 'sip-files00042.pro'
7b372d5d55008b6afeca41b8d030ffdb
638087673a4348e3a343d09467a18a7eb57782d3
describe
'12674' 'info:fdaE20080606_AAAAOVfileF20080608_AAANVR' 'sip-files00042.QC.jpg'
89cab06bf80ba088c9464f8de3275f7d
c9847a6238c0ad05443f3c698cd030e54d326097
describe
'963876' 'info:fdaE20080606_AAAAOVfileF20080608_AAANVS' 'sip-files00042.tif'
8d13c87ed37e0a9709b727a48e254b55
c733f8c111c256fce614272ff2b7f7d3d74a843f
describe
'464' 'info:fdaE20080606_AAAAOVfileF20080608_AAANVT' 'sip-files00042.txt'
995681e3af5fabcecd72c0abd22abc8d
834a5690b223c7b7ea10d9657f131b88ed66ce5e
describe
'4077' 'info:fdaE20080606_AAAAOVfileF20080608_AAANVU' 'sip-files00042thm.jpg'
2c21c55131c588c1f69b548a0b13e11b
acdc270061b1b112821326326b9eb4ce44ffd720
describe
'176204' 'info:fdaE20080606_AAAAOVfileF20080608_AAANVV' 'sip-files00043.jp2'
8de4bcba8ac8c76ff40a098140eda49c
cd368ba9088956fcd627ed94ce1784a4b3f2167b
describe
'157088' 'info:fdaE20080606_AAAAOVfileF20080608_AAANVW' 'sip-files00043.jpg'
bd8d54d4eb6845207ae494909ca2205d
e4b950e6285295b5282cc5cfcf6888f3c1df16b5
describe
'67533' 'info:fdaE20080606_AAAAOVfileF20080608_AAANVX' 'sip-files00043.pro'
ec93cddbc8d0dd0421dd55563a9bf1b2
65a4d48bb8021ed8b307410815ef0b1b82f8e5f2
describe
'49226' 'info:fdaE20080606_AAAAOVfileF20080608_AAANVY' 'sip-files00043.QC.jpg'
a58653eab765099a41b94daf646c94c8
2ff4e331d5f4c8459810a97242fa572bc7e45102
describe
'961692' 'info:fdaE20080606_AAAAOVfileF20080608_AAANVZ' 'sip-files00043.tif'
fc25e416ee5b45c5f35020451b7be081
f59d2fae7d3b37699b0b143c73be7a4ed181c70f
describe
'2685' 'info:fdaE20080606_AAAAOVfileF20080608_AAANWA' 'sip-files00043.txt'
573e63d8b240a0e9b21c2686c7e61788
ba9391ab8fbeb5cab6c47c84a31901fab1f8c5f8
describe
'11956' 'info:fdaE20080606_AAAAOVfileF20080608_AAANWB' 'sip-files00043thm.jpg'
66d3b85614284e45faa4c708a0690f65
b6a60c74ecfa35bbf83e5a204db9a276e7768789
describe
'63158' 'info:fdaE20080606_AAAAOVfileF20080608_AAANWC' 'sip-files00044.jp2'
01fc3ff4acac5c6d0bee89ad7627bbf3
21fdf4d4d3098c74188bbe47a635edddc85a8c15
describe
'34982' 'info:fdaE20080606_AAAAOVfileF20080608_AAANWD' 'sip-files00044.jpg'
d6e7bd0fa611b9d94bedfeae44002724
8d715b4015839c7293f2483a813b91e8819f0c67
describe
'13992' 'info:fdaE20080606_AAAAOVfileF20080608_AAANWE' 'sip-files00044.pro'
673f7c8770cc958e47dbbf96e13320d3
000fa59931076cdfc045555e4dccbabe60c9dbff
describe
'11957' 'info:fdaE20080606_AAAAOVfileF20080608_AAANWF' 'sip-files00044.QC.jpg'
ac58f10866caee3951bd133047636129
51d622a7d66887784f681c36cd377bfe6c187923
describe
'960120' 'info:fdaE20080606_AAAAOVfileF20080608_AAANWG' 'sip-files00044.tif'
102b35640e8ca83bbd928f066ceda721
e7eb6151724e12dc6ca5c083cbe0c87146bdc253
describe
'601' 'info:fdaE20080606_AAAAOVfileF20080608_AAANWH' 'sip-files00044.txt'
b7ec708a7c5d1d07c8cc9748c6537101
656f6cac33738668c1f7b1c3c1889f39e9d69ee4
describe
'3867' 'info:fdaE20080606_AAAAOVfileF20080608_AAANWI' 'sip-files00044thm.jpg'
175414d9da9ce4c7c0a8bf35ee1f7d0b
0df209c3077174f2c05dbacf33885984ae6c67ce
describe
'55627' 'info:fdaE20080606_AAAAOVfileF20080608_AAANWJ' 'sip-files00045.jp2'
b6843744347889e495810f3a81482563
2a8a4c0ad3b306f3ed325be5929b5eca649e6262
describe
'31955' 'info:fdaE20080606_AAAAOVfileF20080608_AAANWK' 'sip-files00045.jpg'
505167f60fd42d9e3fc37c0ea4973df6
5d33a2f2e9f31bf778b6f06bdbbef7704036382c
describe
'10326' 'info:fdaE20080606_AAAAOVfileF20080608_AAANWL' 'sip-files00045.pro'
6fe719e3d05782044f9a2bf7cd89d94c
00d76db88486162f71038592e46f28ba0c967bf9
describe
'11737' 'info:fdaE20080606_AAAAOVfileF20080608_AAANWM' 'sip-files00045.QC.jpg'
d44dbbd47925c32d5a5db2ec9bc91213
96949d18e4663ae67d3bf51a7ea2b94f1ce44e2f
describe
'951584' 'info:fdaE20080606_AAAAOVfileF20080608_AAANWN' 'sip-files00045.tif'
dd377fc0d2c06aa42dab8c39e7329cb1
b6d832f1220bf58008c8eb28c6a29e626f89a159
describe
'654' 'info:fdaE20080606_AAAAOVfileF20080608_AAANWO' 'sip-files00045.txt'
224c37a7b766fd00365814c83bef6515
9dca3a01fbb0eef22d53e2b4720d02870b0937c9
describe
'3657' 'info:fdaE20080606_AAAAOVfileF20080608_AAANWP' 'sip-files00045thm.jpg'
9394f8a5cd9744fd36ed77596e675861
350ee2abad556627f62a175ecdfb55ce9cb2c910
describe
'167106' 'info:fdaE20080606_AAAAOVfileF20080608_AAANWQ' 'sip-files00046.jp2'
f7a773ebfb547a433d06183a43fa64a6
2aa12c05b4bd0f7347f8134cce403ce7ba5eb4e7
describe
'149978' 'info:fdaE20080606_AAAAOVfileF20080608_AAANWR' 'sip-files00046.jpg'
6eb379b1d3cd435c4c3969e02505f0e0
1ad34ec1ba0ec7f7c8bbb8abd9dbd6756d412a00
describe
'62441' 'info:fdaE20080606_AAAAOVfileF20080608_AAANWS' 'sip-files00046.pro'
94d35180206a62d61abf7f2d54f7a729
eeaf1eb0645b95f377def49f49859d0a2ad828a7
describe
'46459' 'info:fdaE20080606_AAAAOVfileF20080608_AAANWT' 'sip-files00046.QC.jpg'
b8bbd45e24b7680e58e585b22aabd90d
7991f5f64df5b60b71acce00b33d43760519df4c
describe
'959280' 'info:fdaE20080606_AAAAOVfileF20080608_AAANWU' 'sip-files00046.tif'
2429c2d4e21efcf5ce1b9c52aeca14e5
933e5edc43d9fcae1db726fb8d194d7d656020ac
describe
'2550' 'info:fdaE20080606_AAAAOVfileF20080608_AAANWV' 'sip-files00046.txt'
3b29229b1a9e41f142f204e8389bdd0e
ce6ab3d5f205d942a0160401206bf9f0c55da835
describe
'11492' 'info:fdaE20080606_AAAAOVfileF20080608_AAANWW' 'sip-files00046thm.jpg'
7521cb034280b9f1d1ab21e4188beb89
ca0aa5b6c1604e5d74b6b9821e5623092f068c36
describe
'106562' 'info:fdaE20080606_AAAAOVfileF20080608_AAANWX' 'sip-files00047.jp2'
cf107d56ce4db9c8cd0bf87264022521
f81823ea05da5850144b0cbb4e9d80645727da76
describe
'101545' 'info:fdaE20080606_AAAAOVfileF20080608_AAANWY' 'sip-files00047.jpg'
933b6bbf9a499310359184234349b83b
0105e8ee13d0f0bc0aca735704fb36ebdec734bc
describe
'14147' 'info:fdaE20080606_AAAAOVfileF20080608_AAANWZ' 'sip-files00047.pro'
3c643cdf4d74a17e0329fee4b0a15737
101d30b43f12296fbad097167c031dc0e91fe293
describe
'33955' 'info:fdaE20080606_AAAAOVfileF20080608_AAANXA' 'sip-files00047.QC.jpg'
cb4513cb7ac96bb4cef2344d35202102
d0c7e35f483ec8c1ee03dfa7852c9a1c5be438ca
describe
'1013608' 'info:fdaE20080606_AAAAOVfileF20080608_AAANXB' 'sip-files00047.tif'
9cc4a52ef0f482daf716bb858b5481fb
3daa0bf18cc13ebd0b4890ca3d9b5553d91d20e6
describe
'739' 'info:fdaE20080606_AAAAOVfileF20080608_AAANXC' 'sip-files00047.txt'
d93315c9c36bd1bc62705ea8648a6a20
42deb13b14d5436d9c845afb523453f09f7526d2
describe
Invalid character
Invalid character
'10029' 'info:fdaE20080606_AAAAOVfileF20080608_AAANXD' 'sip-files00047thm.jpg'
8a4af1ff98a5b5a390ad68549f138581
7762a49dc094a2991be7682d2005f9eb07673d13
'2017-03-07T12:20:00-05:00'
describe
'131638' 'info:fdaE20080606_AAAAOVfileF20080608_AAANXE' 'sip-files00048.jp2'
e1ddee9b5e06bdcf3510c6cd80d2f09e
72a0d19f5152ed113d1449f8d847c273fd685341
describe
'60350' 'info:fdaE20080606_AAAAOVfileF20080608_AAANXF' 'sip-files00048.jpg'
69205981dd062cf328f8bfb328d81a4a
96c2d4215ef972a51dca3860a2b94bf0bce00676
describe
'40137' 'info:fdaE20080606_AAAAOVfileF20080608_AAANXG' 'sip-files00048.pro'
e4f62ac7f01b32dd3b0a2e4cbf4421bc
974a2facc5623cff7d3479fa1730b9f360290cfd
describe
'18294' 'info:fdaE20080606_AAAAOVfileF20080608_AAANXH' 'sip-files00048.QC.jpg'
10b8f2e52ddd1694560a093596bcc691
79b027d462bda9cbb0dff85eb43aef77c798b504
describe
'967416' 'info:fdaE20080606_AAAAOVfileF20080608_AAANXI' 'sip-files00048.tif'
1f324536eec3972ed9b57b7e056f0916
64c8c283765d26130a5399bca772ef5300f0b686
describe
'2119' 'info:fdaE20080606_AAAAOVfileF20080608_AAANXJ' 'sip-files00048.txt'
f1abd63a30536ac7982c6c90bcf61dc1
cae1e8d774958a424927244f6f93cc1339110f89
describe
'4958' 'info:fdaE20080606_AAAAOVfileF20080608_AAANXK' 'sip-files00048thm.jpg'
3f0f19872efccb02ded156d83dd9401f
459bc3da4ed5532e68a39a9bea48fb44b2ae9bd9
describe
'118924' 'info:fdaE20080606_AAAAOVfileF20080608_AAANXL' 'sip-files00049.jp2'
62ccf88bf3e56ae36f525981616bd664
8d280578e646235b07c3bf0f0035e30b70f43b6e
describe
'106707' 'info:fdaE20080606_AAAAOVfileF20080608_AAANXM' 'sip-files00049.jpg'
33d0ce45615de74ab3ca27082686efe2
bf2180bb2f1b12a40693c992de0dff78748d5002
describe
'26822' 'info:fdaE20080606_AAAAOVfileF20080608_AAANXN' 'sip-files00049.pro'
9c2b6d4763c5679a2650bcde05e7f26c
70e8bb0e92ffdf01b4bb18325b2d209a33ae028b
describe
'34653' 'info:fdaE20080606_AAAAOVfileF20080608_AAANXO' 'sip-files00049.QC.jpg'
33b49912e6be0d79141908c2ab3cb80b
ccd9a0351c6e234c9e97388838e9e41aa183d8d0
describe
'972892' 'info:fdaE20080606_AAAAOVfileF20080608_AAANXP' 'sip-files00049.tif'
d3ab9b4d89c8a4cfb17867dcaf3ed1f2
e7836efdfb910ef77ced1feafab81adb9005561d
describe
'1103' 'info:fdaE20080606_AAAAOVfileF20080608_AAANXQ' 'sip-files00049.txt'
ecf7426a5acc1d86fa5cd346a2759e1a
11293f676bb75f7b9a169c271d80c2e0672e4f80
describe
'9680' 'info:fdaE20080606_AAAAOVfileF20080608_AAANXR' 'sip-files00049thm.jpg'
e754676846c43daefbc355895b43d006
43805ee9857cdd9ac6bf156e47a4f47aeb47fed0
describe
'200262' 'info:fdaE20080606_AAAAOVfileF20080608_AAANXS' 'sip-files00050.jp2'
0c23264e27be2c721402288aed7e75d2
6bf6d0af7e9d41cb1f9ea96eb3de6172518092cf
describe
'175614' 'info:fdaE20080606_AAAAOVfileF20080608_AAANXT' 'sip-files00050.jpg'
6fbf772dbcdee86dc103dcd651da3085
7a5710faac1cab031d2e8b9d88317f25f80e2a81
describe
'75971' 'info:fdaE20080606_AAAAOVfileF20080608_AAANXU' 'sip-files00050.pro'
10b044690f3fcf04ac9c942ccedb1d12
02104f4ec01d5effd5984a5b708f1b7d27abfa5e
describe
'53363' 'info:fdaE20080606_AAAAOVfileF20080608_AAANXV' 'sip-files00050.QC.jpg'
9f2ad313d804344825cf97854ad05322
1f0ab8b8a0fc0bc9b0517fad2182c45cdf11744f
describe
'993336' 'info:fdaE20080606_AAAAOVfileF20080608_AAANXW' 'sip-files00050.tif'
e19d4a27c62ce4e099c8ffa2d8fe3a80
f415aa7b375771a8f274386243b3f26a05c4406d
describe
'3033' 'info:fdaE20080606_AAAAOVfileF20080608_AAANXX' 'sip-files00050.txt'
a285675cd4a5b3e10bf2b99ee833f125
7af4f52196d6c0b10bcfcfd247d1a2c834a76da8
describe
'12578' 'info:fdaE20080606_AAAAOVfileF20080608_AAANXY' 'sip-files00050thm.jpg'
64976844ddb25d1e9bfd42a3265595ea
a3c9e3c55904f33c7bf18accb41698f6c1248cf7
describe
'105044' 'info:fdaE20080606_AAAAOVfileF20080608_AAANXZ' 'sip-files00051.jp2'
c6e724cd47853f5763c046a9de2cf112
b2298155054307909bc2a843c5b967a138df45cc
describe
'109354' 'info:fdaE20080606_AAAAOVfileF20080608_AAANYA' 'sip-files00051.jpg'
0e29c321029f47de994ec201175f1133
7c5a2c9e378eda03492000675723863c9ffd471d
describe
'22192' 'info:fdaE20080606_AAAAOVfileF20080608_AAANYB' 'sip-files00051.pro'
cb3c554c39ae5c6c4efce6681a9a2182
2820aff1bb0f2ecb3313f59b37587d5d5752f4d0
describe
'35759' 'info:fdaE20080606_AAAAOVfileF20080608_AAANYC' 'sip-files00051.QC.jpg'
f97758a7afc25134ab9254c1cb4318f8
b022cc5ad22f2dac9ab11ab7e359003888eb12cc
describe
'928912' 'info:fdaE20080606_AAAAOVfileF20080608_AAANYD' 'sip-files00051.tif'
0ed00d73a259afc15e126a7a4662302b
339a20dd835ccb8fb8f5ae69f12852eb06656b7f
describe
'1274' 'info:fdaE20080606_AAAAOVfileF20080608_AAANYE' 'sip-files00051.txt'
128a182dd2f7d255e0fd70fe754e9862
3bb02d6f82b5e4acf1809aa904f0f8f86d4bc05f
describe
'9711' 'info:fdaE20080606_AAAAOVfileF20080608_AAANYF' 'sip-files00051thm.jpg'
0ef3b0c15c97c42ace8e66c093aaacaf
604d89cf08858bbaa08e8955dd5d067d253db790
describe
'140328' 'info:fdaE20080606_AAAAOVfileF20080608_AAANYG' 'sip-files00052.jp2'
ea0f71191453c42d6e9fdad26a5e8e42
1c17dc2d44718a8b96b4ce81c634bc3311b11ec8
describe
'123268' 'info:fdaE20080606_AAAAOVfileF20080608_AAANYH' 'sip-files00052.jpg'
c4464378e2c1f0f94c77accafbe4189a
f3084fdb0d4fc7c8c3d94400978cc085106c4424
describe
'46676' 'info:fdaE20080606_AAAAOVfileF20080608_AAANYI' 'sip-files00052.pro'
0c782d7605059634ee17f89607d1b0a4
20bb9969ccf191f137c35f60d6330c6dbb893db5
describe
'38103' 'info:fdaE20080606_AAAAOVfileF20080608_AAANYJ' 'sip-files00052.QC.jpg'
f7a8a0d3cf260e5c15af9eaaf02da084
2b4778197b34d28e8ed83dfa622a4997906beb61
describe
'963368' 'info:fdaE20080606_AAAAOVfileF20080608_AAANYK' 'sip-files00052.tif'
f0b78472a2a7f10957b69593cfad34b1
a441aea1aca1a03f9a5b1bd56543cce058827f6e
describe
'1979' 'info:fdaE20080606_AAAAOVfileF20080608_AAANYL' 'sip-files00052.txt'
7c8914c4e974b038cc9ed473cfdd93a9
f9737794a24c1d6d9a6f5f0d40b8fdb6ef57e57d
describe
'10303' 'info:fdaE20080606_AAAAOVfileF20080608_AAANYM' 'sip-files00052thm.jpg'
44007a9654cae8aec4df624a35518b06
8bfc9e46e68bc89a0e5a5b95af629dbcf4e968a6
describe
'202849' 'info:fdaE20080606_AAAAOVfileF20080608_AAANYN' 'sip-files00053.jp2'
ea9aa30ffd290e60ac601ab980a82274
7fdb5369a82fabd17ba91cf01ac3eb33022df600
describe
'177149' 'info:fdaE20080606_AAAAOVfileF20080608_AAANYO' 'sip-files00053.jpg'
90673afc610dafd469fe1c81ceb890e4
f22d7867e12a1a4da3eb11ab8cdba0ade0b941a7
describe
'80672' 'info:fdaE20080606_AAAAOVfileF20080608_AAANYP' 'sip-files00053.pro'
0120ebf543e7068246de38d6f9b3949d
6344eb821f5af7f161d03cb529909f080bf09e7e
describe
'53323' 'info:fdaE20080606_AAAAOVfileF20080608_AAANYQ' 'sip-files00053.QC.jpg'
9208de460534769823742d89ba83b794
9cb8b9b14c07f1700009a8aca93ce8f5a6490fd5
describe
'1013300' 'info:fdaE20080606_AAAAOVfileF20080608_AAANYR' 'sip-files00053.tif'
bb0544cea34619f90d5f6bedeadc1c11
9280d433ca3a4e2ef3aaa7257469da2d397c1a70
describe
'3169' 'info:fdaE20080606_AAAAOVfileF20080608_AAANYS' 'sip-files00053.txt'
f5d7289a416a35eefe4defa3e1bc5f95
110eecf5fde0e1d277ef25a54a4e27320e70a5e7
describe
'12978' 'info:fdaE20080606_AAAAOVfileF20080608_AAANYT' 'sip-files00053thm.jpg'
ec0c9e85fa2f8ede5fc9108c2d6fb963
68a561a4b84ff19a9587a42f9d646621be8c0dd5
describe
'161611' 'info:fdaE20080606_AAAAOVfileF20080608_AAANYU' 'sip-files00054.jp2'
41beb5464a7789d74bb5c1dbe6cdb1e0
356d89a54f81218bbe75e9aec1965d8414917f21
describe
'137039' 'info:fdaE20080606_AAAAOVfileF20080608_AAANYV' 'sip-files00054.jpg'
00fc43a21885ce0f33b50d49cc22731f
3a0a91dc3c4acebacfb484e46acff59b11b5cdeb
describe
'54274' 'info:fdaE20080606_AAAAOVfileF20080608_AAANYW' 'sip-files00054.pro'
2d80cd60244230ab57a2cfc4020bd16c
ae9a7a7213c2b73f78509eb1ba3d230a01e95c91
describe
'42295' 'info:fdaE20080606_AAAAOVfileF20080608_AAANYX' 'sip-files00054.QC.jpg'
bc09fac58e20a8ea7b9b89c78760ed26
cd6255e092fa7d9f92e2aa54f6287af247709b3f
describe
'1032256' 'info:fdaE20080606_AAAAOVfileF20080608_AAANYY' 'sip-files00054.tif'
8de2f781772c36b483bede431f06974f
c64f4f107cd1b208ef31194b7122f1a083cc2493
describe
'2397' 'info:fdaE20080606_AAAAOVfileF20080608_AAANYZ' 'sip-files00054.txt'
5ed8b8d48a5d0fe8e2cf184894fcb05d
c1d07c1daf0b95370d4cc433fbf72b20032abc31
describe
'10891' 'info:fdaE20080606_AAAAOVfileF20080608_AAANZA' 'sip-files00054thm.jpg'
c2e2c3dc54ee7fcc60e87b9e8cfbc151
36a62f87d8573e3b45c6b046eb651c65e0df614c
describe
'116297' 'info:fdaE20080606_AAAAOVfileF20080608_AAANZB' 'sip-files00055.jp2'
523f88ee09cd56f1f9e95a05e22d9b80
16edaf28f1c324308be5d64971c86ae08584126f
describe
'106752' 'info:fdaE20080606_AAAAOVfileF20080608_AAANZC' 'sip-files00055.jpg'
5175913d9a68e753a0e048b2b7762e0c
e2fd0b5201b7b4c52de4c00b73fe77f5095446ae
describe
'38336' 'info:fdaE20080606_AAAAOVfileF20080608_AAANZD' 'sip-files00055.pro'
840eb82862871463dc40fcb94c40be42
2a00f80aeb4012ee1a497c9e0da38393308e491c
describe
'34603' 'info:fdaE20080606_AAAAOVfileF20080608_AAANZE' 'sip-files00055.QC.jpg'
3b711fdc07873d1028aa9adf08e0d394
bdafc4ca196207c5472443f4f19e3254441bb771
describe
'940652' 'info:fdaE20080606_AAAAOVfileF20080608_AAANZF' 'sip-files00055.tif'
25223d6a3dcdff85f1210d54a0a32bdf
44dddc0e6450316af9d30f0b70293f0d3bd915ed
describe
'1574' 'info:fdaE20080606_AAAAOVfileF20080608_AAANZG' 'sip-files00055.txt'
2448965368ca5ef2051a70628b879416
98e3a968562e0b0ed8c5b7ccc66d761c8ccd6bdf
describe
'9747' 'info:fdaE20080606_AAAAOVfileF20080608_AAANZH' 'sip-files00055thm.jpg'
ad41e7a8fc7d6be91234d3c6bbe580f5
3cc1228d46e1e295ad472ce0962d27384537de29
describe
'723046' 'info:fdaE20080606_AAAAOVfileF20080608_AAANZI' 'sip-files00056.jp2'
a264af4dd6a1c416b563897550fb41cd
218244d2d8b8d4359e15218d76de178cac60ac3d
describe
'34761' 'info:fdaE20080606_AAAAOVfileF20080608_AAANZJ' 'sip-files00056.jpg'
a90b94faee225f5254ea36943cb27e2e
48b150dbf5b8ea67652cfaeb4da45e19cf084c68
describe
'27586' 'info:fdaE20080606_AAAAOVfileF20080608_AAANZK' 'sip-files00056.pro'
e3c8165edd3e0709fa9731aeb5751d7b
a256866f197224c799f5e9738ce3a5e3834a234a
describe
'11324' 'info:fdaE20080606_AAAAOVfileF20080608_AAANZL' 'sip-files00056.QC.jpg'
a102b15d37a60ca167431af515634ba4
8ffc9524b72dfad90407741efea8b740187a676e
describe
'7204068' 'info:fdaE20080606_AAAAOVfileF20080608_AAANZM' 'sip-files00056.tif'
7a57579341e811433a3cc258a210573c
f9682f3d896c0ec46beacb5b33e0d3d92c0b0c57
describe
'1489' 'info:fdaE20080606_AAAAOVfileF20080608_AAANZN' 'sip-files00056.txt'
99e08ec7d215848e046d225bdef39bc1
484d4b3963ea655a88a272e6cc3f8cab76e20ecd
describe
Invalid character
Invalid character
'3349' 'info:fdaE20080606_AAAAOVfileF20080608_AAANZO' 'sip-files00056thm.jpg'
c41c5c2710b72835026e8b7be726495f
2e8a94542e593214299c7322578a971d6ef68dc6
describe
'184947' 'info:fdaE20080606_AAAAOVfileF20080608_AAANZP' 'sip-files00057.jp2'
f5d6e76bc36d25922179ca05d953ea87
883ed67dd2ee03b94103f8d56840214780a4ae46
describe
'162081' 'info:fdaE20080606_AAAAOVfileF20080608_AAANZQ' 'sip-files00057.jpg'
bc7323fdcaf5496cc07f6d572e79d348
e230468d4c0f6d0da40767f9c54195a543669afa
describe
'71075' 'info:fdaE20080606_AAAAOVfileF20080608_AAANZR' 'sip-files00057.pro'
1612cb0b103ca14c6983eb344ac21a15
1df2450936eac7c02bef44b1c5bb49b46b0748ef
describe
'50342' 'info:fdaE20080606_AAAAOVfileF20080608_AAANZS' 'sip-files00057.QC.jpg'
e168e03f6558d9945bfe76d49aba5b03
20af9ac596fd873ca189d5b6ec55cc3ff1c6da34
describe
'975052' 'info:fdaE20080606_AAAAOVfileF20080608_AAANZT' 'sip-files00057.tif'
f64ceaba54c46cc92d491e49079adaf4
edd2141eb23f962cc63f943eebecf5c21460e1af
describe
'2832' 'info:fdaE20080606_AAAAOVfileF20080608_AAANZU' 'sip-files00057.txt'
908b3ec2dbaf1b15763569e578bcd184
3b475b835d8545c4623981049c49f6b4687d3614
describe
'12092' 'info:fdaE20080606_AAAAOVfileF20080608_AAANZV' 'sip-files00057thm.jpg'
82a144cf69d802713c8e522fd3e73cc6
b24d4459bdea93b3444e4cc9196b44f33952e412
describe
'47594' 'info:fdaE20080606_AAAAOVfileF20080608_AAANZW' 'sip-files00058.jp2'
0b35f3a466d76eaf566de0c423a8b2a5
c711af5487c03b86e5d5605678f62f8ca3d018f7
describe
'48544' 'info:fdaE20080606_AAAAOVfileF20080608_AAANZX' 'sip-files00058.jpg'
342695c2ca3a0904ce0e68c902c1bf87
4dd835f30202aa39ec466293a1e05520831b4ebf
describe
'8577' 'info:fdaE20080606_AAAAOVfileF20080608_AAANZY' 'sip-files00058.pro'
77bed954d90e7a5fb56818bdc096d8b5
6c5ffd3071ec222c9d334802711a3b9216f5fed8
describe
'17505' 'info:fdaE20080606_AAAAOVfileF20080608_AAANZZ' 'sip-files00058.QC.jpg'
e8e81f0747ee5e98e5b6d49640fe1996
73ec02c67a366bfbb9e1180972db5ad3ea664d26
describe
'1010264' 'info:fdaE20080606_AAAAOVfileF20080608_AAAOAA' 'sip-files00058.tif'
8d062a38a61d7ebef4546648a6069d50
3670df8160ebb56ade2c7b6b6ca66d43810c28a5
describe
'407' 'info:fdaE20080606_AAAAOVfileF20080608_AAAOAB' 'sip-files00058.txt'
b4ff5664e9bc2ce113a43b35e4afafd3
1dcf757e2dca12c0c4f11f72fbbc9b494e733ea6
describe
'5983' 'info:fdaE20080606_AAAAOVfileF20080608_AAAOAC' 'sip-files00058thm.jpg'
099fc8e9e72bc8649e28c78fa7e817e8
7155820b23bd930d7664fb76771b50d1cf7f5228
describe
'104795' 'info:fdaE20080606_AAAAOVfileF20080608_AAAOAD' 'sip-files00059.jp2'
1b87c7ff5540f96853bb44c16853bd97
7fbfb6fd6786424cdad28d3672c3c623f60b99a0
describe
'101965' 'info:fdaE20080606_AAAAOVfileF20080608_AAAOAE' 'sip-files00059.jpg'
009cdd2ea993f03ed77b1411e16105ce
aaf60fbf5040a853ca09be2fe88761161c6d16b9
describe
'21245' 'info:fdaE20080606_AAAAOVfileF20080608_AAAOAF' 'sip-files00059.pro'
b8a4e372bb3de647a4fe0611e25fa0ed
78e9616407bd9c15d8717da8f7c960b6321bf5f7
describe
'33375' 'info:fdaE20080606_AAAAOVfileF20080608_AAAOAG' 'sip-files00059.QC.jpg'
2c09b93ad97526c55b2aa23bbbd91278
0b23259e2c071e02c2ecc3689a347a4c4a95a2d4
describe
'975032' 'info:fdaE20080606_AAAAOVfileF20080608_AAAOAH' 'sip-files00059.tif'
c78d76285b1b0021b196b3084f35e6a2
a72b98b8aa717adf47119c4015d3c0a122306600
describe
'991' 'info:fdaE20080606_AAAAOVfileF20080608_AAAOAI' 'sip-files00059.txt'
7a000312d353985bab2b54104d7ca83d
2942b9082eeac6fb1210c5286b57eb287b2e6ed8
describe
Invalid character
Invalid character
'9964' 'info:fdaE20080606_AAAAOVfileF20080608_AAAOAJ' 'sip-files00059thm.jpg'
e7b2137bc5524e26bb644fbe94a11c3e
986ee60606f215970b9dd615a0abf2a58edc357f
describe
'134892' 'info:fdaE20080606_AAAAOVfileF20080608_AAAOAK' 'sip-files00060.jp2'
c2f7334ae696846bd4ca7c83ee9695a6
c402527940c8b228a16aca15e760428a6584d1d9
describe
'115495' 'info:fdaE20080606_AAAAOVfileF20080608_AAAOAL' 'sip-files00060.jpg'
b2db3f27d5bb6dd7ddb84c762352674c
41eac0d4c84d3f0089810a62d8b95c90f869dc8b
describe
'50460' 'info:fdaE20080606_AAAAOVfileF20080608_AAAOAM' 'sip-files00060.pro'
d555f984c7b667e9735e214037e12948
c51b3b847904d903d80a41855cee6c1eca6cdee6
describe
'36456' 'info:fdaE20080606_AAAAOVfileF20080608_AAAOAN' 'sip-files00060.QC.jpg'
09d7423a3535e524d4a2484ee95fe8dc
531908a31d6bb004ea2542a7b549964da299ad79
describe
'1013804' 'info:fdaE20080606_AAAAOVfileF20080608_AAAOAO' 'sip-files00060.tif'
8d6d994dd8bf31b8611686bdbc102823
b0eb87989efbd89ea0d8f7055a172ca4776381a2
describe
'2279' 'info:fdaE20080606_AAAAOVfileF20080608_AAAOAP' 'sip-files00060.txt'
60f6fe4f0e4daa77605c5e9e01df6dc8
84252b0bf2f16486a73f2843684c8db8e5c60418
describe
Invalid character
Invalid character
'9511' 'info:fdaE20080606_AAAAOVfileF20080608_AAAOAQ' 'sip-files00060thm.jpg'
d1f62f9be5e0a2859120b71523520b36
9618c76039113847a4704e3462650d050e494bc3
describe
'169878' 'info:fdaE20080606_AAAAOVfileF20080608_AAAOAR' 'sip-files00061.jp2'
665502cdd52e6e34eb20340beb6660a9
01e56d05e3737fb6514e2d596e849ce47d507e42
describe
'148547' 'info:fdaE20080606_AAAAOVfileF20080608_AAAOAS' 'sip-files00061.jpg'
999e809b067f65164c8428093fb6bb8c
f98e77c1922e81609a0eef71b9613e437b7fdc91
describe
'65748' 'info:fdaE20080606_AAAAOVfileF20080608_AAAOAT' 'sip-files00061.pro'
40c7d11e19c6455e3028ef5cc3908054
bba0323dd6d1476a6350646da50dcad29752490d
describe
'info:fdaE20080606_AAAAOVfileF20080608_AAAOAU' 'sip-files00061.QC.jpg'
9e3af7183f95aa9f8af00a09fcf48426
47935933cb06939cc58479a7432b3cc163ca962c
describe
'975548' 'info:fdaE20080606_AAAAOVfileF20080608_AAAOAV' 'sip-files00061.tif'
6d6a76208e17ab32903c7bc100ff2611
8aa32f41ee26654e63763fe8113a6e20499d3d53
describe
'2622' 'info:fdaE20080606_AAAAOVfileF20080608_AAAOAW' 'sip-files00061.txt'
a53a56a46b87db34e8990ddfff92cf24
7ccb7b5eefc50ed2481d5188d85d91b858e93fe7
describe
'11529' 'info:fdaE20080606_AAAAOVfileF20080608_AAAOAX' 'sip-files00061thm.jpg'
baec35e0c2f3a3e692de688e6ca50cce
8f2dd77092d6892d79a9eb841907dd13bfdb3e0e
describe
'182324' 'info:fdaE20080606_AAAAOVfileF20080608_AAAOAY' 'sip-files00062.jp2'
0d31e0cf4a66822a3223d189c9373e14
22da169ecde84c762a75c40fcb8f9b1e63c8b82c
describe
'156605' 'info:fdaE20080606_AAAAOVfileF20080608_AAAOAZ' 'sip-files00062.jpg'
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PAGE 1

STATE OF FLORIDA DEPARTMENT OF NATURAL RESOURCES Randolph Hodges, Executive Director DIVISION OF INTERIOR RESOURCES R. O. Vernon, Director BUREAU OF GEOLOGY C. W. Hendry, Jr., Chief Information Circular No. 82 FLOW AND CHEMICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF THE ST. JOHNS RIVER AT JACKSONVILLE, FLORIDA By Warren Anderson and D. A. Goolsby Prepared by the UNITED STATES GEOLOGICAL SURVEY in cooperation with the BUREAU OF GEOLOGY FLORIDA DEPARTMENT OF NATURAL RESOURCES and the CONSOLIDATED CITY OF JACKSONVILLE TALLAHASSEE 1973

PAGE 2

.DEPARTMENT FG(3 1in OF h o0. NATURAL RESOURCES REUBIN O'D. ASKEW Governor RICHARD (DICK) STONE ROBERT L. SHEVIN Secretary of State Attorney General THOMAS D. O'MALLEY 0O. DICKINSON, JR. Treasurer /) Comptroller FLOYD T. CHRISTIAN DOYLE CONNER Commissioner of Education Commissioner ofAgriculture W. RANDOLPH HODGES Executive Director ii

PAGE 3

LETTER OF TRANSMITTAL Bureau of Geology Tallahassee August 24, 1973 Honorable Reubin O'D. Askew, Chairman Department of Natural Resources Tallahassee, Florida Dear Governor Askew: The Bureau of Geology of the Division of Interior Resources is printing as its Information Circular No. 82 a report prepared by Warren Anderson and D. A. Goolsby of the U. S. Geological Survey entitled, "Flow and Chemical Characteristics of the St. Johns River at Jacksonville, Florida". This report will be of substantial value to water managers in developing the St. Johns River as a multiple resource. Evaluation of the capacity of the river to accept pollutants without adversely affecting other uses requires detailed data of flow and chemical characteristics and an understanding of how they interact. Respectfully yours, Charles W. Hendry, Jr., Chief Bureau of Geology iii

PAGE 4

Completed manuscript received June 27, 1973 Printed for the Florida Department of Natural Resources Division of Interior Resources Bureau of Geology by Ambrose the Printer Jacksonville, Florida iv

PAGE 5

CONTENTS Page Abstract .. ...................................... 1 Introduction ................. ......... .......... .2 Purpose and Scope ................. ................... .2 Data collection and computation of flow records ..................3 Acknowledgments ................................. 8 Previous investigations ............................... 8 Description of the system ............................... 8 Factors affecting the river flow and quality ....................9 Tides ..... ..................................10 The tidal cycle .................. ............... 10 Relation of chloride concentration to the tidal cycle .............. 11 Non-tidal factors ................... ................ 13 Wind ........................................ 15 Fresh-water input ................... ............. 15 Storage ........ ......... ... .... ............. 18 Flow statistics ................. ................... 22 Flow distribution and frequency ................... .......... 24 Maximum periods of flow deficienty ......................... 34 Chemical characteristics .............................. .. 37 Variations in chemical characteristics at Main Street Bridge ..................... .......... 37 Variations in chloride concentration in the Lower St. Johns River .......... ..................... 41 Seasonal variation in flow and chloride concentration. ..............46 Temperature ...................................... 48 Relation of flow and quality characteristics to use of the river ............. 51 Summary and conclusions .................. .............. 52 Continuing and future studies .......... ..................... .54 References .................... ................. ..57 V

PAGE 6

ILLUSTRATIONS Figure Page 1. Map of northeastern Florida showing major elements of the St. Johns River system ..................................... 4 2Map of the lower St. Johns River in the vicinity of Jacksonville ....... ... 5 3. Relation of point velocity at Station 1300 to discharge of the St. Johns River at Main Street Bridge ............................... 6 4. Relation of area between superimposed stage graphs to volume of tidal flow at Main Street Bridge ............................... 7 5. Superimposed state graphs for the St. Johns River at Jacksonville .......7 6. Diagram of a tidal cycle in the St. Johns River at Jacksonville showing variations of point velocity, discharge, gage heights, cumulative flow volume, and chloride concentration with time and gage heights and times of mean tidal levels ... ............. ...................... 12 7A. Relation of the observed times of occurrence of maximu velocities to the predicted times of occurrence ......................... 14 7B. Relation of the observed maximum dishcarges at Jacksonville to the predicted maximum current velocities at St. Johns River Entrance during 28 tidal cycles observed in 1954, 1955, 1956, 1963 and 1964 ................ 14 8. Relation of adjusted yearly average downstream and upstream tidal flow per cycle to yearly average net flow per tidal cycle ................ 16 9. Relation of average volume of tidal flow at Jacksonville to range of tide at Mayport ................ .................. 17 10. Graph showing the monthly average change in storage in the St. Johns River estuary, the monthly average difference in the estimated monthly rainfall on and evapotranspiration from the estuary, and the average annual variation in sealevel ..................... ... .... ...... .. 19 11. Relation of yearly average discharge at Jacksonville to proportional yearly average inflow to the estuary .......................21 12. Hydrographs showing monthly mean flow volumes (graph A), monthly averages of the monthly mean-flow volumes (graph B), and monthly mean net flow volumes (graph D) at Jacksonville and monthly mean predicted tidal range (graph C) at Mayport from March 1954 to September 1966 ....... .23 13. Flow distribution and cumulative flow-distribution curves for downstream flow at Main Street Bridge ........................... 26 14. Flow distribution and cumulative flow-distribution curves for upstream flow at Main Street Bridge ................... .......... 27 vi

PAGE 7

ILLUSTRATIONS -continued 15. Cumulative flow-distribution curve of daily net flow of the St. Johns River at Main Street Bridge ................ .............. 28 16. Frequency of monthly and annual maximum downstream flows in the St. Johns River at Main Street Bridge ................... ..... 29 17. Frequency of monthly and annual maximum upstream flows in the St. Johns River at Main Street Bridge .......................... 30 18. Frequency of monthly and annual minimum downstream flows in the St. Johns River at Main Street Bridge ................... ..... 31 19. Frequency of monthly and annual minimum upstream flows in the St. Johns River at Main Street Bridge .......................... 32 20. Frequency of monthly and annual maximum daily net flow in the St. Johns River at Main Street Bridge .......................... 33 21. Frequency of monthly and annual minimum daily net flow in the St. Johns River at Main Street Bridge .......................... 35 22. Maximum periods of deficient daily net flow in the St. Johns River at Jacksonville ...................................... 36 23. Relation of specific conductance to concentration of major chemical constituents in the St. Johns River at Main Street Bridge ........... 38 24. Daily maximum specific conductance near the surface of the St. Johns River at Main Street Bridge, October 1966 to April 1967 .............. 38 25. Cumulative discharge and specific conductance at the end of each tidal flow beginning December 12, 1966 and ending January 31, 1967 ......... 40 26. Duration curves of major chemical constituents in the St. Johns River at Jack sonville ...... ..............................42 27. Longitudinal and vertical variation in specific conductance of the water in the lower St. Johns River from river mile 12 to river mile 31 at slack water on selected days ....................... .......... 43 28. Variations with time in the specific conductance of the St. Johns River near the surface and bottom at selected points in the Jacksonville area ...... ... 45 29. Relation of maximum chloride concentration at Main Street Bridge to maximum chloride concentration at Orange Park and Drummond Point at slack before the downstream flow of common tidal cycles. .......... 46 30. Approximate longitudinal variation in the daily maximum chloride concentration which will be exceeded less than 7 percent of the days and 50 percent of the days in the lower St. Johns River ............... 47 vii

PAGE 8

ILLUSTRATIONS -continued 31. Graphs showing the highest, lowest, and average monthly mean net discharge of the St. Johns River at Jacksonville ...................49 32. Graphs showing the average net flow and the average maximum and minimum chloride concentrations in the St. Johns River at Jacksonville for alternate months. Flow records and chloride records June 1959 to October 1966. ... 50 33. Approximate average daily water temperatures of the St. Johns River at Main Street Bridge and ground-water at specified depths .............. 51 TABLES Tables Page 1. Selected flow statistics for the St. Johns River at Jacksonville ........ ... 22 2. Chemical analyses of the St. Johns River at Jacksonville, Florida (samples collected at Main Street Bridge) ....................... 39 viii

PAGE 9

FLOW AND CHEMICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF THE ST. JOHNS RIVER AT JACKSONVILLE, FLORIDA by Warren Anderson and D. A. Goolsby ABSTRACT The St. Johns River at Jacksonville, which is 21 miles upstream from the ocean, is part of a tidal estuary that for practical purposes may be considered to end at Lake George, 106 miles upstream from the ocean. Occasionally, tidal effects are noted 161 miles upstream. The channel of the estuary above Jacksonville is capable of storing huge amounts of water, and rising ocean tides at the mouth of the river force large amounts of water up the river past Jacksonville. Most of this water subsequently flows back past Jacksonville as the ocean tide falls. These tidal flows average 87,000 cubic feet per second at Jacksonville, and peak flows exceeding 150,000 cubic feet per second are common. The average tidal flows are more than seven times as large as the average net or fresh-water flow. Fresh water draining from the estuary increases the volume and duration of ebb tidal flows (downstream) and diminishes the volume and duration of flood tidal flows (upstream). About a quarter of the fresh water that flows into the estuary from April through September is released to the ocean from October through March. When evapotranspiration from the estuary above Jacksonville exceeds rainfall and fresh-water inflow into the estuary, the net loss of water tends to cause the volume and duration of the upstream flows to exceed those of the downstream flows. The net flow of the St. Johns River at Main Street Bridge in Jacksonville was downstream about 70 percent of the days of record and upstream about 30 percent of the days of record. Zero net flow occurred on 13 of the 4,597 days of record, or 0.3 percent of the time. The greatest number of consecutive days that the net flow was zero or upstream was 14 days. Sea water moving upstream from the mouth of the St. Johns River mixes with the fresher water already in the river channel to form a zone of transition. The chloride concentration in this zone varies from that of sea water to that of the fresh-water input. When the zone of transition extends upstream from Jacksonville, the chloride concentration in the river at Jacksonville increases with upstream flow and decreases with downstream flow. During a particular tidal cycle, the magnitude and range in chloride concentration in the river at

PAGE 10

2 BUREAU OF GEOLOGY Jacksonville depends on the length and gradient of the zone of transition and on the volumes of the tidal flows. About 80 percent of the time the chloride concentration at Main Street Bridge exceeds 250 milligrams per liter. Between Jacksonville and the ocean the river shows some stratification between the sea water and overlying river water. However, stratification tends to weaken or disappear in the vicinity of Jacksonville, probably because of increased turbulence caused by channel constriction and bridge piers. The temperature of the river averages less than 15 C (Celsius) (590 F) in January and February and more than 28 C (82 F) in summer. INTRODUCTION The St. Johns River, which flows through the city of Jacksonville, discharges about one tenth of the 40-billion-gallon average daily surface runoff from the State of Florida -a generous share of the 150-billion-gallon average daily rainfall on the State. This prodigious and continually renewed resource can be used for diverse and, in some instances, conflicting purposes such as water supply, waste disposal, transportation, heat disposal, fisheries, and recreation. In the Jacksonville area, the river (a tidal estuary) is used for all these purposes except water supply. There is continuing concern about the effect that the rapidly growing population and economy in the St. Johns River basin will have on the potential for pollution of the river by industrial and domestic waste. Evaluation of the capacity of the river to accept pollutants without adversely affecting other uses requires detailed data on flow and chemical characteristics and an understanding of how they interact. PURPOSE AND SCOPE This report was prepared to present and interpret information on the flow and chemical characteristics of the lower St. Johns River in the vicinity of Jacksonville (figs. 1 and 2). It is intended that the report (1) describe the flow and chemical characteristics with respect to variations with time, frequency of occurrence, and magnitude of tidal flows; (2) indicate the factors that affect flow and portray the manner in which they interact to product characteristic flow patterns; and (3) relate the chemical quality of the river to the flow regime. Flow records computed through September 30, 1966 for the lower St. Johns River and chemical quality data obtained through May 1967 were

PAGE 11

INFORMATION CIRCULAR NO. 82 3 analyzed during preparation of this report. The procedures used in the procurement and computation of the flow data are described in the following section. Field reconnaissance trips and special observation of water quality and flow characteristics were also necessary to this analysis. This report is one of several to result from a comprehensive investigation of the water resources of Duval County by the U. S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the Consolidated City of Jacksonville and the Bureau of Geology, Florida Department of Natural Resources. The report was prepared under the direct supervision of L. J. Snell, former Subdistrict Chief, Joel O. Kimrey, Subdistrict Chief, and B. F. Joyner, District Laboratory Chief, Ocala, and under the general supervision of C. S. Conover, District Chief, Tallahassee, all of the U. S. Geological Survey. DATA COLLECTION AND COMPUTATION OF FLOW RECORDS Stage data used in the computation of flow records for the St. Johns River at Jacksonville are obtained at Main Street Bridge, at the Naval Air Station 8.2 miles upstream from Main Street Bridge and at the U. S. Corps of Engineers Dredge Depot 4.8 miles downstream from Main Street Bridge. The upstream and downstream gages are set at datums 10.00 feet below mean sea level and the base gage is set at a datum 9.99 feet below mean sea level. The stage record collected at Main Street Bridge is only used for flow computation if record is lost at one of the other two gages. Discharge measurements and point-velocity measurements are made from the downstream (east) side of Main Street Bridge. Point-velocity measurements are made at station 1,300, which is 1,005 feet from the south bank of the river. The point velocity consists of the average of current-meter readings taken at 0.2 and 0.8 of the depth at station 1,300. Rapid discharge measurements, which include velocity determinations at station 1,300 are occasionally made with four current meters. The discharges and point velocities thus obtained are plotted against each other for both upstream and downstream flow as shown in figure 3. These relations, though they differ slightly, are linear. The discharge during a tidal cycle is determined from frequent point-velocity readings (see fig. 6) by use of these curves of relation. The volume of flow during the tidal cycle, both upstream and downstream, is computed from the area under the discharge graph thus obtained. As shown by figure 4, the volumes of flow are then plotted against the area between the superimposed stage graphs (see fig. 5) obtained by the gages at the Naval Air Station and the Dredge Depot. The volume of each upstream and downstream flow is then determined from the stage record using this latter curve of relation.

PAGE 12

4 BUREAU OF GEOLOGY 820 810 CI (r, J?^^-^ MAYPORT JACKSONVILLEp \ ORANGE \ PARK n 30 -GREEN 30 COVE J \\ SPRINGS a O PALATKA CRESCENT a LAKE ORlANGE LAKL LAKE O OCALA 29 -y ODE LAND -29. LAKE LAKE L AKE "TnS j MONM LAKE SANFOR LAKE NARRfIS LAKE APOPKA ORLANDO 0 10 20 30 MILES 28w -28 82* 81 Figie 1. Map of northeastern Florida showing major elements of the St. Johns River system.

PAGE 13

INFORMATION CIRCULAR NO. 82 5 a 5 81 40 61 55 S! 30V sP 2V5 o 20' 30' 25 -RMMOND POI 0 W 30 05 JACKSONVILLE 81' 82 85 T30' A 2W -20' Fige 2. Map of the lower St. Joh A WTE R vicinity of Jacksonville. 8145' 8 40' 81 35' e130' s 25' r201 Figure 2. Map of the lower St. Johns River in the vicinity of Jacksonville. Flow records computed for February 10, 1954, to September 30, 1966, were used in this analysis. A year of record beginning on October 1 and ending the following September 30 is called a water year. For example, the 1955 water year began on October 1, 1954 and ended on September 30, 1955. al-45' ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ .er4.13'e*a 12!W2

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6 BUREAU OF GEOLOGY SI I I I B 48 -* 3-0 oz 0 M U. -0 -0 a. 4 o -.Iw uj 0 0 .. s W I a. > --2 -3 -4 0 UPSTREAM DISCHARGE ~--f-* DOWNSTREAM DISCHARGE -200,000 -150,000 -100,000 -50,000 0 50,000 100,000 150000 *200,000 DISCHARGE, CUBIC FEET PER SECOND Figure 3. Relation of point velocity at Station 1300 to discharge of the St. Johns River at Main Street Bridge. A?,

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INFORMATION CIRCULAR NO. 82 7 UPSTREAM FLOW DOWNSTREAM FLOW 4 ... S. .* .*S -3 %\ S• /. ."\ *. SS•. /.* S 2 0 1 \ /*' NOTE; FALL IS DIFFERENCE IN GAGE TIME IS DURATION, IN HOURS, OF HEIGHT AT THE CORPS OF PERIODS BETWEEN OCCURRENCES ENGINEERS DREDGE DEPOT AND OF EQUAL GAGE HEIGHT AT THE AT THE JACKSONVILLE NAVAL TWO GAGES AIR STATION -400 -3,000 -200 -1,000 0 1,000 2,000 3,000 4,000 TIDAL FLOW, MILLIONS OF CUBIC FEET Figure 4. Relation of area between superimposed stage graphs to volume of tidal flow at Main Street Bridge. TIME AT JACKSONVILLE NAVAL AIR STATION 2400 0600 1200 1800 2400 0600 12.5 1 I 1 I 1 12.011.5 iS11.0 .1~ 10.5 NAVAL AIR SSTATION l* \5 uDEPOT MAY 23, 1955 MAY 24, 1955 9.0 I TIME AT CORPS OF ENGINEERS DREDGE DEPOT Figure 5. Superimposed stage graphs for the St. Johns River at Jacksonville.

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8 BUREAU OF GEOLOGY ACKNOWLEDGMENTS The authors express their appreciation to the following employees of the city of Jacksonville: Tom Ard, Director, Air and Water Pollution Control, Department of Health, Welfare and Bioenvironmental Services; E. T. Owens, Engineer, and S. Hay, Assistant Engineer, City Engineering Department; who provided valuable data and assisted in tests; and to Messrs. James English, Director of Public Works and Robert B. Nord, Director, Water and Sewer Department, whose valuable assistance enhanced the collection of basic data. The contribution of E. T. Owens is especially appreciated, as it was he who fostered the data-collection program from its inception. PREVIOUS INVESTIGATIONS The earliest investigation to yield data applicable to the present physical conditions in the St. Johns River estuary was led by E. F. Hicks in the winter of 1933-34. The results of this investigation were reported by F. J. Haight in 1938. Measurements of the stage, velocity, and discharge of the river at Jacksonville were made by the U. S. Geological Survey on May 10, 1945. The U. S. Geological Survey investigated the river August 16-24, 1945, to determine the change in position from Main Street Bridge of a particle of river water during the course of a tidal cycle. E. E. Pyatt investigated the distribution of pollutants in the river in 1959. DESCRIPTION OF THE SYSTEM The source of the St. Johns River is a marsh near Fort Pierce, Florida, 312 miles from its mouth near Mayport. The river flows on a generally northward course to Jacksonville and then eastward to the ocean. The topographic drainage area of the St. Johns River is 9,430 square miles, nearly one-sixth of the land area of Florida. From the ocean to Jacksonville, the river ranges in width from about 1,250 feet at Main Street Bridge to more than 2 miles at Mill Cove, and in the reach from Jacksonville to Palatka the width ranges from 1 to 3 miles. From just south of Palatka to Lake George, the river narrows to generally less than half a mile and in one place to only about 600 feet. Lake George, the largest expansion in width (nearly 7 miles) along the entire river, is about 70 square miles in area and normally shows no tidal fluctuation. South of Lake George, the river channel is generally much narrower than to the north, although several large lakes or widenings of the river exist. The shore line of the river north of Palatka is indented by many coves and enlarged mouths of tributaries.

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INFORMATION CIRCULAR NO. 82 9 The Corps of Engineers, U. S. Army, maintains a navigation channel in the river. The channel is 34 feet deep and 400 to 900 feet wide between the ocean and Jacksonville, 13 feet deep and 200 feet wide between Jacksonville and Palatka, 12 feet deep and 100 feet wide between Palatka and Sanford, and 5 feet deep and 100 feet wide between Sanford and Lake Harney. At low water, the flood plain of the St. Johns River contains openwater areas totaling more than 300 square miles. Lake George, Crescent Lake, and the river between Lake George and the ocean occupy about two-thirds of this area. At the mouth of the St. Johns River the tidal range averages 4.9 feet. The ocean tide generates a progressive tidal wave that moves up the river with gradually diminishing amplitude until at Orange Park the range is only 0.7 foot. From Orange Park southward; the amplitude of the wave increases until at Palatka the range is 1.2 feet, the same as that at Main Street Bridge in Jacksonville. From Palatka to Lake George, the amplitude again decreases and becomes practically zero at the outlet of Lake George, 106 miles upstream from the mouth of the river (Haight, 1938). Occasionally, during severe droughts, high tide and northeasterly winds combine to cause upstream flow at the outlet of Lake Monroe 161 miles upstream from the mouth of the river. During the drought in 1945, a river stage of 0.42 foot below mean sea level was recorded south of Lake Harney, 191 miles upstream from the mouth of the river. FACTORS AFFECTING THE RIVER FLOW AND QUALITY The flow of the St. Johns River at Jacksonville is affected by the ocean tide, wind, runoff from the land in the river basin, rainfall, and evapotranspiration. The extent to which these factors can affect the flow is controlled by the channel geometry and available storage capacity upstream from Jacksonville. Therefore, the interaction of these factors cause wide variations in the volume of flow at Jacksonville. Normally, tides are the dominant flow-producing factor at Jacksonville, but winds as strong as those associated with Hurricane Dora in September 1964 can completely offset or significantly accentuate the effect of tide. The factors that affect the flow of the river also affect the chemical characteristics of the water and cause it to range from relatively fresh water to a mixture of fresh and marine water consisting of more than 60 percent sea water.

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10 BUREAU OF GEOLOGY TIDES The gravitational interaction of the earth, moon, and sun cause a vertical motion of the ocean surface, called tide, and a horizontal motion of the water, called tidal current. The amount of vertical motion of the surface is called range of tide, and the limits of the motion are called high water and low water..Tidal heights are referenced by the NOS (National Ocean Survey) (formerly the U. S. Coast and Geodetic Survey) to mean low water, which at Jacksonville is 0.6 foot below mean sea level. In an estuary such as the lower St. Johns River, the current flows both upstream and downstream. The current first increases in one direction from zero velocity (called slack water) to a maximum velocity (called strength of the current), then decreases to slack water. The process is then repeated in the opposite direction. In a progressive tidal wave the time of slack water comes, theoretically, exactly midway between high and low tide. Also, maximum upstream current velocity (flood strength) occurs, theoretically, at high water; and maximum downstream current velocity (ebb strength) occurs, theoretically, at low water (Haight, 1938). The range of tide and strength of current resulting solely from gravitational tide-producing forces are closely but not precisely related. The relation is not precise because forces involving the angular distances of the sun and moon from the equator (declination) affect the range of tide about twice as much as they affect the strength of current. Yearly tables, which give the predicted times of occurrence and heights of high and low tides, are published by the NOS. The NOS also publishes yearly tidal current tables, which give the predicted times of occurrence of slack water, flood strength, and ebb strength and the magnitudes of the flood and ebb strengths. Tables from the tide at Mayport and the tidal current at St. Johns Entrance are included in these publications. The tide tables and tidal current tables published by the NOS for 1954-66 were used extensively in this analysis. THE TIDAL CYCLE A graphic representation of the rise and fall of the tide, in which time is represented by the abscissas and the height of the tide by ordinates, is called a tide curve. A graphic representation of a reversing type of current, in which time is represented by the abscissas and the velocity by the ordinates, is called a current curve. In general, these curves approximate a cosine curve (Schureman, 1963).

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INFORMATION CIRCULAR NO. 82 11 The NOS designates flood velocity (upstream velocity) positive and ebb velocity (downstream velocity) negative so that tide curves and current curves will be in phase. However, designating the signs in this manner results in the average net current -and, therefore the average net discharge -being negative. In this report, upstream flow is considered negative, and downstream flow is considered positive, and therefore, the current and discharge curves are theoretically 180 out of phase with the tide curve. The current or velocity curve and the corresponding discharge curve for a tidal cycle measured August 5, 1955, is shown by figure 6. The tide curve for this tidal cycle is also shown on figure 6, with height of tide given as gage height above a datum 9.99 feet below mean sea level rather than heights above MLW (mean low water), which is the datum used for tide predictions by the NOS. The datum of 9.99 feet below mean sea level is used to avoid negative water-level readings. The tidal cycle measured August 5, 1955, was used to illustrate flow and stage relations because the volumes of flow measured during this tidal cycle more nearly approximate those of an average tidal cycle than any other cycle measured from February 1954 to September 1966. Also, determinations of the chloride concentration in the river at Main Street Bridge were made while this tidal cycle was being measured. The curves in figure 6 show that the actual time relationships of the tidal cycle do not conform to the previously discussed theoretical time relationships for a progressive tidal wave. Instead, the current curves, represented by the point-velocity and discharge curves, lag the tide curve, represented by the gage-height curve, by 20 to 60 minutes.during this particular cycle. RELATION OF CHLORIDE CONCENTRATION TO THE TIDAL CYCLE Curves of the cumulative volume of flow and the variation in the chloride concentration near the bottom of the river at the Main Street Bridge during the tidal cycle measured August 5, 1955, are also shown on figure 6. As shown, the chloride concentration increased with increasing upstream flow volume and reached a maximum when upstream flow stopped. The concentration subsequently decreased as the water stored during upstream flow moved back out during the downstream flow. When the volumes of downstream and upstream flow were equal the chloride concentration was about the same as that at the beginning of upstream flow. Subsequently, the concentration continued to decline because the volume of the downstream flow exceeded that of the upstream flow. Therefore, the curve of the chloride concentration for the ensuing cycle began at a lower base concentration. Had the volume of the downstream flow been less than that of the upstream flow, the ensuing cycle

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12 BUREAU OF GEOLOGY u 6. -Iam ---F...soR n o r*-' i I i ?----i---.... I .. ,' L. V-I -~ 'w""1' showin variations of point velocity, discharge, gage heiht, cumulative flow volume, and chloride concentration with time and gage heights and times of mean tidal levels. would have begun at a higher base chloride concentration. Changing of the base chloride concentrations as a result of unequal volumes during consecutive tidal flows is the cause of the wide variation in the chloride concentration in the river. The chemical characteristics of the lower St. Johns River vary from that of sea water near the ocean to that of the fresh-water input farther inland. Fresh-water input consists of a mixture of rainfall directly into the river, direct runoff from the land, and ground-water inflow. The reach of river in which sea water and fresh water are mixed is called the zone of transition in this report. This zone of transition shifts bodily toward the ocean and thus shortens with each downstream flow. The opposite occurs with each upstream flow. The length and gradient of the zone of transition varies with changes in the general level of the ocean and fresh-water runoff as these factors affect the individual tidal flows. The length of the zone of transition is reduced, and its average gradient is increased by downstream movement of the terrestrial end of the zone, which results from a series of cycles having predominantly excessive downstream flow volumes. After a prolonged period of high fresh-water runoff, 00"TR M LO U00 SPRAM ---downstream flow volumes. After a prolonged period of high fresh-water runoff,

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INFORMATION CIRCULAR NO. 82 13 the zone of transition sometimes becomes so short that the entire zone remains downstream from the Main Street Bridge. During such periods, the chloride concentration at Main Street Bridge is nearly constant at the level of the fresh-water runoff. When the balance between the ocean level and runoff favors upstream flow, the zone of transition lengthens in increments proportional to the excess in volume of the upstream flows over the downstream flows. The terrestrial end of the zone of transition does not migrate upstream as the result of a continuous series of tidal cycles during which all the upstream flows are excessive. Instead, it migrates upstream as the result of a series of cycles, some of which have excessive downstream flows but most of which have excessive upstream flows. Sometimes, especially during droughts, predominance of excessive upstream flows causes the zone of transition to extend a considerable distance upstream from Jacksonville. After each incremental increase in the length of the zone of transition, the river at Main Street Bridge is more saline, and the magnitude of the chloride concentration depends on how far upstream the zone of transition extends. Conceivably, the chloride concentration at Main Street Bridge could approach that of sea water diluted only by local inflow if the entire zone of transition moved upstream from the bridge, but this condition has not been observed. NON-TIDAL FACTORS Although tide exerts the greatest influence on the flow regime of the St. Johns River at Jacksonville, the regime is continually affected by other factors, which are non-tidal in origin. These factors, which include wind, runoff, channel storage, rainfall, and evapotranspiratidn may interact in any number of combinations to superimpose their combined effect on the tidal flow regime. It is thus not possible to distinguish the proportionate effect of the individual factors on a single tidal event. However, the net effect can be shown by comparing characteristics of observed tidal events with those of the theoretical event. Both the time of occurrence and the magnitude of flood and ebb strengths caused by the gravitational tide-producing forces are theoretically fixed and predictable. The predicted times and maximum velocities of the tidal currents at St. Johns River Entrance and at Jacksonville near the Main Street Bridge are published by the NOS. A constant relation exists between the times that maximum velocity occurs at these two sites and also between the maximum velocities attained. The scatter of the points in figure 7A around the line of agreement between predicted and observed data shows the net effect of non-tidal factors on the time of occurrence of maximum velocity in the St. Johns River during 28 tidal cycles for which the actual times of ebb and flood strength were observed. A small part of the departures from the line may be owing to difficulty in determining the exact time of maximum velocity by observation.

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25! -200 180 020 160 0 5" -1 a \ / So g ~ 0 0 15 --a 120o 0 0\ I a S10 -80 0 '00 S60 S§ 60 0 .j 4-6 0 LINE OF SIMULTANEOUS OCCURENCE U20 UPSTREAM DOWNSTREAM 0 5 0 15 20 25 3 2 1 0 1 2 3 PREDICTED TIME OF MAXIMUM VELOCITY, HOURS PREDICTED MAXIMUM VELOCITY, KNOTS AT ST. JOHNS RIVER ENTRANCE Figure 7B. Relation of the observed maximum discharges at Jacksonville to the predicted maximum current veloFigure 7A. Relation of the observed times of occurence cities at St Johns River Entrance during 28 tidal of maximum velocities to the predicted cycles observed in 1954, 1955, 1956, 1963 and times of occurence. Cycles observed in 1954, 1955,1956,1963 and 1964.

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INFORMATION CIRCULAR NO. 82 15 Comparisons of the maximum upstream and downstream discharges at Main Street Bridge with the concurrent predicted maximum velocities at St. Johns River Entrance during the 28 observed tidal cycles are shown on figure 7B. The peak discharges at Main Street Bridge may be compared directly with the current strengths at St. Johns Entrance because the peak discharge is directly proportional to the maximum velocity at Jacksonville (fig. 3), and the maximum velocity at Jacksonville has a fixed relation to the maximum velocity at St. Johns River Entrance. (See annual tidal current tables.) The linear curves, representing unaltered tidal flow, pass through the average maximum upstream and downstream discharges at Main Street Bridge and the average maximum upstream and downstream velocities of St. Johns River Efitrance. The departures from the curves represent the influence of non-tidal factors. WIND In general, winds from the northern quadrants increase the upstream flow and decrease the downstream flow; whereas winds from the southern quadrants have the opposite effect. The greatest effects from winds of comparable speed are those caused by winds blowing from the northeast or southwest. Winds that add energy to the system elsewhere can affect the flow at Jacksonville. As stated earlier, occasionally wind effect is greater than the tidal effect. FRESH-WATER INPUT Fresh water enters the estuary as direct runoff, spring flow and ground-water seepage, and direct rainfall; the total from these sources minus the evapotranspiration from the estuary is the fresh-water input. When the input is positive, that is when evapotranspiration is exceeded by the total of the other elements of input, it tends to increase the duration and volume of downstream flows and to decrease the duration and volume of upstream flows. However, especially during droughts, evapotranspiration sometimes exceeds the total of the other elements of input, and fresh-water input is negative. During such periods, if insufficient water is stored in the estuary to keep its level higher than the level of the ocean, ocean water will flow upstream. When this happens, the duration and volume of the upstream flows tend to be greater than those of the downstream flows and the zone of transition moves upstream relatively fast. The effect of fresh-water inflow to the estuary on the volumes of both the upstream and downstream flows is shown by figure 8. The average volume of the downstream flows during the water years 1955 to 1966 was computed to be 2,076 mcf (million cubic feet) and that of upstream flows 1,806 mcf. Thus, the computed average net (fresh-water) flow, was 270 mcf per tidal cycle in the downstream direction. Had the net, or fresh-water flow, not been superimposed on the tidal flow during this period, the average volume of a tidal flow would have been the average of the computed upstream and downstream volumes or, 1,941 mcf. Thus, the average relation of the computed tidal flow volumes to the computed net fresh-water volumes is as shown by the two linear curves in figure 8.

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16 BUREAU OF GEOLOGY 2,300 S2,200 Ifloo S2,700 -------, O 2,100. t Wo IPKI * U S to Ao 2,000 J MEAN TIDAL FLOW 01,900 .J 0 S1,800oo >' 1,700 O DOWNSTREAM UPSTREAM WATER YEARS 1955-66 ADJUSTED FOR ANNUAL AVERAGE TIDAL RANGE 0 100 200 300 400 500 600 YEARLY AERAGE NET FLOW PER TIDAL CYCLE, MILLIONS OF CUBIC FEET Figmre & Relation of adjusted yearly average downstream and upstream tidal flowper cycle to yearly average net flow per tidal cycle. The data for the individual water years would be expected to plot on these curves if the average range of tide for the individual years were the same as that for the 12-year period. However, the average ranges of tide determined from the tide tables for Mayport were not the same for the individual years. Therefore, the average tidal volumes for the individual years were adjusted to allow for these differences. These adjustments were based on the linear curve of relation shown on figure 9. This curve passes through the average range of tide (4.57 feet) at Mayport and the average volume of tidal flow (1,941 mcf) at Jacksonville. The curve is nearly parallel to the plot of average volume of flow against range of tide shown by the solid circles on figure 9, especially in the

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INFORMATION CIRCULAR NO. 82 17 3,000 1 I I I II AVERAGE VOLUME OF THE TIDAL FLOWS THAT .OCCURED IN 1960,1962 AND 1965 WHEN U2,5 PREDICTED RANGE OF TIDE WAS THAT INDICATED 0* S2,5000 0 MINIMUM YEARLY AVERAGE PREDICTED (n RANGE OF TIDE (1955-66) 0 2,000J 08 MAXIMUM YEARLY *9 AVERAGE PREDICTED -/ RANGE OF TIDE (1955-66) u* S1,500 W 500 LINEAR CURVE THROUGH AVERAGE VOLUME OF TIDAL FLOW (1954-66) AND AVERAGE RANGE OF TIDE 0 I I I I 0 2 3 4 5 6 7 PREDICTED RANGE OF TIDE, FEET Figure 9. Relation of average volume of tidal flow at Jacksonville to range of tide at Mayport. range between the maximum and minimum yearly average predicted ranges of tide from 1955 to 1966. Thus, the difference between values derived from the linear curve of relation and those that would be derived from a curve based on all the data for the 12-year period is considered negligible. The plot of solid circles on figure 9 was obtained by matching each range of tide on rising tide at Mayport with the volume of the ensuing upstream tidal flow at Jacksonville and each range of tide on falling tide with the volume of the ensuing downstream tidal flow at Jacksonville. Thus, each time the range of tide was a specific value, the corresponding volume of tidal flow was listed under that value. The volumes of tidal flow plotted on figure 9 are the averages of these lists of volumes. The linear relation through the average volume of tidal flow and the average range of tide indicates a volume adjustment of 425 mcf per foot of departure of the yearly average range of tide from the 12-year average range of tide. Thus, if the average range of tide during a year were 0.1 foot less than the 12-year average, 42.5 mcf were added to the volumes of tidal flow for that year.

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18 BUREAU OF GEOLOGY The adjusted yearly average volumes of downstream tidal flow are plotted against the corresponding average net flow per tidal cycle on the upper curve, and those of the upstream tidal flows, on the lower curve, in figure 8. The departures from the curves for the 12-year period are probably caused mostly by errors in determining the volumes of tidal flow. The maximum departure is 5.7 percent and the average departure is 2.7 percent. STORAGE Water enters the reach of the St. Johns River estuary that lies between Jacksonville and De Land as downstream flow at De Land, upstream flow at Jacksonville, inflow from the intervening tributaries, ground-water inflow, and rainfall directly onto the estuary. Water leaves this reach of the estuary as upstream flow at De Land, downstream flow at Jacksonville, and evapotranspiration from the estuary. These eight factors can interact in any number of combinations to change the amount of water stored in the estuary. If these factors interact to increase storage, the effect is to decrease the volumes and durations of downstream flows and to increase the volumes and durations of upstream flows at Jacksonville. If they interact to reduce storage, the effect is to increase downstream flows and decrease upstream flows. Most of the time storage in the estuary -and, therefore, the flow at Jacksonville -is affected more by fresh-water inflow and outflow than by rainfall and evapotranspiration. Figure 10 shows for the period of record, March 1, 1954 to September 30, 1966, the average monthly change in storage in the estuary and the estimated average monthly difference in rainfall and evapotranspiration. The average annual variation in sea level is also shown in figure 10 because it has a pronounced effect on the flow at Jacksonville and, therefore the storage in the estuary. Storage changes in the reach of the estuary between De Land and Jacksonville, which are shown by figure 10, were computed as follows: 1. The average discharge at Jacksonville was computed for the entire period of record and for the individual months by subtracting the computed upstream flow from the computed downstream flow. 2. Rainfall and evapotranspiration were assumed equal for the 12-year period, and change in storage over the period relative to the total flow during the period was considered negligible, so that total average inflow equals average discharge at Jacksonville. 3. The average gaged inflow to the estuary upstream from Jacksonville during the 12-year period was computed for the individual months, and the percentage of the total average gaged inflow occurring in each month was determined. 4. The average discharge at Jacksonville was multiplied by the percentage of gaged inflow determined for the individual months to obtain the total average monthly inflow. 5. The average monthly discharges at Jacksonville were subtracted algebraically from the total average monthly inflow to obtain the average monthly change in storage.

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INFORMATION CIRCULAR NO. 82 19 4,000 III a RAINALL N E TUARY w ------i 0. W D, 0 OS CHANGE IN STORAGE IN ESTUARY F u 1.0 .--a---howIn --h\-ontl--vIr -e-han-------------t m AVERAGE ANNUAL VARIATION -wa 0J z o--____ _v_____ ____ ___
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20 BUREAU OF GEOLOGY upstream into the estuary, where it is stored until the level of the estuary becomes higher than the level of the ocean. The tendency for sea water to move upstream, when the amount of water stored in the estuary is low in March and fresh-water inflow is small during the subsequent period of rising sea level, is illustrated by the period March to September 1956. Inflow to the estuary for this period was estimated to be 3,720 cfs. Fresh-water input accounted for 2,160 cfs of this inflow, and upstream flow of sea water accounted for the other 1,560 cfs. Evaporation from the surface of the estuary was estimated to have exceeded rainfall onto the surface during the period by only 300 cfs. This indicates that the long periods of average net upstream flow at Jacksonville result more from the coincidence of low storage in the estuary at the start of the annual general rise in sea level than from an excess in evaporation over rainfall. In fact, May 1962 was the only month during the period March 1954 to September 1966 that the inflow of fresh water was estimated to be less than the excess of evaporation over rainfall. Figure 10 shows, further, that storage in the estuary on the average continues to increase from June through September. Average input is greater than average output during this period because of increasing backwater from rising sea level during much of the period and because average rainfall exceeds average evaporation throughout the period. On the average, fresh-water inflow in July increases so rapidly that storage in the estuary increases despite a small decline in sea level. Figure 10 also shows that from October through March fresh-water input shows a general decline in concert with the annual decline in sea level, which results in the release of the water stored from April through September. On the average, only about three quarters of the water that enters the estuary from April through September is discharged at Jacksonville during that period. The rest is stored and released from October through March. Figure 11 compares average discharge at Jacksonville during each water year with the proportional yearly average inflow to the estuary from 1954 to 1966. The departures of the individual years from the equal-flow line represent the changes in storage in the estuary during the individual water years. The average yearly discharge at Jacksonville was computed by subtracting the upstream flow from the downstream flow for each year. The proportional yearly average inflow was computed by totaling the yearly average discharges at the gaging stations contributing to the estuary, computing the ratio of these totals to the total of the 12-year average discharges at these stations, and multiplying the 12-year average discharge at Jacksonville by these ratios. This procedure presupposes that rainfall on the estuary and evapotranspiration from the estuary

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INFORMATION CIRCULAR NO. 82 21 12,000 1959 1960\ I -^^\ 10,000 1964 1961 1958 8,000 1955 6,000 -O 4,000 1966 1965 2,000 -193 1957 I 1956 1962 0 2,000 4,000 6,000 8,000 10,000 12,000 PROPORTIONAL AVERAGE INFLOW TO ESTUARY, CUBIC FEET PER SECOND Figure 11. Relation of yearly average discharge at Jacksonville to proportional yearly average inflow to the estuary. during the 12-year period were equal and that the change in storage over the 12-year period was insignificant. The years that fall to the right of the equal flow line in figure 11 are those during which storage in the estuary increased, and those that fall to the left are those during which storage decreased. The amount of water in the estuary at the onset of rising sea level in the years to the right was relatively small, and, therefore, much capacity was available for added storage. In fact, the water level in the estuary was so low in each of these years that the net flow at Jacksonville was upstream for at least 1 month. In the years to the left, high water levels at

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22 BUREAU OF GEOLOGY the onset of rising sea level coupled with exceptionally high rates of outflow during the period of falling sea level resulted in decreases in storage comparable to the increases during the years that fall to the right. Parts of the storage changes resulted from the imbalance in the yearly rainfall and evapotranspiration totals, but, as indicated earlier, these imbalances play a minor role in the storage regime. FLOW STATISTICS Flow statistics for the St. Johns River at Jacksonville, based on the records computed for the period March 1, 1954 to September 30, 1966 are given in table 1. This period covers 4,597 days, during which 8,883 tidal cycles occurred. Therefore, the average duration of a tidal cycle during the period was, 0.5175 day, or 12.42 hours. Table 1. Selected flow statistics for the St. Johns River at Jacksonville. Direction of Flow Statistic Downstream Upstream Average discharge, cfs 46,419 40,536 Average net discharge,cfs 5,883 Maximum daily net flow, cfs 87,000 Minimum daily net flow, cfs -51,500 Average volume per tidal 2,075.5 1,812.4 cycle, mcf Average net volume per tidal 263.1 cycle, mcf Maximum volume per tidal 5,280 4,410 cycle, mcf Minimum volume per tidal 0 0 cycle, mcf

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INFORMATION CIRCULAR NO. 82 23 2,000 rT p nMTT.iT"TTff' nlMTTjTTI.TT.TT"t 1Tr ?TTTTnT Y1 tTTT IIr ~ NET FLOW DOWNSTREAM 2,400 2.400 ,-DOWNSTREAM S2,o000o | 0 UPSTREAM-" i' 1,200 S 20 MONTHLY AVERAGE OF MONTHLY MEAN VOLUMES OF UPSTREAM AND A/ DOWNSTREAM FLOW, MILLIONS OF CUBIC FEET 1000 An G 60 AV E MONTHLY MEAN RANGE IN TIDE AT MAYPORT (PREDICTED) -1T U' S -J AVERAGE H lJ L-" J ljAGE U" 00o -4 400 J 1954 1955 1956 105? 19t8 1959 1960 19 1 1962 1 963 1964 196 1966 Figure 12. Hydrographs showing monthly mean flow volumes (graph A), monthly averages of the monthly mean flow volumes (graph B), and monthly mean not flow volumes (graph D) at Jacksonville and monthly mean predicted tidal range (graph C) at Mayport from March 1954 to September 1966. The monthly mean upstream and downstream volumes of flow per tidal event for the period indicated are shown by graph A on figure 12. This graph is the composite of the flow caused by both tidal and non-tidal factors. Graph B on figure 12 shows the averages of the upstream and downstream volumes of flow shown in graph A. These volumes represent the part of the composite flow caused by the tide because non-tidal factors that tend to increase flow in one direction also tend to decrease flow in the other direction, so that averaging the flow in both directions cancels the non-tidal influences. As indicated previously, the flow is approximately proportional to the range of tide, and over the period of a month it is very nearly proportional, as the effects of lunar declination are largely self cancelling. Therefore, the distribution of the values in graph B about the mean value should be similar to the distribution of the monthly average predicted ranges of tide about the mean of the predicted range of tide during the

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24 BUREAU OF GEOLOGY same period as shown by graph C on figure 12. However, a comparison of graphs B and C shows that the distributions about the means are not similar. For example, in October 1958, when the indicated flow caused by tide was the smallest during the period of record, the mean predicted range of tide was 0.9 foot above the average value. Conversely, in January 1964, when the indicated tidal flow was the greatest during the period of record, the mean predicted range of tide was 0.6 foot below the average value. Some of this nonconformity may be caused by errors in the computation of the flow values. Graph D on figure 12 shows the monthly mean net flow per tidal cycle in the St. Johns River at Jacksonville. The monthly mean net volume of flow per tidal cycle for each month is the algebraic difference in the monthly mean volume of downstream flows and the monthly mean volume of upstream flows, shown by graph A, for the corresponding month. The mean net volume of flow per tidal cycle for each month is equal to the average fresh-water inflow into the estuary per tidal cycle, plus the average rainfall on the estuary per tidal cycle, minus the average evapotranspiration from the estuary per tidal cycle, plus or minus the average change in storage per tidal cycle during the month. If the sum of fresh-water inflow and rainfall is greater than evapotranspiration plus or minus the change in storage in a month, the average net flow per tidal cycle will be downstream. If the sum of fresh-water inflow and rainfall is less than evapotranspiration plus or minus the change in storage in a month, the average net flow per tidal cycle will be upstream. The 21 months during which the average net flow was upstream all occurred during the dry season in exceptionally dry years except, possibly, February 1966, which followed the very dry year 1965. During these months, storage in the estuary was relatively small, and this condition coupled with high losses by evapotranspiration permitted more water to flow upstream into the estuary than flowed out. In 1962, the excess of upstream flow was so great that enough sea water entered the estuary to cause the chloride concentration to exceed 2,000 mg/1 (milligrams per liter) at Green Cover Springs, where the chloride concentration is ordinarily less than 400 mg/l. FLOW DISTRIBUTION AND FREQUENCY The distribution of the volumes of tidal flows in the St. Johns River at Main Street Bridge in Jacksonville is shown in figures 13 and 14. The distribution of flow volumes during tidal flows in increments of 100 million cubic feet is shown as percentages of the total number of tidal flows.

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INFORMATION CIRCULAR NO. 82 25 A cumulation of a flow-distribution curve of data for flow occurring continuously in time is called a flow-duration curve. Tidal flow is not continuous in one direction, and, therefore, the duration of flow in any one duration can be described only in terms of percentage of the total number of tidal flows during which the flow was in that direction. The volume of a tidal flow is a function of both the duration of and the average discharge during the tidal flow. The relation between these three parameters is not constant, and, therefore, the volume of an individual tidal flow does not determine its duration. Therefore, in this report, the cumulation of flow-distribution curves. Cumulative flow-distribution curves that show the percentage of the total number of tidal flows during which specific volumes were equaled or exceeded during tidal flows are defined by the open circles on figures 13 and 14. Cumulative flow-distribution curves that show the percentage of the total number of days of record during which specific total daily volumes of downstream or upstream flow were equaled or exceeded are defined by the solid circles in figures 13 and 14. Values for equal percentages in figures 13 and 14 cannot be subtracted to obtain the net flow for that percentage because it is necessary to take the algebraic sum of consecutive downstream and upstream flows to obtain the net flow for a tidal cycle. Figure 15 is a cumulative flow-distribution curve of the daily net flow in the St. Johns River at Main Street Bridge. The curve was computed using the algebraic sum of the daily downstream and upstream volumes of flow. The volumes of downstream and upstream flows are increasingly large in comparison with the net flow volume as the net flow volume approaches zero, and, therefore, the computed net flow volume is subject to increasingly greater percentage error as the net flow volume approaches zero. However, the smooth transition of the cumulative flow distribution curve from positive to negative net flow indicates that, although values for individual days may be grossly erroneous, the errors may be mutually compensating, and the curve may be approximately correct. The average recurrence intervals in months and years of specific monthly and yearly extremes in volumes of tidal flow are shown by figures 16 through 21. The curves are based on data obtained between March 1954 and September 1966. The following discussions of the figures presuppose that conditions during the period of record are representative of long-term conditions. Figure 16 shows the average recurrence intervals in months and years of downstream tidal flow volumes that occur as monthly and yearly maximums. For example, the average recurrence interval of monthly maximum downstream tidal flows of 4,000 mcf or more is 60 months. Likewise, the average recurrence interval of yearly maximum downstream tidal flows of 4,000 mcf or more is 6.7 years.

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26 BUREAU OF GEOLOGY 9 %00 0 1 -II--I -I -I| I[I-I I-II-II -I VOLUME OF DOWNSTREAM FLOW PER DAY 7 C --0 VOLUME OF DOWNSTREAM FLOW PER TIDAL CYCLE I INCREMENT OF VOLUME OF DOWNSTREAM SFLOW PER TIDAL CYCLE 43~ ---J--------------___^2 -__ PERIOD OF RECORD: FEBRUARY 1954 TO SEPTEMBER 1966 0>o I I I I I I I I I I ______I 00O 00501 02 OS 1 2 5 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 95 98 99 99. 99S999 99.99 PERCENTAGE OF ODAYS OR TIDAL CYCLES THAT INDICATED VOLUME OF DOWSTREAM FLOW WAS EQUALED OR EXCEEDED AND PERCENTAGE OF TIDAL CYCLES THAT VOLUME OF DOWNSTREAM FLOW FELL WITHIN INCREMENT INDICATED Figure 13. Flow distribution and cumulative flow-distribution curves for downstream flow at Main Street Bridge. Figure 17 shows the same information for upstream flows that figure 16 shows for downstream flows. For example, the average recurrence interval of monthly maximum upstream tidal flows of 3,400 mcf or more is 60 months. The average recurrence interval of yearly maximum upstream tidal flows of 3,400 mcf or more is 4.2 years. Figure 18 shows the average recurrence intervals in months and years of downstream tidal flow volumes that occur as monthly and yearly minimums. For example, the average recurrence interval of monthly minimum downstream tidal flows of 1,000 mcf or less is 5 months, and the average recurrence interval of yearly minimum downstream tidal flows of 1,000 mcf or less is 1.18 years. Figure 19 shows the same information for upstream flows that figure 18 shows for downstream flows. For example, the average recurrence interval of monthly minimum upstream tidal flows of zero flow is about 86 months, and the average recurrence interval of yearly minimum upstream tidal flows of zero flow is 7.2 years.

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INFORMATION CIRCULAR NO. 82 27 8,000 MAXIMUM DAY 7,000 6,O00 5,000 4,000 3,000 4 ,000 ------------_ -------_ -------_ ------_ ------_ ------_ ------_ -----_ __ L 2,000 0 -I,ooo000 S3,ooo -2,000 -3,000 -4,000 MINIMUM DAY -5,000 PERIOD OF RECORD: FEBRUARY 1954 TO SEPTEMBER 1966 -6,000 -7,000 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 PERCENTAGE OF DAYS NET DOWNSTREAM FLOW EQUALED OR EXCEEDED THAT SHOWN Figure 14. Flow distribution and cumulative flow-distribution curves for upstream flow at Main Street Bridge.

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* VOLUME OF UPSTREAM FLOW PER DAY 56, 0--O__ VOLUME OF UPSTREAM FLOW PER TIDAL CYCLE I INCREMENT OF VOLUME OF UPSTREAM FLOW = L I PER TIDAL CYCLE S4,00 ----0o .**. I. I I S 1 PERIOD OF RECORD: FEBRUARY 1954 TO SEPTEMBER 1966 I 1 I 1 1 1 1 1 1 I I J 0.01 0.050.1 Q2 0.5 2 5 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 95 98 99 99.5 9218 99 9199 PERCENTAGE OF DAYS OR TIDAL CYCLES THAT INDICATED VOLUME OF UPSTREAM FLOW WAS EQUALED OR EXCEEDED AND PERCENTAGE OF TIDAL CYCLES THAT VOLUME OF UPSTEAM FLOW FELL WITHIN INCREMENT INDICATED Figure 15. Cumulative flow-distribution curve of daily net flow of the St. Johns River at Main Street Bridge.

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6,000 6I0 -n ----T T -1 ---III I I II--\ --![ -I I I I I -PERIOD: 1954-66 W "~ HURRICANE DORA 2,000 ---II I --I I I __I RECURRENCE INTERVAL, IN YEARS AND MONTHS Figure 16. Frequency of monthly and annual maximum downstream flows n the St.hns River at Main Street Bride. 2,0001.01 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.5 1.7 2 3 4 5 7 10 20 30 40 50 70 100 RECURRENCE INTERVAL, IN YEARS AND MONTHS Figure 16. Frequency of monthly and annual maximum downstream flows in the St. Johns River at Main Street Bridge.

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0000 5,000 -----I I I I I I I I-rI -rr w PERIOD: 1954-66 SHURRICANE DORA 4,000 RNYEARS NTR"AL' "IN YAS M"~N MONTHS -J ,. 3,000 --, ---'--U. w >J L L --I-1.01 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.5 1.7 2 3 4 5 7 10 20 30 40 50 70 100 200 RECURRENCE INTERVAL, IN YEARS AND MONTHS

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2,.CI000 i i I i I |I1 1 I 2POO C, SS PERIOD: 1954-66 U. J 1,000 MONTHS i. § YEARS (' I "HURRICANE DORA --' z I I I I I I I I I I I II I D 0 1.01 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.5 1.7 2 3 4 5 7 10 20 30 40 50 70 100 200 RECURRENCE INTERVAL, IN YEARS AND MONTHS Figure 18. Frequency of monthly and annual minimum downstream flows in the St. Johns River at Main Street Bridge.

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2,000 -------iTT U. Y PERIOD: 1954-66 U "<^ o .r"""<^/MONTHS g I"0~ ~YEARS '" ,,,., 0 0 3o ,,HURRICANE DORA' 1.01 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.5 1.7 2 3 4 5 7 10 20 30 40 50 70 100 200 RECURRENCE INTERVAL, IN YEARS AND MONTHS Figure 19. Frequency of monthly and annual minimum upstream flows in the St. Johns River at Main Street Bridge.

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9,000 I I I I I I I I I I I PERIOD: 1954-66 ,0HURRICANE DORA ?7,000 Lu U U. U6,000 U I 0 YEARS 5,000 J o 9 MONTHS 4,000 -0 3,000 0 I 1 I I l 1 I .I I I .I I I RECURRENCE INTERVAL, IN YEARS AND MONTHS the St Johns River at Main Street Bridge. -JJ Figure 20. Frequency of monthly and annual maximum daily net flow in the St. Johns River at Main Street Bridge.

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34 BUREAU OF GEOLOGY Figure 20 shows the average recurrence intervals in months and years of daily net flows that occur as monthly and yearly maximums. For example, the average recurrence interval of monthly maximum net flows of 5,000 mcf or more is 120 months, and the average recurrence interval of yearly maximum net flows of 5,000 mcf or more is 10.3 years. Figure 21 shows the average recurrence intervals in months and years of daily net flows that occur as monthly and yearly minimums. For example, the average recurrence interval of monthly minimum net flows of minus 3,000 mcf or less is about 74 months, and the average recurrence interval of yearly minimum net flows of minus 3,000 mcf or less is 6.3 years. The extremes caused by Hurricane Dora do not fit these relations except, possibly, the minimum upstream flow. This is probably because the conditions that caused the extremes are unlikely to occur frequently. The minimum upstream flow, however, is more likely to occur than the other extremes because the conditons required to cause small upstream flows occur much more frequently than the conditions required to cause the other extremes. In fact, the volumes of four upstream flows during the period of record were less than 100 million cubic feet. MAXIMUM PERIODS OF FLOW DEFICIENCY Figure 22 shows the maximum number of consecutive days that the daily net flow was less than specified amounts between October 1954 and September 1966. However, the figure does not indicate how much less than a specific amount the daily net flow was for any specific number of days. The number of consecutive days that the flow remains below a specific volume has no relation to the total amount of net flow during those days. For example, even though the net flow was upstream in excess of 518 million cubic feet per day for 7 consecutive days in both 1963 and 1966, during the 1963 period the average net flow was only 8,660 cfs upstream, whereas during the 1966 period the average net flow was 22,720 cfs upstream. Between March 3 and October 15, 1956, the cumulative net upstream flow was 34 billion cubic feet, an average of 150 million cubic feet per day. Between January 26 and August 14, 1962, the cumulative net upstream flow was 39 billion cubic feet, an average of about 200 million cubic feet per day. Most of this flow was sea water moving in to replace water lost by evaporation or to provide the normal increase in channel storage that results from the annual rise in sea level from March to October. In wet years this water is provided by fresh-water inflow.

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1,000 1 I I I I I I I I I I I I -\ PERIOD: 1954-66 S 0 -j0 -2,000 -"MONTHS -.000 R R I A YEARS N M o 0 -5,000 | __ 1 1 1 | _| ||HURRICANE DORA-fTT' I 1.01 1.1 1.2 1.3 1,5 1.7 2 3 4 5 7 10 20 30 40 50 70 100 200 0 RECURRENCE INTERVAL, IN YEARS AND MONTHS 00 Figure 21. Frequency of monthly and annual minimum daily net flow in the St. Johns River at Main Street Bridge. kA

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U o __0 -0 ----T S,0 0 m 5 2,000 --I -I .......-I I I I I I I I So = z1 2 OO -i o i < -I,000 ---21000 I----I I--------------I 2 3 5 7 10 20 30 50 70 100 200 300 500 1,000 MAXIMUM NUMBER OF CONSECUTIVE DAYS IN WHICH THE DAILY NET FLOW WAS LESS THAN THAT INDICATED Figure 22. Maximum periods of deficient daily net flow in the St. Johns River at Jacksonville.

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INFORMATION CIRCULAR NO. 82 37 CHEMICAL CHARACTERISTICS Variation in the flow of the St. Johns River at Jacksonville is accompanied by variations in the chemical characteristics of the water in the river. Ocean water advances up the lower St. Johns River during each upstream flow and recedes from the river during each downstream flow. While it is in the river, some of the ocean water mixes with fresh water within a zone in which a transition from water having the chemical characteristics of ocean water at its downstream end to water having the chemical characteristics of the fresh water at its upstream end takes place. This zone of transition was discussed in the section of this report on the relation of chloride concentration in the river to the tidal cycle. Reliable estimates of the concentration of dissolved chemical constituents in the St. Johns River can be made quickly and conveniently by use of the curves of relation shown in figure 23 between the concentration of the chemical constituents and the specific conductance of the water in the river (specific conductance is a measure of the ability of water to conduct electricity, and it is reported in micromhos per centimeter at 25 C). Chemical analyses of samples of water from the St. Johns River at Main Street Bridge, obtained from April 1966 through May 1967, are given in table 2. The curves shown in figure 23 are based primarily on the data given in table 2. VARIATIONS IN CHEMICAL CHARACTERISTICS AT MAIN STREET BRIDGE The relation of specific conductance to the concentration of chemical constituents was used in evaluating the variations in chemical characteristics of the St. Johns River at Main Street Bridge. In 1966, an instrument was installed at Main Street Bridge to obtain a continuous record of the specific conductance of the river. The daily maximum specific conductance near the surface of the river recorded by this instrument from October 1, 1966, to April 21, 1967, is shown in figure 24. The extreme variability in chemical quality is indicated by the changes in specific conductance from November 19-28, 1966. The specific conductance increased from about 8,000 micromhos on the 19th to more than 30,000 micromhos on the 23rd and then decreased to about 8,000 micromhos by the 28th. Changes in specific conductance of as much as 12,000 micromhos during a single tidal cycle are common. (See fig. 15).

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38 BUREAU OF GEOLOGY -n S1 1 I I I I I I I 0 .o wU W x_ / / a U 0 U ul az 100 -iILI l I 1 --I 1 -L I I I 10 100 1,000 10,000 CONCENTRATION OF CHEMICAL CONSTITUENT, MILLIGRAMS PER LITER Figure 23. Relation of specific conductance to concentration of major chemical constituents in the St. Johns River at Main Street Bridge. Figr 24. Dal maximum specific conductance near the surface of the St. John River at Main Street Bridge, October 1966 to April 1967. ^* 1 i ;1 ^lW^ TsI t-" 1l a ; \ \ a, 4 u i 31v k ll 1^ ^'

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Table 2. Chemical analyses of the St. Johns River at Jacksonville, Florida -(samples collected at Main Street Bridge). milligrams per liter Dissolved Hardness ^ solids as CaCO3 §0 0 .0 5 4 1 h Date of .= 1966 bApr.26 0.7 0.01 41 26 201 7.3 66 88 359 0.3 0.1 0.00 765 820 210 156 1470 7.3 70 tOct. 5 4.7 .05 1.04 274 2320 84 80 571 4090 .5 2.1 .16 7490 7830 1390 1320 1300 7.0 100 1.8 o b Oct. 5 2.4 .00 138 377 3240 119 84 750 5690 .6 3.3 .20 10400 10500 1900 1830 17500 7.1 80 2.4 tOct. 10 3.6 .05 29 14 95 3.6 64 42 176 .3 .1 .15 396 459 130 78 790 7.0 100 .54 bOct. 10 3.9 .05 28 14 96 3.6 60 43 174 .3 .2 .26 394 462 128 79 790 6.8 100 .54 tNov. 3 4.6 .04 27 10 71 2.6 40 34 136 .3 .2 .11 306 360 109 76 618 6.9 120 .55 bNov. 3 2.6 .13 27 10 72 2.6 78 28 128 .3 .3 .10 310 363 109 45 770 6.8 110 .52 tNov. 16 5.2 .08 211 608 5340 196 85 1240 9470 .9 1.5 .26 17100 18200 3030 2960 28000 7.0 40' 3.5 b Nov. 16 2.5 .05 225 633 5520 200 109 1320 9720 .9 11 .24 17700 18700 3170 3080 30000 7.1 60 3.7 t Nov. 21 4.6 .11 104 263 2310 82 84 563 4090 .6 1.2 .30 7460 7560 1340 1270 12500 7.1 120 1.8 o bNov.21 3.4 .10 131 351 3110 122 112 756 5540 .6 6.3 .22 10100 10600 1770 1680 18000 7.0 100 2.4 tDec. 22 3.4 .12 72 141 1180 46 78 304 2100 .3 1.1 .18 3890 4150 760 696 6700 7.1 100 1.2 1967 t May 10 3.6 .05 215 448 3690 143 95 933 6800 .7 5.7 .32 12300 -2380 2310 20800 6.9 45 4.8 (t) top sample (b) bottom sample

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40 BUREAU OF GEOLOGY -F 2 t13 1 DECEMBER 1966 JANUARY 1967 Figure 25. Cumulative discharge and specific conductance at the end of each tidal flow beginning December 12,1966 and ending January 31, 1967. The specific conductance at the end of each tidal flow and the cumulative discharge at Main Street Bridge is shown by figure 25 for the period December 12, 1966, to January 31, 1967. The scale on the cumulative discharge graph is inverted so that the graphs may be more easily compared. The graphs show that as long as the zone of transition extends upstream from Main Street Bridge the specific conductance of the river at Main Street Bridge decreases with increasing discharge accumulation and increases with decreasing discharge accumulation. Discharge accumulation increases with downstream flow and decreases with upstream flow. The amount of change in the specific conductance of the river is not always the same for a specific change in cumulative discharge because the rate of change in specific conductance is dependent on the gradient of the zone of

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INFORMATION CIRCULAR NO. 82 41 transition. If the zone of transition is entirely downstream from the Main Street Bridge when cumulative downstream flow begins, little or no change in specific conductance occurs at Main Street Bridge as a result of tidal action. The specific conductance would be that of the fresh-water input. Conversely, if enough cumulative upstream flow were to occur, the specific conductance of the river at Main Street Bridge could approximate that of sea water; however, this conditon has not been observed. The specific conductance near the surface of the river also tends to increase during periods of non-accumulating flow because of mixing in of water with higher conductance from greater depth. It follows that the specific conductance at greater depth decreases during such periods. However, this hypothesis has not been verified. From October 1954 to September 1966, the Jacksonville Department of Public Health obtained water-quality data at the Main Street Bridge at about 2-month intervals in each year except 1956. These data were collected throughout a total of 63 complete tidal cycles. The chloride concentration was determined by chemical analysis of samples collected hourly during each of the tidal cycles. Concentrations of sulfate, sodium, hardness and dissolved solids during these cycles were calculated from their relation to the chloride concentration using figure 23. Duration curves of these chemical constituents in the river during the 63 tidal cycles sampled are shown in figure 26. Although in a strict sense the data apply only to the cycles sampled, they are considered fairly representative of the long-term duration because the sampling was done at uniform intervals. However, had continuous data been available for the period, the durations, especially the extremes, probably would differ some from those shown in figure 26. The curves show the percentage of time that the concentration of any of the major constituents is equal to or more than any specified amount. For example, the curve for duration of chloride concentration shows that the chloride concentration equals or exceeds 250 mg/l 82 percent of the time. VARIATIONS IN CHLORIDE CONCENTRATION IN THE LOWER ST. JOHNS RIVER Chloride concentrations in the lower St. Johns River were investigated by measuring the specific conductance of the water in mid-channel at selected points on May 18, October 18, and December 12, 1966. Figure 27 shows the results of these measurements for the reach of the river from 12 to 31 miles upstream from its mouth. The measurements were made near both the bottom and surface of the river at each of the points indicated. On May 18 and October 18, 1966, measurements were made at slack water before both downstream and upstream flow, but. on December 12, 1966, measurements were made at slack water before the downstream flow only. The average daily net flow was 3,120

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42 BUREAU OF GEOLOGY ODissolved Solids ICCCO --Chlond -Sodium To tal CC I Sulft \ \ IC \--^ --OC1 0.001S 02 1 2 5 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 95 98 99 995 998 999 9999 PERCENTAGE OF TIME INDICATED CONCENTRATION WAS EO'IALED OR EXCEEDED Figure 26. Duration curves of major chemical constituents in the St. Johns River at Jacksonville.

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INFORMATION CIRCULAR NO. 82 43 32 1 1 1 1 I I I 28 SLACK WATER BEFORE DOWNSTREAM FLOW --_ SLACK WATER BEFORE UPSTREAM FLOW o 24 BOTTOM OF RIVER 2L V) 0 TOP OF RIVER SBOTTOM AND TOP OF RIVER S20In 0 SDECEMBER 12,1966 0U \ AVERAGE NET FLOW 5,320 CUBIC SWJ Ir FEET PER SECOND UPSTREAM -,..-AVERAGE NET FLOW 3...L \' AVERAGE NET FLOW 3,120 CUBIC 4 9,370 CUBIC FEET PER k ".0... .= FEET PER SECOND UPSTREAM SECOND DOWNSTREAM 'O"/ "" L -I o 120 2 4 6 28 3 DISTANCE UPSTREAM FROM MOUTH OF ST. JOHNS RIVER, STATUTE MILES Figure 27. Longitudinal and vertical variation in specific conductance of the water in the lower St. Johns River from river mile 12 to river mile 31 at slack water on selected days. upstream on December 12. Although the general level of the specific conductance and chloride concentration do not depend wholly on the net flow of the river for any single day but rather on the cumulative flow over many days, the specific conductance was higher on May 18 and December 12, when the net OCTOBflow was upstream, than it was on October 18, when the net flow was1966 downstream. Further, both the specific conductance and the rate of increase in AVERAGEspecific conductance with river mileage were higher on December FLOW 312, when theCUBIC average net flow was 5,320 fs upstream, than on May 18, when the average net ,SECOND DOWNSTREAM flow was only 3,120 fs upstream. Also, at slack water before downstream flow DISTANCE UPSTREAM FROM MOUTH OF ST. JOHNS RIVER, STATUTE MILES Figuon October 18, theand vertical variation in specific conductance near the surface was lower at river miles 12.2 and 15 than at some points farther upstream. This was pro caused by high fresh-water inflow to the lower St. Johns River from Trout River mile 12 to riverother nearby tributaries, as indicated by high discharges recorded on nearby Ortega River. At slack water before upstream on May 18, 9,370 cfs downstream on October 18, virtually fresh water upwas observed as far downstream as the mouth of Trout Rivel of the specific conductance and chloride concentration do not depend wholly on the net flow of the river for any single day but rather on the cumulative flow over many days, the specific conductance was higher on May 18 and December 12, when the net flow was upstream, than it was on October 18, when the net flow was downstream. Further, both the specific conductance and the rate of increase in specific conductance with river mileage were higher on December 12, when the average net flow was 5,320 cfs upstream, than on May 18, when the average net flow was only 3,120 cfs upstream. Also, at slack water before downstream flow on October 18, the specific conductance near the surface was lower at river miles 12.2 and 15 than at some'points farther upstream. This was pro caused by high ftesh-water inflow to the St. Johns River from Trout River and other nearby tributaries, as indicated by high discharges recorded on nearby Ortega River. At slack water before upstream flow on October 18, virtually fresh water was observed as far downstream as the mouth of Trout River.

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44 BUREAU OF GEOLOGY A vertical gradient in chloride concentration tends to exist in estuaries such as the St. Johns River because the lighter fresh water tends to override the denser sea water. In a straight and uniform river channel, sea water enters and recedes from the channel as a wedge of salt water between the river bottom and the overlying fresh water and mixing is caused primarily by turbulence at the salt-water-fresh-water interface. However, the channel of the St. Johns River is neither straight nor uniform. Instead, it bends and varies in both width and depth, so that a well defined interface between salt water and fresh water does not exist in the river in the Jacksonville area. Thus, the river either has no vertical gradient in chloride concentration or has a uniform increase in chloride concentration with depth. The change with time in specific conductance, which is indicative of the chloride concentrations near the surface and the bottom of the river, is shown in figure 28 for four of the points measured May 18, 1966. The amount of vertical variation in specific conductance is indicated by the shaded areas. The data show that vertical variation in specific conductance increases with distance downstream from the river constriction and bridge piers near Main Street Bridge (river mile 21) but changes little with distance upstream from the constriction. This indicates that the vertical variation in chloride concentration, which tends to decrease gradually between the ocean and Main Street Bridge during upstream flows, is almost eliminated by the turbulence and eddies created by the constriction and bridge piers. At the beginning of the measurement period (figure 28), flow was upstream, and the major change in the vertical variation in chloride concentration took place between Commodore Point and Acosta Bridge, showing the great effect of the constriction and piers on the vertical variation in chloride concentration. Near the end of the measurement period, however, the major change in the vertical variation in chloride concentration took place between Commodore Point and Dredge Depot. By this time, the flow had been downstream for more than 6 hours and then upstream for about 2 hours, and the shift in the reach of major change in variation represents the displacement of the zone of transition by the downstream flow. The greater vertical variation in chloride concentration at Dredge Depot at the end of the measurement period than at the beginning is probably related to the tendency for sea water to flow upstream beneath the fresh water late in the downstream part of the tidal cycle. This results in greater vertical variation in chloride concentration in the early stages than in later stages of the upstream part of the cycle. Data from the survey shown in figure 27 and from pollution surveys by the Jacksonville Department of Public Health indicate that there is no fixed relation between chloride concentrations at different sampling points along the river. However, a fair relation was indicated between the maximum chloride

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INFORMATION CIRCULAR NO. 82 45 cn 16 1 1 11 I -I -I I 0 I. CORPS OF ENGINEERS DREDGE DEPOT, MILE 170 S Z -_ 'Th^ 2. COMMODODORE POINT, MILE 2u.0_ j BOTTOM-----' 3. ACOSTA BRIDGE, MILE 22.4 u l 121. POINT LA VISTA, MILE 26.5 (nw Z 0 -TOP-I -B2. Uw Z W z 4TOP0 w MAY 18, 1966 u) I I I I I I I I I I 0800 0900 1000 1100 1200 1300 1400 1500 1600 1700 1800 1900 HOURS Figure 28. Variations with time in the specific conductance of the St. Johns River near the surface and bottom at selected points in the Jacksonville area. concentrations at different sampling points at slack before the downstream flow of common tidal cycles. Figure 29 shows the relation between the maximum chloride concentration at the Main Street Bridge and those upstream at Orange Park and downstream at Drummond Point for the same tidal cycle. The figure shows that, with increasing chloride concentration at Main Street Bridge, the chloride concentration at Orange Park at first increases less rapidly but later on increases more rapidly than at Main Street Bridge. The opposite relation prevails between the chloride concentrations at Drummond Point and Main Street Bridge. The maximum chloride concentration observed at the Main Street Bridge from October 1954 to October 1966 was 12,700 mg/1 on February 12, 1962. Extrapolation of the relation in figure 29 indicates that the maximum chloride concentrations at Orange Park and Drummond Point on February 12, 1962, may have been about 10,000 and 17,000 mg/1, respectively. The longitudinal variation in the chloride concentration at slack water before the downstream flows of common tidal cycles in the St. Johns River 'between its mouth and Palatka, which would be exceeded as the daily maximum less than 7 percent of the days, is shown in figure 30. The longitudinal variation

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46 BUREAU OF GEOLOGY 2 I / / -,/ t0 I O o S 2 3 4 6 7 8 9 10 II 12 1 14 15 16 IT OND POINT THOUSANDS OF LLIRAS PER O LITE INT 42 2 0 FO 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 II 12 13 14 15 16 17 Is MAXIMUM CHLORIDE CONCENTRATION AT ORANGE PARK AND DRUMMOND POINT. THOUSANDS OF MILLIGRAMS PER LITER Figure 29. Relation of maximum chloride concentration at Main Street Bridge to maximum chloride concentration at Orange Park and Drummond Point at slack before the downstream flow of common tidal cycles. in chloride concentration which would be exceeded as the daily maximum 50 percent of the days is similarly shown for the reach between Drummond Point and Orange Park. The chloride concentrations for all points shown in the figure other than at Main Street Bridge were derived from relations like those shown in Figure 29. SEASONAL VARIATION IN FLOW AND CHLORIDE CONCENTRATION The average monthly mean tidal flow at Jacksonville during the period of record from March, 1954, to September, 1966, should be about the same for every month. Thus, there should be no seasonal variation in the tide induced flow. This is because the tidal flow is approximately proportional to the range of tide (Haight, 1938) and the monthly mean ranges of tide as determined from the tide tables for the period of record were almost the same for every month. The difference between the highest and lowest monthly mean range of tide was 0.027 foot. The record shows a difference of 235 mcf between the highest and lowest monthly mean tidal flow which ranged from 7.4 less than to 4.7 percent more than the mean tidal flow.

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20CONDITION A CHLORIDE CONCENTRATION WHICH WOULD BE EXCEEDED LESS THAN 7 PERCENT OF THE DAYS AS THE DAILY MAXIMUM 18 z" z CONDITION B CHLORIDE CONCENTRATION WHICH WOULD W 1o0 BE EXCEEDED 50 PERCENT OF THE DAYS S16-W AS THE DAILY MAXIMUM W 0 a-14 -\ § W2 V--1' \0 p, -: ( 0 ZIr 42ONDONB CONDITION A < 0 4 8 12 16 20 24 28 32 36 40 44 48 52 56 60 64 68 72 76 80 APPROXIMATE DISTANCE UPSTREAM FROM ST. JOHNS RIVER ENTRANCE, STATUTE MILES Figure 30. Approximate longitudinal variation in the daily maximum chloride concentration which will be exceeded less than 7 percent of the days and 50 percent of the days in the lower St. Johns River.

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48 BUREAU OF GEOLOGY Because, as indicated by the foregoing discussion, all average monthly mean tidal flows should be almost the same, any seasonal variation in the flow of the river is manifested by the net flow. Determination of the net flow of the river can be no more accurate than that of the tidal flow and on a percentage basis, it must be considerably poorer. This is especially true for periods when the net flow is small. The inaccuracy of the record is indicated by the computed average net flow of only 5,883 cfs whereas the average net flow based on the gaged inflow and estimated inflow from ungaged areas is about 8,100 cfs. Nevertheless, the average and extreme monthly mean discharges based on the records for the river at Jacksonville are shown by figure 31. The distribution pattern, if not the values, is probably valid as is the departure from average conditions indicated by the extremes. Figure 31 shows the seasonal net flow regime of the St. Johns River at Jacksonville to consist of four periods, which result from the interplay of the rainy season from June through October, the dry season from November through May, the period of increasing storage from April through September, and the period of decreasing storage from October through March. The four periods are that of low net discharge in May and June, that of increasing net discharge from July through September, that of high net discharge from October through January, and that of decreasing net discharge from February through April. Some insight into the seasonal variation in chloride concentration was obtained from the bimonthly chloride data collected by the Jacksonville Department of Public Health. A generalized comparison between the average of extremes in chloride concentration and average net outflow at Jacksonville for the same months is shown in figure 32. As would be expected, there is an inverse relation between chloride concentration and net discharge. The range between the average maximum and average minimum chloride concentration at Jacksonville is greatest when net outflow is low because the gradient of the zone of transition is steeper at Jacksonville under these conditions than when net outflow is high. That is, low net outflow places Main Street Bridge closer to the sea-water end of the zone of transition, where the gradient is steep; whereas, high net outflow places Main Street Bridge near the fresh-water end of the zone, where the gradient is gentle. TEMPERATURE In 1966, about 180 million gallons of water per day was withdrawn from aquifers in the Jacksonville area (Leve, 1969). Perhaps 30 to 50 mgd (million gallons per day) of this water was used for cooling in various processes. If

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INFORMATION CIRCULAR NO. 82 49 22 20 18 S16 z o o .6 NAVRG 0 14 -_ -` ^ H IGHEST Q 12 aUJ LL 10 D u-) -6 --__ -8 -__ ---(n '6 AVERAGE \ z _X nU 4 0 2 S-2 w Z -4-6-8 -10 JAN. FEB. MAR. APR. MAY JUNE JULY AUG. SEPT. OCT NOV. DEC. Figure 31. Graphs showing the highest, lowest, and average monthly mean net discharge of the St. Johns River at Jacksonville.

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50 BUREAU OF GEOLOGY N NOTE: CHLORIDE DATA AVAILABLE IN FEB., APR., -' JUNE, AUG., OCT, AND DEC. ONLY o Z W 0. a S AVERAGE MAXIMUM CHLORIDE CONCENTRATION S\ I I I(n SF / AVERAGE NET FLOW 0 r 3 ^4-r 0 __ 3 AVERAGE MINIMUM CHLORIDE CONCENTRATION I I I I I I I__ ______ JAN. FEB. MAR. APR. MAY JUNE JULY AUG SEPT. OCT. NOV. DEC. Figure 32. Graphs showing the average net flow and the average maximum and minimum chloride concentrations in the St. Johns River at Jacksonville for alternate months. Flow records and chloride records June 1959 to October 1966. surface-water sources such as the St. Johns River could be substituted for ground-water sources to provide this cooling water, all the projected increase in water demand from 1966 to 1980 could be met without increasing the rate of withdrawal of water from the aquifers. Water-temperature measurements of the St. Johns River taken at random over a period of several years and temperature of ground water at different depths in the area are protrayed by figure 33. Water tempatures in the artesian

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INFORMATION CIRCULAR NO. 82 51 355 1 1 1 1 1 1,195 -90 -J GROUND WATER -------I -WELLS GREATER THAN 1,000 FEET DEEP -------------ROUND No W 2 -WELLS 800 TO 1,000 FEET DEEP --/-----------\GROUNDWATER -WELLS 500 TO 800 FEET DEEP ---GROUND WTER 75 0 w 0o 4 TO Z 1W 20 I\ Figure 33. Approximate average daily water temperatures of the S\ Johns 6 65 2 1 55 JAN FEB. MAR APR. MAY JUNE JULY AUG. SEPT OCT NOV. DEC. Figure 33. Approximate average daily water temperatures of the St. Johns River at Main Street Bridge and ground-water at specified depths. aquifer in the area are nearly constant but increase with depth. The temperature of water from wells 500 to 800 feet deep averages about 24 C (75 OF) and that of water from wells greater than 1,000 feet deep about 27 C (81 OF). Figure 33 shows that the water in the St. Johns River has a lower temperature, and, therefore, a greater cooling capacity than any water from the artesian aquifer from November through April. In January and February, the temperature of the river water averages less than 15 C (59 F). The temperature of the river water is higher than that of all water now being withdrawn from the artesian aquifer only from June through mid September when the temperature of the river water averages more than 28 C (82 OF). Thus, use of ground water in the Jacksonville area could be reduced if installations now perennially using ground water for cooling were to use river water from November through April, with the realization of some gain in efficiency of the installations. RELATION OF FLOW AND QUALITY CHARACTERISTICS TO USE OF THE RIVER Most uses of the St. Johns River at Jacksonville depend on the chemical and biological quality of the river. The water quality of the river is controlled by the flow of the river. The flow characteristics of the river are such that the river at Jacksonville can become saline, as a result of upstream flow, or severely

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52 BUREAU OF GEOLOGY polluted with wastes as a result of low net flow. High chloride concentrations restrict use of the river for public water supply and industrial processes. High concentrations of wastes in the river, which can persist after the resumption of net upstream or downstream flow, adversely affect the esthetic and recreational value of the river. SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS The St. Johns River drains about one-sixth of the State of Florida and in its lower reaches is a tidal estuary in which about 1 in every 10 gallons of water that drains from Florida passes beneath the Main Street Bridge at Jacksonville. Daily tidal effects are evident as far upstream as Lake George, and, during droughts, the higher tides aided by northeasterly winds sometimes cause tidal fluctuations as far upstream as Lake Monroe. River levels below mean sea level have been observed near the southern end of Lake Harney. The tide generates progressive tidal waves, which move up the river in cycles accompanied by tidal currents. When the tide at Jacksonville is about midrange, the current is slack. When the tide rises above about midrange, the current sets inland as upstream flow and reaches a maximum velocity at near high tide. When the tide falls below about midrange, the current sets seaward as downstream flow and reaches a maximum velocity at about low tide. Slack water does not occur at exactly midrange nor do the maximum velocities occur at exactly high and low tides. Instead, the tidal currents slightly lag the tides because of inertia and channel friction. The main variable factors controlling the amounts of water flowing back and forth at Jacksonville are the height of the tides, the tidal range, and wind. The height of the tides varies annually and over even longer periods. The tidal range varies more rapidly, reaching a maximum and a minimum once in each lunar month. Both the tidal height and range are uniformly periodic in response to gravitational forces. The effect of wind on the flow of the St. Johns River at Jacksonville ranges from none at all to more than that of the tide. Tidal and wind effects can work in concert or in opposition and thereby increase the variation in their net effect on the flow. The long-term effect of both tide and wind on the net downstream flow at Jacksonville is negligible, although, when evapotranspiration exceeds fresh-water input, tidal effect causes a small net upstream flow, which eventually is approximately offset by rainfall on the estuary.

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INFORMATION CIRCULAR NO. 82 53 Fresh-water input affects the tidal flow appreciably during very wet periods, but it is unlikely that its effect is ever sufficient to offset even the lesser tidal effects. When fresh-water input is equal to or less than evapotranspiration from the estuary, it cannot cause net downstream flow at Jacksonville. The average net or fresh-water flow at Jacksonville is about 14 percent of the average tide-induced flow. Volumes of flow induced by tide average 1,944 mcf and range from about 1,250 mcf to about 2,750 mcf per tidal event. Average fresh-water flow computed from the flow records is 264 mcf per tidal cycle. The maximum effect of fresh-water flow and wind on tidal flow cannot be determined, but their minimum effect is zero. Evapotranspiration from the river surface exceeds the sum of the rainfall on the river and the fresh-water inflow to the river during some droughts. When these conditions prevail at a time when storage in the estuary is low, they may work in concert with the annual rise in sea level to cause a cumulative net inflow of as much as 40 billion cubic feet of sea water over a period of months. The river becomes salty for many miles upstream from Jacksonville when this happens. Frequency analysis of the flow records indicate that extremes in flow volume such as those caused by Hurricane Dora in September 1964 are rare, except for the minimum upstream flow volume, which was zero. The analysis indicates that the minimum upstream flow will be zero on an average of once in 7 years, whereas occurrences of the maximum and minimum downstream flow volumes of record and the maximum upstream flow volume of record are much less frequent. The average seasonal flow regime of the St. Johns River can be divided into four periods, that of low net outflow in May and June, that of increasing net outflow from July through September, that of high net outflow from October through January, and that of decreasing net outflow from February through April. Wide departures from the average seasonal net flow regime can and often do occur as a result of abnormal rainfall. The seasonal variation in chemical quality on the St. Johns River, as indicated by the chloride concentration in the water, is inversely related to the seasonal net outflow. The chloride concentration is generally lowest and varies the least as a result of tidal flow during the high net-flow period and is generally highest and varies the most as a result of tidal flow during the low net-flow period. The chloride concentration in the river generally increases during the period of decreasing flow and decreases during the period of increasing flow.

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54 BUREAU OF GEOLOGY The quality and chemical composition of water in the St. Johns River is highly variable in the vicinity of Jacksonville. The chloride concentration may increase or decrease more than fourfold in a matter of a few hours and more than tenfold in several days. Variations in quality are controlled by the flow characteristics of the river. Chloride concentration in the river sometimes shows considerable vertical variation, which seems to be greatest at the time the river begins to flow downstream. There is some correlation between maximum chloride concentrations at Main Street Bridge and at other points on the river. From November to April, water in the St. Johns River is cooler than ground-water at any depth, and, from October to May, river water is cooler than ground water at depths greater than 1,000 feet. Use of river water for industrial cooling would reduce the demand for ground-water supplies. The flow and chemical characteristics of the St. Johns River at Jacksonville are dominated by tide, on a tide-to-tide, monthly, and annual basis. Fresh-water drainage from the river basin is the only factor that has a significant cumulative long-term effect on the flow of the river, all other factors, which include wind, rainfall, and evapotranspiration along with tide, are virtually self cancelling and have no cumulative effect on the flow of the river. The seasonal and short-term interaction of the factors that affect the flow of river are greatly modified by the availability of huge storage capacity in the tidal estuary upstream from Jacksonville. The chemical characteristics and esthetic condition of the river are controlled by the flow characteristics of the river, which cause high concentrations of chemical constituents to occur at Jacksonville as a result of excessive upstream flow and, possibly, high concentrations of wastes in the river as a result of periods of little or no net river movement. CONTINUING AND FUTURE STUDIES One of the concerns for the future of the St. Johns River is the potential for pollution from industrial and domestic wastes. In addition to knowledge about the flow and chemical and temperature variations in the river, knowledge about the variations in dissolved oxygen, coliform populations, and eddy and turbulence regimes is essential in attaching the problems of pollution evaluation and control. Further, knowledge of the movements of the water and its contents, both areally and chronologically, is necessary to determine where wastes enter the river at Jacksonville, where they subsequently go, and how long they reside at a particular locale;

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INFORMATION CIRCULAR NO. 82 55 To help meet the need for information, continuous records of the stage, flow, conductivity, dissolved oxygen content, temperature, and pH of the river are being collected. Study of the tidal parts of tributaries to the St. Johns River in and near Jacksonville by the U. S. Geological Survey show that very poor quality conditions sometimes exist in the tributaries. However, more definitive studies of the water quality in the tributaries are needed to determine the magnitude and duration of this problem.

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56 BUREAU OF GEOLOGY

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57 INFORMATION CIRCULAR NO. 82 REFERENCES Haight, F. J. 1938 Currents in the St. Johns River, Savannah River and intervening waterways: U. S. Department of Commerce, Coast and Geodetic Survey Spec. Pub. No. 211. Keighton, W. B. 1965 Fresh-water discharge -salinity relations in the tidal Delaware River: U. S. Geol. Survey Open-File report. Leve, G. W. 1969 (and Goolsby, D.A.) Production and utilization of water in the metropolitan area of Jacksonville, Florida: Florida Board of Conservation, Division of Geol. Inf. Circ. 58. Marmer, H. A. 1951 Tidal datum planes: U. S. Department of Commerce, Coast and Geodetic Survey Spec. Pub. No. 135. Pillsbury, G. B. 1939 Tidal hydraulics: War Department, Corps of Engineers, U. S. Army, Prof. Paper of the Corps of Engineers No. 34. Pyatt, E. E. 1964 On determining pollutant distribution in tidal estuaries: U. S. Geol. Survey Water-Supply Paper 1586-F. Schureman, Paul 1941 Manual of harmonic analysis and prediction of tides: U. S. Department of Commerce, Coast and Geodetic Survey Spec. Pub. No. 98. 1963 Tide and current glossary: U. S. Department of Commerce, Coast and Geodetic Survey Spec. Pub. No. 228. Snell, L. J. 1970 (and Anderson, Warren) Water resources of northeast Flordia (St. Johns River and adjacent coastal areas): Florida Department of Natural Resources, Bureau of Geol. Rept. Inv. 54. U. S. Department of Commerce, Coast and Geodetic Survey 1954-66 Tide tables, east coast of North and South America, including Greenland. 1954-66 Tidal current tables, Atlantic Coast of North America. U. S. Geological Survey 1958-60 Surface water supply of the United States, Part 2-B: U. S. Geol. Survey Water-Supply Papers 1554, 1624, 1704. 1961-64 Surface water records of Florida: V. 1 streams. 1965-66 Water resources data for Florida, part 1, surface water records.