Citation
Saline-water intrusion from deep artesian sources in the McGregor Isles area of Lee County, Florida ( FGS: Information circular 75 )

Material Information

Title:
Saline-water intrusion from deep artesian sources in the McGregor Isles area of Lee County, Florida ( FGS: Information circular 75 )
Series Title:
FGS: Information circular
Creator:
Sproul, Charles R
Boggess, Durward H. ( joint author )
Woodard, H. J. ( joint author )
Geological Survey (U.S.)
Florida -- Dept. of Natural Resources
Place of Publication:
Tallahassee
Publisher:
State of Florida, Bureau of Geology
Publication Date:
Language:
English
Physical Description:
iv, 30 p. : illus., maps. ; 22 cm.

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Saltwater encroachment -- Florida -- Lee Co ( lcsh )
Florida -- Lee County ( fast )
Town of Suwannee ( local )
Lee County ( local )
City of Tallahassee ( local )
Aquifers ( jstor )
Saltwater ( jstor )
Water wells ( jstor )
Chlorides ( jstor )
Water quality ( jstor )
Genre:
bibliography ( marcgt )
non-fiction ( marcgt )

Notes

Bibliography:
Bibliography: p. 30.
General Note:
"Prepared by the United States Geological Survey and the Florida Department of Natural Resources in cooperation with the County Commissioners of Lee County."
Funding:
Digitized as a collaborative project with the Florida Geological Survey, Florida Department of Environmental Protection.
Statement of Responsibility:
by C. R. Sproul, D. H. Boggess [and] H. J. Woodard.

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Holding Location:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
The author dedicated the work to the public domain by waiving all of his or her rights to the work worldwide under copyright law and all related or neighboring legal rights he or she had in the work, to the extent allowable by law.
Resource Identifier:
00699497 ( OCLC )
AED9066 ( notis )
73621260 ( lccn )
029049183 ( ALEPH )

Downloads

This item has the following downloads:


Full Text
STATE OF FLORIDA DEPARTMENT OF NATURAL RESOURCES
Randolph Hodges, Executive Director
DIVISION OF INTERIOR RESOURCES Robert O. Vernon, Director
BUREAU OF GEOLOGY
Charles W. Hendry, Jr., Chief
Information Circular No. 75
SALINE-WATER INTRUSION
FROM DEEP ARTESIAN SOURCES IN THE
McGREGOR ISLES AREA OF LEE COUNTY, FLORIDA
By
C. R. Sproul
Formerly with the Florida Department of Natural Resources Bureau of Geology
D. H. Boggess
U.S. Geological Survey
H. J. Woodard Florida Department of Natural Resources Bureau of Water Resources
Prepared by the
UNITED STATES GEOLOGICAL SURVEY and the
FLORIDA DEPARTMENT OF NATURAL RESOURCES in cooperation with the
COUNTY COMMISSIONERS OF LEE COUNTY
TALLAHASSEE 1972




Completed manuscript received
February 1, 1972
Printed for the Florida Department of Natural Resources
Division of Interior Resources
Bureau of Geology
by Rose Printing Company
Tallahassee, Florida
Tallahassee 1972
11




CONTENTS
Page
Abstract................................. ... ...... .. 1
Introduction ...................... ........ ......... 1
Purpose and Scope ..................... . .. .. .......... 2
Acknowledgements ...................... . .......... 3
Description of the area ........... .. . ............ 3
Well numbering system ....................... ... ........... 3
Description of aquifers . . . . . .... ..... ..................... 6
Water-table aquifer ............................ ......... 6
Sandstone aquifer ............................... ............8
Upper Hawthorn aquifer ... .................... ............. 8
Lower Hawthorn aquifer .. .............. .. ...... ......... 9
Suwannee aquifer ........................... ........... 10
Deeper aquifers .................... . .. ........... 11
Evidence of faulting ...... ....... .............................. 12
Water quality and the effects of saline water intrusion . . . . . . . . . 12
Lower Hawthorn aquifer ............. .................... 15
Upper Hawthorn aquifer ............. .. . ........... 19
Other aquifers ..................... ...... .......... 20
Mechanics of intrusion . . ......... ............................ 24
Control procedures ........................ ............... 26
Summary and conclusions .......... . . . . . . . . . . 27
References .... ............................... .. ........... 30
ILLUSTRATIONS
Figure Page 1 Map of Lee County showing the location of the McGregor Isles area .......... 4
2 Map showing the location of wells .. . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
3 Geologic column showing lithology, aquifers, and typical gamma ray log of
formations underlying McGregor Isles ... . . . . . . . . . 7
4 Geologic section showing faults based on interpretations of gamma ray logs . . 13
5 Map of McGregor Isles showing the approximate location of faults . . . . 14
6a Map of McGregor Isles showing the extent of saline water intrusion into the lower
Hawthorn aquifer ....................... .............. 17
6b Map showing the effects of intrusion on water temperatures in the lower
Hawthorn aquifer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
7 Graph showing changes in chloride content of water from the lower Hawthorn
aquifer, 1946-1968 ..................................... 19
111




8 Map showing the chloride content of water from wells in McGregor Isles,
1967-1969 ..... .................. .. . ....... .......... 21
9 Graph showing changes in chloride content of water from well 17-1 on April 15,
1969 ............................... .... .. ... ......... 23
TABLES
Table Page I Record of wells in the McGregor Isles area . . . . . . . . At end of report
2 Chemical analyses of water from wells in McGregor Isles and at Hot
Springs............ .... ...... ........... At end of report
3 Comparison of the arithmetic mean of chemical constituents for
wells 22-1 and Hot Springs, with the chemical analysis for well 16-7 . . . . 15
iv




SALINE-WATER INTRUSION FROM DEEP ARTESIAN SOURCES IN THE McGREGOR ISLES AREA OF LEE COUNTY, FLORIDA
By
C. R. Sproul1, D. H. Boggess2, and H. J. Woodard3
ABSTRACT
Upward leakage of saline water from an artesian aquifer below 1,500 feet has caused an increase in chloride concentration in the lower Hawthorn aquifer from less than 1,000 mg/1 (milligrams per liter) to values ranging from about 1,300 to 15,000 mg/1. Similarly the higher temperatures of the intruding water has caused an increase in water temperatures in the aquifer from 82F to values ranging from 83 to 93"F. The intruding water moves upward either through the open bore hole of deep wells or test holes, or along a fault or fracture system, which has been identified in the area. From these points of entry into the lower Hawthorn aquifer, the saline water spreads laterally toward the south and southeast, but is generally confined to components of the fault system.
The saline water moves upward from the lower Hawthorn aquifer into the upper Hawthorn aquifer through the open bore hole of wells, which connect the aquifers. This movement has resulted in an increase in chloride from less than 200 mg/1 in the unaffected parts of the upper Hawthorn aquifer to values commonly ranging from about 300 to more than 3,000 mg/1 in parts of the aquifer affected by upward leakage. The upper Hawthorn aquifer is the principal source of ground-water supply for public water-supply systems in western Lee County.
Similar effects have been noted in the water-table aquifer, where chloride increased from less than 100 to concentrations ranging from about 500 to more than 5,000 mg/1. This was caused by the downward infiltration of water discharged at land surface from wells tapping the lower Hawthorn aquifer.
The spread of saline water throughout most of the McGregor Isles area is continuing as of 1971.
INTRODUCTION
Nearly all of southwest Florida is underlain at shallow depths by permeable
1Formerly with the Florida Dept. of Natural Resources, Bureau of Geology 2U.S. Geological Survey
3Florida Dept. of Natural Resources, Bureau of Water Resources and Conservation
I




2 BUREAU OF GEOLOGY
strata which are sources of water supply for domestic, municipal, agricultural, and industrial purposes. Strata at greater depths, although equally permeable contain highly mineralized water under artesian pressure high enough that a head difference exists between the deeper and shallower aquifers. Because the deeper aquifers are normally under higher artesian pressure, the existence of any path or conduit of high permeability between the two will result in upward movement of more highly mineralized water into the overlying aquifers. Under natural conditions, the water in these different formations is in a state equilibrium and is prevented from intermixing by relatively impermeable beds which separate them. Lowering of the artesian pressure in the shallower aquifers by pumping increases the difference in head between the aquifers.
Water from the deeper strata can then move upward into the shallow strata in at least two different ways. First, penetration of the impermeable beds by drilling, whereby both the shallow and deeper strata are interconnected through the open well bore, will allow the movement of water from the deeper strata (under higher artesian pressure) into the shallow strata (under lower pressure). Second, the existence of faults, extending downward at least through the Ocala group1, can provide a conduit through which the saline water can move upward. Both these possibilities will be explored later in the report.
PURPOSE AND SCOPE
The problems of saline water movement into the shallow aquifers by upward leakage from deep artesian sources is of considerable magnitude in Lee County, where an estimated 2,500-3,000 deep artesian wells and test holes have been drilled. The purpose of this report is to present the results of an analysis of available geologic and hydrologic data for a small area in Lee County where saline water from deep artesian sources has moved upward into several different aquifers.
From an analysis of the available data, the authors attempt to define not only the source of the highly mineralized water, but also to describe the mechanism through which upward leakage occurs and the effects of intrusion on water quality in each of the aquifers underlying the area. The effects of upward leakage of saline water through the open bore hole of existing wells connecting aquifers at depths of less than 300 feet and those which occur to depths of about 1,000 feet is evident from the data presented herein and from similar studies conducted in other parts of Lee County. However, the mechanism responsible for upward leakage of saline water from an artesian aquifer below 1,500 feet into the aquifers between 400 and 1,000 feet is not well known and can only be surmised from the available data. That such leakage does occur is evident from the information presented herein.
1 The nomenclature used in this report conforms to that of the Bureau of Geology, Florida Division of Interior Resources, Department of Natural Resources, and not necessarily to that of the U.S. Geological Survey.




INFORMATION CIRCULAR NO. 75 3
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
The authors are indebted to the landowners and residents of the McGregor Isles area for providing information on wells and for permitting the logging and other measurements on privately owned wells. The authors acknowledge the assistance of local well drillers, particularly Joseph M. Maharrey, for providing valuable data on the location and construction of wells. Test hole logs provided by the Humble Oil and Refining Company and the Mobil Oil Corporation were helpful in the identification of geologic formations.
The interest and continued support of the County Commissioners of Lee County in the study described herein is greatly appreciated.
DESCRIPTION OF THE AREA
The McGregor Isles area is about 5 miles southwest of Fort Myers in Lee County, Florida. The 9-square-mile area is bounded on the east by U.S. Highway 41 (Tamiami Trail) and on the west by the Caloosahatchee River (figs. 1, 2). Drainage ditches or canals form the northern and southern limits.
McGregor Isles, where the problems of salt-water intrusion were first recognized and studied in detail, is a small waterfront development on the Caloosahatchee River. The name has been applied to the entire report area, although there are several other subdivisions within the area.
Between 1940 and 1958 a large number of deep, flowing artesian wells were drilled to provide water for irrigation during the winter growing season. Much of the land was used for truck crops, flower farms, citrus groves, and plant nurseries, and the use of ground water increased rapidly. Since 1958, urban development has largely displaced agriculture and most of the deep artesian wells have been abandoned. Most of the homes were supplied with water from small diameter wells until recently, when public water-supply systems were installed. As of 1970 the small diameter wells are used primarily for lawn irrigation, although a few wells continue to provide water for domestic use.
To obtain data for this study, a fairly complete inventory of the deep, artesian wells was made, together with a scattered sampling of the newer, shallow domestic wells. Not all the domestic wells were visited because of the large number of such wells. All the wells inventoried are listed in table 1 and their location is shown on figure 2.
WELL NUMBERING SYSTEM
Each well plotted on figure 2 is identified by a number designating the




Hot Springs
.rco __I . - _ COUNTY .
0 AlvaI
CHALOTrE g
06
t Myers ,z SG ULF atlacha Lhigh
00
Cap
Co ?1 McGREGOR H ISLES AREA
Captiv e
OF Estero
LEE COUNTY ---LOCATION MAP
MEXICO41cu
S- Bonita
sSMprings i
5 0 15 Miles. .




INFORMATION CIRCULAR NO. 75 5
e41 14
I ":; 43 7
43
EGOR 36
ISLE 4*~O
!N
COLLEGE 46 el9 e6
es
*24
o.. ......... . 02 0
04 22
COLLEGE PARKWAY
3 38
0440
6
* __ ,i __* .oi i3
.1 2 I 4 5o @ I 2 7 om o 2 CYPRESS LAKE DRIVE 46e22 23 /
I 05 o I MILE
APPROX.SCALE
Figure 2. Map showing the location of wells.




6 BUREAU OF GEOLOGY
section in which it is located followed by a number assigned sequentially within each section. For example, well 21-5 is the fifth well inventoried in section 21; well 15-5 is the fifth well inventoried in section 15. In section 16, where 46 wells were inventoried, the well numbers range from 16-1 to 16-46.
DESCRIPTION OF AQUIFERS
The formations underlying McGregor Isles were identified by the use of geophysical logs and other information obtained on existing wells. Some of these data-chiefly geophysical logs and test-hole data-have been used in preparing the composite geologic column shown in figure 3. The usage of formation names that appear in figure 3 conforms generally to that of Puri and Vernon (1964, p. 43) except for the usage of the term Tampa Limestone, which conforms to that of Cooke (1945, p. 111-121).
Using these data, 6 and possibly 7 different aquifers also were identified. The stratigraphic positions of these aquifers are shown on figure 3. The names which have been assigned the aquifers refer to the geologic formations in which they occur, except the two uppermost, the water table and sandstone aquifers. All the aquifers shown on figure 3 probably occur in other parts of Lee County.
The gamma ray log included in figure 3 serves chiefly to illustrate characteristic features which make possible the identification of formations from this log. The radiation intensity at any point in a well depends principally upon the kinds and concentrations of radioactive materials in the formation surrounding the well (Patten and Bennett, 1963, p. 45). In McGregor Isles, as well as much of Florida, the highest radiation levels, and therefore the highest peaks on gamma ray logs, are caused by the existence of phosphorite-bearing zones. The phosphorite in these zones exhibits relatively high radioactivity because it contains a small but significant percentage of uranium (Altschuler, Clarke and Young, 1958). Clay, which is slightly radioactive due to the presence of a radioactive isotope of potassium (potassium-40), is represented by lower peaks. Clean sand, shell, or limestone is indicated on gamma ray logs by a low level of radioactivity. Certain peaks on the logs, when matched with the lithology of the rock units determined from test hole data, provide useful correlation markers as shown in figure 3.
WATER-TABLE AQUIFER
The water-table aquifer consists of sand, sandy limestone, and calcareous




-(P. ,IIE I. _OAT LIHL
200 A H I ;'':; j':j:"]
FORMATION Ughtf gray to yellowish FORM brown ady chalky tiesloe Snsoe.
speckled with blaak
phosphorite
400
500 - [..l-. .
600
TAMPA GrayIsh yellow sai1 700 LIMESTONE lilbeostonc with some .
800 -- Suwonneo aquifer
900
SUWANNEE Pole yellowish brown
000 0 LIMESTONE noua ietn
0 No phosphorife
II00
I Aquifer?
1200 Not penetrofed by walls in study aea
Yellowaish lgray otpoladbywl 100 Llimeo.s. ft.
fooslifero s
oo -OCALA
GROUP ..
SNmoderate owns
doloodf Icohelsor I (cr,, 1500-20,ooo 1100
100 Not nera by wel
Sand or sandstone Sandy Ibmeston Doloitle or doloitic tmestone 1
Cloy Limestone ** Phosphorte coceamltesfl
Figure 3. Geologic column showing lithology, aquifers, and typical gamma ray log of
fornations underling McGregor Isles.




8 BUREAU OF GEOLOGY
sandstone ranging in thickness from less than 10 feet to about 30 feet. Its base almost everywhere is not more than 30 feet below land surface although some localized shell beds which occur at greater depths are included as part of this aquifer.
The aquifer, under atmospheric pressure, is recharged directly from rainfall. Water levels rise in response to recharge by rainfall and fall in response to discharge as base flow to streams, or by evapotranspiration or pumping. Although the annual range in fluctuation of the water table has not been established, the maximum range is estimated at 5 or 6 feet in areas of higher elevation and only 2 or 3 feet in the low lying areas. Seasonally, water levels normally are low in May or June near the end of the dry season and high in September or October.
SANDSTONE AQUIFER
The sandstone aquifer consists of calcareous sandstone and loose quartz sand, which in places grades downward into a sandy limestone. The aquifer probably is present throughout the report area although it is nonproductive in some places. Its thickness ranges from a few feet to a maximum of about 35 feet. The aquifer is separated from the overlying water-table aquifer by 50 feet or more of green sandy clay. The stratum of green sandy clay underlies most of the county, including McGregor Isles, and provides an effective barrier against the downward movement of salt water from the Caloosahatchee River or from tidal inland canals.
The sandstone aquifer is under slight artesian pressure and probably receives recharge from rainfall in the eastern part of Lee County. Water levels in wells tapping the sandstone aquifer fluctuate seasonally in about the same manner as those tapping the water-table aquifer.
UPPER HAWTHORN AQUIFER
The Hawthorn Formation contains two well defined water-bearing zones designated herein as the upper and lower Hawthorn aquifers. The upper Hawthorn aquifer consists of a gray-white limestone containing numerous small grains of black and brown phosphorite. This aquifer may be hydraulically connected with the overlying sandstone aquifer at McGregor Isles, and, of course, with underlying permeable formations containing saline water, for without such continuity it would not have become contaminated. The upper




INFORMATION CIRCULAR NO. 75 9
Hawthorn aquifer is separated from the lower Hawthorn aquifer by relatively impermeable clay and marly limestone, except where these are penetrated by wells or displaced by faults.
The upper Hawthorn aquifer nearly everywhere in the report area is within the depth range 100-300 feet below land surface. The aquifer is under artesian pressure. Records from observation wells in less highly developed parts of the county indicate that under natural conditions the water level in this aquifer at McGregor Isles may have reached a maximum altitude of about 20-25 feet above mean sea level or about 15 feet above land surface. As of 1970, because of pumping from the aquifer, water levels are considerably lower. For example, records from observation well 14-1 (fig. 2 and table 1) show that the highest water level recorded since October 1968 was about 6 feet below land surface, which represents a decline of about 20 feet from pre-development water levels at that location. In 1969, the highest water level recorded in well 14-1 was about 10 feet below land surface, indicating a further lowering of 4 feet due to increased pumping. The water level in this well is affected by the pumping of nearby large-capacity wells (144 through 14-12). This decline is similar to that which occurred at Cape Coral and adjacent areas over the same period. This trend of declining water levels will continue as pumping draft increases. Wells 6 inches or more in diameter yield 100-200 gpm (gallons per minute); those 2-3 inches in diameter yield 10-30 gpm.
The upper Hawthorn aquifer is the principal source of water for public water systems, domestic, and lawn irrigation uses in western Lee County. It is presently (1970) used as a source of supply for water systems which serve Cape Coral, Pine Island, Fort Myers Beach, and other offshore islands, and for thousands of small diameter domestic wells. Maximum pumpage occurs during the winter and spring, coinciding with the period of minimum recharge. An estimated 6 mgd (million gallons per day) were withdrawn from the aquifer for public-water supply during the period of maximum demand in 1969.
LOWER HAWTHORN AQUIFER
The lower Hawthorn aquifer as defined herein, includes the lower part of the Hawthorn Formation and the upper part of the Tampa Limestone. This limestone aquifer consists of sediments similar in appearance to those in the upper Hawthorn aquifer.
Confined above and below by clay and marly limestone this aquifer has sufficient permeability and is under sufficient artesian pressure to provide 300-500 gpm to large diameter wells by natural flow. Both the artesian pressure and flow rates vary from well to well. This variation is related to differences in construction of individual wells and in hydraulic properties of the aquifer penetrated by the well. Because wells that tap this aquifer nearly always- are




10 BUREAU OF GEOLOGY
hydraulically connected to the upper Hawthorn aquifer through the uncased section of the bore hole, the pressure and discharge measurements usually represent a composite of conditions in both aquifers. On the basis of measurements made in the eastern part of Lee County, where the artesian head within the aquifer is about 50 feet above mean sea level, it is estimated that under natural conditions at McGregor Isles the artesian head may have been 30-35 feet above mean sea level. Earlier records of wells at the McGregor Isles tend to confirm this estimate: In well 16-4 in October 1957, the artesian head was about 32 feet above mean sea level; in well 16-9 in February 1934, the head was about 37 feet above. The highest water level measured in recent years was at well 23-3 where, in April 1969, the artesian head was 27 feet above. A review of all available records indicates that the artesian head within the aquifer at McGregor Isles has fallen about 10-15 feet.
Only small quantities of water are withdrawn from the lower Hawthorn aquifer at the present time (1970). However, water is discharged from this aquifer by leakage upward from the uncased portion of wells. The amount of leakage in individual wells, as measured by geophysical logging methods, ranged from about 30 gpm to nearly 100 gpm. Flows less than 30 gpm could not be measured reliably with the instruments used, but it may be assumed that such flow does occur in most wells penetrating the aquifer. Assuming an average leakage rate of only 30 gpm per well, and that at McGregor Isles 40 wells are open to both the upper and lower Hawthorn aquifers, about 1.7 mgd (million gallons per day) is discharged from the lower aquifer as vertical leakage. The quantity of water discharged from the lower aquifer either through wells or along faults probably will increase as the head in the shallower aquifers is lowered by pumping.
SUWANNEE AQUIFER
The Suwannee aquifer as the term is used herein, consists of a permeable zone in the upper part of the Suwannee Limestone. As indicated in figure 3, the top of the Suwannee Limestone is readily determined from gamma ray logs by the decrease in radioactivity, and from test-hole data by the absence of phosphorite. Relatively impermeable beds above and below separate the Suwannee aquifer from the lower Hawthorn aquifer and those occurring at greater depths.
Flow rates up to 400 gpm may be obtained from large-diameter wells drilled to the Suwannee aquifer, although well yields at McGregor Isles are generally lower. The low discharge rate of 30 gpm measured from well 16-14, where no leakage to upper formations was apparent, indicates that this well penetrated a zone of low permeability within one or more of the- aquifers penetrated.




INFORMATION CIRCULAR NO. 75 11
Under natural conditions, the artesian head within the aquifer probably ranged from 35 to 40 feet above mean sea level at McGregor Isles. The level in well 16-14 in September 1944 was 36 feet above mean sea level, 29 feet above land surface. In February 1967, the head in this well was 23 feet above mean sea level, indicating a reduction in artesian head of 13 feet. This reduction probably has not occurred throughout the aquifer; in April 1969 the level in well 10-2, about a mile distant, was 30 feet above mean sea level.
Wells in the Suwannee aquifer usually are hydraulically connected to both the lower and upper Hawthorn aquifers through the uncased sections of the well bores. The distribution of artesian pressure within the well bore is such that water can move upward from the Suwannee aquifer into the overlying aquifers.
Only about 18 wells have been drilled to the Suwannee aquifer in the report area, less than half as many as have been drilled to the lower Hawthorn aquifer and only a few are presently used (1970) for irrigation.
DEEPER AQUIFERS
Little is known about the water-bearing properties of formations underlying the Suwannee Limestone. The deepest well in the report area, number 16-14, drilled to a depth of 1,106 feet, reportedly did not penetrate water-bearing zones beneath the Suwannee aquifer. Well 15-11, a 1,360-foot test well, penetrated limestone of the Ocala Group at a depth of 1,150 feet. This well was subsequently plugged back to 590 feet, and no information is available concerning the possible existence of water-bearing zones between 590-1,360 feet. Records of water wells in nearby areas indicate that a water-bearing zone is present within the upper 50-100 feet of the Ocala Group. These records also suggest that water from this zone is more mineralized than water from the Suwannee aquifer. Data concerning the water-bearing properties of still deeper aquifers was obtained principally from geophysical logs and drillers reports of nearby oil exploratory wells. Geophysical logs of two wells drilled just beyond the eastern boundary of the study area show salt water present below a depth of 1,570 feet in the northernmost well and 1,500 feet in the southernmost well.
The electric log of a well about 5 miles southeast of McGregor Isles (outside the report area) shows salt water present at a depth of 1,570 feet. Strong flows of salt water have been reported from depths ranging from 1,518 feet to 1,707 feet in other parts of the county, and salt water is flowing (1970) from a well 1,641 feet deep at Hot Springs (fig. 1) in Charlotte County, 18 miles north of McGregor Isles. On October 17, 1957, its shut-in pressure was 39 feet above mean sea level.
From these data it is generally concluded that water from these deeper aquifers, particularly at depths greater than about 1,500 feet, is highly




12 BUREAU OF GEOLOGY
mineralized and unsuitable for most purposes. The artesian pressure within these aquifers probably is higher than in any of the overlying aquifers under natural conditions, and considerably higher than in those aquifers where the pressure has been lowered by pumping.
EVIDENCE OF FAULTING
A study of gamma ray logs obtained during the study shows vertical offsetting of beds. The offset is apparently caused by a series of faults. Figure 4 shows a geologic section based on correlation of distinctive features on the gamma ray logs. One particularly distinctive peak which occurs on all the gamma ray logs has been selected as a point of correlation between wells to show the presence of faults. This peak, herein referred to as the gamma ray correlation marker, represents the uppermost bed identifiable on the logs which shows substantial displacement caused by faulting. This marker is indicated by a dotted line in figure 4.
The altitude of gamma ray correlation marker, the approximate location of faults and of the geologic section are shown in figure 5.
As shown in figures 4 and 5, the vertical displacement of comparable beds ranges from about 50 to 110 feet. The depth to which the faults extend has not been determined. It is assumed that the faults extend at least through the Ocala Group, and probably deeper. The available data seem to indicate that most, but not all, of the displacement occurred after the unit represented by the gamma ray correlation marker was deposited, and prior to deposition of the upper part of the Hawthorn Formation. Displacement of beds above the gamma ray correlation marker is not so obvious from an examination of the logs. The configuration of the Caloosahatchee River shoreline in the vicinity of the northeast corner of section 17, and the alignment of a tributary to Whisky Creek near the center of section 15 are suggestive of fault controlled features and may indicate that some displacement of near-surface beds has occurred in comparatively recent times. Tanner (1964, p. 41) notes a fault in Lee County ... active in the last 10,000 years, responsible for offset in the coast line." Tanner, in the reference cited above, suggests the presence of two shear planes in south Florida, oriented approximately N. 50 degrees E., and N. 70 degrees W. This orientation, within a few degrees, is identical with that of the faults in McGregor Isles.
WATER QUALITY AND THE EFFECTS OF SALINE-WATER INTRUSION
Complete or partial chemical analyses have been made on water from 15 wells in McGregor Isles as summarized in table 2.




A A
28-I 22-1 22-2 16-8 16-7 16-11 16-14
UPER MIOCENE ANtI ! YONG BEDS
'- ~ ~~~.................... ,:i I J : o
20 00200
w 0,oo
s oo- o U. / HAWTHORN' E JORMATION*Y j 400- -400 00
--r
oc-E FORMATrION Io.' 600- -600
ST.MAK
. .. IL
ec-LIMESTON
w
zSUWAN.NEE U DU 0 D
4 1oo. EXPLANATION .1200
FAULT
UP THROWN SIDE l 0 DOWN THROWN SIDE
*S* *** ***GAMMA RAY CORRELATION MARKER
0 I MILE
I M ILEVERTICAL EXAGGERATION X6.6
APPROX.SCALE




R 24 E
7
so ao o 10
20
/ -oo
D U I
0 -2033 *a-21
(25 -20)
ii 1 (-20) -25) _205)
!7
g 283 27
EXPLANATION
*2 Well and well number
(-eso> Altitude of gamma ray correlation marker
Mean sea level datum
. U U p th r o w n s id e F a l d o h d w e e i f r d 0 Downthrown side Fut ahdweeifre A 215A Line of cross section
S05
Figure 5. Man of McGregor Isles showing the approximate location of faults.
* '(-205
A0(-390)
CYPRSSANLAKEIRON
(-250)~~~~~ ~ Aliud(-59mary0)reaio are
Mean sea level datum
I~wtrw~d Fault, dashed where inferred
A A Line of cross section
0 0.5 APPRF5LSCALE
Figure 5. Map of McGregor Isles showing the approximate location of faults.




INFORMATION CIRCULAR NO. 75 15
Also included for purposes of comparison is a chemical analysis of water from a well at Hot Springs in Charlotte County, about 18 miles northwest of McGregor Isles (fig. 1). Additional temperature and chloride measurements for wells are included in table 1. The analyses in table 2 are presented in descending order of depth of the aquifers. Within each aquifer, the analyses are arranged to show the increasing effects of saline-water intrusion.
Based on water quality data from the 1,641-foot well at Hot Springs, and other data from wells near the study area, the authors believe that the primary source of the saline water causing deterioration in water quality in the lower Hawthorn aquifer is an artesian aquifer at a depth of 1,500-1,700 feet. Although the chemical characteristics of the water from this aquifer have not been determined in McGregor Isles, the analysis given for Hot Springs (table 2) probably is generally representative of its water quality. The water is highly mineralized, containing 34,000 mg/1 of dissolved solids and 18,700 mg/1 of chloride. The water temperature in this aquifer, as measured at Hot Springs, was 960F.
LOWER HAWTHORN AQUIFER
Intrusion of highly saline water has caused deterioration in water quality within the lower Hawthorn aquifer. The chemical character of water contained in the unaffected part of the aquifer is generally represented by the analysis for well 22-1 (table 2) where the chloride content was 560 mg/1. The analyses of water from wells 21-3, 22-8, 16-4, and 16-7 show the progressively increasing effects of the intruding water on the aquifer, with a range in chloride concentration from 1,490 mg/1 to 10,200 mg/1. The greatest chloride concentration determined from wells in the lower Hawthorn aquifer was 15,200 mg/1 for well 1645 (table 1). It is interesting to note from table 3 that the
Table 3.-Comparison of the arithmetic mean of chemical constituents for wells 22-1 and Hot Springs, with
the chemical analysis for well 16-7. (Chemical constituents in milligrams per liter). 2/
11 2/
Wells SiO2 Ca Mg Na K HCO3 SO4 C1 F DS Sp. CAverage for 22-1 12 353 577 5366 202 168 1468 9630 1.7 17,730 27,370 and Hot Springs
16-7 14 428 640 5620 188 164 1370 10,200 1.7 18,600 29,500 1/ DS = Sum of determined constituents
2/ Sp.C = specific conductance, micromhos at 25"C




16 BUREAU OF GEOLOGY
average of the analysis for well 22-1, in the unaffected part of the aquifer, and the analysis for Hot Springs, is much like the analysis shown for well 16-7, in the affected part of the aquifer. It is not to be expected that observed and theoretical mixtures will be exactly the same because of chemical reactions which can take place when waters of different origin become mixed within the aquifer (Hem, 1959, p. 227). However, the comparison is a valid indicator of the source and effects of the intruding saline water.
The chloride concentration in water is a reliable indicator of changes in water quality and is readily measured with field or laboratory equipment. The chloride content of water from most wells in McGregor Isles is indicated in table I. A map showing the chloride content of water from wells in the lower Hawthorn aquifer is shown in figure 6a. The lines of equal chloride content show that the intruding water enters the aquifer in the central part of section 16 and spreads laterally in the aquifer. The elongated paths of spreading toward the southeast and southwest may be due to the permeable zones along the fault planes. The effects of the intruding water seemingly are largely confined to an area bounded by components of the fault system.
Another indicator of changes occurring within an aquifer is water temperature. Ground-water temperatures generally increase with depth. From the data included in table 1, water temperatures ranged from 74"F in the water-table aquifer at a depth of about 20 feet, to 870F in the Suwannee aquifer at a depth of about 900 feet. This represents an increase of about IF for each additional 70 feet of depth. At this rate of increase, the water temperature at 1,600 feet would be about 100F higher than in the Suwannee aquifer, or about 97"F. The water temperature from the Hot Springs well in Charlotte County, considered to be from about this depth, was 960F.
Significant upward leakage from this deep artesian aquifer would cause some change in the normal temperature distribution within the intruded aquifer. Figure 6b shows the distribution of water temperature in the lower Hawthorn aquifer which clearly shows the effects of intrusion from this deep artesian source. The normal water temperature in this aquifer as determined in this and in other parts of the county was 820F. The highest temperatures occur in the vicinity of wells 16-7 and 16-45 thus indicating, as does the chloride data in figure 6a that the intruding water enters the aquifer in the central part of section 16. From there, the temperatures decrease laterally to normal or near normal values. As in the case of chloride shown in figure 6a, the anamalous water temperatures are largely confined to the area bounded by the NW-SE trending components of the fault system, and the pattern of spread is elongated to the southeast and southwest. The higher temperature strongly suggests that the source of intruding water is a deep artesian aquifer below 1,500 feet.
Most of the chloride and temperature data shown on figures 6a and 6b were obtained during the period 1967-69 and should not be considered




R 24E EXPLANATION
(740)
I 9eo 6I *2 Well and well number (1900) (19mooChloride content in milligrams per liter
o ----1500 Line of equal chloride concentration in "6 milligrams per liter thrown side Fault,dashed where Down thrown side inferred
05 I MILE
' 7 APPROX.SGALE
0(10100w
650 G( 9 01900)
00 17 *12o *6ez
o,-U
0(
D3' j*,ooo PARKW U AY o2
/0 c 960) 4oA)
C
0.1 0o o>40 o0*(1o>0*0)o
S 0 (1000 2 CYPRESS LAKE 22 DRIVE 23
* .40)
0 *07540)




R24E EXPLANATION .2 Well and well number t~oV Water temperature in degrees Fahrenheit
5 to II degrees above normal
l 2 to 4 degrees above normal o O I degree above normal
0 DoUpthrown side Fault, dashed where Inferred
a s / ALI R.
00 1 MILE 14
(AS/ PARKWAY
t~z
pe 0
CA
20 *(ai 21 CYPRESS LAKE 22 0 DRIVE 23
~~~~~~ 20100(8CYR2S. AK .




INFORMATION CIRCULAR NO. 75 19
representative of a single point in time. Resampling of several wells during this period showed only small changes in water quality. However, this does not imply that static conditions exist within the aquifer, only that changes probably occur at a relatively slow rate. The long-term changes in the chloride content of water from selected wells in the lower Hawthorn aquifer are shown in figure 7. Wells
6000
M000
C4000
,_, Well 16-I 3000
Well 6 Well 2
in00 the aur o o 1 Well 22-5
0 0-0 -0
0 11LL IJ 1LL. 1 1 1
1946 1948 1950 1952 1954 1956 1958 1960 1962 1964 1966 1968
Figure 7. Graph showing changes in chloride content of water from the lower Hawthorn aquifer, 1946-68.
16-1 and 16-9 which are near the point where saline water enters the aquifer have shown the greatest increase in chloride content. As indicated by the initial chloride measurement on well 16-1 (1,520 mg/1), some change in water quality in the aquifer had occurred prior to 1946. Well 22-5 showed a progressive increase in chlorides since 1950, although this well is more than a mile from the principal area of intrusion. In contrast, well 22-1, which is south of the fault system, has shown little change in chloride content since 1950.
The advancing front of saline-water to the southeast is evident from samples of water from wells 22-8 and 23-3 near the 1,500 mg/1 chloride line shown on figure 6a. The chloride content of water from these wells increased from 1,550 and 760 mg/i in June 1967, to 1,940 and 920 mg/1 in May 1970.
UPPER HAWTHORN AQUIFER
The quality of water from the upper Hawthorn aquifer is generally good except where affected by intrusion of saline water. The chemical analysis for




20 BUREAU OF GEOLOGY
well 16-35 (table 2), is generally representative of water quality in the unaffected part of the aquifer. As shown by this analysis, the dissolved solids content was 426 mg/1 with chloride content of 170 mg/1. Deterioration in water quality is indicated by the analysis for well 16-23 in table 2, where the dissolved solids were 3,470 mg/1 and the chloride wat 1,940 mg/1.
The chloride content of water from wells at McGregor Isles is shown on figure 8. Changes in water quality in the upper Hawthorn aquifer are greatest near wells drilled to the lower Hawthorn aquifer. For example, water from wells 16-20 through 16-25, all drilled into the upper Hawthorn aquifer, ranges in chloride content from 500 to 2,160 mg/1. Chloride content generally decreases with distance from well 16-2, which taps both the upper and lower aquifer. Similar conditions exist near well 16-4 as indicated by the chloride content of water from wells 16-18, 16-36, 1642, and 1643, which ranges from 440 to 1,560 mg/1.
Flowmeter surveys in numerous wells confirmed that water was flowing from the lower Hawthorn and Suwannee aquifers into the upper Hawthorn aquifer. Internal flows of nearly 100 gpm were measured in wells penetrating the lower Hawthorn and deeper aquifers. The water from the lower aquifers was entering the upper Hawthorn aquifer through the uncased part of the borehole.
The salinity of water from the upper Hawthorn aquifer is increasing in some parts of the area. Water from well 16-20, formerly used for domestic purposes, had a reported chloride content of 800 mg/1. In June 1969, chloride content had increased to 2,160 mg/lI, and in January 1970, to 3,050 mg/1. The chloride content of water from well 16-36 increased from 715 mg/1 on October 31, 1967 to 1,100 mg/1 on June 5, 1969. In other parts of the area, attempts to obtain usable water from the upper Hawthorn aquifer have been abandoned because the water is too saline for use.
The continued spread of saline water within the upper Hawthorn aquifer may cause a substantial change in the quality of water from wells 14-3 through 14-12 and 23-4 through 23-6 which supply water to Fort Myers Beach and adjacent areas. The chloride content of water from these wells ranged from 81 to 183 mg/I when drilled. An increase in chlorides has been noted in wells 14-8, 14-9, and 14-10. In well 14-8, the chloride content increased from 141 mg/l, July 1967, to 376 mg/l, June 1970. Similarly in well 14-10, the chloride increased from 105 mg/l, August 1967, to 224 mg/1, June 1970. The increase in chloride in well 14-9 from 81 to 162 mg/1 from July 1967 to June 1970, although of lesser magnitude, is equally significant in indicating the potential changes which may occur.
OTHER AQUIFERS
The water-table aquifer normally contains water of relatively good quality




INFORMATION CIRCULAR NO. 75 21
.R 24 E L 870
CALooSA c *975
02&06
40 6226
COLLEGE 7050
30 ( 00 60 90 200FE
190
SECTION 16
4 N McGREGOR
2 ISLES *; & o---0o a
4 4 4O* 7500
Wel drille tot500e~ahr
4510
COLEE ,2- 000
oo Wel drle@ ttewte-al aufr 46 2 COLLEGE 4705
PARKWAY
300 00 600 900 1200 FEET
EXPLANATION
4 WELL NUMBER
460 CHLORIDE CONTENT (mg/1)
) Well drilledtothelowerHawthorn or Suwonnee aquifer.
* Well drilled tothe upper Hawthorn aquifer.
* Well drilled to the sandstone aquifer. o Well drilled to the water-table aquifer. Figure 8. Map showing the chloride content of water from wells in McGregor Isles, 1967-69.




22 BUREAU OF GEOLOGY
as indicated by the analysis for well 21-1 in table 2, which shows a total dissolved solids content of 477 mg/1 and chloride content of only 96 mg/1. One of the most objectionable characteristics of water from this aquifer is the high concentration of iron. Although no analysis for iron has been made in the report area, the typical metallic taste imparted to water by iron and staining of surfaces sprayed with the water can be observed in many places. The water may also contain organic compounds which cause taste or odor problems, or discoloration as indicated by the color value of 30 in the analysis for well 21-1. Salt water has entered this aquifer at places as shown by the analysis for well 16-15 (fig. 8 and table 2) where the chloride content was 5,750 mg/1. These wells probably were affected by water from well 16-7 (chloride content 10,200 mg/1) which has been flowing uncontrolled for years into a ditch from which it percolates downward to the water table. Saline water intrusion into the water-table aquifer probably is general in areas immediately bordering the Caloosahatchee River, and along the tidal reaches of surface streams and canals as a result of inland movement of salt water from the river during the dry season.
Chloride content of water from the sandstone aquifer at McGregor Isles and analyses of water from this aquifer in the eastern part of Lee County suggest that the chemical characteristics are similar to water contained in the unaffected part of the upper Hawthorn aquifer. Inasmuch as the two aquifers are hydraulicaly connected to some extent at McGregor Isles, it is assumed that the water quality is similar. However, saline-water intrusion into the sandstone aquifer apparently has not progressed as rapidly as in the upper Hawthorn aquifer, probably because all the deeper wells are cased through this aquifer. For example, the chloride content of water from well 16-33 (sandstone aquifer) was 240 mg/1, whereas water from well 16-32 (upper Hawthorn aquifer) about 50 feet away, contained 1,100 mg/1 of chloride (see fig. 8). Similarly, wells 16-31 and 16-34, both tapping the sandstone aquifer, yield water containing 400 mg/1 chloride or less, even though wells nearby, tapping the lower Hawthorn aquifer yield water whose chloride content is more than 3,500 mg/1. Locally, water in the sandstone aquifer is less saline than that from the underlying upper Hawthorn aquifer. This suggests that water of better quality may be developed from the sandstone aquifer in places where water in the upper Hawthorn aquifer is too saline for use. However, a significant increase in use of water from the sandstone aquifer might cause an increase in leakage from the deeper aquifers, and result in a progressive deterioration in its chemical quality.
The Suwannee aquifer contains water generally similar, although somewhat more highly mineralized, than that contained in the unaffected part of the lower Hawthorn aquifer as shown by the analyses for wells 22-2 and 16-14 in table 2, where the total dissolved solids range from 1,720 to 1,790 mg/1 and the chloride concentration is about 700 mg/1. Apparently little intrusion of saline water has occurred within this aquifer although, as shown in figure 3, it lies




INFORMATION CIRCULAR NO. 75 23
between the deep salt-water source and the highly saline lower Hawthorn aquifer. Chloride data show that some salt invasion of this aquifer has occurred in the vicinity of wells 16-11 and 1645, but that the intruding water has not spread beyond the immediate vicinity of these wells. The artesian pressure within the Suwannee aquifer may remain sufficiently high to retard movement of saline water, or the aquifer may contain zones of relatively low permeability
adjacent to avenues of upward leakage.
Wells which yield water from both the lower Hawthorn and Suwannee
aquifers show evidence of saline-water intrusion as indicated by the analyses for wells 15-8 and 17-1, with chloride ranging from 1,325 to 2,100 mg/1. An interesting feature of these multiple aquifer wells concerns the changes in water quality which occur when the wells are allowed to discharge after they have been inactive for some time. This phenomenon is illustrated in figure 9, from a test on well 17-1, April 15, 1969. This well had been inactive for about a week prior to the test. As shown on figure 9, the chloride content of the water remained relatively constant at 840-860mg/1 for 10 minutes, then increased progressively to about 1,600 mg/1 after 2 hours, and to 1,930 mg/1 after about 15 hours of discharge. The flow rate was about 400 gpm. The chloride content continued to
increase over a period of about 3 days to a maximum of 2,060 mg/1.
Apparently this phenomenon is related to differences in water quality and
artesian pressure between the lower Hawthorn and Suwannee aquifers. During the period when the well is closed, water under higher artesian pressure moves
2000
0IB0.
L.7
//
..1600
1 10 100 1000
TIME, MINUTES SINCE FLOW BEGAN, APRIL 15,1969
Figure 9. Graph showing changes in chloride content of water from well 17-1 on April 15, 1969.
LL/
800 "
1 0 100 1000 TIME, MINUTES SINCE FLOW BEGAN, APRIL 15,1969
Figure 9. Graph showing changes in chloride content of water from well 17-1 on April 15, 1969.




24 BUREAU OF GEOLOGY
upward from the Suwannee through the open well bore into the lower Hawthorn aquifer. In this well it is believed that yield from the upper Hawthorn may be minor. Under these conditions, the intruding water is of better quality, resulting in a reduction in the chloride content of water in the lower Hawthorn aquifer around the well. When the well is opened, the discharge consists largely of Suwannee water from both aquifers, but with continued discharge, the Suwannee water that had entered the lower Hawthorn aquifer becomes exhausted and the contribution from the intruded lower Hawthorn aquifer increases resulting in a progressive increase in chloride content. Flowmeter and water-resistivity logs, run after the well had been flowing long enough for the chloride content of the well discharge to stabilize, indicated that the Suwannee aquifer was contributing about 10 percent of the flow to the well, of water containing about 800 mg/1 of chloride. The lower Hawthorn aquifer transmissivity in the vicinity of well 17-1 doubtless is higher than either the Suwannee or upper Hawthorn aquifer transmissivity so that it yields water to a discharging well more freely than the other aquifers. Consequently, most of the water discharged from the well comes from the lower Hawthorn even though the Suwannee may have the higher head.
MECHANICS OF INTRUSION
The mechanism of intrusion responsible for the chloride concentration in the lower Hawthorn aquifer has not been positively identified because of the several possibilities that exist. Two hypotheses are here described to explain the apparent hydraulic connection between this aquifer and the salt-water aquifer or aquifers occurring at greater depths, for example, those of the Ocala. The first hypothesis concerns the upward movement of saline water in a deep well or test hole which provides a connection between the aquifers. Essentially, this represents a point source of saline water, or where several wells are involved, would represent several point sources. The saline water from the deeper aquifer, under higher artesian pressure, would enter the lower Hawthorn aquifer at these points and spread out laterally through the aquifer. The increase in chloride in the lower Hawthorn aquifer would be greatest near these points and would decrease with increased distance from these points. The lateral spread of saline water would be controlled by pressure gradients, permeability distribution, subsurface barriers, and other related factors.
This hypothesis would be consistent with most of the observed facts. The date of drilling of such wells, or test holes would mark the beginning of the intrusion, probably between 1940 and 1945. Although a detailed study has failed to disclose any well or test hole that could be the source of the saline water, this does not preclude the possibility that they exist although there is no




INFORMATION CIRCULAR NO. 75 25
longer any surface evidence of the well or wells. As mentioned earlier, less than half as many wells tap the Suwannee aquifer than tap the lower Hawthorn, and it has been shown that although Suwannee water can and has intruded the lower Hawthorn, it has resulted in a freshening, rather than a deterioration of the water in the lower Hawthorn. In summary, the point-source.hypothesis appears tenable in explaining a mechanism for the upward migration of water from the lower to the upper Hawthorn aquifer. It does not, as implied above, provide a realistic mechanism whereby the lower Hawthorn has become contaminated.
A second, and more tenable, hypothesis concerns the upward leakage of saline water along the fault or fracture system which has been shown to exist in the report area, and which can provide a hydraulic connection between the lower Hawthorn aquifer and deeper aquifers containing saline water. It is postulated that faulting has created paths of high vertical permeability through what would otherwise be relatively impermeable sediments. Under these conditions upward leakage could occur resulting in what may be considered as point or line sources of saline water intrusion into the lower Hawthorn aquifer. This process apparently occurs elsewhere in Florida. At Warm Mineral Springs in Sarasota County, about 35 miles northwest of the report area, upward leakage of saline water occurs along a fracture system to emerge at the surface as a spring (S. R. Windham, oral commun., 1970). In St. Johns County, in northeastern Florida, Bermes and others (1963, p. 88) found a chloride anomaly that he ascribed to the upward leakage of water along a fault.
This hypothesis is consistent, as is the first one, with the fact that the beginning of the intrusion of high-chloride water coincides with the period of increased use of water from the lower Hawthorn aquifer, about 194045. The lowering of artesian pressure within the aquifer increased the difference in head between the lower Hawthorn and the saline-water aquifer, resulting in an increase in upward leakage. Upon entering the lower Hawthorn aquifer, the saline water was of high concentration near the points of entry and moved laterally through the formation.
Additional information will be required to prove the validity of either of the hypotheses described. In either case, saline water may enter the lower Hawthorn aquifer in the vicinity of wells 16-7 and 1645 inasmuch as water from these wells show the greatest effects of intrusion. The quality of the water from well 16-45 (chloride 15,200 mg/1 and temperature 930F), indicates a more direct hydraulic connection with the deep saline-water aquifer near this well site. Apparent offset of beds, as determined from a study of the gamma ray logs, suggests that well 16-45 is near a fault plane, which could be a zone of greater vertical permeability. Zones of greater permeability developed along fault planes may also account for the pattern of spreading of the intruding water as indicated on figures 6a and 6b. The existence of unmapped faults could affect the water quality, as well.




26 BUREAU OF GEOLOGY
The uncased wells constructed to the lower Hawthorn and Suwannee aquifers provide a conduit through which water can flow to the upper Hawthorn aquifer. Typical well construction in western Lee County includes the installation of well casing to the top of the limestone that forms the uppermost part of the upper Hawthorn aquifer. By seating the casing in this limestone, the overlying sand is prevented from entering the well. After seating the casing, an open hole is drilled until sufficient water is obtained for the required purpose. Thus, wells drilled to the Suwannee aquifer are also connected to the upper and lower Hawthorn aquifers through the open bore hole. Those drilled to the lower Hawthorn are also connected to the upper Hawthorn aquifer.
Each well drilled to the deeper aquifers is a potential source of saline water leakage to the upper Hawthorn aquifer. Where a large number of these wells exist, the effects of a single well may be obscured. In the case of a somewhat isolated well (16-2), the effects have been noted for a distance of about 1,000 feet.
The sandstone aquifer is not ordinarily directly connected to the deeper aquifers through open well bores. As previously indicated, in constructing wells to the Hawthorn aquifers, the casings usually are seated in limestone beneath the sandstone aquifer to prevent sand problems. Except for faulty construction, therefore, transfer of saline water to the sandstone apparently is the result of upward leakage from the part of the upper Hawthorn aquifer through the thin beds which separate them. (See also p. 13.) At places where the upper Hawthorn aquifer contains salty water, water of better quality may be obtained from the sandstone aquifer, but progressive changes in water quality may. occur with increased use of water from the aquifer.
Water quality changes in the water-table aquifer may occur as a result of intrusion of sea water from surface-water sources, or from the discharge of saline water from artesian aquifers through wells. In McGregor Isles, deterioration in water quality from the water-table aquifer results primarily from the discharge or surface storage of saline water from the artesian aquifers. Where the water is discharged into drainage or irrigation ditches, the effects may be noted for considerable distances from the source. Discharge into a pond or other storage reservoir would similarly affect the water-table aquifer in the surrounding area. The lateral spread of saline water probably is accelerated during the winter and spring when the water table reaches a seasonal low. Some dilution probably occurs during the period of heavy rainfall, although it is unlikely that the saline water is completely flushed from the water-table aquifer.
CONTROL PROCEDURES
Procedures for eliminating the intrusion of saline water from the artesian aquifer below 1,500 feet into the lower Hawthorn and Suwannee aquifers




INFORMATION CIRCULAR NO. 75 27
cannot be developed without additional detailed information to identify the mechanism of intrusion. However, the effects could be minimized-that is, the transfer of saline water could be slowed somewhat-if the artesian pressure within the lower Hawthorn and Suwannee aquifers was allowed to increase, particularly if heads could be established comparable to those which existed prior to the extensive development of water supplies from these aquifers. Placing cement plugs in individual wells between the upper and lower Hawthorn aquifers would prevent upward movement of saline water through the well into the upper Hawthorn. It would also prevent draft from the lower Hawthorn and Suwannee so that their potentiometric heads would have opportunity to recover. However, this increase in head may force water in the Suwannee and lower Hawthorn to the faults, from which it could continue its upward migration. In those parts of the report area, where the saline water may be coming into the Suwannee, plugging wells just below the lower Hawthorn aquifer doubtless would be at least partially effective. To be effective, all deep wells in the McGregor Isles and surrounding area would have to be plugged in this way. The proper positioning of these cement plugs can be readily determined from geophysical logs, many of which are available for wells at McGregor Isles.
By plugging the deep artesian wells where indicated, some of the salt water now entering the upper Hawthorn, sandstone, and water table aquifers might be eliminated. If these wells were plugged the salt water eventually might be diluted or flushed from the aquifers above 300 feet. In some cases, improvement in quality of water from wells in the water table, sandstone, or upper Hawthorn aquifers may be obtained by plugging wells which have been identified as localized sources of saline water. The proper positioning of plugs is important, since plugging a well improperly could be a waste of time and, at most, could be harmful: capping a well at the surface in no way diminishes the effects of the intruding water into the upper Hawthorn or sandstone aquifers, and may actually exacerbate the problem.
A monitoring program could determine the effectiveness of well plugging and obtain information for the correction of similar problems in other areas.
SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS
There are six and possibly seven aquifers within the uppermost 1,700 feet of sediments underlying McGregor Isles. Under natural conditions the artesian pressure, temperature, and mineralization of the water generally increases with depth. The aquifers which occur above depths of 300 feet normally contain water suitable for public water supplies. The aquifers between 300 feet and 1,000 feet contain water that is too highly mineralized for public supplies, but at some places, may be suitable for irrigation. The aquifer which occurs at depths




28 BUREAU OF GEOLOGY
below 1,500 feet probably contains water similar to that determined at Hot Springs where the dissolved solids were 34,000 mg/1 with a chloride content of 18,700 mg/l and a water temperature of 960F.
The intrusion of saline water from the deep artesian aquifer has caused deterioration in water quality in parts of the lower Hawthorn aquifer where a maximum chloride concentration of 15,200 mg/1 and water temperature of 93OF have been measured. The saline water from the deep artesian aquifer moves upward, either through the open bore hole of as yet unidentified wells or test holes which connect the aquifers, or along a fault or fracture zone which provides a connection between them. In either case, the intruding saline water apparently enters the lower Hawthorn aquifer along faults or otherwise in the vicinity of wells 16-7 and 1645, and spreads laterally, with the effects decreasing with increased distance from the source. The saline water has spread over an area of about 2.5 square miles and continues unabated at the present time (1970).
This saline-water that has migrated into the lower Hawthorn aquifer has, in turn, begun to migrate into the upper Hawthorn aquifer. The maximum chloride content of water from the upper Hawthorn aquifer was 3,050 mg/1 from well 16-20 in contrast to the 15,200 mg/1 for the lower. Each well drilled to the lower Hawthorn aquifer is a potential source of saline water leakage into the upper Hawthorn aquifer. There are a large number of such wells. Chemical quality records of water from this and other wells indicates a progressive increase in chlorides in the upper Hawthorn aquifer in some parts of the area, including several public-water wells in section 14.
The high chloride content of water at places in the sandstone aquifer probably is the result of upward leakage from the upper Hawthorn aquifer through the thin beds which separate the aquifers. As of 1970, water within the sandstone aquifer has not been seriously affected by migration of saline water; this aquifer may be a suitable source of supply where the underlying aquifer contains saline water. However, any significant increase in water use from the sandstone aquifer may cause an increase in upward leakage rates as long as the upper Hawthorn aquifer contains saline water under higher head.
The leakage of saline water into the upper Hawthorn, sandstone, and water-table aquifers would be reduced or eliminated by preventing the upward movement of water from the lower Hawthorn aquifer, and to a lesser extent from the Suwannee aquifer. A control procedure that probably would be effective in at least some parts of the report area involves setting cement plugs within these wells to separate the aquifers. This procedure will prevent intermixing of water from the different formations, where a major part of the migrating waters are flowing upward through the well bores. The proper positioning of these plugs can be readily determined from geophysical logs, and the improper placement of these plugs may result in the well becoming a




INFORMATION CIRCULAR NO. 75 29
permanent source of salt-water leakage.
When drilling new wells to the lower Hawthorn or Suwannee aquifers, extending the well casing to a depth at least 300 feet and sealing in place with concrete grout would prevent any upward leakage through the open-well bore into the upper Hawthorn and sandstone aquifers.
It is estimated that 30 deep wells yielding water with chloride concentrations of 1,000 mg/ 1 or more, are present in the area. The location of most of these wells are included in this report. Although detailed records are not available on all of these wells, most of them probably allow upward transport of saline water into the water table, sandstone and upper Hawthorn aquifers.
On the basis of data currently (1970) available, the saline water doubtless will continue to spread laterally into areas not presently affected as long as the supply of saline water lasts, and as long as hydraulic and density gradients near the sources of salt water remain sufficiently high. Within the lower Hawthorn aquifer, the lateral movement probably will be toward the south, southeast, and east. Within the upper Hawthorn aquifer, the saline water will continue to spread laterally from wells open to the lower Hawthorn aquifer. Problems of the greatest magnitude probably will occur in the vicinity of artesian wells which contain high concentrations of saline water and where the pressure in the upper Hawthorn aquifer has been significantly lowered by pumping. Similar effects may be noted in the sandstone aquifer.
As previously indicated, separating the upper and lower Hawthorn aquifers in existing wells, by plugging would be a good start toward corrective action. Establishment of a monitoring program would provide data concerning the effectiveness of a well plugging program. A well plugging and monitoring program would require the coordinated efforts of public and private agencies, as well as the cooperation of land owners and other residents of the area.
Corrective action will not prevent the saline water from spreading further than it is now but would eventually limit its spread and, assuming continued withdrawals from the upper Hawthorn, would decrease the salinity over large areas if all man-made connections between the upper Hawthorn and the deeper aquifers were sealed off.




30 BUREAU OF GEOLOGY
REFERENCES
Aultschuler, Z. S.
1958 (and Clarke, R. S., Jr., and Young, E. J.) The Geochemistry of Uranium in Apatite and Phosphorite: U.S. Geol. Survey Prof. Paper 314-D.
Bermes, B. J.
1963 (and Leve, G. W. and Tarver, G. R.) Geology and Ground-water Resources of Flagler, Putnam and St. Johns counties, Florida: Fla. Geol. Survey Rept. of Inv. 32. Cooke, C. W.
1945 Geology of Florida: Fla. Geol. Survey Bull. 29.
Hem, J. D.
1959 Study and Interpretation of the Chemical Characteristics of Natural Water: U.S. Geol. Survey Water-Supply Paper 1473. Patten, E. P., Jr.
1963 (and Bennett, G. D.) Application of Electrical and Radioactive Well Logging to Ground-Water Hydrology: U.S. Geol. Survey Water-Supply Paper 1544-D.
Puri, HL S.
1964 (and Vernon, R. O.) Summary of the Geology of Florida and a Guidebook to the Classic Exposures: Fla. Geol. Survey Sp. Pub. 5. Tanner, W. F.
1964 The Origin of the Gulf of Mexico in Trans. of Gulf Coast Assoc. of Geol. Soc., v. XV.




Section p ~ ia ~
and well Latitude Longitude ah number number
9-1 263403N0815430.1 105 100 2 6 228 7-69 SS 9.2 263403N0815430.2 168 120 2 6 512 7-69 UH 10-1 263415N0815409.1 6 8 +18.6 6-11-58 83 740 6-58 (LH), UH 10-2 263417N0815323.1 880 150 6 10 +19.5 4-16-69 150F 87 730 4-68 (Su), LH, UH E, R, C, F 10-3 263428N0815318.1 4 5 +21.6 6-11-58 100P 85 716 6-58 (5u, LH), UH 10-4 263404N0815413.1 6 8 +23.6 10-22-57 100P 82 940 4-68 (LH), UH 11-1 263428N0815303.1 27 24 2 14 79 64 7-69 WT 14-1 263323140815224.1 225 138 8 9 7.7 10-30-68 109 4-68 UH 14-2 263337N0815246.1 270 126 4 8 95 69 2-66 UH 14-3 263325N0815213.1 235 121 8 7 UH 14-4 263325N0815202.1 225 136 8 8 102 10-67 UH 14-5 263317N0815244.1 186 134 8 7 69 77 134 5-69 X UH 14-6 263317NO815239.1 187 134 8 7 55 135 9-67 UH 14-7 263317N0815233.1 235 138 8 8 UH 14-8 263312N0815244.1 183 130 8 7 97 141 7-67 UH 14-9 263312N0815238.1 197 124 8 7 71 81 7-67 UH 78 162 6-70
14-10 263312N0815233.1 184 127 8 8 83 105 8-67 UH 79 224 6-70
14-11 263312N0815228.1 206 130 8 8 123 87 8-67 UH 14-12 263312N0815221.1 225 126 8 9 87 87 8-67 UH
15-1 263329N0815412.1 6 6 200F 84 5250 4-67 (LH), UH 15-2 263337N0815354.1 6 6 +13.5 4.16-69 50F 83 1900 6-67 (LH),UH 15-3 263317N0815407.1 626 130 6 7 +13.0 4-16-69 300F 83 4550 4-68 (LH), UH E, OR, C, F, R 15-4 263336N015343.1 640 240 4 6 15F 83 1900 4-67 LH E, C,F 15-5 263327N0815332.1 6 6 300F 1300 6-58 (LH), UH 1700 4-67
15-6 263311N0815342.1 6 6 +18.5 8-30-68 450F 83 4150 6-67 (LH), UN 15-7 263403N0815317.1 600+ 6 11 +14.0 6-11-58 200FP 87 720 6-58 (Su), LH, UH 15-8 263317N0815400.1 861 119 6 7 225F 84 1325 4-67 X (Su, L), UH E, OR, C, P., R 15-9 263347N0815403.1 200 140 4 7 300 4-67 UH 15-10 263352N0815356.1 160 2 8 310 8-67 UH 15-11 263351N0815353.1 590 100 6 8 (LH), UH 16-1 263351N0815439.1 583 142 4 6 +22.3 48-46 83 1520 4-46 (L), UH 53009 4-67
16-2 263353N0815447.1 6 5 +14.5 4-16-69 100F 83 7360 2-69 (LH), UH 16-3 263317N0815447.1 6 175F 1400 1957 (LH), UH 16-4 263337N0815435.1 520 132 6 7 +15.5 4-16-69 485F 85 4650 4-68 X (LH), UH E, OR, C, F 16S 263335N0815431.1 600 6 9 81 3600 10-68 (LH), UH
a. Analysis doubtful; not shown an Figure 6A
Table 1. Record of wells in the McGregor Isles area.
Abbreviations used in table: Aquifers-WT (water table), SS (sandstone), UH (upper Hawthorn), LH (lower Hawthorn), and Su (Suwannee). For wells which produce from more than one aquifer, the principal aquifer(s) is shown in brackets. Geophysical logs E (electric log), GR (gamma ray), C (caliper), F (flowmeter), and R (resistivity).




Section1r ] I Iil l M
and well Latitude Longitude
number number
16.4 263325NO815430.1 950 6 7 +18,0 6-12-58 2044 6.58 (Su, LII), UlI 83 2600 647
16.7 263343NO815422.1 582 138 6 I 20F 87 10200 44.68 X (LII), UII 5, GR, C, 1 16.8 263338N0815416.1 657 126 6 7 200F 85 7500 4468 Su, (LII), UlI E, GR, C, F 16.9 263342N0815432.1 764 170 6 7 +30.3 2.10-34 475F 82 950 2.34 Su, (LII), UII GR, C, I +15.0 2.16476 85 4750 2647
16-10 263347N0815428.1 5 6 1900 9-57 (LI), UIf 16-11 263351N0815423.1 797 125 4 6 -4 4.2-68 10 85 7700 44.68 X Su, (LII), UI H, OR, C, F, R 16-12 263359NO815418.1 4 9 +23.9 10-22*57 125F 85 700 1057 (Su), LII, UIH 16-13 263402N08154161 997 6 9 +22.5 10-22-57 125F 85 760 1057 (Su), LH, UlI 16.14 263403N0815417,1 1146 120 6 7 +29,3 9.2544 30F 85 870 9.50 X (Su), LH, Ulf 9, GR, C, F +15.5 2.16.67 740 7.649
16-15 263343N0815416.1 20 20 4 6 6.5 4. 3468 65 74 5750 4468 X WT E 16.16 263325N0815437,1 90 2 8 510 8.67 8S 16.17 263347N0815428.1 140 2 8 670 8.67 UlH 16-18 263337N0815436.1 220 183 2 7 30 79 1560 4467 UI 16-19 263324N0815438,1 95 2 7 2.3 7-28-69 SS 1620 263354N0815452.1 185 2 6 78 2160 6-69 UH 16-21 263354N0815454.1 180 2 6 78 780 54-69 UH 16-22 263353N0815453.1 190 2 6 78 1980 54.69 X UI 16-23 263354N0815453.1 200 2 6 1020 5469 UH 16-24 263353N0815452.1
16.21 263354N0I15454.1 180 2 6 78 780 54-69 UH 16-22 263353N-0815453.1 190 2 6 78 500 5469 UH 16-23 263354N-0815453.1 190 2 6 78 1980 5469 X UH 16-24. 263353N,0815452.1 200 2 6 1020 5-69 UH 16-25 263353N0815449,1 180 2 6 78 1900 5-69 UH 16-26 263350N0815445.1 150 2* 6 500 5-69 UH 16-27 263354N0815453,1 180 2 6 UH 16-28 263350N0815448.1 185 2 6 78 420 5469 UH 16-29 263350N0815448,2 60 2 6 520 54-69 W, 16-30 263355N0815441.1 90 2 6 260 5.69 S 16-31 263351N 0815437.1 92 2 6 200 5469 SS 16-32 263353N 0815433.1 167 2 6 78 1100 3-549 UH 16-33 263353N0815433.2 93 2 6 240 349 SS 16-34 263338N0815434.1 80 2 7 400 5-69 sS 16-35 263343N0815457.1 189 160 2 6 180 54-69 X UH 16-36 263339N0815436.1 190 2 7 1100 6-69 UH 16-37 263348N0815416.1 100 2 9 106 74-69 SS 16-38 263348N0815416.2 40 4 9 1.5 7-23469 76 620 74-69 WT




Section ~~ ~ ~ ~ I i i l
an: ::ll Latitude- Lonftude
number number
16.39 263353N0815425.1 94 2 9 260 7-69 SS 16-40 263358N0815432.1 200 2 8 975 7-69 UYH 16-41 263401NO815437.1 168 147 2 8 695 7-69 UH 16-42 263333ND815437.1 200 2 7 1080 7-69 UH 16-43 263333N0815441.1 150 2 6 440 7469 UH 16-44 263327N0815441.1 150 140 2 6 212 7-69 UH 1645 263332NO815455.1 710 252 6 6 250F 93 15200 10-69 (Su, LH) E, GR, C, P "H 16-46 263324N0815446.1 165 141 2 6 + 2.5 11- 3-69 SF 705 10-69 UH
17-1 263312N0815513.1 682 137 6 7 +17.0 4-25467 400F 83 2100 4-67 X (Su, LH), UH E, GR, C, F 20-1 263309N0815513.1 582 136 6 7 ISOF 83 2100 5-67 (LH), UH E, GR, C, F 21-1 263304N0815447.1 60 42 4 8 90 5467 X WT 21-2 263244N0815501.1 383 129 8 5 +18.3 10-25-57 100F 81 1000 5-67 (LH), UN E 21-3 263310N0815432.1 538 121 6 8 83 1550 6-67 X (LH), UH E, GR, C, F, R S21-4 263302N0815447.1 803 130 6 8 200F 84 900 5-67 (Su, LH), UH OGR, C, P 21-5 263258N0815429.1 938 146 5 8 +15 425-67 100F 84 700 4-67 (Su, LH), UH E, GR, C, F 21-6 263222N0815504.1 697 130 6 6 200F 84 1000 2-69 (LH), UH 0, OR, C, F, R 22-1 263251N0815411.1 626 130 6 6 + 9.5 4-26-67 60FP 82 555 9-50 X (LH), UH E, GR, C, F S560 4-68 22-2 263304N0815409.1 897 172 6 7 +14,5 4-1467 400F 86 660 10-57 X (Su), LH, UN E, GR, C, F +23.5 9-13-50 700 9-50
22-3 263237N0815414.1 206 137 6 6 + 8.6 10-10-57 100F 78 120 8-67 UH E 22-4 263304NO815338.1 629 128 6 6 300F 2000 10-57 (LI), UH E, GR, C, F 83 4000 6-67
22-5 263304N0815326.1 6 7 300F 84 650 9-50 (LH), UH 2300 4-68
224-6 263252N0815337.1 6 6 +18.0 4-16-69 100F 83 1520 6-67 (LH), UH 22-7 263252N0815325.1 599 172 6 7 +16.5 4-16-69 500F 83 650 9-50 (LH), UH 1280 4-648
22-8 263300N0815317.1 6 7 200F 83 1550 6467 X (LH), UH 1940 5-70
22-9 263232N0815414.1 670 6 6 + 9.5 10-234-67 200F 84 540 6-67 (LH), UH 22-10 263242N0815349.1 677 151 6 8 200F 82 570 2-69 (LH), UH 22-11 263304N0815358.1 596 148 6 7 +13,5 4-20-67 350F 83 1740 44-68 (LH), UN 22-12 263248N0815347.1 155 126 3 8 225 2-69 UH




Hardness
ll* Dis- as CaCOa a O
Date Mag- Pot- Str- car Chl- sol- AlkSection of Aquifer(s) SU. Cal. ne- Sod- as- ont- bon- Sul. or- Fluo. ved Ca. Non. alland well coll. ica clum slum ium slum lum ate fate ide ride. Sol- Mg. car- nity U number ect- Ids bon- as ColIon (SIO ) (Ca) (Mg) (Na) (K) (Sr) (HCO8) (SO4) (CI) (F) (sum) ate CaCO8 pH or
21-1 7-14-69 WT 20 120 12 40 1.4 372 3.2 96 0.2 477 376 71 305 800 7.9 30 16-15 4- 3-68 WT 5750 11,500 17,700 14-5 5.15-69 UH 24 42 33 59 7.5 1.8 242 0.0 134 1.2 420 243 44 198 750 8.1 5 16-35 7-14-69 UH 16 52 31 60 3.9 180 170 1.4 426 263 116 148 800 7.6 5 16-23 7-14-69 UH 15 171 153 876 17 87 176 202 1940 1.2 3470 1067 923 144 750 7.4 3 22-1 4- 3-68 (LH), 1UH 17 67 85 332 19 11 206 275 560 2,0 1470 529 360 169 6250 7.6 10 21-3 4- 4-68 (LH), UH 1490 3240 5400 22-8 4- 4-68 (LH), UH 1620 3420 5700 16-4 4- 4-68 (LH),UH 14 248 318 2460 77 38 176 624 4650 1.5 8530 1970 1830 144 14,300 7.4 5 16-7 4- 2-68 (LH), UH 14 428 640 5620 18.3 39 164 1370 10,200 1.7 18,600 3740 3610 135 29,500 7.4 5 15-8 4- 3-68 (Su, LH),UH 17 111 120 668 29 19 180 344 1250 1.7 2650 792 644 148 4620 7.4 5 17-1 4- 4-68 (Su, LH), UH 1960 4070 6800 16-11 4- 2-68 Su (LH), UH 18 340 494 4280 150 26 170 1180 7700 1.9 14,300 2910 2770 139 23,200 7.4 5 22-2, 4- 4-68 (Su),LH, UH 18 86 87 418 24 15 184 340 700 1.7 1790 590 438 151 3050 7.5 5 16-14 4- 4-68 (Su), LH, UH 19 94 91 382 18 17 184 296 710 1.6 1720 628 478 151 3000 7.4 5 Hot 52,100 Springs 12-23-64 8 639 1070 10,400 385 131 2660 18,700 1.4 34,000 6330 6220 52,100 7.8
Table 2. Chemical analyses of water from wells in McGregor Isles and at Hot Springs.
(For description of aquifer codes see table 1).
Chemical constituents in milligrams per liter.




Full Text

PAGE 1

STATE OF FLORIDA DEPARTMENT OF NATURAL RESOURCES Randolph Hodges, Executive Director DIVISION OF INTERIOR RESOURCES Robert O. Vernon, Director BUREAU OF GEOLOGY Charles W. Hendry, Jr., Chief Information Circular No. 75 SALINE-WATER INTRUSION FROM DEEP ARTESIAN SOURCES IN THE McGREGOR ISLES AREA OF LEE COUNTY, FLORIDA By C. R. Sproul Formerly with the Florida Department of Natural Resources Bureau of Geology D. H. Boggess U.S. Geological Survey H. J. Woodard Florida Department of Natural Resources Bureau of Water Resources Prepared by the UNITED STATES GEOLOGICAL SURVEY and the FLORIDA DEPARTMENT OF NATURAL RESOURCES in cooperation with the COUNTY COMMISSIONERS OF LEE COUNTY TALLAHASSEE 1972

PAGE 2

Completed manuscript received February 1, 1972 Printed for the Florida Department of Natural Resources Division of Interior Resources Bureau of Geology by Rose Printing Company Tallahassee, Florida Tallahassee 1972 ii

PAGE 3

CONTENTS Page Abstract .. ..................... ... ... .... .......... 1 Introduction ............... ...... ................. 1 Purpose and Scope ....................... ... ................. ....... 2 Acknowledgements ................. ......... ............. 3 Description of the area ........... .......... ...... ......... 3 Well numbering system ......... ....... ........ ... ......... 3 Description of aquifers..... .. ......... .......... ............ 6 Water-table aquifer ........................... .......... .6 Sandstone aquifer .. ............... ....... .......... 8 Upper Hawthorn aquifer ................. .... ... ........ ... .8 Lower Hawthorn aquifer ........... ..... ..... ............. .9 Suwannee aquifer ......................... .......... ...10 Deeper aquifers .................... ............... .11 Evidence of faulting ......................... ..... ..12 Water quality and the effects of saline water intrusion ................... 12 Lower Hawthorn aquifer ............. .. ................ ...15 Upper Hawthorn aquifer .......... ... ............ .19 Other aquifers ..................... ....... .......... .20 Mechanics of intrusion ............... ......................24 Control procedures ................. ...................... 26 Summary and conclusions .......... ....................... ..27 References ........................ .... ... ....... .30 ILLUSTRATIONS Figure Page 1 Map of Lee County showing the location of the McGregor Isles area ....... .4 2 Map showing the location of wells ............................. 5 3 Geologic column showing lithology, aquifers, and typical gamma ray log of formations underlying McGregor Isles .. ............... ........ 7 4 Geologic section showing faults based on interpretations of gamma ray logs ....13 5 Map of McGregor Isles showing the approximate location of faults ........ 14 6a Map of McGregor Isles showing the extent of saline water intrusion into the lower Hawthorn aquifer ..................... .............. ..17 6b Map showing the effects of intrusion on water temperatures in the lower Hawthorn aquifer .....................................18 7 Graph showing changes in chloride content of water from the lower Hawthorn aquifer, 1946-1968 ............... ...................... .19 iii

PAGE 4

8 Map showing the chloride content of water from wells in McGregor Isles, 1967-1969 ............. .......... ....... .......... 21 9 Graph showing changes in chloride content of water from well 17-1 on April 15, 1969 ............. .... .......... ...... ..... 23 TABLES Table Page 1 Record of wells in the McGregor Isles area ................ At end of report 2 Chemical analyses of water from wells in McGregor Isles and at Hot Springs ............... ....... ............ At end of report 3 Comparison of the arithmetic mean of chemical constituents for wells 22-1 and Hot Springs, with the chemical analysis for well 16-7 ......... 15 iv

PAGE 5

SALINE-WATER INTRUSION FROM DEEP ARTESIAN SOURCES IN THE McGREGOR ISLES AREA OF LEE COUNTY, FLORIDA By C. R. Sproull, D. H. Boggess2, and H. J. Woodard3 ABSTRACT Upward leakage of saline water from an artesian aquifer below 1,500 feet has caused an increase in chloride concentration in the lower Hawthorn aquifer from less than 1,000 mg/1 (milligrams per liter) to values ranging from about 1,300 to 15,000 mg/1. Similarly the higher temperatures of the intruding water has caused an increase in water temperatures in the aquifer from 82"F to values ranging from 83 to 93"F. The intruding water moves upward either through the open bore hole of deep wells or test holes, or along a fault or fracture system, which has been identified in the area. From these points of entry into the lower Hawthorn aquifer, the saline water spreads laterally toward the south and southeast, but is generally confined to components of the fault system. The saline water moves upward from the lower Hawthorn aquifer into the upper Hawthorn aquifer through the open bore hole of wells, which connect the aquifers. This movement has resulted in an increase in chloride from less than 200 mg/1 in the unaffected parts of the upper Hawthorn aquifer to values commonly ranging from about 300 to more than 3,000 mg/1 in parts of the aquifer affected by upward leakage. The upper Hawthorn aquifer is the principal source of ground-water supply for public water-supply systems in western Lee County. Similar effects have been noted in the water-table aquifer, where chloride increased from less than 100 to concentrations ranging from about 500 to more than 5,000 mg/1. This was caused by the downward infiltration of water discharged at land surface from wells tapping the lower Hawthorn aquifer. The spread of saline water throughout most of the McGregor Isles area is continuing as of 1971. INTRODUCTION Nearly all of southwest Florida is underlain at shallow depths by permeable 1Formerly with the Florida Dept. of Natural Resources, Bureau of Geology 2U.S. Geological Survey 3Florida Dept. of Natural Resources, Bureau of Water Resources and Conservation 1

PAGE 6

2 BUREAU OF GEOLOGY strata which are sources of water supply for domestic, municipal, agricultural, and industrial purposes. Strata at greater depths, although equally permeable contain highly mineralized water under artesian pressure high enough that a head difference exists between the deeper and shallower aquifers. Because the deeper aquifers are normally under higher artesian pressure, the existence of any path or conduit of high permeability between the two will result in upward movement of more highly mineralized water into the overlying aquifers. Under natural conditions, the water in these different formations is in a state equilibrium and is prevented from intermixing by relatively impermeable beds which separate them. Lowering of the artesian pressure in the shallower aquifers by pumping increases the difference in head between the aquifers. Water from the deeper strata can then move upward into the shallow strata in at least two different ways. First, penetration of the impermeable beds by drilling, whereby both the shallow and deeper strata are interconnected through the open well bore, will allow the movement of water from the deeper strata (under higher artesian pressure) into the shallow strata (under lower pressure). Second, the existence of faults, extending downward at least through the Ocala group1, can provide a conduit through which the saline water can move upward. Both these possibilities will be explored later in the report. PURPOSE AND SCOPE The problems of saline water movement into the shallow aquifers by upward leakage from deep artesian sources is of considerable magnitude in Lee County, where an estimated 2,500-3,000 deep artesian wells and test holes have been drilled. The purpose of this report is to present the results of an analysis of available geologic and hydrologic data for a small area in Lee County where saline water from deep artesian sources has moved upward into several different aquifers. From an analysis of the available data, the authors attempt to define not only the source of the highly mineralized water, but also to describe the mechanism through which upward leakage occurs and the effects of intrusion on water quality in each of the aquifers underlying the area. The effects of upward leakage of saline water through the open bore hole of existing wells connecting aquifers at depths of less than 300 feet and those which occur to depths of about 1,000 feet is evident from the data presented herein and from similar studies conducted in other parts of Lee County. However, the mechanism responsible for upward leakage of saline water from an artesian aquifer below 1,500 feet into the aquifers between 400 and 1,000 feet is not well known and can only be surmised from the available data. That such leakage does occur is evident from the information presented herein. 1 The nomenclature used in this report conforms to that of the Bureau of Geology, Florida Division of Interior Resources, Department of Natural Resources, and not necessarily to that of the U.S. Geological Survey.

PAGE 7

INFORMATION CIRCULAR NO. 75 3 ACKNOWLEDGMENTS The authors are indebted to the landowners and residents of the McGregor Isles area for providing information on wells and for permitting the logging and other measurements on privately owned wells. The authors acknowledge the assistance of local well drillers, particularly Joseph M. Maharrey, for providing valuable data on the location and construction of wells. Test hole logs provided by the Humble Oil and Refining Company and the Mobil Oil Corporation were helpful in the identification of geologic formations. The interest and continued support of the County Commissioners of Lee County in the study described herein is greatly appreciated. DESCRIPTION OF THE AREA The McGregor Isles area is about 5 miles southwest of Fort Myers in Lee County, Florida. The 9-square-mile area is bounded on the east by U.S. Highway 41 (Tamiami Trail) and on the west by the Caloosahatchee River (figs. 1, 2). Drainage ditches or canals form the northern and southern limits. McGregor Isles, where the problems of salt-water intrusion were first recognized and studied in detail, is a small waterfront development on the Caloosahatchee River. The name has been applied to the entire report area, although there are several other subdivisions within the area. Between 1940 and 1958 a large number of deep, flowing artesian wells were drilled to provide water for irrigation during the winter growing season. Much of the land was used for truck crops, flower farms, citrus groves, and plant nurseries, and the use of ground water increased rapidly. Since 1958, urban development has largely displaced agriculture and most of the deep artesian wells have been abandoned. Most of the homes were supplied with water from small diameter wells until recently, when public water-supply systems were installed. As of 1970 the small diameter wells are used primarily for lawn irrigation, although a few wells continue to provide water for domestic use. To obtain data for this study, a fairly complete inventory of the deep, artesian wells was made, together with a scattered sampling of the newer, shallow domestic wells. Not all the domestic wells were visited because of the large number of such wells. All the wells inventoried are listed in table 1 and their location is shown on figure 2. WELL NUMBERING SYSTEM Each well plotted on figure 2 is identified by a number designating the

PAGE 8

0 Alva,. IA ,.CHARLOT'r E T. t Myers t GULF alacha Lhigh C McGRECoral C" ISLES AREA 1 MEXICO 4E CcT Bonita 0Springs I 5 .5 10 15Miles .

PAGE 9

INFORMATION CIRCULAR NO. 75 5 41, 14 cGREGOR 5. COLLEGE 6 el9 e6 .. ...3 26 el 31i •.:. 49 085 42 0003 ISL4 Iv 0 8EET OW 4 COLLEGE 46 L*A9 6 •I 1 2 *7 o o* o -) * CYPRESS * LAKE DRIVE e 1,2 STUDY AR COLLEGE * PARKWAY I-*-'*'-l---T -3---------*-I--*..:*:oi I_ l £ .* » *i . C 05 7 K WAY Figure 2. Ma showing the location of wells. * CYPRESS * LAKE DRIVE 1 2 / ^ ^ .STUDY AREA P W 26 05 1 MILE AP PROX. SCALE F~igure 2. Map showing the location of wells.

PAGE 10

6 BUREAU OF GEOLOGY section in which it is located followed by a number assigned sequentially within each section. For example, well 21-5 is the fifth well inventoried in section 21; well 15-5 is the fifth well inventoried in section 15. In section 16, where 46 wells were inventoried, the well numbers range from 16-1 to 16-46. DESCRIPTION OF AQUIFERS The formations underlying McGregor Isles were identified by the use of geophysical logs and other information obtained on existing wells. Some of these data-chiefly geophysical logs and test-hole data-have been used in preparing the composite geologic column shown in figure 3. The usage of formation names that appear in figure 3 conforms generally to that of Puri and Vernon (1964, p. 43) except for the usage of the term Tampa Limestone, which conforms to that of Cooke (1945, p. 111-121). Using these data, 6 and possibly 7 different aquifers also were identified. The stratigraphic positions of these aquifers are shown on figure 3. The names which have been assigned the aquifers refer to the geologic formations in which they occur, except the two uppermost, the water table and sandstone aquifers. All the aquifers shown on figure 3 probably occur in other parts of Lee County. The gamma ray log included in figure 3 serves chiefly to illustrate characteristic features which make possible the identification of formations from this log. The radiation intensity at any point in a well depends principally upon the kinds and concentrations of radioactive materials in the formation surrounding the well (Patten and Bennett, 1963, p. 45). In McGregor Isles, as well as much of Florida, the highest radiation levels, and therefore the highest peaks on gamma ray logs, are caused by the existence of phosphorite-bearing zones. The phosphorite in these zones exhibits relatively high radioactivity because it contains a small but significant percentage of uranium (Altschuler, Clarke and Young, 1958). Clay, which is slightly radioactive due to the presence of a radioactive isotope of potassium (potassium-40), is represented by lower peaks. Clean sand, shell, or limestone is indicated on gamma ray logs by a low level of radioactivity. Certain peaks on the logs, when matched with the lithology of the rock units determined from test hole data, provide useful correlation markers as shown in figure 3. WATER-TABLE AQUIFER The water-table aquifer consists of sand, sandy limestone, and calcareous

PAGE 11

SFORMAlTION LiTgt Hgry to yelowih brown 'ondy chalkyi ........... .... .rspeckAld ttath black phosphorioy 600 TAMPA Gray sh yellow sandy FORMAUITION bow chalrk fiffiestoon 700 LIMESTONE limestone with blsome Sblck phos orite 00 -,Suwo.. .a o quifer 600 TAMPWANE Paole yellow h brown 1000 LIMESTONE limestone 0Nblack phosphorif e Lf 4N00 -aoauitar I00 1000 -LIMES Aqufer? 1200 -,,, " Not poenetratled by wells in study sarea Yellowlah gray o limeorona .sowt. 1300 -chalkyml, h ig foslliteroust S 0 OCALA GROUJP z S UWdtfferetiaPed Yellowish bows ' to 0 moderatoe brown i 1500 dolomitel ad "L Salt water d~ol lc~ l .a .C".chlari.da 15Poo-240.ooo Sand or sandstone Sandy Imestn ; Dolomite or dolomitic lIestone -Clay Lme tone 1 Pho inite concentration Figure 3. Geologic column showing lithology, aquifers, and typical gamma ray log of formations underling McGregor Isles.

PAGE 12

8 BUREAU OF GEOLOGY sandstone ranging in thickness from less than 10 feet to about 30 feet. Its base almost everywhere is not more than 30 feet below land surface although some localized shell beds which occur at greater depths are included as part of this aquifer. The aquifer, under atmospheric pressure, is recharged directly from rainfall. Water levels rise in response to recharge by rainfall and fall in response to discharge as base flow to streams, or by evapotranspiration or pumping. Although the annual range in fluctuation of the water table has not been established, the maximum range is estimated at 5 or 6 feet in areas of higher elevation and only 2 or 3 feet in the low lying areas. Seasonally, water levels normally are low in May or June near the end of the dry season and high in September or October. SANDSTONE AQUIFER The sandstone aquifer consists of calcareous sandstone and loose quartz sand, which in places grades downward into a sandy limestone. The aquifer probably is present throughout the report area although it is nonproductive in some places. Its thickness ranges from a few feet to a maximum of about 35 feet. The aquifer is separated from the overlying water-table aquifer by 50 feet or more of green sandy clay. The stratum of green sandy clay underlies most of the county, including McGregor Isles, and provides an effective barrier against the downward movement of salt water from the Caloosahatchee River or from tidal inland canals. The sandstone aquifer is under slight artesian pressure and probably receives recharge from rainfall in the eastern part of Lee County. Water levels in wells tapping the sandstone aquifer fluctuate seasonally in about the same manner as those tapping the water-table aquifer. UPPER HAWTHORN AQUIFER The Hawthorn Formation contains two well defined water-bearing zones designated herein as the upper and lower Hawthorn aquifers. The upper Hawthorn aquifer consists of a gray-white limestone containing numerous small grains of black and brown phosphorite. This aquifer may be hydraulically connected with the overlying sandstone aquifer at McGregor Isles, and, of course, with underlying permeable formations containing saline water, for without such continuity it would not have become contaminated. The upper

PAGE 13

INFORMATION CIRCULAR NO. 75 9 Hawthorn aquifer is separated from the lower Hawthorn aquifer by relatively impermeable clay and marly limestone, except where these are penetrated by wells or displaced by faults. The upper Hawthorn aquifer nearly everywhere in the report area is within the depth range 100-300 feet below land surface. The aquifer is under artesian pressure. Records from observation wells in less highly developed parts of the county indicate that under natural conditions the water level in this aquifer at McGregor Isles may have reached a maximum altitude of about 20-25 feet above mean sea level or about 15 feet above land surface. As of 1970, because of pumping from the aquifer, water levels are considerably lower. For example, records from observation well 14-1 (fig. 2 and table 1) show that the highest water level recorded since October 1968 was about 6 feet below land surface, which represents a decline of about 20 feet from pre-development water levels at that location. In 1969, the highest water level recorded in well 14-1 was about 10 feet below land surface, indicating a further lowering of 4 feet due to increased pumping. The water level in this well is affected by the pumping of nearby large-capacity wells (144 through 14-12). This decline is similar to that which occurred at Cape Coral and adjacent areas over the same period. This trend of declining water levels will continue as pumping draft increases. Wells 6 inches or more in diameter yield 100-200 gpm (gallons per minute); those 2-3 inches in diameter yield 10-30 gpm. The upper Hawthorn aquifer is the principal source of water for public water systems, domestic, and lawn irrigation uses in western Lee County. It is presently (1970) used as a source of supply for water systems which serve Cape Coral, Pine Island, Fort Myers Beach, and other offshore islands, and for thousands of small diameter domestic wells. Maximum pumpage occurs during the winter and spring, coinciding with the period of minimum recharge. An estimated 6 mgd (million gallons per day) were withdrawn from the aquifer for public-water supply during the period of maximum demand in 1969. LOWER HAWTHORN AQUIFER The lower Hawthorn aquifer as defined herein, includes the lower part of the Hawthorn Formation and the upper part of the Tampa Limestone. This limestone aquifer consists of sediments similar in appearance to those in the upper Hawthorn aquifer. Confined above and below by clay and marly limestone this aquifer has sufficient permeability and is under sufficient artesian pressure to provide 300-500 gpm to large diameter wells by natural flow. Both the artesian pressure and flow rates vary from well to well. This variation is related to differences in construction of individual wells and in hydraulic properties of the aquifer penetrated by the well. Because wells that tap this aquifer nearly always are

PAGE 14

10 BUREAU OF GEOLOGY hydraulically connected to the upper Hawthorn aquifer through the uncased section of the bore hole, the pressure and discharge measurements usually represent a composite of conditions in both aquifers. On the basis of measurements made in the eastern part of Lee County, where the artesian head within the aquifer is about 50 feet above mean sea level, it is estimated that under natural conditions at McGregor Isles the artesian head may have been 30-35 feet above mean sea level. Earlier records of wells at the McGregor Isles tend to confirm this estimate: In well 16-4 in October 1957, the artesian head was about 32 feet above mean sea level; in well 16-9 in February 1934, the head was about 37 feet above. The highest water level measured in recent years was at well 23-3 where, in April 1969, the artesian head was 27 feet above. A review of all available records indicates that the artesian head within the aquifer at McGregor Isles has fallen about 10-15 feet. Only small quantities of water are withdrawn from the lower Hawthorn aquifer at the present time (1970). However, water is discharged from this aquifer by leakage upward from the uncased portion of wells. The amount of leakage in individual wells, as measured by geophysical logging methods, ranged from about 30 gpm to nearly 100 gpm. Flows less than 30 gpm could not be measured reliably with the instruments used, but it may be assumed that such flow does occur in most wells penetrating the aquifer. Assuming an average leakage rate of only 30 gpm per well, and that at McGregor Isles 40 wells are open to both the upper and lower Hawthorn aquifers, about 1.7 mgd (million gallons per day) is discharged from the lower aquifer as vertical leakage. The quantity of water discharged from the lower aquifer either through wells or along faults probably will increase as the head in the shallower aquifers is lowered by pumping. SUWANNEE AQUIFER The Suwannee aquifer as the term is used herein, consists of a permeable zone in the upper part of the Suwannee Limestone. As indicated in figure 3, the top of the Suwannee Limestone is readily determined from gamma ray logs by the decrease in radioactivity, and from test-hole data by the absence of phosphorite. Relatively impermeable beds above and below separate the Suwannee aquifer from the lower Hawthorn aquifer and those occurring at greater depths. Flow rates up to 400 gpm may be obtained from large-diameter wells drilled to the Suwannee aquifer, although well yields at McGregor Isles are generally lower. The low discharge rate of 30 gpm measured from well 16-14, where no leakage to upper formations was apparent, indicates that this well penetrated a zone of low permeability within one or more of the aquifers penetrated.

PAGE 15

INFORMATION CIRCULAR NO. 75 11 Under natural conditions, the artesian head within the aquifer probably ranged from 35 to 40 feet above mean sea level at McGregor Isles. The level in well 16-14 in September 1944 was 36 feet above mean sea level, 29 feet above land surface. In February 1967, the head in this well was 23 feet above mean sea level, indicating a reduction in artesian head of 13 feet. This reduction probably has not occurred throughout the aquifer; in April 1969 the level in well 10-2, about a mile distant, was 30 feet above mean sea level. Wells in the Suwannee aquifer usually are hydraulically connected to both the lower and upper Hawthorn aquifers through the uncased sections of the well bores. The distribution of artesian pressure within the well bore is such that water can move upward from the Suwannee aquifer into the overlying aquifers. Only about 18 wells have been drilled to the Suwannee aquifer in the report area, less than half as many as have been drilled to the lower Hawthorn aquifer and only a few are presently used (1970) for irrigation. DEEPER AQUIFERS Little is known about the water-bearing properties of formations underlying the Suwannee Limestone. The deepest well in the report area, number 16-14, drilled to a depth of 1,106 feet, reportedly did not penetrate water-bearing zones beneath the Suwannee aquifer. Well 15-11, a 1,360-foot test well, penetrated limestone of the Ocala Group at a depth of 1,150 feet. This well was subsequently plugged back to 590 feet, and no information is available concerning the possible existence of water-bearing zones between 590-1,360 feet. Records of water wells in nearby areas indicate that a water-bearing zone is present within the upper 50-100 feet of the Ocala Group. These records also suggest that water from this zone is more mineralized than water from the Suwannee aquifer. Data concerning the water-bearing properties of still deeper aquifers was obtained principally from geophysical logs and drillers reports of nearby oil exploratory wells. Geophysical logs of two wells drilled just beyond the eastern boundary of the study area show salt water present below a depth of 1,570 feet in the northernmost well and 1,500 feet in the southernmost well. The electric log of a well about 5 miles southeast of McGregor Isles (outside the report area) shows salt water present at a depth of 1,570 feet. Strong flows of salt water have been reported from depths ranging from 1,518 feet to 1,707 feet in other parts of the county, and salt water is flowing (1970) from a well 1,641 feet deep at Hot Springs (fig. 1) in Charlotte County, 18 miles north of McGregor Isles. On October 17, 1957, its shut-in pressure was 39 feet above mean sea level. From these data it is generally concluded that water from these deeper aquifers, particularly at depths greater than about 1,500 feet, is highly

PAGE 16

12 BUREAU OF GEOLOGY mineralized and unsuitable for most purposes. The artesian pressure within these aquifers probably is higher than in any of the overlying aquifers under natural conditions, and considerably higher than in those aquifers where the pressure has been lowered by pumping. EVIDENCE OF FAULTING A study of gamma ray logs obtained during the study shows vertical offsetting of beds. The offset is apparently caused by a series of faults. Figure 4 shows a geologic section based on correlation of distinctive features on the gamma ray logs. One particularly distinctive peak which occurs on all the gamma ray logs has been selected as a point of correlation between wells to show the presence of faults. This peak, herein referred to as the gamma ray correlation marker, represents the uppermost bed identifiable on the logs which shows substantial displacement caused by faulting. This marker is indicated by a dotted line in figure 4. The altitude of gamma ray correlation marker, the approximate location of faults and of the geologic section are shown in figure 5. As shown in figures 4 and 5, the vertical displacement of comparable beds ranges from about 50 to 110 feet. The depth to which the faults extend has not been determined. It is assumed that the faults extend at least through the Ocala Group, and probably deeper. The available data seem to indicate that most, but not all, of the displacement occurred after the unit represented by the gamma ray correlation marker was deposited, and prior to deposition of the upper part of the Hawthorn Formation. Displacement of beds above the gamma ray correlation marker is not so obvious from an examination of the logs. The configuration of the Caloosahatchee River shoreline in the vicinity of the northeast corer of section 17, and the alignment of a tributary to Whisky Creek near the center of section 15 are suggestive of fault controlled features and may indicate that some displacement of near-surface beds has occurred in comparatively recent times. Tanner (1964, p. 41) notes a fault in Lee County " ... active in the last 10,000 years, responsible for offset in the coast line." Tanner, in the reference cited above, suggests the presence of two shear planes in south Florida, oriented approximately N. 50 degrees E., and N. 70 degrees W. This orientation, within a few degrees, is identical with that of the faults in McGregor Isles. WATER QUALITY AND THE EFFECTS OF SALINE-WATER INTRUSION Complete or partial chemical analyses have been made on water from 15 wells in McGregor Isles as summarized in table 2.

PAGE 17

A A' 28-1 22-1 22-2 16-8 16-7 16-11 16-14 SUPPER MIOCENE B.ANDI : S O UNG BEDS E JORMATION O j 400-400 880 S-r M S-E FORMA IION o.'6006 600 Ao-LIMESTON 0 o 10 -EXPLANATION -1200 1 FAULT UP THROWN SIDE I 0 DOWN THROWN SIDE S* * ** * * GAMMA RAY CORRELATION MARKER 0 I MILE 9 M LVERTICAL EXAGGERATION X6.6 APPROX.SCALE

PAGE 18

SR 24 E 7 0 A _ _ (-220) s S/ -255) , *-215) / \ooo S-*(-390) 23 28 27 EXPLANATION *2 Well and well number (-2s5 Altitude of gamma ray correlation marker Mean sea level datum S Upthrown side SD thown side Fault, dashed where inferred A, Downthrown side A Line of cross section S0.5 PPR i o SCALE Figure 5. Map of McGregor Isles showing the approximate location of faults.

PAGE 19

INFORMATION CIRCULAR NO. 75 15 Also included for purposes of comparison is a chemical analysis of water from a well at Hot Springs in Charlotte County, about 18 miles northwest of McGregor Isles (fig. 1). Additional temperature and chloride measurements for wells are included in table 1. The analyses in table 2 are presented in descending order of depth of the aquifers. Within each aquifer, the analyses are arranged to show the increasing effects of saline-water intrusion. Based on water quality data from the 1,641-foot well at Hot Springs, and other data from wells near the study area, the authors believe that the primary source of the saline water causing deterioration in water quality in the lower Hawthorn aquifer is an artesian aquifer at a depth of 1,500-1,700 feet. Although the chemical characteristics of the water from this aquifer have not been determined in McGregor Isles, the analysis given for Hot Springs (table 2) probably is generally representative of its water quality. The water is highly mineralized, containing 34,000 mg/1 of dissolved solids and 18,700 mg/1 of chloride. The water temperature in this aquifer, as measured at Hot Springs, was 960F. LOWER HAWTHORN AQUIFER Intrusion of highly saline water has caused deterioration in water quality within the lower Hawthorn aquifer. The chemical character of water contained in the unaffected part of the aquifer is generally represented by the analysis for well 22-1 (table 2) where the chloride content was 560 mg/1. The analyses of water from wells 21-3, 22-8, 16-4, and 16-7 show the progressively increasing effects of the intruding water on the aquifer, with a range in chloride concentration from 1,490 mg/1 to 10,200 mg/1. The greatest chloride concentration determined from wells in the lower Hawthorn aquifer was 15,200 mg/1 for well 16-45 (table 1). It is interesting to note from table 3 that the Table 3.-Comparison of the arithmetic mean of chemical constituents for wells 22-1 and Hot Springs, with the chemical analysis for well 16-7. (Chemical constituents in milligrams per liter). 1/ 2/ Wells SiO2 Ca Mg Na K HCO3 SO4 Ci F DSSp.C Average for 22-1 12 353 577 5366 202 168 1468 9630 1.7 17,730 27,370 and Hot Springs 16-7 14 428 640 5620 188 164 1370 10,200 1.7 18,600 29,500 / DS = Sum of determined constituents 2/ Sp.C = specific conductance, micromhos at 25"C

PAGE 20

16 BUREAU OF GEOLOGY average of the analysis for well 22-1, in the unaffected part of the aquifer, and the analysis for Hot Springs, is much like the analysis shown for well 16-7, in the affected part of the aquifer. It is not to be expected that observed and theoretical mixtures will be exactly the same because of chemical reactions which can take place when waters of different origin become mixed within the aquifer (Hem, 1959, p. 227). However, the comparison is a valid indicator of the source and effects of the intruding saline water. The chloride concentration in water is a reliable indicator of changes in water quality and is readily measured with field or laboratory equipment. The chloride content of water from most wells in McGregor Isles is indicated in table I. A map showing the chloride content of water from wells in the lower Hawthorn aquifer is shown in figure 6a. The lines of equal chloride content show that the intruding water enters the aquifer in the central part of section 16 and spreads laterally in the aquifer. The elongated paths of spreading toward the southeast and southwest may be due to the permeable zones along the fault planes. The effects of the intruding water seemingly are largely confined to an area bounded by components of the fault system. Another indicator of changes occurring within an aquifer is water temperature. Ground-water temperatures generally increase with depth. From the data included in table 1, water temperatures ranged from 74"F in the water-table aquifer at a depth of about 20 feet, to 87"F in the Suwannee aquifer at a depth of about 900 feet. This represents an increase of about loF for each additional 70 feet of depth. At this rate of increase, the water temperature at 1,600 feet would be about 100F higher than in the Suwannee aquifer, or about 97"F. The water temperature from the Hot Springs well in Charlotte County, considered to be from about this depth, was 960F. Significant upward leakage from this deep artesian aquifer would cause some change in the normal temperature distribution within the intruded aquifer. Figure 6b shows the distribution of water temperature in the lower Hawthorn aquifer which clearly shows the effects of intrusion from this deep artesian source. The normal water temperature in this aquifer as determined in this and in other parts of the county was 820F. The highest temperatures occur in the vicinity of wells 16-7 and 16-45 thus indicating, as does the chloride data in figure 6a that the intruding water enters the aquifer in the central part of section 16. From there, the temperatures decrease laterally to normal or near normal values. As in the case of chloride shown in figure 6a, the anamalous water temperatures are largely confined to the area bounded by the NW-SE trending components of the fault system, and the pattern of spread is elongated to the southeast and southwest. The higher temperature strongly suggests that the source of intruding water is a deep artesian aquifer below 1,500 feet. Most of the chloride and temperature data shown on figures 6a and 6b were obtained during the period 1967-69 and should not be considered

PAGE 21

R24E / EXPLANATION S(740) pI /e y\I *2 Well and well number S8 900)" (19c hloride content in milligrams per liter l 1---500' Line of equal chloride concentration in "s milligrams per liter SUpthrown side Fault,dashed where S1 Down thrown side inferred o 0.5 MILE '4 7 \ APPROX.SCALE SG( \ / 6 ' YR9 E? D /*1900) 7 * 0 I 0-*96011 ,260) 0 D' / L o s PARKWAY 2 /0 .1,00 21 CYPRESS LAKE 22 DRIVE 23 -7' ------1o. A 1 GFM z 0 6(59400 ) ^ I-I0

PAGE 22

SR24EE EXPLANATION \*2 Well and well number SV I r Water tmperature in degrees Fahrenheit Sg 5 to I I degrees above normal V 2 to 4 degrees above normal S1' I degree above normal SUpownthrown side Fault, dashed where inferred 0 1* I MLE 14 § B ' ,/ 4 PARKWAY p , 0 ( / i i/a C S20 *,(/) 21 CYPRESS LAKE 22 D RIVE 23 z 0082 09'"P

PAGE 23

INFORMATION CIRCULAR NO. 75 19 representative of a single point in time. Resampling of several wells during this period showed only small changes in water quality. However, this does not imply that static conditions exist within the aquifer, only that changes probably occur at a relatively slow rate. The long-term changes in the chloride content of water from selected wells in the lower Hawthorn aquifer are shown in figure 7. Wells 6 0 0 0 --------------------6000 M000 C4000 ,, Well 16I " 3000 1 -2000 ----J-ine-116_9.--.oWl W el Well 22 1000 .-v--o -----Well 22--0-i --0 S I 1 1 1 I I I I I I I I I I I 1946 1948 1950 1952 .1954 1956 1958 1960 1962 1964 1966 1968 Figure 7. Graph showing changes in chloride content of water from the lower Hawthorn aquifer, 1946-68. 16-1 and 16-9 which are near the point where saline water enters the aquifer have shown the greatest increase in chloride content. As indicated by the initial chloride measurement on well 16-1 (1,520 mg/1), some change in water quality in the aquifer had occurred prior to 1946. Well 22-5 showed a progressive increase in chlorides since 1950, although this well is more than a mile from the principal area of intrusion. In contrast, well 22-1, which is south of the fault system, has shown little change in chloride content since 1950. The advancing front of saline-water to the southeast is evident from samples of water from wells 22-8 and 23-3 near the 1,500 mg/1 chloride line shown on figure 6a. The chloride content of water from these wells increased from 1,550 and 760 mg/1 in June 1967, to 1,940 and 920 mg/1 in May 1970. UPPER HAWTHORN AQUIFER The quality of water from the upper Hawthorn aquifer is generally good except where affected by intrusion of saline water. The chemical analysis for

PAGE 24

20 BUREAU OF GEOLOGY well 16-35 (table 2), is generally representative of water quality in the unaffected part of the aquifer. As shown by this analysis, the dissolved solids content was 426 mg/1 with chloride content of 170 mg/1. Deterioration in water quality is indicated by the analysis for well 16-23 in table 2, where the dissolved solids were 3,470 mg/1 and the chloride wat 1,940 mg/1. The chloride content of water from wells at McGregor Isles is shown on figure 8. Changes in water quality in the upper Hawthorn aquifer are greatest near wells drilled to the lower Hawthorn aquifer. For example, water from wells 16-20 through 16-25, all drilled into the upper Hawthorn aquifer, ranges in chloride content from 500 to 2,160 mg/1. Chloride content generally decreases with distance from well 16-2, which taps both the upper and lower aquifer. Similar conditions exist near well 16-4 as indicated by the chloride content of water from wells 16-18, 16-36, 16-42, and 16-43, which ranges from 440 to 1,560 mg/1. Flowmeter surveys in numerous wells confirmed that water was flowing from the lower Hawthorn and Suwannee aquifers into the upper Hawthorn aquifer. Internal flows of nearly 100 gpm were measured in wells penetrating the lower Hawthorn and deeper aquifers. The water from the lower aquifers was entering the upper Hawthorn aquifer through the uncased part of the borehole. The salinity of water from the upper Hawthorn aquifer is increasing in some parts of the area. Water from well 16-20, formerly used for domestic purposes, had a reported chloride content of 800 mg/1. In June 1969, chloride content had increased to 2,160 mg/1, and in January 1970, to 3,050 mg/1. The chloride content of water from well 16-36 increased from 715 mg/1 on October 31, 1967 to 1,100 mg/1 on June 5, 1969. In other parts of the area, attempts to obtain usable water from the upper Hawthorn aquifer have been abandoned because the water is too saline for use. The continued spread of saline water within the upper Hawthorn aquifer may cause a substantial change in the quality of water from wells 14-3 through 14-12 and 23-4 through 23-6 which supply water to Fort Myers Beach and adjacent areas. The chloride content of water from these wells ranged from 81 to 183 mg/1 when drilled. An increase in chlorides has been noted in wells 14-8, 14-9, and 14-10. In well 14-8, the chloride content increased from 141 mg/l, July 1967, to 376 mg/l, June 1970. Similarly in well 14-10, the chloride increased from 105 mg/l, August 1967, to 224 mg/1, June 1970. The increase in chloride in well 14-9 from 81 to 162 mg/1 from July 1967 to June 1970, although of lesser magnitude, is equally significant in indicating the potential changes which may occur. OTHER AQUIFERS The water-table aquifer normally contains water of relatively good quality

PAGE 25

INFORMATION CIRCULAR NO. 75 21 R 24 E _L4 870 02&06 SSECTION 16 ' McGREGOR 2 IS LES *; & o---oo 4 41 300 77 3 60 00 7500 SSECTION 16 4 E184 0GREGOR 46CHLORIDE CONTENT SIOLLSES //00 S 9 0 60 900 120 FEET 4 WE8NUMBER 40 CHLORIDE CONTENT mg/l) o Well drilled to the wter-table quifer. Figure 8. Map showing the chloride content of water from wells in McGregor Isles, 1967-69.

PAGE 26

22 BUREAU OF GEOLOGY as indicated by the analysis for well 21-1 in table 2, which shows a total dissolved solids content of 477 mg/1 and chloride content of only 96 mg/1. One of the most objectionable characteristics of water from this aquifer is the high concentration of iron. Although no analysis for iron has been made in the report area, the typical metallic taste imparted to water by iron and staining of surfaces sprayed with the water can be observed in many places. The water may also contain organic compounds which cause taste or odor problems, or discoloration as indicated by the color value of 30 in the analysis for well 21-1. Salt water has entered this aquifer at places as shown by the analysis for well 16-15 (fig. 8 and table 2) where the chloride content was 5,750 mg/1. These wells probably were affected by water from well 16-7 (chloride content 10,200 mg/1) which has been flowing uncontrolled for years into a ditch from which it percolates downward to the water table. Saline water intrusion into the water-table aquifer probably is general in areas immediately bordering the Caloosahatchee River, and along the tidal reaches of surface streams and canals as a result of inland movement of salt water from the river during the dry season. Chloride content of water from the sandstone aquifer at McGregor Isles and analyses of water from this aquifer in the eastern part of Lee County suggest that the chemical characteristics are similar to water contained in the unaffected part of the upper Hawthorn aquifer. Inasmuch as the two aquifers are hydraulicaly connected to some extent at McGregor Isles, it is assumed that the water quality is similar. However, saline-water intrusion into the sandstone aquifer apparently has not progressed as rapidly as in the upper Hawthorn aquifer, probably because all the deeper wells are cased through this aquifer. For example, the chloride content of water from well 16-33 (sandstone aquifer) was 240 mg/1, whereas water from well 16-32 (upper Hawthorn aquifer) about 50 feet away, contained 1,100 mg/1 of chloride (see fig. 8). Similarly, wells 16-31 and 16-34, both tapping the sandstone aquifer, yield water containing 400 mg/1 chloride or less, even though wells nearby, tapping the lower Hawthorn aquifer yield water whose chloride content is more than 3,500 mg/1. Locally, water in the sandstone aquifer is less saline than that from the underlying upper Hawthorn aquifer. This suggests that water of better quality may be developed from the sandstone aquifer in places where water in the upper Hawthorn aquifer is too saline for use. However, a significant increase in use of water from the sandstone aquifer might cause an increase in leakage from the deeper aquifers, and result in a progressive deterioration in its chemical quality. The Suwannee aquifer contains water generally similar, although somewhat more highly mineralized, than that contained in the unaffected part of the lower Hawthorn aquifer as shown by the analyses for wells 22-2 and 16-14 in table 2, where the total dissolved solids range from 1,720 to 1,790 mg/1 and the chloride concentration is about 700 mg/1. Apparently little intrusion of saline water has occurred within this aquifer although, as shown in figure 3, it lies

PAGE 27

INFORMATION CIRCULAR NO. 75 23 between the deep salt-water source and the highly saline lower Hawthorn aquifer. Chloride data show that some salt invasion of this aquifer has occurred in the vicinity of wells 16-11 and 16-45, but that the intruding water has not spread beyond the immediate vicinity of these wells. The artesian pressure within the Suwannee aquifer may remain sufficiently high to retard movement of saline water, or the aquifer may contain zones of relatively low permeability adjacent to avenues of upward leakage. Wells which yield water from both the lower Hawthorn and Suwannee aquifers show evidence of saline-water intrusion as indicated by the analyses for wells 15-8 and 17-1, with chloride ranging from 1,325 to 2,100 mg/1. An interesting feature of these multiple aquifer wells concerns the changes in water quality which occur when the wells are allowed to discharge after they have been inactive for some time. This phenomenon is illustrated in figure 9, from a test on well 17-1, April 15, 1969. This well had been inactive for about a week prior to the test. As shown on figure 9, the chloride content of the water remained relatively constant at 840-860 mg/1 for 10 minutes, then increased progressively to about 1,600 mg/1 after 2 hours, and to 1,930 mg/1 after about 15 hours of discharge. The flow rate was about 400 gpm. The chloride content continued to increase over a period of about 3 days to a maximum of 2,060 mg/1. Apparently this phenomenon is related to differences in water quality and artesian pressure between the lower Hawthorn and Suwannee aquifers. During the period when the well is closed, water under higher artesian pressure moves 2000 ,IB00 J0 1400 m 1200 J / 1000 800 / 1 10 100 1000 TIME, MINUTES SINCE FLOW BEGAN, APRIL 15,1969 Figure 9. Graph showing changes in chloride content of water from well 17-1 on April 15, 1969.

PAGE 28

24 BUREAU OF GEOLOGY upward from the Suwannee through the open well bore into the lower Hawthorn aquifer. In this well it is believed that yield from the upper Hawthorn may be minor. Under these conditions, the intruding water is of better quality, resulting in a reduction in the chloride content of water in the lower Hawthorn aquifer around the well. When the well is opened, the discharge consists largely of Suwannee water from both aquifers, but with continued discharge, the Suwannee water that had entered the lower Hawthorn aquifer becomes exhausted and the contribution from the intruded lower Hawthorn aquifer increases resulting in a progressive increase in chloride content. Flowmeter and water-resistivity logs, run after the well had been flowing long enough for the chloride content of the well discharge to stabilize, indicated that the Suwannee aquifer was contributing about 10 percent of the flow to the well, of water containing about 800 mg/1 of chloride. The lower Hawthorn aquifer transmissivity in the vicinity of well 17-1 doubtless is higher than either the Suwannee or upper Hawthorn aquifer transmissivity so that it yields water to a discharging well more freely than the other aquifers. Consequently, most of the water discharged from the well comes from the lower Hawthorn even though the Suwannee may have the higher head. MECHANICS OF INTRUSION The mechanism of intrusion responsible for the chloride concentration in the lower Hawthorn aquifer has not been positively identified because of the several possibilities that exist. Two hypotheses are here described to explain the apparent hydraulic connection between this aquifer and the salt-water aquifer or aquifers occurring at greater depths, for example, those of the Ocala. The first hypothesis concerns the upward movement of saline water in a deep well or test hole which provides a connection between the aquifers. Essentially, this represents a point source of saline water, or where several wells are involved, would represent several point sources. The saline water from the deeper aquifer, under higher artesian pressure, would enter the lower Hawthorn aquifer at these points and spread out laterally through the aquifer. The increase in chloride in the lower Hawthorn aquifer would be greatest near these points and would decrease with increased distance from these points. The lateral spread of saline water would be controlled by pressure gradients, permeability distribution, subsurface barriers, and other related factors. This hypothesis would be consistent with most of the observed facts. The date of drilling of such wells, or test holes would mark the beginning of the intrusion, probably between 1940 and 1945. Although a detailed study has failed to disclose any well or test hole that could be the source of the saline water, this does not preclude the possibility that they exist although there is no

PAGE 29

INFORMATION CIRCULAR NO. 75 25 longer any surface evidence of the well or wells. As mentioned earlier, less than half as many wells tap the Suwannee aquifer than tap the lower Hawthorn, and it has been shown that although Suwannee water can and has intruded the lower Hawthorn, it has resulted in a freshening, rather than a deterioration of the water in the lower Hawthorn. In summary, the point-source hypothesis appears tenable in explaining a mechanism for the upward migration of water from the lower to the upper Hawthorn aquifer. It does not, as implied above, provide a realistic mechanism whereby the lower Hawthorn has become contaminated. A second, and more tenable, hypothesis concerns the upward leakage of saline water along the fault or fracture system which has been shown to exist in the report area, and which can provide a hydraulic connection between the lower Hawthorn aquifer and deeper aquifers containing saline water. It is postulated that faulting has created paths of high vertical permeability through what would otherwise be relatively impermeable sediments. Under these conditions upward leakage could occur resulting in what may be considered as point or line sources of saline water intrusion into the lower Hawthorn aquifer. This process apparently occurs elsewhere in Florida. At Warm Mineral Springs in Sarasota County, about 35 miles northwest of the report area, upward leakage of saline water occurs along a fracture system to emerge at the surface as a spring (S. R. Windham, oral commun., 1970). In St. Johns County, in northeastern Florida, Bermes and others (1963, p. 88) found a chloride anomaly that he ascribed to the upward leakage of water along a fault. This hypothesis is consistent, as is the first one, with the fact that the beginning of the intrusion of high-chloride water coincides with the period of increased use of water from the lower Hawthorn aquifer, about 1940-45. The lowering of artesian pressure within the aquifer increased the difference in head between the lower Hawthorn and the saline-water aquifer, resulting in an increase in upward leakage. Upon entering the lower Hawthorn aquifer, the saline water was of high concentration near the points of entry and moved laterally through the formation. Additional information will be required to prove the validity of either of the hypotheses described. In either case, saline water may enter the lower Hawthorn aquifer in the vicinity of wells 16-7 and 16-45 inasmuch as water from these wells show the greatest effects of intrusion. The quality of the water from well 16-45 (chloride 15,200 mg/1 and temperature 93°F), indicates a more direct hydraulic connection with the deep saline-water aquifer near this well site. Apparent offset of beds, as determined from a study of the gamma ray logs, suggests that well 16-45 is near a fault plane, which could be a zone of greater vertical permeability. Zones of greater permeability developed along fault planes may also account for the pattern of spreading of the intruding water as indicated on figures 6a and 6b. The existence of unmapped faults could affect the water quality, as well.

PAGE 30

26 BUREAU OF GEOLOGY The uncased wells constructed to the lower Hawthorn and Suwannee aquifers provide a conduit through which water can flow to the upper Hawthorn aquifer. Typical well construction in western Lee County includes the installation of well casing to the top of the limestone that forms the uppermost part of the upper Hawthorn aquifer. By seating the casing in this limestone, the overlying sand is prevented from entering the well. After seating the casing, an open hole is drilled until sufficient water is obtained for the required purpose. Thus, wells drilled to the Suwannee aquifer are also connected to the upper and lower Hawthorn aquifers through the open bore hole. Those drilled to the lower Hawthorn are also connected to the upper Hawthorn aquifer. Each well drilled to the deeper aquifers is a potential source of saline water leakage to the upper Hawthorn aquifer. Where a large number of these wells exist, the effects of a single well may be obscured. In the case of a somewhat isolated well (16-2), the effects have been noted for a distance of about 1,000 feet. The sandstone aquifer is not ordinarily directly connected to the deeper aquifers through open well bores. As previously indicated, in constructing wells to the Hawthorn aquifers, the casings usually are seated in limestone beneath the sandstone aquifer to prevent sand problems. Except for faulty construction, therefore, transfer of saline water to the sandstone apparently is the result of upward leakage from the part of the upper Hawthorn aquifer through the thin beds which separate them. (See also p. 13.) At places where the upper Hawthorn aquifer contains salty water, water of better quality may be obtained from the sandstone aquifer, but progressive changes in water quality may. occur with increased use of water from the aquifer. Water quality changes in the water-table aquifer may occur as a result of intrusion of sea water from surface-water sources, or from the discharge of saline water from artesian aquifers through wells. In McGregor Isles, deterioration in water quality from the water-table aquifer results primarily from the discharge or surface storage of saline water from the artesian aquifers. Where the water is discharged into drainage or irrigation ditches, the effects may be noted for considerable distances from the source. Discharge into a pond or other storage reservoir would similarly affect the water-table aquifer in the surrounding area. The lateral spread of saline water probably is accelerated during the winter and spring when the water table reaches a seasonal low. Some dilution probably occurs during the period of heavy rainfall, although it is unlikely that the saline water is completely flushed from the water-table aquifer. CONTROL PROCEDURES Procedures for eliminating the intrusion of saline water from the artesian aquifer below 1,500 feet into the lower Hawthorn and Suwannee aquifers

PAGE 31

INFORMATION CIRCULAR NO. 75 27 cannot be developed without additional detailed information to identify the mechanism of intrusion. However, the effects could be minimized-that is, the transfer of saline water could be slowed somewhat-if the artesian pressure within the lower Hawthorn and Suwannee aquifers was allowed to increase, particularly if heads could be established comparable to those which existed prior to the extensive development of water supplies from these aquifers. Placing cement plugs in individual wells between the upper and lower Hawthorn aquifers would prevent upward movement of saline water through the well into the upper Hawthorn. It would also prevent draft from the lower Hawthorn and Suwannee so that their potentiometric heads would have opportunity to recover. However, this increase in head may force water in the Suwannee and lower Hawthorn to the faults, from which it could continue its upward migration. In those parts of the report area, where the saline water may be coming into the Suwannee, plugging wells just below the lower Hawthorn aquifer doubtless would be at least partially effective. To be effective, all deep wells in the McGregor Isles and surrounding area would have to be plugged in this way. The proper positioning of these cement plugs can be readily determined from geophysical logs, many of which are available for wells at McGregor Isles. By plugging the deep artesian wells where indicated, some of the salt water now entering the upper Hawthorn, sandstone, and water table aquifers might be eliminated. If these wells were plugged the salt water eventually might be diluted or flushed from the aquifers above 300 feet. In some cases, improvement in quality of water from wells in the water table, sandstone, or upper Hawthorn aquifers may be obtained by plugging wells which have been identified as localized sources of saline water. The proper positioning of plugs is important, since plugging a well improperly could be a waste of time and, at most, could be harmful: capping a well at the surface in no way diminishes the effects of the intruding water into the upper Hawthorn or sandstone aquifers, and may actually exacerbate the problem. A monitoring program could determine the effectiveness of well plugging and obtain information for the correction of similar problems in other areas. SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS There are six and possibly seven aquifers within the uppermost 1,700 feet of sediments underlying McGregor Isles. Under natural conditions the artesian pressure, temperature, and mineralization of the water generally increases with depth. The aquifers which occur above depths of 300 feet normally contain water suitable for public water supplies. The aquifers between 300 feet and 1,000 feet contain water that is too highly mineralized for public supplies, but at some places, may be suitable for irrigation. The aquifer which occurs at depths

PAGE 32

28 BUREAU OF GEOLOGY below 1,500 feet probably contains water similar to that determined at Hot Springs where the dissolved solids were 34,000 mg/1 with a chloride content of 18,700 mg/l and a water temperature of 960F. The intrusion of saline water from the deep artesian aquifer has caused deterioration in water quality in parts of the lower Hawthorn aquifer where a maximum chloride concentration of 15,200 mg/1 and water temperature of 93"F have been measured. The saline water from the deep artesian aquifer moves upward, either through the open bore hole of as yet unidentified wells or test holes which connect the aquifers, or along a fault or fracture zone which provides a connection between them. In either case, the intruding saline water apparently enters the lower Hawthorn aquifer along faults or otherwise in the vicinity of wells 16-7 and 1645, and spreads laterally, with the effects decreasing with increased distance from the source. The saline water has spread over an area of about 2.5 square miles and continues unabated at the present time (1970). This saline-water that has migrated into the lower Hawthorn aquifer has, in turn, begun to migrate into the upper Hawthorn aquifer. The maximum chloride content of water from the upper Hawthorn aquifer was 3,050 mg/1 from well 16-20 in contrast to the 15,200 mg/1 for the lower. Each well drilled to the lower Hawthorn aquifer is a potential source of saline water leakage into the upper Hawthorn aquifer. There are a large number of such wells. Chemical quality records of water from this and other wells indicates a progressive increase in chlorides in the upper Hawthorn aquifer in some parts of the area, including several public-water wells in section 14. The high chloride content of water at places in the sandstone aquifer probably is the result of upward leakage from the upper Hawthorn aquifer through the thin beds which separate the aquifers. As of 1970, water within the sandstone aquifer has not been seriously affected by migration of saline water; this aquifer may be a suitable source of supply where the underlying aquifer contains saline water. However, any significant increase in water use from the sandstone aquifer may cause an increase in upward leakage rates as long as the upper Hawthorn aquifer contains saline water under higher head. The leakage of saline water into the upper Hawthorn, sandstone, and water-table aquifers would be reduced or eliminated by preventing the upward movement of water from the lower Hawthorn aquifer, and to a lesser extent from the Suwannee aquifer. A control procedure that probably would be effective in at least some parts of the report area involves setting cement plugs within these wells to separate the aquifers. This procedure will prevent intermixing of water from the different formations, where a major part of the migrating waters are flowing upward through the well bores. The proper positioning of these plugs can be readily determined from geophysical logs, and the improper placement of these plugs may result in the well becoming a

PAGE 33

INFORMATION CIRCULAR NO. 75 29 permanent source of salt-water leakage. When drilling new wells to the lower Hawthorn or Suwannee aquifers, extending the well casing to a depth at least 300 feet and sealing in place with concrete grout would prevent any upward leakage through the open-well bore into the upper Hawthorn and sandstone aquifers. It is estimated that 30 deep wells yielding water with chloride concentrations of 1,000 mg/1 or more, are present in the area. The location of most of these wells are included in this report. Although detailed records are not available on all of these wells, most of them probably allow upward transport of saline water into the water table, sandstone and upper Hawthorn aquifers. On the basis of data currently (1970) available, the saline water doubtless will continue to spread laterally into areas not presently affected as long as the supply of saline water lasts, and as long as hydraulic and density gradients near the sources of salt water remain sufficiently high. Within the lower Hawthorn aquifer, the lateral movement probably will be toward the south, southeast, and east. Within the upper Hawthorn aquifer, the saline water will continue to spread laterally from wells open to the lower Hawthorn aquifer. Problems of the greatest magnitude probably will occur in the vicinity of artesian wells which contain high concentrations of saline water and where the pressure in the upper Hawthorn aquifer has been significantly lowered by pumping. .Similar effects may be noted in the sandstone aquifer. As previously indicated, separating the upper and lower Hawthorn aquifers in existing wells, by plugging would be a good start toward corrective action. Establishment of a monitoring program would provide data concerning the effectiveness of a well plugging program. A well plugging and monitoring program would require the coordinated efforts of public and private agencies, as well as the cooperation of land owners and other residents of the area. Corrective action will not prevent the saline water from spreading further than it is now but would eventually limit its spread and, assuming continued withdrawals from the upper Hawthorn, would decrease the salinity over large areas if all man-made connections between the upper Hawthorn and the deeper aquifers were sealed off.

PAGE 34

30 BUREAU OF GEOLOGY REFERENCES Aultschuler, Z. S. 1958 (and Clarke, R. S., Jr., and Young, E. J.) The Geochemistry of Uranium in Apatite and Phosphorite: U.S. Geol. Survey Prof. Paper 314-D. Bermes, B. J. 1963 (and Leve, G. W. and Tarver, G. R.) Geology and Ground-water Resources of Flagler, Putnam and St. Johns counties, Florida: Fla. Geol. Survey Rept. of Inv. 32. Cooke, C. W. 1945 Geology of Florida: Fla. Geol. Survey Bull. 29. Hem, J. D. 1959 Study and Interpretation of the Chemical Characteristics of Natural Water: U.S. Geol. Survey Water-Supply Paper 1473. Patten, E. P., Jr. 1963 (and Bennett, G. D.) Application of Electrical and Radioactive Well Logging to Ground-Water Hydrology: U.S. Geol. Survey Water-Supply Paper 1544-D. Puri, H. S 1964 (and Vernon, R. O.) Summary of the Geology of Florida and a Guidebook to the Classic Exposures: Fla. Geol. Survey Sp. Pub. 5. Tanner, W. F. 1964 The Origin of the Gulf of Mexico in Trans. of Gulf Coast Assoc. of Geol. Soc., v. XV.

PAGE 35

Section B ia I and well LatitudeLongitude Il , h sj number number 9-1 263403N0815430.1 105 100 2 6 228 7-69 SS 9-2 263403N0815430.2 168 120 2 6 512 7-69 UH 10-1 263415N0815409.1 6 8 +18.6 6-11-58 83 740 6-58 (LH), UH 10-2 263417N0815323.1 880 150 6 10 +19.5 4.16-69 150F 87 730 4-68 (Su),LH, UH E,GR, C,F 10-3 263428N0815318.1 4 5 +21.6 6-11-58 100P 85 716 6-58 (Su, LH), UH 10-4 263404N0815413.1 6 8 +23.6 10-22-57 100P 82 940 4-68 (LH), UH 11-1 263428N0815303.1 27 24 2 14 79 64 7-69 WT 14-1 26332310815224.1 225 138 8 9 7.7 10-3068 109 4-68 UH 14-2 263337N0815246.1 270 126 4 8 95 69 2-66 UH 14-3 263325N0815213.1 235 121 8 7 UH 14-4 263325N0815202.1 225 136 8 8 102 10-67 UH 14-5 263317N0815244.1 186 134 8 7 69 77 134 5-69 X UH 14-6 263317N0815239.1 187 134 8 7 55 135 9-67 UH 14-7 263317N0815233.1 235 138 8 8 UH 14-8 263312N0815244.1 183 130 8 7 97 141 7-67 UH 14-9 263312N0815238.1 197 124 8 7 71 81 7-67 UH 78 162 6-70 14-10 263312N0815233.1 .184 127 8 8 83 105 8-67 UH 79 224 6-70 14-11 263312N0815228.1 206 130 8 8 123 87 8-67 UH 14-12 263312N0815221.1 225 126 8 9 87 87 867 UH 15-1 263329N0815412.1 6 6 200F 84 5250 4-67 (LH), UH 15-2 263337NOB15354.1 6 6 +13.5 4-16-69 50F 83 1900 667 (LH),UH 15-3 263317N0815407.1 626 130 6 7 +13.0 4-1669 300F 83 4550 468 (LH), UH E, OR, C, F, R 15-4 263336N 0815343.1 640 240 4 6 15F 83 1900 4-67 LH E,C,F 15-5 263327N0815332.1 6 6 300F 1300 6-58 (LH), UH 1700 4-67 156 263311N0815342.1 6 6 +18.5 8-30-68 450F 83 4150 6-67 (LH), UH 15-7 263403N0815317.1 600+ 6 11 +14.0 6-11-58 200F 87 720 6-58 (Su), LH, UH 15-8 263317N0815400.1 861 119 6 7 225F 84 1325 4-67 X (Su, L),UH E, OR, C, F, R 15-9 263347N0815403.1 200 140 4 7 300 467 UH 15-10 263352N0815356.1 160 2 8 310 8-67 UH 15-11 263351N0815353.1 590 100 6 8 (LH), UH 16-1 263351N0815439.1 583 142 4 6 +22.3 4-8-46 83 1520 4-46 (LH), UH 5300« 4-67 16-2 263353N0815447.1 6 5 +14.5 4-1669 100F 83 7360 2-69 (LH), UH 16-3 263317N0815447.1 6 175F 1400 1957 (LH), UH 16-4 263337N0815435.1 520 132 6 7 +15.5 4-16-69 485F 85 4650 4-68 X (LH), UH E, OR, C, F 16-5 263335N0815431.1 600 6 9 81 3600 10-68 (LH), UH a. Analysis doubtful; not shown on Figure 6A Table 1. -Record of wells in the McGregor Isles area. Abbreviations used in table: Aquifers-WT (water table), SS (sandstone), UH (upper Hawthorn), LH (lower Hawthorn), and Su (Suwannee). For wells which produce from more than one aquifer, the principal aquifer(s) is shown in brackets. Geophysical logs -E (electric log), GR (gamma ray), C (caliper), F (flowmeter), and R (resistivity).

PAGE 36

SeciIionr I Wb 1I IP und well Latitud -Longtllude number number 164 263325N0815430.1 950 6 7 +18.0 6-12-58 2044 6.58 (Su, LII), UII 83 2600 647 16.7 263343NOB15422.1 582 138 6 I 20F 87 10200 4.68 X (LII), UII E, GR, C, 1 16.8 263338N0815416.1 657 126 6 7 200F 85 7500 468 Su, (LII), UIll , GR, C, 16.9 263342N0815432.1 764 170 6 7 +30.3 2.10-34 475P 82 950 2.34 Su,(LII), UII P, GR, C, ' +15,0 2.16-67 85 4750 247 16-10 263347N0815428.1 5 6 1900 9-57 (LH), UIf 16-11 263351N0815423.1 797 125 4 6 -4 4-2-68 10 85 7700 468 X Su,(LII), UlI H, OR, C, F,R 16-12 263359N0815418.1 4 9 +23.9 10-22-57 125P 85 700 10-57 (Su), LII, UII 16-13 263402N0815416.1 997 6 9 +22.5 10-22-57 125F 85 760 10-57 (Su), LH, UIf 16-14 263403N0815417,1 116 120 6 7 +29,3 9-2544 30F 85 870 9.50 X (Su), LH, UI H, GR, C,F +15.5 2.16.67 740 7.69 16-15 263343N0815416.1 20 20 4 6 -6.5 4 3-68 65 74 5750 448 X WT E 16-16 263325N0815437.1 90 2 8 510 8-67 SS 16-17 263347N0815428.1 140 2 8 670 8.67 Ul 16-18 263337N0815436.1 220 183 2 7 30 79 1560 467 UH 16-19 263324N0815438.1 95 2 7 -2.3 7-28-69 SS S1620 263354N0815452.1 185 2 6 78 2160 6-69 UH 16-21 263354N0815454.1 180 2 6 78 780 569 UH 16-22 263353N0815453.1 190 2 6 78 1980 569 X UH 16-23 263354N0815453.1 200 2 6 1020 569 UH 16-24 263353N0815452.1 16-21 263354N 0815454.1 180 2 6 78 780 5-69 UH 16-22 263353N 0815453.1 190 2 6 78 500 569 UH 16-23 263354N'0815453.1 190 2 6 78 1980 5469 X UH 16-24. 263353N,0815452.1 200 2 6 1020 569 UH 16-25 263353N-0815449.1 180 2 6 78 1900 549 UH 16-26 263350N0815445.1 150 26 500 569 UH 16-27 263354N0815453.1 180 2 6 UH 16-28 263350N0815448.1 185 2 6 78 420 569 UH 16.29 263350N 0815448.2 60 2 6 520 5-69 WT 16-30 263355N0815441.1 90 2 6 260 549 8S 16-31 263351N0815437.1 92 2 6 200 569 SS 16-32 263353N 0815433.1 167 2 6 78 1100 5-69 UH 16-33 263353N0815433.2 93 2 6 240 569 SS 16-34 263338N0815434.1 80 2 7 400 569 SS 16-35 263343N0815457.1 189 160 2 6 180 569 X UH 16-36 263339N0815436.1 190 2 7 1100 649 UH 16-37 263348N0815416.1 100 2 9 106 749 SS 16-38 263348N0815416.2 40 4 9 -1.5 7-2349 76 620 7-69 WT

PAGE 37

Section ¶ and well Latitude -Longtude ; I I number number -4 16-39 263353N0815425.1 94 2 9 260 7-69 SS 16-40 263358N0815432.1 200 2 8 975 7-69 UYH 16-41 263401N0815437.1 168 147 2 8 695 7-69 UH 16-42 263333N0815437.1 200 2 7 1080 7-69 UH 1643 263333N0815441.1 150 2 6 440 7.69 UH 16-44 263327N0815441.1 150 140 2 6 212 7-69 UH 16-45 263332N0815455.1 710 252 6 6 250F 93 15200 1069 (Su, LH) E, GR,C, P H' 16-46 263324N0815446.1 165 141 2 6 + 2.5 113-69 SF 705 10-69 UH 17-1 263312N,0815513.1 682 137 6 7 +17.0 4-2567 400F 83 2100 4-67 X (Su, LH),UH E, GR, C, F 20-1 263309N0815513.1 582 136 6 7 ISOF 83 2100 5-67 (LH), UH E, GR, C, F S21-1 263304N0815447.1 60 42 4 8 90 567 X WT 21-2 263244N0815501.1 383 129 8 5 +18.3 10-25-57 100F 81 1000 5-67 (LH),UH E 21-3 263310N0815432.1 538 121 6 8 83 1550 6-67 X (LH), UH E, GR, C, F, R S21-4 263302N0815447.1 803 130 6 8 200F 84 900 5-67 (Su, LH), UH E, GR, C, F 21-5 263258N0815429.1 938 146 5 8 +15 4-25-67 100F 84 700 4-67 (Su, LH), UH E, GR, C,F .21-6 263222N0815504.1 697 130 6 6 200F 84 1000 2-69 (LH),UH U , OR, C, F, R 22-1 263251N0815411.1 626 130 6 6 + 9.5 4-26-67 60F 82 555 9-50 X (LH), UH E, GR, C, F o 560 4-68 22-2 263304N0815409.1 897 172 6 7 +14,5 4-14-67 400F 86 660 10-57 X (Su), LH, UI E,GR, C, F +23.5 9-13-50 700 9-50 22-3 263237N0815414.1 206 137 6 6 + 8.6 10-10-57 100F 78 120 8-67 UH E 22-4 263304N0815338.1 629 128 6 6 300F 2000 10-57 (LH), UH E, GR, C, F 83 4000 6-67 22-5 263304N0815326.1 6 7 300F 84 650 9-50 (LH), UH 2300 4-68 226 263252N0815337.1 6 6 +18.0 4-16-69 100F 83 1520 6-67 (LH), UH 22-7 263252N0815325.1 599 172 6 7 +16.5 4-16-69 500F 83 650 9-50 (LH), UH 1280 468 22-8 263300N0815317.1 6 7 200F 83 1550 667 X (LH), UH 1940 5-70 22-9 263232N0815414.1 670 6 6 + 9.5 10-23-67 200F 84 540 6-67 (LH), UH 22-10 263242N0815349.1 677 151 6 8 200F 82 570 2-69 (LH), UH 22-11 263304N0815358.1 596 148 6 7 +13.5 4-20-67 350F 83 1740 468 (LH), UH 22-12 263248N0815347.1 155 126 3 8 225 2-69 UH

PAGE 38

Hardness 3 1*Disas CaCOa a O Date MagPotStrcar Chl-. olAlkSection of Aquifer(s) SlCal. neSodasontbonSul. orFluoved Ca. Nonalland well collica clum slum ium slum ium ate fate ide ride. SolMg. carnity . number ectIds bonas ColIon (SIO ) (Ca) (Mg) (Na) (K) (Sr) (HCOg) (SO4) (CI) (F) (sum) ate CaCO8 pH or 21-1 7-14-69 WT 20 120 12 40 1.4 372 3.2 96 0.2 477 376 71 305 800 7.9 30 16-15 43-68 WT 5750 11,500 17,700 14-5 5.15-69 UH 24 42 33 59 7.5 1.8 242 0.0 134 1.2 420 243 44 198 750 8.1 5 16-35 7.14-69 UH 16 52 31 60 3.9 180 170 1.4 426 263 116 148 800 7.6 5 16-23 7-14-69 UH 15 171 153 876 17 87 176 202 1940 1.2 3470 1067 923 144 750 7.4 3 22-1 43-68 (LH), UH 17 67 85 332 19 11 206 275 560 2,0 1470 529 360 169 6250 7.6 10 21-3 44-68 (LH), UH 1490 3240 5400 22-8 44-68 (LH), UH 1620 3420 5700 16-4 44-68 (LH),UH 14 248 318 2460 77 38 176 624 4650 1.5 8530 1970 1830 144 14,300 7.4 5 16-7 42-68 (LH), UH 14 428 640 5620 18.3 39 164 1370 10,200 1.7 18,600 3740 3610 135 29,500 7.4 5 15-8 43-68 (Su,LH),UH 17 111 120 668 29 19 180 344 1250 1.7 2650 792 644 148 4620 7.4 5 17-1 44-68 (Su, LH), UH 1960 4070 6800 16-11 42-68 Su (LH), UH 18 340 494 4280 150 26 170 1180 7700 1.9 14,300 2910 2770 139 23,200 7.4 5 22-2. 44-68 (Su),LH,UH 18 86 87 418 24 15 184 340 700 1.7 1790 590 438 151 3050 7.5 5 16-14 44-68 (Su),LH, UH 19 94 91 382 18 17 184 296 710 1.6 1720 628 478 151 3000 7.4 5 Hot 52,100 Springs 12-23-64 8 639 1070 10,400 385 131 2660 18,700 1.4 34,000 6330 6220 52,100 7.8 Table 2. -Chemical analyses of water from wells in McGregor Isles and at Hot Springs. (For description of aquifer codes see table 1). Chemical constituents in milligrams per liter.

PAGE 40

-FLORIDA-GEOLOGICAL-SURVEY COPYRIGHT NOTICE © [year of publication as printed] Florida Geological Survey [source text] The Florida Geological Survey holds all rights to the source text of this electronic resource on behalf of the State of Florida. The Florida Geological Survey shall be considered the copyright holder for the text of this publication. Under the Statutes of the State of Florida (FS 257.05; 257.105, and 377.075), the Florida Geologic Survey (Tallahassee, FL), publisher of the Florida Geologic Survey, as a division of state government, makes its documents public (i.e., published) and extends to the state's official agencies and libraries, including the University of Florida's Smathers Libraries, rights of reproduction. The Florida Geological Survey has made its publications available to the University of Florida, on behalf of the State University System of Florida, for the purpose of digitization and Internet distribution. The Florida Geological Survey reserves all rights to its publications. All uses, excluding those made under "fair use" provisions of U.S. copyright legislation (U.S. Code, Title 17, Section 107), are restricted. Contact the Florida Geological Survey for additional information and permissions.


xml version 1.0
xml-stylesheet type textxsl href daitss_report_xhtml.xsl
REPORT xsi:schemaLocation 'http:www.fcla.edudlsmddaitss http:www.fcla.edudlsmddaitssdaitss2Report.xsd' xmlns:xsi 'http:www.w3.org2001XMLSchema-instance' xmlns 'http:www.fcla.edudlsmddaitss'
DISSEMINATION IEID 'E20080606_AAAAOD' PACKAGE 'UF00001135_00001' INGEST_TIME '2008-06-07T21:42:45-04:00'
AGREEMENT_INFO ACCOUNT 'UF' PROJECT 'UFDC'
REQUEST_EVENTS TITLE Disseminate Event
REQUEST_EVENT NAME 'disseminate request placed' TIME '2017-04-07T12:43:03-04:00' NOTE 'request id: 310283; E20080606_AAAAOD' AGENT 'UF73'
finished' '2017-04-07T12:48:11-04:00' '' 'SYSTEM'
FILES
FILE SIZE '59968' DFID 'info:fdaE20080606_AAAAODfileF20080608_AAAEPS' ORIGIN 'DEPOSITOR' PATH 'sip-files00002.jp2'
MESSAGE_DIGEST ALGORITHM 'MD5' 207899afd86d22ec0eac9a2dd63e7f40
'SHA-1' 1067bf4bea014bd497d79481c4b3c7c783faa3ef
EVENT '2017-02-24T15:53:41-05:00' OUTCOME 'success'
PROCEDURE describe
'62198' 'info:fdaE20080606_AAAAODfileF20080608_AAAEPT' 'sip-files00002.jpg'
50438b8794b79f54b5e60ffd3dc677a9
722b405488565702c58540affb7c90fc227d6d41
'2017-02-24T15:54:13-05:00'
describe
'18390' 'info:fdaE20080606_AAAAODfileF20080608_AAAEPU' 'sip-files00002.pro'
9ad060a31b58ad5ad0f17cbaa2926e94
27f8d951d481d2f4f0ba8e83ae891aecf48b5c9a
'2017-02-24T15:53:38-05:00'
describe
'19661' 'info:fdaE20080606_AAAAODfileF20080608_AAAEPV' 'sip-files00002.QC.jpg'
059f537f6b117e8a3da62e5b99441fb2
714789655ece12318850096ebce633ef3d38e747
'2017-02-24T15:53:25-05:00'
describe
'820460' 'info:fdaE20080606_AAAAODfileF20080608_AAAEPW' 'sip-files00002.tif'
317442abe0604740998bcee13843539e
cbf041e67371e7348d08c6dcddc12308faa8c82a
'2017-02-24T15:54:02-05:00'
describe
'1201' 'info:fdaE20080606_AAAAODfileF20080608_AAAEPX' 'sip-files00002.txt'
c693731ee4ed129ba52be9890431de2e
b2504683945682f840d33ec7c1f7a943f053f0f6
'2017-02-24T15:52:54-05:00'
describe
'6112' 'info:fdaE20080606_AAAAODfileF20080608_AAAEPY' 'sip-files00002thm.jpg'
bfcc8081001d15288850c7fff409d213
64280f99c6394ee33256bb2aae97714b914b9d5b
describe
'18359' 'info:fdaE20080606_AAAAODfileF20080608_AAAEPZ' 'sip-files00003.jp2'
a71ebb37c592bc28a03349391bc11906
131cfa0a28139eacf6f2e59c1e760b19e7985376
'2017-02-24T15:52:57-05:00'
describe
'22256' 'info:fdaE20080606_AAAAODfileF20080608_AAAEQA' 'sip-files00003.jpg'
51bc66c78eef06bbf6bb4c15170e7a21
5537dc78119d3a9291c6f511652e377b2b6c3115
'2017-02-24T15:53:07-05:00'
describe
'5834' 'info:fdaE20080606_AAAAODfileF20080608_AAAEQB' 'sip-files00003.pro'
fadd71c3df58a4207cdefba03ee630b5
e0750b14ea0e48231f0e46850ee6ab3f9ffa8e2e
'2017-02-24T15:53:52-05:00'
describe
'6971' 'info:fdaE20080606_AAAAODfileF20080608_AAAEQC' 'sip-files00003.QC.jpg'
1af98cc48dc86ab83528da70569380d4
2fcce33bf34ea3219744446074c5de7ecfceee00
'2017-02-24T15:53:30-05:00'
describe
'874744' 'info:fdaE20080606_AAAAODfileF20080608_AAAEQD' 'sip-files00003.tif'
2e4e263211fb4155e86a3e66a5336c03
2d067a16ef079d3eb64aa6ab9ac2d1ca7235a92f
'2017-02-24T15:54:19-05:00'
describe
'491' 'info:fdaE20080606_AAAAODfileF20080608_AAAEQE' 'sip-files00003.txt'
5641f4dfc53d5dbad96a255bdf6ac317
c7f1cd5dc9f2a2056b0c226361aca5ccda6794ab
'2017-02-24T15:53:08-05:00'
describe
'2273' 'info:fdaE20080606_AAAAODfileF20080608_AAAEQF' 'sip-files00003thm.jpg'
635913d26cbfa6c9506e399c8bc8aab4
9d51a60c329f372981b7dfda317733cd0490b34a
'2017-02-24T15:53:47-05:00'
describe
'102342' 'info:fdaE20080606_AAAAODfileF20080608_AAAEQG' 'sip-files00004.jp2'
33db7125594fbbde0eb3b1a5347d9913
69e08c84dff34720efb7d286877b20e91d57118e
'2017-02-24T15:54:14-05:00'
describe
'109728' 'info:fdaE20080606_AAAAODfileF20080608_AAAEQH' 'sip-files00004.jpg'
73c95a52e906223dacb7f5ec1776b19b
9cb0627491b4789e09e9794b880de3808c9e6f73
'2017-02-24T15:53:46-05:00'
describe
'51692' 'info:fdaE20080606_AAAAODfileF20080608_AAAEQI' 'sip-files00004.pro'
51f3baab2d835af075629314834e794d
80191c76670f377f2fdc27dec73f92f350ebf32c
'2017-02-24T15:52:39-05:00'
describe
'39757' 'info:fdaE20080606_AAAAODfileF20080608_AAAEQJ' 'sip-files00004.QC.jpg'
6eb798d4cd81b739e5b1a5263393e3d4
50318225c6abcbbcb555c700702a194c899ad292
'2017-02-24T15:54:03-05:00'
describe
'848680' 'info:fdaE20080606_AAAAODfileF20080608_AAAEQK' 'sip-files00004.tif'
59f75386f803cab7834fe47232f1a9fb
c925bc9f36be3bb5962e19bf9a0f39b10af68fad
'2017-02-24T15:53:59-05:00'
describe
'2298' 'info:fdaE20080606_AAAAODfileF20080608_AAAEQL' 'sip-files00004.txt'
08ceb68ad66d1319185c7ae63295ab18
ba49da26d2bd21a5d8c85f7d6204ee5341a42b01
'2017-02-24T15:54:07-05:00'
describe
Invalid character
WARNING CODE 'Daitss::Anomaly' Invalid character
Invalid character
'9459' 'info:fdaE20080606_AAAAODfileF20080608_AAAEQM' 'sip-files00004thm.jpg'
6f13c86b77557c0fc8e8e42456d887c2
3ec009ba710d921f0ebbe6f542521f26465913d7
'2017-02-24T15:53:09-05:00'
describe
'37562' 'info:fdaE20080606_AAAAODfileF20080608_AAAEQN' 'sip-files00005.jp2'
96f137f5f3ffca89380617ff3b7ce87c
2f00e9447ddb8e05e0cba8c0fe9d0293f6f7daf7
'2017-02-24T15:53:44-05:00'
describe
'39148' 'info:fdaE20080606_AAAAODfileF20080608_AAAEQO' 'sip-files00005.jpg'
95c8fb2e5bc92618922c76b392fb0c14
89c61fff3aa3467209d3bfd8b95fafdaeb3fd03a
'2017-02-24T15:53:57-05:00'
describe
'18913' 'info:fdaE20080606_AAAAODfileF20080608_AAAEQP' 'sip-files00005.pro'
1ea77e735d65440a222976f851a5c990
a191204aff03349b5c6dec140d31bf3b22aad2ea
'2017-02-24T15:53:49-05:00'
describe
'12116' 'info:fdaE20080606_AAAAODfileF20080608_AAAEQQ' 'sip-files00005.QC.jpg'
eb38b4e42c641393de764e01d6fcb8fa
7de04623ee5a6b8d799b489d360ebe301162a204
'2017-02-24T15:53:05-05:00'
describe
'901032' 'info:fdaE20080606_AAAAODfileF20080608_AAAEQR' 'sip-files00005.tif'
362564771bd47210745ac35bc6e460dd
fecf3145daae2c9dab7378e040eaa0409a882f60
'2017-02-24T15:53:01-05:00'
describe
'894' 'info:fdaE20080606_AAAAODfileF20080608_AAAEQS' 'sip-files00005.txt'
c247f797a2039566be7612ba7cb25127
c0ff1ef6558c63e966296ea9bdc945415594ca94
'2017-02-24T15:54:21-05:00'
describe
'4018' 'info:fdaE20080606_AAAAODfileF20080608_AAAEQT' 'sip-files00005thm.jpg'
e877f6ac8c845b38b96de1aace0c8560
f86fef2a8a8703815dcbcdaaf51fc78ab697a743
'2017-02-24T15:52:43-05:00'
describe
'151741' 'info:fdaE20080606_AAAAODfileF20080608_AAAEQU' 'sip-files00006.jp2'
9c166d0146ec801c79e7b89ab5cb078e
e91057a0e56481ee7ebbdb40f69128137c838253
describe
'140574' 'info:fdaE20080606_AAAAODfileF20080608_AAAEQV' 'sip-files00006.jpg'
332b9e025fe28f9e5543cef981cd72c0
6ae5048cd872ab74efd3e44639c71dd66e8a5cc3
'2017-02-24T15:54:22-05:00'
describe
'55205' 'info:fdaE20080606_AAAAODfileF20080608_AAAEQW' 'sip-files00006.pro'
fad6d854c1093a2970352e14fda74102
070ef9068435b41834cc0a4fc73260478923bc7a
describe
'45673' 'info:fdaE20080606_AAAAODfileF20080608_AAAEQX' 'sip-files00006.QC.jpg'
c3ec9eb09f99db95c940fb4cb992a253
e9109c1851d0b507dd61f8545597037a2dcd590f
'2017-02-24T15:52:56-05:00'
describe
'876252' 'info:fdaE20080606_AAAAODfileF20080608_AAAEQY' 'sip-files00006.tif'
5b192dfd073bbeaf49d949b47d03ef11
3d07ef742edc221a6183ee1ba4adef8bb3e87ee1
'2017-02-24T15:54:09-05:00'
describe
'2348' 'info:fdaE20080606_AAAAODfileF20080608_AAAEQZ' 'sip-files00006.txt'
1fa5d05207585206ee0de759d7aec361
0774b95390031039015964df23c01d6f044ad495
describe
'11369' 'info:fdaE20080606_AAAAODfileF20080608_AAAERA' 'sip-files00006thm.jpg'
3e331021861f91b3b409cf5326dfa2ed
07e663500a34112bc877934098100babd101bcac
'2017-02-24T15:53:27-05:00'
describe
'205280' 'info:fdaE20080606_AAAAODfileF20080608_AAAERB' 'sip-files00007.jp2'
25d1f5a23a1f522dfdb45f695348e23a
f99cb3173fcf050031f64b3b04963230d87366d0
'2017-02-24T15:52:32-05:00'
describe
'178535' 'info:fdaE20080606_AAAAODfileF20080608_AAAERC' 'sip-files00007.jpg'
b6646db20f65a8cf5d6cb255b4f62d86
d9efc875456104ec18cc40aef1409e3a6fdc5f70
describe
'80000' 'info:fdaE20080606_AAAAODfileF20080608_AAAERD' 'sip-files00007.pro'
6907e7f53d240a18b4e514efb1661a73
b9724de5b496a76e898de2b0dab298eae6860465
'2017-02-24T15:53:23-05:00'
describe
'53914' 'info:fdaE20080606_AAAAODfileF20080608_AAAERE' 'sip-files00007.QC.jpg'
948555d3e741d7bc14f9e13e3a49fbe0
b6138abb3b5d1135d2188aa0c17a3f7673e1103d
'2017-02-24T15:54:05-05:00'
describe
'958048' 'info:fdaE20080606_AAAAODfileF20080608_AAAERF' 'sip-files00007.tif'
ba1af9d22695385ee1e1aaa342aeec88
a3522f50596be0229669911a20a46f35dedbf823
'2017-02-24T15:54:01-05:00'
describe
'3185' 'info:fdaE20080606_AAAAODfileF20080608_AAAERG' 'sip-files00007.txt'
0021276e140f60ea0ee46872c085084d
04dcbb963fd297855ff0dd76ae9347f0166410ab
'2017-02-24T15:52:53-05:00'
describe
'12657' 'info:fdaE20080606_AAAAODfileF20080608_AAAERH' 'sip-files00007thm.jpg'
ffae66d9c5a52eee6ef6363e10764628
b39f623e3b27b662945f776f4b95a30a79f04be1
'2017-02-24T15:53:54-05:00'
describe
'167566' 'info:fdaE20080606_AAAAODfileF20080608_AAAERI' 'sip-files00008.jp2'
d83347e2b872b4d4d1c770d9ce46f44c
4440cd5f7256d7754abf5870d125fe86473f6dd4
'2017-02-24T15:52:49-05:00'
describe
'155232' 'info:fdaE20080606_AAAAODfileF20080608_AAAERJ' 'sip-files00008.jpg'
0511571ea877a11dd69798101bd4a882
765d5449444a6881e6c42fad73f96b8478416f86
'2017-02-24T15:54:11-05:00'
describe
'62830' 'info:fdaE20080606_AAAAODfileF20080608_AAAERK' 'sip-files00008.pro'
eb889d4b797700fb0e34c58c6cc9e24d
c0cb6d0a0e7f810e5c51417f513dbd59d6591c84
'2017-02-24T15:53:58-05:00'
describe
'48892' 'info:fdaE20080606_AAAAODfileF20080608_AAAERL' 'sip-files00008.QC.jpg'
e1a54d1369f2d85e8da6cd47cb64fa3e
91f99020b043d7923d273537fc6010cb0d135a87
describe
'904876' 'info:fdaE20080606_AAAAODfileF20080608_AAAERM' 'sip-files00008.tif'
4b45f2f8da9da8657f4ff741e3e6bbaf
075ec7fa1251e1ff97a56d5174a6e7a25476b09e
'2017-02-24T15:53:39-05:00'
describe
'2585' 'info:fdaE20080606_AAAAODfileF20080608_AAAERN' 'sip-files00008.txt'
54c06bec767ea1535598ca25e34fe546
5d081b997bbb772c622f5d4b833a68c341ee1895
'2017-02-24T15:52:51-05:00'
describe
'11687' 'info:fdaE20080606_AAAAODfileF20080608_AAAERO' 'sip-files00008thm.jpg'
babc51229b6b2ce42b8bdfb4b06c3806
9bb02c9a9a6b94b431f663fc8fe2e5c814ca5db3
'2017-02-24T15:53:53-05:00'
describe
'127246' 'info:fdaE20080606_AAAAODfileF20080608_AAAERP' 'sip-files00009.jp2'
0140175619db9b881b0ac97f9c62cbfc
0a95ab3d78ee50a2b448480ac4eb9bf980e16b4c
describe
'46043' 'info:fdaE20080606_AAAAODfileF20080608_AAAERQ' 'sip-files00009.jpg'
e4baa7fe9eea511bed8ade2853d2b50d
4f9c1afbbc6639fd869b0b3b8bbdac1f12d93cc2
'2017-02-24T15:52:40-05:00'
describe
'1923' 'info:fdaE20080606_AAAAODfileF20080608_AAAERR' 'sip-files00009.pro'
9afc2f567e815e9eb1b2557ce6ed462a
c1c1bdf52003cbc2e1b487d9c1c5b93248d159d6
'2017-02-24T15:52:37-05:00'
describe
'15286' 'info:fdaE20080606_AAAAODfileF20080608_AAAERS' 'sip-files00009.QC.jpg'
27e69dce5428c3da89e6cc24878257d6
094e78c2b375dc5fc4503cf236c62baf27a4a0fb
'2017-02-24T15:53:48-05:00'
describe
'960616' 'info:fdaE20080606_AAAAODfileF20080608_AAAERT' 'sip-files00009.tif'
56b8de000a69cddf57ad46ea8bb8503e
240b7713acdc02217d43ce28f0335bd3abd43bd5
'2017-02-24T15:54:06-05:00'
describe
'126' 'info:fdaE20080606_AAAAODfileF20080608_AAAERU' 'sip-files00009.txt'
8b62cb614affdcb1c74d59b0e5593439
7d3481439e2beb3ccd29c5cafb0a73fd1fae5df1
'2017-02-24T15:54:00-05:00'
describe
'4756' 'info:fdaE20080606_AAAAODfileF20080608_AAAERV' 'sip-files00009thm.jpg'
2491c4ae089f7e1269a95db60eaf1c62
9dc30fa24949c8e5a3e7f4d4bc9895a63c48775d
describe
'118690' 'info:fdaE20080606_AAAAODfileF20080608_AAAERW' 'sip-files00010.jp2'
89b0534fb7905110ec642bfcf6b0f290
d6081d4d496dae4403e327c84d52888882656a85
'2017-02-24T15:53:40-05:00'
describe
'101287' 'info:fdaE20080606_AAAAODfileF20080608_AAAERX' 'sip-files00010.jpg'
c11230c2b7e28ce71e8ad9cb131a5b0d
1071e90b875619122eba468c2ec4e668e0e22ad5
'2017-02-24T15:53:03-05:00'
describe
'3769' 'info:fdaE20080606_AAAAODfileF20080608_AAAERY' 'sip-files00010.pro'
29de0052e79b4f32ffc0aab333ed077a
e0ecca53bc8e88bba538af9b39a453ff7fbae0d7
describe
'33886' 'info:fdaE20080606_AAAAODfileF20080608_AAAERZ' 'sip-files00010.QC.jpg'
68bac027e000b23adc7b7d48ab5286ea
79b0c80434264ed5fd99065e7d98db79db5fb7f8
'2017-02-24T15:52:33-05:00'
describe
'903860' 'info:fdaE20080606_AAAAODfileF20080608_AAAESA' 'sip-files00010.tif'
c5d031220c48a6933a18ddddc8f2c1a1
a7081e3b58cca8c391df838daa763b4e23183394
'2017-02-24T15:53:35-05:00'
describe
'213' 'info:fdaE20080606_AAAAODfileF20080608_AAAESB' 'sip-files00010.txt'
78dd9cb81883a1a710626edc4c238bb9
d5711ac104e332b59ca672e4efe72109f27339af
'2017-02-24T15:52:48-05:00'
describe
'10385' 'info:fdaE20080606_AAAAODfileF20080608_AAAESC' 'sip-files00010thm.jpg'
e9c36c582402cd1bed29a2aca37b0402
3884452b81fb6798fae2ff6f02a034de815da9c0
'2017-02-24T15:52:50-05:00'
describe
'170511' 'info:fdaE20080606_AAAAODfileF20080608_AAAESD' 'sip-files00011.jp2'
8e111d49cd1dca29bf3f2aaa5355a1de
2188f7b2ef756142b7052b2fbda40f470c0fa66f
describe
'149989' 'info:fdaE20080606_AAAAODfileF20080608_AAAESE' 'sip-files00011.jpg'
e4c79fae96df57a8de09a15f1e59ec50
91336b95d474f445d136f971a3eb683c198f5ea0
'2017-02-24T15:53:36-05:00'
describe
'64345' 'info:fdaE20080606_AAAAODfileF20080608_AAAESF' 'sip-files00011.pro'
ac6638b6a609f108cb88ed1924953f84
55186c0eff07122ac21c517b0c0fa1c32fa6fa5e
'2017-02-24T15:54:20-05:00'
describe
'46609' 'info:fdaE20080606_AAAAODfileF20080608_AAAESG' 'sip-files00011.QC.jpg'
9de6d29eb461f3a381ac5606dba5c8a7
0d02ec3ec8973b5d6dc33286f8d6ccb615c645f2
'2017-02-24T15:52:34-05:00'
describe
'957428' 'info:fdaE20080606_AAAAODfileF20080608_AAAESH' 'sip-files00011.tif'
0cb734fa06a78925326a7bbc5baead7d
4f29200aec5b8180526d91a42a1db1508a7eb5bb
'2017-02-24T15:53:32-05:00'
describe
'info:fdaE20080606_AAAAODfileF20080608_AAAESI' 'sip-files00011.txt'
961bd644f1235ddf07cc3caeaffccc61
fe53fd6e5feb30234a51338a992fa638b32b6fea
describe
'11054' 'info:fdaE20080606_AAAAODfileF20080608_AAAESJ' 'sip-files00011thm.jpg'
394957bfce90d77158c3d1429c43423e
f12ea98128f78c494c9e57341c427f54e9eab5db
describe
'975534' 'info:fdaE20080606_AAAAODfileF20080608_AAAESK' 'sip-files00012.jp2'
8cda7c9c05e8375b59345752ec25fd2a
f469dc588b8e9d1a6576c57082f20eaf86827d3b
describe
'95400' 'info:fdaE20080606_AAAAODfileF20080608_AAAESL' 'sip-files00012.jpg'
76843c11ea09ef4d84ecd7d0dde69647
1a46635172177cb8924ac085fc4544bc3e1171c0
'2017-02-24T15:53:02-05:00'
describe
'7401' 'info:fdaE20080606_AAAAODfileF20080608_AAAESM' 'sip-files00012.pro'
fcdb377a3bd5cc26835f58d678c4f65f
3f102980a93abc48a7c99d66a294ac54e2833cd6
'2017-02-24T15:52:47-05:00'
describe
'27888' 'info:fdaE20080606_AAAAODfileF20080608_AAAESN' 'sip-files00012.QC.jpg'
bd7a17690afddcb0061a698ec8bb690f
129db9f89ad3496f8dfdce6473dbacf8cbc4970d
describe
'7816588' 'info:fdaE20080606_AAAAODfileF20080608_AAAESO' 'sip-files00012.tif'
1d12785f542e2fdd92f21e8daf6733da
f579b338d3902a79bcce1192e98cac84378ad218
'2017-02-24T15:54:15-05:00'
describe
'352' 'info:fdaE20080606_AAAAODfileF20080608_AAAESP' 'sip-files00012.txt'
b02c81cc2284f2fcfa70a81a1b995a3f
ed209d5f1c660a66df64e78e809c5b3525bc7aa6
'2017-02-24T15:52:41-05:00'
describe
'8213' 'info:fdaE20080606_AAAAODfileF20080608_AAAESQ' 'sip-files00012thm.jpg'
254befda3f14849f875e3725bc572065
5f68f7429a3d8a5428a83d8c68ada7c31cbae282
'2017-02-24T15:53:29-05:00'
describe
'157116' 'info:fdaE20080606_AAAAODfileF20080608_AAAESR' 'sip-files00013.jp2'
dbba30e4c38be93efc8da10993a261b6
b82d310ed936e372948667ee48df42ad1990c490
'2017-02-24T15:53:33-05:00'
describe
'140306' 'info:fdaE20080606_AAAAODfileF20080608_AAAESS' 'sip-files00013.jpg'
7546da721f831c8327d04036f849bf51
ce2667555932a31d5cb63e96375f3c2688f0c889
describe
'59788' 'info:fdaE20080606_AAAAODfileF20080608_AAAEST' 'sip-files00013.pro'
ed1a086e1bbe3c76cced854878c8cfa9
382170de4063e0c1a800069374399db14688bc76
'2017-02-24T15:54:10-05:00'
describe
'44626' 'info:fdaE20080606_AAAAODfileF20080608_AAAESU' 'sip-files00013.QC.jpg'
f1c0a40723d512a88798edadfb1f095c
fa1844f9b8aa55b26560518b979d7b05a75a9c6e
'2017-02-24T15:52:35-05:00'
describe
'940308' 'info:fdaE20080606_AAAAODfileF20080608_AAAESV' 'sip-files00013.tif'
6365ff896402302ba986355257c46c60
8c7e66a0bb4e55c019c62a3b2e316adf78686872
describe
'2439' 'info:fdaE20080606_AAAAODfileF20080608_AAAESW' 'sip-files00013.txt'
1d4cd8522327645ba1b1c70ce75c1c52
283eb1194e57e386c43107a768e5aa4fc941f8c2
describe
'10842' 'info:fdaE20080606_AAAAODfileF20080608_AAAESX' 'sip-files00013thm.jpg'
383fcb23ee2f5f48977b764ca0bfbff8
ac3530bda8b320b0c5f73ebbb63dc2c883291a6d
describe
'198106' 'info:fdaE20080606_AAAAODfileF20080608_AAAESY' 'sip-files00014.jp2'
1d19d14ca911c92c05780cdb4251db08
1d6fce63ae32f9586135536db0f39dbde1fb7278
'2017-02-24T15:53:55-05:00'
describe
'182801' 'info:fdaE20080606_AAAAODfileF20080608_AAAESZ' 'sip-files00014.jpg'
2c120692e0d27421405fa2ea9bf94100
ab874cc0c58eaebf7c4610a82aff86acefe4a384
describe
'75273' 'info:fdaE20080606_AAAAODfileF20080608_AAAETA' 'sip-files00014.pro'
5e53d70d3a8fd54c65cc4a759cdf26aa
e58e09adcdda4cd930fbfcdb858df29e27db4536
describe
'56712' 'info:fdaE20080606_AAAAODfileF20080608_AAAETB' 'sip-files00014.QC.jpg'
e5a0602a4b3d749852e05728a03f3b29
d68266a5438a8d3ec0d3397de41389932174feca
'2017-02-24T15:53:43-05:00'
describe
'924284' 'info:fdaE20080606_AAAAODfileF20080608_AAAETC' 'sip-files00014.tif'
3eafa38126e854a563b3071da6b677b1
a6ac81fdd279ab8569366ea21d743360d41c3028
'2017-02-24T15:53:51-05:00'
describe
'3024' 'info:fdaE20080606_AAAAODfileF20080608_AAAETD' 'sip-files00014.txt'
a9ce3571ccda68641d1664b637c67f6b
908d8f2753daceddd43fff479f918590229105c8
describe
'13710' 'info:fdaE20080606_AAAAODfileF20080608_AAAETE' 'sip-files00014thm.jpg'
a994a51e299726b1d5d8b6e9f8ee008e
7f283546650ca3535f345c143d88b1c8640d6c3a
'2017-02-24T15:53:50-05:00'
describe
'188875' 'info:fdaE20080606_AAAAODfileF20080608_AAAETF' 'sip-files00015.jp2'
7056466687fd3a9645f7264f442ad08c
236a09f48f93117ed1c84bab38d2fa3a0ee13140
describe
'166493' 'info:fdaE20080606_AAAAODfileF20080608_AAAETG' 'sip-files00015.jpg'
d06b7290b8a20fab4748084218166769
8e188e7f7017640db4476edd81bac649b6a70bf1
'2017-02-24T15:53:26-05:00'
describe
'72747' 'info:fdaE20080606_AAAAODfileF20080608_AAAETH' 'sip-files00015.pro'
1a8db2715f271e77035a2fef490c3199
5f8bff1528630272baa994a8dabe13795ddf54ec
'2017-02-24T15:54:08-05:00'
describe
'50971' 'info:fdaE20080606_AAAAODfileF20080608_AAAETI' 'sip-files00015.QC.jpg'
0b5fd438c8c01bd7efc5da84eed1edc0
9eac7ae6ac699729d6efd2c1763e63cf9b76ef41
describe
'958252' 'info:fdaE20080606_AAAAODfileF20080608_AAAETJ' 'sip-files00015.tif'
91bd4067a0c7a8960b64802b3fd62aa0
7cf685164c135e2c5279efc20bd21d85896bdedf
describe
'2876' 'info:fdaE20080606_AAAAODfileF20080608_AAAETK' 'sip-files00015.txt'
e226b8b0bb32bf894857f1dcee744919
6800a648d3cbb416f985d222c9422915ce060ace
describe
'12051' 'info:fdaE20080606_AAAAODfileF20080608_AAAETL' 'sip-files00015thm.jpg'
b578a08b1c9e4023ee9c23b23747b7fd
25196f7469a9d373a72fab9ad9e730d1f21272e4
'2017-02-24T15:53:24-05:00'
describe
'192778' 'info:fdaE20080606_AAAAODfileF20080608_AAAETM' 'sip-files00016.jp2'
bfd340b5202781da32b960bb43513da9
d784aaa3f4c9fce03120c53c1de6837befdee559
describe
'184242' 'info:fdaE20080606_AAAAODfileF20080608_AAAETN' 'sip-files00016.jpg'
2054986c621944a2eb1654169d777dac
d5cf0a0a412060cdddccc6b4011f5887eddfbf85
'2017-02-24T15:54:12-05:00'
describe
'74729' 'info:fdaE20080606_AAAAODfileF20080608_AAAETO' 'sip-files00016.pro'
2e9cb671430322651db9c0c53c6a48d9
4926b6ad9eb4ea08e95d8bac8b2995511cc66ded
describe
'56748' 'info:fdaE20080606_AAAAODfileF20080608_AAAETP' 'sip-files00016.QC.jpg'
e85c381aad76a86a331ea46805887b92
8e6d07631d7be170faa0a971b3ddf829206bd336
describe
'905288' 'info:fdaE20080606_AAAAODfileF20080608_AAAETQ' 'sip-files00016.tif'
8444b975a2077b95fd0f3f98adfad06f
9b9bf742d5b1e638f2859cda0fccbe51dc7df79b
'2017-02-24T15:53:00-05:00'
describe
'3011' 'info:fdaE20080606_AAAAODfileF20080608_AAAETR' 'sip-files00016.txt'
294ab2f9865b9008b6b5b9a65d80f8cc
a453d204721548bbaa43cc84b8a54a35e29d219c
describe
'13256' 'info:fdaE20080606_AAAAODfileF20080608_AAAETS' 'sip-files00016thm.jpg'
4638448f6508f9186e638de3fbee88c5
5a5280bab7b9ad83be4150e0807544d99c18ba6a
describe
'180617' 'info:fdaE20080606_AAAAODfileF20080608_AAAETT' 'sip-files00017.jp2'
c5de0597b3f83ad1aff7c09ba84b9cc2
729f1f00774bd17a9659e2a4e8fe1ec736b6dc5b
'2017-02-24T15:53:56-05:00'
describe
'156618' 'info:fdaE20080606_AAAAODfileF20080608_AAAETU' 'sip-files00017.jpg'
aa24e301f0062c962ee0f92ad00f1faf
4c03f0e2389f9e73f9359dc61a979fe981a4c502
'2017-02-24T15:52:42-05:00'
describe
'68019' 'info:fdaE20080606_AAAAODfileF20080608_AAAETV' 'sip-files00017.pro'
ffcf61943b8aa3f52a9b62cd0388d3a8
8e59876e95a584e422f01892ea4595f27f0350e1
'2017-02-24T15:52:55-05:00'
describe
'48635' 'info:fdaE20080606_AAAAODfileF20080608_AAAETW' 'sip-files00017.QC.jpg'
653c440d0cf62ebdfc525a74346bd775
284c2692b2128589f6393cee230234012ff2f70c
describe
'976716' 'info:fdaE20080606_AAAAODfileF20080608_AAAETX' 'sip-files00017.tif'
7747a1202c027887eeb0dd91c7c2844b
7869ba729f150a0fece70667ee8d04c99fed82d6
describe
'2722' 'info:fdaE20080606_AAAAODfileF20080608_AAAETY' 'sip-files00017.txt'
f18ce5b4d0febe8fe9549211a76626ca
5b68b33aff97b0b8cf355c5406d52c3d12e16a2a
describe
'11638' 'info:fdaE20080606_AAAAODfileF20080608_AAAETZ' 'sip-files00017thm.jpg'
38718ec2137f8408fe2d8d2e0af9b718
c513854db996c959fd4ed04b5fc125ecae22a708
describe
'210334' 'info:fdaE20080606_AAAAODfileF20080608_AAAEUA' 'sip-files00018.jp2'
0bb687d793d512bcbe42f4a7f0d66117
d2985c855c4407d92ccba5ab7d3793a1354d2ee2
describe
'70349' 'info:fdaE20080606_AAAAODfileF20080608_AAAEUB' 'sip-files00018.jpg'
2d02ea280e0a16a3b2be083e41d113c5
6157f41a5f76f126e94f6c83688a2736c155cc3c
describe
'14822' 'info:fdaE20080606_AAAAODfileF20080608_AAAEUC' 'sip-files00018.pro'
ed7e499a44bb0a04ebb4b55cb29d3be5
5f6fec56a6ea4b7ce5c6bda031bd8cd78ecd1568
'2017-02-24T15:52:58-05:00'
describe
'19477' 'info:fdaE20080606_AAAAODfileF20080608_AAAEUD' 'sip-files00018.QC.jpg'
29b3d33ee2a2dc2bcb3a4bfb53adf67a
72691301b0f560f4a58b3b57779d123c2b4f7015
describe
'898896' 'info:fdaE20080606_AAAAODfileF20080608_AAAEUE' 'sip-files00018.tif'
c23544b7b768724870fec236c62b70b1
e53a2ede40d860d1863c8c3dfb298bfaf3a31d1c
'2017-02-24T15:52:45-05:00'
describe
'590' 'info:fdaE20080606_AAAAODfileF20080608_AAAEUF' 'sip-files00018.txt'
bc7fa29c1aca639e904556fff984db96
62cb84f5e113dc8b65191d5cd61b0595f5ff68ce
describe
Invalid character
Invalid character
Invalid character
'5351' 'info:fdaE20080606_AAAAODfileF20080608_AAAEUG' 'sip-files00018thm.jpg'
8419d8236da78af708de60f2ed292de0
f1194c98f5c7bd5c5be5fec3b0c79bee1448707a
'2017-02-24T15:53:31-05:00'
describe
'71157' 'info:fdaE20080606_AAAAODfileF20080608_AAAEUH' 'sip-files00019.jp2'
ac3db9aea12e2266b4fbdfaea542c86b
222b584b0a9232583a23577d9adead12e6e5206f
'2017-02-24T15:53:28-05:00'
describe
'64966' 'info:fdaE20080606_AAAAODfileF20080608_AAAEUI' 'sip-files00019.jpg'
8dd7eb2e3ab3e495682a5ec478655ff4
b10fd14706f4811529b207f78e849761c8352e1a
'2017-02-24T15:54:17-05:00'
describe
'7961' 'info:fdaE20080606_AAAAODfileF20080608_AAAEUJ' 'sip-files00019.pro'
7a3b4f879fc1b7365594bd1c96149f51
4a8aad6b0ac71a3a4ec222e29167ab92a5a46a5c
'2017-02-24T15:52:38-05:00'
describe
'22895' 'info:fdaE20080606_AAAAODfileF20080608_AAAEUK' 'sip-files00019.QC.jpg'
b7dae68d26fd84e5fd46afcc82489392
364989983d72f15a78dbd1722fafe664e682db25
'2017-02-24T15:53:42-05:00'
describe
'915420' 'info:fdaE20080606_AAAAODfileF20080608_AAAEUL' 'sip-files00019.tif'
5a95ce411516a7f3f8e69d5e33586547
32809823d138856683bfa4cef17ff5158a9b742a
describe
'601' 'info:fdaE20080606_AAAAODfileF20080608_AAAEUM' 'sip-files00019.txt'
450fa2cb1c36ee1e5ac28a5402d2513e
a61458da11da50c8689b09b445ec9cc08baed7a1
'2017-02-24T15:53:37-05:00'
describe
'7391' 'info:fdaE20080606_AAAAODfileF20080608_AAAEUN' 'sip-files00019thm.jpg'
599c06d5f7274a0e5e569386bfaa50e2
a1105d0487a6ea047c4904907a7460d830559f20
describe
'152384' 'info:fdaE20080606_AAAAODfileF20080608_AAAEUO' 'sip-files00020.jp2'
17b469c41fe7f646371b6b3156002dff
468d5c8343fc2f914c2d551ba8af9a1e1213e7db
describe
'136952' 'info:fdaE20080606_AAAAODfileF20080608_AAAEUP' 'sip-files00020.jpg'
2cf23a254f898704f472e81c75034306
65609becf379c01b2545916736edf05b8627100d
describe
'62202' 'info:fdaE20080606_AAAAODfileF20080608_AAAEUQ' 'sip-files00020.pro'
5d3e54258ec839f087121a76cb1c6ae2
f3c78bd75655b9639b396dc97e3bd12e4c61d845
describe
'43399' 'info:fdaE20080606_AAAAODfileF20080608_AAAEUR' 'sip-files00020.QC.jpg'
0031f649eb225bc3882257efb4dcb5b7
3fdcb0cc4555a4db5afb8f1df00ffb5cf771f908
describe
'903932' 'info:fdaE20080606_AAAAODfileF20080608_AAAEUS' 'sip-files00020.tif'
44f25b0e23cbf8fcd465c6a9c823e9e4
f6bda89469e9f893337223ad86b4d763ff179487
describe
'2648' 'info:fdaE20080606_AAAAODfileF20080608_AAAEUT' 'sip-files00020.txt'
e1875d0ce8639555f8959b063497f7ff
ee5f128d068c681977d370d6205a7e1bbc3a35f9
'2017-02-24T15:53:45-05:00'
describe
'11205' 'info:fdaE20080606_AAAAODfileF20080608_AAAEUU' 'sip-files00020thm.jpg'
5c366b09c0df135c498c5f44645ff46f
0ade96c294d3d5c72025e7866bf183c8600a194d
describe
'208855' 'info:fdaE20080606_AAAAODfileF20080608_AAAEUV' 'sip-files00021.jp2'
d60894aa9b4d41c29a50ccd3d6d0f105
475a90b89a51fcd8ef48224258d00b7c8bf4aca5
describe
'184440' 'info:fdaE20080606_AAAAODfileF20080608_AAAEUW' 'sip-files00021.jpg'
a3e04055ec3e7d1961309dc10ac86b64
e92de1421c048535037f2344b418a328b0878b39
describe
'82419' 'info:fdaE20080606_AAAAODfileF20080608_AAAEUX' 'sip-files00021.pro'
6ccdfb345e81e9c706407f7b8071e160
c21de6486984730b9007fa4e5435364627f5662e
describe
'56023' 'info:fdaE20080606_AAAAODfileF20080608_AAAEUY' 'sip-files00021.QC.jpg'
5bf46ced1300eaffd72dd50deadeb755
681184fc8e6c6602f4bd8a52d79f795f57b425c8
describe
'957616' 'info:fdaE20080606_AAAAODfileF20080608_AAAEUZ' 'sip-files00021.tif'
540fbbe283894c1d8d31acbc3800cbb4
b7aa1adc4713216d9e79dd36247a445d207d672e
'2017-02-24T15:53:04-05:00'
describe
'3254' 'info:fdaE20080606_AAAAODfileF20080608_AAAEVA' 'sip-files00021.txt'
cd911c8bd1d6f6e92ae21d7ec8c82dcd
6249ef5cd92f5c8e6de1ee64d1f1283795fed9c7
describe
'12979' 'info:fdaE20080606_AAAAODfileF20080608_AAAEVB' 'sip-files00021thm.jpg'
022b36b1bd3189ea5738d1316cb15a10
2acacd790650bd334f024165c0858a270bd81fb8
describe
'101435' 'info:fdaE20080606_AAAAODfileF20080608_AAAEVC' 'sip-files00022.jp2'
ca5e25d1772b2acb0684eae760c94e54
ace303a39fd7bd1c8843e10419f3f0b3f57a2e9b
describe
'48148' 'info:fdaE20080606_AAAAODfileF20080608_AAAEVD' 'sip-files00022.jpg'
d877a927649e6eb2dbccf7476948acaf
483213bf4f546fe3acfa54da7f7a502ae3214b5a
describe
'26072' 'info:fdaE20080606_AAAAODfileF20080608_AAAEVE' 'sip-files00022.pro'
6a6f31182a8a35a4b06b80d6d8f4b8bf
70196aba64eb872bfeafc125a7e63664f33fdaf2
describe
'16413' 'info:fdaE20080606_AAAAODfileF20080608_AAAEVF' 'sip-files00022.QC.jpg'
67846d61ae294b1178d0920472651cc6
8b59a420923db4116f6a42c3218e52765d8bec6a
describe
'896384' 'info:fdaE20080606_AAAAODfileF20080608_AAAEVG' 'sip-files00022.tif'
db8baf3d2df722ea1b13b78805ebe402
87024f8228410faf6e6f1befc6a70507292a6c9e
describe
'1237' 'info:fdaE20080606_AAAAODfileF20080608_AAAEVH' 'sip-files00022.txt'
a54eee1b027ddf17cc83f5c0ab4d6122
25ee81c26c7551c0b1c04c2321a32839a002b654
describe
Invalid character
Invalid character
Invalid character
'4974' 'info:fdaE20080606_AAAAODfileF20080608_AAAEVI' 'sip-files00022thm.jpg'
d1668a495c71c69c15f130c29c734377
b7905facd15069e3abe4da9475a8ac36b7959cc2
describe
'162600' 'info:fdaE20080606_AAAAODfileF20080608_AAAEVJ' 'sip-files00023.jp2'
2b0d479280103c59f07505bdfaec2ded
83e70ca53ee18e7ee2e3e2e9eebd500461d3b9ee
describe
'58321' 'info:fdaE20080606_AAAAODfileF20080608_AAAEVK' 'sip-files00023.jpg'
e445874f6e5cfaf9dceacfcb4bf47d03
56914e5c99387532ee8106e7a02f60c3663feb0e
'2017-02-24T15:52:31-05:00'
describe
'8743' 'info:fdaE20080606_AAAAODfileF20080608_AAAEVL' 'sip-files00023.pro'
9dc7c6437e43a1c89d67836f8582f51a
fd3d791c577737ddc90cdca3d6e58d1964b979da
describe
'16655' 'info:fdaE20080606_AAAAODfileF20080608_AAAEVM' 'sip-files00023.QC.jpg'
cb7d458b8f05360f018b0bbecd3cc791
3fbb1a11ab4a45dce73c3c53162517da24582afd
describe
'958356' 'info:fdaE20080606_AAAAODfileF20080608_AAAEVN' 'sip-files00023.tif'
3bf69d4caa4e25e058d8dc80017aace5
2c1dd3accd56f7bd3e9d1df4e43011f1f8e4eb02
describe
'606' 'info:fdaE20080606_AAAAODfileF20080608_AAAEVO' 'sip-files00023.txt'
92b10628450e8ecb708cee4c6f187232
e6a730fd3e628589c39aa10bfe28c6d6f67f10c9
describe
'4724' 'info:fdaE20080606_AAAAODfileF20080608_AAAEVP' 'sip-files00023thm.jpg'
8b8c206de55ebb77d86028f7d64b3a00
26e5b8b501ee3c2dca622e65dca82fe745b0c5be
'2017-02-24T15:54:04-05:00'
describe
'139915' 'info:fdaE20080606_AAAAODfileF20080608_AAAEVQ' 'sip-files00024.jp2'
d663055724136380cbd914aa58b8944a
cc01019bdcf155a1e750c8a8489e5f894cdd5486
describe
'132105' 'info:fdaE20080606_AAAAODfileF20080608_AAAEVR' 'sip-files00024.jpg'
40ca7d867fedd2aaeb7822baa5872482
71677c1a356e25efa9f6a61860f13613be0e9157
describe
'40190' 'info:fdaE20080606_AAAAODfileF20080608_AAAEVS' 'sip-files00024.pro'
6499e0ec6a7f3e13918ffba1952c88f5
4b5b84caa3aa4da8081494ed7f79bebe811f974c
describe
'43304' 'info:fdaE20080606_AAAAODfileF20080608_AAAEVT' 'sip-files00024.QC.jpg'
cf22899ce81065d4ad6aa63eabb571e0
50c7a025fcb636eb58412338cd58fbe25f042659
describe
'904600' 'info:fdaE20080606_AAAAODfileF20080608_AAAEVU' 'sip-files00024.tif'
b48a93cce51276caa089c3e0c8e27a37
8bab8cf0043c649a92db2cb4569b98403f94caa5
describe
'1630' 'info:fdaE20080606_AAAAODfileF20080608_AAAEVV' 'sip-files00024.txt'
ec7ee6f6c20632abb80e7fa00f831287
8c9a0ff8442dfc71158bb10990fa2f2d247e5993
'2017-02-24T15:54:16-05:00'
describe
'11566' 'info:fdaE20080606_AAAAODfileF20080608_AAAEVW' 'sip-files00024thm.jpg'
8d148ea7a8084a555ab6109c069457b1
ba1efc02edd3e3da1ee18339edfb56155491d837
describe
'191950' 'info:fdaE20080606_AAAAODfileF20080608_AAAEVX' 'sip-files00025.jp2'
97cc85cd44f48d6d90db98cf4eebe88f
a27ad633024710c693fb9b7cd1332625072b06f9
describe
'176058' 'info:fdaE20080606_AAAAODfileF20080608_AAAEVY' 'sip-files00025.jpg'
8d91dc4d08882e5864e8c0255b72153c
572317c2353241ad19d6d206b6c71427b0defc13
describe
'73870' 'info:fdaE20080606_AAAAODfileF20080608_AAAEVZ' 'sip-files00025.pro'
ffbcfd5b015051630cf3c2b76d8dcdec
58372af1cb3c153961ec6e0a83e287df64d1b7fe
describe
'55334' 'info:fdaE20080606_AAAAODfileF20080608_AAAEWA' 'sip-files00025.QC.jpg'
39c9606ec168eeef8f6b28805c6afc46
05c2418f80cd84cb0baa681c08bcf4b284ecf817
describe
'939700' 'info:fdaE20080606_AAAAODfileF20080608_AAAEWB' 'sip-files00025.tif'
f4b21db88615c7c38ea90bd74111279d
59dcaebd8b1354d31e7e9d4eb1ce39d333f50ec9
describe
'2970' 'info:fdaE20080606_AAAAODfileF20080608_AAAEWC' 'sip-files00025.txt'
5bad4da7f8636da20a1cd57e3ffdf1c1
bc6699d1fb132b1a6fee9633bdaa466d90d27c72
describe
'13582' 'info:fdaE20080606_AAAAODfileF20080608_AAAEWD' 'sip-files00025thm.jpg'
4d3277896ea0ec947149e83a9de62470
dd013aa4b15b1a56f2159d2cf2d75a7ffa2b6f0b
'2017-02-24T15:52:36-05:00'
describe
'74324' 'info:fdaE20080606_AAAAODfileF20080608_AAAEWE' 'sip-files00026.jp2'
3328ba73d0cbe56f4c0c150a6cad0a3b
3e55e65f98315d6ec71d105fc41d0efe3d4742e2
describe
'67511' 'info:fdaE20080606_AAAAODfileF20080608_AAAEWF' 'sip-files00026.jpg'
a9e0fea17d836643bbccb6c8043242df
f7d6f6890c702ed88b4a6eb8096c63a46eded5b1
'2017-02-24T15:52:52-05:00'
describe
'12561' 'info:fdaE20080606_AAAAODfileF20080608_AAAEWG' 'sip-files00026.pro'
6bd941aa5368ae89db251d9cfba35f43
df3f11283d41a52261c635db1fa9d98056ae605a
describe
'23648' 'info:fdaE20080606_AAAAODfileF20080608_AAAEWH' 'sip-files00026.QC.jpg'
058a30befd5646dc7f76fedc3f2279c4
a675014f9ca4e33f36a9eac149ff263d32a4617a
describe
'901652' 'info:fdaE20080606_AAAAODfileF20080608_AAAEWI' 'sip-files00026.tif'
e5985339505e9979edd05471ada87c7a
89f6cf9cf944379d288447e67db80cd230a3f97a
describe
'704' 'info:fdaE20080606_AAAAODfileF20080608_AAAEWJ' 'sip-files00026.txt'
eae96cae3503198b10fa872b0e344087
a7633fa9e69d201cb470faee369671fdb50ea237
describe
Invalid character
Invalid character
Invalid character
'7792' 'info:fdaE20080606_AAAAODfileF20080608_AAAEWK' 'sip-files00026thm.jpg'
5cfa35450d2dd94b6a02c18b5163e1a6
2915471bc6443d95f350b19486f5db6743e3d4c4
describe
'214233' 'info:fdaE20080606_AAAAODfileF20080608_AAAEWL' 'sip-files00027.jp2'
61a73a702c0c77056927c7db7521d215
5484e5d581401b9ef39007b6892eb8e3ebdefaf6
describe
'203706' 'info:fdaE20080606_AAAAODfileF20080608_AAAEWM' 'sip-files00027.jpg'
ed437211baa525475cb1acf397572a54
2bbb461d518ac0ba6201dc8573a50124f76d1798
describe
'85412' 'info:fdaE20080606_AAAAODfileF20080608_AAAEWN' 'sip-files00027.pro'
3ea686a624d2ec234e9ba36784028628
104852c49ed9387b5c450823e8d48fb83e13918f
'2017-02-24T15:54:18-05:00'
describe
'62332' 'info:fdaE20080606_AAAAODfileF20080608_AAAEWO' 'sip-files00027.QC.jpg'
40146f34789e76173da04f2fe66f4779
4419a11ed4192c0c55951c961375a0906aa5984e
describe
'905496' 'info:fdaE20080606_AAAAODfileF20080608_AAAEWP' 'sip-files00027.tif'
62b27fd2adc87decd16ef1d5ff4b6ad3
a74441c2c8f3998e16f1fb52109493a9cf9e8cb3
describe
'3342' 'info:fdaE20080606_AAAAODfileF20080608_AAAEWQ' 'sip-files00027.txt'
ddbd7bb24222cb94fd46a0d28ec33238
53ffc27ddd893054fa1c49654632e29f68e61ff0
describe
'14206' 'info:fdaE20080606_AAAAODfileF20080608_AAAEWR' 'sip-files00027thm.jpg'
c2fc5b08e4de76f17398c2602837b32b
3b3d7a2ead842d75a709897ff33e8bee073a07f1
describe
'141761' 'info:fdaE20080606_AAAAODfileF20080608_AAAEWS' 'sip-files00028.jp2'
ab93182f3f98e79d02e28756aa08416b
2bd7491877ccc1cdc9726bbbddd03963dbdfb5c9
describe
'132107' 'info:fdaE20080606_AAAAODfileF20080608_AAAEWT' 'sip-files00028.jpg'
50370dbbe30a60cb0e14dcb2240ee2c3
f7b84e54b5064ac08df8bba81dcee1705936cca4
describe
'50527' 'info:fdaE20080606_AAAAODfileF20080608_AAAEWU' 'sip-files00028.pro'
1587e6dad1816181f7724c7805e17585
5c5130e7caa79cd94ee3d77c477de94f3aba4724
'2017-02-24T15:52:46-05:00'
describe
'42055' 'info:fdaE20080606_AAAAODfileF20080608_AAAEWV' 'sip-files00028.QC.jpg'
4544df0e6cf1b5c029fa2c3c11257576
0b69f190be30cf483110102c14662009fdb7e841
describe
'923700' 'info:fdaE20080606_AAAAODfileF20080608_AAAEWW' 'sip-files00028.tif'
f1504ad47087e0973b9dde3ce048c184
84513510f69e5cdee2523b94f6f4e19b1fd5714a
describe
'2178' 'info:fdaE20080606_AAAAODfileF20080608_AAAEWX' 'sip-files00028.txt'
80f5add1a8b90919f87707d2c2f6cb5e
81169fe76b556bd6bdc06f059b188e6891af510c
describe
'10602' 'info:fdaE20080606_AAAAODfileF20080608_AAAEWY' 'sip-files00028thm.jpg'
43dbad449d98007e049e421f974e0597
fef7650342c2610700cdca02c89e86345f549d63
describe
'194732' 'info:fdaE20080606_AAAAODfileF20080608_AAAEWZ' 'sip-files00029.jp2'
0fc9c82747182d08c9657aba9f445b7d
e5d148fb868e894cd8cf2cbe6773c3c57b45197c
describe
'176077' 'info:fdaE20080606_AAAAODfileF20080608_AAAEXA' 'sip-files00029.jpg'
1e6c386142025cff8500304df7e19ed7
a61a44dd337a5140ca746f860b7601bb94e82005
'2017-02-24T15:53:06-05:00'
describe
'76168' 'info:fdaE20080606_AAAAODfileF20080608_AAAEXB' 'sip-files00029.pro'
591112f3e20d4d878b627e977cb6e143
5c20fec36ec00eb79cc490a3c00fd6f38dfe8a3d
describe
'53887' 'info:fdaE20080606_AAAAODfileF20080608_AAAEXC' 'sip-files00029.QC.jpg'
710bf6f58f48032dcd4a245a6051ead8
ab1c7b3bb7cf75a8c45baec1aba25a4772daeac0
describe
'939780' 'info:fdaE20080606_AAAAODfileF20080608_AAAEXD' 'sip-files00029.tif'
74f7cb61a58ddc4034e8b64d14f67f8f
c6bca4b6e0c0a16b1dd76374c0b2df517240a644
describe
'3026' 'info:fdaE20080606_AAAAODfileF20080608_AAAEXE' 'sip-files00029.txt'
d204f215dddd3d1630c0a0633c17fbed
4721673f048fa048ca76c13605d82ed457b575ee
describe
'12649' 'info:fdaE20080606_AAAAODfileF20080608_AAAEXF' 'sip-files00029thm.jpg'
cf918933ca9824d47039285048b509d9
fc4b2919a821f053aa38ff3893fc868457c12d87
describe
'211686' 'info:fdaE20080606_AAAAODfileF20080608_AAAEXG' 'sip-files00030.jp2'
a5baa1c095bdd40a425be4f7c2b11109
8085084ab1eafc8df8d1216874651c8cf4c61cc7
describe
'192631' 'info:fdaE20080606_AAAAODfileF20080608_AAAEXH' 'sip-files00030.jpg'
590bff506d85ab942521d346620e2258
89ec2754c28a422dc9701daac5cea6d960c9b16f
describe
'81919' 'info:fdaE20080606_AAAAODfileF20080608_AAAEXI' 'sip-files00030.pro'
230a7954fe5e33d517500c2c670b3165
00d48730457b0bc0ea90e497aabdd5bbf6a03857
describe
'59075' 'info:fdaE20080606_AAAAODfileF20080608_AAAEXJ' 'sip-files00030.QC.jpg'
3169ae3c6c3e1ecce76ce6c940e704e8
84efef87ab0af836294066f2cdc0063fcaa65901
describe
'924760' 'info:fdaE20080606_AAAAODfileF20080608_AAAEXK' 'sip-files00030.tif'
1f3058f61a34a4dfc2f8a201a773cb26
1aa061515326201afa10027837c8cb63b4260ff5
describe
'3243' 'info:fdaE20080606_AAAAODfileF20080608_AAAEXL' 'sip-files00030.txt'
c8e41a229f0e81921697248dc9bc941b
a4820398e959a9f4cdf68198d73e4f08be08598b
describe
Invalid character
Invalid character
Invalid character
'13391' 'info:fdaE20080606_AAAAODfileF20080608_AAAEXM' 'sip-files00030thm.jpg'
d9cbedd3a5b3fc0eac63002f8f044336
7a862f7bf58eb2b61eb7ae242b3ddfe895707092
'2017-02-24T15:53:22-05:00'
describe
'195011' 'info:fdaE20080606_AAAAODfileF20080608_AAAEXN' 'sip-files00031.jp2'
9ae3644901b532deb5559f0b9c6bf409
27e15c31df0ae32d995e668b5dfa45432194e769
describe
'181248' 'info:fdaE20080606_AAAAODfileF20080608_AAAEXO' 'sip-files00031.jpg'
c3b4dc674fd7640fdd5a67e9f782ec56
e62fb16a3852944e78671ee609123d7f997ad948
describe
'76748' 'info:fdaE20080606_AAAAODfileF20080608_AAAEXP' 'sip-files00031.pro'
cc9a92cab88c7bc325d72f9e8b88397d
d2f7ddf6c2411987799944143c682e526dc7602f
describe
'55553' 'info:fdaE20080606_AAAAODfileF20080608_AAAEXQ' 'sip-files00031.QC.jpg'
8d3383bbc56fc67a0c74488bfe43e409
b525a6a7043931c9471762afd625c60e49682782
describe
'923068' 'info:fdaE20080606_AAAAODfileF20080608_AAAEXR' 'sip-files00031.tif'
99cd918b7bed930c2fa17a876a52fbbf
b89e13058921022482b0db2e0a28fa96f4455657
'2017-02-24T15:52:44-05:00'
describe
'3053' 'info:fdaE20080606_AAAAODfileF20080608_AAAEXS' 'sip-files00031.txt'
96721eb185c9608df69817e1950118ba
84e704a1ee3c61a8abac058c020f50a7e25b018f
describe
'13320' 'info:fdaE20080606_AAAAODfileF20080608_AAAEXT' 'sip-files00031thm.jpg'
788a9dd5c0e52ca914e1554865a30d7d
6cbf8fe98cbdb0018204c5a885078f2bd92c0f6c
describe
'199583' 'info:fdaE20080606_AAAAODfileF20080608_AAAEXU' 'sip-files00032.jp2'
dc415fd48afa8673d196ff17a436eba1
73184e6ce40aab63d7bdd7487754f20c3004ecf1
describe
'182807' 'info:fdaE20080606_AAAAODfileF20080608_AAAEXV' 'sip-files00032.jpg'
5b9e22694eed11df14a074ca3cc10e8a
089112b9e8aff74a804fba330b32ee226d751d85
describe
'75999' 'info:fdaE20080606_AAAAODfileF20080608_AAAEXW' 'sip-files00032.pro'
306be13a689939e3ed4723574ed1f913
d11b639579f2509051c032f4bcb8ae602fe82aa9
describe
'56395' 'info:fdaE20080606_AAAAODfileF20080608_AAAEXX' 'sip-files00032.QC.jpg'
57850da942f18c63537a8e18815b11ee
acad4f74bcb14f3e02b7317d5d40ad635cdd4542
describe
'905508' 'info:fdaE20080606_AAAAODfileF20080608_AAAEXY' 'sip-files00032.tif'
918b889ddfacb190749a2c998d43223e
4878e3c5631f5a2361537f0d8ae43b857e0e9646
describe
'3022' 'info:fdaE20080606_AAAAODfileF20080608_AAAEXZ' 'sip-files00032.txt'
d266351e9637e4b9e3a878fdc6c0b22b
791303b6b6e5a5a7b6086a2f7365af6e47f96b03
describe
'13812' 'info:fdaE20080606_AAAAODfileF20080608_AAAEYA' 'sip-files00032thm.jpg'
a70a3155dedb961e4346c8e7c08567b3
0b1f25e34c6c41df8d1c4c3fa5d08f3922632309
describe
'206539' 'info:fdaE20080606_AAAAODfileF20080608_AAAEYB' 'sip-files00033.jp2'
d4f167e6687b38ddb67b192bb33d9d95
718ef50b5a3337576690b7fee5fc06b99594fb45
describe
'188701' 'info:fdaE20080606_AAAAODfileF20080608_AAAEYC' 'sip-files00033.jpg'
13f4231840787e6f7fb7dfcddd596794
295f944d56bc6fdf73f6638f8281613b67e2cc1f
describe
'80542' 'info:fdaE20080606_AAAAODfileF20080608_AAAEYD' 'sip-files00033.pro'
0abca84d4f82bed1479be9f29407a29b
5841c631d8954017e793fb885ded8c0165a5132e
describe
'58099' 'info:fdaE20080606_AAAAODfileF20080608_AAAEYE' 'sip-files00033.QC.jpg'
cae29cdbc2fea1624fc309cb660981a6
29d298bdcec0ee99e21b4d443d7fd5d2c9e0755e
describe
'942356' 'info:fdaE20080606_AAAAODfileF20080608_AAAEYF' 'sip-files00033.tif'
ffa99924033997b96158cc109eefd583
6281b7d56c722fe971a218ab6fd8a7a72cfcd018
'2017-02-24T15:53:34-05:00'
describe
'3184' 'info:fdaE20080606_AAAAODfileF20080608_AAAEYG' 'sip-files00033.txt'
c91b1abe6b78ebb9efe420e73a5785f2
b859753ee8325825d73a8f530dfa1674c6ebf55a
describe
'13627' 'info:fdaE20080606_AAAAODfileF20080608_AAAEYH' 'sip-files00033thm.jpg'
181bbd2b3f0b403886f19d53cc7ad793
8597f97fe979c28627d60f2a9260b8c87418c3e9
describe
'159683' 'info:fdaE20080606_AAAAODfileF20080608_AAAEYI' 'sip-files00034.jp2'
dca9f900a9e80bbf3f61380e52d126e5
62b93f26887cf71e3e974b2e3b16b1a2c9794fa1
describe
'143188' 'info:fdaE20080606_AAAAODfileF20080608_AAAEYJ' 'sip-files00034.jpg'
e4bd10332d336d847707ef1edecd960b
0df0d1cc5938a9b11b9233c39c5ef489b7f27ea8
describe
'60755' 'info:fdaE20080606_AAAAODfileF20080608_AAAEYK' 'sip-files00034.pro'
fa39d91a34f382eee6e350a581f68899
0c73133326d5eb172b677328353e1443296f8649
describe
'44579' 'info:fdaE20080606_AAAAODfileF20080608_AAAEYL' 'sip-files00034.QC.jpg'
25bf23d46d10343fa45b90d5c3686df1
952b54bbee80d26614af5b921db973d29c051c65
describe
'921228' 'info:fdaE20080606_AAAAODfileF20080608_AAAEYM' 'sip-files00034.tif'
faa2cc2ee4c2ed0ba093c221dd1603b6
816184df100e54f60ea53c98659a8fefb2602f15
describe
'2421' 'info:fdaE20080606_AAAAODfileF20080608_AAAEYN' 'sip-files00034.txt'
647e839646f088dc4cef731e02f1d66f
5839c4d4fd2076699c2c782df297014bd3448e44
describe
'10912' 'info:fdaE20080606_AAAAODfileF20080608_AAAEYO' 'sip-files00034thm.jpg'
950d9ec0cd55ddcbaea149a62bbd1747
257e5a8f692e4d3b174a7a0b2f25811a3b40a5cd
describe
'66153' 'info:fdaE20080606_AAAAODfileF20080608_AAAEYP' 'sip-files00035.jp2'
96b53d363ee063584d501355913e644d
39a8aec7ea66fb1c9f598b9f99e1a173c03498e5
describe
'61345' 'info:fdaE20080606_AAAAODfileF20080608_AAAEYQ' 'sip-files00035.jpg'
f7c6bcd4095cf5230bb9341a3262114c
53c96c261d2cd70db90a5d9cc24094cf9048c9df
describe
'25664' 'info:fdaE20080606_AAAAODfileF20080608_AAAEYR' 'sip-files00035.pro'
ed1009447eabc58f0fc57c049e866474
5fc6bd58a27383342c811f0b0dd73f05cf077f80
describe
'20163' 'info:fdaE20080606_AAAAODfileF20080608_AAAEYS' 'sip-files00035.QC.jpg'
43c7c9b13e135e4279762e0c2e44158f
bd2cf74fbf14cc12a5afb5852df60cbaea78d39a
describe
'914160' 'info:fdaE20080606_AAAAODfileF20080608_AAAEYT' 'sip-files00035.tif'
ba1c89a61c61f35f943cc95aec31e519
b085f3d2020da9c3ee5856d6d4c997ddf02c2a15
describe
'1327' 'info:fdaE20080606_AAAAODfileF20080608_AAAEYU' 'sip-files00035.txt'
aae6c4a6b6943a8ee537774a819fed9e
ec3c0af1d8e0a9d81a2d394084638ff875b8df9e
describe
'6267' 'info:fdaE20080606_AAAAODfileF20080608_AAAEYV' 'sip-files00035thm.jpg'
f0e87b520016fb3b4d332fbeba47062f
28dcc9ac1ff4680f69d621d4373f4c8a7b1cad12
describe
'120671' 'info:fdaE20080606_AAAAODfileF20080608_AAAEYW' 'sip-files00036.jp2'
79409d0750572f2cfcac7a67663b8882
0a033ca0ad679491bb231e58a8620a0759de1504
describe
'48618' 'info:fdaE20080606_AAAAODfileF20080608_AAAEYX' 'sip-files00036.jpg'
9a83f9f09449601288f824266b1b39be
52944be460b026d24e983968a1ef7204e96e6c32
describe
'70103' 'info:fdaE20080606_AAAAODfileF20080608_AAAEYY' 'sip-files00036.pro'
10dd2f083ddf5fe60fa449946798b143
37d593d9d1a15e9ebec6eea52eb338523fb74e90
describe
'14462' 'info:fdaE20080606_AAAAODfileF20080608_AAAEYZ' 'sip-files00036.QC.jpg'
19042960799205fca1b5e5b0bc15a438
124cd4eaff72cadf6872f3f51935942f91cffc47
describe
'928936' 'info:fdaE20080606_AAAAODfileF20080608_AAAEZA' 'sip-files00036.tif'
ab524b6e996764e2ae2140ceeaf45b02
98ff83d944734bb9a9da7a194315ef69ef9cd2d0
describe
'3700' 'info:fdaE20080606_AAAAODfileF20080608_AAAEZB' 'sip-files00036.txt'
982e5b893606879afac2125e54f5b1b5
b315c665318a71d0ea1237dafb2dd020a92dee70
describe
Invalid character
Invalid character
Invalid character
'4177' 'info:fdaE20080606_AAAAODfileF20080608_AAAEZC' 'sip-files00036thm.jpg'
6cbfe64f5a9979420924631a9a37bf7d
0b5a06ccad7575c0c948d3e70d28a966091bdba3
describe
'93720' 'info:fdaE20080606_AAAAODfileF20080608_AAAEZD' 'sip-files00037.jp2'
83e0fffc8e2247c0f2223204b4e51821
f6d6c0526e8a86369569fee458f91e779f70ed6a
describe
'38061' 'info:fdaE20080606_AAAAODfileF20080608_AAAEZE' 'sip-files00037.jpg'
9e6859c6d334527cd72ef93fdb637d1f
35cad6dc58d0f82189556d9797c635f0fc5aeee7
describe
'62456' 'info:fdaE20080606_AAAAODfileF20080608_AAAEZF' 'sip-files00037.pro'
41723915bc94419db539dc8216353f9f
8af901a520e43604576a4deb84c788cb2a6f260c
describe
'12364' 'info:fdaE20080606_AAAAODfileF20080608_AAAEZG' 'sip-files00037.QC.jpg'
eaf29861f3f6b77427a27755d0865be3
7c0ac18898d4e0bed67a716a2bd8e4b07ecdd4f6
describe
'919536' 'info:fdaE20080606_AAAAODfileF20080608_AAAEZH' 'sip-files00037.tif'
69d15cf44cd5911d73ffe652e9693334
aad10974c8b33bb357f7b9579de5e28d7ee34aba
describe
'3178' 'info:fdaE20080606_AAAAODfileF20080608_AAAEZI' 'sip-files00037.txt'
b5dd2afd19efabe04a11b3579d4bb2f7
0bf59de9ecbb80402c600e6580517589bbfd0b3b
describe
Invalid character
Invalid character
Invalid character
'3826' 'info:fdaE20080606_AAAAODfileF20080608_AAAEZJ' 'sip-files00037thm.jpg'
bb1dbf60e9c3abea2a0e6298368c5f3a
a31165ac0d35da0701a2de1e777dbf4422e70a56
describe
'92311' 'info:fdaE20080606_AAAAODfileF20080608_AAAEZK' 'sip-files00038.jp2'
e49c6cee155794a45c9ee785e31b8b0f
0966d2ae9cac2f10b82ac82b4330c5c8d4e0de6a
describe
'38182' 'info:fdaE20080606_AAAAODfileF20080608_AAAEZL' 'sip-files00038.jpg'
b54517788e575dfdb3872a233abfdd4a
a5e45cd5beb3f0559ff439ec5948a8206611e85a
describe
'55340' 'info:fdaE20080606_AAAAODfileF20080608_AAAEZM' 'sip-files00038.pro'
c18713e6bc5baf8ffa86efb03fc21755
350f18b02e2ed4f6a3f42f683a517c017eb6a93c
describe
'12178' 'info:fdaE20080606_AAAAODfileF20080608_AAAEZN' 'sip-files00038.QC.jpg'
57b042729fe02550645ac3f4e88932c2
888385e9ae217509c5fb35f1f1abd4d6696ec95e
describe
'887472' 'info:fdaE20080606_AAAAODfileF20080608_AAAEZO' 'sip-files00038.tif'
1b50b84a21c57bf1f5329648ce8fd791
085737c4a7dcc371a4da839cf61c6a9324b70593
describe
'2938' 'info:fdaE20080606_AAAAODfileF20080608_AAAEZP' 'sip-files00038.txt'
b28a586a85c8c9b3ad432bb13dbcf79b
a2d6442f91e27d425ca16f13ed6baab20e84a9ca
describe
Invalid character
Invalid character
Invalid character
'3699' 'info:fdaE20080606_AAAAODfileF20080608_AAAEZQ' 'sip-files00038thm.jpg'
9148c8c7b69feeb53f47400330acf63b
ca4e9bbf87929afd1d3e30102277f392ebc6328c
describe
'89951' 'info:fdaE20080606_AAAAODfileF20080608_AAAEZR' 'sip-files00039.jp2'
eb8854c38c1069d5f24c61ee0403753a
5ef1a0ca272ca3b7db50e50f28c14f3401e0f9c1
describe
'42354' 'info:fdaE20080606_AAAAODfileF20080608_AAAEZS' 'sip-files00039.jpg'
9a264c322d0083541bfd8a1587d91f70
72f32326d2900ca2ccc647747534fe17a2d61905
describe
'52498' 'info:fdaE20080606_AAAAODfileF20080608_AAAEZT' 'sip-files00039.pro'
8e6ae08dadd8cc45212c8e12779faca9
8be818b62d1ed7b9379f50a558c34fce72019e6d
describe
'13816' 'info:fdaE20080606_AAAAODfileF20080608_AAAEZU' 'sip-files00039.QC.jpg'
c44122dc6984077fc5ad7beefcc3577c
a5f04818739cef2f2c9b2d8b11798336ba295d3d
'2017-02-24T15:52:59-05:00'
describe
'892404' 'info:fdaE20080606_AAAAODfileF20080608_AAAEZV' 'sip-files00039.tif'
87586398610a1361d6499969effcb4f6
253e0a1da555209dfc2d3b4911ca339bbd3d3522
describe
'3175' 'info:fdaE20080606_AAAAODfileF20080608_AAAEZW' 'sip-files00039.txt'
4db065701bc7bbd7252caca34e5f0b5c
9ff7394c25bfc34a936a79e39da96d1f177594d9
describe
'4041' 'info:fdaE20080606_AAAAODfileF20080608_AAAEZX' 'sip-files00039thm.jpg'
4579f655a005bd9111fa6e68b432b4a8
5ef7ca6f8ec743a0c369c484259a014150d8ed90
describe
'6665' 'info:fdaE20080606_AAAAODfileF20080608_AAAEZY' 'sip-files00040.jp2'
dad9aedc5da23a260db62865755483c4
0f92ec8414884c3d93d8b8a51bc4cca38dac3396
describe
'12218' 'info:fdaE20080606_AAAAODfileF20080608_AAAEZZ' 'sip-files00040.jpg'
8f42306171758f43f6cab46aa4df36e9
32cc95ea7a8328649599911ff89077a26fa39a33
describe
'212' 'info:fdaE20080606_AAAAODfileF20080608_AAAFAA' 'sip-files00040.pro'
0f443dd009db1a9218f41f8bed0ceb3a
f02eb22eb07be50731adcdb1118751a0c08e9ee4
describe
'3770' 'info:fdaE20080606_AAAAODfileF20080608_AAAFAB' 'sip-files00040.QC.jpg'
5a3fba402f80312fbb975dfa6106ed4d
4d7c775d0ca87ac0dac8ecc7dcd7db1c69510210
describe
'848544' 'info:fdaE20080606_AAAAODfileF20080608_AAAFAC' 'sip-files00040.tif'
2830fc169a927fecbbab205a0ce11038
9006fa1af01a2d4308cf6052f28d88be3ce8e2e4
describe
'3' 'info:fdaE20080606_AAAAODfileF20080608_AAAFAD' 'sip-files00040.txt'
bc949ea893a9384070c31f083ccefd26
cbb8391cb65c20e2c05a2f29211e55c49939c3db
describe
'1423' 'info:fdaE20080606_AAAAODfileF20080608_AAAFAE' 'sip-files00040thm.jpg'
1ae4aebb4c435535c99737f05fc28d3a
bf44655ef64dcddebd4092834cdc4c02cb4fced9
describe
'153168' 'info:fdaE20080606_AAAAODfileF20080608_AAAFAF' 'sip-filescopyright.jp2'
cd965abaafb5da42dc6c8def20d374f4
b811824c94aa0ae5a5f04cfb64b27e9e0927243a
describe
'103670' 'info:fdaE20080606_AAAAODfileF20080608_AAAFAG' 'sip-filescopyright.jpg'
d028360928b6690b49cfe8211e6bb6a5
db68f5028a78f337081c164d3478ffd3e30a8a09
describe
'35667' 'info:fdaE20080606_AAAAODfileF20080608_AAAFAH' 'sip-filescopyright.pro'
2e2650bf05a1ee2be06e28d654155164
2afdb1eb10ff676bfa59614e714198a4a8158a8c
describe
'35083' 'info:fdaE20080606_AAAAODfileF20080608_AAAFAI' 'sip-filescopyright.QC.jpg'
28180ee8185b27af4702a664eb2b5d1b
f0e1d4e0f0dcb1a265ec575f3d87a525ada2ad6d
describe
'1060556' 'info:fdaE20080606_AAAAODfileF20080608_AAAFAJ' 'sip-filescopyright.tif'
9536c2ec4abb7c1ff3b5edd4ded2dac0
b71ea71e9a313f9b71d793fe41bd64be73ab4207
describe
'1329' 'info:fdaE20080606_AAAAODfileF20080608_AAAFAK' 'sip-filescopyright.txt'
15f2bbd34b776d39b92ffb1c4f760b27
b0251f2ed30996bc7ed3d8efa687abc9a6800fa9
describe
Invalid character
Invalid character
Invalid character
'10085' 'info:fdaE20080606_AAAAODfileF20080608_AAAFAL' 'sip-filescopyrightthm.jpg'
b0566b6a6e9b9bfb3fa924203ff11cf8
63d705588c1580afc86f43138330df2fe31f906d
describe
'2427504' 'info:fdaE20080606_AAAAODfileF20080608_AAAFAM' 'sip-filesUF00001135.pdf'
a94ae2ac94aa15b777e9515d56e28736
b7e5bbc95022cdfed44eca6c4d702e4e1ba82f15
'2017-02-24T15:53:10-05:00'
describe
'42175563' 'info:fdaE20080606_AAAAODfileF20080608_AAAFAM-norm-1' 'ARCHIVE' 'aip-filesF20080608_AAAFAM-norm-1.pdf'
ab92bc7b95132df6b771de6e1f9fe4cb
4bc7f3aa53c9da826f8f5450316b9604368a6b31
'2017-04-07T12:44:48-04:00'
describe
Too many fonts to report; some fonts omitted.
'2017-04-07T12:44:15-04:00'
normalize
Too many fonts to report; some fonts omitted.
'75794' 'info:fdaE20080606_AAAAODfileF20080608_AAAFAN' 'sip-filesUF00001135_00001.mets'
84c8749f5694b913d9ca07b20d738987
40ef2a2402218f84e9dae0992ef97984e4d63537
describe
TargetNamespace.1: Expecting namespace 'http://www.uflib.ufl.edu/digital/metadata/ufdc2/', but the target namespace of the schema document is 'http://digital.uflib.ufl.edu/metadata/ufdc2/'.
'2017-04-07T12:44:55-04:00' 'mixed'
xml resolution
http://www.loc.gov/standards/xlink.xsd
BROKEN_LINK schema http://www.loc.gov/standards/xlink.xsd
TargetNamespace.1: Expecting namespace 'http://www.uflib.ufl.edu/digital/metadata/ufdc2/', but the target namespace of the schema document is 'http://digital.uflib.ufl.edu/metadata/ufdc2/'.
TargetNamespace.1: Expecting namespace 'http://www.uflib.ufl.edu/digital/metadata/ufdc2/', but the target namespace of the schema document is 'http://digital.uflib.ufl.edu/metadata/ufdc2/'.
'93398' 'info:fdaE20080606_AAAAODfileF20080608_AAAFAQ' 'sip-filesUF00001135_00001.xml'
be89d709a5287fd8c60434040cec01d6
7d74bf5df8ab0d117df803adf4304ea862109944
describe
xml resolution
http://www.loc.gov/standards/xlink.xsd
http://www.loc.gov/standards/xlink.xsd


xml version 1.0 encoding UTF-8
REPORT xmlns http:www.fcla.edudlsmddaitss xmlns:xsi http:www.w3.org2001XMLSchema-instance xsi:schemaLocation http:www.fcla.edudlsmddaitssdaitssReport.xsd
INGEST IEID EIRPA3MAR_P5STPD INGEST_TIME 2017-05-01T19:23:10Z PACKAGE UF00001135_00001
AGREEMENT_INFO ACCOUNT UF PROJECT UFDC
FILES