Citation
Interim report on the water resources of Orange County, Florida ( FGS: Information circular 41 )

Material Information

Title:
Interim report on the water resources of Orange County, Florida ( FGS: Information circular 41 )
Series Title:
FGS: Information circular
Creator:
Lichtler, William F
Place of Publication:
Tallahassee
Publisher:
[s.n.]
Publication Date:
Language:
English
Physical Description:
v, 50 p. : maps, diagrs., tables. ; 23 cm.

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Hydrology -- Florida -- Orange County ( lcsh )
Groundwater -- Florida -- Orange County ( lcsh )
Orange County ( local )
City of Orlando ( local )
St. Johns River (Orange County) ( local )
City of Ocala ( local )
City of Kissimmee ( local )
Lake Pickett ( local )
Aquifers ( jstor )
Counties ( jstor )
Rivers ( jstor )
Minerals ( jstor )
Mineral water ( jstor )
Genre:
non-fiction ( marcgt )

Notes

General Note:
"Prepared by the United States Geological Survey in cooperation with the Board of County Commissioners of Orange county and the Florida Geological Survey."
General Note:
"References": p. 47-50.
Funding:
Digitized as a collaborative project with the Florida Geological Survey, Florida Department of Environmental Protection.
Statement of Responsibility:
by William f. Lichtler, Warren Anderson and Boyd F. Joyner.

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Holding Location:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
The author dedicated the work to the public domain by waiving all of his or her rights to the work worldwide under copyright law and all related or neighboring legal rights he or she had in the work, to the extent allowable by law.
Resource Identifier:
022267227 ( aleph )
01723129 ( oclc )
AJA4800 ( notis )
a 64007609 ( lccn )

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Full Text
STATE OF FLORIDA
STATE BOARD OF CONSERVATION
DIVISION OF GEOLOGY
FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY
Robert 0. Vernon, Director
INFORMATION CIRCULAR NO. 41
INTERIM REPORT ON THE WATER RESOURCES
OF
ORANGE COUNTY, FLORIDA
By
William F. Lichtler, Warren Anderson, and Boyd F. Joyner U. S. Geological Survey
Prepared by the
UNITED STATES GEOLOGICAL SURVEY
in cooperation with the
BOARD OF COUNTY COMMISSIONERS OF ORANGE COUNTY and the
FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY
TALLAHASSEE
1964




441
AGR,:
CULTURAL,
LIBRARY
Completed manuscript received
February 15, 1963
Printed by the Florida Geological Survey
Tallahassee
iir




CONTENTS
Page
Abstract ............................................... .... 1
Introduction .3........................ 3
Purpose and scope of investigation 3...................... 3
Acknowledgments ................... .......................... 4
Previous investigations ......... .............................. 4
Well-numbering system ....................................... 5
Description of the area................ .................. 5
Climate ................ ........... ...... ................. 8
Sinkholes ........... ....................................... 9
Drainage ............ ........................................ 10
Geology ..........12
Hydrology ..........................................12
Surface water ................................. ..... .. 15
Kissimmee River basin 15
Reedy Creek .................................15
Bonnet Creek ...............................19
Shingle Creek ..19 Boggy Creek ........... .......... ......... .... 20
Jim Branch ......... ................................ .. 20
Ajay-East"Tohopekaliga Canal ........................21
St. Johns River basin ......... ............................. 21
St. Johns River 21 Small tributaries draining to east ... ................... 24
Lake Pickett .......... ............................... 25
Econlockhatchee River ....... ......................... 25
Little Econlockhatchee River ............................ 27
Howell Creek ..............................27
Wekiva River ......... ............................... 28
Apopka-Beauclair Canal ......................29
Lakes, swamps, and marshes ........ ........................ 30
Ground water .......... ...................... ... ......... 31
Nonartesian aquifer ....... ................... ....... .... 31
Aquifer properties. ...... ........... ........... ....31
Water levels ......... ................................ 32
Recharge and discharge ..... ........................ 33
Quality of water. ....... .............................. 33
Shallow artesian aquifers ...... ....... ........ 35
Aquifer properties ....................35
Water levels . ............ . .... ......... 35
Recharge and discharge ...... . ... ............... 35




Floridan aquifer ........5......
Aquifer properties ................ 36':
Piezometric surface ................................36.
Recharge and discharge . .....................39
Quality of water. .......................... .39
Pumping test ..............................41
Water budget ............ ........ ......................44
Use of water ... ........................ .;.................. .44
References . ............................. . ..47
ILLUSTRATIONS
Figure
I Florida showing location of Orange County ...................... 6
2 Physiographic regions of Orange County, Florida .... .......... 7
3 Distribution of drainage wells in Orange County, Florida ...... 11
4 List and duration of records at surface-water gaging stations in
or near Orange County, Florida .............................. 16
5 Drainage basins and surface-water data collection points in
Orange County, Florida ......................... 17
6 Relation of specific conductance to stream flow, St. Johns River
at station 36, near Cocoa, Florida, 1958-61 .................... 23
7 Cumulative frequency curves of specific conductance for the
Econlockhatchee River at station 18, near Bithlo, Florida, 1960-61 26
8 Hydrographs of observation wells in Orange County and rainfall at
Orlando, Florida ........ .. . .............. ......... 32
9 Orange County, Florida, showing location of inventoried wells
other than drainage wells ...............34
10 Orange County, Florida, showing the contours of the piezometric surface at high water conditions, September 1960 ................ 37
Ut Orange County, Florida, showing the contours of the piezometric surface at about normal conditions, July 1961 ................... 38
12 Orange County, Florida, showing general range of dissolved solids of the water in wells in the Floridan aquifer .............. 40
13 Composition of mineral content of water from selected wells in
the Floridan aquifer in Orange County, Florida .............42
TableI Temperature and rainfall at Orlando, Florida............... 9
2 Summary of the properties of the-geologic formations penetrated
by water wells in Orange County, Florida .............13
3 Sites where miscellaneous surface-water data have been
collected in and near Orange :County, Florida .. 18
iv




4 Data on-small tributaries draining the eastern part of Orange
County, Florida .................................24
5 Discharge measurements of springs in Orange County, Florida.. 29
6 Results of pumping well 831-122-4, Orlando, Florida, February 17,
1961 .........................................43
-- y







INTERIM REPORT ON THE WATER RESOURCES
OF
ORANGE COUNTY, FLORIDA
By
William F. Lichtler, Warren Anderson, and Boyd F. Joyner
ABSTRACT
The population and industry of Orange County are expanding rapidly but the demand for water is expanding even more rapidly. This progress report on the first half of a 6-year investigation provides information for use in the development and management of the water resources of the area.
The county lies in three physiographic regions: (1) Eastern Lowlands, (2) Parallel Ridges, and (3) Rolling Highlands. The Rolling Highlands, also known as the Orlando Ridge, are characterized by numerbus sinkhole lakes and depressions.
Surface runoff forms the principal drainagein the Eastern Lowlands and Parallel Ridges, whereas underground drainage prevails in the Rolling Highlands.
Surface water is temporarily stored in lakes, swamps, and streams. Lakes are the most reliable sources of surface water as the swamps and most of the streams, except the St. Johns, Wekiva, and Little Econlockhatchee rivers, go dry or nearly dry during droughts.
Approximately 90 of the 1,000 square miles in Orange County are covered by water. The southwestern 340 square miles of the county drain to the south by the Kissimmee River system. The eastern and northern 660 square miles of the county drain to the north by the St. Johns River.
1




2 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY
The water in the lakes and streams in Orange County generally is soft, 'ow in mineral content, and high in color. The quality of the water ;n most of the lakes remains fairly constant.
Ground water is obtained from: (1) a nonartesian aquifer composed of c!astic material of late Miocene to Recent age; (2)several disconinuous shallow artesian aquifers in the Hawthorn Formation of middle Miocene age; and (3) the Floridan aquifer composed of the Ocala Group, the Avon Park Limestone, and the Lake City Limestone, all of Eocene
age.
The surficial nonartesian aquifer produces relatively small quantities of soft water that is sometimes high in color. The shallow artesian aquifers produce moderate quantities of generally moderately hard to hard water.
The Floridan aquifer is the principal source of ground water in Orange County. It comprises more than 1,300 feet of porous limestone and dolomite and underlies sand and clay deposits that range in thickness from about 40 feet to more than 350 feet. Wells in the Floridan cqwurer can yield more than 4,000 gpm (gallons per minute).
Artesian heads in the Floridan aquifer range from about 10 feet above to more than 60 feet below the land surfa:e. The quality of the water ranges from moderately hard in the western and central parts to saline in the extreme eastern part of the county.




INFORMATION CIRCULAR NO. 41 3
INTRODUCTION
The rapid increase of population and industry of Orange County has created a rapidly increased demand for water. Not only are there more people and more uses for water, but also the per-capita use of water is increasing. Central Florida is becoming a major center in missile development and space exploration and the increase in demand for water is expected to continue and even to accelerate.
PURPOSE AND SCOPE OF INVESTIGATION
The purpose of this investigation is to furnish data that will be useful in the conservation, development, and management of the water resources of Orange County. Water is among the most important natural resources of Florida. Orange County, with more than 50 inches of annual rainfall, is blessed with an abundant supply. However, this supply is not evenly distributed throughout the year, or from year to year, nor are there adequate-storage reservoirs in all parts of the county.
An evaluation of all factors affecting the water resources of an area is necessary for the protection, efficient development, and management of water supplies. Recognizing this fact, the Board of County Commissioners of Orange County entered into a cooperative agreement with the U. S. Geological Survey to investigate the water resources of Orange County. The investigation is a joint effort by the three branches of the Water Resources Division of the Survey. The report was prepared under the supervision of M. I. Rorabaugh, succeeded by C. S. Conover, Tallahassee; A. 0. Patterson, Ocala; and K. A. MacKichan, Ocala.
This interim report summarizes the findings of the first half of a planned 6-year investigation. The report contains information on the quantity, quality, and occurrence of surface and ground water in and near Orange County. The information contained herein will be incorporated in a final report to be published by the Florida Geological Survey.




4 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY
ACKNOWL EDGMENTS
The authors express their appreciation to the many residents of Orange County who gave information about their wells and to various public officials whose cooperation greatly aided the investigation. Special appreciation is expressed to Fred Dewitt, county engineer; to Robert Simons and Jesse Burkett of the city of Orlando water and sewer department; and to Gene Pou, Ross Snyder, and Russ Mills of the city of Orlando engineering department for their assi stance.
Appreciation is given the well drillers in or near Orange County who furnished geologic and hydrologic data and permitted collection of water samples and drill cuttings and measurements of water I.evels during drilling operations.
Albert Schwartz and other staff members of the U. S. Soil Conservation Service gave advice and information.
PREVIOUS INVESTIGATIONS
Two previous investigations of the water resources of Orange County have been made. A report by the U. S. Geological Survey (19.43) gives the results of a study of lakes as a source of municipal water supply for Orlando. A detailed investigation by Unklesbay (1944) deals primarily with drainage and sanitary wells in Orlando and vicinity and their effect on the ground-water resources of the area.
Other investigators have included Orange County in geologic and hydrologic studies. Fenneman (1938), Cooke (1939), MacNeil (1950), and White (1958) describe the topographic and geomorphic features of central Florida. Cole (1941, 1945), Cooke (1945), Vernon (1951), and Pur (1953) describe the general geology of central Florida and make many references to Orange County. Sellards (1908), Sellards and Gunter (1913), Matson and Sanford (1913), Gunter and Ponton (1931), Parker, Ferguson, Love, and others (1955), Brown, Kenner, and Brown (1957), and Brown (1962) discuss the geology and water resources of Brevard County. Stringfield (1935, 1936) and Stringfield and Cooper (1950) investigated the artesian water in peninsular Florida, including Orange County. Collins and Howard (1928), Black and Brown (1951), Wander and Reitz (1951), and the Florida State Board of Health (1961) give information about the chemical quality of water in Orange County.




INFORMATION CIRCULAR NO. 41 5
WELL-NUMBERING SYSTEM
The well-numbering system used in this report is based on latitude and longitude coordinates derived from a statewide grid of 1-minute parallels of latitude and meridians of longitude. Wells within these quadrangles have. been assigned numbers consisting of the last, digit of the degree and the two digits of the minute of the line of latitude on the south side of the quadrangle, the last digit of the degree and the two digits of the minute of the line of longitude on the east side of the quadrangle, and the numerical order in which the well within the quadrangle was inventoried. For example, well 832-122-4 is the fourth well that was inventoried in the 1-minute quadrangle north of 28032' north latitude and west of 81022' west longitude. By this system wells referred to by number in the text can be located on figure 9.
DESCRIPTION OF THE AREA
Orange County is in the east-central part of the Florida Peninsula (fig. 1). It has an area of es-entially 1,000 square miles of which about 910 square miles are land and about 90 square miles are water. It is bounded on the east by Brevard County, on the north by Seminole and Lake counties, on the west by Lake County, and on the south by Osceola County.
The population of Orange County in 1960 was 263,540. In that year Orlando, the largest city-in thecquoupty, had a population of 88,135, while Winter Park, the second largest city, h a-dpopu1t.'or..of_17,160.
-- The principal agricultural crops are citrus, vegetables, and cattle. In 1960 there were about 67,000 acres of citrus groves, about 6,000 acres of vegetables, mostly in the Zellwood muck lands, and about 15,000 head of cattle.
Orange County is in the Atlantic Coastal Plain physiographic province described by Meinzer (1923, pl. 28). The county is subdivided into three physiographic regions: the Eastern Lowlands, the Parallel Ridges, and the Rolling Highlands (fig. 2).
The Eastern Lowlands include the St. Johns River marsh, the northern part of the Econlockhatchee River basin and the northeastern part of the county east of Rock Springs. Elevations range from about




6 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY
2-"
C- A, Al
- ,. '
mIl
iii. 2" jNF
o
/
F, s g i O C
C. "- ", o." j
1.e 1 : /_-.04
46 kr 0 102 3 0 0mie
Figure ~ ~ ~ / 1Flrdshwnloaio ofOag ony




r,45, 40' 35' 30' 25' 20' I' 051 r81i 05'oeso'
- ,Land-urloe alhludee are In tol above mean sea level
I E P.,nhofow Hi|hroldn 570MI oola olnlorll 40 (Cooke, 1945)',Apopv 'C 0 U N T Yi
0
330
C, .C 2, ,-25'
0
COUNTY
ub r"t
28017
40' 35' 30' 22 05 81000' 55' 80050 Bose taken from US, Geolog4cale 7 9_9 10 Mi -Survey topographic quadrangle.
1'24,000
Figure 2. Physlographic regions of Orange County, Florida




8 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY
5 feet above msi (mean sea level) near the St. Johns River to about 35 feet above ms1 where the lowlands merge with the Parallel Ridges.
The Parallel Ridges occupy most of the middle portion of the county between the Eastern Lowlands and the Rolling Highlands. Elevations range from 35 to 105 feet above msl but are mostly between 50 and 85 feet above msl. The ridges and intervening lower areas parallel to the Atlantic coast are best developed in the area between Orlando and the Econlockhatchee River.
The Rolling Highlands occupy the western part of Orange County with an island outlier in the vicinity of Orlando. Elevations range from about 50 feet in the Wekiva River basin to about 210 feet above msl near the Avalon lookout tower in the southwestern part of the county. This area contains many lakes and depressions that usually have no surface outlets.
The three physiographic regions described above are approximately equivalent to the Pleistocene terraces postulated by MacNeil (1950)-as the Pamlico terrace from about 8 feet to about 30 feet above msl, the Wicomico terrace from about 30 feet to about 100 feet above msl, and the Okefenokee terrace from about 100 to 150 feet above msl.
Cooke (1939) has called the surface defined by the 42- and 70foot shorelines the Penholoway terrace and the surface defined by the 70- and 100-foot shorelines the Wicomico terrace. The altitudes above 150 feet in Orange County probably represent sandhills or altered remnants of higher terraces.
CLIMATE
Orange County has a subtropical climate with only two pronounced seasons winter and summer. The average annual temperature at Orlando is essentially 72F and the average annual rainfall is 51.4 inches. Summer thunderstorms account for most of the rainfall. Thunderstorms occur on an average of 83 days per year (U. S. Weather Bureau, annual report, 1960); one of the highest incidences of thunderstorms in the United States.




INFORMATION CIRCULAR NO. 41 9
Table 1. Temperature and Rainfall at Orlando, Florida
Normal Normal Normal1 Normal1 Maximuyl Minimur
maximum iminimum average rainfall rainfall rainfall
temp.2 ( F) temp.2 (F) temp. (*F) (inches) (inches) (year) i(inches) (year) Jan. 70.7 50.0 60.4 Z.00 6.44 1948 0.15 1950 Feb. 72.0 50.7 61.4 2.42 5.64 1960 .10 1944 Mar. 75.7 54.0 64.9 3.41 10.54 1960 .16 1956 April 80.5 59.8 70.2 3.42 6.18 1953 .28 1961 May 85.9 66.2 76.1 3.57 8.58 1957 .43 1961 June 89.1 71.4 80.3 6.96 11.61 1947 1.97 1948 July 89.9 73.0 81.5 8.00 19.57 1960 4.35 1957 Aug. 90.0 73.5 81.8 6.94 15.19 1953 3.40 1958 Sept. 87.6 72.4 80.0 7.23 15.87 1945 1.65 1958 Oct. 82.6 65.3 74.0 3.96 14.51 1950 1.51 1949 Nov. 75.6 56.z 65.9 1.57 4.86 1951 .09 1950 Dec. 71.6 51.2 61.4 1.89 4.30 1950 trace 1944 Yearly 80.9 62.0 71.5 51.37 68.74 1960 39.61 i 1943 Average for 10 or more years.
U. S. Weather Bureau records, 1921-60.
3U. S. Weather Bureau records, 1943-60.
SINKHOLES
Sinkholes are common in areas underlain by limestone formations. Rainfall combines with carbon dioxide in the atmosphere to form a weak carbonic acid. As the water percolates through the limestone, solution takes place and cavities of irregular shape are gradually formed. When the cavities enlarge to the extent that the roof can no longer support the overburden, the surface deposits, generally sand, collapse into the cavity and a sinkhole is formed. Many of Orange County's natural lakes, ponds, and closed depressions are the surface expression of such collapse. Sinkholes range in size from small pits a few feet in diameter to large depressions several square miles in area. Large depressionsare usually formed by the coalescence of several sinkholes.
Sinkholes may form either suddenly by collapse of the roof of a iarge caverr: or slowly by a gradual sinking of the ground surface. The




10 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY
latter condition is illustrated by the formation of a sinkhole in the Orlando area in April 1961. The sinking was first noted as a depression in a graded road. By the following day a hole about 6 feet in diameter had formed. Within 2 days the hole gradually increased to about 60 feet in diameter and to about 15 feet in depth. The hole was filled and no further development has been noted.
Another sinkhole occurred in April 1961 in Pine Hills, west of Orlando. A depression about 1 foot deep and 50 feet in diameter formed during April 23 and 24 and was marked only by a faint line in the sand except where the outer edge intersected two houses. The floor of one room, the carport, and the concrete driveway of one house was badly cracked. The corner of the other house dropped about 6 inches.
The slow rate of settlement was probably caused by a gradual funneling of the overlying sand and clay into relatively small solution channels in the limestone. The channels eventually became filled and the subsidence stopped.
DRAINAGE
The eastern and southern parts of Orange County are drained principally by surface streams. The St. Johns River and its tributaries drain the eastern part of the county while Shingle Creek, Reedy Creek, Boggy Creek, and canals in the upper Kissimmee River basin drain mast of the south-central and southwestern part. Many swamps and sloughs occur in the eastern and southern parts of the county because of the poorly developed drainage.
In the western and northwestern parts of the county much of the drainage is to closed depressions and thence by seepage to the underlying limestone or by evaporation from the lakes and ponds. A few sinkholes have open connections with solution channels in the limestone. Water that collects in these sinkholes drains directly into the solution channels. Most of the sinkholes, however, are floored with relatively impermeable sediments and the rate of seepage through these lakefilled sinkholes may not be much greater than in areas adjacent to the lakes.
More than 300 drainage wells were drilled between 1906 and 1961 in the upland area of the county, especially in Orlando and vicinity, to drain surface water directly into the artesian aquifer (fig. 3).




- a 5 40 35' 30' 25' 20V 0 low' 551 8015d
2 II I I II I, 11 11
,~ K, I
EXPLANATION- -45
" - - -_-......-- -- -- ... --
IW i 45'
IEI
A V0
4_ -35' 4
' L d-q, i WN'
. "-- 0
" I n V
j -Ib-L -. -30'
3d)
-- --KZ -.-----1:
. .,- ... -.. i -I
__ .....
/M
2oe oinfrmi S / / !I '8'17'
81%5 35 30 0 0 0528I'00' 80.50' I O 4ll 3V 26 2I 15 l IF I 80'50 Base taken from U, S. Geologicol 3 4 5 6 W 9 9 11 miles Well Inventory by W F Lichtler Survey topographic quodro ngles,
1124,000
Figure 3. Distribution of drainage wells in Orange Countyj Florida.




12 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY
The greatest activity was during 1960 when about 35 drainage wells were drilled. Considerable quantities of water are disposed of in this manner, but figures on the total amount are not available. The quality of the water that enters the aquifer through drainage wells ranges from pure rainwater to water used to flush cow barns.
GEOLOGY
The materials penetrated by water wells in Orange County range in age from middle Eocene (about 50 million years ago) to Recent. The formations, in ascending order of age, include the Lake City Lime-stone, the Avon Park Limestone, and the Ocala Group1 of middle Eocene age; the Hawthorn Formation of middle Miocene age; and undifferentiated post-Miocene deposits.
Sand and clay of the Hawthorn Formation and younger deposits generally cover the limestones to depths ranging from a few feet in the northern part of the county to about 100 to 150 feet in the Orlando area and more than 350 feet in the eastern part of the county. Vernon (1950) has postulated that the western two-thirds of the county is part of the upthrown side of a faulted block called the Kissimmee faulted flexure. Indications of another fault exist in the St. Johns River marsh area with the upthrown side to the east. Further geologic data will be collected to aid in solving the complex structure underlying Orange County. Table 2 summarizes the properties of the geologic formations penetrated by water wells in Orange County.
HYDROLOGY
All natural supplies of fresh water are derived from precipitation. The cycle of precipitation, evaporation, and the intervening movements of water is known as the hydrologic cycle. Some precipitation returns almost immediately to the atmosphere by evaporation, some is transpired by plants, some is stored in surface or underground reservoirs before being returned to the atmosphere by evapotranspiration, and some moves to, the sea by surface or underground routes, eventually to be evaporated again.
1The stratigraphic nomenclature used in this report conforms generally to the usage of the Florida Geological Survey. It conforms also to the nomenclature of the U. S. Geological Survey, except that Ocala Group is used in this report instead of Ocala Limestone.




Table 2. Summary of the Properties of the Geologic Formations Penetrated by Water Wells in Orange County, Florida
Formation Thickness, Description of Water-bearing
Series, name in feet material properties Aquifer Water level Recent Undifferenand tiated; may
Pleistocene include 0-Z00 Mostly quartz sand with Varies widely in onartesian 0-20 feet below the
Caloosa- varying amounts of quantity and land surface but -n hatchee clay ahd shell quality of water generally less than 0 Pliocene (.?) Marl .................. produced .... .......10 feet X
Gray-green, clayey, Generally imper- Shallow artesian Piezometric surface not quartz sand and silt; meable except for lower limestone defined, water level -I Miocene Hawthorn 0-Z00 phosphatic sand; and limestone, shell, beds may be part generally is lower than"w buff, impure, phosphatic or gravel beds of Floridan nonartesian aquifer and Z limestone, mostly in a quife r higher than Floridan' lower' part aquifer Cream to tan, fine, soft Moderately high trans- Ocala 0-125 to medium hard, granu- missibility, most C Group lar, porous,'sometimes wells also penetrate rdolomitic limestone underlying formations Upper section mostly Overall transmissibilit Z cream to tan, granular, very high, contains Piezometric surface 0 Eocene Avon Park 400-600 porous limestone. Often many interconnected Floridan shown in figures 10
Limestone. contains abundant cone- solution cavities, and 11 shaped Foraminifera. Many large capacity
Lower section mostly wells draw water frory
dense, hard, brown,crys- this formation
talline dolomite
Dark brown crystalline Similar to Avon Park
Lake City Over 700. layers of dolomite alter- Limestone. Municipal
Limestone Total un-' nating with chalky fossili- supply of City of
'known' ferous layers of limestone Orlando obtained from this formation




14 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY
All natural waters dissolve mineral matter from the soils and rocks contacted. The quantity of mineral matter dissolved depends mainly upon the type of material contacted and the length of the time of contact. The solvent action upon mineral substances is greatly increased when the water contains dissolved gases, such as carbon dioxide, which may be introduced from the atmosphere or from decaying organic material. The most common mineral constituents dissolved in water are silica, iron, calcium, magnesium, sodium, potassium, carbonate and bicarbonate, sulfate, chloride, nitrates, and fluorides. Other mineral constituents may be present in minor amounts.
Dissolved organic material which is introduced into water when it contacts living and decaying vegetation imparts color to the water. The color is generally more prevalent in surface water and shallow ground water than in deep ground water.
At a particular, location ground water generally contains more dissolved mineral matter than surface water because it is in intimate contact with the soil and rock. However, the quality of ground water does not vary as much as that of surface water. During dry periods, the mineral content of surface water usually increases because of a higher percentage of ground-water inflow and a longer time of contact with soil and rock.
Dissolved mineral constituents in water are generally reported in parts per million. One part per million (ppm) is one unit weight of a constituent in a million unit weights of water. Hardness of water is caused by the presence of alkaline earth metals such as calcium and magnesium and is expressed as an equivalent quantity of calcium carbonate. The hardness scale generally used by the U. S. Geological Survey classifies water with a hardness of 0 to 60 ppm as soft; 61 to 120 ppm as moderately hard; 121 to 200 ppm as hard; and over 200 ppm as very hard. Specific conductance is a measure of the ability of water to conduct an electric current and may be used in estimating the total dissolved mineral content. The total dissolved mineral content of most surface water in Orange County is between 50 and 60 percent of the conductivity. Thus, by making a simple conductivity measurement, the mineral content can be estimated by multiplying the specific conductance by a factor of 0.55. The mineral content of ground water in Orange County can be estimated by multiplying the specific conductance by a factor of 0.62. Color is expressed in units of the platinum-cobalt scale. Iydrogen-ion concentration (pH) is a measure of the acidity or




INFORMATION CIRCULAR NO. 41 15
alkalinity of a solution. A pH value of 7.0 is neutral. Progressive values of pH above 7.0 denote increasing alkalinity, and regressive values below 7.0 denote increasing acidity.
SURFACE WATER
Most of the surface water in Orange County is from rain within the county, but some of it is from rain on adjacent areas of higher elevation that flows into the county. The surface water is only temporarily stored in the lakes, swamps, and stream channels. The amount in storage continuously changes because the rate of replenishment differs from the rate of depletion.
Permanent lakes are the most reliable sources of surface water in Orange County. Swamps and marshes are intermittent sources that go dry after relatively short periods of drought.
The St. Johns River, the Wekiva River, and the Little Econlockhatchee River north of State Highway 50 are the only streams in the county that do not either go dry or recede to extremely low base flows in most years. The flow of the St. Johns River is sustained in all but extreme droughts by water stored in several large lakes that are a part of its main stem. The Wekiva River is sustained at relatively high base flow by several springs. The lower Little Econlockhatchee River receives water from the Orlando sewage system.
Surface-water data have been collected at 62 sites in the county. Figure 4 lists the sites where data have been collected systematically and shows the periods of record. Table 3 lists the sites where miscellaneous data have been collected.
Surface water from the southwestern 340 square miles of Orange County drains to the south into the Kissimmee River. Surface water from the eastern and northern 660 square miles of the county drains to the north into the St. Johns River. Figure 5 shows the drainage basins and the surface-water data collection points in Orange County.
KISSIMMEE RIVER BASIN
Reedy Creek: Reedy Creek drains 49 square miles in the south,west corner of Orange County. The drainage from about 22 square miles of this basin in Lake County flows into Orange County.




16 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY
sta, aW
Station
I Air, Lake at Orlando
Z jayl-East Tohapekalga Canal nt Narcoossee
3 Canal at conln m Astotula
-a jjy Conalat St Hwy448 nrAskatla c
5 pka. Lake. at Winter Garden
6 os Lake nt Orlando
7 ,, Lake, at Windermere =
11 ig Sand Lake at Doctor Phillips
9 I130M Creek n, Kissimmee
to ggy Creek ne Taft 4SI utler, Lake, at Windermere
12 Concord, Lake, at Orlando
t3 Canwa, Lake, am Pinocastle
14 rine., Lake, r. Orlando 15 Cyress Creek at Vineland
L6 sstan Canal nr Wewahotee
IT Lake, at Mount Dora
IS Ecanlockhotchee _river nc Sihi Io
19 Ecanlockhatchee River nc Chuluota
arviw, La"ke at Orlando
21" Lake, nc Narcoossee 22 land, Lake, at Orlando
'23 tvanhoe, Lake, at Orlando -__24 im Creek 1WL Christmas
25 hns Lake at Oakland
rZ 'tfl Ecanlockhatchat River nr Union Park
27 e Lake Foirview at Orlando.S fland Lake, at Winter Park
29 *ar Jane Lake n Narcoossee
30 Mll Jane-Hart Canal r Norcoossee
3t ptle-mary Jane Canal nr. Norcoossee
32 I Lake at Orlando
33 P:insett, Lake, n Cocoa 34 aRwema, Lake, at Orlando
35 St Johns River nr. Christmas
36 St Johns River n. Cacao
37 S Johns River Flood Profile
38 Shingle Creek at airport, nr Kissimmee
39 Slingle Creek nr. Vineland
40 llvefr Lake, at Orlando 4 t Spier, Lake, nr Orlando 42 Spnng Lake at Orlando
43 Sue, Lake, at Orlando
44 Susannatl, Lake, mr. Orlando
45 Ldm9iU, Lake, at Orlando
46 va River mr. Sanford v" 9 9 Ex*E
47 Wenanah (Francis) Lake n Plymouth
EXPLANATION
Daily to weekly stage
Monthly stage or annual flood crest 111111n1 Periodic discharge measurements [. ....................................
Daily stage and discharge.....: :: .:..: :.
Figure 4. List and duration of records at surface-water gaging stations in or
near Orange County, Florida.




145. 40' 35' 30' 20' 5' o I 55' 800' 21o,
5I Limit of flooding In St. Johni River mIais
4 A -45
620
AS0L 01 e -- M o dr ainag e eii e rtpw ufc euc
=i i ..... ...... 61 19 logan n Sh ohns a M W G 3
nwn
J S,~Ol oa olcinPl
4d' r ., CIT 4dml~c p ,=~o
C ) -20'
Bake ake fRo N.S GelGia'~m
A p o pkS p i1P -- NuadYncos
-4 1. n 5
124004
F 5 e I
Is z 3d 30'
ITO > 2V 25' Az
01 0
-P 0 L K20'
28"17'
Base taken from U,S, Geological 0 I _L 4_L 6 .1 _L_ 10 Im Survey lopogrophic quadrangles,
1; 24,000
Figure 5. Drainage basins and surface-water data collection points in Orange County, Florida. %




18* FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY
Table 3. Sites Where Miscellaneous Surface-Water Data Have Been Collected In And Near Orange County, Florida (Station number corresponds to that shown for figure 5.)
Station number Station
48 Bonnet Creek near Vineland
49 Christmas Creek near Christmas
50 Howell Creek near Maitland 51 Jim Branch near Narcoossee
52 Little Wekiva River near Forest City
53 Mills Creek near Chuluota 54 Reedy Creek near Vineland 55 Roberts Branch near Bithlo
56 Rock Springs near Apopka
57 Second Creek near Christmas
58 Settlement Creek near Christmas
59 Taylor Creek near Cocoa
60 Tootoosahatchee Creek near Christmas
61 Wekiva Springs near Apopka
62 Witherington Spring near Apopka
Elevations in Reedy Creek basin in Orange County range from 75 feet at the southern county line to 210 feet at Avalon fire lookout tower. The eastern part of the basin is relatively flat swampy terrain interspersed with islands of low relief. The western part is rolling hills interspersed with lakes and swamps. The divide between Reedy Creek basin and Bonnet Creek basin to the east is rather indefinite, and some interchange of water occurs between basins.
At Reedy Creek near Vineland (station 54), 1 mile south of the county line, the minimum flow observed was less than 0.01 cfs (cubic feet per second) in May 1961. The maximum flow was 1,940 cfs at the peakof the flood in September 1960.
Analyses of water collected from Reedy Creek at station 54 at low flows on June 15, 1960, and May 23, 1961, show the water to be very soft and low in mineral content. At almost zero flow on May 23,




INFORMATION CIRCULAR NO. 41- 19
1961, the hardness was 11 ppm, and the mineral content, based on a conductivity measurement, was estimated at 24 ppm.
Bonnet Creek: Bonnet Creek and its tributary, Cypress Creek, drain 55 square miles of Orange County, east of Reedy Creek basin. The part of the Bonnet Creek basin that is drained by Cypress Creek differs hydrologically from the rest of the basin.
Elevations in Bonnet Creek basin range from 75 feet at the county line to 195 feet near Windermere. Elevations in the western part of the basin, the part excluding Cypress Creek basin, range from 75 to 100 feet. This area is flat and swampy but contains several lakes of moderate size and islands of low relief.
The minimum flow observed at Bonnet Creek near Vineland (station 48), 1 mile south of the county line, was 0.4 cfs in May 1961 and the maximum flow was 1,180 cfs at the peak of the flood in September 1960.
The-water in Bonnet Creek has a slightly higher mineral content and less color than the water in most other streams in the county. On November 24, 1959, the'mineral content was 107 ppm, the hardness. was 66 ppm, and the color was 10 units. The higher mineral content and lower color are probably due to ground-water inflow.
Cypress Creek basin is comprised of about 8 square miles of lakes, 2 sq6are miles of swamps, and 22 square miles of rolling hills in the eastern part of Bonnet Creek basin. Elevations range from 90 feet at its junction with Bonnet Creek to 195 feet near Windermere.
The flow from Cypress Creek basin has been gaged at Vineland (station 15) since 1945. The average annual runoff is about 4 inches and ranged from a minimum of 0.3 inch in 1955 to a maximum of 17.72 inches in 1960. In 10 of the 15 years of complete record, at least one period of no flow occurred. The longest period of no flow was 107 days in 1956. The maximum flow recorded was 354 cfs in September 1960.
Shingle Creek: Shingle Creek drains 83 square miles of Orange County west of U.S. Highway 441 and south of State Highway 50.
Elevations range from 70 feet at the county line to 175 feet near Windermere. The basin is relatively flat and altitudes are generally less than 105 feet except for rolling hills on the western fringe. A closed 'depression occupies 3.3 square miles of the northern part of the basin.




20 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY
Continuous records of stage and discharge for Shingle Creek near Kissimmee (station 38) have been obtained since October 1958. The maximum discharge of record at this station was 3,320 cfs in March 1960. Periodic observations of stage and discharge near Vineland (station 39) have been obtained since September 1959. At this station, the maximum discharge was 1,740 cfs in March 1960. In most years there is no flow for many days at either site.
The water in Shingle Creek near Vineland (station 39) has low mineral content and is soft. Dissolved organic material, usually about 50 percent of the dissolved solids, causes high color, especially during the early periods of high flow. The dissolved solids, including organic material, are less than 165 ppm and the hardness is usually less than 30 ppm. Color ranges from 55 to 200 units.
Boggy Creek: Boggy Creek drains 86 square miles of the county in and south of Orlando. An area of about 11 square miles in the upper part of the basin has no surface outlet and drains underground.
Elevations range from 60 feet at the county line to about 125 feet in the upper basin. The lower part of the basin is flat and contains many swamps and marshes but relatively few lakes. The upper part of the basin is rolling hills interspersed with many lakes.
Periodic measurements of the discharge of Boggy Creek near Kissimmee (station 9) were made from January 1955 to September 1959. Since September 1959, continuous records of the discharge of Boggy Creek near Taft (station 10) have been collected. The maximum discharge during the period of record was 3,680 cfs in March 1960, and the minimum was 0.1 cfs in June 1961.
Analyses of water collected periodically from Boggy Creek show that the water is soft, low in mineral content, and high in color. The total dissolved material ranged from 59 to 115 ppm, and the dissolved mineral content ranged from 29 to 62 ppm which indicates that about 50 percent of the total dissolved material is organic. Color intensity ranged from 45 to 140 units and was usually highest during the early part of flood periods. The hardness of the water is less than 20 ppm.
Jim Branch: Jim Branch drains 5.8 square miles in the southcentral part of Orange County. Elevations in the basin range from 75 to 85 feet.




INFORMAT!ON CIRCULAR NO. 41 21
The maximum flow of Jim Branch near Narcoossee (station 51) has not been determined. A dry stream channel has been observed at this station.
Water collected from Jim Branch at low flow on May 23, 1961 was very soft (9 ppm) and low in mineral content (30 ppm, estimated from its conductivity).
Ajay-East Tohopekaliga Canal: This canal drains approximately 171 square miles, of which 54.5 square miles are in Orange County and 116.5 square miles are in Osceola County.
Elevations of the drainage area in Orange County range from 60 to 90 feet. The topography is fairly flat and is characterized by swamps in the northern part and by lakes in the southern part.
Periodic measurements of the flow in Ajay-East Tohopekaliga Canal near Narcoossee (station 2) have been made since 1942. The maximum measured discharge was 1,420 cfs in March 1960. A reverse flow of 0.25 cfs was measured in February 1946. The average discharge, based on the relation between drainage area and average discharge at several points on the main stem of the Kissimmee River, is estimated to be about 170 cfs.
The flow into Orange County from an area of 111 square miles in Osceola County has been measured in Myrtle-Mary Jane Canal near Narcoossee (station 31) since November 1949. The maximum flow into the county via this canal was 990 cfs in September 1960. In September 1956, the flow reversed for 2 days and flowed out of the county at the rate of 17 cfs. The average discharge in this canal for the period 1950 to 1960 was 129 cfs.
Water from Ajay-East Tohopekaliga Canal, collected at station 2 during low flow on May 23, 1961, was very soft (16 ppm) and low in mineral content (39 ppm, estimated from its conductivity).
ST. JOHNS RIVER BASIN
St. Johns River: The St. Johns River is the eastern boundary of Orange County. Small tributaries drain 174 square miles of Orange County directly to the St. Johns River. An additional 490 square miles
-of the county are drained to the St. Johns River by tributaries which flow across the county line before joining the main stem.




22 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY
The St. Johns River slopes very little in its approximately 20-mile reach along the border of Orange County. At flood stages, the river falls from an elevation of about 17.5 feet at Lake Poinsett to about 10.5 feet at the northern county line. At the minimum stages in 1945, the river fell from 8.0 feet to minus 0.4 foot in this reach.
Stage and discharge records have been collected at St. Johns River near Christmas (station 35) since December 1933 and at St. Johns River near Cocoa (station 36) since October 1953. The average discharge for the period of record at station 35 was 1,431 cfs. For the 7-year period October 1953 to September 1960, the average discharge at station 35 was 1,689 cfs; and at station 36, 1,431 cfs. The maximum flow at station 35 was 11,700 cfs in October 1953. There was no flow at station 35 for periods during March, April, and June 1939.
Large quantities of water may be stored in the wide channel and in lakes in the St. Johns River valley.
Analyses of water collected daily from the St. Johns River at station 36 from October 1953 to September 1960 and a continuous record of its conductivity since June 1959 show that the quality of the water varies greatly.
Figure 6 shows the relation of specific conductance to stream flow for the St. Johns River at station 36 from June 1958 to July 1961. The mineral content in the water varies inversely with stream flow because the percentage of mineral ized ground water i n the stream i s greatest during low flows. The scatter of the plotted points may be due to the variable inflow of highly mineralized artesian water though possibly in part to the problem of representative sampling. Inflow from one well occurs just above the conductivity recorder, but it is doubtful if water from this single well causes all of the variations in conductivity. During the period 1953-60, the dissolved solids in water from the St. Johns River ranged from 103 ppm October 21-31, 1953, to 998 ppm July 11-20, 1956; the hardness ranged from 30 ppm October 21-31, 1953, to 294 ppm June 11-20, 1956; specific conductance ranged from 107 micromhos October 10, 1953, to 1,620 micromhos June 18, 1956; and the water temperature ranged from 46F January 9-12, 1956, to 95F August 9, 1956. The chloride content reached a maximum of 403 ppm at a mean discharge of 41 cfs during the period June 11-20, 1956. This chloride concentration is enough to taste slightly salty to most people (Hem, 1959).




I000
63'800 0 0 "
fQJV6 ~
--1
0endcog i i fet person 200 *e a
C + z 20 >
100 1 1_11 1 I'l
100 200 400 6oo 1000 2000 4000 7000 10000 Mean discharge in cubic feet per second Figure 6. Relation of specific conductanice to stream flow, St.Johns River at station 36, near Cocoa, Florida, 1958-61.




24 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY
Small tributaries draining to east: The eastern part of the county between the main stem of the St. Johns River and the Econlockhatchee River, amounting to about 180 square miles, is drained to the St. Johns River by numerous small tributaries. Table 4 shows data pertinent to these tributaries.
During the low flow period from June 14 to 17, 1960, the dissolved mineral content of the water in the small tributaries draining eastward into the St. Johns River was estimated from conductivity measurements to range from 33 ppm in Taylor Creek to 86 ppm in Second Creek. The mineral content of the water in Christmas Creek was estimated to be 52 ppm on May 24, 1961, when the other small tributaries were dry.
Table 4. Data on Small Tributaries Draining the Eastern Part of Orange County, Florida
Drainage
area Elevation
Station (square (feet) Discharge (cfs) Subdivision of area number miles) Max.fI Min. Max. Date f n. Date"
Taylor Creek near
Cocoa 59 8.74 75 14 3,000 Mar. 0 1960
Sweetwater Branch -- 4.31 50 16 0-- ...
Jixn Creek near
Christmas Z4 31.4 75 11 3,750 Mar. 0 1960
Second Creek near
Christmas 57 17.3 76 17 1,500 Sept. 0 1960
Settlement Creek
near Christmas 58 8.86 76 17 -0 *
Tootoosahatchee Creek
near Christmas 60 23.6 76 14 0 *
Near Creek -- 6.5Z 72 13 0 *
Unnamed Creek -- 4.37 61 --- 0
Christmas Creek 49 15.0 71 11 0.04 June 1961
Buscombe Creek I -- 2.15 56 11 --- 0
Roberts Branch 55 5.05 72 37 0 *
Area without
definite channels 13.4 46 14 ---0 *
St. Johns River
flood plain 40.Z 18 4
X Many days in most years.




INFORMATION CIRCULAR NO. 41 25
Lake Pickett: Lake Pickett and its contributory drainage area occupy 8.1 square miles. Mills Creek drains Lake Pickett to the Econlockhatchee River. Elevations in the Lake Pickett drainage basin range from 60 to 75 feet.
The hardness of the water in Mills Creek at Chuluota (station 53) on May 24, 1961, was 7 ppm and the mineral content, estimated from its conductivity, was 21 ppm. The pH of the water was 5.9 indicating that it is slightly corrosive. The water quality of Lake Pickett probably is similar to that of Mills Creek.
Econlockhatchee River: The Econlockhatchee River drains 117 square miles of Orange County. The drainage basin ranges from 2.5 to 9.5 miles wide and the average width of the basin in Orange County is 6.2 miles. The basin is about 14 miles east of Orlando and spans the county from south to north. The drainage from 17 square miles of the basin in Osceola County enters Orange County. Elevations in the Econlockhatchee River basin in Orange County range from 20 to 90 feet.
The Econlockhatchee River basin and the area drained by small tributaries to the St. Johns River are unusual for Orange County in that they contain only three lakes of significant size. These basins do, however, contain many swamps and marshes.
Continuous records of the flow of the Econlockhatchee River near Chuluota (station 19) have been collected since 1936, and periodic measurements of the flow of the Econlockhatchee River near Bithlo (station 18) have been made since September 1959. The maximum flow at station 19 was 11,000 cfs and at station 18, 7,840 cfs. The minimum flow at station 19 was 6.7 cfs in June 1945. The river flow ceases at station 18 in most dry years. The average flow at station 1.9 was 266 cfs for the period 1936 to 1960.
A continuous conductivity record since October 1959 and analyses of water collected periodically from the Econlockhatchee River near Bithlo show the water to be high in color, soft, and low in mineral content. The conductivity ranged from 24 to 189 micromhos and the color ranged from 45 to 240 units. The color is always greatest during the early part-of high flow periods.
Figure 7 shows the cumulative frequency curves of specific coniductance for the Econlockhatchee River at station 18 for the 1960 and




26 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY
ISO
160 -____140
In1
E
" 0
80
C
o
20
0
1 2 5 10 30 50 70 90 99
Percent of time specific conductance was equal to or less than that shown
Figure 7. Cumulative frequency curves of specific conductance for the Econlockhatchee River at station 18, near Bithlo, Florida, 1960-61.
and 1961 water years (October 1 to September 30). These curves may be used to estimate the mineral content of water in the river for any percentage of time. For example, the conductivity was 130 micromhos or less for 80 percent of the time in the 1961 water year whereas in 1960 the conductivity never exceeded 120. The mineral content of water in the Econlockhatchee River averages about 0.55 of the conductivity; therefore, the dissolved mineral content would be 72 ppm (130 x 0.55) or less for 80 percent of the time during the 1961 water year. The mineral content of the water in the Econlockhatchee River was lower- in 1960 than in 1961 because of greater dilution by surface runoff in 1960.




INFORMATION :CIRCULAR NO. 41 27
Little Econlockhatchee River: The Little Econlockhatchee River drains 71 square miles of Orange County east of Orlando. Elevations in this basin range from- about 35 feet near the county line to 127 feet at the eastern edge of Orlando.
A few lakes exist along the western rim of the basin but none exist elsewhere. Many swamps and marshes temporarily store water and thereby reduce the magnitude of peak flows in the river.
The flow from the upper 27 square miles of the basin has been gaged since October 1959 at Little Econlockhatchee River near Union Park (station 26). The maximum and minimum flows at this station were 1,640 cfs in March 1960 and 0.1 cfs in June 1961. The average flow for the period October 1959 to May 1961 was 36 cfs.
Effluent from the Orlando sewage plant is discharged into the river just north of State Highway 50. The amount of effluent ranges from 5 to 12 mgd (million gallons per day) and averages about 7 mgd oral communication, Mr. Reed Terry, Orlando Sewage Plant).
Analyses of water collected from the Little Econlockhatchee. River at station 26 show that the quality is similar to that of the Econlockhatchee River. Color -ranged from 30 to 32 units and was highest during high flow periods. The dissolved solids content of the water ranged from. 83 to 140 ppm, mineral content ranged from 35 to 75 ppm, and the water hardness did not exceed 48 ppm.
Howell Creek: Howell Creek drains about 20 square miles in Orange County, mostly in the suburban areas of Maitland, Winter Park, and the northern half of Orlando. Elevations in the Howell Creek basin range from about 55 to 125 feet.
This basin contains a chain of lakes connected by natural channels, canals, and culverts, beginning at Spring Lake at Orlando (station 42), at an elevation of about 88 feet and ending at Lake Maitland at Winter Park (station 28), at an elevation of about 66 feet. Several other lakes are connected to the chain of lakes by canals or culverts. Lake Underhill at Orlando (station 45),. in the Boggy Creek basin, is connected to Lake Highland in the Howell Creek basin by a culvert.
The flow of Howell Creek near Maitland (station 50) has been Measured several times. The maximum discharge was about 160 cfs




28 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY
in September 1960. Flow at this site ceases when the level of Lake Maitland is below about 65.5 feet with the center board of the control out or about 66.0 feet with the center board in. The levels of many of the lakes in the basin are partly controlled by drainage wells and the flow from the basin is accordingly modified.
The water in Howell Creek and Lake Maitland are similar and are of good quality except for moderate hardness. Hardness at high and low lake levels was 65 and 81 ppm, respectively. The dissolved solids at high and low lake levels were 128 and 147 ppm, respectively.
Wekiva River: The Wekiva River and its tributaries, the Little Wekiva River and Rock Springs Run, drain about 130 square miles in Orange County. Elevations in this basin range from about 15 feet at the northern county line to about 195 feet near Windermere.
The area near the stream channels is flat and swampy, and ranges in elevation from about 15 to 30 feet. From the edges of these flat swamps, rolling hills rise abruptly to elevations ranging between 60 and 100 feet. More than half of the Wekiva River basin in Orange County consists of rolling hills interspersed with lakes and sinks. There is no surface outflow from this area.
Records of the daily stage and discharge of the Wekiva River near Sanford (station 46) have been collected since October 1935. The contributing drainage area at this station is about 200 square miles. The average discharge for the period 1935-60 was 273 cfs. The maximum discharge was 2,060 cfs in September 1945 and the minimum, 105 cfs in June 1939.
The flows of Rock Springs, Wekiva Springs, and Witherington Spring (stations 56, 61, and 62) near Apopka in the Wekiva River basin, have been measured occasionally since 1931. Table 5 shows the results of these measurements.
During low flow on May 25, 1961, the hardness of the water of the Little Wekiva River at Forest City (station 52) was 41 ppm and the mineral content, estimated from the conductivity of the water, was 90 ppm.
The quality of water from Rock Springs, and Wekiva Springs, is similar to the ground water in the area, and variations with flow are small.




INFORMATION ClRCULAR NO. 41 29
Table 5. Discharge Measurements of Springs in Orange County, Florida
Downstream location
of,measuring section
Name of spring and Date of Discharge in relation to head of station number measurement (cfs) (mgd) spring (feet) Rock Springs (56) Z- 5-31 55.9 36. 1 50 .3,- 8-3Z 51.9 33.5 50 2-10-33 54.Z 35.0 40
1-30-35 6Z.8 40.6 80 11- 7-35 57.1 36.9 50 12- 6-35 6z.8 40.6 500 1- 4-36 54.9 35.5 600 1- 4-36 56.z 36.3 60 6- 7-45 5Z.5 33.9 50 5- 9-46 59.1 38.2 30 4-26-56 54.7 -.35.4 1,000 11-24-59 70.0 45. 150 11-24-59 72.4 46.8 1,200 6-17-60 78.2 50.5 1,250 10-17-60 83.2 53.8 1,250 5-z5-61 68.4 44.2 1,300
Wekiva Springs (61) 3- 8-32 63.9 41.3 lob 2-10-33 66.9 43.2 100:, 11- 7-35 72.5 46.9 3.00 6- 7-45 64.8 41.9 200 5- 9-46 67.5 43.6 150 4-27-56 62.0 40.1 200 11-25-59 88.8 57.4 300 6-17-60 86.0 55.6 200 10-17-60 91.7 59. 3 150 5-25-61 86.6 56.0 150
Witherington Spring
(62) 8- 8-45 4. 69 3. 03 4,224 10-19-60 12.0 7.76 4,752.
Apopka-Beauclair Canal: This 'canal drains Lake Apopka and the surrounding areas. The total area drained by the canal 'is about 180 square miles, of which about 120 square miles is in Orange County. Elevations in this basin range from about 65 feet in the mucklands adjacent to Lake Apopka to m6re than 210 feet:near Avalon lookout tower.
The flow in Apopka-Beauclair Canal near Astaula was measured periodically at station 3 from 1942 to 1948. Since July 1958 the daily flow has been determined at station 4. The maximum flow at station 4
was 754 cfs in March 1960 and the minimum flow was estimated to be about 5 cfs during periods when a control structure :in the canal was
closed.




30 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY
LAKES, SWAMPS, AND MARSHES
Orange County has about 1,100 permanent bodies of open water and hundreds of intermittent marshes and swamps. The vast majority of the lakes are in the western half of the county. Swamps and marshes occur in all parts of the county but are less prevalent in the northwestern port than elsewhere in the county.
The lakes range in altitude from about 20 to 155 feet and in size from less than 1 acre to nearly 47 square miles. Records of the levels for the lakes listed in figure 4 have been collected by the U.S. Geological Survey for the periods shown. Records for many additional lakes have been collected by the engineering departments of the city of Orlando and Orange County.
Because of relatively large volumes of water stored in lakes, the quality does not change as rapidly as in streams. Some changes in the quality of the water in lakes occur because of dilution, by high runoff, and because of ground-water inflow and concentration of mineral matter by evaporation.
Water from Lake Hart near Narcoossee (station 21) has been analyzed semiannually since October 1954. This water has high color, low pH values, and low dissolved mineral content. The color ranged from 50 units on October 8, 1958, to 170 units on November 8, 1.956. The pH values, which ranged from 5.5 to 6.2, indicate that the water is slightly corrosive. The dissolved mineral content was low and ranged from 20 to 34 ppm.
The water in Lake Apopka at Winter Garden (station 5) is hard and high in calcium bicarbonate, indicating large quantities of groundwater inflow. During the low stage in May 1961 the calcium content was 29 ppm, the bicarbonate was 123 ppm, and the water hardness was 126 ppm.
Water collected from Johns Lake at Oakland (station 25) during high stage on October 29, 1959, had a hardness of 30 ppm, a mineral content of 77 ppm, and a color of 80 units.




INFORMATION CIRCULAR NO. 41 31.
GROUND WATER
Ground water is the subsurface water in the zone of saturation -the zone in which all the openings of the soil or rock are completely filled with water under atmospheric or- greater pressure. Ground water occurs under nonartesian or artesian conditions. Nonartesian conditions occur when the-upper surface of the zone of saturation (the water table) is not confined and accordingly is free to rise and fall. Artesian conditions occur when an aquifer (water-bearing formation or group of formations) is confined by relatively impermeable beds and the water is under greater than atmospheric pressure.
The heights to which water will rise in tightly cased wells that penetrate an artesian aquifer define its pressure or piezometric surface. The piezometric surface is not directly related to the water table and may be above, below, or at the same level as the water table. Where the water table is above the piezometric surface the nonartesian water may infiltrate through the confining layer to the artesian aquifer. Such areas are recharge areas to the artesian aquifer. Conversely, where the piezometric surface is above the water table, the artesian water moves upward and the area is a discharge area of the artesian aquifer. As no confining bed is completely impermeable, some leakage up or down usually occurs; however, where the confining bed is composed of a thick section of dense material, such as clay, the amount of leakage is relatively small.
Ground water in Orange County occurs in a shallow nonartesian aquifer, in several shallow artesian aquifers, and in the Floridan aquifer, which is artesian in Orange County.
NONARTESIAN AQUIFER
Aquifer properties: The nonartesian aquifer in Orange County extends from the water table to about 30 or 40 feet below land surface. It is composed mainly of quartz sand with varying amounts of clay, hardpan, and shell material. The nonartesian aquifer extends over most of the county, but its composition and thickness and consequently its productivity vary and there may be many local areas where it will not produce enough water to supply a well. Most wells in the nonartesian aquifer are small diameter sand-point or screened wells, 20 to 30 feet deep, that yield small to moderate quantities of water.




32 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY
Water levels: The depth to the water table in Orange County ranges from 0 to about 40 feet below the land surface. The data available indicate that the yearly fluctuations of the water table range from a few feet in low-lying parts of the county to more than 20 feet in higher areas. Figure 8 shows the hydrograph of one well (832-105-3) in the
44 OO CC~C Tf'T SEPT OCT % E, JE M MY AM AGSP (E-N
38 i'
30 42
_ I i
z T j r
6V I T I IV\
________.... __ __ .. _L~l I tL .
i i [I 1 66
ii"---t ;frj! 1 IT!I 2 -""if v,-- -I . . CO UT. -O ,
62 4-_- OF WELLS:I-... ..
833 13?z
i4
Figure 8. Ilydrographs of observation wells in Orange County and rainfall at
Orlando, Florida.




INFORMATION CIRCULAR NO. 41 33
nonartesian aquifer in comparison with the hydrographs of observation wells in the artesian aquifer in Orange County. The graph shows that at that location the water level fluctuated less than 2 feet in 1961. The lowest level was in early June, the beginning of the wet season.
Recharge and discharge: Practically all the recharge to the nonartesian aquifer in Orange County comes from rainfall within or near the county. Most of the county is blanketed with permeable sand which allows the water to infiltrate rapidly. In much of the eastern and southern parts of the county, where the land is flat and an impermeable layer of hardpan is near the surface, the overlying surface sands are quickly saturated during the rainy season and many swamps and sloughs are formed.:
Discharge from the nonartesian aquifer in Orange County is by evapotranspiration, seepage into surface-water bodies, downward leakage to underlying aquifers, seepage out of the county, and pumpage. The hydrographs of wells 832-105-1, 2, and 3, in figure 8, show that in the the vicinity of these wells (fig. 9) the water table was consistently above the pressure surfaces in the underlying artesian aquifers and accordingly some shallow water probably discharged downward.
Quality of water: Water collected from a selected number of wells in the nonartesian aquifer shows a range in chemical composition. The water.from wells developed in clean quartz sand is usually very soft (hardness generally less than 25 ppm) and low in mineral content (about 20 to 50 ppm). The very soft water often has low pH value indicating that it is corrosive.
Total mineral content as high as about 500 ppm (estimated from conductivity measurements) and high concentrations of some constituents indicate that the water in some wells in the nonartesian aquifer is polluted. The water from well 822-138-3 (fig. 9) had concentrations of potassium (10 ppm), sulfate (107 ppm), and nitrate (173 ppm), which definitely indicates a possible nearby source of pollution. Use of water containing an excess of 45 ppm of nitrate for feeding formulas for infants results in methemoglobinemia or cyanosis (blue babies) in the fnfants. A high concentration of nitrate was found only in well 822-138-3. The waterfrom some of the nonartesian wells had as much as 90 units of color.




fill 40' 3b 30O Ib' 0' 111"Clo
r..W -.... Y I1 I. 1K'] iKVMT-1ri
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0 L E P C .. .. . .
-- --::I -. ... .. .
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.35 3a 20 0 0w 100 55' Base taken from U.S. Geological 0 3 4 5 6_, 9 0 miles Survey topographic quodrangls,
1'24,000
Figure 9. Orange County, Florida, showing location of Inventoried wells other than drainage wells.




INFORMATION CIRCULAR NO. 41 35
SHALLOW ARTESIAN AQUIFERS
Aquifer properties: Several shallow artesian aquifers occur within the confining beds of the Hawthorn or younger formations at depths ranging from about 60 feet to more than 150 feet below land surface. These aquifers are composed of- discontinuous shell beds, thin limestone layers, or permeable sand zones. The shallow artesian aquifers are most productive in the area east and south of Orlando, where they yield quantities of water sufficient for domestic use to screened or open-end well s.
Water levels: The only record of water-level fluctuations in a shallow artesian aquifer is from well 832-105-2 (depth 75 feet) (fig. 8). The range of fluctuation in this well, for the period of record, was about 3.5 feet, or from 7 to 10.5 feet below land surface. At this location the shallow artesian water level is 6 to 12 feet below the nonartesian water level and 6 to 14 feet above the water level in the Floridan aquifer.
Recharge and discharge: Recharge to the shallow artesian aquifers is mostly by leakage through overlying beds or by upward leakage from underlying beds where the piezometric surface in the Floridan aquifer is above the piezometric surface in the shallow artesian aquifer. A small amount of water probably flows into the county from surrounding counties within the shallow artesian aquifers.
Discharge from the shallow artesian aquifers is by downward leakage to the Floridan aquifer, upward leakage to the nonartesian aquifer where the piezometric surface is above the water table, underground flow out of the county, and pumpage.
FLORIDAN AQUIFER
The principal artesian aquifer that underlies Orange County is a part of the Floridan aquifer which underlies Florida and parts of Alabama, Georgia, and South Carolina. The Floridan aquifer, as defined by Parket (1955, p. 189), includes "parts or all of the middle Eocene (Avon Park and Lake City limestones), upper Eocene (Ocala limestone), Oligocene (Suwannee limestone), and Miocene (Tampa limestone) and permeable parts of the Hawthorn formation that are in hydrologic contact with the rest of the aquifer."




36 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY
Aquifer properties: The Floridan aquifer in Orange County is covered by a layer of sand and clay which ranges in thickness from about 40 to 350 feet. The total thickness of the aquifer is unknown and it may include formations older than the Lake City Limestone. Supply wells for the city of Orlando penetrate more than 1,300 feet of
the aquifer.
The lithology of the Floridan aquifer is variable but, in general, it is composed ofalternating layers of limestone and dolomite, or dolomitic limestone. The limestone layers are usually softer and of lighter color than the dolomitic layers. The upper part of the aquifer is mostly cream to tan limestone and the lower part is mostly light to dark brown dolomite or dolomitic limestone. In many parts of the county persistent layers of dense, hard, dark brown, dolomitic limestone occur between depths of. about 400 and 600 feet below land surface.
Although the permeability of the dolomite is extremely low, the dolomitic zones contain many interconnected solution cavities and channels that make its overall permeability very high. Tests made by Unklesbay (1943, p. 13) show that wells with open hole between depths of 60 and 450 feet and wells with open hole between 550 and 1,000 feet below land surface have the same water level and fluctuate together, indicating that the solution channels are interconnected vertically as well as horizontally.
Solution channels, ranging in diameter from a fraction of an inch to many feet probably occur throughout the aquifer but are most prevalent at depths between 200 and 600 feet and between 1,100 and 1,500 feet below the land surface. Cavities 15 feet or more in depth have been reported by drillers. Large diameter wells in the Floridan aquifer will yield more than 4,000 gpm.
Piezometric surface: The piezometric surface of the Floridan aquifer in Orange County slopes to the east and northeast from its highest point in the southwestern part of the county (fig. 10,11). Water moves downgradient, from areas of high piezometric level to areas of lower piezometric level. In general, the direction of movement is at right angles to the contour lines. The arrows in figures 10 and 11 show the general direction of movement of water in the Floridan aquifer. Because of the cavernous nature of the aquifer the actual direction of movement of water at particular locations may be different than the general direction indicated by the configuration of the piezometric surface, The flattened ridge on the piezometric surface in the vicinity of Orlando is caused by recharge through the drainage wells in the area. Figure 10 depicts the piezometric




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Figure 10. Orange County,,.Florida,.showing the contours of the piezometric surface at high water conditions, Septem~ber' 1960.




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1124,000
Figure 11. Orange County, Florida, showing the contours of the piezometric surface at about normal conditions, July 1961.




INFORMATION CIRCULAR NO. 41 39
levels in September 1960, the highest observed during the investigation. The high levels of September 1960 equaled or exceeded the highest previous recorded levels, which occurred in the early 1930's. Figure 11, which shows the piezometric surface in July 1961, about 10 months later, represents about normal conditions.
The magnitude of fluctuations of the piezometric surface ranges from place to place in the county. The greatest fluctuations occur in Orlando, where more than 300 drainage wells in and around the city permit direct and immediate recharge to the aquifer (fig. 3) and where pumping is concentrated. Hydrographs of five artesian wells in figure 8 illustrate this condition. The water level in well 833-120-3 at the Orlando Air Base varied 23 feet in 1960-61, from a high of 75 feet on September i, 1960, to a low of 52 feet on June 6, 1961, whereas the fluctuation in the other wells in the Floridan aquifer was small.
Recharge and discharge: Most of the recharge to the Floridan aquifer in Orange County is from infiltration of rain through the relatively thin semipermeable confining beds in the highlands section of the county and through the more than 300 drainage wells in the county. A lesser quantity enters the county by underground flow from southern Lake County and a very small amount enters from Osceola County. The best data available in 1961 suggest that most of the ground water in the artesian aquifer in Orange County originates within the county.
Discharge of ground water from the Floridan aquifer in Orange County is by (1) outflow into northern Lake County, Seminole County, and Brevard County; (2) upward leakage into the St. Johns marsh; (3) use within the county; and (4) spring outflow. Preliminary estimates ofthe amount of recharge of artesian water from various sources and discharge to various areas are given in the section on water budget.
Quality of water: The quality of the water in the Floridan aquifer ranges greatly throughout the county, but varies little at a particular location and depth. The total dissolved solids, as estimated from conductivity measurements, ranged from 60 ppm in water from well 843-131-1 in the northwestern part of the county to 1,810 ppm in water from well 829-056-1 in the eastern part of the county.
Figure 12 shows that in the western part of the county most of the water in the Floridan aquifer is relatively low in mineral content, and the dissolved solids are less than 150 ppm. The mineral content of the water increases toward the eastern part of the county, and the




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1124,000
Figure 12. Orange County, Florida, showing general range of dissolved solids of the water in wells in the. Floridan aquifer.




INFORMATION CIRCULAR NO. 41 41.
dissolved solids exceed 1,000 ppm in the flowing wells along the St. Johns River. The high mineral content of artesian water in the eastern part of the county is probably due to incomplete flushing of saline water that entered the aquifer when the sea last covered Florida.
Figure 13 shows the principal mineral constituents in water from selected wells in the Floridan aquifer in Orange County. The total alkalinity (carbonate plus bicarbonate) is reported as carbonate. Carbonate is present in natural water when the pH value exceeds 8.2. Some of the artesian water in Orange County contains small amounts of carbonate, but most of the alkalinity is due to bicarbonate.
The composition of water from well 843-136-1 in northwestern Orange County and from well 832-058-I in eastern Orange County (fig.13) indicates that artesian water in western OrangeCounty is high in calcium carbonate whereas the highly mineralized water in the eastern part of the county is high in sodium chloride.
Except for high hardness, most water from the Floridan aquifer in western and central Orange County is of good chemical quality. However, water from flowing wells to the east along the St. Johns River is very hard and contains large amounts of sodium, sulfate, and chloride. West of longitude 81003' the hardness ranged from 48 to 335 ppm and averaged 153 ppm. The water from well 832-058-1, near the east edge of Orange County, had a hardness of 590 ppm, contained 354 ppm of sodium, 250 ppm of sulfate, and 630 ppm of chloride on July 3, 1957. Water from the same well had a hardness of 580 ppm and contained 640 ppm of chloride on October 24, 1960. Hydrogen sulfide gas is generally present in water from the flowing wells, and can be detected by the characteristic odor and taste. Hydrogen sulfide can be eliminated by aeration.
PUMPING TEST
The ability of an aquifer to transmit water is referred to as the coefficient of transmissibility (T); defined as the quantity of water, in gallons per day, that will move through a vertical- section of the aquifer 1 foot wide and extending the full saturated height of the aquifer, under a unit hydrologic gradient at the prevailing temperature of the water (Theis, 1938, p. 892). A measure of the capacity of the aquifer to store water is referred to as the coefficient of storage (S); defined as the volume of water released from or taken into storage per unit




42 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY
Well number Dissolved solids
I, I -. "' -7 IO
r= r= E E E
iE taL CL E CL
K",i' ..., ."
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90 6' 90 e08 08
Ilk
570- c03 70 060 60
50 50
1...
40' 40
Mg
30" 30 '' .
20 Ca -20 1 0' 10
00
------------------------------60
Figure 13.. Compostion of mineral content of water from selected wells in the Floridan aquifer in Orange County, Florida.




INFORMATIONC.RCULAR NO. 41 43
surface area of the aquifer per, unit change in head normal to that surface. The leakage coefficient (P/m) is a measure of the ability of the confining beds above and below the aquifer to transmit water to the main producing zone. It is defined as the quantity of water that moves through a unit area of the confining bed with a head difference across..the bed of unity.
The above coefficients of' an aquifer can be determined from-observation wells at a known distance from a well being pumped at a constant rate by analyzing the resulting changes 'in water level.
A. pumping test to determine the coefficients of the Floridan aquifer was made in Orlando on February 17, 1961,. A 12-inch drainage well on Lake Davis (841-122-4) was pumped for 11 hours at a rate of 1.,100 gpm and changes in water levels were recorded in four nearby well s.
Background data collected before and after the test were used to eliminate from the drawcAown curves extraneous effects, such as natural fluctuations of the water levels not related to the pumping. The corrected drawdown data (s) were plotted 'versus time (t) since pumping began, divided by the square of tlie'distance (r) from the pumped well to the observation well -(s versus t/r2). The resulting curves were compared with a family of leaky aquifer type curves "developed by H. H. Cooper, Jr. (U.S. Geological Survey, Tallahassee, Florida). This family of curves is based on the equation for nonsteady flow in an infinite leaky aquifer developed by Hantush'and Jacobs (1955, p. 95-100) and described by Hantush (1956, p. 702-714). The equation assumes a permeable bed overai.n by less permeable beds through which wafer, under a constant head, Icon infiirate to reach the aquifer. The transmissibility and storage coefficients obtained by the leaky aquifer method apply to the main producing zone, and the leaky coefficient applies to the semipermeable confining beds.
The coefficients and other pertinent data for the Orlando' test are shown in table 6. The range in determined values reflects in part the nonhomogeneous and anisotropic conditions of the limestone aquifer. This test indicates the aquifer has approximately the 'following coefficients: transmissibility 500,000, storage 0.001, and leakage 0.1. A transmissibility of 500,000 gpd/ft indicates a very productive aquifer.




44 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY
Table 6. Results of Pumping Well 831-122-4, Orlando, Florida, February 17, 1961
Casing Distance to Transmis- Maximum Observation Depth Depth observation sibility Leal~ge, drawdown well number (feet) (feet) well (feet) (gpd/ft) Storage (gpd/ft /ft ) (feet) a31-122-15 350 88 750 455,000 0.00071 0.131 Z.90 831-IZI-6 335 115 950 440,000 .0031 .31Z .66 831-12t-7 428 315 1,900 745,000 .00083 .074 .26 831-IZ2-18 435 114 3,900 745,000 .00083 .049 .14
WATER BUDGET
The water available for use by man is that stored in surface or underground reservoirs. If the water in these reservoirs is not used by man, it eventually leaves the reservoir in which it is stored and moves to another part of the hydrologic cycle. Over long-term climatic cycles the amount of water leaving an area must balance the amount entering it. If the amounts of water entering and leaving an area are out of balance, a change in the amount of water in storage occurs. An accounting of the amounts of water entering and leaving an area and related changes in storage is termed a water budget. An approximate water budget for Orange County based upon general information presently available follows. Additional investigation will result in refining the various figures and they are presented only to show the relative magnitude.
Rainfall within Orange County averages about 2,500 mgd. Surfacewater inflow averages about 140 mgd and ground-water inflow, mostly within the Floridan aquifer, averages about 40 mgd.
Water lost by evapotranspiration is estimated to average about 1,750 mgd, surface runoff from the county averages about 790 mgd, and about 140 mgd is lost by underground flow to Brevard, Lake, and Seminole counties.
An average of 814 mgd of water from sources outside the county flows along the eastern border of the county in the St. Johns River.




INFORMATION CIRCULAR NO. 41 45
USE OF WATER
Use of ground water in Orange County is estimated tohave averaged about 65 mgd in 1960. Of this total, about 17 mgd were pumped by the Orlando Utilities Commission to users in and around Orlando, including the Martin Company; about 9 mgd were pumped by the city .of Cocoa from their well field in Orange County' about 7 mgd were used by privately supplied industry, mostly for citrus processing and packing;.4 mgd were pumped by private water companies in the Orlando area; about 3 mgd 'were used for irrigation; and an estimated 25 mgd were used by communities and private individuals outside of the Orlando area.
Use of surface water is estimated to average about 45 mgd. About 30 mgd is used for irrigating citrus trees and about 15 mgd is used for irrigating row crops mostly in the Zellwood muckland area north of Lake Apopka.







INFORMATION CIRCULAR.NO 41 47.
REFERENCES
Black, A.P.
1951 (and Brown, Eugene) Chemical character of Florida's waters:
Florida State Board Cons., Div. Water Survey and Research Paper 6. Brown, D. W.
1957 (and Kenner, .W. E., and Brown, Eugene) Interim report on the water
resources. of;- Brevard County, Florida: -- Florida Geol. Survey Inf.
Circ. 11.
1962 (and Kenner, W. E., Crooks, J. W., and Foster, J. B.) Water resources
of Brevard County, Florida: Florida Geol. Survey Rept. Inv. 28. Brown, Eugene (see Black, A. P.; Brown, D. W.) Cole, W. S.
1941 Stratigraphic and paleontologic studies of wells in Florida: Florida
Geol. Survey Bull. 19. -.
1945 Stratigraphic and paleonto0logic-studies ofVwells in Florida no. 4:
Fl-orida Geol. Survey Bull. 28. Collins, .W. D.
1928 (and Howard, C. S.) Chemical character of waters in Florida: U.-S.
Geol. Survey Water-Supply Paper 596-G. Cooke, C. W.
1939 Scenery of Florida: Florida Geol. Survey Bull. 17..
1945 Geology of Florida: Florida Geol. Survey Bull. 29. Cooper, H. H., Jr. (see Stringfield, V. T.) Crooks, J. W. (see Brown, D. W.) Fenneman, N. M.
1938 Physiography of eastern United States: New York' McGraw-Hill
Book Co., Inc.
Ferguson, G. E. (see Parker-, G..G..) ...




48 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY
Florida State Board of Health
1961 Some physical and chemical characteristics of selected Florida
waters: June 1960.
Foster, J. B. (see Brown, D. W.)
Gunter, Herman (also see Sellards, E. H.)
1931 (and Ponton, G. M.) Need for conservation and protection of our
water supply with special reference to waters from the Ocala limestone: Florida Geol. Survey 21st and 22d Ann. Rept.
Hantush, M. C.
1955 (and Jacob, C. E.) Nonsteady radical flow in an infinite leaky dquifer:
Am. Geophys. Union Trans., v. 36, no. 1, p. 95-100.
1956 Analysis of data from pumping tests in leaky aquifers: Am. Geophys.
Union Trans., v. 37, p. 702-714.
Hem, J. D.
1959 Study and interpretation of the chemical characteristics of natural
water: U. S. Geol. Survey Water-Supply Paper 1473.
Howard, C. S. (see Collins, W. D.)
Jacob, C. E. (see Hantush, M. C.)
Kenner, W. E. (see Brown, D. W.)
Love, S. K. (see Parker, G. G.)
MacNeil, F. S.
1950 Pleistocene shorelines in Florida and Georgia: U. S. Geol. Survey
Prof. Paper 221-F.
Matson, G. C.
1913 (and Sanford, Samuel) Geology and ground waters of Florida: U. S.
Geol. Survey Water-Supply Paper 319.
Meinzer, O.E.
1923 The occurrence of ground water in the United States, with a discussion of principles: U. S. Geol. Survey Water-Supply Paper 489.




INFORMATION CIRCULAR NO. 41 49
Parker, G. G.
1955 (and Ferguson, G. E., Love, S. K., and others) Water resources of
southeastern Florida: U.S. Geol. Survey Water-Supply Paper 1255.
Ponton, G. M. (see Gunter, Herman)
Pur, H. S.
1953 Contribution to the study of the Miocene of the Florida Panhandle:
Florida Geol. Survey Bull. 36.
Rainwater, F. H.
1960 (and Thatcher, L. L.) Methods for collection and analysis of water
samples: U. S. Geol. Survey Water-Supply Paper 1454.
Reitz, H. J. (see Wander, I. W.)
Sanford, Samuel (see Matson, G. C.)
Sellards, E. H.
1908 A preliminary report on the underground water supply of central
Florida: Florida Geol. Survey Bull. 1.
1913 (and-Gunter,Herman) The artesian water suppiy of eastern and southern
Florida: Florida Geol. Survey 5th Ann. Rept.
Stringfield, V. T.
1935 The piezometric surface of artesian water in the Florido Peninsula:
Am. Geophys. Union Trans., 16th Ann. Mtg., Pt. 2, p. 524-529.
1936- Artesian water in the Florida Peninsula: U. S. Geol. Survey WaterSupply Paper 773-C.
1950 (and Cooper, H. H., Jr.) Ground water in Florida: Florida Geol.
Survey Inf. Circ. 3.
Thatcher, L. L. (see Rainwater, F. H.)
Theis, C. V.
1938 The significance and nature of the cone of depression in groundwater bodies: Econ. Geology, v. 33, no. 8.
U. S. Geological Survey i943 Progress report on hydrologic studies of lake sources of municipal
water supplies of Orlando, Florida: Open-file rept..




50 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY
U. S. Weather Bureau
1960 Climatological data, Florida, annual summary, 1960: v. 64, no. 13.
UnJIesbay, A. G.
1944 Ground water conditions in Orlando and vicinity, Florida: Florida
Geol. Survey Rept. Inv. 5.
Verron, R. 0.
1951 Geology of Citrus and Levy counties, Florida: Florida Geol. Survey
Bull. 33.
Wander, 1. W.
1951 (and Reitz, H.J.) The chemical composition of irrigation water used in
Florida citrus groves: Univ. of Florida Agr. Experiment Station Bull.408.
White, W. A.
1958 Some geomorphic features of central peninsular Florida: Florida
Geol. Survey Bull. 41.




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PAGE 1

STATE OF FLORIDA STATE BOARD OF CONSERVATION DIVISION OF GEOLOGY FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY Robert 0. Vernon, Director INFORMATION CIRCULAR NO. 41 INTERIM REPORT ON THE WATER RESOURCES OF ORANGE COUNTY, FLORIDA By William F. Lichtler, Warren Anderson, and Boyd F. Joyner U. S. Geological Survey Prepared by the UNITED STATES GEOLOGICAL SURVEY in cooperation with the BOARD OF COUNTY COMMISSIONERS OF ORANGE COUNTY and the FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY TALLAHASSEE 1964

PAGE 2

4oo4 AGRfI CULTURAL LIBRARY Completed manuscript received February 15, 1963 Printed by the Florida Geological Survey Tallahassee ir

PAGE 3

CONTENTS Page Abstract ................. .... ..................... 1 Introduction .. ............... ................... .3 Purpose and scope of investigation .. ............. ....... 3 Acknowledgments ................... .............. ...... 4 Previous investigations ................. ................ 4 Well-numbering system ................. ... ... .... ..... 5 Description of the area ..............................5 Climate ....... ............ .......... .. ...... .8 Sinkholes .......................................9 Drainage ...................... .................. 10 Geology. ...... .... .......... .. ........12 Hydrology .........................................12 Surface water ........................ ........... ...15 Kissimmee River basin ........ .. ........ .... .. .15 Reedy Creek ....... .......................15 Bonnet Creek .............................19 Shingle Creek .. ............ ... .. .........19 Boggy Creek.. ....... ....... ............. 20 Jim Branch ........ ........ .. ...........20 Ajay-East Tohopekaliga Canal.... ... .. ... .... ... 21 St. Johns River basin ............................ .21 St. Johns River .................21 Small tributaries draining to east ...... .............. ..24 Lake Pickett ............................. .25 Econlockhatchee River ...... ... ....... ....... .. .25 Little Econlockhatchee River ... ....... ............ .27 Howell Creek ............ ............ .....27 Wekiva River .......... ................... ..28 Apopka-Beauclair Canal ......................29 Lakes, swamps, and marshes ........................ 30 Ground water ...................... ...... ....... .. .31 Nonartesian aquifer ................... .......31 Aquifer properties. ........... ........ ......31 Water levels .................... ... ...........32 Recharge and discharge .......... ......... ..33 Quality of water .. ..... .................... 33 Shallow artesian aquifers ....................35 Aquifer properties. ...................... ...35 Water levels ............................35 S Recharge and discharge .. .... ...........35 iii

PAGE 4

Floridan aquifer...... ........... ...... 35 Aquifer properties ...*... .. .... .. ...... .. .36 . Piezometric surface .. ...................... ....: 36 Recharge and discharge ................... .... .39 Quality of water. ......... ............. .... 39 Pumping test ................ ................. .41 Water budget ............. ......... ............... ...44 Use of water ... ......... ..... ....... .. ............ .44 References ................ ........... ......... .47 ILLUSTRATIONS Figure 1 Florida showing location of Orange County ....... .. ...... 6 2 Physiographic regions of Orange County, Florida .. ..-..... ...7 3 Distribution of drainage wells in Orange County, Florida ... .. .11 4 List and duration of records at surface-water gaging stations in or near Orange County, Florida ................... ....16 5 Drainage basins and surface-water data collection points in Orange County, Florida .................. ........ 17 6 Relation of specific conductance to stream flow, St. Johns River at station 36, near Cocoa, Florida, 1958-61 ............... .23 7 Cumulative frequency curves of specific conductance for the Econlockhatchee River at station 18, near Bithlo, Florida, 1960-61 26 8 Hydrographs of observation wells in Orange County and rainfall at Orlando, Florida ....... ............. .. ......... 32 9 Orange County, Florida, showing location of inventoried wells other than drainage wells .......................... .34 10 Orange County, Florida, showing the contours of the piezometric surface at high water conditions, September 1960 ..... .. ..37 11 Orange County, Florida, showing the contours of the piezometric surface at about normal conditions, July 1961 ............38 12 Orange County, Florida, showing general range of dissolved solids of the water in wells in the Floridan aquifer .......... 40 13 Composition of mineral content of water from selected wells in the Floridan aquifer in Orange County, Florida .......... .. .. 42 Table I Temperature and rainfall at Orlando, Florida ............ 9 2 Summary of the properties of the geologic formations penetrated by water wells in Orange County, Florida ..... .. .. ...... ...13 3 Sites where miscellaneous surface-water data have been collected in and near Orange County, Florida .. ....... ..18 iv

PAGE 5

4 Data on small tributaries draining the eastern part of Orange County, Florida .................. ............. .. 24 5 Discharge measurements of springs in Orange County, Florida... 29 6 Results of pumping well 831-122-4, Orlando, Florida, February 17, 1961 .................................. ......43 -y

PAGE 6

I

PAGE 7

INTERIM REPORT ON THE WATER RESOURCES OF ORANGE COUNTY, FLORIDA By William F. Lichtler, Warren Anderson, and Boyd F. Joyner ABSTRACT The population and industry of Orange County are expanding rapidly but the demand for water is expanding even more rapidly. This progress report on the first half of a 6-year investigation provides information for use in the development and management of the water resources of the area. The county lies in three physiographic regions: (1) Eastern Lowlands, (2) Parallel Ridges, and (3) Rolling Highlands. The Rolling Highlands, also known as the Orlando Ridge, are characterized by numerbus sinkhole lakes and depressions. Surface runoff forms the principal drainagein the Eastern Lowlands and Parallel Ridges, whereas underground drainage prevails in the Rolling Highlands. Surface water is temporarily stored in lakes, swamps, and streams. Lakes are the most reliable sources of surface water as the swamps and most of the streams, except the St. Johns, Wekiva, and Little Econlockhatchee rivers, go dry or nearly dry during droughts. Approximately 90 of the 1,000 square miles in Orange County are covered by water. The southwestern 340 square miles of the county drain to the south by the Kissimmee River system. The eastern and northern 660 square miles of the county drain to the north by the St. Johns River. 1

PAGE 8

2 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY The water in the lakes and streams in Orange County generally is soft, low in mineral content, and high in color. The quality of the water ;n most of the lakes remains fairly constant. Ground water is obtained from: (1) a nonartesian aquifer composed of c!astic material of late Miocene to Recent age; (2)several discontinuous shallow artesian aquifers in the Hawthorn Formation of middle Miocene age; and (3) the Floridan aquifer composed of the Ocala Group, the Avon Park Limestone, and the Lake City Limestone, all of Eocene age. The surficial nonartesian aquifer produces relatively small quantities of soft water that is sometimes high in color. The shallow artesian aquifers produce moderate quantities of generally moderately hard to hard water. The Floridan aquifer is the principal source of ground water in Orange County. It comprises more than 1,300 feet of porous limestone and dolomite and underlies sand and clay deposits that range in thickness from about 40 feet to more than 350 feet. Wells in the Floridan cquifer can yield more than 4,000 gpm (gallons per minute). Artesian heads in the Floridan aquifer range from about 10 feet above to more than 60 feet below the land surface. The quality of the water ranges from moderately hard in the western and central parts to saline in the extreme eastern part of the county.

PAGE 9

INFORMATION CIRCULAR NO. 41 3 INTRODUCTION The rapid increase of population and industry of Orange County has created a rapidly increased demand for water. Not only are there more people and more uses for water, but also the per-capita use of water is increasing. Central Florida is becoming a major center in missile development and space exploration and the increase in demand for water is expected to continue and even to accelerate. PURPOSE AND SCOPE OF INVESTIGATION The purpose of this investigation is to furnish data that will be useful in the conservation, development, and management of the water resources of Orange County. Water is among the most important natural resources of Florida. Orange County, with more than 50 inches of annual rainfall, is blessed with an abundant supply. However, this supply is not evenly distributed throughout the year, or from year to year, nor are there adequate-storage reservoirs in all parts of the county. An evaluation of all factors affecting the water resources of an area is necessary for the protection, efficient development, and management of water supplies. Recognizing this fact, the Board of County Commissioners of Orange County entered into a cooperative agreement with the U. S. Geological Survey to investigate the water resources of Orange County. The investigation is a joint effort by the three branches of the Water Resources Division of the Survey. The report was prepared under the supervision of M. I. Rorabaugh, succeeded by C. S. Conover, Tallahassee; A. O. Patterson, Ocala; and K. A. MacKichan, Ocala. This interim report summarizes the findings of the first half of a planned 6-year investigation. The report contains information on the quantity, quality, and occurrence of surface and ground water in and near Orange County. The information contained herein will be incorporated in a final report to be published by the Florida Geological Survey.

PAGE 10

4 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY ACKNOWLEDGMENTS The authors express their appreciation to the many residents of Orange County who gave information about their wells and to various public officials whose cooperation greatly aided the investigation. Special appreciation is expressed to Fred Dewitt, county engineer; to Robert Simons and Jesse Burkett of the city of Orlando water and sewer department; and to Gene Pou, Ross Snyder, and Russ Mills of the city of Orlando engineering department for their assistance. Appreciation is given the well drillers in or near Orange County who furnished geologic and hydrologic data and permitted collection of water samples and drill cuttings and measurements of water I.evels during drilling operations. Albert Schwartz and other staff members of the U. S. Soil Conservation Service gave advice and information. PREVIOUS INVESTIGATIONS Two previous investigations of the water resources of Orange County have been made. A report by the U. S. Geological Survey (19.43) gives the results of a study of lakes as a source of municipal water supply for Orlando. A detailed investigation by Unklesbay (1944) deals primarily with drainage and sanitary wells in Orlando and vicinity and their effect on the ground-water resources of the area. Other investigators have included Orange County in geologic and hydrologic studies. Fenneman (1938), Cooke (1939), MacNeil (1950), and White (1958) describe the topographic and geomorphic features of central Florida. Cole (1941, 1945), Cooke (1945), Vernon (1951), and Puri (1953) describe the general geology of central Florida and make many references to Orange County. Sellards (1908), Sellards and Gunter (1913), Matson and Sanford (1913), Gunter and Ponton (1931), Parker, Ferguson, Love, and others (1955), Brown, Kenner, and Brown (1957), and Brown (1962) discuss the geology and water resources of Brevard County. Stringfield (1935, 1936) and Stringfield and Cooper (1950) investigated the artesian water in peninsular Florida, including Orange County. Collins and Howard (1928), Black and Brown (1951), Wander and Reitz (1951), and the Florida State Board of Health (1961) give information about the chemical quality of water in Orange County.

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INFORMATION CIRCULAR NO. 41 5 WELL-NUMBERING SYSTEM The well-numbering system used in this report is based on latitude and longitude coordinates derived from a statewide grid of 1-minute parallels of latitude and meridians of longitude. Wells within these quadrangles have been assigned numbers consisting of the last digit of the degree and the two digits of the minute of the line of latitude on the south side of the quadrangle, the last digit of the degree and the two digits of the minute of the line of longitude on the east side of the quadrangle, and the numerical order in which the well within the quadrangle was inventoried. For example, well 832-122-4 is the fourth well that was inventoried in the 1-minute quadrangle north of 28032' north latitude and west of 81022' west longitude. By this system wells referred to by number in the text can be located on figure 9. DESCRIPTION OF THE AREA Orange County is in the east-central part of the Florida Peninsula (fig. 1). It has an area of es-entially 1,000 square miles of which about 910 square miles are land and about 90 square miles are water. It is bounded on the east by Brevard County, on the north by Seminole and Lake counties, on the west by Lake County, and on the south by Osceola County. The population of Orange County in 1960 was 263,540. In that year Orlando, the largest city-in the county, had a population of 88,135, while Winter Park, the second largest city, hdcipopulotio.ofof_17,160. -The principal agricultural crops are citrus, vegetables, and cattle. In 1960 there were about 67,000 acres of citrus groves, about 6,000 acres of vegetables, mostly in the Zellwood muck lands, and about 15,000 head of cattle. Orange County is in the Atlantic Coastal Plain physiographic province described by Meinzer (1923, pl. 28). The county is subdivided into three physiographic regions: the Eastern Lowlands, the Parallel Ridges, and the Rolling Highlands (fig. 2). The Eastern Lowlands include the St. Johns River marsh, the northern part of the Econlockhatchee River basin and the northeastern part of the county east of Rock Springs. Elevations range from about

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6 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY 2t" -' , , 1,. \0+ 4 * \; %7ry /C iii-" ". 2. .2, Il / Fr, sh n l t /_.0-4 q -**. .? ^ '. ../#o / 460 kr 0 10 2D 0 omil Fgr 1 F s l i I \ /.' I\

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8,145 40' 35' 30' 25' 20' ' ' 05' 81'0' 55' o50' 04 L AK E C O UNTY LXPLANNATION N above mean sea level 4d 4' -4 -0 fool onlr40 S E M I N OL E Ponholovay Ihorlne SLak RA N Apopho 'C 0 U N T Y C, 'C 1-0 40 35 30' 25 20 0 05 8100' 55' 80.50 Bose ten from U.S. 2 3 4 5 e6 7 9_9 10 ml e '-24,000 Figure 2. Physiographic regions of Orange County, Florida Figure 2. Physiogrophic regions of Orange County, Florida

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8 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY 5 feet above msi (mean sea level) near the St. Johns River to about 35 feet above msi where the lowlands merge with the Parallel Ridges. The Parallel Ridges occupy most of the middle portion of the county between the Eastern Lowlands and the Rolling Highlands. EEevations range from 35 to 105 feet above msl but are mostly between 50 and 85 feet above msl. The ridges and intervening lower areas parallel to the Atlantic coast are best developed in the area between Orlando and the Econlockhatchee River. The Rolling Highlands occupy the western part of Orange County with an island outlier in the vicinity of Orlando. Elevations range from about 50 feet in the Wekiva River basin to about 210 feet above msl near the Avalon lookout tower in the southwestern part of the county. This area contains many lakes and depressions that usually have no surface outlets. The three physiographic regions described above are approximately equivalent to the Pleistocene terraces postulated by MacNeil (1950) as the Pamlico terrace from about 8 feet to about 30 feet above msl, the Wicomico terrace from about 30 feet to about 100 feet above msl, and the Okefenokee terrace from about 100 to 150 feet above msl. Cooke (1939) has called the surface defined by the 42and 70foot shorelines the Penholoway terrace and the surface defined by the 70and 100-foot shorelines the Wicomico terrace. The altitudes above 150 feet in Orange County probably represent sandhills or altered remnants of higher terraces. CLIMATE Orange County has a subtropical climate with only two pronounced seasons -winter and summer. The average annual temperature at Orlando is essentially 720F and the average annual rainfall is 51.4 inches. Summer thunderstorms account for most of the rainfall. Thunderstorms occur on an average of 83 days per year (U. S. Weather Bureau, annual report, 1960); one of the highest incidences of thunderstorms in the United States.

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INFORMATION CIRCULAR NO. 41 9 Table 1. Temperature and Rainfall at Orlando, Florida Normal Normal Normal Normal Maximum Minimumr maximum minimum average rainfall rainfall rainfall temp.2 ('F) temp. ("F) temp. (*F) (inches) (inches) (year) (inches) (year) Jan. 70.7 50.0 60.4 2.00 6.44 1948 0.15 1950 Feb. 72.0 50.7 61.4 2.42 5.64 1960 .10 1944 Mar. 75.7 54.0 64.9 3.41 10.54 1960 .16 1956 April 80.5 59.8 70.2 3.42 6.18 1953 .28 1961 May 85.9 66.2 76.1 3.57 8.58 1957 .43 1961 June 89.1 71.4 80.3 6.96 11.61 1947 1.97 1948 July 89.9 73.0 81.5 8.00 19.57 1960 4.35 1957 Aug. 90.0 73.5 81.8 6.94 15.19 1953 3.40 1958 Sept. 87.6 72.4 80.0 7.23 15.87 1945 1.65 1958 Oct. 82.6 65.3 74.0 3.96 14.51 1950 1.51 1949 Nov. 75.6 56.2 65.9 1.57 4.86 1951 .09 1950 Dec. 71.6 51.2 61.4 1.89 4.30 1950 trace 1944 Yearly 80.9 62.0 71.5 51.37 68.74 1960 39.61 1943 Average for 10 or more years. 2U.S. Weather Bureau records, 1921-60. U. S. Weather Bureau records, 1943-60. SINKHOLES Sinkholes are common in areas underlain by limestone formations. Rainfall combines with carbon dioxide in the atmosphere to form a weak carbonic acid. As the water percolates through the limestone, solution takes place and cavities of irregular shape are gradually formed. When the cavities enlarge to the extent that the roof can no longer support the overburden, the surface deposits, generally sand, collapse into the cavity and a sinkhole is formed. Many of Orange County's natural lakes, ponds, and closed depressions are the surface expression of such collapse. Sinkholes range in size from small pits a few feet in diameter to large depressions several square miles in area. Large depressionsare usually formed by the coalescence of several sinkholes. Sinkholes may form either suddenly by collapse of the roof of a large caverr or slowly by a gradual sinking of the ground surface. The

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10 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY latter condition is illustrated by the formation of a sinkhole in the Orlando area in April 1961. The sinking was first noted as a depression in a graded road. By the following day a hole about 6 feet in diameter had formed. Within 2 days the hole gradually increased to about 60 feet in diameter and to about 15 feet in depth. The hole was filled and no further development has been noted. Another sinkhole occurred in April 1961 in Pine Hills, west of Orlando. A depression about 1 foot deep and 50 feet in diameter formed during April 23 and 24 and was marked only by a faint line in the sand except where the outer edge intersected two houses. The floor of one room, the carport, and the concrete driveway of one house was badly cracked. The corner of the other house dropped about 6 inches. The slow rate of settlement was probably caused by a gradual funneling of the overlying sand and clay into relatively small solution channels in the limestone. The channels eventually became filled and the subsidence stopped. DRAINAGE The eastern and southern parts of Orange County are drained principally by surface streams. The St. Johns River and its tributaries drain the eastern part of the county while Shingle Creek, Reedy Creek, Boggy Creek, and canals in the upper Kissimmee River basin drain most of the south-central and southwestern part. Many swamps and sloughs occur in the eastern and southern parts of the county because of the poorly developed drainage. In the western and northwestern parts of the county much of the drainage is to closed depressions and thence by seepage to the underlying limestone or by evaporation from the lakes and ponds. A few sinkholes have open connections with solution channels in the limestone. Water that collects in these sinkholes drains directly into the solution channels. Most of the sinkholes, however, are floored with relatively impermeable sediments and the rate of seepage through these lakefilled sinkholes may not be much greater than in areas adjacent to the lakes. More than 300 drainage wells were drilled between 1906 and 1961 in the upland area of the county, especially in Orlando and vicinity, to drain surface water directly into the artesian aquifer (fig. 3).

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Sa5s 40' a3' 3' 25' 20' .lo " o' 0el Do ' 80 2 5 -I I I II I,1 1-1 1-1-1-1-1 1 1 1 A K I *"-^ ._~ ....-..---41 I EXPLANATION _ ---45 ---4_ _ --3-5'd , % -WN' c II-: ... , -I ^ --2 ---0' d --~E----1---1 o .-,. i---,--..---.-=I405 35 30 ..0. ,,0 05' 800 o 80-50' Se taken from U.S. Geologicol o a 0 me Well Inventory by W i Lichilar I'24,000 Figure 3. Distribution of drainage wells in Orange Countyv Florida. 2wi^i ] @// V -----T Figure 3. Distribution of drainage wells in Orange Countyj Florida. "'

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12 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY The greatest activity was during 1960 when about 35 drainage wells were drilled. Considerable quantities of water are disposed of in this manner, but figures on the total amount are not available. The quality of the water that enters the aquifer through drainage wells ranges from pure rainwater to water used to flush cow barns. GEOLOGY The materials penetrated by water wells in Orange County range in age from middle Eocene (about 50 million years ago) to Recent. The formations, in ascending order of age, include the Lake City Limestone, the Avon Park Limestone, and the Ocala Group of middle Eocene age; the Hawthorn Formation of middle Miocene age; and undifferentiated post-Miocene deposits. Sand and clay of the Hawthorn Formation and younger deposits generally cover the limestones to depths ranging from a few feet in the northern part of the county to about 100 to 150 feet in the Orlando area and more than 350 feet in the eastern part of the county. Vernon (1950) has postulated that the western two-thirds of the county is part of the upthrown side of a faulted block called the Kissimmee faulted flexure. Indications of another fault exist in the St. Johns River marsh area with the upthrown side to the east. Further geologic data will be collected to aid in solving the complex structure underlying Orange County. Table 2 summarizes the properties of the geologic formations penetrated by water wells in Orange County. HYDROLOGY All natural supplies of fresh water are derived from precipitation. The cycle of precipitation, evaporation, and the intervening movements of water is known as the hydrologic cycle. Some precipitation returns almost immediately to the atmosphere by evaporation, some is transpired by plants, some is stored in surface or underground reservoirs before being returned to the atmosphere by evapotranspiration, and some moves to the sea by surface or underground routes, eventually to be evaporated again. 1The stratigraphic nomenclature used in this report conforms generally to the usage of the Florida Geological Survey. It conforms also to the nomenclature of the U. S. Geological Survey, except that Ocala Group is used in this report instead of Ocala Limestone.

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Table 2. Summary of the Properties of the Geologic Formations Penetrated by Water Wells in Orange County, Florida Formation Thickness, Description of Water-bearing Series. name in feet material properties Aquifer Water level Recent Undifferenand tiated; may Pleistocene include 0-200 Mostly quartz sand with Varies widely in , Nonartesian 0-20 feet below the Caloosavarying amounts of quantity and land surface but -n hatchee clay ahd shell quality of water generally less than O Pliocene (?) Marl _________ produced 10 feet Gray-green, clayey, Generally imperShallow artesian Piezometric surface not quartz sand and silt; meable except for lower limestone defined, water level -Miocene Hawthorn 0-200 phosphatic sand; and .limestone, shell, beds may be part generally is lower than" buff, impure, phosphatic or gravel beds of Floridan nonartesian aquifer and limestone, mostly in aquifer higher than Floridan ' lower' part aquifer Cream to tan, fine, soft Moderately high transOcala 0-125 to medium hard, granumissibility, most Group lar, porous, sometimes wells also penetrate dolomitic limestone underlying formations Upper section mostly Overall transmissibilit cream to tan, granular, very high, contains Piezometric surface 0 Eocene Avon Park 400-600 porous limestone. Often many interconnected Floridan shown in figures 10 Limestone, contains abundant conesolution cavities, and 11 shaped Foraminifera. .Many large capacity Lower section mostly wells draw water fror dense, hard, brown,crysthis formation talline dolomite Dark brown crystalline Similar to Avon Park Lake City Over 700. layers of dolomite alterLimestone. Municipal Limestone Total un-' nating with chalky fossilisupply of City of known' ferous layers of limestone Orlando obtained from this formation ------------_ -

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14 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY All natural waters dissolve mineral matter from the soils and rocks contacted. The quantity of mineral matter dissolved depends mainly upon the type of material contacted and the length of the time of contact. The solvent action upon mineral substances is greatly increased when the water contains dissolved gases, such as carbon dioxide, which may be introduced from the atmosphere or from decaying organic material. The most common mineral constituents dissolved in water are silica, iron, calcium, magnesium, sodium, potassium, carbonate and bicarbonate, sulfate, chloride, nitrates, and fluorides. Other mineral constituents may be present in minor amounts. Dissolved organic material which is introduced into water when it contacts living and decaying vegetation imparts color to the water. The color is generally more prevalent in surface water and shallow ground water than in deep ground water. At a particular, location ground water generally contains more dissolved mineral matter than surface water because it is in intimate contact with the soil and rock. However, the quality of ground water does not vary as much as that of surface water. During dry periods, the mineral content of surface water usually increases because of a higher percentage of ground-water inflow and a longer time of contact with soil and rock. Dissolved mineral constituents in water are generally reported in parts per million. One part per million (ppm) is one unit weight of a constituent in a million unit weights of water. Hardness of water is caused by the presence of alkaline earth metals such as calcium and magnesium and is expressed as an equivalent quantity of calcium carbonate. The hardness scale generally used by the U. S. Geological Survey classifies water with a hardness of 0 to 60 ppm as soft; 61 to 120 ppm as moderately hard; 121 to 200 ppm as hard; and over 200 ppm as very hard. Specific conductance is a measure of the ability of water to conduct an electric current and may be used in estimating the total dissolved mineral content. The total dissolved mineral content of most surface water in Orange County is between 50 and 60 percent of the conductivity. Thus, by making a simple conductivity measurement, the mineral content can be estimated by multiplying the specific conductance by a factor of 0.55. The mineral content of ground water in Orange County can be estimated by multiplying the specific conductance by a factor of 0.62. Color is expressed in units of the platinum-cobalt scale. Hydrogen-ion concentration (pH) is a measure of the acidity or

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INFORMATION CIRCULAR NO. 41 15 alkalinity of a solution. A pH value of 7.0 is neutral. Progressive values of pH above 7.0 denote increasing alkalinity, and regressive values below 7.0 denote increasing acidity. SURFACE WATER Most of the surface water in Orange County is from rain within the county, but some of it is from rain on adjacent areas of higher elevation that flows into the county. The surface water is only temporarily stored in the lakes, swamps, and stream channels. The amount in storage continuously changes because the rate of replenishment differs from the rate of depletion. Permanent lakes are the most reliable sources of surface water in Orange County. Swamps and marshes are intermittent sources that go dry after relatively short periods of drought. The St. Johns River, the Wekiva River, and the Little Econlockhatchee River north of State Highway 50 are the only streams in the county that do not either go dry or recede to extremely low base flows in most years. The flow of the St. Johns River is sustained in all but extreme droughts by water stored in several large lakes that are a part of its main stem. The Wekiva River is sustained at relatively high base flow by several springs. The lower Little Econlockhatchee River receives water from the Orlando sewage system. Surface-water data have been collected at 62 sites in the county. Figure 4 lists the sites where data have been collected systematically and shows the periods of record. Table 3 lists the sites where miscellaneous data have been collected. Surface water from the southwestern 340 square miles of Orange County drains to the south into the Kissimmee River. Surface water from the eastern and northern 660 square miles of the county drains to the north into the St. Johns River. Figure 5 shows the drainage basins and the surface-water data collection points in Orange County. KISSIMMEE RIVER BASIN Reedy Creek: Reedy Creek drains 49 square miles in the south,west corner of Orange County. The drainage from about 22 square miles of this basin in Lake County flows into Orange County.

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16 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY taM -Station It dIrLake, at Orlando Z jal-East Tohopekallga Canal nr Narcoossee '2 3 ApophaL-Beauci Can4a at conrsol m Astatula -Aoao4cai Caol at State Hwy 448. ncAslatu c 5 pka. Lake. at Winter Garden 6 oss Lake nc Orlando 7 B ,esi Lake, at Windermere 81 8iq Sand Lake at Doctor Phillips 9 Ioggy Creek n Kissimmee t0 Bggy Creek nc Taft I t I utter, Lake, at Windermere 12 Concord, Lake, at Orlando 13 Conway, Lake, ca Pinecastle 14 Carrine, Lake, r. Orlando 15 Cypress Creek at Vineland 6 lsston Canal nr Wewahotee 7 oraT Lake, at Mount Dora I. . 18 Econlockhatchee River nc Bithio 9 Econlockhatchee River nc Chuluota 20 Fairviw, Lake, at Orlando 21. Hart Lake, nt Norcoossee 22 Nigland, Lake, at Orlando 23 vanhae, Lake, at Orlando 24 lm Creek 1n Christmas 25 Johns Lake at Oakland 1 7 26 tle Econlockhatchee River nr Union Parki 27 ae Lake Foirview at Orlando2z Biln~ Lake, at Winter Park 29 Sari Jane Lake nr Norcoossee 30 iMr Jane-Hart Canal r. Norcoossee* * 3t MIrle-Mary Jane Canal nr. Norcoossee 32 rt Lake at Orlando 33 Poinsett, Lake, nr Cocoa 34 Rowena, Lake, at Orlando 35 St Johns River nr. Christmas 36 St Johns River no Cocoo 37 St Johns River Flood Profile 38 Shingle Creek oat airport, nr. Kissimmee 39 Stingle Creek nr. Vineland 40 Silver, Lake, at Orlando 4 t Spier Lake, nr Orlando 42 Spring Lake at Orlando 43 Sue, Lake, at Orlando 44 Susannah, Lake, nr. Orlando 45 Hdm9rhin, Lake, at Orlando 46 W *iva River r. Sanford i 9 s 47 Wenonah (Francis) Lake nr Plymouth EXPLANATION Daily to weekly stage Monthly stage or annual flood crest 1n i Periodic discharge measurements i" .**......** ... .......*........... Daily stage and discharge F. :;: ::::.:.:::.:::: :·: Figure 4. List and duration of records at surface-water gaging stations in or near Orange County, Florida.

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5 45' 40' 35' 3 ' 20 ' 05' 55' ' 50 0 i .-; Limit of f looedig i n St. Johns River marsh 4. 1W 'e -and Atowns1 -Surface wafer dolo collection poin statuL 1 e .. Qu.o*.w eample ediscilan pow, surf", tssur s = i 19 S.7 .. on num1 S rla )i o I nfg R re r 4 o bt 3 0 Its 0 4O J# --I0 z el4 035 30 2' 20 5' 0 05 5 o 55 80o 5 30' 3 Figure 5. Drai-age basins and surface-water data collection points in Orange County, Florida.2V -25' -p 0 L K 20' 28,17' 2al 15' 10. t1 : 585' GO ' Bsae taken from USGeologlCo l O I ; _45 L 6 .1 9 9 I10 tes Survey Iopogrophic quadrangles, 1;24,000 Figure 5. Drainage basins and surface-water data collection points in Orange County, Florida. %

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18 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY Table 3. Sites Where Miscellaneous Surface-Water Data Have Been Collected In And Near Orange County, Florida (Station number corresponds to that shown for figure 5.) Station number Station 48 Bonnet Creek near Vineland 49 Christmas Creek near Christmas 50 Howell Creek near Maitland 51 Jim Branch near Narcoossee 52 Little Wekiva River near Forest City 53 Mills Creek near Chuluota 54 Reedy Creek near Vineland 55 Roberts Branch near Bithlo 56 Rock Springs near Apopka 57 Second Creek near Christmas 58 Settlement Creek near Christmas 59 Taylor Creek near Cocoa 60 Tootoosahatchee Creek near Christmas 61 Wekiva Springs near Apopka 62 Witherington Spring near Apopka Elevations in Reedy Creek basin in Orange County range from 75 feet at the southern county line to 210 feet at Avalon fire lookout tower. The eastern part of the basin is relatively flat swampy terrain interspersed with islands of low relief. The western part is rolling hills interspersed with lakes and swamps. The divide between Reedy Creek basin and Bonnet Creek basin to the east is rather indefinite, and some interchange of water occurs between basins. At Reedy Creek near Vineland (station 54), 1 mile south of the county line, the minimum flow observed was less than 0.01 cfs (cubic feet per second) in May 1961. The maximum flow was 1,940 cfs at the peakof the flood in September 1960. Analyses of water collected from Reedy Creek at station 54 at low flows on June 15, 1960, and May 23, 1961, show the water to be very soft and low in mineral content. At almost zero flow on May 23,

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INFORMATION CIRCULAR NO. 41 19 1961, the hardness was 11 ppm, and the mineral content, based on a conductivity measurement, was estimated at 24 ppm. Bonnet Creek: Bonnet Creek and its tributary, Cypress Creek, drain 55 square miles of Orange County, east of Reedy Creek basin. The part of the Bonnet Creek basin that is drained by Cypress Creek differs hydrologically from the rest of the basin. Elevations in Bonnet Creek basin range from 75 feet at the county line to 195 feet near Windermere. Elevations in the western part of the basin, the part excluding Cypress Creek basin, range from 75 to 100 feet. This area is flat and swampy but contains several lakes of moderate size and islands of low relief. The minimum flow observed at Bonnet Creek near Vineland (station 48), 1 mile south of the county line, was 0.4 cfs in May 1961 and the maximum flow was 1,180 cfs at the peak of the flood in September 1960. The water in Bonnet Creek has a slightly higher mineral content and less color than the water in most other streams in the county. On November 24, 1959, theimineral content was 107 ppm, the hardness was 66 ppm, and the color was. 10 units. The higher mineral content and lower color are probably due to ground-water inflow. Cypress Creek basin is comprised of about 8 square miles of lakes, 2 square miles of swamps, and 22 square miles of rolling hills in the eastern part of Bonnet Creek basin. Elevations range from 90 feet at its junction with Bonnet Creek to 195 feet near Windermere. The flow from Cypress Creek basin has been gaged at Vineland (station 15) since 1945. The average annual runoff is about 4 inches and ranged from a minimum of 0.3 inch in 1955 to a maximum of 17.72 inches in 1960. In 10 of the 15 years of complete record, at least one period of no flow occurred. The longest period of no flow was 107 days in 1956. The maximum flow recorded was 354 cfs in September 1960. Shingle Creek: Shingle Creek drains 83 square miles of Orange County west of U.S. Highway 441 and south of State Highway 50. Elevations range from 70 feet at the county line to 175 feet near Windermere. The basin is relatively flat and altitudes are generally less than 105 feet except for rolling hills on the western fringe. A closed 'depression occupies 3.3 square miles of the northern part of the basin.

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20 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY Continuous records of stage and discharge for Shingle Creek near Kissimmee (station 38) have been obtained since October 1958. The maximum discharge of record at this station was 3,320 cfs in March 1960. Periodic observations of stage and discharge near Vineland (station 39) have been obtained since September 1959. At this station, the maximum discharge was 1,740 cfs in March 1960. In most years there is no flow for many days at either site. The water in Shingle Creek near Vineland (station 39) has low mineral content and is soft. Dissolved organic material, usually about 50 percent of the dissolved solids, causes high color, especially during the early periods of high flow. The dissolved solids, including organic material, are less than 165 ppm and the hardness is usually less than 30 ppm. Color ranges from 55 to 200 units. Boggy Creek: Boggy Creek drains 86 square miles of the county in and south of Orlando. An area of about 11 square miles in the upper part of the basin has no surface outlet and drains underground. Elevations range from 60 feet at the county line to about 125 feet in the upper basin. The lower part of the basin is flat and contains many swamps and marshes but relatively few lakes. The upper part of the basin is rolling hills interspersed with many lakes. Periodic measurements of the discharge of Boggy Creek near Kissimmee (station 9) were made from January 1955 to September 1959. Since September 1959, continuous records of the discharge of Boggy Creek near Taft (station 10) have been collected. The maximum discharge during the period of record was 3,680 cfs in March 1960, and the minimum was 0.1 cfs in June 1961. Analyses of water collected periodically from Boggy Creek show that the water is soft, low in mineral content, and high in color. The total dissolved material ranged from 59 to 115 ppm, and the dissolved mineral content ranged from 29 to 62 ppm which indicates that about 50 percent of the total dissolved material is organic. Color intensity ranged from 45 to 140 units and was usually highest during the early part of flood periods. The hardness of the water is less than 20 ppm. Jim Branch: Jim Branch drains 5.8 square miles in the southcentral port of Orange County. Elevations in the basin range from 75 to 85 feet.

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INFORMATION CIRCULAR NO. 41 21 The maximum flow of Jim Branch near Narcoossee (station 51) has not been determined. A dry stream channel has been observed at this station. Water collected from Jim Branch at low flow on May 23, 1961 was very soft (9 ppm) and low in mineral content (30 ppm, estimated from its conductivity). Ajay-East Tohopekaliga Canal: This canal drains approximately 171 square miles, of which 54.5 square miles are in Orange County and 116.5 square miles are in Osceola County. Elevations of the drainage area in Orange County range from 60 to 90 feet. The topography is fairly flat and is characterized by swamps in the northern part and by lakes in the southern part. Periodic measurements of the flow in Ajay-East Tohopekaliga Canal near Narcoossee (station 2) have been made since 1942. The maximum measured discharge was 1,420 cfs in March 1960. A reverse flow of 0.25 cfs was measured in February 1946. The average discharge, based on the relation between drainage area and average discharge at several points on the main stem of the Kissimmee River, is estimated to be about 170 cfs. The flow into Orange County from an area of 111 square miles in Osceola County has been measured in Myrtle-Mary Jane Canal near Narcoossee (station 31) since November 1949. The maximum flow into the county via this canal was 990 cfs in September 1960. In September 1956, the flow reversed for 2 days and flowed out of the county at the rate of 17 cfs. The average discharge in this canal for the period 1950 to 1960 was 129 cfs. Water from Ajay-East Tohopekaliga Canal, collected at station 2 during low flow on May 23, 1961, was very soft (16 ppm) and low in mineral content (39 ppm, estimated from its conductivity). ST. JOHNS RIVER BASIN St. Johns River: The St. Johns River is the eastern boundary of Orange County. Small tributaries drain 174 square miles of Orange County directly to the St. Johns River. An additional 490 square miles ,of the county are drained to the St. Johns River by tributaries which flow across the county line before joining the main stem.

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22 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY The St. Johns River slopes very little in its approximately 20-mile reach along the border of Orange County. At flood stages, the river falls from an elevation of about 17.5 feet at Lake Poinsett to about 10.5 feet at the northern county line. At the minimum stages in 1945, the river fell from 8.0 feet to minus 0.4 foot in this reach. Stage and discharge records have been collected at St. Johns River near Christmas (station 35) since December 1933 and at St. Johns River near Cocoa (station 36) since October 1953. The average discharge for the period of record at station 35 was 1,431 cfs. For the 7-year period October 1953 to September 1960, the average discharge at station 35 was 1,689 cfs; and at station 36, 1,431 cfs. The maximum flow at station 35 was 11,700 cfs in October 1953. There was no flow at station 35 for periods during March, April, and June 1939. Large quantities of water may be stored in the wide channel and in lakes in the St. Johns River valley. Analyses of water collected daily from the St. Johns River at station 36 from October 1953 to September 1960 and a continuous record of its conductivity since June 1959 show that the quality of the water varies greatly. Figure 6 shows the relation of specific conductance to stream flow for the St. Johns River at station 36 from June 1958 to July 1961. The mineral content in the water varies inversely with stream flow because the percentage of mineralized ground water in the stream is greatest during low flows. The scatter of the plotted points may be due to the variable inflow of highly mineralized artesian water though possibly in part to the problem of representative sampling. Inflow from one well occurs just above the conductivity recorder, but it is doubtful if water from this single well causes all of the variations in conductivity. During the period 1953-60, the dissolved solids in water from the St. Johns River ranged from 103 ppm October 21-31, 1953, to 998 ppm July 11-20, 1956; the hardness ranged from 30 ppm October 21-31, 1953, to 294 ppm June 11-20, 1956; specific conductance ranged from 107 micromhos October 10, 1953, to 1,620 micromhos June 18, 1956; and the water temperature ranged from 460F January 9-12, 1956, to 95°F August 9, 1956. The chloride content reached a maximum of 403 ppm at a mean discharge of 41 cfs during the period June 11-20, 1956. This chloride concentration is enough to taste slightly salty to most people (Hem, 1959).

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1000 '800W " f* --------:---' 800' -400 -* s *--.*s____. *__ -.zC S 1 * 200 * * 100 ---100 200 400 100 2000 400 7000 1000 Mean discharge in cubic feet per second Figure 6. Relation of specific conductance to stream flow, St.Johns River at station 36, near Cocoa, Florida, 1958-61.

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24 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY Small tributaries draining to east: The eastern part of the county between the main stem of the St. Johns River and the Econlockhatchee River, amounting to about 180 square miles, is drained to the St. Johns River by numerous small tributaries. Table 4 shows data pertinent to these tributaries. During the low flow period from June 14 to 17, 1960, the dissolved mineral content of the water in the small tributaries draining eastward into the St. Johns River was estimated from conductivity measurements to range from 33 ppm in Taylor Creek to 86 ppm in Second Creek. The mineral content of the water in Christmas Creek was estimated to be 52 ppm on May 24, 1961, when the other small tributaries were dry. Table 4. Data on Small Tributaries Draining the Eastern Part of Orange County, Florida Drainage area Elevation Station (square (feet) Discharge (cfs) Subdivision of area number miles) Max. Min. Max. Date Min. Date Taylor Creek near Cocoa 59 8.74 75 14 3,000 Mar. 0 * 1960 Sweetwater Branch -4.31 50 16 -----0 * Ji Creek near Christmas 4 31.4 75 11 3, 750 Mar. 0 * 1960 Second Creek near Christmas 57 17.3 76 17 1,500 Sept. 0 * 1960 Settlement Creek near Christmas 58 8.86 76 17 ---0 * Tootoosahatchee Creek near Christmas 60 23.6 76 14 ----* Near Creek -6.52 72 13 ----* Unnamed Creek -4.37 61 12 ----0 Christmas Creek 49 15.0 71 11 ----0.04 June 1961 Buscombe Creek I -2.15 56 11 ----0 Roberts Branch 55 5.05 72 37 ---0 * Area without definite channels -13.4 46 14 -----0 * St. Johns River flood plain -40.2 18 4 * Many days in most years.

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INFORMATION CIRCULAR NO. 41 25 Lake Pickett: Lake Pickett and its contributory drainage area occupy 8.1 square miles. Mills Creek drains Lake Pickett to the Econlockhatchee River. Elevations in the Lake Pickett drainage basin range from 60 to 75 feet. The hardness of the water in Mills Creek at Chuluota (station 53) on May 24, 1961, was 7 ppm. and the mineral content, estimated from its conductivity, was 21 ppm. The pH of the water was 5.9 indicating that it is slightly corrosive. The water quality of Lake Pickett probably is similar to that of Mills Creek. Econlockhatchee River: The Econlockhatchee River drains 117 square miles of Orange County. The drainage basin ranges from 2.5 to 9.5 miles wide and the average width of the basin in Orange County is 6.2 miles. The basin is about 14 miles east of Orlando and spans the county from south to north. The drainage from 17 square miles of the basin in Osceola County enters Orange County. Elevations in the Econlockhatchee River basin in Orange County range from 20 to 90 feet. The Econlockhatchee River basin and the area drained by small tributaries to the St. Johns River are unusual for Orange County in that they contain only three lakes of significant size. These basins do, however, contain many swamps and marshes. Continuous records of the flow of the Econlockhatchee River near Chuluota (station 19) have been collected since 1936, and periodic measurements of the flow of the Econlockhatchee River near Bithlo (station 18) have been made since September 1959. The maximum flow at station 19 was 11,000 cfs and at station 18, 7,840 cfs. The minimum flow at station 19 was 6.7 cfs in June 1945. The river flow ceases at station 18 in most dry years. The average flow at station 1.9 was 266 cfs for the period 1936 to 1960. A continuous conductivity record since October 1959 and analyses of water collected periodically from the Econlockhatchee River near Bithlo show the water to be high in color, soft, and low in mineral content. The conductivity ranged from 24 to 189 micromhos and the color ranged from 45 to 240 units. The color is always greatest during the early part of high flow periods. Figure 7 shows the cumulative frequency curves of specific coniductance for the Econlockhatchee River at station 18 for the 1960 and

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26 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY 160 ---o 140 a 80 0 061 20 S(o --------i---o 2 5 10 30 50 70 90 99 Percent of time specific conductance was equal to or less than that shown Figure 7. Cumulative frequency curves of specific conductance for the Econlockhatchee River at station 18, near Bithlo, Florida, 1960-61. and 1961 water years (October 1 to September 30). These curves may be used to estimate the mineral content of water in the river for any percentage of time. For example, the conductivity was 130 micromhos or less for 80 percent of the time in the 1961 water year whereas in 1960 the conductivity never exceeded 120. The mineral content of water in the Econlockhatchee River averages about 0.55 of the conductivity; therefore, the dissolved mineral content would be 72 ppm (130 x 0.55) or less for 80 percent of the time during the 1961 water year. The mineral content of the water in the Econlockhatchee River was lower in 1960 than in 1961 because of greater dilution by surface runoff in 1960. g80 --y --4 0.----^-------20 ^----------than in 1961 because of greater dilution by surface runoff in 1960.

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INFORMATION CIRCULAR NO. 41 27 Little Econlockhatchee River: The Little Econlockhatchee River drains 71 square miles of Orange County east of Orlando. Elevations in this basin range from about 35 feet near the county line to 127 feet at the eastern edge of Orlando. A few lakes exist along the western rim of the basin but none exist elsewhere. Many swamps and marshes temporarily store water and thereby reduce the magnitude of peak flows in the river. The flow from the upper 27 square miles of the basin has been gaged since October 1959 at Little Econlockhatchee River near Union Park (station 26). The maximum and minimum flows at this station were 1,640 cfs in March 1960 and 0.1 cfs in June 1961. The average flow for the period October 1959 to May 1961 was 36 cfs. Effluent from the Orlando sewage plant is discharged into the river just north of State Highway 50. The amount of effluent ranges from 5 to 12 mgd (million gallons per day) and averages about 7 mgd oral communication, Mr. Reed Terry, Orlando Sewage Plant). Analyses of water collected from the Little Econlockhatchee River at station 26 show that the quality is similar to that of the Econlockhatchee River. Color ranged from 30 to 32 units and was highest during high flow periods. The dissolved solids content of the water ranged from 83 to 140 ppm, mineral content ranged from 35 to 75 ppm, and the water hardness did not exceed 48 ppm. Howell Creek: Howell Creek drains about 20 square miles in Orange County, mostly in the suburban areas of Maitland, Winter Park, and the northern half of Orlando. Elevations in the Howell Creek basin range from about 55 to 125 feet. This basin contains a chain of lakes connected by natural channels, canals, and culverts, beginning at Spring Lake at Orlando (station 42), at an elevation of about 88 feet and ending at Lake Maitland at Winter Park (station 28), at an elevation of about 66 feet. Several other lakes are connected to the chain of lakes by canals or culverts. Lake Underhill at Orlando (station 45), in the Boggy Creek basin, is connected to Lake Highland in the Howell Creek basin by a culvert. The flow of Howell Creek near Maitland (station 50) has been Zmeasured several times. The maximum discharge was about 160 cfs

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28 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY in September 1960. Flow at this site ceases when the level of Lake Maitland is below about 65.5 feet with the center board of the control out or about 66.0 feet with the center board in. The levels of many of the lakes in the basin are partly controlled by drainage wells and the flow from the basin is accordingly modified. The water in Howell Creek and Lake Maitland are similar and are of good quality except for moderate hardness. Hardness at high and low lake levels was 65 and 81 ppm, respectively. The dissolved solids at high and low lake levels were 128 and 147 ppm, respectively. Wekiva River: The Wekiva River and its tributaries, the Little Wekiva River and Rock Springs Run, drain about 130 square miles in Orange County. Elevations in this basin range from about 15 feet at the northern county line to about 195 feet near Windermere. The area near the stream channels is flat and swampy, and ranges in elevation from about 15 to 30 feet. From the edges of these flat swamps, rolling hills rise abruptly to elevations ranging between 60 and 100 feet. More than half of the Wekiva River basin in Orange County consists of rolling hills interspersed with lakes and sinks. There is no surface outflow from this area. Records of the daily stage and discharge of the Wekiva River near Sanford (station 46) have been collected since October 1935. The contributing drainage area at this station is about 200 square miles. The average discharge for the period 1935-60 was 273 cfs. The maximum discharge was 2,060 cfs in September 1945 and the minimum, 105 cfs in June 1939. The flows of Rock Springs, Wekiva Springs, and Witherington Spring (stations 56, 61, and 62) near Apopka in the Wekiva River basin, have been measured occasionally since 1931. Table 5 shows the results of these measurements. During low flow on May 25, 1961, the hardness of the water of the Little Wekiva River at Forest City (station 52) was 41 ppm and the mineral content, estimated from the conductivity of the water, was 90 ppm. The quality of water from Rock Springs, and Wekiva Springs, is similar to the ground water in the area, and variations with flow are small.

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INFORMATION CIRCULAR NO. 41 29 Table 5. Discharge Measurements of Springs in Orange County, Florida Downstream location of,measuring section Name of spring and Date of Discharge in relation to head of station number measurement (cfs) (mgd) spring (feet) Rock Springs (56) Z5-31 55.9 36. 1 50 .38-32 51.9 33.5 50 2-10-33 54.2 35.0 40 1-30-35 62.8 40.6 80 117-35 57.1 36.9 50 126-35 62.8 40.6 500 14-36 54.9 35.5 : 600 14-36 56.2 36.3 60 67-45 52.5 33.9 50 59-46 59. 1 38.2 30 4-26-56 54.7 -35.4 1,000 11-24-59 70.0 45.2 150 11-24-59 72.4 46.8 1,200 6-17-60 78.2 50.5 1,250 10-17-60 83.2 53.8 1,250 5-25-61 68.4 44.2 1,300 Wekiva Springs (61) 38-32 63.9 41.3 lob 2-10-33 66.9 43.2 100-, 117-35 72.5 46.9 300 67-45 64.8 41.9 200 59-46 67.5 43.6 150 4-27-56 62.0 40.1 200 11-25-59 88.8 57.4 300 6-17-60 86.0 55.6 200 10-17-60 91.7 59.3 150 5-25-61 86.6 56.0 150 Witherington Spring (62) 88-45 4.69 3. 03 4,224 10-19-60 12.0 7.76 4,752. Apopka-Beauclair Canal: This canal drains Lake Apopka and the surrounding areas. The total area drained by the canal is about 180 square miles, of which about 120 square miles is in Orange County. Elevations in this basin range from about 65 feet in the mucklands adjacent to Lake Apopka to m6re than 210 feet near Avalon lookout tower. The flow in Apopka-Beauclair Canal near Astaula was measured periodically at station 3 from 1942 to 1948. Since July 1958 the daily flow has been determined at station 4. The maximum flow at station 4 was 754 cfs in March 1960 and the minimum flow was estimated to be about 5 cfs during periods when a control structure in the canal was closed.

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30 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY LAKES, SWAMPS, AND MARSHES Orange County has about 1,100 permanent bodies of open water and hundreds of intermittent marshes and swamps. The vast majority of the lakes are in the western half of the county. Swamps and marshes occur in all parts of the county but are less prevalent in the northwestern part than elsewhere in the county. The lakes range in altitude from about 20 to 155 feet and in size from less than 1 acre to nearly 47 square miles. Records of the levels for the lakes listed in figure 4 have been collected by the U.S. Geological Survey for the periods shown. Records for many additional lakes have been collected by the engineering departments of the city of Orlando and Orange County. Because of relatively large volumes of water stored in lakes, the quality does not change as rapidly as in streams. Some changes in the quality of the water in lakes occur because of dilution, by high runoff, and because of ground-water inflow and concentration of mineral matter by evaporation. Water from Lake Hart near Narcoossee (station 21) has been analyzed semiannually since October 1954. This water has high color, low pH values, and low dissolved mineral content. The color ranged from 50 units on October 8, 1958, to 170 units on November 8, 1956. The pH values, which ranged from 5.5 to 6.2, indicate that the water is slightly corrosive. The dissolved mineral content was low and ranged from 20 to 34 ppm. The water in Lake Apopka at Winter Garden (station 5) is hard and high in calcium bicarbonate, indicating large quantities of groundwater inflow. During the low stage in May 1961 the calcium content was 29 ppm, the bicarbonate was 123 ppm, and the water hardness was 126 ppm. Water collected from Johns Lake at Oakland (station 25) during high stage on October 29, 1959, had a hardness of 30 ppm, a mineral content of 77 ppm, and a color of 80 units.

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INFORMATION CIRCULAR NO. 41 31 GROUND WATER Ground water is the subsurface water in the zone of saturation -the zone in which all the openings of the soil or rock are completely filled with water under atmospheric or greater pressure. Ground water occurs under nonartesian or artesian conditions. Nonartesian conditions occur when the upper surface of the zone of saturation (the water table) is not confined and accordingly is free to rise and fall. Artesian conditions occur when an aquifer (water-bearing formation or group of formations) is confined by relatively impermeable beds and the water is under greater than atmospheric pressure. The heights to which water will rise in tightly cased wells that penetrate an artesian aquifer define its pressure or piezometric surface. The piezometric surface is not directly related to the water table and may be above, below, or at the same level as the water table. Where the water table is above the piezometric surface the nonartesian water may infiltrate through the confining layer to the artesian aquifer. Such areas are recharge areas to the artesian aquifer. Conversely, where the piezometric surface is above the water table, the artesian water moves upward and the area is a discharge area of the artesian aquifer. As no confining bed is completely impermeable, some leakage up or down usually occurs; however, where the confining bed is composed of a thick section of dense material, such as clay, the amount of leakage is relatively small. Ground water in Orange County occurs in a shallow nonartesian aquifer, in several shallow artesian aquifers, and in the Floridan aquifer, which is artesian in Orange County. NONARTESIAN AQUIFER Aquifer properties: The nonartesian aquifer in Orange County extends from the water table to about 30 or 40 feet below land surface. It is composed mainly of quartz sand with varying amounts of clay, hardpan, and shell material. The nonartesian aquifer extends over most of the county, but its composition and thickness and consequently its productivity vary and there may be many local areas where it will not produce enough water to supply a well. Most wells in the nonartesian aquifer are small diameter sand-point or screened wells, 20 to 30 feet deep, that yield small to moderate quantities of water.

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32 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY Water levels: The depth to the water table in Orange County ranges from 0 to about 40 feet below the land surface. The data available indicate that the yearly fluctuations of the water table range from a few feet in low-lying parts of the county to more than 20 feet in higher areas. Figure 8 shows the hydrograph of one well (832-105-3) in the 83-08 I I ,°»--, ii ~~----C" S--|^h4-I-----l--_ -.I i I L S -I i ; L , ,0,--a--^ -T7;_ \----_ , f A^, --t_ , _ i _ _ _l ! i I ^ i z i-j-.-LJ I ^[ 832'*C3 | ..t l. ; ;./, .i I -~ /4 ýy J_#& AX WG SM t CT ,0V DE Figure 8. IHlydrographs of observation wells in Orange County and rainfall at Orlando, Florida.

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INFORMATION CIRCULAR NO. 41 33 nonartesian aquifer in comparison with the hydrographs of observation wells in the artesian aquifer in Orange County. The graph shows that at that location the water level fluctuated less than 2 feet in 1961. The lowest level was in early June, the beginning of the wet season. Recharge and discharge: Practically all the recharge to the nonartesian aquifer in Orange County comes from rainfall within or near the county. Most of the county is blanketed with permeable sand which allows the water to infiltrate rapidly. In much of the eastern and southern parts of the county, where the land is flat and an impermeable layer of hardpan is near the surface, the overlying surface sands are quickly saturated during the rainy season and many swamps and sloughs are formed. Discharge from the nonartesian aquifer in Orange County is by evapotranspiration, seepage into surface-water bodies, downward leakage to underlying aquifers, seepage out of the county, and pumpage. The hydrographs of wells 832-105-1, 2, and 3, in figure 8, show that in the the vicinity of these wells (fig. 9) the water table was consistently above the pressure surfaces in the underlying artesian aquifers and accordingly some shallow water probably discharged downward. Quality of water: Water collected from a selected number of wells in the nonartesian aquifer shows a range in chemical composition. The water.from wells developed in clean quartz sand is usually very soft (hardness generally less than 25 ppm) and low in mineral content (about 20 to 50 ppm). The very soft water often has low pH value -indicating that it is corrosive. Total mineral content as high as about 500 ppm (estimated from conductivity measurements) and high concentrations of some constituents indicate that the water in some wells in the nonartesian aquifer is polluted. The water from well 822-138-3 (fig. 9) had concentrations of potassium (10 ppm), sulfate (107 ppm), and nitrate (173 ppm), which definitely indicates a possible nearby source of pollution. Use of water containing an excess of 45 ppm of nitrate for feeding formulas for infants results in methemoglobinemia or cyanosis (blue babies) in the infants. A high concentration of nitrate was found only in well 822-138-3. The waterfrom some of the nonartesian wells had as much as 90 units of color.

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1 I II III I ' 11 't .I " , , I [ ( I I I .IC)Y fil .40 3b 3O hla Id 1 0 , 1 bw0 S4 r -* ned 4 K C00 UET S------__.. ....-.^-<-.-.S -I-OE--.------------------------------" -FAt Lrn : ..-.'--..-,^..----.-.-----0t i., , .. .. d_ 1 .L -, ... ---. S40 | ~I35 I I I 20 10 0" ' 8100 55 -Survey topographic quadrangles 1124,000 Figure 9. Orange County, Florida, showing location of Inventoried wells other than drainage wells. , : : ---: :-----^ -",, I.-Bose tokln from U.S. Gologlcol 0 I i 3 4 8 6 7 6 9 IOmllil Surve/ topographic quodronglei. H124,000 Figure 9. Orange County, Florida, showing location of inventoried wells other than drainage wells.

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INFORMATION CIRCULAR NO. 41 35 SHALLOW ARTESIAN AQUIFERS Aquifer properties: Several shallow artesian aquifers occur within the confining beds of the Hawthorn or younger formations at depths ranging from about 60 feet to more than 150 feet below land surface. These aquifers are composed of discontinuous shell beds, thin limestone layers, or permeable sand zones. The shallow artesian aquifers are most productive in the area east and south of Orlando, where they yield quantities of water sufficient for domestic use to screened or open-end wells. Water levels: The only record of water-level fluctuations in a shallow artesian aquifer is from well 832-105-2 (depth 75 feet) (fig. 8). The range of fluctuation in this well, for the period of record, was about 3.5 feet, or from 7 to 10.5 feet below land surface. At this location the shallow artesian water level is 6 to 12 feet below the nonartesian water level and 6 to 14 feet above the water level in the Floridan aquifer. Recharge and discharge: Recharge to the shallow artesian aquifers is mostly by leakage through overlying beds or by upward leakage from underlying beds where the piezometric surface in the Floridan aquifer is above the piezometric surface in the shallow artesian aquifer. A small amount of water probably flows into the county from surrounding counties within the shallow artesian aquifers. Discharge from the shallow artesian aquifers is by downward leakage to the Floridan aquifer, upward leakage to the nonartesian aquifer where the piezometric surface is above the water table, underground flow out of the county, and pumpage. FLORIDAN AQUIFER The principal artesian aquifer that underlies Orange County is a part of the Floridan aquifer which underlies Florida and parts of Alabama, Georgia, and South Carolina. The Floridan aquifer, as defined by Parket (1955, p. 189), includes "parts or all of the middle Eocene (Avon Park and Lake City limestones), upper Eocene (Ocala limestone), Oligocene (Suwannee limestone), and Miocene (Tampa limestone) and permeable parts of the Hawthorn formation that are in hydrologic contact with the rest of the aquifer."

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36 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY Aquifer properties: The Floridan aquifer in Orange County is covered by a layer of sand and clay which ranges in thickness from about 40 to 350 feet. The total thickness of the aquifer is unknown and it may include formations older than the Lake City Limestone. Supply wells for the city of Orlando penetrate more than 1,300 feet of the aquifer. The lithology of the Floridan aquifer is variable but, in general, it is composed ofalternating layers of limestone and dolomite, or dolomitic limestone. The limestone layers are usually softer and of lighter color than the dolomitic layers. The upper part of the aquifer is mostly cream to tan limestone and the lower part is mostly light to dark brown dolomite or dolomitic limestone. In many parts of the county persistent layers of dense, hard, dark brown, dolomitic limestone occur between depths of. about 400 and 600 feet below land surface. Although the permeability of the dolomite is extremely low, the dolomitic zones contain many interconnected solution cavities and channels that make its overall permeability very high. Tests made by Unklesbay (1943, p. 13) show that wells with open hole between depths of 60 and 450 feet and wells with open hole between 550 and 1,000 feet below land surface have the same water level and fluctuate together, indicating that the solution channels are interconnected vertically as well as horizontally. Solution channels, ranging in diameter from a fraction of an inch to many feet probably occur throughout the aquifer but are most prevalent at depths between 200 and 600 feet and between 1,100 and 1,500 feet below the land surface. Cavities 15 feet or more in depth have been reported by drillers. Large diameter wells in the Floridan aquifer will yield more than 4,000 gpm. Piezometric surface: The piezometric surface of the Floridan aquifer in Orange County slopes to the east and northeast from its highest point in the southwestern part of the county (fig. 10,11). Water moves downgradient, from areas of high piezometric level to areas of lower piezometric level. In general, the direction of movement is at right angles to the contour lines. The arrows in figures 10 and 11 show the general direction of movement of water in the Floridan aquifer. Because of the cavernous nature of the aquifer the actual direction of movement of water at particular locations may be different than the general direction indicated by the configuration of the piezometric surface, The flattened ridge on the piezometric surface in the vicinity of Orlando is caused by recharge through the drainage wells in the area. Figure 10 depicts the piezometric

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5' 40' 35' 30 25' 20' 1 I 05 81'00' 55' 80°5so MONT U L'A KE COUNTY EXPLANATION N 6" Well equfppd wilh reording age. 4above mion sea level, ~ Conlour represenlt Ihe plesomelrle surface, in feel above mion to level, In Spltember, 1960. SArrow Indlcole direction of ground-woler flow, :o S Contour nlterval' 5 fie 40 --40' SEMINOLE C U NTY --. ....~ClUNTY S 35' 0 .10 057 5 050' BApe en from U.S. eolcal I 2 4 6 9 10 mlO K14'550 0_3 1-.-!073 Sury opgrphc qudrngle 124,0 F u 10 Oag o c t | S OSCEOLA 042COUNTY 35 .5 8050 12 4,000K Figure 10. Orange County,,.Florida, showing the contours of the piezometric surface at high water condi.tions, September 1960. I

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... -r7 11I I I I .ll ll i ir I -II i i I 1 1 I I I 1 i I -n i 1 1 ' _ ..=.,.' '*x,, .^ , ' N '' '»-.-' " " 4L l I.XPLANATION <»'-~l e vel, in'"111i -451 above mien iII level. Conaour represenlis Ih pleiom rle slurfuce, in feel oboe1 moen Iga lwirl, in JulI, 1l1, Dolhid 0 hre i nterred Arrow indole, dlreslin of RA oM -wlr Iow SAPOK Confour Inervo a fltef S4d 40 \5 'o , SEMINOLE is 0 U N Y T Y ..--',... .. COU T _ o f l T ,3 5 7 9 ..e 00o i ' o e 01 36 -3d -ii i 4 6 il Boe tken from U S Geological o I 2 3 4 6. I0 mil a 24,000 Fiure 11. Orane County Florida, showin the contours of the iezometric surfa at bout normal ontons J 1961. O S C E OL A COUNTY 8145' 354 30' 2'20' 20 l0 05' 810' 55 8O'50S Borle token from U S ologicol 0 I 2 3 44 5 6 7 8 9 lOmiles Survey lopogrophis quoalroago6 1124,000 Figure 11. Orange County, Florida, showing the contours of the piezometric surface at about normal conditions, July 1961.

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INFORMATION CIRCULAR NO. 41 39 levels in September 1960, the highest observed during the investigation. The high levels of September 1960 equaled or exceeded the highest previous recorded levels, which occurred in the early 1930's. Figure 11, which shows the piezometric surface in July 1961, about 10 months later, represents about normal conditions. The magnitude of fluctuations of the piezometric surface ranges from place to place in the county. The greatest fluctuations occur in Orlando, where more than 300 drainage wells in and around the city permit direct and immediate recharge to the aquifer (fig. 3) and where pumping is concentrated. Hydrographs of five artesian wells in figure 8 illustrate this condition. The water level in well 833-120-3 at the Orlando Air Base varied 23 feet in 1960-61, from a high of 75 feet on September 11, 1960, to a low of 52 feet on June 6, 1961, whereas the fluctuation in the other wells in the Floridan aquifer was small. Recharge and discharge: Most of the recharge to the Floridan aquifer in Orange County is from infiltration of rain through the relatively thin semipermeable confining beds in the highlands section of the county and through the more than 300 drainage wells in the county. A lesser quantity enters the county by underground flow from southern Lake County and a very small amount enters from Osceola County. The best data available in 1961 suggest that most of the ground water in the artesian aquifer in Orange County originates within the county. Discharge of ground water from the Floridan aquifer in Orange County is by (1) outflow into northern Lake County, Seminole County, and Brevard County; (2) upward leakage into the St. Johns marsh; (3) use within the county; and (4) spring outflow. Preliminary estimates ofthe amount of recharge of artesian water from various sources and discharge to various areas are given in the section on water budget. Quality of water: The quality of the water in the Floridan aquifer ranges greatly throughout the county, but varies little at a particular location and depth. The total dissolved solids, as estimated from conductivity measurements, ranged from 60 ppm in water from well 843-131-1 in the northwestern part of the county to 1,810 ppm in water from well 829-056-1 in the eastern part of the county. Figure 12 shows that in the western part of the county most of the water in the Floridan aquifer is relatively low in mineral content, and the dissolved solids are less than 150 ppm. The mineral content of the water increases toward the eastern part of the county, and the

PAGE 46

,6llT" --I-K.... OT-'i'a o S--'r"T-i*r-T*7T"-'F-"-7'T-r-"'T'T-T~'T T-T~iT~T -F-i-TT-rT--r'I""" -r-r-T--1-r-r"--'-l-r-"i-i" i , ' -3-,1 -ki P,.AN4TION 4 P 1 U T IOLVTP 0LiO IN PPM -.. T AKE C. OUy 0 Laos than 100 SRANGE CCINTY !1Il io 500 "Q 0 b 4,01 tao < B°OO 0 501 ta b00 40 0 O IQ 1000 * .4W. 0 Q * Orelter than 1000 S! o ~ 4d -40' 0 S SEMINOLE ' La. -ORANGE 0 o0 , 0 R r O U N T Y ..' -" ° ° .. 'J " " ".' -oo o ooo * \ , -, o 000 S -U N T 0 G) 0 0 0 00 -0 0 RANGE O UNTY 4000 0 g e 1 O 3Cu 30F 2 20' f 10d 05o t 55w 80'i' Bao tken from U. S. Geological a I 2 3 4 ' 6 B 9 M0 mil0 l Survey topographic quadrangles 1124,000 Figure 12. Orange County, Florida, showing general range of dissolved solids of the water in wells in the Floridan aquifer.

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INFORMATION CIRCULAR NO. 41 41. dissolved solids exceed 1,000 ppm in the flowing wells along the St. Johns River. The high mineral content of artesian water in the eastern part of the county is probably due to incomplete flushing of saline water that entered the aquifer when the sea last covered Florida. Figure 13 shows the principal mineral constituents in water from selected wells in the Floridan aquifer in Orange County. The total alkalinity (carbonate plus bicarbonate) is reported as carbonate. Carbonate is present in natural water when the pH value exceeds 8.2. Some of the artesian water in Orange County contains small amounts of carbonate, but most of the alkalinity is due to bicarbonate. The composition of water from well 843-136-1 in northwestern Orange County and from well 832-058-1 in eastern Orange County (fig.13) indicates that artesian water in western OrangeCounty is high in calcium carbonate whereas the highly mineralized water in the eastern part of the county is high in sodium chloride. Except for high hardness, most water from the Floridan aquifer in western and central Orange County is of good chemical quality. However, water from flowing wells to the east along the St. Johns River is very hard and contains large amounts of sodium, sulfate, and chloride. West of longitude 81003' the hardness ranged from 48 to 335 ppm and averaged 153 ppm. The water from well 832-058-1, near the east edge of Orange County, had a hardness of 590 ppm, contained 354 ppm of sodium, 250 ppm of sulfate, and 630 ppm of chloride on July 3, 1957. Water from the same well had a hardness of 580 ppm and contained 640 ppm of chloride on October 24, 1960. Hydrogen sulfide gas is generally present in water from the flowing wells, and can be detected by the characteristic odor and taste. Hydrogen sulfide can be eliminated by aeration. PUMPING TEST The ability of an aquifer to transmit water is referred to as the coefficient of transmissibility (T); defined as the quantity of water, in gallons per day, that will move through a vertical section of the aquifer 1 foot wide and extending the full saturated height of the aquifer, under a unit hydrologic gradient at the prevailing temperature of the water (Theis, 1938, p. 892). A measure of the capacity of the aquifer to store water is referred to as the coefficient of storage (S); defined as' the volume of water released from or taken into storage per unit

PAGE 48

42 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY Well number Dissolved solids o E E CL 9 -70 8 0 0 0 , M 1 0 1 0 4a, 0 W c
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INFORMATION CIRCULAR NO. 41 43 surface area of the aquifer per unit change in head normal to that surface. The leakage coefficient (P/m) is a measure of the ability of the confining beds above and below the aquifer to transmit water to the main producing zone. It is defined as the quantity of water that moves through a unit area of the confining bed with a head difference across.the bed of unity. The above coefficients of an aquifer can be determined from-observation wells at a known distance from a well being pumped at a constant rate by analyzing the resulting changes in water level. A. pumping test to determine the coefficients of the Floridan aquifer was made in Orlando on February 17, 1961,. A 12-inch drainage well on Lake Davis (841-122-4) was pumped for 11 hours at a rate of 1,100 gpm and changes in water levels were recorded in four nearby well s. Background data collected before and after the test were used to eliminate from the drawcown curves extraneous effects, such as natural fluctuations of the water levels not related to the pumping. The corrected drawdown data (s) were plotted versus time (t) since pumping began, divided by the square of the distance (r) from the pumped well to the observation well (s versus t/r2). The resulting curves were compared with a family of leaky aquifer type curves developed by H. H. Cooper, Jr. (U.S. Geological Survey, Tallahassee, Florida). This family of curves is based on the equation for nonsteady flow in an infinite leaky aquifer developed by Hantush and Jacobs (1955, p. 95-100) and described by Hantush (1956, p. 702-714). The equation assumes a permeable bed overlain by less permeable beds through which water, under a constant head, ;can infiltrate to reach the aquifer. The transmissibility and storage coefficients obtained by the leaky aquifer method apply to the main producing zone, and the leaky coefficient applies to the semipermeable confining beds. The coefficients and other pertinent data for the Orlando: test are shown in table 6. The range in, determined values reflects in part the nonhomogeneous and anisotropic conditions of the limestone aquifer. This test indicates the aquifer has approximately the following coefficients: transmissibility 500,000, storage 0.001, and leakage 0.1. A transmissibility of 500,000 gpd/ft indicates a very productive aquifer.

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44 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY Table 6. Results of Pumping Well 831-122-4, Orlando, Florida, February 17, 1961 Casing Distance to TransmisMaximum Observation Depth Depth observation sibility Leakage drawdown well number (feet) (feet) well (feet) (gpd/ft) Storage (gpd/ft /ft ) (feet) 831-122-15 350 88 750 455,000 0.00071 0.131 2.90 831-121-6 335 115 950 440,000 .0031 .312 .66 831-121-7 428 315 1,900 745,000 .00083 .074 .26 831-122-18 435 114 3,900 745,000 .00083 .049 .14 WATER BUDGET The water available for use by man is that stored in surface or underground reservoirs. If the water in these reservoirs is not used by man, it eventually leaves the reservoir in which it is stored and moves to another part of the hydrologic cycle. Over long-term climatic cycles the amount of water leaving an area must balance the amount entering it. If the amounts of water entering and leaving an area are out of balance, a change in the amount of water in storage occurs. An accounting of the amounts of water entering and leaving an area and related changes in storage is termed a water budget. An approximate water budget for Orange County based upon general information presently available follows. Additional investigation will result in refining the various figures and they are presentedonly to show the relative magnitude. Rainfall within Orange County averages about 2,500 mgd. Surfacewater inflow averages about 140 mgd and ground-water inflow, mostly within the Floridan aquifer, averages about 40 mgd. Water lost by evapotranspiration is estimated to average about 1,750 mgd, surface runoff from the county averages about 790 mgd, and about 140 mgd is lost by underground flow to Brevard, Lake, and Seminole counties. An average of 814 mgd of water from sources outside the county flows along the eastern border of the county in the St. Johns River.

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INFORMATION CIRCULAR NO. 41 45 USE OF WATER Use of ground water in Orange County is estimated tohave averaged about 65 mgd in 1960. Of this total, about 17 mgd were pumped by the Orlando Utilities Commission to users in and around Orlando, including the Martin Company; about 9 mgd were pumped by the city .of Cocoa from their well field in Orange County, about 7 mgd were used by privately supplied industry, mostly for citrus processing and packing;.4 mgd were pumped by private water companies in the Orlando area; about 3 mgd 'were used for irrigation; and an estimated 25 mgd were used by communities and private individuals outside of the Orlando area. Use of surface water is estimated to average about 45 mgd. About 30 mgd is used for irrigating citrus trees and about 15 mgd is used for irrigating row crops mostly in the Zellwood muckland area north of Lake Apopka.

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INFORMATION CIRCULAR.N0.41; 47 REFERENCES Black, A. P. 1951 (and Brown, Eugene) Chemical character of Florida's waters: Florida State Board Cons., Div. Water Survey and Research Paper 6. Brown, D. W. 1957 (and Kenner, W. E., and Brown, Eugene) Interim report on the water resources ofBrevard -County, Florida: Florida Geol. Survey Inf. Circ. 11-. 1962 (and Kenner, W. E., Crooks, J. W., and Foster, J. B.) Water resources of Brevard County, Florida: Florida Geol. Survey Rept. Inv. 28. Brown, Eugene (see Black, A. P.; Brown, D. W.) Cole, W. S. 1941 Stratigraphic and paleontologic studies of wells in Florida: Florida Geol. Survey Bull. 19. 1945 Stratigraphic and paleon'tologic studies oflwells in Florida -no. 4: Florida Geol. Survey Bull. 28. Collins, .W. D. 1928 (and Howard, C. S.) Chemical character of waters in Florida: U.-S. Geol. Survey Water-Supply Paper 596-G. Cooke, C. W. 1939 Scenery of Florida: Florida Geol. Survey Bull. 17.. 1945 Geology of Florida: Florida Geol. Survey Bull. 29. Cooper, H. H., Jr. (see Stringfield, V. T.) Crooks, J. W. (see Brown, D. W.) Fenneman, N. M. 1938 Physiography of eastern United States: New York, McGraw-Hill Book Co., Inc. Ferguson, G. E. (see Parker-, G..G.)-. ..

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48 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY Florida State Board of Health 1961 Some physical and chemical characteristics of selected Florida waters: June 1960. Foster, J. B. (see Brown, D. W.) Gunter, Herman (also see Sellards, E. H.) 1931 (and Ponton, G. M.) Need for conservation and protection of our water supply with special reference to waters from the Ocala limestone: Florida Geol. Survey 21st and 22d Ann. Rept. Hantush, M. C. 1955 (and Jacob, C. E.) Nonsteady radical flow in an infinite leaky dquifer: Am. Geophys. Union Trans., v. 36, no. 1, p. 95-100. 1956 Analysis of data from pumping tests in leaky aquifers: Am. Geophys. Union Trans., v. 37, p. 702-714. Hem, J. D. 1959 Study and interpretation of the chemical characteristics of natural water: U. S. Geol. Survey Water-Supply Paper 1473. Howard, C. S. (see Collins, W. D.) Jacob, C. E. (see Hantush, M. C.) Kenner, W. E. (see Brown, D. W.) Love, S. K. (see Parker, G. G.) MacNeil, F. S. 1950 Pleistocene shorelines in Florida and Georgia: U. S. Geol. Survey Prof. Paper 221-F. Matson, G. C. 1913 (and Sanford, Samuel) Geology and ground waters of Florida: U. S. Geol. Survey Water-Supply Paper 319. Meinzer, O.E. 1923 The occurrence of ground water in the United States, with a discussion of principles: U. S. Geol. Survey Water-Supply Paper 489.

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INFORMATION CIRCULAR NO. 41 49 Parker, G. G. 1955 (and Ferguson, G. E., Love, S. K., and others) Water resources of southeastern Florida: U.S. Geol. Survey Water-Supply Paper 1255. Ponton, G. M. (see Gunter, Herman) Puri, H. S. 1953 Contribution to the study of the Miocene of the Florida Panhandle: Florida Geol. Survey Bull. 36. Rainwater, F. H. 1960 (and Thatcher, L. L.) Methods for collection and analysis of water samples: U. S. Geol. Survey Water-Supply Paper 1454. Reitz, H. J. (see Wander, 1. W-) Sanford, Samuel (see Matson, G. C.) Sellards, E. H. 1908 A preliminary report on the underground water supply of central Florida: Florida Geol. Survey Bull. 1. 1913 (andGunter,Herman) The artesian water supply of eastern and southern Florida: Florida Geol. Survey 5th Ann. Rept. Stringfield, V. T. 1935 The piezometric surface of artesian water in the Florida Peninsula: Am. Geophys. Union Trans., 16th Ann. Mtg., Pt. 2, p. 524-529. 1936 Artesian water in the Florida Peninsula: U. S. Geol. Survey WaterSupply Paper 773-C. 1950 (and Cooper, H. H., Jr.) Ground water in Florida: Florida Geol. Survey Inf. Circ. 3. Thatcher, L. L. (see Rainwater, F. H.) Theis, C. V. 1938 The significance and nature of the cone of depression in groundwater bodies: Econ. Geology, v. 33, no. 8. U. S. Geological Survey 1943 Progress report on hydrologic studies of lake sources of municipal water supplies of Orlando, Florida: Open-file rept.

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50 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY U. S. Weather Bureau 1960 Climatological data, Florida, annual summary, 1960: v. 64, no. 13. Unklesbay, A. G. 1944 Ground water conditions in Orlando and vicinity, Florida: Florida Geol. Survey Rept. Inv. 5. Ver.-on, R. O. 1951 Geology of Citrus and Levy counties, Florida: Florida Geol. Survey Bull. 33. Wander, 1. W. 1951 (and Reitz, H.J.) The chemical composition of irrigation water used in Florida citrus groves: Univ.of Florida Agr. Experiment Station Bull.408. White, W. A. 1958 Some geomorphic features of central peninsular Florida: Florida Geol. Survey Bull. 41.

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