Citation
Interim report on the geology and ground-water resources of Northwestern Polk County, Florida ( FGS: Information circular 23 )

Material Information

Title:
Interim report on the geology and ground-water resources of Northwestern Polk County, Florida ( FGS: Information circular 23 )
Series Title:
FGS: Information circular
Creator:
Stewart, Herbert G
Geological Survey (U.S.)
Place of Publication:
Tallahassee
Publisher:
[s.n.]
Publication Date:
Language:
English
Physical Description:
vi, 83 p. : illus., map (fold.) ; 23 cm.

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Groundwater -- Florida -- Polk County ( lcsh )
Water-supply -- Florida -- Polk County ( lcsh )
Lake Parker ( local )
Polk County ( local )
City of Lakeland ( local )
City of Tampa ( local )
Town of Suwannee ( local )
City of Vernon ( local )
Lakes ( jstor )
Aquifers ( jstor )
Water wells ( jstor )
Geological surveys ( jstor )
Limestones ( jstor )
Genre:
non-fiction ( marcgt )

Notes

Bibliography:
Bibliography: p. 79-83.
General Note:
"Prepared by U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the Florida Geological Survey and the Polk County Board of Commissioners."
Funding:
Digitized as a collaborative project with the Florida Geological Survey, Florida Department of Environmental Protection.
Statement of Responsibility:
by H. G. Stewart.

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Holding Location:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
The author dedicated the work to the public domain by waiving all of his or her rights to the work worldwide under copyright law and all related or neighboring legal rights he or she had in the work, to the extent allowable by law.
Resource Identifier:
022347654 ( aleph )
01721508 ( oclc )
AJA4794 ( notis )

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Full Text
STATE OF FLORIDA
STATE BOARD OF CONSERVATION
Ernest Mitts, Director
FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY
Robert 0. Vernon, Director
INFORMATION CIRCULAR NO. 23
INTERIM REPORT ON
THE GEOLOGY AND GROUND- WATER RESOURCES OF
NORTHWESTERN POLK COUNTY, FLORIDA
By
Herbert G. Stewart, Jr., Geologist
U. S. Geological Survey
Prepared by U. S. Geological Survey
in cooperation with the Flo rida Geological Survey and the Polk County Board of Commissioners
Tallahassee, Florida 1959




AGRICL!TURAL




CONTENTS
Page
Abstract..............................................1I
Introduction............. ............................. 3
Purpose and scope of investigation................. 3
Previous investigations............................ 4
Methods of this investigation....................... 5
Well-numbering system............................ 6
Acknowledgments................................. 6
Geography........................................... 7
Location, population, and industry................. 7
Topography....................................... 8
Drainage......................................... 9
Climate.......................................... 10
Geology............................................ 12
Solution features.................................. 12
Summary of stratigraphy......................... 17
Eocene series................................. 17
Avon Park limestone........................ 17
Ocala group................................. 19
Inglis for mation......................... 20
Williston formation...................... 20
Crystal River formation.................. 20
Oligocene series............................... 21
Suwannee- lime stone......................... 21
Miocene series................................ 21
Tampa formation........................... 22
Hawthorn formation......................... 23
Pliocene series................................ 24
Bone Valley formation...................... 24
Pleistocene series............................. 25
Structure......................................... 25
Hydrology.......................................... 26
Surface water.................................... 26
Ground water..................................... 26~
Occurrence.................................... 26
Nonartesian aquifer........................... 28
Uppermost artesian aquifer.................... 29
Secodar aresin auifer.....................2
Piezometric surface......................... 31
Floridan aquifer............................... 3Z
Pie zometric surface........................ 37
Water-level history......................... 38
Hydraulics....................................... 39
Specific capacity of wells...................... 39




Pumping tests ........................... ...... 9
Laboratory analyses........................... 4.1
Quality of water.................. ................ 41
Use of water..................................... 47Public. supplies................................. 47
Industrial supplies............................. 47
Domestic supplies............................. 49
Irrigation supplies............................. 49
Summary of use............................... 49
Water losses from the area....................... 49
Uiiderflow and runoff........................... 50
Evaporation................................... 50
Transpiration.................................. 51
Recharge........................................ 51
Nonartesian aquifer...................... ...... 51
Uppermost artesian aquifer..................... 54
Secondary artesian aquifer..................... -54
Floridan aquifer............................... 54
Special problems..................................-56
Lake Parker.................................. 56
Water budget............................... 61
Decline of lakes near Lake Parker............. 67
Scott Lake area............................... 69
Water budget................................ 75
References......................................... 79
ILLUSTRATIONS
Plate
1Map of the Lake Parker area showing
contours on the piezometric surface of the secondary artesian aquifer and location. of selected wells penetrating this
aquifer.................................. facing 6
ZMap of northwestern Polk County showing
contours on the piezometric surface of the Floridan aquifer and location of wells
penetrating this aquifer'............facing 6
3 Map of the Lake Parker area showing
contours on the water table during the period June 25-30,* 1956, and location of wells penetrating the nonarte sian aquifer...................................... facing 6
iv




Figure
1 Map of Polk County showing the area covered by this report. -,Inset Map.shows
location of the county!.........................8
2 Graph showing annual rainfall at Lake land, 19 15 -5 5.............................. 11
3 Geologic cross section showing formations penetrated by water wells. in northwestern Polk County........................ 18
4 Hydrographs of Lakes Wire, Hollingsworth, Parker, and Deeson, and Crystal
Lake, in the Lakeland area:................. 27
5 Hydrographs of wells inthe nonartesian aquifer s................................... 30
6 Hydrographs of wells in the secondary artesian aquifer........................... 32
7 Hydrographof well 759-158- linthe Floridan aqUifer............................... 34
8 Hydrographs of wells in the Floridan aquifer.............................. ...... 35
9 Hydrographs of wells open to both the secondary artesian and the Floridan
aquifers................................... 36
10 Annual pumpage of water by the Lake
land city system............................ 48
11 Graph showing computed evaporation
from open-water surfaces at Orlando and
rainfall at Lakeland .........................53
12 Diagram showing sediments penetrated
in test hole 805-156-A, in Lake Parker 59
13 Hydrograph of Lake Parker for period of
record.................................... .62
14 Hydrographs of Lake Parker and wells
803-154-10 and 806-154-1................ ..63
15 Hydrographs of Lake Parker and wells
805-155-1 (nonartesian aquifeii,805-155-2 (Floridan aquifer), and 805-155-3(secondary artesian aquifer), near southwest
shore of Fish Lake......................... 64
16 Hydrographs of Scott La ke and well
758-156-5 in the nonartesian aquifer 71
17 Hydrographs of Scott Lake and well
757-155-3 -in the secondary artesian
aquifer.................................... 72
V




18 Hydrographs of wells in the nonartesian aquifer in the Scott Lake basin .....73 19 Map of Scott Lake area showing locations of wells, drainage divide, and water levels
during pe rio d of July 10 -11, 19 56 ....74
Table
1 Mean monthly temperature and rainfall at Lakeland, Florida...................... 12
2 Solutional cavities penetrated by wells in the Floridan aquifer....................... 14
3 Solutional cavities penetrated by wells and springs in the secondary artesian
aquifer......................... .......... 15
4 Specific capacities of representative wells in the Lakeland area ..................40
5 Laboratory analyses of sand samples from test hole 805-156-A.................. 42
6 Chemical analyses of water from wells, lakes, and springs........................ 43
7 Evaporation and rainfall data from Or lando water plant, Orlando, Orange
County, Florida............................ 52
8 Water levels and temperature observed in test hole 805-156-A..................... 60
9 Stream-gaging measurements in the Lake ]Parker and Saddle Greek areas .....65
vi




INTERIM REPORT ON THE
GEOLOGY AND GROUND- WATER RESOURCES OF
NORTHWESTERN POLK COUN TY, FLORIDA
By
Herbert G. Stewart, Jr.
ABSTRACT
The area of this investigation comprises about 360 square miles in northwestern PolkCoun~ty, in the central part of peninsular Florida_ The area is underlain) bylimZestoe- r-ifi25to 100ee below the land surface to a depth of several thousand feet. The upper limestones range in age from middle Eocene to middle Miocene and are the principal sources of water supplies in this area. The limestones clip gently southwestward, as a part of the southwestern flank of the Ocala uplift, and are overlain by unconsolidated sand and clay of Miocene, Pliocene, and Pleistocene age. The Pleistocene sand and clay ranges from 1 to 100 feet in thickness and covers the entire area.
Groundwater in northwestern Polk County occurs under both artesian and nonarte sian conditions. The top of the zone of saturation is close to the land surface in much of the area, and fresh water extends downward to an unknown depth. The nonartesian aquifer consists of sand of Pleistocene and Recent age. Where this sand is more than 10 feet thick it will generally furnish sufficient water for small domestic and irrigation requirements. The uppermost artesian aquifer is in the lower part of the Bone Valley formation, but it is used very little. The so-called secondary artesian aquifer, composed of limestones of middle Miocene age, supplies water for domestic and small irrigation requirements. The Floridan aquifer is the principal source of ground water in the area. This aquifer is of great areal extent, underlying




2 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY
all of Florida and parts of adjacent states. Although it is composed of thick limestones that range in age from lower Miocene to middle Eocene and differ in composition, it functions as a single aquifer. It extends downward to an unknown depth in this area. Wells drilled into the Floridan aquifer range from 3 to 26 inches in diameter and from 150 to 1, 200 feet in depth. The largest known yield from a well in tis area was- 8, 000 gpm (gallons per minute), with 23 feet of drawdown, from a well 24 inches in diameter and 1, 200 feet deep.
The records show a net decline of water levels in the Floridan aquifer between 1936 and July 1956. This decline is believed to be due primarily to below-average rainfall during the 30 -month period preceding July 1956. The return of average rainfall, along with a resultant decrease in the demand for ground water, will probably result in a return of the water levels to almost the 1936 levels.
The area around Lakeland is dotte d with sinkhole s which originated with the collapse of caverns developed in the underlying limestones. The caverns, which result from the solution of limestone by moving groundwater, are at considerable depth below the land surface, and the networks of connected caverns function as natural drains in the artesian aquifers. It has long been thought that most of the recharge to the Floridan aquifer was supplied by the lake sthat occupy many of the sinkholes in central Florida. Investigation of the Lakeland area, however, has indicate dthat although some recharge may come from lake s in that area, the amount may not be large. Further, most of the downward leakage from some of these lakes is apparently recharging the secondary artesian aquifer rather than the Floridan aquifer. Investigation has shown also that these sinkhole lakes apparently overlie lows in the piezometric surface of the Floridan aquifer, and these lows may indicate the course of cavern networks in the aquifer.
Lake Parker, in eastern Lakeland, recharges the artesian aquifers at a low rate. Large withdrawals of ground water are anticipated in the area along the north shore of the lake, and they may lower the lake level by reducing the ground water discharged into the lake. They may even




INFORMATION CIRCULAR NO. 23 3
establish hydraulic gradients away from the lake, thereby increasing losses through the lake bottom. It appears, however, that similar large withdrawals east of the lake have not affected the lake level.
Scott Lake, a sinkhole lake south ofLakeland, is recharging the secondary artesian aquifer, and its level is declining. The effect of withdrawals from the lake for irrigation of citrus groves is equivalent to lowering the lake level approximately 4. 5 inches per season, but the principal reasons for large seasonal declines of the lake level are: ;,(l) continuing downward leakage to the secondary artesian Aquifer, (2) evaporation from the lake surface, and (3) -belownormal rainfall, which has caused the water table to decline and has reduced the ground-water discharge into the lake. At the north end of the lake basin the water table apparently has declined to the extent that its gradient is reversed and water is leaking from the lake into the nonartesian aquifer also.
INTRODUCTION
Purpose and Scope of hIvestigation
The investigation upon which this -report is based was begun in April 1954 by the U. S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the Florida Geological Survey and the Board of County Commis sioner s of Polk County. The primary purpo se of the investigation was to provide basic information to assist in the useful development of the water resources of Polk County.
This reportpresents basic information regarding some of the lakes and ground-water supplies in the northwestern part of the county. The relation of the many lakes in the area to-the ground-water supply and the effects of large withdrawals of ground water on both ground-water and surfacewater levels are matters of great interest in the county.




4 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY
Previous Inve stigations
Some geologic and hydrologic work has been done in Polk County as part of regional or statewide investigations. Most of it has been done by the Florida Geological Survey and the U. S. Geological Survey.
Cooke (1945), Vernon (1951), and Parker, Ferguson, Love and others (1955) described the general geology of central Florida and made many references to Polk County. Cole (1941, 1945), Mansfield (1942), Cathcart and Davidson (1952), Davidson (1952a, 1952b), Carr and Alverson (1953),Puiri (1953a, 1953b), and Bergendahi (1956) discussed the geology of one or more of the formations present in Polk County. Fennemnan ( 19 38), Cooke (19 39), and MacNeil (19 50) discussed the topographic features of central- Florida and their origin and development.
Sellards (1908), Sellards and Gunter (1913, p. 262264), Matson and Sanford (1913, p. 388-390), and Gunter and Ponton (1931) prepared early discussions and data concerning ground water in Polk County and other parts of central Florida. Stringfield (1935, 1936, p. 148, 172-173, 186) investigated ground water in the Florida Peninsula and pre sented data from Polk County. One important, result of his investigation was apiezometric map of the principal artesian aquifer of peninsular Florida (the Floridan aquifer of this report) which indicates areas of recharge to and discharge from the aquifer. This map was expanded to include most of northwest Florida and part of southern Georgia by the work of M. A. Warren, V. T. Stringfield, and F. Westendick, and wias shown by Cooper (1944, fig. 2). Cooper (1944), Stringfield and Cooper (1951b), and Cooper, Kenner and Brown (1953) discussed the ground water of Florida and referred to recharge of the ground-water supplies in Polk County. Papers by Ferguson, Lingham, LoA-ve and Vernon (1947) and Stringfield and Cooper (1951b) described the geologic and hydrologic features of springs in-Florida and presented flow measurements andother data for some springs. -Peek (-1951)'discussed the cessation of flow of Kissengen Springs in Polk County.
Collins and Howard(1928), Black and Brown (1951), and Wander and Reitz (1951) discussed the chemical quality of




INFORMATION CIRCULAR NO. 23 5
ground and surface water in Polk County and other parts of Florida.
Methods of this Investigation
Field work on this investigation began on M~ay 1, 1954, with an inventory of water supplies in northwestern Polk County. Information obtained for approximately 500 wells includes the depth of well and casing, water level, yield, type of pump, and use and quality of the water. In addition, information was obtained for some wells in other parts of the county.
During the inventory, suitable wells were selected for the observation of water -level fluctuations. The depth to water was measured periodically in most of these observation wells, and water-level recording gages were installed on seven of them.
The levels of several lakes also were measuredperiodically, and recording gages were installed on Lake Parker and Scott Lake, in the Lakeland area.
Exposures of consolidated rock in this area are rare. All the original rock descriptions made during the investigation were made from cuttings collected during the drilling of wells and test holes. Therefore, except for the rocks exposed in mine pits, all the rocks described in this study were observed from cuttings taken from 33 wells and 4 test holes. The U. S. Geological Survey arranged for the drilling of 25 of these wells and the 4 test holes to depths ranging from 3 to 311 feet, in order to obtain additional water-level and geologic data in the vicinity of Lake Parker.
Electric logs of 27 wells in Polk-~County were made by the Florida Geological Survey during this investigation. Some of these logs were made of wells from which rock cuttings were available, in order to aid in the interpretation of the electric logs of wells from which no cuttings were available. Gamma-ray logs of 36 wells in the county were made by the Minerals Deposits Branch of the Federal Survey.




6 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY
This type of logging was undertaken in an attempt to provide an additional basis for identifying the stratigraphic units penetrated, but the results were not encouraging.
Well-Numbering System
The well-numbering system usedinthis report is based on latitude and longitude coordinates. The well number was assigned by -first locating each well on a map that is divided into 1-minute quadrangles of latitude and longitude, then numbering each well in a quadrangle in the order of inventory. The well number is a composite of three numbers separated by hyphens: The first number is composed of the last digit of the degree and the two digits of the minute of the line of latitude on the south side of a 1-minute quadrangle, the second number is compo s ed of the last digit of the de gre e and the two digits of the minute of the line of longitude on the east side of a 1 -mninute quadrangle, and the third number -gives the order in which the well was inventoried in the quadrangle. For example, well 826-131-3 is the third well inventoried in the 1-minute quadrangle north of 280 26' north latitude and west of 810* 31' west longitude. By means of this- system wells referred to by number in the text can be located on plates 1, 2 and 3, and figure 19.
The same system is used in numbering geologic test holes and exposed sections that were measuredand described, except that consecutive letters of the alphabet are used instead of consecutive numbers. For example, 905-156-A was a test hole. The test holes were filled and abandoned immediately after drilling, and therefore are distinguished from wells.
Acknowledgments
This investigation was greatly aided by the interest and cooperation of the residents and industries of the area, who readily gave information regarding the wells. Special re cognition and thanks are here given to Mr. Arthur Crago, General Manager of the American Cyanamid Company, Brewster,




INFORMATION CIRCULAR NO. 23 7
Florida, and to his engineering and development staffs for their cooperation and assistance; to Mr. Roy Wilt. and Barney's Pumps, Inc., well drillers of Lake land; to Mr. Gurtis A. Dansby and Mr. George -Moran, retired well drillers of Auburndale, who supplied well records and other information; to Mr. Howard IE. Godwin, well driller of Lakeland -who supplied well records, collected rock cuttings from wells, and made water-level measurements; to Mr. D. 0. Payne, City Manager of Lakeland, the late Mr. Charles Larsen, Superintendent of the Light and Water Department, and Mr. F. E. Wilson, City Engineer, who furnished -manpower and equipment to determine the altitudes of wells in the area; to Mr. W. 0. Johnson, U. S. Weather Bureau, Lakeland, for his assistance in compiling and analyzing climatological data; and to Mr. Walter Buehler, resident of the Scott Lake area of Lakeland, who serviced the recording gage*on Scott Lake.
GEOGRAPHY
Location, Population, and Industry
Polk County comprises an area of 1, 861 square miles in the central part of peninsular Florida.; The northwestern parrt o0f the county, considered in this report, includes about 360 square miles generally west of Auburndale and north of Scott Lake (fig. 1, pl. 2). The northern third of this area is spar sely populated and is occupied lar gelyby cattle ranches. Much of the remaining area is used for truck farming, openpit phosphate mining, and the growing and processing of citrus fruits.
L-akeland, the largest city in the county, is a thriving //tourist center and is growing rapidly. Between 1890 and 19 50 its population increased from ab -out 500 to about 3 1, 000. Current andplanned improvements in transportation facilities should result in additional growth of population and industry ithe city and surrounding areas, and these increases will cause 'a corresponding increase in the demand for water.




8 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY,
Topography
Polk County is part of the highland that trends along the longitudinal axis of the Florida Peninsula.- The major topographic features in the county are three long, irregular- ridges which are separated and bounded by relatively flat lowlands.
The area of this report is part of the Central Highlands topographic division of Cooke ( 1939, p. 14, fig. 3), the limesink and lake regions of the Floridan section of the Atlantic Coastal Plain province of Fenneman (1938, p. 46-65), and the Atlantic Coastal Plain gr7oundwater province of Meinzer (1923a, p. 309-3 14). The area contains the northern part of the westernmost ridge in the county, on which the city of Lakeland is situated. The land surface along the crest of this part of the ridge is- generally
o
COUNTY
Figue 1 Ma of olkCouty sowig te ara cverd b
this report. INES ma shw lotinfte
co un. CTYQ-




INFORMATION CIRCULAR NO. 23 9
200 to 270 feet above mean sea level. The ridge loses definition north of Providence and slopes down onto broad flatlands which continue to the northern boundary of the county. These flatlands range from 100 to 140 feet above mean sea level. On the west side of the ridge the surface slopes down onto flatlands which extend to the Gulf of Mexico and Tampa Bay. On the east side of the ridge the surface slopes down onto the flat lowland along the course of Saddle Creek. The juncture of ridge and lowland is sharply defined in only a few places, andthe se are on the east face of the ridge in the southern part of the area.
The maximum local topographic relief is 155 feet, inthe area between Scott and Banana lakes, south of L-akeland. Total relief in the area of this inve stigation is approximately 180 feet.
Drainage
Surface drainage is poorly developed in the area. On the flatlands there are hundreds of individual perennial and ephemeral swamps and many basins of interior drainage. Inthe ridge areabasins of interior drainage are evengreater in number, depth, and diameter than on the lower flatlands. Inboth areas some of the basins of interior drainage contain lakes but others do not.
Parts of the drainage basins of four streams are within northwestern Polk County. The southern of the two Withlacoochee rivers of Florida forms part of the northern boundary of the county, and its tributaries drain some of the northern part of the county. The Withlacoochee flows west into Pasco County, where it turns abruptly north and empties into the Gulf of Mexico near Inglis, in Levy County.
The west-central part of the area, west of the ridge, is in the headwaters of the Hillsborough River, which flows west into Hillsborough County and empties into Hilisbor ough Bay at the city of Tampa. The southwestern part of the area, west of the ridge, is in the headwaters of the Alafia River, which flows southwest into Hillsborough County and empties into Hillsborough Bay we st of Riverview.




10 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY
East of the ridge, and generally south of State Highway33, are the headwaters of Saddle Creek, which flows south through Lake Hancock into the Peace River. The Peace River flows generally southward and empties into Charlotte Harbor near Punta Gorda, in Charlotte County.
These four rivers flow inpoorly defined channels bordered in many places by extensive swamps, and they have very few well defined tributary streams. The course of the Withlacoochee River, in the area of this inve stigation, is a cypres s swamp whose average width is a little more than a quarter of a mile and whose maximum width is a little more than a mile. Where the channel of the Withlacoochee canbe defined within the swamp, it is generally less than a hundred feet wide.
Climate
All climatic data used in this report are taken from the published records of the U. S. Weather Bureau station at Lakeland. The data from this station are believed to be sufficiently representative to permit their general application to the hydrology of the area.
The area has a subtropical climate and only two pronounced seasons winter and summer.; The average annual temperatur e is 7 2 0IF, and the ave rage monthly tempe rature s range from 61 0 F in January and December to 82OF in August. The average annual rainfall is 51.43 inches, about three-fifths of which occurs during June to September, inclusive. Most of the rainfall comes from thunder storms, which average about a hundred per year. Total annual rainfall at Lakeland, for the period of record, is shown graphically in figure 2. The mean monthly temperature and rainfall through 1955 are shown in table 1.




60 -7 AVERAGE 7
51.43 12 W Z-U, KA z IZ Y z /
X0 X 00
z 01
30*1
o OF oo 4
4/ 0' o
Fiue2.Gahshwn nna anfl tL7/ad 11-5
/V ZV AX,/-X, /V




12 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY
Table I. Mean Monthly Temperature and Rainfall
at Lakeland, Florida
Temperature Rainfall Month (OF) (inches)
Janut~ary 62. 8 2. 13 February 63.8 2.42 March 67.5 3.27 April 72.1 3.02 May 77.0 4.34 June 80.4 7.58 July 81.6 8.21i August 82.0 7.36 September 80.4 6.33 October 74.8 2.74 November 67.1 1.81 December 63.1 2.00
GEOLOGY
Solution Features
The solution of limestone by circulating water is greatly facilitated by joint cracks and open bedding planes in- the limestone, because water moves more freely through them than through the generally very small interstices in the rock. Solution and removal of limestone is therefore most effective along the fractures and bedding planes, especially at their intersections. However, solution occurs also in the unfractured limestone by the circulation of water through the original interstices of the rock.
As a result of solution, small cavities enlarge and coalesce, and the limestone may develop a spongy, or "honeycomb", appearance. If solution progresses further, substantial cavern systems may develo p. This proce .ss progressively increases the water -transmitting ability of the lime stone.




INFORMATION CIRCULAR NO. 23 13
The limestones of Florida contain many interconnected solutional cavities which range from a fraction of an inch to many feet in diameter. Small cavities were observed in pieces of the Avon Park limestone that were recovered during well drilling operations from depths greater than 500 feet. According to Vernon (in Ferguson and others, 1947, p. 21), cavities have been penetrated at a depth of 8, 000 feet in oil test wells in Florida, and circulation of drilling mud has been lost at even greater depths, indicating the presence of cavities at these depths.
Cavities ranging from 1 to 40 feet in diameter have been penetrated in well drilling operations in northwestern Polk County. Tables 2 and 3 give the data available regarding these cavities. All wells listed in table 2 are located on plate 2; those in table 3 are located on plate 1.
In Florida, limestone caverns may be observed in the vicinities of Marianna (Jackson County) and Ocala (Marion County), where they are now above ground-water level. Though similar features are present in the area of this report, they are below ground-water levels and cannot be observed -directly. Sinkholes are one surface indication of subsurface solution of limestone. They maybe formed when cavern ceilings collapse and the overlying materials settle into the caverns, leaving depressions in the land surface. Though sinkholes originate in other ways, the collapse origin is most common to those formed recently in northwestern Polk County.
The solution of limestone by ground water is one of the most active geologic processes in central Florida today. This fact was well illustrated by the formation of three new sinkholes in the area of investigation between April 1954 and May 1955, One sinkhole was reported to have formed in April or May 19 54 on the W. A. Jeffries property, one mile east of Lake Parker and half a mile north of U. S. Highway 92. A second sinkhole was formed in the fall of 1954 on the property of the American Cyanamid Company, in the lowland along Saddle Creek approximately one mile north of U. S. Highway 92 and half a mile west of the creek. The third sinkhole formed on May 8, 1955, on the Gordon property, about half a mile southwest of Highland City. The surface




Table 2, Solutional CavIties Penetrated by Wells in the Floridan Aquifer
U, 0,O.8,6, F, 0, Elevation of land Depth to cavity Apparent diameter
well well surface (feet below of cavity Source of
number number (feet above nil) land surface) (feet) Formation data Remarks 756-156..) 221* 8OB 6 Avon Park limnestone Driller's log 757.152-1 W -1441 117 540 15 Avon Park limestone Driller's Los 757-153.2 .132* 157 2 Suwannee limestone Electric log I 360 40 Crystal River formation Driller Well clogged above cavity cannot be
757.154-3 W-4241 175* 715 4 Avon Park limestone Driller's log checked with electric log.5 758.1653-1 W..1864 123 586 2 Avon Park limestone Driller'. log 758..154-1 IZ15* 542 8 Avon Park limestone Driller's log 759.159-1 W-2129 143 695 31 Avon Park limestone Driller'. log 759-201-1 W-633 128 665 5 Avon Park limestone Driller's log 800-153.3 W -724 120* 458 2 Avon Park limestone Driller'e log 800-156.2 -150* 700 20 Avon Park limestone Driller Loim of cutting. reported. "Honeycomb I zone," not a mingle cavity.
802-149-4 W-3633 130 355 -Avon Park Umeutona Driller', log Log is indefinite. 802-150-3 -119 114 5 Suwannee limestone Electric log 802-151-19 -115* 87 5 Tampa formation Electric log 802-155-4 -138* 120 3 Suwanniee limestone Driller's log 126 2 0 802-157.16 -193* 660 2 Avon Park limestone Driller'. log 0 802-158-1 W -2767 191 713 3 Avon Park limestone Driller's log 719 4
803-147-12 144* 606 11 Avon Park limestone Driller's log 803-153-28 W-3424 127 126 1 Suwannee limestone Driller'e log 1 803-154-31 -138 124 1 Suwannee limestone Driller's log 805-147-3 -150* 482 20 Avon Park limestone Driller's log 805-155-2 W.3766 135 90 2 Suwannee limestone Electric log Also reported by driller. 805-159-1 W-3312 205* 218 43 Suwannee limestone Driller's log "Honeycomb zone,"1 not a single cavity. I 807-154-4 W-3883 135 551 2 Avon Park limestone Driller's log 807-201-1 W-2774 13? ? 2 7 Driller's log Log ie indefinite. 808-200-4 -199* 691 14 Avon Park limestone Driller's log Lose of cutting. reported. "Honeycomb zone,"1 not a single cavity.
810-155-1 W-3866 132 108 2 Suwannee limestone Electric log 191 2 Crystal iver formation Electric log 817-149-2 159 365 10 Avon Park limastone Driller's log
*Estimated.




Table 3. Solutional Cavities Penetrated by Wells and Springs in the Secondary Artesian Aquifer
U. S. 0. S. F. 0. S. Elevation of land Depth to cavity Apparent diameter
well well surface (feet below of cavity Source of
number number (feet above mel) land surface) (feet) Formation data Remarks 759-200-1 W-2954 136* 74 2 Hawthorn Driller's log This well location shown on plate 2.0 802-154-2 -142* 40 -Hawthorn Owner Drilled by owner. 803-153-12 14 55 5Hawthorn Owner Drilled by owner. 805-153-4 -130* 65 19 Hawthorn Driller's log cavityobzn,1 o igooe 805'156-2 W-3769 141* 76 4 Hawthorn Driller's log caiy 806-156-2 W-3771 135* 88 7 Hawthorn Driller's log Spring -112* 35 a Hawthorn~ Observation Saddle Creek Mine. Spring -112* 35 3 Hawthorn Observation Saddle Creek Mine,
*Estimated.




16 FLORIDA' GEOLOGICAL SURVEY
depressions were allI small, less than 30 feet in diameter. and less than 30 feet deep when observed. The sinkhole on the Gordon property, however, is reported to have been 40 feet deep immediately after it was formed. Five other similar sinkholes formed in central Florida from May 7 to May 10, 1956, in a broad area extending eastward from Plant City in Hillsborough County to the Winter Haven and Lake Wales areas of Polk County. Others were reported in the we stern part of the city of Bartow in 19 53 and 19 54. The size and location of these sinkholes indicate that all may have originated in the limestone members of the Hawthorn formation of iocene age. Three of the sinkholes developed gradually during a period of about 24 hours, but the rest formed suddenly and without warning. The collapse of great thicknesses of relatively soft limestone, to form sinkholes might be triggered at times by large reductions of artesian pressure, but there are not enough data to substantiate this hypothesis.
Evidence of solutional activity in the geologic past is Plentiful in northwestern Polk County. The ridge area contains many nearly circular basins, a few of which are as much as a mile in diameter. Few data are available regarding the original depth of these sinkholes.
The shape of the basin of Scott Lake, south of Lakeland, strongly suggests that it was formed by two coalescent sinkholes which were partly filled by the initial collapse and subsequent erosion of the sides. Well 758-156-3 (fig. 19), drilled near the northeast shore of the lake in December, 1955, started at an altitude of 175 feet above mean sea level, and the driller reported that he penetrated only sand and clay, presumably the filling of a sinkhole, before drilling into the Suwannee limestone, in place, at a depth of 65 feet below mean sea level. The Hawthorn and Tampa formations, which normally overlie the Suwannee limestone in this area, were not penetrated in this well. The cavern whose roof collapsed, therefore, is in or below the Suwannee limestone. The average altitude around the crest of the lake basin is approimately 230 feet above~ mean sea level. The original depth of the sinkhole thus appears to have been at least 300 feet and possibly more, because the well probably does not penetrate the deepest part of the partly filled depression.




INFORMATION CIRCULAR NO. 23 1.7
The lake occupying the basin is elongate, measuring approximately 1. 1 miles by 0. 4 mile. The dimensions of the basin appear tobe about twice those of the lake surface'. Sounding operations in May 1954 indicated that the lake bottom at the lowest point was 152 feet above mean sea level.
All the large sinkholes in the area of this investigation are partly filled by material -that has collapsed from the sides, andmany of them are occupied by lakes such as those in the city of Lakeland. These lakes were not more than 25 feet deep in May 1954. Sounding operations by the U. S. Geological Survey in May 1954 indicatedthat the lowest points on the lake bottoms were as follows: Lake Beulah and Lake Hunter, 153 feet above mean sea- level; Lake Wire-, 174 feet above mean sea level; Lake Mfirror, 163 feet above mean sea level; and Lake Morton, 155 feet above mean sea level. The size of the surface expression of these sinkholes is not nece ssarily the size of the original collapse, be cause slump and erosion of the sides of the sinkhole may have enlarged the original surface dimensions.
Summary of Stratigraphy
In the following discussions of rock formations, liberal use is made of the work of Vernon (1951), Cooke (1945), andothers. The formations penetrated by wells in this area are ciefly -lime stones that range in age from middle Eocene to Recent. Though older formations (principally lime stones) extend to depths of several thousand feet, they are not tapped by water wells in this area and are not discussed herein.
The formations with which 'we are concerned are discussed in order, from oldest to youngest. 'Figure 3 is a geologic cross section from southwest to northeast across the area. The trace of the cross section is shown by line A-A' on plate 2.
Eocene Series
Avon Park Lime stone: The Avon Park lime stone unde r lie s the entire northwestern part of Polk County, and in most places it is more than 400 feet thick. It is the thickest and




300
A C
N~ r
4U 100-Bo@ vle 7PIilfocene deposits____________________0W~ 0-ov Suwane
%Noo
0 _ngli_ fom i vefr ato
W 0
* -400Avon ~ InlI NofoTmprmratonadionogru
dontcnom wthU .Gooia
So/moWeISre oecaue
-1W41ML
wel- vn akliesnrhestr okCut.(e ieAApae2




INFORMATION CIRCULAR, NO. 23 19
oldest formation ordinarily penetrated by water wells in this area. It is a cream to dark brown hard dense fine grained, locally crystalline limestone, but in some places it is chalky, dolomitic,. gypsiferous, or cherty. Many fragments from 400 to 900 feet below the land surface contain abundant small solution cavities. Well 807-154-4, a large industrial well drilled six miles northeast of Lakeland, in May 1956, penetrated the top of the Avon Park at a depth of 355 feet below the land surface. The well was terminated at a depth of 1, 200 feet, apparently still in the Avon Park. This formation appears to have the greatest water -transmitting ability of all known formations in the area.
According to Vernon (19 51, p. 99), the Avon Park unconformably overlies the Lake City lime stone and unconformably underlie s the Inglis formation of the Ocala group.
Ocala Groupi Work by the Florida Geological Survey in recent years has resulted in a reclassification of the rocks formerly called the Ocala limestone. Vernon (1951, p. 11317 1) divided this sequence of rocks into the Ocala limestone (restricted) and the underlying Moody's Branch formation. He divided the Moody's Branch formation into two parts. The lower unit was named the Inglis member, and the upper unit was named the Williston member.
Puni (19 5 3a) gave the name Crystal River formation to Vernon's Ocala limestone (restricted) and gave formation rank to the Inglis and Williston members of the Moody's Branch formation. The Crystal River, Willi'ston, and Inglis
1The stratigraphic nomenclature used in this report conforms to the usage of the Florida Geological Survey. It conforms also to the usage of the U. S. Geological Survey, with the exception of the Ocala group and its subdivisions and the Tampa formation of Miocene. age. The Florida Geo logical Survey has adopted the Ocala group as described by Puni (1953a), but the U. S. Geological Survey regards these rocks as a single formation, the Ocala limestone. The Tampa lime stone, as officially used by the- Federal Survey, is referred to as the Tampa formation by the Florida Geological Survey.




2O FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY
formations are now referred to as the Ocala group by the Florida Geological Survey. All three underlie the entire area of this investigation.
The Inglis Formation: The Inglis formation is a cream colored porous hard granular lime stone of marine origin. It is 25 to 50 feet thick. It unconformably overlies the Avon Park limestone and conformably underlies the Williston formation, according to Vernon (p. 115-116). The conformable upper contact is important because it provides a reference horizon for structural interpretation and for correlation of the geologic section across the State.
The Williston Formation: The Williston is a cream to tan generally soft porous, granular limestone, 15 to 30 feet thick. Vernon (p. 141, 144) indicates that this formation is conformable with both the underlying Inglis formation and the overlying Crystal River formation. The Williston- Crystal River contact is difficult to determine because it is transitional. The Williston- Inglis contact, therefore, is preferred for correlation purposes.
The Crystal River Formation: The Crystal River formation is a white to cream porous very soft coarse4,2ined lime stone. It is about 100 to 150 feet thick in this area, and it is composedprincipally of the shells' of large foraminifers of which____ are set in a fine grained matrix of calcium carbonate. These large, single celled marine animals had shells that were generally disc shaped and as much as three-fourths of an inch in diameter. In some of the species the disc had a saddle-like shape. Because the Crystal River formation contains many of these distinctive fossils, it is very easily recognized.
The Crystal River conformably overlie s the Williston formation and unconformably underlies a bed tentatively identified as the -Suwannee limestone, of Oligocene age.
The specific yield of wells terminating in the Crystal River is small. It can generally be increased by deepening the wells into one or more of the underlying- formations.




INFORMATION CIRCULAR NO. 23 21
Oligocene Series
The. Suwanne e Lime-stone: The Oligocene series is represented by the Suwan-nee limestone, -which is believed to underlie. nearly the entire area of this investigation. The Suwann ee is a light to dark cream granular detrital porous soft, very pure limestone 40 to 100 feet thick. It contains many fossil fragments and casts of molds of fossils, and local well drillers usually call it "coquina. Locally, at or near the top, it contains extr emely hard darkbrown mas se s of chert. The masses of chert are commonly one inch to two feet thick, but in afewplaces they maybe as much as 10 fe et thick.
The Suwannee unconformably overlies the Crystal River formation. In the southern part of the area it is overlain unconformably by limestones of the Miocene series, and in the northern part by unconsolidated sand and clay, which may range in age from Oligocene to Recent. Part of these unconsolidated sediments may be a weathered residue of the Suwanne e lime stone.
Cooke (1945, p. 98) reports that the Suwannee is present in northern Polk County, but Vernon (19 51) does not mention Polk County in his discussion of this formation.
The formation generally supplies enough water for domiestic use.
Miocene Series
Correlation of the formations of Miocene age in Florida and adjacent states has long been a major geologic problem. Recently (Puri, 1953b) great strides have been made with this problem in the Florida Panhandle. Major problems still exist, however, in the peninsular part of the State. Since World War II the Miocene and younger deposits in the central part of the peninsula have been studied by geologists of the U. S. Geological Survey. A report by Bergendahl (1956, p. 69 -84) contains a summary of the problem, and publications by Cooke (1945, p. 109, ff), Vernon (p. 178-186),




22 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY
Puri (1953b, p. 15, if), and others contain other summaries.
Cooke (19 45) and Vernon (19 5 1) both identified the Tampa formation (lower Mio cene) and the over lying Hawthorn fo rma tion (middle Miocene) in Polk County. Cole (1941, p. 6), on the basis of lithology, identified the Tampa formation between depths of 117 and 180 feet in a well four miles north of Lake land.
Field evidence obtained duringthis investigation didnot justify a positive identification of the Tampa, but the Suwannee limestone is overlain by a sandy limestone that is lithologicaliy similar to the Tampa. This sandy limestone seems to be an extension of known Tam-pa in southern Hillsborough County, and it is here tentatively assigned to the Tampa on the basis of lithology and on scattered finds of the foraminife r Sorites sp., Archaias floridanus, a foraminifer commonly accepted as being diagnostic of the Tampa, has not been found in this area.
The combined thickness of the Suwannee limestone and Tampa formation range s generally from 40 to 140 feet in this area. In places the entire section is lithologically similar to the Tampa, and in other places to the Suwannee. In some places the section appears to consist of both formations and the contact between the two is gradational.
Tampa Formation: lI northwestern Polk County the Tampa formation is a dark gray to white generally hard sandy limestone containing a few black and brown granules ofphosphate. The thickness of the limestone ranges from less than one foot to about 60 feet. The contact between the Tampa and the underlying Suwannee limestone is not easily defined, but it is usually drawn where the pure limestone of the Suwannee changes to the sandy limestone of the Tampa. Both Cooke (1945, p. 109) and Vernon (1951, p. 179) indicate that the Suwainnee -Tampa contact is unconformable.
A variegated (blue -gray or blue -green and cream) silty, sandy clay overlies the limestone of the Tampa formation. The clay ranges in thickness from 3 to 15 feet and is more widespread than the limestone inthe area studied. In places this part of the formation is shaly and contains less sand




INFORMATION CIRCULAR NO. Z3 23
than where it is clayey. The bed is relatively impermeable, but drillers have reported obtaining very small water supplies fromthe shalybeds in a few wells. The clay isbelieved to be part of the Tampa formation, but additional study may prove that it belongs in another formation. No fossils have been found in the unit. Puni (1953b, p. 21) reports a similar clay and include s it in what i s her e calle d the Tampa formation.
Vernon (p. 183, table 14) indicates that the contact of the Tampa formation and the overlying Hawthorn formation is unconformable in this area.
Hawthorn Formation: In northwestern Polk County the Hawthorn formation consists of interbe dded sandy lime stone and clays or silts which are not individually distinctive. The limestone units are light cream to tan, very sandy, phosphatic, and locally silicified, and their hardness and permeability differ from place to place. They contain large casts, molds, and silicified shells of marine invertebrates, and silicified and phosphatized bones. The limestone units are generally covered by one to six feet of brown sandy, gritty clay.
In the Saddle Creek area the upper limestone is overlain locally by brown well indurated clayey sandstone which, in places, fills the solution cavities on the limestone surface. In some small areas the limestone is overlain unconformably by lenses of white to dark green massive, dense blocky clay. Both the clayey sandstone and the dense clay are here included in the Hawthorn formation.
In most places the limestones are sufficiently permeable to supply water for domestic requirements, and locallythey contain well developed solution cavities which enable them to yield large quantities of water.
In well 803-156-11, in Lakeland, four beds of limestone were penetrated between depths of 51 and 119 feet. These limestones are -separated by clayey strata which may be weathered residues of the underlying limestones. In well 803-151-11, half a mile north of Carters Corners, and in other wells on the lowland along Saddle Greek, only one or




26 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY
HYDROLOGY
Surface Water
The amount of water withdrawn from lakes and streams in the area of this investigation is small compared with the amount withdrawn from ground-water sources. Small amounts of water are pumped from lakes for irrigation of lawns and citrus groves. The city of Lakeland pumps water from Lake Parker and L-ake Mirror for cooling purposes in adjacent power plants and then returns it to the lakes. Lake Gibson has been used extensively for irrigation of citrus groves, as have Crystal Lake and Lake Bonny. Scott Lake is still used extensively for such irrigation. A few shallow pits have been dug to the water table for livestock supplies and for irrigating small farms.
Figure 4 shows the hydrographs of representative lakes in the area. The hydrographs of Lakes Wire and Hollingsworth are similar to those of Lakes Hunter, Beulahi, Morton, andGibson, all in the ridge section. Lakes Parker, Deeson, Crystal, and Bonny are on the lower flatland. The level of Lake Parker was relatively stable during the period of record, but nearby Lake Deeson and Crystal Lake declined almost continuously between October 1954 and June 1956. The hydrograph of Lake Bonny, just south of Lake Parker, is very similar to those of Lake Deeson and Crystal Lake.
Many lakes in the area were much smaller in 1956 than they were in preceding years, as shownby evidence of former shorelines obtained from drilling data, maps, aerial photographs, and encroaching vegetation. In 1956 many small unnamed lakes and swamps were completely dry. A few of these may have been drained artificially, but most of them are dry because of below average precipitation, subsurface. drainage, or both.
Ground Water
Occurrence
-Ground water is the subsurface water inthat part of the zone of saturation in which all pore spaces are filled with water under pressure greater than atmospheric. Essentially




INFORMATION CIRCULAR NO. 23 27
Figure 4. Hydrographs of Lakes Wire, Hollingsworth,
Parker, and Deeson, and Crystal Lake, in the
Lakeland ar~za196 ----- LAKE WIRE 195
194
133 1 ~LAKE] HOLLINGSWORTHl 132 ___> 131
1 30
wj
U) LAKE PARKER
1 29
W
128
0
U
130
132
*27A S O 0 N ID J F IM IA IM IJ IJ A S O 1N 0 J IF M IA M IJ IJ
1954 1955 1956
all of it that is usable is meteoric (derived from precipitation). Part of the precipitation returns to the atmosphere by evapotranspiration, and part runs off into lakes and streams; the remainder percolates downwarduntil it reaches the zone of saturation to become ground water. The ground water then moves laterally, under the influence of gravity, toward places of discharge such as wells, springs, surface streams, lakes, or the ocean.
Ground water may occur under either nonartesian or artesian conditions. Where, it is not confined its upper sur
-face, the water table, is free to rise and fall and it is said




28 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL, SURVEY
to be nonartesian. Where the water is -confined in a permeable bed between less permeable beds, so that its surface is not free to rise and fall, it is said to- be artesian. The term artesian" is applied to ground water that is confined under sufficient pressure to rise in wells above the top of the permeable bed that contains it, though not necessarily above the land surface. The height to which water will rise in a tightly cased artesian well is called the "artesian pressure head. The imaginary surface coinciding with the water levels of artesian wells is called the '!piezometric surface."
An aquifer is a formation, group of formations, or part of a formation, in the zone of saturation, that is permeable enough to transmit usable quantities of water. Areas in which aquifers are replenished are called recharge areas.
Nonartesian Aquifer
In the area of this investigation ground-water supplies are obtained from four different aquifers, -which were first recognized by Matson (Matson and Sanford, 1913, p. 389). The uppermost of the four aquifers is in the unconsolidated surface sand of Pleistocene age. This sand covers the entire area and contains unconfined water. The water is used for domestic supply and for irrigating garden plots that require relatively small amounts of water. Tubular wells in this aquifer range from 1-1 to 4 inches in diameter and from 7 to 35 feet in depth; there are a few dug wells and pits also. Hand (pitcher)pumps are commonly used for domestic pu~rposes, and gasoline -driven suctionpuxnps are used for irri-. gation. These wells do not produce more'than ZO to 30Ogpm (gallons per minute), except for a few wells in the broad, flat area west of the Lakeland ridge.
Wells'into this aquifer are commonly constructed! (by the tenant or owner) by driving small-diameter pipe into the ground. The sand is then cleaned from the pipe, and the well is deepened by water jetting' There are very few dug, drive-point, screened or gravel-packed wells in this aquifer in the area of this investigation. Wells inthe aquifer ra-rely retain their -original depth because the loose sands will not




INFORMATION CIRCULAR NO. 23 29
stand in the walls of an open hole. In several instances the well casings have been nearly filled with sand by overpumping the well1.
The water-table map (pl. 3) covers only a very small part of the area of this investigation, because there were not enough nonartesian wells to provide the control necessary
-for a reasonably accurate map of the entire area.
During the course of this investigation, water levels were measured periodically in several nonartesian wells, and hydrographs for representative wells are shown in figures 5, 15, 16, and 18. The location of these wells is shown on plate 3 and figure 19.
Uppermost Artesian Aquifer
Within the Bone Valley formation, which immediately underlies the Pleistocene sands, is an artesian aquifer of undetermined thickness and areal extent which is referred to as the "uppermost artesian aquifer. "The aquifer is confined between the upper, heavy, dense clays of the Bone Valley and the lower clay zones which may be a part of the Bone Valley or of the underlying Hawthorn formation. Very little is known of this aquifer, and only a few wells obtain water from it. The few wells known to penetrate it are similar in construction to wells in the nonartesian aquifer. In places the piezometric surface of this aquifer is near the level of the water table. Generally, however, it is 3 to 6 feet below the water table.
Water-level observations made during the drilling of deep wells indicate that the piezometric surface of this aquifer is higher than that of the aquifers below it.
Secondary Artesian Aquifer
The "secondary artesian aquifer,"1 which is formed in the limestone members of the Hawthorn formation, is used much more than either of the two aquifers previously described. -It is confined above by the clay in'-the upper part




137
1361
34 mie\othato/LkadDepth of well 15 ft. Depth of casing 15 ft. z 1333mienotesofLkld 1I22
0II
COI < 120 0 W1-119
W
'j- 118
-j CJ2
11I6
w114 /Dep
Well 804-153-7 owel2f
31134.1 miles northeast of Lakeland Depth of casing 20 ft.?
1954 1965 1___1956__Figure 5. Hydrographs of wells in the nonartesian aquifers.




INFORMATION CIRCULAR NO. 23 31
of the Hawthorn or the lower part of the Bone Valley formation, and is confined below by the blue clay of the Tampa formation. Most of the wells that draw water from this aquifer are in the lowland of Saddle Greek and are used for domestic supply and for truck farm irrigation. They range from 1-* to 6 inches in diameter and from 30 to 75 feet in depth. The casing in these wells is generally seated in the uppermost part of a limestone bed, but in some wells it is driven only into the clay overlying the limestone. Several wells that utilize this aquifer in the ridge section are much deeper than those in the lowland, because of differences in the altitude of the land surface.
In the lowland areas, water levels in wells open only to this aquifer are generally 5 to 10 feet below the water table. In the ridge section, however, the water level may be more than 100 feet below the water table. Figures 6 and 17 are hydrographs of three wells which are open only to this aquifer. Plate 1 and figure 19 show the location of these wells.
The Piezometric Surface: Plate 1 is a map of the piezometric surface of the secondary artesian aquifer in the lowland along Saddle Greek. The large cones of depression around the springs at points E, F, and G are caused by dischargefrom the aquifer in mine pits operating at the time of mapping.
Much of the area between Saddle Greek and the west branch of Saddle Creek) south of the springs at point E, is a mined-out area that is used for water storage. Limestone of the Hawthorn formation is exposed at many places in the floors of these abandonedpits. Artesian springs which issued from the limestone during mining operations have been isolated and dammed off, thus impounding the water. Water is pumped from the operating pits and either is used in mining operations or is stored in the abandoned pits.
Flowing artesian wells existed as late as 1948 in the general vicinity of well 803- 152-2, about half a mile northeast of th 'e U. S. Highway 92 bridge over Saddle Creek. Water levels in this area were reported to have been about two feet above theb surface in 1948, but they had dropped to about 11 feet below the surface by, 1956. The area of artesian -flow apparently extended about three-fourths of a mile on either side of Saddle Greek; its north- south extent is unknown. The




32 FLORIDA GEOLOGIGAJJ SURVEY
Figure 6. Hvdrographs of wells in the secondary artesian
a qui-fer.
1217 1 1 1 1 1 126
'25
124
123
122
<~ 120
Well 803-154-10 Depth of well 69 ft Wi 1
S 3.2 miles northeast of Lakeland, Depth of casing 39 ft
0 16
W4 103!
LL 102
iL
97.
C- Well 803-153-18 Depth of well 50Qft.
93.7 miles northeast of Lakeland- Depth of casing 45 ft.
Nt J J A S 0 N D J F M A M J J A S 0 N D IJ F M A M J
1954 1955 1956
area was described by Sellards and Gunter (1913, p. 263), and Matson and Sanford (1913, table facing p. 390) reported a flowing well in this area.
Floridan Aquifer
,-The principal artesian aquifer in the area of this investigation is the Floridan aquifer, which consists of a series of limnestones that range from Eocene to Mliocene in age. This aquifer is the source of ailmajor public, industrial, and irrigation water supplies in northwestern Polk Count~yj The namne "Floridan aquifer" was introduced by Parker (Parke r and others, 1955, p. 188-189) to include '!parts or -all-of the middle Eocene (Avon Park and Lake City lime stones ), upper




INFORMATION CIRCULAR NO. 23 33
Eocene- (Ocala limestone), Oligocene (Suwne limetn) and Miocene (Tamqpa lime stone, and permeable parts of the. Hawthorn -formation-that are in hydrologic -contact with the rest of the aquifer).-!' Accordin.g- to. Cooper, Kenner; and Brown -.(1953,.p. 17), this aqu ife r -"I unde rlie s almo st all, of Florida, the coastal area of Georgia, and the southeasternmost parts of South Carolina and Alabama."
In northwestern Polk -County only a few well-s penetrate to. the base, of the -Avon Park --limestone, of Eocene. age. Well .807-154-4, -one of the-deepest, ended._in the Avon Park limestone at a depth of 1, 200 feet below the land surface. The top of the Floridan aquifer in this well is 80 feet below the land surface. The total thickness of -the aquifer is not known.
The Floridan aquifer is known to be separate, from the overlying secondary arte sian aquifer be cause the water levels of the Floridan aquifer are consistently lower than those of the secondary'artesian aquifer. In the lowlands the water levels-of the Flo-ridan aquifer 'are generally 5 to 15- feet below those of these condary artesian aquifer. In the bridge section the difference in water levels appears to be much greater, perhaps as much- as 40 to 80. feet. Wells penetrating the Floridan aquifer range--from, 6 to 24 -inches in diameter an d fr om 150 to 1, 2 00 fe et in depth. -Water level records are seldom kept by well drillers during the drilling of a well, but some records were obtained from drillers Ilogs of three wells in the area and some werecollected from 10 other Wells during this inve stigation. The dl.ta are incomplete for seven- of the wells but relatively complete for-the other six wells. -The measurements from 11 of these wells indicate that once the Floridan aquifer is penetrated the water levels do not change appreciably with' increased depth. In two of the 13- wells, hdwevek, they are reported to have changed -sulbstantially (more than 10 feet) when- sizable solutional cavities or z ones were penetrated. Figure .7 is a hydrograph of well 759-1-58-1, in the Floridan aquifer, about 3-1 miles southwest of Lakeland. This well is 643_fdeet dee'p and-is cased toadepth of 318 feefwith18',; 16and 12 -ihch casing. Figure 8 shows the hydrographs of wells 757-152-1, just southeast of Highland City, and 800- 156-1, in: LA-kelahd-, whichare als6o open -nly to-- the_-Plor.idan, aquifg r-




34 FLORID,.A GEOLOGICAL- SURVEY
Wells that are open to both the- se condary arte sian aquifer and the Floridan aquifer are referred to -as '~multiaquifer wells." They range from 3 to 12 inches in diameter and from 150 to 850 feet in depth. Most of themhave the smaller diameters and are used for domestic and small irrigation requiirements.
Water levels in multiaquifer wells are about the same as those in wells open only to the Floridan aquifer. When a well is open to both- aquifers its pressure head is reduced quickly to about the pressure head of the Floridan aquifer.
60
C364
Cr
cnI Ca 6
068
W I
tL.
Z Depth of well 643 ft
La 72 epth of casing 318 ft I______
>Diameter of casing 18, 16,and 12 in.
r
La 74
-Well 759-158-], 3 miles southwest of -Lakeland.
76
78 1948 1949 1950 11951 1952 1953 1954 15
Figure 7. Hydrograph of -well 759-158-1 in the Floridadn aquifer.




INFORMATION.CIRCULAR NO. 23 35
27/ x 28 29
30
3' 32
0
z 0.5 miles southeast of Highland City
39 Depth of well 576 ft o 39 40 Depth of casing 104 ft.. H 40
z 5C aZ 51A Ui
S52
0 5
0~55 O56 5Well 800-156-1I
58 In Lakeland
59Depth of well 297 ft
60
Depth of casing 190 ft.
61
62JA SO* N DJ FM A MJ J- ASON D JFM A M J
1954 1955 1956
Figure 8. Hydrographs of wells in the Floridan aquifer.




36 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY
This is possible because the thickness of the Floridan aquifer ranges from 10 to perhaps 40 times the thickness of the secondary aquifer, and the water transmitting ability of the Floridan aquifer is generally much greater than that of the se condary aquifer.
Figure 9 shows hydrographs of multiaquifer wells in this area.
100
99
981
S9l6
95,
Wel 8W813< De90fwel30f D45 e o CaSin 75 ftklan
113 Depth of well 378 ft.
IDepth of casing 75 ft
LL JAON DIFMM
a1 35mlsnrtoLeiand teFoia qies




INFORMATION CIRCULAR NO. 23 37
The Piezometric Surface:) Plate 2 is a highly generalized map of the piezometric surface of the Floridan aquifer in northwestern Polk County. A large, lobate high area may be seen in the northeastern part of the map. From this high the piezometric surface slopes downward to the west and south through the ridge area in the vicinity of Lakeland, following in a general way the topographic highs.
Only a few wells were being pumped during the time when the water-level measurements for plate 2 were made. Most of these were being pumped almost continuously for public and industrial supplies, but only two of them (806152-l1and 759 -155-1) hadformed significant cones of depres sion. The hydraulic gradient and areal extent of the se cone s, as shown on plate 2, are approximations, but the general effect of pumping in the area is evident.
Plate 1, a map of the piezometric surface of the secondary artesian aquifer, shows a general similarity to plate 2. The depression in the piezometric surface along Saddle Creek, shown on plate 1, was caused largely by heavy discharge from arte sian springs at point E.
On plate 2, the northward reentrant in the slope of the piezometric surface of the Floridan aquifer in the Saddle Creek area may be due, in part, to topography, because the lowland along the cr-eek is paralleled on the east and we st by relatively high ridges which may be supplying some recharge to the aquifer. The reentrant may be due, in part, to the continuous pumping of wells 759-155-1, 800-153-3, and 806- 152-1. However, along U. S. Highway 92 for approximately a mile east and west of Saddle Creek, the reentrant maybe partly due to upward leakage fromthe Floridan aquifer to the secondary artesian aquifer. This is shown by the generally coincident water levels of the two aquifers in that area.
Plate 3, the map of the water table in the vicinity of Lake Parker, is similar to both plates 1 and 2. The reentrant in the water table along Saddle Creek is caused by discharge from the nonartesian aquifer into the creek and active mine pits.




38 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL -SURVEY
Several wells on plate 2 show anomalous high or low wate r levels which are not clearly define d be caus e of insuf ficient control data. Wells 803-154-31, 808-200-1, 758- 156-7, and 800-157-7 provide examples of these anomalies. In most places the piezometric lows appear to underlie the large sinkholes. Because surface and subsurface solution features in limestones are directly related, the piezometric lows may indicate great subsurface flow through cavernous zones of the Floridan aquifer in which sinkhole collapse originated.
The local areas of high water levels all coincide with local topographic highs. There is practically no surface runoff in such areas and the water table is high, indicating that these are areas of recharge to the nonartesian aquifer. The piezometric surface of the Floridan aquifer is high in these areas, indicating that they are areas of recharge to that aquifer also.
Water-Level History: Few accurate data are available on water-level fluctuations in the area of this investigation before 1948. Records of water-level fluctuations in well 759-158-1, southwest of Lakeland, have been kept since 1948 and ~onstitute the longest recordavailable in this area (fig. 7).
Stringfield (1936, p. -172) lists water-level measurements made in several wells that were observedalso during the present study. His wells 11 and 15-are wells 802-157-3 and 804-147 -2 of this report, and his well 10 is immediately adjacent to well 803-158-1 (pl. 2). Measurements of water levels in these wells made in June 1956 indicate that the water levels have declined 8 to 12 feet since 1934. These declines are not considered permanent, because Stringfield' s measurements were made during a period that was preceded by 1-1 years of above normal rainfall, and the 19 56 measure ments were made after 2-z! years of below normal rainfall. After a period of normal rainfall the water levels probably will rise and thus be nearer those reported by Stringfield.




INFORMATION CIRCULAR NO. 23 39
Hydraulics
Specific Capacity of Wells
Many specific -capacity tests have been made by local well drillers. The results of some of these are shown in table 4. Meinzer (1923b, p. 62) defined the tested capacity of a well as "the maximum rate at which it is known to have yielded water without appreciable increase in drawdown. 1 He defined the specific capacity of a well as "its rate of yield per unit of drawdown" and stated that "the term is applied only to wells in which the drawdown varies approximately as the yield. In such wells the specific capacity can be estimated by dividing the tested capacityby the drawdown during the te st. "
The differences in the specific capacities shown in table 4 result from lithologic changes within the aquifer and from differences in the well diameters.
Pumping Tests
A pumping test was made in well 807-154-4 on July 9, 1956, to determine the coefficient of transmissibility of the Floridan aquifer at one location in northwe stern Polk County. The coefficient of transmissibility is a measure of the capacity of an aquifer to transmit water. In customary units it is the quantity of water, in gallons per day (gpd), at the prevailing water temperature, that will move through a vertical section of the aquifer one foot wide and extending the full saturated height, under a unit hydraulic gradient.
Well 807-154-4 is nor-L.heast of Lake Parker (pl. 2) and is open to the Williston and Inglis formations and the Avon Park limestone. The well is 26 inches in diameter and 1, 200 feet deep. During the test it was pumped by a die seldriven turbine pump for eight hours at a nearly constant rate of 6, 500 gpm.- Computations of the coefficient of transmissibility were made from *measurements of the recovery of the waterlevel in the well. The coefficient of transmissibility for the part of the aquifer open to this well was computed to be about 1, 000, 000 gpd per foot.




Table 4, Specific Capacities of Representative Wells in the Lakeland Arean
static water
Diameter of Depth of Depth of level (feet Pumping rats Specific capacity Pumping
Well casing casing well Aquifer below land Drawdown (tested capacity) (gpm/foot of time t
number (inches) (feet) (feet, murface) (feet) (Spm) drawdown) (hours) Remarks 0 802.151-10 4 42 325 2 &g 3 11.6 3.2 90g 28 0.5 Measured by U.S. O.S. 802-152-10 3 55 68 2 10.2 I's 60 33 1.0 Measured by U. S.0. S. 803.151..6 3 36 193 21& 3 10.4 8.3 58 6.7 2.5 Measured by U. S. C. S.
803.151-9 4 48 239 21. 3 13.7 2.0 46 23 1.0 Measured by U.S.0. S. 803.153-29 4 60 154 2 1.3 18.3 4.3 65 15 1.0 Measured by U.S.G.S. 804-192-2 3 45 59 2 14.0 .6 29 48 .3 Measured by U.S.G.S. 804-183-13 3 39 59 2 10.7 3.9 24 6. 1 .5 Measured byU. S.. S. 805.153.2 3 45 72 3 -? 14,3 2.8 24 8.6 .5 Measured by U.S.G.S. 806.156-2 3 63 103 2 20.9 .6 22 37 .5 Measured by .S.. S. 807-154-2 3 32 86 2 8.4 4.1 24 5.8 I5 Measured by U.S.0. S. 807-154-3 6 53 411 2 & 3 13.2 3.4 290 85 .3 Measured by U.S. G.S. 807-154.4 26 292 1,200 3 14.7 11.6 6,500 560 6.5 Measured by U.S.0. S. 808-153-1 3 56 93 3 -? 13.7 4.0 24 5.8 .5 Measured by U.S. G.S. 0
809-153-1 6 43 388 21.k3 13.4 11.3 300 26 1.0 Maas ured by U.S.0. S. 0 759.155-1 24 294 1,220 3 20.0 50.0 5,000 100 8.0? Reported by driller. t 800.153-3 24 118 1.037 3 15.0 13.0 3,000 200 8.0? Reported by driller. 806-152-1 24 285 1,285 3 10. 0 55. 0 4,000 73 8.0? Reported by driller. C 810-183-1 10 45 396 21. 3 12.0 9.0 1,000 110 1.0+ Reported by driller. C 810-134-1 10 246 56z 3 8.0 11.0 1,100 100 1.0+ Reported by driller. o
* 2, Secondary artesianM
0 3, Floridan .




INFORMATION CIRCULAR NO. 23 41
Pumping-test data collected from other wells are too incomplete for use in computing the coefficient of transmis sibility of the Floridan aquifer. In general, they are from multiaquifer wells that are open to formations above the Avon Park. The data indicate that the coefficient of transmissibility of the upper part of the Floridan aquifer is appreciably less than 1, 000, 000 gpd per foot, and that the transmissibility differs considerably in different sections of the aquifer.
Laboratory Analyses
Test hole 805- 156-A was drilled in the bottom of Lake Parker, near the mouth of the northwest arm of the lake, and samples of the sediments were collected and described (fig. 12). The sand samples collected from the test hole were studied and tested by the U. S. Geological Survey Hydrologic Laboratory at Denver (table 5). As some of the finer sediments may have been lost during the recovery of the disturbed samples, the coefficients of permeability shown in table 5 are probably higher than those of the undisturbed sediments.
Quality of Water
Chemical analyses were made of water samples from 66 wells and 3 lakes in the area of this investigation. An analysis was made also of a water sample from a spring in the American Cyanamid Company's Saddle Greek mine. All analyse s were made by the U. S. Geological Survey laboratory at Ocala, Florida. Samples from four municipal supply wells were analyzed for all the common chemical constituents, and the other samples were analyzed for only selected constituents. The results of these analyses are shown intable 6.
The concentrations of dissolved minerals in the water of the aquifers in northwestern Polk County differ considerably within each aquifer, and the ranges of concentration in a given aquifer overlap those of other aquifers. It is not practical, therefore, t o differentiate the aquifers on the basistof the chemical quality of their water, but further study of water quality may reveal relationships that will be useful in locating sources of recharge to the aquifers.




N
Table 5. Laboratory Analyses of Sand Samples from Test Hole 805-156--A
(Analyses by USGS Hydrologic Laboratory, Denver, Colorado)
Sample Depth below lake bottom Porosity Coefficient of permeability
no. (feet) (percent) (gpd per square foot)1 I
1 5-7 37.1 75 2 11-12 34.0 40 3 15-16 35.0 50 4 20-23 32.7 80 5 24-26 34.2 20 6 27-28 35.2 60 7 35-37 36.9 90 8 44-45 36.2 150 9 50 32.2 95
10 55-56 39.7 180 11 60 44.8 110
12 70 45.4 115 .
13 73-77 43.2 40
1Gallons per day at 60'F through a cross section of one square foot under unit hydraulic gradient.




Table 6.--Chemical analyses of water from wells, lakes, and springs (Chemical. constituents given in parts pev million) [Aquifer: 1, nonartesian; 2, secondary artesian; 3, Floridan; 4, uppermost artesianj
'U4
t'
757-152-2 City of Lakeland 252 90 3 6-11-56 77 224 180 396 7.4 16 0.08 54 11 13 0.7 192 8.8 24 0.0 1.5 -757-156-2 Mervin Pipkin 120 77 2 6-11-56 76 115 96 192 7.6----- -- --- -- ------ -- --------0.00
757-158-1 Polk Board of Public 325 163 3 6-11-56 77 178 156 299 7.2-------------------------.00 At Medulla
instruction School 758-155-2 Mrs. J7. s. Weaver 811 133 2,3 6-11-56 77 177 146' 296 7.7-------------------------.00
759-155-1 Davison Chemical Co. 1,220 294 3 6-11-56 60 289 216 418 7.4-----------------------------.00 1.0.8. W1i835
800-153-3 American Cyanamid Co. 1,037 118 3 2-15-55 80 226 174 359 7.5 -- .01 46 14 -- 212 4 11--------F.0.S. W-724
800-157-1 City of Lakeland 773 219 3 6-11-56 7V 189 164 311 8.0----- ---------------------.00 1.G.8. W-2015
(city well 7,
Orleans Ave.)
80 1-149-1 R. M. Wilkes 225 100 3 6- 7-56 80 211 204 356 7.9 -- - - -.00
*801-155-1 lesson-King, Inc. 560 120 3 6- 7-56 76 165 144 279 7.4---------------------- ----04
802-150-5 Devison Chemical Co. 82 42 2 6- 7-56 76 197 168 332 7.4------------------------2.10
802-151-10 J7. P~. Carrbll ,325 42 2,3 6- 7-56 74 167 136 280 7.5-------------------------.06
*802-152-10 T. F. Palmer 65 55 2 2-14-55 75 140 114 229 8,.0 -- .14 30 9.5 -- 129 3 10---- ------.G.9. w-3422
802-153-6 1R. W. Kolp 116 55-60 2,3 2-14-55 76 192 160 319 7.7 -- .55 32 19 -- 162 5 22 . .
802-153-12 L. J7. Lovatt 46 45 2 6- 7-56 74 159 128 279 7.3--------------------------------000
802-155-1 City of Lakeland 746 160 3 6- 9-56 79 237 188 383 7,2--------------------------2 (city well 6,
Lake PerkerN
plant)
802-156-1 Lakeland Cement Co. 12 12 1 2-15-55 72 300 202 406 7.6 -- .14 57 15 - 205 22 14
602-156-2 A. P. Jett 1i8 -- 2,3 2-15-55 72 158 132 250 7.6 -- .17 24 18 -- 144 2 10 . .
802-157-12 City of Lakeland 828 280 3 1- 6-55 80 227 198 394 8.0 17 .01 54 15 7.5 1.0 249 2.4 6 .2 1 .1 Carbonate 0.
1.0.8. W-946
(city well 5,
Lake Mirror)




T441Y 6. -Continuod
802-159-1 publix Super Markets 635 114 3 6-11-56 a1 211 172 322 7.8 0.12 803-150-1 B. M4, Johns 50 45-50 2 6- 7-56 74 394 258 654 7,7-------------------------.00
803-150-5 U.S. Geological Survey 14 11 4 6- 7-56 74 534 232 737 6.8------------------------------.14
803-151-5 V. R, Roberts 59 40-50 2 2-14-55 74 334 284 575 7.6 --0,03 64 30 337 10 22 803-151-6 do 193 36 2,3 2-14-55 75 214 182 366 7.9 -- .06 30 21 216 7 12 803-153-3 Polk County Sportsman's 361 55 2,3 2-15-55 72 244 202 380 7.8 -- .03 46 21 -- 237 5 10
Club
803-153-b C. 8. Baader 56 52 2 2-15-55 -- 180 136 269 7.2 -- .02 26 17 144 3 160
803-153-28 Cecil Combed 127 53 2,3 2-14-55 71 202 172 339 7.8 -- .09 34 21 -- 202 2 11
803-153-36 C. 8. Thompson 59 51 2 2-14-55 76 202 180 232 7.8 -- .04 40 20 - 197 1 13
803-154-6 J. W. Reynolds 20 20 1 2-15-55 74 68 26 64 5.7 .51 4 3.9 12 4 11 803-154-9 Ralph D. Carter 64 40-45 2 2-15-55 -- 200 154 294 7.5 .13 30 19 174 3 9 803-154-22 A. L. Combas 50 40 2 2-15-55 74 236 200 358 7.3 -- .25 42 23 -- 222 3 9 C
803-154-25 W. A. Jefferies 60 40 2 2-15-55 74 248 208 363 7.6 -- .25 44 24 -- 232 4 26
804-150-1 Win. Groom 82 58 2 6- 7-56 76 139 116 229 7.8----- --------- ----- -----------.00
804-151-6 John E. Yost 373 40 2,3 6- 7-56 76 218 176 353 7.5-------------------------.00
804-152-2 U.S. Geological Survey 42 18 4 12-20-55 74 276 195 412 7.7 -- 47 19 7.1 -- 202 31 10--------- .0.5. W-3767
804-153-6 L, F. Walls 60 40 2 6- 9-56 75 437 302 724 7.5--- ------------------------- .00
804-153-13 U.S. Geological Survey 59 39 2 6- 7-56 74 234 226 437 7.7---- ----------------------.04 P.0.8. W-3770
804-154-2 Cordon Howall 31 20 1 2-14-55 74 44 32 74.3 5.8 -- .04 3.2 5.8 - 10 2 13
804-154-4 W. W. Daemon 126 78 2,3 2-14-55 72 54 32 61.0 5.6 -- .71 4 5.4 -- 12 3 11
-1 do i ,I-19-26-56 -- 280 228 435 7.2- ..- 45 28 -- 260 -- 18




Table 6. --Continued
.4 W. aJ4 .0 a 44
05.4 14 toe~ 0450 0 CI ~ U u w ; l a ~ ,
804-14~4-7 J. D. Lewis 60-80 -- 2,3 6- 9-56 74 203 188 349 7.7------------------------0.40
804-154-8 J. A. Wiley 91 41 2,3 6- 9-56 77 273 228 436 7.5---------------------.02
804-154-17 U.S. Geological Survey 77 52 2 12- 8-55 78 192 178 321 7.7 -- -- 35 22 8.4 --196 1 10----------- ..5 W-3764
805-147-1 city of Auburndale 589 206 3 6-11-56 80 126 97 210 7.5 15 0.20 28 6.7 5.7 9 113 4.8 8,2 0.0 0.2 -- .G.s. W-2647 0
(City "Winona
PU~k" well)
805-153-2 U.S. Geological Survey 72 45 3? 6- 9-56 76 218 170 382 7.7-- --- ---------------------.06 F.0.S. W-3841
805-154-2 Elmer McArthur 97 60 2? 6- 9-56 74 343 306 600 7.9-------------------------.02
805-155-2 U.8. Geological Survey 32 29 1 11-28-55 74 79 78 85.5 6.1 - 10 13 5.4 13 9 20---- -------.G.S. W-3766o
104 60 2,3 12- 5-55 74 222 221 330 7.7 - 44 27 10 209 1 9---------(water samplese
200 60 2,3 12- 5-55 74 211 209 362 7.6 --64 12 4.7 241 1 10--------collected dur-Z
ing drilling of
well) 0'
805-155-3 do 72 62 2 12- 6-55 74 206 199 363 7.6 --50 18 6 --220 1 10---------.0.8. W-3765
805-156-2 do 32 20 4 12-27-55 74 214 215 395 7.3 - 45 25 5.6 --252 1 8--------P.0.S. W-3769C'
82 41 2 12-27-55 73 227 202 378 7.6 - 48 20 7.2 --225 1 8--------(water samples
collected duringj drilling of
well)
805-157-15 United Brotherhood of 550 67 2,3 6- 9-56 76 168 144 280 7.3-------------------------.00 1.G.S. W-448
Carpenter & Joiners
805-159-1 Polk Board of Public 261 203 3 6-11-56 76 151 122 239 7.6-------------------------.00 1.0.5. W-3312,
Instruction Griffin School 0 806-149-5 U.S. Geological Survey 20 17 1 6- 7-56 79 710 4.30 924 6.0-------------------------.00N
806-149-6 do 134 103 2 12-19-55 77 179 141 261 7.8 30 16 6.5 --16 7 1 6---------1.G,8. W'-3768W
806-152-1 Coronet Phoephate Co. 1,285 285 3 6- 9-56 78 298 260 526 7.6---- --- -------- --- -----------.06
806-155-3 Lakealand Aouvet Club 135 00 2,3 6- 9-56 75 206 190 351 7.7---- ---------------------.06
806-156-2 U.S. Geological Survey 103 63 2 1- 2-56 74 180 154 295 7.8 32 18 5.2 --166 1 7---------. .5. W-3771
807-154-2 do 56 32 2 1- 3-56 74 1335 1280 1557 7.2 63 30 10 19 320 1. 19---------.G.S. W-3763 .
___ __ __ __ __ U,




'ralp 6. --Conrlnued
p-4
,~,'449 644
807-154.3 Amnerican Cyanamid Co, 411 53 2,3 1-30-56 74 234 215 412 7.6 50 22 7.9 -- 252 1 12 V--* .0.0# W.3836
007-201-L Polk Board of Public 195 88 2,3 6-11-56 76 141 110 223 7,7------------------------0,03 P01e,,W-2774,
Instrctionmentry School 808-148-4 Z. L. Lundy 130 105 3 6- 7-56 76 9774 157 6.7-------------------------.00
808-153.1 U.S. Gological Survey 93 56 37 6- 9-56 77 234 224 434 7.7------------------------.00 1.G,1, W-3837
808-155-2 American Cyanamid Co. 14 14 1 6- 9-56 76 68 68 138 6.9-------------------------.00
808-156-2 D. L. Snyder 225 64 2,3 6- 9-56 76 125 96 199 7.4-------------------------.00
809-153-3' T. J. oxford, Jr. 488 46 2,3 6- 9-56 77 243 226 420 7.7------------------------.02 1.0,5. W-3865o
809-155-1 American Cyanamid Co. 62 53 2 6- 9-56 78 43 22 64.6 6.7------------------------.89
810-149-1 City of Lakuland 567 200 3 6-11-56 80 122 103 206 7.6 14 0.63 31 6.2 3.1 0.50 120 3 4.8 0.0 0.1 -- Polk County well
2, WSP 773-c
814-148-2 Craig Linton 392 40 3 6- 9-56 76 175 166 299 7.6----- --- ------ ----- ------ ------.00
815-157-2 U.S. Geological Survey 108 41 3 6- 9-56 76 185 148 307 7.6------------------------.00 1.0.5. W-3839
Lake Parke------------------------------------1 2-14-55 58 164 50 127 6.8 .14 11 5. 36 49 15 ----Lake Wir-------------------------------------1 2-15-55 66 108 80 158 7.4 .03 23 5.5 79 4 8
Scott Lake------------------------------------1 6-11-56 84 68 16 87.2 5.1----- ---------- --- -----------.30
Spr inge American Cyanamid Co. .. .. 2 2-14-55 74 226 190 381 7.7 -- .01 49 16 218 9 16 -Saddle Creek Mine




INFORMATION'CIRCULAR NO. 23 47
During this investigation -some analyses of water were furnished by well owners and municipalities. Many additional analyses of water from Polk County have been published by Black and Brown (1951, p. 94-95, 114-115, 117), Collins and Howard (1928, p. 226-227), Wander and Reitz (1951, p. 9, 11, app. ), and others.
Use of Water
Public Supplie s
The communities of Lakeland, Highland City, Polk City, Sand Gully, and Tancrede (Standard Village) have separate public water-supply systems which are operated and maintained by the city of Lakeland.. The systems consist of nine wells in Lakeland and one well in each of the other communitie s. Gib sonia has a privately owned system which supplies many local residents.
The Lakeland city system is the only one for which records of total pumpage are kept. Annual pumpage for Lakeland increased from about 500 million gallons in 1935 to about 2, 200 million gallons in 19 55 when the average daily pumpage was 5,9 50, 000 gallons (fig. 10).
Industrial Supplies
Most industrial water supplies are obtained from well in the Floridan aquifer,' but the phosphate mining industry.. obtains water from wells and mine pits.- These pits cut through the nonartesian and uppermost artesian aquifers, and some cut into the secondary artesian aquifer. The estimated average daily pumpage by industries is as follows:
Phosphate industry
Wells................................... 8, 600, 000 gpd
Pits..................................... 13,000,000 gpdJ
Citrus industry
Wells', for processing juice and
concentrate............................6-, 000, 000 gpd
City system, for packing................... -- (
Laundries (using own wells) ................500, 000 gpd
Ice -manufacture (wells).................. 900, 000 gpd




48 FLORIDA ,GEO-LOGICAL SURVEY MILLIONS OFr GALLONS
0 N
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 .0 0 0 0 .0 0 CD
0
C;
system I .
- system -. -~. -t.




INFORMATION- CIRCULAR NO. 23 .49
Domestic Supplies
Domestic supplies throughout the area are obtained from wells. The average daily withdrawal for this purpose, in addition to that from municipal supply wells, is estimated to be 2 million gallons.
Irrigation Supplies
btBoth ground and surface water are used for irrigation, btground water is more important. Most irrigation wells obtain water from the Floridan aquifer or the secondary artesian aquifer, or both. A few farm irr igation systems use water from wells in the nonartesian aquifer, and a very few use shallow nonarte sian water pumped from artificial ponds The principal use of surface water is for the irrigation of citrus groves. The estimated average use of water for irrigation is as follows:
Citrus crops
Wells.................................... 3, 000, 000, gpd
Lake s.................................... 150, 000 gpd
Farm crops
Wells..................................... 500, 000 gpd
Ponds...................................... 500 gpd
Summary of Use
The estimated average dailyuse of water for all purposes is about 40, 000,O000gallons approximately 28,O000gpm. Of course, not all this water is consumed. For example, part of the- water used for irrigation infiltrates to the zone of saturation.
Water Losse's from the Artea.Most of the precipitation in northwestern Polk'County is removed from the area by surface runoff, evaporation, and t ranspiratio n; and, After readying the Zone of -saturation, by unde r fiowthat leave s the area and by pumping. Pumping




50 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY
has been discussed previously. The other types of water losses are discussed briefly in the following paragraphs.
Underfiow and Runoff
Water in liquid formleaves the area of this investigation by ground-water flow and surface runoff. The surface sand is very permeable and absorbs water rapidly from rainfall. A considerable part of the water that enters the soil reaches the zone of saturation and leaves the area by lateral underground flow.
Because of the high permeability of the surficial sand, surface drainage is poorly developed. A large part of the streamflow, therefore, comes by seepage from the nonarte sian aquifer. Available data do not permit satisfactory estimates of the amount of water carried out of the area by surface streams. The U. S. Geological Survey maintains permanent gaging stations on the Withlacoochee, Alafia, and Hillsborough rivers, well outside of Polk County. The nearest permanent gaging station on the Peace River system is in Bartow, within Polk County but outside the report area. Data gathered from the gaging stations are published annually in water-supply papers of the U. S. Geological Survey. The average annual runoff inthe four rivers mentioned above for the period 1940 through 1954 (calculated as inches of water over the basin) was 13. 11 inches. The records show great differences of runoff in each drainage basin from year to year and between basins during the same year.
Evaporation
The source of data on evaporation from free water surfaces nearest the area described in this report is a U. S. Weather Bureau evaporation pan at the Orlando water plant in Orange County. This pan is of the standard type (class A) used by the Weather Bureau and is four feet in diameter. The Orlando station, about 50 miles northeast of Lakeland, is 111 feet above mean sea level. The elevation at Lake land is 214 feet above mean sea level. Evaporation and other climatic factors at Orlando differ somewhat from those af Lakeland, but in the absence of data from Lakeland the data




INFORMATION CIRCULAR NO. 23 51
from the Orlando stAtion are used in this report. A pan coefficient of 0O.7 is applied to correct the annual rate of evaporation from the pan to that from a lake (Linsley, Kohler, and Paulhus, 1949, p. 163). The evaporation and rainfall data from. the Orlando station, for the period January 1954 through June 1956, are. given in table 7.
Figure 11 is a graphic comparison of the corrected evaporation data from the Orlando water plant and the rainfall at Lakeland, from January 1954 through June 1956, inclusive.
Transpiration
"Transpiration "is the evaporation fromplants of water used in their life processes. No accurate method has been developed for measuring the rate of transpiration in a humid subtropical climate such as that of Polk County, but trans piration is undoubtedly a significant factor in the discharge of water.
Recharge
NonarteianAquifer
-,~Rainfall is the principal source of recharge to the nonartesian aquifer in the area of this investigation, and a part of it enters the soil. Of this, some is retained in the soil, later to be returned to the atmosphere by evapotranspiration. The remainder reaches the water table to become part of the ground-water body.
Reasonable estimates of the amount of recharge to the 9,narte sian aquifer from rainfall cannot be made at this time. Pi~ecipitation data from surrounding weather bureau stations are not satisfactory because the thunderstorms that account for much of the rainfall in this area are erratically distributed in time and location. Precipitation data are being collected near ob servation wells, and -these will be very helpful in future. computations of recharge.




Table 7. Evaporation and Rainfall Data from Orlando Water Plant, Orlando, Orange County, F lorida (Inches of water)
January February March April May June July August September October November December Total 1954
Pan evaporation 2.56 3.40 4. 55* 5,49* 6. 70* 6. 60 6.05* 6.85* 5. 03 4.61* 2. 90 2. 13 56.87
Rainfall .64 1.16 1.12 6.96 3.49 4.42 11.00 7.47 4.43 4.85 2.73 1.67 49.940
1955
Pan evaporation 2.64 2.94 4.97 6.48 7. 74* 6. 14 5. 32* 6.14* 5.20* 4.08 3.03 1,77 56.45
Rainfall 2.14 1.29 1.71 2.19 4.40 3.79 8.33 7.07 5.79 1.83 .39 1.65 40.58
1956 I
Pan evaporation 2.57 3.32 5.89 6. 66 7. 70* 6, 76 6-month totals: 32. 90 Rainfall 1.79 1.00 .33 4.23 5.30 2.89 15.54
*Adjusted to full month,




.12 :111 1 -1 1ii 1 1 I i
10 EXPLANATION______________RAINFALL
EVAPORATIONq
00
4
N
0 A M IJ J I IS 1
154 1955 '1956
'Figure 11. Graph showing computed evaporation from open-water surfaces at Orlando U and rainfall at Lakeland.




54 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY
Uppermost Artesian Aquifer
No data are available on recharge of the uppermost artesian aquifer, but it is inferred from water-level relationships that the aquifer is recharged largely, if not entirely, by downward seepage from the nonartesian aquifer..
Secondary Artesian Aquifer
The data obtained for the secondary artesian aquifer(p1l. 1) are not adequate for determining the major recharge areas of the aquifer. However, some of the lakes in the ridge area may be the principal sources of recharge, as water from wells penetrating the aquifer near these lakes is generally muchless mineralized than water fromwells at a distance (table 6).
Well 757-156-2 is about 300 feet from the shore of Scott Lake, on the lower southwestern slope of the lake basin, and well 757-155-3 is about half amile southeast of the lake (fig. 19). On July 10, 1956, the lake level was 165. 3 feet above mean sea level, the water level in well 757-156-2 was 157. 0 feet above mean sea level, and at well 757-155-3 was 101. 0 feet above mean sea level, showing a hydraulic gradient descending fromthe lake. The land surface atwell757-156-Z is approximately 180 feet above mean sea level, and at well 757-155-3 it is approximately 264 feet.
Floridan Aquifer
The area of recharge for the Floridan aquifer in peninsular Florida was escri ed generally by Strin$
1936). His map of the piezometric surface (1936, p1. 112)
---Shows an extensive domeA-recharge area), wrJ1is centered
in-north- central Po uny Stringfield (19 36>p--48
noted that theunconsolidated deposits overlying the limestones are relatively ipiJp~ f h ecag
area but are sufficiently permeable to allo-0w- charge by dow~warf rcobafibn-6-f-infal ain othi parts of the area.
He~sate ilptht "ithn eareath-ere are numerous lakes




INFORMATION CIRCULAR NO. 23 55
~at probably occupy old sinkholes now filledwith sands that /permit downward percolation of water. There are few /surface streams in this area, and the rainfall drains into the numerous lakes and depressions, providing a large source of water for recharge."
Geologic and hydrologic data are scarce for the part of the area of this investigation lying generally north of the latitude of Polk City (pl. 2), and it is not possible to determine the amount of recharge to the Floridap aquifer at this time. Plate 2 clearly indicates, however. -'that recharge is 7occirring over this lioad fla aEo7f gene rally poor surface- I drainage conditions, and few sinkholes. Here recharge is apparently occurring by slow downward percolation of water from the nonarte sian aquife r, through a leaky confining be d, :into the Floridan aquifer. Inthis area the secondary artesian/ aquifer is absent. The upperoT_ artesian a,~fxmyb present locally ., though such presence had not been established by-ne-' 5 6.
Figure 4 shows the hydrographs for Lake Wire and Lake Hollings worth, sinkhole lakes in the city of Lakeland. The hydrographs of Lakes Mirror, Beulah, Hunter, and Morton, though not included inthis report, are very similar to those of Lake s Wire and Hollingsworth. If the materials filling the se sinkhole basins were s ands having permeabilitie s similar to those shown in table 5, the rate of downward leakage from the lakes could be substantial. These lake levels remain essentially stable (fig. 4), indicating that the recharge to the lakes is enough to balance the discharge resulting from downward leakage. Most of these lakes occupy closed basins that are relatively small, generally only one to three times the area of the water surface. Topographic gradients, and presumably water-table gradients as well, are low within the basins. It is probable, therefore, that recharge to the lakes from the nonartesian aquifer are small. If this is the case, their downward leakage from the lakes must also be small, or the lake basins would soon be dry.
the downward percolation of water through the sinkhole basins and sinkhole lakes, there shouldbe piezometric '!highs "under d 3arround them. In June and July, 1956, observation wells




56 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY
near the shores of the large sinkholes in the Lakeland area were too few to determine conclusively if there were piezometric highs in the Floridan aquifer under any of the sinkholes. Water levels in several wells (pl. 2), however, indicate that the piezometric surface in the vicinity of some of the sinkholes and sinkhole lakes 'is anomalously low. This association of low water levels and surface and subsurface solutional. features is believed to indicate the discharge of large quantities of water through cavern systems. The caverns thus serve -as subsurface drais an ffe limestone, into which ground water moves from all sides. A higher pressure head would be required in the limestone surrounding the caverns than in the caverns themselves, in order for water to flow from the limestones to the caverns. It is logical to assume, therefore, that the cavernous areas would be indicated by low pressure head. The point of discharge of this concentrated subsurface flow may be the large arte sian springs in adjacent Hillsborough and other counties.
Special Problems
Lake Parker
One of the local problems of considerable importance concerns the future of Lake Parker in eastern Lakeland. The possibility that the water level in this lake might be greatly lowered by future large withdrawals of ground water near the northern and eastern shores is a matter of great concern to the residents of Lakeland, to the city government, and to industry.
Lake Parker covers about 2, 200 acres and is generally very shallow. Sounding operations, in May 1954, indicated that at the deepest point the lake was approximately nine feet deep. The lowest point on the lake bottom is approximately 119 feet above mean sea level.
The northern part of the lake 's drainage basin is low and relatively flat. On the east and south sides of the lake the drainage divide is relatively close to the shore. In the southwestern part of the basin there is a steep gradient from the ridge in central and northern Lakeland. Northwest of




INFORMATION CIRCULAR NO. 23 57
the lake the basin widens appreciably.
Small streams enter Lake Parker from a large sinkhole basin west of the lake in northern Lakeland, and from Lake Gibson andother sources northwest of Lake Parker. Several small canals enter the northeast arm of the lake from surrounding swampy areas. The lake overflows through a canal extending from the east shore into the Saddle Creek drainage system. A concrete control structure in this canal, near the lake, prevents outflow when the lake level is lower than 129. 6 feet above mean sea level.
The city of Lakeland has a- multimillion dollar powerplant on the south shore of Lake Parker, at the site of well 802-155-1 (pl. 2). This plant, which produces 45, 000 kilowatts, uses water mostly from Lake Parker for cooling the power units. The plant when in full-operation uses lake water at a rate in excess of 68, 000 gpm. 1This usage is more than 10 times the maximum pumpage from any well in the area and several times the maximum pumpage for the city system in June 1956;' The water withdrawn from the lake, plus a small amount used from the nearby city supply well, returns to the lake after passing through the powerplant. In or der for the intake system of the plant to operate, the lake level must be more than12 5..45feet above mean sea level. 2
Some data concerning the subsurface geology in the Lake Parker area were obtained from the prospecting records of the American Cyanamid Company and some were obtained by drilling test holes. A composite section made from these data follows:
1Personal communication from Mr. Dan MacIntosh, Resident Engineer, Light and Water Department, Lakeland, Septem ber 6, 1956.
2 Ibid.




58 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY
Material Thickness (feet)
Sand, quartz, gray to dark brown 2 20 Sand, clayey, tan to brown 5 10 Clay, sandy, phosphatic, yellow to gray-green 5 10 Clay, sandy, yellow to brown; phosphate pebbles 3 10 Clay, sandy, brown; limestone fragments 1 4 Limestone, sandy, phosphatic -
This general sequence of sediments is found throughout the lowland area around Lake Parker.
Occasionally, in prospecting for phosphate, so-called 'blank~ holes" are encountered. In the Saddle Creek Lake Parker area, the term 'blank holes" refers to test borings in which only traces of phosphate are present or to borings in which no phosphate is present. Usually, sand is the only material penetrated. Prospect borings generally terminate just below the base of the phosphate -bearing clays, short of the underlying limestone. "Blank holes" generally terminate at depths well below the level of phosphate deposits found in nearby test holes. The surficial sands are not known to extend to the limestone in the area adjacent to Lake Parker.
In some place s the mappe d locations of the blank hole s"I appear to follow a pattern much like a stream course. One suchpatternwas noted in the area in and around the northern arms of Lake Parker, bypersonnel of the American Cyanamid Company. If the sand sections in these patterns continue downward to the underlying lime stone, then they would permit much greater local leakage, or recharge, from the lake to the aquifers than would occur through the clay confining beds normally found throughout northwestern Polk County. Test hole 805- 156-Awas drilledinthe bottom of Lake Parker near the mouth of the northwest arm of the lake, in one of the deepest sand sections of the pattern, to determine if the sand extended downward to the limestone bedrock. Figure 12 shows the materials penetrated, and table 8 gives the waterlevel observations made during the drilling. The data from. the test drilling indicate that the normal sand and clay se quence is probably under the lake, as does examination of hundreds of logs of phosphate prospecting holes in the area




INFORMATION CIRCULAR NO. 23 59
0 ~Muck, black, soupy
Sand, dark-browni much fine 10 organic debris.
Sand, light-ton; slight amount of organic material; becomes .... lighter colored downward.
0*. Sand, chocolate -brown; sharp
contact with lighter colored ~30 .* sand above;, much fine
0 organic material; becomes
* Very slightly clayey in LLJ lower 5 feet.
~40 Peat, black, porous; very little sand or clay.
0
I- ** .. Sand', chocolate-brown, slightly Lij clayey; amount of organic
Li-60 58 feet.
F70
LU .. Sand, brown', lighter than above; much organic matter; becomes slightly to moderately clayey 80 *-*. below 74 feet.
* .>.Clay, gray-green, very sandy, tough,
- dense; becomes waxy and has
- little sand -below 85 feet. 90 Clay, yellow-brown,dry, tough\, greasy.
Clay, greenish-gray, sandy, gritty; contains tough dense yellow streaks.
* Clay,as above,-contains 'weathered limestone fragments.
Figure 12. Dia gram showing sediments penetrated in test
hole 805-156-A, in Lake Parker.




Table 8. Water Levels and Temnperatutres Observed in Test H~ole 805-156-A
Depthlof Depth of Depth to water Type of Lake Well-water
hole casings, 2 below lake level3 material temperature temperature Date (feet) (feet) (feet) (0F) (0F) 4-10-56 37 40--45 Sand 62 72.5 4-13-56 52 74 35-40 Sand 65 75 i 4-13-56 60 84 4 0* Sand4-13-56 84.5 85 Dry Clay-4-16-56 93 87 60* Clay- C' 4-16-56 95 87 M Clay 65 74.5
1Depth of hole and depth of casing measured below lake bottom. C 2Caslng driven ahead of drill to prevent sand heaving into test hole. 3Lake level was 128. 9 feet above mean sea level. .




INFORMATION CIRCULAR NO. 23 6]
many of which were drilled in ponds, lakes, and swamps. However this does not preclude the absence of clays from very small areas, because prospecting holes are generally drilled 100 yards apart.
Figure 13 is the hydrographof Lake Parker for the period of record. A continuous water-level recorder was installed on Lake Parker on July 21, 1954. Prior to that time, measurements by the engineers of the city light plant were rn ade at a staff gage on the pier at the plant. Figure 14 shows the hydrographs of Lake Parker; well 803- 154-10, inthe secondary artesian aquifer; and well 806-154- 1, amultiaquifer well. Figure 15 shows the hydrographs of Lake Parker; well 805-155-1, in the nonartesian aquifer; well 805-155-3, in the secondary artesian aquifer; and well 805-155-2 in the Floridan aquifer. These wells are equipped with water -level recorders.
Water Budget: In order to evaluate the relation of Lake Parker to the adjacent and underlying aquifers, a waterbudget was compile dthat e stimate s the re charge to and dis charge from the lake during the period January 1 to June 20, 195b.
Rainfall on the lake, assumed to be the same as that measured at the Lakeland station, contributed approximately 17 inches of water to the 2, 200 acres of lake surface during the period of study.
In order to determine the general relationship and magnitude of surface -water inflow to and outflow from Lake Parker, the discharge of all streams flowing into or out of the lake was measured once in September 1955 and again in February 1956 by the Ocala, Florida, office of the U. S. Geological Survey. Plate 3 shows the location of all gaging points, and table 9lists the two sets of measurements made at these points. In September 1955 the' lake was above the level of the outlet-control structure, total surface inflow was 6. 84 cfs (cubic feet per second), and total outflow was 3. 38 cfs. In February -1956, when the lake was below the level of the outlet control, total surface inflow was 1. 50 cfs and there was no surface outflow. Surface inflow therefore probably exceeds surface outflow during most or all of the




I out/flow- control Cr UJ Aele vation
W > 130___\001
_____ ___ __ __ ___ \
19L
aU
Figure 13. Hydrograph of Lake Parker for period of record.




INFORMATION- CIRCULAR No: Z23 63
129
127 1i l I
-J 126
_j125
WJ 124
(n
< 120 el 0-141
S124
F121 Well 806 154-10-5i32miles northeast of v
U_19 fLakeland.Depth of well 130 ft.
1193 Depth of Casing 392 t
W 17 1 1 954 1 1 1 1 1 1 195 19561 Fiue1.Hdogah fLk Pre n el
803-154-0land086-154-1




64 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY
131
LU
< 13
LAK =
RLE7
LI
its
11
114
112
L-JAN FEB MAR APR MAY JUNE JULY AUG SEPT
1956
Figure 15. {ycrographs of Lake Parker andwells 805-155-1
(nonartesian aquifer), 805-155-2 (Floridan aquifer), and 805-155-3 (secondary artesian aquifer),
near southwest shore of Fish Lake.




INFORMATION CIRCULAR NO. 23 65
year. -For budget purposes an average of the inflow shown by the two measurements was used. From this the inflow to the lake during the test period was computed to be 8. 1 inches over the lake surface; the outflow during the same period was computed to be 3. 3 inches.
City storm sewers carry the drainage from approximately 1. 7 square miles (1, 100 acres) into Lake Parker, but probably not more than 25 percent of the total rainfall on this area reaches Lake Parker through the sewers. Thus, 1, 100 acres x 17 inches x 25% .-& 2, 200 acres = 2. 1 inches of water contributed to Lake Parker from storm sewers.
Lake Parker receives some overflow water from Lake Mirror through gravity-flow drains. Lake Mirror, 'in turn, receives overflow from Lake Wire. The amount of water added to Lake Parker from this source is unknown.
Table 9., Stream-gaging measurements in the Lake Pa rker
and Saddle Creek areas (measurements by U. S.
Geological Survey, Ocala, Florida).
Station shown Flow (cf s) Flow (cfs) on plate 3 9-15-55 2-'15-56Lake Parker
K (Inflow) 1.67 1.00 L (Inflow) 54 22 M (Inflow) 4.63 .28 N (Outflow) 3.38 .00
Saddle Creek
A 9.96 14.00 B 45.20 8.22 C 15.30 3.00 J 116.00 14.00 P 169.00 53.70




66 FLORI1DA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY
Ground-water inflow to Lake Parker from the nonarte sian aquifer can be compute d by the use of Dar cy Is law, which can be written as Q = PIA, where Q is the flow, in gallons per day; P is the coefficient of permeability; I is the hydraulic gradient, in feet per foot; and A is the area, in square feet, of the cross section through which the flow is taking place. The average permeability of the sands listed in table 5 (85 gpdper square foot) was used in making these computations. Hydraulic gradients were determined from plate 3, a map of the water table in the Lake Parker area. Saturated thickne sse s of the nonartesian aquifer were taken from drilling and test data. The total ground-water inflow to L-ake Parker was thus computed to be 220, 000 gpd. This amounts to approximately 0. 7 inch of water over the lake surface from January through June 19 56.
The evaporation loss from the lake between January 1 and June 20, 1956, based onthe average monthly evaporation shown by Meyer (1942), was approximately 24 inche s (table 7).
The approximate water budget may then be tabulated as follows:
Gains: Inches of water
Rainfall 17. 0 Surface inflow 8. 1 Storm-sewer inflow 2. 1 Ground-water inflow 7
Lake Mirror overflow?
27.9+
Losses:
Evaporation 24.0 Surface-water outflow 3. 3
Ground-wate r outflow in nonarte sian
aquifer 0.0 27. 3
Difference (downward flow to aquifers) 0. 6
The amount of this difference is well within the accuracy limits of some of the data used in computing it and therefore has little significance. During this period, the lake declined about 14. 5 inches (fig. 14). This decline is probably




INFORMATION CIRCULAR NO. 23 67
due primarily to vertical seepage from Lake Parker to one or more of the underlying artesian aquifers.
It is not known whether recharge to the artesian aquifers fr om L.ake Parke r o ccur s ove r mo st of the lake b ottom or in only certain areas. Chemical analysis of ground-water samples, however, shows that the mineral content of the water from both the Floridan and the secondary artesian aquifers is lowest near the northeastern arm of Lake Parker and Fish Lake, suggesting that the best connection between Lake Parker and the artesian aquifers is in that area.
The contours on plate 1 indicate that water may leak from Lake Parker into the secondary artesian aquifer and move laterally through the aquifer to discharge at spring E, near Saddle Creek. In December 1954, water was pumped at a rate of 7,500 gpm from an active mine pit in the secondary artesian aquifer, o. 3 mile south of spring E (pl. 1). Such withdrawals have been made in the general vicinity of springs E, F, and G (p1. 1) since late in 1953. The decline of Lake Parker is consistent with the decline of other lakes in the vicinity that are farther from the mining area.
The future withdrawal of ground water from mine pits in the nonartesian aquifer in the area south of State Highway 33 and north and northeast of Lake Parker may tend to lower the level of the lake in two ways: (1) it will reduce the ground-water inflow into the lake, and (2) it might induce ground-water outflow from the lake toward areas where the water table is drawn down to especially low levels.
Withdrawal of water for mining from the secondary artesian aquifer also will lower the pie zometric surface and increase the hydraulic gradient away from the lake, thus/ increasing the rate of leakage from the lake to the aquifer.
Decline of Lakes Near Lake Parker
Water levels in Lakes Deeson, Crystal, and Bonny, near L-ake Parker (pl. 3), declined about six feet between December 1954 and July 1956, whereas the water levels in




68 ]FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY
lake Parker and other nearby lakes remained about the same (fig. 4). -Hydrographs of the five lakes for 1954 (fig. 4) correlate reasonablywell. The hydrographs of Lakes Deeson and Crystal for 1955 begin to depart from those of the other lakes. Lakes Deeson and Crystal responded only slightly to rainfall during 1955 andended that year with a net decline of 2. 5 feet. Lakes Hollingsworth and Parker showed net rises of about half a foot for the same period, and Lake Wire declined less than half afoot. The departures of Lakes Deeson and Crystal from the trend of the other three lake s continued through July 1956. The water level of Lake Crystal had fallen below the level of lake Parker by July 19 56, and that of Lake Deeson about to that of Lake Parker. Though not illustrated in this report, the water level of Lake Bonny followed the trend of Lakes Deeson and Crystal; it fell below the level of Lake Parker a little earlier, however, about January 1956.
One phosphate test hole near the west shore of Lake Crys tal showed predominantly sandy materials extending from the surface downward to the limestone bedrock. A good hydraulic connection such as this may exist in parts of Lakes Deeson, Crystal, and Bonny, permitting relatively rapid downward leakage, but drilling and test-hole data are relatively few.
From January 1, 1955, through June 30, 1956, Lake Deeson declined 65. 2 inches, Lake Bonny declined about 53 inches, and Lake Crystal declined 77.4 inches. Rainfall at Lakeland during this period was 61. 08 inches (about 11. 6 inches below the mean of record) and evaporation (fig. 11) was about 62.55 inches. It is possible that during this generally dry period the rate of evaporation was higher than normal. The 11. 6-inch deficit in rainfall obviously cannot account for the observed declines of lake levels.
Lakes Bonny, Crystal, and Deeson have no surface inflow or outflow. Topographic gradients within the basins are generally low, and the slope of the water table also is assumed to be low. The average flow of ground water into the lakes is probably equivalent to only a few inches per year over the lake surface, and it was undoubtedly well below average during the dry period. Ground-wrater outflow into the nonartesian aquifer is believed to be zero.




INFORMATION CIRCULAR NO. 23 69
During the same dry period(January 1955 to June 1956), pumping from the artesian aquifers increased as recharge decreased, lowering artesian water levels 5 to 10 feet. This probably increased the hydraulic potential between the lake levels and the artesian aquifers and increased the rate of leakage from the lakes.
The combination of decreases in rainfall and groundwater inflow plus increases in evaporation and vertical leakage, including that due to declines in artesian head, may be sufficient to account for the decline in lake levels.
Scott Lake Area
Early in 1953 the Board of County Commissioners of Polk County requested that the U. S. Geological Survey investigate the water problems in the Scott Lake area, south of Lakeland. Property owners were concerned about the observed decline of lake level because of the lake's recreational value and its value as a source of water for the irrigation of adjacent citrus groves. In 1953 a staff gage was installed on a boat dock on the southeast shore of the lake. Later a recording gage was installed at the same place, and wells were inventoried in the lake basin. Recording gages were installed on an abandoned well in the secondary artesian aquifer (757-155-3) near the ridge crest, southeast of the lake, and on a well inthe nonartesian aquifer (758-156-5) on the north shore of the lake (fig. 19).
Water -level information from the Scott Lake area indicates that the secondary artesian and Floridan aquifers are present in the ridge section. Both aquifers are in use, but wells into the Floridan aquifer are much more numerous. Because of the pump installations, very few of the wells around the lake shor e can be us ed for wate r-level mea sure ments. Observed and reported water levels indicate, however, that the water level -in the Floridan aquifer may be as much as 80 feet belowthat of the secondary artesian aquifer on the basin floor, and approximately 20 feet below that of the se-bondary artesian aquifer on the ridge top east of Scott Lake.




70 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY
Figures 16, 17, and 18 are hydrographs of Scott Lake and six wells in the Scott L-ake area. The location of wells inthe Floridan, nonartesian, and secondary artesian aquifers, in the vicinity of Scott Lake, is shown on figure 19.
Figure 16 shows that the hydrographs of Scott Lake and well 758-156-5 cross and recross, indicating periods of reversal in the direction of ground-water flow in the nonarte sian aquifer near Scott Lake. Figure 18 shows that the water level in well 758-156-1lalso fluctuates from above to below the level of Scott Lake.
Available data are inadequate to permit determination of the cause of the reversal of ground-water flow. The permeability of the nonarte sian aquifer may be greate r under wells 758-156-5 and 758-156-1 than it is under Scott Lake; thus, vertical percolation of ground water to the underlying artesian aquifers would be greatest under the wells. During periods of normal rainfall, recharge to the nonartesian aquifer may be sufficient to maintain the normal hydraulic gradient toward Scott Lake in spite of the large amount of downward percolation near the wells but during periods of low recharge the downward percolation may lower the water table near the wells so much that a cone of depression forms and subsequently expands to Scott Lake, reversing the direction of ground-water flow.
Another explanation is that the permeability of the nonartesian aquifer may be approximately the same throughout the Scott L-ake area. If this is true, the excessive lowering of the water table at the wells during drought periods canbe explained by the fact that downward percolation of a given amount of water would cause a greater lowering of the water table than of lake level. A given amount of water drained
-from Scott Lake might lower the lake level one inch, whereas the same amount drained from the nonartesian aquifer would lower the water table 5 or 10 inches, the coefficient of storage of the aquifer requires that a large volume of the aquifer be unwateredto provide the amount of water contained in a layer one inch thick over the lake surface. If such an explanation can be considered correct, correlation of the fluctuations of lake level and water table during drought




LU
U 170
'Vofe: Plotd on 's ~i69- -an6/) oonh 168
U ScEott Lake- -
8 167
L~I 664 C j165
U
163I I I I I L
-J6 JF M AMJ J A SON DJ 'F MA MJ J ASO0N'D JFM AM J 1954 1955 1956
Figure 16. Hydrograplis of Scott Lake and well 758-156-5 in the nonartesian aquifer.




ii FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY
Note: P/oiled on first of month onlyv
LLI
--I
Iul
SCOTT LAKE
166
0
165
10 ot:Pl/e on first > 108- 7 of o7mon/h onoy
-I 107
L105
!; 104- Well 757-155-3-_____3103- -Lmil southeast of 102 2Scott Lake
10,1 Depth of well 251 ft
100- Depth of casing unknown
M JJ A SO0N DtJ F M A M J J ASO0N D J F M A M J
1954______ 1955 1956
Figure 17. Hydrographs of Scott Lake and well 757-155-3
in the secondary artesian aquifer.




INFORMATION CIRCULAR NO. 23 73
189TI
188
Well 757-157-3
187 +~~~_.mile southwest ______ ___187 2of Scott Lake 186 Depth of well 20 ft 185 Depth of casing 2ft.
-184
_j 183
in 182
z
LL I8
0> 174
W Well 758417-4'
'LL 17mile northwest_ _ _ z of Scott Lake
_j7 Dpth of well 42 ft ________uj 17 "- Depth of casing unknown Li
-J 171
F170 Well 757-157-4
169 near southwest shore of _Scott _Lake
18Depth of well 17 f t.
Wel 5815- Depth of casing 15 ft.( ? 167 Wmile northwest of 8Scott Lake
166 Depth of well 30 ft.
Depth of casing unknown
165
1J F M A M J J A SO0 N D J F M A M J J IA S O N D J F M IA M J
1954 1955 1956
Figul-e 18. Hydrographs of wells inthe nonartesian aquifer in the Scott Lake basin.




74 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY
8M5 57o 56! 81055'
28OG~ 28'OO EXPLANATION
Well penetrating nanartesian aquifer
Well penetrating secondcry artesian aquifer
0
Well penetrating Floridan aquifer
59Well penetrating solution cavity -59'
5
Upper number is well number. lawer number altitude at water level, in feet above mean sea level.
__ _ __ _0W 89
48
4 o, -o- -58
v169 OT 1
5e 03- \I
peioo Jl91-1,196




INFORMATION CIRCULAR NO. 23 7-5
periods might-provide a reasonable estimate of the coefficinet of storage of the nonartesian aquifer.
Still another explanation is that the lake has a silty, clayey sand bottom of low permeability which checks leakage from the lake and tends to maintain the lake level. The water table may maintain its slope toward the sinkhole throughout the year. During periods of normal rainfall ground-water flow from the nonartesian aquifer recharges the lake, but during drought periods the water table falls below the lake bottom and leaves the lake perched above the cone of depression in the water table.
Figure 17 shows the general correlation of water-level fluctuations in well 757-155-3, in the secondary artesian aquifer, with those of Scott Lake. The major drawdowns, in the spring seasons, are caused by local heavy pumping from multiaquifer irrigation wells. An irrigation well 50 feet away from well 757-155-3 is open only to the Floridan aquifer and is in daily use for domestic purposes, but pumping of this well has not affected the water level in well 757-155-3.
Figure 18 shows the hydrographs of wells in the nonartesian aquifer, near the west end of Scott Lake. They are shown with the topographically highest well at the top of the figure and the lowest at the bottom.
Water Budget: In order to determine the reason for the decline of Scott Lake it is necessary to establish a water budget for the basin. The period January 1 through June 30, 1956, was selected.
Surface outflow from the lake may occur through a water gap in the sinkhole rimr that opens westward from the northwest bulge of the shoreline. The swampy channel occupying the gap, calledthe "Lake Drain", is shown on figure 19. Phosphate mining operations have interrupted the natural flow through the -Lake Drain at point C. Water may now flow through a canal on the north side of mine pit D, figure 19, only when the lake level is above (possibly several feet above) an altitude of 168 feet above mean sea level. At point B, figure 19, a small earthen dam prevents westward flow from




76 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY
the lake when the lake level is less than 168 feet above mean sea level. A concrete control structure has beenbuilt in the channel, on the lakeward side of the highway crossing the Lake Drain. The top of this structure is 168 feet above mean sea level, and the bottom of the control weir is 166 feet above mean sea level. Thus, water will. not flow through the Lake Drain if the lake level is less than 168 feet above mean sea level. Since the maximum lake level during the budget period was only 167 feet above mean sea level, no outflow occurred.
When the lake level is low, generally less than 166 feet above mean sea level, water is permitted to flow from an abandoned mine pit (point E, figure 19) by the land owner. Such was the case during the last half of the budget period. This observed inflow, though not gaged,- is believed to have been muchless than one cubic foot per second. For budgetary purposes, therefore, surface inflowis established, but quantitatively unknown. (It is to be noted that an average inflow of 0. 25 cfs for the three months would be approximately equal to two inches over the lake surface. ) Surface inflow also occurs intermittently into the lake at its southwest bulge, as shown on figure 19.
In the following computations the average coefficient of permeability for the nonarte sian aquifer is taken from table 5 (85 gpd per square foot). The lake basin was divided into segments and the ground-water inflow was computed for each segment. Hydraulic gradients were approximated from data from the observation wells shown in figure 19. Onthe basis of available well data, the average saturated thickness of the aquifer around the shoreline is believed to be 25 feet, and possibly more. Ground-water inflow was therefore computed to be equivalent to approximately 17 inches over the lake surface from January 1 through June 30, 1956 (776, 051 gpd). It is believed, and it was assumed, that there is no grouandwater outflow from the Scott Lake basin in the nonarte sian aquifer.
Rainfall at the Lakeland station was approximately 17 inches from January 1 through June 30, 1956. Evaporation, according to table 7, was about 24 inches.




INFORMATION CIRCULAR NO. 23 77
The lake level is lowered by pumping for citrus irrigation, as well as by evaporation. Pump capacities and the duration of pumping periods reported by owners of the irrigation systems indicate that the total seasonal pumpage from the lake is approxidmate-ly 38, 000, 000 gallons. Such withdrawals are usually made from January through April. The area of the lake is about 300 acres. According to these figures, average irrigation pumping lowers the lake about 4. 5 inches per season.
The water budget for Scott Lake maybe summarized for the period January 1 through June 30, 1956, as follows. Quantities are given in whole inches, as some of the data are less precise than those for Lake Parker (p. 66).
Inches of water
Gains:
Rainfall 17
Sur fa ce inflo w _+
Grounfd-water inflow 17 34 +
Lo ss es:
Evaporation 24 Surface outflow 0 Irrigation pumping 4
Ground-water outflow in nonarte sian
aquifer 0 28
Difference (downward flow to artesian aquifer) 6 +
These figures indicate a small surplus for the 6 -month period. However, figure 16 shows that the lake level declined 24 inches during the same period. The conclusion is drawn that the lake was recharging one or more of the underlying artesian aquifers during this period, and that the total recharge was equivalent to about 30 inches (Z4-inch loss + 6inch calculated surplus of gains over losses) over the lake surface.
Theobserved water levels in wells 757-156-2 and 75 7 -15 5- 3, in the s econdary arte sian aquife r sho w a definite pie zometric gradient away from the lake, indicating re charge




78 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL- SURVEY
of the aquifer by the lake. Observed and reported groundwater levels, however, show that the piezometric surface"of the Floridan aquifer is low under Scott Lake, indicating discharge from that aquifer. If some recharge to the Floridan aquifer occurs from Scott Lake, it is not enough to prevent the pie zometric surface of the aquifer from remaining at a low level in the vicinity of the lake.




INFORMATION CIRCUL-AR NO. 23 79
REFERENCES
Alverson, D. C. (see Carr, W. J.)
Bergendahi, M. H.
1956 Stratigraphy of parts of DeSoto and Hardee
counties, Florida: U. S. Geol. Survey Bull.
1030-B.
Black, A. P.
1951 (and Brown, Eugene) Chemical character of
Florida's waters 1951: Florida State Board Cons., Div. Water Survey and Research,
Pape r 6.
Brown, Eugene (see Black, A. P.; Cooper, H. H. Jr.)
Carr, W. J.
1953 (and Alverson, D. C.) Stratigraphy of Suwannee, Tampa, and Hawthorn formations inHillsborough and parts of adjacent counties, Florida, in Geologic Investigations of Radioactive Deposits Semiannual Progress Rept. June 1, 1953, to Nov. 30, 1953: U. S. Geol. Survey TEI-390, p. 175 ff., issued by U. S. Atomic Energy Comm. Tech. Inf Service, Oak Ridge,
Tennessee.
Cathcart, J. B.
1952 (and Davidson, D. F.) Distribution and origin
of phosphate in the land-pebble phosphate district of Florida: U. S. Geol. Survey TEI-2 12, issued by U. S. Atomic Energy Comm. Tech.
Inf. Service, Oak Ridge, Tennessee.
Cole, W. Storrs
1941 Stratigraphic and paleontologic studies of wells
in Florida: Florida Geol. Survey Bull. 19.
1945 Stratigraphic and pale ontologic studies of wells
in Florida: Florida Geol. Survey Bull. 28.




80 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY
Collins, W. D.
1928 (and Howard, C. S.) chemical character- of
waters of Florida: U. S. Geol. Survey WaterSupply Paper -596-G.
Cooke, C. W.
1939 The scenery of Florida interpreted by a geologist: Florida Geol. Survey Bull. 17.
1945 The geology of Florida: Florida Geol. Survey
Bull.- 29.
Cooper, H. H. Jr. (see also Stringfield, V. T.)
1944 Ground water investigations in Florida (with
special reference to Duval and Nassau counties): Am. Water Works Assoc. Jour., v. 36, no. 2,
p. 169-185, 1944.
1953 (and Kenner, W. E. and Brown, Eugene) Ground
water in central and northern Florida: Florida
Geol. Survey Rept. Inv. 10.
Davidson, D. F. (see also Cathcart, J. B.)
1952a Relation of the "Topography" of the Hawthorn
formation to size of phosphate particles in the deposits, and to topography, in the northern part of the land-pebble phosphate field, Florida: U. S. Geol. Survey TEM-3 37, issued by U. S.
Atomic Energy Comm. Tech. Inf. Service,
Oak Ridge, Tennessee.
1952b Grain size distribution in the surface sands
andthe economic phosphate deposits of the landpebble phosphate district, Florida: U. S. Geol.
Survey TIEM-362, issued by U. S. Atomic Energy Commn. Tech. Inf. Service, Oak Ridge,
Tennessee.
Fenneman, N. M.
1938 Physiography of eastern United States: New
York, McGraw-Hill Book Company.




INFORMATION CIRCULAR NO. 23 81
Ferguson, G. E. (see also Parker, G. G. )
1947 (and Lingham, C. W., Love, S. K., and Vernon,
R. 0. ) Springs of Florida: Florida Geol. Survey
Bull. 31.
Gunter, Herman (see also Sellards, E. H.)
1931 (and Ponton, G. H. ) The need for conservation
andprotection of our water supply with special reference to waters from Ocala limestone: Florida Geol. Survey 2lst-22d Ann. Repts.,
p. 43-55.
Howard, C. S. (see Collins, W. D.)
Kenner, W.E. (see Cooper, H.H., Jr.)
Kohler, Max A. (see Linsley, Ray K. )
Lingham, 'C. W. (see Ferguson, G. E. )
Linsley, R.K.,_ Jr.
1949 (and Kohler, Max A., and Paulhus, J. L. H.)
Applied hydrology: New York, McGraw-Hill
Book Company.
Love. S. K. (see Ferguson, G. E. ; Parker, G. G.)
MacNeil, F. Stearns
1950 Pleistocene shorelines in Florida and Georgia:
U. S. Geol. Survey Prof. Paper 221-F.
Mansfield, George R.
1942 Phosphate resources of Florida: U. S. Geol.
Survey Bull. 934.
Matson, G. C.
1913 (and Sanford, Samuel) The geology and ground
waters of Florida: U. S. Geol. Survey WaterSupply Paper 319.
Meinzer.', 0. E.
19-23a The occurrence of ground water in the United
States, with a discussion of principles: U. S.




82 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY
Geol. Survey Water-Supply Paper 489.
1923b Outline of ground-water hydrology with definitions: U. S. Geol. Survey Water-Supply Paper
494.
1949 (and Wenzel, L. K. ) Movement of ground water
and its relation to head, permeability, and storage: Chap. l0b in Meinzer, O.-E., ed., Hydrology, v. IX of Physics a.f the Earth: New
York, Dover Publications.
Meyer, A. F1942 Evaporation fromlakes and reservoirs: Minn.
Res. Commn., maps 24-35.
Parker, G. G.
1955 (and Ferguson, G. E. Love, S. K. and others)
Water resources of southeastern Florida: U. S.
Geol. Survey Water-Supply Paper 1255.
Paulhus,. J. L. H. (see Linsley, Ray K.)
Peek, Harry M.
1951 Cessation of flow of Kissengen Springs, in Polk
County, Florida: Florida Geol. .Survey Rept.
Inv. 7, pt. 3.
Ponton, G.H. (see Gunter, Herman)
PunLr, Harbans S.
1953a Zonation of the Ocala group in peninsular Flor
ida (abstract): Jour. Sedimentary Petrology,
v. 23, p. 130.
19 53b Contributions to the study of the Miocene of the
Florida Panhandle: Florida Geol. Survey Bull.
36.
Reitz, H-. J. (see Wander, I. W.)
Sanford, Samuel (see Matson, G. C.)




INFORMATION- CIRCULAR NO. 23 83
Sellards, E. H.
1908 Preliminary report on the underground water
supply of central Florida: Florida Geol. Survey
Bull. 1.
1913 (and Gunter, Herman) The artesian water
supply of eastern and southern Florida: Florida
Geol. Survey 5th Ann. Rept., p. 103-290.
Stringfield, V. T.
1935 The piezometric surface of artesian water in
the Florida Peninsula: Am. Geophys. Union
Trans. p. 524-529.
1936 Artesian water in the Florida Peninsula: U. S.
Geol. Survey Water-Supply Paper 773-C.
1950 (and Cooper, H. H., Jr.) Ground water in
Florida: Florida Geol. Survey Inf. Circ. 3.
1951a Economic aspects of ground water in Florida:
Mining Eng.. p. 525-533. June.
1951lb Geologic and hydrologic features of an artesian
submarine spring east of Florida: Florida
Geol. Survey Rept. Inv. 7, pt. 2.
Tolman, C. F.
1937 Ground water: New York, McGraw-Hill Book
Company.
Vernon, R. 0. (see also Ferguson, G. E.)
1951 Geology of Citrus and Levy counties, Florida:
Florida Geol. Survey Bull. 33.
Wander, I. W.
1951 (and Reitz, H. J.) The chemical composition
of irrigation water used in Florida citrus groves: Univ. of Florida Agr. Expt. Sta. Bull.
480.
Wenzel, L. K.' (see Meinzer, 0. E.)




rHUME LIBRARY
Florida AgriculturalI
Experiment Station
Gainesville, Florida I




Full Text

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STATE OF FLORIDA STATE BOARD OF CONSERVATION Ernest Mitts, Director FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY Robert O. Vernon, Director INFORMATION CIRCULAR NO. 23 INTERIM REPORT ON THE GEOLOGY AND GROUNDWATER RESOURCES OF NORTHWESTERN POLK COUNTY, FLORIDA By Herbert G. Stewart, Jr., Geologist U. S. Geological Survey Prepared by U. S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the Florida Geological Survey and the Polk County Board of Commissioners Tallahassee, Florida 1959

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6aC~~ cý ~AGRICULTURAL LFSR<

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CONTENTS Page Abstract..................... .................... 1 Introduction ........ ............................. 3 Purpose and scope of investigation .............. 3 Previous investigations ....... ................ 4 Methods of this investigation ................... 5 Well-numbering system ........................ 6 Acknowledgments ............................. 6 Geography..................... ................. 7 Location, population, and industry .............. 7 Topography .................................. 8 Drainage...................................... 9 Climate...................................... 10 Geology. ............... ....................... .12 Solution features .............................. 12 Summary of stratigraphy ...................... 17 Eocene series ................................. 17 Avon Park limestone...................... 17 Ocala group .............................. 19 Inglis formation ............ .. ....... 20 Williston formation .................. .. 20 Crystal River formation ............... 20 Oligocene series ............................ 21 Suwannee limestone ..................... 21 Miocene series. ................. .......... .21 Tampa formation...................... 22 Hawthorn formation ..................... 23 Pliocene series ............................... 24 Bone Valley formation ................... 24 Pleistocene series .......................... 25 Structure ......................... ........... 25 Hydrology. ............................. ........... 26 Surface water ........... ....................... 26 Ground water .......................... ........ 26 Occurrence .. ............................ .26 Nonartesian aquifer ....................... 28 Uppermost artesian aquifer ................. 29 Secondary artesian aquifer .................. 29 Piezometric surface ..................... 31 Floridan aquifer ............................ 32 Piezometric surface ............ ......... 37 Water-level history ............ ......... 38 Hydraulics.................................... 39 Specific capacity of wells ................... 39 iii

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Pumping tests............................ 39 Laboratory analyses ........................ 41 Quality of water ........ ....................... 41 Use of water.................................. 47 Public supplies ............................. 47 Industrial supplies.................... ...... 47 Domestic supplies ........................... 49 Irrigation supplies ........................... 49 Summary of use ............................ 49 Water losses from the area .................... 49 Underflow and runoff ........................ 50 Evaporation ................................ 50 Transpiration .............................. 51 Recharge..... ................................. 51 Nonartesian aquifer ......................... 51 Uppermost artesian aquifer................... 54 Secondary artesian aquifer .................. 54 Floridan aquifer ............................ 54 Special problems.............................. 56 Lake Parker.................... ........... 56 Water budget............................. 61 Decline of lakes near Lake Parker .......... 67 Scott Lake area ............................ 69 Water budget......................... .. .75 References........................................... 79 ILLUSTRATIONS Plate 1 Map of the Lake Parker area showing contours on the piezometric surface of the secondary artesian aquifer and location of selected wells penetrating this aquifer ............................. facing 6 2 Map of northwestern Polk County showing contours on the piezometric surface of the Floridan aquifer and location of wells penetrating this aquifer. ................ facing 6 3 Map of the Lake Parker area showing contours on the water table during the period June 25-30, 1956, and location of wells penetrating the nonartesian aquifer ................................. facing 6 iv

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Figure 1 Map of Polk County showing the area covered by this report. Inset map shows location of the county ................. 8 2 Graph showing annual rainfall at Lakeland, 1915-55 .................. ...... .11 3 Geologic cross section showing formations penetrated by water wells in northwestern Polk County. ................. 18 4 Hydrographs of Lakes Wire, Hollingsworth, Parker, and Deeson, and Crystal Lake, in the Lakeland area. ........... 27 5 Hydrographs of wells inthe nonartesian aquifers ........................... .30 6 Hydrographs of wells in the secondary artesianaquifer ................. ... .32 7 Hydrograph of well 759-158-l inthe Floridan aquifer.......................... 34 8 Hydrographs of wells in the Floridan aquifer ...................... .... ... 35 9 Hydrographs of wells open to both the secondary artesian and the Floridan aquifer s ................. ........... .36 10 Annual pumpage of water by the Lakeland city system............ ......... 48 11 Graph showing computed evaporation from open-water surfaces at Orlando and rainfall at Lakeland.................. 53 12 Diagram showing sediments penetrated in test hole 805-156-A, in Lake Parker 59 13 Hydrograph of Lake Parker for period of record............................... 62 14 Hydrographs of Lake Parker and wells 803-154-10 and 806-154-1............ 63 15 Hydrographs of Lake Parker and wells 805-155-1 (nonartesian aquifer,805-155-2 (Floridan aquifer), and 805-155-3(secondary artesian aquifer), near southwest shore of Fish Lake ................... 64 16 Hydrographs of Scott Lake and well 758-156-5 in the nonartesian aquifer... 71 17 Hydrographs of Scott Lake and well 757-155-3 in the secondary artesian aquifer ............................. 72 v

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18 Hydrographs of wells in the nonartesian aquifer in the Scott Lake basin......... 73 19 Map of Scott Lake area showing locations of wells, drainage divide, and water levels during period of July 10-11, 1956...... 74 Table 1 Mean monthly temperature and rainfall at Lakeland, Florida ................. 12 2 Solutional cavities penetrated by wells in the Floridan aquifer .................. 14 3 Solutional cavities penetrated by wells and springs in the secondary artesian aquifer ............................ .15 4 Specific capacities of representative wells in the Lakeland area ............ 40 5 Laboratory analyses of sand samples from test hole 805-156-A ............. 42 6 Chemical analyses of water from wells, lakes, and springs.................... 43 7 Evaporation and rainfall data from Orlando water plant, Orlando, Orange County, Florida....................... 52 8 Water levels and temperature observed in test hole 805-156-A. ............... 60 9 Stream-gaging measurements in the Lake Parker and Saddle Creek areas. ....... 65 vi

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INTERIM REPORT ON THE GEOLOGY AND GROUND-WATER RESOURCES OF NORTHWESTERN POLK COUNTY, FLORIDA By Herbert G. Stewart, Jr. ABSTRACT The area of this investigation comprises about 360 square miles in northwestern Polk_ Cunty~in the central --i~s__ýýderaliý_b part of peninsular Florida_ The area is underlain by lime-stone from6-25 to 100 eet below the land surface to a depth of several thousand feet. The upper limestones range in age from middle Eocene to middle Miocene and are the principal sources of water supplies in this area. The limestones dip gently southwestward, as a part of the southwestern flank of the Ocala uplift, and are overlain by unconsolidated sand and clay of Miocene, Pliocene, and Pleistocene age. The Pleistocene sand and clay ranges from I to 100 feet in thickness and covers the entire area. Groundwater in northwestern Polk County occurs under both artesian and nonartesian conditions. The top of the zone of saturation is close to the land surface in much of the area, and fresh water extends downward to an unknown depth. The nonartesian aquifer consists of sand of Pleistocene and Recent age. Where this sand is more than 10 feet thick it will generally furnish sufficient water for small domestic and irrigation requirements. The uppermost artesian aquifer is in the lower part of the Bone Valley formation, but it is used very little. The so-called secondary artesian aquifer, composed of limestones of middle Miocene age, supplies water for domestic and small irrigation requirements. The Floridan aquifer is the principal source of ground water in the area. This aquifer is of great areal extent, underlying 1

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2 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY all of Florida and parts of adjacent states. Although it is composed of thick limestones that range in age from lower Miocene to middle Eocene and differ in composition, it functions as a single aquifer. It extends downward to an unknown depth in this area. Wells drilled into the Floridan aquifer range from 3 to 26 inches in diameter and from 150 to 1,200 feet in depth. The largest known yield from a well in this area was 8,000 gpm (gallons per minute), with 23 feet of drawdown, from a well 24 inches in diameter and 1, 200 feet deep. The records show a net decline of water levels in the Floridan aquifer between 1936 and July 1956. This decline is believed to be due primarily to below-average rainfall during the 30-monthperiod preceding July 1956. The return of average rainfall, along with a resultant decrease in the demand for ground water, will probably result in a return of the water levels to almost the 1936 levels. The area around Lakelandis dotted with sinkholes which originated with the collapse of caverns developed in the underlying limestones. The caverns, which result from the solution of limestoneby moving groundwater, are at considerable depth below the land surface, and the networks of connected caverns function as natural drains in the artesian aquifers. It has long been thought that most of the recharge to the Floridan aquifer was supplied by the lakes that occupy many of the sinkholes in central Florida. Investigation of the Lakeland area, however,has indicatedthat although some recharge may come fromlakes in that area, the amount may not be large. Further, most of the downward leakage from some of these lakes is apparently recharging the secondary artesian aquifer rather than the Floridan aquifer. Investigation has shown also that these sinkhole lakes apparently overlie lows in the piezometric surface of the Floridan aquifer, and these lows may indicate the course of cavern networks in the aquifer. Lake Parker, in eastern Lakeland, recharges the artesian aquifers at a low rate. Large withdrawals of ground water are anticipated inthe area alongthe north shore of the lake, and they may lower the lake level by reducing the ground water discharged into the lake. They may even

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INFORMATION CIRCULAR NO. Z3 3 establish hydraulic gradients away from the lake, thereby increasing losses through the lake bottom. It appears, however, that similar large withdrawals east of the lake have not affected the lake level. Scott Lake, a sinkhole lake south of Lakeland, is recharging the secondary artesian aquifer, and its level is declining. The effect of withdrawals from the lake for irrigation of citrus groves is equivalent to lowering the lake level approximately 4. 5 inches per season, but the principal !reasons for large seasonal declines of the lake level are: ;(1) continuing downward leakage to the secondary artesian aquifer, (2) evaporation fromthe lake surface, and (3) belownormal rainfall, which has caused the water table to decline and has reduced the ground-water discharge into the lake. At the north end of the lake basin the water table apparently has declined to the extent that its gradient is reversed and water is leaking from the lake into the nonartesian aquifer also. INTRODUCTION Purpose and Scope of Investigation The investigation upon which this report is based was begun in April 1954 by the U. S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the Florida Geological Survey and the Board of County Commissione r s of Polk County. The primary purpo se of the investigation was to provide basic information to assist in the useful development of the water resources of Polk County. This reportpresents basic information regarding some of the lakes and ground-water supplies in the northwestern part of the county. The relation of the many lakes in the areato the ground-water supply and the effects of large withdrawals of ground water on both ground-water and surfacewater levels are matters of great interest in the county.

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4 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY Previous Inve stigations Some geologic and hydrologic work has been done in PolkCounty as part of regional or statewide investigations. Most of it has been done by the Florida Geological Survey and the U. S. Geological Survey. Cooke (1945), Vernon (1951), and Parker, Ferguson, Love and others (1955) described the general geology of central Florida and made many references to Polk County. Cole (1941, 1945), Mansfield (1942), Cathcart and Davidson (1952), Davidson (1952a, 1952b), Carr and Alverson (1953), Puri (1953a, 1953b), and Bergendahl (1956) discussed the geology of one or more of the formations present in Polk County. Fenneman (1938), Cooke (1939), and MacNeil(1950) discussed the topographic features of central Florida and their origin and development. Sellards (1908), Sellards and Gunter (1913, p. 262264), Matson and Sanford (1913, p. 388-390), and Gunter and Ponton (1931) prepared early discussions and data concerning ground water in Polk County and other parts of central Florida. Stringfield (1935, 1936, p. 148, 172-173, 186) investigated ground water in the Florida Peninsula and presented data from Polk County. One important result ofhis investigation was apiezometric map of the principal artesian aquifer of peninsular Florida (the Floridan aquifer of this report) which indicates areas of recharge to and discharge from the aquifer. This map was expanded to include most of northwest Florida andpart of southern Georgiabythe work of M.A. Warren, V. T. Stringfield, and F. Westendick, and was shown by Cooper (1944, fig. 2). Cooper (1944), Stringfield and Cooper (1951b), and Cooper, Kenner and Brown (1953) discussed the ground water of Florida and referred to recharge of the ground-water supplies in Polk County. Papers by Ferguson, Lingham, Love and Vernon (1947) and Stringfield and Cooper (1951b) described the geologic and hydrologic features of springs in Florida and presented flow measurements andother data for some springs. Peek (1951) discussed the cessation of flow of Kissengen Springs in Polk County. Collins and Howard (1928), Black and Brown (1951), and Wander and Reitz (1951) discussed the chemical quality of

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INFORMATION CIRCULAR NO. 23 5 ground and surface water in Polk County and other parts of Florida. Methods of this Investigation Field work on this investigation began on May 1, 1954, with an inventory of water supplies in northwestern Polk County. Information obtained for approximately 500 wells includes the depth of well and casing, water level, yield, type of pump, and use and quality of the water. In addition, information was obtained for some wells in other parts of the county. During the inventory, suitable wells were selected for the observation of water-level fluctuations. The depth to water was measured periodically in most of these observation wells, and water-level recording gages were installed on seven of them. The levels of several lakes also were measuredperiodically, and recording gages were installed on Lake Parker and Scott Lake, in the Lakeland area. Exposures of consolidated rock in this area are rare. All the original rock descriptions made during the investigation were made from cuttings collected during the drilling of wells and test holes. Therefore, except for the rocks exposed in mine pits, all the rocks described in this study were observed from cuttings taken from 33 wells and 4 test holes. The U. S. Geological Survey arranged for the drilling of 25 of these wells and the 4 test holes to depths ranging from 3 to 311 feet, in order to obtain additional water-level and geologic data in the vicinity of Lake Parker. Electric logs of 27 wells in Polk County were made by the Florida Geological Survey during this investigation. Some of these logs were made of wells from which rock cuttings were available, in order to aid in the interpretation of the electric logs of wells from which no cuttings were available. Gamma-ray logs of 36 wells in the county were made bythe Minerals Deposits Branch of the Federal Survey.

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6 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY This type of logging was undertaken in an attempt to provide an additional basis for identifying the stratigraphic units penetrated, but the results were not encouraging. Well-Numbering System The well-numbering system usedinthis reportis based on latitude and longitude coordinates. The well number was assigned by first locating eachwell on a map that is divided into 1-minute quadrangles of latitude and longitude, then numbering each well in a quadrangle in the order of inventory. The well number is a composite of three numbers separated by hyphens: The first number is composed of the last digit of the degree and the two digits of the minute of the line of latitude on the south side of a 1-minute quadrangle, the second number is composedof the last digit of the degree and the two digits of the minute of the line of longitude on the east side of a 1-minute quadrangle, and the third number gives the order in which the well was inventoried in the quadrangle. For example, well 826-131-3 is the third well inventoried in the 1-minute quadrangle north of 28 26' north latitude and west of 81" 31' west longitude. Bymeans of this system wells referred to by number in the text can be located on plates 1, 2 and 3, and figure 19. The same system is used in numbering geologic test holes and exposed sections that were measuredand described, except that consecutive letters of the alphabet are used instead of consecutive numbers. For example, 905-156-A was a test hole. The test holes were filled and abandoned immediately after drilling, and therefore are distinguished from wells. Acknowledgments This investigation was greatly aided by the interest and cooperation of the residents and industries of the area, who readily gave information regarding the wells. Special recognition andthanks are here given to Mr. Arthur Crago, General Manager of the American Cyanamid Company, Brewster,

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INFORMATION CIRCULAR NO. 23 7 Florida, and to his engineering and development staffs for their cooperation and assistance; to Mr. Roy Wilt and Barney's Pumps, Inc., well drillers of Lakeland; to Mr. Curtis A. Dansby and Mr. George Moran, retired well drillers of Auburndale, who supplied well records and other information; to Mr. Howard E. Godwin, well driller of Lakeland, who supplied well records, collected rock cuttings from wells, and made water-level measurements; to Mr. D. O. Payne, City Manager of Lakeland, the late Mr. Charles Larsen, Superintendent of the Light and Water Department, and Mr. F. E. Wilson, City Engineer, who furnished manpower and equipment to determine the altitudes of wells in the area; to Mr. W. O. Johnson, U. S. Weather Bureau, Lakeland, for his assistance in compiling and analyzing climatological data; and to Mr. Walter Buehler, resident of the Scott Lake area of Lakeland, who serviced the recording gage on Scott Lake. GEOGRAPHY Location, Population, and Industry Polk County comprises an area of 1, 861 square miles in the central part of peninsular Florida.; The northwestern part of the county, considered in this report, includes about 360 square miles generally west of Auburndale and north of Scott Lake (fig. 1, pl. 2). The northern third of this area is sparsely populated and is occupied largelyby cattle ranches. Much of the remaining area is used for truck farming, openpit phosphate mining, and the growing and processing of citrus fruits. Lakeland, the largest city in the county, is a thriving ./tourist center and is growing rapidly. Between 1890 and 1950 its population increased from about 500 to about 31, 000. Current and planned improvements in transportation facilities should result in additional growth of population and industry in the city and surrounding areas, and these increases will cause a corresponding increase in the demand for water.

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8 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. Topography Polk County is part of the highland that trends along the longitudinal axis of the Florida Peninsula. The major topographic features in the county are three long, irregular ridges which are separated and bounded by relatively flat lowlands. The area of this report is part of the Central Highlands topographic division of Cooke ( 1939, p. 14, fig. 3), the limesink and lake regions of the Floridan section of the Atlantic Coastal Plain province of Fenneman (1938, p. 46-65), and the Atlantic Coastal Plain groundwater province of Meinzer (1923a, p. 309-314). The area contains the northern part of the westernmost ridge in the county, on which the city of Lakeland is situated. The land surface along the crest of this part of the ridge is generally VA F L POL CITY 1 HAINES E CITY \ \s. O \ LUAKELAND AUB RNDALE HIGHLAND CoTF HIGHLAND CITY REPORT AREA BARTOW *LAKE WALES FT MEADE M * FROSTPROOF LPOL K COUNTY Figure 1. Map of Polk County showing the area covered by this report. Inset map shows location of the county.

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INFORMATION CIRCULAR NO. 23 9 200 to 270 feet above mean sea level. The ridge loses definition north of Providence and slopes down onto broad flatlands which continue to the northern boundary of the county. These flatlands range from 100 to 140 feet above mean sea level. On the west side of the ridge the surface slopes down onto flatlands which extend to the Gulf of Mexico and Tampa Bay. On the east side of the ridge the surface slopes down onto the flat lowland along the course of Saddle Creek. The juncture of ridge and lowland is sharply defined in only a few places, andthese are on the east face of the ridge in the southern part of the area. The maximumlocal topographic relief is 155 feet, inthe area between Scott and Banana lakes, south of Lakeland. Total relief in the area of this investigation is approximately 180 feet. Drainage Surface drainage is poorly developed in the area. On the flatlands there are hundreds of individual perennial and ephemeral swamps and many basins of interior drainage. In the ridge areabasins of interior drainage are even greater in number, depth, and diameter than on the lower flatlands. Inbothareas some of the basins of interior drainage contain lakes but others do not. Parts of the drainage basins of four streams are within northwestern Polk County. The southern of the two Withlacoochee rivers of Florida forms part of the northern boundary of the county, and its tributaries drain some of the northern part of the county. The Withlacoochee flows west into Pasco County, where it turns abruptly north and empties into the Gulf of Mexico near Inglis, in Levy County. The west-central part of the area, west of the ridge, is in the headwaters of the Hillsborough River, which flows west into Hillsborough County and empties into Hillsborough Bay at the city of Tampa. The southwestern part of the area, west of the ridge, is in the headwaters of the Alafia River, which flows southwest into Hillsborough County and empties into Hillsborough Bay we st of Riverview.

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10 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY East of the ridge, and generally south of State Highway 33, are the headwaters of Saddle Creek, which flows south through Lake Hancock into the Peace River. The Peace River flows generally southward and empties into Charlotte Harbor near Punta Gorda, in Charlotte County. These four rivers flow inpoorly defined channels bordered in many places by extensive swamps, and they have very few well defined tributary streams. The course of the Withlacoochee River, inthe area of this investigation, is a cypress swamp whose average width is a little more than a quarter of a mile and whose maximum width is a little more than a mile. Wherethe channel of the Withlacoochee canbe defined within the swamp, it is generally less than a hundred feet wide. Climate All climatic data used in this report are takenfrom the published records of the U. S. Weather Bureau station at Lakeland. The data from this station are believed to be sufficiently representative to permit their general application to the hydrology of the area. The area has a subtropical climate and only two pronounced seasons -winter and summer. The average annual temperature is 72 "F, and the average monthly temperatures range from 61" F in January and December to 82 Fin August. The average annual rainfall is 51.43 inches, about three-fifths of which occurs during June to September, inclusive. Most of the rainfall comes from thunderstorms, which average about a hundred per year. Total annual rainfall at Lakeland, for the period of record, is shown graphically in figure 2. The mean monthly temperature and rainfall through 1955 are shown in table 1.

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60 / -T AVERAGE 51.43 U , // ; (f ... q 7: 1, F, F" -2/_&-2Pj/ /z3-2_ 2 50 -40C3020 Figure 2. Graph showing annual rainfall at Lakeland, 1915-55.

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12 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY Table 1. Mean Monthly Temperature and Rainfall at Lakeland, Florida Temperature Rainfall Month (°F) (inches) January 62.8 2. 13 February 63.8 2.42 March 67.5 3.27 April 72.1 3.02 May 77.0 4.34 June 80.4 7.58 July 81.6 8.21 August 82.0 7.36 September 80.4 6.33 October 74.8 2.74 November 67.1 1.81 December 63.1 2.00 GEOLOGY Solution Features The solution of limestone by circulating water is greatly facilitated by joint cracks and open bedding planes in the limestone, because water moves more freely through them than through the generally very small interstices in the rock. Solution and removal of limestone is therefore most effective along the fractures and bedding planes, especially at their intersections. However, solution occurs also in the unfractured limestone by the circulation of water through the original interstices of the rock. As a result of solution, small cavities enlarge and coalesce, and the limestone may develop a spongy, or "honeycomb", appearance. If solution progresses further, substantial cavern systems may develop. This process progressively increases the water-transmitting ability of the lime stone.

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INFORMATION CIRCULAR NO. 23 13 The limestones of Florida contain many interconnected solutional cavities which range from a fraction of an inch to many feet in diameter. Small cavities were observed in pieces of the Avon Park limestone that were recovered during well drilling operations from depths greater than 500 feet. According to Vernon (in Ferguson and others, 1947, p. 21), cavities have been penetrated at a depth of 8, 000 feet in oil test wells in Florida, and circulation of drilling mud has been lost at even greater depths, indicating the presence of cavities at these depths. Cavities ranging from 1 to 40 feet in diameter have been penetrated in well drilling operations in northwestern Polk County. Tables 2 and 3 give the data available regarding these cavities. All wells listed in table 2 are located on plate 2; those in table 3 are located on plate 1. In Florida, limestone caverns may be observed in the vicinities of Marianna (Jackson County) and Ocala (Marion County), where they are now above ground-water level. Though similar features are present in the area of this report, they are below ground-water levels and cannot be observed directly. Sinkholes are one surface indication of subsurface solution of limestone. They maybe formed when cavern ceilings collapse and the overlying materials settle into the caverns, leaving depressions in the land surface. Though sinkholes originate in other ways, the collapse origin is most common to those formed recently in northwestern Polk County. The solution of limestone by ground water is one of the -nost active geologic processes in central Florida today. This fact was well illustrated by the formation of three new sinkholes in the area of investigation between April 1954 and May 1955. One sinkhole was reported to have formed in April or May 1954 on the W. A. Jeffries property, one mile east of Lake Parker and half a mile north of U. S. Highway 92. A second sinkhole was formed in the fall of 1954 on the property of the American Cyanamid Company, in the lowland along Saddle Creek approximately one mile north of U. S. Highway 92 and half a mile west of the creek. The third sinkhole formed on May 8, 1955, on the Gordon property, about half a mile southwest of Highland City. The surface

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Table 2, Soluaional Cavities Penetrated by Wells in the Floridan Aqulter U, ,a.S, F,Q,5, Elevation of land Depth to cavity Apparent diameter well well surface (faet below of cavity Source of number number (feat above mil) land surface) (f*et) Formation data Remarks 756.156.1 .221* 80 6 Avon Park limestone Driller's log 767.152-1 W.1441 117 540 15 Avon Park limestone Driller's Log 757-163.2 132* 157 2 Suwannee limestone Electric log 360 40 Crystal River formation Driller Well clogged above cavity; cannot be checked with electric log. 757.154-3 W-2241 175* 715 4 Avon Park limestone Driller's log 758.163-1 W.1864 123 586 Z Avon Park limestone Driller's log 758-154.1 * 12* 542 8 Avon Park limestone Driller's log 759-159-1 W-2129 143 695 31 Avon Park limestone Driller's log 759-201-1 W-633 128 665 5 Avon Park limestone Driller's log 800-153.3 W-724 120* 458 2 Avon Park limestone Driller's log 800-156-2 -150* 700 20 Avon Park limestone Driller Loss of cuttings reported. "Honeycomb zone," not a single cavity. 802-149-4 W-3633 130 355 Avon Park limestane Driller's log Log is indefinite, 802-150-3 -119 114 5 Suwannee limestone Electric log 802-151-19 -115 87 5 Tampa formation Electric log 802-155-4 -38* 120 3 Suwannee limestone Driller's log 126 2 802-157-16 -193* 660 2 Avon Park limestone Drillerl's og 802.158-1 W-2767 191 713 3 Avon Park limestone Driller's log 719 4 803-147-12 -144* 606 11 Avon Park limestone Driller's log 803-153-28 W-3424 127 126 1 Suwannee limestone Driller's log 803-154-31 -138 124 1 Suwannee limestone Driller's log 805-147-3 -150* 482 20 Avon Park limestone Driller's log 805-155-2 W-3766 135 90 2 Suwannee limestone Electric log Also reported by driller. 805.159-1 W-3312 205* 218 43 Suwannee limestone Driller's log "Honeycomb cone, not a single cavity. 807-154-4 W-3883 135 551 2 Avon Park limestone Driller's log 807-201-1 W-2774 137 ? 2 7 Driller's log Log is indefinite. 808-200.4 -199* 691 14 Avon Park limestone Driller's log Lose of cuttings reported. "Honeycomb zone," not a single cavity. 810-155-1 W-3866 132 108 2 Suwannee limestone Electric log 191 2 Crystal River formation Electric log 817-149-2 -159 365 10 Avon Park limestone Driller's log *Estimated.

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Table 3, Solutional Cavities Penetrated by Wells and Springs in the Secondary Artesian Aquifer U. S.G S. F.0.S. Elevation of land Depth to cavity Apparent diameter well well surface (feet below of cavity Source of number number (feet above mel) land surface) (feet) Formation data Remarks 759-200-1 W-2954 136* 74 2 Hawthorn Driller's log This well location shown on plate 2. 802-154-2 -142* 40 Hawthorn Owner Drilled by owner. 803-153-12 -124 55 8 Hawthorn Owner Drilled by owner. 805-153-4 -130* 65 19 Hawthorn Driller's log "Honeycomb zone," not a single open cavity. 805-156-a W-3769 141* 76 4 Hawthorn Driller's log 806-156-2 W-3771 135* 88 7 Hawthorn Driller's log Spring -112* 35 8 Hawthorn Observation Saddle Creek Mine. Spring -112* 35 3 Hawthorn Observation SadrIle Creek Mine. * Estimated. UUl

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16 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY depressions were all small, less than 30 feet in diameter and less than 30 feet deep when observed. The sinkhole on the Gordon property, however, is reported to have been 40 feet deep immediately after it was formed. Five other similar sinkholes formed in central Florida from May 7 to May 10, 1956, in a broad area extending eastward from Plant City in Hillsborough County to the Winter Haven and Lake Wales areas of Polk County. Others were reported in the western part of the city of Bartow in 1953 and 1954. The size and location of these sinkholes indicate that all may have originated in the lime stone members of the Hawthorn formation of Miocene age. Three of the sinkholes developed gradually during a period of about 24 hours, but the rest formed suddenly and without warning. The collapse of great thicknesses of relatively soft limestone, to form sinkholes might be triggered at times by large reductions of artesian pressure, but there are not enough data to substantiate this hypothesis. Evidence of solutional activity in the geologic past is plentiful in northwestern Polk County. The ridge area contains many nearly circular basins, a few of which are as much as a mile in diameter. Few data are available regarding the original depth of these sinkholes. The shape of the basin of Scott Lake, south of Lakeland, strongly suggests that it was formed by two coalescent sinkholes which were partly filled by the initial collapse and subsequent erosion of the sides. Well 758-156-3 (fig. 19), drilled near the northeast shore of the lake in December, 1955, started atan altitude of 175 feet above mean sealevel, and the driller reported that he penetrated only sand and clay, presumably the filling of a sinkhole, before drilling into the Suwannee limestone, in place, at a depth of 65 feet below mean sealevel. The Hawthorn and Tampa formations, which normally overlie the Suwannee limestone in this area, were not penetrated in this well. The cavern whose roof collapsed, therefore, is in or below the Suwannee limestone. The average altitude around the crest of the lake basin is approximately 230 feet above mean sea level. The original depth of the sinkhole thus appears to have been at least 300 feet and possibly more, because the well probably does not penetrate the deepest part of the partly filled depression.

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INFORMATION CIRCULAR NO. 23 17 The lake occupying the basin is elongate, measuring approximately 1. 1 miles by 0. 4 mile. The dimensions of the basin appear tobe about twice those of the lake surface. Sounding operations in May 1954 indicated that the lake bottom at the lowest point was 152 feet above mean sea level. All the large sinkholes in the area of this investigation are partly filled by material that has collapsed from the sides, andmany of them are occupied bylakes such as those in the city of Lakeland. These lakes were not more than 25 feet deep in May 1954. Sounding operations by the U. S. Geological Survey in May 1954 indicatedthat the lowest points on the lake bottoms were as follows: Lake Beulah and Lake Hunter, 153 feet above mean sea level; Lake Wire, 174 feet above mean sea level; Lake Mirror, 163 feet above mean sea level; and Lake Morton, 155 feet above mean sea level. The size of the surface expression of these sinkholes is not necessarilythe size of the original collapse, because slump and erosion of the sides of the sinkhole may have enlarged the original surface dimensions. Summary of Stratigraphy In the following discussions of rock formations, liberal use is made of the work of Vernon (1951), Cooke (1945), andothers The formations penetrated by wells in this area are chiefly limestones that range in age from middle Eocene to Recent. Though older formations (principally limestones) extend to depths of several thousand feet, they are not tapped by water wells in this area and are not discussed herein. The formations with which we are concerned are discussed in order, from oldest to youngest. Figure 3 is a geologic cross section from southwest to northeast across the area. The trace of the cross section is shown by line A-A' on plate 2. Eocene Series Avon Park Limestone: The Avon Park limestone underlies the entire northwestern part of Polk County, and in most places it is more than 400 feet thick. It is the thickest and

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J00 A' 00 0J 0-, 100O , 1400-B --n Prk limestone V) Hh motion ^' 1-000-uwann " '-I00 I 2 3 miles -Note: Tampa formotion and Ocala group ** p ' do not conform with U, S. Geological j -500Botto of well Survey nomenclature "Bottom of w1 / ,-/,064ft. MSL. , -600-Figure 3. Geologic cross section showing formations penetrated by water wells in northwesternPolk County. (See line A-A, plate 2. ) wells in northwestern Polk County. (See line A-A', plate 2. )

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INFORMATION CIRCULAR NO. 23 19 oldest formation ordinarily penetrated by water wells in this area. It is a cream to dark brown hard dense fine grained, locally crystalline limestone, but in some places it is chalky, dolomitic, gypsiferous, or cherty. Many fragments from 400 to 900 feetbelowthe land surface contain abundant small solution cavities. Well 807-154-4, a large industrial well drilled six miles northeast of Lakeland, in May 1956, penetrated the top of the Avon Park at a depth of 355 feet below the land surface. The well was terminated at a depth of 1, 200 feet, apparently still in the Avon Park. This formation appears to have the greatest water-transmitting ability of all known formations in the area. According to Vernon (1951, p. 99), the Avon Park unconformably overlie s the Lake City lime stone andunconformably underlies the Inglis formation of the Ocala group. Ocala Groupl: Work by the Florida Geological Survey in recent years has resulted in areclassificationof the rocks formerly called the Ocala limestone. Vernon (1951, p. 113171) divided this sequence of rocks into the Ocalalimestone (restricted) and the underlying Moody's Branch formation. He divided the Moody's Branch formation into two parts. The lower unit was named the Inglis member, and the upper unit was named the Williston member. Puri (1953a) gave the name Crystal River formation to Vernon's Ocala limestone (restricted) and gave formation rank to the Inglis and Williston members of the Moody's Branch formation. The Crystal River, Williston, and Inglis The stratigraphic nomenclature used in this report conforms to the usage of the Florida Geological Survey. It conforms also to the usage of the U. S. Geological Survey, with the exception of the Ocala group and its subdivisions and the Tampa formation of Miocene age. The Florida Geological Survey has adopted the Ocala group as described by Puri (1953a), but the U. S. Geological Survey regards these rocks as a single formation, the Ocala limestone. The Tampa limestone, as officially used by the Federal Survey, is referred to as the Tampa formation by the Florida Geological Survey.

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0Z FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY formations are now referred to as the Ocala group by the Florida Geological Survey. All three underlie the entire area of this investigation. The Inglis Formation: The Inglis formation is a cream colored porous hard granular limestone of marine origin. It is 25 to 50 feet thick. It unconformably overlies the Avon Park limestone and conformably underlies the Williston formation, according to Vernon (p. 115-116). The conformable upper contact is important because itprovides a reference horizon for structural interpretation and for correlation of the geologic section across the State. The Williston Formation: The Williston is a cream to tan generally soft porous, granular limestone, 15 to 30 feet thick. Vernon (p. 141, 144) indicates that this formation is conformable with both the underlying Inglis formation and the overlying Crystal River formation. The Williston-Crystal River contact is difficult to determine because it is transitional. The Williston-Inglis contact, therefore, is preferred for correlation purposes. The CrystalRiver Formation: The Crystal River formation is a white to cream porous very soft coarse grained limestone. It is about 100 to 150 feet thick in this area, and it is composedprincipallyof the shells of large foraminifers of the idN which are set in a fine grained matrix of calcium carbonate. These large, single celled marine animals had shells that were generally disc shaped and as much as three-fourths of an inch in diameter. In some of the species the disc had a saddle-like shape. Because the Crystal River formation contains many of these distinctive fossils, it is very easily recognized. The Crystal River conformably overlies the Williston formation and unconformably underlies a bed tentatively identified as the Suwannee limestone, of Oligocene age. The specific yield of wells terminating in the Crystal River is small. It can generally be increased by deepening the wells into one or more of the underlying formations.

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INFORMATION CIRCULAR NO. 23 21 Oligocene Series The Suwannee Limestone: The Oligocene series is represented by the Suwannee limestone, which is believed to underlie nearly the entire area of this investigation. The Suwannee is a light to dark cream granular detrital porous soft, very pure limestone 40 to 100 feet thick. It contains many fossil fragments and casts of molds of fossils, and local well drillers usually call it "coquina. " Locally, at or near the top, it contains extremely hard darkbrown masses of chert. The masses of chert are commonly one inch to two feet thick, but in a fewplaces they maybe as much as 10 feet thick. The Suwannee unconformably overlies the CrystalRiver formation. In the southern part of the area it is overlain unconformably by limestones of the Miocene series, and in the northern part by unconsolidated sand and clay, which may range in age from Oligocene to Recent. Part of these unconsolidated sediments may be a weatheredresidue of the Suwannee limestone. Cooke (1945, p. 98)reports that the Suwannee is present in northern Polk County, but Vernon (1951) does not mention Polk County in his discussion of this formation. The formation generally supplies enough water for domestic use. Miocene Series Correlation of the formations of Miocene age in Florida and adjacent states has long been a major geologic problem. Recently (Puri, 1953b) great strides have been made with this problem in the Florida Panhandle. Major problems still exist, however, in the peninsular part of the State. Since World War II the Miocene and younger deposits in the central part of the peninsula have been studied by geologists of the U. S. Geological Survey. A report by Bergendahl (1956, p. 69-84) contains a summary of the problem, and publications by Cooke (1945, p. 109, ff), Vernon (p. 178-186),

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22 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY Puri(1953b, p. 15, ff), and others contain other summaries. Cooke (1945) and Vernon (195 1)both identified the Tampa formation (lower Miocene) and the overlying Hawthorn formation (middle Miocene) in Polk County. Cole (1941, p. 6), on the basis of lithology, identified the Tampaformationbetween depths of 117and 180 feet in a well four miles northof Lakeland. Field evidence obtained duringthis investigation didnot justify a positive identification of the Tampa, but the Suwannee limestone is overlain by a sandy limestone that is lithologically similar to the Tampa. This sandy limestone seems to be an extension of known Tampa in southern Hillsborough County, and it is here tentatively assigned to the Tampa on thebasis oflithologyandon scatteredfinds of the foraminifer Sorites sp., Archaias floridanus, a foraminifer commonly accepted as being diagnostic of the Tampa, has not been found in this area. The combined thickness of the Suwannee limestone and Tampa formation ranges generally from 40 to 140 feet in this area. In places the entire section is lithologically similar to the Tampa, and in other places to the Suwannee. In some places the section appears to consist of both formations and the contact between the two is gradational. Tampa Formation: In northwestern Polk County the Tampa formation is a dark gray to white generally hard sandy limestone containing a few black and brown granules of phosphate. The thickness of the limestone ranges fromless than one foot to about 60 feet. The contact between the Tampa and the underlying Suwannee limestone is not easily defined, but it is usually drawn where the pure limestone of the Suwannee changes to the sandylimestone of the Tampa. Both Cooke (1945, p. 109) and Vernon (1951, p. 179) indicate that the Suwannee-Tampa contact is unconformable. A variegated (blue-gray or blue-green and cream) silty, sandy clay overlies the limestone of the Tampa formation. The clay ranges in thickness from 3 to 15 feet and is more widespreadthanthe limestone inthe area studied. In places this part of the formation is shaly and contains less sand

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INFORMATION CIRCULAR NO. 23 23 than where it is clayey. The bed is relatively impermeable, but drillers have reported obtaining very small water supplies fromthe shalybeds in a few wells. The clay isbelieved to be part of the Tampa formation, but additional study may prove that it belongs in another formation. No fossils have been found in the unit. Puri (1953b, p. 21) reports a similar clay andincludes it in what is here called the Tampa formation. Vernon (p. 183, table 14) indicates that the contact of the Tampa formation and the overlying Hawthorn formation is unconformable in this area. Hawthorn Formation: In northwestern Polk County the Hawthorn formation consists of interbedded sandylimestone and clays or silts which are not individually distinctive. The limestone units are light cream to tan, very sandy, phosphatic, and locally silicified, and their hardness and permeability differ from place to place. They contain large casts, molds, and silicified shells of marine invertebrates, and silicified and phosphatized bones. The limestone units are generally covered by one to six feet of brown sandy, gritty clay. In the Saddle Creek areathe upper limestone is overlain locally by brown well indurated clayey sandstone which, in places, fills the solution cavities on the limestone surface. In some smallareas the limestone is overlain unconformably by lenses of white to dark green massive, dense blocky clay. Both the clayey sandstone and the dense clay are here included in the Hawthorn formation. In most places the limestones are sufficiently permeable to supply water for domestic requirements, and locallythey contain well developed solution cavities which enable them to yield large quantities of water. In well 803-156-11, in Lakeland, fourbeds of limestone were penetrated between depths of 51 and 119 feet. These limestones are separated by clayey strata which may be weathered residues of the underlying limestones. In well 803-151-11, half a mile north of Carters Corners, and in other wells on the lowland along Saddle Creek, only one or

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26 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY HYDROLOGY Surface Water The amount of water withdrawn fromlakes and streams in the area of this investigation is small compared with the amount withdrawn from ground-water sources. Small amounts of water are pumped from lakes for irrigation of lawns and citrus groves. The city of Lakeland pumps water from Lake Parker and Lake Mirror for cooling purposes in adjacent power plants and then returns it to the lakes. Lake Gibson has been used extensively for irrigation of citrus groves, as have Crystal Lake and Lake Bonny. Scott Lake is still used extensively for such irrigation. A few shallow pits have been dug to the water table for livestock supplies and for irrigating small farms. Figure 4 shows the hydrographs of representative lakes in the area. The hydrographs of Lakes Wire and Hollingsworth are similar to those of Lakes Hunter, Beulah, Morton, andGibson, all in the ridge section. Lakes Parker, Deeson, Crystal, and Bonny are on the lower flatland. The level of Lake Parker was relatively stable during the period of record, but nearby Lake Deeson and Crystal Lake declined almost continuously between October 1954 and June 1956. The hydrograph of Lake Bonny, just south of Lake Parker, is very similar to those of Lake Deeson and Crystal Lake. Many lakes in the area were much smaller in 1956 than they were in preceding years, as shownby evidence of former shorelines obtained from drilling data, maps, aerial photographs, and encroaching vegetation. In 1956 many small unnamed lakes and swamps were completely dry. A few of these may have been drained artificially, but most of them are dry because of below average precipitation, subsurface drainage, or both. Ground Water Occurrence Ground water is the subsurface water inthat part of the zone of saturation in which all pore spaces are filled with water under pressure greater than atmospheric. Essentially

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INFORMATION CIRCULAR NO. 23 27 Figure 4. Hydrographs of Lakes Wire, Hollingsworth, Parker, and Deeson, and Crystal Lake, in the Lakeland area197 1 1 1 1 1 I i I I I 1 IG ^ LAKE WIRE 133 1LAKE HOLLINGSWORTH I I£8 13 --------------------------------------------I 132 -j > 131 " I I ,LAKE PARKER >1 195 130 IA S O N D J F MA M J J A S 0IM AM J J all of it that is usable is meteoric (derived from precipitation). Part of the precipitation returns to the atmosphere by evapotranspiration, and part runs off into lakes and streams; the remainder percolates downwarduntil it reaches the zone of saturation to become ground water. The ground water then moves laterally, under the influence of gravity, toward places of discharge such as wells, springs, surface streams, lakes, or the ocean. Ground water may occur under either nonartesian or artesian conditions. Where, it is not confined its upper surface, the water table, is free to rise and fall and it is said

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28 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY to be nonartesian. Where the water is confined in a permeable bed between less permeable beds, so that its surface is not free to rise and fall, it is said to be artesian. The term "artesian" is applied to ground water that is confined under sufficient pressure to rise in wells above the top of the permeable bed that contains it, though not necessarily above the land surface. The height to which water will rise in a tightly cased artesian well is called the "artesian pressure head. " The imaginary surface coinciding with the water levels of artesian wells is called the 'piezometric surface. " An aquifer is a formation, group of formations, or part of a formation, in the zone of saturation, that is permeable enough to transmit usable quantities of water. Areas in which aquifers are replenished are called recharge areas. Nonartesian Aquifer In the area of this investigation ground-water supplies are obtained from four different aquifers, which were first recognized by Matson (Matson and Sanford, 1913, p. 389). The uppermost of the four aquifers is in the unconsolidated surface sand of Pleistocene age. This sand covers the entire area and contains unconfined water. The water is used for domestic supply and for irrigating garden plots that require relatively small amounts of water. Tubular wells in this aquifer range from 1to 4 inches in diameter and from 7 to 35 feet in depth; there are a few dug wells and pits also. Hand (pitcher)pumps are commonly used for domestic purposes, andgasoline-driven suctionpumps are used for irrigation. These wells do not produce more than 20 to 30 gpm (gallons per minute), except for a few wells in the broad, flat area west of the Lakeland ridge. Wells into this aquifer are commonly constructed (by thetenant or owner)by driving small-diameter pipe into the ground. The sand is then cleaned from the pipe, and the well is deepened by water jetting. There are very few dug, drive-point, screenedor gravel-packed wells in this aquifer in the area of this investigation. Wells inthe aquifer rarely retain their original depth because the loose sands will not

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INFORMATION CIRCULAR NO. 23 29 stand in the walls of an open hole. In several instances the well casings have been nearly filled with sand by overpumping the well. The water-table map (pl. 3) covers only a very small part of the area of this investigation, because there were not enough nonartesian wells to provide the control necessary for a reasonably accurate map of the entire area. During the course of this investigation, water levels were measured periodically in several nonartesian wells, and hydrographs for representative wells are shown in figures 5, 15, 16, and 18. The location of these wells is shown on plate 3 and figure 19. Uppermost Artesian Aquifer Within the Bone Valley formation, which immediately underlies the Pleistocene sands, is an artesian aquifer of undetermined thickness and areal extent which is referred to as the "uppermost artesian aquifer. " The aquifer is confined between the upper, heavy, dense clays of the Bone Valley and the lower clay zones which may be a part of the Bone Valley or of the underlying Hawthorn formation. Very little is known of this aquifer, and only a few wells obtain water from it. The few wells known to penetrate it are similar in construction to wells in the nonartesian aquifer. In places the piezometric surface of this aquifer is near the level of the water table. Generally, however, it is 3 to 6 feet below the water table. Water-level observations made during the drilling of deep wells indicate that the piezometric surface of this aquifer is higher than that of the aquifers below it. Secondary Artesian Aquifer The "secondary artesian aquifer, " which is formed in the limestone members of the Hawthorn formation,. is used much more than either of the two aquifers previously described. It is confined above by the clay in-the upper part

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13t .. I .I I I 1 -r f I I I i I I I| | 137 -J36 __ 135 ---7--I55 Well 803-154-2 S3 miles northeast of Lakeland Depth of well 15 ft Depth of casing 15 ft. zl133 (122 13 i < 120 ,117 -J > 116 L 114 -.. .. Well 804-153-7 /Deth of we 21 f 113 4.1miles northeast of Lakeland Depth of casing 20ft.? 112 M J J A S 0 NDJ FMAM JJ AS NDJ FMAM J 1954 1955 1956 Figure 5. Hydrographs of wells in the nonartesian aquifers.

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INFORMATION CIRCULAR NO. 23 31 of the Hawthorn or the lower part of the Bone Valley formation, and is confined below by the blue clay of the Tampa formation. Most of the wells that draw water from this aquifer are in the lowland of Saddle Creek and are used for domestic supply and for truck farm irrigation. They range from 1to 6 inches in diameter and from 30 to 75 feet in depth. The casing in these wells is generally seated in the uppermost part of a limestone bed, but in some wells it is driven only into the clay overlying the limestone. Several wells that utilize this aquifer in the ridge section are much deeper than those in the lowland, because of differences in the altitude of the land surface. In the lowland areas, water levels in wells open only to this aquifer are generally 5 to 10 feet below the water table. In the ridge section, however, the water level may be more than 100 feet below the water table. Figures 6 and 17 are hydrographs of three wells which are open only to this aquifer. Plate 1 and figure 19 show the location of these wells. The Piezometric Surface: Plate 1 is a map of the piezometric surface of the secondary artesian aquifer inthelowland along Saddle Creek. The large cones of depression around the springs at points E, F, and G are caused by discharge from the aquifer in mine pits operating at the time of mapping. Much of the area between Saddle Creek and the west branch of Saddle Creek, south of the springs at point E, is a mined-out area that is used for water storage. Limestone of the Hawthorn formation is exposed at many places in the floors of these abandonedpits. Artesian springs which issued from the limestone during mining operations have been isolated and dammed off, thus impounding the water. Water is pumped from the operating pits and either is used in mining operations or is stored in the abandoned pits. Flowing artesian wells existed as late as 1948 in the general vicinity of well 803-152-2, about half a mile northeast of the U. S. Highway 92 bridge over Saddle Creek. Water levels in this area were reported to have been about two feet above the surface in 1948, but they had dropped to about 11 feet below the surface by 1956. The area of artesian flow apparently extended about three-fourths of a mile on either side of Saddle Creek; its north-south extent is unknown. The

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32 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY Figure 6. Hydrographs of wells in the secondary artesian aquifer. 12 7i I I I i I I I i I I I I 126 125 24 1Li 21 < 120 I 19 z Well 803-154-10 Depth of well 69 ft. w 118 1 32 miles northeost of Lakeland Depth of casing 39 ft 9 116 I04 g103 --------S.0_---------------------------_102 :99 -i 98 •Well 803-153-18 Depth of well 50f. 3.7 miles northeast of Lakelond. Depth of casing 45 ft. 95 £ MN J J A S 0 N D J F M A M J J A S 0 N D J F M A M J 1954 1955 1956 area was described by Sellards and Gunter (1913, p. 263), and Matson and Sanford (1913, table facing p. 390) reported a flowing well in this area. Floridan Aquifer aThe principal artesian aquifer in the area of this investiSgation is the Floridan aquifer, which consists of a series of limestones that range from Eocene to Miocene in age. This aquifer is the source of allmajor public, industrial, and irrigation water supplies in northwestern Polk CountyJ. The name "Floridan aquifer" was introduced by Parker (Parker and others, 1955, p. 188-189) to include '¶parts or all of the middle Eocene (Avon Park and Lake City limestones), upper

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INFORMATION CIRCULAR NO. 23 33 Eocene (Ocala limestone), Oligocene (Suwannee limestone), and Miocene (Tampa limestone, and permeable parts of the.. Hawthorn formation that are in hydrologic contact with the rest of the aquifer).!' According-to Cooper, Kenner, and Brown (1953, p. 17), this aquifer "underlies almost all of Florida, the coastal area of Georgia, and the southeasternmost parts of South Carolina and Alabama. " In northwestern Polk County only a few wells penetrate to. the base. of the -Avon Park limestone, of Eocene age. Well 807-154-4,-one of the deepest, ended in the Avon Park limestone at a depth of 1, 200 feet below the land surface. The top of the Floridan aquifer in this well is 80 feet below the land surface. The total thickness of the aquifer is not known. The Floridan aquifer is known to be separate, fromthe overlying secondary artesian aquifer be cause the water levels of the Floridan aquifer are consistently lower than those of the secondary artesian aquifer. In the lowlands the water levels of the Floridan aquifer are generally 5 to 15 feet below those of the,secondary artesian aquifer. In the ridge section the difference in water levels appears to be much greater, perhaps as much as 40 to 80 feet. Wells penetrating the Floridan aquifer range from 6 to 24 inches in diameter and from 150 to 1, 200 feet in depth. Water level records are seldom kept by well drillers duringthe drilling of a well, but some records were obtained from drillers'logs of three wells inthe area and some werecollected from 10 other wells during this investigation. The data are incomplete for seven of the wells but relatively complete for the other six wells. The measurements from 11 of these wells indicate that once the Floridan aquifer is penetrated the water levels do not change appreciably with increased depth. In two of the 13 wells, however, they are reported to have changed substantially (more than 10 feet) when sizable solutional cavities or zones were penetrated. Figure 7 is a hydrograph of well 759-158-1, in the Floridan aquifer, about 3, miles southwest of Lakeland. This well is 643 feet deep and is cased to a depth of 318 feetfwith.18-, 16and 12-inch casing. Figure 8 shows the hydrographs of wells 757-152-1, just southeast of Highland City, and 800-156-1, in: Lakeland; which are also open only to the.Floridan aquife r.

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34 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY Wells that are open to both the secondary artesian aquifer and the Floridan aquifer are referred to as 'mnultiaquifer wells. " They range from 3 to 12 inches in diameter and from 150 to 850 feet in depth. Most of themhave the smaller diameters and are used for domestic and small irrigation requirements. Water levels in multiaquifer wells are about the same as those in wells open only to the Floridan aquifer. When a well is open to both aquifers its pressure head is reduced quickly to about the pressure head of the Floridan aquifer. SA--2rr -I _ _8_I " r > Diameter of casing 18,16,and 12 in. 70 I U1 SI L 74 IJ SWell 759-158-1, 3 miles southwest of I Lakeland. 76 78 1948 1949 1950 1951 1952 1953 1954 1955 Figure 7. Hydrograph of-well 759-158-1 in the Floridan aquifer.

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INFORMATION CIRCULAR NO. 23 35 1I 1 I -II I II I I 27 29 30 M Well 757-152-1 z 0.5miles southeast of Highland City U Depth of casing 104ft. 41 32 L, z 50 Ot 51 A 0 3' U0 53 S 0.5In Lkeloand 58 50 S Depth of well 297 ft 1 Depth of casing 190ft. J A S N D J F M A M J J A S N D J F M M J I-1954 1955 1956 Figure 8. Hydrographs of wells in the Floridan aquifer. Figure 8. Hydrographs of wells in the Floridan aquifer.

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36 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY This is possible because the thickness of the Floridan aquifer ranges from 10 to perhaps 40 times the thickness of the secondary aquifer, and the water transmitting ability of the Floridan aquifer is generally much greater than that of the secondary aquifer. Figure 9 shows hydrographs of multiaquifer wells in this area. too 99/-98 96 94 N 91 S90 Well 8W00-153-1 L, 4.5miles southeast of Lakeland 8 Depth of well 390 ft < 87" 6 Depth of casing 75 ft S86 z 120 S !9------------------j----Well 805-157-3 116 1,5 3.5 miles north of Lakeland 154 ---------SDepth of well 178 ft 113 ^ ------------------------Depth of casing 45 ft SJ J S N DJF M A M J J A S 0 N DJ F M A M J 1954 1955 1956 Figure 9. Hydrographs of wells open to both the secondary artesian and the Floridan aquifers.

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INFORMATION CIRCULAR NO. 23 37 The Piezometric Surface: Plate 2 is a highly generalized map of the piezometric surface of the Floridan aquifer in northwestern Polk County. A large, lobate high area may be seen in the northeastern part of the map. From this high the piezometric surface slopes downward to the west and south through the ridge area in the vicinity of Lakeland, following in a general way the topographic highs. Only a few wells were being pumped during the time when the water-level measurements for plate Z were made. Most of these were being pumped almost continuously for public and industrial supplies, but only two of them (806152and 759-155)hadformed significant cones of depression. The hydraulic gradient and areal extent of these cones, as shown on plate 2, are approximations, but the general effect of pumping in the area is evident. Plate 1, a map of the piezometric surface of the secondary artesian aquifer, shows a general similarity to plate 2. The depression in the piezometric surface along Saddle Creek, shown on plate 1, was caused largely by heavy discharge from artesian springs at point E. On plate 2, the northward reentrant in the slope of the piezometric surface of the Floridan aquifer in the Saddle Creek area may be due, in part, to topography, because the lowland along the cr.eek is paralleledon the east andwest by relativelyhigh ridges which may be supplying some recharge to the aquifer. The reentrant may be due, in part, to the continuous pumping of wells 759-155-1, 800-153-3, and 806-152-1. However, along U.S. Highway 92 for approximately a mile east and west of Saddle Creek, the reentrant maybe partly due to upward leakage fromthe Floridan aquifer to the secondary artesian aquifer. This is shown by the generally coincident water levels of the two aquifers in that area. Plate 3, the map of the water table in the vicinity of Lake Parker, is similar to both plates 1 and 2. The reentrant in the water table along Saddle Creek is caused by discharge from the nonartesian aquifer into the creek and active mine pits.

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38 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY Several wells on plate 2 show anomalous high or low water levels which are not clearly defined because of insufficient control data. Wells 803-154-31, 808-200-1, 758-156-7, and 800-157-7 provide examples of these anomalies. In most places the piezometric lows appear to underlie the large sinkholes. Because surface and subsurface solution features in limestones are directly related, the piezometric lows may indicate great subsurface flow through cavernous zones of the Floridan aquifer in which sinkhole collapse originated. The local areas of high water levels all coincide with local topographic highs. There is practically no surface runoff in such areas and the water table is high, indicating that these are areas of recharge to the nonartesian aquifer. The piezometric surface of the Floridan aquifer is high in these areas, indicating that they are areas of recharge to that aquifer also. Water-Level History: Few accurate data are available on water-level fluctuations in the area of this investigation before 1948. Records of water-level fluctuations in well 759-158-1, southwest of Lakeland, havebeen kept since 1948 and oonstitute the longest record available in this area (fig. 7). Stringfield (1936, p. 172) lists water-level measurements made in several wells that were observedalso during the present study. His wells 11 and 15 are wells 802-157-3 and 804-147-2 of this report, and his well 10 is immediately adjacent to well 803-158-1 (pl. 2). Measurements of water levels in these wells made in June 1956 indicate that the water levels have declined 8 to 12 feet since 1934. These declines are not considered permanent, because Stringfield's measurements were made during aperiod that was preceded by Iyears of above normal rainfall, and the 1956 measurements were made after 21 years of below normal rainfall. After a period of normal rainfall the water levels probably will rise and thus be nearer those reported by Stringfield.

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INFORMATION CIRCULAR NO. 23 39 Hydraulics Specific Capacity of Wells Many specific-capacity tests have been made by local well drillers. The results of some of these are shown in table 4. Meinzer (1923b, p. 62) defined the tested capacity of a well as "the maximum rate at which it is known to have yielded water without appreciable increase in drawdown. " He defined the specific capacity of a well as "its rate of yield per unit of drawdown" and stated that "the term is applied only to wells in whichthe drawdown varies approximatelyas the yield. In such wells the specific capacity can be estimated by dividing the tested capacityby the drawdown during the test. " The differences in the specific capacities shown in table 4 result from lithologic changes within the aquifer and from differences in the well diameters. Pumping Tests A pumping test was made in well 807-154-4 on July 9, 1956, to determine the coefficient of transmissibility of the Floridan aquifer at one location in northwe stern Polk County. The coefficient of transmissibility is a measure of the capacity of an aquifer to transmit water. In customary units it is the quantity of water, in gallons per day (gpd), at the prevailing water temperature, that willmove through a vertical section of the aquifer one foot wide and extending the full saturated height, under a unit hydraulic gradient. Well 807-154-4 is northeast of Lake Parker (pl. 2) and is open to the Williston and Inglis formations and the Avon Park limestone. The well is 26 inches in diameter and 1, 200 feet deep. During the test it was pumped by a dieseldriven turbine pump for eight hours at a nearly constant rate of 6, 500 gpm. Computations of the coefficient of transmissibility were made from measurements of the recovery of the waterlevel in the well. The coefficient of transmissibility for the part of the aquifer open to this well was computed to be about 1,000,000 gpd per foot.

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Table 4, Specific Capacitie of Representative Wells in the Lakelend Area Static water Diameter of Depth of Depth of level (teat Pumping rate Specific capacity Pumping Well casing casing well *Aquifer below land Drawdown (tested capacity) (gpm/foot of time number (inches) (feet) (teset surface) (test) (gpm) drawdown) (hours) Remarks 802-151-10 4 42 325 2 & 3 11.6 3,2 90 28 0.5 Measured by U.S.G.S, 602.152-10 3 5S 65 2 10.2 1,8 60 33 1,0 Measured by U, S.G.S. 803.151-6 3 36 193 2 & 3 10.4 8,3 55 6,7 2.5 Measured by U.S.G,S, 803.151.9 4 48 239 2 & 3 13.7 2.0 46 23 1.0 Measured by U.S.G.S. 803.153.29 4 60 154 2 & 3 18.3 4.3 65 15 1.0 Measured by U.S.G. S. 804-152-2 3 45 59 2 14.0 .6 29 48 .3 Meseured by U.5.0.S. 804-153-13 3 39 59 2 10.7 3.9 24 6,1 .5 Measured by U.S.0.S. 805-153-2 3 45 72 3 -? 14.3 2.8 24 8.6 .5 Measured by U.S.G.S. 806.156-2 3 63 103 2 20.9 .6 22 37 .5 Measured by U.S.G.S. 807-154-2 3 32 56 2 5.4 4.1 24 5.8 5 Measured by U.S.G. . 807-154-3 6 53 411 2 & 3 13.2 3.4 290 85 .3 Measured by U.S.G.S. 807.154.4 26 292 1,200 3 14.7 11.6 6,500 560 6.5 Measured by U.S. .S. 808-153-1 3 56 93 3? 13.7 4.0 24 5.8 .5 Measured by V.S.G.S. 809-153-1 6 43 385 2 & 3 13.4 11.3 300 26 1.0 Measured by U.S.G.S. 759-155-1 24 294 1,220 3 20.0 50.0 5,000 100 8,07 Reported by driller. 800-153-3 24 118 1,037 3 15.0 15.0 3,000 200 8.0? Reported by driller. 806-152-1 24 285 1,285 3 10,0 55.0 4,000 73 8.07 Reported by driller. 810.133-1 10 45 396 2 3 12,0 9.0 1,000 110 1.04 Reported by driller 810-154-1 10 246 562 3 8,0 11.0 1,100 100 1.0+ Reported by driller. * 2, Secondary artesian *3, Floridan '

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INFORMATION CIRCULAR NO. 23 41 Pumping-test data collected from other wells are too incomplete for use in computing the coefficient of transmissibility of the Floridan aquifer. In general, they are from multiaquifer wells that are open to formations above the Avon Park. The data indicate that the coefficient oftransmissibility of the upper part of the Floridan aquifer is appreciably less than 1, 000,000 gpd per foot, and that the transmissibility differs considerably in different sections of the aquifer. Laboratory Analyses Test hole 805-156-A was drilled in the bottom of Lake Parker, near the mouth of the northwest arm of the lake, and samples of the sediments were collected and described (fig. 12). The sand samples collected from the test hole were studiedand tested by the U. S. Geological Survey Hydrologic Laboratory at Denver (table 5). As some of the finer sediments may have been lost during the recovery of the disturbed samples, the coefficients of permeability shown in table 5 are probably higher than those of the undisturbed sediments. Quality of Water Chemical analyses were made of water samples from 66 wells and 3 lakes in the area of this investigation. An analysis was made also of a water sample from a spring in the American Cyanamid Company's Saddle Creek mine. All analyse s were made by the U. S. Geological Survey laboratory at Ocala, Florida. Samples from four municipal supply wells were analyzed for all the common chemical constituents, and the other samples were analyzed for only selected constituents. The results of these analyses are shown intable 6. The concentrations of dissolved minerals in the water of the aquifers in northwestern Polk County differ considerably within each aquifer, and the ranges of concentration in a given aquifer overlap those of other aquifers. It is not practical, therefore, to differentiate the aquifers on the basisiof the chemical quality of their water, but further study of water quality may reveal relationships that will be useful in locating sources of recharge to the aquifers.

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N Table 5. Laboratory Analyses of Sand Samples from Test Hole 805-156-A (Analyses by USGS Hydrologic Laboratory, Denver, Colorado) Sample Depth below lake bottom Porosity Coefficient of permeability no. (feet) (percent) (gpd per square foot)1 1 5-7 37.1 75 2 11-12 34.0 40 3 15-16 35.0 50 4 20-23 32.7 80 5 24-26 34.2 20 6 27-28 35.2 60 7 35-37 36.9 90 8 44-45 36.2 150 9 50 32.2 95 10 55-56 39.7 180 11 60 44.8 110 12 70 45.4 115 4 13 73-77 43.2 40 lGallons per day at 60°F through a cross section of one square foot under unit hydraulic gradient.

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Table 6.--Chemical analyses of water from wells, lakes, and springs (Chemical constituonts given in parts per million) CAquifert 1, nonarteslan; 2, secondary artasian; 3, Floridan; 4, uppernost artesian] t 1 Vo S& Ia sg 4I 8 Ij 1 I 757-152-2 City of Lakeland 252 90 3 6-11-56 77 224 180 396 7.4 16 0.08 54 11 13 0.7 192 8.0 24 0.0 1.5 -757-156-2 Marvin Pipkin 120 77 2 6-11-56 76 115 96 192 7.6-------* ----0.00 757-158-1 folk Board of Public 325 163 3 6-11-56 77 178 156 299 7,2 ------------'--.00 At Medulla Instruction School 758-155-2 Mrs. J. weaver 811 133 2,3 6-11-56 77 177 148 296 7.7 -----' --.00 759-155-1 bavison Chemical Co. 1,220 294 3 6-11-56 80 289 216 418 7,4 ------------.00 F.G.S. W-1835 800-153-3 American Cyanamid Co. 1,037 118 3 2-15-55 80 226 174 359 7,5 -.01 46 14 -212 4 11 --F.G.S. W-724 800-157-1 City of Lakeland 773 219 3 6-11-56 7M 189 164 311 8.0 ---.-------.00 F.G.6, W-2015 (city well 7, Orleans Ave.) 801-149-1 R, M. Wilkes 225 100 3 67-56 80 211 204 356 7.9 -.----0 ---* .-00 801-155-1 Sason-King, Inc. 560 120 3 67-56 76 165 144 279 7.4 ..-..-. -----------.04' 802-150-5 Davison Chemical Co. 82 42 2 67-56 76 197 168 332 7.4 ----2,10 802-151-10 J. P. CarrOll 325 42 2,3 67-56 74 167 136 280 7.5 ---*.---.--, --.06 802-152-10 T, F, Palmer 65 55 2 2-14-55 75 140 114 229 8.0 -.14 30 9.5 --129 3 10 *-t -F.GS. W-3422 802-153-6 H. W, Kolp 116 55-60 2,3 2-14-55 76 192 160 319 7.7 -.35 32 19 --162 5 22 ...... 802-153-12 L. J. Lovett 46 45 2 67-56 74 159 128 279 7.3--------------"0.00 802-155-1 City of Lakeland 746 160 3 69-56 79 237 188 383 7,2 .... -------.28 (city well 6, Lake Parkec plant) 802-156-1 Lakeland Cement Co. 12 12 1 2-15-55 72 300 202 406 7,6 -.14 57 15 --205 22 14 .. 802-156-2 A. F. Jett 118 -2,3 2-15-55 58 132 250 7.6-.17 24 18 ** -144 2 10 802-157-12 City of Lakeland 828 280 3 16-55 80 227 198 394 8.0 17 .01 54 15 7.5 1.0 249 2.4 6 .2 1 .1 Carbonate O. F.C.S. W-946 (city well 5, Lake Mirror) ----I------------I -I -I -] ---I-I -I -I -J --I -I -I ---I -I -I -I -I -I ------I Q

PAGE 48

03-15V bers 5 40-0 2 2-14-55 74 334 84 575 76 3 64 30 337 22 603-151-6 do 193 36 2,3 2-14-55 75 214 182 366 7.9 -.06 38 21 .. .. 216 7 12 ........ 803-153-3 Polk County Sportsman's 361 55 2,3 2-15-55 72 244 202 380 7,8 -.03 46 21 ..237 5 10 .. ..... club 803-153-_ C. N. Baader 56 52 2 2-15-55 -180 136 269 7.2 -.02 26 17 ..... 144 3 16 * O 803-153-28 Cecil Cambee 127 53 2,3 2-14-55 71 202 172 339 7.8 * .09 34 21 .202 2 11 03-153-36 C. .Thompson 59 51 2 2-14-5 76 202 180 232 7.8 04 40 20 197 1 13 803-154-6 J. W Rynolds 20 20 1 2-15-55 74 68 26 64 5.7 .51 4 3.9 12 4 1 F -. S!s a g § I I aa _S 803-154-1 Publph Dup Caer 654 40-4 3 2 2-1-56 -20011 14 322 7.5 -13 30 19 ---** -0,1 803-154-22 A. L, Combee 50 40 2 2-15-55 74 236 200 358 7.3 -.25 42 23 ..... 222 3 9 .. ..... -. 803-154-23 W. A. JeEEeries 60 40 2 2-15-55 74 248 208 363 7.6 -.25 44 24 ..... 232 4 26 .. ... 803-150-1 Wm. C Johni 50 2 67-56 76 139 116 229 7.8 -,7 *-* --" -.00 804-151-6 John E. Yost 373 40 2,3 67-56 76 218 176 353 7.5 --.. 00 -r -.---...00 803-152-2 U.S. Geological Survey 14 18 4 12-20-5 7434 27632 737 68---7 19 7.1 --2 31 1 ----. -F.C.S1 .-3767 803-151-5 V, P. W bes 60 402 69-56 75 437 02 724 7.5 -0,03 64 --3310 22 803-151-6 do 193 36 2,3 214-55 75 214 182 366 7,9 -.06 38 21 -. -. 216 7 12 I 804-153-3 UPolk eouny pora lnr 361ve 59 39 2 6-5-556 7 244 226 437 7,8 -.03 46 21 * " F.237 5 10. -3770 Club 803-113-b C. B. Seader 56 52 2 2-15-35 -180 136 269 7,2 *.02 26 17 * ** 144 3 16 804-153-2 Godo. T llon 39 51 20 1 2-14-55 74 44 132 743 5.8-.0440 320 5.8 10 2 13 -803-154W. DReynold 126 78 20 1 2-14-55 72 4 68 26 610 5. .1 4 3.94 12 4 11 -803-154-9 Ralph er 40-45 2 -6-200 228154 94 7.5.13 30 19 --260 -18 . 803-154-22 A. L, Conbae 50 40 2 2-15-55 74236 200358 7.3 -.25 42 23 222 3 9 803-314-253 1, A. Jefferlee 60 40 2 2-15-55 74 248 208 363 7.6 -.25 44 24 * -232 4 26 804-150-1 Wn. Croow 82 5 2 67-36 76 139 116 229 7.8 -----------.00 804-151-6 John S. Yoat 373 40 2,3 67-56 76 218 176 353 7.5 --------------.00 ^ 804-152-2 0.5. Geological Survey 42 18 4 12-20-35 74 276 195 412 7.7 --47 19 7.1 -202 312 10 -----, F.G., W-3767 804-153-6 L. 8. Wells 60 40 2 69-56 75 437 302 724 7.5 --------------*°° 804-153-13 U1.. Geological Survey 59 39 2 67-56 74 234 226 437 7.7------------------* I---------.04 L.S. 1-3770 804-154-2 Gordon Howell 31 20 1 2-14-55 74 44 32 74,3 5.85.04 3.2 5.8 -" 10 2 13 804-154-4 V. V, Deeson 126 78 2,3 2-14-55 72 54 32 61,0 5.6 -.71 4 5.4 -12 3 11 do ---9-26-56 -280 228 435 7.2 --45 28 -260 -18

PAGE 49

Table 6.--Continued g A &I e5 Ba I g I U b U a. 804-194-7 J. D. Lewis 60-80 -2,3 69-56 74 203 188 349 7,7 .------------0.40 804-154-8 J. A. Wiley 91 41 2,3 69-56 77 273 228 436 7.5 -----.. -----.02 804-154-17 U.S. Geological Survey 77 52 2 128-55 78 192 178 321 7.7 --35 22 8.4 -96 1 1 10 ---F.GS, W-3764 805-147-1 City of Auburndale 589 206 3 6-11-56 80 126 97 210 7.5 15 0.20 28 6.7 5,7 9 113 4.8 8,2 0.0 0,2 -F.G.S. W-2647 (City "Winond Park" well) 805-153-2 U.S. Geological Survey 72 45 37 69-56 76 218 170 382 7.7 --------------".06 F.G.S. W-3841 805-154-2 Blmsr McArthur 97 60 2? 69-56 74 343 306 600 7.9-----.. ----" -" .02 805-155-2 U.8; Geological Survey 32 29 1 11-28-55 74 79 78 85.5 6.1 --10 13 5.4 -13 9 20 ---FP..S. W-3766 104 60 2,3 125-55 74 222 221 330 7.7 --44 27 10 -209 1 9 ---(water samples 0 200 60 2,3 125-55 74 211 209 362 7.6 --64 12 4,7 -241 1 L0 ---collected during drilling of well) f 805-155-3 do 72 62 2 126-55 74 206 199 363 7.6 --50 18 6 -220 1 L0 .--...0.S. W-3765 805-156-2 do 32 20 4 12-27-55 74 214 21 395 7.3 --45 25 5.6 -252 1 8 --P -F,.8. W-3769 C 82 41 2 12-27-55 73 227 202 378 7.6 --48 20 7,2 -225 1 8 ---(water samples collected duringo drilling of well) 805-157-15 United Brotherhood of 550 67 2,3 69-56 76 168 144 280 7.3 ---------.. --.00 FCS., W-448 Carpenters & Joiners 805-159-1 Polk Board of Public 261 203 3 6-11-56 76 151 122 239 7.6 --------------00 , 3312, Instruction Griffin School 806-149-5 U.S. Geological Survey 20 17 1 67-56 79 710 430 924 6.0 --------" .00 806-149-6 do 134 103 2 12-19-55 77 179 141 261 7.,8 -30 16 6.5 -167 1 6 ---.F..S. W-3768 806-152-1 Coronet Phosphate Co. 1,285 285 3 69-56 78 298 260 526 7.6 -----------*.06 806-155-3 Laekland Amvet Club 135 60 2,3 69-56 75 206 190 351 7.7 ---------.06 806-156-2 U.S. Geological Survey 103 63 2 12-56 74 180 154 295 7.8 --32 18 5.2 -166 1 7 ---* P.-.S. W-3771 807-154-2 do 56 32 2 13-56 74 335 280 557 7.2 --63 30 10 -320 1 19 ---.FCG .W-3763 I____________ ,I_ JI

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Tabli 6.--Conntnued -----vow i 11 i -" -il a 807-154.3 American Cyanamid Co. 411 53 2,3 1-30-56 74 234 215 412 7.6 --.50 22 7.9 -252 1 12 * -F.. 8 ,,B, W-3836 007-201.L Polk Board of Public 19B 88 2,3 6-11-56 76 141 110 223 7.7 -* ----0,03 P,G.,, W-2774, Initruction Iathlean Elementry School 808-148-4 E, L, Lundy 130 105 3 67-56 76 97 74 157 6,7 --**----.* .**. -.00 808-153-1 U.S, Geological Survey 93 56 37 69-56 77 234 224 434 7,7 -** ** --* ----. ---.00 1FG,S, W-3837 808-155-2 American Cyanamid Co. 14 14 1 69-56 76 68 68 138 6,9 -, *----** -----.00 808-156-2 D, L. Snyder 225 64 2,3 69-56 76 125 96 199 7,4 ------------.00 809-153-3 T, J. Oxford, Jr. 488 46 2,3 69-56 77 243 226 420 7,7 -------* ----.02 F,0.S. W-3865 809-155-1 American Cyanamid Co. 62 53 2 69-56 78 43 22 64.6 6.7 ------. "* -.--.89 810-149-1 City of Lakeland 567 200 3 6-11-56 80 122 103 206 7.6 14 0.63 31 6.2 3.1 0.50 120 3 4.8 0.0 0.1 -Polk County well 2, WSP 773-c 814-148-2 Craig Linton 392 40 3 69-56 76 175 166 299 7,6 ----------.00 815-157-2 U..B Oeological Survey 108 41 3 69-56 76 185 148 307 7.6 -------------.00 F.G.S. W-3839 Lake Park' ...................... ----1 2-14-55 58 164 50 L27 6.8 .14 11 5.5 --36 49 15 -Lake Wire -........-------.-----.--1 2-15-55 66 108 80 158 7.4 -.03 23 5.5 --79 4 8 .-. Scott Lake .------------1 6-11-56 84 68 16 87.2 5.1 ----------.30 Springs American Cyanamid Co. --2 2-14-55 74 226 190 381 7.7 -.01 49 16 --218 9 16 -Saddle Creek Mine

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INFORMATION CIRCULAR NO. 23 47 During this investigation some analyses of water were furnished by well owner s and municipalities. Many additional analyses of water from Polk County have been published by Black and Brown (1951, p. 94-95, 114-115, 117), Collins and Howard (1928, p. 226-227), Wander and Reitz (1951, p. 9, 11, app.), and others. Use of Water Public Supplies The communities of Lakeland, Highland City, Polk City, Sand Gully, and Tancrede (Standard Village) have separate public water-supply systems which are operated and maintained by the city of Lakeland. The systems consist of nine wells in Lakeland and one well in each of the other communities. Gibsonia has a privately owned system which supplies many local residents. The Lakeland city system is the onlyone for which records of total pumpage are kept. Annual pumpage for Lakelandincreased from about 500 million gallons in 1935 to about 2, 200 million gallons in 1955 when the average daily pumpage was 5,950,000 gallons (fig. 10). Industrial Supplies Most industrial water supplies are obtained from wells in the Floridan aquifer, but the phosphate mining industry\ obtains water from wells and mine pits. These pits cut through the nonartesian and uppermost artesian aquifers, and some cut into the secondary artesian aquifer. The estimated average daily pumpage by industries is as follows: Phosphate industry Wells.............. .................. 8,600,000 gpd Pits.............. ..................... 13,000,000 gpd Citrus industry Wells, for processing juice and concentrate......................... 6,000,000 gpd City system, for packing .............. --Laundries (using own wells) ............ 500, 000 gpd Ice manufacture (wells) ............... 900, 000 gpd

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48 FLORIDA QEOLOGICAL SURVEY MILLIONS OF GALLONS O a CO O O_ -O O Or 0 0 0 0 .0 0 0 0 00 o o 0 Figure 10. Annual pumpage of water by the LIakel6id'-city system. I,·,-5I \\N ? ·--

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INFORMATION CIRCULAR NO. 23 49 Domestic Supplies Domestic supplies throughout the area are obtained from wells. The average daily withdrawal for this purpose, in additionto that from municipal supply wells, is estimated to be 2 million gallons. Irrigation Supplies Both ground and surface water are used for irrigation, but ground water is more important. Most irrigation wells obtain water from the Floridan aquifer or the secondary artesian aquifer, or both. A few farm irrigation systems use water from wells in the nonartesian aquifer, and a very few use shallow nonartesian water pumped from artificial ponds. The principal use of surface water is for the irrigation of citrus groves. The estimatedaverage use of water for irrigation is as follows: Citrus crops Wells................................. 3,000,000 gpd Lakes .................................. 150, 000 gpd Farm crops Wells........; ......................... ..... 500,000 gpd Ponds ................................. 500 gpd Summary of Use The estimated average daily use of water for all purposes is about 40, 000, 000 gallons -approximately 28, 000 gpm. Of course, not all this water is consumed. For example, part of the water used for irrigation infiltrates to the zone of saturation. Water Losses from the Area Most of the precipitation in northwestern Polk County is removed from the area by surface runoff, evaporation, and transpiration; and, after readcingthe zone of saturation, by underflow that leaves the area and by pumping. Pumping

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50 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY has been discussed previously. The other types of water losses are discussed briefly in the following paragraphs. Underflow and Runoff Water in liquid form leaves the area ofthis investigation by ground-water flow and surface runoff. The surface sand is very permeable and absorbs water rapidly from rainfall. A considerable part of the water that enters the soil reaches the zone of saturation and leaves the area by lateral underground flow. Because of the high permeability of the surficial sand, surface drainage is poorly developed. A large part of the streamflow, therefore, comes by seepage from the nonartesian aquifer. Available data do not permit satisfactory estimates of the amount of water carried out of the area by surface streams. The U. S. Geological Survey maintains permanent gaging stations on the Withlacoochee, Alafia, and Hillsborough rivers, well outside of Polk County. The nearest permanent gaging station on the Peace River system is inBartow, within Polk Countybut outside the report area. Data gathered from the gaging stations are published annually in water-supply papers of the U. S. Geological Survey. The average annual runoff inthe four rivers mentionedabove for the period 1940 through 1954 (calculated as inches of water over the basin) was 13. 11 inches. The records show great differences of runoff in each drainage basin from year to year and between basins during the same year. Evaporation The source of data on evaporation from free water surfaces nearest the area described in this report is a U. S. Weather Bureau evaporation pan at the Orlando water plant in Orange County. This pan is of the standard type (class A) used by the Weather Bureau and is four feet in diameter. The Orlando station, about 50 miles northeast of Lakeland, is 111 feet above mean sea level. The elevation at Lakeland is 214 feet above mean sea level. Evaporation and other climatic factors at Orlando differ somewhat from those af Lakeland, but in the absence of data from Lakeland the data

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INFORMATION CIRCULAR NO. 23 51 from the Orlando station are used in this report. A pan coefficient of 0.7 is applied to correct the annual rate of evaporation from the pan to that from a lake (Linsley, Kohler, and Paulhus, 1949, p. 163). The evaporation and rainfall data from the Orlando station, for the period January 1954 through June 1956, are given in table 7. Figure 11 is a graphic comparison of the corrected evaporation data from the Orlando water plant and the rainfall at Lakeland, from January 1954 through June 1956, inclusive. Transpiration "Transpiration "is the evaporation fromplants of water used in their life processes. No accurate method has been developed for measuring the rate of transpiration in a humid subtropical climate such as that of Polk County, but transpiration is undoubtedly a significant factor in the discharge of water. 'Recharge Nonartesian Aquifer -.,Rainfall is the principal source of recharge to the nonartesian aquifer in the area of this investigation, and a part of it enters the soil. Of this, some is retained in the soil, later to be returned to the atmosphere by evapotranspiration. The remainder reaches the water table to become part of the ground-water body. Reasonable estimates of the amount of recharge to the pnarte sian aquifer from rainfall cannot be made at this time. Precipitation data from surrounding weather bureau stations are not satisfactory because the thunderstorms that account for much of the rainfall in this area are erratically distributed in time and location. Precipitation data are being collected near observation wells, and these will be very helpful in future computations of recharge.

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Ln N Table 7. Evaporation and Rainfall Data from Orlando Water Plant, Orlando, Orange County, Florida (Inches of water) January February March April May June July August September October November December Total 1954 Pan evaporation 2,56 3,40 4 55* 5.49* 6.70* 6.60 6.05* 6.85* 5.03 4.61* 2,90 2.13 56.87 Rainfall .64 1.16 1.12 6.96 3.49 4.42 11.00 7.47 4.43 4.85 2.73 1.67 49.94 1955 Pan evaporation 2.64 2.94 4.97 6,48 7. 74 6.14 5.32* 6,14* 5,20* 4, 0 3.03 1.77 56.45 Rainfall 2.14 1.29 1.71 2.19 4.40 3.79 8.33 7.07 5.79 1,83 .39 1.65 40.58 1956 Pan evaporation 2.57 3.32 5.89 6.66 7.70* 6,76 6-month totals: 32.90 Rainfall 1.79 1.00 .33 4.23 5.30 2.89 15.54 *Adjusted to full month, '.4

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12 I i I I I I I I I . EXPLANATION_ RAINFALL ,,8 EVAPORATION 26-------------------/ ---------' g' I I 'C3 0 J MANID J AF M A , J.IA J F A J 0 1954 I , 1955 1956. Figure 11. Graph showing computed evaporation from open-water surfaces at Orlando and rainfall at Lakeland.

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54 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY Uppermost Artesian Aquifer No data are available on recharge of the uppermost artesian aquifer, but it is inferred from water-level relationships that the aquifer is recharged largely, if not entirely, by downward seepage from the nonartesian aquifer. Secondary Artesian Aquifer The data obtained for the secondary artesian aquifer (pl1) are not adequate for determining the major recharge areas of the aquifer. However, some of the lakes in the ridge area may be the principal sources of recharge, as water from wells penetrating the aquifer near these lakes is generally muchless mineralized than water from wells at a distance (table 6). Well 757-156-2 is about 300 feet from the shore of Scott Lake, on the lower southwestern slope of the lake basin, and well 757-155-3 is about halfamile southeast of the lake (fig. 19). On July 10, 1956, the lake level was 165. 3 feet above mean sea level, the water level in well 757-156-2 was 157. 0 feet above mean sea level, and at well757-155-3 was 101.0 feet above mean sea level, showing a hydraulic gradient descending fromthe lake. The land surface atwell 757-156-2 is approximately 180 feet above mean sea level, and at well 757-155-3 it is approximately 264 feet. Floridan Aquifer The area of recharge for the Floridan aquifer in peninsular Florida was sc ed generally by Strn 1936).H-smmap of the piezometric surface (1936, pl. 12) _showsan extensive dome-recharge area), yhi is centered innorth-central PolkCounty. Stringfield (1936, p.1 noted that ithe unco solidated deposits overling the limestones are relatively impermea m e in parts of the recharge area but are sufficiently permeable to allo-wrecharge by downwanr-&dpercolati7t ofTainfall in other parts of the area. He-tates iaWt-bat 'witThin erea-there are numerous lakes

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INFORMATION CIRCULAR NO. 23 55 Jhatprobably occupy old sinkholes now filledwith sands that permit downward percolation of water. There are few surface streams in this area, and the rainfall drains into the numerous lakes and depressions, providing a large source of water for recharge. " Geologic and hydrologic data are scarce for the part of the area of this investigation lying generally north of the latitude of Polk City (pl. 2), and it is not possible to determine the amount of recharge to the Floridap aquifer at this time. Plate 2 clearly indicates, however .that recharge is OTccuTrring over -hib-roadflatrareo6fgenerally poor surfacedrainage conditions, and few sinkholes. Here recharge is apparently occurring by slow downwardpercolation of water from the nonartesian aquifer, through aleaky confining bed, into the Floridan aquifer. Inthis areathe secondary artesian aquifer is absent. The uppermost artesian aquifemay he present locall, though such presence had not been established by-jne-19 56. Figure 4 shows the hydrographs for Lake Wire and Lake Hollingsworth, sinkhole lakes in the city of Lakeland. The hydrographs of Lakes Mirror, Beulah, Hunter, and Morton, though not included inthis report, are very similar to those of Lakes Wire and Hollingsworth. If the materials filling these sinkhole basins were sands having permeabilities similar to those shown in table 5, the rate of downward leakage from the lakes could be substantial. These lake levels remain essentially stable (fig. 4), indicating that the recharge to the lakes is enough to balance the discharge re sulting from downward leakage. Most of these lakes occupy closed basins that are relatively small, generally only one to three times the area of the water surface. Topographic gradients, and presumably water-table gradients as well, are low within the basins. It is probable, therefore, that recharge to the lakes from the nonartesian aquifer are small. If this is the case, their downward leakage from the lakes must also be small, or the lake basins would soon be dry. -slfthe Floridan aquifer receives significant recharge by the downwardpercolation of water through the sinkhole basins and sinkhole lake s, there shouldbe piezometric "highs "under d around them. In June and July, 1956, observation wells

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56 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY near the shores of the large sinkholes in the Lakeland area were too few to determine conclusively if there were piezometric highs in the Floridan aquifer under any of the sinkholes. Water levels in several wells (pl. 2), however, indicate that the piezometric surface in the vicinity of some of the sinkholes and sinkhole lakes is anomalously low. This association of low water levels and surface and subsurface solutional features is believed to indicate the discharge of large quantities of water through cavern systems. The caverns thus serve as subsurface drains a"n -ne limestone, into which ground water moves from all sides. A higher pressure head would be required in the limestone surrounding the caverns than in the caverns themselves, in order for water to flow from the limestones to the caverns. It is logical to assume, therefore, that the cavernous areas would be indicated by low pressure head. The point of discharge of this concentrated subsurface flow may be the large artesian springs in adjacent Hillsborough and other counties. Special Problems Lake Parker One of the local problems of considerable importance concerns the future of Lake Parker in eastern Lakeland. The possibility that the water level in this lake might be greatly lowered by future large withdrawals of ground water near the northern and eastern shores is a matter of great concern to the residents of Lakeland, to the city government, and to industry. Lake Parker covers about 2, 200 acres and is generally very shallow. Sounding operations, in May 1954, indicated that at the deepest point the lake was approximately nine feet deep. The lowest point on the lake bottom is approximately 119 feet above mean sea level. The northern part of the lake's drainage basin is low and relatively flat. On the east and south sides of the lake the drainage divide is relatively close to the shore. In the southwestern part of the basin there is a steep gradient from the ridge in central and northern Lakeland. Northwest of

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INFORMATION CIRCULAR NO. 23 57 the lake the basin widens appreciably. Small streams enter Lake Parker from a large sinkhole basin west of the lake in northern Lakeland, and from Lake Gibson andother sources northwest of Lake Parker. Several small canals enter the northeast arm of the lake from surrounding swampy areas. The lake overflows through a canal extending from the east shore into the Saddle Creek drainage system. A concrete control structure in this canal, near the lake, prevents outflow when the lake level is lower than 129. 6 feet above mean sea level. The city of Lakeland has a multimillion dollar powerplant on the south shore of Lake Parker, at the site of well 802-155-1 (pl. 2). This plant, which produces 45, 000 kilowatts, uses water mostly from Lake Parker for cooling the power units. The plant when in full operation uses lake water at a rate in excess of 68, 000 gpm.1 This usage is more than 10 times the maximum pumpage from any well in the area and several times the maximum pumpage for the city system in June 1956. The water withdrawn from the lake, plus a small amount used from the nearby city supply well, returns to the lake after passing through the powerplant. In order for the intake system of the plant to operate, the lake level must be more than 125. 45 feet above mean sea level. 2 Some data concerning the subsurface geology in the Lake Parker area were obtained from the prospecting records of the American Cyanamid Company and some were obtained by drilling test holes. A composite section made from these data follows: Personal communication from Mr. Dan Macintosh, Resident Engineer, Light and Water Department, Lakeland, September 6, 1956. 2Ibid.

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58 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY Material Thickness (feet) Sand, quartz, gray to dark brown 2 -20 Sand, clayey, tan to brown 5 -10 Clay, sandy, phosphatic, yellow to gray-green 5 -10 Clay, sandy, yellowto brown; phosphate pebbles 3 -10 Clay, sandy, brown; limestone fragments 1 -4 Limestone, sandy, phosphatic --This general sequence of sediments is found throughout the lowland area around Lake Parker. Occasionally, in prospecting for phosphate, so-called "blank holes" are encountered. In the Saddle Creek -Lake Parker area, the term 'blank holes" refers to test borings in which only traces of phosphate are present or to borings in which no phosphate is present. Usually, sand is the only material penetrated. Prospect borings generally terminate just below the base of the phosphate-bearing clays, short of the underlying limestone. "Blank holes " generally terminate at depths well below the level of phosphate deposits found in nearby test holes. The surficial sands are not known to extend to the limestone in the area adjacent to Lake Parker. In some places the mapped locations of the 'blank holes " appear to follow a pattern much like a stream course. One suchpatternwas notedin the area in and around the northern arms of Lake Parker, by personnel of the American Cyanamid Company. If the sand sections in these patterns continue downward to the underlying limestone, then they would permit much greater local leakage, or recharge, from the lake to the aquifers than would occur through the clay confining beds normally found throughout northwestern Polk County. Test hole 805-156-Awas drilledinthe bottom of Lake Parker near the mouth of the northwest arm of the lake, in one of the deepest sand sections of the pattern, to determine if the sand extended downward to the limestone bedrock. Figure 12 shows the materials penetrated, and table 8 gives the waterlevel observations made during the drilling. The data from the test drilling indicate that the normal sand and clay sequence is probably under the lake, as does examination of hundreds of logs of phosphate prospecting holes in the area

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INFORMATION CIRCULAR NO. 23 59 0 -Z.Z.ZZZz Muck, block, soupy * '.**'.: " Sand,dork-brown much fine .*.*.*.:*.* organic debris. 10 -S-anlih -.*... * Sand, light-tan; slight amount of organic material; becomes *'.'* lighter colored downward. 20--. 0 ..'* Sand, chocolate-brown; sharp I.. '. contact with lighter colored -30.sand above; much fine O organic material; becomes * .' .very slightly clayey in S*" ' lower 5 feet. < 40..' S40 Peat, block, porous; very little .sand or clay. w 50• .. .Sand, chocolate-brown, slightly *.* clayey; amount uf organic S * matter increases below LL 60.. : 58 feet. z l-70'*" L .. Sand, brown, lighter than above; .* .much organic matter; becomes slightly to moderately clayey 80 -" -' below 74 feet. ..•. .... .Clay, gray-green, very sandy, tough, --dense; becomes waxy and has -little sand below 85 feet. ---Clay, yellow-brown,dry, tough, greasy. 90---..--_-~* Clay, greenish-gray, sandy, gritty; contains _-,-tough dense yellow streaks. Clay, as above; contains weathered limestone fragments. Figure 12. Diagram showing sediments penetrated in test hole 805-156-A, in Lake Parker.

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Table 8. Water Levels and Temperatures Observed in Test Hole 805-156-A Depth of Depth of Depth to water Type of Lake Well-water hole casingl, 2 below lake level3 material temperature temperature Date (feet) (feet) (feet) ( F) (OF) 4-10-56 37 40-45 -Sand 62 72.5 4-13-56 52 74 35-40 Sand 65 75 4-13-56 60 84 40* Sand -4-13-56 84.5 85 Dry Clay -4-16-56 93 87 60* Clay -4-16-56 95 87 -Clay 65 74.5 1Depth of hole and depth of casing measured below lake bottom. 2Casing driven ahead of drill to prevent sand heaving into test hole. 3Lake level was 128, 9 feet above mean sea level.

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INFORMATION CIRCULAR NO. 23 61 many of which were drilled in ponds, lakes, and swamps. However this does not preclude the absence of clays from very small areas, because prospecting holes are generally drilled 100 yards apart. Figure 13 is the hydrographof Lake Parker for the period of record. A continuous water-level recorder was installed on Lake Parker on July 21, 1954. Prior to that time, measurements by the engineers of the city light plant were made at a staff gage on the pier at the plant. Figure 14 shows the hydrographs of Lake Parker; well 803-154-10, in the secondary artesian aquifer; and well 806-1541, amultiaquifer well. Figure 15 shows the hydrographs of Lake Parker; well 805-155-1, in the nonartesian aquifer; well 805-155-3, in the secondary artesian aquifer; and well 805-155-2 in the Floridan aquifer. These wells are equipped with water-level recorders. Water Budget: In order to evaluate the relation of Lake Parker to the adjacent and underlying aquifers, a water budget was compile dthat estimates the recharge to and discharge from the lake during the period January 1 to June 20, 195b. Rainfall on the lake, assumed to be the same as that measured at the Lakeland station, contributed approximately 17 inches of water to the 2, 200 acres of lake surface during the period of study. In order to determine the general relationship and magnitude of surface-water inflow to and outflow from Lake Parker, the discharge of all streams flowing into or out of the lake was measured once in September 1955 and again in February 1956 by the Ocala, Florida, office of the U. S. Geological Survey. Plate 3 shows the location of all gaging points, and table9 lists the two sets of measurements made at these points. In September 1955 the lake was above the level of the outlet-control structure, total surface inflow was 6.84 cfs (cubic feet per second), and total outflow was 3. 38 cfs. In February 1956, when the lake was below the level of the outlet control, total surface inflow was 1. 50 cfs and there was no surface outflow. Surface inflow therefore probably exceeds surface outflow during most or all of the

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01 1949 1950 1951 1952 1953 1954 1955 1956 Figure 13. Hydrograph of Lake Parker for period of record.

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INFORMATION CIRCULAR NO. 23 63 13 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 I I I I I I I I I I I I I I 1 1 129 127 l I i I l I I I I -iJ 126-125 to w 124 < 123 0 121--120 Well 803-154-10_ W 3.2 miles northeast " 9 of Lakeland. z Depth of well 69 ft. _I 1p8 -Depth of casing 39 ft S117 1 12 5 1 I 1 1I 1II1 1 1 IS124 123 121 Well 806-154-1 _ Smiles northeast of Lakeland Depth of well 130 ft 119 Depth of casing 72 ft SMJ J ASON DJ FMAMJ J A SONDJFMAMJ 1954 1955 1956 Figure 14. Hydrographs of Lake Parker and wells S803-154-10 and 806-154-1.

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64 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY 133 -I I118 <130 Cn LAKE P4 < 12S Ui ,151 "-----
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INFORMATION CIRCULAR NO. 23 65 year. For budget purposes an average of the inflow shown by the two measurements was used. From this the inflow to the lake during the test period was computed to be 8. 1 inches over the lake surface; the outflow during the same period was computed to be 3. 3 inches. City storm sewers carry the drainage from approximately 1.7 square miles (1, 100 acres) into Lake Parker, but probably not more than 25 percent of the total rainfall on this area reaches Lake Parker through the sewers. Thus, 1, 100 acres x 17 inches x 25% -2, 200 acres = 2. 1 inches of water contributed to Lake Parker from storm sewers. Lake Parker receives some overflow water from Lake Mirror through gravity-flow drains. Lake Mirror, in turn, receives overflow from Lake Wire. The amount of water added to Lake Parker from this source is unknown. Table 9. Stream-gaging measurements in the Lake Parker and Saddle Creek areas (measurements by U. S. Geological Survey, Ocala, Florida). Station shown Flow (cfs) Flow (cfs) on plate 3 9-15-55 2-15-56 Lake Parker K (Inflow) 1.67 1.00 L (Inflow) .54 .22 M (Inflow) 4.63 .28 N (Outflow) 3.38 .00 Saddle Creek A 9.96 14.00 B 45.20 8.22 C 15.30 3.00 J 116.00 14.00 P 169.00 53.70

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66 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY Ground-water inflow to Lake Parker from the nonarte sian aquifer canbe computed bythe use of Darcy's law, which can be written as Q = PIA, where Q is the flow, in gallons per day; P is the coefficient of permeability; I is the hydraulic gradient, in feet per foot; and A is the area, in square feet, of the cross section through which the flow is taking place. The average permeability of the sands listed in table 5 (85 gpdper square foot) was used in making these computations. Hydraulic gradients were determined from plate 3, a map of the water table in the Lake Parker area. Saturatedthicknesses of the nonartesian aquifer were taken from drilling and test data. The total ground-water inflow to Lake Parker was thus computed to be 220, 000 gpd. This amounts to approximately 0. 7 inch of water over the lake surface from January through June 1956. The evaporation loss from the lake between January 1 and June 20, 1956, based onthe average monthly evaporation shownby Meyer (1942), was approximately 24 inches (table 7). The approximate water budget may then be tabulated as follows: Gains: Inches of water Rainfall 17.0 Surface inflow 8. 1 Storm-sewer inflow 2. 1 Ground-water inflow .7 Lake Mirror overflow ? 27.9+ Losses: Evaporation 24. 0 Surface-water outflow 3. 3 Ground-water outflow in nonarte sian aquifer 0.0 27. 3 Difference (downward flow to aquifers) 0. 6 The amount of this difference is well within the accuracy limits of some of the data used in computing it and therefore has little significance. During this period, the lake declined about 14. 5 inches (fig. 14). This decline is probably

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INFORMATION CIRCULAR NO. Z3 67 due primarily to vertical seepage from Lake Parker to one or more of the underlying artesian aquifers. Itis not known whether recharge to the artesian aquifers from Lake Parker occurs over most of the lake bottom or in only certain areas. Chemical analysis of ground-water samples, however, shows that the mineral content of the water from both the Floridan and the secondary artesian aquifers is lowest near the northeastern arm of Lake Parker and Fish Lake, suggesting that the best connection between Lake Parker and the artesian aquifers is in that area. The contours on plate 1 indicate that water may leak from Lake Parker into the secondary artesian aquifer and move laterally through the aquifer to discharge at spring E, near Saddle Creek. In December 1954, water was pumped at a rate of 7,500 gpmfrom an active mine pit inthe secondary artesian aquifer, o. 3 mile south of spring E (pl. 1). Such withdrawals have been made in the general vicinity of springs E, F, and G (pl. 1) since late in 1953. The decline of Lake Parker is consistent with the decline of other lakes in the vicinity that are farther from the mining area. The future withdrawal of ground water from mine pits in the nonartesian aquifer in the area south of State Highway 33 and north and northeast of Lake Parker may tend to lower the level of the lake in two ways: (1) it will reduce the ground-water inflow into the lake, and (2) it might induce ground-water outflow from the lake toward areas where the water table is drawn down to especially low levels. Withdrawal of water for mining from the secondary artesian aquifer also will lower the piezometric surface and increase the hydraulic gradient away from the lake, thus increasing the rate of leakage from the lake to the aquifer. Decline of Lakes Near Lake Parker Water levels in Lakes Deeson, Crystal, and Bonny, near Lake Parker (pl. 3), declined about six feet between December 1954 and July 1956, whereas the water levels in

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68 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY Lake Parker and other nearby lakes remained about the same (fig. 4). Hydrographs of the five lakes for 1954 (fig. 4) correlate reasonablywell. The hydrographs of Lakes Deeson and Crystal for 1955 begin to depart from those of the other lakes. Lakes Deeson and Crystal responded only slightly to rainfallduring 1955 and ended that year with a net decline of 2. 5 feet. Lakes Hollingsworth and Parker showed net rises of about half a foot for the same period, and Lake Wire declined lessthan halfafoot. The departures of Lakes Deeson and Crystal fromthe trend of the other three lakes continued through July 1956. The water level of Lake Crystal had fallen below the level of Lake Parker by July 1956, and that of Lake Deeson about to that of Lake Parker. Though not illustrated in this report, the water level of Lake Bonny followed the trend of Lakes Deeson and Crystal; it fell below the level of Lake Parker a little earlier, however, about January 1956. One phosphate test hole near the west shore of Lake Crystal showed predominantly sandy materials extending from the surface downward to the limestone bedrock. A good hydraulic connection such as this may exist in parts of Lakes Deeson, Crystal, and Bonny, permitting relatively rapid downward leakage, but drilling and test-hole data are relatively few. From January 1, 1955, through June 30, 1956, Lake Deeson declined 65.2 inches, Lake Bonny declined about 53 inches, and Lake Crystal declined 77.4 inches. Rainfall at Lakeland during this period was 61.08 inches (about 11. 6 inches below the mean of record) and evaporation (fig. 11) was about 62.55 inches. It is possible that during this generally dry period the rate of evaporation was higher than normal. The 11. 6-inch deficit in rainfall obviously cannot account for the observed declines of lake levels. Lakes Bonny, Crystal, and Deeson have no surface inflow or outflow. Topographic gradients within the basins are generally low, and the slope of the water table also is assumed to be low. The average flow of ground water into the lakes is probably equivalent to only a few inches per year over the lake surface, and it was undoubtedly well below average during the dry period. Ground-water outflow into the nonartesian aquifer is believed to be zero.

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INFORMATION CIRCULAR NO. 23 69 During the same dry period(January 19 55 to June 1956), pumping from the artesian aquifers increased as recharge decreased, lowering artesian water levels 5 to 10 feet. This probably increased the hydraulic potential between the lake levels and the artesian aquifers and increased the rate of leakage from the lakes. The combination of decreases in rainfall and groundwater inflowplus increases in evaporation and vertical leakage, including that due to declines in artesian head, may be sufficient to account for the decline in lake levels. Scott Lake Area Early in 1953 the Board of County Commissioners of Polk County requested that the U. S. Geological Survey investigate the water problems in the Scott Lake area, south of Lakeland. Property owners were concerned about the observed decline of lake level because of the lake's recreational value and its value as a source of water for the irrigation of adjacent citrus groves. In 1953 a staff gage was installed on a boat dock on the southeast shore of the lake. Later a recording gage was installedat the same place, and wells were inventoried in the lake basin. Recording gages were installed on an abandoned well in the secondary artesian aquifer (757-155-3) near the ridge crest, southeast of the lake, and on a well inthe nonartesian aquifer (758-156-5) on the north shore of the lake (fig. 19). Water-level information from the Scott Lake area indicates that the secondary artesian and Floridan aquifers are present in the ridge section. Both aquifers are in use, but wells into the Floridan aquifer are much more numerous. Because of the pump installations, very few of the wells around the lake shore can be used for water-level measurements. Observed and reported water levels indicate, however, that the water level in the Floridan aquifer may be as muchas 80 feet belowthatofthe secondary artesian aquifer on the basin floor, and approximately 20 feet below that of the secondary artesian aquifer on the ridge top east of Scott Lake.

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70 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY Figures 16, 17, and 18 are hydrographs of Scott Lake and six wells in the Scott Lake area. The location of wells inthe Floridan, nonartesian, and secondary artesian aquifers, in the vicinity of Scott Lake, is shown on figure 19. Figure 16 shows that the hydrographs of Scott Lake and well 758-156-5 cross and recross, indicating periods of reversal in the direction of ground-water flow in the nonartesian aquifer near Scott Lake. Figure 18 shows that the water level in well 758-156-1 also fluctuates from above to below the level of Scott Lake. Available data are inadequate to permit determination of the cause of the reversal of ground-water flow. The permeability of the nonartesian aquifer may be greater under wells 758-156-5 and 758-156-1 than it is under Scott Lake; thus, vertical percolation of ground water to the underlying artesian aquifers would be greatest under the wells. During periods of normal rainfall, recharge to the nonartesian aquifer may be sufficient to maintain the normal hydraulic gradient toward Scott Lake -in spite of the large amount of downward percolation near the wells -but during periods of low recharge the downward percolation maylower the water table near the wells so much that a cone of depression forms and subsequently expands to Scott Lake, reversing the direction of ground-water flow. Another explanation is that the permeability of the nonartesian aquifer may be approximately the same throughout the Scott Lake area. If this is true, the excessive lowering of the water table at the wells during drought periods canbe explained by the fact that downward percolation of a given amount of water would cause a greater lowering of the water table than of lake level. A given amount of water drained from Scott lake might lower the lake level one inch, whereas the same amount drained fromthe nonartesian aquifer would lower the water table 5 or 10 inches, the coefficient of storage of the aquifer requires that a large volume of the aquifer be unwateredto provide the amount of water contained in a layer one inch thick over the lake surface. If such an explanation can be considered correct, correlation of the fluctuations of lake level and water table during drought

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LJ 170 S Note: Plotted on t and /15 h of month. in 169-sS 76' , ,i ,Scott , ,--166 J F M A M J A S O N JF M A MJ J A S O N D F 1954 _ 1955 1 1956 Figure 16. Hydrographs of Scott Lake and well 758-156-5 in the nonartesian aquifer. 1-1

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72 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY Note: P/otted on first of month only SI68 Li S167 m SCOTT LAKE z 166 m I-, log A Plot tedonfirst LLI 106 105 104Well 757-155-3 --103 mile southeast of 10Scott Lake 101Depth of well 251 ft 100-Depth of casing unknown 99 97 96 DG 10-------^ --f----------MJ J A SOND J FMAMJJ A S O N D J F MAM J 1954 1955 1956 Figure 17. Hydrographs of Scott Lake and well 757-155-3 in the secondary artesian aquifer.

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INFORMATION CIRCULAR NO. 23 73 18 9 11 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 I ll1 188Well 757-157-3 18 "mile southwest of Scott Lake 186 Depth of well 20 ft Depth of casing 20ft. 1852 181 04 174 I ,i 1I I l I EL 173 a mile northwest Z of Scott Lake -172 1 Depth of well 42 ft > Depth of casing unknown 7 18 -WellI 757-157-4 'me nnwr southwest shore_ 69z of Scott Lake S17Depth of well 7 ft 168 Depth of casing 15 ft(?) Well 758-156-1 167 -_mile northwest of 166 Depth of well 30 ft / Depth of casing unknown G65 r 6 4 I F M I I J I J I A 5 I N D J F M A MI J FMAMJ JASOND JFMAMJ DJASONDJFMAMJ 1954 1955 1956 Figu\e 18. Hydrographs of wells in the nonartesian aquifer in the Scott Lake basin.

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74 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY 858 57' 56' 81-55' 28"00 28#00' EXPLANATION ® Well penetrating nonartesion aquifer Well penetrating secondcry artesian aquifer 0 Well penetrating Floridan aquifer 5' Well penetrating solution cavity 59' Upper number is well number. lower number is altitude of water level, in feet above mean sea level. 89 163 490 \ 3, 1/2 3/4 I mile 27"56' 7 56 8r 58 5756' 8 55 Figure 19. Map of Scott Lake area showing locations of wells, drainage divide,and water levels during periodof July 10-11, 1956. period of July 1011, 1956.

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INFORMATION CIRCULAR NO. 23 7.5 periods might provide a reasonable estimate of the coefficinet of storage of the nonartesian aquifer. Still another explanation is that the lake has a silty, clayey sand bottom of lowpermeability which checks leakage from the lake and tends to maintain the lake level. The water table may maintain its slope toward the sinkhole throughout the year. During periods of normal rainfall ground-water flow from the nonartesian aquifer recharges the lake, but during drought periods the water table falls below the lake bottom and leaves the lake perchedabove the cone of depression in the water table. Figure 17 shows the general correlation of water-level fluctuations in well 757-155-3, in the secondary artesian aquifer, with those of Scott Lake. The major drawdowns, in the spring seasons, are caused by local heavy pumping from multiaquifer irrigation wells. An irrigation well 50 feet away from well 757-155-3 is open only to the Floridan aquifer aid is in daily use for domestic purposes, but pumping of this well has not affected the water levelin well 757-155-3. Figure 18 shows the hydrographs of wells in the nonartesian aquifer, near the west end of Scott Lake. They are shown with the topographically highest well at the top of the figure and the lowest at the bottom. Water Budget: In order to determine the reason for the decline of Scott Lake it is necessary to establish a water budget for the basin. The period January 1 through June 30, 1956, was selected. Surface outflow from the lake may occur through a water gap in the sinkhole rim that opens westward from the northwest bulge of the shoreline. The swampy channel occupying the gap, called the "Lake Drain", is shown on figure 19. Phosphate mining operations have interrupted the natural flow through the Lake Drain at point C. Water may now flow through a canal on the north side of mine pit D, figure 19, only when the lake level is above (possibly several feet above) an altitude of 168 feet above mean sea level. At point B, figure 19, a small earthen dam prevents westward flow from

PAGE 80

76 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY the lake when the lake level is less than 168 feet above mean sea level. A concrete control structure has beenbuilt in the channel, on the lakeward side of the highway crossing the Lake Drain. The top of this structure is 168 feet above mean sea level, and the bottom of the control weir is 166 feet above mean sea level. Thus, water will not flow through the Lake Drain if the lake level is less than 168 feet above mean sea level. Since the maximum lake level during the budget period was only 167 feet above mean sea level, no outflow occurred. When the lake level is low, generally less than 166 feet above mean sea level, water is permitted to flow from an abandoned mine pit (point E, figure 19) by the land owner. Such was the case during the last half of the budget period. This observed inflow, though not gaged, is believed to have been much less than one cubic foot per second. For budgetary purposes, therefore, surface inflowis established, but quantitatively unknown. (It is to be noted that an average inflow of 0.25 cfs for the three months would be approximately equal to two inches over the lake surface.) Surface inflow also occurs intermittently into the lake at its southwest bulge, as shown on figure 19. In the following computations the average coefficient of permeability for the nonarte sian aquifer is taken from table 5 (85 gpd per square foot). The lake basin was divided into segments and the ground-water inflow was computed for each segment. Hydraulic gradients were approximated from data from the observation wells shown in figure 19. Onthe basis of available well data, the average saturated thickness of the aquifer around the shoreline is believed to be 25 feet, and possiblymore. Ground-water inflow was therefore computed to be equivalent to approximately 17 inches over the lake surface from January 1 through June 30, 1956 (776, 051 gpd). It is believed, and it was assumed, that there is no groundwater outflow from the Scott Lake basin in the nonartesian aquifer. Rainfall at the Lakeland station was approximately 17 inches from January 1 through June 30, 1956. Evaporation, according to table 7, was about 24 inches.

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INFORMATION CIRCULAR NO. 23 77 The lake level is lowered by pumping for citrus irrigation, as well as by evaporation. Pump capacities and the duration of pumping periods reported by owners of the irrigation systems indicate that the total seasonalpumpage from the lake is approximately 38, 000, 000 gallons. Such withdrawals are usually made from January through April. The area of the lake is about 300 acres. According to these figures, average irrigation pumping lowers the lake about 4. 5 inches per season. The water budget for Scott Lake maybe summarized for the period January 1 through June 30, 1956, as follows. Quantities are given in whole inches, as some of the data are less precise than those for Lake Parker (p. 66). Inches of water Gains: Rainfall 17 Surface inflow --+ Ground-water inflow 17 34 + Losses: Evaporation 24 Surface outflow 0 Irrigation pumping 4 Ground-water outflow in nonartesian aquifer 0 28 Difference (downward flow to artesian aquifer) 6 + These figures indicate a small surplus for the 6-month period. However, figure 16 shows that the lake level declined 24 inches during the same period. The conclusion is drawn that the lake was recharging one or more of the underlying artesian aquifers during this period, and that the total recharge was equivalent to about 30 inches (24-inch loss + 6inch calculated surplus of gains over losses) over the lake surface. The observed water levels in wells 757-156-2 and 757-155-3, inthe secondaryartesianaquifer, show a definite pie zometric gradient away from the lake, indicating re charge

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78 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY of the aquifer by the lake. Observed and reported groundwater levels, however, show that the piezometric surface of the Floridan aquifer is low under Scott Lake, indicating discharge from that aquifer. If some recharge to the Floridan aquifer occurs from Scott Lake, it is not enough to prevent the piezometric surface of the aquifer from remaining at a low level in the vicinity of the lake.

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INFORMATION CIRCULAR NO. 23 79 REFERENCES Alverson, D.C. (see Carr, W. J.) Bergendahl, M. H. 1956 Stratigraphy of parts of DeSoto and Hardee counties, Florida: U. S. Geol. Survey Bull. 1030-B. Black, A. P. 1951 (and Brown, Eugene) Chemical character of Florida's waters -1951: Florida State Board Cons., Div. Water Survey and Research, Paper 6. Brown, Eugene (see Black, A. P.; Cooper, H.H. Jr.) Carr, W. J. 1953 (and Alverson, D. C. ) Stratigraphy of Suwannee, Tampa, and Hawthorn formations in Hills borough andparts of adjacent counties, Florida, in Geologic Investigations of Radioactive Deposits Semiannual Progress Rept., June 1, 1953, to Nov. 30, 1953: U. S. Geol. Survey TEI-390, p. 175 ff., issued by U. S. Atomic Energy Comm. Tech. Inf. Service, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Cathcart, J.B. 195Z (and Davidson, D. F.) Distribution and origin of phosphate in the land-pebble phosphate district of Florida: U.S. Geol. Survey TEI-212, issued by U. S. Atomic Energy Comm. Tech. Inf. Service, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Cole, W. Storrs 1941 Stratigraphic andpaleontologic studies of wells in Florida: Florida Geol. Survey Bull. 19. 1945 Stratigraphic and paleontologic studies of wells in Florida: Florida Geol. Survey Bull. 28.

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80 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY Collins, W.D. 1928 (and Howard, C. S.) Chemical character of waters of Florida: U. S. Geol. Survey WaterSupply Paper 596-G. Cooke, C.W. 1939 The scenery of Florida interpreted by a geologist: Florida Geol. Survey Bull. 17. 1945 The geology of Florida: Florida Geol. Survey Bull. 29. Cooper, H.H., Jr. (see also Stringfield, V. T.) 1944 Ground water investigations in Florida (with special reference to Duval and Nassau counties): Am. Water Works Assoc. Jour., v. 36, no. 2, p. 169-185, 1944. 1953 (andKenner, W. E. , and Brown, Eugene) Ground water in central and northern Florida: Florida Geol. Survey Rept. Inv. 10. Davidson, D. F. (see also Cathcart, J. B. ) 1952a Relation of the "Topography" of the Hawthorn formation to size of phosphate particles in the deposits, and to topography, in the northern part of the land-pebble phosphate field, Florida: U. S. Geol. Survey TEM-337, issued by U. S. Atomic Energy Comm. Tech. Inf. Service, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. 1952b Grain size distribution in the surface sands andthe economic phosphate deposits of the landpebble phosphate district, Florida: U. S. Geol. Survey TEM-362, issued by U. S. Atomic Energy Comm. Tech. Inf. Service, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Fenneman, N. M. 1938 Physiography of eastern United States: New York, McGraw-Hill Book Company.

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INFORMATION CIRCULAR NO. 23 81 Ferguson, G. E. (see also Parker, G. G. ) 1947 (and Lingham, C. W., Love, S. K., and Vernon, R. O. ) Springs of Florida: Florida Geol. Survey Bull. 31. Gunter, Herman (see also Sellards, E.H.) 1931 (and Ponton, G. H. ) The need for conservation andprotection of our water supply with special reference to waters from Ocala limestone: Florida Geol. Survey 21st-22d Ann. Repts., p. 43-55. Howard, C. S. (see Collins, W. D. ) Kenner, W.E. (see Cooper, H.H., Jr.) Kohler, Max A. (see Linsley, Ray K. ) Lingham, C. W. (see Ferguson, G.E.) Linsley, R. K., Jr. 1949 (and Kohler, Max A., and Paulhus, J. L. H. ) Applied hydrology: New York, McGraw-Hill Book Company. Love. S. K. (see Ferguson, G. E.; Parker, G. G.) MacNeil, F. Stearns 1950 Pleistocene shorelines in Florida and Georgia: U.S. Geol. Survey Prof. Paper 221-F. Mansfield, George R. 1942 Phosphate resources of Florida: U. S. Geol. Survey Bull. 934. Matson, G.C. 1913 (and Sanford, Samuel) The geology and ground waters of Florida: U. S. Geol. Survey WaterSupply Paper 319. Meinzer, O. E. 1923a The occurrence of ground water in the United States, with a discussion of principles: U. S. ^/-

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82 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY Geol. Survey Water-Supply Paper 489. 1923b Outline of ground-water hydrology with definitions: U. S. Geol. Survey Water-Supply Paper 494. 1949 (and Wenzel, L. K. ) Movement of ground water and its relation to head, permeability, and storage: Chap. 10b in Meinzer, O.-E., ed., Hydrology, v. IX of Physics of the Earth: New York, Dover Publications. Meyer, A. F. 1942 Evaporation fromlakes and reservoirs: Minn. Res. Comm., maps 24-35. Parker, G. G. 1955 (and Ferguson, G. E. , Love, S. K. , and others) Water resources of southeastern Florida: U. S. Geol. Survey Water-Supply Paper 1255. Paulhus, J. L. H. (see Linsley, Ray K. ) Peek, Harry M. 1951 Cessation of flow of Kissengen Springs, in Polk County, Florida: Florida Geol. Survey Rept. Inv. 7, pt. 3. Ponton, G. H. (see Gunter, Herman) Puri, Harbans S. 1953a Zonation of the Ocala group in peninsular Florida (abstract): Jour. Sedimentary Petrology, v. 23, p. 130. 1953b Contributions to the study of the Miocene of the Florida Panhandle: Florida Geol. Survey Bull. 36. Reitz, H. J. (see Wander, I. W.) Sanford, Samuel (see Matson, G. C.)

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INFORMATION CIRCULAR NO. 23 83 Sellards, E.H. 1908 Preliminary report on the underground water supply of central Florida: Florida Geol. Survey Bull. 1. 1913 (and Gunter, Herman) The artesian water supply of eastern and southern Florida: Florida Geol. Survey 5th Ann. Rept., p. 103-290. Stringfield, V. T. 1935 The piezometric surface of artesian water in the Florida Peninsula: Am. Geophys. Union Trans., p. 524-529. 1936 Artesian water in the Florida Peninsula: U. S. Geol. Survey Water-Supply Paper 773-C. 1950 (and Cooper, H. H., Jr.) Ground water in Florida: Florida Geol. Survey Inf. Circ. 3. 1951a Economic aspects of ground water in Florida: Mining Eng., p. 525-533. June. 1951b Geologic and hydrologic features ofanartesian submarine spring east of Florida: Florida Geol. Survey Rept. Inv. 7, pt. 2. Tolman, C.F. 1937 Ground water: New York, McGraw-Hill Book Company. Vernon, R. O. (see also Ferguson, G. E.) 1951 Geology of Citrus and Levy counties, Florida: Florida Geol. Survey Bull. 33. Wander, I. W. 1951 (and Reitz, H. J.) The chemical composition of irrigation water used in Florida citrus groves: Univ. of Florida Agr. Expt. Sta. Bull. 480. Wenzel, L. K. (see Meinzer, 0. E.)

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-FLORIDA-GEOLOGICAL-SURVEY COPYRIGHT NOTICE © [year of publication as printed] Florida Geological Survey [source text] The Florida Geological Survey holds all rights to the source text of this electronic resource on behalf of the State of Florida. The Florida Geological Survey shall be considered the copyright holder for the text of this publication. Under the Statutes of the State of Florida (FS 257.05; 257.105, and 377.075), the Florida Geologic Survey (Tallahassee, FL), publisher of the Florida Geologic Survey, as a division of state government, makes its documents public (i.e., published) and extends to the state's official agencies and libraries, including the University of Florida's Smathers Libraries, rights of reproduction. The Florida Geological Survey has made its publications available to the University of Florida, on behalf of the State University System of Florida, for the purpose of digitization and Internet distribution. The Florida Geological Survey reserves all rights to its publications. All uses, excluding those made under "fair use" provisions of U.S. copyright legislation (U.S. Code, Title 17, Section 107), are restricted. Contact the Florida Geological Survey for additional information and permissions.


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PDF1 applicationpdf 62a03d04a82685cb47cc65c491c453e5 7711879
UF00001083.pdf
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UF00001083_00001.mets
METS:structMap STRUCT1 physical
METS:div DMDID ADMID ground-water ORDER 0 main
PDIV1 Title Page 1
PAGE1 i
METS:fptr FILEID
PAGE2 ii 2
PDIV2 Table Contents
PAGE3 iii
PAGE4 iv
PAGE5 v 3
PAGE6 vi 4
PDIV3 Main
PAGE7
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PDIV4 Reference Chapter
PAGE83 79
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PDIV5 Back Matter
PAGE88 84
STRUCT2 other
ODIV1
FILES1
FILES2


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