Citation
Interim report on surface water resources of Baker County, Florida ( FGS: Information circular 20 )

Material Information

Title:
Interim report on surface water resources of Baker County, Florida ( FGS: Information circular 20 )
Series Title:
FGS: Information circular
Creator:
Pride, R. W
Geological Survey (U.S.)
Place of Publication:
Tallahassee
Publisher:
[s.n.]
Publication Date:
Language:
English
Physical Description:
31 p. : illus., map. ; 23 cm.

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Water-supply -- Florida -- Baker County ( lcsh )
City of Macclenny ( local )
Middle Prong ( local )
Baker County ( local )
Turkey Creek ( local )
Suwannee River, FL ( local )
Pinhook Swamp ( local )
Evaporation ( jstor )
Rivers ( jstor )
Surface areas ( jstor )
Counties ( jstor )
Streams ( jstor )
Genre:
non-fiction ( marcgt )

Notes

General Note:
"Prepared by the U. s. Geological Survey in cooperation with the Florida Geological Survey."
Funding:
Digitized as a collaborative project with the Florida Geological Survey, Florida Department of Environmental Protection.

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Holding Location:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
The author dedicated the work to the public domain by waiving all of his or her rights to the work worldwide under copyright law and all related or neighboring legal rights he or she had in the work, to the extent allowable by law.
Resource Identifier:
001692738 ( aleph )
01804673 ( oclc )
AJA4812 ( notis )
a 59009698 ( lccn )

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Full Text
STATE OF FLORIDA
STATE BOARD OF CONSERVATION
Ernest Mitts, Director
FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY
Robert 0. Vernon, Director
INFORMATION CIRCULAR NO. 20
INTERIM REPORT ON
SURFACE WATER RESOURCES OF
BAKER COUNTY, FLORIDA
By
R. W. Pride, Hydraulic Engineer
U. S. Geological Survey
Prepared by the U. S. Geological Survey
in cooperation with the Florida Geological Survey
Tallahassee, Florida 1958







PREFACE
This report was prepared in the Ocala office of the U. S. Geological Survey under the supervision of A. 0. Patterson, District Engineer, as part of a cooperative agreement with the Florida Geological Survey. Flood and basic streamflow data utilized in the study were collected under provisions of the same and other financial cooperative agreements. Climatological data and other information are from technical reports or publications of the U.S. Weather Bureau and the Florida Department of Agriculture.
iii







TABLE OF CONTENTS
Page
Abstract....................................... 1
Introduction................................... 1
Purpose and scope of investigation............. 1
Description of area .......................... 2
Topography and drainage...................2...2
Climate.................................. 4
Industry...................................... 4
Definition ofterms................................ 4
Occurrence of surface water........................ 6
Sources ofwater................................. 6
Areal distribution of surface water ............ 7
Gaging-station records................. ............ 8
Flow characteristics............................ 8
Low flows................................... 17
Flow-duration curves........................ 20
Flood flows ................................. 22
Flood-frequency relations.................... 22
Storage considerations............................. 23
Evaporation from water surfaces .............. 23
Seepage and transpiration..................... 25
Potential reservoir sizes..................... 27
Conclusions.................................... 31
ILLUSTRATIONS
Figure
1 Map of Baker County, Florida, showing
surface-water features and location of
gaging stations ......... ................. 3
2 Climatological data for Glen St. Mary...... 5
3 Discharge available without storage, St.
Marys River near Macclenny, 1926-57..... 19
4 Flow-duration curves for gaged streams in
Baker County, for the 31-year period,
1926-57................................. 21
5 Variations of flood discharge with drainage
area for streams in Baker County ......... 24
V




Figure Page
6 Mass curves for flow at three gaging
stations in Baker County and diagram showing rate of evaporation loss from
various reservoir areas.................. 28
7 Mass curve for flow of South Prong St.
Marys River at Glen St. Mary and diagram
showing rate of evaporation loss from
various reservoir areas.................. 29
TABLES
Table
1 Gaging-station records and drainage areas
at selected locations in Baker County ...... 9
St. Marys River basin
North Prong St. Marys River at Moniac,
Georgia,....oo . ooo.......... .. .. ..... 10
Middle Prong St. Marys River at Taylor,
Florida ...... ...................... 11
South Prong St. Marys River near
Sanderson, Florida .............. ..12
Turkey Greek at Macclenny, Florida ... 13
South Prong St. Marys River at Glen St.
Mary, Florida........................ 14
St. Marys River near Macclenny, Florida 15
2 Summary of monthly average evaporation
and rainfall in Baker County .............. 26
vi




INTERIM REPORT ON SURFACE WATER RESOURCES
OF BAKER COUNTY, FLORIDA
By
R. W. Pride
ABSTRACT
The principal sources of surface-water supplies inBaker County are the St. Marys River and its tributaries. However, the flow of many of the small tributaries is intermittent, and without storage they are not dependable sources of supply during sustained periods of deficient rainfall.
Of the six stream-gaging stations in Baker County for which complete records are available, one has been in operation for 31 years and provides along-term recordupon which to base correlative estimates for extending the short-term records at the other stations. All available streamflow data to 1957 have been summarized in graphic or tabular form.
The hydrologic balance between minimum streamflows and increased evaporation losses affordedbypotential shallow reservoirs provides design criteria for determining the maximum surface area of effective reservoir that can be created at a selected site within Baker County. This information has been presented in graphic and tabular form in the report.
INTRODUCTION
Purpose and Scope of Investigation
This report summarizes available dataonthe surfacewater resources of Baker County and evaluates the present
1




2 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY
and potential use of these resources. The county needs the hydrologic data for the design of shallow reservoirs on small streams to impound water for recreational uses. The report provides data which will be useful not only for the specific purpose of planning small artifical lakes but also for the formulation of plans for the future development and economic growth of the county.
Description of Area
Topography and Drainage
Baker County is in the Central Highlands topographic region in the northeastern part of Florida and extends about 25 miles southward from the Georgia-Florida line. The total area of the county is 585 square miles. The topography of the county is gently rolling, with the elevation of most of the area varying between 100 and 150 feet above mean sea level. The entire land surface of Baker County is covered with a mantle of loose gray sand ranging in thickness from a few feet to more than 50 feet.
The St. Marys River forms the northeastern boundary of Baker County and drains most of the county area. The drainage from small areas in the southernpart of the county flows into tributaries of the Suwannee River. Pinhook Swamp in the northwestern part of the county is a continuation of the Okefenokee Swamp which occupies a large area in southern Georgia. The drainage from Pinhook Swamp is to the east into the St. Marys River basin and to the west into the Suwannee River basin. Because of the flat surface of the PinhookSwamp area and absence of well defined ridge lines, the drainage divide between the St. Marys and the Suwannee River basins is indefinite. The drainage divide between the headwaters of several tributaries in the southwestern part of the county is also indefinite and, in places, the basins are interconnected. However, most of the drainage of the county follows the basin divides as shown in figure 1.




INFORMATION CIRCULAR NO. 20 3
GEORGIA
- Qsfenok
4 w7 EXPLANATION
'it 02 River goge, stage and discharge 4P nhooY --- River basin boundry Q r 1-a Interconnection of
-swomp- drainage basins; arr indicates direction
- s River of occasional flow 2 a across boundary.
0
;NA
A NAL
E S T 'ee e
4
cean Pond
-A.t
Laka
Ne W R1 r'
O 5 Miles 10 /
Figure 1. Map of Baker County, Florida, showing surfacewater features and location of gaging stations.




4 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY
Climate
The average temperature, based on 58 years of record at Glen St. Mary, is 68. 60, with an average high of 81. 90 in July and an average low of 55.4* in December. The average annual rainfall at Glen St. Mary for a 61-year record since 1896 is 52. 2 inches, with the heaviest rainfall in the months of June, July, August, and September. Figure 2 shows the -variations in temperature and rainfall.
Industry
Baker County is primarily rural, with lumber, pulpwood, and naval stores operations representing a large portion of the revenue. Two of the largest nurseries in the State are located near Macclenny. In addition, small and diversified farming and the raising of poultry for the commercial market make up a considerable part of the local economy. About half of the Osceola National Forest is located in the western part of the county., The type of industry in the county at present does not require large quantities of water.
Definition of Terms
Some of the terms of streamflow and other hydrologic data, as used in this report, are defined as follows:
Precipitation. As used in meteorology includes all moisture
that reaches the earth,-whatever its form rain, snow,
sleet, hail, dew, or frost.
Evapotranspiration. The process whereby water leaves a
drainage area as vapor, including transpiration from
plants and evaporation from free surfaces.
Drainage area. The size of the area drained by a stream
above a given location, usually expressed in square
miles (sq mi).
Discharge. Rate of flow at a given instant in terms of volume
perunitof time; usuallyexpressedincubic feetper second, gallons per minute, or millions of gallons per day.




INFORMATION CIRCULAR NO. Z 5
20 100 ''7
aximum
reading
771
w WL so
15
z
0 w,/Mean
Ma ximum/ 4 /
I60
)- 4 O0-
0 5
2O Minimum
R. M reading
J F MAM J JA SON D J FM A M JJA SON D
MONTHLY PRECIPITATION AIR TEMPERATURE
61-year record 58-year record osof
0
li 0~
0 0
ANNUAL PRECIPITATION
Fiure 2. Climatological data for Glen St. Mary.




6 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY
Cubic foot per second (cfs). The rate of discharge of a stream
whose channel is one square foot in cross-sectional area
and whose average velocity is one foot per second.
Cubic feet per second per square mile (cfsm). An average
number of cubic feet of water flowing per second from each square mile of area drained, assuming that the
runoff is distributed uniformly in time and area.
Acre-foot. The quantityof water required to cover an acre
to a depth of one foot and is equivalent to 43, 560 cubic
feet.
Runoff in inches, The depth to which an area would be covered
if all the water draining from it in a given period were uniformly distributed on its surface. The term is used
for comparing runoff with rainfall.
Water year. A 12-month period beginning October 1 and
ending the following September 30. Designated as the
year ending September 30.
OCCURRENCE OF SURFACE WATER
Sources of Water
Precipitation is the source of all of our water supplies. In the endless cycle of water from the clouds to the earth and back again, a part returns to the atmosphere through evaporation and transpiration and a part runs off the land into natural waterways and returns to the sea. The remainder seeps into the ground and eventually reaches the ground-water zone, from which it is discharged later by seepage into surface-water bodies or by evapotranspiration.
The amount of water following any of these paths depends on many factors. Much of the precipitation falling after long periods of dry weather will be absorbed by the soil. In areas covered by tight, impervious clay or underlain by impervious rocks, much of the precipitation will drain into the surface bodies of water, but on the other hand, in areas underlain by




INFORMATION CIRCULAR NO. ZO 7
porous material a higher percentage will percolate into the ground. In areas of rugged topography much of the precipitation will flow down the hillsides and enter the streams; much of the water that does enter the ground will soon discharge from the hillsides. In areas of relatively flat slopes where the drainage is poor, the opportunity for evaporation from surface pondage is increased. Thus, the amount of surface water available in an area depends upon the amount and the distribution of the precipitation, the topography, and the geology of the area.
Because of its flat topography, swamp area, and porous sandy soil, a rather low percentage of the precipitation in Baker County emerges as runoff in surface streams.
Areal Distribution of Surface Water
The principal source of surface water in Baker County is the St. Marys River system. The major branch of this river system is the North Prong which heads in the Okefenokee Swamp in southeastern Georgia and flows generally southward along the northeasternboundary of Baker County. The main St. Marys River is formed by the confluence of the North and Middle Prongs 10 miles south of the northern boundary of Baker County. From the confluence of these two streams the St. Marys River flows southeastward about six miles, thence eastward to a point just beyond the Baker County line. The river then flows northward for a distance of 30 miles, thence eastward again for 35 miles to the Atlantic Ocean. In the reach of the St. Marys River along the boundary of Baker County the larger tributaries enter from the Florida side. Cedar Creek and South Prong are two of the larger tributaries.
Other sources of surface water in Baker County are the headwaters of New River, Swift Creek, and Olustee Creek for small areas in the southern part of the county and drainage from Pinhook Swamp westward to the Suwannee River for a small area in the northwestern part of the county.
Ocean Pond, in the southwestern part of the county, is the only lake of appreciable size within the county. Palestine




8 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY
Lakeand Swift Creek Pond are just south of the Baker County line.
GAGING-STATION RECORDS
Records of stage and discharge for several gaging stations in the St. Marys River basinhave been collected by the U. S. Geological Survey for periods of from seven to 31 years. The first of these gaging stations was established on North Prong St. Marys River between Baxter, Florida, and Moniac, Georgia, in January 1921. This gaging station is currently in operation but continuous records for the entire period have not been collected as the station has been discontinued and reestablished several times during the intervening period. The gaging station with the longest period of continuous record is on the St. Marys River near Macclenny. Records are available at this gaging site since October 1926. Records for South Prong St. Marys River at Glen St. Mary have been collected since January 1950. Other stations were established in September 1955 as data-collection points for this report.
No discharge records have been collected in Baker County for the headwaters of streams that are not in the St. Marys River basin. However, the areas drained by these small streams have hydrologic characteristics similar to those drained by the adjacent tributaries of the St. Marys River and similar runoff relations may be assumed.
A list of the gaging-station records and drainage areas at selected locations in Baker County are given in table 1. Location of the gaging stations is shown in figure 1.
FLOW CHARACTERISTICS
The variability of streamflow creates problems of too little water at times and too much water at other times. Thus, an analysis of streamflow characteristics logically falls into two parts the analysis of low flows and the analysis of flood flows.




Table 1. Gaging-Station Records and Drainage Areas at Selected Locations in Baker County
Drainage
No. area on in square Records available to September 30, 1957 map Stream and location miles (Gage heights and daily discharges) O
1 North Prong St. Marys River at State Highway 94, 160 January 1921 to December 1923, January at Moniac, Georgia 1927 to June 1930, July 1932 to June 1934, October 1950 to date
2 Middle Prong St. Marys River at State Highway 125, 127 September 1955 to date z at Taylor, Florida
Middle Prong St. Marys River at mouth 221 Cedar Creek at State Highway 125, near Glen 61
St. Mary, Florida
Cedar Creek at mouth 71
3 South Prong St. Marys River at State Highway 229, 58 September 1955 to date near Sanderson, Florida
z
4 Turkey Creek at State Highway 23, at Macclenny, Florida 20. 9 September 1955 to date
Turkey Creek at mouth 26.4
5 South Prong St. Mary. River at U.S. Highway 90, 150 January 1950 to date at Glen St. Mary, Florida
6 St. Marys River near Macclenny, Florida 720 October 1926 to date




GAOINOSTATION RECORDS
St. Marys River Basin
(1) North Prong St. Marys River at Maniac, Georgia
Location. Lat. 30*31, long. 82314', in sec. 8, T. I N., R, 21 E. near right bank at upstream side of bridge on State Highway 94, 950 feet
upstream from Ceorgia Southern & Florida Railway bridge, 0.5 mile west of Moniac, Charlton County, and 1. Omile downstream from
Moccasin Creek.
Drainage area, About 160 eq mi, includes part of watershed in Okefenokee Swamp which is indeterminate.
aage. Water-stage recorder. Datum of gage is 89.40 feet above mean sea level, datum of 1929. January 1921 to June 1934, staff gage at site
800 feet downstream at datum 3.22 feet higher. October I to December 13, 1950, wire-weight gage at present site and datum.
Average discharge, 12 years (1921-23, 1927-29, 1932-33, 1950-57), 134 cts.
Extremes. 1921-23, 1927-30, 1932-34, 1950.57: Maximum discharge, about 6,060 cfs, probably September 19, 1928 (gage height, 19.9 feet,
present datum, at site then in use), from rating curve extended above 2,000 cis; no flow at times.
Monthly and Yearly Mean Discharge, in Cubic Feet Per Second 0
Water r4 Year Oct. Nov. Dec. Jan. Feb. Mar. Apr. May June July Aug. Sept. Year
1921 -- --- .. --- 108 45.9 11.0, 5.62 0.29 277 461 12.2 ...
1922 0.04 0,60 16,0 37.7 118 137 15.9 7.51 63.3 23, 169 96,3 56.8 1923 218 92.4 44.9 252 85.1 91.2 97.1 146 341 331 172 82,4 164 1924 40.5 15.0 8.83 ... ... .- -... --. --- --- ...
1927 ..- --- --- -.. 80.9 108 26.0 1.34 69.'3 330 249 39.9 --1928 5,45 0.052 4.34 5. 41 31.8 297 701 214 107 802 266 1,590 334 1929 491 58.2 48.7 305 512 455 154 307 151 413 403 491 315 1930 627 55.9 188 427 299 679 417 32.6 133 ... --- --- --1932 --... -- -- --- .-..- 3Z3 557 --W
1933 218 199 62.2 157 642 242 486 51.4 21.3 41.1 39.2 205 193 1934 1.10 1.02 .477 .187 .214 1.19 .203 1,01 141 --- --1951 914 136 55.2 37.3 30.6 32.9 30.5 1.24 1.36 1.44 7.82 20.3 107 1952 56.7 132 179 129 270 448 72.1 13,3 1.35 .10 22.7 36.9 113 1953 16.9 3.03 1.45 5.56 17.0 9.37 135 13.6 0.55 29.3 127 510 71.9 1954 662 58,0 291 247 52.9 33.3 13.0 1.86 0.04 0 .01 .02 115 1955 .003 0 .13 .73 2.26 .40 .82 .23 .05 2.39 70.9 118 16.3
1956 17.1 11.4 2.90 14.2 52.6 28.9 4.14 57.9 11.2 19.2 1.15 1.69 18.5
1957 79.1 18.3 2.00 .62 .59 25.2 71.7 23.8 775 78.5 65.7 51.9 98.8




GAGING-STATION RECORDS
St. Mary, River Basin
(2) Middle Prong St., Marys River at Taylor, Florida
Location. Lat. 30*26', long. 82*17', on line between sees. 2 and 3, T. I S., R. to Z., near center of span on upstream side of bridge on State
Highway 215, 0. 5 mile southeast of Taylor, Baker County, and three-quartera of a mile upstream from Little River.
Drainage area. 127 sq mi, approximately. 0 Gage. Water-stage recorder, Datumof gage is 89,4 feet above mean sea level, datum of 1929.(from elevation of centerline of bridge, furnished by 0
Florida State Road Department.
Extremes. 1955-57: Maximum discharge 1, 040 cis June 11, 1957 (gage height. 10. 51 feet); minimum daily, 0. 1 cis August 24-31, September 12-18,
23, 1956.
Monthly and Yearly Mean Discharge, in Cubic Feet Per Second Water
Year Oct. Nov. Dec. Jan. Feb. Mar. Apr. May June July Aug. Sept. Year 1956 1.21 0.95 0.66 0.92 1.64 1,80 1.12 2.72 1.42 1.83 0.50 0.81 1.30 O
1957 124 64.2 6.49 1.88 1.32 7.10 14.7 13.3 361 36,9 321 100 87,9
N
CD




GAGING-STATION RECORDS
St. Marys River Basin
(3) South Prong St. Marys River near Sanderson, Florida Location. Lat. 30*12', long. 82*16', in NW* sec. 25, T. 3 S., R. 20 E.. near left bank five feet downstream from bridge on State Highway 229, one
mile upstream from small tributary, and 3j miles south of Sanderson, Baker County. Drainage area. 58 sq mi, approximately.
Gage, Staff gage read twice daily. Datum of gage is 112.67 feet above mea. ea level, datum of 1929 (Florida State Road Department benchmark). Extremes. 1955.57: Maximum discharge, 1,060 cis June 10, 1957 (gage height, 6. 16 feet); no flow at times.
Monthly and Yearly Mean Discharge, in Cubic Feat Per Second Water
Year Oct. Nov. Dec. Jan. Feb. Mar. Apr. May June July Aug. Sept. Tear 1956 0.99 0.31 0.12 0.76 8.11 1.85 0.04 2.15 0.87 6.20 0.03 0.08 1.77
1957 34.6 8.59 .31 .06 .03 3.89 13.3 34.6 201 12.4 38.5 22.4 31.3




GAGINGSTATIONS RECORDS
St. Marys River Basin
(4) Turkey Creek at Macclenny, Florida
Location. Lat. 30116'05", long. 8207'20", in NE* sec. 5, T. 3 S., R. 22 E., near left bank at downstream side of bridge on State Highway 23, 0.9
mile south of Macclenny, Baker County, and 1.8 miles upstream from month. Drainage area. 20. 9 sq mi.
Gage. Staff gage and crest-stage indicator; gage read twice daily. Datum of gage ia 103.27 feet above mean sea level, datum of 1929 (Florida State
Road Department benchmark).
Extremes. 1935-57: Maximum discharge, 1,130 cis October 17, 1957 (gage height. 6.90 feet); minimum, 0. 2 cfs April 21-24. 1956 (gage height,
1. 24 leet).
Water Monthly and Yearly Mean Discharge, In Cubic Fet Per Second Year Oct. Nov. Dec. Jan. Feb. Mar. Apr. May June July Aug. Sept. Year 1956 2.75 1.72 0.96 2.16 6.28 1.33 0.70 76.1 4.49 18.0 1.68 4.39 10.1
1957 68,9 5.05 2.05 1.77 2.30 8.54 8.18 6.13 81.0 10.2 94.9 22. 26. 1




GAGING-STATIONS RECORDS
St. Marys River Basin
(5) South Prong St. Marys River at Glen St. Mary, Florida
Location. Lat. 3016'4011, long. 82*08'40", in sec. 31, T. 2 S., R. 22 E.. on right bank 65 feet upstream from bridge on U.S. Highway 90 and 1.0
* mile east of Glen St. Mary, Baker County.
Drainage area. 150 sq mi, approximately.
Gage. Water-stage recorder. Datum of gage is 77.15 feet above mean sea level, datum of 1929. Average discharge. 7 years, 81.2 cis.
Extremes. 1950-S7: Maximum discharge, 6,200 ce September 7, 1950 (gage height, 12.71 feet); minimum, 0.4 cie May 3, 1950 (gage height,
1.52fe)
Flood in September 1947 reached a stage of 13.0 feet, from information furnished by Florida State Road Department (discharge, 6,700 cis).
Monthly and Yearly Mean Discharge, in Cubic Feet Per Second
Water
Year Oct. Nov. Dec. Tan. Feb. Mar. Apr. May June July Aug. Sept. Year 1950 *.. --. --. 8.88 11.7 31.6.- 10,5 2.95 6.19 237 18.0 805 --1951 870 97.6 36.5 27.3 22. 4 20.5 13.8 3.99 2.50 2.65 3.93 5.84 93.5
19532 4.10 10.6 17.8 16.7 107 81.9. 29.6 12. 8 14.3 14.4 20.7 100 35.4
1953 57.1 6.34 5.76 28.4 62.1 37.5 319 12.1 8.86 17.4 418 496 122 1954 598 48.9 560 245 45.0 28.8 23.8 .15 3.27 3.38 4.60 9.95 133 1955 8.64 3.35 7.54 18.7 36.8 7.51 6.47 3.02 2.18 119 16.5 77.4 25.6
1956 11.6 9.20 6.64 10. 6 35.6 16.6 4.04 110 17.3 58.3 6. 14 8.03 24.6
1957 213 39.5 8.86 7.99 8.96 33.0 53.4 138 611 32.3 323 138 134




GAGING-STATION RECORDS
St. Marys River Basin
(6) St. Marys River near Macdenny, Florida
Location. Lat. 30*2135", long. 82,04'5S", in sec. 2, T. 2 5., R. 22 E., on right bank 200 feet downstream from site of former Stakes Bridge,
one mile downstream from South Prong, and six miles northeast of Macclenny, Baker County.
Drainage area. 720 sq mi, approximately, includes part of watershed in Okefenokee Swamp which is indeterminate,
g. Water-stage recorder. Datum of gage is 40. 00 feet above mean sea level (levels by Mess and Meas). Prior to February 21, 1939, staff
gage, and February 21, 1939 to August 15, 1948 water-atage recorder, at site of former bridge 200 feet upstream at same datum.
Average discharge. 31 years, 632 cfs.
Extremes. 1926-57: M~aximum discharge, 28,100 cis September 25. 1947 (gage height, 22.29 feeth minimum observed, 12 cis May 22, 1932i
T um gage height observed 0.04 feet June 4, 5, 1927. 2
Monthly and Yearly Mean Discharge, in Cubic Feet Per Second
Water
Year Oct. Nov. Dec. Jan. Feb. Mar. Apr. May June July Aug. Sept. Year
1927 383 632 238 131 465 746 117 26.5 105 707 1. 810 321 475 1928 54.5 27.3 37.4 38.7 104 770 2,750 1,140 523 2, 180 1, 150 5,370 1,173 1929 2,110 231 172 1,010 1,290 1,530 794 774 673 1,600 1,520 2,200 1, 160 1930 2, 860 170 422 1,290 1,310 3,760 1,630 161 1,190 753 211 162 1, 160 1931 179 265 416 1,420 672 778 932 633 71.3 92. 9 76.9 93. 1 469 1932 Z2 7 15.9 18.0 21.7 20. 6 44.7 27. 7 20.4 640 245 1,140 1, 720 326 1933 489 535 260 448 1,650 1,120 Z,160 240 180 624 312 1,480 781 1934 53.6 22.3 20.5 22.9 20.2 45.,0 26.0 31.9 2,290 438 691 193 320 1935 145 35.7 37.5 77.7 79.9 61.1 25.7 22.5 18.8 390 830 2,931 386 1936 403 61.3 46.6 134 884 640 408 48.6 128 147 175 53.0 259 1937 410 67.5 197 206 1,252 599 1, 045 262 68.8 291 785 2,044 595 1938 2,374 376 256 600 664 151 58.3 32.9 135 721 2,180 172 648 1939 1,228 593 103 113 205 262 199 121 423 1,712 1,700 539 605 1940 192 101 101 260 794 289 283 48.5 l0S 669 666 131 302 1941 30.1 23.3 191 257 410 321 176 30.6 81.6 974 374 384 271 1942 307 625 1,512 2,404 2,390 2,906 327 51,1 348 608 368 606 1,033 1943 74.3 31.6 39.5 50.7 44.9 76.8 30.8 31.0 92.2 165 607 180 120 1944 36.3 26.6 31.4 87.2 82.0 581 1,034 209 221 1,930 2,545 1.326 679 1945 3,149 583 367 1,332 573 165 56.8 49,0 62.6 2,135 3,296 1,291 1,099 1946 222 98.7 515 1,230 464 550 305 948 649 1,622 2.275 1,621 880




PS
GAGING-STATION RECORDS
St. Marys River Basin
(6) St. Marys River near Macclenny, Florida (continued)
Water
Year Oct. Nov. Dec. Jan. Feb. Mar. Apr. May June July Aug. Sept. Year 0
1947 1,142 182 98.5 83. 1 378 1,223 1,359 332 243 523 536 4,467 877 O 1948 6,240 4,155 2,470 1,198 1.309 3,913 4,883 70.6 32.3 525 2,133 446 2,285 1949 1,644 155 317 343 2,390 247 427 108 74.9 38 650 1,391 661 1950 2335 231 109 69.1 51.8 237 102 40.6 31.6 887 87.6 4,115 514 1951 4,347 661 220 156 134 116 101 35.5 27.3 36.6 55.3 83.1 504 1952 141 286 296 261 768 861 212 73.2 59.3 52.5 62.8 158 268 1953 117 40.9 36.1 78.0 127 85.8 728 78.3 43.7 114 1,294 2,301 419 1954 3.416 312 1,803 1,268 258 165 112 45.7 28.4 31.3 24.9 64.3 636 U) 1956 61.1 32.5 47.0 75.0 146 46.3 38.6 25.3 20.8 164 126 306 90.1 1956 82.8 51,1 37.9 65.7 177 94.7 38.2 343 80.7 245 54.2 81,5 113 1957 827 231 59.7 44.5 37.8 136 261 260 2.642 287 1,285 666 561




INFORMATION CIRCULAR NO. 20 17
Low Flows
During the period since October 1926, when streamflow records were started for St. Marys River near Macclenny, there have been outstanding droughts as well as major floods. Particularly outstanding periods of low runoff are those of 1927-28, 1931-3Z, 1934-35, 1943, 1951-52, and 1954-56. From the standpoint of the, collection of information on lowflow conditions, it is fortunate that this project investigation of streamflows in Baker County was conducted during part of the period covered by the most recent drought.
Streamflow conditions of North Prong St. Marys River are influenced by the amount of water stored in Okefenokee Swamp. During prolonged periods of deficient rainfallthe water levels in the Swamp are lowered by evapotranspiration losses and runoff in surface streams ceases. At the gaging station at the state line between Baxter, Florida, and Moniac, Georgia, there was no flow for the period June 7 to December 1954, except for ten intermittent days in which an average daily discharge of 0. 1 cubic foot per second occurred.
Middle Prong St. Marys River is also largely swamp drainage and its runoff characteristics are somewhat similar to those for North Prong. However, flows are better sustained during low-water periods and at the gaging station at Taylor the streamhas not ceased to flow during the two-year period of record. The minimum daily discharge that has occurred during the period of record at this station was 0. 1 cubic foot per second August 24-31 and September 12-18, 23, 1956. During longer drought periods, such as the latter six months of 1954 (prior to the establishment of the station), the flow at this station probably ceased.
No streamflow data have been collected for Cedar Creek except a measurement of 2. 7 cfs at State Highway 125 on April 18, 1956. Records for gaged streams in Baker County indicate that streamflow was not extremely low at that time, and that the flow of Cedar Creek at State Highway 125 would drop to about one cfs during periods of drought.
The flow of South Prong St. Marys River has been




18 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY
determined at two gaging stations. At the station in the upper part of the basin at State Highway 229 south of Sanderson, the flow has ceased for long periods several times during the two-year period of record. At the lower station on the South Prong at U. S. Highway 90 at Glen St. Mary the flows have diminished sharply during drought periods but were better sustained than those at the upper station or those for North and Middle Prongs. At the station on U. S. Highway 90 the minimum daily discharges were 0. 9 and 0. 8 cubic foot per second for May 17 and May 23, 1950, respectively, which are the only times during the 8-year period of record that the flow has dropped below one cubic foot per second.
One of the major tributaries of the SouthProngSt. Marys River is Turkey Creek which flows into the South Prong about one mile upstream from the gaging station at U.S. Highway 90. The flow of Turkey Creek has been determined since September 1955 at a gaging station at State Highway 23, 0. 9 mile south of Macclenny. The minimum flow during the period of recordwas 0. 2 cubic foot per second onApril 21-24 1956. The low-water base flow for this stream is sustained by flow from. ground. storage which is probably enough to prevent the streamflow from ceasing during moderate drought conditions.
The gaging station on the main St. Marys River is located one mile downstream from South Prong, near the easternboundary of Baker County, and is called St. Marys River near Macclenny. The discharge of the river at this gaging station includes practically all of the surface runoff from Baker County as well as that from about 200 square miles in Georgia. The total drainage area of the stream above the station is approximately 720 square miles. Minimum discharge since October 1926 was 12 cubic feet per second (0. 0167 cfs per square mile) which occurred May 22, 1932.
The maximum period of deficient --discharge during the period of record at the station on St. Marys River near Macclenny is shown by curves in figure 3. One curve shows the maximum period of consecutive days duringwhichthe flow was less than a given amount, and the other shows the lowest average discharge for periods ranging from one day to




'u
g 0.3 I l I I I I I II
W
I .20
0
.10
Lowest average zO
. Indicated period W5
CONSECUTIVE DAYS CONSECUTIVE MONTHS
Figure 3. Discharge available without storage, St. Marve River near Macclenny, 1926-57. 2




ZO FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY
twelve months.
As an example, during the period 1926-57, 33 days was the longest consecutive period that the daily runoff at this station remained below 0.025 cubic foot per secondper square mile (18 cfs). The longest period during which the runoff averaged as low as 0. 025 cubic foot per second per square mile was 100 days.
Flow-Duration Curves
The flow -duration curve shows the percentage of time that a specified discharge was equaled or exceeded during a given period. In a strict sense the flow-duration curve applies only to the period for which data were used to develop the curve. However, if the period on which the flow-duration curve is based represents long-term flow of the stream, the curve may be considered a probability curve and used to estimate the percent of time a specified discharge will be equaled or exceeded in the future.
The duration curves of daily flow for six gaging stations in Baker Countyare shown in figure 4. Records for only one station, St. Marys River near Macclenny, are continuous for the 31-year period, 1926-57. The curves for the other five stations inthe report areahave been adjusted from their individual short-term records to the 31-year base period. The relationship of the duration of flows at the six stations in the St. Marys River basin shown in figure 4 is for the common 31-year base period. In order to compare the duration curves for each station, discharge is expressed as cubic feet per second per square mile.
The difference in the low-flow characteristics of each tributary is apparent from the curves shown in figure 4. As an example, at the Turkey Creek station (drainage area, 20. 9 square miles) the flow equaled or exceeded 0. 025 cfs per square mile for 90 percent of the time. However, at the station on Middle Prong at Taylor (drainage area, 127 square miles) for the same durationperiod the flow was only 0. 0021 cfs per square mile. Low flow at the Turkey Creek




INFORMATION CIRCULAR NO. 20 21
50 -DRAINAGE GAGING STATION AREA 3 \\ ---- SO. MI.
... I. North Prong St. Marys
-0 River at Moniac Go. 160
2. Middle Prong St. Morys River at Toylor Flo. 127
3. South Prong St. Marys I0 .River near Sanderson Fla. 58 I V.14. Turkey Greek at Macclenny Fla. 20.9
_ -5. South Prong St. Marys S -River at Glen St Mary Flo. 150 G6. St. Marys River near 3- Mocclenny Flu. 720
1.01
to
z
0
05
.5 5
0 )0
.001 -- x-
0.01 0.05 0.2 0.5 I 2 5 10 20 30 40 5O 60 70 80 90 95 98 99 995 999 99.99
PERCENT OF TIME DISCHARGE EQUALED OR EXCEEDED THAT SHOWN
Figure 4. Flow -duration curves for gaged strearns in Baker County for the 31 -year period, 1926 -57.




ZZ, FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY
station is fairly well sustained by ground-water inflow while that at the Middle Prong station is poorly sustainedand flow ceases during extended periods of deficient rainfall.
Flood Flows
The knowledge of flood-flow characteristics of the streams in an area is required information in the economic design of bridges, roadfills, spillways, detention dams, and other structures placed in, across, or adjacent to flood plains.
From a study of the magnitude and pattern of recurrence of past floods a means of estimating with fair dependability the expectancy of floods in the future has been developed. Such a study of floods in Florida has been made and presented in an earlier report. 1 Parts of the earlier report that are applicable to Baker County have been abstracted and presented here.
Flood-Frequency Relations
This abstract summarizes and explains the use of regional flood-frequency relations for streams inBaker County.
Among the many physical characteristics of drainage basins that affect runoff, those most applicable in Florida are size of drainage area of the basin; amount of storage capacity in stream channels, swamps, and lakes; shape of basin; land and stream slopes; porosity of soil; type of vegetal cover; and land use.
From the earlier report it was determined that the size of drainage area is the dominant factor influencing the
1Pride, R. W., Flood Frequency Relations for Florida: U.S. Geol. Survey open-file report, extracted from an unpublished report, Floods in Florida, Magnitude and Frequency, 1957.




INFORMATION CIRCULAR NO. 20 Z3
magnitude of floods on streams in Baker County. Figure 5, whichwas preparedfrom flood relations inthe earlier report, shows the variation of flood discharge with drainage area for streams in Baker County.
Flood data for only two gaging stations in this report area (North Prong St. Marys River at Moniac and St. Marys River at Macclenny) were available for a long enoughperiod to be used in the development of the flood-frequency relation shown in figure 5. However, the data were analyzed and results summarized on a regional basis using flood data from other long-term stations in Florida as well as southern Georgia and Alabama. Baker County is part of a much larger geographical area for which flood characteristics are similar. Therefore it can be assumed that the relations as shown in figure 5 may be applied with a fair degree of assurance in estimating the magnitude of floods of various recurrence intervals up to 50 years.
STORAGE CONSIDERATIONS
The primary purpose of this report of the surface-water resources of Baker County is to furnish data for the planning of water-impoundment reservoirs for recreational uses. At this time other water uses or benefits that would result from the creation of impoundment reservoirs are secondary in importance to the recreational requirement. There are several hydrologic factors that must be considered in the design of reservoirs.
Evaporation from Water Surfaces
The evaporationlosses fromlarge multipurpose reservoirs, such as those required for flood control, navigation, water-power development, and water conservation, are usually of minor importance compared to the inflows, outflows, and volume of storage. However, in the design of small recreational reservoirs, such as those being considered by Baker County on streams with poorly sustained low flows, the evaporation losses have an appreciable effect.




24 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY
By the construction of a reservoir an enlarged area of water surface is exposed and the evaporation opportunity is increased. Total evaporation losses from a reservoir are proportional to the area of the water surface. Thus, the losses from a shallow, wide reservoir are considerably higher, percentagewise, than those from a deep, narrow reservoir.
Most investigations of evaporation have been confined to measurements from small areas, suchas the Class A evaporation pans used by the U. S. Weather Bureau. The yearly evaporation from pans is greater than from natural water bodies. The ratio of evaporation from a pan to that from a large body of water is known as the "pan coefficient. The results of experiments to determine the pan coefficient indicate seasonal as well as geographical variations in the
40,000
z
0
0
0 20,0002 3 0 24 hi
~-10,000
D A R N U M
P000
I1 L
50 -
0
0
10 20 30 40 60 100 200 400 600 1000
DRAINAGE AREA, IN SQUARE MILES
Figure 5. Variation of flood discharge with drainage area
for streams in Baker County.




INFORMATION CIRCULAR NO. 20 25
coefficients. Monthly pan-to-lake coefficients have been computed from records collected at Lake Okeechobee, Florida, for the period 1940-46. These coefficients range from 0. 96 for February to 0. 91 for July and August.
Records of evaporation from a ClassA pan at Gainesville, Florida, are available for the years 1954-57. These evaporation records have been used with the pan coefficients, derived fromthe Lake-Okeechobee investigation, tocompute the approximate evaporation loss thatwouldbe expected from small reservoirs in Baker County.
Rainfall is probably more variable seasonally and geographically in Florida than evaporation. Fortunately, a 61year rainfall rec6rdat Glen St. Mary is available. The average monthly rainfall based on this 61-year record has been used to indicate the rainfall that would occur on the lake surface.
The net water losses resulting from evaporation are shown for ea ch month in table 2.
Seepage and Transpiration
As previously discussed under OCCURRENCE OF SURFACE WATER, part of the. water falling as precipitation seeps into the ground and part is used in transpiration by plant life. In considering the availability .9fi surface supplies the amounts of water. removed by these processes are considered to be losses.
In Baker County the seepage losses probably would be increased to some extent by impoundment of water in shallow reservoirs. On the other hand, in some areas in the eastern part of the county there is some indication of upward leakage or flow from ground storage to the surface by artesian pressure. The evaluation of seepage losses or gains is beyond the scope of this investigation. The additional seepage that wouldresultfromthe constructionof a smalllow-headreservoir has been assumed to be negligible.
Transpiration losses also would be increased by the




26 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY
Table 2. Summary of Monthly Average Evaporation
and Rainfall in Baker County
Evaporation (inches) Rainfal1 Net evap(inches) oration loss
Month Class A Pan1 Pan Lake from lake Coefficient2 (inches) January 3.38 0.77 2.60 2.73 February 4. 24 69 2. 92 3. 53 --March 5.96 .73 4.35 3.81 0.54 April 6.70 .84 5.63 2.97 2.66 May 8.21 .82 6.74 3.79 2.95 June 8.37 .85 7.11 6.55 .56 July 7.67 .91 6.98 7.83 --August 7.71 .91 7.01 6.71 .30 September 5. 72 .85 4. 85 5.68 --October 4.93 .76 3.75 3.61 .14 ovember 3.92 .71 2.78 1.81 .97 ecember 3.13 .83 2.60 3.14 --'Monthly average of records for 1954-57 from U.S. Weather Bureau evaporation station at Gainesville, Florida.
Computed evaporation data for Lake Okeechobee, Florida. Kohler, M.A.. 1954, Lake and pan evaporation, in Water-loss investigations Lake Hefner studies, technical report: U.S. Geol. Survey Prof. Paper 269, p. 128, based on a study by Langbein, W.B., "Research on Evaporation from Lakes and Reservoirs," Paper presented at Brussels Assembly, 1951, and U. S. Weather Bureau -ecords.
3Monthlyaverage of records for 1896-1957 from U.S. Weather Bureau rainfall station at Glen St. Mary, Florida.




INFORMATION CIRCULAR NO. 20 27
construction of a shallow reservoir if vegetation around the edges of the pool was permitted to flourish. The possible small losses from this cause have likewise been considered as negligible in the computations that follow.
Potential Reservoir Sizes
The relatively flat topography and shallow stream valleys indicate that the only feasible type of surface reservoir for Baker County is one with low-head dam and shallow pool.
The flow records at gaging stations in Baker County indicate that the minimum flows during droughts would not equal the increased evaporation losses that would result from the additional surface of shallow reservoirs of large areal extent. This would result in a decrease in the water level in the reservoir from evaporation losses alone. However, the minimum flows would be sufficient to balance the evaporation losses from small reservoirs. An analysis of the flow records was made to determine the surface area of the largest reservoir that could be created in the basin of each of the gaged tributaries in Baker County to balance evaporation losses against minimum inflow so as to maintain a full reservoir.
Mass curves were plotted as shown in figures 6 and 7, using discharge records from four of the gaging stations at sites of potential small reservoirs. The slope of the mass curve is a measure of the rate of flow of the stream. The minimum slope occurs when the monthly flow is small and is the critical condition of inflow for design of recreation reservoirs.
The maximum rate of net evaporation loss is represented by the right-hand curves in figures 6 and 7. Table 2 shows the monthly evaporation losses in inches from a free water surface, based on average conditions of pan evaporation and rainfall. The maximum amount was 2. 95 inches, or 0. Z5 foot, for May. For months when the rainfall on the reservoir pool occurred at less than average amounts, the net evaporation loss would be correspondingly higher. Greater than




24,000
82,000
20,000
1400
18,000. 12,000
1200
10001
I14,000 (a-c
12,000 -,
1 10,000 04000
8,000 2,000 / 200
100 6 I I8 24 30 36
4,000 - res ACCUMULATED MONTHS 44,000
8,000 NOTE- SLOPE OF LNK REPRESENTS MAXIMUM MONTHLY AVERAGE 3 goIt -0gag@RATE OF NET EVAPORATION LOSS IN ACRE*FEET FOR VARIOUS
0 De II I I i ,all RESERVOIR AREAS. NET EVAPORATION LOSS BASED ON NET
4 900 195 1955 156 1957 955 195 RATE OF 025 FT PER MONTH FOR 3eMONTH PERI0DNO
MIDDLE PRONG ST. MARYS SOUTH PRONG ST. MARYS TURKEY CREEK ALLOWANCE MACE FOR TRANSPIRATION AND SEEPAGE LOSSES.
RIVER AT TAYLOR RIVER NEAR SANDERSON AT MACCLENNY
NOTE.-FOR PERIODS OF MINIMUM FLOW SHOWN ABOVE, EVAPORATION LOSSES FROM A RESERVOIR
OF INDICATED SURFACE AREA WOULD HAVE EQUALED THE INFLOW TO THE RESERVOIR.
Figure 6. Mass curves for flow at three gaging stations in Baker County and diagram showing rate of evaporation loss from various reservoir areas.




G 344
342
NE0
01400 | 954 1955 1956 1907 '30AQ
50
to 12,000SIS I TI Jr t r
4r II I 1 S 2 0 3
195 13952 1953
= '~ ~400 Slz 2,00 // N05
s o -1 3 0 2o
lS2 0 6 12 18 24 30 360 1030 ACCUMULATED MONTHS 1930 tool 102 1903
NOTE.- SLOPE OF LINE REPRESENTS MaxIMUM MONTHLY AVERAGE NOTE.-FOR PERIODS OF MINIMUM FLOW 3HOWNA0VEEVAPORATION RATE OF NET EVAPORATION LOSS IN ACRE-FEET FOR VARIOUS
LOSSES FROM A RESERVOIR OF INDICATED SURFACE AREA RESERVOIR AREAS NET EVAPORATION LOSS BASED ON NET WOULD HAVE EquALED THE INFLOW TD THE RESERVOIR. RATE OP 0 0S FT PER MONTH FOR 36-MONTh PERIOD NO ALLOWANCE MADE FOR TRANSPIRATION AND SEEPAGE LOSSES
Figure 7. Mass curve for flow of South Prong St. Marys River at Glen St. Mary and diagram showing rate of evaporation loss from various reservoir areas.




30 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY
average rates of rainfall would result in more discharge over the spillway.
Using 0. 25 foot per month as a design rate of evaporation, the volumes of water loss in acre-feetper month were computed for selected pool areas in constructing figures 6 and 7. The minimum slope of the mass curve for each station was transferred to the evaporation loss diagram. The size of surface area of the reservoir thus obtained represents the maximum for which inflow would have balanced evaporation losses, during the dry months in 1955-57, assuming no other draft or consumptive use of the impoundedwater and assuming that the reservoir was full at the beginning of that drought. If a larger reservoir should be created, the gap between the supply and loss curves would represent the amount of water in acre-feet that would be lost for evaporation in excess of the replacement by inflow. In sucha case, this would result in a reservoir less than full for a time, depending on the size of the reservoir.
The surface areas of the largest reservoirs that could be kept filled by the base flows at each of the four stations shown below were determined from figures 6 and 7, which were based on a monthly net evaporation rate of 0. 25 foot (from table 2) and on streamflow experience during the period of record at each station. The areas are shown in the following table.
Surface area
Drainage area, of reservoir,
Gaging station in square miles in acres
Middle Prong St. Marys River at Taylor 127 300 South Prong St. Marys River
near Sanderson 58 30 South Prong St. Marys River
at Glen St. Mary 150 640 Turkey Creek at Macclenny 20. 9 200
Although there are longer periods of streamflow records for North Prong St. Marys River at Moniac and St. Marys




INFORMATION CIRCULAR NO. 20 31
River near Macclenny, the sizes of potential reservoirs at these gaging stations have not been determined as these streams border Baker County and only part of their drainage area is within the county.
CONCLUSIONS
Surface-water supplies in Baker County vary seasonally as well as geographically. The highest runoff usually occurs during the summer and early fall and the lowest during the winter and early spring, corresponding to the same rainfall distribution pattern.
Streamflows of the St. Marys River basin are influenced by the large swampland areas in Baker County and southern Georgia. During prolonged periods of deficient rainfall, much of the surface water stored in the swamps is lost by evaporation and transpiration and the surface streams draining from these swamps cease to flow. Long periods of little or no flow have occurred at points on North Prong, Middle Prong, and the upper reaches of South Prong of the St. Marys River. Low flows in Turkey Creek and in the lower reach of South Prong St. Marys River are fairly well sustained by ground-water inflow.
During periods of drought, the yield of the streams in Baker County varies from less than 0. 001 to 0. 01 cfs per square mile, depending on the location. The median runoff varies from 0. 045 to 0. 3 cfs per square mile. The mean annual peak flow varies from 38 cfs per square mile from a drainage area of 10 square miles to 10. 4 cfs per square mile from 720 square miles. The ratios of the 10-, 25-, and 50year flood to the mean annual floods are 2. 22, 3. 05, and
3. 72, respectively.
Evaporation from the water surface would account for most of the natural water losses from proposed recreation reservoirs in Baker County; however, streamflow even in dry periods would sustain reservoirs in sizes of from 30 to 640 acres in certain stream basins. Larger reservoirs could be builtat the risk of having them less than full during periods of drought.




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Baker County
Interim report on surface water resources of Baker County, Florida ( FGS: Information circular 20 )
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PDF1 applicationpdf 6c0d65beff0b89210053c5d3181c8e9e 1618493
UF00001080.pdf
METS2 unknownx-mets 54ced0d516c196cf75ea5389b36ab312 42699
UF00001080_00001.mets
METS:structMap STRUCT1 physical
METS:div DMDID ADMID ORDER 0 main
PDIV1 Title Page 1
PAGE1 i
METS:fptr FILEID
PAGE2 ii
PDIV2 Preface Chapter
PAGE3 iii
PAGE4 iv
PDIV3 Table Contents 3
PAGE5 v
PAGE6 vi
PDIV4 4 Main
PAGE7
PAGE8
PAGE9
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PAGE11 5
PAGE12 6
PAGE13 7
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PAGE26
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PAGE28 22
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PAGE36 30
PAGE37 31
STRUCT2 other
ODIV1
FILES1
FILES2