Citation
Changes in the chloride content of ground water in Pinellas County, Florida, between 1947 and 1956 ( FGS: Information circular 16 )

Material Information

Title:
Changes in the chloride content of ground water in Pinellas County, Florida, between 1947 and 1956 ( FGS: Information circular 16 )
Series Title:
FGS: Information circular
Added title page title:
Chloride content of ground water in Pinellas County, Florida
Creator:
Brown, Delbert Wayne, 1922-
Place of Publication:
Tallahassee
Publisher:
[s.n.]
Publication Date:
Language:
English
Physical Description:
iii, 11 p. : maps, diagr., tables. ; 23 cm.

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Groundwater -- Florida -- Pinellas County ( lcsh )
Water -- Composition ( lcsh )
Chlorides ( lcsh )
Pinellas County ( local )
City of St. Petersburg ( local )
Chlorides ( jstor )
Moisture content ( jstor )
Water wells ( jstor )
Genre:
non-fiction ( marcgt )

Notes

General Note:
"Prepared by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the Florida Geological Survey and Pinellas County."
Funding:
Digitized as a collaborative project with the Florida Geological Survey, Florida Department of Environmental Protection.

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Holding Location:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
The author dedicated the work to the public domain by waiving all of his or her rights to the work worldwide under copyright law and all related or neighboring legal rights he or she had in the work, to the extent allowable by law.
Resource Identifier:
022288064 ( aleph )
01721037 ( oclc )
AJA4791 ( notis )
a 58008961 ( lccn )

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Full Text
STATE OF FLORIDA
STATE BOARD OF CONSERVATION
Ernest Mitts, Director
FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY
Robert 0. Vernon, Director
INFORMATION CIRCULAR NO. 16
CHANGES IN THE CHLORIDE CONTENT OF
GROUND WATER IN PINELLAS COUNTY, FLORIDA
BETWEEN 1947 AND 1956
By
D. W. Brown, Geologist U. S. Geological Survey
Prepared by U. S. Geological Survey
in cooperation with the Florida Geological Survey and Pinellas County
Tallahassee, Florida 1958







ILL US TRAT IONS
Figure Page
1 Map of Pinellas County showing the locations
of wells from which water samples were
taken for determinations of the chloride content of ground water in 1956 .............. ....
2 Map of Pinellas County showing the chloride
content of water from wells in 1947 and 1956. 3
3 Hydrographs of wells 13, 77, and 561 and
monthly rainfall at stations near Tarpon
Springs, Clearwater, and St. Petersburg,
Florida ......... ...................... 5
4 Map of Pinellas County showing the locations
of the wells to be used for obtaining data on
water levels and chloride content of water . 6
Table
I Chloride content of water from the artesian
aquifer in Pinellas County ..... ........... 8







CHANGES IN THE CHLORIDE CONTENT OF GROUND
WATER IN PINELLAS COUNTY, FLORIDA,
BETWEEN 1947 AND 1956
By
D. W. Brown
In December 1956 the U. S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Florida Geological Survey and the Board of County Commissioners of Pinellas County, collected waterlevel and chloride content of water in 94 wells in Pinellas County. The locations of these wells are shown in figure 1 and the chloride content of water from these wells is given in table 1. These wells were mEasured and sampled by the U. S. Geological Survey in 1947 and the data were published in the report entitled "Ground-Water Resources of Pinellas County, Florida," by R. C. Heath and P. C. Smith. That report contains also a section on salt-water encroachment in. Pinellas County.
The reason for resampling and reanalyzing the water from these wells was to determine the change in the -chloride content of the.ground water from 1947 to 1956. The chloride c6ntent of ground water is generally a reliable indication- of the contamination of ground:water by sea.water,' as 90 percent of the dissolved solids of sea water are chloride salts. The chloride content (in parts per million) of the water from each well, in 19 47 and 1956, is shown beside the proper well symbol in figure 2. A study of this figure shows that there is no definable pattern to the changes in chloride content between 1947 and 1956. During this period the chloride .content increased in the water from 48 wells and decreased in that from 29 wells. The maximum increase and decrease in chloride content were found in the water from wells 49 and 67, respectively. The chloride content 6f water from well 49, near Lake Tarpon, increased by 1,370 ppm and that from well 67, near Palm Harbor, decreased by 2,030
ppm. .-- .




INFORMATION CIRCULAR NO.- 16 3
PASCO COUNTY
A
7,, :z
98U Il =RO 15
0 T-0 300 30
50 87 7 0 44
7F0 30 3
-4-. T 7 85 5 .. _coo
1 0 4 ,ISO
40 Iteo ToC .. q) No 28 i p
24 1 0 50 2706
*'! -29 2 5 17 0L -G W5 3
( f /050 16 5
* 0 1 s w 400 o 145 B00
.NDINN REO 224 J0T5 O
50 t7-9 14
107 140 NPINELLAS
265
W 190
-1. 295
EN'2 75 A_0
LEGEND 725 SjPEERSO FIG
501
The upper and lower numbers NI-P)
indi cote the chloride cwenet l of
water in 1947 aed 1956 respectively
Figure 2. Map of Pinellas County showing the chloride content of water from wells in 1947 and 1956.




4 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY
The irregular changes in chloride content are due partly to the fact that the wells differed considerably in depth and partly to the fact that ground-water levels were probably not the same in 1956 as they were in 1947.
In Pinellas County the chloride content of water from deep wells is generally higher than that of water from shallow wells, and the chloride content of the water from any well in the area generally increases as the well is pumped.
Water-level fluctuations in arte sian wells may be caused by recharge, natural discharge, pumping, ocean tides, changing barometric pressure, and earthquakes. Fluctuation caused by tides, barometric pressure, and earthquakes are usually small and of short duration. Such fluctuations do not materially affect salt-water encroachment but are an indication of the elastic properties of the aquifer. The water-level fluctuations caused by recharge, .natural and pumping discharge are important because they show changes in storage within the aquifer. These changes in storage have an appreciable effect on the encroachment of salt water into the aquifer. Figure 3 shows the mean daily water levels in three wells compared with the monthly rainfall at weather stations near the cities of Thrpon Springs, Clearwater, and St. Petersburg. This figure shows that ground-water levels respond to rainfall, thus indicating recharge to the artesian limestone aquifer. The extreme range of water-level fluctuations is not shown in figure 3, but the water levels have fluctuated during the period of record through a range of 4.07 feet in well 13, 5.49 feet in well 77, and 4. 00 feet in well 561. Although the range of fluctuation is not great, the water levels were probably at different elevations during the sampling periods in 1947 and 1956.
The future ground-water observation program in Pinellas County will consist of the operation of automatic water-level recorders on six wells, the periodic measurement of water levels in four wells, and the periodic determination of the chloride content of the water from 10 wells. The locations of these observation wells are shown in figure 4. The periodic determinations of the chloride content and the water-level measurements will be made at 6-week




1w ~ 1940 1949 M50 lop, 9112 1 953 l 954 1955 199
WW F M A 90 9 95NjrAJ~ie~F A950 N A IMA A j 1I11A I I I DJ!9A1 9 M4 SON11DIMAMjI N 0j FM A M 4A 5 N 1 4r MAMIJ A SON,
,Ig.
4 ___.....___-__"_
I ,, I . . - .. !_ I L j,
WOi156!,2 Omalm ulonl o. Pok L~r
Figure 3. Hydrograplis of wells 13, 77, and 561 and monthly -, rainfall at stations near Tarpon Springs, Clearwater, and 5t. Petersburg, Florida.
U,




FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY..
V it
077
/667
I! 00
II
0'S
00
037 .. .
EXP ANAT ON
ohset0 "A ST PETERSBURG
a Water leel recorder
Penodic determnrotion of water
leel and chloride content
Pertodhc Ceterminotton
of chloride content
Post office or principol
intersection
Figure 4. Map of Pinellas County showing the locations of
the wells to be used for obtaining data on water
levels and chloride content of water.




FLORIDA. GEOLOGICAL :SURVEY:
Table I. Chloride Content of Water from the Artesian Aquifer in Pinellas County
Chloride content in ppm Chloride change
Year of sampling Increase Decrease
Well 1947- 1948- 1951NO. 1948 1951 1956 1956 1956 1956
131 (1943)
15 200 255 20 75
17 5 110 + 105 28 20 25 + 5 30 25 30 + 5 33 10 17 + 7 40 30 120 + 90
44 300 300 490 + 190 +190
45 1,187 520 667 49 71 1,440 +1.369 54 400 390 10
59 550 920 780 + 230 -140 67 Z,0 340 70 -2,030 -Z70
640 1,060
73 400 1,700 +1,300
90 25 45 +20
92 20 26 + 6
97 13 17 23 + 10 + 6
oa 180 430 + 250
105 32 37 30 2 7
108 45 70 + 25 109 45 250 + 205 114 10 30 + 20 129 25 35 + 10




INFORMATION" CIRCULAR NO. 16 9
Table I. Chloride Content of Water from the Artesian Aquifer in Pinellas County (continued) Chloride content in ppm Chloride- change Year of sampling Increase Decrease Well 1947- 1948- 1951No. 1947 1948 1951 1956 1956 1956 1956
140 25 35 + 10
159 30 100 + 70 166 80 370 + 290 168 40 120 + 80 171 30 100 + 70 175 17 24 + 7 180 45 30 15 187 47 40 7 193 30 95 + 65 194 58 80 + 22
50 60 + 10
218 20 20 0
225 50
229 185 180 5 251 51 28 Z- 3
260 20 24 + 4.
282 272 385 + 113 286 20 28 4I- 8 293 50 29 21 302 30 24 6 308 17 .51 + 34
312 104 75 25 79 50 315 30 37 15 15 -22
326 40 98 .+ 58




10 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY
Table 1. Chloride Content of Water from the Artesian Aquifer in Pinellas County (continued) Chloride content in ppm Chloride change Year of sampling Increase Decrease Well 1947- 1948- 1951No. 1947 1948 1951 1956 1956 1956 1956
338 45 40 5 340 20 18 2 343 21 28 + 7
346 34
348 43 58 + 15
350 730 728 710 20 18
351 210 195 15
354 115 85 120 + 5 +35
357 65
367 27 31 + 4 368 37 35 2
373 270 265 265 5 0
37? 205 200 210 + 5 + 10 383 37 46 +.9
387 32 25 30 2 + 5
420 1,050 550 500 423 42 224 + 182 437 18 44 + 26
447 25 25 29 + 4 +.4
456 160 145 15 459 400 135 Z65 465 160 19 141 480 50 63 + 13
487 Z5 98 + 73




INFORMATION CIRCULAR NO. 16 11
Table 1. Chloride Content of Water from the Artesian Aquifer in Pinellas County (continued) Chloride content in ppm Chloride change Year of sampling Increase Decrease Well 1947- 1948- 1951No. 1947 1948 1951 1956 1956 1956 1956
491 280 125 155 493 25 107 + 82 498 145 170 + 25
518 20 15 5 519 25 20 5 526 655 19 -636
528 z6z Z90 + 28 535 17 295 + 278 546 190 165 Z5 549 200 205 + 5 559 157 140 17 561 121 169 + 48 571 201 190 11 573 155 115 40 591 310 310 0
592 1,395 1,365 Z, 130 + 735 +765 593 275 300 250 290 + 15 -10 + 40
606 205 190 15
608 25 51 + 26 620 50 25 46 4 + 21
626 300 308 460 + 160 +152
634 75 170 + 95
647 725 675 825 + 100 +150
1956 sampling and field determinations of chloride by C. F. Essig and Luther
Mills. Wells sampled December 10-15, 1956.




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PAGE 1

STATE OF FLORIDA STATE BOARD OF CONSERVATION Ernest Mitts, Director FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY Robert O. Vernon, Director INFORMATION CIRCULAR NO. 16 CHANGES IN THE CHLORIDE CONTENT OF GROUND WATER IN PINELLAS COUNTY, FLORIDA BETWEEN 1947 AND 1956 By D. W. Brown, Geologist U. S. Geological Survey Prepared by U. S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the Florida Geological Survey and Pinellas County Tallahassee, Florida 1958

PAGE 3

ILLUSTRATIONS Figure Page 1 Map of Pinellas County showing the locations of wells from which water samples were taken for determinations of the chloride content of ground water in 1956. .... ....... .2 2 Map of Pinellas County showing the chloride content of water from wells in 1947 and 1956. .3 3 Hydrographs of wells 13, 77, and 561 and monthly rainfall at stations near Tarpon Springs, Clearwater, and St. Petersburg, Florida ...................... 5 4 Map of Pinellas County showing the locations of the wells to be used for obtaining data on water levels and chloride content of water ...6 Table 1 Chloride content of water from the artesian aquifer in Pinellas County ...........8 iii

PAGE 5

CHANGES IN THE CHLORIDE CONTENT OF GROUND WATER IN PINELLAS COUNTY, FLORIDA, BETWEEN 1947 AND 1956 By D. W. Brown In December 1956 the U. S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Florida Geological Survey and the Board of County Commissioners of Pinellas County, collected waterlevel and chloride content of water in 94 wells in Pinellas County. The locations of these wells are shown in figure 1 and the chloride content of water from these wells is given in table 1. These wells were measured and sampled by the U. S. Geological Survey in 1947 and the data were published in the report entitled "Ground-Water Resources of Pinellas County, Florida," by R. C. Heath and P. C. Smith. That report contains also a section on salt-water encroachment inPinellas County. The reason for resampling and reanalyzing the water from these wells was to determine the change in the -chloride content of the ground water from 1947 to 1956. The chloride content of ground water is generally a reliable indication of the contamination of ground water by sea.water, as 90 percent of the dissolved solids of sea water are chloride salts. The chloride content (in parts per million) of the water from each well, in 1947 and 1956, is shown beside the proper well symbol in figure 2. A study of this figure shows that there is no definable pattern to the changes in chloride content between 1947 and 1956. During this period the chloride content increased in the water from 48 wells and decreased in that from 29 wells. The maximum increase and decrease in chloride content were found in the water from wells 49 and 67, respectively. The chloride content of water from well 49, near Lake Tarpon, increased by 1,370 ppm and that from well 67, near Palm Harbor, decreased by 2, 030 ppm. '-,·· !·. .--"

PAGE 6

2 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY -\ 8 'sco COUNTr **14 -30 S 1 41 54. 294 7 194 , 93 *l *97 *109 I4104 5 * */7 4 546 / 5 ( oe 129 67 ") 6 71 3 6 08 221 -9' S33 251 30 65 357 RE' W7 'g 367 5 < L 46: Well listed in able by number show 3' 42 3% 437 5 Post office or principal intersection a 11) 420 0 *546 Figure 1. Map of Pinellas County showing the locations of -t423 ~"" .G 459 0 %49 480 465 * water in 1956. 5 493 9 W EXLAATO .7U! 0^\ Well Fasted in table by number showni Post office or principol intersed ion Figure 1. Map of Pinellas County showing the locationsof wells from which water samples were taken for determinations of the chloride content of ground water in 1956.

PAGE 7

INFORMATION CIRCULAR NO.16 3 PASCO COUNTY -i PINELLAS ' COUn Y 1 7, z -, 1/5 * ?0 0 A 300 70 21-00 70 4BB 23 7 ° 0 -i 23 i 40 ,00140 -72 S5250 -6 3 ,24 1 0 .2 * 7 14 * 29 US 'C -30 7 *5* T I-DANR 4 foo T5 B " 5 ~oo 201 " 19 145;q Oa ,Aw .I o n ' U O -Fiure2. a of Pineia ontysh the chloride conTe w s fS25 o tent of water from wells in 1947 and 1956. LEGEND 7 P R indiate the chloride ,ot l f tent of water from wells in 1947 and 1956.

PAGE 8

4 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY The irregular changes in chloride content are due partly to the fact that the wells differed considerably in depth and partly to the fact that ground-water levels were probably not the same in 1956 as they were in 1947. In Pinellas County the chloride content of water from deep wells is generally higher than that of water from shallow wells, and the chloride content of the water from any well in the area generally increases as the well is pumped. Water-level fluctuations in artesian wells maybe caused by recharge, natural discharge, pumping, ocean tides, changing barometric pressure, and earthquakes. Fluctuation caused by tides, barometric pressure, and earthquakes are usually small and of short duration. Such fluctuations do not materially affect salt-water encroachment but are an indication of the elastic properties of the aquifer. The water-level fluctuations caused by recharge, .natural and pumping discharge are important because they show changes in storage within the aquifer. These changes in storage have an appreciable effect on the encroachment of salt water into the aquifer. Figure 3 shows the mean daily water levels in three wells compared with the monthly rainfall at weather stations near the cities of Tarpon Springs, Clearwater, and St. Petersburg. This figure shows that ground-water levels respond to rainfall, thus indicating recharge to the artesian limestone aquifer. The extreme range of water-level fluctuations is not shown in figure 3, but the water levels have fluctuated during the period of record through a range of 4.07 feet in well 13, 5.49 feet in well 77, and 4. 00 feet in well 561. Although the range of fluctuation is not great, the water levels were probably at different elevations during the sampling periods in 1947 and 1956. The future ground-water observation program in Pinellas County will consist of the operation of automatic water-level recorders on six wells, the periodic measurement of water levels in four wells, and the periodic determination of the chloride content of the water from 10 wells. The locations of these observation wells are shown .in figure 4. The periodic determinations of the chloride content and the water-level measurements will be made at 6-week

PAGE 9

1947 1948 1949 Ig 1 951 1912 | 1953 954 95I 9s6 SF ND JF M A J A OND J MAMJJ ASON D M J A3 IAON J M A J J I SON J M A Ij A J A 10 11 1 F MAMJ J A9 NDJ MAM J AB ND FMAMAJ ASON rMA M a I M ~| :,_ M iiji i i~1 l zi ti, .,. .'r h I * E nh R tI fl... i ... J '.. ...,h ' ^ , ... ... i Lj...../ .... ... .J l.. I ..... \ -. Wi 56 _.mmu u.. ..oalo'n._P ...L Figure 3. Hydrographs of wells 13, 77, and 561 and monthly rainfall at stations near Tarpon Springs, Clearwater, and St. Petersburg, Florida. Un

PAGE 10

6 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY V rit \i 66. m7 a * Water leiel rec"der W .3 Z 90~5 ele ond chlo de coc stent f ' 2860 t -d* .eterminot On 561 of chloride content V1/ EXPtLANATION orsecation r AS ST P1n ERSbUR * Water level recorder tPeodc determiton of w s ater level and chlorode content Pertodic Ceterminotton of chlorade content P Fast office or prnncipal intersection Figure 4. Map of Pinellas County showing the locations of the wells to be used for obtaining data on water levels and chloride content of water.

PAGE 11

INFORMATION CIRCULAR NO. 16 7 intervals. The chloride content of the water from a large number of wells will be determined during periods of extremelyhighor low water levels. In addition, water samples will be collected at different depths in a few wells to determine the chemical quality of the water in different zones of the aquifer. 4 -.

PAGE 12

8 FLORIDA. GEOLOGICAL: SURVEY Table I. Chloride Content of Water from the Artesian Aquifer in Pinellas County Chloride content in ppm Chloride change Year of sampling Increase -Decrease Well 194719481951No. 1947 1948 1951 1956 1956 1956 1956 14 131 (1943) 140 15 200 255 180 -20 -75 17 5 110 + 105 28 20 25 + 5 30 25 30 + 5 33 10 17 + 7 40 30 120 + 90 44 300 300 490 + 190 +190 45 1,187 520 -667 49 71 1,440 +1,369 54 400 390 -10 59 550 920 780 + 230 -140 67 2,100 340 70 -2,030 -Z70 640 1,060 73 400 1,700 +1,300 90 25 45 + 20 92 20 26 + 6 97 13 17 23 + 10 + 6 o10 180 430 + 250 105 32 37 30 -2 -7 108 45 70 + 25 109 45 250 + 205 114 10 30 + 20 129 25 35 + 10

PAGE 13

INFORMATION CIRCULAR NO. 16 9 Table 1. Chloride Content of Water from the Artesian Aquifer in Pinellas County (continued) Chloride content in ppm Chloride change Year of sampling Increase -Decrease Well 194719481951No. 1947 1948 1951 1956 1956 1956 1956 140 25 35 + 10 159 30 .100 + 70 166 80 .370 + 290 168 40 120 + 80 171 30 100 + 70 175 17 24 + 7 180 45 -30 -15 187 47 40 -7 193 30 95 + 65 194 58 80 + 22 .217 50 60 .+ 10 218 20 20 0 225 50 229 185 180 -5 251 51 28 -23 260 20 24 + 4 282 272 385 + 113 286 20 28 4i 8 293 50 29 -21 302 30 24 -6 308 17 .51 + 34 312 104 75 25 -79 .-50 315 30 37 .15 -15 -22 326 40 ' 98 + 58

PAGE 14

10 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY Table 1. Chloride Content of Water from the Artesian Aquifer in Pinellas County (continued) Chloride content in ppm Chloride change Year of sampling Increase -Decrease Well 194719481951No. 1947 1948 1951 1956 1956 1956 1956 338 45 40 -5 340 20 18 -2 343 21 28 + 7 346 34 348 43 58 + 15 350 730 728 710 -20 -18 351 210 195 -15 354 115 85 120 + 5 + 35 357 .65 367 27 31 + 4 368 37 35 -2 373 270 265 265 -5 0 377 205 200 210 + 5 *+ 10 383 37 46 + .9 387 32 25 30 -2 + 5 420 1,050 550 -500 423 42 224 + 182 437 18 44 + 26 447 25 25 29 + 4 + 4 456 160 145 -15 459 400 135 -265 465 160 19 -141 480 50 63 + 13 487 25 98 + 73

PAGE 15

INFORMATION CIRCULAR NO. 16 11 Table 1. Chloride Content of Water from the Artesian Aquifer in Pinellas County (continued) Chloride content in ppm Chloride change Year of sampling Increase -Decrease Well 194719481951No. 1947 1948 1951 1956 1956 1956 1956 491 280 125 -155 493 25 107 + 82 498 145 170 + 25 518 20 15 -5 519 25 20 -5 526 655 19 -636 528 262 290 + 28 535 17 295 + 278 546 190 165 -25 549 200 205 + 5 559 157 140 -17 561 121 169 + 48 571 201 190 -11 573 155 115 -40 591 310 310 0 592 1,395 1,365 2, 130 + 735 +765 593 275 300 250 290 + 15 -10 + 40 606 -205 190 -15 608 25 51 + 26 620 50 25 46 -4 + 21 626 300 308 460 + 160 +152 634 75 170 + 95 647 725 675 825 + 100 +150 1956 sampling and field determinations of chloride by C. F. Essig and Luther Mills. Wells sampled December 10-15, 1956.

PAGE 16

-FLORIDA-GEOLOGICAL-SURVEY COPYRIGHT NOTICE © [year of publication as printed] Florida Geological Survey [source text] The Florida Geological Survey holds all rights to the source text of this electronic resource on behalf of the State of Florida. The Florida Geological Survey shall be considered the copyright holder for the text of this publication. Under the Statutes of the State of Florida (FS 257.05; 257.105, and 377.075), the Florida Geologic Survey (Tallahassee, FL), publisher of the Florida Geologic Survey, as a division of state government, makes its documents public (i.e., published) and extends to the state's official agencies and libraries, including the University of Florida's Smathers Libraries, rights of reproduction. The Florida Geological Survey has made its publications available to the University of Florida, on behalf of the State University System of Florida, for the purpose of digitization and Internet distribution. The Florida Geological Survey reserves all rights to its publications. All uses, excluding those made under "fair use" provisions of U.S. copyright legislation (U.S. Code, Title 17, Section 107), are restricted. Contact the Florida Geological Survey for additional information and permissions.