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Interim report on the ground-water resources of Flagler County, Florida ( FGS: Information circular 13 )

Material Information

Title:
Interim report on the ground-water resources of Flagler County, Florida ( FGS: Information circular 13 )
Series Title:
FGS: Information circular
Creator:
Bermes, Boris J
Place of Publication:
Tallahassee
Publisher:
[s.n.]
Publication Date:
Language:
English
Physical Description:
iv, 32 p. : illus., tables., diagrs., maps. ; 23 cm.

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Groundwater -- Florida -- Flagler County ( lcsh )
Water-supply -- Florida -- Flagler County ( lcsh )
Flagler County ( local )
City of Bunnell ( local )
Putnam County ( local )
City of Vernon ( local )
Volusia County ( local )
Atlantic Ocean ( local )
Groundwater ( jstor )
Water wells ( jstor )
Aquifers ( jstor )
Counties ( jstor )
Moisture content ( jstor )
Genre:
non-fiction ( marcgt )

Notes

Bibliography:
Bibliography: p. 31-32.
General Note:
"Prepared by U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the Florida Geological Survey."
Funding:
Digitized as a collaborative project with the Florida Geological Survey, Florida Department of Environmental Protection.
Statement of Responsibility:
by Boris J. Bermes.

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Holding Location:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
The author dedicated the work to the public domain by waiving all of his or her rights to the work worldwide under copyright law and all related or neighboring legal rights he or she had in the work, to the extent allowable by law.
Resource Identifier:
001692721 ( aleph )
01721542 ( oclc )
AJA4795 ( notis )

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Full Text
STATE OF FLORIDA
STATE BOARD OF CONSERVATION
Ernest Mitts, Director
FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY
Robert 0. Vernon, Director
INFORMATION CIRCULAR NO. 13
INTERIM REPORT ON THE GROUND-WATER RESOURCES
OF FLAGLER COUNTY, FLORIDA
By
Boris J. Bernmes
Prepared by U. S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the
Florida Geological Survey
Tallahassee, Florida 1958




CULTIW UBrr FY




TABLE OF CONTENTS
Page
stract................ ................ 1
troduction..................................2
Previous investigations . . . . . . . . 3
Well-numbering system........ .............. 3
ography.......... ......................... 4
ology........... .......................... 4
round water........... ..................... 8
Nonartesian aquifer ................. 9
Artesian aquifer....... ......................10
Piezometric surface of the principal artesian
aquifer in Florida..... .................12
Piezometric surface in St. Johns, Putnam,
and Flagler counties . . . . . . . 14
Piezometric surface in Flagler County . . . 14 Area of artesian flow..... ..................18
Wells......... .......................... .18
Qualityofwater................................20
Salt-water contamination . . . . . . . 22
Summary and conclusions . . . . . . . . 25
References......... ..........................31
ILLUSTRATIONS
Figure
1 Map of Florida showing the location of Flagler
County............... .................. 6
2 Generalized geblogic section showing the
deposits penetrated by wells in Flagler County 7
3 Graph showing the relation between rainfall
at Crescent City and the water level in
well 927-115-l at Bunnell ..... ............ 11
4 Map of the peninsula of Ffirida showing the
piezometric surface of the principal artesian
aquifer ........ ...................... .13
5 Map of St. Johns, Putnam, and Flagler
counties showing the piezometric surface . . 15
6 Map of Flagler County showing the
piezometric surface . . . . . . . 17
iii
4 24O




Figure Page
7 Map of Flagler County showing the
approximate areas of artesian flow. . . . 19
8 Map of Flagler County showing the
locations of wells..... .......... ........21
9 Map of Flagler County showing the approximate chloride content of water from artesian
wells.......... ........................24
10 Graph showing the relation between the chloride content of the water and the water
level in well 920-119-2 near Codys Corner . 26 11 Graph showing fluctuations of water level in well 928-122-1 and the chloride content of
the water in well 928-121-1, west of Bunnell 27
Table
1 Analyses of water from wells in Flagler
County........ .........................23
iv




INTERIM REPORT ON THE GROUND-WATER RESOURCES
OF FLAGLER COUNTY, FLORIDA
By
Boris J. Bermes
ABSTRACT
Flagler County is in the northeastern part of the Florida Peninsula. The surface of the county is underlainby deposits of sand, marl, shell, and clay to depths ranging from 50 to 150 feet. Beds of coquina and sand in the upper part of these deposits were mapped by Cooke (1945, pl. 1) as the Anastasia formation and terrace deposits of Pleistocene age. They yield small quantities of nonartesian water of generally low mineral content to shallow screened wells. Beds of marl and phosphatic sand and clay in the lower part of these deposits are believed to be of Miocene or Pliocene age.
The deposits of sand, shell, and clay are unconformably underlain by limestone of Eocene age which yields large quantities of artesian water in which the mineralization ranges widely but is generally higher than that of the nonartesian water. The water in the limestone will flow at the surface in the lowlands along the western and eastern edges of the county. The artesian aquifer is recharged within the county and also in adjacent Volusia and Putnam counties.
Records of rainfall and fluctuations of artesian pressure show that in recent years the rainfall was deficient in the western part of the county, and that the artesian pressure head underwent a progressive decline of. three feet at Bunnell. Records also show that during this investigation the seasonal decline of pressure head due to pumping for irrigationwas about 12feet in awellwest of Bunnellandabout five feet in a well near Codys Corner.
The chloride content of water from artesian wells ranges from less than 100 ppm (parts per million) in the recharge areas near the towns of Espanola and Favorita to more than 2, 000 ppmin areas in the northeastern part of the county and
1




2 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY
southwest of Bunnell. The chloride content of the artesian water from some wells in certain farm areas increased considerably during periods of heavy pumping.
INTRODUCTION
Much of the economy of Flagler County is based on the income from winter vegetables which are irrigated with ground water. The demand for ground water is increasing in certain areas of Flagler County. Recently the chloride content of the water from some wells increased, many wells stopped yielding water by natural flow, and a few new wells yielded only salty water. Therefore, the contamination of existing supplies and the availability of new supplies are matters of importance to the economy of the county. In recognition of these and other water problems, the State Legislature appropriated funds for an investigation of the water resources of the county.
The ground-water phase of the investigation was begun in December 1955 by the U. S. Geological Surveyin cooperation with the Florida Geological Survey. The purpose of the investigation is to study the ground-water resources of the county and publish the results in a form that will be useful in the solution of ground-water problems.
Studies are being made of the ground-water hydrology and geology of the county with special emphasis on problems associated with salt-water contamination and declining water levels. Major efforts in these studies include the following:
I. Collecting rock cuttings from and pertinent
information on depth, yield, etc., on existing
wells.
2. Analyzing water samples from existing wells.
3. Making test borings and using well-surveying
instruments where necessary.
4. Recording seasonal fluctuations and progressive
trends in water level, water quality, water use,
and rainfall.




INFORMATION CIRCULAR -NO.. -13 3
This report presents a general- description of the occurrence of groundwater in the county, basedon information collected during the-first nine months of the investigation.
The investigation was made under the general supervision of A.N. Sayre, Chief, Ground Water Branch, U.S. Geological Survey, and under the immediate supervision of M. I. Rorabaugh, District Engineer for Florida.
Previous Investigations
The geology and ground-water resources of Flagler County are mentioned in several reports of the U. S. Geological Survey and the Florida Geological Survey.
Cooke (1945, p. 268, 295, 304) briefly discusses the occurrence of the Pamlico sand and the Anastasia and Talbot formations in.Flagler County. A report by Vernon (1951, fig. 13, 33; pl. 2) includes Flagler County in generalized maps of central Florida which show generalized geologic sections andthe structure of the Inglis member of the Moodys Branch formation.
The ground-water resources of Flagler County are briefly mentioned by Stringfield (1936, pl. 6, 10, 12), and chemical analyses of water from wells in Flagler County are included in reports by Collins and Howard (1928, p. 214) and
-Black and Brown (1951, p. 53).
Well-Numbering System
All wells inventoried during this investigation were assigned numbers. The well number was assigned-by dividing the county into 1-minute quadrangles of latitude and longitude and numbering, consecutively, the wells in each 1-minute quadrangle. The well number is composed of the last, three digits of the line of latitude south of the well, followed by the last three digits of the line of longitude east of the well, followed by the number of the well in the quadrangle. Therefore, wells referred to in the text by well number may be'located on figure 8. For example, well 927-115-1 is the well numbered 1 in the quadrangle bounded on the south by latitude -29 '27' and on the east by-longitude 819151.




4 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY
GEOGRAPHY
Flagler County is in the northeastern part of the Florida Peninsula (fig. 1) and has an area of 483 square miles, nominally 309, 120 acres. The average annual rainfall is about 48 inches, according to the records of the U. S. Weather Bureau.
Topographically, Flagler County includes both lowlands and uplands. The lowlands include the large flat area drained by Haw Creek and its tributaries, and small areas ranging from a few hundred feet to several miles wide adjacent to Crescent Lake, Pellicer Creek, Bulow Creek, the Matanzas River, and the Atlantic Ocean. They range in altitude from sea level, along the Atlantic Ocean, to 25 feet above sealevel where they merge into the uplands.
The uplands include the remaining areas of the county. They include a few sand ridges, several lakes, and broad, relatively level areas. Surface altitudes range from 25 feet above sea level, where the uplands adjoin the lowlands to about 50 feet above sea level northwest of Espanola.
The lowlands and some areas of the uplands are drained by streams and canals that discharge into the Atlantic Ocean and Crescent Lake. The remainder of the uplands are drained, through lakes and swamps, into underlying aquifers, in which the water moves toward streams or toward the ocean.
According to information compiled in 1955 by the U. S. Dept. Commerce, Census Bureau, Flagler County ranks fourth among the counties of the State in the growing of Irish potatoes and cabbage. Thus, although Flagler County is the fifth smallest county in the State in both population and area, it ranks high in agricultural production. This is due, in part, to the availability of adequate supplies of water from inexpensive wells.
GEOLOGY
Rock cuttings from wells show that Flagler County is underlain by limestone, clay, shell beds and sand. A generalized geologic cross section, showing the deposits penetrated




INFORMATION CIRCULAR NO. 13 5
by water wells in the southwestern part of the county, is shown in figure 2.
The lowermost deposit penetrated by water wells is a thick section of limestone of Eocene age, the top of which is shown schematically by the wavy line in figure 2. The upper part of this limestone section is generally veryfossiliferous and relatively pure. It locally consists of numerous echinoid and mollusk fragments, miliolids, and large Foraininifera. Similar limestone has been mapped in northern Florida and assigned to various formations of Eocene age by Vernon (1951, p. 115-171)and others. The limestone has not been studied insufficient detail in Flagler County to permit differentiating of the various formations. It will be referred to in this report as limestone of Eocene age.
The limestone of Eocene age is several hundred feet thick, and its top is an undulating surface 35 to 135 feet below sealevel. It is a consolidated rock containing numerous porous andpermeable zones whichyield large quantities of water to open-hole wells. Most wells in the county draw from it exclusively. The upper part of this limestone was eroded by ancient surface streams and circulating ground water (Stringfield,. 1936, p. 124-125). The undulations of its surface and much of the porosity in its upper part are probably the result of the cavities, sinkholes, and stream channels that were formed when the limestone was the surface or buried at shallow depth by the overlying deposits of later ancient seas.
The deposits overlying the limestone consist predominantly oflclay, shell, and sand. They are shown as a single unit in figure 2 because the available information is not adequate topermit differentiating the individual beds. However, records from a few wells in Flagler County showthat the lower part of the deposits of clay, shell, and sand include beds of green phosphatic clay, gray phosphatic sand, sandy limestone, and shell marl. Beds similar to these have been mapped in northern Florida and assigned to various formations believed to be Miocene and Pliocene in age by Cooke (1945, pl. 1)and Miocene in age by Vernon (Black and Brown, 1951, fig. 1). The beds overlying the limestone in Flagler County




6 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY
I-I
C .... I
FLORIDA
Figure 1. Map of .Florida showing the location of Flagler
County.




INFORMATION CIRCULAR NO. 13 7
.. 50
47
U50- CLAY, SAND, AND SHELLS 1000
U7
50
. 200- Ecn 250- ,300" FLAGLER COUNTY 350 ^ >, A
t400
450
500 o
Figure 2. Generalized geologic section showing the deposits
pnetrated by wells in Flagler County.




8 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY
have not been studied in sufficient detail to justify a determi-nation of their correct age. They will be referred to collectively in this report as deposits of Miocene or Pliocene age.
The deposits of Miocene or Pliocene age include relatively impermeable beds that retard the seepage of water into or out of the underlying limestone of Eocene age. Permeable zones in the deposits of Miocene or Pliocene age differ widely in their water-bearing characteristics, and wells drawing more than small quantities of water from them must be fitted with screens. Most wells of large yield are cased through these zones, even in areas where these zones yield water of low mineral content and the underlying limestone yields water of high mineral content.
The upper part of the deposits of clay, shell, and sand include beds of coquina and sand that have been mapped and assigned to the Anastasia formation of Pleistocene age and to terrace deposits of Recent and Pleistocene age by Cooke (1945,pl. 1). The Anastasia formation is at the surface along the entire east coast in Flagler County and extends inland as far as three miles.. The terrace deposits.are found at the surface throughout the rest of the county. They are thickest under the uplands and thinnest under the lowlands.. The deposits of Pleistocene age yield moderate quantities of water to screened wells.
GROUND WATER
Ground water is the subsurface water in the zone of saturation, the zone in which all the pore spaces are completely filled with water under pressure greater than atmospheric. It is derived almost entirely from precipitation. Part of this precipitation returns to the atmosphere by evapotranspiration, part drains overland to lakes and streams; the remainder reaches the zone of saturation to become ground water. Ground water moves more or less laterally, under the influence of gravity, to places of discharge such as wells, springs, lakes, surface streams, or the ocean.
Groundwater may occur under either nonartesian (water table) conditions or artesian conditions. Where it is unconfined, its surface is free to rise and fall and it is said to be




INFORMATION CIRCULAR NO. 13 9
under nonartesian conditions. The upper surface of unconfined groundwater is calledthe water table. Where the water is confinedin a permeablebed that is overlainbyarelatively impermeable bed so that its surface is not free to rise and fall, it is said to be under artesian conditions. Technically, the term "artesian" is appliedto groundwater that is confined under sufficient pressure to rise above thetop of thepermeable bed that contains it, though not necessarily to or above the land surface. The imaginary surface coinciding with the level to which artesian water will rise is called the piezometric surface.
Rocks in the zone of saturationthat are permeable enough to yield water in usable quantity to wells and springs are called aquifers. Areas in which an aquifer receives replenishment from infiltration are called recharge areas. Areas in which an aquifer loses water from springs or-wells are called discharge areas. Nonartesian aquifers are usually at or near the land surface and receive recharge over most of their area. Artesian aquifers receive recharge in their areas of outcrop or, under certain conditions, where their "confining" beds are leaky or discontinuous.
Nonartesian Aquifer
Ground water in Flagler County occurs under both nonartesian and artesian conditions. The surficial sand and shell deposits of Recent and Pleistocene age contain ground water under nonartesian conditions in all parts of the county except inareas southwest of Bunnellandalong Crescent Lake where they are overlain by confining beds of clay and the water is artesian.
Probably less than 100 wells draw water from the nonartesian aquifer in the county. Their yields differ widely, depending upon their construction, but are generally less than 200 gpm (gallons per minute). Water from these wells is used mainly for domestic and public supplies.
The nonartesian aquifer is replenished byinfiltration of rain that falls on the county and, probablyto a minor degree, by upward leakage from the artesian aquifer in areas where the pie zometric surface is above the water table. In addition




10 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY
to this natural recharge the nonartesian aquifer probably receives recharge in the truck-farming areas as a result of slow downward infiltration of irrigation water. Water is lost from the aquifer by natural discharge through springs, by downward percolation into the artesian aquifer in the upland areas, and by withdrawal from wells.
The chloride content of water from the nonartesian aquifer ranges fromless than 10 ppm to more than 340 ppm. It is generallylowest in the uplandareas where the nonartesian aquifer receivesno recharge from the artesian aquifer neither by upward seepage nor by downward seepage of irrigation water pumped from the artesian aquifer.
Artesian Aquifer
The principal source of water in Flagler County is an artesian aquifer which forms a part of the principal artesian aquifer of the Florida Peninsula and adjacent area. In Flagler County this aquifer is composed of beds of limestone of Eocene age and some of the beds of sand and shell in the lower part of the Miocene or Pliocene deposits. All these deposits will be referred to, collectively, as the artesian aquifer. Differences in static heac7 at different depths indicate that the arte sian aquifer consists of severalwater-bearing zones that are separated by beds of low permeability.
The height to which the water level will rise in an artesian wellis calledthe artesian pressure head. Fluctuations of the artesian pressure head are caused, inpart, by variations inthe rainfallinthe recharge area. Therefore, measurements of rainfall in recharge areas and measurements of water levels in wells are needed in a ground-water investigation.
Periodic measurements of the water level in well 927-115-1, at Bunnell, have been made since 1936. The U. S. Weather Bureau has measured the rainfall at Crescent City, in Putnam County, since 1912. Water levels in well 927-115-1 and the rainfall at Crescent City, for the years 1936-1956, are plotted in figure 3. The graph of the cumulative departure from long-term mean (fig. 3) shows that the rainfall was above average during the period 1941-1947 and was about average during the period 1936-1941 and was below




0 1 CUMULATIVE DEPARTURE
FROM LONG-TERM MEAN WATER LEVEL IN FEET ANNUAL RAINFALL IN INCHES RAINFALL IN INCHES ABOVE MEAN SEA LEVEL
0 00 0 0 0 0 000 0O OUd.O O O O O O O M z F a
1936
1937
1938
n 1939 e
" r 1940
p 1941
1.4 1942 --O
1943
inD 1,944 fN 1945
I- CD 0 IpJ '1946
a 1947
-1948 1949
0 '1951
I ~9 11111...
1953
1954
1955
195




12 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL- SURVEY
average during the period 1954-1956. The graph of the water level shows that during the period of above-average rainfall the highest ground-water levels didnot rise above the highest levels of the preceding period of average rainfall. This suggests that there was rejected recharge during the period of above-average rainfall.
The water-level graph shows that the water level declined during the period of near-normal rainfall from 1947 to 1956. If this is the result of increasedpumping during that period, it may allow salvage of some otherwise rejected recharge; however, it may indicate instead that rainfall at Crescent City is not representative of rainfall throughout the area.
Measurements are being made periodically during the current investigation in approximately 20 other wells,. in order to determine the seasonal fluctuations of water levels in different parts of the county. No conclusions have been reached regarding fluctuations of water levels in these wells because the period of record is too short.
Piezometric Surface of the Principal
Artesian Aquifer in Florida
One of the most important parts of an investigation of ground water is the construction of maps representing the altitude of the water levels in wells. Such a map for a nonartesian aquifer shows the altitude and configuration of the water table. Foran artesianaquifer it represents thepiezometric surface.
Thepiezometric surface of the principal artesian aquifer in Florida as of 1949 is shown by the contour line s in figure 4. This aquifer consists of limestone deposits of Eocene, Oligocene, and Miocene age that act more or less as a single hydrologic unit. Stringfield (1936, pl. 12) first mapped the piezometric surface and described the aquifer. The shape of the piezometric surface indicates some areas in which the aquifer is replenished and the lateral direction of mn ovement of the water in the aquifer. Water enters the aquifer in those areas in which the piezometric surface is high and moves along a course perpendicular to the contour lines toward areas in which the piezometric surface is low.




INFORMATION CIRCULAR NO. 13 13
W5 64* 83 2* at. SDW
N3r
,o G__EOR G_,I A
6 GA N O NSSAU
GATAE A KT 0
L M OMADISONN
I BAKER OV
- WANNIE 9
LRY Woo2LLtus 29
ALA
HERANDN9 ORNG
6r -O 30
III L NUTEO
To. P MR O L G 1 0
ttGEAND S
CT,4OLIBRAD 17 26V
Contour lines represent approximately the height, MNQl DD in feet above mean sea level, to which water wilt3 rise in tightly 'cased welts that penetrate the principal artesian aquifer in 1949
25 0 2 50 75 00 Miles appro iate scoie9 0
Figure 4. Map of the peninsula of Florida showing the pie zometric surface of the principal artesian aquifer.




14 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY
One of the notable features of the piezometric surface in Florida, as shown in figure 4, i3 a broad saddle extending across the State between the areas of recharge in Putnam County, in the northern part of the peninsula, and Polk County, in the southern part. Throughout most of the State the principal artesian aquifer is generally overlain by relatively. impermeable deposits of Miocene age. However, in the area occupied bythis saddle, Miocene deposits are thin or absent (Vernon, 1951, fig. 33), thus affording conditions that permit recharge of the aquifer in highlands and discharge from the aquifer in lowlands. Principal areas of recharge and discharge for the artesian aquifer can be determined from figure 4, but many areas of recharge and discharge cannot be determined from that figure. Flagler County, which lies within this saddle, contains localareas of recharge and discharge that will be discussed in the following sections.
Piezometric Surface in St. Johns, Putnam, and Flagler Counties
G.R. Tarver(1956) and G.W. Leve (1956), whose investigations were made concurrently with this investigation, mapped the piezometric surface in St. Johns County and Putnam County, respectively. A generalized map of the pie zo metric surface of the artesian aquifer in all three counties is shown in figure 5.
Figure 5 shows that some water moves southward from St. Johns County and eastward from Putnam County into Flagler County. It does not show the piezometric surface in Volusia County, but Wyrick (1956, p. 28) has described recharge areas in Volusia County. Some water, therefore, probably moves northward and eastward through the artesian aquifer from the recharge areas inVolusia County into Flagler County.
Piezometric Surface in Flagler County
A detailed map of the piezometric surface in Flagler County has not yet been made, because determinations of altitude are available for only a few wells. The Flagler County portion of figure 5 shows contours based on the available data as of April 1956.




INFORMATION GIRGULAR NO. 13 15
EXPLANATION
3 0
Contour line representing the N approximate height, in feet above mean sea level, to which water would rise in tightly cased wells that penetrate the / s H COUNTY principal artesian aquifer, in 1956. Broken line represents inferred position of the contour line.
2 00 Contour interval 5 feet (10 feet above the 20-foot contour).
- ~ sFLAGLER COUNTY
CLOLUNCTYY
Figure 5. Map of St. Johns, Putnam, and Flagler counties,
showing the piezometric surface.




16 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY
The piezometric surface in Flagler County is relatively low and flat. In the uplands of the northern and southeastern parts of the county it is between 15 and 20 feet above sea level. In the lowlands adjacent to Crescent Lake, the Atlantic Ocean, and Haw Creek and its tributaries, it is less than 15 but generallymore than 10 feet above sea level. The general slope of the surface and movement of water in the artesian aquifer are toward the streams, the lakes and the ocean.
The slope of the piezometric surface into Flagler County from surrounding areas indicates that the county, as a whole, is within an area of discharge. The artesian aquifer receives some replenishment, however, in the areas around Espanola and Favorita where the water table is -considerably higher than the piezometric surface. The geologic factors controlling replenishment have not yet been investigated, but it can be surmised that most of the recharge occurs by downward seepage from the nonartesian aquifer through discontinuous or leaky confiningbeds of Miocene or Pliocene age, in areas where the water table is above the pie zometric surface. Study of well cuttings and well logs reveals nothing indicating that the confining beds may not transmit water in this way.
In the vicinity of Crescent Lake, Lake Disston, and Haw Creek and its tributaries, and other areas of artesian flow the piezometric surface is low, indicating that these are areas of discharge. Several small springs in Haw Creek and Sweetwater Branch yield highly mineralized water undoubtedly derived in part from the artesian aquifer, which during low stream stages helps to maintain the flow of the streams.
There are many artesianwells in the farming areas near Codys Corner and St. Johns Park andwest of Bunnell, and discharge of these has depressed the piezometric surface (fig. 5, 6). The piezometric surface changes continuously in response to changes in the rate of recharge, the rate of withdrawal, and other factors. Figure 6 was drawn from water-level measurements made in April 1956, when there was considerable discharge of water from artesian wells for irrigation; therefore, it is only an approximate representation of the piezometric surface at other times.




INFORMATION -CIRCULAR NO. 13 17
Sr30 Bra2 Bra m*Is tr rue
EXPLANATION
-5-
Contour line representing the approximate height,
in feet above mean sea level, ta which water au N Bran would rise In tightly cased wells that penetrated anthe principal artesian aquifer in April, 1956 M aUrt
Contour interval 5 feet 0
, sTSste
surface.
ocoAIsNT
I o 2 3 G4 s Er
- s caei: ie
nran as ar~ aru
Fiue6 a fFalrC unyso igtepeonti
sufae. 1Lnv




18 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL--SURVEY
Area of Artesian Flow
Wherever the piezometric surface stands higher than the land surface, artesian wells will flow. The areas of artesian flow in Flagler County in 1956 are shown in figure 7.
There are two principal areas of artesian flow in the county. One of these occupies a broad band, two or three miles wide, along the Atlantic Ocean, and a narrow westward extension, a few hundred feet wide, along Pellicer Creek shown on figure 7 and its tributaries. In this area there are many small areas of no artesian flow (some of whichare too smallto be shown bythis map) along the crests of ridges that parallel the coastline. Another principal area of artesian flow occupies an unbroken band along Crescent Lake, up the valleys of Haw Creek and its tributaries, and around Lake Disston. In addition to the principal areas of artesian flow, thereis a small area of artesianflowin a stream valley east of Roy, in the northwestern part of the county.
In the southwestern part of the county the piezometric surface and the land surface are essentially parallel and at almost the same altitude. The area of artesian flowis, therefore, greatly affected by changes of a few feet in the altitude of the piezometric surface. The area of flow was doubtless very much greater in previous years, when water levels were generally a few feet higher. Water-level measurements made by Stringfield (1936, p. 167) show that artesian wells flowed in June 1934 at Codys Corner, four miles from areas where artesian flow occurred in 1956.
Water-level measurements used to construct figure 7 were made at a time of year (August) when the use of water was slight. The decline in water level due to pumping during the winter growing season will result in a narrowing of the areas of flow shown in figure 7. As the piezometric surface is continuously changing, figure 7 represents the areas of artesian flow only approximately.
Wells
The locations of at least 70 percent of all the wells in the county and 95 percent of the wells used for irrigation are




INFORMATION CIRCULAR NO. 13 19
5Trse aieas ard arts ario e~* eaoa RINELA
RY SAINT 0 1
!5, DINNER iSLaND
ESPALA
sunNELL
EXPLANATION co CRRo
Area of artesian flow 0 I 2 3 4
. I V= OT UUA NU e~a ar25 BrtO oii er oav Figure 7. Map of Flagler County showing the approximate
areas of artesian flow.




20 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY
plotted on figure 8. Of the 261 wells plotted, 142 are used for irrigation and draw water from the artesian aquifer. Of the remaining 119 wells, 105 draw water from the artesian aquifer and 14 draw water from the nonartesian aquifer.
Figure 8 shows that more than half the wells used for irrigation are in a small area west of Bunnell, and that most of the others are distributed around St. Johns Park and Codys Corner. Most of the ground water used in the county is pumped from the artesian wells in these three farming areas during the winter and spring growing season.
The information collected on wells west of Bunnell and near Codys Corner is considered as being representative of all wells in these two areas. It shows that wells west of Bunnell are 6 to 8 inches in diameter, are 235 to 555 feet deep, andare equippedwith electric-powered deep-well turbine pumps or suction pumps, and that wells near Codys Corner are 4 to 6 inches in diameter, are 55 to 326 feet deep, and are pumped by electric and gasoline-powered suction pumps. The wells west of Bunnell, whichare relativelydeep and equipped with high- capacity pumps, have somewhat higher yields than wells in any other area of the county.
Records of measurements showthat ground-water levels declined, during the spying growing season of 1956, from about 8 feet to 18 feet below the land surface in observation well 928-122-1, west of Bunnell, and from about 2 feet to 7feet below the land surface in observation well 920-119-1, near Codys Corner. The greater decline west of Bunnell undoubtedly is due, in art, to the greater number, closer spacing, and higher discharge of wells in that area. Whether it is also due in part to poorer water-bearing characteristics of the aquifer west of Bunnell has not been determined.
QUALITY OF WATER
The chemical character of ground water is dependent largely on the type of material with which the water comes in contact. In recharge areas, where the water first enters the ground, it is only slightly mineralized. As the water moves through the ground it dissolves mineral matter from the rocks through which it flows and mixes with any saline water that may be present




INFORMATION CIRCULAR NO. 13 21
SI I _6
I12"-5
EXPLANATION 020
Well used for irrign ion A -- a Well not used for irrigalion 3
Jn 7 V, DU ar7ejWFigure 8. Map of Flagler County showing the locations of
wel1s.




22 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL -SURVEY
The mineral content of ground water is determined bychemical analysis of water from wells. The results of chemical analyses of water from wells of various depths in Flagler County are shown in table 1. The table shows that the mineral content of the groundwater, which is expressed in parts per millionof dissolved solids, differs widelyfromplace to place and is lowest in water from the nonartesian aquifer. The. mineral content of the water yielded by some artesian wells, in discharge areas, is so high as to make the water unsatisfactory for many uses.
Salt-Water Contamination
Ground water that has been contaminated by sea water generally has a high chloride content, because about 91 percent of the dissolved solids of sea water are chloride salts. The chloride content of water from most of the inventoried wells has been determined by chemical analysis, and the results show that the chloride content of the water from the artesian aquifer ranges from 15 ppm near Espanola to more than4,400 ppm southwest of Bunnell. The generalized results of these analyses are shown by the shaded areas in figure 9.
Figure 9 shows that the chloride content of water from artesian wells in the extreme southern part of the county and in the upland areas is generallyless than 100 ppm. The artesian aquifer in these areas is believed to receive recharge fromfresh groundwater that moves into the areafrom Volusia County and from water that percolates downward from swamps and ponds in the area. The recharge has diluted and flushed out much of the mineralized water that flooded the aquifer during Pleistocene time, when sea level was higher than it is now. Throughout the remainder of the countythe chloride content of the artesian water increased with increasing distance from recharge areas (fig. 9). Water from artesian wells in areas where the chloride content exceeds 750 ppm has a salty taste and is undesirable for use as a source of public supply. Water from artesian wells in areas where the chloride content exceeds 2, 000 ppm is unsuitable for many uses, including the irrigation of certain crops (Westgate, 1950, p. 116-123).
Water samples collected from wells of different depths show that flushing of the salty water is more complete in




Table 1. Analyses of Water from Wells in Flagler County (Chemical constituents in parts per million)
Well Number 923-118-5 924-122-Z 933-123-2 9Z7-115-2 920-119 -3 920-119 -5 928-114-1 928-108-6
Well Depth .187 150 ? 150?. 180 ? 60 165 86b 26b Aquifer /artesian artesian artesian arteelan artesian artesian nonarteelan nonaitesian Date of Collection 8-7-56 8-7-56, 8!"7-56 8-7-56 8-10-56 .8-13-56 7-16-51c 10-30-SZC
Silica (SiQa) 17 25 23 14 19 19-- Iron (Fe), dissolveda .09 .00 .00 .05 .01 .00 ----Iron (Fe), total 89 52 1. 3 3.4 47 68 1. 5 0.0O Calciumn (Ca) 328 252 184 288 166 108 110 92 Magnesium (Mg) 192 124 71 .175 96 34 7 8 Sodium (Na) .1, 500 485 210 1, 070 610 .130 -- --Potassium (K) 28 12 ,7.0 20 19 4.0 --Bicarbonate (MCO3) 266 Z04 212 184 272 292 371 207 O0 Carbonate (CO3) 0 0 1.0 0 0 0 --- -Sulfate (SO4) 215 218 310 150 140 29 O trace Chloride (C1) 3, 020 1, 270 500 2, 500 1, 290 295 31 160 Fluoride (F) .0 .2 .4 .0' .2 .3 .0 .0 Nitrate (NO3) 8 3 8 1. 5 5 1. 2 Dissolved solids C Sum 5,430 2,490 1,410 4,"310' 2,470 Residue on evaporation
at 180" C ... --- --- --- 852 396d 535d
Hardness as, CaCO3 1, 610 1, 140 751 1, 440 809 410 304 264 Noncarbonate 1, 390 972 578 1, 290 586 170 0 94O Specific conductance
(micromhos at. 25 C) 9, 600 4, 570 2, 230 7, 890 4, 580 1, 420 --- --PH 7. 6 7. 6 7. 7 7. 5 7. 8 7. 8 7.0O 7. 6 Color 6 ,5 13 4 7 5---aln solution at time of analysis.
bAnalysis by Florida State Board of Health.
cDate of analysis.
dResidue on evaporation at 105' C.




24 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY
0 Mr
SAINT J-OHNS'
LM
0 I
EXPLANATIONo
-hl ridChloride contention parts per million, June 1956
2E0M V OLU SA LAE N T
5po 29*1A
o ct m Abi arsar3r fo80
Figure 9. Map of Flagler County showing the approximate chloride content of water froznm artesian wells.




INFORMATION CIRCULAR NO. 13 25
some zones of the artesian aquifer than in other zones. West of Bunnell, artesian water yielded by wells drawing from the upper 200 feet of the limestone of Eocene age has a lower chloride content than artesian water yielded by wells drawing from deeper zones. Also, southwest of Bunnell, artesian water yielded by wells drawingfrom the upper 50 feet of the limestone of Eocene age has a lower chloride content than water yielded by wells drawing from certain zones of the younger deposits.
One of the most important water problems facing the county is the danger that water maymove fromhighly mineralized zones and contaminate the producing zones as withdrawals from wells are increased. Analyses of periodically collected water samples show that the chloride content of the artesian water from some wells increased duringthe spring growing season, when the withdrawal of artesian water for irrigation was greatest and water levels were lowest. Figure 10 shows the relation between the chloride content of the water and the water level in a well near Codys Corner.
-It also shows that a 5-foot drop of the water level was accompanied by a temporary twofold increase of the chloride content. Figure 11 shows the relation between the fluctuations of water level in a well west of Bunnell and the fluctuations of chloride content in the water of a nearby well. A water-level decline of about 10 feet resulted in a sevenfold increase in chloride content, from about 300 to 2, 100 ppm.
SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS
During the first year of the investigation of the groundwater geology and hydrology of Flagler County the following things were done:
1. Pertinent information on 261 wells was collected
for use in preparing geologic and hydrologic
maps of the county.
2. Water samples from l63wells and springs were
analyzed for use in describing the chemical quality of ground water throughout the county.
3. Deep-well sampling equipment was used to collect water samples for determining the chloride
content of water at various depths in a well.




N
, il z a4-
____ WATER LEVEL 5- WELL 920-119-2
- \ CHLORIDE CONTENT ..i 20 \WELL 920-119-2 -0m18
z 260 --
2 240
200It-0
S100
DEC JAN FEB MAR APR MAY JUN JUL AUG SEP OCT NOV DEC
_1955 1956
Figure 10. Graph showing the, relationbetween the chloride
content of the water and the water level in well
920-119-2 near Codys Corner.




INFORMATION CIRCULAR NO. 13 27
o
8 9- ___--q I- _1z -0
0 0
Li
9j 12 WATER LEVEL
- 2 UF WELL 928-122-1 Z0 1
z -l-
15
o I
CHLORIDE' COTENT 1WELL 928-121 -1 0100-- __
1500 -1300
II 100
a 000 7- 700
500 7/
100 o
3 DEC JAN APR J SEP OCT NOV DEC
1955 1956
Figure 11. Graph showing fluctuations of water level in well
928-122-1 and the chloride content of the water
in well 928-121-1. west of Bunnell.




28 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY
4. Fluctuations of chloride content and water level
in 24wells throughout the countywere recorded.
5. This report was prepared, summarizing all
available facts concerning the ground-water
resources of the county.
As the investigation is incomplete at this time, available data are not adequate for final conclusions concerning the ground-water problems confronting the county. However, results obtained so far can be summarized as follows:
1. The principal source of ground water in Flagler
County is a thick section of limestone whose top lies at depths ranging from 50 to 150 feet. The 50 to 150 feet of deposits above the limestone consist predominantly of sand, clay, and shells.
These overlying deposits have not been differentiated in this report, but records from a few wells showthatimpermeablebeds in these overlying deposits confine the water in the limestone, under pressure, in most or all areas of the county. Beds of sand and coquina in the over lying deposits yield water of generally low mineralcontent to afewscreenedwells inthe county.,
2. Some of the ground water in Flagler County is
obtained from rain that falls on recharge areas in Volusia and Putnam counties, but there are areas of recharge in Flagler County also, particularly near Espanola and Favorita. Natural discharge of ground water in Flagler County takes place through transpiration by plants and the flow from springs along the inland waterway and in the bottoms of Lake Disston and Crescent Lake, and along Haw Creek and its tributaries.
3. In recent years, rainfall has been deficient in
the western part of the county and the artesian head has declined about three feet at Bunnell.
The decline may have resulted from a deficiency in rainfall and allowed the salvage of recharge
formerly rejected.




INFORMATION CIRCULAR NO. 13 29
4. The chloride content of water from artesian wells
in Flagler Countyranges from less than 100 ppm in recharge areas to more than 2, 000 ppm southwest of Bunnell. In some areas the chloride content of the water in certain wells changes with depth and time. West of Bunnell, the ground water of highest chloride content comes from some of the deeper wells, whereas southwest of Bunnell the groundwater of highest chloride content comes from some of the shallower wells.
West of Bunnell, and near Codys Corner, the chloride content of water from certain artesian wells is highest when the withdrawal of ground water is greatest and water levels are lowest.
The re sults of the inve stigation to date show that supplies of fresh ground water may not be available southwest of Bunnell, and that present supplies in some farming areas may be subject to serious contamination by the intrusion of highly mineralized ground water. Therefore, future studies ihi Flagler County will emphasize mapping areas of such mineralized water in greater detail and determining the conditions that influence its movement. The following work will be done:1. A study willbe made of well cuttings to determine
the position and thickness of the different geologic formations, especially to determine their division into water-bearing beds (aquifers) and
confining beds (aquiclude s).
2. Electric logs and test borings will be made to
add to the information on position and thickness
of water-bearing zones and confining beds.
3. Water from selected wells will be collected with
deep-well sampling equipment to determine the
quality of water in each zone.
4. The altitudes of measuringpoints onwater-level
observation wells will be determined for use in mapping the piezometric surface in greater
;detail.




30 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY
5. Quantitative studies including pumping tests will
be made to measure the recharge and discharge rates and the water-transmitting and storing
capacities of aquifers.
6. Dataon the use of groundwater will be collected
in order to estimate the rate of withdrawal. This information will be used, in conjunction with data on water levels, the water-transmitting and storing capacity of the aquifer, and chemical quality to predict the effect of increased withdrawal on water levels and quality of water.




INFORMATION CIRCULAR NO. 13 31
REFERENCES
Black, A. P.
1951 (and Brown, Eugene) Chemical character of
Florida's waters 1951: Florida State Board Cons., Div. Water Survey and Research,
Paper 6.
Brown, Eugene (see Black)
Collins, W. P.
1928 (and Howard, C. S. ) Chemical character of
waters of Florida: U. S. Geol. Survey WaterSupply Paper 596-G.
Cooke, C. W.
1945 Geology of Florida: Florida Geol. Survey
Bull. 29.
Howard, C.S. (see Collins)
Leutze, 'Willard P. (see Wyrick)
Leve, G.W.
1956 Interim report on the ground-water resources
of Putnam County, Florida:Florida Geol. Survey
Inf. Circ. 15 (in press).
Stringfield, V. T.
1936 Artesian water in the Florida peninsula: U.S.
Geol. Survey Water-Supply Paper 773-C.
Tarver, G. R.
1956 Interim report on the ground-water resources
of St. Johns County, Florida: Florida Geol.
Survey Inf. Circ. 14 (in press).
Vernon, R. 0.
1951 Geology of Citrus and Levy counties, Florida:
Florida Geol. Survey Bull. 33.
Westgate, P. J.
1950 Effects of soluble soil salts on vegetable production at Sanford: Florida State Hort. Soc.
Proc. Oct. -Nov. 1950.




32 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY
Wyrick, Granville G.
1956 (and Leutze, Willard P. ) Interim report on the
ground-water resources of the northeastern part of Volusia County, Florida: Florida Geol.
Survey Inf. Circ. 8.




Full Text

PAGE 1

• STATE OF FLORIDA tUL STATE BOARD OF CONSERVATION SErnest Mitts, Director FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY Robert O. Vernon, Director INFORMATION CIRCULAR NO. 13 INTERIM REPORT ON THE GROUND-WATER RESOURCES SOF FLAGLER COUNTY, FLORIDA By Boris J. Bermes Prepared by U. S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the Florida Geological Survey Tallahassee, Florida 1958

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CULlTiW 4

PAGE 3

TABLE OF CONTENTS Page stract .........................1 troduction......... .............. 2 Previous investigations ................3 Well-numbering system ................ 3 ography ......................... 4 ology.......................... 4 round water ....................... .8 Nonartesianaquifer .................. 9 Artesian aquifer .................... .10 Piezometric surface of the principal artesian aquifer in Florida ................ 12 Piezometric surface in St. Johns, Putnam, and Flagler counties .............. 14 Piezometric surface in Flagler County ......14 Area of artesian flow ................ 18 Wells............................ 18 Qualityofwater. .....................20 S Salt-water contamination ............... 22 Summary and conclusions ................ 25 References .. ...................... 31 ILLUSTRATIONS Figure 1 Map of Florida showing the location of Flagler County ........................ 6 2 Generalized geologic section showing the deposits penetrated by wells in Flagler County .7 3 Graph showing the relation between rainfall at Crescent City and the water level in well 927-115-1 at Bunnell ............ 11 4 Map of the peninsula of Florida showing the piezometric surface of the principal artesian aquifer ........... ........ ... .13 5 Map of St. Johns, Putnam, and Flagler counties showing the piezometric surface ....15 6 Map of Flagler County showing the piezometric surface ............... 17 4iii 4 1O4

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Figure Page 7 Map of Flagler County showing the approximate areas of artesian flow. .......19 8 Map of Flagler County showing the locations of wells .................. 21 9 Map of Flagler County showing the approximate chloride content of water from artesian wells .. ...... ................24 10 Graph showing the relation between the chloride content of the water and the water level in well 920-119-2 near Codys Corner ...26 11 Graph showing fluctuations of water level in well 928-122-1 and the chloride content of the water in well 928-121-1, west of Bunnell ..27 Table 1 Analyses of water from wells in Flagler County ....................... 23 iv

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INTERIM REPORT ON THE GROUND-WATER RESOURCES OF FLAGLER COUNTY, FLORIDA By Boris J. Bermes ABSTRACT Flagler County is in the northeastern part of the Florida Peninsula. The surface of the countyis underlainby deposits of sand, marl, shell, and clay to depths ranging from 50 to 150 feet. Beds of coquina and sand in the upper part of these deposits were mapped by Cooke (1945, pl. 1) as the Anastasia formation and terrace deposits of Pleistocene age. They yield small quantities of nonartesian water of generally low mineral content to shallow screened wells. Beds of marl and phosphatic sand and clay in the lower part of these deposits are believed to be of Miocene or Pliocene age. The deposits of sand, shell, and clay are unconformably underlain by limestone of Eocene age which yields large quantities of artesian water in which the mine r alization ranges widely but is generally higher than that of the nonartesian water. The water in the limestone will flow at the surface in the lowlands along the western and eastern edges of the county. The artesian aquifer is recharged within the county and also in adjacent Volusia and Putnam counties. Records of rainfall and fluctuations of artesian pressure show that in recent years the rainfall was deficient in the western part of the county, and that the artesian pressure head underwent a progressive decline of three feet at Bunnell. Records also show that during this investigation the seasonal decline of pressure head due to pumping for irrigation was about 12 feet in awellwest of Bunnell andabout five feet in a well near Codys Corner. The chloride content of water from artesian wells ranges from less than 100 ppm (parts per million) in the recharge areas near the towns of Espanola and Favorita to more than 2, 000 ppmin areas in the northeastern part of the county and 1

PAGE 6

2 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY southwest of Bunnell. The chloride content of the artesian water from some wells in certain farm areas increased considerably during periods of heavy pumping. INTRODUCTION Much of the economy of Flagler County is based on the income from winter vegetables which are irrigated with ground water. The demand for ground water is increasing in certain areas of Flagler County. Recently the chloride content of the water from some wells increased, many wells stopped yielding water by natural flow, and a few new wells yielded only salty water. Therefore, the contamination of existing supplies and the availability of new supplies are matters of importance to the economy of the county. In recognition of these and other water problems, the State Legislature appropriated funds for an investigation of the water resources of the county. The ground-water phase of the investigation was begun in December 1955 by the U. S. Geological Surveyin cooperation with the Florida Geological Survey. The purpose of the investigation is to study the ground-water resources of the county and publish the results in a form that will be useful in the solution of ground-water problems. Studies are being made of the ground-water hydrology and geology of the countywith special emphasis on problems associated with salt-water contamination and declining water levels. Major efforts in these studies include the following: I. Collecting rock cuttings from and pertinent information on depth, yield, etc., on existing wells. 2. Analyzing water samples from existing wells. 3. Making test borings and using well-surveying instruments where necessary. 4. Recording seasonal fluctuations andprogressive trends in water level, water quality, water use, and rainfall.

PAGE 7

INFORMATION CIRCULAR NO.. 13 3 This report presents a general description of the occurrence of groundwater in the county, basedon information collected during the-first nine months of the investigation. The investigation was made under the general supervisionofA.N. Sayre, Chief, Ground Water Branch, U.S. Geological Survey, and under the immediate supervision of M. I. Rorabaugh, District Engineer for Florida. Previous Investigations The geology and ground-water resources of Flagler County are mentioned in several reports of the U. S. Geological Survey and the Florida Geological Survey. Cooke (1945, p. 268, 295, 304) briefly discusses the occurrence of the Pamlico sand and the Anastasia and Talbot formations in.Flagler County. A report by Vernon (1951, fig. 13, 33; pl. 2) includes Flagler County in generalized maps of central Florida which show generalized geologic sections andthe structure of the Inglis member of the Moodys Branch formation. The ground-water resources of Flagler County are briefly mentioned by Stringfield (1936, pl. 6, 10, 12), and chemical analyses of water from wells in Flagler County are included in reports by Collins and Howard (1928, p. 214)and -Black and Brown (1951, p. 53). Well-Numbering System All wells inventoried during this investigation were assigned numbers. The well number was assigned.by dividing the county into 1-minute quadrangles of latitude and longitude and numbering, consecutively, the wells in each 1-minute quadrangle. The well number is composed of the last three digits of the line of latitude south of the well, followed by the last three digits of the line of longitude east of the well, followed by the number of the well in the quadrangle. Therefore, wells referred to in the text by well number may be located on figure 8. For example, well 927-115-1 is the well numbered 1 in the quadrangle bounded on the south by latitude 29 27' and on the east by.longitude 810151'. -.-

PAGE 8

4 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY GEOGRAPHY Flagler County is in the northeastern part of the Florida Peninsula (fig. 1) and has an area of 483 square miles, nominally 309, 120 acres. The average annual rainfall is about 48 inches, according to the records of the U. S. Weather Bureau. Topographically, Flagler County includes both lowlands and uplands. The lowlands include the large flat area drained by Haw Creek and its tributaries, and small areas ranging from a few hundred feet to several miles wide adjacent to Crescent Lake, Pellicer Creek, Bulow Creek, the Matanzas River, and the Atlantic Ocean. They range in altitude from sealevel, along the Atlantic Ocean, to 25 feet above sealevel where they merge into the uplands. The uplands include the remaining areas of the county. They include a few sand ridges, several lakes, and broad, relatively level areas. Surface altitudes range from 25 feet above sea level, where the uplands adjoin the lowlands to about 50 feet above sea level northwest of Espanola. The lowlands and some areas of the uplands are drained by streams and canals that discharge into the Atlantic Ocean and Crescent Lake. The remainder of the uplands are drained, through lakes and swamps, into underlying aquifers, in which the water moves toward streams or toward the ocean. According to information compiled in 1955 by the U. S. Dept. Commerce, Census Bureau, Flagler County ranks fourth among the counties of the State in the growing of Irish potatoes and cabbage. Thus, although Flagler County is the fifth smallest county in the State in both population and area, it ranks high in agricultural production. This is due, in part, to the availability of adequate supplies of water from inexpensive wells. GEOLOGY Rock cuttings from wells show that Flagler County is underlain by limestone, clay, shell beds and sand. A generalized geologic cross section, showing the deposits penetrated

PAGE 9

INFORMATION CIRCULAR NO. 13 5 by water wells in the southwestern part of the county, is shown in figure 2. The lowermost deposit penetrated by water wells is a thick section of limestone of Eocene age, the top of which is shown schematically by the wavy line in figure 2. The upper part of this limestone section is generally veryfossiliferous and relatively pure. It locally consists of numerous echinoid and mollusk fragments, miliolids, and large Foramninifera. Similar limestone has been mapped in northern Florida and assigned to various formations of Eocene age by Vernon (1951, p. 115-171)and others. The limestone has not been studied insufficient detail in Flagler County to permit differentiating of the various formations. It will be referred to in this report as limestone of Eocene age. The limestone of Eocene age is several hundred feet thick, and its top is an undulating surface 35 to 135 feet below sealevel. It is a consolidated rock containing numerous porous andpermeable zones whichyield large quantities of water to open-hole wells. Most wells in the county draw from it exclusively. The upper part of this limestone was eroded by ancient surface streams and circulating ground water (Stringfield, 1936, p. 124-125). The undulations of its surface and much of the porosity in its upper part are probably the result of the cavities, sinkholes, and stream channels that were formed when the limestone was the surface or buried at shallow depth by the overlying deposits of later ancient seas. The deposits overlying the limestone consist predominantly of clay, shell, and sand. They are shown as a single unit in figure 2 because the available information is not adequate to permit differentiating the individual beds. However, records from a few wells in Flagler County showthat the lower part of the deposits of clay, shell, arid sand include beds of green phosphatic clay, gray phosphatic sand, sandy limestone, and shell marl. Beds similar to these have been mapped in northern Florida and assigned to various formations believed to be Miocene and Pliocene in age by Cooke (1945, pl. l)and Miocene in age by Vernon(Black and Brown, 1951, fig. 1). The beds overlying the limestone in Flagler County

PAGE 10

6 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY J-1 Figure 1. Map of. Florida showing the location of Flagler C-----------County. .-r I 'For i Flal Co.._n _ty-.,,,, ." --1

PAGE 11

INFORMATION CIRCULAR NO. 13 7 S.500-AA S50CLAY, SAND, AND SHELLS (Pleistocene & Pliocene or Miocene o 150-O 150.LIMESTONE U .200(Eocene) 250-----S300FLAGLER COUNTY UJ S350A 4000o450 500iles Figure 2. Generalized geologic section showing the deposits penetrated by wells in Flagler County.

PAGE 12

8 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY have not been studied in sufficient detail to justify a determination of their correct age. They will be referred to collectively in this report as deposits of Miocene or Pliocene age. The deposits of Miocene or Pliocene age include relatively impermeable beds that retardthe seepage of water into or out of the underlying limestone of Eocene age. Permeable zones in the deposits of Miocene or Pliocene age differ widely in their water-bearing characteristics, and wells drawing more than small quantities of water from them must be fitted with screens. Most wells of large yield are cased through these zones, even in areas where these zones yield water of low mineral content and the underlying limestone yields water of high mineral content. The upper part of the deposits of clay, shell, and sand include beds of coquina and sand that have been mapped and assigned to the Anastasia formation of Pleistocene age and to terrace deposits of Recent and Pleistocene age by Cooke (1945,pl. 1). The Anastasia formation is at the surface along the entire east coast in Flagler County and extends inland as far as three miles.. The terrace deposits are found at the surface throughout the rest of the county. They are thickest under the uplands and thinnest under the lowlands. The deposits of Pleistocene age yield moderate quantities of water to screened wells. GROUND WATER Ground water is the subsurface water in the zone of saturation, the zone in which all the pore spaces are completely filled with water under pressure greater than atmospheric. It is derived almost entirely from precipitation. Part of this precipitation returns to the atmosphere by evapotranspiration, part drains overland to lakes and streams; the remainder reaches the zone of saturation to become ground water. Ground water moves more or less laterally, under the influence of gravity, to places of discharge such as wells, springs, lakes, surface streams, or the ocean. Groundwater may occur under either nonartesian (water table) conditions or artesian conditions. Where it is unconfined, its surface is free to rise and fall and it is said to be

PAGE 13

INFORMATION CIRCULAR NO. 13 9 under nonartesian conditions. The upper surface of unconfined groundwater is calledthe water table. Where the water is confined in a permeablebed that is overlainby a relatively impermeable bed so that its surface is not free to rise and fall, it is said to be under artesian conditions. Technically, the term "artesian"is appliedto groundwater that is confined under sufficient pressure to rise above the top of the permeable bed that contains it, though not necessarily to or above the land surface. The imaginary surface coinciding with the level to which artesian water will rise is called the piezometric surface. Rocks in the zone of saturationthat are permeable enough to yield water in usable quantity to wells and springs are called aquifers. Areas in which an aquifer receives replenishment from infiltration are called recharge areas. Areas in which an aquifer loses water from springs or wells are called discharge areas. Nonartesian aquifers are usually at or near the land surface and receive recharge over most of their area. Artesian aquifers receive recharge in their areas of outcrop or, under certain conditions, where their "confining" beds are leaky or discontinuous. Nonartesian Aquifer Ground water in Flagler County occurs under both nonartesian and artesian conditions. The surficial sand and shell deposits of Recent and Pleistocene age contain ground water under nonartesian conditions in all parts of the county except inareas southwest of Bunnellandalong Crescent Lake where they are overlain by confining beds of clay and the water is artesian. Probably less than 100 wells draw water from the nonartesian aquifer in the county. Their yields differ widely, depending upon their construction, but are generally less than 200 gpm (gallons per minute). Water from these wells is used mainly for domestic and public supplies. The nonartesian aquifer is replenished byinfiltration of rain that falls on the county and, probablyto a minor degree, by upward leakage from the artesian aquifer in areas where the piezometric surface is above the water table. In addition

PAGE 14

10 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY to this natural recharge the nonartesian aquifer probably receives recharge in the truck-farming areas as a result of slow downward infiltration of irrigation water. Water is lost from the aquifer by natural discharge through springs, by downward percolation into the artesian aquifer in the upland areas, and by withdrawal from wells. The chloride content of water from the nonartesian aquifer ranges fromless than 10 ppm to more than 340 ppm. It is generallylowest in the uplandareas where the nonartesian aquifer receives no recharge from the artesian aquifer neither by upward seepage nor by downward seepage of irrigation water pumped from the artesian aquifer. Artesian Aquifer The principal source of water in Flagler County is an artesian aquifer which forms a part of the principal artesian aquifer of the Florida Peninsula and adjacent area. In Flagler County this aquifer is composed of beds of limestone of Eocene age and some of the beds of sand and shell in the lower part of the Miocene or Pliocene deposits. All these deposits will be referred to, collectively, as the artesian aquifer. Differences in static heac at different depths indicate that the artesian aquifer consists of severalwater-bearing zones that are separated by beds of low permeability. The height to which the water level will rise in an artesian wellis calledthe artesian pressure head. Fluctuations of the artesian pressure head are caused, inpart, by variations in the rainfall inthe recharge area. Therefore, measurements of rainfall in recharge areas and measurements of water levels in wells are needed in a ground-water investigation. Periodic measurements of the water level in well 927-115-1, at Bunnell, have been made since 1936. The U. S. Weather Bureau has measured the rainfall at Crescent City, in Putnam County, since 1912. Water levels in well 927-115-1 and the rainfall at Crescent City, for the years 1936-1956, are plotted in figure 3. The graph of the cumulative departure from long-term mean (fig. 3) shows that the rainfall was above average during the period 1941-1947 and was about average during the period 1936-1941 and was below

PAGE 15

0" qCUMULATIVE DEPARTURE : FROM LONG-TERM MEAN WATER LEVEL IN FEET a ANNUAL RAINFALL IN INCHES RAINFALL IN INCHES ABOVE MEAN SEA LEVEL S0 0 0 5 g 0 .0 0 0 0 0 0oU a i z F .JJ _ oO~' 1936 1937 -_ V 1938 8 n 1939 --1940 --r. 1941 -1942 -O 0" ----0 19451 --p 0 ar. 21947 1945 1951 1953 ; s 1954

PAGE 16

12 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY average during the period 1954-1956. The graph of the water level shows that during the period of above-average rainfall the highest ground-water levels didnot rise above the highest levels of the preceding period of average rainfall. This suggests that there was rejected recharge during the period of above-average rainfall. The water-level graph shows that the water level declined during the period of near-normal rainfall from 1947 to 1956. If this is the result of increasedpumping during that period, it may allow salvage of some otherwise rejected recharge; however, it may indicate instead that rainfall at Crescent City is not representative of rainfall throughout the area. Measurements arebeing made periodically -during the current investigation -in approximately 20 other wells, in order to determine the seasonal fluctuations of water levels in different parts of the county. No conclusions have been reached regarding fluctuations of water levels in these wells because the period of record is too short. Piezometric Surface of the Principal Artesian Aquifer in Florida One of the most important parts of an investigation of ground water is the construction of maps representing the altitude of the water levels in wells. Such a map for a nonartesian aquifer shows the altitude and configuration of the water table. Foran artesianaquifer it represents thepiezometric surface. Thepiezometric surface of the principal artesian aquifer in Florida as of 1949 is shown by the contour line s in figure 4. This aquifer consists of limestone deposits of Eocene, Oligocene, and Miocene age that act more or less as a single hydrologic unit. Stringfield (1936, pl. 12) first mapped the piezometric surface and described the aquifer. The shape of the piezometric surface indicates some areas in whichthe aquifer is replenished and the lateraldirection of :ovement of the water in the aquifer. Water enters the aquifer in those areas in which the piezometric surface is high and moves along a course perpendicular to the contour lines toward areas in which the piezometric surface is low.

PAGE 17

INFORMATION CIRCULAR NO. 13 13 _8 84* r3 82" at. So No. G E O R G _I A L R 'o ...O. 0 I B KER -A C LA C o or i nes"1'" repr e n p x l h he hL FRAENAD I gRoNG pi i a a e i aq f in 9 '9 IXIEt( A r A CHU P0 Y O RION-I.A _L 'ppanrat sc ai x"o m i s f T t e pal a ts
PAGE 18

14 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY One of the notable features of the piezometric surface in Florida, as shown in figure 4, is a broad saddle extending across the State between the areas of recharge in Putnam County, in the northern part of the peninsula, and Polk County, in the southern part. Throughout most of the State the principal artesian aquifer is generally overlain by relatively. impermeable deposits of Miocene age. However, in the area occupied bythis saddle, Miocene deposits are thin or absent (Vernon, 1951, fig. 33), thus affording conditions that permit recharge of the aquifer in highlands and discharge from the aquifer in lowlands. Principal areas of recharge and discharge for the artesian aquifer can be determined from figure 4, but many areas of recharge and discharge cannot be determined from that figure. Flagler County, which lies within this saddle, contains localareas of recharge and discharge that will be discussed in the following sections. Piezometric Surface in St. Johns, Putnam, and Flagler Counties G.R. Tarver(1956) and G. W. Leve (1956), whose investigations were made concurrently with this investigation, mapped the piezometric surface in St. Johns County and Putnam County, respectively. A generalized map of the pie zometric surface of the artesian aquifer in all three counties is shown in figure 5. Figure 5 shows that some water moves southward from St. Johns County and eastward from Putnam County into Flagler County. It does not show the piezometric surface in Volusia County, but Wyrick (1956, p. 28) has described recharge areas in Volusia County. Some water, therefore, probably moves northward and eastward through the artesian aquifer from the recharge areas inVolusia County into Flagler County. Piezometric Surface in Flagler County A detailed map of the piezometric surface in Flagler County has not yet been made, because determinations of altitude are available for only a few wells. The Flagler County portion of figure 5 shows contours based on the available data as of April 1956.

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INFORMATION CIRCULAR NO. 13 15 EXPLANATION -3 0 Contour line representing the I approximate height, in feet above mean sea level, towhich water would rise in tightly .. SV cased wells that penetrate the 1'/ s COUNTY principal artesian aquifer, in COUnT? 1956. Broken line represents inferred position of the contour line. n Z 0 4-6 8 10 Contour interval 5 feet (10 feet above the 20-foot contour). U-sFLAGLER COUNTY COUNTYALN CN j ------i ----1 VOLUSIA COUNTY Figure 5. Map of St. Johns, Putnam, and Flagler counties, showing the piezometric surface.

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16 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY The piezometric surface in Flagler Countyis relatively low and flat. In the uplands of the northern and southeastern parts of the county it is between 15 and 20 feet above sea level. In the lowlands adjacent to Crescent Lake, the Atlantic Ocean, and Haw Creek and its tributaries, it is less than 15 but generallymore than 10feet above sea level. The general slope of the surface and movement of water in the artesian aquifer are toward the streams, the lakes and the ocean. The slope of the piezometric surface into Flagler County from surrounding areas indicates that the county, as awhole, is within an area of discharge. The artesian aquifer receives some replenishment, however, in the areas around Espanola and Favorita where the water table is 'considerably higher than the piezometric surface. The geologic factors controlling replenishment have not yet been investigated, but it can be surmised that most of the recharge occurs by downward seepage from the nonartesian aquifer through discontinuous or leakyconfiningbeds of Miocene or Pliocene age, in areas where the water table is above the pie zometric surface. Study of well cuttings and well logs reveals nothing indicating that the confining beds may not transmit water in this way. In the vicinity of Crescent Lake, Lake Disston, and Haw Creek and its tributaries, and other areas of artesian flow the piezometric surface is low, indicating that these are areas of discharge. Several small springs in Haw Creek and Sweetwater Branch yield highly mineralized water undoubtedly derived in part from the artesian aquifer, which during low stream stages helps to maintain the flow of the streams. There are many artesianwells in the farming areas near Codys Corner and St. Johns Park andwest of Bunnell, and discharge of these has depressed the piezometric surface (fig. 5, 6). The piezometric surface changes continuously in response to changes in the rate of recharge, the rate of withdrawal, and other factors. Figure 6 was drawn from water-level measurements made in April 1956, when there was considerable discharge of water from artesian wells for irrigation; therefore, it is only an approximate representation of the piezometric surface at other times.

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INFORMATION CIRCULAR NO. 13 17 -so' Bra ,ra **Is Urn ere EXPLANATION --/5-N Contour line representing the approximate height, in feet above mean sea level, to which water a0u Np -r would rise In tightly cased wells that penetrated ---the principal artesian aquifer in April, 1956 r crr UN r Contour interval 5 feet. i / -"' 6__.SAINT_,OHS_. \ >FLAGLER 7--~ Sr Z sul o cours I a 1 2 3 4 I IW n Figure 6. Map of Flagler County showing the piezornetric surface.

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18 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL .SURVEY Area of Artesian Flow Wherever the piezometric surface stands higher than the land surface, artesian wells will flow. The areas of artesian flow in Flagler County in 1956 are shown in figure 7. There are two principal areas of artesian flow in the county. One of these occupies a broad band, two or three miles wide, along the Atlantic Ocean, and a narrow westward extension, a few hundred feet wide, along Pellicer Creek shown on figure 7 and its tributaries. In this area there are many small areas of no artesian flow (some of which are too smallto be shown bythis map) along the crests of ridges that parallel the coastline. Another principal area of artesian flow occupies an unbroken band along Crescent Lake, up the valleys of Haw Creek and its tributaries, and around Lake Disston. In addition to the principal areas of artesian flow, there is a small area of artesianflowin a stream valley east of Roy, in the northwestern part of the county. In the southwestern part of the county the piezometric surface and the land surface are essentially parallel and at almost the same altitude. The area of artesian flowis, therefore, greatly affected by changes of a few feet in the altitude of the piezometric surface. The area of flow was doubtless very much greater in previous years, when water levels were generally a few feet higher. Water-level measurements made by Stringfield (1936, p. 167) show that artesian wells flowed in June 1934 at Codys Corner, four miles from areas where artesian flow occurred in 1956. Water-level measurements used to construct figure 7 were made at a time of year (August) when the use of water was slight. The decline in water level due to pumping during the winter growing season will result in a narrowing of the areas of flow shown in figure 7. As the piezometric surface is continuously changing, figure 7 represents the areas of artesian flow only approximately. Wells The locations of at least 70 percent of all the wells in the county and 95 percent of the wells used for irrigation are

PAGE 23

INFORMATION CIRCULAR NO. 13 19 6rso air5es aBred rio e'ro RI SAINT 0 M z0 !DINNER iSLaN E-DLA EXPLANATION -S CORNER Area of artesian flow 0 I 2 3 4 ---v OT u IA C N U T e'ar ar125 BrtO nr* eroao Figure 7. Map of Flagler County showing the approximate areas of artesian flow. Figue 7.Mapof Faglr Conty howng te aproxmat

PAGE 24

20 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY plotted on figure 8. Of the 261 wells plotted, 142 are used for irrigation and draw water from the artesian aquifer. Of the remaining 119 wells, 105 draw water from the artesian aquifer and 14 draw water from the nonartesian aquifer. Figure 8 shows that more than half the wells used for irrigation are in a small area west of Bunnell, and that most of the others are distributed around St. Johns Park and Codys Corner. Most of the ground water used in the county is pumped from the artesian wells in these three farming areas during the winter and spring growing season. The information collected on wells west of Bunnell and near Codys Corner is considered as being representative of all wells in these two areas. It shows that wells west of Bunnell are 6 to 8 inches in diameter, are 235 to 555 feet deep, andare equippedwith electric-powered deep-well turbine pumps or suction pumps, and that wells near Codys Corner are 4 to 6 inches in diameter, are 55 to 326 feet deep, and are pumped by electric and gasoline-powered suction pumps. The wells west of Bunnell, whichare relativelydeep and equipped with highcapacity pumps, have somewhat higher yields than wells in any other area of the county. Records of measurements showthat ground-water levels declined, during the spring growing season of 1956, from about 8 feet to 18 feet below the land surface in observation well 928-122-1, west of Bunnell, and from about 2 feet to 7feet below the land surface in observation well 920-119-1, near Codys Corner. The greater decline west of Bunnell undoubtedly is due, in' art, to the greater number, closer spacing, and higher discharge of wells in that area. Whether it is also due in part to poorer water-bearing characteristics of the aquifer west of Bunnell has not been determined. QUALITY OF WATER The chemical character of ground water is dependent largely on the type of material with which the water comes in contact. In recharge areas, where the water first enters the ground, it is only slightly mineralized. As the water moves through the ground it dissolves mineral matter from the rocks through which it flows and mixes with any saline water that may be present'.

PAGE 25

INFORMATION CIRCULAR NO. 13 21 --; rI, I: JN EXPLANATION 00 n '.I Well not used for irTigarion .t .-3 n LFt L :-t ----TT -Figure 8. Map of Flagler County showing the locations of wells.

PAGE 26

22 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL -SURVEY The mineral content of ground water is determined bychemical analysis of water fromwells. The results of chemical analyses of water from wells of various depths in Flagler County are shown in table 1. The table shows that the mineral content of the groundwater, which is expressed in parts per millionof dissolved solids, differs widelyfromplace to place and is lowest in water from the nonartesian aquifer. The. mineral content of the water yielded by some artesian wells, in discharge areas, is so high as to make the water unsatisfactory for many uses. Salt-Water Contamination Ground water that has been contaminated by sea water generally has a high chloride content, because about 91 percent of the dissolved solids of sea water are chloride salts. The chloride content of water from most of the inventoried wells has been determined by chemical analysis, and the results show that the chloride content of the water from the artesian aquifer ranges from 15 ppm near Espanola to more than 4,400 ppm southwest of Bunnell. The generalized results of these analyses are shown by the shaded areas in figure 9. Figure 9 shows that the chloride content of water from artesian wells in the extreme southern part of the county and in the uplandareas is generallyless than 100 ppm. The artesian aquifer in these areas is believed to receive recharge from fresh ground water that moves into the area from Volusia County and from water that percolates downward from swamps and ponds in the area. The recharge has diluted and flushed out much of the mineralized water that flooded the aquifer during Pleistocene time, when sea level was higher than it is now. Throughout the remainder of the countythe chloride content of the artesian water increased with increasing distance from recharge areas (fig. 9). Water from artesian wells in areas where the chloride content exceeds 750 ppm has a salty taste and is undesirable for use as a source of public supply. Water from artesian wells in areas where the chloride content exceeds 2, 000 ppmis unsuitable for many uses, including the irrigation of certain crops (Westgate, 1950, p. 116-123). Water samples collected from wells of different depths show that flushing of the salty water is more complete in

PAGE 27

Table 1. Analyses of Water from Wells in Flagler County (Chemical constituents in parts per million) Well Number 923-118-5 924-122-2 933-123-2 927-115-2 920-119-3 920-119-5 928-114-1 928-108-6 Well Depth .187 150 ? 150 ? 180 ? 60 165 86b 26b Aquifer artesian artesian artesian artesian artesian artesian nonartesian nonaitesian Date of Collection 8-7-56 8-7-56 8!7-56 8-7-56 8-10-56 8-13-56 7-16-51c 10-30-52c Silica (Siq0) 17 25 23 14 19 19 ----Iron (Fe), dissolveda .09 .00 .00 .05 .01 .00 --Iron (Fe), total .89 .52 1.3 3.4 .47 .68 1.5 0.0 Calcium (Ca) 328 252 184 288 166 108 110 92 Magnesium (Mg) 192 124 7 .175 96 34 7 8 Sodium (Na) 1,500 485 210 1,070 610 .130 --Potassium (K) 28 12 7.0 20 19 4.0 ---Bicarbonate (HC03) 266 204 212 184 272 292 371 207 Carbonate (CO3) 0 0 .0 0 0 0 ----Sulfate (SO4) 215 218 310 150 140 29 .0 trace Chloride (C0) 3,020 1,270 500 2,500 1,290 295 31 160 Fluoride (F) .0 .2 .4 .0' .2 .3 .0 .0 Nitrate (NO3) .8 .3 .8 1.5 .5 1.2 Dissolved solids Sum 5,430 2,490 1,410 4,310 2,470 Residue on evaporation at 180 C ---------852 396d 535d Hardness as. CaCO3 1,610 1,140 751 1,440 809 410 304 264 Noncarbonate 1,390 972 578 1, 290 586 170 0 94 0 Specific conductance (micromhos at.25' C) 9,600 4,570 2,230 7,890 4,580 1,420 ----pH 7.6 7.6 7.7 7.5 7.8 7.8 7.0 7.6 Color 6 5 13 4 7 5 --aIn solution at time of analysis. bAnalysis by Florida State Board of Health. cDate of analysis. N dResidue on evaporation at 105 C. ..

PAGE 28

24 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY erse arts' MrMc erB eria ars' 0 r SAINT JOHNS• .EXPLANATION o --oChloride contenton pawater fm artesian wels. per million, June 1956 0 I V UT Figure 9. Map of Flagler County showing the approximate chloride content of water fronm artesian wells.

PAGE 29

INFORMATION CIRCULAR NO. 13 25 some zones of the artesian aquifer than in other zones. West of Bunnell, artesian water yielded by wells drawing from the upper 200 feet of the limestone of Eocene age has a lower chloride content than artesian water yielded by wells drawing from deeper zones. Also, southwest of Bunnell, artesian water yielded by wells drawingfrom the upper 50 feet of the limestone of Eocene age has a lower chloride content than water yielded by wells drawing from certain zones of the younger deposits. One of the most important water problems facing the county is the danger that water maymove fromhighly mineralized zones and contaminate the producing zones as withdrawals from wells are increased. Analyses of periodically collected water samples show that the chloride content of the artesian water from some wells increased duringthe spring growing season, when the withdrawal of artesian water for irrigation was greatest and water levels were lowest. Figure 10 shows the relation between the chloride content of the water and the water level in a well near Codys Corner. -It also shows that a 5-foot drop of the water level was accompanied by a temporary twofold increase of the chloride content. Figure 11 shows the relation between the fluctuations of water level in a wellwest of Bunnell and the fluctuations of chloride content in the water of a nearby well. A water-level decline of about 10 feet resulted in a sevenfold increase in chloride content, from about 300 to 2, 100 ppm. SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS During the first year of the investigation of the groundwater geology and hydrology of Flagler County the following things were done: 1. Pertinent information on 261 wells was collected for use in preparing geologic and hydrologic maps of the county. 2. Water samples from 163wells and springs were analyzed for use in describing the chemical quality of ground water throughout the county. 3. Deep-well sampling equipment was used to collect water samples for determining the chloride content of water at various depths in a well.

PAGE 30

N U, i. 2 zo 4--_z "WATER LEVEL 5WELL 920-119-2 z 260 o 240-------\ CHLORIDE CONTENT .i 200 WELL 920-119-2 5 200 1 140 DEC JAN FEB MAR APR MAY .JUN JUL AUG ISEP OCT NOV DEC 1955 1956 Figure 10. Graph showing the, relationbetween the chloride content of the water and the water level in well 920-119-2 near Codys Corner.

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INFORMATION CIRCULAR NO. 13 27 9 -_-_ -----I I ---S10 Li -2 \ / WATER LEVEL -2 cn WELL 928-122-1 Z013 1 _CHLORIDE CONTENT 1900 WELL 928-121 -1 .1700-C-/----150015/ -j 1300-I 100 700 500 / S300 o I ----00 --------100 DEC JAN FEB MAR APR MAY JUN JUL AUG SEP OCT NOV DEC 1955 1956 Figure 11. Graph showing fluctuations of water level in well 928-122-1 and the chloride content of the water in well 928-121-1, west of Bunnell.

PAGE 32

28 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY 4. Fluctuations of chloride content and water level in 24 wells throughout the countywere recorded. 5. This report was prepared, summarizing all available facts concerning the ground-water resources of the county. As the investigationis incomplete at this time, available data are not adequate for final conclusions concerning the ground-water problems confronting the county. However, results obtained so far can be summarized as follows: 1. The principal source of ground water in Flagler Countyis a thick section of limestone whose top lies at depths ranging from 50 to 150 feet. The 50 to 150 feet of deposits above the limestone consist predominantly of sand, clay, and shells. These overlying deposits have not been differentiated in this report, but records from a few wells showthat impermeable beds in these overlying deposits confine the water in the limestone, under pressure, in most or all areas of the county. Beds of sand and coquina in the overlying deposits yield water of generally low mineral content to a few screened wells in the county.. 2. Some of the ground water in Flagler County is obtained from rain that falls on recharge areas in Volusia and Putnam counties, but there are areas of recharge in Flagler County also, particularly near Espanola and Favorita. Natural discharge of ground water in Flagler County takes place through transpiration by plants and the flow from springs along the inlandwaterway and in the bottoms of Lake Disston and Crescent Lake, and along Haw Creek and its tributaries. 3. In recent years, rainfall has been deficient in the western part of the county and the artesian head has declined about three feet at Bunnell. The decline may have resulted from a deficiency in rainfall and allowed the salvage of recharge formerly rejected.

PAGE 33

INFORMATION CIRCULAR NO. 13 29 4. The chloride content of water from artesian wells in Flagler Countyranges from less than 100 ppm in recharge areas to more than 2, 000 ppm southwest of Bunnell. In some areas the chloride content of the water in certain wells changes with depth and time. West of Bunnell, the ground water of highest chloride content comes from some of the deeper wells, whereas southwest of Bunnell the groundwater of highest chloride content comes from some of the shallower wells. West of Bunnell, and near Codys Corner, the chloride content of water from certain artesian wells is highest when the withdrawal of ground water is greatest and water levels are lowest. The results of the investigation to date show that supplies of fresh ground water may not be available southwest of Bunnell, and that present supplies in some farming areas may be subject to serious contamination by the intrusion of highly mineralized ground water. Therefore, future studies in Flagler County will emphasize mapping areas of such mineralized water in greater detail and determining the conditions that influence its movement. The following work will be done : 1. A study willbe made of well cuttings to determine the position and thickness of the different geologic formations, especially to determine their division into water-bearing beds (aquifers) and confining beds (aquiclude s). 2. Electric logs and test borings will be made to add to the information on position and thickness of water-bearing zones and confining beds. 3. Water from selected wells will be collected with deep-well sampling equipment to determine the quality of water in each zone. 4. The altitudes of measuringpoints onwater-level observation wells will be determined for use in mapping the piezometric surface in greater I detail.

PAGE 34

30 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY 5. Quantitative studies including pumping tests will be made to measure the recharge and discharge rates and the water-transmitting and storing capacities of aquifers. 6. Data on the use of ground water will be collected inorder to estimate the rate of withdrawal. This information will be used, in conjunction with data on water levels, the water-transmitting and storing capacity of the aquifer, and chemical quality to predict the effect of increased withdrawal on water levels and quality of water.

PAGE 35

INFORMATION CIRCULAR NO. 13 31 REFERENCES Black, A. P. 1951 (and Brown, Eugene) Chemical character of Florida's waters -1951: Florida State Board Cons., Div. Water Survey and Research, Paper 6. Brown, Eugene (see Black) Collins, W. P. 1928 (and Howard, C. S. ) Chemical character of waters of Florida: U.S. Geol. Survey WaterSupply Paper 596-G. Cooke, C.W. 1945 Geology of Florida: Florida Geol. Survey Bull. 29. Howard, C.S. (see Collins) Leutze, 'Willard P. (see Wyrick) Leve, G. W. 1956 Interim report on the ground-water resources of Putnam County, Florida:Florida Geol. Survey Inf. Circ. 15 (in press). Stringfield, V. T. 1936 Artesian water in the Florida peninsula: U.S. Geol. Survey Water-Supply Paper 773-C. Tarver, G.R. 1956 Interim report on the ground-water resources of St. Johns County, Florida: Florida Geol. Survey Inf. Circ. 14 (in press). Vernon, R. O. 1951 Geology of Citrus and Levy counties, Florida: Florida Geol. Survey Bull. 33. Westgate, P. J. 1950 Effects of soluble soil salts on vegetable production at Sanford: Florida State Hort. Soc. Proc. Oct. -Nov. 1950.

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32 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY Wyrick, Granville G. 1956 (and Leutze, Willard P. ) Interim report on the ground-water resources of the northeastern part of Volusia County, Florida: Florida Geol. Survey Inf. Circ. 8.

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-FLORIDA-GEOLOGICAL-SURVEY COPYRIGHT NOTICE [year of publication as printed] Florida Geological Survey [source text] The Florida Geological Survey holds all rights to the source text of this electronic resource on behalf of the State of Florida. The Florida Geological Survey shall be considered the copyright holder for the text of this publication. Under the Statutes of the State of Florida (FS 257.05; 257.105, and 377.075), the Florida Geologic Survey (Tallahassee, FL), publisher of the Florida Geologic Survey, as a division of state government, makes its documents public (i.e., published) and extends to the state's official agencies and libraries, including the University of Florida's Smathers Libraries, rights of reproduction. The Florida Geological Survey has made its publications available to the University of Florida, on behalf of the State University System of Florida, for the purpose of digitization and Internet distribution. The Florida Geological Survey reserves all rights to its publications. All uses, excluding those made under "fair use" provisions of U.S. copyright legislation (U.S. Code, Title 17, Section 107), are restricted. Contact the Florida Geological Survey for additional information and permissions.


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PAGE 1

• STATE OF FLORIDA tUL STATE BOARD OF CONSERVATION SErnest Mitts, Director FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY Robert O. Vernon, Director INFORMATION CIRCULAR NO. 13 INTERIM REPORT ON THE GROUND-WATER RESOURCES SOF FLAGLER COUNTY, FLORIDA By Boris J. Bermes Prepared by U. S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the Florida Geological Survey Tallahassee, Florida 1958

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CULlTiW 4

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TABLE OF CONTENTS Page stract .........................1 troduction......... .............. 2 Previous investigations ................3 Well-numbering system ................ 3 ography ......................... 4 ology.......................... 4 round water ....................... .8 Nonartesianaquifer .................. 9 Artesian aquifer .................... .10 Piezometric surface of the principal artesian aquifer in Florida ................ 12 Piezometric surface in St. Johns, Putnam, and Flagler counties .............. 14 Piezometric surface in Flagler County ......14 Area of artesian flow ................ 18 Wells............................ 18 Qualityofwater. .....................20 S Salt-water contamination ............... 22 Summary and conclusions ................ 25 References .. ...................... 31 ILLUSTRATIONS Figure 1 Map of Florida showing the location of Flagler County ........................ 6 2 Generalized geologic section showing the deposits penetrated by wells in Flagler County .7 3 Graph showing the relation between rainfall at Crescent City and the water level in well 927-115-1 at Bunnell ............ 11 4 Map of the peninsula of Florida showing the piezometric surface of the principal artesian aquifer ........... ........ ... .13 5 Map of St. Johns, Putnam, and Flagler counties showing the piezometric surface ....15 6 Map of Flagler County showing the piezometric surface ............... 17 4iii 4 1O4

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Figure Page 7 Map of Flagler County showing the approximate areas of artesian flow. .......19 8 Map of Flagler County showing the locations of wells .................. 21 9 Map of Flagler County showing the approximate chloride content of water from artesian wells .. ...... ................24 10 Graph showing the relation between the chloride content of the water and the water level in well 920-119-2 near Codys Corner ...26 11 Graph showing fluctuations of water level in well 928-122-1 and the chloride content of the water in well 928-121-1, west of Bunnell ..27 Table 1 Analyses of water from wells in Flagler County ....................... 23 iv

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INTERIM REPORT ON THE GROUND-WATER RESOURCES OF FLAGLER COUNTY, FLORIDA By Boris J. Bermes ABSTRACT Flagler County is in the northeastern part of the Florida Peninsula. The surface of the countyis underlainby deposits of sand, marl, shell, and clay to depths ranging from 50 to 150 feet. Beds of coquina and sand in the upper part of these deposits were mapped by Cooke (1945, pl. 1) as the Anastasia formation and terrace deposits of Pleistocene age. They yield small quantities of nonartesian water of generally low mineral content to shallow screened wells. Beds of marl and phosphatic sand and clay in the lower part of these deposits are believed to be of Miocene or Pliocene age. The deposits of sand, shell, and clay are unconformably underlain by limestone of Eocene age which yields large quantities of artesian water in which the mine r alization ranges widely but is generally higher than that of the nonartesian water. The water in the limestone will flow at the surface in the lowlands along the western and eastern edges of the county. The artesian aquifer is recharged within the county and also in adjacent Volusia and Putnam counties. Records of rainfall and fluctuations of artesian pressure show that in recent years the rainfall was deficient in the western part of the county, and that the artesian pressure head underwent a progressive decline of three feet at Bunnell. Records also show that during this investigation the seasonal decline of pressure head due to pumping for irrigation was about 12 feet in awellwest of Bunnell andabout five feet in a well near Codys Corner. The chloride content of water from artesian wells ranges from less than 100 ppm (parts per million) in the recharge areas near the towns of Espanola and Favorita to more than 2, 000 ppmin areas in the northeastern part of the county and 1

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2 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY southwest of Bunnell. The chloride content of the artesian water from some wells in certain farm areas increased considerably during periods of heavy pumping. INTRODUCTION Much of the economy of Flagler County is based on the income from winter vegetables which are irrigated with ground water. The demand for ground water is increasing in certain areas of Flagler County. Recently the chloride content of the water from some wells increased, many wells stopped yielding water by natural flow, and a few new wells yielded only salty water. Therefore, the contamination of existing supplies and the availability of new supplies are matters of importance to the economy of the county. In recognition of these and other water problems, the State Legislature appropriated funds for an investigation of the water resources of the county. The ground-water phase of the investigation was begun in December 1955 by the U. S. Geological Surveyin cooperation with the Florida Geological Survey. The purpose of the investigation is to study the ground-water resources of the county and publish the results in a form that will be useful in the solution of ground-water problems. Studies are being made of the ground-water hydrology and geology of the countywith special emphasis on problems associated with salt-water contamination and declining water levels. Major efforts in these studies include the following: I. Collecting rock cuttings from and pertinent information on depth, yield, etc., on existing wells. 2. Analyzing water samples from existing wells. 3. Making test borings and using well-surveying instruments where necessary. 4. Recording seasonal fluctuations andprogressive trends in water level, water quality, water use, and rainfall.

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INFORMATION CIRCULAR NO.. 13 3 This report presents a general description of the occurrence of groundwater in the county, basedon information collected during the-first nine months of the investigation. The investigation was made under the general supervisionofA.N. Sayre, Chief, Ground Water Branch, U.S. Geological Survey, and under the immediate supervision of M. I. Rorabaugh, District Engineer for Florida. Previous Investigations The geology and ground-water resources of Flagler County are mentioned in several reports of the U. S. Geological Survey and the Florida Geological Survey. Cooke (1945, p. 268, 295, 304) briefly discusses the occurrence of the Pamlico sand and the Anastasia and Talbot formations in.Flagler County. A report by Vernon (1951, fig. 13, 33; pl. 2) includes Flagler County in generalized maps of central Florida which show generalized geologic sections andthe structure of the Inglis member of the Moodys Branch formation. The ground-water resources of Flagler County are briefly mentioned by Stringfield (1936, pl. 6, 10, 12), and chemical analyses of water from wells in Flagler County are included in reports by Collins and Howard (1928, p. 214)and -Black and Brown (1951, p. 53). Well-Numbering System All wells inventoried during this investigation were assigned numbers. The well number was assigned.by dividing the county into 1-minute quadrangles of latitude and longitude and numbering, consecutively, the wells in each 1-minute quadrangle. The well number is composed of the last three digits of the line of latitude south of the well, followed by the last three digits of the line of longitude east of the well, followed by the number of the well in the quadrangle. Therefore, wells referred to in the text by well number may be located on figure 8. For example, well 927-115-1 is the well numbered 1 in the quadrangle bounded on the south by latitude 29 27' and on the east by.longitude 810151'. -.-

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4 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY GEOGRAPHY Flagler County is in the northeastern part of the Florida Peninsula (fig. 1) and has an area of 483 square miles, nominally 309, 120 acres. The average annual rainfall is about 48 inches, according to the records of the U. S. Weather Bureau. Topographically, Flagler County includes both lowlands and uplands. The lowlands include the large flat area drained by Haw Creek and its tributaries, and small areas ranging from a few hundred feet to several miles wide adjacent to Crescent Lake, Pellicer Creek, Bulow Creek, the Matanzas River, and the Atlantic Ocean. They range in altitude from sealevel, along the Atlantic Ocean, to 25 feet above sealevel where they merge into the uplands. The uplands include the remaining areas of the county. They include a few sand ridges, several lakes, and broad, relatively level areas. Surface altitudes range from 25 feet above sea level, where the uplands adjoin the lowlands to about 50 feet above sea level northwest of Espanola. The lowlands and some areas of the uplands are drained by streams and canals that discharge into the Atlantic Ocean and Crescent Lake. The remainder of the uplands are drained, through lakes and swamps, into underlying aquifers, in which the water moves toward streams or toward the ocean. According to information compiled in 1955 by the U. S. Dept. Commerce, Census Bureau, Flagler County ranks fourth among the counties of the State in the growing of Irish potatoes and cabbage. Thus, although Flagler County is the fifth smallest county in the State in both population and area, it ranks high in agricultural production. This is due, in part, to the availability of adequate supplies of water from inexpensive wells. GEOLOGY Rock cuttings from wells show that Flagler County is underlain by limestone, clay, shell beds and sand. A generalized geologic cross section, showing the deposits penetrated

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INFORMATION CIRCULAR NO. 13 5 by water wells in the southwestern part of the county, is shown in figure 2. The lowermost deposit penetrated by water wells is a thick section of limestone of Eocene age, the top of which is shown schematically by the wavy line in figure 2. The upper part of this limestone section is generally veryfossiliferous and relatively pure. It locally consists of numerous echinoid and mollusk fragments, miliolids, and large Foramninifera. Similar limestone has been mapped in northern Florida and assigned to various formations of Eocene age by Vernon (1951, p. 115-171)and others. The limestone has not been studied insufficient detail in Flagler County to permit differentiating of the various formations. It will be referred to in this report as limestone of Eocene age. The limestone of Eocene age is several hundred feet thick, and its top is an undulating surface 35 to 135 feet below sealevel. It is a consolidated rock containing numerous porous andpermeable zones whichyield large quantities of water to open-hole wells. Most wells in the county draw from it exclusively. The upper part of this limestone was eroded by ancient surface streams and circulating ground water (Stringfield, 1936, p. 124-125). The undulations of its surface and much of the porosity in its upper part are probably the result of the cavities, sinkholes, and stream channels that were formed when the limestone was the surface or buried at shallow depth by the overlying deposits of later ancient seas. The deposits overlying the limestone consist predominantly of clay, shell, and sand. They are shown as a single unit in figure 2 because the available information is not adequate to permit differentiating the individual beds. However, records from a few wells in Flagler County showthat the lower part of the deposits of clay, shell, arid sand include beds of green phosphatic clay, gray phosphatic sand, sandy limestone, and shell marl. Beds similar to these have been mapped in northern Florida and assigned to various formations believed to be Miocene and Pliocene in age by Cooke (1945, pl. l)and Miocene in age by Vernon(Black and Brown, 1951, fig. 1). The beds overlying the limestone in Flagler County

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6 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY J-1 Figure 1. Map of. Florida showing the location of Flagler C-----------County. .-r I 'For i Flal Co.._n _ty-.,,,, ." --1

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INFORMATION CIRCULAR NO. 13 7 S.500-AA S50CLAY, SAND, AND SHELLS (Pleistocene & Pliocene or Miocene o 150-O 150.LIMESTONE U .200(Eocene) 250-----S300FLAGLER COUNTY UJ S350A 4000o450 500iles Figure 2. Generalized geologic section showing the deposits penetrated by wells in Flagler County.

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8 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY have not been studied in sufficient detail to justify a determination of their correct age. They will be referred to collectively in this report as deposits of Miocene or Pliocene age. The deposits of Miocene or Pliocene age include relatively impermeable beds that retardthe seepage of water into or out of the underlying limestone of Eocene age. Permeable zones in the deposits of Miocene or Pliocene age differ widely in their water-bearing characteristics, and wells drawing more than small quantities of water from them must be fitted with screens. Most wells of large yield are cased through these zones, even in areas where these zones yield water of low mineral content and the underlying limestone yields water of high mineral content. The upper part of the deposits of clay, shell, and sand include beds of coquina and sand that have been mapped and assigned to the Anastasia formation of Pleistocene age and to terrace deposits of Recent and Pleistocene age by Cooke (1945,pl. 1). The Anastasia formation is at the surface along the entire east coast in Flagler County and extends inland as far as three miles.. The terrace deposits are found at the surface throughout the rest of the county. They are thickest under the uplands and thinnest under the lowlands. The deposits of Pleistocene age yield moderate quantities of water to screened wells. GROUND WATER Ground water is the subsurface water in the zone of saturation, the zone in which all the pore spaces are completely filled with water under pressure greater than atmospheric. It is derived almost entirely from precipitation. Part of this precipitation returns to the atmosphere by evapotranspiration, part drains overland to lakes and streams; the remainder reaches the zone of saturation to become ground water. Ground water moves more or less laterally, under the influence of gravity, to places of discharge such as wells, springs, lakes, surface streams, or the ocean. Groundwater may occur under either nonartesian (water table) conditions or artesian conditions. Where it is unconfined, its surface is free to rise and fall and it is said to be

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INFORMATION CIRCULAR NO. 13 9 under nonartesian conditions. The upper surface of unconfined groundwater is calledthe water table. Where the water is confined in a permeablebed that is overlainby a relatively impermeable bed so that its surface is not free to rise and fall, it is said to be under artesian conditions. Technically, the term "artesian"is appliedto groundwater that is confined under sufficient pressure to rise above the top of the permeable bed that contains it, though not necessarily to or above the land surface. The imaginary surface coinciding with the level to which artesian water will rise is called the piezometric surface. Rocks in the zone of saturationthat are permeable enough to yield water in usable quantity to wells and springs are called aquifers. Areas in which an aquifer receives replenishment from infiltration are called recharge areas. Areas in which an aquifer loses water from springs or wells are called discharge areas. Nonartesian aquifers are usually at or near the land surface and receive recharge over most of their area. Artesian aquifers receive recharge in their areas of outcrop or, under certain conditions, where their "confining" beds are leaky or discontinuous. Nonartesian Aquifer Ground water in Flagler County occurs under both nonartesian and artesian conditions. The surficial sand and shell deposits of Recent and Pleistocene age contain ground water under nonartesian conditions in all parts of the county except inareas southwest of Bunnellandalong Crescent Lake where they are overlain by confining beds of clay and the water is artesian. Probably less than 100 wells draw water from the nonartesian aquifer in the county. Their yields differ widely, depending upon their construction, but are generally less than 200 gpm (gallons per minute). Water from these wells is used mainly for domestic and public supplies. The nonartesian aquifer is replenished byinfiltration of rain that falls on the county and, probablyto a minor degree, by upward leakage from the artesian aquifer in areas where the piezometric surface is above the water table. In addition

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10 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY to this natural recharge the nonartesian aquifer probably receives recharge in the truck-farming areas as a result of slow downward infiltration of irrigation water. Water is lost from the aquifer by natural discharge through springs, by downward percolation into the artesian aquifer in the upland areas, and by withdrawal from wells. The chloride content of water from the nonartesian aquifer ranges fromless than 10 ppm to more than 340 ppm. It is generallylowest in the uplandareas where the nonartesian aquifer receives no recharge from the artesian aquifer neither by upward seepage nor by downward seepage of irrigation water pumped from the artesian aquifer. Artesian Aquifer The principal source of water in Flagler County is an artesian aquifer which forms a part of the principal artesian aquifer of the Florida Peninsula and adjacent area. In Flagler County this aquifer is composed of beds of limestone of Eocene age and some of the beds of sand and shell in the lower part of the Miocene or Pliocene deposits. All these deposits will be referred to, collectively, as the artesian aquifer. Differences in static heac at different depths indicate that the artesian aquifer consists of severalwater-bearing zones that are separated by beds of low permeability. The height to which the water level will rise in an artesian wellis calledthe artesian pressure head. Fluctuations of the artesian pressure head are caused, inpart, by variations in the rainfall inthe recharge area. Therefore, measurements of rainfall in recharge areas and measurements of water levels in wells are needed in a ground-water investigation. Periodic measurements of the water level in well 927-115-1, at Bunnell, have been made since 1936. The U. S. Weather Bureau has measured the rainfall at Crescent City, in Putnam County, since 1912. Water levels in well 927-115-1 and the rainfall at Crescent City, for the years 1936-1956, are plotted in figure 3. The graph of the cumulative departure from long-term mean (fig. 3) shows that the rainfall was above average during the period 1941-1947 and was about average during the period 1936-1941 and was below

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0" qCUMULATIVE DEPARTURE : FROM LONG-TERM MEAN WATER LEVEL IN FEET a ANNUAL RAINFALL IN INCHES RAINFALL IN INCHES ABOVE MEAN SEA LEVEL S0 0 0 5 g 0 .0 0 0 0 0 0oU a i z F .JJ _ oO~' 1936 1937 -_ V 1938 8 n 1939 --1940 --r. 1941 -1942 -O 0" ----0 19451 --p 0 ar. 21947 1945 1951 1953 ; s 1954

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12 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY average during the period 1954-1956. The graph of the water level shows that during the period of above-average rainfall the highest ground-water levels didnot rise above the highest levels of the preceding period of average rainfall. This suggests that there was rejected recharge during the period of above-average rainfall. The water-level graph shows that the water level declined during the period of near-normal rainfall from 1947 to 1956. If this is the result of increasedpumping during that period, it may allow salvage of some otherwise rejected recharge; however, it may indicate instead that rainfall at Crescent City is not representative of rainfall throughout the area. Measurements arebeing made periodically -during the current investigation -in approximately 20 other wells, in order to determine the seasonal fluctuations of water levels in different parts of the county. No conclusions have been reached regarding fluctuations of water levels in these wells because the period of record is too short. Piezometric Surface of the Principal Artesian Aquifer in Florida One of the most important parts of an investigation of ground water is the construction of maps representing the altitude of the water levels in wells. Such a map for a nonartesian aquifer shows the altitude and configuration of the water table. Foran artesianaquifer it represents thepiezometric surface. Thepiezometric surface of the principal artesian aquifer in Florida as of 1949 is shown by the contour line s in figure 4. This aquifer consists of limestone deposits of Eocene, Oligocene, and Miocene age that act more or less as a single hydrologic unit. Stringfield (1936, pl. 12) first mapped the piezometric surface and described the aquifer. The shape of the piezometric surface indicates some areas in whichthe aquifer is replenished and the lateraldirection of :ovement of the water in the aquifer. Water enters the aquifer in those areas in which the piezometric surface is high and moves along a course perpendicular to the contour lines toward areas in which the piezometric surface is low.

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INFORMATION CIRCULAR NO. 13 13 _8 84* r3 82" at. So No. G E O R G _I A L R 'o ...O. 0 I B KER -A C LA C o or i nes"1'" repr e n p x l h he hL FRAENAD I gRoNG pi i a a e i aq f in 9 '9 IXIEt( A r A CHU P0 Y O RION-I.A _L 'ppanrat sc ai x"o m i s f T t e pal a ts
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14 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY One of the notable features of the piezometric surface in Florida, as shown in figure 4, is a broad saddle extending across the State between the areas of recharge in Putnam County, in the northern part of the peninsula, and Polk County, in the southern part. Throughout most of the State the principal artesian aquifer is generally overlain by relatively. impermeable deposits of Miocene age. However, in the area occupied bythis saddle, Miocene deposits are thin or absent (Vernon, 1951, fig. 33), thus affording conditions that permit recharge of the aquifer in highlands and discharge from the aquifer in lowlands. Principal areas of recharge and discharge for the artesian aquifer can be determined from figure 4, but many areas of recharge and discharge cannot be determined from that figure. Flagler County, which lies within this saddle, contains localareas of recharge and discharge that will be discussed in the following sections. Piezometric Surface in St. Johns, Putnam, and Flagler Counties G.R. Tarver(1956) and G. W. Leve (1956), whose investigations were made concurrently with this investigation, mapped the piezometric surface in St. Johns County and Putnam County, respectively. A generalized map of the pie zometric surface of the artesian aquifer in all three counties is shown in figure 5. Figure 5 shows that some water moves southward from St. Johns County and eastward from Putnam County into Flagler County. It does not show the piezometric surface in Volusia County, but Wyrick (1956, p. 28) has described recharge areas in Volusia County. Some water, therefore, probably moves northward and eastward through the artesian aquifer from the recharge areas inVolusia County into Flagler County. Piezometric Surface in Flagler County A detailed map of the piezometric surface in Flagler County has not yet been made, because determinations of altitude are available for only a few wells. The Flagler County portion of figure 5 shows contours based on the available data as of April 1956.

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INFORMATION CIRCULAR NO. 13 15 EXPLANATION -3 0 Contour line representing the I approximate height, in feet above mean sea level, towhich water would rise in tightly .. SV cased wells that penetrate the 1'/ s COUNTY principal artesian aquifer, in COUnT? 1956. Broken line represents inferred position of the contour line. n Z 0 4-6 8 10 Contour interval 5 feet (10 feet above the 20-foot contour). U-sFLAGLER COUNTY COUNTYALN CN j ------i ----1 VOLUSIA COUNTY Figure 5. Map of St. Johns, Putnam, and Flagler counties, showing the piezometric surface.

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16 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY The piezometric surface in Flagler Countyis relatively low and flat. In the uplands of the northern and southeastern parts of the county it is between 15 and 20 feet above sea level. In the lowlands adjacent to Crescent Lake, the Atlantic Ocean, and Haw Creek and its tributaries, it is less than 15 but generallymore than 10feet above sea level. The general slope of the surface and movement of water in the artesian aquifer are toward the streams, the lakes and the ocean. The slope of the piezometric surface into Flagler County from surrounding areas indicates that the county, as awhole, is within an area of discharge. The artesian aquifer receives some replenishment, however, in the areas around Espanola and Favorita where the water table is 'considerably higher than the piezometric surface. The geologic factors controlling replenishment have not yet been investigated, but it can be surmised that most of the recharge occurs by downward seepage from the nonartesian aquifer through discontinuous or leakyconfiningbeds of Miocene or Pliocene age, in areas where the water table is above the pie zometric surface. Study of well cuttings and well logs reveals nothing indicating that the confining beds may not transmit water in this way. In the vicinity of Crescent Lake, Lake Disston, and Haw Creek and its tributaries, and other areas of artesian flow the piezometric surface is low, indicating that these are areas of discharge. Several small springs in Haw Creek and Sweetwater Branch yield highly mineralized water undoubtedly derived in part from the artesian aquifer, which during low stream stages helps to maintain the flow of the streams. There are many artesianwells in the farming areas near Codys Corner and St. Johns Park andwest of Bunnell, and discharge of these has depressed the piezometric surface (fig. 5, 6). The piezometric surface changes continuously in response to changes in the rate of recharge, the rate of withdrawal, and other factors. Figure 6 was drawn from water-level measurements made in April 1956, when there was considerable discharge of water from artesian wells for irrigation; therefore, it is only an approximate representation of the piezometric surface at other times.

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INFORMATION CIRCULAR NO. 13 17 -so' Bra ,ra **Is Urn ere EXPLANATION --/5-N Contour line representing the approximate height, in feet above mean sea level, to which water a0u Np -r would rise In tightly cased wells that penetrated ---the principal artesian aquifer in April, 1956 r crr UN r Contour interval 5 feet. i / -"' 6__.SAINT_,OHS_. \ >FLAGLER 7--~ Sr Z sul o cours I a 1 2 3 4 I IW n Figure 6. Map of Flagler County showing the piezornetric surface.

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18 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL .SURVEY Area of Artesian Flow Wherever the piezometric surface stands higher than the land surface, artesian wells will flow. The areas of artesian flow in Flagler County in 1956 are shown in figure 7. There are two principal areas of artesian flow in the county. One of these occupies a broad band, two or three miles wide, along the Atlantic Ocean, and a narrow westward extension, a few hundred feet wide, along Pellicer Creek shown on figure 7 and its tributaries. In this area there are many small areas of no artesian flow (some of which are too smallto be shown bythis map) along the crests of ridges that parallel the coastline. Another principal area of artesian flow occupies an unbroken band along Crescent Lake, up the valleys of Haw Creek and its tributaries, and around Lake Disston. In addition to the principal areas of artesian flow, there is a small area of artesianflowin a stream valley east of Roy, in the northwestern part of the county. In the southwestern part of the county the piezometric surface and the land surface are essentially parallel and at almost the same altitude. The area of artesian flowis, therefore, greatly affected by changes of a few feet in the altitude of the piezometric surface. The area of flow was doubtless very much greater in previous years, when water levels were generally a few feet higher. Water-level measurements made by Stringfield (1936, p. 167) show that artesian wells flowed in June 1934 at Codys Corner, four miles from areas where artesian flow occurred in 1956. Water-level measurements used to construct figure 7 were made at a time of year (August) when the use of water was slight. The decline in water level due to pumping during the winter growing season will result in a narrowing of the areas of flow shown in figure 7. As the piezometric surface is continuously changing, figure 7 represents the areas of artesian flow only approximately. Wells The locations of at least 70 percent of all the wells in the county and 95 percent of the wells used for irrigation are

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INFORMATION CIRCULAR NO. 13 19 6rso air5es aBred rio e'ro RI SAINT 0 M z0 !DINNER iSLaN E-DLA EXPLANATION -S CORNER Area of artesian flow 0 I 2 3 4 ---v OT u IA C N U T e'ar ar125 BrtO nr* eroao Figure 7. Map of Flagler County showing the approximate areas of artesian flow. Figue 7.Mapof Faglr Conty howng te aproxmat

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20 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY plotted on figure 8. Of the 261 wells plotted, 142 are used for irrigation and draw water from the artesian aquifer. Of the remaining 119 wells, 105 draw water from the artesian aquifer and 14 draw water from the nonartesian aquifer. Figure 8 shows that more than half the wells used for irrigation are in a small area west of Bunnell, and that most of the others are distributed around St. Johns Park and Codys Corner. Most of the ground water used in the county is pumped from the artesian wells in these three farming areas during the winter and spring growing season. The information collected on wells west of Bunnell and near Codys Corner is considered as being representative of all wells in these two areas. It shows that wells west of Bunnell are 6 to 8 inches in diameter, are 235 to 555 feet deep, andare equippedwith electric-powered deep-well turbine pumps or suction pumps, and that wells near Codys Corner are 4 to 6 inches in diameter, are 55 to 326 feet deep, and are pumped by electric and gasoline-powered suction pumps. The wells west of Bunnell, whichare relativelydeep and equipped with highcapacity pumps, have somewhat higher yields than wells in any other area of the county. Records of measurements showthat ground-water levels declined, during the spring growing season of 1956, from about 8 feet to 18 feet below the land surface in observation well 928-122-1, west of Bunnell, and from about 2 feet to 7feet below the land surface in observation well 920-119-1, near Codys Corner. The greater decline west of Bunnell undoubtedly is due, in' art, to the greater number, closer spacing, and higher discharge of wells in that area. Whether it is also due in part to poorer water-bearing characteristics of the aquifer west of Bunnell has not been determined. QUALITY OF WATER The chemical character of ground water is dependent largely on the type of material with which the water comes in contact. In recharge areas, where the water first enters the ground, it is only slightly mineralized. As the water moves through the ground it dissolves mineral matter from the rocks through which it flows and mixes with any saline water that may be present'.

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INFORMATION CIRCULAR NO. 13 21 --; rI, I: JN EXPLANATION 00 n '.I Well not used for irTigarion .t .-3 n LFt L :-t ----TT -Figure 8. Map of Flagler County showing the locations of wells.

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22 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL -SURVEY The mineral content of ground water is determined bychemical analysis of water fromwells. The results of chemical analyses of water from wells of various depths in Flagler County are shown in table 1. The table shows that the mineral content of the groundwater, which is expressed in parts per millionof dissolved solids, differs widelyfromplace to place and is lowest in water from the nonartesian aquifer. The. mineral content of the water yielded by some artesian wells, in discharge areas, is so high as to make the water unsatisfactory for many uses. Salt-Water Contamination Ground water that has been contaminated by sea water generally has a high chloride content, because about 91 percent of the dissolved solids of sea water are chloride salts. The chloride content of water from most of the inventoried wells has been determined by chemical analysis, and the results show that the chloride content of the water from the artesian aquifer ranges from 15 ppm near Espanola to more than 4,400 ppm southwest of Bunnell. The generalized results of these analyses are shown by the shaded areas in figure 9. Figure 9 shows that the chloride content of water from artesian wells in the extreme southern part of the county and in the uplandareas is generallyless than 100 ppm. The artesian aquifer in these areas is believed to receive recharge from fresh ground water that moves into the area from Volusia County and from water that percolates downward from swamps and ponds in the area. The recharge has diluted and flushed out much of the mineralized water that flooded the aquifer during Pleistocene time, when sea level was higher than it is now. Throughout the remainder of the countythe chloride content of the artesian water increased with increasing distance from recharge areas (fig. 9). Water from artesian wells in areas where the chloride content exceeds 750 ppm has a salty taste and is undesirable for use as a source of public supply. Water from artesian wells in areas where the chloride content exceeds 2, 000 ppmis unsuitable for many uses, including the irrigation of certain crops (Westgate, 1950, p. 116-123). Water samples collected from wells of different depths show that flushing of the salty water is more complete in

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Table 1. Analyses of Water from Wells in Flagler County (Chemical constituents in parts per million) Well Number 923-118-5 924-122-2 933-123-2 927-115-2 920-119-3 920-119-5 928-114-1 928-108-6 Well Depth .187 150 ? 150 ? 180 ? 60 165 86b 26b Aquifer artesian artesian artesian artesian artesian artesian nonartesian nonaitesian Date of Collection 8-7-56 8-7-56 8!7-56 8-7-56 8-10-56 8-13-56 7-16-51c 10-30-52c Silica (Siq0) 17 25 23 14 19 19 ----Iron (Fe), dissolveda .09 .00 .00 .05 .01 .00 --Iron (Fe), total .89 .52 1.3 3.4 .47 .68 1.5 0.0 Calcium (Ca) 328 252 184 288 166 108 110 92 Magnesium (Mg) 192 124 7 .175 96 34 7 8 Sodium (Na) 1,500 485 210 1,070 610 .130 --Potassium (K) 28 12 7.0 20 19 4.0 ---Bicarbonate (HC03) 266 204 212 184 272 292 371 207 Carbonate (CO3) 0 0 .0 0 0 0 ----Sulfate (SO4) 215 218 310 150 140 29 .0 trace Chloride (C0) 3,020 1,270 500 2,500 1,290 295 31 160 Fluoride (F) .0 .2 .4 .0' .2 .3 .0 .0 Nitrate (NO3) .8 .3 .8 1.5 .5 1.2 Dissolved solids Sum 5,430 2,490 1,410 4,310 2,470 Residue on evaporation at 180 C ---------852 396d 535d Hardness as. CaCO3 1,610 1,140 751 1,440 809 410 304 264 Noncarbonate 1,390 972 578 1, 290 586 170 0 94 0 Specific conductance (micromhos at.25' C) 9,600 4,570 2,230 7,890 4,580 1,420 ----pH 7.6 7.6 7.7 7.5 7.8 7.8 7.0 7.6 Color 6 5 13 4 7 5 --aIn solution at time of analysis. bAnalysis by Florida State Board of Health. cDate of analysis. N dResidue on evaporation at 105 C. ..

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24 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY erse arts' MrMc erB eria ars' 0 r SAINT JOHNS• .EXPLANATION o --oChloride contenton pawater fm artesian wels. per million, June 1956 0 I V UT Figure 9. Map of Flagler County showing the approximate chloride content of water fronm artesian wells.

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INFORMATION CIRCULAR NO. 13 25 some zones of the artesian aquifer than in other zones. West of Bunnell, artesian water yielded by wells drawing from the upper 200 feet of the limestone of Eocene age has a lower chloride content than artesian water yielded by wells drawing from deeper zones. Also, southwest of Bunnell, artesian water yielded by wells drawingfrom the upper 50 feet of the limestone of Eocene age has a lower chloride content than water yielded by wells drawing from certain zones of the younger deposits. One of the most important water problems facing the county is the danger that water maymove fromhighly mineralized zones and contaminate the producing zones as withdrawals from wells are increased. Analyses of periodically collected water samples show that the chloride content of the artesian water from some wells increased duringthe spring growing season, when the withdrawal of artesian water for irrigation was greatest and water levels were lowest. Figure 10 shows the relation between the chloride content of the water and the water level in a well near Codys Corner. -It also shows that a 5-foot drop of the water level was accompanied by a temporary twofold increase of the chloride content. Figure 11 shows the relation between the fluctuations of water level in a wellwest of Bunnell and the fluctuations of chloride content in the water of a nearby well. A water-level decline of about 10 feet resulted in a sevenfold increase in chloride content, from about 300 to 2, 100 ppm. SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS During the first year of the investigation of the groundwater geology and hydrology of Flagler County the following things were done: 1. Pertinent information on 261 wells was collected for use in preparing geologic and hydrologic maps of the county. 2. Water samples from 163wells and springs were analyzed for use in describing the chemical quality of ground water throughout the county. 3. Deep-well sampling equipment was used to collect water samples for determining the chloride content of water at various depths in a well.

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N U, i. 2 zo 4--_z "WATER LEVEL 5WELL 920-119-2 z 260 o 240-------\ CHLORIDE CONTENT .i 200 WELL 920-119-2 5 200 1 140 DEC JAN FEB MAR APR MAY .JUN JUL AUG ISEP OCT NOV DEC 1955 1956 Figure 10. Graph showing the, relationbetween the chloride content of the water and the water level in well 920-119-2 near Codys Corner.

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INFORMATION CIRCULAR NO. 13 27 9 -_-_ -----I I ---S10 Li -2 \ / WATER LEVEL -2 cn WELL 928-122-1 Z013 1 _CHLORIDE CONTENT 1900 WELL 928-121 -1 .1700-C-/----150015/ -j 1300-I 100 700 500 / S300 o I ----00 --------100 DEC JAN FEB MAR APR MAY JUN JUL AUG SEP OCT NOV DEC 1955 1956 Figure 11. Graph showing fluctuations of water level in well 928-122-1 and the chloride content of the water in well 928-121-1, west of Bunnell.

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28 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY 4. Fluctuations of chloride content and water level in 24 wells throughout the countywere recorded. 5. This report was prepared, summarizing all available facts concerning the ground-water resources of the county. As the investigationis incomplete at this time, available data are not adequate for final conclusions concerning the ground-water problems confronting the county. However, results obtained so far can be summarized as follows: 1. The principal source of ground water in Flagler Countyis a thick section of limestone whose top lies at depths ranging from 50 to 150 feet. The 50 to 150 feet of deposits above the limestone consist predominantly of sand, clay, and shells. These overlying deposits have not been differentiated in this report, but records from a few wells showthat impermeable beds in these overlying deposits confine the water in the limestone, under pressure, in most or all areas of the county. Beds of sand and coquina in the overlying deposits yield water of generally low mineral content to a few screened wells in the county.. 2. Some of the ground water in Flagler County is obtained from rain that falls on recharge areas in Volusia and Putnam counties, but there are areas of recharge in Flagler County also, particularly near Espanola and Favorita. Natural discharge of ground water in Flagler County takes place through transpiration by plants and the flow from springs along the inlandwaterway and in the bottoms of Lake Disston and Crescent Lake, and along Haw Creek and its tributaries. 3. In recent years, rainfall has been deficient in the western part of the county and the artesian head has declined about three feet at Bunnell. The decline may have resulted from a deficiency in rainfall and allowed the salvage of recharge formerly rejected.

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INFORMATION CIRCULAR NO. 13 29 4. The chloride content of water from artesian wells in Flagler Countyranges from less than 100 ppm in recharge areas to more than 2, 000 ppm southwest of Bunnell. In some areas the chloride content of the water in certain wells changes with depth and time. West of Bunnell, the ground water of highest chloride content comes from some of the deeper wells, whereas southwest of Bunnell the groundwater of highest chloride content comes from some of the shallower wells. West of Bunnell, and near Codys Corner, the chloride content of water from certain artesian wells is highest when the withdrawal of ground water is greatest and water levels are lowest. The results of the investigation to date show that supplies of fresh ground water may not be available southwest of Bunnell, and that present supplies in some farming areas may be subject to serious contamination by the intrusion of highly mineralized ground water. Therefore, future studies in Flagler County will emphasize mapping areas of such mineralized water in greater detail and determining the conditions that influence its movement. The following work will be done : 1. A study willbe made of well cuttings to determine the position and thickness of the different geologic formations, especially to determine their division into water-bearing beds (aquifers) and confining beds (aquiclude s). 2. Electric logs and test borings will be made to add to the information on position and thickness of water-bearing zones and confining beds. 3. Water from selected wells will be collected with deep-well sampling equipment to determine the quality of water in each zone. 4. The altitudes of measuringpoints onwater-level observation wells will be determined for use in mapping the piezometric surface in greater I detail.

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30 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY 5. Quantitative studies including pumping tests will be made to measure the recharge and discharge rates and the water-transmitting and storing capacities of aquifers. 6. Data on the use of ground water will be collected inorder to estimate the rate of withdrawal. This information will be used, in conjunction with data on water levels, the water-transmitting and storing capacity of the aquifer, and chemical quality to predict the effect of increased withdrawal on water levels and quality of water.

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INFORMATION CIRCULAR NO. 13 31 REFERENCES Black, A. P. 1951 (and Brown, Eugene) Chemical character of Florida's waters -1951: Florida State Board Cons., Div. Water Survey and Research, Paper 6. Brown, Eugene (see Black) Collins, W. P. 1928 (and Howard, C. S. ) Chemical character of waters of Florida: U.S. Geol. Survey WaterSupply Paper 596-G. Cooke, C.W. 1945 Geology of Florida: Florida Geol. Survey Bull. 29. Howard, C.S. (see Collins) Leutze, 'Willard P. (see Wyrick) Leve, G. W. 1956 Interim report on the ground-water resources of Putnam County, Florida:Florida Geol. Survey Inf. Circ. 15 (in press). Stringfield, V. T. 1936 Artesian water in the Florida peninsula: U.S. Geol. Survey Water-Supply Paper 773-C. Tarver, G.R. 1956 Interim report on the ground-water resources of St. Johns County, Florida: Florida Geol. Survey Inf. Circ. 14 (in press). Vernon, R. O. 1951 Geology of Citrus and Levy counties, Florida: Florida Geol. Survey Bull. 33. Westgate, P. J. 1950 Effects of soluble soil salts on vegetable production at Sanford: Florida State Hort. Soc. Proc. Oct. -Nov. 1950.

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32 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY Wyrick, Granville G. 1956 (and Leutze, Willard P. ) Interim report on the ground-water resources of the northeastern part of Volusia County, Florida: Florida Geol. Survey Inf. Circ. 8.

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