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Lithologic variation in the Miami limestone of Florida ( FGS: Open file report 48 )

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Title:
Lithologic variation in the Miami limestone of Florida ( FGS: Open file report 48 )
Series Title:
( FGS: Open file report 48 )
Creator:
Johnson, Richard A ( Richard Alan ), 1949-
Florida Geological Survey
Place of Publication:
Tallahassee
Publisher:
Florida Geological Survey
Publication Date:
Language:
English
Physical Description:
25 p. : ill., maps ; 28 cm.

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Subjects / Keywords:
Petrology -- Florida ( lcsh )
Limestone -- Florida ( lcsh )
City of Miami ( local )
Monroe County ( local )
Palm Beach County ( local )
Broward County ( local )
Miami River ( local )
Collier County ( local )
Canals ( jstor )
Limestones ( jstor )
Canal banks ( jstor )
Lithofacies ( jstor )
Quartz ( jstor )
Genre:
bibliography ( marcgt )
non-fiction ( marcgt )

Notes

Bibliography:
Includes bibliographical references (p. 18).
General Note:
Cover title.
Funding:
Digitized as a collaborative project with the Florida Geological Survey, Florida Department of Environmental Protection.
Statement of Responsibility:
by Richard A. Johnson.

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University of Florida
Holding Location:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
The author dedicated the work to the public domain by waiving all of his or her rights to the work worldwide under copyright law and all related or neighboring legal rights he or she had in the work, to the extent allowable by law.
Resource Identifier:
027837458 ( aleph )
26594418 ( oclc )
AJG7164 ( notis )

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State of Florida
Department of Natural Resources
Virginia B. Wetherell, Executive Director




Division of Resource Management
Jeremy A. Craft, Director




Florida Geological Survey
Walter Schmidt, State Geologist and Chief





Open File Report No. 48





LITHOLOGIC VARIATION IN THE MIAMI LIMESTONE OF FLORIDA


By

Richard A. Johnson


Florida Geological Survey
Tallahassee
1992











91



LIARARY









LITHOLOGIC VARIATION IN THE MIAMI LIMESTONE OF FLORIDA


by
Richard A. Johnson*, P.G. No. 60







ABSTRACT

The six lithofacies characteristic of the oolitic or pelletal upper Pleistocene Miami
Limestone of south peninsular Florida are: ooid calcarenite (type), oomoldic-recrystallized
limestone (modified type), calcirudite (molluskan, bryozoan or foraminiferal), breccia (intra-
formational or basal), quartz sand unconsolidatedd to poorly-consolidated) or sandstone (well-
consolidated), and (very minor) microsparry-coralline limestone. Ooid calcarenite is the domin-
ant lithology in the Miami Limestone along the Atlantic Coastal Ridge of southeastern Dade
County (from the Miami River south-southwest to the vicinity of Florida City) and in the Lower
Keys of southern Monroe County. Oomoldic-recrystallized lithologies occur predominantly in
portions of Broward, southeastern Palm Beach, and western and northern Dade Counties. Oolitic
calcirudite lithofacies occur both to the north and west of the Atlantic Coastal Ridge in
southeastern Dade County. Type ooid calcarenite interfingers with molluskan calcirudite in
the Atlantic Coastal Ridge in northern Dade County and to the north. To the west of the ridge
in Dade County and into mainland Monroe and southeastern Collier Counties, ooid calcarenite
interfingers with bryozoan calcirudite which grades into molluskan and foraminiferal calcirud-
ite. Intraformational breccia occurs very locally in the type area and basal breccia occurs
discontinuously in Broward, north-central and western Dade, and southeastern Palm Beach Coun-
ties. Quartz sand or sandstone lithofacies occurs in Broward County and southeastern Palm Beach
County. Microsparry-coralline lithofacies occurs only in the Lower Keys, southern Monroe County,
and in extreme southeastern Dade County.









ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

The author wishes to thank the following Florida Geological
Survey personnel who provided astute reviews of this paper:
W. Schmidt, T. Scott, K. Campbell, J. Lloyd, P. Rupert, and
J. Arthur. I also thank Walt Schmidt and Tom Scott for allow-
ing access to the Survey's well cutting and core collection.





*Independent Professional Geologist, P.O. Box 3560, Tallahassee.

1 UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA Lio ikIES









INTRODUCTION
Upper Pleistocene Miami Limestone generally consists of abundantly oolitic and pelletal
limestone. The type area of the Miami Limestone occurs along the Atlantic Coastal Ridge in
the city of Miami, along the Silver Bluff scarp to the south-southwest of Miami, and along
the Miami River (Sanford, 1909; Puri and Vernon, 1964). All lithologies included in the Miami
Limestone lithostratigraphic unit of this report contain either ooids or pellets (or both)
in some recognizable form and are physically continuous with or in some way correlatable with
the type oolitic and pelletal limestone occurring in this area.
In the present study, oolitic or pelletal lithologies characteristic of the Miami Limestone
were identified (Figure 1) in most of Dade County (excluding the northwest corner and beneath
the southern and central portions of the barrier island of Miami Beach); in southern Broward
County (excluding the southwest corner); in eastern Broward County (from the Atlantic coast
westward to the eastern boundary of the Everglades Wildlife Management Area); in southeastern
Palm each County (on the mainland westward to the eastern boundary of the Loxahatchee National
Wildlife Refuge, and as two thin, narrow tongues to the north as far as Boynton Beach on the
east and directly west of West Palm Beach on the west); in eastern and southern mainland Monroe
County (to the west along the Loop Road, S.R. 94, to the vicinity of Pinecrest); in southern
Monroe County (Lower Keys); and in southeastern Collier County (along the Tamiami Canal west
to the vicinity of Monroe Station). (The Miami Limestone also probably occurs along the floor
of Florida Bay in southern Monroe County; however, no outcrops, exposures, well-cuttings, nor
cores were available from Florida Bay, and the Miami was not examined in that area for this
study. Additionally, the occurrence of the Miami Limestone may extend to the west-southwest
beyond Key West, but again, no samples were available for analysis.)
UNDERLYING UNITS
Figure 2 shows the distribution of stratigraphic units which occur subjacent to the Miami
Limestone. The Miami Limestone is underlain by the molluskan coquina and shelly quartz sandstone
of the upper Pleistocene Anastasia Formation in the extreme eastern portions of Broward and
southeastern Palm Beach Counties. The Miami is underlain by the upper Pleistocene Fort Thompson
Formation (sparsely- to moderately-shelly limestone and quartz sand) in the central portions
of Broward County, southeastern Palm Beach County, and all of Dade County. The upper Pleistocene
Key Largo Limestone (massive coralline limestone) underlies the Miami in the Lower Keys of
southern Monroe County. The Pliocene Tamiami Formation (moldic to unfossiliferous, variably
sandy limestone) underlies the Miami in southeastern Collier and eastern mainland Monroe Count-
ies.
METHODS
For this study, 64 outcrops of the Miami Limestone were visited, examined, collected,






















a
ft




Si





El
* P



f1i


$3


southern
MONROE
COUNTY
_I *-


Miles 0 10 20

K b 0 1 26 30


Location of outcrop

Location mentioned in text

Line denoting real extent of Miami
Limestane, dashed where inferred

Line enclosing area where aoid calc-
arenite lithofacies predominates


LOCATION LOCATION
CODE NAPE

OUTCROPS
1 West Palm Beach Canal
2 Hillsboro Canal
3 Ditch West of Boca Rtaon
4 Dania Cutoff Canal
5 Tamiami Canal
6 13th Street and 1st Avenue, Miami
7 Coral Gables Canal
8 Southeast Big Pine Key

TEXT LOCATIONS
A Boynton Beach
B Miami River at Coastal Ridge
C Monroe Station
D Pinecrest
E Florida City
F Key West


rh























LEGEND
O RAnastasia Formation
Dade a
County 0 Fort Thompson Formation

mainland j Key Largo Limestone
Monroe County Tamiami Formation

NORTH




southern Monroe County 4



Miles 0 10

Kmf t








Figure 2. Suborop map of the Miami Limestone.

4









sketched and lithologically described in a bed-by-bed manner (see Appendix, Part 1). These
sections exhibited between 6 inches and 19 feet of Miami Limestone, and were located in Dade
(18 exposures), Palm Beach (18 exposures), Monroe (12 exposures), Broward (9 exposures), and
Collier (7 exposures) Counties. Forty-two Florida Geological Survey (FGS) cores of the Miami
Limestone were examined from boreholes in Dade (26 cores), Broward (13 cores), Palm Beach (2
cores), and Monroe (1 core) Counties. In addition, 133 sets of FGS well-cuttings which contained
recognizable Miami Limestone were examined from wells located in Dade (55 wells), Broward (47
wells), Palm Beach (27 wells), Monroe (3 wells), and Collier (1 well) Counties. Part 2 of the
Appendix lists wells from which cores and cuttings were examined. Thus, the Miami Limestone
was studied at a total of 239 locations in the five counties of its occurrence. Figure 3 pro-
vides a key to the lithologic symbols used in the remaining figures in this report.
LITHOFACIES

Six oolitic or pelletal lithofacies can be identified in the Miami Limestone: ooid calcar-
enite, oomoldic-recrystallized limestone, calcirudite, breccia, quartz sand or sandstone, and
microsparry-coralline limestone.
Ooid Calcarenite
The ooids characteristic of the ooid calcarenite lithofacies (and generally of the entire
Miami unit) consist of very fine to coarse sand size, spherical carbonate grains concentrically
laminated around a silt size to fine sand size nucleus. In Dade, mainland and southern (the
Lower Keys) Monroe, and southeastern Collier Counties, calcium carbonate nuclei are most common,
whereas in Broward and southeastern Palm Beach Counties, very fine to fine quartz sand grain
nuclei also occur.
The pellets characteristic of the Miami Limestone lack nuclei and concentric laminae,
and also range from very fine to coarse sand size. In shape, they are spherical and ooid-like
to ellipsoidal to conspicuously elongated and fecal-pellet-like. Pellets are most common in
the Miami west of the Atlantic Coastal Ridge in Dade County and in mainland Monroe and south-
eastern Collier Counties; however, even the type oolitic limestone in the city of Miami contains
scattered pellets as well as abundant ooids.
In the ooid calcarenite lithofacies, both ooids and pellets are very poorly- to very
well-consolidated by calcium carbonate in several forms, including: very soft, unrecrystallized
to partially recrystallized, clay- to silt-size calcilutite; hard, recrystallized, translucent
to transparent, cryptocrystalline calcite; very hard, finely recrystallized microspar; or very
hard, very finely recrystallized micrite.
The ooid calcarenite lithofacies may be cross-bedded, burrowed or massive and unbedded.
The faces locally contains scattered unaltered mollusks and very low (less than 1%) to moderate
(up to 15%) amounts of very fine to coarse quartz sand.










3



ftdbjb"#

5'7'n: 7!i














4M4~


Figure 3. Key to the lithologic patterns used in the figures of this report.


ooid calcarenite, all spacings


molluskan calcirudite, all spacings
(oolitic, Donax sp. or Chione
cancellata)


sandy (quartz) molluskan calcirudite
(oolitic)


thin molluskan calcirudite lenses
in ooid calcarenite


foraminiferal (Archaias sp.) calci-
rudite with quartz sand and sand-
stone breccia (oolitic)


breccia (oolitic)


breccia with quartz sand
(oolitic)


oomoldic recrystallized faces with
variable quartz sand and mollusk
molds


shelly quartz sand or sandstone,
unburrowed (oolitic)


burrowed quartz sandstone
(oolitic)


massive calcareous quartz sand-
stone, varies to limestone
(oolitic)


massive very finely recrystallized
limestone (nonoolitic)









Ooid calcarenite is the type lithology present in the Atlantic Coastal Ridge of southeast-
ern Dade County within the city of Miami. Ooid calcarenite also extends from Big Pine Key to
Key West in the Lower Keys, southern Monroe County (Figure 1).
Figure 4 shows the section diagram obtained from the thickest exposure of Miami Limestone
which consists almost exclusively of type ooid calcarenite, located in the south wall of the
Coral Gables Canal near the intersection of LeJeune Road (SW 42nd Avenue) and Sunset Drive
(SW 72nd Street) in Coral Gables, Dade County (Township 54 South, Range 41 East, Section 29,
southwest quarter of southeast quarter). Beds 1-5, 7 and 10-14 consist of cross-bedded or
burrowed (bed 1) ooid calcarenite, and beds 6 and 8-9 consist of very thinly-bedded Donax sp.
molluskan calcirudite.
Oamoldic-Recrystallized Limestone
This lithofacies consists of slightly sandy (< 1% quartz) to very sandy (up to 49% quartz),
well- to moderately well-consolidated, variably ooid- or pellet-moldic, recrystallized micro-
spar, micrite or cryptocrystalline calcite. The term oomoldic was used by Hoffmeister et al.
(1967) for ooid- and pellet-moldic porosity characteristic of the Miami Limestone.
The oomoldic-recrystallized faces represents a common, slightly altered form of type
ooid calcarenite wherein the original ooid and pellet grains were dissolved leaving only spheri-
cal and ellipsoidal voids in cement. In some of the oomolds characteristic of this faces,
a white film (the outermost lamination of the original ooid) remains as a lining on the inner
surface of the oomold. Very fine to fine quartz sand grains (relict ooid nuclei) also remain
within some of the oomolds locally in Broward and southeastern Palm Beach Counties. The faces
varies from burrowed to cross-bedded to massive and unbedded.
Oomoldic-recrystallized lithofacies occurs in portions of Broward, southeastern Palm Beach,
southeastern Collier, and western and northern Dade Counties (Figure 5). This faces also occurs
very thinly-interlayered with ooid calcarenite to form cross-beds in the type area (compare
Figures 1 and 5).
Figure 6 shows the section diagram obtained from the south wall of the Hillsboro Canal
approximately 2.75 miles west of the U.S. Highway 441 bridge in extreme southern Palm Beach
County (Township 47 South, Range 41 East, Section 28, southwest quarter). Bed 1 consists of
slightly oolitic, somewhat shelly, calcilutite-cemented quartz sand. Bed 2 is composed of
somewhat shelly and sandy (quartz) oomoldic-recrystallized facies. Bed 3 consists of massive,
abundantly sandy (quartz) micrite with very scattered Archaias sp. (a large foraminifer); and
bed 4 consists of oolitic molluskan (Chione cancellata) calcirudite. Both beds 3 and 4 are
discontinuous in the area.
Calcirudite

The calcirudite lithofacies of the Miami Limestone consists of abundant to common, small













10
ME-- eb_ a a A_ ,. 89
S- 9i





19'

3
i '2

i


Figure 4. Section diagram of thickest exposure of Miami Limestone, Coral Gables Canal,
LeJeune Road and Sunset Drive, Coral Gables,
Dade County.










Miles 0 10

Km 0 10


Dade
County


NORTH

t


southern Monroe County
^^-""


SExtent of oomoldic-recrystallized
lithofacies

Figure 5. Map showing approximate extent of oomoldic-recrystallized
lithofacies of the Miami Limestone.


I


.- : .'' ': .: :
* i ** *.' s *. f l
* i l l 1c
~* t t ** S


4
3


Figure 6. Section diagram of Hillsboro Canal in Palm Beach County.


.I *. : l S s 1
I '. 1 .4 .. .: "! *:*.. *'''
I *v 1 .'! ..* .k.1'.i:1
.*A.: .* 'a:.L* I









mollusks, or tubular bryozoan colonies, or large foraminifera, with intermixed or very thinly-
interbedded layers of ooids and pellets. All grains are generally unaltered and unrecrystallized

and are moderately well- to very well-cemented by micrite to microspar to cryptocrystalline
calcite. The faces contains only a low proportion (5% or less) of quartz sand and ranges from

massive to burrowed to cross-bedded. Three subfacies of the calcirudite lithofacies occur in
the Miami Limestone: molluskan, bryozoan, and foraminiferal.

In eastern Dade County (in the Atlantic Coastal Ridge), eastern Broward County, and the
extreme eastern portion of southeastern Palm Beach County, the dominant mollusk present in

the molluskan calcirudite subfacies of the Miami Limestone is Donax sp., the "coquina-shell".
The cement in this lithology consists of either microspar or cryptocrystalline calcite.
Figure 7 shows the section diagram obtained from the south wall of the Dania Cutoff Canal
at the railroad bridge just west of the U.S. Highway 1 bridge in Dania, eastern Broward County
(Township 50 South, Range 42 East, Section 34, northwest quarter). Beds 2 through 5 consist
of various forms of oolitic, Donax sp. molluskan calcirudite. Beds 1 and 6 consist of ooid
calcarenite, with bed 6 being massive and bed 1, burrowed.
The northernmost extent of this oolitic or pelletal, Donax sp. molluskan calcirudite occurs
in the city of Boynton Beach (on the mainland in the extreme eastern portion of southeastern
Palm Beach County, Figure 1). The lithology occurs as a thin (less than 10 feet) tongue of
Miami between overlying and underlying sections of nonoolitic Donax sp.-rich (Anastasia Forma-
tion) coquina and shelly sandstone. The top of this very finely, but abundantly oolitic north-
easternmost tongue of Miami occurs at a depth of 30 feet below land surface.
Oolitic Donax sp. molluskan calcirudite also occurs thinly- to thickly-interbedded with
type ooid calcarenite in the central portion of the Atlantic Coastal Ridge of southeastern
Dade County.
The other small pelecypod characteristic of the molluskan calcirudite subfacies of the

Miami is Chione cancellata. The oolitic, C. cancellata molluskan calcirudite lithology occurs
very discontinuously in western and central Dade (west of the Atlantic Coastal Ridge), south-

eastern Collier, and mainland Monroe Counties, and much more continuously in Broward County
and southern Palm Beach County. It consists of massive, very hard and well-cemented, slight-
ly to abundantly sandy (quartz), slightly to moderately oolitic micrite or partially recrys-

tallized calcilutite which contains common to abundant, unaltered, whole and fragmented C.
cancellata (Figure 6, bed 4).
Where the Miami Limestone consists of molluskan calcirudite, other pelecypod and gastropod
species may also be present, but are generally not as abundant and characteristic as Donax

sp. and C. cancellata. In some areas, it is also common to find both of these species intermixed
in exposures of the Miami Limestone.




























6


4


3

a


1


Figure 7. Section diagram of Dania Cutoff Canal in Broward County.


'Ab 0%ll~~ AIM* % 40% 01 1 A A A o% d




1 001
12'~~r nAIL~A I










The bryozoan calcirudite subfacies of the Miami Limestone consists of common to abundant,
tubular, Cheilostome bryozoan colonies and scattered to abundant pellets and ooids very poorly-
cemented by unrecrystallized calcilutite, or very well-cemented by very finely recrystallized

micrite or microspar. The bryozoan colonies may be unaltered and unrecrystallized or completely
recrystallized. This subfacies is generally thickly-bedded and highly burrowed. Bryozoan calci-

rudite occurs primarily in the subsurface west of the Atlantic Coastal Ridge in Dade County
and extreme southern Broward County (Hoffmeister et al., 1967; Halley and Evans, 1983).
A moderately rare, foraminiferal calcirudite subfacies of the Miami Limestone crops out
discontinuously in southeastern Collier County and occurs locally in the subsurface of Broward

and northern and western Dade Counties, generally at or near the base of the formation. It
consists of abundant to common Archaias sp., a large planispiral foraminifer, and intermixed
ooids or pellets very well- to poorly-cemented by microspar, micrite or calcilutite. The foram-
iniferal calcirudite subfacies of the Miami may be either burrowed or massive.
Figure 8 shows the section diagram obtained from an exposure along the south bank of the
Tamiami Canal approximately 1.25 miles west of 50-Mile-Bend (Township 53 South, Range 33 East,
Section 13, northwest quarter of southwest quarter). Bed 2, the basal bed of the Miami Limestone
(at this location immediately overlying the very finely-recrystallized limestone of the Tamiami
Formation, bed 1), consists of oolitic, slightly brecciated, Archaias sp. foraminiferal calci-

rudite. Bed 3 consists of oolitic, C. cancellata molluskan calcirudite.
Oolitic calcirudite lithofacies occurs in the Miami Limestone both to the north and west

of the primary ooid shoal (the present Atlantic Coastal Ridge of southeastern Dade County).
Figure 9 shows the approximate geographic extent of the various subfacies of oolitic calcirud-
ite. To the north, type ooid calcarenite interfingers with Donax sp. molluskan calcirudite
in the Atlantic Coastal Ridge of Broward, extreme northern Dade, and extreme southeastern Palm
Beach Counties. West of the ridge in Dade County, type ooid calcarenite interfingers with
bryozoan calcirudite (Halley and Evans, 1983) which, in turn, grades into C. cancellata mollusk-
an or foraminiferal calcirudite near the westernmost extent of the Miami (extreme western Dade,
southeastern Collier, and mainland Monroe Counties).
Breccia

The oolitic breccia lithofacies of the Miami Limestone consists of pebble- to boulder-size,
angular to subangular fragments of oolitic or pelletal limestone moderately well- to very
well-cemented by micrite, microspar or partially recrystallized calcilutite. The facies also
occurs as ooid- or pellet-rich cement lithifying nonoolitic and nonpelletal, angular to subangu-

lar limestone fragments. Scattered to common mollusks of diverse species and low to moderate
percentages of quartz sand may also be present. Miami Limestone breccia facies can be differen-

tiated into subfacies according to its stratigraphic location as intraformational or basal.











i 1 J I A 4o I's C- 331 1 -IF
(I 1-r i' TV J.': 1 -it "'* (It 1- 1


3
-2
1


Figure 8. Section diagram of Tamiami Canal in southeastern Collier County.


Miles 0 10
Km 0 10

E sp. molluskan
calcirudite


Bryozoan calcirudite


mainland Monroe County*-gE'A


southern Monroe County d


Calcirudite faces absent


NORTH

I


Figure 9, Map showing approximate extent of calcirudite lithofacies of the
Miami Limestone.


1


2T
2i*










The intraformational breccia subfacies is relatively rare in the Miami Limestone and occurs

only very locally in outcrops along the Atlantic Coastal Ridge in Miami (Halley and Evans,
1983). The cement characteristic of this lithology is calcilutite, and the subfacies is typi-
cally poorly- to moderately well-consolidated. This lithology was not detected in cores or
cuttings, probably because it is rare and partially because it would be difficult to recognize
a very coarse-grained breccia in the relatively small samples obtained in both cores and cut-
tings.
Figure 10 shows the section diagram derived from an exposure near the intersection of
Thirteenth Street and First Avenue in Miami (Township 54 South, Range 41 East, Section 38,
southeast portion). Bed 1 consists of Donax sp. molluskan calcirudite and beds 2-3 (massive)
and 5-9 (cross-bedded) consist of type ooid calcarenite. Bed 4 'is composed of the shelly,
oolitic intraformational breccia.
The most common form of basal-Miami breccia subfacies consists of angular to subangular
fragments of ooid calcarenite or oomoldic-recrystallized lithofacies well- to very well-consoli-

dated by nonoolitic, sandy (quartz), unfossiliferous, partially recrystallized calcilutite
or micrite cement. This breccia occurs discontinuously in the subsurface of Broward County
(west of the Florida Turnpike) and in north-central and western Dade County. The lithology
is exposed in shallow ditches west of the Florida Turnpike in southeastern Palm Beach County,
and is also discontinuous in that area.
Figure 11 shows a section diagram obtained from a shallow-ditch exposure on the east side

of U.S. Highway 441 directly west of Boca Raton, Palm Beach County (Township 47 South, Range
42 East, Section 30, northwest quarter of southwest quarter). The highly-burrowed basal bed
(1) consists of pebble- to cobble-size fragments of oolitic to oomoldic, somewhat sandy (quartz)
limestone which are well-consolidated by finely-recrystallized calcite (which contains common

to abundant quartz sand). The uppermost bed (2) consists of angular fragments of the same
oolitic to oomoldic lithology, but very well-consolidated by unburrowed and massive, abundantly
quartz-sandy calcilutite.
Quartz Sand or Sandstone
This somewhat geographically- and stratigraphically-restricted lithofacies of the Miami

Limestone consists of slightly- to abundantly-oolitic, very well- to very poorly-cemented,
very fine to medium quartz sand with rare coarse quartz sand grains. Unaltered C. cancellata,
Donax sp. and other mollusks also occur in this faces. The cement varies from soft calcilutite
to partially recrystallized calcilutite to hard microspar. Generally, quartz sand contained
within the Miami Limestone is devoid of dark-colored heavy-mineral grains; however, very fine
to fine heavy minerals locally do occur in the quartz sand or sandstone lithofacies in south-
eastern Palm Beach County in very small concentrations (less than 1%).














13' 1 I I 1


r ,
=' -L L ~


9
8
7
6
5
4
-3
2

1


Figure 10. Section diagram of exposure at park at intersection of 13th Street
and 1st Avenue, Miami, Dade County.


T


3' pt

Lw-?


Figure 11. Section diagram of ditch west of Boca Raton, Palm Beach County.


r -M r -- sW ;P
jhM2










The well-cemented sandstone subfacies is either burrowed or massive in sedimentary struc-
ture. The burrows are infilled by unconsolidated, locally shelly, oolitic quartz sand. The
poorly-cemented subfacies generally lacks preserved burrows and is massive and unbedded to
only slightly bedded.
The quartz sand or sandstone lithofacies occurs (Figure 12) continuously in extreme north-
ern Broward County and discontinuously throughout most of the remainder of the Miami Limestone
occurrence in Broward County. The faces also occurs extremely discontinuously in extreme
northern Dade County west of the Atlantic Coastal Ridge. In all of these areas, the faces
occurs only at the base of the Miami unit (Figure 6, bed 1).
The oolitic quartz sand or sandstone facies also occurs continuously in southeastern Palm
Beach County (Figure 12). From west-northwest of Boca Raton northward along the Florida Turnpike

as far as directly west of West Palm Beach (Haverhill area) the entire thickness of this north-
westernmost tongue of the Miami consists of slightly- to abundantly-oolitic and fossiliferous
(mollusks) quartz sand or sandstone. The base of the Miami unit in this area consists of uncon-
solidated to poorly-consolidated, sparsely fossiliferous, variably organic, only very slightly

oolitic quartz sand.
Figure 13 shows the section diagram obtained from the south bank of the West Palm Beach
Canal beneath the Haverhill Road bridge directly west of West Palm Beach, east-central Palm
Beach County (Township 44 South, Range 42 East, Section 1, northwest quarter of northwest
quarter). Bed 1 of the section represents the only very slightly oolitic and shelly basal bed
of the Miami in the area. The remainder of the very thin Miami unit consists of moderately-
to abundantly-shelly (predominantly Donax sp. and C. cancellata) quartz sandstone (bed 2) and
sand (bed 3).
Because this oolitic quartz sand or sandstone lithofacies macroscopically resembles Fort
Thompson Formation, some geologists prefer to include it in that formation (T.M. Scott, FGS,
personal communication, 1991). In addition, some geologists "would call this [lithology] Anasta-
sia [Formation] transitional to Miami Limestone" (T.M. Scott, FGS, personal communication,
1992). However, because the one unique and defining characteristic of the Miami Limestone is
the presence of ooids or pellets, the present report includes this oolitic quartz sand and
sandstone lithofacies within the Miami Limestone.
Microsparry-corallne Limestone
This extremely minor lithofacies of the Miami Limestone is composed of hard, nonsandy,
oolitic, microsparry (finely recrystallized) limestone with some oomoldic-recrystallized zones.
The microspar ranges from silt size to very fine sand size. Scattered to common coral molds
are characteristic and the facies also locally contains scattered Archaias sp. as well as very
scattered, very small, dwarfed or immature mollusks. The corals are identical to those charac-










Lee Palm Beach Miles 0 10
County Hendry Count F-7-
ounty Km 0 10
Broward
Collier
CountCounty


Dade I
County
mainland Monroe
County NORTH


southern Monroe
County

.rf-*" -.
Extent of quartz sand and
sandstone lithofacies



Figure 12. Map showing approximate extent of quartz sand and sandstone
lithofaoies of the Miami Limestone.


AT
I-


3
2
1


Figure 13. Section diagram of West Palm Beach Canal, Palm Beach County.









teristic of the Key Largo Limestone.
The occurrence of microsparry-coralline faces is extremely stratigraphically- and geo-
graphically-constrained to the Lower Keys, southern Monroe County, and a very small portion
of extreme southeastern Dade County (Figure 14). This faces represents only an extremely minute
fraction of the total volume of the Miami Limestone.
Figure 15 shows a composite section diagram derived from three very thin exposures on
southern Big Pine Key, Lower Keys, southern Monroe County (Township 66 South, Range 29 East,
Section 36 and Township 67 South, Range 29 East, Section 1). Bed 1 represents the massive,
coralline Key Largo Limestone and bed 2 represents the basal-Miami, microsparry-coralline
faces. Bed 3 is composed of partially- and very finely-recrystallized, tan ooid calcarenite.
SUmIpRY
The upper Pleistocene Miami Limestone of south peninsular Florida consists of type ooid
calcarenite and five additional lithofacies, all of which contain ooids and/or pellets in some
recognizable form. These lithologies aret oomoldic-recrystallized limestone; molluskan, bryozoan
or foraminiferal calcirudite; intraformational or basal breccia; quartz sand or sandstone;
and microsparry-coralline limestone.


REFERENCES
Halley, R.B., and Evans, C.C., 1983, The Miami Limestone: a guide to select-
ed outcrops and their interpretation (with a discussion of diagenesis
of the formation): Miami Geological Society fieldtrip guidebook,
67 p.

Hoffmeister, J.E., Stockman, K.W., and Multer, H.G., 1967, Miami Limestone
of Florida and its Recent Bahamian counterpart: Geological Society
of America Bulletin, v. 78, p. 175-190.

Puri, H.S., and Vernon, R.O., 1964, Summary of the geology of Florida and
a guidebook to the classic exposures: Florida Geological Survey Spec-
ial Publication No. 5 (revised), 312 p.

Sanford, S., 1909, The topography and geology of southern Florida: In:
Florida Geological Survey Annual Report 2, p. 175-231.

APPENDIX

PART 1I Exposures of Miami Limestone Collected and Described for this Report

Name and General T-R-S Formations Total Thickness
Description Location Exposed* of Section

Braoard
Sawgrass Expressway at Lyons Blvd, active/dewatered pit T48S/R42E/55 Mi/Ft. T 21'
Dania Cutoff Canal cut at railroad bridge, south wall T50S/R42E/S34 Miami 14'
Middle River Canal at University, canal cut, S bank T49S/R41E/S28 Miami 4'



















mainland Monroe \
County


southern Monroe
County

L4A


Palm Beaoh


Miles 0 10
Km 0 i


NORTH

t


4
004


Extent of microsparry-
coralline lithofacies


Figure 14. Map showing approximate extent of microsparry-coralline faces of
the Miami Limestone.


T
3.

1


wlool Won


Figure 15. Composite section diagram of exposures on Big Pine Key, southern
Monroe County.


3Ef


. A. I


'' '-r I~


a I &


I


m


'' j .. .










PART 1: Exposures of Miami Limestone Collected and Described for this Report (continued)


Name and General
Description


T-R-S Formations
Location Exposed*


Total Thickness
of Section


Deep ditch cut, south of Sample Road, W of US 441 T
Ditch cut to N of SR 84, 2.3 miles east of US 27 T
South bank of South New River Canal .45 mi W of US 27 T
Snake Creek Canal at US 27, NE bank T
Sample Road and Sawgrass Expressway, bank of canal to E T
1 mi S of US 27 and CR 820, E bank of canal, W of US 27 T

Collier
Tamiami Canal on east side of Monroe Station, S bank T
Tamiami Canal, south bank, east of Monroe Station T
Tamiami Canal at abandoned buildings, S bank T
Dade-Collier line, S bank, Tamiami Canal 1
1 mile E of 50-Mile Bend, S bank of Tamiami Canal 1
E of Gator Hook Strand, Tamiami Canal, S bank 1
Tamiami Canal Dade-Collier Transition & Training Jetpt 1

Dade
LeJeune Road at Sunset Drive/Coral Gables Canal, S wall
SW 13th St and SW 1st Ave, Miami, park in NW quadrant
S Alice B. Wainwright Park, Miami, Silver Bluff scarp
Kendall Wayside Park, E of US 1, NE side of sinkhole
Perrine Wayside Park, E of US 1, SE side of sinkhole
North A.B. Wainwright Park, Silver Bluff scarp
SW 10th St at 100th block, Miami, S side/roadcut
SW 22nd Ave W of Bayshore Dr, Miami, Silver Bluff/rdcut
SW 7th St and SW 3rd Ave, Miami, SW quadrant, roadcut
Abandoned gasoline tank hole, W side of US 1, N Goulds
C-102 canal, N bank, 300 ft E of US 1, Princeton
SW 72nd Ave and SW 124th St, NW quadrant, rdcut, Kendall
Snapper Creek Canal cut at Old Cutler Road, NE bank
Old Rockpit #57, abandoned quarry, Goulds, E of US 1
1810 Brickell, W side of street, roadcut, downtown Miami
Tamiami Canal, 2 miles east of 40-Mile-Bend, S bank cut
C-31W canal E of Everglades National Pk entrance/W bank
S bank of canal N of Loop Road at Tamiami Trail

Monroe
Blue Hole, abandoned quarry, N Big Pine Key, Lower Keys
Central Big Pine Key, canal cut, S end, Lower Keys
Ditch cut to N of Loop Road, eastern Pinecrest, mainland
North Sugarloaf Key, canal cut, E bank, Lower Keys
Loop Road #5 toward W, N bank of canal S of rd, mainland
Boca Chica key, ditch cut S of US 1, Lower Keys
North Big Torch Key, canal cut, N bank, Lower Keys
South Big Pine Key, NE of US 1/shallow ditch, Lower Keys
Southmost Big Pine Key/W of CR 940, roadcut, Lower Keys
Loop Road #2 toward W, N bank of canal S of rd, mainland
Loop Road #3 toward W, N bank of canal 5 of rd, mainland
Loop Road #4 toward W, N bank of canal S of rd, mainland


48S/R41E/S13
49S/R39E/S36
50S/R39E/527
51S/R39E/S34
4BS/R41E/S19
51S/R39E/S22


53S/R32E/S14
535/R33E/S13
53S/R34E/S26
53S/R34E/S36
53S/R34E/S26
53S/R33E/S17
r53S/R34E/S16


T54S/R41E/S29
r54S/R41E/S38
r54S/R41E/S40
T55S/R40E/S10
T55S/R40E/S28
T54S/R41E/S40
T54S/R41E/S38
TS4S/R41E/S15
T54S/R41E/S38
T56S/R40E/S7
T56S/R39E/S23
T55S/R40E/S14
T55S/R41E/S7
T56S/R39E/S13
T54S/R41E/S39
T54S/R35E/S14
T58S/R3BE/S7
T54S/R35E/S21


T66S/R29E/S9
T66S/R29E/S23
T54S/R34E/S20
T6BS/R27E/S25
T54S/R34E/S22
T67S/R26E/S30
TB6S/R28E/S13
T67S/R30E/S7
T67S/R29E/S1
T54S/R34E/S24
T545/R34E/S22
T54S/R34E/S22


Miami
Miami
Miami
Miami
Miami
Miami


Mi/Tami
Mi/Tami
Miami
Mi/Tami
Mi/Tami
Miami
Miami


Miami
Miami
Miami
Miami
Miami
Miami
Miami
Miami
Miami
Miami
Miami
Miami
Miami
Miami
Miami
Miami
Miami
Miami


Miami
Miami
Mi/Tami
Miami
Miami
Miami
Miami
Miami
Miami
Miami
Miami
Miami


2'
2'
2'
2'
1'
1'


4'

1'

1'
1'
1'
i'


19'
13'
11'
10'
10'
9'
9'
8'
8'
6'
6'
4'
4'
4'
2'
1'
1'
1'


5'
4'
2'
2'
1'
li'
1'
1'
1'
1'
I'
,


-- -- -- -- --- --- -- --- -- -- -- -- --- -- -- -- -- --- -- --- -- --- --










PART 1: Exposures of Miami Limestone Collected and Described for this Report (continued)


Name and General
Description


T-R-S Formations
Location Exposed*


Total Thickness
of Section


Palm Beach
Lox Road Pit, active/dewatered, S of Hillsboro Canal
Boynton Blvd at Turnpike, active/dewatered pit
Hillsboro Canal, thickest canal cut just W of bridge
Ditch cut east of US 441, West of Boca Raton
North Boca Rio Road, W bank of canal to east, Boca Raton
Hillsboro Canal at S side-canal
Penewestmost Hillsboro Canal, S bank
Powerline Rd @ Lk Worth Drainage District Canal/SW quad
West Palm Beach Canal beneath Haverhill Rd bridge/S bank
US 441/N bank of canal directly E of Lakes at Boca Raton
Turnpike, E bank of canal to W, near Boca Raton
Powerline Rd at Palmetto Park Rd/ditch cut in SE corner
Bank of canal N of Glades Road along US 441, Boca Raton
Bank of canal E of US 441 @ Central Park Blud/Boca Raton
South Boca Rio Road, W bank of canal to east, Boca Raton
West section along Hillsboro Canal/E of Loxahatchee WMA.


T475/R41E/S28
T455/R42E/520
T475/R42E/S25
T47S/R42E/S30
T47S/R42E/520
T47S/R42E/S29
T47S/R42E/S28
T47S/R42E/521
T44S/R42E/S1
T475/R42E/57
T47S/R42E/S8
T47S/R42E/S27
T475/R42E/S18
T475/R42E/519
T475/R42E/S29
T47S/R41E/S20


Deep ditch j Mi N of W Palm Beach Canal @ Haverhill Road T43S/R42E/S35
Deep ditch 11 Mi N of W Palm Beach Canal S Haverhill Rd T435/R42E/S26


NOTE: *Mi or Miami= Miami Limestone; Ft. T= Fort Thompson Formation; Tami= Tamiami Formation
- - -- ----------- -- ------

PART 2: Well-Cuttings and Cores Described for this Report

FGS Well Number Type of T-R-S Formation Below Miami
(W-) Samples Location (#depth to top of)


Bra ard
161 cuttings TSOS,
940 cuttings T50S,
1730 cuttings T505,
2068 noncontinuous core T51S,
2069................noncontinuous core,......T51S,
2070 noncontinuous core T49S,
2071 noncontinuous core T49S,
2083 noncontinuous core T51S,
2084 noncontinuous core T51S,
2087.................noncontinuous core........T5OS,
2101 noncontinuous core T51S,
2289 cuttings T49S,
2943 cuttings T50S,
2955 cuttings T50S,
2957.....................cuttings.............T505,
3412 cuttings T51S,
3601 cuttings T51S,
3745 cuttings T51S,
3863 cuttings T505,


R38E,
R41E,
R42E,
R39E,
R39E,
R40E,
R40E,
R39E,
R39E,
R39E,
R39E,
R42E,
R42E,
R42E,
R42E,
R41E,
R41E,
R42E,
R42E,


S29 Ft. Thompson
S12 Ft. Thompson
534 Anastasia
S34 Ft. Thompson
S22...............Ft. Thompson
533 Ft. Thompson
S27 Ft. Thompson
519 Ft. Thompson
S10 Ft. Thompson
S22..............Ft. Thompson
S27 Ft. Thompson
53 Ft. Thompson
S2 Ft. Thompson
S2 Ft. Thompson
S3...............Anastasia?
S26 Ft. Thompson
521 Ft. Thompson
S26 Anastasia
53 Ft. Thompson


4099 ................noncontinuous core.......T49S, R42E, S5...............Ft. Thompson (50)


Mi/Ft. T
Miami
Miami
Miami
Miami
Miami
Miami
Miami
Miami
Miami
Miami
Miami
Miami
Miami
Miami
Miami
Miami
Miami


(12.75)
(9.7)
(15.4)
(6.8)
(4.6)
(3.8)
(5.0)
(5.5)


------------------------------------------------------- ------------










PART 2: Well-Cuttings and Cores Described for this Report (continued)

FGS Well Number Type of T-R-S Formation Below Miami
(W-) Samples Location (Idepth to top of)

4100 noncontinuous core T49S, R42E, 55 Ft. Thompson (45)
4471 cuttings T49S, R42E, S35 Ft. Thompson
5496 cuttings T49S, R41E, 524 Ft. Thompson
5497 cuttings T495, R41E, 524 Ft. Thompson
5664................... cuttings............. T48S, R41E, S36..............Ft. Thompson
5688 cuttings T505, R42E, 510 Ft. Thompson
5850 cuttings T51S, R42E, 526 Ft. Thompson
5896 cuttings T465, R42E, S1 Anastasia
5897 cuttings T48S, R42E, S25 Anastasia
6020.....................cuttings.............T51S, R41E, S11..............Ft. Thompson
6829 cuttings T495, R42E, S13 Ft. Thompson
6857 cuttings T51S, R42E, S28 Ft. Thompson
7369 cuttings T485, R42E, 51 Anastasia
7553 cuttings T49S, R42E, 57 Ft. Thompson
7560. ...................cuttings .............T49S, R42E, 14...............Ft. Thompson
7561 cuttings T49S, R42E, 514 Ft. Thompson
7563 cuttings T49S, R42E, 514 Ft. Thompson
7639 cuttings T50S, R42E, 510 Ft. Thompson
7693 cuttings T485, R43E, 513 Ft. Thompson
7839.......................cuttings.............T485, R42E, 512.............Ft. Thompson?
7948 cuttings T50S, R42E, 53 Ft. Thompson
8023 cuttings T48S, R42E, 535 Anastasia?
8200 cuttings T495, R42E, 522 Ft. Thompson?
8613 noncontinuous core T505, R38E, 530 Ft. Thompson (10)
8614.................. noncontinuous core.......T50S, R38E, 530..............Ft. Thompson (5)
10536 cuttings T49S, R41E, S9 Ft. Thompson
10803 cuttings T50S, R42E, 531 Ft. Thompson?
11687 cuttings T47S, R42E, 533 Ft. Thompson?
12322 cuttings T505, R41E, S32 Ft. Thompson
14068...................cuttings............T50S, R42E, S2...............Ft. Thompson
14109 cuttings T525, R42E, 534 Ft. Thompson
14110 cuttings T52S, R42E, S34 Ft. Thompson
14111 cuttings T52S, R42E, 534 Anastasia?
14474 cuttings T50S, R40E, S25 Ft. Thompson
14721 ...................cuttings.............T505, R42E, 518..............Ft. Thompson
14744 cuttings T505, R41E, 536 Ft. Thompson
14870 cuttings T475, R41E, S35 Ft. Thompson
16050 cuttings T49S, R41E, S34 Ft. Thompson
16459 cuttings T51S, R42E, 517 Ft. Thompson
16526................noncontinuous core.......T50S, R40E, S4...............Ft. Thompson (8)

Collier
10187 cuttings T52S, R33E, 522 Ft. Thompson

Dade
42 cuttings T535, R41E, 519 Ft. Thompson
160 cuttings T54S, R37E, 57 Ft. Thompson
468 cuttings T52S, R40E, 530 Ft. Thompson
481......................cuttings.............T52S, R41E, 59...............Ft. Thompson









PART 2: Well-Cuttings and Cores Described for this Report (continued)


FGS Well Number
(W-)


Type of
Samples


T-R-S
Location


Formation Below Miami
(Idepth to top of)


637 cuttings T57S,
815 noncontinuous core T54S,
931 cuttings T54S,
2064 noncontinuous core T53S,
2085................noncontinuous core.......T53S,
2066 noncontinuous core T52S,
2096 noncontinuous core T53S,
2618 cuttings T52S,
3484 cuttings T57S,
3488......... ............cuttings.............T57S,
3491 cuttings T54S,
3517 cuttings T575,
4325 cuttings T52S,
5215 cuttings T55S,
5216 .....................cuttings............. T54S,
5222 cuttings T53S,
5345 cuttings T54S,
5428 cuttings T53S,
5449 cuttings T525,
5508.....................cuttings..............T54S,
5511 cuttings T54S,
5542 cuttings T55S,
5543 cuttings T54S,
5544 cuttings T52S,
5578.................... cuttings.............T52S,
5579 cuttings T55S,
5732 cuttings T52S,
5739 cuttings T55S,
5765 cuttings T545,
5849.....................cuttings..............T52S,
6195 cuttings T535,
6196 cuttings T52S,
6208 cuttings T56S,
6209 cuttings T55S,
6387......... .......... ..cuttings.............T58S,
6843 cuttings T56S,
6860 cuttings T55S,
7363 cuttings T585,
7555 cuttings T55S,
7884.....................cuttings.............T55S,
7885 cuttings T55S,
8057 cuttings T545,
8486 cuttings T54S,
9191 cuttings T55S,
10303................... cuttings..............T55S,
10315 cuttings T53S,
10602 cuttings T575,
12163 cuttings T52S,
12170 cuttings T52S,


R39E,
R41E,
R35E,
R38E,
R38E,
R39E,
R38E,
R42E,
R39E,
R39E,
R36E,
R39E,
R42E,
R42E,
R41E,
R41E,
R41E,
R40E,
R42E,
R40E,
R41E,
R40E,
R41E,
R42E,
R42E,
R40E,
R41E,
R40E,
R41E,
R42E,
R40E,
R41E,
R40E,
R40E,
R38E,
R40E,
R40E,
R37E,
R42E,
R40E,
R40E,
R41E,
R41E,
R36E,
R40E,
R41 E,
R39E,
R42E,
R41E,


S14 Ft. Thompson
52 Ft. Thompson (42)
521 Ft. Thompson
536 Ft. Thompson (1.4)
S36..............Ft. Thompson (2.7)
S10 Ft. Thompson (2.4)
524 Ft. Thompson (5.8)
534 Ft. Thompson?
S1 Ft. Thompson
S1..............Ft. Thompson
S19 Ft. Thompson
S1 Ft. Thompson
521 Ft. Thompson
55 Ft. Thompson?
S16..............Ft. Thompson
525 Ft. Thompson
55 Ft. Thompson
512 Ft. Thompson
S32 Ft. Thompson
S28..............Ft. Thompson
S11 *TD 38'
57 Ft. Thompson
520 Tamiami?
S11 Ft. Thompson
S17...............Ft. Thompson
S31 Ft. Thompson
52 Ft. Thompson
S28 Ft. Thompson
S1 Ft. Thompson
S17.............Ft. Thompson
521 Ft. Thompson
S36 Ft. Thompson?
57 Ft. Thompson
523 Ft. Thompson
S7...............Ft. Thompson
56 Ft. Thompson
S10 Ft. Thompson
514 Ft. Thompson
55 Ft. Thompson
S32..............*TD= 20'
532 *TO= 20'
520 Ft. Thompson
51 Ft. Thompson (23.5)
56 Ft. Thompson
S21..............Ft. Thompson
511 Ft. Thompson
55 Ft. Thompson
S7 Ft. Thompson
512 Ft. Thompson


--- --- -- --- -- --- --- -- --- -- --- -- -- --- -- -- -- -- -- --- --- -- --- -- --- --










PART 2: Well-Cuttings and Cores Described for this Report (continued)


FGS Well Number
(w-)


Type of
Samples


T-R-S
Location


Formation Below Miami
(#depth to top of)


12295....................cuttings.............T58S,
12296 cuttings T585,
12997 cuttings T535,
14497 cuttings T51S,
14824 cuttings T56S,
15019................... cuttings.............T53S,
15264 cuttings T5BS,
16024 noncontinuous core T57S,
16025 noncontinuous core T57S,
16026 noncontinuous core T57S,
16395.................continuous core.........T58S,
16435 noncontinuous core T57S,
16436 noncontinuous core T585,
16437 noncontinuous core T555,
16439 noncontinuous core T54S,
16440................noncontinuous core.......T55S,
16442 noncontinuous core T52S,
16443 noncontinuous core T54S,
16444 noncontinuous core T54S,
16445 noncontinuous core T54S,
16446...............noncontinuous core.......T57S,
16447 noncontinuous core T57S,
16448 noncontinuous core T57S,
16449 noncontinuous core T59S,
16450 noncontinuous core T59S,
16451................noncontinuous core........T55S,
16453 noncontinuous core T545,
16455 noncontinuous core T54S,


R39E, S26..............Ft.
R39E, S26 Ft.
R41E, 518 Ft.
R42E, S34 Ft.
R40E, S21 Ft.
R39E, S14..............Ft.
R39E, S12 Ft.
R38E, 526 Ft.
R38E, 526 Ft.
R38E, 526 Ft.
R36E, S1 ..............Ft.
R39E, 514 Ft.
R35E, S26 Ft.
R37E, 56 Ft.
R40E, S1 Ft.
R37E, S25..............Ft.
R39E, 53 Ft.
R38E, S2 Ft.
R40E, S7 Ft.
R41E, 510 Ft.
R37E, S6...............Ft.
R38E, S6 Ft.
R39E, 531 Ft.
R39E, 55 Ft.
R3BE, S3 Ft.
R38E, 510.............Ft.
R39E, 530 Ft.
R3BE, 535 Ft.


Mornoe
137 noncontinuous core T68S,
265 cuttings T675,
972.......................cuttings............ .T67S,
2402 cuttings T60S,

Palm Beach
771 cuttings T475,
7365 cuttings T46S,
7366 cuttings T47S,
7368.....................cuttings.............T47S,
7852 cuttings T46S,
7861 cuttings T45S,
8303 cuttings T43S,
8683 cuttings T47S,
8692.....................cuttings.............T47S,
8695 cuttings T475,
8696 cuttings T47S,
9108 cuttings T45S,
9109 cuttings T45S,


R25E,
R25E,
R29E,
R34E,


R43E,
R43E,
R43E,
R43E,
R43E,
R43E,
R42E,
R43E,
R43E,
R43E,
R43E,
R41E,
R42E,


56 (Lower Keys) Key
S31 (Lower Keys) Key
52 (Lower Keys)..Key
S22 (mainland) Ft.


Largo (34)
Largo
Largo
Thompson (20)


519 Anastasia?
532 Anastasia?
519 Anastasia?
S19..............Anastasia?
S20 Anastasia
528 Anastasia
S23 Ft. Thompson
S17 Anastasia
58........... ....Anastasia?
So Anastasia?
S8 Ft. Thompson
S25 Ft. Thompson
514 Ft. Thompson


Thompson
Thompson
Thompson
Thompson
Thompson?
Thompson
Thompson
Thompson
Thompson
Thompson
Thompson
Thompson
Thompson
Thompson
Thompson
Thompson
Thompson
Thompson
Thompson
Thompson
Thompson
Thompson
Thompson
Thompson
Thompson
Thompson
Thompson
Thompson


(25)
(25)
(22.5)
(16)
(20)
(14)
(10)
(5)
(16)
(3.5)
(10)
(12)
(17)
(12)
(15.5)
(22)
(26)
(22)
(5)
(15)
(10)










PART 2: Well-Cuttings and Cores Described for this Report (continued)


FGS Well Number
(W-)


Type of
Samples


T-R-S
Location


Formation Below Miami
(Idepth to top of)


10585....................cuttings.............T47S,
11513 cuttings T47S,
12222 cuttings T455,
12423 cuttings T46S,
12424 cuttings T445,
12428....................cuttings.............T42S,
12445 cuttings T47S,
12448 cuttings T405,
12673 cuttings T43S,
13227 cuttings T46S,
13741....................cuttings.............T42S,
14953 cuttings T47S,
15099 cuttings T425,
15144 cuttings T47S,
16062 noncontinuous core T46S,
16074................noncontinuous core.......T475,


R42E,
R43E,
R43E,
R42E,
R42E,
R42E,
R42E,
R42E,
R42E,
R43E,
R43E,
R42E,
R42E,
R42E,
R41E,
R42E,


530..............Ft. Thompson
S30 Ft. Thompson?
533 Anastasia
S4 Ft. Thompson
534 Ft. Thompson
S16 ..............Ft. Thompson
513 Ft. Thompson?
526 Ft. Thompson
S33 Ft. Thompson
S21 Anastasia
S30..............Ft. Thompson
S11 Ft. Thompson
S30 Ft. Thompson
S30 Ft. Thompson
S25 Ft. Thompson (14)
520.............Ft. Thompson (10)


NOTES
#Depth to top of underlying formation is given in parentheses only for continuous and noncontin-
uous or partial cores (and some excellent cuttings) in feet below land surface.
*TD= xy' indicates that the well attained total depth at the given (xy) feet below land surface
without fully penetrating the Miami Limestone.
Given location in Dade County but Broward County location more likely.




Full Text

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State of Florida Department of Natural Resources Virginia B. Wetherell, Executive Director Division of Resource Management Jeremy A. Craft, Director Florida Geological Survey Walter Schmidt, State Geologist and Chief Open File Report No. 48 LITHOLOGIC VARIATION IN THE MIAMI LIMESTONE OF FLORIDA By Richard A. Johnson Florida Geological Survey Tallahassee 1992

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cvi LLIRAH'a

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LITHOLOGIC VARIATION IN THE MIAMI LIMESTONE OF FLORIDA by Richard A. Johnson*, P.G. No. 60 ABSTRACT The six lithofacies characteristic of the oolitic or pelletal upper Pleistocene Miami Limestone of south peninsular Florida are: ooid calcarenite (type), oomoldic-recrystallized limestone (modified type), calcirudite (molluskan, bryozoan or foraminiferal), breccia (intraformational or basal), quartz sand (unconsolidated to poorly-consolidated) or sandstone (wellconsolidated), and (very minor) microsparry-coralline limestone. Ooid calcarenite is the dominant lithology in the Miami Limestone along the Atlantic Coastal Ridge of southeastern Dade County (from the Miami River south-southwest to the vicinity of Florida City) and in the Lower Keys of southern Monroe County. Oomoldic-recrystallized lithologies occur predominantly in portions of Broward, southeastern Palm Beach, and western and northern Dade Counties. Oolitic calcirudite lithofacies occur both to the north and west of the Atlantic Coastal Ridge in southeastern Dade County. Type ooid calcarenite interfingers with molluskan calcirudite in the Atlantic Coastal Ridge in northern Dade County and to the north. To the west of the ridge in Dade County and into mainland Monroe and southeastern Collier Counties, ooid calcarenite interfingers with bryozoan calcirudite which grades into molluskan and foraminiferal calcirudite. Intraformational breccia occurs very locally in the type area and basal breccia occurs discontinuously in Broward, north-central and western Dade, and southeastern Palm Beach Counties. Quartz sand or sandstone lithofacies occurs in Broward County and southeastern Palm Beach County. Microsparry-coralline lithofacies occurs only in the Lower Keys, southern Monroe County, and in extreme southeastern Dade County. ACKNOWLEDGMENTS The author wishes to thank the following Florida Geological Survey personnel who provided astute reviews of this paper: W. Schmidt, T. Scott, K. Campbell, J. Lloyd, P. Rupert, and J. Arthur. I also thank Walt Schmidt and Tom Scott for allowing access to the Survey's well cutting and core collection. *Independent Professional Geologist, P.O. Box 3560, Tallahassee. 1 UNIVERSITY OF FLOkt IA LiahkIES

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INTRO0UCTION Upper Pleistocene Miami Limestone generally consists of abundantly oolitic and pelletal limestone. The type area of the Miami Limestone occurs along the Atlantic Coastal Ridge in the city of Miami, along the Silver Bluff scarp to the south-southwest of Miami, and along the Miami River (Sanford, 1909; Puri and Vernon, 1964). All lithologies included in the Miami Limestone lithostratigraphic unit of this report contain either ooids or pellets (or both) in some recognizable form and are physically continuous with or in some way correlatable with the type oolitic and pelletal limestone occurring in this area. In the present study, oolitic or pelletal lithologies characteristic of the Miami Limestone were identified (Figure 1) in most of Dade County (excluding the northwest corner and beneath the southern and central portions of the barrier island of Miami Beach); in southern Broward County (excluding the southwest corner); in eastern Broward County (from the Atlantic coast westward to the eastern boundary of the Everglades Wildlife Management Area); in southeastern Palm Beach County (on the mainland westward to the eastern boundary of the Loxahatchee National Wildlife Refuge, and as two thin, narrow tongues to the north as far as Boynton Beach on the east and directly west of West Palm Beach on the west); in eastern and southern mainland Monroe County (to the west along the Loop Road, S.R. 94, to the vicinity of Pinecrest); in southern Monroe County (Lower Keys); and in southeastern Collier County (along the Tamiami Canal west to the vicinity of Monroe Station). (The Miami Limestone also probably occurs along the floor of Florida Bay in southern Monroe County; however, no outcrops, exposures, well-cuttings, nor cores were available from Florida Bay, and the Miami was not examined in that area for this study. Additionally, the occurrence of the Miami Limestone may extend to the west-southwest beyond Key West, but again, no samples were available for analysis.) UNDERLYING UNITS Figure 2 shows the distribution of stratigraphic units which occur subjacent to the Miami Limestone. The Miami Limestone is underlain by the molluskan coquina and shelly quartz sandstone of the upper Pleistocene Anastasia Formation in the extreme eastern portions of Broward and southeastern Palm Beach Counties. The Miami is underlain by the upper Pleistocene Fort Thompson Formation (sparselyto moderately-shelly limestone and quartz sand) in the central portions of Broward County, southeastern Palm Beach County, and all of Dade County. The upper Pleistocene Key Largo Limestone (massive coralline limestone) underlies the Miami in the Lower Keys of southern Monroe County. The Pliocene Tamiami Formation (moldic to unfossiliferous, variably sandy limestone) underlies the Miami in southeastern Collier and eastern mainland Monroe Counties. METHODS For this study, 64 outcrops of the Miami Limestone were visited, examined, collected, 2

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PALM LE BEACH SCOT COUNTY DA c' COUNTY 2 Co. I BROWARD 3 Sa COI COUNTY Location of outcrop ST4 Location entioned in text a Line denoting areal extent of Miami a: Llmestone, dashed where inferred XDD .IP ai a DADE Line enclosing area where aoid calca V mana y arenite lithofacies predaminates 9+ P MONROE C SCOUNTY I / LOCATION LOCATION / CODE C 1p OUTCROPS S 1 West Palm Beach Canal Ssouther2 Hillsboro Canal MONROE 3 Ditch West of Boca Ratan COUNTY 4 Dania Cutoff Canal 1 S .p s 5 Tamiami Canal .*E' -So •* * 6 13th Street and 1st Avenue, Miami 80 7 Coral Gables Canal o 8 SJ" 8 Southeast Big Pine Key TEXT LOCATIONS A Boynton Beach SB Miami River at Coastal Ridge 0W mlesa 0 100 20 C Monroe Station D Pinecrest ab 0 1) 2Tq3) E Florida City F Key West -xth

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SPalm Beach Lee Hendry Iounty. County County Broward Collier Qouy CounCountyty county LEGM ^ RAnastasia Formation Dade l County Fort Thompson Formation mainland C n Key Largo Limestone Monroe County Taiami Formation NORTH southern Monroe County 4 Miles 0 10 Km Figure 2. Suborop map of the Miami Limestone. 4

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sketched and lithologically described in a bed-by-bed manner (see Appendix, Part 1). These sectiors exhibited between 6 inches and 19 feet of Miami Limestone, and were located in Dade (18 exposures), Palm Beach (18 exposures), Monroe (12 exposures), Broward (9 exposures), and Collier (7 exposures) Counties. Forty-two Florida Geological Survey (FGS) cores of the Miami Limestone were examined from boreholes in Dade (26 cores), Broward (13 cores), Palm Beach (2 cores), and Monroe (1 core) Counties. In addition, 133 sets of FGS well-cuttings which contained recognizable Miami Limestone were examined from wells located in Dade (55 wells), Broward (47 wells), Palm Beach (27 wells), Monroe (3 wells), and Collier (1 well) Counties. Part 2 of the Appendix lists wells from which cores and cuttings were examined. Thus, the Miami Limestone was studied at a total of 239 locations in the five counties of its occurrence. Figure 3 provides a key to the lithologic symbols used in the remaining figures in this report. LITHOFACIES Six oolitic or pelletal lithofacies can be identified in the Miami Limestone: ooid calcarenite, oomoldic-recrystallized limestone, calcirudite, breccia, quartz sand or sandstone, and microsparry-coralline limestone. Ooid Calcarenite The ooids characteristic of the ooid calcarenite lithofacies (and generally of the entire Miami unit) consist of very fine to coarse sand size, spherical carbonate grains concentrically laminated around a silt size to fine sand size nucleus. In Dade, mainland and southern (the Lower Keys) Monroe, and southeastern Collier Counties, calcium carbonate nuclei are most common, whereas in Broward and southeastern Palm Beach Counties, very fine to fine quartz sand grain nuclei also occur. The pellets characteristic of the Miami Limestone lack nuclei and concentric laminae, and also range from very fine to coarse sand size. In shape, they are spherical and ooid-like to ellipsoidal to conspicuously elongated and fecal-pellet-like. Pellets are most common in the Miami west of the Atlantic Coastal Ridge in Dade County and in mainland Monroe and southeastern Collier Counties; however, even the type oolitic limestone in the city of Miami contains scattered pellets as well as abundant ooids. In the ooid calcarenite lithofacies, both ooids and pellets are very poorlyto very well-consolidated by calcium carbonate in several forms, including: very soft, unrecrystallized to partially recrystallized, clayto silt-size calcilutite; hard, recrystallized, translucent to transparent, cryptocrystalline calcite; very hard, finely recrystallized microspar; or very hard, very finely recrystallized micrite. The ooid calcarenite lithofacies may be cross-bedded, burrowed or massive and unbedded. The facies locally contains scattered unaltered mollusks and very low (less than 1%) to moderate (up to 15%) amounts of very fine to coarse quartz sand. 5

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ooid calcarenite, all spacings molluskan calcirudite, all spacings (oolitic, Donax sp. or Chione cancellata) ; ;"isandy (quartz) molluskan calcirudite (oolitic) thin molluskan calcirudite lenses r" T in ooid calcarenite .III foraminiferal (Archaias sp.) calcirudite with quartz sand and sandstone breccia (oolitic) ; breccia (oolitic) .. breccia with quartz sand (oolitic) *oomoldic recrystallized facies with variable quartz sand and mollusk molds shelly quartz sand or sandstone, unburrowed (oolitic) |? = ~burrowed quartz sandstone (oolitic) massive calcareous quartz sandstone, varies to limestone (oolitic) massive very finely recrystallized limestone (nonoolitic) Figure 3. Key to the lithologic patterns used in the figures of this report. 6

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Ooid calcarenite is the type lithology present in the Atlantic Coastal Ridge of southeastern Dade County within the city of Miami. Ooid calcarenite also extends from Big Pine Key to Key West in the Lower Keys, southern Monroe County (Figure 1). Figure 4 shows the section diagram obtained from the thickest exposure of Miami Limestone which consists almost exclusively of type ooid calcarenite, located in the south wall of the Coral Gables Canal near the intersection of LeJeune Road (SW 42nd Avenue) and Sunset Drive (SW 72nd Street) in Coral Gables, Dade County (Township 54 South, Range 41 East, Section 29, southwest quarter of southeast quarter). Beds 1-5, 7 and 10-14 consist of cross-bedded or burrowed (bed 1) ooid calcarenite, and beds 6 and 8-9 consist of very thinly-bedded Donax sp. molluskan calcirudite. Oamoldic-Recrystallized Limestone This lithofacies consists of slightly sandy (< 1% quartz) to very sandy (up to 49% quartz), wellto moderately well-consolidated, variably ooidor pellet-moldic, recrystallized microspar, micrite or cryptocrystalline calcite. The term oomoldic was used by Hoffmeister et al. (1967) for ooidand pellet-moldic porosity characteristic of the Miami Limestone. The oomoldic-recrystallized facies represents a common, slightly altered form of type ooid calcarenite wherein the original ooid and pellet grains were dissolved leaving only spherical and ellipsoidal voids in cement. In some of the oomolds characteristic of this facies, a white film (the outermost lamination of the original ooid) remains as a lining on the inner surface of the oomold. Very fine to fine quartz sand grains (relict ooid nuclei) also remain within some of the oomolds locally in Broward and southeastern Palm Beach Counties. The facies varies from burrowed to cross-bedded to massive and unbedded. Oomoldic-recrystallized lithofacies occurs in portions of Broward, southeastern Palm Beach, southeastern Collier, and western and northern Dade Counties (Figure 5). This facies also occurs very thinly-interlayered with ooid calcarenite to form cross-beds in the type area (compare Figures 1 and 5). Figure 6 shows the section diagram obtained from the south wall of the Hillsboro Canal approximately 2.75 miles west of the U.S. Highway 441 bridge in extreme southern Palm Beach County (Township 47 South, Range 41 East, Section 28, southwest quarter). Bed 1 consists of slightly oolitic, somewhat shelly, calcilutite-cemented quartz sand. Bed 2 is composed of somewhat shelly and sandy (quartz) oomoldic-recrystallized facies. Bed 3 consists of massive, abundantly sandy (quartz) micrite with very scattered Archaias sp. (a large foraminifer); and bed 4 consists of oolitic molluskan (Chione cancellata) calcirudite. Both beds 3 and 4 are discontinuous in the area. Calcirudite The calcirudite lithofacies of the Miami Limestone consists of abundant to common, small 7

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I ____L 10 1910 9S89 L. 2 ~9' 11 -I 1 li IFigure 4. Section diagram of thickest exposure of Miami Limestone, Coral Gables Canal, LeJeune Road and Sunset Drive, Coral Gables, Dade County.

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Lee Hendy County alm Beach ounty County County rord Miles 0 10 Broxoard Collier Ky oller ounty Km O 10 SCounty C n Dade \ County mainland Monroe County NORTH southern Monroe County SExtent of oomoldio-recrystallized lithofacies Figure 5. Map showing approximate extent of oomoldic-recrystallized lithofacies of the Miami Limestone. 10 .2 * * 1.'. ..1 ** ...I : > ..* .f l d .:* DI ..*. ..a -** **. \* Figure 6. Section diagram of Hillsboro Canal in Palm Beach County. 9

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mollusks, or tubular bryozoan colonies, or large foraminifera, with intermixed or very thinlyinterbedded layers of ooids and pellets. All grains are generally unaltered and unrecrystallized and are moderately wellto very well-cemented by micrite to microspar to cryptocrystalline calcite. The facies contains only a low proportion (5% or less) of quartz sand and ranges from massive to burrowed to cross-bedded. Three subfacies of the calcirudite lithofacies occur in the Miami Limestone: molluskan, bryozoan, and foraminiferal. In eastern Dade County (in the Atlantic Coastal Ridge), eastern Broward County, and the extreme eastern portion of southeastern Palm Beach County, the dominant mollusk present in the molluskan calcirudite subfacies of the Miami Limestone is Donax sp., the "coquina-shell". The cement in this lithology consists of either microspar or cryptocrystalline calcite. Figure 7 shows the section diagram obtained from the south wall of the Dania Cutoff Canal at the railroad bridge just west of the U.S. Highway 1 bridge in Dania, eastern Broward County (Township 50 South, Range 42 East, Section 34, northwest quarter). Beds 2 through 5 consist of various forms of oolitic, Donax sp. molluskan calcirudite. Beds 1 and 6 consist of ooid calcarenite, with bed 6 being massive and bed 1, burrowed. The northernmost extent of this oolitic or pelletal, Donax sp. molluskan calcirudite occurs in the city of Boynton Beach (on the mainland in the extreme eastern portion of southeastern Palm Beach County, Figure 1). The lithology occurs as a thin (less than 10 feet) tongue of Miami between overlying and underlying sections of nonoolitic Donax sp.-rich (Anastasia Formation) coquina and shelly sandstone. The top of this very finely, but abundantly oolitic northeasternmost tongue of Miami occurs at a depth of 30 feet below land surface. Oolitic Donax sp. molluskan calcirudite also occurs thinlyto thickly-interbedded with type ooid calcarenite in the central portion of the Atlantic Coastal Ridge of southeastern Dade County. The other small pelecypod characteristic of the molluskan calcirudite subfacies of the Miami is Chione cancellata. The oolitic, C. cancellata molluskan calcirudite lithology occurs very discontinuously in western and central Dade (west of the Atlantic Coastal Ridge), southeastern Collier, and mainland Monroe Counties, and much more continuously in Broward County and southern Palm Beach County. It consists of massive, very hard and well-cemented, slightly to abundantly sandy (quartz), slightly to moderately oolitic micrite or partially recrystallized calcilutite which contains common to abundant, unaltered, whole and fragmented C. cancellata (Figure 6, bed 4). Where the Miami Limestone consists of molluskan calcirudite, other pelecypod and gastropod species may also be present, but are generally not as abundant and characteristic as Donax sp. and C. cancellata. In some areas, it is also common to find both of these species intermixed in exposures of the Miami Limestone. 10

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iIft4^A^ o_____ 6 Figure 7. Section diagram of Dania Cutoff Canal in Broward County. 11

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The bryozoan calcirudite subfacies of the Miami Limestone consists of common to abundant, tubular, Cheilostome bryozoan colonies and scattered to abundant pellets and ooids very poorlycemented by unrecrystallized calcilutite, or very well-cemented by very finely recrystallized micrite or microspar. The bryozoan colonies may be unaltered and unrecrystallized or completely recrystallized. This subfacies is generally thickly-bedded and highly burrowed. Bryozoan calcirudite occurs primarily in the subsurface west of the Atlantic Coastal Ridge in Dade County and extreme southern Broward County (Hoffmeister et al., 1967; Halley and Evans, 1983). A moderately rare, foraminiferal calcirudite subfacies of the Miami Limestone crops out discontinuously in southeastern Collier County and occurs locally in the subsurface of Broward and northern and western Dade Counties, generally at or near the base of the formation. It consists of abundant to common Archaias sp., a large planispiral foraminifer, and intermixed ooids or pellets very wellto poorly-cemented by microspar, micrite or calcilutite. The foraminiferal calcirudite subfacies of the Miami may be either burrowed or massive. Figure 8 shows the section diagram obtained from an exposure along the south bank of the Tamiami Canal approximately 1.25 miles west of 50-Mile-Bend (Township 53 South, Range 33 East, Section 13, northwest quarter of southwest quarter). Bed 2, the basal bed of the Miami Limestone (at this location immediately overlying the very finely-recrystallized limestone of the Tamiami Formation, bed 1), consists of oolitic, slightly brecciated, Archaias sp. foraminiferal calcirudite. Bed 3 consists of oolitic, C. cancellata molluskan calcirudite. Oolitic calcirudite lithofacies occurs in the Miami Limestone both to the north and west of the primary ooid shoal (the present Atlantic Coastal Ridge of southeastern Dade County). Figure 9 shows the approximate geographic extent of the various subfacies of oolitic calcirudite. To the north, type ooid calcarenite interfingers with Donax sp. molluskan calcirudite in the Atlantic Coastal Ridge of Broward, extreme northern Dade, and extreme southeastern Palm Beach Counties. West of the ridge in Dade County, type ooid calcarenite interfingers with bryozoan calcirudite (Halley and Evans, 1983) which, in turn, grades into C. cancellata molluskan or foraminiferal calcirudite near the westernmost extent of the Miami (extreme western Dade, southeastern Collier, and mainland Monroe Counties). Breccia The oolitic breccia lithofacies of the Miami Limestone consists of pebbleto boulder-size, angular to subangular fragments of oolitic or pelletal limestone moderately wellto very well-cemented by micrite, microspar or partially recrystallized calcilutite. The facies also occurs as ooidor pellet-rich cement lithifying nonoolitic and nonpelletal, angular to subangular limestone fragments. Scattered to common mollusks of diverse species and low to moderate percentages of quartz sand may also be present. Miami Limestone breccia facies can be differentiated into subfacies according to its stratigraphic location as intraformational or basal. 12

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7 ( r l'DrT | o 1" 'l (I 't U j3 Figure 8. Section diagram of Tamiami Canal in southeastern Collier County. Lee Palm Beach Miles 0 10 County Hendry Count -T ounty K 0 10 Broward SDonax sp. molluskan S Collier County --calcirudite County .Bryozoan calcirudite Foraminiferal caloirudite Dade County I Chione I cancellata \ molluskan 3. caloirudite-NORTH mainland Monroe County ;?. southern Monroe County SCalcirudite facies absent Figure 9. Map showing approximate extent of calcirudite lithofacies of the Miami Limestone. 13

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The intraformational breccia subfacies is relatively rare in the Miami Limestone and occurs only very locally in outcrops along the Atlantic Coastal Ridge in Miami (Halley and Evans, 1983). The cement characteristic of this lithology is calcilutite, and the subfacies is typically poorlyto moderately well-consolidated. This lithology was not detected in cores or cuttings, probably because it is rare and partially because it would be difficult to recognize a very coarse-grained breccia in the relatively small samples obtained in both cores and cuttings. Figure 10 shows the section diagram derived from an exposure near the intersection of Thirteenth Street and First Avenue in Miami (Township 54 South, Range 41 East, Section 38, southeast portion). Bed 1 consists of Donax sp. molluskan calcirudite and beds 2-3 (massive) and 5-9 (cross-bedded) consist of type ooid calcarenite. Bed 4 'is composed of the shelly, oolitic intraformational breccia. The most common form of basal-Miami breccia subfacies consists of angular to subangular fragments of ooid calcarenite or oomoldic-recrystallized lithofacies wellto very well-consolidated by nonoolitic, sandy (quartz), unfossiliferous, partially recrystallized calcilutite or micrite cement. This breccia occurs discontinuously in the subsurface of Broward County (west of the Florida Turnpike) and in north-central and western Dade County. The lithology is exposed in shallow ditches west of the Florida Turnpike in southeastern Palm Beach County, and is also discontinuous in that area. Figure 11 shows a section diagram obtained from a shallow-ditch exposure on the east side of U.S. Highway 441 directly west of Boca Raton, Palm Beach County (Township 47 South, Range 42 East, Section 30, northwest quarter of southwest quarter). The highly-burrowed basal bed (1) consists of pebbleto cobble-size fragments of oolitic to oomoldic, somewhat sandy (quartz) limestone which are well-consolidated by finely-recrystallized calcite (which contains common to abundant quartz sand). The uppermost bed (2) consists of angular fragments of the same oolitic to oomoldic lithology, but very well-consolidated by unburrowed and massive, abundantly quartz-sandy calcilutite. Quartz Sand or Sandstone This somewhat geographicallyand stratigraphically-restricted lithofacies of the Miami Limestone consists of slightlyto abundantly-oolitic, very wellto very poorly-cemented, very fine to medium quartz sand with rare coarse quartz sand grains. Unaltered C. cancellata, Donax sp. and other mollusks also occur in this facies. The cement varies from soft calcilutite to partially recrystallized calcilutite to hard microspar. Generally, quartz sand contained within the Miami Limestone is devoid of dark-colored heavy-mineral grains; however, very fine to fine heavy minerals locally do occur in the quartz sand or sandstone lithofacies in southeastern Palm Beach County in very small concentrations (less than 1%). 14

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6 13' 5 2 Figure 10. Section diagram of exposure at park at intersection of 13th Street and 1st Avenue, Miami, Dade County. T 2 3' Figure 11. Section diagram of ditch west of Boca Raton, Palm Beach County. 15

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The well-cemented sandstone subfacies is either burrowed or massive in sedimentary structure. The burrows are infilled by unconsolidated, locally shelly, oolitic quartz sand. The poorly-cemented subfacies generally lacks preserved burrows and is massive and unbedded to only slightly bedded. The quartz sand or sandstone lithofacies occurs (Figure 12) continuously in extreme northern Broward County and discontinuously throughout most of the remainder of the Miami Limestone occurrence in Broward County. The facies also occurs extremely discontinuously in extreme northern Dade County west of the Atlantic Coastal Ridge. In all of these areas, the facies occurs only at the base of the Miami unit (Figure 6, bed 1). The oolitic quartz sand or sandstone facies also occurs continuously in southeastern Palm Beach County (Figure 12). From west-northwest of Boca Raton northward along the Florida Turnpike as far as directly west of West Palm Beach (Haverhill area) the entire thickness of this northwesternmost tongue of the Miami consists of slightlyto abundantly-oolitic and fossiliferous (mollusks) quartz sand or sandstone. The base of the Miami unit in this area consists of unconsolidated to poorly-consolidated, sparsely fossiliferous, variably organic, only very slightly oolitic quartz sand. Figure 13 shows the section diagram obtained from the south bank of the West Palm Beach Canal beneath the Haverhill Road bridge directly west of West Palm Beach, east-central Palm Beach County (Township 44 South, Range 42 East, Section 1, northwest quarter of northwest quarter). Bed 1 of the section represents the only very slightly oolitic and shelly basal bed of the Miami in the area. The remainder of the very thin Miami unit consists of moderatelyto abundantly-shelly (predominantly Donax sp. and C. cancellata) quartz sandstone (bed 2) and sand (bed 3). Because this oolitic quartz sand or sandstone lithofacies macroscopically resembles Fort Thompson Formation, some geologists prefer to include it in that formation (T.M. Scott, FGS, personal communication, 1991). In addition, some geologists "would call this [lithology] Anastasia [Formation] transitional to Miami Limestone" (T.M. Scott, FGS, personal communication, 1992). However, because the one unique and defining characteristic of the Miami Limestone is the presence of ooids or pellets, the present report includes this oolitic quartz sand and sandstone lithofacies within the Miami Limestone. Microsparry-corallne Limestone This extremely minor lithofacies of the Miami Limestone is composed of hard, nonsandy, oolitic, microsparry (finely recrystallized) limestone with some oomoldic-recrystallized zones. The microspar ranges from silt size to very fine sand size. Scattered to common coral molds are characteristic and the facies also locally contains scattered Archaias sp. as well as very scattered, very small, dwarfed or immature mollusks. The corals are identical to those charac16

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Lee Palm Beach Miles 0 10 County Hendry Count ounty Km 0 10 Broward Collier CouCountty Dade I County mainland Monroe County NORTH southern Monroe County .rf^ -*"' -. SExtent of quartz sand and sandstone lithofacies Figure 12. Map showing approximate extent of quartz sand and sandstone lithofaoies of the Miami Limestone. 2 Figure 13. Section diagram of West Palm Beach Canal, Palm Beach County. 17

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teristic of the Key Largo Limestone. The occurrence of microsparry-coralline facies is extremely stratigraphicallyand geographically-constrained to the Lower Keys, southern Monroe County, and a very small portion of extreme southeastern Dade County (Figure 14). This facies represents only an extremely minute fraction of the total volume of the Miami Limestone. Figure 15 shows a composite section diagram derived from three very thin exposures on southern Big Pine Key, Lower Keys, southern Monroe County (Township 66 South, Range 29 East, Section 36 and Township 67 South, Range 29 East, Section 1). Bed 1 represents the massive, coralline Key Largo Limestone and bed 2 represents the basal-Miami, microsparry-coralline facies. Bed 3 is composed of partiallyand very finely-recrystallized, tan ooid calcarenite. SUmIpRY The upper Pleistocene Miami Limestone of south peninsular Florida consists of type ooid calcarenite and five additional lithofacies, all of which contain ooids and/or pellets in some recognizable form. These lithologies aret oomoldic-recrystallized limestone; molluskan, bryozoan or foraminiferal calcirudite; intraformational or basal breccia; quartz sand or sandstone; and microsparry-coralline limestone. REFERENCES Halley, R.B., and Evans, C.C., 1983, The Miami Limestone: a guide to selected outcrops and their interpretation (with a discussion of diagenesis of the formation): Miami Geological Society fieldtrip guidebook, 67 p. Hoffmeister, J.E., Stockman, K.W., and Multer, H.G., 1967, Miami Limestone of Florida and its Recent Bahamian counterpart: Geological Society of America Bulletin, v. 78, p. 175-190. Puri, H.S., and Vernon, R.O., 1964, Summary of the geology of Florida and a guidebook to the classic exposures: Florida Geological Survey Special Publication No. 5 (revised), 312 p. Sanford, S., 1909, The topography and geology of southern Florida: In: Florida Geological Survey Annual Report 2, p. 175-231. APPENDIX PART 1I Exposures of Miami Limestone Collected and Described for this Report Name and General T-R-S Formations Total Thickness Description Location Exposed* of Section Braoard Sawgrass Expressway at Lyons Blvd, active/dewatered pit T48S/R42E/55 Mi/Ft. T 21' Dania Cutoff Canal cut at railroad bridge, south wall T50S/R42E/S34 Miami 14' Middle River Canal at University, canal cut, S bank T49S/R41E/S28 Miami 4' 18

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Hendry County Palm Beach Lee C County -BrowardLl 1 t-I Miles 0 10 Collier County t Iounty Km 0 0~ Dade County I mainland Monroe \ County NORTH southern Monroe County i1 El Extent of microsparrycoralline lithofacies Figure 14. Map showing approximate extent of microsparry-coralline facies of the Miami Limestone. T 3 2 3 l1 Figure 15. Composite section diagram of exposures on Big Pine Key, southern Monroe County. 19

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PART 1: Exposures of Miami Limestone Collected and Described for this Report (continued) Name and General T-R-S Formations Total Thickness Description Location Exposed* of Section Deep ditch cut, south of Sample Road, W of US 441 T48S/R41E/S13 Miami 2' Ditch cut to N of SR 84, 2.3 miles east of US 27 T49S/R39E/S36 Miami 2' South bank of South New River Canal .45 mi W of US 27 T5OS/R39E/527 Miami 2' Snake Creek Canal at US 27, NE bank T51S/R39E/S34 Miami 2' Sample Road and Sawgrass Expressway, bank of canal to E T4BS/R41E/S19 Miami 1' 1 mi S of US 27 and CR 820, E bank of canal, W of US 27 T51S/R39E/S22 Miami 1' Collier Tamiami Canal on east side of Monroe Station, S bank TS3S/R32E/S14 Mi/Tami 4' Tamiami Canal, south bank, east of Monroe Station T535/R33E/S13 Mi/Tami 2j' Tamiami Canal at abandoned buildings, S bank T53S/R34E/S26 Miami 1' Dade-Collier line, S bank, Tamiami Canal T53S/R34E/S36 Mi/Tami 1' 1 mile E of 50-Mile Bend, S bank of Tamiami Canal T53S/R34E/S26 Mi/Tami 1' E of Gator Hook Strand, Tamiami Canal, S bank T53S/R33E/S17 Miami 1' Tamiami Canal 9 Dade-Collier Transition & Training Jetpt T535/R34E/S16 Miami Dade LeJeune Road at Sunset Drive/Coral Gables Canal, S wall T54S/R41E/S29 Miami 19' SW 13th St and SW 1st Ave, Miami, park in NW quadrant T54S/R41E/S38 Miami 13' S Alice B. Wainwright Park, Miami, Silver Bluff scarp T54S/R41E/S40 Miami 11' Kendall Wayside Park, E of US 1, NE side of sinkhole T55S/R40E/S10 Miami 10' Perrine Wayside Park, E of US 1, SE side of sinkhole T55S/R40E/S28 Miami 10' North A.B. Wainwright Park, Silver Bluff scarp T54S/R41E/S40 Miami 9' SW 10th St at 100th block, Miami, S side/roadcut T54S/R41E/S38 Miami 9' SW 22nd Ave W of Bayshore Dr, Miami, Silver Bluff/rdcut T54S/R41E/S15 Miami 8' SW 7th St and SW 3rd Ave, Miami, SW quadrant, roadcut T54S/R41E/S38 Miami 8' Abandoned gasoline tank hole, W side of US 1, N Goulds T56S/R40E/S7 Miami 6' C-102 canal, N bank, 300 ft E of US 1, Princeton T56S/R39E/S23 Miami 6' SW 72nd Ave and SW 124th St, NW quadrant, rdcut, Kendall T55S/R40E/S14 Miami 4' Snapper Creek Canal cut at Old Cutler Road, NE bank T55S/R41E/S7 Miami 4' Old Rockpit #57, abandoned quarry, Goulds, E of US 1 T565/R39E/S13 Miami 4' 1810 Brickell, W side of street, roadcut, downtown Miami T54S/R41E/S39 Miami 2' Tamiami Canal, 2 miles east of 40-Mile-Bend, S bank cut T54S/R35E/S14 Miami 1' C-31W canal E of Everglades National Pk entrance/W bank T58S/R3BE/S7 Miami 1' S bank of canal N of Loop Road at Tamiami Trail T54S/R35E/S21 Miami 1' onroe Blue Hole, abandoned quarry, N Big Pine Key, Lower Keys T66S/R29E/S9 Miami 5' Central Big Pine Key, canal cut, S end, Lower Keys T66S/R29E/S23 Miami 4 Ditch cut to N of Loop Road, eastern Pinecrest, mainland T54S/R34E/S20 Mi/Tami 2' North Sugarloaf Key, canal cut, E bank, Lower Keys T66S/R27E/S25 Miami 2' Loop Road #5 toward W, N bank of canal S of rd, mainland T54S/R34E/S22 Miami 1' Boca Chica key, ditch cut S of US 1, Lower Keys T67S/R26E/S30 Miami 1i' North Big Torch Key, canal cut, N bank, Lower Keys T66S/R28E/S13 Miami 1' South Big Pine Key, NE of US 1/shallow ditch, Lower Keys T67S/R30E/S7 Miami 1' Southmost Big Pine Key/W of CR 940, roadcut, Lower Keys T67S/R29E/S1 Miami 1' Loop Road #2 toward W, N bank of canal S of rd, mainland T54S/R34E/S24 Miami 1' Loop Road #3 toward W, N bank of canal 5 of rd, mainland T545/R34E/S22 Miami i Loop Road #4 toward W, N bank of canal S of rd, mainland T54S/R34E/S22 Miami 20

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PART 1: Exposures of Miami Limestone Collected and Described for this Report (continued) Name and General T-R-S Formations Total Thickness Description Location Exposed* of Section Palm Beach Lox Road Pit, active/dewatered, S of Hillsboro Canal T47S/R41E/S28 Mi/Ft. T 16' Boynton Blvd at Turnpike, active/dewatered pit T45S/R42E/S20 Miami 12' Hillsboro Canal, thickest canal cut just W of bridge T47S/R42E/S26 Miami 10' Ditch cut east of US 441, West of Boca Raton T47S/R42E/S30 Miami 6' North Boca Rio Road, W bank of canal to east, Boca Raton T47S/R42E/S20 Miami 5' Hillsboro Canal at 5 side-canal T47S/R42E/S29 Miami 4' Penewestmost Hillsboro Canal, S bank T47S/R42E/S28 Miami 4' Powerline Rd @ Lk Worth Drainage District Canal/SW quad T47S/R42E/S21 Miami 4' West Palm Beach Canal beneath Haverhill Rd bridge/S bank T44S/R42E/S1 Miami 4' US 441/N bank of canal directly E of Lakes at Boca Raton T47S/R42E/S7 Miami 3' Turnpike, E bank of canal to W, near Boca Raton T47S/R42E/S8 Miami 3' Powerline Rd at Palmetto Park Rd/ditch cut in SE corner T47S/R42E/S27 Miami 2' Bank of canal N of Glades Road along US 441, Boca Raton T475/R42E/S18 Miami 2' Bank of canal E of US 441 @ Central Park Blud/Boca Raton T475/R42E/S19 Miami 2' South Boca Rio Road, W bank of canal to east, Boca Raton T475/R42E/S29 Miami 1' West section along Hillsboro Canal/E of Loxahatchee WMA. T47S/R41E/S20 Miami 1' Deep ditch j Mi N of W Palm Beach Canal @ Haverhill Road T43S/R42E/S35 Miami 1' Deep ditch 11 Mi N of W Palm Beach Canal 9 Haverhill Rd T435/R42E/S26 Miami 1' NOTE: *Mi or Miami= Miami Limestone; Ft. T= Fort Thompson Formation; Tami= Tamiami Formation PART 2: Well-Cuttings and Cores Described for this Report FGS Well Number Type of T-R-S Formation Below Miami (W-) Samples Location (#depth to top of) Braward 161 cuttings TSOS, R38E, S29 Ft. Thompson 940 cuttings T50S, R41E, S12 Ft. Thompson 1730 cuttings T505, R42E, 534 Anastasia 2068 noncontinuous core T51S, R39E, 534 Ft. Thompson (12.75) 2069................noncontinuous core........T51S, R39E, 522..............Ft. Thompson (9.7) 2070 noncontinuous core T49S, R40E, 533 Ft. Thompson (15.4) 2071 noncontinuous core T49S, R40E, S27 Ft. Thompson (6.8) 2083 noncontinuous core T51S, R39E, 519 Ft. Thompson (4.6) 2084 noncontinuous core T51S, R39E, S10 Ft. Thompson (3.8) 2087.................noncontinuous core........T50S, R39E, S22.............Ft. Thompson (5.0) 2101 noncontinuous core T51S, R39E, S27 Ft. Thompson (5.5) 2289 cuttings T49S, R42E, 53 Ft. Thompson 2943 cuttings T505, R42E, S2 Ft. Thompson 2955 cuttings T50S, R42E, S2 Ft. Thompson 2957.....................cuttings.............T50S, R42E, S3...............Anastasia? 3412 cuttings T51S, R41E, S28 Ft. Thompson 3601 cuttings T51S, R41E, 521 Ft. Thompson 3745 cuttings T51S, R42E, S26 Anastasia 3863 cuttings T505, R42E, 53 Ft. Thompson 4099................noncontinuous core.......T49S, R42E, S5...............Ft. Thompson (50) 21

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PART 2: Well-Cuttings and Cores Described for this Report (continued) FGS Well Number Type of T-R-S Formation Below Miami (W-) Samples Location (Idepth to top of) 4100 noncontinuous core T49S, R42E, 55 Ft. Thompson (45) 4471 cuttings T49S, R42E, S35 Ft. Thompson 5496 cuttings T49S, R41E, 524 Ft. Thompson 5497 cuttings T495, R41E, 524 Ft. Thompson 5664.....................cuttings. .............T48S, R41E, S36.............Ft. Thompson 5688 cuttings T505, R42E, 510 Ft. Thompson 5850 cuttings T51S, R42E, 526 Ft. Thompson 5896 cuttings T465, R42E, S1 Anastasia 5897 cuttings T48S, R42E, S25 Anastasia 6020.....................cuttings.............T51S, R41E, S11 ..............Ft. Thompson 6829 cuttings T495, R42E, S13 Ft. Thompson 6857 cuttings T51S, R42E, S28 Ft. Thompson 7369 cuttings T485, R42E, 51 Anastasia 7553 cuttings T49S, R42E, 57 Ft. Thompson 7560. ...................cuttings .............T49S, R42E, 14.............. Ft. Thompson 7561 cuttings T49S, R42E, 514 Ft. Thompson 7563 cuttings T49S, R42E, 514 Ft. Thompson 7639 cuttings T50S, R42E, 510 Ft. Thompson 7693 cuttings T485, R43E, 513 Ft. Thompson 7839................ .......cuttings.............T48S, R42E, 512.............Ft. Thompson? 7948 cuttings T50S, R42E, 53 Ft. Thompson 8023 cuttings T48S, R42E, 535 Anastasia? 8200 cuttings T495, R42E, 522 Ft. Thompson? 8613 noncontinuous core T505, R38E, 530 Ft. Thompson (10) 8614.................. noncontinuous core.......T50S, R38E, 530..............Ft. Thompson (5) 10536 cuttings T49S, R41E, S9 Ft. Thompson 10803 cuttings T50S, R42E, 531 Ft. Thompson? 11687 cuttings T47S, R42E, 533 Ft. Thompson? 12322 cuttings T505, R41E, S32 Ft. Thompson 14068...................cuttings.............T50S, R42E, S2...............Ft. Thompson 14109 cuttings T525, R42E, 534 § Ft. Thompson 14110 cuttings T52S, R42E, S34 § Ft. Thompson 14111 cuttings T52S, R42E, 534 § Anastasia? 14474 cuttings T50S, R40E, S25 Ft. Thompson 14721....................cuttings.............T505, R42E, 518..............Ft. Thompson 14744 cuttings T505, R41E, 536 Ft. Thompson 14870 cuttings T475, R41E, S35 Ft. Thompson 16050 cuttings T49S, R41E, S34 Ft. Thompson 16459 cuttings T51S, R42E, 517 Ft. Thompson 16526................noncontinuous core.......T50S, R40E, S4...............Ft. Thompson (8) Collier 10187 cuttings T52S, R33E, 522 Ft. Thompson Dade 42 cuttings T535, R41E, 519 Ft. Thompson 160 cuttings T54S, R37E, 57 Ft. Thompson 468 cuttings T52S, R40E, 530 Ft. Thompson 481......................cuttings.............T52S, R41E, 59...............Ft. Thompson 22

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PART 2: Well-Cuttings and Cores Described for this Report (continued) FGS Well Number Type of T-R-S Formation Below Miami (W-) Samples Location (Idepth to top of) ------------------------------------------------------------------------------637 cuttings T57S, R39E, 514 Ft. Thompson 815 noncontinuous core T54S, R41E, S2 Ft. Thompson (42) 931 cuttings T54S, R35E, 521 Ft. Thompson 2064 noncontinuous core T53S, R38E, 536 Ft. Thompson (1.4) 2065...............noncontinuous core.......T53S, R38E, S36................Ft. Thompson (2.7) 2066 noncontinuous core T52S, R39E, S10 Ft. Thompson (2.4) 2096 noncontinuous core T53S, R3BE, 524 Ft. Thompson (5.8) 2618 cuttings T52S, R42E, S34 Ft. Thompson? 3484 cuttings T57S, R39E, S1 Ft. Thompson 3488.....................cuttings ............T57S, R39E, Si................Ft. Thompson 3491 cuttings T54S, R36E, S19 Ft. Thompson 3517 cuttings T575, R39E, S1 Ft. Thompson 4325 cuttings T52S, R42E, S21 Ft. Thompson 5215 cuttings T55S, R42E, S5 Ft. Thompson? 5216....... ........ .....cuttings .............T54, R41E, S16..............Ft. Thompson 5222 cuttings T53S, R41E, S25 Ft. Thompson 5345 cuttings T54S, R41E, S5 Ft. Thompson 5428 cuttings T53S, R40E, 512 Ft. Thompson 5449 cuttings T52S, R42E, S32 Ft. Thompson 5508....................cuttings..............T54S, R40E, S28..............Ft. Thompson 5511 cuttings T54S, R41E, S11 *TD 38' 5542 cuttings T55S, R40E, S7 Ft. Thompson 5543 cuttings T54S, R41E, S20 Tamiami? 5544 cuttings T52S, R42E, S11 Ft. Thompson 5578..................... cuttings.............T52S, R42E, S17...............Ft. Thompson 5579 cuttings T55S, R40E, S31 Ft. Thompson 5732 cuttings T52S, R41E, S2 Ft. Thompson 5739 cuttings T55S, R40E, S28 Ft. Thompson 5765 cuttings T545, R41E, S1 Ft. Thompson 5849.....................cuttings.............T52S, R42E, S17..............Ft. Thompson 6195 cuttings T535, R40E, 521 Ft. Thompson 6196 cuttings T52S, R41E, S36 Ft. Thompson? 6208 cuttings T56S, R40E, 57 Ft. Thompson 6209 cuttings T55S, R40E, S23 Ft. Thompson 63B7.....................cuttings.............T58S, R38E, S7...............Ft. Thompson 6843 cuttings T56S, R40E, 56 Ft. Thompson 6860 cuttings T55S, R40E, S10 Ft. Thompson 7363 cuttings T58S, R37E, 514 Ft. Thompson 7555 cuttings T55S, R42E, 55 Ft. Thompson 7884.....................cuttings.............T55S, R40E, S32..............*TD= 20' 7885 cuttings T55S, R40E, 532 *TO= 20' 8057 cuttings T54S, R41E, 520 Ft. Thompson 8486 cuttings T54S, R41E, 51 Ft. Thompson (23.5) 9191 cuttings T55S, R36E, 56 Ft. Thompson 10303....................cuttings.............T55S, R40E, S21 ...............Ft. Thompson 10315 cuttings T53S, R41E, 511 Ft. Thompson 10602 cuttings T575, R39E, 55 Ft. Thompson 12163 cuttings T52S, R42E, 57 Ft. Thompson 12170 cuttings T52S, R41E, 512 Ft. Thompson 23

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PART 2: Well-Cuttings and Cores Described for this Report (continued) FGS Well Number Type of T-R-S Formation Below Miami (W-) Samples Location (#depth to top of) 12295....................cuttings..............T5S, R39E, S26..............Ft. Thompson 12296 cuttings T585, R39E, 526 Ft. Thompson 12997 .cuttings T535, R41E, 518 Ft. Thompson 14497 cuttings T51S, R42E, 534 Ft. Thompson 14824 cuttings T565, R40E, 521 Ft. Thompson? 15019 ...................cuttings.............T535, R39E, 514..............Ft. Thompson 15264 cuttings T5BS, R39E, 512 Ft. Thompson 16024 noncontinuous core T575, R38E, 526 Ft. Thompson (25) 16025 noncontinuous core T57S, R38E, 526 Ft. Thompson (25) 16026 noncontinuous core T575, R38E, 526 Ft. Thompson (22.5) 16395.................continuous core.........T58S, R36E, S1..............Ft. Thompson (16) 16435 noncontinuous core T57S, R39E, 514 Ft. Thompson (20) 16436 noncontinuous core T585, R35E, S26 Ft. Thompson (14) 16437 noncontinuous core T555, R37E, 56 Ft. Thompson (10) 16439 noncontinuous core T54S, R40E, S1 Ft. Thompson (5) 16440...............noncontinuous core.......T55S, R37E, S25.............Ft. Thompson (16) 16442 noncontinuous core T52S, R39E, 33 Ft. Thompson (3.5) 16443 noncontinuous core T54S, R38E, 52 Ft. Thompson (10) 16444 noncontinuous core T54S, R40E, 57 Ft. Thompson (12) 16445 noncontinuous core T54S, R41E, 510 Ft. Thompson (17) 16446................noncontinuous core.......T575, R37E, S6...............Ft. Thompson (12) 16447 noncontinuous core T57S, R38E, 56 Ft. Thompson (15.5) 16448 noncontinuous core T57S, R39E, 531 Ft. Thompson (22) 16449 noncontinuous core T59S, R39E, 55 Ft. Thompson (26) 16450 noncontinuous core T59S, R3BE, S3 Ft. Thompson (22) 16451...............noncontinuous core.......T55S, R38E, 510.............Ft. Thompson (5) 16453 noncontinuous core T545, R39E, 530 Ft. Thompson (15) 16455 noncontinuous core T54S, R3BE, 535 Ft. Thompson (10) Monroe 137 noncontinuous core T68S, R25E, 56 (Lower Keys) Key Largo (34) 265 cuttings T675, R25E, S31 (Lower Keys) Key Largo 972 .....................cuttings.............T75S, R29E, 52 (Lower Keys)..Key Largo 2402 cuttings T60S, R34E, S22 (mainland) Ft. Thompson (20) Palm Beach 771 cuttings T475, R43E, 519 Anastasia? 7365 cuttings T46S, R43E, 532 Anastasia? 7366 cuttings T475, R43E, 519 Anastasia? 7368.....................cuttings............T47S, R43E, S19..............Anastasia? 7852 cuttings T465, R43E, S20 Anastasia 7861 cuttings T455, R43E, 528 Anastasia 8303 cuttings T43S, R42E, S23 Ft. Thompson 8683 cuttings T47S, R43E, 517 Anastasia 8692 ....................cuttings ............T47S, R43E, 58...............Anastasia? 8695 cuttings T475, R43E, 58 Anastasia? 8696 cuttings T47S, R43E, 58 Ft. Thompson 9108 cuttings T455, R41E, 525 Ft. Thompson 9109 cuttings T45S, R42E, 514 Ft. Thompson 24

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PART 2: Well-Cuttings and Cores Described for this Report (continued) FGS Well Number Type of T-R-S Formation Below Miami (W-) Samples Location (Idepth to top of) 10585....................cuttings.............T47S, R42E, S30..............Ft. Thompson 11513 cuttings T47S, R43E, 530 Ft. Thompson? 12222 cuttings T45S, R43E, 533 Anastasia 12423 cuttings T46S, R42E, 54 Ft. Thompson 12424 cuttings T445, R42E, 534 Ft. Thompson 12428....................cuttings............T42S, R42E, S16..............Ft. Thompson 12445 cuttings T47S, R42E, 513 Ft. Thompson? 12448 cuttings T40S, R42E, 526 Ft. Thompson 12673 cuttings T43S, R42E, 533 Ft. Thompson 13227 cuttings T46S, R43E, S21 Anastasia 13741....................cuttings.............T42S, R43E, S30..............Ft. Thompson 14953 cuttings T47S, R42E, S11 Ft. Thompson 15099 cuttings T42S, R42E, S30 Ft. Thompson 15144 cuttings T47S, R42E, S30 Ft. Thompson 16062 noncontinuous core T46S, R41E, S25 Ft. Thompson (14) 16074................noncontinuous core.......T475, R42E, 520..............Ft. Thompson (10) NOTES Dlepth to top of underlying formation is given in parentheses only for continuous and noncontinuous or partial cores (and some excellent cuttings) in feet below land surface. *TD= xy' indicates that the well attained total depth at the given (xy) feet below land surface without fully penetrating the Miami Limestone. § Given location in Dade County but Broward County location more likely. 25