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Lithology and palynology of cave floor sediment cores from Wakulla Spring, Wakulla County, Florida ( FGS: Open file report 47 )

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Title:
Lithology and palynology of cave floor sediment cores from Wakulla Spring, Wakulla County, Florida ( FGS: Open file report 47 )
Series Title:
( FGS: Open file report 47 )
Creator:
Rupert, Frank
Florida Geological Survey
Place of Publication:
Tallahassee
Publisher:
Florida Geological Survey
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Language:
English
Physical Description:
9 p. : ill., maps ; 28 cm.

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Petrology -- Florida -- Wakulla County ( lcsh )
Palynology -- Florida -- Wakulla County ( lcsh )
Wakulla Springs ( local )
Wakulla County ( local )
City of Tallahassee ( local )
Pollen ( jstor )
Caves ( jstor )
Sediments ( jstor )
Fresh water ( jstor )
Limestones ( jstor )
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bibliography ( marcgt )
non-fiction ( marcgt )

Notes

Bibliography:
Includes bibliographical references (p. 7).
General Note:
Cover title.
Funding:
Digitized as a collaborative project with the Florida Geological Survey, Florida Department of Environmental Protection.
Statement of Responsibility:
by Frank R. Rupert.

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Holding Location:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
The author dedicated the work to the public domain by waiving all of his or her rights to the work worldwide under copyright law and all related or neighboring legal rights he or she had in the work, to the extent allowable by law.
Resource Identifier:
025006013 ( aleph )
26607205 ( oclc )
AJG7155 ( notis )

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STATE OF FLORIDA DEPARTMENT OF NATURAL RESOURCES
Virginia Wetherell, Ewecutive Director





DIVISION OF RESOURCE MANAGEMENT Jeremy A. Craft, Director





FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY
Walter Schmidt, State Geologist and Chicf






OPEN FILE REPORT NO. 47

LITHOLOGY AND PALYNOLOGY OF CAVE FLOOR SEDIMENT CORES
FROM VAKULLA SPRING. WAKULLA COUNTY, FLORIDA BY

FRANK R. RUPERT











FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY Tallahassee
1991












Sc









Lithology and Palynology of cave floor
sediment cores from Wakulla Spring,
Wakulla County, Florida
by
-Frank R. Rupert, P.G. 149

Abstract

Five short bottom sediment cores taken in Wakulla Spring Wakulla County, Florida, were described lithologically and sampled for palynological study. Four of the cores were recovered fronm sediments at the spring cave entrance (130 feet water depth). One core was taken in a fossil vertebrate bone bed, 280 feet distance into the main spring cave at a water depth of 240 fect. Sediments in the cores are composed of alternating intervals of quartz sand and calcilutite, containing freshwater diatoms, freshwater mollusk sIells and plant remains. The predominant pollen present in all cores consists of a periporate variety typical of the herb families Chenopodiaceae and Amaranthaceae. Arboreal flora, typical of the area surrounding the spring today, represent a very low percentage of tie polleni assemblage in the cores. Clustered Chenopod-Amaranth type pollen observed in one core sugest minimal transport prior to deposition, and indicate that the bottom sediments in the cave may he essentially In situ. An absence of twotic flora suggests a Quateniary age for the sediments.



Introduction four separate feeder conduits, one of which extends
over 4200 feet in from the cave entrance (Rupert
Wakulla Spring is a first-magnitude spring and Spencer, 1988; Stone, 1989).
situated in Wakulla County, Florida, about 15 miles As part of the scientific studies performed
south of Tallahassee (Figure 1). Water flows from during this project, the divers recovered a total of a single vent into a large spring pool, approximately seven short cave floor sediment cores ranging in 100 feet wide and 200 feet long, which forms the length from 9 inches to 31 inches. Five cores were headwaters of the Wakulla River. The spring taken in the floor of the mouth of the main spring
discharges regional ground water from the Floridan cave; two others were recovered in a vertebrate aquifer system. bone bed situated approximately 280 feet into the
The spring probably evolved from a large main cave (Figure 1). Five of these seven cores, post-Miocene sink which developed in the representing four cave entrance cores and one
Oligocene and Miocene limestones underlying the bone-bed core, are addressed in the present study. area. Previous SCUBA explorations in the spring
revealed the presence of a large cave or passage Methods
feeding the spring from depths in excess of 180 feet
below mean sea level (Olsen, 1958; Rosenau et al., The four cave-entrance sediment cores
1977). The cave typically measures about 40 feet were recovered using a one and one-half inch high and 80 feet wide. Pleistocene vertebrate diameter PVC pipe coring apparatus developed by
bones, charred wood, and numerous paleoindian William Wilson of Subsurface Evaluations
artifacts have been discovered in the outer 1100 feet Incorporated, Winter Springs, Florida (Figure 2). of the cave (Olsen, 1958). This led to speculation The core tube was pushed into the bottom that the cave may have been dry during glacial sediments until it either bottomed against limestone
periods of the Pleistocene. bedrock or reached the 36-inch core tube length
During the last three months of 1987 limit. The cohesiveness of the sediments generally
fourteen cave divers, working under permit from the allowed the core to remain intact in the PVC barrel State of Florida, conducted the most extensive as the coring device was withdrawn from the cave
exploration of the Wakulla cave system ever floor sediments. In some cases the sediment
undertaken. This exploration revealed a sizable and thickness exceeded 36 inches, but core recovery was complex conduit system feeding Wakulla Spring. incomplete. The longest core recovered in this
Areas of the main cave were found to approach study was 31 inches. Two short cores taken inside
sizes of 60 feet high and 120 feet wide. At a point the cave in the outer bone bed were pushed into the nearly 900 feet into the cave, the system splits into sediment until they bottomed against bedrock.
1.
UNIVERsITY Qf- FLGIIDA LiAME














WAKULLA
SPRING *T~

A '' TALLAHASSEE
IES
SPRING BOAT
SASIN DOCK
CORES LZON COUNT
1,.3, 4,5 AKULLA COUNT Y 0
--- WAM ULLA
:CORE 2 1PIG


N FEET
0 100 200 WOVILE4- KARST PLAINC
0 20 40 60
0 METERS BAAYgE



MAP AREA..

Figure 1. Wakulla Spring and core location map.
T 4U.











En3 Cap


Figure 2. Diagram of 1.5 inch diameter PVC sediment coring tube used in this study (Designed Two and drafted by 200lain Wi son, Subsurface
Fu&arVations, Inc., Winter Spings, Florida).










2










Each core was extruded from the sampling tube X-ray analysis of the calcilutite interval in Core
back on land by pushing a wad of paper towels number 2 was performed to determine its
against the top of the sediment with a broomstick. composition. This corc was situated in one of the The cores were then scaled in polyethylene vertebrate bone beds in the outer portion of the
wrapping. main spring cave. The bulk of the sample is calcite,
The core packages were later opened and with minor quartz and unidentified clay mineral
each core was described lithologically, Lithologic peaks. Much of this may represent fine breakdown descriptions are provided in the Appendix section of material from the limestone bedrock of the conduits this report. Approximately 100 grams of sediment conveying groundwater to the spring. was cut from selected intervals in the calcilutite Table 1 summarizes the major pollen
portions of five cores for pollen analysis. Only groups present in each of the samples. The intervals containing sufficient sediment to provide numbers shown in Table 1 indicate the percentages the necessary 100 grams of sample were selected. of the total pollen sum represented by each pollen One sample was taken in each of Cores 1 through type in the samples. A variety of pollen families 4, and two samples were taken in Core 5. Table 1 were present, including arboreal angiosperms, includes the intervals sampled in each core. The conifers, herbs, ferns, and aquatic plants. samples were then sent to the Delaware Geological Dinoflagellates and cysts of green algae were also Survey in Newark for standard pollen-analysis present in Cores 1 and 2 in low abundance.
preparation and description. Results of this analysis Interestingly, the dominant pollen present
are shown in Table 1. in all the samples is that of the Chenopodiaceae and
X-ray analysis was performed on one Amaranthaceae, two plant families with
sample from Core 2, taken in the vertebrate bone morphologically similar, periporate pollen grains. In bed within the main spring cave. This analysis was practice, pollen from the various genera in these conducted on a Phillips X-ray diffractometer housed groups are indistinguishable. Therefore, they are at the Florida State University Geology Department. lumped together as "Chenopod/Amaranth" in this
The calcilutite intervals in all cores were report.
spot-checked for the presence of diatoms, utilizing The Chenopodiaceae include as modern
temporary water-based smear slides with cover slips. representatives the glassworts and seablites. These Three samples, comprised of one from Core 2 (4.5" forms are characteristic salt marsh and salt flat deep) and two from Core 5 (5" and 30" deep) were flora. The Amaranthaceae include both fresh and permanently mounted for detailed diatom analysis. brackish water swamp plants. Figure 3 illustrates a Small portions of sample were disaggregated in Chenopodiaceae/Amaranthaccae pollen grain from
sodium hexametaphosphate solution, shaken, then the Wakulla Spring sediments. allowed to settle for 45 seconds. The supernatant
solution was then decanted, and the decanted
portion centrifuged to concentrate the suspended
diatoms. Standard smear slides were then prepared '
from the centrifuge samples, using the aqueous
concentrate with a cover slip for the temporary
slides, and Norland Optical Adhesive as the
mounting medium for the permanent study slides.
Each of slides were scanned for diatoms, and the
various species were identified. The species present
are discussed in the results section. Figure 3. Chenopodiaceae/Amaranthaceae pollen
grain (modified from Erdtman, 1954, and based on
Results a photo by Dr. Johan Groot) X1000

The Wakulla cave floor core sediments are The fossil Chenopod/Amaranth type pollen
composed principally of medium to coarse grained comprised a minimum of 70 percent of the total quartz sand and olive-gray, clay-like calcilutite. The pollen assemblage (Core 3), and ranged up to 82 sand intervals contain freshwater gastropod shell percent in Core 5, sample 1. Core 3 contained rare fragments (Helisoma sp.) and terrestrial and aquatic pierce i r mps1 be on tin ed rae
plant remains. The calcilutite portions have the pollen, with most belonging to the appearance of siliciclastic clay when wet. These Chenopod/Amaranth type. In Core 5, a group of 8 inteval ~vee fund to cxitin prtilly or 9 undispersed Chenopod/Amaranth pollen, dtervals were found to coiepant partially grouped as if in a pollen sac, were observed (Johan decomposed and unidentified plant retftains, sand. Groot, personal communication). Since pollen is size limestone particles, and abundant diatom terosesnatomusaio).inepllni generally dispersed rapidly after release, this would
3.













Tble 1. Pollen types present in the Wakulla Spring cores.




Core 1 Core 2 Core 3 Core 4 Core 6
Interval Sampled 6-165" 0-9- 18-22* 5.25-12* 34.10.1" 23-31"

Anglosperms
............................... ....... .......... .............. ........
Afnus (hazel alder) P P
Cajya (hickory) P 5 7 3 2
.. .. ..... ................... .... .............................. ........ ..........
CelIs (sugarberry, hackberry) P 1 P
Carpinus-Ostrya (hom been, hop hornbean)
.--.---... ... .. ........ ........ ......... ..... ........ ...................
Cyn ia (tm) P
Liqwdumolr (sweetgum) P 2 P
Nyssa (tupelo. sourgum) P C P P
_. .... ...........................
Salix (Wiow) 1
Tilia (basswood, linden) P P 1
U/mus (elm) I P 0 P P
Ouercus (oak) 14 9 W 8 4 11
Conifers
Pinu3 (pIne) 8 1 5 P 1
Herbs
....... . -............................
Chenopodlaceae (goosefoot family) 70 79 71 82 73
Compositae (sunflower family) 2 P 2 1 3
Graminese (grass family) 1 P P.
Umbeflfferae (carrot family) P W P
U .. .... ................................
Aquatics
h/yrochaeitacese (aquatic herbs) P
SperganIum.&,pha (cattags) 1 2 P 1


Pofypodilceae (fern family) 4 3
Cysts of green algae P 2

Olnoflagellailes P



P indicates less than 1% of pollen total


4









suggest minimal transport of the pollen prior to W a t t s (1969) suggested t h a t t h e
deposition. Chenopod/Amaranth type pollen observed in lake
Arboreal plant species comprise a bottom cores from Marion County, Florida, may be
maximum of 14 percent of the pollen totals in any Irom this species. However, because pollen from sample. Most of the angiosperm tree and conifer the two families is indistinguishable, a species typical of the modern forest surrounding theo fmilies i ainisucertain T
Wakulla Spring today are represented by only small paleoenvironmental interpretation is uncertain. The percentages of the fossil pollen in each sample. questionable family affinity or the Quercus (oak) ranges from 4 to 11 percent of the Chenpod/Amaranth pollen in the Wakulla Cave totals. Calya (hickory), where present, ranged from cores poses a problem in interpreting the 2 percent of the fossil pollen in Core 5, sample 2 to depositional environment of the cave floor a maximum of 7 percent in Core 4. Pinus (Pine) sediments. If the pollen is that of the Amaranths, comprises less than 1 percent in Core 6, and ranged the sediments may simply be recent, freshwater up to 8 percent in Core 1. The remaining plant spring/marsh deposits. This is supported by the species comprise four percent or less of the pollen presence of freshwater gastropod (Helisoma sp.) assemblages in each sample. Core 3 contained only shells and diatoms throughout the sediments in the rare pollen, and most of this was of cores.
Chenopod/Amaranth. Green algae cysts were If the pollen are from the Chenopodiaceac,
present in Cores 1 and 2, and Dinoflagellates were a case may also be made for a brackish water observed in Core 1.
The diatom species present, with the influence. Intuitively, one explanation for the
exception of Paralia cf. sulcata (a brackish water to possible presence of Chenopodiaceae pollen in the marine species), are reported as common Wakulla Spring sediments is a marine transgression,
constituents of modern fresh water bodies (United which would have shifted a coastal saltmarsh States Department of the Interior, 1966). These environment landward to the present vicinity of include Melosira italica, Gomphonena herculeana, Wakulla Springs. Epitheima irreguldris, Epithenta fugida, Navicula Two late Quaternary marine transgressions
amphibola, Cocconeis placentula, Navicula are documented in the local geologic record. One
cuspidata, Synedra uIia, and Pinnidaria gibbia. was the Late Pleistocene Pamlico sea level
(Sangamon Interglacial Period) highstand, which
DIscussIon stood approximately 25 feet above present sea level.
The fossil pollen present in the Wakulla The Pamlico transgression corresponded to
Spring sediment cores provide insight into the an interglacial warm period, the Sangamon, which
probable Late Pleistocene or Holocene history of pre-dates the most recent glacial period the spring. Of particular significance is the (Wisconsinian) of the Pleistocene Epoch. Isotope overwhelming abundance of the age dates from shell material collected in
Chenopod/Amaranth pollen in all of the cores. elevationally-similar Pamlico terrace deposits on
Due to the similarity of pollen from all genera of Florida's east coast indicate sea level high stands the families Chenopodiaceae and Amaranthaceae, occurring at 130,000 and 85,000 years before present it is usually not possible to differentiate the genera. (Osmond et al., 1965; 1970).
The Chenopodiaceae, or Goosefoot family, The Pamlico sea flooded large areas of
are halophytic, and typically inhabit salt and Florida, and inundated most of eastern Wakulla brackish marshes and flats. Three modern County (Figure 4a). Many of the relict bars, dunes
indigenous genera of Chenopodiaceae occur in and beach ridges shaping the surface of central and
Florida: Chenopodlum, Suaeda and Sallcormia eastern Wakulla County today were probably
(Clewell, 1985). The genus Chenopodium can occur
in open inland areas, but also occurs along coastal associated with the Pamlico sea. The shoreline beach barrens (Clewell, 1981). Both Salicornia and likely fluctuated through time in an elevation range Suaeda are restricted to coastal salt marshes, salt of 10 to 25 feet above present sea level (MacNeil, flats or, in some cases, fore-beach areas (Clewell, 1950; Healy, 1975). This range placed the palco1981, 1985). shoreline close to, and at times north of Wakulla
The Amaranthaceae are typically freshwater Spring. A saltmarsh environment, probably similar swamp plants. One species, Antaranthus australis, to the modern marshes of southern Wakulla is abundant in Florida lakes today (Watts, 1969). County, could have fringed the Pamlico shore.

5.










Department of the Interior, 1966).
-. -A second transgression of lesser magnitude.
possibly corresponding to the Silver Bluff Sea, UON CO. occurred in the middle Holocene, about 4,500 years
-WU- --- ago (Stapor and Tanner, 1977; Tanner et al., 1989).
WKULLA S 1 This highstand is documented in beach deposits
along the panhandle coast of Florida. Beach ridge and scarp elevation data and Carbop-14 dates on associated archaeological artifacts from St. Vincent Island (southwest of Wakulla Spring in Franklin County, Florida) and adjacent mainland indicate this uW" Co. highstand reached a height of about 5 feet above
modern sea level. Based on the modern topography, a fivc-feet sea level rise would have produced a marine transgression up the Wakul!a River valley, reaching the spring, but being restricted for the most part to the river valley itself Figure 4a. Approximate extent of the Pamlico Figure 4b). Whether this transgression was
(Pleistocene) sea (modified from MacNeil, 1950; adequate .to produce the inundation and water Healy. 1975). salinity necessary to develop a salt marsh
environment around Wakulla Spring is uncertain. The topography near Wakulla Spring today rises rapidly from elevations of about 5 feet above mean sea level immediately around the spring pool to about 25 feet above mean sea level at the tons of LION CO. nearby gently-rolling sand hills. It appears unlikely
WMA CO. \.--that such topography would have provided the
WAKUUA s5NOS unobstructed saltwater interchange necessary to
maintain a saltmarsh environment.
Unfortunately, there are no age-dateable t I materials associated with the Wakulla Spring
samples. The timing of such a transgression is san co. therefore uncertain. The pollen species present do
UDNMLW~"'t.A ,not provide a definitive age Zone, but the abse.-ce of exotic flo- ,llen in the core samples suggests a Quatert _e for the cave floor sediments (Johan Groot, personal communication). Additionally, in light of the seemingly in-place nature of the Figure 4b. Approximate extent of the Silver Bluff sediments, it seems unlikely that shallow, (Holocene) sea (modified from MacNeil, 1950; unconsolidated sediments such as these could
Healy, 1975). survive undisturbed in an actively flowing,
subaqueous, environment from a time earlier than the late Quaternary.
While the age of formation of Wakulla A transition from a brackish salt flat
Spring is uncertain, present data suggest it was most ecosystem to terrestrial forest is not documented in likely present and flowing freshwater during the the pollen record of the present samples. This may, period in which the Chenopods grew nearby, in part, be due to removal by erosion of portions of
perhaps mixing with the Gulf waters and creating a the cave sediments. In addition, the large sample localized brackish environment in the immediate interval required to obtain adequate quantities of area of the spring. The paleo-freshwater flow In the sediment for pollen analysis from the small spring is evidenced by the very abundant freshwater diameter cores taken in this study may have diatom assemblage contained within and intermixed obscured significant floral transitions. Future core wiih the pollen in the core samples. The diatom studies using larger diameter cores and smaller species present are common constituents of many sample intervals might better delineate temporal modern freshwater bodies (United States pollen changes In the cave floor sediments.

6.










The Florida Geological Survcy hopes to Healy, H.G., 1975. Terraces and shorelines of
continue this study with future acquisition of Florida: Florida Bureau of Geologv Map
additional sediment cores from Wakulla Spring Series 71.
during the tentativcly-scheduled 1992 Wakulla
Springs Expedition. In addition, similar sediment MacNeil, F.S.. 1950, Pleistocene shorelines in cores may be obtained during concurrent studies in Florida and Georgia: U.S. Geological
Indian Spring, located one-mile northwest of Survey Professional Paper 221-F, p. 95-107.
Wakulla Spring. Cores from an adjacent spring
should provide further insights on the extent, age, Olsen, S., 1958, The Wakulla Cave: Natural History, and type of Quaternary paleoenvironmerits observed v, 67, n. 7, p. 396-403.
in the Wakulla Spring area.
Osmond, J.K., Car enter J.R., and Windom, H.L., Acknowledgements 1965, Tho /U2 age of the Pleistocene
corals and oolites of Florida: Journal of
A number of individuals contributed their time Geophysical Research, v. 70, n. 8, p.1843and expertise to make this study possible. Special 1847.
thanks are extended to Dr. Bill Stone and Mr. Wes Skiles for incorporating the core sampling into the May, J.P., and Tanner, W.F., 1970, Age
1987 Wakulla Springs Exploration Project, and to the of the Cape Kennedy barrier-and-lagoon
Florida DNR Division of Recreation and Parks, complex: Journal of Geophysical
especially Mr. Ellison Hardee, Mr. Dana Bryan, and Research, v. 75, n.2, p. 469-479.
Mr. Dick Miller for permitting the sediment coring on
State Park property. Mr. Bill Wilson coordinated the Rosenau, J.C.. Faulkner, G.L., Hendry, C.W., and cave niouth core sampling, lent his tim~le and Hull, R.W.. 1977, Springs of Florida:
specialized coring device to the collection effort, and Florida Bureau of Geology Bulletin 31 critically reviewed a draft of the manuscript. Mr. (revised), p. 415-424.Tom Morris assisted in collecting the cave-mouth
cores, and Mr. Wes Skiles and Mr. Fred Davis were Rupert, F.R., and Spencer, S. M., 1988, The geology extremely helpfid in collecting the two cores from tie of Wakulla County, Florida: Florida bone bed area within the main cave. Many thanks Geological Survey Bulletin 60, 46 p.
are also due Dr. Johan Groot and the palynological lab staff at the Delaware Geological Survey for the Stapor, F.W., and Tanner, W.F., 1977, Late preparation, exaination, and interpretation of the Holocene mean sea level data from St.
pollen assemblages in tie core samples. The author Vincent Island and the shape of the late
is gratefid to the following individuals for reviewing Holocene mean sea level curve: in: drafts of this manuscript: Drs. Walter Schmidt and Proceedings, Coastal Sedimentology
Tomn Scott, and Mr. Ed Lane of the Florida Symposium, Florida State University,
Geological Survey, and Mr. Bill Bartodziej of the Department of Geology, p. 35-68.
FDNR, Bureau of Aquatic Plant Management.
Stone, W.C. (ed.), 1989, The Wakulla Springs Project: Austin, Raines Graphics, 212 p.
References
Tanner, W.F., Demirpolat, S., and Alvarez, L., 1989, Clewell, A.F., 1981, Natural setting and vegetation The "Gulf of Mexico" Late Holocene sea
of the Florida panhandle: 'A report level curve: Transactions-Gulf Coast
prepared under contract No. DACW01-77- Association of Geological Societies, v. 39,
C-0104, U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, p.553-562.
Mobile, Alabama, 737 p.
United States Department of the Interior, 1966, A Clewell, A.F., 1985, Guide to the vascular plants of guide to the common diatoms at water
the Florida panhandle: Tallahassee, Florida pollution surveillance system stations:
State University Press, p. 269-271. Federal Water Pollution Control
Administration, Water Pollution
Erdtman, G., 1954, An introduction to pollen Surveillance, 1014 Broadway, Cincinnati,
analysis: Waltham, Chronica Botanica OH, 45202, June, 1966, 101 p.
Company, 239 p.
Watts, W.A., 1969, A pollen diagram from Mud Godfrey, R.K., and Wooten, J.W., 1981, Aquatic and Lake, Marion County, north-central
wetland plants of southeastern United Florida: Geological Society of America
States: Athens, University of Georgia Bulletin, v. 80, p.631-642.
Press, p. 93-101.

7.








APPENDIX

Lithologic descriptions of cave floor sediment cores



Core I Water Depth: 140 feet (42.6 m)
Length: 16.5 in. (41.2 cm)
Collected by William Wilson, 11-14-87.

Lithologic Description:

Depth: Lithology:

0.0-3.3 in. k0.0-8.6 cm) Dusky yellowish brown (10YR 2/2) organic-rich calcilutite, containing
abundant brown plant remains and freshwater gastropod (Helisoma sp.) shell fragments.

-:.6 in. i.4-14.2 cm) Olive gray (5Y 4/1) organic rich calcilutite, containing abundant plant remains, shell fragments. and limestone fragments. Interval 5.4-5.6 in. composed of matted brown plant remains intermixed with calcilutite.

.0-12.0 in. (14.2-30.5 cm) Dusky yellowish brown (10YR 2/2) oi-ganic rich calcilutite. containing abundant plant remains, wood fragments, and limestone and freshwater gastropod shell fragments.

12.0-13.1 in. (30.5-33.3 cm) Olive gray (5Y 4/1), organic rich, fine to medium quartz sand, containing freshwater shell fragments.

13.1-16.5 in. (33.3-41.2 cm) Dusky yellowish brown (10 YR 2/2), organic rich calcilutite, containing limestone granules, freshwater shell fragments, and diatoms.





Core 2 Water Depth: 195 feet (59.4 m)
Length: 9.5 in. (24.1 cm)
Collected by Fred Davis, 12-28-87, in vertebrate bone bed, 285 feet inside cave.

0.0-9.5 in. (0.0-24.1 cm) Brownish gray (5 YR 4/1) organic rich calcilutite, containing limestone fragments, plant remains, and freshwater gastropod shell fragments. Thin laminate of matted plant remains alternating with calcilutite in interval 4.0-9.5 in. (10.2-24.1 cm).




Core 3 Water Depth: 140 feet (42.7 m)
Length: 23.1 in. (58.7 cm)
Collected by William Wilson, 11-15-87.

0.0-13.5 in. (0.0-34.3 cm) Dusky yellowish brown (10YR 2/2) organic rich calcilutite, containing abundant plant remains, limestone particles, and rare ostracode shells.
(continued on next page)


8.







Core 3, continued:

13.5-15.3 in. (34.3-38.7 cm) YelloWish gray (5Y 8/1), fine to medium quartz sand containing plant remains.
Bedding in core angled approximately 450 to the horizontal; probably a slope deposit.

15.3-17.8 in. (38.7-45.2 cm) Olive black (5Y 2/1) calcilutite containing abundant plant remains.

17.8-21.5 in. (45.2-54.6 cm) Yellowish gray (5Y 8/1), fine to medium quartz sand, with interbedded calcilutite, and containing plant remains, limestone particles, and reworked Oligocene foraminifera.

21.5-23.1 in (54.6-58.7 cm) White (N9) to yellowish gray (5Y 8/1) calcarenitic limestone, containing abundant Oligocene foraminifera (Core bottomed on Suwannee Limestone).





Core 4 Water Depth: 140 feet (42.7 m)
Length: 24.1 in (61.2 cm)
Collected by William Wilson, 11-15-87.

0.0-4.3 in. (0.0-10.9 cm) Dark yellowish brown (10YR 4/2), very fine quartz sand, containing abundant freshwater gastropod shells, shell fragments, limestone particles, and organics. Mollusk shell hash intervals present between .5 and 2.0 in. (1.3-5.1 cm) and between 3.3 and 4.1 in. (8.4 and 10.4 cm).

4.3-12.4 in. (10.9-31.5 cm) Dark yellowish brown (10YR 4/2), unconsolidated organic rich calcilutite, containing approximately 10% very fine to fine quartz sand.

12.4-17.5 in. (31.3-44.5 cm) Yellowish gray (5Y 8/1), fine to medium quartz sand, containing mollusk shell fragments, limestones fragments, and organics.

17.5-24.1 in. (44.5-61.2 cm) Pale yellowish brown (10YR 6/2), very fine to fine quartz sand with calcilutite matrix. Contains mollusk shell and limestone fragments, abundant plant remains, and well-preserved Oligocene Suwannee Limestone foraminifera eroded from underlying limestone.





Core 5 Water Depth: 135 feet (41.2 m)
Length: 31 in. (78.7 cm)
Collected by William Wilson, 1987.

0.0-31.0 in. (0.0-78.7 cm) Dark yellowish brown (10YR 4/2) to dusky yellowish brown (10YR
2/2), organic rich calcilutite, containing abundant plant remains and limestone
particles. Abundant diatoms at 10.0 in. (25.4 cm).



Note: Color designation codes are taken from The Rock-Color Chart Committee, 1984, Rock-Color Chart: Geological Society of America, P.O. Box 9140, Boulder, CO, 80301.



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STATE OF FLORIDA DEPARTMENT OF NATURAL RESOURCES Virginia Wctherell. Executive Director DIVISION OF RESOURCE MANAGEMENT Jeremy A. Craft, Director FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY Walter Schmidt, State Geologist and Chief OPEN FILE REPORT NO. 47 LITHOLOGY AND PALYNOLOGY OF CAVE FLOOR SEDIMENT CORES FROM WAKULLA SPRING, WAKULLA COUNTY, FLORIDA BY FRANK R. RUPERT FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY Tallahassee 1991

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Lithology and Palynology of cave floor sediment cores from Wakulla Spring, Wakulla County, Florida by -Frank R. Rupert, P.G. 149 Abstract Five short bottom sediment cores taken in Wakulla Spring Wakulla County, Florida, were described lithologically and sampled for palynological study. Four of the cores were recoveredfrom sediments at the spring cave entrance (130 feet water depth). One core was taken in a fossil vertebrate bone bed, 280 feet distance into the main spring cave at a water depth of 240 feet. Sediments in the cores are composed of alternating intervals of quartz sand and calcilitite, containing freshwater diatoms, freshwater mollusk shells and plant remains. The predominant pollen present in all cores consists of a periporate variety typical of the herb families Chenopodiaceae and Amaranthaceae. Arboreal flora, typical of the area surrounding the spring today, represent a very low percentage of thle pollen assemblage in the cores. Clustered Chenopod-Amaranth type pollen observed in one core suggest minimal transport prior to deposition, and indicate that the bottom sediments in the cave may be essentially In situ. An absence of exotic flora suggests a Quaternary age for the sediments. Introduction four separate feeder conduits, one of which extends over 4200 feet in from the cave entrance (Rupert Wakulla Spring is a first-magnitude spring and Spencer, 1988; Stone, 1989). situated in Wakulla County, Florida, about 15 miles As part of the scientific studies performed south of Tallahassee (Figure 1). Water flows from during this project, the divers recovered a total of a single vent into a large spring pool, approximately seven short cave floor sediment cores ranging in 100 feet wide and 200 feet long, which forms the length from 9 inches to 31 inches. Five cores were headwaters of the Wakulla River. The spring taken in the floor of the mouth of the main spring discharges regional ground water from the Floridan cave; two others were recovered in a vertebrate aquifer system. bone bed situated approximately 280 feet into the The spring probably evolved from a large main cave (Figure 1). Five of these seven cores, post-Miocene sink which developed in the representing four cave entrance cores and one Oligocene and Miocene limestones underlying the bone-bed core, are addressed in the present study. area. Previous SCUBA explorations in the spring revealed the presence of a large cave or passage Methods feeding the spring from depths in excess of 180 feet below mean sea level (Olsen, 1958; Rosenau et al., The four cave-entrance sediment cores 1977). The cave typically measures about 40 feet were recovered using a one and one-half inch high and 80 feet wide. Pleistocene vertebrate diameter PVC pipe coring apparatus developed by bones, charred wood, and numerous paleoindian William Wilson of Subsurface Evaluations artifacts have been discovered in the outer 1100 feet Incorporated, Winter Springs, Florida (Figure 2). of the cave (Olsen, 1958). This led to speculation The core tube was pushed into the bottom that the cave may have been dry during glacial sediments until it either bottomed against limestone periods of the Pleistocene. bedrock or reached the 36-inch core tube length During the last three months of 1987 limit. The cohesiveness of the sediments generally fourteen cave divers, working under permit from the allowed the core to remain intact in the PVC barrel State of Florida, conducted the most extensive as the coring device was withdrawn from the cave exploration of the Wakulla cave system ever floor sediments. In some cases the sediment undertaken. This exploration revealed a sizable and thickness exceeded 36 inches, but core recovery was complex conduit system feeding Wakulla Spring. incomplete. The longest core recovered in this Areas of the main cave were found to approach .study was 31 inches. Two short cores taken inside sizes of 60 feet high and 120 feet wide. At a point the cave in the outer bone bed were pushed into the nearly 900 feet into the cave, the system splits into sediment until they bottomed against bedrock. 1. UNIVEftSITY OF FLORIDA Li eRIES

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-J :-WAKULLA SPRING *.. TALLASSEE Sj\ CORES LoN COUNTY I 1,3,4,5 W "AKULLA COUNTY 0 _ T W -TAKULLA Z CORE 2 R SPR N FEET 0 100 200 woo oKARST PLAIN So 20 0o 6o SMETERS BA YALACLE lA MAP AREA Figure 1. Wakulla Spring and core location map. En3 Cap : Figure 2. Diagram of 1.5 inch diameter PVC sediment coring tube used in this study (Designcd S i *----t .and drafted by William I ilson, Subsurface Evahtations, Inc., Winter Springs. Florida). i : J;. tr C ,.....n EI --" 2

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Each core was extruded from the sampling tube X-ray analysis of the calcilutite interval in Core back on land by pushing a wad of paper towels number 2 was performed to determine its against the top of the sediment with a broomstick, composition. This core was situated in one of the The cores were then scaled in polyethylene vertebrate bone beds in the outer portion of the wrapping. main spring cave. The bulk of the sample is calcite, The core packages were later opened and with minor quartz and unidentified clay mineral each core was described lithologically. Lithologic peaks. Much of this may represent fine breakdown descriptions are provided in the Appendix section of material from the limestone bedrock of the conduits this report. Approximately 100 grams of sediment conveying groundwater to the spring. was cut from selected intervals in the calcilutite Table 1 summarizes the major pollen portions of five cores for pollen analysis. Only groups present in each of the samples. The intervals containing sufficient sediment to provide numbers shown in Table 1 indicate the percentages the necessary 100 grams of sample were selected, of the total pollen sum represented by each pollen One sample was taken in each of Cores 1 through type in the samples. A variety of pollen families 4, and two samples were taken in Core 5. Table 1 were present, including arboreal angiosperms, includes the intervals sampled in each core. The conifers, herbs, ferns, and aquatic plants. samples were then sent to the Delaware Geological Dinoflagellates and cysts of green algae were also Survey in Newark for standard pollen-analysis present in Cores 1 and 2 in low abundance. preparation and description. Results of this analysis Interestingly, the dominant pollen present are shown in Table 1. in all the samples is that of the Chenopodiaceae and X-ray analysis was performed on one Amaranthaceae, two plant families with sample from Core 2, taken in the vertebrate bone morphologically similar, periporate pollen grains. In bed within the main spring cave. This analysis was practice, pollen from the various genera in these conducted on a Phillips X-ray diffractometer housed groups are indistinguishable. Therefore, they are at the Florida State University Geology Department. lumped together as "Chenopod/Amaranth" in this The calcilutite intervals in all cores were report. spot-checked for the presence of diatoms, utilizing The Chenopodiaceae include as modern temporary water-based smear slides with cover slips. representatives the glassworts and seablites. These Three samples, comprised of one from Core 2 (4.5" forms are characteristic salt marsh and salt flat deep) and two from Core 5 (5" and 30" deep) were flora. The Amaranthaceae include both fresh and permanently mounted for detailed diatom analysis. brackish water swamp plants. Figure 3 illustrates a Small portions of sample were disaggregated in Chenopodiaceae/Amaranthaccae pollen grain from sodium hexametaphosphate solution, shaken, then the Wakulla Spring sediments. allowed to settle for 45 seconds. The supernatant solution was then decanted, and the decanted portion centrifuged to concentrate the suspended diatoms. Standard smear slides were then prepared o a i' from the centrifuge samples, using the aqueous concentrate with a cover slip for the temporary .,':slides, and Norland Optical Adhesive as the mounting medium for the permanent study slides. Each of Slides were scanned for diatoms, and the various species were identified. The species present are discussed in the results section. Figure 3. Chenopodiaceae/Amaranthaceae pollen grain (modified from Erdtman, 1954, and based on Results a photo by Dr. Johan Groot) X1000 The Wakulla cave floor core sediments are The fossil Chenopod/Amaranth type pollen composed principally of medium to coarse grained comprised a minimum of 70 percent of the total quartz sand and olive-gray, clay-like calcilutite. The pollen assemblage (Core 3) and ranged up to 82 sand intervals contain freshwater gastropod shell percent in Core 5, sample 1. Core 3 contained rare fragments (Hellsoma sp.) and terrestrial and aquatic pecen t in Ce belonging to the plant remains. The calcilutite pori ons have the pollen, with most belonging to the plant re ins The calcilutite portions have the Chenopod/Amaranth type. In Core 5, a group of 8 appearance of siliciclastic clay when wet. These or undisprsed Chnopod/Amaranth pollen, intervals were found to contain partiallyndispersed Chenopod/Amaranth pollen, intervals were founid to copitan n re partially grouped as if in a pollen sac, were observed (Johan decomposed and unidentifiedplant retains, sand. Groot, personal communication). Since pollen is size limestone particles, and abundant diatom tests.rsonal communication). Since pollen is generally dispersed rapidly after release, this would 3.

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Tuble 1. Pollen types present in the Wakulla Spring cores. Core 1 Core 2 Core 3 Core 4 Core 6 Interval Sampled 6-16.5" 0-9 18-22" 5.25-12" 34.10.1" 23-31" Anglosperms Ainus (hazel alder) P P ................... ........ ........ ......... ............ ... ......... ,......... ....... ...... .. Carya (hickory) P 5 7 3 2 ............. ........ ...... .................... ......' * ...................... ................ Celts (sugarberry, hackberry) P 1 P Carpinus-Ostrya (horn been, hop-hornbean) e Cyrilla (tiIt P ..... .. ......... ..... ............... .............................. L'qudumolr (swelgum) P -2 P Nyssa (tupelo. sourgum) P C P P ... ...... ..o..-............... ..................... Salix (WNilow) 1 rilia (basswood, linden) P P 1 Ulmus (elm) 1 P 0 P P Ouercus (oak) 14 9 W 8 4 11 Conifers Pinus (pine) 8 1 5 P 1 Herbs ....--...... Chenopodlaceae (goosefoot family) 70 79 71 82 73 Composiae (sunflower family) 2 P 2 1 3 Gramlnese (grass famly) 1 P P Umbelliferae (carrot family) P P U........ ........-......-............................... Aqualics H~rochiarltacee (aquatic herbs) P Sperganlum-T4pha (cattaHs) 1 2 P 1 PowypoCiceae (fern family) 4 3 Cysts of green algae P 2 Olnollagellales P P indicates less than 1% of pollen total 4

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suggest minimal transport of the pollen prior to Watts (1969) suggested that the deposition. Chenopod/Amaranth type pollen observed in lake Arborcal plant species comprise a bottom cores from Marion County, Florida, may be maximum of 14 percent of the pollen totals in any from this species. However, because pollen from sample. Most of the angiosperm tree and conifer th two fmilies is indistinguishable, a species typical of the modern forest surrounding paleoenv inteetion is u ta. T Wakulla Spring today are represented by only small paleoenvironmenta interpretationis uncertain. The percentages of the fossil pollen in each sample. questionable family affinity of the Quercus (oak) ranges from 4 to 11 percent of the Chenpod/Amaranth pollen in the Wakulla Cave totals. Caria (hickory), where present, ranged from cores poses a problem in interpreting the 2 percent of the fossil pollen in Core 5, sample 2 to depositional environment of the cave floor a maximum of 7 percent in Core 4. Pinus (Pine) sediments. If the pollen is that of the Amaranths, comprises less than 1 percent in Core 6, and ranged the sediments may simply be recent, freshwater up to 8 percent in Core 1. The remaining plant spring/marsh deposits. This is supported by the species comprise four percent or less of the pollen presence of freshwater gastropod (Helisoma sp.) assemblages in each sample. Core 3 contained only shells and diatoms throughout the sediments in the rare pollen, and most of this was of cores. Chenopod/Amaranth. Green algae cysts were If the pollen are from the Chenopodiaceac, present in Cores 1 and 2, and Dinoflagellates were a case also be made for a brackish water observed in Core 1. e dio eie reen iinfluence. Intuitively, one explanation for the The diatom species present, with the exception of Paralia cf. sulcata (a brackish water to possible presence of Chenopodiaceae pollen in the marine species), are reported as common Wakulla Spring sediments is a marine transgression, constituents of modern fresh water bodies (United which would have shifted a coastal saltmarsh States Department of the Interior, 1966). These environment landward to the present vicinity of include Melosira italica, Gomphonemna herculeana, Wakulla Springs. Epitheia inregulais, Epithema ttgida, Navicula Two late Quaternary marine transgressions amphibola, Cocconeis placentula, Navicula are documented in the local geologic record. One cuspidata, Synedra ulna, and Pinnmuaria gibbia. was the Late Pleistocene Pamlico sea level (Sangamon Interglacial Period) highstand, which Discussion stood approximately 25 feet above present sea level. e f l p n p t in te W a The Pamlico transgression corresponded to The fossil pollen present in the Wakulla Spring sediment cores provide insight into the an interglacial warm period, the Sangamon, which Spring sediment cores provide insight into the probable Late Pleistocene or Holocene history of pre-dates the most recent glacial period the spring. Of particular significance is the (Wisconsinian) of the Pleistocene Epoch. Isotope overwhelming abundance of the age dates from shell material collected in Chenopod/Amaranth pollen in all of the cores. elevationally-similar Pamlico terrace deposits on Due to the similarity of pollen from all genera of Florida's east coast indicate sea level high stands the families Chenopodiaceae and Amaranthaceae, occurring at 130,000 and 85,000 years before present it is usually not possible to differentiate the genera. (Osmond et al., 1965; 1970). The Chenopodiaceae, or Goosefoot family, The Pamlico sea flooded large areas of are halophytic, and typically inhabit salt and Florida, and inundated most of eastern Wakulla brackish marshes and flats. Three modern County (Figure 4a). Many of the relict bars, dunes indigenous genera of Chenopodiaceae occur in and beach ridges shaping the surface of central and Florida: Chenopodium, Suaeda and Sallcormia eastern Wakulla County today were probably (Clewell, 1985). The genus Chenopodium can occur (Clewll, 1985) The genus Cl podiu can occur associated with the Pamlico sea. The shoreline in open inland areas, but also occurs along coastal beach barrens (Clewell, 1981). Both Salicomia and likely fluctuated through time in an elevation range Suaeda are restricted to coastal salt marshes, salt of 10 to 25 feet above present sea level (MacNeil, flats or, in some cases, fore-beach areas (Clewell, 1950; Healy, 1975). This range placed the palco1981, 1985), shoreline close to, and at times north of Wakulla The Amaranthaceae are typically freshwater Spring. A saltmarsh environment, probably similar swamp plants. One species, Amaanthus australis, to the modern marshes of southern Wakulla is abundant in Florida lakes today (Watts, 1969). County, could have fringed the Pamlico shore. 5.

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Department of the Interior, 1966). --/ A second transgression of lesser magnitude. ' possibly corresponding to the Silver Bluff Sea, ( ON CO. occurred in the middle Holocene, about 4,500 years WMUA " c. .-ago (Stapor and Tanner, 1977; Tanner et al., 1989). W'AULLA s This highstand is documented in beach deposits SWUU sRIa along the panhandle coast of Florida. Beach ridge and scarp elevation data and Carbop-14 dates on associated archaeological artifacts from St. Vincent ./ Island (southwest of Wakulla Spring in Franklin County, Florida) and adjacent mainland indicate this us"eo.L , / highstand reached a height of about 5 feet above -mwe -Io. \,..... modern sea level. Based on the modern topography, a five-feet sea level rise would have produced a marine transgression up the Waikul!a River valley, reaching the spring, but being restricted for the most part to the river valley itself Figure 4a. Approximate extent of the Pamlico Figure 4b). Whether this transgression was (Pleistocene) sea (modified from MacNeil, 1950; adequate to produce the inundation and water Healy. 1975), salinity necessary to develop a salt marsh environment around Wakulla Spring is uncertain. The topography near Wakulla Spring today rises "7 ' rapidly from elevations of about 5 feet above mean •-' -sea level immediately around the spring pool to |8 about 25 feet above mean sea level at the tons of LION CO. nearby gently-rolling sand hills. It appears unlikely w wAA co. L... that such topography would have provided the \ wAKuu.A sPN s unobstructed saltwater interchange necessary to i maintain a saltmarsh environment. Unfortunately, there are no age-dateable t I materials associated with the Wakulla Spring "\ , --samples. The timing of such a transgression is sry co.. therefore uncertain. The pollen species present do nmun c-cO"t.^ .... not provide a definitive age zone, but the abs.c-ce of iC""o' exotic fleo-llen in the core samples suggests a Quatert .e for the cave floor sediments (Johan Groot, personal communication). Additionally, in light of the seemingly in-.place nature of the Figure 4b. Approximate extent of the Silver Bluff sediments, it seems unlikely that shallow, (Holocene) sea (modified from MacNeil, 1950; unconsolidated sediments such as these could Healy, 1975). survive undisturbed in an actively flowing, subaqueous, environment from a time earlier than the late Quaternary. While the age of formation of Wakulla A transition from a brackish salt flat Spring is uncertain, present data suggest it was most ecosystem to terrestrial forest is not documented in likely present and flowing freshwater during the the pollen record of the present samples. This may, period in which the Chenopods grew nearby, in part, be due to removal by erosion of portions of perhaps mixing with the Gulf waters and creating a the cave sediments. In addition, the large sample localized brackish environment in the Immediate interval required to obtain adequate quantities of area of the spring. The paleo-freshwater flow in the sediment for pollen analysis from the small spring is evidenced by the very abundant freshwater diameter cores taken in this study may have diatom assemblage contained within and intermixed .obscured significant floral transitions. Future core with the pollen in the core samples. The diatom studies using larger diameter cores and smaller species present are common constituents of many sample intervals might better delineate temporal modern freshwater bodies (United States pollen changes in the cave floor sediments. 6.

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The Florida Geological Survey hopes to Hcaly, H.G., 1975. Terraces and shorelines of continue this study with future acquisition of Florida: Florida Bureau of Gcology Map additional sediment cores from Wakulla Spring Series 71. during the tentatively-scheduled 1992 Wakulla Springs Expedition. In addition, similar sediment MacNeil, F.S.. 1950, Pleistocene shorelines in cores may be obtained during concurrent studies in Florida and Georgia: U.S. Geological Indian Spring, located one-mile northwest of Survey Professional Paper 221-F, p. 95-107. Wakulla Spring. Cores from an adjacent spring should provide further insights on the extent, age, Olsen, S., 1958, The Wakulla Cave: Natural History, and type of Quaternary paleoenvironmerits observed v, 67, n. 7, p. 396-403. in the Wakulla Spring area. Osmond, J.K., Car enter J.R., and Windom, H.L., Acknowledgements 1965, Th23 /U234age of the Pleistocene corals and oolites of Florida: Journal of A number of individuals contributed their time Geophysical Research, v. 70, n. 8, p.1843and expertise to make this study possible. Special 1847. thanks are extended to Dr. Bill Stone and Mr. Wes Skiles for incorporating the core sampling into the _ , May, J.P., and Tanner, W.F., 1970, Age 1987 Wakulla Springs Exploration Project, and to the of the Cape Kennedy barrier-and-lagoon Florida DNR Division of Recreation and Parks, complex: Journal of Geophysical especially Mr. Ellison Hardee, Mr. Dana Bvan, and Research, v. 75, n.2, p. 469-479. Mr. Dick Miller for pennitting the sediment coring on State Park property. Mr. Bill Wilson coordinated the Rosenau, J.C.. Faulkner, G.L., Hendry, C.W.. and cave mouth core sampling, lent his time and Hull, R.W.. 1977, Springs of Florida: specialized coring device to tie collection effort, and Florida Bureau of Geology Bulletin 31 critically reviewed a draft of the manuscript. Mr. (revised), p. 415-424.. Tom Morris assisted in collecting the cave-mouth cores, and Mr. Wes Skiles and Mr. Fred Davis were Rupert, F.R., and Spencer, S. M., 1988, The geology extremely helpfil in collecting the two cores from the of Wakulla County, Florida: Florida bone bed area within the main cave. Many thanks Geological Survey Bulletin 60, 46 p. are also due Dr. Johan Groot and the palynological lab staff at the Delaware Geological Survey for the Stapor, F.W., and Tanner, W.F., 1977, Late preparation, examination, and interpretation of the Holocene mean sea level data from St. pollen assemblages in the core samples. Tihe author Vincent Island and the shape of the late is gratefid to the following individuals for reviewing Holocene mean sea level curve: in: drafts of this manuscript: Drs. Walter Schmidt and Proceedings, Coastal Sedimentology Tom Scott, and Mr. Ed Lane of the Florida Symposium, Florida State University, Geological Survey, and Mr. Bill Bartodziej of the Department of Geology, p. 35-68. FDNR, Bureau of Aquatic Plant Management. Stone, W.C. (ed.), 1989, The Wakulla Springs Project: Austin, Raines Graphics, 212 p. References Tanner, W.F., Demirpolat, S., and Alvarez, L., 1989, Clewell, A.F., 1981, Natural setting and vegetation The "Gulf of Mexico" Late Holocene sea of the Florida panhandle: 'A report level curve: Transactions-Gulf Coast prepared under contract No. DACW01-77Association of Geological Societies, v. 39, C-0104, U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, p.553-562. Mobile, Alabama, 737 p. United States Department of the Interior, 1966, A Clewell, A.F., 1985, Guide to the vascular plants of guide to the common diatoms at water the Florida panhandle: Tallahassee, Florida pollution surveillance system stations: State University Press, p. 269-271. Federal Water Pollution Control Administration, Water Pollution Erdtman, G., 1954, An introduction to pollen Surveillance, 1014 Broadway, Cincinnati, analysis: Waltham, Chronica Botanica OH, 45202, June, 1966, 101 p. Company, 239 p. Watts, W.A., 1969, A pollen diagram from Mud Godfrey, R.K., and Woolen, J.W., 1981, Aquatic and Lake, Marion County, north-central wetland plants of southeastern United Florida: Geological Society of America States: Athens, University of Georgia .Bulletin, v. 80, p.631-642. Press, p. 93-101. 7.

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APPENDIX Lithologic descriptions of cave floor sediment cores Core I Water Depth: 140 feet (42.6 m) Length: 16.5 in. (41.2 cm) Collected by William Wilson, 11-14-87. Lithologic Description: ePtLh: Lithology: 0.0-3.3 in. k0.0-8.6 cm) Dusky yellowish brown (10YR 2/2) organic-rich calcilutite, containing abundant brown plant remains and freshwater gastropod (Helisoma sp.) shell fragments. ..-5:.6 in. (S.4-14.2 cm) Olive gray (5Y 4/1) organic rich calcilutite, containing abundant plant remains, shell fragments, and limestone fragments. Interval 5.4-5.6 in. composed of matted brown plant remains intermixed with calcilutite. 5.'-12.0 in. (14.2-30.5 cm) Dusky yellowish brown (10YR 2/2) organic rich calcilutite, containing abundant plant remains, wood fragments, and limestone and freshwater gastropod shell fragments. 12.0-13.1 in. (30.5-33.3 cm) Olive gray (5Y 4/1), organic rich, fine to medium quartz sand, containing freshwater shell fragments. 13.1-16.5 in. (33.3-41.2 cm) Dusky yellowish brown (10 YR 2/2), organic rich calcilutitc, containing limestone granules, freshwater shell fragments, and diatoms. Core 2 Water Depth: 195 feet (59.4 m) Length: 9.5 in. (24.1 cm) Collected by Fred Davis, 12-28-87, in vertebrate bone bed, 285 feet inside cave. 0.0-9.5 in. (0.0-24.1 cm) Brownish gray (5 YR 4/1) organic rich calcilutite, containing limestone fragments, plant remains, and freshwater gastropod shell fragments. Thin laminae of matted plant remains alternating with calcilutite in interval 4.0-9.5 in. (10.2-24.1 cm). Core 3 Water Depth: 140 feet (42.7 m) Length: 23.1 in. (58.7 cm) Collected by William Wilson, 11-15-87. 0.0-13.5 in. (0.0-34.3 cm) Dusky yellowish brown (10YR 2/2) organic rich calcilutite, containing abundant plant remains, limestone particles, and rare ostracode shells. (continued on next page) 8.

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Core 3, continued: 13.5-15.3 in. (34.3-3S.7 cm) Yellowish gray (5Y 8/1), fine to medium quartz sand containing plant remains. Bedding in core angled approximately 450 to the horizontal; probably a slope deposit. 15.3-17.8 in. (38.7-45.2 cm) Olive black (5Y 2/1) calcilutite containing abundant plant remains. 17.8-21.5 in. (45.2-54.6 cm) Yellowish gray (5Y 8/1), fine to medium quartz sand, with interbedded calcilutite, and containing plant remains, limestone particles, and reworked Oligocene foraminifera. 21.5-23.1 in (54.6-58.7 cm) White (N9) to yellowish gray (5Y 8/1) calcarenitic limestone, containing abundant Oligocene foraminifera (Core bottomed on Suwannee Limestone). Core 4 Water Depth: 140 feet (42.7 m) Length: 24.1 in (61.2 cm) Collected by William Wilson, 11-15-87. 0.0-4.3 in. (0.0-10.9 cm) Dark yellowish brown (10YR 4/2), very fine quartz sand, containing abundant freshwater gastropod shells, shell fragments, limestone particles, and organics. Mollusk shell hash intervals present between .5 and 2.0 in. (1.3-5.1 cm) and between 3.3 and 4.1 in. (8.4 and 10.4 cm). 4.3-12.4 in. (10.9-31.5 cm) Dark yellowish brown (10YR 4/2), unconsolidated organic rich calcilutite, containing approximately 10% very fine to fine quartz sand. 12.4-17.5 in. (31.3-44.5 cm) Yellowish gray (5Y 8/1), fine to medium quartz sand, containing mollusk shell fragments, limestones fragments, and organics. 17.5-24.1 in. (44.5-61.2 cm) Pale yellowish brown (10YR 6/2), very fine to fine quartz sand with calcilutite matrix. Contains mollusk shell and limestone fragments, abundant plant remains, and well-preserved Oligocene Suwannee Limestone foraminifera eroded from underlying limestone. Core 5 Water Depth: 135 feet (41.2 m) Length: 31 in. (78.7 cm) Collected by William Wilson, 1987. 0.0-31.0 in. (0.0-78.7 cm) Dark yellowish brown (10YR 4/2) to dusky yellowish brown (10YR 2/2), organic rich calcilutite, containing abundant plant remains and limestone particles. Abundant diatoms at 10.0 in. (25.4 cm). Note: Color designation codes are taken from The Rock-Color Chart Committee, 1984, Rock-Color Chart: Geological Society of America, P.O. Box 9140, Boulder, CO, 80301. 9.

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-FLORIDA-GEOLOGICAL-SURVEY COPYRIGHT NOTICE © [year of publication as printed] Florida Geological Survey [source text] The Florida Geological Survey holds all rights to the source text of this electronic resource on behalf of the State of Florida. The Florida Geological Survey shall be considered the copyright holder for the text of this publication. Under the Statutes of the State of Florida (FS 257.05; 257.105, and 377.075), the Florida Geologic Survey (Tallahassee, FL), publisher of the Florida Geologic Survey, as a division of state government, makes its documents public (i.e., published) and extends to the state's official agencies and libraries, including the University of Florida's Smathers Libraries, rights of reproduction. The Florida Geological Survey has made its publications available to the University of Florida, on behalf of the State University System of Florida, for the purpose of digitization and Internet distribution. The Florida Geological Survey reserves all rights to its publications. All uses, excluding those made under "fair use" provisions of U.S. copyright legislation (U.S. Code, Title 17, Section 107), are restricted. Contact the Florida Geological Survey for additional information and permissions.


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mods:titleInfo
mods:title ( FGS: Open file report 47 )
mods:subject SUBJ650_1 lcsh
mods:topic Petrology
mods:geographic Florida
Wakulla County
SUBJ650_2
Palynology
Florida
Wakulla County
Lithology and palynology of cave floor sediment cores from Wakulla Spring, Wakulla County, Florida ( FGS: Open file report 47 )
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