Citation
Summary of the geology of Glades County, Florida ( FGS: Open file report 30 )

Material Information

Title:
Summary of the geology of Glades County, Florida ( FGS: Open file report 30 )
Series Title:
( FGS: Open file report 30 )
Creator:
Campbell, Kenneth M ( Kenneth Mark ), 1949-
Florida Geological Survey
Place of Publication:
Tallahassee Fla
Publisher:
Florida Geological Survey
Publication Date:
Language:
English
Physical Description:
[16] p. : ill., maps ; 28 cm.

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Geology -- Florida -- Glades County ( lcsh )
Glades County ( local )
Town of Suwannee ( local )
City of Okeechobee ( local )
City of Ocala ( local )
Glades ( jstor )
Aquifers ( jstor )
Limestones ( jstor )
Sand ( jstor )
Geological surveys ( jstor )
Genre:
bibliography ( marcgt )
non-fiction ( marcgt )

Notes

Bibliography:
Includes bibliographical references.
General Note:
Cover title.
Funding:
Digitized as a collaborative project with the Florida Geological Survey, Florida Department of Environmental Protection.
Statement of Responsibility:
by Kenneth M. Campbell.

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Holding Location:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
The author dedicated the work to the public domain by waiving all of his or her rights to the work worldwide under copyright law and all related or neighboring legal rights he or she had in the work, to the extent allowable by law.
Resource Identifier:
022019863 ( aleph )
22424426 ( oclc )
AHF8776 ( notis )

Downloads

This item has the following downloads:


Full Text











State of Florida
Department of Natural Resources Tom Gardner, Executive Director




Division of Resource Management
Jeremy Craft, Director




Florida Geological Survey
Walt Schmidt, State Geologist and Chief









Open File Report 30

Summary of the Geology of

Glades County, Florida by

Kenneth M. Campbell, P. G.


Florida Geological Survey Tallahassee, Florida 1990


































3 1262 04543 6143


LIRPARY







Summary of the Geology of
Glades County, Florida

By

Kenneth M. Campbell, P. G..


GEOMORPHOLOGY

Glades County lies partially within both the central and southern physiographic zones of White, (1970). Several authors have discussed the geomorphology of the Florida peninsula; White's (1970) classification will be utilized in this report. The dominant geomorphic features within the county include the DeSoto Plain, Caloosahatchee Incline, Caloosahatchee River Valley and the Okeechobee Plain (White, 1970) (Figure 1).


DeSoto Plain

The DeSoto Plain is located primarily in Manatee, Hardee, DeSoto, Highlands, Charlotte and Glades Counties. The plain slopes very gently to the south and has elevations which range from 85 feet at the north to 60 feet at the south. The DeSoto Plain is found only in the northwestern corner of Glades County. White (1970) stated that the DeSoto Plain was a submarine plain probably formed under Pleistocene Wicomico seas (70-100 feet above present sea level). White (1970) cites a notable lack of relict shoreline features as evidence of the submarine origin of the plain.


Caloosahatohee Incline

The Caloosahatchee Incline forms the southern bounding scarp of the DeSoto Plain and the eastern bounding scarp between the







Okeechobee Plain and the Lake Wales Ridge. The crest of the incline is at 60 feet above mean sea level (MSL) while the toe is at 30-35 feet (White, 1970). White (1970) suggested that the Caloosahatchee Incline was the steeper slope at the distal end of a submarine shoal and was preserved during emergence due to a low energy environment.



Okeechobee Plain

The Okeechobee Plain is located primarily in Okeechobee, Highlands and Glades Counties and ranges in elevation from 30-40 feet at the south edge of the Osceola Plain to about 20 feet at the north shore of Lake Okeechobee (White, 1970). The Okeechobee Plain includes Lake Okeechobee.


Caloonahatchee Valley

The Caloosahatchee Valley is a relatively low lying feature through which the Caloosahatchee River flows. The valley is bounded to the east by Lake Okeechobee and grades into the Gulf Coastal Lowlands on the west. It is bounded to the north by the Caloosahatchee Incline and to the south by the Immokalee Rise (White, 1970).



LITHOBTRATIGRAPHY

The geologic formations which are encountered within 1000 feet of the land surface in Glades County include, in ascending order, the Avon Park Formation, Ocala Group, Suwannee Limestone, Hawthorn Group (which includes the Arcadia and Peace River Formations),








Tamiami, Caloosahatchee and Fort Thompson Formations and undifferentiated surficial sediments. See the cross sections and cross section. location map (Figures 2-4) in conjunction with the text for this section.


Avon Park Formation
The Middle Eocene Avon Park Formation is the oldest lithologic unit commonly encountered in wells in Glades County. The formation underlies all of Glades County (Klein et al., 1964). Miller (1986) combined the Avon Park and Lake City Limestone (previous usage) into the Avon Park Formation in order to reflect the lithologic similarities of the two units and the presence of considerable quantities of dolostone.

The Avon Park Formation in Glades County consists primarily of tan to white, slightly porous, calcilutitic and fossiliferous limestone (packstone); well indurated granular limestone (grainstone) and finely crystalline dolostone. The top of the Avon Park Formation is encountered at approximately 840 feet below MSL in the northern portions of the county and dips to the south and southeast. In the southwest corner of the county, the Avon Park top is at 1050 feet below MSL while in the southeast corner of the county the top is at 1220 feet below MSL. The thickness of the Avon Park is variable, but in general thickens to the south and southeast and ranges from around 600 to over 1200 feet thick (Klein et al., 1964). The Avon Park Formation is unconformably overlain by the Ocala Group.







Ocals Group

The Upper Eocene Ocala Group consists of three formations. In ascending order they are the Inglis, Williston and Crystal River Formations (Purl, 1957). For the purposes of this report, however, the Ocala Group will be undifferentiated.

In Glades County, the Ocala Group consists primarily of white, cream or tan, poorly indurated calcilutitic limestone (packstone or wackestone) or tan, granular dolostone. The limestone is often a Eoraminiferal coquina. The top of the Ocala Group is encountered at depths of 600-800 feet below MSL in Glades County and dips generally to the south. The thickness of the Ocala Group, in wells examined in this study, ranges from 265 feet in the northeast portion of the county, to over 320 feet in the central and southeastern portions of the county.


Suwannee Limestone

The Oligocene Suwannee Limestone underlies most, if not all, of Glades County. Klein et al. (1964) show the Suwannee Limestone in all but the northeastern corner of Glades County and extrapolate maximum thicknesses of over 400 feet in southern Glades County. Samples examined for the present study reveal lesser thicknesses, ranging from 25 to 140 feet, with the greatest thickness in the central and southwestern portions of the county. The top of the Suwannee dips gently to the south-southeast.

The Suwannee Limestone in Glades County consists primarily of white, cream or tan recrystallized limestone (packestone or wackestone) or tan granular or sqcrosic dolostone. The limestone








is moderately to well indurated, variably calcilutitic, quartz sandy and slightly phosphatic. The Suwannee is commonly shelly or microcoquinoid, however, well-preserved fossils are rare and shells are often replaced with sparry calcite.


Hawthorn Group

Scott (1988) raised the Miocene Hawthorn Formation of previous usage to group status. In the south Florida area the Hawthorn Group consists of two formations, in ascending order the Arcadia and the Peace River Formations.


rcoadia Formation

The Arcadia Formation (Scott, 1988) is a predominantly carbonate unit which corresponds to the "Hawthorn carbonate unit" of past usage and includes the Tampa Formation of past usage as a member. The Tampa Member is not found in Glades County. The Arcadia Formation consists predominantly of white, light grey and yellowish grey, poorly to well indurated, calcilutitic and very finely crystalline limestone (wackestone to mudstone), dolomitic limestone and dolostone. The Arcadia contains variable amounts of clay, silt, quartz and phosphate sand with occasional phosphate gravel. Beds of clay, dolosilt and sand are common. The Arcadia is commonly somewhat fossiliferous (primarily oysters, pectens, bryozoans, with diatoms and foraminiferA in some clayey intervals).

The top of the Arcadia is encountered at depths of approximately 100 feet below MSL in the northwest corner of the county and dips in a general southeasterly direction to about 370







feet below MSL in the eastern portion of the county. The thickness of the Arcadia ranges from about 200 fest to 460 feet. The unit is thinnest in northeast Glades County and thickens to the southwest.


Peaos River Formation

The Peace River Formation (Scott, 1988) consists of the "upper Hawthorn siliciclastics" of prior usage as well as the siliciclastics previously placed in the Tamiami Formation (Parker, 1951, and Parker et al., 1955) and the Murdock Station and Bayshore Clay Members of the Tamiami Formation (Hunter, 1968). In Glades County, the Peace River Formation consists primarily of white, light gray and light olive, interbedded, poorly to moderately indurated sands, silts, clays and carbonates. The siliciclastic components are dominant. Carbonate material is primarily calcilutite or dolosilt. All lithologies typically contain variable amounts of quartz and phosphate sand.

The top of the Peace River Formation is encountered at approximately 40 feet above MSL in the northwest corner of the county. The formation dips generally to the east and southeast to depths of about 90 feet below MSL at the eastern edge of the county, although a depth of 111 feet below MSL is encountered in the south-central portion of the county. The thickness of the Peace River Formation typically ranges from about 140 to 280 feet, with the greatest thickness in rhe eastern portion of the county.


Tanimi Formation

The Tamiami Formation of Parker (1951) and Parker et al.,








(1955) has been restricted by later authors (Hunter, 1968; Scott, 1988). The Tamiami as used in this report reflects these changes and consists of the Ochopee and Buckingham Limestone Members and the Pinecrest Sand Member. Some difficulty arises in identifying the Tamiami where sandy sediments are devoid of shell material and recognizable limestone units are not present.

The Tamiami Formation is sporadically present within Glades County, primarily in the southern and western portions of the county. The top of the Tamiami, where encountered, ranges from 10 to 56 feet below MSL. The thickness of the formation ranges up to 70 feet.

The Tamiami consists primarily of yellowish gray, shelly, quartz sandy, slightly phosphatic limestone with calcilutite or recrystallized calcite matrix. Molds of aragonitic fossils are common. Quartz sand, shell content and induration are variable.


Caloosahatchee and Fort Thompson Formations

The Caloosahatchee and Fort Thompson Formations of previous usage are undifferentiated in this report due to the lack of lithologic characteristics on which to differentiate the units. These units were originally defined based on the fossils they contain.

The Caloosahatchee typically consists of unconsolidated sand, sandy "marl" and limestone containing abundant marine molluscs (Klein et al., 1964). The Fort Thompson consists of alternating marine and freshwater limestones and "marl" (Klein et al., 1964). These sediments are found in the northeast corner of the county, in







a band along the west edge of Lake Okeechobee and along the Caloosahatchee River Valley in the southern portion of the county. The top of the Caloosahatchee/Fort Thompson undifferentiated unit is encountered from approximately 25 feet above MSL to about 45 feet below MSL. The maximum thickness of the unit is around 60 feet.


Undifferentiated surficial sand and clay

The undifferentiated surficial sediments consist of terrace sands, organic soils and "marl" of Pleistocene and Holocene age. Undifferentiated surficial sediments blanket most if not all of the county. The thickness of these sediments ranges up to slightly more than 100 feet. Surficial sediments are thickest in the central portion of the county, in the vicinity of the Caloosahatchee Incline.


HYDROLOGY

Two regional aquifer systems are important in Glades County: the surficial and intermediate aquifer systems (SEGS, 1986). The Floridan aquifer system, although utilized in the past, contains nonpotable water (chloride and/or sulfate concentrations above 250 milligrams per liter (mg/L) in the Glades County area (Causey and Leve, 1976) and thus will not be discussed in this report.


Surficial aquifer system

The surficial aquifer system consists of undifferentiated surficial sands as well as shell beds, limestone and "marl" of the







Caloosahatchee/Fort Thompson and Tamiami Formations which contain water under unconfined, or water table conditions. The bass of the surficial aquifer system consists of relatively impermeable beds of regional extent in the Peace River Formation. The thickness of the surficial aquifer system ranges from about 20-100 feet.


Intermediate aquifer system

The intermediate aquifer system consists primarily of permeable beds in the Peace River Formation or Arcadia Formation where it is not in hydraulic communication with the Floridan aquifer system. Permeable beds are typically interbedded with impermeable beds and water is under confined conditions. The intermediate aquifer system ranges from around 90 to over 225 feet thick in Glades County.


Water Quality
Water quality in the surficial and intermediate aquifer systems is highly variable, but is generally better than the underlying Floridan aquifer system. Water sample analysis reported' by Klein et al. (1964) indicate that in general the water is hard (13-755 mg/L) with around one half of the wells with total dissolved solids above 500 mg/L. Sulfate, iron, chloride and color are all highly variable and often exceed standards. Phelps (1978) reports that some water in Glades County exceeds .5 mg/L ammonia concentration.







KINIURAL RUOURCUS

Quartz sand and limestone are currently produced in Glades County (Spencer, 1989). Quartz sand is Mined in the vicinity of Ortona from beds tentatively assigned to the Peace River Formation. These sands are characteristically coarse and are mined for use as concrete and asphalt sand, fine aggregate and filter bed materials. Limestone is mined from an area adjacent to the northwest shore of Lake Okeechobee and from an area west of Moorhaven (Figure 2). This limestone is utilized for road base material.

BIBLIOGRAPHY

Causey, L. V., and Leve, G. W., 1976, Thickness at the potablewater zone in the Floridan aquifer: Florida Bureau of Geology
Map Series 74.

Hunter, M. E., 1968, Molluscan guide fossils in Late Miocene
sediments of southern Florida: Transactions, Gulf Coast Association of Geological Societies, Vol. xviii, p. 439-450. Klein, H., Schroeder, M. C., and Lichtler, W. F., 1964, Geology and
ground-water resources of Glades and Hendry Counties, Florida: Florida Geological Survey Report of Investigations 37, 101 p. Miller, J. A., 1986, Hydrogeologic framework of the Floridan
aquifer system in Florida and in parts of Georgia, Alabama and South Carolina: U. S. Geological Survey Professional Paper
1403-B, 91 p.

Parker, G. G., 1951, Geologic and hydrologic factors in the
perennial yield of the Biscayne Aquifer: Journal of the
American Water Works Association, v. 43, pt. 2, p. 817-834.

Ferguson, G. E., and Love, S. K., 1955, Water
resources of southeastern Florida: U. S. Geological Survey
Water Supply Paper 1255, 965 p.

Phelps, G. G., 1978, Chemical quality of water used for municipal
supply in Florida, 1975: Florida Bureau of Geology Map Series
82.

Purl, H. S., 1957, Stratigraphy and zonation of the Ocala Group:
Florida Geological Survey Bulletin 38, 248 p.








Scott, T. M., 1988, The lithostratigraphy of the Hawthorn (Miocene)
of Florida: Florida Geological Survey Bulletin 59, 148 p.

Southeastern Geological Society Ad Hoc Committee on Florida Hydrostratigraphic Unit Definition, 1986, Hydrogeological units of Florida: Florida Geological Survey Special Publication 28, 8
p.
Spencer, S. N., 1989, The industrial minerals industry directory of
Florida: Florida Geological Survey Information Circular 105,
Part 1, 35 p.

White, W. A., 1970, Geomorphology of the Florida Peninsula:
Florida Bureau of Geology Bulletin 51, 164 p.







Figure Captions


Figure 1:


Figure 2: Figure 3:


Figure 4:


Geomorphic Map of Glades County, After White, 1970 Cross section location map Cross section A-A' Cross section B-B'





0 10 MILES i I I
0 10 KILOMETERS
SCALE



LAKE WALES
RIDGE



..::::...- ...'. ....: .......
.:::- -. : .... .......


PLICAN

..........
-.':.-. --..............o.......


- OKEECHOBEE



LOOSAHATCHEE
VALLEY Moore Haven
LTCEE RIVER


CALOOSAHATCHEE
VALLEY


SIMMOKALEE RISE


1: Geomorphic


1970.


Figure


of Glades


County,


after White,


Map








0 1 0 MILES 7] I - .. . ..
0 10 KILOMETERS
SCALE N B'
W-16281
W-2396

A

W.-5132 W-15880


I. LA KE0 SOKEECHOBEE W- 12844 . ,7















METERS FEET
100

0-0 MSL

-ICO
-50
-2C0


-300
-400

-150 -500

-600
-200
-7C0


-250 -o
-900

-30000


W-9291

W-5132


ARCADIA FORMATION


As


PEACE RIVER


SUWANNEEN OCALA GROUP


W- 12844 W-5435

UNDIFFERRENTIATED /W-9008
SANDS AND CLAYS-,/
--- _A_ __ _.. .

- - TAMIAMI FM.


FORMATION


FORMATION


ARCADIA FORMATION







OCALA GROUP


10 MILES


FEET 100


--MSL 0

-100

-200 -300

-400 -500

-600

-700

-800 -900 -1000


METERS


0


-50



-100



--150


-200


--250


*-300


10 KI HMFIERS SCALE


Approximate vertical exaggeration 200:1


F Cross Section


Figure


R


A - At














METERS FEET
r i:.J

0 . 9 *i:



-50 - -1(,


- 100 - 4 h -40'

-150 -500



-2004! -630


-250
r

-300 r - 10(L


W- 12844
W-15533




CALOOSAHATCEE ... . /ZFT. TIqO. PSON


.. . .. . � . .. . . . ...SUWANNEE LIMESTONE, E



OCALA GROUP


u 5 10 MILES
[ L I -"o


W-16281


- - - -


W-2396 UNDIFFERRENTIATED SANDS AND CLAYS \ '".


CALOOSAHATCHEE /r. THOMPSON






ARCADIA FORMATION


OCALA GROUP




AVON PARK
FORMATION


S1 I !i ,Approxlm te vericol exaggeration 200:1
SCALE

Figure 4 : Cross Section B -- B'


B'


W-- 15880


UNDIFFERRENTIATEE " SANDS AND CLAYS PEACE RIVER FORMATION





ARCADIA FORMATION


FEET
1001] ZL 0

-100]

-200.

-300

-400

-500

-600

-700


-800.

-900

-1000.


METERS


0


-50


--100



--150


--200



-250


-300


- ME




Full Text
xml version 1.0 encoding UTF-8
REPORT xmlns http:www.fcla.edudlsmddaitss xmlns:xsi http:www.w3.org2001XMLSchema-instance xsi:schemaLocation http:www.fcla.edudlsmddaitssdaitssReport.xsd
INGEST IEID EAHRJNWZG_SB9HAJ INGEST_TIME 2016-02-25T21:17:50Z PACKAGE UF00001029_00001
AGREEMENT_INFO ACCOUNT UF PROJECT UFDC
FILES



PAGE 1

State of Florida Department of Natural Resources Tom Gardner, Executive Director Division of Resource Management Jeremy Craft, Director Florida Geological Survey Walt Schmidt, State Geologist and Chief Open File Report 30 Summary of the Geology of Glades County, Florida by Kenneth M. Campbell, P. G. Florida Geological Survey Tallahassee, Florida 1990

PAGE 2

3 1262 04643 6143 PE I )0.30 LtIPARY

PAGE 3

0 50 Summary of the Geology of Glades County, Florida By Kenneth M. Campbell, P. G. GEOMORPHOLOGY Glades County lies partially within both the central and southern physiographic zones of White, (1970). Several authors have discussed the geomorphology of the Florida peninsula; White's (1970) classification will be utilized in this report. The dominant geomorphic features within the county include the DeSoto Plain, Caloosahatchee Incline, Caloosahatchee River Valley and the Okeechobee Plain (White, 1970) (Figure 1). DeSoto Plain The DeSoto Plain is located primarily in Manatee, Hardee, DeSoto, Highlands, Charlotte and Glades Counties. The plain slopes very gently to the south and has elevations which range from 85 feet at the north to 60 feet at the south. The DeSoto Plain is found only in the northwestern corner of Glades County. White (1970) stated that the DeSoto Plain was a submarine plain probably formed under Pleistocene Wicomico seas (70-100 feet above present sea level). White (1970) cites a notable lack of relict shoreline features as evidence of the submarine origin of the plain. Caloosahatchee Inaline The Caloosahatchee Incline forms the southern bounding scarp of the DeSoto Plain and the eastern bounding scarp between the

PAGE 4

Okeechobee Plain and the Lake Wales Ridge. The crest of the incline is at 60 feet above mean sea level (MSL) while the toe is at 30-35 feet (White, 1970). White (1970) suggested that the Caloosahatchee Incline was the steeper slope at the distal end of a submarine shoal and was preserved during emergence due to a low energy environment. okeechobee Plain The Okeechobee Plain is located primarily in Okeechobee, Highlands and Glades Counties and ranges in elevation from 30-40 feet at the south edge of the Osceola Plain to about 20 feet at the north shore of Lake Okeechobee (White, 1970). The Okeechobee Plain includes Lake Okeechobee. Caloosahatahee Valley The Caloosahatchee Valley is a relatively low lying feature through which the Caloosahatchee River flows. The valley is bounded to the east by Lake Okeechobee and grades into the Gulf Coastal Lowlands on the west. It is bounded to the north by the Caloosahatchee Incline and to the south by the Immokalee Rise (White, 1970). LITHOBTRATIGRAPHY The geologic formations which are encountered within 1000 feet of the land surface in Glades County include, in ascending order, the Avon Park Formation, Ocala Group, Suwannee Limestone, Hawthorn Group (which includes the Arcadia and Peace River Formations),

PAGE 5

Tamiami, Caloosahatchee and Fort Thompson Formations and undifferentiated surficial sediments. See the cross sections and cross section location map (Figures 2-4) in conjunction with the text for this section. Avon Park Formation The Middle Eocene Avon Park Formation is the oldest lithologic unit commonly encountered in wells in Glades County. The formation underlies all of Glades County (Klein et al., 1964). Miller (1986) combined the Avon Park and Lake City Limestone (previous usage) into the Avon Park Formation in order to reflect the lithologic similarities of the two units and the presence of considerable quantities of dolostone. The Avon Park Formation in Glades County consists primarily of tan to white, slightly porous, calcilutitic and fossiliferous limestone (packstone); well indurated granular limestone (grainstone) and finely crystalline dolostone. The top of the Avon Park Formation is encountered at approximately 840 feet below MSL in the northern portions of the county and dips to the south and southeast. In the southwest corner of the county, the Avon Park top is at 1050 feet below MSL while in the southeast corner of the county the top is at 1220 feet below MSL. The thickness of the Avon Park is variable, but in general thickens to the south and southeast and ranges from around 600 to over 1200 feet thick (Klein et al., 1964). The Avon Park Formation is unconformably overlain by the Ocala Group.

PAGE 6

Oaals Group The Upper Eocene Ocala Group consists of three formations. In ascending order they are the Inglis, Williston and Crystal River Formations (Puri, 1957). For the purposes of this report, however, the Ocala Group will be undifferentiated. In Glades County, the Ocala Group consists primarily of white, cream or tan, poorly indurated calcilutitic limestone (packstone or wackestone) or tan, granular dolostone. The limestone is often a foraminiferal coquina. The top of the Ocala Group is encountered at depths of 600-800 feet below MSL in Glades County and dips generally to the south. The thickness of the Ocala Group, in wells examined in this study, ranges from 265 feet in the northeast portion of the county, to over 320 feet in the central and southeastern portions of the county. Suwannee Limestone The Oligocene Suwannee Limestone underlies most, if not all, of Glades County. Klein et al. (1964) show the Suwannee Limestone in all but the northeastern corner of Glades County and extrapolate maximum thicknesses of over 400 feet in southern Glades County. Samples examined for the present study reveal lesser thicknesses, ranging from 25 to 140 feet, with the greatest thickness in the central and southwestern portions of the county. The top of the Suwannee dips gently to the south-southeast. The Suwannee Limestone in Glades County consists primarily of white, cream or tan recrystallized limestone (packestone or wackestone) or tan granular or sucrosic dolostone. The limestone

PAGE 7

is moderately to well indurated, variably calcilutitic, quartz sandy and slightly phosphatic. The Suwannee is commonly shelly or microcoquinoid, however, well-preserved fossils are rare and shells are often replaced with sparry calcite. Hawthorn Group Scott (1988) raised the Miocene Hawthorn Formation of previous usage to group status. In the south Florida area the Hawthorn Group consists of two formations, in ascending order the Arcadia and the Peace River Formations. Aroadia Formation The Arcadia Formation (Scott, 1988) is a predominantly carbonate unit which corresponds to the "Hawthorn carbonate unit" of past usage and includes the Tampa Formation of past usage as a member. TheTampa Member is not found in Glades County. The Arcadia Formation consists predominantly of white, light grey and yellowish grey, poorly to well indurated, calcilutitic and very finely crystalline limestone (wackestone to mudstone), dolomitic limestone and dolostone. The Arcadia contains variable amounts of clay, silt, quartz and phosphate sand with occasional phosphate gravel. Beds of clay, dolosilt and sand are common. The Arcadia is commonly somewhat fossiliferous (primarily oysters, pectens, bryozoans, with diatoms and foraminifera in some clayey intervals). The top of the Arcadia is encountered at depths of approximately 100 feet below MSL in the northwest corner of the county and dips in a general southeasterly direction to about 370

PAGE 8

feet below MSL in the eastern portion of the county. The thickness of the Arcadia ranges from about 200 feet to 460 feet. The unit is thinnest in northeast Glades County and thickens to the southwest. Peace River Formation The Peace River Formation (Scott, 1988) consists of the "upper Hawthorn siliciclastics" of prior usage as well as the siliciclastics previously placed in the Tamiami Formation (Parker, 1951, and Parker et al., 1955) and the Murdock Station and Bayshore Clay Members of the Tamiami Formation (Hunter, 1968). In Glades County, the Peace River Formation consists primarily of white, light gray and light olive, interbedded, poorly to moderately indurated sands, silts, clays and carbonates. The siliciclastic components are dominant. Carbonate material is primarily calcilutite or dolosilt. All lithologies typically contain variable amounts of quartz and phosphate sand. The top of the Peace River Formation is encountered at approximately 40 feet above MSL in the northwest corner of the county. The formation dips generally to the east and southeast to depths of about 90 feet below MSL at the eastern edge of the county, although a depth of 111 feet below MSL is encountered in the south-central portion of the county. The thickness of the Peace River Formation typically ranges from about 140 to 280 feet, with the greatest thickness in the eastern portion of the county. Tamiami Formation The Tamiami Formation of Parker (1951) and Parker et al.,

PAGE 9

(1955) has been restricted by later authors (Hunter, 1968; Scott, 1988). The Tamiami as used in this report reflects these changes and consists of the Ochopee and Buckingham Limestone Members and the Pinecrest Sand Member. Some difficulty arises in identifying the Tamiami where sandy sediments are devoid of shell material and recognizable limestone units are not present. The Tamiami Formation is sporadically present within Glades County, primarily in the southern and western portions of the county. The top of the Tamiami, where encountered, ranges from 10 to 56 feet below MSL. The thickness of the formation ranges up to 70 feet. The Tamiami consists primarily of yellowish gray, shelly, quartz sandy, slightly phosphatic limestone with calcilutite or recrystallized calcite matrix. Molds of aragonitic fossils are common. Quartz sand, shell content and induration are variable. Caloosahatohee and Fort Thompson Formations The Caloosahatchee and Fort Thompson Formations of previous usage are undifferentiated in this report due to the lack of lithologic characteristics on which to differentiate the units. These units were originally defined based on the fossils they contain. The Caloosahatchee typically consists of unconsolidated sand, sandy "marl" and limestone containing abundant marine molluscs (Klein et al., 1964). The Fort Thompson consists of alternating marine and freshwater limestones and "marl" (Klein et al., 1964). These.sediments are found in the northeast corner of the county, in

PAGE 10

a band along the west edge of Lake Okeechobee and along the Caloosahatchee River Valley in the southern portion of the county. The top of the Caloosahatchee/Fort Thompson undifferentiated unit is encountered from approximately 25 feet above MSL to about 45 feet below MSL. The maximum thickness of the unit is around 60 feet. Undifferentiated surficial sand and clay The undifferentiated surficial sediments consist of terrace sands, organic soils and "marl" of Pleistocene and Holocene age. Undifferentiated surficial sediments blanket most if not all of the county. The thickness of these sediments ranges up to slightly more than 100 feet. Surficial sediments are thickest in the central portion of the county, in the vicinity of the Caloosahatchee Incline. HYDROLOGY Two regional aquifer systems are important in Glades County: the surficial and intermediate aquifer systems (SEGS, 1986). The Floridan aquifer system, although utilized in the past, contains nonpotable water (chloride and/or sulfate concentrations above 250 milligrams per liter (mg/L) in the Glades County area (Causey and Leve, 1976) and thus will not be discussed in this report. Surfioial aquifer system The surficial aquifer system consists of undifferentiated surficial sands as well as shell beds, limestone and "marl" of the

PAGE 11

Caloosahatchee/Fort Thompson and Tamiami Formations which contain water under unconfined, or water table conditions. The base of the surficial aquifer system consists of relatively impermeable beds of regional extent in the Peace River Formation. The thickness of the surficial aquifer system ranges from about 20-100 feet. Intermediate aquifer system The intermediate aquifer system consists primarily of permeable beds in the Peace River Formation or Arcadia Formation where it is not in hydraulic communication with the Floridan aquifer system. Permeable beds are typically interbedded with impermeable beds and water is under confined conditions. The intermediate aquifer system ranges from around 90 to over 225 feet thick in Glades County. Water Quality Water quality in the surficial and intermediate aquifer systems is highly variable, but is generally better than the underlying Floridan aquifer system. Water sample analysis reported by Klein et al. (1964) indicate that in general the water is hard (13-755 mg/L) with around one half of the wells with total dissolved solids above 500 mg/L. Sulfate, iron, chloride and color are all highly variable and often exceed standards. Phelps (1978) reports that some water in Glades County exceeds .5 mg/L ammonia concentration.

PAGE 12

MINURAL RESOURCES Quartz sand and limestone are currently produced in Glades County (Spencer, 1989). Quartz sand is mined in the vicinity of Ortona from beds tentatively assigned to the Peace River Formation. These sands are characteristically coarse and are mined for use as concrete and asphalt sand, fine aggregate and filter bed materials. Limestone is mined from an area adjacent to the northwest shore of Lake Okeechobee and from an area west of Moorhaven (Figure 2). This limestone is utilized for road base material. BIBLIOGRAPHY Causey, L. V., and Leve, G. W., 1976, Thickness at the potablewater zone in the Floridan aquifer: Florida Bureau of Geology Map Series 74. Hunter, M. E., 1968, Molluscan guide fossils in Late Miocene sediments of southern Florida: Transactions, Gulf Coast Association of Geological Societies, Vol. xviii, p. 439-450. Klein, H., Schroeder, M. C., and Lichtler, W. F., 1964, Geology and ground-water resources of Glades and Hendry Counties, Florida: Florida Geological Survey Report of Investigations 37, 101 p. Miller, J. A., 1986, Hydrogeologic framework of the Floridan aquifer system in Florida and in parts of Georgia, Alabama and South Carolina: U. S. Geological Survey Professional Paper 1403-B, 91 p. Parker, G. G., 1951, Geologic and hydrologic factors in the perennial yield of the Biscayne Aquifer: Journal of the American Water Works Association, v. 43, pt. 2, p. 817-834. ,Ferguson, G. E., and Love, S. K., 1955, Water resources of southeastern Florida: U. S. Geological Survey Water Supply Paper 1255, 965 p. Phelps, G. G., 1978, Chemical quality of water used for municipal supply in Florida, 1975: Florida Bureau of Geology Map Series 82. Puri, H. S., 1957, Stratigraphy and zonation of the Ocala Group: Florida Geological Survey Bulletin 38, 248 p.

PAGE 13

Scott, T. M., 1988, The lithostratigraphy of the Hawthorn (Miocene) of Florida: Florida Geological Survey Bulletin 59, 148 p. Southeastern Geological Society Ad Hoc Committee on Florida Hydrostratigraphic Unit Definition, 1986, Hydrogeological units of Florida: Florida Geological Survey Special Publication 28, 8 P. Spencer, S. M., 1989, The industrial minerals industry directory of Florida: Florida Geological Survey Information Circular 105, Part 1, 35 p. White, W. A., 1970, Geomorphology of the Florida Peninsula: Florida Bureau of Geology Bulletin 51, 164 p.

PAGE 14

Figure Captions Figure 1: Geomorphic Map of Glades County, After White, 1970 Figure 2: Cross section location map Figure 3: Cross section A-A' Figure 4: Cross section B-B'

PAGE 15

0 10 MILES 1-----i---1_------0 10 KILOMETERS SCALE N SOKEECHOBEE L PLAIN RIDGE SLAKE DESOTO DE:OT -" -OKEECHOBEE PLAIN ..-... ..::::. -.::: ::;. ..:....:. A ....CALOOSAHATCHEE Fg e : eh Moore Haven CALOOSAHATCHEE IMMOKALEE RISE VALLEY Figure 1: Geomorphic Map of Glades County, after White, 1970.

PAGE 16

0 10 MILES 0 10 KILOMETERS SCALE N B' W-16281 W-2396 A -9291 W-W.-5132 W-15880 S .LAKE \T OKEECHOBEE W-12844 W-9008 Moore Haven B W-15533 R A' W-15533 ~ ,CALOOSA.HATCB'E, RIVE.R W-5435 --------_ ' -C ^. ..^ .r ·^eCC--C.-.^ ;^ ^ r I ^^.^j.;^ k^ .___________________

PAGE 17

A A' W-9291 W-5435 A W9? ' W12844 ETRS FEET W-5132 UNDIFFERRENTIATED W-9008 FEET METERS -1O .I. SANDS AND CLAYS 100 • --!_ _ _ .__-S.. .. 0-0 MSL--MSL 0 0 -._~._---.A-C---_ I.-' :E.THOMPTAMIAMI FM. -iCO __------100 "-5CO ---. PEACE RIVER FORMATION -50 ------50 -2C0 FORMATION -200 -300 ARCADIA FORMATION -0. -300 -100 -100 -400 -400 -150 --500 --500 --150 -60S-. ARCADIA FORMATION 600 SUWNNEE -600 -200 -700 OCALA GROUP, 7 ---800 ----800 -250 -250 --250 -900 OCALA GROUP -900 0 5 10 MILES -300 -I-CO 1 ] -1000 --300 Approximate vertical exaggeration 200:1 0 10 KIIoMETERS SCALE Figure 3 : Cross Section A -A' 4

PAGE 18

B B' METS FEET W-12844 W--15880 W-16281 W-2396 FEET METERS ETES T W15533 UNDIFFERRENTIATED , 100l r -;. , --'SANDS AND CLAYS \ , 0 SUNDIFERRENTIATEfD ,; --SL 00 0 0 M. .----.SANDS AND CLAYS 1,.. _.. ":". "Lcl*~l -CALOOSAHATCHE --100. -C -CALOOSAHATCIEE PEACE RIVER FORMATION /Fr. THOpSON -200 -50 IFT. THOMPSON OMPSON _-00 -. -300-300.------. --100 -100 -*r50 -4 IARCADIA FORMATION ARCADIA FORMATION -50 6 00 -00 -800 -250 -250 --6C0 OCALA GROUP r -900AVON PARK -1000 -300 -300 -1-. FORMATION 0 10 10 1iOMETrRS Approximate vertical exaggeration 200:1 SCALE Figure 4 : Cross Section B -B'

PAGE 19

-FLORIDA-GEOLOGICAL-SURVEY COPYRIGHT NOTICE © [year of publication as printed] Florida Geological Survey [source text] The Florida Geological Survey holds all rights to the source text of this electronic resource on behalf of the State of Florida. The Florida Geological Survey shall be considered the copyright holder for the text of this publication. Under the Statutes of the State of Florida (FS 257.05; 257.105, and 377.075), the Florida Geologic Survey (Tallahassee, FL), publisher of the Florida Geologic Survey, as a division of state government, makes its documents public (i.e., published) and extends to the state's official agencies and libraries, including the University of Florida's Smathers Libraries, rights of reproduction. The Florida Geological Survey has made its publications available to the University of Florida, on behalf of the State University System of Florida, for the purpose of digitization and Internet distribution. The Florida Geological Survey reserves all rights to its publications. All uses, excluding those made under "fair use" provisions of U.S. copyright legislation (U.S. Code, Title 17, Section 107), are restricted. Contact the Florida Geological Survey for additional information and permissions.