Citation
Characterization of the sediments overlying the Floridan aquifer system in Alachua County, Florida ( FGS: Open file report 29 )

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Title:
Characterization of the sediments overlying the Floridan aquifer system in Alachua County, Florida ( FGS: Open file report 29 )
Series Title:
( FGS: Open file report 29 )
Creator:
Green, Richard
Florida Geological Survey
Place of Publication:
Tallahassee Fla
Publisher:
Florida Geological Survey
Publication Date:
Language:
English
Physical Description:
114 p. : ill., map ; 28 cm.

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Geology -- Florida -- Alachua County ( lcsh )
Aquifers -- Florida -- Alachua County ( lcsh )
Alachua County ( local )
City of Ocala ( local )
Fossils ( jstor )
Cements ( jstor )
Minerals ( jstor )
Quartz ( jstor )
Clays ( jstor )
Genre:
bibliography ( marcgt )
non-fiction ( marcgt )

Notes

Bibliography:
Includes bibliographical references (p. 72).
General Note:
Cover title.
Funding:
Digitized as a collaborative project with the Florida Geological Survey, Florida Department of Environmental Protection.
Statement of Responsibility:
by Richard Green ... <et al.>.

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Holding Location:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
The author dedicated the work to the public domain by waiving all of his or her rights to the work worldwide under copyright law and all related or neighboring legal rights he or she had in the work, to the extent allowable by law.
Resource Identifier:
022019964 ( aleph )
22438985 ( oclc )
AHF8780 ( notis )

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State of Florida
Department of Natural Resources Tom Gardner, Executive Director





Division of Resource Management
Jeremy Craft, Director





Florida Geological Survey
Walt Schmidt, State Geologist





Open File Report - 29

Characterization of the sediments
overlying the Floridan aquifer system in Alachua County, Florida

by

Richard Green, Joel Duncan, Thomas Seal,
J. Michael Weinberg and Frank Rupert


Florida Geological Survey
Tallahassee, Florida
1989







Table of Contents


Introduction and Background..................................1
Methods.... - --. - - *- -*- -* -......... of* .... . .- . ....... ....... 2
Core and Cutting Descriptions...........................6
Permeameter Testing.- .................. ...................6
Sieve Analysis.................................. .. ,....11
Pipette Analysis..-... ................................... .22
X-ray Diffraction Analyses............................... 23
Discussion... ........... ................... 32
Summary and Conclusions. ....................................... 67
References.............................. . . . . ....... ...... . . ..72
Appendix IL..................... o..73
Appendix II ...................... . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1



List of Figures


Figure Figure Figure Figure Figure Figure Figure Figure Figure Figure Figure Figure


1:
2: 3:
4: 5: 6: 7: 8: 9:
10: 11:
12:


Core location map.... ............... ....................4
Typical Falling-head permeameter setup...........10
Columnar section for well #1 (W-16198)..........35
Columnar section for well #2 (W-16199)..........39
Columnar section for well #3 (W-16200)......41 Columnar section for well #4 (W-16201)..........45
Columnar section for well #5 (W-16202)..........49
Columnar section for well #6 (W-16203)..........52
Columnar section for well #7 (W-16204)..........55
Columnar section for well #8 (W-16205)..........58
Columnar section for well #9 (W-16206)..........61
Columnar section for well #10 (W-16207)..........65


List of Tables


Table 1: Table 2: Table 3: Table 4:


Table Table Table


5: 6: 7:


Alachua County wells studied in this Project.......7 Theoretical times needed to conduct (1) test on a sample of given hydraulic conductivity (K)........12 Results of permeameter analysis of selected samples--..........................................13
Average ranges of hydraulic conductivity for various geologic materials.................... . 17
Grain size analysis results.......................18
Bulk x-ray diffractometer data................... .26
Clay separate x-ray diffractometer data...........29








Appendices


Appendix 1: Appendix 2:


Lithologic logs for the 10 study cores.........74 Permeameter procedures . .. .. .. . .. ..............









INTRODUCTION AND, BACKGROUND

The Water Quality Assurance Act of 1983 mandated the

establishment of an Ambient Ground Water Quality Network to aid in the prediction and detection. of contamination of Florida's ground

water resources. Administered through the Florida Department of Environmental Regulation, this legislation provides the funding for constructing a background ground water quality well network statewide. Also included within the scope of the Act are research provisions for defining aquifer systems based on new and existing

hydrogeologic data, water quality sampling and analysis, as well as in-depth studies ranking the hydrogeologic pollution potential of the aquifer system. The bulk of the hydrogeologic data

acquisition, compilation, and analysis work is currently being undertaken by the five water management districts and, in Alachua

County, by the Alachua County Department of Environmental Services (ACDES).

As an integral part of its on-going aquifer definition research under Ambient Contract WM-206, ACDES contracted the present hydrogeologic study with the Florida Geological Survey (FGS). The primary purpose of this project is to attempt to improve the existing hydrogeologic information through lithologic

and hydrogeologic characterizations of the sediments overlying the Floridan aquifer system in Alachua County. These sediments locally comprise both the intermediate aquifer system and associated confining beds and the surf icial aquifer system. In addition, the continuity and lithology of hydrogeologi~c units within these post-


1.







Eocene sediments directly determine groundwater and contaminant movement in the aquifer systems. A detailed study of the

lithology, mineralogic composition, and relative permeability of these sediments would therefore aid in better understanding their

hydrogeologic nature, extent, and their hydrogeologic relationship with the underlying Floridan aquifer system.

In the initial phase of this contract, the FGS provided its core-drilling rig, personnel, and split-spoon sampling equipment. Over a three month period, the post-Eocene sediments overlying the Floridan aquifer system at ten pre-selected sites throughout the

county were drilled and sampled. A series of split-spoon- cores and cuttings were recovered from nine locations, and a continuous twoinch core was taken at the tenth site. Phase two of the study involved laboratory analyses of the cores by research assistants

at the FGS. As detailed in the methodology section of this report, the samples were described lithologically, analysed for mineralogy and grain size, and tested for relative hydraulic conductivity. The result of these analyses are tabulated and discussed in succeeding sections of the report.

Volume II of this report contains the bulk of the untabulated

raw data. This includes the x-ray mineralogical peak charts, sieve analysis data sheets, and the permeameter calculation forms.

METHODS

During the course of the project, a series of ten

stratigraphic core tests were drilled at selected sites in Alachua County by the FGS drilling rig (See Figure 1). An attempt was made to completely penetrate the undifferentiated Pleistocene-Holocene


2.

































Figure 1: Core location map.


3.





4--:


Lt . ..







- -






- - ~ -I- - . T



V - ----r t -4


t - - - -











* - -







---







. -- - -.... ..-- .


-









WEWELLLOCATION


E



-- -_
S.. ---- =W-.




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KENERAL HIHWAY MAP LACHUA COUNTY

FLORIDA






r r-


tar l -a


- A!ai







section and the Hawthorn Group section, where present, in each well. The drilling was stopped when top of the Ocala Group was

reached.

Two-foot split spoon samples were taken in each well at

approximately ten-foot intervals downhole. The split-spoon sampler, consisting of a steel barrel, core catcher, and removable clear plastic liner, was hammer-driven through each interval.

Split-spoon samples were taken in each well until the top of the.

Ocala Group was reached or until a hard, tight, or otherwise impenetrable lithology was encountered. The cores, contained .-within the clear plastic liner tubes, were sealed and sent to. the

FGS laboratory for analysis. Standard well cuttings, caught at the rig mud pan, were collected to cover the depth intervals between

split-spoon cores.

A variety of geological techniques were employed in this

study. The lithology of each sample was described using the Florida Geological Survey computer sample coding system. Fallinghead permeameter tests were conducted on split-spoon core samples from each well to characterize the hydraulic conductivity of these

sediments. Selected samples, generally corresponding to the splitspoon intervals, were sieved using a nest of 1/4 phi sieves to determine grain size distribution. The fraction of each sample finer than 4 phi was then pipetted to obtain a silt-.clay distribution. Portions of the split-spoon samples, where

applicable, were also analyzed on an x-ray diffractometer-todetermine to mineral components of both the bulk and clay

fractions.


5.







Core and cutting descriptions

Lithologic descriptions utilizing the Florida Geological survey computer sample coding system were made for the 10 Alachua County Study wells and entered in the county well-file data base. Of these descriptions, nine were made from split-spoon cores, and

one was made from the continuous core. Table 1 lists numbers, depths, elevations, and locations of the ten wells.

Split-spoon cores in polyurethane tubes were first sampled for permeameter analysis and then cut open lengthwise with a table saw. The cores were then arranged according to depth in cardboard core boxes. Samples for sieve and pipette analysis-.were subsequentlytaken from the split-spoon and continuous cores.

A binocular microscope was utilized in describing the lithologic characteristics of each cutting or core sample. The major characteristics described and recorded in the FGS computer coding system include sample color, porosity, lithology, induration, cement type, accessory minerals, and fossils. Formation tops were determined based on lithologic and/or paleontologic criteria. Rock colors were based on the Geological Society of America's Rock Color chart (Geological Society of America, 1984). Appendix I contains complete lithologic descriptions of each of the wells described in this study.


Permeameter Testing

Samples for permeameter testing fdretalerr-from- each series of split-spoon core tubes recovered from the ten sites in Alachua County. These tubes consisted of a PVC core tube which was filled


6.









ALACHUA COUNTY


TABLE 1

WELLS STUDIED IN THIS PROJECT


Study
Well Number

1 2 3

4

5 6

J 8 9 10


Accession
Number

16198 16199 16200 16201 16202 16203

1620416205 16206 16207


Location T R S


11s

09S 07S 08S 07S

10S l0S* 11S

09S 09E


19E 18E 18E 18E 18E 20E 20E 20E 20E 21E


Elevation* Total Depth
(Feet) (Feet)


09 35

27 17 05

21

28 03

06

04


70

120 160 115

140 60 60 85 175 150


50 36.5 90 53 101 30

42 65 125 191


*From 7-1/2 minute U. S. G. S. topographic quadrangle maps.







with a two foot section of sediment. Permeameter sample

preparation and set-up follow the standard procedure outlined in Appendix 2. In general, an attempt was made to choose the least

disturbed section of each core tube, while keeping the sampling interval as consistent as possible. This involved visually

inspecting each section of core tube for defects which would unduly influence the permeameter tests (e.g., air pockets in the sediment, void spaces, dried or cracked sediment). Each tube as then marked and a small length (5 cm) of tube cut from the section. After each sample was taken, it was covered at both ends with a polyurethane mesh- in order to keep the sediment from escapin. _The samples were then placed in a beaker of water for approximately 7-10 days in order to allow for at least partial saturation of the sample before the permeameter tests were preformed.

Each sample was placed on a permeameter for a period of time sufficient to conduct three falling-head permeability tests. This

was usually about 72 hours per test. Figure 2 illustrates a

typical falling-head permeameter as used in this study. In each

of these tests, the initial head, the final head, the total elapsed time of the test, the volume of the sample, the volume of water which passed through the sample, and the water temperature were measured. They hydraulic conductivity (K) of the sample was then determined for each test according to the formula: K2 . 303al/At (log0h0/h) T0

Appendix 2 provides additional information on the permeameter set up, and defines the terms in this formula.

Each sample was allowed to stay on the permeameter as long as


8.































Figure 2: Typical Falling-head Permeamter setup.


9.







METER STICK,

h. -


WINGNUT


OUTLET
POR T


PLEXIGL AS
+-TOP
PLATE UPPER GASKET

ED SAMPLE
D-- IN PLASTIC / CORE LINER

LOWER GASKET
, , ,PLEXIGLAS
* !! * / BOTTOM PLATE

INLET
POR TQUICK DISCONNECT FIT TING


M ::I
M


STOPCOCK


PLASTIC TUBING


*- WATER FLOW DIRECTION


BURETTE


I


UPMe RTAIM
MRn

THRE AD RO

L.OWER RXTA*
SCR







was necessary to conduct three tests. Table 2 summarizes the

theoretical times required to test for three different magnitudes of hydraulic conductivity (K). For a sample of very low K (10' ),

the time needed to conduct a complete test is 16 days. Since there were only five permeameters available for use, and since there were 47 samples to be analyzed, it was not possible to leave all samples on the permeameter for such a long period of time. Therefore, a decision was made to leave the samples on a permeameter for up to 21 days. If, after this amount of time, a sample had not allowed water to pass through, the sample was removed from the permeameter

and was deemed to be relatively impermeable. If a sample did show. evidence of flow within this period of time, it was allowed to remain on the permeameter until three tests could be performed. The results of the permeameter tests performed on the split-spoon samples are presented in Table 3. Values obtained for the

coefficient of hydraulic conductivity give only a relative measure

of sediment permeability. In general, the larger the negative exponent obtained from testing, the poorer the respective sediments are as an aquifer. Table 4 shows some comparitive K values for various soil and rock type.

Sieve Analysis

Samples were taken from each of the appropriate split-spoon core tubes for grain size analysis. Each tube of sediment was visually inspected in order to estimate the combined sand and silt percentage. If a sample was estimated to contain more than 50% sand or silt sized grains, a small portion (between 50 and 100 grams) of the interval was sampled for grain size analysis. If,


11.






TABLE 2

THEORETICAL TIMES NEEDED TO CONDUCT (1) TEST ON
A SAMPLE OF GIVEN HYDRAULIC CONDUCTIVITY (K)


K( CM/SEC)


5.00 X 10-7 5.00 X 10-8 5.00 X 10-9


t(SEC) t(DAYS) He6OCM/H1-55CM_


1.34 X 105 1.55 1.34 X 106 15.45 1.34 X 107 154.55


t(SEC) t(DAYS) HO=60CM/Hl=59CM


2.57 X 10 0 9 2.57 X 105 2.99

2.57 X 106 29.9


THIS TABLE WAS CALCULATED USING THE FORMULA IN APPENDIX 2 VALUES USED FOR THE VARIOUS CONSTANTS ARE TYPICAL. NUMBERS VALUES USED ARE:

a- 1.72 CM2 A- 9.08 CM2

L- 5.0 CM

Tc= 0.81 (T - 24 DEGREES CELSIUS)

C- 2.1815


12.







TABLE 3: RESULTS OF PERMEAMETER ANALYSIS OF SELECTED SAMPLES


WELL NUMBER 1. W-16198 COUNTY ALACHUA LOCATION : T.lS R19E S09 SAMPLE DEPTH HYDRAULIC CONDUCTIVITY (CM/SEC)

10.5-12.5 2.62 X 10-8

20.5-22.5 2.31 X 10-8

.30.5-32..5 - -6.60 X 10-6

40.5-42.5 2.62 X 10-6


WELL NUMBER 2. W-16199 COUNTY ALACHUA LOCATION : T9 -R S35A

SAMPLE DEPTH HYDRAULIC CONDUCTIVITY (CM/SEC)

10.5-12.5 1.31 X 10-8

20.5-22.5 1.49 X 10-8

30.5-32.5 1.41 X 10-8


WELL NUMBER 3. W-16200 COUNTY ALACHUA LOCATION : T17S RLja S27AA SAMPLE DEPTH HYDRAULIC CONDUCTIVITY (CM/SEC)

10.5-12.5 1.70 X 10-8

20.5-22.5 1.77 X 10-8

30.5-32.5 2.75 X 10-7

40.5-41.5 1.24 X 10-4

41.5-42.5 7.73 X 10-5

50.0-52.0 4.86 X 10-7


13.








WELL NUMBER 4. W-16201 COUNTY ALACHUA LOCATION : T=g Rj S1LA SAMPLE DEPTH HYDRAULIC CONDUCTIVITY (CM/SEC)

10.5-12.5 6.17 X 107

30.5-32.5 6.64 X 10-7

40.5-42.5 NO FLOW

50.5-52.5 2.35 X 10-7


WELL NUMBER 5. W-16202 COUNTY ALACHUA LOCATION : TIM Rja SQD SAMPLE DEPTH HYDRAULIC CONDUCTIVITY (CM/SEC

10.5-12.5 2.72 X 10-7

20.5-22.5 1.24 X 10-8

30.5-31.0 1.10 X 10-7

43.5-45.0 5.01 X 10-8

50.5-52.5 NO FLOW

60.5-62.5 6.30 X 10-8

85.5-87.5 5.47 X 10-7

90.5-91.0 5.49 X 10-6


WELL NUMBER 6. W-16203 COUNTY ALACHU LOCATION : T= R2Q S21D SAMPLE DEPTH HYDRAULIC CONDUCTIVITY (CM/SEC)

10.5-12.5 2.48 X 10-7

20.0-22.0 NO FLOW


14.








WELL NUMBER 7. W-16204 COUNTY ALACHUA LOCATION : T10S R2E S28 SAMPLE DEPTH HYDRAULIC CONDUCTIVITY (CM/SEC)

- 20.0-22.0 9.60 X 10-8

30.0-32.0 .5.02 i



WELL NUMBER 8. W-16205 COUNTY ALACHUA LOCATION : T11S R2OE S03 SAMPLE DEPTH HYDRAULIC CONDUCTIVITY (CM/SEC)

10.0-12.0 2.78 X 10-6

20.0-22.0 1.92 X I0-6

40.0-42.0 NO FLOW

50.0-52.0 NO FLOW

60.0-61.5 4.61 X 10-5

61.5-62.0 1.94 X 10-6


15.




WELL NUMBER 9. W-16206 COUNTY ALACHUA LOCATION : T=g R=QE Sg.A SAMPLE DEPTH HYDRAULIC CONDUCTIVITY (CM/SEC)

10.0-12.0 2.89 X 10-4

20.0-22.0 5.60 X 10-8

30.0-32.0 1.62 X 10-6

43.0-45.0 1.78 X 10-7

50.0-52.0 9.75 X 10-8

70.0-71.0 NO FLOW

80.0-81.0 NO FLOW

100.0-101.0 NO FLOW

110.0-111.0 NO FLOW



WELL NUMBER 10. W-1 207 COUNTY ALACHUA LOCATION : T=.1 R=1 SA. SAMPLE DEPTH HYDRAULIC CONDUCTIVITY (CM/SEC)

10.0-11.0 2.66 X 10-5

36.0-37.0 5.94 X 10-7

47.0-49.0 1.05 X 10-7


16.











TABLE 4:


AVERAGE RANGES OF HYDRAULIC CONDUCTIVITY FOR VARIOUS GEOLOGIC MATERIALS (Adapted From Freeze and Cherry, 1979 and Davis and DeWiest, 1966)


ROCK TYPE


HYDRAULIC CONDUCTIVITY
(K) In cm/s.


w 0J

uI


t
00)





0






ul
U.



0
0L I.


1g
ui
-a

T


10 10



--10-2

-10-3

102

- 10



106
-


10


- 10'

- 10 1


17.






TABLE 5: GRAIN SIZE ANALYSIS RESULTS

ALACHUA COUNTY ,

WELL #I. W-16198 LOCATION: .T-IfiR 19E S 09

SAMPLE DEPTH SAND SILT %LAY

20.5-22.5 62.92 16.58 20.50

30.5-32.5 86.90 3.95 9.14

41.5-42.5 94.62 3.53 1.58



WELL #2.W-16199 LOCATION: T 09S R 18E S 35A SAMPLE DEPTH SAND SILT %CAY

10.5-12.5 69.71 13.65 16.55

30.5-32.5 59.63 17.89 22.21



WELL #3. W-16200 LOCATION: T 17S R 18E S 27AA SAMPLE DEPTH SAND % SILT % CLAY%

10.5-12.5 60.10 (39.90 COMBINED)

20.5-22.5 51.09 11.40 36.96

30.5-32.5 80.45 6.39 13.31

50.0-52.0 82.23 11.29 6.32



WELL #4. W-16201 LOCATION: T OS R 18E S 17AB SAMPLE DEPTH SAND SILT % CLAY

10.5-12.5 67.92 13.86 18.19

30.5-32.5 80.92 7.49 11.45

40.5-42.5 74.12 13.43 12.25


18.






WELL#5. W-16202 LOCATION: T 17S R 18E S 05BD SAMPLE DEPTH SAND IT C.AY

10.5-12.5 79.71 3.23 16.97

43.5-45.0 69.87 6.82 23.61

85.5-87.5 81.50 5.29 13.64

90.5-91.0 68.73 22.11 9.89


WELL #6. W-16203 LOCATION: T 10S R 20E S 21BD SAMPLE DEPTH SAND % SILT % CLAY %

10.5-12.5 76.85 1.65 21.87


WELL #7.W-16204 LOCATION: T 10S R 20E S 28

NOT ANALYZED


WELL #8. W-16205 LOCATION: T 11S R 20E S 03 SAMPLE DEPTH SAND % SILT % CLAY %

10.0-12.0 85.60 2.35 11.84

20.0-22.0 77.26 3.84 18.63

60.0-61.5 89.38 1.94 7.06


WELL #9. W-16206 LOCATION: T 09S R 20E S 06 SAMPLE DEPTH SAND SILT % CLAY %

10.0-11.0 78.33 3.21 18.46

20.0-22.0 47.91 8.55 43.54

50.0-52.0 68.00 5.21 26.78

60.0-62.0 82.06 5.69 12.25


19.






WELL #10. W-16297 LOCATION T 09S R 21E S_04 SAMPLE DEPTH SAND SIL % CLAY

10.0-11.0 76.76 3.53 19.71
47.0-49.0 52.06 22.85 25.09


20.







on the6 other hAnd, the predominant grain size was estimated to be in the clay range, that core tube was not. sampled for grain size analysis of a sample which is predominantly clay is not statistically meaningful. In addition to the split-spoon grain size samples, a total of fourteen samples were taken from selected intervals within the continuous core (Well No. 10, W#16207) which was drilled for this project.

Each of the samples which were chosen for grain-size analysis

were weighed and dried slowly at a constant temperature of 35 degrees ceisius. The dried samples were taken reweighed and the water content of each sample was calculated. This gave a minimum

estimate of porosity when the water content of the sample was divided by the volume of the sample. This is a minimum porosity

because the samples were not fully saturated before the initial weighing.

Each sample was then placed in a beaker with a known volume of a dispersing agent (sodium hexametaphosphate) and stirred

vigorously in order to disperse the clay fraction and facilitate wet sieving of the sample to remove the clays. Following this bath, the sample was run through a 4 phi wet sieve in order to remove the silt and clay fraction. This fraction was collected in a beaker and saved for pipette analysis,

The fraction coarser than 4 phi was saved and dried. The weight of this coarse fraction was calculated and subtracted from the total dry weight of the sample. The resultant loss upon wet sieving-was- assumed to be the combined silt and clay weight.

Following these calculations, the sand fraction was placed in


21.







a next of 1/4 phi interval sieves which ranged from -1.25 phi to

4.00 phi. If the total weight of the coarse fraction was more than 75 grams, the sample was split using a mechanical splitter, and one half of the sample was sieved. If the total weight of the coarse

fraction was less than 75 grams, the whole coarse fraction was sieved. This nest of sieves was placed on a Ro-Tap machine for 30 minutes.

The sieves were then removed from the Ro-Tap and the individual sieves were cleaned. The weight of the sand fraction on each sieve was measured and recorded. The pan fraction (that fraction of the "coarse" sample which was finer than 4- phi) was saved and added to the beaker which contained the fine fraction. The totals of both the fine and coarse fractions were then

mathematically adjusted (the pan fraction weight was subtracted from the "coarse" fraction weight, and added to the "fine" fraction weight). This allowed for a more accurate representation of the percentage of sand and silt-clay fraction for each sample.

Pipette Analysis

The fine grained sediments (4 phi or less) collected during sieving procedures were evaluated for their silt and clay fractions using the pipette method (Friedman and Johnson, 1982; Folk, 1974).

Fines from each split-spoon sample, except those in for W-16207, were pipetted. Time constraints precluded pipetting samples from

well W-16207. One sample from well W-16200 was not pipetted because the sample fines flocculated.

Each sample was first dispersed in a known concentration of

dispersing agent and then poured into a 1000 ml graduated cylinder.


22.







Distilled water was added to the cylinder until the fluid/sediment column reached the 1000 ml level. The fluid/sediment column was

then stirred vigorously for 1 minute prior to initiation of the experiment. After stirring, 20 ml withdrawals (or 25 ml depending

on pipette used) were made at predetermined time intervals and depths appropriate to recover fines representative of each phi size class from 4 phi to 9 phi. Each aliquot (fraction) was released into a preweighed 50 ml beaker. The pipette was then filled with distilled water and rinsed into the same beaker to recover fines that may have adhered to the pipette interior. The beakers

containing-the aliquots were then oven dried at- 100 degrees; C toevaporate the water content of the sample. Upon drying, the

aliquot beakers were removed from the oven and allowed to

equilibrate to room temperature (24 degrees C) for 30 minutes before weighing.

After determining the aliquot weight (Friedman and Johnson,

1982; Folk 1974) the weight in each phi class was calculated. Using the phi class weights, weight percentages and cummulative weight percentages for each phi class from 4 to 9 phi were

calculated to determine the clay and silt fractions of each sample. Table 5 lists the sand, silt, and clay percentages for each sample.

X-ray Diffraction Analysis

X-ray diffraction (XRD) studies are useful for the identification of the various minerals in a sample, but are semiquantitative, at best, for determination of the exact mineral abundance or percentage. The purpose of this portion of the Alachua ,County project was to use an x-ray diffractometer to


23.






investigate the mineralogy of the ten study wells.

Representative samples for XRD analyses were collected at selected intervals in wells W-16198 through W-16207. The XRD samples were collected immediately above or below the location of

the permeameter samples, thus the mineralogy of permeameter samples may be assumed to match that of the intervals reported in this section. Samples were also collected from well W-16207, which is a continuous core, whenever there was a change in lithology. Therefore, well W-16207 sample intervals are quite variable.

Two approaches of the XRD analysis were chosen for the samples. The first approach was to analyze the sanp.e ajsia ."bulk" sample. Approximately 20-30 grams of each sample was ground to a fine powder. This procedure insured homogeneous mixing of the sample and reduced the chance of preferential orientation of certain minerals during analysis. The sample was then placed into planchets (sample holders) and placed into the x-ray diffractometer. The diffractometer records the x-ray reflections as peaks, both in a computer and on a paper chart or graph. Every mineral exhibits a series of characteristic peaks, which are used to determine the presence of the mineral. These charts are

included in this report as an appendix. The x-ray pattern for each sample begins at a 2-theta angle of four degrees so that all major clay mineral peaks could be identified. The second approach, used with approximately 85 percent of the samples, was to analyze the

mineralogy of the clay-size fraction by first physically separating the clay particles from the bulk sample. The separation was

achieved by suspending the clay minerals in water with a Calgon


24.







dispersant and allowing the larger particles to settle. Samples of the clay fraction were decanted onto glass slides and dried to produce oriented samples for XRD.

The results of the XRD analysis are listed in Tables 6 and 7. The sample number and interval are listed in the first two columns

of each table. The subsequent columns are for the minerals identified. A total of eleven minerals were positively identified. Table 6 contains the results of the bulk mineral analyses, and Table 7 contains the results of the clay fraction analyses. Mineral abundances were determined from the relative peak heights.

When possible,. estimates of relative abundances:.were made, with. C1- C2 - C3 representing abundance in descending order. Quartz (SiO2) is virtually ubiquitous in the samples. Opaline quartz (partially hydrated silica) is present in trace amounts in a few samples. Two forms of calcium carbonate (CaCO3), calcite and aragonite, are common, and dolomite, a calcium-magnesium carbonate, CaMg(C03)2) is also common. Phosphate minerals are abundant in numerous samples. The type of phosphate abundant in sediments overlying the Floridan aquifer system in carbonate-fluorapatite, (Cal0(PO4)6(F, OH, C03)2, commonly known as francolite. This mineral is a form of apatite in which fluorine and carbonate ions partially substitute for hydroxyl groups.

A variety of phosphate-bearing minerals, known as secondary phosphates, are derived from the chemical weathering of francolite. These minerals form authigenically in the sediments. The phosphate mineral wavellite, (Al3)PO4)2(OH)9*3H20, another secondary phosphate mineral, has tentatively been identified in one sample.


25.






TABLES 6 AND 7. BULK AND CLAY FRACTION X-RAY DIFFRACTION DATA

In these two tables of x-ray diffractometer data.-te* following abbreviations have been used: QTZ = quartz; CAL = calcite; ARG -aragonite; DOL - dolomite; OPA - opaline quartz; PHO - francolite orcarbonate-fluorapatite; WAV = wavellite; KAL = kaolinite; MON -montmorillonite; ILL = illite; PAL = palygorskite. The phosphate mineral millisite is most likely
present in one sample (well #8-2); the clay mineral sepiolite is present in one sample (well #8-6), and a calcium zeolite mineral is present in one sample. from well #4 (#4-1).
The letter C implies.that the mineral is common, or abundant. Based on relative peak heights, the most common mineral is listed as Cl and the second most abundant mineral is listed as C2, and so forth, when more than one mineral is present. The letter T implies that the mineral is present in trace amounts, and is not a major constituent of the sample.


TABLE 6: BULK


SAMPLE # INTERVAL


(FEET)

10.5-12.5 20.5-22.5 30.5-32.5
40.5-42.5


10.5-12.5 20.5-22.5 30.5-32.5



10.5-12.5 20.5-22.5 30.5-32.5
40.5-42.5 50.0-52.0



10.5-12.5 30.5-32.5
40.5-42.5 50.0-52.5


X-RAY DIFFRACTOMETER DATA


MINERALS
QTZ CAL ARG DOL PHO WAV OPA


C..
C
C
C


C
C
Cl


C2 C3


C
Cl Cl Cl
C



C
Cl C1


T


T C2 C2





T C2
C


26.


WELL #1 W-16198
1
2 3
4

WELL #2 W-16199
1
2
3

WELL #3 W-16200
1
2 3
4
5

WELL #4
W-16201
1
2 3
4










WELL #5
W-16202
1
2 3
4 5 6 7 8

WELL #6
W-16203
1
2

WELL #7
W-16204
1

3
4

WELL #8
W-16205
1
2 3
4 5 6

WELL #9
W-16206
1
2 3
4 5 6 7 8 9 10


10.0-12.0 20.0-22.0 30.0-31.0
43.0-45.0 50.0-52.0 60.0-62.0 70.0-71.0 80.0-81.0 100.0-101.0 110.0-111.0


C
C
Cl Cl Cl Cl Cl Cl


T


C2 C2 C2 C2 C2 C2


T

T


T


10.5-12.5 20.5-22.5 30.5-32.5
40.5-42.5 50.5-52.5 60.5-62.5 85.5-87.5 90.5-91.0



10.5-12.5
20.0-22.0



10.0-12.0 20.0
20.0
30.0-32.0



10.0-12.0 20.0-22.0 30.0-32.0
40.0-42.0 50.0-52.0 60.0-62.0


C2


C Cl


Cl
Cl Cl
T C


C2 C2


C2


C Cl
C
C2 Cl Cl


C3 C2


C2


Cl C3
C2 C3


T


C
C
C2 Cl Cl C2 Cl C2
C
Cl


Cl


Cl C2 C2

C2 Cl


T C3 C3 C3 C3


C2 C3


27.







SAMPLE #


WELL #10 W-16207
1
2 3
4 5 6 7 8 9
10 11
12 13
14 15 16 17 18 19
20 21 22 23
24 25 26 27
28 29 30 31 32 33


INTERVAL (FEET)



4.0 9.0
10.0-12.0 14.0 19.0
20.0-22.0 25.0 27.5 29.0 30.0-32.0 35.0 38.5
40.0-42.0 42.0 46.0 50.0-52.0
54.0 60.0-62.0 61.5 67.5 70.0 76.0 78.0 83.0 87.0 95.5
104.5 110.0 126.0 162.5 167.0
174.0 182.0


QTZ CAL ARG DOL PHO WAV OPA


C
C
C Cl
C
C Cl Cl C2 C2 Cl Cl C2

Cl C2 Cl C2 C2 C2

T

C2 Cl

Cl C2
T C3 Cl
C


C2


C3


T




T


C3 Cl
Cl C2
T Cl Cl C2
C2 Cl C2 Cl Cl Cl C2 Cl
C
T C
Cl C2
C
C2 Cl


T Cl Cl C2

T
C


C2 C2
T
T
T C2 C3
T
T C3
T C3 C3 C3




C3
T


C2 C3


28.










SAMPLE #

WELL #1 W-16198
1
2 3
4

WELL #2 W-16199
1
2

WELL #3 W-16200
1
2.
3
4 5

WELL #4 W-16201
1
2 3
4

WELL #5 W-16202
1
2 3
4
5 6
7 8

WELL #6 W-16203
1
2


TABLE 7:


INTERVAL
(FEET)


10.5-12.5 20.5-22.5 30.5-32.5
40.5-42.5


10.5-12.5 20.5-22.5



10.5-12.5 20.5-22.5
30.5-32.5
40.5-42.5 50.0-52.0



10.5-12.5 30.5-32.5
40.5-42.5 50.0-52.5


10.5-12.5 20.5-22.5 30.5-32.5
40.5-42.5 50.5-52.5 60.5-62.5 85.5-87.5 90.5-91.0


10.5-12.5
20.0-22.0


CLAY SEPARATE X-RAY DIFFRACTOMETER DATA

K ILERALS
KAL !LL* PAL M01 - -tAV o'QTZ, -CAL. ' DOL PHO ARG


Cl Cl Cl C2


Cl C1


C2 C3 C2 C3


C2

Cl


C2 C3


Cl Cl Cl C2
Cl


T
T


C2
T
C


Cl T
Cl

T
T Cl C
No sample


Cl
T


T


C2


C2 C1


Cl


T T


-- T


C2


Cl


T


C


C2



C2
T prepared


C2


T T


T Cl
C


C2


T
T


T


C


29.




BOOK TIGHfhYL YOND]


SAMPLE #


WELL #7 W-16204
1
2 3
4

WELL #8 W-16205
1
2
3
4
5
6


INTERVAL (FEET)


10.0-12.0 20.0
20.0-22.0 30.0-32.0



10.0-12.0 20.0-22.0 30.0-32.0
40.0-42.0 50.0-52.0 60.0-62.0


MNrALQZ
~ CAL 'ILL ''AL 'MON '%AV OT'Z 'CAL


T Cl
No sample prepared
T
Cl



Cl C2
No sample prepared
Cl T
C2
C2 Cl


DOL PHO


T


C C2


C2 C3
T


Cl
T


10.0-12.0 20.0-22.0 30.0-31.0
43.0-45.0 50.0-52.0 60.0-62.0 70.0-71.0 80.0-81.0 100.0-101.0 110.0-111.0


C
C Cl


T


C2
No sample Cl T
C3 Cl Cl Cl


C2

prepared


C2 C2 C3


WELL #10 W-16207
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9 10 11
12 13
14 15 16


4.0 9.0
10.0-12.0 14.0 19.0
20.0-22.0 25.0 27.5 29.0 30.0-32.0 35.0 38.5
40.0-42.0 42.0 46.0 50.0-52.0


C2 Cl
C
No C2 C2
No No No
T

No
C
No No


T C3


sample Cl
C3
sample sample sample Cl
C
sample

sample sample


C2


prepared


prepared prepared prepared


prepared prepared prepared


30.


WELL #9
W-16206
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9 10


T
T


T


Cl Cl C2


C2


C2


C Cl


Cl


C2


T








SAMPLE INTERVAL


MINERALS
KAL ILL PAL MON WAV QTZ CAL


DOL PHO ARG


WELL #10 W-16207 17 18 19
20 21 22 23
24 25 26
27 28 29
.30 31 32 33


(continued)

54.0
60.0-62.0 61.5 67.5, 70.0 76.0 78.0 83.0 87.0 95.5
104.5 110.0 126.0 162.5 167.0
174.0 182. 0


C2
No sample prepared
C
C3
C1
T C2
No sample prepared
C2
C T
C2
No sample prepared
C2
T T C2
C


C3 C2


T


C


Cl C3
No sample prepared KAL. ILL PAL MON WAV QTZ


Cl


C1


C1 C2
C1 Cl

C1 Cl
T


C3


C2.


CAL DOL


PHO ARG


NOTE: The clay fractions contain fine-grained quartz, dolomite, calcite and phosphate (in the form of francolite) as well as various clay minerals.


31.







Kaolinite, smeotite, illite, and palygorskite are the predominant clays present. The clay samples were not glycoated, and the illite and smectite components are lumped as the smectite

group in Table 7. Hetrick and Friddell (1984) report that, in general, smectite is the more common clay mineral in Hawthorn Group sediments in north Florida and Georgia.


DISCUSSION

In Alachua County, the upper Floridan aquifer system is comprised of porous marine limestones of the Eocene Ocala Group.

Locally, the Floridan aquifer system is overlai-n by - varXAng. thicknesses of post-Eocene siliciclastics and occasional calcareous beds. West of Interstate 75, the Ocala Group is overlain by generally thin undifferentiated Plio-Pleistocene sands and clayey sands. A shallow surficial aquifer system may be present in portions of this area. Throughout most of this area however, the

Floridan aquifer system is unconfined, allowing contaminants direct access to the aquifer (Macesich, 1988).

East of Interstate 75, the Floridan aquifer system is overlain by up to 160 feet of Miocene age Hawthorn Group siliciclastics and carbonates (Scott, 1988; Macesich, 1988). Porous sands and

carbonate units in the Hawthorn Group locally comprise the

intermediate aquifer system. In areas of the county where low permeability clay units of the Hawthorn overlie the Floridan aquifer system this group also forms the Tnfernedrate confining unit.

The sample sites in the present study were situated in areas


32.








where little or no data is available on the lithologic and hyrodeologio cha acteristics of the sediments comprising the surficial aquifer system and the intermediate confining unit.

In order to obtain a complete representation of the postEocene sediments, an attempt was made by the drill rig personnel to penetrate the entire sediment section overlying the Ocala Group

limestone. Drilling stopped when the first fragments of Ocala Group limestone were brought up in the drilling mud. In one well,

however (number 8, W-16205), drilling problems prevented proceeding to the top of the Ocala Group. The location, lithology and

h'ydrogisdl6gic aspects of each well are discussed indiVidua.y in. the following discussion section.

Well No. 1 (FGS accession number W-16198) was drilled on a hillside slope at the northeastern edge of the Kanapaha Prairie. The surrounding terrain is comprised of gently rolling siliciclastic hills resting on Ocala Group limestones. Karst

features have modified the surface relief with abundant solution depressions and sinks. Macesich (1988) characterized the region as a zone where confining clay sediments of the Hawthorn Group above the Floridan aquifer system are perforated.

Figure 3 illustrates the lithology of the sediments penetrated by Well No. 1. Due to encountering extremely hard Ocala Group chert at a depth of 50 feet, the drilling stopped. The predominate lithology in Well No. 1 is unfossiliferous, clayey quartz sand, with occasional interbedded clay beds. Four split-spoon cores were taken, spanning depth intervals of 10.5 to 12.5 feet below land surface (bls), 20.5 to 22.5 feet bis, 30.5 to 32.5 feet bls, and


33.



























Figure 3: Columnar section for well #1 (W-16198).


34.






DEPTH

(FEET M$L) W -16198
ELEVATION7O FEET Ov
%0 -..




5




10 -j- &
-.



20






I
w - --* .
UZ.
0












4U -4


- 45 *



2 0
W..........

U
00
50......


T.AIS R.19E S.09 ALACHUA COUNTY MSL)




Moderate-brown organic-rich quartz sand.




Dark yellowish-brown clayey, organic-rich quartz sand.

Greenish-black sandy clay.


Grayish-brown clayey quartz sand.


Grayish-brown clayey quartz sand.
Grayish-brown to dark yellowish-brown clayey, organic-rich quartz sand.
Graylsh-brown clayey, organic-rich, dolomitic quartz sand.
Grayish-orange clayey quartz sand.




Grayish brown to dark yellowish-brown clayey, organic-rich quartz sand.




GraVIsh-orange clayey quartz sand.


Grayish-brown to very light gray clayey, organic-rich quartz sand.



Grayish-brown to dark yellowish-brown clayey, dolomitic. organic-rich quartz sand.

Yellowish-gray calcareous, phosphatic quartz sand.

Grayish-brown clayey quartz sand with chert fragments and Eocene fossils.




Light blue-green to grayish-brown chart with sand and limestone fragments.

- T.D.-50 FEET.


35.







41.5 to 42.5 feet bis. Permeameter analyses of these intervals that the two shallow samples have surprising low conductivities, with magnitudes of only 10-8cm/s (see Table 4). The shallowest sample, 10.5 to 12.5 feet bis, is an unfossiliferous greenish black, sandy, kaolinite-smectite clay (Tabie 7). This unit is most likely part of the undifferentiated Pleistocene-Holocene sediments, and therefore is associated with the surficial aquifer system. The deeper low-permeability beds occur in the split-spoon interval 20.5 to 22.5 feet bls. Although this interval is primarily quartz sand, with approximately 20.5% clay, the kaolinite-palygorskite-smectite clay matrix (Table 7) effectively seals the-pore spaces in:-thesand.

The other two deeper split-spoon samples, 30.5 to 32.5 fe

bls and 40.5 to 42.5 feet bls, show low hydraulic conductivity values of 10*cm/s (Table 4). These clayey, quartz sand intervals contain kaolinite-smectite or palygorskite-kaolinite-smectite

mixtures (Table 7), which comprise less than 10 percent of each sample (Table 5). The lower clay content is the primary reason for the much higher conductivity values of the deeper split-spoon samples.

Most of the sediments penetrated by well W-16198, with the exception of the chert at 41.5 to 45 feet deep, appear to be undifferentiated post-Miocene. The chert represents a silicified layer developed at the top of the Ocala Group limestone.

Well No. 2 (W-16199) was drilled to a depth of 36.5 bls, where it penetrated the top of the Ocala Group. The well is situated at the western edge of the perforated aquifer zone, one mile south of


36.







the University of Florida Experimental Farm. Figure 4 illustratesthe lithology of the sediments penetrated in Well No. 2. The top

of the fossiliferous, calcilutitic, marine limestone of the Crystal River Formation of the Ocala Group was reached at 36 feet below land surface (bls). Clays and clayey quartz sands of the Miocene Hawthorn Group were penetrated from 36 to 30.5 feet - bls, and Pleistocene-Holocene undifferentiated clayey sands were encountered between 0 to 30.5 feet bls.

Three split-spoon cores were taken in the depth intervals 10.5 to 12.5 feet bis, 20.5 to 22.5 feet bis, and 30.5 to 32.5 feet bis. All three. samples were comprised of clayey, quartz, sands, and-all had very low hydraulic conductivity values of 10-8cm/s (Table 4). Quartz was the most common mineral in the two intervals in the undifferentiated section. In the 10.5 to 12.5 feet bls interval,

kaolinite and smectite are the predominant clays. The 20.5 to 22.5 feet bls sample contains kaolinite, wavelite, and smectite clays.

Sample interval 30.5 to 32.5 feet bls is situated in the upper Hawthorn Group sediments. Quartz, francolite, and wavelite are the dominant minerals present (Table 6).

Well No. 3 (W-16200) was drilled four miles north of Alachua,

just east of Alligator Road. The well site is located in the rolling hills at the western edge of the Northern Highlands

geomorphic zone - (White, 1970). Figure 5 is a columnar section illustrating the lithologic units penetrated in this well. The well bottomed at 90 feet bls, at or very near the top of the Ocala

Group limestone. Typical Ocala Group forminifera in the last sample suggest the top of the limestone was reached.


37.



























Figure 4: Columnar section for well #2 (W-16199).


38.

















DEPTH W 119 (FEET MSL) W-16I,.
ELEVATION-120 FEET
0




5
ZE



10 0

W.) T. - - W
o ~
0





20J ?J -If r .


2


2 5 - . .. ... .. - ........ ...



U. |
< .
25 O






0


r35 ___0c


T.09S R.18E S.35 ALACHUA COUNTY ( M odrt rw omdrt eiwsUboncaeogncqat ad


Moderate brown to moderate yellowish-brown clayey, organic quartz sand. with chert fragments.




Dark yellowish-brown clayey, organic quartz sand. Dark yellowish-brown sandy, organic clay with chert fragments. Dark yellowish-brown clayey quartz sand. Light olive-gray clayey, organic quartz sand. Grayish-brown sandy, organic-rich clay. Light olive-gray clayey, dolomitic, phosphatic quartz sand. Grayish-brown to yellowish-gray clayey, organic-rich quartz sand Very light-orange fossiliferous limestone. T.D.-36.5 FEET.


39.



























Figure 5: Columnar section for well #3 (W-16200).


40.







DEPTH
(FDETMS) W-16200 T-07S R.18E S.27 A ALACHUA COUNTY
ELEVATION-160 FEET (MSL)

............

.. .... Pinkish-gray to dark yellowish-orange clayey, organic quartz sand.

S10 - .
Very light-orange clayey quartz sand. Yellowish-gray to light yellowish orange clayey, organic quartz sand. Yeliowish-gray to light yellowish-orange clayey quartz sand. 20
Light greenish-yellow sandy, phosphatic clay.

Grayish-brown to yellowish-gray clayey quartz sand.


30 .... Very light-orange to white clayey, phosphatic quartz sand.


Grayish-brown to yellowish-gray clayey quartz sand.


40 Very light-orange to white clayey, phosphatic quartz sand.
Grayish brown to dark yellowish-ornge clayey quartz sand with silica cement.
- Yellowish-gray to light olive clayey, phosphatic quartz iand with limestone fragments.

Yellowishgray to light-oiive clayey. phosphatic quartz sand with clay and limestone fragments.
0
50 ..... Very light-orange clayey quartz sand.
White sandy caicllutite.
.. ..-- White to dark yellowlsh-orange sandy, phosphatic calcilutite.
Yellowish.gray calcareous, phosphatic quartz sand.


60
Yellowish-gray sandy, phosphatic caclilutite.



70 -....

Yellowish-gray to moderate yellowishbrown calcareous, phosphatic quartz sand.


80
Yellowish-gray sandy, phosphatic celcilutite. (.C
L - Yellowish-gray to white fossiliferous limestone.
90 o -- T.D.-90 FEET.
0 (9-


41.







Undifferentiated Hawthorn Group sediments occurred from 22 to 90 fest bis. The upper portion of this section, from 22 to 52..3 feet bis, was largely clay, phosphatic quartz sands, with occasional interbedded clays. Some of these sediments may represent reworked Hawthorn Group deposits. A series of sandy, unfossiliferous carbonates, containing interbedded sands, extends from 52.5 to 90 feet bis. Although permeameter. testing was *not performed on sediments in this interval, visual examination of the calcareous units indicates these sediments probably have relatively high permeabilities; they may locally serve as units of the intermediate aquifer system.

Six split-spoon samples were recovered in Well No. 3, spanning the interval from 10.5 to 52 feet bls. The uppermost samples (10.5 to 12.5 feet bls and 20.5 to 22.5 feet bls) were taken in the undifferentiated Pleistocene-Holocene section, and have very low hydraulic conductivities of 10-8CM/s (see Table 4). Both intervals contain abundant silt and clay fractions. The interval from 10.5 to 12.5 feet bls is almost 40 percent silt and clay (Table 5), with the clays comprised largely of smectite and palygorskite. In the interval 20.5 to 22.5 feet bls, silt and clay combined from over 48 percent of the sample. Smectite is the dominant clay present. The four deeper split-spoon samples were situated in the clayey, phosphatic sands of the Hawthorn Group. These displayed a range

of hydraulic conductivity values. The 30.5 to 32.5 feet bls interval tested at a value of 107cm/s. Although this interval contains less than 20 percent combined silt and clay, the predominantly smectite clay component effectively seals this


42.







phosphatic, quartz sand unit. A moderate conductivity of 10~4cm/s is observed in the 40.5 to 41.5 feet bls interval. This interval is also a phosphatic, clayey quartz sand. Smectite and

palygorskite are the most common clays present. The lower portion of this split-spoon sample, comprised of the interval 41.5 to 42.5 feet bls displayed a lower conductivity of 105 cm/s. Interestingly, the lith'dlogy over the entire 40.5 to 42.5 feet bls sample appeared visually to be similar; the order of magnitude difference in conductivity between the upper and lower parts of the same sample underscores the vertical variability in the hydraulic conductivities of these samples.

The deepest split-spoon sample covered the depth interval 50.5 to 52.5 feet bls. Lithologically, this interval is quartz sand, with less than 18 percent silt and clay matrix. Smectite is the

only clay present in the clay fraction, and quartz is the most common constituent of the bulk sample. Despite the relatively low clay content, the interval tested as a low conductivity of -cm/s.

Well No. 4 (W-16201) is situated two miles west of Alachua, at the westernmost edge of the Northern Highlands zone. It is located in the karst-modified, rolling hills of the perforated aquifer zone (Macesich, 1988). Well No. 4 was drilled to a total depth of 53 feet bls where it penetrated the fossiliferous Crystal River Formation of the Ocala Group. The columnar stratigraphic section is shown in Figure 6. Hawthorn Group sediments were not present in this well. The upper 53 feet of the section consisted of undifferentiated Pleistocene-Holocene clayey, quartz sands.

These sediments may consist, at least in part, of reworked Hawthorn


43.



























Figure 6: Columnar section for well #4 (W-16201).


44.





DEPTH W-16201
(FEET MESL)
ELEVATtON.116 FEET (MSLI


-1.0









-5




-20




-5




-30


T.08S R.18E S.17 A ALACHUA COUNTY


.....


..








0.
0I





I-

U t









I-
- Z





ORe
W ................
...... .. . .
. . . . ........
...I








(0.










0(L


45.


Moderate yellowish-brown to moderate-brown clayey, phosphatic, organic-rich quartz sand.














Grayish-orange to yellowish-gray clayey, organic-rich quartz sand.













Light-red to light-brown clayey, organic-rich, dolomitic quartz sand. Very light-orange clayey quartz sand. Light-brown clayey, calcareous quartz sand. Very light-orange to white fossiliferous limestone. T.D.=53 FEET.


35


- 40




-45




-'50







Group deposits. Only the interval from 0 - 12.5 feet bls contains phosphatic sands.

Four split-spoon core samples were taken between 10.5 and 52.5 feet bis. All four showed low or very low hydraulic conductivities. The interval 10.5 to 12.5 feet bls consisted of a clayey, phosphatic, and dolomitic quartz sand. Smectite, and trace amounts of kaolinite comprise the clay component.

Permeameter testing showed a hydraulic conductivity of only 10'7cm/s (Table 4). Similarly, the next deeper split-spoon interval (30.5 to 32.5 feet bls), a clayey, organic-rich quartz sand also tested

at 10'i7cm/s. The interval 40.5 to 42.5 feet bls consisted-of clayey quartz sand, and exhibited no hydraulic conductivity (no flow) after 21 days on the permeameter. This interval was comprised of about 26 percent combined silt and clay, less than some other more permeable samples studied during this project. The last splitspoon sample interval (50.5 to 52.5 feet bls) contained a

phosphatic, clayey, calcareous, quartz sand. Phosphate is the most common mineral in both the bulk and clay fraction x-ray analyses.

This interval tested at 10'cm/s hydraulic conductivity, similar to values obtained up-core.

Well No. 5 (W-16202) was drilled in extreme northwestern Alachua County, about one and a half miles west of the community of Bland. This well is situated in the Northern Highlands geomorphic zone (White, 1970), and in the perforated aquifer zone

(Macesich, 1988). The topography surrounding the well site have been modified by numerous karst depressions and Hawthorn Group sands are exposed in nearby creek banks. Well No. 5 encountered


46.







Ocala Group limestone at a depth of 94 feet bis. Figure 7 shows the columnar section for this well. Seventy-four feet of

undifferentiated Hawthorn Group clayey, phosphatic quartz sands and sandy clays were penetrated from 20 to 94 feet bls. The upper 20

feet of the well consists of undifferentiated Pleistocene-Holocene quartz sand and clay. Quartz and phosphate are the most abundant minerals throughout the entire section (Table 6).

Eight split-spoon cores were taken between 10.5 and 91 feet bls. The shallowest interval sampled (10.5 to 12.5 feet bis) was in the undifferentiated Pleistocene-Holocene section.

Lith6logically, this interval is comprised of a sandy, phosphatic, organic-rich clay, with a hydraulic conductivity of 10'7cm/s (Table 7). The three uppermost Hawthorn Group samples (20.5 to 22.5, 30.5 to 31.0, and 43.5 to 45.0 feet bls), which consist of clayey, phosphatic quartz sands and sandy, phosphatic clays, had relative conductivities of 10-, 107 , and 107 cm/s respectively. No hydraulic conductivity was observed in split-spoon interval 50.5 to 52.5 feet bls, which is a dolomitic and phosphatic, slightly clayey quartz sand. The lower three split-spoon cores, 60.5 to

62.5, 82.5 to 87.5, and 90.5 to 91.0 feet bls, showed downwardincreasing hydraulic conductivities of 10's, 10-7, 10-6cm/s respectively. These sediments are largely phosphatic, clayey and dolomitic quartz sands.

Well No. 6 (W-16203) is located at the northern edge of Paynes Prairie, one half mile west of Alachua Sink. Paynes Prairie is part of the Alachua Lake Cross Valley, a lowlands physiographic zone of white (1970). The prairie terrain is flat and karstic, and


47.



























Figure 7: Columnar section for well #5 (W-16202).


48.















DEPTH (FEET MSL)


W-16202 .
ELEVATION-14o FEET (MSL)


T.07S R.18E S.05 B ALACHUA COUNTY


I0 .....

WCDJI









- 20 - -- - -

-U 0








-40
U.











-50
-20












6 70 ~








-80




-9 0 __


.400


YellowIsh-grey to moderate yellowlsh-brown clayey quartz sand with plant remains.





YallowIsh-gray to dark yellowish-orange sandy clay with plant remains.


Dark grayish-yellow sandy, phosphatic clay.


Yellowih-gray to grayish orange sandy clay.


White to dark yallowlsh-orange sandy. phosphatic clay.


Grayish-brown clayey, phosphatic quartz sand.



Grayish-yellow clayey. phosphatic quartz sand.


Yellowish-gray to moderate yellowish-brown clayey quartz sand.

Grayish-yellow clayey quartz sand.


Grayih-brown clayey quartz sand.


Very light.orange clayey, phosphatic quartz sand.


Grayish-brown to white calcareous, phosphatic quartz sand.


- "White calcareous, phosphatic quartz sand.


Grayish-orange-pink to dark yellowlsh-orange calcareous, phosphatic quartz sand.



Light graenish-yellow clay with limestone fragments.

Very light-orange calcareous, phosphatic quartz sand.
Yellowish-gray calcareous, phosphatic quartz sand with bryozoan fossils.
Very light-orange calcareous, phosphatic quartz sand.
Pinkish-gray calcareous quartz sand with chart fragments.


Very light-orange tossiliferous limestone.

. T.O.-101 FEET.


49.







is situated in the perforated aquifer zone (Macesich, 1988). Ocala Group limestone is near the surface, covered only by a thin veneer of Hawthorn Group and undifferentiated Pleistocene-Holocene deposits. A columnar stratigraphic section for Well No. 6 is illustrated in Figure 8. The top of the Ocala Group was penetrated at the well's total depth of 30 feet (bls). This limestone is overlain by 10 feet of sandy, phosphatic clay and clayey sand of the Hawthorn Group. The Hawthorn is in turn overlain by 20 feet of undifferentiated Pleistocene-Holocene clayey, peaty, quartz sands.

Two split-spoon cores were taken in Well No. 6 covering the depth intervals 10.5 to 12.5 and 20 to 22 feet bls. The shallower

interval lies in the undifferentiated Pleistocene-Holocene section, and was comprised of clayey, dolomitic, quartz sand and sandy, kaolinite-rich clay. Permeameter analysis of this interval shows

a low hydraulic conductivity of 10'7 cm/s, reflecting the low permeability of the clay matrix. The 20 to 22 feet bls interval is situated in the top of the Hawthorn Group sediments. This

interval consisted of a quartz sandy, phosphatic clay. Phosphate

and quartz are the most common minerals present, and the clay traction is comprised of francolite and trace amounts of kaolinite (Tables 6 and 7). This interval showed very low hydraulic

conductivity, with no flow in the permeameter after 21 days of testing.

Well No. 7 (W-16204) is situated on the man-made levee crossing north-central Paynes Prairie, about one and a half miles east of Rocky Point. This well was drilled to a total depth of 42


50.




























Figure 8: Columnar section for well #6 (W-16203).


51.







PT" W-16203
IFIRST MOIL)
ELEVATIONeso PEET (MSL)
0








- 5 :4- *.. . .. . . . . .. . . .






+15 -9




..20 - ..... *..s.. .




25 30
cc W
........


T.1OS R.20E S.21 B ALACHUA COUNT







Light-brown organic-rich quartz sand. Grayish-brown clayey quartz sand. Grayish-orsngo.pink sandy, organlc-rich clay. Light-olive to light brown sandy, phosphatic clay. -. Grayish-brown to light brown clayey quartz sand. Vary linht-orange to yellowish gray fossiliferous limestone. T.D.-30 FEET.


52.







feet bls, and penetrated the Ocala Group at 40 feet bis. Figure 9 shows the columnar section for this well. The interval from 0 to 32 feet bls is tentatively placed in the category of

undifferentiated Pleistocene-Holocene section due primarily to the abundance of organic and Holocene freshwater gastropod shells in

many of the samples. Phosphatic sand, probably reworked from Hawthorn Group sediments, is present in the interval from 10 to 12 feet bis.

Four split-spoon cores were recovered from the intervals 10 to 12, 20, 20 to 22, and 30 to 32 feet bls. Permeameter tests were not performed on the 10 to 12 or the 20 feet bls interva.s-, both phosphatic, calcareous, quartz sandy clays, because they were either too badly grooved by the core catcher or too unconsolidated to seal in the permeameter. The interval 20 to 22 feet bls is a calcareous, quartz sandy clay with a very low hydraulic

conductivity of 10'a cm/s (Table 4). Calcite and aragonite are the most abundant minerals, with trace quantities of palygorskite clay

also present. The presence of freshwater gastropods (Helisoma sp.) suggests a fluvial or lacustrine origin for these sediments.

Split-spoon sample interval 30 to 32 feet bls consisted of a sandy, clayey, organic-rich limestone at the base of the Hawthorn Group section. Hydraulic conductivity was tested at 107 cm/s, a low value probably due in part to the kaolinite clay content of the sample.

Well No. 8 (W-16205) is located at the southern edge of Paynes Prairie, about two and a half miles northwest of Micanopy. The well site was situated on a small remnant highland, surrounded by


53.



























Figure 9: Columnar section for well #7 (W-16204).


54.






""-W-16204
(FEET MSL)
ELEVATION-60 FEET (MSL)











10




15 ejnj a
z
W



-:0




.... ... ...



o z
15 z







- 30




35




S40
4 0 Q cc
0 0


T1OS R.20E S.28 ALACHUA COUNTY







Dark gray to yellowIsh-gray sandy peat.





Yellowish-gray calcareous. sandy, phosphatic clay.
Dark-brown calcareous, sandy phosphatic clay.



Dark yellowishbrown to dark-brown sandy, calcareous clay with freshwater gastropods.




Dark yellowish-brown calcareous, sandy clay with freshwater mollusk fragments.




Moderate gray to black organic-rich clay with mollusk shell fragments.




Dark yellowish-brown to black clayey, sandy, organic-rich limestone.




Black to moderate-gray clayey quartz sand with plant remains and limestone.
and Eocene fossils.



Light gray fossiliferous limestone. ST.D.-42 FEET.


55.







the otherwise flat, swampy, and highly karstic prairie terrain of the Alachua Lake Cioss Va'liey geomorphic zone' (White, 1970). Figure 10 illustrates the stratigraphic section penetrated by the well. The well did not reach the top of the Ocala Group, ending instead in a moderately-indurated Hawthorn Group cemented sand. Much of the well section was composed of interbedded sandy clays

and clayey sands, making an accurate formational pick somewhat subjective. The top of the Hawthorn Group was placed at 40 feet bls, where phosphatic sand first appears downhole, and where organic remains cease to be an accessory constituent of the

samples. Overlying the Hawthorn Group, in thea4gterval:-$rom--to 40 feet (bls), are a series of clayey sands and sandy clays containing plant remains. These sediments are considered to be undifferentiated, Pleistocene-Holocene section.

Seven split-spoon cores were recovered between 10 and 62 feet bis. One interval, 30 to 32 feet bis, could not be tested for conductivity because it was scored by the core-catcher teeth and

would not seal in the permeameter. The shallowest intervals, 10 to 12 and 20 to 22 feet bls, are part of the undifferentiated Pleistocene-Holocene age section. Both intervals are clayey sands, showing moderately low hydraulic conductivities of 10*6cm/s (Table 4). Quartz is the most abundant mineral in the bulk sample and kaolinite and palygorskite comprise the clay fraction in the 10 to

12 feet bls interval. . Quartz, francolite, and wavelite are the abundant mineral components of the 20 to 22 feet bls interval. The phosphate may be derived from reworked Hawthorn Group sediments. Four of the split-spoon cores were taken in the Hawthorn Group.


56.






























Columnar section for well #8 (W-16205).


57.


Figure 10:











D4PTH .1
(PIST MSL) W-16205
ELBVATION-OS PEET (ME
T0T




10- W

W

2~
420 -Z'






-30



- 40 -WW" W416erm0n


-50 0





-60


T.11S R.20E S.03 ALACHUA COUNTY


Moderate yellowish-brown clayey, organic-rich quartz and.


Yellowiih-gray to grayish-brown clayey quartz sand.


Gray Ish-brown clayey, organic-rich quartz sand.


Very light-gray to yellowishgray clayey quartz sand.
Grayish-brown clayey, organic-rich sand.

Oark yellowish-orange to grayish brown sandy, organic-rich clay;

Light blue-green sandy clay.


Grayish-brown to dark yallowish-orange sandy clay.

Yellowlshpay sandy, clayey, phosphatic doloslit.

Grayish-brown sandy clay.


Ought olive dolomitic, phosphatic clay.
Grayish-brown sandy clay.

Yellowish.gray sandy, phosphatic calcllutlit.
Yellowihr to moderate yellowlsh-brown clayey. phosphatic quartz sand.
- White to very light gray clayey, phosphatic. sandy dolomite.
No samolas
-- Moderate orangepink clayey quartz sand.
T.D.-65 FEET.


58.


u
-







The intervals 40 to 42 feet bls and 50 to 52 feet bls are quartzsakdy- phosphatic dolomitic clays. Both did not flow in the permeameter - tests, indicating extremely low hydraulic conductivities. The clay fraction of the 40 to 42 feet bls splitspoon core is predominantly -smectite and dolomite; in the 50 to 52 feet sample, palygorskite, smectite, and quartz are the most abundant minerals comprising the clay (Table 7). Split-spoon

samples taken in the last five feet of the well (60 to 61.5 and

61.5 to 62 feet bls) showed moderately low hydraulic conductivities of 10's and 10'6 respectively (Table 4). The 60 to 61.5 feet bls interval is a clayey, phosphatic, dolomitic quartz sand. Claycomprises 9 percent of the sample. Between 61.5 and 62 feet bis, the lithology is a sandy, clayey, phosphatic dolomite. The small clay fraction in this interval is comprised of quartz and francolite (Table 7).

Well No. 9 (W-16206) is situated in the confined aquifer zone (Macesich, 1988) in section 6, T9S, R20E, five miles north of Gainesville. In this area of the Northern Highlands, the surrounding topography is comprised of flat, swampy bays punctuated by gently rolling hills. This well penetrated the Ocala Group at approximately 120 feet bls, and ended at a total depth of 125 feet bis. Figure 11 illustrates the stratigraphic section obtains in this well. The Hawthorn Group is comprised of a series of interbedded, phosphatic dolosilts, sandy clays, and clayey sands, spanning the depth interval between 27 and 120 feet bls. Overlying the Hawthorn Group is a typical sequence of undifferentiated Pleistocene-Holocene, iron-stained, clayey, organic-rich quartz


59.





























Figure 11: Columnar section for well #9 (W-16206).


60.




DEPTH
(FEET MSU W -16206
ELEVATION-175 FEET

o z



zz
W


u






S30




40




-50




60









-80 - --- --90




100-:o::-:+::::::e+e:




-110 -U.~ ~ Wi:



























120
840


T.09S R.20E S.06 ALACHUA COUNTY


IMSUJ


Grayish-brown to moderate reddish-orange clayey, organic, quartz sand.

- Light olive-gray clayey quartz sand.

Grayish-brown clayey, organic quartz sand.

Light olive-gray clayey quartz sand.

Grayish brown to moderate yellowish-brown clayey, phosphatic quartz sand.




Grayish brown to yellowish-gray sandy, clayey, phosphatic dolosilt.



Light olive-gray to yellowish gray sandy, dolomitic clay.
Light olive-gray sandy, clayey, phosphatic calcilutite.
Yellowish-gray clayey, phosphatic, dolomitic quartz sand.


Olive-gray clayey, phosphatic quartz sand with chart fragments.

Light olive-gray clayey, phosphatic quartz sand

Olive-gray to light olive gray clayey, phosphatic quartz sand.

- Grayish orange to moderate yellowish-brown sandy, phosphatic clay.

Olive gray clayey, calcilutitic, phosphatic quartz sand.


- Olive-gray sandy clay.

Grayish-brown calcilutitic, clayey, phosphatic quartz sand.




Yellowish-gray calcilutitic, phosphatic quartz sand with limestone fragments.

Dark greenish-gray calcilutitic, sandy clay.

Dark yellowish-brown clayey, phosphatic quartz sand with limestone fragments.

- Very light-orange to light olive-gray sandy, calcilutitic, phosphatic clay.
Grayish-brown sandy, phosphatic dolomite.


Very light-orange fossiliferous calcilutite.

___(T.D.-125 FEET)


61.







sands.

Ten split-spoon cores were taken between 10 and 11 feet bis. The two uppermost sample intervals (10 to 12 and 20 to 22 feet bis) are situated in the undifferentiated Pleistocene-Holocene section and display significantly different hydraulic conductivities. Between 10 and 12 feet bis, the lithology is a slightly clayey, (kaolinite) quartz sand, with a moderately low conductivity of 104 cm/s (Table 4). Combined silt- and clay-size components comprise about 22 percent of the sample. The 20 to 22 feet bls interval also contains clayey quartz sand and sandy clay, but tested at a much lower hydraulic conductivity of 10' cm/-s. This lower permeability most likely results from the higher fines

fractions of the 20 to 22 feet sample, which contains over 52 percent combined silt and clay. The eight deeper split-spoon cores are from the Hawthorn Group section in the well. Cores taken in the upper part of the Hawthorn Group (30 to 32, 43 to 45 and 50 to

52 feet bis) show a trend of decreasing hydraulic conductivity with depth, with values of 10 , 10 , and 10' cm/s respectively. The 30 to 32 and 43 to 45 feet bls intervals are quartz sandy dolosilts. Dolomite, quartz, and francolite are the dominant minerals present (Table 6). In the 30 to 32 feet bls sample kaolinite and

palygorskite comprise most of the clay fraction, while in the interval 43 to 45 feet bis, quartz and smectite are the major clay components. The interval from 50 to 52 feet bls is a clayey, phosphatic, dolomitic quartz sand. Clay and silt combined comprise 32 percent of this sample. Sediments in the split-spoon core interval from 60 to 62 feet bls were over 80 percent quartz sand,


62.







and too unconsolidated to test in the permeameter. The last four split-spoon cores, spanning the intervals 70 to 71, 80 to 81, 100 to 101, and 100 to 111 feet bis, did not flow in the permeameter tests, indicating very low hydraulic conductivities. These

intervals are, for the most part, sandy, phosphatic, dolomitic clays. Dominant clay minerals in the samples were smectite and palygorskite (Table 7). The interval from 70 to 71 feet bls also contained quartz and dolomite in the clay fraction. The interval from 110 to 111 contained substantial quartz in the clay.

Well No. 10 (W-16207) is a continuous two-inch core located

-in the Austin Cary Memorial Forest. The detailed, columnar

stratigraphic section is illustrated in Figure 12. This well was

drilled to a total depth of 191 feet bls, and bottomed in limestone of the Ocala Group. Appendix I provides a detailed lithologic log for this well. The Crystal River Formation, the uppermost

formation of both the Ocala Group and the Floridan aquifer system, was penetrated at a depth of 173.7 feet bls. Unconformably

overlying the Ocala Group are three recognizable formations of the Hawthorn Group. In ascending order these are the Penney Farms Formation (94 to 137.7 feet bls), the Markshead Formation (69 to 94 feet bls), and the Coosawhatchie Formation (16.2 to 69 feet bls), with the Charlton Member of the Coosawhatchie Formation in the interval 16.5 to 24.2 feet bls. The Hawthorn Group is in turn

overlain by a thin veneer of clayey, organic-rich, undifferentiated Pleistocene to Holocene undifferentiated quartz sands.

Six split-spoon core samples were recovered during the drilling for permeameter analyses (Table 4). Three of these cores


63.




























Figure 12: Columnar section for well #10 (W-16207).


64.




DEPTH
(FEET MSL) W-16207


T.09S R.21E S.04


ALACHUA COUNTY


a
SI ELEVATION-180 FEET (MSL)
0 . - -- --.

. . . Yellowish-gray to greyish-brown clayey, organic quartz samd
- 10


-+.. : - Greenish-gray to light grayish green clay.
-20
White to very light-gray clayey quartz sand. Grayish-green to light grayish-green clay.
- 30 Yellowish-gray to grayish-green sandy, phosphatic clay with shark teeth, mollusks, and dolosilt.
- Yellowish-gray to grayish yellow clayey, dolomitic, phosphatic quartz sand.
Yellowlsh-grey sandy, clayey, phosphatic dolosilt. Light grayish-green to grayish-green phosphatic, dolomitic clay.
-40 Yellowish-gray sandy, phosphatic dolosilt.

Very light-orange to yellowish gray dolomitic, phosphatic quartz sand.
-50


-60 -Light olive-gray to moderate olive brown sandy, phosphatic clay with shark teeth.



-70 nhjiet light y.ndy, phodhatle dolomite.
to - to.
---- aryi -green ai greni-ay phosphatic dolosilt.
*hht 0"lIvegray to ight grUns- yel w clay.
- 80
Light olive-gray to grayish green phosphatic dolosilt.

2
-90
Very light-gray to white phosphatic, fossiliferous dolomite.

-100

Yellowish-grey to very dark-purple sandy, phosphatic, fossiliferous dolosilt.

-110 Moderate light-gray to moderate dark gray sandy, phosphatic clay.


-120 Very light-gray to light gray sandy, phosphatic dolomite.

-1. . .White to very light gray clay.
-130


-140
No Samples

-150



-16 0 White to very light gray sandy, phosphatic calcilutite.
.......... ....Yellowish gray to light olive-gray dolomitic, phosphatic quartz sand.
Very light grey to yellowish gray sandy. phosphatic dolomite. 170 .. M6s$'m Very light-gray to yellowish-gray dolomitic clay with interbedded micrita.
-. Yellowish-gray to white sandy, phosphatic calcllutite.

-180 c
White to light olive-gray fossiliferous limestone.


190 ,T..-191 FEET.


65.








(10 to 11 feet bis, 58 to 60 feet big, and 67.5 to 68 feet bis) were either grooved by the core-catcher of had shrunken inside the plastic core tube and would not seal in the permeameter. The

useable cores included the depth intervals 10 to 11 feet bis, 36 to 37 feet bis, and 47 to 49 feet bis. The shallowest split-spoon sample (10 to 11 feet bis) showed a moderately-low hydraulic conductivity of 10's cm/s (See Table 4). This interval is in the surficial aquifer system, and is predominantly sand with approximately 18 percent kaolinite and palygorskite clays (Table 5 and 7). The two deeper split-spoon intervals are in the intermediate aquifer system and were both taken in the Coosawhatchie Formation of the Hawthorn Group. Both show

relatively low hydraulic conductivities of 107 cm/s (Table 4) . The 35.9 to 37 feet bls interval is a yellowish gray dolosilt, a lithology common to the Hawthorn Group. Dominant minerals in this

interval include smectite and dolomite, with traces of kaolinite and francolite (Table 7). The deepest usable split-spo.on interval (45.1 to 49 feet bls) is largely comprised of clayey, dolomitic quartz sand. Both the clay and dolomite components of the matrix

undoubtedly contribute to the lower permeability of this interval.

The x-ray analysis of Well No. 10 show a mineral distribution pattern which correlates closely with the stratigraphy (Tables 6 and 7). Quartz is the most common mineral in the undifferentiated Pleistocene-Holocene and in the uppermost Charlton Member of the

Coosawhatchie Formation. This quartz is present as sand-size, silt-size, and clay size particles. The clays in the upper 42 feet of the core are predominantly kaolinite and smectite. Below 42


66.







feet, and through most of the Hawthorn Group, quartz, dolomite, and francolite are the most common minerals in the bulk samples. Palygorskite, quartz, a,nd dolomite are the dominant constituents of the clay fractions. Occasional occurrences of aragonite and calcite appear to correlate with the limestone or calcareous sand

intervals within the Hawthorn Group. As would be expected, calcite is the dominant mineral present in the top of the Ocala Group limestone.

SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS

The information obtained in this study indicates considerable variation, both vertically and laterally, in the. hydrogeologic nature of the sediments overlying the Floridan aquifer system in

Alachua County. At the same time, certain commonalities exist locally between some of the parameters studied during this project. Unfortunately, a detailed analysis of the lateral continuity of many of the hydrogeologic datums observed in individual wells is precluded by the limited scope of this project. To accurately correlate zones of very low hydraulic conductivity or of particular mineralogic composition, if even possible, would require a more extensive well grid than current funds and time allow. However, several conclusions may be made out of the present study. These are outlined in the following section.

1. The lithologies of the sediments overlying the Floridan aquifer system in Alachua County, in general, range from sandy clays and clayey sands, containing variable amounts of phosphatic sand and gravel, to sandy, phosphatic dolomites and limestones. The

intermediate aquifer system and associated confining units,


67.







comprised of Miocene-age Hawthorn Group sediments, is a series of interbedded lithologies. These lithologies vary from clayey, generally phosphatic sands and sandy, phosphatic clays at the top

of the section, to sandy, phosphatic calcarenitic limestone or dolomite near the base of the section. Thickness of the Hawthorn Group sediments varies from 0 in western Alachua County to nearly 160 feet in the northeastern. -part of the county. The undifferentiated Pleistocene-Holocene age section is predominantly clayey quartz sand. It frequently contains organics and reworked phosphate.. This section comprises the surficial aquifer system in

Alachua County and varies between 15 and 60 eqel-thic.

2. Grain size analyses of selected samples from the split-spoon

cores reveals no significant trends. For both the undifferentiated Pleistocene-Holocene and the Hawthorn Group sections, the quartz sand content (weight percent greater than 4 phi size) ranged from a minimum of 47.91 percent to a maximum of 94.62 over the entire sample set. Most individual samples contained a sand size range of very fine to coarse, with modes of either fine or medium size. Graded bedding was not apparent. Silt content ranged from a low

of 1.65 percent to a high of 22.11 percent. - Clay content ranged from a minimum of 1.58 weight percent to a maximum of 36.96 percent. In general, those samples with high silt and clay components showed the lowest permeabilities (low hydraulic conductivities). Vertical distribution of the high-clay content intervals showed no apparent pattern, in either the undifferentiated intervals or Hawthorn Group.

3. X-ray analysis of selected samples in the: ten study wells


68.







reveals that quartz is the most abundant mineral present. It

occurs as either the only mineral or as one of the most abundant minerals in 88 percent of the bulk samples tested. Most of these samples are from intervals containing abundant quartz sand.

Calcite occurs in 17 percent of the samples, usually as a calcilute matrix component of sand, clay, or dolosilt, or in fragments of freshwater gastropod shells found in some of the undifferentiated

Pleistocene-Holocene deposits. Some of the calcite in the Hawthorn Group sands and clays may be derived from the reworking of subadjacent calcareous units. Calcite is more prevalent in wells 7 through 10, taken in- Paynes Prairie and.eastern-.Alachua&County. Aragonite occurred in nine samples, in a pattern similar to that of calcite. Dolomite is a common constituent of the dolosilt and dolomitic clay intervals in wells 8, 9, and 10. It is restricted

to the Hawthorn Group sediments, not occurring in any of the undifferentiated Pleistocene-Holocene interval samples. Francolite (phosphate) is a common- constituent of the Hawthorn Group

sediments. In most of the wells, phosphatic sands and gravels also occur in the undifferentiated Pleistocene-Holocene section, where they may occur as reworked , deposits. These phosphatic, undifferentiated intervals may also correspond to what was once informally called the Alachua Formation. The only well in which

phosphate is conspicuously absent is Well No. 1, from the Kanapaha Prairie.

4. Kaolinite, palygorskite, and smectite are the common clay minerals occurring in the split-spoon samples. Smectite and

palygorskite tend to commonly occur together in the Hawthorn Group


69.







sediments. In contrast, a smectite-kaolinite clay assemblage, -with occasional occurrences of palygorskite, tends to characterize the

undifferentiated sediments and the upper part of the Coosawhatchie Formation. Palygorskite and dolomite comprise the major. clay constituents of the Markshead and Penney Farms Formations in Well No. 10.

5. The coefficient of hydraulic conductivity (K) values of the sediments overlying the Floridan aquifer system in Alachua County range from an undetermined low of less than 10a cm/s (samples showed no water flow after 21 days on the permeameter) to a high of 104 cm/s. A very low K value of 10'8 cm/s, was the minimum calculated conductivity for samples that flowed within the allotted time. Both the Hawthorn Group sediments and the overlying undifferentiated Pleistocene-Holocene sediments show a similar range of K values. The highest hydraulic conductivities observed (104 cm/s) occurred in two samples. One is in Well No. 3, located north of Alachua,. at a depth of 40.5 to 41.5 feet bls in a clayey, phosphatic sand in the Hawthorn Group. The second is in the depth interval 10.0 to 12.0 feet bls, also a clayey sand, in the undifferentiated Pleistocene-Holocene section of Well No. 9

situated north of Gainesville. Zones of very low permeability were observed in both Hawthorn Group and undifferentiated PleistoceneHolocene sediments. Samples which did not flow on the permeameter

ranged lithologically from clayey, dolomitic sands to dolosilts and sandy, calcareous, phosphatic clays. Other samples, which tested at low K values of 10'6 to 10*8 cm/s, were predominantly dolosilts, clayey quartz sands, and sandy clays. Moderately low K values of


70.








10,4 and 105 cm/s were obtained from clayey sands with generally lower clay percentages than the'low conductivity samples discussed above. The range of low hydraulic conductivity values obtained from the Alachua County sediments would indicate that all the intervals tested are poor aquifers. Some probably function as confining units. Among the 10 well sites analyzed, there is no

apparent areal pattern to the distribution of low conductivity zones. Samples selected for analysis were generally sediments with high clay content. There is apparently considerable vertical variation in permeability, and it is most certainly related to lithology. .One interesting example of this variability occurs in the near-surface, undifferentiated Pleistocene-Holocene section of Well No. 1. Here the hydraulic conductivity tested at a very low 108 cm/s, which is significantly less permeable than many intervals tested in the Hawthorn Group to the east. The cause of this very low permeability is undoubtedly the presence of tight clays in the

otherwise sandy section. A future continuation of this study should include more samples from easternmost Alachua County to help determine the extent to which the clay content influences the permeability of the undifferentiated Pleistocene-Holocene sands. Unfortunately, all lithologies in a given well could not be tested

for permeability, and some strata, particularly carbonate units, may have much higher hydraulic conductivities. Delineation of both vertical and horizontal hydraulic conductivity trends in Alachua County will require a more extensive sample network, and possibly

finer resolution in the permeameter sampling interval in each well.


71.







REFERENCES

Davis, S., and DeWiest, R., 1966, Hydrogeolcgy: New York, John
Wiley and Sons, 463 p.
Folk, R., 1974, Petrology of sedimentary rocks: Austin, Hemphill
Publishing Co., 184 p.

Freeze, R., and Cherry, J., 1979, Groundwater; Englewood Cliffs,
Prentice-Hall, Inc., 604 p.

Friedman, G., and Johnson, K., 1982,.Exercises in sedimentology:
John Wiley and Sons, New York, p. 44-49.

Geological Society of America, 1984, Rock color chart: The
Netherlands, Huyskes-Enschede.

Hetrick, J., and Friddell, M., 1984, Clay mineralogy. of the
Hawthorne Group: Georgia Geologic Survey Open File Report
84-7, 90 p.

Macesich, M., 1988, Geologic interpretation of the aquiferpollution potential in Alachua County, Florida: Florida
Geological Survey Open File Report 21, 26 p.

Scott, T. M., 1988, The lithostratigraphy of the Hawthorn Group
(Miocene) of Florida: Florida Geological, Survey Bulletin 59,
148 p.

White, W., 1970, The geomorphology of the Florida peninsula:
Florida Geological Survey Bulletin 51, 164 p.


72.





























Appendix I: Lithologic logs for the 10 study cores.


73.









LITHOLOGIC WILL LOG PRINTOUT


WILL MIIER: U- 16196 COUNTY - ALACHUA
TOTAL DEPTH: 00050 FT. LOCATION: T.119 R.19E 1.09
19 SAMPLES FROM 8 TO 50 FT. LAT - N 290 33M 09
LON u U 82D 24M 50
COPLETION DATE - 07/12/87 ELEVATION - 070 FT
OTHN TYPES OP LOGS AVAILABLE - NONE

hhIR/DRILLIR: FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY -ALACHUA WELL 9 1

WORKED BY: CUTTINGS WORKED BY MIKE WEINBERG, AND SPLIT SPOON SMPLES WORKED BY THOMAS SEAL, INTERVALS 7.5-12.5, 16-22.5, 27.5-32.5, 37.5-42.5, 45-50 WERE CUTTINGS, REMAINDER WERE SPLIT SPOON SAMPLES; POROSITY ESTIMATED

0.0- 40.3 09O0WC UNDIFFERENTIATED SAND AND CLAY
40.5- 50.0, 24OCAL OCALA GROUP

0 - 7.5 SAND; MODERATE BROWN; 35% POROSITY, INTERGRANULAR;
GRAIN SIZE: MDIUM; RANGE: VERY FINE TO COARSE;
RQUMDNES$:sSUB-ANGULAR; MEDIUM SPHERICITY; UNCONSOLIDATED;
ACCESSORY MINERALS: PLANT REMAINS-15X;
OTHER FEATURES: UNWASHED SAMPLE;
FOSSILS: NO FOSSILS;

7.5- 10 SAND; DARK YELLOWISH BROWN; 15% POROSITY, INTERGRANULAR;
GRAIN SIZE: MEDIUM; RANGE: FINE TO VERY COARSE;
ROUNDMSS:SU-ANGULAR; MEDIUM SPHERICITY; POOR IMURATION;
CEMENT TYPE(S): CLAY MATRIX;
ACCESSORY MINERALS: CLAY-25%, PLANT REMAINS-10%;
OTHER FEATURES: UNWASHED SAMPLE;
FOSSILS: NO FOSSILS;

10 12.5 CLAY; GREENISH BLACK; LOW PERMEABILITY; POOR INDURATION;
CEMENT TYPESS: CLAY MATRIX;
ACCESSORY MINERALS: QUARTZ SAMD-10%;
OTHER FEATURES: UNWASHED SALE;
FOSSILSs: NO FOSSILS:

12.5- 16 SAND; GRAYISH BROWN; 30X POROSITY, INTERGRANULAR; GRAIN SIZE: FINE; RANGE: VERY FINE TO COARSE;
ROUNDNESS:SUB-ANGULAR; MEDIUM SPHERICITY; POOR INDURATION;
CEMNT TYPE(S): CLAY MATRIX;
ACCESSORY MINERALS: CLAY-05%, PLANT REMAINS-03X;
OTHER FEATURES: UNWASHED SAMPLE;
FOSStLS: NO FOSSILS;


SOURCE - FGS










W- 16198 CONTINUED


16 - 18 SAND; GRAYISN BROWN; 351 POROSITY, INTERGRANULAR;
GRAIN SIZE: FINE; RANGE: VERY FINE TO COARSE;
ROUNDNESSj SUi.ANGULAR TO ANGULAR; MEDIUM SPHERICITY; POOR INDURATION;
CEMENT TYPE(S): IRON CEMENT, CLAY MATRIX;
ACCESSORY MINERALS:' CLAY-05%, IRON STAIN-02%;
OTHER FEATURES: UNWASHED SAMPLE;
FOSSILS: NO FOSSILS;

18 - 19 SAND; GRAYISH BROWN TO DARK YELLOWISH BROWN; 30% POROSITY, INTERGRANULAR;
GRAIN SIZE: MEDIUM; RANGE: VERY FINE TO COARSE;
ROUNDNESS: SUB-ANGULAR TO ANGULAR; MEDIUM SPHERICITY; POOR INDURATION;
CEMENT TYPE(S): ORGANIC MATRIX, CLAY MATRIX;
ACCESSORY MINERALS: PLANT REMAINS-15%, CLAY-03%;
OTHER FEATURES: UNWASHED SAMPLE;
FOSSILS: NO FOSSILS;

19 - 20 SAND; GRAYISH BROWN; 30% POROSITY, INTERGRANULAR;
GRAIN SIZE: MEDIUL;fRfANGEi:-VERY- FINE TO COARSE;
ROUNDNESS: SUB-ANGULAR TO ANGULAR; MEDIUM SPHERICITY; POOR INDURATION;
CEMENT TYPE(S): CLAY MATRIX;
ACCESSORY MINERALS: CLAY-10%, PLANT REMAINS-03%, IRON STAIN-01%;
OTHER FEATURES: UNWASHED SAMPLE, DOLOMITIC;
FOSSILS: NO FOSSILS;

20 - 22.5 SAND; GRAYISH ORANGE; 30% POROSITY, INTERGRANULAR;
GRAIN SIZE: MEDIUM; RANGE: FINE TO COARSE;
ROUNDNESS: SUB-ANGULAR TO ROUNDED; MEDIUM SPHERICITY; POOR INDURATION;
CEMENT TYPE(S): CLAY MATRIX;
.ACCESSORY MINERALS: CLAY-15%;
OTHER FEATURES: UNWASHED SAMPLE;
FOSSILS: NO FOSSILS;

22.5- 27.5 SAND; GRAYISH BROWN TO DARK YELLOWISH BROWN; 35% POROSITY, INTERGRANULAR;
GRAIN SIZE: FINE; RANGE: VERY FINE TO COARSE;
ROUNDNESS:SUB-ANGULAR; MEDIUM SPHERICITY; POOR INDURATION;
CEMENT TYPE(S): CLAY MATRIX, IRON CEMENT;
ACCESSORY MINERALS: CLAY-03%, IRON STAIN-02%, PLANT REMAINS-05%;
OTHER FEATURES: UNWASHED SAMPLE;
FOSSILS: NO FOSSILS;

27.5- 30.5 SAND; GRAYISH BROWN TO MODERATE YELLOWISH BROWN; 35% POROSITY, INTERGRANULAR;
GRAIN SIZEi MEDIUM; RANGE: FINE TO GRANULE;
ROUNDNESS:SUB-ANGULAR; MEDIUM SPHERICITY; POOR INDURATION;
CEMENT TYPE(S): CLAY MATRIX, IRON CEMENT;
ACCESSORY MINERALS: CLAY-05%, IRON STAIN-02%, PLANT REMAINS-03%;
OTHER FEATURES: UNWASHED SAMPLE, DOLOMITIC;
FOSSILS: NO FOSSILS;


-10


PAGE - 2









U- 1619 CONTINUED


30.5- 32.5 SANS GRAYISH 0RAUG 35X POROSITY, INTERGRANULAR;
GRAIN SIZE: MEDIUM; RANGE: FINE TO COASE;
ROINNsS: UB-ANGULAR TO ROUNDED; MEDIUM SPHERICITY; UNCONSOLIDATED;
ACCESSORY MINERALS: CLAY-05%;
OTHER FEATURES: UNWASHED SAMPLE;
FOSSILS: NO FOSSILS;

32.5- 37.5 SAND; GRAYISH BROW TO VERY LIGHT GRAY; 35% POROSITY, INTERGRANULAR;
GRAIN SIn: MDIum; RAmGEs FINE-TO'C*MRE;
ROUNNESS:SUB-ANGULAR; MEDIUM SPHERICITY; POOR INDURATION;
CEMENT TYPE()t CLAY MATRIX, IRN CEMENT;
ACCESSORY NIERALS. IRON STAIN-02%, PLANT RENAINS-03%, CLAY-05%;
OTHER FEATURES: UNlWASNED SAMPLE;
FOSSILS: NO FOSSILS;


SANDf GRAYISH BROWN TO DARK XLLOWISH BROW; 35% POROSITY, INTERGRANULAR; GRAIN SIZE:, MEDIUM; RANGE: VERY FINE TO COARSE; RKONNE:SU-ANUJLARj MEDIUM SPNERICITY; UNCONSOLIDATED; CEMNT TYPE(S): CLAY MATRIX; ACCESSORY MINERALS: CLAY-04%, LIMSTONE-01%, PLANT RENAINS-03X; OTHER FEATURES: UNWASHED SAMPLE, DOLOMITIC; FOSSILS: NO FOSSILS;
FIRST OCCURENCE OF LIMESTONE FRAGMENTS

SAND; YELLOWISH GRAY; 35% POROSITY, INTERGRANULAR; GMAIN SIE: MEDIUM; RANGE FINS TO COARSE; ROUNDNESS: SUB-ANGULAR TO ANGULAR; MEDIUM SPHERICITY; UNCONSOLIDATED; ACCESSORY MINERALS, LIMSTOME-02%, PHOSPHATIC SAND-Oi; OTHER FEATURES: UNWASHED SAMPLE, CALCAREOUS; FOSSILS: NO FOSSILS;


.e**:--w-


41.5- 45 SAND; GRAYISH BRN; 35% POROSITY, INTERGRANULAR;
GRAIN SIZE: MEDIUM; RANGE: VERY FINE TO COARSE;
ROUNNlSS:SUl-ANGULAR; MEDIUM SPHERICITY; POOR INDURATION;
CEMNT TYPE(C): IRON CEMENT, CLAY MATRIX;
ACCESSORY MINERALS: CHERT-15%, IRON STAIN-05%, CLAY-02%;
OTHER FEATURES: UNWASHED SAMPLE;
FOSSILS: ENTHIC FORAMINIFERA;

45 - 45 LIMESTONE; NO COLOR GIVEN TO LIGHT ORANGISH RED; OC% POROSITY, POSSIBLY HIGH PERMEABILITY,
, LOW PERMEABILITY;
GRAIN TYPE: , 00LITE;
GRAIN SIZE: VERY COARSE; RANGE: VERY COARSE TO ;
ABUNDANT FRAGMENTS OF BLUE TO WHITE CHERT


37.5- 40.5


40.5- 41.5


PANE - 3










W- 16198 CONTINUED


PAGE - 4


45 -. 50 CHERT; LIGHT BLUE GREEN;TO GRAYISH BROWN; LOW PERMEABILITY; GOOD INDURATION;
CEMENT types(S: SILICIC-CEMNNT;
ACCESSORY MINERALS: QUARTM:SAND440%;.
OTHER FEATURES: UNWASHED SAMPLE;
FOSSILS: NOFOSSILS;


50 - 50 LJWESTONE; NO COLOR
, LOW PERMEABILITY;
GRAIN TYPE: ;
COLOR OF CHERT BLUE


GIVEN TO LIGHT ORANGISH RED; OC% POROSITY, POSSIBLY HIGH PERMEABILITY, TO- GRAY TO WHITE, TEXTURE DULL TO VITREOUS, SAND LIKELY DUE TO CAVING


50 TOTAL DEPTH


- - - r. -


-z











LITHOLOGIC WELL LOG PRINTOUT


WILL UIMMR: U- 16199 COUNTY - ALACHUA
TOTAL DEPTN: 036.5 FT. LOCATION: T.095 R.186 5.35
8 SAMPLES FROM il TO 37 FT. LAT a N 29D 40M 20
LOW a U 82D 291 12
COMPLETION DATE - 08/12/87 ELEVATION - 120 FT
OTHER TYPES OF LOGS AVAILASLI - NONE

ONIER/0RILLER: FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY- ALACHUA WELL # 2

WORKED BY: CUTTIUSS DESCRIBED BY MIKE WEINBERG; SPLIT SPOON SAMPLES DESCRIBED BY THOMAS SEAL; POROSITY VALUES VISUALLY ESTIMATED; CONSULT PERMMTER DATA SHEETS FOR PIRMEAILITY DATA;SAMPLES 10.5,20.5,30.5,36 DESCRIBED 4BY MIKE WEINBERG; ,REMAINDER BY THOMAS SEAL

0. - 22. 09OUSC UNDIFFERENTIATE SAND AND CLAY
22. - 30.5 122HTRN HAWTHORN GROP
30.5- 37. 1240CAL OCALA GROUP

0 - 10.5 SAND; MODERATE BROW TO MODERATE YELLOWISH BROWN; 35% POROSITY, INTERGRANULAR;
GRAIN SIZE, FIN; RANGE: VERY FINE TO COARSE;
ROUNDNE:SISU-ANGJLAR; MEDIUM SPHERICITY; POOR INDURATION;
CEMENT TYPE(S): CLAY MATRIX;
ACCESSORY MINERALS: CLAY-OSS, CHERT-01%, PLANT REMAINS-03X, IRON STAIN-01%;
OTHER FEATURES: UNWASHED SAMPLE;
FOSSILS: N0 FOSSILS;

10.5- 12.5 SAN; DARK YELLOWISN BROWN; 30U POROSITY, INTERGRANULAR;
GRAIN SIZE: ODIUM; RANGE: FINE TO COARSE;
ROUNDNESS: SUI-ANGULAR TO ANGULAR; MEDIUI SPHERICITY; POOR INDURATION;
CEMENT TYPE(S): IRON CEMENT, CLAY MATRIX;
ACCESSORY MIMERALS: CLAY-15X, IRON STAIN-01%, PLANT REMAINS-02%;
OTHER FEATURES: UNWASHED SAMPLE;
FOSSILS: NO FOSSILS;

12.5- 20.5 CLAY; DARK YELLOWISH BRMW; 25% POROSITY, INTERGRANULAR; POOR INDURATION;
CEMENT TYPE(S): CLAY MATRIX;
ACCESSORY MINERALS: QUARTZ SAND-15%, CHERT-01%, PLANT REMAINS-02%;
OTHER FEATURES: UNWASHED SAMPLE;
FOSSILS: NO FOSSILS;


SOURCE - Fos










W- 16199 CONTINUED


20.5- 21 SAND; DARK YELLOWISH BROWN; 30% POROSITY, INTERGRANULAR; GRAIN SIZE: MEDIUM; RANGE: VERY FINE TO COARSE;
ROUNDNESS: SUB-ANGULAR TO ANGULAR; MEDIUM SPHERICITY; POOR INDURATION;
CEMENT TYPE(S): CLAY MATRIX, IRON CEMENT;
ACCESSORY MINERALS: CLAY-15%, IRON STAIN-01%;
OTHER FEATURES: UNWASHED SAMPLE;
FOSSILS: NO FOSSILS;

21 - 22.5 SAND; LIGHT OLIVE GRAY; LOWIPERMEABILITY; POOR INDURATION; CEMENT TYPE(S): CLAY MATRIX;
ACCESSORY MINERALS: UARTZ SAND-25%, PLANT REMAINS-01%;
OTHER FEATURES: UNWASHED SAMPLE;
FOSSILS: NO FOSSILS;

'122.5- 30.5 CLAY; GRAYISH BROWN; LOW PERMEABILITY; POOR INDURATION;
CEMENT TYPE(S): CLAY MATRIX;,
ACCESSORY MINERALS: QUARTZ SANO-40%, PLANT REMAINS-02%;
OTHER FEATURES: UNWASHED SAMPLE;
FOSSILS: NO FOSSILS;

30.5- 32.5 SAND; LIGHT OLIVE GRAY; 15% POROSITY, INTERGRANULAR; GRAIN SIZE: MEDIUM; RANGE: FINE TO COARSE;
ROUNDNESS: SUB-ANGULAR TO ROUNDED; MEDIUM SPHERICITY; POOR INDURATION;
CEMENT TYPESS: PHOSPHATE CEMENT, CLAY MATRIX;
ACCESSORY MINERALS: CLAY-25%;
OTHER FEATURES: UNWASHED SAMPLE, QOLOMITIC;
FOSSILS: NO FOSSILS;
PHOSPHATIC CLAY CEMENT WITH MINOR DOLOSILT

32.5- 36 SAND; GRAYISH BROWN TO YELLOWISH GRAY; 05% POROSITY, LOW PERMEABILITY; GRAIN SIZE: FINE; RANGE: VERY FINE TO MEDIUM;
ROUNDNESS: SUB-ANGULAR TO ANGULAR; MEDIUM SPHERICITY; POOR INDURATION;
CEMENT TYPE(S):-CLAY MATRIX;
ACCESSORY MINERALS: CLAY-40%, LIMESTONE-02%, PLANT REMAINS-02%;
OTHER FEATURES: UNWASHED SAMPLE;
FOSSILS: NO FOSSILS;

36 36.5 LIMESTONE; VERY LIGHT ORANGE; INTERGRANULAR, INTRAGRANULAR;
GRAIN TYPE: SKELETAL, CALCILUTITE; 45% ALLOCHEMICAL CONSTITUENTS;
GRAIN SIZE: FINE; RANGE; VERY FINE TO GRANULE; POOR INDURATION;
CEMENT TYPESS: CALCILUTITE MATRIX;
OTHER FEATURES: UNWASHED SAMPLE;
FOSSILS: BENTHIC FORAMINIFERA, ECHINOID;
FOSSILS INDICATIVE OF THE CRYSTAL RIVER FM

36.5 TOTAL DEPTH


PACE - 2


h4











LITNOLOGIC WILL LOG PRINTOUT


WILL NUNER: W- 16200 TOTAL DEPTH: 00090 FT. 19 SAMPLES FROM 11 TO 90 FT.

COMPLETION DATE - 11/12/88 OTHER TYPES Of LOGS AVAILABLE - NONE


COUNTY - ALACHUA LOCATION: T.078 R.18E 8.27 A
LAT w N 290 SIN 01 LOW, w 82D 30H 13 ELEVATION - 160 FT


OMER/DRILLIR: FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY - ALACHUAMELL # 3

WORKED BY: CUTTINGS DESCRIBED BY MIKE WEINBERG; SPLIT SPOON SAPLES DESCRIBED BY THOMAS SEAL; POROSITY VALUES VISUALLY ESTIMATED; CONSULT PERNEAMETER DATA SHEETS FOR PERMEASILITY VALUES
SAMPLES 10.5,14,20.5,30.5,40.5,43-50.5,53.5-90 DESCRIBED BY MINE WINBERO, REMAINDER BY TH64AS SEAL


0.
22. 85.


22. as.
90.


19OWC UNDIFFERENTIATED SAND AND CLAY 122NTRN HAWTHORN GROUP 1240CAL OCALA GROUP


0 - 10 SAID; PINKISH GRAY TO DARK YELLOWISH ORANGE; 20% POROSITY, INTERGRANULAR;
GRAIN SIZE: MEDIUM; RANGE: VERY FINE TO COARSE;
ROUDNESS:SUB-ANGULAR; MEDIUM SPHERICITY; POOR INDURATION;
CEMENT TYPESS: CLAY MATRIX, IRON CEMENT;
ACCESSORY MINERALS: CLAY-202, IRON STAIN-04%, PLANT REMAINS-03%;
OTHER FEATUiRES: UNWASHED SAMPLE;
FOSSILS: NO FOSSILS;


10 - 12.3 SAND; VERY LIGHT ORANGE; 15% POROSITY, INTERGRANULAR;
GRAIN SIZE: MEDIUM; RANGE: FINE TO COARSE;
ROUNDNESS: $UB-ANSLAR TO ANGULAR; MEDIUM SPHERICITY;
CEMNT TYPE(S): CLAY MATRIX;
ACCESSORY MINERALS: CLAY-202;
OTHER FEATURES: UNWASHED SAMPLE, DOLOMITIC;
FOSSILS: NO FOSSILS;


POOR INDURATION;


12.5- 14 SAND; YELLOWISH GRAY TO LIGHT YELLOWISH ORANGE; 20% POROSITY, INTERGRANULAR;
GRAIN SIZE: FINE; RANGE: VERY FINE TO VERY COARSE;
RMUNINNSS:SUB-ANOJLAR; NEDItM SPHERICITY; POOR INDURATION;
CEMENT TYPESS: CLAY MATRIX, IRON CEMENT;
ACCESSORY MINERALS: CLAY-20%, IRON STAIN-03%, PLANT REMAINS-05%;
OTHER FEATURES: UNWASHED SAMPLE;
FOSSILS: HO FOSSILS;


SOURCE - FGS










W- 16200 CONTINUED


14 - 20.5SAND; YEILOWISI$GRAY TO LIGHT YELLOWISH ORANGE; 15% POROSITY, INTERGRANULAR;
GRAIN SIZE: FINE; RANGE: VERY FINE TO VERY COARSE;
ROUNDNESS:SUB-ANGULAR; .NDIUM. SPHERICITY; POOR INDURATION;
CEMENT TYPE(S): IRON CEMENT, CLAY MATRIX, IRON CEMENT;
ACCESSORY MINERALS:. IROK STAIN-10%, CLAY-15%;
OTHER FEATURES: UNWASHED SAMPLE;
FOSSILS: NO FOSSILS

20.5- 22.5 CLAY; LIGHT GREENISH YELLOW; INTERGRANULAR, LOW PERMEABILITY; POOR INDURATION;
CEMENT TYPE(S): CLAY MATRIX;
ACCESSORY MINERALS: PHOSPHATIC. SAND05%, QUARTZ SAND-25%;
OTHER FEATURES: -UNWASHED SAMPLE;
FOSSILS: NO FOSSILS;

22.5- 30.5 SANP; GRAYISH BROWN TO YELLOWISH GRAY; 30% POROSITY, INTERGRANULAR;
GRAIN SIZE: MEDIUM; RANGE: VERY FINE TO VERY COARSE;
ROUNDNESS: SUB-ANGULAR TO ANGULAR; MEDIUM SPHERICITY; POOR INDURATION;
CEMENT -TYPE(S):. CLAY MATRIX, IRON CEMENT;
ACCESSORY MINERALS: CLAY-10%, IRON STAIN-01%;
OTHER FEATURES: UNWASHED SAMPLE;
FOSSILS: N0 FOSSILS;

30.5- 32.5 SAND; VERY LIGHT ORANGE TO WHITE; 35% POROSITY, INTERGRANULAR;
GRAIN SIZE: MEDIUM; RANGE: FINE TO COARSE;
RONDNESS: SUB-ANGULAR TO ANGULAR; MEDIUM SPHERICITY; MODERATE INDURATION;
CEMENT TYPE(S): CLAY MATRIX;
ACCESSORY MINERALS: PHOSPHATIC SAND-05%, CLAY-05%;
OTHER FEATURES: UNWASHED SAMPLE;
FOSSILS: NO FOSSILS;

32.5- 40.5 SAND; GRAYISH BROWN TO YELLOWISH GRAY; 30% POROSITY, INTERGRANULAR, INTERGRANULAR;
GRAIN SIZE: MEDIUM; RANGE: FINE TO COARSE;
ROUNDNESS:SUS-ANGULAR; MEDIUM SPHERICIIT; mwUAiE INDURATION;
CEMENT TYPESS; CLAY MATRIX, SILICIC CEMENT;
ACCESSORY MINERALS: CLAY-06%, QUARTZ-02%, IRON STAIN-01%;
OTHER FEATURES: UNWASHED SAMPLE;
FOSSILS: NO FOSSILS;
CLUMPS OF QTZ-GRAIN AGGREGATES CEMENTED BY SILICA

40.5- 42.5 SAND; VERY LIGHT ORANGE TO WHITE; 35% POROSITY, INTERGRANULAR;
GRAIN SIZE: MEDIUM; RANGE: FINE TO COARSE;
ROUNDNESS: SUB-ANGULAR TO ANGULAR; MEDIUM SPHERICITY; UNCONSOLIDATED;
CEMENT TYPE(S): CLAY MATRIX;
ACCESSORY MINERALS: PHOSPHATIC SAND-02%, CLAY-02%;
OTHER FEATURES: UNWASHED SAMPLE;
FOSSILS: NO FOSSILS;


PAGE - 2









W- 16200 CONTINUED


42.5- 43 SAM; GRAYISH BROWN TO DARK YELLOWISH ORANGE; 20% POROSITY, INTERGRANULAR;
GRAIN SIZE: MEDIUM; RANGE: VERY FINE TO COARSE;
ROUNDNESS: SUE-ANGULAR TO ANGULAR; MEDIUM SPHERICITY; MODERATE INDURATION;
CEMENT TYPE(S): SILICIC CEMENT, CLAY MATRIX, IRON CEMENT; ACCESSORY MINERALS: QUARTZ-04%, CLAY-05%, IRON STAIN-02%;
OTHER FEATURES: UNWASHED SAMPLE, DOLOMITIC;
FOSSILS: NO FOSSILS;
LOCALLY, MODERATELY INDURATED BY SILICA CEMENT

43 - 44 SANDSTONE; YELLOWISH GRAY TO LIGHT OLIVE; 15% POROSITY, INTERGRANULAR;
GRAIN SIZE: FINE; RANGE: VERY FINE TO COARSE;
ROUNDNESS: SUB-ANGULAR TO ANGULAR; MEDIUM SPHERICITY; MODERATE INDURATION;
CEMENT TYPE(S): SILICIC CEMENT, CLAY MATRIX, IRON CEMENT;
ACCESSORY MINERALS: QUARTZ-08%, CLAY-05%, PHOSPHATIC SAND-02%, LIMESTONE-10%;
OTHER FEATURES: UNWASHED SAMPLE;
FOSSILS: NO FOSSILS;
LIMESTONE OCCURS AS ROCK FRAGMENTS

44 50.5 SANDSTONE; YELLOWISH GRAY TO LIGHT OLIVE; 15% POROSITY, INTERGRANULAR;
GRAIN SIZE: FINE; RANGE: VERY FINE TO COARSE;
ROUNDNESS: SUE-ANGULAR TO ANGULAR; MEDIUM SPHERICITY; MODERATE INDURATION;
CEMENT TYPESS: SILICIC CEMENT, CLAY MATRIX, IRON CEMENT;
ACCESSORY MINERALS: CLAY-35%, LIMESTONE-10%, QUARTZ-04%, PHOSPHATIC SAND-01%;
OTMER FEATURES: UNWASHED SAMPLE;
FOSSILS: NO FOSSILS;
CUTTINGS CONTAIN MIXED LlTHOLOGIES: CLAY FRAGMENTS ARE WELL INDURATED, WAXY, & GREY TO
GREEN IN COLOR


50.5- 52.5


SAND; VERY LIGHT ORANGE; 25% POROSITY, INTERGRANULAR; GRAIN SIZE: FINE; RANGE: VERY FINE TO MEDIUM; ROUNDNESS: SUB-ANGULAR TO ROUNDED; MEDIUM SPHERICITY; POOR INDURATION; CEMENT TYPESS: CLAY MATRIX; ACCESSORY MINERALS: CLAY-15%;
OTHER FEATURES: UNWASHED SAMPLE, CALCAREOUS; FOSSILS: NO FOSSILS;


52.5- 53.5 CALCILUTITE; WHITE; POSSIBLY HIGH PERMEABILITY;
GRAIN TYPE: CALCILUTITE; 05% ALLOCHEMICAL CONSTITUENTS;
GRAIN SIZE: MICROCRYSTALLINE; RANGE: MICROCRYSTALLINE TO COARSE; MODERATE INDURATION;
CEMENT TYPE(S): CALCILUTITE MATRIX;
ACCESSORY MINERALS: QUARTZ SAND-09%, IRON STAIN-02%;
OTHER FEATURES: UNWASHED SAMPLE;
FOSSILS: NO FOSSILS;


PAGE - 3










W- 16200 CONTINUED


53.5- 54 CALCILUTITE; WHITE TO DARK YELLOWISH ORANGE; POSSIBLY HIGH PERMEABILITY;
GRAIN TYPE: CALCILUTITE; 20% ALLOCHEMICAL CONSTITUENTS;
GRAIN SIZE: MICROCRYSTALLINE; RANGE: MICROCRYSTALLINE TO COARSE; MODERATE INDURATION;
CEMENT TYPE(S): CALCILUTITE MATRIX, IRON CEMENT;
-ACCESSORY MINERALS: QUARTZ SAND-20%, IRON STAIN-05%, PHOSPHATIC SAND-01%;
OTHER FEATURES: UNWASHED SAMPLE;
FOSSILS: NO FOSSILS;

54 58 SAND; YELLOWISH GRAY; 35% POROSITY, INTERGRANULAR;
GRAIN SIZE: MEDIUM; RANGE: VERY FINE TO COARSE;
ROUNDNESS: ANGULAR TO SUB-ANGULAR; MEDIUM SPHERICITY; POOR INDURATION;
CEMENT TYPE(S): CALCILUTITE MATRIX;
ACCESSORY MINERALS: CALCILUTITE-40%, IRON STAIN-01%, PHOSPHATIC SAND-02%;
OTHER FEATURES: UNWASHED SAMPLE;
FOSSILS: NO FOSSILS;

58 - 60 CALCILUTITE; YELLOWISH GRAY; INTERGRANULAR, MOLDIC, POSSIBLY HIGH PERMEABILITY;
GRAIN TYPE: CALCILUTITE; 20% ALLOCHEMICAL CONSTITUENTS; -:
GRAIN SIZE: MICROCRYSTALLINE; RANGE: MICROCRYSTALLINE TO GRANULE; POOR INDURATION;
CEMENT TYPE(S): CALCILUTITE MATRIX;
ACCESSORY MINERALS: QUARTZ SAND-20%, IRON STAIN-04%, PHOSPHATIC SAND-01%;
OTHER FEATURES: UNWASHED SAMPLE;

60 - 67 CALCILUTITE; YELLOWISH GRAY; POSSIBLY HIGH PERMEABILITY;
GRAIN TYPE: CALCILUTITE, CRYSTALS; 15% ALLOCHEMICAL CONSTITUENTS;
GRAIN SIZE: MICROCRYSTALLINE; RANGE: MICROCRYSTALLINE TO GRANULE; POOR INDURATION;
CEMENT TYPE(S): CALCILUT.ITE MATRIX;
ACCESSORY MINERALS: QUARTZ SAND-15%, IRON STAIN-04%, PHOSPHATIC SAND-01%;
OTHER FEATURES: UNWASHED SAMPLE;
FOSSILS: NO FOSSILS;

67 - 70 CALCILUTITE; YELLOWISH GRAY; POSSIBLY HIGH PERMEABILITY;
GRAIN TYPE: CALCILUTITE, CRYSTALS; 15% ALLOCHEMICAL CONSTITUENTS;
GRAIN SIZE: MICROCRYSTALLINE; RANGE: MICROCRYSTALLINE TO COARSE; POOR INDURATION;
CEMENT TYPE(S): CALCILUTITE MATRIX;
ACCESSORY MINERALS: QUARTZ SAND-15%, CLAY-05%, PHOSPHATIC SAND-01%, IRON STAIN-03%;
OTHER FEATURES: UNWASHED SAMPLE;
FOSSILS: NO FOSSILS;

70 - 80 SAND; YELLOWISH GRAY TO MODERATE YELLOWISH BROWN; POSSIBLY HIGH PERMEABILITY; GRAIN SIZE: FINE; RANGE: VERY FINE TO MEDIUM;
ROUNDNESS:SUB-ANGULAR; MEDIUM SPHERICITY; POOR INDURATION;
CEMENT TYPE(S): CALCILUTITE MATRIX;
ACCESSORY MINERALS: CALCILUTITE-35%, IRON STAIN-03%, PHOSPHATIC SAND-01%;
OTHER FEATURES: UNWASHED SAMPLE;
FOSSILS: NO FOSSILS;


PAGE - 4









W- 16200 CONTINUED PAGE - 5

80 - 85 CALCILUTITE; YELLOWISH GRAY; POSSIBLY HIGH PERMEABILITY;
GRAIN TYPE: CALCILUTITE; 30% ALLOCHEMICAL CONSTITUENTS;
GRAIN SIZE MICROCRYSTALLINE; RANGE: MICROCRYSTALLINE TO MEDIUM; MODERATE INDURATION;
CEMENT TYPE(S): CALCILUTITE MATRIX;
ACCESSORY MINRALS. QUARTZ SAND-30%, PHOSPHATIC SAND-OtX, IRON STAIN-01%,
PLANT RMAINS-01 ' i
OTHER FEATURES: UNWASHED ANPLE;
FOSSILS: NO FOSSILS;

85 - 90 CALCARENITE; YELLOWISH GRAY TO WHITE; POSSIBLY HIGH PERMEABILITY;
GRAIN TYPE: CALCILUTITE, CRYSTALS; 50% ALLOCHEMICAL CONSTITUENTS;
GRAIN SIZE: MICROCRYSTALLINE; RANGE: MICROCRYSTALLINE TO VERY COARSE; MODERATE INDURATION;
CEMENT TYPE(S)s CALCILUTITE MATRIX;
ACCESSORY MINERALS: GUARTZ SAMD-35%, PHOSPHATIC SAND-02%;
OTHR FEATURES: UNWASHED SALE;
FOSSILS: BRYOZOA, SENTHIC FOAINIFERA;
LEPIDOCYCLINA SP.,NUSMMLITES SPP.


90 TOTAL DEPTH











LITHOLOGIC WELL LOG PRINTOUT


WELL NUMBER: W- 16201 TOTAL DEPTH: 00053 FT.
9 SAMPLES FROM 11 TO 53 FT.

COMPLETION DATE - 16/12/87 OTHER TYPES OF LOGS AVAILABLE - NONE


COUNTY - ALACHUA LOCATION: T.08S R.18E S.17 A
LAT = N 290 47M 52 LON = W 820 31H 42 ELEVATION - 115 FT


OWNER/DRILLER: FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY ALACHUA WELL #4

WORKED BY: CUTTINGS DESCRIBED BY MIKE WEINBERG; SPLIT SPOON SAMPLES DESCRIBED BY THOMAS SEAL; POROSITY VALUES
VISUALLY ESTIMATED; CONSULT PERMEAMETER DATA SHEETS FOR PERMEABILITY VALUES; SAMPLES 19.5,40.5 WORKED BY 'BY MIKE WEINBERG;.REMAINDER BY THOMAS SEAL


0. - 53. 53. -


090LJSC UNDIFFERENTIATED SAND AND CLAY
1240CAL OCALA GROUP


0 - 10.5 SAND; MODERATE YELLOWISH BROWN TO MODERATE BROWN; 20% POROSITY, INTER
GRAIN SIZE: MEDIUM; RANGE: FINE TO COARSE;
ROUNDNESS: SUB-ANGULAR TO ANGULAR; MEDIUM SPHERICITY; POOR INDURATION
CEMENT TYPE(S): IRON CEMENT, CLAY MATRIX;
ACCESSORY MINERALS: PHOSPHATIC SAND-01%, CLAY-15%, PLANT REMAINS-10%;
OTHER FEATURES: DOLOMITIC, UNWASHED SAMPLE;
FOSSILS: NO FOSSILS;


GRANULAR;


10.5- 12.5 SAND; MODERATE YELLOWISH BROWN; 20% POROSITY, INTERGRANULAR;
GRAIN SIZE: MEDIUM; RANGE: FINE TO MEDIUM;
ROUNDNESS: SUB-ANGULAR TO ANGULAR; MEDIUM SPHERICITY; POOR INDURATION;
CEMENT TYPE(S): IRON CEMENT, CLAY MATRIX;
ACCESSORY MINERALS: PHOSPHATIC SAND-02%, CLAY-15%, PLANT REMAINS-10%;
OTHER FEATURES: UNWASHED SAMPLE;
FOSSILS: NO FOSSILS;

12.5- 19.5 SAND; GRAYISH ORANGE TO YELLOWISH GRAY; 15% POROSITY, INTERGRANULAR;
GRAIN SIZE: FINE; RANGE: FINE TO MEDIUM;
ROUNDNESS: SUB-ANGULAR TO ROUNDED; MEDIUM SPHERICITY; POOR INDURATION;
CEMENT TYPE(S): CLAY MATRIX;
ACCESSORY MINERALS: CLAY-20%, PLANT REMAINS-10%, HEAVY MINERALS-01%;
OTHER FEATURES: UNWASHED SAMPLE;
FOSSILS: NO FOSSILS;


SOURCE - FGS


;









W- 16201 CONTINUED


19.5- 30.5 SAND; YELLOWISH GRAY; 20% POROSITY, INTERGRANULAR;
GRAIN SIZE: FINE; RANGE, FINE 70 MEDIUM;
ROUNDNESS: SU-ANULAR TO ROUNDED; MEDIUM SPHERICITY; POOR INDURATION;
CEMENT TYPE(S): CLAY MATRIX;
ACCESSORY MINERALS: CLAY-15X, PLANT REMAINS-15%, HEAVY MINERALS-01%;
OTHER FEATURES: UNWASHED SAMPLE;
FOSSILS: NO FOSSILS;

30.5- 32.5 AS ABOVE

32.5- 40.5 SAM; LIGHT RED TO LIGHT BROWN; 30% POROSITY, INTERGRANULAR;
GRAIN SIZE: FINE; RANGE: VERY FINE TO COARSE;
ROUNDNESS: SUE-ANGULAR TO ANGULAR; MEDIUM SPHERICITY; POOR INDURATION;
CEMENT TYPE(S): CLAY MATRIX. IRON CEMENT;
ACCESSORY MINERALS: CLAY-04%,,IRON STAIN-04%, PLANT REMAINS-02%;
OTHER FEATURES: UNWASHED SAMPLE, DOLOMITIC;
FOSSILS: NO FOSSILS;

40.5- 42.5 SAND; VERY LIGHT ORANGE; 30% POROSITY, INTERGRANULAR;
GRAIN SIZE: FINE; RANGE: FINE TO MEDIUM;
ROUNDNESS: SUB-ANGULAR TO ROUNDED; MEDIUM SPHERICITY; UNCONSOLIDATED;
ACCESSORY MINERALS: CLAY-05X, HEAVY MINERALS-01%;
OTHER FEATURES: UNWASHED SAMPLE;
FOSSILS: NO FOSSILS;

42.5- 52.5 SAM; LIGHT BROW; 15% POROSITY, INTERGRANULAR;
GRAIN SIZE: FINE; RANGE:. FINE TO COARSE;
ROUNDNESS: SUB-ANGULAR TO ROUNDED; MEDIUM SPHERICITY; POOR INDURATION;
CEMENT TYPE(S): CLAY MATRIX;
ACCESSORY MINERALS: CALCILUTITE-10%, CLAY-25%;
OTHER FEATURES: UNWASHED SAMPLE, CALCAREOUS;
FOSSILS: NO FOSSILS;

52.5- 53 PACKSTONE; VERY LIGHT ORANGE TO WHITE; INTERGRANULAR, INTRAGRANULAR,
POSSIBLY HIGH PERMEABILITY;
GRAIN TYPE: SKELETAL, CALCILUTITE; 35% ALLOCHEMICAL CONSTITUENTS;
GRAIN SIZE: FINE; RANGE: MICROCRYSTALLINE TO VERY COARSE; MODERATE INDURATION;
CEMENT TYPE(S): CALCILUTITE MATRIX;
OTHER FEATURES: UNWASHED SAMPLE;
FOSSILS: BENTHIC FORAMINIFERA, BRYOZOA, ECHINOID, MOLLUSKS;
INDEX FOSSILS INDICATIVE OF CRYSTAL RIVER FM.


53 TOTAL DEPTH


PAGE - 2











LITHOLOGIC WELL LOG PRINTOUT


WELL NUMBER: W- 16202 TOTAL DEPTH: 00101 FT. 19 SAMPLES FROM 11 TO 101 FT.

COMPLETION-DATE - 15/01/88 OTHER TYPES OF LOGS AVAILABLE - NONE


COUNTY - ALACHUA LOCATION: T.07S R.18E S.05 B
LAT = N 290 54M 30 LON = W 82D 31M 43 ELEVATION - 140 FT


OWNER/DRILLER: FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY - ALACHUA WELL # 5

WORKED BY: CUTTINGS DESCRIBED BY MIKE WEINBERG; SPLIT SPOON SAMPLES DESCRIBED BY THOMAS SEAL; POROSITY VALUES
ESTIMATED VISUALLY; CONSULT PERMEAMETER DATA SHEETS FOR PERMEABILITY VALUES
--SAMPLES 20.5,30.5,40.5,50.5,60.5,70.5,71,80,85.5,88, 94 DESCRIBED BYMIKE WEINBERG; OTHERS BY TH1MAS SEAL


0. - 20. 09OUDSC 20. - 101. 122HTRN 101. - . 1240CAL


UNDIFFERENTIATED SAND AND CLAY HAWTHORN GROUP
OCALA GROUP


0 - 10.5 SAND; YELLOWISH GRAY TO MODERATE YELLOWISH BROWN; 35% POROSITY, INTERGRANULAR;
GRAIN SIZE: FINE; RANGE: VERY FINE TO COARSE;
ROUWNDNESS:SUB-ANGULAR; MEDIUM SPHERICITY; POOR INDURATION;
CEMENT TYPE(S): IRON CEMENT, CLAY MATRIX, PHOSPHATE CEMENT;
ACCESSORY MINERALS: IRON STAIN-05%, CLAY-15%, PLANT REMAINS-03%;
OTHER FEATURES: UNWASHED SAMPLE, DOLOMITIC;
FOSSILS: NO FOSSILS;

10.5- 20.5 CLAY; YELLOWISH GRAY TO DARK YELLOWISH ORANGE; LOW PERMEABILITY; POOR INDURATION;
CEMENT TYPESS: CLAY MATRIX, PHOSPHATE CEMENT;
ACCESSORY MINERALS: QUARTZ SAND-35%, IRON STAIN-04%, PLANT REMAINS-02%;
OTHER FEATURES: UNWASHED SAMPLE;
FOSSILS: NO FOSSILS;

20.5- 22.5 CLAY; DARK GRAYISH YELLOW: LOW PERMEABILITY; POOR INDURATION:
CEMENT TYPE(S): CLAY MATRIX;
ACCESSORY MINERALS: QUARTZ SAND-10%, PHOSPHATIC GRAVEL-02%, PHOSPHATIC SAND-02%;
OTHER FEATURES: UNWASHED SAMPLE, DOLOMITIC;
FOSSILS: NO FOSSILS;

22.5- 30.5 CLAY; YELLOWISH GRAY TO GRAYISH ORANGE; LOW PERMEABILITY; POOR INDURATION;
CEMENT TYPE(S): CLAY MATRIX;
ACCESSORY MINERALS: QUARTZ SAND-20%, IRON STAIN-02%;
OTHER FEATURES: UNWASHED SAMPLE;
FOSSILS: NO FOSSILS;


Y4~


SOURCE - FGS










W- 16202 CONTINUED


30.5- 32.5 CLAY; WHITE TO DARK YELLOWISH ORANGE; LOW PERMEABILITY; POOR INDURATION;
CEMENT TYPESS: CLAY MATRIX, PHOSPHATE CEMENT;
ACCESSORY MINERALS: IRON STAIN-01%, QUARTZ SAND-05%;
OTHER FEATURES: UNWASHED SAMPLE;
FOSSILS: NO FOSSILS;

32.5- 40.5 SAND; GRAYISH BROWN; 25% POROSITY, INTERGRANULAR;
GRAIN SIZE: MEDIUM; RANGE: VERY FINE TO COARSE;
ROWNESS:SU-ANGULAR; MEDIUM SPHERICITY; MODERATE INDURATION;
CEMENT TYPE(S): CLAY MATRIX, IRON CEMENT, SILICIC CEMENT;
ACCESSORY MINERALS: CLAY-05%, IRON STAIN-02%, PHOSPHATIC SAND-01%;
OTHER FEATURES: UNWASHED SAMPLE;
FOSSILS: NO FOSSILS;
LOCALLY, SAND IS SILICA CEMENTED & INDURATED

40.5- 45.5 SAND; GRAYISH YELLOW; 25% POibSITY, INTERGRANULAR;
GRAIN SIZE: MEDIUM; RANGE: FINE TO COARSE;
ROUNDNESS: SUB-ANGULAR TO ANGULAR; MEDIUM SPHERICITY; UNCONSOLIDATED;
CEMENT TYPE(S): CLAY MATRIX;
ACCESSORY MINERALS: CLAY-05%, PHOSPHATIC SAND-03%;
OTHER FEATURES: UNWASHED SAMPLE, DOLOMITIC;
FOSSILS: NO FOSSILS;

45.5- 50.5 SAND; YELLOWISH GRAY TO MODERATE YELLOWISH BROWN; 30% POROSITY, INTERGRANULAR;
GRAIN SIZE: FINE; RANGE: VERY FINE TO VERY COARSE;
ROUNDNESS:SUB-ANGULAR; MEDIUM SPHERICITY; POOR INDURATION;
CEMENT TYPE(S): CLAY MAJRIX, IRON CEMENT;
ACCESSORY MINERALS: CLAY-03%, IRON STAIN-02%, PHOSPHATIC SAND-01%;
OTHER FEATURES: UNWASHED SAMPLE;
FOSSILS: NO FOSSILS;

50.5- 52.5 SAND; GRAYISH YELLOW; 35% POROSITY, INTERGRANULAR;
GRAIN SIZE: FINE; RANGE: FINE TO MEDIUM;
ROUNDNESS: SUB-ANGULAR TO ANGULAR; MEDIUM SPHERICITY; UNCONSOLIDATED;
ACCESSORY MINERALS: CLAY-03%, HEAVY MINERALS-01%;
OTHER FEATURES: WIWASHED SAMPLE, DOLOMITIC;
FOSSILS: NO FOSSILS;

52.5- 60.5 SAND: GRAYISH BROW; 30% POROSITY, INTERGRANULAR;
GRAIN SIZE: FINE; RANGE: VERY FINE TO MEDIUM;
RONDNESS:SUB-ANGULAR; MEDIUM SPHERICITY; POOR INDURATION;
CEMENT TYPE(S): CLAY MATRIX, IRON CEMENT;
ACCESSORY MINERALS: CLAY-03%, IRON STAIN-02%;
OTHER FEATURES: UNWASHED SAMPLE;
FOSSILS: NO FOSSILS;


PAGE - 2










W- 16202 CONTINUED


60.5- 62.5 SAND; VERY LIGHT ORANGE; 30% POROSITY, INTERGRANULAR;
GRAIN SIZE: MEDIUM; RANGE: FINE TO COARSE;
ROUNDNESS: SUB-ANGULAR TO ROUNDED; MEDIUM SPHERICITY; UNCONSOLIDATED;
CEMENT TYPE(S): CLAY MATRIX;
ACCESSORY MINERALS: CLAY-05%;
OTHER FEATURES: UNWASHED SAMPLE;
FOSSILS: NO FOSSILS;
THIN (10 CM) ZONE OF PHOSPHATIC CLAY

62.5- 70.5 SAND; GRAYISH BROWN TO WHITE; 25% POROSITY, INTERGRANULAR;
GRAIN SIZE: FINE; RANGE: VERY FINE TO COARSE;
ROUNDNESS:SUB-ANGULAR; MEDIUM SPHERICITY; POOR INDURATION;
CEMENT TYPESS: CALCILUTITE MATRIX;
ACCESSORY MINERALS: CALCILUTITE-15%, PHOSPHATIC SAND-02%, IRON STAIN-04%;
OTHER FEATURES: UNWASHED SAMPLE, CALCAREOUS;
FOSSILS: NO FOSSILS;

70.5- 71 :SAND; WHITE; 20% POROSITY, INTERGRANULAR;
GRAIN SIZE: FINE; RANGE: VERY FINE TO MEDIUM;
ROUNDNESS:SUB-ANGULAR; MEDIUM SPHERICITY; MODERATE INDURATION;
CEMENT TYPE(S): CALCILUTITE MATRIX;
ACCESSORY MINERALS: CALCILUTITE-25%, PHOSPHATIC SAND-03%;
OTHER FEATURES: UNWASHED SAMPLE, CALCAREOUS;
FOSSILS: NO FOSSILS;

71 - 80 SAND; GRAYISH ORANGE PINK TO DARK YELLOWISH ORANGE; 25% POROSITY, INTERGRANULAR;
GRAIN SIZE: FINE; RANGE:. VERY FINE TO VERY COARSE;
ROUNDNESS: SUB-ANGULAR TO ANGULAR; MEDIUM SPHERICITY; POOR INDURATION;
CEMENT TYPE(S): CALCILUTITE MATRIX;
ACCESSORY MINERALS: CALCILUTITE-35%, PHOSPHATIC SAND-03%, IRON STAIN-03%;
OTHER FEATURES: UNWASHED SAMPLE, CALCAREOUS;
FOSSILS: NO FOSSILS;

80 - 85.5 CLAY; LIGHT GREENISH YELLOW; LOW PERMEABILITY; POOR INDURATION;
CEMENT TYPE(S): CLAY MATRIX;
ACCESSORY MINERALS: IRON STAIN-03%, LIMESTONE-10%;
OTHER FEATURES: UNWASHED SAMPLE;
FOSSILS: NO FOSSILS;
TEXTURE OF CLAY RANGES FROM WAXY TO DULL; FRAGMENTS OF SAND IN A CALCAREOUS CLAY MATRIX

85.5- 87.5 SAND; VERY LIGHT ORANGE; 35% POROSITY, INTERGRANULAR;
GRAIN SIZE: FINE; RANGE: FINE TO MEDIUM;
ROUNDNESS: SUB-ANGULAR TO ROUNDED; MEDIUM SPHERICITY; UNCONSOLIDATED;
CEMENT TYPE(S): CALCILUTITE MATRIX;
ACCESSORY MINERALS: HEAVY MINERALS-01%, PHOSPHATIC SAND-02%;
OTHER FEATURES: UNWASHED SAMPLE, DOLOMITIC;
FOSSILS: NO FOSSILS;


PAGE - 3










W- 16202 CONTINUED


87.5- 8 SAND; YELLOWISH GRAY; 35% POROSITY, INTERGRANULAR;
GRAIN SIZE: FINE; RANGE: VERY FINE TO MEDIUM;
ROUNNESS:SU-ANGULAR; HIGH SPHERICITY; POOR INDURATION;
CEMENT TYPE(S): CALCILUTITE MATRIX;
ACCESSORY MINERALS: PHOSPHATIC SAND-01%, HEAVY MINERALS-01%;
OTHER FEATURES: UNWASHED SAMPLE;
FOSSILS: BNYOZOA;

88 - 91 SAND; VERY LIGHT ORANGE; 35% POROSITY, INTERGRANULAR;
GRAIN SIZE: FINE; RANGE: FINE TO MEDIUM;
ROUNDNESS: SU-ANmGULAR TO ROUNDED; MEDIUM SPHERICITY; POOR INDURATION;
CEMENT TYPESS: CALCILUTITE MATRIX;
ACCESSORY MINERALS: PHOSPHATIC SAND-01%, HEAVY MINERALS-01%;
OTHER FEATURES: UNWASHED SAMPLE, DOLOMITIC;
FOSSILS: NO FOSSILS;

91 94 SAND; PINKISH GRAY; 20 POROSITY, INTERGRANULAR;
GRAIN SIZE: FINE; RANGE: VERY FINE TO MEDIUM;
ROIODNESS:SUS-ANQULAR; MEDIUM SPHERICITY; MODERATE INDURATION;
CEMENT TYPE(S): CALCILUTITE MATRIX;
ACCESSORY MINERALS: CALCILUTITE-40%, HEAVY MINERALS-02%, CHERT-01%;
OTHER FEATURES: UNWASHED SAMPLE, DOLOMITIC;
FOSSILS: NO FOSSILS;

94 - 101 CALCARENITE; VERY LIGHT ORANGE; INTERGRANULAR;
GRAIN TYPE: SKELETAL, CALCILUTITE; 70% ALLOCHEMICAL CONSTITUENTS;
GRAIN SIZE: FINE; RANGE; MICROCRYSTALLINE TO GRAVEL; MODERATE INDURATION;
CEMENT TYPESS: CALCILUTITE MATRIX;
ACCESSORY MINERALS: QUARTZ SAND-05%;
OTHER FEATURES: COQUINA, UNWASHED SAMPLE;
FOSSILS: BRYOZOA, BENTHIC FORAMINIFERA;
LEPIDOCYCLINA PRESENT

101 TOTAL DEPTH


J


PAGE - 4











LITHOLOGIC WELL LOG PRINTOUT


WELL NUMBER: W- 16203 COUNTY - ALACHUA
TOTAL DEPTH: 00030 FT. LOCATION: T.1OS R.20E S.21 8
6 SAMPLES FROM 10 TO 30 FT. LAT = N 29D 36H 22
LON - W 820 18H 12
COMPLETION DATE - 06/01/88 ELEVATION - 060 FT
OTHER TYPES OF LOGS AVAILABLE - NONE

OWNER/DRILLER: FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY - ALACHUA WELL # 6

WORKED BY: CUTTINGS DESCRIBED BY MIKE WEINBERG; SPLIT SPOON SAMPLES DESCRIBED BY THOMAS SEAL; POROSITY VALUES ESTIMATED VISUALLY; CONSULT PERMEAMETER DATA SHEETS FOR PERMEABILITY VALUES; SAMPLES 10,20,30 DESCRIBED BY MIKE WEINBERG; OTHERS BY THOMAS SEAL

0. - 20. 09OLDSC UNDIFFERENTIATED SAND AND CLAY
20.- 30. 122HTRM HAWTHORN GROUP
30. 1240CAL OCALA GROUP

0 - 10 SAND; LIGHT BROWN; 35% POROSITY, INTERGRANULAR;
GRAIN SIZE: MEDIUM; RANGE: FINE TO GRANULE;
ROUNDNESS: SUB-ANGULAR TO ROUNDED; HIGH SPHERICITY; UNCONSOLIDATED;
ACCESSORY MINERALS: PLANT REMAINS-03%, HEAVY MINERALS-01%;
OTHER FEATURES: UNWASHED SAMPLE;
FOSSILS: NO FOSSILS;

10 - 12 SAND; GRAYISH BROWN; 05% POROSITY, INTERGRANULAR; GRAIN SIZE: MEDIUM; RANGE: FINE TO COARSE;
ROUNDNESS: SUB-ANGULAR TO ROUNDED; MEDIUM SPHERICITY; POOR INDURATION;
CEMENT TYPE(S): CLAY MATRIX, CALCILUTITE MATRIX;
ACCESSORY MINERALS: CLAY-30%, HEAVY MINERALS-01%;
OTHER FEATURES: UNWASHED SAMPLE, DOLOMITIC;
FOSSILS: NO FOSSILS;

12 20 CLAY; GRAYISH ORANGE PINK; LOW PERMEABILITY; MODERATE INDURATION;
CEMENT TYPE(S): CLAY MATRIX;
ACCESSORY MINERALS: QUARTZ SAND-40%, IRON STAIN-01%, PLANT REMAINS-02%;
OTHER FEATURES: UNWASHED SAMPLE;
FOSSILS: NO FOSSILS;

20 - 22 CLAY; LIGHT OLIVE TO LIGHT BROWN; LOW PERMEABILITY; POOR INDURATION; CEMENT TYPE(S): CLAY MATRIX, PHOSPHATE CEMENT;
ACCESSORY MINERALS: QUARTZ SAND-10%, IRON STAIN-02%, PHOSPHATIC SAND-05%;
OTHER FEATURES: UNWASHED SAMPLE;
FOSSILS: NO FOSSILS;


l~.


SOURCE - FGS










W- 16203 CONTINUED


22 - 29 SAND; GRAYISH BROM TO LIGHT BROWN; 20% POROSITY, INTERGRANULAR;
GRAIN SIZE: FINE; RANGE: VERY FINE TO VERY COARSE;
RONDNESS:SUB-ANGULAR; MEDIUM SPHERICITY; POOR INDURATION;
CEMENT TYPE(S): CLAY MATRIX;
ACCESSORY MINERALS: LIMESTONE-05%, CLAY-25%, IRON STAIN-02%;
OTHER FEATURES: UNWASHED SAMPLE;
FOSSILS: NO FOSSILS;

29 - 30 CALCARENITE; VERY LIGHT ORANGE TO YELLOWISH GRAY; INTERGRANULAR, INTRAGRANULAR,
POSSIBLY HIGH PERMEABILITY;
GRAIN TYPE: SKELETAL, CALCILUTITE; 35% ALLOCHEMICAL CONSTITUENTS;
GRAIN SIZE: MEDIUM; RANGE: MICROCRYSTALLINE TO GRANULE; POOR INDURATION;
CEMENT TYPE(S): CALCILUTITE MATRIX, CLAY MATRIX, PHOSPHATE CEMENT;
ACCESSORY MINERALS: QUARTZ SAND-25%, CLAY-25%, PHOSPHATIC SAND-03%;
OTHER FEATURES: UNWASHED SAMPLE, CALCAREOUS;
FOSSILS: SENTHIC FORAMINIFERA, MOLLUSKS;
PROSASLE CONTACT OF HAWTHORN & CRYSTAL RIVER NUMEROUS LEPIDOCYCLINA AND LIMESTONE
FRAGMENTS MIXED WITH PHOSPHATIC SAND

30 TOTAL DEPTH


K)


PAGE - 2












LITHOLOGIC WELL LOG PRINTOUT


WELL NUMBER: W- 16204 TOTAL DEPTH: 00042 FT.
8 SAMPLES FROM 10 TO 42 FT.

COMPLETION DATE - 08/01/88 OTHER TYPES OF LOGS AVAILABLE - NONE


COUNTY - ALACHUA LOCATION: T.10S R.20E S.28
LAT z N 290 35M 19 LON a W 82D 18 52 ELEVATION - 060 FT


OWNER/DRILLER: FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY FOR ALACHUA COUNTY

WORKED BY: CUTTINGS DESCRIBED BY MIKE WEINBERG; SPLIT SPOON SAMPLES DESCRIBED BY THOMAS SEAL; CONSULT PERMEAMETER DATA SHEETS FOR PERMEABILITY VALUES; POROSITY VALUES ESTIMATED VISUALLY; SAMPLES 10,40 DESCRIBED BY MIKE "WEINBERG; OTHER SAMPLES DESCRIBED BY THOMAS SEAL

0. - 32. O90UDSC UNDIFFERENTIATED SAND AND CLAY
32. - . ' 1240CAL 'OCALA GROUP


.-- "


0 - 10 PEAT; DARK GRAY TO YELLOWISH GRAY; POSSIBLY HIGH PERMEABILITY; POOR INDURATION;
CEMENT TYPE(S): ORGANIC MATRIX;
ACCESSORY MINERALS: QUARTZ SAND-20%;
OTHER FEATURES: UNWASHED SAMPLE;
FOSSILS: NO FOSSILS;


10 - 11.5


CLAY; YELLOWISH GRAY; LOW PERMEABILITY; POOR INDURATION; CEMENT TYPE(S): CLAY MATRIX, DOLOMITE CEMENT, CALCILUTITE MATRIX; ACCESSORY MINERALS: QUARTZ SAND-15%, PHOSPHATIC SAND-02%, CALCILUTITE-20%; OTHER FEATURES: UNWASHED SAMPLE; FOSSILS: NO FOSSILS;


11.5- 12 CLAY; DARK BROWN; LOW PERMEABILITY; POOR INDURATION;
CEMENT TYPESS: CLAY MATRIX, CALCILUTITE MATRIX;
ACCESSORY MINERALS: QUARTZ SAND-15%, PHOSPHATIC SAND-07%;
OTHER FEATURES: UNWASHED SAMPLE;
FOSSILS: NO FOSSILS;
CARBONATE-RICH CLAY ZONE

12 - 20 CLAY; DARK YELLOWISH BROWN TO DARK BROWN; LOW PERMEABILITY; POOR INDURATION;
CEMENT TYPESS: CLAY MATRIX, ORGANIC MATRIX, CALCILUTITE MATRIX;
ACCESSORY MINERALS: PLANT REMAINS-15%, QUARTZ SAND-15%;
OTHER FEATURES: UNWASHED SAMPLE;
FOSSILS: MOLLUSKS;
FRESHWATER SNAIL FOSSILS IN ORGANIC RICH CLAY THESE GASTROPODS ARE PROBABLY IN PLACE, BUT
MAY BE DUE TO UPHOLE CONTAMINATION


9,


SOURCE - FGS









W- 16204 CONTINUED


20 22 CLAY; DARK YELLOWISH BROWN; LOW PERMEABILITY; POOR INDURATION;
CEMENT TYPE(S): CLAY MATRIX, CALCILUTITE MATRIX;
ACCESSORY MINERALS: CALCILUTITE-20%, QUARTZ SAND-08%;
OTHER FEATURES: UNWASHED SAMPLE;
FOSSILS: MOLLUSKS, FOSSIL FRAGMENTS;

22 30 CLAY; MOERATE GRAY TO SLACK; LOW PERMEABILITY; POOR INDURATION;
CEMENT TYPE(S): ORGANIC MATRIX, CLAY MATRIX;
ACCESSORY MINERALS: PLANT REAINS-30%, QUARTZ SAND-02%;
OTHER FEATURES: UNWASHED SAMPLE;
FOSSILS: MOLLUSKS, FOSSIL FRAGMENTS;
ABUNDANT, WELL PRESERVED TERRESTRIAL SNAILS ORGANIC MATTER IS GENERALLY NON-FIBROUS

30 - 32 LIMESTONE; DARK YELLOWISH BROWN TO BLACK; LOW PERMEABILITY, POSSIBLY HIGH PERMEABILITY;
GRAIN TYPE: CALCILUTITE; 10% ALLOCHEMICAL CONSTITUENTS;
GRAIN SIZE: FINE; RANGE: MICIOCRYSTALLINE TO MEDIUM; POOR INDURATION;
CEMENT TYPE(S): CLAY MATRIX, ORGANIC MATRIX, CALCILUTITE MATRIX; ACCESSORY MINERALS: PLANT REMAINS-202, CLAY-20%, QUARTZ SAND-10%;
OTHER FEATURES: UNWASHED SAMPLE;
FOSSILS: MOLLUSKS;
POSSIBLE SINKHOLE FILL; CLAY RICH ZONES, WITH CLAY APPROACHING 20-40%, CALCILUTITE
VARIABLE AS WELL AS SAND

32 - 40 SAND; BLACK TO MODERATE GRAY; 30% POROSITY, INTERGRANULAR;
GRAIN SIZE: MEDIUM; RANGE: VERY FINE TO COARSE;
ROJMDNESS:SUB-ANGULAR; HIGH SPHERICITY; POOR INDURATION;
CEMENT TYPE(S): ORGANIC MATRIX;
ACCESSORY MINERALS: PLANT REMAINS-40%, LIMESTONE-03%, CLAY-05%;
OTHER FEATURES: UNWASHED SAMPLE;
FOSSILS: MOLLUSKS, ECHINOID, BENTHIC FORAMINIFERA;
LEPIDOCYCLINA SP. PRESENT

40 - 42 PACKSTONE; LIGHT GRAY; 25% POROSITY, INTERGRANULAR;
GRAIN TYPE: CALCILUTITE, SKELETAL; 50% ALLOCHEMICAL CONSTITUENTS;
GRAIN SIZE: MICROCRYSTALLINE; RANGE: MICROCRYSTALLINE TO GRAVEL; MODERATE INDURATION;
CEMENT TYPE(S): CALCILUTITE MATRIX;
OTHER FEATURES: UNWASHED SAMPLE, COQUINA;
FOSSILS: BRYOZOA, BENTHIC FORAMINIFERA;
FORM COQUINA WITH MICRITIC MATRIX LEPIDOCYCLINA PRESENT

42 TOTAL DEPTH


~c~)


PAGE - 2











LITHOLOGIC WELL LOG PRINTOUT


WELL NUMBER: W- 16205 COUNTY - ALACHUA
TOTAL DEPTH: 00065 FT. LOCATION: T.11S R.20E S.03
SAMPLES - NONE LAT = N 290 32M 42
LON x W 82D 17M 54
COMPLETION DATE - 14/01/88 ELEVATION - 085 FT
OTHER TYPES OF LOGS AVAILABLE - NONE

OWNER/DRILLER: ALACHUA WELL #8 /(FGS) JOHN MORRILL

WORKED BY: WELL CUTTINGS WORKED BY JOEL DUNCAN & MIKE WEINBERG
WELL ENDS IN THE HAWTHORNE FORMATION THIS WELL IS EQUIVALENT TO ALACHUA AMBIENT #8

0. - 26. 090UDSC UNDIFFERENTIATED SAND AND CLAY
26. - . , 122HTRN HAWTHORN GROUP

0. - 10 SAND; MODERATE YELLOWISH BROWN; 20% POROSITY, INTERGRANULAR;
GRAIN SIZE: MEDIUM; RANGE: FINE TO VERY COARSE;
ROUNDNESS: SUB-ANGULAR TO ROUNDED; MEDIUM SPHERICITY; POOR INDURATION;
CEMENT TYPE(S): CLAY MATRIX;
ACCESSORY MINERALS: CLAY-20%, HEAVY MINERALS-01%, PLANT REMAINS-03%;
FOSSILS: NO FOSSILS;

10 - 12 SAND; YELLOWISH GRAY TO GRAYISH BROWN; INTERGRANULAR; GRAIN SIZE: MEDIUM; RANGE: FINE TO COARSE;
ROUNDNESS: SUB-ANGULAR TO ROUNDED; MEDIUM SPHERICITY; POOR INDURATION;
CEMENT TYPE(S): CLAY MATRIX;
ACCESSORY MINERALS: CLAY-15%;
FOSSILS: NO FOSSILS;.

12 - 20 SAND; GRAYISH BROWN; 15% POROSITY, INTERGRANULAR; GRAIN SIZE: FINE; RANGE: VERY FINE TO COARSE;
ROUNDNESS: SUB-ANGULAR TO ROUNDED; MEDIUM SPHERICITY; MODERATE INDURATION;
CEMENT TYPE(S): SILICIC CEMENT, CLAY MATRIX;
ACCESSORY MINERALS: CLAY-15%, HEAVY MINERALS-01%, PLANT REMAINS-05%, IRON STAIN-01%;
FOSSILS: NO FOSSILS;

20 - 22 SAND; VERY LIGHT GRAY TO YELLOWISH GRAY; INTERGRANULAR; GRAIN SIZE: MEDIUM; RANGE: VERY FINE TO COARSE;
ROUNDNESS: SUB-ANGULAR TO ROUNDED; MEDIUM SPHERICITY; POOR INDURATION;
CEMENT TYPE(S): CLAY MATRIX;
ACCESSORY MINERALS: CLAY-15%, HEAVY MINERALS-01%;
FOSSILS: NO FOSSILS;


SOURCE - FGS










W- 16205 CONTINUED


22 - 26 SAND; GRAYISH BROWN; 15% POROSITY, INTERGRANULAR;
GRAIN SIZ1: FINE; RANGE: VERY FINE TO COARSE;
ROUNDNESS: SUB-ANGULAR TO ROUNDED; MEDIUM SPHERICITY; MODERATE INDURATION;
CEMENT TYPE(S): SILICIC CEMENT, CLAY MATRIX;
ACCESSORY MINERALS: CLAY-15I, HEAVY MINERALS-01%, PLANT REMAINS-05%, IRON STAIN-01%;

26 - 30 CLAY; DARK YELLOWISH ORANGE TO GRAYISH BROWN; POOR INDURATION;
CEMENT TYPE(S): CLAY MATRIX;
ACCESSORY MINERALS: IRON STAIN-07%, QUARTZ-03%, PLANT REMAINS-03%;
OTHER FEATURES: PLASTIC;
FOSSILS: NO FOSSILS;

30 32 CLAY; LIGHT BLUE GREEN; LOW PERMEABILITY; POOR INDURATION;
CEMENT TYPESS: CLAY MATRIX;
SEDIMENTARY STRUCTURES: MOTTLfD,
ACCESSORY MINERALS: QUARTZ S"hID-15%, SILT-20%, SHALE-01%;
FOSSILS: ORGANICS;
SANM IS VERY FINE-GRAINED; SUBANGULAR TO ANGULAR; LIGHT GRAY IN COLOR TWO CL9TYE-S-DAR
YELLOW & GREENISH-GRAY MOTTLED TEXTURE IS QUESTIONABLE IN ORIGIN

32 - 40 CLAY; GRAYISH BROW TO DARK YELLOWISH ORANGE; LOW PERMEABILITY; POOR INDURATION;
CEMENT TYPESS: CLAY MATRIX;
ACCESSORY MINERALS: QUARTZ SAND-15%, IRON STAIN-05%;
FOSSILS: NO FOSSILS;

40 - 40.5 CLAY; LIGHT OLIVE TO GRAYISH OLIVE; LOW PERMEABILITY; POOR INDURATION;
CEMENT TYPESS: CLAY MATRIX;
ACCESSORY MINERALS: QUARTZ SAN-40%, PHOSPHATIC SAND-01%;
OTHER FEATURES: PLASTIC;
FOSSILS: NO FOSSILS;

40.5- 42 DOLO-SILT; YELLOWISH GRAY; INTERGRANULAR; POOR INDURATION;
CEMENT TYPESS: CLAY MATRIX, DOLOMITE CEMENT;
ACCESSORY MINERALS: CLAY-07%, QUARTZ SAND-20%, PHOSPHATIC SAND-05%;
FOSSILS: M0 FOSSILS;
NUMERGJS ROUED PHOSPHATIC UNLITHIFIED CLAY CLASTS NOTED SILT-SIZED DOLOMITE RHOMBS
COMMON

42 - 50 CLAY; GRAYISH BROWN; LOW PERMEABILITY; POOR INDURATION;
CEMENT TYPESS: CLAY MATRIX;
ACCESSORY MINERALS: IRON STAIN-02%, QUARTZ SAND-15%;
FOSSILS: NO FOSSILS;

50 - 50.5 CLAY; LIGHT OLIVE; LOW PERMEABILITY; POOR INDURATION;
CEMENT TYPESS: CLAY MATRIX, DOLOMITE CEMENT;
ACCESSORY MINERALS: DOLOMITE-35%, PHOSPHATIC SAND-05%, CALCITE-02%;
FOSSILS: NO FOSSILS;
CLAY AND DOLOSILT; ROUNDED PHOSPHATIC CLAY CLASTS


.9


PAGE - 2












50.5- 52 CLAY; LIGHT OLIVE; LOW PERMEABILITY; MODERATE INDURATION;
CEMENT TYPE(S): CLAY MATRIX, DOLOMITE CEMENT;
ACCESSORY MINERALS: PHOSPHATIC SAND-01%;
FOSSILS: NO FOSSILS;
SEVERAL CENTIMETER THICK DOLOSILT STRINGERS THROUGHOUT INTERVAL

52 - 55 CLAY; GRAYISH BROWN; LOW PERMEABILITY; POOR INDURATION;
CEMENT TYPE(S): CLAY MATRIX;
ACCESSORY MINERALS: IRON STAIN-03%, QUARTZ SAND-15%, LINESTONE-01%;
FOSSILS: NO FOSSILS:

55 - 60 CALCILUTITE; ; 15X POROSITY, INTERGRANULAR;
GRAIN TYPE: CALCILUTITE; 22% ALLOCHEMICAL CONSTITUENTS;
POOR INDURATION;
CEMENT TYPE(S): CALCILUTITE MATRIX;
ACCESSORY MINERALS: QUARTZ SiARD-20%, PHOSPHATIC SAND-02%;
FOSSILS: NO FOSSILS;
QTZ CONTENT OF CUTTINGS: HIGHLY VARIABLE, RANGING FROM 0-50% WITH 20% THE AV5 AGE.

60 - 61 SAND; YELLOWISH GRAY TO MODERATE YELLOWISH BROWN; INTERGRANULAR;
GRAIN SIZE: FINE; RANGE: VERY FINE TO FINE;
ROUNDNESS: SUB-ANGULAR TO ANGULAR; LOW SPHERICITY; POOR INDURATION;
CEMENT TYPESS: CLAY MATRIX;
SEDIMENTARY STRUCTURES: MOTTLED,
ACCESSORY MINERALS: PHOSPHATIC SAND-10%, CLAY-30%, SILT-10%;
OTHER FEATURES:*PLASTIC;
FOSSILS: NO FOSSILS;
SILT CONTENT ACTUALLY DOLOSILT; INTERVAL CONTAINS UP TO GRAVEL-SIZED PHOSPHATE GRAINS

61 - 62 DOLOMITE; WHITE TO VERY LIGHT GRAY; 05% POROSITY, INTERGRANULAR;
50-90% ALTERED;
GRAIN SIZE: CRYPTOCRYSTALLINE; RANGE: CRYPTOCRYSTALLINE TO MEDIUM; GOOD INDURATION;
CEMENT TYPE(S): DOLOMITE CEMENT;
ACCESSORY MINERALS: PHOSPHATIC SAND-05%, QUARTZ SAND-05%, CLAY-10%;
FOSSILS: NO FOSSILS;
INDURATION IS VARIABLE, RANGING FROM POOR TO WELL INDURATED, WITH WELL INDURATED BEING THE
MOST REPRESENTATIVE OF THE SAMPLE

62 - 64 NO SAMPLES

64- 65 SANDSTONE; MODERATE ORANGE PINK; INTERGRANULAR;
GRAIN SIZE:. FINE; RANGE: FINE TO MEDIUM;
ROUNDNESS: SUB-ANGULAR TO ANGULAR; MEDIUM SPHERICITY; MODERATE INDURATION;
CEMENT TYPE(S): CLAY MATRIX, IRON CEMENT;
ACCESSORY MINERALS: IRON STAIN-05%, CLAY-30%;
FOSSILS: NO FOSSILS;


65 TOTAL DEPTH


W- 16205 CONTINUED


PAGE - 3




Full Text

PAGE 1

State of Florida Department of Natural Resources Tom Gardner, Executive Director Division of Resource Management Jeremy Craft, Director Florida Geological Survey Walt Schmidt, State Geologist Open File Report -29 Characterisation of the sediments overlying the Floridan aquifer system in Alachua County, Florida by Richard Green, Joel Duncan, Thomas Seal, J. Michael Weinberg and Frank Rupert Florida Geological Survey Tallahassee, Florida 1989 .^v^·\

PAGE 2

Table of Contents Introduction and Background.................................1 Methods ...... *.* .* ..** * ..... .. .. ........ .... ........ 2 Core and Cutting Descriptions...........................6 Permeameter Testing................. .... ..................6 Sieve Analysis.................*........................ 1 Pipette Analysis.... ............ ..... ........... ......... 22 X-ray Diffraction Analyses...............................23 Discussion............ ....... ..... .................... 32 Summary and Conclusions.............. ...................... .67 References...... ......... ..... ...... ......... ....................72 Appendix I.............. ....... ..; ... ........ ............ 73 Appendix II ............................ ........ ........... 111 List of Figures Figure 1: Core location map.................................4 Figure 2: Typical Falling-head permeameter setup............10 Figure 3: Columnar section for well #1 (W-16198)..........35 Figure 4: Columnar section for well #2 (W-16199).........39 Figure 5: Columnar section for well #3 (W-16200).......... 41 Figure 6: Columnar section for well #4 (W-16201)..........45 Figure 7: Columnar section for well #5 (W-16202)..........49 Figure 8: Columnar section for well #6 (W-16203)..........52 Figure 9: Columnar section for well #7 (W-16204)......... 55 Figure 10: Columnar section for well #8 (W-16205)..........58 Figure 11: Columnar section for well #9 (W-16206)..........61 Figure 12: Columnar section for well #10 (W-16207)..........65 List of Tables Table 1: Alachua County wells studied in this Project.......7 Table 2: Theoretical times needed to conduct (1) test on a sample of given hydraulic conductivity (K)........12 Table 3: Results of permeameter analysis of selected samples ........................................... 13 Table 4: Average ranges of hydraulic conductivity for various geologic materials........................17 Table 5: Grain size analysis results .......................18 Table 6: Bulk x-ray diffractometer data....................26 Table 7: Clay separate x-ray diffractometer data...........29

PAGE 3

Appendices Appendix 1: Lithologic logs for the 10 study cores.........74 Appendix 2: Permeameter procedures... ........ ......... .112 o o oo oo

PAGE 4

INTRODUCTION AND,BACKGROUND The Water Quality Assurance Act of 1983 mandated the establishment of an:Ambient Ground Water Quality Network to aid in the prediction and detection of contamination of Florida's ground water resources. Administered through the Florida Department of Environmental Regulation, this legislation provides the funding for constructing a background ground water quality well network statewide. Also included within the scope of the Act are research provisions for defining aquifer systems based on new and existing hydrogeologic data, water quality sampling and analysis, as well as in-depth studies ranking the hydrogeologic pollution potential of the aquifer system. The bulk of the hydrogeologic data acquisition, compilation, and analysis work is currently being undertaken by the five water management districts and, in Alachua County, by the Alachua County Department of Environmental Services (ACDES). As an integral part of its on-going aquifer definition research under Ambient Contract WM-206, ACDES contracted the present hydrogeologic study with the Florida Geological Survey (FGS). The primary purpose of this project is to attempt to improve the existing hydrogeologic information through lithologic and hydrogeologic characterizations of the sediments overlying the Floridan aquifer system in Alachua County. These sediments locally comprise both the intermediate aquifer system and associated confining beds and the surficial aquifer system. In addition, the continuity and lithology of hydrogeologic units within these postI.

PAGE 5

Eocene sediments directly determine groundwater and contaminant movement in the aquifer systems. A detailed study of the lithology, mineralogic composition, and relative permeability of these sediments would therefore aid in better understanding their hydrogeologic nature, extent, and their hydrogeologic relationship with the underlying Floridan aquifer system. In the initial phase of this contract, the FGS provided its core-drilling rig, personnel, and split-spoon sampling equipment. Over a three month period, the post-Eocene sediments overlying the Floridan aquifer system at ten pre-selected sites throughout the county were drilled and sampled. A series of split-spoon cores and cuttings were recovered from nine locations, and a continuous twoinch core was taken at the tenth site. Phase two of the study involved laboratory analyses of the cores by research assistants at the FGS. As detailed in the methodology section of this report, the samples were described lithologically, analysed for mineralogy and grain size, and tested for relative hydraulic conductivity. The result of these analyses are tabulated and discussed in succeeding sections of the report. Volume II of this report contains the bulk of the untabulated raw data. This includes the x-ray mineralogical peak charts, sieve analysis data sheets, and the permeameter calculation forms. METHODS During the course of the project, a series of ten stratigraphic core tests were drilled at selected sites in Alachua County by the FGS drilling rig (See Figure 1). An attempt was made to completely penetrate the undifferentiated Pleistocene-Holocene 2.

PAGE 6

Figure 1: Core location map. 3.

PAGE 7

L' -'.''I A. I I.. * .I A s ir -r-. iI I:L 3 FLVAL -P IEA .-. .l IaK, MAP Of. -ALACHUA COUN I ·FLORIDA LALj 0 WELL LOCATION I· £ a

PAGE 8

section and the Hawthorn Group section, where present, in each well. The drilling was stopped when top of the Ocala Group was reached. Two-foot split spoon samples were taken in each well at approximately ten-foot intervals downhole. The split-spoon sampler, consisting of a steel barrel, core catcher, and removable clear plastic liner, was hammer-driven through each interval. Split-spoon samples were taken in each well until the top of the. Ocala Group was reached or until a hard, tight, or otherwise impenetrable lithology was encountered. The cores, contained S.-within the clear plastic liner tubes, were sealed and sent to.the FGS laboratory for analysis. Standard well cuttings, caught at the rig mud pan, were collected to cover the depth intervals between split-spoon cores. A variety of geological techniques were employed in this study. The lithology of each sample was described using the Florida Geological Survey computer sample coding system. Fallinghead permeameter tests were conducted on split-spoon core samples from each well to characterize the hydraulic conductivity of these sediments. Selected samples, generally corresponding to the splitspoon intervals, were sieved using a nest of 1/4 phi sieves to determine grain size distribution. The fraction of each sample finer than 4 phi was then pipetted to obtain a silt-clay distribution. Portions of the split-spoon samples, where applicable, were also analyzed on an x-ray diffractometer -todetermine to mineral components of both the bulk and clay fractions. 5.

PAGE 9

Core and cutting descriptions Lithologic descriptions utilizing the Florida Geological Survey computer sample coding system were made for the 10 Alachua County Study wells and entered in the county well-file data base. Of these descriptions, nine were made from split-spoon cores, and one was made from the continuous core. Table 1 lists numbers, depths, elevations, and locations of the ten wells. Split-spoon cores in polyurethane tubes were first sampled for permeameter analysis and then cut open lengthwise with a table saw. The cores were then arranged according to depth in cardboard core boxes. Samples for sieve and pipette analysis-were subsequently taken from the split-spoon and continuous cores. A binocular microscope was utilized in describing the lithologic characteristics of each cutting or core sample. The major characteristics described and recorded in the FGS computer coding system include sample color, porosity, lithology, induration, cement type, accessory minerals, and fossils. Formation tops were determined based on lithologic and/or paleontologic criteria. Rock colors were based on the Geological Society of America's Rock Color chart (Geological Society of America, 1984). Appendix I contains complete lithologic descriptions of each of the wells described in this study. Permeameter Testing Samples for permeameter testing were-talcerr-fromeach series of split-spoon core tubes recovered from the ten sites in Alachua County. These tubes consisted of a PVC core tube which was filled 6.

PAGE 10

TABLE 1 ALACHUA COUNTY WELLS STUDIED IN THIS PROJECT Study Accession Location Elevation* Total Depth Well Number Number T R S (Feet) (Feet) 1 16198 11S 19E 09 70 50 2 16199 09S 18E 35 120 36.5 3 16200 07S 18E 27 160 90 4 16201 08S 18E 17 115 53 5 16202 07S 18E 05 140 101 6 16203 10S 20E 21 60 30 7 16204 10S 20E 28 60 42 8 16205 11S 20E 03 85 65 9 16206 09S 20E 06 175 125 10 16207 09E 21E 04 150 191 *From 7-1/2 minute U. S. G. S. topographic quadrangle maps.

PAGE 11

with a two foot section of sediment. Permeameter sample preparation and set-up follow the standard procedure outlined in Appendix 2. In general, an attempt was made to choose the least disturbed section of each core tube, while keeping the sampling interval as consistent as possible. This involved visually inspecting each section of core tube for defects which would unduly influence the permeameter tests (e.g., air pockets in the sediment, void spaces, dried or cracked sediment). Each tube as then marked and a small length (5 cm) of tube cut from the section. After each sample was taken, it was covered at both ends with a polyurethane mesh in order to keep the sediment from escapin -TheSn saples were then placed in a beaker of water for approximately 7-10 days in order to allow for at least partial saturation of the sample before the permeameter tests were preformed. Each sample was placed on a permeameter for a period of time sufficient to conduct three falling-head permeability tests. This was usually about 72 hours per test. Figure 2 illustrates a typical falling-head permeameter as used in this study. In each of these tests, the initial head, the final head, the total elapsed time of the test, the volume of the sample, the volume of water which passed through the sample, and the water temperature were measured. They hydraulic conductivity (K) of the sample was then determined for each test according to the formula: K-2.303al/At(log10h/h, )T Appendix 2 provides additional information on the permeameter set up, and defines the terms in this formula. Each sample was allowed to stay on the permeameter as long as 8.

PAGE 12

Figure 2: Typical Falling-head Permeamter setup. 9.

PAGE 13

METER STICK ho --BURETTE h, STOPCOCK WINGNUT OUTLET PORT F PLEXIGLAS II I *-TOP UPP TANING ----PLATE SCR UPPER GASKET THREADED SAMPLESTIC OD-IN PLASTIC TUBING CORE LINER LOWI RETAINING LOWER GASKET acSeN -------PLEXIGLAS i , // BOTTOM I PLATE S INLET PORT iC\ QUICK DISCONNECT FITTING * WATER FLOW DIRECTION

PAGE 14

was necessary to conduct three tests. Table 2 summarizes the theoretical times required to test for three different magnitudes of hydraulic conductivity (K). For a sample of very low K (10'8), the time needed to conduct a complete test is 16 days. Since there were only five permeameters available for use, and since there were 47 samples to be analyzed, it was not possible to leave all samples on the permeameter for such a long period of time. Therefore, a decision was made to leave the samples on a permeameter for up to 21 days. If, after this amount of time, a sample had not allowed water to pass through, the sample was removed from the permeameter and was deemed to be relatively impermeable. If a sample did show. evidence of flow within this period of time, it was allowed to remain on the permeameter until three tests could be performed. The results of the permeameter tests performed on the split-spoon samples are presented in Table 3. Values obtained for the coefficient of hydraulic conductivity give only a relative measure of sediment permeability. In general, the larger the negative exponent obtained from testing, the poorer the respective sediments are as an aquifer. Table 4 shows some comparitive K values for various soil and rock type. Sieve Analysis Samples were taken from each of the appropriate split-spoon core tubes for grain size analysis. Each tube of sediment was visually inspected in order to estimate the combined sand and silt percentage. If a sample was estimated to contain more than 50% sand or silt sized grains, a small portion (between 50 and 100 grams) of the interval was sampled for grain size analysis. If, 11.

PAGE 15

TABLE 2 THEORETICAL TIMES NEEDED TO CONDUCT (1) TEST ON A SAMPLE OF GIVEN HYDRAULIC CONDUCTIVITY (K) K( CM/SEC) t(SEC) t(DAYS) t(SEC) t(DAYS) HO060CM/H1-55CM HO=60CM/Hl=59CM 5.00 X 10-7 1.34 X 105 1.55 2.57 X 104 0.299 2 5.00 X 10-8 1.34 X 106 15.45 2.57 X 105 2.99 5.00 X 10-9 1.34 X 107 154.55 2.57 X 106 29.9 THIS TABLE WAS CALCULATED USING THE FORMULA IN APPENDIX 2 VALUES USED FOR THE VARIOUS CONSTANTS ARE TYPICAL NUMBERS VALUES USED ARE: a1.72 CM2 A9.08 CM2 L5.0 CM TC-0.81 (T -24 DEGREES CELSIUS) C2.1815 12.

PAGE 16

TABLE 3: RESULTS OF PERMEAMETER ANALYSIS OF SELECTED SAMPLES WELL NUMBER 1. W-16198 COUNTY ALACHUA LOCATION : T1S R9E S09 SAMPLE DEPTH HYDRAULIC CONDUCTIVITY (CM/SEC) 10.5-12.5 2.62 X 10-8 20.5-22.5 2.31 X 10-8 .30.5-32.5 -6.60 X 10-6 40.5-42.5 2.62 X 10-6 WELL NUMBER 2. W-16199 COUNTY ALACHUA LOCATION : T09S RISE S35A SAMPLE DEPTH HYDRAULIC CONDUCTIVITY (CM/SEC) 10.5-12.5 1.31 X 10-8 20.5-22.5 1.49 X 10-8 30.5-32.5 1.41 X 10-8 WELL NUMBER 3. W-16200 COUNTY ALACHUA LOCATION : T17S RISE S27AA SAMPLE DEPTH HYDRAULIC CONDUCTIVITY (CM/SEC) 10.5-12.5 1.70 X 10-8 20.5-22.5 1.77 X 10-8 30.5-32.5 2.75 X 10-7 40.5-41.5 1.24 X 10-4 41.5-42.5 7.73 X 10-5 50.0-52.0 4.86 X 10-7 13.

PAGE 17

WELL NUMBER 4. W-16201 COUNTY ALACHUA LOCATION : T=SS RI8E S17AB SAMPLE DEPTH HYDRAULIC CONDUCTIVITY (CM/SEC) 10.5-12.5 6.17 X 10-7 30.5-32.5 6.64 X 10-7 40.5-42.5 NO FLOW 50.5-52.5 2.35 X 10-7 WELL NUMBER 5. W-16202 COUNTY ALACHUA LOCATION : TI2S RI8E SQ5BD SAMPLE DEPTH HYDRAULIC CONDUCTIVITY (CM/SEC) 10.5-12.5 2.72 X 107 20.5-22.5 1.24 X 10-8 30.5-31.0 1.10 X 10-7 43.5-45.0 5.01 X 10-8 50.5-52.5 NO FLOW 60.5-62.5 6.30 X 10-8 85.5-87.5 5.47 X 10-7 90.5-91.0 5.49 X 10-6 WELL NUMBER 6. W-16203 COUNTY ALACHUA LOCATION : TIPS R20E S21BD SAMPLE DEPTH HYDRAULIC CONDUCTIVITY (CM/SEC) 10.5-12.5 2.48 X 10-7 20.0-22.0 NO FLOW 14.

PAGE 18

WELL NUMBER 7. W-16204 COUNTY ALACHUA LOCATION : T10S R2E S28 SAMPLE DEPTH HYDRAULIC CONDUCTIVITY (CM/SEC) 20.0-22.0 9.60 X 10-8 30.0-32.0 ..2 10WELL NUMBER 8. W-16205 COUNTY ALACHUA LOCATION : T11S R20E S03 SAMPLE DEPTH HYDRAULIC CONDUCTIVITY (CM/SEC) 10.0-12.0 2.78 X 10-6 20.0-22.0 1.92 X 10-6 40.0-42.0 NO FLOW 50.0-52.0 NO FLOW 60.0-61.5 4.61 X 10-5 61.5-62.0 1.94 X 10-6 15.

PAGE 19

WELL NUMBER 9. W-16206 COUNTY ALACHUA LOCATION : TQ9S R20E SgA SAMPLE DEPTH HYDRAULIC CONDUCTIVITY (CM/SEC) 10.0-12.0 2.89 X 10-4 20.0-22.0 5.60 X 10-8 30.0-32.0 .1.62 X 10-6 43.0-45.0 1.78 X 10-7 50.0-52.0 9.75 X 10-8 70.0-71.0 NO FLOW 80.0-81.0 NO FLOW 100.0-101.0 NO FLOW 110.0-111.0 NO FLOW WELL NUMBER 10. W-16207 COUNTY ALACHUA LOCATION : T09S R21E Sq4 SAMPLE DEPTH HYDRAULIC CONDUCTIVITY (CM/SEC) 10.0-11.0 2.66 X 10-5 36.0-37.0 5.94 X 10-7 47.0-49.0 1.05 X 10-7 16.

PAGE 20

TABLE 4: AVERAGE RANGES OF HYDRAULIC CONDUCTIVITY FOR VARIOUS GEOLOGIC MATERIALS (Adapted From Freeze and Cherry, 1979 and Davis and DeWiest, 1966) HYDRAULIC CONDUCTIVITY ROCK TYPE (K) In cm/s. I 102 S-o 10 S--10Sg --103 io -10-110-" 1710 1010 17.

PAGE 21

TABLE 5: GRAIN SIZE ANALYSIS RESULTS ALACHUA COUNTY WELL #1. W-16198 LOCATION: .T SlfR 19E S 09 SAMPLE DEPTH SAND SILT % CLAY% 20.5-22.5 62.92 16.58 20.50 30.5-32.5 86.90 3.95 9.14. 41.5-42.5 94.62 3.53 1.58 WELL #2.W-16199 LOCATION: T 09S R 18E S 35A SAMPLE DEPTH SAND % SILT % CLAY % 10.5-12.5 69.71 13.65 16.55 30.5-32.5 59.63 17.89 22.21 WELL #3. W-16200 LOCATION: T 17S R_ 1E S 27AA SAMPLE DEPTH SAND % SILT % CLAY % 10.5-12.5 60.10 (39.90 COMBINED) 20.5-22.5 51.09 11.40 36.96 30.5-32.5 80.45 6.39 13.31 50.0-52.0 82.23 11.29 6.32 WELL #4. W-16201 LOCATION: T 08S R 18E S 17AB SAMPLE DEPTH SAND SILT % CLAY % 10.5-12.5 67.92 13.86 18.19 30.5-32.5 80.92 7.49 11.45 40.5-42.5 74.12 13.43 12.25 18.

PAGE 22

WELL #5. W-16202 LOCATION: T 17S R 18E S 05BD SAMPLE DEPTH SAND % SILT % CLAY % 10.5-12.5 79.71 3.23 16.97 43.5-45.0 69.87 6.82 23.61 85.5-87.5 81.50 5.29 13.64 90.5-91.0 68.73 22.11 9.89 WELL #6. W-16203 LOCATION: T 10S R 20E S 21BD SAMPLE DEPTH SAND % SILT % CLAY % 10.5-12.5 76.85 1.65 21.87 WELL J7.W-16204 LOCATION: T 10S R 20E S 28 NOT ANALYZED WELL #8. W-16205 LOCATION: T 1S R 20E S 03 SAMPLE DEPTH SAND % SILT % CLAY % 10.0-12.0 85.60 2.35 11.84 20.0-22.0 77.26 3.84 18.63 60.0-61.5 89.38 1.94 7.06 WELL #9. W-16206 LOCATION: T 09S R 20E S 06 SAMPLE DEPTH SAND % SILT % CLAY % 10.0-11.0 78.33 3.21 18.46 20.0-22.0 47.91 8.55 43.54 50.0-52.0 68.00 5.21 26.78 60.0-62.0 82.06 5.69 12.25 19.

PAGE 23

WELL #10. W-16207 LOCATION: T 09S R 21 S 0LQ SAMPLE DEPTH SAND % SILT % CLAY % 10.0-11.0 76.76 3.53 19.71 47.0-49.0 52.06 22.85 25.09 20.

PAGE 24

on the other hknd, the predominant grain size was estimated to be in the clay range, that core tube was not sampled for grain size analysis of a sample which is predominantly clay is not statistically meaningful. In addition to the split-spoon grain size samples, a total of fourteen samples were taken from selected intervals within the continuous core (Well No. 10, W#16207) which was drilled for this project. Each of the samples which were chosen for grain-size analysis were weighed and dried slowly at a constant temperature of 35 degrees Celsius. The dried samples were taken reweighed and the water content of each sample was calculated. This gave a minimum estimate of porosity when the water content of the sample was divided by the volume of the sample. This is a minimum porosity because the samples were not fully saturated before the initial weighing. Each sample was then placed in a beaker with a known volume of a dispersing agent (sodium hexametaphosphate) and stirred vigorously in order to disperse the clay fraction and facilitate wet sieving of the sample to remove the clays. Following this bath, the sample was run through a 4 phi wet sieve in order to remove the silt and clay fraction. This fraction was collected in a beaker and saved for pipette analysis. The fraction coarser than 4 phi was saved and dried. The weight of this coarse fraction was calculated and subtracted from the total dry weight of the sample. The resultant loss upon wet sieving was assumed to be the combined silt and clay weight. Following these calculations, the sand fraction was placed in 21.

PAGE 25

a next of 1/4 phi interval sieves which ranged from -1.25 phi to 4.00 phi. If the total weight of the coarse fraction was more than 75 grams, the sample was split using a mechanical splitter, and one half of the sample was sieved. If the total weight of the coarse fraction was less than 75 grams, the whole coarse fraction was sieved. This nest of sieves was placed on a Ro-Tap machine for 30 minutes. The sieves were then removed from the Ro-Tap and the individual sieves were cleaned. The weight of the sand fraction on each sieve was measured and recorded. The pan fraction (that fraction of the "coarse" sample which was finer than 4-phi) was saved and added to the beaker which contained the fine fraction. The totals of both the fine and coarse fractions were then mathematically adjusted (the pan fraction weight was subtracted from the "coarse" fraction weight, and added to the "fine" fraction weight). This allowed for a more accurate representation of the percentage of sand and silt-clay fraction for each sample. Pipette Analysis The fine grained sediments (4 phi or less) collected during sieving procedures were evaluated for their silt and clay fractions using the pipette method (Friedman and Johnson, 1982; Folk, 1974). Fines from each split-spoon sample, except those in for W-16207, were pipetted. Time constraints precluded pipetting samples from well W-16207. One sample from well W-16200 was not pipetted because the sample fines flocculated. Each sample was first dispersed in a known concentration of dispersing agent and then poured into a 1000 ml graduated cylinder. 22.

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Distilled water was added to the cylinder until the fluid/sediment column reached the 1000 ml level. The fluid/sediment column was then stirred vigorously for 1 minute prior to initiation of the experiment. After stirring, 20 ml withdrawals (or 25 ml depending on pipette used) were made at predetermined time intervals and depths appropriate to recover fines representative of each phi size class from 4 phi to 9 phi. Each aliquot (fraction) was released into a preweighed 50 ml beaker. The pipette was then filled with distilled water and rinsed into the same beaker to recover fines that may have adhered to the pipette interior. The beakers containing-the aliquots were then oven dried at 100 degrees:C toevaporate the water content of the sample. Upon drying, the aliquot beakers were removed from the oven and allowed to equilibrate to room temperature (24 degrees C) for 30 minutes before weighing. After determining the aliquot weight (Friedman and Johnson, 1982; Folk 1974) the weight in each phi class was calculated. Using the phi class weights, weight percentages and cummulative weight percentages for each phi class from 4 to 9 phi were calculated to determine the clay and silt fractions of each sample. Table 5 lists the sand, silt, and clay percentages for each sample. X-ray Diffraction Analysis X-ray diffraction (XRD) studies are useful for the identification of the various minerals in a sample, but are semiquantitative, at best, for determination of the exact mineral abundance or percentage. The purpose of this portion of the Alachua ,County project was to use an x-ray diffractometer to 23.

PAGE 27

investigate the mineralogy of the ten study wells. Representative samples for XRD analyses were collected at selected intervals in wells W-16198 through W-16207. The XRD samples were collected immediately above or below the location of the permeameter samples, thus the mineralogy of permeameter samples may be assumed to match that of the intervals reported in this section. Samples were also collected from well W-16207, which is a continuous core, whenever there was a change in lithology. Therefore, well W-16207 sample intervals are quite variable. Two approaches of the XRD analysis were chosen for the samples. The first approach was to analyze the samp.e as.a '"bulck" sample. Approximately 20-30 grams of each sample was ground to a fine powder. This procedure insured homogeneous mixing of the sample and reduced the chance of preferential orientation of certain minerals during analysis. The sample was then placed into planchets (sample holders) and placed into the x-ray diffractometer. The diffractometer records the x-ray reflections as peaks, both in a computer and on a paper chart or graph. Every mineral exhibits a series of characteristic peaks, which are used to determine the presence of the mineral. These charts are included in this report as an appendix. The x-ray pattern for each sample begins at a 2-theta angle of four degrees so that all major clay mineral peaks could be identified. The second approach, used with approximately 85 percent of the samples, was to analyze the mineralogy of the clay-size fraction by first physically separating the clay particles from the bulk sample. The separation was achieved by suspending the clay minerals in water with a Calgon 24.

PAGE 28

dispersant and allowing the larger particles to settle. Samples of the clay fraction were decanted onto glass slides and dried to produce oriented samples for XRD. The results of the XRD analysis are listed in Tables 6 and 7. The sample number and interval are listed in the first two columns of each table. The subsequent columns are for the minerals identified. A total of eleven minerals were positively identified. Table 6 contains the results of the bulk mineral analyses, and Table 7 contains the results of the clay fraction analyses. Mineral abundances were determined from the relative peak heights. When possible, estimates of relative abundances:.were made, withCl-C2 -C3 representing abundance in descending order. Quartz (Si02) is virtually ubiquitous in the samples. Opaline quartz (partially hydrated silica) is present in trace amounts in a few samples. Two forms of calcium carbonate (CaCO3), calcite and aragonite, are common, and dolomite, a calcium-magnesium carbonate, CaMg(CO3),) is also common. Phosphate minerals are abundant in numerous samples. The type of phosphate abundant in sediments overlying the Floridan aquifer system in carbonate-fluorapatite, (Ca10(PO4)6(F, OH, CO3)2, commonly known as francolite. This mineral is a form of apatite in which fluorine and carbonate ions partially substitute for hydroxyl groups. A variety of phosphate-bearing minerals, known as secondary phosphates, are derived from the chemical weathering of francolite. These minerals form authigenically in the sediments. The phosphate mineral wavellite, (Al3)PO4)2(OH)9*3H20, another secondary phosphate mineral, has tentatively been identified in one sample. 25.

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TABLES 6 AND 7. BULK AND CLAY FRACTION X-RAY DIFFRACTION DATA In these two tables of x-ray diffractometer datat..:heti following abbreviations have been used: QTZ = quartz; CAL = calcite; ARG -aragonite; DOL -dolomite; OPA -opaline quartz; PHO -francolite orcarbonate-fluorapatite; WAV = wavellite; KAL = kaolinite; MON =montmorillonite; ILL = illite; PAL = palygorskite. The phosphate mineral millisite is most likely present in one sample (well #8-2); the clay mineral sepiolite is present in one sample (well #8-6), and a calcium zeolite mineral is present in one sample from well #4 (#4-1). The letter C implies.that the mineral is common, or abundant. Based on relative peak heights, the most common mineral is listed as C1 and the second most abundant mineral is listed as C2, and so forth, when more than one mineral is present. The letter T implies that the mineral is present in trace amounts, and is not a major constituent of the sample. TABLE 6: BULK X-RAY DIFFRACTOMETER DATA MINERALS SAMPLE # INTERVAL QTZ CAL ARG DOL PHO WAV OPA WELL #1 (FEET) W-16198 1 10.5-12.5 C. 2 20.5-22.5 C 3 30.5-32.5 C 4 40.5-42.5 C WELL #2 W-16199 1 10.5-12.5 C 2 20.5-22.5 C 3 30.5-32.5 Cl C2 C3 T WELL #3 W-16200 1 10.5-12.5 C 2 20.5-22.5 Cl T 3 30.5-32.5 Cl C2 4 40.5-42.5 Cl C2 5 50.0-52.0 C WELL #4 W-16201 1 10.5-12.5 C 2 30.5-32.5 Cl T 3 40.5-42.5 Cl C2 4 50.0-52.5 C 26.

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WELL #5 W-16202 1 10.5-12.5 C T 2 20.5-22.5 C 3 30.5-32.5 Cl C2 T 4 40.5-42.5 C1 C2 5 50.5-52.5 C1 C2 T 6 60.5-62.5 C1 C2 7 85.5-87.5 C1 C2 8 90.5-91.0 Cl T C2 WELL #6 W-16203 1 10.5-12.5 C 2 20.0-22.0 C1 C2 WELL #7 W-16204 1 10.0-12.0 C1 C2 2 20.0 C1 C2 3 20.0 Cl C2 4 30.0-32.0 T C WELL #8 W-16205 1 10.0-12.0 C 2 20.0-22.0 Cl C3 C2 3 30.0-32.0 C 4 40.0-42.0 C2 Cl C3 5 50.0-52.0 Cl C2 6 60.0-62.0 Cl C2 C3 T WELL #9 W-16206 1 10.0-12.0 C 2 20.0-22.0 C 3 30.0-31.0 C2 C1 T 4 43.0-45.0 Cl C2 C3 5 50.0-52.0 C1 C2 C3 6 60.0-62.0 C2 C1 C3 7 70.0-71.0 C1 C2 C3 8 80.0-81.0 C2 Cl 9 100.0-101.0 C 10 110.0-111.0 Cl C2 C3 27.

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SAMPLE # INTERVAL QTZ CAL ARG DOL PHO WAV OPA (FEET) WELL #10 W-16207 1 4.0 C 2 9.0 C 3 10.0-12.0 C 4 14.0 Cl C2 5 19.0 C 6 20.0-22.0 C 7 25.0 C1 C2 8 27.5 Cl C2 9 29.0 C2 C3 Cl T 10 30.0-32.0 C2 C3 Cl T 11 35.0 C1 C2 T 12 38.5 C1 T C2 13 40.0-42.0 C2 T Cl C3 14 42.0 C1 C2 T 15 46.0 Cl C2 T 16 50.0-52.0 C2 C1 C3 -17 54.0 C1 C2 T 18 60.0-62.0 C2 T C1 C3 19 61.5 C2 Cl C3 20 67.5 C2 C1 C3 21 70.0 C2 Cl 22 76.0 T C 23 78.0 T C 24 83.0 C2 Cl 25 87.0 C1 C2 C3 26 95.5 C T 27 104.5 Cl C2 28 110.0 C2 C1 29 126.0 T T C1 30 162.5 C3 C1 C2 31 167.0 C1 C2 C3 32 174.0 C T 33 182.0 C 28.

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TABLE 7: CLAY SEPARATE X-RAY DIFFRACTOMETER DATA ..MIPNERALS SAMPLE # INTERVAL KAL ILL PAL 'MON WAV QTZ CAL DOL PHO ARG (FEET) WELL #1 W-16198 1 10.5-12.5 Cl C2 2 20.5-22.5 C1 C3 C2 3 30.5-32.5 Cl C2 T 4 40.5-42.5 C2 C3 Cl WELL #2 W-16199 1 10.5-12.5 C1 C2 2 20.5-22.5 C1 C3 C2 WELL #3 W-16200 1 10.5-12.5 C1 C2 .2. 20.5-22.5 Cl T T 3 30.5-32.5 Cl -T 4 40.5-42.5 C2 Cl 5 50.0-52.0 C1 WELL #4 W-16201 1 10.5-12.5 T C2 C1 2 30.5-32.5 T T C2 Cl 3 40.5-42.5 C 4 50.0-52.5 T C WELL #5 W-16202 1 10.5-12.5 C1 T C2 2 20.5-22.5 C1 C2 T 3 30.5-32.5 C1 C2 4 40.5-42.5 T C 5 50.5-52.5 T T 6 60.5-62.5 C1 C2 T 7 85.5-87.5 C T 8 90.5-91.0 No sample prepared WELL #6 W-16203 1 10.5-12.5 C1 T T T 2 20.0-22.0 T C 29.

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BOOK TIGHTHLY OUND) M*TiINEjRALS: SAMPLE # INTERVAL KAL 'ILL 'PAL MON WAV QTZ CAL DOL PHO Al (FEET) WELL #7 W-16204 1 10.0-12.0 T Cl T 2 20.0 No sample prepared 3 20.0-22.0 T C 4 30.0-32.0 Cl C2 WELL #8 W-16205 1 10.0-12.0 Cl C2 2 20.0-22.0 No sample prepared 3 30.0-32.0 C1 T C2 4 40.0-42.0 C2 C1 5 50.0-52.0 C2 Cl C3 T T 6 60.0-62.0 T .... T WELL #9 W-16206 1 10.0-12.0 C 2 20.0-22.0 C T 3 30.0-31.0 C1 C2 T 4 43.0-45.0 C2 C1 5 50.0-52.0 No sample prepared 6 60.0-62.0 C1 T C2 7 70.0-71.0 C3 C1 C2 8 80.0-81.0 C1 C2 9 100.0-101.0 C1 C2 10 110.0-111.0 C1 C3 C2 WELL #10 W-16207 1 4.0 T C 2 9.0 C2 C3 Cl 3 10.0-12.0 Cl C2 4 14.0 C 5 19.0 No sample prepared 6 20.0-22.0 C2 Cl 7 25.0 C2 C3 Cl 8 27.5 No sample prepared 9 29.0 No sample prepared 10 30.0-32.0 No sample prepared 11 35.0 T C1 C2 T 12 38.5 C 13 40.0-42.0 No sample prepared 14 42.0 C 15 46.0 No sample prepared 16 50.0-52.0 No sample prepared 30.

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: , MINERALS SAMPLE INTERVAL KAL ILL PAL MON WAV QTZ CAL DOL PHO ARG WELL #10 (continued) W-16207 17 54.0 C2 C3 Cl .18 60.0-62.0 No sample prepared 19 61.5 C 20 67.5 C3 C2 Cl 21 70.0 C1 C2 C3 22 76.0 T C2 T C1 23 78.0 No sample prepared 24 83.0 C2 Cl 25 87.0 C T 26 95.5 C2 Cl 27 104.5 No sample prepared 28 110.0 C2 C1 29 126.0 T C T 30 162.5 T C2 C1 31 167.0 C 32 174.0 C1 C3 C2 33 182.0 No sample prepared KAL ILL PAL MON WAV QTZ CAL DOL PHO ARG NOTE: The clay fractions contain fine-grained quartz, dolomite, calcite and phosphate (in the form of francolite) as well as various clay minerals. 31.

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Kaolinite, ameotite, illite, and palygorskite are the predominant clays present. The clay samples were not glycoated, and the illite and smectite components are lumped as the smectite group in Table 7. Hetrick and Friddell (1984) report that, in general, smectite is the more common clay mineral in Hawthorn Group sediments in north Florida and Georgia. DISCUSSION In Alachua County, the upper Floridan aquifer system is comprised of porous marine limestones of the Eocene Ocala Group. Locally, the Floridan aquifer system is overlain by var4ngi.r. thicknesses of post-Eocene siliciclastics and occasional calcareous beds. West of Interstate 75, the Ocala Group is overlain by generally thin undifferentiated Plio-Pleistocene sands and clayey sands. A shallow surficial aquifer system may be present in portions of this area. Throughout most of this area however, the Floridan aquifer system is unconfined, allowing contaminants direct access to the aquifer (Macesich, 1988). East of Interstate 75, the Floridan aquifer system is overlain by up to 160 feet of Miocene age Hawthorn Group siliciclastics and carbonates (Scott, 1988; Macesich, 1988). Porous sands and carbonate units in the Hawthorn Group locally comprise the intermediate aquifer system. In areas of the county where low permeability clay units of the Hawthorn overlie the Floridan aquifer system this group also forms the intfermediate confining unit. 9 The sample sites in the present study were situated in areas 32.

PAGE 36

where little or no data is available on the lithologic and hydrdoeologic characteristics of the sediments comprising the surficial aquifer system and the intermediate confining unit. In order to obtain a complete representation of the postEocene sediments, an attempt was made by the drill rig personnel to penetrate the entire sediment section overlying the Ocala Group limestone. Drilling stopped when the first fragments of Ocala Group limestone were brought up in the drilling mud. In one well, however (number 8, W-16205), drilling problems prevented proceeding to the top of the Ocala Group. The location, lithology and hydrogeologic aspects of each well are discussedindividuaily-: in the following discussion section. Well No. 1 (FGS accession number W-16198) was drilled on a hillside slope at the northeastern edge of the Kanapaha Prairie. The surrounding terrain is comprised of gently rolling siliciclastic hills resting on Ocala Group limestones. Karst features have modified the surface relief with abundant solution depressions and sinks. Macesich (1988) characterized the region as a zone where confining clay sediments of the Hawthorn Group above the Floridan aquifer system are perforated. Figure 3 illustrates the lithology of the sediments penetrated by Well No. 1. Due to encountering extremely hard Ocala Group chert at a depth of 50 feet, the drilling stopped. The predominate lithology in Well No. 1 is unfossiliferous, clayey quartz sand, with occasional interbedded clay beds. Four split-spoon cores were taken, spanning depth intervals of 10.5 to 12.5 feet below land surface (bls), 20.5 to 22.5 feet bls, 30.5 to 32.5 feet bls, and 33.

PAGE 37

Figure 3: Columnar section for well #1 (W-16198). 34.

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DEPTH T.11S R.19E S.09 ALACHUA COUNTY (PEET MSL) W-I16198 BLEVATION-70 PEET (MSL) .l ....V .j.v ....."....' ..... i Moderate-brown organic-rich quartz sand. 5 D' ' ark yellowish-brown clayey, organic-rich quartz sand. 10 SGrayith-brown clayey, organic-rich, dolomitic qurtz sand. SGrayish-orange clayey quartz sand. Grayish brown to dark yellowish-brown clayey, organic-rich quartz sand. Grayish-orange clayey quartz sand. 35 -: ":: ::: '-: Grayish-brown to d ark yellowish-brown clayey, organicich quartz sand.and. Grayish-brown to dark yellowish-brown clayey, dolomitic, organic-rich quartz sand. 40 Yellowish-gray calcareous, phosphatic quartz sand. 3 :::;:::;Grayish-brown clayey quartz sand with chrt fragments and Ecen fossils. 45 -. "::-;'::,;]:::--W;'::]" Grayish brown to dark yellowish-brown clayey, dolomitic, organic-rich quartz sand. S ii.Light bluegreen to grayish-brown chart with sand and limestone fragments. 50 -....T.D.50 FEET. 35. , ylLight blue-green to grayish-brown chert with sand and limestone fragments. L50 1.6. _4 LT --T.D.-50 FEET. 35.

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41.5 to 42.5 feet bis. Permeameter analyses of these intervals that the two shallow samples have surprising low conductivities, with magnitudes of only 10"8cm/s (see Table 4). The shallowest sample, 10.5 to 12.5 feet bls, is an unfossiliferous greenish black, sandy, kaolinite-smectite clay (Table 7). This Unit is most likely part of the undifferentiated Pleistocene*Holocene sediments, and therefore is associated with the surficial aquifer system. The deeper low-permeability beds occur in the split-spoon interval 20.5 to 22.5 feet bls. Although this interval is primarily quartz sand, with approximately 20.5% clay, the kaolinite-palygorskite-smectite clay matrix (Table 7) effectively seals the-pore -paces in:-the sand. The other two deeper split-spoon samples, 30.5 to 32.5 fe bls and 40.5 to 42.5 feet bls, show low hydraulic conductivity values of 10*6cm/s (Table 4). These clayey, quartz sand intervals contain kaolinite-smectite or palygorskite-kaolinite-smectite mixtures (Table 7), which comprise less than 10 percent of each sample (Table 5). The lower clay content is the primary reason for the much higher conductivity values of the deeper split-spoon samples. Most of the sediments penetrated by well W-16198, with the exception of the chert at 41.5 to 45 feet deep, appear to be undifferentiated post-Miocene. The chert represents a silicified layer developed at the top of the Ocala Group limestone. Well No. 2 (W-16199) was drilled to a depth of 36.5 bls, where it penetrated the top of the Ocala Group. The well is situated at the western edge of the perforated aquifer zone, one mile south of 36.

PAGE 40

the University of Florida Experimental Farm. Figure 4 illustrates the lithology of the sediments penetrated in Well No. 2. The top of the fossiliferous, calcilutitic, marine limestone of the Crystal River Formation of the Ocala Group was reached at 36 feet below land surface (bls). Clays and clayey quartz sands of the Miocene Hawthorn Group were penetrated from 36 to 30.5 feet bls, and Pleistocene-Holocene undifferentiated clayey sands were encountered between 0 to 30.5 feet bls. Three split-spoon cores were taken in the depth intervals 10.5 to 12.5 feet bis, 20.5 to 22.5 feet bis, and 30.5 to 32.5 feet bls. SAll three':samples were comprised of clayey, quartz.sands, and-all had very low hydraulic conductivity values of 10'8cm/s (Table 4). Quartz was the most common mineral in the two intervals in the undifferentiated section. In the 10.5 to 12.5 feet bls interval, kaolinite and smectite are the predominant clays. The 20.5 to 22.5 feet bls sample contains kaolinite, wavelite, and smectite clays. Sample interval 30.5 to 32.5 feet bls is situated in the upper Hawthorn Group sediments. Quartz, francolite, and wavelite are the dominant minerals present (Table 6). Well No. 3 (W-16200) was drilled four miles north of Alachua, just east of Alligator Road. The well site is located in the rolling hills at the western edge of the Northern Highlands geomorphic zone (White, 1970). Figure 5 is a columnar section illustrating the lithologic units penetrated in this well. The well bottomed at 90 feet bls, at or very near the top of the Ocala Group limestone. Typical Ocala Group forminifera in the last sample suggest the top of the limestone was reached. 37.

PAGE 41

Figure 4: Columnar section for well #2 (W-16199). 38.

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DE" PTH W16199, T.09S R.18E S.35 ALACHUA COUNTY (FEETMSL) 0 . ELEVATION-120 FEET (MSL) 0 .... .................... -5 UJ ' .-. Moderate brown to moderate yellowish-brown clayey, organic quartz sand. Z with chert fragments. 10 l I Dark yellowish-brown clayey, organic quartz sand. Z 15 J "--'.'''-''' Dark yellowish-brown sandy, organic clay with chert fragments. 20 , --.„ ... -20 .":.EEE::.:Dark yellowish-brown clayey quartz sand. U :..W :..:...::.:.....:::. :Light olive-gray clayey, organic quartz sand. tu ... .... If.. i ............ 25 S :5 .-,i..." Grayish-brown sandy, organic-rich clay. 30 Light olive-gray clayey, dolomitic, phosphatic quartz sand. -3an 5 _ .*. ....-.:..-,.-.........::.. 35 Very light-orange fossiliferous limestone. J T.D.-36.5 FEET. 0 ~ 39.

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Figure 5: Columnar section for well #3 (W-16200). 40.

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DEPTH (FET MS W-16200 T.07S R.18E S.27 A ALACHUA COUNTY ELEVATION-160 FEET (MSL) W ...... ... ... S ...":-.::.': .;.......:..! Pinklih-gray to dark yellowish-orange clayey, organic quartz sand. ZOW 10 W C 1 0 -Very light-orange clayey quartz sand. Yellowish-gray to light yellowish orange clayey, organic quartz sand. Yellowish-gray to light yellowish-orange clayey quartz sand. 20 Light greenish-yellow sandy, phosphatic clay. Graylsh-brown to yellowish-gray clayey quartz sand. S30 r".... Very light-ornge to white clayey, phosphatic quartz sand. I -Grayish-brown to yellowish-gray clayey quartz sand. 40 -';; .Very lightorange to white claysy, phoiphatic quartz sand. , ~~ .Grayish brown to dark yellowlsh-orenge clayey quartz sand with silica cement. S. -Yellowish-gray to light olive clayey, phosphatic quartz gnd with limestone fragments. Sr:".'"::-":":"".::^";-:':" Yellowishgray to llght-olive clayey, phosphatic quartz sand with clay and limestone fragments. 0 50 .'r-:--.-.;-. : Very light-orange clayey quartz sand. White sandy colollutlte. ...White to dark yellowllhorange sandy, phosphatic calcilutite. i.i I Yellowish.gray calcareous, phosphetic quartz sand. 60 6 0 Yellowish-gry sandy, phosphatic calcilutite. 7 0......... . ::::.: Yellowish-gray to moderate yellowish-brown calcareous, phosphatic quartz sand. 80 Yellowlsh-gray sandy, phosphatic calcilutite. -0 Yellowlsh-grey to white fossliferous lImestone. S90 o -T.D.-90 FEET. 41.

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Undifferentiated Hawthorn Group sediments occurred from 22 to 90 feet bls. The upper portion of this section, from 22 to 52.5 feet bls, was largely clay, phosphatic quartz sands, with occasional interbedded clays. Some of these sediments may represent reworked Hawthorn Group deposits. A series of sandy, unfossiliferous carbonates, containing interbedded sands, extends from 52.5 to 90 feet bls. Although permeameter testing was not performed on sediments in this interval, visual examination of the calcareous units indicates these sediments probably have relatively high permeabilities; they may locally serve as units of the intermediate aquifer system. Six split-spoon samples were recovered in Well No. 3, spanning the interval from 10.5 to 52 feet bls. The uppermost samples (10.5 to 12.5 feet bls and 20.5 to 22.5 feet bls) were taken in the undifferentiated Pleistocene-Holocene section, and have very low hydraulic conductivities of 10-cm/s (see Table 4). Both intervals contain abundant silt and clay fractions. The interval from 10.5 to 12.5 feet bls is almost 40 percent silt and clay (Table 5), with the clays comprised largely of smectite and palygorskite. In the interval 20.5 to 22.5 feet bls, silt and clay combined from over 48 percent of the sample. Smectite is the dominant clay present. The four deeper split-spoon samples were situated in the clayey, phosphatic sands of the Hawthorn Group. These displayed a range of hydraulic conductivity values. The 30.5 to 32.5 feet bls interval tested at a value of 107cm/s. Although this interval contains less than 20 percent combined silt and clay, the predominantly smectite clay component effectively seals this 42.

PAGE 46

phosphatic, quartz sand unit. A moderate conductivity of 10"4cm/s is observed in the 40.5 to 41.5 feet bls interval. This interval is also a phosphatic, clayey quartz sand. Smectite and palygorskite are the most common clays present. The lower portion of this split-spoon sample, comprised of the interval 41.5 to 42.5 feet bls displayed a lower conductivity of 10 scm/s. Interestingly, the lithology over the entire 40.5 to 42.5 feet bls sample appeared visually to be similar; the order of magnitude difference in conductivity between the upper and lower parts of the same sample underscores the vertical variability in the hydraulic conductivities of these samples. The deepest split-spoon sample covered the depth interval 50.5 to 52.5 feet bls. Lithologically, this interval is quartz sand, with less than 18 percent silt and clay matrix. Smectite is the only clay present in the clay fraction, and quartz is the most common constituent of the bulk sample. Despite the relatively low clay content, the interval tested as a low conductivity of -cm/s. Well No. 4 (W-16201) is situated two miles west of Alachua, at the westernmost edge of the Northern Highlands zone. It is located in the karst-modified, rolling hills of the perforated aquifer zone (Macesich, 1988). Well No. 4 was drilled to a total depth of 53 feet bls where it penetrated the fossiliferous Crystal River Formation of the Ocala Group. The columnar stratigraphic section is shown in Figure 6. Hawthorn Group sediments were not present in this well. The upper 53 feet of the section consisted of undifferentiated Pleistocene-Holocene clayey, quartz sands. These sediments may consist, at least in part, of reworked Hawthorn 43.

PAGE 47

Figure 6: Columnar section for well #4 (W-16201). 44.

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(FEEPT, W-16201 T.08S R.18E S.17 A ALACHUA COUNTY (FEET MSL) ELEVATION-115 FEET (MSL) .0 .. .. ,°.,o .. .......... ....::':'..Moderate yellowish-brown to moderate-brown clayey, phosphatic, .....l....... " ': organic-rich quartz sand. 10 -15 W 20 i Grayish-orange to yellowish-gray clayey, organic-rich quartz sand. 25 ::W ...,.°........ ................. -35 Light-red to light-brown clayey, organic-rich, dolomitic quartz sand. -40 ^^^^.^ Very light-orange clayey quartz sand. ------iiii.-!ii-ii--i!i-ii 50 F < .1 Very light-orange to white fossiliferous limestone. < 0 T.D.=53 FEET. 0 ( 45.

PAGE 49

Group deposits. Only the interval from 0 -12.5 feet bls contains phosphatic sands. Four split-spoon core samples were taken between 10.5 and 52.5 feet bls. All four showed low or very low hydraulic conductivities. The interval 10.5 to 12.5 feet bls consisted of a clayey, phosphatic, and dolomitic quartz sand. Smectite, and trace amounts of kaolinite comprise the clay component. Permeameter testing showed a hydraulic conductivity of only 10"7cm/s (Table 4). Similarly, the next deeper split-spoon interval (30.5 to 32.5 feet bls), a clayey, organic-rich quartz sand also tested at 10Tcm/s. The interval 40.5 to 42.5 feet bls consisted-of clayey quartz sand, and exhibited no hydraulic conductivity (no flow) after 21 days on the permeameter. This interval was comprised of about 26 percent combined silt and clay, less than some other more permeable samples studied during this project. The last splitspoon sample interval (50.5 to 52.5 feet bls) contained a phosphatic, clayey, calcareous, quartz sand. Phosphate is the most common mineral in both the bulk and clay fraction x-ray analyses. This interval tested at 10"cm/s hydraulic conductivity, similar to values obtained up-core. Well No. 5 (W-16202) was drilled in extreme northwestern Alachua County, about one and a half miles west of the community of Bland. This well is situated in the Northern Highlands geomorphic zone (White, 1970), and in the perforated aquifer zone (Macesich, 1988). The topography surrounding the well site have been modified by numerous karst depressions and Hawthorn Group sands are exposed in nearby creek banks. Well No. 5 encountered 46.

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Ocala Group limestone at a depth of 94 feet bis. Figure 7 shows the columnar section for this well. Seventy-four feet of undifferentiated Hawthorn Group clayey, phosphatic quartz sands and sandy clays were penetrated from 20 to 94 feet bls. The upper 20 feet of the well consists of undifferentiated Pleistocene-Holocene quartz sand and clay. Quartz and phosphate are the most abundant minerals throughout the entire section (Table 6). Eight split-spoon cores were taken between 10.5 and 91 feet bls. The shallowest interval sampled (10.5 to 12.5 feet bls) was in the undifferentiated Pleistocene-Holocene section. Lithologically, this interval is comprised of a sandy,-phosphatic, organic-rich clay, with a hydraulic conductivity of 10'Tcm/s (Table 7). The three uppermost Hawthorn Group samples (20.5 to 22.5, 30.5 to 31.0, and 43.5 to 45.0 feet bls), which consist of clayey, phosphatic quartz sands and sandy, phosphatic clays, had relative conductivities of 10'8, 107, and 10-7cm/s respectively. No hydraulic conductivity was observed in split-spoon interval 50.5 to 52.5 feet bls, which is a dolomitic and phosphatic, slightly clayey quartz sand. The lower three split-spoon cores, 60.5 to 62.5, 82.5 to 87.5, and 90.5 to 91.0 feet bls, showed downwardincreasing hydraulic conductivities of 10'8, 10', 10-6cm/s respectively. These sediments are largely phosphatic, clayey and dolomitic quartz sands. Well No. 6 (W-16203) is located at the northern edge of Paynes Prairie, one half mile west of Alachua Sink. Paynes Prairie is part of the Alachua Lake Cross Valley, a lowlands physiographic zone of white (1970). The prairie terrain is flat and karstic, and 47.

PAGE 51

Figure 7: Columnar section for well #5 (W-16202). 48.

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DEPTH W-16202 T.07S R.18E S.05 B ALACHUA COUNTY (FEET MSL) ELEVATION-140 FEET (MSL) 0 a 2 w i-.-----; Yellowlshgrey to moderate yellowish-brown clayey quartz sand with plant remains. 2 10 cc 0 , io 0 ., :..:'.; Yellowish-gray to dark yellowish-orange sandy clay with plant remains. 20 .....Dark grayish-yellow sandy, phosp hatic clay. Yellowllh-gray to grayish orange sandy clay. 30 i--.--White to dark yellowish-orange sandy. phosphatlc clay. Graylsh-brown clayey, phosphatic quartz sand. 40 ..[...::.... Grayish-yellow clayey. phosphatic quartz sand. [n .'...:"...:-:, ,I: Yellowish-gray to moderate yellowish-brown clayey quartz sand. S50 0 cc ... Grayish-yellow clayey quartz sand. Z ::;..Grayish-brown clayey quartz sand. S60 ;Very light-orange clayey, phosphatic quartz sand. Grayish-brown to white calcareous, phosphatic quartz sand. -70 :' :: White calcareous, phosphatic quartz sand. :....... ...........Greyish-orange-pink to dark yellowish-orange calcareous, phosphatic quartz sand. 80 : :........Light groenlsh-yellow clay with limestone Iragments. Very light-orange calcareous, phosphatic quartz sand. Y' -llowish-gray calcareous, phosphatic quartz sand with bryozoan fossils. 90 Very light-orange calcareous, phosphatic quartz sand. i: Pinkish.gray calcareous quartz sand with chert fragments. S: Very light-orange tosiliferous limestone. 100 3 -T.OD.101 FEET. 49.

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is situated in the perforated aquifer zone (Macesich, 1988). Ocala Group limestone is near the surface, covered only by a thin veneer of Hawthorn Group and undifferentiated Pleistocene-Holocene deposits. A columnar stratigraphic section for Well No. 6 is illustrated in Figure 8. The top of the Ocala Group was penetrated at the well's total depth of 30 feet (bls). This limestone is overlain by 10 feet of sandy, phosphatic clay and clayey sand of the Hawthorn Group. The Hawthorn is in turn overlain by 20 feet of undifferentiated Pleistocene-Holocene clayey, peaty, quartz sands. Two split-spoon cores were taken in Well No. 6 covering the depth intervals 10.5 to 12.5 and 20 to 22 feet bls. The shallower interval lies in the undifferentiated Pleistocene-Holocene section, and was comprised of clayey, dolomitic, quartz sand and sandy, kaolinite-rich clay. Permeameter analysis of this interval shows a low hydraulic conductivity of 10'7 cm/s, reflecting the low permeability of the clay matrix. The 20 to 22 feet bls interval is situated in the top of the Hawthorn Group sediments. This interval consisted of a quartz sandy, phosphatic clay. Phosphate and quartz are the most common minerals present, and the clay fraction is comprised of francolite and trace amounts of kaolinite (Tables 6 and 7). This interval showed very low hydraulic conductivity, with no flow in the permeameter after 21 days of testing. Well No. 7 (W-16204) is situated on the man-made levee crossing north-central Paynes Prairie, about one and a half miles east of Rocky Point. This well was drilled to a total depth of 42 50.

PAGE 54

Figure 8: Columnar section for well #6 (W-16203). 51.

PAGE 55

DPTH W-16203 T.1OS R.20E S.21 B ALACHUA COUNT (F1ET M SL) ELIVATIONeIO PEET (MSL) 0 .5 U Light-brown organic-rich quartz sand. S10 S --Grayish-brown clayey quartz sand. .Grayish-orange.pink sandy, organlcrich clay. 20 Light-olive to light brown sandy, phosphatic clay. -025 .. Grayish-brown to light brown clayey quartz sand. 30 < . Very l nht-orange to yellowish gray fossiliferous limestone. j T.D.-30 FEET. S52. 52.

PAGE 56

feet bls, and penetrated the Ocala Group at 40 feet bls. Figure 9 shows the columnar section for this well. The interval from 0 to 32 feet bls is tentatively placed in the category of undifferentiated Pleistocene-Holocene section due primarily to the abundance of organics and Holocene freshwater gastropod shells in many of the samples. Phosphatic sand, probably reworked from Hawthorn Group sediments, is present in the interval from 10 to 12 feet bls. Four split-spoon cores were recovered from the intervals 10 to 12, 20, 20 to 22, and 30 to 32 feet bls. Permeameter tests were not performed on the 10 to 12 or the 20 feet bls intervals, both..phosphatic, calcareous, quartz sandy clays, because they were either too badly grooved by the core catcher or too unconsolidated to seal in the permeameter. The interval 20 to 22 feet bls is a calcareous, quartz sandy clay with a very low hydraulic conductivity of 10'8 cm/s (Table 4). Calcite and aragonite are the most abundant minerals, with trace quantities of palygorskite clay also present. The presence of freshwater gastropods (Helisoma sp.) suggests a fluvial or lacustrine origin for these sediments. Split-spoon sample interval 30 to 32 feet bls consisted of a sandy, clayey, organic-rich limestone at the base of the Hawthorn Group section. Hydraulic conductivity was tested at 10'7 cm/s, a low value probably due in part to the kaolinite clay content of the sample. Well No. 8 (W-16205) is located at the southern edge of Paynes Prairie, about two and a half miles northwest of Micanopy. The well site was situated on a small remnant highland, surrounded by 53.

PAGE 57

Figure 9: Columnar section for well #7 (W-16204). 54.

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EPTH W-16204 T.1OS R.20E S.28 ALACHUA COUNTY (FEET MSL) ELEVATION-60 FEET (MSL) *.0 7 *5 Ii Dark gray to yellowlih-gray sandy peat. 10 11.i VYellowish-gray calcareous sandy, phosphatic clay. SDark-brown calcareous, sandy phosphatic clay. -J O . 15 z W .-s.:.:-s:: -Dark yellowish-brown to dark-brown sandy, calcareous clay with freshwater gastropods. 20 -' ' " ": -Dark yellowish-brown calcareous, sndy clay with freshwater mollusk fragments. S.Moderate grey to black organic-rich clay with mollusk shell fragments. ILL 30 Dark yellowish-brown to black clayey, sandy, organic-rich limestone. 35.. ...... Black to moderate-gray clayey quartz send with plant remains and limestone. and Eocene fossils. Sight gray fossillferous limestone. 0 a T.D.-42 FEET. o0 55.

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the otherwise flat, swampy, and highly karstic prairie terrain of the Alachua Lake Cross Valliey geomorphic zione' (White, 1970). Figure 10 illustrates the stratigraphic section penetrated by the well. The well did not reach the top of the Ocala Group, ending instead in a moderately-indurated Hawthorn Group cemented sand. Much of the well section was composed of interbedded sandy clays and clayey sands, making an accurate formational pick somewhat subjective. The top of the Hawthorn Group was placed at 40 feet bis, where phosphatic sand first appears downhole, and where organic remains cease to be an accessory constituent of the samples. Overlying the Hawthorn Group, in the:~aterval:-from.-Qto 40 feet (bls), are a series of clayey sands and sandy clays containing plant remains. These sediments are considered to be undifferentiated, Pleistocene-Holocene section. Seven split-spoon cores were recovered between 10 and 62 feet bls. One interval, 30 to 32 feet bis, could not be tested for conductivity because it was scored by the core-catcher teeth and would not seal in the permeameter. The shallowest intervals, 10 to 12 and 20 to 22 feet bls, are part of the undifferentiated Pleistocene-Holocene age section. Both intervals are clayey sands, showing moderately low hydraulic conductivities of 10"6cm/s (Table 4). Quartz is the most abundant mineral in the bulk sample and kaolinite and palygorskite comprise the clay fraction in the 10 to 12 feet bls interval. .Quartz, francolite, and wavelite are the abundant mineral components of the 20 to 22 feet bls interval. The phosphate may be derived from reworked Hawthorn Group sediments. Four of the split-spoon cores were taken in the Hawthorn Group. 56.

PAGE 60

Figure 10: Columnar section for well #8 (W-16205). 57.

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IPTNH W-16205 T.11S R.20E S.03 ALACHUA COUNTY (PIST MSL) W-16205 EtBVATION-e8 FEET (MIL) 0 0 .................. Moderate yellowish-brown clayy, organic-rich quartz and. U-. 10 Yellowlih-gray to grayih-brown clayey quartz snd. SGray I h-brown clayey, organic-rlh quart sand. 2o : Very lght-gray to yellowishgray clayey quartz land. S0 ..Gravish-brown clayey, organlc-rlch snd. 3 -Oark yellowlsh.orang to grayish brown sandy, organlc.rlch clay; -30 a 3.0. .a: .Light bluegreen sandy clay. '-,ff~ '~G. rayish-brown to dark yellowih-orange sandy clay. -40 0 -YIYllowlih.ry sandy, clayey, phosphatlc dolosllt. .... .'... OnGrysh-brown sandy clay. 50 LUght olive dolomltic, phosphatic clay. S|QGrayish-brown sandy clay. 0 E Yllowishray agndy, phosphatlic clcllutlta. 6 0 -Yillowish-gny to moderate yellowlsh-brown clayey, phosphatic quartz and. -White to very light gray clayey, phosphatic. sandy dolomite. No samples ... ...... ....... .... -Moderate ornge-pink clayey quartz sand. T.D.-65 FEET. 58.

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The intervals 40 to 42 feet bis and 50 to 52 feet bls are quartz.:sahdy.iphospihatic, d6lomitic clays. Both did not flow in the permeametertests, indicating extremely low hydraulic conductivities. The clay fraction of the 40 to 42 feet bls splitspoon core is predominantly smectite and dolomite; in the 50 to 52 feet sample, palygorskite, smectite, and quartz are the most abundant minerals comprising the clay (Table 7). Split-spoon samples taken in the last five feet of the well (60 to 61.5 and 61.5 to 62 feet bls) showed moderately low hydraulic conductivities of 10'5 and 10"6 respectively (Table 4). The 60 to 61.5 feet bls interval is a clayey, phosphatic, dolomitic quartz sand. Clay comprises 9 percent of the sample. Between 61.5 and 62 feet bls, the lithology is a sandy, clayey, phosphatic dolomite. The small clay fraction in this interval is comprised of quartz and francolite (Table 7). Well No. 9 (W-16206) is situated in the confined aquifer zone (Macesich, 1988) in section 6, T9S, R20E, five miles north of Gainesville. In this area of the Northern Highlands, the surrounding topography is comprised of flat, swampy bays punctuated by gently rolling hills. This well penetrated the Ocala Group at approximately 120 feet bls, and ended at a total depth of 125 feet bls. Figure 11 illustrates the stratigraphic section obtains in this well. The Hawthorn Group is comprised of a series of interbedded, phosphatic dolosilts, sandy clays, and clayey sands, spanning the depth interval between 27 and 120 feet bls. Overlying the Hawthorn Group is a typical sequence of undifferentiated Pleistocene-Holocene, iron-stained, clayey, organic-rich quartz 59.

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Figure 11: Columnar section for well #9 (W-16206). 60.

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DEPTH (FEE MSL) W-16206 T.09S R.20E S.06 ALACHUA COUNTY ELEVATION-175 FEET (MSL) o "Grayish-brown to moderate reddish-orange clayey, organic, quartz sand. S10 o Light olive-gray clayey quartz sand. .: : Grayish-brown clayey, organic quartz sand. 20' Z 3 Light olive-gray clayey quartz sand. Grayish brown to moderate yellowish-brown clayey, phosphatic quartz sand. 30 Grayish brown to yellowish-gray sandy, clayey, phosphatic dolosilt. 40 Light olive-gray to yellowish gray sandy, dolomitic clay. Light olivegray sandy, clayey, phosphatic calcilutite. 50 ::-::: ; Yellowish-gray clayey, phosphatic, dolomitic quartz sand. Olive-gray clayey, phosphatic quartz sand with chert fragments. -60 Light olive-gray clayey, phosphatic quartz sand 0 i.r .:'..." Olive-gray to light olive gray clayey, phosphatic quartz sand. 70 z Grayish orange to moderate yellowish-brown sandy, phosphatic clay. Olive gray clayey, calcilutitic, phosphatic quartz sand. 80 t .--Olive-gray sandy clay. i ' iiGrayish-brown calcilutitic, clayey, phosphatic quartz sand. -90 .....*....i Yellowish-gray calcilutitic, phosphatic quartz sand with limestone fragments. -100 ...... -Dark greenish-gray calcilutitic, sandy clay. P.:"r'":"f: ": Dark yellowish-brown clayey, phosphatic quartz sand with limestone fragments. -110 'Very light-orange to light olive-gray sandy, calcilutitic, phosphatic clay. 4"i -Graylsh-brown sandy, phosphatic dolomite. I1 ' ; ",I .*rY .. ... -120 o Very light-orange fossiliferous calcilutite. : ... (T.D..125 FEET) 61.

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sands. Ten split-spoon cores were taken between 10 and 111 feet bls. The two uppermost sample intervals (10 to 12 and 20 to 22 feet bis) are situated in the undifferentiated Pleistocene-Holocene section and display significantly different hydraulic conductivities. Between 10 and 12 feet bls, the lithology is a slightly clayey, (kaolinite) quartz sand, with a moderately low conductivity of 10'4 cm/s (Table 4). Combined siltand clay-size components comprise about 22 percent of the sample. The 20 to 22 feet bls interval also contains clayey quartz sand and sandy clay, but tested at a much lower hydraulic conductivity of 10'8 cm/s. This lower permeability most likely results from the higher fines fractions of the 20 to 22 feet sample, which contains over 52 percent combined silt and clay. The eight deeper split-spoon cores are from the Hawthorn Group section in the well. Cores taken in the upper part of the Hawthorn Group (30 to 32, 43 to 45 and 50 to 52 feet bis) show a trend of decreasing hydraulic conductivity with depth, with values of 10'6, 10'7, and 10'8 cm/s respectively. The 30 to 32 and 43 to 45 feet bls intervals are quartz sandy dolosilts. Dolomite, quartz, and francolite are the dominant minerals present (Table 6). In the 30 to 32 feet bls sample kaolinite and palygorskite comprise most of the clay fraction, while in the interval 43 to 45 feet bis, quartz and smectite are the major clay components. The interval from 50 to 52 feet bls is a clayey, phosphatic, dolomitic quartz sand. Clay and silt combined comprise 32 percent of this sample. Sediments in the split-spoon core interval from 60 to 62 feet bls were over 80 percent quartz sand, 62.

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and too unconsolidated to test in the permeameter. The last four split-spoon cores, spanning the intervals 70 to 71, 80 to 81, 100 to 101, and 100 to 111 feet bis, did not flow in the permeameter tests, indicating very low hydraulic conductivities. These intervals are, for the most part, sandy, phosphatic, dolomitic clays. Dominant clay minerals in the samples were smectite and palygorskite (Table 7). The interval from 70 to 71 feet bls also contained quartz and dolomite in the clay fraction. The interval from 110 to 111 contained substantial quartz in the clay. Well No. 10 (W-16207) is a continuous two-inch core located in the Austin Cary Memorial Forest. The detailed, columnar stratigraphic section is illustrated in Figure 12. This well was drilled to a total depth of 191 feet bls, and bottomed in limestone of the Ocala Group. Appendix I provides a detailed lithologic log for this well. The Crystal River Formation, the uppermost formation of both the Ocala Group and the Floridan aquifer system, was penetrated at a depth of 173.7 feet bls. Unconformably overlying the Ocala Group are three recognizable formations of the Hawthorn Group. In ascending order these are the Penney Farms Formation (94 to 137.7 feet bls), the Markshead Formation (69 to 94 feet bls), and the Coosawhatchie Formation (16.2 to 69 feet bls), with the Charlton Member of the Coosawhatchie Formation in the interval 16.5 to 24.2 feet bls. The Hawthorn Group is in turn overlain by a thin veneer of clayey, organic-rich, undifferentiated Pleistocene to Holocene undifferentiated quartz sands. Six split-spoon core samples were recovered during the drilling for permeameter analyses (Table 4). Three of these cores 63.

PAGE 67

Figure 12: Columnar section for well #10 (W-16207). 64.

PAGE 68

DEPTH (FEET MSL W-16207 T.09S R.21E S.04 ALACHUA COUNTY a S ELEVATION-150 FEET (MSL) 0 ' ............................. .. ._ __ S;'-' Yellowish-gray to grayish-brown clayey, organic quartz samd 10 .. .. ...... ., -20 .. OGreenish-gray to light grayish green clay. White to very light-grey clayey quartz sand. Grayish-green to light grayish-green clay. S30 Yellowish-gray to graylsh-green sandy, phosphatlc clay with shark teeth, mollusks, and dolosilt. Yellowlsh.grsy to grayish yellow clayey, dolomitic, phosphatic quartz sand. Yellowlsh-gray sandy, clayey, phosphatic dolosllt. Light grayish-green to graylsh-green phosphatic, dolomltic clay. 40 __ Yellowlsh-gray sandy, phosphatic dololllt. S*-Very light-orange to yellowish gray dolomltic, phosphatic quartz sand. -50 6 0 -Light olive-gray to moderate olive brown sandy, phosphatic clay with shark teeth. -70 hje -Wh tvery ightly yriyndy, phosphatlc dolomite. ..l to w 9 pnolphe~i omlta. ht g iys n-green lgt gr -gray phosphatic doloslit. Light oive-gray to light gre|nlsya1lOw clay. 80 SifLight olive-gray to grayish green phosphatic dolosilt. 90 l SVary light-gray to white phosphatic, fossiliferous dolomite. 100 I Yellowishgray to very dark-purple andy, phosphatic, fossiliferous dolosilt. 110 Moderate light-gray to moderate dark gray sandy, phosphatic clay. 120 Very light-gray to light gray sandy, phosphatic dolomite. White to very light gray clay. 130 -140 No Samples 150 -16 0 t White to very light gray sandy, phosphatic calcllutite. Yellowish gray to light olive-gray dolomrnitlc, phosphatic quartz sand. Very light gray to yellowish gray sandy, phosphatic dolomite. -170 Very lightgray.to yellowish-gray dolomitic clay with interbedded micrita. -Yellowish-gray to white sandy, phosphatic calcllutlte. -180 cc < White to light olivewray fossiliferous limestone. 190 T.D.-191 FEET. 65.

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(10 to 11 feet bls, 58 to 60 feet bls, and 67.5 to 68 feet bls) were either grooved by the core-catcher of had shrunken inside the plastic core tube and would not seal in the permeameter. The useable cores included the depth intervals 10 to 11 feet bls, 36 to 37 feet bls, and 47 to 49 feet bls. The shallowest split-spoon sample (10 to 11 feet bls) showed a moderately-low hydraulic conductivity of 10'5 cm/s (See Table 4). This interval is in the surficial aquifer system, and is predominantly sand with approximately 18 percent kaolinite and palygorskite clays (Table 5 and 7). The two deeper split-spoon intervals are in the intermediate aquifer system and were both taken in the Coosawhatchie Formation of the Hawthorn Group. Both show relatively low hydraulic conductivities of 10" cm/s (Table 4). The 35.9 to 37 feet bls interval is a yellowish gray dolosilt, a lithology common to the Hawthorn Group. Dominant minerals in this interval include smectite and dolomite, with traces of kaolinite and francolite (Table 7). The deepest usable split-spoon interval (45.1 to 49 feet bls) is largely comprised of clayey, dolomitic quartz sand. Both the clay and dolomite components of the matrix undoubtedly contribute to the lower permeability of this interval. The x-ray analysis of Well No. 10 show a mineral distribution pattern which correlates closely with the stratigraphy (Tables 6 and 7). Quartz is the most common mineral in the undifferentiated Pleistocene-Holocene and in the uppermost Charlton Member of the Coosawhatchie Formation. This quartz is present as sand-size, silt-size, and clay size particles. The clays in the upper 42 feet of the core are predominantly kaolinite and smectite. Below 42 66.

PAGE 70

feet, and through most of the Hawthorn Group, quartz, dolomite, and francolite are the most common minerals in the bulk samples. Palygorskite, quartz, and dolomite are the dominant constituents of the clay fractions. Occasional occurrences of aragonite and calcite appear to correlate with the limestone or calcareous sand intervals within the Hawthorn Group. As would be expected, calcite is the dominant mineral present in the top of the Ocala Group limestone. SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS The information obtained in this study indicates considerable variation, both vertically and laterally, in the hydrogeologic nature of the sediments overlying the Floridan aquifer system in Alachua County. At the same time, certain commonalities exist locally between some of the parameters studied during this project. Unfortunately, a detailed analysis of the lateral continuity of many of the hydrogeologic datums observed in individual wells is precluded by the limited scope of this project. To accurately correlate zones of very low hydraulic conductivity or of particular mineralogic composition, if even possible, would require a more extensive well grid than current funds and time allow. However, several conclusions may be made out of the present study. These are outlined in the following section. 1. The lithologies of the sediments overlying the Floridan aquifer system in Alachua County, in general, range from sandy clays and clayey sands, containing variable amounts of phosphatic sand and gravel, to sandy, phosphatic dolomites and limestones. The intermediate aquifer system and associated confining units, 67.

PAGE 71

comprised of Miocene-age Hawthorn Group sediments, is a series of interbedded lithologies. These lithologies vary from clayey, generally phosphatic sands and sandy, phosphatic clays at the top of the section, to sandy, phosphatic calcarenitic limestone or dolomite near the base of the section. Thickness of the Hawthorn Group sediments varies from 0 in western Alachua County to nearly 160 feet in the northeastern. part of the county. The undifferentiated Pleistocene-Holocene age section is predominantly clayey quartz sand. It frequently contains organics and reworked phosphate. This section comprises the surficial aquifer system in Alachua County and varies between 15 and 60 fee.tthick;-. .:-,: 2. Grain size analyses of selected samples from the split-spoon cores reveals no significant trends. For both the undifferentiated Pleistocene-Holocene and the Hawthorn Group sections, the quartz sand content (weight percent greater than 4 phi size) ranged from a minimum of 47.91 percent to a maximum of 94.62 over the entire sample set. Most individual samples contained a sand size range of very fine to coarse, with modes of either fine or medium size. Graded bedding was not apparent. Silt content ranged from a low of 1.65 percent to a high of 22.11 percent. -Clay content ranged from a minimum of 1.58 weight percent to a maximum of 36.96 percent. In general, those samples with high silt and clay components showed the lowest permeabilities (low hydraulic conductivities). Vertical distribution of the high-clay content intervals showed no apparent pattern, in either the undifferentiated intervals or Hawthorn Group. 3. X-ray analysis of selected samples in the ten study wells 68.

PAGE 72

reveals that quartz is the most abundant mineral present. It occurs as either the only mineral or as one of the most abundant minerals in 88 percent of the bulk samples tested. Most of these samples are from intervals containing abundant quartz sand. Calcite occurs in 17 percent of the samples, usually as a calcilute matrix component of sand, clay, or dolosilt, or in fragments of freshwater gastropod shells found in some of the undifferentiated Pleistocene-Holocene deposits. Some of the calcite in the Hawthorn Group sands and clays may be derived from the reworking of subadjacent calcareous units. Calcite is more prevalent in wells 7 .through 10, taken in Paynes Prairie and. eastern.LAlachua:County.-Aragonite occurred in nine samples, in a pattern similar to that of calcite. Dolomite is a common constituent of the dolosilt and dolomitic clay intervals in wells 8, 9, and 10. It is restricted to the Hawthorn Group sediments, not occurring in any of the undifferentiated Pleistocene-Holocene interval samples. Francolite (phosphate) is a common constituent of the Hawthorn Group sediments. In most of the wells, phosphatic sands and gravels also occur in the undifferentiated Pleistocene-Holocene section, where they may occur as reworked deposits. These phosphatic, undifferentiated intervals may also correspond to what was once informally called the Alachua Formation. The only well in which phosphate is conspicuously absent is Well No. 1, from the Kanapaha Prairie. 4. Kaolinite, palygorskite, and smectite are the common clay minerals occurring in the split-spoon samples. Smectite and palygorskite tend to commonly occur together in the Hawthorn Group 69.

PAGE 73

sediments. In contrast, a smectite-kaolinite clay assemblage, with occasional occurrences of palygorskite, tends to characterize the undifferentiated sediments and the upper part of the Coosawhatchie Formation. Palygorskite and dolomite comprise the major clay constituents of the Markshead and Penney Farms Formations in Well No. 10. 5. The coefficient of hydraulic conductivity (K) values of the sediments overlying the Floridan aquifer system in Alachua County range from an undetermined low of less than 10'8 cm/s (samples showed no water flow after 21 days on the permeameter) to a high of 10'4 cm/s. A very low K value of 10'8 cm/s. was the minimum calculated conductivity for samples that flowed within the allotted time. Both the Hawthorn Group sediments and the overlying undifferentiated Pleistocene-Holocene sediments show a similar range of K values. The highest hydraulic conductivities observed (10'4 cm/s) occurred in two samples. One is in Well No. 3, located north of Alachua,. at a depth of 40.5 to 41.5 feet bls in a clayey, phosphatic sand in the Hawthorn Group. The second is in the depth interval 10.0 to 12.0 feet bls, also a clayey sand, in the undifferentiated Pleistocene-Holocene section of Well No. 9 situated north of Gainesville. Zones of very low permeability were observed in both Hawthorn Group and undifferentiated PleistoceneHolocene sediments. Samples which did not flow on the permeameter ranged lithologically from clayey, dolomitic sands to dolosilts and sandy, calcareous, phosphatic clays. Other samples, which tested at low K values of 10'6 to 10'8 cm/s, were predominantly dolosilts, clayey quartz sands, and sandy clays. Moderately low K values of 70.

PAGE 74

10'4 and 10.5 cm/s were obtained from clayey sands with generally lower clay percentages than the low conductivity samples discussed above. The range of low hydraulic conductivity values obtained from the Alachua County sediments would indicate that all the intervals tested are poor aquifers. Some probably function as confining units. Among the 10 well sites analyzed, there is no apparent areal pattern to the distribution of low conductivity zones. Samples selected for analysis were generally sediments with high clay content. There is apparently considerable vertical variation in permeability, and it is most certainly related to lithology. One interesting example of this variability occurs in the near-surface, undifferentiated Pleistocene-Holocene section of Well No. 1. Here the hydraulic conductivity tested at a very low 10,8 cm/s, which is significantly less permeable than many intervals tested in the Hawthorn Group to the east. The cause of this very low permeability is undoubtedly the presence of tight clays in the otherwise sandy section. A future continuation of this study should include more samples from easternmost Alachua County to help determine the extent to which the clay content influences the permeability of the undifferentiated Pleistocene-Holocene sands. Unfortunately, all lithologies in a given well could not be tested for permeability, and some strata, particularly carbonate units, may have much higher hydraulic conductivities. Delineation of both vertical and horizontal hydraulic conductivity trends in Alachua County will require a more extensive sample network, and possibly finer resolution in the permeameter sampling interval in each well. 71.

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REFERENCES: Davis, S., and DeWiest, R., 1966, Hydrogeolcgy: New York, John Wiley and Sons, 463 p. Folk, R., 1974, Petrology of sedimentary rocks: Austin, Hemphill Publishing Co., 184 p. Freeze, R., and Cherry, J., 1979, Groundwater; Englewood Cliffs, Prentice-Hall, Inc., 604 p. Friedman, G., and Johnson, K., 1982, Exercises in sedimentology: John Wiley and Sons, New York, p. 44-49. Geological Society of America, 1984, Rock color chart: The Netherlands, Huyskes-Enschede. Hetrick, J., and Friddell, M., 1984, Clay mineralogy of the Hawthorne Group: Georgia Geologic Survey Open File Report 84-7, 90 p. Macesich, M., 1988, Geologic interpretation of the aquifer pollution potential in Alachua County, Florida: Florida Geological Survey Open File Report 21, 26 p. Scott, T. M., 1988, The lithostratigraphy of the Hawthorn Group (Miocene) of Florida: Florida Geological Survey Bulletin 59, 148 p. White, W., 1970, The geomorphology of the Florida peninsula: Florida Geological Survey Bulletin 51, 164 p. 72.

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Appendix I: Lithologic logs for the 10 study cores. 73.

PAGE 77

LITHOLOIC WELL LOG PRINTOUT SOURCE -FGS WILL NUNllER UW 16196 COUNTY * ALACHUA TOTAL DEPTHN 00050 FT. LOCATION: T.11S R.19E S.09 15 SAMPLES FRON 8 TO 5O FT. LAT a N 290 33M 09 LON UW 82D 24M 50 CCOLETION DATE -07/12/87 ELEVATION * 070 FT OTHE TYPES OF LOGS AVAILABLE -NONE OWINR/DRILLIRt FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY -ALACHUA WELL # 1 UORKEO BYt CUTTINGS WORKED BY MIKE WEINBERG, AND SPLIT SPOON SAMPLIS WORKED BY THOMAS SEAL, INTERVALS 7.5-12.5, 16-22.5, 27.532.5, 37.5-42.5, 45-50 WERE CUTTINGS, REMAINOER WRE SPLIT SPOON SAMPLES; POROSITY ESTIMATED 0.040.3 090UDSC UNDIFFERENTIATED SAND AND CLAY 40.550.0, 1240CAL OCALA GROUP 0 -7.5 SAND; MODERATE BROWN; 35X POROSITY, INTERGRANULAR; GRAIN SIZ MEDIUM; RANGE: VERY FINE TO COARSE; ROUNDONSSlSUl-ANGULAR; MEDIUM SPHERICITY; UNCONSOLIDATED; ACCESSORY MINERALS PLANT REMAINS-15%; OTHER FEATURES: UNUASHED SAMPLE; FOSSILSs NO FOSSILS; 7.510 SANO; DARK YELLOUISH BROWN; 15X POROSITY, INTERGRANULAR; GRAIN SIZE: MDIUM; RANGE: FINE TO VERY COARSE; ROUNMONSS:SU-ANGULAR; MEDIUM SPHERICITY; POOR INDURATION; CEMENT TYPE(S): CLAY MATRIX; ACCESSORY MINERALS: CLAY-25X, PLANT REMAINS-1O0; OTHER FEATURES: UNWASHED SAMPLE; FOSSILS: NO FOSSILS; 10 12.5 CLAY; GREENISH BLACK; LOW PERMEABILITY; POOR INDURATION; CEMENT TYPE(S): CLAY MATRIX; ACCESSORY MINERALS: QUARTZ SAOM-1O0; OTHER FEATURES: UNWASHED SAMPLE; FOSSILS: NO FOSSILS: 12.516 SAND; GRAYISH BROWN; 30X POROSITY, INTERGRANULAR; GRAIN SIZE! FINE; RANGE: VERY FINE TO COARSE; ROUNDNESSISUB-ANGULAR; MEDIUM SPHERICITY; POOR INDURATION; CEMENT TYPE(S)i CLAY MATRIX; ACCESSORY MINERALS: CLAY-05%, PLANT REMAINS-03X; OTHER FEATURES: UNWASHED SAMPLE; FOSStLS: NO FOSSILS; -7,------.. .'..

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W16198 CONTINUED PAGE -2 16 * 18 SAND; GRAYISH BROWN; 35X POROSITY, INTERGRANULAR; GRAIN SIZE: FINE; RANGE: VERY FINE TO COARSE; ROUNDNESSS SUiL ANGULAR TO ANGULAR; MEDIUM SPHERICITY; POOR INDURATION; CEMENT TYPE(S): IRON CEMENT, CLAY MATRIX; ACCESSORY MINERALS: CLAY-05X, IRON STAIN-02%; OTHER FEATURES: UNWASHED SAMPLE; FOSSILS: NO FOSSILS; 18 -19 SAND; GRAYISH BROUN TO DARK YELLOWISH BROWN; 30X POROSITY, INTERGRANULAR; GRAIN SIZE: MEDIUM; RANGE: VERY FINE TO COARSE; ROUNDNESS: SUB-ANGULAR TO ANGULAR; MEDIUM SPHERICITY; POOR INDURATION; CEMENT TYPE(S): ORGANIC MATRIX, CLAY MATRIX; ACCESSORY MINERALS: PLANT REMAINS-15%, CLAY-03X; OTHER FEATURES: UNWASHED SAMPLE; ' FOSSILS: NO FOSSILS; 19 -20 SAND; GRAYISH BROWN; 30% POROSITY, INTERGRANULAR; GRAIN SIZE: MEDIUJ;fRANGE:VERY FINE TO COARSE; ROUNDNESS: SUB-ANGULAR TO ANGULAR; MEDIUM SPHERICITY; POOR INDURATION; CEMENT TYPE(S): CLAY MATRIX; ACCESSORY MINERALS: CLAY-10X, PLANT REMAINS-03X, IRON STAIN-01X; OTHER FEATURES: UNWASHED SAMPLE, DOLOMITIC; FOSSILS: NO FOSSILS; 20 -22.5 SAND; GRAYISH ORANGE; 30% POROSITY, INTERGRANULAR; GRAIN SIZE: MEDIUM; RANGE: FINE TO COARSE; ROUNDNESS: SUB-ANGULAR TO ROUNDED; MEDIUM SPHERICITY; POOR INDURATION; CEMENT TYPE(S): CLAY MATRIX; ACCESSORY MINERALS: CLAY-15X; OTHER FEATURES: UNWASHED SAMPLE; FOSSILS: NO FOSSILS; 22.527.5 SAND; GRAYISH BROWN TO DARK YELLOWISH BROWN; 35X POROSITY, INTERGRANULAR; GRAIN SIZE: FINE; RANGE: VERY FINE TO COARSE; ROUNDNESS:SUB-ANGULAR; MEDIUM SPHERICITY; POOR INDURATION; CEMENT TYPE(S): CLAY MATRIX, IRON CEMENT; ACCESSORY MINERALS: CLAY-03X, IRON STAIN-02%, PLANT REMAINS-05X; OTHER FEATURES: UNWASHED SAMPLE; FOSSILS: NO FOSSILS; 27.530.5 SAND; GRAYISH BROWN TO MODERATE YELLOWISH BROWN; 35% POROSITY, INTERGRANULAR; GRAIN SIZEi MEDIUM; RANGE: FINE TO GRANULE; ROUNDNESS:SUB-ANGULAR; MEDIUM SPHERICITY; POOR INDURATION; CEMENT TYPE(S): CLAY MATRIX, IRON CEMENT; ACCESSORY MINERALS: CLAY-05X, IRON STAIN-02X, PLANT REMAINS-03X; OTHER FEATURES: UNWASHED SAMPLE, DOLOMITIC; FOSSILS: NO FOSSILS; -i

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U1619 CONTINUED PAGE 3 30.532.5 SANO GRAYISN ORANI 35X POROSITY, INTERGRANULAR; GMAIN SIZ MEDIUM; RANGl FINE TO COARSE; ROUNoNs SUB-ANGULAR TO ROUNDED; MEDIUM SPHERICITY; UNCONSOLIDATED; ACCESSORY NINERALSs CLAY-05X; OTHER FEATURSl UNWASHED SAMPLI; FOSSILSt NO FOSILS; 32.537.5 SANO; GRAYISH BROW TO VERY LIGHT GRAY; 35X POROSITY, INTERGRANULAR; GRAIN Sins NMOIUM RANGms FINrITO COAIR$; ROUNIONE IUB-ANGULAR; MEDIUM SPHERICITY; POOR INDURATION; CEMENT TYPt(S) CLAY MATRIX, IRON CIMNT; ACCESSORY NINERALSI IRON STAIN-02, PLANT REMAINS-03%, CLAY-05X; OTHER FIATURESl UNUAHED SAMPLE; FOSSILS: NO FOSSILS; 37.540.5 SANOf GRAYISH BROUN TO DARK YELLOWISH BROUW; 35X POROSITY, INTERGRANULAR; GRAIN SIZEI. MDIUM; RANGEl VERY FINE TO COARSE; RMIUNNESStfU-ANULARl HIDIU SPHCRItCITY; UNCONSOLIDATED; -.:::: 3CIMNT TYPII()t CLAY MATRIX; ACCESSORY NINIRALIl CLAY-04%, LIMNSTONE-01%, PLANT REMAINS-03X; OTHER FEATURES: UNASNED SAMPLE, DOLOMITIC; FOSSILS NO FOSSILS; FIRST OCCURRENCE OF LIMESTONE FRAGMENTS 40.541.5 SAND; YELLOWISH RAY; 35 POROSITY, INTERGRANULAR; GRAIN 1SZEt MDIIUM; RANGl FINS TO COARSE; ROUNODNSSI US-ANULAR TO AHULAR; MEDIUM SPHERICITY; UNCONSOLIDATED; ACCESSORY MINERALSi LIMESTONE-02I, PHOSPHATIC SAMD-O1X; OTHER FEATIURll UNWASMHD SAMPLE, CALCAREOUS; FOSSILS: NO FOSSILS; 41.45 SANO ; GRAYS BR ; 35% POROSITY, INTERGRANULAR; GRAIN SIZs MEDIUM; RANGIE VERY FINE TO COARSE; ROUNONESSSIU-ANGULAR; MDIUM SPHERICITY; POOR INDURATION; CEMENT TYPIE(S) IRON CEMENT, CLAY MATRIX; ACCISSORY MINERALSl CHERT-15%, IRON STAIN-05X, CLAY-02X; OTHER FEATURES UNWASHED SAMPLE; FOSSILS: UNTHIC FORAMINIFERA; 45 4* LIMESTONE; NO COLOR GIVEN TO LIGHT ORANGISH RED; OCX POROSITY, POSSIBLY HIGH PERMEABILITY, , LOW PERMEABILITY; GRAIN TYPlt , OOLITE; GRAIN SIZlE VERY COARSE; RANGEl VERY COARSE TO ; ABUNDANT FRAGMENTS OF BLUE TO WHITE CHERT lo

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W16198 CONTINUED PAGE -4 45 -50 CHERT; LIGHT BLUE GREEN TO GRAYISH BROUN; LOU PERMEABILITY; GOOD INDURATION; CEMENT TYPE(S): SILICICCENENT; ACCESSORY MINERALS: QUARTZ SAND40X;" OTHER FEATURES: UNWASHED SAMPLE; FOSSILS: HO FOSSILS; 50 -50 LiMESTONE; HO COLOR GIVEN TO LIGHT ORANGISH RED; OCX POROSITY, POSSIBLY HIGH PERMEABILITY, , LOU PERMEABILITY; GRAIN TYPE: ; COLOR OF CHERT BLUE TO GRAY TO UNITE, TEXTURE DULL TO VITREOUS, SAND LIKELY DUE TO CAVING 50 TOTAL DEPTH ^·

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LITHOLOGIC WELL LOG PRINTOUT SOURCE -F0G WLL NUMMER U16199 COUNTY -ALACHUA TOTAL DEPTHN 036.5 FT. LOCATION: T.098 R.18M .35 8 SAMPLES FROM 11 TO 37 FT. LAT a N 29D 40N 20 LON * W 82D 29M 12 COMPLETION DATEl 08/12/87 ELEVATION -120 FT OTHER TYPES OF LOGS AVAILABLE * NONE OWIER/ORILLERI FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEYALACHUA WELL # 2 WOKED BY: CUTTINGS DESCRIED BY MIKE WUINURO; SPLIT SPOON SAMPLIS DISCRIMD BY THOMAS SEAL; POROSITY VALUES VISUALLY ISTIMATDIO CONSULT PEROTNETER DATA SHEETS FOR PIRMAItLITY DATA;SANPLIE 10.,20.50.5.5,36 DESCRIBED B1Y MIKI WINNR0; ,REMAINDER BY THOMAS SEAL 0. -22. 09OUDSC UNDIFFERENTIATEb SAND AND CLAY 22. -30.5 122HTRN HAWTHORN GROUP 30.337. 1240CAL OCALA GROUP 0 -10.5 SAND; MODERATE MOUW TO MODERATE YELLOWISH BROWN; 35X POROSITY, INTERGRANULAR; GRAIN SIZIi FINE; RANGE: VERY FINE TO COARSE; ROUNDNDESSUSS-ANOULAR; MDIUN SPHERICITY; POOR INDURATION; CEMENT TYPE(S): CLAY MATRIX; ACCESSORY MINERALS: CLAY-OSX, CHERT'01X, PLANT REMAINS-03X, IRON STAIN-01X; OTHER FIATURES: UNWASHED SAMPLE; FOSSILS: NO FOSSILS; 10.512.5 SAND; DARK YELLOWISH BROW; 30u POROSITY, INTERGRANULAR; GRAIN SIZE: HEDIUN; RANGlE FINE TO COARSE; ROUNDONSSI SUI-ANGULAR TO ANGULAR; MEDIUM SPHERICITY; POOR INDURATION; CEMENT TYPE(S) IRON CEMENT, CLAY MATRIX; ACCESSORY MINERALS: CLAY-1SX, IRON STAINO01%, PLANT REMAINS-02X; OTHER FEATURESt UNUASHED SAMPLE; FOSSILS: NO FOSSILS; 12.520.5 CLAY; DARK YELLOWISH BROW; 25% POROSITY, INTERGRANULAR; POOR INDURATION; CEMENT TYPE(S): CLAY MATRIX; ACCESSORY MINERALS: QUARTZ SANO-15X, CHERT-01X, PLANT REHAINS-O2X; OTHER FEATURESI UNWASHED SAMPLE; FOSSILS: NO FOSSILS;

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U16199 CONTINUED PAGE -2 20.521 SAND; DARK YELLOWISH BROWN; 30% POROSITY, INTERGRANULAR; GRAIN SIZE: MEDIUM; RANGE: VERY FINE TO COARSE; ROUNDNESS, SUB-ANGULAR TO ANGULAR; MEDIUM SPHERICITY; POOR INDURATION; CEMENT TYPE(S): CLAY MATRIX, IRON CEMENT; ACCESSORY MINERALS: CLAY-15X, IRON STAIN-01X; OTHER FEATURES: UNWASHED SAMPLE; FOSSILSs NO FOSSILS; 21 -22.5 SAND; LIGHT OLIVE GRAY; LOW PERMEABILITY; POOR INDURATION; CEMENT TYPE(S): CLAY MATRIX; ACCESSORY MINERALS: QUARTZ SAND-25%, PLANT REMAINS-01X; OTHER FEATURES: UNWASHED SAMPLE; FOSSILS: NO FOSSILS; ' 22.530.5 CLAY; GRAYISH BROWN; LOU PERMEABILITY; POOR INDURATION; CEMENT TYPE(S): CLAY MATRIX;, ACCESSORY MINERALS: QUARTZ SANO-40%, PLANT REMAINS-O2X; OTHER FEATURES: UNWASHED SAMPLE; FOSSILS: NO FOSSILS; 30.532.5 SAND; LIGHT OLIVE GRAY; 15% POROSITY, INTERGRANULAR; GRAIN SIZE: MEDIUM; RANGE: FINE TO COARSE; ROUNDNESS: SUB-ANGULAR TO ROUNDED; MEDIUM SPHERICITY; POOR INDURATION; CEMENT TYPE(S): PHOSPHATE CEMENT, CLAY MATRIX; ACCESSORY MINERALS: CLAY-25X; OTHER FEATURES: UNWASHED SAMPLE, DOLOMITIC; FOSSILS: NO FOSSILS; PHOSPHATIC CLAY CEMENT WITH MINOR DOLOSILT 32.536 SAND; GRAYISH BROWN TO YELLOWISH GRAY; 05X POROSITY, LOW PERMEABILITY; GRAIN SIZE: FINE; RANGE: VERY FINE TO MEDIUM; ROUNDNESS: SUB-ANGULAR TO ANGULAR; MEDIUM SPHERICITY; POOR INDURATION; CEMENT TYPE(S): CLAY MATRIX; ACCESSORY MINERALS: CLAY-40X, LIMESTONE-02X, PLANT REMAINS-02X; OTHER FEATURES: UNWASHED SAMPLE; FOSSILS: NO FOSSILS; 36 -36.5 LIMESTONE; VERY LIGHT ORANGE; INTERGRANULAR, INTRAGRANULAR; GRAIN TYPE: SKELETAL, CALCILUTITE; 45X ALLOCHEMICAL CONSTITUENTS; GRAIN SIZE: FINE; RANGE; VERY FINE TO GRANULE; POOR INDURATION; CEMENT TYPE(S): CALCILUTITE MATRIX; OTHER FEATURES: UNWASHED SAMPLE; FOSSILS: BENTHIC FORAMINIFERA, ECHINOID; FOSSILS INDICATIVE OF THE CRYSTAL RIVER FM 36.5 TOTAL DEPTH -. I"

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LITHOLOGIC WILL LOG PRINTOUT SOURCE -FGS UILL NUMBER UW16200 COUNTY -ALACHUA TOTAL DEPTnH 00090 FT. LOCATION: T.078 R.18E 8.27 A 19 SAMPLES FRON 11 TO 90 FT. LAT = N 290 51H 01 LON UV 82D 30M 13 COMPLETION OATE -11/12/88 ELEVATION -160 FT OTHER TYPES OF LOGS AVAILABLE * NONE OWNIR/DRILLIR: FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY * ALACHUAMUELL 3 WORKED BY: CUTTINGS DESCRIBED BY MIKE WEINBERG; SPLIT SPOON SAMPLES DOSCRIBOD BY THOMAS SEAL; POROSITY VALUES VISUALLY ESTIMATED; CONSULT PERMENATER DATA SHEETS FOR PERMEABILITY VALUES hSANPLES 10.5,14,20.5,30.5,40.5,43-50.5,53.5-90 DESCRIBED BY HIKNI EINBERG, REMAINDER BY THMAS SEAL 0. -22. 190UDC UNDIFFERENTIATED SAND AND CLAY ". 2 " 22. -85. 122HTRN HAUTHORN GROUP 85. * 90. 1240CAL OCALA GROUP 0 -10 SAND; PINKISH GRAY TO DARK YELLOUISH ORANGE; 20X POROSITY, INTERGRANULAR; GRAIN SIZE: MEDIUM; RANGE: VERY FINE TO COARSE; ROUNONESSlSUB-ANGULAR; HEDIUM SPHERICITY; POOR INDURATION; CEMENT TYPE(S): CLAY MATRIX, IRON CEMENT; ACCESSORY MINERALS: CLAY-20X, IRON STAIN-04%, PLANT REMAINS-03X; OTHER FEATURESt UNWASHED SAMPLE; FOSSILS: NO FOSSILS; 10 -12.5 SAND; VERY LIGHT ORANGE; 15% POROSITY, INTERGRANULAR; GRAIN SIZE: NEDIUM; RANGE: FINE TO COARSE; ROUNDNESS: SUB-ANGULAR TO ANGULAR; MEDIUM SPHERICITY; POOR INDURATION; CEMENT TYPt(cS) CLAY MATRIX; ACCESSORY MINERALS: CLAY-202; OTHER FEATURES: UNWASHED SAMPLE, DOLOMITIC; FOSSILS: NO FOSSILS; 12.514 SAND; YELLOWISH GRAY TO LIGHT YELLOWISH ORANGE; 20% POROSITY, INTERGRANULAR; GRAIN SIZE: FINE; RANGE: VERY FINE TO VERY COARSE; ROUNDNESISUB-ANGULARI MEDIUM SPHERICITY; POOR INDURATION; CEMENT TYPE(S)t CLAY MATRIX, IRON CEMENT; ACCESSORY MINERALS: CLAY-20%, IRON STAIN-03X, PLANT REMAINS-05X; OTHER FEATURES: UNWASHED SAMPLE; FOSSILS: 0O FOSSILS;

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W16200 CONTINUED PAGE -2 14 -20.5SAND; YELLOWISH GRAY TO LIGHT,;YELLOWISH ORANGE; 15X POROSITY, INTERGRANULAR; GRAIN SIZE: FINE; RANGE: VERY FINE TO VERY COARSE; ROUNDNESS:SUB-ANGULAR; MEDIUM SPHERICITY; POOR INDURATION; CEMENT TYPE(S): IRON CEMENT, CLAY MATRIX, IRON CEMENT; ACCESSORY MINERALS:.IRON STAIN-10X, CLAY-15X; OTHER FEATURES: UNWASHED SAMPLE; .. FOSSILS: NO FOSSILS;: 20.522.5 CLAY; LIGHT GREENISH YELLOW; INTERGRANULAR, LOU PERMEABILITY; POOR INDURATION; CEMENT TYPE(S): CLAY MATRIX; ACCESSORY MINERALS: PHOSPHATIC SAND-05X, QUARTZ SAND-25X; OTHER FEATURES: UNWASHED SAMPLE; FOSSILS: NO FOSSILS; > 22.530.5 SANp; GRAYISH BROWN TO YELLOWISH GRAY; 30X POROSITY, INTERGRANULAR; GRAIN SIZE: MEDIUM; RANGE: VERY FINE TO VERY COARSE; ROUNDNESS: SUB-ANGULAR TO ANGULAR; MEDIUM SPHERICITY; POOR INDURATION; .:.. MENT TYPE(S):. CLAY HATRIX, IRON CEMENT; ACCESSORY MINERALS: CLAY-10%, IRON STAIN-01X; OTHER FEATURES: UNWASHED SAMPLE; FOSSILS: NO FOSSILS; 30.532.5 SAND; VERY LIGHT ORANGE TO WHITE; 35X POROSITY, INTERGRANULAR; GRAIN SIZE: MEDIUM; RANGE: FINE TO COARSE; ROUNDNESS: SUB-ANGULAR TO ANGULAR; MEDIUM SPHERICITY; MODERATE INDURATION; CEMENT TYPE(S): CLAY MATRIX; ACCESSORY MINERALS: PHOSPHATIC SAND-05X, CLAY-05X; OTHER FEATURES: UNWASHED SAMPLE; FOSSILS: NO FOSSILS; 32.540.5 SAND; GRAYISH BROWN TO YELLOWISH GRAY; 30% POROSITY, INTERGRANULAR, INTERGRANULAR; GRAIN SIZE: MEDIUM; RANGE: FINE TO COARSE; ROUNDNESS:SUB-ANGULAR; MEDIUM SPHERICIIT; MUUbKALE INDURATION; CEMENT TYPE(S); CLAY MATRIX, SILICIC CEMENT; ACCESSORY MINERALS: CLAY-06X, QUARTZ-02X, IRON STAIN-O1X; OTHER FEATURES: UNWASHED SAMPLE; FOSSILS: NO FOSSILS; CLUMPS OF QTZ-GRAIN AGGREGATES CEMENTED BY SILICA 40.542.5 SAND; VERY LIGHT ORANGE TO WHITE; 35% POROSITY, INTERGRANULAR; GRAIN SIZE: MEDIUM; RANGE: FINE TO COARSE; ROUNDNESS: SUB-ANGULAR TO ANGULAR; MEDIUM SPHERICITY; UNCONSOLIDATED; CEMENT TYPE(S): CLAY MATRIX; ACCESSORY MINERALS: PHOSPHATIC SAND-02X, CLAY-02X; OTHER FEATURES: UNWASHED SAMPLE; FOSSILS: NO FOSSILS;

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W16200 CONTINUED PAGE -3 42.543 SAND; GRAYISH BROWN TO DARK YELLOWISH ORANGE; 20X POROSITY, INTERGRANULAR; GRAIN SIZE: MEDIUM; RANGE: VERY FINE TO COARSE; ROUNDNESS: SUE-ANGULAR TO ANGULAR; MEDIUM SPHERICITY; MODERATE INDURATION; CEMENT TYPE(S): SILICIC CEMENT, CLAY MATRIX, IRON CEMENT; ACCESSORY MINERALS: QUARTZ-04%, CLAY-05X, IRON STAIN-02X; OTHER FEATURES: UNWASHED SAMPLE, DOLOMITIC; FOSSILS: NO FOSSILS; LOCALLY, MODERATELY INDURATED BY SILICA CEMENT 43 -44 SANDSTONE; YELLOWISH GRAY TO LIGHT OLIVE; 15X POROSITY, INTERGRANULAR; GRAIN SIZE: FINE; RANGE: VERY FINE TO COARSE; ROUNDNESS: SUB-ANGULAR TO ANGULAR; MEDIUM SPHERICITY; MODERATE INDURATION; CEMENT TYPE(S): SILICIC CEMENT, CLAY MATRIX, IRON CEMENT; ACCESSORY MINERALS: QUARTZ-08O, CLAY-05X, PHOSPHATIC SAND-02%, LIMESTONE-10X; OTHER FEATURES: UNWASHED SAMPLE; FOSSILS: NO FOSSILS; LIMESTONE OCCURS AS ROCK FRAGMENTS 44 S0.5 SANDSTONE; YELLOUISH GRAY TO LIGHT OLIVE; 15X POROSITY, INTERGRANULAR; GRAIN SIZE: FINE; RANGE: VERY FINE TO COARSE; ROUNDNESS: SUB-ANGULAR TO ANGULAR; MEDIUM SPHERICITY; MODERATE INDURATION; CEMENT TYPE(S): SILICIC CEMENT, CLAY MATRIX, IRON CEMENT; ACCESSORY MINERALS: CLAY-35X, LIMESTONE-10X, OUARTZ-0%X, PHOSPHATIC SAND-01X; OTHER FEATURES: UNWASHED SAMPLE; FOSSILS: NO FOSSILS; CUTTINGS CONTAIN MIXED LITHOLOGIES: CLAY FRAGMENTS ARE WELL INDURATED, WAXY, & GREY TO GREEN IN COLOR 50.552.5 SAND; VERY LIGHT ORANGE; 25 POROSITY, INTERGRANULAR; GRAIN SIZE: FINE; RANGE: VERY FINE TO MEDIUM; ROUNDNESS: SUB-ANGULAR TO ROUNDED; MEDIUM SPHERICITY; POOR INDURATION; CEMENT TYPE(S): CLAY MATRIX; ACCESSORY MINERALS: CLAY-15%; OTHER FEATURES: UNWASHED SAMPLE, CALCAREOUS; FOSSILS: NO FOSSILS; 52.553.5 CALCILUTITE; WHITE; POSSIBLY HIGH PERMEABILITY; GRAIN TYPE: CALCILUTITE; 05% ALLOCHEMICAL CONSTITUENTS; GRAIN SIZE: MICROCRYSTALLINE; RANGE: MICROCRYSTALLINE TO COARSE; MODERATE INDURATION; CEMENT TYPE(S)s CALCILUTITE MATRIX; ACCESSORY MINERALSs QUARTZ SANO-OSX, IRON STAIN-02X; OTHER FEATURES: UNWASHED SAMPLE; FOSSILS: NO FOSSILS; K)

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U16200 CONTINUED PAGE -4 53.554 CALCILUTITE; WHITE TO DARK YELLOWISH ORANGE; POSSIBLY HIGH PERMEABILITY; GRAIN TYPE: CALCILUTITE; 20X ALLOCHEMICAL CONSTITUENTS; GRAIN SIZE: MICROCRYSTALLINE; RANGE: MICROCRYSTALLINE TO COARSE; MODERATE INDURATION; CEMENT TYPE(S): CALCILUTITE MATRIX, IRON CEMENT; SACCESSORY MINERALS: QUARTZ SAND-2OX, IRON STAIN-05X, PHOSPHATIC SAND-01X; OTHER FEATURES: UNWASHED SAMPLE; . FOSSILS: NO FOSSILS; 54 58 SAND; YELLOWISH GRAY; 35% POROSITY, INTERGRANULAR; GRAIN SIZE: MEDIUM; RANGE: VERY FINE TO COARSE; ROUNDNESS: ANGULAR TO SUB-ANGULAR; MEDIUM SPHERICITY; POOR INDURATION; CEMENT TYPE(S): CALCILUTITE MATRIX; ACCESSORY MINERALS: CALCILUTITE-40X, IRON STAIN-01%, PHOSPHATIC SAND-02X; OTHER FEATURES: UNWASHED SAMPLE; FOSSJLS: NO FOSSILS; 58 -60 CALCILUTITE; YELLOWISH GRAY; INTERGRANULAR, MOLDIC, POSSIBLY HIGH PERMEABILITY; GRAIN TYPE: CALCILUTITE; 20% ALLOCHEMICAL CONSTITUENTS; : GRAIN SIZE: MICROCRYSTALLINE; RANGE: MICROCRYSTALLINE TO GRANULE; POOR INDURATION; CEMENT TYPE(S): CALCILUTITE MATRIX; ACCESSORY MINERALS: QUARTZ SAND-20X, IRON STAIN-04X, PHOSPHATIC SAND-01X; OTHER FEATURES: UNWASHED SAMPLE; 60 -67 CALCILUTITE; YELLOWISH GRAY; POSSIBLY HIGH PERMEABILITY; GRAIN TYPE: CALCILUTITE, CRYSTALS; 15X ALLOCHEMICAL CONSTITUENTS; GRAIN SIZE: MICROCRYSTALLINE; RANGE: MICROCRYSTALLINE TO GRANULE; POOR INDURATION; CEMENT TYPE(S): CALCILUTITE MATRIX; ACCESSORY MINERALS: QUARTZ SAND-15X, IRON STAIN-04X, PHOSPHATIC SAND-01X; OTHER FEATURES: UNWASHED SAMPLE; FOSSILS: NO FOSSILS; 67 -70 CALCILUTITE; YELLOWISH GRAY; POSSIBLY HIGH PERMEABILITY; GRAIN TYPE: CALCILUTITE, CRYSTALS; 15X ALLOCHEMICAL CONSTITUENTS; GRAIN SIZE: MICROCRYSTALLINE; RANGE: MICROCRYSTALLINE TO COARSE; POOR INDURATION; CEMENT TYPE(S): CALCILUTITE MATRIX; ACCESSORY MINERALS: QUARTZ SAND-15X, CLAY-05X, PHOSPHATIC SAND-01 , IRON STAIN-03X; OTHER FEATURES: UNWASHED SAMPLE; FOSSILS: NO FOSSILS; 70 -80 SAND; YELLOWISH GRAY TO MODERATE YELLOWISH BROWN; POSSIBLY HIGH PERMEABILITY; GRAIN SIZE: FINE; RANGE: VERY FINE TO MEDIUM; ROUNDNESS:SUB-ANGULAR; MEDIUM SPHERICITY; POOR INDURATION; CEMENT TYPE(S): CALCILUTITE MATRIX; ACCESSORY MINERALS: CALCILUTITE-35X, IRON STAIN-03X, PHOSPHATIC SAND-01X; OTHER FEATURES: UNWASHED SAMPLE; FOSSILS: NO FOSSILS; ^, ^ ^ ....^ :.·. .*. ..., .. *^

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W16200 CONTINUED PAGE -5 80 -85 CALCILUTITE; YELLOWISH GRAY; POSSIBLY HIGH PERMEABILITY; GRAIN TYPEs CALCILUTITE; 30X ALLOCHEMICAL CONSTITUENTS; GRAIN SIZEs MICROCRYSTALLINE; RANGE: MICROCRYSTALLINE TO MEDIUM; MODERATE INDURATION; CEMENT TYPI(S): CALCILUTITE MATRIX; ACCESSORY MINERALSI QUARTZ SAND-30%, PHOSPHATIC SAND!O1X, IRON STAIN-O1X, PLANT R$MAINS-015; OTHER FEATURES: UNUWSHED SAMPLE; FOSSILSs NO FOSSILS; 85 -90 CALCAREITE; YELLOWISH GRAY TO WHITE; POSSIBLY HIGH PERMEABILITY; GRAIN TYPlt CALCILUTITE, CRYSTALS; 50% ALLOCHEMICAL CONSTITUENTS; GRAIN SIZEl NICROCRYSTALLINE; RANGE: MICROCRYSTALLINE TO VERY COARSE; MODERATE INDURATION; CEMENT TYPE(S)s CALCILUTITE MATRIX; ACCESSORY MINERALSs QUARTZ SANO-35%, PHOSPHATIC SAND-02%; OTHER FEATURESs UNWASHED SAMPLE; FOSSILS: BRYOZOA, BENTHIC FOIRMINIFERA; LEPIDOCYCLINA SP.,NUMMULITES SPP. 90 TOTAL DEPTH I,

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LITHOLOGIC WELL LOG PRINTOUT SOURCE -FGS WELL NUMBER: U16201 COUNTY -ALACHUA TOTAL DEPTH: 00053 FT. LOCATION: T.08S R.18E S.17 A 9 SAMPLES FROM 11 TO 53 FT. LAT = N 290 47M 52 LON = W 820 31H 42 COMPLETION DATE -16/12/87 ELEVATION -115 FT OTHER TYPES OF LOGS AVAILABLE -NONE OWNER/DRILLER: FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY -ALACHUA WELL #4 WORKED BY: CUTTINGS DESCRIBED BY MIKE WEINBERG; SPLIT SPOON SAMPLES DESCRIBED BY THOMAS SEAL; POROSITY VALUES VISUALLY ESTIMATED; CONSULT PERMEAMETER DATA SHEETS FOR PERMEABILITY VALUES; SAMPLES 19.5,40.5 WORKED BY 'BY MIKE WEINBERG;.REMAINDER BY THOMAS SEAL 0. -53. 090UDSC UNDIFFERENTIATED SAND AND CLAY 53. -.1240CAL OCALA GROUP 0 -10.5 SAND; MODERATE YELLOWISH BROWN TO MODERATE BROWN; 20X POROSITY, INTERGRANULAR; GRAIN SIZE: MEDIUM; RANGE: FINE TO COARSE; ROUNDNESS: SUB-ANGULAR TO ANGULAR; MEDIUM SPHERICITY; POOR INDURATION; CEMENT TYPE(S): IRON CEMENT, CLAY MATRIX; ACCESSORY MINERALS: PHOSPHATIC SAND-01X, CLAY-15X, PLANT REMAINS-10X; OTHER FEATURES: DOLOMITIC, UNWASHED SAMPLE; FOSSILS: NO FOSSILS; 10.512.5 SAND; MODERATE YELLOWISH BROWN; 20% POROSITY, INTERGRANULAR; GRAIN SIZE: MEDIUM; RANGE: FINE TO MEDIUM; ROUNDNESS: SUB-ANGULAR TO ANGULAR; MEDIUM SPHERICITY; POOR INDURATION; CEMENT TYPE(S): IRON CEMENT, CLAY MATRIX; ACCESSORY MINERALS: PHOSPHATIC SAND-02X, CLAY-15X, PLANT REMAINS-10X; OTHER FEATURES: UNWASHED SAMPLE; FOSSILS: NO FOSSILS; 12.519.5 SAND; GRAYISH ORANGE TO YELLOWISH GRAY; 15X POROSITY, INTERGRANULAR; GRAIN SIZE: FINE; RANGE: FINE TO MEDIUM; ROUNDNESS: SUB-ANGULAR TO ROUNDED; MEDIUM SPHERICITY; POOR INDURATION; CEMENT TYPE(S): CLAY MATRIX; ACCESSORY MINERALS: CLAY-20X, PLANT REMAINS-10X, HEAVY MINERALS-01X; OTHER FEATURES: UNWASHED SAMPLE; FOSSILS: NO FOSSILS;

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W16201 CONTINUED PAGE -2 19.530.5 SAND; YELLOWISH GRAY; 20% POROSITY, INTERGRANULAR; GRAIN SIZE: FINE; RANGEs FINE TO MEDIUM; ROUNDNESS: SUB-ANGULAR TO ROUNDED; MEDIUM SPHERICITY; POOR INDURATION; CEMENT TYPE(S): CLAY MATRIX; ACCESSORY MINERALS: CLAY-15X, PLANT REMAINS-15X, HEAVY MINERALS-01X; OTHER FEATURES: UNWASHED SAMPLE; FOSSILS: MO FOSSILS; 30.532.5 AS AOVE 32.540.5 SAND; LIGHT RED TO LIGHT BROUN; 30% POROSITY, INTERGRANULAR; GRAIN SIZE: FINE; RANGE: VERY FINE TO COARSE; ROUNDNESS: SUB-ANGULAR TO ANGULAR; MEDIUM SPHERICITY; POOR INDURATION; CEMENT TYPE(S): CLAY MATRIX; IRON CEMENT; ACCESSORY MINERALS: CLAY-04%X,IRON STAIN-04X, PLANT REMAINS-02X; OTHER FEATURES: UNWASHED SAMPLE, DOLOMITIC; FOSSILS: NO FOSSILS; 40.542.5 SANO; VERY LIGHT ORANGE; 30X POROSITY, INTERGRANULAR; GRAIN SIZE: FINE; RANGE: FINE TO MEDIUM; ROUNDNESS: SUB-ANGULAR TO ROUNDED; MEDIUM SPHERICITY; UNCONSOLIDATED; ACCESSORY MINERALS: CLAY-05X, HEAVY MINERALS-01X; OTHER FEATURES: UNWASHED SAMPLE; FOSSILS: NO FOSSILS; 42.552.5 SAND; LIGHT BROUN; 152 POROSITY, INTERGRANULAR; GRAIN SIZE: FINE; RANGE:. FINE TO COARSE; ROUNONESS: SUB-AGULAR TO ROUNDED; MEDIUM SPHERICITY; POOR INDURATION; CEMENT TYPE(S): CLAY MATRIX; ACCESSORY MINERALS: CALCILUTITE-10X, CLAY-25X; OTHER FEATURES: UNUASHED SAMPLE, CALCAREOUS; FOSSILS: NO FOSSILS; 52.553 PACKSTONE; VERY LIGHT ORANGE TO WHITE; INTERGRANULAR, INTRAGRANULAR, POSSIBLY HIGH PERMEABILITY; GRAIN TYPE: SKELETAL, CALCILUTITE; 35% ALLOCHENICAL CONSTITUENTS; GRAIN SIZE: FINE; RANGE: MICROCRYSTALLINE TO VERY COARSE; MODERATE INDURATION; CEMENT TYPE(S): CALCILUTITE MATRIX; OTHER FEATURES: UNWASHED SAMPLE; FOSSILS: BENTHIC FORAMINIFERA, BRYOZOA, ECHINOIO, MOLLUSKS; INDEX FOSSILS INDICATIVE OF CRYSTAL RIVER FM. 53 TOTAL DEPTH

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LITHOLOGIC WELL LOG PRINTOUT SOURCE -FGS WELL NUMBER: W16202 COUNTY -ALACHUA TOTAL DEPTH: 00101 FT. LOCATION: T.07S R.18E S.05 B 19 SAMPLES FROM 11 TO 101 FT. LAT = N 290 54M 30 LON = W 82D 31M 43 : COMPLETON DATE -15/01/88 ELEVATION -140 FT OTHER TYPES OF LOGS AVAILABLE -NONE OWNER/DRILLER: FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY -ALACHUA WELL # 5 WORKED BY: CUTTINGS DESCRIBED BY MIKE WEINBERG; SPLIT SPOON SAMPLES DESCRIBED BY THOMAS SEAL; POROSITY VALUES ESTIMATED VISUALLY; CONSULT PERMEAMETER DATA SHEETS FOR PERMEABILITY VALUES kSAMPLES 20.5,30.5,40.5,50.5,60.5,70.5,71,80,85.5,88, 94 DESCRIBED BYMIKE WEINBERG; OTHERS BY THOMAS SEAL 0. -20. 090UDSC UNDIFFERENTIATED SAND AND CLAY 20. -101. 122HTRN HAWTHORN GROUP 101. -.1240CAL OCALA GROUP 0 -10.5 SAND; YELLOWISH GRAY TO MODERATE YELLOWISH BROWN; 35% POROSITY, INTERGRANULAR; GRAIN SIZE: FINE; RANGE: VERY FINE TO COARSE; ROUNDNESS:SUB-ANGULAR; MEDIUM SPHERICITY; POOR INDURATION; CEMENT TYPE(S): IRON CEMENT, CLAY MATRIX, PHOSPHATE CEMENT; ACCESSORY MINERALS: IRON STAIN-05X, CLAY-15X, PLANT REMAINS-03X; OTHER FEATURES: UNWASHED SAMPLE, DOLOMITIC; FOSSILS: NO FOSSILS; 10.520.5 CLAY; YELLOWISH GRAY TO DARK YELLOWISH ORANGE; LOW PERMEABILITY; POOR INDURATION; CEMENT TYPE(S): CLAY MATRIX, PHOSPHATE CEMENT; ACCESSORY MINERALS: QUARTZ SAND-35X, IRON STAIN-04X, PLANT REMAINS-02X; OTHER FEATURES: UNWASHED SAMPLE; FOSSILS: NO FOSSILS; 20.522.5 CLAY; DARK GRAYISH YELLOW: LOW PERMEABILITY; POOR INDURATION; CEMENT TYPE(S): CLAY MATRIX; ACCESSORY MINERALS: QUARTZ SAND-10X, PHOSPHATIC GRAVEL-02X, PHOSPHATIC SAND-02X; OTHER FEATURES: UNWASHED SAMPLE, DOLOMITIC; FOSSILS: NO FOSSILS; 22.530.5 CLAY; YELLOWISH GRAY TO GRAYISH ORANGE; LOW PERMEABILITY; POOR INDURATION; CEMENT TYPE(S): CLAY MATRIX; ACCESSORY MINERALS: QUARTZ SAND-20X, IRON STAIN-02X; OTHER FEATURES: UNWASHED SAMPLE; FOSSILS: NO FOSSILS; .<-I

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W16202 CONTINUED PAGE -2 30.532.5 CLAY; WHITE TO DARK YELLOUISH ORANGE; LOU PERMEABILITY; POOR INDURATION; CEMENT TYPE(S): CLAY MATRIX, PHOSPHATE CEMENT; ACCESSORY MINERALS: IRON STAIN-01X, QUARTZ SAND-OSX; OTHER FEATURES: UNWASHED SAMPLE; FOSSILS: NO FOSSILS; 32.540.5 SAND; GRAYISH BROWN; 25X POROSITY, INTERGRANULAR; GRAIN SIZE: MEDIUM; RANGEs VERY FINE TO COARSE; ROUNDNESSISUB-ANGULAR; MEDIUM SPHERICITY; MODERATE INDURATION; CEMENT TYPE(S): CLAY MATRIX, IRON CEMENT, SILICIC CEMENT; ACCESSORY MINERALS: CLAY-OS, IRON STAIN-02X, PHOSPHATIC SAN-O01X; OTHER FEATURES: UNWASHED SAMPLE; FOSSILS: NO FOSSILS; LOCALLY, SAND IS SILICA CEMENTED & INDURATED 40.545.5 SAND; GRAYISH YELLOW; 25X PORiSITY, INTERGRANULAR; GRAIN SIZE: MEDIUM; RANGE: FIN TO COARSE; ROUNDNESS: SU-ANGULAR TO ANGULAR; MEDIUM SPHERICITY; UNCONSOLIDATED; CEMENT TYPE(S)t CLAY MATRIX; ACCESSORY MINERALS: CLAY-05X, PHOSPHATIC SAND-03X; OTHER FEATURES: UNWASHED SAMPLE, DOLONITIC; FOSSILS: NO FOSSILS; 45.550.5 SAND; YELLOWISH GRAY TO MODERATE YELLOWISH BROWN; 30% POROSITY, INTERGRANULAR; GRAIN SIZE: FINE; RANGE: VERY FINE TO VERY COARSE; ROUNONESS:SUB-ANGULAR; MEDIUM SPHERICITY; POOR INDURATION; CEMENT TYPE(S): CLAY MAJRIX, IRON CEMENT; ACCESSORY MINERALS: CLAY-03X, IRON STAIN-02X, PHOSPHATIC SAND-O1X; OTHER FEATURES: UNWASHED SAMPLE; FOSSILS: NO FOSSILS; 50.552.5 SAND; GRAYISH YELLOW; 35X POROSITY, INTERGRANULAR; GRAIN SIZE: FINE; RANGE: FINE TO MEDIUM; ROUNDNESS: SUS-ANGULAR TO ANGULAR; MEDIUM SPHERICITY; UNCONSOLIDATED; ACCESSORY MINERALS: CLAY-03X, HEAVY MINERALS-01%; OTHER FEATURES: UNWASHED SAMPLE, DOLOMITIC; FOSSILS: NO FOSSILS; 52.560.5 SAND: GRAYISH BROUN; 30X POROSITY, INTERGRANULAR; GRAIN SIZE: FINE; RANGE: VERY FINE TO MEDIUM; ROUNDNESS:SUS-ANGULAR; MEDIUM SPHERICITY; POOR INDURATION; CEMENT TYPE(S): CLAY MATRIX, IRON CEMENT; ACCESSORY MINERALS: CLAY-03X, IRON STAIN-OZX; OTHER FEATURES: UNWASHED SAMPLE; FOSSILS: NO FOSSILS;

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W16202 CONTINUED PAGE -3 60.562.5 SAND; VERY LIGHT ORANGE; 30X POROSITY, INTERGRANULAR; GRAIN SIZE: MEDIUM; RANGE: FINE TO COARSE; ROUNDNESS: SUB-ANGULAR TO ROUNDED; MEDIUM SPHERICITY; UNCONSOLIDATED; CEMENT TYPE(S): CLAY MATRIX; ACCESSORY MINERALS: CLAY-05X; OTHER FEATURES: UNWASHED SAMPLE; FOSSILS: NO FOSSILS; THIN (10 CM) ZONE OF PHOSPHATIC CLAY 62.570.5 SAND; GRAYISH BROWN TO UHITE; 25X POROSITY, INTERGRANULAR; GRAIN SIZE: FINE; RANGE: VERY FINE TO COARSE; ROUNDNESS:SUB-ANGULAR; MEDIUM SPHERICITY; POOR INDURATION; CEMENT TYPE(S): CALCILUTITE MATRIX; ACCESSORY MINERALS: CALCILUTITE-15X, PHOSPHATIC SAND-02O, IRON STAIN-04X; OTHER FEATURES: UNWASHED SAMPLE, CALCAREOUS; FOSSILS: NO FOSSILS; 70.571 :-SAND; UHITE; 20X POROSITY, INTERGRANULAR; -:.-. : GRAIN SIZE: FINE; RANGE: VERY FINE TO MEDIUM; ROUNDNESS:SUB-ANGULAR; MEDIUM SPHERICITY; MODERATE INDURATION; CEMENT TYPE(S): CALCILUTITE MATRIX; ACCESSORY MINERALS: CALCILUTITE-25X, PHOSPHATIC SAND-03X; OTHER FEATURES: UNWASHED SAMPLE, CALCAREOUS; FOSSILS: NO FOSSILS; 71 -80 SAND; GRAYISH ORANGE PINK TO DARK YELLOWISH ORANGE; 25X POROSITY, INTERGRANULAR; GRAIN SIZE: FINE; RANGE: VERY FINE TO VERY COARSE; ROUNDNESS: SUB-ANGULAR TO ANGULAR; MEDIUM SPHERICITY; POOR INDURATION; CEMENT TYPE(S): CALCILUTITE MATRIX; ACCESSORY MINERALS: CALCILUTITE-35%, PHOSPHATIC SAND-03X, IRON STAIN-03X; OTHER FEATURES: UNWASHED SAMPLE, CALCAREOUS; FOSSILS: NO FOSSILS; 80 -85.5 CLAY; LIGHT GREENISH YELLOW; LOW PERMEABILITY; POOR INDURATION; CEMENT TYPE(S): CLAY MATRIX; ACCESSORY MINERALS: IRON STAIN-03%, LIMESTONE-1OX; OTHER FEATURES: UNWASHED SAMPLE; FOSSILS: NO FOSSILS; TEXTURE OF CLAY RANGES FROM WAXY TO DULL; FRAGMENTS OF SAND IN A CALCAREOUS CLAY MATRIX 85.587.5 SAND; VERY LIGHT ORANGE; 35X POROSITY, INTERGRANULAR; GRAIN SIZE: FINE; RANGE: FINE TO MEDIUM; ROUNDNESS: SUB-ANGULAR TO ROUNDED; MEDIUM SPHERICITY; UNCONSOLIDATED; CEMENT TYPE(S): CALCILUTITE MATRIX; ACCESSORY MINERALS: HEAVY MINERALS-01X, PHOSPHATIC SAND-02X; OTHER FEATURES: UNWASHED SAMPLE, DOLOMITIC; FOSSILS: NO FOSSILS;

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U16202 CONTINUED PAGE -4 87.588 SAND; YELLOISH GRAY; 35% POROSITY, INTERGRANULAR; GRAIN SIZE: FINE; RANGE: VERY FINE TO MEDIUM; ROUNDNESS:SUBANGULAR; HIGH SPHERICITY; POOR INDURATION; CEMENT TYPE(S): CALCILUTITE MATRIX; ACCESSORY MINERALS: PHOSPHATIC SAND-01X, HEAVY MINERALS-01X; OTHER FEATURES: UNUASHED SAMPLE; FOSSILS: BlYOZOA; 88 -91 SAND; VERY LIGHT ORANGE; 35X POROSITY, INTERGRANULAR; GRAIN SIZE: FINE; RANGE: FINE TO MEDIUM; ROUNDNESS: SUB-ANGULAR TO ROUNDED; MEDIUM SPHERICITY; POOR INDURATION; CEMENT TYPE(S): CALCILUTITE MATRIX; ACCESSORY MINERALS: PHOSPHATIC SAND-01%, HEAVY MINERALS-01X; OTHER FEATURES: UNUASHED SAMPLE, DOLOMITIC; FOSSILS: NO FOSSILS; 91 94 SAND; PINKISH GRAY; 20X POROSITY, INTERGRANULAR; GRAIN SIZE FINE; RANGE: VERY FINE TO MEDIUM; ROUNDNESS:SUS-ANGULAR; MEDIUM SPHERICITY; MODERATE INDURATION; CEMENT TYPE(S): CALCILUTITE MATRIX; ACCESSORY MINERALS: CALCILUTITE-40X, HEAVY MINERALS-02X, CHERT-O1X; OTHER FEATURES: UNUASHED SAMPLE, DOLONITIC; FOSSILS: NO FOSSILS; 94 -101 CALCARENITE; VERY LIGHT ORANGE; INTERGRANULAR; GRAIN TYPE: SKELETAL, CALCILUTITE; 70% ALLOCHEMICAL CONSTITUENTS; GRAIN SIZE: FINE; RANGE; MICROCRYSTALLINE TO GRAVEL; MODERATE INDURATION; CEMENT TYPE(S): CALCILUTITE MATRIX; ACCESSORY MINERALS: QUARTZ SAND-05X; OTHER FEATURES: COQUINA, UNUASHED SAMPLE; FOSSILS: BRYOZOA, BENTHIC FORAMINIFERA; LEPIDOCYCLINA PRESENT 101 TOTAL DEPTH J

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LITHOLOGIC WELL LOG PRINTOUT SOURCE -FGS WELL NUMBER: W16203 COUNTY -ALACHUA TOTAL DEPTH: 00030 FT. LOCATION: T.10S R.20E S.21 B 6 SAMPLES FROM 10 TO 30 FT. LAT = N 290 36M 22 LON -W 820 181 12 COMPLETION DATE -06/01/88 ELEVATION -060 FT OTHER TYPES OF LOGS AVAILABLE * NONE OWNER/DRILLER: FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY -ALACHUA WELL # 6 WORKED BY: CUTTINGS DESCRIBED BY MIKE WEINBERG; SPLIT SPOON SAMPLES DESCRIBED BY THOMAS SEAL; POROSITY VALUES ESTIMATED VISUALLY; CONSULT PERMEAMETER DATA SHEETS FOR PERMEABILITY VALUES; SAMPLES 10,20,30 DESCRIBED BY SMIKE WEINBERG; OTHERS BY THOMAS SEAL 0. -20. 090UDSC UNDIFFERENTIATED SAND AND CLAY 20. -30. 122HTRM HAWTHORN GROUP 30. .1240CAL OCALA GROUP 0 -10 SAND; LIGHT BROUN; 35% POROSITY, INTERGRANULAR; GRAIN SIZE: MEDIUM; RANGE: FINE TO GRANULE; ROUNDNESS: SUB-ANGULAR TO ROUNDED; HIGH SPHERICITY; UNCONSOLIDATED; ACCESSORY MINERALS: PLANT REMAINS-03X, HEAVY MINERALS-01X; OTHER FEATURES: UNWASHED SAMPLE; FOSSILS: NO FOSSILS; 10 -12 SAND; GRAYISH BROWN; 05X POROSITY, INTERGRANULAR; GRAIN SIZE: MEDIUM; RANGE: FINE TO COARSE; ROUNDNESS: SUB-ANGULAR TO ROUNDED; MEDIUM SPHERICITY; POOR INDURATION; CEMENT TYPE(S): CLAY MATRIX, CALCILUTITE MATRIX; ACCESSORY MINERALS: CLAY-30%, HEAVY MINERALS-01X; OTHER FEATURES: UNWASHED SAMPLE, DOLOMITIC; FOSSILS: NO FOSSILS; 12 -20 CLAY; GRAYISH ORANGE PINK; LOW PERMEABILITY; MODERATE INDURATION; CEMENT TYPE(S): CLAY MATRIX; ACCESSORY MINERALS: QUARTZ SAND-40X, IRON STAIN-01%, PLANT REMAINS-02X; OTHER FEATURES: UNWASHED SAMPLE; FOSSILS: NO FOSSILS; 20 -22 CLAY; LIGHT OLIVE TO LIGHT BROWN; LOW PERMEABILITY; POOR INDURATION; CEMENT TYPE(S): CLAY MATRIX, PHOSPHATE CEMENT; ACCESSORY MINERALS: QUARTZ SAND-10X, IRON STAIN-02X, PHOSPHATIC SAND-05X; OTHER FEATURES: UNWASHED SAMPLE; FOSSILS: NO FOSSILS;

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W16203 CONTINUED PAGE -2 22 -29 SAND; GRAYISH BROWN TO LIGHT BROUN; 20 POROSITY, INTERGRANULAR; GRAIN SIZE: FINE; RANGE: VERY FINE TO VERY COARSE; RGUNDNESS:SUS-ANGULAR; MEDIUM SPHERICITY; POOR INDURATION; CEMENT TYPE(S): CLAY MATRIX; ACCESSORY MINERALS: LIMESTONE-05X, CLAY-25X, IRON STAIN-OZX; OTHER FEATURES: UNWASHED SAMPLE; FOSSILS: NO FOSSILS; 29 -30 CALCARENITE; VERY LIGHT ORANGE TO YELLOUISH GRAY; INTERGRANULAR, INTRAGRANULAR, POSSIBLY HIGH PERMEABILITY; GRAIN TYPE: SKELETAL, CALCILUTITE; 35% ALLOCHEMICAL CONSTITUEHTS; GRAIN SIZE: MEDIUM; RANGE: MICROCRYSTALLINE TO GRANULE; POOR INDURATION; CEMENT TYPE(S): CALCILUTITE MATRIX, CLAY MATRIX, PHOSPHATE CEMENT; ACCESSORY MINERALS: QUARTZ SANOD25X, CLAY-25X, PHOSPHATIC SAND-03X; OTHER FEATURES: UNWASHED SAMPLE, CALCAREOUS; FOSSILS: BENTHIC FORAMINIFERA, MOLLUSKS; PROBABLE CONTACT OF HAWTHORN & CRYSTAL RIVER NUMEROUS LEPIDOCYCLINA AND LIMESTONE FRAGMENTS MIXED WITH PHOSPHATIC SANDO -*:, 30 TOTAL DEPTH K)

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LITHOLOGIC WELL LOG PRINTOUT SOURCE -FGS WELL NUMBER: W16204 COUNTY -ALACHUA TOTAL DEPTH: 00042 FT. LOCATION: T.10S R.20E S.28 8 SAMPLES FROM 10 TO 42 FT. LAT z N 290 35M 19 LON a W 82D 18M 52 COMPLETION DATE -08/01/88 ELEVATION -060 FT OTHER TYPES OF LOGS AVAILABLE -NONE OWNER/DRILLER: FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY FOR ALACHUA COUNTY WORKED BY: CUTTINGS DESCRIBED BY MIKE WEINBERG; SPLIT SPOON SAMPLES DESCRIBED BY THOMAS SEAL; CONSULT PERMEAMETER DATA SHEETS FOR PERMEABILITY VALUES; POROSITY VALUES ESTIMATED VISUALLY; SAMPLES 10,40 DESCRIBED BY MIKE 'WEINBERG; OTHER SAMPLES DESCRIBED BY THOMAS SEAL 0. -32. 090UDSC UNDIFFERENTIATED SAND AND CLAY 32. .1240CAL OCALA GROUP . 0 -10 PEAT; DARK GRAY TO YELLOWISH GRAY; POSSIBLY HIGH PERMEABILITY; POOR INDURATION; CEMENT TYPE(S): ORGANIC MATRIX; ACCESSORY MINERALS: QUARTZ SANO-20X; OTHER FEATURES: UNWASHED SAMPLE; FOSSILS: NO FOSSILS; 10 -11.5 CLAY; YELLOWISH GRAY; LOW PERMEABILITY; POOR INDURATION; CEMENT TYPE(S): CLAY MATRIX, DOLOMITE CEMENT, CALCILUTITE MATRIX; ACCESSORY MINERALS: QUARTZ SAND-15X, PHOSPHATIC SAND-02X, CALCILUTITE-20X; OTHER FEATURES: UNWASHED SAMPLE; FOSSILS: NO FOSSILS; 11.512 CLAY; DARK BROWN; LOW PERMEABILITY; POOR INDURATION; CEMENT TYPE(S): CLAY MATRIX, CALCILUTITE MATRIX; ACCESSORY MINERALS: QUARTZ SAND-15%, PHOSPHATIC SAND-07X; OTHER FEATURES: UNWASHED SAMPLE; FOSSILS: NO FOSSILS; CARBONATE-RICH CLAY ZONE 12 -20 CLAY; DARK YELLOWISH BROWN TO DARK BROWN; LOW PERMEABILITY; POOR INDURATION; CEMENT TYPE(S): CLAY MATRIX, ORGANIC MATRIX, CALCILUTITE MATRIX; ACCESSORY MINERALS: PLANT REMAINS-15X, QUARTZ SAND-15X; OTHER FEATURES: UNWASHED SAMPLE; FOSSILS: MOLLUSKS; FRESHWATER SNAIL FOSSILS IN ORGANIC RICH CLAY THESE GASTROPODS ARE PROBABLY IN PLACE, BUT MAY BE DUE TO UPHOLE CONTAMINATION 9 -i

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W16204 CONTINUED PAGE -2 20 -22 CLAY; DARK YELLOWISH BROWN; LOW PERMEABILITY; POOR INDURATION; CEMENT TYPE(S): CLAY MATRIX, CALCILUTITE MATRIX; ACCESSORY MINERALS: CALCILUTITE-20%, QUARTZ SAND-08X; OTHER FEATURES: UNWASHED SAMPLE; FOSSILS: MOLLUSKS, FOSSIL FRAGMENTS; 22 -30 CLAY; MOOERATE GRAY TO BLACK; LOW PERMEABILITY; POOR INDURATION; CEMENT TYPE(S): ORGANIC MATRIX, CLAY MATRIX; ACCESSORY MINERALS: PLANT REMAINS-30%, QUARTZ SAND-02X; OTHER FEATURES: UNWASHED SAMPLE; FOSSILS: MOLLUSKS, FOSSIL FRAGMENTS; ABUNDANT, WELL PRESERVED TERRESTRIAL SNAILS ORGANIC MATTER IS GENERALLY NON-FIBROUS 30 -32 LIMESTONE; DARK YELLOWISH BROWN TO BLACK; LOW PERMEABILITY, POSSIBLY HIGH PERMEABILITY; GRAIN TYPE: CALCILUTITE; 10% ALLOCHEMICAL CONSTITUENTS; GRAIN SIZE: FINE; RANGE: MICIOCRYSTALLINE TO MEDIUM; POOR INDURATION; CEMENT TYPE(S): CLAY MATRIX, ORGANIC MATRIX, CALCILUTITE MATRIX; ACCESSORY MINERALS: PLANT REMAINS-20X, CLAY-20%, QUARTZ SAND-10(; OTHER FEATURES: UNWASHED SAMPLE; FOSSILS: MOLLUSKS; POSSIBLE SINKHOLE FILL; CLAY RICH ZONES, WITH CLAY APPROACHING 20-40%, CALCILUTITE VARIABLE AS WELL AS SAND 32 -40 SAND; BLACK TO MODERATE GRAY; 302 POROSITY, INTERGRANULAR; GRAIN SIZE: MEDIUM; RANGE: VERY FINE TO COARSE; ROUNDNESS:SUB-ANGULAR; HIGH SPHERICITY; POOR INDURATION; CEMENT TYPE(S): ORGANIC MATRIX; ACCESSORY MINERALS: PLANT REMAINS-40%, LIMESTONE-03X, CLAY-05X; OTHER FEATURES: UNWASHED SAMPLE; FOSSILS: MOLLUSKS, ECHINOID, BENTHIC FORAMINIFERA; LEPIDOCYCLINA SP. PRESENT 40 -42 PACKSTONE; LIGHT GRAY; 25% POROSITY, INTERGRANULAR; GRAIN TYPE: CALCILUTITE, SKELETAL; 50% ALLOCHEMICAL CONSTITUENTS; GRAIN SIZE: MICROCRYSTALLINE; RANGE: MICROCRYSTALLINE TO GRAVEL; MODERATE INDURATION; CEMENT TYPE(S): CALCILUTITE MATRIX; OTHER FEATURES: UNWASHED SAMPLE, COQUINA; FOSSILS: BRYOZOA, BENTHIC FORAMINIFERA; FORAM COQUINA WITH MICRITIC MATRIX LEPIDOCYCLINA PRESENT 42 TOTAL DEPTH : .

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LITHOLOGIC WELL LOG PRINTOUT SOURCE -FGS WELL NUMBER: U16205 COUNTY -ALACHUA TOTAL DEPTH: 00065 FT. LOCATION: T.11S R.20E S.03 SAMPLES -NONE LAT = N 290 32M 42 LON MU 820 17M 54 COMPLETION DATE -14/01/88 ELEVATION -085 FT OTHER TYPES OF LOGS AVAILABLE -NONE OWNER/DRILLER: ALACHUA WELL #8 /(FGS) JOHN MORRILL WORKED BY: WELL CUTTINGS WORKED BY JOEL DUNCAN & MIKE WEINBERG WELL ENDS IN THE HAWTHORNE FORMATION THIS WELL IS EQUIVALENT TO ALACHUA AMBIENT #8 0 .-26. O90UDSC UNDIFFERENTIATED SAND AND CLAY 26. -., 122HTRN HAWTHORN GROUP .0 * 10 SAND; MODERATE YELLOWISH BROWN; 20% POROSITY, INTERGRANULAR; GRAIN SIZE: MEDIUM; RANGE: FINE TO VERY COARSE; ROUNDNESS: SUB-ANGULAR TO ROUNDED; MEDIUM SPHERICITY; POOR INDURATION; CEMENT TYPE(S): CLAY MATRIX; ACCESSORY MINERALS: CLAY-20X, HEAVY MINERALS-O1X, PLANT REMAINS-03X; FOSSILS: NO FOSSILS; 10 -12 SAND; YELLOWISH GRAY TO GRAYISH BROWN; INTERGRANULAR; GRAIN SIZE: MEDIUM; RANGE: FINE TO COARSE; ROUNDNESS: SUB-ANGULAR TO ROUNDED; MEDIUM SPHERICITY; POOR INDURATION; CEMENT TYPE(S): CLAY MATRIX; ACCESSORY MINERALS: CLAY-15X; FOSSILS: NO FOSSILS;. 12 -20 SAND; GRAYISH BROWN; 15% POROSITY, INTERGRANULAR; GRAIN SIZE: FINE; RANGE: VERY FINE TO COARSE; ROUNDNESS: SUB-ANGULAR TO ROUNDED; MEDIUM SPHERICITY; MODERATE INDURATION; CEMENT TYPE(S): SILICIC CEMENT, CLAY MATRIX; ACCESSORY MINERALS: CLAY-15%, HEAVY MINERALS-01X, PLANT REHAINS-05X, IRON STAIN-01X; FOSSILS: NO FOSSILS; 20 * 22 SAND; VERY LIGHT GRAY TO YELLOWISH GRAY; INTERGRANULAR; GRAIN SIZE: MEDIUM; RANGE: VERY FINE TO COARSE; ROUNDNESS: SUB-ANGULAR TO ROUNDED; MEDIUM SPHERICITY; POOR INDURATION; CEMENT TYPE(S): CLAY MATRIX; ACCESSORY MINERALS: CLAY-15%, HEAVY MINERALS-01X; FOSSILS: NO FOSSILS;

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U16205 CONTINUED PAGE -2 22 -26 SAND; GRAYISH BROUN; 151 POROSITY, INTERGRANULAR; GRAIN SIZI: PINE; RANGE: VERY FINE TO COARSE; ROUNDNESS: SUB-ANGULAR TO ROUINED; MEDIUM SPHERICITY; MODERATE INDURATION; CEMENT TYPE(S): SILICIC CEMENT, CLAY MATRIX; ACCESSORY MINERALS: CLAY-15X, HEAVY MINERALS-01X, PLANT REMAINS-05X, IRON STAIN-01X; 26 30 CLAY; DARK YELLOWISH ORANGE TO GRAYISH BROWN; POOR INDURATION; CEMENT TYPE(S): CLAY MATRIX; ACCESSORY MINERALS: IRON STAIN-07%, QUARTZ-03%, PLANT REMAINS-03X; OTHER FEATURES: PLASTIC; FOSSILS: NO FOSSILS; 30 32 CLAY; LIGHT BLUE GREEN; LOW PERMEABILITY; POOR INDURATION; CEMENT TYPE(S): CLAY MATRIX; SEDIJENTARY STRUCTURES: MOTTLED, ACCESSORY MINERALS: QUARTZ S~IO-15%, SILT-20O, SHALE-O1X; FOSSILS: ORGANICS; SAN IS VIRY FINE-GRAINED; SUBANGULAR TO ANGULAR; LIGHT GRAY IN COLOR TWO CL TYPES-.DARKI,r. YELLOW & GREENISH-GRAY MOTTLED TEXTURE IS QUESTIONABLE IN ORIGIN 32 40 CLAY; GRAYISH BROMN TO DARK YELLOWISH ORANGE; LOW PERMEABILITY; POOR INDURATION; CEMENT TYPE(S): CLAY MATRIX; ACCESSORY MINERALS: QUARTZ SANO-15X, IRON STAIN-OSX; FOSSILS: NO FOSSILS; 40 * 40.5 CLAY; LIGHT OLIVE TO GRAYISH OLIVE; LOU PERMEABILITY; POOR INDURATION; CEMENT TYPE(S): CLAY MATRIX; ACCESSORY MINERALS: QUARTZ SANO-40%, PHOSPHATIC SAND-O01; OTNER FEATURES: PLASTIC; FOSSILS: NO FOSSILS; 40.542 DOLO-SILT; YELLOWISH GRAY; INTERGRANULAR; POOR INDURATION; CEMENT TYPE(S): CLAY MATRIX, DOLOMITE CEMENT; ACCESSORY MINERALS: CLAY-07%, QUARTZ SAND-20%, PHOSPHATIC SAND-05X; FOSSILS: MO FOSSILS; NUMEROUS ROUNDED PHOSPHATIC UNLITHIFIED CLAY CLASTS NOTED SILT-SIZED DOLOMITE RHOMBS COMMON 42 -50 CLAY; GRAYISH BROWN; LOW PERMEABILITY; POOR INDURATION; CEMENT TYPE(S): CLAY MATRIX; ACCESSORY MINERALS: IRON STAIN-02X, QUARTZ SAND-1SX; FOSSILS: NO FOSSILS; 50 -50.5 CLAY; LIGHT OLIVE; LOW PERMEABILITY; POOR INDURATION; CEMENT TYPE(S): CLAY MATRIX, DOLONITE CEMENT; ACCESSORY MINERALS: DOLOMITE-35%, PHOSPHATIC SAND-05X, CALCITE-02X; FOSSILS: NO FOSSILS; CLAY AND DOLOSILT; ROUNDED PHOSPHATIC CLAY CLASTS .9

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W16205 CONTINUED PAGE -3 50.552 CLAY; LIGHT OLIVE; LOW PERMEABILITY; MODERATE INDURATION; CEMENT TYPE(S): CLAY MATRIX, DOLOMITE CEMENT; ACCESSORY MINERALS: PHOSPHATIC SAND-O1X; FOSSILS: NO FOSSILS; SEVERAL CENTIMETER THICK DOLOSILT STRINGERS THROUGHOUT INTERVAL 52 -55 CLAY; GRAYISH BROWN; LOW PERMEABILITY; POOR INDURATION; CEMENT TYPE(S): CLAY MATRIX; ACCESSORY MINERALS: IRON STAIN-03X, QUARTZ SAND-15X, LINESTONE-O1X; FOSSILS: NO FOSSILS; 55 -60 CALCILUTITE; ; 15X POROSITY, INTERGRANULAR; GRAIN TYPE: CALCILUTITE; 22X ALLOCHEMICAL CONSTITUENTS; POOR INDURATION; CEMENT TYPE(S): CALCILUTITE MATRIX; ACCESSORY MINERALS: QUARTZ SATD-20X, PHOSPHATIC SAND-02X; FOSSILS: NO FOSSILS; .;L-"':: : QTZ CONTENT OF CUTTINGS; HIGHLY VARIABLE, RANGING FROM 0-50X WITH 20X THE AVERAGE :.. 60 -61 SAND; YELLOWISH GRAY TO MODERATE YELLOWISH BROWN; INTERGRANULAR; GRAIN SIZE: FINE; RANGE: VERY FINE TO FINE; ROUNDNESS: SUB-ANGULAR TO ANGULAR; LOW SPHERICITY; POOR INDURATION; CEMENT TYPE(S): CLAY MATRIX; SEDIMENTARY STRUCTURES: MOTTLED, ACCESSORY MINERALS: PHOSPHATIC SAND-10X, CLAY-30X, SILT-10X; OTHER FEATURES: PLASTIC; FOSSILS: NO FOSSILS; SILT CONTENT ACTUALLY DOLOSILT; INTERVAL CONTAINS UP TO GRAVEL-SIZED PHOSPHATE GRAINS 61 -62 DOLOMITE; WHITE TO VERY LIGHT GRAY; 05X POROSITY, INTERGRANULAR; 50-90X ALTERED; GRAIN SIZE: CRYPTOCRYSTALLINE; RANGE: CRYPTOCRYSTALLINE TO MEDIUM; GOOD INDURATION; CEMENT TYPE(S): DOLOMITE CEMENT; ACCESSORY MINERALS: PHOSPHATIC SAND-05X, QUARTZ SAND-05X, CLAY-10X; FOSSILS: NO FOSSILS; INDURATION IS VARIABLE, RANGING FROM POOR TO WELL INDURATED, WITH WELL INDURATED BEING THE MOST REPRESENTATIVE OF THE SAMPLE 62 -64 NO SAMPLES 64 -65 SANDSTONE; MODERATE ORANGE PINK; INTERGRANULAR; GRAIN SIZE:. FINE; RANGE: FINE TO MEDIUM; ROUNDNESS: SUB-ANGULAR TO ANGULAR; MEDIUM SPHERICITY; MODERATE INDURATION; CEMENT TYPE(S): CLAY MATRIX, IRON CEMENT; ACCESSORY MINERALS: IRON STAIN-05X, CLAY-30X; FOSSILS: NO FOSSILS; 65 TOTAL DEPTH Cl

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LITHOLOGIC WELL LOG PRINTOUT SOURCE * FGS WELL NUMBER: W16206 COUNTY -ALACHUA TOTAL DEPTH: 00125 FT. LOCATION: T.09S R.20E S.06 22 SAMPLES FROM 10 TO 125 FT. LAT a N 290 44M 54 LON = W 82D 20M 44 COMPLETION DATE -26/01/88 ELEVATION -175 FT OTHER TYPES OF LOGS AVAILABLE * NONE OWNER/DRILLER: FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY -ALACHUA WELL #9 WORKED BY: CUTTINGS DESCRIBED BY MIKE WEINBERG; SPLIT SPOON SAMPLES DESCRIBED BY THOMAS SEAL; POROSITY VALUES ESTIMATED VISUALLY; CONSULT PERMEAMETER DATA SHEETS FOR PERMEABILITY VALUES; SAMPLES 10,20,27,35,43,50,60, -70,80,90,100,115-125 DESCRIBED BY MIKE WEINBERG; REMAINING SAMPLES DESCRIBED BY THOMAS SEAL ' 0. -27. 09OUDSC UNDIFFERENTIATED SAND AND CLAY 27. -120. 122HTRN HAWTHORN GROUP 120. -.1240CAL OCALA GROUP 0 -10 SAND; GRAYISH BROUN TO MODERATE REDDISH ORANGE; 30% POROSITY, INTERGRANULAR; GRAIN SIZE: MEDIUM; RANGE: FINE TO VERY COARSE; ROUNDNESS: SUB-ANGULAR TO ANGULAR; MEDIUM SPHERICITY; POOR INDURATION; CEMENT TYPE(S): CLAY MATRIX, IRON CEMENT; ACCESSORY MINERALS: CLAY-04X, IRON STAIN-03X, HEAVY MINERALS-02%, PLANT REMAINS-04X; OTHER FEATURES: UNWASHED SAMPLE; FOSSILS: NO FOSSILS; 10 -11 SAND; LIGHT OLIVE GRAY; 30X POROSITY, INTERGRANULAR; GRAIN SIZE: MEDIUM; RANGE: FINE TO COARSE; ROUNDNESS: SUB-ANGULAR TO ANGULAR; MEDIUM SPHERICITY; POOR INDURATION; CEMENT TYPE(S): CLAY MATRIX, IRON CEMENT; ACCESSORY MINERALS: CLAY-05X, IRON STAIN-02X, HEAVY MINERALS-01X; OTHER FEATURES: UNWASHED SAMPLE; FOSSILS: NO FOSSILS; 11 -20 SAND; GRAYISH BROUN; 30X POROSITY, INTERGRANULAR; GRAIN SIZE: MEDIUM; RANGE; FINE TO VERY COARSE; ROUNONESS: SUB-ANGULAR TO ANGULAR; MEDIUM SPHERICITY; POOR INDURATION; CEMENT TYPE(S): CLAY MATRIX; ACCESSORY MINERALS: CLAY-07O , HEAVY MINERALS-02X, IRON STAIN-01X, PLANT REMAINS-03X; OTHER FEATURES: UNWASHED SAMPLE; FOSSILS: NO FOSSILS; U)

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W16206 CONTINUED PAGE -2 20 -22 SAND; LIGHT OLIVE GRAY; 35% POROSITY, INTERGRANULAR; GRAIN SIZE: MEDIUM; RANGE: FINE TO COARSE; ROUNONESS: SUB-ANGULAR TO ANGULAR; MEDIUM SPHERICITY; POOR INDURATION; CEMENT TYPE(S): CLAY MATRIX; ACCESSORY MINERALS: CLAY-02X, HEAVY MINERALS-01X; OTHER FEATURES: UNWASHED SAMPLE; FOSSILS: NO FOSSILS; 22 -27 SAND; GRAYISH BROWN TO MODERATE YELLOWISH BROWN; 12% POROSITY, INTERGRANULAR; GRAIN SIZE: FINE; RANGE: VERY FINE TO VERY COARSE; ROUNONESS:SUB-ANGULAR; MEDIUM SPHERICITY; POOR INDURATION; CEMENT TYPE(S): CLAY MATRIX; ACCESSORY MINERALS: CLAY-35X, PHOSPHATIC SAND-04%, IRON STAIN-02X; OTHER FEATURES: UNWASHED SAMPLE; FOSSILS: NO FOSSILS; 27 30 DOLO-SILT; GRAYISH BROWN; 20% POROSITY, INTERGRANULAR; POOR INDURATION; CEMENT TYPE(S): DOLOMITE CEMENT, CLAY MATRIX; ACCESSORY MINERALS: QUARTZ SAND-15X, CLAY-12X, PHOSPHATIC SAND-02X, IRON STAIN-01X; OTHER FEATURES: SUCROSIC, UNWASHED SAMPLE; FOSSILS: NO FOSSILS; 30 -31 DOLO-SILT; GRAYISH ORANGE; 25% POROSITY, INTERGRANULAR; POOR INDURATION; CEMENT TYPE(S): CLAY MATRIX, PHOSPHATE CEMENT; ACCESSORY MINERALS: QUARTZ SAND-10X, PHOSPHATIC SAND-05X, CLAY-10X; OTHER FEATURES: UNWASHED SAMPLE, SUCROSIC; FOSSILS: NO FOSSILS; DOLOSILT LITHOLOGY, WITH ABUNDANT ACCESSORY MINERALS, IS PRESENT BETWEEN 30 & 44 FEET 31 -35 DOLO-SILT; VERY LIGHT ORANGE TO GRAYISH BROUN; 15% POROSITY, INTERGRANULAR; MODERATE INDURATION; CEMENT TYPE(S): DOLOMITE CEMENT, CLAY MATRIX; ACCESSORY MINERALS: QUARTZ SAND-ZO, CLAY-15X, PHOSPHATIC SAND-01%; OTHER FEATURES: SUCROSIC, UNWASHED SAMPLE; FOSSILS: NO FOSSILS; 35 -43 DOLO-SILT; YELLOWISH GRAY; 15% POROSITY, INTERGRANULAR; MODERATE INDURATION; CEMENT TYPE(S): DOLOMITE CEMENT; ACCESSORY MINERALS: QUARTZ SAND-25X, CLAY-15%, PHOSPHATIC SAND-01%; OTHER FEATURES: SUCROSIC, UNWASHED SAMPLE; FOSSILS: NO FOSSILS; 43 -44 DOLO-SILT; YELLOWISH GRAY; 20X POROSITY, INTERGRANULAR; POOR INDURATION; CEMENT TYPE(S): CLAY MATRIX, PHOSPHATE CEMENT, DOLOMITE CEMENT; ACCESSORY MINERALS: QUARTZ SAND-05X, CLAY-05X; OTHER FEATURES: UNWASHED SAMPLE, SUCROSIC, DOLOMITIC; FOSSILS: NO FOSSILS; I)

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W16206 CONTINUED PAGE -3 44 45 CLAY; LIGHT OLIVE GRAY TO YELLOWISH GRAY; LOW PERMEABILITY; POOR INDURATION; CEMENT TYPE(S): PHOSPHATE CEMENT, CLAY MATRIX; ACCESSORY MINERALS: QUARTZ SAND-01X; OTHER FEATURES: DOLOMITIC, UNUASHED SAMPLE; FOSSILS: NO FOSSILS; 45 * 50 CALCILUTITE; LIGHT OLIVE GRAY; INTERGRANULAR; GRAIN TYPE: CALCILUTITE; 40X ALLOCHEMICAL CONSTITUENTS; GRAIN SIZEs MICROCRYSTALLINE; RANGE: MICROCRYSTALLINE TO VERY COARSE; POOR INDURATION; CEMENT TYPE(S): CALCILUTITE MATRIX; ACCESSORY MINERALS: QUARTZ SAND-35X, CLAY-15%, PHOSPHATIC SAND-04X, DOLOMITE-15X; OTHER FEATURES: UNWASHED SAMPLE, DOLOMITIC; FOSSILS: NO FOSSILS; *50 -52 SAN; YELLOWISH GRAY; 05X POROSITY, INTERGRANULAR; GRAIN SIZE: MEDIUM; RANGE: FillE TO COARSE; ROUNDNESS: SUB-ANGULAR TO ANGULAR; MEDIUM SPHERICITY; POOR INDURATION; CEMENT TYPE(S): CALCILUTITE MATRIX, CLAY MATRIX; :E,':, .-. ACCESSORY MINERALS: CLAY-40%, PHOSPHATIC SAND-OSX, HEAVY MINERALS-02%, DOLOMITE-03X; OTHER FEATURES: DOLONITIC, UNWASHED SAMPLE: FOSSILS: NO FOSSILS; 52 -60 SANO; OLIVE GRAY; 12% POROSITY, INTERGRANULAR; GRAIN SIZE: FINE; RANGE: VERY FINE TO GRANULE; ROUNDNESS: SUS-ANGULAR TO ANGULAR; MEDIUM SPHERICITY; POOR INDURATION; CEMENT TYPE(S)t CLAY MATRIX, CALCILUTITE MATRIX; ACCESSORY MINERALS: CLAY-12X, PHOSPHATIC SAND-07%, CHERT-03%, CALCILUTITE-03X; OTHER FEATURES: UNUASHED SAMPLE, CALCAREOUS; FOSSILS: NO FOSSILS; 60 -62 SANO; LIGHT OLIVE GRAY; 10% POROSITY, INTERGRANULAR; GRAIN SIZE: MEDIUM; RANGE: FINE TO COARSE; ROUNONESS: SUB-ANGULAR TO ANGULAR; MEDIUM SPHERICITY; UNCONSOLIDATED; CEMENT TYPES): CLAY MATRIX; ACCESSORY MINERALS: PHOSPHATIC SANO-15X, CLAY-20X, HEAVY MINERALS-02X; OTHER FEATURES: UNWASHED SAMPLE; FOSSILS: NO FOSSILS; 62 -70 SAND; OLIVE GRAY TO LIGHT OLIVE GRAY; 10% POROSITY, INTERGRANULAR; GRAIN SIZE: COARSE; RANGE: FINE TO GRANULE; ROUNONESS: SUB-ANGULAR TO ROUNDED; MEDIUM SPHERICITY; POOR INDURATION; CEMENT TYPE(S): CLAY MATRIX; ACCESSORY MINERALS: CLAY-40X, PHOSPHATIC SANO-07X; OTHER FEATURES: UNWASHED SAMPLE; FOSSILS: NO FOSSILS; 9

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U16206.. CONTINUED .PAGE -4 70 71 CLAY; GRAYISH ORANGE TO MODERATE YELLOWISH BROWN; INTERGRANULAR, LOW PERMEABILITY; POOR INDURATION; CEMENT TYPE(S): CLAY MATRIX, PHOSPHATE CEMENT; ACCESSORY MINERALS: QUARTZ SAND-10X, PHOSPHATIC SAND-01X; OTHER FEATURES: UNWASHED SAMPLE, DOLOMITIC; FOSSILS: NO FOSSILS; 71 -80 SAND; OLIVE GRAY; INTERGRANULAR; GRAIN SIZE: MEDIUM; RANGE: FINE TO COARSE; ROUNDNESS: SUB-ANGULAR TO ANGULAR; MEDIUM SPHERICITY; POOR INDURATION; CEMENT TYPE(S): CLAY MATRIX, PHOSPHATE CEMENT; ACCESSORY MINERALS: PHOSPHATIC SAND-05X, CALCILUTITE-15X, CLAY-25X; OTHER FEATURES: UNWASHED SAMPLE, COQUINA; FOSSILS: NO FOSSILS; 80 -81 CAY; OLIVE GRAY; LOW PERMEABILITY; POOR INDURATION; CEMENT TYPE(S): CLAY MATRIX, PHOSPHATE CEMENT; ACCESSORY MINERALS: UARTZ SAND-05X; Ev -'; OTHER FEATURES: UNWASHED SAMPLE; FOSSILS: NO FOSSILS; 81 -90 SANO; GRAYISH BROWN; 25% POROSITY, INTERGRANULAR; GRAIN SIZE: FINE; RANGE: VERY FINE TO MEDIUM; ROUNDNESS: ANGULAR TO SUB-ANGULAR; LOW SPHERICITY; POOR INDURATION; CEMENT TYPE(S): CALCILUTITE MATRIX; ACCESSORY MINERALS: CALCILUTITE-35X, PHOSPHATIC SAND-02X, IRON STAIN-02X, CLAY-05X; OTHER FEATURES: UNWASHED SAMPLE; FOSSILS: NO FOSSILS; 90 -100 SAND; YELLOWISH GRAY; 20X POROSITY, INTERGRANULAR; GRAIN SIZE: FINE; RANGE: VERY FINE TO GRAVEL; ROUNDNESS: SUB-ANGULAR TO ANGULAR; MEDIUM SPHERICITY; POOR INDURATION; CEMENT TYPE(S): CALCILUTITE MATRIX; ACCESSORY MINERALS: CALCILUTITE-35%, PHOSPHATIC GRAVEL-03X, PHOSPHATIC SAND-04X, LIMESTONE-05X; OTHER FEATURES: UNWASHED SAMPLE, CALCAREOUS; FOSSILS: NO FOSSILS; CUTTINGS CONTAIN FRAGMENTS OF WHITE, PHOSPHATIC LIMESTONE 100 -101 CLAY; DARK GREENISH GRAY; LOW PERMEABILITY; POOR INDURATION; CEMENT TYPE(S): CLAY MATRIX, CALCILUTITE MATRIX; ACCESSORY MINERALS: CALCILUTITE-20X, QUARTZ SAND-05X; OTHER FEATURES: UNWASHED SAMPLE, CALCAREOUS; FOSSILS: NO FOSSILS; It

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W16206 CONTINUED PAGE -5 101 -110 SAND; DARK YELLOWISH BROWN; 10% POROSITY, INTERGRANULAR; GRAIN SIZE: FINE; RANGE: VERY FINE TO VERY COARSE; ROUNDNESS: SUI-ANGULAR TO ANGULAR; MEDIUM SPHERICITY; POOR INDURATION; CENENT TYPE(S): CLAY MATRIX, CALCILUTITE MATRIX, PHOSPHATE CEMENT; ACCESSORY MINERALS: CLAY-20X, LIMESTONE-10X, PHOSPHATIC SAHD-OS, PHOSPHATIC GRAVEL-01X; OTHER FEATURES: UNWASHED SAMPLE, DOLOMITIC; FOSSILS: NO FOSSILS; 110 -111 CLAY; VERY LIGHT ORANGE TO LIGHT OLIVE CRAY; LOW PERMEABILITY; POOR INDURATION; CEMENT TYPE(S): CLAY MATRIX, CALCILUTITE MATRIX; ACCESSORY MINERALS: CALCILUTITE-10%, QUARTZ SAND-20%, PHOSPHATIC SAND-05X; OTHER FEATURES: UNUASHED SAMPLE, DOLOMITIC; FOSSILS: NO FOSSILS; "111 115 DOLOMITE; GRAYISH BROWN; LOW PERMEABILITY; 50-90X ALTERED; SUBHEDRAL; GRAIN SIZE: MICROCRYSTALLINEi RANGE: MICROCRYSTALLINE TO VERY COARSE; MODERATE INDURATION; CEMENT TYPE(S): DOLOMITE CEMENT; ACCESSORY MINERALS: QUARTZ SANDO-05, PHOSPHATIC SAND-02%, LIMESTONE-05%, IRON.-STAIN-02X; OTHER FEATURES: UNWASHED SAMPLE; FOSSILS: NO FOSSILS; 115 -120 CALCILUTITE; VERY LIGHT ORANGE; 20% POROSITY, INTERGRANULAR, PIN POINT VUGS; GRAIN TYPE: SKELETAL, CRYSTALS, CALCILUTITE; 40% ALLOCHEMICAL CONSTITUENTS; GRAIN SIZE: MICROCRYSTALLINE; RANGE: MICROCRYSTALLINE TO GRAVEL; MODERATE INDURATION; CEMENT TYPE(S): CALCILUTITE MATRIX; ACCESSORY MINERALS: IRON STAIN-O1X, PYRITE-01l, QUARTZ SAND-02X; OTHER FEATURES: UNWASHED.SAMPLE; FOSSILS: BRYOZOA, BENTHIC FORAMINIFERA; CRYSTAL RIVER FM., LEPIDOCYCLINA OCALANA 120 -125 CALCILUTITE; VERY LIGHT ORANGE; 201 POROSITY, INTERGRANULAR, PIN POINT VUGS; GRAIN TYPE: SKELETAL, CRYSTALS, CALCILUTITE; 40% ALLOCHEMICAL CONSTITUENTS; GRAIN SIZE: MICROCRYSTALLINE; RANGE: MICROCRYSTALLINE TO GRAVEL; MODERATE INDURATION; CEMENT TYPE(S): CALCILUTITE MATRIX; ACCESSORY MINERALS: QUARTZ SAND-03X; OTHER FEATURES: UNWASHED SAMPLE; FOSSILS: BENTHIC FORAMINIFERA, BRYOZOA; 125 TOTAL DEPTH

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LITHOLOGIC WELL LOG PRINTOUT SOURCE -FGS WELL NUMBER: W16207 COUNTY -ALACHUA TOTAL DEPTH: 191 FT. LOCATION: T.09S R.21E S.04 SAMPLES -NONE LAT -N 290 44M 01 LON = W 82D 13H 19 COMPLETION DATE -14/02/88 ELEVATION -150 FT OTHER TYPES OF LOGS AVAILABLE -NONE OWNER/DRILLER: FGS FOR ALACHUA COUNTY -AMBIENT STUDY CORE # 10 WORKED BY: DESCRIBED BY J.DUNCAN 8/88 SAMPLE LOSS : 1 FT AT 98-99 FT; 2 FT 105-108 FT; 29 FT AT 130-159 FT;1 FT AT 167-172 FT; 4 FT AT 174-178 FT; 3 FT AT 182-191 FT; * 0.016.5 090UOSC UNDIFFERENTIATED SAND AND CLAY 16.524.2,122CHAR CHARLTON MEMBER OF COOSAWHATCHIE FM. 24.269.0 122C00S COOSAWHATCHIE FA. 69.094.0 122NKHD MARKSHEAD FN 94.0173.7 122PNFM PENNEY FARMS FM. 173.7191.0 1240CAL OCALA GROUP 0 -2.5 SAND; YELLOWISH GRAY TO GRAYISH BROWN; 53X POROSITY, INTERGRANULAR; GRAIN SIZE: MEDIUM; RANGE: VERY FINE TO COARSE; ROUNDNESS: SUB-ANGULAR TO ROUNDED; MEDIUM SPHERICITY; UNCONSOLIDATED; ACCESSORY MINERALS: HEAVY MINERALS-01X, SHALE-03X, PLANT REMAINS-01X; 2.53.5 SAND; BROWNISH GRAY TO DARK YELLOWISH BROWN; 30X POROSITY, INTERGRANULAR; GRAIN SIZE: MEDIUM; RANGE: FINE TO COARSE; ROUNDNESS: ROUNDED TO SUB-ANGULAR; LOW SPHERICITY; UNCONSOLIDATED; ACCESSORY MINERALS: SHALE-04X, PLANT REMAINS-01X; 3.54.5 SAND; MODERATE DARK GRAY TO LIGHT GRAY; 30X POROSITY, INTERGRANULAR; GRAIN SIZE: MEDIUM; RANGE: VERY FINE TO COARSE; ROUNDNESS: SUB-ANGULAR TO ROUNDED; LOW SPHERICITY; UNCONSOLIDATED; ACCESSORY MINERALS: SHALE-05%, PLANT REMAINS-02X; FINER GRAINS ARE MORE ANGULAR THAN COARSER GRAINS; ORGANIC CONTENT DECREASES WITH DEPTH; 4.55.5 SAND; DARK BROWN TO DARK YELLOWISH BROWN; 25X POROSITY, INTERGRANULAR; GRAIN SIZE: MEDIUM; RANGE: VERY FINE TO COARSE; ROUNDNESS: ROUNDED TO SUB-ANGULAR; MEDIUM SPHERICITY; POOR INDURATION; CEMENT TYPE(S): ORGANIC MATRIX, CLAY MATRIX; ACCESSORY MINERALS: SHALE-07X, PLANT REMAINS-02X, CLAY-02X; 5.55.9 SAND; DARK YELLOUISH BROWN; 30X POROSITY, INTERGRANULAR; GRAIN SIZE: MEDIUM; RANGE: VERY FINE TO COARSE; ROUNDNESS: SUB-ANGULAR TO ROUND6EDbLOU SPHERICITY; POOR INDURATION; CEMENT TYPE(S): CLAY MATRIX, ORGANIC MATRIX; ACCESSORY MINERALS: SHALE-02%, PLANT REMAINS-02X, CLAY-02X, SILT-01X;

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W16207 CONTINUED PAGE -2 5.97 SAND; VERY LIGHT ORANGE TO GRAYISH BROWN; 35X POROSITY, INTERGRANULAR; GRAIN SIZE: MEDIUM; RANGE: VERY FINE TO VERY COARSE; ROUNDNESS: ROUNDED TO SUB-ANGULAR; LOU SPHERICITY; UNCONSOLIDATED; ACCESSORY MINERALS: PLANT RENAINS-01X, SILT-O1X; 7 -8 SAND; GRAYISH BROWN; MF% POROSITY, ,, ; GRAIN SIZE: MEDIUM; POOR INDURATION; CEMENT TYPE(S): CLAY MATRIX; ACCESSORY MINERALS: CLAY-03X, SILT-OS, PLANT REMAINS-01X; 8 12 SAND; GRAYISH ORANGE TO NODERATE ORANGE PINK;.25X POROSITY, INTERGRANULAR;GRAIN SIZE: NEDIUM; RANGE: FINE TO GRAVEL; ROUNDNESS: ROUNDED TO SUB-ANGULAR; LOU SPHERICITY; POOR INDURATION; CEMENT TYPE(S): CLAY MATRIX; ACCESSORY MINERALS: CLAY-15X% GRAIN SIZE DECREASES DOWONAR" IN SECTION 12 -14.2 SAND; PINKISH GRAY TO YELLOWISH GRAY; 25X POROSITY, INTERGRANULAR;.. .,.: : ;' *GRAIN SIZE: MEDIUM; RANGE: FINE TO GRANULE; ROUNDNESS: ROUNDED TO SUB-ANGULAR; MEDIUM SPHERICITY; POOR INDURATION; CEMENT TYPE(S): CLAY MATRIX; ACCESSORY MINERALS: CLAY-10X, SILT-01X; 14.214.7 SAND; VERY LIGHT GRAY TO PINKISH GRAY; 30X POROSITY, INTERGRANULAR; GRAIN SIZE: COARSE; RANGE: FINE TO GRAVEL; ROUNDNESS: ROUNDED TO SUE-ANGULAR; LOW SPHERICITY; POOR INDURATION; CEMENT TYPE(S): CLAY MATRIX; ACCESSORY MINERALS: CLAY-02X; 14.716.5 SAND; YELLOWISH GRAY TO PINKISH GRAY; 25X POROSITY, INTERGRANULAR; GRAIN SIZE: COARSE; RANGE: FINE TO GRAVEL; ROUNDNESS: ROUNDED TO SUB-ANGULAR; LOW SPHERICITY; POOR INDURATION; CEMENT TYPE(S): CLAY MATRIX; SEDIMENTARY STRUCTURES: BIOTURBATED, ACCESSORY MINERALS: CLAY-10X, HEAVY MINERALS-01X, SHALE-01X; GRAVEL SIZE GRAINS COMMON. TOP OF HAUTHORNE GROUP 8 16.5 FT. 16.524.2 CLAY; GRAYISH GREEN TO LIGHT GRAYISH GREEN; POOR INDURATION; CEMENT TYPE(S): CLAY MATRIX; SEDIMENTARY STRUCTURES: SIOTURBATED, CHARLTON MBR. OF THE COOSAHACTHEE FM. 16.5 -24.2 FT. BIOTURBATION EVIDENT ALONG CONTACT ZONE WITH OVERLYING SAND. 24.225.8 SAND; WHITE TO VERY LIGHT GRAY; 25X POROSITY, INTERGRANULAR; GRAIN SIZE: FINE; RANGE: VERY FINE TO MEDIUM; ROUNDNESS: SUB-ANGULAR TO ROUNDED; MEDIUM SPHERICITY; POOR INDURATION; CEMENT TYPE(S): CLAY MATRIX; ACCESSORY MINERALS: CLAY-05X, HEAVY MINERALS-01X; 11 I'< .*

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UW 16207 CONTINUED PAGE -3 25.827 CLAY; GRAYISH GREEN TO LIGHT GRAYISH GREEN; POOR INDURATION; CEMENT TYPE(S): CLAY MATRIX; FINE GRAIN SAND INTERBEDDED WITH CLAY NEAR BASE OF INTERVAL. 27 -27.5 CLAY; GRAYISH GREEN TO LIGHT GRAYISH GREEN; POOR. INDURATION; CEMENT TYPE(S): CLAY MATRIX; SEDIMENTARY STRUCTURES: BIOTURBATED, ACCESSORY MINERALS: PHOSPHATIC GRAVEL-10X, QUARTZ SAND-05%, HEAVY MINERALS-01X; SAND CONTENT INCREASES TOWARD BASE OF INTERVAL. 27.531.4 DOLO-SILT; YELLOWISH GRAY TO LIGHT GREENISH GRAY; 25% POROSITY, INTERGRANULAR; POOR INDURATION; CEMENT TYPE(S): CALCILUTITE MATRIX, DOLOMITE CEMENT; ACCESSORY MINERALS: PHOSPHATIC SAND-05X, HEAVY MINERALS-01%, QUARTZ SAND-05X; SPHOSPHATE CONTENT INCREASES WITH DEPTH. 31.4-. 31.7 CLAY; GRAYISH GREEN TO LIGHT GRAYISH GREEN; POOR INDURATION; CEMENT TYPE(S): CLAY MATRIX; SEDIMENTARY STRUCTURES: BIOTURBATED, ACCESSORY MINERALS: PHOSPHATIC GRAVEL-25%, DOLOMITE-15X, QUARTZ SAND-02X; DOLOMITE IS ACTUALLY A DOLOSILT PHOSPHATIC GRAVEL UP TO SEVERAL CM IN DIAMETER COMMON. 31.733 DOLO-SILT; YELLOWISH GRAY TO LIGHT GREENISH GRAY; 25% POROSITY, INTERGRANULAR; POOR INDURATION; CEMENT TYPE(S): DOLOMITE CEMENT; ACCESSORY MINERALS: PHOSPHATIC SAND-05%, QUARTZ SAND-07%, CLAY-05%; FOSSILS: SHARKS TEETH; 33 -33.5 DOLO-SILT; YELLOWISH GRAY TO VERY LIGHT ORANGE; 25% POROSITY, INTERGRANULAR; MODERATE INDURATION; CEMENT TYPE(S): DOLOMITE CEMENT, CLAY MATRIX; ACCESSORY MINERALS: PHOSPHATIC SAND-04X, QUARTZ SAND-04%, CLAY-02%; FOSSILS: MOLLUSKS; MORE INDURATED THAN SEDIMENT ABOVE AND BELOW. 3CM DIAMETER PELECYPOD MOLD. 33.534.3 DOLO-SILT; YELLOWISH GRAY TO VERY LIGHT ORANGE; 25% POROSITY, INTERGRANULAR; POOR INDURATION; CEMENT TYPE(S): DOLOMITE CEMENT; ACCESSORY MINERALS: PHOSPHATIC SAND-07%, QUARTZ SAND-04%, CLAY-03X, PHOSPHATIC GRAVEL-02%; QUARTZ CONTENT INCREASES FROM 1% AT THE TOP TO 4X AT THE BASE OF THE INTERVAL. 34.334.7 DOLO-SILT; MODERATE REDDISH ORANGE TO LIGHT BROWN; 25% POROSITY, INTERGRANULAR; POOR INDURATION; CEMENT TYPE(S): DOLOMITE CEMENT; ACCESSORY MINERALS: QUARTZ SAND-2OX, PHOSPHATIC SAND-03%, IRON STAIN-01%, PHOSPHATIC GRAVEL-01X; IAn

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u16207 CONTINUED PAGE -4 34.735.9 SAND; YELLOWISH GRAY TO GRAYISH YELLOW; 35% POROSITY, INTERGRANULAR; UNCONSOLIDATED; ACCESSORY MINERALS: DOLONITE-10%, PHOSPHATIC SANDO08-, PHOSPHATIC GRAVEL-02%, CLAY-02X; DOLOMITE IS OOLOSILT. 35.937 DOLO-SILT; YELLOWISH GRAY; 20% POROSITY, INTERGRANULAR; POOR INDURATION; CEMENT TYPE(S): DOLOMITE CEMENT; ACCESSORY NINERALSI QUARTZ SAND-02%, PHOSPHATIC SAND-02O, PHOSPHATIC GRAVEL-O1X; OTHER FEATURES: SUCROSIC; PHOSPHATIC GRAVEL AT TOP OF INTERVAL 37 -38.5 00LO-SILT; VERY LIGHT ORANGE TO YELLOWISH GRAY; 25% POROSITY, INTERGRANULAR; POOR INDURATION; CEMENT TYPE(S): DOLOMITE CEMENT, CLAY MATRIX; ACCESSORY MINERALS: CLAY-07X, QUARTZ SAND-25X, PHOSPHATIC SAND-03X; OTHER FEATURES: SPLINTERY; FOSSILS: FOSSIL MOLDS, MOLLUSKS; 38.539 CLAY; LIGHT GRAYISH GREEN TO GRAYISH GREEN; POOR INDURATION; CEMENT TYPE(S): CLAY MATRIX; ACCESSORY MINERALS: PHOSPHATIC GRAVEL-07%, DOLOMITE-20X; FOSSILS: FOSSIL MOLDS; 3CM THICK DOLOMITE ZONE WITH GOOD INDURATION IN MIDDLE OF INTERVAL. 39 42 DOLO-SILT; YELLOWISH GRAY TO YELLOWISH GRAY; 25% POROSITY, INTERGRANULAR; POOR INDURATION; CEMENT TYPE(S): DOLOMITE CEMENT, CALCILUTITE MATRIX; ACCESSORY MINERALS: QUAR.TZ SAND-40, PHOSPHATIC SAND-04X; 42 -42.7 GRAVEL; DARK BROWN TO VERY LIGHT ORANGE; INTERGRANULAR; UNCONSOLIDATED; ACCESSORY MINERALS: OOLONITE-45%, PHOSPHATIC GRAVEL-50, QUARTZ SAND-01%, CLAY-02X; FOSSILS: SHARKS TEETH, MOLLUSKS, FOSSIL MOLDS; FRAGMENTS OF WELL INDURATED DOLOMITE THROUGH OUT INTERVAL. 42.745.1 SAND; MODERATE YELLOWISH BROWN TO LIGHT BROWN; 30% POROSITY, INTERGRANULAR; GRAIN SIZE: FINE; RANGE: VERY FINE TO COARSE; ROUNDNESS: SUB-ANGULAR TO ANGULAR; LOW SPHERICITY; POOR INDURATION; CEMENT TYPE(S): CLAY MATRIX; ACCESSORY MINERALS: DOLOMITE-07X, CLAY-03X, PHOSPHATIC SAND-03%; 45.149 SAND; YELLOWISH GRAY TO LIGHT GREENISH GRAY; 30% POROSITY, INTERGRANULAR; GRAIN SIZE: MEDIUM; RANGE: FINE TO COARSE; ROUNDNESS: SUB-ANGULAR TO ROUNDED; LOW SPHERICITY; POOR INDURATION; CEMENT TYPE(S): CALCILUTITE MATRIX; ACCESSORY MINERALSt DOLONITE-10X, PHOSPHATIC SAND-04%, CLAY-02%; PHOSPHATE DECREASES TO TRACE LEVELS AT INTERVAL BASE. '.:)

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U16207 CONTINUED PAGE -5 49 -51.2 SAND; VERY LIGHT ORANGE TO YELLOWISH GRAY; 25X POROSITY, INTERGRANULAR; GRAIN SIZE: FINE; RANGE: VERY FINE TO GRAVEL; ROUNDNESS: SUB-ANGULAR TO ANGULAR; LOU SPHERICITY; POOR INDURATION; CEMENT TYPE(S): CALCILUTITE MATRIX; ACCESSORY MINERALS: DOLOMITE-39X, PHOSPHATIC SAND-05%, PHOSPHATIC GRAVEL-04X, CLAY-02X; FOSSILS: SHARKS.TEETH; NUMEROUS STINGRAY TEETH AT BASE OF INTERVAL ALONG WITH SHARKS TEETH. DOLOMITE IS DOLOSILT 51.254.8 CLAY; LIGHT OLIVE BROWN TO DARK GRAYISH YELLOW; POOR INDURATION; CEMENT TYPE(S): CLAY MATRIX; .ACCESSORY MINERALS: IRON STAIN-07X, QUARTZ SAND-01%, SILT-01%, PHOSPHATIC SAND-01X; FOSSILS: SHARKS TEETH; 54.858 CLAY; OLIVE GRAY TO GREENISH GRAY; POOR INDURATION; CEMENT TYPE(S): CLAY MATRIX; AGCESSORY MINERALS: QUARTZ SARD-03%, IRON STAIN-04X, PHOSPHATIC SAND-01%, SILT-02X; OTHER FEATURES: PARTINGS; FOSSILS: FOSSIL FRAGMENTS; TRACE OF HEAVEY MINERALS 58 -60 CLAY; LIGHT OLIVE GRAY TO MODERATE OLIVE BROWN; POOR INDURATION; CEMENT TYPE(S): CLAY MATRIX; OTHER FEATURES: PARTINGS; 60 -68 CLAY; OLIVE GRAY TO GREENISH GRAY; POOR INDURATION; CEMENT TYPE(S): CLAY MATRIX; ACCESSORY MINERALS: QUARTZ SAND-04X, IRON STAIN-03X, PHOSPHATIC SAND-01, SILT-01X; OTHER FEATURES: PARTINGS; FOSSILS: FOSSIL FRAGMENTS, SHARKS TEETH; SAND COMMON ALONG CLAY PARTINGS 5CM PALE GREEN CLAY AT 62 FEET 68 -69 CLAY; GRAYISH GREEN TO DARK GREENISH GRAY; POOR INDURATION; CEMENT TYPE(S): CLAY MATRIX; ACCESSORY MINERALS: DOLONITE-35%, QUARTZ SAND-02%, PHOSPHATIC SAND-05X, PHOSPHATIC GRAVEL-05X; FOSSILS: FOSSIL MOLDS, SHARKS TEETH; DOLOMITE / PROSPHATE RUBBLE ZONE;DOLOMITE IS SCOURED BY CLAN AND/OR WORM BORINGS; TOP OF MARKS HEAD 69 -71.3 DOLOMITE; WHITE TO VERY LIGHT GRAY; 10X POROSITY, INTERGRANULAR; 50-90X ALTERED; GRAIN SIZE: MICROCRYSTALLINE; GOOD INDURATION; CEMENT TYPE(S): DOLOMITE CEMENT; ACCESSORY MINERALS: PHOSPHATIC SAND-05X, QUARTZ SAND-03X, IRON STAIN-10X; OTHER FEATURES: PARTINGS; LOCALLY HIGHER PHOSPHATE CONCENTRATIONS ALONG PARTING PLANES

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u16207 CONTINUED PAGE -6 71.372 DOLO-SILT; LIGHT OLIVE GRAY; 15% POROSITY, INTERGRANULAR; MODERATE INDURATION; CEMENT TYPE(S): DOLOMITE CEMENT, CALCILUTITE MATRIX; ACCESSORY MINERALS: PHOSPHATIC SAND-08X, QUARTZ SAND-04X; 72 -73.9 DOLOMITE; VERY LIGHT GRAY TO WHITE; 10% POROSITY, INTERGRANULAR; 50-90X ALTERED; GRAIN SIZE: MICROCRYSTALLINE; GOOD INDURATION; CEMENT TYPE(S): DOLOMITE CEMENT; ACCESSORY MINERALS: PHOSPHATIC SAND-03X; OTHER FEATURES: PARTINGS; FOSSILS: FOSSIL MOLDS; PHOSPHATE CONCENTRATION INCREASES TO 10 % ALONG PARTINGS 73.975.5 DOLO-SILT; LIGHT GRAYISH GREEN TO LIGHT GREENISH GRAY; 20% POROSITY, INTERGRANULAR; MODERATE INDURATION; CEMENT TYPE(S): DOLOMITE CEMEIT, CALCILUTITE MATRIX; ACCESSORY MINERALS: PHOSPHATIC SAND-03X; LAMINATIONS AT 75.3 FT.;ZONE GRADES INTO CLAY. .-.. . 75.577.2 CLAY; LIGHT OLIVE GRAY TO LIGHT GREENISH YELLOW; 7 % POROSITY, MODERATE INDURATION; CEMNT TYPE(S): CLAY MATRIX; 77.281.1 DOLO*SILT; LIGHT OLIVE GRAY TO LIGHT GRAYISH GREEN; 25X POROSITY, INTERGRANULAR; MODERATE INDURATION; CEMENT TYPE(S): DOLOMITE CEMENT; ACCESSORY MINERALS: CLAY-04X, PHOSPHATIC SAND-04X; 81.181.9 CLAY; GRAYISH GREEN TO GRAYISH OLIVE GREEN; POOR INDURATION; CEMENT TYPE(S): CLAY MATRIX; ACCESSORY MINERALS: IRON STAIN-05X, PHOSPHATIC GRAVEL-07X; FOSSILS: FOSSIL FRAGMENTS; PHOSPHATIC GRAVEL CONCENTRATION RANGES FROM 0 TO 10X LOCALLY. 81.988.9 DOLO-SILT; WHITE TO YELLOWISH GRAY; 25X POROSITY, INTERGRANULAR, MOLDIC, VUGULAR; GOOD INDURATION; CEMENT TYPE(S): DOLOMITE CEMENT; ACCESSORY MINERALS: QUARTZ SAND-04%, PHOSPHATIC SAND-08%; FOSSILS: FOSSIL MOLDS, MOLLUSKS; INDURATION IS VARIABLE AND MODERATE NEAR BASE OF INTERVAL. 88.994 DOLOMITE; VERY LIGHT GRAY TO LIGHT GRAY; 15X POROSITY, INTERGRANULAR; 90-100% ALTERED; ; GRAIN SIZE: MICROCRYSTALLINE; GOOD INDURATION; CEMENT TYPE(S): DOLOMITE CEMENT; ACCESSORY MINERALS: IRON STAIN-20X, PHOSPHATIC GRAVEL-05 , PHOSPHATIC SAND-07X; OTHER FEATURES: SUCROSIC; FOSSILS: FOSSIL MOLDS, MOLLUSKS; TOP OF PENNY FARMS a 94 FT. RUBBLE ZONE OF BOTH MARKS HEAD AND PENNY FARMS LITHOLOGIES; REPRESENTS INITIAL PHASE OF MARKS HEAD DEPOSITION; WORM AND/OR CLAM BORINGS COMMON. 12;'

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U16207 CONTINUED PAGE -7 94 -100.8 DOLOMITE; VERY LIGHT GRAY TO WHITE; 05% POROSITY, INTERGRANULAR, MOLDIC, VUGULAR; 90-100% ALTERED; ; GRAIN SIZE: MICROCRYSTALLINE; GOOD INDURATION; CEMENT TYPE(S): DOLOMITE CEMENT; ACCESSORY MINERALS: IRON STAIN-01X, PHOSPHATIC SAND-05X, QUARTZ SAND-02X, PYRITE-01X; FOSSILS: FOSSIL MOLDS, MOLLUSKS; PHOSPHATE/DOLONITE RUBBLE ZONE :95.9 -96.9 FT. WITH BORINGS; BURROW TUNNELS AT 94.5 FT.;INTRACLASTS COMMON ; PHOSCRETE SURFACE MARKS TOP OF INTERVAL. 100.8108.5 DOLO-SILT; YELLOWISH GRAY TO VERY LIGHT GRAY; 25X POROSITY, INTERGRANULAR, MOLDIC, VUGULAR; GOOD INDURATION; CEMENT TYPE(S): DOLOMITE CEMENT; ACCESSORY MINERALS: QUARTZ SAND-2OX, PHOSPHATIC SAND-10X; FOSSILS: SHARKS TEETH, FOSSIL MOLDS; CHALKY TEXTURE FROM 105 TO 108.5 FT. 108.5110.7 DOLO-SILT; VERY LIGHT GRAY TO VERY DARK PURPLE; 51% POROSITY, MOLDIC; GOOD INDURATION; CEMENT TYPE(S): DOLOMITE CEMENT; ---. . ACCESSORY MINERALS: PHOSPHATIC SAND-03%, QUARTZ SAND-04X; FOSSILS: MOLLUSKS, CORAL, FOSSIL MOLDS; WORN AND/OR CLAN BORINGS COMMON. 110.7111.3 CLAY; MODERATE LIGHT GRAY TO MODERATE DARK GRAY; INTERGRANULAR; MODERATE INDURATION; CEMENT TYPE(S): CLAY MATRIX, DOLOMITE CEMENT; ACCESSORY MINERALS: PHOSPHATIC SAND-01%, QUARTZ SAND-02%, IRON STAIN-05X; OTHER FEATURES: DOLOMITIC; 111.3125.9 DOLOMITE; VERY LIGHT GRAY TO LIGHT GRAY; 15X POROSITY, INTERGRANULAR, VUGULAR, MOLDIC; 50-90% ALTERED; GRAIN SIZE: MICROCRYSTALLINE; GOOD INDURATION; CEMENT TYPE(S): DOLOMITE CEMENT; ACCESSORY MINERALS: QUARTZ SAND-15X, PHOSPHATIC SAND-02X; OTHER FEATURES: SUCROSIC; GREY CLAY : 122.6 -125 FT. 125.9129 CLAY; WHITE TO VERY LIGHT GRAY; INTERGRANULAR; MODERATE INDURATION; CEMENT TYPE(S): CLAY MATRIX; OTHER FEATURES: DOLOMITIC; 129 -159 NO SAMPLES 159 -162 MUDSTONE; WHITE TO VERY LIGHT GRAY; GRAIN TYPE: CALCILUTITE; GRAIN SIZE: MICROCRYSTALLINE; MODERATE INDURATION; CEMENT TYPE(S): CALCILUTITE MATRIX; ACCESSORY MINERALS: QUARTZ SAND-03X, PHOSPHATIC SAND-03X; OTHER FEATURES: LOW RECRYSTALLIZATION, PARTINGS; FOSSILS: SPICULES; 10

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W16207 CONTINUED PAGE -8 162 -162.7 SAND; YELLOWISH GRAY TO LIGHT OLIVE GRAY; 35% POROSITY, INTERGRANULAR; GRAIN SIZE: COARSE; RANGE: FINE TO VERY COARSE; ROUNDNESS: SUB-ANGULAR TO ROUNDED; LOW SPHERICITY; POOR INDURATION; CEMENT TYPE(S): DOLOMITE CEMENT; ACCESSORY MINERALS: HEAVY MINERALS-01X, IRON STAIN-15X, PHOSPHATIC SAND-03%; ROUNDED PHOSPHATIC CLAY CLASTS COMMON. 162.7166.8 DOLOMITE; VERY LIGHT GRAY TO YELLOWISH GRAY; 10% POROSITY, INTERGRANULAR; GOOD INDURATION; CEMENT TYPE(S): DOLOMITE CEMENT; ACCESSORY MINERALS: QUARTZ SANO-45X, PHOSPHATIC SAND-04X, PYRITE-01X; OTHER FEATURES: SUCROSIC; DOLOMITIC GREY CLAY INTRACLASTS COMMON. *168.8171 CLAY; VERY LIGHT GRAY TO YELLOWISH GRAY; MODERATE INDURATION; CEMENT TYPE(S): CLAY MATRIX, OOLONITE CEMENT; ACCESSORY MINERALS: LIMESTONE-15%; a 169.5 FT. 3 IN. UNITE MICRITE ZONE; 171 -173.7 MUDSTONE; YELLOWISH GRAY TO WHITE; 15% POROSITY, INTERGRANULAR; GRAIN TYPE: CALCILUTITE; GRAIN SIZE: MICROCRYSTALLINE; MODERATE INDURATION; CEMENT TYPE(S): CALCILUTITE MATRIX; ACCESSORY MINERALS: QUARTZ SANO-15X, PHOSPHATIC SAND-03X; POSSIBLE LIME RUBBLE ZONE AT BASE OF INTERVAL; TOP CRYSTAL RIVER FM. OF THE OCALA GROUP AT 173.7; 173.7178 MUDSTONE; VERY LIGHT GRAY TO WHITE; 30% POROSITY, INTERGRANULAR, INTRAGRANULAR; GRAIN TYPE: CALCILUTITE; GRAIN SIZE: MICROCRYSTALLINE; GOOD INDURATION; CEMENT TYPE(S): CALCILUTITE MATRIX; 178 -182 PACKSTONE; LIGHT OLIVE GRAY TO YELLOWISH GRAY; 15X POROSITY, INTERGRANULAR; GOOD INDURATION; CEMENT TYPE(S): CALCILUTITE MATRIX; FOSSILS: BRYOZOA, ECHINOID, BEHTHIC FORAMINIFERA, CORAL, MOLLUSKS; OPERCULINOIOES OCALANA COMPOSES MORE THAN 60 X OF THE ROCK AT 178.5 -178.9 FT;LEPIDOCYCLINA OCALANA; TOP OF WILLISTON AT 182 FT. 182 -191 PACKSTONE; VERY LIGHT GRAY TO LIGHT OLIVE GRAY; 15X POROSITY, INTERGRANULAR, MOLDIC, VUGULAR; GRAIN TYPE: SKELETAL, BIOGENIC, PELLET; 85% ALLOCHEMICAL CONSTITUENTS; GRAIN SIZE: COARSE; RANGE: MICROCRYSTALLINE TO GRAVEL; GOOD INDURATION; CEMENT TYPE(S): CALCILUTITE MATRIX, SPARRY CALCITE CEMENT; FOSSILS: CORAL, ECHINOID, BRYOZOA, MOLLUSKS; HETEROSTIGINA OCALANA OPERCULINOIDES MOODY BRANCHENSIS 183 -185 FT. LEPIDOCYCLIHA OCALANA PROMINANT AT 188 FT. TO TD. RECRYSTALLIZATION NEAR BASE WITH MORE VUGGY POROSITY; 191 TOTAL DEPTH i::^ -

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Appendix II: Permeamter procedures. 111.

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APPENDIX II: FALLING HFAD PERMEABILITY TEST PROCEDURES *SAMPLE PREPARATION PROCEDURE 1. CUT SAMPLE CORE TUBE CAREFULLY in a miter box. 2. MEASURE LENGTH of cut section and RECORD to nearest millimeter, as L. 3. Either put sample in beaker of water to SATURATE,.or hook up to the permeameter to saturate. Saturation on the permeameter is preferable, but time may not allow it. See next section. * SATURATION PROCEDURE ON PERMEAMETER 1. Perform Steps 1 to 5 and 7, as for Falling Head Test, as below. 2. It is not necessary to record to or h0. 3. Rapid flow through the chamber, especially with clayey samples, may indicate channeling between core barrel and sample. If this problem is suspected, it may be best to cut a new section from the core. 4. When saturation occurs water will flow from the outlet port. Allow water to flow through the specimen until a constant flow condition is observed, i.e., water steadily drips from the outflow tubing. 5. At this time, close the stopcock on the buret. 6. REFILL burette to 0 ml. 7. The apparatus is now ready to perform a Falling Head Test, as in Step 5, below. * FALLING HEAD TEST. PERMEAMETER SET UP with saturated samples (see diagram). 1. ASSEMBLE permeameter top and bottom plates, BASE, INPUT HOSE, sample retaining screens, and all GASKETS. 2. POUR WATER in base and fill inlet tubing to top of quickdisconnect fitting on hose. This will ensure that there is not air trapped under the sample or in the hose near the input port. Attach inlet host to burette hose with quick-disconnect fitting. 112.

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3. Place screen in rubber gaskets (top & bottom). Place gaskets on sample. Place sample in permeameter frame and center over holes. 4. TIGHTEN WING NUTS CAREFULLY, LOOSELY, and EQUALLY all round. The gaskets will seal with very little pressuretoo tight and you will ruin the gaskets. 5. OPEN BURET STOPCOCK and read water level in burette IMMEDIATELY. RECORD this as the initial water level, ho, 6. RECORD the time as to. 7. If the gaskets are leaking, water will seep around the adapters. TIGHTEN stopcock. GENTLY tighten wing nuts, wipe water off permeameter, loosen stopcock, and check again for leaks. 8. REFILL BURETTE. RECORD this new level as h0. RECORD new time, to. 9. Allow 20 -50 ml of water to flow through the sample before reading h, on meter stick. 10. RECORD hi and time, tI. 11. CLOSE stopcock and REFILL burette. 12. CALCULATE the Coefficient of Permeability, K, using: K=2.303al/At(log10ho/hi)Tc where: a = inside area or standpipe (burette), cm2 A = cross-sectional area of specimen, cm2 L = length of specimen, cm t = elapsed time (tl -to), seconds ho= height of water in standpipe above discharge level at time tp, cm hi= height of water in standpipe above discharge level at time tl, cm Tc= temperature correction factor for viscosity of water, obtained from Table 1, degrees C. 13. REPEAT permeability test twice more, Steps 5-12, RECORD results, and CALCULATE AVERAGE permeability from the three tests. 113.

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Table of Temperature Correction Factors, To, for converting coefficients of permeability calculated at water temperatures of 150 to 270 C to coefficients of permeability at water temperature of 150 C. Water Temp. Conversion Factor (°C) Tc 15 1.00 16 .98 17 .96 18 .93 19 .91 20 .88 21 .87 22 .85 23 .83 24 .81 25 .80 26 .78 27 .76 114.

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