Front Cover
 Back Cover

Title: Florida
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00000535/00001
 Material Information
Title: Florida
Physical Description: 40 p. : ill., folded map ; 26 cm.
Language: English
Creator: United States -- Railroad Administration
Publisher: The Record Company
Place of Publication: St. Augustine
Publication Date: 1919?]
Subject: Agriculture -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Economic conditions -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: non-fiction   ( marcgt )
General Note: Issued by United States Railroad Administration. Agricultural Section.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00000535
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: aleph - 001855534
oclc - 28826095
notis - AJS9908
lccn - 20001464
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Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Page i
        Page ii
        Page iii
        Page iv
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    Back Cover
        Page 41
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Full Text



w~m'.. --

....- ... ...
. -----I






ma, .

..' "


*t- .... --

to our friends in the North

IT's hard to make you understand
What we produce here in the sand;
The crops and money that we make
You look upon as rot and fake.

You think we're lying when we say-
That the sun shines almost every day;
And look upon us as a fool
When we tell you "all our nights are coo,"

You think we're made of swamps and lakes
And all we raise is 'gators and snakes;
And our land's all flat-without any hills,
And every one has fever and chills.

That's why we hand this book to you
With a pledge that every word is true;
So read it well, from (cover to cover
And then come down and look us over.

When you come, we are sure it won't be [ong
Till you'll be joined with us in song;
And praise Old Providence up yonder
For giving us this LAN D OF W\VONDER.

Welcome to Settlers

The opportunities offered by FliTLda are unisurpassed "n any part of AnLCriciL. acid America is
the btest of the wcor[d. TI-hr iollnwilig pages of this little booklet give you briefly an outline of the
Weicornt that is prepared fUr yoi.

Florida is a land of ktullojidep ed i opINc1LUnlir%, as wcdI u a Lind of aloot unthihirril agri.iiOturat
Possibity. It is a ]lard iii vihich apriculturv is new and is carried on diffvrk-rtl,% tth;4 1srlmiikri",
giving an Opportunity far the largt range of inagiiariun and construcmive ability.

Nature has done alruorst rervthicng to nake this an ideal land for aCrkiictiirt[ dvA kIlVn00 iii-r.
The vo[i3 is rarely severe, even ii northerni lrida, and the hottest summer d1ays are cornpara-
tiv.elv milk!, sunstroLe being u,1ksrniow.

The Vioieer days of the State are rapittly passing and the wayv has alreaidy been pointed out for
the prudurtimi uii better Imp~. orF hoter poultrry, orfr better aridttcek, puid ht f prCIucJl~miri Of the
largimst crork

Ile edoo;;rrmial advantages Of the State are seco.od to ionie especially is this true of the higher
eduuclitor and extension work. Cooperation and hearty gnolI w Il is theddominant keynore n F every
Coninnirtv, 1hec many railI-Tads and abuird iant good roabs itn the State Open every comuniri ty arid
evvri regu i n ihe State to the world. With the introduction of new feed and forage crops, the
xossibil~ie. of livestckA dvevcopmrnt are almost unlimited-. The privident anid thrifty are siire of

Wi~ath these OppoMrtuhtivs before w.s, we heartily and sinrcerely welcome all settlers to help us
4ltfliII1 the best the'w is in the State.
Vvrn truli your$,
P. H. ROLrS,
Deati &f iuAe J e -utural (]I 1.U g r

The 1-'Iaridn R fj2'!rrej," Jl iCUrtUdff CO ?Ij erj i/Ity. 81, .-I.W (;jjAjfn, I-'froritia.

GENTLE.FIMN-In referrucc to the health conditions of the State of Florida I might -;a) that
Florida roffre. a mild and salubrimis, climate.
On account of tch rpecullar 'gergr;tjdhii7-t lay of hL iiil. i we have iri All] partsof tflcStatea saplt.
laden.r oiet-51turatcLIr d 1 ma1rj:llt ;IILrisphere, to which is added the lIt'AMtl1RLiviI1g qualities of the
delightful udor Of r,'I,

FloridIa hNis throughout its ci tir6 hl1iro'r, been a locality which iuas offered relict to un alriis
qi every dr-scriptiorm. -11w all-year-rourd I c1.-,11are ih ill;il. Thcri- be-ing no rxtrenl-I> iii am,'~ seatuni.
The iialrtiwd proipurties of the StaLt, vigetable and irw:rvi al, iiffrr a t SurCC 4A supply ior food
and drink that gi'e a wehl-balanCeti and c~isiiy procured diet.

F1orida ii. in miy opinion1. a Srate whrrciii iiia be tumid deinriite ;LSaLTnra'icek Of lung ]itc(- health
and happiness.
%R LpecL-C r Li1i 1 you rs,



HIs IOoKi.TS is~sud by the United Siates Railroad
Administration, is prepared to show a fe- of the
many a ricultural opportunities and advant aes of
the State of Florida. The space was very limited, and
with a State of the area that Florida has and the many
different existing conditions found in our State, only the
most important things could be mentioned, and they not
in detail.
The material contained in this booklet was prepared
by representatives of all the roads under Federal control
in the State. The State has been divided into definite
sections, such as geographical and climatic conditions
demand, and they have been spoken of instead of anNy
special counties or districts. The soils and principal crops
as well as climatic conditions being so different in these
districts, they are described more or less in detail. In
preparing this iiiforration we have used every care pos-
sible to get authoritative and accurate information.
If this booklet will cause you to visit our State, you will
find that all things have been shown and spoken of mildly.


The Land of Perpetual Farming
F LORIDn THE Su1.\NI-NE ST.VJ.E, is situated in the extretnm southeastern part
of the United States, and is the second largest State east of the .ississippi
River, containing an area of 58,666 tnliles. Its ocean and gulf coast is over
1,000 miles, which includes many fine beZChes. The proportions of the State
nmilht be better appreciated if a few distances were given: From the north to
the extreme south at Key West, it is over 550 miles; the distance east and west
is over 400 miles. Just think seriously of these figures
The area of Florida will equal the combined areas of Maine, New% Hamp-
shire, Vermont, Massachusetts, Rhode Isla nd and Connecticut. Consider the
population of this State, a little o;cr one million, and that of the other six
States which is over fifteen million, and you can readily comprehend the
extent of space Florida has to offer stciders.
Florida beini: so far south and having so mnuch water front a.e that there is
very seldom any serious damage from cold in any part of the State, and by
getting the ocean and gulf breezes duriinRg the suTnmner months,theStateenjoys
a very delightful climate during the whole twelve months. The mean tempera-
ture for Florida for the year 1918 was 71,3, which was near normal.
The loing season, variety of soils and different conditions that are found in
a State so large and desirable situated as Florida is, give it a very large variety
of agricultural crops. They range from tropical fruits and nuts, such. as the
Avocado pear and cocoanut in the south, to wheat and alfalfa in the west.
The following subdivisions are 1made:

West Florida
West Florida includes those rcun.ties west of the Apalachicola River. For
centuries WVest Florida was covered with a dense growth of loln-lcaf yellow
pi te. This land was not available for agricultural purposes until the timber
was cut. Thus it is only in late years that large parts of it have been opened
for developmIent.

A 4iL


lie. -... .; r- ". 5
Flwri", Cormptrmvd With Sowne al Iit C)lhk r l**wm, Im Not a Larpe Producer of RaY, hult Tfwrv are Marc C'tva GrVwu
I.re $Smilabhe for Ilay thari Aiy UOitr SLeir in tih Uni'nt

FLORIDA-The Land of Perpetual Farming 4

Most of the soils are
sandy loams underlaid
with clay subsoil. The
..topography of West Flor-
Sida is rolling, but is not so
badly so that it is not pos-
sible to farm it with trac-
tors. Neither do its rivers
go on rampage in time of
flood, because they are all
spring-fed, and there is
comapa ratively little dit fer-
ence in volume of water
throughout the year.
This part of the State
once produced a great deal
of cottonT, but in later
lscarweed-Tba Arlfalfa at Finridl, Io ip UVId fir ry ne rahn akin- a t l
Hkz iL._ Ma Ute i t t Ifa., years it has been n takihnn el
great strides in general
farming and livestock production. There have been introduced a great manyp
registered beef and dairy cattle, hogs and sheep, all of which are helping to
make this part of Florida a self-supporting territory.
Fine grazing and great production of forage crops prevail, also the produc-
tion of hIas and feeds for them. A packing house has just been erected to take
care of part of the stock for slau ghter.

North Florida
North Florida takes in all the counties east of the Apalachicola River to
the Atlantic and the St. Johns River, and on the south includes Puuriaill and
The western part of this section d- Les not differ very much from West Flor-
ida, but. as you go east and south you will find the land not near so rolling.
Soils as a rule are sandy' loami, with Sonne rather stiFf and other light sandy
soil. A large portion of thcse lands has a good clay subsoil of different types.
This section takes in some of the old settled part of Florida. Still it is only

JMtwuil4rd CrLak Ma"e Ap.1mmdhid raw-th kr Fkruri.. aind Eqsflf of GINA Utd Cam be Prsrudtd 1ter M Crowe
FLxuwlhrri: ltEke Uiliteid SitdA.

5Th e Land of Perpetual Fa rri pg FLORIDbA

within the last few years,
comparatively, that la rge
bodies of this land are be-
ing put under cultivation.
Large herds of beef cat-
tle and goats have lately
been brought into this sec-
tion from Texas and some
of the largest herds of reg-
istered hogs are found in
North Florida.
There is considerable
land being drained in this
section as well as cleared
and put under cultivation.


Z -
- W11

Central Florida -
Central Florida in- A Pddn stok WGraIt orMfc.at mrltman Co nvmie Sl,l
cludes Levy, Citrus, Lake,
Hernando, Pasco, Marion, Sumter, Seminole, Orange and Osceola counties.
Central Florida has a soil of sandy loam, with considerable of this soil
beiti underlaid with ooud clay subsoil, There is a rather large amount of roll-
ing land in some of the counties in this scclion, and in most of these counties.
you find a large number of fresh-water lakes, There are large bodies of prairie
land along the St. Johns and Kissinmmee rivers whicli traverse this section that
,Vive some of the best gra;zimn for cattle in Florida. These prairies are really
the home of lihe big herds of ranne cattle. Still there have been in the last
few years large tracts of this l.nd fenced for cattle. There are lar'e muck
beds to he found in this section. s-orUe of which are berin drained and put
under cultivation,
Some of the plhosph.lItei now bein:I- worked is deposited in these counties.
Citrus fruits and cattle are the principal agricultural products, with hogs be-
ing givenn a very prominent place in the lasr few years. There are several of
these counties that ._rive truckiin crops special attetni-on.
The production of dairy products and feeds for the herds is given spec.'al
attention in some of these counties.

FIarlda-N1ai4 Aa.,,. Catt it. It iN PFrlsftuLb to Ril., P T-HrrFff (tle to Supply the beraasit Thali hi AMr*XA
Rk-re fvv B1.wded Stouk for UkJedWLR FVaquqrikt



FLORoD.x- The Land of Pe'rpetual Farming 6

South Florida
t; South Florida includes
the following counties:
Pinellas, Hillsboro, Polk,
DeSoto, Mlanateec and Lee,
This section has a large
v a riety o f s oils, sandy loam
predominating; it mostly
befinr underlaid with clay
and sa ndr clay sutoil,
There are laroe bodies of
ihalimaock and forest land
in this section. w ith con-
siderable cut-over and
prairie land used for graz-
ing purposes. Some of
Puhr--rtd VrK-JerEst oast of Ce Ft aMwloride. Tierw inclu A id alcntpgveme si
sutha~r d o rf~-Jr fris raC, Qit al ily in Rheid ISlaret this prairie land is being
drained for cultivation.
This section has considerable of the Ever..-lades in it, which are now being
drained. Most of the phosphate now beine' mined is in this section. Citrus
fruits and truck are the principal crops produced, with larie numbers of cattle
and hogs. Jlogs, especially good ones, are increasing very fast in this section
as well as better cattle, both beef and dairy breeds. There are some of the old-
est orange groves of the State in this section.

East Coast
The East Coast of Florida includes all counties along the Atlantic Coast
south of Duval, with MIonroe, partly on the gulf, and the new county of Okee-
chokee included. This is mostly in the subtropical and tropical region of the
State, oranges and other citrus fruits being grown in counties of this section.
Soils as a rule in this section are sandy loam, with a lighter sand alonz
near the coast; most of the sandy loams are underlaid with a clay or sandy
clay subsoil. There are large tracts of land in this region in forests covered
with live oak, cabbage paliielito and other growths that are called hammock

AM Ea*t4Jw0"ARIY ii.M Stand of Swrehum, GrwM Iin FIOrIda. liTih 'p m Girud F4lrugr Crow. u.d Whe"s Phiiiqd xarly In
30irh Will PrFdumt Two Creps During the Tmu.y.

7 The Land of Perpelral Farming FT.oRID.

lands. Large bodies of
prairie lands are to be
found in this region cov-
ered with grass ; these gen-
erall- are underpaid with
c.'av fl ixed wifh shell and
mnarl as a subsoil. Then
there are ;reat bodies of
the reclaimed Everglade
laids in this section. The
soil varies from deep we]l-
rotted muck in this class
of land to sanHdy flats;
large portions of this land
have linierock or marl as
a subsoil. There have
been great bodies of oWt FId Mt PFrOd.,ue A H i.iEL A#Cr id Ta ,,,p VaI.b t.ia
Gm'trme avln for Jrhrasihum,
prairie and Everg.lade reio
lands thoroilih[ly drained and put under cultivation in the last few years.
In the extreme southern end of this section there is a great deal of soft,
porous linerock in the soil. Down on thee islands and keys, the key time is
planted right in this rock after it is loosened up by a s-malt charge of dyna mite.
This whole section, with the exception of a few old orari e groves, is new
in an agricultural way. Hoes, goats and cattle, especially registered dairy
cattle, are being gn en special attention in this section.

Summary of Sections
The East Coast, South and Central are the three sections where the citrus
fruits are principally produced. However, there are several counties in the
northern part of the Central Section where this crop is not given a very
prominent place. These three sections are where most of the winter veue-
tables are grown, tihe vegetables being produced in certain territories in the
different sections.
The South and East Coast sections have the mildest climate anLd best water
protection; therefore these sections can produce vegetables earlier anLd not

Anmwra Citat a a SQuith F1.rtrda Kum*&- Thirin Ate Lun t Ca Ia.et Ten 716mmani Angwiap HIra Btii IThnprtam
iM I4E SOuiAiw41t auid PIPIcerd -D FIoziia Kwntcu.m

~~ ---L

F.rR in.,-The Land of P/erp, .etual Farming 8

--- 1W 4L
GrAdre lCaile-Thp Resa ul f a Cr Ma rew.l n FPre-DBrd Fiorida RinXs Clttle, Redy rwo SiMuihber, I unGinwd in
Caltik aad NAie S4l9k, tBh P nn rf a PackLnr I'lanE.

.a .i 'Ir'".,,.

.. f. .- _.
^ ^-"'^\---.^^ B *A^j

Niorh Florw d Patukim HI P s The Bix Patkert Ari O1 theF Rli( Ibah Florid WalW Hume i. One of ihe Grealest MeLet.
I'Prdurisie Stoas in the Uinlb Jm Lh* N*ar Fmurur.

-- "zzL"- '

ExIellemli Pr lit Awniliin 1hie Farmtr Wi.h RKiIs the
Better Breeds of Harsi for Marketrt

ThrI FlorIida-Ralc d Septeambe r.Vilt. Seven emnthi"
Old fanI Weigh 275 Pounds EAcII.

9 T7eh Land of Perpetual Farming ---- FLORIDA

Rhodes Graus-One at kek
KH s All-PiIrpu Grlurcu rar
Florida Livei"oct

Corn Thak M.de 11t Buslels
te the AIre. Fkr ada Produe-
a IPrndu.t HUriher in Fod
Vaile Th'a Amy OWher AtatL.

FLORID..-Thr Land of Pfrprtual Farming 1o

have the same chance of
damage from cold.
These sections can and
do produce the tropical
fruits of the State, At pres-
ent there is considerable
P L more of this class of work
done on the East Coast. It
is in these sections where
you get such a WideL vari-
ety of crops produced.
H however, there are coun-
Sties in the southern part of
-"-. North Fllorida and even
S- those along the gulf in
West Florida that can
Hirr re d riBuIll iaed n Florlida. Native Cattle the Bme PaIel le hape o i
Fou ndatlln S~i eon w ar to *I'u ~ rt produce sotne of tie otSame
crops, but. not so early. In
this district of North and WVest Florida the Satsuma orange is produced.
In every section there is being intr(xuced better cattle and hogs, and crops
can be successfully produced for these.
There are fine grazing lands, well-walered naturally, in every section that
will furnish feed for a great. many more cattle than are now in the State.
In the North Section around the Atlantic and in a, great portion of the
South and East Coast as well as parts of the Central sections, artesian water
can be secured by going from two hundred to nine hundred feet.
The principal products grown in the different sections, not mentioning
anything but such crops as brinr in thousands of dollars annually, are:
\\EST F.LORIDA-Cattle, hogs, sheep, corn, hay, cowpeas, peanuts, velvet
beans, soy beans, sugar cane, tobacco, sweet potatoes, waterinelons, sorghum,
oats, Japanese cane, pecans, Irish potatoes, peaches, Satsuma oranges, lumber
and naval stores.
NORTH FLORIDA- The same will apply as in West Florida, except that in
the southern part of this section there are quite a few sweet oranges produced.
In North Florida there is also one of the largest shade-tobacco districts, a

,04-- d ..a &.ENWII M
FIi.;-mi Artesla. Wea6 Ai Outllj Nuiinmrwua in. Flroida. The A WPicatiun at Iuimh.t Water Whe Needed Insra a
Large Yield of Fsrst'4uakLty Mlv-a er of Iniprtanee to the Trutkar.

Ir I
dot. qh

II The Land of Perpetual Farm ing- FT.OR I DA

large strawberry shipping:
district, and considerable
truck crops are produced
in the southern counties,
with cantaloupes as well
as -,rilcuE tuRa lip e.
Ci-NTRAL F,.oR. D- -
Will include tlie same as
T\est and North Florida,
except that pecian are not
produ ced in l a rce quant it v
and the lutber interest is
being exhausted. In addi-
tion, this section prodwues
citrus fruits in large quan-
lettuce, celery, beans, egg-
plant, peppers and straw- lrHrve.t tt r C.i m o mPla Noe abeinr.
berries; also phosphate.
Souer FLORIDA-Inclludes the same as Central Florida, except that in the
extreme southern part more tropical fruits are grown and more tomatoes. In
this section some pineapples are grown, but not so many oats.
THE EaSTr Co.%.ST OF Fi.1K)o.--IncludCs the same as that of South Florida,
with the exception of phosphate, and there are no large quantities of water-
melons or strawberries shipped, Still there are more pineapples, tomatoes and
Irish potatoes shipped from this section than from all the other sections of the
State put together, and much Ilar-er plantings of sugar cane are being made.
There has been considerable attention given to general farming in every
section of the State the last reiw years, and there are large bodies of land well
adapted to this class of work in each section, as well as the special crops now
Using figures to show Florida's increase in agriculture, we get something
startling. Taking the thirteen principal crops of the State, their value was, in
191o, $36,142,000; in 1916, '47,932,ooo; in r9 $1o3,144,0oo. Only about
five or six per cent of the land in the State under cultivation in 9g 8.

A Crog p0 Cowpeas That L*WgutinT Cauta Sa6tUfactkLnu Tbks Crop WiU Not RI"aIre Ferttzlizin* to Producr a Good
Yiel Omit(Zen b COrNbe Gr 'Fir r@.f*i MijUn.

ip ~ -~- -i~~------- ----------

FLouLnIDA-Th.e Land of Perpetual Farming 12

Livestock has been
grown in Florida ever
since t he State was discov-
ered. History tells us that
the early Spanish explor-
ers brought with them
herds of swine and droves
of cattle and horses.
For a great many years
in certain sections of the
State cattle has been the
St imosct important agricul-
.' tural crop produced and it
.." 'l ,has been a good source of
h,-,-. income throughout the
"anud o rketlpur Feed fW SU l I.Jvemti pad C-ra be Gwhwic Mder
'mI li cinet..w r a. d co bham yo State. It is true that the
native cattle and hogs are
small because little or no attention i as given until within recent years to their
breeding. Within the last decade remarkable progress has been made in
improving the size and quality of the livestock of the State. As a result of ex-
perience, it has been found that the native females are the best possible cheap
foundation stock on which to use improved sires, ald with two or three crosses
they have produced big. strong, healthy animals which are excellent rustlers
and for market purposes equal to pure-breds, in confirmation of which there
are many noted examples roughoghut the State.
'itcese statements are made so that you mar fully understand that the
growing of livestock in Florida is not hini new; it is one of the old-established
industries; it has long since passed the experimental sta-ge, and it has been
conclusively proven that just as good beef and pork can be produced here as
can he aZrown anywhere in the United States, and at a very low cost. The
theory (for such it is in fact) that the climate is unfavorable to the production
of the better types and breeds of anional.; has long since been disproved, and it
is only necessary to visit some of the herds of the State to be fully convinced
that just as good animals are beiriL irowin in Florida as in any other State.

Ccmtid s Are Not Oml Favrmbe to ih* rra w Eiern r all Milii and Cream ULed In tbe State, but With Prper Eff.rt
Florida cam Prod r Immease Quanltllin r -r IlrporL

13 The Land of Perpetual Farming-FLORIDA

The natural advantages
of Florida as a livestock
State are being more
appreciated every year.
Amnongr these advantages
should be mentioned an
unlimited and assured
supp ly of p ure water wh ich
can be had at little or no
cast, cheap lands, the long
grazinl. aand, therefore, the
short fceedin, season, the
mild winters and temper- ,
ate surnnlers which re-
quire a minimum amount .7
of food and energy to pro- r
tect against the elements GTRn c atl('hUm. 4,rPveo.ria stn1e eir, lt. a rm d 4anLi.l inoR if .
SAge, ll IB Mamt ll. Wthhtl L.S Pi mBur. SoLd ail i Po'm:d.
of nature, good markers,
the great variety and abundance of native and introduced grasses, tie great
variety and low-production cost of nutritious legumes and orher feed and for-
age plants. The climate is such that expensive barns are unnecessary.

A Natural Cattle Country
The three stages of evolution of a natural cattle country are here to be
found. The first of these, which is known as the "free range" method of pro-
ducing cattle, is rapidly passing and will soon be only a matter of history. 'The
grazing lands are owned in large bodies and with a rapid increase in the value
of these laInds has come a fuller realization of the possibility of making them
of productive value to their owners.

Big Cattlemen Buy Lands
The more progressive cattlemnen have fenced their pastures and not a few
of the large land owners hav e fenced and placed cattle on their lands or leased
grazing privileges, and the "fencLd-ranch" stage of this process of evolution
has arrived. It is significant to note that during the past year several cattle-


?mrl etf lI]ry HBd at the I URIVr.C-ol 4A Figridu. ManY *a Fiiw Kc rd c fliry Caftli *1 ri tnad Ferunl jim the Suta am
Can be Foamd An"r vpv

FtORIDA-Thie Land of Perpetual Farming 14

men from the largest cat-
tle-producine States have
S-. bought or leased grazing
S .- lands here.

Cheap Grazing Iands
S Origtinally a vast por-
tion of the State was cov-
ered with a growth of lon-
leaf or yellow pine. This
Timber was turpentined
and then cut into luriecr.
A broad expanse of "cut-
over pine land" is the
.... :.. result, which is good a.ri-
.r f c a*d .' p ia' s cultural land and affords
Grade Cattle on Cut-Over P Ineind wiro* AitR0 Ch.aup GrfainA I lih e e ent cfaap grazing
Greater Iocan *I the Year. excellent cheap grainn,
lands, but which is not
now being grazed to capacity. According to the latest information available
there are upwards of thirty-thrlee Teillion acres of land in the State which are
not in cultivation, on which today is carried a million head of cattle. This
number can be increased several times and still the ranges would be adequate
to care for them.
The only remaining large areas of ciheap grazing lands are in the South-
east, and Florida has more than any other State.
The third type of cattle raising is that. which prevails in the relatively
highly developed general farming secrtons where each farm carries a small
herd of cattle and pastures are provided and at least some feed arid forage are
grown to supplement the natural pasturage.

"Better Cattle" the Slomn
I'There has been a general awakening of interest in the matter of better beef
cattle in this State and according to the Beef Cattle Expert of the United
States Department of AgriculIure working in Florida, there have been 3,563
head of good cattle of the beef breeds brought in during the past two years.

-" 'q.. -M)I'.


Grade and N~ative Calflip rwvi pL M-41113-Airu Ca0ilti K@hrIh. Fliwbda R a~ Mu..L-LIAMIrI I'Rnqibiiti~y Hn. Been TnWrMUghL-r
Investigaled by Parties Who Are Now Fkmancially lintereste~d In This L&Fne HIARIL


15 The Land of Perpetual Farm ing-F FOI. ..

The cattle tick has been
the great obstacle in the
way of the development of
the cattle industry, but
methods for its complete
eradication have been
worked out by the United
States) Depa rtment o fA gri-
culture, and they. are now
being applied. Already
9,000 square milts in Flor-
ida have been freed and -
there are aiix counties in
the State which at the -
present time are doing -
systematic dipping and "
should be free before the 'Int~9ed Rf red JSetal Herd. WII, Vren URi ter oaft IMrot Cwln.
an d 55 o f t heg cip p i m ~ v a t t Sl er.(llr T h e e a n da on E do f e of E v rg a d e si.
end of 19r9. Dipping vats
are being built in every county of the State and voluntary dipping is being
done wherever there are vats. Twenty-two counties voted in the fall of t918 to
begin systematic eradication work as soon as necessary facilities could be
provided. The free territory plus the twenty-two counties that have voted
favorable to begin systematic eradication as soon as possible, comprise 58 per
cent of the total land area of the State and have 80 per cent of the population
and 53 to 55 per cent of the cattle. The eradication of the tick makelz it pos-
sible to grow hirh-class cattle, and Florida today offers a great opportunity to
pure-bred breeders to produce and sell breeding stock.
Despite the fact that many thousands of her cattle have been shipped to
the Southwestern States as foundation breeding stock. Florida stands fourth
among the States of the South in the perceInta.Le increase in the number of beef
cattle during t he past ten years.

Dairying Pays
In the percentage increase in milch cows since t910 Florida takes second
place among the States of the South. This is more signticarnt than the average

Ei11 aIcur=-,

A Dmiry H:erd In the XIladwN, Shciw inK the On1 riy Wrell PratUaM Nidmnrd. 11IF NaIlruJd Advantkfem al Fliriax im
a UIftIOiVk State AtI Itlihi Hnre Arprtciated Ewery Year.

FLORIDA- The Land of Perpetual Farm ing t6

person realize es because the
progress in the other States
has been very rapid,
XMilk clubs have been
formed throughout the
State and a general cam-
j. pain conducted to place
more family milch cows
t t on the farms,
The commercial devel-
opmient of the dairy in-
Sdust ry is still init iTnfan iy.
-For a long time the pro-
duction of dairy products
was limited to the local
S trade of the cities and
P*rt of a DurrT H "l n North FlorIld FaraL Tho Ilrri. Bu la l r he
S..Al U s.M ATru towns near which the
dairies were located, but
within the past ive years creameries have been established and at least one
condensery, and assurances are given that others will be established just as
fast as the supply of milk will justify. Very liberal rates on milk and cream in
baggage cars have been published by the railroads to encourage the increased
production of these products. Refrigerator car lines have been established and
local receiving, cooling and shipping stations installed, which have brought
the markets to the farmer's door and resulted in the development of some
magnificent dairy centers. Around several of the tourist towns dairvinm has
received a new impetus and several as fine herds of dairy cattle are today
found in the State as can be found anywhere.
Pigs and Prosperity
According to the Bureau of Crop E;stimates of the United States Depart-
ment of Agriculture, Florida led the Southern States in the percentage in-
crease in the number of swine on January 1, I919, as compared with the same
date in 1910, During this period the increase was 86.5 per cent. Of the States
of the Unired States which had on January 1, I914, a half million or more hons,

lL 6i

Herrfhrd Boll"aII,-A Bet-wean Thiese .id N~qi-re Stock Immirute timphrvement. in tIli Breud.

~ 1__1~

17 Thr Land of Perpetual Farminrg-Fr.oRIDA

Florida was surpassed by
only one in pSercentaPe in-
crease in the number of
swine from January i,
I914, to the same date in
[9I9. Not only has there
been this increase in nurn-
hers but the grade and
quality have been im-
proved very rapidly. I)ur-
insg Ii8 there was a 58.54
per cent increase of pure--
bred swine in twenty-
seven cou nties of the State.
Grazinu Crops Used
The system used in
rowi n g and fi r rsot himph en Brled Si ,Owe. i ben a CAimer l Pi Ci, The ay 1 or ith
here makes it possible to
produce them cheaply and at a good profit. It is the practice to plant oats, rye,
and rape separately or in mixture to be grazed during the winter and early
sprin e. To prolong the grazing season these are sown at intervals of two or
three weeks. Such crops as sorghum, millet, carly corn, Bermuda grass and the
inat ike grLasses are used for early suiiier graztin. Then come the Spanish pea-
nuts, chufas, sweet potatoes, running peanuts and velvet beans which, with
some corn, are used largely for finishing for the market.
The labor cost of harvesting and feeding are tLhcrefore eliminated. The
soils are ideal for this method of pork production since they are of a loaim
character and are not injured by tramping when wet.

Sheep Free from Disease
Although it has not becii rapid, yeL there has been a gradual increase in
the number of sheep in Florida since g1.o,
It is a notorious fact that sheep are practically free fromui disease here. Foot
rot is unknown and it has never been necessar-v to dip for scab. It is not neces-
sary to feed them any month in the year, though it would be better to feed the


Pmre*-lre Du rc-i o-eraniovr on a Weet Viend. Farm Thiry Are Aetlio fii*w Ca1 GrmnU Ovetr Uirc Areu.

FhRKIIn.1 The Land o n P'rpIrtua Farming 18

ewes siLll l dul ring the win-
ter. Tlhe ditthiultv caused
by t he wer. rij awavof the I
teeth of rit ewes which is

lands is not encountered
here, as the grass is tender
and. tli' t1 re' l ar ten and
twelve years old1 are able
to -raze irj s as well as the
NOI,1k1 11 q"t'C k.

Gryat (;Give a Profit
The .~iwra is becom-
i.l increasin.gly popular ,
I~k'airt rAt'lLP LB rye In Vibrid. 1 his I' ruu k AdreablI Adbe pu i EW rninaueit
Goats have teen found ex- l.,... -.if r koma..
ceedinely usLeful in help-
iner to ie.ir the ranges arid Ip.i t ture, of weeds. In i claimed tIha t the avera,-e
bretdino dkw will shear frTUT ix toi ten buel,.Il of iioh ir per year whichh sells
for alive s"ir cents per i]llti, \.rl'ora mluri'tnll li; IG a rTegulr ii.ark1P value
and yearlrin sold last year at ar-ir~n cents a P m !d. IDurin t the l.ai year at
least two eIIrd-,t of upwa.rd.k of Uen trirousaZnd .\nng pra,, have been purchased in
the Sou i I west and placed ou Florida ran me...

Grass Makes Cheap Motait
Gra,, is ,he vital e;.enialI l to the su,,CCesful and pri-,itable IrtKdtiLC Will of
livestock. It ki r e cheaper f(ie.d thai can be had.
.A numinber of valuable .ir.,e,, includin-: I:r rmuda and se- rral native
r.i.razses, ca t IUJ.L: Ii,.nCh ar2 1 .11d the IL.e p.Li111111i dI( m el h ]-i t mI utr the
State, a"idl o lirrs such as (Carib, Para, Lespedr~Jz, Rhods., Natal, St. Imcie,
MIerker, Niapier, St. AtIu'tiL til[, maiden ra.n l ;I d i many unIl]r[ir lieiL native
gra;iUsss furnishl exc.-e(lent ..r;a itiL: iln nur or or '. restricted areas.
,An effi't is berti n made to i iI c lxe t e pa i Lres b in t rdtl intg n new
-tra-,,C arid the Sraie F"pc-r:Lfl.ent SI: rion lha an expert -z Fill ii' rl-ire tiOe

A Hfrd oI FhLw "hr.rp 9 a REam fIl tLh FL erida. This Stbale Fa-n All hIm rquirmeulai int M*** th IkRlwinsi t
Il-m.p h14*.ing a fCmpktk M4vw,

Ig TThe Land of Perpe tial Farm ing -L R T D A

to experilllenrta and inves-
li atiaonI work on grastses
and pasture buildin.ti
Silo* Help
W\e would not lead you
to believe tha t nature has
done it all and given us
the ideal conditions and
afforded ample natural
grazing 365 days rit the
year, as soIe enthusiastic
livestock advocates have i
stated, but with our long
growitnt casoii it stands to. -- ....
reason that Florida more
nearly approaches that &thkerq Graw-A Rank u1rn*Iii it(a-e-Tike bt Non-S;ezIharlri. Planet o the
ideal than any other State.
There are seLtions of Florida wlitrce during the average winter no frost. occurs
and the vegetation stays green the year round. In other sections only light
frosts occur which nip the tops of the grass, while underneath it stays green
and furnishes good --razJcn .
Through most of Florida, howevever, our cattle raisers ha-ve found that
it pays to be prepared to feed soime rouglhage for two or three iloltrdhs in the
w iter.,
Silage and soiling crops are being more generally used, and where a silo
was a curiosity a few years ago there are now between six and seven tiundTreLd
in the State and Wndications that at least a hundred more will be built during
the summer of 1919.
Space forbids an elaborate discussion of silage crops. Suffice it to say that
corn, the sorghums, and Japanese cane separately or in mixture are used.
Sometimes cowpeas, velvet beans and beg-arweed are used widi these crops.
The tropical Florida climate favors a heavy growth of stalk and leaf so that
fieldss of eight to twelve tons per acre of corn and sorghumr s are cltn.noiuoln.
Better than fifty tons pert acre of Japanese cane have been secured.

6 h... .- .
A WInter Scene lit FIaridlN, Slijihif a Sa urShM n Hir~l JL44ld j1ir in lhfthepn. There rkiSI Na HUtt r No sla 1ur4 Nm trUMely
('41d DIhI. thet M"Ii In4Wpnrrin ghLelter, Of Nome All, 6, Prrvdjd.


FLORIDA-The Land of Perpetual Farming 20

Good Markets Available
The greatest stimulus to the livestock
industry of Florida has been the establish-
ment of markets. Meat-packing plants have
been erected which furnish a market for
stc.k throughout the year. Creamcries, con-
denserirs, and shipTpiUt stations have been
established to handle dairy products.
With these facilities provided and with
the State's natural advantages, exceptional
opportunities are offered livestock farmers
who may locate here. The time to engage in
this industry in Florida is at hand.


9 -. rCI
* : -'1tf1' AJ
- L 'r.fl ,, n
S i-- -. .. Mfl eijc. a we



_~X~~_ ~_X~~_ ~ ~ _11

Z1 The Land of Perpetual Farming-FLORIDA


Staple Crops
While Florida is not a large producer of
hay as compared with some other States,
there are more crops grown in this State
suitable for hay than any other State in
the Union.
Of course the Iost important of these
are the legumes, and most important among
these are begga need (Florida alfalfa), cow-
peas, soy beans, red and crimson clover,
alfalfa, peanuts. Some of these crops, such
as the clover and alfalfa, are not so gener-



_ ~ ~

SFLORIDA-The Land of Perpetual Farming 22

ally grown and they will
only make a success on
some of our special types
of sci, mostly to be found
in West, North and Cen-
tral Florida. Still you can
find fields of atfalfa in the
Everglades of Florida.
In the grass family there
are a great number of
these used for hay in Flor-
ida, and several that will
stanlid but very little frost,
so they are only grown
successfully on the East
Coast or in the South Sec-
Japaner Came-lf of the H1SavrEt Yirdimnh Forane CrompL Als Mkn, ara and Carib he-
r,- ,,,,,, 4,,,,,. tic), Para and Carib be-
ing among these. In the
Everglades the Para is a heavy fielder, and in ihis locality it can be cut five or
six times in a season,. Rhodes is another that has given heavy yields in the
State, as much as Itwolve tons huvLng been cut off one acre in one year; it
compares favorably in nutrition with tiiiuthy and alfalfa. Natal is one that
grows on very sandy land and if cut at. the proper time makes a good hay.
Crab arid crowfoot are two .rasses that will come up of their own accord on
a piece of cultivated land after some early crop, like truck, and very often
the farmers can ge:t Iwo or three cuttings in one season in this way. Bermuda,
especially the Giant Bermuda, makes a fine hay and does well in the south li-
ern half of the State. Sudan and Johnson grass do well for, a hay crop. The
maiden cane is a native grass that makes a fine hay.
Take the whole State and there is no hay that will surpass the beggar-
weed. It will make one to three cuttings in one season, depending upon the
location in which the crop is .rown. Although not sufficienCly hulky to use
alone in filling- a silo, a little of it mTixed with other silage crops greatly adds
to the value of the silag-e. This crop is very high in protein, and is especially
adapted for feeding a dairy herd.

31*ckz of Beggarweed Hay. A Valuable Farax* Phiti 'That IGroumkM* f VmIjnfi 1i in Old Fiel" With a Lghia SaIL, amd
Samietimuti ReAfhehIL a fmght d Frum fivt qv 6u L-n .Fec.

23 The Land of Perpetual Farming-FLOKRIDA

Rice "Upland"
This is one of the small
grain crops that does well
in all parts of the Srate. if
put on tlhe right kind of
land. There is being more
planted each year and a
bi i increase in yield for
the State. State vield for
11 6 was I8,ooo bushels,
while that of 1918 wEas
g9,ooo bushels. This crop
is used for hav consider-
ably, cutting_, it when it is
in the dough state.

Sugar Cane gr-r Nmw 1Thaur wir Produce $00 GUialls A Syru.p i Acre~ Inttrist La
CtArs Cl es I InIi mCeenir.
Florida is the only State
in the Union where the sugar cane matures sufficiently for seed heads. There-
fore it is natural to suppose that you would find the suc-rme content high.
Florida-produced sugar cane has shown by careful laboratory tests to show a
higher percentage of sucrose compared with that produced elsewhere in the
United States, or even Cuba,
This is one crop that is grown in the extreme west and also found in the
extreme south end of the keys. Most of this crop is made into syrup, and as a
rule it is grown in small patcheLs and made up by small outfits on the indliid-
ual farm. Still there are some very large acreases being put out in the Ever-
glade Section, with large syrup mills to handle the crop. Some of the Norih
and WVest Florida counties have grcat. tields planted to this also.
It is very possible that as more of the Everglades are put under cultiva-
tion, the acreage of this crop will be extended to where there will be enough
for a stuar factory. The reclaimed lands of the State are eminently fitted for
the culture of sugar cane.
Florida produced in 1915, 81,og58 barrels of syrup, and in ig98, 123,225
barrels. The yield will vary from z200 to 700 gallons per acre in this State.

Florida Rice Farn-V krld OV 30t B21 b Fr NACcr Gr4lWll to Somte Exitcnu ii NCrly GvIYVrv 4:LMION it Flurid& and
Can he C WII at Other (ftfijg OLHA V"4'


F'I.ORIDA -The Land of Perpetual Farming 24

While this crop is not
grown near as much as it
Should be, the production
S is increasing each year.
There are certain sections
of the State where the
yields are splendid. This
crop seems to give best
general results and returns
on the stiffer land of West,
North and Central sec-
tions. T'he production of
this crop for 1918 was i,-
o80.00oo bushels.
TI* Gruow nas of Gmaod Crn in Florda Wtbh oul~hlmia l Vilds has plr Corn
C oea d tI be S : Liperirnenm.
While Florida does not
rank as one of the corn-producing States, the yearly yield is increasing very
fast. There have been a nnlmberd of fields over 1oo bushels. The following are
the yields for the last four years: 19S5, 8,289,326 bhushels; I9i6, i2.oo0.o0 o
bushels; 1917, 12 ,30,000 bushels; 1918, 15,000,000 bushels.
As Florida has an unusually tony season for maturrin its corn, it produces
a product hligher in food value than any State in the Union.
There have in the last few rears been several elevators erected for this
crop, Three hiun'dred arnd sixteen corn-cllub Ibys made an avcraL.e yield of
37.7 bushels iper acre in i98. This shows what can be done with corn in

This is a crop that has beLen produced in Florida for years, but up to the
last twoi years mostly to be harvested by hous. For this purpose it has proved
its worth. Howe% er, since the price of oils and fats have increased so much,
the peanut is being planted in lar..e fields for coinimcrcial purposes.

Peammim Ore Alma a FIrida PrIadurt, Uts Valluea H umnin au 0d. 1Fr Vitdimri, for the Hmmmfumurort of Oil, aind rr Im,
prceimim tw ll It. Too Wellt Rmovinu I Need Cwqnm'enl.

25 The Land of Perpetual Farming- FLORIDA

This crop is produced
in West Florida and clear
down to the newly drained
Everglades. This is a crop
that can be harvested by
machinery too. Giving the
last three years' yield of
this crop will show its in-
creasLedl importance- 1916,
30o,00o bushels; 1917, 2.-
o30,0o0 bushels; 1918, 5,-
202,000 bushels.
Cotton can be grown in
practice lly every county in
the State. Both Sea Island chrs. sist. cat.. FCte ctge indsryu, iu ir.., StEvery
and short staple are grown.
In r916 the State produced 27,252 bales, in 1917 i z,275 bales, and in i1s8
29,275 bales of Sea Island. The short staple in same years, respectively, ran
33,762, 38,000 and 39,31 I.
Fine cigar-leaf wrappers were grown in Florida in the early fifties. After
the civil war the industry waned until in 1887 a lot of seed were distributed
to the farmers and the Northern cciar manufacturers were invited to look
over the experimental crops. This revived the industry, and from I887 it has
advanced rapidly.
North Florida produces the largest acreage in the State, having millions of
dollars invested in shade structures, barns, packing houses, etc., one county
alone having about 6,000 acres. The acreage is about equally divided be-
tween shade-grown and sun-grown or open-air type; the former a fine silk-
like wrapper which closely resembles the Sumatra leaf., and the latter, grown
from Havana seed, is like the Havana fillers. Both wrappers and fillers are
used extensively by cigar manufacturers throughout the United States.

Stuus of Pftmmts l luau for Ow Thresher- Rifneie h Price of Oil. Rad Fats [love imeretad so Mae-l..
tOn Acreas Has Beern Incremed.

FLORIDA-- Thie Land of Perpetual Farming 26

' "'- -,- There is quite an acre-
-. a' ge also in Central Flor-
Sida. 'lhe entire State pro-
duced in 1916 z,8o8,5z22
pounds, in 1917 3,I25,500
Sounds, and in 1918 3,-
S575,~0 pounds; this in-
.c l lu chdes both shade- and
m Velvet Beans
T -" FOn account of its pro-
l btein content the velvet
.a. iebean is one of the best
o r Sfeeds fror cattle and as it is
t % a legume it is especially
cr. ot YD...f Sh seGr m. .r eI~ h .. wr.pel fine as a soil builder, thriv-
A:gr tu er tfmblmgl Lhe Somurarmr Lesrv
ing parUicularly on newly
cleared lands. Its growth is dense, nlaking it hard for weeds and grasses to
come up where it is planted
The sandy soils of Florida seem especially adapted to the growth of the
velvet bean. They are usually planted in with cornT, giving the corn about a
month the start so that the bean will have soniiethirr to cling to. Its habits
are identical with the pole bean and other running varieties grown in the
Northerni States. They may be planted during M'arch, April or May, and are
harvested at from four to eight months, depen ding on the variety.
A great nuintbr of our farmers are using the velvet bean as a forage crop,
turning their stock on it at about the time of the first frost and continuini2
through the winter. The bean remains in an edible condition and is nutritious
to the last bean.
The dairylmen claim that it is one of the best milk producer they have dur-
ing~ the fall and winter. Hogs also thrive on velvet beans and, following the
cattle, they not only pick up their rations but they assist materially in helping'
to build up the soil.

Velvet Beanp 00 MOW 1- fbd- A m Exfdtfmt Feed aind Grent SFai Tmprover. &nau mrw PaisnIdo VOg LAst !at TthrrY
Until Muy. Ouws Iufu I WWI Plast Yeam Four to Fie Acrm.

___ ____ _

27 The Land of Perpetual Farming-FLORIDA

The velvet bean is worth
millions of dullarn to the
farieir; it is certainly
proving worthy of its name
as it is helping to put more
farmers on "4evet" thanl
almost any other crop in
the State.

Citrus Fruits
ihe average person,
when the State of Florida
is mentioned, itrllinedi-
ately thinks of its fine
climate, goldre oranges
and fresh vegetables.
Citrus fruits includherhe ,b. em a.. wCu ., a.._ ii .. rll n Pefd7 wCLt TNhb MohI.
following: Oran ges,g rape-
fruit, r.anierines, limes, kumquats, and lemons. The last two are not produced
in any large quantities, and most of the limes are produced along theEcastCoast
on the keys. The oranges and the grapefruit amake the bulk of the shipments.
A good many years ago the average person did not know what a grapefruit
was, and most of the old growers said when these and oranges began to be
planted by thousands that the market would soon not be able to take care of
the amount produced. However, it seems that the people are being educated
to the use of the most delicious breakfast fruit faster than its production.
One of the beauties of the citrus-fruit tree is that of it producing more
fruit each year, that is when it has been planted on soil adapted to its culture
and the tree has been given proper care and attention. There are orange trees
in the State known to be over seventy-five years old and they produce more
fruit each year. In Rome there is an orange tree reported to be over ..5oo
years old and in Spain one over 600 years old.
The citrus-fruit i industry of Florida has been on a commercial basis so lonn
that the producers have been able to well organize the gathering, packing and
shipping of this fruit, and the marketing end seems tobe well taken care of too.

t. ~I W" -qlwp_ *P, -
rPt *1 IOD-Atrr Gr~ee rpcvrd~wrpi4. Tnh Aim erL ofib is Devpmrtit 1i SupylIT for IThee of Unquewiiurwd Su ciri
iPUuhLL~m Hame or & G.ruL t. I Ikmn i ul Fri% alu ParL

FLORIDA-The Land of Perpeitual Farming 28

The grower is beginning
to realize that the con-
sumer will pay a better
price for a good article
properly delivered to him.
With the assistance of the
State and United States
Agricultural Department,
the grower is fast learning
how to put the very best
fruit on the market.
The yields in boxes of
fruit a tid returns in dollars
p a e from a grove is sometimes
S,-.-. hard for a person to be-
lieve. According to the
Grapefruit Grove an Rkoa imr IDrained) Pr&iriw LanId. At F aur f CYrp >tMiil '
VYioId WEa.s K 0lr. Ei Fruit pr A A.f Crop Estimates
of the United States De-
partment of Agriculture the folloringe are the fields in boxes of all citrus fruits
of Florida, with prices for crop, for the last three years: I9t6,7,65ooooboxes;
worth $5,682,o.0.OO ; value per acre, $2OO.oo. 917, 5,S oooo boxes; worth
$12,88o,0oooo'; value per acre, $70o.00. I918, 8,ooo,ooo boxes; worth
$zI,zoo.oo.ooo ; value per acre, ,265.oo.
Complete returns for gI99 will show up much better than for I918, accord-
ing to present indications.

Fl'orida having the longest growing season of any State in the Union, it is
especially adapted to the production of winter vegetables.
'['he Sunshine State has, according to the United States Weather Bureau re-
port, a growing season of from 27o days in the extreme northern and western
part of the State, to 365 in the extreme southern part; the length of the growing
.season varying in individual counties according to location and type of land.
Florida has in the last twenty years built up a great industry of producing
greeni, fresh vegetables for the northern, eastern and western markets, when

00. -IL k M .'
A PFmtii Orrhard In Narli flwrida., Carrefully R.ieecled Ykiwmir. Adaptr'd Itor IL wme Whrvr. They Are to Ow Pjlwntr
Peauehs &In Ammrir g Lhe Mdwt Safiofactcry FIwiaia Thai Cia h* G;wmn.

_ __ P

29 The Land of Perpetual Farming-FLORTDA

there is no chance of these
places growing their own
vegetables in the open.
Thousands of cars are be-
ing shipped annually-
more than 50,000ooo an-
nually, or a car every ten
mi nutes.
The long growing sea-
son is not the only thing
that gives this State speci-e
al advantages in produc-
ing winter truck at a .-- "
pmrofi. The soils in most of -1
the special truck districts oi
are a sandy loanm,exceptin -
the Everglades, which will A c. C.,ph F.rm-.n Adr..tr Confl-d Exusi.ely r o Flor a rad Whih
w c Nrew B nml lthe l E numtprnunt S#t ,
cause a crop to mature
earlier than if grown on stiff land. Then the bountiful rainfall of the State is
another great help in producing large yields of these crops, although in a lar.e
number of trucking sections artesian wells are secured at a few hundred feet,
the water from these wells being used for irrigating purposes. All you have to
do to get your water is to turn a valve.
In other sections the truck farmers use some method of overhead irriza-
tion. Therefore, even if the normal rainfall does not come, the crops will con-
tinue to grow, by having moisture applied. Still there are other special reasons
why the vegetable business has grown so large in this State, especially certain
crops in certain. districts. In a good many of these districts there is special
protection from frost by being near the ocean, gulf, a large lake or river. Vege-
tables grow so fast and are so tender in Florida that. a slight frost will some-
times do more or less damage, but in these specially protected districts the
water protection will often prevent any damage from a slight cold. The same
holds true in regard to citrus fruits.
Florida has another special advantage in the marketing of its vegetables
and fruit crop: that is its desirable location concerning the center of popula-

Winter Leituce BeingHair B tm iL This It a C" Th*4 Muhtq Vu-rr Quiddy rand In Grwwn km Three Sg3tku Dwtricts in
Cuunral Eid Fiwmlh SeUMi U

FFLoRKIn.1-The Land of Perpetual Farm ing 30

.tion of the United States,
-. which is shown with the
at map nhsert on page 40,
If you had rnot given the
matter serious thought, it
I would be hard indeed to
believe some of the cash
returns per acre from Flor-
Si ida truck crops. It. would
Ebe astonishing to ktnow the
millions of dollars that
.- these crops brin, into the
State annually.
Cd ery
This is another crop
that is grown in special
Cee, trSAirgd WrUia PNaPr, Dein trNL.m Show in F 5r pht Ud i districts almost exclu-
5hiLrlrItb m ru)tl'm Ilw In F lrt uIdL
sively where there is ir-
rigation. The three most important counties producing this crop are Seminole,
Hillsboro and Mlanaree. There are two varieties grown in the last fmE years,
the Golden Self-bleaching and the Green. The last variety, being grown mostly
late in the season, is put in cold storage. Yield for last three years: v916,
622,052 crates; 1917, So,1ooo crates; I918, I,o5T,2oo crates.
This is a crop that. makes very quickly and is grown mostly in three special
districts in the Central and South sections. Sometimes two crops are grown
on the sale land in one season, and very often this crop is grown before a crop
of celery. There is some grown in other sections, but these are the most impor-
tant, or at least the largest shippers.
The yields for the last three years has been as follows: i916, 927,591
crates; 1917, 998,250 crates; Z918, I,I 5,O00O crates.
This is a crop that was once grown mostly in one or two districts, but as
more truck land is developed this crop has spread its territory. However, the

(CuiMbers-Am Iapmliani irmek (rou Now Grimm Very L~.ruy In h zidu tif tlt* Nmhr.ihrn Mnets.


31 The Land of Perpetual Farming- FIoRminD

largest acreages are crown
in the Central and South
sections, with quite a few
being produced on the
East Coast and in North
Florida. The yield for the
last three years is as fol-
lows: 19I6,33I,878cr-Ites;
r917, 387,000 crates; 1918,
393,450 crates.
This crop is, like snap
beans, grow in milust of
the truck districts of the
different sections. Still
there are certain districts
Cabbage FieWD EDqmped With Ovierhemd [rflgatoLk
where it iscry-prominent, c Imn rh r .
especially in the Central
Section. The yield of this crop in Florida for the last three years is as follows:
1916, 253,024 crates; 1917, 3oi,ot crates; 1918, 402,223 crates.
This is a crop that has been growing in importance for years, and Florida
ships more than half of the fresh tomatoes that go to northern, eastern and
western markets. The East Coast, South and Central Florida are the principal
shippers of this crop. However, they are grown to a more or less extent in all
the sections in which other truck is grown.
Yield for this crop for the last thrce years is as follows: 1916, 3,51o,933
crates; 1917, 3,619,ooo crates; t918, 4,oo,80o crates.
Snap Beans
This is a crop that has received considerable attention since vegetables have
been grown on a large scale in Florida. The snap bean being a quick crop, it is
often planted on land after some other crop has been harvested. This crop is
planted in the late fa I for a winter crop, then another crop is planted in the win-
ter for an early spring crop, which is the most important of the two plantii gs.

TwtaeD Field e Mj(rl PrairIe LiMd O r C t a lk Malt Impr!UnI amrd PrritAble TrEck Crapt Grawn im Florad

YLORIDA-The Land of Perpetuli Farming

This crop is an impor-
tant one in the vegetable
districts of the Central,
South and East Coast sec-
tions as well as in several
parts of the North Section.
The yield of snap beans
for the last three years is
Sas follows: 19t6, 485,41
crates; 1917, 514,300
crates; I918, 602,000
SIrish Potatoes
I This is a crop that has
S r only been grown in a coim-
mnercial way in Florida for
rish PO |aWM-Grvwn RxtnIlsiivdlr In, ertaim Setlem of Fl or' a.
aId.th ePo r p v r a ,red.I. the last fifteen or sixteen
years. Still it has made
some rapid strides in that time, especially in certain districts, the most proni-
nent of these beinri in the East Coast Section, including a large territory in
three counties. Thrre are other districts where the Irish potato is grown
rather extensively, especially on some of the new reclaimed (drained) muck
and Everglade lands of the State.
This crop is also grown in some of the special vegetable districts as a
secondary crop, that is behind an earlier crop during the samtie season. Three
other crops are grown as a secondary crop with Irish potatoes, the most inm-
portant of these being corn. Cowpeas and velvet beatn are often put in with
the corn, the first for hay and to enrich the soil, the second to enrich the soil
and the bean pods to be gathered by hoLs or cattle.
'The Irish potato acreage has so increased until it is one of the large crops
of the State today in the truck class.
Acreage yield and value of this crop for the last three years: I916, i8,ooo
acres; 1,332,0oo bushels; value, $z.664M.oo. 917, 25,000o acres; 2,275,000
bushels; value, .4,664,o0o. 1918, 35,000 acres; 3,50oo,oo bushels; value,

girOME 00"s Bug larrested fto tLh Nimuubrm Xmirk-rii.. The Cre id 2.ftar Calwe Grvwbin Betwven #%* Rw; WUI be
RMdY far Cm iing "i IM Nipyemher

--~- --

- _-=-

J f

Wa termelons
The averagefreight train
is about thirty-two cars.
Last year Florida shipped
200 train loads of thirty-
two cars each- 6,400 cars.
This, just by way of in-
troduction, to show you
that we produce a few
watermelons. They are
grown successfully in all
sections of the State, the
earlycrops,of course, corn-
ing from the extreme T- -
south. The quality of the -S
Florida tmeloit is unsur-
passed anywhere, Irish IPaa.Iq Graded Acendi. i. Ir. S. Goverwmearea !ridard Alrays
I Given eferetnc by Buyler*
For many years Florida
has been headquarters for watermelon seeds, there being thousands of acres
grown each year for the purpose of obtaining the seeds. 'lTis industry has
proved very profitable to many of our farmers.

The cantaloupe production of the State is growing each year, and experi-
iments are showiini that we can grow iiIgih-.rade stock. In j196 sliptLents
were 6o,000 crates, in 1917 72,900, and in [918 97,300. They can be grown in.
all sections.
W'e coLuitLence having strawberries in Florida about Christmas time and
continue alone, until in May; thevi are one of our favorite home crops and a
crop that eives pleasure to many of our Northern friends. The principal pro-
duction of strawberries comes from the south and central parts of the State,
but they can he grown in aLlnmo- en ir' section.
This year the crop was a little shl-rt in acrea.ce on account of labor condi-
tions and on account of the farmer not krinwin:.r %- lhelher the sugar situation

- 1- I NINN-IMME -
Field of FlarbdA WatcrmoLirP Tbha Wilk ea" VamL Firtirsr a Mirkit Brinig HL8Izmhr VPrkeu

Th e? La nd of Perpel ural Far-tn ing FLOR I DA,

.. -.....

1 3

FLORIDA--The Land of Perpetual Farming 34

would continue as it was
Sin war-times. With this
shortage, however, our
farmers were able to put
around a half million dol-
Sars in the hank.
i "' ii.t ; ppe, ,E.-
SThis truck crop is grown
generally over the truck
districts of the Sr ate. L ,a r.e
quantities are being grown
in the South and aEast
Coast sections, In the
southeastern part of these
two sections the plaints are
put out early in the fall
A Paorln of Sirly-Pi'e Aeres o Swet P oW e. A Crop Univvrallyat hi lipprom
Ils eP o lf t iArtn the p po dr o and fruit shipped from
these same plants until in
late spring. The crop in other sections is generally planted in the early spring
on land that has already grown some truck crop early in the season.

Sweet PepperN
This is a truck crop that is growing in innpurtance each year. In the SoutIL
Section, especially tlhe lower part, this crop is started to be shipped in Novem-
her or December, and peppers will he picked and shipped from the same plants
until Mlay or June, depending upon the season. There is quite an acreage
planted to this early pepper crop on the East Coast too. All of the truck dis-
tricts of the State grow more or less of a spring pepper crop.

Sweet Potatoes
Is one of the important crops produced from one end of the State to the
other. In a916 there were produced in the State 2,5oo,ooo0 bushels; ill 1917,
3,332,ooo bushels, and in r918, 3,960,000ooo bushels. There have been a number
of storage houses for this crop lately erected.

A Strawberry I1311st. No*117y Parked in Ceain Har&rWti wri Craies. SMipinim NLawp frrom Ncnnbeir 3&aV.
Thu" Awzrinig 1k I Lcurna.


35 The Land of Perpetual Farming FLORIDA

The Avocado
This is a fruit used prin-
cipally for salads and is
sonmetimrles called "Alliia-
tor Pear." The Avoca do
tree is very tender, being
affected by a slight frost.
Therefore it i.s only grown
in a commllercial Way in
the East and South sec-
tions andonly in the south-
ern part of these sections.
The food value of this
fruit is very high, an'd
there is a great demand for
the product, the price be-
ing as much as fifty cents I SP t Yhwlh lp ne of l I mid Dm Ltlth, PI J, P d in
S CIemleJ rrablfe QUamOU11 In Florida.
to one dollar each for the
best varieties. This fruit can be produced about as cheaply as apples, and there
are now large acreages being planted especially on the East Coast.

This, one of the most delicious fruits in the a tropical zone, is produced in
considerable quantities. While the acreage is not as large as it was several
years ago, it lc-ks as if it will be increased again. The East Coast is the sec-
tion where the large acreage is handled to this crop. Still there is considerable
grown in the South Section, under shades; this being a different kind of pine-
apple from that grown on the East Coast.

This is a nut that does fine on the well-drained land that has a good clay
subsoil, in Florida, but is grown largely in West, North and Central sections
anild mostly ini the two first.
''There are soaue very large groves in the North Section, one grove contain-
ing over 4,o000 acres. Yields in the last three years: 1916, 8,272,26o pounds;
1917, ro,zoo,ooo pounds; I918, II,372,15o pounds.

h ... bz I ,

H1nrvetlmg llworL P;perl. SlHivuirug Ov~rhii. lrrilahlm n Thkk iu & Crop 1%4i Id Now t;riilm for ILarket J9 & CoUdd-
#Fable Extmea. Wjili HIIm b&Arm turms.


FLORIDA- The i.and of 1'CrpeImal Farming

If you were able to see
some of the poultry shows
that are held in this State
at one glance, you would
be able to know that all
breeds of birds do well and
th riveint Flori da. Turkeys,
Ducks, geese and most
P breeds of chickens can be
found in the StaLe.
S The large tourist trade
S in the winter gives a good
l market for a great many
S more chickens and eggs
S lt sonoaPtrY YO, Pofirin ntate u I than our State is now pro-
setion a l Poultry ofnt. Poeltnen anu rts frtmr Makr t D Thepart of Ag
suc~ ~~e t b.. satt lducing. The poultry clubs
of the State are doing a
sreat dbeal to bring in better birds and increase the output. The egg produc-
tion of the State for 1916 was 1,o0.14270 dozen eggs; 1917, 13,335,442 dozen;
19z8, i6,5oo,ooo dozen.
Bee Culture
Florida. the Land of Flowers, naturally is the ideal home for the busy
honey bee. The scrub or saw palmetto, the titi and sour wood, with the citrus
groves and the many other shrubs and annual flowering plants, furnish no
limit of work for the bees.
While this is one of Florida's neglected industries, it now proiuices near
to a million pounds of honey annuall-. Experts from the Department of Agri-
culture, Washington, D. C., say that Florida has the greatest possibilities in
this line of any State in the UnLion. They are now helping to get the work
started by more people.
Florida is not generally thou.,ht of as a State with minerals, yet it produces
about 75 per cent of thle phosphaie of the United States. Thiis is deposited in

"J1N, -L ~L -.
L i-W.
Parium.n fl Aveiido Grvve of IS ACee. as thi I*ht 4CamL rho' Food VluOE ad Thit Frult is Very KLh. *,A ThIn It a
Gnr-a D~manu for thoe Pradu&Ll



37 The Land of Perpetual Farming-- FLORInD

three veins near the sur- .
face, the different veins -"0%
being known as pebble
phosphate, the hard-rock
pehble, and river pebble. I
There has been as much -
as 2,504,794 long tons .
shipped in one year, The -"
value of tie output of
mines in 1917 was$ 5,464.-
493. The total value of
this industry since started ..
in 1888, to the State of i
Florida, has been $ 22 ,-
966,68 I. Fuller's earth s i
another article that Flor-
arburdond ineapa km*i Pit, shtwsins Reck PiI in "iaise aod
ida leads in the production OJi',rbu Pat. rc n ti, urr aa.... t.e iad
of by about 75 per cent.
There are large quantities of clay, used for making pottery, exported.
Agricultural lime as well as soft. phosphate are mined in large quantities.

Aids to Farmers
There being so much difference found in this big State with such a large
variety of crops, soil and climatic conditions, even a person raised on the farm
in one part of the State might be at a loss to know how to best handle crops
in another part of the State. That is if it were not for the Experiment Station
at Gainesville, in connection with its Extension Division.
There are County Agents in most every county in the State and two in a
good nmany of the large ones. These agents work directly with the farmers.
The agent is in close touch with the Agricultural Department of the State
College as well as the United States Department of Agriculture. In this way
anyone who comes even from out of the cold North, with the aid the agent can
give him. will be able to get familiar with local methods of agriculture.
The boys' and girls' club work is cared for by these extension workers,
too, for there is a lady that has charge of the Home Delionstration work in

A Youmi Ovdided 'IoPria Pauct 4.ieve. Tlbere Jm Keoer Ito bi M*Air im Pwrtai Gvawfing.

~ ~

FLORIDA --The Land of Perp,'tual Farm ing 38

8 Bh *most every county- of the
There are also livestock
associations for those
Directly interested in this
"reat work. The Swine
C rowers .A association, The
State Dairy Association,
The State I.iveit tock
Association and a State
1larketinr Bureau are all
active and wide-awake
or- a sZat ions.
There is another very
ra-d ..- t important aid to farmers
in Florida that, while it is
Tim xliei HigLhway Il TLroptE Iu rLda. Thrre Are thoumtin at M oil il
Tranet Svta ain 11e SMiaur. yeoung is doing a great
work. This is The Farm
Loan Bank Association. There are at present sixty-three of these associa-
tions doing business in the State, with more to follow.
The Florida State horticultural Society has its thirty-second annual meet-
ing this year.
There are employed by the railroads Agricultural Agents that will gladly
assist anyone along their respective lines in anyi agricultural difficulty.

Good Roads
Florida has great tracts of land that have no agricultural devdeopinent on
then; still leading through these vast expanses you will find perfect highways,
W11ii[e not all our roads are gxod, there are thousands of miles of surfaced
roads in the State at present, and by next fall there will be a large increase.
The State Road Depart mentr gives the following figures in its reportofSeptem-
ber 30, 1918: Brick, 463 miles; concrete, 8 niles; asphairic concrete or sheet
asphalt, 444 miles; penetrated or surface-treated macadam, 376 miles; plain
macadaii, 595 miles ; shell, 599 miles; inarl or sandy clay, 2,236 miles; mak-
iint a total of 4,72I miles of surfaced roads in the State. Then add to this 4,158

A Floria Alary -t A Growing InJnuatt). Th# nesnad for rna(S H Roney Far Exd idh SujpgiIWr. Tht$ Promip.ctu for
Fmirolr D-P lopmenil at Thiv Inrdu"r7 ~Axe Kit*ntwurWi~jn.

I ~- I II ~---

39 The Land of Perpetual Farming-- FLoiD..

miles of graded roads, ,
makingr a grand total of
8,879 miles, which will *
give anyone plenty of room
to try -,lit a Pierce-Arrow
or Packard,

There are good school
advantage olls in ey er, coun-
ty, .A great many of the
counties have bussei to
bring in the children from
thinly settled districts to
a central school, thus iv- .'
in di them the advantage of
A oFlarl" eof c h 1i A Cugltumenty in n Which it is Lvva e- in
better instructors and J Flrldt m ae tCwl mmrmit in Whlk i is lroud i
longer teris.,
You see a great many new, conveniently arranged, modernly equippedL
school houses all over the State. Therre are a nunlmber of Smnith-Hutghes schools
for teaching vocational N ork, especially Agriculture and Domestic Scienice.
; TIere are a number of nood colleges in the State, with two State institutions
for higher education-the Florida State College for W\omen and the Univer-
sity of Florida. The standing of all these colleges is very hyigh.

There are most denominations of religion represented in every county
with good churches in which to worship. Therefore, the moral influence sur-
roundinig your faiiiily are of the best-

Civic Societies
Civic societies flourish and are instrumental in keeping vital questions he-
fore the people. The sociably inclined tind congenial company in the branches
of the various secret orders which are all well represented in the State.

A PvMii: _SHdb im iih onh Ficrlda. The Smia Takx.r" Pride krn It% Lore Nap.mhtt Of Moderly FAJu&ippM'i Sih, N CflOMM"
Ajid Iniktillitms for Rillvi EdulCItiIn.

FLORInA--The Land of Perpetsal Farming 40

Map of United States

Florida's Command of the Markets
The star shown on the amp gi%-en above locates the center of population in
the United States. Draw a line across this outline map from the bounL dary be-
t~ween Montana and Nor-th D-akota to the noust southeil-y point of Texas, and
the part east of it contains quite four-fifths of the population of the country
with the Large cities and great consuming markets. This eastern section has
go,0ooo,0o people, while i0,ooomooo live in the part ivest of it.

Yo-ur Naitional Parks arc a vast r.gimri of ptaks eanqoa; gX2ci rm geyser%,
VACATIOJ N OUTINGS IN h6:i trees, volcanoteu, prehistoric ruinq and another natural rnic waiidemrs
THIE NATIONAL PARKS %-,,ir therm rhis monutrr-inr fiNriing. nikneain rlimhing alnd -'rouhing iI."
'The Nalion's Playgrfunw&I- A-k for d&SCriprivie illusrtraed booklct of the Natianal Park or N~tional
-mounumnt )Z) are 5pccial inteer-ted in-here im the list: Crltrr Lake,
Ore.; (Ylidrter, Mont.-: Gr~nd Canyom. Ari7-; Hrawaii. flut SprilKgs. AAr ; Msae Viide Clo,-, Mt- Rainier,
Wash-'., Petrified Fart.I. Ariz-; Rncekv NftIuilUIli, Coio.; Seuwurdi C:.11. Yellnwstolie "VW ip.; Ynlernmim, Cat,
and ZioIL, I rih.
Addrexr. TruIvrd I4ri-au, UnitrI 1rrcs Railtoad Atdrinitrarion, 646 Traisportation Building CLi-
cago, 11i., or 143 Iihrrtv Strrmc, New York tits, or 6w, 1fTleaj] IH13lldiatigr, Aflawiua, Ga.

Otm atI OtI Draninge CmLt 1ihrlmih the ErrgrLai)* imp CuwLard Aupple Nwrnq1 Large Armi ot i&f Lu[AM Are Nmw
Itling BrDroht Under 4AinIIu hiqhn.

I~ _1~ is_ (T

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4e LA 4 1-, 4]* ir'I* Z. R.

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rp v Wc L ']lid
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r'k. P114 'L.jsne,

S; U,.; S iI ..
Z.:.AS-dkf rp n

II ________OFL__

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*r ~ ST.~i* rK
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-4. jwi '. ~ rT
a~uCk. llI plsas
Lamm& I: P. jman li bp .
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.r KoR 5 1 Apr

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p '; l I ~lk llf rih ~ i


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rrI RAM T:-
1.VI -.1
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w1A e-' r a V, 1 ,. ..

PIAE y RWu d U00
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PIL-A'. J IY T~ I~r ~

F. L.1%Eab
I rI~b rllimix-
r.,lh I'l
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knerit I:TI IIIN 4%1.k
r 'N n r aee ,L"
k~lmrl ii :

r;~s. hi b~YC~nmmnrlrlmI
IMW. 9k., L
Armillnal l f hl a .

p M 2tand j A v I!

pp L I 1A 7
Ir.' ndi~ Llon CU-"br.Al
1,04% pal. ew.,&o*

~V.~brA~rlm~ii II Ivr*"r 11Ulm 111 on% i~

DRIDA 1r ,. 4Y

SCALE :I x I VUEM ,, 0
rr ;.1 1-43 1 :L I-L.1 a"
-L kv hvd 'Jkl. fL Lo

I LL I M N 0 I


Normal annual t4imlprlratLrLcc l-id pr'i[pciitatioin, a cn'nmpilcl from all available records to
,19 7, inclusive. Lisns indicated temperature; shadcli, ipreipitatiorn.


Slro In; one of the iinest medical springs in the LUnited States, A twi-hundred-puund anvil lowered on
a rope can not reach the bott nf this spring a~ t]e fUere of the flow of water will himy up the anvil.
Conrtlnt De [ipperaIut of the water the year routed 70 degret. This pool can bl used for barhing purpo e
ever monih ila the yEaR-




J. L. EDVLARDS, Manager
/ ~V llNGT..i D, C.

.L ,I ,
for further information, address

!n.! .O. ...vuT [
*.* o .',I JI-:- l"'

hnwrling Florid. Brick RBod 'lrmlih Cllos Grow". G.rri ITmprolmrlnti Ailahi thil Ul.to e Undertarke it am
Near llure, mr In C(ntemplalium for Itbe um.e @f Flarlda.
1 i.

TsAl tiniD C4PAARt, Ir AMUUSTWIq F'IicrWi

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