A provisional gazetteer of Florida place-names of Indian derivation, either obsolescent or retained, together with others of recent application ( FGS: Special publication 1 )

Material Information

A provisional gazetteer of Florida place-names of Indian derivation, either obsolescent or retained, together with others of recent application ( FGS: Special publication 1 )
Simpson, James Clarence, 1910-1952
Place of Publication:
Publication Date:
Copyright Date:
Physical Description:
x, 158 p. : port., 5 fold. maps. ; 23 cm.


Subjects / Keywords:
Names, Geographical -- Florida ( lcsh )
Names, Indian -- North America ( lcsh )
Seminole Indians -- Names ( lcsh )
City of Apalachicola ( local )
Tampa Bay ( local )
City of Apopka ( local )
Osceola County ( local )
City of Chattahoochee ( local )
City of Tallahassee ( local )
Creeks ( jstor )
Naming conventions ( jstor )
Maps ( jstor )
Rivers ( jstor )
Counties ( jstor )
non-fiction ( marcgt )

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Holding Location:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
The author dedicated the work to the public domain by waiving all of his or her rights to the work worldwide under copyright law and all related or neighboring legal rights he or she had in the work, to the extent allowable by law.
Resource Identifier:
ADR2388 ( NOTIS )
022664222 ( AlephBibNum )
01099766 ( OCLC )
a 56009535 ( LCCN )


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Ernest Mitts, Director


Herman Gunter, Director










1910 1952


Tallahassee, Florida


1 I






J~; :;


1910 1952



Portrait. ................... .......Frontispiece

An Appreciation of J. Clarence Simpson
by Herman Gunter. ................... .....V

Editorial Preface. ................... ........IX

Part I -Introduction. ................... ......1

PartlII Florida Place-Names. .................17

Part III Imported Names of Indian Origin. .. .. .. .137

PartlIV-Acknowledgments. .................. .139

Part V Bibliography ................... ....141

]Part VI Cartography.. .. .... .. .. .. . .. . ..151








In the early hours of March 29, 1952, James Clarence
(Bruce) Simpson passed away in his sleep, thus ending a long
struggle against persistent ill health high blood pressure
and heart ailment. Even after the family had been told he
could live only a short time, he courageously accepted the one
chance offered a very restricted prescribed diet to which
he unwaveringly adhered for the remainder of his life, some
four to five years.

Clarence was born at Micanopy,Florida, the son of Katie
Mathers Simpson and the late Henry H. Simpson of High
Springs. It was in High Springs that he grew up and graduated
from the high school in the class of 1929. In 1936, he married
Zelma Harris, and to this union three children were born,
Bruce, Genevieve, and Jo Ann. His mother, Mrs. Katie
Mathers Simpson, and his brother, Harry Horton, live in High
Springs. His sister, Mrs. Dorothy Simpson Baer lives in
Gainesville, Florida.

Denied the advantages of formal training beyond high
school, he continued to fit himself for a fuller life through
his inquisitive mind, hi s keen sense of observation, his natural
intuitiveness, his love of the great out-of-doors nature in
her ramifications was an open book to him. He read it with
ease. Boyhood hobbies continued as dominating interests
through later years and his self-schooling in the subjects he
loved most, archeology, botany, entomology, resulted in a
vast fund of knowledge relative to these subjects, and natural
history in general. His insatiable desire to explore, to collect
fossils, artifacts, and objects of natural history eventually
led to the proud possession of a varied and valuable collec-
tion of these treasures, which he always enjoyed showing to
interested persons and sharing his vast store of knowledge
relative to them.

Along with his familiarity with details of natural history,
while yet a boy Clarence became interested in the meaning
of Indian geographic place-names. As the years passed, this
also became an absorbing interest which he followed with



enthusiasm and tireless inquiry as time permitted, that is,
on such spare time as could be found after he had faithfully
performed the services for which he was responsible as a
State employee. When he died at the age of 42, he left an
unfinished manuscript relative to these names which had re-
sulted from his hobby.

The manuscript was comprehensive and contained a great
number of place-name definitions but was in rough shape.
The bibliographic and reference items, together with the
descriptive portion of the manuscript, required additional
research and editing. The Geological Survey and Mr. Simpson
were very fortunate in that two very good friends of Clar-
ence's, the late Robert B. Campbell and Dr. Mark F. Boyd,
both excellent scholars and critics,offered their services in
readying the manuscript for publication. Mr. Campbell read
the report and suggested many changes that have improved
the style and text. Dr. Boyd, an outstanding historian, is an
ardent student of early maps of the State and of its early
history. His attention to details of spelling and to establish-
ing exact reference material has assisted considerably in
making this manuscript authentic and a well substantiated
study. The Geological Survey is grateful to Mr. Campbell
and to Dr. Boyd for the considerable amount of time and
energy that they both have so freely given in preparing this
study for publication



This study of the significance and derivation of Indian
place-names in Florida, is a facet of the life-long interest
which Clarence Simpson exhibited in Florida Archeology and
Florida Indians, which was sometimes a vocational pursuit
but was usually an avocation.

A sc ript of this study was plac ed in the hand s of D r. He rman
Gunter,Director of the Florida Geological Survey, after Mr.
Simpson's de ath. While obviously representing a ve ry tho rough
search for source material, the provisional character of the
draft indicated the need for rather extensive editing in order
to put it into shape for publication. The invitation from Dr.
Gunter to assume responsibility for the editing was probably
prompted by an awareness that much of Mr. Simpson's work
had been prosecuted in the private library of the editor. This
responsibility was willingly assumed, not because the editor
entertains any pretensions to tho se qualific nations in linguistic s
necessary to critical editorship in this field, but from the
esteem and regard he felt for Mr. Simpson, and as a tribute
to his memory.

Subsequent to Mr. Simpson's passing, the script was
critically reviewed by the late Mr. Robert B. Campbell of
Fort Myers, the soundness of whose marginal notations and
comments have been appreciated by the editor and closely
followed in the revision.

Revision has mainly involved an alphabetical rearrange-
ment of the entries by the aboriginal names collected, and
the reduction of current English name s to synonymy and c to ss-
reference. The form for the citation of references has been
changed to conform to one currently accepted, while the
bibliogr aphic al and c artogr aphic al ref erenc es have b een seg-
regated and completed. A certain amount of reference check-
ing has been performed, but in the main these conform to
Mr. Simpson's script. The editor has taken the liberty of
expanding the historical discussions when these appeared in-
adequate, but Mr. Simpson's etymological data and opinions
have been respected and are unaltered. The bibliography has
been expanded to include allpublished Seminole vocabularies
known to the editor.


The strength of Mr. Simpson's study lies in the extent to
which he sought for bi-lingualname entries in literature and
on maps, as representing the most accurate contemporary
translations, made when these languages were current, rather
than an attempt to deduce their meaning through consultation
of dictionaries.

The extent to which the study embraces surviving aborigi-
nal place- name s, justifie s its characterization as a gazetteer.
It comprises 277 entries for names encountered in all parts
of the State, of which 117 are also represented by English
synonyms. Since many names are simultaneously applied to
several diverse sites, this duplication results in 385 sites
being represented.

Where orthographyhas been standardized by decisions of
the U.S. Geographic Board or its successor the U.S. Board
of Geographic Names, the approved spelling has been followed.

Mark F. Boyd

Tallahassee, Florida
September 9, 1955




Any study of the place-names of Indian origin in Florida
should summarize the histories of those tribes, both native
and immigrant, whose languages have enriched the nomencla-
ture of the State. In contrast to the Seminoles, the native
Florida tribes who were numerous and powerful for a century
and a half after the discovery of America, have contributed
little to the catalogue. They disappeared long ago, and with
the exception of the Timucua, little or nothing is known of
their languages. We are immediately impressed by the obser-
vation that most of the surviving Indian place-names are de-
rived from the language of those immigrant bands from the
North who moved into Florida after the decline and disappear-
ance of the native Floridians. The newcomers were princi-
pally speakers of Hitchiti and Creek, or of other tribes whose
language indicated affiliation with the basic Muskogean lin-
guistic stock.


1. TIMUGUA Of the ancient inhabitants of Florida,
the Timucua were perhaps the most
numerous and powerful. All of peninsular Florida north of
Tampa Bay fell within their domain. They appear to have
been a loose confederation of related tribes each occupying
an area which the Spanish called a "Province ", under the con-
trol of a Chief or Paracoussi. These divisions, beside the
Utina or Timucua proper, included the Acuera, Mococo, Pohoy,
Saturibe, Onatheagua, Potano, Tocobago, and Yustaga, with
severalother tribes, such as the Icafui, Tacatacuru, Yufera,
and Yui, who occupied the coastal area in what is now the
State of Georgia. Our first knowledge of the Timucua is de-
rived from the explorations of Narvaez (Nu~iez, 1922) and of
De Soto (Bourne, 1922) who first penetrated their territory
in 1528 and 1539, together with the coastal explorations of
the French under Ribaut and Laudonniere (Gaffarel, 1875) from


1562 to 1566. Since concern over the unenlightened condition
of the heathen was always a motive in Spanish operations, it
is not surprising that most of the information we possess
about them was secured during the proselyting activities of
the missionaries, especially of those of the Franciscan order
(Geiger, 1937). At one time the friars claimed over 6,000
converts among these Indians. However the contact of these
primitive people with Europeans proved disastrous for them.
Contagious diseases contracted from the Spaniards, either or
both smallpox and measles, were credited with destroying
half of the Timucuans in the years 1613-17. The discipline
imposed by the Spanishmissionaries proved irksome, provok-
ing a rebellion in 1656, and during the hostilities incident to
its subjection, many of their towns were depopulated. Further
epidemics occurred in 1649-50 and 1672. With the British
occupation of Charlestown (San Jorge) in 1670, the Indians,
pagan and Christian, became pawns in an international strug-
gle. The English stimulated the pagan Creeks to indulge in
a series of raids on the villages of Christian Indians in Florida
during the next quarter of a century. Between slaughter, de-
portation for resettlement along the Carolina coast, and the
exportation of captives as slaves, the aboriginal population
of Florida was for all practical purposes exterminated by
1710. For a while a few Timucua survived in a village they
established in the vicinity of the present Tomoka River, but
their fate is unknown. However English arrogance soon be-
came intolerant to the Indians established along the Carolina
border, which resulted in the explosive revolt of 1715 known
as the Yamassee War.

2. APALACHEE The Apalachee Indians occupied the
territory between the Aucilla and Och-
lockonee Rivers in northern Florida. It is believed that their
language had affinities with Choctaw.

Their first contacts with Europeans were through the
expeditions of Narvaez and De Soto previously mentioned,
toward whom they exhibited a relentless hostility. Their con-
version by the Franciscan fathers occurred later than that of
the Timucuans, being initiated in 1633, and by 1638 consider-
able progress in their conversion had been made. A revolt


occurred in 1647 in which the missions were burned, probably
in protest against Spanish conscription of Indian labor for
work on the fortifications of St. Augustine. This was pacified
without extreme reprisals, and the Apalachee subsequently
remained tranquilunder Spanish guidance. Until the English
instigated Greek raids intensified in 1702, they remained
strong and numerous. In 1704 Colonel Moore of South Caro-
lina with a party of Lower Creeks, raided the mis sion village s
and virtually destroyed the Apalachee as a nation. Those who
survived resistance were sold as slaves, while those who
pas sively ac cepted intimidation wer e c ar ried off and reloc ated
at New Windsor near the present Augusta, Georgia. The few
who escaped fled to French protection, and located near
Mobile. During the Yamassee revolt, the relocated Apalachee
joined the hostiles, and finally established themselves among
the Lower Creeks, from whence some years later, the Spanish
managed to persuade some to return to their former terri-
tory. One of their settlements was situated near St. Marks.
Before the cession of Florida to England, the se appear to have
gravitated toward Pensacola and Mobile, probably to be near
those of their tribe who had earlier settled there. The last
of the recognized Apalachee appear to have been settled on
the Red River in Louisiana above the Bayou Rapide as late
as 1812. No reference has been found to indicate that any of
the Apalachee joined the Seminoles in Peninsular Florida.
Some may have been represented among the Yamassee.

3. CHATOT The Chatot, Chac ato s, or Chine s, we re
a tribe living west of the Apalachicola
River along the middle course of the Chipola River. Origi-
nally they appear to have been notably warlike, and in 1639,
Governor Damian de la Vega Castro y Pardo (Swanton, 1922:
134-45) succeeded in establishing peace among the Chacatos,
Apalachicolas, Amacanos, and Apalachees, and remarked:

"It is an extraordinary thing, because the
afore said Chacatos never had peac e with any-
body. "

By 1674 the Spaniards maintained two missions among them,
but it appears that most of the converts removed to Apalachee
and became incorporated in this tribe.


The words Chipola and Kali Ishtobli, the latter an old
name for the Blue Spring near Marianna, are probably relics
of their language. These names, as well as the observations
of some earlier historians, suggest that their language was
very similar to Chickasaw or Choctaw (Swanton, 1922: 137).
Although a distinct tribe, the similarity between the names
Chatot and Choctaw, caused some confusion among early

4. PENSACOLA The Pensacola Indians were another
tribe related to the Choctaw. Not much
i s known of them, and they wer e perhaps s neve r ve ry nume rous.
The name is preserved in Florida by that of the city of the
same name.

5. CALUSA From the time of Ponce and of Menen-
dez to the close of the mission period,
the Calusa of Southwest Peninsular Florida and their confed-
erate tribes of the Lower East Coast and of the Keys, were
left pretty much alone, probably because of their belligerent
and uncooperative nature, and their strong aversion to Chris-
tianity. These Indians eventually came into prominence be-
c aus e the survivor s of the many shipwr ecks of Spani sh ve sselIs
along their coasts were often tortured and killed.

The early historians make it plain that the tribes of the
Lower East Coast and of the Keys paid tribute to Calos, Chief
of the Calusa, through fear of him. As late as 1680 Governor
Salazar sent an interpreter to the Calusa, but he was turned
back by the Indians before arrival, who feared that the chief
would hold them responsible if he was allowed to proceed.
He reported that the Calusa dominated all others in that part
of Florida and forced them to pay tribute to their chief.

The Calusa confederation was probably still functioning
at the beginning of the 18th century; it included besides the
Calusa, the Ais, Jaega, Guacata, and Tequesta, who still re-
tained their separate identity. In 1703 an attempt was made
to Christianize the Ais, but with such poor results that the
effort was soon abandoned. After this date their decline was


rapid. There is every reason to believe that the epidemic
diseases that ravaged the Timucua had also taken their toll
of the Calusa. Bernard Romans (1776: 291) stated that in
1763 eighty families, the last of the Calusa, migrated to
Havana. If he is correct, some of them must have returned
later to Florida, for some Calusa occupied the area of
Charlotte Harbor and the Caloosahatchee River at the out-
break of the Seminole War. They doubtless constituted the
so-called "Spanish Indians". These appear to have been in
the employ of the Havana fishermen, for whom they salted
and dried fish caught in the Gulf. They thus were in contact
with the Spaniards. They do not appear to have entered the
Seminole War until the end of that conflict approached, when
the hard pressed Seminoles entered the Everglades andper-
suaded them to take up arms. Their knowledge of the Ever-
glades no doubt greatly aided the Seminoles and prolonged
the conflict. Place-names on some maps of the Seminole
War period indicate that a remnant of the Calusa had taken
up residence on several of the most inaccessible tree islands
in the Everglades. The Ives map shows several islands bear-
ing names reminiscent of these people. Those not killed in
the war were probably absorbed by the Seminoles or captured
and sent west.


Most of the Indian place-names of Florida can be attrib-
uted to the tribes that entered the State within historic time
from the more northern sections of the Southeast. These
names stem mainly from the Creek and Hitchiti languages.
The Seminoles are almost wholly a product of the merging of
these immigrant Indians, and may have amalgamated with
some remnants of their predecessors on the peninsula.

There came to be associated with these Indians a Negro
element, which included a nucleus of those who were legiti-
mate slaves of the Indians, others who by one means or an-
other had attained legitimate freedom, and a larger group
who were runaway slaves, mainly from the State of Georgia.
There was little, if any, difference in the status of these


different groups, whose relation to the Indians appear s to have
more nearly resembled feudal serfdom rather than grinding

1. YAMASSEE The name of Yamassee as a designa-
tion for certain Indians appears to
have become current after the Indian revolt which occurred
in South Carolina in 1715. They appear originally to have
been residents of the coastal plain of Georgia, where they
were members of a confederation to which the Spaniards pre-
viously had applied the name of Guale (Wallie). Many of these
rebels fled to Florida where they sought the protection of the
Spaniards. They were the earliest group to initiate the re-
population of Florida, and thus may be regarded as the pre-
cursors of the Seminoles.

Little can be said of the tribes or bands comprising the
Guale confederation. The earliest sustained and consistent
missionary work of the Franciscan fathers was directed
particularly to those Indians living on the sea islands of the
later Georgia and South Carolina coasts where their labors
were highly successful. This program was initiated in 1573,
and soon resulted in the establishment of numerous missions
along the coast. Except for a revolt in 1597 in which several
missionaries were martyred, the Guale Indians appear to
have been submissive until the appearance of the English at
Charlestown in 1670 (Geiger, 1937). Spanish attempts to dis-
lodge them with Indian aid were unsuccessful, and apparently
only resulted in giving to the disaffected Indians the idea of
siding with the English. English influence was probably re-
sponsible for a revolt in 1686 which drove the Spaniards
temporarily from all of the coastal islands north of the St.
Johns River. It is uncertainwhether this result was the cause
or consequence of a Spanish attempt to remove the converts
to Florida. Some Yamassee had removed to the vicinity of
St. Augustine as early as 1680 (Swanton, 1922: 312), when
Governor Salazar of Florida was concerned with their need
for religious instruction. As a consequence of this friction,
the disaffected Indians, who probably were largely if not
altogether pagans, were persuaded by the English to settle
in southern Carolina along the Savannah River, thus increas-
ing the difficulties of Spanish attempts to dislodge them from


Charlestown (San Jorge). During Moore's attack on St. Au-
gustine in 1702 most, if not all, of the Indians remaining in
Guale appear to have been persuaded to join their tribesmen
along the Savannah. The English instigated raids by Creek
Indians intensified during the following six years, and as
described, resulted in the depopulation of Florida outside of
St. Augustine. During their residence in South Carolina, the
Yamassee appear to have become ascendant among the re-
located Guale Indians. Harsh treatment by the English drove
the Indians to revolt in 1715, and this Yamassee War almost
effected expulsion of the English. When its failure became
apparent the relocated Indians all scattered, most returning
to their old town sites along the Chattahoochee River. These
were accompanied by some of the Yamassee, but most of the
latter made their way to Florida. The descendants of these
appear to have become the Oklawaha band of Seminoles. After
the immigration of the Oconees about 1740, they appear to
have been much persecuted by these newcomers.

2. YUCHI The Yuchi are interesting for a number
of reasons. The earliest name for
this tribe is "Chisca", and in De Soto's time, they were living
in the area now comprising eastern Tennessee. They were
one of the few tribes in eastern North America of independent
language stock. It was not related to Muskogee, and was diffi-
cult for other people to understand. During the seventeenth
and early part of the eighteenth centuries the tribe moved
southward and various bands settled temporarily in several
different areas. Three waves of migration spreading from
the highlands area canbe discerned with certainty: the first
to the Choctawhatchee River in West Florida, the second to
the Savannah River above the present Augusta, thence to the
Chattahoochee River, and finally to the Tallapoosa River;
and the third to the lower Savannah River subsequent to the
Yamassee War.

Those of the first wave were well established in western
Florida in 1639, and because they raided the Apalachee settle-
ments, they were warring with the joint forces of the Apala-
chee and Spaniards as late as 1677. The Palachoclas or
Apalachicolas, Lower Creeks, were closely associated with


them, and lived on the banks of the river bearing their name
(i.e. the Chattahoochee River then so-called by the Spaniards).
The name Yuchi is perpetuated in Eucheeanna, a town in
Walton County, Florida, and Euchee Creek in the same county.

Still another wave of Yuchi entered Florida about the
middle of the eighteenth century, but did not Join their people
already residing in West Florida. Instead they settled tem-
porarily in Middle Florida adjacent to the Miccosukee while
others moved into southeastern Georgia and northeastern
Florida (Swanton, 1922: 312). In 1821 they occupied a village
at Spring Garden in the present Volusia County.

All of the Florida Yuchi were eventually incorporated
among the Seminoles, though in 1847 there were still four
Yuchi warriors among the Seminoles left in Florida (Swanton,
1922: 312).

3. HITCHITI and At one time the Hitchiti were perhaps
OCONEE the most powerful group in south
Georgia, and their language prevailed
between the Chattahoochee River and the Atlantic Ocean. The
original Hitchiti speakers included the Hitchiti proper, the
Sawokli, the Okmulgee, the Oconee, the Apalachicola, the
Tamathli, the Miccosukee, and the Chiaha (Swanton, 1922: 11).
The Oconee are thought to have been the most numerous.

When preparing for his expedition against St. Augustine,
General Oglethorpe secured the services of a body of Indian
auxiliaries from the Lower Creeks, including a body of
Oconee. On Ogelthorpe's withdrawal from Florida in 1740,
a band of these Oconee under Ahaya or the "Cowkeeper",
evidently recognizing that Florida was uninhabited and that
the hunting was excellent, decided to establish a settlement
in Alachua. The absence of any Oconee from the Lower Creek
census of 1832 suggests that by this time all of this tribe had
either merged with some other group or had departed for

4. TAMATHLI and At the time of General Jackson's
CHIAHA Florida raid in 1818, the Tamathli had


abandoned their settlement on the Apalachicola River, and had
been incorporated into the Miccosukee. It is believed that
the Miccosukee evolved from the Chiaha, who were originally
a more northern tribe. The Hitchiti speaking element of the
Seminole colonized north Florida rapidly, and spread south-
ward from the Alachua region. Today they are represented
in the Florida Seminoles by the Big Cypress band of Micco-

5. CREEKS The first Creek immigrants appeared
in Florida about the same time as the
Hitchiti elements, but evidently were of diverse origins.
Around 1778 a new migration appeared in Florida from the
Upper Creek towns of Kolomi, Fus-Hatchee, and Okchai, and
from some of the Alabama bands. At the close of the Creek
War of 1813-14, large numbers of pure Muskogee or Creeks
who were numbered among the disaffected Red Sticks who
had been swayed by Tecumsah and the Prophet, fled to Florida.
This movement involved the population of entire towns, which
resulted in the Creek element finally overshadowing that of
the Hitchiti.


A list of the Seminole settlements inFlorida at about the
time of the cession of that territory by Spain was compiled
by Captain John H. Bell, Agent for the Florida Indians, which
represents something of the source and number of the Indian
ingredients available for the synthesis of the Seminoles. We
follow the version of Swanton (1922: 406) to which some of
his comments have been added in parentheses):

1. Red-town, at Tampa Bay. Number of souls un-
known. (= # 24 ?) (Upper Creeks)

2. Oc-lack-o-na-yahe, above Tampa Bay. A number
of souls. (Upper Creeks)

3. O-po-nays Town, back of Tampa Bay. (Upper


4. Tots-ta- la-hoeets-ka, or Watermelon Town, on
the seaboard, west side of Tampa Bay; the greater
part of all these fled from the Upper Creeks when
peace was given to that nation. (Upper Creeks)

5. A-ha-pop-ka, situated back of the Musquitoe.

6. Low-walta Village, composed of those who fled
from Coosa, and followed McQueen and Francis,
their prophets.

7. McQueen's Village, east side Tampa Bay (Tallas-
see or Tulsa)

8. A-lack- a-way-talofa, in the Alachua Plains. A
great number of souls. Took-o-sa-moth-lay, the
chief. (= # 31 ?)

9. Santa-fee-talofa, at the east fork of Suwany. Lock-
taw-me-coocky, the chief.

10. Waw-ka-sau-su, on the east side of the mouth of
the Suwany, on the seaboard; they are from the
Goosa River, followers of McQueen and Francis.

11. Old Suwany Town, burnt in 1818, on the Suwany
River. These are from the Tallapoosa towns, and
they are from the Upper Creeks.

12. A-la-pa-ha-talofa, west of Suwany and east of the
Miccosukee. The chief Ockmulgee is lately dead.
(This occupied the site in the later Hamilton
County known as Micco Town.)

13. Wa-cissa-talofa, at the head of St. Mark's River.
These are from the Chattahouchy, Upper Creeks

14. Willa- noucha-talofa, near the head of St. Mark's
River, west of Wa-cissa-talofa. Natives of Florida.

15. Talla-hasse, on the waters of the Miccosukee pond.
These have lived there a long time, have about 100


warriors, and suppose 10 souls to a warrior; say
1,000 souls. (From the location given it is clear
that this site is Miccosukee.)

16. Top-ke/-g al-ga, on the east side of the O-clock-ney,
near Talla-hasse.

17. We-thoe-cuchy-talofa between the St. Mark's and
O-clock-ney Rivers, in the fork of the latter; very
few of them are natives of the land.

18. O-chuce-ulga, east of the Apalachicola, where
Hambly and Blunt (sic) live; about 250 souls. Coth-
rin, the chief.

19. Cho-co-nickla Village, the chief is Nea-thoe-o-
mot-la, the second chief Mulatto King; were raised
here; have about 60 warriors on the west side of
the Apalachicola.

20. Top-hulga (Attapulgas). This village and Cho-co-
nick-la join each other. Raised in East Florida
and removed there.

21. Tock-to-eth-la, west of Fort Scott and Chatta-
houchy, 10 miles above the forks; forty or fifty
warriors were raised at the O-cun-cha-ta, or
Red Ground, and moved down. (Upper Creeks)

22. Another town in East Florida Point, called O-chu-
po-cras-sa. These moved down from the Upper
Creeks. About thirty warriors, and a great many
women and children settled there.

"The foregoing list is extracted from a
talk held by General Jackson with three chiefs
of the Florida Indians, viz: Blount, Nea-math-
la, and Mulatto King, at Pensacola, 19 Septem-
ber 1821. To which may be added the follow-
ing settlements in East Florida" (note by
Captain Bell):


23. Pe-lac-le-ke-ha, the residence of Miccanopa,
chief of the Seminole nations, situated about 120
miles south of Alachua (Old Oconee).

24. Chu-ku-chatta, about twenty miles south of Pilac-
lekaha. (= #1 ?) (Eufaula)

25. Hich-a-pue(c)- susse, about twenty miles south-
east of Chukuchatta, at the same distance from
the head of Tampa. (Upper Creeks)

26. Big Hammock settlement, the most numerous,
north of Tampa Bay and west of Hechapususse
(sic). (Upper Creeks)

27. Oc-la-wa-haw, on the river of that name, west of
St. John's River. (Yamassee)

28. Mulatto Girl's Town, south of Caskawilla Lake.

29. Bucker Woman's Town, near Long Swamp, east of
Big Hammock. (Negro)

30. King Heijah's, south, and Payne's Negro settle-
ments in Alachua; these are slaves belonging to
the Seminoles, in all about 300. (Negro)

31. John Hick's Town, west of Payne's Savannah.
Miccosukees. (= # 8 ?)

32. Oke-a-fenoke Swamp, south side, a number of

33. Beech Creek, settlement of Cheehaws. (Chiaha)

34. Spring Garden (Tallahassee), above Lake George,
Uchees. Billy is their chief. (Yuchi)

35. South of Tampa, near Charlotte's Bay, Choctaws.


As far as it goes this list is highly informative, but at
this late date it has certain deficiencies which may not have
been evident when it was compiled from the Indian informants.
There are several villages for which not even approximate
locations are given, and it appears likely there are several
important omissions, notably Okihamgi (= Okahumpka), Top-
kelake/(= Tohopekaliga), Talehouyana (= Hotalgihuyana). Some
of the se defic ienc ie s may, of cour se, simply reflect ignor anc e
or lack of information on the part of the informants. On the
other hand, it is difficult to understand why Nea-moth- la, who
was known as chief of the Fowl Towns in Middle Florida,
apparently withheld information relating to the names and
particulars of these villages. These were presumably scat-
te red villages formed from the Georgia community of Totalosi
Talofa or Fowl Town, after this was broken up by the U.S.
Army in 1817. It is hard to believe that this was an over-
sight. In 1824 (Brevard, 1924: 1-50) they comprised a group
of seven, of which only one, Tapalga (Top-hulga) is included
in the foregoing list. Cahellahatchee was Nea-moth-la's own
place of residence. The others were Tallahassee, which
differs from that in the list insofar as it was located near the
lake now called after Lafayette, Allikhadgee, Ben Burgess'
town, Lochiochee, and Estotulga. The omission of Micco-
sukee is important. This town was broken up by General
Jackson in 1818, and the routed Indians fled eastward. It
appears many rallied under John Hicks to establish the John
Hicks' Town or Alackaway Talofa west of Payne's Prairie in
Alachua by 1821. By 1823 Hicks had led them back into
middle Florida, to a site in western Madison County, which
was known as New Miccosukee. This locality became a short-
lived white settlement after the departure of the Indians,
under the name of Hicks' Town. The location ascribed to
Talla-hassee is difficult of comprehension. The population
ascribed to it, and the situation onMiccosukee Pond or Lake,
recall the presumable original occupants, the Miccosukee,
who are shown to be living at a distance. What we regard as
the contemporary Tallahassee was situated on the south shore
of Lake Lafayette. It must be admitted inview of the signifi-
cance of the name, that a new settlement on the former site
of the Miccosukee town, could in all propriety, be called
Tallahassee. But who were its occupants ?

The extent to which the later immigrants submerged the


first, is revealed by the list, from which it will be seen, ex-
cluding the Negro settlements, that fully fifty percent of the
settlements were established by Creeks. Since the latter
were likely more populous, the first comers were outnum-
bered. This doubtless accounts for the ready supplanting of
Mico- an- opa by Nea-moth- la.

Most of the settlements of these immigrants were in
northern Florida, where the Indians remained until compelled
to remove onto or in the vicinity of the reservation assigned
to them in the peninsula by the Treaty of Moultrie Creek in
1823. The military pressure against them during the Semi-
nole War tended to force them down the peninsula during the
period 1836-1842.

Many of the place-names were applied before the Creek
or Hitchiti languages had been corrupted by the Indians them-
selves. As a consequence, where early phonetic spellings of
the names can be discovered, it is not too difficult to search
out the root words of such names.

The prosecution of the war against the Indians necessi-
tated exploration of what previously was an unknown wilder-
ness. The military maps of the period, of nearly annual
revision and issue, are graphic records of the progress of
exploration, and fortunately their draftsmen entered the ab-
original place-names, accompanying these in many instances
by their translations as contributed by the Indian guides. The
linguistic value of the aboriginal names given on contempor ary
maps is uncertain, since they are frequently corrupted.

The Seminoles of contemporary Florida are the descend-
ants of those Indians who successfully resisted the effort of
the United States Government to remove them by force, thus
maintaining their right to reside in the State. These constitute
two language groups, the Miccosukee, who speak a dialect of
Hitchiti, and reside principally in the Big Cypress, while the
other group speak a dialect of Greek, and reside to the north
around Lake Okeechobee. The language differences are a
barrier to ready communication, and serve to maintain their
isolation from each other. To a considerable degree they
have maintained their primitive culture, but owing to the


vicissitudes experienced by their immediate ancestors, they
have lost many of its material adjuncts. Not unnaturally they
have maintained a suspicious attitude toward the Government
and to whites generally, which is manifested by their aloof-
ness. In recent decades this isolation is diminishing, many
of their children attend public schools, and the adult males
are gainfully employed.


The reader should remember that none of the Indian
languages had a written form with either an original alphabet
of any description or an established orthography. The various
Europeans who heard their spoken words and attempted to
express them in writing, whether Spaniards, Frenchmen, or
Englishmen, undertook to record them phonetic ally in accord-
ance with the alphabeticalusage of their particular language,
hence we observe great dissimilarity in spelling depending
upon the language in which the transcription was attempted.
Furthermore many of the auditors who attempted such a re-
cording evidently either did not comprehend the fine distinc-
tions of pronunciation in the original language, or could not
determine the most accurate combination of letters in their
own language to correctly express the sound. In addition,
many of those who attempted such transcriptions were not
highly literate in their own mother tongue. To climax the
difficulty, many are garbled by errors of typesetters in
reading their copy, which were beyond the ability of perplexed
proof readers to correct. Consequently for every word we
consider an extensive catalogue of variants might be compiled,
some of which would be widely divergent from the others.
Although an attempt to spell phonetically the Indian place-
names considered in this study has been made, it must be
recognized that another student might judge a different spell-
ing to be preferable. The deficiencies of this method have
led linguists to attempt the development either of special
alphabets or specific phonetic symbols for sounds which can-
not be duplicated accurately in the language of the treatise.
In consideration of the difficulties which such spec ial methods
offer a general reader, use of these has been avoided.


Brief mention may be made of considerations which have
been observed in the attempts at phonetic spelling. The
Muskogee languages do not employ a true "R" sound, but in
its place employ what has been called a voiceless "L". In
the only available English-Creek Dictionary (Loughridge and
Hodge; English and Muskogee Dictionary, 1890) this sound,
although represented bythe letter "R", is pronounced as hle,
while the letter "V has the sound of u in but, and vowel sounds
are long, excepting "E" which also has a short sound. Thus
in this dictionary the word entry "Ryro" is pronounced
"Hlyhlo = fish. On the early maps this voiceless "L" is
variably recorded as "L", "THL", "HL", and rarely as "CL".
On these authorities, the word for fish is usually spelled
phonetically as "Lalo", "Thlathlo", or "Hlahlo". The follow-
ing departures have been made in the sounds related to the
letters used in this dictionary, viz: "A" has been substituted
for the "V", and "CH" instead of the "C", and "WE" for "OI"
or "UE ". Thus the dictionary spells the Creek word for water
"Uewy", whereas in other phonetic transcriptions this word
is invariably spelled "Wewa", as witnessed by Wewahitchka,
Wewahootee, and other Florida place-names. In word com-
binations syllables are often dropped and the components may
be much abbreviated, so that "Wewa" is usually shortened to
"We". The Muskogee diminutive "Uchi" or "Tchi" has been
spelled throughout as "Chee".




Since many of the words in the Greek and Hitchiti lan-
guages are the same or nearly so, it is often difficult to de-
termine the language to which a word should be attributed,
and since information on the Creek language is much more
complete, most of the names contained in this gazetteer have
been translated from Creek. It is likely that many more
names in Florida were derived from Hitchiti words than the se
analyses would indicate.

Entries are limited to names of undoubted aboriginal
origin. Names of non-aboriginal derivation are recognized
only in synonymy as cross entries, which call attention to the
aboriginal names which they have superseded.

Insofar as our information permits, the data assembled
under each entry are systematically considered under the
following headings, viz.:

(1) Current conventional orthography, employ-
ing when available that standardized by the
decisions of the United States Geographic
Board (U.S.G.B.) or its successor, the
United States Board for Geographic Names

(2) Syllabication;

(3) Enumeration of the sites or localities to
which the name applies, distinguishing
recent adoption from ancient usage;

(4) A partial listing of obsolescent maps on
which the name appears, to indicate varia-
tions of orthography and synonymy;

(5) The aboriginal roots from which the name
was derived; and

(6) A brief discussion of the topographical or
historical associations of the name.



The name given to the eastern extremity of St. James
Island in Franklin County, which marks the western limit of
the entrance to Apalachee Bay.

In a letter of 1675 written by Bishop Calderon of Cuba
(Wenhold, 1936: 11) it is mentioned as "the cape which some
call Apalachee and others Hibinema. In the Milan Tapia jour-
nal (Leonard, 1939:283)itwas called Abines Point. A Timu-
cuan town situated forty leagues (about l20 miles) west of St.
Augustine was known as Abino (Swanton, 1-922: 323).

This word resembles the Choctaw Abina = an outdoor
camp or lodging, and this may have been its meaning in the
Apalachean tongue.


A low bluff on the east bank of the Apalachicola River not
far above its mouth, in Franklin County.

One of the councils preliminary to the Forbes' cession
was held at this place, and the trading post of Panton, Leslie
and Co. was transferred to this site after that near St. Marks
was destroyed by Indians instigated by Bowles. A British
fort was constructed at this place by ColonelNicolls inl1814.

This bluff was known to the early traders as Achackweithle
and in this form the word resembles the Creek words Achaka
= landing, and Huethle = standing (up), or bluff landing ? How-
ever it is more likely corrupted from Creek Ahechka = view
or prospect, and Huethle = standing (up), applied to an accliv-
ity ?


The obsolete name for a small stream in Taylor County.


Achena Hatchee . . . .. .. illiams Map, 1827
Ocitlota Funka.. .. .. .. .. .Bradford Map, 1837
Ocitlota Funka............. .Taylor Map, 1839

Spr ague (1 848: 434) follows the spelling Sho- Elota- Funka.

The name Achena Hatchee is compounded from Creek
Achena = cedar, and Hatchee = creek.

The spelling of Sprague is perhaps nearest to the original
of the Ocitiota Funka of the Bradford and Taylor maps. It is
from the Creek Chule = pine, Ote = island, and Funka = pro-
jection or point, the whole signifying "Pine Island Point. An
island promontory projecting into the Gulf six miles from
Spring Warrior River is known today as Piney Point. The
river likely received this name from the circumstance that
the channel leading to its mouth lies close to this landmark.

Williams (1837: 48) leaves little doubt that the present
Spring Warrior is the stream which he calls Achena Hatchee,
for he makes the following 'statement:

"Achenahatchee or Cedar River rises in
numerous lakes in the eastern part of Madi-
son County and falls into the Gulf about 20
miles west of the Suwannee. "

The derivation of Spring Warrior has not been determined.


The name of a coastal lagoon lying on the east side of
Brevard, Indian River, and St. Lucie Counties.

Rio de Ays. .. .. .. ...Solis de Meras (1923: 126)
Aisa Hatcha or Indian River ...Romans (1776: 273)

The Ais were a tribe living on the banks of the Indian
River. The meaning of Ais is unknown. Gatschet (1880: 469)
interpreted Ais as aisa =deer, a term not belonging to the


Timucua language, but identifiable with itcho = deer (echo
herein) in Seminole, or itchi, itche in Hitchiti and Miccosukee.
The combination Ais Hatcha suggests that the Seminoles or
early Creek migrants to Florida also called the stream the
River of Ais. Menendez referred to this river as the River
of Ays "because the Cacique was so-called" (Conner, 1925:
(- 33).


The name anciently applied to an area in northern penin-
sular Florida, now restricted to that of a county created in
the same area, as well as of a town in the same county, and
applied to a limestone sink near Gainesville in that county.

Lachua.. .. . .Pea Journal 1716 (Pena, 1949: 14)
Alachua ................... .MollMap, 1720
Alachua. ................. .Popple Map, 1733
Au-lot-che-wau. .............. .Bartram, 1791
Au-lot-che-wau. ... .. .. .. .. .Hawkins, 1848
Alachua. ............... .Bradford Atlas, 1837

Other variants are A-latch-uh-wuh and A-lotch-uh-way.

The Alachua area appears to have been the first area
occupied by the immigrant Oconees, the original Seminoles,
about 1740. Their first town was situated on or near the old
Alachua plain, now called Payne's Prairie (q.v.). The present
name perpetuates the memory of "King Payne, an Oconee-
Seminole who was chief of the Alachua settlements in 1812.
In that year Payne was killed in a fight with a party of Georgia
militiamen led by Colonel Newnan, and his settlement broken
up (Swanton, 1922: 399).

Payne's Prairie is also known as Alachua Lake when filled
with water. This large basin, which is south of Gainesville,
is one of Florida's disappearing lakes. At irregular inter-
vals during its history, its waters have been observed to
drain, sometimes almost overnight, into a large limestone
basin known as Alachua sink, leaving most of the lake bed


dry. When dry the bottom becomes a grassy plain which is
excellent grazing land; when filled with water it is a consid-
erable lake.

The meaning of Alachua is suggested by a passage in the
journal of Lieutenant Diego Penra, who on his expedition to
Apalachee and Apalachicola in 1716, traversed this region,
and of the area between the Itchtucknee and Suwannee Rivers
in southern Suwannee County (Pena, 1949: 15) remarks.

"The 21st day I left the said site (adjacent
to the Itchtucknee River) and camped at a
place they call Aquilachua this day I marched
five leagues. In this day's march no creeks
were encountered but there are good springs
of water, and the first (is) named Usichua,
(and) the other Usiparachua, and another
Af anochua. "

That the springs without effluent streams were sink-holes
cannot be doubted by anyone who is familiar with this area.
The names of these watering places allpossess the termina-
tion chua, which suggests that chua is the Timucuan name for
sink. This inference is not inconsistent with the general
opinion of residents of the county, that the name Alachua
means sink-hole.


A river in Hillsborough County, and a town on the same

Allafia ................ .Bradford Atlas, 1837
Alatia. ................... ..Ives Map, 1856

On the Davis 1856 map, the name is translated as "Hunt-
ing River. Swanton (personal communication) affords the
following comment on the meaning:

"On an early map the name Alafia does not
appear on the river now called by that name,


which appears as Hunting River. This shows
pretty clearly that Alafia is from the Creek
stem Thlafi (= hunting), with the locative pre-
fix "A. The whole being a near equivalent of
the English 'Hunting Place'."

ALAPAHA: A-lap -ah-haw

The name of a stream arising in Georgia whichtraverses
Hamilton County to discharge into the Suwannee River. In its
lower reaches the waters enter an underground passage, so
that in normal stages the river bed below this point is dry.

Alapaha. ................. .Taylor Map, 1839
Elapaha. .................. .Davis Map, 1856

The mission list of 1655 records the existence of aTimu-
cuan mission near the Suwannee River called Santa Maria de
los Angeles de la Arapaja (Swanton, 1922: 322). In 1821 there
is mention of a Seminole village called Alapaha Talofa as
occurring in the same general area (Swanton, 1922: 406).
Talofa is a Creek word for town.

The resemblance between Alapaha and Alapata (the next
entry) is so close as to suggest that they have the same deri-
vation as well as the same meaning. This appears to be the
Muscogee or Creek word Halpata = alligator, as these sau-
rians were formerly abundant in that stream.

ALAPATA or ALAPATTAH: A-lap -at-tah

The Alapata flats comprise a large marshy or poorly
drained area lying south of Halpatickee marsh, between the
St. Lucie River and Lake Okeechobee.

Read (1934: 1) gives the source of this name as the
Seminole-Creek Halpata = alligator.

ALAQUA: A-la -quah

This name is applied to a creek arising in Walton County
which flows into Choctawhatchee Bay.

Alaqua. ... .. ... .. .. .Williams Map, 1827
Aliqua ................. .Williams Map, 1837
Alaqua ................... .Davis Map, 1856

Read (1934: 1) translates this word as "sweet-gum" from
the Seminole-Creek Helukwa = sweet gum.





The name originally applied to an extensive hammock
extending from south central Citrus County, across Hernando
County into the southeast part of Pasco County.

Annutteliga Hammock.. .. . .. .Taylor Map, 1839
Hammock . ..ernando County Soil Map, 1915

There are two possible translations of this name. Read
(1934: 1) suggests "brushy place", from Seminole-Creek
Anati = brushy place or thicket, and Laiki = site. In view of
the hammock character of the area this is a plausible view,
but from a phonetic standpoint, I think it is more likely de-
rived from the Creek Nuchka = sleep, and Laiki = site, which
with the vocative prefix "A", would indicate a sleeping or
lying down place.

APALACHEE: Apa-lach -ee (U.S.G.B.)

A name anciently applied to the territory between the


Aucilla and Ochlockonee Rivers, to its aboriginal inhabitants,
as well as to the St. Marks River, but which is now trans-
ferred to the open bay of the Gulf of Mexico formed by the
coasts of Wakulla and Jefferson Counties.

The Apalachee Indians were first encountered by Narvaez
and De Soto. Their language appears to have been related to
Choctaw. On the assumption that they might have had the
same significance in Apalachee as in Choctaw, two words of
the latter language merit consideration as the possible
source of this name. The first is Apelachi = help or helper,
the latter, Apelichi = the place in which to rule, preside, or
govern in (Byington, 1915: 53). The last appears most plausi-
ble, since, according to Elvas (Bourne, 1922: I-47), Anahayca
Apalache was "where the lord of all that country and Prov-
ince resided." While the scope of the meaning of the first
word, Apelachi can be expanded to include "ally", the second
appears to be related to the situation as the Spaniards found it.


This is an obsolete name for that portion of the St. Marks
River below the confluence with the Wakulla, lying wholly in
Wakulla County.

Touskache. .. .. .. .. .. ...De Lisle Map, 1718
Detacabona. .. .. .. . ... .. .Brasier Map, 1765
Apalacha River. .. .. ... .. .Romans Map, 1774

The first two names are now untranslatable.

APALACHICOLA: Apa-lachi-ko -la (U.S.G.B.)

This is the name applied to an important navigable river
of Florida, formed at the state line by the confluence of the
Chattahoochee and Flint Rivers, which discharges into the
Gulf of Mexico through a bay of the same name. The name


is also applied to the county seat of Franklin County, through
which the lower course of the river passes.

In the seventeenth century the Spanish extended the name
to include its principal tributary, the Chattahoochee River,
aswe 11.

Cahuitas or Apalachicola River. .Jeffreys Map, 1769

Cahuitas is a variant of Coweta, the name of an important
Lower Creek town formerly situated on the Chattahoochee
River. In the course of time it came to supersede Apalachi-
cola in primacy among the Lower Creeks. The name has
come down to us through Spanish sources as Apalachecoli,
and through English sources as Apalaxtchukla, Apalatchukla,
Palatchukla. This commemorates the name of a tribe of
Hitchiti speaking Indians whose historic town was on the west
bank of the Chattahoochee River, in Rus sell County, Alabama.
At the period when the Spanish first came in contact with
them in the late seventeenth century, they appear to have
been paramount among the Lower Creeks. The name appears
to have been derived from either the Choctaw Apelachi=
helper or ally, or Apelichi = ruling place, and Okla = people,
meaning in the one case helpers or allies, or in the second,
people of the ruling place. Its known primacy at that time
makes the latter more plausible.

The modern town of Apalachicola was founded and in-
corporated as West P~oint in 1831, but the name was changed
to Apalachicola in the same year. The first name alluded to
its site on the west shore of the bay. The bay into which the
river discharges was called the inlet of Taxaquachile by
Bishop Calderon of Cuba, in a letter written in 1675 (Wenhold,
1936: 11).

APOPKA: A-pop -ka

The name of a lake common to Orange and Lake Counties,
and of a town in Orange County.


A-ha-pop-ka. .. .. .Bell, 1821 (Swanton, 1922: 406)
Apopka. ................ .Williams Map, 1837
Ahapopka. ... .. .. .. .. .. Taylor Map, 1839

In 1823 a Seminole village near the head of the Oklawaha
River was known as Ahapopka, of which Ocheese- Tustanuka
was headman (Swanton, 1922: 412): Apopka is a contraction
of Ahapopka or Ahapapka, meaning "potato eating place",
from Creek Aha = potato, and Creek Papka = eating place.


An obsolete name for Lake Hancock, the source of the
Peace River (q.v.).

Apopkachee . ... ... .. .Bradford Atlas, 1837
Apopkakee.. . ... .. ... ...Williams Map, 1837
Peace Creek Lake. .. .. .. .. .Poinsett Map, 1838

This name contains the Creek words Aha = potato,
A-papka = eating place, and Chee = little, or "little potato
eating place". Aha refers to the Irish potato, while Aha-
Chumpe is the sweet potato.

APOXSEE: A-pox -see

This was the name of a station on the now abandoned por-
tion of the New Smyrna Lake Harbor branch of the Florida
East Coast Railway in Osceola County.

It is a Seminole variant of the Creek Apakse = tomorrow.

When this branch line was under construction, railroad
authorities apparently turned to the Seminole vocabulary of
Minnie Moore Willson's book "The Seminoles of Florida"
(1920: 267) to select the names of the stations established,
as no villages existed along the route. From Seminole County
southward to Okeechobee there were to be found along this old
route the names Osceola, Kolokee, Chuluota, Bithlo, Pocataw,


Wewahotee, Salofka, Tohopkee, Holopaw, 111ahaw, Nitaw,
Apoxsee, Lokosee, Yeehaw, Osowaw, Hilolo, and Opal. All
were of recent application and bear no relationto the charac-
teristics which the site exhibits.


This is an obsolete name for Big and Little Santa Fe
Lakes at the head of Santa Fe River in northeastern Alachua
County and southern Bradford County.

Aquilla Lake. .. ... .. .. .. .Poinsett Map, 1838

The large swamp now known as Santa Fe Swamp, lying
north of Santa Fe Lake, was also called Aquilla Swamp on
the Poinsett map. The name is derived from the Timucuan
Aquilla, which according to Gatschet (1877: 627) means "reed
or vine. "



This appears to be the obsolete name for Crabgrass
Creek, which rises near Holopaw in Osceola County and flows
into the headwaters of the St. Johns River.

Ar-chin-ner-topho. .. .. .. . .Bruff Map, 1846

An adjacent swamp bore the same name.

This name is derived from the Creek word combination
Archenaho = cypress, and Taphe = broad, that is, Broad

ARIPEKA: Air-i-peka

This is the name of a smallvillage in northwestern Pasco
County. This is a recent application.


Aripeka is presumed to be a variant of Arpeika or Arpeka,
the name of a prominent Miccosukee chief knownto the whites
as Sam Jones. The name may, in turn, be a variant of Abihka,
the designation of an ancient Muskogean tribe, the meaning
of which is no longer known. Read's (1934: 2) interpretation
of this tribal name as "Pile at the Base", or "Heap at the
Root", appears to be derived from an Indian legend told to
Swanton, (1922: 252) by G. W. Grayson, a Creek chief, which
in substance is as follows:

"At a certain time there was a contest
for supremacy between the Kasihta, Coweta,
Chickasaw, and Abihka, and this consisted in
seeing which tribe could bring in the most
scalps and heap them highest around the ball
post. Kasihta brought in the most, Coweta the
next, the Chickasaw still fewer, and Abihka
brought in only a very small number, which
were thrown about the base in a careless
manner. From this circumstance they came
to be called Abihka, because Abika Idjita
means to 'heap up in a careless manner'. "

ARTA HATCHEE: Ar-ta Hat -chee

The name given to a creek arising in the southeastern
portion of Osceola County, which enters Lake Wilmington
from the west.

Arta Hatchee .. .. .. .. ... .Taylor Map, 1839
Ahta Hatchee or Corning River .. .Bruff Map, 1846

Read (1934: 67) translated this name as Chestnut River,
from the Creek Oto = chestnut, and Hatchee = river, and
erroneously stated:

"The chestnut tree now grows in the coun-
ties of Okaloosa, Dade, and Hendry. "

The native American chestnut did not grow naturally in Dade


and Hendry Counties. The stream in question traverses low-
lying flat woods unsuitable for its growth. The dwarf chin-
quapin noted by De Soto is native in central, northern, and
western Florida, but does not extend so far to the south. De
Soto mentions a visit to an Indian town in present Alabama
named Athahachi, which undoubtedly means Chestnut River.
To me it appears more likely that the derivation is from the
Hitchiti Hata = white, and Hatcha = creek.


This mound, also known as Tony's Mound, is situated on
Section 24, Township 45 South, Range 34 East, in Hendry
County, Florida. It is shown on sheet 13 of the Everglades
Drainage District Soil Maps, prepared by the United States
Department of Agriculture Soil Conservation Service.

On the Ives map of 1856, the name is entered as Asinjois
mound. Asinjois appears to be a rendering of the Creek
Assinwa = moss.

ASPALAGA: As-pa-la -ga

Abluff and river landing on the east bank of the Apalachi-
cola River in Liberty County, north of Rock Bluff.

The spelling Yapalaga appears on an un-named map of
about 1700.

Asapalaga. .. .. .. .. .. . ... .Popple Map, 1733
Aspalaga .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .Bradford Atlas, 1837
Aspalaga .................. .Bruff Map, 1846

The Seminole village of Aspalaga formerly stood near the
landing site.

A Franciscan mission known as San Juan de Ospalaga
(Swanton, 1922: 323) was encountered in the Apalachee area
in 1680.


It is hardly coincidental that the Choctaw word Osapa
signifies cornfield, and the Miccosukee (Hitchiti) word Aspee
means corn or maize. I believe that the word in its present
form is derived from a Hitchiti word combination meaning
corn place, from Aspee = corn, and A-laiki = place. The
earlier Apalachee probably signified the same thing.


An obsolete name for a lake in Lake County now known as
Lake Harris, and also that of a village at the southern end of
the lake.

Lake Eustis ... .. .. .. .. .Yignoles (1823: 76)
Lake Eustis .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .Taylor Map, 1839
Lake Brokenborough. .. .. .. .. .Bruff Map, 1846
Lake Harris or Astatula .. . ... .Norton (1891: 46)

The absence of the name Astatula from the early maps
may indicate that it is of imported origin rather than indige-
nous. Unless older forms can be discovered, any attempt to
interpret the name would be a pure guess, for if of Indian
derivation, it probably is badly corrupted. With this declara-
tion, it may be mentioned that the first portion resembles the
C reek Isti = people, and the final portion the Timucuan Atula=


The name of an extensive swampy area in Collier County
extending into adjacent parts of Hendry and Monroe Counties.

At-see-nahoofa. . ... .. .. . .. .Bruff Map, 1846

The Seminole name for this area is given as Atseenahoofa
in Sen. Doc. 89 (62nd Cong. 1st S. 1911: 47). It is derived
from Creek Achenaho = cypress, and Taphe = broad or big.
It alludes to the extent of the area covered, in which cypress


is the dominant tree, and not to the size of the trees. The
name is also applied to several other areas in the peninsula
where cypress is dominant.


The obsolete name for Depot Key, the main island of the
Cedar Key group.

Atsena Otie (on mainland) .. .. .Colton Map, 1853
Depot Key or Atsena Otie... . .. .Colton Map, 1880

The name is from Creek Achena = cedar, and Ota = island.

The town of Cedar Keys, as related by Lanier (1876: 98)
is "built upon two 'Keys', one of which is called Way Key, the
other Atsena Otie, between which a small sail ferry-boat
plies. A post office was maintained on Atsena Otie as late
as the middle eighties.

ATSEENATOPHO: At- see-na-to -pho

The name of a swamp situated north of Hart Lake in
Orange County.

During the Seminole War period this swamp was called
Atseenatopho. This is a Creek word combination which means
"broad cypress", from Achenaho = cypress, and Taphe=

ATTAPULGUS: At-ta-puh1 -gus

The name applied to a creek in Gadsden County, tributary
to Little River.

Attapulgus. . ... . .... .. .Williams Map, 1827


In 1824 the name Taphulga, which is a variant of this
word, was applied to a Seminole village situated on Rocky
Comfort Creek in this county. The name of the head man was
Ehe-Mathlochee, which is a corruption of Emathla-chee=
little leader (Swanton, 1922: 411). Read (1934: 3) gives the
meaning of Attapulgus as "dogwood grove", from Creek
Atapha = dogwood, and Algi = grove.

ATTOTSAPOPKA RIVER: At-tots-apop -ka

The name given to a river in the Ten Thousand Islands,
Collier County.

Attotsapopka or Cypress Creek. ..Davis Map, 1856

This name is likely compounded of Creek Lokcha =acorn,
and Apopka = place for eating acorns, and implies an abun-
dance of acorns.

AUCILLA: Au-sil/-la (U.S.G.B.)

The name of a village in Jefferson County, and of a small
river which rises in South Georgia, and after passing into
Florida, forms the boundary between Madison and Jefferson

This name is of great antiquity, and is encountered in
many variations, such as Assilly, Oscillee, Scilly, Asile, etc.
The river formed the ancient boundary between the territory
of the Timnucuan Indians, and that of the Apalachian Indians.
The word is Timucuan, but its meaning is unknown. A Semi-
nole village stood on the east bank of that river in 1824 which
was known as Oscillee. Its chief was known as Holata Fiksiko
(Swanton, 1922: 411). This name, or rather title, is from the
Creek Holahta= chief, and Fiksiko = heartless or merciless.








BITHLO: Bith -lo
The name of a station on an abandoned branch line of the
Florida East Coast Railway in Orange County.

While this is the Seminole word for canoe, derived from
the Creek Pilo = canoe, the application is wholly modern. It
is found in the Willson (1920: 261) vocabulary.















CAHELLAHATCHEE : Ca-hel/-la-hat-chee
An obsolete name once applied to the east branch of the
St. Marks River in Jefferson County.

In relating his explorations for the capital site, John Lee
Williams stated in the Pensacola Gazette of June 12, 1824,
that Cahellahatchee was located at the head springs of the
east branch of the St. Marks River (Blue Spring) two miles
above Tallahassee Lake. This was one of the group of villages
in Middle Florida which were known as Fowl Towns, probably
indicating that they were fragmentation groups from the Fowl
Town in southeastern Georgia, from which the Indians were
driven by a detachment of United States troops stationed at
Fort Scott, in 1817 (Swanton, 1922: 178). The Apalachian
village of Calahuchi visited by De Soto was at or near the
same place.

The Apalachee, Hitchiti, and Choctaw languages were re-
lated, and the name may be compared with Choctaw Kali=
spring, and Hacha = creek, meaning "spring creek. "


An obsolete name for the Nassau River in Nassau County,
by which it was known to the Spaniards. While of aboriginal
origin, and also the name of a Timucuan chief, its meaning
is now unknown. The name Nassau was introduced by the
English settlers, in honor of William, Prince of Nassau.

CALIFONEE: Cal-i-fo -nee

This name is widely distributed in Florida, and the word
California, at least in local application, is perhaps a variant.


It is applied to Califonee slough in Collier County, to Cali-
fornia Creek which enters the west side of Steinhatchee River
in Taylor County, to California Creek and Swamp just north
of East Bay in Bay County, and to California Creek and Swamp
just north of the mouth of the Suwannee River in Dixie County.

This word as used by the present day Miccosukee Semi-
nole means "Home Camp".


This is a name now obsolete formerly applied to the Blue
Springs,situated four miles northeast of Marianna in Jackson

Calutoble (spring) .. . .. ... .Fernandez, 1678
(Serrano y Saenz, 1913:210)

D elg ado (Boyd, 19 3 7: 22) de sc ribed the spr ing of C alistoble
in 1686. In the Ayala diary of 1693 (Leonard, 1939: 230), Blue
Springs is called the spring of Calistoble. The Chipola River,
into which the spring effluent flows, was shown on the Romans
1776 map of the Southern British Colonies, as the river of

The spring is near the center of the area once occupied
by the Chatot, whose language was almost identical with
Choctaw. Kali = spring of water in Choctaw, and Ishto = big
or large. This combination would signify big spring, and it
was so-called by General Andrew Jackson's army in 1818.
However, this interpretation is not wholly satisfactory, since
it leaves the terminal portion of the word unaccounted for.
Istoble may be compared with Choctaw Ishtoble = poling or
pushing water. The name then would mean pushing or poling
water spring, perhaps indicating that the velocity of the
effluent could not be overcome by paddling.


CALOOSAHATCHEE RIVER: Ca-loo -sa-hat-chee (U.S.G.B.)

The name of a river entering the Gulf of Mexico at the


south end of Charlotte Harbor, after traversing Lee, Hendry,
and Glades Counties. This river was named after the Calusa,
a powerful tribe of native Florida Indians who at the first
arrival of Europeans, inhabited or controlled all of Florida
south of Tampa Bay. The Muscogee ending Hatchee suggests
that the name was accepted and applied to the river by the
Greeks or some other branch of the Muscogees. The Solis
Memorial (Connor, 1923: 151) gives an interesting, although
perhaps erroneous, account of the origin of the word Calusa
as follows:

"The Cacique was called Carlos because
his father was so-called, and his father gave
himself that name because the Christian cap-
tives he had told him that the Emperor Charles
was the greatest King of the Christians. "

From this it has been inferred that Calusa is a corruption
of Carlos.

Fontaneda, a one time captive among them, said that the
name Calusa means "a fierce people",and his interpretation
is more likely correct (Fontaneda, 1944: 12).



This is the name of the ancient Indian village on the site
of which Dr. Andrew Turnbull established the settlement of
New Smyrna, which was named for Smyrna, Asia Minor, birth-
place of his wife. New Smyrna is in Volusia County.

The significance of the name is now unknown.

CATTOCKOWEE HATCHEE: Cat-toc -ko-wee Hat-chee

An obsolete name for a creek flowing into the northwest
end of Lake East Tohopekaliga in Osceola County

Cattockowee Hatchee .. .. .. .Poinsett Map, 1838


The name is derived from the Creek Catakake = bloody,
and Hatchee = stream or creek.


In Herrera's (Davis, 1935: 3) account of the first visit of
Ponce de Leon to the eastern shores of the peninsula to which
he gave the name of Florida, he was informed by the inhabi-
tants that it was called Cautio, a name given to it by the
Lucayans (inhabitants of the Bahamas) because the inhabitants
covered somewhat of their persons with plaited palm leaves
(Fontaneda, 1944: 40 &- S] ).

Minnie Moore Willson (1920: 278) indicated that Florida
is called Kanyuksa by- the Seminoles. This is a word combi-
nation meaning "lands end", from the Creek Ekan = land, and
Yuksa = end of it, or point, which is perfectly applicable to a

CHACALA: Cha-ca -la

The name of a pond onthe southeastern margin of Payne's
Prairie, Alachua County.

Chichill ................ .Williams Map, 1837

A hardwood hammock adjacent to the pond was formerly
known as Chacala Hammock. I am unable to suggest a con-
vincing etymology for this word. A chief called Chikilli re-
lated a Creek migration legend to General Oglethorp in 1735.
The spelling on the Williams map suggests this personal
name may have been the origin of the present Chacala.


CHASSAHOWITZKA: Chas- sa-how-itz -ka

The name of a river, bay, swamp, and point in Citrus
C county.


Chasa-Howitska River .. .. ... .Taylor Map, 1839
Cheeso-witska .. .. ... .. .. .Bruff Map, 1846
Chase Howitska . ... .. .. . avis Map, 1856

A United States Coast and Geodetic Survey chart pub-
lished in 1851 translates the name as Pumpkin Field River.
Read (1934: 4) gives the meaning of the word as "hanging
pumpkin", from the Seminole-Greek Chasi = pumpkin, and
Wiski = hanging loose. The Seminole pumpkin was a climb-
ing variety and the fruit hung down from the vine. The white
man's pumpkin was called Chasi-locko or big pumpkinby the
Seminoles. Read's interpretation does not take in account the
syllable Hou contained in most of the spellings. I believe this
word to be compounded from the Creek Chasi = pumpkin, and
Creek Houwitchka = to open, and its meaning to be "pumpkin
opening (place). "

CHATTAHOOCHEE: Cha-ta-hoo -chee (U.S.G.B.)

The name of an important river arising in Georgia which
is the western affluent of the Apalachicola River, and the
name of a town in Gadsden County, situated near the conflu-
ence of the Chattahoochee and Flint Rivers.

Riviere des Chattaux cidevant
Apalachicolis . ... .. .. .elisle Map, 1718
Chatto Hatcha ... . ... .. .. .Romans Map, 1776

The water of this river carries heavy silt burden giving
it a red coloration, and it is very tempting to associate it
with the Creek Chatte = red, and Hatchee = river, a name
that would be very appropriate. However, this illustrates the
difficulties of translating Indian place-name without early or
original spellings. Hawkins (1848: 52) gave the true meaning
of the word as follows:

"The name of this river is from Chat-to,
a stone, and Ho-cha, marked or flowered, there
being rocks of that description in the river,
above Ho-ith-le-ti-gau at the old town Chat-


CHETOLAH: Che-to -la

The name of a station on the Florida East Coast Railway
in St. Lucie County.

Read (1934: 46) compares this word with the Choctaw
Chitoli = loud or large, but is doubtful of the validity of the
comparison, and suggests that the word may be imported, and
furthermore, is of recent application.

CHICKASAW HATCHEE: Chic -ka-saw Hat-chee

An obsolete name for Taylor Creek, a tributary of the
St. Johns River, which it enters from the west, just below
Lake Poinsett.

Chickasawhatchee .. .. .. .. .oinsett Map, 1838
Chickasaw Hatchee .. .. .. .. Taylor Map, 1839
Chickasaw Hatchee . .. ... . .Bruff Map, 1846

Sprague (1848: 200) gives this name as Chic-asa-Hatchee.

In the Pe~Ya Journal (1949: 18) the old fields in the Apala-
chee country were spoken of as follows:

"These Chicazas abound in cattle, espe-
cially buffalo. The Chicazas (are) rich in fruit
trees, such as figs, peaches, pomegranites,
quinces, medlars, chestnuts, and acorns. "

There can be little doubt that Chicaza (Chickasaw) refers
to an old field or clearing, or place of settlement. In the
Choctaw dialect, Chikki = old, and Asha = to sit or reside.
One of the important places in the Chickasaw territory was
known as the "Chickasaw Old Fields" and the tribal name it-
self may have originated there. The wild plum grows com-
monly in old fields and is called the Chickasaw Plum. The
old name for Taylor Creek, Chickasaw Hatchee, probably
means "Old Field Stream", or stream where there are old
clearings or settlements.


CHICUCHATY: Chic-u-chat -ty

The application of the name is now restricted to part of
tne Annutteliga Hammock (q.v.) lying to the southeast of
Brooksville in Hernando County and to an adjacent prairie.

Chicuchaty ... .. ... ... .Vignoles, 1823: 75

Among the variants are found Checuchatty, Chocochattee,
and Chuccacharts.

This name was originally applied to an early Seminole
village settled by immigrant Creeks from Eufala. The name
means "Red House ", being derived from Creek Choko = house,
and Chata = red, probably referring to their being daubed with
red clay.


An obsolete name for a small stream in Dade County ,
which, before the water levels were lowered by modern drain-
age, served as a canoe route into the lower Everglades. The
Ives map of 1856 shows it as a stream discharging into the
lower end of Biscayne Bay, due west of the southern tip of
Elliot's Key. It is probably the present Little River.

It is surmised that the name Chi is a corruption of that
of an Indian guide to the troops during the Seminole War,
which is variously given as Chiachee or Chai (Sprague, 1848:
380, 393), and Chachi (Ives, 1856: 16). His village, in 1841,
was discovered west of Lake Worth. After his capture he
became a reliable guide for the area adjacent to Key Biscayne.

In the archives of Hillsborough County, is preserved an
1852 order of Governor Thomas Brown, stating that anlndian
by the name of Chi and his wife had been outlawed by their
tribe for acting as guide to the United States troops during
the Indian War; that, since the Government had pledged pro-
tection to the pair, all citizens were required to see that this
was accomplished, and that Chi and his wife should neither
be delivered up to their tribe or sent beyond the linl~its of the
state against their will (Sheppy and Darsay, 1941: 61).


CHILLOCAHATCHEE: Chi-loc-co-hat~ -chee

The obsolete name of Horse Creek, the main western
tributary of Peace River, arising in Hardee County.

The name is derived from Seminole-Creek Cholako=
horse, and Hatchee = creek. Cholako itself is composed of
Creek Echo = deer, and Lakto or Thlako = big. The Creeks
did not adopt the Spanish word for horse as they did for cow,
but coined a word of their own.

CHIPCO: Chip -co

The name of a town and lake in Putnam County, just north
of the town of Interlachen.

Chipco is derived from the Creek Chipco = long. There
was a Seminole chief called Chipco or the "Long Warrior. "

CHIPOLA: Chi-pol -a

The name of a river rising in southeastern Alabama which
flows through Jackson, Calhoun, and Gulf Counties, to dis-
charge into the Apalachicola River.

Chapole. . .Salazar, 1678 (Serrano y Saenz, 1913: 213)
Chan Pooly or Sweet Water. Purcell-StuartMap, 1778
Sweet River. ... .. .. ... .. Tanner Map, 1823
Chamiooly. .............. .Vignoles (1823: 61)

This word is from the Chatot dialect and may be compared
to Choctaw Champuli = sweet. The Chatot language was said
to have been almost identical to Choctaw or Chickasaw.

CHITTOHATCHEE RIVER: Chit-to-hat -chee
This name, now obsolescent, was formerly applied to two
streams in Florida.


(a) The Bruff map of 1846 shows a stream with this name
discharging into the swampy area at the head of the St. Johns
River, apparently arising in the present Osceola County. It
appears to be that now known as Ten Mile Creek.

(b) The Ives map of 1856 applied the name to a stream
in Monroe County that now appears as the Rodger's River.

The name is translated as "Snake Creek", from Creek
Chitto = snake, and Hatchee = creek or river.

Chue- uh- nic/ -la

An obsolete name applied to a forgotten Indian village
situated on the west bank of the Apalachicola River. From
1823 to 1838 the bounds of the northernmost of the two Indian
reservations on this river, embraced this village. This was
situated in Jackson County.

Choconicla ..................Bruff Map, 1846

Choconicla is derived from Creek Chuko = house, and
Nakla = burnt. During the Seminole War this name was also
borne by a fort or block-house situated just north of Wauchula
in Hardee County.

Two Indian bands were accommodated on this reserva-
tion. The head man of Choconicla was known to the whites as
the Mulatto King or Vacca Pechasse. The Muskhogee adopted
the Spanish word Vaca = cow, and Pechasse appears to be
from the Creek Puchase = master or keeper. His alternative
name thus meant Cowkeeper, but he was not thus identified
by the whites, although the earliest chief of the Alachua
Seminoles was more commonly known as Cowkeeper than as
Ahaya (Swanton, 1922: 411).

CHOKOLOSKEE: Chuk-uh-lus -kee

The name givento an island off the coast of Collier County.


Chokoliska.. ... ... .. .. ... ...Ives Map, 1856

The name is derived from Creek Chuko = house, and
Leske = old.

CHOCTAWHATCHEE RIVER and BAY: Chok-taw-hatch -ee

This name is given to a river rising in southeastern Ala-
bama near the Florida line, which discharge s into the eastern
end of the bay of the same name, adjacent to the Gulf of Mexico
in West Florida. The bay was formerly called Santa Rosa.

Chacta-hatchi or Pea River
(See Talak Hatchee).. .. .. .. .Gauld (1769: 25)
River Chatto Hatcha. ... .. .. .Romans Map, 1774
Matto Hatcha. .. .. .. .. .. .Romans (1776: 302)
Choctaw Hatchee.. .. .. .Purcell-Stuart Map, 1778

In its present form this name simply means river of the
Choctaws. However the Chatot actually lived in its vicinity,
and in the Milan Tapia journal of 1693 (Leonard, 1939: 291)
the stream is referred to as Chicasses.

Romans is ambiguous in his employment of the name
Matto Hatcha having stated:

"In the east end of this bay (i.e. Santa Rosa
Bay = Choctawhatchee Bay) is Matto Hatcha;
which last running E. and W. makes the eastern
shore of Pensacola entrance. (Romans, 1776:

The location given plus the name Hatcha would indicate that
the name is synonymous with Choctawhatchee, but since he
employs the latter name on his 1774 map, it appears likely,
from his allusion to "the eastern shore ", that through a type-
setter's omission, his text at this point is defective.

In the Cusabo country of South Carolina there was a
stream called Chichessee that emptied into the ocean at Port


Royal, and there may be some connection between the South
Carolina and Florida names. It is more likely, however, that
the present name is due to the corruption of Chatot to Choctaw.

CHOLAPULKA: Chol- a-pul -ka

An obsolete name once applied to the pine timber that
formerly stood in the immediate vicinity of Cork Screw
Mar sh in Lee County.

Cholapulka. ................. .Ives Map, 1856

The journal of C.R. Gates has the following entry (Sprague,
1848: 360):

"December 4, marched 16 miles to a pine
ridge (Cho- a- la- p-ul-ka). "

The name is from Creek Chule = pine, and Ulga = grove.

CHULUOTA: Chu-loo-o -ta

The name of a village in Seminole County.

Chuluota. ................. .Norton (1891: 68)

The word may signify pine tree, from the Creek Chule=
pine, and Eto = tree. However, I believe the second element
is from the Creek Ote = island. From earliest times in
Florida, an open area of pine surrounded by hardwoods or
other dissimilar vegetation has been called a pine island. The
usage is still prevalent among hunters and woodsmen.

CHUMUKLA: Chu-muk -la

The name given to a village and spring in Santa Rosa


The name appears to be of recent application.

As Read (1934: 46) suggests, this word resembles the
Creek Ghumuklita = to bow the head to the ground, implying
the existence of an early place of worship.


In the Works Progress Administration Florida Guide
(1939: 419) it is indicated that the site of Bronson, the county
seat of Levy County, was originally called Chunky Pond, and
in 1844 was renamed Bronson after an early settler.

The Creeks were very fond of a gambling game called
Chunky and the game was commonly played on ceremonial
occasions when there might also be dancing. A smooth level
area was required for playing the game, such as is often
found as a small prairie or meadow, surrounding many Florida
lakes and ponds. While the significance of the name relates
to the game, and since the sites and occasions were also
appropriate for dancing, it may be that, as suggested by the
guide book, the name came to embrace dancing as well.




The name applied to a short river in Collier County which
empties into the Gulf of Mexico through Wiggins Pass below
Bonita Springs, to which the name of Horse Creek is often

The current name is contracted from the Creek Cholako =
horse, and Hatchee = creek.




A name formerly applied to Middle River in Broward
County, and to a station (now Midriver or Middle River) on
the Seaboard Air Line, and to a village (now Oakland Park)
on the Florida East Coast Railway, both in the same county.

Read (1934: 47) gives a possible derivation of the name
as from Seminole-Creek Kala = white oak, and Hatchee=
creek. Another possibility is that the name maybe a corrup-
tion of Creek Colowa = colored, and Hatchee = creek.


The Seminole s called the coastal area between New River
and the Miami River in Broward and Dade Counties, the
Coonti grounds (Sprague, 1848: 388). Here they found the
tubers of the native cycad (Zamia integrifolia and related
species), which they called Kunte Hatke or white flour root,
and of various species of Smilax or Kunte Chatte or red flour
root, which constituted their most important farinaceous food.



This name is given to an island and a slough in Hills-
borough County, along the middle course of the Hillsborough
River, and to a swamp in Section 22, Township 1 South, Range
17 East, in Columbia County. Although in English, they repre-
sent the translations of Seminole expressions. An enclosure
of relatively small size for the detention of cattle, variously
called a cattle lot or pen in the Middle West, a cowpen in the
lower colonial South, a corral by the Spanish (corrupted to
crawl in the British West Indies), was called Wacca Hute or
"Cow House" by the Seminoles. The expression cowhouse is
still in use in Florida for such an enclosure. An analagous
expression is the name of Hog House Bay, applied to a swamp
lying in Sections 19 and 29, Township 13 South, Range 31 East,
in Flagler County. These names, like Fish Eating Creek,
which will be discussed later, are interesting relics frorn
earlier times.






The name given to a swamp lying northeast of Waukeena
in Jeff er son County.

If this name is of Seminole origin rather than an impor-
tation, it may be derivect from the Creek Chufa = rabbit.




EBTENCHATCHEE CREEK: Eb-ten-chat -chee

A lagoon-like waterway extending from the north end of
Lake Worth to Jupiter Inlet in Palm Beach County.

In a letter written in 1847 by George McKay to Bucking-
ham Smith (Sen. Doc. 89, 62-1; 1911: 65), this stream was
called Ebtenchatchee. This name clearly contains the Creek
word Hatchee = creek, and possibly Tenepe, meaning smooth,
or smooth creek.


A small stream which rises in Pasco County, and flows
into the Gulf of Mexico through the coast of Pinellas County.

Tatsala Creek. ... .. .. .. .Williams Map, 1837
Anclote or Ethas-Hotee River .. .. Taylor Map, 1839
Ech-hash-hotee or Anclote River. .Bruff Map, 1846
Beaver Creek. .. .. .. .U.S.C. & G.S. Chart, 1851
Echas-hotee. .. .. .. .. .. . ... .Davis Map, 1856


The name Tatsala given on the Williams map, is very
likely a corruption of the Creek Chastale = water melon.
There was a Seminole town in this area called Totstala-
Hoeetska or water melon opening (place). The name appears
on the Bell list of Seminole towns compiled in 1821 (Swanton,
1922: 406). The river probably derived the name of Tatsala
from this town.

Echas-Hotee is derived from Creek Echas = beaver, and
Hute = house or den. The Seminoles called the manatee
Echaswa, and the name may have originally related to this
animal rather than to the beaver, although the evidence
appears to indicate otherwise.
Anclote is the Spanish word for a grapnel or kedge anchor.

ECONFINA (1), ECONFENA (2): E-con-fee -nee
The first name is applied to a small river in Bay County
and to a village in the same county, the second is applied to
a smallriver in Taylor County. They have an identical deri-

Ekanfinna (Bay County) ... ..Vignoles Map, 1823
Aikinfinnah (Taylor County) . ...Gauld Chart, 1823
Chattahatchee River
(Taylor County).. .. .. .. .Williams Map, 1837
St. Pedro or Chattahatchie River
(Taylor County)... .. . .. .Tanner Map, 1825
Confina (Taylor County). ... .Bradford Atlas, 1838
Enconfina (Taylor County). .. .. .. .Bruff Map, 1846

There can be little doubt that the present Econfina of
Taylor County is the stream called Chattahatchee by Williams
(1837: 48) for he stated "The Chattahatchee or Stony River
takes its course southwestwardly from Sampala Pond which
the Spaniards called San Pedro. Vignoles (1823: 55), called
the stream Chattahatchee or Saint Pedro River. The name
Chattahatchee is of Creek origin and signifies Rock River,
from Creek Achatto = stone, and Hatchee = creek or river.

The name Econfina is a Creek designation for natural
bridge from Creek Ekana = earth, and Feno = bridge or footlog,
and it is translated as Natural B ridge on the Bruff map of 1846.


EC ONLOC KHATCHEE : E- con- lock- hat' -che e (U. S.B .G. N. )

A western tributary of the St. Johns River which arises
in Orange County and traverses Seminole County to its point
of discharge.

Econ-like-hatchee. .. ... .. ..Taylor Map, 1839
Econ-like-hatchee. . .. .. .. .Bruff Map, 1846
Econ-tika-hochee. .. .Surveyor General's Map, 1856

On the Bruff map the name is translated as Mound River.
Read (1934: 8), employing the spelling of the Taylor map,
concluded the derivation is from the Creek Ekana = earth,
Laiki = site or mound, and Hatchee = creek.

EKANACHATTE: E-kan -a-chat-te (RED LANDS)

The name of an Indian village of about 1778 situated on
the west bank of the Chattahoochee River, just south of the
later Alabama-Florida boundary.

Ekanachatte. ... .. .. .Purcell-Stuart Map, 1778

The name is derived from the Creek Ekana = earth, and
Chate = red. Although portions of Jackson County are known
as "Red Lands from the color of their soils, it seems unlikely
that this site derived its name in this manner, as its soil is
sandy. The name is more likely derived from immigrant
people from the uppermost Alabama town on the Alabama
River, known as E-cun-chate, who moved to Florida about
1778. The site may have been occupied as late as Jackson's
1818 raid into Florida. The head man of this town, known as
Ekanachattemico, continued in this area until his emigration
west in 1838, but previously thereto occupied a town called
Totowithla, situated on a reservation granted him in 1823 on
the west bank of the Chattahoochee River, a short distance
above the confluence.

EMATHLA: E-math -la

The name given to a small community in Marion County.


As a consequence of the detailed exploration of little
known peninsular Florida by the United States Army during
the Seminole War from 1836 to 1842, a great many place-
names perpetuate the memory of Army Officers who were
active during the war, and of the principal leaders of the
Seminoles who opposed them.

One of these Seminole leaders who, however, was not a
hostile, wa~s Emathla, or Charley Emathla, who as a conse-
quence of his advocacy of emigration, incurred the enmity of
those who had decided to oppose the Government's policy of
removal. Late in 1835 Charley Emathla was murdered by a
party of Indians led by Osceola. This was one of the events
which initiated the hostilities of this war.

Emathla or 'Imala is a Creek busk title signifying leader.
In this instance the name Charley is a corruption of the Creek
Tsala or Chalo = trout, probably expressive of the individual's
clan. The settlement of Charley Emathla was in the vicinity
of this community.


This name is given to a creek in Liberty County tributary
to the Apalachicola River.

I believe this name to be the same as Wepolokse, a Semi-
nole word meaning round water or pond, as it is derived from
Creek Wewa = water, and Polokse = round.

ESCAMBIA: Es-cam -bi-ah

The name of a river and county in West Florida.

River Escambe ... .. .. .. ..Romans Map, 1774
River Scambia.. .. .. .. .. . .Gauld Chart, 1780

On the Siguenza map of 1693 the name of this river is given
as the Rio de Jovenazo, apparently honoring the Duke of


Jovenazo, at that time member of the war committee e in Madrid.
Contemporaneously it also was referred to as the Pensacola
River (Leonard, 1939: 235). Although the word might be de-
rived from the Spanish Cambiar = to exchange or barter, it
more likely has an Indian origin, even though the derivation
is unknown. Justification for this belief is afforded by the
existence in Apalachee during the mission period, of an Indian
village~ called San Cosmo y San Damian de Escambe (or
Scambe). It is possible that the prefixed "E" represents the
Spanish pronunciation of the letter "S" when before a con-


ESTIFFANULGA: Es-tif -fan-ulga

The name of a rural community in Liberty County on the
east bank of the Apalachicola River. The name is possibly
of recent application.

Read (1934: 9) suggests that it possibly is derived from
the Creek Isfanalgi, which is a corruption of Creek Ispani=
Spaniard, and Algi = clan. This calls to mind Woodward's
statement that the Indians called a site on the Apalachicola
River Spanny Wakka (Woodward, 1859: 17), which he said
meant "The Spaniards lay there. This place cannot now be


The name applied to a stream of Monroe County, the mouth
of which discharges into the Gulf in the southern part of the
Ten Thousands Islands.

This stream is shown on the Ives map of 1856 as Eto-
isallee-howeth-ta, which is the Seminole Indian name for the
mangrove trees, and is composed of the Greek E~to = tree,
Estelle = foot, and Honleta = twisted together, or the trees
with twisted feet, a most appropriate name for the red man-
grove and for the broad river which has a forest of red man-
grove on its bank.


ETONIA: E-ton -i-a

A name applied to a lake and creek in Putnam County.

Ettini Ponds . .... .. ... .Williams Map, 1837
Eton- ai- ah or "Go Elsewhere" Sc rub..B ruff Map, 1 846
Eton-ai-ah. ................ .Davis Map, 1856

The Bruff map of 1846 locates Eton-ai-ah scrub west of
the headwaters of Etonia Creek and translates the word as
"Go Elsewhere" Scrub.

The name is a Muskogee word combination composed of
Atan = from, and Aia = go, or go elsewhere. There is a
Choctaw word Atanya = go, and the form Etonia is possibly
Hitchiti. This seems to have been a Seminole term for scrub.
Eton Lake and Eton Creek in Marion County are in the Big
Oklawaha Scrub. These names may have been corrupted from
Atan- aia.

This derivation is confirmative of the translation which
appears on the Bruff map as noted. While this is plausible,
attention should be called to an alternative derivation. The
Simmons (1822) vocabulary of the Seminole language gives
the word Itteniah = lake, with Wepalokesi as a synonym, but
does not indicate the actual language from which derived. The
quotation from Williams (1837) in the following paragraph,
ind ic ate s that from another viewpoint, the applic ation is highly

Williams (1837: 60) gives the following enlightening state-
ment concerning the Etonia Ponds:

"The Ettini Ponds are a large cluster of
all sizes and shapes up to four or five miles
in extent. They extend south of the Okawilla
Savanna to the Orange Lake Creek. They de-
rive their name from atribe of Seminole Indi-
ans whose towns were situated among them. "

Swanton related (1922:412) that inl1824 there was a Semi-
nole village called Etanie in the neighborhood of Etonia Cree~k,
under a chief called Checota Hadjo. He remarked that this
name recalls the word Utina, a synonym for Timucua. It is
possible that the last surviving Timucuans withdrew to this
locality when they withdrew from the Tomoka River, the site
of their last historical settlement.


ETOTOWAIKEE: E-to-to-wa-i -kee

On the Bruff map this name is applied to a creek flowing
into the St. Johns River marshes from the west, just south
of Archinnertopho (Crabgrass) Creek, apparently in what is
now Osceola County. I am uncertain of the contemporary
designation of this stream, as this name is now obsolete.

Eto-toe-wal-kee . .. .. . ... .Poinsett Map, 1838
Eto-to-waikee .............. .Bruff Map, 1846

The meaning of this name is given as "Fallen Tree Creek. "
It is derived from the Creek Eto = tree, Towe = old, and
Wakkee = lying down, the entire combination signifying "old
fallen tr ee trunks or snag s. "

EUCHEE and EUGHEEANNA: You-chee; You-chee-anna

The names of a creek, a valley, and a village in Walton

Uchee Anna. ............... .Davis Map, 1856
Uchee Anna.. ... .. .. ... .Norton (1894: 100)

The Euchee, Uchee, or Yuchi were a tribe of Indians who
formerly lived along the Choctawhatchee River. The name
Yuchi means "at a distance", and it is thought to have come
about because when asked by other Indians where they came
from, the reply was Yui-tci meaning "at a distance (Swanton,
1922: 287). These Indians came into Florida from the north
in very early times and their language was not related to
Muskogee. The creek, a tributary of the Choctawhatchee
River, is now known as Bruce Creek.


FAHKAHATCHEE: Fack-ah-hat -chee (U.S.G.B.)

The name given to abay, a swamp, and a river in Collier
C county.


Fah-kah-hatchee or Muddy Creek ..Ives Map, 1856

Another stream named Fah- kah-hatchee-ochee, possibly
the present Lostman's River, is snown on this map as several
miles south of the Fakkahatchee. These names are derived
from Creek Fakka = clay or mud, and Hatche = creek. The
ending Ochee on the second stream is the Muscogee diminu-


FENHOLLOWAY: Fen-hollow -way

The name given to a small river and a village in Taylor

Hatcha Hallowaggay ... .. .. .Romans Map, 1774
Slippery Log Creek. .. ... .. .Young (1935: 146)
Fena Holloway.. .. .. .. .Bradford Atlas, 1835

Read (1934: 10) gives the meaning of this word as High
Bridge. It is derived from Creek Fena = foot log or bridge,
and Halhauwe = high.



FUKECHATTE LEYGE: Fuck- e-chat -te-ley-ge

This is the obsolete and forgotten aboriginalname for the
upper reaches of the Blackwater River in Okaloosa County,
which on the Purcell-Stuart map, is erroneously indicated as
being a tributary of the Yellow River.

Fukechatte Leyge or
Red Clay Creek. .. .Purcell-Stuart Map, 1778

Fukechatte Leyge is derived from the Creek Fakka = clay,
Chatte = red, and Laiki = site, meaning "Red Clay Place. "



This interesting place-name, now obsolete, appears on
some early maps of the Seminole War period, and is located
approximately midway between Peace Creek and the coast,
about 10 or 15 miles north of Charlotte Harbor.

As the Ives map indicates a mound in a marsh at about
the same position, I surmise that this name relates to a burial
mound. It is composed of Creek Fune = bone, Hitchiti Oki=
water, and Creek Copoksa = heap, meaning "Bone Heap Water
(Marsh). "



This is an obsolete name for a small river of Lee County
which discharges into Estero Bay.

Sanybal River .. .. .. .. .. .Williams Map, 1837

The manuscript sketch map by J.W.A. of a scout in 1857
by Colonel St. George's command, applies the name Hacana
Halwa Hatchee to what appears to be the present Estero River.
This name is compounded from Creek Ikana = earth, Halway=
high, and Hatchee = creek, meaning "High Land Greek. Ikana-
Halwe or tall earth is also a Creek designation for a mound.
There is a high mound on the island at the mouth of this

The name Sanibel is of considerable antiquity along this
coast having been applied by Romans to an adjacent coastal
island (Sanybel) on his map of 1774. The derivation and sig-
nificance of this name are unknown.


(a) The name of a stream of Dade County, which dis-
charges into Garfield Bight on the southern coast.


Halbatahatchee. ... .. .. .. .. ..Ives Map, 1856

On the U.S.C. and G.S. Chart 1250, the course of this
stream is traceable from Garfield Bight into West Lake, from
there canoes could have been taken into Whitewater Bay
through the intervening marsh. The Ives map indicates that
this creek reached Whitewater Bay. It was likely a canoe
route. The old name Halbatahatchee is a corruption of Creek
Halpata = alligator, and Hatchee = creek.

(b) The name of a stream in Charlotte County just south
of Punta Gorda.

Hal-Patah Hatchee.. . .... . .. .Bruff Map, 1846

The name is of identical derivation.

HALPATA: Hal-pat -ah (LAKE CITY)

The early name of the county seat of Columbia County,
known since 1859 (Guide to the Southernmost State, 1939: 433)
as Lake City.

This city was built on the site of an early Seminole village
known as Halpata or Alligator. The head man of this town
was known as Halpatter Tustenugee. His name signified
" Allig ato r W ar rior ", fr om Halpata = allig ato r, and Ta stanage =
warrior. A lake near the city known as Alligator Lake, was
named after this chief.

HALPATIOKEE MARSH: Hal-pat-i-o -kee

This large marsh lies west of the north fork of the St.
Lucie River in St. Lucie County.

Alpatickee Swamp. .. .. . .. .Taylor Map, 1839

Read (1934: 11i) interprets this name Alligator Water, from


Halpata = alligator, and Oki = water. Read ascribes Halpata
to Hitchiti, and it well may have been a word common to both
Greek and Hitchiti.


This is an obsolete name for the St. Lucie River in St.
Lucie and Martin Counties.

Halpatiokee River.. ... .. .. .. .Ives Map, 1856

On the Ives map of 1856 the north prong of this river is
called the North Halpatiokee River and the south prong is
called the South Halpatiokee River. Read (1934: 11) trans-
lates this name Alligator stream, from Hitchiti Halpata =
alligator, and Oki = water.



The obsolete name of a creek in Hillsborough County.
There is confusion regarding the stream to which it was
applied, whether it was the Bull Frog Creek of the present
day, or the Little Manatee River. Furthermore the name
Totaulguhatchee or Bay Creek (q.v.) was also applied to this

Happatunnee River or
Bullfrog River. ..U.S. Coast Survey Report, 1851
Happatunnee Hatchee
(Little Manatee River) .. .. ..Ives Map, 1856

Happatunnee is a corruption of Creek Apatana = bull frog,
Hatchee, is creek or small river.



The name given to a tidal stream of Monroe County dis-
charging into Whitewater Bay.


Hatchee chopko or Shark River ..Sprague (1848: 381)

These names cannot be regarded as equivalents, as the
former is derived from Creek Hatchee = creek, and Chapke =
long, or long creek. On the Tanner map of 1823 this stream
is named the Cape Sable River.

HATCHEE LUSTEE CREEK: Hat-chee-1ust -ee

A stream of Osceola County, flowing into Hatchineha Lake
from the north.

Hatchee Lustee Creek . .... .Poinsett Map, 1838

This name is derived from Creek Hatchee = creek, Luste =
black, meaning "Black Creek. "

HATCHINEHA, LAKE: Hatch- i-ne -ha

The name of a lake in the Kissimmee system, lying north
of Lake Kissimmee on the east side of Polk County. On some
maps it is given the name of Cypress Lake.

Hatchineha is a corruption of the Creek Achenaho=


The name of a creek in Holmes County, tributary to the
Choctawhatchee River.

Hatchee Thlako .. . ... .Purcell-Stuart Map, 1778

This name is from the Creek Hatchee = creek, and Thlako=
big. The present name is also of Indian origin, hurricane
being derived from Huracan, the name of the Storm God of
the Quiche Indians, one of the Mayan tribes of Guatemala.
Thus it is an introduction.




The name of a town in Dade County.

It is said to mean pretty prairie, and appears to be an
extended version of the Miccosukee word Hiatlee = prairie.


The name of an island in Lake Tsala Apopka in Citrus

The Miccosukee chief Tokose Emathla was known to the
whites as John Hicks. When Governor Duval deposed
Neamathla as head chief of the Seminoles, he appointed John
Hicks as his successor. Hicks was friendly to the whites,
and kept the obstreporous elements under control. In 1825
the Indians confirmed this appointment by an election. How-
ever the supporters of the deposed Micanopa, Neamathla's
predecessor, stimulated a great deal of opposition to Hicks,
and under obscure circumstances Micanopa appears to have,
by 1832, ousted Hicks. Hicks died late in 1832.

His Indian name is derived from Takosalgi = mole clan,
and Emathla = leader.

HICKPOCHEE, LAKE: Hic-po -chee

The name of a lake west of Lake Okeechobee in Glades

Hiok-po -che. .(B. Smith, 1848: 111)
Hickpochee or Little Prairie Lake. ..Ives Map, 1856

This word is compounded of Creek Hiyakpo = prairie, and
Chee = little.




HILOLO: Hi-10 -lo

This name was given to a station on an abandoned branch
line of the Florida East Coast Railway in northeastern Okee-
chobee County. It was of modern application. The meaning
of this word, according to the Willson vocabulary (1920: 269),
is curlew.


Phonetic rendering of the Spanish Jobe or Jove, a name
applied to the inlet and to the Indians who lived in its vicinity.
Another anglicizedversion is Hoe Bay. In the 18th century it
was called Jupiter or Grenville River by the English. The
name Jupiter may reflect the opinion that the name Jove re-
ferred to the principal god of Grecian mythology. The deri-
vation and meaning are unknown.


The obsolete name of a lake in Alachua County.

Hog Master's Lake. .. . .... .Williams Map, 1837
Lake Charles. .............. .Bruff Map, 1846

Gainesville was called Hogtown in 1830 (Guide to the
Southernmost State, W.P.A., 1939: 381). The Hogtown Creek
and Prairie near Gainesville stillbear the name. All of these
names originated during Indian occupation of the area. The
Hogmaster, like the Cowkeeper, was a Seminole chief.


HOLOPAW: Ho-10paw/

This is the name of a former station on an abandoned
branch line of the Florida East Coast Railway in Osceola


This is another Seminole word of recent application, evi-
dently taken from the Willson vocabulary (1920: 262), in which
the meaning is given as "walk or pavement", a circumstance
which raises the conjecture whether this word itself is of
relatively recent creation by the Indians.


This name is applied to a river, a spring, a village, an
island, and a point in Citrus County.

Homosassa River .. .. .. .. Taylor Map, 1839
Homosassa River ... ... .. .. .Davis Map, 1856
Homosassa or Pepper River .U.S. Coast Survey, 1851

Read (1934: 12) derived this name from Seminole-Creek
Homo = pepper, and Sase = there is, or freely translated,
"Pepper Place. "






HYPOLUXO: Hypo-lux-o

The name of a station on the Florida East Coast Railway
in Palm Beach County, which was formerly applied to an
island in Lake Worth.

Read (1934: 49) translates this word as "Round Mound"
from the Seminole-Creek Hapo = mound, and Poloksi = round.

IAMONIA: Am-on -ya (U.S.G.B.)

This name has an extended application in Middle Florida.


It is applied to a lake and a rural community in Leon County,
to a river and a slough below Blountstown in Calhoun County,
and to a lake (in West 1/2 of Section 36, Township 1 South,
Range 4 East) in Jefferson County.

La Harmonia (Lake) . .. .Purcell-Stuart Map, 1778
Lake Hamony . .. .. ... .. .. .Bruff Map, 1846

Read (1934: 12) makes the following statement regarding
this name:

"Hiamonee was the name of an ancient
Seminole town, situated on the east bank of the
Ochlockonee River, 5 miles below the Georgia
line. This name seems to be connected with
the tribal name Yamassee, which signifies
'mild, peaceable', from Creek `Yamasi. "

Swanton (1922: 106) cites the form Yamane as applied to
a village near Mobile in 1744, and called attention to the
registration of the baptism of a Hiamase child in the Mobile
parish register for 1728. The resemblance between lamonia
and Yamane is striking, and affords convincing evidence of
their relationship.


This is the name of a now forgotten Apalachian village,
probably situated in eastern Jefferson County adjacent to the
village of Lamont. The name is encountered for a period of
nearly two centuries, being first brought to attention in the
De Soto narratives, and extends to the destruction of the
Apalachee settlements in 1704. Its people appear to have
been firmer in their attachment to the Spanish during these
raids than any other of the Apalachee Indians, as they of all
were the only ones to withdraw to the vicinity of St. Augustine
as the raids intensified, although it is doubtful whether any
finally survived.

According to Gatschet (1878: 491) the name is Timucuan
rather than Apalachian, and means "Black Lake. "


ILLAHAW: Ill-ah -ha

This name was given to a station on an abandoned branch
line of the Florida East Coast Railway in Osceola County.

This was selected from the Willson (1920: 264) Seminole
vocabulary, and means "orange" (see Yalaha).

IMMOKALEE: Im-mok -a-lee

The name of a village in Collier County.

The site of this village was called Gopher Ridge in 1869
(A Guide to the Southernmost State, W.P.A., 1939: 481).

This word is probably Miccosukee-Seminole, and is said
to mean "his home" or "his people. "



A former village of Gulf County which was situated on
the Apalachicola River, between that stream and the Dead

Iolee. ................. .Swanton (1922: 411)

This approximated the site of a Seminole settlement origi-
nally occupied by John Blount (See Lafarka) in 1823, before
his removal to the reservation at the site of the present

Read (1934: 13) interprets this as Yahola, from an older
spelling, Yauollee. Yahola was a ceremonial cry uttered dur-
ing the distribution of the "black drink" at the busk, and often
formed part of the title of chiefs. (Cf. Asi Yahola from which
the name of Osceola was corrupted.)



ISTACHATTA: Ista-chat -ta

The name of a settlement in Hernando County.

This name is a combination of Creek Iste = man, and
Chatta = red, or "red man" or Indian.

ISTOKPOGA, LAKE: Iss-toc-po -ga (U.S.B.G.N.)

The name of a lake in Highlands County.

Istopoga .. .. .. .. ... .. .Bradford Atlas, 1835
Istokpoga. .. .. .. .. .. . ... .Poinsett Map, 1838
Istokpoga. .. .. .. .. ... .. Taylor Map, 1839

On the Poinsett map of 1838 this name is rendered as
"Drowned Man's Lake. If the spelling given in the Bradford
Atlas may be accepted as the least corrupted, the word would
be derived from Creek Iste = man, and Poga = finished, sig-
nifying "a dead man. "

There was formerly an Upper Creek town in the present
State of Alabama called Istapoga, arid the Florida name might
be an adaptation from this source.


An obsolete name once applied to Reedy Lake in Polk

Lake Istokpogayokia. ... .. . Apthorp Map, 1877
Isto poga yokee. ... .. .. .Land Office Map, 1883
Lake Itso poga yoxee (Reedy Lake). .Colton Map, 1887
Itso poga yoxee. . .. . ... ... .Norton Map, 1894

In the last two inscriptions two letters are inverted in the
spelling of the first element, which should belIsto. This name
may be the Creek combination Iste = man, Poga = finished or


dead, and Chee = little, or "Little Dead Man" lake. The in-
version of letters noted justifies a query as to whether the
last element is correctly given as yoxee or should be yokia
or yokee, for Creek Yuksa = point. In this case the name
would signify "Dead Man Point. In the event yoxee is the
correct rendering, it is probable that the "X" has been sub-
stituted for "CH. Thus in the name Fah-kah-hatchee- ochee
the terminal element contains the Creek diminutive Chee
preceded by the glide letter "O" which in pronunciation is
almost indistinguishable from the ending Yoxee (Yochee) found
in the name under consideration.

ITABO: I-ta -bo

This is the name of a station on the Atlantic Coast Line
Railroad near Citronelle in Citrus County.

The absence of the name from early maps suggests that
it is of recent application. Itabo was a town visited by De
Soto in central Alabama, a day or two after his departure
from Coosa. The name was spelled Ytaua (or Ytava) by Elvas
(De Soto Comn. Rep. 1939: 51). Read conjectures that Ytaua
is probably a corruption of Creek Italwa = a town or tribe.

ITCHEPACKESASSA: Itch-e-puck-ah-sas -sa (U.S.B.G.N.)

The name applied to a stream and a forgotten Creek village
in northeastern Hillsborough County.

Hitchi-puc-sasy. .. ... .. .Searcy's Map, 1828
Hitchipucksassa . .. ... .. . aylor Map, 1839

This name may be compounded from Creek Hecha-Pakwa =
tobacco pipe, and Sase = there is. Norton (1894: 375) trans-
lated this name as tobacco field. The Creek word for flower
is Puk-puk-e, and the spelling on the Searcy map indicates
that the word is derived from the Creek Heche = tobacco,
Puc = blossom, and Sasse = there are, or loosely translated,
"tobacco field place. "


ITCHTUCKNEE: Itch-tuck -nee

The name of a spring and its effluent river, the rise
occurring in southwestern Columbia County, while the effluent
flows in a southwestwardly course to empty into the Santa Fe
River, its channel forming the boundary between Columbia
and Suwannee Counties.

Weechatooka and
Weechatookame. .. ..Purcell-Stuart Map, 1778
Weechotomakee . .. . .. .. mannerr Map, 1823
Weechatomoka Creek. .. . ... .Vignoles (1823: 64)
Itchetucknee. .. .. .... . .. .Taylor Map, 1839
Hitchatuckennee .. .. ... .. .Sprague (1848: 272)

The varied spelling s indicate that the name s have different
derivations. Although the later spellings seem to contain the
Creek word for tobacco, Heche, all of the earlier spellings
indicate a different meaning. The river seems to have taken
its name from a Seminole town at its mouth.

I believe this name to be composed of Creek Wa = water,
Echas =beaver, and Toka or Tomeka = because of, or caused
by, the whole word meaning beaver pond. The remains of
beaver are still common in the bed of the stream.

Jackson Lewis, an old Hitchiti Indian who was one of
Swanton's (1922: 403) informants, pronounced the name
Oetcotukni, and translated it as "where there is a pond of
water. Since no naturalpond exists near the river, the pond
was probably a beaver pond which no longer exists.





KANAPAHA: Kan- ap '-a-haw

The name given to a settlement, a prairie, a lake, and to
sinks in Alachua County.


Kanapahaw. .. ... .. .. ... .Taylor Map, 1839

The ancient Province of Potano, within which region this
place-name occurs, was inhabited by Timucua Indians. I
believe the name Kanapaha to be a relic from that period.
Compare the Timucua words Cani = palmetto leaves, and
Paha = house. The Timucuans built large structures of poles
thatched with palmetto leaves, or of bark.


KISSIMMEE: Kis-sim -mee

The name of a river, a lake, and of a town in Osceola
County, of which it is the county seat. The river is the prin-
cipal affluent of Lake Okeechobee.

Cacema Town ... .. .. .. . ... .Moll Map, 1720
Casseeme. ................... .Miller, 1837
(Am. St. Papers, Mil. Af. 1861: VII -840)

The appearance of the name Cacema Town in a note on the
face of the Moll map of 1720, descriptive of one of the Indian
raids into the peninsula under the leader ship of the Carolinean
Capt. Thomas Nairn, indicates that the name is of consider-
able antiquity. On the map the town is assigned a position
to the south of a large lake situated about on the latitude of
Tampa Bay. Since the note does not mention any slaves cap-
tured at that point, the town probably had been an earlier
victim of these raids.

The name is probably derived from one of the native
F lor ida dialect s, probab ly the C alus a, but now c annot be tr ans-

KOLOKEE: Ko-lo -kee

The name givento a settlement adjacent to the abandoned
branch line of the Florida East Coast Railway in Seminole

Kolokee is the Seminole word for lamp (Willson, 1920: 260).



The name of a lake in eastern Polk County.

Tiger Lake ................ .Davis Map, 1856
Tiger Lake. ............... .Norton (1894: 77)

The Spanish name for the panther is El Tigre. Kosta is
derived from the Greek Katcha = tiger or panther.


The name of a lake situated several miles north of Mur-
dock near the Sarasota-Charlotte County line.

Kotok Taikee or Island Lake .. .. .Bruff Map, 1846

A reference to what appears to be this lake is found in
Sprague's Florida War (1848: 385):

"The In-to-kee-tah or deer driving place,
is a pretty lake with an island of perhaps 100
acres of good land."

The common Muscogean word for deer is Echo. I believe
both In-to-kee-tah and Kotok Taikee to be corruptions of the
Creek word combination Echo = deer, Ak = down, and Atchke =
driven, or "Deer Driving Place."


The name of a town in Pasco County.

This word is a contraction of Withlacoochee.


Lafarka, (or Lafauka according to Woodward) was the
Indian name of the Indian, presumably a half-breed, known to


the whites as John Blount (Woodward, 1859: 153). According
to General Jackson, he was a native of Tuckabatchee, of the
Upper Creeks. He evidently fled to Florida during the Greek
War to avoid the Red Sticks, and settled on the Apalachicola
River, his village being known as Iloa (q.v.). Here he was
assailed by the fugitive Red Sticks and despoiled of his prop-
erty and family. He fled to Fort Scott, and served with Colonel
Clinch in the operations against the "Negro Fort." Jackson
declared that Blount and his Indian comrades served as
"pilots" to him in his 1818 Florida operation, and it is likely
that from this service he derived the title of "Colonel. Sub-
sequent to this campaign he was sent on a trip to Washington.
At the treaty of Moultrie Creek in 1823 he was granted a re-
serve on the west bank of the Apalachicola River. Here he
and his band peacefully resided, although they were victimized
by white slave hunter s, by whom they were robbed of numerous
Negroes. He relinquished his reservation in 1832 for a com-
pensation, and emigrated with his band to Texas in 1834, dying
shortly after removal. The village on the reservation was
also known as Iloa. The present Blountstown is located on
the abandoned reservation.








An obsolete name for a lake in Polk County.

Locha apopka. .. .. .. .. .. ... .Ives Map, 1856

Read (1934: 16) interprets this name as "Turtle Eating
Place ", from the Seminole Locha= turtle, and Papka = eating



The name for a river, a lake, and a village in Sarasota

Asternal River. .. .. .. .. .. .Williams Map, 1837
Locha Notsa. ............... .Bruff Map, 1846

The definition of asternal as given in Webster 's Dictionary
does not appear applicable. Locha Notsa is from the Creek
Locha = turtle, and Nuchka = sleep. The name doubtless
alludes to turtles sunning themselves on logs.

LOCKLOOSA, LAKE: Lock-loo suh

The name of a creek and lake in Alachua County.

Istachliosaw Creek .. .. .. .. Search Map, 1828
Talachliosaw Creek. .... .. Vignoles (1823: 73)
Lake Lulhlosa. ... .. .. . ... Taylor Map, 1839

The form of this name has varied greatly. The earliest
resembles the Choctaw word Isht Takli = dipper, combined
with Choctaw Lusa = black. I believe this word is derived
from Choctaw or from some related language.


The obsolete name for Hillsboro River, which enters
Tampa Bay at the City of Tampa, Hillsborough County.

Lock-sta Apopka. .. .. .. . ... .Swift Map, 1820
Lock-sta Apopka, Acorn Eating, or
Hillsborough River. . ... .. .Bruff Map, 1846
Hillsborough or
Live Oak River. .. .. .U.S. Coast Survey, J 851

The source of this name is Creek Lokcha = acorn, and
Apopka =place for eating. The current name is a relic of the


English occupation of Florida, and honors Lord Wills Hill,
Earl of Hillsborough, who was Secretary of State for the
Colonies from 1768 to 1772. The U.S. Board on Geographic
Names decrees that the usage shall be Hillsborough County
and Hillsboro River.


The name given to a station on an abandoned branch of
the Florida East Coast Railway in Osceola County.

According to the Willson vocabulary (1920: 268), Lokose
is Seminole for bear. It is derived from the Creek Nokose =

LOXAHATCHEE: Lox-ah-hat -che (U.S.B.G.N.)

The name of a marsh, a river, and a town in Palm Beach
County. The marsh extends into Martin County.

Loo-cha-hatchee. .. ... .. ..Sprague (1848: 334)

The first element of the word resembles Creek Laksu =
liar, but the earlier spellings all point to a diffe rent derivation.

Read (1934: 17) correctly interpreted the name as Turtle
River, and indicated that it is derived from the Creek Locha=
turtle, and Hatchee = river.



MATACUMBE: Mat-acum -be

The name of an island of the Florida Keys.

Fontaneda (1944: 11) related that there were, in 1575, two
villages on the Keys, one was called Guaragunve, which meant


Pueblo de Llanto or town of weeping. The other was called
Cuchiyaga, which was said to mean "place where there had
been suffering. Guaragunve bears a resemblance to Ma-
acumbe, and the present name may represent a corruption.


The name given to a shallow pass east of Big Pine Island
in Charlotte County.

Pine Island was called Matanza by Ponce de Leon in 1513,
alluding to a large number of Indians who were killed during
an attack on his party. The present name might be an Indian
corruption of the Spanish word. More likely it is derived
from the Creek Imala or Emathla = leader, and Lako or
Thlako = big. Some Seminole chiefs used the title "Big
Warrior. "



This name, now ob solete, was given to a lake on the Natural
B ridge of the Santa Fe River near High Spring s, on the Alachua-
Columbia County line.

Metopochee ... .. .. .Purcell-Stuart Map, 1778

I believe this lake to be the place shown on the above map
by this name, although in the itinerary on the map the name
is given as Hetpochee. The distance and directions indicated
on the map fit the locality. Sweetwater Lake is not a true
lake, but a section of the Santa Fe River which rises from an
underground passage to flow for a short distance above ground
and then descend into the earth again. Matopochee is unques-
tionably a cor ruption of the C reek word combination We-taphe-
chee or "little broad water ", from We = water, Taphe = broad,
and Chee = little.


MIAMI: My-am -e (U.S.G.B.)

The name of THE city in Dade County, and of the river

This name is of ancient usage. The earliest name known
for Lake Okeechobee was Mayaimi, and before the drainage
canals lowered the waters of that take, the Miami River af-
forded a canoe trail to the lake. The city took its name from
the river. Mayaimi is said to mean "Big Water. "

MICANOPY : Mik-an-o -py

This is the name of a town in Alachua County, which was
the first point of settlement in the Arredondo Grant.

Micanopy.. .. .. ... . ... .Vignoles Map, 1823

This place is named after Mico- an-opa, nephew and matri-
lineal successor of King Payne to the chieftainship of the
Alachua Seminole Indians. He was occupying this office at
the time of the cession. Through the influence of the Indian
Agents, he was temporarily eclipsed in his hereditary office,
first by Neamathla, and secondly by Tokose Emathla (John
Hicks), but the Indians appear to have spontaneously recog-
nized his primacy after the death of Hicks.

This name, or rather title (prior to his accession he was
known as Sint- chakke, a name said to mean "Pond F requenter ")
is derived from Hitchiti, Miko = chief, and Naba = above, a
combination which signifies head or high chief.

MICCO: Mic -co

This name is applied to a village on the Florida East Coast
Railway in Brevard County, and to a hammock on Fisheating
Creek in Glades County.

Micco is the Greek word for chief.



This name was given to a vanished pioneer village of
Hamilton County. (See Alapahatalofa, number 12 in the town
list, page 10).

The name is a combination of the Creek Micco = chief,
and the English word town.


The name of a large lake in northern Jefferson County.

Great Savanna . .. ... .Purcell-Stuart Map, 1778
Mickasuky.. . ... .. .. .. .Williams Map, 1827
Micosuki. ................. .Bruff Map, 1846

This lake takes its name from the Hitchiti speaking Mic-
cosukee Indians whose principal village was adjacent. Other
of their towns were located in northern and central Jefferson
County. A remnant of these people are today a part of the
Seminole tribe.

Miccosukee appears to be compounded of Hitchiti Miko
chief, and Sucaw = hog. However, there is a possibility that
this name was originally Nikasuki = hog-eaters (Swanton,
1922: 401). As it was originally the name of a tribe, I con-
sider the latter etymology more likely to be correct.


MIOMI, LAKE: My-o -mee

The name of a lake about three miles southeast of Wild-
wood in Sumter County.

This may be a corruption of Seminole Wyoma = bitter
water, or whiskey. Wyome is contracted from Creek We=
water and Home = bitter.



The name of a large swamp lying in Sections 23, 24, 25,
and 26 of Township 2 North, Range 14 West, in Washington
County, Florida.

It is not known whether this name was given to the swamp
by the Indians, or was imported from southern Alabama by
white settlers.

It may have been applied by the Chatot, a tribe native to
the area, who spoke a dialect resembling Choctaw.

It may be the same as the Choctaw Moeli, a word which
signifies "to paddle" (Swanton, 1946: 218).


MUSCOGEE: Mus-co'-gee

Muscogee is the name under which all of the Creek and
closely related tribes of the southeastern United States are
grouped linguistically, including the Hitchiti, Alabama, and
Choctaw. The name is doubtless of Algonquian origin. Read
(1934: 61) compared it with Creek Muskeg = swamp, and
Muskagoo = swamp Indian; Ojibway Maskig = swamp; and
Shawnee Muskiegui= lake or pond. It is borne by a mill-town
in Escambia County on the east bank of the Perdido River.


NARCOOSSEE: Nar-coo/-see

The name of a town in Osceola County.

This name is derived from the Creek No'kose= bear. The
Poinsett map gives the location of a Seminole town called
Ficona Talofa in the neighborhood of the present Narcoossee.
This combination is from the Creek Fek-hunne = rest, and
Talofa = town.

The name Camp Easy applied to a present day settlement
near the shore of Lake Marian in the same county, is perhaps
reminiscent of the older name.





NITTAW: Nit/-taw

The name of a station on an abandoned branch line of the
Florida East Coast Railway in Osceola County.

The Willson (1920: 267) Seminole vocabulary gives the
meaning of Nittaw as "day." It is derived from the Greek
Nitta = day.

NOCATEE: Nok -a-tee

The name of a town on the Atlantic Coast Line Railroad
in De Soto County.

This name is derived from the Seminole-Creek Nakate=
what is it ?


An obsolete name for the Big Manatee River in Manatee

Manatee. ................ .Romans Map, 1774
Haffia or Manatee River... .. ..Tanner Map, 1823
Nokos Hotee River. ... .. .. .. .Bruff Map, 1846

Manatee is from the Spanish Manati, the sea cow, an
aquatic, herbivorous mammal of the order Sirenia, widely
distributed throughout the American tropics and subtropics.
This word itself is said to be of Carribean origin.

Haffia is the equivalent of Alafia, both forms being cor-
rupted from Creek Thlafi = hunting. Several early sources


apply the name Haffiar to this stream, and this may be the
result of confusion in the names of the Haffia and Alafia (q.v.)
Rivers, or they may have both borne the name.

Nokos Hotee, the later Seminole name is derived from
Creek Nokose = bear, and Hute = house or den.

OCALA: O-kal -ah (U.S.G.B.)

The name of the county seat of Marion County, which was
established in 1846 near the site of Fort King.

The word Ocala is Timucuan, and is of ancient usage. In
De Soto's time the Withlacoochee River was known as the River
of Cale, and was probably the southern boundary of the "Prov-
ince" of Ocali, also visited by De Soto. The word Cali re-
sembles Choctaw Kali = spring. Both Silver Springs and
Rainbow Springs are in the old nProvince" of Ocali. The
Timucuan word Cale signifies fruit. The name Ocala cannot
be translated with any degree of certainty.

OCHEESEE: Oh-che'-see

The name of a village in Calhoun County, of a landing on
the Apalachicola River in the same county, and of a lake in
Jackson County which is' also known as Cypress Lake.

Ocheesee Landing was the site of a village of the Ocheesee
Indians (Swanton, 1922: 409). The Florida Ocheesee were
thought to be a branch of the Creeks. The ancient Seminole
town of Ochesulga may have been at Rock Bluff. Ocheesulga
was a designation applied by the Hitchiti speaking people to
the Creeks or other tribes speaking a tongue differing from
Hitchiti, and means "those of a different speech" (Swanton,
1922: 413).

OCHLOCKONEE: Ok-lok -o-nee (U.S.G.B.)

The name of a river arising in Georgia which enters the
Gulf of Mexico at the head of Ochlockonee Bay.


Claraquachine ..Milan Tapia, 1693 (Leonard, 1939:
Amarillo River. .. .. .. .Barreda, 1693 ibidd: 266)
Rio de Lagna.. .. .. .Pena Journal, 1716 (1949: 1)
Yellow River. ................Moll Map, 1720
Okalockney . .. .. ... .Purcell-Stuart Map, 1778
Oklokonee River.. .. .. .. ... .Davis Map, 1856

This stream formed the western boundary of the Apa-
lachee lands. The name Claraquachine is Apalachee or Chatot.
The Chine were the remnants of the Chatot that had left their
old territory west of the Apalachicola River to join the
Christianized Apalachee. Amarillo is a Spanish word mean-
ing yellow. The present name is Hitchiti, and is derived from
Oki = water, and Lagana = yellow. The name Lagna is Apa-
lachee and no doubt also signifies yellow.

OCHOPEE: O-cho -pee

The name of a village in Collier County.

Ochopee signifies field or farm in Miccosukee- Seminole.


OCTAHATCHEE, LAKE: Ok-ta-hat -chee

The name given to a lake and settlement in Hamilton
C county.

The name appears on a list of Seminole towns for the year
1823 as Oktahatko (Swanton, 1922:411). This is a Creek word
combination of Oktaha = sand, and Hatke = white, rather than
from the familiar Hatcha = creek.

O JUS: O jus

The name of a town in Dade County.


This is a Seminole word meaning "plenty or much. "

This settlement is said to have been named by Mr. Albert
Fitch about the year 1897, and it is reported that he had told
an Indian that he hoped to raise many pineapples, and asked
what he should name the place. The Indian suggested the name
Ojus = much, abundant, or plenty (personal communication
from Mr. John J. Davis, Jr.).

OKAHUMPKA, LAKE: Oka-hump -ka

The name of a lake in Sumter County, and of a town in
Lake County.

Okahumky. ............... .JohnsonMap, 1836
Okahumkee. ................ .Bruff Map, 1846

This name is a combination of Hitchiti Oki = water, and
Creek Hamken = one, or freely translated, "Single Lake."
Governor Duval of Florida, who knew the Seminoles well,
translated the name as "one pond" (Brevard, 1924: 1-113).
The Indian town of Okahumpka was situated in northern Sum-
ter County, and was the place of Mico-an-opa's residence
until as late as 1835. The plat of Township 19 South, Range
23 East, surveyed in 1843, shows an Okhumpka Prairie which
encloses a lake. The west side of this township was traversed
in a north- south direction by the Fort King road, which passed
from one-half to one mile west of the prairie. Lieutenant
Swift, during his reconnaissance for a canal route, followed
the military road as far as the old Indian town of Okehumky
(Me ssag e, Feb. 26, 1 829; House Doc. 147, 20Oth Cong., 2nd Se s.).
It would appear to have been situated in Sections 20 and 21.


The ob solete Indian name for Lake Jackson in Leon County.

Ocalquibe. ... .Pei~a Journal, 1716 (Pena, 1949: 18)
Okaheepee. . .. .. .. .. .Purcell-Stuart Map, 1778
Okahichee ................ .Tanner Map, 1823


Lake Jackson is one of Florida's disappearing lakes. The
present name honors General Andrew Jackson, whose army
passed in the immediate vicinity of the lake in the campaign
of 1818, without discovering its presence. This name was
probably given to it by Richard Keith Call, a protege and mili-
tary aid of Jackson, and later territorial governor, who had
a plantation on its shores.

The name Ocalquibe is Apalachee and cannot be translated.

Okaheepee is a Hitchiti word signifying disappearing
water, and is derived from Hitchiti Oki = water, and Hiepus=
to go.

OKALOACOOCHEE: Ok-kah1~ -o-way-coo-chee

The name of a slough in the Big Cypress of Collier and
Hendry Counties.

Ok-ol-oa-coo-chee.. .. . .. .. .avis Map, 1856

This name is derived from Hitchiti Oki = water, Creek
Holwake = bad, and Chee = little, or "Little Bad Water."

OKALOOSA: Oka- loo sa

The name of a county in West Florida.

This name is the same as the Choctaw Oka = water, and
Lusa = black. However it may be from the Chatot dialect.
The name probably originally referred to the Blackwater
River in the same county.


An obsolete name for a marshy prairie in Township 10
South, Range 23 East, in Putnam County.


Ockawilla.. ... .. .. .. .. .Vignoles (1823: 75)
Oka will. ................. .Bruff Map, 1846

This name is translated "slimy water by Read (1934: 69),
from Choctaw Oka = water, and Wilaha = slimy.

Despite the phonetic similarity with Aquila (q.v.) they have
different derivation.


An obsolete name for a tributary of the Choctawhatchee
River which forms part of the line between Washington and
Bay Counties.

Okchiahatchee.... .. ... young 1818 (1935: 155)
Okchoyce or Little Sandy. .. .. .. .Swift Map, 1820

It is unlikely that the Okchiahatchee of Young is the Pine
Log Creek of the present sketch, but the Holmes Creek of
today. Since both names givenhave the same derivation, they
are considered as if they related to the same stream.
Okchocyce = Okchia, the name of a tribe, with Chee = little,
meaning "Little Okchia. Okchiahatchee means creek of the
Okchia. The Okchai was a Creek tribe originally living in
Alabama. Some of them moved into Florida during the latter
part of the 18th century and settled along the lower reaches
of these streams, and eventually became incorporated into
the Seminoles.

OKHAKONKONHEE: Oka-kon-kon -hee

The name of a lake in Polk County.

Okhakonkonhee. . .. .. ... .. .avis Map, 1856
Okkaconkonhee. .. ... ... .. ..Ives Map, 1856

The name Caloosa is reminiscent of the Florida tribe of
that name, but is of recent application.


Okhakonkonhee is composed of Hitchiti Oki = water, Creek
Ekan = land, and Creek Kunke = crooked, or "Crooked Land
Water. The Hitchiti word Oki may be considered a borrowed
word in the Seminole language, but its application however,
appears to be confined entirely to marshes and lakes. The
Creek word We or Wewa is usually applied to flowing water.
The Indian names of lakes in the St. Johns River all begin
with We or Wewa. One stream, the Ochlockonee River, be-
gins with Oki. However in this case the entire word combi-
nation is Hitchiti. I have found no exception to this rule in
Florida Indian nomenclature.

OKEECHOBEE, LAKE: Oke-cho -bee (See MIAMI)

The name of a lake, town, and county in south Florida.

Mayaimi. ... .. ... ..Solis de Meras, 1565-67
Macaco .................. .Searcy Map, 1828
Wethlacco ............... .Poinsett Map, 1838

Mayaimi and Macaco are from one of Florida's lost dia-
lects. According to Fontaneda (1944: 13), Lake Mayaimi was
so called because it was so large.

The spelling on the Poinsett map, We Thlacco, is from
Creek We = water, and Thlako = big, and its present name is
from Hitchiti Oki = water, Chubi = big. The entire synonymy
apparently resolves itself into an expression of its size.

OKEELANTA: O-kee-lan -ta

The name of a town in Palm Beach County.

The name appears to be a modern synthesis, the first part
being the Hitchiti Oki = water, while Read (1934: 24) suggests
that Lanta is possibly a contraction of Atlantic.


OKEFENOKE: Oke-fen -oke (U.S.G.B.)

Name of a swamp lying mostly in southeastern Georgia,
but extending into northeastern Florida.

Owaquaphenoga. . . .. .. .. omans Map, 1774
Aekanphanackin. . ... .. . omans (1776: 36)

The swamp is indicated on the Eligio map of 1768, as the
lagoon and island of Oconee. Oconee was the name of the
tribe from which the early Seminole was largely derived.

Other old and obsolete spellings listed by the U.S. Board
of Geographic Names are:

Akenfonogo E-cun-fino- cau Ekanfinaka
Okeefenokee Okefenoke Okefinokee

Hawkins (1848: 21) gave two names for the swamp: "O -ke-
fin-a-cau (trembling water) and E-cun-fin-o-can (quivering
earth). He thereby confirmed the existence of two names for
the swamp.

Okefenoke is composed of Hitchiti Oki = water, and Greek
Fenoke = trembling.

The second name is derived from the Creek Ekan = land,
and Fenoke = trembling.

OKHOLWAKE SWAMP: Ok-hol-wak -he

The name of a swamp along Reedy Creek (q.v.) in Osceola

This name, now obsolete, appears on the Poinsett map of
1838 as Okholwake or Big Cypress Swamp. The name is com-
posed of Hitchiti Oki = water, and Creek Holwake = bad.


OKLAWAHA: Ok-la-wah -ha (U.S.G.B.)

The name of a tributary of the St. Johns River, of a town
in Marion County, and of a creek tributary to the Ochlockonee
River in southern Gadsden County.

Ocklawaha. . ... .. .. .. .. .Vignoles (1823: 50)

This name is a corruption of Creek Ak-lowahe = muddy.


The name of a village in Dixie County, and of a hammock
in the same county.

Bowlegs, brother of King Payne, withdrew to this site
after Colonel Newnan broke up the Alachua settlements. Just
prior to the destruction of the "Negro Fort" on the Apalachi-
cola River, many of the disaffected Indians and Negroes with-
drew to this place in anticipation of an attack. The village
was attacked and broken up in 1818 by General Jackson. This
marked the point of deepest penetration into Florida during
this campaign. The name Old Town or Suwannee Old Town,
which was situated in Old Town Hammock, an extensive live-
oak grove, which for many years constituted a government
reservation, indicates that the site had many attractions for
the aborigines.

OLUSTEE: 01us -tee

The name of a village in Baker County, as well as of a
creek forming the boundary between Union and Columbia
C ountie s.

01usta. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .Bruff Map, 1846
Olustee Creek . ... .. ... .. .Davis Map, 1856