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An overview of peat in Florida and related issues ( FGS: Special publication 27 )

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Title:
An overview of peat in Florida and related issues ( FGS: Special publication 27 )
Creator:
Bond, Paulette
Campbell, Kenneth M ( Kenneth Mark ), 1949-
Scott, Thomas M
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Florida Geological Survey ( Tallahassee, Fla. )
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The Everglades ( local )
Miami metropolitan area ( local )
City of Tallahassee ( local )
Lake Okeechobee ( local )
City of Gainesville ( local )
City of Miami ( local )
Peat ( jstor )
Mining ( jstor )
Peatlands ( jstor )
Wetlands ( jstor )
Everglades ( jstor )
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Unknown ( sobekcm )

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023826857 ( ALEPH )
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SPECIAL PUBLICATION NO. 27


6. Completion of Reclamation
"The acceptance of mined-out land as reclaimed should be done on a
case-by-case basis. Each permit is likely to have many site-specific
aspects in its reclamation plan. This specificity has led the task force to
change its 1981 recommendation to incorporate a general policy on rec-
lamation release in the mining regulations. The task force is confident
that the permitting process, review procedures, and monitoring reviews
will supply adequate information to support case-by-case decisions on
the release from reclamation bonds. The Division of Land Resources
should, however, continue to monitor closely this question and, if it
appears that general policies on reclamation completion can be formu-
lated, present appropriate recommendations to the Mining Commission.
"The particular issue of the release of part of a tract on a single mining
permit as reclaimed while mining continues on other portions is difficult,
but the task force concluded that case-by-case consideration is the best
way to resolve it. Monitoring results on existing mines should eventually
allow a sound decision on the best patterns-e.g. checkerboard, long
strips, whole-area-fallow peat mining, and reclaimed areas to minimize
environmental impacts.


7. Expansion of Capacity Use Area
"Capacity Use Area #1, which covers the existing permitted areas for
mining, should now be extended eastwards by the Environmental Man-
agement Commission to include the rest of Tyrrell, Hyde, and mainland
Dare counties as well as Roanoke Island. This action is necessary to
ensure that the provisions of this law, particularly its water use permit
requirement, fully apply to all future mining proposals. Expansion of
Capacity Use Area #1 should be considered if mining is proposed south
or west of its present extent.
"The water use permit, under the Water Use Act of 1971, is the
Department's primary means of controlling dewatering and excavation
activities in capacity use areas. It is the basis for the requirement of
monitoring freshwater discharge volumes from peat mines. Until NPDES
and groundwater regulations are revised to include volume controls and
reporting requirements, the capacity use concept remains important. As
groundwater classifications and standards are completed by the Division
of Environmental Management, they should be incorporated in the peat
mine permit package.
"Development of nutrient and salinity standards should continue by
the Division of Environmental Management, with active consultation
with the Division of Marine Fisheries and the Office of Coastal Manage-
ment. The task force, however, is aware of the difficulties in developing
workable salinity standards and urges that in the interim preventive mea-
sures such as outlet location and water control measures be fully imple-
mented as part of the mining permit conditions.


145







SPECIAL PUBLICATION NO. 27


the Gulf and has come to be described as sheet flow (Parker, 1974). The
chronic inundation allowed the accumulation and preservation of the
organic soils and peats which characterize the highly productive Ever-
glades Agricultural Area.
In about 1880, Hamilton Disston entered into a contract by which he
would drain land on the upper Kissimmee River and receive as compensa-
tion half of the land he drained. His success was debatable (Tebeau,
1974). The history of early drainage efforts is a history of inadequate
technical expertise and insecure funding. The scope of the drainage issue
was continually underestimated. Disastrous floods associated with hurri-
canes in 1926 and 1928 moved the Federal Government to take action.
The extensive floods of 1947 and 1948 made it obvious that water
control had not yet been established and set the stage for the interven-
tion of the Army Corps of Engineers (Tebeau, 1974).
In 1947, most of south Florida was flooded for several months. The
U.S. Congress, in response to the continuing water-control problems,
passed the Flood Control Act of June 30, 1948. This action directed the
Army Corps of Engineers to plan, design and construct a massive project
which would ultimately solve water problems in all or parts of 18 coun-
ties in central and south Florida (Snyder, et al., 1978). In the plan pro-
posed by the Army Corps of Engineers, major concern was devoted to
the protection of life and property along the lower east coast of Florida.
The first phase of the project involved building an artificial levee from
Lake Okeechobee to about Homestead in order to confine flood waters to
the Everglades. The project was also designed to provide water control
for soil, water conservation and farming (Snyder, et al., 1978).
After studies by both the United States Department of Agriculture and
the University of Florida, the lands of the present "Everglades Agricul-
tural Area" were set aside for agricultural development. The organic soils
of the Agricultural Area were the only soils of sufficient depth and of the
proper type to support cultivation for a period of time sufficient to justify
development (Snyder, et al., 1978). It is important to note that when the
Everglades Agricultural Area was being planned it was recognized that
subsidence of organic soil would occur and that the area could not sup-
port cultivation indefinitely (Snyder, et al., 1978).

Crops and Soils of the Everglades Agricultural Area

The Florida Everglades comprises the single largest body of organic
soils in the world, 1,976,800 acres (Shih, 1980). The Everglades Agri-
cultural Area consists of 765,700 acres of fertile organic soil. Winter
vegetables from the Agricultural Area include sweet-corn, celery, rad-
ishes, leaf crops, carrots and beans. In addition, lands of the agricultural
tract are used for sugar cane, pasture and turf (Shih, 1980). Sugar cane
is the dominant crop with cash receipts of $215 million in 1977- 1978
(Snyder, et al., 1978).
The proximity of the Florida Agricultural Area to the south.shore of







SPECIAL PUBLICATION NO. 27


moving and excavating equipment. The machinery used includes drag-
lines, backhoes, grade-alls, front-end loaders and hydraulic excavators.
The majority of companies use a dragline for mining. A shredder is used
to pulverize the peat.
Most companies drain the immediate area of mining by ditching and
pumping which enables the deposit to be mined by dry processes.
Approximately one-third of the companies contacted conduct all or part
of their mining below the watertable.
Two companies utilize a variety of the milled peat mining process.
After surface clearing and ditching is complete, the surface peat is pul-
verized with a rotovater. The pulverized material is dried in the sun and is
turned by discing to help promote drying. The dried material is mechani-
cally windrowed using a front-end loader or bulldozer and is then stock-
piled or loaded for transport. There are no companies currently mining
peat by the sod peat method in Florida.

INDUSTRIAL USES OF PEAT

by
Kenneth M. Campbell

Industrial use of peat can be divided into two major categories: extrac-
tive and non-extractive (Minnesota DNR, 1981). The extractive uses
include direct combustion, gasification, industrial chemicals, horticul-
tural products and sewage treatment. The non-extractive uses include
agriculture, energy crops and sewage treatment (Minnesota DNR,
1981).

Preparation of Peat for Industrial Utilization

For most applications, peat must be dewatered before processing.
Uses for biogasification, some energy crops and sewage treatment proc-
esses do not require dewatering.
Solar drying in the field is energy efficient but is not suitable to wet
mining processes or to all mining plans. Its feasibility is strongly depen-
dent on climate, especially rainfall. Alternative dewatering processes
include mechanical presses and thermal dryers, in addition to pretreat-
ment processes such as wet carbonization, wet oxidation and solvent
extraction.
Mechanical methods are limited in the amount of water they can
remove. Most of the water contained in peat is held in chemical bonds,
colloidal suspensions and small pores in the organic matter. Mechanical
methods may reduce water content to 70 percent at best (Minnesota
DNR, 1981). Thermal dryers can be utilized to reduce the moisture con-
tent further. The efficiency of mechanical dewatering is greatly
enhanced by pretreatment processes such as wet carbonization, wet
oxidation and solvent extraction. Peat can be mechanically dewatered to






SPECIAL PUBLICATION NO. 27


Water Fish Commission, the Department of Natural Resources or the
U.S. Department of Interior, or successor agencies, as being endangered
or threatened. As Florida has more endangered and threatened species
than any other continental state, it is the intent of the Legislature to
provide for research and management to conserve and protect these
species as a natural resource.

"(4) Establishment of an Advisory Council-
(a) The director of the Game and Fresh Water Fish Commission shall
establish an Endangered and Threatened Species Advisory Council con-
sisting of 10 members.

Case Law:
The Graham v. Estuary Properties Inc. (Fla. 399 So. 2d 1374) decision
in Florida is the most progressive decision to date concerning the use of
land use regulations as an effective means of protecting wetlands via
development control.

Background:
In compliance with Florida Land and Water Management Act of 1972,
Estuary Properties submitted an application for a development permit for
their development of regional impact (DRI) to Lee County Board of
County Commissioners. The permit was denied due to an 1800-acre
black mangrove forest which would be destroyed and therefore cause an
adverse environmental impact. The developers appeal to the Florida Land
and Water Adjudicatory Commission was denied.
Estuary Properties contended that the Commission had improperly
denied its application because the various impacts of the development
had not been balanced nor had the Commission made suggestions con-
cerning ways to correct the inadequacies of the DRI.
"The developers also attacked the Commission's denial of the permit
as an unconstitutional taking because the owner's right to use his prop-
erty had been violated.
"Following denial by the Florida Land and Water Adjudicatory Com-
mission, the developer next turned to the Florida District Court of
Appeals (Estuary Properties v. Askew [Fla. App. 381 So. 2d 1126]).
"In December 1979, the Florida District Court of Appeals ruled (later
to be overturned by the Florida Supreme Court) that a government
agency that denies an application for development of regional impact in
an environmentally sensitive area must prove that the project has an
adverse affect on the environment and moreover, a local government
cannot deny an owner of wetlands all reasonable use of property without
paying compensation (Land Use Law and Zoning Digest, April 1980).
The court reasoned that: benefits to the general public should not be
borne by a few property owners, therefore, the development permit
could not be denied unless compensation was administered.
"The case pinpoints the judicial uneasiness over ad hoc regulations of






SPECIAL PUBLICATION NO. 27


peat coke A carbon residue produced by the pyrolysis of peat which
is a raw material for the production of activated carbon, in the production
of high purity silicon and in the production of ferrochrome and ferrosili-
con alloys.

peat-humus (American Society of Testing and Materials (ASTM)
classification) Peat which contains less than 33.33 percent plant fiber.
NOTE: ASTM is presently in the process of revising this classification;
the above term will no longer be used.

peat resin A peat bitumen, a byproduct of peat wax production uti-
lized primarily as a source of steroids for use by the pharmaceutical
industry.

peat tar A water immiscible condensate produced by the pyrolysis of
peat. It is often recycled as fuel for the coking pyrolysiss) process.

peat wax See peat bitumen.

petroleum ether A flammable, low boiling point, hydrocarbon mixture
produced by the fractional distillation of petroleum, used as a solvent.

pH The negative logarithm of the hydrogen ion activity (less correctly
concentration), indicates the acidity or alkalinity of a substance.

phenol A white poisonous substance, C6HOH, derived from coal or
peat tar or as a derivative of benzene; used primarily as a disinfectant, as
an antiseptic and in organic synthesis; also called carbolic acid.

physiognomy External aspect; characteristic or quality as revealed
outwardly.

polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons Nonmethane hydrocarbons pro-
duced by the incomplete combustion of peat; they are carcinogenic at
very low levels and are stable in the environment.

potassium dichromate An orange-red poisonous powder, K2Cr207,
used as a laboratory reagent, in dyeing and in photographic chemicals.

power gas Gas utilized as fuel.

proximate analysis The determination of moisture, volatile matter,
fixed carbon, and ash using procedures prescribed by the American Soci-
ety of Testing and Materials.

pulverized fired boiler A boiler design which uses fuel which has been
finely ground.






BUREAU OF GEOLOGY


in basic igneous rocks or by metamorphism of dolomite rocks; and it
usually occurs in foliated, granular or fibrous masses. Talc is used as a
filler, coating pigment, dusting agent, and in ceramics, rubber, plastics,
lubricants and talcum powder.

tar A thick, brown to black, viscous organic liquid, free of water,
which is obtained by condensing the volatile products of the destructive
distillation of coal, wood, oil, etc. It has a variable composition, depend-
ing on the temperature and material used to obtain it.

volatile matter In coal, those substances, other than moisture, that
are given off as gas and vapor during combustion. Standardized labora-
tory methods are used in analysis. Syn: volatiles; volatile combustible.

wet carbonization A process in which a peat slurry is heated to
572-7520F at 50-100 atmospheres of pressure; produces a "peat
coal" with a heat content of 12,000- 14,000 BTU/lb dry weight.

wetland Areas inundated or saturated by surface water or ground-
water at a frequency and duration to support, and that under normal
circumstances do support, a prevalence of vegetation typically adapted
for life in saturated soil conditions. Wetlands can often be a transition
zone between aquatic and terrestrial communities.

wet mining methods See hydraulic peat mining.

wet oxidation Process for oxidation of many wet organic materials in
which air or oxygen is fed to the wet organic material in a closed, heated
vessel. Combustion is controlled by the rate of oxygen feed and can be
carried to completion to produce energy or can be stopped after the
material is carbonized.

wet reclamation Any reclamation process which results in a perma-
nently or periodically flooded reclaimed area.

Definitions and information on terms in this glossary are taken from the
following references:

Brown, et al., 1983
Dravo Engineers and Constructors, 1981
Fuchsman, 1978
Gary, et al., 1974
U.S. Department of Energy, 1979
Langbein and Iseri, 1960


114





BUREAU OF GEOLOGY


APPENDIX E
PEATLANDS MANAGEMENT

PEATLANDS MANAGEMENT, STATE OF MINNESOTA

Elements of a Management Program for the Peatlands
(Taken from Asmussen, 1980)

"Following legislative review and response in 1981 the Minnesota
Peat Program must create a long-term management program for the
peatlands. Some of the elements of a program are already in place, for
example, the leasing of horticultural peat. Should the energy and other
peatland development proposals discussed above be realized, manage-
ment concerns and responsibilities will multiply.
"One important element in an on-going program is a routine site-
selection process. Criteria are being established for identifying peatland
areas suitable for one or another type of utilization. A list of possible site
selection criteria is presented in Table 3, below.

"Table 3. Peatland Utilization Site Selection Criteria

1. Peat quality and depth
2. Accessibility
3. Watershed configuration
4. Ownership pattern
5. Proximity to existing development
6. Existing bog disturbance
7. Presence of unique features
8. Presence of conflicting uses or management status
9. Regional benefit of proposed development
10. Regional costs of proposed development

"Site selection processes must be complemented with the designation
of management units. In Minnesota, management units will be defined
primarily by watershed boundaries because water flow and direction are
the most critical impact vectors in the peatland ecosystem. Management
units might coincide with smaller watersheds. In larger watersheds it
may be possible to site developments at the downstream part of the
watershed, thereby limiting total watershed disturbance.
"The mechanism for allocating peatland to various utilizations has
been, and will probably continue to be, leasing. The state of Minnesota
owns or manages over 50 percent of the peatland in the state and about
70 percent of the peat in northern Minnesota considered most suitable
for energy developments. Traditionally, the Department of Natural
Resources has leased areas of peat for horticultural and agricultural uses
and is likely to use this mechanism for energy utilization should it occur.
"The lease is more than a simple covenant between owner and lessee.






120


Minerals Leasing Act of 1920,
as amended by 30 USC 181


Safe Drinking Water Act


BUREAU OF GEOLOGY


"Provides the controls and regulation
of surface and subsurface minerals
extraction from Federal Public Lands."

"Wastewater discharges may require
additional treatment for heavy metals
or organic waste if they impact drink-
ing water supplies."




SPECIAL PUBLICATION NO. 27


properly refers to the practically obsolete procedure of literally harvesting
living Sphagnum from the surface of a bog. In this procedure, Sphagnum
is allowed to continue its growth subsequent to harvesting (A. Cohen,
personal communication, 1984). Peat, however, is not considered
renewable due to its slow rate of accumulation (U.S. Department of
Energy, 1979; Moore and Bellamy, 1974).
Currently, the choice of "harvesting" as opposed to "mining" for
terms to describe the excavation process of peat may be arbitrary. The
type of distinction is demonstrated in the following quotation taken from
Peat Prospectus: "Thus, the recovery of peat is a surface mining or
harvesting process," (U.S. Department of Energy, 1979, p. 18). It may
be significant that surface mining carries with it certain negative environ-
mental connotations. Harvesting is largely free of environmentally nega-
tive connotations but this is perceived to be due to a lack of understand-
ing since harvesting is frequently used as synonymous with surface
mining.
The equipment utilized in the peat removal process is not associated
with harvesting in its commonly accepted sense. Peat operations which
are currently active in Florida utilize earth moving and excavating
machinery. In drained bogs such machinery commonly includes shovels,
bulldozers and front-end loaders while draglines, clamshells and dredges
are used in undrained bogs (Searls, 1980).
The process of harvesting in its usual sense does not imply the neces-
sity of extensive land reclamation. However, reclamation of peatlands
which have been excavated is acknowledged as necessary (Minnesota
Department of Natural Resources, 1981) and is discussed more thor-
oughly in the section of this report entitled "Reclamation of Peatlands of
Florida".

Classification Systems Applied to Peat

Peat, like many materials, is classified for the convenience of persons
using it. Since peat use in the United States has been largely agricultural,
most classification schemes are based on properties of peat pertinent to
agricultural applications. As one might expect, classification schemes
devised for agricultural application do not necessarily indicate peat qual-
ity for energy purposes. However, there is a general relationship between
peat decomposition and its energy value with respect to direct combus-
tion. This is illustrated in Figure 2.
The American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) has estab-
lished maximum and minimum particle sizes for fibers found in peat
(ASTM, 1969). They additionally specify fiber content requirements for
various types of peat. The maximum particle size for fibers is 0.5 inch
(1.25 cm) and the minimum is 0.006 inches (0.15 mm). Peat is subdi-
vided into five types and each type must contain a certain percentage of
the characteristic fiber. These percentages are based on an oven-dried
weight at 1050C as opposed to volume. The types of peat recognized by






SPECIAL PUBLICATION NO. 27


Figure 22. Location of current peat producers in Florida. (From a
Bureau of Geology survey for this report).


Location of Peat Producers

Peat production is concentrated in central peninsular Florida, in Sum-
ter, Lake, Orange, Pasco, Hillsborough, Polk and Highlands counties.
Additional producers are located in Madison County (Northwest penin-
sula), Clay and Putnam counties (Northeast peninsula) and in Palm Beach
and Dade counties (south Florida). The authors did not locate any active
peat producers in the panhandle of Florida.

Location of Markets

The majority of Florida peat producers market bulk peat and blend
potting soils for regional or statewide distribution. Two companies have
only local markets, 11 have regional markets and six have statewide






BUREAU OF GEOLOGY


1. On a given site, the littoral zone (that vegetated area around the
perimeter of a wetland extending from the mean high water mark to
the mean low water mark) will be given prime consideration as an
area left in its natural state. Applicant will provide an area equal to a
50 feet wide belt of the perimeter of the wetland or 20 percent of the
total area of the project, whichever is greater.
2. Applicant will leave a one foot or greater layer of peat material at the
bottom of the excavation, except in those areas where necessary for
heavy equipment to operate. In these places, it is acceptable to go
down to bare sand to provide a solid roadway; however, this area
must be sealed with a one foot or greater layer of peat at abandon-
ment and meet any other reclamation requirements.
3. Overburden removal of a new site should coincide with viable seed
bank for reclamation. Strips of overburden from donor marshes can
be used in reclamation techniques, providing the total mined strips do
not exceed 20 percent of the wetlands existing area and the strips are
greater than 150 feet apart.
4. While water levels are still low, heavy equipment will provide any
final adjustments to slopes bringing them into compliance with the
General Mining Procedures previously discussed or as agreed upon by
the applicant and the District. Any breaches of the bottom peat layer
which were necessary to facilitate heavy equipment operations will
be covered with a one foot or greater layer of peat material. Slopes
will be adjusted at this time to be shallower than six horizontal to one
vertical from the mean high water mark or an elevation as agreed to
by the applicant and the District to a depth of six feet below the mean
low water mark except for small isolated pockets as identified by
District staff in consultation with the applicant on site.
5. Mulching of the site with existing overburden, stockpiled overburden
or in consultation with District staff, donor marsh overburden, will be
provided to those areas which do not already exhibit a viable seed
bank starting at the high water mark or an elevation as agreed to by
the applicant and the District, and proceeding to a depth of three feet
below the mean low water mark, following the gentle slopes as
described above. This mulch material will be disced into the soil to aid
stabilization procedures.
6. The area above the mean high water mark or that elevation agreed to
by the applicant and the District will be revegetated with native
grasses to aid in the prevention of soil erosion. Bahia grass with a hay
mulch would be satisfactory for this purpose.
7. It is suggested that no disturbance to the site by livestock during
reclamation or initial vegetative establishment will be permitted.
8. Applicant will use best effort and be responsible to see that a viable
wetland will be established within two growing seasons.
9. District employees, upon notification to the applicant, will have
access to the project to inspect and observe permitted activities in
order to determine compliance with reclamation proceedings.






SPECIAL PUBLICATION NO. 27


markets. Two companies market their product outside of Florida, primar-
ily in the southeast United States. One of the companies, however, ships
bulk peat to Texas where it is bagged for retail sale.

Use of Peat

The principal use of peat mined in Florida is as a soil conditioner, with
large amounts being used for lawns, golf courses and in nurseries and
greenhouses.
The majority of Florida peat production is marketed as a bulk product
(typically truck loads of 30 50 cubic yard) for nursery and landscaping
purposes, with the remainder bagged for the retail market. The peat may
be marketed as is (peat only) or blended with other materials to form
topsoil and potting soil products. Blended products are generally custom
mixed to the customers' specifications. Quartz sand, sawdust and wood
chips are typical ingredients added in order to improve the drainage char-
acteristics of the peat. The nurseries may blend their own potting soil
mixes using bulk peat purchased from mining companies. The bulk mate-
rials may be utilized as a growing medium for nursery plants, or bagged
for retail sale.
Peat from several Florida deposits has been tested for suitability as an
alternative boiler fuel. Although tests have indicated that peat can be an
effective and price competitive fuel, there is no current peat usage for
fuel in Florida.

PERMITTING

by
Kenneth M. Campbell

County, state and federal permits may be required in order to open a
new peat mine. The process is very site specific and varies from county
to county. Under some conditions, permits may not be required by any
agency.

County Level Permits

Operational peat mines are located in 12 Florida counties. In most of
the counties, zoning regulations are the only county regulations which
apply to opening a peat mine. A summary of county permitting processes
is shown in Table 3.

State Level Permitting

The primary state agencies with permitting responsibility with respect
to peat mining are the Department of Environmental Regulation (DER)
and the five individual Water Management Districts. The Department of






SPECIAL PUBLICATION NO. 27


Table 2. Proportions of the Organic soils of the Everglades Agricultural
Area falling into categories based on thickness (after Snyder,
1978).
YEAR 0 to 1 ft. 1 to 3 ft. 3 to 5 ft. over 5 ft.
1912 0 1 3 95
1925 1 3 7 89
1940 1 7 14 85
1950 2 7 28 78
1960 4 12 28 55
1970 11 16 41 45
1980 17 28 41 14
1990 27 28 39 7
2000 45 42 9 4



MINING TECHNOLOGY

by
Kenneth M. Campbell

Mining Methodology Associated with the Use of Peat for Fuel

Recently, several potential commercial users have been investigating
Florida's peat as a fuel source. This interest is prompted by the rising
cost of traditional fuels. Preliminary proposals for the use of peat as a fuel
in Florida suggest that peat will be air dried and burned directly. This
usage will require comparatively large amounts of peat which must be
dried before it is burned (this drying is in addition to the moisture reduc-
tion which accompanies bog drainage) (U.S. Department of Energy,
1979). The drainage of a peatland is an integral and necessary first step
in any large-scale peat mining operation utilizing milled peat or sod peat
mining methods. Moisture must be reduced to approximately 90 percent
for the bog to be considered workable (i.e., able to bear the weight of
machinery).
Drainage is accomplished by construction of a system of ditches and
waterways which are designed to capture water and route it away from
the portion of the bog to be mined (U.S. Department of Energy, 1979). If
surface streams traverse the bog, they are diverted around it. Eventually,
surface vegetation and stumps must be removed.
There are several mining methods in common use in Europe. The man-
ual method is one in which peat is cut into blocks by hand, removed from
the bog for air drying and finally burned for home heating and cooking
(U.S. Department of Energy, 1979). Manual peat harvesting is labor
intensive and probably will not become important in Florida.
The sod peat mining method is one in which a trench is cut into a
previously prepared field. These trenches are cut by excavator/
macerators which are specifically designed to cut, macerate, and






BUREAU OF GEOLOGY


A standard mineralogy textbook for university students, Elements of
Mineralogy (Mason and Berry, 1968), gives the following definition of a
mineral: "A mineral is a naturally occurring, homogeneous solid, inorgan-
ically formed, with a definite chemical composition and an ordered
atomic arrangement". This definition is useful because its authors con-
tinue by expanding on each part of their definition, taking into account
the complexity of the group of compounds classified as minerals.
According to this definition, a mineral must be naturally occurring. This
eliminates materials which are synthesized in the laboratory or are
formed as by-products of various manufacturing processes. Since peat is
indisputably naturally occurring, this aspect of the definition will not be
considered further.
A mineral must also be a homogeneous solid. This qualification elimi-
nates liquids and gases from consideration and implies that a mineral
cannot be separated into simpler compounds by any physical means
(Mason and Berry, 1968). In the coalification process by which plant
material (i.e., cellulose) becomes peat, water, carbon dioxide and meth-
ane are evolved with time (U.S. Department of Energy, 1979). The coali-
fication process (U.S. Department of Energy, 1979) refers to a general-
ization of the peat-forming process in which all initial plant material is
referred to as cellulose. In actuality, peat contains many types of plant
material and may possibly contain no cellulose at all. It is important here
to note that many mineral substances evolve water or gaseous by-
products when subjected to changed conditions of pressure or tempera-
ture. Gypsum dehydrates (evolves water) forming anhydrite. The mineral
talc evolves water and forms enstatite and quartz at elevated tempera-
tures. Thus, minerals may contain water as an integral part of their crys-
tal structures.
The term mineral is restricted by definition (Mason and Berry, 1968) to
refer to inorganically formed substances. It eliminates homogeneous
solids formed by plants and animals such as oyster shells, pearls and
gallstones. Ostensibly, this qualification could eliminate peat from con-
sideration.
The American Geological Institute in its Glossary of Geology (Gary, et
al., eds., 1974) includes the following references in its definition of the
term mineral: "A mineral is generally considered to be inorganic, though
organic compounds are classified by some as minerals". Thus, organic
compounds are not automatically eliminated from consideration as min-
erals. This suggests that the term mineral has come to be used in a sense
that is less restricted than might be supposed from examination of the
definition presented to beginning students of mineralogy.
Minerals are defined as having definite chemical composition (Mason
and Berry, 1968). This implies that their composition must be readily
expressible using a chemical formula. It does not preclude variation in
chemical composition. Variation within definite limits is allowed, thus,
the composition is definite but not fixed (Mason and Berry, 1968). The
compositions of cellulose and the peat derived from it are frequently






SPECIAL PUBLICATION NO. 27


The greatest potential peat resources in Florida lie predominantly in
south Florida (Figures 13, 14, and 15). The vast majority of this peat lies
in the Everglades and associated swampy areas. It is interesting to note
that while Davis (1946) (Figure 13) and the U.S. Department of the
Interior (State of Florida Governor's Energy Office, 1981) (Figure 15)
show similar areas of peat in south Florida, Griffin, et al. (1982) (Figure
14) show a significantly smaller area. This discrepancy may be due to
subsidence and high ash content which would render peat unsuitable for
fuel use. Griffin, et al. (1982) show peat deposits in Collier and Lee
counties that are not included on the other maps.
Figures 13, 14, and 15 indicate the presence of large deposits in the
St. Johns River Valley (Indian River, Brevard and Orange counties), and
the Oklawaha River Valley (Marion and Lake counties). Other relatively
large deposits include: Lake Apopka (Orange and Lake counties), near
Lake Arbuckle (Highlands County), Orange Lake area (Marion and Ala-
chua counties) and the Florahome deposit (Putnam County). Smaller
deposits are also indicated on Davis' (1946) map (Figure 13) and Griffin,
et al. (1982) map (Figure 14).
It is interesting to note that while Davis (1946) (Figure 13) shows
scattered samples taken from small peat areas in the panhandle, Griffin,
et al. (1982) (Figure 14) show a number of deposits, including a large
deposit in Leon County and smaller deposits in Bay, Jackson, and Santa
Rosa counties. The U.S. Department of the Interior map (State of Florida
Governor's Energy Office, 1981) (Figure 15) does not indicate any
deposits in the panhandle.
Peats associated with mangrove and coastal swamps generally occur
in a narrow band paralleling Florida's coastline. The zone occupied by
these environments is widest in southwest Florida. These peats are not
generally shown on the maps of peat resources due to the scale of the
maps.
Until a more detailed investigation of our peat resources is undertaken
the published resource estimates must suffice. It must, however, be kept
in mind that the figures are estimates of the available resources and vary
from one investigator to another.

THE EVERGLADES AGRICULTURAL AREA

by
Paulette Bond

History of the Everglades Agricultural Area

The Everglades Agricultural Area is a part of an immense natural drain-
age system that begins in the northernmost reaches of the Kissimmee
River drainage basin near Orlando. The Kissimmee River flows to the
southeast into Lake Okeechobee. In its natural state, the level of Lake
Okeechobee fluctuated within a range of approximately 8 feet, that is,







BUREAU OF GEOLOGY


extraction. Additionally, the method and equipment utilized in peat
extraction and the environmental impacts of peat extraction are synony-
mous with those commonly attributed to mining, not harvesting.
This study concludes that harvesting should be applied only to the
removal of living Sphagnum or other living plants and that the extraction
of peat should be categorized as mining.

Environmental Impacts of Peat Mining

Peat occurrence in Florida is, in nearly every case examined, coincident
with a current wetland area. Thus the environmental impacts associated
with peat mining may vary widely depending on the type of wetland, the
location of the wetland, the function of the wetland, the extent of min-
ing, the type of mining, and other physical parameters of the site.
This study concludes that an accurate assessment of the environmen-
tal impacts of peat extraction will be site specific and can be anticipated
to range from minor to severe.

Reclamation of Peat Mines

Reclamation or the return of mined land to a beneficial use is applicable
to most mining operations and would be so with peat mining. Restoration
or the return of mined land to the pre-mining function is only partially
applicable to most mining operations and would not be practical with
peat mining. The higher the ratio of overburden to the mined product, the
higher the percentage of original landform and contour that can be
achieved in reclamation. In peat mining, where the mined product typi-
cally has no overburden, the extraction leaves a hole which will typically
become a lake in areas where the water table is high.
This study concludes that reclamation of mined peatlands to a benefi-
cial use as an aquatic or uplands system is achievable; however, the
restoration of mined peatlands to premining contour and function is prob-
ably not financially feasible.

Agricultural Use of Peat

The in-place use of peat and related organic for agricultural purposes
such as in the Everglades Agricultural Area appears to be a nonconsump-
tive use of peat, while in fact, the exposure of peat to air allows aerobic
bacteria to oxidize the peat causing a gradual loss of peat accompanied
by subsidence of the land surface. It is predicted that by the year 2000,
approximately 250,000 acres in the Everglades Agricultural Area will
have subsided to thicknesses of less than one foot.
This report concludes that agricultural uses of in-place peat should be
viewed as a consumptive use of peat and that research and planning
should be carried out to determine the impact resulting from peat loss
and land subsidence on potential future land uses.







BUREAU OF GEOLOGY


Table 8. Endangered, threatened and rare species associated with
areas of potential peat accumulation (compiled by the Bureau
of Geology staff).
MAMMALS


Bobcat
Cudjoe Key Rice Rat
Everglades Mink
Florida Black Bear
Florida Panther
Florida Weasel
Homosassa Shrew
Key Deer
Key Vaca Raccoon
Lower Keys Cotton Rat
Mangrove Fox Squirrel
Round-Tailed Muskrat
Sherman's Fox Squirrel
Southeastern Shrew
Southeastern Weasel
Southern Mink


Lynx rufus
Oryzomys sp.
Mustela vision evergladensis
Ursus americanus floridanus
Felis concolor coryi
Mustela frenata peninsula
Sorex longirostris eionis
Odocoileus virginianus clavium
Procyon lotor auspicatus
Sigmodon hispidus exsputus
Sciurus niger avicennia
Neofiber alleni
Sciurus niger shermani
Sorex longirostris longirostris
Mustela frenata olivacea
Mustela vision mink


FISH


Blackbanded Sunfish
Cypress Darter
Cypress Minnow
Eastern Mud Minnow
Mudsunfish
Opossum Pipefish
Rivulus
Sailfin Molly


Enneacanthus chaetodon
Etheostoma proeliare
Hybognathus hayi
Umbra pygmaea
Acantharchus pomotis
Oostethus lineatus
Rivulus marmoratus
Polcilia latipinna


AMPHIBIANS


Carpenter Frog
Florida Gopher Frog
Four-toed Salamander
Gulf Hammock Dwarf Siren

Many-lined Salamander
One-toed Amphiuma
Pine Barrens Tree Frog
Seal Salamander
Striped Newt


Rana virgatipes
Rana areolata aesopus
Hemidactylium scutalum
Pseudobranchus striatus
lustricolus
Stereochilus marginatus
Amphiuma pholeter
Hyla andersoni
Desmognathus monticola
Notophthabmus perstriatus






BUREAU OF GEOLOGY


GLOSSARY OF TECHNICAL TERMS

by
Kenneth M. Campbell

absorption Taking up, assimilation, or incorporation; e.g., of liquids in
solids or of gasses in liquids, sometimes incorrectly used in place of
adsorption.

acetone A volatile flammable liquid, (CH3)2CO, used as a solvent and
in organic synthesis.

acid A compound, capable of neutralizing alkalis, containing hydro-
gen that can be replaced by a metal or an electropositive group to form a
salt or containing an atom that can accept a pair of electrons from a base.

acid hydrolysis Decomposition process in which peat is broken down
into component compounds. Peat is slurried with water and sulfuric acid
at elevated temperatures and pressure and allowed to react.

activated carbon Carbon which has been expanded by treating coke
with steam at 1652 20120F. The reaction causes generation of hydro-
gen gas and carbon monoxide with the physical effect of expanding the
pore spaces in the coke, greatly increasing the surface area available for
adsorption.

adsorption Adherence of gas molecules or of ions or molecules in
solutions to the surfaces of solids with which they are in contact.

aldehydes A class of organic compounds containing the group -CHO,
which yield acids when oxidized and alcohols when reduced.

alkali Any strongly basic substance, such as a hydroxide or carbon-
ate of an alkali metal (e.g. sodium, potassium) that neutralizes acid to
form salts.

anhydrite A mineral consisting of an anhydrous calcium sulfate:
CaSO4. It represents gypsum without its water of crystallization, and it
alters readily to gypsum, from which it differs in crystal form (anhydrite
is orthorhombic) and in being harder and slightly less soluble.

anthracite Coal of the highest metamorphic rank, in which fixed-
carbon content is between 86 percent and 98 percent. It is hard, black,
and has a semimetallic luster and semiconchoidal fracture. Anthracite
ignites with difficulty and burns with a short, blue flame and without
smoke. Syn: hard coal, stone coals.


The percentage of incombustible material in a fuel.


102


ash content







BUREAU OF GEOLOGY


Cohen, A.D., 1974, Evidence of Fires in the Ancient Everglades and
Southern Everglades, in P.J. Gleason, ed., Environments of South Flor-
ida: Present and Past: Miami Geological Society, Memoir 2, pp.
213-218.

Cohen, A.D., and W. Spackman, 1977, Phytogenic Organic Sediments
of Sedimentary Environments in the Everglades -Mangrove Complex of
Florida: Part II, The Origin, Description and Classification of the Peats of
Southern Florida: in Paleontographica, p. 71.

Cohen, A.D., and W. Spackman, 1980, Phytogenic Organic Sediments
of Sedimentary Environments in the Everglades-Mangrove Complex of
Florida: Part III, the Alteration of Plant Materials in Peats and the Origin of
Coal Macerals: in Paleontographica, p. 125.

Cowardin, L.M., V. Carter, F. Golet, and E.T. LaRoe, 1979, Classification
of Wetlands and Deepwater Habitats of the United States: U.S. Depart-
ment of the Interior, Fish and Wildlife Service, Office of Biological Ser-
vices, Washington, D.C.

Craig, R., 1981, Ecological communities of Florida: Descriptions, soils,
ecosystems, environmental values: (An in-house draft.) United States
Department of Agriculture Soil Conservation Service, Gainesville, FL.

Crawford, R., 1978, Effect of Peat Utilization on Water Quality in Minne-
sota: The Minnesota Department of Natural Resources, St. Paul, Mn., 18
p.

Davis, J.H., 1946, The Peat Deposits of Florida, Their Occurrence,
Development and Uses: Florida Geological Survey Bulletin 30, Tallahas-
see, Fl., 247 p.

DRAVO Engineers and Constructors, 1981, Synfuels Glossary: DRAVO,
Pittsburgh, Pa., 10 p.

Eckman, E., 1975, citation in Fuchsman, 1978, p. 102.

Environmental Science and Engineering, 1982, Appendix A-Physical,
Chemical and Ecological Data, in NPDES Permit Application, Wastewater
Discharge Assessment: ESE, Gainesville, Fl., 297 p.

Farnham, R.S., 1979, Peatland Reclamation, in Management Assess-
ment of Peat as an Energy Source: Symposium Papers July 22-24,
1979, at Arlington, Va.: sponsored by Institute of Gas Technology.

Farnham, R.S., and T. Lever, 1980, Agricultural Reclamation of
Peatlands: Minnesota Department of Natural Resources, St. Paul, Mn.,
70 p.




















HUNDREDS OF YARDS
LEGEND
E SAPROPEL
111l FIBROUS SAWGRASS PEAT

CLAY

Figure 10. Cross-section showing peat filling lake (Mud Lake, Marion County, Florida).
(From Davis, 1946).







BUREAU OF GEOLOGY


directly to the bog surface and allowed to filter through the peat or it may
be introduced to a ditched and drained peat deposit. Introduction of
waste water to a ditched and drained deposit would increase the volume
of peat exposed to the waste water, increasing residence time and allow-
ing more efficient nutrient uptake (Nichols, 1980). The third method
involves a built up filter bed of peat, sand and gravel. The effluent is
applied to the filter surface by sprinklers. Generally, the surface of the
filter would be seeded with a suitable sedge or grass to remove additional
nutrients (Minnesota DNR, 1981).
Peat water treatment systems and experimentation have not been con-
ducted for enough time to determine the period of time over which it can
effectively remove nutrients before it becomes saturated. Environmental
effects, therefore, must be strictly monitored (Minnesota DNR, 1981).

ECONOMIC IMPACT OF PEAT MINING

by
Kenneth M. Campbell

Peat is currently mined in 12 Florida counties (Figure 22). In each of
these counties, the mining companies provide jobs, pay state and local
taxes, require the services of various support industries and provide a
valuable product to nurseries and individuals.

Production, Value and Price of Peat

The U.S. Bureau of Mines reports an average 1982 price for Florida
peat of $13.12 per short ton. 1983 prices quoted by mining companies
range from $8.50 to $18.00 per cubic yard of peat with the most com-
mon price being $10.00 to $10.50 per cubic yard. Blended topsoils
range from $11.00 to $20.00 per cubic yard. If one ton of peat is
assumed to occupy 2.3 cubic yards, the $10.50 per cubic yard price is
equivalent to $24.15 per short ton. Bagged peat prices are higher and are
in the range of $45.00 per ton.
Florida ranked second in peat production nationally in 1982 (Boyle and
Hendry, 1984). The U.S. Bureau of Mines (B.O.M.) reported peat produc-
tion in 1982 as 120,000 short tons, with a value of $1,575,000 dollars
(Figure 23). The average price in 1982 was $13.12 per short ton. The
above figures represent a 25 percent drop in production and a 47 percent
drop in value from 1981.
The B.O.M. production and value figures do not represent the com-
plete picture. The B.O.M. reported peat production from four counties in
'1982. Of the 10 companies on the B.O.M. peat producer list, only six are
still active. The authors have compiled a list of 21 peat producers,
located in 12 counties. The actual peat production in the state must be
significantly higher than reported by the B.O.M.




BUREAU OF GEOLOGY


possible for that use". Stephens (1974) lits a number of suggestions
geared toward conservation of organic soil: "(1) provide adequate water
control facilities for keeping water tables as high as crop and field
requirements will tolerate; (2) make productive use of drained lands as
soon as possible; and (3) intensify research studies to develop practices
to prolong the life of the soils".
It has been suggested that extending the life of organic soils by plow-
ing under cover crops or litter (Snyder, et al., 1978; Stephens, 1974) is
probably not an effective conservation measure. The rate at which peat
forms is extremely slow and the volume of plant litter produced is very
small. Snyder, et al. (1978) discuss an example which clarifies this rela-
tionship. Sugar cane produces an amount of top growth exceeded by
few, if any, plants. An average cane crop (30 tons/acre) is estimated to
contain approximately eight tons of dry matter. If all of the dry matter
from an entire crop were added to the soil, it could be assumed that
about half of it would be decomposed rapidly. One acre-inch of top soil is
about the amount lost to subsidence each year in the Everglades Agricul-
tural Area. That amount of soil weighs approximately 50 tons. Thus, four
tons are replaced each year, which is still only approximately 1/12 the
amount which is lost.



The Near Future of the Everglades Agricultural Area


Snyder, et al. (1978) have included a discussion of land use in the
Everglades Agricultural Area through the year 2000. It is noted that the
predictions of Stephens (1951) have proved reliable (compare Figures 20
and 21). These predictions are presented in Table 2 (Snyder, et al.,
1978). Although land elevations are shown through the year 2000, sub-
sidence will continue. By the year 2000, only approximately 80,000
acres of soil three feet in depth or deeper will remain. It is predicted that
sugar cane acreage will decrease, pasture acreage will increase signifi-
cantly and vegetable acreage will remain essentially unchanged assum-
ing the economic viability of such operations. By the year 2000, over
500,000 acres will be less than three feet in thickness. Approximately
half of this will be less than a foot in depth (Snyder, et al., 1978). The
depth of three feet is significant because, at depths of less than three
feet, the use of mole drains becomes impractical. The soils which have
subsided to depths of less than one foot face an uncertain fate. Snyder,
et al. (1978) suggest that while some of those soils may be suitable for
pasture, the soils may be abandoned for agricultural uses. It is also sug-
gested that the remaining soils and the existing water-control structures
be used to produce aquatic crops. The authors suggest that such a usage
could greatly extend the useful agricultural life of the soils.







BUREAU OF GEOLOGY


is presently in the process of revising this classification; the above term
will no longer be used.

ion An atom or group of atoms with an electric charge.

isopach map A map that shows the thickness of a bed, formation, sill
or other tabular body throughout a geographic area, based on a variety of
types of data.

karst A type of topography that is formed by the dissolution of lime-
stone, dolomite or gypsum rock by rainwater or rivers. The topography is
characterized by closed depressions, sinkholes, caves and underground
drainages.

ketone Any of a class of organic compounds containing a carbonyl
group, e.g., C = O, attached to two organic groups, such as CH3COCH3.

lagoon A shallow stretch of seawater, such as a sound, channel, bay,
or saltwater lake, near or communicating with the sea and partly or
completely separated from it by a low, narrow, elongate strip of land,
such as a reef, barrier island, sandbank or spit. It often extends roughly
parallel to the coast, and it may be stagnant.

lignin An organic substance somewhat similar to carbohydrates in
composition that occurs with cellulose in woody plants.

lignite A brownish-black coal that is intermediate in coalification
between peat and bituminous coal; consolidated coal with a calorific
value less than 8300 BTU/pound, on a moist, mineral-matter-free basis.
Cf: brown coal.

marine environment Areas directly influenced by normal salinity sea-
water (approximately 35 parts per thousand).

marl An old term loosely applied to a variety of materials most of
which occur as soft, loose, earthy and semifriable or crumbling unconsol-
idated deposits consisting chiefly of an intimate mixture of clay and
calcium carbonate in varying proportions, formed under either marine or
freshwater conditions.

marsh A water saturated, poorly drained area, intermittently or per-
manently water-covered, having aquatic and grasslike vegetation. Cf:
swamp; bog.

megawatt A unit of power equal to 1 million watts.

metamorphism The mineralogical and structural adjustment of solid
rocks to physical and chemical conditions which have been imposed at
depth below the surface zones of weathering and cementation and


108





(1
0)


Table 3. Summary of County Level Permitting Requirements (Prepared by Bureau of Geology Staff).
Public
Title of Permit Administrative Hearing Hearing
County Ordinance Required Agency Required Body Comments


Clay Clay Co. Zoning
Ordinance 82-45




Dade County Zoning
Ordinance

Highlands County Zoning
Ordinance


Hillsborough County Zoning Code
and Borrow Pit
Ordinance


Lake


Lake Co. Zoning
Regulations 1971 -6


Borrow Pit Planning, Building
and Zoning Comm.




Excavation Building & Zoning
Permit Department

Special Planning and
Exception Zoning Department


Borrow Pit


Conditional
Use,
Operational


Development
coordination




Planning
Department


Yes Zoning Board
of Adjustment




Yes Zoning Appeals
Board

Yes Board of
Zoning
Adjustment


Mining is allowed only as a special
exception to zoning regulations. A
certified survey and site plan are
required. County regulations specify
setback and sloping requirements.
Public hearing approval by Z.A.B. is
required to obtain excavation
permit. No specific zoning required.
Permitted in industrial zoned areas;
and in agricultural zoned areas after
a special exception is granted.


Yes County Requires proper zoning, the
Commission issuance Borrow Pit Permit & the
approval of the Hillsborough County
Environmental Protection
Commission.


Yes Planning &
Zoning
Commission


C


0
'1

rn
m
O
I-
0


Allowable only agricultural zoned
areas after issuance of Conditional
Use Permit. Site plan is required.
Before final operational permit will
be granted all other permits required
(Ex. DER) must have been
approved.





BUREAU OF GEOLOGY


ally to a maximum of three years provided all requirements are met.
Approval of a peatland exploration license is granted only if the applicant:
has no other license in effect; can demonstrate the proposed develop-
ment will not adversely affect the future availability of peat for an exist-
ing leaseholder; and can market the product without jeopardizing the
existing industry in the province.
"After determining the portion of the exploration area best suited for
the proposed use, the applicant may then apply for a peat lease of 250
hectares (620 acres). This application must include a drainage plan, a
harvesting and future expansion plan, and an abandonment plan. If all
requirements are met a lease can be granted for a period of ten years.
Renewal for further ten year periods is possible if certain minimum pro-
duction requirements and other conditions are met. A security deposit to
ensure compliance with production and abandonment plans is required.
"The size and term of leases is designed to avoid the holding and
under-utilization of large tracts of peatlands for extended periods. How-
ever, to ensure the opportunity for expansion, the holder of a lease may
negotiate a time limited option on an adjacent buffer zone."

PEATLANDS MANAGEMENT, STATE OF NORTH CAROLINA

(Recommendations prepared by the Peat Mining Task Force,
Department of Natural Resources and Community Development, State
of North Carolina, January 1983)

"The DNRCD Peat Mining Task Force has completed its review of the
department's permitting procedures for peat mining. It has also reviewed
its own 1981 recommendations, updating them as necessary. In the
recommendations below, whenever a 1981 recommendation has been
updated or repeated, it is so noted and major changes are explained. The
task force considered the issues of peat use and has reconsidered the
overall impacts of peat mining. From this effort have come the conclu-
sions and recommendations in this report. Specific recommendations
follow.
1. Existing Permits
"The review of the five existing mining permits for peat mines has led
the task force to conclude that all five of them should be revised to
include the recommendations in this report. The three existing peat
mines which do not have NPDES, air quality, and water use permits
should be required to apply immediately for these permits. The Division
of Land Resources, in coordination with the Division of Environmental
Management, should immediately notify permit holders of this determi-
nation. In the case of these three, the revision of the mining permit and
the applications for the three DEM permits should be treated as a pack-
age and public meetings held. In addition to the mining permit revision,
the other two mines (PEATCO and Whitetail) should have their water and
air permits revised to reflect the contents of Table III.







SPECIAL PUBLICATION NO. 27


Figure 25. Topographic profile of St. Johns River marsh peat deposit
in southern Brevard County. (Prepared by the Bureau of
Geology for this report.)


The topography of other peat forming environments can be seen in the
cross sections showing the cypress dome type of peats (Figure 6).
These, however, are not typically mined.
The peat mining process is an excavation process which removes the
original surface vegetation and significantly alters the topography of the
terrain. Various types of equipment are used to remove the peat and
waste material, leaving a water filled (dry, if pumped) pit. During the
course of mining, the size of the existing pit may vary from less than one
acre to tens of acres. This depends on the areal extent of the deposit,
thickness of the peat and rate of production.
Stock piles and waste piles are the result of the mining process. The
stock piles are created to allow the peat to dry prior to shipping. These
piles vary in size and shape during the life of the mine and are not present
after mining is completed, having been depleted as peat is sold. The
waste piles, on the other hand, are not sold and remain after the comple-
tion of mining. The waste material generally consists of peat that is too
contaminated with weed seeds and sediment to be used. Generally, at
the completion of mining, the waste piles are leveled and spread around
the mine site. This is not always true since there are no required reclama-
tion procedures for peat mines. Field investigations suggest, however,
that most operators level the site at the completion of mining.
The post-mining topography resembles the pre-mining topography if













































Printed for the
Florida Geological Survey

Tallahassee
1986

ISSN No. 0085-0640


iv






BUREAU OF GEOLOGY


APPENDIX C
FLORIDA STATUTES CONCERNING WETLANDS

(Taken from Brown, et al., 1983)
"How Wetlands are Perceived in Florida Law

"A marsh or a swamp which is not physically connected to a lake or
stream by even occasional overflow is treated as surface water in spite
of its permanence" (Maloney, 1971, in Brown, et al., 1983). Therefore,
it is common to see wetlands characterized as "surface water" in the
Florida Statutes, which administers authority to the various agencies. It
is not until such agencies mandate specific actions that the actual term
of "wetlands" is used.

"Florida Statutes that Administer Wetland Authority Chapter
380-The Florida Environmental Land and Water Management Act of
1972

"Section 380.012-Purpose
It is the intent that, in order to protect natural resources and environ-
ment of this state as provided in s. 7, Art. II of the State Constitution,
insure a water management system that will reverse the deterioration of
water quality and provide optimum utilization of our limited water
resources, facilitate orderly and well-planned development, and protect
the health, welfare, safety, and quality of life of the residents of this
state, it is necessary adequately to plan for and guide growth and devel-
opment within this state. In order to accomplish these purposes, it is
necessary that the state establish land and water management policies
to guide and coordinate local decisions relating to growth and develop-
ment; that such state land and water management policies should, to the
maximum possible extent be implemented by local governments through
existing processes for the guidance of growth and development; and that
all the existing rights of private property be preserved in accord with the
constitutions of this state and of the United States.

"Section 380.05-Areas of critical state concern
(1) (a) The state land planning agency may from time to time recom-
mend to the Administration Commission specific areas of critical state
concern. In its recommendation, the agency shall include recommenda-
tions with respect to the purchase of lands situated within the bounda-
ries of the proposed area as environmentally endangered lands and out-
door recreation lands under the Land Conservation Act of 1972. The
agency also shall include any report or recommendation of a resource
planning and management committee appointed pursuant to s. 380.045;
the dangers that would result from uncontrolled or inadequate develop-
ment of the area and the advantages that would be achieved from the
development of the area in a coordinated manner; a detailed boundary


126








BUREAU OF GEOLOGY


WETLAND ENVIRONMENT
ABUNDANT VEGETATION ADAPTED TO SWAMPY CONDITIONS


Plant litter accumulates at
the surface

Buried plant litter decays
partially and is compacted
forming peat

Underlying sediments in Florida
typically consist of limestone
clay and unconsolidated sand.


i OVERLYING SEDIMENTARY ROCKS.:***

BROWN COAL

= UNDERLYING SEDIMENTARY ROCKS






; HUNDREDS TO THOUSANDS---
-OF METE 0 F ........ ......
:_-OVERLYING SEDIMENTARY ROCKS_

--- ----- ---Bi iriiriril~O~ ~i~


Figure 1. The process of coal formation. (Modified from Press

and Siever, 1974, Figure 13- 18, p. 468).


With shallow burial peat is
compressed to form brown
coal,













Additional burial transforms
the brown coal to lignite if
burial is comparatively shallow
and bituminous coal if depth of
burial is greater.










Coal is metamorphosed to anthracite
or graphite with continuing burial
and metamorphism.






BUREAU OF GEOLOGY


*.g BP


Figure 15. Peat deposits in Florida. (From State of Florida Gover-
nor's Energy Office, 1981).


between 12 to 20 feet above mean sea level (M.S.L.) (Parker, 1974). The
water level in the upper Everglades rose and fell in response to the fluctu-
ations of Lake Okeechobee.
In the wet season, most of the Everglades was inundated much of the
time. When the water level of Lake Okeechobee reached about 14.6 feet
(M.S.L.), two separate segments of the lake shore would begin overflow-
ing into the Everglades. At about 18 feet (M.S.L.), the entire southern
shore (30 miles) overflowed, pouring a flood into the upper Everglades
(Parker, 1974). It is important to note, however, that losses due to
evapotranspiration are estimated to have been as high as 82 percent.
Thus, flood water from Lake Okeechobee most probably did not travel
the entire length of the Everglades, but rather local precipitation caused
the inundation (Parker, 1974). This mass of water flowed sluggishly to







SPECIAL PUBLICATION NO. 27


result in discharge to the surface water of the U.S. (this includes "waters
of the state"). The NPDES permit is required even for intermittent dis-
charges (Mark Latch, DER, personal communication, 1984).


PEAT REVENUE AND TAXATION


by
Kenneth M. Campbell

The volume of peat sales in the state of Florida generally increased
from 1972 to 1978 (Figure 23). During the same period the value of peat
also increased. The value and tonnage fluctuated from 1978 through
1981 prior to a rather drastic decrease in 1982. In 1982, the quantity
dropped 25 percent from the estimated tonnage (Boyle and Hendry,
1984) and 24 percent from the previous year. The 1982 value was 47
percent below the predicted level (Boyle and Hendry, 1984) and 45 per-
cent less than 1981. Figure 23 reflects these trends as compiled by the
U.S. Bureau of Mines.
The differences between the predicted and actual numbers for peat
mining in Florida is significant in two important ways. First, the differ-
ences reflect the recent recession which had a tremendous effect on the
mineral industries as a whole, with greatly declined production and
value. Secondly, future revenue estimates for peat from the Florida
Department of Revenue are based on the trends of the recent past. The
recently released 1982 figures may indicate a drastic change in the trend
and may require a significant alteration of the previously predicted peat
values for 1983- 1984 which were $3.9 million (Figure 23). The peat
industry may rebound to its previous levels. However, in light of a 1982
value of $1.575 million, it seems highly unlikely that a value of $3.9
million would be achieved in 1983- 1984.
Currently, the vast majority of peat sales in Florida are wholesale and
for agricultural purposes and, as such, are exempt from state sales taxes.
Some peat products are used in potted plants and sales taxes are col-
lected on retail sales of the potted plants. However, the value of the peat
and the tax upon that value are not separated from the value and tax on
the total sale. Thus, the amount of tax arising from retail sale of peat
cannot be determined. Also, there are no records for sales tax applied to
peat based potting soils (L. Voorhies, Department of Revenue, personal
communication, 1983). As a result, there is no way of estimating the
current tax income derived from the exploitation of peat resources in the
state of Florida.
Estimated tax revenues derived from the imposition of a severance tax
on peat could be determined from the revised predicted values for the
near future. The Florida Department of Revenue does not currently have
such an estimate available.







BUREAU OF GEOLOGY


Peatland Reclamation in New Brunswick

New Brunswick's peat resources are estimated to be in excess of
247,000 acres. Approximately 80 percent of New Brunswick's
peatlands are owned by the province which classes peat as a quarriable
substance (Keys, 1980).
Peats are extracted for horticultural purposes and producers hold peat
leases and pay acreage rentals and royalties on production. The horticul-
tural producers use a vacuum method of milled peat production. This
peat is in turn used as baled Sphagnum peat, soil mixes, artificially dried
and compacted peat and compressed peat pots (Keys, 1980). Addition-
ally, a small amount of peat is used as fuel to heat a greenhouse.
Nonextractive uses for New Brunswick peatlands include protection of
peats within Kouchibouquac National Park, use as wildlife management
areas and artificially developed waterfowl nesting areas. Management
objectives for future use of the peat resource include: 1) consideration of
the needs of existing industry, 2) conservation areas, 3) optimum use of
various qualities of peat, and 4) long-term versus short-term economic
development (Keys, 1980).
An idealized case for management of New Brunswick's peatlands
would be such that surface layers of peat could be removed for horticul-
tural use exposing underlying fuel peats. On removal of the fuel peats,
the basal unminable layer (20 inches thick with high ash content and
rocks and other irregularities), with a suitably designed drainage system,
could allow utilization of the depleted peatland for agriculture and affor-
estation (Keys, 1980).
Selective use of New Brunswick's peat resources are encouraged. The
need for conservation areas is acknowledged. Reclamation is viewed as
an integral step in the exploitation of peatlands. A summary of the leas-
ing procedure applied to peatlands of New Brunswick is presented in
Appendix E of this document.

Reclamation in Peatlands of Florida

In Minnesota, North Carolina, Finland and New Brunswick ongoing
research is aimed at devising reclamation techniques which are workable
for specific regions. For instance, North Carolina cannot assume that
reclamation methods suitable to Minnesota may be successfully applied
to the soil conditions and climate of North Carolina. Minnesota (Asmus-
sen, 1980) has appointed a panel of peatland ecologists to identify
peatlands with preservation value. The Peat Mining Task Force of North
Carolina notes that some areas in peatlands should be left entirely in their
natural state (North Carolina DNRCD, 1983). It is recommended that
those areas be identified as quickly as possible and a program for their
preservation be instituted.
If Florida determines to allow mining of its peatlands, a number of
factors will require research so that successful reclamation programs






BUREAU OF GEOLOGY


tem (1976). Inventory of state land resources would be achieved
through the coordination of remote-sensing techniques (including aerial
photography) and ground-based observations. Computer storage of such
vast quantities of information could permit organization of the data in a
variety of ways that would expedite management decisions. Within this
scheme, information from various sensors is organized into various levels
of classification ranging from Level I to Level IV. The levels are summa-
rized as follows in the technical report describing the classification sys-
tem:
"Level I classification uses satellite imagery with very little supple-
mental information. The mapping is usually at a ratio of 1:1,000,000. At
this ratio only a general classification based on major differences in land
cover can be made.
"Level II classifications are based on high altitude and satellite imagery
combined with topographic maps. The mapping is normally at a ratio of
1:1,000,000 and transferable to 1:24,000 ratio.
"Level Ill classification are based on medium altitude remote sensing
at a scale of less than 1:24,000 combined with detailed topographic
maps and substantial amounts of supplemental information, i.e., field
observation.
"Level IV classification uses low altitude imagery with most of the
information being derived from supplemental sources.
(This level is not included within this document.)
600 Wetlands: (Level I)
"Forested wetlands are areas that are subject to permanent or pro-
longed periods of inundation or saturation and/or exhibit vegetative com-
munities characteristic of this hydroperiod.
610 WETLAND-CONIFEROUS FOREST: (Level II).
"These wetlands have a tree crown areal density of 10 percent or
more (Crown closure requirement), and have a dominant tree
crown of the coniferous species, and are a result of natural seed-
ing.
611 Cypress: (Level III)
"These forested areas are dominated by a crown closure in
either bald cypress or pond cypress. Principal associates are
tupelo, gum, and maple.
612 Pond Pine: (Level III)
"These are forested areas dominated by a crown closure in
pond pine. Pond pine dominates wetter flats with low pH,
often associated with the inland reaches of marshes or
much swamps.
620 WETLAND-HARDWOOD FOREST: (Level II)
"These wetlands have a dominant tree crown of the hardwood
species meeting the crown closure requirement and are a result of
natural seeding.


122






Use of Peat as a Growth Medium .................. . 50
Horticulture ................................. 50
A agriculture .................................. 51
Energy Crops ................................ 51
Sewage Treatment ................................ 51
Economic Impact of Peat Mining-Kenneth M. Campbell ....... 52
Production, Value, and Price of Peat ............ ...... 52
Location of Peat Producers ......................... 53
Location of M markets ............................... 53
U se of Peat ..................................... 55
Permitting-Kenneth M. Campbell ....................... 55
County Level Permits .............................. 55
State Level Permitting ............................. 55
Department of Environmental Regulation ............ 58
Water Management Districts ..................... 58
Suwannee River Water Management District ...... 58
St. Johns River Water Management District ....... 58
Southwest Florida Water Management District ..... 61
South Florida Water Management District ........ 61
Department of Community Affairs ................. 62
Federal Level Permitting ............................ 62
Army Corps of Engineers ........................ 62
The Environmental Protection Agency .............. 62
Peat Revenue and Taxation ............................ 63
Potential Environmental Impacts of Peat Mining-Paulette Bond 64
The Effects of Peat Mining on Wetlands ................ 64
The Effects of Peat Mining on Water Quality .......... 66
The Effects of Peat Mining on Water Resources .......... 69
Water Resources in an Undisturbed System .......... 69
Water Resource Parameters Affected by Peat Mining ... 69
The Effects of Peat Mining on Air Quality ............... 73
The Effects of Peat Mining on Topography-Thomas M.
S cott ........................................ 7 5
Endangered Species Associated with Areas of Potential Peat
Mining-Thomas M. Scott ............. .............. 81
Reclamation of Mined Peatlands-Paulette Bond ............. 83
Peatland Reclamation in Minnesota ................... 87
Peatland Reclamation in North Carolina ................ 90
Peatland Reclamation in Finland ...................... 91
Peatland Reclamation in New Brunswick ............... 92
Reclamation in Peatlands of Florida ................... 92
Summary and Conclusions ............................. 93
Mineral versus Non-Mineral ......................... 93
Harvesting versus Mining ........................... 93
Environmental Impacts of Peat Mining ................. 94
Reclamation of Peat Mines .......................... 94
Agricultural Use of Peat ............................ 94






SPECIAL PUBLICATION NO. 27


description of the proposed area; specific principles for guiding develop-
ment within the area; and an inventory of lands owned by the state,
federal, county, and municipal governments within the proposed area.
"(2) An area of critical state concern may be designated only for:
"(a) An area containing, or having a significant impact upon, environ-
mental or natural resources or regional or statewide importance,
including, but not limited to, state or federal parks, forests, wild-
life refuges, wilderness areas, aquatic preserves, major rivers
and estuaries, state environmentally endangered lands, Out-
standing Florida Waters, and aquifer recharge areas, the uncon-
trolled private or public development of which would cause sub-
stantial deterioration of such resources. Specific criteria which
shall be considered in designating an area under this paragraph
include:
"1. Whether the economic value of the area, as determined by the
type, variety, distribution, relative scarcity, and the condition of the envi-
ronmental or natural resources within the area, is of substantial regional
or statewide importance.
"2. Whether the ecological value of the area, as determined by the
physical and biological components of the environmental system, is of
substantial regional or statewide importance.
"3. Whether the area is a designated critical habitat of any state or
federally designated threatened or endangered plant or animal species.
"4. Whether the area is inherently susceptible to substantial develop-
ment due to its geographic location or natural aesthetics.
"5. Whether any existing or planned substantial development within
the area will directly, significantly, and deleteriously affect any or all of
the environmental or natural resources of the area which are of regional
or statewide importance.

"Chapter 259-Land Conservation Action of 1972
Section 259.04-Powers and duties of "Board":
Definition: "Board" means the governor and cabinet, sitting as the
Board of Trustees of the Internal Improvement Trust Fund. [(259.03(4)].
"(1) For state capital projects for environmentally endangered lands:
"(a) The board is given the responsibility, authority, and power to
develop and execute a comprehensive plan to conserve and protect envi-
ronmentally endangered lands in this state. This plan shall be kept cur-
rent through continual reevaluation and revision.

"Chapter 163-Local Government Comprehensive Plan Act of 1975
Section 163.3161--Intent and Purpose:
"(1) This act shall be known and may be cited as the "Local Govern-
ment Comprehensive Planning Act of 1975."
"(2) In conformity with, and in furtherance of, the purpose of the
Florida Environmental Land and Water Management Act of 1972, chap-
ter 380, it is the purpose of this act to utilize and strengthen the existing






BUREAU OF GEOLOGY


approximately 30 percent water content after wet oxidation (Mensinger,
et al., 1980 in Minnesota DNR, 1981, p. 30).
Wet carbonization consists of heating a slurry of peat and water
(approximately three percent solids) to 300 to 4000F at 50 to 100 atmo-
spheres of pressure for 30 minutes. A "peat coal" with a heat value of
12,000 to 14,000 BTU/lb dry weight is obtained after the liquid is
removed (U.S. Department of Energy, 1979).
Wet oxidation is an established process for the oxidation of many wet
organic materials. Air or oxygen is pressure fed to wet peat in a closed,
heated vessel. Combustion is rapid and is controlled by the rate of supply
of the oxygen or air. The process can be stopped after enough heat has
been generated to carbonize the remaining peat or can be carried to
completion to produce energy (U.S. Department of Energy, 1979).
Solvent extraction reacts a heated peat-water slurry under pressure
with an organic solvent. The water is extracted from the peat by the
solvent. Subsequent to cooling, the absorbed water is stripped from the
solvent and after treatment is disposed of as waste.

Fuel Uses

DIRECT COMBUSTION

Direct combustion of peat is a method of producing energy which has
been utilized on a commercial scale in Ireland, Finland and the Soviet
Union for several decades. The Soviet Union had installed an electric
power station fueled entirely by peat as early as 1914 (U.S. Department
of Energy, 1979).
The U.S. Department of Energy has developed several criteria for fuel-
grade peat for use in its peat program. The criteria are: 1) heat value
greater than 8,000 BTU/lb (dry weight), 2) greater than 80 acres of peat
per square mile, 3) peat depth greater than four feet, and 4) ash content
less than 25 percent (Minnesota DNR, 1981). Hemic peats are generally
the most suitable for direct combustion usage. The more decomposed
peats (sapric) have been carbonized to a greater extent but often have
larger ash contents which reduces their fuel value. Fibric peats have been
less carbonized and thus have lower heating values.
Direct combustion of peat is accomplished in boilers designed or retro-
fitted for either peat fuel entirely or mixed fuel feed. Boiler design must
accommodate the characteristics of peat fuel: low energy density, high
moisture content. Both of these characteristics result in increased cost
(approximately 50 percent greater) of the boiler and feed system com-
pared with a coal or oil fired boiler of the same capacity (U.S. Department
of Energy, 1979). Grate fired and fluidized-bed boilers require pelletized
or briquetted feed. Pulverized-fired boilers require peat ground to be par-
ticle size compatible with the combuster design.
Direct combustion techniques can result in partial oxidation of the peat










References ...................................... .. 95
Glossary of Technical Terms-Kenneth M. Campbell .......... 102
Appendices-Paulette Bond ............................ 116
Appendix A. Federal Environmental Legislation .......... 116
Appendix B. Classification of Wetlands in Florida ........ 121
Appendix C. Florida Statutes Concerning Wetlands ...... 126
Appendix D. W ater Quality ........................ 134
Appendix E. Peatlands Management .............. . 136
Appendix F. Florida Statute 403.265: Peat Mining;
perm hitting ........................... 151


ILLUSTRATIONS


Figure Page

1 The process of coal formation .................... 10
2 The relationship of peat types to fuel grade .......... 12
3 A comparison of moisture content and heating value for
peat, wood and various coal types ................. 15
4 Peat provinces of southern Florida ................. 18
5 SW-NE cross-section from Cape Sable to vicinity of
Tam iam i Trail ................................. 19
6 Cross-section through a cypress hammock ........... 20
7 Cross-section through a "Bay Head" ............... 21
8 Cross-section through bay swamp and titi swamp ..... 22
9 Peat deposits bordering lakes ..................... 23
10 Cross-section showing peat filling lake .............. 24
11 Cross-section using cores to show buried peat layers at
Eureka Dam site, Oklawaha River, Marion County,
Florida ...................................... 2 5
12 Isopach map of the Everglades region showing thickness
of peat and some muck areas .................... 27
13 Peat deposits in Florida ......................... 30
14 Fuel grade peat deposits in Florida ................. 31
15 Peat deposits in Florida ......................... 32
16 Location map of the Everglades Agricultural Area ...... 34
17 Map of the Everglades Agricultural Area showing the
locations of profiles A-A' and B-B' ................. 37
18 Profile A-A' across the upper Everglades showing surface
elevations in 1912, 1940, 1970, 2000 ............. 38





BUREAU OF GEOLOGY


routinely with permits in this department. In final review stages, the
package of draft permits should be the subject of a public hearing to
receive comments on the draft. The public hearing on a draft permit is,
already done for some DEM permits, and the 1981 amendments to the
Mining Act provide for a public hearing on any new mining application
when significant revisions of existing mining permits where there is sig-
nificant public interest.
"The task force recommends that the Division of Land Resources,
with the Division of Environmental Management's assistance, prepare
packets of application materials and information, a NPDES permit appli-
cation, an air quality permit application, a water use permit application, a
list of contacts on permitting matters, and a copy of this report. The task
force does not recommend the development of any new combined appli-
cation.
"Use of the mining permit as the state's primary management tool for
peat mining requires that additional information be included in mining
permits. Table lil (in Chapter IV) enumerates the issues related to peat
mining and specifies which permit covers each issue. Each issue which
can be addressed by the Mining Act should be included in a mining permit
for peat.
"Inasmuch as is possible, permits from other departments and permits
for peat use activities should be included in this comprehensive review
recommended for the mining and related permits.
3. Impacts of Peat Use
Each proposed facility which will use peat should be carefully studied
on its own merits. These facilities, by their highly specialized nature, are
expected to have process-specific and site-specific impacts.. For exam-
ple, in addition to DNRCD permit requirements, any electric generating
plants will be closely controlled under North Carolina's utilities laws, and
the proposed methanol plant is subject to the special stipulations of the
federal Energy Security Act. Other uses, such as industrial process heat,
are not so obviously covered.
"All uses of peat, except horticultural peat, will probably involve facili-
ties which require NPDES, air, and water use permits. The task force
expects that these permits will cover the most serious impacts of such
facilities. The immediate site-related impacts of peat transportation from
mines to users should be covered under comprehensive mining permits.
"In the specific case of Peat Methanol Associates' proposed methanol
plant, the task force found no impacts which could not be covered by
either these permits or by the comprehensive mining permit to be applied
to the mine supplying peat for the plant. The special environmental moni-
toring plans required under the federal Energy Security Act for this pro-
ject should be specifically incorporated into the related mining permit.
These data will provide critical additional information regarding impacts
of peat mining and use.
"The task force recommends that DNRCD continue to track closely













QUANTITY (THOUSANDS OF SHORT TONS)


zF -
4 >
120 2 4




80 1.6




40 8




0
1972


Figure 23.


Production and value of peat in Florida, 1972-1983. (Compiled from Minerals
Yearbooks 1972-1981, U.S. Bureau of Mines; and The Mineral Industry of Florida,
1982, U.S. Bureau of Mines; and Mineral Industry Surveys, Annual Preliminary
Mineral Industry of Florida, 1983, U.S. Bureau of Mines.)


YEAR







Table 6. Air quality issues associated with peat mining. (Taken from King, et al., 1980).
Scales of Development
Small Moderate Large
Degree of Concern Major Moderate Minor Major Moderate Minor Major Moderate Minor


Harvesting Emission
Fugitive Dust
Carbon Monoxide
Emissions
Nitrogen Oxide Emissions
Sulfur Oxide Emissions
Particulate Emissions
Nonmethane Hydrocarbon
Emissions
Photo Chemical Oxidants
Heavy Metal Emissions
Reduced Sulfur Compound
Emissions
Nitrogen Compound
Emissions
Halogen Compound
Emissions
Visibility Reduction
Water Vapor Emissions
Carbon Dioxide Emissions


X



X


x
x


x


x


x
x


x
x


X


X
x


x

x
x
X


X

X
X


w
C
X m

C)



m
0
rn

0
x -<


x

x


x
x





SPECIAL PUBLICATION NO. 27


2. Role of Mining Permit
"The mining permit should be the department's primary management
tool for peat mining. The four principal state permits required for peat
mining-the mining permit, NPDES permit, air quality permit, and water
use permit-should be processed as a package.
"A public scoping meeting should be held on each package where
there is significant public interest to identify the specific issues to be
addressed in the permit applications and supporting information. A coor-
dinated public hearing should be held on these draft permits in each
package before they are issued.
"The laws requiring these permits allow the State to require submis-
sion of detailed analyses of environmental impacts as part of the permit
applications and this should be required in all cases. While the informa-
tion submittal need not be in the same format as a formal environmental
impact statement, it should be detailed and complete enough to provide
the department with sufficient information to assess the impacts of the
proposed project prior to a permit decision. A standard set of information
requirements for this analysis should be prepared by the Division of Land
Resources in close coordination with all other affected division, and sup-
plied to applicants early in preapplication counseling.
"Under the Mining Act of 1971, the significant impacts of peat mining
can be addressed by a mining permit. Table III (in Chapter IV) identifies
these issues and specifies which permits cover them directly and indi-
rectly. The requirements of the other permits can and should be incorpo-
rated into the mining permit, strengthening its umbrella or coordinating
role.
"Treating the four permits for a peat mine as a package will ensure that
all significant impacts will be addressed in a timely and consistent man-
ner. It will also increase the predictability of the permitting schedule. The
most efficient possible use of specialized resources in all for example,
DEM's water quality expertise is needed to advise Land Resources on
specific water quality issues and conditions which must be handled in
the mining permit. Different statutory timetables for various permits and
the variations with individual projects may make complete coordination
impossible. Natural Resources Planning and Assessment, on behalf of
the Assistant Secretary for Natural Resources, should prepare a detailed
flow chart of permit hearing, meeting, and decision deadlines for each
proposed peat mine operation. The department's existing peat permit
application review group can extend its function to review the four-
permit package with little change of membership.
"The package concept will also enhance the opportunities for public
involvement in the permitting process for peat mines. Shortly after appli-
cations for a peat mine are received, a public scoping meeting may be
convened by the department to discuss the questions and issues which
should be addressed in reviewing permit applications. The scoping meet-
ing, which is not required by statute, represents an innovation for dealing










































10


20
MILES


25


30


35


40


Profile A-A' across the upper Everglades Agricultural Area showing the original
surface elevation in 1912 and the ground elevation in 1940, from topographical
surveys. Profiles for the years 1970 and 2000 are estimated. (Modified from
Stephens and Johnson, 1951).


A


C)
00


20

18


-J 16
16

(n
14
z
4
< 12

w 10
A--

z 8
z
o 6
>-
> 4
IJ
-1
L.J


A'


GROUND ELEVATIONS 1912 (ORIGINAL CANAL SURVEYS)

I--^ -


,.~I. GROUND ELEVATIONS 1940 (SCS SURVEYS)

-.S AND:'.

ESTIMATED GROUND ELEVATIONS 19TO



ESTIMATED GROUND ELEVATIONS 2000


I ROCK)
u cr I, ROCK


ui 4 0 > c
x a. z


Figure 18.


w
C
m



'1

m
0
I-
0
0<


v


F


LLI
>
|, 1





SPECIAL PUBLICATION NO. 27


which differ from the conditions under which the rocks in question origi-
nated (Turner and Verhoogen, 1960, p. 450).

methane A colorless, odorless, flammable gas which is the simplest
paraffin hydrocarbon, formula CH4. The principal constituent of natural
gas.

methanol A colorless, volatile, water soluble, poisonous liquid,
CH3OH, used primarily as a solvent, fuel, automobile antifreeze and in the
synthesis of formaldehyde. Also called methyl alcohol, wood alcohol.

milled peat mining Process in which the leveled bog is scraped to a
depth of approximately one-half inch to 2 inches. The scraped material is
collected.

mineral A naturally formed chemical element or compound having a
definite chemical composition and, usually, a characteristic crystal form.
A mineral is generally considered to be inorganic, though organic com-
pounds are classified by some as minerals. Those who include the
requirement of crystalline form in the definition of a mineral would con-
sider an amorphous compound such as opal to be a mineraloid.

mineraloid A naturally occurring, usually inorganic substance that is
not considered to be a mineral because it is amorphous and thus lacks
characteristic physical and chemical properties; e.g., opal. Syn: gel min-
eral.

minerotrophic Peatlands which are connected with the regional
groundwater system and are nourished both by precipitation and ground-
water flow; contains alkaline, decaying vegetation on peat. See also:
fen.

mining The process of extracting mineral deposits or building stone
from the Earth. The term may also include preliminary treatment of the
ore or building stone; e.g. cleaning, sizing, dressing.

mire A general term for a section of wet swampy ground.

montan wax A bituminous wax extracted from lignite, used as an
industrial lubricant and as an ingredient in furniture polish, shoe polish
and electrical insulation.

morbidity The proportion of sickness or a specific disease in a geo-
graphical area.

mortality The relative frequency of death in a district or community.


109






BUREAU OF GEOLOGY


Peat Methanol Associates, 1983, PMA Update: News From Peat Metha-
nolAssociates, Vol. 1, No. 1, Peat Methanol Associates, Creswell, N.C.

Pennsylvania State University, Coal Research Section, 1976, A Field
Guide to Aid in the Comparative Study of the Okefenokee Swamp and
the Everglades-Mangrove Swamp-Marsh Complex of Southern Flor-
ida: Coal Research Section, University Park, Pa.

Pohjonen, V.M., 1980, Energy Willow Farming on Old Peat Industry
Areas, in Proceedings of the 6th International Peat Congress, August
17-23, 1980: International Peat Society, Duluth, Mn., pp. 439-440.

Press, F., and R. Siever, 1974, Earth: W.H. Freeman and Company, San
Francisco, Ca., 945 p.

Pritchard, P.C.H., ed., 1978, Rare and Endangered Biota of Florida: Vol.
1 -Mammals, Vol. 2-Birds, Vol. 3-Amphibians and Reptiles, Vol. 4-
Fishes: Florida Game and Fresh Water Fish Commission, Tallahassee, Fl.

Quinn, A.W., and H.D. Glass, 1958, Rank of Coal and Metamorphic
Grade of Rocks of the Narragansett Basin of Rhode Island: Economic
Geology, V. 53, pp. 563 576.

Robinson, C.W., R.L. Schneider, and A.B. Allen, 1983, Harvesting and
Converting Peat to Methanol at First Colony: in Mining Engineering, July,
pp. 723-726.

Searls, J.P., 1980, Peat: United States Bureau of Mines Bulletin 671,
Washington, D.C., pp. 641 -650.

Shih, S.F., 1980, Impact of Subsidence on Water Management in Ever-
glades Agricultural Area, in Proceedings of the 6th International Peat
Congress, August 17-23, 1980: International Peat Society, Duluth,
Mn., 473 p.

Snyder, G.H., H.W. Burdine, J.R. Crocket, G.J. Gascho, D. Harrison, G.
Kidder, J.W. Mishoe, D.L. Myhre, F.M. Pate, S.F. Shih, 1978, Water
Table Management for Organic Soil Conservation and Crop Production in
the Florida Everglades: Institute for Food and Agricultural Science, Uni-
versity of Florida, Gainesville, Fl., 22 p.

Soper, E.K., and C.C. Osbon, 1922, The Occurrence and Uses of Peat in
the United States: United States Geological Survey Bulletin 728, Wash-
ington, D.C., 207 p.

Spackman, W., D.W. Scholl, and W.H. Taft, 1964, Field Guidebook to
Environments of Coal Formation in Southern Florida: Printed for the Geo-
logical Society of America Pre-Convention Fieldtrip, November, 67 p.


100






SPECIAL PUBLICATION NO. 27


may be instituted. Florida's climate is unlike the climates of other peat
producing areas in which extensive research has been done. Peat in
Florida frequently lies directly over limestone or quartz sand. This rela-
tionship coupled with subsidence rates measured in Florida must be con-
sidered carefully with respect to reclamation to agriculture. If reclama-
tion to agriculture or silviculture is considered, the fertility of the residual
peat and its thickness must be investigated. A number of site specific
hydrologic characteristics will require consideration including the number
and types of lakes and streams as well as the relationship of the site to
groundwater resources in its area.

SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS

Mineral versus Non-Mineral

Peat, like coal, petroleum and natural gas, does not comply with the
principal conditions set forth in the academic definition of the term min-
eral. Peat represents an early stage in a series of products which may
under certain conditions result in the conversion of vegetable matter to
pure carbon (peat-lignite-bituminous coal-anthracite-graphite), the end
product of which fits all the requirements of a true mineral. In classifying
peat as a mineral or non-mineral, there has been a tendency toward
allowing use to play an important role in the classification, that is, if used
as an agricultural product peat would be treated as a non-mineral or if
used as an energy source or fossil fuel peat would be treated as a min-
eral. Classification based on use can create considerable confusion espe-
cially with mineral products used as fertilizers. Peat has been historically
classified by the U.S. Bureau of Mines and the U.S. Geological Survey as
a mineral resource, a somewhat broader category than just "mineral",
along with coal, oil and natural gas. Peat is generally regarded as nonre-
newable by earth science professionals, requiring in excess of 1,000
years to generate a commercially extractable deposit of fuel grade peat.
This study concludes that because of peat's genetic relationship to the
mineral graphite, its general classification by the U.S. Bureau of Mines
and the U.S. Geological Survey as a mineral resource, and its nonrene-
wability, peat should be classed as a "mineral resource", or "mineral
product".

Harvesting versus Mining

Harvesting and mining have been used synonymously to refer to the
extraction of peat. Literature searches reveal that the term harvesting
correctly refers to the nearly obsolete practice of selectively removing
living Sphagnum (peat moss) from the surface of a bog. In this practice,
Sphagnum was allowed to grow back, permitting successive harvests in
a single location. Peat (unlike living Sphagnum) is considered nonrenew-
able and the term harvesting is inappropriate when applied to peat






SPECIAL PUBLICATION NO. 27


APPENDIX B
CLASSIFICATION OF WETLANDS IN FLORIDA
(Taken from Brown, et al., 1983)

State Level

"Several classification schemes have been developed for use in Flor-
ida. Monk (1968) classified communities by forest vegetation types. He
states, "Seven major forest vegetation types exist in North Central Flor-
ida: (1)Climax Southern Mixed Hardwood; (2)Sand Pine Scrub; (3)Sand
Hills; (4)Pine Flatwoods; (5)Cypress Swamps; (6)Bayheads; and
(7)Mixed Hardwood Swamps." Of these, three are used for wetlands
classification-Mixed Hardwood Swamps, Bayheads, and Cypress
Swamps.
"In a classification scheme developed by Craig (1981), wetland areas
were broken down into 11 categories. These include: (1)Sloughs;
(2)Freshwater Marsh and Ponds; (3)Pitcher Plant Bogs; (4)Shrub Bogs;
(5)Swamp Hardwoods; (6)Cypress Swamps; (7)Cabbage Palm Ham-
mocks; (8)Wetland Hardwood Hammocks; (9)Cutthroat Seeps; (10)Cab-
bage Palm Flatwoods; and (11)Bottomland Hardwoods.
"Laessle (1942) used associations for classifying vegetation types. He
defines association as, "A characteristic combination of plant species
which is repeated in numerous stands with but little if any change in the
vigor and proportions of its principal components.
"Laessle's classification scheme for wetlands included:
I. Hydric Communities Dominated by Trees
1. Bayhead (Gordonia-Tamala pubeslens-Magnolia virginiana
Association)
2. River Swamp (Taxodium distichum-Nyssa biflora Association)
II. Herbaceous Aquatic Communities Bordering the River and Its Tidal
Tributaries
1. Submerged Associations (Naias-Ceratophyllum Association
and Vallisneria Association)
2. Floating Associations (Piaropus Association and Pistia-Salvina
Association)
3. Emergent Vegetation

"A report developed in part by the Northeast Regional Planning Coun-
cil classifies several communities associated with wetland areas. These
include Swamp Hammock, Hardwood Swamp, Riverine Cypress,
Cypress Pond, Bayhead and Bog, Wet Prairie, Freshwater Marsh (shallow
and deep), and Tidal Flat (Jacksonville Area Planning Board, 1977).
"Under the aegis of the Florida Department of Administration, the
State Division of Planning, and the Bureau of Comprehensive Planning a
committee was created to increase the efficiency of land use planning by
coordinating the collection, interpretation, and other use of land resource
data. The result was the Florida Land Use and Cover Classification Sys-





BUREAU OF GEOLOGY


areas, as well as the overall policy development and coordination area,
the central coordinating role should be played by the Assistant Secretary
for Natural Resources with such supporting service from the divisions as
is deemed appropriate.
16. Recommended Approach to Resolve Issues of Wet Reclamation
and Perpetual Pumping
"DNRCD, through the peat working group, with appropriate outside
advice and expertise, should scope the issues which should be
addressed in any permit applications for a peat mine which involve either
wet reclamation or perpetual pumping. These are very important emerg-
ing issues which need to be addressed now, so that appropriate research
and policy development can take place prior to review of individual per-
mit applications. The list of issues, or questions, thus produced would
have to be addressed in the permit applications. Site-specific solutions to
these problems would then be addressed in the individual permit applica-
tions and reviews.
"Wet reclamation" includes all forms of reclamation which perma-
nently or periodically put the reclaimed area under either fresh or saltwa-
ter. Such uses as paddy culture, reversion to swamp forest or pocosin,
reservoirs, aquaculture of fish or shell fish, artificially created nursery
areas, waterfowl impoundments, marinas, and recreational lakes would
fall in this category. None of these has yet appeared on a mining permit
application, but they may do so as soon as 1983.
"Perpetual pumping" applies to any reclamation schemes which will
require constant pumping to maintain land dry enough for productive
use. Intensive agriculture is apparently the only reclamation use which
can financially justify the cost of pumping. In addition to hydrological
questions, perpetual pumping raises many legal and institutional ques-
tions which must be resolved before a permit should be issued which
involves perpetual pumping.
"The approach suggested in this recommendation is fully consistent
with the general permit package processing procedure recommended
above. The only difference comes from having advance scoping done
prior to permit applications.







SPECIAL PUBLICATION NO. 27


the ASTM include: 1) Sphagnum moss peat which must contain at least
66.66 percent Sphagnum fibers by weight, 2) Hypnum moss peat which
must contain at least 33.33 percent fibers with one-half of those identifi-
able as Hypnum moss, 3) reed-sedge peat which must contain at least
33.33 percent fibers, one-half of which are reed-sedge and other non-
mosses, 4) peat-humus must contain less than 33.33 percent fiber, and
5) other peat, which accounts for all peat not previously classified in
ASTM Designation D-2607-69 (ASTM, 1969).
The ASTM classification as discussed in the previous paragraph is
currently under revision. Two major factors were considered in this revi-
sion. The classification of peat should meet the needs of three major user
groups including engineers, energy users and agricultural users. In addi-
tion, the classification should be based on parameters which may be
measured objectively. These parameters include ash, botanical composi-
tion, pH, and water holding capacity. In order to be called peat, a material
will have to contain 75 percent or more organic material on a dry basis.
Although peats will still be categorized as fibric, hemic or sapric (based
on fiber content), these general terms will be modified by ash content,
botanical composition, pH and water holding capacity (A. Cohen, personal
communication, 1983).
One essential characteristic that is associated with peat is moisture
level, but there are no current regulated standards for moisture in peat.
The United States Bureau of Mines considers a "commonly accepted"
value in the United States to be 55 percent moisture by weight for air
dried peat (Searls, 1980).
The U.S. Department of Agriculture divides peat into three categories
(Searls, 1980). Fibric peat must contain more than 66.66 percent plant
fibers. Hemic peats are more decomposed than fibric peats. They must
have a fiber content which ranges between 33.33 percent and 66.66
percent fibers. Sapric peat consists of the most extensively decomposed
plant material. Sapric peat contains less than 33.33 percent recognizable
plant fragments of any type.
Peat in the United States has often been classified into three general
categories (Searls, 1980; U.S. Department of Energy, 1979). Moss peat
is comprised of Sphagnum, Hypnum and other mosses. Reed-sedge peat
is mainly the product of reeds, sedges and other swamp plants. Humus is
simply too decomposed for evidence of its origin to be retained.

Parameters Affecting Peat Use for Fuel

The parameters which bear most directly on peat's usefulness as a fuel
source are measured by proximate analysis. In this procedure, peat is
analyzed in the laboratory for its volatile content, fixed carbon, ash con-
tent and moisture. The volatile content of peat refers to substances other
than moisture which are emitted as gas and vapor when peat is burned.
Peat has a very high volatile content compared to coal. This is a positive
attribute for peat which is to be gasified since the reactivity of peat in the






BUREAU OF GEOLOGY


extrude sods onto a conveyor which deposits them onto the field for air
drying. At a moisture content of about 75 percent the sods are win-
drowed. Windrows are periodically split and turned to facilitate drying
and at about 55 percent moisture, sods are considered dry and removed
for storage (Aspinall, 1980).
The milled peat mining method is one in which a peat layer one-quarter
to 2-inches thick is milled or shredded from the prepared surface of the
bog. The peat is periodically harrowed to expedite drying. At a moisture
content of 50 to 55 percent, the dried peat is pushed into ridges where it
is collected for transportation to storage facilities (Aspinall, 1980).
Several methods of hydraulic peat mining are in development. Exam-
ples of these processes are the slurry ditch, hydro peat and slurry pond
methods (Aspinall, 1980). In each of these methods, the surface must be
cleared; but drainage is not necessary.
The slurry ditch and hydro peat methods utilize high pressure water
guns to cut peat from a ditch face. The difference between the methods
lies in the post-mining dewatering process. The slurry ditch method uti-
lizes a dewatering apparatus; whereas, the hydro peat method is dewa-
tered by pumping the slurry to a drying field where it is spread to dry
(Minnesota DNR, 1981). The slurry pond method utilizes mechanical
excavators or a dredge to remove peat. Mining equipment is mounted on
a barge which floats on a pond excavated within the peat deposits as the
mining progresses.
The ultimate success of wet mining methods will depend on the suc-
cessful development of very large scale dewatering processes and upon
the environmental impacts of the mining process (U.S. Department of
Energy, 1979). These may be the preferred methods, however, in areas
where drainage of peat deposits is technically difficult or environmentally
unsound.

Mining Methodology Associated with the Agricultural Use of Peat

In order to obtain current information on Florida's active peat opera-
tions for the present study, the staff of the Bureau of Geology designed
and conducted a survey of producers. In the first stage of this survey, a
list of peat producers was compiled. In an effort to make this list as
comprehensive as possible, a number of sources were consulted includ-
ing: existing lists of producers (Florida Bureau of Geology, United States
Bureau of Mines, United States Mines Safety and Health Administration);
agencies contacting peat producers in conjunction with regular profes-
sional services (county agricultural agents, Florida Department of Agri-
culture); and numerous telephone directories. In the second stage of the
survey, peat producers were contacted by telephone and field visits were
arranged. The information which follows was contributed on a voluntary
basis by producers who were contacted during field visits.
Peat extraction methods vary with the size and nature of the deposit
being mined. Most deposits are mined using conventional types of earth-






BUREAU OF GEOLOGY


particular geographic areas for the purpose of promoting public benefits
but without recognition of the obligation to compensate the owner. The
case underscores the need for government to establish balanced man-
agement programs-such as development rights transfers or bonuses
and incentives to guide growth away from heavily restricted areas to
desired areas-rather than requiring a single owner to suffer the cost of
providing community benefits (Land Use Law and Zoning Digest, April
1980).
"The constitutional question which arose from Estuary Properties v.
Askew of "a taking" versus a valid exercise of the police power, with
regard to the regulation of development in wetlands, was further
reviewed by the Florida Supreme Court in April of 1981 as Graham v.
Estuary Properties, Inc. The Florida Supreme Court held that the permit
denial in response to Estuary's DRI application was a valid exercise of the
police power but the Land and Water Adjudicatory Commission must
provide Estuary Properties with the changes which would make the
development eligible for approval. Regarding balancing of public versus
private interests (protecting public health, safety, and welfare versus
protection of private property interests), the court found that the adverse
environmental impact and deviation from the policies of the planning
council could outweigh other more favorable findings in deciding a devel-
opment approval.
"The court also reasoned that:
if the regulation preventing the destruction of the mangrove forest was
necessary to avoid unreasonable pollution of the water thereby caus-
ing attendant harm to the public, the exercise of police power would be
reasonable.
"Since the Land and Water Adjudicatory Commission found that the
development would cause pollution in the bays and effect the county's
economy, the court ruled that:
"The regulation at issue here promotes the welfare of the public, pre-
vents public harm and has not been arbitrarily applied.
"In discussing the reasonableness of the regulation the court also
relies on the "magnitude of Estuary's proposed development and the
sensitive nature of the surrounding lands and water to be affected by it.
In this situation it is not unreasonable to place some restrictions on the
owner's use of the property." Furthermore the court found that Estuary
did not have legitimate investment-backed expectations for use of the
property but only "its own subjective expectation that the land could be
developed in the manner it now proposes."
"In answer to the taking issue the court said that "Estuary purchased
the property in question . with full knowledge that part of it was totally
unsuitable for development." The court said that there was no evidence
supporting the claim that Estuary could make no beneficial use of the
land.
"It seems that in the Estuary case the court did not agree that the
property was rendered worthless by the exercise of police power. In


132






SPECIAL PUBLICATION NO. 27


element Any of a class of substances that cannot be separated into
simpler substances by chemical means. Elements are the building blocks
from which all chemical compounds are formed.

enstatite A common rock-forming mineral of the orthopyroxene
group: MgSi03. It is isomorphous with hypersthene and may contain a
little iron replacing the magnesium. Enstatite varies from grayish white to
yellowish, olive green and brown. It is an important primary constituent
of intermediate and basic igneous rocks.

ester A compound produced by the reaction between an acid and an
alcohol with the elimination of a molecule of water.

estuary (a) The seaward end or the widened funnel-shaped tidal
mouth of a river valley where freshwater mixes with and measurably
dilutes seawater and where tidal effects are evident; e.g. a tidal river, or a
partially enclosed coastal body of water where the tide meets the current
of a stream; (b) A portion of an ocean, as a firth or an arm of the sea,
affected by freshwater; e.g. the Baltic Sea; (c) A drowned river mouth
formed by the subsidence of land near the coast or by the drowning of
the lower portion of a nonglaciated valley due to the rise of sea level.

ethane A colorless, odorless, water-insoluble, gaseous paraffin
hydrocarbon, formula C2H6, which occurs in natural gas or can be pro-
duced as a by-product in the cracking of petroleum.

ethanol (alcohol) A colorless, volatile, flammable liquid, C2H5OH, pro-
duced by fermentation of certain carbohydrates, used chiefly as a sol-
vent, and in organic synthesis, beverages, medicine, colognes and anti-
freeze.

ethyl acetate A volatile, flammable liquid, CH3COOC2H5, used as sol-
vent for paints and lacquers.

eutrophication The process by which waters become more
eutrophic; the artificial or natural enrichment of a lake by an influx of
nutrients required for the growth of aquatic plants such as algae that are
vital for fish and animal life.

evapotranspiration Loss of water from a land area through transpira-
tion of plants and evaporation from the soil. Also, the volume of water
lost through evapotranspiration.

fen A waterlogged, spongy groundmass containing alkaline, decay-
ing vegetation characterized by reeds or peat. It sometimes occurs in the
sinkholes of karst regions. Cf: bog.







SPECIAL PUBLICATION NO. 27


mit for construction of a storm water disposal system associated with
mining of peat in central Florida (Putnam County).

The Effect of Peat Mining on Water Resources

WATER RESOURCES IN AN UNDISTURBED SYSTEM

The mining of peat will cause changes in the hydrologic budget associ-
ated with a peatland. The changes could be helpful or detrimental, but
the system will change. In order to better understand the changes which
are discussed in the next portion of the text, it is instructive to examine
the system as it operates naturally.
The hydrologic cycle is used by geologists to describe what happens to
water which falls to the earth as precipitation. The water which falls as
precipitation has a number of possible fates. It may evaporate from fall-
ing rain and never reach the earth's surface. It may be taken up by the
roots of plants, carried to the leaves and returned to the atmosphere by
transpiration (the process by which the foliage of plants releases water
vapor). Evaporation, which returns water to the atmosphere, occurs
from soil, from the surfaces of lakes, rivers and oceans, even from the
dew which collects on plants. Some portion of the rain which falls does
reach the earth's surface and flows across it to reach lakes, streams or
possibly the ocean. This portion is referred to as runoff. Some part of
rainfall soaks into the ground (infiltration). A portion of the water which
soaks into the ground will make its way slowly to streams or lakes, and in
certain areas, some of this water may enter a porous and permeable rock
unit referred to as an aquifer.
For a given geographic area, geologists may estimate the proportion of
water which is lost to the processes of evaporation and transpiration.
Measurements are made so that geologists are familiar with average
values of stream discharge, and lake levels. The depth to the water table
may be measured. (The water table is the level below which pores in the
rock or sediments are filled with water and above which they are partly
or totally filled with air). The measurements may be used to make up a
hydrologic (water) budget for a given area. Thus, water resources are a
system. If one aspect of the system is modified, other aspects change in
response to the modification.

WATER RESOURCE PARAMETERS AFFECTED BY PEAT MINING

This discussion is primarily from a study of environmental issues asso-
ciated with peat mining, completed for the U.S. Department of Energy by
King, et al., 1980.
In a study which deals solely with environmental issues arising from
mining of peat, King, et al. (1980) report that the development required
for mining will modify natural groundwater and surface water character-





BUREAU OF GEOLOGY


more than 25 percent ash. Other estimates are much greater (1.75 billion
tons and 6.9 billion tons). These estimates include organic soils whose
ash content exceeds ASTM standards for material defined as peat and
U.S. Department of Energy standards for fuel grade peat.
The Everglades Agricultural Area was delineated based on scientific
analysis of soils to determine their suitability as a growth medium. The
drainage necessary for successful agriculture has been accompanied by
subsidence primarily because soils are no longer protected from decom-
posing organisms which require oxygen for their metabolism. Soil loss
continues to occur at about one inch each year. It is predicted that by the
year 2000 approximately 250,000 acres in the Agricultural Area will
have subsided to thicknesses of less than one foot. The fate of soils less
than one foot thick is uncertain. They may be used for pasture land or
abandoned for agricultural purposes.
Peat currently is used in Florida for a variety of horticultural and agricul-
tural purposes. The United States Bureau of Mines reports that in 1982,
120 thousand short tons was produced at a value estimated at 1.575
million dollars. These data reflect voluntary information supplied to the
Bureau of Mines and do not include responses from all of Florida's peat
producers. Most peat sales in Florida are currently wholesale and for
agricultural purposes and are thus exempt from sales tax. Records are
not maintained which detail sales tax on retail sale of peat products
specifically, and thus there is no way of estimating the current tax
income derived from the exploitation of peat resources in the State of
Florida.
The peat permitting process as it applies to peat mining is complex.
County level permits may be required, although in many cases zoning
regulations are the only regulations which apply to opening a peat mine.
At the state level, the Department of Environmental Regulation and
Water Management Districts containing peat may require permits. The
Department of Community Affairs has jurisdiction over Developments of
Regional Impact (DRI). Certain peat mining operations could come under
federal jurisdiction. The agencies concerned would include the Environ-
mental Protection Agency and the Army Corps of Engineers.
The environmental impacts associated with peat mining for energy
purposes depend strongly on the size of the prospective operation. Envi-
ronmental impacts are also site specific. Small operations could consume
approximately 26 acres of peat mined to a depth of 6 feet, over 4 years;
moderate operations could take approximately 3500 acres mined to a
depth of 6 feet, over a 20 year period; and a large operation could require
approximately 125,000 acres of peat, mined to a depth of 6 feet to
operate for 20 years. Peat mining will occur largely in wetlands and the
values of each individual wetland must be weighed against the value of
peat to be removed. The wetland habitat will be severely affected. Fauna
will be displaced and possibly destroyed and flora will be destroyed when
the peatland is cleared for mining. Water quality impacts may be major,
even for small operations, and are related to chemical characteristics of






BUREAU OF GEOLOGY


role, processes, and powers of local governments in the establishment
and implementation of comprehensive planning program to guide and
control future development.
"(3) It is the intent of this act that its adoption is necessary so that
local governments can preserve and enhance present advantages;
encourage the most appropriate use of land, water, and resources con-
sistent with the public interest; overcome present handicaps; and deal
effectively with future problems that may result from the use and devel-
opment of land within their jurisdictions. Through the process of compre-
hensive planning, it is intended that units of local government can pre-
serve, promote, protect, and improve public health, safety, comfort,
good order, appearance, convenience, law enforcement and fire preven-
tion, and general welfare; prevent overcrowding of land and avoid undue
concentration of population; facilitate the adequate and efficient provi-
sion of transportation, water, sewage, schools, parks, recreational facili-
ties, housing, and other requirements and services; and conserve,
develop, utilize, and protect natural resources within their jurisdiction.

"Section 163.3177 (7) and (8)-Required and Optional Elements of
Comprehensive Plan:
"(7) Such other elements as may be peculiar to, and necessary for,
the area concerned and as are added to the comprehensive plan by the
governing body upon the recommendation of the local planning agency.
"(8) All elements of the comprehensive plan, whether mandatory or
optional, shall be based upon data appropriate to the element involved.

"Chapter 581 -Plant Industry
Section 581.185-Preservation of flora of Florida:
"(1) PROHIBITIONS; PERMITS:
(a) With regard to any plant on the Endangered Plant List provided in
subsection (2), it is unlawful for any person:
"1. To willfully injure or destroy any such plant growing on the private
land of another without first obtaining the written permission of the
owner of the land or his legal representative.
"2. To willfully injure or destroy any such plant growing on any public
land or water without first obtaining the written permission of the
superintendent or custodian of such land or water, and a permit from the
department as provided in this section.
"4. To willfully harvest, collect, pick, or remove three or more individ-
ual plants of a given species listed on the Endangered Plant List from any
native habitat without first obtaining the written permission of the owner
of the land or his legal representative or, in the case of public land or
water, the written permission of the superintendent or custodian of such
land or water, and a permit from the department as provided in this
section.
"(2) ENDANGERED PLANT LIST:
The following plants shall be included in the Endangered Plant List:


128






SPECIAL PUBLICATION NO. 27


S o. FIXED CARBON -12 A











COAL TYPES
WOOD PEAT LIGNiTE SUB-BITUMINOUS BIlUMINOUS ANTHRACITE

Figure 3. A comparison of moisture content and heating value
for peat, wood and various coal types. (Modified from
U.S. Department of Energy, 1979).



serve to inhibit decomposition by organisms. Ideally, areas should be
continually waterlogged, temperatures generally low and pH values of
associated waters should be low (Moore and Bellamy, 1974). It should
be noted that Moore and Bellamy (1974) primarily treat peats associated
with northern cold climates.
Certain geologic characteristics are associated with waterlogged sur-
face conditions. The tendency toward waterlogging is enhanced if topo-
graphic relief is generally low and topographic barriers exist which
restrict flow and allow water to pond. Additionally, waterlogging is
encouraged if highly permeable bedrock is covered with material of low
permeability (Olson, et al., 1979).
The chemical nature of the plant litter may also serve to reduce its
susceptibility to decomposition. Moore and Bellamy (1974) note the
association of cypress and hardwood trees in peats of the hammocks or
tree islands of the Everglades. These hammocks occur on peat deposits
wihnrhr cl lmts
Ceti elgccaateitc r soitd ihwtrogdsr
fac coditon. Te tndncytowrdwatrlogig i enaned f tpo






BUREAU OF GEOLOGY


nutrients could be released to receiving waters. If nutrient supplies are
increased, eutrophication rates would increase and changes in the
aquatic ecosystem would occur (King, et al., 1980).
Peat contains a number of organic acids. These compounds (fatty
acids, humic acids, amino acids, tannic acids and other organic acids) are
partially responsible for the low pH values associated with waters from
peatlands. The release of waters containing such compounds as a part of
the drainage and dewatering process could have a direct toxological
effect on aquatic organisms.
Peat, since it is derived from an accumulation of plant material, may
also contain microlevels of heavy metal ions which were used by original
plants for life processes. Heavy metal ions are also derived from fallout of
pollutants directly onto the surface of the peat and from the filtering of
surface waters by peats. If peats are exploited as a fuel resource, they
must be drained and dewatered and, eventually, processed for energy
production. This processing may lead to the release of metals to the air
and water.
It is suggested (King, et al., 1980) that all effluent streams be moni-
tored qualitatively and quantitatively to determine the characteristics of
organic chemicals being released. Mining of peat and its processing for
energy may possibly lead to an inadvertent release of toxic inorganic
compounds and phenols. It is important to note that release of these
materials may not necessarily occur. Peat mining and subsequent pro-
cessing for energy, however, have not been extensively practiced in the
United States and monitoring is suggested as means of offsetting this
lack of experience.
The mining and dewatering of peat may result in the release of colloidal
and settleable solids into receiving streams. Peat itself comprises water-
soluble colloidal material and small particles of cellulose and fibrous
material. The nature of these materials and of the constituents which
may become adsorbed onto them is such that oxygen levels are expected
to be depressed. Additionally, the transport of nutrients which might lead
to eutrophication and heavy metals might be increased.
Three states which have begun to cope with water quality aspects
which might accompany the mining of peat for energy include Minne-
sota, North Carolina and Florida. Appendix D of this document includes
lists of water quality parameters chosen for measurement by each state.
The lists are different, since they were prepared for somewhat different
purposes. The state of Minnesota, after an extensive literature review,
concluded that baseline data were needed. A study was devised in which
33 water quality parameters were monitored in 45 undisturbed peatlands
in northern Minnesota. The list of parameters being monitored in North
Carolina has been developed for the assessment of wastewater dis-
charge in conjunction with a proposed peat-to-methanol plant at
Creswell, North Carolina. The Florida Department of Environmental Reg-
ulation has required monitoring of 26 water quality parameters in a per-







BUREAU OF GEOLOGY


an appropriate mining method. The groundwater levels in peatlands may
also influence groundwater levels in aquifers which are connected hydro-
logically (King, et al., 1980). It is important to define the relationship, or
lack of relationship, between peatlands which are to be mined and aqui-
fers which might possibly be affected by removal of peat.
If coastal peatlands are to be mined, the drainage necessary to reduce
water levels could possibly lead to saltwater intrusion. In addition,
groundwater recharge may be reduced and groundwater levels could be
lowered (King, et al., 1980). The combination of these three effects
could lead to saltwater intrusion and King, et al. (1980) suggest the
effects of this change should be researched carefully before develop-
ment.
Peat mining will require construction of drainage ditches, water control
devices and roads. Thus, the patterns of surface water flow in the mined
area and in downstream channels will be modified (King, et al., 1980).
It is believed (King, et al., 1980) that peatland development will
increase minimum stream discharge. Net evapotranspiration from the
peatland will be reduced since vegetation must be cleared in order for
mining to occur. Thus, a greater portion of net precipitation will drain. As
ditches are constructed, more of the peatlands will be able to contribute
flow directly to artificial surface streams (King, et al., 1980).
A number of factors associated with peat mining will serve to increase
mean surface water discharge. If the mining method chosen involves
drainage, then water being drained will be added to surface water dis-
charge. Additionally, mined peat will have to be dewatered, so another
addition to surface water discharge occurs. It is projected (King, et al.,
1980) that the effects of a small scale development on mean surface
discharge would be minor. Proposed moderate and large scale mining
operations should be evaluated on a site specific basis to protect down-
stream water users and aquatic resources (King, et al., 1980).
The development and reclamation of a peatland will permanently
change the hydrologic budget of the area (King, et al., 1980). These
changes may be helpful or detrimental offsite.
If peatlands contribute to aquifers in a given area, then the effect of
positive or negative changes affecting that aquifer should be researched.
The groundwater flow from peatlands to connected regional aquifers will
change with mining (King, et al., 1980).
Lastly, the evapotranspiration rate from the mined area will change
(King, et al., 1980). Since mining involves removal of surface vegetation,
net evapotranspiration will be reduced. Ditching will lower the ground-
water level and cause a moisture deficiency in the upper portion of the
drained area which will contribute to a lower net evapotranspiration rate.
Although the effects of these changes are expected to be minor for all
scales of development, the modifications in adjacent plant and animal
communities and in local climate are poorly understood (King, et al.,
1980).





SPECIAL PUBLICATION NO. 27


impacts and urged to consider them in regard to developments which
would stimulate or direct peat mining.
"DNRCD can directly control essentially all of the impacts of peat
mining and most of the impacts of peat use, but DNRCD cannot unilater-
ally develop a state policy on peat in general. Although the Council of
State and the Cabinet would ultimately develop such a general policy, the
Energy Policy Council would likely be the initial interdepartmental forum
for discussions leading to a draft policy. Since energy needs and eco-
nomics usually drive the development of energy-related policies, it is
important that DNRCD use every appropriate opportunity in the council
to inform other agencies of the status of permitting and regulatory
issues.
"DNRCD and the Department of Commerce should also cooperate
closely on the siting of peat-using industrial facilities.
"During the past thirty-months, Commerce's Industrial Development
Division has worked very closely with DNRCD on the Peat Methanol
Associates project. This cooperation has apparently been satisfactory to
both departments and to the developer. It should serve as the model for
future cooperation, and such cooperation should become a matter of
routine.
14. Public Information and Education Program on Peat
"A public information and education program on peat mining and
impacts should be developed and carried out.
"This program should be designed to reach the general public, the
public schools, landowners in the peat region, and potential researchers.
A variety of approaches may be needed. The industry should be involved
in this effort. The Office of Natural Resource Planning and Assessment,
with assistance from the Division of Land Resources, should be assigned
responsibility by the Assistant Secretary for Natural Resources for devel-
oping and implementing the public information and education program
for peat.
15. Need for Permanent DNRCD Peat Working Group
"A peat working group will continue to be needed within the depart-
ment to assure full coordination among divisions on permitting, monitor-
ing, research, and policy development.
"A peat working group, appointed by the Assistant Secretary for Natu-
ral Resources and staffed by the Division of Land Resources, could serve
a significant portion of this work, as it is already established and
designed to handle intra-department coordination regarding the mining
permit. Strong coordination will be even more urgently needed in the
future, both to assure incorporation of other divisions' expertise in the
mining permit and to assure a coordinated permit package. Coordination
is needed beyond permitting issues per se, however. Monitoring and
research coordination should be closely related to permitting needs, but
the involvement of other issues may well necessitate the involvement of
personnel beyond the Land Resources peat working group. In these


149





SPECIAL PUBLICATION NO. 27


Table 8 continued.


REPTILES


Alabama Red-bellied Turtle
Alligator Snapping Turtle
American Alligator
American Crocodile
Atlantic Salt Marsh Watersnake
Eastern Indigo Snake
Florida Ribbon Snake
Gulf Salt Marsh Watersnake
Key Mud Turtle
Mangrove Terrapin

Short-tailed Snake
Southern Coal Skink
Spotted Turtle
Suwannee Cooter




Black-crowned Night Heron
Florida Sandhill Crane
Glossy Ibis
Great Egret
Ivory-billed Woodpecker
Least Bittern
Limpkin
Little Blue Heron
Louisiana Heron
Mangrove Clapper Rail
Marian's Marsh Wren
Osprey
Reddish Egret
Roseate Spoonbill
Snail (Everglades) Kite
Snowy Egret
Southern Bald Eagle

Southern Hairy Woodpecker
White Ibis
White-tailed Kite
Wood Stork
Worthington's Marsh Wren
Yellow-crowned Night Heron


Chrysemys alabamenensis
Macioclemys temmincki
Alligator mississippiensis
Crocodylus acutus
Nerodia fasiata taeniata
Drymarchon corais couperi
Thamnophis sauritus sackeni
Nerodia fasciata clarki
Kinosternon bauri bauri
Malaclemys terrapin
rhizophorarum
Stilosoma extenuatum
Eumeces anthracinus pluvialis
Clemmys guttata
Pseudemys concinna
suwanniensis

BIRDS

Nycticorax nycticorax
Grus canadensis pratensis
Plegadis falcinellus
Casmerodius albus
Campephilus principalis
Ixobrychus exilis
Aramus guarauna
Florida caerulea
Hydranassa tricolor
Rallus longirostris insularum
Cistothorus palustris marianae
Pandion haliaetus carolinensis
Dichromanassa rufescens
Ajaia ajaia
Rostrhamus sociabilis plumbeus
Egretta thula
Haliaeetus leucocephalus
leucocephalus
Picoides villosus audubonii
Eudocimus albus
Elanus leucurus majusculus
Mycteria americana
Cistothorus palustris griseus
Nyctanassa violacea





SPECIAL PUBLICATION NO. 27


Protection of Wetlands
Executive Order 11990


Protection and Enhancement
of Environmental Quality
Executive Order 11514 as
amended by Executive Order
11911


Surface Mining Control and
Reclamation Act of 1977
30 USC 1201


regulated programs, and Federal activ-
ities affecting land use."

"Reduce floodplain hazards and apply
floodplain management practices."

"Each agency will provide leadership
and action to minimize the destruction
and loss of wetlands and will conduct
activities so as not to adversely affect
land use and water resource planning
efforts."

"Each agency must review possible
alternatives and designate practicable
measures to mitigate the impacts."

"The Federal government shall pro-
vide leadership in protecting and
enhancing the environmental [sic] and
quality of life."

"Each agency must: monitor and eval-
uate its activities to protect the envi-
ronment; develop procedures to issue
public information on Federal plans
and programs; develop research and
demonstration testing programs; and
engage in data and research exchange
with other agencies."

"Provides a mechanism for Federal
and State review of all surface extrac-
tion of coal and other minerals (Peat
may be considered to be a mineral)."

"Designed to issue and enforce regu-
lations for the surface mining industry,
reduce environmental degradation,
and force reclamation of a surface
mine area."

"The act declares that surface mining
when conducted in an environmen-
tally safe and diligent manner is a
legally permitted activity."











Table 9. Independent factors governing site specific reclamation programs. (After King, et al., 1980).
Peat Land Landowner Post Harvesting
Harvest Ownership Future Use Site Conditions External
Development Technique Status Potentials Environmental Factors
Private Single Forestry Climate Reclamation
Owner Laws
Small
25 Acres Dry Large industrial Agriculture Soil Fertility
Owner Land Use

Medium Wildlife/ Vegetation Permits
S Acre Wet Public Land Recreation
3,500 Acres +
Drainage
Tribal or Native Water Discharge
Lands Open Water Permits
Large Combination Trafficability
100,000 Acres +
Combination of Multiple
Above Land Use Other Other


o00
o00


0n

m


-In
a)
m
0
r-
a<






SPECIAL PUBLICATION NO. 27


bioenergy crops Crops which are grown for plant biomass to produce
renewable energy sources. Plant biomass can be harvested and burned
directly or may be gasified to produce liquid and gaseous fuels.

biogasification A process which utilizes bacteria to produce methane
gas from organic material.

bituminous Coal which contains up to 86 percent fixed carbon and
which generates at least 8300 BTU/lb on combustion. It is dark brown to
black in color and is the most abundant rank of coal. Lower grades burn
with a smokey flame, however, higher grades burn without smoke.

BOD (Biological Oxygen Demand) The amount of oxygen (measured
in parts per million) removed from aquatic environments rich in organic
matter by the metabolic requirements of aerobic microorganisms.

bog A waterlogged, spongy groundmass, primarily mosses, contain-
ing acidic, decaying vegetation or peat.

brackish water An indefinite term for water, the salinity of which is
intermediate between that of normal sea water and normal fresh water.

BTU (British Thermal Unit) The amount of heat required to raise the
temperature of one pound of water one (1) degree F.

carbohydrate A polyhydroxy aldehyde or ketone or a compound that
can be hydrolyzed to such a compound. Carbohydrates, of which sugars,
starches and cellulose are examples, are produced by all green plants and
form an important animal food.

carbonization (a) In the process of coalification, the accumulation of
residual carbon by the changes in organic matter and decomposition
products; (b) The accumulation of carbon of a carbonaceous substance
such as coal by driving off the other components, either by heat under
laboratory conditions or by natural processes.

carbon-14 dating A method of determining an age in years by mea-
suring the concentration of carbon-14 remaining in an organic material,
usually formerly living matter, but also water biocarbonate, etc. The
method, worked out by Willard F. Libby, U.S. chemist (1908 ), in the
years 1946-1951, is based on the assumption that assimilation of
carbon-14 ceased abruptly on removal of the material from the Earth's
carbon cycle (i.e. the death of an organism) and that it thereafter
remained a closed system. Most carbon-14 ages are calculated using a
half-life of 5570+30 years, thus the method is useful in determining
ages in the range of 500 30,000 or 40,000 years, although it may be
extended to 70,000 years by using special techniques involving con-







SPECIAL PUBLICATION NO. 27


remain they could be severely affected by peat mining activities. Randy
Kautz (Game and Fresh Water Fish Commission, personal communica-
tion, 1983) expressed concern for selected habitats of the Florida Black
Bear.


RECLAMATION OF MINED PEATLANDS


by
Paulette Bond

Farnham (1979) notes that in a number of European nations, reclama-
tion of mined peatlands has been common practice for many years.
Mined areas are used for crop production, tree production, conservancy
areas, wildlife habitats and lakes or ponds. Ireland and Poland commonly
use mined peatlands for forage and grass production. In a recent consid-
eration of reclamation of mined peatlands (King, et al., 1980), primary
purposes were cited as provision for long-term erosion control and drain-
age and mitigation of environmental and socioeconomic effects of min-
ing by improving the value of the land.
Farnham, et al. (1980) note that reclamation should preferably be con-
sidered before removing peat for energy purposes. King, et al. (1980)
optimistically suggest that reclamation programs could create lands with
superior recreational and wildlife habitat values. These researchers also
note that drained organic soils may have great economic value as agricul-
tural or forest lands. It should be noted that experience gained in the
Everglades Agricultural Area supports the economic viability of farming
drained organic soils. However, the rate of subsidence of organic soils in
the Florida Everglades Agricultural Area is well known and suggests that
this type of reclamation might not be a feasible long-term solution for use
in Florida's mined peatlands. In order to achieve an approved reclamation
plan, clean-up and possible permanent drainage control may be indicated
(King, et al., 1980).
King, et al. (1980) have prepared a list of environmental parameters
affecting reclamation options. They include 1) seasonal fluctuations in
groundwater level, 2) soil fertility and drainage characteristics, 3) the
amount of residual peat remaining after mining, 4) trafficability (the abil-
ity of the bog surface to support vehicles and machinery), and 5) number
and types of lakes and streams. In addition, factors which control site
specific reclamation programs are tabulated by the same authors. That
information is presented in Table 9. In examining Table 9, it is important
to note that factors tabulated are independent of each other. Thus, a
small development might be harvested by wet methods. The private
single owner of this small development might choose to let the mined-out
area become a lake (open water), since drainage could prove difficult and
undesirable assuming water tables in the area were high.






BUREAU OF GEOLOGY


Table 7. Plant communities of concern-based on Nature Conservancy
recommendations.
FLOODPLAIN SWAMP SLOUGH
Water Elm/Ash Swamp Water Elm/Pop Ash Slough
Slash Pine Swamp Pond Apple/Pop Ash Slough

STREAMBANK THICKET BASIN SWAMP
White Cedar Bog Slash Pine Swamp

STRAND SWAMP BAYGALL
Cypress/Royal Palm Strand Everglades Bayhead



ward, black mangroves closer to shore and white mangroves furthest
inland. These swamps support large estuarine areas.
The Nature Conservancy has inventoried the plant communities in Flor-
ida and assigned each community a rank in relation to how commonly it
occurs. The plant communities of concern are listed in Table 7 (Linda
Deuver, personal communication, 1983).
It was suggested that specific native communities with tropical affini-
ties might be of such limited extent that peat mining in south Florida
could possibly lead to the destruction of certain groups (Linda Deuver,
personal communication, 1983).
The existence of endangered, threatened, rare or species of special
concern in areas of potential peat mining should be determined on a site-
by-site basis rather than a general habitat basis. Each site should be
investigated and the presence of species in question documented (R.
Kautz, personal communication, 1983). The site specific investigations
are necessary to avoid over generalization concerning the occurrence (or
nonoccurrence) of endangered species.
Table 8 is a compilation of species which are endangered, threatened,
rare or of special concern. This information was gathered from the series
entitled "Rare and Endangered Biota of Florida", from the official list of
the Florida Game and Fresh Water Fish Commission entitled "Endan-
gered and Potentially Endangered Fauna and Flora in Florida" and from
data supplied by the Nature Conservancy. Species whose habitat coin-
cides with areas of potential peat accumulation were included. This list-
ing should not be considered all encompassing and up-to-date on species
status. The Game and Fresh Water Fish Commission updates their list
periodically and should be consulted for the most recent compilation.
Comments concerning individual endangered species in relation to
peatlands have been received by the staff of the Bureau of Geology.
Charles Lee (Florida Audubon, personal communication, 1983)
expressed concern for the Florida Panther and the Ivory-billed Wood-
pecker. He suggested that peat mining might disrupt portions of the
panther's habitat. Lee also noted that if any Ivory-billed Woodpeckers





SPECIAL PUBLICATION NO. 27


sod peat mining Peat mining process in which the top layer of peat is
cut and compressed by the machinery before being extruded onto the
field to dry.

soil A natural, three dimensional body at the Earth's surface which
has properties resulting from the integrated effect of climate and organic
matter on present rock material, as conditioned in response to topogra-
phy; capable of supporting plant material.

solvent extraction Process which selectively separates components
of an organic substance by means of reacting with a solvent. The
absorbed compounds are subsequently stripped from the solvent.

sphagnum moss peat (American Society of Testing and Materials
(ASTM) classification) Peat which must contain at least 66.66 percent
Sphagnum moss fibers, by weight. NOTE: The ASTM is presently in the
process of revising this classification. The above term will no longer be
used.

stoichiometric proportions With reference to a compound or a phase,
pertaining to the exact proportions of its constituents specified by its
chemical formula. It is generally implied that a stoichiometric phase does
not deviate measurably from its ideal composition.

subsidence The lowering of the upper surface of a peat deposit due
to a reduction in volume; caused by a number of factors: shrinkage due
to dessication, consolidation due to loss of bouyant force of water or
loading, compaction due to tillage, erosion by wind, fire damage or bio-
chemical oxidation.

sulfur An orthorhombic mineral, the native nonmetallic element S. It
occurs in yellow crystals or in masses or layers often associated with
limestone, gypsum and other minerals; used in the production of sulfuric
acid, in petroleum refining, chemical production, iron and steel, paper,
industrial explosives and many other uses.

swamp A water-saturated area, intermittently or permanently cov-
ered with water, having shrub and tree-type vegetation.

synthesis gas Those gases produced during gasification of peat
which can be upgraded by hydrocracking to produce synthetic natural
gas.

talc An extremely soft, whitish, greenish or grayish monoclinic min-
eral: Mg3Si4010(OH)2. It has a characteristic soapy or greasy feel and a
hardness of 1 on Mohs' scale, and it is easily cut with a knife. Talc is a
common secondary mineral derived by alteration (hydration) of non-
aluminous magnesium silicates (such as olivine, enstatite and tremolite)


113






DEPARTMENT
OF
NATURAL RESOURCES


BOB GRAHAM
Governor


GEORGE FIRESTONE
Secretary of State


BILL GUNTER
Treasurer


RALPH D. TURLINGTON
Commissioner of Education


JIM SMITH
Attorney General


GERALD A. LEWIS
Comptroller


DOYLE CONNER
Commissioner of Agriculture


ELTON J. GISSENDANNER
Executive Director





SPECIAL PUBLICATION NO. 27


the development of peat-using facilities and to re-consider their impacts
as more experience is gained.
4. General Policy on the Siting of Peat Mines
"The task force recommends a four part general policy on the siting of
peat mines:

(1.) "Permits for peat mining should not be issued for stream valley
deposits which directly contribute organic matter to estuarine ecosys-
tems and for floodplain peat deposits along major rivers.
(2.) (2.) "Permits for peat mining in areas where the bottom of the
peat deposit lies at or below sea level should not be issued unless and
until adequate environmental safeguards are developed.
(3.) "Permits for peat mining should not be issued on state parks
and state-owned state gamelands, and no leases for peat mining on
any state-owned lands should be issued without a full review of the
environmental impacts.
(4.) "Mining in the rest of the peat deposits should be permitted
under careful monitoring.

"This basic recommendation is repeated from the 1981 task force
report. In the interim no mining permits have been issued which are not in
accord with the recommendation, even though DNRCD has officially
promulgated only the state parks portion of part (3). Careful mining with
close monitoring has been the principle followed in issuing all five permits
now in effect.
"The permit for Whitetail Farms, at least on the northern half of the
tract, is the only example thus far of a permit falling under part (2), not
issuing permits pending adequate environmental safeguards. The White-
tail Farms mining permit incorporates several safeguards which the peat
mining permit application review group found to satisfy the requirement
for "adequate environmental safeguards". In order to mine peat in a
deposit which partly extends below sea level, Whitetail Farms is required
to, among other things, mine no lower than an elevation of one foot
above mean sea level, direct all surface drainage from the part of the
tract outside the Boundary Canal, build and maintain a dike reaching
eight feet elevation above mean sea level around the area in which the
post-mining elevation will be between one and eight feet, install flood-
gates, and maintain a 300-foot wide buffer between the waterway and
the mine.
"These extensive measures should be taken as an example rather than
a general policy statement. The principal concern addressed in part (2) is
what type of reclamation is feasible and should be permitted where the
peat deposits extend below sea level. If mining is stopped above sea
level, deep organic soils may be left which make some types of reclama-
tion very difficult to implement. If mining extends below sea level, issues
of wet reclamation and perpetual pumping are raised. The Whitetail






BUREAU OF GEOLOGY


POTENTIAL ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS OF PEAT MINING

by
Paulette A. Bond
The Effects of Peat Mining on Wetlands

Cowardin, et al. (1979) define wetlands as, . lands transitional
between terrestrial and aquatic systems where the water table is usually
at or near the surface or the land is covered by shallow water". This
definition encompasses a number of environments which are commonly
associated with the accumulation of peat including bottoms of lakes,
vegetated and forested wetlands (such as swamps, heads and sloughs),
scrub or shrub wetland (such as shrub swamp, mangrove swamp, poco-
sin and bog) and emergent wetland (such as marsh, fen and bog). This
general definition of wetland may not apply to all of Florida's myriad
wetland environments. The complexity of Florida's wetlands is reflected
in the various classification systems designed especially for them.
Appendix B describes several classifications developed specifically for
use in the state which list and describe various wetland environments of
Florida. King, et al. (1980) note that state and federal land management
and environmental agencies will classify most peatlands as wetland habi-
tats. It was also noted by those authors that peatlands falling into a
wetlands land use category would be closely scrutinized, so that it would
be necessary to demonstrate substantial benefits to the state in order for
land use permits to be secured.
It is generally accepted that peat mining in a wetland environment will
modify the existing system. It is, thus, instructive to examine the various
functions attributed to wetlands. The hydrologic functions of wetlands
are summarized by Carter, et al. (1978). Hydrologic functions include:
flood storage and storm flow modification, base flow and estuarine
water balance, recharge, indicators of water supply, erosion control and
water quality. Flood storage and storm flow modification, base flow, and
water quality are treated in sections of this report dealing with water
resources and water quality. Estuaries are characterized by a balance
between fresh water (from landward sources) and salt water (from sea-
ward sources). Rivers which flow into estuaries may be flanked by wet-
lands which are flooded on occasion due to increased river discharge
combined with tidal action. Waters which temporarily reside in wetlands
lose some of their nutrient load as well as sediment load. They likewise
gain organic detritus and decomposition products which are passed on to
the estuary for entry into certain food chains. Temporary residence in
wetlands causes a decrease in velocity which aids in controlling both
timing and volume of fresh water influx (Carter, et al., 1978).
Recharge occurs when water moves into an aquifer. Carter, et al.
(1978) note that there is considerable disagreement concerning the role
of wetlands in recharge. It is noted that while some recharge may occur
in wetlands, all wetlands are not recharge areas. Little information in the






SPECIAL PUBLICATION NO. 27


Yellow-eyed grass, Xeris ambigua
Whitetop sedge, Dichromena colorata
"A wetlands classification scheme was developed by the U.S. Army
Corps of Engineers (USACOE) primarily to help delineate the boundaries
of wetlands subject to federal jurisdiction. Specifically a series of eight
preliminary guides to major regions of wetland communities and domi-
nant plant associations was produced to aid USACOE regulatory person-
nel to recognize the critical boundaries of wetlands subject to dredge and
fill permit regulation under Section 404 of Public Law 92-500 (Federal
Water Pollution Control Act Amendment of 1972).
"One particular guidebook, Preliminary Guide to Wetlands of Peninsu-
lar Florida, serves as a classification key for wetlands south of St. Augus-
tine. In addition to the key, each of eight wetland types (Saltwater
Aquatic, Saltwater Coastal Flat, Saltwater Marsh, Saltwater Swamp,
Freshwater Aquatic, Freshwater Flat, Freshwater Marsh and Freshwater
Swamp) are dealt with in detail. A brief description of each of the four
freshwater wetlands follows:
a. Freshwater aquatic
"Wetlands that are usually dominated by free-floating or rooted
aquatic herbs and are semi-permanently or permanently flooded by
freshwater (e.g., floating duckweed mats).
b. Freshwater flat
"Wetlands that have 25% or less vegetative cover and are occa-
sionally or regularly flooded by fresh water (e.g., mudflats).
c. Freshwater marsh
"Wetlands that have more than 25% vegetative cover of herba-
ceous plants but 40% or less cover by woody plants that are
occasionally or regularly flooded by fresh water (e.g., cattail
marsh).
d. Freshwater swamp
"Wetlands that have more than 40% cover by woody plants and
are occasionally or regularly flooded by fresh water (e.g., cypress
swamps).
In addition to a short general description of each wetland based on vege-
tative cover and water regime the abundance and normal locations of the
wetland within the region described. Growth forms and physiognomy are
described briefly and then shown pictorially in a simplified floristic profile
that contrasts the distribution of "typical" species (those which gener-
ally occur as dominants) and the distributions of "Transitional" species
(those generally associated with transition zones). "Associated" species
(those which commonly occur but not in sufficient abundance to be
considered dominants) are also listed (both scientific and common
names) as well as described in their relationships with dominant species.
Environmental conditions, usually the characteristics of the substrate,
hydro-period, water regime, and water pH, are described in order to
highlight the cluster of conditions that are critical to the distribution of
dominant species.


125







BUREAU OF GEOLOGY


(Fuchsman, 1978). Potential uses include the production of plastics and
synthetic fibers, components for paints and adhesive formulations and
flocculants or thickeners in water purification systems. These uses are
based primarily on the adsorption and ion exchange properties of humic
acids (Fuchsman, 1978).

PEAT COKE, PEAT TAR AND ACTIVATED CARBON

Peat coke, peat tar and activated carbon are produced by the process
of pyrolysis. Pyrolysis consists of decomposition of organic substances
by heat in the absence of air. When carried to a high enough temperature
and for long enough time, the process yields a carbon residue (peat
coke), a water immiscible condensate (peat tar) and non-condensable
gases which can be utilized as fuel gases.
Peat suitable for coking requires a relatively high carbon content (high
level of decomposition), low ash content and low phosphorous content
(Fuchsman, 1978). High carbon content is necessary for acceptable
yields. Phosphorous and ash degrade the product quality.
Several factors influence the yield of pyrolysis products. Coke yields
are increased with more highly decomposed peats and slower rates of
heating. Peat tar and gases generated by the pyrolysis process are often
recycled as fuel for the coking process.
Activated carbon is produced from peat coke by treating coke with
steam at 1,6320F- 2,0120F. The reaction forms hydrogen gas and car-
bon monoxide which has the physical effect of expanding the pores in
the peat coke, greatly increasing the surface area available for adsorption
(Norit, N.V. (n.d.), in Fuchsman, 1978).
Peat coke is utilized to form high purity silicon for the electronics
industry and as a reducing agent in electric smelting furnaces especially
in the production of ferrochrome and ferrosilicon alloys (Eckman, 1975,
in Fuchsman, 1978). Peat tars are refined for pesticide and wood pre-
servative use. The primary use, however, is as fuel recycled to the peat
coke production process (Minnesota DNR, 1981).
Activated carbon is utilized for a variety of purposes, all of which take
advantage of the large surface area available for adsorption. Uses include
removal of pollutants from industrial waste gases, as a gas absorber,
deodorizer, and for purification of water and sugar (Fuchsman, 1978).

Use of Peat as a Growth Medium

HORTICULTURE

Essentially all of the peat mined in Florida, at the present time, is used
for horticultural purposes. Peat is used by home owners for soil enhance-
ment, by nurseries and landscapers for potting soils and growing media
for plants, and also as a medium for mushroom and earthworm culture.






BUREAU OF GEOLOGY


APPENDIX D
WATER QUALITY

Water Quality Parameters Measured in Conjunction with Peatland
Development; Minnesota, North Carolina and Florida.

Water Quality Characteristics Targeted for Baseline Studies by
Minnesota. (Taken from Minnesota Department of Natural Resources,
1981).


acidity
alkalinity
aluminum
ammonia
arsenic
boron
cadmium
calcium
chemical oxygen demand
chromium
color
copper
dissolved oxygen
fulvic acid
humic acid
iron


magnesium
manganese
mercury
nickel
nitrate
nitrite
organic nitrogen
pH
selenium
sodium
specific conductivity
suspended sediment
temperature
total nitrogen
total phosphorous
zinc


lead


Water Quality Characteristics Targeted for Monitoring in Conjunction
with a Peat Mining Operation, Department of Environmental
Regulation, State of Florida.


Alkalinity
Aluminum
Beryllium
Cadmium
Chromium
Color
Copper
Dissolved Ortho-Phosphate
Dissolved Oxygen
Iron
Lead
Mercury
Nickel


Ortho Phosphate
pH
Phenols
Selenium
Specific Conductance
Temperature
Total Dissolved Solids
Total Kjeldahl Nitrogen
Total Organic Carbon
Total Phosphorus
Total Suspended Solids
Turbidity
Zinc


134






























LEGEND

WATER ALGAL MAT FRESH WATER MARL M PEAT BEDROCK E


SECTIONAL PROFILE THROUGH A CYPRESS HAMMOCK

Figure 6. Cross-section through a cypress hammock, Everglades National
Spackman, et al., 1964).


"Moat" a
c



m
0
-n

m
'-
i -0


3- SCALE
4-

0 FEET 50

Park. (Modified from





BUREAU OF GEOLOGY


research on peat impacts, but CEIP's future funding is in doubt due to
federal cutbacks. Should OCS revenue sharing pass Congress, it is likely
that CEIP will be able to fund a significant portion of future research.
"The task force believes that the most urgent detailed research needs
now apparent are:
*sources and mechanisms of mercury release into drainage water;
*delineation of the specific areas where peat mining should be prohib-
ited;
*development of improved water control techniques;
*development of improved reclamation schemes;
*impacts of wet reclamation;
*legal and institutional issues of perpetual pumping;
*impacts of perpetual pumping;
cumulative impacts of multiple mining activities.
"Research efforts outside DNRCD should be closely followed, and
interagency cooperation should be sought. Peat-related issues have been
the focus of a recently intensified research effort by several federal agen-
cies and other states (Minnesota, in particular). A continuing, long-term
effort to stay informed of their efforts, and to communicate our results to
them, is recommended.
11. Additional Resources Needed to Carry Out State Responsibility
"The Department will experience significant costs for regional moni-
toring, research, supervising on-site monitoring by permit holders, evalu-
ating monitoring results, and the development of adequate environmen-
tal safeguards. Funds to pay these costs should be sought.
"Possible sources of these funds are permit fees, legislative appropria-
tions, federal grants, severance taxes, and voluntary contributions from
peat mine operators.
"In addition to increased costs, DNRCD's responsibilities towards peat
mining may impose significantly increased workloads and personnel
requirements. These may create problems in the regional DNRCD field
offices which deal with peat mines; this particularly applies to the Wash-
ington office. These needs should be carefully reviewed by the appropri-
ate divisions and action taken prior to major crises arising.
12. Technical Advisory Assistance
"DNRCD will soon face technical issues related to peat mining and use
which will require the advice of outside experts. The evaluation of moni-
toring results and the resolution of the questions of wet reclamation and
perpetual pumping are two such matters. The Assistant Secretary for
Natural Resources should be charged with oversight in securing the nec-
essary outside technical expertise. It is anticipated that this expertise can
be secured on our ad hoc basis from universities, industry, federal agen-
cies, and state agencies outside DNRCD. In the future, advisory commit-
tees or consulting services may be needed.
13. Link to State Energy Policy Council and Department of Commerce
The state Energy Policy Council should be informed on peat mining





BUREAU OF GEOLOGY


which are situated on limestone bedrock. The trees, which are responsi-
ble for the peat beneath them, contain enormous amounts of lignin.
Lignin is very resistant to decay (Moore and Bellamy, 1974). It is alterna-
tively suggested that hammock peats in Florida may be controlled more
by the persistence of water than by the amount of lignin (A. Cohen,
personal communication, 1984).

THE ACCUMULATION OF PEAT IN FLORIDA

by
Paulette Bond

Rates of Peat Accumulation

Knowledge of the rate of peat accumulation is important in that it
allows various extractive uses for the resource to be weighed in light of
the amount of time it takes for the mineral to accumulate. Rates of peat
accumulation are usually determined using the carbon-14 method of dat-
ing organic materials. This method is subject to a number of difficulties
when applied to peat. The following problems were enumerated by
Moore and Bellamy (1974): 1) Wide errors may be introduced since
young roots may penetrate material at depth. This problem could result in
apparently rapid rates for the accumulation of peat. 2) Older layers are
compacted as new ones are deposited. This could cause rates of deposi-
tion to appear anomalously low. 3) Rates of peat formation vary with
climate and climate varies with time. Thus, an accumulation rate proba-
bly reflects a sort of average rate for some given amount of peat. Several
estimates of peat accumulation rates in Florida are presented in Table 1.
The variation in rate presented here for peat accumulation may be
attributed to a number of factors. Gleason, et al., (1974) used Davis'
(1946) data to compute a value of productivity for the sawgrass environ-
ment. Productivity refers to the amount of dry organic matter (measured
in pounds) which is formed on an acre of ground in a year. When this
productivity is compared to the dry weight of an acre-foot of peat as
estimated by Davis (1946), a discrepancy is apparent. According to
these computations, more material accumulates as peat than is originally
formed in the sawgrass environment (Gleason, et al., 1974). Factors
which may account for this difficulty include possible low estimates of
productivity and inadequate estimates of silica content or peat density. It
is also possible that silica in the peat might not be entirely derived from
sawgrass (Gleason, et al., 1974). Rates of peat accumulation computed
from radiocarbon age are grouped about an average of 9.1 cm/100
years. The rate of peat accumulation can vary with climate (which also
varies with time), the position of the water table and nutrient supply
(Moore and Bellamy, 1974). Data are not available which would allow
rate variation in different environments to be evaluated. The rates pre-
sented here were calculated from peats produced from varying plant





BUREAU OF GEOLOGY


pyrolysis Decomposition of organic substances by heat in the
absence of air.

quartz (mineral) Crystalline silica, an important rock-forming mineral:
SiO2. It is, next to feldspar, the commonest mineral. Quartz forms the
major proportion of most sands.

radiocarbon dating See carbon-14 dating.

radiometric dating Calculating an age in years for geologic materials
by measuring the presence of a short-life radioactive element, e.g.
carbon-14; or by measuring the presence of a long-life radioactive ele-
ment plus its decay product, e.g., potassium-40/argon-40. The term
applies to all methods of age determination based on nuclear decay of
natural elements.

reduced To change a chemical compound by removing oxygen or
adding hydrogen so that the valence of the positive element is lower.

reed-sedge peat (American Society of Testing and Materials (ASTM)
classification) Peat containing at least 33.33 percent plant fibers, half of
which are reed-sedge and other nonmosses. NOTE: ASTM is presently in
the process of revising this classification. The above term will no longer
be used.

salt-water encroachment Displacement of fresh surface or ground-
water by the advance of saltwater due to its greater density, usually in
coastal and estuarine areas, but also by movement of brine from beneath
a playa lake toward wells discharging freshwater. Encroachment occurs
when the total head of the saltwater exceeds that of adjacent fresh-
water. Syn: encroachment; saltwater intrusion; seawater encroachment.

sapric peat (U.S. Department of Agriculture classification) Peat con-
taining less than 33.33 percent recognizable plant fragments of any
type; consists of the most extensively decomposed plant material.

sapropel An unconsolidated, jelly-like ooze or sludge composed of
plant remains, most often algae, macerating and putrifying in an anaero-
bic environment on the shallow bottoms of lakes and seas. It may be a
source material for petroleum and natural gas.

sheet flow An overland flow or downslope movement of water tak-
ing the form of a thin, continuous film over relatively smooth soil or rock
surfaces and not concentrated into channels larger than rills.


silviculture The cultivation of forest trees.






BUREAU OF GEOLOGY


gasification process increases with increased volatile content. The fixed
carbon content of the peat is responsible for much of its combustion
energy.
Ash is the amount of materials in a fuel which remains after combus-
tion. The amount of ash varies for different types of peat. Peats which
receive their moisture primarily from precipitation are usually lower in ash
than those which are nourished by surface waters. In times of flood,
surface waters may carry large sediment loads onto the peatlands where
sediment is trapped in the peat.
Peat's high moisture content can be a major problem which must be
considered in its utilization. Even a drained and solidified bog may con-
tain 70 95 percent moisture and for some uses peat will require addi-
tional drying which will, in turn, require energy.

THE ACCUMULATION OF PEAT

by
Paulette Bond

The Process of Peat Formation

Peat forms when the rate of accumulation of plant matter exceeds the
rate at which decomposing organisms metabolize it. The conversion of
fresh plant material to peat takes place over a period of time as peat
becomes enriched in fixed carbon while evolving water, carbon dioxide
and methane (U.S. Department of Energy, 1979). Peat is comparatively
increased in fixed carbon as opposed to cellulose, and the process by
which this takes place is referred to as carbonization. It is this enrichment
of carbon which makes peat desirable as a fuel source (Figure 3). The
Peat Prospectus (U.S. Department of Energy, 1979) compares peat with
wood and various grades of coal in terms of fixed carbon and heating
value (in British Thermal Units, BTU). The following values are taken
from Figure 3 of the Peat Prospectus and are approximate (U.S. Depart-
ment of Energy, 1979). One pound of wood has a fixed carbon content
of approximately 20 percent and generates 9,300 BTU on a moisture and
mineral free basis. An equivalent amount of peat contains 28 percent
fixed carbon and generates approximately 10,600 BTU. These values for
peat and wood contrast with values for lignite which yields about
12,400 BTU and has a fixed carbon content of approximately 47 per-
cent.

Geologic Conditions Associated with Peat Accumulation

As was previously noted, peat forms when the accumulation of plant
material exceeds its destruction by the organisms which decompose it.
Since plant matter is usually decomposed before significant accumula-
tions develop, it is instructive to examine the set of circumstances which
allow peat to form. Certain geologic, hydrologic and climatic conditions






C'


W E
80i- 80
j_ OKLAWAHA RIVER
w70 DIKE 70
U-

60 F 60

50 PEAT DEPOSIT 50 C
m
I 0 I MILE
2 SCALE
100X VERT. EXAG. n

m
0
r-



LOCATION

MARION

CC'


Figure 26. Topographic profile of the Oklawaha River peat deposit in northern Lake and
southern Marion counties. (Prepared by the Bureau of Geology for this report.)




SPECIAL PUBLICATION NO. 27


(a) Asimina pygmaea (pink pawpaw).
(b) Asimina tetramera (four-petal pawpaw).
(c) Asplenium auritum (auricled spleenwort) (fern).
(d) Blechnum occidentale (sinkhole fern).
(e) Campyloneurum angustifolium (narrow swamp fern).
(f) Cassia keyensis (Key cassia).
(g) Catesbaea parviflora (dune lily-thorn).
(h) Catopsis sp. (bromeliad).
(i) Cereus gracilis (prickly apple cactus).
(j) Cereus robinii (tree cactus).
(k) Chionanthus pygmaeus (fringe tree or granny-graybeard).
(I) Clusia rosea (balsam apple).
(m) Coccothrinax argentata (silver palm).
(n) Cucurbita okeechobeensis (Okeechobee gourd).
(o) Cupania glabra (cupania).
(p) Cyrtopodium punctatum (cowhorn or cigar orchid).
(q) Dennstaedtia bipinnata (cuplet fern).
(r) Encyclia boothiana (Epidendrum boothianum) (dollar orchid).
(s) Epigaea repens (trailing arbutus).
(t) Guaiacum sanctum (lignum vitae).
(u) Guzmania sp. (bromeliad).
(v) lonopsis utricularioides (delicate ionopsis orchid).
(w) Magnolia ashei (Ashe magnolia).
(x) Magnolia phyramidata (pyramidal magnolia).
(y) Maxillaria crassifolia (orchid).
(z) Ophioglossum palmattum (hand fern).
(aa) Parnassia grandifolia (grass-of-Parnassus).
(bb) Polyrrhiza lindenii (ghost orchid).
(cc) Rhododendron austrinum (orange azalea).
(dd) Rhododendron chapmanii (Chapman's rhododendron).
(ee) Ribes echinellum (Miccosukee gooseberry).
(ff) Roystonea elata (Florida royal palm).
(gg) Sarracenia leucophylla and Sarracenia rubra (pitcher plants).
(hh) Scaevola plumieri (scaevola).
(ii) Strumpfia martima (pride-of-big-pine).
(jj) Suriana maritima (bay cedar).
(kk) Taxus floridana (Florida yew).
(II) Tillandsia fasciculata (wild pine bromeliad) (included because of
very high harvest rate).
(mm) Torreya taxifolia (Florida torreya).
(nn) Tournefortia gnaphalodes (sea lavender).
(oo) Trillium lahcifolium (trillium).
(pp) Zephyranthes simpsonii (zephyr lily).

"Chapter 403--Environmental Control
Section 403.021 declares that, "the public policy of the state is to
conserve the waters of the state to protect, maintain, and improve the







SPECIAL PUBLICATION NO. 27


The Effects of Peat Mining on Air Quality

This discussion is taken primarily from a study of environmental issues
associated with peat mining prepared for the U.S. Department of Energy
by King, et al. (1980).
The mining and storage of peat, as well as its processing for energy
purposes, will produce certain air quality impacts. Expected major air
quality concerns are related to fugitive emission factors from large-scale
mining and storage operations. Overall particulate emission problems are
generated during dry mining, transportation and storage of peat. Small
and moderate scale peat-fired power plants are expected to produce less
air quality impacts than equivalent coal burning plants. Airborne emis-
sions associated with a large synthetic natural gas plant can only be
discussed on a generalized basis. Table 6 lists a number of air quality
issues in order of their projected importance (King, et al., 1980).
Milled and sod peat mining methods both require that peat be drained
previous to mining and also dried on the ground. Drying peat may be
suspended by wind or mechanical action. After peat is dried, it must be
collected, stored, transported and restored. All of these steps may result
in loss of peat to the atmosphere (King, et al., 1980).
Carbon monoxide will be emitted from the direct combustion of peat.
Carbon monoxide is not easily collected in air scrubbers and emissions
may be improved only by improving the combustion process (King, et al.,
1980).
Nitrogen oxides are formed when fuels are burned in air. Emission of
nitrogen oxides from direct combustion of peat fuel may exceed allowa-
ble levels.
Various sulfur oxides (SO,) may be emitted when peat is burned. Peat
is relatively low in sulfur and, thus, may not result in severe emission
problems (King, et al., 1980). A. Cohen (personal communication, 1984)
notes that sulfur must be determined on a site specific basis and further
comments that it may especially be a problem in coastal areas.
The strong affinity of emitted SO2 and SO3 for water causes formation
of droplets in the emissions plume. The long distance transport of these
emission products can result in acid rains in areas remote to the plant site
(King, et al., 1980).
King, et al. (1980) report that direct combustion of various forms of
peat fuel may generate particulate matter including sulfate, heavy
metals, polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons and some particles in the
submicron range.
Non-methane hydrocarbons resulting from incomplete combustion of
peat may react in the atmosphere to form photochemical oxidants
(ozone). Non-methane hydrocarbons include polynuclear aromatic hydro-
carbons which are carcinogenic at very low levels and stable in the envi-
ronment. Most control strategies for ambient ozone involve emission
controls on non-methane hydrocarbons (King, et al., 1980).
Photochemical oxidants (ozone) may be derived from direct burning of





BUREAU OF GEOLOGY


four feet thick, with a surface area of not less than 80 contiguous acres
per square mile and yield not less than 8,000 BTU per pound (moisture
free). The definition for fuel grade peat establishes minimum standards
for organic matter content and also for heating value (BTU per pound). It
further comments on the deposit itself, stipulating minimum thickness
and contiguous acreage requirements.
The three definitions of peat presented here reflect the specific pur-
poses of individuals and agencies who prepared them. Varied user
groups and professionals who work with peat may formulate additional
definitions directly suited to their needs. It is thus necessary to determine
the way in which an author defines peat in order to fully understand the
implications of his work.
In the state of Florida, the definition of peat may take on special signifi-
cance if it is used as a criterion for designation of peat as either a mineral
resource or an agricultural (vegetable) resource. It has been argued that if
peat is not classified as a mineral then its excavation might constitute a
harvesting process. Harvesting may not be subject to the regulatory
procedures that govern mining of a legally-defined mineral material.
The usage of the term harvesting to describe the mining of peat fol-
lows U.S. Department of Energy (1979). "Harvesting" when used in
conjunction with peat correctly refers to the nearly obsolete practice of
harvesting living Sphagnum (peat moss) from the surface of a bog. In this
process, the Sphagnum was allowed to grow back so that repeated
harvests were possible in a given area. Thus, a crop was in actuality
"harvested". Very little or no true harvesting occurs today (A. Cohen,
personal communication, 1984).

Terminology Relating to the Peat Forming Environment

Peat can only accumulate in a wet environment. The terms which refer
to these environments take on different definitions according to author
preference. The American Geological Institute distinguishes between
bogs and fens on the basis of chemistry. Bogs and fens are both charac-
terized as waterlogged, spongy groundmasses. Bogs, however, contain
acidic, decaying vegetation consisting mainly of mosses while fens con-
tain alkaline, decaying vegetation, mainly reeds (Gary, et al., eds.,
1974). The terms "bog" and "fen" are not usually applied to peatlands
in the southeastern United States. They are included in this discussion
because they occur frequently in the literature associated with peatlands
extraneous to Florida. Although a significant body of research specific to
the peats of Florida exists (Cohen and Spackman, 1980; Cohen and
Spackman, 1977; Griffin, et al., 1982; Pennsylvania State University,
1976), much information concerning mining techniques, reclamation
methods and hydrologic aspects of peatlands pertains directly to areas
remote from Florida where the terms "bog" and "fen" may be used.
The concepts of minerotrophy and ombrotrophy are based on the qual-
ity of water feeding a peatland (Heikurainen, 1976) and are perceived as






SPECIAL PUBLICATION NO. 27 17

Table 1. Estimated rates of peat accumulation in Florida.


Author
Davis
(1946, p. 74)






Kuehn
(1980, p. 49)




Kuehn
(1980, p. 49)



Stephens
(1974, p. 356)


Estimated Rate
5.2 in./100 years







4.24 in./100 years




3.64 in./100 years




3 in./100 years


communities which thrive in different environments. In addition, peat
has been lost by fire during various prehistoric dry periods (Cohen,
1974). Failure to recognize evidence of fire could alter the rate at which
peat is calculated to accumulate.

Geologic Settings of Peat Accumulation in Florida

The conditions under which peat can occur in Florida are highly varia-
ble. While geologic and hydrologic relations of peat to its neighboring
materials have been thoroughly documented in the Everglades of south
Florida, numerous small deposits in the central peninsula remain
unmapped. Davis (1946, p. 114), considered the peat deposits of Florida
as falling into a number of groups based on their locations. These groups
include: 1) coastal associations, including marshes and mangrove
swamps, lagoons and estuaries as well as depressions among dunes; 2)
large, nearly flat, poorly-drained areas as exemplified by the Everglades
illustrated in Figures 4, 5, 6, and 7; 3) river-valley marshes such as the
marsh adjacent to the St. Johns River; 4) swamps of the flatland region
(Figure 8); 5) marshes bordering lakes and ponds (Figure 9); 6) season-
ally flooded shallow depressions; 7) lake bottom deposits (Figure 10); 8)
peat layers buried beneath other strata (Figure 11).
Cohen and Spackman (1977) have devised a more comprehensive
classification of south Florida's phytogenic (of plant origin) sediments


Comments
This rate is computed based on the amount of
SiO2 fixed by a standing crop of sawgrass from
the Everglades. It is widely quoted, but a recent
analysis of the method (Gleason, et al., 1974)
indicates that certain of the assumptions
necessary to the calculation must be in error.
This difficulty is discussed more completely in
the accompanying text.

This rate was computed from a core which
penetrated peat formed alternately in marine,
brackish and fresh water environments from
southwest Florida. The computations were
based on radiocarbon ages.

This rate was computed for a single type of
peat, red mangrove (Rhizophora), from
southwest Florida using measured thickness
and radiometric ages.

Rates were computed from the Everglades
using radiocarbon ages which were not
specifically referenced in the text.







BUREAU OF GEOLOGY


Rivers and Harbors Act
33 U.S.C. 401-413
Section of the 1899 Act




Marine Protection, Research
and Sanctuaries Act of 1972
PL 92-532


Occupational Safety and
Health Act (OSHA)
PL 91-596




Energy Reorganization Act of
1974
PL 93-438


Non-nuclear Energy Research
and Development Act of 1974
(Section 13)
PL 93-577


Resource Conservation and
Recovery Act of 1976
PL 89-272






Floodplain Management
Executive Order 11988


"Permits are required for dredge and
fill activities in navigable waters."

"Project must be integrated with
flood control, river, and dam pro-
jects."

"Permits are required for locating
plants in wetland areas, which may
restrict extraction opera-areal [sic]
peat conversion plant siting."

"Health and safety regulations must
be met for workers in peat energy
products. Noise levels for compres-
sors, pumps, etc., are limited and
must be controlled. Health regulations
will be forthcoming."

"DOE is required to ensure environ-
mental acceptability of the fossil
energy and other technologies under
development."

"Water availability assessments are
required for demonstration and com-
mercial plants; assessments are
reviewed by Water Resources Council
(WRC)."

"Solid waste disposal must comply
with most stringent air and water
standards; monitoring is required;
state or EPA permits required; state or
EPA permits required for all landfills by
April 1, 1988; must comply with
states programs for non-hazardous
materials."

"Designated to reduce as much as
possible long and short term impacts
associated with [sic] floodplain devel-
opment."

"Requires each Federal agency to
review policies concerning acquiring
and managing Federal lands, federally






SPECIAL PUBLICATION NO. 27


cited using the appropriate chemical formulae (Soper and Osbon, 1922,
pp. 6-7; U.S. Department of Energy, 1979, pp. 5-6; Cameron, 1973,
p. 506). (As noted previously, the formulae cited here are based on a
generalization of the peat-forming process in which peat is derived from
a starting material of cellulose. Due to the complex composition of most
peats, this simplified approximation is not realistic).
The last criterion in Mason and Berry's definition of a mineral is that of
an ordered atomic arrangement; that is, a mineral should be a crystalline
solid. Mason and Berry (1968) note a group of compounds which are
considered minerals even though the crystalline state is not initially
attained: "A few minerals, the commonest being opal, are formed by the
solidification of a colloidal gel and are noncrystalline initially; many such
minerals become crystalline during geologic time". The mineral opal may
attain an ordered atomic arrangement only in the course of geologic time.
The coal-forming process is illustrated in Figure 1. As organic matter
(originally deposited as peat) is subjected to conditions of increasing
temperature and pressure it undergoes the changes associated with coal-
ification. The end-product of this process is the mineral graphite (Press
and Siever, 1974, p. 468). Graphite crystallizes in the hexagonal system
and its formula is simply carbon (C). It is found in a number of occur-
rences including metamorphosed coal beds (Quinn and Glass, 1958).
The parallels with the case of opal seem apparent. Neither opal nor peat
initially attain the internal atomic ordering referred to in Mason and Ber-
ry's definition of a mineral. Opal will presumably achieve internal atomic
ordering in the course of geologic time (Mason and Berry, 1968). The
transformation of peat into the mineral graphite requires, in addition to
the passage of time, increases in temperature and pressure (Press and
Siever, 1974) and will be accompanied by the evolution of various liquids
and gases.
Geologists do not universally include crystalline form as a prerequisite
to classification of a material as a mineral. This is demonstrated in the
continuation of the AGI Glossary's definition of mineral. "Those who
include the requirement of crystalline form in the definition of a mineral
would consider an amorphous compound such as opal to be a 'mineral-
oid' (Gary, et al., eds., 1974)
The United States Geological Survey in its volume entitled United
States Mineral Resources (Brobst and Pratt, eds., 1973), devotes a chap-
ter to peat as well as chapters to petroleum, natural gas and coal. The
United States Bureau of Mines also considers peat to be a mineral
resource in addition to coals, petroleum and natural gas. These
resources, including peat, are all non-renewable.

Harvesting or Mining

Harvesting and mining are both terms which are applied to the extrac-
tion of peat. As was discussed in the section of this report "The Defini-
tion of Peat and Significance of this Definition" the term "harvesting"






SPECIAL PUBLICATION NO. 27


(selenite). Gypsum is used chiefly as a soils amendment, as a retarder in
portland cement and in making plaster.

harvesting The gathering of a crop or yield of one growing season.
Commonly refers to vegetable matter which can be replanted at will. In
reference to peat, this term is used as a synonym for mining.

hectare A metric unit of land area equal to 10,000 square meters or
2.471 acres.

hemic peat (U.S. Department of Agriculture classification) Peat in
which plant fibers compose between 33.33 and 66.66 percent of the
material; more decomposed than fibric peat.

humic acid Black, acidic, organic matter extracted from soils, peat,
low rank coals and other decayed plant substances by alkalis. It is insolu-
ble in acids and organic solvents.

hydraulic peat mining Peat mining methods which do not require prior
drainage of the deposit. Typically, high pressure water guns or dredges
are used to cut peat from the deposit.

hydrocracking A process in which relatively heavy hydrocarbons are
broken up by heat into lighter products (such as gasoline) in the presence
of hydrogen.

hydrologic budget An accounting of the inflow to, outflow from and
storage in a hydrologic unit such as a drainage basin, aquifer, soil zone,
lake or reservoir (Langbein and Iseri, 1960); the relationship between
evaporation, precipitation, runoff and the change in water storage,
expressed by the hydrologic equation. Syn: water balance; water
budget; hydrologic balance.

hydrology The science that deals with continental water (both liquid
and solid), its properties, circulation and distribution, on and under the
Earth's surface and in the atmosphere, from the moment of its precipita-
tion until it is returned to the atmosphere through evapotranspiration or is
discharged into the ocean.

hydroperiod (of a wetland community) A measure of the time (usu-
ally in days per year) that water is at or above the soil surface.

hydrostatic head The height of a vertical column of water, the weight
of which, if of unit cross section, is equal to the hydrostatic pressure at a
point; static head, as applied to water.

hypnum moss peat (American Society for Testing and Materials
(ASTM) classification) Peat which contains at least 33.33 percent plant
fibers with one-half of those identifiable as Hypnum moss. NOTE: ASTM






SPECIAL PUBLICATION NO. 27


The soils of the Everglades Agricultural Area are classified by soil sci-
entists on the basis of the percentage of inorganic matter they contain
and their thickness. The Torry Series soils occur within two to five miles
of Lake Okeechobee. They contain black organic layers more than 51
inches thick and are characterized by a range of 35 percent to 70 percent
mineral matter (mostly the clay minerals sepiolite and montmorillonite)
(Snyder, et al., 1978) and are not considered peats according to ASTM
standards. The Terra Ceia, Pahokee, Lauderhill and Dania soils are dark
organic soils which are differentiated from one another based on their
thickness above bedrock. The Terra Ceia soils are the thickest, with the
Pahokee, Lauderhill and Dania becoming successively thinner. As the
process of subsidence occurs, Terra Ceia soils will become Pahokee soils
since Pahokee soils differ from Terra Ceia soils only in their thickness
(Snyder, et al., 1978).

Subsidence

Subsidence refers to the loss of thickness which is incurred by organic
soils when they are drained. A group of physical processes are responsi-
ble for subsidence, including 1) shrinkage due to dessication, 2) consoli-
dation by loss of the buoyant force of groundwater and loading, or both,
3) compaction by tillage, 4) wind erosion, 5) burning and 6) biochemical
oxidation (Stephens, 1974). The processes of drying, consolidation and
compaction do not result in actual loss of soil (Shih, 1980). Stephens and
Johnson (1951) documented an increase of oven dried weight for Ever-
glades peat from about 9 pounds to about 16 pounds per cubic foot after
cultivation. This increase in density corresponds to a decrease although
there is little actual loss of soil.
The processes of wind erosion, burning and oxidation do, however,
result in the actual loss of organic soils (Shih, 1980). Wind erosion is
thought to have minor effects in the Everglades Agricultural Area.
Numerous charcoal-rich lenses which represent ancient fires have been
found at depth in cores through the organic soils of the Everglades and
coastal swamps (Cohen, 1974). Attempts to correlate charcoal layers
from core to core were futile suggesting that fires were not widespread
geographically. The fires were confined mainly to sawgrass-dominated
peats. Modern observation indicated that fires are very common in saw-
grass communities and it is suggested that sawgrass may be especially
well-adapted to survival of fires (Cohen, 1974).
The most serious cause of long term subsidence in the Everglades is
biochemical oxidation. Biochemical oxidation has been responsible for
55 to 75 percent of the total soil loss in the upper Everglades Agricultural
Area (Stephens, 1974). Although original plans for drainage in the Ever-
glades recognized that subsidence would occur, the causes were appar-
ently misunderstood (Stephens and Johnson, 1951). Shrinkage of origi-
nal peat due to drainage was taken into account, but the slow continual
loss of peat due to biochemical oxidation was not considered.







34


BASIN BOUNDARY CONTROL STRUCTURE (S)


HGS
LAKE
^ OKEECHOBEE


L-I


L-2


L-6


L-3


L-4 S-8\\


L-5


S-7


Figure 16. Location map of the Everglades Agricultural Area. (Modi-
fied from Snyder, et al., 1978).



Lake Okeechobee is not coincidence (Figure 16). Before the activities of
man altered the tendency of Lake Okeechobee to overflow along its
southern edge, silt, clay, and organic colloids were mixed with dead
plants to form muck. In this way, the mucks became enriched in the
microelements that peat lacks (Stephens, 1974), enchancing the mucks
as an agricultural growth medium.


BUREAU OF GEOLOGY


PRIVATELY BACKPUMPED LANDS


STATE OWNED LANDS


CANAL
LEVEE (L)


G3
LIIZ"'







B B'

20
19
18
17 IK -GROUND ELEV. 1912 (ORIGINAL CANAL SURVEYS)
16 GROUND ELEV 1940



13 ESTIMATED GROUND ELEV. 1970
12 -

S ROCK
0 .. ESTIMATED GROUND ELEV. 2000
9 IROCK0
0 8 >
<7






MILES _-
5 0 15 20 25 30





Figure 19. Profile B-B' across the lower Everglades Agricultural Area showing the original
surface elevation in 1912 and the ground elevation in 1940, from topographical
surveys. Profiles for the years 1970 and 2000 are estimated. (Modified from
Stephens and Johnson, 1951).
hi 3 I
2 0
WMLES

0 5 10 15 20 25 30

Figure 19. Profile B-B' across the lower Everglades Agricultural Area showing the original
surface elevation in 1912 and the ground elevation in 1940, from topographical
surveys. Profiles for the years 1970 and 2000 are estimated. (Modified from
Stephens and Johnson, 1951).





SPECIAL PUBLICATION NO. 27


It specifies the financial terms of the right to use land (rents and royal-
ties) as well as minimum production levels required. In addition, a lease
may stipulate reclamation staging and type and requirements to monitor
a peat mining or processing venture. Thus, the lease is a complex man-
agement tool.
"Other'management elements include environmental review proce-
dures and permitting processes. These are shared by responsible agen-
cies, in Minnesota: the Department of Natural Resources, Pollution Con-
trol, the Minnesota Energy Agency, and the Environmental Quality
Board. Between them are administered water withdrawal and drainage
permits, air quality permits, certificates of need for energy proposals,
and environmental impact statements.
"From the above elements a comprehensive management program for
Minnesota peatlands can emerge. Through proper site selection proce-
dures it should be possible to allocate peatland uses to avoid resource
conflicts, areas of environmental sensitivity, and unnecessary social and
economic costs. A careful leasing process should assure a fair return to
the state for making the resource available to the private sector and
insure that the land is returned, or reclaimed, to a useful condition. Per-
mits and environmental review procedures are the final safeguard
against developments inimical to the environment."

PEATLANDS MANAGEMENT, PROVINCE OF NEW BRUNSWICK
(From Keys, 1980)
Ownership of Peatlands

Peat is classified as a surficial deposit in New Brunswick under the
provision of the Quarriable Substance Act. As such, ownership of the
deposits rests with the landowner. However, few peatlands were
included in the original applications for land grants. Hence, ownership of
an estimated 80 percent of New Brunswick peatlands remains with the
province under the administration of the Department of Natural
Resources.
"The twelve companies presently producing horticultural peat prod-
ucts in New Brunswick lease all or parts of their production areas from
the province. An acreage rental and a royalty on production is paid annu-
ally. The regulations governing leasing of peatlands were recently revised
to ensure optimum management of the resource (3). The objectives of
the leasing policy are to maximize the contribution of the resource to the
economic development of the province and to have development in a
manner which does not jeopardize future utilization or rehabilitation of
the peatlands.
"To obtain a peat production lease, it is first necessary to obtain a
peatland exploration license. This license effectively reserves an area of
800 hectares (2,000 acres) to allow the applicant sufficient time to
ascertain that the quality and amount of peat in the proposed lease is
suitable for the intended use. The exploration license is renewable annu-


137









Table 5. Water resources issues associated with peat mining. (Taken from King, et al., 1980).
Scales of Development
Small Moderate Large
Degree of Concern Major Moderate Minor Major Moderate Minor Major Moderate Minor
Increased Floodwater Flow
Potential X X X
Groundwater Elevations
Modification X X X
Potential Salt Water
Intrusion X X X
Modification of Surface
Water Flow Patterns X X X
Increase Minimum Stream
Discharges X X X
Increase Mean Surface
Water Discharge X X X
Alter the Hydrological
Budget X X X
Alter Groundwater Aquifer X X X
Reduce Evapotranspiration X X X


C)
m

I-"

C
w
0
>

m
-4

0
z
z
0
^1


-a







SPECIAL PUBLICATION NO. 27


Figure 5. SW-NE cross-section from Cape Sable to vicinity of
Tamiami Trail. (Modified from Spackman, et al., 1964;
and Spackman, et al., 1976.


water. Specific environments are enumerated for both marine to brackish
water deposits and also fresh water deposits. Peats of these deposits are
differentiated based mainly on their botanical composition.





BUREAU OF GEOLOGY


adverse effects on wildlife. This specific alternative should be considered
by the Division of Land Resources during the processing of each mining
permit.
"Specific standards and permit conditions are needed for the estab-
lishment of wildlife habitat as a required part of all reclamation plans. A
mechanism should be implemented by the Division of Land Resources to
ensure that these wildlife mitigation measures continue on reclaimed
land after reclamation is formally completed, even if ownership changes.
Conservation easements may well be the most promising approach for
general application.
"Wildlife is not amenable to monitoring standards as permit condi-
tions. A modest wildlife research effort should be instituted, the financial
cooperation of the mine operators should be encouraged, and mitigation
of impacts on wildlife included both in permit conditions and research
efforts.
"The recommendations of the Governor's Coastal Water Management
Task Force for the protection of nursery areas should be extended to
include the impacts of peat mining, and the recommendations should be
implemented as soon as possible. Mining permit and NPDES permit con-
ditions should be used to protect nursery areas by means of monitoring,
control structures, buffer strips, and limits on the local and ultimate
extent of mining. Reclamation plans should be designed to promote the
long-term protection of nursery areas and other estuarine resources. The
advice of the Division of Marine Fisheries should be sought in formulating
these permit conditions.
"This recommendation reflects the task force's view that the overall,
long-term impacts of mining peat in North Carolina will be greatly influ-
enced by the impacts of the reclamation activities that follow mining.
The Mining Act of 1971 recognizes the importance of careful reclama-
tion and allows the mining permit to be conditioned upon state accep-
tance of reclamation plans and procedures to avoid and minimize recla-
mation problems. Its reclamation provisions are adequate to ensure that
reclamation will include appropriate measures to prevent or reduce these
impacts.
"The same measures recommended for wildlife can also be used to
maintain the long-term preventive measures necessary for protection of
primary nursery areas. An example of this is the use of conservation
easements to protect forested buffer strips installed to fulfill mining per-
mit conditions. Similarly, estuarine buffer strips to protect nursery areas'
water quality could come under a conservation easement. Other
approaches also need to be investigated and, when appropriate, imple-
mented. The Division of Land Resources should receive the active coop-
eration of the Division of Marine Fisheries in identifying key nursery
areas, assessing the impacts of individual project proposals and mitiga-
tion plans, and setting priorities for actions necessary to protect these
vital areas.






A

SW


160 LAKE ALTHA SWAMP


ALACHUA CO. BRADFORD CO.

HWY 325


SANTA FE SWAMP


140


S 0 I MILE
2
SCALE
100X VERT. EXAG.


A'


E 180

-160
S w
m
140 <
HWY 21A 140
I-20
120 LU-


Figure 27. Topographic profile of the Santa Fe Swamp peat deposit in Alachua and Bradford
counties. (Prepared by the Bureau of Geology for this report.)


T1
m


"-



-o
0



0
,,





SPECIAL PUBLICATION NO. 27


various forms of peat fuel. They are formed in the atmosphere from non-
methane hydrocarbons and nitrogen dioxide and are controlled by emis-
sion controls on non-methane hydrocarbons.
Metals may be concentrated in the organic or inorganic fraction of peat
as a consequence of water flow through peat or by deposition from the
atmosphere. These metals may be volatilized at high combustion temper-
atures or emitted as gaseous molecules. The behavior and effects of
these metals are complex (King, et al., 1980).
Emissions of reduced sulfur, nitrogen compounds and halogen com-
pounds may all exceed allowable levels from synthetic fuel plants (King,
et al., 1980). The effects of reduced sulfur emissions and nitrogen com-
pounds (other than NOx) are dependent on meteorological conditions and
ambient air chemistry and quality. The emissions of particulate matter
and plume condensation may cause visibility reduction in the immediate
vicinity of the combustion source when various forms of peat fuel are
burned directly. The extent of this effect will depend on the rate of wind
dispersion of emitted materials (King, et al., 1980).
Combustion sources will generate water vapor which may condense
and precipitate downwind of the processing plant. If water vapor com-
bines with SOx, acid mists may be formed (King, et al., 1980).
Production of peat energy will necessitate emission of carbon dioxide.
The production of CO2 will contribute to the global carbon dioxide build-
up, the significance of which is still subject to debate (King, et al., 1980).

The Effects of Peat Mining on Topography

by
Thomas M. Scott

Peat is currently mined from deposits formed in a number of specific
geologic settings. These include bayhead swamps, closed depressions or
karst basins, river valley marshes and large, flat, poorly drained areas
such as the Everglades.
Closed depressions or karst basins occur predominantly in north and
central Florida. The depressions or basins are the result of sinkhole for-
mation and do not have surface outlets for water. Topography of this
type of deposit is shown in Figure 24.
River valley and bayhead swamp deposits occur throughout much of
the state. Notable examples of these are the upper St. Johns River Valley
and Oklawaha River Valley peat deposits (Figure 13) and the Santa Fe
Swamp peat deposit (Figure 14). These areas have surface drainage by
streams and rivers. The general topography of the deposits is shown in
Figures 25, 26 and 27.
In general, the large, flat, poorly drained areas of peat development are
in south Florida, south of latitude 290N (Davis, 1946). The Everglades
and its associated peats are a typical example of this type of peat
deposit. The topography of this type of deposit is shown in Figure 28.






SPECIAL PUBLICATION NO. 27


and generation of synthetic fuel gases. Reduced oxygen input and/or
water vapor injection are required to generate the fuel gases.

GASIFICATION

Peat is very reactive during gasification. Gasification can yield low to
medium BTU fuel gases, synthesis gases (those which can be further
upgraded by hydrocracking), fuel liquids, ammonia, sulfur and oil bypro-
ducts (napthalene, benzene and phenol) (U.S. Department of Energy,
1979; Minnesota DNR, 1981).
Several basic designs of gasifiers are feasible for peat gasification,
however, data for peat gasification is primarily limited to laboratory scale
operations (U.S. Department of Energy, 1979). Entrained flow and fluid
bed gasifiers appear attractive. An example is the peat gas process
developed by the Institute of Gas Technology. Dry peat is fed to the
gasifier, and heated under pressure with a hydrogen rich gas. The carbon
in the peat reacts with the hydrogen to form hydrocarbon gases (primar-
ily methane and ethane). The gases produced can be upgraded to pipe-
line quality (Minnesota DNR, 1981). Byproduct oils (benzene, napthalene
and phenols), ammonia and sulfur are extracted in turn from the liquids
which are condensed during various gas upgrading processes (Minne-
sota DNR, 1981).
The ratio of gaseous to liquid products is controlled by changes in
temperature, pressure and length of reaction time. Increased tempera-
ture and reaction time lead to gaseous product increases. With higher
temperature and longer reaction times, the large hydrocarbon molecules
comprising the liquid products are hydrocracked into lighter gaseous
molecules (U.S. Department of Energy, 1979).

BIOGASIFICATION

Biogasification is an anaerobic fermentation process. An important
advantage of biogasification is that dewatering is not required. Biogasifi-
cation is a two-stage process. In the first step, the peat-water slurry is
partially oxidized to break it down to simple compounds. Aldehydes,
ketones, organic acids and esters are the main products at this stage.
The pH is adjusted and the mixture is transferred to the fermenter (anaer-
obic biological reactor) where bacteria catalyze methane production.
Methane and carbon dioxide are produced in stoichometric proportions
(U.S. Department of Energy, 1979) with up to 95 percent of the material
being converted to methane or carbon dioxide (Minnesota DNR, 1981).
The resulting gas can be upgraded to substitute natural gas (SNG) by
scrubbing the carbon dioxide and hydrogen sulfide from the methane gas
(U.S. Department of Energy, 1979).
The waste material from the fermentation process contains undigested
peat components, inorganic residues and residual bacteria. These materi-
als can be utilized for soil conditioners, animal feeds, or can be concen-







BUREAU OF GEOLOGY


Heikurainen, L., 1976, The Concepts of Trophy and Production: Com-
mission I of International Peat Society Transactions of the Working Group
for Classification of Peat, Helsinki, Finland, p. 31.

Ingram, R.L., and L.J. Otte, 1980, Assessment of North Carolina Peat
Resources, in Peat as an Energy Alternative: Symposium Papers, Decem-
ber 1 -3, 1980, at Arlington, Va.: sponsored by Institute of Gas Technol-
ogy, pp. 123-131.

Institute of Gas Technology, 1980, Peat as an Energy Alternative: Sym-
posium Papers, December 1 -3, 1980, at Arlington, Va.: 777 p.

International Peat Society, 1980, Proceedings of the 6th International
Peat Congress, August 17-23, 1980: Duluth, Mn., 735 p.

Ishino, 1976, citation in Fuchsman, 1978, p. 57.

Jacksonville Area Planning Board, 1977, Regional land use element:
Jacksonville, FL.

Keys, D., 1980, Assessment and Management of the Peatlands in New
Brunswick, Canada: in Peat as an Energy Alternative: Symposium
Papers, December 1 -3, 1980, at Arlington, Va.: sponsored by Institute
of Gas Technology, pp. 131 -143.

King, R., S. Richardson, A. Walters, L. Boesch, W. Thomson, and J.
Irons, 1980, Preliminary Evaluation of Environmental Issues on the Use
of Peat as an Energy Source: prepared for the U.S. Department of
Energy, Division of Fossil Fuel Processing, Washington, D.C.

Kuehn, D.W., 1980, Offshore Transgressive Peat Deposits of Southwest
Florida: Evidence for a Late Holocene Rise of Sea Level: Unpublished
M.S. Thesis, Pennsylvania State University, College Park, Pa.

Laessle, A.M., 1942, The Plant Communities of the Welaka Area: Biolog-
ical Science Series, V. IV, N. 1, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL.

Langbein, W.B., and K.T. Iseri, 1960, General Introduction and Hydro-
logic Definitions, United States Geological Survey, Water Supply Paper
1541-A, 29 p.

Lappalainen, E., 1980, The Useful Fuel Peat Resources in Finland, in
International Peat Society, Proceedings of the 6th International Peat Con-
gress, August 17-23, 1980: Duluth, Mn., pp. 59-63.

Lishtvan, I.I., and N.T. Korol, 1975, citation in Fuchsman, 1978, pp.
36-37.






SPECIAL PUBLICATION NO. 27


Toxic Substances Control Act
(TOSCA)
PL 94-469

Noise Control Act 1972
PL 92-574




National Historic Preservation
Act of 1966 PL 89-665



Endangered Species Act
PL 93-205



Fish and Wildlife Coordination
Act
PL 85-624


MOU-1967 DOD & DOI
EO-1977

Wildlife and Scenic Rivers Act
PL 90-542

Coastal Zone Management Act
of 1972
PL 92-583


"Since effluent guidelines have not
been developed for most fossil energy
technologies, permit requirements are
determined on a case-by-case basis by
states or by EPA."

"A "No Discharge" goal has been set
for 1985."

"Disposal of specific materials used in
peat energy process may be regu-
lated."

"Control of ambient noise levels and
recommended standards for facilities
regulated by state and local govern-
ments may be required in the near
future."

"Federally financed, assisted, or per-
mitted projects cannot impact impor-
tant historic or culture sites unless no
alternative exists."

"Identification of endangered aquatic
and terrestrial species at a potential
construction site is required. May
effect peat energy facility siting."

"Any project requiring modification of
bodies of water must be reviewed to
prevent or reduce loss or damage to
fish and wildlife."

"Controls permit action by Corps of
Engineers."

"Project must not degrade the quality
of wildlife habitats and scenic rivers."

"State coastal zone management
plans developed with Federal financial
assistance may affect siting and
design of harvesting and conversion
plant."






SPECIAL PUBLICATION NO. 27


State of Florida Governor's Energy Office, 1981, Florida Energy
Resources: State of Florida Governor's Energy Office, Tallahassee, Flor-
ida, 111 p.

Stein, J., L.C. Hauck, and P.Y. Su, eds., 1975, Random House College
Dictionary, Random House, Inc., New York, N.Y., 1568 p.

Stephens, J.C., 1974, Subsidence of Organic Soils in the Florida
Everglades-A Review and Update, in P.J. Gleason, ed., Environments of
South Florida: Present and Past: Miami Geological Society, Memoir 2, pp.
352-361.

Stephens, J.C., and L. Johnson, 1951, Subsidence of Organic Soils in
the Upper Everglades of Florida: Soil Science Society of Florida Proceed-
ings, Vol. XI, pp. 191 -237.

Tate, R.L., 1980, Environmental Factors Limiting Microbial Activity in
Histosols, in Proceeding of the 6th International Peat Congress, August
17-23, 1980: International Peat Society, Duluth, Mn., p. 695.

Tebeau, C.W., 1974, South Florida Water Management District, in P.J.
Gleason, ed., Environments of South Florida: Present and Past: Miami
Geological Society, Memoir 2, p. 362.

Turner, F.J., and J. Verhoogen, 1960, Igneous and Metamorphic Petrol-
ogy: 2nd ed., McGraw-Hill, New York, 545 p.

U.S. Bureau of Mines, 1972-1981, Minerals Yearbook: U.S. Depart-
ment of Interior, Washington, D.C.

U.S. Department of Energy, 1979, Peat-Prospectus: United States
Department of Energy, Division of Fossil Fuel Processing, Washington,
D.C., 79 p.

Weast, R.C., ed., 1973, Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 54th ed.,
CRC Press, Cleveland, Oh.

White, W.H., 1970, The Geomorphology of the Florida Peninsula: Florida
Bureau of Geology Bulletin 51, Tallahassee, Fl., 164 p.








SPECIAL PUBLICATION NO. 27


FUEL-GRADE
PEAT DEPOSITS


Figure 14. Fuel grade peat deposits in Florida. (From Griffin, et al.,
1982).


31


rk, I


NORTH DI
FLrORIDA






BUREAU OF GEOLOGY


Community Affairs has jurisdiction over Developments of Regional
Impact (DRI).

DEPARTMENT OF ENVIRONMENTAL REGULATION

A peat mining operation falls under DER jurisdiction only if either of
two conditions are met. These criteria are: 1) the operation is located in
or would affect surface "Waters of the State", or 2) there is water
discharged off the property or to groundwater. If neither of these condi-
tions apply, then DER does not require a permit (Mark Latch, DER, per-
sonal communication, 1984).
The procedure involved is as follows: A site plan is submitted to DER.
DER makes a determination as to whether there is jurisdiction and per-
mits are required. If DER does have jurisdiction, the next step is to apply
for the applicable permits. Any or all of the following permits may be
required by DER depending on the specific site conditions and the site
plan proposed: Dredge and Fill, Stormwater, Groundwater, Industrial
Waste Water Discharge, National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System
certification, Power Plant Siting and Air Quality.

WATER MANAGEMENT DISTRICTS

Four of the five Water Management Districts in Florida have peat mines
located within their boundaries. They are the Suwannee River, St. Johns
River, Southwest Florida and South Florida Water Management Districts.
The permitting required by each management district is discussed below.

Suwannee River Water Management District

Any wells drilled for water withdrawal or monitoring purposes require
well construction permits. Water use permits are required for all uses of
water whether the withdrawal is through wells or from surface water
bodies. A water use permit is not required for monitor wells (Ron Ceryak,
SRWMD, personal communication, 1984).

St. Johns River Water Management District

There are four permits which may be required by the SJRWMD. They
are the Consumptive Use Permit (40C-2), Water Well Construction Per-
mit (40C-3), Management and Storage of Surface Waters Permit (40C-4)
and Works of the District Permit (40C-6). The permits and pertinent
thresholds are summarized below by Frank Meeker (SJRWMD, Division
of Permitting, personal communication, 1984).





SPECIAL PUBLICATION NO. 27


"The results of these efforts should be carefully evaluated by the
state. If the resulting data show that mercury is not actually a problem in
the region, some of the efforts can be terminated and the issue referred
to the Division of Environmental Management for resolution for permit-
ting questions which remain.
9. Evaluation of Monitoring Results
Monitoring results from peat mines should be reported at least quar-
terly by the Division of Land Resources in cooperation with the Division
of Environmental Management. It is crucial to identify unacceptable
trends as soon as possible, in order to incorporate remedial actions into
the permitting process. Evaluation of monitoring results will be especially
critical when monitoring is required in a mining permit for substance or
variables for which there are no presently established water quality stan-
dards.
"Although the Department already has in-house experts in a large
number of disciplines which may be involved in peat evaluation, it is
likely that some outside expertise may be needed to assist in evaluating
monitoring results and to verify trends. The Assistant Secretary for Natu-
ral Resources should be charged with assuring that the requisite intrade-
partmental and outside expert review are secured in a timely fashion.
"In addition to these technical monitoring reports, the Division of Land
Resources, in consultation with other divisions, should be directed to
prepare an annual report on environmental changes in the peat mining
region. This report should include a description of the year's activity in
peat mining, monitoring, use, and research. It should also include the
evaluations of the monitoring results for the year. The report should also
include an evaluation of the effectiveness of departmental policies on
peat mining and use.
10. Departmental Evaluation Plan
"A DNRCD evaluation plan on the overall environmental impacts of
peat mining and the control of these impacts should be developed as
soon as possible.
"The Department has sponsored or had access to a number of peat
research projects, (See Table I), but these have for the most part been
aimed at major, generalized issues rather than at the specific issues. The
mercury research effort represents the first of the highly focused studies
that may increasingly be needed. Others will be needed as questions
arise from monitoring results and other observations. The peat mining
working group should provide the Assistant Secretary for Natural
Resources with an overall research evaluation plan which gives priorities
for research projects to address specific identified issues. Such a plan
would allow the most efficient allocation of effort and funds, and it
would minimize delays in allocating research funds which often become
available at very short notice, such as the Coastal Energy Impact pro-
gram (CEIP) which is administered by the Office of Coastal Management.
"CEIP has funded most of the department's recent and current


147




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da11d7e692bb17a0cc035f9b7cd829c8
94a7f2557c291c676d6cea67da6696f57d0b5ed2
'2012-05-20T02:22:42-04:00'
describe
'3950790' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABLZT' 'sip-files00002.tif'
fb2407990a6193443fd35cf56b417b01
88ee4896e5ac77095838e6830778283cdd62b272
'2012-05-20T02:23:46-04:00'
describe
'3314' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABLZU' 'sip-files00002.txt'
c4854a205d4c6e0d3ed03f02c093227f
cb7e5348c577762d44cdb8bcd5e7b30eb8a7f5b5
'2012-05-20T02:21:24-04:00'
describe
'53534' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABLZV' 'sip-files00002thm.jpg'
b9ca3729a649f8a366aba8c1b7537c88
dfbe5821d0b6dd477f2996a1b411bc5b997b6779
'2012-05-20T02:21:59-04:00'
describe
'497347' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABLZW' 'sip-files00003.jp2'
f6bf159fc7ce9604810230cf44a02088
fbd5ae69cd56572be542c56b8eba1bee6beab10d
'2012-05-20T02:24:17-04:00'
describe
'562521' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABLZX' 'sip-files00003.jpg'
0c08299cd9093937963bd0e1bd130c54
cdd0ecf371c475666d31f1e9444cf9a6cafff049
'2012-05-20T02:26:10-04:00'
describe
'77429' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABLZY' 'sip-files00003.pro'
2cf90366c94cffe8d9dd16c99ea47d3b
88aa92803b9af48fa922ecdb422b2628b524eb46
'2012-05-20T02:24:09-04:00'
describe
'175641' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABLZZ' 'sip-files00003.QC.jpg'
28d10401fc06468451a52cb2266523de
4d08117830ccc4bc411878d5fa5260807e8c05ec
'2012-05-20T02:24:15-04:00'
describe
'3981706' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABMAA' 'sip-files00003.tif'
d8efaea753c7319c63aba54e2f6327a7
23655521aedec28df90b205fd68635f2d578a1ac
'2012-05-20T02:22:27-04:00'
describe
'2879' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABMAB' 'sip-files00003.txt'
edba1085eda54f821e4bf98ff8eca7d2
254b988de42fcb790000ef6463f90b695d65b28f
'2012-05-20T02:25:52-04:00'
describe
'50387' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABMAC' 'sip-files00003thm.jpg'
dcbbf49b148a143dbc605d5976f8757f
1510e1e6c92af94d80fcc072339bb6e398cd9483
'2012-05-20T02:25:28-04:00'
describe
'485528' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABMAD' 'sip-files00004.jp2'
0df28fbf871ad00ad67d761bb3afa1f6
0f67e91d65662e4e0f44d2e874dfbb821b8baf7d
'2012-05-20T02:23:51-04:00'
describe
'615249' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABMAE' 'sip-files00004.jpg'
0326ead185d20e134fc815c92a6fb07c
c3f9b9ae5f8e035e3daff7aa86c353c25ce6efac
'2012-05-20T02:21:41-04:00'
describe
'88077' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABMAF' 'sip-files00004.pro'
88ba8332e33d3c45088eae66d4c81cc7
18418781287deb0a976858ba117daab2415cc164
'2012-05-20T02:26:14-04:00'
describe
'192643' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABMAG' 'sip-files00004.QC.jpg'
fba8adb0c3d832a377ab04eb967e3f69
664160ec51a062f033d3fad7fc1296578e88e891
'2012-05-20T02:26:26-04:00'
describe
'3886914' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABMAH' 'sip-files00004.tif'
d4238dda36ddb9026513a1a027e65ed7
d6d45a23f9b57e97d9aad9a21a1b527a074a314b
'2012-05-20T02:21:10-04:00'
describe
'3223' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABMAI' 'sip-files00004.txt'
61bda2c02abcc92a8338b45cd6e27ac7
07e64e0a327efed90a699259f7135a6b7bd9ab11
'2012-05-20T02:23:27-04:00'
describe
'54887' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABMAJ' 'sip-files00004thm.jpg'
008b6922393a4fad2da5d5a1e9844c41
894e54c411de844402eca5bf53141b7bfdd8b050
'2012-05-20T02:26:18-04:00'
describe
'476989' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABMAK' 'sip-files00005.jp2'
0d633aa72b483cc2fe9d0ca3af272456
2ba610366444bed4eac3aba44bf64d91dee574af
'2012-05-20T02:22:18-04:00'
describe
'573431' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABMAL' 'sip-files00005.jpg'
9d5b667c36484e365f21e36d0ffb686d
392bd46db9f555605b4caa86c482fa90151e9c84
'2012-05-20T02:26:34-04:00'
describe
'79304' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABMAM' 'sip-files00005.pro'
9979e72204a94df626f7d863b792173f
52379e318c820f28f739bb1703faf80297c820cf
'2012-05-20T02:25:16-04:00'
describe
'182348' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABMAN' 'sip-files00005.QC.jpg'
682fc5f34930ee89ee81ca1645031400
0bed2713ee7c1c19be779fb9059bf4d1b13ae066
'2012-05-20T02:26:11-04:00'
describe
'3818466' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABMAO' 'sip-files00005.tif'
9f6c99806fb89bdc7101c56e755c0ef7
8d74161bb31852d16504f8ebe0257d62bb91856d
'2012-05-20T02:20:51-04:00'
describe
'2973' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABMAP' 'sip-files00005.txt'
edc34dad9bcb079d9049ae2c1d8bd1ff
e0970cc614fd34ef65f83a1b4ceb23e259f786c9
'2012-05-20T02:22:23-04:00'
describe
'51798' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABMAQ' 'sip-files00005thm.jpg'
984b5820ec20ad82baa9b2ac3f24ba6f
67081d4bd7d8572a82b995ab052ec52ae99ea1db
'2012-05-20T02:25:49-04:00'
describe
'493481' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABMAR' 'sip-files00006.jp2'
c9e430af2e118bf9c05a6a5657a8c3d6
a71a642ff285b9ab007f29368408e9281bf51967
'2012-05-20T02:25:15-04:00'
describe
'584445' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABMAS' 'sip-files00006.jpg'
a2282553cd00e3f010176f402631ca3c
ee310f259917c4d97abd4f3b971deb0a52417d64
describe
'85941' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABMAT' 'sip-files00006.pro'
34bab43a3a88f3273961d0c8054f4c34
27ca1997b261b1c1c460843642fe3d5fd081d807
'2012-05-20T02:22:36-04:00'
describe
'181837' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABMAU' 'sip-files00006.QC.jpg'
01ca51ad49803dec12b3b04f32d8ef36
efdba8793bf810912cb1d6ea9943232c1172115d
'2012-05-20T02:24:26-04:00'
describe
'3950738' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABMAV' 'sip-files00006.tif'
2a6be438d99130be2cf75eb6b3847956
c3a919ac1393db916b74ac3111db3cf0e07259c1
'2012-05-20T02:24:27-04:00'
describe
'3152' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABMAW' 'sip-files00006.txt'
5381432a023eec11e60ab4b4df439fca
d82ed43d74ce6d9ae8f52fbdf63925802390e449
'2012-05-20T02:26:38-04:00'
describe
'53341' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABMAX' 'sip-files00006thm.jpg'
451c7d05317cadc1bfd73e00f64139c5
713bc3fbac0a830f5a28e9fd2e2d99a605b4ecda
'2012-05-20T02:24:16-04:00'
describe
'494103' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABMAY' 'sip-files00007.jp2'
da4b2bead94b2a83b2039965de156292
cb62744b3cb62599a3e167d05f0bd884f9d0fce9
'2012-05-20T02:25:06-04:00'
describe
'595139' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABMAZ' 'sip-files00007.jpg'
4f2f109048a7cede31e4555ba1a57a09
e2d601a52d9cd3b35219e330352b5f233e20b152
'2012-05-20T02:25:50-04:00'
describe
'87102' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABMBA' 'sip-files00007.pro'
1df6d4f55157baf537a9839fa301bc48
4e604bd743c45f4c071009fc00187a4fef197f9b
'2012-05-20T02:25:32-04:00'
describe
'182263' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABMBB' 'sip-files00007.QC.jpg'
7ca33d37074ed17337a92b86fd6a6891
0d83ea12e89bc746047a5347515be05e90a66ea4
'2012-05-20T02:22:33-04:00'
describe
'3955354' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABMBC' 'sip-files00007.tif'
88a8c1c8c598c5bcad8c6dcf7ec6d011
ef07ab6983c885f9a35aa671a503cae6cdc925e2
'2012-05-20T02:23:38-04:00'
describe
'3203' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABMBD' 'sip-files00007.txt'
6a62bb8de9a6a4aefeec89f67374a4e1
11586c9a1dd79cace228a64dc679696c1f1da8c5
'2012-05-20T02:25:24-04:00'
describe
'54148' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABMBE' 'sip-files00007thm.jpg'
3360755056715f5c6f94a7424071c5d2
51224ae6c432ebecb08f6b0278260401b6aadd9f
'2012-05-20T02:22:17-04:00'
describe
'489633' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABMBF' 'sip-files00008.jp2'
7d4081421ec7bc5b0db94a8aae8894e5
78e62c23d8fb2ddea4a3411d28def8d1da28ceae
'2012-05-20T02:23:32-04:00'
describe
'617497' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABMBG' 'sip-files00008.jpg'
dc62b0ea5bbf53c0e924bfdc32934efc
54f06c5e58ea525908a79cfc298baaa55978fbc6
'2012-05-20T02:21:13-04:00'
describe
'89096' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABMBH' 'sip-files00008.pro'
786513342b186c90cd4d762fdab6b30a
baab319f7d97c4ddb69a4dfdc61a332b0d7b6a48
'2012-05-20T02:25:35-04:00'
describe
'190619' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABMBI' 'sip-files00008.QC.jpg'
025ff9a8c767f0d7a001d4c05fb8d40c
9f107206eae74deb337d7808495660e3c2a8f2f0
'2012-05-20T02:24:21-04:00'
describe
'3919622' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABMBJ' 'sip-files00008.tif'
8f5d2ed027a3b393237a78337d01d1c8
1db90a5da915db0e2eb6013618936bb2cf6ba154
'2012-05-20T02:23:47-04:00'
describe
'3293' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABMBK' 'sip-files00008.txt'
d837f58c37fe4c1eab40eb219a21c0d9
c0cd540c452f586496972b465981894af9fe29bb
'2012-05-20T02:22:03-04:00'
describe
'56424' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABMBL' 'sip-files00008thm.jpg'
f6f374b11452082c615a8a77908c3c9c
1f4f1a30b1bc63052ac9270cffddab1f3286427a
'2012-05-20T02:20:53-04:00'
describe
'488294' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABMBM' 'sip-files00009.jp2'
f894f2c9e39b10d4ef2e7748d8f3c13e
0c42d6a5c79587d062afef850b8f7f877c52087d
'2012-05-20T02:25:36-04:00'
describe
'592027' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABMBN' 'sip-files00009.jpg'
17da11af578e2a0258b75e00e19a6f8e
274d9a34ed572749d3b8235b65236ec5a1e5e78a
'2012-05-20T02:20:49-04:00'
describe
'85398' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABMBO' 'sip-files00009.pro'
6cd2509a03d9f1c83fdb01ade5fcf481
e18ba53c8e89ca96ea373f69a4e5498d118328cd
'2012-05-20T02:20:59-04:00'
describe
'183001' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABMBP' 'sip-files00009.QC.jpg'
e187c51c9bb5d326feb57d6ba21a9cf6
8dedd068c7fb6b53c196ae3593b956acb3741eb4
'2012-05-20T02:24:40-04:00'
describe
'3908830' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABMBQ' 'sip-files00009.tif'
d1c339b5db4870b37fb1259082044b96
cd28e122d956c2850206a960c035060b88d81160
describe
'3156' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABMBR' 'sip-files00009.txt'
cd97de9f38c6f6dc867564e10eff9a00
a37c21504ca5e8e7ad225f6ebdf463362eeeea1c
'2012-05-20T02:26:41-04:00'
describe
'54993' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABMBS' 'sip-files00009thm.jpg'
a3dabceaf1c50751528f1f2a7c49d547
01e8cdda68e8c990e98e4058041676a23cccde2c
describe
'1835897' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABMBT' 'sip-files00010.jp2'
37a42413413179cf01d1791496f90ae7
a37635583d17a2ad0637c1ac0cefb86bfaa596d0
'2012-05-20T02:25:44-04:00'
describe
'406093' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABMBU' 'sip-files00010.jpg'
8f49e76ea916e2ab6c85534ba84d6a63
d78498e8b09c095deabfab33ff1da4544a4af34e
'2012-05-20T02:21:14-04:00'
describe
'23687' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABMBV' 'sip-files00010.pro'
924a565356e15df47fa2710507395c76
ac2487ad277264c9e855bae5529f58d1f8f60c42
'2012-05-20T02:25:57-04:00'
describe
'121336' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABMBW' 'sip-files00010.QC.jpg'
a05302e72d04dcff7d759365649bddff
bc340c31dbd58f2bad19e016c22ccbb0c211cda2
'2012-05-20T02:23:12-04:00'
describe
'14693858' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABMBX' 'sip-files00010.tif'
d3bb33d9ace8e0f82e256f462cec8435
cbe37adb305bd17fa7827d909ca8e3aa3bb14672
'2012-05-20T02:26:40-04:00'
describe
'1112' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABMBY' 'sip-files00010.txt'
f69ea10025227f40e9800979688c826f
7b480a1febced4359e6b36a63f5dbd0d503c7b35
'2012-05-20T02:23:16-04:00'
describe
WARNING CODE 'Daitss::Anomaly' Invalid character
'41841' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABMBZ' 'sip-files00010thm.jpg'
81fb1c1a9e4865267b0c94f938cbf904
265a1fc448e9ffcb45bb4328cbfb65d2944e32a9
'2012-05-20T02:22:30-04:00'
describe
'461140' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABMCA' 'sip-files00011.jp2'
5788d9f8df05a3693f4dc4773522d070
8047e01ee7812dcde31c579578818fade749e806
'2012-05-20T02:21:36-04:00'
describe
'619085' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABMCB' 'sip-files00011.jpg'
2e3ac5b9619db8a2977ba49187dc91c7
22e6e00b26c82cbe4f4913102894955ef083aa05
'2012-05-20T02:23:06-04:00'
describe
'82524' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABMCC' 'sip-files00011.pro'
4da2bca805e7f08383c3d72e429b9c37
9fba85bce7e58af919f4969add8d279a87e72de5
describe
'200138' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABMCD' 'sip-files00011.QC.jpg'
fa2f6a0ead1ba06503ba43a487048aeb
2d922da64dcf826b5237888f036cd2e72ab2ca11
'2012-05-20T02:22:34-04:00'
describe
'3691454' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABMCE' 'sip-files00011.tif'
920f696ceed8cf5cda3a8739794fb6b0
e95cdaec250b58d2c477d4883cdec403873c697a
'2012-05-20T02:24:06-04:00'
describe
'3072' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABMCF' 'sip-files00011.txt'
8d8f19536322f55aac87390ea531753f
b5a63fafa17a5c1962a8563b2d7f6aacc42f70c6
'2012-05-20T02:24:55-04:00'
describe
'52255' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABMCG' 'sip-files00011thm.jpg'
fccbdbacc3ed31fefcb05ee5a6ba261e
74ccf7cb178160b4dbe7d6721004726c792f34a8
'2012-05-20T02:20:40-04:00'
describe
'412708' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABMCH' 'sip-files00012.jp2'
f8e778ed2b051d245ec7ef3bdca5d66b
bf629666123d8beddf35e8a9e1cc3b9c321a6ff7
'2012-05-20T02:21:01-04:00'
describe
'150938' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABMCI' 'sip-files00012.jpg'
afe21efcab8f594ee7e21cfa24e0cfc0
5dd8f19856d5fca5125f569af999ba2de983e86b
'2012-05-20T02:24:45-04:00'
describe
'7216' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABMCJ' 'sip-files00012.pro'
9a90c2c9157d6c31030f31989ef40377
39fdb0ead1573b4d6a3ba46b667e7633ca418327
'2012-05-20T02:25:01-04:00'
describe
'45319' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABMCK' 'sip-files00012.QC.jpg'
f34572a50e1dbb1b16b49368b282a5b8
ba10738649dbe7c003026d740dad48cbd0c33d6b
'2012-05-20T02:23:48-04:00'
describe
'3303970' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABMCL' 'sip-files00012.tif'
56c4683fff930ce41af8f012b90e1d07
3c40a9f686cbf5647ca782806b48835907e23f8e
'2012-05-20T02:22:31-04:00'
describe
'343' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABMCM' 'sip-files00012.txt'
eb962a5e2f9cbf3dc23d00ecbc6b0fbf
73e1dc9e002aaec16e919b1a9f79b473d094cc35
'2012-05-20T02:21:53-04:00'
describe
'13918' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABMCN' 'sip-files00012thm.jpg'
f6897c5bdce5cce9090505f3f4363f68
16dbd56ab296a036fd9e0e425678b04c4f881def
'2012-05-20T02:24:53-04:00'
describe
'487454' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABMCO' 'sip-files00013.jp2'
c0cb51d11fe5fe755cb0709d141ca8ba
177a97da88050848daf5fb9ee8b568d6c102c6d4
describe
'601982' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABMCP' 'sip-files00013.jpg'
d85e687e813d96bc6ab0fd76f995a7f0
3c90f390416a4123c15603a07bb86ae8290a9fd8
'2012-05-20T02:26:50-04:00'
describe
'84914' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABMCQ' 'sip-files00013.pro'
b5ce1f87f6ef299c004ecbd065237900
972ab65b5ea250018fc9121931f67ff3696aa990
'2012-05-20T02:25:47-04:00'
describe
'183796' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABMCR' 'sip-files00013.QC.jpg'
c65923047c8b8e717e39c117b0cdc56a
38ef5f5df96a7ae410bed78f18249a7c25f89f1e
'2012-05-20T02:21:06-04:00'
describe
'3902122' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABMCS' 'sip-files00013.tif'
c0cc91ae4ba3c21584b414a2995e5bcd
30a3002b23b32b9cc148fe0ae07524b56eb9cfee
'2012-05-20T02:21:44-04:00'
describe
'3128' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABMCT' 'sip-files00013.txt'
dd98d5bffae5715a3a93ba17f4c6c63a
c19b440bb65cf9ba0b452760afb9bc73711eeb92
'2012-05-20T02:22:50-04:00'
describe
'53579' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABMCU' 'sip-files00013thm.jpg'
2c07844f9ca9f4760bf7f5d9b6fb6b0b
07d44ab17dff3a8845b6d8b91b7bcb713318f8a6
describe
'481705' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABMCV' 'sip-files00014.jp2'
f138b5404d37d49ef0a306b96b2b4fa8
a5135eed608728b1a49908bb94c551db8b078caa
'2012-05-20T02:24:34-04:00'
describe
'566747' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABMCW' 'sip-files00014.jpg'
a7d1788357d6491aecfbd871f3b26dbc
5cc72d681989e82b2852567d09ed967e819c9113
'2012-05-20T02:21:45-04:00'
describe
'71914' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABMCX' 'sip-files00014.pro'
e9c82f140110c004a338f650aa73487a
560918f4fb4eeb8dc8386208f2dc1a4086d8d71a
'2012-05-20T02:24:32-04:00'
describe
'175371' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABMCY' 'sip-files00014.QC.jpg'
0357956c5fc3d2c67300fee5de3b4938
193628f311e20a717c76f9065d79effb2af07836
'2012-05-20T02:23:17-04:00'
describe
'3856114' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABMCZ' 'sip-files00014.tif'
5121c0d1ca6f82b4b1eca8b1dc18f3dc
c4a23fbf304bc907878ba2dc9c937db768f14801
'2012-05-20T02:23:55-04:00'
describe
'2744' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABMDA' 'sip-files00014.txt'
beeb9193b3aa4980cde6bcb252ee43e7
e2d480cbdc0ddaa1d15a142168003058b95dd7de
'2012-05-20T02:25:14-04:00'
describe
'52936' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABMDB' 'sip-files00014thm.jpg'
c6978274588801da748e24a5108e4db6
b6460b0c5e2cb8c36c1042d8daced0080c744d33
'2012-05-20T02:21:54-04:00'
describe
'492564' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABMDC' 'sip-files00015.jp2'
e36c27726d1b764d57720368f4db8c44
d6e4dc8649656d595247e20d9947a0f7f34e40b3
'2012-05-20T02:26:31-04:00'
describe
'531277' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABMDD' 'sip-files00015.jpg'
e6bd625867d1f64e4b367240d0c01279
ff21b3cbddecaed7c800f5f6b8ed1bf384b72c94
'2012-05-20T02:22:37-04:00'
describe
'38034' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABMDE' 'sip-files00015.pro'
d62f821382949a462dbce764f7cca197
f9c7e93d725be49b996db2ce958c6ccd5a56209d
'2012-05-20T02:22:25-04:00'
describe
'161344' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABMDF' 'sip-files00015.QC.jpg'
84802b4a4856a34eff09a49ee8ac5a1d
1e07cbbca7c542dce5c37876497630499e22699e
'2012-05-20T02:21:32-04:00'
describe
'3943080' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABMDG' 'sip-files00015.tif'
cf9f3988e2ef48b1bc89e1dd1b1894df
10b39eea14399dc1cbbb2fc6d1d307721540dc65
'2012-05-20T02:23:01-04:00'
describe
'1542' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABMDH' 'sip-files00015.txt'
9dc51415955f3b81add2c6d73b03e48c
c299d8c74932064f192e43677ef25b7760e4bd6c
'2012-05-20T02:22:26-04:00'
describe
'48207' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABMDI' 'sip-files00015thm.jpg'
faf15d56b97511e9e820eda466ed8143
4fd6f308c6aa7eef7e8c66e2c413027b5708b444
'2012-05-20T02:24:56-04:00'
describe
'481698' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABMDJ' 'sip-files00016.jp2'
5759a20ef3149beb666ff5e063a75771
bf9a11828b9ba4b3df2f6c22bfa99ef642993d09
describe
'543605' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABMDK' 'sip-files00016.jpg'
0e076f5420b5f2ec9cc2932931c0426e
994a4b043b40657c3f55ff4e5d2d3b8cdae026c6
'2012-05-20T02:22:12-04:00'
describe
'78692' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABMDL' 'sip-files00016.pro'
799b5f291d4689dcaef36390e20d484a
de4e397b844499be92cafeb3fc533ae5223d072d
'2012-05-20T02:23:15-04:00'
describe
'172802' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABMDM' 'sip-files00016.QC.jpg'
c76969264748b3ff9caa969144715077
7bb8079e2dd6435363d980f4178d0db5d0b32a9f
'2012-05-20T02:24:57-04:00'
describe
'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABMDN' 'sip-files00016.tif'
644960d9dad0f6fa8c18a8d53a31adf0
0bf5ecf519ece9a6adbf046fb6de242e688e4211
describe
'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABMDO' 'sip-files00016.txt'
82ada7a58d04df0ad73e8e7b9b90ec86
87104aabaf158c6577e54831d3d1e2796e023db2
'2012-05-20T02:22:57-04:00'
describe
'52280' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABMDP' 'sip-files00016thm.jpg'
e99eca36dc9c051c2961d6bf4d24a073
124d241e646759ad4eb6bb95b47651312e161727
'2012-05-20T02:26:48-04:00'
describe
'480685' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABMDQ' 'sip-files00017.jp2'
33c7a8f5a68f6bd4473f0686cac7a8fd
bfaf7751c6f3a1953a503c61d190fb6fd1ff7a5f
'2012-05-20T02:21:34-04:00'
describe
'514826' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABMDR' 'sip-files00017.jpg'
4b12204b05c44ae645e3d1ca377a2342
82ddeb8e1e1c55499cec4f5fac2a615de8107f8b
describe
'69526' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABMDS' 'sip-files00017.pro'
73151e84a5b286309b2df14775a06032
131ac040e8369b0c29642d88226d967eca30b382
'2012-05-20T02:20:43-04:00'
describe
'163677' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABMDT' 'sip-files00017.QC.jpg'
edaf664f2d2a9367b06b957975311ca5
b6501abfcea8e30a3ad49abacf6978992caac4a0
'2012-05-20T02:21:00-04:00'
describe
'3848442' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABMDU' 'sip-files00017.tif'
325d27da72afb66b8ebb25d24c37c5e6
036b67076fc9df540d58845b5a27237723088401
'2012-05-20T02:25:59-04:00'
describe
'2719' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABMDV' 'sip-files00017.txt'
de11def7c854a6e3c6f54bffea48f68d
8d92b5ca14652123a9750e9b1ee1cbb97e0f0cdb
'2012-05-20T02:24:33-04:00'
describe
'45809' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABMDW' 'sip-files00017thm.jpg'
1b1ee6cc8fe35203c705249e232f57cc
29c65e2123172b291ccea8eeb5ff1e8baee1258f
'2012-05-20T02:23:11-04:00'
describe
'497218' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABMDX' 'sip-files00018.jp2'
70a1e08758b1bd6473f8b1fee232eee4
3dd01fcef57e2653e2bcec64bd4ef25d3cef3d69
'2012-05-20T02:20:37-04:00'
describe
'419797' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABMDY' 'sip-files00018.jpg'
38607479f87559140b4fa218e8679de7
4fcc27ef1a17e502bdc41500a90dede8658b5576
'2012-05-20T02:20:41-04:00'
describe
'13119' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABMDZ' 'sip-files00018.pro'
31f383e801a571ebea29875564680f38
d99af962e7600f35db10dfbc8de8d512348c3a36
describe
'125322' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABMEA' 'sip-files00018.QC.jpg'
64fa10f004d1c4b0da6a7a18b06fdad2
1a99c0ed8f5747f84c6f094fefca3fc1b3ca83f5
'2012-05-20T02:23:13-04:00'
describe
'3980262' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABMEB' 'sip-files00018.tif'
685e2adbf48aac14dd999a401018dcca
837a3f9306907620748d91ffe640e176cf4cfb3f
'2012-05-20T02:26:55-04:00'
describe
'499' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABMEC' 'sip-files00018.txt'
ec3ea40a01dcfe30d5116658be323bd2
8745d0f38ef0a3ee864a255970cde87c0b1b20a4
'2012-05-20T02:23:59-04:00'
describe
'41318' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABMED' 'sip-files00018thm.jpg'
45ba9fc494c8372d320ce090378fb42a
496e628daba9a58d9f7a7e4e28005032225d4a8d
'2012-05-20T02:21:05-04:00'
describe
'496647' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABMEE' 'sip-files00019.jp2'
9f5a9f66b42a180a7c0084137b280f83
b569e3850cada361b906d0f58a91a13a3247b0ce
'2012-05-20T02:26:47-04:00'
describe
'429637' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABMEF' 'sip-files00019.jpg'
a72bd3638452d809d267644650fe886b
542a5cfcf46911ef14aaa6a3ab2d5462d4f6558a
'2012-05-20T02:22:52-04:00'
describe
'10777' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABMEG' 'sip-files00019.pro'
8cff5c7c42e1129b7142e6a3417fce4e
9816492d55706671db07adbe160d211a7873f426
'2012-05-20T02:21:16-04:00'
describe
'130432' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABMEH' 'sip-files00019.QC.jpg'
992b8b892eb5ae29e64352f5897dce6f
55290a7cb3bd72798b1ba45cfdaa424d1f6e855c
'2012-05-20T02:24:52-04:00'
describe
'3975988' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABMEI' 'sip-files00019.tif'
566dfab3a40df19c57eba0947fc27930
3a143c84308c33185035692f09518e5b88a115ec
'2012-05-20T02:21:49-04:00'
describe
'426' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABMEJ' 'sip-files00019.txt'
c829979fc319ad05e43193e12f4f4b7e
6bc09de84a2130e2cf4402f41787c39dc5f40b10
describe
'42374' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABMEK' 'sip-files00019thm.jpg'
987c82ba6e37e6ec5a11ccc34e797e70
38f64b2e86e4dd610af02f413d75e93e18d31d93
'2012-05-20T02:25:00-04:00'
describe
'422790' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABMEL' 'sip-files00020.jp2'
b60ba0a0035c93f79185188be2e43307
89f3ceda211f7676cf6c34f7d4d128edcc1762f4
'2012-05-20T02:20:50-04:00'
describe
'179819' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABMEM' 'sip-files00020.jpg'
f181302397ea22ecc4915ab27007a226
31d9c695913657805d6c1ba445cfe5d10dc6faa6
'2012-05-20T02:22:24-04:00'
describe
'8299' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABMEN' 'sip-files00020.pro'
c30d047c16bcf48cd549b1b67a08d57d
ab8d51c6afed1be797d4389c2735901362755bca
'2012-05-20T02:24:10-04:00'
describe
'52425' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABMEO' 'sip-files00020.QC.jpg'
b4209ec0eff3302791b3692ff860fd09
0d34710f5d4db786da86d4dfb6c123516156a62b
'2012-05-20T02:26:03-04:00'
describe
'3383712' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABMEP' 'sip-files00020.tif'
514bc0055375571d553c58800d3f85f2
e9f97e6a5e90eeee241d6b22731eebf63b1bad0c
'2012-05-20T02:22:56-04:00'
describe
'655' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABMEQ' 'sip-files00020.txt'
9155a0521f7887e6bb256cd90988aa09
7688544e956b970234c13f85cf5efc05c50b8192
'2012-05-20T02:22:47-04:00'
describe
'16351' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABMER' 'sip-files00020thm.jpg'
74b8b78d70b91692a8ba8cdd429c145d
af3cf9db5a91634f17f909ce968b18734c23ab61
'2012-05-20T02:22:53-04:00'
describe
'449677' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABMES' 'sip-files00021.jp2'
1da57a6346ba02c3ea7b5cc680eb4062
4e9869570a249ad3fb9bed61fc617d79a6efa95c
'2012-05-20T02:26:22-04:00'
describe
'193478' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABMET' 'sip-files00021.jpg'
12c13e174f5bff510719e5079fd3b592
d59f278a8477b45360b7b17680ec58e050ed01a8
'2012-05-20T02:22:01-04:00'
describe
'6126' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABMEU' 'sip-files00021.pro'
ffea9fc263f27cd24236cf16fbd1c6a2
7df575629bdbac266fa10689a88799be4e69e287
'2012-05-20T02:26:04-04:00'
describe
'57309' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABMEV' 'sip-files00021.QC.jpg'
99684f988893502a74b1a9d9a7c7d8b4
3d2775110b2a5c332c879a674a03ec5caac7fa0e
describe
'3598922' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABMEW' 'sip-files00021.tif'
4cfb485bcaa3cf57991f6ba613d18e69
87293f67e4510b94f384861f4c1c34c3099fb598
'2012-05-20T02:20:38-04:00'
describe
'289' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABMEX' 'sip-files00021.txt'
d41a6f0e1e064d3154862ee104127a3f
6d1dd4417c9979430c6af2d68cd980916da04cfd
'2012-05-20T02:26:42-04:00'
describe
'16650' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABMEY' 'sip-files00021thm.jpg'
73bd25fd1608d33507eb670d3887ecb1
7ef9c8ae41591a32869b47914acf0563f29a2844
'2012-05-20T02:22:39-04:00'
describe
'426820' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABMEZ' 'sip-files00022.jp2'
1ead0e7a56793f98e6b6d9ef4d7ce5e1
437c6a1a56f88a7dd49d8b68e11c6e9f12530d15
'2012-05-20T02:25:48-04:00'
describe
'184440' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABMFA' 'sip-files00022.jpg'
a4f6ab288465bf16c60a153cdbc22a0e
d36983d20d7dab692e6080edd4a155264f9422db
'2012-05-20T02:23:42-04:00'
describe
'17739' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABMFB' 'sip-files00022.pro'
c566bf0157e5d085130b00ef84b10c4a
f0348ecfb5b03301fd381f838be2186ceb9403bd
'2012-05-20T02:23:23-04:00'
describe
'52342' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABMFC' 'sip-files00022.QC.jpg'
33d16ecb689d45bba4dc5a561802b45e
92224723f48cb198cb9a30646913285b2ab940b8
'2012-05-20T02:21:15-04:00'
describe
'3416258' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABMFD' 'sip-files00022.tif'
5a03968d9b59d0ac2152e84fee060e01
0047d20b26143e0ec821447d53bf9228088169a6
'2012-05-20T02:24:14-04:00'
describe
'1444' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABMFE' 'sip-files00022.txt'
b85f046f9bd813d1aec514f01712b67b
ce78ae5d7b197c07dcd925da23b46fb4ce788d38
'2012-05-20T02:25:23-04:00'
describe
'16053' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABMFF' 'sip-files00022thm.jpg'
362ebfe1d378325110e3d78a4a5acb6c
942f99cec2f4c1c3e22ce43cbce87b42c80545ec
'2012-05-20T02:23:18-04:00'
describe
'567976' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABMFG' 'sip-files00023.jp2'
dcae2d7396a9ee1a49804fed072f7998
1190b8ff0fce52d994ca7538aaabdb9499b27a26
'2012-05-20T02:22:32-04:00'
describe
'370018' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABMFH' 'sip-files00023.jpg'
7abb91f8089e36c61334621f5fe25724
81e90ed10ff72244a019b650deabf3fc644ceda2
'2012-05-20T02:21:33-04:00'
describe
'6420' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABMFI' 'sip-files00023.pro'
f7101b873eef795a9a25cb19f6cf1047
da14d80d70e8fb5b0203d687e7787a43b0fa6738
'2012-05-20T02:26:09-04:00'
describe
'114150' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABMFJ' 'sip-files00023.QC.jpg'
32702d1d178f8e1d348c3d72f633b116
50896dceac9fc63e3ec919c1901362350b810d53
describe
'4546698' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABMFK' 'sip-files00023.tif'
9363329bae6c5dd6ad379aae0d65ba4d
1c2b9ef9be7bf7494c8f7828defc759ccddd1842
'2012-05-20T02:24:20-04:00'
describe
'341' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABMFL' 'sip-files00023.txt'
ea3ac48a00b69c1c2341d4d382cdcc1b
ec6648b57d1fbb2cb8a709eb3957a1c77b376cdc
'2012-05-20T02:22:43-04:00'
describe
'33491' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABMFM' 'sip-files00023thm.jpg'
8aa1daadc0b7a35fcebdd0cc64d594e5
d780d818feb826b55cb89c4a5efbe3a4b20e0ffa
'2012-05-20T02:23:19-04:00'
describe
'388594' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABMFN' 'sip-files00024.jp2'
dc643aaa88917bfffc6264fb9fd6f766
eea0318019687386abaa0f05a80a43f246fe3151
'2012-05-20T02:20:46-04:00'
describe
'141240' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABMFO' 'sip-files00024.jpg'
cbf6cd3723e533808f691a12680d4de3
f40c0a7e3d5841755938a3436916616ac8f8a21b
'2012-05-20T02:26:29-04:00'
describe
'5172' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABMFP' 'sip-files00024.pro'
28c0c478b947aa11b93aabde6b097749
99c90dcf1246b0fb64f3c78707279af5a05801b5
'2012-05-20T02:23:50-04:00'
describe
'42722' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABMFQ' 'sip-files00024.QC.jpg'
207ae7a913a47e1a5c06b8787a1000f5
98b3b82c805dd3fc8ba659160a95fc1999b0acc2
describe
'3110066' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABMFR' 'sip-files00024.tif'
d0c8e850cc98ac9db16c489878cc23f4
758606814e86783ef34a3de9271b89c18211f620
describe
'382' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABMFS' 'sip-files00024.txt'
9f8b86701fd8c7d1b0b6ad4fda8ef415
fb73a4be4afc0ad1d13095b93810ee81749501b9
describe
'13091' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABMFT' 'sip-files00024thm.jpg'
52bfcd8669b2801672640d1e2fda48c9
6b8f45d78e4a8396eae6d05d37bd758d54d90374
describe
'445794' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABMFU' 'sip-files00025.jp2'
ac6b4f78990072e138fe06af85b987e5
0d24093c802924baf2710d1f4adef6fb1019614c
describe
'209562' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABMFV' 'sip-files00025.jpg'
1661178a5c7bcea492df7ce284d271a9
ba545dc1c8ef14d576cc78ec9498e786a2f765ab
'2012-05-20T02:26:53-04:00'
describe
'4270' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABMFW' 'sip-files00025.pro'
85d1a3cf9168af73821651ae3ab5ca3b
d0e16f941f9c38d492bf1ea5a7daaf64e7b03112
describe
'64556' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABMFX' 'sip-files00025.QC.jpg'
743be487aa56cb756ef1b3f55b5c6a03
163249551962125b53798589a978d52c5e0d736c
'2012-05-20T02:22:09-04:00'
describe
'3568744' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABMFY' 'sip-files00025.tif'
f0bf7da7daf372d19fb317b10f5774d0
9787760232b79795bdf28edce422d4f96b25bf4c
'2012-05-20T02:26:21-04:00'
describe
'222' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABMFZ' 'sip-files00025.txt'
2a99cf23c1b9ad1b64fc4ac9f5d7e8ef
9f344956ad6ef920bef9cd652d5a38a5ab5b5146
'2012-05-20T02:21:29-04:00'
describe
'18777' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABMGA' 'sip-files00025thm.jpg'
cb2a5f03cfd6f93f0073adb1343121a5
2afe54af2ab717b95010c20745fc50613451e519
describe
'566094' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABMGB' 'sip-files00026.jp2'
b03f20dcf925b16d2699f57fecdc1cf5
bdd38e45e2d7dbb04a4d2fb06de04e2465ff040f
'2012-05-20T02:25:29-04:00'
describe
'570974' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABMGC' 'sip-files00026.jpg'
fbfcee57bfad81fe569bdd9cfc0532af
58f0ca9abe6e0eb9fd370a8613c4cab97288e4b6
'2012-05-20T02:26:57-04:00'
describe
'77849' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABMGD' 'sip-files00026.pro'
864ec9522dcebe1b7d6bea001ec80613
daf3cf4ad68efc27eb1d84ecde65bee18d42ea34
describe
'172638' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABMGE' 'sip-files00026.QC.jpg'
791109bd2442b53cd8f880d9581fa4f5
1cebd04b387ae9a1e811b1a862f33c858d7caab8
'2012-05-20T02:21:25-04:00'
describe
'4531318' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABMGF' 'sip-files00026.tif'
7b08850ed4892fb40584c9539d548ae3
bdc1a7df4a15079fb3a62ea90ff4cdf389cc83ec
'2012-05-20T02:23:24-04:00'
describe
'2929' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABMGG' 'sip-files00026.txt'
8b236e9cbe171f3e3d20e0a54b89d1b7
fe2ae52c65798f99932ad4cb4eb9339ff5ff3c2d
'2012-05-20T02:24:35-04:00'
describe
'43857' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABMGH' 'sip-files00026thm.jpg'
9ed01085ac11d5307549c00ca8c7d2aa
3617e6c37b0a532f811f7d3deab621235785700e
'2012-05-20T02:20:55-04:00'
describe
'566098' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABMGI' 'sip-files00027.jp2'
fabb0fc1dc3c0cf9bfc3d7f3be4f720f
f91251a937d8164fbee050f31225e51a7ee7c762
describe
'446301' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABMGJ' 'sip-files00027.jpg'
e12c7ac623b7d6f2f01ed656240f2dbe
d22840a9f13189ca28e01f632723e140d6638e00
describe
'31451' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABMGK' 'sip-files00027.pro'
d3033b371140ab8a2b6fe53747b2f108
9d23970dd87cea1b132af6c87dd2c493d6734e3e
describe
'130623' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABMGL' 'sip-files00027.QC.jpg'
177c393277e23e519e050f290b2345bd
f8890a270d1620d54b8608a4bddc3998b0630555
describe
'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABMGM' 'sip-files00027.tif'
eb21618a2fe371a3c8998d77bba6b896
621e5cb12bb14aa3d40a97a5a3047a318c2f84b1
describe
'1418' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABMGN' 'sip-files00027.txt'
31cfc91ac27e0c9b2f8e0773e8781305
0673534a3a03c54e147816f1b981fde81d957a4f
'2012-05-20T02:21:38-04:00'
describe
'36513' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABMGO' 'sip-files00027thm.jpg'
cdf54e1f717835dc55f16135b880540c
e932119f2eb627201a92873b7dbc60c5fed6e357
describe
'501139' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABMGP' 'sip-files00028.jp2'
0a9d2721860ccb35f580878554b7482e
2c86799f1882b99c2fc43a4e7c436fef9a5db518
'2012-05-20T02:25:25-04:00'
describe
'614023' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABMGQ' 'sip-files00028.jpg'
ff882d0cb4ddb31723fde4b832dcf3a5
533c9cb823739550e1e49850e9cadb245527d840
describe
'83303' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABMGR' 'sip-files00028.pro'
0a76ecc81cfa0b35509d3024514c67ea
659fd5134efa7ea4ed928f1b8c32f212a2d11053
describe
'189926' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABMGS' 'sip-files00028.QC.jpg'
2e60ef7ba99bc81a1db55ad3ad197d87
2c13126f6bc8bf939f625bea3df36ae11c1b34f6
'2012-05-20T02:24:08-04:00'
describe
'4011682' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABMGT' 'sip-files00028.tif'
31601179e6ba68d5f60a8981084e9411
a46d941b42be1bc6d10b5ac9f5c55b0823accb44
'2012-05-20T02:26:01-04:00'
describe
'3066' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABMGU' 'sip-files00028.txt'
a749aac3ca3daf870c6ee2f79ec0542e
6dcf1b833bed46950a01e4db68aa4503fbc488fc
'2012-05-20T02:24:49-04:00'
describe
'50651' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABMGV' 'sip-files00028thm.jpg'
508316fd9af6669ddc0b5c1fdc4d88ac
2e874cef25adfa84f415f90e10c2f2267d8e6800
'2012-05-20T02:23:07-04:00'
describe
'515836' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABMGW' 'sip-files00029.jp2'
8e0699761ec19fd3f396d8106ff793d4
49ce1e4cee50c4dd877e172ebcbb60a4e139c5b2
'2012-05-20T02:24:05-04:00'
describe
'577517' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABMGX' 'sip-files00029.jpg'
948052a120d713313bcce6f4391ebc34
77cf6129e2dfd4a37057ee4d4831344ee336ac0c
'2012-05-20T02:24:13-04:00'
describe
'75036' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABMGY' 'sip-files00029.pro'
fdbc87c062b7f272109d0290203c2809
c8651752d995669ed1c66f18b673243c7931e7dc
describe
'179363' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABMGZ' 'sip-files00029.QC.jpg'
6d1999a35f7ff6f346a783f78fe64fa3
992729b8c31c51daacd85fc235fbaf3d9e4cba89
'2012-05-20T02:24:19-04:00'
describe
'4129640' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABMHA' 'sip-files00029.tif'
83c2d5cece6a1c2000b57e456be59709
c834ba23c5eac6529cd4c5659c0fa672ffa66927
'2012-05-20T02:20:56-04:00'
describe
'2838' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABMHB' 'sip-files00029.txt'
dc9cf4039f030e95a1e2cc7b68daa77b
5e0ea0bd5110298f07119fb1224cbda06f32c9a1
describe
'48231' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABMHC' 'sip-files00029thm.jpg'
6c1cb14e7e2adf9343e0cbb2f151a142
756c00d2b7b93e57a9639ac9dd4af0402a1f59de
'2012-05-20T02:21:02-04:00'
describe
'2256913' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABMHD' 'sip-files00030.jp2'
2cda59597abd4f6eefdef9ea892dc1e6
9d0cf8b97b8a6cbe33484abf8b81dca77e3795fb
'2012-05-20T02:26:58-04:00'
describe
'446470' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABMHE' 'sip-files00030.jpg'
cd63bebb0a43c31cf8d7a36a236da4be
92e14b60afe6b16f52cdfb6981048e76d54ac6f6
'2012-05-20T02:21:27-04:00'
describe
'25219' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABMHF' 'sip-files00030.pro'
8ab3a164e0a0d8e417f8b0f2bc116b72
10a1c22f2d4ef0c01fbbb8a9e8fd3fc21efd330a
describe
'128379' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABMHG' 'sip-files00030.QC.jpg'
a8b321884ad6febba859a20a6e804607
db5f5141c23c14cb44e266765e2dd144aabf302a
'2012-05-20T02:25:46-04:00'
describe
'18060474' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABMHH' 'sip-files00030.tif'
d29b9e12b07faeca1fde8965416b7b6c
b69b80295fd009ad2e9906472e5178ac7eacd8a7
'2012-05-20T02:26:52-04:00'
describe
'1506' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABMHI' 'sip-files00030.txt'
4947e71c91946cd4600d3c09c57c630f
cf662d8d16c0e31d44934bfeb911077fb23df4cc
describe
'36966' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABMHJ' 'sip-files00030thm.jpg'
8e206fa9dfe39767e993c6ebf7347999
493c14142b80dd0af8e3b583730d00043af7ce68
'2012-05-20T02:26:05-04:00'
describe
'2256894' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABMHK' 'sip-files00031.jp2'
e61a16b4fd85f5916218c02f5c06ebec
b0dc08b5bf1504e8390294c7191faba7782d8114
'2012-05-20T02:23:52-04:00'
describe
'404439' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABMHL' 'sip-files00031.jpg'
fc02b8c5cb5834bf8c513e8d3ee948fa
d3104f60580a1dff9e59443d5d11b99d22c341b5
describe
'5084' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABMHM' 'sip-files00031.pro'
f148152f9b34e0f6aa060efd75d6e498
6e5cc0c119de76b20873aebf6fbacd12d99daae2
'2012-05-20T02:25:53-04:00'
describe
'124048' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABMHN' 'sip-files00031.QC.jpg'
899fcdb1f739d1b0dd26a93d2586ff9c
38ba1ec4a17c4858123614b27fe22e6e939ea778
describe
'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABMHO' 'sip-files00031.tif'
1d951be977a05f974338ea483021d314
12826c5c68a4b631a4075d5bf194c288e3c972e3
'2012-05-20T02:24:47-04:00'
describe
'220' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABMHP' 'sip-files00031.txt'
02fbae3b68c2e391fdbe92961d22df28
76a8d275fb7513c64835bd3b9f2c91a34ea7c8c1
describe
Invalid character
'36887' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABMHQ' 'sip-files00031thm.jpg'
ff345f7d9180d0d3b8be7e88e0a5ad20
a1620d1d95880cca07f342b2a57ed405571af981
describe
'507307' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABMHR' 'sip-files00032.jp2'
9f0a414c5fd026717f28c10461508c86
8ecdd58cdc2083a6c7c315bcf1c0de49f6de2b50
'2012-05-20T02:25:42-04:00'
describe
'422432' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABMHS' 'sip-files00032.jpg'
1baead00e7b4192ffb77401a1ea9e969
e9717e7b0006b2d922eb1fd468ebd1195e05839d
'2012-05-20T02:24:42-04:00'
describe
'28365' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABMHT' 'sip-files00032.pro'
3c2ae453541044d1b143e9f200833ccd
1c6f6a3e983fb36bb04c6fab85796878191d7200
'2012-05-20T02:25:21-04:00'
describe
'128361' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABMHU' 'sip-files00032.QC.jpg'
46ff3a0701ff2e12c53e68fffc9246d5
d6dc549cd0b997942f5ea4c34bf8abc7f9de60a8
describe
'4060914' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABMHV' 'sip-files00032.tif'
bc448cbb20c5ad408dbd0b20eb4585e5
c636577c07a7dbece77fcfe3221bc6e9b84288ab
'2012-05-20T02:21:52-04:00'
describe
'1058' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABMHW' 'sip-files00032.txt'
193f33079af5508522ddf0d87c7299af
5d64df8218696cf621dfd48febcc39cc7ce2bfb0
'2012-05-20T02:23:41-04:00'
describe
'35955' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABMHX' 'sip-files00032thm.jpg'
1a83d9d923fa280f0b78a00e78d5254a
275fadcdd0a529a165fc473bed4bb410e7aecb00
'2012-05-20T02:23:53-04:00'
describe
'570359' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABMHY' 'sip-files00033.jp2'
37dbdba8fa40e470741b7e8fdbfebce4
fc6b33f289dc01e9e2d960e070fb4c8f30b066aa
'2012-05-20T02:24:25-04:00'
describe
'589623' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABMHZ' 'sip-files00033.jpg'
2822d61ca0468636a62089e1317596fb
e6010c278364fcfbc44559de35e6309806a4932d
describe
'86795' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABMIA' 'sip-files00033.pro'
b21081f2d00708b2ea39cbe3b04a87c1
f24ff09d3110dea7266d8cce4ac2a4d00116cc3b
'2012-05-20T02:23:34-04:00'
describe
'177848' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABMIB' 'sip-files00033.QC.jpg'
288efab9ffe44b2b394509e2ef1e9a03
bc1d9f434dd6ccb820c30869950a0996c2def3db
describe
'4565488' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABMIC' 'sip-files00033.tif'
07e7b7c3942f7084276a6a363bf8d00b
eee542d0b1e87a642540f35f900ad27e46f06e0b
'2012-05-20T02:26:00-04:00'
describe
'3173' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABMID' 'sip-files00033.txt'
4b8ccc37155f162fcc48e003c2135cf0
16ec73065c3f15d7b9786ba7cf74d33e49d72388
'2012-05-20T02:21:42-04:00'
describe
'45945' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABMIE' 'sip-files00033thm.jpg'
a93d15226c3b830972459a3269ca782a
94cf3dfb01467c4578a8cae3e253edfc2519a30d
'2012-05-20T02:21:43-04:00'
describe
'1878100' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABMIF' 'sip-files00034.jp2'
6d44b23e8328f9669d28415acef2a5e8
f18ee9e70b04c675a345af4a9a90cf04484b2745
'2012-05-20T02:26:45-04:00'
describe
'419567' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABMIG' 'sip-files00034.jpg'
0db59718537f2281e24c6f97e0648d53
c56b077ef45ba8a6d0dbdf8f68286538b4181fb9
describe
'19718' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABMIH' 'sip-files00034.pro'
7caea2520162e86278c9a79485b8d92f
df9448fcbf4ccd81f55d70fe7fdbc008019d3e41
'2012-05-20T02:22:55-04:00'
describe
'129349' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABMII' 'sip-files00034.QC.jpg'
793c7b2c3bd31dc98d4e1630dcfe153e
bfb489b2b0f64482a683818e4db324f4fcae45d1
'2012-05-20T02:21:19-04:00'
describe
'15029732' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABMIJ' 'sip-files00034.tif'
4ef7fe8ecfb7c137efa1fff26382ab34
60ffe1df286cba485c72a6f271016eaffa62b7c7
'2012-05-20T02:21:22-04:00'
describe
'849' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABMIK' 'sip-files00034.txt'
53a9f4ce07c280321f53e7b8a93dbe63
04355a791ed85c738e90b8bd1ccefeec39edc345
'2012-05-20T02:22:15-04:00'
describe
'42029' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABMIL' 'sip-files00034thm.jpg'
cbe5ce8c00db37961e27724e3f9a8914
89f606c26dc19f1473195f1f4ec7d67a165f7c38
describe
'503488' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABMIM' 'sip-files00035.jp2'
09e2a770e21e03e8a3ab36195d35552c
48667d500b7dc53872c22078cb5a3ad03988b21c
describe
'629134' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABMIN' 'sip-files00035.jpg'
7c49c6439feb216db8283cd299c91343
bbee9816cd3bb6342acbe9ad33a0979bc8e07c56
'2012-05-20T02:26:25-04:00'
describe
'85856' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABMIO' 'sip-files00035.pro'
2e04cd6c9cbbba91a4cd4e3c7b83aa19
6ba18383dfe647f40469e19ca2e2692e03d2d412
'2012-05-20T02:25:37-04:00'
describe
'194752' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABMIP' 'sip-files00035.QC.jpg'
f7248d9ccd3bab229b12e562bea2f601
931c4d5a334361353dc5135b4fe36273ad429139
describe
'4030658' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABMIQ' 'sip-files00035.tif'
3a3e466afde21226e4a250a5fc708dbf
0a0576f78c19c08e6048e2c98a7bfbdbf23e4c5a
describe
'3167' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABMIR' 'sip-files00035.txt'
8e71afda1d43f60bd4bcf2b73cdaeafd
38251acf68e008510c39cb81500814e5493e08eb
describe
'50392' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABMIS' 'sip-files00035thm.jpg'
14849cff0912a441efa324109e54237d
6ffb22ee469c972c0fbc7d728e35f0fdbf628b56
'2012-05-20T02:22:48-04:00'
describe
'507774' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABMIT' 'sip-files00036.jp2'
5fe081260fb17720427e9555b0ebdeeb
b00eaf9c7859e6e210c98be159491ca5dba84fc6
'2012-05-20T02:25:51-04:00'
describe
'611959' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABMIU' 'sip-files00036.jpg'
4606eaf6483c79dc807c4c858f740992
910c43b4727950e1ab70ddda14a17b00f1b60a98
'2012-05-20T02:25:41-04:00'
describe
'84327' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABMIV' 'sip-files00036.pro'
b42724775b091b668e513e04797bf8f3
428c56421024d297b6e313e428c036f54fd40d79
'2012-05-20T02:25:26-04:00'
describe
'187791' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABMIW' 'sip-files00036.QC.jpg'
54216c8bd4a69f337471133e626944a0
e6b38c09a8125dcfad079c2ae343d7dc699267ec
'2012-05-20T02:26:02-04:00'
describe
'4065102' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABMIX' 'sip-files00036.tif'
1ce58eb7c84af27014a0b238171bafbc
9e5e1b5bca3ae3432744f08ded29d91f0486333e
'2012-05-20T02:22:19-04:00'
describe
'3101' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABMIY' 'sip-files00036.txt'
9ec85bd13a5c8cd7fa6a0aa03486e5d9
7904e3855da2a4a3926aaba83a44264afc5f5b31
'2012-05-20T02:21:37-04:00'
describe
'49846' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABMIZ' 'sip-files00036thm.jpg'
111ef0337ea26afc70fcc5c759d4a3a1
9981b6d0784da2e2f2c1465b1f448c19ef4f3635
'2012-05-20T02:23:45-04:00'
describe
'1906290' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABMJA' 'sip-files00037.jp2'
7d5b33b99e7479b8399f6b4d38112a2c
dd0a63496b9be014521bf93c3c71c8422e42868d
'2012-05-20T02:26:27-04:00'
describe
'359320' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABMJB' 'sip-files00037.jpg'
b77d56f0b95becead08c0ff49ee58d6e
db0017aaf3ca28f130fe28a58d216cb7360d5852
'2012-05-20T02:26:32-04:00'
describe
'8071' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABMJC' 'sip-files00037.pro'
1ac9cb6bb2e34f75a02778b7914ba12d
60612a7329e078f98996cbc4a21ca7bf8a47f529
describe
'109118' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABMJD' 'sip-files00037.QC.jpg'
625f0c0a4d7b94359f2ea37c40e821d4
1eaea94f7f77f20d653038dd0f291b1b868fce09
describe
'15255316' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABMJE' 'sip-files00037.tif'
b76b7a8bb202e8c074129b3690a76617
7c08f0c2d112d4132c46df2449ee02007de0e2a9
'2012-05-20T02:24:02-04:00'
describe
'355' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABMJF' 'sip-files00037.txt'
8f18d77ccb61d438cacfc2db96639a8d
0f132009b47dabb218a26635a5daaa7f75cdcb9c
describe
'36837' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABMJG' 'sip-files00037thm.jpg'
adcab16d31e9473199d1d52abb4baf45
5e2311881c8f97340e31e1498a29362b2e9c9dbf
'2012-05-20T02:25:09-04:00'
describe
'1710224' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABMJH' 'sip-files00038.jp2'
b10f75a203fa85be45dcedd1fd0d512c
8f888ea10e3085a978d8c95cfe9e825c772867a1
'2012-05-20T02:22:28-04:00'
describe
'195050' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABMJI' 'sip-files00038.jpg'
08d0a6215060762c24403fc20aacf141
ca5bc36f770eeb1762195feb758874100349e4ce
describe
'21946' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABMJJ' 'sip-files00038.pro'
49c16ddc25dcff9c4787b0e283758075
e2a37a138b6e051fc9b745becedae002868571c3
'2012-05-20T02:25:22-04:00'
describe
'59697' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABMJK' 'sip-files00038.QC.jpg'
7684db8c2344bbab5232137419e9b376
6e15a0b0f840b3fc2a2e2fe4f239538c9d4d5337
'2012-05-20T02:25:45-04:00'
describe
'13684930' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABMJL' 'sip-files00038.tif'
04b199cab3fa263d9f0ff875e71b8a39
e144a7a5ccc3658c6a080cdb881cebb8e3480da2
'2012-05-20T02:22:06-04:00'
describe
'1255' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABMJM' 'sip-files00038.txt'
6293ef90e50884772b556e44953b12e6
f9fdd20b6273de4c8df05947d7dfb77f45b30640
'2012-05-20T02:23:09-04:00'
describe
Invalid character
'18425' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABMJN' 'sip-files00038thm.jpg'
edb77c4e9d8bc7092334eb3913b88f65
525ba018aa5c32d9485276be52fc8417ce39a3da
describe
'2071477' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABMJO' 'sip-files00039.jp2'
cd2848c8ceb9797f505b971d530d71ca
caaff8eb24c12fdb5dd595d6a56b3ae88d656aae
'2012-05-20T02:22:29-04:00'
describe
'174841' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABMJP' 'sip-files00039.jpg'
e72180bccecfbd9c8e1738749431fba5
2bce1c179382ded732a8a7a8b5836088f7ee25a6
'2012-05-20T02:24:07-04:00'
describe
'30341' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABMJQ' 'sip-files00039.pro'
cb88d12e18641e18d3eddd5f90c1c1ba
46a897fdfda30e9c27e959f84f428c97168c9fe8
describe
'53777' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABMJR' 'sip-files00039.QC.jpg'
5c7f705241862f113270f123ee140670
c23b04c79bba7e8bc672d5b0f326e0ab52b67a62
'2012-05-20T02:25:20-04:00'
describe
'16576346' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABMJS' 'sip-files00039.tif'
7e47f789be9aef695b3ebc9aa0032e15
a7ddcae9b322092c8913ad2f6f697979043cc286
'2012-05-20T02:22:59-04:00'
describe
'1585' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABMJT' 'sip-files00039.txt'
2860cd125289e891cfbb592ea3fd74be
8131418f53873c0a3121408f7a82770ce6df8622
'2012-05-20T02:23:49-04:00'
describe
'17773' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABMJU' 'sip-files00039thm.jpg'
7ce71a3c41e0a763ced7e0eb479d59c6
556fdaba76be56b138a1bde2b8279e38697690a0
describe
'445825' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABMJV' 'sip-files00040.jp2'
55128414a8b569d63472a9068303628b
8a63e61f8f29e6444a86cf24dff947e8e6cca8c0
describe
'557470' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABMJW' 'sip-files00040.jpg'
6a963d437765d0c679e569b10872fbcf
c5adc5c1395107a5112ed0bb82056ee1b7ee80ea
describe
'79460' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABMJX' 'sip-files00040.pro'
1d929db4d9938aebb9b50a30fc90f80e
8e114dcecf4b9d9eb858d5a4256de478af4629f0
'2012-05-20T02:24:51-04:00'
describe
'185554' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABMJY' 'sip-files00040.QC.jpg'
a2a51325cd47e18706f92c22ae5abccc
3d303db90c8d54cea6f5b1e3e568608b47cf7fb1
'2012-05-20T02:21:09-04:00'
describe
'3569186' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABMJZ' 'sip-files00040.tif'
f19918c17f42165bcbd9949bc1e0af36
307ded06015f07f339822454f2a562396d46dd02
'2012-05-20T02:24:50-04:00'
describe
'2927' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABMKA' 'sip-files00040.txt'
29ea35ba8d96472365ec5ca85fa0f5d6
7c6f28bbc4b39190ae2765ab6b291c67143aacd0
'2012-05-20T02:26:44-04:00'
describe
'50680' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABMKB' 'sip-files00040thm.jpg'
7c0cba457b7ada3b7eff070414dfd2f6
d53b1fd36839237c5d4579c48207a19dddc2637d
'2012-05-20T02:25:12-04:00'
describe
'1929454' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABMKC' 'sip-files00041.jp2'
ca59a96dc24f9daaad838c0ccc4694a1
5a2506bcdb985234b5579318e7d0ec031d706baa
describe
'352371' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABMKD' 'sip-files00041.jpg'
518f1a516e580c9cb66100f9e687c777
6ef8ceef96520fe46dce03d8e3ba0fa2002b9ad7
'2012-05-20T02:23:00-04:00'
describe
'7513' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABMKE' 'sip-files00041.pro'
d8dbbe5bc81caacebaedff119810ecc4
566b79f69eba54140767c49c0d0ff007be085008
describe
'114430' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABMKF' 'sip-files00041.QC.jpg'
62f8f7f627d92594467eccde96f2bd96
6311cfdb633bf99a26da28bd6a46656b41607743
describe
'15440548' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABMKG' 'sip-files00041.tif'
561a077ac7a899083c46da1893bf24f4
857601059254e0808df1ed4847c67a5bb8ffe2d8
describe
'323' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABMKH' 'sip-files00041.txt'
16a2e028bd437d761bc2a8e49cc92b7f
0082401c12ce923fe26ed3f00a6ab9473c72120b
'2012-05-20T02:25:39-04:00'
describe
'35947' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABMKI' 'sip-files00041thm.jpg'
5f99663a53ae3edf8686540394d1c83e
70c4427428b42c536909249fb6005b09b7ca0138
describe
'1878787' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABMKJ' 'sip-files00042.jp2'
c5565e92ea1721b7a2c974ec21d61461
3bf75a6346bb4c23cb452dc7f8e37f5afbe54e60
describe
'218036' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABMKK' 'sip-files00042.jpg'
055c12050251f842099f184f0f276ffb
27c3c1c9c6090b0daf0e28ed48a2b8bdc439cbf0
'2012-05-20T02:24:58-04:00'
describe
'14218' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABMKL' 'sip-files00042.pro'
ed63fa1f17e100a5cd698ebcdb395383
19ee693c47ccb3af88f4547c3c5171fbbc66098e
'2012-05-20T02:24:41-04:00'
describe
'66408' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABMKM' 'sip-files00042.QC.jpg'
651e2e556c75778c7c260838dbf62b9e
3a7acda5e14768fafed960e5d685c509ae0cf2c9
'2012-05-20T02:20:48-04:00'
describe
'15033616' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABMKN' 'sip-files00042.tif'
485fe9dc64cf80b75465747c2b366cd4
1d479771a79ca87efe6bc4870202de4a72791aec
'2012-05-20T02:23:36-04:00'
describe
'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABMKO' 'sip-files00042.txt'
2f6c769457af4c718c36ad74654d3f1d
b0fb6b4e7faaba7675510c8f17232933f9b48dfb
describe
Invalid character
'20803' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABMKP' 'sip-files00042thm.jpg'
73e962e2ffc7835c58f3d016bb20f15d
14e27dcb4ac01fff23e2d2f7316c1243f0f48806
'2012-05-20T02:21:57-04:00'
describe
'502794' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABMKQ' 'sip-files00043.jp2'
d1337c65dd8864afe4ba7dd087781040
0882cd0957ab74c10c6a04a51a108e30927fe98e
describe
'504730' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABMKR' 'sip-files00043.jpg'
ea91ff5b3b4f37135d757602ec98a4a1
779b280556c5ca91145f35c58a397a4e3d258d9a
describe
'64493' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABMKS' 'sip-files00043.pro'
f0fe997364c2314f205777403bd8e5ce
ea443a0d4d3ac47a364a2cc3a61357b9edd9a05f
describe
'156119' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABMKT' 'sip-files00043.QC.jpg'
d511e4a2e04e1c31fd9cd7b222fc8772
8d23c4aad11a7fb5427fa99949b83191afddf608
describe
'4025380' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABMKU' 'sip-files00043.tif'
a04865affb3b57f5654807292021c919
673d8fa4c6870070ec9a18e17b16990b55e1abde
describe
'2790' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABMKV' 'sip-files00043.txt'
e78d750f19f02caeb965b7582283eeeb
3f413dbcbe841f1362c06c6972e960d1d01ac189
describe
'44824' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABMKW' 'sip-files00043thm.jpg'
0c8658059167de48cabaa564eb59e98d
9508021a0f666228f92c806f7c9a84b77f17bb52
describe
'515331' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABMKX' 'sip-files00044.jp2'
46ba3e578e7ee8121a26ff8c6932626d
2a520bbe32dd31a7c044de61cdc8350427f548b7
'2012-05-20T02:26:16-04:00'
describe
'602251' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABMKY' 'sip-files00044.jpg'
b3dcccc30f592d49df4929a8d0787fb2
abc5a85fca90c13e4d302037296a593fe788190b
describe
'84571' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABMKZ' 'sip-files00044.pro'
e7e39e84ab7a251a62793733a9f9b1d2
ba4083c2376699da8b86a92eb659d151ed2b86b1
describe
'186827' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABMLA' 'sip-files00044.QC.jpg'
8bf08094772495269c71494920aaebb7
fc4708f1f122b61097f3e5db537b3b6d1ea72123
describe
'4125802' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABMLB' 'sip-files00044.tif'
0534c0b8cfb4ae644b6855263c3c2df4
724f65c969f9aece777854ba6a2a8b37b4cb779e
'2012-05-20T02:25:13-04:00'
describe
'3097' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABMLC' 'sip-files00044.txt'
31d18034c9ded30f6ed4695b7e1e78ef
290977fcbe1e4300a5d04ed98e4cd97101bc71f1
'2012-05-20T02:25:05-04:00'
describe
'51073' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABMLD' 'sip-files00044thm.jpg'
33c91934c5bfac22afc3428eef951d6e
352c59e1c72b3a2b844699bc2ae9c0469ccc0914
describe
'571623' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABMLE' 'sip-files00045.jp2'
538d062a39abd7e8d2bf8558e349f58e
8441df3baf6cb0f3abe677709e3ee863d1758d4b
'2012-05-20T02:23:25-04:00'
describe
'546926' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABMLF' 'sip-files00045.jpg'
25eddc337ac561cda4009f0eca579be0
126dbe8baf289eefe8caf36a1382ce8716cafb89
describe
'70484' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABMLG' 'sip-files00045.pro'
461fe1e9928d36fba08bf527ae50bc0f
009370b080c605694baebc1de8b513669c43a136
'2012-05-20T02:25:17-04:00'
describe
'165194' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABMLH' 'sip-files00045.QC.jpg'
517b8a56a5cf903c88a2dfc524542539
fa1d4d1e0cd71b8c0187dac19415aa4e0ad76c20
'2012-05-20T02:22:14-04:00'
describe
'4575590' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABMLI' 'sip-files00045.tif'
888df21d8798becad9de2191d33d62f4
c3a539c80e6659f226f2f403897f2e3f7054ed24
describe
'2680' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABMLJ' 'sip-files00045.txt'
4261dd341a4358589e2d224ed9b79b75
79b7b3e65ab750195ed0e672873548d330466a4f
describe
'43867' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABMLK' 'sip-files00045thm.jpg'
5ce67bbca8de5c174d1c79ccc039133e
0bfa07cf0d932fa73eafa272182e2153377b604a
'2012-05-20T02:23:03-04:00'
describe
'499968' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABMLL' 'sip-files00046.jp2'
46e165b2ca4b2353ce3970c05b44e253
a7661a986481ef901e3717f2f6dd37036d1384e3
describe
'584088' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABMLM' 'sip-files00046.jpg'
0b7db7b77bd60d98223cb768ff4ebddc
4529b46ecb12ae8989271e54f2fb0e0ddfba42fb
describe
'78507' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABMLN' 'sip-files00046.pro'
a86f05220508b9ab83a58f349732292b
f45f193ef25293182703bc2239be838a1bd38aa4
'2012-05-20T02:22:16-04:00'
describe
'179516' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABMLO' 'sip-files00046.QC.jpg'
7b86ac4edfe5d967099b3e71aeedf111
05244276d07dbdec526a5819d7ffa7f9637c3de8
'2012-05-20T02:22:45-04:00'
describe
'4002338' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABMLP' 'sip-files00046.tif'
7f242f5bdf392750724f2aa729d3be90
6adc4f026f143f96849399a85abeab8db6448aa2
describe
'2928' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABMLQ' 'sip-files00046.txt'
92ab3078911c5b158a850f05d6e1b310
7ea318ff04134f265c4679f3a8c7ccd98576db26
describe
'50170' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABMLR' 'sip-files00046thm.jpg'
fb6a09b5620b0fcd1365db3a3e83a35d
870d4fe3fe512f81392e2259be22cab87c608fe6
'2012-05-20T02:23:37-04:00'
describe
'497067' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABMLS' 'sip-files00047.jp2'
c989d25e2393d6dc909e5047c364e841
13107e622ffc90dbf630138ee5d396e22ea81782
'2012-05-20T02:21:56-04:00'
describe
'578292' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABMLT' 'sip-files00047.jpg'
bb68e59db35d49738f6d3db7b805edda
df2dc944dca2e59bfe1febb1bf0a32342bc8b4fa
describe
'78069' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABMLU' 'sip-files00047.pro'
24b116fb9b10d064f6cba09216416a2a
fe52245536c2fc95009851d1ed256f3e089fd114
'2012-05-20T02:21:03-04:00'
describe
'178885' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABMLV' 'sip-files00047.QC.jpg'
3e00f226716e9e12b3f19f333f927fc0
3d370ce2ecabedc2f2d790d954eb85b979789bdf
describe
'3979072' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABMLW' 'sip-files00047.tif'
5eeba8a43858deb3cd547b813c0b3a76
eeb8c0db30d1860d1c32c9132b3e1e88abbcba9c
'2012-05-20T02:23:22-04:00'
describe
'2915' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABMLX' 'sip-files00047.txt'
bfd86d8ce0026414dd8705ac9a1c034b
5b29c494fc8eb2105bb338f12960aa8f3436f6be
describe
'50521' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABMLY' 'sip-files00047thm.jpg'
c1435036a5821e67f2bf655f5ec306e8
1161d6807c93a5d6435f714c18bfb359922cf092
describe
'502557' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABMLZ' 'sip-files00048.jp2'
0b3c77900b63f417c0f19bbec90d3f4f
1041c5704f4a9598f84784276a3eec2fa1c795c5
describe
'560427' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABMMA' 'sip-files00048.jpg'
05b9451c2899dfe22703056d64f61ef2
8a319bc472e6a0c681bb67ccad54d920bb27097f
describe
'73873' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABMMB' 'sip-files00048.pro'
d02eaa50390503f7ae1f9302dd2238f3
64b1c9051cab32b27b1aef7f6321f55f607f5c06
describe
'172128' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABMMC' 'sip-files00048.QC.jpg'
26be1abc115ab1f744a1f78391e7c0bf
20e6b3bfc473c432a24b8ffb77a0df2d516f46ed
'2012-05-20T02:24:00-04:00'
describe
'4023022' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABMMD' 'sip-files00048.tif'
41a4ea707604716eef711e23840f0697
65d473f6399b29ebc0eda045ca8b4f216b6dc3b4
describe
'2765' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABMME' 'sip-files00048.txt'
64c6b6d452dbed1ce8ffbf8f9fe156b6
8156fa0b2003db49e4a93243fb58457913e8dda9
describe
'49085' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABMMF' 'sip-files00048thm.jpg'
5cc8316b4b56537a3a6adb629f3834fc
87a7a33c8668079c75014e9e83f8e6a16b8d9eae
'2012-05-20T02:23:44-04:00'
describe
'490019' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABMMG' 'sip-files00049.jp2'
7a6cebfab2f06daf5af1bafd3fc1f89c
13d09f6abb6dd54d680d7a5d6edeb4bfdf258d20
'2012-05-20T02:22:08-04:00'
describe
'568352' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABMMH' 'sip-files00049.jpg'
495083f00a50e2e98f3f4ab95c2199ec
22416b692e4362705615a9a7103b99141e70337c
describe
'73886' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABMMI' 'sip-files00049.pro'
9aec61563eba3f5163e107b0131cb41c
48342a42419570a1b62c3965e96e6a9961a62608
describe
'173777' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABMMJ' 'sip-files00049.QC.jpg'
aa138eb18a263a97b4363c9c3149a068
08b27cb7d7761171eadcb5b2cada8a76dcec7883
describe
'3922606' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABMMK' 'sip-files00049.tif'
1348861caca0449326bf14940230f3e7
d05293dc2777da90f827568a8f1c0973fd000714
'2012-05-20T02:24:54-04:00'
describe
'2773' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABMML' 'sip-files00049.txt'
1031e967b09624e4d20e7cee415753cb
bed9526d88344408a9be59ab202bfe3eedfae364
describe
'50084' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABMMM' 'sip-files00049thm.jpg'
37b563273bc199b5f0c3966c9087a202
a1bea406f0a8e72eef8fe0a6473a0869fe2f791e
describe
'513621' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABMMN' 'sip-files00050.jp2'
45a9cb1ddbda35ae48440ef0df276589
c4c6f8bf6fd263a3ad36859092021a1f0d743908
'2012-05-20T02:22:46-04:00'
describe
'559596' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABMMO' 'sip-files00050.jpg'
35190525d206d594df3dec14cf18d7ca
e0c74b1be20c89871b88b24be6681ce2636ac552
describe
'73715' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABMMP' 'sip-files00050.pro'
8599f3310c9ddc1144e271f730bcc75a
2a6ed2f0c07c55b57eb88637837020e823604447
describe
'173951' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABMMQ' 'sip-files00050.QC.jpg'
1849e193e72e243d14538b8f73b5ac1e
3acad76cf88270607df75d88285cd281cada1c5c
describe
'4111512' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABMMR' 'sip-files00050.tif'
b8f2c8b5e4b0338b84dd65d1ddd49f91
f3c76f4c8376d621853b91e9adde377254674e9a
describe
'2761' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABMMS' 'sip-files00050.txt'
62bf826d59d10fdabc62f4e08bba214f
45bd1f2c5512dc0e357492673f9e2c9d995955b2
describe
'50052' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABMMT' 'sip-files00050thm.jpg'
599047bf7d9ad6a65ce0b59bae5b6d75
a812ad222fa7a80d3641c193fda5c0a8faa1ec70
describe
'571611' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABMMU' 'sip-files00051.jp2'
6fac40032249b22737eef53a5789f90f
7b637840bce7beb72f08fcfb05de194530c00f08
describe
'566911' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABMMV' 'sip-files00051.jpg'
317f67a79501a554cf7c22bcfea625e3
270ae50b79d0a501d4c264af0f1ba99e810028a7
describe
'72587' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABMMW' 'sip-files00051.pro'
81dbb28b42236879a28c143732d9d5d3
eec92962bd9abc5ffc20972012f46a75d8d2d4dc
describe
'169632' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABMMX' 'sip-files00051.QC.jpg'
1ae49b9e61b0c092a949664b323d12ef
a9f2fdd45af49943e1988f219a462906ada2cc7d
describe
'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABMMY' 'sip-files00051.tif'
9f3248cd7878d20bcac25590e16aa17e
887272853e7d932defe97715367f3b1db321a245
describe
'2745' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABMMZ' 'sip-files00051.txt'
0d5dcd38ad5a9d7f5a027bc41ec6f961
01ac3c4cea62262b34cc1e1bf3f3fb2654dc9791
describe
'45707' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABMNA' 'sip-files00051thm.jpg'
b9ba221c2ccffdc313d4eb4645ad36e1
c1c339cb250b6d3ef562539315073121321840c2
describe
'571617' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABMNB' 'sip-files00052.jp2'
10d457c60da8a433afd8240adcbf4623
3b2dc333eec9efa8843889e5e7db39392400ba22
describe
'555008' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABMNC' 'sip-files00052.jpg'
50190167548cf35e1fb825ef16906bf0
9757f8771f43eecb627434d14bdd448e84fc8ed3
describe
'72259' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABMND' 'sip-files00052.pro'
e3e6aaff106208e81828620025107b18
f8c4ac5d24e776bb2d33edd6385f3c2aa7f8a3dc
'2012-05-20T02:23:43-04:00'
describe
'166524' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABMNE' 'sip-files00052.QC.jpg'
d9042842e2650262ea8b35b89ff44167
80cd1ee35f6c0cf7866ea84aa67035acbe970417
describe
'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABMNF' 'sip-files00052.tif'
2ff6cf2fe145525f9c6f70b86a298bd8
70da9af8836e717f33445ed04183cb0715bbd45d
'2012-05-20T02:25:19-04:00'
describe
'2730' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABMNG' 'sip-files00052.txt'
c09000520f75033c8834f46dcc998b50
6ca2605fb68913c9deaa6585355821c3034483b1
describe
'44035' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABMNH' 'sip-files00052thm.jpg'
27dfc7af38a191eaeb884f3b534f626c
54aa8ff53fa6b904085fc9765b0953f6c621089f
describe
'506380' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABMNI' 'sip-files00053.jp2'
bd2105634fd93343e8a9f73fe1979580
e0390145d4788e4eb244307f00bbcee23d1dca47
describe
'375737' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABMNJ' 'sip-files00053.jpg'
47bf98bdccae31e72ac5f72ba6766805
4d1eefe1f62c83cce3a6ecb2640f4dd041c65e50
'2012-05-20T02:24:04-04:00'
describe
'22287' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABMNK' 'sip-files00053.pro'
44663c7653c15346a3f327c2095327fd
a86021454f74e5af1d267d6c2e44105e766a532a
describe
'118542' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABMNL' 'sip-files00053.QC.jpg'
4c04ce4a3bb3817dc46cee49bc74a9bb
8825085dc3dc1c1cbf93889224be7f60bce44475
describe
'4054138' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABMNM' 'sip-files00053.tif'
b70400c738718294c775a12cbaf6872a
e34c0f71b9d21399ae6da6a805eecbe7ddecb2a1
'2012-05-20T02:21:21-04:00'
describe
'891' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABMNN' 'sip-files00053.txt'
97546ed5d5ae1b140cbe33966ec7e41d
4f8bb4077f0f663fb10299d57ee32c4042ed41fb
describe
'36611' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABMNO' 'sip-files00053thm.jpg'
c43f9797b92b73da61186289097de067
6d565816de4fce78b99f6e810a6f03ac66a521c2
describe
'441869' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABMNP' 'sip-files00054.jp2'
8e6db1673feacb1fbf86cd08f16ed15f
c96d97530e8a74e67fe5279258b5889d0eecb4c1
describe
'155175' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABMNQ' 'sip-files00054.jpg'
f14f2473cb97d8c6498dacab17fe7f53
c3f245a6fd8705222eca34ce5eb0b26b054eb00d
describe
'11315' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABMNR' 'sip-files00054.pro'
7843549388b9a131bad843982cdd9af2
61c2b9c202a72e9d639bcc2d00c3c2db16891bb9
describe
'46911' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABMNS' 'sip-files00054.QC.jpg'
0aac5004a70cf3158e0f938d54b85c3a
7572f66a31ee704e2bf8c1141804339959b82296
describe
'3536542' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABMNT' 'sip-files00054.tif'
c60283c2fc995e90aef9d0c5462acd89
04e15447fd707258d3c0d13708fbd104dcd79ddd
'2012-05-20T02:20:58-04:00'
describe
'491' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABMNU' 'sip-files00054.txt'
c7d929777abaa58205aee4880a26eac7
9e679eadf7ec760d1977a56b17de87e24195af86
describe
'14481' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABMNV' 'sip-files00054thm.jpg'
2f9f273c244b6b7dc5a6abcad6a45c85
44973351ad34045b79604dbebeb112e86f8ef9d5
'2012-05-20T02:22:10-04:00'
describe
'507058' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABMNW' 'sip-files00055.jp2'
784f953673543ab6fc95c022c5610b94
9c76940f28b94d5f4c1a3a668701bc19db011a33
'2012-05-20T02:26:15-04:00'
describe
'465232' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABMNX' 'sip-files00055.jpg'
3378cec6995488b753b706fe58319ef3
a5cebb37b4e3d0cde18f00273076b3acfc95a6c2
describe
'59097' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABMNY' 'sip-files00055.pro'
5f4ad6db40fa34b70208a3dd5a77b538
20a94442ef9eb5e2ca1c6cd5631582884aab183e
'2012-05-20T02:23:21-04:00'
describe
'145470' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABMNZ' 'sip-files00055.QC.jpg'
aa331f57fbb1536b06edf3ad3526681c
a096f8417930189d103d2a1c491be37cd323943b
describe
'4059012' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABMOA' 'sip-files00055.tif'
6c8d863edcc87a7ed50e7581f6dba73a
b8ef83f838e4dd54a630cb3bdba9be45c7b5b252
'2012-05-20T02:21:18-04:00'
describe
'2349' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABMOB' 'sip-files00055.txt'
1367a5f4a326d2acaa5a5f994a9b14ee
41baa90a4d6a860f73a6bc4d3740def13f7ea2d1
'2012-05-20T02:26:54-04:00'
describe
'45249' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABMOC' 'sip-files00055thm.jpg'
716aec7e54b480d333e0c18c7d400e83
5cd9506ddc356e3e2a0a551d13fedc491d229cb6
'2012-05-20T02:24:36-04:00'
describe
'1779592' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABMOD' 'sip-files00056.jp2'
ddf77880c017e3789d2da35e09fa5c19
4bf7717ae921bd5e968802758eae806f52d9c241
'2012-05-20T02:26:06-04:00'
describe
'194064' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABMOE' 'sip-files00056.jpg'
cfa39658e500e9020be7e2c750b37b74
aea1032e4d48252426c74484b51bb2527d119181
describe
'45025' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABMOF' 'sip-files00056.pro'
ad6b742483f56e0fc09ee764b1ec3629
6b566da73e27f3f795b1bc067af8dc178e94e191
describe
'59733' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABMOG' 'sip-files00056.QC.jpg'
ada51d1f323904a77e41e14a6fe67950
2509185826623e0e65589f0793f7e51b5d766570
'2012-05-20T02:25:31-04:00'
describe
'14239666' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABMOH' 'sip-files00056.tif'
34334ceaef06291d10b1aec2ef6e808a
e098c1d3db3b5400fcbd79b3fcf7e0471f0adcc7
'2012-05-20T02:25:33-04:00'
describe
'2171' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABMOI' 'sip-files00056.txt'
17283a2303ee49419313914a347399c0
bf62b347c821e4d67804ca85998cb98b0272ca6f
'2012-05-20T02:26:56-04:00'
describe
'18794' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABMOJ' 'sip-files00056thm.jpg'
d87da92dfde18e8ab7e63a431bab504a
cc58be5dfd380d2c819746716bd4184d86fb7bb5
'2012-05-20T02:21:17-04:00'
describe
'1819246' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABMOK' 'sip-files00057.jp2'
a7d857bb184766ff5407b8a424302d4c
3c420e2e9ab6fc102f09b40fb20a268f5f00515e
describe
'191092' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABMOL' 'sip-files00057.jpg'
606d8baef0e9a5b0dddabedc4e3edcba
54ececa5635595435697845d5ca81c9360a1bc84
describe
'49151' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABMOM' 'sip-files00057.pro'
f2588636a69dfa603ff2a4467434751e
4e7e1530622b620653ab902d171cb7e694f60ba2
describe
'60324' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABMON' 'sip-files00057.QC.jpg'
ad7d79d59dcc96140a05178b4022b088
fcf972f981c55b528ad80456ca2c85bd58c960fb
describe
'14557074' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABMOO' 'sip-files00057.tif'
fcca5b4e58e190f6e325947df0394a93
9f673d2f0ffb7d04b83b056c23a00caaf81b268a
'2012-05-20T02:26:36-04:00'
describe
'2595' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABMOP' 'sip-files00057.txt'
fbe1b4bfb0a079c34d0e5a3ccc756f11
f7596bdd722e60e3606229f61ed493003159cca8
'2012-05-20T02:21:26-04:00'
describe
'18956' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABMOQ' 'sip-files00057thm.jpg'
e9cb4f99f1487ae013b6226792e0422b
7fdcc7c8ec9f05a3bbe37d30ecda628f9fae1604
'2012-05-20T02:23:39-04:00'
describe
'484563' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABMOR' 'sip-files00058.jp2'
fd3550a1dc4c92151a9bbec861c58393
6174e3cbe608cbfb2d6f9c2c2d7dce5197c39faa
'2012-05-20T02:21:04-04:00'
describe
'503992' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABMOS' 'sip-files00058.jpg'
279476888cba2096bec495596e06f972
068436cc4738e2bcc8ae8a7ef48ee09a41aa6f62
'2012-05-20T02:25:11-04:00'
describe
'61043' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABMOT' 'sip-files00058.pro'
5dd9f07c5bac95581871626885aa04f9
610c0cd85f466a78a9108e198ff2cb07c7554e2f
describe
'161253' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABMOU' 'sip-files00058.QC.jpg'
5945ac14541c19842957ad9037dbd98d
234dcffc64047b004769bd289aadd5f77e9ea92a
'2012-05-20T02:20:44-04:00'
describe
'3879306' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABMOV' 'sip-files00058.tif'
74b57e41388f1df8db1c2740e7d6084a
5cf73f82313cbb1146b41279b48c86e4af4bfc1c
'2012-05-20T02:23:26-04:00'
describe
'2301' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABMOW' 'sip-files00058.txt'
90ab5b396abe4a2a22c27fa5e8b5f062
8882d3d6bee02e5755994e54ed18d52abc1a27c4
describe
'48461' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABMOX' 'sip-files00058thm.jpg'
1f0b7a9d7cf162f603b56b25505c729f
f0c11c57bc60396c7bee389ba801e50a00df744a
describe
'486512' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABMOY' 'sip-files00059.jp2'
f1b4415cdabe261c12855175c2089cb7
59135be8d036841adea830f1416347ea71e39421
'2012-05-20T02:22:41-04:00'
describe
'443125' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABMOZ' 'sip-filesi.jp2'
a7651b797de117ac72dd221f3478ca28
4c38fbb4b3fb5011cbf0dc1f4aedccd45789bb73
'2012-05-20T02:25:03-04:00'
describe
'524138' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABMPA' 'sip-files00059.jpg'
8e331e1dcc99bc75140f698603450de5
afaf9371663cae8c25ac2d9ad81323a25a42c3ce
'2012-05-20T02:22:44-04:00'
describe
'63973' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABMPB' 'sip-files00059.pro'
ce5e11fddd7d186f2203bd13bfd6856d
1575f730e7ed58e58a81873b9262797069fcdac9
describe
'164731' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABMPC' 'sip-files00059.QC.jpg'
404e5bc1dee0c6915124536efaf028b0
fae87686af7dcb2fa9ea56e9f8cf6380b40ba531
'2012-05-20T02:25:30-04:00'
describe
'3894516' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABMPD' 'sip-files00059.tif'
5f65c33ce8453a8a86c62cfa0b924dcb
51333559ed0d4f333e9eea5d7e829c992cd0c482
'2012-05-20T02:21:55-04:00'
describe
'2416' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABMPE' 'sip-files00059.txt'
6039775bacca76d1ac4794b4090c9c60
79ef490189835d619b9883ceb7dd882ede924145
describe
'49218' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABMPF' 'sip-files00059thm.jpg'
4c67f5a88713d00487825ef7b4817012
fad870f9777914461ebbb64930ded177692f447f
describe
'493823' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABMPG' 'sip-files00060.jp2'
df7e3219afe1594e542cec3ffae431e2
7ac71180bff4dd011e27860892740ab97304c8f8
'2012-05-20T02:24:43-04:00'
describe
'617896' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABMPH' 'sip-files00060.jpg'
edd653294030fe5d983f2db6f9110c53
88af0ea3a7b26d1d0957ca219ca40dc53c511ca5
'2012-05-20T02:23:31-04:00'
describe
'86852' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABMPI' 'sip-files00060.pro'
099fc0c92a743f4072977dcb00148817
dc417bb3e1c78fd625d0c291ca94f8d0146f8b33
describe
'192349' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABMPJ' 'sip-files00060.QC.jpg'
b44d98ce8809d89046dde79b63240d27
8c4288677d16ac6d1a40cdffd9e98e69d73d7d4e
describe
'3952998' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABMPK' 'sip-files00060.tif'
00ee0eb09c0b0f4110ce33ab99804a00
a77853227a838ae844c6005c1e127bbcf5e77285
describe
'3273' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABMPL' 'sip-files00060.txt'
9248291aa6bebe0a5d70c2e8b9bd9ede
418e7a732266d05fce92c58efa6e37674c003999
describe
'51749' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABMPM' 'sip-files00060thm.jpg'
5d075bf56ba7f6561a89560aef11ef1e
e91e76c3c410f8c144c5c73b8ab4cf8709e37779
describe
'491935' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABMPN' 'sip-files00061.jp2'
2cd2db91995043d07ef3bbf0babde7fc
218daf76fb1dc1a3628ca7c918cb30681c3de328
'2012-05-20T02:25:55-04:00'
describe
'532141' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABMPO' 'sip-files00061.jpg'
84cb8a663b89b101da2df6378e04b13c
44d1910c9a2becdaa20d4460af3194bfef60b296
'2012-05-20T02:24:03-04:00'
describe
'63567' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABMPP' 'sip-files00061.pro'
318ab1883efcea28ea7b41e897f97355
9a188e3c7981ab78bdc119d8dde89551a11a2cab
describe
'162655' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABMPQ' 'sip-files00061.QC.jpg'
8fa3d30f91567b895347aa4cc216ad07
436bc7927df1f165280fcffcd237abd74483093e
describe
'3938014' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABMPR' 'sip-files00061.tif'
ceb530958d0694f8d73564f9fabcf431
0432c517b6ec8d8cc1ab9f910b68c903bc04d3b9
'2012-05-20T02:23:04-04:00'
describe
'2433' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABMPS' 'sip-files00061.txt'
5ee4254562535f891d25b0d81aa13e28
85db595fc26964e1d53ec504e7313361d6cf65f6
describe
'45983' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABMPT' 'sip-files00061thm.jpg'
82e5b7f514e18ac564b5a4c9ddf2069a
ff9ea3ab22fd745babef1db213e840505fc23d98
'2012-05-20T02:26:43-04:00'
describe
'494156' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABMPU' 'sip-files00062.jp2'
70bda62d539201a6f8f236ef798288f5
f805f0e1db479cac28a9ae79a98731aba72c1393
describe
'534540' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABMPV' 'sip-files00062.jpg'
d5662bca7462e3e607b7fd1a618b977f
44857260cb22047dc0a9515135abd434883249e3
describe
'65872' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABMPW' 'sip-files00062.pro'
5673438bccf5bcf3cbd1c214bab42685
a338cd283d0adadf5df54fa655b6c442a6055983
describe
'166402' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABMPX' 'sip-files00062.QC.jpg'
960fd7a607ca8e616982877864a6271b
9ad636699e1b02a17d39d8a5647100eab3b14bc5
describe
'3955806' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABMPY' 'sip-files00062.tif'
21df15d25830cab86065f90d483b535d
2d99bc2b8a641287f49fc461d2e73e0ad16160e5
describe
'2488' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABMPZ' 'sip-files00062.txt'
6be268586cfb936b9d002248f429e3e1
ae459d20c61a4178e038c593bb1656cf67ede0ad
'2012-05-20T02:23:56-04:00'
describe
'48047' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABMQA' 'sip-files00062thm.jpg'
4031df1202fef2037b3077e2b983a02e
6489a7fe7d59228ec35d00dd6a4f80c48187c045
'2012-05-20T02:22:35-04:00'
describe
'551443' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABMQB' 'sip-files00063.jp2'
0755ae29f125feec556f20d397e2d4da
7d5317a74c572f17e7de6c41d5debd7359d63e4d
describe
'573786' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABMQC' 'sip-files00063.jpg'
b0611c9d2855e28e04e2417dd96c4b88
514057070328a9a4692a3ce76c754e31628b99d7
describe
'74692' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABMQD' 'sip-files00063.pro'
382baac0c0a567a87bdcae6b29e8eb5a
2834c875299d0d485d32f7770e1eb56e665b1748
describe
'170958' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABMQE' 'sip-files00063.QC.jpg'
b92449c237e25056fa05c3b15557172a
0d7c47def64e08818dc8e827c8ef52cc00ae6a38
'2012-05-20T02:25:34-04:00'
describe
'4414266' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABMQF' 'sip-files00063.tif'
d15035b3955b94645837f17dcdc1ebdf
56c452e624595131bebb8e0fd961029d49f125cf
'2012-05-20T02:21:48-04:00'
describe
'2811' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABMQG' 'sip-files00063.txt'
d9be9344d7f0f8455f9be93ae1eb89ba
e18137c0581734353d547a669bdcea4870697518
'2012-05-20T02:25:10-04:00'
describe
'45388' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABMQH' 'sip-files00063thm.jpg'
4d5e41817629d6642ac913889c708867
45429994976ad384ec5e77f7254b676e579a0958
'2012-05-20T02:26:07-04:00'
describe
'489987' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABMQI' 'sip-files00064.jp2'
d73b15b62f68b68f136053004ab570df
6e3a52e1a7fec1168ed78e627a2f710f43bdcdb2
describe
'586060' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABMQJ' 'sip-files00064.jpg'
a7bd7472449e091f3a4427b7b57c4ccd
ec848f1fd70326bb8c48ab31cefe59230e2e1c2a
describe
'83888' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABMQK' 'sip-files00064.pro'
74f4858352fd9cc23bd7c99a7a49b030
e75dc37c5f1fdf96e6ce2e9e68b482cce446970f
describe
'180619' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABMQL' 'sip-files00064.QC.jpg'
4cad48606e93c89897d7e4c091896fad
5894e29a186900a4eab8da92bb52204e5e92a1c2
describe
'3922580' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABMQM' 'sip-files00064.tif'
f103700b2d756ee96fb07082be7eaf33
e0d38389ac2c5b63d9ac5d294fe92a0c2e82f924
'2012-05-20T02:24:31-04:00'
describe
'3144' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABMQN' 'sip-files00064.txt'
60ed6c9fce21e607ed37621df22ae689
fb33ee3844a88d88fb3bfc6895ae7189c354dad8
'2012-05-20T02:21:39-04:00'
describe
'52279' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABMQO' 'sip-files00064thm.jpg'
01dadc86ebf0f13f4d1e89c1540cfc1d
a4b78c4e70c48668ec1b853a59e5599ef2943244
describe
'487460' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABMQP' 'sip-files00065.jp2'
990c1a585406f269292c3f70d5746eac
3fe5df785209b5033669222358dce02bf5873c27
describe
'616756' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABMQQ' 'sip-files00065.jpg'
e5a3c20921a6091ee29869503ab652a6
47d830c6a9656db734f9d4df55c7771e408b1704
describe
'91182' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABMQR' 'sip-files00065.pro'
109c92a4bb2e4b6fcbb1db167acc80e6
e098de48ed5069fae86a030015fe9487e4303781
describe
'193352' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABMQS' 'sip-files00065.QC.jpg'
3a97f63e4135e452d7d9366d7677b3a8
8d7e8290c1bdafbfc76867adbc689cf00be0fbb0
describe
'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABMQT' 'sip-files00065.tif'
81ec292bbfefee30d30afc550e8ef82b
64b989a563df483614a93485e7fd4e36bd11577b
describe
'3333' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABMQU' 'sip-files00065.txt'
617f4c1588af7ef603183d2e34ca8fc6
eabb4c98bf1fdf916c60715338b69bb979ee8c19
'2012-05-20T02:21:47-04:00'
describe
'54718' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABMQV' 'sip-files00065thm.jpg'
4f05d41df8b5df636c413d5b2d998834
0ac3e0eb05d36b38a29e9b40fa125a7b4c0d3f4b
describe
'555700' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABMQW' 'sip-files00066.jp2'
51fc0ca7a614912e14b3afbb64b35f59
220283223d7fa4018713459048576c760d04f7c9
describe
'566092' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABMQX' 'sip-files00066.jpg'
ab73df2eb632d10ef4c01b3379373303
21fe97379749b70a76cfefe03f678973c76dd3f9
describe
'76663' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABMQY' 'sip-files00066.pro'
bfdf8378a26e63a2bba452072eb7cd33
29381a674ab09c9db4a1b0bb9e5ada31d3c8a341
'2012-05-20T02:23:40-04:00'
describe
'170217' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABMQZ' 'sip-files00066.QC.jpg'
ab2e291d3c67f3779284a886af421f1f
65611e2a337b6cace19d55c59f58604fff69dd8e
'2012-05-20T02:25:38-04:00'
describe
'4448270' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABMRA' 'sip-files00066.tif'
80c9b123411fa2d0ced4b42c3041e6e3
52d6fa0b1893c290d25a0ff19b8c5b1179a695eb
'2012-05-20T02:26:39-04:00'
describe
'2824' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABMRB' 'sip-files00066.txt'
d11359997c20f9f253880fdb76357a96
12b8ca282018612b0e4ed0026e8746ab0722c603
describe
'45782' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABMRC' 'sip-files00066thm.jpg'
0d4a24b8d5de10acbe3d98f21459912a
cd6f34552676829282b2e37e48921dd38581d658
describe
'1647025' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABMRD' 'sip-files00067.jp2'
052e6234ae8d891d2c94e3d55ed92d6e
1c100f10abd9037a62a85ac9d732a0a81a1622fe
'2012-05-20T02:21:23-04:00'
describe
'134982' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABMRE' 'sip-files00067.jpg'
67bfd17e31c402a405b617f8046fd9e3
9992fae69db3884ceaf565643d2e33547cbb4bd3
describe
'18856' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABMRF' 'sip-files00067.pro'
e170517db72570e4be45814f0741e682
4a8a4f4fe9d3456a69e0e8d70ea6ea7c1e9a8570
describe
'38624' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABMRG' 'sip-files00067.QC.jpg'
a2512d679203ac6a80da069765860211
385a29a0aeacc3bef96ffb1f7b235892e6d38106
describe
'13178790' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABMRH' 'sip-files00067.tif'
badcc2a68c66be9f923af02ab745cc14
0155f118899fd3f80b7a4e91171f6e7d2a475dd7
'2012-05-20T02:23:08-04:00'
describe
'1063' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABMRI' 'sip-files00067.txt'
09d4d5838e5ccd5e32ac773ae5674264
e46aa24f704e7d6ab1cfb86e9edc064af95f495a
'2012-05-20T02:24:28-04:00'
describe
'13342' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABMRJ' 'sip-files00067thm.jpg'
eab508ad335de8797e78b94c21ddf438
b2cd39c89fea471b694e7f350a836500fc5ca49e
'2012-05-20T02:25:56-04:00'
describe
'497978' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABMRK' 'sip-files00068.jp2'
7879d595d0b9b8b0de02f395fa632668
980aa2d8bba39dcf0adf18b9497a3ff31f989be4
describe
'613033' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABMRL' 'sip-files00068.jpg'
425e2db584e431a4c1c454ae3539e0de
acf003327c1de89f23274713065806731b3d8ac7
describe
'86702' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABMRM' 'sip-files00068.pro'
ce76d7d77c8c9b4c6172a7a86825ea95
ab1194d0fb40aba25bf150fe91962eb5413de44e
describe
'189309' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABMRN' 'sip-files00068.QC.jpg'
98fcb9a98e489a2f4a17e951d1f8f1b9
72a89314b56350feca118e4d34fb732b9143a916
describe
'3986680' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABMRO' 'sip-files00068.tif'
0c5ab9fd6d05b5b3b3bc79b3482429b0
2f281649dca696d5ceaa64c8169b390baa9d125c
describe
'3166' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABMRP' 'sip-files00068.txt'
aa94f103436520a331d965ab88c49932
100f42fcdb8bce83c85455a18c50f2b9b5abf79f
describe
'54657' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABMRQ' 'sip-files00068thm.jpg'
0f8491aa9c45dda587dc42e9390bf2a9
805e5d4b2e93c49c18eb0c749a18deac15d01aa1
describe
'551459' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABMRR' 'sip-files00069.jp2'
42db6d413721712ad76dbe444e1f2335
34e3a4c5ee2b050e3525f24618686b439dad5415
describe
'573328' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABMRS' 'sip-files00069.jpg'
3b0c9c55643c3f6b300f3c4e44e86555
da705dc5c21f3e052e71529395b7d4bcc93297fd
'2012-05-20T02:20:47-04:00'
describe
'76123' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABMRT' 'sip-files00069.pro'
325c34cfeff897889f6bca9a46f009f6
9c03620724e36ca6028567f11e917e42f39153a8
describe
'173963' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABMRU' 'sip-files00069.QC.jpg'
f378d2aef5257c4ea3348da47ed7f6be
e87ce788663216e1bc890f5193c40b7f4cdb471f
describe
'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABMRV' 'sip-files00069.tif'
92d55daeb6f40239f500f1c7fed4a700
fa51d82c1b3f366f97b8d17942480288c2ec27f4
describe
'2812' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABMRW' 'sip-files00069.txt'
5f3710766507ed27135db93cd1fab177
a7bb739642b04964f02de63d29f52bcbc45b4545
'2012-05-20T02:21:46-04:00'
describe
'48173' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABMRX' 'sip-files00069thm.jpg'
9fa8ea3b61ef29994e16e06fc9348c0c
b552f2ca9d32c243b51f2aedceb2440ae72ff2b9
describe
'500878' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABMRY' 'sip-files00070.jp2'
3e950f1f62e97fd87d2b875d2225b417
0fa83195a04791d5d97127d4610e151f2f3b5e60
describe
'553532' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABMRZ' 'sip-files00070.jpg'
2ea99d2da8ed93003a10a3a5bf92c84d
c9abc74ea8647a2495901151a80b8c64410ba8ec
'2012-05-20T02:21:50-04:00'
describe
'70052' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABMSA' 'sip-files00070.pro'
a2b93b07874614683b18cf63e0fca431
f96ba665780123dabaee2f7b8c7fb935d7fff9e5
describe
'173517' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABMSB' 'sip-files00070.QC.jpg'
0143bf3c8cfe28f106784b577e49288f
2a97a33c8686d0a9cf63717dfa2e709067febfc8
describe
'4010096' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABMSC' 'sip-files00070.tif'
75a8af89ea838d2003807e3c35942f9c
ad9bd0c9dc86848fc54ea256afa92efec3ce02ed
describe
'2585' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABMSD' 'sip-files00070.txt'
428bbc7a21a8faa56f934364f3631f0d
f5f3428723f22bc4f90b0b6c36a5ed37b47b0740
describe
'48914' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABMSE' 'sip-files00070thm.jpg'
66c699b06ede4513c2f39c20fb8e97c0
40f0ae4e94a7d2eb37165bbc91c1117bccbf5306
describe
'1810395' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABMSF' 'sip-files00071.jp2'
b03c94ffc5b9567d002a746c96e04cd1
3477e3ae70067fc4547531af3cb33ca0c76a2cc4
'2012-05-20T02:22:38-04:00'
describe
'152459' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABMSG' 'sip-files00071.jpg'
de601895828b07a1dd54f86e27adabaa
ef9a79d6273b4fab8350956d4b86d6e9012606a5
'2012-05-20T02:24:22-04:00'
describe
'29161' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABMSH' 'sip-files00071.pro'
fef570ea797ad495d748e12052a6e7ec
06a6a953c71d95d7d669c37c30735e2358459555
describe
'46783' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABMSI' 'sip-files00071.QC.jpg'
c5e1e4ff47bbb5266d44d11173b5bbfe
fb85ea89a9e813a7e04064628c2f0c0e7fe59458
describe
'14486138' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABMSJ' 'sip-files00071.tif'
3d7587d619ff5da140da5273c80a053a
57d6e8c0d70befb85e1f03601c1826939320b50f
describe
'1703' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABMSK' 'sip-files00071.txt'
36cb3ceca41fa836b739462ade1a44f7
77fe7b281e7fb333dc6f10d788d27e2e1f9328f5
describe
'14898' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABMSL' 'sip-files00071thm.jpg'
771a51ff003668084b47a8854a0df43a
a09ffbb7f129f64e163e720e9facb107212b4d06
describe
'484289' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABMSM' 'sip-files00072.jp2'
1ac5505502df0fdadb4561dc94ec5035
329809760ecab67b4b32f2c9a39272b12db1cbaf
describe
'606922' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABMSN' 'sip-files00072.jpg'
e317beb3cb2a67318969b3eb0055de86
3deae290a36eab7eb6cf7af04a47ba1b3d780f70
'2012-05-20T02:24:48-04:00'
describe
'86167' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABMSO' 'sip-files00072.pro'
2e39b45f1db7de3009e4d87d76f87cad
be5a6ce4da7d34e67535bdd502a65fe80459455a
describe
'192538' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABMSP' 'sip-files00072.QC.jpg'
d780bb37adacc2bc5214c4b900ed32af
a8dc32aad25ab000a5fc65c8b9b7c9ea955c542f
describe
'3876798' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABMSQ' 'sip-files00072.tif'
d25b91367ac20cfc13687b5775d062a9
a5b8827bfaa0844003d3b6b9615a312aed2c9e86
'2012-05-20T02:23:57-04:00'
describe
'3153' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABMSR' 'sip-files00072.txt'
e5895000b48d8802182e0eee65736ed9
a305a1f43026f15384c969d326001facd50d8cec
describe
'54539' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABMSS' 'sip-files00072thm.jpg'
1106983a80ca1f7291d72ded02a8a722
319fb6dce82006a886648d6a5b939151b87030bd
describe
'551463' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABMST' 'sip-files00073.jp2'
e8c0a13c8f3b183b091a2b5ee8b55d9e
ee261a79c7828709c0b361a11bb6c38d21713772
describe
'594080' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABMSU' 'sip-files00073.jpg'
201abec89040dd09a39df3c5c4d5ebad
3f860612708912f0ff3a798b4fef843f92ed971d
describe
'82446' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABMSV' 'sip-files00073.pro'
5a2dd6d507ad09bc0ac5588dd77ea4e6
aa0946cd5d9036d5547cbe036c1b91d931efe581
describe
'179475' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABMSW' 'sip-files00073.QC.jpg'
7fc60b58eccb21fb20fea8973ab1dcd1
7a2aea8693e2e3bb07df023a56d511bb0c75b246
describe
'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABMSX' 'sip-files00073.tif'
3e768d50cee3d95a28d3361e327aad08
427a69394dab8930f6cc9e7e2684ad0940aa8915
describe
'3040' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABMSY' 'sip-files00073.txt'
a297b7d60dc5918d03745d7dee7fb642
51819f8433378834349dd7af304a307e3da8021c
describe
'48010' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABMSZ' 'sip-files00073thm.jpg'
b213be5d62cb9f4d9e8cbeb0951229c7
d97f7d41a65e2d456a479bc0303bca2c3ea9b2df
'2012-05-20T02:25:04-04:00'
describe
'1884106' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABMTA' 'sip-files00074.jp2'
a2222a889f366962f080dbff519731ef
79953659089acf6bf6e8c47d74b2105f1a75e342
'2012-05-20T02:22:05-04:00'
describe
'151643' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABMTB' 'sip-files00074.jpg'
c0ab048f22f496966f57db3c258e5469
c5cb2031a2eea92102093b1c61ad7236e65d274b
describe
'20190' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABMTC' 'sip-files00074.pro'
81bfbaaa8a2772f40a4022336cd185d4
8d37b7141cc3afd173d92f1209b4916456b1a436
describe
'46844' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABMTD' 'sip-files00074.QC.jpg'
a727b6e507addf757203c421f22927bb
df9d3af0b37e0a9279c2a616b64eb247d16558c0
describe
'15075818' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABMTE' 'sip-files00074.tif'
2929cc44e1600d7bfd1a66e244807a46
6f623f0ca93dba27ec7673291359fdb08566ee68
describe
'1077' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABMTF' 'sip-files00074.txt'
df0676edcb01468acdb2dab18ec3c0a6
ca051e4183cf7159034420137c3f66d6f06c7c9e
describe
'15524' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABMTG' 'sip-files00074thm.jpg'
11c265547d89b5f86d22430948e1234b
b62b12e1c6237ae32b61c8a31d1c780c904d255c
describe
'495129' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABMTH' 'sip-files00075.jp2'
840c17b2d5263cb765d38b6e5d485b6d
0fd801b8ebede0d1534db2e1e99c947150acbcfb
describe
'583171' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABMTI' 'sip-files00075.jpg'
1e46119bbc5329cfb1d35cfebcfab40d
d40e757426a4a6e64705a5d1ad9dc5742cf49698
'2012-05-20T02:25:07-04:00'
describe
'77895' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABMTJ' 'sip-files00075.pro'
8ccc0437600d9bf47eecbf24dcee1c41
326f15463ff59126acfd7942aa237a9761ba064e
'2012-05-20T02:22:21-04:00'
describe
'180712' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABMTK' 'sip-files00075.QC.jpg'
10cc043d8339a204427b636d21e0a6ec
01439fba8306c7ff6f7684155d0c80d473246f1c
describe
'3963564' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABMTL' 'sip-files00075.tif'
13e64135c449d070d148e5531dd76218
4e0e72bab5fb11bfe8e1c20852c84b723754473e
'2012-05-20T02:20:42-04:00'
describe
'2940' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABMTM' 'sip-files00075.txt'
cb1679722b7306b3ac63b0c8b1ec3508
63ab75e1309cdc251e8828b270b44a6c9aa40e0c
describe
'51549' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABMTN' 'sip-files00075thm.jpg'
e64e239753f727370882a2c8f5bbfbfd
6653a0afff9c068bfb3564069081beefaf3175e7
describe
'1797030' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABMTO' 'sip-files00076.jp2'
9547833f461387c009f39d3a7f20ff78
0c04f952b0cac4264900f561501cb802432ac1fd
'2012-05-20T02:22:20-04:00'
describe
'162225' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABMTP' 'sip-files00076.jpg'
b680ed8372793452e3dfd82a4f8f5188
5a1463f47303650aa63eef33cd81613e9872a3f2
describe
'7793' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABMTQ' 'sip-files00076.pro'
ee0bd23f230cd2ca5d6eee89414164f4
52fd8d36ff9235c665a0d0007783516ed39fc964
describe
'49022' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABMTR' 'sip-files00076.QC.jpg'
c21268b76281a72e1264d248193de02b
25be3f931d781f3ac28c0176a2f51619e772b6ed
describe
'14379770' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABMTS' 'sip-files00076.tif'
0e511bf74ff92b2216fc5eacb7bfc487
89b99bfa54d49dd3bde57172fc4ebfde6a757cca
'2012-05-20T02:26:37-04:00'
describe
'371' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABMTT' 'sip-files00076.txt'
3db487c0cb20cd63267df64d00c555ac
86e0b140254853c517d2a71623a2228636882dac
describe
'16656' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABMTU' 'sip-files00076thm.jpg'
62db5e03800d7aea068497774fa049a3
80fb0a0c94d80e12610eaaca525b381227a907f2
describe
'486343' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABMTV' 'sip-files00077.jp2'
e772547c7b3df186e7879a1db1e79d8e
a7a06bc74cc86ff4843cbd258c5e76eebf337c97
'2012-05-20T02:23:28-04:00'
describe
'442803' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABMTW' 'sip-files00077.jpg'
cfe074b8cc555b8f1c10aba1f57d9aea
2217abb90591862b0f53f997bbdf8bd86a744982
describe
'47223' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABMTX' 'sip-files00077.pro'
e8cbb5b691a537b9e35a2ae52daefe29
34b7ea2c1982a6cb3eca10b2fdf97b7410197768
'2012-05-20T02:25:54-04:00'
describe
'136946' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABMTY' 'sip-files00077.QC.jpg'
d8cae3f42e53674dc7d2d71e7a20510d
db590be1fe25ecdf1dc7e775e39618b0338b80f6
'2012-05-20T02:22:22-04:00'
describe
'3893772' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABMTZ' 'sip-files00077.tif'
95c9af3505bf80f90fc354741cfb4cbb
27a009b4b79a83361c8929e9cf44ac3a9b692d6b
describe
'1760' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABMUA' 'sip-files00077.txt'
4c552d2ea6a56c72fe869f87525cff06
6d53d87a812022b7b39e7f2764f11d4d82aafb58
describe
'42276' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABMUB' 'sip-files00077thm.jpg'
fad723d9cb223fbcd9591d0b7b2e927e
2b9cf5019e0a8a3b900608060feb7e653c019b60
describe
'1699835' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABMUC' 'sip-files00078.jp2'
2fe1c7413b731858b3e8c125d8679e29
d9738f14299f8c09c95ee9d6456d797ed9fba7a3
'2012-05-20T02:21:28-04:00'
describe
'160626' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABMUD' 'sip-files00078.jpg'
4344ab7267f62a983e3e015ca0d256a2
47f4d53ece36589efb310ac1996dd2da34f3be6c
'2012-05-20T02:24:44-04:00'
describe
'15784' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABMUE' 'sip-files00078.pro'
009693bd07d4d2da32220a590b9d7ba6
b1b42f42f55708da0ab8a77ad7776c7ef4d3c884
'2012-05-20T02:24:37-04:00'
describe
'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABMUF' 'sip-files00078.QC.jpg'
b4d1affd9de05d75db215f995144330a
740222556e85e2d17da72572c64dd8fcb8db86be
'2012-05-20T02:21:11-04:00'
describe
'13601658' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABMUG' 'sip-files00078.tif'
623f21043b4602f84b80db70f46fdb2f
38b0517922b079f073e0a64a659be19c5131a08a
'2012-05-20T02:21:31-04:00'
describe
'1520' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABMUH' 'sip-files00078.txt'
ea035f79a3d045607d0afb26cd249d92
4177080da90819f5645be246712264681dec12e6
describe
'16171' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABMUI' 'sip-files00078thm.jpg'
d3606011ca81a7ae2c81dfc25f59797e
5794e035f072bef69248a6e8a1904c092a5d622f
describe
'1696031' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABMUJ' 'sip-files00079.jp2'
d781fcc8ff23171472e3f85bf7629ce7
2b8a86547164846f65827b39523d3de1bffcf4fa
'2012-05-20T02:26:20-04:00'
describe
'155843' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABMUK' 'sip-files00079.jpg'
c1aff5d1cfee048708d0a0a826b9ad95
fbcabcbd0b939550ef41fef14229226ee751e507
describe
'10655' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABMUL' 'sip-files00079.pro'
5b4b6f50e37a8a8da5944810cf59be40
c944cda80525d4cc9775b6d55b7423eacf94bcf9
describe
'47487' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABMUM' 'sip-files00079.QC.jpg'
56051233d06ceedca1c126c3f43ddd7d
91a4c8765e2be602e00c395de8779cfc6e1566ca
describe
'13571098' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABMUN' 'sip-files00079.tif'
aae6d879e43a1660d51ac63d6a9d2626
f8d9ad52a246b033259a618672cc2b9b68e8e4b0
'2012-05-20T02:25:43-04:00'
describe
'589' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABMUO' 'sip-files00079.txt'
d2c28d7655480a05686e7a18f0cf0880
3884e126e427d9115ba4d0cfb477a9086837dedd
describe
Invalid character
'15628' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABMUP' 'sip-files00079thm.jpg'
4cc17dd3d0d6eefc30ece506578552e1
60233eac1f0b3ae9442062e14d63383c092e5e6a
describe
'1557838' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABMUQ' 'sip-files00080.jp2'
2e003dac0de0beee5aecafc4881921a5
bdb7129f143fae42250e0cbed5095f45478f78b9
describe
'141630' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABMUR' 'sip-files00080.jpg'
957d895eafd9b66f5944a8303cc7db09
ca2674439847bf7c0b7ec300db919161ff9d5725
describe
'20377' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABMUS' 'sip-files00080.pro'
35ae906668487dad65fbb0819d4bf7de
21bc0b456cb13be366617104b5ac5cf2dbe10561
'2012-05-20T02:26:35-04:00'
describe
'43671' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABMUT' 'sip-files00080.QC.jpg'
a36cb6916a1d827b90308590ee76f169
38c726f444578378af5083a8745750a8fafc7452
describe
'12467118' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABMUU' 'sip-files00080.tif'
1e4f3d1ee2c9c3b80baf598fa1f529fe
4ce5d8324c58b520787e204cf4572ee17c27fc7b
'2012-05-20T02:24:24-04:00'
describe
'986' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABMUV' 'sip-files00080.txt'
f0937f5ca9801fb8acc0791a6584a90c
0d0a0d338eb823fb92e7d03df60448e805e26820
describe
'14437' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABMUW' 'sip-files00080thm.jpg'
026c72a79d2f40d9e5f08ab8c3bc8eb1
b4b88c53a51c8b93fc628220522e1819a76bb605
describe
'471484' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABMUX' 'sip-files00081.jp2'
334de7f984a28f2d18514479a76acab1
31ce7523c8df9c2282cc9e89644d6ba01320b6d0
describe
'582779' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABMUY' 'sip-files00081.jpg'
a73ef33aad38a4364325fb9ac8a574b1
5cd2200d32a19a29a849887db39ecde487c4713e
describe
'72019' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABMUZ' 'sip-files00081.pro'
890bba1dc2c385f8064435a7eb55ef8d
f4d4908be5fa8c9aa08267f07d975c4180eba676
describe
'181537' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABMVA' 'sip-files00081.QC.jpg'
bd65b13be8716ad35abaed0f90e3c20c
f735113540d70f607bd72c51e5ca446c875cc3fc
'2012-05-20T02:24:46-04:00'
describe
'3774676' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABMVB' 'sip-files00081.tif'
d4104056d5ec07569a2a68033fea228e
461fbd6f25f9a1f062d705885b051a1c5b007d40
'2012-05-20T02:24:18-04:00'
describe
'2737' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABMVC' 'sip-files00081.txt'
f40bbfcd461dbebf12341f1076fda088
3b10e7e2c6ac9d7308f377a48897d86f410331af
describe
'50760' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABMVD' 'sip-files00081thm.jpg'
f5bd7fba1659c30a6903b4c02738bf8b
986a5ad86ad1192de70f89e15273dfd4ed8f4a97
describe
'486771' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABMVE' 'sip-files00082.jp2'
3f798268934e9548331fa343cce2adce
1b223c21f3c9b22c8ce050f0a1dc244cef06f92f
describe
'572183' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABMVF' 'sip-files00082.jpg'
d2f7a03321892fd754d394bc67a0f0b2
594d043d9d28b9fe07d1a2e761d06dec7cb66b98
describe
'72235' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABMVG' 'sip-files00082.pro'
e4ae1f2738421217f2ce0d696c4ca4e6
2f4a9a7c5b0c822cd10c59de7dfe03975e294e62
describe
'178769' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABMVH' 'sip-files00082.QC.jpg'
a4a5a8d7311ec38518d32b7968f1f6c0
eb6607545884c23accbd1f0fc0c99d32dc7b2d12
'2012-05-20T02:20:39-04:00'
describe
'3896674' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABMVI' 'sip-files00082.tif'
f0fd2447c205143e99f8dc86f5d451ec
9a85ba9f967472a9084f114b8b1726bc12bc2190
'2012-05-20T02:26:24-04:00'
describe
'2736' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABMVJ' 'sip-files00082.txt'
46cd3d87ecdb32773f4efe9e6c5abf50
c26d365b12ad14377d908e1583cef3dfc95f663c
describe
'50336' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABMVK' 'sip-files00082thm.jpg'
fd9cd3a19f20c7114e948e28d147103d
55d863581d40f87084c916f9893f28a77435466b
describe
'537826' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABMVL' 'sip-files00083.jp2'
f3d8c9c901e940d11b0b43e67f0d5cb3
df92f8d8c8568d86eb18a11a02a27a06e6cd9d1c
describe
'582164' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABMVM' 'sip-files00083.jpg'
6a48930b6e9a3c8cd80b05716cc24be1
31fe3fd3e166ff007cdd1affd5ab1034a9466d17
describe
'76235' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABMVN' 'sip-files00083.pro'
4349f47a55487850691e9830afbfb925
d13c834f340f0aec1f2ca81116927a0238005459
describe
'175332' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABMVO' 'sip-files00083.QC.jpg'
ecfd65809eb60e6e75df4e61a4acfaed
44a6462b12fb010dc6a222e129b31fa7924fee3b
describe
'4305170' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABMVP' 'sip-files00083.tif'
7e899f799eea50ac26bd39403b629435
1be6aae2f04cc5b7e63d6b182e081363fc467d91
'2012-05-20T02:25:27-04:00'
describe
'2865' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABMVQ' 'sip-files00083.txt'
e1c4a215c7e875910f6442de0f9b403e
e521ffe66654d4aab7fd6c1697c73288d0c7332f
describe
'45472' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABMVR' 'sip-files00083thm.jpg'
f74c4c493118a7c44179d0ecc08f70a0
be15f2b332103b406f757fba402c6bb47351a46d
describe
'537755' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABMVS' 'sip-files00084.jp2'
04d8e475ecfaa36ec057e75f4969123c
9e9135866fc7fa4b3e207c18dce329ce167d992a
describe
'452828' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABMVT' 'sip-files00084.jpg'
2d2cd15fc1ccecff16d1f1f4453b478c
8aea92ce972b54f2050450c2a9d7c32939f79741
'2012-05-20T02:24:29-04:00'
describe
'42594' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABMVU' 'sip-files00084.pro'
cac5ae4e95dd13e70b2de0c9f48dfc99
e9375434ac08060d3a6763857e3a0467d1ca07a8
'2012-05-20T02:23:54-04:00'
describe
'135656' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABMVV' 'sip-files00084.QC.jpg'
a7d416c0b8e39b04626bf9c12dbad7b1
10bbad82640f07a1176aa5a8341cd5c1be8cb6d2
describe
'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABMVW' 'sip-files00084.tif'
b79d0c327273ec389ed0941068326090
4ad7ae79dfd7600ef2bae663c6a47f7ba2a9bfa7
'2012-05-20T02:25:18-04:00'
describe
'1660' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABMVX' 'sip-files00084.txt'
fcccc5932147ee8dfe0bd626264835ab
bce73acc1a81580f67c0cec4d3c69ee6176f57a9
describe
'37870' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABMVY' 'sip-files00084thm.jpg'
12797abfce5c7c363f1cc798d0d7fdcb
294ae74e54285dfca61083cb04f395ddc14b96f4
describe
'500200' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABMVZ' 'sip-files00085.jp2'
fa2fb14b771c571712b91354f8095ba0
50e0c285e46ef778ed02f63c6fb533b033ff4308
describe
'450963' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABMWA' 'sip-files00085.jpg'
70abdc981a440aac9bac49855662a51f
0926a5e6e8ce50c828ae4c2931971fcd0a9f80db
'2012-05-20T02:24:12-04:00'
describe
'46903' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABMWB' 'sip-files00085.pro'
e81044b2e2922482983d4942a4ad7e2d
9405cdf672d6dd107cccc080ad2b4c6e50710bc9
describe
'139777' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABMWC' 'sip-files00085.QC.jpg'
8a3a74d4b0ca840f6080e91463caf660
fa72377ba057886e7082bf9ffdf0730d98b2ebda
describe
'4004092' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABMWD' 'sip-files00085.tif'
f2b8d2e992c7fe7befcd62108aea1385
02ce82bbe0c080cd57efefe97b3571be95302a53
describe
'1934' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABMWE' 'sip-files00085.txt'
4712d25e9fdcfc3d4e86227f61d8ca59
4a2f667996326c7aafd27ba2d7de850803217166
describe
'38803' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABMWF' 'sip-files00085thm.jpg'
1c1beba5c7b12e71112ef4aef06d1b0f
8af74ce41c734a045e9e195e10d64e18798c9f37
describe
'494127' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABMWG' 'sip-files00086.jp2'
ff7721a6c5738f0455388b1fa542bb5e
413b3c284e893c0cc256ac18532a15c4f6da0bc2
describe
'460721' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABMWH' 'sip-files00086.jpg'
f19ee6a4a79fc0a3da1438258e5f62ba
fc7b9f2c25cf846428f106048a707cf9372e15a7
describe
'46531' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABMWI' 'sip-files00086.pro'
9c270c4cbde5dea732d1459a83c6ed7f
5ddf79f85d5cb44a458bd050565a25ef3b912a65
describe
'139503' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABMWJ' 'sip-files00086.QC.jpg'
b2dd7df2997a4445896e9a3eac4ba60b
adbcac47d7760f94addc9f14aca77661dfe2a99a
'2012-05-20T02:22:49-04:00'
describe
'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABMWK' 'sip-files00086.tif'
6bcb0ff58b4578e0159b63bea1b72526
01f3ade667bc6f665406694b774b5de1b239785d
describe
'1743' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABMWL' 'sip-files00086.txt'
878e35f2c1037a0b7abb387743856ce8
eaf8e806848c7aa5ab61348f61d8ee68b152db35
describe
'39579' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABMWM' 'sip-files00086thm.jpg'
79179f4685772bbc17cd5fe67cf659bc
36d152481edd3458fc48bebb2f0b4e30737b70f8
describe
'483206' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABMWN' 'sip-files00087.jp2'
d6a9ba72e6fe002fd58e9ca23747be39
3ba0ec51c92ca202e3fb9b6ea34ebb256d5a176e
'2012-05-20T02:25:58-04:00'
describe
'459312' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABMWO' 'sip-files00087.jpg'
8acb4053108b2588fef46e95b8564f87
3132e9a1476c8c953adcf42c995fc73514fcfa55
describe
'47861' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABMWP' 'sip-files00087.pro'
ee00089916ca21770c228cfb981c1705
51d73d1ea7da68d6ad1c2542196c92b20150947f
describe
'142114' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABMWQ' 'sip-files00087.QC.jpg'
4d7b1a8bf61e2110807d8ea9e6f297a9
75250960f9cfbf5b3e0fcd5511abaf767d7efafd
describe
'3868062' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABMWR' 'sip-files00087.tif'
73808ddbbd0b26097053aaeefe16b1c4
6f5225ff838ad628e4a6279c746ba476a501a178
'2012-05-20T02:23:58-04:00'
describe
'1808' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABMWS' 'sip-files00087.txt'
11753f089713fbc3926450fdca6a3681
63e25333488cd57269c54f36501263b3a1f9b7ab
'2012-05-20T02:26:12-04:00'
describe
'43187' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABMWT' 'sip-files00087thm.jpg'
8d6223e5e9d98b2517196db3b9198c08
46f6da9bca5ffddc0fa22b4de0c6f877e2a7d78d
'2012-05-20T02:24:39-04:00'
describe
'1758349' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABMWU' 'sip-files00088.jp2'
df486d85ff5f9f56f26881c33563d9c7
b2a5e161c942544192b6be0a4b2aac7d0e1ebed8
describe
'161402' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABMWV' 'sip-files00088.jpg'
d5ca0f654a2fe43c009cbd6147ad8a3d
503d1cead65b0d5d9d225da3f80b87ca9336e9c1
describe
'259994' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABMWW' 'sip-filesi.jpg'
057385469a24e185feac2aa8cce140bd
cbb4f9614b0a902be5d8407cac3e02ee295865f3
'2012-05-20T02:24:11-04:00'
describe
'24463' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABMWX' 'sip-files00088.pro'
56ef5a8fc45c9e1153f5441252313002
58bdbcbf7366f6704c4b0ea593440b067222083e
describe
'49155' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABMWY' 'sip-files00088.QC.jpg'
9d22701127c1a36654c516ec3ee7e949
db2058b53bb37f1c3df865a6ebfb5726306fdef5
describe
'14069554' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABMWZ' 'sip-files00088.tif'
8d6a27b4d78705db7a73b589462af585
2d0b2245522644b35ad88a5fd233d408e729996c
describe
'1617' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABMXA' 'sip-files00088.txt'
6358154fd9072a7bddbf86971bcd2c5b
29dd271b61a797e884c8bea2c2b158e2adaa6993
describe
'17241' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABMXB' 'sip-files00088thm.jpg'
cd236fe77bd10d98903ceaea34825d58
769940a1f89b440d3bd751208ecc7020bfd7a340
'2012-05-20T02:22:54-04:00'
describe
'500339' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABMXC' 'sip-files00089.jp2'
fae9de4924e3d306ab11d68b0f3fb0f5
686b628435dc657ad22b2fb385d507f440ef7176
describe
'638514' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABMXD' 'sip-files00089.jpg'
fb8541f3f0ed9c5ca4d084eff9d8eeb1
c25b77e3c8ed898f25bf879cdb5e1219552e7faf
describe
'86838' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABMXE' 'sip-files00089.pro'
073b00d5e46820779fdff7094696971b
682994497fcf18564c80c8adb687d04a0b52dd59
describe
'199775' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABMXF' 'sip-files00089.QC.jpg'
f8b2954edc1e797b7f4591176b8b7c5e
028d3d3d29d66814215010bf08d26e5f75f1802d
describe
'4005408' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABMXG' 'sip-files00089.tif'
c3b4e67338812377c61407c40a2cf7a2
91e156d30cd3bc0986ab82a1e6146deed32851f4
'2012-05-20T02:26:30-04:00'
describe
'3172' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABMXH' 'sip-files00089.txt'
fa6a2f5657599d76d25bb27bdac008af
6de0cc20e7023ff27487f12e63f98bc7ff15aa1f
describe
'52028' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABMXI' 'sip-files00089thm.jpg'
0f22eda1bb727efeaaf48cf442108deb
afe4636505da813cf9d6740e8f377437d428d367
describe
'479228' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABMXJ' 'sip-files00090.jp2'
fc66e150a83eac342c0d12578db705cb
bc7d8d0de0a9c075f9694de8fd8019354cc940fd
describe
'616359' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABMXK' 'sip-files00090.jpg'
5861d797b93b4a0bcf65e9ffa55998b1
f4222844c99e016d81eb6f7dc19ccb4a13346caf
describe
'83686' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABMXL' 'sip-files00090.pro'
07b630d823d6c297e69101937a8e9d31
2687650ff32ab9dd237defd0f153ef634547b6c7
describe
'190848' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABMXM' 'sip-files00090.QC.jpg'
d7885d750e5d021c3aaab5eb1138d5b2
0dbec1c555817e2e4efa9be1807e6fe950cfe496
describe
'3836240' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABMXN' 'sip-files00090.tif'
d9036c81fe42d9543a4f39d6fd76eb92
7859cf6fbc2786dd9d2d1e1539d806bb74a1bcc8
'2012-05-20T02:26:17-04:00'
describe
'3082' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABMXO' 'sip-files00090.txt'
6e2db1892b50b553cbe61d0579025bcb
1f687795ccb7fc0001bff30a5a4ffa38f97f7c96
'2012-05-20T02:22:04-04:00'
describe
'54535' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABMXP' 'sip-files00090thm.jpg'
9cd812db1ef88f06792f97a2ef8b5a32
57a3f6254350c9294c0f9ef3c634251b09a46faf
'2012-05-20T02:21:20-04:00'
describe
'478226' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABMXQ' 'sip-files00091.jp2'
7a8d378af4f62b064a6a4ca26721b402
04c0d81a90aae646db07825596f41c2c2ca4fb35
describe
'575871' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABMXR' 'sip-files00091.jpg'
940d259869c2fc2f1d062ad471d69c30
d5c10b319a6a5fa4824102e31562760567cb5276
describe
'79154' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABMXS' 'sip-files00091.pro'
e2c86e1aa7284ecc9bb587c8c2a4abd2
80f6fec4c44ab05aa0575a343c883700e529267b
describe
'184048' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABMXT' 'sip-files00091.QC.jpg'
86972b4f7745466b0c5a275dc5959238
b00b51c3bf068eee4f8fe674a063366998100ae5
describe
'3828258' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABMXU' 'sip-files00091.tif'
bcbca00ed557e4399b42b106a025c6e2
05236418114096fd67aecceff9df07068f35d309
describe
'2969' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABMXV' 'sip-files00091.txt'
448013812ffdee1cc1a2a0f2187910f6
b6ea37a84479b9f31983a6ebfb2b982a495db557
describe
'50806' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABMXW' 'sip-files00091thm.jpg'
9c91a47f91f98afbc2216c7982efdcc4
afb6de5dfbdbc0b54816dff76254cecc219c6a02
describe
'537746' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABMXX' 'sip-files00092.jp2'
84aff96a5334cd11715cb7d02bf1cb8a
f7daf56d6c6215a77360ccf4047e00b6bd7b4182
'2012-05-20T02:20:52-04:00'
describe
'608680' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABMXY' 'sip-files00092.jpg'
c8391c8afeef77ae306661376dcaeb33
2fb51e1dfeb511adf542f44cb5b15c68fc69b2af
describe
'79255' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABMXZ' 'sip-files00092.pro'
9bee39d9a19fca1de8bc3fa550875aa9
97b271f8876f959f331483af709ab940bff58da1
describe
'184386' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABMYA' 'sip-files00092.QC.jpg'
400869be3e03caaf4b06b8e3e229f1af
96794bf9135f6093582157e77c910071a9cbe6d3
describe
'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABMYB' 'sip-files00092.tif'
66c93ab6e5a0048bc6b68971fb34b143
9b3e8d68c8dcad69b098803e4838a05334ad715b
describe
'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABMYC' 'sip-files00092.txt'
b57dd134b537c244e797405deb4fcdd7
acf2e8afcac4218ff836786f660cdfa3b8714755
describe
'47751' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABMYD' 'sip-files00092thm.jpg'
f6d97dc346bb7f98781ae3b5ff8db2a8
4dbec41f25fc741e82f557bfda9fee586a17eee8
describe
'487784' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABMYE' 'sip-files00093.jp2'
6afc16c66483ba9fc40ca0a476ac984e
741971bcd9c17268c4076d0cb531105d7d3aca20
describe
'598474' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABMYF' 'sip-files00093.jpg'
9bf73d178202c7e62dcadd5050f6bb57
72880e43a36f211a11a04877ed807fe9e191d567
describe
'79035' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABMYG' 'sip-files00093.pro'
66502ec256b8414f04864cd6aaaf0467
565b0a17beb4847f012665433535d9bb8e41f516
describe
'187833' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABMYH' 'sip-files00093.QC.jpg'
98c21e1a1081bd63640f60193fbb0a9a
4dd847c597a5e165bb4249b1d76acc2fa3e2747c
describe
'3904692' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABMYI' 'sip-files00093.tif'
5afd89fea325c19aa224349301bce34a
5275300d5bdf41e4334742f91fe75c291a844cbe
describe
'2961' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABMYJ' 'sip-files00093.txt'
893b0f4882105e6a6a4944d5f517e1d1
50d1f124c3fc34edfb918f8e1ff4df933cb7a1c4
describe
'49077' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABMYK' 'sip-files00093thm.jpg'
9f3093193339374032b6d517e5e30bff
0959f3418f40e1b28b9ea878cbbb8f29e5a1c5c1
describe
'572150' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABMYL' 'sip-files00094.jp2'
24786dea8606d68928f7e8976da26ce8
121221be617d5e1f09e0cf312e7cdc6752c02583
describe
'564163' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABMYM' 'sip-files00094.jpg'
19a9e9edab7a797be9c853a9f29bd6d7
15a45496bd0b6c032179790fc310840833c7ec5e
describe
'74523' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABMYN' 'sip-files00094.pro'
9a1fa8db1e781124ac920e096e00a1b7
4e7f2609385f71784b3031f31b3c89458f0f022c
describe
'167977' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABMYO' 'sip-files00094.QC.jpg'
eb42d79f787521aa10e1b053b00cbe62
53711570102347266ccb264ac4c377fcd4610a50
describe
'4579850' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABMYP' 'sip-files00094.tif'
27fa7a0da5f426828377f4f4e3b1c052
333835f8cdc7c2e76c4c8438753f5c238e2131ed
describe
'2784' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABMYQ' 'sip-files00094.txt'
d9970ce458b76e8db52a53e7c1c9e1e7
e9a731e02941ad9850188c7c7a74798e73108b5e
describe
'44605' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABMYR' 'sip-files00094thm.jpg'
81a6596bcdd04083a098ff9d8a0de874
6dbbe7695317f89f02a4b3599db5c060a32038af
describe
'572149' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABMYS' 'sip-files00095.jp2'
887aed8c6ef313b64071a15d74e5a368
6ce96fbf71bd0ef0eeca12842d8235397acc58a8
describe
'516092' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABMYT' 'sip-files00095.jpg'
efc75912dad5ff3f2205c87fb6ac1588
2c38f4db187f1d5e91fd6693ad6ddd0d018167d7
describe
'61345' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABMYU' 'sip-files00095.pro'
dc25ec0d790df6cc5abe26b698c68ee9
18ea9f9d55a057aeeb7a68aa8d07531fccf782b3
describe
'159808' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABMYV' 'sip-files00095.QC.jpg'
39b6872cd4aedb1c590e8d983d4ea973
8b5561d51136956c49bce8d90be5a18fb01491b4
describe
'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABMYW' 'sip-files00095.tif'
8e19191766dd524e6a8fdc52d9fae17c
a5d7a72cc6c8588c9e447ab1443c08917775b792
describe
'2283' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABMYX' 'sip-files00095.txt'
c5efa69f7c592c600a76199c464b6863
660939fb0efd496241c679ffa9fa45e863ea793e
describe
'43506' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABMYY' 'sip-files00095thm.jpg'
9134ecebbbb19b73dc48273c09707ec9
e11bd75b22112c49f03ce5a5dbc4b13bfa7e672d
describe
'576462' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABMYZ' 'sip-files00096.jp2'
5c47ceaaf8528cbfaf51540dc2686ddc
d0a49ff4453fe6a12d7d2f66799700acbe8f4bb4
describe
'503137' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABMZA' 'sip-files00096.jpg'
144ccf8dbca331e69c99e04979402035
d6763d7a6085087ddced00c0e18850a697b57389
'2012-05-20T02:24:23-04:00'
describe
'60980' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABMZB' 'sip-files00096.pro'
60e9a585b330ca8d70828ea4f3e08d71
b1a898583d36563854014bb9430ac42fbf620ce9
describe
'155121' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABMZC' 'sip-files00096.QC.jpg'
b9b1bce497f1e62a8ffacb6a5a57359e
17ec5aed8c0190df26f50c27109f5ef01f29c84e
'2012-05-20T02:22:11-04:00'
describe
'4614340' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABMZD' 'sip-files00096.tif'
9eef920dea6bddc6c485e9c45d8d057d
8257f32e27b7729d770a46e186ad213d5691cf3e
describe
'2235' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABMZE' 'sip-files00096.txt'
bbd15b496ae90fdae3deb47358d1f96c
614879c62722e7aad562d3c191a8dd556b6f2bbc
describe
'42197' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABMZF' 'sip-files00096thm.jpg'
4e2e0bef15c3f978482dd3be135c2905
4f81e07527f3ca5686ec91863d056fef05ecc62c
describe
'572130' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABMZG' 'sip-files00097.jp2'
d6bd82a35da8c16dd2fd918984719062
1e2702802e893356c384d8187ba267b19e3a7aea
describe
'517391' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABMZH' 'sip-files00097.jpg'
77a89a877a81b9c3c1c80941b85f5355
d068370193962524afa3218295da0904ad00a79b
'2012-05-20T02:20:45-04:00'
describe
'62956' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABMZI' 'sip-files00097.pro'
9b53146a78ef0d301dd4f081f5d48be6
30d1199c90f7bbf5c191c59a36dfb5825307568e
describe
'158346' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABMZJ' 'sip-files00097.QC.jpg'
abaaec04273b53f82691748ae7c0fd7d
a7f497eccee9ed671db126e33a64eda41a5ad457
describe
'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABMZK' 'sip-files00097.tif'
b1c70c5d4d312e13e9c34d95ef96bb66
5e7118ab82519bbea06e8d151857ef569b5c5e7b
'2012-05-20T02:22:13-04:00'
describe
'2310' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABMZL' 'sip-files00097.txt'
f8c972fd514be67ae4f21696ed2bd734
45b584a25213e67355792b20d391099794dc5612
describe
'44804' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABMZM' 'sip-files00097thm.jpg'
be3c89d7796b0f21b36b6d40558ede6c
4737f7f4ef1eeaded7782fe108af0b366b0ce014
describe
'572124' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABMZN' 'sip-files00098.jp2'
d6840c26b688e1d26fc2e10cad150509
8e721fc98a06661c1b0023443d919df2976d471e
'2012-05-20T02:21:40-04:00'
describe
'511616' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABMZO' 'sip-files00098.jpg'
f32853e0167ec81dac9191c71dc2026d
c84dad536489828959471e9d36faf131cd30f06b
describe
'59433' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABMZP' 'sip-files00098.pro'
bca67af8861caf63c940a57d807f0b81
63b426b28da4c59d10160423ca31d31bbc14ebb0
describe
'155725' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABMZQ' 'sip-files00098.QC.jpg'
349132c4f4f472b003fe196939860e01
653ba595226d9f879bbf9f27b9ea98ae0f10d8a7
'2012-05-20T02:26:49-04:00'
describe
'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABMZR' 'sip-files00098.tif'
fd9ffdff61c8988823e30314b420ffe1
71d98f1931d9d065ca21791f39d644c2705e701b
describe
'2181' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABMZS' 'sip-files00098.txt'
53e964c0f2e0c95f6eeeb1b400581009
d30cd52c4eeafc675e1c38169c4fcc794c683eb3
describe
'43224' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABMZT' 'sip-files00098thm.jpg'
c230fc8e2e0aba0934dd0e7a93fc2f31
3353c3b6429ed4dd97024f0d20acc79f2aadb535
'2012-05-20T02:24:59-04:00'
describe
'572108' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABMZU' 'sip-files00099.jp2'
fa443896fd27bcf3eb652cb013a89e23
9c0dcae217369e572745a28fd57459bd98c93d47
describe
'501328' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABMZV' 'sip-files00099.jpg'
42a8855e4481057661d48a42bd46d9b1
322e92be07345e3f801ec09f0ccdbb02ad2159f1
'2012-05-20T02:20:57-04:00'
describe
'57935' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABMZW' 'sip-files00099.pro'
1d826071029869e08cdbd98917eb8d7b
6c7130827d693a9fdb088b2f0d61d07228dbcab1
describe
'154535' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABMZX' 'sip-files00099.QC.jpg'
3c7ba9ead4c8c11281852555e6044df5
f8fe7cacff35206ea5bd5264be87c4a972825628
'2012-05-20T02:25:08-04:00'
describe
'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABMZY' 'sip-files00099.tif'
9dd89871926f9a7c16998804a44fe2ba
e71a973a9daa4adfb817c20abcc0ca2a591b7f61
describe
'2136' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABMZZ' 'sip-files00099.txt'
89c4693e457cfdfdb2c2b7c13accbf63
2226248bcd8f08dd67c7375da7855f358aae0a42
describe
'43055' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABNAA' 'sip-files00099thm.jpg'
498ec21514b94a4669a04618e2c7da29
cd0fd1a1ec2512d2624024802c11238b841dd088
describe
'528631' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABNAB' 'sip-files00100.jp2'
03561b383a81bf47cf63b22561f119c6
94b113de7444d3fb01232c03eac38dafdde5236b
describe
'533031' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABNAC' 'sip-files00100.jpg'
41f70debf8c5c019230ccafe4712626a
f25ebc0c7c2a276557f745c26838bb3ba330980b
describe
'63058' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABNAD' 'sip-files00100.pro'
f85eea1e46176d90ca5b62e29436fc4e
7647b50ee76d3f939b1bdaea4018b426d2cabb4d
describe
'165541' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABNAE' 'sip-files00100.QC.jpg'
ce39951c5a215cd2727089b8f2e755fc
029245bd720c0d4efacc151754c6a77a0c1b2427
describe
'4231570' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABNAF' 'sip-files00100.tif'
caff0316fbeb4b20c61450aa73d784b6
61a03ab030180884665d594329a821c74c438539
'2012-05-20T02:21:08-04:00'
describe
'2319' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABNAG' 'sip-files00100.txt'
eea515533af9ecf4e80b233143532bba
e8fa5612aa13ca5025e701924c50c4d78cc31a0f
describe
'48006' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABNAH' 'sip-files00100thm.jpg'
aec79cd8c5487af0d398b3ea1e4666e0
74023590323188d3f003a08c52d338dc9cf15f32
describe
'497095' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABNAI' 'sip-files00101.jp2'
765b04acf9da938289641982b64b5ed9
cf6dce67393e62705f9d6e546e8ec8eba560c395
describe
'466334' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABNAJ' 'sip-files00101.jpg'
38a8081ca7f919374a7ece25d308ce45
2a6fe2f68f85d4f46f256d6b4baa66ec147fb1ec
describe
'46301' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABNAK' 'sip-files00101.pro'
cb3c5a31ddb02d666cba1e2955f05e3d
aa53c826c9eea51c5937a7c4bf98472c30feb7b1
'2012-05-20T02:22:07-04:00'
describe
'146701' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABNAL' 'sip-files00101.QC.jpg'
fc711b4e4666d4d56a335fce81d8ce1a
22885ff0ccca85d6c8881f28563aa9955f1792e9
'2012-05-20T02:24:38-04:00'
describe
'3979242' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABNAM' 'sip-files00101.tif'
871c416341d6bc112fe54f5d0b7436d8
dc384a58d6cd264f1c6904cbc7e5cae5ebf21d7d
'2012-05-20T02:25:02-04:00'
describe
'1716' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABNAN' 'sip-files00101.txt'
87e18916c426dc4f69c29bf25e905be7
462f23c49e0c5733f83d590bcf730afe5ee9aa23
describe
'41373' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABNAO' 'sip-files00101thm.jpg'
28f25b4f88b94c03f66fdf23d09ca5a6
ec4f34f42dc9da20e1e9cb69f3517346a41fc221
describe
'511251' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABNAP' 'sip-files00102.jp2'
fe16a7b1d1f7929ab9a92e17790da1d9
c2bba7496170fd57b463bcff2fd0698512de3366
describe
'505485' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABNAQ' 'sip-files00102.jpg'
c8261ec825d7b9e12a4cb0b6166c80fe
486c84c990ae6c8ab69432f1630a811b0ffb3291
'2012-05-20T02:23:29-04:00'
describe
'59326' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABNAR' 'sip-files00102.pro'
4ce04ffba69851c02f5959072fc6f0ef
b23633242afd953380e42e6791f6a9b9df590afc
describe
'157221' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABNAS' 'sip-files00102.QC.jpg'
1deaa8b216b9684fdffd9eba1c9d7650
c7e94d13798a2adec900a2915fb265ac38af4060
describe
'4092698' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABNAT' 'sip-files00102.tif'
16368be52338d708391294ede49053d7
d050c8811992847adcfdfb67c58288ff6edb21fb
describe
'2269' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABNAU' 'sip-files00102.txt'
6ee92a5a06b39cd0b566ddb56ade4f73
ece513a7e17ae235b05ed7055d84c93de98480bf
describe
'43606' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABNAV' 'sip-files00102thm.jpg'
4fc3a5007934466f3b73604cef2a8ced
1c3ccb6e95319812ff0c206de942963ac27408f6
describe
'517094' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABNAW' 'sip-files00103.jp2'
5b4b510f056ad35adf17ded70e609500
ab7e6858b6e1a50c09816bd096aeb0a2a4523c71
describe
'555143' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABNAX' 'sip-files00103.jpg'
ddec62805858f3db183f7255253fffe6
d4b7786f5b6c4b4a36ed28970e190618cc630157
describe
'69694' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABNAY' 'sip-files00103.pro'
097879c00bdee22d35aef9178432bcff
7689551b8ce4954c5372f9932b151c6ba831172c
describe
'169843' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABNAZ' 'sip-files00103.QC.jpg'
4839b6e7801544a39ea65bdcc5cba9c5
85f279b83ad3fe7cb554b9f0b56f737aff20090d
describe
'4139346' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABNBA' 'sip-files00103.tif'
8551378f6423d6f7f85c3f5b388167cd
71039c3bdc8e2f17b65364b55ed475c3da4f517c
'2012-05-20T02:26:08-04:00'
describe
'2565' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABNBB' 'sip-files00103.txt'
d4498e7d01254b266fc0a3b23668df68
24f74a0e91907e57760dfe0cf7db285f563bc100
describe
'48658' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABNBC' 'sip-files00103thm.jpg'
f14d6fdf53e5a461b655ae2e34e235af
d573e87e6487edfa0119409c7542357a0b111906
describe
'515917' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABNBD' 'sip-files00104.jp2'
e32018ead57e3c7c31230e384c2cc243
81593b074768cf370a567c965078df8bf241a3af
describe
'514221' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABNBE' 'sip-files00104.jpg'
e858eb81d53a6f216e465d75da1907f8
798d96fefd6bec6ebfe76826bab186f39ee9d9f8
describe
'65081' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABNBF' 'sip-files00104.pro'
2660974b98b66a891128da44299d1542
69ed645d720fea3b37b3dc594e6c9206c4f67b73
describe
'162106' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABNBG' 'sip-files00104.QC.jpg'
1a6dfdbad0f9ff31aafefa0536b81deb
98b4e30d0a2f3e0c614869e23d73b678c6f9a732
describe
'4129878' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABNBH' 'sip-files00104.tif'
cd1466eae61d54e4e87689ebfc6105d4
1f3ad429647046a9ec6ae0431dead195918736c9
describe
'2399' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABNBI' 'sip-files00104.txt'
0057275c52776cd9c8b8591dcae07d76
b4902700a6e364c2623a252ee73bb290abfc3e68
describe
'49629' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABNBJ' 'sip-files00104thm.jpg'
9d0e6cc7cba1fc820d916e0332bb350b
3fbed2cebbeaa5175bccc63c8a949e9ee7a272fd
describe
'496385' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABNBK' 'sip-files00105.jp2'
922e6a302475c667eb62a8cdd24c04fd
31d9355f7fad34c2bddeca038055faf1fb96794d
describe
'527616' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABNBL' 'sip-files00105.jpg'
43bb4b4172fd145b9bd6546c2fb22d35
bb3be939728475913f81a060bd76482839b476b1
describe
'64817' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABNBM' 'sip-files00105.pro'
ae6858b78f22c0adb913e72bef6a7c15
416027f950e6a0b69e5b3d960cd0601360dcdefb
describe
'164517' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABNBN' 'sip-files00105.QC.jpg'
486016304b7abc96eb406b829e1452cc
d7d2f417147a3f45105ae8c6819879c249de675e
describe
'3973506' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABNBO' 'sip-files00105.tif'
851c39bff8425d2a24c2f7dc525effa3
b2f25151bcd79dce18dc81acacbce91e0a0298ec
describe
'2401' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABNBP' 'sip-files00105.txt'
abcc29e3879bb11dff27c8cb77584ab3
864520ab1a4729e50c94f7164f39576366e87d9c
describe
'47724' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABNBQ' 'sip-files00105thm.jpg'
ac7c585bc828e2ad1c8ca0d0d534933c
fe494b7b696a4e8af416c09697b71a2a4ac5a4b7
'2012-05-20T02:26:28-04:00'
describe
'506049' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABNBR' 'sip-files00106.jp2'
e0d615a0db1ad8869d632bc06dcbfd40
96772ccd448e25291fc62b5767e87c497ecfcb2b
describe
'533394' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABNBS' 'sip-files00106.jpg'
743aff7d1d1e1828273d39deeb24f5e8
d2ad75023a8da3b742e76e8ca5632c84b61e2bdf
describe
'68279' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABNBT' 'sip-files00106.pro'
70b1241b998ff76c153b5c693098d8b9
9c6829a43aedabe342b2ab1ddea5aee8dd52d05a
describe
'165870' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABNBU' 'sip-files00106.QC.jpg'
3c5d585f03f1bc3251a33dd521fcfc32
3130e353b8ed3717de44ada5fe161244e46bb45d
describe
'4051080' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABNBV' 'sip-files00106.tif'
c98d23e87e58bfc545c8c073aea16260
af8f21011da2eec048ce9ba6d0f8bd5f62514217
describe
'2519' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABNBW' 'sip-files00106.txt'
4fe8c9736da10710236dc69a4323fe62
9410ed023b044f9bf3632353575d10afb7a0e03d
describe
'47974' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABNBX' 'sip-files00106thm.jpg'
f6dcd4876681c6e82ba71bc79d96d5f1
0d7652a440db8d67d1c27aae9fccbf57b138c8c6
describe
'519458' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABNBY' 'sip-files00107.jp2'
e79ef03c5b53060d4bc1a97e9a022494
e26fb370b856057a0eb7c4b75170878ab8b11a6a
describe
'513116' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABNBZ' 'sip-files00107.jpg'
74617e70d10edd08eb1e729e2de664c9
2671fdf81c06b53d44a2d59d0bdb0ea4c3032900
describe
'65453' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABNCA' 'sip-files00107.pro'
9a1a58616a6f7b72dca61b2f3aeea985
332c126aecdffab65fae6652370fe24aaa5fff4c
'2012-05-20T02:20:54-04:00'
describe
'162972' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABNCB' 'sip-files00107.QC.jpg'
ef7ab435a92d331f273a67f05a69ce98
07ed445a0ac92d248976fc59deda8031243cef84
describe
'4158338' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABNCC' 'sip-files00107.tif'
5dcfcf6171fffefc9d18b361cc0c43f4
54ab9581009bc5fbc56bbcf61cfd8b2747318236
describe
'2422' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABNCD' 'sip-files00107.txt'
f88ff9005661f1e5a2467fbe52efe4c0
ab207426d7441900e6e8cb93b5b6ea335133d88d
describe
'46663' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABNCE' 'sip-files00107thm.jpg'
852fce4d4a96c47551586f84c3deec34
70612b2387d80c3732e385a3a4840387c4de7f82
'2012-05-20T02:21:30-04:00'
describe
'528908' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABNCF' 'sip-files00108.jp2'
91784b921795779a11344189742141a1
899b47f4342dbbb15ddae0051ef8b035754b7f15
describe
'504506' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABNCG' 'sip-files00108.jpg'
17505bcbe281cb30f2098d671e02fb33
8c98ee9c2f8bacf24054d5bf9905899f71388132
describe
'61944' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABNCH' 'sip-files00108.pro'
d2fd3a6d1415a569c6b59f21cedbadf2
c9156c3039f3d8a09802872a251b6d5e62ee0966
describe
'158581' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABNCI' 'sip-files00108.QC.jpg'
ebb3c1a6beae35ec58a3de7726589661
30a305608e36e66ce9490ffdc5fba07653dc702f
describe
'4234678' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABNCJ' 'sip-files00108.tif'
7850707bdc6a580ce1abe800700f77cd
a30173598d67c2e82c68a90c10422549d5706839
describe
'2300' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABNCK' 'sip-files00108.txt'
8c12b7c0eb068f0a4dd3ab3afc6c197b
ea32e7d3261a48f86afce3aaf1bb4dd4d7508318
describe
'45653' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABNCL' 'sip-files00108thm.jpg'
59b8dba398bbb4256566a7d0edd2c913
7fd0b97c2a8c4e164d4f9628a3a1a51324af5c4f
describe
'507497' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABNCM' 'sip-files00109.jp2'
c2e0e0ebe17c08ff8c97dd1137d73247
4ec363bbe0ae573bd462a570e52eb82a0440507a
describe
'506014' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABNCN' 'sip-files00109.jpg'
eaee447e4433d3848051cd80775a92ba
c60665861c966d09d1ddce9f1259a3c78143a315
describe
'58061' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABNCO' 'sip-files00109.pro'
6d6d78fdc6bed003cdddf21fdb366664
6e0c2dcfcfaa4b8bd05a2a16eda9c5b2da72f162
describe
'158105' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABNCP' 'sip-files00109.QC.jpg'
ebc63db4c1632a2f3954bda910b7f470
10d3c64210eaafb6098917e2e0b545fb232221f0
describe
'4062582' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABNCQ' 'sip-files00109.tif'
8d00872277927fc5afac2af47c15d119
1dea9a8df46a80c9aad1c492c76ef537f8a0a3b4
'2012-05-20T02:26:19-04:00'
describe
'2162' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABNCR' 'sip-files00109.txt'
783e6ccd3329578a25403647788ef5c7
eac601d9d9088f86961be084c1e643d9139c3c17
describe
'45052' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABNCS' 'sip-files00109thm.jpg'
d11fd04fbbb831665dd6950c894d5141
e919c918d856f7b39c25a465296630fc6c13d9a9
describe
'517175' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABNCT' 'sip-files00110.jp2'
643107af542cf58b83e468427ad9e083
41daee9beaa69c4fb52cb789bf28eca834c29276
describe
'508649' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABNCU' 'sip-files00110.jpg'
2817feccae3f5940c3ad508290628994
b87471c8de87832a7199f1d85b28e1a782c08e9f
describe
'62478' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABNCV' 'sip-files00110.pro'
f6b3c33833d7b782f5fddf9fc732c022
b69abb266dc38c855cda45840bcf3f454d1e532a
describe
'161719' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABNCW' 'sip-files00110.QC.jpg'
44776993cf4f9fdf8d6e445ea0b9ea17
dfde0216cc27609ea65416cb6a80a3494e066e08
describe
'4142380' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABNCX' 'sip-files00110.tif'
44d4953ac459471256faade7ec4ab3e6
db02b5637f4dcea75003e7b8f1f1b9ce2ef73607
describe
'2313' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABNCY' 'sip-files00110.txt'
5a0ccac618e9c64188e21d3fd52b8fc3
9e01653001cef326a41a68902dc56e5803a0a1e8
describe
'46995' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABNCZ' 'sip-files00110thm.jpg'
17b839370e4c56e1b24638c1136fa2c5
9fd4769fe6a650a204c721ba2c44b3efafb4e657
describe
'505314' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABNDA' 'sip-files00111.jp2'
9d500e168eaf96ffd396dc490bc5eb98
683284475f8fa1d8cdec385d2ee06dece42beb0b
describe
'476815' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABNDB' 'sip-files00111.jpg'
8a9728f39fa5724a0ee82043fd3c6809
7fb91466a13d7781bf5016cd3aaaf624ae758cb8
'2012-05-20T02:25:40-04:00'
describe
'55910' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABNDC' 'sip-files00111.pro'
46b7d0844e30b04060ca52c316517569
a42a578e849ed0d57ae6aef008fb5574758b8ae3
describe
'150219' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABNDD' 'sip-files00111.QC.jpg'
e36d63ddaf941c90b0f504f7f8ea8bf5
72591bbb920c317a7202e3a0fb4a6c9db970448a
describe
'4045056' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABNDE' 'sip-files00111.tif'
7bad6673191d8a0a2fef711b46ce8175
900fc3120c7521158a882e74ccccd9271046417e
describe
'2086' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABNDF' 'sip-files00111.txt'
fec9c864b13e15f9fbb2456eec68db46
4ebddeffa97db09d2225153719d8091f923c0376
'2012-05-20T02:22:00-04:00'
describe
'44414' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABNDG' 'sip-files00111thm.jpg'
779d258d54834bd956142c73bf4dc130
a4773bdb02789c2322bf6026b5e55d8cef0c558a
describe
'474600' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABNDH' 'sip-files00112.jp2'
e8996de352b8307fabba8126c8dc1f6b
b3d5089fa4fa709b0b0236ffdec2dc71530bfaf9
describe
'544669' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABNDI' 'sip-files00112.jpg'
a95edd52cddb6eec11d021112bfc1e52
99e667010d7571f5a839d02405c03b6c6f9522d4
describe
'62661' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABNDJ' 'sip-files00112.pro'
5ed4ba3a63fe0e29f5efcea79bd16671
e8eb04cbddba539e68d13c6fd86175a008d45097
describe
'171339' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABNDK' 'sip-files00112.QC.jpg'
29ee537b5df88a570d7f93bd1d35e0d2
770fdd9fe6986b290ffd1414ddef5afd8b4824a1
describe
'3799326' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABNDL' 'sip-files00112.tif'
adec58569b060e94eea926ffe81eeacc
06cd5e4e91cab3bfda5999ebe459505af76cea1b
describe
'2317' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABNDM' 'sip-files00112.txt'
ee59c8a402980c6047c314069f9555c8
e7798c8df03e1dbbc589d7ca9e4f0cad3ab70d74
describe
'47661' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABNDN' 'sip-files00112thm.jpg'
a04189ff2219963dda65744bad360119
42dd6872ecc8d1c7cd09a38cda44599c0db4352f
describe
'474485' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABNDO' 'sip-files00113.jp2'
0279387e41357bdafc835c2caa2b0507
352481e7e50ca23b9ba05c0267f9fe7cb56f7843
describe
'547225' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABNDP' 'sip-files00113.jpg'
ceae1b3f27e63fe2d933138bacd95001
c46431fc080d71f7612ec178bce995c4913f11db
describe
'68022' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABNDQ' 'sip-files00113.pro'
0b9a03240e376038ba455160473428bd
73d126065a74e8fbc9aee08b57aea635cc2997da
describe
'172847' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABNDR' 'sip-files00113.QC.jpg'
996be3ee423cdbc4bc4893b035a02330
01c4fdfd90c5bf13e677bc24d67c8d58b75039d1
describe
'3798342' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABNDS' 'sip-files00113.tif'
7197302d074b2831a6895c6c64ec7ee2
f7920ac3dd0dfb1eaecb7fa4a489aa662d885bb3
describe
'2517' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABNDT' 'sip-files00113.txt'
5b659dd155289d37364e8db17357482c
4520d9f92d0b445aff9565374adcd62ed7d4812e
describe
'50514' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABNDU' 'sip-files00113thm.jpg'
dd92f63dc976af0dd470d788a0ae9caf
1c548c5e22689d372dc9c5d4b5c3f03a0d08ebb1
describe
'494762' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABNDV' 'sip-files00114.jp2'
b5f6e7fde44efa1f624dd3b6fcf81b67
57b1732e1acfba62fa141d44bf7eab0bbca2768d
describe
'469989' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABNDW' 'sip-files00114.jpg'
92662e7563ad44039095f4ad638162f6
6600aa0dcfb79dbf1f4977d51c3d20e220240657
describe
'55883' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABNDX' 'sip-files00114.pro'
870b115f9795527c00e96eec96243080
dd3d4e8c46551b8d169492a9868dc56d45f40a28
describe
'152440' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABNDY' 'sip-files00114.QC.jpg'
0d0b8685533cb41bf5533ed0f90fb78a
3a55d90609a06aa04a6c14bafc6fd2391cd10635
describe
'3960782' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABNDZ' 'sip-files00114.tif'
0a4c7a63f2d82f4b7b2026d98720a0fe
1c224599f288c19ef029064623bee27880c6b0ea
describe
'2068' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABNEA' 'sip-files00114.txt'
54b64f046a0a9d9727da465311c5941c
5111df3414179817cb391a3485a01aa590366469
describe
'43511' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABNEB' 'sip-files00114thm.jpg'
566250cc092a817c2b580ef4d62a8b2a
a253061bae8e38bdf29abec0890a9262ae519161
describe
'418741' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABNEC' 'sip-files00115.jp2'
a42c27d910665113044253302d7b2044
39b77bfd86ca82039c498c733c613172f8494c40
describe
'235905' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABNED' 'sip-files00115.jpg'
1be4397de9f52ef746e5fd36315b9a30
a78f4da30c4dc20c91b027bad5788ff3f4f75159
describe
'4673' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABNEE' 'sip-files00115.pro'
a7d9bb8af2adeebb17daa507265a430f
3e947f4268c847fc4a10454d65743dabceaa546b
describe
'69107' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABNEF' 'sip-files00115.QC.jpg'
2edd1a6b46fe855bbeb9f355788b6d4d
e94e22b16ce6e3565f51e0d90aa4ba76bcc813d6
describe
'3351998' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABNEG' 'sip-files00115.tif'
ec4c1fad0b8e96f096605cb718e11a14
2102bdacca1676b4f46e93f2bf63ebdbf5a8800a
describe
'204' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABNEH' 'sip-files00115.txt'
6203191e446e939b818715349710aa97
2b205672fddd1f7f74ec1571a6840dc39fc924ad
describe
'19639' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABNEI' 'sip-files00115thm.jpg'
0cac45b63d393d5f7c4e71dd0037238f
296064ec5c01b544196d8824e64c2a0eec335b15
describe
'561881' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABNEJ' 'sip-files00116.jp2'
c035782dcf138ded5ddad08fc7563b1b
775168f108468fe2b61bb0cc8699d3a2cd0bbdcf
describe
'454013' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABNEK' 'sip-files00116.jpg'
a9b4dfc4e430f7af08eb59ac099a1ebe
db8c073267ce24587bb84c240c16f6e9660a82b1
describe
'45547' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABNEL' 'sip-files00116.pro'
ff3a7d95129c8867f93a4a6402611fb1
01679e9acec05c07e611c5b8a484f79e8611bbca
describe
'138368' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABNEM' 'sip-files00116.QC.jpg'
ca4b492f96e9050b66a3034e217a190d
4eaab2e43cd34404266ac2512dfe8eb912fc3b18
describe
'4497730' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABNEN' 'sip-files00116.tif'
c4944ce6f80f714bda144cc51f3c19eb
346d040e734c8775c7ffb646cc50fe9a9636d5ce
'2012-05-20T02:21:58-04:00'
describe
'1715' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABNEO' 'sip-files00116.txt'
2d2eb6056aa9aa1a3a04d9110e03651b
61ddfb6b84d8c103f1d5a23898b8cc827a4ef22f
describe
'37565' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABNEP' 'sip-files00116thm.jpg'
3941ade23a3ff5f393b79bf8cdf8f416
8e70836c80b0115f7d006965e274c5a58ea055ee
describe
'525722' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABNEQ' 'sip-files00117.jp2'
97c07f6529020268ba275f43e9317a53
0142a491210a5a3e5a06c0a9710ed9bd0c14fa83
describe
'421639' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABNER' 'sip-files00117.jpg'
0377fa043112b3aa7e0c1b4459daf071
057849a9f1479c33538d14c1d95cdff8d1acab38
describe
'42555' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABNES' 'sip-files00117.pro'
8e5c352e6fd4ba19d4a45978d69e15fc
4c9543c39db1c40cd959926618119440db646be8
describe
'11942' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABNET' 'sip-filesi.pro'
9bb2d8b23f87189222c11ca31301f9a0
cf9f588536652062676a8b698aab3431542dea3f
describe
'133155' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABNEU' 'sip-files00117.QC.jpg'
4ca56b685af148898164e8f3d3492942
980c0d24c9671ba6454f65e548660e8e5911e711
describe
'4208478' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABNEV' 'sip-files00117.tif'
c9393f6679959accc7f5a46ebf47dca7
fcafaa7b2802900d9a5375de5e7547632bd048a4
describe
'1616' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABNEW' 'sip-files00117.txt'
a8bd91ac0fb7c8afdf61dab0346998c3
513fd0874a10958033ef8d90c17a0033590d94a8
describe
'39216' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABNEX' 'sip-files00117thm.jpg'
08728f00634180b387306b7bccd036a7
8d50ba0ddfba55e07fa970a30314c83fe6241e5d
describe
'536098' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABNEY' 'sip-files00118.jp2'
6bf5aa6a64548e33f1071f899a790c58
8459e45a426f47134c2e1aaaa8378b6b8999f346
describe
'442080' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABNEZ' 'sip-files00118.jpg'
f9299b38c0137ecaae0425c910b55cef
81331029fbb834633f98db549e5b84f9acaaa055
describe
'47896' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABNFA' 'sip-files00118.pro'
656f43526a3e62201003efc460437dc9
010466fa4fa38c9ce334db1589f0a8fab4eacbbe
describe
'135703' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABNFB' 'sip-files00118.QC.jpg'
61ea0613b3ece66d03cf72830f08d258
f05d4fd0f5ee4e5c9e810ccf867b1420ea47fbbd
describe
'4291434' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABNFC' 'sip-files00118.tif'
ee166b786041e2acccb4f7042a17b7c5
ebcf33ddf6a6a328ee6faced0c3558c9f647e089
describe
'1812' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABNFD' 'sip-files00118.txt'
a25bd3ed200c410a7c821276da259c11
681b35d463f40d5415007452662c5f4194366023
describe
'41245' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABNFE' 'sip-files00118thm.jpg'
7aaaaadfa24c4f4a3956b5ae71715b4f
797ec170716904b0b51b28504b44ea76638c0f32
describe
'512616' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABNFF' 'sip-files00119.jp2'
686c0cc53246c5ce5e0325c311fedb54
ee8ac3e04dd2b2ad14095c077daaa4bf747d1f91
describe
'408532' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABNFG' 'sip-files00119.jpg'
7e4dd93d2017506abb9abece91eac8f4
52d740a4974f0859eb6f892c849bcc5bb3e06cde
describe
'44001' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABNFH' 'sip-files00119.pro'
4f18cb82cc98b990923095171697dc5b
d38bc5b3de4b1a46a53d76f470cccd4277fed9c2
describe
'127767' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABNFI' 'sip-files00119.QC.jpg'
8d7a48f29be9fc57b802a42d4af3a898
f8b3e2786f1da3f3beecf390e7ee3e027b13f0e2
describe
'4103454' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABNFJ' 'sip-files00119.tif'
3aa8fdd12c10c4060de34321bdc61910
23c71cf796aeac7f77dfe03086d910725e213fe7
describe
'1630' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABNFK' 'sip-files00119.txt'
5e984bad9b6a9cba186a5f12f6e85c67
b6d3b1ddcdf28e69881ace82688e2386ff7c605f
describe
'36870' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABNFL' 'sip-files00119thm.jpg'
b4aafa3676a4c6259fa6969374358d51
2b270fbe3cc62c77217ca779f2fb650a17d8c4ee
describe
'515437' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABNFM' 'sip-files00120.jp2'
6659dbf60327460443f7624ee7d8fe3c
f40ca033fc6114032ad93d07ff0f1f48670462c1
describe
'286203' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABNFN' 'sip-files00120.jpg'
c5f0018a57179fd16e26a25821fe0e85
06f38fd4a98100dc4f3de8f83abc2abf91799a9e
describe
'10140' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABNFO' 'sip-files00120.pro'
dce801aaaddec08a5bc9b0a455963ffd
681e59bfa5a528dd960c64ec36a923998bd0d3c1
describe
'81900' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABNFP' 'sip-files00120.QC.jpg'
6ee2dc660b73d2aee5084f260fb91555
0eebfb67af01e7d12da5ae1d9147a3f1f7084c1b
describe
'4126422' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABNFQ' 'sip-files00120.tif'
41dcbcf7dc372d7ca7a85829268483a5
7136707ce3da203f067209b6c121753143f1be49
describe
'385' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABNFR' 'sip-files00120.txt'
ca6cd60799be77c77742d6d42b9d4f04
4f40681a6b6e6c9516abede2d2ec802ee9f40b5b
describe
'24181' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABNFS' 'sip-files00120thm.jpg'
eea5d7bd3c45fd7763f30a9416873478
845002084e8df6f0c25c98d8e2ed47cb7c3cc8e2
describe
'518669' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABNFT' 'sip-files00121.jp2'
c54097e3bdcebb8942d61bd6c019b445
1cefc542d2c73a26ff7ccc8ec36bf73b8df84049
describe
'540859' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABNFU' 'sip-files00121.jpg'
fa49ab8e2d6fe14947d4dbfec384aa56
021126531fdcb0f53ddffeb0918ee1fc366c1ba1
describe
'68551' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABNFV' 'sip-files00121.pro'
55e57c79de7d7923f83a16d10ada644f
780143c41ede33e905a9ca03d9718b48abcf69ea
describe
'167191' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABNFW' 'sip-files00121.QC.jpg'
60d420f46db2b0edf2174ad99cb255df
2a19c7462e7674b1d7ab5d1a6423bb2adfb73df7
describe
'4152272' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABNFX' 'sip-files00121.tif'
0c19afaa91e41e96cd08d57a5df4388a
cc62a945db907b505c4f543a536744b505963a16
describe
'2650' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABNFY' 'sip-files00121.txt'
c1121624965b2a5374360fe5e8666f73
bcac60425fe67dc762dbdd6f49966786e4432826
describe
'45815' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABNFZ' 'sip-files00121thm.jpg'
cfd9fa3d927b60c25f1f47f159fe22d1
271448711afdd39db511c28c2d09e0971d0e066a
describe
'525949' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABNGA' 'sip-files00122.jp2'
467e8e1c0848489d26f975c1ce03ad1c
acb8f625ab60f0ab1146f78c2ac0e722c4679d0b
describe
'518707' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABNGB' 'sip-files00122.jpg'
c2721c8772802064bf087c87cdcdcb2f
818aa82af61a2cdb22817d60598e1cca201198c2
describe
'68758' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABNGC' 'sip-files00122.pro'
4949e411337df050461122d0c9105640
4e11487f38ff4f557b3ab39cb2cf2bb5077e289c
describe
'164079' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABNGD' 'sip-files00122.QC.jpg'
cec19e4a2763740008d4c692a308d18f
822785ba33b54c904c348302d3f62ca69da2b539
describe
'4210438' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABNGE' 'sip-files00122.tif'
bac73b2a77902b6b4784fef265781ba7
6e174bf4a3ef7ef3391b2707f1e54c0268c519f4
describe
'2651' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABNGF' 'sip-files00122.txt'
e0bb1950fe94bf4848a42392c15e6421
e955a9cf08d7c79be1aacc2b14757024f15c3527
describe
'45957' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABNGG' 'sip-files00122thm.jpg'
272eff071fe60859fb4828c68d527dc2
7786dac8fe4fbe49f6d5a6ceddd50f2cf6ecf20a
describe
'514401' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABNGH' 'sip-files00123.jp2'
a4fcb10b53f597869f65a146bad5fed1
e0ca1b35a8945dc4c8b9ff95113afa8acf27d6dc
describe
'444647' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABNGI' 'sip-files00123.jpg'
81989bb841db7ae68a4e864c8246c6c1
62e038e0b75b601f8670caffb493191b47d7e2b1
describe
'49302' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABNGJ' 'sip-files00123.pro'
2246088492c46a8231b18f06ac9f3fe8
727dc74f61fc61b073a9ce678ed7fbd42491e886
describe
'139046' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABNGK' 'sip-files00123.QC.jpg'
fa71d5c96d36c1702bf08275cb42e2ac
c7cd1aac15a7ea40ca0c642779c763cb9d5d6aa0
describe
'4120148' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABNGL' 'sip-files00123.tif'
495a366ceff011d47ad5c86e354b75b1
dd7db646eed227921402de2ea57109731152787a
describe
'2014' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABNGM' 'sip-files00123.txt'
07696fb54e84f8b268352d8cbcc1cb67
ad145aea55f17879a1f54dd35e7e9b27eb2522c0
describe
'38620' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABNGN' 'sip-files00123thm.jpg'
a60051ca760a2232447302406948674e
f93ae5deff258ca2b975a762a187f9a0bb9183f2
describe
'529594' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABNGO' 'sip-files00124.jp2'
3bf591314c30166bbdc62d15a6f77996
3f98ad6c6d0a69cf46ed8fb24ac3b514b4c066e2
describe
'485485' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABNGP' 'sip-files00124.jpg'
5fd1443610435d9ba8ea5b59455daeaf
d21c90df6fea915a868003e5bc3ddd9a776097b5
'2012-05-20T02:21:35-04:00'
describe
'50773' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABNGQ' 'sip-files00124.pro'
1afc1fe3f7e36ec4bded101b389e40d9
e7c386dd03237fd65dc8aaabf32940e3a7b1bbc8
describe
'147681' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABNGR' 'sip-files00124.QC.jpg'
b495bfaf601aa943a57f998068820d1b
fc989c539272a5092d2f7f6863c8f2a87090e24e
describe
'4239206' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABNGS' 'sip-files00124.tif'
c7643153cd4d28382f6f7e953fb5a943
1f578075614125395b6034dc067e1638278dd86f
describe
'2398' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABNGT' 'sip-files00124.txt'
39476954042b10d90c31bab10590b924
6a68c66556cd8666c746b049247dafbfd9a47624
describe
'39145' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABNGU' 'sip-files00124thm.jpg'
c1bc802ee8bec7dfe59b6dd62c94b410
b8f7fcd3686212792a888b0e0a03b587df79f7fb
describe
'518621' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABNGV' 'sip-files00125.jp2'
de066ca461e0aa18afbfb31a46567063
c7735cc078392048d3dab3ac78f0f3038c961c65
describe
'579897' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABNGW' 'sip-files00125.jpg'
8ec4687629a9132c9a459c0330b09b9d
a6af0688f492bf8184449d28d41ef9b86df340c0
describe
'77647' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABNGX' 'sip-files00125.pro'
3fd5674a2b591904a70697d483dcbe52
e1a95f47fcbf043bb0063ac8fb6ca5bffd42302f
describe
'177772' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABNGY' 'sip-files00125.QC.jpg'
b5ecf03669ac3a0a218bb42ac309b6bc
7d1a2e2c7539614f29e0e484617d7b45ebd91d12
describe
'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABNGZ' 'sip-files00125.tif'
15cf89377d0eb538872b2a2809ad8004
5b74566f0893da4a1655dbd81d5d43c47b69b9bd
describe
'2944' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABNHA' 'sip-files00125.txt'
96bd27042660317169b06f04c150e9b2
6c809251b600222985eab01a2544be3eba20c8cb
describe
'48003' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABNHB' 'sip-files00125thm.jpg'
9f58359f5594ab7a53d6f6dfe3226aff
b4a6aa195a4a9bf248894bf30e0804340fa52274
describe
'514673' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABNHC' 'sip-files00126.jp2'
25311a3fbe5722b6ec043b8e3a56fb39
562428d5f89265997001ea1308c7bd22614d4268
describe
'547856' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABNHD' 'sip-files00126.jpg'
a4e3cd899b00f31ceb16ebfeee3d1116
e8e902cbc062e8cd84c9f5a979245c72664e3968
describe
'73794' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABNHE' 'sip-files00126.pro'
1a0b59bd9ce2ed6c7592f955fccab099
b67c2a4e144d0bd7cd17f239e3e09ee9fc49af91
describe
'172539' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABNHF' 'sip-files00126.QC.jpg'
fd15cb061f1ae29f293dec88ea3fb463
d709722127985e70dc619d15fa33a507aa5d1131
describe
'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABNHG' 'sip-files00126.tif'
99990c9200bd309e99591de8854cde9a
2afdcf4fef1ad30d17c87e276102851b9c70df9b
describe
'2809' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABNHH' 'sip-files00126.txt'
52fb5332272cfe7527fabba239d1380c
a61aecfe3d652e1a2d5458d5a9469230b9d7064e
describe
'46478' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABNHI' 'sip-files00126thm.jpg'
7f4590a6db024169f7452e96a1fbef62
8a21494eaabacecc896404404e01c8955b447e81
describe
'500581' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABNHJ' 'sip-files00127.jp2'
2e1bdf19e0cbdb10d70af1a64578ee03
49281eb06ad21be0d2fd92426d925bd59377e73b
describe
'552450' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABNHK' 'sip-files00127.jpg'
f7a7a0c8a4e6fea49d5b46a06030800c
061b7e472485d28315d8b173de8b50baa64437d7
describe
'79252' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABNHL' 'sip-files00127.pro'
6b1b0f388785fd1fa67fa534ef551008
cd9cf153688dfd997accf1c5602fbf41ef34704f
describe
'175948' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABNHM' 'sip-files00127.QC.jpg'
074762deb769530f846ea68ff3cec656
4096cf845f12e15646d6730c515f7e16d7f11f02
'2012-05-20T02:21:51-04:00'
describe
'4007154' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABNHN' 'sip-files00127.tif'
ef5e178a2f3f0bb11f39fca31d2c1a67
1652a2311e836ccfe0f6a9c149dc569053738283
describe
'2998' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABNHO' 'sip-files00127.txt'
906bc84a12c2d65eb6a914b5e21990b1
6406b57b34257933d70f3fe81f22b6957b4d5a80
describe
'49929' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABNHP' 'sip-files00127thm.jpg'
759e078b0e4c4176d1d6ff55844a5036
1b1c13c71c7c757d7f379ddb177bfe31fadfb78b
describe
'531562' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABNHQ' 'sip-files00128.jp2'
3d68221a644095f66ffb52777cd0cac1
57b82e2530dc4cf28220f979f452e05f7b0fd6d3
describe
'572477' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABNHR' 'sip-files00128.jpg'
b219e2a36685c2ae43311c3a8f035422
ac6a70b7d1da40fede995ae839652a0549c2a5d5
describe
'79570' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABNHS' 'sip-files00128.pro'
3d0653a38347adc2437a2812fcdc7026
58c2a8893358939a50ae960d0d5e6ed65d060ff4
describe
'177096' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABNHT' 'sip-files00128.QC.jpg'
ca231db016d6f41faa9f5db6f7e9dd0c
d5aab4b63ac7d8f842afbb0168b2fdb74a3fd70a
describe
'4255764' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABNHU' 'sip-files00128.tif'
c68ca2a3c742893caeed3d825e48bc2f
09d055f912d645c53a80f08df5df9e7434d4441d
describe
'2918' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABNHV' 'sip-files00128.txt'
a06f1f355c62e9b18787b4815d5c6392
abef7594fafc1ac1b8ec1889b696438ddf9b0691
'2012-05-20T02:26:13-04:00'
describe
'45953' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABNHW' 'sip-files00128thm.jpg'
e06f76376bc815bd841317618b94754e
a906244e0de3fe26e856ddd66d39979588194366
describe
'502508' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABNHX' 'sip-files00129.jp2'
04a3247ea3b08a51a8e2516b9f186d79
54851400c8bf22069b5f3cb14063001481658176
describe
'467576' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABNHY' 'sip-files00129.jpg'
ae2ee42b8ca5abc199c0e1cee43f0965
66cc0319e8b873d28131824e9da67373082c0be5
describe
'58118' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABNHZ' 'sip-files00129.pro'
fddd7d8a8117f8cb95dff8dba199705a
b917b95b529a22f3e126c166cd9bd2b54ad0e257
describe
'148620' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABNIA' 'sip-files00129.QC.jpg'
81ce60b13809b43456776237975a834a
06ad6b596261d901bc77a0ee121d1b5aed9c3f2e
describe
'4022674' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABNIB' 'sip-files00129.tif'
b4ee60cdaf331e6d15220459903b3e2e
578b9d5be6e99e52deeb048628940ae4e2b740a5
'2012-05-20T02:23:10-04:00'
describe
'2320' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABNIC' 'sip-files00129.txt'
607afbe16bf6a37b2ee1e03d1aa4b010
df7af9e51bcdc47410d280a2de7603b1127b59a1
describe
'41296' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABNID' 'sip-files00129thm.jpg'
7e389631ed1cfc802b66c80fd40e63f8
11e7e860ebf92861faadfa3232af2e857c0c0b94
'2012-05-20T02:23:05-04:00'
describe
'526680' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABNIE' 'sip-files00130.jp2'
4982f9c22ee2ddc1bb034fe01169426a
21a6c384691e614a630e4364b8abe1393dc580d4
describe
'537365' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABNIF' 'sip-files00130.jpg'
e0e324f685f8f30a91c9de5aedb63089
616b6adffa8c8c6546ccaba21b100ba08c0b6cb4
describe
'70704' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABNIG' 'sip-files00130.pro'
dab470e7eac962c0bf781673bffeef19
74f7144cb22de7346f93abfc05034132a2a54589
describe
'167912' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABNIH' 'sip-files00130.QC.jpg'
d7c3b1b7142cbd4969142fd396c688ce
993e98cc12b5f98e79a361bebdd49609b136be16
describe
'4216512' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABNII' 'sip-files00130.tif'
5e5663b05a007bd764ca1963979f4b0a
27f6eb7b4af9a05a0b5665a306db6a188992bfc7
describe
'2613' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABNIJ' 'sip-files00130.txt'
38cdcde0e7101a8d95edc6e07e02f6b1
21a620b02bfc2e1ce185c101161f77884d6f92f6
describe
'47796' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABNIK' 'sip-files00130thm.jpg'
cd58df132e850eef56b67b6b45accee2
480081e8b7108d72f03fadbd241807e010f05713
describe
'494140' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABNIL' 'sip-files00131.jp2'
4341435cd11c1fb258d24bc0bf67f537
6c9cc377298edb1a8a9c0fb004d626049001d0d1
describe
'565957' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABNIM' 'sip-files00131.jpg'
0207640909d5f38cdbcb05b9ae24d65f
0abcd6d1a420c3396a093f21b0802f09afd0e0f3
describe
'75123' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABNIN' 'sip-files00131.pro'
745bc07b9181161cfd6b657edb07e800
426325332902767763506be8f7267f430d09935d
describe
'177743' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABNIO' 'sip-files00131.QC.jpg'
df94a52eee482c75e7a7e476445ed193
f5cbf7d99202d167551d2239d0e0c895bb080843
describe
'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABNIP' 'sip-files00131.tif'
8de9f23e0ec9d0f376a678eb472ca8b2
55bdecdefcae965074ed4d9e8960c74aa39a3957
describe
'2770' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABNIQ' 'sip-files00131.txt'
35c521d17c2dc40a40651eab18506fef
94f5d0a3bf1880462a19e8ab23f7e25eea9055bc
describe
'51018' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABNIR' 'sip-files00131thm.jpg'
512cb3b045a31a6d8b3e33783e87ab54
99dbdbff6265c669cd4965278fbb9d685a51045e
'2012-05-20T02:23:20-04:00'
describe
'509361' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABNIS' 'sip-files00132.jp2'
b17562d5c41785786f1fee0962e6ca40
543d58101eb723503de8820e945a0c98f2da018e
describe
'597383' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABNIT' 'sip-files00132.jpg'
e4ff88be01cfa1b5c9e78d03b8a7f8ee
06927b46ee54b1bec9c1284f009ee5a5165c48aa
describe
'83284' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABNIU' 'sip-files00132.pro'
63f1f11272bd0c1f462ec529f1613886
c1b917994e5e55538bb1952d4bd49d928cdf1ddb
describe
'181172' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABNIV' 'sip-files00132.QC.jpg'
13d03c6f2db67d6e0f74d185c8f9dd44
a5a9dc51cb4d221ce871c258af4e500bf41d200b
describe
'4077478' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABNIW' 'sip-files00132.tif'
a701dc43ccf1ead226479c3547c8be56
e14888fd778c0f99d70480d4749e7ea6b39926df
describe
'3053' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABNIX' 'sip-files00132.txt'
0c63eb4cd23a8db30c2ad622c664f728
158f55e3e192aefebd409d5cae6a5b7bf33d8384
describe
'53226' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABNIY' 'sip-files00132thm.jpg'
33d5a6b351fa922f99e9f693307a22a1
f29bf3a7a12b391102e7490e93295dc47cf1c069
describe
'452899' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABNIZ' 'sip-files00133.jp2'
53a2ce0b0a664c49b3752eec172abacf
681748d5084c92d31f280ee6e9a8335737f78cc8
describe
'344811' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABNJA' 'sip-files00133.jpg'
c72565f8b6a40daff0730499fd8dc2b6
dd5430ded0ac50a1dbf7069dac60cb9ea17e3959
describe
'30569' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABNJB' 'sip-files00133.pro'
11774c271ebbd57e2d089ec4d9a5694c
b71f3ac68057611c23288651f87648109088629a
describe
'106610' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABNJC' 'sip-files00133.QC.jpg'
2f448811d0a7fd1ebb4a4efc27077e61
e5696627014fc4126b59bd62b699646d0ba66364
describe
'3625558' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABNJD' 'sip-files00133.tif'
9047d0ffd9ea1dfb16c054c7aa8a65a6
ea306e4ad013ecfa7504d050fffcc6f12319ac09
describe
'1175' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABNJE' 'sip-files00133.txt'
9a6e2abbcd6a82e720e34895faa210d3
fdbaf2e7b4f6bd97d8096f09849aa3f5a05649a8
describe
'28508' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABNJF' 'sip-files00133thm.jpg'
9ea7114287a7485ce4f8ae28042c7160
99b0575b18e7b1f116cdafd6e3e19521a76b96a4
describe
'516857' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABNJG' 'sip-files00134.jp2'
f7514e9a6be6a4e3f0676895a971ce28
f80b0c745859b3f7c7ead3973ef6c9a512dcca48
describe
'379529' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABNJH' 'sip-files00134.jpg'
16efc92e25b168bda7039e29d3d795dc
69c8c4a13fa98678efd8b82fb410feccd1d5d455
describe
'32606' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABNJI' 'sip-files00134.pro'
7c6439e656b6a08449de0b11381f7c4b
202815b199da93f22ac18e927d5da4b40bb4843e
describe
'117933' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABNJJ' 'sip-files00134.QC.jpg'
5fc52965d812e410ce7307833611b855
5bf9dd85a60621886d7d8bd76b355bd85576f83d
describe
'4137354' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABNJK' 'sip-files00134.tif'
5cb2787809b2ec181882d5b07695c79b
30e89a2a16a3685d233fccf3b4b27b17a13414fa
describe
'1349' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABNJL' 'sip-files00134.txt'
ed9cd7f8fbf5794ecd7d8590726b0cb8
63fff8f4473f8b5d0e6b97a34ba9327b0bb6f899
describe
'35398' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABNJM' 'sip-files00134thm.jpg'
b602d722b0f65e7ec525981fb4158166
1c407d55a5dd8b3bf32ca1b257c11ce5590731c1
describe
'507903' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABNJN' 'sip-files00135.jp2'
fa99e3f5bc60e9483b6e2e7cb38aa1aa
a3ff1085b493db9a8ded66c042ca3ca9d927ed13
describe
'427282' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABNJO' 'sip-files00135.jpg'
ab76e7975ad2d9bd0b15d06dd555837c
4cb1e1b693ae56b066f665d6870fce2681d71b48
describe
'44435' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABNJP' 'sip-files00135.pro'
de87c9f82428c7e452068939f273a5e5
219b3cf18c7667867e0a7ae433944ee69927518c
describe
'136375' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABNJQ' 'sip-files00135.QC.jpg'
264d95b765c4b8a06166d000cfd85413
008f5f4485bb47a82bdad0aba6ceb82ef25b54f4
describe
'4065764' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABNJR' 'sip-files00135.tif'
18c1349ee20fbe5b968bf09f45a78435
d2490394ec7312eae57a56f14432c054b8c477c3
describe
'1768' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABNJS' 'sip-files00135.txt'
229671e42e5a14a37889f0b117bfb0d6
c55c25efd8ee785d457f05e1de78f4d358ff74ef
'2012-05-20T02:22:40-04:00'
describe
'40403' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABNJT' 'sip-files00135thm.jpg'
b253a59c280a2af12409b259379dea58
5d4d243b2900ef1381543f3d755491b48e6de978
describe
'510467' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABNJU' 'sip-files00136.jp2'
0d443a65e9431d257b2551043742adf2
50584a641f072ca3effe51d7bc442f4d6e3a8be2
describe
'525266' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABNJV' 'sip-files00136.jpg'
a48c3536a6e828b42c91b49b5dd765a3
d47a17ec3c25a1737677bc1aecfa0eeb6af6f71c
describe
'63310' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABNJW' 'sip-files00136.pro'
7f70e2d77b7b4f40cc4fe6817ad1661c
eefecd4f3029581c499910de6a611e48a2c662b9
describe
'163433' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABNJX' 'sip-files00136.QC.jpg'
adeb3fb2044bb91434774c5e2235198f
fdc5470e9876e8ead1f18564999b980bb95b3495
describe
'4086514' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABNJY' 'sip-files00136.tif'
da987d121d79ebd8ef4e1f3752353525
316665dd631fdba1c751640e605fe1e5c1343b96
describe
'2453' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABNJZ' 'sip-files00136.txt'
01398423ebee0810204d05179a25b3bf
19c5d1f334688043493ed76e2c96993662136a68
describe
'44678' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABNKA' 'sip-files00136thm.jpg'
e48479bfc591bd7eaf62189e9a5eeeb2
b248d115813382463292ef3f5ccc1a246c4d18d1
describe
'474366' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABNKB' 'sip-files00137.jp2'
7388ae365b51f26be0e86df041b4487f
ff87c324c8476243153cbe908af369d6954b0212
describe
'587164' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABNKC' 'sip-files00137.jpg'
5cd11bb852205412bfd804f13f37bd24
d3fa811a2e89e83a9ee20a9546e29c7e4cea57ae
'2012-05-20T02:23:14-04:00'
describe
'79593' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABNKD' 'sip-files00137.pro'
0f66726faef325c586efa4d8ed0851d2
1979d6c64c68d09970f5ca1953bc0dda52ad6aeb
describe
'183561' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABNKE' 'sip-files00137.QC.jpg'
7cd5c3833e0ff4ad6119fb079d41b833
3c170c1769cf1a622d576fd0613811f7c4dc7859
describe
'3797634' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABNKF' 'sip-files00137.tif'
fa45c448044a71175499d0908ed5954b
859054520126707d4cfb8a08816b7030b507a2c9
describe
'2979' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABNKG' 'sip-files00137.txt'
a6e980a329f5ab2864cd503c1409070b
51d6066d11d42b946a47098c53540bf1ae69b0db
describe
'50425' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABNKH' 'sip-files00137thm.jpg'
76870283e575e62a2e804ce5f0bce76a
84e9c27c78ba071403894bde8df450e97fe5e48c
describe
'476096' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABNKI' 'sip-files00138.jp2'
d62bacd3ed5cc4dd2699480282d27c2f
c211e7647728e81a73fb0e3b8a9db7b3e1c9f090
describe
'612931' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABNKJ' 'sip-files00138.jpg'
0c1c45b97f073ba4b558be8e3828f697
444c32467ac88116aed19d86d3b37b493cff5b75
describe
'80195' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABNKK' 'sip-files00138.pro'
6851c26d59cb004b0057f25e7979cd55
4ca00c9c048d2b207463f34397705db73207eee4
describe
'192568' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABNKL' 'sip-files00138.QC.jpg'
b26549dde3b7c442730858a3314c4966
c027c73ece4cc39f33755fa483e9c68affd6e1ad
describe
'3811652' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABNKM' 'sip-files00138.tif'
d1fc276672600506b7f9bb3bb08f4d1d
4d081b8031b88338dd71645c538f59a2d5dccf6f
describe
'2968' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABNKN' 'sip-files00138.txt'
887f5c4d8dd12bd2e799e8c9988b9feb
fcafb5433d528250e3e5a82496708dba61bfd93b
describe
'49718' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABNKO' 'sip-files00138thm.jpg'
cfc9fb0b0a7284ca9e25198823044073
8d39ce6b7af81b306abb99090c1a7bd0844e74b9
describe
'469981' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABNKP' 'sip-files00139.jp2'
bb8fc9b2a22f480b2e4258e46afdd611
a4d07b27a16151c71ddf48e9a282cbf7f02043e1
describe
'633297' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABNKQ' 'sip-files00139.jpg'
a5d5b7ad7f41425831550f526adde0ff
230c77b29d77fe9891c6e5d93ab33e51d693c5d5
describe
'86672' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABNKR' 'sip-files00139.pro'
516bb398291d759af3481c059add8ebb
a1b4bea034b2cac19aa13eff019b2c0ee9f59ff8
describe
'196714' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABNKS' 'sip-files00139.QC.jpg'
f6bc7cb1cae904b66d07fb72405e0c0f
a5e84a51e23459658622b1d416116f39bfa4b819
describe
'3763150' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABNKT' 'sip-files00139.tif'
bca6ecb08b3d4f02aad94ca3b2275567
ff7470fd8d8a6f39db83cd10b5f6216e0ffb2438
describe
'3174' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABNKU' 'sip-files00139.txt'
d7071927542bc2e1bd8ab324f6944eed
bb4cadf3d3f9ac14dce622bb0e4f94666471524f
describe
'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABNKV' 'sip-files00139thm.jpg'
009bec31cca99faadbd14d6dcf475104
6d5b2fcbfc335037ca44a114c872c7d58f8b5955
describe
'489903' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABNKW' 'sip-files00140.jp2'
2ed01fb01fc9f61096451a9c3bdf4739
41fce09a7104aff95470671dc46b0013eb217613
'2012-05-20T02:23:02-04:00'
describe
'612047' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABNKX' 'sip-files00140.jpg'
6ee765758ad69c7fe21431d343bd6ef0
4a5e2b249824de152dd7030c156830c2db2acf84
describe
'83237' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABNKY' 'sip-files00140.pro'
ab0b39b193ff9b1f2246dee8f64dec8f
580a9130798b32b1c31913827f685feaf5e152b6
describe
'189372' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABNKZ' 'sip-files00140.QC.jpg'
d611f906961cab8361a0b8c906a703f9
7f561054785feabf0e2138cccfd145fd2227754a
describe
'3921874' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABNLA' 'sip-files00140.tif'
afa136109718601e64134991964e03d9
640afb102d982f3e230b3de902add32593ce0dda
describe
'3058' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABNLB' 'sip-files00140.txt'
7d1e3b03e036d119918bc2c82573fffb
ffacd4d41c25f73aec7536c38c9d66914781d50d
describe
'50969' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABNLC' 'sip-files00140thm.jpg'
d8546b8ab318e63da20dcf878c77da67
47d580cb9251ba81e81f06e6dfb2cb9eebae452c
describe
'476674' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABNLD' 'sip-files00141.jp2'
7fa7165fe27a954351a87dff0da8f8d7
cbae457decceaf6124ffb6f88c4a7f3837b491d0
describe
'578427' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABNLE' 'sip-files00141.jpg'
e05d7906b1aa46fac396bcb6aa31ffad
085a58b3d6fcd65a44804cf6c1e74a091256f3fd
describe
'77372' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABNLF' 'sip-files00141.pro'
9ece247076e4106635a48b689f4b8a3c
c1baa91144bac1f9e05de9c97e65f50742991f2d
describe
'181683' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABNLG' 'sip-files00141.QC.jpg'
bfe17d6fb97a2e8bae7513c042cd720e
e03f798f274da9b15e4e74729e512cddba3ec805
describe
'3816032' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABNLH' 'sip-files00141.tif'
594ff9d75eb9ade5eda2268d1ab991bd
92a8dafdc5d74bd8a4c75b7c600cd375458706d4
describe
'2868' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABNLI' 'sip-files00141.txt'
1b5cdb10682bfa5242c42bbda3cfb603
fbca4401335c8c6cfcddbd0a997026a8b0452dd3
describe
'52256' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABNLJ' 'sip-files00141thm.jpg'
9aae2734ee33dd5a7d01d45cdb8b991a
fd0ab5a41061d89bc808b16718414c1b8537e118
describe
'484368' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABNLK' 'sip-files00142.jp2'
3757b84ee6c0711ff68baecf5004712b
79141e74e2040dbd6c431f6da946971e4f7c3be6
describe
'643440' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABNLL' 'sip-files00142.jpg'
1f76feb064a87f6d7ab2bcced8355bcd
bb2163d53fc2fa2c849f70535298e22b347c8045
describe
'87684' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABNLM' 'sip-files00142.pro'
780ba8dd0271c362ff1e37167534637a
690dc2489fe1fcc3f683ae29f1aa5f0eb863b7ac
describe
'200594' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABNLN' 'sip-files00142.QC.jpg'
58068013406f33f9908b5b95960c52ba
665ea54b818c9a3e8adfd30b1784eaa8d3cba4ec
describe
'3877718' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABNLO' 'sip-files00142.tif'
69787158e071e9ae8cdded5e5815ae42
39f6b5b2edb67d0203b82776dcc1dedfe137b4b9
describe
'3214' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABNLP' 'sip-files00142.txt'
eae8edd3a0ceb42ecd2c94f97d919751
e6fbc314a7146c6d8bf64c4da47ecfdf977dbed2
describe
'50763' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABNLQ' 'sip-files00142thm.jpg'
e0ac9624128b4b63300cfc2b5017fac1
54b9a17ee4059d461491017a4bc280e66f7177f2
describe
'479793' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABNLR' 'sip-files00143.jp2'
b47b6f502c31fed538fcc92b155636e5
24c21a49adce1a336af74ce9bd850ed13bbfa18c
describe
'635527' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABNLS' 'sip-files00143.jpg'
1871aafa904c5d7451cea0e4ea4623d0
c25d311d2aaeedac13a85248ca2cebeb8a4666eb
describe
'90383' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABNLT' 'sip-files00143.pro'
5a94e47f6965c12fc42a5016c2c12591
5d9bbc920efacc9a8f3eac62d666be0292d703b7
describe
'196680' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABNLU' 'sip-files00143.QC.jpg'
bcdd2cf02a093c5335005b665bb05663
83b15361e06f601bc4b2a2855d54ca06f4902620
describe
'3840758' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABNLV' 'sip-files00143.tif'
aac00d2155ae94eeb775a0167f51d8e3
dbff64921f8bdcaf9ceee3a9eeef744f36a9050c
describe
'3307' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABNLW' 'sip-files00143.txt'
b1eb4e5dbf6968243b3e8733882c9844
b406b3f8958f806ac971ccc0d17a660a700741e4
describe
'52759' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABNLX' 'sip-files00143thm.jpg'
3e40d57482a068f9424cd43e1baf2715
335c1789db6a186dc0e6cb469c373c13889a5256
describe
'499301' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABNLY' 'sip-files00144.jp2'
efef566c0ba22dbb139718a2a0e8d4b7
1acf182d69050fdcdca8e660aec9524a5e9e50c9
describe
'606552' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABNLZ' 'sip-files00144.jpg'
8d1be8728337b1e1a75dd59fa4307f70
8a4022edffddaa2e52215b0e723a747514c2aa9e
describe
'82167' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABNMA' 'sip-files00144.pro'
6d166625ab14d8deade7fa68cbfee7f4
526c40e1b7ae1762ca67ea58b93bd8c2f42bf5be
describe
'181600' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABNMB' 'sip-files00144.QC.jpg'
32bf287749c05e6d21f63be4f1eba255
5609db109c26330c2b8651e04e55b07c17062798
describe
'3996914' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABNMC' 'sip-files00144.tif'
c850219838d0410e8659aa3e6de074ea
6cbaeb2d226550cfcc8c0326160d374a5cfebccd
describe
'3009' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABNMD' 'sip-files00144.txt'
e5aa24430c2a7f57c1a8844622e13bb9
38415c2b383f3022572c5e52e627ca6807863e9d
describe
'50217' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABNME' 'sip-files00144thm.jpg'
26c53e9d98f388983f8e305763115779
3e886b976267466a92fe6060d86d65581c20c3a7
describe
'471575' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABNMF' 'sip-files00145.jp2'
1ee2d5747e7da2ed5bf54c47a5da5d22
00013109f0865d487a47cf046b75e74ed2c38063
describe
'603361' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABNMG' 'sip-files00145.jpg'
b929aefe164e1190a2a4b619ccb24075
bba9f99852add5bc1aaa39c4e9beb21a12ce6721
describe
'81079' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABNMH' 'sip-files00145.pro'
6b696e6c0e78a9a018ce9fa63e85f392
4e87e56e77c70795e9d248cb500ec2a394c3188f
describe
'188681' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABNMI' 'sip-files00145.QC.jpg'
480ab32338646ffaa96c3167a9ea4354
58b5814d4deede3594dafba27fb591e63f13966b
describe
'3775134' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABNMJ' 'sip-files00145.tif'
5dbd1a783028b38a79df5ce425ee662c
6dc1275b373a1eb269f85af783f7b59d3f7e6e60
describe
'2972' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABNMK' 'sip-files00145.txt'
f78a5060e8d5a5cdc80a09bd264523af
0a7cebf7d74c3bdad48507e3a42a3f4300c58689
describe
'51182' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABNML' 'sip-files00145thm.jpg'
37bc2678e4171c0c22e13e9b6f1c4c19
4fdbbec8b5bbe4a3062eda609bf7696f9f903b27
describe
'479373' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABNMM' 'sip-files00146.jp2'
c88866795895812d5e5b09be001a5cf4
dfa6e7f0e5e2e3b302f3475cb10020d9e365f5a7
describe
'642262' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABNMN' 'sip-files00146.jpg'
35e4898ba28100dfaa4a237301054adb
46c91e8ab521e40b03061d7224e8d3991c166398
describe
'85083' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABNMO' 'sip-files00146.pro'
140c5d1b18c6aab02c571f12081488d9
2074df480bfa9b80d4dc3abd174b6da5c8f0f341
describe
'198685' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABNMP' 'sip-files00146.QC.jpg'
4ab5cde73d5383f1cf6f92c0f0c41a18
23b359087df06b9fd64a2c50bf9902682b8562ac
describe
'76722' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABNMQ' 'sip-filesi.QC.jpg'
16ebafadf992e183811c38ef9e15268f
6f3e041064ed0731d785199760239e54a06766fe
describe
'3837460' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABNMR' 'sip-files00146.tif'
b72d32a8bad593572c140ad67fa2736f
881feb95e70e44275aa8cbb4c1ba71fc8a613296
describe
'3109' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABNMS' 'sip-files00146.txt'
17575179a9be7029554fbddbf4c29f06
11bf457783b88e89dacb1f57b9d1ad0c05ac2b39
describe
'49863' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABNMT' 'sip-files00146thm.jpg'
83301c9982f8fa3556af156ce5c3a47a
bc8c477ba7863ac2dcefaa4a0df91d11f00c022b
describe
'476223' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABNMU' 'sip-files00147.jp2'
1520dead875de789cb59be3aa3ed5770
cf9ba0bba8a135156d6ae3ff147e5744f58feda0
describe
'635368' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABNMV' 'sip-files00147.jpg'
39fb349441804b2d82264e8ae56cc297
6dfa7826ac5600693a3589d1d56ec2fb65d8e759
describe
'84255' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABNMW' 'sip-files00147.pro'
abad3c7a88b0a470055c3f2f23645d63
7d48d400af6fa6748a2f20804322bc57d91880ba
describe
'198294' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABNMX' 'sip-files00147.QC.jpg'
0c52df8e06528588f8e30409e25eefc5
8b4b96731d83e9b0e5c0d8b76830ef073a77e3d6
describe
'3812960' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABNMY' 'sip-files00147.tif'
ada87574725bbea1eef2af87b3c12402
c369c36472dca90d65c2bba352881d9193ece2a0
describe
'3108' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABNMZ' 'sip-files00147.txt'
3917a78c42cb129029453b4444b425a9
3e064e5555459d3b4f34ed8b0c197636979f4d2b
describe
'51699' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABNNA' 'sip-files00147thm.jpg'
17310559324665d8bf2a8a0d3c23ea1b
82e10cddee8c8d8add294ec1cbab82f2f191c0c9
describe
'510313' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABNNB' 'sip-files00148.jp2'
42fee67027b6c11c477afeaa7c44ed86
938cd590bbbf7ec082bcde92ceb31b82dafb3647
describe
'549629' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABNNC' 'sip-files00148.jpg'
48a2cbbc82d88077038f2280afc9cb08
134a21f1e4f10bf90088731e9531274e01c2110a
describe
'78880' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABNND' 'sip-files00148.pro'
9e57641db498dadee63ff81d3b38a27f
424c4a99ad1cea6c4e424aca91959db7468e63b0
describe
'170882' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABNNE' 'sip-files00148.QC.jpg'
4999e342afd959f74267d820c6dd9735
c41a013adb49a7bec75682df0cdd7e91b9c07ce4
describe
'4085062' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABNNF' 'sip-files00148.tif'
cab978ba332add523816eaaf687c1a0b
a487a5eecadb91015037acc4473ee8ba86e2398e
describe
'2913' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABNNG' 'sip-files00148.txt'
1a5a3361e37115528ea2592b2fc89334
a5a58017764d778065ebe10de240749cf9f23551
describe
'48060' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABNNH' 'sip-files00148thm.jpg'
ac1070b4ee98c211d4f7cf1287264be7
08e854758f1618bdf400b08b63475065f9d028ad
describe
'501528' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABNNI' 'sip-files00149.jp2'
b4c79bc0be87a81881c6d0e32466b847
474987360ea5f0b636f7b2d3b09d0022e5a8d056
describe
'546698' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABNNJ' 'sip-files00149.jpg'
b860484ba21539fa7b42098c2f5f329d
37b0afe289d8c4395cceba05cc0ff0eddbf569a9
describe
'81743' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABNNK' 'sip-files00149.pro'
65dc1496e7effba7472f0722f38b719f
2ce33ec4a6d58a8ab7917be24d8830800e34707f
describe
'174171' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABNNL' 'sip-files00149.QC.jpg'
e92544c8236e01e9c9a671babf6e9ba4
be1fe11617888a0e28453a751ce44a5f3d5df7ab
describe
'4014664' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABNNM' 'sip-files00149.tif'
954bbd85fe33c1c44d3a743927e9feef
09d570452a4a6a944c6dc736be879edd5d5bdfc4
describe
'3001' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABNNN' 'sip-files00149.txt'
001913f46fcfac15a75bedd7b6ff2ee8
ebed04277161e3dd022900dc69b45f3d3b7f5633
describe
'48498' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABNNO' 'sip-files00149thm.jpg'
66388374ce696329b1a90275164b8e42
2375e133bb5817bcbfe3bdc31e5cfe320108f566
describe
'452275' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABNNP' 'sip-files00150.jp2'
a088c5a0f425b539a30d8cc7154a7424
9ce012d82c8275ca2e1ba09d0b470e115253f1ac
describe
'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABNNQ' 'sip-files00150.jpg'
63c4131e67499ad73b0ee9c594b53d6d
748b7015dcf9048fda4f7f8eb3911cd132a729c6
describe
'60272' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABNNR' 'sip-files00150.pro'
ea10793c3bac3d93c8b3a4258e2d38a4
126972337b874c8b4fe1aeb371c5b1df59cc61f8
describe
'149229' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABNNS' 'sip-files00150.QC.jpg'
dbfc267e28514d2abb935ba9381918bb
3c1412c05e72e87924f32addd5c1a8a4f813899f
describe
'3620334' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABNNT' 'sip-files00150.tif'
4e4e6d42d5c756b89ac1b447412cbd9d
934c5f1a373784261e0090eb61a8403e7de5e025
describe
'2212' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABNNU' 'sip-files00150.txt'
2f12060aeecdee1c54ba91343ac39bfb
cdaacc8481eed5fd2c4d20f94e5e475337517e4f
describe
'39577' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABNNV' 'sip-files00150thm.jpg'
e084498cdd291c66296a0f2d06687e68
a2bf47bbb5bfea2b3d99d3bdad06782b10e195c6
describe
'474206' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABNNW' 'sip-files00151.jp2'
4a60c773ff4274c377ce910bda4aa53c
ed4e5bfb41052c0e8d1b35b0471dc3f9560e8e33
describe
'570772' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABNNX' 'sip-files00151.jpg'
8de87beaa2d8f9e4bcd6b00549826b52
a8d59ba1f2784c98f76654b8434d9af743edf34a
describe
'70527' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABNNY' 'sip-files00151.pro'
05178bd3fd27bf2c3794d62dcef9e44f
72db79b461c48220f02f8286e32e4a0591d7e1ee
describe
'179028' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABNNZ' 'sip-files00151.QC.jpg'
649b4ae89a394c282766b8a8b788ea1f
6d4b8ebff5fd72407ef375bf24c1b48defdfae91
describe
'3796186' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABNOA' 'sip-files00151.tif'
3f45e4512e9797d88a065055bf17360b
710b3c3f93d6d23b7bc33b90886f6ff6e1f7f447
describe
'2707' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABNOB' 'sip-files00151.txt'
6ae75f281959be974d8186d09b819ec2
4979e17b78f9ee4d1bb06af536e5857ce3cc3969
describe
'48422' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABNOC' 'sip-files00151thm.jpg'
7734746744984d2f01300bb08bec86aa
43971c5ef85ccd74ed66d325b0a875ea9bbdeae6
describe
'3547836' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABNOD' 'sip-filesi.tif'
6c7d5657dfcff300e58bcf410f7a369f
971588a26300702acf76e409e7ec8972544573b4
describe
'621' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABNOE' 'sip-filesi.txt'
648a59dc55c056cb6e36bacbe8a29ee1
25bb4d036359823125acc31f4f7901aebad78dc3
describe
'430885' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABNOF' 'sip-filesii.jp2'
228b95157c2828474d6c86728a1844cb
42617b1c770083a68640b94b04bb746a107ffa7c
describe
'285740' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABNOG' 'sip-filesii.jpg'
2c380a4cc2309409b281a06152d1a70b
b0ccff019dd8bdb9cce3ebf6c9682a48f49da852
describe
'8813' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABNOH' 'sip-filesii.pro'
aa65aacd1bb078fe1e45ea32730f1930
59a82ec5dbaae5cefa1ccb3bd65ba04376956905
describe
'84414' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABNOI' 'sip-filesii.QC.jpg'
03819b4bd6dc81017c30ce555a4e67b4
404bd502ad340a09a048de15c544eba7faddfc83
describe
'3449554' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABNOJ' 'sip-filesii.tif'
504746d975a432bbcd514a72cd88c445
dcf5c365494a7aa5182354106181e7cf3bc41ee1
describe
'418' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABNOK' 'sip-filesii.txt'
85978bbe8a714811a4dfbc3cdc282729
eb477ec5c23d31e161caf7d8a820d1bf3aa165c1
describe
'470658' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABNOL' 'sip-filesiii.jp2'
2c4a39d032402647fc11aba030682dec
722e3a9b7e6368726d2daeeb95e2d1e3e9b4c9b8
describe
'335073' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABNOM' 'sip-filesiii.jpg'
450f93421c4e924771b000bc55fa0aa5
334bb430d43aca2c00d707817f163d4456591aa1
describe
'24945' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABNON' 'sip-filesiii.pro'
ab692a07332cf13a4ea9859ae404db4d
ec59cb6307c3f5a6ae5fd0e669cf201eeb18e85a
describe
'101908' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABNOO' 'sip-filesiii.QC.jpg'
ba13d45ca34543a5afda5d4a18a8889a
57335ee4a01e4f672241eb20f6ae8d3a2c999079
describe
'3767766' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABNOP' 'sip-filesiii.tif'
ab05617e2ae0b47abfc34ad39207e744
b3afe7a1234fff686e75dcbccadbae930725d3c2
describe
'1106' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABNOQ' 'sip-filesiii.txt'
4a6c8e81f9c87adc1333dabf5ae3c6f8
ec5152371529be9890c53f161b8dbb54244cac15
describe
'31339' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABNOR' 'sip-filesiiithm.jpg'
d2201d77944aee4ca69a2650c55dba06
943fa5e0df43902024f2b932e46cc2d9516a8f39
describe
'26812' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABNOS' 'sip-filesiithm.jpg'
62afb6b99771a4daa70b4f1a39f663a5
2fcf035a6045e552ffd9ce73c3e053e3883f69a4
describe
'32040' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABNOT' 'sip-filesithm.jpg'
47e40350ca78c911a864d95573f812e5
558aa000c8714657b96207b61af794efe6741f25
describe
'447851' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABNOU' 'sip-filesiv.jp2'
d5cabeb397a4d9e766758f0e4a7b0bc2
373f388e2172eae0d943ad3e3924105fcb21bb96
describe
'223729' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABNOV' 'sip-filesiv.jpg'
790fba5fa469c9509d3b6a864a53bf92
0e1837aa1efb3b4c812cc649fd5a0b24c24ebf01
describe
'2576' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABNOW' 'sip-filesiv.pro'
8a8060b02e5be08fba139f9bd2582f46
a5c988925c7e4de72375a47b254acb065642e8c9
describe
'62883' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABNOX' 'sip-filesiv.QC.jpg'
bbb63ea396f7cc910e2bab359e9d5e9b
1f2f3ed89192fe601279d3ea2aa961326f3e92c9
describe
'3586056' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABNOY' 'sip-filesiv.tif'
75ca16ded2a47c3d32d35fcc1918af18
03a7db39971cb4e534a45b5eeea6f5b2bf606a2f
describe
'215' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABNOZ' 'sip-filesiv.txt'
2e707a4069d2f69f6eb1dc100f237d33
2329b1450220148c7bea89d39a70f52160948c1f
'2012-05-20T02:26:33-04:00'
describe
'22114' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABNPA' 'sip-filesivthm.jpg'
18d9a7a7f4a31d0f9760ed23fc226de6
df870657cd9f42c8c9c7db6640e7d3ae1fc8cbd3
describe
'187683' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABNPB' 'sip-filesUF00000469_00001.mets'
dc43a742d86d37d1ef752ca137ac9795
066c3866799374ce2538956dc6f5fc486d3cad8a
describe
TargetNamespace.1: Expecting namespace 'http://www.uflib.ufl.edu/digital/metadata/ufdc2/', but the target namespace of the schema document is 'http://digital.uflib.ufl.edu/metadata/ufdc2/'.
'2014-05-27T11:36:56-04:00' 'mixed'
xml resolution
http://www.uflib.ufl.edu/digital/metadata/ufdc2/ufdc2.xsdhttp://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema
BROKEN_LINK http://www.uflib.ufl.edu/digital/metadata/ufdc2/ufdc2.xsd
http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema
The element type "div" must be terminated by the matching end-tag "
".
TargetNamespace.1: Expecting namespace 'http://www.uflib.ufl.edu/digital/metadata/ufdc2/', but the target namespace of the schema document is 'http://digital.uflib.ufl.edu/metadata/ufdc2/'.
'501217' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABNPE' 'sip-filesv.jpg'
924caa2a9cde0f0917ab11bf02f625fc
0e76bbadbed3abdc10b8bce160fbca34ae7c55cd
describe
'520005' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABNPF' 'sip-filesvi.jpg'
a00dd5d985164ad76580da6878ca80a3
74ae8fb1502770af8de70fba34397071a4a712c1
describe
'455146' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABNPG' 'sip-filesvii.jpg'
41f02d7b7805dc4466c893efe55bdb8b
1ee285eb9bf8454781b9c8215147b1c2f35a3e59
describe
'441512' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABNPH' 'sip-filesviii.jpg'
28689cb757f8132e71025f36d22fcccb
52cd9210c0cbf424567f0e2c23badbbc43f0d09e
describe
'486502' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABNPI' 'sip-filesv.jp2'
3e1518fcd93ee73edf1dd450b95faace
5de014f82659a30b0fae30d4d8b115cdacf8885a
describe
'481680' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABNPJ' 'sip-filesvi.jp2'
f9e2f3c5fa6b6033e94b49fd65a1cd86
c6f39fd073d695e758501a8c8434d3304e6138e6
describe
'549614' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABNPK' 'sip-filesvii.jp2'
b2ed9d9d68b1df5de79f834e5fc8e1dd
fd3e155daf27760c3d3cf1ce22e650efc9ff835e
describe
'471643' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABNPL' 'sip-filesviii.jp2'
da208a974572497af46433e79133e64a
c9a76f886952154579d9380cac62d4b49dc8d289
describe
'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABNPM' 'sip-filesv.tif'
99f751ff0ec708df84239f04e068ac14
093eafcd7948e67263581acb5b251085e201c1f0
describe
'3856116' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABNPN' 'sip-filesvi.tif'
632408ab71ac2477d1a8054d4ce4b704
e80d8324d3972f4a55f5063c27041b9e7f008307
describe
'4399634' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABNPO' 'sip-filesvii.tif'
9be5ed8e30999c9c28bb114110b52db2
d5c9ae291485be5f625134f40b8f23e363294ebc
describe
'3775600' 'info:fdaE20100112_AAAANQfileF20100112_AABNPP' 'sip-filesviii.tif'
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PAGE 1

S TATE OF F LORID A D EPARTMENT O F NAT URA L R ESOU R CES Elton J G i ssendanner Execut i ve D i re c tor DI V ISION OF RESOUR C E MANAGEMENT Art W il de D irector BUREAU OF GEOLOGY W alte r Schmidt Chie f S pecial P ublicati o n No. 27 AN OVERVIEW OF PEAT IN FLORIDA AND RELATED I SSUES by Paulette B ond K enneth M Campbell Tho mas M Scott Publish e d for the FL O R IDA GEOL OG ICAL S URVEY T A LLAHASSEE 1986 UtuVtRSITY OF FLORIDA LIBRARlES

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DEPARTMENT OF NATURAL RESOURCES BOB GRAHAM Governor GEORGE FIRESTONE Secretary of State BILL GUNTER Treasurer RALPH D TURLINGTON Commissioner of Education JIM SMITH Attorney General GERALD A. LEWIS Comptroller DOYLE CONNER Commissioner of Agriculture ELTON J. GISSENDAN NER Executive Director II

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LETTER OF TRANSMITTAL BUREAU OF GEOLOGY TALLAHASSEE July 1986 Governor Bob Graham, Chairman Florida Department o f Natural Resou r ces Tallahassee, Florida 32301 Dear Governor Graham: F l orida has an estimated 606 million tons o f fuel grade peat and devel opment of F lorida's peat as a fuel source is becoming increasing attractive. Additionally, a thriving industry related to the agricultural use of peat currently exists in the state. Peat, however, occurs almost exclu sively in w etlands and is an essential component of shrinking wetland habitats. The Bureau of Geology has designed and executed a study of Florida peat in order to c larify issues associa t ed w ith its wise utilization and conservation. Special Publication No. 27, "An Overview of Peat in Florida" has been prepared as an account of t he results of this study. Sincerely, Wa lter Schmidt, Chief Bureau of Geology Ill

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Printed for the Florida Geological Survey Tallahassee 1986 ISSN No 0085-0640 IV

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TABLE OF CONTENTS Page Executive Summary Paulette Bond . . . . . . . . . . . 1 Acknowledgements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 Purpose and Scope of the Study . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 Historical Perspective of Peat Research in Florida . . . . . . 4 Definition of Peat and the Significance of This Definition-Paulette Bond . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Terminology Relating to the Peat Forming Environment . . 6 Peat: Agricultural or Mineral Resource? . . . . . . . . 7 Harvesting or Mining . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 Classification Systems Applied to Peat . . . . . . . . 11 Parameters Affecting Peat Use for Fuel . . . . . . . . 13 The Accumulation of Peat-Paulette Bond . . . . . . . . 14 The Process of Peat Formation . . . . . . . . . . . 14 Geologic Conditions Associated with Peat Accumulation . . 14 The Accumulation of Peat in Florida-Paulette Bond . . . . . 16 Rates of Peat Accumulation in F l orida . . . . . . . . 1 6 Geologic Settings of Peat Accumulation in Florida . . . . 1 7 Inventory of Peat in Florida Paulette Bond . . . . . . . . 26 Mapping and Evaluating the Peat Resource . . . . . . . 26 Current Estimates of Peat in Florida . . . . . . . . . 28 The Everglades Agricultural Area-Paulette Bond . . . . . . 29 History of the Everglades Agricultural Area . . . . . . . 29 Crops and Soils of the Everglades Agricultural Area . . . 33 Subsidence . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35 Conservation Mea sures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36 The Near Future of the Everglades Agricultural Area . . . 40 Mining Technology-Kenneth M. Campbell . . . . . . . . 43 Mining Methodology Associated with the Use of Peat for Fuel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43 Mining Methodology Associated with the Agricultural Use of Peat . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Industria l Uses of Peat Kenneth M. Campbell . ........... Preparation of Peat for Industrial Utili zation ............ Fuel Uses ..................................... Direct Combustion .......................... Gasification ................................ Biogasification .............................. Industrial Chemicals ............................. Bitumens .................................. Carbohydrates ............................. Humic Acids ................................ Peat Coke, Peat Tar and Activated Carbon v 44 45 45 46 46 47 47 48 48 49 49 50

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Use of Peat as a Growth Medium . . . . . . . . . . 50 Horticulture . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50 Agriculture . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51 Energy Crops . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51 Sewage Treatment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51 Economic Impact of Peat Mining-Kenneth M. Campbell . . . 52 Production, Value, and Price of Peat . . . . . . . . . 52 Location of Peat Producers . . . . . . . . . . . . 53 Location of Markets . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53 Use of Peat . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55 Permitting Kenneth M. Campbell . . . . . . . . . . . 55 County Level Permits . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55 State Level Permitting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55 Department of Environmental Regulation . . . . . . 58 Water Management Districts . . . . . . . . . . 58 Suwannee River Water Management District . . . 58 S t Johns River Water Management D istrict . . . 58 Southwest Florida Water Management District . . 61 South Florida Water Management District . . . . 61 Department of Community Affairs . . . . . . . . 62 Federal Level Permitting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62 Army Corps of Engineers . . . . . . . . . . . . 62 The Environmental Protection Agency . . . . . . . 62 Peat Revenue and Taxation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63 Potential Environmental Impacts o f Peat Mining Paulette Bond 64 The Effects of Peat Mining on Wetlands . . . . . . . . 64 The Effects of Peat Mining on Water Quality . . . . . . 66 The Effects of Peat Mining on Water Resources . . . . . 69 Water Resources in an Undisturbed System . . . . . 69 Water Resource Parameters Affected by Peat Mining . 69 The Effects of Peat Mining on Air Quality . . . . . . . 73 The Effects of Peat Mining on Topography-Thomas M. Scott . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 75 Endangered Species Associated with Areas of Potential Peat Mining Thomas M. Scott . . . . . . . . . . . . . 81 Reclamation of Mined Peatlands Paulette Bond . . . . . . 83 Peatland Reclamation in Minnesota . . . . . . . . 87 Peatland Reclamation in North Carolina . . . . . . . . 90 Peatland Reclamation in Finland . . . . . . . . . . . 91 Peatland Reclamation in New Brunswick . . . . . . . 92 Reclamation in Peatla nds of Florida . . . . . . . . . 92 Summary and Conclusions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 93 Mineral versus Non-Mineral . . . . . . . . . . . . 93 Harvesting versus Mining . . . . . . . . . . . . . 93 Environmental Impact s of Peat Mining . . . . . . . . 94 Reclamation of Peat M ines . . . . . . . . . . . . . 94 Agricultural Use o f Peat . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 94 VI

PAGE 7

References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 95 G l ossary of Technical Terms-Kenneth M. Campbell .......... 102 Append i ces -Paul ette Bond .............. ............. 116 Appendix A. Federal Environmental Legis l ation .......... 116 Appendix B. C l assification of Wetl ands i n F l orida ... ..... 121 A p pendi x C. Florida Statut es Concerning Wetlands ...... 126 Appendix D. Water Quality . . . . . . . . . . . . 134 Appendix E. Peatlands Management .......... . .... 136 Appendix F. Florida Statute 403.265: Peat M i ning; permitting . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 51 ILLU S TRATIO N S F i gure Page 1 The process of coal for mation . . . . . . . . . . 1 0 2 T he relationship of peat types to fuel grade . . . . . 1 2 3 A comparison of moisture content and heat i ng value for peat, wood and various coa l types . . . . . . . . 1 5 4 Peat provinces of southern Florida . . . . . . . . 18 5 SWN E cross section from Cape Sable to vicinity of Tamiami Trail . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19 6 Cross-section through a cypress hammock . . . . . 20 7 Cross-section through a "Bay Head" . . . . . . . 21 8 Cross-section through bay swamp and titi swamp . . 22 9 Peat deposits bordering lakes . . . . . . . . . . 23 1 0 Cross-section s howing peat f ill ing lake . . . . . . . 24 1 1 Cross-section using cores to show buried peat layers at Eureka Dam site, Oklawaha River, Marion County, Flor i da . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25 12 Isopach ma p of t he Everglades region s howing thickness of peat and some muck a r eas . . . . . . . . . . 2 7 13 Peat deposits in Florida . . . . . . . . . . . . 30 14 Fue l grade peat depos its in Florida . . . . . . . . 31 1 5 Peat deposits in Florida . . . . . . . . . . . . 32 16 Locati on map of the Everglades Agricultural Area . . . 34 17 Map of the Everglades Agricultural Area showing t h e locati ons of profiles A-A' and B-B' . . . . . . . . 37 18 Profi l e A A across the upper Everg l ades showi ng surface elevations in 1912, 1940, 1970, 2000 . . . . . . 38 VII

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1 9 Pr o f il e B B through the lower part of the Everglades Agricu l tural Area showing surface elevations in 1912, 1940, 1970, 2000 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39 20 Soil depths predicted for the year 1980, for the Everglades Agricultural Area . . . . . . . . . . 41 21 Thicknesses of soi l s in the Everglades Agricul t ura l Area as determined by a recent study . . . . . . . . . 42 22 Location of current peat producers in Florida . . . . 53 23 Producti on and value of peat in Florida 1972-1983 . 54 24 Topograph i c profile of a karst basin peat deposit in north Florida . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 76 25 Topographic profile of St. Johns River Marsh peat deposit in southern Brevard County . . . . . . . . 77 26 Topographic profile of the Oklawaha River peat deposit in northern Lake and southern Marion counties . . . . . 78 27 Topographic profile of the Santa Fe Swamp peat deposit in A l achua and Bradford counti es . . . . . . . . . 79 28 Topographic profile o f the Everglades in Collier and Dade Table 1 2 count1es . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 80 TABLES Estimated rates of peat accumulation in Florida Proportions of the organic soils of the Everglades Agricultural Area f alling into categories based on Page 17 thickness . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43 3 Summary of county level permitting requirements . . . 56 4 Water quality issues associated with peat mining . . . 67 5 Water resources issues associated with peat mining . . 71 6 Air quality issues associated w ith peat mining . . . . 7 4 7 Plant communities of concern . . . . . . . . . . 82 8 Endangered, threatened, and rare species associated with areas of potential peat accumulation . . . . . . . 8 4 9 Independent factors governing site specific reclamation programs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 88 VIII

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AN OVERVIEW OF PEAT IN FLORIDA AND RELATED ISSUES by Paulette Bond, Kenneth M. Campbell and Thomas M. Scott EXECUTIVE SUMMARY Peat is a deposit of partially decayed plant remains which accumulates in a waterlogged environment. It may contain some proportion of inor ganic material which is referred to as ash. Ash content is a critical param eter if peat is to be used as a fuel and may not exceed 25 percent of the material by dry weight. In addition, fuel grade deposits must be at least four feet thick with a surface area of at least 80 contiguous acres per square mile. Fuel grade peat must yield at least 8000 BTU per moisture free pound. Peat is removed from the ground in an excavation process. The proce dure is alternatively referred to as harvesting or mining. "Harvesting" when used in conjunction with peat correctly refers to the nearly obso lete practice of harvesting living Sphagnum from the surface of a bog. In t his process, the Sphagnum was allowed to grow back so that repeated harvests were possible in a given area. Very little or no true harvesting occurs today. Thus, the extraction of peat is properl y termed mining. An important implication of the definition of peat is peat' s classifica tion as an agricultural resource as opposed to a mineral resource This c lassification may have ramifications with respect to the sorts of regula t i ons which are applied to peat mining. Peat does not comply with the conditions set forth in the academic definition of the term mineral. It is, however, considered a mineral resource by the United States Geological Survey and the United States Bureau of Mines. Peat may be ancestor of the mineral graphite and is also viewed by earth science professionals as nonrenewable. Thus it is considered appropriate to term peat a mineral resource. Peat accumulates and is preserved in wetlands, such as the Ever glades, marshes and mangrove swamps, river-valley marshes (St. Johns river-valley marsh), and in sinkhole lakes. This strong association of peat with wetlands occurs because the presence of water serves to inhibit the activity of decomposing organisms which would normally metabolize plant matter and prevent its accumulation. Earth science professionals consider peat to be nonrenewable In Flor ida an average rate of peat accumulation is 3.62 inches per 100 years. Using this average rate a deposit 4 feet thick (minimum thickness of a fuel grade deposit) could accumulate in approximately 1,326 years or approximately 18 human lifetimes (average lifetime of 72 years). Florida is estimated as having 67 7 688 acres of fuel grade peat or 606 million tons. This estimate is based on material thought to contain no

PAGE 10

2 BUREAU OF G E OLOGY more than 25 percent ash Other estimates are much greater ( 1 75 billion tons and 6.9 billion tons). These estimates include organic soils whose ash content exceeds ASTM standards for material defined as peat and U.S. Department of Energy standards for fuel grade peat. The Everg l ades Agricul tural Area was delineated based on scientific analysis of soils to determine their suitabi lity as a growth medium. The drainage necessary for successful agriculture has been accompanied by subsidence primarily because soils are no longer protected from decom posing organisms which require oxygen for their metabolism. Soil loss continues to occur at about one inch each year. It is predicted that by the year 2000 approximately 250,000 acres in the Agricultural Area will have subsided to thicknesses o f less than one foot. The fate of soils less than one foot thick is uncertain. They may be used for pasture land or abandoned for agricultural purposes. Peat currently is used in Florida for a variety of horticultural and agricul tural purposes The United States Bureau of Mines reports that in 1982. 120 thousand short tons was produced at a value estimated at 1 575 m i llion dollars. These data reflect voluntary information supplied to the Bureau of Mines and do not include responses from all of Florida's peat producers. Most peat sales in Florida are currently wholesale and for agricultural purposes and are thus exempt from sales tax. Records are not maintained which detail sales tax on retai l sale of peat products specifically, and thus there is no way of estimating the current tax income derived from the exploitation of peat resources in the State of Flor i da The peat perm itting process as it applies to peat mining is complex. County level permits may be required although in many cases zoning regulations are the only regulations which apply to opening a peat mine At the state level the Department of Environmental Regulation and Water Management Districts containing peat may require permits. The Department of Community Affairs has jurisdiction over Developments of Regional Impact (DRI). Certain peat mining operations could come under federal jurisdiction. The agencies concerned would include the Environ mental Protection Agency and the Army Corps of Engineers The environmental impacts associated with peat mini ng for energy purposes depend strongly on the size of the prospective operation. Envi ronmental impacts are also site specific. Small operations could consume approximately 26 acres of peat mined to a depth of 6 feet. over 4 years; moderate opera t ions could ta k e approximately 3500 acres mined to a depth of 6 feet, over a 20 year period; and a large operation could require approximately 125,000 acres of peat, mined to a depth of 6 feet to operate for 20 years Peat mining will occur largely in wetlands and the values of each individual wetland must be weighed against the value of peat to be removed. The wetland habitat will be severely affected. Fauna will be displaced and possibly destroyed and flora will be destroyed when the peatland is cleared for mining. Water quality impacts may be major, even for smal l operations, and are related to chemical characteristics of

PAGE 11

SPEC I AL PUBLICATION NO. 2 7 3 the discharge waters. Water resource parameters are not expected to be severely affected by small scale operations but may be more seriot:sly impacted by larger scale development. The impacts of mining on air quality a r ise from mining, processing, and uti lizing peat as a fuel. T h ey are specific to an operation's size, m i ning meth od, and t he intended u se for the product. Endange r ed species, both plan t and animal, may inhabit peatl ands. The change in habita t brought abo u t by peat mining might lead to t h e destruction of certain stressed species associated with a mined area. Resea r c h in M innesota, North Caro l ina, Finland, and New B runswick Canada, show that rec lamation techni ques can be successfully applied to peatl ands; although, reclamation techniques are specific to those areas and do not add r ess problems inhe rent to Florida peatlands. Recla mation of Florida's peatlands may invol ve a change f rom wetland sys tems to other systems (probably aquatic systems). Restoration of mined peatlands to their original state (for t he most part wetl ands) will, i n all probability, be financially unfeasible. ACKNOWLEDGMENTS The initial outline for this study was r ead and imp r oved by David Gluck man, rep r esenting the Flor i da Chapter of the Sierra Club; Charles Lee, representi n g the Florida Audubon Society; and Katherine Ewel Hel en H ood, John Kaufmann, and M arjorie Carr, r ep r esenting the Flori da Defende r s of the Environment. Ric h ard P. Lee, Florida Department of Environment al Regulation offered helpful comments on the outl i ne and sent valuable references concerning wetlands. Irwin Kantrowitz, United States Geological Survey read the outline and offered assistance. Ronn i e Best of t h e Center for Wetlands, University o f Florida provided an excel lent perspective on the values attri buted to wetl ands p r ovided a most useful reference Roy Ingram, Professo r of Geology at the Univer sity o f North Carolina Chape l Hill provided work space access to his pe r sonal collecti on o f peat reference works and the benefit of his research expe r i ence t h rough numerous informal conversa t ions concerning various aspects of peat. PURPOSE AND SCOPE OF THE STUDY T h i s study was undertaken in response to a di rective from the Florida Leg i slature ori ginating in the Natural Resources Committee of the Flor i da House of Representatives Florida is cu rrentl y faced with i m mediate e x panding industrial interes t in the exploitation of its peat resou r ces for fuel use. The study is primarily a compilation of literature pertinent to peats of Flori da and t heir use for agriculture and energy applications. It is conceived as provi ding an information base for decisions concerni n g both the u t i lization a n d conservation of F lorida's extens i ve peat resource.

PAGE 12

4 BUREAU OF GEOLOGY HISTORICAL P ERSPEC TI VE OF PEAT RES E ARCH IN FLORIDA Interest in Florida's peat deposits has fluctuated since the Florida Geo l ogica l Survey published a Pre liminary Report on the Peat Deposits of Florida" in its Third Annual Report (Harpe r 191 0). This early work was basically a reconnaissance study of pea t resources in the state. T he author acknowledged that as population density in the state increased, a detailed report would be required In light of current environmental awareness, it is especially interesting that Harper ( 191 0 ) recommended studies by both an engineer and an ecologist. The hist orical perspective of peat use i n Florida is not complete without mention of the work of Robert Ransom a civil engineer who came to Florida from Ipswich, England, i n 1884. Ransom viewed Florida s peat deposits as a readily exploitable resource and was espec i ally interested in energy production from peat. Fo r thirty-five years Ransom experimented with peat, eventually even opening a test plant near Canal Point (Palm Beach County) which produced power gas tar s oils methyl alchohol and various by-products. He was not able to ga i n a cceptance for his radical projects within his lifetime (Davis 1946). In 1946, John H. Davis pub l ished The Peat Deposits of Florida Their Occurrence Development and Uses. This study categorized peatforming environments in the state and treated individual deposits in detail. It extended Harper's work and included chemi cal characterization of various Florida peats. Chemica l characteristics were related to the use of peat for agricultural purposes and also to its use as a fuel source. A number o f s t udies treating the peats of south Florida have been prepared by W. Spackman and his co-workers. Spackman e t al. ( 1964) presented a summary of various coal forming environments associated with the Everglades. This work includes a large number of geologic c r oss sections which document the relationship of peats to bedrock and sur rounding materials. The p lant communities currently assoc i ated with peats in the various coal forming environments are also carefully documented. Cohen and Spackman ( 1 977, 1980) present detailed descrip t ions of peats from southern Florida along with discussions of their ori gin, c lassifications and conside ration of the alteration of plant material. Spackman and others (Pennsylvania State University, 1976) present an updated and augmented edition of the original guidebook. The format of these works (Spackman et al., 1964; Pennsylvania State University, 1976) makes them particularly useful to scientists i n various disciplines whose interests involve the various wetland environments of south Flor ida In 1979, the U S Department of Ene rgy began its "Peat Development Program". The assessment of fuel g r ade peat deposits was part of an effort to define energy resources in the United States exclusive of petro leum. The Florida Governor's Energy Office subcontracted with the University of Florida's Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences to survey the peat resources of Flo r ida. This study resu l ted i n a literature survey of

PAGE 13

SPECIAL PUBLICAT ION NO. 27 5 peat deposits of Florida combined with detailed work in the Everglades Agricultural Area (Griffin, et al. 1982). The current study was undertaken in response to a directive from the Florida Legislature originating in the Natural Resources Committee of the Florida House of Representatives. It provides a compilation of informa tion concerning the location and amount of Florida's peat resources. In addition, the various aspects of the Everglades Agricultural Area are described in some detail and implications of subsidence of peats in this region are considered. Emphasis is also placed on existing information relative to potential effects of peat mining on Florida's environment. Legislation which may be applied to peat mining, water quality parame ters monitored in conjunct ion with various phases of peat mining, and methods of regulation applied to the peat resource by Minnesota, North Carolina, and New Brunswick are included as appendices to this report. DEFINITION OF PEAT AND THE SIGNIFICANCE OF THIS DEFINITION by Paulette Bond Peat is defined by workers in a variety of disciplines (geology, botany, soil science, and horticulture among others). These definitions have pro liferated in response to the multiple uses of peat. The American Geologi cal Institute defines peat as "An unconsolidated deposit of semicar bon i zed plant remains of a watersaturated environment, such as a bog or fen and of persistently high moisture content (at least 75 percent). It is considered an early stage or rank in the development of coal . (Gary, et al. eds., 1974). This extremel y general definition notes several essen tia l points. Peat is composed of plant remains which accumulate in a wet environment. It is considered to be an early product of the coal-forming process. In a definition which will be published in an upcoming volume (A. Cohen, personal communication, 1984). the American Society for Test ing and Materials (ASTM) defines peat as a naturally occurring unconsoli dated substance derived primarily from plant materials. Peat is distin guished from other organic soil materials by its lower ash content (less than 25 percent ash by dry weight [ASTM Standards 02974)) and from other phytogenic materia l of higher rank (i.e. lignite coal) by its lower BTU value on a water saturated basis. This definition is designed so that peats may be classified objectively and distinguished from both organic soils and coa l s. Griffin, et al. (1982) note the definition of fuel grade peat which was used by the United States Department of Energy for its "Peat Develop ment Program". Fuel grade peat was defined as an organic soil consist ing of greater than 75 percent organic matter in the dry sta t e In order for a peat deposit to be c l assified as fuel grade, the deposit must be at least

PAGE 14

6 BUREAU OF GEOLOGY four feet thick, with a surface area of not less t han 80 contiguous acr es per square mile and yie l d not less than 8,000 BTU per pound (mo isture free). The definition for fuel grade peat establishes minimum standards for organic matter content and also for heating value (BTU per pound). It further comments on t h e deposit itself, stipulating minimum thickness and contiguous acreage requirements. The three definitions of peat presented here ref lect the specific pur poses of individua l s and agencies who prepared them. Varied use r g r oups and professionals who work with pea t may formulate additional definitions directly suited t o their needs. It is thus necessary to determine the way in which an author defines peat in order to fully understand the i mplications of h i s work. In the state of Florida t he definition of peat may take on special signifi cance if it is used as a criterion for designation of peat as either a mineral resource or an agricultural (vegetable) resource. It has been argued that if peat is not classified as a mineral then its excavation might constitute a harvesting process. Harvesting may not be subject to the regulatory p r ocedures that govern mining of a legally -defined mineral material. The usage of the term harvesting to describe t he m i ning of peat follows U.S. Department of Energy (1979). "Harvesting" when used in conjuncti on with peat correctly r efers to the nearly obsol ete practice of harvesting living Sphagnum ( peat moss) from the surface of a bog. In this process, the Sphagnum w as allowed to grow back so that repeated h a r vests wer e possible i n a given area. Thus, a crop was in actuality "harvested". Very litt le or no true harvesting occurs today (A. Cohen persona l communication, 1984). T e rminology Relating to the P eat Forming Env i r o nment Peat can only accumul ate in a wet environment. The terms which r efer to these environments take on different definitions accord ing to author pre f erence The American Geological Institute distinguishes between bogs and fens on the basis of chemistry. Bogs and fens are both charac terized as waterlogged, spongy groundmasses Bogs however, contain acidic, decaying vegetation consisting mainly of mosses whil e fe n s con t ain alkaline, decaying vegetation, mainly reeds (Gary et al., eds., 1974). The terms "bog" and "fen" are not usually applied t o peatlands in the southeastern United States. They a r e included in this discussion because they occur f r equen t ly in the literature associated with peatlands extraneous to Flor i da Although a significant body of research specific to the peats of Florida exists (Cohen and Spac k man, 1 980; Cohen and Spackman, 1977; G riffin, et a l. 1982; Pennsylvania State Uni vers ity, 1976), much information concerning mining techniques reclamation methods and hydrologic aspects of peatlands pertains directly to a r eas remote from Florida where the terms "bog" and "fen" may be used. The concepts o f minerotrophy and ombrotrophy are based on the qua l ity of water feeding a peatland ( H eikurainen 1976) and are perceived as

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SPECIAL PUBLICATION NO. 27 7 separate from the series eutrophy, mesotrophy and oligotrophy. The lat ter ser i es describes nutrient resources of peatlands using plant composition with eutrophy being richer in nutrients and o ligotrophy being poorer. The eutrophy-oligotrophy series is difficult to apply since it may be expanded to include additional extreme and transitional groups The boundaries between these various groups are not clear (Heikurainen, 1976) and they will not be considered further in this document. Bogs are said to be ombrotropic which implies that the bog is isolated from the regional groundwater system and receives its moisture mainly from precipitation. Minerotrophic peatlands, or fens, are defined as being connected with the regional g roundwater system and are nourished both by precipitation and groundwater flow (Brooks and Predmore, 1978). The U.S. Department of Energy in its Peat Prospectus avoids the usage of fen and characterizes peat as forming in swamps, bogs, and saltwater and freshwater marshes (U.S. Department of Energy 1979). The extent of this confusion becomes clear on examination of the American Geologi cal Institute's definition of swamp (Gary, et al., eds., 1974) which is characterized as, "A water saturated area . essentially without peatlike accumulation". It should be noted that most workers in the field do not concur with the portion of the American Geological Institute's definition that addresses the accumulation of pea t in swamps (A. Cohen, personal communication, 1984). Moore and Bellamy (1974, p. 84) use the term "mire" to cover all wetland ecosystems in which peat accumu lates in the same area where its parent plant material lived and grew. Thus, the meaning of specific names assigned to the peat-forming environment must be derived from an author's context. In the sou t heastern United States, the most commonly used terms for peat -forming environments are swamps and marshes. Swamps refer to forested wetlands and mars h es refer to aquatic, herbaceous wetlands (A. Cohen, personal communication 1984). Peat: Agricultural or Mineral Resource? In Florida, peat may eventually be viewed as a mineral resource or an agricultural resource. The United States Bureau of Mines has long con sidered peat a mineral resource for the reporting of commodity statistics. In deference to t h e formal definition of the term "mineral", the greatest majority of earth science professiona l s would not classify peat as a min eral. Peat might be likened more properly to a rock in that it contains a number of minerals (quartz, pyrite, and clay m i nerals among others) as well as macerals which are the organic equ i valents of minerals. If, however, the forma l and most restricted definition of mineral is compared with a definition of mineral that reflects current usage, it is noted that "minerals" adhere to the specifications of the formal defini tion in varying degrees. The intent of this discussion is not to establish that peat is a mineral but rather to illustrate the extent to which the formal definition has been expanded in common usage

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8 BUREAU OF GEOLOGY A standard mineralogy textbook for university students, Elements of Mineralogy (Mason and Berry, 1968), gives the following definition of a mineral: A mineral is a naturally occurring, homogeneous solid inorgan ica lly formed, with a definite c hemical composit ion and an ordered atomic arrangement". This definition is useful because its authors con tinue by expanding on each part of their definition, taking into account the complexity of the group of compounds classified as minerals According to thi s definition, a mineral must be naturally occurring. This eliminates materials whic h are synthesized in the laboratory or are formed as by-products of various manufacturing processes. Since peat is indisputably naturally occurring, this aspect of the definition will not be considered further. A minera l must also be a homogeneous solid. This qualification elimi nates liquids and gase s from consideration and implies that a minera l cannot be separated into simpler compounds by any physical means ( Mason and Berry 1968). In the coalification process by which plant material (i.e., cellulose) becomes peat, water, carbon dioxide and meth ane are evolved w ith time ( U S Department of Energy, 1979). The coali fication process (U.S. Department of E nergy, 1979) refers to a general ization of the peat-forming process in which all initial plant material is referred to as cellulose. In actuality, peat contains many types of plant material and may possibly contain no cellulose at all. It is important here to note that many mineral substa nces evolve water or gaseous by products when subjected to changed conditions of pressure or tempera ture. Gypsum dehydrates (evolves water) forming anhydrite. The mineral talc evolves water and forms enstatite and quartz a t elevated tempera tures. Thus, minerals may contain water as an integral part of t heir crys tal structures. The term mineral is restricted by definition (Mason and Berry, 1968) to refer to inorgan ically formed substances. It e liminates homogeneous sol ids formed by plants and an imals such as oyster shells, pearls and gallstones. Ostensibly this qualification could eliminate peat from con sideration. The American Geolog ical Institute in its Glossary of Geology (Gary, et al., eds ., 1974) includes the following references i n its definition of the term mineral: "A mineral i s generally consi dered to be inorganic, though organic compounds are classi f ied by some as minerals". Thus, organic compounds are not automatically eliminated from consideration as min erals. This suggests that the term mineral has come to be used in a sense that is less restricted than might be supposed from examination of the definition presented to beginning students of mineralogy. Minerals are defined as having definite chemical composition (Mason and Berry 1968). This impl i es that thei r composition must be readily expressible using a chemical formula. It does not preclude variation in chemical composition. Variation within definite limits is allowed, thus, the composition is definite but not fixed (Mason and Berry, 1968). The compositions of cellulose and the peat derived from it are frequently

PAGE 17

SPECIAL PUBLICATION NO. 27 9 cited using the appropriate chemica l formul ae (Soper and Osbon. 1922. pp. 6 7; U.S. Department of Energy, 1979, pp. 5-6; Cameron, 1973, p. 506). (As noted previous ly, the formulae cited here are based on a genera l ization of the peat-forming process in w h ich peat is derived from a starting material of cellulose. Due to the compl ex composition of most peats, thi s simp l ified approximation is not real istic). The last crite r ion in Mason and Berry's definition of a m i neral is that of an ordered atomic arrangement; that is, a mine ral sho u ld be a crystal l ine solid. Mason and Berry ( 1968) note a group of compounds which are considered minera l s even though the crystalline state is not initially attained: "A few minerals, the commonest being opal, are formed by the so l idification of a colloidal gel and are nonc r ystalline initially; many such mine r als become cryst alline during geologic time". The mineral opal may attain an ordered atomic arrangement on ly in the course of geo l ogic time. The coal -forming process is illustrated in Figure 1. As organic matter (originally deposited as peat) is subjected to conditions of increasing temperature and pressure i t undergoes the changes associated with coal ification. The end-product of thi s process is the mineral graphite (Press and Siever, 1974, p. 468). Graphite crystallizes in the hexagonal system and its formula is simply carbon (C). It i s found in a number o f occur rences including metamorphosed coal beds (Quinn and Glass, 1958). The parallels with the case of opa l seem appa r ent. Neither opal nor peat initially attain the internal atomic ordering referred to in Mason and Ber ry's definition of a mineral. Opal will presumably achieve internal atomic ordering in the course of geologic time (Mason and Berry, 1968). The transformation of peat into t he mineral grap hite requires, in add i tion to the passage of time, increases in temperature and pressure (Press and Siever, 1974) and will be accompanied by the evolution of variou s liquids and gases. Geologists do not universally inc l ude crystalline form as a prerequisite to classification of a mat erial as a mineral. This is demonstrated in the continuation of the AGI Glossary's de finiti on of mineral. Those who inc lu de the requirement of c r ystalline form in the definition of a mineral would consider an amorphous compound such as opal to be a 'mineral aid'" (Gary, e t al. eds 1974) The United States Geolog ical Survey in its volume entitled United States Mineral Resources (Brobst and Pratt eds . 1973), devotes a chap ter to peat as well as chapters to petro l eum, natural gas and coal. The United States Bureau of Mines also considers peat to be a mineral resource in addition to coals petroleum and natural gas. These resources. includ ing peat, are all non-renewab le. Harvesting or Mining Harvesting and min in g are both terms which are appl i ed to the extrac tion of peat. As was discussed in the section of this report "The Defini t i on of Peat and Significance of thi s Definition the term "harvesting"

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10 BUREAU OF GEOLOGY WE:TtAr. O (WIJfiOiiM[I;t A8UN0ANT VEGETATION AOAPT T O SAMPT Plant at the su1'face-8vrfed plant l itter decays parttally an d h forming PNH. U nder lying sediments in Florida conostn of linestoM cloy and uncon\o,1d4ttd sand. With llow tturia 1 DeaL Is (O
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SPEC IAL PUBLICATION NO 2 7 11 properly refers to the practically obsolete procedure of li terally harvesting living Sphagnum from the surface of a bog. In this procedure Sphagnum is allowed to continue its growth subsequent to harvesting ( A Cohen, personal communication, 1984). Peat however, is not considered renewabl e due to its slow rate of accumulation (U.S. Department of Energy 1979; M oore and Bellamy, 1974). Currently the cho ice of "harvesting as opposed to "mining" for terms to describe the excavat io n process of peat may be arbitrary The type of d istinction is demonstrated in the following quotation taken from Peat Prospectus: Thus the recovery of peat is a surface mining or harvesting process," (U.S. Department of Energy, 1979, p 18). It may be significant that surface mining carries with it certain negative environ mental connotations. Harvesting is largely free of environmentally nega tive connotations but this is perceived to be due to a lack of understand ing since harvesting is frequently used as synonymous with surface mining. The equipment utilized in the peat removal process i s not associated with harvesting in its commonly accepted sense Peat operation s which are currently active in Flor i da u t ilize earth moving and excavating machinery In drained bogs such machinery commonly includes shove ls bulldozers and frontend loaders while draglines, clamshells and dredges are used i n undrained bogs (Searls, 1980). The process of harvesting in its usual sense does not imply the neces sity o f extensive land re cla mation. However, reclamation of peat la nds which have been excavated is acknowledged as necessary ( M inneso ta Department of Natural Resour ces, 1981 ) and is discussed more thor oughly in the section of this report entitled "Recl amation of Peat lands of Florida". Classification Systems Applied to Peat Peat like many materials, is cl assified for the convenience of persons using it. Since peat use in the United States has been largely agricultural, most class i f ica t i on schemes are based on properties of peat pertinen t to agr icul tural applications. A s one m ight expect, classification schemes devised for agricultural appli cation do not necessarily indicate peat qual ity for energy purposes However, there is a general relationship between peat decomposition and its energy value with respect to direct combus tion. This is illust rated in Figure 2. The American Society f o r Test ing and Materials !ASTM) ha s estab lishe d maximum and minimum particle sizes for fibers found in peat (ASTM, 1969). They add i t ionall y specify fiber content requirements for var ious types of peat. The maximum particle size for fibers is 0. 5 inch ( 1 .25 em) and the minimum is 0.006 inches (0.15 mm). Peat is subdi vid ed into five types and each type must contain a certain percentage of the characteristic fiber. The se percentages are based on an oven dried we ight at 1 05 C as opposed t o volume. The types of peat recognized by

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SAPRIC MODERATE CJ) IJJ a.. w 0 >-<( ..... a:: HEMIC HIGH (!) ..... <( w a.. _J w ::) LL FIB RIC LOW 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 PLANT FIBER DECOMPOSITION (0/o) Figur e 2 The relationship of peat types to fuel grade. (Modified from U S. Department of Energy, 1 979). m c :::0 m )> c 0 G') m 0 r-0 G') -<

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SPEC IAL PUBLI C ATION NO 2 7 1 3 the ASTM include: 1) Sphagnum moss peat which must contai n at l eas t 66.66 percent Sphagnum fibers by w eight, 2) Hypnum moss peat which must contain at least 33.33 percent fibers w ith one-half of those identifi able as Hypnum moss, 3) r eed-sedge peat which must contain at l east 33.33 percent fibers, one-ha l f o f which are reed-sedge and other nonmosses, 4 ) peat-humus must contain l ess than 33.33 percen t fiber, and 5) other peat, which accounts for all peat not previous l y classified 1n ASTM Designation D -2607-69 (ASTM, 1969). The ASTM classificatio n as discussed in the previous paragraph is currently under r evision. Two major factors were considered in this revi s i on. T h e classification of peat should meet the needs of t h r ee major user g r o u ps including engineers, energy users and agricultural u sers. In addi tion, the c l assificatio n should be based on parameters which may be measured objectively. These paramete r s i nclude ash, botanical composi tion, pH, and water h olding capacity. In order t o be called peat, a material w i ll h ave to contain 75 percent or more organic materia l on a dry basis. A lthough peats wil l still be categori zed as fibri c, hemic o r sap ric (based on fiber content), these ge n e r a l terms will be modified by as h content, botanical composition, pH and water h olding capc ity (A. Cohen, personal communication, 1983). One essential charcteristic that is assoc i ated with peat is moisture l evel, but there are no current regulated standards for moistu re in peat. The U nited States Bureau of M ines considers a "commonly accepted" value in the United States to be 55 percent moisture by weight for air dried peat (Sea r ls, 1980). T h e U.S. Department of Agriculture divides peat into three categories (Searls, 1 980). F ibric peat must contain more than 66.66 percent p lant fibers. Hemic peats are more decomposed than fibric peats. They must have a fiber content whi ch ranges between 33.33 percent and 66.66 percent fibers. Sapric peat consists of the most extensively decomposed p lant material. Sapric peat con t ains less than 33.33 percent recognizable pla n t fragments of any type. Peat in the United States h as often bee n c l assified into thr ee general categories (Searls, 1980; U.S. Department of Energy, 1979). Moss peat is comprised of Sphagnum, Hypnum and other mosses. R eed-sedge peat is mainly t h e product of r eeds, sedges and other swamp plants. Humus is simply too decomposed for evidence of its origin to be r etained. Parameter s Affecting Peat Use for Fuel The parameters whi ch bear most d irectly on peat's usefu l ness as a fuel source a r e measured by pro x imate analysis. In this procedure, peat is ana l yzed in the laborato r y for its volatile content, fixed carbon, ash con tent and moisture. The volatil e content of peat refers to substances oth er than moi s t u r e which are emitted as gas and vapor when peat is burned. Peat has a very high vola t i l e content compared to coa l. This is a pos itive attribute for peat which is to be gasified s i nce the reactivity of peat in the

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14 BUR EAU OF G EOLOG Y gasifica t ion process increases with increased volatile content. The fixed carbon content of the peat is responsible for much of its combustion energy. Ash is the amount of materials in a fuel which remains after combustion. The amount of ash varies for different types of peat. Peats which receive their moisture primarily from precipitation are usually lower i n ash than those which are nourished by surface waters. In times of flood, surface waters may carry large sediment loads onto the peatlands where sediment is trapped in the peat. Peat's high moisture content can be a major problem which must be considered in its utilization. Even a drained and solidified bog may con tain 7095 percent moisture and for some uses peat will require addi tional drying which will, in turn, require energy. THE A CC UMULATION OF PEAT by Paulette Bond The Pr ocess of P ea t F ormation Peat forms when the rate of accumul ation of plant matter exceeds the rate at which decomposing organisms metabolize it. The conversion of fresh plant material to peat takes place over a period of time as peat becomes enriched in fixed carbon while evolving water, carbon dioxide and methane (U.S. Department of Energy, 1979). Peat is comparatively increased in fixed carbon as opposed to cellulose, and the process by which this takes place is referred to as carbonization. It is this enrichment of carbon which makes peat desirable as a fuel source (Figure 3) The Peat Prospectus (U.S. Department of Energy, 1979) compares peat with wood and various grades o f coal in terms of fixed carbon and heating value (in British The r mal Units, BTU). The following values are taken from Figure 3 of the Peat Prospectus and are approximate (U.S. Depart men t of Energy, 1979). One pound of wood has a fixed carbon content of approximately 20 percent and generates 9,300 BTU on a moisture and mineral free basis. An equivalent amount of peat contains 28 percent fixed carbon and generates approximately 10,600 BTU These values for peat and wood contrast with values for lignite which yields abou t 12,400 BTU and has a fixed carbon content of approximately 4 7 per cent. Ge o l o gic C o ndition s Asso c iated with P eat Accumulatio n As was previously noted, peat forms when the accumulation of plant material exceeds its destruction by the organisms which decompose it. Since plant matter is usually decomposed before significant accumula tions develop, it is i nstructive to examine the set of circumstances w hich allow pea t to form. Certain geologic, hydrologic and climatic conditions

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SPECIAL PUBLICATION NO 27 GEOLOGIC AGE RECENT TERTIARY CRETACEOUS CARBONIFEROUS 65 Mil liON YRS 100 M illiO N YRS 300 MILUON VRS COAL TYPES wooo 'Vol 1 6 15 14 13 8 7 ;;; ... "' ... ... c "' ... z -Figure 3. A comparison of moisture content and heating value for peat, wood and various coal types. (Modified from U.S. Department of Energy, 1979). 1 5 serve to inhibit decomposition by organisms. Ideally areas should be continually waterlogged, temperatures generally low and pH values of associated waters should be low (Moore and Bellamy, 1974). It should be noted that Moore and Bellamy ( 197 4) primarily treat peats associated with northern cold climates. Certain geologic characteristics are associated with waterlogged sur face conditions. The tendency toward waterlogging is enhanced if topographic relief is generally low and topographic barriers exist which restrict flow and allow water to pond. Additionally, waterlogging is encouraged if highly permeable bedrock is covered with material of low permeability (Olson, et al., 1979). The chemical nature of the plant litter may also serve to reduce its susceptibility to decomposition. Moore and Bellamy (1974) note the association of cypress and hardwood trees in peats of the hammocks or tree islands of the Everglades. These hammocks occur on peat deposits

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1 6 B U REAU OF GEOLOGY which are situated on limestone bedrock. The trees, which are responsi ble for the peat beneath them, contain enormous amounts of lignin. Lignin is very resistant to decay (Moore and Bellamy 1974). It is alterna tively suggested that hammock peats in Florida may be controlled more by the persistence of water than by the amount of lignin (A. Cohen, personal communication, 1984). THE A C CUMULATION OF PEAT IN FLORIDA by Paulette Bond Rate s o f Peat A cc umul a tion Knowledge of the rate of peat accumulation is important in that it allows various extractive uses for the resource to be weighed in light of t he amount of time i t takes for the mineral to accumulate. Rates of peat accumulation are usually determined using the carbon-14 met hod of dating organic mater ials. This method is subject to a number of difficulties when applied to peat. The following problems were enume r ated by Moore and Bellamy (1974): 1) Wide errors may be introduced since young roots may penetrate material at depth. This problem could result in apparently rap i d rates for the accumulation of peat. 2) Older layers are compacted as new ones are deposited. This could cause rates of deposition to appear anomalously low. 3) Rates of peat formation vary with climate and climate varies with time. Thus, an accumulation rate proba bly reflects a sort of average rate for some given amount of peat. Several estimates of peat accumulation rates in Florida are presented in Table 1. The variation in rate presented here for peat accumulation may be attributed to a number of factors. Gleason, et al., (1974) used Davis' (1946) data to compute a value o f productivity for the sawgrass environ ment. Productivity refers to the amount of dry organic matter (measured in pounds) which is formed on an acre of ground in a year. When this productivity is compared to the dry weight of an acre-foot of peat as estimated by Davis (1946), a discrepancy is apparent. According to t hese computations, more material accumulates as peat than is originally formed in the sawgrass environment (Gleason, et al., 1974). Factor s which may account for this difficulty include possible low estimates of productivity and inadequate estimates of silica content or peat density. It is also possible that silica in the peat might not be entire l y derived from sawgrass (Gleason, et al., 1974). Rates of peat accumulation computed from radiocarbon age are grouped about an average of 9.1 cm/100 years. The rate of peat accumulation can vary with climate (which also varies with time). the position of the water t able and nutrient supply (Moore and Bellamy, 1974). Data are not available which would allow rate variation in different environments to be evaluated. The rates pre sented here were calculated from pea t s produced from varying plant

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SPECIAL PUBLICATION NO. 27 17 Table 1. Estimated rates of peat accumulation in Flo r ida. Author Estimated Rate Davi s 5. 2 i n./1 00 years (1946, p. 74) Kuehn 4 .24 i n./100 yea r s ( 1980, p 49) Kuehn 3.64 i n./100 years ( 1980, p 49) Stephens 3 i n./1 00 years (1974, p 356) Comments Th i s rate i s computed based on the amount of S i 02 fixed by a stand ing crop of sawgrass from the Everglades. I t is widel y quoted, but a recent ana l ysis of t h e method (Gleason, et al., 1974) indicates that certain of the assumpt i ons necessary to the calcu l at i on must be i n error This d ifficulty is discussed more completely i n the accompanying text. This rate was computed from a core which penetrated peat formed alternate l y in marine, brackish and fresh water environments from southwest Flor i da. The computations were based on radiocarbon ages. Thi s rate was computed for a single type of peat, red mangrove (Rhizophora). from southwest Florida using measu r ed thickness and radiometric ages. Rates were computed from the Everglades using radiocarbon ages whi ch were not specif i cally referenced in the text. communi ties which thrive in different environments. In addition, peat has been lost by fire during various preh istoric dry pe r iods (Cohen 1974). Fai l ure to recognize evidence of f i re coul d a lter the rate at which peat is ca lcul ated to accumulate. Geologic Settings of Peat A ccumulation in Florida The conditions under which pea t can occur in Florida are highly varia b l e. While geologic and hydrologic relations of peat to i t s neighboring materials have been thoroughly documented in the Everglades of south Florida, numero u s small deposits in the cen t ral peninsula remain unmapped. Davi s ( 1946, p. 114). consi d e r e d the peat depos its of Florida as falling into a number o f g roups based on their locations. These groups include: 1) coasta l associations, inc l uding marshes and mangrove swamps, l agoons and estuaries as well as depressions among dunes; 2) large, nearly flat, poorly-drained areas as exemplified by t he Everglades illust r ated in Figures 4, 5, 6 and 7; 3) rive r valley marshes such as the marsh adjacent to the St. Johns R i ver; 4 ) swamps of the flatland region (Figu r e 8); 5) ma r shes bordering lakes and ponds (Figure 9); 6) season ally f l ooded shallow depressions; 7) lake bottom deposits (Figure 1 0); 8) peat l ayers buried beneath other strata (Figure 11). Cohen and Spackman ( 1977) have devised a mor e comprehensive classifi cation of south Flo rida's phytogenic (of plant origin) sediments

PAGE 26

18 BUREAU OF GEOLOGY BIG CYPRESS PROVINCE . . . . . . . . . RIDGE AND SUB-PROVINCE .J 'F Figure 4. Peat provinces of southern Florida. (Modified from Spack man, et al., 1976). based on micropetrological studies. They first d i vide phytogenic sedi ments into two groups based on whether the plant materi al is trans ported from the site of growth or deposited at or near the growth sites o f their source plants. Transported and nontransported phytogenic sediments are subd i vided as occurring in marine to brack i sh water or fresh

PAGE 27

0 ... i. -0 SPECIAL PUBLICATION NO 27 19 \ !ot. '!wrg ... 01011 herglodu D .. \\ r I d. $ B o y o <> Flor i d a I \, ' -. ot> o c 0 LEGEN D PEAT iZl-10 3 M ARINE. MAR t. 6 J: L I MESTONE Q:l t:: I SHElL BEACH o o I F i gure 5. SW-NE c r oss-sec t ion from Cape Sable to vicinity of Tamiami Trail. (Modified from Spackman, et al., 1964; and Spackman, et al., 1976. water. Specific environments are enumerated for both marine to brackish water deposits and a l so fresh water deposits. Peats of these deposits a r e differentiated based ma inly on their botanical composition

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sw "Moat '' LEGEND ALGAL MAT FRESH WATER MARL PEAT BEDROCK ( I I 11 SECTIONAL PROFILE THROUGH A CYPRESS HAMMOCK I .... 2 IIJ 11.13 lA. "Moat" SCALE 5-+------, 0 FEET 50 Figure 6. Cross section through a cypres s hammock, Everglades Natio nal Park (Modified from Spackman, et al. 1964). N 0 aJ c ::J:J m l> c 0 -n C) m 0 ,.... 0 C) -<

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LEGEND WATER r;:::;::;:3 FRESH WATER MARL PEAT 1 12 LtJ 3 SCALE 4 5-+---------. 0 FEET SO BEDROCK I. I I I F ig ure 7 Cross -section through a Bay Head," Everglades National Park. (Modified from Spackman, et al. 1964). CJ) ., m (") -)> r ., c r (") -0 2 2 0

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F E E T ( METERS) A B OVE S EA LEVEL 70 (21.3) 60 ( 18. 3) 50 ( 15. 2) 40 ( 12.2) 30 ( 9.1) 20 ( 6.1) Figure 8. PI NE-P ALMETTO F L AT WOOD BAY S W A MP TITI S WAMP -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------1 ----------------------------------------------LEGEND PEAT MUCK and SAND MUCK SAND, SILT a nd PEAT and CLAY SAND 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 MARL bay swamp and titi swamp, Bradwell Cross section through Wakulla County, Florida (Modified from Cameron, et al. 1 977). Bay Wilderness, N N c ::a m )> c 0 C) m 0 r-0 C) -<

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LAKE HARRIS R 25E SPECIAL PUBLICATION NO 27 EUSTIS R26E I \ "' "" c ..J \ LAKE APOPKA \ > R 27E 23 (/) a'l 1(/) 0 C\1 1(/) C\1 1(/) C\1 C\1 1Figure 9. Peat deposits bordering lakes in Lake and Orange counties, Florida. (From Davis 1946).

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0 .. 0 6 0 . . --. 4:'-------. i , ,,, ,' 0 0 : 0 0 H UN D REDS L EGEND OF YAitDS SAPROPEL FIBROUS SAWG.-ASS CLAY \ 0 20 . .. 0 60 Figure 1 0. Cross-section showing peat filling l ake ( M ud L ake, Marion County, Florida). (From D avis 1946 ). tD c :IJ m l> c 0 "T1 C) m 0 r 0 C) <

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SCALE V E R [4 FT. LEGEND HOR. 200FT. D SAND . [I] SHELL . . . ) .. [] SILT ,. I lZl 1 1 CLAY l .. ) ) . .. ) . PEAT . . . I I . . MARL . . . ) . raJ ) I COMB I - ) ) [ill] NATIONS 'I . ) . .) I . I MA MARINE . FAUNA . . . \ PO-PINE-OAK . . POLLEN . SFSPRUCE FIR . POLLEN . Figure 1 1. Cross -section u s in g cor es to s how buried peat layers at E ureka Dam s ite, Oklawaha River Marion Co unty, Fl o r ida (From D avis, 1946.) (J) m ('") -)> r-" c O::J r('") 0 z z 0 N N (11

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26 BUREAU OF GEOLOGY In Florida, peat deposits occur above or below the watertable (Davis, 1946; Gurr, 1972). Wet peat deposits occur if the watertable remains relatively high. Peat may be actively accumulating in these settings. Certain areas within the Everglades, the coastal mangrove peats, and some lake fringing peat deposits, such as the one associated with Lake l stokpoga, are examples of deposits which occur below the watertable. In other instances, peat deposits are now l ocated above the watertable due to drainage instigated to enhance the land for agricultural use. The Everglades agricultural region contains numerous t racts drained for this purpose. Other deposits have apparently been drained as a result of regional lowering of the watertable. Most peatlands in Florida occur at or below the watertable and, thus, are very frequently also wetlands. INVENTORY OF PEAT IN FLORIDA by Paulette Bond Mapping and Evaluating the Peat Resource T here is no comprehensive inventory of Florida's peat deposits cur rently in print. Excluding the ear l y work of Robert Ransom, peat was not considered as a fuel source in Florida; an d several scatte red deposits were adequate to satisfy t he state's agricultural and horticultura l needs. Thus. neither interest nor funding were available for a complete peat inventory in the recent past. It is important to point out that a compr ehensive inventory of Florida's peat resource is, of necessity, a massive undertaking. The reasons for this difficulty are manifold. Florida is currently estimated to have 6.9 billion tons of peat contained in approximate ly 4, 700 square miles (U.S. Department of Energy, 1979, p. 16). This peat occurs in a variety of geologic settings which are both discontinuous and widely distributed across the breadth and length of the state. The various geologic settings of peat in F lorida are discussed in a previous section, "Geologic Settings of Peat Accumul ation in Florida". These difficult ies are compounded by t h e inac cess ibility of many peat producing areas. Peat actively accumulates in wetland situations typified by fresh water marshes, swamps, and mangrove swamps. Muc h of Flori da's peat occurs in the Everglades region (Figure 12). Due to extensive drainage in the Everglades the exact thickness and extent of the peat has decreased since F igu re 12 (Davis, 1946) was prepared. Many of these areas are not accessible to conventional vehicles. Thei r size and charac ter may render foot travel u nfeasible. Some but not all, sites may be accessible to boats. Coring eq uipment for taking samples and measuring thickness must, in addition, accompany any field party charged with assessing peat reserves. A realistic appraisal of Florida's peat resource is further complicated by

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SPECIAL PUBLICATION NO. 27 LEGEND II PEAT THICKNESS FEET 9-11 rl7-9 Ds-7 1]13-5 rnGilll-3 Oo-1 WITHIN L IMITS OF EVERGLADES MANGROVE: PEAT B l G CYPRESS I SOPACH MAP SHOWING THICKNESS OF PEAT I N THE EVERGLADES Figure 12. Isopach map of the Everglades region showing thickness of peat and some muck areas. (From Davis, 1946). 27 the variability of the material. Peat may be classified as fibric, hemic or sapric depending on the extent to which it has decomposed (see section entitled "Classification Systems Applied to Peat"). It also varies with respect to the chemical and physical properties that affect its eventua l uses, e.g. fuel and horticulture. Complete assessment of the peat r esource requires laboratory analysis in addition to time-consuming f ie l d studi es Attempts to assess the amount and locations of peat in Florida are hampered by an additional factor. Peat deteriorates by oxidizing when the wetlands where it accumulates are drained This drainage may be due to the activities of man or by natural lowering of t he water table in

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28 BUREAU OF GEOLOGY times of drought. Any data base for peat will require periodic updating if it is to remain useful. Curren t E stimates of Peat in Florida The total peat resources available in Florida are difficult to estimate and published values vary widely. The paucity of actual peat resource investigations is an important hindrance to the development of accurate figures. A few published studies are concerned with the entire state (Davis, 1946; Griffin, et al., 1982). Several others concentrate on limited areas (Stephens and Johnson, 1951; Gurr, 1972). Individual county soil surveys vary in their usefulness due to apparent inconsistencies in the terminology relating to organic soils and peats. The more recent studies were used by Griffin, et al. (1982) to estimate fuel grade peat resources. Unfortunately, these studies are not complete for every county in the state. As a result, Griffin, et al. (1982) were unable to provide a comprehensive inventory of the peat resources for the entire state. Another possible reason for the variation between resource estimates may be the result of the specific material studied. Griffin, et al. (1982) investigated "fuelgrade peats" (defined by the U.S. Department of Energy for their peat resource study) while Davis ( 1946) inventoried a variety of organic materials classified as peats. The United States Soil Conservation Service studies soils in general and describes their organic content in addition to other characteristics. Griffin, et al. ( 1 982) reported the discrepancies among the figures from various studies but were unable to determine the reason for the differences Griffin, et al. ( 1982) also state that verbal reports from other U.S. Department of Energy peat researchers indicate that they have found similar discrepancies between the resource figures from the U.S Soil Conservation Service and their own figures in other states. Published estimates of Florida's peat resources vary nearly by an order of magnitude. Griffin, et al. (1982) provide the lowest figure of 677,688 acres (1 ,059 square miles) consisting of 606 million tons of moisture free peat Davis (1946) estimated 2,240,000 acres (3,500 square miles), comprising 1, 750,000,000 tons of air dried peat. The highest figure is provided by the U.S. Soil Conservation Service (in U S. Depart ment of Energy, 1979) and is 3 ,000,000 acres (4, 700 square miles), or 6,900,000,000 (35 percent moisture by weight} tons of peat. The pub lished resource estimates vary significantly and thus should be used with reservation. The determination of a more accurate resource figure for Florida peats would require a significant investment of time and money to complete. The scattered nature of the deposits in north and central Florida (Figure 13} is such that there are literally thousands of sites to be investigated In south Florida, peat deposits cover broad areas which would have to be examined in order for accurate estimates to be prepared.

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SPECIAL PUBLICATION NO. 27 29 The greatest potenti a l peat resources i n Florida lie predominantly in south Florida (Figures 1 3, 14, and 1 5). The vast majority of this peat lies in the Everglades and associated swampy areas. It is interesting to note that while Davis (1946) (Figure 1 3) and the U.S. Department of the Interior (State of Florida Governor's Energy Office, 1981) (Figure 15) show similar areas of peat in south F l orida, Griffin, et al. (1982) (Figure 14) show a significantly smaller area. This discrepancy may be due to subsidence and high ash content which would render peat unsuitable for fuel use. Griffin, et al. (1982) show peat deposits in Collier and Lee counties that are not included on the other maps. Figures 1 3, 14, and 1 5 indi cate the presence of large deposits in the St. Johns River Val ley (Indian River, Brevard and Orange counties), and the Oklawaha River Valley (Marion and Lake counties). Other relatively large deposits include: Lake Apopka (Orange and Lake counties), near Lake Arbuckle (Highlands County), Orange Lake area (Marion and Ala chua counties) and the F l orahome deposit (Putnam County). Smaller deposits are also indicated on Davis' ( 1946) map (Figure 13) and Griffin, et al. ( 1982) map (Figure 14). It i s interesting to note that while Davis ( 1946) (Figure 1 3) shows scattered samples taken from small peat areas in the panhandle, Griffin, et al. ( 1982) (Figure 14) show a number of deposits, i ncluding a large deposit in Leon County and smaller deposits in Bay Jackson, and Santa Rosa counties. The U.S. Department of the Interior map (State o f Florida Governor's Energy Office, 1981) (Figure 15) does not i ndica t e any deposits in the panhandle. Peats associated with mangrove and coastal swamps generally occur in a narrow band paralleling Florida's coastline The zone occupied by these environments i s widest in southwest Flor i da. These peats are not generally shown on the maps of peat resources due to the scale of the maps. Until a more detailed investigation of our peat resources is undertaken the published resource estimates must suffice. It must, however, be kept in mind that the figures are estimates of the available resources and vary from one investigator to another. THE EVERGLADES AGRICULTURAL AREA by Paulette Bond History of the Everglades Agricultural Area The Everglades Agricul tural Area is a pa r t of an i mmense natural drain age system that begins in the northernmost reaches of the Kissimmee River drainage basin near Orlando. The Kissimmee River flows to the southeast into Lake Okeechobee In its natural state, the level of L ake Okeechobee fluctuated within a range of approx imately 8 feet, that is,

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30 BUREAU OF GEOLOGY 1---' .J-t( Q... Cil ,_ lo.. \ ...... t """ .. ' -.. ., : 'I .,.. I ....... l .. ',r"' I .. .. ..... f "'-.. vo n:" J :-""',1-t . ,L:(";, : .. .. 0 ) -. -(,:) ) ..... 0 EvE R G L A oEs .J :.,... \ .. I Mostly So..,..CJ!ossPeol ......... -.. .- :""'-.. A Muck ond Pt-ct ... : ... 8 Lox.ohotchee Peat ..' ':.., C Ptot \ 0.:., 0 MANGROVE a'>:, I J,:J., ' 1 E SA lT-MARSH PEATS :.. ':r CORKSCREW MARSH 0 -... l. F VAN SWEAR I NGEN SLOUGH :: Jl. .':iio $ G I STOKPOGA MARSH&Sw"AMP Jt' ""-f'l > H U PPER ST. JOHNS R I V E R F ELLSM ERE AREA l P EAC E CREEK DRA I NAGE DISTRIC T AREA J C L ERM O NT MARSH K L AKE APOPKA MARSH 0 h o0 I 0: "" '\,,<.J,'' .... t.. <;).' ........ "" :t ..1 I ._ '0' ,\ I . .' r .,__ ... --i! .. ,_! :. __ :. v {' .,;, (.) :.,., -.,..___ .1 \!) 1-f. ...: .. 11!1 .. .. ' ,; (,;,. '"' .... \H .._ I \ L OKLAWAHA R I VER AREA _ M ORANG E LAKE !'! -, .,, N F lORAHOME AREA e .:::.'. 1 ,. 0 SAMPLES TAKEN ANO SMA LLER-lt:-. -- .. ......... ,,::-:, .. Y '# P E AT AREAS _\.; / , -' S 1 :-\ T t : Ot n.OUIO.-\ \ J' __ - SHOWING ::_{''-., -::-::. ;;;..,; PEAT DEPOSITS -e ... 1, "'!Y' ' ..... _,, \ . . . ,. ; . .,./'. ... .. F i gure 13. Peat deposits tn Florida. ( From Davis, 1946).

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li;,;,;,-SPECIAL PUBLICATION NO. 27 FUEL GRADE PEAT DEPOSITS ..... . ......... . > t . . . . . -""""' = = 1' . .: 3 1 Figure 14. Fuel grade peat deposits in Florida (From Griffin, et al., 1982).

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32 BUREAU OF GEOLOGY Figure 1 5. Peat deposits in Florida. (From State of Florida Governor's Energy Office, 1981 ). between 12 to 20 feet above mean sea level (M.S.L.) (Parker, 1974). The water level in the upper Everglades rose and fell in response to the fluctuations of Lake Okeechobee. In the wet season, most of the Everglades was inundated much of the time. When the water level of Lake Okeechobee reached about 14.6 feet (M.S.L.). two separate segments of the lake shore would begin overflowing into the Everglades. At about 18 feet (M.S.L.). the entire southern shore (30 miles) overflowed, pouring a flood into the upper Everglades (Parker, 1974). It is important to note, however, that losses due to evapotranspiration are estimated to have been as high as 82 percent. Thus, flood water from Lake Okeechobee most probably did not travel the entire length of the Everglades, but rather local precipitation caused the inundation (Parker, 1974). This mass of water flowed sluggishly to

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SPECIAL PUBLI C ATION NO 27 33 the Gulf and has come to be described as sheet f low (Parker, 1974). The chronic inundation al lowed the accumulation and p r eservation of the organic soils a n d p eats which characterize the highly productive Ever glades Agricul tural Area. In about 1880, Hamilton Disston entered into a contract by which he would drain l and on the upper Kiss i mmee River and receive as compensa t ion half of t he land he drained His success was debatable (Tebeau 197 4). The histor y of early drainage efforts is a history of inadequate technical expertise and insecure funding. T he scope of t h e d r ainage issue was continually underestimated Disastrous f l oods associated w ith hurri canes in 1926 and 1928 moved the Federa l Government to take action. The extensive floods of 194 7 a n d 1948 made it obvious that water contr ol had not yet been established and set the stage for the interven tion of the Army Corps of Engineers ( T ebeau, 1974). In 194 7, most of south Flor i da was flooded for several months. The U.S. Congress in respo n se to the conti n u ing water-control problems, passed the Flood Control Act of Jun e 30, 1948. This action directed the Army Corps of Engineers to p l an design and construct a massive project which would ult imately solve water problems in all or parts of 1 8 counties in centra l and south Flor i da (Snyder, et al. 1978). In the plan pro posed by the Army Corps of E n gi n eers major concern was devoted to t h e protecti on of l ife and property along the lower east coast of Florida. T he first phase of the project in volved building an artifi cial l evee f rom L ake Okeec h obee to about Homestead in order to confin e flood wat ers to the Everglades. T h e project was also des i gned to provide water control for soil water conservation and farming (Snyder, et al. 1978). After studies by both the U n ited Stat es Department of Agriculture and t h e University of F lorida, t h e lan ds of t he present "Everglades Agricul tural Area" wer e set aside for agricultural development. The organic soi l s of t h e Agri cultural Area were the on l y soils of sufficient de pth and of the proper type to s upport cultivati on for a per iod of time sufficien t to justify development (Snyder, et a l. 1978). It is important to note that when the Everg l ades Agricultural A rea was being p l anned it was recognized that subsidence of o r ganic soi l would occur and that the area could not support cultivation indefinitely (Snyder, et a l. 1978). Crops a nd So i l s of the Ev e rglades Agric ultural Area The Flor i da Everglades comprises the single la rgest body of organic soi l s in the world, 1,976,800 ac r es (Shih, 1980). The Eve r glades Agri cultural A rea consi sts of 765,700 acres of f ertile o r ga n ic soil. Winter vegetab l es from t h e Agricultural Area in clude sweetcorn celery, ra d is h es, leaf crops, carrots and bea n s. I n a d dition, lands of the agricultural t rac t a r e used for sugar cane, pasture and turf (Shih, 1980). Sugar cane is the dominant crop with cash receipts of $21 5 million in 1977-1978 (Snyder, et al., 1978). The proximity of the Florida Agricultural Area to the south shore of

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3 4 c:J . . . r BUREAU OF GEO L OGY PRI VATELY BAC KPUMPED LANDS STATE 0WNEO LANDS CA NAL LEVEE (L) r.:1 ""' BASIN B OUNDARY CONTROL STRUCTURE ( S ) LAKE OKEECHOBEE CLE W ISTON HGS 2 HOOVER OIK E S-3 BASI N \ S B BASIN c> L \ R O TEN BERGE R TRACT L 4 S-2 BAS I N .,.SELL E GLADE S-2 L-5 S-5 BASIN L-7 S-6 Figure 16. Location map of the Everglades Agricultural Area. (Modi fied from Snyder, et al., 1 978). Lake Okeechobee is not coincidence (Figure 16). Before the activiti es of man alte r ed the tendency of Lake Okeechobee to overflow along its southern edge, silt, clay and organic colloids were mixed with dead p lants to form muck. In this way, the mucks became enriched in the microelements that peat lacks (Stephens, 1974), enchancing t he mucks as an agricultural growth medium.

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SPECIAL PUBLICATION NO 27 35 The soils of the Everglades Agricultural Area are classified by soil sci entists on the basis of the percentage of inorganic matter they contain and their thickness. The Torry Series soils occur within two to five miles of Lake Okeechobee. They contain black organic layers more than 51 inches thick and are characterized by a range of 35 percent to 70 percent mineral matter (mostly the clay minera l s sepiolite and montmorillonite) (Snyder, et al. 1 978) and are not considered peats according to ASTM standards The Terra Ce i a Pahokee Lauderhill and Dania soils are dark organic soils which are differentiated from one another based on their thickness above bedrock. The Terra Ceia soi ls are the thickest, with the Pahokee, Lauderhill and Dania becoming successively thinner. As the process of subsidence occurs, Terra Ceia soils will become Pahokee so i ls since Pahokee soils differ from Terra Ceia soils only in their thickness (Snyder et al., 1978). Subsidence Subsidence refers to the l oss of thickness which is incurred by organic soils when they are drained. A group of physical processes are responsi ble for subsidence, including 1) shrinkage due to dessication 2) consoli dation by loss of the buoyant force of groundwater and loading, or both, 3) compaction by tillage, 4) wind erosion, 5) burning and 6) biochemical oxidation (Stephens 1974). The processes of dryi ng consolidation and compaction do not result in actual loss of soil (Shih, 1980). Stephens and Johnson ( 1951) documented an increase of oven dried weight for Ever glades peat from about 9 pounds to about 16 pounds per cubic foot after cultivation. This increase in density corresponds to a decrease although there is little actual loss of soil. The processes of wind erosion burning and oxidation do, however, result in the actual l oss of organic soils (Shih 1 980). Wind erosion is thought to have minor effects in the Everglades Agricultural Area. Numerous charcoal-rich lenses which represent ancient fires have been found at depth in cores through the organic soils of the Everglades and coastal swamps (Cohen, 1974). Attempts to correlate charcoa l layers from core to core were futile suggesting that fires were not widespread geographically. The fires were confined mainly to sawgrassdominated peats. Modern observation indicated that fires are very common in sawgrass communities and it is suggested that sawgrass may be especially welladapted to surviva l of fires (Cohen, 1974). The most serious cause of long term subsidence in the Everglades is biochemical oxidation. Biochemical oxidation has been r esponsible for 55 to 75 percent of the total soil loss in the upper Everglades Agricultural Area (Stephens, 1974) Although original plans for drainage in the Ever glades recognized that subsidence would occur, the causes were apparently misunderstood (Stephens and Johnson, 1951 ). Shrinkage of origi nal peat due to drainage was taken into account, but the slow continual loss of peat due to biochemical oxidation was not considered.

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36 BUREAU OF GEOLOGY The organic soi l s of the Everglades are a collection of organic particles and mineral particles which are inte rspersed with void spaces or pores When these pores are filled with water the microorganisms whi ch actively decompose the organic soil are unable to function or function at a greatly reduced rate (Snyder, et al., 1978). Th is is the condition that allowed organic soils to accumul ate before modification of natural drain age patterns. Biochemical oxidation of organic soils is facilitated by warm temperatures, low water tables, high pH and high organic content ( Stephens, 197 4). Drained organic soils of the F l orida Everglades Agricultural Area sub side at an average rate of approximately one inch/year (Stephens, 1 97 4). T h is rate varies with variation of depth to the water table. Rates of subsidence for experimental plots with water table depths of 1 2 inches, 24 inches and 36 inches were measured to be 0.6 inches per year 1 4 inches per year and 2.3 inches per year, respectively. Subsidence has been documented in the Everglades using repeated surveys of ground elevation along certain l ines. In Figures 17, 18 and 19 (Stephens and Johnson, 1951), the so l id lines represent the original elevation of the surface of the ground and the elevation as measured in 1940. The dashed lines indicate the topographic elevations predicted from subsidence ra t es. Stephens (1974) notes that subsidence was measured to be 33.5 inches between 1941 and 1966 in the upper Ever glades which may be compared to a predicted subsi dence l oss of 33.0 in c hes in 25 years (Stephens and Johnson, 1951 ). Rates of subsidence in the Everglades Agri cu l tura l Area vary with the del?th to which the water table is maintained. The depth at which the water table is mainta i ned depends on optimum conditions for each land use Snyder, et al. (1978) note that most vegetable crops produce high yields when the water table is maintained at 24 inches below the sur face. Sugar cane normally requires a water table depth which is greater than 24 inches; and in certain organic soils, a water table depth of 30 to 36 inches greatly improves sugar cane quality. Water tables for cattle and sod production may be maintained at levels which would be consid ered too high for most crops. It is important to note that extremely high water tables may cause problems specifically related to c r op l and use even though high water tables allow maximum soil preservation (Snyder, et al., 1978). Conservation Measures Researchers who have worked in the Everglades Agricultural Area sug gest that maintenance of h ig h water tables is t he most effective measure available for conservation of organic so i ls. Tate ( 1 980) notes that the only feasible means of controlling subsidence is knowledgeable manipulation of the water table. Snyder et al. ( 1978) recommend: "For best conservation organic soils shou l d be kept flooded whenever not in use. When soils are used, the water table should be maintained as high as is

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SPEC IAL PUBLICATI O N NO. 27 LAKE OKEECHOBEE ' ' .. ' CANAL 0 2 6 8 10 M I \.ES SCAl.[ ' ' I ' MARTIN COUNTY Pl. L M COUNTY ', ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' I ' \ ' Figure 1 7 Map of the Everglades Agricultural Area showing the locations of profile A-A' and B-B (Modi fied from Stephens and Johnson, 1951 ) 37

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A 2 0 (j 18 > w _J 16 4 w _J w 2 I I ... _L I ........ I 't .. .... ... 10 () :r: 0 () () .c >-w m 0:: 0 :E z _J w ct I Q. ELEVATI O NS 1912 (ORIGINAL CANAL SURVEYS) I I GROUND : ELEVATIONS 1940 (SCS S URVEYS) I I I I ESTI M ATED IGROUND E LEVA TION S 1970 1 I I I -----,1 I ... ----.... ... 1,', .,.... ---------........ .., I 'L------I ... -1 I ; ESTIMATED :GROUND E LEVATIONS 2000 1 1 .. -----... I "' ... I """ ---, ------I ., ------.. 1 "' ., I ROCK ./ I _J ctl z ct () :E ct :E .JI 0z 0:: 0 0:: 0 m .J Ulct .Jz ::::! ct :r: () ROCK A' I I I I I I I / 0 ., 0 5 10 1 5 20 M ILES 2.5 30 35 40 Figure 18. Profile A A across the upper Everglades Agricultural Area showing the original surface elevation in 1912 and the ground elevation in 1940, from topographical surveys. Profi les for the yea rs 1970 a nd 2000 are estimated ( Modified from Stephens and Johnson, 1951). w (X) to c :a m )> c 0 .., G') m 0 r-0 G') -<

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8 8' 2 0 1 9 I 1 8 ...--GROUND ELE V 1 912 (ORIGINAL CANAL SURVEYS) _J l)J 1 7 > w 16 _J w _J 6 w 5 : 1970 : -I --... L" ...... ..-------I -r...--.. ...., ---.... ., _, .__ -..... ._,_ '-I / / ""-'i V GROUN D ELE V 2000 --I I """---I ---------I ..., I I ct:l 4 3 -.J 2 I NILES 1 5 20 25 0 Figur e 19. Profile B -B' across the lower Everglades Agricultural Area showing the original surface elevation in 1 9 1 2 and the ground elevation in 1940, from topographical surveys. Profiles for the years 1970 and 2000 are estimated. (Modified from Stephens and Johnson, 1951 ) C/) m (') -)> r, c CD r(') 0 2 2 0 w CD

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40 BUREAU OF GEOLOGY poss i ble for that use". Stephens ( 1974) a number of suggestions geared toward conservation of organic soil: ( 1) provide adequate water control facilities for keeping water tables as high as crop and field requirements will tolerate; (2) make productive use of drained lands as soon as possible; and (3) intensify research studies to develop practices to prolong the life of the soils". It has been suggested that extending the life of organic soils by plow ing under cover crops or litter (Snyder, et al. 1978; Stephens, 1974) is probably not an effective conservation measure. The rate at which peat forms is extremely slow and the volume of plant litter produced is very small. Snyder, et al. ( 1978) discuss an example which clarifies thi s rela tionship. Sugar cane produces an amount of top growth exceeded by few, if any, plants. An average cane crop (30 tons/ acre) is estimated to contain approximately eight tons of dry matter. If all of the dry matter from an entire crop were added to the soil, it could be assumed that about half of it would be decomposed rapidly. One acre inch of top soil is about the amoun t lost to subsidence each year in the Everg l ades Agricul tural Area. That amount of soil weighs approximately 50 tons. Thus, four tons are replaced each year, which is still only approximately 1 /12 the amount which is lost. The Near Future of the Ever glades Agricultural Area Snyder, et al. (1978) have included a discussion of land use in the Everglades Agricultural Area through the year 2000. It is noted that the predictions of Stephens ( 1951) have prove d reliable (compare Figures 20 and 21 ). These predictions are presented in Table 2 (Snyder, et al., 1 978). Although land elevations are shown through the year 2000, sub sidence will continue. By the year 2000, only approximately 80,000 acres of soil three feet in depth or deeper will remain. It is predicted that sugar cane acreage will decrease, pasture acreage will increase signifi cantly and vegetable acreage will r emain essent i ally unchanged assum ing the economic viability of such operations. By the year 2000, over 500,000 acres will be less than three feet in thickness. Approximately half of this will be less than a foot in depth (Snyder, et al., 1 978). The depth of three feet is significant because, at depths o f less than thre e feet, the use of mole d r ains becomes impractical. The soils which have subsided to depths of less than one foot face an uncertain fate. Snyder, et al. ( 1 978) suggest that while some of those soils may be suitable for pasture, the soils may be abandoned for agricultural uses. It is also sug gested that the remaining soils and the existing water-control structures be used to produce aquatic crops. The authors suggest that such a usage could greatly extend the useful agricultural life of the soils.

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SPECIAL PUBLICATION NO. 27 LAKE OKEECHOBEE n CAN!\L t. 6 9 10 \'IUS StAL 41 M4ft l N COUNTY PAlM f!(ACH COUNlY ' ' Figure 20. Soil depths predicted for 1980 for the Everglades Agri cultureal Area. Compare these with Figures 18 and 19. (Fro m Griffin, et al., 1982).

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I / / v LAKE ... ...... 0 0 0 0 . . .... ... . . 0 0 0 'k' ::: -l X :.'\'!' y . fv I \.' 17 MART I N CO. 0 -----l -------PAL M eEACH CO. I OKEECHOBEE . :. I I I .-: .;: 2$.>4 /0 ;.0 IQ : :.'.':::: :::'\,.;.; X ,.. '1 ""'\ ............... : .;& >(V, \......./ _L' .... . : : : y ( X X'\ x A "0 ;Q< X. x0 .. X ""-'?Y)(I X X :x.x X :M: xx X X 2Y"'I. X XV /\ ... '(: X X ..f .)V""' K X )(' 0 '>< ){))( X X )(I >(') X X X 0. {i -::::. Xf X X, r; ::::: AX: .:.:>< ,-Tv-:...-'1 1.))(-)('t:-:-:::-::-:-. X< \.. Do< )o .. . "'--"' X ( .... .. )( r . X '7' "1"-' ,_:;;;;;;;:.:.: '-.)( x V' r .. _0: ["" . . ......... .:::: ._.. ___ _. .::.._ X ... : ........ r .'lr!( r....... . I. ./V' - p lit 0 0.... : : I'J "" 0... _ - l i X o o . :o 0 0. .. 0 0 0 . J i.. y : o. ./:: r_x )< 0 0 0 o ,._._.. 0 y X o o o o o. o o 0. 0 0 0 :: () ;:(< :::::::.::..:.. ::..:.:.::: .. ts "" < 0 ....,..... 0 0 or. 0 0 ..,.. 0 )< 'W&:\-:-:::::-::. /XJ ..tQ< >(< >(< ..._ /< XX >(' iV 0 >& 0 :>0. PALM 8EACH CO. ------""" ..... 1-----8ROWARO CO. Figure 21. Thicknesses of soils in the Everglades Agricultural Area as determined by a recent study. (Modified from Griffin, et al., 1982). Ol c ::D m )> c 0 "T1 G) m 0 r 0 G) -<

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SPECIAL PUBLICAT I ON NO 27 43 Table 2. Proportions of the Organic soils of the Everglades Agricultural Area f alling into categories based on thickness (after Snyder, 1978). YEAR 0 to 1 ft. 1 to 3 ft. 3 to 5 ft over 5 ft. 1912 0 1 3 95 1925 1 3 7 89 1940 1 7 14 85 1950 2 7 28 78 1960 4 12 28 55 1970 1 1 16 41 45 1980 17 28 41 14 1990 27 28 39 7 2000 45 42 9 4 MINING TECHNOLOGY by Kenneth M. Campbell Mining Methodology A ssociated with the U se of Peat for Fuel Recently several potential commer c ial users have been investigating Florida's peat as a fuel source. This interest is prompted by the r ising cost of traditional fuels. Preliminary proposals for the use of peat as a fuel in Florida suggest that peat will be air dried and burned directly. This usage w ill require comparatively large amounts of peat which must be dried before it is burned (this drying is in addition to the moist ure reduc tion which accompanies bog drainage) (U.S. Department of Energy 1979). The drainage of a peatland is an integral and necessary first step in any large sca le peat mining operation utilizing milled peat or sod pea t mining methods. Moisture must be r educed to approximately 90 percent for the bog to be considered workable (i.e. able to bear the weight of machinery). Drainage is accomplished by construction of a system of ditches and waterways which are designed to capture water and route it away from the portion of the bog to be mined (U.S. Department of Energy, 1979). If surface streams traverse the bog, they are diverted around i t. Ev entually, surface vegetation and stumps must be removed. There are several mining methods in common use in Europe. The man ual method is one in which peat is cut in t o blocks by hand removed from the bog for air drying and finally burned for home heating and cooking (U.S. Department of Energy 1979). Manual peat harvesting is labor intensive and probably will not become important in Florida. The sod peat mining method is one in which a t rench is cut into a previously prepared field. These trenches are cut by excavator/ macerators which are specifically desig n ed to cut macerate, and

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4 4 BUREA U OF GEOLO G Y e xtrude sods onto a conv eyor which deposits them onto the field for air drying. At a moisture content of about 75 percent the sods are windrowed. Windrows are periodically split and turned to facilitate drying and at about 55 percent moisture, sods are considered dry and removed for storage (Aspinall, 1980). The milled peat mining method is one in which a peat l ayer one-quarter to 2 inches thick is milled or s h redded from the prepared surface of the bog. The peat is periodically harrowed to expedite drying. At a moisture content of 50 t o 55 percent, the dried peat is pushed into ridges where it is collected for transportation to storage faciliti es (Aspinall 1980). Several methods of hydraulic peat mining are in development. Exam ples o f t hese processes are the slurry ditch, hydro peat and slurry pond methods (Aspinall, 1980). In each o f these met hods, the surface must be cleared; but drainage is not necessary. The s lurry ditch and hydro peat methods utilize high pressure water guns to cut peat from a ditch f ace. T h e diff erence between the methods lies i n the post-mining dewatering process. The slurry ditch method uti lizes a dewatering apparatus; whereas, the hydro pea t method is dewatered by pumping the slurry to a drying field where it is spread to dry (Minnesota DNR, 1981 ). The slur r y pond met hod utilizes mechanical excavators o r a dredge to remove peat. Mining equipment is mounted on a barge which f loats on a pond excavated within the peat deposits as the m i ning progresses. The ultimate success of wet mining methods w ill depend on the successful development of very large scale dewatering processes and upon the environmental impacts of the mining process (U. S. Department of Energy, 1979). These may be the preferred methods, however in areas where drainage of pea t deposits is technically difficult or envi ronmentally unsound. Mini ng Methodology A sso ciated with the Agri cultural U s e of P e a t In order to obtain current information on Flo rida's active peat operations for the present study, the staf f of the Bureau of Geology designed and conducted a survey of producers. In the firs t stage of t h i s survey, a list of peat produce r s w as compi l ed. In an effort to make this list as comprehensive as possible, a number of sources were consulted includ ing: e xisting lists of producers (Florida Bu r eau of Geology, United Stat es Bureau of M ines, United States Mines Safety and H ea lth Administration); agencies contacting peat producers in conjunction w i t h regular profes sional services (county agricultural agents, Florida Department of Agr i cul t ure); and nume r ous telephone di r ectories. In the second stage of the survey, peat producers were contacted by telephone and f i eld visits w e r e ar r anged. The information which follows w as contr ibuted on a voluntary basis by produce r s who w ere contacted during fie ld visits. Peat extracti on methods var y with the size and nature o f the deposit being mined. Most deposits are mined using conventional types of earth -

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S PECIAL PUBLI CATION N O. 2 7 4 5 moving and excavating equipment. The machinery used includes drag lines, backhoes, grade-ails, front-end loaders and hydraulic excavators. The majority of companies use a dragline for mining. A shredde r is used to pulverize the peat. Most companies drain the immediate a rea of m i ning by ditching and pumping which enables the deposit to be mined by d r y processes. Approximately one-third of the companies contacted conduct all or part of their mining be low the watertable. Two companies util ize a var iety of the milled peat min i ng process. After surface clearing and ditching is complete, the surface peat is pu l verized w ith a rotovater. The pu l verized mate ri al is drie d in the sun and i s tur ned by discing to he l p promote d r ying. The dried materia l i s mechani cally windrowed using a frontend loader or bulldozer and is then stock piled or loaded for transport. There are no companies currently min i ng peat by the sod peat method in Florida. INDUSTRIAL USE S OF P EAT by Kenneth M. Campbell Industria l use of peat can be divided into two major categories: extrac tive and non-extractive ( M innesota D NR, 1981 ). The extractive uses include direct combust ion, gasificati on, ind u strial chem i cals, hor t icul tural products and sewage treatment. The non-extracti ve uses include agriculture, energy crops and sewage treatment (Minnesota DNR, 1981). Preparati o n o f P eat f o r Industrial Utilization For most applicat i ons, peat must be dewatered before processing. Uses for b i ogasification, some energy crops and sewage treatmen t p ro c esses do not require dewatering. Solar drying in the fiel d is energy effi cient bu t is not suitable to wet mining processes or to all mining plans. Its feasibi lity is str ongly d epen dent on climate, especially r a i nfall. A l ternative dewatering processes include mechanica l presses and the r ma l d r yers, in ad d i tion to pretreat ment processes such as wet carbonization, wet oxi dation and solvent ext raction. Mechanical methods are limited in the amount of water they can remove. Most of t he water con tained i n pea t is held i n chemical bonds, colloidal suspens i ons and sma ll pores in the organic matter. Mechanical methods may r educe water content to 70 p e rcent at bes t (Minnesota DNR, 1981 ) Therma l dryers can be utilized to reduce the moi sture con tent further The efficiency of mechanical dewatering i s great l y en h anced by pretreatment processes such as wet carboniza t ion, wet oxidation and solvent extraction. Peat can be mechanically dewatered to

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4 6 BUREAU OF GEOLOG Y approximately 30 percent water content after wet oxidation (Mensinger e t al., 1980 in Minnesota DNR, 1981, p. 30). Wet carbonization consists of heating a slurry of peat and water (approximately three percent solids) to 300 to 400F at 50 to 100 atmospheres of pressure for 30 minutes. A peat coal" with a heat value of 12,000 to 14,000 BTU/Ib dry weight is obtained after the liquid is removed (U.S Department of Energy 1979). Wet oxidation is an established process for t he oxidat ion of many wet organic materials. Air or oxygen is pressure fed to wet peat in a closed, heated vesse l. Combustion is rapid and is contr olled by the rate o f supply of the oxygen or air. The process can be stopped after enough heat has been generated to carbonize the remaining peat or can be carried to completion to produce energy (U.S. Department of Energy, 1979). Solvent e xtraction reacts a heated peat-water slurry under pressure with an organ i c solvent. The water is ext racted from the peat by the solvent. Subsequent to cooling, the absorbed water i s stripped from the solvent and after trea tment is disposed of as waste. Fu e l U ses D IRECT COMBUST I ON Direct combustion of peat is a method of producing energy which has been utilized on a commercial scale in Ireland Finland and the Soviet Union for several decades. The Sovie t Uni on had i nstalled an electric power station fueled entirely by peat as early as 1914 (U.S Department of Energy 1 979). The U S. Department of Energy has developed several criteria for fuel grade peat for use i n its peat program The criteria are: 1) heat value greate r than 8,000 BTU/Ib (dry weight), 2) greater than 80 acres of peat per square mile, 3) peat depth greater than four feet, and 4) ash con tent less than 25 percent (Minnesota DNR, 1981 ). Hemic peats are generally the most suitable for direct combustion usage. The mor e decomposed peats (sapric) have been carbonized to a greater extent but often have larger ash contents which reduces their fuel value. Fibric peats have bee n less carbonized and thus ha v e lower heating values. Direct combustion of peat i s accomplished in boilers designed or retrofitt ed for either peat fuel entirely or mixed fue l feed Boi l er design must accommodate the char acteristics o f peat fuel : low energy density, high moistur e content. Both of t hese cha r ac t eristics r esul t in i ncreased cost (approximately 50 p ercent greater) of the boiler and feed system com pared with a coal or oil fire d boiler of the same capacity (U.S. Department of Energy, 1979). Grate fired and fluidi z ed bed boilers require pelletized or b riquetted feed. Pulve r ized fired boilers require peat ground to be par ticle size compatibl e with the combuster design. Direct combustion techniques can result in partial o x idation of the p eat

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SPECIAL PUBLICATION NO. 27 47 and generation of synthetic fuel gases. Reduced oxygen input and / or water vapor injection are required to generate the fuel gases. GASIFICATION Peat is very reactive during gasification. Gasification can yield low to medium BTU fuel gases, synthesis gases (those which can be further upgraded by hydrocracking), fuel liquids, ammonia, sulfur and oil byproducts (naptha l ene, benzene and phenol) (U.S. Department of Energy, 1979; Minnesota DNR, 1981). Several basic designs of gasifiers are feasible for peat gasification, however, data for peat gasification is primarily limited to laboratory scale operations (U.S. Department of Energy, 1979). Entrained flow and fluid bed gasifiers appear attract ive. An example is the peat gas process deve l oped by the Institute of Gas Technology. Dry peat is fed to the gasifier, and heated under pressure with a hydrogen rich gas. The carbon in the peat reacts wit h the hydrogen to form hydrocarbon gases (primar ily methane and ethane) The gases produced can be upgraded to pipe line quality (M innesota DNR, 1981 ). Byproduct oils (benzene, napthalene and phenols), ammonia and sulfur are extracted in turn from the liquids which are condensed during various gas upgrading processes (Minne sota DNR, 1981 ). The ratio of gaseous to liquid products is controlled by c hanges in temperature, pressure and length of reacti on time. Increased tempera ture and reaction time l ead to gaseous product increases. With higher temperature and longer reaction times, the large hydrocarbon molecules comprising the liquid products are hydrocracked into lighter gaseous molecules (U.S. Department of Energy, 1979). BIOGASIFICATION Biogasification is an anaerobic fermentation process. An important advantage of biogasification is that dewatering is not required. Biogasifi cation is a twostage process. In the first step, the peat-water slurry is partially oxidized to break it down to simple compounds. A l dehydes, ketones, organic acids and esters are the main products at this stage. The pH is adjusted and the mixture is transferred to the fermenter (anaer obic biological reactor) where bacteria catalyze methane production. Methane and carbon dioxide are produced in stoichometric proportions (U.S. Department of Energy, 1979) with up to 95 percent of the material being converted to methane or carbon dioxide (M i nnesota DNR, 1981 ). The resulting gas can be upgraded to substitute natural gas (SNGJ by scrubbing the carbon dioxide and hydrogen sulfide from the methane gas (U.S. Department of Energy, 1979). The waste materia l from the fermentation process contai ns undigested peat components, inorganic residues and residual bacteria. These materi als can be utilized for soil conditioners, animal feeds, or can be concen -

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48 BUREAU OF GEO L OGY trated for disposal. Excess water is recycled to the fermenter (U.S. Department of Energy, 1979). Industr ia l Chemicals Peat has been utilized as a raw materia l for the production of industrial chemicals for many years in Europe and the Soviet Union. U.S. interest has developed only recently. Peat bitumens, carbohydrates and humic acids are extracted by processes at low to moderate temperatures. Peat coke, peat tar and activated charcoal are produced by pyrolysis. The use of peat for industrial chem i cals does not pose major technical problems. The technology has been developed in Europe and the Soviet Union. The chemicals produced are similar to petroleum derived products. As petro leum becomes more expensive, the incentives to utilize peat will increase (Min nesota DNR 1981 ). BITUMENS Peat bitumens are those peat components which are so l uble in nonpo lar organic so l vents. The yield of b itumens depends on the extracting solvent chosen. Yield i ncreases from low to high in the following list of solvents: petroleum ether, gasoline, dichloroethane, benzene, ethanol:benzene ( 1: 1) (Fuchsman, 1978). Although variou s solvents are utilized for analytical purposes, gasoline is the so lvent used in commer cial processes. Benzene is not used because of heal t h hazards (Bei'Kevich, 1977 in Fuchsman, 1978). The peat bitumens of commer cial interest are peat waxes and res ins. The waxes are the most important commercially (Fuchsman, 1978). Peat, su i table for commercial wax production, contains at least five percent gasoline extractable material and has an ash content less than 10 percent (Lishtvan and Korol, 1975, in Fuchsman 1978). The wax content of peat is higher in more highly decomposed peats (Naucke, 1 966, in Fuchsman, 1 978) particularly those with remains of shrubs and trees (Fuchsman, 1978). Dried peat particles in the size range of 0.02 inches -0.2 inches are required for efficient solvent extraction. Wax extraction utilizes gasoline as the solvent and extracts most of the wax but relatively few of the resins (Bei' Kevich, 1977, in Fuchsman, 1978). Gasoline and peat are mixed at 20: 1. Approximately five percent of the gasoline i s lost in the process, with the rest be ing recycled after wax removal by solvent evaporati on. T he crude wax contains some resins. Resins are partially removed by t reatment w ith an appropriate solvent (cold acetone, alcohol and ethyl acetate) (Fuchsman, 1978). Further purification is accomplished by treatment with potassium dichromate and sulfuric acid at 167F-230F. The result is a fair l y hard, light tan wax (Bei' Kevich, 1977, in Fuchsman, 1978).

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SPECIAL PUBLICATION NO 27 49 Peat waxes are produced commercially only in the Soviet Union wher e they are used as release agents in foundry castings and on polyethyl ene surfaces. Peat waxes are simila r to montan wax which is deri ved from ligni t e. Mont an wax is a substitute for beeswax and carnauba wax and is used as an industrial l ubrican t and as an ingred ient in shoe and furniture polish electrical insu lating materia l s and in candles ( M i nnesota D N A 1981 ). Peat resins are the primary byproducts of pea t wax production. The res i ns are o f importance as a source of steroids for use by the pharmaceutical industry ( M innesota DNA. 1981 ). CARBOHYDRATES Peat carbohydrates consist primarily of cellulose and related materials such as hemicellulose and star ches (Fuchsman 1978). Sugars are p r oduced by acid hydr olysis for use i n yeast culture. Yeast culture can be optimized for the production of single cell protein or for the fermentation of alcoho l (Fuchsman 1978) Peat suitable for carbohydrate hydrolysis, accord ing to Soviet crite r ia are : Sphagnum peat with degree of decomposition less than 20 percent, ash content l ess than five percent and at least 24 percent of the dry weight of the peat recoverable as fermentable sugars from the easily hydrolyzabl e carbohydrates (or 45 percent i f difficultly hydrolyzable carbohydrates a r e included) (Fuchsman 1978). Cellulose is classif i ed as being difficult to hydrol yze. The preferred Soviet process (lshino 1976, in Fuchsman, 1978) is as follows: pea t with a maximum grain size of 0.4 inches is s l urried with water to 7 -20 pe rcent solids and mixed. The suspension is then pumped at 5 7 atmospheres o f pressure and concentrated sulfuric acid i s added to give an overall acid concen t ration of 0.251 percent. T he s lurr y is h eated to 284F-338 F by steam injec tion and discharged to atmospheric pressure and reacted for 1 0 -30 minutes. Volatile matter is flashed off, the f l uid i s dil u ted and reacts for an add i t i onal 1 0 minutes at 284F to allow hydrolysis completion. Solids are then removed by sedimentation centrifuge or filtration. Yield by this process is 34-40 percent of the peat dry weight. HU M IC ACIDS Fuchsman (1978) describes humic ac i d as "al kal i soluble, acid insolub l e organic compounds. excluding b itumens and carbohydrates". The r e are several lines of chemical modifi cation of humic ac i d: pyrolysis, oxidation and reduction (Fuchsman. 1978). T o date, ther e are no large scale commercial uses for humic acid. P resent industr ial uses for humic acids include si z ing for paper, tanning agents, in fertilizers and as viscosity modifiers for o i l well dril l ing mud

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50 BUREAU OF GEOLOGY (Fuchsman, 1978). Potential uses include the production of plastics and synthetic fibers, components for paints and adhesive formulations and flocculants or thickene rs in water purification systems. These uses are based primarily on the adsorption and ion exchange properties of humic acids (Fuchsman, 1978). PEAT COKE, PEAT TAR AND ACTIVATED CARBON Peat coke, peat tar and activated carbon are produced by the process of pyrolysis. Pyrolysis consists of decomposition of organic substances by heat in the absence of air. When carried to a high enough temperature and for long enough time, the process yields a carbon residue (peat coke) a water immiscible condensate (peat tar) and non condensable gases which can be utilized as fuel gases. Peat suitable for coking requires a relatively high carbon content (high level of decomposition), low ash content and low phosphorous content (Fuchsman, 1978). High carbon content is necessary for acceptable yields. Phospho rous and ash degrade the product quality. Several factors influence the yield of pyrolysis products. Coke yields are increased with more highly decomposed peats and slower rates of heating. Peat tar and gases generated by the pyrolysis process are often recycled as fuel for the coking process. Activated carbon is produced from peat coke by treating coke with steam at 1 ,632F-2 ,012F. The reaction forms hydrogen gas and car bon monoxide which has the physical effect of expanding the pores in the peat coke, greatly increasing the surface area available for adsorption (Norit, N.V. (n .d.L in Fuchsman, 1978). Peat coke is u t ilized to form high purity silicon for the electronics industry and as a reducing agent in electric smelting furnaces especially in the production of ferrochrome and ferrosilicon alloys (Eckman, 1975, in Fuchsman, 1978). Peat tars are refined for pesticide and wood pre servative use. The p rimar y use, however, is as fue l recycled to the peat coke production process (Minnesota DNR, 1981 ). Activated carbon is utilized for a variety of pu rposes, all of which take advantage of the large surface area available for adsorption. Uses include removal of pollutants from industrial waste gases, as a gas absorber, deodorizer, and for purification of water and sugar (Fuchsman, 1978). Us e of P eat as a Growth Medium HORTICULTURE Essentially all of the peat mined in Florida at the present time, is used for horticultural purposes. Peat is used by home owners for soil enhancement, by nurseries and landscapers for potting soils and growing media for plants, and also as a medium for mushroom and earthworm culture.

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SPECIAL PUBLICATION NO. 27 51 AGRICULTURE Agricultural uses of peat are sim il ar to horticultural uses. The peat is utilized as a growing medium (so i l) for agr i cultural crops. The material is not mined, however, drainage is generally necessary to provide the proper moisture conditions. Hemic and sapric peats, as well as mucks, are utilized for agricultural purposes Fibric peats typically are not suitable due to the low pH (acidic) which makes nutrients unavailable to many plants (Farnam and Lever, 1 980). Large areas of Flo r ida peats and mucks are utilized for agricultural purposes ENERGY CROPS Growi ng energy crops for plant biomass production allows peatlands to be utilized to produce renewable energy sources Plant biomass can be harvested and burned directly or can be gasified to produce liquid and gaseous fuels. Energy crops can be an alternative to conventional mining (using the peat as a growing medium) or can be utilized as a reclamation technique on mined out peatlands (Minnesota DNR, 1981 ). Plants which may be suitable for energy crop use in wetlands include: cattails, reeds and sedges, willow, and a l der (Minnesota DNR, 1981 ) These wetland species have two distinct advantages over conventional crops for use in biomass energy production: 1) the biomass productivity of wetland species is often higher than conventional crops (corn soybeans, etc.) and 2) they can be grown in wetlands unsuitable for conven tional crop plants and thus do not compete with conventional crop production (Minnesota DNR, 1981 ) Sewage Treatment Peat has been u t ilized in the tertiary treatment of waste water both in the U.S. and in Europe. The primary objecti ve is to reduce nutrient l evels, primarily phosphorous and nitrogen (Minnesota DNR, 1981 ) Phosphorous is removed from solution by bacteria present in that portion of the peat exposed to air. Bacterial metabolism converts the phos phorous to insoluble forms. Chemical reactions with calcium, aluminum and iron present in the peat also remove phosphorous from solution (Nicho l s, 1980). Nitrogen is metabolized by anaerobic bacteria, converting nitrate in the waste water to gaseous nitrogen which is released to the atmosphere (Nicho ls 1980). Additional nutrients are removed through uptake by plants growing on the peat surface. Three methods are commonly used for the tertiary treatments of waste water. Two utilize the peat in place, the third utilizes excavated peat (Minnesota DNR, 1981 ) If peat is to be used in place, waste water may be introduced in one of two ways. The waste water can be introduced

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52 BUREAU OF GEOLOGY directly to the bog surface and allowed to filter through the peat or it may be introduced to a dit ched and drained peat deposit. Introduction of waste water to a ditched and drained deposit would increase the volume of peat exposed to the waste water, increasing residence t im e and allow ing more efficient nutrient uptake (Nichols, 1980). The third method involves a built up filter bed of peat, sand and gravel. The effluent is applied to the f il ter surface by sprinklers. Generally, the surface of the filter would be seeded with a suitable sedge or grass to remove additional nutrients (Minnesota DNR, 1981 ). Peat water treatment systems and experimentation have not been conducted for enough time to determine the period of time over which it can effectively remove nutri ents before i t becomes saturated. Environmental effects, therefore, must be strictly mon i tored (M i nnesota DNR, 1981 ) ECONOMIC IMPACT OF PEAT MINING by Kenneth M. Campbell Peat is currently mined in 12 Florida counties (Figure 22). In each of these counties, the mining companies provide jobs, pay state and l ocal taxes, require the services of various support industries and provide a valuable product t o nurseries and individuals. Production, Value and Price of Peat The U.S. Bureau of Mines reports an average 1982 price for F lori da peat of $13. 12 per short ton. 1983 prices quoted by mining companies range from $8.50 to $18.00 per cubic yard of peat with the most common price being $10.00 to $10.50 per cubic yard. Blended topsoils r ange from $11.00 to $20.00 per cubic yard. If one ton of peat is assumed to occupy 2.3 cubic yards, the $10.50 per cubic ya r d price is equiva lent to $24.15 per short ton. Bagged peat prices are higher and are in the range of $45.00 per ton. Flor i da ranked second in peat production nationally in 1982 (Boyle and Hendry, 1984). The U.S. Bureau of Mines (B.O.M.) reported peat produc tion in 1982 as 120,000 short tons, with a value of $1 ,575,000 dollars (Figure 23). The average price i n 1982 was $13.12 per short ton. The above figures represent a 25 percent drop in production and a 4 7 percent drop in value from 1 981 The B.O.M. production and value figures do not represent the complete picture. The B.O.M. reported peat production from four counties in 1 982. Of the 10 companies on the B.O. M peat producer l ist, only six are still active. The authors have compiled a list of 21 peat producers, located in 12 counties. The actual peat production in the state must be significantly higher than reported by the B.O .M.

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SPEC IAL PUBLI C ATION NO. 2 7 Figure 22. Location of current peat producers in F l orida (From a Bureau of Geology survey for this report}. Loca tio n o f Peat Pro ducers 53 Peat production is concentrated in central peninsular Florida, in Sumter, Lake, Orange Pasco, Hillsborough Polk and Highlands counties. Additional producers are located in Madison Coun t y (Northwest penin sula}, Clay and Putnam counties (Northeast peninsula} and in Palm Beach and Dade counties (south Florida}. The authors did not locate any active peat producers in the panhandle of Florida L oca tion of M ar k e t s The majority of Florida peat producers marke t bulk pea t and blend potting soils for regional or statewide distribution. Two companies have only local markets, 11 have regional markets and six have statewide

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200 4 0 QUANTITY (THOUSANDS OF SHORT TONS ) D VALUE ( MILLIONS OF DOLLARS) 160 3.2 ,... -.., It) > It) -p PRELIMINARY DATA -.... -w ::: 0.. z ..J c{ c{ a:l ::: > .n N 0 ... N 0 -N 1 ... N (I) 01 ,... ,... IQ It) .., 8 0 1972 1 973 1974 1 975 1976 1977 1978 1979 1980 1981 1982 1983 YEAR Figure 23. Production and value of peat in Florida 1972-1983. (Compiled from Minerals Yearbooks 1972-1981, U S Bureau of Mines; and The Mineral Industry of Florida 1982, U S Bureau of Mines ; and Mineral Industry Surveys, Annual Prelim inary Mineral Industr y of Florida, 1983, U.S. Bureau of Mines ) CD c :a m )> c 0 "T1 C) m 0 r-0 C) -<

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SPECIAL PUBLICATION NO 27 55 markets. Two companies market their product outside of Florida, primar ily in the southeast United States. One of the companies however, ships bu l k peat to Texas where it is bagged for retail sale. Use of Peat The principal use of peat mined in Florida is as a soil conditioner, with large amounts being used for lawns, golf courses and in nurseries and greenhouses. The majority of Florida peat production is marketed as a bulk product (typically truck loads of 30-50 cubic yard) for nursery and landscaping purposes, with the remainder bagged for the retail market. The peat may be marketed as is (peat only) or blended with other materia l s to form topsoil and potting soil products. B l ended products are generally custom mixed to the customers' specifications. Quartz sand sawdust and wood chips are typical ingredie nts added in order to improve the drainage char acteris tics of the peat. The nurseries may blend their own potting soil mixes using bulk peat purchased from m in ing companies. The bulk mate rials may be utilized as a growing medium for nursery plants, or bagged for retail sale. Peat from several Florida deposits has been tested for suitability as an alternative boiler fuel. Although tests have indicated that peat can be an effective and price competitive fuel, there i s no current peat usage for fue l in Florida. PERMITTING by Kenneth M. Campbell County, state and federal permits may be required in order to open a new peat mine. The process is very site specific and varies from county to county. Under some conditions, permits may not be required by any agency. County level Permits Operationa l peat mines are located in 12 Florida counties In most of the counties, zoning regulations are the only county regu l ations which apply to opening a peat mine. A summary of county permitting processes is shown in Table 3. State level Permitting The primary state agencies with permitting responsibility with r espect to peat mining are the Department of Environmenta l Regulation (DER) and the five individua l Water Management Districts. The Department of

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Table 3 Summa r y o f C ounty L eve l Permittin g R eq ui rements (Pre p a r e d by Bu reau o f G eo logy Staff). County Clay Dade Highlands Hillsbo r ough Lake Titl e of Ordinance Clay Co. Zoning Ordinance 82-45 County Zoning Ordinance County Zoning Ordinance County Zoning Code and Borrow Pit Ordinance Lake Co. Zoning Regulations 1 971 6 Permit R equired Bo rrow Pit Excavation Permit Special Exception Borrow Pit Cond i tional Use, Operational Administr ative Agency Planning Bu il ding and Zoning Comm. Building & Zoning Depa rtment P l anning and Zoning Depa rtment Development coordination Plann i ng Department Public Hearing Requi r ed Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Hearing Body Zoning Board of Adjustment Zoning Appeal s Board Board of Zoning Adjustment County Commissi on Planning & Zoning Commission Comments Mining is allowed only as a special exception to zoning regulations A certified survey and site plan are required County regulations specify setback and sloping requirements. Public hearing approval by Z.A B. is r equired to obtain excavation permit. No specific zoning required. Permitted in industrial zoned areas; and in agricultura l zoned areas after a special exception is granted Requires proper zoning the issuance Borrow Pit Permit & the app r oval of the Hillsbo rough County Env i ronmental Protecti on Commission. Allowable only agricultural zoned areas after issuance of Conditional Use Perm i t Site plan is required. Before final operational permit will be granted all other permits required {Ex. DER) must have been approved U1 en co c ::D m )> c 0 "T1 C) m 0 ,.... 0 C) -<

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Table 3 continued County Orange Palm B each Pasco Polk Putnam Sumter Title of Ordinance Excavatio n & Fill Ordinance 7111 Plann ing & Zoning Ordinan ce Pasco County M ining Ordinance Polk County Zon ing Ordinance & Flood Protection & Surface Water Management Code (81 -82) Zoning Ordinance of Putnam County 755 Amend County Development Cod e Permit Required Excavation Permit Occupational Building Electri c al M ining Permit Conditional Use None Excavatio n P er mit Administrative Agency County Engin ee r i ng Department Plann ing and Zon ing Departmen t County P lann ing Department P lanning Department Building Zoning & Building Department Planning Zoning & Bui l ding Department Public Hear i ng Required Yes Yes Yes Ye s Yes No Hearing Body County Commission County Comm ission County Commissio n County Commission Zoning Board Comments Not zoning dependent, not allowed in planning conservation areas Land must be zoned agricultural. (J) Site plan mus t be approved "lJ m (") -M ining ordinance refers specifically )> ,.... to inorganic materials, peat may not ., be covered county source d i d not c know. I f covered, mining & co ,.... reclamation plan evidence of f isca l (") responsibility and p rior approval of !:; all necessary state and federal -permits would be r equired. 0 2 Allowed in R ural Conservation 2 Districts only after public hearing 0 approval for conditional u se. Polk county is not actively permitting N present peat operation & no new permits have been submitted, but the County has the option to do so. Allowable as a special exception in agricultural zoned area only. Allowable in A 5 zones: Require site plan & prior approval of any necessary s tate & federal permits. U'1

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58 BUREAU O F GEO L OGY Community Affairs has jurisdiction over Developments of Regional Impact (DRI ). DEPARTMENT OF ENVIRONMENTAL REGULATION A peat mining operation falls under DER jurisdiction only if either of two conditions are met. These criteria are: 1 ) the operation is located in or would affect surface "Waters of the State", or 2) there is water discharged off the property or to groundwater. If neither of these conditions apply, then DER does not require a permit (Mark Latch, DER, per sonal communication, 1984). The procedure involved is as follows: A site plan is submitted to DER. DER makes a determination as to whether there is jurisdiction and permits are required. If DER does have jurisdiction, the next step is to apply for the applicable permits. Any or all of the following permits may be required by DER depending on the specific site conditions and the site plan proposed: Dredge and Fill, Stormwater, Groundwater, Industrial Waste Water Discharge, Nationa l Pollutant Discharge Elimination System certification, Power Plant Siting and Air Quality. WATER MANAGEMENT DISTRICTS Four of the five Water Management Districts in Florida have peat mines located within their boundaries. They are the Suwannee River St. Johns River, Southwest Florida and South F l orida Water Management Districts. The permitting required by each management district is discussed below. Suwannee River Water Management District Any wells drilled for water withdrawal or monitoring purposes require well construction permits. Water use permits are required for all uses of water whether the withdrawal is through wells or from surface water bodies. A water use permit is not required for monitor wells (Ron Ceryak, SRWMD, personal communication, 1984). St. Johns River Water Management D istrict There are four permits which may be required by the SJRWMD. They are the Consumptive Use Permit (40C -2), Water Well Construction Permit (40C-3), Management and Storage of Surface Waters Permit (40C-4) and Works of the Distric t Permit (40C -6). The permits and pertinent thresholds are summarized below by Frank Meeker (SJRWMD, Division of Permit t ing, personal communication, 1984).

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SPECIAL PUBLICATION NO. 27 59 A Consumptive Use Permit (CUP) is required to put down a well i f it meets certain thresholds. These thresholds are: 1 If the average annual daily withdrawal exceeds 1 ,000,000 gallons per day on an annual basis, 2. If there is a withdrawal from a combination of wells with a com bined capacity of 1,000,000 gallons per day, 3. If the withdrawal equipment has a capacity of 1,000,000 gallons per day, 4 If the outside diameter of the well is six inches or greater. A Water Wel l Construction Permit (WWCP) is required prior to construction, repair or abandonment of any publi c supply well hav ing a nominal casing diameter exceeding four inches In the Oklawaha River Basin (all or parts of Marion, Lake Polk and Orange counties) a permit is required for the same parameters however, the nominal casing size is reduced to two inches. Volusia and Duval counties do not require permits except for public drinking water supply wells. A Management and Storage of Surface Waters Permit (MSSW ) is required when a mining operation exceeds one of several thresholds To construct, alter operate, repair or abandon a project, a permit is required if: 1 It is capable of impounding 40 acre-feet 2. The project is greater than 40 acres i n size 3 It has 12 or more acres of impervious surface which constitutes 40 percent or more of the total land area. 4 The project has a traversing work which t r averses: a. an impoundment of 10 acres or more, b a stream or watercourse with a drainage area of five square miles c. or a Hydrologically Sensitive Area not wholly owned by the applicant. A Work of the District Permit (WOO) is required to make use of, alter, remove works from or place works within, on or across a WOO. Exam ples of WOOs are the St. Johns River St. Johns Marsh and the Oklawaha River. In addition to these rules, the District requires a reclamation plan to mitigate adverse water quality, quantity, compensating storage and envi ronmental impacts. These impacts are directly related to the mining oper ation. Specific guidelines are listed below and are utilized with site spe cific information (including soi l types, slopes, water levels and vegetation types) to help mitigate the impacts to the water resources and related parameters.

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60 BUREAU OF GEOLOGY 1. On a given site, the littoral zone (that vegetated area around the perimeter of a wetland extending from the mean high water mark to the mean low water mark) will be g iven prime consideration as an area left in its natural state. Applicant will provide an area equal t o a 50 feet wide belt of the perimeter of the wetland or 20 percent of the total area of the project, whichever is greater. 2. Applicant will leave a one foot or greater layer of peat material at the bottom of the excavation, except in those areas where necessary for heavy equipment to operate. In these places, it is acceptable to go down to bare sand to p rovide a solid roadway; however, this area must be sealed with a one foot or greater layer of peat at abandon ment and meet any other reclamation requirements. 3. Overburden removal of a new site should coincide with viable seed bank for reclamation. Strips of overburden from donor marshes can be used i n reclamation techniques, providing the total mined strips do not exceed 20 percent of the wetlands existing area and the strips are greater than 1 50 feet apart. 4. While water levels are still low, heavy equipment will provide any final adjustments to slopes bringing them into compliance with the General Mining Procedures previously discussed or as agreed upon by the applicant and the District. Any breaches of the bottom peat layer which were necessary to facilitate heavy equipment operations will be covered with a one foot or greater layer of peat material. Slopes will be adjusted at this time to be shallower than six horizontal to one vertical from the mean high water mark or an elevation as agreed to by the applicant and the District to a depth of six feet below the mean low water mark except for small isolated pockets as identified by District staff in consultation with the applicant on site. 5. Mulching of the site with existing overburden, stockpiled overburden or i n consultation with District staff, donor marsh overburden, will be provided to those areas which do not already exhibit a viable seed bank starting at the high water mark or an elevation as agreed to by the applicant and the District, and proceeding to a depth of three feet below the mean low water mark, following the gentle slopes as described above. This mulch material will be disced into the soil to aid stabil ization procedures. 6. The area above the mean high water mark or that elevation agreed to by the applicant and the Distric t will be revegetated with native grasses to aid in the prevention of soil erosion. Bahia grass with a hay mulch would be satisfactory for this purpose. 7. It is suggested that no disturbance to the site by livestock during reclamation or initial vegetative establishment will be permitted. 8. Applicant will use best effort and be responsible to see that a viable wetland will be established within two growing seasons 9 District employees upon notification to the applicant, will have access to the project to inspect and observe permitted activities in order to determine compl iance with reclamation proceedings.

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SPECIAL PUBLICATION NO. 27 61 Southwest Florida Water Management District The district permitting requirements which could pertain to peat min ing are summarized below by Kenneth Weber (SWFWMD, Resource Reg ulation Department, personal communication, 1984). "Permits may be required for activities relat ed to peat mining under four chapters of District rules. Under Chapter 40D-2, Consumptive Use of Water, permits are required when surface or ground water withdrawals: ( 1) exceed 1 ,000,000 gallons on any single day, or 100,000 gallons average per day on an annual basis, (2) if the withdrawal is from a well larger than six inches inside diameter (3) if withdrawal equipment has the capacity of greater than 1,000,000 gallons per day, or (4) i f the withdrawal is from a combi nati on of wells, or other facilities, or both, having a combined capacity of more than 1 ,000,000 gallons per day. Under Chapter 40D-3, Regulation Wells, permits may be required for construction of any wells two inches in diameter or greater, and for test or foundation holes. Under Chapter 40D-4, Management and Storage of Surface Waters, permits are requ ir ed for various activities invol v ing construction of impoundments, diversions of water involving dikes, levees, etc., operable structures. and rerou t ing or altering of the rate of flow of streams or other water courses. Under Chapter 40D-6, Works of the District, permits are required "to connect to, withdraw water from, discharge water into, place construction within or across, or otherwise make use of a work of the District or to remove any facility or otherwise terminate such activity." Note that there are specific exemptions to each of these ru l es. South Florida Water Manag emen t District The South Florida Water Management District has several permits which would be requ i red in the operation of a peat mine. The permits which would be required are determined on a site specif i c basis. The possible permits include Surface Water Management, Dewatering, Public Water Supply or General Water Use (dependent on vol ume) and the Industrial Water Use Permit. District personnel recommend a pre application meeting with district staff to expedite the permitting process, (Rebecca Serra, SFWMD, personal communication, 1983).

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62 BUREAU OF GEOLOGY DEPARTMENT OF COMMUNITY AFFAIRS A mining operation (including peat mining) is considered to be a devel opment of regional impact (DRI) when either of two criteria are met. The criteria are: ( 1 ) when more than 100 acres per year are mined or dis turbed and (2) when water consumption exceeds 3,000,000 gallons per day. (Sarah Nail, Department of Community Affairs, personal communi cation, 1984). Federal Level Permitting Two federa l agencies, the Army Corps o f Engineers (ACE) and the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) have permitting jurisdiction which may apply to peat mining. Each agency will be discussed below. ARMY CORPS OF ENGINEERS The Army Corps of Engineers (ACE) operates under two federal acts: The Rivers & Harbors Act and the Clean Water Act (Vic Anderson, ACE, pe rsonal communication, 1984). Both acts apply in navigable waters; however, only the Clean Water Act applies in non-navigable water. The legislative mandate of the Clean Water Act is to, "restore and maintain the physical, chemica l and biological integrity of the nation's water". Authority under the Clean Water Act extends up tributaries and headwater streams to the point where average annual flow is five cubic feet per second (CFS). ACE has discretionary authority upstream of this point i f 1) toxic materials are released, 2) wild or scenic rivers will be affected, 3) endangered species are involved, 4) the operation will result in downstream turbidity or erosion, or 5 ) the EPA requests ACE involvement. Individual permits are required under the River & Harbors Act (navigable waters), and under the Clean Water Act for tributaries up to the five CFS mean annual flow point, or beyond if conditions warrant the involve ment. When conditions do not warrant involvement above the five CFS point, the regulations state that the activity is covered by a nationwide permit. THE ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY In the past, the EPA has adm inist ered air quality and water quality permitting programs. Air quality regulation and permitting has been dele gated to the Florida Department o f Environmental Regulation. The state of Florid a requires permits for all sources of air pollution. The EPA still controls the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permitting. A NPDES permit is required for any operation which would

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SPECIAl PUBliCATION NO 27 63 result in discharge to the surface water of the U.S. (this includes "waters of the sta te"). The NPDES permit is required even for intermittent d i s charges (Mark latch, DER, personal communication, 1984). PEAT REVENUE AND TAXATION by Kenneth M. Campbell The volume of peat sales in the state of Florida generally i ncreased from 1972 to 1978 (Figure 23). During the same period the value of peat also incr eased. The value and tonnage fluctuated from 1978 through 1981 prior to a rather drastic decrease in 1982. In 1982, the quantity dropped 25 percent from the estimated tonnage (Boyle and Hendry 1984) and 24 percent from the previous year. T he 1982 value was 4 7 percent below the predicted l evel (Boyle and Hendry, 1984) and 45 per cent l ess than 1981. F igure 23 ref lects these trends as compiled by the U.S. Bureau of Mines. The differences between the pred icted and actual numbers for peat mining in F lor id a is significant in two important ways. First, the differ ences reflect the recent recession which had a tremen dous effect on the mineral ind u stries as a whole, with greatly decl i n ed production and value. Secondly, future revenue estimates for peat from the Florida Department of Revenue are based o n the trends of the recent past. The recently released 1982 figures may indicate a drastic change in the trend and may requ i re a significant alteration of the previously p redicted peat values for 1983-1984 which were $3.9 m i llion (Figur e 23). The peat industry may rebound to its previous levels. However, in light of a 1982 value of $1.575 million, it seems highly unlikely that a value of $3.9 million would be achieved in 1983-1984 Curren t ly, the vast majority of peat sales in F lorida are wholesale and for ag r icultural purposes and, as such, are exempt from state sa l es taxes. Some peat products are used in potted plants and sales taxes are col lected on r etail sales of the potted plants. However, the va lu e of the peat and the tax upon that value are not separated from the value and tax on the total sale. Thus, the amount of tax arising from retail sale of peat cannot be determined. Also, there are no records for sales tax app lied to peat based potting soils (L. Voorhies, Department of Revenue persona l communication, 1983). As a result there is no way of estimating the current tax income derived from the exploitation of peat r esources in the state of Flor ida. Estimated tax revenues derived f r om the imposition of a severance tax on peat could be determined from t h e revised pred icted values for the near future. T h e Florida Department of Revenue does not currently have such an estimat e ava ilab l e.

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64 BUR EA U OF G E O L OGY POTENTIAL ENV I RONMENTA L IMPACTS O F P EAT MINING by Paulette A. Bond The Ef fects o f Peat M ining on Wetlands Cowardin, et al. ( 1979) define wetlands as, ... lands transitional between terrestr ial and aquatic systems where the water table is usually at or near the surface or the land is covered by shallow water". Th i s definition encompasses a number of environments which a r e commonly associated with the accumulation of peat including bottoms of l akes, vegetated and forested wetlands (suc h as swamps, heads and sloughs). scrub or shrub wetland (such as shrub swamp, mangrove swamp, pocosin and bog) and emergent wetland (such as marsh, fen and bog). Thi s general definition of wetland may not apply to all of F lorida's myri ad wetland environments. The complexity of Florida's wetlands is refl ected in the various classification systems designed especially for them. Appendix B describes several classifications developed spec i fical l y for use in the state which list and descri be various wetland environments of Florida. King et al. (1980) note that state and federal land management and environmental agencies will c l assify most peatlands as wetland habi tats. It was also noted by those authors that peatlands falling in t o a wetlands land use category would be closely scrutinized, so that i t would be necessary to demonstrate substantial benefits to the state in order for land use permits to be secured. It is generally accepted that peat mining in a wetland environment will modify the existing system. It is, thus, instructive to exam i ne the various functions attributed to wetlands. The hydrologic functions of wetlands are summarized by Carter, et a l. (1978). Hydrologic functions include: flood storage and storm flow modification, base flow and estuarine water ba l ance, recharge, indicators of water supply, e r osion control and water quality. Flood storage and storm flow modificat ion, base flow, and water quality are treated in sections of this repor t dealing with w ater resources and water qua l ity. Estuaries are cha r acterized by a balance between fresh water (from landward sources) a n d salt w ater (from sea ward sources). Rivers which flow into estuaries may be flanked by wet lands which are flooded on occasion due to increased r i ver disc h a r ge combined w ith tidal action. Waters which temporarily reside in wetlands lose some of their nutrient load as well as sediment load They l ikewise gain organic detritus and decomposit ion products which are passed on to the estuary for entr y into certain food chains. Temporary residence in wetlands causes a decrease in velocity which aids in con t rolling bot h timing and volume of fresh water influx (Carter, et al., 1978). Recharge occurs when water moves into an aquifer. Carter, et al. ( 1978) note that there is considerable disagreement concerning the role of wetlands in recharge. It is noted that while some recharge may occur in wetl ands, all wetl ands are not recha r ge areas. Little information in the

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SPECIAL PUBLICATION NO 27 65 literature supports the idea that significan t recharge occurs in wetlands. Some s t udies indicate that most wetlands are discharge areas whil e a few provide limited recharge (Carter, et al., 1978). Recharge in wetlands is not completely understood but is apparently limited in its exten t Confusion in the literature suggests that generaliza tions concerning recharge in wetland areas should be made with caution and that site specific studies may be needed in order to understand individual systems. In certain geologic settings, development of a w etland may indica t e favorable areas in exploration for groundwater. Carter, e t at. (1978) note that a wetl and developed on a floodpla i n of water-saturated sand might serve as an indicator of potential water suppl y w hile simultaneous l y reducing groundwater levels by evapotranspiration and the inhibition of downward percolation of water. Wetlands have been cited as having a role in the control of both inland and coastal erosion (Carter, et at., 1978). This role is dominantly re l ated to wetland vegetation which is desc ri bed as serving t hree primary func tions: 1) binding and stabilization of substrate, 2) dissipation of wave and current energy and 3) the trapping of sediment. Substantial evidence exis t s suggesting that native plants are an e ffective part of natural ero sion control along rive r and lake shor elines Limitations to that effective ness arise since vegetation can be undermined by wave and water, severely damaged by floating debr is or covered by debris and s ilt during floods (Carter, et at. 1978). Vegetation perfo rms a function in coastal wetlands similar to that documented for inland lakes and rivers. It is noted, however, that the ability of wetlands to mitigate the catastr ophic flooding from storm surge in combination with wind and h i gh tide may be relatively small (Carter, et at., 1978). Brown, et at. ( 1983) list the following biological functions of wetlands: 1) wildlife utilization 2) li f e form richness and 3) gross primary produc tivity. Wildlif e use measu r es the diversity of species inhabiting a given community. I t is the summation o f amphibians reptiles mammals and birds which commonly inhabit any wetland community. Life form rich ness refers to diversity in the physical structure or growth habits of plants. Various life forms comprise trees. shrubs, emergents, su r face plants and submergent p l a nts (Br o w n et at., 1983). Gross primary pro duct ion measures plant matter during the growing season that may eventually become food for various consumers Gross production is important since it is the first step in the food chain (Brown, e t at., 1983). Peat is frequently found in wetl and environments, since waterlogging i s necessary in order for peat to accumulate and be p r eserved. The min ing of peat in wetlands will of necessity modify the wet land system from which peat is taken. The hydrologic functions of a wetl and are site spe cific (a wetland may or may not perform any given function) and t h u s impact s of m ining will a l so be site specific. Biologic functions of wet lands include the support of a diver se flora and fauna and also the gross primary productivity of t h e environment itself. The modification o f wet-

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66 BUREAU OF GEOLOGY land systems associated with mining will result in displacement and pos sibly in some cases death of flora and fauna specially adapted to an individual wetland environment. F lor ida Statutes perta inin g to wetland regulation are in cluded in Appendix C of this document. The Effects of Peat Mining on Water Quality This discussion is primarily from a study of environmenta l issues asso ciated with peat min i ng prepared for the United States Department o f Energy by King, et a l. {1980). The water quality of surface waters flowing f r om a peatland is characteristic of the peatl and and controls to some extent aquatic habitats both ons ite and downstream. Peat mining will be accompanied by discharge of water from drainage as well as waste water derived from the process ing of peat for e n ergy purposes. The release of organic and inorganic compounds i s thought to be capable of generating a number of water qua lity impacts {King, et al., 1980). The following water quality characteristics are listed in decreasing order of i mportance. It i s also noted that thi s list may not include all poss ibl e water quality problems. Tabl e 4 ranks water quality issues with respect to scales of peatl and development: 1. Low pH 2 High BOD / COD 3. Nutrients 4. Organic Compounds 5. Colloidal and Settleabl e Solids 6. Heavy Metals 7. Carcinogenic and Toxic Materials Water discharged from a peatland may be acidic in character because waters entering the peatland lack natural buffering capacity. Addition ally, hydrogen i on production and organic acids produced by plant photo synthesis and decomposition contribute to the acidic nature of waters from peatlands. The pH values from ombrotrophic peatl ands r ange from 3 to 4 and from minerotrophic peatl ands range from 4 to 8 {Ki n g, et al., 1980). Although these low pH values are of completely natural origin, they can result in significant changes to the aquatic ecosystem. These changes may i nclude species specif i c fertility problems, morbidity, mor tality and mobility problems as well as other physical and physiological problems {King, et al., 1980). T he discharge of waters resulting from peatland drainage as well as discharge of water re l eased by the dewatering process may create Bio chemical Oxygen Demand {BOD) and Chemical Oxygen Demand {COD). The dissolved oxygen levels in surface streams are c ru c i al for protection of fishery resources. These oxygen levels may be depressed as a result of increased turbidity within the stream and the decomposition of soluble and insoluble material by aerobic microbiota. Pea t lands are known to store nitrogen and phosphorus. Thus, concern exists that, during drainage and processing, significant amounts of these

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Table 4. Water quality issues associated with peat mining (taken from King, et al., 1980). Primary Env i ronmental Resource Issue Discharge Low pH Water Discharge High BOD / COD Discharge Nutri ents Dis c harge Compo und s D i scharge C o llo i dal & Settleabl e S o lid s Major X X X Small Moderate X X Scales of Development Moderate Minor Major Moderate Minor X X X X X Large Major Moderate X X X X X Minor C/) ., m n -)> r., c aJ rn -0 2 2 0

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68 BUREAU OF GEOLOGY nutrients could be released to receiving waters. If nutrient supplies are increased eutrophication rates would i ncrease and changes in the aquatic ecosystem would occur (King et al. 1980). Peat contains a number of organic acids. These compounds (fatty acids humic acids amino acids, tannic acids and other organic acids) are partial l y responsible for the low pH values associated with waters from peatlands. The release of waters containing such compounds as a part of the drainage and dewatering process could have a direct toxological effect on aquatic organisms. Peat, since it is derived from an accumulation of plant materia l may a l so contain microlevels of heavy metal ions which were used by original p l ants for life processes. Heavy metal ions are also derived from fallout of pollutants directly onto the surface of the peat and from the filtering of surface waters by peats. If peats are exploited as a fuel resource, they must be drained and dewatered and eventually, processed for energy production. This processing may lead to the release of metals to the air and water. It is suggested (King, et al., 1980) that all effluent streams be moni tored qualitatively and quantitatively to determine the characteristics of organic chemicals being rel eased. Mining of peat and its processing for energy may possibly lead to an inadvertent release of toxic inorganic compounds and phenol s. It is important to note that release of these materials may not necessarily occur. Peat mining and subsequent pro cessing for energy, however, have not been extensively practiced in the United States and monitoring is suggested as means of offsett ing this lack of experience. The min ing and dewatering of peat may result in the release of colloi dal and settleabl e solids into receiving streams. Peat itself comprises water soluble colloidal material and small particles of cellulose and fibrous material. The nature of these materials and of the constituents which may become adso r bed onto them is such that oxygen levels are expected to be depressed. Additionally, the transport of nutrients which might lead to eutrophication and heavy metals might be increased. Three states which have begun to cope with water quality aspects which might accompany the mining of peat for energy include Minne sota North Carolina and Florida Appendix D of this document inc l udes lists of water quality parameters chosen for measurement by each state. The lists are different, since they were prepared for somewhat different purposes. The state of Minnesota, after an extensive literature review, concluded that baseline data were needed. A study was devised in which 33 water quality paramete r s were monitored in 45 und i sturbed peatlands in northern Minnesota. The list of parameters being monitored in North Carolina has been developed for the assessment of wastewater dis charge in conjunction with a proposed peat-tomethanol plant at Creswell, North Carolina The Florida Department of Environmental Reg ulation has required monitoring of 26 water quality parameters in a per -

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SPECIAL PUBLICATION NO 27 69 mit for constructi on of a storm water disposal system assoc i ated with mining of peat in central Florida ( Putnam County). The Effect of Peat Mining on Water Resources WATER RESOURCES IN AN UNDISTURBED SYSTEM The m inin g of peat will cause changes in the hydrologic budget associ ated with a peatland. The changes could be helpful or detrimental, but the system will change. In order to better understand the changes which are discussed in the next portion of the text, it i s instructive to examine the system as it opera t es natura lly. The hydrolog i c cycle is used by geologists to describe what happens to water which falls to the earth as precipitation. The water which falls as precipitation has a number of possible fates. It may evaporate from fall ing rain and never reach the earth's surface. It may be taken up by the roots of plants carried to the leaves and returned to the atmosphere by transpiration (the process by which the foliage of plants releases water vapor). Evaporation, which returns water to the atmosphere, occurs from soil from the surfaces of lakes, rivers and oceans, even from the dew which collects on plants. Some portion of the rain which falls does reach the earth's surface and flows across it to reach lakes, streams or possibly the ocean. Th i s portion is referred t o as runoff. Some part of rainfall soaks into the ground (infiltration). A portion of the water which soaks into the ground will make its way s lowly to streams or lakes, and in certain areas, some of this water may enter a porous and permeable rock unit referred to as an aquifer. For a given geographic area, geo l og i sts may estimate the proportion of water which is lost to the processes of evaporation and transpiration. Measurements are made so that geologists are familiar with average values of stream discharge and lake levels The depth to the water table may be measured. (The water table is t he level below which pores in the rock or sediments are f ille d with water and above which they are partly or totally filled wifh air). The measurements may be used to make up a hydrologic (water) budget for a given area. Thus, water resources are a system. If one aspect of the system is modified, other aspects change in response to the modification. WATER RESOURCE PARAMETERS AFFECTED BY PEAT MINING This discussion is primarily from a study of environmental issues asso ciated with peat mining, completed for the U.S. Department of Energy by King et al., 1980. In a study which deals solely with environmental issues arising from mining of peat, King, et al. ( 1980) report that the development required for mining will modify natural groundwater and surface water character-

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70 BUREAU OF GEOLOGY IStiCS of the mined area. Net changes both on and off site will be a function of the size (or sca le) of the operation the mining procedures which are employed, and technology used for energy processing follow ing min i ng. Water resources issues listed in decreasing order of their importance include: 1. Floodwater Runoff Response 2. Groundwater Elevations 3. Salt Water Intrusion 4. Surface Flow Patterns 5 Minimum Stream Discharges 6 Mean Surface Water Discharges 7. Hydrological Budget 8. Groundwater Aquifers 9 Evaportranspiration Rate Table 5 lists various water resource paramete r s which might be affected by development of peat mining operations The operations are classified into three size groups and each water resource parameter is evaluated in terms of the effects of small, moderate and large scale development. Obviously the hydrologic characteristics of each individ ual site must also be considered in determining the extent to which a given peat mining development will modify a specific water resource parameter Mining operations are classified as small, moderate or large based on the peat they require and the amount of energy they produce. A small peat operation (1 megawatt-MW) would require approxi mately 6. 5 acres of peat, six feet in depth per year The total amount of peat consumed in an operation projected to last four years would be approximately 26 acres mined to a depth of six feet. A peat operation of moderate scale (60 MW) is projected to consume approximately 3 500 acres of peat averaging six feet in depth over a 20 year period An operation categorized as large (800 MW) would require approximately 125,000 acres of peat to operate for 20 years (King, et al., 1980). Development which accompanies peat mining and subsequent recla mation may change an area's floodwater response The extent of thi s change will vary with the size of the development itself. Some factors accompanying development will tend to increase flood flows and other factors will tend to decrease them (King, et al., 1980). The net effect of these potential opposing factors will have to be evaluated for each site specifically. King, et al. ( 1980) suggest that appropriate state agencies define downstream flood prone areas so that they may be protected from large or moderate peatland developments at upstream sites. Drainage of mined areas and potential pending will cause changes in groundwater levels. Groundwater levels are of prime concern in choosing

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T a bl e 5. W a t e r r esources i ss u es associ ated with p ea t mining ( T a k en f ro m King, e t a l. 198 0 ) Scales of Development Small Moderate L arge Degree of Concern Major Moderate Minor Major Moderate Minor Major Moderate M i nor en Incr eased Floodwater Flow '"'0 Po t e ntial X X X m (") -Groundwater Elevati ons )> Modification X X X r-'"'0 Potential Salt Water c g:J Intrusion X X X r-Modification of Surface (") Water Flow Patterns X X X Increase M i n i mum Stream 0 2 D i scharges X X X 2 Incr ease Mean Surface 0 Water D i scharge X X X N A lter the Hydrological ...... Budget X X X Alter Groundwater Aquifer X X X Reduce Evapot r anspiration X X X

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72 BUREAU OF GEOLOGY an appropriate mining method. The groundwater l evels in peatlands may also influence groundwater levels in aquifers which are connected hydr o logically (King, et a l. 1980). It is important to define the relationship, or lack of relationship, between peatlands which are t o be mined and aquifers which might possibly be affected by removal of peat. If coastal peatlands are to be mined, the dra i nage necessa r y to reduce water level s could possibly lead to saltwater intrusion. In addition, g roundwater recharge may be reduced and groundwater levels could be lowered (King et al., 1980). The combination of these t hree effects coul d lead to sa ltwater intrusion and King, e t a l. ( 1980) suggest the effects of this change should be researched carefully befor e development. Peat mining will require construction of d r ainage ditches, water control devices and roads. Thus, the patterns of surface water f low in the mined area and in downstream channels will be modified (King, et al., 1980). It is believed (King, e t a l. 1980) that peatland development will increase minimu m stream discharge Net evapotranspirati on from the peatland will be reduced since vegetation must be cleared in order for mining to occur. Thus, a g reater portion o f net precipitation will d rain. As ditches are constructed, more of the peatlands will be ab l e t o contribute flow directly to artificial surface streams (K ing, et al., 1980). A number of factors associa t ed with peat mining will ser v e to increase mean surface water discharge. If the mining method chosen involves drainage, then water being drained will be added t o surface water dis charge. Additionally, mi n ed peat will have to b e de w atered, so another addition to su rface water discharge occurs. I t is projected ( K ing, et al., 1 980) that the effects of a smal l scale development on mean su r face discharge would be minor. P r oposed moderate and large scale mining operations should be evaluated on a site spec ific basis to protect downstream water users and aquatic resou rces (King, et al., 1980). T he development and rec lamation of a p eatland will permanently change the hydrologic budget of the area (King, et al., 1980). These changes may be helpful or detrimental offsite. It peatlands contribute to aquifer s in a given area, then the effect of positive or negati ve changes affecting that aquifer s h ould be researched. T h e groundwater flow from peatlands to connected regional aqu ifers will change with mining ( K ing, et al., 1980). l astly the evapot ranspiration rate from t he mined area will change (King, et al., 1980). Since mining involves removal of surf ace vege t ation, net evapotranspiration will be reduce d Ditching will lower the groundwater level and cause a moisture deficiency in the upper portion of the drained area which will contribute to a lower net evapotranspiration rat e. Although the effects of these changes are expected to be minor for all scales of development the modifications in adjacent plant and animal communities and in local climate are poorly understood (King, e t al., 1980).

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SPECIAL PUBLICATION NO. 2 7 7 3 The Ef f ects o f Peat Mining on Air Qualit y This d iscu ssion is ta k en primarily from a study of environmental issues associated with peat mining prepared for the U.S. Department of Energy by King, et al. (1980). The mining and stor age of p eat, as well as its process i ng for energy purposes, w ill produce certain air quality impacts. Expec t ed major air qua lity concerns are r elated to f ugitive emission factors from large-scale minin g an d storage o p e r a t ions. Overall parti cula t e emission probl ems are gene r a t ed during dry min ing, transportation and storage of peat. Small a n d moderate scale p eat-fired power plants are expected to produce less ai r qua l i t y impacts than equivalent coa l b urning p l ants. Airborne emis sions a ss ociate d w ith a large syntheti c natural gas plant can only be discussed on a ge n eralize d basis. Tab l e 6 lists a number of air quality issues in order of their projected importance (King, et al., 1980). Milled and sod peat m i n i ng methods both require t h a t peat be drained previous to mining and also dried on the ground. D r ying peat may be suspended by w i nd or mechan i cal action. After peat is dried, it must be collected, stored, transported and restored. All of these steps may resu l t in loss of peat to the atmosphere !King, et al., 1980). Ca r bon monoxide will be emitted from the direct combustion of peat. Carbon monoxide is not easi l y collected i n air scrubbers and emiss i ons may be improved o nl y by improving t h e combusti on process (King, et al., 1980). Nitrogen oxides are formed when fuels are burned i n air. Emissio n of nitrogen oxides from direct combustion of peat f uel may exceed allo w a ble levels. Various sulfur oxides !SO.l may be emitted when peat is burned Peat is r elat i ve l y low in s ulfur an d thus, may not result in seve r e emission probl ems (King e t a l. 1980). A. Cohen (personal commu n icati on, 1984) n otes that sulfur must b e determ ined on a site specific basis and further comments that it may especia ll y be a p robl e m in coastal areas. The strong affinity of emitted S02 and S03 for water causes formation of droplets in the emissions p lume. The long d i stance transport of these emission products can result in acid rains in areas remote to t he plant site (King et al., 1 980). K ing, et a l. (1980) report that direct combustion of various forms of peat fuel may generate particulate matter incl uding sulfate, heavy metals, polynucl ear aromatic hydrocarbons and some particl es in the submicron range. Non-methane hydrocarbons result i ng from incomplete combusti on of pea t may react i n the atmosphere to form photochemical oxidants (ozone). Non-methane hydroca r bons i nclude pol ynuclear aromati c hydro carbon s which are carci n ogenic at very low levels and stable in the envi ron m ent. Most contr o l str ategies for ambie n t o z one involve emission contr o l s on non-methane hyd r oca r bons (King, et al., 1980). Photochemical oxidants (oz one) may be derived from direct burning of

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..... Table 6. Air quality issues associated with peat mining. (Taken from King, et al., 1980). Scales of Development Small Moderate Large Degree of Concern Major Moderate Minor Major Moderate Minor Major Moderate Minor Harvesting Emission Fugitive Dust X X X Carbon Monoxide Emissions X X X Nitrogen Oxide Emissions X X X co c Sulfur Oxide Em i ssions X X X :::0 m Particulate Emissions X X )> X c Nonmethane Hydrocarbon 0 "T1 Emissions X X X C) Photo Chemical Oxidants X X X m 0 Heavy Metal Emissions X X X r-0 Reduced Sulfur Compound C) -< Emissions X X X Nitrogen Compound Emissions X X X Halogen Compound Emissions X X X Visibility Reduction X X X Water Vapor Emissions X X X Carbon Dioxide Emissions X X X

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SPECIAL PUBLICAT I ON NO. 27 75 various forms of peat fuel. They are formed in the atmosphere from non methane hydrocarbons and nitrogen dioxide and are controlled by emis sion controls on nonmethane hydrocarbons. Metals may be concentrated in the organic or inorganic f raction of peat as a consequence of water flow through peat or by deposition from the atmosphere These metals may be volatilized at high combustion temper atures or emitted as gaseous molecules. The behavior and effects of these metals are complex ( K ing, et al. 1980). Emiss ions of reduced sulfur, nitrogen compounds and halogen com pounds may all exceed allowable levels from synthetic fuel plants ( King et al., 1980). The effects of reduced sulfur emissions and nitrogen com pounds (other than NO.) are dependent on meteorological conditions and ambient air chemistry and quality. The emissions of particu l ate matter and plume condensation may cause visibility reduction in the immediate vicinity of the combustion source when various forms of peat fuel are burned directly The extent of this effect will depend on the rate of wind dispersion of emitted materials ( King et al., 1980). Combustion sources w ill generate water vapor which may condense and precipitate downwind of the processing plant. If water vapor com bines with so . acid mists may be formed ( King et al., 1980). Production of peat energy will necessitate emission of carbon dioxide. The production of C02 will contribute to the globa l carbon dioxide build up, the significance of which is still subject to debate (King, et al., 1980). The Effects o f Peat Mining on Topography by Thomas M. Scott Peat is currently mined from deposits formed in a number of specific geologic settings. These inc lu de bayhead swamps, close d dep r essions or karst basins, river valley marshes and large, flat, poorly drained areas such as the Everglades. Closed depressions or karst basins occur predominantly in north and central Florida. The depressions or basins are the result of sinkhole for mation and do not have surface outlets for water. Topography of this type of deposit is shown in Figure 24. River valley and bayhead swamp deposits occur throughout much of the state. Notable examples of these are the upper St. Johns R iver Valley and Oklawaha River Valley peat deposits (Figure 13) and the Santa Fe Swamp peat deposit (Figure 14). These areas have surface drainage by streams and rivers. The general topography of the deposits is shown in Figures 25, 26 and 27. In general the large, flat, poorly drained areas of peat development are in south Florida south of latitude 29N (Davis, 1946). The Everglades and its associated peats are a typical example of this type of peat deposit The topogr aphy of this type of deposit is shown in Figure 28.

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B 140 120 SMITH LAKE 100 80 ALACHUA -HALL L AKE PEAT 80G .!. 0 I Ml LE 2 SCALE 100X VERT. EXAG. B B LOCATION B' 140 120 100 80 Figure 24. Topographic profile of a karst basin peat deposit in north Florida. (Prepared by the Bureau of Geology for this report.) to c :::0 m )> c 0 "T1 G') m 0 r-0 G') -<

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)\ \ r 1 ; "[ l SPECIAL PUBLICATION NO. 27 77 Figure 25. Topographic profile of St. Johns River marsh peat deposit in southern Brevard County. (Prepared by the Bureau of Geology for this report.) The topography of other peat forming environments can be seen in the cross sections showing the cypress dome type of peats (Figure 6). These, however, are not typically mined. The peat mining process is an excavation process which removes the original surface vegetation and significantly alters the topography of the terrain. Various types of equipment are used to remove the peat and waste material, leaving a water filled (dry, if pumped) pit. During the course of mining, the size of the existing pit may vary from less than one acre to tens of acres. This depends on the areal extent of the deposit thi ckness of the peat and rate of production. Stock piles and waste piles are the result of the mining process. The stock piles are created to allow the peat to dry prior to shipping. These piles vary in size and shape during the life of the mine and are not present after mining is completed, having been depleted as peat is sold. The waste piles, on the other hand are not sold and remain after the comple tion of mining. The waste material generally consists of peat that is too contaminated with weed seeds and sediment to be used Generally, at the completion of mining, the waste piles are leveled and spread around the mine site. This is not always true since there are no required reclama tion procedures for peat mines. Field investigations suggest, however, that most operators level the site at the completi on of mining. The post-mining topography resembles the pre-mining topography if

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c 80 w w 70 60 50 w OKLAWAHA RIVER D IKE I---PEAT ---I 0 2 SCALE 100X VERT. EXAG. LOCATION MARION c c C' E 80 70 60 50 I MILE Figure 26. Topographic profile of the Oklawaha River peat deposit in northern Lake and southern Marion counties. (Prepar e d by the Bureau of Geolog y for this report. ) ttJ c ::0 m )> c 0 G') m 0 r-0 G') -<

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A ALACHUA CO. BR ADFORD CO. A' 180 w E 180 _J (/) 160 LAKE ALTHA S W A M P 160 :E S AN T A FE S WAM P --H W Y 301 w > 0 1 4 0 H W Y 21 A ..JII' ---CXl 140 r-"0 c "' r0 0 2 2 0 N ....,

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w I E 40 COLLIER COJ D ADE CO. 4 0 20 201GUL F OF M XI w 0 --SEA LEVEL -20 5 0 10 20 -20 SCALE 833X VERT. EXAG. LOCATION DADE Figure 28. Topographic profile of the Everglades in Collier and Dade counties. (Prepared by the Bureau of Geology for this report.) (X) 0 CtJ c :::IJ m )> c 0 C) m 0 r-0 C) -<

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SPECIAL PUBLICATION NO 27 81 the waste piles are removed. The notable exception is that an open body of water may be present where the peat has been removed. ENDANGERED SPECIES ASSO C IATED WITH AREAS OF POTENTIAL PEAT MINING by Thomas M Scott Areas of peat accumulation are associated with specific wetland habi tats and contain specific faunal and floral communities. The mining pro cess, of necessity, removes existing vegetation and significantly alters the immediate environment of the active mine. As a result of these altered hab itats, indigenous fauna may be forced out and native flora is destroyed. The major wetland habitats in Florida are coastal marshes, freshwater marshes, wet prairies, cypress swamps, hardwood swamps and man grove swamps. These are briefly discussed below using information taken from Hartman (1978) and Gilbert (1978). The coastal marshes occur along shorelines characterized by low wave energy. Coasta l mar shes are generally found north of the range of man groves but are interspersed with mangroves in some areas. These marshes may ex t end into tidal rivers and sometimes exist as a narrow zone between mangroves and freshwater in south Florida Freshwater marshes consist of herbaceous plant communities in areas of water-satu rated soils which may be characterized by s t anding water during portions of the year. Freshwater marshes grade into wet prair i es with the characteristic differences being shallower water and more abun dant grasses in the wet prairie. Cypress swamps generally have water at or above ground l evel a sig nificant portion of the year. Cypress swamps occur along rivers and l ake margins and may be scattered among other environments. This habitat contains fewer grasses and significantly more abundant trees. Hardwood swamps occur in lake basins and along rivers where the substrate is saturated or submerged for a t least part of the year. Two important variations of this habitat are the bayhead swamp and the titi swamp. Bayhead swamps are very simi l ar to cypress swamps except the vege tation is more dense. The growth may be so dense as to be i mpenetrab l e in some areas. The plants of the bayheads are mostly small trees with shrubs and cypress. Standing water is present most of the year within t hese areas. These swamps are dominated by varieties of bay trees. Titi swamps are similar to the bayhead swamps. They are dominated by the presence of titi rather than bay trees. M angrove swamps occur along low energy coastlines in centra l and southern Florida. Mangroves dominate with red mangrove furthest sea -

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82 BUREAU O F G E O L OGY Table 7. Plant communities of concern based on Nature Conservancy recommendations. FLOODPLAIN SWAMP Water E l m /Ash Swamp Slash Pine Swamp STREAMBANK THICKET White Cedar Bog STRAND SWAMP Cypress / Royal Palm Strand SLOUGH Water Elm / Pop Ash Slough Pond Apple/ Pop Ash Slough BASIN SWAMP Slash Pine Swamp BAYGALL Everglades Bayhead ward, b l ack mangroves closer to shore and white mangroves furthest inland. T hese swamps support large estuari ne areas. The Nature Conservancy has inventoried the plant communities in F lor ida and assigned each community a rank in relation to how commonly it occurs. The plant communities of concern are listed in Table 7 (Linda Deuver, persona l communication, 1983). It was suggested tha"t specific native communities with tropical affini ties might be of such limited extent that peat mining in south Florida could possibly lead to the destruction of certain groups (li nda Deuver, personal communication, 1983). The existence of endangered threatened, ra r e or species of special concern in areas of potential peat mining should be determined on a sitebysite basis rather than a general habitat basis. Each site should be investigated and the presence o f species in question documented (R. Kautz, personal communication, 1983). The site specific investigations are necessary to avoid over generalization conce r ning the occurrence (or nonoccurrence) of endangered species. Table 8 is a compilation of species which are endangered, threatened, rare or of special concern. This information was gathered from the series entitled "Rare and Endangered Biota of Florida", from the official list of the Florida Game and Fresh Water Fish Commission entitled "Endan gered and Potentially Endangered Fauna and Flora in Florida" and from data supplied by the Nature Conservancy. Species whose habitat coin cides with areas of potential peat accumulation were included. This list ing should not be considered all encompassing and up-to-date on species status. The Game and Fresh Water Fish Commission updates their list periodically and should be consulted for the most recent compilation. Comments concerning individual endangered species in relation t o peatlands have been received by the staff of the Bureau of Geology. Charles Lee (Florida Audubon, personal communication, 1983) expressed concern for t he Florida Panther and the Ivory-bil l ed Woodpecker He suggested that peat mining might dis rupt portions of the panther's habitat. Lee also noted that if any Ivorybilled Woodpeckers

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SPECIAL PUBLICATION NO. 27 83 remain they could be severely affected by peat mining activities. Randy Kautz (Game and Fresh Water Fish Commission, personal communica t i on, 1983) expressed concern for selected habitats of the Florida Black Bear. RECLAMATION OF MINED PEATL. ANDS by Paulette Bond Farnham ( 1979) notes that in a number of European nations, reclama tion of mined peatlands has been common practice for many years. Mined areas are used for crop production, tree production, conservancy areas, wildlife h abitats and lakes or ponds. I reland and Po l and commonly use mined peatlands for forage and grass production. In a recent consid eration of reclamation of mined peatl ands (King, et al., 1980). primary purposes were cited as provision for long-term erosion control and drain age and mitigation of environmental and socioeconomic effects of min ing by improving the value of the land. Fa r nham, et al. ( 1980) note that r eclamation should prefe r ably be con sidered before removing peat for energy pur poses. K ing, et al. ( 1 980) optimistically suggest that reclamation programs could create lands with superior recreational and wildlife habi tat values. These resea r chers also note that drained organic soils may have great economic value as agricul tural or forest lands. It should be noted that experience gained in the Everglades Agricultura l Area supports the economic viability of farming drained organic soils. However, the rate of subsidence of o r ganic soils in the Florida Everglades Agricultural Area is well known and suggests that this type of reclamation m ight not be a feasible long -term solution for use in F lorida's mined peatlands. In orde r to achieve an app r oved rec l amation plan, clean -up and possib l e permanent drai n age control may be indicated (King, et a l. 1980). King, et al. ( 1980) have prepared a list of environmental parameters affecting reclamation options. They in clude 1) seasona l fluctuations in groundwater level, 2) soil ferti lity and drainage characterist i cs, 3) the amount of residual peat remaining after mining, 4) trafficability (the abi l ity of the bog surface to s upport veh i cles and machinery). and 5) number and types of l akes and streams In addition, factors which control site specific reclamation programs are tabulated by the same authors. That information is presented in Tab l e 9. In examining Table 9 it is important to note that factors tabulated are independent of each other. Thus, a small development might be harvested by wet methods. The private single owner of this small deve l opment might choose to let the mined-out area become a lake (open water), since drainage could prove d ifficult and undesirable assuming water tables in the area wer e high

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84 BUREAU OF GEOLOGY Table 8 Endangered threatened and rare species associated with areas of potential peat accum u lation (compiled by the Bureau of Geology staff). Bobcat Cudjoe Key Rice Rat Everglades Mink Florida Black Bear Florida Panther Florida Weasel Homosassa Shrew Key Deer Key Vaca Raccoon lower K eys Cotton Rat Mangrove Fox Squirrel RoundT ailed Muskrat Sherman's Fox Squirre l Southeastern Shrew Southeastern Weasel Southern Mink Blackbanded Sunfish Cypress Darter Cypress Minnow Eastern Mud Minnow Mudsunfish Opossum P i pefish Rivulus Sailfin Molly Carpenter Frog Florida Gopher Frog Four toed Salamander Gu l f Hammock Dwarf Siren Many-lined Salamander One toed Amphiuma Pine Barrens Tree Frog Seal Salamander Stri ped Newt MAMMALS Lynx rufus Oryzomys sp Mustela vision evergladensis Ursus americanus floridanus Felis concolor coryi Mustela frenata peninsu/ae Sorex longirostris eionis Odocoileus virginianus clavium Procyon lotor auspicatus Sigmodon hispidus exsputus Sciurus niger avicennia Neofiber alieni Sciurus niger shermani Sorex longirostris /ongirostris Mustela frenata olivacea Mustela vision mink FISH Enneacanthus chaetodon Etheostoma proeliare Hybognathus hayi Umbra pygmaea Acantharchus pomotis Oostethus lineatus Rivulus marmoratus Polci/ia /atipinna AMPHIBIANS Rana virgatipes Rana areo/ata aesopus Hemidactylium scuta/urn Pseudobranchus striatus lustricolus Stereochilus marginatus Amphiuma pholeter Hyla andersoni Desmognathus monticola Notophthabmus perstriatus

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SPECI AL PUBLI C ATION NO. 27 Tab l e 8 continued. REPT ILES Alabama Red bellied Turtle Alligator Snapp ing Turtle American Alligator American Crocodile Atlantic Sa l t Marsh Watersnake Eastern Indigo Snake Florida Ribbon Sna k e Gulf Salt Marsh Watersnake Key Mud Turtle Mangrove Terrapin Short-tailed Snake Southern Coal Skin k Spotted Turt le Suwannee Cooter B lack-crowned Night Heron Florida Sandhill Crane G l ossy Ibis Great Egret Ivorybilled Woodpecker Least Bittern Limpkin Little Blue Heron Louisiana Heron Mangrove Clapper Rail Marian s Marsh Wren Osprey Redd i sh Egre t Roseate Spoonbill Snail (Everglades) Kite Snowy Egret Southern Bald Eagle Southern Hai ry Woodpecker White Ibis Whitetailed Kite Wood Stork Worthington's Marsh Wren Yellow -crowned Night Heron Chrysemys alabamenensis Macioclemys temmincki Alligator mississippiensis Crocodylus acutus Nerodia fasiata taeniata Drymarchon corais couperi Thamnophis sauritus sackeni Nerodia fasciata clarki Kinosternon bauri bauri Malaclemys terrapin rhizophorarum Stilosoma extenuatum Eumeces anthracinus pluvialis Clemmys guttata Pseudemys concinna suwanniensis BIRD S Nycticorax nycticorax Grus canadensis pratensis Plegadis fa/cine/Ius Casmerodius a/bus Campephilus principa/is lxobrychus exilis Aramus guarauna Florida caerulea Hydranassa tricolor Rallus longirostris insularum Cistothorus palustris marianae Pandion haliaetus carolinensis Dichromanassa rufescens Ajaia ajaia Rostrhamus sociabilis plumbeus Egretta thula Haliaeetus leucocephalus leucocephalus Picoides villosus audubonii Eudocimus a/bus Elanus leucurus majusculus Mycteria americana Cistothorus pa/ustris griseus Nyctanassa violacea 85

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86 BUREAU OF GEOLOGY Table 8 continued. Acuna's Epidendrum Anise (Unnamed) Auricled Spleenwort Bartran's lxia Birds -nest Spleenwort Black Mangrove Cedar Elm Chapman' s Butterwort Climbing Dayflower Coastal Parnassia Corkwood Coville's Rush Cow-Horn Orchid Cuplet Fern Delicate lonopsis Orchid Dollar Orchid Dwarf Epidendrum Fall -flowering lxia Florida Merrybells Florida Willow Fuzzy-Wuzzy Air-Plant Ghost Orchid Giant Water-Dropwort Golden Leather Fern Grass of-Parnassus Hanging Club Moss Harper s Beauty Harper's Yellow-eyed Grass Harris' Tiny Orchid Hartwrightia H idden Orchid Holly (Unnamed) Karst Pond Xyris lakeside Sunflower Leafless Orchid Lily (Unnamed) Lythrum (Unnamed) Lythrum (Unnamed) Manchineel Mexican Tear-Thumb Naked -stemmed Panic Grass Narrow Strap Fern PLANTS Epidendrum acunae Illicium floridanum Asplenium auritum Sphenostigma coelestinum Asplenium serratum A vicennia germinans Ulmus crasifolia Pinguicula planifolia Commelina gigas Parnassia caroliniana Leitneria floridana Juncus gymnocarpus Cyrtopodium punctatum Dennstaedtia bipinnata lonopsis utricularioides Encyclia boothiana Encyclia pygmaea Nemastylis floridana Uvu/aria floridana Salix floridana Til/andsia pruinosa Polyrrhiza lindenii Oxypolis greenmanii Acrostichum aureum Parnassia grandifolia Lycopodium dichotomum Harperocallis f/ava Xyris scabrifolia Lepanthopsis melantha Hartwrightia floridana Maxillaria crassifolia /lex amelanchier Xyris longisepala Helianthus carnosus Campylocentrum pachyrrhizum Lilium catesbaei L ythrum curtissii Lythrum flagellare Hippomane mancinella Polygonum meisnerianum Panicum nudicaule Campyloneurum angustifolium

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SPECIAL PUBLICATION NO 27 Table 8 continued. PLANTS, co nt 'd. Night-scent Orchid Nodding Catopsis Okeechobee Gourd Panhandle Lily Piedmont Water Milfoil Pinewoods Aster Pink Root Pond Spice Prickley Apple Quillwort Yellow eyed Grass Red Tail Orchid Red-flowered Pitcherplant Red Mangrove Red-flowered Ladies' -tresses Slender-leaved False Dragonhead Small-flowered Meadowbeauty Snake Orchid Southern Milkweed Spoon Flower Thickleaved Water-willow Tiny Orchid Tropical Curly grass Fern Tropical Waxweed Turks Cap Lily Violet-flowered Butterwort Water Sundew White top Pitcherplant Worm Vine Orchid Yellow Anise Yellow Fringeless Orchid Yelloweyed Grass (Unnamed) Epidendrum nocturnum Catopsis nutans Cucurbita okeechobeensis Lilium iridollae Myriophyllum laxum Aster spinulosus Spigelia loganioides Litsea aestivalis Cereus gracilis Xyris isoetifolia Bulbophyllum pachyrhachis Sarracenia rubra Rhizophora mangle Spiranthes landceolata var. paludicola Physotegia leptophyllum Rhexia parviflora Restrepiella ophiocephala Asclepias viridula Peltandra sagittifolia Justicia crassifolia Lepanthopsis melantha Schizaea germanii Cuphea aspera Lilium superbrum Pinguicula ionantha Drosera intermedia Sarracenia leucophylla Vanilla barbel/ata Illicium parviflorum Platanthera integra Xyris drummondii Peatland Rec lamation in M i nne sota 87 It is estimated that the state of Minnesota contains 1 73 million acres of wetlands, three million hectares of which are categorized as peatlands (Farnham, et al., 1 980). In 1975, Minnesota received requests for six l eases of peatlands. (A general description of thi s leasing procedure is i ncluded in Appendix E) Minnesota Gas Company requested a lease for

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Table 9. Independent factors governing site specific reclamation programs. (After King et al., 1980). Peat Land Landowner Post Harvesting Harvest Ownership Future Use Site Conditions Development Technique Status Potentials Environmental Small 25 Acres Medium 3 500 Acres + Large 100,000 Acres + Dry Wet Combination Private Single Owner Large Industrial Owner Public Land Tribal or Native Lands Combination of Above Forestry Agriculture Wildlife/ Recreation Open Water Multiple Land Use Climate Soil Fertility Vegetation Drainage Trafficability Other External Factors Reclamation Laws Land Use Permits Water Discharge Permits Other tD c :::0 m )> c 0 ., C) m 0 r-0 C) -<

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SPEC IAL PUBLIC ATION N O. 27 8 9 200,000 acres of peatlands and five other large leases were requested in which peat was destined for horticultural usage. The Minnesota Legislature responded by funding the Minnesota Department of Natural Resources to study some implications of peat mining (Malterer, 1980). The Minnesota Study included consideration of the following topics: 1) socioeconomic implications, 2) policy, 3) leasing, 4) environmental baseline studies, and 5) a separately f unded resource estimati on of the state's peatlands. Environmental baseline studies included air water, vegetation and wildlife. Studies of utilization opportunities and constraints as well as studies of opportunities for reclama tion following mining were completed (Asmussen, 1980). These studies pointed ou t a number of land-use options including: 1) preservation of peatlands, 21 use of peatlands for agriculture, 3)forestry, 4 ) mining of peat for horticulture, 5) mining and process i ng of peat for i ndustrial chemicals, and 6) mining of peat for energy and convers i o n A panel of peatland ecologists is working toward identification of bogs with preser vation value based on uniqueness, r epresentativeness and recreat i on value. Reclamation o f peatlands for use as wildlife habitat has been investigated in a study which monitored the evolution of recently exca vated ponds in peat. Farnham, et al. (1980) note that the stabili t y of any g i ven crop depends on climate, hydrology, chemical and physical properties of peat and marketability of final products. The major limit to agricultural devel opment i n northern Minnesota is the relatively short, frostfree per i od each year (June 1 -August 15). These authors (Farnham, et al., 1980) report that studies dealing with grasses and grains show no significant difference in yield and quality between crops grown on the surface of developed or excavated peatlands. Two r eclamation options being considered by Minnesota researchers, as well as worldwide worker s, are agriculture and bioenergy (Farnham, et al., 1 980). Reclamation resea rch aimed at agricu l ture has identified vegetable and agronomic crops adaptable to northern Minnesota. Spe cies have been placed in mined and unmined environments with species and fertilize r treatments varied to allow recogn ition of factors which enhance productivity (Asmussen, 1980). Bioenergy crops (cattails, willows and alders, among others) are currently under investigation for cultivation in wetlands since production of these crops would provide a renewable energy resource. S.R.I.C ("short rotation intensively culti vated ) refers to the application of agricultural techniques developed to promote growth of selected bioenergy crops (Farnham, et al., 1980). The extensive peatlands of Minn esota have been the subject of inten sive research since 1975. The research program was devised to provide information on which to base l easing decisions. One continuing thrust o f this r esearch h as been the identificat ion of reclamation methods specifi cal l y adapted to the c limate and geologic setting of Minnesota's peatlands.

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90 BUR EAU OF GE O LOGY Peatl a nd Reclamati o n in N o rth Ca r olin a North Carolina contains an estimated 1 ,000 square m i les of peatlands (640,000 acres). The peat is usual l y black, fine-gra i ned and highly decomposed with ash contents that are often less than five percent, low su lfur contents and high heating values (Ingram and Otte, 1980). This peat occurs in three major geologic settings: 1) pocosins, which are broad, shallow depressions characterized by peats varying from one to eight feet in thi ckness, 2) river flood plains which are of unknown extent but contain peats which may attain thicknesses of 25 feet, and 3) Caro lina Bays which are elliptical depressions of unknown origin. The 500 to 600 Carolina Bays sometimes contain high quality peats up to 1 5 feet in depth (Ingram and Otte, 1980). In April of 1983, the U.S. Synthetic Fuels Corporation approved a loan of $820,750 for the First Colony peat-to-methanol project in North Caro lina The 1 5,000 acre site i s expected to supply peat for methanol con version for 30 years (Rob i nson, et al., 1983). Peat Methanol Associates (PMA) is the group planning t o construct and operate North Carolina's synthetic fuel p lant. It is believed by PMA, based on their studies of the peat deposits and ground water conditions, that natural drainage will be adequate to return the land to agricultural use. PMA also p l ans a land restoration program which will include tree and vegetation planting to provide wildlife refuge and nesting areas (PMA Update, February 1983). In response to the major peatland development proposed by Peat Methanol Associates, the state of North Caro l ina created a Peat Mining Task Force in December 1980. An initial report was issued in March 1 981. The task force was reconvened in June 1983, as interest in the state' s peatlands esca lated. The origina l recommendations of the task force were reviewed, updated and pub l ished i n January 1983 (North Carolina D NRCD, 1983). The sixt een member task force was drawn from all divisions within the Department of Natural Resources and Community Development which were involved with peat mining. The task force reviewed peat mining and its impacts on the state's natural resources. It also reviewed the ability of the state' s management program for peat mining to deal with potential impacts (North Carolina DNRCD, 1983). Reclamation methods a r e categorized as "wet reclamation" or "perpetual pumping" Constant pumping may be required to main t ain land dry enough for certain uses. Intensive agriculture is believed to be the on l y use which can financially justify the conti nua l pumping (North Caro lina DNRCD 1983). Wet reclamation includes all forms of reclamation which could perma nently or period ically cause the rec l aimed area to be under sa l t or fresh water. Uses which are included comprise paddy culture, r eversion to swamp forest or pocosi n, rese rvoi rs, aquaculture of fish or she l l fish, a r t ifically-cr eated nursery areas, waterfowl impoundments, mari nas and

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SPECI AL PUBLI C ATION NO 27 91 recreational lakes It is recommended that acceptance of mined ou t peatlands as reclaimed be on a case by case basis (North Carolina DNRCD 1983). (Recommendations of the North Carolina Peat Mining Task Force are included in Appendix E of this document.) In response to growing interest in North Carolina's peat deposits by developers, a Peat M ining Task Force was created to review permitting procedures for peat mining. Recommendations pertinent to all phases of peat mining inc l uding permits, reclamation, evaluation of environmental impacts and monitoring of environmental impacts were prepared Peatland Rec lama t i o n in Finlan d M ires are estimated as occupying 24 million acres or 31.9 percent of the total land area of Finland (Lappalaine n 1980). Development of peatlands in Finland is encouraged as Finland imported 70 percent o f its energy needs in 1979 ( Harme 1980). Indigenous energy sources which accounted for 31 percent of Finland's energy include hydro power, peat, industrial waste woods, waste liquers and normal firewood. Finland's fuel grade peat resources are estimated to be 32. 7 X 109 cubic yards (lappalainen, 1 980) and the na t ion pays subsidies to new users of domestic fuels equal to five percent to 20 percent of the total investment required for new plants (Harme 1980). Annual (1979) peat usage in Finland was approximately 6.5-7.8 mil lion cubic yards or about 2. 5 percent of the nation's energy consump tion The aim for the 1980's is to raise consumption to 33-39 million cubic yards per year It is thought that the 26 million level is reasonable based on rising coal and oil prices ( Harme 1980). Pohjonen ( 1 980) notes that by the end of the century mined -out soil surface area will occupy 123,550 acres and the problem of future use for those lands must be solved. It is suggested that a number o f characteris tics of mined peatlands in Finland make reclamation to "growing environ ment" an attracti ve option. The bottom peat layer is exceptionally sterile and no weeds, diseases or insects are present This laye r is rich in n i tro gen and calcium and an un d erlying m ineral soil provides nutrients lacking in the bottom peat layer. It is noted that energy willow production would be extremely efficient since burning the willow in heating plants yields a nutrientri ch ash which may be returned as a fertilizer to the willow plantations (Pohjonen 1980). Finland is actively pursuing development of i t s peat resource for energy use in order to offset its dependence on i mported energy. Researchers are beginning to explore reclamation options which make use of residual peats remaining after mining in combination with underly ing minera l soils The cultiv ation of energy willows is seen to be an attractive option, given the renewable nature of that resource.

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92 BUREAU OF GEOLOGY Peatland Reclamation in New Brunswick New Brunswick's peat resources are estimated to be 1 n excess of 24 7, 000 acres Approximately 80 percent of New Brunswick's peatlands are owned by the province which classes peat as a quarriable substance (Keys, 1980). Peats are extracted for horticultural purposes and producers hold peat leases and pay acreage rentals and royalties on production. The horticul tural producers use a vacuum method of milled peat production. This peat is in turn used as baled Sphagnum peat, soil mixes, artificially dri ed and compacted peat and compressed peat pots (Keys, 1980). Addition ally a small amount of peat is used as fuel to heat a greenhouse. Nonextractive uses for New Brunswick peatlands include protection of peats within K ouchibouquac National Park, use as wildlife management areas and artificially developed waterfowl nesting areas Management objectives for future use of the peat resource include: 1 ) consideration of the needs of existing industry, 2) conservation areas 3) optimum use of various qualities of peat and 4 ) long-term versus short-term economic development (Keys, 1980). An idea l ized case for management of New Brunswick's peatlands would be such that surface layers of peat could be removed for horticul tural use exposing underlying fuel peats. On removal of t he fue l peats, the basal unminable layer (20 inches thick with high ash content and rocks and oth er irregularities) with a suitably designed drainage system, cou l d allow utilization of the depleted peatland for agr i culture and afforestation (Keys, 1980). Selective use of New Brunswick's peat resources are encouraged. The need for conservation areas is acknowledged Rec l amation is viewed as an integral step in the exploitation of peatlands. A summary of the leas ing procedure applied to peatlands of New Brunswick is presented in Appendix E of this document. Reclamation in Peatlands of Florida In Minnesota, North Carolina, Finland and New Brunswick ongoing resea r ch is a imed at devising reclamation techniques which are workable for specific regions For instance, North Carolina cannot assume that reclamation methods suitable to Minnesota may be successfully applied to the soil conditi ons and climate of North Carolina. M innesota (Asmus sen 1 980) has appointed a panel of peatland ecologists to identify peatlands with preservation value The Peat Mining Task Force of North Carolina notes that some areas in peatlands should be left entirely in their natural state (No rth Carolina DNRCD, 1983). It is recommended that those areas be identified as quick l y as possible and a program for their preservation be instituted. If Florida determines to allow mining of its peatlands, a number of factors will require research so that successful rec l amation programs

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SPECIAL PUBLICATION NO 27 93 may be instituted. Florida's climate is unli k e the climates of other peat producing areas in which extensive research has been done. Peat in Florida frequentl y lies directly over limestone or quartz sand. This relationship coupled with subsidence rates measured in Florida must be con sidered carefully with respect to reclamation to agricu l ture. If reclama t ion to agriculture or silvicu l ture is considered, the fertility of the residual peat and its thickness must be investigated. A number of site specific hydrol ogic characteristics will requ ire consideration including the number and types of lakes and streams as well as the relation ship of the site to groundwater resources i n its area. SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS Mineral versus NonMineral Peat, l ike coal, petroleum and natural gas, does not comply with the principal conditions set forth in the academic definition of the term min eral. Peat represents an early stage in a series of products which may under certain conditions result in the conversion of vegetable matter to pure carbon (peat-lignite-bituminous coal-anthracite-graphite), the end product of which fits all the requirements of a true mineral. In classifying peat as a m i neral or non mineral, there has been a tendency toward al lowing use to play an important role i n the classification, that is, if used as an agricultural product peat would be treated as a non m i neral or if used as an energy source or fossil fuel peat would be treated as a min eral. Classification based on use can create considerable confusion espe cially with minera l products used as fertilizers. Peat has been historically classified by the U.S. Bureau of Mines and the U.S. Geological Survey as a mineral r esource, a somewhat broader category than just "mineral", along with coal, oil and natural gas Peat is generally regarded as nonre newable by earth science professionals, requiring in excess of 1,000 years to generate a commercially extractable deposit of fue l grade peat. This study concludes that because of peat's genetic relationship to the minera l graphite, its general classification by the U S. Bureau of Mines and the U.S. Geological Survey as a mine r al resource, and its nonrenewability, peat should be classed as a "mineral resource", or "mineral product". Harvesting versus Mining Harvesting and mining h ave been used synonymousl y to refer to the extraction of peat. Literature searches reveal that the term harvesting correctly refers to the nearly obsolete practice o f selectively removing living Sphagnum (peat moss) from the surface of a bog In this practice, Sphagnum was allowed to grow back, permitting successive harvests in a single location. Peat (unlike living Sphagnum) is considered nonrenewable and the term harvesting is inappropriate when applied to peat

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94 BUREAU OF GEOLOGY extraction. Additionally, the method and equipment utilized in peat extraction and the environmental impacts of peat extraction are synonymous with those commonl y attributed to mining, not harvesting. This study concludes that harvesting should be applied only to the removal of living Sphagnum or other living plants and that the extraction of peat should be ca t egorized as mining. Environmental Impacts of Peat Mining Peat occurrence in Florida is, in nearly every case examin ed, coincident with a current wetl and area. Thus the environmental impacts associated with peat mining may vary widely depending on the type of wetland, the l ocation of the wetl and, the function of the wetland, the extent of min ing the type of mining, and other physical parameters of the site. This study concludes that an accurate assessment of the environmen tal impacts of peat extraction will be site specific and can be anticipated to range from minor to severe. Reclamation of Peat Mines Reclamation or the return of mined land to a beneficial use is applicab l e to most mining operations and would be so with peat mining. Restoration or the return of mined land to the pre -mining function is on l y partially appl i cable to most mining operations and would not be practical with peat mining. The higher the ratio of overburden to the mined product, the higher the percentage of original landform and contour that can be achieved in reclamation In peat mining, where the mined product typically has no overburden, the extraction leaves a hole which will typically become a lake in areas where the water table is high. This study concludes that reclamation of mined peatlands to a benefi cial use as an aquatic or uplands system is achievable; however, the restoration of mined peatlands to premining contour and function is prob ab l y not financially feasible. Agricultural Use of Peat The in-place use of peat and related organics for agricu l tural purposes such as in the Everg l ades Agricultural Area appears to be a nonconsumptive use of peat, while in fact, the exposure of peat to air allows aerobic bacteria to oxidize the peat causing a gradual loss of peat accompanied by subsidence of the land surface. It is predicted t hat by the year 2000, approximate l y 250,000 acres in the Everglades Agricultural Area will have subsided to thicknesses of less than one foot. This report concludes that agricultural uses of in-place peat should be viewed as a consumptive use of peat and that research and planning should be carried out to determine t he impact result in g from peat loss and land subsidence on potential future land uses.

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SPEC IAL PUBLI C ATION NO. 27 95 REFEREN C ES American Society for Testing and Material s, 1969, Standard Classifica tion of Peats, Mosses, Humus, and Related Products: ASTM, Phi l adel p hi a, Pa., Designation D 2607-69. Asmussen, D., 1980, The Minnesota Peat Program, in Peat as an Energy Alternative: Symposium Papers, December 1 -3, 1980, at Arlington, Va.: sponsored by Institute of Gas Technology, pp. 647-655. Aspinall, F ., 1980, Peat Harvesting-State of the Art, in Peat as an Energy Alternative: Symposium Papers, December 1 3, 1980, at Arlington, Va : sponsored by Institut e of Gas Tech n ology, pp. 1 59-173. Be i'Kevich, P.l., 1977, c itation in F uchsman, 1978, pp. 3 7 3B Boyle, J .R. and C.W. Hendry, Jr., 1 984, The Mineral Industry of Florida, 1982: Florida Bureau of Geo logy Information C i rcular 95, Tallahassee, Fl.,11p. Bro bst, D.A. and W.P. Pratt, e d s., 1973, United States Mineral Resources, United States Geo l ogical Survey, Professio n al Pap er 820, 722 p. Brooks, K and S Predmo r e, 1978, Phase II Peat Program, Hydrologic Factors of Peat Harvesting (Final Report): Department of Forest Resources, College of F orestry, University of Minn esota, for the Minne sota Department of Natural R esources, St. Paul, Mn., 49 p. Brown, M.T., E.M S t arnes, C. D i amond, B. Dunn, P. M cKay M Noonan, S. Schre i be r J. Sendzimer, S Thompson an d B. T i g h e, 1983, A Wet lands Study of Seminole County: Identification, Evaluation, and Prepara tion of Development S tandards and Guidelines: Center for Wetlands Techn i cal Report 41, University o f Flo r ida, Gainesvil le, Fl. 248 p. Camero n C. 1973, P eat, in Brobst, D.A. and W.P. Pratt, eds 1973, United States Mineral Resources: United States Geo l og i cal Survey, Pro f essional Pa p e r 820, Was hington, D.C., 7 2 2 p. Car t e r V M .S. Be d i n ger R.P. N ovitzki, and W.O. Wil en, 1978, Water Resources and Wetlands, i n Wetland Functions and Values: The State of Our Understanding: American Water R esources Association, pp. 344-376. C l ause n J C., 1979, The Potential Effects of Peat Mining, in Manage ment Assessment of Peat as an Energy Resource: Symposium Papers, July 22-24, 1979, at Arlington, Va.: spon s ored b y I nstitute of Gas Technol ogy.

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96 BUREAU OF GEOLOGY Cohen, A.D., 1974, Evidence of Fires in the Ancient Everglades and Southern Everglades in P.J. Gleason ed., Environments of South Flor ida: Present and Past: Miami Geological Society, Memoir 2, pp. 213-218. Cohen, A.D. and W. Spackman 1977, Phytogenic Organic Sediments of Sedimentary Environments in the Everglades -Mangrove Complex of Florida: Part 1/, The Origin, Description and Classification of the Peats of Southern Florida: in Pal eontograph i ca, p. 71. Cohen, A.D., and W. Spackman 1980, Phytogenic Organic Sediments of Sedimentary Environments in the Everglades-Mangrove Complex of Florida: Part Ill, the Alteration of Plant Materials in Peats and the Origin of Coal Macerals: in Paleontographica p. 125. Cowardin, L.M., V. Carter F. Golet and E.T. LaRoe, 1979, Classification of Wetlands and Deepwater Habitats of the United States: U.S. Depart ment of the Interior Fish and W ildlife Serv i ce, Office of Biological Ser vices, Washington, D.C. Craig, R., 1981, Ecolog ical communities of Florida: Descriptions, soils ecosystems, environmental values : (An i n house draft.) United States Department of Agriculture Soi l Conservation Service, Gainesville, FL. Crawford, R., 1978, Effect of Peat Utilization on Water Quality in Minne sota: The M i nnesota Department of Natural Resources St. Paul Mn., 18 p. Davis J.H., 1946, The Peat Deposits of Florida, Their Occurrence, D evelopment and Uses: Florida Geological Survey Bulletin 30, Tall ahas see Fl. 24 7 p. DRAVO Engineers and Constructors, 1981, Synfuels Glossary: DRAVO, Pittsburgh Pa. 10 p. Eckman, E., 1975, citation in Fuchsman, 1978, p. 102. Environmental Science and Engineering, 1982, Appendix A Physical Chemical and Ecological Data, in NPDES Permit Application, Wastewater Discharge Assessment: ESE, Gainesville, Fl. 297 p. Farnham, R S. 1979, Peat/and Reclamation in Management Assessment of Peat as an Energy Source: Symposium Papers July 22-24, 1979, at Arlington, Va.: sponsored by Institute of Gas Technology. Farnham R.S., and T. Lever 1980, Agricultural Reclamation of Peatlands: Minnesota Department of Natural Resources, St. Paul, Mn., 70 p

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SPECIAl PUBLICATION NO. 27 97 Farnham. R.S. W.E. Berguson, T.E. Levar, and D.B. Sherf, 1980, Peat/and Reclamation The Energy Crop Option, in Peat as an Energy Alternative: Symposium Papers, December 1 3, 1980, at Arlington, Va.: sponsored by Institute of Gas Technology, pp. 635-642. Fuchsman, C.H., 1978, The Industrial Chemical Technology of Peat: Minnesota Department of Natura l Resources. St. Paul Mn. 190 p. Gary, M., R. McAfee Jr., and C.L. Wolf, eds. 1974, Glossary of Geology : American Geological Institute, Alexandria, Va., 805 p. Georgia Pacific Corporation 1982, Cow Bay Pilot Peat Project : Supple mental Information Submitted to Florida Department of Env ironmental Regulation for Amended Dredge and Fill Permit and Industrial Waste water Permit Applicati on. Gilbert, C.R., 1978, Analysis of the Florida Aquatic E cosystems, i n Rare and Endangered Biota of Florida, Vol. 4-Fishes: Florida Game and Fresh Water Fish Commissi on, Tallahassee, Fl. Gleason. P.J., A.D. Cohen H.K. Brooks P. Stone. R. Goodrick, W.G Smith, and W. Spackman, Jr., 1974 The Environmental Significance of Holocene Sediments from the Everglades and Saline Tidal Plain i n P.J. Gleason, ed., Environments of South Florida: Present and Past: Miami Geologica l Society, Memoir 2, pp. 287-341. Griffin, G., C.C. Wieland L .Q. Hood, R.W. Goode, Il l R.K. Sawyer, and D.F. McNeill, 1982. Assessment of the Peat Resources of Florida With a Detailed Survey of the Northern Everglades: State of Florida, Governor's Energy Office, T allahassee, Fl., 190 p. Gurr, T., 1972, The Geology of a Central Florida Peat Bog, Section 26. Township 30 South, Range 25 East, Polk County, Florida: Unpublished M.S. Thesis, University of South Florida, Tampa, F l Ha rm e, P., 1980, Peat and F inland, in Proceedings of the 6th Interna tional Peat Congress, August 17-23, 19BO: International Peat Society, Duluth, Mn., 735 p. Harper, R., 1910, Preliminary Report on the Peat Deposits of Florida: Florida Geolog i cal Survey 3rd Annual Report, Tallahassee, Fl., 397 p. Hartman, B., 1978, Description of Major Terrestrial and Wetland Habitats of Florida, i n Rare and Endangered Biota of Florida, Vol. 1Mammals: Florida Game and Fresh Water Fish Commission, Tal l ahassee, Fl.

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98 BUREAU OF GEOLOGY Heikurainen, L., 1976, The Concepts of Trophy and Production : Com mission I of I nternational Peat Society Transactions of the Working Group f or Classification of Peat, Helsinki, Finl and, p. 31. Ingram, R.L ., and L.J. Otte, 1980, Assessment of North Carolina Peat Resources in Peat as an Energy Alternative: Symposium Papers. Decem ber 1 3 1980, at Arlington, Va.: sponsored by Institute of Gas Technol ogy. pp. 1 23-131. Institute o f Gas Technology, 1980, Peat as an Energy Alternative: Sym posium Papers, December 1 3, 1980, at Arlington, Va.: 777 p. International Peat Society, 1980, Proceedings of the 6th International Peat Congress, August 1 7 -23, 1980: Duluth, Mn., 735 p. lshino 1976, citation i n Fuchsman, 1978, p 57. Jacksonville Area Planning Board 1977. Regional land use element: Jacksonville, FL. Keys, D . 1980, Assessment and Management of the Peatlands in New Brunswick, Canada: in Peat as an Energy Alternative: Symposium Papers, December 1 3, 1980, at Arlington, Va.: sponsored by Institute of Gas Technology, pp. 131 -143. K i ng R ., S. Richardson A. Walters L. Boesch W. Thomson and J. Irons, 1980, Prel i m inary Evaluation of Environmental Issues on the Use of Peat as an Energy Source: prepared for the U.S. Department of Energy, Division o f Fossil Fuel Processing, Washington, D.C. Kuehn, D.W., 1980, Offshore Transgressive Peat Deposits of Southwest Florida: Evidence for a Late Holocene Rise of Sea Level: Unpublished M S Thesis, Pennsylvania State Universi ty, College Park Pa Laessle A.M., 1942, The Plant Communities of the Welaka Area: B i olog ical Science Series V. IV, N 1 University of Florida, Gainesville FL. Langbein W.B and K. T. lseri 1960, Genera/Introduction and Hydro logic Definitions, United States Geolog ica l Survey, Water Supply Paper 1541 A ,29p. Lappalainen E.. 1980, The Useful Fuel Peat Resources in Finland, in International Peat Society Proceedings of the 6th International Peat Con gress August 17 -23, 1980: Duluth, Mn., pp. 59-63. Lishtvan 1.1., and N T Korol, 1975, citation in Fuchsman 1978, pp. 36-37.

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SPECIAL PUBLICAT I ON NO. 27 99 Lucas, R., 1980, Mobility of Phosphorus and Potassium in Everglades Histosols, in Proceedings of the 6th International Peat Congress, Duluth, Mn.,p.413. Malterer, T.J., 1980, Peat Resource Estimation Project, i n Peat as an Energy Alternative: Symposium Papers, December 1 3, 1980, at Arlington, Va : sponsored by Institute of Gas Technology, pp. 69-75. Mason, B., and L.G. Berry, 1968, Elements of Mineralogy: W.H. Freeman and Company, San Francisco Ca., 550 p. McPherson, B.F. G.Y. Hendrix, H. K l ein, and H M Tyus, 1976, Th e Environment of South Florida A Summary Report: Uni ted States Geolog i cal Survey Professional Paper 1101, Washington, D.C., 81 p. Minnesota Department of Natural Resources, 1981, Minnesota Peat Program Final Report: The M innesota Department of Natural Resources St. Paul, Mn., 93 p. Monk, C.D., 1968, Successional and environmental relationships of the forest vegetation of north-central Florida: T he American Midland Natural ist, v. 79, pp. 441-457. Moore, P., and D. Bellamy 1974, Peatlands: Elek Science London 221 p. Naucke W., 1966, citation in Fuchsman, 1978, p. 35. Nei l son, W.A., T .A. Knott, and P W Carhart, eds., 1939, Webster s New International Dictionary of the English Language, 2nd ed. unabridged G & C Merriam Company, Publishers, Springfie l d, Ma., 3210 p. Nichols, D.S., 1980, citation in Minnesota Department of N atura l Resour ces, 1981, p. 44. Norit, N.V., n.d., citation in Fuchsman, 1978, p. 112. North Carolina Department of Natural Resources and Community Devel opment, 1983, Peat Mining and Natural Resources: Peat Mining Task Fo rce Report. Olson, D., T.J. Malterer D.R. Mellen B. Leuelling, and E.J Tome, 1979, Inventory of Peat Resources in Southwest St. Louis County, Minnesota: The Minnesota Department of Natural Resources Hibbing Mn., 76 p. Parker, G.G., 1974, Hydrology of the Pre-Drainage System of the Ever glades in Southern Florida, in P.J. Gleason, ed. Environments of South Florida: Present and Past: Miami Geological Society, Memoir 2, p. 18.

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100 BUR EAU OF GEOLOGY Peat Methanol Associ ates 1 983, PMA Update : News From Peat Metha nol Associates, Vol. 1 No 1 Peat Methanol Associates, Creswell N.C Pennsylvan i a State University, Coa l Research Section, 1 976, A Field Guide to Aid in the Comparative Study of the Okefenokee Swamp and the Everglades -Mangrove Swamp-Marsh Complex of Southern Flor ida: Coal Research Section, University Park Pa. Pohjonen V M., 1980, Energy Willow Farm ing on Old Peat Industry Areas in Proceedings of the 6th International Peat Congress, August 17-23, 1980: Internati onal Peat Society, Duluth, Mn., pp 439-440. Press, F., and R. Siever, 1974, Earth: W.H. Freeman and Company, San Francisco Ca. 945 p Pritchard, P.C .H., ed., 1978, Rare and Endangered Biota of Florida : Vol. 1 Mammals Vol 2 Birds Vol. 3-Amphibians and Reptiles, Vol. 4 F i shes : Florida Game and Fresh Water Fish Commission, Tallahassee Fl. Quinn, A W . and H.D. Glass, 1958, Rank of Coal and Metamorphic Grade of Rocks of the Narragansett Basin of Rhode Island: Economic Geology, v 53, pp. 563-576. Robinson, C W ., R.L Schneider, and A B Allen, 1983, Harvesting and Converting Peat to Methanol at First Colony: in Mining Engineer ing, July, pp. 723-726. Searls J.P., 1980, Peat: United States Bureau of Mines Bulletin 671, Washington D.C., pp. 641-650. Shih, S F., 1980, Impact of Subsidence on Water Management in Ever glades Agricultural Area, in Proceedings of the 6th International Peat Congress August 17-23, 1980: International Peat Society, Duluth, Mn., 473 p. Snyder G.H., H.W. Burdine J .R. Crocket, G J Gascho, D. Harrison G. Kidder J W. Mishoe, D L. Myhre, F.M Pate, S F Shih, 1978, Water Table Management for Organic Soil Conservation and Crop Production in the Florida Everglades: Institute for Food and Agricultural Science, Uni versity of Florida Gainesville, Fl., 22 p. Soper E.K., and C C. Osbon 1922, The Occurrence and Uses of Peat in the United States: United States Geological Survey Bulletin 728, Wash ington, D.C. 207 p Spackman, W. D.W. Scholl and W .H. Taft, 1964, Field Guidebook to Environments of Coal Formation in Southern Florida: Printed for the Geo logical Society of America Pre Convention Fie l dtrip, November 67 p.

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SPEC IAL PUBLICATION NO 27 1 0 1 State of Florida Governor's Energy Office, 1981, Florida Energy Resources: State of Florida Governor s Energy Office, Tallahassee, Flor ida, 111 p. Stein, J., L.C. Hauck, and P.Y Su, eds. 1975, Random House College Dictionary, Random House Inc., New York, N Y., 1568 p. Stephens, J .C., 1974, Subsidence of Organic Soils in the Florida Everglades-A Review and Update, in P.J. Gleason, ed. Environments of South Florida: Present and Past: Miam i Geologica l Society, Memoi r 2, pp 352361 Stephens, J.C., and L. Johnson, 1951 Subsidence of Organic So ils in the Upper Everglades of Florida: Soil Science Society of Florida Proceed i ngs Vol. XI, pp. 191 -237. Tate, R.L. 1980, Environmental Factors Limiting Microbi al A ctivity in Histosols, in Proceeding of the 6th International Peat Congress August 1 7 -23, 1980: International Peat Soc i e t y Duluth, Mn., p. 695. Tebeau C.W., 1974 South Florida Water Management District, in P.J. G l eason ed., Environments of South Florida: Present and Past : Miami Geologica l Society, Memoir 2 p 362. T urner F.J. and J. Verhoogen 1960, Igneous and Metamorphic Petrol ogy: 2nd ed., McGrawHill New York, 545 p U S Bureau of Mines, 1972-1981, Minerals Yearbook: U.S. Depart ment of In t erior Washington, D.C. U S. Department of Energy 1979, Peat-Prospec t us: Uni t ed States Depar tment of Energy Division of Foss i l Fuel Processing, Wash ington, D.C., 79 p. Weast, R.C ., ed. 1973, Handbook of Chemistry and Physics 54th ed., CRC Press, C l eveland, Oh. White, W.H., 1970, The Geomorphology of the Florida Peninsula: F l orida Bureau of Geo logy Bulletin 51, Tallahassee, Fl., 164 p.

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102 BUREAU OF GEOLOGY GLO S SARY OF TECHNICAL TERM S by Kenneth M. Campbell a b sorption Taking up, assimi l ation, or incorporation; e.g. of l iquids in solids or of gasses in liquids, sometimes incorrectl y used in p l ace of adsorption a ce tone A volati le flammable liquid (CH3l2CO, used as a solvent and in organic synthesis. a cid A compound, capable of neutralizing alkal i s, containing hydrogen that can be replaced by a metal or an e lectropositive group to form a salt or cont aining an atom that can accept a pa i r of e lectrons from a base. a c i d hydrolys i s Decomposition process in which peat is broken down into component compounds. Peat is slur ried with water and sul furic acid at elevated temperatures and pressure and allowed to react. a c t ivate d carbon Carbon which has been expanded by treating coke with steam at 1652201 2 F. The reaction causes generation of hydro gen gas and carbon monoxide with the physical effect of expanding the pore spaces in the coke, greatly inc r easing the surface area available for adsorpti on ad sorption Adherence of gas molecules or o f ions o r molecul es in solu tions to the surfaces of solids wit h which they are in contact. ald ehydes A class of organic compounds containing the group CHO, whi c h yield acids when o x idized and a lcohols when reduced alkali Any strongly basic substance, such as a hydroxide or ca rbon ate of an alkali metal (e.g. sodium, potassium) that neutralizes acid to for m salts. anhydrite A minera l consisting of an anhydrous calcium sulfate: CaS04 It represents gypsum without its water of crystalli zation, and it alters readily t o gypsum, from which it differs in crystal form (anhydrite is orthorhomb ic) and in being harde r and slightly less soluble. anthracite Coal o f the highest metamorphic ran k in which fix ed carbon content is between 86 percent and 98 percent. It i s hard black, and has a semimetallic luster and semiconchoidal fracture. Anthracite ignites with difficulty and burns w ith a short, b lue flame and without smoke. Syn: ha r d coal, stone coals. as h content The percentage of incombustible material in a fuel.

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SPECIAL PUBLICATION NO. 2 7 1 0 3 bioenergy crops Crops which are grown for plant b i omass to p r oduce renewable energy sources. Plant biomass can be harvested and burned direc t ly or may be gasified to prod u ce liquid a n d gaseo u s fuels. biogasification A process w h i ch utilizes bacteria t o produce methane gas from organ i c mate r ia l. bituminous Coal whi ch contains up to 86 percent fixed ca r bon and whi ch gene r ates at l east 8300 BTU / Ib on combustion. I t is dark brown to black in color and is the most abundant rank of coal. Lower grades burn with a smokey flame, however, h i ghe r grades burn w ithout smoke. BOD ( Biological Oxygen Demand ) T he amount of oxygen (measured in p ar t s p er million) removed f rom aquatic e n vironments rich in organic matter by the metabol i c requ i rements of aerobic microor ganisms. bog A waterl ogged, spongy g r oundmass, prima rily mosses, containing acidic, decaying vegetation o r peat. brackish water A n indefinite term for water, the salin ity o f which is inte r mediate between that o f normal sea wat er and normal fresh water. BTU (British Thermal Unit) T he amount of heat requ i red to raise the temperature of one pound of water o n e ( 1 ) degree F. c arbohydrate A polyhydroxy aldehyde or ketone or a compound that can be hydrol yzed to such a compound. Carboh ydrates, of which sugars, starches and cellulose are exampl es, are produced by all green plan t s and form an important animal food c arbonization (a) In the process of coalification, the accumulatio n of residual carbon by the changes in orga nic matter and decompos ition products; (b) T h e accumul ation of carbon of a car bonaceous substance such as coal by driving off the other components, either by heat under laboratory conditions or by natural processes. carbon -14 dating A method of de t ermining an age in years by mea suring the conce ntration o f carbon-14 remaining in an organic mate r ial usually formerly living matter, but also water biocarbonate etc. The method, work ed out by Willard F. Libby, U.S. chemist ( 1908). in the years 1 9 4 6 -1951, is based on the assumption that assimi l ation of carbon -14 ceased abruptly on removal of the material from the Earth's carbon cycle (i.e. the death of an organism) and that it the r eafter r emained a closed system. Most carbon-14 ages are calculated using a half li f e of 5570 + 30 years, t hus t h e method i s usefu l in determining ages in the ran ge of 500-30,000 or 40,000 years, although it may be e x tended to 70,000 years by using special techniqu es involving con-

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104 BUREAU OF GEOLOGY trolled enrichment of the sample in carbon-14. Syn: rad ioca rb on dating; carbon dating. car cinogen A substance which tends to produce a cancer. cell ulose A polymeric carbohydrate composed of glucose units, for mula !C6H ,005l x of which the permanent cell walls of plants are formed, making it the most abundant carbohydrate. c oal ification The alteration or metamorph i sm of plant material into coal; the biochemical processes of diagenesis and the geochemical pro cess of metamorp hism in the formation o f coal. See also: carbon iz ation. COD (Chemical Oxygen Demand ) The amount of oxygen r equired for the oxidation of all oxid iz able compounds in a water body. Cf: biochem ica l oxygen demand. Var: oxygen demand. co lloidal gel A transl u cent to transparent semisolid, apparently homogeneous substance being elastic and jelly l i ke (or sometimes more or l ess rigid), offering l ittle resistance to liqu id diffusion, and containing a dispersion or network of fine particles that have coalesced t o some degree. Colloidal part i cles are less than .0000094 inches in size (i.e. smaller than clay sized). core A cylindrical or columnar piece of solid rock or section of soi l usually 1 75-4.0 inch or so in diameter and f rom an inch up to 50 feet or so in length taken as a sample of an underground formation by a special hollow-type drill bit, and brought to the surface for geologic examination and /or c hem ical analysis. I t records a section of the rock or soil pene trated. crysta l A homogeneous, solid body of a chem ic a l e l ement, compound or isomorphous mixture hav in g a regularly repeating atomic arrangement that may be outwardly expressed by plane f aces. desiccation A complete or nearly complete drying out or drying up, or a deprivation of moisture or of water not chemically combined; e.g. the loss of water from pore spaces of soils or sediments as a result of com paction or evaporation. dewatering Processing which reduces the amount of water within peat or a peat deposit prior to min ing and processing. Ditching and pump ing are used prior to mining. Solar mechan i cal and thermal drying along with wet carboni zation a nd wet oxidation can be used prior to or in conjunction with processing. di c hloroethane A heavy, colo rless flammable liquid, C2H4CI2 a non polar organic solvent.

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SPECIAL PUBLICATION NO 27 105 element Any of a c l ass of substances that cannot be separated into simpler substances by chemical means. E lements are the build ing blo cks from which all chemical compounds are formed. enstatite A common rock-forming mineral of the orthopyroxene g r oup: MgSi03 I t is isomorphous w ith hypersthene and may contain a little iron replacing the magnesium. Enstatite varies from grayish white to yellowish, olive green and b rown. It i s an important primary constituent of interm e d iate and basic igneous rocks. ester A compound produced by the reaction between an ac i d and an alcohol with the elimination of a molecule of water. estuary (a) The seaward end or the widened funnel-shaped tidal mouth of a river va lley where freshwater mixes with and measurably dilutes seawater and where t i dal effects a r e evident; e.g. a tidal river, or a partial l y enclosed coastal body of water where the tide meets the current of a stream; (b) A portion of an ocean as a firth or an arm of the sea, affect ed by freshwater; e.g the Baltic Sea; ( c ) A drowned river mouth formed by the subsidence of land near the coast or by the drowning of the lower portion of a nonglaciated val l ey due to the r i se of sea l evel. ethane A colorless, odorless water-insolubl e gaseous paraffin hydrocarbon, formula C2H6 which occurs in natural gas o r can be pro duced as a by-product in the cracking of petroleum. ethanol (alcohol) A colorless, volatile f l ammable liquid C2H50H, produced by fermentation of certain carbohydrates used ch iefly as a sol vent, and in organic synthesi s beve r ages, medi cine colognes and antifree ze. ethyl acetate A volatile, flammable liquid CH3COOC2H5 used as so l -vent for pa ints and lacquers. eutrophication The process by which waters become more eutrophic; the artificial or natural enrichment of a lake by an influx of nutrients requir ed for the g rowth of aqua t ic p lants such as a l gae that are vital for fish and animal life. evapotranspiration Loss of water from a land area through transpi ra tion of plants and evaporation from the soil. Also. the volume of water lost through evapotranspirati on. fen A waterl ogged, spongy groundmass containing alkal i ne, decay ing vegetation characterized by reeds or peat. It sometimes occurs in the sink holes of karst r egio ns Cf: bog.

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106 BU R EA U OF GEOL O G Y fiber A plant fragment in a peat or soi l which is greate r than 1 5 mm in any dimension. fuel grade peat (U.S. Department of Energy definition) Peat with less than 25 percent ash content, heat value greater than 8,000 BTU /Ib (dry weight) and which is found in areas with more than 80 ac r es per square mile of peat. at least 4 feet thick. Generally, hemic peats have the g r eatest heat value. fibric peat (U.S. Department of Agriculture classification) Peat con taining more t han 66.66 percent plant fibers (see also hemic and sapric). fixed carbon In coal, coke and bituminous mater ials, the rema ining solid, combustible matter after removal of moisture, ash and volatile matter expressed as a weight percentage, following the procedures specified by the American Society of Testing and Materials. fluidized b ed boile r A boi l er design in whi ch the f uel is agitated or "boiled" by the introduction of air from beneath the fuel bed. g a si ficatio n In fuel technology, the conversi on of a soli d or liquid hydrocarbon to a fuel gas. g e o logy The study of the p l anet Earth. It is concerned with t he o r igin of the planet, the materia l and morphology of the Earth, and its h istory and the processes that acted (and act) upon it to affect its historic and present forms. g r a phite A hexagonal mineral, representing a naturally occur ring crystall ine form of carbon dimorphous with d i amon d It is opaque, l us trous, very soft, greasy to the touch and iron -black to stee l-gray in color; it occurs as crystals or as flakes scales laminae or g r ains, in veins or bedded masses or as disseminations in metamorphic rocks. Graphite conducts electricity and heat, and is used in lead pencils, pai nts, and crucibles, as a lubricant as electrodes, and as a moderator i n n u c l ear reactors Syn: plumbago; black lead g rate fire d boi l er Boiler design in which the fuel load is supported by a framework of metal bars g ypsum widely distributed mineral consisting of hydr ous calcium sul fate: CaS04.2H20. I t is the commonest su lfate minera l and is frequently associated w ith halite and anhydrite i n evaporites o r forming thick, extensive beds interstratified with limes t one shales and clays. Gypsum is very soft (hardness of 2 on Mohs' sca le) and is white or colorless when pure but can be tinted grayi sh, reddish, y ellowish, blu i sh o r brownish. It occurs massive (alabaster). fibrou s (sat i n spar) or in monoclinic cry stals

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S PECIAL P UBLI C ATI O N N O. 27 107 (selenite). Gypsum is used chiefly as a soils amendment, as a retarder in portland cement and in making plaster. h a r vesting The gathering of a c r op or yield of one growing season. Commonly refers to vegetable matter w h ich can be replanted at will. In refe r ence to peat, this term is used as a synonym for mining. hecta re A metric unit of land area equal to 10,000 square meters or 2.471 acres. h e mic pea t (U.S. Department of Agriculture classificat i on) Peat in which plant fibers compose between 33.33 and 66.66 percent of the material; more decomposed than fibric peat. humic a ci d Black, acidic, organic matter extracted from soils peat low rank coals and other decayed plant substances by alka l is. It is insolu ble in acids and organic so l vents. hyd rau l i c p e a t mining Peat mining methods which do not require prior drainage of the deposit. Typically, high pressure water guns or dredges are used to cut peat from the deposit. hydrocr acking A process in which relatively heavy hydrocarbons are broken up by heat into lighter products (such as gasoline ) in t he presence of hydrogen. hyd r o logi c b udget An accounting of the inflow to, outflow from and storage in a hydrologic unit such as a drainage basin, aquifer, soil zone, lake or reservoir (Langbein and lseri, 1960); the relationship between evapo r ation, precipitation, runoff and the change in water storage, expressed by the hydrologic equation. Syn: water balance; water budget; hydrologic balance. hydr o l o g y The science that deals with continental water (both liquid and solid), its properties, circulation and distribution, on and under the Earth's surface and in the atmosphere, from the moment of its precipita tion unti l it is returned to the atmosphere through evapotranspiration or is discharged into the ocean. h ydroperiod (o f a wet l a n d community) A measure of the time (us u ally i n days per year) that water i s at or above the soil surface. h y drostatic h ead The height of a vertical column of water, the weight of whi ch, if of uni t cross section, is equal to the hydrostatic pressure at a point; static head, as applied to water. h y pnum m oss peat (American Society for Testing and Materia l s (ASTM) classif i cation) Peat which contains at least 33.33 percent plant fibers with one half of those identifiab l e as Hypnum moss. NOTE: ASTM

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108 BUREAU OF GEOLO G Y is presently in the process of revising thi s c l assification; the above term w i ll no longer be used. ion An atom or grou p of atoms with an e l ectric charge. i s opach ma p A map that shows the thickness of a b ed formation, sil l or other tabu lar body throughout a geographic area, based on a va riety of types of data. kar s t A type of topograp h y t hat is formed by the dissolution of l ime stone, dolom i te or gypsum rock by rainwater or r i vers. The topography is cha r acter i zed by closed depressions, sinkholes, caves and u nderground d r ainages. k e tone Any of a class of organic compou n ds containing a carbonyl group e.g. C = 0, attached to two organic groups, such as C H3COCH3 lagoon A shallow stretch of seawat e r such as a sound, channel, bay or saltwater lake, near or comm unicatin g with the sea and partl y or complete l y separated from it by a l o w na rrow, elongate str ip of land, such as a reef, barrier island, sandbank or spit. It often extends r ough l y paral lel to the coast and it may be stagnant. lignin An organic substance somewhat sim i lar to carbohyd r ates in composition t hat occurs with cellu l ose in woody plants. lignite A brownishblack coa l that is in t e r mediate in coalification between peat and bitu minous coal; consolidated coa l with a calo rific value less than 8300 B TU / pound on a moist, mineral matter-free basis. Cf: brown coal. marine environment Areas directly influenced b y n ormal salinity sea -water (approximately 35 parts per t h ousand). marl A n old term loose l y applie d to a variety of materials most of which occur as soft, loose, earthy and semifriable or crumbling unconsol idated depos its consisting c h ie fl y of an inti mate m ix ture of clay and calci u m carbonate in varying proport i o n s for med under either marine or freshwater conditi ons. marsh A water sa t urated, poorly d r ained area intermittently or per manently watercovered, having aquatic and grasslike vegetation. Cf: swamp; bog. megawatt A unit o f power equal to 1 million watts. metamorphism The mineralog ical and structural adjustment of solid rocks to phys i cal and chemical conditi ons w h ich h ave been i mposed at depth below t h e surface zones of wea t hering a n d cementation a n d

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SPECIAL PUBLICATION NO. 27 109 which differ from the conditions under which the rocks in question origi nated (Turner and Verhoogen, 1 960, p. 450). methane A col orless, odorless flammable gas which is the simplest paraffin hydrocarbon, f o rmul a C H4 The prin c ip al constituent of natura l gas. m ethano l A colorless, volatile water soluble poisonous liquid, CH30H, used primarily as a solvent, fuel, automobile antifreeze and in the synthesis of f ormaldehyde. Also called methyl alcohol, wood alcohol. milled peat mining Process in which the l eveled bog i s scraped to a depth of appro ximately one ha l f inch to 2 inches. The scraped material is collected. m i n e r a l A naturally formed chemical element or compound having a definite chemical composition and, usually, a characterist ic crystal form. A mineral is generally considered to be inorganic, though organic com pound s are classified by some as minerals. Those who include the requirement o f crystalline for m in the definition of a mineral would con sider an amorphous compound such as opal to be a mineraloid. mineraloid A naturally occurring usually inorganic substance that is not considered to be a mineral because it is amorphous and thus lacks characteristic physical and chemical properties ; e.g., opal. Syn: gel min eral. m ine r otrophi c Peatland s which are connected with t he regional groundwater system an d a r e nourished both by precipitation and ground water f low; contains al k ali ne, decaying vegetation on peat. See also: fen. mining The process of ex tracting mineral deposits or building stone from the E ar t h The term may also include preliminary treatment of the ore or building stone; e g. cleaning, sizing dressing. mire A general term for a section of wet s wampy ground. montan wax A bituminous wax extracted from lignite, u sed as an industrial lubricant and as an in g redient in furniture polish, shoe polish and electrical insu lation morbi d ity The proportion of sickness or a specific disease i n a geog rap h i cal area. mortality The r ela t ive frequency of death in a district or communit y.

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110 BUR EAU OF G E OLOGY muck Dark, finely divi ded, well decomposed, organic material inter mixed with a hi gh percentage of mineral matter, which forms surface deposits in some poorly drained areas. napthalen e A white, crystall i ne, water insol uble hydrocarbon, C1 0H8 contained in coa l s, peat tar and some crude oils. NPDES Permit ( National Poll u t ant Di s char g e Elim inat ion Sy stem) A U.S. Environmental Protection Agency permit required for any operation which res ults i n a discharge into the surface waters of the U.S. oil s See benzene napthalene and phenol. ombrotro phi c Peatlands which are isol ated from the reg i onal ground water system and receive moisture only from precipitation; contains acidic decaying vegetation or peat. See also: bog. opa l A mineral (or mineral gel): Si02. nH20. It is an amorphous (col l o dial) form of silica containing a vary ing proportion of water (as much as 20 percent but usually 3 -9 percent) and occurring in near l y all colors. Opal is transparent to nearly opaque and typi cally e xhibits a definite and o ften marked iridescent play of color. It differs from quartz in be ing isotropic, having a lower re f ractive index and being softer and l ess dense. organi c s oil A ge n eral term applied for a soil or a soil hori zo n that contains at least 30 percent organic matter, such as peat so i ls, muck soils and peaty soil laye rs. oxidation The process of combining with oxygen. ozone A form of oxygen, 03 having three atoms per molecule, pro duced when ordina r y oxygen gas is passed through an electrical dis c h arge. peat An unconso l ida t ed deposi t of semicarbonized plant r emains occurring i n a watersaturated envi ronment, such as a bog or fen. It is considered an early stage or rank in the development of coal; carbon content is abo u t 60 percent and oxygen content is about 30 percent (dry weight). W hen dri ed, pea t b urns freely. It may contain no more t h an 25% ash. peat bitumens Those pea t components w hic h are soluble in nonpol ar o r ganic solvents (gasol i ne, benzene, dichloroethane, etc.). The peat b itu mens of commercial interest are waxes and resins. peat coal A fuel, derived from the wet ca r bon i zation of peat, contai n ing a heat va l ue of 12,000-14,000 BTU/Ib dry w eight.

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SPECIAL PUBLI CATION NO. 27 111 peat coke A carbon residue produced by the pyrolysis of peat which is a raw material for the production of activated carbon, in the production of high purity silicon and in the production of ferrochrome and ferrosi li con all oys. peat-humus (American Society of Testing and Materials (ASTM) c lassification) Peat which contains less than 33.33 percent plant fiber. NOTE: ASTM is presently in the process of revising this classification; the above term will no longer be used. peat resin A peat bitumen, a byproduct of peat wax production uti lized primarily as a source of steroids for use by the pharmaceutical industry. peat tar A water immiscible condensate produced by the pyrolysis of peat. It is often recycled as fue l for the coking (pyrolysis) process. peat wax See peat bitumen. petroleum ether A flammable, low boiling point, hydrocarbon mixture produced by the fractional distillation of petroleum, used as a solvent. pH The negative logarithm of the hydrogen ion activity (less correctly concentration), indicates the acidity or alkalinity of a substance. phenol A white poisonous substance, C6H50H, derived from coal or pea t tar or as a derivative of benzene; used primarily as a disinfectant, as an antiseptic and in organic synthesis; also cal l ed carbolic acid. physiognomy outwardly. External aspect; characteristic or quality as revealed polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons Nonmethane hydrocarbons pro duced by the incomplete combustion of peat; they are carcinogenic at very low levels and are stab l e in the environment. potassium dichromate An orange-red poisonous powder, K2Cr207 used as a laboratory reagent, in dyeing and in photographic chemicals. power gas Gas utilized as fuel. proximate analysis The determination of moisture, volatile matter, fixed carbon, and ash using procedures prescribed by the American Soci ety of Testing and Materials pulverized fired boiler finely ground. A boiler design which uses fuel which has been

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112 BUREAU OF GEOLOGY pyrolysis Decomposition of organic substances by heat 1n the absence of air. quartz (mineral) Crystalline si l ica, an important rock-forming mineral: Si02 It is, next to feldspar the commonest mineral. Quartz forms the major proportion of most sands. radio carbon dating See carbon -14 dating. radiometric dating Calculating an age in years for geologic materials by measuring the presence of a short-life radioactive element, e g. carbon -14; or by measuring the presence of a long -life radioactive ele ment plus its decay product, e.g., potassium-40/argon-40. The term applies to all methods of age determination based on nuclear decay of natural elements reduced To change a chemical compound by removing oxygen or adding hydrogen so that the valence of the pos itive element is lower. reed -sedge peat (American Society of Testing and Materials (ASTM) classification) Peat containing at least 33.33 percent plant fibers, half of which are reed sedge and other nonmosses. NOTE: ASTM is presently in the process of revising this classification. The above term will no longer be used. salt-water encroachment Displacement of fresh surface or ground water by the advance of saltwater due to its greater density, usually in coastal and estuarine areas, but also by movement of brine from beneath a playa lake toward wells discharging freshwater. Encroachment occurs when the total head of the saltwater exceeds that of adjacent fresh water. Syn: encroachment; saltwater intrusion; seawater encroachment. sapric peat (U. S. Department of Agriculture classification) Peat con taining less than 33.33 percent recognizable plant fragments of any type; consists of the most extensively decomposed plant material. sapropel An unconsolidated, jellylike ooze or sludge composed of plant remains, most often algae, macerating and putrifying in an anaero bic environment on the shallow bottoms of lakes and seas. It may be a source material for petroleum and natural gas. sheet flow An overland flow or downslope movement of water tak ing the form of a thin, continuous film over relatively smooth soil or rock surYaces and not concentrated into channels larger than rills. silviculture The cultivation of forest trees.

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SPECIAL PUBLICATION NO. 27 113 sod peat m i n i n g Peat minin g process in which the top layer of peat i s cut and compressed by the machinery before being extruded onto the field to dry. soil A natural three dimensional body at the Earth s su r face which has properties resulting from the integrated effect of climate and organic matter on present rock material as conditioned in response to topogra phy; capable of supporting plant material. solvent extraction Pro cess which selectively separates components of an organic substance by means of reacting with a solvent. The absorbed compounds are subsequently stripped from the solvent. sp hagnum moss peat (American Society of Testing and M aterials (ASTM) c l assification) Peat which must contain at least 66.66 percent Sphagnum moss fibers by weight. NOTE: The ASTM is p r esently in the process of revising this classification. The above term w ill no longer be used stoichiometric proportion s W ith reference to a compound or a phase. pertaining to the exact proportions of its constituents specified by its chemical formula. It is generally impl ied that a stoichiometric phase does not devia t e measurably from its ideal composition. sub sidence The lowering o f the upper surface of a peat deposit due to a reduction in volume; caused by a number of factors: shrinkage due to dessication, consolidation due to loss of bouyant force of water or loading, compaction due to tillage, erosion by wind, fire damage or bio chemical oxidation. sulfur An orthorhombic mineral, the native nonmetallic e lementS. It occurs in yellow crystals or in masses or layers often associated with limestone, gypsum and other minerals; used in the production of sulfuric acid, in petroleum refining chemical production, iron and steel paper industrial explosives and many other uses swamp A water-saturated area, intermittently or permanently cov-ered with water, having shrub and tree-type vegetation. synthesis gas Those gases produced during gas ification of peat which can be upgraded by hydrocracking to produce synthetic natural gas talc An extremely soft, whitish, greenish or grayish monoclinic m i n eral : Mg3Si4010(0H)2 It has a charcteristic soapy or greasy feel and a hardness o f 1 on Mohs' scale, and it is easily cut with a knife. Talc is a common secondary minera l derived by alteration (hydration) of non aluminous magnesium silicates (such as oli vine. enstatite and tremol i te)

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11 4 BUREAU O F GEOLOGY in basic igneous rocks or by metamorphism of dolomite rocks; and it usually occurs in foliated, granular or fibrous masses. Talc is used as a filler, coating pigment, dusting agent, and in ceramics, rubber, plastics, lubricants and talcum powder. t ar A thick, brown to black, viscous organic liquid, free of water, which is obtained by condensing the volatile products of the destructive distillation of coal, wood, oil, etc. It has a variable composition, depend ing on the temperature and ma teri a l used to obtain it. volatile matter In coal, those substances, other than moisture, that are given off as gas and vapor during combustion. Standardized labora tory methods are used in analysis. Syn: volati les; vol a t ile combust ible. w e t car boni z ation A process in which a peat slurry i s heated to 57 2 7 52 F at 501 00 atmospheres of pressure; p roduces a "peat coa l with a heat content of 12,000-14,000 BTU/Ib dry weight. wetland Areas inunda t ed or saturated by surface water or g roundwater at a frequency and duration to suppor t and that under normal circumstances do support, a prevalence of vegetation typically adapted for life in saturated soil conditions. Wetlands can often be a transition zone between aquatic and terrestrial communities. wet mining methods See h ydraulic peat mining. wet oxidation Process for oxidation of many wet organic mater ials in whi c h air or oxygen is fed to the wet organ i c materi a l in a closed, heated vessel. Combustion is controlled by the rate o f oxygen feed and can be carried to completi on to produce energy or can be s t opped after the materia l is carbonized. wet re c l amation Any rec lamation p r ocess which results in a permanently or periodically flooded reclaimed a r ea. Definitions and information on terms in this glossa r y a r e taken from the following references: B rown, et al., 1983 Dravo Engi n eers and Constructors, 1 981 Fuc h sman. 1 978 Gary, et al., 197 4 U.S. Depa rtment of Energy, 1979 Langbein and lseri, 1960

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SPECIAL PUBLICATION NO 27 Minnesota Department of Natural Resources, 1981 Neilson et al. 1939 Stein et al. 1975 Turner and Verhoogen, 1960 Weast 1973 115

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116 BUREAU OF G EOLOGY APPENDIX A-FEDERAL ENVIRONM E NTAL L E GI S LATION (App endix A i s ta ken from R King et al.. 1980) LEG ISLATION Nati ona l Legislation Policy Act of 1969 ( N EPAl PL 91-190 Clean Air Acts as amended PL 91-604 as amended by PL 92157 PL 93-15 PL 933 1 9 PL 95-95 Federal Water Pollut i on Con t rol Act Amendments of 1972 P L 9 2 -500 APPLICABILITY TO P E AT ENER GY Environmental Impact Statements lEI S) must be prepared for all major federal actions significantl y affecting the qual ity of the human environmen tal [sic). Environmental Impact Assessments lElA) are usua ll y done to determine which actions require an EIS." "Ambient air quality standards h ave been set to S02 TSP, N02 CO, and 03 ; more are being conside r ed Affects a ll peat e nergy faciliti es New Source Performance Standards INSPS) apply to coal f i red boilers and regulate S02 N 02 and particulates Lower emission levels are being considered, as are reg ulations for small particulates. Stricter standards specific to coal lique faction may be forthcoming." "Standards for hazardous air pollu tants limit mer cury, beryllium, and lead emissions, and currently limi t coal types that can be used for dem onstration plants." NSPS and regulations for the preven tion of significant deteri o r ation may affect plant siting. Nonattainment cri teri a may be extended t o N 03 which could affect plant siting." "Best Available Control Technology (BACT) may be r equired for peat energy demonstration f ac ilities." "Nation al Polluta n t Discharge Elimina tion System (NPDES) permits are require d to treat wastew a t er dis charges."

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SPECIAL PUBLICATION NO 27 117 Toxic Substances Control Act (TOSCA) Pl 94-469 Noise Control Act 1972 Pl 92-574 National Historic Preservation Act of 1966 Pl 89-665 Endangered Species Act Pl 93-205 Fish and Wildlife Coordination Act P L 85-624 MOU-1967 DOD & DOl E0-1977 Wildlife and Scenic Rivers Act Pl 90-542 Coastal Zone Management Act of 1972 PL 92-583 "Since effluent guidelines have not been developed for most fossil energy technologies permit requirements are determined on a case by case basis by states or by EPA." "A "No Discharge" goal has been set for 1985." "Disposal of specific materia l s used in peat ene rgy process may be regu lated." "Control of ambient noise l eve l s and recommended standards for facilit ies regulated by state and local govern ments may be required in the near future." "Feder ally financed, assisted, or permitted projects cannot impact important historic or culture si t es unless no alternative ex ists." I dentification of endangered aquatic and terrestrial species at a potential construction site is required. May effect peat energy facility siting." "Any project requiring modification of bodies of water must be reviewed to prevent or reduce loss or damage to fish and wildlife." "Controls permit action by Corps of Engineers." "Project must not degrade the quality of wildlife habitats and scenic rivers. "State coastal zone management p l ans developed with Federal financial assistance may affect siting and design of harvesting and conversion plant."

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118 BUREAU OF GEOLOGY Rivers and Harbors Act 3 3 u.s.c 401-413 Section of the 1899 Act Marine Protection, Researc h and Sanctuaries Act of 197 2 PL 92-532 Occupational Safety and Health Act (OSHA) PL 91-596 Energy Reorganization Act of 1974 PL 93438 Nonnuclear Energy Research and Development Act of 1974 (Section 13) PL 93-577 Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1 976 PL 89-272 Floodplain Management Executive Order 11988 "Permits are requ i red for dredge and fill activities in navigable waters." "Project must be integrated with flood control river, and dam pro jects." "Permits are required for locating plants in wetl and areas w hich may restrict extraction opera-area l [ sic ] p eat conversion p lant siting." "Health and safety regulations must be met for worker s in peat energy products. Noise leve l s for compressors, pumps, etc.. are limi t ed and must be controlled Health regulations w i ll be forthcoming." DOE is required to ensure environ mental acceptability of the fossil energy and other technologies under development.'' "Water availabil ity assessments are required for demonstration and com mercial plants; assessments are rev iewed by Water Resources Council (WRC)." "Solid waste disposal must comply with most stringent air and w ater standards ; monitoring is required; s tate or EPA permits required; state or EPA permits required for all l an d f ill s by April 1 1988; must comply with states programs for non hazardous materials "Desi gnated to reduce as much as possible long and short term impacts assoc i ated with (sic] floodplain devel opment." "Requires each Fe d eral agency to review policies concerning acquiring and managing Fede r al lands, federal l y

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SPECIAL PUBLICATION NO 27 119 Protection of We tlands Executive Order 11990 Protection and Enhancement of Environmental Quality Executive Order 11 514 as amended by Executive Order 11911 Surface Mining Control and Reclamation Act of 1977 30 usc 1201 regulated programs, and Federal activiti es affecting l and use." Reduce floodpl ain hazards and apply floodplain management practices "Each agency will p rovide leadership and action to minimize the destruction and loss of wetlands and will conduct activities so as not to adversely affect l and use and water resource planning efforts." Each agency must review possible alterna t ives and designate practicable measures to mitigate the impacts. " The Federal government shall pro vide leadership in protecting and enhancing t he environmental [sic] and quality of life." "Each agency must: monitor and evaluate its activities to protect the envi ronment; develop procedures to issue public information on Federal plans and programs; develop research and demonstration testing programs; and engage in data and research exchange with other agencies." Provides a mechanism for Federal and State review of all surface extraction of coal and other minerals (Peat may be considered to be a minera l)." Designed to issue and enforce regu lations for the surface mining industry, reduce environmental degradation and force reclamation of a surface mine area." The act declares that surface mining when conducted in an environmen tally safe and d iligent manner is a legal l y permitted activity."

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120 BUREAU OF GEOLOGY Minerals leasing Act of 1920, as amended by 30 USC 1 81 Safe Drinking Water Act "Provides the controls and regulation of surface and subsurface minerals extraction from Federal Public Lands. "Wastewater discharges may require additional t reatment for heavy metals or organic waste if they impact drinking water supplies."

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State Lev el SPECIAL PUBLICATION NO 27 APPENDIX B CLASSIFICATION OF WETLANDS IN FLORIDA ( Taken fro m Brown, et a l., 19831 1 21 "Several classification schemes have been developed for use in Flor ida. Monk (19681 classified communities by forest vegetation types. H e states, "Seven major forest vegetation types exist in North Central Flor ida: ( 1 )Clima x Southern Mixed Hardwood; (2)Sand Pine Scrub ; (3)Sand Hills ; (4)Pine Flatwoods; (5)Cypress Swamps; ( 6)Bayheads ; and ( 7)Mix ed Hardwood Swamps." Of these, three are used for wetlands classification-Mixed Hardwood Swamps, Bayheads, and Cypress Swamps. "In a classification scheme developed by Craig ( 1981 ), wetland areas were broken down into 11 categories. These include: ( 1 )Sloughs; (2)Freshwater Marsh and Ponds ; (3)Pitcher Plant Bogs; ( 4 )Shrub Bogs; ( S )Swamp Hardwoods; (6)Cyp ress Swamps; (7)Cabbage Palm Ham mocks; (8)Wetland Hardwood Hammocks; (9)Cutthroat Seeps ; ( 1 O)Cab bage Palm Flatwoods; and ( 11 )Bottomland Hardwoods. "Laessle ( 1 942) used associations for classifying vegetation types. He defines association as, "A cha racteristi c combination of plant species which i s repeated in numerous stands with but little If any change in the vigor and proportions of its principal components. "Laessle's classification scheme for wetlands included: I. Hydric Communities Dominated by Trees 1 Bayhead (Gordonia Tamala pubes/ens -Magnolia virginiana Association) 2. River Swamp (Taxodium distichumNyssa biflora Association) II. Herbaceous Aquatic Communities Bo rdering the River and Its Tidal Tributaries 1. Submerged Associations (Naias Ceratophyllum Association and Vallisneria Associa t ion) 2. Floating Associations (Piaropus Association and Pistia Salvina Association) 3. Emergent Vegetation "A report developed in part by the Northeast Regional Planning Coun cil classifies severa l communities associated with wetland areas. These include Swamp Hammock, Hardwood Swamp, Riverine Cypress, Cypress Pond Bayhead and Bog, Wet Prairie Freshwater Marsh (shallow and deep). and Tidal Flat (Jacksonville Area Planning Board 1977). "Under the aegis of the Florida Department of Administration, the State Division of Planning and the Bureau of Comprehensive Planning a committee was c r eated to increase the efficiency of land use planning by coordinating the collection, in t erpretation, and other use of land resource data. The resu l t was the Florida Land Use and Cover Classification Sys-

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1 2 2 BUREAU OF G EOLOGY tem ( 1976). Inventory of state land resources would be achieved through the coordination of remote sensing techniques (including aeria l photography ) and ground-based observations. Computer storage of such vast quantities of information could permit organizat i on of the data in a variety of ways that would expedite management decisions. Within this scheme, information from various sensors is organized into various levels of classification ranging from Level I to Level I V The levels are summa rized as follows in the technical report describing the classification sys tem: "Level I classification uses satellite imagery with very little suppl e menta l information. The mapping is usually at a rat i o of 1:1,000,000. A t this r atio only a general classification based on major differences in land cover can be made. "Level II classifications are based on high altitude and satellite imagery combined with topographic maps The mapping is normally at a ratio of 1 : 1,000,000 and transfe r able to 1:24,000 ratio. L evel Ill classif i cation are based on medium altitude remote sensing at a scale of less than 1:24,000 combined with detailed topographic maps and substantial amounts of supplemental information, i.e. field observatio n "Level I V classification uses low altitude imagery with most of the information being derived from suppleme n tal sou r ces. (This le vel is not included within this document.) 600 Wetlands: (level I) "Forested wetlands are areas that are subject to permanent o r pro longed periods of inundation or saturation and /or exhibit vegetative com munities characteristic of this hydroperiod. 610 WETLAND CONIFEROUS FOREST: (Leve l II). "These wetlands have a tree crown areal density of 1 0 percent o r more (Crown closure requirement), and have a dominant tree crown of the coniferous species, and are a result of natural seed ing. 6 1 1 Cypress: (level Ill) "These forested a r eas are dominated by a c rown clos ure i n either bald cypress or pond cypress. Principal associa t es a r e tupelo, gum and maple. 61 2 Pond Pine: (level Ill) "These a r e forested a r eas dominated by a crown closure in pond pine. Pond pine do m i n ates wetter f lats with low p H often assoc i ated with the inland reaches of marshes o r much swamps. 620 WET L A N D HARDWOOD FOREST : (level II) "These wetlands have a dominant tree crown of the hardwood species meeting the crown closure requirement and are a result of natural seeding

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SPECIAL PUBLICAT I ON NO. 27 123 621 Freshwater Swamps: (level Ill) "River creek, and lake overflow areas. These communities will have predominantly one or more of the following species: Pond cypress, Taxodium ascendens River cypress, Taxodium distichum Red maple, Acer rubrum River birch, Betula nigra Black willow, Salix nigra Coastal plain willow, Salix caroliniana Blackgum, Nyssa biflora Ogeechee tupelo, Nyssa ogeeche Water hickory, Carya aquatica Water ash, Fraxinus caroliniana Buttonbush, Cephalanthus occidentalis "Bogs and bayheads. These communities will have predominantly o n e or more of the following species : Pond pine Pinus serotina Loblolly bay Gordonia lasianthus Sweet bay, Magnolia virginiana Swampbay, Persea palustris Titi, Cyrilla racemiflora Spaghnum moss, Spaghnum sp. I nland ponds and sloughs. These communities will have predominantl y one or more of the following species: Pond cypress Taxodium ascendens Black gum, Nyssa biflora Water tupelo, Nyssa aquatica T iti Cyrilla racemiflora, C parviflora Black titi, Cliftonia monophylla Willow, Salix sp. Primrose willow, Ludwigia peruviana Pond apple, Annona glabra 630 WETLAND MIXED FOREST: (level II) "Incl udes all wet forest areas in which neither coniferous nor hardwood species domi nate. When more than one-third intermixture of either species occurs. the specified c lassification is changed to mixed. Where the intermixture is less than one-third, it is classified as the dominant type, whether wetland conife rous or wetland hardwood. 631 M i x ed Forest: (level Ill) These forested areas are a mixture of coniferous and hard wood wetlands where neither tree type dominates. W hen more than one-thi rd intermixture occurs, the mixed classifi cation should apply.

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124 BUREAU OF GEOLO GY Vegetative Communities for Vegetated Non-Forested Wetlands 640 WETLAND VEGETATED NON FORESTED: (Level II) "These lands are found in seasonally flooded basins, meadows, and marshes. Wetlands are usually confined to relatively level areas. W hen forest crown cover is less than the threshold for wetland forest or is non-woody, it will be i ncluded in this category. Sawgr ass, Cattai l, and Wet Prair i e are p redominant communities in freshwater marshes, while Spartina and Needlerush are the pre dominant salt marsh communities. 641 Freshwater Marsh: (Level Ill) These communities will have predominantly one or more of the following species: Sawgrass Marsh Sawgrass, Cladium jamaicens is Arrowhead, Sagittaria sp Maidencane, Panicum hemitomon Cattail, Typha domingensis, T. latifolia, T. angustifolia Pickerel weed, Pontederia lanceolata, P. cordata Buttonbush, Cephalanthus occidentalis Spartina, Spartina bakeri Switchgrass, Panicum virgatum Cattaii Bulrush Maidencane Marsh "These communities have predominantly one or more of the following species: Cattail, Typha latifolia, T. domingensis, T angustifolia Bulrush, Scirpus americanus, S. validus, S. robustus Maidencane Panicum hemitomon Spartina Spartina bakeri Pickerel weed, Pontederia landeolata, P. cordata Water lily, Nymphaea sp. Spatterdock, Nuphar sp. Buttonbush, Cephalanthus occidentalis Bladderwort, Utricularia sp. Needlerush, Juncus effusus Common reed, Phragmites communis (australis) Wet Prairies "These communities will have predominantly one or more of the following species: Maidencane Panicum hemitomon Cordgrasses, Spartina bakeri, S. patens Spikerushes, Eleocharis sp. Beak rushes, Rhynchospora sp. St. Johns wort, Hypericum sp. Spiderlily, Hymenocallis palmeri Swamplily, Crinum americanum

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SPECIAL PUBLICATION NO 27 Yelloweyed grass, Xeris ambigua Whitetop sedge, Dichromena colorata 125 "A wetl ands classification scheme was developed by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACOE) primarily to help delineate the boundaries of wetlands subject to federal jurisdiction. Specifically a series of eight prelim inary guides to major regions of wetland communities and domi nant plant associations was produced to aid USACOE regulatory person nel to recognize the critical boundaries of wetlands subject to dredge and fill permit regulation under Section 404 of Public Law 92-500 (Federal Water Pollution Control Act Amendment of 1972). "One particu l ar guidebook, Preliminary Guide to Wetlands of Peninsu lar Florida serves as a classification key for wetlands south of St. Augus t i ne. In addition to the key, each of eight wetland types (Saltwater Aquatic, Saltwater Coastal F l at, Saltwater Marsh, Sa ltwater Swamp, Freshwater Aquatic, Freshwater Flat, Freshwater Marsh and Freshwater Swamp) are dealt with in detail. A brief description of each of the four f reshwater wetlands follows: a. F reshwater aquatic "Wetlands that are usually dominated by free -floating or rooted aquatic her bs and are semi-permanently or permanently flooded by freshwater (e.g. floating duckweed mats). b. Freshwater flat "Wetlands that have 25% or less vegetative cover and are occa sionally or regularly flooded by fresh water (e.g., mudflats). c. Freshwater marsh "Wetlands that have more than 25% vegetative cover of herba ceous plants but 40% or less cover by woody plants that are occasionally or regularly flooded by fresh water (e.g., cattail marsh). d. Freshwater swamp "Wetlands that have more than 40% cover by woody plants and are occasionally or regular l y flooded by f r esh water (e.g., cypress swamps). In addition to a short general descr iption of each wetland based on vege tative cover and water regime the abundance and normal locat ions of the wetl and within the region described. Growth fo rms and physiognomy are descr i bed briefly and then shown pictorially in a simplified floristic p r ofile that contrasts the distribution of "typical" species (those which gener ally occur as dominants) and the distributions of "Transitional" species ( those generally associated with transition zones). "Associated" species (those which commonly occur but not in sufficient abundance to be con sidered domi nants) are also l isted (both scientific and common names) as well as descr i bed in their relat ionships with dominant species. Env i ronmental conditions, usually the characteristics of the substrate, hydro-period, water regime, and water p H are described in order t o highlight the cluster of conditions that are critical to the distribution of dominant species.

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126 BUREAU OF GEOLOGY APPENDIX C FLORIDA STATUTES C ON C ERNING WETLANDS (Taken from Brown, et al., 1983) "How Wetlands are Perceived in Florida Law "A marsh or a swamp which is not physically connected to a la k e or stream by even occasional overflow is treated as surface water in spite of its permanence" (Maloney 1 971, in Brown, et al., 1983). Therefore, it is common to see wetlands characte r ized as "surface water" i n the F l orida Statutes, which adm i nisters authority to the various agencies. It is not until such agencies mandate specific actions that the actual ter m of "wetlands" is used. Florida Statutes that Administer Wetland Authority Chapter 380T h e Florida Environmental Land and Water Management Act of 1972 "Section 380. 0 12Purpose It is the intent that, in order to protect natural resources and environ ment of this state as provided in s. 7 Art. II of the State Constitution, insure a water managemen t system that will reverse the deterioration of water qual ity and provide optimum util ization of our l imited water resources, facilitate o r derly and wellplanned development, and protect the health welfare, safety, and quality of life of the residents of this state, it i s necessary adequately to plan for and guide growth and devel opment within this state. In order to accomplish these purposes, it is necessary that the state establish land and water management policies to gu i de and coordinate loca l decisions relating to growt h and develop ment; that s u ch state land and water management policies should, to the maximum possib l e extent be implemented by l oca l governments through exis t ing processes for the guidance o f growth and developmen t ; and that all the existing rights of private property be preserved in accord with t he constitut ions o f this state and of the United Stat es. Section 380.05-Areas of critical state concern ( 1) (a) The state land planning agency may from time to time recom mend to the Administration Commission specific areas of critical state concern. In its recommendation, the agency shall include recommendations with respect to the purchase of lands situated within the bounda ries of the proposed area as environmentally endangered lands and out door recreation lands under the Land Conservation Act o f 1972. The agency a l so shall include any repor t or recommendation of a resource planning and management committee appointed pursuant to s. 380.045; the dangers that would result from uncontrolled or inadequate develop ment of the area and the advantages that would be achieved from the development of the area in a coordina t ed man ner; a detailed bounda r y

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SPECIAL PUBLI C ATION NO 27 127 description of the proposed area; specific principles for guiding develop ment within the area; and an inventory of lands owned by the state, federal, county, and municipal governments within the proposed area. "(2) An area of critical state concern may be designated only for: "(a) An area containing, or having a significant impact upon, environ mental or natural resources or regional or statewide importance, including, but not limited to, state or federal parks forests, wild life refuges, wilderness areas, aquatic preserves major rivers and estuaries, state environmentally endangered lands Out standing Florida Waters, and aquifer recharge areas the uncon trolled private or pub lic development of which would cause sub stantial deterioration of such resources. Specific criteria which shall be considered in designating an area under this paragraph include: ''1. Whether the economic value of the area as determined by the type, variety, distribution, relati ve scarcity, and the condition of the envi ronmen tal or natural resources within the area. is of substantial regional or statewide importance. "2. Whether the ecological value of the area as determined by the physical and biological components of the environmental system, is of substantial regional or statewide importance. "3. Whether the area is a designated critical habitat of any state or federally designated threatened or endangered plant or animal species. "4. Whether the area is inherently susceptible to substantial develop ment due to its geographic location or natural aesthetics. 5. Whether any existing or planned substantial development within the area will directly, significantly, and deleteriously affect any or all of the environmental or natural resources of the area which are of regional or statewi de importance. "Chapter 259-land Conservation Action of 1972 Section 259.04-Powers and duties of "Board": Definition: "Board" means the governor and cabinet, s1tt1ng as the Board of Trustees of the Internal Improvement Trust Fund. [(259.03(4)]. "(1) For state cap i tal projects for environmentall y endangered lands: "(a) The board is given the responsibility, authority, and power to develop and execute a comprehensive plan to conserve and protect envi -ronmentally endangered lands in this state. This plan shall be kept current through continual reevaluation and revision "Chapter 763Local Government Comprehensive Plan Act of 1975 Section 763.3767-lntent and Purpose: ( 1) This act shall be known and may be cited as the Local Government Comprehensive Planning Act of 1975." "(2) In conformity with, and in furtherance of, the purpose of the Flor i da Environmental Land and Water Management Act of 1972, chap ter 380, it is the purpose of this act to utilize and strengthen the existing

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128 BUREAU OF GEOLOGY role, processes, and powers of local governments in the establishment and implementation of comprehensive planning program to guide and control future development. "(3) It is the intent of this act that its adoption is necessary so that local governments can preserve and enhance present advantages; encourage the most appropriate use of land, water, and resources con sisten t w ith the public interest; overcome present handicaps; and deal effectively with future problems that may result from the use and devel opment of land within their jurisdictions. Through the process o f compre hensive p l anning, it is intended that units o f loca l government can pre serve promote, protect, and improve public health safety, comfort, good order appearance convenience, law enforcement and fire preven tion. and general welfare; prevent overcrowding of land and avoid undue concentration of population; f acilitate the adequate and efficient provi sion of transportation, water, sewage, schools, parks, rec r ea t ional facili t ies. housing and other requireme nts and services; and conserve, develop, utilize and protect natural resour ces within t heir jurisdiction. Section 163. 31 77 (7) and ( 8) -Required and Optional Elements o f Comprehensive Plan: "(7) Such other elements as may be peculiar to, and necessary for, t h e area concerned a n d as are added t o the comprehensive plan by the governing body upon the recommendat ion of the l oca l planning agenc y "(8 ) All elements o f the comprehensive plan whether mandatory o r optiona l, shall be based upon data appropriate to the element involved. "Chapter 581 Plant Industry Section 581. 185 Pr eservation of flora o f Florida: "(1) PROHIBITIONS; PERMITS : (a) With regard to any plant on the Endangered Plant List provided in subsection (2), it is unlawful for any person : 1 To willfully injure or destroy any such plant growing on the private land of another w ithout first obtaining the written permission of the owner of the land or his l egal representative "2. To w ill f ully injur e or destroy any such plan t growing on any public land or water without first obtaining the written permission of the superintendant or custodian of such land or water, and a permit from the department as provided in this section. 4 To willfully harvest. collec t pick, or remove three or more individ ual plants of a given species listed on the Endangered Plant List from any native habitat without first obt aining the written permission of the owner o f the l and or his l egal representative or, in the case of public land or water, the written permission of the superintendent or custodian of such land or water. and a perm i t from the department as provid ed in this section. "(2) ENDANGERED PLANT LIST: The following plants shall be included in the Endan g ered Plant List:

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SPECIAL PUBLICATION NO 27 (a) Asimina pygmaea (pink pawpaw). ( b) Asimina tecramera (four petal pawpaw). (c) Asplenium auritum (aur i cled spleenwort) (fern ). ( d ) Blechnum occidentale (s i nkhole fern ). (e) Campyloneurum angustifolium (narrow swamp fern ). (f) Cassia keyensis (Key cassia). (g) Catesbaea parviflora (dune lily thorn) (hl Catopsis sp. (bromeliad). (i) Cereus gracilis (prickly apple cactus) (j) Cereus robinii ( t ree cactus). (k) Chionanthus pygmaeus (fringe tree or granny-graybeard). (I) Clusia rosea (balsam apple). (m) Coccothrinax argentata (silver palm). (n) Cucurbita okeechobeensis (Okeechobee gourd ) ( o ) Cupan i a glabra (cupania) (p) Cyrtopodium punctatum (cowhorn or cigar orchi d). (q) Dennstaedtia bipinnata (cuplet fern). 1 2 9 ( r) Encyclia boothiana ( Epidendrum boothi anum) ( dollar orchid). ( s) Epigaea repens (trailing arbutus) (t) Guaiacum sanctum (lignum v i tae) (u) Guzmania sp. (bromeliad) (v) lonopsis utricularioides (delicate i onopsis orchid ). (w) M agnolia ashei (Ashe magnolia). (x) M agnolia phyra m idata (pyramidal magnolia). (y) M axillaria crassifolia (orchid) (z) Ophioglossum palmattum (hand fern ). (aa) Pamassia grandifolia (grass -of-Parnassus ) ( bb ) Pofyrrh i za lindenii (ghost orchi d). (cc) Rhododendron austrinum (orange azalea ). (dd ) Rhododendron chapmanii (Chapman s rhododendron). (eel Ribes echineffum ( M iccosukee gooseberry ) (ff) Roystonea efa t a (Florida royal palm). (gg) Sarracenia feucophyffa and Sarracenia rubra (pitcher plants ). (hh) Scaevofa plumieri (scaevola). (ii) Strumpfia martima (p r ide o f big pine). (jj) Suriana maritima (bay cedar). (kk) Taxus floridana (Florida yew). (II) Tif/andsia fascicufata (wild pine bromeliad) (included because of very high harvest rate) (mm) Torreya taxi folia ( Florida torreya). (nn) Tournefort i a gnaphafodes ( sea lavender ). (ool Triffium lahcifolium ( trillium). (pp ) Zephyranthes simpsonii ( zephyr lily ). Chapter 403Environmental Control Section 403.021 declares that, "the public policy of the state i s to conserve the waters of the stat e to protect, maintain, and improve the

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130 BUREAU OF GEOLOGY quality thereof for public water supplies for the p r opagation of wildlife, fish and o t her aquat i c l i fe, and for domestic, agricultural. industria l rec reational a n d other beneficial uses. It also prohibits the discharge of waste into Florida waters without treatment necessary to protect those beneficial uses o f the water." Section 403.062 dea l s w ith pollution control; underground, surface, and coas tal waters. "The Department of Environmenta l Regulation and its agents shall have general control and supervision over underground water, lakes, rivers. streams canals ditches, and coasta l water under the juris d iction of the state in sofar as their pollut i on may affect the public health or impair the interest of the public or persons lawfully using them." "Chapter 373Fior i da Water Resources Act of 1972 Section 373.016 declares it to be the policy of the legislature: "(a) To provide for the management of water and rel ated land resources; "(b) To promote the conservation development, and proper utiliza tion of surface groundwater; "(d) To prevent damage from f l oods, soil erosion, and excessive drainage; "(e) To preserve n atural resources, fish and wildlife; "(g) Otherwise to promote the health, safety, and general welfare of the people of this state. It is t h e intent of the Legislature to vest in the Department of Environ mental Regulation or its successo r agency the power and responsibility to accomplish the conservation, protection, management, and contr o l of the waters of the state and with sufficient flexibility and discretion to accompl ish these ends through delegation of appropriate powers to t h e various water management distr icts "St. Johns River Water Management Districts: Chapter 40C4 -(Fi orida Administrative Code hereafter referred to as F.A.C.)-Management and Storage of Surface Water Chapter 40C 4 i s currently under exte n sive modification. It is recom mended that, upon adoption by the St. Johns River Water Management Board, Chapter 40C-4 be thor oughly reviewed by Seminole County Staff, and po l icy, goals and objectives, and ordinances made to conform. "Chapter 372-Game and Fresh Water Fish Section 372.072-Endangered and Threatened Species Act of 1977: "(2) Declaration of Policy-The Legisla t ure r ecognizes t ha t the State of Florida harbors a wide diversity of fish and wil dlife a nd t hat it is t h e policy of this state to conserve and wisely manage these resources, with particular attention to those species defined by the Game and Fresh

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SPECIAL PUBLICATION NO. 27 1 31 Water Fish Commission, the Department of N atural Resources or the U.S. Department o f Interior, or successor agencies, as being endangered or threatened. As Florida has more endangered and threatened species than any other continental state. it is the intent of the Legislature to p rovide for research and management to conserve and protect these species as a natural resource. "(4) Establishment of an Advisory Council(a) The director o f the Game and Fresh Water Fish Commission shall establish an Endangered and Threatened Species Advisory Council consisting of 10 members. Case Law: The Graham v. Estuary Properties Inc. (Fla. 399 So. 2d 1374 ) decision in F l orida i s the most progressive dec i sion to date concerning the use of land use regulations as an effective means o f protecting wetlands via development control. Background: I n compliance w ith Florida Land and Water Management Act of 1972, Estuary Properties submitted an application for a development permit for their development of regiona l impact (DRI) to Lee County Board of County Commissioners. The permit was denied due to an 1800-acre black mangrove forest which would be destroyed and therefore cause an adverse environmental impact. The developers appeal to the Florida Land and Water Adjudicatory Commission was denied. Estuary Properties contended that the Commission had improperly denied its application because the various impacts of the development had not been balanced nor had the Commission made suggestions concerning ways to correct the i nadequacies of the DRI. "The developers also attacked the Commission's denial of the permit as an unconstitutional taking because the owner's right to use his property had been violated. "Following denial by the Florida Land and Water Adjudicatory Com mission, the developer next turned to the Florida District Court o f Appeals (Estuary Properties v. Askew [Fla. App. 381 So. 2d 1126]). "In December 1979, the Florida District Court of Appeals ruled ( l ater to be overturned by the Florida Supreme Court ) that a government agency that denies an application for developmen t of regional impact in an environmentally sensitive area must prove that the project has an adverse affect on the environment and moreover, a local government cannot deny an own e r o f wetlands all reasonable use of property without paying compensation (Land Use Law and Zoning Digest, April 1980). The court r easoned that: benefits to the general public should not be borne by a few property owners, therefore the development permit could not be denied unless compensation was administered. "The case pinpoints the judicial uneas i ness over ad hoc regulations of

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132 BUREAU OF GEOLOGY part i cular geographic areas for the purpose of promotin g publ ic benefits but without recognition of the obligation to compensate the owner. The case underscores the need for government to establis h balanced man agement programs such as development r ights transfers or bonuses and in centives to guide growth away from heavi l y restricted areas to des i red areas rather than requiring a single owner to suffer the cost of providing community benefits (Land Use Law and Zon ing Digest, April 1980). "The constituti onal question which arose from Estuary Properties v. Askew of "a taking" versus a va l id exercise of the police power, with regard to the regulatio n of development in wetlands, was further rev iewed by the Florida Supreme Court in April of 1981 as Graham v Estuary Properties Inc. The Florida Supreme Court held that the permit denial in response to Estuary's DRI application was a valid exercise of the police power but the Land and Water Adjudicatory Commission must provide Estuary Properties with the changes which would make the development eligible for approval. Regarding ba l ancing of publ ic versus private interests (protecting public health, safety, and welfare versus protection of private property interests), the court found that the adverse environmental impact and deviation from the pol icies of the p l anning council cou l d outweigh other more favorable findings in deciding a devel opment approval. "The court also reasoned that: if the regulation preventing the destruction of the mangrove forest was necessary to avoid unreasonable pollution of the water thereby caus ing attendant ha r m to the public. the exercise of police power would be reasonable. Since t h e Land and Water Adjudicatory Commission found that the development would cause polluti on in the bays and effect the county' s economy, t h e court ruled that: "The regulation at issue here promotes the welfare of the public, pre vents public harm and has not been arbitrarily appl ied. "In discussing the reasonableness of the regulation the court also relies on the "magnitude of Estuary's proposed development and the sensit iv e nature of t h e surrounding lands and water to be affected by it. In this situation i t is not unreasonable to place some restr ictions on the owner's use of the property." Furthermore the court found that Estuary did not have leg itimate investmentbacked expectations for use of the property but only "its own subjective expectation that t he land cou ld be developed in the manner it now proposes." In answer to the taking issue the court sa id t hat "Estuary purchased the property in question ... with ful l knowledge that part of it was totally unsuitable for development." The court said that there was no evidence supporting t he claim that Estuary could make no beneficial use of the l and. "It seems that in the Estuary case the court d id not agree that the property was rendered worthless by the exerc i se of pol i ce power. In

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SPECIAL PUBLICATION NO 27 133 addition it found that reduction of the development by half was a valid exercise of police power. "The owner of private property is not entitled to the highest and best use of his property if that use will create public harm." Further: "We ag ree with the Wisconsin Supreme Court's observation in Just v. Marinette County, 56 Wis. 2d7, 201 N.W. 2d 761 (1972). where that court pointed out the involvement of exceptional circumst ances because of the interrelationship of the wetlands, swamps and natural environment to the purity of the water and natural resources such as fishing. The court also noted the close proximity of land in question to navigable waters which the state holds in trust for the public. Similar factors are present in the case at bar. We agree with the Wisconsin court that (a)n owner of land has no absolute and unlimited right to change the essential natural character of his land so as to use it for a purpose for which it is unsuited in its natural state and which injures the right of others, 56 Wis. 2d at 17, 201 N .W. 2d at 768."

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134 BUREAU OF GEOLOGY APPENDIX D WATER QUALITY Water Quality Par amete r s Measured in Conjunction with Peatland Development ; Minne s ota North Carolina and Florida. Water Quality Characteristics Targeted for Baseline Studies by Minnesota. ( Taken from Minnesota Department of Natural Resources, 1981 ). acidity alkalinity aluminum ammonia arsenic boron cadmium calcium chem i cal oxygen demand chromium color copper dissolved oxygen fulvic acid humic acid iron lead magnesium manganese mercury nickel nitrate nitrite organic nitrogen pH selenium sodium specific conductivity suspended sediment temperature total nitrogen total phosphorous zinc Water Quality Characteristics Targeted for Monitoring in Conjunction with a Peat Mining Operation, Departmen t of Environmental Regulation, State of Florida. Alkalinity Aluminum Beryllium Cadmium Chromium Color Copper Dissolved Ortho-Phosphate Dissolved Oxygen Iron Lead Mercury Nickel Ortho Phosphate pH Phenols Selenium Specific Conductance Temperature Total Dissolved Solids Total Kjeldahl Nitrogen Total O r ganic Carbon Total Phosphorus Total Suspended Solids Turbidity Zinc

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SPECIAL PUBLICATION NO. 27 135 Wate r Quality Measurem ents Prepared for Was t ewater D ischarge Assessment Peat -toMethanol Plant Creswell, North Caro lina In situ: Dissolved Oxygen, Field (mg/l) pH, Fiel d (standard units) Sechi Depth ( m ) Spec i fic Conductance F iel d (u mhos / cm) Water Temperature (Cl Class icals: Alkalin ity, Total (mg / l as CaC03 ) Ammonia (mg/L-Nl Antimony (ug/Ll BOD (mg / l 20 day -20 deg Cl BOD (mg / l 3 day-20 deg Cl BOD (mg / L 30 day -20 deg Cl BOD (mg / l 40 day -20 deg Cl BOD ( mg / L, 50 day -20 deg Cl BOD ( 1 0 day mg!l) BOD (5 day mg/ll BOD, CARB. (mg/l, 10 day -20 deg Cl BOD CARB (mg / l 20 day -20 d eg Cl BOD, CARB. (mg / l 3 day-20 deg Cl BOD CARB (mg/ l 30 day -20 deg C l BOD, CARB. (mg/L, 40 day -20 deg Cl BOD CARB. (mg / l 5 day -20 deg C l BOD CARB (mg/ L 50 day -20 deg Cl Calcium Total (mg!ll Chloride (m g / l l Chlorophyll a (ug/l, corrected) Cobalt Color !CPU) Copper Total (ug!l) Cyanide (mg / l l Metals: Arsen ic, Total (ug/ L ) Chromium Total (ug / L ) Chromium, ( + 6) (ug/Ll D isso lved Reactive Sili ca Flouride (mg/Ll Hardness (mg /Ll Iron Total (ug /LO Lead Total (ug / L l Magnes ium, Total (mg / L ) Mercury, Total (ug!ll Nicke l (ug!ll NO , ( mg / L N ) N03 (mg/L N ) N03 NO (mg/L -Nl Ortho Phosphate, Disso l ved (mg / L as P l Phosph orus Total (mg/ L as P ) Silica Total (mg!l as S i O l Silver Tota l (ug!ll Sod ium, T otal (m g/l) Solids Dissolved ( mg /Ll Sol i ds, Total Suspended (mg /L) Sulfate (mg/Ll T Org N (mg / L -Nl Thiocyanate (mg/ L as SCN ) TKN (mg/ L N ) Turb idity ( NIU ) Zinc Total (ug /Ll Cadmium, Total (ug/l) Magnesium, Total (mg / L ) Selenium, Total (ug/Ll

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136 BUREAU OF GEOLOGY APPENDIX E PEATLANDS MANAGEMENT PEATLANDS MANAGEMENT, STATE OF MINNESOTA Elements of a Management Program for the Peatlands (Taken from Asmussen, 1980) "Following legis lative review and response in 1981 the Minnesota Peat Program must create a long-term management program for the peatlands. Some of the elements of a program are already in place. for example, the leasing of horticultural peat. Shoul d the energy and other peatl and development proposals discussed above be realized, management concerns and responsibilities will multiply. "One important element in an on going program is a routine siteselection process. Criteria are being established for identifying peatland areas suitable for one or another type of utilization A list of possib l e site selection criteria is presented in Table 3, below. "Table 3. Peatland Utilization Site Selection Criteria 1 Peat quality and depth 2. Accessibility 3. Watershed configuration 4. Ownership pattern 5. Proximity to exist ing development 6. Ex.isting bog disturbance 7. Presence of unique features 8. Presence of conflicting uses or management status 9. Regional benefit of proposed development 1 0. Regional costs of proposed development Site selection p r ocesses must be complemented with the designation of management units. In Minnesota, management units w i ll be defined primarily by watershed boundaries because water flow and directi on are the most critical impact vectors in the peatland ecosystem. Management units might coi ncide with smaller watersheds. In larger watersheds it may be possible to site developments at the downstream part of the watershed, thereby limiting total watershed dist urbance. "The mechanism for allocating peatland to various utilizations has been and will probab l y continue to be, leasing The state of Minnesota owns or manages over 50 percent of the peatland in the state and about 70 percent of the peat in northern Minnesota considered most suitable fer energy developments. Traditionally, the Department of Natural Resources has leased areas of peat for horticultural and agricultural uses and is likely to use this mechanism for energy u ti lization should it occur. "The lease is more than a simple covenant between owner and lessee

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SPECIAL PUBLICATION NO 27 1 3 7 It spec i fies the f i nan ci a l term s o f the right t o use land (rents and royal ties) as well as minimum produ ction le v el s r e q uired. In addition, a lease may stipulate r eclamation staging and type a n d requi rements to monitor a peat mining or proce ssing v e n ture. Thus, t he lease is a compl ex man agement tool. "Other managem e n t e l ements include environmental review proce dures and permitting processes These a re shared by responsible agen cies, in Minnesota : the Depa rtmen t o f Natu ral R esources, Pollution Control the M innesota Energy Age n c y and the Env iron m ental Qual i t y Board Between them are admin is t ered water withdrawal and drainage permits air quality perm its, certi f icates of need for energy proposals and environmenta l impact s tatements. From the above elements a co m preh e n s ive management program tor Minnesota peatland s can emerg e. T hrough p roper site selection proce dures it should be possible to allocate peat la n d u ses t o avoid resource conflicts, areas o f environmenta l sensiti v ity, and unnecessary social and economic costs. A ca r eful leasing p r ocess should assure a fair return to the state tor making t h e res ource ava il a ble to the private sector and insure that the l and is r eturne d, or r e clai m ed, to a useful condition Per mits and environm e ntal rev iew p rocedures a r e the final safeguard against deve l opments i nimical to the environment." PEATLANDS MANAGEMEN T P ROVINC E OF NEW B R UNSWICK ( F ro m K eys, 1 9 80) Ownership o f P e a t l ands Peat is classified as a surficial d e po si t i n N e w Bruns wick under the provi s i on of the Quarriab l e Sub stanc e Act. A s such, o w nership of the deposits rests w ith the land owne r However, few peatlands were included in the or i g i na l appli cat ions for land grants. Hence ownership of an esti mated 80 percen t o f New Brunsw ic k peatlands rema ins with the province under the admi n istration o f t h e Department of Natural Resources. ''The t welve companies pre sently producin g h o rticultur a l peat p r od ucts in New Brun swic k lease all o r parts of their production areas from the provi nce. An a c r e age renta l an d a roy a l t y on production is pa i d annu ally The regulat i ons govern in g leasing of peatlands were recent l y rev i sed to ensure optimum management of the r e sou r ce (3 ) The objectives of the l easing policy are to maximize the contri bu tion o f the resource to t he economic development of the province and to h a v e d ev el o p m ent in a manner which does not jeopard ize f u ture utilization or rehabilita t ion of the peatlands To obtain a pe a t productio n lease, i t is first necessary to obtain a peatland explorat i o n lic ense T his license effectively reserves an area of 800 hecta r es (2 ,000 acres) to allow the applican t s ufficient time to ascertain that the quality and amount of peat in the prop ose d lease is suitabl e for the intended use. Th e e xploratio n l i cense is renewable annu-

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138 B U R EAU OF G E O L OGY ally to a maximum of three years provided all requirements are met. Approval of a peatland exploration license is granted only if the applicant: has no other l i cense in effect; can demonstrate the proposed develop ment will not adverse l y affect the future availabi lity of peat for an exist, ing leaseholder; and can market the product without jeopardizing the existing industry in the province. "After determining the portion of the exploration area bes t suited for the proposed use, the applicant may then apply for a peat lease of 250 hectares (620 acres). This application must include a drainage plan, a harvesting and future expansion p l an and an abandonment plan. If al l requirements are met a lease can be granted for a period of ten years Renewal for further ten year pe riods is possible if certain minimum pro duction requirements and other conditions are met. A security deposit to ensure compli ance with production and abandonment plans is requi r ed. "The s i ze and term of leases is designed to avoid the holding and under-utilization of large tracts of peatlands for extended periods. How ever, to ensure the opportunity for expansion, the holder of a lease may negotiate a time limited option on an adjacent buffer zone." PEATLANDS MANAGEMENT, STA T E OF NORTH CAROLINA (Recommendations prepared by the Peat M ining Task Force, Department of Natural Resources and Community Development, State of North Carolina, January 1983) "The DNRCD Peat M ining Task Force has completed its review of the department's permitting procedures for peat mining. It has also reviewed its own 1981 recommendations, updating them as necessary. In the recommendations be low, whenever a 1981 recommendation has been updated or repeated, it is so noted and major changes are explained. The task force considered the issues of peat use and has recons i dered the overa l l impacts of peat mining. From this effort have come the conclu sions and recommenda tions in this report. Specific recommendations follow. 1. Existing Permits "The review of the f i ve existing mining per m its for peat mines has led the task force to conclude that all five of them should be r evised to inc l ude the recommendations in this report. The three existing peat mines which do not have NPDES, air qua l ity, and water use permits should be required to apply immediately for these pe rmits. The Division of Land Resources, in coordination with the Division of Environmental Management, should immediatel y notify permit ho lders of this determi nation. In the case of these three, the revision of the mining per mit an d the appl ications for the three DEM permits should be treated as a pack age and publi c meetings held In addition to the mining permit revision, the other two mines (PEATCO and Whitetail) should have thei r water and air permits revised to reflect the contents of Table Ill.

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SPECIAL PUBLICATION N O. 27 139 2. Role of Mining Permit "The mining permit should be the department' s primary management tool for peat mining. The four principal state permits required for peat mining -the mining permit, NPDES permit, air quality permit, and water use permit-should be processed as a package. "A public scoping meeting should be held on each package where there is significant public interest to identify the specific issues to be addressed in the permit applications and supporting information. A coor dinated public hearing should be held on these draft permits i n each package before they are issued. "The laws requiring these permits allow the State to require submis sion of detailed analyses of environmental impacts as part of the permit applications and this should be required in all cases. While the informa tion submittal need not be in the same format as a formal environmental impact statement, it should be detailed and complete enough to provide the department with sufficient information to assess the impacts of the proposed project prior to a permit decision. A standard set of information requirements for this analysis should be prepared by the Division of Land Resources in c l ose coordination with all other affected divi sion, and sup pl i ed to applicants early in preapp lication counseling. "Under the Mining Act of 1971, the significant impacts of peat mining can be addressed by a mining permit. Table Ill (in Chapter IV) identifies these issues and specifies which permits cover them directly and indi rectly. The requirements of the other permits can and should be incorpo rated into the mining permit, strengthening its umbrella or coordinating role "Treating the four permits for a peat mine as a package wil l ensure that all significant impacts will be addressed in a timely and consistent man ner. It will also increase the predictability of the permitting schedule The most efficient possible use of specia li zed resources in all for example, DEM's water quality expertise is needed to adv i se Land Resources on specific water quality issues and conditions which must be hand l ed in the mining permit. Different statutory timetables for vari ous permits and the variations with individua l projects may make complete coordination impossible. Natural Resources Plann ing and Assessment, on behalf of the Assistant Secretary for Natural Resources, should prepare a detailed flow chart of permit hearing, meeting, and decision deadlines for each proposed peat mine operation. The department's existing peat permit application review group can extend its function to review the four permit package with little change of membership. "The package concept will also enhance the opportunities for publ i c involvement in the permitting process for peat mines. Shortly after appli cations for a peat mine are received a public scoping meeting may be convened by the department to discuss the questions and issues which should be addressed in reviewing permit applications. The scoping meet ing, which is not required by statute, represents an innovation for dea l ing

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140 BUREAU OF GEO LOGY routinely with permits in this department. In final review stages, the package of draft permits should be the subject of a public hearing to receive comments on the draft. The public hearing on a draft permi t is. already done for some OEM permits, and the 1981 amendments to the Mining Act provi de for a public hearing on any new mining application when signi fi can t revi sions of exis t ing m inin g permits wher e there is sig nificant public interest. "The task force recommends that the Division of land Resources with the Division of Environmental Management's assistance prepare packets of application materials and information, a NPDES permit appli cation, an air quality permit application, a water use permit app lication, a list of contacts on permitting matters, and a copy of this report. The task force does not recommend the development of any new combined appli cation. "Use of the mining permit as the state's primary management tool for peat mining requires that additional information be included in mining permits. Table t:l (in Chapter IV) enumerates the issues related to peat mining and specifies which permit covers each issue. Each issue which can be addressed by the Mining Act should be includ ed in a mining permit for peat. "Inasmuch as is possible, permits from other departments and permits for peat use activities should be included in this comprehensive review recommended for the mining and related permits. 3. Impacts of Peat Use Each proposed facility which will use peat should be carefully studied on its own merits. These facilities, by their highly specialized nature, are expected to have process -specific and site -specific impacts. For exam ple, in addition to DNRCD permit requirements, any electric generating plants will be closely controlled under North Carolina's util ities laws, and the proposed methanol p lant is sub ject to the special stipulations of the federal Energy Security Act. Other uses, such as ind ustria l process heat, are not so obviously covered. "All uses of peat, except horticultural peat, will probably involve facili t ies which require NPDES, air, and water use permits. The task force expects that these permits will cover the most serious impacts of such facilities. The immediate site related impacts of peat transportation from m ines to users should be covered under comprehensive mining permits. "In the specific case of Peat Methanol Associates' proposed m ethanol p l ant, the task force found no impacts which could not be cover ed by eithe r these permits or by the comprehensive mining permit to be applied to the mine supplying peat for the plant. The special environmental moni toring plans required under the federal Energy Security Act for this pro ject should be specif ically incorporate d into the related mining permit. These data will provide critical additional information rega rding impacts of peat mining and use. "The task force recommends that DNRCD continue to track closely

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SPECIAL PUBLICATION NO. 27 141 the development of peat-using facilities and to re-consider their impacts as more experience is gained. 4. General Policy on the Siting of Peat Mines "The task force recommends a four part general policy on the siting of peat mines: ( 1 .) "Permits for peat mining should not be issued for stream valley deposits which directly contribute organic matter to estuarine ecosys tems and for floodplain peat deposits a long major rivers. (2.) (2 ) "Permits for peat mining in areas where the bottom of the peat deposit l ies at or below sea level should not be issued unless and until adequate environmental safeguards are developed. (3.) "Permits for peat mining should not be issued on state park s and state-owned state gamelands, and no leases for peat mining on any state-owned lands should be issued w ithout a ful l review of the environmental impacts. (4.) "Mining in the rest of the peat deposits should be permitted under careful monitoring. "This basic recommendation is repeated from the 1 981 task force report. In the interim no mining permits have been issued which are not in accord with the recommendation, even though DNRCD has officially promulgated only the state parks portion of part (3). Careful mining with close monitoring has been the p rincipl e followed in issuing all five permits now in effect. "The permit for Whitetail Farms, at least on the northern half of the tract, is the only example thus far of a permit falling under part (2). not issuing permits pending adequate environmental safeguards. The Whitetail Farms m ining permit incorporates several safeguards which the peat mining permit application review group found to satisfy the requirement for "adequate environmental safeguards". In order to mine peat in a deposit which partly extends below sea level, Whitetail Farms is required to, among other things, m ine no lower than an e .levation of one foot above mean sea level direct all surface drainage from the part of the tract outside the Boundary Canal, build and maintain a dike reach ing eight feet elevation above mean sea level around the area in which the post-mining elevation will be between one and eight feet, install flood gates, and maintain a 300-foot wide buffer between the waterway and the mine. "These extensive measures should be taken as an example rather than a general policy statement. The principa l concern addressed i n part (2) is what type of reclamation is feasib l e and should be permitted where the peat deposits extend below sea level. If mining is s topped above sea level, deep organic soils may be left which make some types of reclama tion very difficult to implement. If mining extends below sea level, issues of wet reclamation and perpetual pumping are raised. The Whitetail

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142 BUREAU OF GEOLOGY Farms mine does not involve either of the special issues -wet reclama tion or perpetual pumping -which are addressed below. These special issues will require expert consideration beyond the scope of this report or of previous mining permit actions. In any event, the reclamation ques tions presented by mining in such areas warrant the detailed attention called for in part (2). "The State can implement all four parts of this general policy on siting peat mines under the Mining Act on grounds of "unduly adverse" effects on freshwater, estuarine or marine fisheries. General Statute 113-230 may also permit the secretary to designate buffer zones to protect estuarine resources. The most noticeable effect of this recommendation, par ticularly part (2). would be to create a buffer zone for peat mining along both sho r es of the Alligator River in Dare, Hyde and T yrrell counties. Implementation of part (2) shou ld be rel ated closely to implementation of several recommendations of the Governor's Coastal Water Management Task Force. The resources inventory and mapping effort recommended there will be most useful in future peat deliberations. "This recommendation does not specifically address questions related to peat mining on federal lands in North Carolina. Most of the land in national wildlife refuges and in the bombing range in Dare County would fall under part (2). However, the larg e peat deposits in the Croatan National Forest would not. The task f orce recommends that coordination should be initiated with federal agencies concerning peat mining on fed eral lands, and that special attention be given to any changes proposed in the Croatan National Forest management plan. The pocosin in the Great Lake area of the national forest has been relatively undisturbed and the area may be a prime candidate for preservation as a natural area. "The task force has not specifically addressed the questionof mining peat in Carolina bays. As the recommendation is worded, Carolina bays would fall in part (4) and mining would be permitted. It seems unli k e l y that large scale mining will occur in Carolina bays because of the relatively small amount of peat in any one bay However, a ready market for peat to fuel power plants could put pressure on the bays due to their proximity to power plants. The task force suggests that the Carolina bays be included in those areas for which mining permits not be issued pending the completion of an ecological inventory of them as natural areas and the development of a protecti on and conservation plan for Carolina bays. 5. Need for Long-Range Policy on Peat M ining and Its Cumulative Impacts "DNRCD should develop a long-range policy on the ultimate extent of peat mining which will be allowed and on the total land area which can be disturbed at any given time. The issues of impacts on wildlife and primary nursery areas should receive special attention in this respect. This policy should be developed for the Secretary's consideration by the Department's peat w o rk ing group, working under the d i rection of the Assistant Secretary for Natural Resources

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SPECIAL PUBLICATION NO. 27 143 "A policy on the ultimate extent of peat mining w i ll resu lt, in large part, from DNRCD's implementation of the preceding recommendation in areas su i table for mining. Details e .g., the width of buffer zones along estuaries or the precise nature of environmental safeguards deve loped for m ining a111d reclamation in low lying areas -of this implementation and of permitting decisions will shape the u ltimate boundaries of the parts of peat deposits which may be mined. The other major DNRCD action which will influence the ultimate extent of peat mining will be the preservation or protection of natural areas and special wildlife populations. "The task force discussed the concept that limits should be placed on the total acreage actuall y disturbed by all active peat mines at any given time, but the task force did not find that sufficient information yet exists to provide the basis for a sound standard requiring this. Since aggregated disturbed area would most likely express its cumulative impacts most quickl y in particulate air pollution, o r perhaps eventually groundwater impacts, the task force concluded that air quality standards would oper ate to limit additional mining. This woul d happen, the task force pro jected, before other impacts create problems. However, the regular eval uation of monitoring results should endeavor to detect effects which contradict this conclusion. The Mining Act's provisions can be invoked to revise or revoke existing mining permits should unsatisfactory cumula tive effects be detected. "A specific long -term strategy is needed to ensure development com patible with the survival of wildlife. It should embody two distinct approaches: ( 1) identification and preservation of c ritical natural areas and (2) establishment of wildlife habitat by conditions imposed on mining and reclamation. There are areas in the peatlands which shou l d be left entirely in thei r natural state. These areas shoul d be identifi ed as quickly as poss i b l e, and a program to ensure the preservation of these areas shou l d be developed. State policy towards black bear habitat, in particula r cou l d greatly affect the extent of peat mining. The task force recommends that the Division of Parks and Recreation be directed to move as soon as possible to convert the recently completed natura l areas inventories in most of the peatl ands counties into a specific program for preservation o r conserva tion. Also, as a comprehensive wildlife protection program will necessar ily involve some land acquisition, the Division of Parks and Recreation and the Wildlife Resources Commission should be directed to prepare specific a lternati ves in this re gard, including identification of areas needed to be protected, prio r ities for acquisition, and mechanisms for acquisition. Particular attention should be g i ven to a lternatives such as donations, tax incentives, fee purchase and conservation easements. In close coordination with this review, the D i vision of Land Resources should be directed to review and establish a c l ear policy on the possible requirement, as a mining permit condition, to leave part of the a rea cov ered by a mining pe rmit in its natural state if needed to prevent undue

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144 BUREAU OF GEOLOGY adverse effects on wildlife. This specific alternative should be considered by the Division of L and Resources during the process ing of each mining permit. "Specific standards and permit conditions are n eeded for the estab lishment of w il dl i fe habitat as a requi r ed part of all reclamation p la ns. A mechanism should be implemented by the Division of Land Resources to ensure that t h ese wildlife mitigation measures continue on reclaimed land after reclamatio n is formally completed, even if ownership changes. Conservation easements may well be the most promising approach for general application. "Wildlife i s not amenab le to monitor ing standards as permit condit i ons. A modest wildlife resea rch effort sho u ld be instituted, the financial cooperation of the m in e operators shou l d be encouraged, and mitigation of impacts on wildli fe in c luded both in permit conditions and research efforts. T he recommendations of t he Governor's Coastal Water Management Tas k Force for the protection of nurse ry areas should be extended to incl ude the impacts of peat mining, and the recommendations should be implemen t ed as soo n as possible. Mining permit and NPDES permit con ditions should be used to protect nursery areas by means of monitor ing, control structures, buffer strips, and limits on the local and ultimate extent of mining. Reclamatio n plans should be des i gned to p romote the long -term protecti on of nursery areas and other estuarine resources. The advice of t h e Division of M ar in e F isher ies should be sought in formulating these permit conditions. "This recomme ndation reflects the task force's view that the overall, long -term impacts of m i ning peat in North Carolina will be greatly influ enced by the impacts of the reclamation activities that follow mining. The Mining Act of 1 971 recogn izes the importance of careful reclama tion and allows the mining permit to be conditioned upon state acceptance of reclamation plans and procedures to avo i d and minimize recla mation problems. Its reclamati o n provisions are adequate to ensure that rec lamation will include appropriate measu res to prevent or reduce these impacts. "The .>arne measures recommended for w i ld life can also be used to ma intain the long-term preventive measures necessary for protecti on o f primary nursery areas. An example of this is the use of conservation easements to protect forested buffer strips installed to fulfill mining per mit conditions. Similarly, estuarine buffer strips to protect nursery areas' water quality could come unde r a conservation easement. Other approaches also need to be investigated and when appropriate, imple mented. The D i visio n of Land Resources should receive the acti ve coop eration of the Division of Marine Fisheries in identifying key nursery a r eas, assessing the impacts of individua l project proposals and mitigation p l ans, and setting priorities for actions necessary to protect these vital areas.

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SPEC IAL PUBLICATION NO. 27 145 6. Completion of Reclamation "The acceptance of mined -out land as reclaimed shoul d be done on a case by-case basis. Each permit is likely to have many site-specific aspects in its reclamation p l an. This specificity has led the task force to change its 1981 recommendation to incorporate a general policy on rec lamation release in the mining regulations. The task force is confident that the permitting process. review procedures, and monitoring reviews will supply adequate information to support case by-case decisions on the release from reclamation bonds. The Division of Land Resources should, however, continue to monitor c l osely this question and, if it appears that general policies on reclamation completion can be formu lated, present appropriate recommendations to the Mining Commission. The particular issue of the release of part of a tract on a single mining permit as reclaimed while mining continues on other portions is difficult, but the task force concl uded that case -bycase consideration is the best way to resolve it. Monitoring results on existing mines shoul d eventually allow a sound decision on the best patterns-e.g. checkerboard, long strips, whole-area -fallow peat mining, and reclaimed areas to minimize environmental impacts. 7. Expansion of Capacity Use Area "Capacity Use Area #1, which covers the existing permitted areas for mining, should now be extended eastwards by the Environmental Management Commission to include the rest of Tyrrell, Hyde, and mainl and Dare counties as well as Roanoke Island. This action is necessary to ensure that the provisions of this law, particularl y its water use permit requirement fully app l y to all future mining proposals. Expansion of Capacity Use Area #1 should be considered if mining is proposed south or west of its present extent. "The water use permit, under the Water Use Act of 1971, is the Department's primary means of controlling dewatering and excavation activities in capacity use areas. It is the bas i s for the requirement of monitoring freshwater discharge volumes from peat mines. Until NPDES and groundwater regulations are revised to include volume controls and reporting requirements, the capacity use concept remains important. As groundwater classifications and standards are completed by the Division of Environmenta l Management, they should be incorporated in the peat mine permit package. "Development of nutrient and salinity standards should continue by the Division of Environmental Management, with active consultation with the Division of Marine Fisheries and the Office of Coastal Manage ment. The task force, however, is aware of the difficulties in developing workable salinity standards and urges that in the interim preventive mea sures such as outlet location and water control measures be fully imple mented as part of the mining permit conditions.

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1 4 6 BUREAU OF GEO LO GY 8. On -Site and Reg i onal Monitoring Systems Since the Mining Act addresses the full range of peat mining impacts, the Division of Land Resources should apply its provisions to require monitoring of the full range of impacts. These expanded requirements shou l d be incorporated as conditions on the mining permit. Also, the Division of Environmental Management should continue to expand its ambient air surface water, and groundwater monitoring system in the peat mining region "Incorporation of surface water, a i r and groundwater monitoring requirements in conditi on s of mining perm i t s does not diminish the pri mary role of the Division of Environmental Management in setting these requiremen t s and in ana l yzing the results. An advantage of the package approach to permi t s for peat mines i s that monitoring can be f ully coordi nated among the concerned agencies. The peat permit application review group should play a central role in this coordination. "As soon as the results of Skaggs and Gregory' s peat hydrology pro je c t ( See Tab l e I ) are ava i lab l e they should be thoroughly evaluated by the Department and where appropriate, incorporated in monitoring requirements. The surface and groundwater hydrology model developed by Skaggs and Broadhead may allow a predictive capability sound enough to r ela x some monitoring requi r ements. Even so, several years of very detailed monitoring results will be needed to verify the model. Fur ther effort will be needed to expand the model for general applicability since it is presently rather s ite-speci f i c for the 15,000 acre F irst Colony Farms site. Since the task force s 1981 report, mercury in drainage water from peat mines has arisen as a major concern In preparing their applications and analysis, P M A found mercury levels exceeding state standards in the wat ers receiving drainage from the F irst Co lony F a rms peat mine and PMA reported their data to the state. Questions have arisen about the sampling and analytical methodology which produced these values and a new sampling series has been proposed PMA has not yet appl i ed for nor received an NPDES perm i t for the First Colony Farms mine. The mercury issue reemphasizes the need to require an NPDES permit for each peat mine. The department should require detailed analysis of mercury issue as part of each peat mining permit and N PDES permit appl i cation. A ll m ining permits should require monitoring on -site and in receiving w aters by the mine operator. Laborato r y and fiel d experiments should be initiated by the Division of Environmental M anagement assisted by N C State University, to identify the chemical species of mercury present mechanism of release and transport mechanisms of mercury. These experiments should be supplemented with further and continuous biological monitoring by the Division of Environmental Man agement and M arine Fisheries. Finally, the Division o f Environmenta l M anagement s h ould resea r ch to de v elop any neede d w ate r treatment standards for mine drain water.

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SPECIAL PUBLICATION NO 27 147 The results of these efforts should be carefully evaluated by the state. If the resulting data show that mercury is not actually a problem in t he region some of the efforts can be terminated and the issue referred to the Division of Environmental Management for resolution for permitting questions which remain. 9. Evaluation of Monitoring Results Monitoring results from peat mines should be reported at least quar terly by the Division of land Resources in cooperation with the Division of Environmental Management. It is crucial to identity unacceptable trends as soon as possible, in order to incorporate remedial actions into the permitting process Evaluation of monitoring results will be especially critica l when monitoring is required in a mining permi t for substance or variab l es for which there are no presently estab l ished water quality stan dards. "Although the Department already has in house experts in a large number of disciplines which may be involved in peat evaluation, it is likely that some outside expertise may be needed to assist in evaluating monitoring results and to verify trends. The Assistant Secretary for Natu ral Resources should be charged with assuring that the requisite intrade partmen t al and outside exper t review are secured in a timely fashion "In addition to these technica l monitorin g reports, the D ivision of Land Resources in consultation with other divisions, should be directed to prepare an annual report on environmental changes in the peat mining region. This report should include a description of the year's activity in peat mining monitoring, use and research. It should also include the evaluations of the monitoring results for the year. The report should also include an evaluation of the effectiveness of departmental policies on peat mining and use. 10. Departmen t al Evaluation Plan "A DNRCD evaluation plan on the overall environmental impacts o f peat mining and t he control of these impacts should be developed as soon as possible. "The Department has sponsored or had access to a number of peat research projects, (See Table 1), but these have for the most part been aimed at major, generalized issues rather than at the specific issues. The mercury resea r ch effort rep r esents the first of the highly focused studies that may increasingly be needed. Other s w ill be needed as questions arise from monitoring resul t s and other observations. The peat mining working group should provide the Assistant Secretary f or Natural Resources with an overall research evaluation plan which gives priorities for research projects to address specific identif ied issues. Such a plan would allow the most efficient allocation of effort and funds, and it would minimize delays in allocating resear ch funds which often become available at very short notice, such as the Coastal Energy Impact program (CEIP) which is administered by the Office of Coas tal M anagement. "CEIP has funded most of the department's r ec en t and current

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148 B UR E A U O F GEOL OGY r esearc h on peat i mpacts, but CEIP's future funding is in doubt due to federa l cutbacks. Shou l d OCS revenue shari n g pass Congress it is likely that CEIP will be able to fund a significant portion of future research "The task force believes that the most urgent detailed research needs now apparent are: sources and mechanisms of mercury rel ease in t o drainage water; de li neation of the specific areas where peat mining shou l d be prohibited; development of improved water control techniques; deve lopment of improved reclamation schemes; impacts of wet reclamation; l ega l and institution a l i ssues of perpetual pumping; i mpacts of perpe t ual pumping; cumul ative impacts of multiple min ing activities. "Research efforts outside DNRCD should be closely followed, and interagency coope r ation should be sought. Peat -rel ated issues have been the focus of a recently intensified research effort by several federa l agen cies and o ther states (Minnesota, in particula r). A continuing, l ong -term effort to s t ay informed of their efforts, and to communicate our results to them, is recomme n ded. 1 1. A dditional Resou r ces Needed to Carry Out State Responsibility "The Depa rtment will e x perience significant costs for regional monitorin g, r esearch, supervising on-site monitoring by permit h olders, evalu atin g monitoring r esults, and the development of adequate environment a l safeguards. Funds to pay these costs shou l d be soug ht. "Possi ble sources of these funds a r e permit fees, leg i slative appropria tions, f ederal g r ants, severance taxes. and voluntary contributions from p eat min e operators. "In addition t o in creased costs, DNRCD's responsibilities towards peat m ini n g may impose significantly increased work loads and personnel r equi r ements. These may create problems in the regional DNRCD field offices w h ich deal with peat mines; this particularly applies to the Wash ington office. These needs should be carefully reviewed by the appropri ate divis i ons and action taken prior to major crises ar i sing. 12. Technica l Advisory Assist ance "DN RCD w i ll soon face t echnical issues related to peat mining and use which will require the advice of outside experts. The evaluation of moni t o r ing results and t h e resol ution of the questions of wet reclamation and per p etua l pumping are two such matters. T h e Assistant Secretary for Natur a l Resources s h ould be c h arged with oversight in securing the nec ess a r y outs i de technica l e xperti se. It is anti ci p ated that t h is expe rtise can be secu r ed on o ur ad hoc basis f rom universities, industr y, fede r a l agen ci e s and stat e agencies outside D N RCD. In the future, advisory commit t ees or consu lting services may be needed. 13. Link to State Energy Policy Council and Department of Commerce The s t ate Energy Policy Council should be informed on peat mining

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SPECIAL PUBLICATION NO. 27 149 impacts and urged to consider them in regard to developments which would stimulate or direct peat mining. "DNRCD can directly control essentially all of the impacts of peat mining and most of the impacts of peat use, but DNRCD cannot unilater ally develop a state policy on peat in general. Although the Council of State and the Cabinet would ultimately develop such a general policy, the Energy Policy Council would likely be the initial interdepartmental forum for d iscussions leading to a draft policy. Since energy needs and eco nomics usually drive the development of energy-related policies, it is important that DNRCD use every appropriate opportunity in the council to inform other agencies of the status of permitting and regulatory issues "DNRCD and the Department of Commer ce s h ou ld also cooperate closely on the siting of peat-using industrial fa cilities. "During the past thirty-months, Commerce's Industrial Development Division has worked very closely with DNRCD on the Peat Methanol Associates project. This cooperation has apparently been satisfactory to both departments and to the developer. It should serve as the model for future cooperation, and such cooperation should become a matter of routine. 14. Public Information and Educat ion Program on Peat "A public information and education program on peat mining and impacts should be developed and carried out. "This program should be designed to reach the general public, the public schools, landowners in the peat region, and potential r esea r c her s. A va riety of approaches may be needed. The industry should be invol ved in this effort. The Office of Natural Resource Planning and Assessmen t with assis t ance from the Division of Land Resources, should be assigned responsibility by the Assistant Secretary for Natural Resourc es for devel oping and implementing the public information and education prog r am for peat. 15. Need for Permanent DNRCD Peat Working Group A peat working group will continue to be needed within the depart ment to assure full coordination among divisions on permitting, monitoring, research, and policy development. A peat working group, appointed by the Assistant Secretary for Natu ral Resources and staffed by the Division of land Resources, could serve a signi ficant portion of this work, as it is already established and designed to handle intra-department coordination regarding the mining permit. Strong coordination will be even more urgently needed in the fu t ure. both to assure incorporation of other divisions' e xpertise in the mining permit and to assure a coordinated permit package. Coordination is needed beyond permitting issues per se. however. Monitoring and research coordination should be closely related to permi tting needs. but the involvement of other issues may well necessitate the involvement of personnel beyond the Land Resources peat working group. In these

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150 BUREAU OF GEOLOGY areas as well as the overall policy development and coordination area, the central coordinating role should be played by the Assistant Secretary for Natural Resources with such supporting service from the divisions as is deemed appropriate. 16. Recommended Approach to Resolve Issues of Wet Reclamation and Perpetual Pumping "DNRCD, through the peat working group, with appropriate outside advice and expertise, should scope the issues which should be addressed in any permit applications for a peat mine which involve either wet reclamation or perpetual pumping. These are very important emerg ing issues which need to be addressed now, so that appropriate research and policy development can take place prior to review of individual permit applications The list of issues, or questions, thus produced would have to be addressed in the permit applications. Site-specific solutions to these problems would then be addressed in the individual permit applica tions and reviews. "Wet reclamation" includes all forms of reclamation which perma nently or periodically put the reclaimed area under either fresh or saltwa ter. Such uses as paddy culture, reversion to swamp forest or pocosin, reservoirs, aquaculture of fish or shell fish, artifically created nursery areas waterfowl impoundments, marinas, and recreational lakes would fall in this category. None of these has yet appeared on a mining permit application but they may do so as soon as 1 983. "Perpetual pumping" applies to any reclamation schemes which will require constant pumping to maintain land dry enough for productive use Intensive agriculture is apparently the only reclamation use which can financially justify the cost of pumping. In addition to hydrological questions, perpetual pumping raises many legal and institutional ques tions which must be resolved before a permit should be issued which involves perpetual pumping. "The approach suggested in this recommendation is fully consistent with the general permit package processing procedure recommended above The only difference comes from having advance scoping done prior to permit applications

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SPECIAL PUBLICATION NO. 27 151 APPENDIX F 1984 SUPPLEMENT TO FLORIDA STATUTES 1983 403.265 Peat m ining; permitting (1) Definitions-As used in this section, the term: (a) "Agricultural use o f peat" means the use of peat as a soil medium, add itive, enhancer or fertilizer. (b) "Peat" means a dark brown or black residuum produced by the partial decomposition and disintegration of mosses, sedges, trees, and other plants that grow in marshes and other wet places. (c) "Peat mining activity" means the extraction of peat or peat soils for sale or consumption or the disturbance of vegetation or soils in anticipation of the extraction of peat or peat soils for sa l e or consump tion. For the purposes of this part, the term "peat mining activity" does not include the removal of peat or peat soils for construction activities or the removal of overburden for other mining activities. (d) "Peat soi l means soil which contains at least 75 percent dry weight of peat mineral. Such soi l is rich in humus and gives an acid reaction. (2) Each department permit which authorizes the mining of peat or peat soils or any mining activity associated with the anticipation of the extration of peat or peat soils for sale or consumption shall require the permittee to institute and complete a reclamation program for the area mined, which program must include the following factors: (a) Control of the physical and chemical quality of the water draining from the mining area; (b) Soil stabilization, including contouring and vegetation; (c) Elimination o f health and safety hazards; (d) Conservation and preservation of remaining natural resources; and (e) A time schedule for the completion of the program and the various phases thereof. (3 ) The department may adopt rules which are consistent with the powers and duties listed in s. 403.912 to govern the mining of peat, including stricter permitting and enforcement provisions for the mining for sale or consumption of peat or peat soils within or contiguous to the areas which have been designated as Outstanding Florida Waters or which were under consideration by the Environmental Regulation Com mission for such designation on April 1 1 984. (4) The mining of peat or peat soils of less than 5 acres per year, and all peat mining activities for the agricultura l use of peat, are exempt from the provisions of this section. (5) Nothing in this section limits the permitting authority of the depart ment to regulate peat mining pursuant to other provisions of this chapter.