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Stratigraphic and paleontologic studies of wells in Florida  no. 4. ( FGS: Geological Bulletin 28) (1945)

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Title:
Stratigraphic and paleontologic studies of wells in Florida no. 4. ( FGS: Geological Bulletin 28) (1945)

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
City of Tallahassee ( local )
Town of Suwannee ( local )
City of Ocala ( local )
City of Tampa ( local )
Wakulla County ( local )
City of Midway ( local )
Specimens ( jstor )
Diameters ( jstor )
Limestones ( jstor )
Water wells ( jstor )
Species ( jstor )

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University of Florida
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University of Florida
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The author dedicated the work to the public domain by waiving all of his or her rights to the work worldwide under copyright law and all related or neighboring legal rights he or she had in the work, to the extent allowable by law.
Resource Identifier:
AAA1895 ( LTQF )
ACP9802 ( LTUF )

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FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY BULLETIN TWENTY-EIGHT Fro,






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PHOTO BY S. MONTY DOUGLASS, CITY OF TALLAHASSEE,, POLICE




Pumping station City of Tallahassee water well No. 6 in Lafayette Park












STATE OF FLORIDA
DEPARTMENT OF CONSERVATION 2
Florida Geological Survey
S. E. RICE, Supervisor of Conservation
HERMAN GUNTER, Director, Geological Survey







GEOLOGICAL BULLETIN No. 28








STRATIGRAPHIC AND PALEONTOLOGIC STUDIES
OF WELLS IN FLORIDA No.4
City of Tallahassee water well No. 6 Dale Mabry Field water well "B"
Ravlin-Brown, V. G. Philips No. 1 well








By
W. STORRS COLE, Ph.D.
OHIO STATE UNIVERSITY

A






Manuscript received October 16, 1944
and January 2, 1945 Published May, 1945

























FLORIDA GROWER PRESS, Tampa







LETTER OF TRANSMITTAL


HONORABLE S. E. RICE
Supervisor of Conservation
Florida State Board of Conservation

Sir:

I have the honor to transmit a report entitled STRATIGRAPHIC AND PALEONTOLOGIC STUDIES OF WELLS IN FLORIDA-No. 4, by Dr. W. Storrs Cole of Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio, to be published as Geological Bulletin No. 28.

This is the fifth of the series of bulletins setting forth the results of Dr. Cole's studies of samples from wells in Florida. This bulletin considers the cuttings from two water wells-City of Tallahassee well No. C and Dale Mabry Field water well ttB" and the cuttings and cores from a test for oil, namely, the Ravlin-Brown V. G. Philips No. 1 well in Wakulla County. The general area in which these wells are located is one which has offered considerable difficulty in studying cuttings and arriving at definite conclusions as to the geologic age to which they should be assigned. Some of these difficulties may be because of the paucity of data available for study. But the area has been subjected to weathering agencies, particularly solution. On this account determination of the micro-fossils frequently can not be made, or if made only with doubt and reservations. With the accumulation of data the problems which now give concern may be solved and it is therefore hoped that those who drill wells in this region will arrange to preserve cuttings from the surface to the completed depth of the well. The region is one that offers difficulties both from a geologic and structural point of view and much light can be given through the saving of data from wells, particularly those of a few hundred feet in depth. The present study by Dr. Cole indicates the difficulties and confirms the opinion that the area might very appropriately be termed one of transition between those of the predominant plastic character of the north and the almost entirely calcareous character of the peninsula.
The report, too, contributes definitely to the larger problem of structure and stratigraphy of the whole State of Florida.
Let me thank you for the cordial cooperation you have always shown in the investigations made by the Geological Survey. Your uniform courtesy has made our work lighter and one of pleasure.







CONTENTS

PAGE
Introduction- 11
Acknowledgments 12
City of Tallahassee water well No. 6 (W-453) 12
Stratigraphy 14
Miocene 14
Hawthorn formation 14
Tampa limestone 15
Oligocene 15
Suwannee limestone 15
Upper Eocene 17
Paleontological record (W-45 3) 18
Dale Mabry Field water well ~'B" ("X'-95) 19
Stratigraphy 19
Miocene 19
Hawthorn formation 19
Tampa limestone 20
Oligocene 20
Suwannee limestone 20
Paleontological record (W.-95) 24
Comparison of the City of Tallahassee water ;vell and the Dale Mabry Field water well 24
Descriptions of species 25
Valvulinidae 25
Coskinolina jluridana Cole 25
Dictyoconus coo/tel (Moberg) 26
Camerinidae 26
Opercidinoides vicksburgensis Vaughan and Cole 26
Orbitoididae 30
Lepidocycitna (Lepidocyclina) parvida Cushman 30 yurnagunensis Cushman 31 ynrnaguncns:s Cushman,
variety mnorganopsis
Vaughan 31
(Nephrotepidina) Zeonensis Cole, ii. sp. 32 sanfernandensis Vaughan
and Cole, variety
tallahasseensis Cole,
n. var. 34
suwanneensis Cole, n. sp. 39
(Ewe!epidina) favosa Cushman 41





Ravlin-Brown, V. C. Philips No. 1 well (W7440) (continued) PAGE
Location- 81
Stratigraphy 81
Miocene 83
Tampa limestone 83
Oligocene 83
Suwannee limestone 83
Upper Eocene 86
Ocala limestone 86
Middle Eocene 87
Lisbon formation 87
Lower Eocene 88
Wilcox group 88
Paleocene 88
Midway formation 88
Upper Cretaceous 89
a
Selma formation 89
Eutaw formation 91
Tuscaloosa formation 92
Paleontological record 92
Descriptions of cores 95
Descriptions of species 96
Valvulinidae 96
Lituonella fioridana Cole 96
Coskinolina jioridana Cole 97
Dicyoconus arnericanus (Cushman) 97
cookei (Moberg) 97
Eodictyoconus cubensis (Cushman and Bermudez)
Miliolidac 98
Fabidaria van ghani Cole and Ponton 98
Camerinidae 101
Camerina jacksonensis Gravell and 1-lanna 101
inoodybranchensisGravell and Hanna 102
vanderstoki (Rutten and Vermunt) 103
Operculinoides cooked (Cushman) 104
vaughani (Cushman) -104
wilt coxi (I-leilprin) 106
Operculina barker Vaughan and Cole 107
Heterostegina texana Gravell and Hanna 110
Rotaliidae 111
a
Carnagueyia per plexa Cole and Bermudez ill
Orbitoididae 111
Lepidocyclina (Pliolepidina) mariana Cole and Ponton 111
cedarkeysensis Cole 115
I II. t-~t I - -







ILLUSTRATIONS

Figures

PAGE
Frontispiece 2
Figure 1. Index map showing location, of City of Tallahassee and Dale Mabry Field wells 11 Figure 2. Log of the City of Tallahassee water well 13 Figure 3. Log of the Dale Mabry Field water well- 21 Figure 4. Drilling rig Ravlin-Brown, V. G. Philips No. 1 well 76 Figure 5. Index map showing location of Ravlin-Brown, V. G.
Philips No.1 well 77
Figure 6. Log of Ravlin-Brown, V. G. Philips No. 1 well 82 Figure 7. Spudding-in activities at Ravlin-Brown, V. G. Philips No. 1 well 122
Figure 8. Schiumberger log of Ravlin-Brown, V. G. Philips No. 1
well 124

Plates

Plates 1-11. Foraminifera from City of Tallahassee and Dale Mabry Field wells 51
Plates 12-22. Foraminifera from Ravlin-Brown, V. G. Philips No.1 well 131


TAB LES

Table 1. Measurements of Operculinoides vicksburgensis and Opercutinoides mUtT; - - 28, 29 Table 2. Measurements of vertical sections of Lepidocyclina sanfernandensis var. tallahasseensis, n. var. Table 3. Measurements of the embryonic apparatus of Lepidocyclina sanfernandensis var. tallahaiseensis, n. var. 37 Table 4. Measurements of horizontal sections of Helicole/fidina ~aucispira 47
Table 5. Measurements of vertical sections of Helicolepidina panels~ira - - - - 48 Table 6. Measurements of Cam erina moadybrancbensis - 103 Table 7. Measurements of Operculinoides witicoxi - 107 Table 8. Measurements of Opercz4ina barker 109
___ C C - A - -





Tables (continued) PAGE
Table 14. Measurements of vertical sections of Lepidocyclina iuzacdonaldi - - - 119 Table 15. Measurements of horizontal sections of Lepidocyclina macdonaldi - - 120 Table 16. Measurements of transverse sections of Lepidocyclina
morloni - - - 121 Table 17. Measurements of horizontal section of Lepidocyclina moifoul - - - - 122






STRATIGRAPHIC AND PALEONTOLOGIC STUDIES
OF WELLS IN FLORIDA-No.4
City of Tallabassee water well No. 6 Dale Mabry Field water well "B"
Ravlin.Brown, V. C. Philips No. 1 well
W. STORRS COLE
OHIO STATE UNIVERSITY

6 INTRODUCTION
1*
Four bulletins in which an attempt has been made to present a detailed analysis of selected wells in Florida have been
S
published. This bulletin in which three wells in the vicinity of Tallahassee are analyzed is the fifth in the series. The locations
S S
of the weils studied for this bulletin are shown in Figures 1 and 5.
~fym ~
Samples from the City t4~....b,. ~T2)- ~~'A
of Tallahassee water well wig ,j~
No. 6 (W-453) were stud- i4-~
jed first. The Miocene and
FIGURE I
a.- I'
Oligocene portions of this LocM~ wells ; .
0z
well were normal and did "~:::; El!
not present any particular \>r..
problems, but the final J
samples from this well con- Zn
tamed specimens of larger 1~
Foraminif era representing upper Eocene species which Figure 1. Location of City of Talhave not been reported lahassee well and Dale Mabry Field previously from the upper water well "B".
Eocene of Florida. Although these species conclusively demonstrate that this well penetr~Lted the upper Eocene, the exact stratigraphic relationship of this zone to other well known zones in the upper Eocene could pot be ascertained. Therefore, Mr. Gunter suggested that the samples from the Dale




12 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN TWENTY-EIGHT~

Mabry Field water well "B" (W-95) should be examined as they might yield more information.
Unfortunately, the Dale Mabry Field water well "B" was not drilled deep enough to furnish the desired information, but a very large and well preserved fauna of larger Foraminifera was found in the Oligocene portion of this well. In order that this fauna might be recorded the decision was made to study this well in detail.
j
Mossom' that the top of the Ocala limestone should
be encountered at approximately 450 feet below sea level in the vicinity of Tallahassee. The data available to Mossom were quite meager and poor. The present study shows that at Tallahassee the top of the upper Focene occurs at approximately 220 feet below sea level. 'Whether the upper Eocene represents the Ocala or a new formation in this area will be discussed later in this bulletin.
All of the types and other specimens described or identified from these wells are filed in the Florida Geological Survey Museum at Tallahassee, Florida.

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
It is a distinct pleasure to acknowledge the assistance that has been received during the progress of this study. Mr. Herman Gunter has given many valuable suggestions and his constant encouragement has been a source of inspiration during the tedious phases of this problem. Dr. T. Wayland Vaughan examined certain specimens and wrote detailed opinions, many of which are quoted in later sections. The U. S. Geological Survey and Dr. John W. Wells took the excellent photomicrographs of the external views. Mr. James R. Gaibraith Jr. described most of the samples from the City of Tallahassee water well. The writer made the thin sections and took the
S
photomicrographs of these.






A
STRATIGRAPHIC AND PALEONTOLOGIC STUDIES OF WELLS 13





~ Surface sand, iron stoined

- - - Greenish, ye//o'~% aooge

tt
No sample
N.
**~.
* .
w EtZ * *. *.~
z
*3* ,*4 *.
* *.
(..) **. .*
Cream -colored, corn pact
0


c~h


Sea level

WIlts, hard

Cream-colored hard


White, hard, ron u/or

z
Lii
I4J Small Pororninifero

4~
Brown, hard, do/cm H/c

-a Ca I,., porous
ran to brown
0



4
EO~ENE White, porous, foromin (feral





14 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN TWENTY-EIGHT

County, Florida. The exact location of this well is section 30, Township 1 N., Range 1 E., about 4100 feet northeast of the post office and the elevation of the well is 1,86.6 feet above sea level.
This well was stained on June 19, 1939. It was drilled at first to a depth of 310 feet and later deepened to 413.5 feet. The drilling was done by the Gray Well and Pump Corporation of Jacksonville, Florida. Mr. Miller Walston, city engineer of Tallahassee, presented to the Florida Geological Survey 72 samples which were given the file number W-4 53. A driller's log was not furnished to the Survey.
b
STRATIGRAPHY
The formations penetrated by this well are shown graphically on Figure 2. The section to a depth of 404 feet is corre-. lated with known surface units, but the remainder of the well (404 to 413.5 feet). is not correlated definitely with surface formations of Florida because a fauna appears which has not been recognized previously in the state.

MIOCENE
HAWTHORN FORMATION.-The geologic map of Florida3 shows that the area in and adjacent to the city of Tallahassee is underlain by the Hawthorn formation. Cooke and MossonV state:
ttAlthough nearly all of Leon County is underlain by sandy limestone of Hawthorn age, the unaltered rock is exposed at few. places. Nearly
a
everywhere the formation is so deeply weather&I that practically all its lime has been removed by solution, leaving behind loose sand or friable sandstone and sandy clay."
a
The first sample at 10 feet contains iron stained sand and some particles of weathered clay. The first sandy limestone is encountered at a depth of 60 feet. Although shell fragments appear at a depth of 100 feet, the first identifiable Foramini-






STRATIGRAPHIC AND PALEONTOLOGIC STUDIES OF WELLS 15

2
to yellowish-brown clays, certain of which resemble fuller s earth. The lower 60 feet of the Hawthorn is dominated by a white, arenaceous limestone, some beds of which contain shell fragments.
TAMPA LIMESTONE. -At a depth of 130 feet a few specimens which are referred to Penero p/is proteus d'Orbigny were' recovered. In the next sample at 140 feet abundant specimens of P. proteus d'Orbigny were found in association with Sorites sp. Normally, Archajas floridanus (Conrad) accompanies these species, but in this well A. floridanus was not recovered from any of the samples.
The top of the Tampa limestone is placed at 120 feet rather
a
than 130 feet at which depth Foraminifera appear because of the lithologic change which occurs at 120 feet. The sample at
a
110 feet contains numerous fragments of a white, soft, arenas ceous limestone, but at 120 feet cream-colored hard compact
a
limestone is encountered. This limestone continues to a depth of 190 feet.
White, hard, arenaceous limestone is found between 190 to 210 feet. At 220 feet the sample contained abundant gray to brown flint fragments. This sample is believed to mark the top of the Oligocene. If this is correct, the Tampa limestone in this area would have a thickness of about 100 feet.

OLIGOGENE
SUWANNEE LIMESTONE. The sample at 220 feet which
a
contained the flint had a fauna of smaller Foraminif era. Unfortunately, these were preserved so badly that identifications were impossible. At 230-240 feet specimens were recovered which were identified as 1{otalia mcxi cana Nuttall, variety inecatepecensis Nuttall (see figure 10, plate 11). In the study
A 4 as A a 44 - 4 -





16 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN TWENTY-EIGHT

e
mecatepecensis Natall.2 Galloway and 1-leminway figure R. choctawensis from the San Sebastian formation which they assign to the middle Oligocene and R. niexicana, variety rnecate~ecensis from the Ponce formation which is assigned in part to the upper Oligocene and in part to the lower Miocene.
The Lepidocyclina (Lepidocyclina) waylandvaughani zone of the Meson formation exposed in a quarry on the golf course of the Huasteca Petroleum Company at Tampico, Mexico
a
contains numerous specimens of K. mexicana, variety mecate~ecensis as well as Fiphidium rota Ellis, a species described from beds of Chickasawhay age of Wayne County, Mississippi.' It would appear that both R choctawensis and R. mexicana, variety mecatepecensis are Oligocene species.
Although the sample taken at 240-250 feet contained a few specimens assigned to Elphidium rota Ellis in addition to more specimens of K. mcxi cana, variety mecate~ecensis, a moderately complete fauna was not found until the sample at 280-290 feet was examined. This fauna indicates definitely Oligocene age for this sample.
S
The sparingly fossiliferous zone from 220 feet to 280 feet
a
is included in the Oligocene and assigned to the Suwannee limestone, but study of other wells may cause this portion of the well to be classified in a different manner.
Between 324 and 404 feet specimens of Lepidocyclina were found at 349, 354 and 356 feet. At 362 feet there were found specimens representing Coskinolina floridana Cole and Dictyoconus coo/tel (Moberg). At depths of 365 and 370 feet these species occurred in abundance. The individual specimens were well preserved.
C. flaridana and D. cooked occur in two zones in Florida, namely, in the middle Eocene as indigenous specimens and in the Oligocene as reworked specimens although there is a difference of opinion with regard to the origin of the Oligocene






STRATIGRAPHIG AND PALEONTOLOGIC STUDIES OF WELLS 17

The section assigned to the Suwannee limestone in this well has a thickness of about 184 feet.

UPPER BOGENE
At 404 feet there appears a white foraminiferal limestone which contains many specimens of Helicotepidina paucisJfira Barker and Grimsdale and abundant specimens of a new variety of Lepidocyclina which is closely related to L. (Ne phrolepidina) sanferna'ndensis Vaughan and Cole. Neither H. ~aucis~ira nor L. sanfernandensis, variety taijahasseensis, n. var., have been reported from Florida.
H. ~aucis~ira is known from Mexico11 where it occurs near the base of the upper Eocene in the Tampico Embayment and from the upper Eocene of Trinidad." L. sanfernandensis is known only from its type locality at San Fernando, Trinidad, in deposits assigned to the upper Eocene.'8
In all the wells so far examined, except the City of Quincy
14 S
water well (W-4), the upper Eocene has been recognized by the appearance of a typical Ocala fauna of larger Foraminifera. In the City of Quincy water well (W-4) only smaller Foraminifera were present, but the species represented were types which characterize the Jackson deposits of the Gulf Coastal Plain. Therefore, it was logical to use the formational name Ocala for this portion of the section in the City of
uincy water well (W-4).
Q.
Although the section from 404 to 413.5 feet (the last sample) in the City of Tallahassee well represents the upper
S
Eocene, there is considerable doubt concerning the exact correlation because the two species present have not been recognized previously in Florida, nor is there evidence of their relationship to known Ocala and Jackson faunas. The most conservative treatment of this section is to assign it to the





18 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLET[N TWENTY-EIGHT


Future work may indicate that this is a phase of the Ocali, or that it represents the appearance of a new unit of upper Eocene age.

PALEONTOLOGICAL RECORD (W-453)
1.30 feet
Peneroplis proteus d'Orbigny 140 feet
Peneroplis proteus d'Orbigny
Sorites sp.
160 feet
Peneroplis proteus d'Orbigny
Sorites sp.
220-230 feet
Smaller Foraminifera (badly preserved; not identified) 230-240 feet
S
Rotalia mexicand Nuttall, variety inecatepecensis Nuttall 240-250 feet
Elphidiznn rota Ellis
Ratalia mexicana Nuttall, variety mecatepecensis Nuttali 280-290 feet
Amphistegina cf. A. chipolensis Cushman and Ponton
Asterigerina sp.
Discorbis subaraiwana Cushman
Fiphidiurn rota Ellis
Eponides ellisorac Garrett
Lepidocyclina (Eidepidina) favosa Cushman
N anion sp.
Opercidinoides vicksburgensis Vaughan and Cole
Planorbulina larvata Parker and Jones
Rotalia inexicana, variety rnecate~ecensis Nuttall
Reussia spinulosa, variety glabrata (Cushman) 290-3 00 feet
Discorbis sp.
subpatelliformis Cushman and McGlamery 319 feet
Cibicides mexicanus Nuttall
pseudoungerianus (Cushman)
Discorbis subaraucana Cushman







STRATIGRAPHIG AND PALEONTOLOGIC STUDIES or WELLS 19

349 feet
Lepidocyclina (Nephrolepidina) suwanneensis Cole, n. sp.
I
(13u(epidina) favosa Cushman 354 feet
Lepidocyclina (Nepbrolepidina) suwanneensis Cole, n. sp. 356 feet a'
Lqfldotyclina (Nepbrotepidina) suwanneensis Cole, n. sp. 362 feet
Coskinojina fioridana Cole
Dictyoconus coo/wi (Moberg) 365 feet
Coskinolina floridana Cole (abundant)
Dictyoconus coo/wi (Moberg) (abundant) 404 feet
Gypfina sp.
Lepidocyclina' sanfernandensis, variety tallahqsseensis Cole, n. var. 405-413.5 feet
Gypsbna sp.
Helicolepidina paucis~ira Barker and Grimsdale
S
Lepidocyclina sanfernandensis, variety lallahasseensis Cole, n. vat.

DALE MABRY FIELD WATER WELL "B" (W-9 5.)

The United States Army drilled at the Dale Mabry Field a water well, samples from which were presented to the Florida Geological Survey. The location of this well is about 3.5 miles west-southwest of Tallahassee, Leon County, Florida in the NE of the NW '/~ of section 4, Township 1 S., Range 1 W. The elevation of this well is 86.1 feet above sea level.
The well was started on December 9, 1940 and drilled to a depth of 239 feet by December 26, 1940. The drilling was done by the Stevens Southern Company of Jacksonville, Florida. In December of 1942 this well was deepened to a depth of 316.5 feet by the Layne-Atlantic Company.

STRATIGRAPHY





20 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN TWENTY-EIGHT

which are coated with a reddish stain. Below this reddish zone there occurs a section in which the individual grains are coyered by a yellowish film of staining material.
A bed of greasy, yellowish gray fuller's earth intervenes in the sandstone section at 45 feet. Below this there occurs a bed of yellow-stained sandstone similar to that above the fuller's earth except the lower sandstone is slightly indurated.
This sandstone is followed by another bed of fuller's earth with the first limestone appearing at a depth of 65 feet. In the sample taken at 70 feet there are many large, rounded
t
pebbles of an orange-colored quartzite, many of which have a diameter of one-half inch or more. This same sample contains fragments of a white, arenaceous, silicified limestone.
Below this zone of quartzite pebbles there are two samples which contain a gray to white, arenaceous, dense, greasy clay which resembles fuller's earth. At a depth of 90 feet the sample contains a mixture of this clay and fragments of a white, dense, hard limestone.
TAMPA LIMESTONE.-At 100 feet a light brown, dense limestone, certain fragments of which show numerous secdons of smaller Foraminifera, appears. This limestone continues to a depth of 139 feet, except for the appearance of two beds of clay at 117 feet and 137 feet. This clay may represent the filling of cavities in the limestone rather than actual beds as shown on the graphic log (See Figure 3).
In this interval (100 to 139 feet) there were not any fossils which could be identified definitely. Many of the fragments show that the limestone was composed largely of the tests of miliolid types of Foraminifera. An occasional small fragment of an echinoid was encountered in these samples.
The lithologic character and the stratigraphic position mdi-







STRATIGRAPHIC AND PALEONTOLOGIC STUDIES OF WELLS 21







rt.%4t .?.
c~ 1
* *.-* a *
Red /0 I/ow slam ad, medium cone 4' f4w1
*. * * *
$UuOflQtilOP
*
C) A *
w ~. ~- -,. allow/sb gray, greasy
Ye//ow no/ned, slightly indurated

&flWe~ hold, compoc4 si//cified
0 or/sb v/ills, greasy

1441e, dense
Ight bra.', dense, rn/I/o/id ZJAfbu, greasy
Din
1% L/QI~t frown, dense,
13% -While, greosy
Cream colored, dense, forarnfrw feral
Light brown, dense


Cork brown, crys/olltie, do/omit ic
W Lu
Z
w
o Cream coA~red, porous, otnndant /orgv Poromfrufea
o


o (1)
Light bronn, semicryslo/fbw~, do/xnitic




.dT D. 316.5' pftj~g /0rger P0.-a rn/n? era


LEGEND
I * *.
.*~ ** I
ill LIZ
*1 :*~.t ands lone S Quartz/fe pebbles


~ 3 Argillaceous sand Cloy





22 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN TWENTY-EIGHT

tains abundant smaller Foraminif era, but most of them are so badly recrystallized that specific identifications are impossible. However, several specimens of Elpisidium rota Ellis and a few questionable specimens of Rotalia in cxi cana Nuttall, variety mecatepecensis Nuttall were found. *Associated with these there are numerous specimens representing the genera AmS
phistegina and Asterzlgerzna. This sample represents the top of the Suwannee limestone.
The Suwannee limestone in this well is in part a cream-cob ored, dense, foraminiferal limestone and in part a light to dark brown, semi-crystalline, dolomitic limestone. There are three fossiliferous zones which yield identifiable fossils. The first of these includes the samples from 139 to 150 feet; the second, the samples from 212.6 to 232 feet and the third, the final sample at 308 to 316.5 feet.
The smaller Foraminifera recovered at 139 feet are discussed above. At 144 and 150 feet rather numerous specimens of Operculinoidis vicksburgensis were found, with two
S
specimens of Lepidocyclina at 144 feet.
The interval between 212.6 and 232 feet contains abundant and fairly well preserved specimens of Lepidocyclina. In addition, numerous specimens of Coskinolina and Dictyoconus were found from 226 to 232 feet.
Th
e index species of Lepidocyclina in this interval are: L. (Eui'epidiuza) favosa Cushman, L. (Eulepidina) undosa Cushman, L. (Lepidocychna) yurnagunens:s Cushman and its variety morgano~sis Vaughan, and Lepidocyclina gigas Gushman.
S
These species have been reported from an outcrop near Duncan Church, Washington County, 26 and from numerous other localities in Washington County.10 These species, moreover, have a wide distribution elsewhere as they
I P 1 1 A P P A






STRATIGRAPHIC AND PALEONTOLOGIC. STUDIES OP WELLS 23

The last sample (308-3 16.5 feet) contains numerous specimens of orbitoidal Foraminifera. The state of preservation of these specimens is decidedly different from that Qf the specimens encountered in the zone from 212.6 to 232 feet. The specimens from the upper zone were~ not replaced, whereas those in the last sample were. The specimens of the upper zone were light brown to cream-colored, whereas those of the last sample were white. Therefore, these specimens in the last
S
sample were in place and do not represent savings from above.
0
The species identified from the last sample represent well established Oligocene species with the exception of two specimens assigned to Heficolepidina ~aucisftira Barker and Grimsdale. This genus is known only from the Eocene and this species has been reported from upper Eocene localities outside of Florida.
The most abundant specimens in th~s sample (308-316.5 feet) have been identified as Lepidocyclina (Lepidocychna) parvulaCushman. There were rather numerous specimens of Lepidocyctina (Lepidocyclina) yurnagunensis Cushman, Variety rnorganopsis Vaughan, one specimen of unquestionable Lepidocyctina (Eu! eflidina) undosa Cushman and a hi#ge nflcrospheric individuaLl ( figure 7, plate 9) from which a vertical
S S
thin section was made. This specimen is referred to Lepidocydma (Eu fepidina) favosa Cushman. *
S
As the dominant species in this sample are Oligocene forms, the question arises concerning the two specimens of Helicolepidina ~aucis~ira Barker and Grimsdale. The presence of the specimens may be explained in two ways: 1. they represent reworked Eocene material in the base of the Suwannee limestone, 2. the drill had just entered the upper Eocene and these specimens were recovered.
Either explanation is possible as the top of the upper Eocene
I .1 I -. (.1' Ii., r.~s





24 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN TWENTY-EIGHT


PALEONTOLOGICAL RECORD (W-95)

139 feet
Asterigerina sp. (abundant)
Fiphidium rota Ellis
Rotalia mexicana Nuttall, variety inecatefwcensis Nuttall 144 feet
Lepidocyclina (Eulepidina) favosa Cushman
Operewlinoides vicksburgensis Vaughan and Cole 150 feet
Operculinoides vickslnsrgensis Vaughan and Cole 212.6 feet
Lepidocyclina (Leffidocyclina) yurnagunensis Cusliman
(Eulepidina) favosa Cushman undosa Cushman 216.6 feet
Lepidocyclina (Lepidocyclina) yurnagunensis Cushman, variety mnorgano~sis Vaughan 218.6 feet
Lepidocyctina (Nephrolepidina) suwanneensis Cole, n. sp.
sp.
220 feet
Lepidocyclina gigas Cushman 226 feet
Coskjnolina jioridana Cole
fliclyoconus coo/wi (Moberg)
Lepidocyctina (Ne pArole pidina) leonensis Gole, n. sp. 308-316.5 feet
Helicotepidina paucispira Barker and Grimsdale
Lepidocyclina (Lepidocyclina) yarnagunensis Cushman, variety tnorganojisis Vaughan par vula Cushnian (Eulepidina) favosa Cushman
undosa Cushman

COMPARISON OF THE CITY OF TALLAHASSEE WATER WELL (W- 453> AND THE
DALE MABRY FIELD WATER WELL "B" (W-95)
~ a a a -







STRATIGRAPHIC AND PALEONTOLOGIC STUDIES OF WELLS 2;


feet of Tampa limestone and 177.5 feet of Suwannee limestone in which formation drilling stopped.

The relationship of certain points in these wells to sea level is illustrated by the following.
Well number W-95 W-453
Top of the Tampa limestone 13.9' + 66.6'
I
Top of the Suwannee limestone - 52.9 33.4
Top of the upper Eocene Below 230:4 -217.4,
First appearance of 0. vicksburgewsis - 93.4
Abundant L. undosa -125.9' -137.4'
First appearance of L. undosa - -125.9' -132.4'

The City of Tallahassee water well is structurally slightly higher than the Dale Mabry Field water well if the formational boundaries are used. If fossil zones in the Suwannee limestone are used, the Dale Mabry Field water well would appear to be structurally higher.

- DESCRIPTIONS OF SPECIES

FAMILY VALVULINIDAE
Subfamily EGGERELLINAE
Genus COSKINOLINA Stache, 1875 Cosizinotina floridana Cole
Plate 2, Figures 3, 4
1928. Cosizinolina cooked Moberg (part), Florida Geol. Survey 19th Ann.
Rept., pp. 166-168, pl. 3, fig. 6 (not figs. 1-5, 7-8).
1941. Coskinolina floridana Cole, Florida Geol. Survey Bull. 19, pp. 24, 25, pl. 3, figs. 1-7; pl. 4, figs. 1-9; pl. 5, figs. 1-5, 11; p1. 18, fig. 9.
1942. CoskJnobna floridane Cole, Florida Geol. Survey Bull. 20, p. 21, pl. 4, figs. 4, 5.
Entirely typical specimens were found. The axial section is typical of Coskinalina as the chamberlets are not subdivided, but the horizontal section is similar to the primitive types
-





26 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY--BULLETIN TWENTY-EIGHT


Genus DICTYOCONUS Blanckenhorn, 1900 Dictyoconus cooked (Moberg)
Plate 2, Figures 1, 2

1928. Cosizinohna coolzei Moberg, Florjda Geol. Survey 19th Ann. Rcpt.,
pp. 166-168, pl. 3, figs. 1-5, 7-8 (not fig. 6).
1941. Dictyoconus cookel (Moberg). Cole, Florida Geol. Survey Bull. 191
pp. 26, 27, pl. 3, figs. 11-13; pl. 5, figs. 6-10, 12, 13;pl. 6, figs. 1-8;
p1. 18, fig. 12.
1942. Dictyoconus cooked (Moberg). Cole, Florida Geol. Survey Bell. 20,
pp. 24, 25, pl. 3, fig. 10; pl. 4, fig. 8.

D. cooked and Coskinotina fi orniana occur in association, but are readily recognized from each other as D. coo/wi has larger, broader and lower cone than C. floridana. The axial sections of D. coo/wi have the marginal chamberlets subdivided by a single horizontal plate.

First appearance: At a depth of 362 feet in the City of Tallahassee water well (W-453) and abundant at 365 feet; at a depth of 226 feet in the Dale Mabry Field water well (W-9 5).

Occurrence: Suwannee limestone.

FAMILY CAMERINIDAE
Subfamily CAMERININAE
Genus OPERCULINOIDES Hanzawa, 1935
Operculinoides vicksburgensis Vaughan and Cole
Plate 1, Figures 12, 13; Plate 5, Figures 1-10; Plate 11, Figures 4, 5
1936. OpercuUno;des vickslnsrgensis Vaughan and Cole, Proc. U. S. Nat.
Museum, vol. 83, No. 2996, pp. 490, 491, p1. 36, all figs.
1939. Opercidinoides vicksburgensis Vaughan and Cole. Barker, Proc. U.
S. Nat. Museum, vol. 86, No. 3052, p. 318, pl. 12, fig. 6; pl. 18, fig.
2; pl. 19, figs. 8, 9.
1939. Oprrczdinoides muir) Barker, idem, pp. 312, 313, p1. 14, fig. 4; p1.
20, fig. 1; pl. 22, fig. 1.
1944. OpercidincLides vicksb-urgensis Vaughan and Cole. Cole, Florida
CnrtnEr itmil nn AC) CA ni 2 lA. .J 4cc iC






STRATIGRAPHIC AND PALEONTOLOGIC STUDIES OF WELLS 27

Cole in the type description of 0. vicltburgensis. in this feature these specimens resemble 0. muiri Barker which was described from Mexico.

In the discussion of specimens assigned to 0. vicksburgens:s from the City of Quincy well (W-4) Cole stated that 0. muiri was probably the same as 0. viclzsburgensis. Vaughan in commenting on this proposed combination wrote:'7
ttThe types of this species (0. vicksburgensis) and of Barker's 0. ntuiri are U. S. National Museum; and I have again compared them. 0. muiri is not merely thicker than 0. vicksbzsrgensis, it has a marginal
S
keel which I have not seen in the latter species.
a
Later, CPle wrote Barker requesting a few topotype specimens of 0. inuiri for comparison with the Florida material. Barker replied that most of his material was not available, but that he had found a small sample of the type material (collection of E. Gevaerts no. 269) from which he was sending 9 specimens. In this letter Barker stated :16 "they are by no means as large or as typical of the species as the original lot I picked from the sample."
From the material which Barker so obligingly sent, a median (figure 7, plate 5) and a transverse (figure 8, plate 5) section were prepared. A keel was not observed on any of the specimens. The Mexican specimens were compared with a large suite of 0. vicksburgensis from the Byram marl which had been arranged from thin, compressed individuals (figure 4,
S
plate 5) to thick, lenticular individuals (figure 1, plate 5).
a
The Mexican specimens fitted into the series and at no point
S
could the series be broken into two separate and distinct
a
species.
a
Although some doubt must exist because direct compariS
Sons with the type specimen of 0. muiri have been impossible,
- e S -







TABLE 1 -e PART 1
Measurements of Operculinoides vicksburgensis and Operculinoides muiri Operculinoides vicksburgensis

W-95

LOCALITY
144 feet 150 feet

Height 2.1+mm. 1.5mm. 1.5 mm. 2.14mm. 1.4+nim. 2.24mm


Width 1.4 mm. 2.1 mm.


thickness 0.98 mm. 0.7 mm. 0.96 mm. 0.72 mm.


Number of whorls 2 41/2


Number of chambers
in final evolution 16 26
diameters
Internal
of initial chamber 1O0X12O~ 100X120.1






TABLE 1 PART 2

Measurements of Operculinoides ricks burgensis and C)perculinoides muiri Operculinoides vickzsbzsrgensis Operas

AFTER
VAUGHAN
LOCALITY BYRAM, Mississippi
AND
COLE

Height 2+ mm. 2.7mm. 2.7mm. 2.36 mm. 1.2-3.0 mm. 2.02 mm


Width 2.3 mm. 2.28 n'zm. 1.3-3.1 mm.


Thickness 0.38 mm. 1.0 mm. 0.3-0.6 mm. 0.78 mm


Number of whorls 334 4 334..4


Number of chambers
in' final evolution 25 23 18-26


Internal diameters
'of initial chamber 7O~ 9OX100M 6O~ looxilo





FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN TWENTY-EIGHT


A fewspecimens which were found in the City of Tallahassee water well (W-45 3) are identical to those studied in detail from the Dale Mabry Field water well (W-9 5). The specimens from the former well are illustrated by a vertical and a horizontal thin section. The specimen from which the vertical section was made had a diameter of 1.9 mm. and a thickness of 0.7 mm. The horizontal section represents a specimen with a diameter of 2.6 mm. There are 24 chambers in
S
the final evolution with 4 '/2 whorls comprising the test.
First appearance: At a depth of 144 feet in the Dale Mabry Field water well (W-95); at a depth of 280-290 feet in the City of Tallahassee water well (W-45 3).

Occurrence: Suwannee limestone.

FAMILY ORBITOIDIDAE Schubert Subfamily ORBITOIDINAE
Genus LEPIDOCYCLINA GiXmbel, 1870
Subgenus LEPIDOCYCLINA Giimbel, 1870
Lelfidocyclina (Lepia!ocyclina) parvula Cushman
Plate 7, Figures 2-13; Plate 11, Figures 1, 2
1919. Lepidocyclina parvida Cushman, Carnegie Inst. Washington Pubi.
291, p. 58, pl. 3, figs. 4-7.
1928. Lepidocyclina aff. L. morgani Lem. and R. Douvill6. Cole, Bull.
Amer. Pal., vol. 14, No. 53, pp. 22, 23, pI. 4, fig. 9. (not Lemoine
and R. Douvili6, 1904).
1930. Lepidocyclina (Lepidocyclina) parvula Cushman. Cole and GillesS
pie, Bull. Amer. Pal., vol. 15, No. 57b, p. 3, (list), pl. 1, figs. 4, 5. 1930. Lepidocyclina sp., Cole and Gillespie, idem, p. 3 (list), p1. 1, fig. 9. 1933. Lepidocyclina (Lepidocyctina) parvida Cushman. Vaughan, Smithsonian Miscell. Coil., vol. 89, No. 10, pp. 16, 17, pI. 7, figs. 1-5; pl. 8,
figs. 3-5; pl. 9, figs. 1-4; pl. 10, figs. 1-6.
1938. Lepidocyclina (Lepidocyclina) parvula Cushman. Cole, Florida Cecil. Survey Bull. 16, p. 46, pI. 11, figs. 2-5.
1944. Lepidocyclina (Lepidocyclina) parvula Cushman. Cole, Florida Geol. Survey Bull. 26, pp. 72, 73, pl. 3, fig. 4; pl. 19, figs. 1, 2, 7;





t
STRATIGRAPHIC AND PALEONTOLOGIC STUDIES OF WELLS 31

Vertical sections (figures 9, 10, 12, 13, plate 7) made from Mexican specimens assigned to L. parvula Cushman are introduced for comparison. In these specimens the lateral chambers are n~t as appressed as those in the Floridian specimens. In certain respects the lateral chambers of the Floridian specimens resemble those of L. sufiera (Conrad) as L. sufiera has low, appressed lateral chambers with thick roofs and floors.
Although these specimens do possess lateral chambers which resemble those of L. super, the other features are similar to those found in L. parvula, particularly the very strong development of the pillars. The vertical sections of microspheric individuals are not at all suggestive of L. sufiera, but are very
S
similar to many vertical sections of L. parvula.
First appearance: At a depth of 3 08-3 16.5 feet in the Dale Mabry Field water well (W-9 5).
Occurrence: Suwannee limestone.

Lopidocyclina (Li'pidocyclina) yurnagunensis Cushman Plate 6, Figures 5, 6
1919. Lepidocyclina canellel var. yurnaguncnsis Cushmah, Carnegie Inst.
Washington Pubi. 291, p. 57, P1. 12, figs. 7, 8, text-fig. 6.
1926. Lepidocyclina yurnagnnensis Cushman. Vaughan, Geol. Soc. London, Quart. Jour., vol. 82, p. 391, pl. 25, figs. 2-6.
1934. Lepidocyclina (Lepidocyclina) yurnagunensis Cushman. Cole, Jour.
Pal., vol. 8, No. 1, pp. 24, 25, p1. 3, figs. 4-6; pl. 4, figs. 8, 9.
1941. Lepidocyclina (Lepidocyclina) yurnagunensis Cushman. Vaughan and Cole, Geol. Soc. Amer. Sp. Paper No. 30, p. 72, p1. 38, alt figs.
This is a widely distributed species. The diamond-shaped equatorial chambers are characteristic. It was described from Cuban specimens, but has been reported from Antigua, J a-. maica, Trinidad and the Cayman Islands.
First a~Pearance: At a depth of 212.6 feet in the Dale Ma1-.~ t7xJA nrn-a. ~rtTnh1 (XVJOC\





32 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN TWENTY-EIGHT

1933. Leftidocyclina (Lepidocyclina) yurne~gunensss, var. tnorganopsis
Vaughan. Vaughan, Smithsonian Miscell. Colt., vol. 89, No. 10,
pp. 22, 23, p1. 11, figs. 5-9; pI. 23, figs. 1-3.
1934. Lepidocyclina (Lepidocyclina) yurnagunensn, var. inorgano~sis
Vaughan. Cole, Jour. Pal., vol. 8, No. 1, pp. 25, 26, pI. 3, figs. 1-3. 1941. Lepidocyctina (Le/gidocyclina) yurnagunensis, var. tnorganopsis
Vaughan. Vaughan and Cole, Geol. Soc. Amer. Sp. Paper No. 30,
p. 72, pI. 39, figs. 1, 2.
This variety occurs with typical specimens of L. yurna gunensis at all the localities from which it has been reported. The equatorial thin sections of specimens of L. yurnagunensis and
a
its variety inorga nopsis exhibit the same features, but the vertical sections are different in that the variety possesses very heavy pillars, whereas the pillars are weak or absent in L. yurnagunensis.
First appearance: At a depth of 216.6 feet in the Dale Mabry Field water well (W-9 5).
Occurrence: Suwannee limestone.

Subgenus NEPHROLEPIDINA H. DouvilI4 1911 Lepidocyclina (Ne pbrolepidina) leonensis Cole, n. sp.
Plate 5, Figures 11-17; Plate 11, Figure 3
Test of medium size, evenly lenticular or with an inflated central area bordered by a narrow rim; the central area of the test is covered with distinct papillae which have a diameter of about 240 Ft. The rim is without papillae. Rather deep, polygonal pits occur between the papillae with shallower depressions on the rim. From most bf the papillae radiate narrow prolongations which form the boundaries of the pits. The largest specimen has a diameter of about 7 mm.
The embryonic chambers are nephrolepidine in type although one specimen which had the external appearance of the others had embryonic chambers of eulepidine type (figure







SmATIGRAPHIC AND PALEONTOLOGIC STUDIES OF WELLS 33


to the equatorial layer are composed of small, appressed chambers with thick roofs and floors. The other lateral chambers are open with the chamber cavity as high or higher than the adjacent floors are thick.
S
Distinct heavy pillars are present, irregularly spaced and concentrated in the inflated portion of the test.


Measurements of 2 vertical and 2 horizontal sections follow: S 4.5 + mm.
Diameter 3.7 mm.
a
Thickness 1.8 mm. 1.9 mm.
Number of lateral chambers on each side
of the equatorial layer 11 11
Embryonic chambers:
Internal length 600k 480~
Internal height 420,.&
Thickness of surrounding wall 'sOp
Height of equatorial layers (including
floor and roof):
At center 140j.c 12O~
Ac periphery 140j
Lateral chambers:
Internal length 140-300 JA 140-200 s
Internal height 4Ot
Thickness of floors and roofs 30-50 ,' 20-40 IL
Surface diameter of pillars - 180-240(4 160-24014
At periphery and directly over embryonic chambers



Diameter 4.4+ mm. 3.2+ mm.
Embryonic chambers:
*T ann~eL nnrnec k~r1~ rkdn-,1-tprc ~RA a, 40 a





34 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN TWENTY-EIGHT

Type locality: Dale Mabry Field water well "B" (W-9.5) at depths of 226 and 228 feet.
Cotypes: (Florida Geol. Survey Cat. No. S'3 009).
Occurred cc: Suwannee limestone.
This species is related to Lepidocyclina (Ne phrolepidina) tournaucri Lemoine and R. Douvill6. To show the relationship between the two species a vertical and a horizontal section of L. tournoneri are illustrated (figtwes 18, 19, plate 5). These specimens were collected at Arbol Grande, near Tampico, Mexico.
L. ton ruoucri has equatorial chambers which are much more elongate than those of L. Zeonensis. The floors and roofs of the lateral chambers in L. tournoucri are much thinner than those of L. feonensis, the lateral chambers near the equatorial layer
*
in L. tournoneri are not appressed like those in L leonensis and the pillars in L. tournoucri are much smaller.
The external appearance of L. leonensis is similar to that of Lepidocyclina (Ne phroLcpidina) sp. figured by Vaughan. The embryonic chambers of the two species are very similar, but the equatorial chambers of L. (Nephrotepidina) sp. are decidedly hexagonal in shape, and those of L. Zeonensis are rhomboid to short spatulate.

Lepidocyclina (Ne pArole pidina) sanfernandensis Vaughan and Cole,~
variety tallahasseensis Cole, n. var.
Plate 1, Figures 16, 17; Plate 2, Figures 5-7; Plate 3, Figures 1-6
S
MEGALOSPHERIC FORM.-Test of medium size, slightly selliform, central part inflated, without or with a rim. The test of some specimens slopes regularly from the central area to the
S
periphery, but in others the inflated central portion is surS
rounded by a relatively wide flange which is distinct from the
I ii I I. 1 11 1* .1






STRATIGRAPHIG AND PALEONTOLOGIC STUDIES OF WELLS

as the specimens which slope regularly from the central area to the periphery have weakly developed papillae. The dimensions of five typical megalospheric specimens are given in Table 2.
1*
The embryonic chambers are large, of nephrolepiwne type, the larger chamber slightly embracing the smaller. The outer wall is very thick, but the wall between the chambers is thin. In certain horizontal sections the outer wall of the embryonic chambers has a fringed appearance due to the presence of radially arranged alternating light and darker areas. Measurements of the embryonic apparatus are given in Table 3.
The equatorial chambers vary in size and shape, but normally they are short spatulate with the radial and tangential diameters nearly equal. An average chamber of this type has diameters of about 120 jx. Other chambers are slightly more elongate tangentially than radially, and certain chambers are the reverse of this.
Measurements of five transverse thin sections are given in Table 2. There is considerable variation in cross-section shape from robustly lenticular individuals with a distinct flange (figure 7, plate 2) to compressed lenticular specimens which lack a rim (figure 5, plate 2). The lateral chambers are arranged in rather regular tiers. In some specimens these chambers are appressed with very low chamber openings, but in others the chamber cavity is rather high.

The pillars are variable in their development and regularity. Some specimens have very large, strong pillars, but others are virtually devoid of this feature. However, some pillars are found in every specimen examined.
S S
MTCRn~PPPRTC rnRM.-Test of large size with a diameter









TABLE 2

Measurements of vertical sections of Lepidocyclina sanfernandensis var. tallalnsseensis, ii. var.

SPECIMEN 1 2 3 4 a

Diameter 8.8 mm. 7+ mm. 4.5+ mm. 5+ mm. a

Thickness 4.24 mm. 2.4 mm. 2.8 mm. 2.3 mm. a
about about about
Width of flange 1.8 mm. 1.0 mm. none 0.7 mm.

Height of equatorial layer:
At center 100$ 8Op _____________________At periphery 20% 130p SOp 14Og

Lateral chambers:
Number at center on
each side of the
equatorial layer 26 12 17 14
Internal height 3O-4OL 4Op 20-40 t 40-80 p
a

Internal length 200p 140-160p 100-160p l2O-2ZOp
Thickness of the
floors and roofs 30-40 p 4Op 40-60 p 20-40 p a

External diameters of pillars 140-180 p 300-360 p 100-200 p







STRATIGRAPHIC AND PALEONTOLOGIC STUDIES OF WELLS 37


TAPLE 3
Measurements of the embryonic apparatus of
Lefildocyclina sanfernandensis var. tallabasseensis, n. var.
HORIZONTAL SECTIONS
-.

SPECIMEN 1 2 3

Internal diameter across both chainb~rs at right angles to the partition between the chambers 0.86 mm. 0.68 mm. 1.0 mm.

Maximum internal width of the
larger chamber parallel to the
partition between the chambers 0.94 mm. 0.66 mm. 0.96 mm.

Internal width of the smaller chainC
ber between the points of the
embracing chamber 0.78 mm. 0.6 mm. 0.84 mm.

Internal diameter of the smaller
chamber at right angles to the
partition 0.5 mm. 0.38 mm. 0.61 mm.

Internal diameter of the larger chamber at right angles to the partition 0.36 mm. 0.3 mm. 0.4 mm.

Thickness of the outer wall SOp, LOp, lOOt


VERTICAL SECTIONS

SPECIMEN 1 2 3 4

Internal length across
both chambers 0.82 mm. 0.70 mm. 0.72 mm. 0.88 mm.
.
rntern~I length nC the





38 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN TWENTY-EIGHT

t
The equatorial chambers have the same shape, size and arrangement as those of the megalospheric generation.
The lateral chambers occur in rather regular tiers when p11lars are present, but in the areas between pillars the lateral chambers overlap from one tier to another. Adjacent to the equatorial layer the lateral chambers are very appressed, but near the periphery of the test they are open with a distinct cavity. In general, the roofs and floors of the lateral chambers have the same thickness as the height of the chamber opening in the peripheral area of the test.
S
Pillars are irregularly developed, some extending from the equatorial layer to the surface of the test, but others go only a portion of this distance.
Type locality; City of Tallahassee water well (W-45 3) at a depth of 407 feet.
Cotypes: (Florida Geol. Survey Cat. No. S-301 1).
First a~~earance: At a depth of 404 feet in the City of Tallahassee water well (W-45 3) and abundant at 406 feet.
Occurred cc: Upper Eocene.
DISCUSSION .-These specimens were referred to L. sanfernandensis Vaughan and Cole20 during the preliminary study. The size, shape and arrangement of the features of the equa0
tonal sections prepared from the Florida specimens is very
0 0
similar to those illustrated by the Trinidad specimens. (Compare figure 5, plate 3 with Vaughan and Cole's illustration, figure 2, plate 43, Ceo1. Soc. Amer. Sp. Paper No. 30). CerS
tain differences, however, were apparent in the general size of the test and in the vertical sections. Therefore, Cole sent Vaughan the Florida specimens so that direct comparison could be made with the types of L. sanfernandensis. Vaughan21 very kindly made the comparison and wrote as follows:






STRATIGRAPHIC AND PALEONTOLOGIC STUDIES OF WELLS 39

"Allof the Florida specimens, except one, arc distinctly undulate, some of them almost selliform. None of the specimens from Trinidad is markedly undulate. Another difference is that the megalospheric form of the Florida specimens is much more inflated than any of the megalospheric forms of the Trinidad specimens.
"The roofs of the lateral chambers in the vertical section of the Florida specimens are decidedly thicker than those of the Trinidad specimens."
Vaughan and Cole jointly and separately have demonstrated the variability which may occur in a species of Lepidocyci ma; and Vaughan22 has stated that
I I
"it is obvious that to attach a different specific name to every variant in a lot of Lepidocyclina is an absurdity."

The differences between the type specimens of L. swn~jernanS
densis and the specimens under discussion from Florida are not major ones, yet they are sufficient to cause one to hesitate before applying the same specific name to the specimens from the two widely separated localities. Vaughan23 in another letter gave his views which are reproduced to demonstrate the perplexities which are encountered:
"I scarcely know what to say about a name for the specimens of Lepidocyclina from the Florida well (W-45 3) you recently sent me. If you refer the specimens to L. sanfernandensis I think that they should be given a varietal designation to indicate the difference between them and typical L. sanfernandensis. If you should apply a new specific name, the resemblance to L. sanfernandensis should be made clear. In general, I would rather apply a species name which may later become a synonym rather than confuse two different species under one name."
a.
For the present it seems desirable to utilize the first suggestion of Vaughan rather than the second one which he recommends more strongly. A varietal designation given to the Florida specimens expresses the close relationship that exists with typical L. sanf ernandens is, but at the same time indicates that there are minor differences.

Leifidocyclina (Ne phrolepidina) suwanneensis Cole, ~.





40 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN TWENTY-EIGHT

The surface of the specimens available is smooth, without ornamentation, but this condition is caused undoubtedly by the state of preservation. As an initial surface is ground on the specimens in the preparation of horizontal thin sections, numerous white pillars were observed which contrasted with the tan color of the remainder of the test. Uneroded specimens would possess small papillae well distributed over the surface of the test.
The embryonic apparatus is nephrolepidine in type as illustrated by two horizontal sections (figure 9, plate 4 and figure 14, plate 7). In the horizontal section chosen for a paratype (figure 9, plate 4) the internal diameter across both chambers at right angles to the partition between the chambers is 0.6 mm.; the maximum internal diameter of the larger chamber parallel to the partition between the chambers is 0.64 mm.; the internal width of the smaller chamber between the points of the embracing chamber is 0.5 mm.; the internal diameter of the smaller chamber at right angles to the partition is 0.34 mm.; the internal diameter of the larger chamber at
S
right angles to the partition is 0.26 mm. and the thickness of the outer wall is SO jL. Two other horizontal sections have the partition between the chambers destroyed. The internal diameters of the combined embryonic chambers are 0.5 by 0.46 mm. and 0.54 by 0.52 mm. These specimens have slightly smaller embryonic apparati than the specimen described first.
The three horizontal thin sections have equatorial chambers with curved outer walls and pointed inner ends adjacent to the embryonic apparatus. In the section with the greatest diameter these inner annual grade outward to chambers of short spatulate shape. Average chambers in the inner annual have a tangential diameter of 100 to 120 A' and a radial diameter of 60 to 80 ~t. The spatulate chambers of the outer annual have a tangential diameter of about 80 At and radial diameters of
19(1 rn lAo





STRATIGRAPHIC AND PALEONTOLOGIC STUDIES OF WELLS 41

S
ments include the floors and roofs. There is practically no increase in. height of the equatorial layer from the center of the test to the periphery.
The lateral chambers are low, appressed with thick roofs and fibors. The roofs and floors are gently curved so that they have a convex side towards the periphery of the test and a concave side directed toward the equatorial layer. They occur in more or less regular tiers, with but a slight amount of overlapping. There are about 9 layers of lateral chambers to a tier on each side of the equatorial layer at the center of the test. The periphery has two or more layers of lateral chambers on each side of the equatorial layer. An average lateral chamber at the periphery of the test and over the center has an internal height of about 20 ~ and a length of about 140 ,z to 160 t'* Floors and roofs have a thickness of about 40 pt
Wedge-shaped pillars are present. They vary considerably
*
in size, some have a surface diameter of as much as 280 ,x, but others have a surface diameter of as little as 160 IL.
Material available: Nine thin sections, three of which were made from specimens recovered at a depth of 349 feet, four from specimens from 354 feet and two from specimens from 356 feet in the City of Tallahassee water well (W-45 3) and six thin sections made from specimens from the Dale Mabry Field water well (W-9 5).
Type locality: City of Tallahassee water well (W-45 3) at a depth of 354 feet.
Holotype: Transverse section (Florida Geol. Survey Cat.
S
No. S-3007); ~arafy~e: Median section (Florida Geol. Survey Cat. No. S-3008).

Subgenus EULEPIDINA H. Douvill6, 1911 Lepidocyclina (J3ulepidina) favosa Cushman





42 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN TWENTY-EIGHT
S
1924. Lepidocyctina (Nephrolepidina) crassata Cushman. Vaughan, Geol.
Soc. Amer. Bull., vol. 35, p. 798, pI. 34, figs. 3, 4.
1924. Lepidocyclina (Nepbrcdepidina) chatiahoocheensis Cushnian.
Vaughan, ide,,,, p. 798, p1. 34, fig. 2.
1924. Lepidocyclina (Euh'pidina) favosa Cushman. Vaughan, 4cm, p.
799, p1. 34, fig. 8.
1924. Lepidocyclina (Bide pidina) formosa Schiumberger. Vaughan, idcm,
p. 799 (not Schiumberger, 1902).
1926. Lepiducyclina (Bide pidina) formosa Schiumberger. Vaughan, Quart.
Jour. Gcol. Soc. London, voL 82, P. ~ (not Schiumberger, 1902). 1 926. Lepidocyclina (Nepbrolcpidina) undosa var. tumida Vaughan, ide,;:,
S
pp. 395, 396, pI. 24, figs. 3-5.
1926. Lepidocyclina sp. cf. L. marginata (Mtche~otIi). Vaughan, u/en:,
pp. 398, 399, p1. 26, figs. 1, 2 (not Michelotti, 1841).
1930. Lepidocyclina (Ncphrolcpidina) crassata Cushman. Cole and Gillespie, Bull. Amer. Pal., vol. 15, No. 57b, p. 3 (list), p1. 1, figs,. 6, 7.
1933. Lepilocyclina (Enlepidina) javosa Cushman. Vaughan, Smithsonian
Miscell. Coil., vol. 89, No. 10, pp. 37-41, p1. 17, figs. 1-3; p1. 18, figs. 1-4; pl. 19, figs. 1-4; p1. 20, figs. 1-3; p1. 21, figs. 1, 3,4 (probably); pl. 29, fig. 4.
1933. Lepidocyclina (Fit/c pidina) javosa Cushman. Gravel!, Smithsonian
Miscell. Coil., vol. 89, No. 11, p. 32, p1. 5, fig. 11; pI. 6, fig. 2.
1934. Lepidocyclina (Bide pidina) favosa Cushman. Cole, Jour. Pal., vol. 8,
No. 1, p. 27, p1.4, figs. 2, 3, 12.
1941. Lej4docyclina (Eulepidina) favosa Cushman. Vaughan and Cole,
Geol. Soc. Amer. Sp. Paper No. 30, p. 75, pl. 40, figs. 1-4.
1944. Lepi~1ocyc1ina (Eidepidina) a favosa Gushman. Cole, Florida Geol.
Survey Bull. 26, p. 74, p1. 3, fig. 14; p1. 19, fig. 6; pl. 20, figs. 3-9.

Vaughan24 has stated "This is an amazingly variable species." In a detailed and well illustrated analysis Vaughan~~ proved that L. crassala, L. chattahoocheensis and L. favosa belonged to one species. Previously, Vaughan'8 had erected the variety tumida of the species, L. undosa Cushman. At this time
fl~ .
Vaughan" wrote, "There is some similarity between L. favosa and the extreme forms of L. undosa var. tuntida."

As thin sections were made from the specimens from the
ThAn lSaL.ac.e r>J2 ~aj.na I9VT nr \ .f ~ -





STRATIGRAPHIC AND PALEONTOLOGIG STUDIES OF WELLS 43

mens were recognized as L. undosa var. furnida (figure 6, plate 10) and others were tentatively named L. favosa (figure 4, plate 10). As more specimens were studied and sectioned, it became evident that there was complete gradation between the individuals to which were assigned the name L. undosa var. turn ida and those which were named L. .favosa.
Moreover, examination and comparison of the type figures of L. undosa var. turn Ida (see figures 4, 5, plate 24, Quart. Jour. Geol. Soc. London, vol. 82, 1926) with an illustration of L. favosct Cushman (see figure 1, plate 19, Smithsonian Miscell. Coil., vol. 89, No. 10, 1933) failed to reveal any significant character which would serve to separate L. undosa var. tiunida from L. favosa.
It has been recognized a long time that the embryonic chambers pf L. undosa grade from nephroiepidine to eulepidine. It would seem that the same feature is present in L. favosa.
A number of vertical and horizontal sections are presented to illustrate the writer's concept of forms that should be referred to L. favosa from this well. Study of these photographs as well as those given by other workers will serve to emphasize tile amazing variability of this species, yet there is complete gradation from one form to another.
First a~fiearance: At a depth of 144 feet in the Dale Mabry Field water well (W-95) ; abundant at a depth of 212.6 feet; at a depth of 280-290 feet in the City of Tallahassee water well (W-453).
Occurrence: Suwannee limestone.

Lepidocyclina (Pulcfiidina) undosa Cushman
Plate 1, Figures 14, 15~ Plate 2, Figure 8; Plate 8, Figure 7; Plate 11, Figure 8 1919. Lepidocyclina undasa Cushman, Carnegie Inst. Washington Pubi.
291, p. 65, pl. 2, fig. la.
* C - - a 44 a n a 4 a C -





44 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN TWENTY-EIGHT

1930. Lepidocyclina (Nc phrolepidina) undosa Cushman. Cole and Gluespie, Bull. Amer. Pal., vol. 15, No. 57b, p. 3, pI. 1, figs. 1, 2.
1932. Lepidocyclina (Eulepidina) undosa Cushman. Goner and van der
Vierk, Leidsche Geol. Med., Deel 4, Alley. 2, p. 110, pl. 15, figs. 1-4. 1933. Lepidocyclina (Ne pbroIepi~Iina) undosa Cushman. Gravel, Smithsonian Miscell. Coil., vol. 89, No. 11, pp. 30, 31, p1. 6, fig. 4.
1934. Lepidocyclina (Ride pidina) undosa Cushman. Cole, Jour. Pal., vol.
8, No. 1, p. 26, pl. 4, figs. 4,5, 10, 11, 13, 14.
1938. Lepidocyclina (Bide pidina) un dosa Cushman. Cole, Florida Geol.
Survey Bull. 16, p. 48, pI. 11, figs. S, 7.
1941. Lepido'cyclina (Rude pidina) undosa Gushman. Vaughan and Cole,
Geol. Soc. Amer. Sp. Paper No. 30, pp. 75, 76, pl. 34, fig. 5; pl. 41,
figs. 1-3.
1944. Lepidocydhna (Erdepidina) undosa Cushman. Cole, Florida Geol.
Survey Bull. 26, pp. 74, 75, pl. 19, fig. 9; p1. 22, fIg. 12.
This species is widely distributed and relatively easy to recognize. In Florida it has been found in the Port St. Joe well T.3 at a depth of 1017-1035 feet and in the City of Q.uincy water well (W-4) at a depth of 615 feet. It occurs at the surface at Duncan Church, Washington County, Florida. Vernon" 'is ts this species at numerous localities where the Suwannee limestone is exposed at the surface.
This species occurs in great abundance in certain samples from the City of Tallahassee water well (W-45 3). Figure 14, plate 1 illustrates a transverse section of a specimen with very few layers of lateral chambers on each side of the equatorial layer, but figure ii of this same plate shows a transverse section of a mature individual with a number of layers of lateral chambers on each side of the equatorial layer.
First appearance: At a depth of 319 feet in the City of Tallahassee water well (W-453) ; at.a depth of 212.6 feet in the Dale Mabry Field water well (W-9 5).
Occurrence: Suwannee limestone.





STRATIGRAPEJIC AND PALEONTOLOGIC STUDIES OF WELLS 4$

1920. Lepidocyciina 81845 Cushman, var. inexicana Gushman, U. S. Cool.
Survey Prof. Paper 125, p. 63, p1. 19, fig. 5; pI. 20, figs. 1, 2; p1. 21,
figs. 1-3.
1926. Lepidoccyciina gigas Cushman. Vaughan, Quart. Jour. Geol. Soc.
London, vol. 82, p. 396, p1. 25, figs. la, lb.
1933. Lepidocydlina 81845 Gushman. Vaughan, Smithsonian Miscell. Coil.
vol. 89, No. 10, pp. 41, 42, p1. 22, figs. 1-4.
1934. Lepidocyclina gigas Cushman, var. dun canensis Cole, Jour. Pal.,
vol. 8, No. 1, pp. 27, 28, p1. 3, fig. 16; p1. 4, fig. 1.
4
The varietal names mexicana and duncanensis were used by Gushman and Cole to designate specimens which possessed minor differences. As extreme variation occurs in the species of larger Foraminifera, these varietal names do not serve any useful purpose. Moreover, it is now rather evident that L gigas is the microspheric form of L. undosa. Vaughan expressed this opinion as early as 1 924f
First a~~earance: In the Dale Mabry Field water well (W95) at a depth of 220.6 feet.
Occurrence: Suwannee limestone.

Lepidocyclina sp.
Plate 8, Figure 3
A single specimen representing a microspheric individual was found at 218.6 feet in the Dale Mabry Field water well (W-9 5). This specimen was made into a vertical section. A description of this specimen follows:
Test small, inflated with a narrow rim; diameter 3.2 mm.; thickness 1.24mm.; width of rim about 0.6 mm.
The equatorial layer has an internal height of about 30 ~& at the center of the test and an internal height of about 80 ~t at the periphery of the test.
At the center of the test there are 10 lateral chambers to a
W .1 td~t *1W ri-Vt I I





46 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN TWENTY-EIGHT

an internal height of 20 1a. Floors and roofs have a' thickiiess
*
I
of 3Oto4Ov.
Pillars are. irregularly developed and concentrated in the inflated portion of the test. They may have a surface diameter of as much as iso F,..
First appearance: In the Dale Mabry Field water well (W* *
95) atadepthof 218.6 feet;.
a
Occurrence: Suwannee limestone.

There is a slight resemblance between this'vertical s~&ti6n and one published by Gravell30 (Lepidocyciliza sp. rndet. [b)).
4
S'ubfamilt HELICOLEPIDINAE Tan
Genus HELICOLEJ IDINA 'ToNer, 1922
Helicoleftidina ~aucispira Barker and Grimsdale
Plate 1, Figures 1-li; Plate 4, Figure 1; Plate 8, Figure 4
1936. Helicolepidina paucispira Barker and Grimsdale, Jour. Ptd., vol. iO,
p. 243, pl. 31, figs. 11, 12;p'. 33, flgs..4-6; pl. 36, figs. 1, 3; pI. 38,
fig. 4.
1941. Heticolepidina paucislyira Barker and Grimsdale. Vaughan and Cole,
Geol.Soc. Amer. Sp. Paper No. 30, p. 76, pl. 45, fig. 2.
Test of megalospheric individuals small, robustly lenticular, with or without a narrow encircling rim. Surface ornamentation consists of a central apical~ group of small papillae beyond which a articulate mesh is developed to the periphery' of the test. *
Test of microspheric individuals is large, robustly lenticujar, with a flange surrounding the central inflated portion. An apical crown of p~ipillae is well developed and the papillae are larger than those developed by the megalospheric generation. The rim is smooth, pitted or covered by a reticulate mesh.
Measurements of .6 horizontal sections (Table 4) and of
7 vertical sections sre riven (Table a






TABLE 4
Measurements of horizontal sections of Helicolepidina paucispira A-FORM B-FORM
I
DIAMETER 1.0 mm. 1.1 mm. 1.1 mm. 2.4 mm. 2.7 mm.

Embryonic apparatus:
*Diameter of, initial chamber 80~ bOAt BOg

*Diar~ter of second chamber 35x80p. 4OxBOg 40x100
*

Total length of both chambers 200pi l6Og


Thickness of bounding wall 2O~ 2Ott

Equatorial chambers:
*Tangential diameter (periphery) 60-100 FL 60-100 g 60-100 p. 100-140 p. 100-160 p.

*Radial diameter (periphery) 40p. 40g CO-BOAt 60-B0 p.


Number of coils in spiral portion 1+ 1 14 1

:1- Intern...., measurement








TABLE S
Measurements of vertical sections of Helicolepidina paucispira A-roaM B-i


Dizmecer 1.0mm. 1.0mm. 1.2mm. 0.9mm. 1.0mm. 2.66mm.

Thickness 0.54 mm. 0.5mm. 0.62mm. 0.6mm. 1.28 mm.
S
Embryonic apparatus. ___Heibt 14O~ ________ I40iL ISOp ______S ____________________________________ __________Length 20O~ l6Op 190js 16O~z _______Equatorial layer:
Height (center) lOOp SOp. SOp~ lOOp lOOp 60~s
Height (periphery) l2Ojz 10O~ lOOp 120p 120s l6Ops
Number of lateral chambers
ov~~t~of~ 4 5 5 5 5 6
Lateral chambers:
Height 30a 3O-4Op. 3O~ 3O4O~ 2O~z
Length dO-lOp 4O-1OO~& 8O-lOO~& SOps S 6Op 40-lOOp
Thickness of floors 20-3Op 40-6Op ________ 3040p 30p 7O~

Surface diameter of pillars 16% none very weak SOp none





STRATIGRAPHIC AND PALEONTOLOGIG STUDIES OF WELLS 49

square than the normal equatorial chambers, but the more distal chambers of the spire grade into the typical equatorial chambers.
The equatorial chambers have curved outer walls and truncated inner ends, or are rudely hexagonal. Most of the chain-. bers are more elongate tangentially than radially. In some sectons the chambers are arranged in a distinct radial manner and in all cases increase regularly in size toward the periphery.
The lateral chambers are low, compressed, between rather thick roofs and floors, although there is considerable difference between individuals. Pillars are normally present but this feature is not constant between individuals.
First appearance: At a depth of 405 feet in the City of rEaL lahassee water well (W-453) ; at a depth of 308-3 16.5 feet in the Dale Mabry Field water well (W-9 5).
Occurrence: Upper Bocene.
Appearance elsewhere: This species was described from the upper Eocene of Mexico, and Vaughan and CoW'1 figure one horizontal section assigned to this species from Trinidad.










































































































































PLATES 1-11






































a

















t t




U







PLATE 1

All specimens from the City of Tallahassee water well; 1, 2, 7, at a depth of 412 feet; 3, 4, 6, 8, 9, 11, 17, at a depth of 407 feet; 5, 10, 16, at a depth of 406 feet; 12, 13, at a depth of 280-290 feet; 14, 15, at a depth of 324 feet.......
Figures 1, 2, X 9
Figures 3, 6, 8,12-17, X 15
Figures 4, 5,7,9-11, X40
FIGURE
1 -11. H'Iirolepidina paucispira Barker and Grimsdale; 1, exteriors of
five megalospheric specimens; 2, exteriors of two microspheric
S
specimens; 3, median section of a niicrospheric individual; 4, 5,
-. .5
median sections of two mc~aIosphe+ic individuals; 6, 8, transverse sections of two microspheric individuals; 7, 9-11, transverse sections of four megalospheric individuals.

12, 13. Ojwrculinoides z'icksburr~ensis Vaughan and Cole; 12, transverse
L
section; 13, median section.

14, 15. Lepidocyclina (Enlefiidiza) undosa Cushman; transverse sections
-orf-twomegalospheric~specimens~~~ -............................................- -- -

16, 17. Lepilocyclina (Nephrolcpidina) sanferuandensis Vaughan and
S
Cole, variety lallahasseensis Cole, n. var.; transverse sections of two megalospheric individuals; 16, the pillars arc well developed and the lateral chambers are oppressed; 17, the pillars are weakly
developed and the lateral chambers are open.





FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY BULLETIN TWENTY-EIGII'I, 1~I.ATE 1



1











4.
';<
$






















11 12




j







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PLATE 2

All specimens from the City of Tallahassee water well; 1-4, at a depth of 370 feet; 5, 7, at a depth of 407 feet; 6, at a depth of 413 feet; 8, at a depth of 324 feet.
Figures 1-4, X 40
Figures 5-8, X 15
1:IGURE
1,2. Diclyocouiis rookei (Moberg) ; 1, axial section; 2, horizontal section. 3, 4. Coslzinolina flori~Iana Cole; 3, axial section; 4, horizontal section.

5 -7. Lepielocvcliiia (No pbrolepidina) sun fernantlensis Vaughan and Cole,
variety tallahasseensis Cole, 11. var.; transverse sections of three rnegalospheric specimens to illustrate the difference in inflation between
individuals; 5, cotype.

8. Lepi~Iocvclina (Ezdepidina) uindosa Cushman; median section of a
megalospheric individual.










FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY BULLETIN TWENTY-EIGHT, PLATE 2










































































.4
F s~* "t.3 .7 A
4 r
t

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,t ~J.












PLATE 3

All specimens from the City of Tallahassee water well; 1, 6, at a depth of 406 feet; 2, at a depth of 413 feet; 3-5, at a depth of 407 feet.

Figure 1, X 1.5
Figure 2, X 2.3
Figure 3, X 2
Figures 4, 5, X 15
Figure 6, X 9.3
FIGURE
1-6. Lepi~1ocycliiw (lYe pArole pidina) sanfernandensis Vaughan and Cole,
variety tallalasscensis Cole, n. var.; 1, 2, exteriors of four microspheric specimens; 3, exteriors of seven megalospheric specimens, cotypes (F. G. S. No. 5-3011); 4, 5, median sections of megalospheric specimens; 4, the embryonic chambers have a very thick outer wail; 5, cotype, this section is virtually identical to the type median section of L. sanfernandensis Vaughan and Cole (see figure 2, plate 43, Geol. Soc. Amer. Sp. Paper No. 30); 6, transverse section of a microspheric individual.








a





























































I



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PLATE 4

All from the City of Tallahassee water well; 1, at a depth of
407 feet; 2, 6, at a depth of 130 feet; 3, 7, at a depth of 280-290 feet; 4, 11, at a depth of 349 feet; 5, 9, 10, 12, at a depth of 354 feet; 8, at a depth. of 356 feet.
Figures 1, 2, 6, X 40
Figures 3-5, 7-12, X 15
FIGURE
I. Helicolepidina paiicis~ira Barker and Grirnsdale; central por-.
don of a median section of a microspheric individual to ilLstrate the initial spiral and equatorial chambers.

2, 6. Penero ~hs ~ro/eus d'Orbigny; 2, transverse section; 3, median.
section.

3, 4, 7, 11. LeJidocycIiua (12 ide/fiuina) favosa Cushman; 3, 11, median sections of megalospheric individuals; 4, 7, transverse sections:
of megalospheric individuals.

5, 8-1 0, 1 2. Lepidocyclina (Ne pbroleftidind) suwanneensis Cole, n. sp.; 5,.
12, transverse sections; 5, holotype (F. G. S. No. S-3007);.
8-10, median sections; 9, paratype (F. G. S. No. S-3 008).





U
FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY BULLETIN TWENTY-EIGHT, PLATE 4



I

I,
I
F









2

3









I
*1 II .4.1

.1

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I

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PLATE 5
U
Figures 1-4, of specimens from the Byram mart near Byrani, Mississippi. Figures 5, 6, 9-17, of specimens from the Dale Mabry Field water well; 5, 9, at a depth of 144 feet; 6, 10, at a depth of 1.50 feet; 11, 13, 15, 16, at a depth of 226 feet; 12, 14, 17, at a depth of 228 feet.
S
Figures 7, 8, of~ specimens from Alazan formation, southern Miahuapam, \Tera Cruz, Mexico, collection of F. Gevaerts No. 269, donated by Dr. It
Wright Barker; collection of W. Storrs Cole.
U
Figures 18, 19, of specimens from Arbol Grande near Tampico, Tamaulipas, Mexico; collection of W. Storrs Cole.


All figures, X 15
FIGURE
1-10. opercidiuoides z'iclzsburgensis Vaughan and Cole; 1, transverse
section of a robustly lenticular individual of the type 0. nz niri
S
Barker; 2, median section of an individual similar to the one ihlusS
treated by figure 1; 3, median section of a compressed, fragile
S
specimen; 4, transverse section of an individual similar to the one illustrated by figure 3; 5, 6, median sections of robustly lenticular individuals; 7, 8, topotype (?) (see text) specimens of 0. muiri
S
Barker introduced for comparison; 7, median section; 8, transverse section; 9, 10, transverse sections of robustly lenticular individuals.

11- 17. Lepidocyclina (Ne phrolepidina) Zeoneusis Cole, n. sp.; 11 -13,
vertical sections of megalospheric individuals; 14-17, horizontal sections of megalospheric individuals; 13, 16, cotypes (F. G. S.
No. S-3009).
S
1 8, 19. Lepidocyclina (Ne phroh'pidina) fournoneri Lemoine and R. DouviII6; 18, horizontal section; 19, vertical section; introduced for
comparison with L. lewwnsis Cole, n. sp.




I
I
FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY BULLETIN TWENTY-EIGHT, PLATE s




&


I'
-.
"1
I




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4




























6 7













I



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I



I






PLATE 6
All specimens from the Dale Mabry Field water well; 1, 5, at a depth of 220 feet; 2-4, 8, at a depth of 308-3 16.5 feet; 6, at a depth of 224.6 feet; 7, at a depth of 216.6 feet.
All figures, X 40
FIGURE
1-4, 7, 8. Le pidocyclina ( Lepidocyclina) yurnagnnensis Cushman, variety
'morganopsis Vaughan; 1-4, vertical sections to illustrate the variability in strength of the pillars; 7, portion of a horizontal section of a microspheric individual to show the initial coil and the rhomboid equatorial chambers; 8, horizontal section of a
megalospheric individual.

5, 6. Leidocyclina (Lepidocyclina) yurnagunenlsis Cushman; 5,.
vertical section of a megalospheric individual; 6, horizontal section of a megalospheric individual.






















62




I 1I FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY BULLETIN TWENTY-EIGHT, PLATE S

4.
.5


















I
I
I










C

I 'I .1




4








4 S





PLATE 7

Figures 1-8, of specimens from the Dale Mabry Field water well; 1, at a depth of 220.6 feet; 2-8, at a depth of 3 08-3 16.5 feet. Figure 9, of a specimen from a quarry on the Huasteca Petroleum CornS
pany 's golf course, Tampico, Mexico; collection of NV. Storrs Cole. Figures 8-13, of specimens collected between kilometer posts 17 and 18
C
on the Aguila Petroleum Company's narrow-gauge railroad between Potrero and Tanhuilo, Mexico; collection of W. Storrs Cole.
a
Figure 14, of a specimen from the City of Tallahassee water well at a depth of 349 feet.
Figures 1, 3-13, XiS
Figures 2, 14, X40
FIGURE
1, 14. Leifidocyclina (Nephrolejiddiuia) suwanneensis Cole, n. sp.; 1. vera
tical section of a megalospheric individual showing appressed lateral chambers between thick roofs and floors; 14, portion of a horizontal
S
section of a megalospheric individual to illustrate the nephrolepidine character of the embryonic chambers and the shape of the equatorial
chambers which are normally short spatulate.

2-13. Lepidocyclina (Lepidocyclina) par vida Gushman; 2-4, vertical sections of megalospheric individuals which have elongate, appressed lateral chambers; 5, vertical section of a microspheric individual
C
with strongly developed pillars; 6, 7, horizontal sections of megalospheric individuals; 8, vertical section of a microspheric individual
C
with weakly developed pillars; 9-13, comparison specimens from
C
Mexico; 9, vertical section of a microspheric individual with strong
S
pillars irregularly spaced; 10, 12, 13, vertical sections of megalospheric individuals to illustrate the variation between individuals;
11, horizontal section of a rnegalospheric individual.




t
rflRTflA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY BULLETIN TWENTY-EIGHT, PLATE 7

I





10 9









3 ii
8 2



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I


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PLATE 8

All specimens from the Dale Mabry Field water well; 1, at a depth of 214.6 feet; 2, at a depth of 144 feet; 3, at a depth of 218.6 feet; 4, at a depth of 308-3 16.5 feet; 5, 6, at a depth of 220.6 feet; 7, at a depth of 224.6 feet.
All figures, X 15, except figure 4 which is X 40 FIGURE
1, 2. Lepidocyclina (Fidepidina) favosa Cushman; 1, oblique section
from a fragment of the specimen illustrated by figure 9, plate 10, to show the equatorial chambers and the zone of the lateral chambers; 2, oblique section of a megalospheric individual to illustrate embryonic
chambers, equatorial chambers and the zone of the lateral chambers.

3. Lepidocyclina sp.; vertical section of an unidentified species illustrated
for future reference.
4. Helicolepidina ~aucispira Barker and Grimsdale; horizontal section
of a megalospheric individual.

5, 6. Lepidocyclina gigas Cushman; 5, portion of the same individual illustrated by figure 6 to illustrate the equatorial chambers of a microspheric specimen; 6, vertical section.
S
7. Lepidocydina (Ezilepidina) undosa Cushman; vertical section of a
S
typical megalospheric individual.















PLATE 9

All specimens from the Dale Mabry Field water well; 1, at a depth of 218.6 feet; 2, 3, 5, at a depth of 220.6 feet; 4, at a depth of 214.6 feet; 6, at a depth of 216.5 feet; 7, at a depth of 308-316.5 feet.

All figures, X 15
FIGURE
1-7. Lepidocyclina (Eulepidina) faz'osa Cushman; 1-4, horizontal sections
of megalospheric individuals; 5, vertical section of a megalospheric individual; 6, 7, vertical sections of microspheric individuals. The thin sections illustrated by figures 2 and 5 were made from specimens which had the same external appearance. The thin section illustrated
C
by figure 3 was made from a specimen similar to the one illustrated
C C
by the vertical section, figure 6, plate 10. The specimen illustrated by figure 7 was injured during the growth period as the equatorial layer and lateral chambers show by their peculiar bending on the left
hand side.




I


J:LOJ( IDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY BULLETIN TWENTY-EIGHT, PLATE 91










12
















I

*











I
















PLATE 10

All specimens from the Dale Mabry Field water well; 1-3, 6, at a depth of 218.6 feet; 4, at a depth of 220.6 feet; 5, at a depth of 144 feet; 7, at a depth of 212.6 feet; 8,9, at a depth of 214.6 feet.

All figures, X 15
FIGURE
1-9. Le/fidocylina (Eiih'pidina) favosa Cushman; 1-6, vertical sections of
megalospheric individuals to demonstrate the variability in shape;
7-9, vertical sections of microspheric individuals.




I
I LORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY BULLETIN TWENTY-EIGHT, PLATE 10
I
I


1 4': 4,







I.









2

I,

.4








2 1
'I

6 1

H

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I





PLATE 11

Figures 1-4, 6-9, 11, of specimens froni the Dale Mabry Field water well; 1,2. at a depth of 308-316.5 feet; 3, at a depth of 228 feet; 4, 6, at a depth of 144 feet; 7, 11, at a depth of 220.6 feet; 8, at a depth of 212.6 feet;
9. at a depth of 216.6 feet.
Figure 5, of a specimen from the City of Tallahassee water ~~'cii at a depth of 356 feet.
Figure 10, of specimens from well No. 1 ('W-12) of the Bonheur Developmerit Company, located at Burns, Wakulla County, Florida, at a depth of 325 feet.
Figures 1, 3, 8, 9, X 5
Figures 2, 4, X 10
Figures 5, 6, X 40
Figures 7, 11, X 15
Figure 10, X 20
FIGURE
1, 2. Lepidocyclina (Lepidocycliiia) par z'uia Cushman; 1, external
view of a specimen with well-developed papillac; 2, external view
of a specimen with small papillac.

3. Lcpidocyclina (Nephrolepidina) leonensis Cole, Ii. sp.; external
view of a cotype (F. G. S. No. S-3009) to show the well-developed apical crown of papillac surrounded by a rim which is ~~rithout papillac. This specimen was ground on one side to expose the embryonic and equatorial chambers.

4, 5. O/wrcidiuoi~1es i'iclzsbnrgeiisis Vaughan and Cole; 4, external
9
view; 5, transverse section.

6, 7, 11. Lcpidocr-lina (Nephrolepidina) silivaniweusis Cole, it sp.; 6,
S
portion of a vertical section, greatly magnified, to illustrate the
embryonic and lateral chambers; 7, 11, xrertcal sections.

8. Lcpi~1ocycIiu~i (EnIepi~Iina) iindosa Cushman; external view.

9. Lepitlocyclina (Enlepi~1iua) fai'osa Cushman; external view showing the inflated central portion of the test bordered by a wide rim.
This specimen is similar to the one from which the vertical section, figure 6, plate 10, was made.

10. I{olalia mexicana NTuttall, variety nieHite/WceJflis Nuttall; series
of specimens to illustrate ornamentation and degrees of serration
9
of the periphery. These specimens are called Anomalina (?) by
\jfnrrnn, i'flI n,-4 t4n (2~~l Cri rrn', 1 7rI~ A tn, 11 nnr 9 1 1 ITt!,;',





FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY BULLETIN TWENTY-EIGHT, PLATE 11



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RAYLIN-BROWN, Y. G. PHILIPS No. 1 WILL (W-440)
TEST FOR OIL








RAVLIN-BROWN, V. C. PHILIPS NO. 1 WELL (W-440)


INTRODUCTION

The Raylin-Brown, V. G. Philips No. 1 well (W-440)32is the eleventh well to be analyzed since the initiation of the project in 1936, to determine the subsurface stratigraphy and micropaleontology of critical areas within Florida.
The location of the V. G. Philips No. 1 well (W-440) is shown on Figure 5. This
a
well lies between two areas
which were reported in
previous bulletins; the
Cranberry No. 1 well33 in
Jackson County in the F/DIRE
Location
northern portion encount- Ra~n-bpnnV6RWv Rb'. ered formations which are
similar to those of Alabama, whereas the Suwan- --I
nec Petroleum Corporation's Sholtz No. 1 well and e.
the Florida Oil Discovery
84
Company's Cedar Keys No. 2 well in Levy County in the southern portion penetrated formations which are similar to those of peninsular Florida. It was thought that a study of
P
the samples from the V. G. Philips No. 1 well (W-440) might produce valuable information concerning the gradation from the elastic f~cies of the Eocene of Alabama to the limestone faces which characterizes the Eocene of peninsular Florida.
As will be demonstrated subsequently, the section from the top of the Paleocene down is rather similar to that found in the Granberry No. 1 well, but the portion representing the upper, middle, and lower Eocene is composed of limestone similar to those which characterize the upper, middle, and
~ r-.~.,.. -C .,n.-.:nn..l ~.. A ltl-tnii nl~ n ornflhl ('b#%nhWI




78 FLORIDA GEOl.OGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN TWENTY-EIGHT

fauna is identical to a fauna" described from the Southern States Oil Corporation No. I well in Jefferson County, Florida.
The Calhoun Gas and Oil Company's No. 1 well in Calhoun County" was completed at a depth of 1320 feet in gray, calcareous, glauconitic sand which is known now to represent the middle Eocene. The change from these middle Eocene sands to limestones occurs somewhere between Calhoun and Wakulla Counties. A well in Liberty County should exhibit an interesting middle Eocene section.
It may be noted here that at a depth of 995-1000 feet in the Calhoun Gas and Oil Company's No. 1 well Discocyclina (Asterocyclina) inonticellensis Cole and Ponton and Lepidocyclina (Pliolepidina) ariana Cole and Ponton were found. In this same well specimens of Lepidocyclina (Polylepidina) antillea Cushman (formerly called L. gardnerae Cole) occur at 1020-1030 feet in association with Operculinoides sabinensis Cole.
All types and other specimens from this well are filed in the Florida Geological Survey Museum at Tallahassee, Florida.
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
It is a distinct pleasure to acknowledge the assistance which the writer has had in the preparation of this bulletin. Mr. Herman Gunter has continued his interest and support besides permitting free access to the tremendous reservoir of information concerning the geology of Florida which he has amassed through the years. Mrs. Helen Jeanne Plummet examined and discussed the smaller Foraminifera of the Paleocene and Upper Cretaceous with the writer during a visit which he made to Austin in September 1944. Mrs. Plummer's intimate knowledge of the Foraminifera of these ages assisted greatly in the preparation of the faunal lists of this portion of the well. Mr. W. E. Wrather, Director of the U. S. Geological Survey, permitted his technicians to prepare the excellent photomicrographs of the external views. Dr. Lloyd Henbest loaned topotype specimens of L. inacdonaldi Cushman from the U. S. National Museum collection for com" Cole, W. Storrs and Ponton, Gerald M., New Species of Fabularle, Asterocyclina and I.epidocyclin front the Florida Eocene, Amer. Midland Nat., vol. 15, No. 2, pp. 138147, 2 pht., 1934.
Mossom, Stuart, A Review of the Structure and Stratisraphy of Florida, Flotida Geol. Survey 17th Ann. Rept., pp. 206, 207, 1926.




STRATIGRAPHIC AND PALEONTOLOGIC STUDIES OF WELLS 79

parison with the specimens assigned to this species. A preliminary description of the samples prepared by Sidney A. Stubbs and Robert 0. Vernon for the Florida Geological Survey was of considerable value in directing special attention to certain critical samples. The thin sections and photomicrographs of these were made by the writer.
PREVIOUS STUDIES OF WELLS
IN WAKULLA COUNTY
In 1919 Cushman" published a brief account of the Bonheur Development Company well No. 1, located at Burns Station, Wakulla County, Florida. The samples from this well were collected at wide and irregularly spaced intervals. Although Cushman did not give any specific identifications in this article, he lists a number of genera which were found in the samples.
In 1921 in a brief article Cushman"" identified certain of the specimens from the Bonheur Development Company well No. I specifically and figured one specimen from the depth of 325 feet.
Mossom" in 1926 gave a description of the lithologic character of the samples from the Bonheur Development Company well No. 1 and listed by genera only some of the Foraminifera found. The only definite stratigraphic conclusion reached by Mossom was that certain specimens at a depth of 700 feet resembled Opercudinoides willcoxi (Heilprin) and, therefore, indicated that the Ocala limestone had been penetrated at this depth.
Certain samples from this well were examined by the writer. The following species were identified:
-o 50eet
Leidoc)clina ( ILidocycina) yurnagunensis Cushman
150 feet
Je/idocyclina (Lepidocyclina) parvula Cushman sK|>'ra (Conrad)
yurnagnmensis Cushman, variety morganopsis Vaughan
"t Cushman, Joseph A., Th Age of the Underlying Rocks of Florida as Shown by the Foraminifera of Well Borings, Florida Geol. Survey 12th Ann. Rept., pp. 82-84, 1919.
3" Cushman, Joseph A., Foraminifera from the Deep Wells of Florida, Florida Geol. Survey 13th Ann, Rept, pp. 40, 42, 44, 53, 54. 59, pl. 1, fig. 5, 1921.
Mossom, Stuart, A Review of the Structure and Stratigraphy of Florida, Florida Geol. Survey 17th Ann. Rept., pp. 213-216, 1926.





so FLORII)A GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETiN TWENTY-IGHTr

180 feet
lRotalia ,nrxirana Nuital, variety nm'cate/n'censis'Nuctall'"
Le/ioryclina (LephiocyPdhna) yitaaimensis Cushman 325 f eet
Diet yoconuts evokei (Moberg)
Elpiidinm rota Ellis
IRotalia mnexirapia Nut tall, variety mnecatepeeusis Nttall (very abundant)
700 feet
Cameripta vandersioki (Rut ten and Vermnitit)
14 ludaeyclina (PliolrIlidina) eerdarkeysensis Cole 1820 feet
Le/ddoeyeclina (Pl1iolefdidina) ariana Cole and 1'ojiton
Figures are given of certain of these specimens on plate 22. The specimens identified as 1(otaiia uwnxicana Nuttall, variety micrewrnsis Nuttall are illustrated by figure 10, plate 11 of this bulletin.
The re-examination of the upper samples from the Bonheur Development Company well No. I shows that the section encountered from 50 feet (the first sample) to a depth of 325 feet is definitely Oligocene in age and correlates with the Suwannee limestone. The first liocene species is Cam erina ,vaudlerstoki (Rutten and Verm-unt) at a depth of 700 feet.
Recently P. L. Applin and 1'. R. Applin" presented an interpretation of the section exhibited by certain wells in Florida. Trhe formaijons which they recognize in the V. G. Pillips No. 1 well (W-440) and the depths at which these occur follow:
Miocenie .. udvid. .....Surface to 390(?) feet
()ligocenm ...un11divided ............. 390 (?) to 75 0 feet
( Upper -.Ocala limestone...... ....750 feet to 920 feet

Enee)Late Middle {Avon Park limestone..920 feet to 1200 feet
Eocene Tallahassee limestone ...1200 feet to 1750 feet
)Early middle -..Lake City limestone ...... 1750 feet to 2122 feet
Lower .Bcds of Wilcox age.--.2 122 feet to 2665 feet Paleocene..........Beds with Tamesi fauna ..2665 feet to 2715 feet
""This species was called Roalka armarta d'Orbigny by Cushman, Florida Geol. Survey 13th Ann. Rept., p. 54, 2921.
Applin, Paul L. and Applin Esther R., Regional Subsurface Stratigrapisy and Structure of Florida and Southern Georgia, Airer. Assoc. Patrol. GOwl. Bull., vol. 28, No. 12, p. 1736, fig. 23, 1944.





STRATIGRAPHIC AND PALEONTOLOGIC STUDIES OF WELLS 81

Beds of Navarro age ....2715 feet to 2745 feet U Beds of Taylor age ....2745 feet to 3482 feet Upper Cretaceous Beds of Austin ago ....--3482 feet to 3672 feet Tuscaloosa formation ......3672 feet to 4270 feet Lower Cretaceous ..... .. undivided .. .......4270 feet to bottom
Reference to the graphic log (figure 6) shows that the interpretation here presented is considerably different from that given in the preceding table. It may be helpful to state here one difference and the evidence on which this is based.
The index. Foraminifera for the Avon Park limestone are stated by the Applins to be Coskinolina floridana Cole and Litnon-ella fioridana Cole. As the Avon Park limestone is placed between 920 and 1200 feet, it is difficult to reconcile this fact with the fauna which occurred in the samples between 945 and 1050 feet in the set examined in the preparation of this bulletin. This fauna represents a typical Ocala fauna, therefore, this interval is included in the upper Eocene rather than assigned to the middle Eocene as the Applins have done. 4

RAVLIN-BROWN, V. G. PHILIPS NO. 1 WELL (W-440)
The Ravlin-Brown, V. G. Philips No. 1 well (W-440) is located in the center of the NWV4 of section 14, Township 3S., Range lE., near Wakulla, Wakulla County, Florida. (see figure 5) The elevation of the well head is 28 feet above sea level. Drilling began April 8, 1942 and was completed March 26, 1943 at which time the well was abandoned at a depth of 5766 feet. The Florida Geological Survey received 498 samples which represent the interval from 399 to 5746 feet.
STRATIGRAPHY
The formations encountered in the V. G. Philips No. 1 well (W-440) and their lithologic characteristics are shown on figure 6."
'?The depths marked on the samples and used throughout this article are in error between the depths of 2505 and 4002 feet. This error was discovered during a Schlumberger run which p'toved that the well had reached a depth of 3920 feet although the driller was recording a depth of 4002 feet at this point. The amount of error was 82 feet. A check on the amount of casing used indicated that the error occurred somewhere above 2500 feet. Therefore, all depths given between 2500 and 4000 feet should have 80 feet subtracted from them in order to give as close an approximation as possible to the true depth.






COCCUCE OLIGOCENEC
CLAIBORNEy OCALA SUWANNEE













S SELMA MI1DWAY WILCOX '~WILCOX OR CLA/&2PNC-T -,, CLAIBORNEC


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____UPrPPPCRTACO
TUSCALOOSA k 1:UTAW V -V SELMA-.

Ijyjflrlit1m 11ILol i j Lh!.1W11 u I








*UPPER IRCTACEOUS

~ hffl* ~ I'SCALIOllA


SC~ PAF'

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SI ti





.LHnI-i~axd.NI.WIRU-?JAOS'IV)!9'IOI9VGRIIO'IA





STRATIGRAPHIC AND PALEONTOLOGIC STUDIES OF WELLS 8)

MIOCENE
TAMPA LIMESTONE.-Thc geological map of Florida"
shows the area adjacent to Wakulla to be underlain by the Tampa limestone which is covered by undifferentiated Pleistocene and Recent. fCooke and Mossom" state, "Tampa limestono lies near the surface over all of the eastern part of Wakulla County."
Mansfield" lists a number of stations in Wakulla County at which he found Tampa faunas.
Inasmuch as the first sample from the V. G. Philips No. 1 well (W-440) was taken at a depth of 399 feet, information concerning the thickness of the Tampa limestone could not be ascertained from this well. However, the first sample at 50 feet in the Bonheur Development Company well No. 1 (W-12) contained Lepidocyclina. Certain of these specimens were identified as L. (Lepidocyclina) yurnagunensis Cushman, a species found in the Suwannee limestone" on the outcrop. A horizontal section of one of these specimens is illustrated as figure 2 on plate 22.
The Tampa limestone in the V. G. Philips No. 1 well (W440) would be relatively thin as the data from the Bonheur Development Company well No. 1 suggest that the Tampa limestone has a thickness of less than 50 feet in this portion of Wakulla County.

OLIGOCENE
SUWANNEE LiMESTONE.-Reliance must be placed on the samples from the Bonheur Development Company well No. 1 for the age and characteristics of the upper portion of the section assigned to the Oligocene. In this well characteristic Oligocene Foraminifera were found at 50 feet, 150 feet, 180 feet, and 325 feet. The fauna recovered from these samples
"Cooke, C. Wyche and Mossom, Stuart, Geology of Florida, Florida Geol. Survey 12th Ann. Rept., map in pocket, 1929.
"' 1em, p. 92.
Mansfield, W. C., Mollusks of the Tampa and Suwannee Limestones of Florida, Florida Geol. Survey Bull. 15, pp. 25, 26, 1937.
Cole, W. Storrs, Oligocene Orbitoids from near Duncan Church, Washington County, Florida, Jour. Pal., vol, 8, No. 1, pp. 21-28, pls. 3, 4, 1934; Vernon, Robert 0., Geology of Holmes and Washington COLIIiCs, Florida, Florida Geol. Survey Bull. 21, p. 63, 1942.





84 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN TWENTY-EIGHT

indicates that the well penetrated rocks which should be correlated with the Suwannee limestone.
The first sample from the V. G. Philips well No. 1 (W-440) was taken at 399 feet, the second covered the interval from 399 to 409 feet after which the samples were taken so that they covered approximately 10 foot intervals. The sample at 399 feet contained larger Foraminifera representing three genera. All of the specimens were smoothed on the surface and gave the appearance of having been eroded.
Four specimens were found which were identified as Diclyoconus cookei (Moberg). It has been noted previously that at 32 5 feet in the Bonheur Development Company well No. I (W-12) D. cookei (Moberg) occurred with the Oligocene species Ro/alia inexicana Nuttall, variety uzeratepecesis Nuttall. The other specimens found in the 399 foot sample in the V. G. Philips well No. I (W-440) represented the genera Heterostegina and Lepidocyclina. There were very few specimens of Heterostegina, but Lepidocyclina occurred in considerable abundance.
The surf ace ornamentation of the Heterostegina was completely destroyed, but moderately satisfactory thin sections could be made (figures 9, 10, plate 15). Cushman" reports the occurrence of Heterostegina ocalana Cushman at a depth of 50 feet in the Bonheur Development Company well No. 1 (W-12). The specimens from 399 feet in the V. G. Philips well No. I (W-440) may represent the same species which Cushman had from the Bonheur Development Company well No. 1 (W-12). The specimens from the V. G. Philips well No. 1 (W-440) are referred to Heterostegina texana Gravell and Hanna although some doubt must be entertained concerning the validity of this identification because of the poor state of preservation of the specimens.
The Lepidocyclina associated at 399 feet in the V. G. Philips well No. 1 (W-440) with D. cookei (Moberg) and H. texana Gravell and Hanna have many features similar to specimens referred to L. (Piiolepidina) ariana Cole and Ponton. Inasmuch as D. cooked and L. ariana are considered to be indigenous to the middle Eocene, this sample would appear to contain a mixed fauna of one Oligocene and two Eocene species.
"OP. ci., (13th Ann. Rept.) p. 40.





STRATIGRAPI'HIC AND PALEONTOLOGIC STUDIES OF WELLS 85

The samples from 409 feet to 516 feet are devoid of significant Foraminifera, but the sample recovered at 516 to 546 feet contains a well developed and easily identified fauna. Specimens obtained from this sample represent the following: Discorioisis gunteri Cole, Dictyoconus americanus (Cushman), D. cookei (Moberg) and Eodictyoconus cubensis (Cushman and Bermudez). In the samples representing the next 68 feet such characiteristic species as Eponides gunteri Cole, Lituonella floridana Cole and Pseudochrysalidina floridaiia Cole are found. The preliminary examination suggested that the top of the middle Eocene occurred at 516 feet and that the Ocala was not present in this area. However, as deeper samples were examined, the preliminary conclusions concerning the middle Eocene age of the section starting at 516 feet became questionable.
Examination of the samples from 745 to 1030 feet revealed a number of species which are confined to the upper Eocene. The following were recorded between these depths: 1. at 745-75 $ feet Caerin'ei vandersto. (Rutten and Vermunt); 2. at 945-955 feet Cawerina woodybralichensis Gravell and Hanna; 3. at 975-985 feet Operculinoides willcoxi (Heilprin) ; 4. at 985-995 feet Operculina barkeri Vaughan and Cole; 5. at 99 5 -100 5 feet Lepidocyclina (Lepidocyclina) inortoni Cushman; 6. at 1015-1016 feet Cauerina jacksonensis Gravell and Hanna and 7. at 1018-1030 feet Opercubinoides vutnghani Cushman.
Thus, the distribution of the various species in this well, if taken with their known ranges in other wells, would suggest that the middle Focene overlies the upper Eocene. Four interpretations might be offered to explain this anomalous situation: 1. the samples were mixed, 2. a fault occurred, 3. previous interpretations of age have been erroneous, 4. the middle Eocene forms have been reworked into younger deposits.
Analysis of the samples from the Bonheur Development Company well No. 1 offered rather conclusive proof that the samples from V. G. Philips well No. 1 (W-440) were in proper sequence and had not been mixed. The distribution of specimens as "cavings" in the samples from the V. G. Philips well No. I (W-440) was supplemental proof that these samples had not been mixed.





86 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN TWENTY-EIGHT

There is no evidence from surrounding areas or in the known geologic history of the Coastal Plain or peninsular Florida to suggest that the inversion of the faunas was produced by translocation of the rock units.
The third possibility involves first that some of the faunas previously considered middle Eocene in age are in reality upper Eocene in age and second that there are recurrent faunas in Florida which occur in the middle Eocene and Oligocene. It is well established from previous work" that certain middle Eocene species occur in the Oligocene of Florida. Never, however, have so many middle Eocene species been found in the Oligocene as were recovered from this well.
Although it has been suggested above that interfingering might be the explanation and that in the area of the V. G. Philips well No. 1 (W-440) the Ocala fauna extends as a tongue into faunas previously classified as indigenous to the middle Eocene, there is no proof to substantiate this contention from the other areas examined in detail in Florida.
The information which has been collected to date indicates that such occurrences of middle Eocene species above upper Eocene faunas is most reasonably explained by reworking of middle Eocene deposits during Oligocene times. The section in the V. G. Philips well No. 1 (W-440) between 516 feet and 745 feet is placed in the Oligocene.
Historically, it is of interest to note that Mossom" in discussing the Bonheur Development Company well No. 1 states: "The presence of the Dictyoconus sp. does not tell a great deal. Vaughan states that this genus has been found in surface samples at Live Oak and in many wells it has been found in the Ocala." It must be emphasized again that the occurrence of a middle Eocene species or even a rather complete middle Eocene fauna in Florida must be viewed with suspicion in determinations of age.
UPPER EOCENE
OCALA LIMESTONE.-The top of the upper Eocene occurs at a depth of 745-755 feet with the appearance of Camerina vanderstoki (Rutten and Vermunt). The species of upper
TMOp. cit., (Bull. 19) pp. 11-16, 19, 20.
"Op. cit., (17th Ann. Rept.) p. 215.




sThATIGRAPHIC AND PALEONTOLOGIC STUDIES OF WELLS 87

Eocene age and the depths at which they were recovered have been recorded previously in discussing the Oligocene and need not be repeated here. It may be noted, however, that the top portion of the section assigned to the upper Eocene is relatively barren of fossils. It is not until the depth of 945 feet is reached that abundant specimens are found.
Between 975 and 1030 feet there are abundant specimens of representative species which occur in the Ocala limestone or its equivalent elsewhere in Florida and the Coastal Plain. The base of the upper Eocene is not defined clearly in this well as a fauna of unmistakable middle Eocene age does not appear until the depth of 1757 feet is reached.
The most definite lithologic break below 1030 feet occurs at 1290 feet. This point is tentatively chosen to mark the base of the upper Eocene. If this is correct, the Ocala limestone in this area would have a thickness of 545 feet which seems to be excessive. The problem encountered in the V. G. Philips well No. 1 (W-440) is similar to that found in the City of Quin-cy water well (W-4) in which it was concluded that the Ocala limestone might have a thickness of 690+ feet."
MIDDLE EOCENE
LISBON FORMATION ".-There is only one faunal zone which contains larger Foraminifera in the section assigned to the middle Eocene. This zone which is first discovered at a depth of 1757 feet contains Discocyclina (Asterocyclina) monticellensis Cole and Ponton, Fabularia vaughani Cole and Ponton and Lepidocyclina (Pliolepidina) ariana Cole and Ponton. This fauna is identical to the one reported at a depth of 1740 feet from the Southern States Oil Corporation well No. 1 (W-19), located one and a half miles north of Monticello, Jefferson County, Florida.
""Op. cit., (Bull, 26), pp. 16, 17.
Article 17 of the "Classification and Nomenclature of Rock Units" (see: Geol. Soc. Amer. Bull., vol. 44, pp. 440-441, 1933) states: "Subsurface units shall be given formal names only where names are necessary for adequate presentation of the geologic history of the region." In the remarks under this article the following appears; "When it becomes possible to correlate a named subsurface unit with a named surface unit, the name of the surface unit is to be applied, even though the subsurface name has priority."
Careful consideration of the problems of correlation indicate that these are wise considerations to govern the creation of new names for subsurface units inasmuch as the type locality and knowledge of the subsurface unit must be fragmentary. It would seem that more confusion would result from the indiscriminate adoption of names for subsurface units than if the policy stated in article 17 were strictly followed.




88 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN TWENTY-EIGHT

A preliminary and hasty examination of the entire set of samples from the Southern States Oil Corporation well No. 1 proves that the faunas and lithologies in this well are very similar to the V. G. Philips well No. 1 (W-440).
In the Hilliard Turpentine Company well No. 1 (W- 336) the Discocyclina moitic'licnsis-Lepidocyclina ariana zone occurred between the Dictyoconus anericanus and the Leilocyclina antillea zones". The correlation and relative position of the D. monticellensis-L. ariana zone in the V. G. Philips well No. 1 (W-440) with other wells in Florida can be determined because of its known relationship in the Hilliard Turpentine Company well No. 1 (W-336), and in this well this zone was correlated with the Lisbon formation of Alabama and Mississippi. Thus, this section in the V. G. Philips well No. 1 (W-440) is assigned to the Lisbon formation.
Below the section assigned to the Lisbon formation there is an interval without fossils which is considered to represent the lower part of the Claiborne. The top of this section has been placed tentatively at 1860 feet.
LOWER EOCENE
WILCox GROUP.-There does not seem to be a paleontologic basis on which to separate the middle from the lower Locene. In fact, in peninsular Florida the division of the interval from ithe top of the upper Eocene to the top of the Upper Cretaceous appears to fall naturally into a threefold division. This division of this interval into upper, middle and lower Eocene has been used in previous studies.
In order to conform to the usage of the United States Geological Survey, the interval which would have been assigned to the lower Eocene previously is placed in this bulletin in the Paleocene. No attempt is made to delimit the upper boundary of the interval that would represent the lower Eocene except that a tentative boundary is suggested on the graphic log at 2285 feet where a change in lithology occurs.
PALEOGENE
MIDwAY FORMATION.-At 2535 feet the samples contain a dark gray, compact, slightly micaceous, calcareous shale rifO ci., (Bull. 26), p. .34.




STRATIGRAPHIC AND PALEONTOLOGIC STUDIES 01: WELLS s89

which has a very small poorly preserved fauna of Globigerina and calcite casts of forms which belong to the family Ellipsoidinidae, probably to the genus Ellipsolagena. This depth is considered to mark the top of the Midway formation.
Between 2675 and 2715 feet the fauna of small Foraminifera becomes larger with certain critical species appearing for age determination. Certain of these species are known from the Midway, such as Anotnalina acuta Plummer, Globorotalia meinbranacea (Ehrenberg), Globorotalia wilcoxensis Cushman 'and Ponton, Globigerina triloculinoides Plummer, and Spiroplectanmina mexiaensis Lalicker. Others are recorded from the Aragor formation"" of the Tampico Embayment of which Nuttalides trimpyi (Nuttall) may be mentioned.
The Midway formation in this well has a thickness of 180 feet, whereas in the Granberry well (W-285) the thickness of the Midway was 210 feet." The total thickness of the Eocene and Paleocene in the V. G. Philips well No. 1 (W-440) is 1970 feet.
UPPER CRETACEOUS
SELMA FORMATION.-At 2715 to 2725 feet the first Foraminifera of Upper Cretaceous age were encountered. The faunal break is sharp although there is very little difference in the lithology between the lower portion of the section assigned to the Paleocene and 'that which is referred to the Upper Cretaceous.
The most abundant specimens at 2715 to 2725 feet are Globotruncana arca (Cushman), but other well-known Cretaceous Foraminifera were recovered from this sample of which Gimbelina punctlata Cushman, Lituola taylorensis Cushman and Waters and Pseudotex/ularia varians Rzehak are the most diagnostic. This sample contained also rather numerous inocerainus prisms.
The next two samples covering the interval between 2725 and 2745 feet have many more species. This faunal assemblage is similar to the one encountered in the Granberry well
Nuttall, W. L. F., Focene Foraminifera from Mexico, Jour. Pal., vol. 4, No. 3, pp. 277-293, 1930.
Op. cil., (Bull. 16), p. 28.




90 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN TWENTY-EIGHT

No. 1 (W-285) between 1940 and 2050 feet although the fauna of the Granberry well No. 1 had a greater number of species." This zone in the V. G. Philips well No. 1 (W-440) is the equivalent of the zone found in the Suwannee Petroleum Corporation's Sholtz well No. I (W-166)" at 3175 to 3267 feet, in that, such species as Gyroidina alabamensis Sandidge and Stensidina americana Cushman occur in both wells. These species are found between 3165 and 3295 feet in the Hilliard Turpentine Company well No. I (W-3 36)8" in a zone which is the age equivalent of the interval under discussion in the V. G. Philips well No. 1 (W-440).
In the Florida Oil Discovery Company's Cedar Keys well No. 2 (W-3 55) above the Gyroidina alabamensis SandidgeStensibina americana Cushman zone and below the interval assigned to the Paleocene there occurred a section assigned to the Upper Cretaceous which contained Lepidorbitoides. This section has an approximate thickness of 634 feet. In the Hilliard Turpentine Company well No. 1 (W-3 36) there occurs a zone containing such species as Pseudorbitoides israelski Vaughan and Cole and Vaughanina cubensis D. K. Palmer above the Gyroidina alabamensis Sandidge -Stensi ina americana Cushman zone. At the present time this zone in the Hilliard Turpentine Company well No. 1 (W-336) is believed to be the equivalent of the Leidorbitoides zone in the Cedar Keys well No. 2 (W-35 5). The thickness of this zone in the Hilliard Turpentine Company well No. 1 (W-336) is approximately 180 feet. However, above the horizon of Vaughanina cubensis D. K. Palmer there was an interval of 200 feet assigned doubtfully to the Upper Cretaceous. Thus; there is in this well the possibility of a thickness of 380 feet between the base of the Paleocene and the Gyroidina alaba'ntensis Sandidge-Stensidina americana zone.
This interval characterized by Cretaceous orbitoidal Foraminifera is missing in the V. G. hilips well No. 1 (W-440). In this well the Paleocene lies upon the Gyroidina alabamensis Sandidge-Stensibina americana zone. In general terms this zone of smaller Foraminifera would be the approximate age
""Op. cit., (Bull. 16), pp. 34-36.
Op. cit., (Bull. 20), p. M.
OP. cit., (Bull. 26), p. 34-35.
""Op. cit., (Bull. 20), p. 16.




STIRATIGR APHIC AND PALEONTOLOGIC STUDIES OF WElLS 91

equivalent of the Taylor marl of Texas. The V. G. Philips well No. 1 (W-440) has virtually the same conditions and fauna at the Paleocene-Cretaceous contact as occurred in the Granberry well No. 1. There is a considerable section of Upper Cretaceous missing in these wells which occurs in certain wells in peninsular Florida.
The upper portion of the section assigned to the Selma formation in the V. G. Philips well No. 1 (W-440) is largely chalk which grades downward into chalk interbedded with gray shale. The lower portion of the Selma formation in this well is composed of dense, light gray, calcareous shale below which occurs some green shales which are included in the Selma, but these green shales might represent the upper portion of the Eutaw.
The Selma formation in the V. G. Philips well No. 1 (W440) has a thickness of 877 feet. In the Granberry well No. I this same formation had a thickness of 942 feet. The Cedar Keys well No. 2 (W-355) had a thickness of about 650 feet from the top of the Gyroidina alabamensis Sandidge-Stensibina americana Cushman zone to the top of the Eutaw.
EUTAw FORMATION.-At 3592 feet the sample contains fragments of a micaceous, glauconitic sandstone which resembles material from other wells in which the Selma-Eutaw contact could be ascertained with considerable certainty. The appearance of this sandstone certainly indicates ,that the drill had penetrated the Eutaw, but the green shale which, appeared at a depth of 3432 feet might be included in the Eutaw. In a well of this type it is virtually impossible to be absolutely certain of a contact which must be chosen by a change in lithology for two basic reasons: 1. the samples are all cuttings and contain many "cavings" which obscure the primary characteristics of the material, and 2. the distance between authenticated wells is too great to be sure of the change in conditions which might take place.
The section assigned to the Eutaw is composed dominantly of shale, most of which is dense, waxy and greenish in color in the upper portion and brownish gray to black or speckled in the lower portion. There are some thin sandstone beds, but it is difficult to delimit these exactly.
The section assigned to the Eutaw in the V. G. Philips well





92 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN TWENTY-EIGHT

No. I (W-440) has a thickness of 578 feet. The thickness of the Eutaw in the other wells studied to date is: Granberry No. 1, 5 75 feet; Cedar Keys No. 2 (W- 35 5),$ 5 73 feet; Hilliard Turpentine Company No. 1 (W-4336), 8 20 feet.
TUSCALOOSA FORMATION.-At 4170 feet fragments of a dark red, micaceous shale appeared. As there is a considerable hithologic change between this sample and the one above it, this depth was chosen as the top of the Tuscaloosa formation. The Tuscaloosa formation in this area consists largely of shale with numerous rather thin sandstone beds and two or more thick sandstones. The general characteristics are shown on the graphic log. Therefore, a detailed description is superfluous, particularly in view of the fact that the character of the samples would permit only generalization.
Certain reports which have coine to my attention consider that many wells of this type have penetrated the Lower Cretaceous. This may be true. In 1938 1 wrote regarding the lower portion of the Granberry well No. 1: "The lithologic character of certain portions of the section encountered irA the Granberry well below the Eutaw corresponds rather closely to the Trinity described in the Mississippi well.
"Until more evidence is obtained it is futile to speculate regarding the possibility that the well under discussion actually penetrated the Lower Cretaceous""
The lower portion of the Granberry well No. 1 was rather completely cored so that one had optima conditions for study. The conservative treatment seemed to be that this entire lower section in the Granberry well No. 1 should be assigned to the Tuscaloosa formation until more positive proof of Lower Cretaceous age can be established. Nothing has yet appeared to cause me to believe that these wells did not end in the Tuscaloosa.

PALEONTOLOGICAL RECORD (W-440)
399 feet (first sample)
Dictyoconuts cookzn (Moberg)
Heterostegina texana Gravell and Hanna
Lepidocyclina (Pliotepidina) ariana Cole and Ponton

59Op. ci., (Bull. 26), pp. 26, 27.






STRATIGRAPHIC AND PALEONTOLOGIC STUDIES OF WELLS 9)

516-546 feet
Dictyoconus arnericanus (Cushman)
cooei (Moberg)
Discorinopsis gunteri Cole
Eodictyoconts cubensis (Cushman and Bermudez) 546-554 feet
Dictyoconus americanus (Cushman)
cookei (Moberg)
Discorinopsis gunteri Cole
Eodictyoconus cubnsis (Cushman and Bermudez) Lepidocyclina (Pliolepidina) macdonaldi Cushman
Pseudocbrysalidina floridana Cole 578-584 feet
EJponides gunteri Cole
Lituonella floridana Cole 615-625 feet
Lepidocyclina (Pliolepidina) cedarkeysensis Cole 625-635 feet
Coskinolina floridana Cole Textularia coryensis Cole 65 5-665 feet
Spirolina coryensis Cole 675-685 feet
Lepidocyclina (Pliolepidina) cedarkeysensis Cole (abundant) 745-75 5 feet
Camerina vanderstoki (Rutten and Vermunt) 945-955 feet
Camerina noodybranchensis Gravell and Hanna 975-985 feet
Operculinoides willcoxi (Heilprin) 98 5-995 feet Operculina barkeri Vaughan and Cole (rare) 995-1005 feet
Lepidocyclina (Lepidocyclina) mortoni Cushman 1015-1016 feet
Carnerina jacksonensis Gravell and Hanna
Operculina barkeri Vaughan and Cole (abundant) 1018-1030 feet
Operculinoides cookei (Cushman) vaug/iani (Cushman) 1757-1768 feet
Carnagueyia perplexa Cole and Bermudez
Discocyclina (Asterocyclina) monticellensis Cole and Ponton
Discorbis inornatus Cole
Faindaria vaitghani Cole and Ponton
Lepidocyclina (Pliolepidina) ariana Cole and Ponton






94 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN TWENTY-EIGHT

1799-1809 feet
Lepidocyclina (PJiol/pidina) ariana Cole and Ponton (very abundant) 2535-2545 feet
Ellipsolagena (?) sp.
Globigerina sp. 2675-2685 feet
Anomalina sp.
Cibicides blanpiedi Toulmin
Eponides sp.
Nonionella insecta (Schwager)
Planulina mar/elana Hadley 2685-2695 feet
Anomalina acuta Plummer
dorri Cole
sp.
Bulimina sp.
Eggerella trochoides (Reuss)
Eponides sp.
Glob)gerina trdoculinoides Plummer
Globorotalia snembranacea (Ehrenberg)
Nutallides trilMpyi (Nuttall)
Pseudoglandulina manifesto (Reuss)
Spiroplectammina mexiaensis Lalicker 2695-2705 feet
Anomlina sp.
Cibicides sp. cf. C. pseudonngcrianus (Cushman)
Gyroidina sp.
Siphon/na sp.
Spiropjectammin/na expanse (Plummer) 2705-2715 feet
Globigerina sp.
Globorotalia menmbranacca (Ehrenberg)
willcoxensis Cushman and Ponton Nuttallides trin fpyi (Nuttall) 2715-2725 feet
Bolivina incrassata Reuss
*Globorotalia membranacea (Ehrenberg)
Globotruncana area (Cushman) cretacei Cushman Giimbelina punctulata Cushman
Lituola taylorensis Cushman and Waters
Nonionella welleri (Plummer)
Pseudotextilaria varians Rzchak
Pullenia americana Cushman 2735-2745 feet Anoanalina henbesti Plummer
nelsoni W. Berry
sholtzensis Cole
sp. (same as figures 9, 10, plate 2, Florida Geol. Survey Bull. 20)






STRATIGRAPHIC AND PALEONTOLOGIC STUDIES O WELLS 95

Arenobulimina americana Cushman
llolivina incrassata Reuss
BoI:-Ptonn'x 1cnnri'ta (Jones) Buliminella carseyar 1Iltmt-er
Cibicides stepl>nsoni Cushman
Clavulinoides trilatera (Cushman)
Dorotbia stephensoni Cushman
Eiggerella trochoides (Rteuss)
Globotruncana area (Cushman) fornicata Plummer Gtlmbelina costulata Cushman
plunmnerue Loetterle
Gyroidina alabauzensis Sandidge 1'seudotextnlaria varians Rzehak
Pullenia americana Cushman
Stensiulna americana Cushman 2745-2755 feet
Anomalina pinguis Jennings
Gyroidina globosa (v. Hagenow)
nifida (Reuss)
Heterostoniella americana Cushman 2755-2765 feet
Anomalina taylorensis Carsey Buliminella carseyac Plummer
'Globorotalia membranacea (Ehrenberg)
Giumbelina costulata Cushman
excolata Cushman
Gyroidina depressa (Alth)
globosa (v. Hagenow)
Marssonella oxycona (Reuss) Planulina cedarkeysensis Cole
1seudo/extnlaria varians Rzehak
Reussella cushmani Brotzen
Valvulineria allomor phinoides (Reuss)

DESCRIPTIONS OF CORES (W-440)
1966-1983 feet.-Motitled gray and brownish, slightly crystalline limestone with many scattered grains of glauconite and a few small flakes of lignite; some Foraminifera and shell fragments.
2127-2137 feet.-One fragment of light brown silicified limestone; one fragment of light brown, soft, compact limestone with small lignite streaks.
2137-2142 feet.-Brownish gray, compact, soft limestone with few scattered grains of glauconite.
Specimens so marked may represent species from the Paleocene occurring as "cavings".





96 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN TWENTY-EIGHT

2147-2152 feet.-Brownish gray, compact, semi-crystalline, non-fosiliferous limestone with an occasional az'ili of lauconite.
2152-2157 feet.-Brownish gray, porous, granular limestone with occasionally streaks which contain numerous dark to light green glauconite grains.
2157-2162 feet.-Mottled tan and gray, hard limestone with occasional small grains of glauconite and molds of fossils.
2162-2175 feet.-Fragment of light brownish gray chert with soft, light brownish gray limestone attached to one side.
2198-2205 feet.-Light brownish gray, porous, crystalline, foraminiferal limestone with an occasional small glauconite grain.
2205-2210 feet.-See 2198-2205 feet.
2288-2293 feet (Core?) .-Several fragments of light brownish gray, soft, porous, crystalline limestone.

DESCRIPTIONS OF SPECIES FAMILY VALVULINIDAE
Subfamily EGGERELLINAE
Genus LITUONELLA Schlumberger, 1905 Lituonella floridana Cole
Plate 12, Figures 4, 5
1937. Lituoncila sp. (?) Cushman, Cont. Cushman Lab. Foram. Res. Sp.
Publication No. 8, p. 185, pl. 22, fig. 14.
1941. Litutnella floridana Cole, Florida Geol. Survey Bull. 19, p. 23, pl. 3.
figs. 14-17; pl. 4, fig. 10; pl. 6, figs. 9-11.
The axial thin section (figure 4, plate 12) of a specimen from the Ravlin-Brown well (W-440) is identical with that of a paratype specimen (see figure 9, plate 6, Florida Geol. Survey Bull. 19) from the Carpenter's Home well (W448).
First appearance: In the V. G. Philips No. 1 well at a depth of 578-584 feet.
Occurrence: Oligocene, reworked from the middle Eocene.






STRATIGRAPHIC AND PALEONTOLOGIC STUDIES OF WELLS 97

Genus COSKINOLINA Stache, 1875 Coskinolina floridana Cole
Plate 12, Figures 2, 6, 8
1928. Coskinolina cookei Moberg (part), Florida Geol. Survey 19th Ann.
Rept., pp. 166-168, pl. 3, fig. 6, (not figs. 1-5, 7-8).
1941. Coskinolina fjoridana Cole, Florida Geol. Survey Bull. 19, pp. 24, 25,
pl. 3, figs. 1-7; pl. 4, figs. 1-9; pl. 5, figs. 1-5, 11; pl. 18, fig. 9.
1942. Coskinolina floridana Cole. Cole, Florida Geol. Survey Bull. 20,
p. 21, pl. 4, figs. 4, 5.
Typical specimens occur, but not in great abundane.

First appearance: In the V. G. Philips No. 1 well (W-440) at a depth of 625-63 5 feet.
Occurrence: Oligocene, reworked from the middle Eocene.

Genus DICTYOCONUS Blanckenhorn, 1900
Dictyoronus an:ericanus (Cushman) Plate 1;.Pigure 3
1919. Conidites americana Cushman, Carnegie Inst. Washington Publ.
291, p. 43, text fig. 3.
1942. Dictyoconus americanus (Cushman). Cole, Florida Geol. Survey
Bull. 20, pp. 21-24, pl. 3, figs. 12, 13; pl. 6, figs. 1-9; pl. 7, figs. 1-5;
pl. 16, figs. 14, 15 (references and synonymy).
1944. Dictyoconus americanus (Cushman). Cole, Florida Geol. Survey
Bull. 26, pp. 36, 37, pl. 4, figs. 1-6; pl. 8, figs. 12, 13; pl. 18, fig. 11.
Entirely typical specimens of this species were recovered. This species has been described and discussed in previous bulletins so that additional remarks are not required.
First appearance: In the V. G. Philips No. 1 well (W-440) at a depth of 516-546 feet; abundant in the next sample at 546-5 54 feet.
Occurrence: Oligocene, reworked from the middle Eocene.

Dictyoconus cookie (Moberg)
Plate 13Eigures 1, 7, 9
1928. Coskinolina cooked Moberg, Florida Geol. Survey 19th Ann. Rept., pp. 166-168, pl. 3, figs. 1-5, 7-8 (not fig. 6).
1941. Dictyoconus cooked (Moberg). Cole, Florida Geol. Survey Bull. 19, pp. 26, 27, pl. 3, figs. 11-13; pl. 5, figs. 6-10, 12, 13; pl. 6, figs. 1-8;
pl. 18, fig. 12.






99 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN TWENTY-EIGHT

1942. Dictyoconus cookei (Moberg). Cole, Florida Geol. Survey Bull. 20,
pp. 24, 25, pl. 3, fig. 10; pl. 4, fig. 8.
The first sample at 399 feet contained four specimens which the thin sections prove should be assigned to this species. The horizontal plate which subdivides the chambers can be seen distinctly on the right hand side of figure 7, plate 12. Abundant specimens were not found until the sample at 516-546 feet was examined.
First appearance: In the V. G. Philips No. 1 well (W-440) at a dept> of 399 feet (first sample); abundant at a depth of
5 16-546 feet.
Occurrence: Oligocene, reworked from the middle Eocene.

Genus EODICTYOCONUS Cole and Bermudez, 1944
Eocictyocotnus cubensis (Cushman and Bermudez) Plate 12, Figures 10, 11
1936. Psculorbitolina cubensis Cushman and Bermudez, Contrib. Cushman Lab. Foram. Res., vol. 12, p. 59, pl. 10, figs. 27-30.
1941. Psen(orbitolina cubensis Cushman and Bermudez. Cole, Florida
Geol. Survey Bull. 19, pp. 22, 23, pl. 2, figs. 5-11.
1942. Psendorbitolina cubensis Cushman and Bermudez. Cole, idem., Bull.
20, pp. 18, 19, pl. 3, fig. 4; pl. 5, fig. 1.
1944. Psendorbitolina cubensis Cushman and Bermudez. Cole, 14em., Bull.
26, pp. 35, 36, pl. 2, fig. 7; pl. 8, figs. 14, 15; pl. 13, figs. 1, 2.
1944. Eodictyoconus cubensis (Cushman and Bermudez). Cole and Bermudez, Bull. Amer. Pal., vol. 28, No. 113, pp. 6-10, pl. 1, fig. 1;
pl. 2, figs. 1-12; pl. 3, figs. 1-5.
The specimens from this well have been compared with topotype specimens from the middle Eocene, Jabaco formation of Cuba, as well as with specimens previously assigned to this species from other Florida wells. There are no significant differences.
First appearance: In the V. G. Philips No. 1 well (W-440) at a depth of 516-546 feet.
Occurred ce: Oligocene, reworked from the middle Eocene.

Family MILIOLIDAE
Genus FABULARIA Defrance, 1820 Fabidaria vanghani Cole and Ponton
Plate 15, Figure 6; Plate 16, Figures 1-10
1934. Fabularia vaughani Cole and Ponton, Amer. Midland Nat., voL. 15, No. 2, pp. 139-141, pl. 1, figs. 1-9.





STRATIGRAPHIC AND PAL.EONTOLOGIC STUDIES OF WELLS 99

1937. Fabularia vaugbani Cole and Ponton. Hanzawa, Jour. Pal., vol. 11,
No. 2, pp. 111-113, pl. 20, figs. 1-4.
1942. Fabidaria vanghani Cole and Ponton. Cole, Florida Geol. Survey
Bull. 20, pp. 25, 26, pl. 3, fig. 14; pl. 15, fig. 1.
At 1757-1768 feet in the V. G. Philips No. 1 well (W-440) a few specimens representing the genus Fabularia were recovered, and at 1789-1799 feet, numerous individuals were encountered. To date, the only species of Fabularia described from North America is F. vanghani Cole and Ponton. Cole and Ponton had specimens assigned to this species from the Southern States Oil Corporation well (W-19) located about one and a half miles north of Monticello, Jefferson County, Florida. Cole and Ponton state "there occur at 1740 feet (in W-19) specimens of Fabularia which appear to be identical to those found in the Jacksonville wells. These specimens are not as well preserved as those from the Jacksonville wells, but apparently exhibit the same characters."
These specimens of Fabularia in the Southern States Oil Corporation well (W-19) were associated with LePidocyclina ariana Cole and Ponton and Asterocychina monticellensis Cole and Ponton. As these species occur with the specimens of Fabularia in the V. G. Philips No. 1 well (W-440), it was desirable to compare the specimens of Fabularia from W-440 with those from W-19, and, then, compare the entire group with specimens from the type locality of F. vaughani.
Four poorly preserved specimens were available from the Southern States Oil Corporation well (W-19). One axial (figure 10, plate 16) and two transverse (figures 2, 8, plate 16) thin sections were made from these specimens. One transverse section with a maximum diameter of 1.16 mm. has a nearly spherical central chamber with internal diameters of 320 x 340 /1. This section has 5 biloculine chambers following the central chamber. The other transverse section with a maximum diameter of 0.95 mm. has a subspherical central chamber with internal diameters of 260 x 320 p. There are 4 biloculine chambers disposed around the central chamber. As these specimens were eroded, the diameter and number of biloculine chambers would be increased in uneroded specimens. The axial section was cut from a specimen with a length of 1.56 mm. and a height of 0.95 mm. Unfortunately, the central chamber was lost in the preparation of this thin sec-





100 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN TWENTY-EIGHT

tion. The eroded surface of these specimens exhibited costa with a width of about 60 A' which anastomose.
Five thin sections were prepared from specimens from the V. G. Philips No. 1 well (W-440). All of these specimens were eroded. Therefore, the measurements given of gross diameters are smaller than those which uneroded specimens would have. Of the two transverse sections available, one has a maximum diameter of 0.98 mm. with a subspherical initial chamber with diameters of 400 x 460 p around which there are 3 biloculine chambers; the other has a maximum diameter of 0.74 mm. with a subspherical initial chamber with diameters of 360 x 320 p. This specimen also has three biloculine chambers surrounding the initial chamber. The dimensions of the axial sections follow:
Length -f- -i4- mfin. i. mm. -- 1. 4 m.
Height - - 0.74 mm. 0.93 mm. 0.86 mm.
Diameters of initial chamber 240x320 IA 310x320 It 360x440 jx Number of biloculine chambers 5 5 3
Eroded specimens from the V. G. Philips No. 1 well (W440) have the same appearance as the specimens from W-19, exhibiting rather heavy, anastomosing costa. The conclusion was reached that the specimens from the Southern States Oil Corporation well (W-19) represent the same species as do those found in the V. G. Philips No. 1 well (W-440). There remains, however, the problem of whether these specimens should be assigned to F. vaughani.
In the Cole collection there are five specimens from the well (W-72c) drilled by the Gibbs Dry Dock Company, South Jacksonville, Duval County, Florida. A transverse section with a maximum diameter of 0.94 mm. has 5 biloculine chambers surrounding a central chamber with an internal diameter of 140 IA. A note on this thin section states that it was not ground to the center of the specimen. Therefore, it is probable that only the top portion of the central chamber is shown on this thin section. Another transverse thin section with a maximum diameter of 1.32 mm. has 6+ biloculine chambers, but the central area is destroyed. The third transverse section is broken, but a portion of this broken section has a maximum diameter of 0.96 mm. with 4 biloculine chambers. The only axial section available has a length of 1.2 mm.





STRATIGRAPHIC AND PALEONTOLOGIC STUDIES OF WELLS 101

and a height of 0.94 mm. The central chamber has diameters of 140 x 180 p. There are 6 biloculine chambers exhibited in this specimen.
The uncut specimen from W-72c has a length of 2.76 mm., a 'width of 1.5 mm. and a height of 1.7 mm. Anastomosing costa with widths from 60 to 80 p are present.
The specimens from the Jacksonville wells (type specimens) apparently have a smaller central chamber, at least, in those examined to date. Many specimens from the Jacksonville wells have a greater size than any recovered from W19 or W-440. But, in no other significant manner do the three lots of specimens differ. Therefore, they are all assigned to the same species.
First appearance: In the V. G. Philips No. I well (W-440) at a depth of 1757-1768 feet; abundant at a depth of 17891799 feet.
Occurrence: Middle Eocene, Lisbon formation.

Family CAMERINIDAE
Subfamily CAMERININAE
.Genus CAMERINA Brugi&e, 1792
Camerina jacksonensis Gravell and Hanna Plate 13, Figures 3-6
1935. Camerina jacksonensis Gravell and Hanna, Jour. Pal., vol. 9, No. 4, p. 331, pl. 29, figs. 1-5, 7, 8, 10, 11, 13, 14.
1939. Camerina jacksonensis Gravelt and Hanna. Barker, Proc. U. S. Nat.
Mus., vol. 86, No. 3052, p. 324, pl. 13, fig. 6; pl. 20, fig. 8; pl. 22,
fig. 9.
1942. Camerina jacksonensis Gravell and Hanna. Cole, Florida Geol. Survey Bull. 20, pp. 26, 27, pl. 8, figs. 3-5.
Test small, lenticular, some specimens with a very nr.rrow flange, others without this feature, completely involute; surface ornamentation consists of a group of beads of clear shell material. The beads have a diameter of about 100 p and are raised above the surface of the test. These beads are radially arranged from the apex of the test and normally do not occur on the flange.
The septa are oblique and gently recurved at their distal ends. Transverse sections show a strongly developed axial