Citation
Geology of Holmes and Washington Counties, Florida  ( FGS: Bulletin 21 )

Material Information

Title:
Geology of Holmes and Washington Counties, Florida ( FGS: Bulletin 21 )
Series Title:
Florida Geological Survey: Bulletin
Creator:
Vernon, Robert O ( Robert Orion ), 1912-
Louisiana State University and Agricultural and Mechanical College -- School of Geology
Florida Geological Survey
Place of Publication:
Tallahassee Fla
Publisher:
Published for the State Geological Survey
Publication Date:
Language:
English
Physical Description:
xi, 161 p. : ill., 2 folded maps (in pocket) ; 28 cm.

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Geology -- Florida -- Washington County ( lcsh )
Geology -- Florida -- Holmes County ( lcsh )
Washington County ( local )
City of Ocala ( local )
City of Tampa ( local )
Town of Suwannee ( local )
City of Marianna ( local )
Holmes County ( local )
Limestones ( jstor )
Terraces ( jstor )
Counties ( jstor )
Sand ( jstor )
Geology ( jstor )
Genre:
bibliography ( marcgt )
non-fiction ( marcgt )

Notes

Bibliography:
Includes bibliographical references ( p. 146-153).
General Note:
Series statement: ( FGS: Bulletin 21 )
Statement of Responsibility:
by Robert O. Vernon; prepared in cooperation with the Louisiana School of Geology.

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
The author dedicated the work to the public domain by waiving all of his or her rights to the work worldwide under copyright law and all related or neighboring legal rights he or she had in the work, to the extent allowable by law.
Resource Identifier:
002037005 ( aleph )
01629216 ( oclc )
AKM4766 ( notis )
gs 42000199 ( lccn )

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STATE DEPARTMENT


RICE,


Suj


OF OF ervisi


FLORIDA CONSERVATION


or


Conservation


Herman Gunter, Director


'Geological Survey


GEOLOGICAL


BULLETIN


NO.


GEOLOGY


OF


HOLMES


AND


WASHINGTON


COUNTIES,


FLORIDA


ROBERT


VERNON,


Ph.D.


stant Geologist,


Florida


Geological


urvey


Prepared


cooperation


with


the Lout


siana


School


of Geology


-a-






















I


Photograph by Dr.


0. D. von Engein,


Come


- ;
~'- 4


Frontispiece.


atate


Road


115-150


Foot


Surface,


one-half


miles


south


Greenhead,


Washington















LETTER


OF


TRANS MITTAL


Tallahassee,


July


Honorable S. Supervisor oj


Florida


1941


Rice


Conservation.


Sir:


I have


pleasure


transmitting


Florida


Conservation


Depart-


ment


Geological


Bulletin


entitled


"Geology


Holmes


and


Washington


sistant


Counties,


Geologist


Florid a, Florida


" by


Robert


Geological


Vernon


Ph.'D


Survey.


This


and


present :Holmes


first


detailed


physiography,


and


Washington


geological


study


stratigraphy


Counties.


counties


and


Geological


economic


studies


Florida,
geology


other


countie


Florida, pretation


planned


develop


and


cultural geological


should interest history


bring


new


geology,


wealth


and


and


industry


inter-


state.


Herman


Gunter


Director


Geological


Survey.


U 1
Wi,


at "U









TABLE


CONTEND TS


PAGE


Foreword Abstract


...... a a a a a ... a a a ..... - a ... ... a a a a a a ... a ......... a
.... a a a a ..... ... a. a a ...... a .... a ..... a .... a a a a ..... a a a a .... a. p a a ... a a a .... a a a a ... ... a a ....... a a ... a ...... ........ a .....


Introduction .....
Location -.. .....
i api.s ... --...-....a.-.
Indian Occupa
Utilization of


tio ................... ....... -..... -. .-a--a.. ..a--a... *..
Resources and Present Classifi'ca'tio'n"a a a a a .. a aa a aa a aa ..... aa a aa ..


Phy3~s Ogr1'ap1hy ...a...a -........a......... -aa. a.. ..
Introduction a ........aa..-.----.--.--.---.aa.a.
River Valley Province ......
Ohoctawbatchee River ..
Fl o od i1a in -. ..-.....a.-.....
Natural levees a..........
Rim swamp streams
Tributaries to the Choctl Stream Terraces ........ ......


* a .... a - ... a a a a a --- ...... - a a .... --- .... ....... a .... a a. a a. a a a a ... a .... a
a. ..... --------- ......... a a a a a a a a a - a a ... a ........ ... a ...... a a a ..........


...... ...... a a. ............... a .... a a ..........----------------. a a a ................
... ... a - ... a ...... a a ...... a a a ... a ..... - a a ... a .... ... - a a ....--------------a a a a
* a a a a a - a --- ...... a .... --- ......... --- .... a - ........ a ... a a - ... a - .... .....
a ...... a a .......... ..... a ........ ................................. a ... ... a ....


awhatchiee


R iaavaar ........... .


10 -20 80-50 60-100 145-16


Foot Foot Foot 5 Foo


Surface Surf ace Surf ace )t Surf ac


a----------------------....------------a a.-----------a-----------------------------------------------..... - a
........ a ... a a a a a. ...... a a .... a .... a a a a a a a a a a ..... a a a a a a a e a a a a ...... a ... a a
........ a a a ........... a ... a ..... ... a a. a ................ a ....... a ........... t a aa
e - - a...----------------a-------------------------a a---------------------a.a-----------------------------a.a....a a-a-


Plains Provint stal Surfaces Introduction 5-30. Foot Sur 60-105 Foot S 115-150 Foot 170-220 Foot 250-820 Foot


Summary of Terraces Origin of Terraces .. Regional Uplift a.a.aa.a...a. Steepheadls ..-...a...aa ....aa...


Limestone


u ac--e... ...-....a.................a.a.a...........aa --- a..................... --...... .
S fa ce ...aaa.. -------------------...------------...-. -----------------------------------------a...... . .
Surface .......a.........a.................a.a.aaa..aaa....aa....a a a ....a...a.a...a.a.a..


-- a a a ............. .................


Sinks


Stratigraphy a .aaa.aa.a.a..a..a..a..a..a..a.....
Introduction ................-----------Maps and Sections .....
IEocenie S series ..a..a.....a..a..a.....a..- a
Jackson Group .....
Ocala Limestone
Historical su Physiography Character of Thickness an


Paleontology Local details


a a a ....................... a a a a------------------a a a a a a a a-----------------------------............ ..... ------- a a a a
-a a a - a aaaaaaaa a a aaaaaaaaaa~aaaa a a a a a a a a a aa.aa.aaa.aa a... a a a a a a a a a a a
a a a a .... .... a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a
a a ....... a a a a a a a a a a a a a aaaaa-a a a a a a a a a a - a a a----------------a a a a a ..... a a a ...... a a a a a a a ....


inlnary a.a.aa.a.aa-a. and outcrop


a a a a a a a a a .. .. aa
pattern ..


..stru..tauae -.a...a.a..a.a.a..a.a.a.a........a.aa.a.aa........ a-a-............. ......


Coastal
Coa

















Miocene


PAOH
Inti'oduction .....cp.** c~.**.....*................ ..... .............................. .. .......... 55
His tor~1ic a I summaryi I 1 3 .... ............... .. ......- .......... ......... ................ .. ...... 0
The Suwannee limestone in Holmes and Washington
CJou nties .ca .......... .. ..................c....c..c ...c..c.... ....n...... 57
D efinition .cc.......a..a....c......c.c............ ....cca...............a.cccccscccc.......... 59
Physiographic expression and outcrop ....................... 59
L ithology ... ... ... .............. *cS C c*cc.c.a.c .. ..c. ....cc....c. ....c..c .....c.. 59



Series .. .......... .............. ........ .. ......eeo .. cecs........... cc.................... ....e... 6 7


Tampa Fiorniatiou I...........
Historlical summary ............

Outcrop and physiographic
Litliology and thickness ..


........ ........ ................ .................. ........ c
......... ... ...... .... .......... ... ........ ...... ..........


* c a c c I c ...........
expression


cc .......... .......... ............ ....
....................................


Loal e tls .. ...............c..................... .................... .....................
Aliun B luff GIroutp ... e.................... c...... .... ....cc..c...... ........ ....c.....a.
Historical summary ... ............ c.. ....... ............. .............cc................
The Alum Bluff group in Holmes and Washington Counties Outcrop and physiographic expression ....................................
]LithologyJ ..ce.......... cc........c.....c...cca.........cc........c... .c. .cas......s.. e.....
Ti['mIckncie ss an ii s tru ~c turi e ........- ..................aa-.---cc... -ccc ..... ....... ..... ccccc .aacc..
Paleonitology cc..ac... ...c.......c..c..ecc.c-ac.c~ c...........cc...........c...... c a c...... ..
L~ocall details


Choctawhatchee Formation
Historical summary ..
The Choctawbatchee f
ton Counties ... ......


orlnation in Holmes and W~ashing-


Outcrop- and physiographic expression ...................---- ..........


Paleontolog yT c. ...c.c. c......... ......................... ..... .....
Local details ..c.c..cc.... ......... .... c .... cacaccca ..... ..... .c a..... c ... ....... ........ .......
Post-Mllocenie Stratigraphly .. .............................. ............ c...... ........... ..... ~...c...c.
Historical summary ......... .............. ..... ..... ............... ....... ......-........
Introduction and general lithology3 ...'........... ........
Silicifiled boul11deis S ..... -...................... .... .... -cc -.... .....c.....c....... .. a.c....c
Pliocene?7 or Pleistocene Series c......f...a. ......... .... a.acc.cccaa............-. -- .........................
Deposits underlying the 250-320 Foot Surface ..............
E xposures .. c. ...c ...c.................. --....... .....................
Pleistocene Series ca.c.... .... .. c..c........c........ ....cc accc cc.e c . .c..c.. ......................c
Deposits underlying the 170-220 Foot Surface and the 145-165
Eoot Surface c c.c.. c.cc.... ......... .....ccc..cc ..cccc.....c .cc ...c c.......c......
Exposures .... ................................. .cc.a .c................... c..................


Deposits
Foot
-n- I-


underlying


115-150


Foot


Surface


60-100


SS u riffa e ...-.-......c.c.-...c.c......... ----------------.--------------------------------------c.c.c.a..cc..c .......c. :.33 7


9





ILLUSTRATIONS


Frontispiece-The coastwise 115-150 Foot Surface,


south


Greenhead,


Washington


twvo and one-half miles


County


PAGE


Plate


Geologic map of Holmes County-In


pocket


Geologic map of


Washington


County--In


pocket


Table


Chart


fluvial


terrace


ch'aracteristics


........ a-. a..... ....,.a... 12


Correlation


Pliocene


Pleistocene


surfaces


showing


possible


equivalents


. .... ... ....... .. .. . -.. ....... ....*..... ....... ............. 18


Table


Counties


of geologic


forinations


H-olmes


Washington


........................ ......aaa..a............ a-a... ........................ a ........... a 34


Faunal


Molluscan Molluscan formation


checklist


faunal


fanal


of the Ocala


checklist


limestone


of the


checklist


Alum


Bluff


47-50 87-95


group


of the Choctawhiatchee
..... a........ .......... .... ... ....... ........ ... 111-120


Foraminiferal


checklist


Alum


Bluff,


Choctaw-


hatchee,


Figure


Sunmroary Pleistocene
Drowning


from River


high


Miocene


.. .........a.....aa......a.....1


the characteristics of the


deposits,


marked


of the lower floodplains


part


leposits


definite


of Holmes


along


various


levels Valley,


21-127


Pilocene or


resulting


Choctawhatchee


... ..wa-- . . ...aa .. . .. -a ... a- ..-----a. -aa .. 7


Bounding scarp between Surfaces .......... -...............-


the alluvial 30-50 and


60-100


Foot


Generalized and


diagrammatic


profile


across


the Choctaw-


hatchee


River


in central


Holnes


County


n~ ...a-.. .s-a.. ..., a...- 11


Partial from .


restoration


,ounger


of the 60-105


older


surfaces


Foot by


Surface seaward


,separated facing es-


caIrprnents


..a.... .. .. ... .. .. ...........-...a....... a..........a, a. s...aa Sa aaa..... a ....a.. .. .. 7


Recent beach and dune ridge, near


Panama


City, Florida


.. 19


Diagrammatic


cumulation


profile


on the


beach


Foot


ridge


sand


dune


Surface


Drainage


patterns,


ridges


southern


Washington


County


. .. ...... ... ...... ....a.aa.a............aa.. p.... -- a aa .------. a ...-a.a .... 22


Escarpment


firom1


separating


the 115-150


Foot


the coastwise 60-105


Foot


Surface


Surface


A steephead


"The


Deadens"


...a. a....... .. ........... a.. a~... .a.a. .......aaa e a.a.. a..2 9J


,a prairie


.. a- .-.. ...... .... ...... a a a aa.-..- a a a a..-..-. -a ..-------- 31


Porter Index


Geea
Geologic
Geologic


Pond,


map


southea


stern


to geologic


geologic sections sections


sections


Washington


sections


County


..... ........81


o....a.. a...................-a aasaGs a .a 6


aOa a.. asa o.aa OlmWa aOO.. aaaa .aa.OO aG.O.OBO 5OOa as~ 37


... a a a a ... a 55 ..... a a a S ... ......... .... S ... a a a .... ......... a as. a ....
a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a ... ... 5 ....... a -. a a .... 5 ...... a a a --- ....... a a a a a a ... a a


Alluvially


filled


terrace


valley


lying


on the


Alum


Bluff


group Alum


Bluff


sediments


exposed


at locality


1-12,


Holmes


County


a asas aO aaaa sa .a *a.q 5..*5 5 aG aa. - -aa - ... I g maa -a a a 86










FORE WORD


The


study


a cooperative


Holmes


and


agreement


Washington


between


Counties


School


is made


Geology


possible Louisi-


ana


State


University


and


State


Geological


Survey


Florida.


The


School


Geology


provided laboratory


facilities


and


offices


Flor-


Survey


furnished


financial


assistance.


Dr. School


Henry


Geolog


. Howe, D.
by, directed


irector the


cesearelh,


Louisiana
prepared


State
theec


University


hecklists


Foraminif era


in the tology,


area.


Louisiana


and


James


State


accompanied


McGuirt,


University


'writer


Assistant


prepared


on several Professor


lists


field


trips


Paleon-


Bryozoa


and


also


accompanied


writer


on several


field


trips.


Robert


dents


Hendee


Louisiana


State


Smith,


University,


Benjamin


and


Tator,


Charles


graduate


Walton


stuB3ir-


minghiam-Southiern


College,


Birmingham


Alabama


assisted


writer


field


work.


Appreciation


ana cism


State


and


is hereby


University discussion.


accorded


faculty,


who


various


gave


freely


members


their


time


Louisiin criti-


The


writer


is grateful


Dowling,


1937-41


Supervisor,


and


Rice


present


Supervisor


State


Florid a


Department of


Conservation


and


Herman


Gunter


State


Geolo-


gist, fossil


their


materials,


financial


publications,


and


Gunter


made


equipment.


Mr.


available


Horton


type


Buchan


cartographer


Florida


State


Road


Department,


partially


pared


Louisiana


map State


base.


University,


Dougla


prepared


Smith


other


student


illustrations


engineering,


and


maps


accompanying


this


report.


Mr.


Harry


Goodrich,


Director


work,


.5.


Department


Agriculture,


furnished


.S.


Forest


Service


timber type maps to


used


as a base for the


geological


maps


accompanying


report.


1fl~ (


4nrdnn


PulornlltcdnaiRL


n.nd Dr C?


Wvth A


Cooke


- '1'j -


'l~bi'


I|








ABSTRACT


This


report


on the


geology


Holmes


and


Wa shington


Counties,


western counties.


Florida,


describes


results


detailed


study


brief


summary


resources,


utilization


land


and


classi-


fication


each


county


given.


The


early


Indian


occupation


this


area


shown


presence


a series


mounds.


Artifacts


collected Weeden


from


Island


these suggest


period


that the


middens


were


constructed


(1400-1550


The area can


be roughly


divided into


two


physiographie


provinces


The


River


Valley


Province,


including


four


depositional


stream


surfaces


and


associated


older


rocks


The


Coastal


Plains


Province,


including


believed


five


that


coastwise


these


stream


surfaces


surfaces


and


associated


were


formed


older much


rocks.


same


present


flood


plain,


origin


coastwise


surfaces


fully


understood.


There have been at least six stages of


erosion followed


six stages


deposition


during


which


Pliocene ?


and


Pleistocene


surfaces


were
genie


developed.


uplift


The


land


separation or eustatic


these


levels


lowering


resulted


from


epeciro-


level.


Reconnaissance


counties


was


supplemented


foot


andtb
These logic


)oat


traverses,


were


during


studied


compositions


whi ch


hundreds


laboratory,


were


described,


and


their


samples
lithologic


formation


were and


collected. paleonto-


represented


each


identified.


Twelve mappable


units are shown


on the appended geological maps


Scale


inch


8520


feet)


The


oldest


rock


outcropping


these


counties


Recent Florida


Eocene


alluvium.


west


The
the


(Jackson M arianna


group)


limestone


Ohoctawhiatchee


youngest


(Oligocene)


River


is mapped


first


time.


The


~4iiwnnnn


I. -U LA nib flmfl


limnal-nna


- a w~ a


IZLL1 a -


1LTE


JI I lg


ql





is present


group which


in eastern


thickens


and


separable


Washington


wedge-shaped


into


three


County


deposits


units.


Westward


contain


Likewise,


Alum


distinct


Bluff faunas


Ohoctawhatchee


Miocene


faunal


zones


represent


different


time


intervals


previously


considered.


The


Area


and


Yoldia


zones


shown


time only


equivalents


Eephora


and


Canoelflaria


zones


that


differ


facies.


Gravel, sand,


clay, limestone, and water are economically important,


although


these


resources


have


been


exploited


these


counties.










GEOLOGY


OF


HOLMES


AND


WASHINGTON


COUNTIES,


Robert


FLORIDA


Vernon


INTRODUCTION
LOCATION


Holmes


and


Washington


Counties


central


portion


western


Bay


Florida.


County


They


on the


outh,


bounded Jackson


Walton


County


County


on the


east


on the


and


west,


Geneva


County,


Alabama


on the


north.


Holmes


1848


and


County,


from


Washington


northernmost


territory


Counties


that


two


previously


(Cash, 1938,


had 825)


was


been


created


part


January Walton


present boundaries,


however present


were


includes


established


a land


until


area


1915


( Cutler,


quare


1923,


miles.


577)


Holmes


.At


Creek


marks


eastern


boundary.


Washington


County iS


bounded


on the


west


Choctawhiatchee


River.


is one


from


original


arabia


and


twelve


Jackson


counties


Counties


Florida


and


December


was
1824


(Williams,


one


time


Washington


County


included


parts


Bay,


Holmes,


and


Calhoun


Counties.


When Bay


County was


created in


1913


Wash-


ington


County was cut off from


Gulf


Coast and lost


fully


one-half


population


established


in 1915,


(Cash,


when


1938


,P.


Holmes


826)


Its


County


present


was


boundaries


enlarged


were south


* n in 1* *


nl


. n


fli "fi'W F







FLORIDA


GEOLOGICAL


SURVEY-BULLETIN


is accurately Department


portrayed


maps


were


and also


located. helpful


The


latest


in preparing


Florida


this


State


Road


report.


Maps


covering


Holmes


and


Washington


Counties


used


this


survey


listed


below:


Department


Timber


Type


a


of
Niap


Agriculture,


Forest


Service


:Holmes


County


1937.


.S.


Department


County


Timber


of Typ


Agriculture,


pe


Map,


Forest


Service


Washington


1937.


University
County


Florida


Reconnaissance


Agriculture


Soil


Map,


Extension


Service


Holmes


1936.


University of
ton County


Florida


Agricultural


Reconnaissance


Soil


Extension


Map,


Service


Wasliing-


1936.


Department
Springs 10 feet ;


Interior,


Quadrangle, 1935.


Florida.


S. Gec Scale,


ologicalS 1.62,500


purvey :
: contom


DeFuniak
c interval,


Florida


State


Survey : ida State


Geological


Geological Geological


Survey


M ap of Survey


and


Florid 20th


United Scale,


Annual


States


Geological


1:1 ,oo0,o00.


Report,


1929.


Flor-


Florida State


Florida


1936.


State


Road Department


Road


Department


Holmes


County


Washington


Road Map,


County


Road


1936. Map,


INDIAN


OCCUPATION


P re-historic


habitations


Holmes


and


Washington


Counties


indicated


and


pottery


A


presence


small


sheiks is present in


mounds,


mnidden


SE A


composed


SE A


sec. 2,


shell


middens,


fresh-water


arrow


and


i s"


heads, marine collec-


tion


artifacts


rfrom


two


other


mounds


Washington


County


was


sent to Mr.


Gordon D.


Wmley,


Columbia


University, for determination


Willey' states:






GEOLOGY OF HOLMES AND WASHINGTON COUNTIES


FLORIDA


Pottery


(Catalog no.


5416, L.


Cord-marked


Weeden
lWakulla


Island
Cheek


Geology


,plain rim sherd.


School)


t3ype rhm slierd.


Stamped


Indeterminate stamped


Sand


tempered


plain


sherd


sherd.


sherds.


with folded rim.


sherds.


Tempora


Position


"Although


evidence sherds during i


there are not many


suggests, I ire rare ii bhls period.


period


West


these sherds would


diagnostic sherds in


I nfownl


date


Florida,


estilmated1


be 1400-1550 A. D.


Wreeden appear


for Indian


this smnal
Island II


hlare


collection


been


occupation


Cord-miarked


introduced manifested


Site


nio,2


shell


mound


Washington


or midden


County


(SE~4


Location
northwest


NJD'


NWW


Crystal


of see.


Lake


Postoff ice


T. 2N


Pottery


(Catalog no.


5417


Geology


Carra belle Punchiated Rim sherds.


Wakulla
rolled r


flattened
Weeden


Inciseda there are


Sand


Check


ires.


[bases. Is1ln


St am p6(1


Other


sherd:


IflCi8CtfL


Id punctated too little data


tempered


Indeterminate


stamp
perhap


plain
tampe


impressions


earlier.


shierds. sugges


sherd. sherds


School)


Four si t small


which


to identify


sherds.


which


Two


sherds.


are


other


ierd s


have


collared


Weeden


the specific


Three Weeden


sherds


have


these


Island


rather


type.


;small jars v


Island


sherds


period


unique


folded


ilth


partly


types


have


simple


context rims.


sherds.


Temporal


Position


"This mated


collection


date


probably


of this


period


belongs


is 1400-1550


Weeden


Island


esti-


"Summary


Both


Weeden


remembered


tions. styles


thau


collection


Island t the


Possibly co of artifacts.


not be earlier


Weeden


than


muple It


Island


suggest


period,


archaeological :te excavation


seems


~Teeden


period,


likely,


Islandl(


1400-1550


that


1400-1550


evidence of these
however, estimated


middens


cons's sites that Date,


more


were


.although


wVould


constructed


iulrface show


1ie occupation


1200-1400 i probable."


must


collecearlier would D. and







FLORIDA


GEOLOGICAL


SURVEY-BULLETIN


Counties


is rural.


1935


Holmes


County


was


populated


14,449


people, ulated


whom 12.899


were


people,


Negroes,


whoni


and


2,898


Washington


were


County


Negroes.8


The


was


pop-


popula-


tion


ilolmes


County


increased


15,447


and


that


Wlashington


County


decreased


12.302


people


in 1940.4


The


. s.


Census


Agriculture


1935


values


farms


Holmes


County


$2,311,018


those


Shington


County


$1,302,004.


The


lncolne


these


counties


largely


comes


from


Swine
Cattle Goats Sheep


(heads) (heads) (heads) (heads)


Chickens


Corn Sweet


Sugar
Cotton


Tobacco


Irish


(bushels) Potatoes


Cane


Holmes 15,400
11,762 1,825 3.488 45.971 309,652
80,949 6,03


(bushels)


(tons)


(bales).. (pounds)


Potatoes


4,507 8,769 '7,708


(bushels)


Washington


10.16 11,508 2,578 4,231
33.666
170.306 43.943


6.645 1.084
1,924 2,912


During


years


1936


and


1937


marn


farm


products


were :6


Peanuts


Corn 4 Cotton
Velvet Sugar Sweet


( bushels)


(bushels) (bales) Beans


Cane


* . a ......... - ................ ...... ... -a .... a ... .... ... ........
.... ............ ................ ...... ....................... ........


(bushels)


Syrup


Potatoes


( gals. )


(bushels)


Hohnes 660.020
253,620
0.268 127,460 88,930} 45,808


Washington


83,034 160,327 1,213


63.834 15,006


The


Forest


Service


indicated


on its


Timber


Type


Maps


1937


following


utilization


land


area


Cultivated


Towns


Pine,


fields


,Railroads,


cypress


Hardwood


or gum


timbers


timber


Hohnes 05,300 10,650 107,756 80,090


Washington


43,990 15,094 251,056 89,8(19


Nou-tinmbered





GEOLOGY


OF HOLMES AND


WASHINGTON


COUNTIES.


FLORIDA


PHYSIOGRAPHY

INTRODUCTION


The


physiography


Holmes


and


Washington


Counties


may


divided part of Survey


roughly


Cooke


into


two


(1939)


units


liMarianna


Marianna-Ohipley


1)


River


Lowlands


Lowlands


,2)


Valley


or the Coastal


Province,


Florida Plains


including Geological
Province,


including Lowlands


part


Cooke


(1939)


Western


Highlands


and


Coastal


Provinces.


The


River


Valley


Province


includes


flood


plains


Chioc-


tawhatehee


River


and


tributaries


four


depositional


alluvial


races,


similar


origin


present


flood


plains,


and


related


lpresenlt


channels


and


drainage


and


escarpments


Tertiary


separating


sediment terrace


,exposed


alon


stream


levels.


The


Coastal


Plains


Province


consists


chiefly


five


surfaces


plains
these


lying
plains


considered


250 and


approximately


bounded


terraces.


feet,


has n1o


parallel erosional


higher known


plain,


boundin


present


escarpments


ling


carp


coast.


and


hence


elevations


landward


Four
may


between


differs


and


from


lower


plains


in areal


extent


and


lithology


It


deposits


highly


and


oxidized,


spread


underlying


over


cross-bedded


western


lower


coarse


Florida


surfaces


fine


grained


in a delta-shaped


light


colored


alluvial


mass.


The


,fine-grained


deposits, deposits elastics.


only


rarely


cross-bedded.


Tertiary


sediments


OUtCL'01)


along


deep


valleys


through


delposits


underlying


five


sulrf aee$,


and


along


escarpments


sep-


aratin


them.


Terrace


0o1 the


deposits


appended


rather


geological


than maps


terrace (plates


surfaces


and


have


been


mapped


II).


Tihe


roi ks


relationships


and


each


other


terrace shown


deposits


and


geologic


surfaces


sections


older


represented


by figures


14. and







FLORIDA


GEOLOGICAL


SURVEY-BULLETIN


The


Coastal


Plains


Province


originally


extended


over


this


area


and and


connected


western


with


Holmes


same


County


province


Remnants


in central


such


Washington


Rock


Hill


County


,Falling


Water


Hill,


Chipley,


activity


Orange Hill, Washington


sinks


and


High


Hill


County


swamps,


and


Oak


E rosion,
reduced


JEll


preserved


combined


this


lvgh


with land


south


solution


area


elevations


facing
higher known


lower


carp sand


locally


than


~vhicl~


hills


as the


land


eparates


Coastal


1-Jolmes


outh


River


Plaln


Valley


, producing


Valley


Province.


a steep


Provinee


This


north-


fro


escarpment


Escarpment"


For convenience of


discussion,


River


Valley


Pirovine


is divided


into


Choctawhatchee


River,


principal


tributari


and


terraces


alon


these


streams.


Choetawhiatchee


River


The


Choetawhiatchee


River


bisects


Holmes


County


and


mark


~srCSterfl


boundary


Washington


County


isa


vigorous,


ghitly


meandering


stream,


with


gradient


approximately


feet


rnLLe


lower


proximately


channel


silicifiLed


portion.


feet


This
mile


limestone


gradient


near


Tertiary


increases


Geneva,


headward


Alabama.


forms


rapids.


Alon
The


flood-


plain


deposit


alpproximately


thirty


feet


thick


c outhern


extens:ons


h eadward,


in the


vicinity


Alabama


line


,they


are


only


thin


veneers


over


nearly


continuous


outcrops


Tertiary


limestone.


Flood


plain.


alluvimm


earlier


lperiodl


The


flood


deposited downeuttln


plain


Choctawhatchee


shallow


valley


formed


River
during


coil-


The


Choctawhatchee


heads


in northern


Alabama and


is at


time


heavily
reativel


loaded


. V


~~~itli


RI ill


sediment.


This


hi Aftn wh n toh a


sediment


Pnv~


deposited


mini ma


Thn


l|


I





GEOLOGY


OF HOLMES AND


WASHINGTON


COUNTIES


FLORIDA


Creeks


where


they


enter


maitln


valley


and


forms


akes


in the


lower


part


These


109)


Later


each


lakes


tributary


along


connection


(1918a,


vall


tributaries


with


86-8fl7)


obse


were


first


noted


Alpalachieola


1rv ed similar features' on


Sellard
Chiipola


1P~inelo


(1916, Rivers.
Creek.


a tributary


Clhocta hatehee


River.


Sellard


States:


"The of th


valley Ce 10oa(


on the other


been


known a' way, for


(if tie Apalachicola of sediment carried


hand.


a blocking


carried


s tihe eying ining


being


riVer"


beiti


that streani


built


of the (hilpola


lllalln


'Dead


Lakes'


much


alt its
streamn.


in Calhoun


the Chlietawhatehee


a lake


severl'l


square


frih


111I() '


enltrlalnc( thus for County. the East


S


area.


g rapji(dly


aggI'8(ed1


the valley 'e slowly.


reason


of the Chipola,


The


result


AI)qlfchicola


ning Pine


the lbody Log creek blocked in


f water a tribu-


same


This a] tributaries


rags feet


madle


deeper


Luviation ,is still


in the


than


began standin


tributaries


recently


though
lr rovTe


that


LI VIII
*


that


Choctawhatehee


their River.


SSW8WIl)


dead lower They


vegetation


(fig.
ends


Souinl-


flown


91
'I K

-.
4.,;4...




1


t




FLORIDA


SURVEY-BULLETIN


sentially


valley


floor,


whereas


Choctawhiatchee


River


flowing


on alluvium


deposited


in its


valley.


The


higher


Choctawhiatchee


than


flood


flood plains


plain


been


built


as much


tributaries


same


asl15


feet


latitude.


a result: several


East


River,


tributaries


miles have


before broken


flow


gaining through


parallel


entrance.


natural


Choctawhiatchee


Distributaries,


levees


River


such


Choctaw-


hatchee and have entered


parallel


streams which reenter


Choc-


tawhiatchee


as tributaries


lower


in its


course


(see


figure


Natural levees.


Natural levees,


the dominant land feature on flood


plains,


only


meagerly


developed


along


Choctawhatchee


River.


flood over


stream


flood


plain


and


channel deposits


banks a thin


in many


veneer


places,


spreads


sediment.


The


coarsest


sediment


and


largest


proportion


unit


area


droi~ped


immediately


adjacent


channel


banks.


With


distance


from


main
ried river


high


channel, become


channel, natural


and


deposition


finer.


andi


levee water


This


proceeds


more


irtesults


steep


slope


slowly slight


toward


measure


" (Russell,


1939


stage


,P.


1210)


as the


slope


sediments


away


stream.


rfom


The


difference


and


width


height


between
is con-


trolled


by its age and


the size


channel.


streams


alter


their


courses,


lneW


levees


formed


new


position.


channels


may


thus


distinguished


from


new


chan-


nels.


Ox-bow


lakes


represent


a meander


on a former


stream


course,


open


ends


which


were


from


nlew


channel


levee


deposition.


Many


these


ox-bow


lakes


occur


on the


lower


reache


Choctawhatchee


River.


Rim


slopes ginal


and


swamp


concentrate valley walls.


streams


streams,


waters These


running


(Russell


flood


valley


side


parallel


1938


,P.


plains


Natural


toward


lowlands a
bounding


called


scarps


levee


bases


rim


are


backmar-


swamps,


known n


Tr11i anr1nrnn


Tfl V





GEOLOGY


OF HOLMES AND


WASHINGTON COUNTIES, FLORIDA


Tributaries


Choctawhatchee


River


Majo r


Wrights,


tributaries


Sandy


and


Choctawhiatchee


Pinelog


Creeks.


The


River


valleys


these


Holmes, streams


have
noted


been


formed


chiefly


tributaries


comparatively


,when


outcrops


little


surface


Tertiary


banks


Tertiary


they


are


sediments. extremely


solution


largely


sediment drainage


sediments


composed


Flats


narrow


except
assumes


occur


thin


Occur


and


limestone


spring


during


beds.


and


periods


dominant


in the


veneers


either


swamp


therefore


heavy


r6le.


channels


alluvimm


side


vegetation


may


been
carry rain-


Numerous


strearns


overlying


channel


grow


down


stream


banks.


The


only


expression


natural


levee


alluviation


presence


densest


swamp


In swamp


area~


small


in the soften


sand


ridges


position creates


along


any


streamlets


channel


normal


rim


which


banks,


swamp.


hug


with
Seep-


base


valley


wall


manner


a rm


swamp


stream.


The


flood


plains


these


tributary


streams


being


partially


built


and


Choctawhiatchee


build


lower


deposits that extend


lportionl


each


River,


into


tributary


which


floods


tributaries.


valley


into


The


their lakes


greater


mouths formed alluvi-


ation. posits while


Choctawhatchee


upstream


those


in their


lower


River


also


lakes


ends


formed


receiving


built


deposits.


tributaries,


Choctawhiatchee.


The


tributary


frequent


cutoffs


treams along


meander their eci


sharply


iannels.


through


Many


these these


lakes,
cutoffs


with are


due


vegetation


darns.


Stream


Terraces


Patches


sides


alluvial


material,


major


well


streams


above


in Holmes


flood


and


plains,


Washington


along Coun-


ties.


These


stream


period


ediments tt scarps alluvial


occur


(see


drowning


four7


definite


Each


river


levels,


these


valleys


each


levels


following


bounded


represents


period


-S





FLORIDA


GEOLOGICAL


SURVEY-BULLETIN-


a V.-.,


escarpment


in the background


from the older 60-100 Foot Surface in


separates T. 6N.,Il


the 30-50


16 W\


Foot


Surf ace


.Holmes County


and


subsequent


proximately


dissection


parallel


and slope


disregarded, approximately


level


feet


mile.


These


four


terraces


occur


feet


30-50


feet


60-100


feet


and


145-


feet


above


pre _ent


flood


plain.


These


v alley


terraces


remnants


formerly


continuous


flood


plains


~~T11iC11


were


wider


than


those


more


recent


valley


,n them


during1


former


erosionl These jected


g subsequent


valley


latter


scattered


into


was


period


only


has largely


irtennants


a reconstructed


little


downcuttin


wider


destroyed


alon


valley


than


However present


lpre-exlstin g


flood


correlated


and


where valley, plain.


pro-


profile


Th le


geological


maps


(plates


and


show


that


Hohnes


and


Washfrigton


present younger


Counties


valley


Oiies


matched


floor


indieatin


The


levels
older


occur higher


g a progressive


facing


each


terraces decrease


other wider


valley


across


than


widths


Mr


/lianY


~ri veit


w~lv


1'nR.-ReO.OtI All.


Th4~


mayfl,


t ,t


nat i ii 1lv


exnlasin ed





GEOLOGY


OF HOLMES-AND


WASHINGTON


COUNTIES,


F LORIDA


Figure River


Generalized


central


flolnws


nd diagranunatic County.


Prof He


across


the Choctawbatchee


races larger stream


flow


older


than


those


flowed


deep,


deposits


which


exist


shallow


narrow


wide


valleys,


necessarily


1regmon


valleys,


into


and


indicate


present.


whereas through


The


present


older


streams ancient streams


alluvium.


These


four


Recent


terraces


flood


Lplain,


C eparated


escarpments


their


relative


separating


heights


each


level


above from


older levels,


and


younger


tage


surfaces,


drainage


amount


development,


erosion


and


various


degree


preservation complaction,


used


alluvi al


and


separate


presence


oldest


patterns.


small


from


The


sl uIpI


youngest


amount


structures


deposits


oxidation


also


(see


and


may


table


Though higher lowest


coastwise surface ]


relationshiips


coastwise


fluvial


surface


surfaces


urf ace


(5-30


slightly


(10-


Foot)


between


canl


Foot)


.At


lower


Canl


hiigher


stream


determined


traced


point


elevation


surfaces


this


onto


junction,


relationship


area


lowest fluvial


can


seen


in the


vicinity


of Bruce


Walton


County.


-- -
Soc
-~
- .~ .
*
I J
ts
-
- I -- -Poop U - 3
II.
C -4
*V8.~kh1I6M0-1 I ------------.- I a K
* U I
I C -4
- IL~i CAlL I

STRUM CUT YAtLEYB ILATIARY SED~MLNI
SCA LEVEL SEA LIVEL 0


0. Sy. a C
















Oldst


*4$
Youngest


Flood
plain


Height Above
Flood Plain in Feet


14,5-165


60-100


30-50


10-20


Estimated Thickness of Deposit in Feet ....110+t


60-100


j,.. "40-80,


20-40


0-30


Nature of the Preservat ion of,
and the Drainage De velopment on, the


SOtiginal surface only" 'isiely present, alluviation-patl ~dissected with excellent di ainage. Original surface and alluviation patterns, poorly p welldlned..

SOriginal surface and aflu viation patterns well preserv
defined.

SOriginalsurface and alluviation patterns well preseiv


Surface


alluvial tion


patterns


rarely present.


being


developed,


TABLE 1. Heights of fluvial surfaces above the present flood plain; estimated thickness of the deposits underlv the flood plain; nature of pieseivation of, and the drainage development on, the surfaces.





GEOLOGY


OF HOLMES AND


WASHINGTON


COUNTIE


FLORIDA


The


former


bays


related


writer,


therefore,


bay-extensions,


along


present


coastwise


believes


much


coast.


surfaces


that same


The


as the


fluvial


terraces


flood


fluvial present


surfaces


flood


plains
would


plains


ended


end thus


related


present


shore


line.


Foot


present


high


flood


stages


Surface.


plain


river


This


,,:urf ace


Choctawhatchee


(one


lowest


River.


in approximately


level


During years)


above


extremely


this


level


flooded,8


though


scarps


feet


high


separate


from


floodplain


face


flats.


Holmes


This and


surface Pinelog


merges


Creeks.


downstream


with


Except


a similar


lower


sur-


ends,


were


which floods


covered


unrelated plains and


have


been


flooded


and


1909


high


surfaces assigned


considered


Choctawhiatchee


1928


water


flats


during


in Louisiana


the Recent


historic


have


times.


been


Period.


surfaces


River
creeks


during


have


Similar


mapped


These
formed


abnormal


never


scattered


as high-level


features in


during


been and flood


Louisiana


valley


widen-


(Fisk,


1938


I


54)


.Russell


(1940,


1220)


also


regarded


these


secondary


terraces


as having:


"-resulted


from


swinging


a stream


from


one


of its


the other during entrenchment. Terraces also result from char gradient caused by shifts In distance to the point of debouchement.


ward flowing streams in


adjusted
when have


terraces.


the Mississippi


permitted


the state of Mississippi


Teche-Mississippi


adopted


entrenchment,


course.


its present resulting i


Such channel


:ypically
streams and


an excellent


had flood were


increased system


:s valley to
changes in
West-


plains


shortened gradients


modern


Benches are also produced along valley sides as the result of lateral


corrasion and these become terraces after rejuvenation has become effective."


these


able


from


valley


Florida


Gulf


and


counties, f Mexico


however


into


separated


this


level


Alabama.


definitely


occurs


escarpments


on both


from


tracesides
flood


plain.


Any


explanation


higher


terrace


levels


must


applied


this


surface


as similar


conditions


characterize


both.


The


surface


is well


preserved


discontinuous


narrow


band


both


sides


Choctawhiatchee


River,


and


small


alluviation


fea-


. -a a 1 rr I r4 ---I-


J




FLORIDA


GEOLOGICAL:


SURVEY -BULLE.TIN


creek.


flood p viated
creasln


lain


Poorly extends


pattern


defined


natural


tributary


with


levees


stream


height


evident


systems in bounding


The


former


a typical "alluescarpments de-


headward.


southeastern


Foot


Surface


Washington


have


been


County
removed


fluvial
erosion


terraces


thi,,


except s area


Choctawhatchee


River


apparently


occupied


same


narrow


'val-


throughout


Headward


along


tis


v alley


ceding


each


theFe


narrow
cutting


it and


period


periods
portion


was 1O-2(


cutting


cutting


only


apparently


)


Foot


Surface


and


latest


shorter


and


each


filling


evident. duration


period


filling.


separable,


Thle
than


last p
those


butl


eriod
pre-.


remains.


30-50


Foot


Surface.


slightly


dissected


surface


developed


chiefly


Holmes


County


It


a widlthi


two


and


one-half


miles


Alabama


Caryville,


distance


line,


original t occurs


and surfac


as patches


widens


exceeded


on both


downstream.


7 miles.


width.


sides


vicinity~ of
Throughout


river.


Natural


levees river


so sli


well


in central


ghitly


developed


Holmes


dissected


that


and


County


rlnm


preserved


The


swamp


surface features


remnant
is poorly


till


east


drained


and


evident.


luvial tary have


drowning


valleys.


been


*is shown


Wr'~ghts


chief


and


extension


Holmes


tributaries


Creek s


surface


and


Pea


Choctawhatchee


into


River


tribu-


seem


River


this


area


durra


extremely


time


flat


section


development


this


C.urf ace,


this


developed


flood along


plain.


Pea


River


extend~s


into


northwesternmost


part


Holmes


County.


Foot


Surface.


This


surface


badly


dissected


and


original Alabama,


flat


surface


and


west


preserved


only


vicinity


portion


Geneva


In. many


places the intermediate surfaces are absent,


Immediately


below


this


level.


such


and


cases,


present flood


Tertiary


plain


outcrops


conhinol'


base


scarp.


small


outlier


higher


~u


flfll'flIT on rrniu ~ Anti t~r nt4ntrr 1 A


no


a Ii


| I1[T





GEOLOGY


OF HOLMES AND


WASHINGTON


COUNTIES


FLORIDA


Along


the


Choctawhatchee


River


this


urf ace


developed


near


Alabama


line


west


side


River.


From


there


surface


abruptly


turn


east


central


Hohnes


County


and


extends


Ten


surface western


Mile
with


and


Wrights


that developed


Washington


Creeks.


along


Downstream


Holmes


Creek


junction


covers


most of


this


north-


County.


145-


drainage,


Foot
and


Su rf ace.


is the


T his


most


c urf ace


dissected


shows


best


any


development


stream


terraces.


The
near


flat t
those


opped


t211. Ii~iib


original


northeast
surface.


Holmes
The


County


best


reach


elevations


preservation


this


surface


line,


southeast


where


flats


Geneva, Utilized


Alabama, as farms.


near


Alabama-Florida


Pea


River,


and


perhaps


Holmes


Creek


were


tributaries


Choctawhiatchee


emptied


ably


Holmes


preserved


during


into


County


River


during


octawhatchee


Alluvial


in northern


this


timne,


this


period.


River


deposits


1-Lolmes


probably


Pea


County joined 1


1-Iolmes


Pea


River


vicinity


River
Creek


Chioctawhiatchee


probEsto.


course


was


River


active


well


north


Bonifay.


general,


plain


and


Pate


some


into


younger


Lake
which


this


surface
valley


in northwest


terrace


b)eenl


reduced


development Wash~ngton


silicified,
deposit.


exposed


much.


below


S S
orwvlnal
0


south


County


alon


TPertiary


deeper


sedlimfent


Cvlleys,


COASTAL


PLAINS


PROVINCE


The Bay


holmes


Coastal
County


Plains


and


Counties.


Province extends


occupies


partly


southern encloses t


inland


from11


Washington


River


1)resenlt


and(


Valley


shore


southwestern


Province,


and


probably


p1r'esent


extended


northern


time


over


;hington


most and


this


western


area,


Ihohnes


as remnants


Counties.


The


Province


includes


five


coastwise


surfaces.


The


two


upper


sur-


faces


511'0


known


LJK~ *.4JA. 'J ~ i~ a


a -


inonllxr
* ~-, '~d ~.


the


J .-t -, 5J** ~,


''saud in- - '--


hi*lls"'


fll7jfjj


lower


%., ain- - '~, .-j


pll A A L




FLORIDA


GEOLOGICAL


occur ocean


and


beach


associated


bottoms,


reentrant


S
1
iidges


with


as they alluvial


occur


five definite


'eve's.


These


marked landward


valleys.


immediately


Likewise,


landward


surfaces


could


seaward-facing


similar


escarpments,


scarps


present


and


surfaces


occupy


narrow


bands


running


approximately


paral l


present


coast.


Hydrographic


charts


western


Florida,


pre-


pared


indicate


differ


that


materially


United


States


Coast


physiography


from


that


these


and


Geodetic


3 present coastwise


Gulf


Survey bottom


1922,


does


plains.


Similar


lantic Fisk


coastal


(1938,


coastwise


Florida


terrace


plains.


56),


delta
Along


plain


surfaces


occur


Louisiana,


these


extensions.


streams,


elsewhere


four


thought Distinct


west


Gulf


terraces


stream


levels


Florida


are
they


and


reported by terraces with


also
occur


developed


north


area
these


occupied by tl fluvial surfaces


e coastwise
in Holmes


surfaces.


and


The


Washington


projected Counties


slopes


lightly


lower


is uncertain


raneously


Cooke


and


Gulf


with


(1939


Coasts,


elevations
whether


where


coastwise


they


stream
surf ace


recognized


which


3 oin


surfaces


least


assigned


coastwise


were
of


7 levels
marine


formed different


along origi


surfaces


contempoage.
a Atlantic


with


delta


extensions


streams.


in Florida.


4 Pliocene


. Shaw


plainls


ognizmg
terraces'


posit:


Pliocene


Matson


later


stream


(1918,


agreed terraces


132)


tlie Citronelle formation,


Citronelle


upland


(1913,


and


assigned


Cooke


was


which


recognized


Shaw


(1918,


"Quaternary


Pliocene


(1929,


terraced


181)


during


155)


plains


marine in recor sea


terrace


ecognized Pleistocene


time.


Fisk


considered Citronelle.


(1938a,


two


recognized


highest


terraces


only


as possibly


Pleistocene


terraces


equivalent


and
type


apply


various


names


used


these


authors


so local


area


Holmes


tracing these therefore, the


and


variou


Washington


outside Ls levels


the are


Counties


borders


described,


appears


Florida.
from


unwise


this


youngest


without
report, Oldest.


f





GEOLOGY


OF HOLMES AND


WASHINGTON


COUNTIES


FLORIDA


Figure
younger


Partial
I1 older


restoration


surfaces


60-105


Foot


Surf ace,


seaward facing escarpments.


separated


from


erosion


surface


undergone


formation


lower


carpment,


and


varies


as the


original


surface


slope


varied.


this


H~ohnes


and


115-150


ooke


field


Foot
the 1


with


basis,


definite


Washington


,4)
Jnite


170-220 fl 4d States


writer


and


levels


Counties


Woot


and


Geological
correlated


have


been


5-30


recognized


Foot,


250-320
Survey


Foot.
spent


Pamlico


6O0-105


Dr. two


terrace


Bay, Foot.


C, Wyh weeks in


with


5-30


Foot


Surface,


Wicomlico


with


60-105


Foot


Surface,


Sunderland


with


Foot Surface,


and


115-150


Foot


Surface,


his Brandywine


with


Coharie 250-320


with Foot


170-


Surf ace.


F.Fisk,


Louisiana


State


University10


tentatively


correlated


Prairie


gomnery flvial


terrace


with


145-165


'with


fluvial


Foot


fluvial


60-100


Surface,


Foot


and


30-40


Foot


Surface,


Williana


Surface, Bentley


with


Mont-


~~rith


coastwise


250-3


Foot


Surface.


C.L-120 'Cu 'hi05 105 '1
* / I, Li. ci
- - 60


SEA LEVEL _____ 0


Nofe:Horizonfal Scale Is Oiagrammolic









M at,,son,


1913


Limits of surfaces in feet


Newberry


60-100


Tuala Ap opka, 40-60


Pensadola


0-40


delta


Cooke,


1925


Limits of surfaces in feet


I-azlehurst, 215-260 Claxton, 160-215i delta . .


Oke .fenokee, delta...


100-160


Penholoway, 60-100 d-! ........



Satilla, 0-60


--- -----


delta


Cooke, 1939
Shore: lines in feet Citronclhe Brandywine, 270I

Coharie, 215
_delta-.. -I


Sundetland, 170 delta


Wic omico, 100 delta ...


Penholoway, 70 Talbot, 42


Pamli co


delta


Present


Report


Limits of surfaces in feet


Coas twise 250-320 Foot Sur face


Coastwise 170)-220 .Foot Surface .. Fluvial 145-165 Foot Surface Coast twise 115-150 Foot Surface i olFluvial 60-100
FotSurface... Goastwise 60-105 Foot Suiface Fluvial 30-50 Foot Surface

Not present Not presentI Coastwise 5-30 Foot Surface


Fluvial 10-20 Foot S ur face


TABLE 2.


Conelation of Fliocene or Pleistocene Eufaces showing the possible equivalents.


xx


M Pr


No





GEOLOGY


OF HOLMES


AND WASHINGTON


COUNTIES,


FILORIDA


The


5o-30


Foot


Surface.


Thts


surface


is well


developed


in south-


Bay


County,


does


extend


into


Holmes


Washington


Counties.


discussion


included


thP~


report


nterpretation


older


more


dissected


surfaces.


The


5-30


Foot


Surface


probably


contemp~oralleOU


*
" th
a tIES


fluvial


surface


that


evident


10-20


Holmes


feet


and


fli, (LU ove


Washington


present Counties


flood


plain.


two


surfaces
Walton


in contact


County


ghitly


from


older


lower


levels


along


State


po nt


elevation.


a 15


Road


juncture,


The foot


5-30


Foot


vicinity


fluvial Surf ace


Bruce


surface


separated


escarpment.


Tihe


present


coast


definitely


coast


line


submergence,


evidenced


rising posed


level,


coast.


Combined


This


with


a beach


moves wave


F oot


this


and


many


re:ultin


process


this


ridge


sand
wind


Surface.


wave-


along


ridge


deposit


Bore


holes


drowned


valleys


wave-cut


is especially


cutting


coast


gradually overlying


in the


and
cl~ff


evident ,high


action


(see


inland.


bays. along


This most


Pensacola,


storm


waves


5 and


This


coastward


dune


area


results


edge


Panama


indicates


Florida.


bu'ldaction Recent


5-30


'Windm


City


penetrate


feet


ration


about


dune


if~~e


sand
feet.


before


passing


This


into


black


apparently


an ele-


developed


upon


lower


p orti on


5-30


Foot


Surface.


The


highest


elevations


,-e~' '~ny~~3n~ -'


em


m




FLORIDA


GEOLOGICAL


SURVEY-BULLETIN


- tog

BEACH RIDGE ANA SAWO DUNES


5-30


Note: Horizontal


Stole I,


DiopommoI.c


on the 53


Diagrammatic Foot Surface.


profile


of beach


ridge


sand


dune


accumulation


011 tihe


plain


occur


along


this


sand


ridge


immediately


adjacent


coast


mapped


faces


reaching


with


mapped


elevations


5-30
with


Foot


Surface surfaces


high and


feet.


similar


which


S
t
iidges


they


This


ridge


on older


sur-


ot~eur.


This


aslO


plain,


miles


cu. pate, variable.


as 5O


s~vamp


lowest


inland


.and


seaward-facing


The


feet


and


and


altitude


as low


marsh


coastwise


;he landward escarpment.


also


aslO0


vegetation,


variable,


feet. with


The


margin


The


surfaces


extend


is marked


width


with lower


abundant


local


however,1 elevations


places


saw


as much
a smooth,


highly as high


occupied


palmetto.


Drainage determined 1


Surface


was


patterns


first


presence
exposed


5-30


Foot beach


consequent


Surface


ridge.


drainage


have


When


took


been


5-30


largely


Foot


advantage


irregularities


and


ran


shortest


po: sible


distance


Gulf.


This


Irtesulted


coast


in most of


line.


Rising


the streams


level


running


caused


almost


wave-cut


cliffs


right


and


angles
beach


S
t
iidges


develop


areas


and


forced


move


inland.


streams


There ridges, run parallel


aided


any


coast


natural


and


low seek


*


In


- - A- .- ~ a a 4~ I a t - .3. ~


-4-


*-~ in n -


a. 1J-'. -


- - ~.


'S .P t 4- -- ,.~ -


4-n


*1.. -. nfl1-





GEOLOGY


OF HOLMES AND


WASHINGTON


COUNTIES, FLORIDA


mately


parallel


coast.


Good


examples


furnished


bays


in the ;the


vicinity


base


rof the


Panama scarp


City


Some


separating


these


5-30


Foot


''parallel '
Surface


bays
from


higher


'eve's


others lie


between


the scarp


and


Recent sand


dunes.


beyond


latter the t


case


errace


small


drowned


valleys


extend


and


slightly


escarpment.


coastal


and


stream


terraces,


branchwork


small


streams


restricted


largely


single


terrace


,except


where


sink


development


(1939,


;has 1222


captured


1224)


pre-empted


observed


that


"in


surface general


drainage.


Russell


everywhere


true


that


few


channels


cross


rfrm


one


terrace


next


in propor.


tion


number


channels


present


each


surface


concerned.


This


is not


only


true


lowest


surface


can


seen


higher


ones


well,


where


evidence


drainage


patterns


and


beach


ridges


is furnished


location


sinks


and


drainage


still


existing


parallel


escarpment


and


ridges


coastwise


surfaces


(see


The


60-105


Foot


Surface.


surface


begins


scarp


rising


above


5-30


Foot


Surface


and


extends


Inland


base


next


searp.


consists


a well


preserved


level


,approx-


imately


miles


wide,


that


extends


across


Bay


and


southern


Wash-


ington


Counties.


Pinelog


Creek


remnant


stream


formed


during


5-30


Foot


Surface


time


which


maintained


original


course


approximately


parallel


and


north


land-


ward


escarpment of the 5-30


Foot Surface.


Most of the Pinelog


1oreck


tributaries


land


confined


base


60-105


scarp


Foot


separating


Surface


60-105


and


extend


Foot


Surface


fr'om onto


the the


next next


older older


level.


level


However


and


divides


,Pinelog


into


Bear


Jreek Bay


crosses


and


this


Sweet


scarp
Water


Creeks


which


run


parallel


carp


that


just


been


crossed


The


foot


scarp


(see


marking


boundary


tween


115-150


Foot


and


60-105


Foot


Surfaces


enters


'Wash-


a

















P17fw


SE-n.


gqosn 0


I



it;


-K


I

)


L..-


i


II,
















- K


ft
(
A


-C ~


I- ~


4'.


-I





-N -,


-N


I

ft
,1
-4'





C


'I.

N
.MLLENS ftAPY











I C
I


I..


0 (11W


us. no in, Ian.










N










9k T~4


1


F-u'


- 'I


-0


0:
Cr
I


C












.1~ _


7 1'~'~~ 9 I,


OK


CRYSTAl.
LAKt
I

*%5) I --
I


an-in.


I/


80410 r..ot Swnle


of


N
'I
'I

C.

- *1


N
'A


- A.. L.~
-, S...,





tn-Pm ~


aaw
0.

-at
- -~ n :74


MAO a


Is.Ian taai


4

0( MAPflSL.K CSCARflEW1TS SEPRARATING

COASTAL. TERRACE LEV[EL[IS


2
V


RINANT I0CC, 5ItLIAR IN flSITION MWO LITI*OW O IDtn RECENT 3rA04 RICo C


N' a..


4-....


RnI


Figure


Drainage


patterns,


ridges,


developed


up on


coastwise


surfaces


southern


Wash


-d




a


V
N.
'I


2'
itS 50 s.d r......
I

/
*vFr&


../



















/





Cee


t


P





GEOLOGY 0O? HOLMES AND


WASHINGTON


COUNTIES, FLORIDA


-
Is it
*



JtS~.' Yc '~v ~OIA


Figure 8. Escarpment separating the coastwise 60-105 1154150 Foot Surface, looking northeast across Blue Poi


County.


The arrow points


to the escarpment.


Fc
id,


iot Surface
southern Vi


from the Tashington


dominant


where


surface


well


drained


and


cypress


swamps


present


in some


'ow


areas.


This surface has


been


mapped


with


fhivial


30-50


Foot


Surface,


although


they


questionably


contemporaneous.


115-


Foot


Surface.


This


level


makes


band


mile! area


wide


,extending


115-150


Surface


Foot


escarpmrents


WNashington


scarp


across


southern


Surface


only


County exposed


Washington


separated


in western


recent


Tertiary


drainage


from


Washington


developed


between


two


County.


170-


County


along
levels


.111


this Foot
eastbase


and


terrace inent.


outcrops
Exposures


Separated


and~


well


a variable


indicate


that


width


thinnest


Tertiary deposit o


sedi-


ter-


race


sediment


base


is found


escarpment


base


represents


escarpments.


place


Tlhis


where


line


run-off


along most


successfully


develops.


Away


from


this


scarp


thick


sand


and


gravel


denos~4t


C'


tll)ROI'


wsater


fsst


enoi at1


I I,'-'


n~revent


eXeessqvt


1 m-off.


How-


ItW




FLORIDA


GEOLOGICAL


SURVEY-BULLETIN


bounding


terrace


scarps,


join


form


Pinelog


Creek,


which


crosses


over


onto


lower


60-105


Foot


Surface


(see


Limestone is somewhat


sinks


well


dissected


developed


streams,


on this


that


level


is not


and


surface


preserved


inas


much


detail


younger


surfaces.


The


original


slope,


however


is relatively frontispiece)


intact in


. At


vicinity


Crystal Lake


Crystal


Sink remnants


Lake


a ridge


Postoffice


(see


(see


similar


a beach


ridge


location


and


lithiology,


reach


an elevation


of 20


feet above


inland


flats.


Tlie


formed
mapped


6O0-100


Foot same


Surface


time


along


this


streams surface,


thought


and


they


have


been


therefore


together.


The 170-220


Foot


Surface.


Because of the dissection


of this surface


and


lack


of topographic


maps,


boundaries


surface


can-


determined


precisely


Relatively


uneroded


remnants


original


surface


still


exist


vicinity


New


Hope


Church


2 N,


Ebenezar


Church


Village


in the


center


ZN.,


and


vicinity


Porter


Pond


and


east


into


Jackson


miles.


County


Most


Its


sinks


greatest


and


width


streams


Washington


developed


this


County


surface


about extend


below


contact


between


terrace


deposits


and


Tertiary,


that outcrops of Tertiary


are common.


The surface has


been


partially


eroded


Holmes


Creek,


and


higher


surface


(250-320)


been


western


Washington


County.


The


altitude


original


feet at the coastward


surface


margin


ranged feet at


from


approximately


landward


margin.


Where' this


original


surface


is not


dissected


is as flat


as the


lower


terrace


Two


surfaces,


small


north


and


ridges scarp


slopes
in tlie


approximately


southern


eparating


part


170-220


feet


mile.


2 N.,


Foot


.just


Surface


fom


115-150


Foot


Surface,


similar


present


beach


ridges


both


physiography


and


lithiology.


. -U, -


- a - r~ tJ fl





GEOLOGY.


OF HOLMES AND


WASHINGTON


COUNTIES


FLORIDA


probably


more


escarpment


deposits. separating


The


,separated


know surface


from


these


between
ranges


170-220


two


plains.


250-320


from


Foot


these


Foot


Surface


counties


and


feet


Surface,


feet


older scarp


in outliers


south Hills),


Chipley


and


(Oak,


in western


feet at DeFuniak


Falling


Holmes Springs


Water,


County.


to 320


Rock


The


feet


same


,Orange,


surface


in northern


and rises


Walton


High
from


County


and


continues


into


western


Holmes


County.


Lime


sinks


developed


on the


surface


nOW


preserved


only


on a few


divides


most


them


having


been


captured


Recent


drainage.


original


erased ology


least


and


rfom


this


drainage


surface


deposits,


in part,


contain


an old


numerous


and


surface


in Holmes


however,


deltaic


lenses


alluviation


and


indicates plain. Gravel.


patterns


Washington


that


The


this


have


Counties.


highest


deposits


Higli


stream


been
Lith-


surface


very


terraces


sandy


corn-


parable streams ( extension


stratigraphic


southern


those


position,


Alabama,


stream


that


developed


this


plain


along


could


larger deltaic


terraces.


SUMMARY


TERRACES


The


coastwise


levels


recognized


Holmes


and


Washington


Counties definite


mately


developed


seaward-facing


parallel


elastic


escarpments.


present


deposits


Each


coastline.


and


surface


-Thie


four


separated


extends alluvial


approxiterraces


extending raneously


major


with


four


streams


lower


were


coastwise


probably


developed


contempo-


terraces.


Alluviation


and


associated


features developed


similar L onthie


patterns drainage


beach


lower


such


as natural
developed


ridges,


coastwise


bays surface


1ev ees,


rim


stream


and s and


associated t were


swamp


streams,


surfaces, drainage


probably


and
are


present


on all found


except


highest.


deposits


Actual


bay


three


or swamp


coastwise


sediment


been


surfaces.


a. a a a -




FLORIDA-


GEOLOGICAL


SUJRVEY-IBULLETIN


into base ting


coarser


grades,


preceding


preceded


surfaces younger


each


can


terrace


and


terrace period


visualized


surface


and


base


deposits,


each


deposit


indicating


deposition. continuing


deposit


(see


The


that


lower


than


period


escarpments


downward


figs.


and


cut-


separating


under


and


fossils


races. these ever,
when


have


This


been


been


features.


found


considered


been


in the


deposits


evidence


suggested


that the absence of fossils may


ground


water


levels


were


underlying


a non-marine


(Anltevs,


be due to


considerably


these
orignl


1929,


leaching during


lower.


might


ter-


how'


period


also


pointed portions


that areas


contributing


likely.


such


Even i coarse


large


these


deposits


r marine amounts


organisms


materials


could


relpresenlt


sedimentation


were


would


sediment present


where


made


extreme


overloaded


prolific


chances


landward


streams


fauna


1111-


lpreservationl


poor.


ORIGIN


TERRACES


Little


ida.


actual


However,


work


been


origin


done


similar


on the terraces


stream


terraces


occurring


Flor-


on Louisiana


streams cussed


each each


and


Fislk


terrace


associated


(1938,


with


1938a


underlain


surface separated


firoma


coastwise


,1939)


and


delta


Russell


a distinctive


succeeding younger


plains,


(1940).


lithologic


and


been
They


sequence,


lower,


and


dis5find and from


preceding older


formational


units


and higher terraces


aild


escarpments


stream ci indicate


escarpments.


least


fve


These periods


cutting


most


easily


alternating explained


with


fiv e


eustatic


periods


filling.


changes


These


level


cycles


discussed


Fisk


(1938,


"Eustatic


"water


ated


changes


from


erosion.


the ocean


sea level nce basins


refillinug


luviation of the stream valleys.


by a


period of deposition,


progressed lowered tb the basins


n definite baselevel


raised


cycles.


baselevel


streams


Removal


caused


initi-


The two events, a period of erosion followed


constitute a


cycle."


(N1 I 01 ~


1 ~


1- -_


- ---- ~ 1 t~


A .,...a. - -





GEOLOGY


OF HOLMES AND WASHINGTON


COUNTIES


FLORIDA


Louisiana


four


str earn


terraces,


corresponding


four


delta


plains,
Along Cooke


terraces,


have


been


Atlantic


(1925,


1930a


~VlflCl1


recognized


Coast


and


,1939) 1
believed


Fisk


(1938)


portions


recoginizedi


and Gulf


as many


mnrinle


origin.


Russell Coast,


as seven


Each


(1940)


however, coastwise


these


marine Cooke


sociated


plains,


also


believed,


considered


with


had


origin


an intermittent


rise


a counterpart


these


and


extending


coastwise


drop)


streams.


p~lainls


level


during


eus-


tafic


aIdj ustments


glaciation,


though


introduces


concept


oceflnic


deep


development.


Cooke


(1925,


writes


"Ea&~i terrace


respect to


indicates a long


the land


the shore


the deeper


bility fell ;


caine a


water


shore


,during
* w'i'th
off-shore.


tend


which


the debris


the sea


at a


the 'vaves cut a


from


the end


time of readjustment,


the ocean, became dry


1'etreated


land."


when


seawardl


the land


each


definite


wide or a


1 built
such


altitude


with


narrow notch


up a platform ng period of


the land rose or the


what


been


water


the bottom


level


Cooke


Supported


lnarine


orgin


these


features


Shattuck


(1913,


however,


-(1906,


32), Richard


believed


37, 137) (1938)
terraces


,Stephenson


and


others. Florida


(1912,


Hays


and


272)


(1927


Atlantic


Matson


1928)


Coast


largely lowest


results


terrace


,they


stream


lack


action traces


,since,


with


lnarlne


exception


organilsln.


The area


this


reIport


almost


midwvay


1)etween


Louisiana


area


and


Atlantic


effect


Coast


3\Iissssippi.


area. delta.


largely


so that


disassociated


theory


from


origin..


v eloped respect surfaces


fa~ces


Fisk


and


coastwise


with


associated,


possible


and


one


Russell


satisfy


surfaces,


exception


though


that


unassociated,


does


there


with


fact


explain


four


present


stream drinma


with


I.:tream


sur-


Thle


within


p)hysiography I-physiography


coastwise present


surfaces


shore.


ompares


Likewise


Cfhvorably


som1e


evidence


reviewed


preceding


section


this


rel)ort


favors


origin


these


features.


However


local


,a,..r1 ..





FLORIDA


GEOLOGICAL


SURVEY-BULLETIN


connected


that these


with


sufficient counties


ne"'T


coastwise
evidence


and


material


stream


been


assistance


terraces.


developed


The


rfom


in arriving


writer


feels


study


workable


theory listed


terrace


this


origin.


Such


a theory


must


satisfy


facts


report.


REGIONAL


UPLIFT


Terrace


levels


separable


position.


Cooke"


formation


resulting


today


believed
oceanic


from


eustatie


former


changes


strand


separation


deeps,


combined


lines
these


with


level


occupied


level


was


progressively


would same


due


smaller


deglaciations,


level.


which other


resulted words, t]


corresponding


formation


eustatic


deeps


changes


resulted


each


period terraces


1939,
uplift


high


were 199)


and


differentiated


ognized


Coast
genie


Sslsppi


two


level


formed


and


regional


and


being


rfrom


features


are


10wer


progressively


Russell tilting


preserved


structural


Geosyncline


uplift


River


region


delta.


(1940,


explain


than lower


1225)


'why


Louisiana.


irtegmons,


*(Barton,


inland These


both and


preceding


levels.


Fisk


resorted


each


Fisk


directly Hickey,


tilted


one,


so that


(1938,


epeirogenie


surface


(1939,
related


1933)


region


diseusse


194)


.1)


nearer Russell


been recGulf


epeirohe Mis(1940),


who


also


pointed


proof


progressively


higher


terraces


being


progressively


older.


western


Florida


no evidence


tilting


was


observed


as all


surfaces approximate the


ame slope.


Advanced


dissection


in this local


area


beenf


howevere,
Slight ti:


may [ting.


epeirogenic


obscure


these


uplift


original counties


or eustatie


slopes,
tlie


and


major


'withdrawal


work
effect


elsewhere


seems


rather


may
have than


regional


tilting.


Regardless


gresslve Florida,


lowering


as evidenced


cause,


underlying


level


progressively


epeirogenic


certainly


higher


been


and


uplift active


older


terrace


pro-


western


lopes


1 -..


r .17 irtIfla-~u-u I tSO~I *L 'ELI I


b


"I"11N






GEOLOGY


OF HOLMES AND


WASHINGTON


COUNTIES


FLORIDA


indurated


247)


beds


agreed


underlying


with


S ellards


more


and


consolidated


observed


that


sands.
draina


Sharp


lines


rarely


lead from


upland surface ino the steepheads.


Cooke


(1939,


stated


that


some


these


"'steepheads"


might


LrIesult


rfrm


stream


capture


sink


holes.


Steephead
resulted


land.


natural


rfom


Most


features


accelerated


them


and


in this


erosion


between


area


brought


and


apparently


about


feet


wide.


have


irnlsuse Steep-


heads


junction


Holmes


recent


and


Washington


drain age


with


Counties relatively


occur high


chiefly


land


topped


thick


Figure
tower.


deposits


terrace


Steephead


Picture


taken


the steephiead.


the S


looking


sands.


Broad


sec.


down


a gully


areas


emptying


sand


R .16 almos


absorb


near right


large


a fire angles


quantitie emerges


water,


bae


thereby


preventing


escarpments


effective


along


run-off.


ground


water


water


surface


springs,


which


gradually


migrate


into


terrace


levels.


The





FLORIDA


GEOLOGICAL


SURVEY-BULLETIN


ington


County,


011 highway


Along


escarpment


facing Holmes


1jTll1ey


Ebenezar


Church


Village,


bottom


many


oo


amples


well


below


Tertiary


limestone


and


clay


that


area.


LIMESTONE


SINKS


The


and


factors


Washington


controlling


Counties


location


make


many


interesting


sinks


physiograph ic


ilolmas


prob-


'CII:'.


Sink


locations


(see


appear


due


initial


irregu-


larities


,chiefly


along


bay


extensions,


bases


coastwise


scarps,


along


stream


channels


rinm


swamp


streams


anld


sw ,ampS.


Any


these


original


irregularities


would


tend


preserved


ahd


eI enl


accentuated


this


country


because


much


underlain


limest one,


which


easily


dissolve ed


below


any


natural


\~There


water


accumulates.


Thus


outlines


alluvial


deposits


and


patterns


preserved


alignment


sinks.


good


example


occurs


Vernon


fluvial


,Washington


10-20


County,


Foot


Surface


along


ilolmes


Creek


near


where an alignment of sinks and swamps


indicates


location


an old


stream


channel.


The


line


sinks


on the


coastwise


115-150


Foot


Surface


,roughly


parallel


escarpment


sep)arating


60-105


Foot


Surface


from


115-150


Foot


Surface,


lpossibly


indicates


bay


former


drainage


line,


while


Blue


Pond


and


Crystal


Lake


examples


sinks


developed


base


a scarp.


These


two


have


destroyed


scarp sink,


and callec


example of


have


spread


Falling


a sink


into


Water,


developed


both


terrace miles


levels.


soutli


on an irregularity


The


extremely


Chipley


on the


highest


deep
g o-d


terrace


level.


surface


When


was


Falling


lowered


Water


Hill


much


became


that


an outlier


sink


was


ground


deepened


Water


raPidly,


forming


a cylindrical


opening


about


feet


deep.


Two


general


types


sinks


have


been


recognized


this


area.


Onae


normal,


steep-walled,


round-bottomed


sink


mnay


or mlay


filled


with


water.


The


others


have


broad,


flat


bottoms


and


Atidly'


osflotl


' CCi i .


" (fin.


They


1 .ttle


Al 110 t !1 0






GEOLOGY OF HOLMES AND


WAShINGTON


COUNTIES


FtOILTDA


Figu the


Hills


re


"The


Ohoctawhiatchee


115-150


Deadens"


formation


Foot


,a prairie


developed


in the NW A


Surface


appear


the


upon


4


the Cancellaria c. 7. T. 1 N.. I


background.


zone


flows


through


The


average


shallow


writer


ground


sink


believes


water


holes


that level


within


these


' 'prairie' '


features


below


proper


developed


base


(see
only


cover-


terrace


deposits.


Sinks


holes


that


have


been


slowly


dissolved


limestone


downward-percolating


unconsolidated


ground


materials


7,
x~ater


carried


high clown


in natural


into


acids.


inks


Overlying


and


thereby


transported


caverns


elsewhere


and


as part


holes


dissolved


load


into


subterranean


limneston


become


water.
clogged


9
2~


* ~ snt:tM%~k


S" - 1




FLORIDA


GEOLOGICAL


SURVEDY--BULLETIN


inpervious


form


ground surface


lake.
water


rose,


material
Likewise,


was


water


extremely


would


may sinks


low,


'sink


collect


were


and


depression


formed


later


depressions


time


ground


lakes


and


when water
ponds.


The and


latter ponds


is associated


terrace


appears


n this with levels.


area.


have
The


changes


been drop


most


and


level


rise


during


common


cause


groundwater


formation


lakes


probably


vari-


Sinks are


best developed


on the coastwise


115-150


Foot and


170-220


Foot time


Surfaces.


than


coastwise


sinks
being sinks


The


170-220


lower


slowly
develope


conditions


elapsed


Foot


themselves


destroyed 4on the


since


Surface
into T


highest


formation


formation


existed


!ertiary


more surf ac(


apparently


lower


long


sediments


recent


demand plains.


enough


and


drainage.


(250-320)


have


they


for are


-Most


already


more


The
the
\
now
the been


captured


later


drainage


and


destroyed


erosion.





GEOLOGY


OF HOLMES


AND


WASHINGTON


COUNTIES


FLORIDA


STRATIGRAPHY

INTRODUCTION


The


geologic


formations


found


surface


Holmes


and


Washington


Counties include strata ranging in age from


upper


Eocene


Recent.


The


oldest


strata


exposed


belong


Ocala


limestone


(Jackson


group)


and


youngest


deposit


found


Recent


allu-


vlum.


and


Table


described


this


tabular study.


summary


formations


as mapped


Some


evidence


as to


older


rocks


underlying


this


area


afforded


a deep


well


drilled


Ohipley


Company


Falling


Water


a depth


Sellards


that


and


Claiborne


Sink


4912


Herman


;, Wilcox,


,he NW1A feet. A 1,


Gunter


Midway


NW A


(Mossom,


and


4 N.,


this 1926


Upper


well PP.


prepared 195-204)


Cretaceous


beds


indicated


were


pen-


etrated


and


These


lithiology


is a positive


beds


as only marker.


were


five


apparently


fossils


identified mentioned


largely


and


position


none


these


Blanpied'2


asawhay


Ocala


Wilcox


feet


reported


from


from


from


Ripley-Selma


4095


feet


and


Tampa


feet,


feet


2220


from


feet


2540


Tuscaloosa


from


Yicksburg O laiborne


feet,


Chick-


from from


Midway


3420


froin


feet


4095


4912


from


2220


Eutaw


feet


from


this


feet, feet, 2540 3420 well.


order


supplement


stratigraphic


evidence


gained


examination


surface


outcrops,


and


logs


few


available


water These


wells, wells


the were


Florida
drilled


Geological in critical


Survey


areas


drilled


three


locations


test


being


wells.
picked


writer


five-foot


after


intervals


considerable


making


field


work.


possible


Samples accurately


were place


obtained


each


formation.


The


locations


wells


and


other


data


follow




FLORIDA


GEOLOGICAL


SURVEY--BULLETIN


TABLE


GEOLOGIC FORMATIONS IN HOLMES


AND


Formation


Alluvium


WASHINGTON


Holmes County


present


COUNTIES


Washington County


present


Deposits marked by definite levels


10-20 Foot 30-50 Foot 60-100Fot 145-165 Foot 250-320 Foot


10-20 Foot
30-50 Foot and the 00-l0b Foot 60-100 Foot and the 115-150 Foot 145-165 Foot and the 170-220 Foot 250-320 Foot


Choctawhatchee
formation


Alum Bluff


group


absent


West Washington


A


East Washington


rca facies Bephora am Cancel/aria facies

I


Shoal River formation


Chipola formation


Tampa
formation


present


present


Suwannee
limestone


present


present


Marianna
limestone


present


pres~nt




GEOLOGY


OF HOLMES AND WASHINGTON


COUNTIES, FLORIDA


group
wannee


(Chipola f, limestone,


ormation),


nUS


feet


T'ampa


formation


feet


feet.


2)
180.1f
posits


Sheffield


Vashington


oeet.
of


formation formation),


wvell


County


Elevation


(Ar


170-220 'Cas zone) feet: A1


.NW%/ the ton


Foot 160


NE14


urb of


Surface


feet


urn Bluff


SF14


elevation


each at


;;Alum
group (


see. 180


feet.


formation 10 surf ace;*


Bluff


Chipola


group


2N. Total


penetrated


dep1th, :De-


Ohoctawhatchee


(Shoal


formation),


River
feet:


Tampa


formation,


feet.


Walker


feet.


Total


Hamilton


3N.,J
depth,


well feet.


SEC
Holnes


corner


County


he 3W1/ Well curb


Elevation


NW14 SF14
elevation, 87


each


formation


penetrated


mation


limestone,


Weathered


feet


ifliflUS


Alum


Suwannec


feet


Bluff


limestone,


Oeala


group


nlinuls


limestone,


surface


eight


minus


Tampa


feet
feet.


f or-


"Marianna


Early


deposition


these


counties


records


a marine


environment


with time only west.


strand


does


line


lying


a non-mlarine


form


These


extensions


north


environment


stream


thin


and


and


west.


make


possible


rapidly west


Not


until


appearance,


delta east,


extensions


and


simulate


Mi ocene


and


then


from


wedges


between


more


typical


marine


deposits.


Fisk


(1938,


region


. 77)
active


pointed


deltaic


Coastal


sedimentation


IPlains


throughout


Texas


Oligocene


time.


Fisk


ays :


"On the other hand


removed


from


terfingering


stant


the Alabama-Florida section,


continental


phases


sedimentary


should


sedimentation,


be observed


representative of a region


dominently


between


marine.


extremes


Many


con-


types."


Following


and


east


and


Oligocene


Miocene


time


deltaic


strand


and


marine


line


Florida


deposits


shifted


interfinger


south
These


counties changing


apparently Conditions


j


rtnrJ~. nnnn


seaward


along


side


irregular


n-ri


g.e ~ fl--i


delta


marginm
L.m lZl:


and


produced


--


..... - .1__


rapidly


corn-




FLORIDA


GEOLOGICAL


MAPS


AND


SURVEY-BULLJDTI N SECTIONS


Tlie


outcrop


appended


pattern


geologic


maps


major (plates


divisions


and


rocks


The


shown


maps


also


clude


drainage,


partial


culture,


and


location


exposures


and


wells


used


in the


descriptive


text.


Details


structure


and


stratigraphic


positions


various


units dition


shown


6 surveyed


two


road


general
profiles


geologic
reused


sections


(fig.


standard


into


which


nearby


exposures,


wells


and


other


data


were


projected


give


cross


sections


represented


figures


and


Precise


eleva-


tions


Survey


in the


benchi


counties


were


marks.


obtained addition,


from state


Coast


road


and


and


railroad


Geodetic
profiles


have with


been the


used. Paulin


The


elevations


Altimeter


using


isolated
bench


point


nar ks


were


established


known


profile


points


as reference


data.


I I ti I I *- I I ~'- I I S*l I' I I







GEOLOGY OF HOLMES AND WASHINGTON COUNTIES, FLORIDA





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4
n0~,M he,


Ma.-


I.*. ..,


goo~ -


UM(SWSC


Xii
.ft ~ .2%
w-.n. *. FWA


,-, r~p~


'45. a


30.30 ~nv


Sfl 9~e F


hr...


'VA .. . .


OCALA


-
-w
.n -. *
AttN ELM PP


Thw~


*
RIWA 'inn
- --- -


-


uu Clout


umtn


scTIw ALSO WWWW U.
a
.ao.rn. geMs in ste


Figure


Geologic


sections.


OCALA


U 34ff 9W Tsmn
~yu.r 9t.ac*
%~Jfl~L .
-


tiARa ~


~flff


SPaNS z


as.-


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OCALA


-s
s.c anew


--

-~8


3



I



















I





GEOLOGY


OF HOLMES AND


WASHINGTON


COUNTIES


FLORIDA

























C


C,
a
A C nt o
10
0
"*1 N

P.






FLORIDA


GEOLOGICAL


SURVEY-BULLETIN


EOCENE
Jackson


SERIES Group


Oc ala Limestone


historical summary.


The


" 'Jackson formation'


was described from


exposures at Jackson, M~ississippi,


by Conrad


(1855)


under the


"Vicks-


burg


group


Jackson group.


Hilgard


group


and


(1860,


noted


that


128)


they


referred


were


older


these than


deposits


Vicksburg


Early


naturalists


considered


white


limestone


Florida


a continuation


bama.


The


rock


Ocala,


Eocene Florida.


limestones


was


Georgia


referred


and


Ala


Eocene


Conte


noted Ocala
ington


that and


(1861,


as early


"Orbitoides


Marianna


Counties


into


Florida


westernmost


as 1861


limestone"'


,probably


Florida


and


Smith


,including


crossed


(1881,


limestone


Holmes


underneath


and


299)
both


Wash-


"'stratified


1892


Dall


(pP.


103,


104,


157)


recognized


in the


Eocene


Peninsula


beds


"Orbitoides


(Ocala),


and


limestone
"Miliolite


" (Vicksburg)


limestone


"'Ninnmulitie


(Ocala?),


and


coil-


sidered


them


(1892, Ocala


mulitic
served


(PP.


o belong, 103-104)


limestone


and


103,


and with


least


named


correlated


part,


limestone


these


Oligocene


beds


sediments
J-eilprin


Vicksburg


Ocala


with


(1887)


group.


Florida,
''Nurn-


Dall


104).


"Among the Orbitoides conformable :


tact,


rocks


which


limestone,.E v to overlie


a yellowish


until
Swhic:


the latti


friable


roe


recently wer h appear in er, though n, k containing


'e


not central


o one many


ous among which are two species of Nummnulites, N


Hp. .
rock,
botton


S
I


It is best displayed at Ocala,


been


quarried


beds."


md has


a depth


Florida


discriminated Li Florida di ias described foraminifera


willoowi$ and N.


where it forms


of 20 feet


froml ,coils


the and
con
pCU


flor'tclana


the country


without coining


The


" 'Peninsular


limestone


was


later


su ested


'-pl _


Pall


(1903,


!


v






GEOLOGY


OF HOLMES AND


WASHINGTON


COUNTIES


FtLORIDA


Oligocene,


and


'Dali


(1903)


work


Tertiary


faunas


Florida


ulpp~er


which


Vickshurg.


lists


Matson


fauna


and


Sanford


Ocala


(1913)


and


adopted


refers
these


con-


clusions


almost


verbatumn.


lIt remained for


lent and


in age


conformably


writers


]lave


Cooke


(1915)


"Jackson
underlies


accepted


Cooke


to show that


formation"'


Marianna conclusions


Ocala is


Alabama


and


Florida.


without


the equivaMississippi, Subsequent


question.


Sellards


and


Gunter


(1918a,


and


Sellards


(1919,


118)


observed


solne


"glauconitie


calcareous


sandrock"


near


Alabama


line


in the


bed


Clioctawhatchee


River


which


they


referred


Claiborne


Eocene.


These


nOW


kn own


lower


Jack-


son and are discussed


under the


Ocala.


Cooke


include


and


''all


Mossom


rock


(1929,


47-48)


Eocene


exposed


delimited


in Florida


0cala


including


'O0rbitoidal ',


' Nummnulitic


and


' Miliolitic


'limnestones


Ihil



as wvell


as the


' Peninsular


limestone


Matson.


One


latest


papers


describing


Ocala


Gravell


and


Hanna


(1938,


this formation.


999-1006)


From


who


bottom


reported these are


three


faunal


zones


(Astero-


cyclina) cyctiuca


zone


ocalana


,including


C ushman


several


peeies


and


(Cushman)


uAtlcoxi cuhna


including


(Heiprin)
mar innensis


S jack


and


Ileterostegino


Vaughan


SOflOflSS


zone


Gravell


and


ocalana Gareer
H-anna,


Cushman


ma


, 2)


Opeorzone


rnoodybranchen sis


Gravell


en Sts


and


Hanna


(Cushman)


',Op


trculina


vaugha'ns


Cushman


,Discocyclina


ruint-


mortoni Cushman.


The bearing


Ocala


limestone


a Jackson


group


p)resenlt


fauna


that


Report


outcrops


* includes in H-olmes


sediments Washing-


Counties.


Phy


iography


out crop


pattern.


The


Ocala


limestone


only
Sim


Eocene


a- *EU*


formation


outcropping


HAlrn~~


in H-olmes


nniii~tv


and


Washington


i nndm'lnin


*


Coun-


l mo.qtnina


Discocyclina


Operculinoides


Discocyctina


oa lana


;pido-


jctclcsonensis


and Lepidocyrtina (Lepidocyclina)


IU






FLORIDA


GEOLOGICAL


SURVEY-BULLETIN


The


Ocala


Washington


have


outcrops


County


penetrated


such


only i this depth


extreme


area
that


northeastern


development


exposures


and


rare.


corner


weathering


Solution


fea-


tures are


Several
County,


clay,


common


water


where


wells,


penetrated indicating


terrace


located


Oeala


that


deposits


in sec.


after


limestone


protect


.5bN.,


drilling


thirty


is present


limestone. ,Jackson


forty


feet


mapped.


Character


materials.


The


Ocala


limestone


is divicable


into


two


lithologic


near


faces


Geneva,


in this


Alabama,


area.
but


The


lower


extends


into


faces


northern


rpically Holmes


developed


County


It beai conitic, thinly


The


a lower


sandy
bedded,


upper,


Jackson


limestone, iron-stained


and


more


fauna,
which sand,


typical


and
grade conta: facies


is a light ~upward ining many


Ocala


greenish-gray,


into
mold


limestone


glau-


greenish-gray


mollusks.


is exposed


along stream


limestone weathered


channels


generally


may


south


ranges


become


outcrops


frm


silicified


light


yellow


and


colors


lower white, range


facies.


The


where


from


dark


grays porous


areas Some


yellow-gray.


even


resist


The


when


erosion


and


silieified


limestone undergone


form


portions


rapids


have


typically


silicification.


along been


main


incorporated


massive


These


water


into


i1icified courses. alluvial


deposits


as boulders.


The


two


facies


contact


along


a slightly


irregular


surface


in an exposure


just


north


Alabama-Florida


line


on the


Choc-


tawhiatchee


River.


Thickness


and


structure.


exposure


Ocala


limestone


these


counties


exceeds


a thickness


feet.


Some


estimate


thickness
Chipley


this


well


Ocala


Company


feet,


may


well


and


near


this


made


from


Falling


agrees


cuttings


Water


generally


Sink.


taken


The


with


rfom


thickness structural


and


outcrop


patterns.






GEOLOGY


OF HOLMES AND


WASHINGTON


COUNTIES


FLORIDA


Paleontology.


The


Ocala


limestone


abundantly


fossiliferous


however


(1890-1903)


Ocala,


and


Peoten


,macro-organisms


lists


only


over


numerous


thirty


Clypeaster


species


these


macro-fossils


rogersi (Morton),


membranosus


Morton


Peecten


were


found


counties.


from


ocalanus


this


Dali type Dali, area.


The


micro-fossils


are,


however,


more


abundant


species


Foraminif era


Ocala


and


in Holmes


speeds County


of Ostracoda


.These


have listed


been


identified


from


checklists


pages


47-50.


Local


details.


The


lower


glauconitie


and


sandy


limestone


phase


is best developed just north


Holmes


County near


Geneva


Alabama.


The


following


tawhatchee


River,


a section, on State


bridge


measured Highway


over


Choc-


Deposits underlying the 60-100


Foot


Surface


lied to yellow, cross-bedded sands with lenses


Feet
of gravel at the base.


Large boulders of silified limestone containing many fossil molds


occur


gravel


Ocala limestone


Greenish-gray, sand ....a. a. ...


argillaceous,


micflceous,


unfossiliferous


,very


fine


Greenish-gra glauconitic,


trgonania
Water le'


Covered ... .... ... .... . .... ....... * * ... ...... ... *** * * ...... ...... ... a . a .s.e s* ...... a


(weathers


~ranu1ar


(Conrad) vel


buff)


limestone.


,very


fossiliferous, contains tt


massive, large


sandy, Ostrea


Total


Bed


contains


following


identifiable


species


Jackson


Foraminif era


and


Ostracoda:


Foraminifera


Angulogerina ocalana


Bolivina ft 0111icides l( E~ponides I Glandulina


,cksonens 21)atulus (V acecsonenal8 laevigataI


Cushman 8triatella


Cushmian


walker and Jacob)


(Cushman


ovata


Gut tulina austriaca d'Orblgny


Wonton


Nonionella


hantket


Oushman


plan atum Cu ii spissa Cus'


Applin


Applin) and Applin


shman hman


Thoma






FLORIDA


GEOLO GICAL


SUJRYEY-BULLEITIN


Gytheridea EGytlheriaew Ovtlheridea


Eocytheropteron


Lowoooktch
Paracypri8


Parczoytl&eri4ea


tnontgoincryentss
(7) cah~wellensi8


garrett'i


How


~purgeonae


jaoksonensis


Howe.
Howe eoand Howe


Howe


quest Howei belhavene61181


Pyiiythterei8 isrea lalyf


From


Geneva


southward


and and


Chambers Chambers


Chambers and Chambers Chambers


Chambers


Howe


Howe and


river


Pyeatt flows


Chambers


between


foot


bluffs


this


lower


facies.


Eight


feet


bed


numlbor


is exposed


Alabama-Florida


line.


Two


and


NW'!4


feet


one-quarter


sec.


following


miles O N.,


section


below


Alabama


line, approximately


an. approximate


was


elevation


measured.


Locality


H-86


Upper phase


Dense white, silicified limestone with molds of Lepidocycliuct sp. ef. L I. mortoni Oushman, and Pecten sp. ef. P. membranosus Morton ..


Feet 3.0


Lower phase


Blue-greenish


sand


with


gray,


molds


non-calcareous


of Jackson


mollusks


;argillaceous,


fine,


thin-bedded


Total


Downstream


rfrom


this


exposure


only


upper


faces


outcrop


Occasional


exposures along the


Ohoctawliatchee River


consist of weath-


eredi


and


where


silicified


along


sedimentation.


limestone,


channel


These


which


form


outcrop


rocks


rapids


in the


covered confused


with


stream.
active


Elseriver


boulders


silicified casionally


Suwannee


in the


and


banks


Vicksburg


limestones,


which


found


river.


The


best


exposures


siliceous


p ortion


Ocala are


found


along


river


111 sec.


5 N.,


about


three-fourths


mile


sw'4


south


NE'4


approximate


sec. 35,' elevation


mouth !. 7N.,


feet


Wrighits


Oreek


. At


there


IS a series


and


latter
ofFb


locality boulders


(11-6),


buff


white


;porous,


weathered


nn C' riflflflifll flIICI nr r *bo iv


silicified


limestone,


containing


nulner-


Pnaaila


fran'





GEOLOGY


OF HOLMES AND WASHINGTON


COUNTIES


FLORIDA


sequence,


Oc aa


fauna


could


removed


from


original


stratigraphic


position.


Fresh


associated


exposures


with


upper


ledges


s ilificied


faces


Ocala


limestone


along


limestone e channel


Wrights


Greek


and


tributaries


in central


holmes


County


thin


veneer


northeastern downstream


floodplain Portion


only


deposits


obscures


county,


where


Ocala


and


sufficiently


throughout


limestone


resistant


exposed


extend


through


overlying


deposits.


these


exposures


Oc a


lime-


stone


light


yellcow


buff


,slightly


sandy,


very


fossiliferous


Where


limestone.


rThe


mately


in parentheses


nx-nncl'ulnc. UfljJtPO ttltdJ


weathered


available


following represent


localities


dark


only


br own


boat,


essentially


approximate


white,


and


'~rater


and


found
level.


silicified.


approxiFigures


elevations.


11-26 11-27 11-28 11-29 1--30
11-31 11-32 H-33 11-34


. NW%/


.SE'A NE1/4 SE1A


NW14 NWl NW1A


H1-35" (1


uttings sec. 10


SE'4
SWl4 NE'4 SWl% NEliA SE14 NW14


sec. 32


6 N.,


6N


sec. see.


sec. 13, sec. 26


see.


fronm


5 N., 5N..


5N.,
.5 N., !. 5N..


5N
5N


pile-borings


4N


.(87 .(84 ., (83 .(82 .(80
".,(74 % (60 r.,(54
r.,(51


bridge Foot


feet) feet) feet) feet) feet) feet) feet) feet) feet)


NW1/4


'T'hese


faunal


localities


checklist


carry these


an abundant


exposures


fauna


Mostly


micro-fossils.


follows



























FAUNAL


CHECKLIST


THE,


OCALA


LIMESTONE


Symbols


Present


locality


Questionably


present


locality

















FLORIDA


GEOLOGICAL


SURVEY--BULLETIN


Table 4



FAUNAL CHECKLIST OF THE OCALA LIMESTONE


FORAMINIFERA A


An gidogerina ocalana Cus;hman....... ... ......

Bulimnine/la elhgantissi'ma QId'Orbigny) ..... ....


C2amerina s.... .. .. ....

Caticrtsis m*s .. ... .. **


.*.S.C.me.



* S C S S .


Gibic:ides lobatuu (Walker and J'acob)

mississippienis (Cushman)....


sp?. cE. C. ya~ooensis Cushman. Discorbis sp cf. D. ocalana Cus;hman


sj m.i ... .. .. ...*m * .. . .. .


S


* S C Cit


* S C S .



S


* C*S~*S



* m SSuCu*


* C '

* us ...


Ep onides dan villensis Howe and Wallace.

]ackson ensis (Cushman and Applin)




sp cf. B. mariaf nensis (Cushman).


sm f. B oca/ana Cushman... ouacbttrnsis H-owve and Wallace.


G/lobigeriza sp.. ... ... ....***



Globorotalia sp. cf. G. menardii



(dc'Orbigny)... ..... ...



Clobulina gibba d'Orbigny. ....


0 .5 Sm '.s


gibba tubercultata c1' Orbigny.

minita (Roemer). *..*.... ..



Guttulina irregularis d 'Orbigny ....



problhma d'Orbigny........


Gyroidina sp..... ..0.


.CSSSC. 0 5 5 m 5


Hantkenina alabamens is Cus hm an.


ilaerreriella sp. ..... C . . . . .
Lagena acutic:osta Reus.........



Inxagona QWilliamson)..








sp . ... .........5 SS 55


* 0*~ 55



* S Os *5



* C C S S S


*. S



* 0 SSCSCS C


* S C S 0 C S S m S C S 5t* C *O***55



*.sS.tS.sC CO


* *u. .*.m." '.S. m S 5



* C.0 *5 S


sulcata (Walker and Jones). ... ... Le pidocyc/ina sp.. cf. L. mortoni Cushman.


Tlnuolbtn tn


* 5



* S



* S



* S



* C



* 5



* C



* .



* C



* .



* C



* S



* 5



* C



x



* .







* S



* C



* S



* C



* C



* S



* C



* S C.



* S



* .



* S



* C



* S



* .


* 5



* C



* 5



* 5



x



x



x



x



* C



* C



* S



x



x



* S



* 5



* S



x







* C



* C



* S



* u



x



* .



* C



* S



* C



x



* .



* .



* S



* S







* .


* .



* a



* A



* C



x



x



* S



x



* .



* .



x



* C



* S



x



* S



x



x







* S



* C



x



* C



x



* *



* S







* C



* .



* .



* .



x



* .



x



x


x



* a



* C



x



* S



* S



* S



* S



* S


y


x










x




x





GEOLOGY


OF HOLMES AND WASHINGTON


COUNTIES


FLORIDA.


Table 4 (Continued) FAUNAL CHECKLIST OF THE OCALA LIMESTONE


FORAMINIFERA (Continued)


Opercuina mar Jannenhi Vaughan
ocalana Cushiman.... .... 7{,tssdlia sp.: .. ... .. .......
Robulus propinquus (Han tkcn)..

Si gtotnorphin:a seritecta (Re uss)


" . a " *.


* a a *aa**..a a a
* a a a a a a aa a


Si!phonina dan vilhenuis Howe and Wallace


T. dibolhensis


Cushman and Applin.
mississippiensis Cushman.

Trifaria bradyi Cushman. ..... Tultogenerina jackitonensis Howe.


* a a a aG
* a a a a *
* a a a a a


Virgulina dibolhensis Cushman and Applin


* a. .Q a
* a a" a a


a a a a a


OSTRACODA


Bairdia sp. . . .. *. .. . ...a.a....
Brachycytbere watervalleyensis Howe and

Cytbereis broussardi H-owe and Chambers
hysonensis Howe and Chambers..


a0''' .


sp. cf. C. montgomneryensis Howe and
CZhamrbers *a. .. .a.*...*. .a... a
C4ythereis Q?)jacksonensis Howe and Pyeatt....
Cytherelloidea ouachitensis Howe. *...........
ytheridea grigsby Howe and Chambers.....
Cythriden (0) caidwellnsis Howe and Chambers C~yheropteron montgomeryensis Howe and
Clhai blers......a.a .......aa.a..a.a..a.a....


Bocytheropteron spurgecona Howe


and Chambers.


I I I I I tr I


Textularia sp.






FLORIDA


GEOLOGICAL


SURVEY--BULLETIN


Table 4 (Continued)
FAUNAL CHECKLIST OF THll OCALA LIMESTONE


MA CRO -FOSSI LS


oa/anus Dali.


* C a * a
* C Ca*Ca*** *


Pecen sp. cf. P,


membran~osusr Morton...


Clypeaster rogersi (?) (Morton)..





GEOLOGY


OF HOLMES AND WASHINGTON


COUNTIES


L"L1ORIDA


OLIGOCENE
Vlcksburg

Marianna L


SERIES Group


,imestone


Historical


summary.


Matson


and


Clapp


(1909,


51-52)


sug-


gested


Jackson


name


County


Marianna
Florida.


limestone
Concerning


beds


these


exposed


deposits


they


Marianna,


wrote


"The name to white


abundance


many


Marianna limestone


limestones


other


perplaflu8."


Or bitofde8


fossils


wester,


is here given
ni Florida,w


mantcslli


=prominent


among


other
which


to the soft,


'hlich


porous,


are characterized


foraminifera


are


light-gray


associated poulsoni a


with


Some


since beds Olapp


this


been south


sections


identified


Chipley,


(1909,
report.


,58)


designated


Ocala


and


Florida,


Mat


Glendon


called


Marianna


Cooke


Marianna


Included


Suwannee


(1915)
Matson


have and and


limestone


Cooke


and


Mossom


(1929,


redefined


Marianna


lime-


stone


"-the


white


limestone or


at Marianua and


'chimney


rock'


that


overileE


mante Ut and


the Ocala Pecten von


limestone
ls0nL."


Cushman


(1922,


1922a,


1923)


published


three


monographs


fauna


Vicksburg


group,


unfortunately


only


two


calities (1930)


in Florida described


were the


included


fauna


in these.


However,


Marianna


Cole


limestone


and Ponton from nine


localities


Florida


other


than


two


mentioned


Cushman.


Definition.


The light gray


limestone


underlying


Holmes


and


Wash-


ington ( 1922a,


Counties 1923),


that and


bear Cole


s the and


Marianna fauna


Ponton


(1930)


described


is mapped


Cushman


as Marianna


this


report.


Outcrop


and


physiography.


The


Marianna


limestone


underlies


loW,


evenly


rolling topography,


broken


solution


features.


The


best


Pecten


carries Lop idocyclina






FLORIDA


O4EOLOGIOAL


sURv1Dy~flULLErnN


vces


central


iiohnes


Cioiiity


limestone


again


outcrops


a narrow


Tihe


few first


band good


base


exposulres


Marianna


limestone


high


this


hills


area


outcrops


capIped


terrace


significant


1epr.e


from


deposits.


they


Florida,


Jaekson


County.


Lithiology.


crealn


The


foraminiferal


anmation limestone.


any


section


801110 pecies


and


Mariann limestone exposures


large


individual


limestone


~~TitI1


sho~vs


typ~ically


a massive


extremely


Lcpidocydim&


beds


in ay


light


appearance.


thin


typifly l argely


beds


gray Close


sandy


limestone


eomlposC(


larger


Foraiminifera.


'1'he


coml)letC


rock


weatliers


weathering


a hard


and


, pinlk,


leaching


cavernlous
granular


limestone


clays


anld


with


result.


fresh


used


exposures


blocks


rock


widely


is so soft


used


that


building


ordinary


anld


woodl


chinincy'


saws
rock.


These


blocks


case-harden


111)011


exposure


and


very


serviceable


building


purlposcs.


Thickn ess


andl


i'r1t01U4'C.


T1he


INariainna


liniestone


is generally


uniform


thickness


with


only


slight


thickening


toward(*.


Practi-


cally


gRille


thiicluess


found


these


counties


type


locality


Forty-five


feet


of Marianna


was


pe01 e3tiat43d


in tihe


lianlilton


well


in tihe


E


3N


fin (1


thirty


0.


in the


Chi~Aey


Company


well


near


Fallin


'iVater


Sink.


Intl Mvd ual


out-


crops


measure


much


thirty-six


feet,


wlierca


other


e(xposuI res


consist


only


a few


feet


The


uniforni


thickness


Ivtarianna


seems


indic


that;


conformable


*witIi


underlying


Elevation


and


Marianna


over'lyiing limestone


forinatiotis.


~ve11s


and


exposures


indicate


that


bed


strikes


west


northwest


1111(1


dips


gently


southward


about


eleven


feet


mile


'Washington


County,


and


trikes


northwest


and


dips


south


approximately


eighteen


cet


west






GEOLOGY


01" IIOLMES AND


WASh! NOTON


COUNTIES


* F'1401111)A


tli6ugh


fauna lowing


8j)01310


I jfl~~j.~~j*


SlUt's


toi ic
have


eoiit


"Ins


1l('.VCI'


1)0011


iIi'yozoa 11


tbtiii


(10801' 11)0(1


""'I'


hryozoa 11


'I'Iio


I lillild


A (100 nONOpRIR


iqnojiloaloniella


10'0(h otela I"lorhIfna H ltiti U Iu rUt


jjrtiiidis


e'allalei


?' 141080


A Icnibi'anlporldra


F4tanueiaoeella I Sleganopo'cIIa


Tuft vi


( I
.~(li1ii


:uiuu
I


'a flu 1111(1


njilssliii urull. elcsblIl'f/Ie(l U


autid Itnsxler JIIIMMIOV


Unian en (!ainu tuid


1(1 lleissler ltiixslei' Bh1$8I('1'


Slonuaelectonella 'I',, Iuiieollarla 'vi


( '1'(18R


I( 1(3111


ll17/i(Xl


(Thm
I
411111 1


1 BIIHHIQI' B,, sHier


nkc~vise


I)(
hi the


1)0011


J1C()(ICM


(IC CI


'I' lit'


YI)O


iliOs


( 01II


"liii'"


111011


1111CM


)CCICX


0110
0CC II


Ii tIVC


I1\Iarinnna


Ihi Irdht


WOOd 10(11'


Iafrdoppilala flu'a cli j/'711/Ierc GyP Jicrols ( ?) (27~~IIeerc1n (7) Opt licrella HI).


1(1'11l1


'wi's


tasrodonta


riinnel icc,;g p1


IIOWP II


I lowe


I lowe


11l(!(/l1 fri I


I jI11~' Law


I lowe


I lowe


Pa 1'(le)/),rIR Ponloopprin


r()RCfiCldOflRfS


()WC'


1111(1 1


OWO


I iiiw


JOC(Ii


I)a(1ds.


'Ia iiiia~


I IllCHt0IIO


(5I()SC


sill' lace


let's


(.' 1* I I


a PPJI


i)III(~


*.1
XII liii


11111 ~ 1~


ii POUt


aeksou


Coiin 1I3~. ogri i ZC(I


1)ee


( alay


lIIe1LI1N


S'( )IIS


I i I I t'


( tilt


11(011


iiiittioii


11)1(1


( '11CC


wate


S ~~'A
~vithi


4N


Oil tCI'()


)O II etra te


11 ('StOP 0


wed Is


stirf ace
'1


sill"


( ', tiLl.


HZI VO(


A SIlOS


t~oiie


flONC(I
buii'r fI1)ilfl( flhlI'l ii.


tIlClIVO~


I.i'va 111100


jndo


"lay


11)1(1


ha ye


favoso,


)OXC(


OMMI


0514)110


1141 (lOsa


1111(1


""'He, ('AV ISO


00111


(bed


I'SW%.


(In',
*T~Ut~.


.14


1I( stive
1


0


)PCXCIICC


1. ii


-- I


-I


1 -1


/1 ItV(lflflCCl.RIR


ft


r


I


lOCh






FLORIDA


GEOLOGICAL


SURVEY-BULLETIN


County lowing


an elevation


ixty-two


feet.


The


contains


fauna :


Foraminif era
Angulogorina


Cibfide8 lob tibicides rni Dlscorbis sp.


Globu line Gyroidina


byrarnctzeia


atulu8


(Walker


98i881pp18fl8i#


(Cushiman)


ff61288


gibba d'Orbigl vicksburgenei


(Cushman) hewet Cushman


Jacob)


(Cushman)


(Cushman) ny
8 (Cushman)
(Cushman)I


Riphonine advent Cushman Ostracoda
Bairdoppilate tawodonta Howe and Law


Bythocypris sp, Qythorelloidea fi ytherclla sp.


Opt 1Lert3i8 Cyth cr618 Ifritlac hi


ro8CffelcZenfss


dacyi Howe and


*wanti eenefs


Howe


Law


Law.


Howe


fauna


is representative


lower


M arianna.A


Thle


I1~Iarianna


limestone


overlies


Ocala


limestone,


and


cut-


tings River


f romi


bonn


(locality


Marianna


Caryville


II-35)


this


carry


locality


both


Bridge


a M arianna


covered


over


and


fifteen


Ohoctawhiatchee


Ocala


twent


fauna.


fve


The feet


alluvium.


The


thickest


somewhat


sandy,


exposure


Marianna


these


counties


occurs where


ini a small


sink


following


in .the ection


NW /


was


SE14


measured.


see.


Elevation


sink


feet.


Locality


11-10


Marianna limestone


Feet


,sandy,


clay soil enclosing scattered,


hard


limestone


boulders


Thin-bedded


massive


c12eJ


layers


ci herciloidee


probleuza d'Orbigr
,L .. "17 .....


am to light interlbeddled.
?.,llhiditn


gray,


sandy


Contains 4 pocyanum


Lenticulina sp.,


-a *


limestone,


numerous
(d'Orbign:


with


1U


specimens


Laore of


Onttuiiiza


mantelli


(Mor-


.n.n n n'* E'nrtrnn Pnl.aeTnc an


Bitubulogeiicrina sp. cf. B.


Eponides advent Eponide8 marlan


Karreriella sp. Liebusselle byramnensi# Non ion sp. Robuhs Bsp.


Lcpidoeclin a





GEOLOGY


O1F HOLMES AND WASHINGTON


COUNTIES


FLORIDA


The


upper


beds


this


outcrop


resemble


B3yram


marl


Ala-


bama


lithology


and


two


species


1~ecten


closelyy


related


the species


Peten


Byram.17


Similar


rock


penetrated


wells


unmediate


cinity


and


seven


one-f ourth


feet mile


hardened


northwest


limestone


locality


1*1-10


exposed


iii a sink


elevation


feet.


The


westernmost


exposure


Marianna


limestone


Holmes


County


may


seen


in a small


sink


on the


.0.


Spears


farm


NE /


NW


SE A


.5 N.,


an elevation


feet.


sink This Cole


The


being


locality


and


outcrop


filled


"-37


Ponton


Mir.


and


is covered


Spears
fossils


sagra


a foot avoid


present


'Orbigny)


clay


erosionl


and


field.


Operculinella


Cibicide


lob atulu


( Walker


Oytherefloidea


Howe,


and


and


Jacob)


byramensis
specimens


Lepidocyclina


Ilowe


and


identifiable


Law only


mautelli


Cythcre~s


genera.


this


shallow


vicinity


depths.


water


amples


well


rfrom


commonly Following


penetrate


wells


liniestone


contain


Mar


anna


fauna.


Approximate


elevation


samples


given


parentheses.


NW /


Padgett R.1S


NE14


Farm (159


NEI


sec. 11


SE A


5N


SE A


17 W


sE A


(125


sec. 22


feet). 5 N.,


feet).


NE%/ (two


NE%/
Byrarn


NWA se sp)Cmis).


5N


18 W


( 7150 feet)


Suwvannee


Limestone


Introduction.


tentative


unit


name


ranging


rr1~e


sediments


Suwannee


from


mapped


limestone


feet


constitute thickness.


report distinct


Because


under


lithologie


great


number


tk A


"A-g


Lenidoc uclina


which


Occur


A.. uJaflJ


Suwannee.


3 Oan#~wi


(Morton),.
mc guirti






FiLOI IDA


GEOLOGICAL


S UI VEY-B U1LLETI N


logical


miollIusks


from


localities


been 11-8


faunal


and


uiiit.


811(1


content


formation


Certain


Suwannec4


probably


localities


loraminifer;


lower


such


~vhich


Clfckasa~vhay


W-34


1rep1or'ted


and


W-46


contain


fromii


conitain


~'Ll11C8


contains 88 11-11


have


been


eastern


Sliflill


Byra H


8 l~1)llde


more


from


Than


contin previous


locality


0110


so0me1


paleo


rito-


ple1s


I ,eIOrted


Mississippi.


for'aiinifci


niai'1


Sauce


few


whjjici


locali tics


l)CCles,


only other have


such


lfliPtiCUlfll'IY


zoans


uggeshve


tv 1 C


locally


U london


limestone


S\lalbama.


)oss~bIc


mestone


flap p~t


~',a 1111CC


niay depIo


1'Cl )IaCsth


sition


time


Glendon


interval


lilies


C(1LlIVIIIQJI


tone


yrahIl


'''a',


1 1111(1


llired
ho'wei'


ckasawh


Was


impossible


huington


and


iiar'l


western


I ef tal" Ilolnes


Aab a ma


Il )l~lbl c


e astern


units


~~'itln H


lS1SS1I)1)1.
S ll\V~nlne(C


unties .


While


corn la


'atively


nleW


al ready


been


ised


eposi is


in holmes


1111(1


III1~'*


Ulitiex


Mans-


(1938,


1940)


Cooke


(i939~


1.560).


orliglna


S


l1i~7alHlHeC


limestone


a rca


'3.41(5
"(I;.,


1 asec


iti l'ication


uscan


anna.


"w1'iter


i ited


ty~)c


11usd


Suwa 1~1


] linieStonle


flII(1


Iflihle


extensive


collection


There


CJOSO


ari ty


Collected in


typ)e


a rca


~~Tjtl'I


those


1111(1


holmes


Coun


I)r'CSslOIIS.


although Species


1)oth


Lepiocyclin a


they


and


are


irgel y


Operculino 'dcs


1)rbeS(erve']


have


I'll-


been


IOliII(


type


between


Suwannee


area
a'eaIs


IS flu 1t.1t.
Ut lfllfl


limestone


U11(1


raininif era


correlation


Il 'yozoa


and


Ost Ifl t(oda


'nay


tionable


beca use


1)001.'


)Il'esel


'vation


titexe


orga


11183k


"'sills


in the


that


typec unit


ii Walllee


flu Pl)C(1


li jestone.


as Sulwannec


limestoiie


in Hohues


q4, flfl.fl


nil" U *~ .*u flilfint! 1(5 flfll* *.uA Eu lb * *Isa


XXTnc,1 bi


Th'le


| ||J


|r


if|





GEOLOGY'


01?" HOLMES AN])


WASHINGTON


COUNTIES


FIORIDA


timed Cooke


Tecrtiary


aiid


unit


Mansfield


Florida,


(1936,


and


-72)


PUUlIHlIOd


WOI'k


wrote :


"The
tallly


11111110 CX~OS0(


It l1I lI'oriJ'


fossils, the MI stone.0 Eocene


,l1wanhiee 1 along It


11111)13'


ahnost


OCCIIO


itnestone' I:


ov(erhies wih


~V hite


hawthorn


(01eni('II g


I he south).


near


imnostune


ltivor tn1


di for ye I 1"lorhfln,


ce limestone coid[ah Ihig


rsj)rIlgs,
1~'imu tioma.


lh'.3ok (on t


sville,


nleat r


"whIli


A tiot.! lOP
Ileriitiii


ntortlh)


It lies


Ilowisli from


I hnest~one


1~llhat ~'


VIc.kshurg


uncoil


Iurige aIreat O Io (County, ile Miocene


forinub


Su~va


typiwVh1Qro


goce(ne1()
r belowv


131100


li hethe


lliiiestoiio


"Most


writers haveo reglrded1


lliiiestoiie.


talus


~vrIt:ers


the e(*ht I


\vher' Gill1
of Flint genus G]o Trhle \,


fermna t hUt


]'1I' III


uiiirl


lRine


ikfizoiin
1111111'O


hinic


t he Suwat


11I(00


I/o viltill


the late VI
'mollusks.


C:kSl)1rg
Th2Ie 1


(1 (0. cook


()I Geor~gli


of


the Vicksburg


vinci 5511)1)1,


gr(olll.''


a
0]


Flint: River f


)I'CSOII(!
)erg)


(,ori'eh 1 t(


wiih iwhIt I]


t


lihtextotie 118 PDart


Vl(,ksburg


0I'1llh1 tion,


Ii 8I)0(1t'8


suggests anl
t1lentatilvely


(1iickasii~vhuiy


O()I]


age,
~v1iich


the Paunnn


is 1'nciWvl


lull several


ol' the oler


wvith I 1111ril )011Il1()4t


thou 1~1
IF"Iiiit


"olOW'


(~()fl('180-


Hj)OC108 [loceno. hirer


horizon


Th'Ie


1Il'fl*l0


stra tigri invaimnee


Coo


]imiestone


1)0011


re fer


'In''


ltany


nation


(1892,


Matson
(tolutern


and


)OI'UIflOIllS


) (1901


witl


121) l~l)


Fr flliipU


73-74)


(Milled


(10 PO


)sits


()rmiation.


]I awt


1OI'H


(ililpola)


iiicluded 1'Iossom'


cksbu


Mossoni


Man


tJcei (C 25


(Ulatta 1)laced


1O00


Su~v


Coo


(1937)


11aJ)j)e(I


(loser


ty~w


1111 tiic}l


an111(ee .182)
Ien~,


/Mioccne


Glendon 'PaIlIl)a.


rp~


imoll usk


Coo](:


mpa.


TVan lpa


and


~V8fl IICQI


( st()


and


s ignifilean


erenees


liflUN.


says


46):


I


formation


rock


at gi'anlul


linmestone.


COIISISt liii' t:()


S i~liti


enth'ely


, (:OIlUP!t,


I Iniet;Olne.


usually


Ihe lower part Is at many places


ceit ean-colonred


mflO1'O grit


nular hun


lunweatheredl


l)IIrO


thle 11))01r."


1)i11)CV


aimous


CditC(1


Man" field


*1 oolcc


(1940)


lesci
'I


and 'ibed


Gardner


811(1


)llbli


p)ictured


shcc*I


J) OSt-


irna


CI dekasawbay


ISSIS'S'


and


on


1


- .lI





FLORIDA


GEOLOGICAL


SURVEY-X-BULLETIN


sample on west


collected


side


Andrews


Matson


Bay


''six


miles


southwest


Chipley


road


Lepidocyclina georgiana Cushmnan Lepidocyclina attenuata Cushman


Lepidocyclina


floridana Cushman


Lapidocyolina ocaianG


var.


.subdecorata


Cushznan


1929


Cooke


and


Mossom


mapped


these


beds


as Glendon


lime-


stone,


and


County silicified
County,


considered


of northern


underlain


limestone


Washington


Glendon.


boulders,


as outcrops


occurring


Glendon


and


Apparently


in terrace


most
they


deposits


Holmes


interpreted


Holmes


limestone.


Likewise


1929


publication


Cooke


and


M~ossom


identified as Ocala


species,


occurring


limestone.


five


From


confined


near
these


Duncan


Eocene


Church,


and


were


from listed


Washington


Matson


County


's sample,


Cushman


(1935)


They


follow :


TPextutlaria


Robultl8


subhaurUi Cushmnan


gutticostatus


Rcus8ella cocenla


Angulogerina Eponide8 jac Eponides oca


(Giihel)


Applin)


(Cushman)


ocalana kaonensfi8


lana


Cushmnan (Oushmnan


Cushmnrn


Cole


(1934)


confined


farm


locality,


preceded Duncan


three


and


Cushman


Church one-half


1935


localities


miles


publication


with


and


southeast


Wausau


paper


Parrish
'Wash-


ington places


County


definitely


believed


proved


them


speeds


Levidocyolina


Glendon


age.


these


recorded


following


fossils


from


these


localities


Lcpidocyoliiza supra (( Lepidocyclina yurnagu


Donrad) ensis Cuslhman


Lepidocyclina gurnagunensis var. Lepidocyclina undosa Oushman Lepidocyclina utndosa var. tutnidt Lepidocyclina favosa Cushmnan Lepidocydlna giga8 var. dwncatne


morgatz.0p818


Vaughan


Vaughan


ud s Cole


Cooke


(1935,


1171)


correlated


Flint


River


formation


Georgia


with


limestone


Cooke


and


Mossom


(1929)


had


arevious]ly


AL





GEOLOGY OF HOLMES AND WASHINGTON COUNTIES


FLORIDA


eludes above


limestone


definite


used


beds


Marianna


this


lying


report


below


Suwannee


definite


Tampa


limestone formation


and


limestone.


Physio graphic
characterized 1


regularities


which


expression
r solution pre-empt


and


outcrop.


topography or capture


The


with


surface


Suwannee


numerous


sinks


drainage.


limestone


and


many


The


sink


basins


outcrops


breaking


possibly


owe


terrace their


surfaces


origin


south


in part,


underlyin


Suwannee
itSuwan-


limestone.


The


Chipley


Suwannee


and


due


limestone


largely


forms rolling


base


topography,


outcrol)s


south


in a broad


northeastern


western


Suwannec


County, outcrops


Washington


covered


limestone


along


a narrow


3hington County younger thinner


band


and


County.


and


Along


eastern


deposits.


and


major


Holmes


west


steeper


best


streams


County,


central


dips,


exposures


Holmes


that


sinks.


Lithology.


tremely


The


fossiliferous


Suwannee limestone.


light-gray


Locally


buff, porous,


masF ;


large


and


small


foraminifers.


Elsewhere


this


facies


almost


entirely


placed


by shells


weathering


produces


mollusks


in a crystalline


crystallization


and


limestone


a pink


tint


matrix.


due


Partial
incor-


poration granular


mation


The


iron


clay


is not


oxide. which


covered


limestone


residtuai


clays


contains and some


Complete supports


terrace


many


have


weathering


profuse


deposits. silicified


been


produces


vegetation,


masses


included


very


where


which


as boulders


for-


remain


in alluvial


deposit


(localities


Some 11-20


theEc


and


11-21)


Suwannee


were


boulders


originally


now


terrace


calcareous


,highly


deposit


fossili-


feirous


sandstones.


Thickness.


The


Suwannee


limestone


a thickness


feet


well


least


on the


seventy-three


Hamilton


feet


farm


in see.


Suwannee


exposed


Falling


V. At Water


- -.- - an


J. n


P


mn


'b4~1~..


* *u|


n nn1nnn~7


~f17flhl


Definition.


band


C'4*~ 1






FLORIDA


GEOLOGICAL


SURVEY-BIJLLFITTN


feet


mile,


Hohnes


and


str:kies


County


west


beds


northwest


strike


acros3J


northwest


and


Washington


south


County. approxi-


niately


ilear" feet


twenty


Pensacola


beneath


feet


Florida


overlying


mile.


Thle


is found sediments


Suwannlee
a depth (


indicating


limestone


equivalent


approximately


that


1200


increases


toward


southwest


(Gravell


and


IFlanna


1938


993).


eypods,


ThIis
Man


thirty-two


p~ecies


fauna


field


is quite


(1937


MN'ansfield


pecles


echinoid


closely


(1937)


lited


gastropods,


from


related


listed


only


type


that


seven


thirty-four


species


species


area


TIampa


pecies


and


ub-:


pele-


scaphopod,
Suwannee. formation.


pecles


that


found


Holmes


and


Suwvannee bt Washington


found


Counties


T'ampa.


exposures,


except


near


culinoide
Alabama


fos- ils
OCCUr


giga


such only (bed


Duncan


21I2U i'll.


and


Churchl


Barker


type


localities


W-70


dun, cani C21siS


(bed


11-17


and


Cole


W-46


have


~1~


Glendon


also


abundance


occurs


limestone.


na gun


W-27


beds been and


ensis


W-32b,
Duncan


identified


Other


Otis


speces Byrain easily


hm nan


W-35


lure


onb~


Duncean


and


(bed


Oper


marl


identified varieties


W-46


pidoeycli'n


local' ties
Church.


H-B


The


lihnestone


localities


I-I-li


and


W-35


(bed


contains


molluscan


or no s unpress


pecies


OIW.


Tihe


Lepidocyclina


following


and


molliu ks


is comp)osed


distinctive


argely


and


numerous


in solne


Suwalnee


exposures


this


area


Cardliun C'hione 1


Glue jimeris Ifuplius mi Orthaula.r


Pectn Pee ten


rr(Issat us


cf. (2.


flintensis hI glen(1 dol n~si, asn. ef. P. v~o


Local details.


T1he


Mansfield lull
Mansfield


Gaib


insfield
Mn nsfield ulsofli Morton


Mansfield


Suwannee limestone outcrops


in numerous sinks


snutli
---- - -


Chipley.


Florida.


The


best


known


these


exposures is


Paleontology.


those


Lepidocyclina


brook. villeus& lain bridgenss


SUiC(lflUCIDRER


fill (IUUX


11 erluIndoen 818


i


P






GEOLO)GY


OF HOLMES AND


WASHINGTON


COUNTIES,


FLORIDA


Suwannlee limestone


(elevation


143 feet)


Cream matrix.


to mliff, gr Era gments
ehipolcens


unular,


foraniiuiferal


of inacro-fessils


Cushinan


coquina


arle rare.


L on ton


limestone


A mpht116leLa


,Alissssippina


ph nzina


S.advena


1Bairdoppilata mart yni Coryell,


sp., .Archicythcreis


eyelin a
present


wmlosa


Cushinan


, Gyp


Reussella


Sample, and Jennings, llemiepy hero


sIp., Lepidocy~ciina


Cushinan


fi vosa


rnuiri


Barker


Buff


light


gray,


granular,


foraiminifera


largely of Lepidocyclina favosa Cushman and L.


exposed


calve


belowv


of lbed number two,


CYlypeaster IPccten SD).


rogers
~vere


sink


floor.


IDiphidinin Sit,


i(Morton) found ....


O8trea


addition


Non ion


cequina


made


untlosa C'ushman,


rjrateloupi


vicksb urgens


all the


Species


(dWOrbigny),


Conrad


, and


Total


133.8


outcrop)


a Small


siink


Gilbert


1'arm


NW%4


.exp


oses


following


section


Suwannee Locality IS


limestone


T48


Feet


granular


Tied, Buff
line nlaU11,


culindfla


,soft,


clay


WI di


foiramtlniferal


limestone


eontain~ng


limestone


~cqiiimma. IS' numerous


Cushnninl,


a4ia Cole


float.


Elevation


'eathers to


145 feet


light gray,


Ie pitlocyjclina


vosa


and Ponton


Cushman


undosa


CP'yS


GushOper-


Creaml grading
pntgnawx vitlense


fossils a Gibicides


(hiufli


to buff, up into,


soft, bed 2.


her Ia IdoCH
Mansfiel,


burnsii also p)


?ota


d 'Orbigny, sI)., Rotal!
man, Bp( Culshmun,


U


Glob 4ger/a


Non/ii


Ellis


Angulogerina
byraniensis


)flidC'8


Lepidocychina


granular


limestone


in terbedded


c;:ntains nunler'Ous nolds


us field.


f iUn lensis lis Pilsbry


IiClfliCj/t/tC)'C p., Bugyina


(1( d C1 US


Ron ssella


Cushmnan


Mansfi '.rrlle Slp.,


(Cuslman)


valr.


(Oushiman)


followingg n Bairdoppilata hia1Hadley, 1


(Jushiundosal


muirUi Barker
Total ...


a test


N1/


swA


.4N


Marianna


may


~ave


been


reached


At


this


locality


W-27


follow-


. .,. . .- ... ni flfl clii UuI~11(V ,~a *


gppfjnn


liOhllFl0Y!


tovf


U iir*I


june


OpereuhinohleR


Lop 1do-


yurnayuncn.~


IJiploduntet


A Ut /)UIliIUI nieridiona


resent


with, and Orthaulaw


C 1urdzunz


P1(1.


brook-


"Amauropsi8"


byraniensis


flIphi-


(Jiobulina


Discorbis


,Siphon/na


gibba


sp., Gypsuta


ad venta


parvula,


,Lepidocycifiut


Opereulin oidc8


I I| |.


I |1


| |l ,#


I IIlll


I


m l |1





FLORIDA


GEOLOGICAL


SURVEY- BULLETIN


Pinkish-gray Bryozoa and Pinkish-gray,


overlying


sociated


Sl


buff,


large soft,


material. pieces of


soft,


granular


Foraminifera


granular


limeE


The fauna i Lepicdocyclina


limestone


tone, slightlyI something like indicate it is S


with


harder


numerous'


than


Marianna. luwannee..


the As-


Total


The


beds


Duncan


Church


approximately


same


vation,


one-quarter


a mile


east


this


outcrop.


Much


been


published


regarding


limestone


exposed


sink


Parrish (1925,


farm


186)


in the


was


sw A


SEI4


first


sec. 33,


report


this


3N


locality


and


*Mossom question-


ably


tainly based


avsigued


older


than


on fossils


3 Tampa Chipola


identified


formation formation.


Miss


Julia


and The


stated


that


was


determination


was


Gardner


Cooke


and


Mossom


(1929,


. 96)


recognized


two


faces


and


ferred


both


"Tampa


limestone"'


Vaughan


(Cole,


1934


regarded


these


beds


as middle


Oligo-


cene


or Glendon


and


correlated


them


with


beds


outcropping


Duncan


Church.


Mansfield
believed I


upper


this


bed


(1934,


.332) same


indefinite


locality


age.


recognized


as the


two


limestone


However,


(1938,


equivalent


after


tentatively


Suwannee


limestone


definite


beds.


SDuncan a study


considered


and


Tihe


Church,


lower


and


fauna
upper


part


Ohicekasawhay


(1940)


stone


and


Locality


The


definitely
correlated


W-35


lower


bed


placed


with


*Section


considered


upper lower


small


sink


middle


Oligocene. Suwannee


Ohickasawhay


back


Later lime-


Mississippi. L. Parrish


farm


,Washington


County.


Locality Tampa


W-35 formation ?


3) Red, sandy Suwannee limestone


Feet


with small


(elevation 66 feet)


lime and


silicious


pellets


A, nn -


4-fl ltfl.4.


n-fl t*t


nfl n,.t~n.nIA ni


A an nfl


43 4~ a


.%. ---


,, U S ** r. *.....an.......a ~jtJ** **


n..l 41.





GEOLOGY

Anadara ,
*Anadare Cassi8 flit Ohtone ba


OF HOLMES


nummi izaoiz cit
izbridge


AND WASHINGTON


Mansfield Mansfield M4ansfield ,,nsi8 Dali


Glava parrtshi Mansfield


COUNTIES, FLORIDA


Fiou8 ?fl18818ip))iens88 Coiirad?


Kuphu8 Inc6ras8atu8


Panope


taylorensi8


*Phacoide8 ap. Turritella ap.


Gabb Mansfield Schipolana
,Uattnonsi8


Dali SConrad


addition


these


following


pecles


have


been


identified


writer


from


two.


Ampullina ap. Cardium sp. ci C7onu sf p. aff. Garb ula sp. cf. Olivella an. aft


PhosV
*Semele


parrishi


*Stronzbu8 ap. Venericardia


hernandloense


C. imitator


Mansfield


Brown and Pilsbry


C. burnsii Dali !. 0. rnisi88itppiens# Conrad Mansfield


emithfl


Dali


liocyolus


Dali


(Heiprin)


With such


poorly


preserved


specimens


can


conclude


that


these


show same


affinities


time


with


include


transition


fauna


many


faces


Tampa


between


Suwannee


form


The


Tampa


limestone


possibility formation


that and


two


wannee fications


limestone


must


mollusks


considered


correct


Granting


this


that


possibility


identi-


is strengthened.


The Cole


species (1934),


Lepidocyctina


who


implied


that


from


this


have


been


contains


described


same


fauna


near


Duncan


Church.


assigned


these


Glendon


limestone.


fresh


,twenty-five


foot


exposure


Suwannee


limestone


seen


in a sink


4N


on the


. The


Finch


following


farm


fossils


in the


occur


NEA


NW A


locality


.46)


Foraminifera


Can cr18 s Clbftede8
Discorbf8


agra


(d'Orbigny)


lobatulu8 (
byrarnens


Walker a81 Cushman


lJponide8 sp. ef. 11. byramensis Gypsina sp. cf. 0/. vesiculari8 Lepidocyclina undosa Cushman Lepidocyclina undosa Cushman


Lepidocyclina gjfga8


Jacob)


(Cushman) (Parker an


var.


cluncanens818 Cole


Lepidocyclina yurnaguncnsis Cushmau


Nonion sp.


plana turn


- a - n a I.


Cushinan


Jones)


Thomas


Bcrricosta





FLORIDA


GEOLOGIOAL


FURVEY-BULL~ETIN


En ta lophora Eselharo ides Fills parsa, loloporella


liniata


seposita


((Janu a: i.. erect a


Canu


Idinouca grallator .Cnn ILichcnopora gohl71 118S (. Mcmbrauiporidra spfssii


Reuss)
1ltL'(1is


1l Basslor) (Canu an(


Bassler)


(d Bassler Bassler


Canu


Bassler


Miclopora SI). Porcila sp. ef.


Rote pora 1'rypoStcgi


Tiubucellaria


Pcrass8oparies8 CnnlU


Canut


venusta


vicksbui'gica


Canu


anld Bassler


Bassler
(Norman)


Bassler


Locality


W-34


Elevation


128


feet.


a small


sink


in the


NE'


NE A


4N


thirteen


feet


cream


colored


,very


dense


,crystalline


limestone


largely


foraminiferal


coquina,


posed.


The


following


Amphiistcgina SI).
Clinianll ail


elLA


fossils


cli Ipol


Culsluna 11


~vere CIESIS


IPoiitoii


identified:


Mlssissfppfna sp.


J'oZlorphina~


advena Cushinan


Re ussella sli.
Rotalia byruacesis Cushmian


Snirillina spj( Textularia sp.


S. vivipara


var
Ehrenberg


The


County
following


Suwannee


and~


canl


each locality


limestone


is exposed


studied


d escrilption


in many


followin


indicate


sinks


localities.


fauna


WAashington


The


present


initials


. D.


represents


Lop docyclina


assemblage


similar


that


Duncan


torch


fauna


composed


largely


molds


mollusks


bryozoan


fauna similar to


Glendon


Alabama


and


a Byram


affinit


Locality
i-cc. 1,
Locality\
T. 4N


Locality


feet


3N


feet


Well


4N


NW


Oia quarry (D.C.)


road


(D.C.) cutt'ngs (D.C.)


E14


in tihe


center


NW14


NE1/4


SE'A


Locality
2E1 Locality


-


W-3l sec. W-32


4N


feet 4N


: 20 feet


- .


-. .


abandoned


quarry


(D.C


in a small sinkt
(D.C.)


G ')


in the NW1,4


;NE1/ SE 4


SE


see. 16


laciniosa


Operculinoides muii Barker D iseorbis byra ,eCnsis Cushnwn


Lcpidoeyclina


facosa


Lepidocyclin a 1(11(1dose Cushimn


v





GEOLOGY. 0F, HOLMES AND


WASHILNGTON


COUNTIES,


FLORIDA


extends


under


westward


terrace


these


deposit


terrace


least


'Plie


deposit


a quarter


Suwan nee


in IL.


mile


limestone


Brown


well


~vhere


was


passes


lpenCetrated


NW


corner


NW1/4


SWlA


sec. 16


4N


Within


and and


Cooke


this and


referred


fifty


feet


theater-F haped


band


is the


Mossom


them


buff
ink.


exposure


described


(1929,


G4leiwdon


foralninifer!d


Lornion


limestone


Cooke


Cedar
At


(1923,


Grove


this


is exposed


locality,


place


forty


in an ampi-


Lime


reported


abandoned


Cooke


\Valdon


and


Mossoii


lime


(1929,
Alford


outirop~s


Lumber


Company


land


in the


NE,1/


NE / sec. 15


sec. 14


4N


Laney


a
fm ai


4N


The


eastern most


exposure


S ux~'anhiee


limestone


Wasi


ngton


County


is found


on the


'S
rarni


Alec


Kent


NE1/4


fossiliferous


ilicifiled


in the
)osure.


S3W


cor ier


conism


poorly


1)oulders.


There


County
county


are


However


exposures ,ninny s


terrace


deposits.


Su~vannee


liceous


holderss


Some


these


Iimestoiie


occur


are


H~olmes


throughout


removed


from


their


original


stratigral1)hic


)ositionl.


1)OUldCPS


found


locality


tain


1~1-1


all(1


rflnnlfl-' ~1n Cl I jJtJtiAALLtdAAIJ


11-8


serve


[as examl)le:4.


gicialonci


The liVila n


boulder.


11-i


fiel(d


con-


was


scr. bed


from


lower


Chielkasawhay


SBoulders


occurring


on numer-


hills


These


vicinity


boulders


were


locality


identified


IL-s


Cooke


(M)fltflifl


as Gleiidon


varied


limestone


fauna.
(1923,


and


however


they


,they


contain


also


carry


Glendon faunas s


faunal nijlar


assemble ge.


those


addition


occurring


Suwannee sediments


ularity


and and


younger


they


between


deposit


in plaICe


outcrop)


and


Ihey


there


normal


inuterbedd(ed


must


outcrop


with


a tructural immediately


terrace


Irregsouth.


For


these


reasons


boulders


believed


part


Chlamy






FLORIDA


GEOLOGICAL


SUJRVEY-BULLEITIN


Foraminif era


Amphistegina sp.


ef. A.


chipolensis Cushman


Angaulogerincs sp. Baggina wenoula Hadley Opercuhinoide8 muirit Barker CTibicides sp. ef. 0. ohoctawensis


Cibicide.s sp, Discorbi8 pa
Dyocibfoides Discorbi8 sn


Cushmnan


(Walker Brady)


Ponton


and MeGlamnery Jacob)


biserialis Cushman and Valentine


Elpitidium sp. Globulina gibba~ d'Orbigny


Lepidocyelineasp. Nonion sp. ef. NV.


Nonionella i. Polymorphilna


advena


Pse udopolynzorphlna Pyrgo aubsphaeriea Pyrulina sp. Quinqueloculina sp. Reussella 8piflulosa


Rota Ha


S~oritcs sp.
Tecztularia sp.
STriloculina sp
Virgulina sp.
Ostracoda


undosa


Cushinan


tumida


(d'Orblgny)


Vaughan


SD.
(d'Orblgny)


(Reuss) var. Cushman var. ?


trigonula


(Lamarek)


Bairdoppilata sp. ef. B.


(Cythiereis fiytherei8
Cythsercis Cythtereis


ef. C7.


mart yni Coryell,


rose fieldens


Sample,


Howe and Law


Rowve and Law var.


and Jennings


LOytherelloidea sp. (pitted)
Cytheridca blanpiedi Stephenson
Cythterideis sp.
(Cytheromorpita sp.
Xestoleberi8 sp. Mollusca


Chioiw bainbridgensis


Dali


Citlamys glen don ens 18 Maiisfield Glycymetris SUWannUCUsiB Mansfield


Ku plu8 Incrassatus


Pecten sp.


Oabb


poulsoni


Morton


Limestone


wherever


sinks


and


S uwannee


limestone


associated


occurs


is known


near


chiefly


granular


surface


from


water


soils


in Holmes


wells.


common County ; limestone


bearing


Su wannee


fauna


was


penetrated


following


wvells.


Elevations


samples


unknown.


* ef.. (. lobatulu8 tell formig (H. :i


grateloup$


byrauzensis


moguirti Rowe var.


viciksburgcnsi8





GEOLOGY


OF HOLMES AND WASHINGTON COUNTIES,


FLORIDA


MIOCEN Tampa


SERIES


Formation


Historwcat


the rocks


swrmmary.


exposed


Prior


near Tampa,


1888


Florida


many


geologists


Conrad


(1846,


had


described


1846a),


Allen


C1846)


Bailey


none


(1850),


these


Tuomey


gave


(1851), Kerr


deposit


(1885), Heiiprin


(1887)


a name.


The name


235)


Tampa formation


was


beds exposed about some of


first suggested


the southern


Johnson


lakes,


and


(1888,
Tampa


and


Hillsborough


bays.


Dall


(1892,


117-119)


studied


and


gave


more


complete


descrip-


tons


named


The


Tampa
"Tampa


lower


ignated


possible


named


Dall


Bluff"


from


(1892,


beds


was


exposures


silex


and


and


characterized


bed


equivalent presence


112)


distinguished


no younger
Orthaulax


whereas lleilprin'


many


included


in a "Tampa


group"'


species


"Tampa
Later


limestone


(1887)


"Cerithium


belonging t ","Chipola


studies


two


facies


"Tampa


which


limestone


and was


that


and


made


was


des-


regarded


rock '',
genus. "Alum


Chat-


tahoochee,


pugnax


Florida, deposits


(1892,


'which he


identified


115)


as the


diecovered


"Ohattahoochee


Orthaulax


group"'


and


which


placed


"Silex


beds


Both


"tierithiumn"


and


"0Orthaulax"


beds


were


included


Matson mation


and


Clapp's


included


(1909,


a greenish-gray


clay,


Tampa


formation.


The


f or-


Orthaulax


bed;


a limestone


similar


Cerithium


and


more


greenish-gray


clay


base.


general


they


described


formation


"-greenish


of 'silex'


clays,


light


gray


to yellow


lmestones,


a very


fossiliferous


(p. 84).


1929


formation


Cooke


and


"Tampa


Mossom


limestone"


changed


because


name


"formation


Tampa consists


airnARt


entlrely


EnJ


lrn-,egtAne


a


They


-I '


Defined


L UJLILIl -J


ramona


En,


include


" Orthaulax


pugnax


Elerithium


J





FLORIDA


GEOLOGICAL


SURVEY-BULLETIN


paper


on tihe


mnollusk~s


r1~a11,J)a


and


Suwauinee


lirnestones


and


eparated


two


faunas.


Tihe


'''JI'a11711)a


limestone ''


was


considered


equivalent


upper


Cllicka


Man


aw'liay


field


formation


(1940,


Missi


,172)


SSipp


i by


Cooke


dereribin


"'Moll uslhs


paper


Chiclkasawhay


marl''


Defin it ion.


used1


in this


report


term


Tamn


formation


plies


sed'me


above


Suwvannee


limestone


arid.


below


Alum


Bluff


grout).


Unfos ilit'erous


greei


- gin ~r
S


clays


alld


het~veen


'----nt-i
LUb~.i-


iferioiis


Suwannee


limestone


aiul


limestone


Tamp


formation


niiltoi


well


in1 sec.


Here


and


adjacent


terr tory


these


clays


811(1


occupIy


stratigr'aphic


pore


tion


that


liould


occupied


rli.flfll)a


formation.


mation


contains


considerable


alnount


this


unfossiliferous


clay


and(
The


termi


writer,


therefore,


'"'Taiipa


Return


limestone"'


entirely


usage


TJ.amLpa


satisfactory


format: on


but with Ma1


llSfiel's paleontology a


ud stinatigral)hie restrietfons


(1937)


Outcrop and phy


iog/rap~c CxpreV


8810)1.


Th'le


.1'ami)a


formation


gen-


Clrally


tion


und~erlies


is conltrolle(I


region
largely


iiIgli


relief,


overlying


formations.


urf ace


eonfigura-


9
Exposures


Tampa


rare


and


formation


mapp)Ie(1


largely


basi


structure.


ington Creek
along


outcroIps County,


Ibase


and


broad


Hlmhes


Creek


extend


band


auwl


high


~~rest~~rard


JIohnmes


Iiills


alon


Creek.


Choctaw~hatc


northeastern


~~a11ey


Hlard


IIorIIat'oil


liver


WashLabor


outcrops


isolated


posures.


Elsewhere


along


stream


coulrses


formation


covered


younger


terrace


deposits.


western


Holmes


County


formation


outcrop


in a band


four


five


miles


w ide.


The


exposureCs


this


area


usually





GEOLOGY OF HOLMES AND WASHINGTON COUNTIES,


FLORIDA


Water


t'Sink


and


one-fourth


mile


north


Scott


Bridge


over


Econfina


Creek


Bay


County.


Thirteen


feet


brownish-gray


limestone


overlying


forty-six


feet


green,


calcareous


silt,


similar


that


which


outcrops


throu


southwestern


Holmes


County,


was


penetrated


well


Hamilton farm in the SEA/


This and well,


thickness


formation


feet


thins


located in see.


sec. 24, appears


eastward


3N


18 W


Holmes


maximum


forty-two


feet


Gully


County


area
Pond


iN


Falling


Water


Snk


eleven


feet


silty


measured


and
feet


marl


sixteen indicate


thick


is exposed,


feet that


northern


this


although material.


Tampa


Washington


1914


Geologic


formation


County


Cooke


(1929,


sections


(figs.


approximately


series


fifty


outcrops


(W-3,


W -4,


W-5),


mile


west


Hinson


Crossroads,


expose


thirty


feet


brownish-gray


limestone.


The


thickest


section


feet)


greenish-gray


and


clay


exposed


State


Road


W


see. 16


5 N.,


Structure.


feet


mile


The


and


Tampa strikes


formation


west


dips south


northwest


across


approximately


Washington


twelve


County


H~olmes


south


and


County


strike


is northwest.


approximately


These


twenty


figures


feet


estimated


mile
from


elevations


Tampa


L exposures, formation


combined Geologic


with


test


elevations


wells


three


localities.


(See


figures


and


15).


Paleontology.


Mansfield


(1937


,P.


reported


species


and


sub-species of Mollusca from


Tampa


formation.


Only


eight species


and


-species


overlying


Chipola,


and


Tampa


only


fauna


six species


known


and


sub-species


fauna exist


Recent


fauna.


Tampa


fauna


Mansfield


(1937


says






FLORIDA


GEOLOGICAL


SURVEY-BULLETIN


Mansfield 's sub-speces


tabulations. )f Suwannee


Mansfield mollusks


(1937,


and


echinoids


listed,
which


species


have


not


and been


reported dicated


from


Tampa.


speres


lnarine


(1937,


mollusks


,115-117)


from


Tampa


further


" 'that


have


been


found


within


certainty


in the


Suwannee


limestone.


Gastropod


make


large


percentage


individuals


Homes pectens


and


and nlay


one-half


Warhiugton predominate,


miles


south


Counties. as in the f Chipley.


Locally,


however


Falling


Water


oysters


Sink


and


three


Unfortunately,


exception so greatly Accurate


fossils


formation formation.


that


altered


exposures


Falling solution


identification


better


preserved


Wakulla


Thle


Tampa


County,


T amipa


Water


Sink


that


theref ore


and


~yliic1i


Falling


and


molluscan difficult.


similar is one


Water


formation


10ocality fossils


those


type


Sink


contain


with W-3.


are


general,


are


molds. microTampa


areas


a number


ostracodes


,such as Gythericlea lilanpeidti Stephenson


howei Stephen-


son


and


wayrnensts


Stephenson


which


occur


uI)per


Chick-


asawhay


eastern


Nlississippi.


Local


detail


There


only


six exposures


r1~alflL)a


forma-


tion


County


However


these


supplemented


a niunber


water


wvells


fro01m


which


samples


were


obtained.


The


1)est


Fallin


(section


known Water


pages


locality


Sink


60-61),


in the where


Tampa


NW1/
eleven


formation


se.


feet


(w-38,


4N


firtesh


,argillaceous,


sandy


marl


following


exposed.


fossils


from


Cooke


this


and
bed.


Mossoln


reported


Sorites
Ostrea


(1 ii PlCJJ


vicksburgen


Ostrea sp.
1Pccten sp.


(Carpenter)


sia Conrad


Piecten anii Pectenb gar Yin Pee ten croew


11l11818 Guppy erac Cooke ~Cooke


gabbi D3ali


these


Mansfield


(4937,


added


following


and


na'ttyntl A */t nRA flu it SAt ~-t flA, nfl cs (N nib nfl A -In niacin'. ft


4-LA


(I ~4 At fl


"TN


f


tll tll a'$





GEOLOGY


OF HOLMES AND


WASHINGTON


COUNTIES


FLORIDA


Foramninif era


Angulogerina sp. Archaia8 sp. Bolivina sp. ef.
Cushmnan Bolvta sp. Lliblcide8 sp. Discorbi8, S sp. Fiphidiurn sp. ef
(Cushman)


Jilphidiusn rota


plicatella


Ulobulina gibba d'Orbigny


Raucrina sp. Margin porn Massilina sp.


So,'tt 68)


Quinquelooulina semninu la Quinqueloculina, 8 sp. Reussella spittilost (Rieu


ehipolensfs


Ellis


R~otalia bL
Trfloctdiiu Tr ioculin C


rranum8i8


tire gonwla


Sp). (Linn6) ss)


Oushman


var.


(Laniarck)


Ostracoda


Bairdoppilata sp. Bythoeypris (7)


Ugh
Cyth


ereis erc'ts


cef. B. sp. cef.


nwrt'ynt Corye i. gibsonensis


viclesburgensis


fjytheref in sp. Uytheridea blanpeidi


Cytheriden ho'wci
Cytiterica waynci


Uytheronwrphz sp. Bocytheropteron Bs Ilemicyt here u. sp. Lox oconcha SR. Paracypri8 sp. Paracytheridenasp. Pprloytherei8 sp. Xestoleberis sp.


I-owe


I11. Samplde, IHowe and


and Jeiinings Ch ambers


J AI1~ var.


Stephenson


Stephenson isis Stephenson


small


2 foot


ledge


light


gray,


very


demise


,sandy


limestone


outcrops


2N


Mansfield


and


1)ank


It


IHohnes


conta ns


is probably


two


Tampa


Creek molds in age.


center


Olara


see.


One


mile limes


as Glendon


saw


west tone


Hinson


limestone


outcrops,


Crossroads


TPampa Cooke


identified


there


formation.


(1929, some


is a series


These


70),


chimney


who rock


beds


were


exposures


mapped


never taken


apparently reportedly


from


these


exposures.


Locality


W-3


:* Inl


road


SW


corner


NE1/4


sec.


very


r. 3N plastic


The


gray


clay


outcrop


containing


consists


many


a four


shells


foot


bed


Ostrea


rugif era


Dall


and


no riatis


'var.


caduca qua


Mansfield.


parrishi






FLORIDA


GEOLOGICAL


STIR VFIY-BTJLLETIN


escarpment in


SE ,


SE1,4


sec. 8


8N


The


eleva-


tion


Tertiary


Locality W-5 Deposits underlying the 60-100


Foot


feet.


Surface


Feet


Coarse pebbles and


poorly sorted sand in


a red


clay matrix


Tampa


formation


Cream to weathers


molds Dali, Ostrea


Urosalipina,


light-gray colored,


limestone following


,rigif era


hi llsbe4erocn8ia


Chilekasawhlay-Tampa 1W -8 ........ ......


dense, finely


granules Molluscs


Dall


crystalline
granular


are abundant


Mansfield,


Pita oides


Mansfield.


uicro-fauiia


Clava


limestone,


hiAny


:Cardium


Coral~


which s and


borborurn


D ivarlcella chipolIan us


contains
Tampa


similar


1


sp.,
Dall,
ilpper


locality


Total


The


Tampa


formation


was


penetrated


following


wells


well


feet


sw1A


deep


localityy


8N.


W-78)


located


.Washington


in the
County.


center


The


last


foot in fauna. at the


this well


The


well


base of


penetrated greenish-gray


curb


elevation


greenish-gray


is 115 Alum


limestone


feet,


and


Bluff


carrying


well


locality


a Tampa


located


W-73.


well


38N. last


fie


C(locality


W-79)


.Washington


feet


penetrated


located County.


white,


sw1,4


This


fossiliferous


NE14


well


feet


limestone


see.


deep ;


containing


Tampa


fossils.


Elevation


well


curb,


feet.


The Gully


Pond well


(see


the NEW/


"iN.,


Washington


mation,


starting


County,


an elevation


penetrated


twenty


forty feet.


feet


Tampa


The


Sheffield


well


.,Washington


penetrating


twenty


(see


County,


feet


see. 16


bottomed formation.


in Tampa Elevation


formation


top,


2 N., after


twenty


feet.


The Hamilton well


(see flit.


- '- ,


in the SEtA


sec. 24


. AL- a


3N


a- -5-n-


Cardiurn


sdenensc,


- S





GEOLOGY


OF HOLMES


AND WASHINGTON


COUNTIES


FLORIDA


Other


places


where


greenish-gray


and


clay


facies


Tampa


formation


may


seen


SW


corner of the NE /


sec. 29


Road


5 N., R.


17 W


cut on State


Road
Road Along
R.


NE / center


the 17"


west


sw14


sec. 8,
SWlA


road


5 N.,


sec. 4,


5 N.,


~t/4


.5N


Alum


Bluff


Group


Historical


study


and


322)


ummary.


describe included


Langdon


section


sediments


(1889)
Alum


now


was


Bluff,


referred


first


Florida.


geologist


His


Alum


section


Bluff


group, 91-97)
Cookce


and


Choctawhatchee


included


and


section


Mossom as they


Choctawhiatchee


r these (1929,


reported


formation,


deposit


138)


these


formation.


under


have


beds


asserting


Later


"Alum


apparently


described


that


beds


(1891,


Bluff


series"'


misunderstood


Langdon


now


called


as the Alum


Bluff


were


under


comparison


water


time


description


Langdon '


section


Alum


visit.
Bluff


However


Cooke


(1929,


108)


with


that


Langdon


(1889,


322)


indicates


corn-


parable


lithologie


units.


Dall


(1892,


make


reference


Langdon'l


1891


paper


as he


used


"Alum


Bluff


beds


include


only


those


fossiliferous transitional sand and


clay strata lying above his


"Ohipola


marl


Bluff.
rock.


While
Brown (C


" and


below


thus


tracing


[894,


upper


recognized


the 166)


"Chipola discovered


fossiliferous


"Ohipola


marl' the4


"Ecphora


as the


'westward,


deposits


IDall
Oak (


bed"4 lowest


and


trove,


Alum


exposed


StanleyFlorida,


on the


Yellow


River.


They


noted


that:


"-what sand, T
+hn IP~n)


appears


,vith


a number


U **. flit. N


rritniitt


same


of species
referred


fauna occurs not found in1


3MB


asR oecllrrinff


at..


a fine Chipoli
hone


incohi
marl


blnff."


erent gray ,including





FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN 21


The "Chipola epoch" (Dall, 1897, p. 330)'and the "Chipola group" (Foerste, 1893, p. 244) were suggested as group names, but Matson and Clapp (1909, pp. 67-68) discarded these names and introduced the term "Apalachicola group", which included the partly contemporaneous Hawthorn, Chattahoochee, and Tampa formations, and the "Alum Bluff formation'. The "Alum Bluff formation' ineluded in descending order a new Shoal River marl member, described by Vaughan; Dall's Oak Grove sand member; and Dali's Chipola marl member.
The Alum Bluff was raised to the rank of a group by Gardner (1926, p. 2). Its type locality was set at Alum Bluff, Florida, and it was divided in descending order into the Shoal River formation, the Oak Grove sand, and the Chipola formation. The Chipola and Shoal River formations were redescribed by Gardner so as to include deposits other than those of the original descriptions.
The Aluin Bluff group in Holmes and Washington Counties. The name, Alum Bluff group, is used in the sense of a formation, a mappable unit, in this report. It includes all beds lying stratigraphically between the Choctawhatchee formation and the Tampa formation. Westward these beds probably include the three formational units recognized by Gardner; the Shoal River formation, the Oak Grove sand, and the Chipola formation.
The Alum Bluff group is represented solely by the Chipola formation in eastern and southern Washington County. Westward, the group thickens and wedge shaped deposits, some of which have characteristic faunal elements, make their appearance (see fig. 13). The Shoal River formation represents the youngest of these wedge shaped deposits and carries a characteristic fauna. It makes its first appearance in central Washington County and thickens abruptly westward. The Oak Grove sand has not been found either on the outcrop or in wells in the area mapped. It probably represents a similar wedge-shaped deposit which first appears in Okaloosa County to the west of Holmes County.
Gardner's work (1926, p. 1) in western Florida showed that:
"Although there is no known section where the three faunas (Chipola, Oac Grove, and the Shoal River) are present, there is no question that the Oak Grove fauna is intermediate between the Chipola fauna and the
Shoal River fauna."
She (1926, p. 2) raised the Alum Bluff formation to the rank of a group:
... not merely because the faunal differences between its subdivisions are too great to be included within a single formational unit but because


74




GEOLOGY OF HOLMES AND WASHINGTON COUNTIES, FLORIDA 76

of the implied significance of the shifting in the strand line and ocean
currents necessary to bring about so marked a change in the life."
It seems to the writer that the Alum Bluff units are simply faunal divisions, and he questions their usage as mappable formations. Whether the Alum Bluff sediments constitute a single mappable formation in the area considered in this report and a group consisting of three formations elsewhere must await detailed mapping in Walton and Okaloosa Counties. While the Alum Bluff is mapped in the sense of a formation in this report, the term, Alum Bluff group, is used in order not to further complicate the stratigraphic literature.

Outcrop and physiographic expression. The Alum Bluff group has a dendritic outcrop pattern in southwestern Holmes County, (see plate I) where it is exposed in deep, narrow valley walls, beneath the highest terrace deposits.
The outcrop swings down the Choctawhatchee River and Holmes Creek where shallow-water marine sediments are exposed along the stream banks. The continuity of springs and seepages at the base of the terrace deposits along the floodplain escarpment of Holmes Creek indicates that these Tertiary sediments are present as far upstream in central Washington County as Miller's Ferry. The group is mapped at the base of the "Holmes Valley Escarpment" (see page 6) chiefly because of projected Tertiary sections and in the presence of weathered clays.
In the vicinity of Norum, and east of Vernon, Washington County, the outcrop broadens and the Alum Bluff sediments outcrop in a series of smoothly undulating hills. Many good exposures occur in road cuts through these hills.
East of Wausau, central Washington County, the Alum Bluff group has been weathered to deep, red, clay soils, which contain small white sandstone clusters.
Two other outcrop areas occur in Washington County. Fossiliferous Alum Bluff sediments carrying a Chipola fauna outcrop along the very deep Econfina Creek bed in southeastern Washington County. Non-fossiliferous greenish-gray silts and sands outcrop in the high hills of northeastern Washington County. They are best exposed at Rock Hill, where good drainage has favored silicification of theFe silts and sands.
Lithology. It is almost impossible to distinguish the sediments of the upper Alum Bluff group from those of the Area zone of the Choetawhatchee by means of lithology alone. In fresh exposures the





FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN 21


Alum Bluff sediments consist of marl, sand, clay, silt, and limestone. These beds are fairly distinct, but are gradationally interbedded. In southern and eastern Washington County a brownish-gray, highly fossiliferous limestone, carrying a Chipola fauna, grades west and north into a shallow-water coquina sand, which is interbedded with overlying fossiliferous blue clays. The Alum Bluff group of northern Washington County consists largely of an unfossiliferous green, bentonitic (7) siltstone.
Sediments carrying a Shoal River fauna in Washington County are a complicated sequence of yellow micaceous sands, gravels, and mottled blocky clays containing many molds of shallow-water mudliving organisms. In Holmes County a bay deposit of carbonaceous clays and fine silty sands containing Shoal River mollusks overlies a basal beach sand and underlies a greenish-gray, argillaceous shell sand containing a characteristic Shoal River molluscan fauna.
Thickness and structure. The thickness of the Alum Bluff group is extremely variable but reaches a maximamn of at least 130 feet in Holmes County. Eastward the group thins rapidly into true marine facies and has a thickness of only 30 feet in the southern part of Washington County (see fig. 13). This marine deposit contains a Chipola fauna and is immediately overlain by the Choctawhatchee formation. The geological sections (figs. 13, 15) show that the Alum Bluff thickens northward to 56 feet in the vicinity of Falling Water Hill, where green bentonitic (9) siltstone is exposed. In the Sheffield well in central Washington County the Alum Bluff group is 73 feet thick. The upper 15 feet consists of gravel which contains a Shoal River ( ?) oyster and Pecten reef at the base, the lower portion carries a Chipola fauna.
The Alum Bluff beds strike west northwest and have a gentle south dip of approximately ten feet per mile in Washington County. The beds strike northwest in Holmes County, and the dip increases sharply to approximately 18 feet per mile, south.
Paleontology. The Alum Bluff group contains a distinctive fauna which has been subdivided into three closely related faunal units. Many species confined to one formation have analogues in each of the other formations. It is the writer's opinion, therefore, that the differences in faunas within the group could result from different ecological facies of the same time interval. For instance, the lagoonal fauna of today differs from the open water fauna as a result of a difference in water temperatures and a more protective en-


"76





GEOLOGY OF HOLMES AND WASHINGTON COUNTIES. FLORIDA 77

vironraent. The presence of three interpreted faunas in the Alum Bluff group of western Florida and only one in eastern Washington County may simply indicate that the variable ecological conditions to the west were represented by uniform conditions in eastern Washington County during the same period. The writer believes that both faunal and lithologic studies indicate that the Chipola formation in easternWashington County may be the same time equivalent of the Chipola, Oak Grove, and Shoal River formations to the west.
Numerous papers listed in the bibliography record the various faunas occurring in the Alum Bluff group. The most important of these is by Gardner (1926 to 1937).
Foraminifera occurring in the Alum Bluff deposits of Holmes and Washington Counties are included on the checklists of Miocene Foraminifera on pages 121-127 of this report, along with those occurring in deposits of the Choctawhatchee formation. A molluscan checklist of the Alum Bluff localities described in the text is included on pages 87-95.
Local details. Econfina Creek in western Washington CounIy flows approximately along the contact of the Chipola portion of the Alum Bluff group and the Choctawhatchee formation. Many fresh exposures are found along the stream bed.
Locality W-59: Approximately one-fourth mile north of Gainer's Bridge in the SE1A Fec. 33, T. 1 N., R. 13 W., there is a five foot exposure of indurated, reddish-brown, coquina sand. Four feet of similar sediment outcrops at locality W-56, one mile above Gainer's Bridge in the SW1iA see. 27, T. 1 N., R. 13 W.
Locality W-55: Approximately one and one-half miles above Gainer's Bridge over Econfina Creek in the SW1i4 see. 27, T. 1 N., R. 13 W., at water level, there is three feet of weathered, reldishbrown, white speckled, coquina sand, which contains a Chipola fauna. Southward downstream this same sand is exposed at several points essentially at water level, but at these places the shells have all been leached and only molds remain. Casts of these molds have an affinity with the Alum Bluff fauna.
Locality W-53: Approximately one-fourth mile below Walsingham Bridge over Econfina Creek in the NEI see. 22, T. 1 N., R. 13 W., the following section was made: Locality W-53
Ohoctawliatchee formation Feet 2) Buff to yellow to red, weathered, granular clay ...................... 25.3





FLORIDA G EOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN 21


Alum Bluff group (Chpo, formation)
1) Ledge of weM ner-dt blue-green, fossiliferous marl below water level.
Sam ple W 3 ................................................................................................ 2.0
Total ...........................................27.3
Unweathered exposures of sediments similar to the marl, bed 1 of locality W-53, are exposed in Bay County. Because a study of these exposures is essential to the understanding of the Alum Bluff sedimentary history, two of these localities are listed.
Locality b-7: Approximately one mile below Scott's Bridge, in the SE1A4 sec. 21, T. 2 N., 1. 12 W. Locality li-7
Alum Mluff group (Chipola formation 7) Feet
2) Greenish-grany, micaceous, fine sand with many molds of fossils
heretofore reported as confined to the Chipola or to the Shoal River .... 5.4 Alum Bluff group (Chipola formation)
1) -Dark greenish-gray,, very fossiliferous, sandy marl, with carbonaceous wood fragments and leaves. (Sample B-7)..................... 4.5
Total--------------------------------------------9.9
The marine coquina sands of southern Washington County can be traced in almost continuous expo. ures along Econfina Creek into the littoral facies and possible i .nal facies represented by the carbonaceous marl of locality B-7.
A fresh exposure of bed 2 of locality B-7 outcrops approximately one and three-fourths miles below Scott's Bridge, in the NE1/4 see. 28, T. 2 N., R. 12 W. Shells are present in six feet of greenishblue, argillaceous, fine rand. The following fossils were identified. The stratigraphic range of each (Gardner, 1926 to 1937) is given in parentheses.
Uardiu taphriun Dall (Shoal River)
Chione burusit Dall (Chipola)
Corbula funiakonsis Gardner (Shoal River)
Diplodonta glos Gardner (Chipola)
Leda proteracuta dystalkta (7) Gardner (Chipola)
Nucula chipolaua Dall (Chipola, Shoal River)
Phacoides calhouzinsis Dall (Chipola, Oak Grove)
Turritella gatunensis blountensis Mansfield (Area, Shoal River)
Yoldia frater Dall (Clilpola, Oak Grove, Shoal River)
The sand also contains a micro-fauna of Alum Bluff age. Although distinctive micro-fossils are absent, most of the species occur in the basal beds of the Alum Bluff group.

The study of the sediments and the faunas of the Econfina Creek outcrops has led the writer to believe that beds bearing a Chipola fauna in eastern Washington and western Bay Counties are equivalent to the complete Alum Bluff group to the west.


78





GEOLOGY OF HOLMES AND WASHINGTON COUNTIES, FLORIDA 79

In support of the above conclusion it can be pointed out that a well drilled at Gully Pond, Washington County, penetrated 26 feet of bluish-green, sandy, shell marl carrying a Chipola fauna directly beneath beds of the Cancellaria zone of the Choctawhatchee formation. On the other hand the Sheffield well in central Washington County penetrated 15 feet of Shoal River sediment overlying 58 feet of Chipola sediment, and underlying the Arca zone of the Choctawhatchee formation.
The Alum Bluff group grades northward from Gully Pond into progressively more shallow water deposits. In the vicinity of central Washington County it is represented by locally indurated, greenishgray, bentonitic (?) silts.
This siltstone facies of the Alum Bluff outcrops chiefly on high hills south of Chipley. Exposures are present on Falling WaterHillh Rock Hill Orange -ill and probably Oak Hill although none have been found there.
Section north of Falling Water Sink along the road in the center of the N2 SEA sec. 21, T. 4 N., R. 13 W. Deposits underlying the 250-320 Foot Surface Feet
3) Covered by sand and pebble float ......----------------.............................. ?
2) Mottled red to gray, argillaceous, coarse, pebbly sand with
many gray to red, clay-filled fissures and pellets. Rests very
irregularly on the Alum Bluff. Unconformity? ............................ 6.0
Alum Bluff group (elevation 235 feet)
1) Greenish-,ray, very argillaceous, bentonitic (?) coarse silt with
layers of gfreenish, silty clay ..................----.----------------------------------. 9.7
Total --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------15.7 (?)
Two-tenths of a mile south of the above section, 20 feet of the greeish-gasilt itlihtlynoresand, is exposed in a ditch at the left of the road. Elevation, 244 feet.
An indurated grcenish-gray,siltstone ledge, with mottlings of limonitic silt giving it a checkered appearance, is exposed in tie center of tile NE1/, Eec. 28, T. 4 N., R. 13 W. The ledge has the appearance of having been baked and is cemented by siliceous cement, probably derived from the bentonite (7).
This indurated phase also gives the name to RocHill where the following section was measured near the center of sec. 24, T.
4 N ..13 W.






FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN 21


Deposits underlying the 250-320 Foot Surface Feet
3) Mottled red to yellow, indurated sands and gravel. Elevation at
the top of the bed is 260 feet .................................................................. 22.0
2) Dark brown, coarse, indurated gravel .................................................. 3.2
Alum Bluff group
1) Light, greenish-gray sand and silt with clay pebbles, very indurated by a siliceous cement .................................................................. 15.4
T otal .......................................................................................................... 41.2
The greenish-gray silt is exposed along the road on Orange Hill in the NE14 sec. 2, T. 3 N., R. 13 W. In a water well in the NW corner of the NE1/ SW1/4 see. 16, T. 3 N., R. 13 W. fifty feet of greenish-gray gravel and sand were penetrated. Projected geologic sections indicate that this is the entire thickness of Alumn Bluff sediments in this area. The well bottomed in a dense limestone, presumably of Tampa age.
Along the Vernon-Wausau road, approximately midway between the two towns, the greenish-gray bentonitic silts, clays, and sands lie at elevations both lower and higher than deposits assigned to the Alum Bluff group (Shoal River formation), and they are apparently interbedded.

At locality W-73 in the center of the SW1iA see. 27, T. 3 N., R. 14 W., the following section was measured in a small ravine immediately north of the road. Elevation at top of the Tertiary is 144 feet. Locality W-73
Deposits underlying the 30-50 Foot Surface Feet
3) Red and light gray, mottled, argillaceous sand with occasional
pebbles at base. Lies above bed 2 along a very irregular contact 7.0 Alum Bluff group
2) Greenish-gray, very argillaceous, inicaceous silt, separated by
a thin limonitic layer from more sandy beds at the base. A few very scattered fossil molds found, but so poorly preserved as to
prevent identification .................................................................................. 9.6
1) Greenish-gray, highly micaceous, sub-angular quartz and weathered white feldspar, medium sand grains in a matrix of green, very argillaceous silt. Grit lenses at intervals. Weathers to a mottled yellow and is stained red by a thin overlying limonite
layer-- - - - - - - - - - --................................................ .......................................... 14.3
T otal- ...............9......................................................................................... 30.9
The green silt phase is also exposed along the Wausau-Vernon road 6.5 miles east of Vernon in the SW/ see. 26, T. 3 N., R. 14 W., at an elevation of 165 feet.

Five and four-tenths miles east of Vernon in the SE14 see. 27, T. 3 N., R. 14 W., at an elevation of 120 feet, is approximately six


80





GEOLOGY OF HOLMES AND WASHINGTON COUNTIES, FLORIDA 81


feet of yellow to gray, very micaceous, pebbly, fine to medium sand. Fossil molds assigned to the Alum Bluff group (Shoal River formation) are abundant.
The following section is exposed in the SW'/ SE1/4 see, 28, T. 3 N., R. 14 W., 3.9 miles east of Vernon in a road cut. Locality W-15--Elevation 146 feet Alum Bluff group (Shoal River formation) Feet
2) Yellow to gray, very micaceous, coarse, argillaceous sand. Contains abundant molds of mollusks, weathered at top .................... 15-20
1) Yellow to gray, very micaceous, blocky, sandy clay, with lenses
of the material of bed 2, and grading into bed 2 ............................ 10-15

T otal ........................................................................................................ 25-35
Gardner10 identified the following Shoal River assenblage chiefly from bed 2.
Cardiurn waltonaniun Dali
Bnsis sp. cf. B. directus (Conrad)
Spisula sp.
Spisula sp. ef. S. valhosierr Gardner
Turritella 8p. (occurs at Whites Creek)
The north bank of the road cut at locality W-15 exposes a terrace valley fill of the 60-100 Foot Surface w% ith an old soil zone separating the terrace elastics from the more indurated Alum Bluff sediments below (see photograph, fig. 16)







II











Figure 16. AlluvIally filled terrace valley lying upon the Alum Bluff group at locality W-15. The two beds are separated by soil zones. Photo taken facing north.
1'Personai communication, Apr11, 1940.






FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN 21


The following localities, in the vicinity of Norum, Washington County. contain a fauna of Shoal River age.

Locality W-12: In road cut on State Road 39 in the SW1Ai NE'1/ see. 7, T. 2 N., R. 15 W.
Locality W-12
Terrace valley fill (30-50 Foot Surface-Elevation 83 feet) Feet
4) Weathered red to yellow argillaceous sand with a 6 inch gravel
bed at base ........................................................................................................ 0 -7
Alum Bluff group (Shoal River formation)
3) Gray, blocky, thin bedded clay, weathering purple-............................3.2
2) Brown to gray, sandy, fossiliferous clay....--------------............................... 3.0
1) Light gray, argillaceous sand, more argillaceous toward base. Possible animal borings at top---------------------------------7.4
M aximum thickness-.......2.................................................................20.6
Locality W-13: Located along a road cut on State Road 39 in the SE1/ SW1A see. 12, T. 2 N., R. 16 W.. Locality W-13 Feet
4) The section is cut by alluviated valleys of variable depths, which
are filled by elastics. In general these sediments are fine argillaceous sands with pebbles at the base. Alum Bluff group (Shoal River formation)
3) Greenish-:gray, slightly fossiliferous, blocky clay weathering to
shades of. red2--------------------------------------------2.6
2) Reddish-brown, limonitic, thin-bedded, argillaceous sands and sandy
clays ..............................................----------------------------------------------------1.................. 1.7
1) Red and gray mottled, coarse to fine, argillaceous, very fossiliferous, micaceous, poorly sorted sand with occasional pebbles. (Road
elevation 43 feet) -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 6.0

Total- ------------- --- ---.............................................................................. 10.3

A boring at the base of this section shows the following lithology. The beds may be fossiliferous. The fossils occur only as molds in these beds, however, and they are not preserved in cuttings. 0-7 Very light gray, mottled by brown, gray, and red, micaceous, argillaceous fine sand.
7-13 Mottled red to gray, argillaceous, micaceous, coarse sand. 13-13.6 Coarse gravel.
13.6-15 Yellow argillaceous coarse sand and gravel. (Elevation 28 feet).
One half mile south on Highway 39, a 25 foot outcrop of weathered sand and gravel is exposed at locality W-13A and also in several road cuts along the highway up to the base of the "Holmes Valley Escarpment."

Gardner20 assigned these three outcrops to the Shoal River for2Personal communication, April, 1940.





GEOLOGY OF-HOLMES AND WASHINGTON COUNTIES, FLORIDA 83

mation, and identified the following fossils from the basal bed of locality W-13A.
Gonns sp. ef. 0. waltonensis Aldrich*
Corbula n. sp. (6 strong ribs)*
Corbula waltonensis Gardner*
Chionc cytmina Gardner
Uhione sp. indet.*
Chone trimeris Gardner*
Maconza sp. indet.
Panope sp. cf. P. parawhitfieldi Gardner Phacoides sp. cf. P. paranodonta Gardner
W. T. Sheffield's well in the NE1iA SE41/ see. 16, T. 2 N., R. 15 W. penetrated 15 feet of Shoal River formation, apparently an oyster and pecten reef, and 58 feet of the underlying Chipola formation. The Shoal River-Chipola contact has an elevation of 78 feet in this well. The Shoal River outcrops at W-12, W-13, and W-13A project well below the top of the Chipola formation in this well (see fig. 15). The Shoal River fauna of these localities therefore probably pinches out west of the well, or the two faunas merge laterally. No surface evidence of faulting or slumping is present in the region.
Southward and down dip, fresh exposures of the Chipola formation occur along Holmes Creek and Choetawhatchee River' at elevations near those of the outcrops of the Shoal River formation at localities W-12 and W-13. This evidence indicates that the Chipola and Shoal River faunas of this area were contemporaneous facies of deposition.
Locality W-60: On Holmes Creek 200 yards up a small ravine in the NE1i4 see. 28, T. 2 N., R. 16 W. The elevation is 56 feet at the top of the Tertiary.
Locality W-60
Deposits underlying the 10-20 Foot Surface Feet
6) Sand and pebble wash --------------------------------------------------------------------------------10.2
5) C overed ............................................................................................................ 30.5
Alum Bluff group (Chipola formation)
4) Greenish-blue. micaceous, abundantly fossiliferous sandy marl
containing many carbonaceous plant remains (sample W-60 no. 1) 3.3
3) Greenish-blue, sandy clay with fossil molds and carbonaceous
plant remains (sample W -60 no. 2)-......................................................0.9
2) Greenish-blue, micaceous, sandy marl, with fossil molds and carbonaceous plant remains (sample W-60 no. 3) ................................ 2.1
1) .C .v. r......... .....ek.. .......... ....... ....... ......... .......... ...... ....................... 5
1) Cvere to olme.Crek--------------- ----------------14.5
T otal.......................................................................................................... 61.5
Locality W-60A: 200 yards west of W-60, 22 feet above Holmes Creek, and lying above the marl of bed 4 of W-60, is a two foot ex-


*Occurs also at locality W-13.





FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL' SURVEY-BULLETIN 21


posure of pinkish-gray, very dense, sandy and pebbly limestone. Abundant molds and shells of mollusks are present.
Locality W-60B: At the edge of Holmes Creek, 12 feet above water level and immediately west of W-60, there is a ten foot section of pinkish-gray, dense, highly fossiliferous,k sandy and pebbly limestone.
Locality W-61: About one-half mile below W-60B, on Holmes Creek, in the SWiA see. 28, T. 2 N., R. 16 W. The approximate elevation at the top of the section is 37 feet. Locality W-01
Alum Bluff group (Chipola formation) Feet
3) Badly weathered, white to buff, sandy limestone with oysters and
pectens (sample W-61 no..1)................................. 4.5
2) Buff, calcareous, coquina sand and gravel (sample W-61 no. 2) .... 3.1 1) Unfossiliferous, buff, calcareous sand extending below water level 4.6
Total ................................................................................ .12.2
Locality W-62: Dick Peterson's Woodyard Landing on Holmes Creek, in the SWIA see. 28, T. 2 N., R. 16 W. This locality has been described by Gardner (Cooke and Mossom, 1929, p. 106), and correlated with beds at Boynton Landing (locality W-11).
Other localities of sands and limestones that bear a Chipola fauna in Washington County are:
W-9: Located in the SEi4 SE1/ sec. 5, T. 1 N., R. 16 W. on the east bank of Holmes Creek. Exposed is 26 feet of limestone that is possibly the best locality for collecting Chipola fossils in Washington County. The faunal list from sample W-77, a boring in the unweathered upper part of the section, is included in the microfaunal checklist (table 7).
W-10: Located in the NWi NW1A4 see. 9, T. 1 N., R. 16 W.
W-11: On Choctawhatchee River at Boynton Landing in the SE1/ SEA1/ sec. 31, T. 2 N., R. 16 W. (Described in Florida 20th Annual Report, p. 106).
W-63: Rocky Landing, 11/2 miles west of Red Head in the NE corner of the NW1/ see. 20, T. 1 N., R. 16 W. A borehole sample (W-76), representing the fresh upper part of this locality, is ineluded in the micro-faunal checklist.
W-66: On the Choetawhatchee escarpment approximately threequarters of a mile west of Shell Landing in the NE1/4 NEl/4 see, 31, T. 2 N..R. 16 W.





GEOLOGY OF. HOLMES-AND WASHINGTON COUNTIES, :.FLORIDA '85

W-71: On Choetawhatchee River at Lassiter Landing in the NE1/4 SE1 4 see. 13, T. 2 N., R. 17 W. This section is similar to that at locality W-11.
W-72: Cuttings from piling borings for the bridge over the Choctawhatchee River in the SW1/4 NE/ sec. 36, T. 1 N., R. 17 W.
Only two exposures of Alum Bluff sediments are known in Holmes County-and each of them bears a Shoal River fauna. The Chipola formation may be represented by fine white beach (?) sand which underlies the fossiliferous beds. The geologic sections, figures 13 and 15, support this hypothesis.
Locality 11-9: Flournoy's old mill, in the NE1/ NE 1/ sec. 34, T. 3 N., R. 18 W., at an elevation of 164 feet. Gardner (1926, 1928, 1937) has identified many species of mollusks from this locality and placed it in the Shoal River formation. The micro-fauna, however, was determined byHowe (this report) to be either of Choctawhatchee (Arca zone) age or of Shoal River age.
The following ection was measured:
Locality H-9 (See cc/ce, /*Vt //'t Deposits underfl'ing the 250-320 Foot Surf Ace Feet
4) Sand and pebble w ash ............................................................................... 75.0?
Alum Bluff group (Shoal River formation) 3) Weathered, brownish-gray, lnicaceous sand with many fossil
m ol1s..............2................................................................................................. 2.1
2) Bluish-gray, compact, micaceous, glauconitio, coquina sand. Shells
well preserved. Sample H-9-------------------------------------...------------------------1.5.0
1) Bluish-gray, argillaceous sand withm many fossil molds-................1.0
T otal 83.1?................................................................................................. 83.1?
Locality H-12: (Fig. 17) On Sandy Creek, to the right of a secondary road in the SE14/ SE1/4 SW I/ sec. 11, T. 3 N., R. 18 W. The fossils of this locality were identified by Gardner 21 to be those of the Shoal River formation.
Locality 1-12
Deposits underlying the 250-320 Foot Surface Feet
7) Slope covered by reddish sand and quartz pebbles-........................25.0
Alum Bluff group (Shoal River forlnation)
6) Irregularly banded tan to brown, unfossiliferous silt with white
silt mottlings .. . . ..--------------------------------------------................... ........................ 12.3
5) Bluish-gray, blocky, nicaceous clay, with abundant molds of
Busycoit sp., Callocardia prosayana Gardner, Cardiluni sp., Diplodonta sp., Dosinia dalli Gardner, Marocallista ivaltoncivsis Gard-


"'Personal conimunication, April, 1940.






FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN 21


Figure 17. Alum Bluff sediments exposed at iqcality H-12, in the SEW/ SEW SWW sec. 11, T. 3 N., R. 18 W. Bed 5 of this locality lies Just below the lowest dark band.



ner, Metia 2 sp. indet., .Periplorna dis8M Gardner, Yoldia soror
Gardner and carbonaceous plant remains ............................................ 8.5
4) Reddish-brown, deeply weathered, blocky, sandy, bentonitic (?)
clay with thin grit beds and many molds of Callocardia prosayana Gardner, Cardium waltoniantum Dall, lThione ceramota Gardner, Ohone trimeris Gardner, (Ihlamys sp., Macrocallista waltonensis
Gardner, and Panope sp ............................................................................. 1.6
Alum Bluff group (Chipola formation ?)
3) White, limonitic stained, unconsolidated, coarse to fine sand ...... 8.2
2) Greenish-gray. argillaceous, bentonitlC (?) silt. Similar in 11thology to silts of northeastern Washington County (W-73, etc.) 2.5
1) Cream to white, limonitic stained, unconsolidated fine dune (7)
or beach (2) sand ........................................................................................ 11.4
T otal .......................................................................................................... 64.5
Thirty-five feet of bed 1 of locality H-12 was penetrated in the well on Walker Hamilton's farm in the SF1/4 sec. 24, T. 3 N., R. 18 W. The base of bed'1 lies at an elevation of 51 feet. When localities H-9, H-12 and this well are projected into a strike section (fig. 13) 130 feet of Alum Bluff is indicated, and the basal white beach (7) sand is approximately 40 feet thick.




















MOLLUSCAN FAUNAL CHECKLIST OF THE ALUM BLUFF GROUP


Symbols:G Identified at the locality by Dr. Julia Gardner
X Identified at the locality by the writer
7 Questionably present at the locality





OD Go


Table 5
MOLLUSCAN FAUNAL CHECKLIST OF THE ALUM BLUFF GROUP


Akra lapochi Gardner.... Acteocina incisuta (Dall) .............
incisula kolos Gardner.........
sphaera Gardner ...............
Agladrillia empera Gardner......,... Alectrion grapta Gardner .............
waltonensis Gardner .............
Aligena lineata Dall .................
pustulosa Dali..................
sp. Gardner ...................
Alveinus micculus Gardner.........
rotundus Dall ...................
Ampullinafischeri Dali.......... Anomiafloridana Dall ...............
glypta Gardner .................
Area accompsa (Dali) ................
adamsi (Shuttleworth MS.).....
gunteri Gardner ................
hypomela (Dall)............
initiator Dali ...................
latidentata (Dall)..........
mikkula Gardner...........
paratina Dall ..................
santarosana geratera Gardner .....
staminata (Dall) ...............


CN ONOIn ..


G
G
G
G
G
G
G
G


G


x








x



x



x


x


G


G


G








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x


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x


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C
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x


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a



0
a r.
a
0
N
a
r
en






r
r
H
N
z
N





strebla Gardner ............... ..
waltania Gardner ............... G ..
Archittctonica granulata (Lamarck)........
quadriseriata waltonensis Gardener. G
Astarte isosocles Gardner.................
sima Gardner.................G
Bittium boiplex DalI....................
Calliostoma ceramicum Dail ...............
Callocardia prosayana Gardner ........ G G prosayana dodona Gardner............
Cancel/aria aldrichi Gardner ..............
mitrodita Gardner..................
paramoorci Gardner.................
spA erotopleura Gardner........... G
subtiarophora Gardner ........... G
waltoniana Gardner..............G
Cardita apotegea Gardner.................
Cardium alicusum Dali............
apateticumr Dali var..........
cestum Dail.... ................
chipolanum Da1................. ..
chipolanum alumen Gardner....... ..
compressu Dail................
propeciliare Dall..................
selardsi Gardner ............... ..
Sp. 1..........................
sp. 2 .......................... G
virile Dail.......................
waltonianum Dail ............... G G
Charna draconis Dali..................
Chione burnsii Dali.................. ..
ceramota Gardner................G G


P


?


G


X.


x








X.
X


G X.


X


G.






,



G



G


G


x 2.


G


G
G


X


X Xx


|


X,


X


X


r

C C)

C

C C1




Full Text


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