Citation
New and little-known corals from the Tampa formation of Florida ( FGS: Bulletin 56)

Material Information

Title:
New and little-known corals from the Tampa formation of Florida ( FGS: Bulletin 56)
Series Title:
Florida Geological Survey: Bulletin
Creator:
Weisbord, Norman Edward
Florida State University -- Geology Dept
Donor:
unknown ( endowment )
Place of Publication:
Tallahassee, Fla.
Publisher:
Florida Dept. of Natural Resources, Bureau of Geology in co-operation with the Dept. of Geology, Florida State University
Publication Date:
Copyright Date:
1973
Language:
English
Physical Description:
iv, 146, 10 p. : ill. ; 23 cm.

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Corals, Fossil ( lcsh )
Corals -- Florida -- Hillsborough County ( lcsh )
City of Tampa ( local )
Hillsborough County ( local )
Hillsborough Bay ( local )
City of Chattahoochee ( local )
City of Vernon ( local )
City of Tallahassee ( local )
Geology ( jstor )
Diameters ( jstor )
Limestones ( jstor )
Species ( jstor )
Corals ( jstor )
Genre:
bibliography ( marcgt )
non-fiction ( marcgt )

Notes

Bibliography:
Bibliography: p. 135-146.
General Note:
Series Statement: Bulletin - Bureau of Geology, Florida Dept. of Natural Resources ; 56
Statement of Responsibility:
by Norman E. Weisbord.

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Holding Location:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
The author dedicated the work to the public domain by waiving all of his or her rights to the work worldwide under copyright law and all related or neighboring legal rights he or she had in the work, to the extent allowable by law.
Resource Identifier:
AAA1851 ( LTQF )
AAM9963 ( NOTIS )
023228084 ( AlephBibNum )
01368920 ( OCLC )

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STATE OF FLORIDA
DEPARTMENT OF NATURAL RESOURCES
Randolph Hodges, Executive Director


BUREAU OF GEOLOGY
C. W. Hendry, Jr., Chief


DIVISION OF INTERIOR RESOURCES
Robert O. Vernon, Director





BULLETIN NO. 56



NEW AND LITTLE-KNOWN
CORALS FROM THE TAMPA FORMATION OF FLORIDA



By
Norman E. Weisbord


Published by the
FLORIDA DEPARTMENT OF NATURAL RESOURCES
DIVISION OF INTERIOR RESOURCES
BUREAU OF GEOLOGY
in cooperation with the
DEPARTMENT OF GEOLOGY
FLORIDA STATE UNIVERSITY


Tallahassee, Florida
1973


























































Completed manuscript received March, 1973
Printed for the
Department of Natural Resources
Division of Interior Resources
Bureau of Geology
by
Ambrose the Printer
Jacksonville, Florida

Tallahassee
1973














STATE OF FLORIDA
DEPARTMENT OF NATURAL RESOURCES
Randolph Hodges, Executive Director


BUREAU OF GEOLOGY
C. W. Hendry, Jr., Chief


DIVISION OF INTERIOR RESOURCES
Robert O. Vernon, Director





BULLETIN NO. 56



NEW AND LITTLE-KNOWN
CORALS FROM THE TAMPA FORMATION OF FLORIDA



By
Norman E. Weisbord


Published by the
FLORIDA DEPARTMENT OF NATURAL RESOURCES
DIVISION OF INTERIOR RESOURCES
BUREAU OF GEOLOGY
in cooperation with the
DEPARTMENT OF GEOLOGY
FLORIDA STATE UNIVERSITY


Tallahassee, Florida
1973













DEPARTMENT
OF
NATURAL RESOURCES




REUBIN O'D. ASKEW
Governor


RICHARD (DICK) STONE
Secretary of State



THOMAS D. O'MALLEY
Treasurer




FLOYD T. CHRISTIAN
Commissioner of Education


ROBERT L. SHEVIN
Attorney General



FRED O. DICKINSON, JR.
Comptroller




DOYLE CONNER
Commissioner of Agriculture


W. RANDOLPH HODGES
Executive Director







LETTER OF TRANSMITTAL


Bureau of Geology
Tallahassee
March, 1973


-onorable Reubin O'D. Askew, Chairman
Department of Natural Resources
Fallahassee, Florida 32304

Dear Governor Askew:

The Bureau of Geology of the Division of Interior Resources is printing as its
Geological Bulletin No. 56 a report prepared by Professor Norman E. Weisbord
of Florida State University on "New and Little-Known Corals from the Tampa
Formation of Florida".

We are indeed pleased and privileged to have participated in this study with
the Department of Geology of Florida State University through Professor
Weisbord.

The collection on which the study is based are housed in the Geological
Department of Florida State University, the Florida Bureau of Geology, and in
the U. S. National Museum of Natural History, Washington, D. C. Professor
Weisbord has combined these collections in this study and has developed a very
comprehensive knowledge of these animals which make up so much of the
matrix of the Tampa Formation.

The determinations of these species, together with the itemization of the
localities from which the remains of the animals come, will be extremely helpful
to scientists visiting Florida and also to University students.

Respectfully yours,


C. W. Hendry, Jr., Chief
Bureau of Geology









CONTENTS

Page
Introduction .............. ............................. ... 1..
Acknowledgments .......... ...................... .......... 2
Systematics of the Tampa Corals-An Historical Resume .................. 3
Coral Localities ................ ................... .......... 4
Stratigraphic Notes .......... .... ........ ......... ........... 5
Ballast Point ........................ .............. ......... 5
Sixmile Creek .......................... ........... ........ 7
Sixmile Creek Sections .............. .................... 9
Well Data .................. .................. ........... 14
Silicification of the Ballast Point Fossils .......................... 11
Age of the Tampa Formation ..................................... 12
List of Corals .................. .................. ........... 15
Species of Corals from the Tampa Formation .......................... 16
Distribution of Tampa Corals, Their Geologic Range, and Nearest Related
Species ........................... .......... ............ 17
Descriptions of Species .................. ................... .... 18
Plates ................. .................. ..... .......... 63
References Cited ............................ ............ 135
Index ............................. .......... ............ 145
















Dedicated to
THOMAS WAYLAND VAUGHAN
September 20, 1870 January 16, 1952









NEW AND LITTLE-KNOWN
CORALS FROM THE TAMPA FORMATION OF FLORIDA
By
Norman E. Weisbord

INTRODUCTION

The objective of this paper is to describe, illustrate, and compare the corals
of the Tampa Formation (Lower Miocene) from three localities south and east
of the city of Tampa: Ballast Point, Davis Islands, and Sixmile Creek,
Hillsborough County, Florida. The collections on which the study is based are
housed in the Geological Department of Florida State University, in the
Florida Bureau of Geology, and in the U.S. National Museum (National
Museum of Natural History) of Washington, D. C. Included in the paper is the
description of a new species of coral-Goniopora aucillana-from the Suwan-
nee Limestone (Upper Oligocene), found near Cabbage Grove, Taylor County,
Florida. The repository of the types and figured specimens is the U.S.
National Museum or Florida State University as indicated in the text.
In the pursuance of this endeavor I have been most fortunate in having had
at my disposal a number of Tampa corals named and labeled by the late
Thomas Wayland Vaughan, in his own handwriting. Many of these names refer
to types in a manuscript written by Vaughan to update his 1900 monograph
on "The Eocene and Oligocene Corals of the United States" and his 1919
work on "Fossil Corals from Central America, Cuba, and Porto Rico." The
manuscript referred to was never published, although some of Vaughan's
Tampa types were listed on page 18 of Bulletin 90 of the U.S. National
Museum, 1915, in Dall's "Monograph of the Molluscan Fauna of the
Orthaulax Pugnax Zone of the Oligocene of Tampa Florida." I have examined
the 17 species listed by Vaughan in that work, and 11 of them fall in the
category of nomen nudum. However, the very fact that they were given names
by Vaughan, was a great help to me in my own taxonomic determinations,
and although I have not seen the Vaughan manuscript, many of Vaughan's
nomina nuda have been retained and the taxa described by me in the present
paper.
Twenty-eight species of Tampa corals are dealt with herein. Nine of them
have been previously described, thirteen are new, five are indeterminate, and
one remains a nomen nudum. Every single specimen I have worked with has
been secondarily altered. A few of them from Ballast Point or Davis Islands
are true siliceous pseudomorphs on which the details of the original aragonite
skeleton are faithfully preserved. On most of them, however, there is a
chalcedonic replacement that has obliterated the structure or has been
deposited between and over the septa and costae. On the other hand, virtually
all of the Sixmile Creek corals collected by Joseph E. Banks are completely
calcareous, with the calcium carbonate apparently having been secondarily







BUREAU OF GEOLOGY


deposited or finely recrystallized. Several of the same species occur both in
the siliceous faces at Ballast Point and in the calcareous faces at Sixmile
Creek. For the reasons given above, taxonomic analysis has been singularly
frustrating, and no one appreciates the difficulties of diagnosis encountered by
Dr. Vaughan more than I.


ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

I wish to express my thanks to Dr. David L. Pawson and to Dr. Maureen E.
Downey of the U.S. National Museum for placing the collections in the
Museum completely at my disposal, and for providing me with the literature I
needed during my stay there in 1970. During 1972, Dr. Downey sought out in
the Museum, and sent to me here in Tallahassee, the Tampa corals listed by
Vaughan in Dall's 1915 monograph, thereby enabling me to complete my
comparative studies. I am likewise grateful to the staff of the British Museum
(Natural History) who, through the courtesy of R. F. Wise of the Palaeon-
tology Department, sent me photographs of the type of Porites floridaeprima
from Ballast Point, described by Bernard in 1906.
I thank Charles W. Hendry, Jr. and Steve R. Windham of the Florida
Bureau of Geology for their interest in my work on the Tampa corals, for
their encouragement while the manuscript on them was being written, and,
upon its completion, for its publication by the Bureau.
Dr. Harbans S. Puri, also with the Bureau of Geology, has contributed
significantly to this work by having measured, described, and synthesized into
descriptive sections the Tampa strata revealed in excavations of the Sixmile
Creek area. The sections appearing in this paper are presented with Puri's
permission in the same format as he submitted them to me.
Most of the corals from Sixmile Creek in the Florida State University
collection were collected and donated by Joseph E. Banks of the Coastal
Petroleum Company. We wish to express our appreciation to him not only for
the corals and for fossils collected in other regions of Florida, but also for the
considerable amount of original stratigraphic data he has relayed on to us.
The photographs which accompany this report were taken and processed
by Gerrit Mulders of Tallahassee. Many of the Tampa corals available to me
are in a wretched state of preservation, but Mulders has done well with them.







BULLETIN NO. 56


SYSTEMATICS OF THE TAMPA CORALS-AN HISTORICAL RESUME

Although the presence of chalcedonized corals in the Tampa area was well
known because of their beauty and curio value in the early part of the 19th
century, it was not until 1895 and 1900 that the first species from the Tampa
Formation at Ballast Point-Desmophyllum willcoxi-was officially designated
by H. S. Gane. The second species to be identified was Porites floridaeprima
Bernard, also from Ballast Point, in 1906. In 1915, Vaughan provisionally
named 17 species of corals in the Orthaulax pugnax zone of the Tampa
Formation, concerning which Dall (1915, p. 18) wrote as follows:
"Dr. T. Wayland Vaughan has kindly consented to give the
following brief list of the corals of the Orthaulax zone, identified
by him, the report on which is now awaiting publication.
List of species
Corals from the 'silex bed' of the Tampa formation
By Dr. T. Wayland Vaughan
Antillia ? willcoxi (Dana).
Stylophora silicensis Vaughan.*
Galaxea excelsa Vaughan.
Orbicella cellulosa (Duncan).*
cavernosa var. tampaensis Vaughan.*
cavernosa var. silicensis Vaughan.*
Cyphastrea tampae Vaughan.
Maeandra tampaensis Vaughan.
Syzygophyllia ? tampae Vaughan
Siderastrea silicensis Vaughan* (at Tampa brickyard).
Endopachys tampae Vaughan.
Acropora tampaensis Vaughan.
Goniopora tampaensis Vaughan.
ballistensis Vaughan.
matsoni Vaughan.
Porites willcoxi Vaughan.
Alveopora tampae Vaughan.
The species marked are widely distributed in the Chattahoo-
chee formation of southern Georgia and northern Florida."
The intended report by Vaughan on the species listed above was never
published, and most of them therefore must be classified as nomina nuda.
Fortunately, however, the "type" specimens, identified and labeled by
Vaughan in his own handwriting, are preserved in the U.S. National Museum,
and have been studied by this writer in order to validate certain of the species
erected by Vaughan.
The last work done on the taxonomy of Tampa corals was over a half
century ago in 1919, and this too was by Vaughan, in Bulletin 103 of the








BUREAU OF GEOLOGY


U.S. National Museum. In that publication the following corals from the
Tampa Formation were described and illustrated:
Orbicella tampaensis Vaughan, p. 390
Orbicella tampaensis var. silecensis Vaughan, pp. 390,391
Antiguastrea cellulosa (Duncan), pp. 402-408
Antiguastrea cellulosa var. silicensis Vaughan, pp. 408,409
Siderastrea silecensis Vaughan, pp. 447-450
Three of the above-listed taxa-Orbicella tampaensis, Orbicella tampaensis var.
silecensis, and Siderastrea silecensis-were validations of Vaughan's own
nomina nuda and typonyms erected in 1915.
So far as I am aware, little or nothing has been written on the systematics
of Tampa Formation corals since 1919, although a number of Tampa species
have been reported from Oligocene to Holocene epochs elsewhere in the
Americas. It is hoped the present contribution will bridge the gap of more
than half a century.


CORAL LOCALITIES

The corals from the Tampa Formation were collected in three areas south
and east of the city of Tampa, Hillsborough County, Florida, with the
reference point being the mouth of the Hillsborough River. These areas are
the following:
1. Ballast Point (TB). Sec. 11, T30S, R18E, Tampa Quadrangle. Elevations
5 feet or less. Western shore of Hillsborough Bay, 4 miles southwest of
the mouth of the Hillsborough River. The Ballast Point corals in our
collection are all silicified, and the Ballast Point deposit is the silex bed
of authors.
2. Davis Islands (TD). Sec. 25 and 26, T29S, R18 and 19E, Tampa
Quadrangle. Elevations 5 feet or less. This is a triangular island oriented
north and south, some 2 miles in length, with its apex just south of the
mouth of the Hillsborough River. The fossils from Davis Islands were
donated to Florida State University by a Mr. Pennington, but neither
the precise localities nor stratigraphic information are available. All of
the fossils, like those from Ballast Point are completely silicified.
3. Sixmile Creek (TSM). SE % Sec. 14, T29S, R19E, Brandon Quadrangle.
Maximum elevation 25 feet. In and near Sixmile Creek, between the
Seaboard Coastline RR at Florida state road 60 and the U.S. Corps of
Engineers dam south of Orient Park. This locality is about 5 miles
east-northeast of the mouth of the Hillsborough River. The corals were
collected by Joseph E. Banks and donated to Florida State University
January 10, 1972. These corals are completely calcareous in contrast to
the ones at Ballast Point, although a number of the same species occur
at both places.








BULLETIN NO. 56


In excavations adjacent to, and forming continuations of those at Banks'
locality above, corals collected by H.S. Puri of the Florida Bureau of Geology,
vary from completely calcareous to completely siliceous, with some specimens
composed of both lithologies.
4. Honeymoon Island (TH), Pinellas County, Florida. Sections 15, 16, 17,
8, and 7, T28S, R15E, Dunedin Quadrangle. Honeymoon Island is
connected by way of the two-mile Dunedin Causeway to the west coast
of Florida near Dunedin Beach. Honeymoon Island and the Causeway
are built up in part by rock dredged 20 feet or so below the sea floor in
this area. Recently, silicified corals have been obtained from the dredged
material by Forrest D. Cring of Florida State University, two species of
which have been identified as Stylophora cf. S. minutissima Vaughan
and Montastrea tampaensis silecensis (Vaughan). Both species occur in
the Tampa Formation at Ballast Point or Sixmile Creek, and verify the
presence of the equivalent St. Marks Formation in the shallow
subsurface beneath the Honeymoon Island-Dunedin Beach area.
The single coral (AU-la) from the Suwannee Limestone, Goniopora
aucillana, n. sp., also described in this paper, was collected by Joseph E.
Banks at the locality given below.
5. From road metal pit about 3 miles west of Cabbage Grove, Taylor
County, in the vicinity of the Aucilla River where it flows underground.
W Sec. 22, T3S, R4E, Nutall Rise Quadrangle. Maximum elevation 20
feet. The specimen is calcareous.



STRATIGRAPHIC NOTES

BALLAST POINT

The type locality of the Tampa Formation has not yet been officially
designated. One of the well-known sites in which a limestone within the
Tampa Formation has been observed is Ballast Point, although the sequence of
strata here can no longer be seen because of dredging, excavation, removal of
rock, and construction. However, in 1915, according to Cooke and Mossom
(1929, p. 83) "several feet of light gray to white compact limestone
containing casts of fossils could be seen along the water front. On weathering
the limestone breaks down into greenish clay and the fossils become silicified.
This is the famous 'silex' bed, but the silicification seems to be merely a
superficial phenomenon that is not confined to any particular stratigraphic
level." Concerning this deposit, Dall (1915, p. 1) wrote the following. "In the
vicinity of Tampa Bay, Florida, and especially on the northwestern shores of
the bay, near Ballast Point, are found certain limestones more or less mingled
with layers of clay, marl, and chert, with residual sands and so-called 'fuller's
earth'. A particular stratum which crops out near high-water mark at Ballast







BUREAU OF GEOLOGY


Point is extremely fossiliferous. In the cherty portions the calcareous matter
of the fossils has disappeared through solution, and they are represented
chiefly by molds, from which casts may be made ... In the marly or clayey
parts of this deposit the fossils have also largely disappeared, but natural casts
in pure silex have replaced them." Silicification of the originally aragonitic
corals and other calciferous shells has produced chalcedonic replacements of
great beauty, and even prior to the description of them by John H. Allen in
1846, these fossils were well known in mineralogic cabinets as "chalcedony
from Tampa Bay."
Allen (1846, p. 40) did not specifically mention the deposit at Ballast
Point but did describe a similar one 2 miles north of Ballast Point as follows:
"One of the most ancient and interesting of these deposits can
be seen about two miles west of Fort Brooke where a section a
few hundred feet in length has been exposed by the washings of
the waters of the bay. Immediately back from the shore it is
covered by three or four feet of loam and sand. This bed consists
of blue marly clay, interlaminated with seams of carbonate of
lime, which probably resulted from the decomposition of shells;
that which renders this deposit unusually interesting is the
remarkably beautiful petrifactions that it contains, and that
surpass anything of the kind I ever saw. Interspersed throughout
the marl are masses of silex presenting a great variety of shapes
and colors; some have a rough and jagged surface and wine yellow
color, some are hollow cyclindrical tubes of different colors,
straight or bent, from one to six inches in length and from one
fourth of an inch to one inch in diameter, with a fine drusy
interior; others are beautifully agatized, having that moss-like
appearance that agates sometimes possess; these silicious concre-
tions are both opaque and translucent, and are probably of organic
origin. There are also found in this bed round cylindrical stems,
fluted and gradually tapering to a point with a slight curve, they
are from three to four inches in length; likewise a species of large
radiated coral, shaped like the segment of a sphere, petrified with
wine colored silex, and having a mammilary interior of carnelian
and chalcedony. The most beautiful petrifactions of this deposit
[sic] are various species of shells that are so perfectly petrified
with clear wine colored silex, that all their most minute and
delicate markings are preserved; so great is their translucency, one
can nearly read through them. They appear to have petrified
before having suffered the least from attrition or decomposition;
the spiral univalves taper to a transparent needle-like point."
Unfortunately most of the corals from Ballast Point proper in our
collection are by no means so perfectly preserved as the shells mentioned by








BULLETIN NO. 56


Allen; in fact the silicification of many of the corals has obscured the original
fine details, having been deposited between the septa and over the costae
forming casts and molds instead of true pseudomorphs. By and large,
therefore, the silicification obscures their true character and renders them
difficult to identify.
Heilprin (1887, p. 10) noted that a yellow limestone formed the basal
outcrop at Ballast Point and that it contained the foraminifer which Conrad
(1846, p. 399) described as Nummulites floridanus, and which indicated to
him an Eocene age. Heilprin himself identified the genus as Orbitolites and
suggested it represented a late Oligocene age equivalent to the Aquitanian
Stage of Italy and France. Today the taxon is known as Archaias floridanus
(Conrad) (see Puri and Vernon, 1964, p. 118) and is a guide fossil of the
Tampa Formation of early Miocene age. Heilprin also wrote that numerous
angular boulders of a tough siliceo-calcareous blue rock, also charged with
fossils, rested on the yellow limestone, but the relative sequence of the two
formations could not be determined. "Several of the fossil species occurring in
this rock appeared also to be contained in the limestone, but the former was
distinguished from the latter by the total absence of the foraminifer
Orbitolites and by the vast numbers of casts and impressions of a species of
Cerithium."
Summarizing from the above, it would seem that the surface strata at
Ballast Point consisted of several feet of horizontally disposed, light gray to
white or yellow limestone, admixed with marl, a little sand, and much green
clay. The limestones were highly fossiliferous, and associated with the Ballast
Point strata were numerous chalcedonized mollusks and corals. The mollusks
were studied by Dall (1890-1903 and 1915) and were thought by him and by
Heilprin (1887) to be late Oligocene in age; the consensus today is that they
are early Miocene. Inasmuch as many of the mollusks and some of the corals
have been identified at both localities, it is inferred that the surface beds at
Ballast Point are equivalent to the lower beds excavated at Sixmile Creek.


SIXMILE CREEK
Sixmile Creek is about 10 miles northeast of Ballast Point.
In discussing the Tampa Limestone or Obitolite Bed of the Ballast
Point-Sixmile Creek region, Dall (1903, p. 1570) wrote as follows:
"This stratum is superimposed upon the silex beds of Ballast
Point, Tampa [Hillsborough] Bay, where it may be eighteen inches
thick, and extends inland and northeastward. It underlies the city
of Tampa, where wells were dug through it, reaching water at a
depth of ten feet or thereabouts, the cherty stratum of the silex
beds probably serving as a water-table below. The same rock
occurs seven miles northeast of Tampa in wells and also on land
(S.E. Section 14, T.29, R.19) near Orient Station on the








BUREAU OF GEOLOGY


railway. Its upper surface is about fourteen feet above the water
of Six-Mile Run (or Creek) near by, and about twenty-five feet
above the mean level of the sea at Tampa, at the railway wharf,
according to late surveys. Its thickness varies more or less in
different places, and its greatest thickness I was unable to
determine, but suspect it does not exceed twenty feet."
Cooke and Mossom (1929, pp. 83,84) stated that "A sandy facies of the
Tampa Limestone rises 5 or 6 feet above water level in Sixmile Creek at
Orient, where it is overlain by a shell marl of Pleistocene age. The rock
contains a few fossil shells, among which is Pecten crocus Cooke, a species
that was described from the island of Anguilla and that occurs with other
Anguilla species in the Tampa limestone at Falling Water, Washington
County."
The foregoing statements by Dall, and by Cooke and Mossom, summarize
the stratigraphy of the Sixmile Creek region as known until recent years when
construction was begun of a bypass for the Hillsborough River. The bypass is
designed to divert the present course of the Hillsborough River to join the
Palm River after crossing Sixmile Creek. Excavations in Sixmile Creek by the
U.S. Corps of Engineers, for a damsite and lock, have revealed several
important sections which have been studied by H.S. Puri of the Florida Bureau
of Geology and by J.E. Banks of the Coastal Petroleum Company. One
section (A) was measured at the lock near Sixmile Creek, and a second (B)
east of the lock; the third section (C) is a composite of A and B with some
additions, revisions, or omissions due to differences in elevations and
unconformities. We are indebted to Dr. Puri for these sections, which are
presented below, as they contribute significantly to our knowledge of the
Tampa Formation. In Puri's tentative correlation, Bed 1 of section A is
equivalent to Bed 4 of Section C; Beds 2, 3, and 4 of Section A are equivalent to
Beds 5 and 6 of Section C; Beds 1 and 2 of section B are in the Tampa
Formation and probably lie between Beds 6 and 7 of Section C; and Beds 3, 2,
and 1 of Section C lie below Bed 1 of Section A. The partly silicified
coral-Siderastrea silecensis Vaughan (TSM-13a)-collected by Puri from talus, is
thought by Puri to have come from the upper part of the Tampa Formation in
Section A.
The corals collected by Banks in the Sixmile Creek area are all completely
calcareous and occur in white limestone or chalk. This lithology is reminiscent
of the "white compact limestone containing casts of fossils" and the
associated siliceous mollusks and corals observed by Cooke and Mossom
(1929, p. 83) along the waterfront at Ballast Point. In conversation with
Banks I learned that the white limestone and chalk in Sixmile Creek is
immediately overlain by a highly fossiliferous layer of silicified mollusks and
that the unit may underlie the lowest bed of Puri's "C" section. The physical
similarity of the limestones and the occurrence of many of the same species
of silicified mollusks and some of the same species of corals-the latter








BULLETIN NO. 56


siliceous at Ballast Point, but calcareous at Sixmile Creek-tend to support the
view that the Ballast Point and Sixmile Creek white limestone members are
more or less equivalent.


Sixmile Creek Sections
"A"
Section exposed in the Channel excavated at the Lock near Sixmile
Creek, just north of Florida 60, Tampa, Florida
(Section measured by H. S. Puri, Bureau of Geology, May 11, 1971)
Hillsborough County


Bed
HOLOCENE SERIES:
8
PLEISTOCENE SERIES:


Description


Dark gray sand and soil zone.


Light orange-yellow, medium- to coarse-grained sand.
Shell hash in a sandy matrix with Caloosahatchee-
type shells. Ostrea virginica.
Unconformity


MIOCENE SERIES:
Hawthorn Formation


Clay, greenish gray, blocky
Uncomformity


Tampa Formation
4


Light orangy yellow, fossiliferous limestone,
sandy, with Tampa type molluscs
Tan to light brown silty limestone, occasionally
moldy porosity
Greenish, gray, silty limestone fossiliferous, with
specks of phosphorite
Light tan, brecciated limestone and very sandy
clay, exposed to water.
(Elevation +3.5 feet)
Total Thickness


8

3

2


4
30 to 31 Feet


Section at Sixmile Creek, east of the Lock, Tampa, Florida
(Section measured by H. S. Puri, Bureau of Geology, May 11, 1971)


Thickness
(Feet)


Bed Description
PLEISTOCENE AND HOLOCENE
3 Dark gray sand and soil zone
Unconformity


Thickness
(Feet)







BUREAU OF GEOLOGY


MIOCENE SERIES:
Tampa Formation
2


Tan to brown, argillaceous sand with silicified
oyster reef (Ostrea normalis Dall)
Calcarenite, light yellow-orange, fossiliferous,
hard, molluscan shell bed with Tampa type corals
and molluscs
Total Thickness

"C"

(Composite Section measured on April 6, 1972
by Dr. H. S. Puri and Alexandra Wright)


Description


PLEISTOCENE SERIES:
(Coffee Mill Hammock)


MIOCENE SERIES:
Tampa Formation


Tan to brown qtz. sand, medium- to fine-grained
Pleistocene shells, weathered in places
Unconformity




Pale yellow-orange limestone, soft and friable,
Potamides bed, sandy, occasionally silicified,
lenticular
Light pale orange to light gray, calcirudite
(shell hash), sandy, very macrofossiliferous
(marine fossils)
Light gray limestone, brecciated, hard, some
marine fossils, laminated toward the top
Light gray limestone, weathered, soft and fri-
able, clayey, sandy
Pale yellow orange limestone, soft, with Pota-
mides and other marine shells scattered through,
sandy, compact
Light gray limestone, up to 1" in diam. casts
of gray green sandy clay contains land snails,
exposed to water level. (Elevation +13 feet)
Total Thickness


3

5'3"

(up to 2' thick,
variable)


7'6"
32'6" to 33'6"


Thickness
(Feet)








BULLETIN NO. 56


SILICIFICATION OF THE BALLAST POINT FOSSILS

Many of the mollusks, corals, and other taxa in the Tampa Formation with
calcium carbonate shells or skeletons have been subjected to complete or
partial silicification. This replacement has produced artifacts of considerable
beauty, and sometimes of faithfully reproduced pseudomorphs. More often,
however, the original calcareous structure has been partially or wholly
dissolved and the replacing siliceous deposit is so obscurative as to render
identification of the taxon difficult or impossible.
The process of dissolution of the calcium carbonate and the pan passu (?)
precipitation of cryptocrystalline quartz (chalcedony) in Ballast Point corals is
explained by Lund (1960) of the University of Oregon in his paper on
"Chalcedony and quartz crystals in silicified corals." Lund first described the
corals as follows:
"The silicified coral masses from Ballast Point are of varying
sizes and shapes. Some are globose and range up to a foot or more
in diameter, some are tubular, and others are irregular in shape.
Many of the masses are hollow, and the preserved 'shell' is
commonly only 2 or 3 cm thick or less. The 'shell' is characteristi-
cally comprised of two distinct layers. The outer layer, consists of
replaced coral in which the features are preserved in remarkable
detail, and the inner part consists of either banded chalcedony or
banded chalcedony over which quartz crystals have grown. Most of
the hollow forms are lined with colloform chalcedony, a few are
lined with small quartz crystals, and less commonly specimens are
partitioned and lined with both kinds of material, each in a
separate chamber."
Lund's basic premise in solving the problem of the silicification of the
Ballast Point fossils is that silica is transported in true molecular or ionic
solution, and he cites Alexander, Heston, and Iler as indicating that silica in
low concentrations is in true solution. "They found the solubility of
amorphous silica to be between 120 and 140 p.p.m. at 25 degrees C. and in
the pH range between 5 and 8. Later observations by Krauskopf (1956) and
White, Brannoch, and Murata (1956) are in accordance with those of
Alexander and co-workers". Krauskopf (1956) stated that in natural waters
silica may be in either colloidal or in true solutions; however, the colloidal
particles are unstable and will disappear in a few days or weeks provided that
total silica is less than about 100 p.p.m. Hence the great majority of natural
waters should have silica in true solution only.
Most ground waters are low in dissolved silica and Lund suggests that the
subsurface water at Ballast Point is probably no exception. It was formerly
believed that silica in natural waters was transported as a colloid and that
chalcedony was formed first as a gel from the colloidal silica and was later







BUREAU OF GEOLOGY


reconstituted into crystalline chalcedony. "This origin for chalcedony is
plausible in certain cases, as with the waters of hot springs in which the
amount of dissolved silica is unusually high, but it seems not to be applicable
to a situation in which ordinary groundwater is the solvent. I therefore believe
that both the quartz crystals and the banded chalcedony in the coral
specimens were deposited as quartz from true solutions. The specimens
indicate that chalcedony and quartz crystals can form under similar conditions
of temperature, pressure, and concentration of silica in solution."
The origin of the dissolved silica is from plants and animals such as
diatoms, radiolarians, and silica-secreting sponges, as well as other siliceous
matter contained in the deposit.
For an early andexcellent treatise on the process of siliceous transposition,
the reader is referred to the work of Duncan (1864, pp. 358-374). Duncan's
study pertained to siliceous Tertiary corals of Antigua, but his observations
apply to corals of all ages and of diverse regions.


AGE OF THE TAMPA FORMATION IN THE TAMPA AREA

The age of the Tampa Formation in and around the city of Tampa-at
Ballast Point, Davis Islands, and Sixmile Creek (or the old Orient RR station
on the present Seaboard Coastline Railroad)-is today considered to be early
Miocene.
Important contributions relating to the paleontology and stratigraphy of
the Tampa Formation in the Tampa environs are to be found in the works of
Allen (1846), Conrad (1846), Heilprin (1887), Johnson (1888), Dall
(1890-1903 and 1915), Matson and Clapp (1909), Vaughan (1900, 1915, and
1919), Mossom (1925), Cooke and Mossom (1929), Mansfield (1937), and
Puri and Vernon (1964). Recent data have been provided by Puri and Banks
(1972) in personal communications appearing in the present report. An
excellent historical review and analysis of the Ballast Point and Sixmile Creek
fossils was given by Mansfield in 1937, pages 8-22.
The first fossils to be identified from Ballast Point were by Conrad in
1846, who described and illustrated 8 species of invertebrates; one of these he
identified as Nummulites floridanus, and as Nummulites was then a guide
fossil for the Eocene, Conrad referred the fauna to the upper Eocene. In
1887, Heilprin described and figured 47 species of mollusks from Ballast Point
and assigned a lower Miocene or upper Oligocene position to the deposit.
Heilprin also discovered that Conrad's "Nummulites" floridanus was not a
Nummulites and re-named the foraminifer Orbitolites floridanus (Conrad). The
latter has since been changed to Archaias floridanus (Conrad), and is still a
guide fossil of the Tampa Formation.
Between 1890 and 1903, and again in 1915, W. H. Dall described from
Ballast Point and Sixmile Creek a totalof 312 species of mollusks, 27 of them








BULLETIN NO. 56


land or freshwater, 285 marine. Among the marine species, 25, or 8 per cent,
survive in the Recent fauna, and on this basis Dall placed the Ballast Point
fauna in the transition ground between the Miocene and the Oligocene.
Maury (1902) considered the Tampa Formation of west Florida and the
Chipola Formation of north Florida to be coeval, and correlated them with
the Aquitanian Stage of Germany, Belgium, and France; she regarded the
Aquitanian as late Oligocene in age, relying principally on the Mollusca and
their position in type sections of those countries. In their paper which deals
with the molluscan fauna of Mayer's Aquitanian stratotype section in
southwest France, Eames and Clark (1967) list 397 species, of which,
according to a letter written to me by Eames, 27 to 31, or 7 to 8 per cent are
found in the Recent fauna. This ratio is the same as that determined by Dall
for the Tampa Formation: it means that 92 per cent of the mollusks of the
Aquitanian Stage of Europe and the Tampa Formation of Florida are extinct,
and on this criterion might well be considered Oligocene in age.
Although Maury suggested that the Chipola Formation of north Florida
was more or less equivalent to the Tampa Formation at Ballast Point, the
present consensus is that the Chipola was deposited a little later than the
Tampa, one of the reasons being that at the type locality of the Chipola in
the Chipola River, the base of that formation lies disconformably on a
dolomitic limestone mapped as "Tampa." Again, however, we run into
contradictions, for of the 477 species of mollusks described by Gardner
(1926-1950) from the Chipola Formation, only 26 or 5 per cent, are living
today. If one subscribes to Lyell's extinction theory for subdividing the Tertiary,
the Chipola as well as the underlying Tampa should be Oligocene. Nevertheless,
recent studies by E. H. Vokes (1965), Bender (1971), and Weisbord (1971)
suggest that the Chipola is early middle Miocene or late early Miocene in age,
and is equivalent to the Helvetian Stage of Europe.
In his analysis of the Ballast Point mollusks, Mansfield (1937, pp. 8-20)
concluded that the Tampa Formation is about the same age as the Anguilla
Formation of Anguilla, which is early Miocene.
The corals of the Tampa Formation seem to me to point to a lower
Miocene or upper Oligocene position. Of the 28 corals listed on page 24, only
one, Montastrea annularis (Ellis and Solander), occurs in the Recent fauna,
that, however, ranging from Oligocene to Recent. Two other species resemble,
but are probably distinct from Montastrea annularis. Another-Siderastrea
banksi, n. sp.-is of the same general appearance as Siderastrea siderea (Ellis
and Solander) but that too ranges from lower Miocene to Recent. Two species
resemble middle to upper Miocene ones, whereas seven are rather close to
species ranging from middle Oligocene to lower Miocene. Fifteen of the
Ballast Point-Sixmile Creek corals may be endemic. On the whole, the closest
resemblance is in the upper Oligocene-Lower Miocene bracket and, like the
mollusks, suggest an "Aquitanian" age.








BUREAU OF GEOLOGY


The latest comprehensive report on the geology of Florida was by Puri and
Vernon (1964) in Special Publication No. 5 of the Florida Geological Survey.
In that publication the Tampa Formation or Stage includes all sediments lying
above the Suwannee Limestone and below the Chipola Formation of the
Alum Bluff Group. The term Tampa Formation in this sense was revived by
Vernon (1942), and comprises, or is equivalent to, the St. Marks and
Chattahoochee formations of north Florida and south Georgia. As shown on
page 24, several species of corals occurring at Ballast Point and Sixmile Creek,
have been identified in the St. Marks and Chattahoochee formations, and is
further evidence in support of their general equivalence. However, few, if any
of the corals of the Tampa Formation occur in the Chipola (see Weisbord,
1971), and this, plus the rather marked difference in molluscan assemblages,
suggest a faunal break of some magnitude between those two formations.


WELL DATA

Three important core holes have been drilled recently in the Greater Tampa
area. The cores from these holes have been studied by Alexandra P. Wright of
the Bureau of Geology, and on the basis of their lithologies Wright has
tentatively determined that the thickness of the Tampa Formation is about
109 feet at Ballast Point, 85 feet at Sixmile Creek some 2.5 miles northeast of
the old Orient RR station, and 63 feet in the Eureka Springs well in the


diffused headwater region of Sixmile
kindly provided by Wright, appear in
depths are in feet.


Creek at Harney Flats. Other data,
the tabulation below. Elevations and


Locality and Quadrangle
Ballast Point Park (NW %
Sec. 11, T 30 S, R 18 E),
Tampa


Formation
Surface to top Tampa
Tampa to top Suwannee
Suwannee to top Crystal River
Crystal River to final depth


6.5
116
342
400


6.5
109
226
58


Sixmile Creek 29.1 At Sixmile Creek (SE % Surface to top Tampa 16.5 16.5
(W11337) NW 1/4 SW /4 Sec. 6, Tampa to top Suwannee 101.6 85
T 29 S, R 20 E), Brandon Suwannee to top Crystal River 257 155
Crystal River to final depth 307 50
Eureka Springs 19.6 Harney Flats (SE NE Surface to top Tampa 31 31
(W11338) Sec. 30, T 28 S, R 20 E), Tampa to top Suwannee 94.2 63
Thonotosassa Suwannee to top Crystal River 301 207
Crystal River to final depth 332 31



The Tampa Formation is lower Miocene in age, the Suwannee Limestone
upper Oligocene, and the Crystal River Formation upper Eocene.


Well & No.
Ballast Point
(1)


Depth Thickness








BULLETIN NO. 56


LIST OF CORALS

The species of corals treated in this paper are listed below. All of them are
from the Tampa Formation save Goniopora aucillana, n. sp. which is from the
Suwannee Limestone of late Oligocene age.
Stylophora minutissima Vaughan
Stylophora silicensis Weisbord, n. sp.
Acropora tampaensis Weisbord, n. sp.
Siderastrea banksi Weisbord, n. sp.
Siderastrea silecensis Vaughan
Porites floridaeprima Bernard
Goniopora aucillana Weisbord, np.
Goniopora ballistensis Weisbord, n. sp.
Goniopora decaturensis Vaughan
Goniopora matsoni Weisbord, n. sp.
Goniopora tampaensis Weisbord, n. sp.
Alveopora tampae Weisbord, n. sp.
Favites yborensis Weisbord, n. sp.
Montastrea annularis (Ellis and Solander)
Montastrea davisina Weisbord, n. sp.
Montastrea peninsularis Weisbord, n. sp.
Montastrea tampaensis (Vaughan)
Montastrea tampaensis silecensis (Vaughan)
Incertae sedis "b"
Antiguastrea cellulosa (Duncan)
Cyphastrea tampae Weisbord, n. sp.
Galaxea excelsa Weisbord, n. sp.
Antillia willcoxi (Dana),Vaughan, nomen dubium
Desmophyllum willcoxi Gane
Incertae sedis "a"
Flabellum, sp. indet.
Endopachys tampae Vaughan, nomen nudum
Syzygophyllia tampae Weisbord, n. sp.
Anthemiphyllia, ? sp. indet.
Antillocyathus, ? sp. indet.








BUREAU OF GEOLOGY


SPECIES OF CORALS FROM THE
PRESENT NAMES
Stylophora minutissima Vaughan
Stylophora silicensis Weisbord, n. sp.
Acropora tampaensis Weisbord, n. sp.
Siderastrea banksi Weisbord, n. sp.
Siderastrea silecensis Vaughan
Porites floridaeprima Bernard
Goniopora ballistensis Weisbord, n. sp.
Goniopora decaturensis Vaughan
Goniopora matsoni Weisbord, n. sp.
Goniopora tampaensis Weisbord, n. sp.
Alveopora tampae Weisbord, n. sp.
Favites yborensis Weisbord, n. sp.
Montastrea annularis (Ellis and Solander)
Montastrea davisina Weisbord, n. sp.
Montastrea peninsularis Weisbord, n. sp.
Montastrea tampaensis (Vaughan)
Montastrea tampaensis silecensis (Vaughan)
Incertae sedis "b"
Antiguastrea cellulosa (Duncan)
Cyphastrea tampae Weisbord, n. sp.
Galaxea excelsa Weisbord, n. sp.
Desmophyllum willcoxi Gane
Incertae sedis "a"
Flabellum, sp. indet.
Endopachys tampae Vaughan, nomen nudum
Syzygophyllia tampae Weisbord, n. sp.
Anthemiphyllia ?, sp. indet.
Antillocyathus ?, sp. indet.


STAMPA FORMATION
FORMER NAMES
Stylophora minutissima Vaughan
Stylophora silicensis Vaughan, nomen nudum
Acropora tampaensis Vaughan, nomen nudum

Siderastrea silecensis Vaughan
Porites willcoxi Vaughan, nomen nudum
Goniopora ballistensis Vaughan, nomen nudum
Goniopora decaturensis Vaughan
Goniopora matsoni Vaughan, nomen nudum
Goniopora tampaensis Vaughan, nomen nudum
Alveopora tampae Vaughan, nomen nudum
Maeandra tampaensis Vaughan, nomen nudum
See synonymy


Orbicella tampaensis Vaughan
Orbicella tampaensis var. silecensis Vaughan
9
See synonymy
Cyphastrea tampae Vaughan, nomen nudum
Galaxea excelsa Vaughan, nomen nudum
Desmophyllum willcoxi Gane
? Desmophyllum willcoxi Gane

Endopachys tampae Vaughan, nomen nudum
Syzygophillia ? tampae Vaughan nomen nudum
?















DISTRIBUTION OF TAMPA CORALS, THEIR GEOLOGIC RANGE, AND NEAREST RELATED SPECIES


Species


Stylophora mnutissima Vaughan
Stvlophora silicensis Weisbord, n. sp.
Acropora tampaensis Weisbord, n sp.
Sidcrastrea banks Welsbord. n. sp.
Siderastrea silecensis Vaughan
Porites floridaeprima Bernard
Gonmopora balhstensis Weisbord, n. sp.
Goniopora cf. G decaturensis Vaughan
Goniopora marsoni Weisbord, n. sp.
Goniopora rampaensis Welsbord, n. sp.
Alveopora tampae Weisbord, n. sp.
Favites yborensis Weisbord, n. sp.
Monrastrea annularis (Ellis and Solander)
Montastrea davisina Weisbord. n. sp.
Montastrea peninsularis Weisbord, n. sp.
Montastrea tampaensis (Vaughan)
Montastrea cf. M ltampaensis silecensis (Vaughan)
Incertae sedis "b"
Antiguastrea cellulosa (Duncan)
Cvphastrea tampae Welsbord, n. sp.
Galaxea excelsa Weisbord, n. sp.
Desmophyllum willcoxi Gane
Incertae sedis "a"
Flabellum, sp. indet.
Endopachys tampae Vaughan, nomen nudum
Syzygophyllia tampae Weisbord, n. sp.
Anthemiphyllia 2, sp indet.
Antillocyarhus 7, sp. indet.


Localities
Ballast Davis Sixmile
Point Islands Creek

X

X

S x
X
X
X x
X X


St. Marks Chattahoo- Hawthorn Range and distribution
Form. chee Form. Form.


X X
X
x


Lower Miocene
Lower Miocene
Lower Miocene
Lower Miocene
X Lower-Middle Miocene
Lower Miocene
Lower Miocene
Olg.-Lower Miocene
Lower Miocene
Lower Miocene
Lower Miocene
Lower Miocene
U Oligocene Recent
Lower Miocene
Lower Miocene
Olig.-Lower Miocene
Lower Miocene
Lower Miocene
M Oligocene Pliocene?
Lower Miocene
Lower Miocene
Lower Miocene
Lower Miocene
Lower Miocene
Lower Miocene
Lower Miocene
Lower Miocene
Lower Miocene


Nearest related species


Stylophora affin s Duncan M U Miocene
Stylophora imperatores Vaughan. L Miocene
Acropora panamensis Vaughan Olig L Miocene
Siderastrea siderea (E & S) Mio- Reent
Siderastrea conferra (Duncan) Ohg L Miocene

Porites anguillensis Vaughan L Miocene

Pontes toulai Vaughan. Olig.-L Miocene


Favites mexicana Vaughan. Oligocene

Montastrea annularis (E & S) Olig Recent
Montastrea annularis (I & S) Ohg. Recent
Montastrea costata (Duncan) Olig. L Miocene











Syzygophyllia gregorii (Vaughan). M U Miocene

Placocvathus mooensis Vaughan L. Miocene








BUREAU OF GEOLOGY


DESCRIPTIONS OF SPECIES

Order SCLERACTINIA Bourne, 1900
Stylophora cf. S. minutissima Vaughan P1. 1, figs. 1-5; pl. 4, fig. 1
1900. Stylophora minutissima Vaughan, U.S. Geol. Sur., Mon. 39, p.
131, pl. 13, figs. 13-15.
1915. Not Stylophora silicensis Vaughan, nomen nudum, in Dall, U.S.
Nat. Mus., Bull. 90, p. 18.
1919. Stylophora minutissima Vaughan, U.S. Nat. Mus., Bull. 103, No.
9, pp. 205,206,334.
1925. Stylophora minutissima Vaughan, Felix, Fossilium Catalogus I:
Animalia, pars 28, p. 234.
Vaughan's original description was as follows:
"In the United States National Museum are several small branches of
this species, weathered out of a cherty limestone. The best-preserved
and the most easily studied branch measured 15.5 mm. in length and
2.5 mm. in diameter. The cross section of the branch is circular. The
calices are shallow, and are arranged in regular ascending spirals.
Their distance apart is about 1 mm. They are elliptical in shape, the
greater diameter 0.7 mm., the smaller 0.5 mm. The margins not at all
prominent, only a slight bulging upward of the surface in the
calicular region. The coenenchymal surface has suffered corrosion,
but certainly is granulate, and may have in places possessed some
longitudinal striations. Six stout septa reach the columella; no
indications of a second cycle. The six septa in places seem so
thickened that they almost close the lower part of the calicular
cavity. Four pits, each between a pair of septa in the segment of the
calice toward the distal end of the branch; two on each side of a
vertical plane through the longer axis of the calice are deeper than
the two pits at the other end of the calice (cf P1. XIII, fig. 14). The
columella is stout. It was not possible to determine whether or not
dissepiments exist.
Locality.-Russell Springs, Flint River, Georgia.
Geologic horizon.-Vicksburgian stage, Ocala Group.
Type.-United States National Museum.
This species has an extremely close resemblance to Stylophora
affinis Duncan, from the Nivaje shale of San Domingo. The
resemblance is especially close to the var. minor. The points of
difference are: The calices of St. affinis are circular, while in St.
minutissima they are elliptical; between the corallites of St. affinis
there is on the coenenchyma a distinct raised ridge, while no such
ridge exists in St. minutissima."
Shortly after the publication of Monograph 39 there appeared in Science an
article by Vaughan (1900) revising the stratigraphy of the Flint River region in







BULLETIN NO. 56


the vicinity of Russel Springs, Georgia. In this revision the strata containing
Stylophora minutissima and associated corals were placed in the Chattahoochee
Formation of early Miocene age rather than in the Vicksburgian Stage of
Oligocene age. Later, Vaughan (1915, p. 18) observed that a number of coral
species within the Chattahoochee Formation also occurred in the Tampa
Limestone of west Florida, and thus confirmed the correlation that is generally
accepted today.
The following description of what I believe is referable to Stylophora
minutissima Vaughan is based on five of the better preserved specimens, TB-2a
to TB-2e. The coralla are branching, the branches long, slender, solid within,
and subcircular in cross section. The corallites on the durface, where visible at
all, are polygonal in outline (pentagonal, hexagonal, and diamond-shaped) and
are defined by a slightly raised ridgelet composed of pointed granulations similar
to the slightly larger ones covering the whole of the coenosteum.
Mature calices are nearly circular to oval in outline, 1.1 mm to 1.4 mm in
diameter, and are arranged more or less parallel with, or ascending in a slightly
oblique spiral around, the long axis of the branch. The margins of the calices are
normally raised perceptibly above the surface, are well rounded, and are strongly
costate, the low, narrowish costae 20 to 24 in number. The calices are invariably
separated, the separation varying from as little as 0.6 mm to as much as 2.0 mm,
but averaging about 1.3 mm in a single column, the columns themselves 1.3 mm
to 2.5 mm apart. The depth of the calice to the columella is about 0.4 mm to
0.5 mm, and the wall is vertical.
There are 6 stout primary septa fused to the columella and 6 barely
perceptible secondary septa projecting slightly from the wall. Normally there is a
roundish excavation between each of the primary septa, but due to silicification
some of these are usually plugged. The character of the septa is also obscured by
secondary silicification, and in one calice of specimen TB-2a, the primary and
secondary septa are coarsely granular and subspinose on the margins and faces. A
noteworthy character, seen especially well on one of the more weathered coralla
(TB-2c), is the alignment of opposing primary septa to form a distinct directive
lamina, the direction coinciding with the long axis of the branch. The center of
the directive lamina is the columella.
The columella usually appears as a fused center. However, in the same calice
of specimen TB-2a in which the structure of the septa is revealed, there arises
from the center of the base a single spiny style, the pointed tip of which is well
below the level of the calicular margin.
Measurements.-Specimen TB-2a: length of corallum 28 mm, diameter 6.5
mm. Specimen TB-2b: length of corallum 41 mm, diameters of main branch 7
mm x 5 mm. Specimen TB-2c: corallum length 29 mm, average diameter 6 mm.
Specimen TB-2d: corallum length 42.5 mm, maximum spread of divaricating
branches 32.5 mm, maximum diameter of main stem 8.5 mm. Specimen TB-2e:
corallum length 25.5 mm, diameter 6 mm.







BUREAU OF GEOLOGY


Localities.-Ballast Point; Sixmile Creek. The Ballast Point specimens are
completely silicified whereas the Sixmile Creek specimens (TSM-3) are from a
chalk bed and are completely calcareous. Two specimens of Stylophora cf.
minutissima (TBD-1), which are also siliceous, have been collected by Forrest
D. Cring of Florida State University. These were dredged from the St. Marks
Formation at Dunedin Beach (Honeymoon Island), Pinellas County, Florida.
The type locality of S. minutissima Vaughan is near Russell Spring(s) in the Flint
River, a short distance upstream from Bainbridge, Decatur County, Georgia.
Comparisons.-In the original description of the type of S. minutissima, which
is a poorly preserved fragment, Vaughan could not detect the raised ridge of
granulations between the corallites on the surface of the corallum. This ridge is
only apparent on well preserved examples, and I have no doubt it is present
normally on S. minutissima at the type locality.
The Florida State University specimens from Ballast Point, described above as
Stylophora minutissima Vaughan, are exactly the same as those labeled
Stylophora siliciensis Vaughan in the U.S. National Museum from locality 2115,
which is also Ballast Point. Stylophora silicensis was Vaughan's manuscript
name, and as that was unpublished, the taxon is a nomen nudum. In this work,
Vaughan's name of Stylophora silicensis is retained by describing and illustrating
it as a new species (see pages 29-31 and plate 2, figs. 1-4), for it seems to me,
after comparing poor specimens of Vaughan's S. silicensis from the Chattahoo-
chee Formation of Georgia with good specimens of what appear to be identical
with S. minutissima Vaughan from the Tampa Formation of Florida, that the
two species are distinct.
In volume 12 of Science for 1900, page 874, Vaughan listed probably 3
species of Stylophora from the Chattahoochee Formation of the Flint River in
the Tertiary coral reef, near Bainbridge, Georgia.


Stylophora silicensis, new species P1. 2, figs. 1-4
1915. Stylophora silicensis Vaughan, nomen nudum, in Dall, U.S. Nat.
Mus., Bull. 90, p. 18.
The following description is based on several badly worn specimens in the
U.S. National Museum numbered 3381 (U.S. Geol. Survey), and labeled, in
Vaughan's own handwriting, "Stylophora silicensis Vaughan ? Type. Flint River,
Decatur Co." (Georgia). The corals are siliceous and are imbedded in a brownish
yellow fossiliferous sandstone which was originally calcareous but is now wholly
siliceous. On the label the word "Type" has been crossed out, and the question
mark seemingly inserted after the label was first written by Vaughan. I suspect,
but do not know, that the emendation was also made by Vaughan.
The coralla of the 3381 lot are branched, the branches divaricating into a
single pair or sprouting in short pairs from the parent stem. The cross section of
the subsidiary branches is oval to subcircular, that of the stock from which they
arise oval or elliptical and flattish on the sides.






BULLETIN NO. 56


The calices are circular in outline and are disposed more or less irregularly or
regularly in transverse rows. Most of the calices are separated, equidistantly in
some places, unequally in others. Elsewhere the calices are touching in short
series. Where the separation is equidistant, the distance apart is 0.4 mm. The
calicular margins are normally a little elevated and thickened to form a rounded
lip or colline around the cup. The margin is costulate, the number of costae
counted about 20. From colline to colline the diameter of individual calices is
1.0 mm to 1.4 mm. The coenosteum between the calices is finely granulate.
Although such cannot be seen due to corrosion, it is probable that the outline of
the corallites on the surface of the corallum is polygonal, and that the boundary
between adjacent corallites is marked, as in other species of Stylophora, by a
narrow papillate ridgelet.
There are three cycles of septa, the third cycle not quite complete where
observed. The 6 primary septa are by far the most pronounced and unite in the
center of the calice to form a styliform columella. The secondary and tertiary
septa are rudimentary and project slightly from the wall. The primary septa are
normally laminar, whole, and not exsert, but nearly everywhere they are
abnormally thickened by secondary silicification. The margin of the primary
septa is gently concave upward and is apparently dentate or spiculate. The faces
of the primary septa bear small pointed granulations or spines. All of the septa
thicken at the margin and form subequal nodulations or costulations of which
there is one for each septum. In a number of calices a prominent directive lamina
comprising part of the primary cycle is present and intercepts the columella.
The columella is styliform; the tip is generally below the level of the surface
and is often blunted.
Measurements.-Type (U.S.G.S. 3381 "a"): corallum length 30.5 mm,
maximum spread of branches 16.5 mm, diameters of main stem 10 mm x 8 mm.
Paratype (U.S.G.S. 3381 "b"): corallum length 32.5 mm, maximum spread of
branches 22 mm, diameter of main stem 10 mm. Paratype (U.S.G.S. 3381 "C"):
corallum length 28.5 mm, maximum width 16.5 mm.
Locality.-Russell Spring, in Flint River near Bainbridge, Decatur County,
Georgia. Chattahoochee Formation.
Comparisons.-So far as the two can be compared, Stylophora silicensis
resembles Stylophora affinis Duncan (1846, p. 436, pl. 16, fig. 14) from the
Nivaje Shale (Upper Miocene) of the Dominican Republic; it differs from the
Dominican species, in having a colline-like calicular margin instead of a sharp,
ringlike one.
Two species of Stylophora were recorded by Vaughan from the Chatta-
hoochee Formation at Russell Spring in the Flint River of Georgia, namely
Stylophora minutissima (1900, p. 131, pl. 13, figs. 13-15) and Stylophora
silicensis (1915, p. 18). S. silicensis was also reported by Vaughan (1915, p. 18)
to occur in the Tampa Formation of Florida at Ballast Point. Differentiation of
the two species lies in the form of the corallum and the disposition of the
calices: S. minutissima has slender branches more or less circular in cross section,









BUREAU OF GEOLOGY


and oval to subcircular claices which are invariably separated and arranged
parallel with the long axis of the branch in regular ascending sprials. The calices
of S. silicensis, however, are circular and either irregularly disposed where
separated or touching each other where serially disposed. The specimens of
Stylophora in the Florida State University collection from Ballast Point and
Sixmile Creek are all referable to S. minutissima Vaughan.
It should be mentioned here that there are also many points of similarity
between Stylophora silicensis n. sp. and Stylophora imperatoris Vaughan (1919,
p. 334, pl. 74, figs. 1-5) from the lower Miocene of the Panama Canal Zone,
Anguilla, Trinidad, and the Chipola Formation of Florida (Weisbord, 1971, pp.
15-17, pl. 2, figs. 5-7; pl. 3, figs. 1-5). Unfortunately, available specimens of S.
silicensis are too poorly preserved for definitive determination, but should the
two species eventually prove to be identical, S. imperatoris will have priority.


Acropora tampaensis, new species P1. 3, figs. 1-3;pl. 4, fig. 2
1915. Acropora tampaensis Vaughan, nomen nudum, in Dall, U.S. Nat.
Mus., Bull. 90, p. 18.
The original calcareous skeleton of this species has been replaced entirely by
chalcedony or "silex" resulting in the obliteration of much of the original
structure. However, it is known that the corallum is composed of branches, some
of the later or younger ones bifurcating; younger branches are roundish in cross
section whereas the stem below the bifurcation are compressed elliptical and
flattish on the sides.
Due to breakage, replacement, or poor preservation, the character of the axial
corallites cannot be discerned save for the presence of sturdy synapticulae
connecting the septa. Most, if not all of the diverging corallites, however, are
protuberant, projecting upward and outward, the highest one (on specimen
TB-1 la) extending about a millimeter or so above the level of the coenosteum.
The calices vary considerably in size and are swollen or thickened around the
margin, the swelling averaging 0.25 mm across. The smallest calices are
subcircular in outline, the largest ones oval, the maximum diameters of all calices
ranging from 0.8 mm to 2.8 mm. The calices are both scattered and aligned in
some fashion, the latter disposed subregularly along the long axis of the branch
or in a slight spiral with it, or in some places athwart the branch. Generally the
calices are separated from one another but the calicular margins of some are
united in a short series.
So far as can be determined there are two well developed cycles of septa and,
to judge from the numerous costae on one of the larger corallites, there must be
septa of the third cycle which cannot be seen, for on corals generally there are
the same number of costae as there are septa, although the former are not
necessarily the same in size or prominence as the latter. The primary septa of
this species are a little larger than the secondaries and both are serrate along the
margin and subspinose or granulated on the sides. The directive lamina is by far






BULLETIN NO. 56


the most pronounced of all the septa, the upper directive more prominent than
the lower. This lamina effectively divides the calice rendering it dimidiate. Well
within the calice, strong synapticulae connecting the sides of the septa are seen.
Where they can be observed the costae are thick, subequal, moderately
elevated, and apparently granulose; on the largest corallite there are about 24
costae but generally there are fewer than that on individuals of average size.
The coenosteum is "porous", and depending on the vagaries of the
replacement process appears granulate or reticulate or costulate.
Measurements.-Paratype (TB-1 la): branch length 44 mm, diameter at larger
end 10 mm, diameter at smaller end 8.5 mm. Paratype (TB-I lb): branch length
35 mm, diameter at larger end 10 mm, diameter at smaller end 8 mm. Specimen
TB-1 c: stem length 46 mm, diameters 17 mm x 12.5 mm.
Locality.-Ballast Point, west side of Hillsborough Bay, Hillsborough County,
Florida.
Comparisons.-This species is not unlike Acropora panamensis Vaughan
(1919, p. 480, pl. 141, figs. 1, la, lb, 2) from the Emperador Limestone (lower
Miocene) of the Panama Canal Zone and from the Ponce Formation, Lares
Limestone, and San Sebastian Shale (Oligocene to lower Miocene) of Puerto
Rico, according to Coryell and Ohlsen (1925, p. 220, pl. 40, fig. 2). One major
distinction between the two species is that the calices of Acropora tampaensis
are dimidiate whereas in A. panamemsis "no nariform or dimidiate apertures
were observed." Compared with Acropora saludensis Vaughan (1919, pp. 480,
481, pl. 141, figs. 3, 3a, 4, 4a), also from the Emperador Limestone of the
Panama Canal Zone and from the Oligocene Antigua Formation of Antigua, A.
tampaensis has three cycles of septa whereas A. saludensis is described as having
two. Also the coenosteum of A. saludensis is denser than that of A. tampaensis.
Remarks.-The type specimen originally named but not described officially
by Vaughan is labeled "USNM 4999 Tampa" and is illustrated on plate 3, figures
1, 2 of this report. Its measurements are the following: corallum (including main
stem) length 80 mm, width across crotch 36 mm; diameters of main stem
(slightly flattened) at middle 15 mm x 14 mm. The precise locality in the Tampa
area is not known but is presumed to be Ballast Point. Corallites TB-1 la and
TB-llb (see above) although smaller than USNM 4999 are nearly as well
preserved and are considered paratypes.


Siderastrea banksi, new species P1. 4, fig. 3; pl. 5, figs, 1,2
The five specimens are embedded in a whitish chalk. The coralla are small to
medium in size, massive and cerioid, with a globular to domal head and a smaller
base; one of them is plumply fig-shaped. All of the specimens are highly
calcareous and show evidence of secondary calcification but no silicification
whatsoever.
The calices are variously polygonal, tightly appressed, and shallow, although
the summit areas of abutting calices are raised into low collins which are







BUREAU OF GEOLOGY


slightly depressed or flattened where the wall passes through. The wall separating
the calices is very thin, about 0.15 mm or less. In the type (TSM-2a) the calices
vary in diameter from 4.3 mm x 3.0 mm, with 44 septa, to 6.4 mm x 5.5 mm,
with 48 septa. In the paratype (TSM-2b) the range is 4.4 mm x 4.1 mm, with
40 septa, to 6.1 mm x 5.5 mm, with 54 septa.
The septa occur in four nearly complete to complete cycles, with a few
quinaries in the largest calices. On the head of the corallum the septa of adjacent
calices abut at the wall where they may alternate or be confluent with each
other. On the sides of the head and toward the base, however, the septa are all
fluidly confluent, overrunning the walls of the calices beneath the stream and
becoming in effect septo-costae. This oddity is seen on all five of the specimens
in our collection and is the principal character on which the new species is
erected.
The septa are platy or laminar and wedge-shaped, being thickest at the wall
and thinning toward the columella. The septa of the first two cycles are subequal
and extend to the columella. Third cycle septa are only slightly smaller than the
principals and join second cycle septa just before the columella, whereas the
quaternaries fuse to the included tertiaries one-third to one-half the distance
from the wall to the center of the calice; fifth cycle septa, which are the
smallest, fuse to the included quaternary ones.
The margins of the septa are dentate and slope gently and rather uniformly to
the calicular center. The dentations, of which there are 9 or so on a septum 2.1
mm in length, are blunt at and near the calicular margin but become more acute
and transversely compressed toward the columella. The faces of the septa are
granulose and the larger ones also perforate. There are about 5 endotheca in one
millimeter of length on the septo-costae.
The columella is small and vaguely papillary; in places it is calcified into a
slightly raised boss.
Measurements.-Type (TSM-2a): height of corallum 25 mm.; length of head
33.5 mm, width 31.5 mm. Paratype (TSM-2b): height of corallum 16 mm.;
length of head 18.5 mm, width 16.5 mm. Paratype (TSM-2c): height of
corallum 11.6 mm, base 8.5 mm x 7 mm.; length of head 14 mm, width 16.5
mm.
Locality.-Sixmile Creek south of Orient Park, Hillsborough County, Florida.
According to Banks the corals came from the lower part of the Tampa
Formation excavated at this locality, but probably from the upper beds of the
Tampa, taking into account the total thickness of the Formation.
Remarks.-This species displays many of the characters of the Siderastrea
siderea complex. However, it differs in two respects: first, the mature calices are
much larger than those of S. siderea and other species, varying in size from
one-fifth to one-third the maximum diameter of the corallum; second is the
presence of the stream of confluent septo-costae on the upper sides of the
corallum of S. banksi, a character not revealed on other species of the genus.








BULLETIN NO. 56


Siderastrea banks, n. sp. is named for geologist Joseph E. Banks who has
collected and donated to Florida State University many fossil invertebrates and
provided valuable and often new stratigraphic information concerning them.


Siderastrea silecensis Vaughan P1. 6, figs. 1-3; pl. 7, figs. 1-3
1915. Siderastrea silicensis Vaughan, nomen nudum, in Dall, U.S. Nat.
Mus., Bull. 90, p. 18.
1919. Siderastrea silecensis Vaughan, U.S. Nat. Mus., Bull., vol. 103,
No. 9, pp. 205, 210, 211,219, 232, 437, 438, 447-450, 451,453,
517, pl. 116, figs. 1, la, 2, 3; pl. 117, figs. 1, la, lb;pl. 118, figs.
1, la.
1925. Siderastraea silecensis Vaughan, Felix, Fossilium Catalogus I:
Anamalia, pars 28, p. 133.
1927. Siderastraea silecensis Vaughan, Felix, Fossilium Catalogus I:
Anamalia, pars 35, p. 373.
Vaughan's original description of this species (1919, pp. 447, 448, pl. 116,
figs. 1, la), from Wakulla, Florida, was the following:
"Corallum massive, with domed upper surface. Greater diameter
of specimen 170 mm.; lesser diameter 140 mm.; thickness originally
more than 85 mm.
Calices polygonal, separating wall usually slightly raised. The
peripheral part of the septal margins is flattened, producing between
adjacent calicular fossae a flat area which ranges from 0.5 to 1.5
mm. in width. Diameter of an adult calice, measured between thecal
summits, 5 mm.; some oblong calices as much as 7 mm. long and 5
mm. wide. Depth of calices, 1.5 mm.
Septa, number in a calice 5 mm. in diameter, 50-i.e., 4 complete
cycles and 2 quinaries; in a calice 6 mm. long and 4.5 mm. wide, the
number is 48, precisely 4 cycles. The usual number of septa is 4
complete cycles, with a few quinaries in large calices. Around the
calicular margins the septa are subequal in size, the outer ends of the
quaternaries being only slightly smaller than those of the members
of the lower cycles. The interseptal spaces average slightly wider
than the thickness of the septa. Within the calices the primaries and
secondaries are only faintly larger than the tertiaries. There is the
usual septal fusion of the tertiaries to the secondaries and quater-
naries to tertiaries, but the tertiaries may almost or actually reach
the columella area while the quaternaries extend more than half way
from the wall to the columella.
The upper flattened part of the septal margins is beaded; within a
distance of 1 mm., 5 rounded dentations were counted; between the
place where the septa drop downward in the calicular fossa and the
columella the number of dentations on the long septa is between 8








BUREAU OF GEOLOGY


and 10; the total number on the large septa is, therefore, between 13
and 15. Synapticulae well developed, rather coarse, as would be
expected from the relatively coarse septal trabeculae.
Columella weakly developed; upper surface papillary, but in
many instances crossed by directive septa which meet in the corallite
axis.
Locality and occurrence of type specimen.-Station 3694, pine
woods, Waukulla, Florida. T. W. Vaughan collector; Chattahoochee
Formation.
Type.-No. 325187, U.S.N.M."
The corallum of S. silecensis assumes differing forms and sizes. One of the
forms in the collection of the Florida Bureau of Geology (TB-12a), which Dr.
Robert O. Vernon recalls as having been collected in the Tampa area, is large,
massive, and subconical, with a convex upper surface, tapering sides, and a base
which is smaller than the head. The maximum diameter of this corallum is 230
mm on top. 190 mm at the base, and 210 mm in height. A better and more
complete specimen is on display outside the main extrance of the Bureau's
Herman Gunter Building in Tallahassee: this coral measures 585 mm x 435 mm
above, 315 mm x 191 mm at the base, and is 545 mm in height. Both specimens
have been completely silicified.
Two specimens from Davis Islands (TD-2a, 2b) have also been replaced by
siliceous material. The corallum of TD-2a is hemispherical above and truncated
at the base. The corallum of TD-2b is domal above, with a flattened summit
and an acutely tapering base.
A number of large fragments (SM-13) collected in Sixmile Creek by Dr.
Harbans S. Puri are also identified as Siderastrea silecensis Vaughan. These
particular corals are massive, light gray in color, with a moderately convex upper
surface and gently tapering sides to form what must have been a large conical
coral. The upper surface is siliceous whereas the interior is partly siliceous and
partly calcareous.
The calices of TB-12a were normally moderately deep but appear shallow
because of corrosion. They are closely appressed, polygonal in outline (most of
them hexagonal or pentagonal, but an occasional one tetragonal or heptagonal),
variable in shape and size, and separated by a thin but prominent wall. Where
well preserved, the summits of contiguous calices are rounded and a little
elevated, and the top of the wall hidden from view. Average diameters of the
calices from summit to summit vary from 3.5 mm x 4 mm, with 44 septa, to 5
mm x 7 mm, with 68 septa. Generally there are four cycles of septa and,
depending on the size of the calices, a number of them in the fifth. The primary
and secondary septa are subequal and only slightly larger than the tertiaries. The
quaternary and quinary septa are small and extend only part way to the
columella. There is the usual septal fusion of tertiaries to secondaries and
quaternaries to tertiaries, the latter occurring half way between the wall and the
columella, the former occurring just before the columella area. The free margin







BULLETIN NO. 56


of the septa is dentate, the dentations numbering about 10 in 3 mm of length.
The sides of the septa are coarsely granulated. The synapticulae are well
developed. The surface of the columella is papillary.
Although the coralla of specimens TD-2a and TD-2b from Davis Islands are
considerably smaller than that of TB-12a, the calices are somewhat larger,
varying from 4 mm x 4 mm, with 44 septa to 10 mm x 6.5 mm, with 88 septa.
The smaller septa join the next larger at a very acute angle as in Siderastrea
conferta (Duncan). On the margin of a primary setpum 4 mm in length on
specimen TD-2a there are some 12 dentations, the dentations relatively large at
the wall, progressively smaller toward the columella. The granules on the faces of
the septa are distinct and aligned in close radial columns.
On specimens TSM-13a and TSM-13b from Sixmile Creek, the calices are
variously polygonal, ranging from 5 mm to 8.5 mm in long diameter. A typical
calice of specimen TSM-3b is 7.6 mm in long diameter and has 64 septa in five
cycles; the largest septum in this calice is 3.4 mm in length, bearing about 12
dentations on the margin and 4 or 5 synapticulae in one millimeter of length on
the face. Where mineralized material has been deposited in the mesentarial
spaces between the septa, the interseptal casts thus produced may be perforated.
These perforations are the result of contact with synapticulae and granulations
on the sides of the septa.
According to Puri the TSM-13 specimens were found loose but probably
came from beds 4 to 6 in composite section "C".
Measurements.-Specimen TD-2a: length of corallum 74 mm, width 67 mm,
height 52 mm. Specimen TD-2b: length of corallum 81 mm, width 73 mm,
height 51 mm. Specimen TSM-13a: height 143 mm, length 130 mm, width 103
mm.
Localities.-The localities in the Tampa area in which Siderastrea silecensis
Vaughan has been found are Ballast Point on the west shore of Hillsborough
Bay, Davis Islands at the north end of Hillsborough Bay, and Sixmile Creek east
of Hillsborough Bay.
Range and distribution.-Siderastrea silecensis Vaughan occurs in the Chatta-
hoochee Formation of south Georgia and north Florida, and in the Tampa and
Hawthorn Formations of west Florida. The following localities were listed by
Vaughan:

1. Wakulla, Wakulla County, Florida, in pine woods, station 3694. Type
locality. Type specimen No. 325187, U.S. National Museum. Chatta-
hoochee Formation.
2. Plant City, Hillsborough County, Florida. Coronet phosphate mine, station
6043. Alum Bluff Formation [= Hawthorn Formation]
3. Withlacoochee River, 3 miles below Valdosta, Lowndes County, Georgia,
station 6084. Chattahoochee Formation.
4. Flint River at Little Horse Shoe Bend, 4 miles below Bainbridge, Decatur
County, Georgia. Chattahoochee Formation.






BUREAU OF GEOLOGY


5. Ballast Point, Hillsborough County, Florida, station 7754. Tampa Lime-
stone.
The Tampa Limestone and the Chattahoochee Formation are thought to be
early Miocene in age, the Hawthorn early to middle Miocene.
Comparisons.-Among the several variants mentioned by Vaughan, our TD-2
specimens from Davis Islands and TSM-13 specimens from Sixmile Creek are
closest to the Siderastrea silecensis Vaughan from the Coronet phosphate mine,
locality No. 2, above, and to Siderastrea conferta (Duncan) (1863, p. 422, pl.
14, fig. 2) from the Oligocene and Miocene of Antigua, Anguilla, the Panama
Canal Zone, and Puerto Rico. The main difference between S. silecensis and S.
conferta is that the denticles on the margins of the septa are more numerous per
unit of length on S. conferta.


Porites floridaeprima Bernard P1. 8, figs. 1-3; pl. 9, figs. 1-4; pl. 10, figs. 1-3
1906. Porites Floridae prima Bernard, Catalogue of the Madreporarian
Corals in the British Museum (Natural History), vol. 6, II: The
genus Porites, pt. 2, pp. 18, 71, 126, 136, 142, pl. 12, fig. 2.
1915. Porites willcoxi Vaughan, nomen nudum, in Dall, U.S. Nat. Mus.,
Bull. 90, p. 18.
1919. Porites willcoxi Vaughan, nomen nudum, U.S. Nat. Mus., Bull.
103, No. 9, p. 211.
1925. Porites Floridae prima Bernard, Felix, Fossilium Catalogus I:
Anamalia, pars 28, p. 273.
I am indebted to the British Museum (Natural History) and to R. F. Wise of
its Palaeontology Department for providing me with recent photographs of the
type of this species. Bernard's original description of it was the following:
"56. Porites Florida 1. (P. Floridae prima.) (P1. XII. fig. 2.)
[Tampa Bay, Ballast Point (Miocene); British Museum]
Description.-The corallum rose on a stem about 2 cm. thick, and early
divided into an irregular whorl of 3 or more branchlets, the individuals of which
bend up immediately into a close cluster, and become new stems. They vary
greatly in thickness, from 2 cm. to 1 cm. These again, when they have room,
divide into fresh whorls, branchlets from neighboring whorls fusing together.
Where there is no room for development, branchlets may be early aborted, and
persist only as slight excrescences, or as mammilate processes. The edges of the
living layer, which was at least 9 cm. deep, tended to creep down over the dying
basal stems.
The calicles were distinctly depressed, and about 1.25 to 1.5 mm. in
diameter. The walls appear to have consisted almost entirely of smooth, wavy
flakes, not very porous, nor very much incised laterally, the septa starting as very
fine thin points standing out rather sharply and suddenly from the edges of the
flake, with only slight incurving between them. These sharp, thin septa seem
seldom to have been free, but curved round irregularly to join the wavy flakes







BULLETIN NO. 56


which rose in the calicle as the columellar tangle. The symmetry seems to have
been entirely confined to the rings of rounded interseptal loculi.
In the section, very thin, but fairly regular trabeculae can be seen, but the
thin, wavy, lamellate, horizontal layers are very marked.
This specimen is a silicified Miocene fossil which presents morphological
features of very great interest. The details are difficult to obtain, but what can
be made of its growth-form shows traces of an irregular whorl formation already
noted, as perhaps consisting of three prongs, e.g. P. Belize 1, p. 67. Here they
may be due to the terminal swellings, dividing not into 2, but into 3, 4, or 5
prongs, which then bend up into the vertical, perhaps fusing with those of
neighboring whorls.
This is again one of the few branching Porites at present known with the
horizontal elements of the skeleton so markedly lamellate, that it shows in the
structure of the calicles at the surface (cf. P. West Indies X. 17, and P1. V. fig. 5).
I assume that the surface exposed was the original true surface; it certainly looks
like it, inasmuch as each calicle still shows as a depression.
It would certainly be of interest to search among the living Porites in the
neighbourhood of Tampa to find if this remarkable form has any survivors. Such
characters as these would be easy to recognize.
Geol. Dept. R. 2343."

Measurements.-As near as can be determined from the photographs of the
holotype (R.2343) the corallum is 120 mm in height and 75 mm in maximum
width. The number of septa is 10 to 15, for a median of 12, as counted on
plate 9, figures 3 and 4.
Type locality.-Ballast Point, west side of Hillsborough Bay, Hillsborough
County, Florida.
Type specimen.-British Museum (Natural History). Geol. Dept. R. 2343.
Remarks.-A number of coral specimens (TB-6a, TB-10a, 10b) in the
Florida State University collection from Ballast Point as well as two specimens
with the unpublished manuscript name of "Porites willcoxi Vaughan, 3286,
Tampa" in the U.S. National Museum should all be referred to Porites
floridaeprima Bernard. My description of Porites floridaeprima Bernard, based
on an examination of the coralla enumerated above and comparison with the
excellent photographs furnished me by the British Museum (Natural History),
is as follows:
All of the coralla from Ballast Point are siliceous and branching. Of the
two specimens labeled Porites willcoxi Vaughan, the smaller is swollen at the
crotch and the branches broken away; the larger specimen is a subcylindrical
compressed trunk or stock which is prolonged into two united parallel
branches. The latter corallum closely resembles Bernard's illustration of Porites
floridaeprima on his plate 12, figure 2. Other specimens in the Florida State
University collection are represented by broken branches of various design,
among them TB-10b which is club-shaped.







BUREAU OF GEOLOGY


The calices of specimens 3286 are small (1.3 mm to 2.0 mm in long
diameter), polygonal in outline (hexagonal, pentagonal, subquadrilateral, or
diamond-shaped), and generally arranged in gently arcuate or curved rows
with, in one row for example, 10 tightly joined calices in 13 mm of length.
Normally the calices are deep with a large circular central cavity and vertical
sides. The calices on a worn down surface, however, are very shallow and
resemble rosettes by virtue of the petal-shaped spaces between the septa. The
summit areas or calicular margins of the fully developed calices are thick,
costulate, and coarsely perforate.
There are two complete or nearly complete cycles of septa, with one to
four minor septa in the third cycle. Except for the small intercalaries, the
septa are prominent, subequal and ragged, the margins serrate or denticulate
but also with disconnected spiny process or tubules projecting into the
calicular cavity. In places the septa unite into pairs or triads, and there is
normally one paliform nodulation on the margin of each primary septum just
before the columella. The faces of the septa are narrow and are connected by
sturdy synapticulae which when broken appear as tubules or elongated
granulations. Perforations are present between the septa, these continuing to
the base of the calice where they form the conspicuous rosette mentioned
above.
The columella is very small, sunken, and also perforate; however, the
columella is often recrystallized into a small plug with a minute tubercle on it.
A thin, inconspicuous, directive lamina with small dentations on the margin is
present in a number of calices. The lamina may pass through the center of the
columellar area or a little to the side of it.
In cross section the corallum branch is typically poritid with five or six
cells in one millimeter of length and four or five rods in one millimeter of
width.
Measurements.-Paratypes (U.S. National Museum specimens numbered
3286, Porites willcoxi Vaughan): larger corallum height 60 mm, width at base
32 mm, thickness at middle 21 mm. Smaller corallum height 35 mm,
maximum width 36.5 mm, maximum thickness 22 mm. Specimen TB-6a:
corallum bifurcatee branch) height 27 mm, maximum width 18 mm, diameters
of main branch 11 mm x 9.5 mm. Specimen TB-lOa: corallum (compressed
branch) height 18 mm, width, 14.5 mm, thickness 9.5 mm. Specimen
TB-lOb: corallum (club-shaped) height 18 mm, diameters at larger end 10 mm
x 7.5 mm, diameters at smaller end 6.5 mm x 6.0 mm.
Observations.-The distinguishing characters of Porites floridaeprima Ber-
nard are the growth form of the corallum, the orientation of many of the
calices in a connected series of rows, and the small size of the calices
compared with other species.

Goniopora aucillana, new species P1. 33, fig. 1; pl. 34, fig. 1, pl. 35, fig. 1
The corallum is massive, columniform, composed of convex plates built on,






BULLETIN NO. 56


and draped over one another in a subhorizontal position of growth; the upper
plate of specimen AU-la here described is thicker in the middle (about 30
mm) than on the sides and is flattish to slightly undulated on top.
The calices are variously polygonal in outline and moderately shallow, their
margins subnodulous and united to each other. The diameters range from 3.1
mm to 3.4 mm and depths from about 1.0 mm to 1.3 mm'. The wall between
the calices is rarely visible but where revealed it is laminar, about 0.15 mm in
thickness, and sparsely and finely spinose. Generally there is no well-defined
boundary to the calices, the area or colline between them consisting of a layer
of synapticulae on either side of the hidden wall. This imparts a perforate
appearance to the collins.
Depending somewhat on the size of the calice, the number of septa varies
from 14 to 24, the full normal complement being 24 in three cycles. The
septa are well developed, subequal in size, and wedge-shaped, that is, wider
near the wall where the denticulations are more luxuriant, and tapering
therefrom toward the columella. The normal arrangement, apparent but rarely,
is six primary septa extending to the axis, with a trident between each of
them, the tridents consisting of a secondary septum joined on either side by a
tertiary septum. The margins of the septa are strongly dentate, with about five
frondose denticles on the longer septa. The denticles become smaller inward,
and the last one at the columella resembles a pointed palus. The sides of the
septa are perforated and granulated, the granulations robust.
The columella is small and hardly distinguishable as such. Where the
columellar area is calcified, it is papillate, the papillae small. The directive
plane is rarely seen but is present. Synapticulae are numerous, fine, and
regular, about six of them in a millimeter of length.
Measurements.-Corallum height 70 mm, maximum diameter of head 65
mm, diameter at base 45 mm.
Locality.-The single specimen AU-la was collected in March 1971 by
Joseph E. Banks in a road metal pit west of Cabbage Grove, Taylor County,
in the vicinity of the Aucilla River (where it runs underground).
Formation and Age.-Suwannee Limestone. Upper Oligocene.
Remarks.-Of the 13 species of Goniopora described by Duncan (1863),
Vaughan (1919), and Coryell and Ohlsen (1920) from southeastern United
States and the circum-Caribbean region, the new species most closely
resembles Goniopora decaturensis Vaughan (1919, pp. 490, 491, pl. 143, figs.
1, la) from the base of the Chattahoochee Formation in the Flint River,
Georgia, and Goniopora imperatoris Vaughan (1919, pp. 493, 494, pl. 142,
figs. 3, 3a) from the Emperador Limestone of the Panama Canal Zone. So far
as can be determined from the literature G. decaturensis differs from G.
aucillana, n. sp. in having a well developed columella tangle. On G. imperatoris
the columella tangle is also large and well developed, forming "a flattish
bottom to the calices, width about one-half the calicular diameter"; the
columella of G. aucillana, however, is very small.







BUREAU OF GEOLOGY


Goniopora decaturensis Vaughan occurs in the lower Miocene of Georgia
and Cuba and in the San Sebastian Formation (Oligocene) and Ponce
Limestone (upper Oligocene-lower Miocene) of Puerto Rico.
Goniopora imperatoris Vaughan occurs in the basal Miocene of the Panama
Canal Zone, in the lower Miocene of Anguilla, and in the San Sebastian
Formation and Ponce Limestone of Puerto Rico.



Goniopora ballistensis, new species P1. 10, figs. 4, 5;pl. 11, figs. 1-3;
pl. 12, figs. 1,2
1915. Goniopora ballistensis Vaughan, nomen nudum, in Dall, U.S. Nat.
Mus., Bull. 90, p. 18.
This species is described below from a very poorly preserved specimen in the
U.S. National Museum labeled "Goniopora ballistensis Vaughan, 3286, Tampa"
and from TB-7a and TB-7b in the Florida State University collection from
Ballast Point; the latter represent the same species as that named by Vaughan in
his unpublished manuscript but show the septal details better than the USNM
example above.
The chalcedonized corallum of TB-7a consists of a large, broken, partially
hollow trunk which bifurcates into two branches, these separated from the trunk
by a plate-like growth upon them.
The calices are shallow and obtusely polygonal in outline, most of them 2.0
mm in greater diameter but an occasional one a little smaller or a little larger, the
largest 2.3 mm. The calicular margins are closely united, the mural summits
perforate and markedly costate.
The septa are thick, ragged, and subequal, the number 14 to 18, the median
15. They are united in doublets and triplets before reaching the columella, or
occur as singlets which reach the columella. The margins and sides of the septa
are strongly granulose, and there is a palar ring around the columella consisting
of five or six papillate pali, or one at the end of each primary septum. The
synapticulae are well developed and there are three rings of them in the wall.
The columella is very small, often fused, with a more or less central tubercle
projecting from it; normally the columella is trabecular. The directive plane is
not clearly displayed although in a few calices there is a suggestion of its
presence.
In cross section the branches are poritid in character, with about five cells per
millimeter of length and with about seven rods in one millimeter of width.
Measurements.-Type specimen (TB-7a): broken corallum height 65 mm,
width 59 mm, breadth (reonstructed) about 46 mm; diameters of trunk
(reconstructed) 42 mm x 31 mm; branches 24 mm x 20 mm and 21 mm x 21
mm. Cotype (USNM 3286): the corallum is built up of plates compressed into a
tapering trunk 48.5 mm wide and 25 mm thick below, about 26 mm in diameter
in the branch-like attenuation above; the height is 106 mm. Paratype (TB-7b):







BULLETIN NO. 56


the corallum is a large, oval, and hollow trunk 63 mm high, 51 mm wide and 45
mm thick; it is built up of thin plates.
Locality.-Ballast Point, west side of Hillsborough Bay, Hillsborough County,
Florida.
Formation and Age.-Tampa Limestone (lower Miocene).
Comparison.-The form of the corallum and the calices of Goniopora
ballistensis are similar to Porites anguillensis Vaughan (1919, pp. 504, 505, pl.
149, figs. 1, la, lb) from the lower Miocene of Anguilla and the Panama Canal
Zone. The principal difference seems to be in the number of septa, the normal
being 12 in P. anguillensis, 15 in G. ballistensis.

Goniopora cf. G. decaturensis Vaughan P1. 13, figs. 1-3
1919. Goniopora decaturensis Vaughan, U.S. Nat. Mus., Bull. 103, No.
9, pp. 205, 234, 235, 346, 490, 491, 522, pl. 143, figs. 1, la.
1925. Goniopora decaturensis Vaughan, Felix, Fossilium Catalogus I:
Animalia, pars 28, pp. 276, 277.
1929. Goniopora decaturensis Vaughan, Coryell and Ohlsen, New York
Acad. Sci., Scientific Survey of Puerto Rico and the Virgin
Islands, vol. 3, pt. 3, pp. 169, 172, 223, pl. 40, fig. 7
The corallum is a gently convex silicified plate 2.5 mm to 6.5 mm thick,
welded to a chalcedonized base 4 mm to 6 mm in thickness. The lateral
expansion far exceeds the thickness, measuring 45 mm by 34 mm. The specimen
here described (TB-8a) represents part of the upper layer of a large and tall
corallum built up of successive plates from which TB-8a was broken off along a
natural growth plane and later replaced by chalcedony. The upper surface has
scarcely any relief due to the shallowness of the calices.
The calices are obtusely polygonal in outline and superficial, varying from 2.0
mm to 3.0 mm in greater diameter, with a median of 2.4 mm. Where it can be
observed, the wall is sturdy and laminar, with a thickness of about 0.1 mm, but
in most instances a well defined boundary between the calices cannot be
discerned. The mural summits are preforate, and this combined with the
reticulate nature of the peripheral rows of synapticulae impart a cellular
appearance to the surface of the corallum.
The septa vary in number from 18 to 26, the median 22. There is not much
difference in the size of the septa although there is in length, with the tertiaries
the shortest. In arrangement the six primary septa extend to the columella, with
a triplet group of secondary and two tertiaries between a pair of primaries. In
some calices a directive lamina running straight through the axis seems to be
present, but preservation is too imperfect to reveal the details. The margins of
the septa are denticulate, with about six dentations on the longer ones. The faces
of the septa are granulose, the granulations large and coarse, and pointed to
tubular. The longitudinal section along the edge of the corallum plate is poritid
in nature, and there are four cells in one millimeter of length and one millimeter
of width.







BUREAU OF GEOLOGY


The columella is a lax tangle formed from the inner ends of the septa. In a
few calices the columella seems to be partially surrounded by a palar ring, and in
yet another calice there is a small tubercle in the center of the columellar tangle.
The axial area of a number of calices is fused.
Measurements.-Specimen TB-8a: corallum head length 43 mm, width 37
mm, thickness 2.5 mm to 6.5 mm.
Locality and age.-Ballast Point, west side of Hillsborough Bay, Hillsborough
County, Florida. Tampa Formation (lower Miocene).
Remarks.-The Tampa specimen described above seems so close to Goniopora
decaturensis Vaughan from the Flint River, Georgia that it is referred to that
species. However, neither the type of G. decaturensis nor the specimen TB-8a is
well enough preserved to be certain of the identity.
Range and distribution.-The type of Goniopora decaturensis (No. 325031
U.S. National Museum) was collected by Vaughan at Blue Springs, 4 miles below
Bainbridge, Flint River, Decatur County, Georgia, in the base of the Chatta-
hoochee Formation. The species has also been found on Mogote Peak at
Guantanamo, Cuba, and in the San Sebastian Shale (Oligocene) and Ponce
Formation (upper Oligocene-lower Miocene) of Puerto Rico.


Goniopora matsoni, new species P1. 12, figs. 3-6; pl. 14, figs. 1-3
1915. Gonipora matsoni Vaughan, nomen nudum, in Dall, U.S. Nat.
Mus., Bull. 90, p. 18.
The following description is based on two specimens in the U.S. National
Museum labeled "Goniopora matsoni Vaughan, Tampa No. 6546" in
Vaughan's handwriting, and on specimens in the Florida State University
collection from Ballast Point and Sixmile Creek, Hillsborough County, Florida.
All of the coralla are broken bifurcating branches completely replaced by
cryptocrystalline quartz or chalcedony. The type is the smaller of the two
specimens numbered 6546 U.S. National Museum and is a robust stem, hollow
within, and subelliptical in cross section. The cotype, TB-5a, is part of a
much larger branching corallum, subcircular in cross section but filled within
and revealing the cellular structure of the corallum.
Although the calices appear to be subcircular on weathered surfaces, they
are normally polygonal, the long diameters varying from 1.9 mm to 2.8 mm
for a median of 2.6 mm. In outline the calices are hexagonal, pentagonal, and
occasionally quadrilateral, and tend to occur in longitudinal, somewhat curving
series; one such series on specimen TB-5a is 25 mm in length and consists of
9 calices in continuum. The calices are shallow and there are low rounded
collins of a porose reticulum about one millimeter in width between adjacent
margins; where uncorroded, the calicular margins are seen to be nodulous or
costulated, the costules corresponding to the outer ends of the septa.
There are 12 coarse septa of nearly equal size in two complete cycles with
2 or 3 rudimentary ones joining their respective principals close to the margin







BULLETIN NO. 56


of the calice. The septa are strongly denticulate on the margin, the denticles
frondose, spinulose, laminar, or paliform. There are usually four such denticles
from the wall to the columella, the innermost of which may be higher than
the others and form a ring of pali around the columella; three to six of these
pali at the termini of the primary septa have been counted. On specimen
TB-5a there seems to be a directive plane represented by an elongated
septum running through the columella to which may be attached a columellar
tubercle. The sides of the septa bear a few large pointed granulations
representing detached synapticulae. Large perforations are everywhere-around
calcinal centers of the wall, on the collins, on the faces of the septa, and
within the columella. The columella is very small, sunken, and lax, and in the
middle of it there may be a palus-like tubercle. In cross section the corallum
exhibits the typical cellular structure of the poritids, with about five cells in
one millimeter of length.
Measurements.-Type (6546 "a" USNM): corallum (branch) length 31 mm,
maximum diameter 26 mm, diameter at middle of branch 15 mm. Paratype
(6546 "b" USNM): corallum divaricatingg branches) height 45 mm, maximum
width 38 mm, diameters of trunk 26 mm x 20 mm, diameters of larger branch
19 mm x 16.5 mm. Specimen TSM-12a: corallum fragment (branching),
height 39.5 mm, maximum width 30 mm, diameters of branch 12.5 mm x 10
mm. Cotype (TB-5a): branch height 32.5 mm, diameters at ends 14 mm x 13
mm and 15 mm x 13 mm.
Localities.-According to Vaughan (1915) this species was collected in the
"silex bed" of the Tampa region. The name "silex bed" was formerly applied
to the deposit at Ballast Point on the west side of Hillsborough Bay, and that
is the location of TB-5a. Two poorly preserved specimens (TSM-12a and
12b) from Sixmile Creek east of Hillsborough Bay are also referred to
Goniopora matsoni, n. sp.
Comparisons.-It is difficult to determine whether Goniopora matsoni, n.
sp. should be referred to Goniopora or Porites; I am calling the taxon
Goniopora because Vaughan did, and Vaughan in turn was influenced by
Bernard who believed that poritids with even a few short tertiary septa should
be named Goniopora, relegating the genus Porites to poritids with two cycles
of septa only.
Goniopora matsoni is similar to two species also named by Vaughan:
Goniopora clevei Vaughan (1919, pp. 496, 497, pl. 145, figs. 1-6a) and Porites
toulai Vaughan (1919, pp. 501, 502, pl. 150, figs. 1-4). Goniopora clevei
occurs in the Antigua Formation (Oligocene) of Antigua, the Emperador
Limestone (basal Miocene) of the Panama Canal Zone, and the Anguilla
Formation (lower Miocene) of Anguilla. The difference between G. clevei and
G. matsoni is that the former has a much larger columellar tangle. Porites
toulai occurs in the Emperador Limestone of the Panama Canal Zone, the
Lares Limestone and San Sebastian Formation (Oligocene) of Puerto Rico,





BUREAU OF GEOLOGY


and the Ponce Limestone (upper Oligocene-lower Miocene) also in Puerto
Rico. P. toulai bears a few minor tertiary septa like G. matsoni but seems to
lack the low collins between adjacent calices such as are present on G.
matsoni. Should the two species eventually prove to be identical, P. toulai has
priority.




Goniopora tampaensis, new species P1. 15, figs. 1, 2
1915. Goniopora tampaensis Vaughan, nomen nudum, in Dall, U.S.
Nat. Mus., Bull. 90, p. 18.
The following description is based on Vaughan's unpublished manuscript
type No. 2084 from Ballast Point, Hillsborough County, Florida. The
specimen is siliceous and the surface drusy so that details are obscured.
The corallum is hemispherical, the upper surface a little convex and
undulated, the sides inflated, the base concave and concentrically ringed with
lamelliform plates.
The calices are shallow, variously polygonal (pentagonal, hexagonal, and
rudely tetragonal), and tightly appressed to each other. The calicular margins
are nodulous or costulate, rendered so by the thickening there of the septa
and their short conterminous costae. There is no reticulum between the
calices.
The number of septa varies from 22 to 32 in three generally complete
cycles, with a few in the fourth cycle. The septa of the first three cycles are
prominent and nearly equal, the primaries the larger, the secondaries and
tertiaries diminishing slightly in size according to the order of their insertion.
The margins of the septa are rather coarsely denticulate, with seven or eight
denticles in the longest septum measuring 1.4 mm. Most of the denticles save
the innermost are subspinose or elongated athwart the margin imparting an
erose effect to it. On the principal septa, or those of the first two cycles
reaching the columella, there are one or two large papilliform pali just before
the columella. The faces of the septa are narrow and bear a few small
granulations. A directive lamina is present in some of the calices but their
arrangement cannot be made out.
The columella is very small and seemingly papillate.
Measurements.-Type (2084 U.S. National Museum): corallum length 44
mm, width 32 mm, height 24 mm. The long diameters of the calices vary
from 1.8 to 4.6 mm, the average about 4 mm.
Locality.-Ballast Point, west side of Hillsborough Bay, Hillsborough
County, Florida.
Remarks.-Goniopora tampaensis n. sp. is characterized by its compara-
tively numerous septa, small papillate columella, absence of reticulum, and
the occurrence of large pali at the inner ends of the principal septa.







BULLETIN NO. 56


Alveopora tampae, new species P1. 6, figs. 4-6; pl. 7, figs. 4,5
1915. Alveopora tampae Vaughan, nomen nudum, in Dall, U.S. Nat.
Mus., Bull. 90, p. 18.
The "type" of Vaughan's manuscript-named Alveopora tampae has not
been seen by me, but I rather suspect that the specimen in the U.S. National
Museum labeled "Alveopora, U.S. Geol. Survey, Oligocene, No. 2115,
Hillsboro Bay, Florida, Burns" represents the same species. The description of
Specimen No. 2115 which is silicified, poorly preserved, and attached to the
base of a solitary coral, is as follows.
The corallum is small, massive and cerioid, with an oval swollen head which
is flattish on top, and with gently tapering sides.
The calices are relatively small, deep, and variously polygonal (although
generally hexagonal) in outline, and united at the calicular margins. The long
diameter of the average calice is 1.85 mm. The calicular margins are nodulous
at the intercepts of the septa and conterminous costae. The coenosteum is
thick and perforated and there are perforations on the summits of calices and
in the walls. Where the costae are visible they are thick and nearly equal in
size.
There are three cycles of septa, the third cycle incomplete. The principal
septa are coarse, the minor ones less so, and consist of interrupted columns of
projections, spines, and tubules. In come calices a strong directive trabecula
crossing the columellar area is present.
A specimen in the Florida State University collection from Sixmile Creek
east of Hillsborough Bay is also referred to Alveopora tampae. The Sixmile
Creek corallum (TSM-lla) is calcareous and shaped like an irregular
mushroom, with a flattish undulatory surface and a thick stubby subcylindri-
cal stalk. The columella, not visible on U.S.G.S. specimen 2115, appears to be
formed on TSM-lla by the union of the inner ends of the principal septa.
Measurements.-Type (U.S.G.S. 2115): corallum height approximately 19
mm, diameters of head 20 mm x 14 mm; the long diameters of the calices
vary from 1.2 mm to 2.1 mm. Paratype (TSM- la): corallum height 24.5
mm, length and width of upper surface 28 mm x 25 mm, maximum diameter
of "stalk" 20 mm; the long diameter of the mature calice varies from 2.4 mm
to 2.8 mm.
Localities.-The type (U.S.G.S. 2115) is from Hillsborough Bay and was
collected by Frank Burns. As the specimen is siliceous it is inferred that it was
collected from the "Tampa silex" deposit at Ballast Point on the west side of
Hillsborough Bay. The paratype (TSM- la) was collected by Joseph E. Banks
in Sixmile Creek east of Hillsborough Bay.
Observations.-It may be noted on the illustrations of U.S.G.S. 2115 that a
portion of it is veneered by what seems to be a wrinkled eiptheca. In actuality
this veneer coats both the solitary coral attached to the underside of
Alveopora tampae and the base of A. tampae itself, having encroached thereon
during the concurrent growth of both species. A similar thick concentrically







BUREAU OF GEOLOGY


lineated coating is present on the columnar base of TSM-lla, but on this
specimen the epitheca, if indeed it is a true epitheca, is developed on the
paratype itself.

Favites yborensis, new species P1. 16, figs. 1-3
1915. Maeandra tampaensis Vaughan, nomen nudum, in Dall, U.S.
Nat. Mus., Bull. 90, p. 18.
The following description is based on a single corallum in the U.S. National
Museum labeled "Maeandra tampaensis Vaughan, 4999" from the silex bed of
the Tampa Formation. The corallum has been replaced completely by siliceous
material and many details of structure have been obliterated or altered.
The corallum is massive, subconical, and cerioid, with a gently convex
upper surface and tapering sides. The tightly appressed corallites are of small
diameter, narrowly columnar in length, polygonal in cross section, and
convergent toward the base. The calices are variously polyonal (hexagonal to
angularly subelliptical), and range in size from about 3.5 mm to 6.5 mm in
long diameter. Although on normal, uncorroded examples they may be
deeper, the calices of the designated type are shallow, the calicular margins are
slightly elevated, rather acute, and somewhat nodulous, the nodulations
produced by the thickening of the septa at the margin. A few calices have two
or three centers, suggesting reproduction by marginal fission.
The number of septa varies from 18 in a calice 3.5 mm in long diameter to
34-36 in a calice 7.5 mm in length, the latter enclosing three centers. In most
calices the principal septa are secondarily thickened throughout by the
siliceous precipitate but normally they are thin and subequal, the secondaries
only slightly smaller than the primaries. In one of the larger calices, the
tertiary septa are seen joining the secondaries near the calicular margin, and
the secondaries uniting with the primaries farther within. Only the largest
septa reach the columella. Well within the corallum there are pairs of very
thin parallel lamellae running lengthwise between some of the principal septa,
and it is these septa that appear in cross section as threads in the filled in
interseptal spaces. The major septa are a little exsert, lobulate above, very
narrow toward the center. The margins are coarely beaded on the lobulate
area, lacerate to acutely toothed below. In some calices there appear to be a
few nodular pali around the columellar area but this is not clear. The faces of
the septa are finely granulated, the granulations or trabeculae aligned in
closely spaced columns. There is one costa for each septum, the costae coarse,
strongly granulated, and nearly equal in size.
The columella is very small and seems to consist of a twist or tangle of the
inner ends of the primary septa. Where the center of the columella is
recrystallized into a smooth plug, there may be a minute tubercle or two on
it. An occasional calice is traversed by a directive lamina, the upper margin of
which is finely toothed. The endotheca is well developed and widely spaced,
with two elongated cells in one millimeter of length.






BULLETIN NO. 56


Measurements.-Specimen 4999, U.S. National Musuem (type): corallum
length 68 mm, width 41 mm, height 44 mm.
Formation and locality.-Tampa silex bed at Ballast Point, west side of
Hillsborough Bay, Hillsborough County, Florida.
Comparison.-The type specimen closely resembles the illustration of
Favites mexicana Vaughan (1919, pp. 414, 415, pl. 103, figs. 2, 2a) from the
Oligocene San Rafael Formation of Mexico. Other than the fact that Vaughan
who knew both species considered them distinct, F. mexicana Vaughan may
perhaps be distinguished from F. yborensis n. sp. by its larger columella and
more numerous septa in calices of comparable size.


Montastrea annularis (Ellis and Solander) P1. 17, figs. 1-3; pl. 18, figs. 1-3;
pl. 19, figs. 1, 2
1766. Madrepora acropora Linnaeus, Systema Naturae, ed. 12, p. 1276.
[Fide Vaughan, 1901, p. 22.]
1786. Madrepora annularis Ellis and Solander, The Natural History
of... Zoophytes, p. 169, pl. 53, figs. 1, 2.
1786. Madrepora faveolata Ellis and Solander, The Natural History
of... Zoophytes, p. 166, pl. 53, figs. 5, 6. [Fide Vaughan, 1919,
p. 364.]
1791. Madrepora acropora Gmelin, Systema Naturae, ed. 13, pt. 6, p.
3767.
1791. Madrepora faveolata Gmelin, Systema Naturae, ed. 13, p. 3769.
1797. Madrepora acropora Linnaeus, Esper, Fortzetzungen Pflanzen-
thiere, vol. 1, p. 21, pl. 38.
1816. Astrea annularis (Ellis and Solander), Lamarck, Hist. Nat. Anim.
sans Vert., vol. 2, p. 259.
1821. Astrea annularis (Ellis and Solander), Lamouroux, Exposition
Mdthodique des... Polypiers, p. 58, pl. 53, figs. 1, 2.
1821. Astrea faveolata (Ellis and Solander), Lamouroux, Exposition
Mdthodique des... Polypiers, p. 58, pl. 53, figs. 5, 6.
1824. Astrea annularis (Ellis and Solander), Lamouroux, Encyclopedie
Mdthodique, vol. 2, p. 131.
1827. Astrea annularis (Ellis and Solander), Bory de St. Vincent, in
Bruguiere, Encyclopedie Mdthodique, pt. 2, pl. 486, figs. 1, 2.
1830. Astrea annularis (Ellis and Solander), Blainville, Dictionnaire des
Sciences Naturelles, vol. 60, p. 324.
1834. Explanaria annularis (Ellis and Solander), Ehrenberg, K. Akad.
Wiss. Berlin, Phys. Abhandl. 1832, p. 308.
1834. Astrea annularis (Ellis and Solander), Blainville, Manuel d'Actin-
ologie ou de Zoophytologie, p. 368.
1836. Astrea annularis (Ellis and Solander), Lamarck, Hist. Nat. Anim.
sans Vert., ed. 2, vol. 2, p. 405.








BUREAU OF GEOLOGY


1846. Astrea (Orbicella) annularis (Ellis and Solander), Dana, U.S.
Exploring Exped. 1832-1842, vol. 7, Zoophytes, p. 214, pl. 10,
fig. 6.
1848. Astrea annularis (Ellis and Solander), Schomburgk, History of
Barbados, p. 562.
1850. Astrea annularis (Ellis and Solander), Edwards and Haime, Ann.
Sci. Nat. Paris, s&r. 3, Zoologie, vol. 12, p. 104.
1857. Heliastraea annularis (Ellis and Solander), Edwards and Haime,
Histoire Naturelle des Coralliaires ou Polypes proprement dits,
vol. 2, p. 473; Heliastraea acropora (Linnaeus), Edwards and
Haime, p. 477.
1861. Heliastrea annularis (Ellis and Solander), Heliastrea acropora
(Lamarck), and Heliastrea Lamarckii Edwards and Haime, Duch-
assaing and Michelotti, R. Accad. Sci. Torino, Mem., ser. 2, vol.
19, p. 352.
1863. Phyllocoenia sculpta Edwards and Haime, Duncan, Geol. Soc.
London, Quart. Jour., vol. 19, pp. 432, 433. [Fide Vaughan,
1901, p. 23.]
1863. Cyphastraea costata (partim) Duncan, Geol. Soc. London, Quart.
Jour., vol. 19, pp. 443, 444. [Fide Vaughan, 1901, p. 23.]
1863. Astraea barbadensis Duncan, Geol. Soc. London, Quart. Jour.,
vol. 19, pp. 421, 444, pl. 15, figs. 6a, 6b. [Fide Vaughan, 1901,
p. 23.]
1864. Orbicella annularis Dana, Verrill, Mus. Comp. Zool., Bull., vol. 1,
No. 3, p. 48.
1866. Orbicella annularis (Ellis and Solander), Verrill, Boston Soc. Nat.
Hist., Proc., vol. 10, p. 323.
1866. Heliastraea annularis (Ellis and Solander), Duchassaing and
Michelotti, R. Accad. Sci. Torino, Mem., ser. 2, vol. 23, p. 179;
Heliastraea lamarckii Edwards and Haime, p. 179; Heliastraea
acropora (Linnaeus), p. 179; Heliastraea barbadensis (Duncan),
and Cyphastraea costata Duncan, p. 180.
1867. Heliastraea barbadensis (Duncan), Geol. Soc. London, Quart.
Jour., vol. 24 (1968), p. 23; Heliastraea altissima Duncan and
Cyphastraea costata Duncan, p. 24; Plesiastraea ramea Duncan, p.
25.
1870. Heliastraea lamarcki Edwards and Haime, Heliastraea annularis
(Ellis and Solander), Heliastraea acropora (Linnaeus), Heliastraea
barbadensis (Duncan), Cyphastraea costata Duncan, and Plesi-
astraea ramea Duncan, Duchassaing, Revue des Zoophytes et des
Spongiaires des Antilles, p. 30.
1871. Orbicella annularis Dana, Pourtales, Mus. Comp. Zool., Mem., vol.
2, No. 4, p. 77.







BULLETIN NO. 56


1877. Orbicella annularis (Ellis and Solander), Arango y Molina, R.
Acad. Cienc. Medicas, Fi'sicas y Nat. Habana, An., vol. 14, p. 278.
1877. Orbicella (Heliastraea) annularis (Ellis and Solander), Lindstrom,
K. Svenska Vetensk.-Akad., Handl., vol. 14, No. 6, p. 23.
1880. Orbicella annularis Dana, Pourtales, Mus. Comp. Zool., Mem., vol.
7, No. 1, pl. 4, figs. 1-10.
1888. Heliastraea annularis (Ellis and Solander), Ortmann, Zool. Jahrb.,
Syst., vol. 3, p. 174.
1890. Orbicella annularis (Ellis and Solander), Heilprin, Acad. Nat. Sci.
Philadelphia, Proc., vol. 42, pp. 303, 305.
1890. Heliastraea annularis (Ellis and Solander), Ortmann, Zeitschr. f.
Wiss. Zool. Leipzig, vol. 50, pt. 2, p. 307.
1890. Orbicella annularis (Ellis and Solander), A. Agassiz, Mus. Comp.
Zool., Bull., vol. 20, No. 2, p. 61, pls. 1, 2.
1895. Orbicella acropora (Linnaeus), Gregory, Geol. Soc. London,
Quart. Jour., vol. 51, p. 272; Cyphastraea costata Duncan, p. 274;
Echinopora franksi Gregory, pp. 274, 275, pl. 11, figs. 2a, b, c, 3.
[Fide Vaughan, 1901, p. 24.]
1898. Orbicella acropora (Linnaeus), Vaughan, Mus. Comp. Zool., Bull.,
vol. 28, No. 5, p. 275.
1899. Orbicella acropora (Linnaeus), Vaughan, Mus. Comp. Zool., Bull.,
vol. 34, pp. 153, 155, 156.
1899. Heliastraea annularis (Ellis and Solander), Duerden, Inst. of
Jamaica, Jour., vol. 2, No. 6, p. 621.
1900. Orbicella annularis Dana, Verrill, Connecticut Acad. Arts and
Sci., Trans., vol. 10, art. XIV, pp. 552, 553.
1901. Orbicella acropora (Linnaeus), Vaughan, Rijksmus. Geol. Min.
Leiden, Samml., ser. 2, vol. 2, No. 1, pp. 8, 9, 11, 12, 22-27.
1901. Orbicella annularis (Ellis and Solander) Dana, Verrill, Connecticut
Acad. Arts and Sci., Trans., vol. 11, Pt. 1, art. 3, pp. 94-96, pl.
15, fig. 1.
1901. Orbicella annularis var. stellulata Dana, Verrill, Connecticut Acad.
Arts and Sci., Trans., vol. 11, Pt. 1, art. 3, pp. 96, 97, pl. 15, fig.
2. [Fide Vaughan, 1919, p. 365.]
1902. Orbicella acropora (Linnaeus) var. Vaughan, U.S. Fish Comm.,
Bull., vol. 20 for 1900, pt. 2, pp. 301, 302, pls. 6, 7.
1902. Orbicella annularis (Ellis and Solander), Vaughan, Biol. Soc.
Washington, Proc., vol. 15, p. 56.
1902. Orbicella annularis (Ellis and Solander), Duerden, Nat. Acad. Sci.,
Mem., vol. 8, pp. 564-566, pls. 8-10 (figs. 64-73).
1904. Heliastraea (Orbicella) acropora (Linnaeus), Greeley [in] Bran-
ner, Mus. Comp. Zool., Bull., vol. 44, p. 266.
1906. Orbicella annularis Dana, Verrill, Connecticut Acad. Arts and
Sci., Trans., vol. 12, p. 233, fig. 86.








BUREAU OF GEOLOGY


1910. Orbicella annularis (Ellis and Solander), Vaughan, Carnegie Inst.
Washington, Publ. No. 133, Papers Tortugas Lab., vol. 4, p. 109.
1913. Orbicella annularis (Ellis and Solander), Mayer, Carnegie Inst.
Washington, Yearbook No. 11, p. 126.
1914. Orbicella annularis (Ellis and Solander), Mayer, Carnegie Inst.
Washington, Publ. No. 183, Papers Tortugas Lab., vol. 6, No. 1. p.
19.
1915. Orbicella annularis (Ellis and Solander), Vaughan, Washington
Acad. Sci., Jour., vol. 5, No. 17, p. 596.
1915. Orbicella annularis (Ellis and Solander), Vaughan, Carnegie Inst.
Washington, Yearbook for 1914, No. 13, pp. 224, 225.
1916. Orbicella annularis (Ellis and Solander), Vaughan, Carnegie Inst.
Washington, Yearbook for 1915, No. 14, p. 227.
1918. Orbicella annularis (Ellis and Solander), Mayer, Carnegie Inst.
Washington, Publ. No. 252, Papers Tortugas Lab., vol. 12, No. 7,
p. 175.
1919. Orbicella annularis (Ellis and Solander), Vaughan, U.S. Nat. Mus.,
Bull. 103, No. 9, pp. 214, 215, 223, 228, 253, 254, 255, 256,
362, 363, 364-375, 376, 380, 396, 398, 400, 420, 510, pl. 80,
figs. 7-7b; pl. 81, figs. 1-2; pl. 82, figs., 1-2; pl. 83, figs. 1-3a;pl.
84, figs. 1-3a.
1920. Orbicella annularis (Ellis and Solander), Coryell and Ohlsen, New
York Acad. Sci., Scientific Survey of Porto Rico and the Virgin
Islands, vol. 3, pt. 1, pp. 194, 195, pl. 28, fig. 2.
1921. Orbicella annularis (Ellis and Solander) Vaughan, Geol. Sur.
Dominican Rep., Mem., vol. 1, p. 167.
1927. Orbicella annularis (Ellis and Solander), van der Horst, Bijdr.
Dierk. Amsterdam, No. 25, p. 160.
1930. Orbicella annularis (Ellis and Solander), Yonge, Great Barrier
Reef Exped. 1928-29, Sci. Rept., vol. 1, No. 2, p. 25.
1932. Orbicella annularis (Ellis and Solander), Wells, Carnegie Inst.
Washington, Yearbook No. 31, p. 291.
1937. Orbicella annularis (Ellis and Solander), Yonge, Carnegie Inst.
Washington, Publ. No. 475, Papers Tortugas Lab., vol. 31, No. 9,
p. 207.
1939. Orbicella annularis (Ellis and Solander), Butsch, Barbados Mus.
and Nat. Hist. Soc., Jour., vol. 6, No. 3, pp. 136, 137, pl. 1, fig. 6.
1943. Montastrea annularis (Ellis and Solander), Vaughan and Wells,
Geol. Soc. Amer., Spec. Papers, No. 44, p. 321, pl. 29, fig. 5.
1948. Montastrea annularis (Ellis and Solander), Smith, Atlantic Reef
Corals, pp. 61, 72, 89, 90, pls. 25, 26.
1954. Montastrea annularis (Ellis and Solander), Fontaine, Inst. of
Jamaica, Ann. Rept. 1953-1954, p. 25.








BULLETIN NO. 56


1954. Montastrea annularis (Ellis and Solander), Smith, U.S. Fish and
Wildlife Serv., Fish. Bull., vol. 55, No. 89, p. 293.
1958. Montastrea annularis (Ellis and Solander), Bonet, Asoc. Mexicana
Ge61. Petrol., Bol., vol. 10, Nos. 9, 10, pp. 565, 567, 568, 569,
570.
1958. Montastrea annularis (Ellis and Solander), Zans, Geonotes, vol. 1,
No. 2, pp. 23, 24.
1958. Montastrea annularis (Ellis and Solander), Squires, Amer. Mus.
Nat. Hist., Bull., vol. 115, art. 4, pp. 227, 228, 229, 232, 237,
238, 256, pl. 40, fig. 3; pl. 41, figs. 1, 2.
1958. Montastrea annularis (Ellis and Solander), Moore, Inst. Marine
Sci. Univ. Texas, Bull., vol. 5, p. 154.
1958. Montastrea annularis (Ellis and Solander), Zans, Geol. Sur. Dept.
Jamaica, W. I., Bull., No. 3, p. 32.
1959. Montastrea annularis (Ellis and Solander), Zans, Geonotes, vol. 2,
No.1,pp.29,32.
1959. Montastrea annularis (Ellis and Solander), Newell, Imbrie, Purdy,
and Thurber, Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist., Bull., vol. 117, art. 4, pp.
211,213,215.
1960. Montastrea annularis (Ellis and Solander), Lewis, Canadian Jour.
Zool., vol. 38, No. 6, pp. 1134, 1137, 1138, 1139, 1140, 1142,
1144.
1960. Montastrea annularis (Ellis and Solander), Lewis, Barbados Mus.
and Nat. Hist. Soc., Jour., vol. 28, No. 1, p. 11.
1961. Montastrea annularis (Ellis and Solander), Duarte Bello, Acuario
Nac. Marianao [Cuba], ser. Educacional No. 2, pp. 9, 54, 55, figs.
43,44.
1961. Montastrea annularis (Ellis and Solander), Westermann and Kiel,
Natuurwetensch. Studiekring Suriname en de Nederlandse Antil-
len, No. 24, pp. 131, 136.
1962. Montastrea annularis (Ellis and Solander), Stoddart, Atoll Res.
Bull., No. 87, pp. 14, 17, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24 25, 26, 27, 28,
figs. 11, 12.
1963. Montastrea annularis (Ellis and Solander), Almy and Carrion-
Torres, Caribbean Jour. Sci., vol. 3, Nos. 2-3, pp. 136, 138, 141,
142, 154, 155, 162, pl. 14a.
1963. Montastrea annularis (Ellis and Solander), Jones, Bull. Marine Sci.
Gulf and Caribbean, vol. 13, No. 2, p. 282.
1964. Montastrea annularis (Ellis and Solander), Roos, Studies on the
Fauna of Curacao and other Caribbean Islands, vol. 20, No. 81,
pp. 11, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 32, 35, 37, 38, 40, 41, pl. 4, fig. 1;
pl. 11 a, b.
1964. Montastrea annularis (Ellis and Solander), Storr, Geol. Soc.
Amer., Special Papers, No. 79, pp. 18, 19, 23, 45, 46, 59, 72, 80.







BUREAU OF GEOLOGY


1966. Montastrea annularis (Ellis and Solander), Goreau and Hartman,
Science, vol. 151, No. 3708, p. 343, fig. 1.
1966. Montastrea annularis (Ellis and Solander), Stanley, Amer. Assoc.
Petrol. Geol., Bull., vol. 50, No. 9, pp. 1929, 1931, 1937, 1938,
1940, 1946, pl. 1, fig. 1, text figs. 2, 3.
1967. Montastrea annularis (Ellis and Solander), Goreau and Wells, Bull.
Marine Sci., vol. 17, No. 2, p. 448.
1967. Montastrea annularis (Ellis and Solander), MacIntyre, Canadian
Jour. Earth Sci., vol. 4, No. 3, p. 467.
1968. Montastrea annularis (Ellis and Solander), Hoffmeister and
Multer, Geol. Soc. Amer., Bull., vol. 70, No. 11, pp. 1487, 1490,
1491, 1494, 1495, 1496, 1500.
1969. Montastrea annularis (Ellis and Solander), Logan, Amer. Assoc.
Petrol. Geol., Mem. 11, pp. 146, 149, pl. 10, fig. 2.
1969. Montastrea annularis (Ellis and Solander) Stoddart, Biol. Rev.,
vol. 44, No. 4, pp. 451, 458, 463, 465, 471, 473.
1970. Montastrea annularis (Ellis and Solander), Mesolella, Sealy, and
Matthews, Amer. Assoc. Petrol. Geol., Bull., vol. 54, No. 10, pp.
1904, 1906, 1907, 1909.
1970. Montastrea annularis (Ellis and Solander), Klose, in letter to
Robert O. Vernon, 30 April 1970, pp. 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7.
1971. Montastrea annularis (Ellis and Solander), Roos, Studies on the
Fauna of Curacao and other Caribbean Islands, vol. 37, No. 130,
pp. 18, 19, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 29, 30, 31, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37,
38, 39, 65-66, 94, 97, 101, figs. 4, 7, 8, 11, 26, pls. 24b, 25b.
1972. Montastrea annularis (Ellis and Solander), Liebe, Hattin, and
Dodd, Geol. Soc. Amer., Abstr. Southeastern Sect. 21st Meeting,
p. 87.
1972. Montastrea annularis (Ellis and Solander), Campos Villarroel, Soc.
Venezolana Cienc. Nat., Bol., vol. 29, pp. 548, 555, 570, pl. 7.
1972. Montastrea annularis (Ellis and Solander), Maclntyre, Amer.
Assoc. Petrol. Beol., Bull., vol. 56, no. 4, pp. 730, 731, figs. 6a, 7.

The locality of specimens FLX-8a and FLX-8b is not known, but they look
so much like Pleistocene specimens No. 7394 in the U.S. National Museum, from
Key Vaca and Knight Key in Monroe County, that they may well have been
collected in the very same area. The interior of these particular coralla is so well
revealed that they are illustrated herein and described below. The locality of
specimen TSM-4a, from the Tampa Formation is Sixmile Creek in Hillsborough
County, Florida. The specimen is so recrystalized (by calcium carbonate) that its
identity as Montastrea annularis is in doubt.
The corallum is large, massive, and tall, with a flattish to slightly convex
upper surface. The corallites are long, slender, and cylindrical, tapered at the
base, in places vermicular in appearance, the walls moderately thick. The calices






BULLETIN NO. 56


are small (3 mm to 4 mm in diameter), moderately raised above the common
coenosteum, subcircular to suboval in outline, close to one another yet always
separated, the separation 1 mm to 4 mm. There are 28 to 34 septa in four cycles,
the fourth cycle always incomplete. The primary septa are so much more
developed than the others that they impart a starry aspect to the calice. The
secondary septa are only a little larger than the tertiary, and those of the fourth
cycle the thinnest and most rudimentary of all, hardly projecting from the wall.
The larger septa are somewhat exsert, denticulate along the free margin, and
sparsely and unequally granulated on the sides, the sides also perforated here and
there. Because of imperfect preservation, the true configuration of the entire
septum cannot be ascertained, though the primary ones at least, are moderately
broad above and bear a paliform tooth below at the columella; often a tertiary
septum is inclined toward and joins a secondary septum just before the latter
unites with the columella. The columella is lax, spongy, and well developed,
produced from the inner ends of the larger septa. For each septum there is a
costa, the costae subequal and far more prominent than the septa except the
primary ones. The costae are strongly beaded and extend down the calice to join
the costae or granules of the neighboring corallite. The coenosteum at the
boundary between adjoining calices is thick and is often strewn with large
papillate granules some of which are perforate at the tip. These intercorallite
granules, as shown by their orderly alignment, represent the ones on the crest of
costae which have been isolated through corrosion of the costal matrix. The
endothecal dissepiments are delicate and about 0.5 mm apart. The exotheca is
well developed, the dissepiments lamellar and partitioning the intercostal spaces
into squarish or rectangular cells of which there are 6 or so in a vertical distance
of 10 mm.
Measurements.-Specimen FLX-8a: corallum length 78 mm, width 63 mm,
height 79 mm; average calice diameter 3.1 mm, height 1.4 mm, number of septa
34. Specimen FLX-8b: corallum length 84 mm, width 32 mm, height 115 mm.;
average calice diameter 3.8 mm, height 2.1 mm, number of septa 30. Specimen
TSM-5a: corallum height 52 mm, length 60 mm, maximum width 60 mm.
Range and distribution.-The range of Montastrea annularis (Ellis and
Solander) and of the species synonymized with it is Oligo-Miocene to Recent.
The upper Oligocene-lower Miocene and Miocene forms of Montastrea
annularis are found in the Ponce and Quebradillas Limestones of Puerto Rico.
Poorly preserved specimens of what appear to be M. annularis occur in the
lower Miocene Tampa Formation at Sixmile Creek and Davis Islands, Hills-
borough County, Florida. A silicified specimen (TLL-la), collected by Robert
Maxwell from the St. Marks Formation on a bluff above Lake Lafayette (dried),
Lafayette Plantation, 4.5 miles east of Tallahassee, Leon County, is also referred
to this species. The corallum of TLL-la is 70 mm long and 45 mm high, and
most of it has been broken away.






BUREAU OF GEOLOGY


Forms occurring in the Pliocene and Pleistocene of Quintana Roo, Mexico
have been reported by Bonet (1958).
Pleistocene localities are the following: Bahamas; Florida (Key Largo
Limestone and Miami Oolite at Dry Tortugas, Key West, Stock Island, Key Vaca,
Big Pine Key, Upper Matecumbe Key, Key Largo, and Port Everglades); St.
Eustatius; St. Kitts; Montserrat; Dominican Republic (along south coast);
Barbuda (as Cyphastrea costata Duncan); and in the Barbados at the following
elevations: 1043 ft. Hare Hill, St. Joseph Parish; 845 ft. Parris Hill, St. Joseph
Parish; 747 ft. Market Hill, St. George Parish; 720 ft. Russia Gully, St. Thomas
Parish; 707 ft. Haynesfield, St. John Parish; 480 ft. Locust Hill, St. George; 360
ft. Small Ridge, Christchurch; 300 ft. Skeens Hill, Christchurch and Codrington
Quarry, St. Michael; 80 ft. Prospect, St. James; 70 ft. Grazettes, St. Michael; 40
ft. Sandy Lane, St. James.
The living or Recent Montastrea annularis has been reported from Bermuda
to Brazil: Bermuda; Bahamas (Great Bahama Bank; Abaco Island; off Coconut
Point; east end of Hogg Island); Florida (Tortugas; Key West, Big Pine and
Newfound Harbor Keys, Ft. Taylor, Loggerhead Key; Hawk Channel; Margot
Fish Shoal; Tavernier; Virginia Key; Biscayne Bay); Cuba; Mexico (Blanquilla
Reef; Alacran Reef; Vera Cruz; Yucatan Shelf; off Progreso in about 20 ft. of
water); British Honduras (Rendezvous Cay; Turneffe; Lighthouse Reef; Glover's
Reef); Panama; Pedro Bank; Puerto Rico (La Parguera; Guanica; Ensenada;
Mayaguez); St. Lucia; St. Thomas; Guadeloupe; Dominican Republic; Barbados
(west coast); Curacao (Playa Kalki, 1.5-10 meters; Westpunt Baai, along shore;
Playa Abau, shore to 8 meters; Playa Chikitu, in shallow water with sandy
bottom; Sta. Martha Baai, 15-45 meters; Portomaribaai, shore to 8 meters;
Vaarsen Baai, shore to 8 meters; St. Michiels Baai, shore to 15 meters; Kaap
Malmeeuw, 20 meters; Piscadera Baai, 3 to 35 meters; Spaansche Water, shore to
30 meters; Klein Curacao, 4-6 meters; Caracas Baai); Bonaire (Boca Bartol, Plaja
Frans, Goto, Jan Doran, Barcadera, Lont, Hato, Klein Bonaire, Plaja Sarna, Baca,
Punt Vierkant, Blauwe Pan, Witte Pan, Oranje Pan, Lac); St. Martin (Mullet Pond
Bay, Simson Bay, Cay Bay, Little Bay, Great Bay, Point Blanche Bay, Gibbs
Bay, Babit Pond); Saba (Ladder Bay, Fort Bay, Cove Bay); St. Eustatius
(Cocoluch Bay, Jenkins Bay, Tumbledown Dick Bay, Compagnie Bay); Aruba
(Boca Arashi, Boca Catalina, Malmok, Eagle Beach, Palm Beach, Barcadera,
Mangel Altu, St. Nicolasbaai, Klein Lagoen, north of Pitch Field); Venezuela
(Puerto La Cruz; Bahia de Mochima); Brazil (Bahia de Camamu').



Montastrea ? davisina, new species P1. 20, figs. 1-3
The type (TD-3a) is the middle section of an originally tall subcerioid
corallum which has been completely silicified and considerably modified. The
corallum is blue-black and dull tan in color and consists of slender tubular
corallites, most of them erect and parallel with each other, but a few of them






BULLETIN NO. 56


vermicular. The corallites are slightly larger in diameter at the calices than
elsewhere so that along their length they are alternately a little swollen and
compressed. At fairly close but irregular intervals there is produced around the
contact of succeeding calices a wavy subtabular exothecal plate, these plates
often uniting with adjacent corallites. The average diameter of individual
corallites is 2.9 mm.
The costae, due to secondary mineralization, are unusually prominent and
nearly equal in size, their average width about 0.35 mm. The costae, or rather
their external casts are coarsely granulose or nodular, but here and there are seen
small pointed granulations along the crest, suggesting that such was the original
character. In some places where the costae are not completely veneered by the
siliceous replacement they are relatively thin and subequal.
Nowhere on the corallum are the calices sufficiently well preserved to
determine their true character, although it can be stated they are rounded-
polygonal in outline. The long diameter of the calices ranges from 2.7 mm to 3.8
mm for a median of 3.1 mm. Their height is also variable, and is estimated at 2
mm to 5 mm. The summits of the calices are distinctly nodulous, the
nodulations conterminous with the costae which extend down the full length of
the corallites; for each costa there is one septum irrespective of the size of the
septum.
The true nature of the septa also cannot be made out due to the chalcedonic
overlay. The septa seem to be arranged hexamerally and occur in three cycles,
with possibly a few in the fourth. The septa of the first two cycles are coarse and
subequal, dentate along the free margin, and granulated on their faces. Minor
septa are thickened at the calicular margin but seem to wedge out and join a
principal septum a short distance in from the wall.
The columella is not visible.
Measurements.-Type specimen (TD-3a): corallum height 51.5 mm, length
37.5 mm, width 30 mm.
Type locality.-Davis Islands, north end of Hillsborough Bay, Hillsborough
County, Florida.
Comparisons.-This species is much like the Oligo-Miocene to Recent
Montastrea annularis (Ellis and Solander) but the alteration of the Davis Island
form has been so considerable I am not sure it is the same. Superficially M.
davisina n. sp. seems to differ in having more prominent exotheca and corallites
of smaller diameter than does the Recent M. annularis.

Montastrea peninsularis, new species P1. 20, figs. 4, 5
The siliceous corallum is a ceriod plate, undulatory on the surface, with a 4
mm layer of chalcedony underneath. This fragment represents a thin surficial
slice of the original corallum which is inferred to have been relatively tall,
subconical, and massive.
The calices of the type (TB-9a) are barely above the common surface and
are obtusely rounded-polygonal in plan view, the polygons mostly pentagonal,








BUREAU OF GEOLOGY


but some hexagonal, and a few subquadrilateral. The calicular margins are
tightly united by solid consolidated walls .03 to .06 mm in thickness, upon
the summits of which the septo-costal ends are strongly developed. The long
diameter of the adult calices ranges from 3.1 mm to 4.4 mm, and the average
depth to the columella is about 3 mm.
All of the septa are normally thin and laminar, and there are 22 to 26 of
them in three complete or nearly complete cycles, with a few inserted in the
fourth cycle. Only the 12 principal septa reach the columella, and these seem
to bear paliform tubercles around it. Deep within the calice the septa of the
first two cycles converge and unite at the base of the columella. Third-cycle
septa, although about the same in thickness as the others are shorter, and in
many places are seen to unite with the principals about half way to the
columella. The septa are not exsert but at the summit of the calices each
septum is conterminous with a costa forming slightly elongated costulations of
nearly equal thickness (0.2 mm). The true configuration of the septa cannot
be made out although it can be seen they are serrate or denticulate along the
margin and granulose on the sides. The costae or costulations on the calicular
margins generally terminate at the wall, but in some instances the costulations
of adjacent calices are confluent with each other. The coenosteum at the
corners of the calices is dense, and under a magnification of 60X appears
granular.
The columella, formed from the innermost ends of the principal septa, is
distinct and lax; in deeper calices, however, it is raised into a substyliform
twist.
Measurements.-Holotype (TB-9a): corallum length 73 mm, maximum
width 53 mm, thickness, including chalcedonic underlay, 7 mm to 9 mm.
Locality.-Ballast Point, west side of Hillsborough Bay, Hillsborough
County, Florida.
Comparison.-This species is reminiscent, so far as the surface is concerned,
of Montastrea annularis (Ellis and Solander) which ranges from upper
Oligocene to Recent. Among other differences, the calices of Montastrea
peninsularis n. sp. are larger than they are on M. annularis and rounded-
polygonal rather than subcircular.



Montastrea tampaensis (Vaughan) P1. 20, fig. 6; pl. 21, fig. 1
1915. Orbicella cavernosa var. tampaensis Vaughan, nomen nudum, in
Dall, U.S. Nat. Mus., Bull. 90, p. 18.
1919. Orbicella tampaensis Vaughan, U.S. Nat. Mus., Bull. 103, No. 9,
pp. 211, 230, 231, 362, 364, 390-392, 395, 513, pl. 95, figs. 1,
2, 2a, 3a.
1925. Orbicella tampaensis Vaughan, Felix, Fossilium Catalogus I:
Animalia, pars 28, p. 70.






BULLETIN NO. 56


1929. Orbicella tampaensis Vaughan, Coryell and Ohisen, New York
Acad. Sci., Scientific Survey of Porto Rico and the Virgin Islands,
vol. 3, pt. 3, pp. 168, 197, 198, pl. 30, fig. 1.
The types of this species, Nos. 324900 and 324901 from Ballast Point,
have been examined in the U.S. National Museum. Our single corroded
specimen, TD-la, from Davis Islands in Hillsborough Bay about 2.5 miles
northeast of Ballast Point, agrees with the types in all essential particulars.
The corallum of TD-la is relatively small, head-shaped, and subplocoid,
the corallites elevated in varying degree above the common surface. The
calices are circular to suboval, 5.5 mm (with 25 septa) to 8 mm (with 42
septa) in diameter, and a height of 2 to 8 mm. A typical mature calice is 7
mm in diameter and 7 mm in height, with 42 septa in four cycles, and 21
nearly equal costae conterminous with the 21 principal septa of the first three
cycles. The costae are high and triangular, with deep narrow interspaces, with
prominent pointed granules along the crest, and with small papillae on the
sides. There are half as many principal costae as there are principal septa, the
former nearly all the same in size. A minor costa may be represented here and
there by a faint intercalary between the major ones but generally they are
represented by a faint nodulation at the calicular margin.
The walls are stout and sturdy, with an average thickness of 0.4 mm. There
are four cycles of septa, the fourth cycle not quite complete. The primary and
secondary septa are nearly equal in size, decidedly exsert (as much as 0.6 to
0.7 mm above the calicular margin which is everywhere worn down), and
extend to the columella. Third-cycle septa are slightly smaller than the
secondaries, and in places a tertiary septum joins a secondary septum just
before the columella. Fourth-cycle septa are small and thin and project in a
short distance from the wall. All of the septa are wedge-shaped, that is thicker
at the wall than within, serrate or denticulate along the free margins, and
papillate on the sides, the papillae not crowded. On several primary septa
where the trabeculae can be observed they are thin but well developed, rather
far apart, and faintly nodular along their course. Vaughan (1919, p. 390)
stated that there are paliform teeth on the inner ends of the primary septa,
but these cannot be seen clearly on specimen TD-la.
The columella is a lax tangle formed from the inner ends of the principal
septa.
Measurements.-Specimen TD-la: corallum length 40 mm, width 33 mm,
height 25 mm. Specimen TSM-la: corallum length 155 mm, width 116 mm,
height 83 mm.
Localities.-Davis Islands in Hillsborough Bay, Hillsborough County, Flori-
da. Also Ballast Point and Sixmile Creek, and Puerto Rico.
Formations and age.-The Ballast Point, Davis Islands, and Sixmile Creek
specimens of Montastrea tampaensis (Vaughan) are early Miocene in age. In
Puerto Rico, the species occurs in the San Sebastian and Lare Formations
(Oligocene) and the Ponce Formation of late Oligocene or early Miocene age.







BUREAU OF GEOLOGY


Comparison.-Montastrea tampaensis closely resembles Montastrea costata
(Duncan) from the Oligocene and lower Miocene of the circum-caribbean area.
In M. costata, however, the costae are highly developed and alternate in size
except at the calicular margin, whereas the costae of M. tampaensis, which are
also highly developed, are all nearly equal in size except for occasional minor
interstitials.


Montastrea cf. M. tampaensis silecensis (Vaughan) P1. 22, figs. 1, 2; pl. 23, fig. 1
1915. Orbicella cavernosa var. silecensis Vaughan, nomen nudum, in
Dall, U.S. Nat. Mus., Bull. 90, p. 18.
1919. Orbicella tampaensis var. silecensis Vaughan, U.S. Nat. Mus., Bull.
103, No. 9, pp. 211, 230, 231, 362, 364, 390, 391, 513, pl. 96.
1925. Orbicella tampaensis var. silecensis Vaughan, Felix, Fossilium
Catalogus I: Animalia, pars 28, p. 70.
The original description by Vaughan in 1919 was the following:
"Corallum oblong, irregularly convex above; type about 16 cm.
long, 11 cm. wide, and 9.5 cm. high.
Calices slightly elevated, the corallites somewhat swollen below
the calicular edges. Diameter, 8.5 to 9.5 mm. Costae prominent;
those corresponding to the primary and secondary septa subequal;
tertiaries subequal to those of the lower cycles or smaller;-fourth
cycle small but usually recognizable.
Septa in four cycles, usually differentiated in size according to
cycle; primaries and secondaries and occasionally some tertiaries
reach the columella. Margins of primaries, secondaries, and tertiaries
exsert, up to as much as 1.5 mm., usually about 1 mm.; those of the
quaternaries obvious but not prominent.
Columella rather well developed.
Locality and geologic occurrence.-The 'silex' bed of the Tampa
formation, Tampa, Florida.
Type.-Wagner Free Institute of Science, Philadelphia.
Paratype.-No. 324896, U.S.N.M.
This variety, which intergrades with the typical form of the
species, is especially distinguished by its less prominent calices and
the better developed last (quaternary) cycle of costae."
The Florida State University specimen TB-4a, here referred to Montastrea
tampaensis silecensis (Vaughan), is also from the Tampa "silex bed" at Ballast
Point, but due to silicification and corrosion is not so well preserved as
Vaughan's paratype No. 324896 in the U.S. National Museum.
The corallum of TB-4a is massive, subcerioid, and more or less head shaped.
The corallites are subcylindrical, expanding gradually in upward growth. The
calices are uniformly slightly elevated above the common surface; they are
subcircular to oval in outline, and vary from 7 mm to 10 mm in diameter, with






BULLETIN NO. 56


36 to perhaps 46 septa in four cycles. The average adult calice is 7 mm in
diameter and bears about 40 septa. The arrangement of the septa and costae are
as described by Vaughan. All of the septa seem to be denticulate along the
margins, and the larger ones, at least, are papillate on the faces. Each septum is
conterminous with a costa, and the costae generally correspond in size, with the
larger ones granulose on the crest. The endotheca is laminar and sturdy, and
there are about 6 dissepiments in a columnar length of 5 mm. The columella is
formed from the inner ends of the principal septa.
Measurements.-Specimen TB-4a: corallum length 90 mm, width 59 mm,
height 47 mm. Specimen TD-5a: corallum length 130 mm, width 71 mm,
height 85 mm. Specimen TH-2a: corallum fragment length 41 mm, width 26
mm, height 17 mm.; calices 9 mm to 10 mm in greater diameter. Specimens
TD-5a and TH-2a are not illustrated in this report.
Localities.-Ballast Point, Davis Islands, and Honeymoon Island, Pinellas
County. The last (TH-2a) is a completely silicified "chalk" collected from
dredgings in the St. Marks Formation by Forrest D. Cring.


Incertae sedis "b" P1. 24, figs. 1-3
The single specimen (TSM-1Oa) is a whitish, completely calcareous corallite
presumed to have been isolated from a hermatypic corallum which has not been
identified. The corallite is short-cylindrical, subcircular or suboval in cross
section, and is veneered here and there by a thin thecal covering on which the
costae are very faintly reflected; beneath the veneer, however, the prolongations
of the septa, or the septo-costae, are strongly developed. The height of the
corallite is 8.6 mm, the diameter at the base 7.2 mm x 6.2 mm, and the diameter
of the calice 5.6 mm x 5.3 mm.
The calice is subcircular and bears 68 septa in five cycles. The septa seem to
have been a little exsert, are nearly equal in size, dentate on the margins, and
granulate on the faces. The septa are prolonged down the side of the corallite
into nearly equal septo-costae and these are also granulose on the crest. The
endothecal dissepiments are small, partitioning the septo-costae into narrow
rectangular cells about .028 mm in length and .012 mm in width.
The columella area has been dissolved away into a hole but there is some
suggestion that the inner ends of the septa were papillate.
Locality.-Lower part of the Tampa section excavated in Sixmile Creek,
south of Orient Park, Hillsborough County, Florida.
Remarks.-As in many of the Sixmile Creek corals collected by Joseph E.
Banks, specimen TSM-10a has been replaced, or has undergone reprecipitation
by calcium carbonate, and is not a true pseudomorph.

Antiguastrea cellulosa (Duncan), s. 1. P1. 22, fig. 3; pl. 24, fig. 4
1863. Astraea cellulosa Duncan, Geol. Soc. London, Quart. Jour., vol.
19, pp. 417, 418, pl. 13, fig. 10.







BUREAU OF GEOLOGY


1863. Isastraea turbinata Duncan, Geol. Soc. London, Quart. Jour., vol.
19, p. 423, pl. 14, figs. la-lc. [Fide Vaughan, 1919, pp. 404,
406.]
1863. Isastraea turbinata Duncan, Geol. Soc. London, Quart. Jour., vol.
20 (1864), p. 43.
1866. Heliastraea cellulosa (Duncan), Duchassaing and Michelotti, R.
Accad. Sci. Torino, Mem., ser. 2, vol. 23, p. 180.
1866. Isastraea turbinata Duncan, Duchassaing and Michelotti, R.
Accad. Sci. Torino, Mem., ser. 2, vol. 23, p. 183.
1867. Heliastraea cellulosa (Duncan), Geol. Soc. London, Quart. Jour.,
vol. 24 (1868), p. 24.
1867. Isastraea turbinata Duncan, Geol. Soc. London, Quart. Jour., vol.
24 (1868), p. 25.
1870. Heliastraea cellulosa (Duncan), Duchassaing, Revue des Zoo-
phytes et des Spongiaires des Antilles, p. 30.
1870. Isastraea turbinata Duncan, Duchassaing, Revue des Zoophytes et
des Spongiaires des Antilles, p. 31.
1915. Orbicella cellulosa (Duncan), Vaughan, Carnegie Inst. Washing-
ton, Yearbook for 1914, No. 13, p. 360.
1915. Orbicella cellulosa (Duncan), Vaughan, in Dall, U.S. Nat. Mus.,
Bull. 90, p. 18.
1919. Antiguastrea cellulosa (Duncan), Vaughan, U.S. Nat. Mus., Bull.,
vol. 103, No. 9, pp. 199, 200, 204-207, 210, 230, 402-408, 409,
410, 415, 419, 468, 513, 514, pl. 98, figs. 3-4a; pl. 99 figs. 1-3a;
pl. 100, figs. 1-4a; pl. 101, figs. 2, 2a.
1921. Antiguastrea cellulosa (Duncan), Vaughan and Woodring, Geol.
Sur. Dominican Republic, Mem., vol. 1, pp. 108, 109.
1924. Antiguastrea cellulosa ? (Duncan), Woodring and Brown, Geol.
Sur. Republic of Haiti, p. 150.
1925. Antiguastrea cellulosa (Duncan), Felix, Fossilium Catalogus I:
Animalia, pars 28, pp. 73, 74.
1929. Antiguastrea cellulosa (Duncan), Coryell and Ohlsen, New York
Acad. Sci., Scientific Survey of Porto Rico and the Virgin
Islands, vol. 3, pt. 3, pp. 167, 172, 192, 193, pl. 28, fig. 1.
1943. Antiguastrea cellulosa (Duncan), Vaughan and Wells, Geol. Soc.
Amer., Spec. Pap., No. 44, p. 173, pl. 29, fig. 8.
1949. Antiguastrea cellulosa (Duncan), Shimer and Shrock, Index
Fossils of North America, p. 119, pl. 44, figs. 1, 2.
1956. Antiguastrea cellulosa (Duncan), Wells, Treatise on Invertebrate
Paleontology, Pt. (F), Coelenterata, p. F405, fig. 303, 3.
1962. Antiguastrea cellulosa (Duncan), Moore and Gordon, Bull. Marine
Sci. Gulf and Caribbean, vol. 12, No. 1, p. 69.







BULLETIN NO. 56


Following is the description of specimen 324941 in the U.S. National
Museum labeled Antiguastrea cellulosa (Duncan), 4999, in Dr. Vaughan's
handwriting. This specimen, collected at Ballast Point, is a poor one having been
replaced by "silex" which has considerably altered the original calcareous
skeleton.
The subcerioid corallum is a large fragment from what seems to have been a
more or less conical coral. The corallites are crowded but distinct, elongated,
subcylindrical, and slender. The transverse section of the corallites is generally
circular and at fairly close but irregular intervals they are girdled by exotheca,
the exotheca thickened and highly developed. The endothecal dissepiments are
also prominent.
The calices are subcircular to subelliptical in outline, rather deep and
funnel-shaped, and a little separated one from the other. Their greater diameter
varies from 2 mm to 4 mm, and the depth is about 2 mm. The wall appears to be
stout. There are four cycles of septa: the primary septa are the largest, the
secondary nearly as large, the tertiary considerably smaller than the principals,
and the quaternary ones the smallest and most rudimentary. The principal septa,
at least, are dentate along the free margin and finely but sparsely granulose on
the sides. The primary septa reach the columella; the secondary septa are joined
by the tertiaries probably just before the columella, and the tertiaries themselves
joined by the quaternaries a short distance in from the wall as in Antiguastrea
cellulosa curvata (Duncan).
The costae are conterminous with the septa and together produce a
moderately costulate calicular margin. The costae, because of secondary
mineralization, appear very thick, granulose, and subequal, but in places it is
seen that normally the costae are thin and subequal and bear small pointed
granulations along the crest.
The columella is a small wrinkled lamina.
Measurements.-Specimen 324941 (4999) U.S. National Museum: height 86
mm, length 80.5 mm, maximum width 55 mm.
Locality.-Ballast Point.
Comparison.-As indicated by Vaughan (1919, pp. 402-408, pls. 98-101),
Antiguastrea cellulosa (Duncan) is such a variable species, that his specimen
324941 from the Tampa Formation of Florida seems to fit the diagnosis given
for it. However, positive identification of the Ballast Point example is hindered
by the modification suffered in the replacement of the original aragonite
skeleton by silex.
Range and distribution.-The geologic range given for Antiguastrea cellulosa
(Duncan) is middle Oligocene to Pliocene. In the literature, middle Oligocene
occurrences are cited for the Byram Marl of Mississippi, U.S.A., the San Rafael
Formation of Mexico, the Juana Diaz Formation of Puerto Rico, the
Arrondissement of Grand-Riviere in Haiti, and the Antigua Formation of
Antigua. Upper Oligocene deposits in which Antiguastrea cellulosa has been
reported are in Puerto Rico (Lares Formation and San Sebastian Shale) and in








BUREAU OF GEOLOGY


Aruba (Serro Colorado ?). Oligo-Miocene localities are in Puerto Rico in the
Ponce Formation. Lower Miocene occurrences are reported in Georgia (Chatta-
hoochee Formation) and Florida (Tampa Formation), U.S.A., in Cuba, in Puerto
Rico (Los Puertos Limestone), and in Anguilla (the Anguilla Formation). Upper
Miocene localities are listed for the Dominican Republic in Rio Yaque del Norte.
And, in the northwest corner of Broward County, Florida, the presence of
Antiguastrea cellulosa was reported by Moore and Gunter (1962) in a spoil bank
consisting of "Caloosahatchee" sediment dredged from a canal. The probable age
of the Caloosahatchee was given as Pliocene.


Cyphastrea tampae, new species P1. 25, figs. 1-3
Cyphastrea tampae Vaughan, nomen nudum in Dall, U.S. Nat. Museum, Bull.
90, p. 18.
The following description pertains to a specimen in the U.S. National
Museum labeled "Cyphastrea tampae Vaughan, Ballast Point" in Vaughan's
handwriting. There is no acquisition number on the specimen. Like many other
fossils from Ballast Point silicification has obliterated certain details of the
original skeleton and has altered others.
The corallum is a fragment of an originally large conical and plocoid coral,
and has a flattish undulatory surface. The corallites are slightly separated,
columnar, subcircular in cross section, and girdled by numerous thick, wavy,
exothecal laminae of which there are 5 or so in 5 mm of length. These projecting
exothecal fringes are united to adjacent corallites. The costae on the walls of the
corallites and the costulations on the exotheca are prominent and nearly equal in
size, with a width of about 0.3 mm. The costae are coarsely nodulous but I think
that both the thickness and coarseness of the costae is due to secondary
silicification and that normally the costae are relatively thin and finely dentate
along the crest.
The calices are slightly raised, shallow, subcircular to suboval in outline, and
3.1 to 3.3 mm in their greater diameter. The calicular margins may abut one
another but are generally a little separated, and the coeonosteum between them
is dense and sparsely cellular. The summits of the calices are costulate by virtue
of the thickening there of the septa, but the costae, if present at all on the
calices of the corallum surface, do not descend down the sides on to the
intercalicular coenosteum. Below the surface, however, there are costae on the
corallites and costulations on the projecting exotheca.
All of the septa are thickened at the wall where they are a little exsert, and
occur in three cycles. The septa within are laminar, those of the first cycle the
largest, the secondaries nearly as large, and the tertiaries the smallest. The
principal septa reach the columella, with a secondary often uniting with a
primary at the columella. The tertiary septa extend part way down the wall and
project a little from it. So far as can be ascertained, the margins of the septa are
denticulate and the faces granulose. On some septa the marginal dentations are





BULLETIN NO. 56


larger near the columella and form pali around it. The columella itself is a small
spongy tangle; in some calices it intercepts a directive lamina.
Measurements.-Unnumbered specimen USNM: corallum length 49.5 mm,
width 28 mm, height 27 mm.
Locality.-Ballast Point, west side of Hillsborough Bay, Hillsborough County,
Florida.
Remarks.-The referral of this taxon to Cyphastrea rather than to Montastrea
is based on the absence of costae on the calices and on the coenosteum between
them. Typically, the surface of the peritheca of Cyphastrea is spinose, but this is
mostly covered on the USNM corallum.


Galaxea excelsa, new species P1. 25, figs. 4-6; pl. 26, figs. 1-3;
pl. 27, figs. 1-8; pl. 31, fig. 1
1915. Galaxea excelsa Vaughan, nomen nudum, in Dall, U.S. Nat. Mus.,
Bull. 90, p. 18.
Numerous chalcedonized specimens in the Florida State University collection
from Ballast Point, Florida are identical with chalcedonized specimens labeled
Galaxea excelsa Vaughan in the U.S. National Museum from locality 2115 which
is also Ballast Point. Galaxea excelsa was the name given by Vaughan in his
unpublished manuscript which I have not seen; to retain that name the following
description based on examples in the FSU collection is given.
The colony consists of an aggregate of sturdy columnar corallites growing
upward. Individual corallites are long and cylindrical to cornute, oval in cross
section, united basally by the coenosteum and laterally by the peritheca. A
number of the mature corallites have a bud or two growing out of the sides of
the parent, the buds angled upward, some of them narrowed at the base and
forming the cornute adult. The walls are moderately stout and costate, the
costae relatively thin and rather faintly spinose or granulose along the crest. The
costae are subequal at the calicular margin but only those conterminous with the
principal septa continue down the sides of the corallite toward the base; costae
conterminous with minor septa are restricted to the upper reaches of the
corallite. Where preservation is intact as on the designated holotype TB-3a there
is a pronounced reticulate pattern on the outer surface of the corallite, the
reticulation produced by sharp, projecting, undulatory laminae crossing the
costae. On TB-3a there are about four such exothecal dissepiments in two
millimeters of length on a corallite 30 mm in length.
The calices are ovate and moderately deep, varying from 1.5 mm to 14 mm in
greater diameter. The number of septa depends generally on the size and
maturity of the calice; there are 42 septa in a calice measuring 5.5 mm in long
diameter, about 34 of them in another calice 8 mm in length, and about 70 of
them in a calice whose long diameter is 14 mm; however, in one calice of 13.5
mm some 86 septa in five cycles were counted. The larger septa are exsert rising a
little above the calicular margin. The primary and secondary septa are well








BUREAU OF GEOLOGY


developed and subequal, the former slightly the larger, both lamelliform and
reaching the very small columellar area. Third-cycle septa are somewhat smaller
than the secondaries and thereafter there is a successive diminution in size
according to the order of insertion, the last or fifth-cycle septa being the most
rudimentary. The principal septa are broad above, the margin excavated to form
a lobe or two before the center of the calice. The margins of the septa are
serrated into small, fine, and closely spaced dentations. The faces of the septa
are comparatively smooth but are made up of simple, widely spaced trabeculae
with fine granules along their course and slightly larger ones scattered between
them.
There is no columella as such but there is a wrinkling or bending of the ends
of some of the primary septa in the center of the fossa.
Measurements.-Designated holotype (TB-3a): corallum (fragment) height
57 mm, width 22 mm, thickness 17 mm; longest corallite 30 mm; largest calice
5.5 mm x 4.0 mm; number of septa 42. Paratype (TB-3b): corallite height 31.5
mm, breadth 14 mm, width 9 mm; maximum diameter of calice 13.5 mm,
number of septa 86. Paratype (TB-3c): cornute corallite, height 29 mm,
breadth 14 mm, width 12 mm; maximum diameter of calice 14 mm, number of
septa 70. Paratype (TB-3d): cornute corallite with buds, height 46.5 mm,
breadth 12 mm, width 9 mm; maximum diameter of calice 12 mm, number of
septa 72; length of buds 5 mm and 7 mm, diameters of calices 3.5 mm and 3.0
mm, respectively. Paratype (TB-3e): corallum (consisting of several fused and
broken corallites not in normal growth position) height 69 mm, breadth 45 mm,
width 20 mm; the longest corallite is 62 mm in height with diameters of 14
mm x 11 mm above and 12 mm x 10 mm below.
Locality.-Ballast Point, west side of Hillsborough Bay, Hillsborough County,
Florida.
Formation and age.-Tampa. Lower Miocene.
Remarks.-Galaxea ia an uncommon taxon, and so far as I am aware Galaxea
excelsa is the only fossil species of the genus reported in North America. This
multiseptate form is quite unlike any other I have seen. Geographically, the
nearest occurrence of any other Galaxea is the Recent Galaxea ebumea Pourtales
(1871, p. 29, pl. 3, figs. 6, 7) from off Habana, Cuba. That, however, is smaller
than G. excelsa, has only three cycles of septa, a dodecagonal calice, and no
costae conterminous with the third-cycle septa.



Antillia ? willcoxi (Dana) ?
1918. Antillia ? willcoxi (Dana), Vaughan, in Dall, U.S. National Mus.,
Bull. 90, p. 18.
Of the 17 species listed by Vaughan in the above citation, this is the only one
I have been unable to track down. Might it not refer to Desmophyllum willcoxi
Gane, of 1895 and 1900?







BULLETIN NO. 56


Desmophyllum willcoxi Gane P1. 29, fig. 3;pl. 30, figs. 1, 2; pl. 31, fig. 2
1895. Desmophyllum willcoxi Gane, Johns Hopkins Univ. Circ., vol. 15.
No. 12, p. 9.
1900. Desmophyllum willcoxi Gane, U.S. Nat. Mus., Proc., vol. 22, No.
1193, p. 184, pl. 15, figs. 1-3.
1915. ? Antillia ? willcoxi (Dana), Vaughan, in Dall, U.S. Nat. Mus.,
Bull. 90, p. 18.
1925. Desmophyllum willcoxi Gane, Felix, Fossilium Catalogus I:
Animalia, pars 28, p. 179.
Gane's 1900 description was as follows:
"Corallum quite variable in shape, more or less compressed,
conical, attached at base by a moderately long pedicle, which may
be either broad or narrow. Surface of the wall and costal ridges
smooth, at times showing the development of an epitheca. Costae
well developed, corresponding to all septa, more prominent near the
calicular margin, margins not acute, some granulations over the
surface. The summits of the calice in the shorter diameter are higher
than in the longer. The margin of the calice is irregularly dentate.
The interior of the wall coarsely pitted here and there between the
septa. There are six systems of septa with four well-developed cycles,
and a fifth rudimentary. The septa are exsert, rather stout, thicker
near the wall and in the vicinity of the base of the calicular fossa;
they are generally straight but often curved, with granulated sides,
and the surface often shows quite distinct striations. In well-
preserved specimens the fossa is deep and narrow, and the free
margins of the septa at the base of the fossa often form by means of
small rod-like projections a sort of columella as in Flabellum.
Such a pseudocolumella similar to that found in the present
species is described by Mr. H. N. Mosely in his report on the 'Deep
Sea Madreporaria' as occurring in the Desmophyllum ingens from
the fjords of western Patagonia.
This species is respectfully dedicated to Mr. Joseph Willcox, of
Philadelphia.
Dimensions.-The dimensions of the largest specimen are: Height
28 mm.; greatest length and least width of calice, respectively, 32
and 25 mm. The calices of the majority of the specimens are,
however, more compressed than in this one.
Geological horizon.-Upper Oligocene.
Locality.-Ballast Point, Tampa Bay, Florida.
Collections.-Wagner Free Institute of Science, and in the private
cabinet of Mr. Joseph Willcox, of Philadelphia."
The single specimen in the Florida State University collection is an
excellent pseudomorph from the type locality of Ballast Point on the west
side of Hillsborough Bay. The sides of the corallum are compressed to form a







BUREAU OF GEOLOGY


gentle figure eight, and one end is a little broader than the other. There are
64 septa in five cycles, the fifth cycle incomplete. The septa of the first four
cycles are exsert, high, and large, their size decreasing slightly in the order of
their insertion, with the primary ones the largest, the secondaries slightly
smaller, and so on. The fifth-cycle septa are rudimentary and extend part way
down the wall. The principal septa are lobate above, descend steeply to about
two-thirds the distance to the columella where they form a lower lobe, the
margin of which descends vertically to the columella. The margins of the
principal septa are finely and closely denticulate, and the sides minutely
granulate, the granulations aligned in radial rows.
There is one well developed costa for each septum. The costae correspond-
ing with the septa of the first four cycles are elevated, nearly all of the same
size, and extend down the sides of the corallum to the pedicel; the costae
corresponding to the fifth-cycle septa are also prominent but are confined to
the margin of the calice. On our specimen TB-la the costae and interspaces
are smooth on the upper half of the corallum but lower down the surface is
coarsely granular; it is not known, however, whether the granulation is
inherent or was produced by the film of matter adherent to that part of the
surface. Nevertheless, even near the calicular margin, the crests of a few of the
costae are faintly nodulous.
The columella is small, oval and deep; it is a loose tangle of a few
vermiform rods produced from the inner ends of the longest septa.
Measurements.-Specimen TB-la: Corallum length 31 mm, width at middle
of sides 20 mm, width at larger end 22.5 mm, width at smaller end 18 mm,
height 22 mm, depth of columella 16.5 mm.
Locality.-Ballast Point, west side of Hillsborough Bay, Hillsborough
County.
Formation and Age.-Tampa Limestone. Lower Miocene.
Remarks.-Seventeen species of corals were listed by Vaughan (in Dall,
1915, p. 18) from the "silex bed" of the Tampa Formation, and it is just
possible that one of those-Antillia ? willcoxi (Dana)-is the same as the
Desmophyllum willcoxi of Gane. However, as Vaughan did not describe
Antillia ? willcoxi, it is in effect a nomen nudum, and was, in any event,
named later (in 1915) than the Desmophyllum willcoxi of Gane (1895, 1900)
with which our specimen is identical.


Incertae sedis "a" P1. 31, fig. 3; pl. 32, fig. 1; pl. 35, fig. 2
The taxon is an internal cast of the calice of a solitary, broadly conical,
and somewhat compressed coral in which the septa are represented by slits,
and the mesentarial spaces between the septa by thin plates of calcium
carbonate. There are five cycles of septa, the largest of which reach the
columella. All of the septa are inferred to have been a little exsert and, to
judge from the punctations on the interseptal fillings, to have been granulated







BULLETIN NO. 56


on their faces, with the granulations aligned in radial columns. The columella
is a little elongated, narrowly elliptical, and spongy.
Measurements.-Specimen TSM-6a: corallum length (unreconstructed) 30
mm, height 16 mm.; width of calice (estimated) 22 mm.
Locality.-Sixmile Creek, east of Tampa at Orient, Hillsborough County,
Florida.
Remarks.-There is some possibility that this cast represents Desmophyllum
willcoxi Gane which occurs in the Tampa Formation at Ballast Point,
southwest of Tampa. The skeleton of D. willcoxi at Ballast Point is a
completely silicified pseudomorph; the form from Sixmile Creek is completely
calcareous.

Flabellum, sp. indet. P1. 32, fig. 2
The taxon is an imprint or external cast, in a granular limestone, of a
solitary, flabellate, and probably pedicellate corallum, the ends of which
diverge at an angle of at least 120 degrees. The septa are laminar, some of
them occurring as slits or very narrow fillings in the cast, the minor ones
obscured. The costae (and septa) vary in size according to the order of
insertion, but the primaries are by far the most prominent. The costae and the
calcareous filling between the septa are coarse. From keel to keel there are
five full cycles of septa and part of the sixth. The sides of the septa are
granulate and the costae are tuberculate. The corallum is marked by fine
impressed growth lines which cross the radii in perfect arcs. The epitheca was
probably thin.
Measurements.-TSM-8a: Corallum height (unreconstructed) 36 mm, width
35 mm. Only one specimen.
Locality.-Sixmile Creek, Hillsborough County, Florida.
Remarks.-The genus Flabellum, so well represented in the Paleogene of the
Gulf Coast, is rare in the Miocene of eastern United States, and so far as I am
aware is not living today in Western Atlantic or Gulf of Mexico waters. The
only other early Miocene Flabellum I know of is Flabellum chipolanum
Weisbord (1971, pp. 3, 41, 42, pl. 9, fig. 4-9) from the Chipola Formation of
Florida, and the Sixmile Creek form is quite distinct from that.

Endopachys tampae [Vaughan]
Endopachys tampae Vaughan, nomen nudum, U.S. Nat. Mus., Bull. 90, p.
18.
This species, which is yet to be officially recognized, is being studied by
Dr. John W. Wells of Cornell University. Wells has written me that he has in
his possession some of Vaughan's own notes on this new and curious species
of Endopachys and that he has photographed the few extant specimens in the
United States National Musuem.
Locality.-Silex bed of the Tampa Formation, i.e. Ballast Point.






BUREAU OF GEOLOGY


Syzygophyllia tampae, new species P1. 28, figs. 1-3; pl. 29, fig. 1
1915. Syzygophyllia ? tampae Vaughan, nomen nudum, in Dall, U.S.
Nat. Mus., Bull. 90, p. 18.
The following description pertains to the unnumbered specimen labeled by
Vaughan as "Type, U.S. Geol. Survey, Miocene, Tampa silex bed, Florida."
The corallum is solitary, very low, subpatellate, with a basal angle of about
120 degrees. There is an expanded pedicel located off center and a large,
shallow, subcircular calice whose margin is undulatory and not entirely in the
same plane. The short underside of the calice is shallowly concave beneath the
rim but bulges out at the pedicel which, judging from its flared out base, gives
evidence of having been attached.
On the type there are about 96 septa in five complete cycles. The septa of
the first two cycles are the largest and are subequal; the septa of the third and
fourth cycles are also nearly equal but a little smaller than the primaries and
secondaries. The principal septa reach the columella but pairs of the fourth
cycle join the single ones of the third cycle just before the columella. All of
the septa are thin but the 48 septa of the fifth cycle are the thinnest and
project least from the wall. the sides of the septa are spinulose and the
margins are strongly serrate or denticulate.
Because of breakage it is difficult to reconstruct the true configuration of
the septa. However, it may be observed that the septa are a little higher and
somewhat more even from the wall to about half the distance to the
columella than they are nearer the columella where they are slightly lower but
more deeply excavated. Overall the margins incline gradually to the columella
at the edge of which they are nearly vertical, producing a deep, steep-sided
fossa in which the columella is submerged. The septal margins at and near the
wall are coarsely denticulate but then develop into lobes with rather even
summits; farther in the margin is so strongly serrated as to form two sharp
triangular teeth at the periphery of the fossa.
Each septum is conterminous with a costa. Unlike the septa which vary in
prominence according to the order of their insertion, the costae are mostly
the same in size although here and there a larger one alternates with a smaller.
The costae are coarsely spinulose near the calicular margin but become
denticulate or tuberculate below.
The columella is very small, deeply immersed, and more or less oval in
outline. It is crinkled and spongy, and appears to be composed of the fused
inner ends of the septa.
Most of the underside of the corallum is evenly coated by epitheca which
does not quite reach the calicular margin.
Measurements.-Height of corallum 15 mm; diameters of calice 24.5
mm x 22.5 mm; diameters of pedicel at its base 7 mm x 6 mm.
Locality.-Ballast Point.
Comments.-This species is characterized by its very short corallum but
large calice, by its small but deep fossa, and by the intricate serration of the






BULLETIN NO. 56


septal margins. The calice of Syzygophyllia tampae somewhat resembles that
of S. gregorii (Vaughan) (1901, p. 6; 1932, pp. 507, 508) from the Bowden
Marl of Jamaica, but among important differences in the corallum, the
serrations of the septal margin within the calice are far more uniform than in
S. tampae.

Anthemiphyllia ?, sp. indet. P1. 29, fig. 2
Only the exterior is visible and this indicates that the ahermatypic corallum
is patellate and pedicellate, and that the calice is subcircular in outline. The
pedicel is short, dense, subrectangular, and nearly centrally located on the
base.
There are about 56 costae, and presumably the same number of septa, in
four complete cycles, with a few in the fifth. The costae are strong, nearly
equal in size, the larger ones extending to the pedicel, most of the intercalated
ones nearly as long but wedging out toward their basal termini. The costae are
badly weathered but appear to have been sharply tuberculate, the tubercula-
tions formed perhaps by the close concentric growth lines which are seen here
and there. The interior of the calice is completely filled with granular
limestone so that neither the septa nor the columella are visible. The epitheca
was probably rudimentary.
Measurements.-Specimen TSM-7a: height of corallum including pedicel 5
mm.; maximum diameter of calice 11.5 mm.; diameters of pedicel 2.5
mm x 1. mm.
Locality.-Sixmile Creek, Hillsborough County, Florida. Lower part of the
Tampa section excavated in the Orient Park area.
Remarks.-With the interior of the calice inaccessible, the generic deter-
mination of this taxon as Anthemiphyllia Pourtalds (type Anthemiphyllia
patera Pourtalds 1878, p. 205, pl. 1, figs. 14, 15; Recent, off Havana, Cuba,
292 fathoms) is, of course, conjectural and is based solely on the
saucer-shaped or patellate corallum and on the character of the costae.


Antillocyathus ?, sp. indet. P1. 7, fig. 6
This solitary coral is described from a specimen in the U.S. National
Museum labeled USGS 2115, the base of which is attached to and confluent
with the base of Alveopora tampae, n. sp. described on pages 37, 38 of this
paper. The sides of the solitary coral are veneered with a heavy epitheca and
the calice completely filled with a siliceous granular sandstone so that even
the generic determination is tentative.
The corallum is turbinate-cuneiform, and the calice suboval, with one side
slightly compressed. The principal septa are thickened and subequal, and it is
estimated that there are 28 of them in the calice which is 22 mm x 14 mm in
diameter. The principal septa are dentate on the margin and granulose on the
faces, and are much larger than the minor septa.








62 BUREAU OF GEOLOGY

Measurements.-Corallum height (unreconstructed) about 12 mm.; greater
diameter of calice 22 mm, lesser 14 mm.
Locality.-The label on USGS 2115 reads "Hillsboro Bay, Florida" and it is
conjectured that this refers to Ballast Point.
Remarks.-The determination of the taxon as Antillocyathus can only be
resolved with better material, and is included in this work for the sake of
describing all of the corals from the Tampa Formation. Superficially, the
specimen resembles Placocyathus maoensis Vaughan (in Vaughan and Hoff-
meister, 1925, pp. 317, 318, pl. 1, figs. 3-10) from the Cercado Formation
(lower Miocene) of the Dominican Republic. The genus Antillocyathus was
erected for this species by Wells in 1937 (pp. 245, 246).






























PLATES 1 35








BUREAU OF GEOLOGY


Explanation of Plate 1
Figures Pages
1-5 Stylophora cf. S. minutissima
Vaughan, Ballast Point ..... 18-20
1. Specimen TB-2a, coral-
lum branch, X 3.4
2. Same, X 6.7
3. Specimen TB-2b, coral-
lum branch, X 3.3
4. Specimen TB-2c, coral-
lum branch, X 3.2
5. Specimen TB-2e, coral-
lum branch, X 3.6







BULLETIN NO. 56


i 3
I. -"
;*


\


2


v9


65








BUREAU OF GEOLOGY


Explanation of Plate 2
Figures Pages
1-4 Stylophora silicensis, new spe-
cies. Flint River, Decatur
County, Georgia. Chattahoo-
chee Formation .......... 20-22
1. Designated type (USGS-
3381 "a"), X 3.3. Com-
pare with Stylophora cf.
S. minutissima Vaughan,
specimen TB-2d, plate 4,
figure 1
2. Paratype (USGS-3381
"b"), X 3. View of face
3. Same, X 3. View of oppo-
site face
4. Paratype (USGS-3381
"c"), X 2.7. View show-
ing character of calice,
right center












BULLETIN NO. 56


*.


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~.-.~l~~ ~9aa .


V a


67


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~~srls4








BUREAU OF GEOLOGY


Explanation of Plate 3
Figures Pages
1-3 Acropora tampaensis, new
species ................ 22, 23
1. Designated type (USNM-
4999), X 1.9. Locality
presumed to be Ballast
Point
2. Calices, X 4. Enlarged
view of upper portion of
figure 1, above
3. Paratype (TB-llb), X 3.6






BULLETIN NO. 56 69



2 1


















4,
(-7.7;.








BUREAU OF GEOLOGY


Explanation of Plate 4
Figures Pages
1 Stylophora cf. S. minutissima
Vaughan, Ballast Point . . 18-20
Specimen TB-2d, X 2.9.
Compare with Stylophora
silicensis, new species
(USGS-3381 "a"), plate
2, figure 1
2 Acropora tampaensis, new spe-
cies, Ballast Point ......... 22, 23
Paratype (TB- la), X 2.8
3 Siderastrea banksi, new spe-
cies, Sixmile Creek ........ 23, 24
Paratype (TSM-2b), X 3.
See plate 5, figure 2 for
another view of same
specimen








BULLETIN NO. 56


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BUREAU OF GEOLOGY


Explanation of Plate 5
Figures Pages
1,2 Siderastrea banksi, new spe-
cies, Sixmile Creek ........ 23, 24
1. Type (TSM-2a), X 3.8
2. Paratype (TSM-2b), X 5.
See plate 4, figure 3, for
another view of same
specimen











BULLETIN NO. 56


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BUREAU OF GEOLOGY


Explanation of Plate 6
Figures Pages
1-3 Siderastrea silecensis Vaughan.
Sixmile Creek ........... 25-28
1. Specimen TSM-13a,
X 0.38. Side view
2. Same, X 0.5. Upper sur-
face
3. Upper right half of figure
2 enlarged, X 1.3
4-6 Alveopora tampae, new spe-
cies. Sixmile Creek ........ 37, 38
4. Paratype (TSM-lla),
X 1.6. View of upper sur-
face
5. Side view, X 1.7
6. Side view of head, X 1.7.
For views of type
(USGS-2115) see plate 7,
figures 4, 5






BULLETIN NO. 56


75








BUREAU OF GEOLOGY


Explanation of Plate 7
Figures Pages
1-3 Siderastrea silecensis Vaughan.
Davis Islands ............. 25-28
1. Specimen TD-2a, natural
size. View of upper sur-
face
2. View of base, natural size
3. Calices, X 2
4,5 Alveopora tampae, new spe-
cies. Hillsborough Bay ..... 37, 38
4. Designated type (USGS-
2115), X 2. View of up-
per surface
5. View of side, X 2
6 Antillocyathus, sp. indet. Hills-
borough Bay ............ 61, 62
Designated type (USGS-
2115), X 2. View of calice.
Antillocyathus, sp. indet.
is attached to the base of
Alveopora tampae, n. sp.,
figures 4 and 5, above






BULLETIN NO. 56


2


77








BUREAU OF GEOLOGY


Explanation of Plate 8
Figures Pages
1-3 Porites floridaeprima Bernard.
Ballast Point ............ 28-30
1. Type (British Museum
(Natural History), Geology
Department R. 2343),
X 0.75. View of face
2. View of opposite face,
X 0.75
3. Enlarged view of surface
of figure 1 showing calices,
X 7. Figures 1-3 provided
through the courtesy of
the British Museum (Natu-
ral History)







BULLETIN NO. 56


79








BUREAU OF GEOLOGY


Explanation of Plate 9
Figures Pages
1,2 Porites floridaeprima Bernard
[= Porites willcoxi Vaughan,
nomen nudum] .......... 28-30
1. Paratype (USNM-3286,
smaller corallum), X 2.
Ballast Point
2. Same specimen, showing
calices on reverse side, X 2
3,4 Porites floridaeprima Bernard,
Ballast Point ............ 28-30
3. Specimen TB-10a, X 3.3,
compressed branch
4. Specimen TB-10b),
X 3.4, club shaped form








BULLETIN NO. 56


81






BUREAU OF GEOLOGY


Explanation of Plate 10
Figures Pages
1-3 Porites floridaeprima Bernard
[= Porites willcoxi Vaughan,
nomen nudum], Ballast Point 28-30
1. Paratype (USNM-3286,
larger corallum), X 1.5
2. Same specimen showing
calices, X 2.4
3. Specimen TB-6a, X 2.5,
Ballast Point
4,5 Goniopora ballistensis, new
species. Ballast Point ....... 32, 33
4. Type (TB-7a), natural
size. General view
5. Enlarged view of calices,
X2










BULLETIN NO. 56 83















1


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BUREAU OF GEOLOGY


Explanation of Plate 11
Figures Pages
1-3 Goniopora ballistensis, new
species. Ballast Point ....... 32, 33
1. Cotype (USNM-3286),
X 0.9, broadside view
2. View of narrow side, X 0.9
3. End view, X 3







BULLETIN NO. 56 85







BUREAU OF GEOLOGY


Explanation of Plate 12
Figures Pages
1,2 Goniopora ballistensis, new
species. Ballast Point ....... .32, 33
1. Paratype (TB-7b), natural
size. Side view
2. End view, X 1.2
3-6 Goniopora matsoni, new
species ................ 34-36
3. Type (USNM-6546 "a"),
X 2, corallum branch. "Si-
lex" bed of Tampa region.
4. Paratype (USNM-6546
"b"), X 1.8, divaricating
branch. "Silex" bed of
Tampa region
5. Same, end view, X 1.8
6. Specimen TSM-12a, X 2.
Sixmile Creek








BULLETIN NO. 56


87








BUREAU OF GEOLOGY


Explanation of Plate 13
Figures Pages
1-3 Goniopora cf. G. decaturensis
Vaughan. Ballast Point ..... 33, 34
1. Specimen TB-8a, X 2.3,
corallum head
2. Calices, X 5
3. Side view, X 2.6, showing
deposit of chalcedony be-
low surface










BULLETIN NO. 56 89
























7
'A

a,'a




















64












Ai2
't 4.'i ~ *



:Il




Ik:







BUREAU OF GEOLOGY


Explanation of Plate 14
Figures Pages
1-3 Goniopora matsoni, new spe-
cies. Ballast Point ......... 34-36
1. Cotype (TB-Sa), X4,
view of side
2. Calices of half of reverse
side,X 4
3. End view, X 3






BULLETIN NO. 56







BUREAU OF GEOLOGY


Explanation of Plate 15
Figures Pages
1,2 Goniopora tampaensis, new
species. Ballast Point ....... 36
1. Type (USNM-2084), X 2,
top view of head
2. Side view of head, X 2.7







BULLETIN NO. 56


93








BUREAU OF GEOLOGY


Explanation of Plate 16
Figures Pages
1-3 Favites yborensis, new species
[= Maeandra tampaensis
Vaughan, nomen nudum.]
Type (USNM-4999). Ballast
Point ................. 38. 39
1. Top view, natural size
2. Side view, X 1.6
3. View of reverse side, X 1.5




Full Text

PAGE 1

STATE OF FLORIDA DEPARTMENT OF NATURAL RESOURCES Randolph Hodges, Executive Director BUREAU OF GEOLOGY C. W. Hendry, Jr., Chief DIVISION OF INTERIOR RESOURCES Robert 0. Vernon, Director BULLETIN NO. 56 NEW AND UTILE-KNOWN CORALS FROM THE TAMPA FORMATION OF FLORIDA By Norman E. Weisbord Published by the FLORIDA DEPARTMENT OF NATURAL RESOURCES DIVISION OF INTERIOR RESOURCES BUREAU OF GEOLOGY in cooperation with the DEPARTMENT OF GEOLOGY FLORIDA STATE UNIVERSITY Tallahassee, Florida 1973

PAGE 2

Completed manuscript received March, 1973 Printed for the Department of Natural Resources Division of Interior Resources Bureau of Geology by Ambrose the Printer Jacksonville, Florida Tallahassee 1973

PAGE 3

COPYRIGHT NOTICE [year of publication) Florida Geologica I Survey [source text] The F1orida Geological Survey holds all rights to the source text of the B1dletins, Annual Reports, I'!{ormation Cirt:ultln, Letiflets, Miscellanetn/S Snulies, Reports of Investigations, Special P11blications, and Maps and shall be considered the copyright holder for the text and images of these publications. The F101ida Geological Survey has made this publication available to the University ofF1orida, on behalf of the IMLS grant Linking F1orida's Natural Heritage, for purposes of digitization and Internet distribution. The F1orida Geological Survey reserves all rights to this publication. All uses, excluding those made under "fair use" provisions of U.S. Code, Title 17, Section 107 are restricted. Contact the F1orida Geological Survey (http://www.dep.state.fl.us/geol) for additional information and pennissions.

PAGE 4

STATE OF FLORIDA DEPARTMENT OF NATURAL RESOURCES Randolph Hodges, Executive Dir ec tor BUREAU OF GEOLOGY C. W. Hendry, Jr., Chief DIVISION OF INTERIOR RESOURCES Robert 0. Vernon, Director BULLETIN NO. 56 NEW AND LITTLE-KNOWN CORALS FROM THE TAMPA FORMATION OF FLORIDA By Norman E . Weisb o rd Published by the FLORIDA DEPARTMENT OF NATURAL RESOURCES DIVISION OF INTERIOR RESOURCES BUREAU OF GEOLOGY in cooperation with the DEPARTMENT OF GEOLOGY FLORIDA STATE UN IVERSITY Tallaha ssee, F l orida 1973

PAGE 5

j DEPARTMENT OF N ATURAL RESOURCES REUBIN O 'D. ASKEW G overno r RICHARD (DICK) S TONE S ec r e tar y of Stat e THOMA S D. O ' M ALLEY T r easur e r FLOYD T . CHRISTIAN C o mm issio n e r of E du cati o n ROBERT L. SHEVIN Attorney G e n e r a l FRED 0. DICKINSON, JR. C omptr olle r DOYLE CONNER C ommi s s i o n e r o f Agri c u l tu r e W . RANDOLPH HODGES E xecutiv e Dir ec t o r ii

PAGE 6

LEITER OF TRANSMITTAL Bureau of Geology Tallahassee March, 1973 ionorable Reubin O'D. Askew, Chairman )epartment of Natural Resources fallahassee , Florida 32304 Dear Governor Askew: The Bureau of Geology of the Division of Interior Resources is printing as its Geological Bulletin No. 56 a report prepared by Professor Norman E. Weisbord of Florida State University on "New and Little-Known Corals from the Tampa Formation of Florida". We are indeed pleased and privileged to have participated in this study with the Department of Geology of Florida State University through Professor Weisbord. The collection on which the study is based are housed in the Geological Department of Florida State University , the Florida Bureau of Geology , and in the U. S. National Museum of Natural History, Washington, D. C . Professor Weisbord has combined these collections in this study and has developed a very comprehensive knowledge of these animals which make up so much of the matrix of the Tampa Formation. The determinations of these species , together with the itemization of the localities from which the remains of the animals come, will be extremely helpful to scientists visiting Florida and also to University students . iii Respectfully yours , C. W. Hendry, Jr., Chief Bureau of Geology

PAGE 7

CONTENTS Page Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 Acknowledgments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 Systematics of the T a mpa Corals An Historical Re sume . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 Coral Loc a lities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 Stratigraphic Not es . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Balla s t Point . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Sixmile Creek . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 Si x mile Creek S ec tions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 Well Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 Silicification of the B a llast Point Fossils . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 Age of the Tampa Formation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 List of Corals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 Specie s of Corals fro m the Tampa Formation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 Dis tribution of T a mpa Corals, Their Geologi c R a nge, a nd Neare s t Rel ate d Speci es . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 Descriptions of Species . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 8 Plate s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63 R efere n ces Cited . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 135 Ind ex . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 145 Dedicated to THOMAS WAYLAND VAUGHAN September 2 0 , 1870 January 16, 1952 iv

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NEW AND LIITLE-KNOWN CORALS FROM THE TAMPA FORMATION OF FLORJDA B y Norman E. W eisbord INTRODUCTION The objective of this paper is to describe , illustrate , and co mpare the corals of the Tampa Formation (Lower Mio cene) fro m three localiti es south and east of the city of T ampa: B allast Point , Davis I s land s, and Sixmil e Creek , Hillsborough County, Florida . The collection s o n which the study is based are housed in the Geological Department of Fl ori da State University, in the Florida Bureau of Geol ogy, and in the U.S . National Museum (National Mu eum of Natural History) of W ashi ngt o n , D . C. Included in the paper is the de criptio n of a new species of coral Goni opora aucillana-from the Suwan nee Limestone (Upper Oligocene), found near Cabbage Grov e , Taylor County, F l orida. The repository of the types and figured specimens i s the U.S . ational Museum or Florida S tate University as indicated in the text. In the pursuance of this endeavor I have been most fortunate in having had at my disposal a number of Tampa corals named and label ed by the late Thomas W ay land Vaughan , in his own handwriting . Many of thes e names refe r to types in a man u script written by V aughan to update his 1900 monograph on ' The Eocene and Oligocene Corals of the United S tates " and his 1 9 1 9 work on " Fossil Corals from Central America , Cuba , and Porto Rico." The man us c ript referred to was n e ver published , a lth ough some of V a ugh a n 's Tampa types were listed on page 1 8 of Bull etin 9 0 of the U . S . National Mu eum, 1915 , in Dall ' s " M onograph of the M olluscan Faun a of the O rthau lax Pugnax Zone of the Olig oce n e of Tampa Florida. " I have examined the 17 species listed by V aughan in that work, and II of them fall in the catego ry of n o men nudum. H o wever , the very fac t that they were given name s by Vaughan , was a great help to me in my own taxonomic a nd although I have not seen th e Vaughan manuscript , many of Vaugh an ' s nomina nuda have b ee n retained and the taxa d escrib e d b y m e in the present paper. Twenty-eight species of Tampa corals are dealt with herein . ine of them have been previously des c ribed , thirteen are n e w , five are ind e terminate, and o ne remains a nomen nudum . Every single specimen I have worked with ha s been secondari ly altered . A few of them from B allast Point or D avis I slands are true siliceous pseudomorphs on which the details of the original aragonite keleton are faithfully preserved . On most of them, however , there is a ch alcedoni c replacement that has obliterated the structure or has been deposited betw een and over the septa and costae. O n the other hand, virtually . all of the Six mile Creek co r a l s collecte d by J ose ph E . B anks a r e com plet e l y calcareo us , with the calc ium car bon ate ap p are ntly having b een secon d arily

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2 BUREAU OF GEOLOGY deposited or finely recrystallized. Several of the same species occur both in the s iliceous facies at Ballast Point and in the calcareous facies at Sixmile Creek. For the reasons given above, taxonomic analysis has been singularly frustrating, and no one appreciates the difficulties of diagnosis encountered by Dr. Vaughan more than I. ACKNOWLEDGMENTS I wish to express my thanks to Dr. David L. Pawson and to Dr. Maureen E. Downey of the U.S. National Museum for pla ci ng the collections in the Museum completely at my disposal , and for providing me with the literature I needed during my stay there in 1970. During !972, Dr. Downey sought out in the Museum , and sent to me here in Tallahassee , the Tampa corals listed by Vaughan in Dall's 1915 monograph, thereby enabling me to complete my comparative studies. I am likewise grateful to the staff of the British Museum (Natural History) who, through the courtesy of R. F . Wise of the Palaeon tology Department, sent me photographs of the type of Porites floridaeprima from Ballast P oint, described by Bernard in 1906. I thank Charles W . Hendry , Jr. and Steve R . Windham of the Florida Bureau of Geology for their interest in my work on the Tampa corals, for their encouragement while the manuscript on them was being written, and, upon its completion, for its publication by the Bureau. Dr. Harbans S . Puri, also with the Bureau of Geology , has contributed significantly to this work by having measured , described , and synthesized into descriptive sections the Tampa strata revealed in excavations of the Sixmile Creek area. The sections appearing in this paper are pre sented with Puri's permission in the same format as he submitted them to me. Most of the corals from Sixmile Creek in the Florida State University co llection were collected and donated by Joseph E . Banks of the Coastal Petroleum Company. We wish to express our appreciation to him not only for the corals and for fossils collected in other regions of Florida, but also for the co nsiderable amount of original stratigraphic data he has relayed on to us. The photographs which accompany this report were taken and processe d by Gerrit Mulders of Tallahassee . Many of the Tampa corals available to me are in a wretched state of preservation, but Mulders has done well with them.

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BULLETIN NO. 56 3 SYSTEMATICS OF THE TAMPA CORALS-AN HISTORICAL RESUME Although the presence of chalcedonized corals in the Tampa area was well known because of their beauty and curio value in the early part of the 19th century, it was not until 1895 and 1900 that the first species from the Tampa Formation at Ballast Point Desmophyllum willcoxi -was officially designated by H. S . Gane. The second species to be identified was Porites jloridaeprima Bernard , also from Ballast Point, in 1906 . In 1915, Vaughan provisionally named 17 species of corals in the Orthaulax pugnax zone of the Tampa Formation, concerning which Dall (1915, p. 18) wrote as follows : " Dr. T. Wayland Vaughan has kindly consented to give the following brief list of the cora l s of the Orthaulax zone, identified by him, the report on which is now awaiting publication. List of species Corals from the 'silex bed' of the Tampa formation By Dr. T . Wayland Vaughan Antillia ? willcoxi (Dana). Stylophora silicensis Vaughan .* Galaxea excelsa Vaughan . Orbicella cellulosa (Duncan).* cavernosa var. tampaensis Vaughan . * c avernosa var. silicensis Vaugh a n.* Cyphastrea tampa e Vaughan . Maeandra tampaensis Vaughan. Syzygophyllia ? tampa e Vaughan Siderastrea silicensis Vaughan * (at Tampa brickyard) . Endopachys tampae Vaughan. Acropora tampaensis Vaughan. Goniopora tampaensis Vaughan. ballistensis Vaughan. matsoni Vaughan. P o rites willcoxi Vaughan. Alveopora tampae Vaughan. The species marked * are widely distributed in the Chattahoo chee formation of southern Georgia and northern Florida." The intended report by Vaughan on the species listed above was never published , and most of them therefore must be classified as nomina nuda . Fortunately, however , the " type " specimens , identified and labeled by Vaughan in his own handwriting , are preserved in the U.S . National Museum , and have been studied by this writer in order to validate certain of the species erected by V a ughan . The last work done on the taxonomy of Tampa corals was over a half century ago in 1919 , and this too was by Vaughan , in Bulletin 10 3 of the

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4 BUREAU OF GEOLOGY U.S. National Museum. In that publication the fo llowing corals from the Tampa Formation were described and illustrated: Orbicella tampa e nsis Vaughan, p. 390 Orbicella tampaensis var. silecensis Vaughan , pp. 390,391 Antiguastr e a cellulosa (Duncan), pp . 402-408 Antiguastrea cellulosa var. silicensis Vaughan , pp. 408,409 Siderastrea silec e nsis Vaughan , pp. 447-450 Three of the above-listed taxa Orbicella tampaensis, Orbicella tampaensis var. silecensis, and Sid e rastrea silec e nsis were validations of Vaughan 's own n o mina nuda and typonyms erected in 1 915. S o far as I am aware, little or nothing has been written on the systematics of Tampa Formation corals since 1919, although a number of Tampa species have been reported from Oligocene to Holocene epochs elsewhere in the Ameri cas. It is hoped the present contribution will bridge the gap of more than half a century. CORAL LOCALITIES The corals from the Tampa Formation were collected in three areas south and east of the city of Tampa , Hillsborough County, Florida, with the reference point being the mouth of the Hillsborough River. These areas are the following: 1. Ballast Point (TB). Sec. 11, T30S, R18E, Tampa Quadrangle. Elevations 5 feet or less . Western shore of Hillsborough Bay , 4 miles southwest of the mouth of the Hillsborough River. The Ballast Point corals in our collection are all silicified, and the Ballast Point deposit is the silex bed of authors. 2. Davis Islands (TD). Sec. 25 and 26, T29S, R18 and 19E , Tampa Quadrangle . Elevations 5 feet or less. This i s a triangular island oriented north and south, some 2 miles in length , with its apex just south of the mouth of the Hillsborough River. The fossils from Davis Islands were donated to Florida State University by a Mr. P ennington , but neither the precise localities nor stratigraphic information are available. All of the fossils, like those from Ballast Point are completely silicified . 3 . Sixmile Creek (TSM) . SE% Sec . 14 , T29S , RJ9E, Brandon Quadrangle . Maximum elevation 25 feet. In and near Sixmile Creek , between the Seaboard Coastline RR at Florida state road 60 and the U.S. Corps of Engineers dam south of Orient P ark. This l ocality is about 5 miles east-northeast of the mouth of the Hillsborough River. The corals were collecte d by Joseph E. Bank s and donated t o Florida State Univer s ity January I 0, 1972 . These corals are completely calcareous in contrast to the ones at Ballast Point, altho ugh a number of the sa me species occur at both places.

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BULLETIN NO. 56 5 In excavations adjacent to, and forming continuations of those at Banks' locality above, corals collected by H.S. Puri of the Florida Bureau of Geology , vary from completely calcareous to completely siliceous , with some specimens composed of both lithologies . 4. Honeymoon Island (TH), Pinellas County, Florida. Sections 15, 16 , 17, 8 , and 7, T28S, RISE, Dunedin Quadrangle. Honeymoon Island is connected by way of the two-mile Dunedin Causeway to the west coast of Florida near Dunedin Beach . Honeymoon Island and the Causeway are built up in part by rock dredged 20 feet or so below the sea floor in this area. Recently, silicified corals have been obtained from the dredged material by Forrest D . Cring of Florida State University , two species of which have been identified as Stylophora cf. S. minutissima Vaughan and Montastrea tampaensis silecensis (Vaughan). Both species occur in the Tampa Formation at Ballast Point or Sixmile Creek , and verify the presence of the equivalent St. Marks Formation in the shallow subsurface beneath the Honeymoon Island-Dunedin Beach area . The single coral (AUI a) from the Suwannee Limestone , G o niop ora aucillana , n. sp., also described in this paper , was collected by Joseph E. Banks at the locality given below . 5. From road metal pit about 3 miles west of Cabbage Grove, Taylor County, in the vicinity of the Aucilla River where it flows underground. W 1h Sec . 22, T3S, R4E, Nutall Rise Quadrangle . Maximum elevation 20 feet . The specimen is calcareous . STRATIGRAPHIC NOTES BALLAST POINT The type locality of the Tampa Formation has not yet been officially designated. One of the well-known sites in which a limestone within the Tampa Formation has been observed is Ballast Point, although the sequence of strata here can no longer be seen because of dredging , excavation , removal of rock, and construction. However , in 1915, according to C o oke and Mossom (1929, p. 83) "several feet of light gray to white compact limestone containing casts of fossils could be seen along the water front. On weathering the limestone breaks down into greenish clay and the fossils become silicified . This is the famous 'silex ' bed, but the silicification seems to be merely a superficial phenomenon that is not confined to any particular stratigraphic level. " Concerning this deposit, Dall ( 1915, p . 1) wrote the following. "In the vicinity of Tampa Bay , Florida , and especially on the northwestern shores of the bay , near Ballast Point, are found certain limestones more or less mingled with layers of clay, marl, and chert, with residual sands and so-called 'fuller ' s earth'. A particular stratum which crops out near high-water mark at Ballast

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6 BUREAU OF GEOLOGY Point is extremely fossiliferous. In the cherty portions the calcareous matter of the fossils has disappeared through solution, and they are represented chiefly by molds, from which casts may be made ... In the marly or c layey parts of this deposit the fossils have also largely disappeared, but natural casts in pure silex have replaced them." Silicification of the originally aragonitic corals and other calciferous she lls has produced chalcedonic replacements of great beauty, and even prior to the description of them by John H. Allen in 1846, these fossils were well known in mineralogic cabinets as "chalcedony from Tampa Bay. " Allen (1846, p. 40) did not specifically mention the deposit at Balla st Point but did describe a similar one 2 miles north of Ballast P o int as follows: "One of the most ancient and interesting of these deposits can be seen about two miles west of Fort Brooke where a section a few hundred feet in length has been exposed by the washings of the waters of the bay . Immediately back from the shore it is covered by three or four feet of loam and sand. This bed consists of blue marly clay, interlaminated with seams of carbonate of lime , which probably resulted from the decomposition of she lls ; that which renders this deposit unusually interesting is the remarkably beautiful petrifactions that it contains, and that surpass anything of the kind I ever saw. Interspersed throughout the marl are masses of silex presenting a great variety of shapes and colors; some have a rough and jagged surface and wine yellow color, some are hollow cyclindrical tubes of different colors, straight or bent, from one to six inches in length and from one fourth of an inch to one inch in diameter, with a fine drusy interior; others are beautifully agatized, having that moss-like appearance that agates sometimes possess; these silicious concre tions are both opaque and translucent, and are probably of organic origin. There are also found in this bed round cylindrical stems, fluted and gradually tapering to a point with a slight curve, they are from three to four inches in length ; likewise a species of large radiated coral, shaped like the segment of a sphere, petrified with wine co lored silex, and having a mammilary interior of carne lian and chalcedony. The most beautiful petrifactions of this deposite [sic] are various species of shells that are so perfectly petrified with clear wine colored silex, that all their most minute and delicate markings are preserved; so great is their translucency, one can nearly read through them. They appear to have petrified before having suffered the least from attrition or decomposition; the spiral univalves taper to a transparent needle-like point." Unfortunately most of the corals from Ball ast Point proper in our collection are by no means so perfectly preserved as the shells mentioned by

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BULLETIN NO. 56 7 Allen; in fact the silicification of many of the corals has obscured the original fine details , having been deposited between the septa and over the costae forming casts and molds instead of tr ue pseudomorphs. B y and large, therefore, the silicification obscures their true character and renders them difficult to identify. Heilprin (1887, p. 1 0) noted that a yellow limestone formed the basal outcrop at Ballast Point and that it contained the foraminifer which Conrad (1846, p. 399) described as Nummulites floridanus, and which indicated to him an Eocene age. Heilprin h imsel f identified the genus as Orbitolites and suggested it represented a late Oligocene age equivalent to the Aquitanian Stage of Italy and France . Today the taxon is known as A r chaias floridanus (Conrad) (see Puri and Vernon, 1964, p. 118) and is a guide fossil of the Tampa Formation of early Miocene age. H eilprin also wrote that numerous angu l ar boulders of a tough siliceo ca l careo u s blue rock , also charged with fossils, rested on the yellow limestone, but the rel ative sequence of the two formations could not be determined. "Several of the fossil species occurring in this rock appeared also to be contained in the limestone , but the former was distinguished from the latter by the total absence of the foraminifer Orbitolites and by the vast numbers of casts and impressions of a species of Cerithium. " Summarizing from the above, it would seem that the surface strata at Ballast Point consisted of several feet of horizontally disposed, light gray to white or yellow limestone, admixed with marl , a littl e sand , and much green clay. The limestones were highly fossiliferous , and assoc iated with the Ballast Point strata were numerous cha lcedonized mollusks and corals . The mollusks were studied by Dall (1890-1903 and 1915) and were thought by him and by Heilprin (1887) to be late Oligocene in age; the concensus today is that they are early Miocene. Inasmuch as many of the mollusks and some of the corals have been identi fied at both localities, i t is inferred that the surface beds at Ballast Point are equivalent to the l ower beds excavated at Sixmile Creek. SlXMIL E CREEK Sixmile Creek is about 10 miles northeast of Ballast P oint. In discuss in g the Tampa Limestone or Obitolite Bed of the Ballast Point-Sixmile Creek region , Dall (1903, p. 1570) wrote as follows: "This stratum is superimposed upon the silex beds of Ballast Point, Tampa [Hillsborough] Bay , where it may be eighteen inches thick , and extends inland and northeastward. It underlies the city of Tampa, where wells were dug through it, reaching water at a depth of ten feet or thereabouts, the c herty stratum of the silex beds probably serv in g as a water-table below. The same rock occurs seven miles northeast of Tampa in wells and also on land (S . E. Y
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8 BUREAU OF GEOLOGY railway. Its upper surface is about fourteen feet above the water of Six-Mile Run (or Creek) near by, and about twenty-five feet above the mean level of the sea at Tampa , at the railway wharf, according to late surveys. Its thickness varies more or less in different places, and its greatest thickness I was unable to determine , but suspect it does not exceed twenty feet." Cooke and Mossom (1929 , pp . 83 ,84) stated that "A sandy facies of the Tampa Limestone rises 5 or 6 feet above water level in Sixmile Creek at Orient , where it is overlain by a shell marl of Pleistocene age. The rock contains a few fossil shells , among which is Pecten crocus Cooke , a species that was described from the island of Anguilla and that occurs with other Anguilla species in the Tampa limestone at Falling Water , Washington County." The foregoing statements by Dall , and by Cooke and Mossom , summarize the stratigraphy of the Sixmile Creek region as known until recent years when construction was begun of a bypass for the Hillsborough River. The bypass is designed to divert the present course of the Hillsborough River to join the Palm River after crossing Sixmile Creek. Excavations in Sixmile Creek by the U.S. Corps of Engineers, for a damsite and lock , have revealed several important secions which have been studied by H.S. Puri of the Florida Bureau of Geology and by J .E. Banks of the Coastal Petroleum Company . One section (A) was measured at the lock near Sixmile Creek , and a second (B) east of the lock; the third section (C) is a composite of A and B with some additions, revisions, or omissions due to differences in elevations and unconformities . We are indebted to Dr. Puri for these sections , which are presented below, as they contribute significantly to our knowledge of the Tampa Formation. In Puri's tentative correlation , Bed 1 of section A is equivalent to Bed 4 of Section C ; Beds 2 , 3 , and 4 of Section A are equivalent to Beds 5 and 6 of Section C; Beds 1 and 2 of section B are in the Tampa Formation and probably lie between Beds 6 and 7 of Section C ; and Beds 3 , 2 , and I of Section C lie below Bed 1 of Section A . The partly silicified coralSiderastrea silecensis Vaughan (TSM-13a) collected by Puri from talus , is thought by Puri to have come from the upper part of the Tampa Formation in Section A. The corals collected by Banks in the Sixmile Creek area are all completely calcareous and occur in white limestone or chalk. This lithology is reminiscent of the " white compact limestone containing casts of fossils" and the associated siliceous mollusks and corals observed by Cooke and Mossom ( 1929 , p . 83) along the waterfront at Ballast Point. In conversation with Banks I learned that the white limestone and chalk in Sixmile Creek is immediately overlain by a highly fossiliferous layer of silicified mollusks and that the unit may underlie the lowest bed of Puri's "C" section. The physical similarity of the limestones and the occurrence of many of the same species of silicified mollusks and some of the same species of corals the latter

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BULLETIN NO. 56 9 siliceous at Ballast P oint, but calcareous at Sixmile Creek tend to support the view that the Ballast P oint and Sixmile Creek white limestone members are more or less equivalent. Bed S ix mil e Creek Sec ti o n s "A" Section exposed in the Channel excavated at the Lock near Sixmi l e Creek, just north of Florida 60, Tampa, F l orida (Section measured by H . S . Puri , Bureau of Geology , May 11, 1971) Hill sboro ugh County Description HOLOCENE SERIES: 8 Dar k gray sand and soil zone. PLEISTOCENE SERI ES: 7 Light orange-ye llow, medium-to coarse grained sand . 6 Shell hash in a sandy matrix with Ca l oosahatchee-type shells . Ostr e a virginica. Unconformity MIOCENE S E RIES: Hawthorn Formation 5 Clay , greenish gray, blocky Uncomformity Tampa Formation 4 Light orangy yellow, fossiliferous limestone , sandy, with Tampa type mollusc s 3 Tan to light brown s ilty limestone, occasionally moldy porosity 2 Greenish , gray, s i l ty limestone fossiliferous, with specks of phosphorite Light tan, brecciated limestone and ver y sandy clay , exposed to water. (Elevation +3 . 5 feet) Total Thickness " B'' Section at Sixmile Creek, east of the Lock, Tampa, F l o rida (Section measured by H. S. Puri , Bure a u of Geology, M ay 11, 1971) B e d Des cription PLE ISTOCENE AND HOLOCENE 3 D ark gray sand and so i l zone Unconformity Thic kness (Feet) 4 4 3 2-3 8 3 2 4 30 to 31 TI1ickn ess (Feet) +3 Feet

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10 MIOCENE SERIES: Tampa Formation 2 BUREAU OF GEOLOGY Tan to brown, argillaceous sand with silicified oyster reef (Ostrea norma/is Dall) Calcarenit e , light yell o w-orange, fossiliferous, hard , mollu sca n s hell bed with Tampa type corals 2 and mollu scs +5 Total Thickness +I 0 ''C'' (Composite Section meas ur e d o n April 6 , 1972 by Dr. I-1. S . Puri a nd Alexandra Wright) Bed PLEISTOCENE SERIES: (Coffee Mill Hammock) 7 MIOCENE SERIES: Tampa Formation 6 5 4 3 2 De sc ripti o n Tan to brown qtz. sand , mediumto fine-grained Pleistocene shells, weathered in places Pale yellow-orange limestone, soft and friable , Potamid es bed , sandy, occas ionally silicified, lenticular Li ght pal e orange to light gray, calcirudite (shell hash) , sandy, very macrofossiliferou s (marine fossils) Light gray limestone , brecciated, hard , some marine fossi l s, laminated t o ward the top Light g r ay limestone, weathered, soft and fri a ble , clayey, sandy Pale yellow orange limestone, soft, with Pota mides and oth e r m a rine s hell s scattered throug h , sandy, compact Light gray limestone, up to I " in diam . casts of gray gree n san d y clay contain s land snai l s, exposed to water level. (Elevat ion +13 feet) T o tal Thickness Thickness (Feet) 6-7 5'3" 3'6" 3 5'3" (up to 2 ' thick , variable) 7'6" 32'6" to 33'6"

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BULLETIN NO. 56 II SILICIFICA HON OF THE BALLAST POINT FOSSILS Many of the mollusks, corals, and other taxa in the Tampa Formation with calcium carbonate shells or skeletons have been subjected to complete or partial silicif ication. This replacement has produced artifacts of considerable beauty, and sometimes of faithfully reproduced pseudomorphs. More often , however, the original calcareous structure has been partially or wholly dissolved and the replacing s ili ceous deposit is so obscurative as to render identification of the taxon difficult or impossible. The process of dissolution of the calcium carbonate and the pari passu (?) precipitation of cryptocrystallin e quartz (chalcedony) in Ballast Point corals is explained by Lund ( 1960) of the University of Oregon in his paper on "Chalcedony and quartz crystals in silicified corals." Lund first described the corals as follows: "The silicified coral masses from Ballast P oint are of varying sizes and shapes. Some are g l obose and range up to a foot or more in diameter, some are tubular, and others are irregular in shape. Many of the masses are hollow, and the preserved 'shell' i s commonly only 2 or 3 em thick or less. The 'shell' is characteristi cal ly comprised of two distinct lay ers. The outer lay er. consi sts of replaced coral in which the features are preserved in remarkable detail, and the inner part consists of either banded chalcedony or banded chalcedony o ver which quartz crystals have grown . M ost of the hollow forms are lined with colloform chalcedony, a few are lined with small quartz crysta l s, and l ess commonl y specimens are partitioned and lined with both kinds of material , each in a separate chamber." Lund's basic premise in solving the problem of the silicification of the Ballast Point fossils is that s ili ca i s transported in true molecular or ionic solution, and he cites Alexander, Heston , and Iler as indicatin g that silica in low concentrations is in true solution. "They found the solubility of an10rphous silica to be between 120 and 140 p.p. m . at 25 degrees C . and in the pH range between 5 and 8. Later observations by Krauskopf (1956) and White , Brannoch, and Murata ( 1956) are in accordance with those of Alexander and co-workers". Krauskopf (1956) stated that in natural waters silica may be in either colloida l or in true solutions; however , the colloidal particles are unstable and will disappear in a few days or weeks provided that total silica is l ess than about 100 p.p .m. Hen ce the great majority of natural waters should have silica in true so luti on only. Most ground waters are low in dissolved sil i ca and Lund suggests that the subsurface water at Ballast Point is probably no exception. It was formerly believed that silica in natural waters was transported as a collo id and that chalcedony was formed first as a gel from the colloidal silica and was later /

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12 BUREAU OF GEOLOGY reconstituted into crystalline chalcedony. "This ongm for chalcedony is plausible in certain cases, as with the waters of hot springs in which the amount of dissolved silica is unusually high, but it seems not to be applicable to a situation in which ordinary groundwater is the solvent. I therefore believe that both the quartz crystals and the banded chalcedony in the coral specimens were deposited as quartz from true solutions. The specimens indicate that chalcedony and quartz crystals can form under similar conditions of temperature, pressure, and concentration of silica in solution." The origin of the dissolved silica is from plants and animals such as diatoms, radiolarians, and silica-secreting sponges, as well as other siliceous matter contained in the deposit. For an early and . excellent treatise on the process of siliceous transposition, the reader is referred to the work of Duncan (1864, pp. 358-374). Duncan's study pertained to siliceous Tertiary corals of Antigua, but his observations apply to corals of all ages and of diverse regions. AGE OF THE TAMPA FORMATION IN THE TAMPA AREA The age of the Tampa Formation in and around the city of Tampa -at Ballast Point , Davis Islands , and Sixmile Creek (or the old Orient RR station on the present Seaboard Coastline Railroad) -is today considered to be early Miocene. Important contributions relating to the paleontology and stratigraphy of the Tampa Formation in the Tampa environs are to be found in the works of Allen (1846), Conrad (1846), Heilprin (1887), Johnson (1888), Dall (1890-1903 and 1915), Matson and Clapp (1909), Vaughan (1900, 1915 , and 1919), Mossom (1925), Cooke and Mossom (1929), Mansfield (1937), and Puri and Vernon (1964). Recent data have been provided by Puri and Banks (1972) in personal communications appearing in the present report. An excellent historical review a nd analysis of the Ballast Point and Sixmile Creek fossils was given by Mansfield in 1937, pages 8-22. The first fossils to be identified from Ballast Point were by Conrad in 1846 , who described and illustrated 8 species of invertebrates; one of these he identified as Nummulites jloridanus, and as Nummulites was then a guide fossil for the Eocene, Conrad referred the fauna to the upper Eocene . In 1 887, Heilprin described and figured 47 species of mollusks from Ballast Point and assigned a lower Miocene or upper Oligocene position to the deposit. Heilprin also discovered that Conrad's "Nummulit es" jlorid.anus was not a Nummulites and re-named the foraminifer Orbitolites jlorid.anus (Conrad). The latter has since been changed to Archaias jloridanus (Conrad), and is still a guide fossil of the Tampa Formation. Between 1890 and 1903, and again in 1915, W. H. Dall described from Ballast Point and Sixmile Creek a totar of 312 species of mollusks , 27 of them

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BULLETIN NO . 56 13 land or freshwater , 2 85 marine . Among the marine species , 2 5 , or 8 p e r cent, survive in the Recent fauna , and on this basis Dall placed the Ballast Point fauna in the transition ground between the Miocene and the Oligocene. Maury (1902) considered the Tampa Formation of west Florida and the Chipola Formation of north Florida to be coeval, and them with the Aquitanian Stage of Germany , Belgium, and France ; she regarded the Aquitanian as late Oligocene in age, relying principally on the Mollusca and their position in type sections of thos e countries . In their paper which deals with the molluscan fauna of Mayer's Aquitanian stratotype section in southwest France , Eames and Clark (I 967) list 397 species , of whi c h , a c cording to a letter written to me by Eames, 27 to 31, or 7 to 8 per cent a r e found in the Recent fauna. This ratio is the same as that determined by D all for the Tampa Formation: it means that 92 per cent of the mollusk s o f th e Aquitanian Stage of Europe and the Tampa Formation of Florida are extinct, and on this criterion might well be considered Oligocene in age. Although Maury suggested that the Chipola Formation of north Florida was more or less equivalent to the Tampa Formation at Ballast P o int , the present c oncensus is that the Chipola was deposited a little later than the Tampa , one of the reasons being that at the type locality of the Chipola in the Chipola River, the base of that formation lies disconfcirmably on a dolomitic limestone mapped as "Tampa." Again , however , we run into contradictions , for of the 477 species of mollusks des cribed by Gardner (192 6-1950) from the Chipola Formation, only 26 or 5 per cent, are living today . If one subscribes to Lyell ' s extinc tion theory for subclivicling the Tertiary , the Chipola as well as the underlying Tampa should be Oligocene. Nevertheles s, recent studies by E. H. Vokes (1965) , Bender (1971) , and Weisbord (1971) suggest that the Chipola is early middle Miocene or late early Mio c en e in age , and is equivalent to the Helvetian Stage of Europe . In his analysis of the Ballast Point mollusks, Mansfield ( 1937 , pp . 8 2 0) concluded that the Tampa Formation is about the same age as the Anguilla Formation of Anguilla , which is early Miocene. The corals of the Tampa Formation seem to me to point to a lower Miocene or upper Oligocene position. Of the 28 corals listed on page 2 4 , o nly one, Montastrea annularis (Ellis and Solander), occurs in the Recent fauna , that , however, ranging from Oligocene to Recent. Two other species resemble , but are probably distinct from Montastrea annularis. Another Sid erastrea banksi, n. sp. -is of the same general appearance as Siderastrea siderea (Ellis and Solander) but that too ranges from lower Miocene to Recent. Two s pecies resemble middle to upper Miocene ones , whereas seven are rather close to species ranging from middle Oligocene to lower Miocene. Fifteen of the Ballast PointSixmile Creek corals may be endemic. On the whole , the closest resemblance is in the upper Oligocene Lower Miocene bracket and , like the mollusks , suggest an "Aquitanian" age.

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14 BUREAU OF GEOLOGY The latest comprehensive report on the geology of Florida was by Puri and Vernon (J 964) in Special Publication No. 5 of the Florida Geological Survey . In that publication the Tampa Formation or Stage includes all sediments lying above the Suwannee Limestone and below the Chipola Formation of the Alum Bluff Group. The term Tampa Formation in this sense was revived by Vernon ( 1942), and comprises , or is equivalent to, the St. Marks and Chattahoochee formations of north Florida and south Georgia . As shown on page 24 , several species of corals occurring at Ballast Point and Sixmile Creek , have been identified in the St. Marks and Chattahoochee formations, and is further evidence in support of their general equivalence. However, few, if any of the c orals of the Tampa Formation occur in the Chipola (see Weisbord , 1971) , and this , plus the rather marked difference in molluscan assemblages , suggest a faunal break of some magnitude between those two formations. WELL DATA Three important core holes have been drilled recently in the Greater Tampa area. The cores from these holes have been studied by Alexandra P. Wright of the Bureau of Geology , and on the basis of their lithologies Wright has tentatively determined that the thickness of the Tampa Formation is about 109 feet at Ballast Point , 8 5 feet at Sixmile Creek some 2.5 miles northeast of the old Orient RR station, and 63 feet in the Eureka Springs well in the diffused headwater region of Sixmile Creek at Harney Flats. Other data , kindly provided by Wright , appear in the tabulation below. Elevations and depths are in feet. WeU & No. Elev. Locality and Quadrangle Formation Depth Thickn B allas t P o int 5 Ballast Point Park (NW V. Surface to top T a mp a 6.5 6 . 5 (I) Sec. II, T 30 S , R 18 E) , T a mpa to top Suw a nn ee 116 109 Tampa Suwannee to top Cryst a l River 342 226 Cry s tal River to final depth 400 58 Sixmile Creek 29.1 At Sixmi1e Creek (SE V. Surface to top Tampa 16.5 16.5 (W11337) NW V. SW V. Sec. 6, Tampa to top Suwann ee 101.6 85 T 29 S , R 20 E) , Brandon Suwannee to top Crystal River 257 155 Crystal River to final depth 307 50 Eureka Springs 19.6 Harney Flats (SE V. NE V. Surface to top Tampa 31 31 (W11338) Sec . 30, T 28 S , R 20 E), Tampa to top Suw a nnee 94 . 2 63 Thonotosassa Suw a nnee to top Cry s tal River 301 207 Crystal River to final depth 332 31 The Tampa Formation is lower Miocene in age, the Suwannee Limestone upper Oligocene, and the Crystal River Formation upper Eocene. ess

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BULLETIN NO. 56 15 LIST OF CORALS The species of corals treated in this paper are listed below. All of them are from the Tampa Formation save Goniopora aucillana, n. sp. which is from the Suwannee Limestone of late Oligocene age. Stylophora minutissima Vaughan Stylophora silicensis Weisbord, n. sp. Acropora tampaensis Weisbord, n. sp. Siderastrea banksi Weisbord, n. sp. Siderastrea silecensis Vaughan Porites jloridaeprima Bernard Goniopora aucillana Weisbord, np. Goniopora ballistensis Weisbord, n . sp . Goniopora decaturensis Vaughan Goniopora matsoni Weisbord, n. sp. Goniopora tampaensis Weisbord, n. sp. Alveopora tampae Weisbord, n. sp. Favites yborensis Weisbord, n. sp. Montastrea annularis (Ellis and Solander) Montastrea davisina Weisbord, n. sp. Montastrea peninsularis Weisbord, n. sp. Montastrea tampaensis (Vaughan) Montastrea tampaensis silecensis (Vaughan) Incertae sedis "b" Antiguastrea cellulosa (Duncan) Cyphastrea tampae Weisbord , n. sp. Galaxea excelsa Weisbord , n. sp. Antillia willcoxi (Dana) , Vaughan, nomen dubium Desmophyllum willcoxi Gane Incertae sedis "a" Flabellum, sp. indet. Endopachys tampae Vaughan, nomen nudum Syzygophyllia tampae Weisbord, n. sp. Anthemiphyllia, ? sp. indet. Antillocyathus, ? sp. indet.

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16 BUREAU OF GEOLOGY SPECIES OF CORALS FROM THE TAMPA FORMATION PRESENT NAMES Stylophora minutissima V a ughan Styl o phora silicensis Weisbord, n. sp . Acropora tampa e nsis W e isbord , n . sp . Siderastrea banksi Weisbord , n . sp. Siderastrea silecensis Vaughan P o rites fl o rida e prima Bernard Goniopora ballist e nsis Weisbord , n. sp . Goniopora decatur e nsis Vaughan Goniopora matsoni W e isbord , n. sp. Goniopora tampaensis Weisbord , n. s p . Alveopora tampa e Weisbord , n. sp. Favites y b o rensis Weisbord, n . sp. Montastrea annularis (Ellis and Solander) M o ntastr e a davisina Weisbord , n. sp. M o ntastr e a peninsularis Weisbord , n. sp. M on tastr e a tampaensis (Vaughan) M o ntastr e a tampa e nsis silecensis (Vaughan) Incertae sed is "b" Antiguastr e a cellul osa (Duncan) Cyphastrea tampa e Weisbord , n . sp. Galax e a excelsa Weis b o rd , n. sp. Desm o ph y llum willcoxi Cane Incertae sed is "a" Flab e llum, sp. indet. Endopachys tampa e Vaughan , nomen nudum Syzygoph yllia tampa e Weisbord , n. sp. Anthemiphyllia ? , sp. indet. Antillocyathus ? , s p. indet. FORMER NAMES Styloph ora minutissima Vaughan Styloph ora silicensis Vaughan , nomen nudum Acrop ora tampaensis Vaughan , nome n nudum Sid e rastr e a s il ece nsis Vaughan P o rit es willcoxi Vaughan , n o men nudum Goni o p ora ballistensis Vaughan, nomen nudum Goniop ora d ec aturensis Vaughan Goni o p ora matsoni Vaughan , nomen nudum G o ni o p ora tampa e nsis V a ughan, n o men nudum Alveo pora tampae Vaughan , nomen nudum Mae andra tampaensis Vaughan , nome n nudum See synonymy Orbic ella tampaensis Vaughan Orbic ella tampaensis var. silecensis Vaughan ? See synonymy Cyphastr e a tampae Vaughan , nomen nudum Galaxea excelsa Vaughan , n o men nudum Desmophyllum willcoxi Cane ? Desm o phyllum willcoxi Cane Endopachys tampae V aughan , nomen nudum Syzygophillia ? tampae Vaughan nome n nudum ? ?

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D I STR IBUTION OF TAMPA CORALS, THE I R GEOLOGI C RA GE, AND NEAREST RELATED S PECIES Spccics Srylophora minurissimo Vaughan S r y lophora s ilicensis Wci s bord, n. s p . Acropora ram paensis W c i s bord. n . s p. Sidcrastrea banksi Weisbord , n . sp. Siderasrrea silecensis Vaughan P ori r es floridae p rimo B e rnard Goniopora boffis t ens i s W c i sbord, n . s p . Goniopora cf. G. d ecawre nsis Vau ghan Gon iopma marson i W ei sbord. n . s p . G o n iopora tam paensis Weisbord . n . s p . Alveo pora rampae W e i s bord . n . s p . fOvites yboren sis W e i s bord, n . s p . M o ntastrea annularis (Ell i s and S o l an der) Momastrea da11 isina Weisbord. n. s p . Mont astrea p eninsula ri s Wcisbord , n . s p . M o nrastrea rampaens i s ( Vaughan) M o nrastrl!a cf. M . ltampae n sis silecensis (Vau ghan) l n ccrtae sedis "b" Anriguastrea ce llu l osa (Duncan) C y phasrrea tampoe W c i sbord, n. s p . Galaxea excelsa W c i sbord, n. s p. D esmophyllum wi llcoxi Gane l ncertae s c di s "a" F /ohellum, s p . indet E n dopachys t ampae Vaughan, nomen nudum Syzygophyllia r ampoe Weisbord, n . s p . Anthemiphyllia '?, s p . indct. Amillocy01hus ? . s p . indct. Ballast P o int X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X Localiti es D avis Six mil e l s !and s Creek X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X St. M a rk s C h atlahooForm . chee Form. X X X X X X X X Hawtho rn Range and di stribution Nea r est r e lated s pcc1c' F orm. X L o wer Miocene L ower Miocen e Lower M iocen e Lower Miocen e L ower-Middle Miocene Lower Miocen e Lower Miocene Olig . L ower Miocene Lower Miocene L o w e r Miocene Lower Miocene L ower Miocene U Oligocene-Reccn 1 L o w e r Miocen e Lower Miocen e O l i g. L o wer Miocene L ower Miocene L o wer Miocene M Oligocen e Pliocene? L ower Miocen e Lower Miocen e Lower Miocen e Lower Miocen e Lower Miocene Lower Miocen e L ower Miocen e Lower M ioce n e Lower Miocene Styloph ora affini s Duncan. M U M ull't.' nt• Stylophora imperatoris Vau ghan. l M i ul'ene Acropora panonH ' n s i s Vaughan. Olig.. l Miocen e Sidera s tr e a s id e r e o (E & SL Mio Rcn:nl Sid erast r e a co nfert a (Dun can) Oilg:. l MiPlcnc P ori t es anguillen s i s V aughan. L M IOL"t.'nt.' Pori tes t o u/ai Vaughan. Ohg:. L Mtoct.•nc Favires mexicana V a u g ha n . Oligoccnt.• Monr astrea annufori s (E & S) Oltg. Rc l cnt Montas tr e a annufari s (E & S) . Ollg . Re1.:en t Monras treo cosrara (Dun can). 0\ig. L Miocene Syzygophyllia grego rii { V a ughan). M U M iocene P/ococya rhu s nw oensis Vaughan. L. Mtot.cn c

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18 BUREAU OF GEOLOGY DESCRIPTIONS OF SPECIES Order SCLERACTINIA Bourne, 1900 Stylophora cf. S. minutissima Vaughan Pl. 1, figs. 1-5; pl. 4, fig . 1 1900. Stylophora minutissima Vaughan, U.S. Geol. Sur., Mon. 39, p. 131,pl.l3,figs.l3-15. 1915. Not Stylophora silicensis Vaughan , nomen nudum, in Dall , U .S. Nat. Mus., Bull. 90, p. 18. 1919. Stylophora minutissima Vaughan, U.S. Nat. Mus . , Bull. 103 , No . 9,pp. 205,206, 334. 1925. Stylophora minutissima Vaughan, Felix , Fossilium Catalogus 1: Animalia, pars 28 , p. 234. Vaughan ' s original description was as follows : "In the United States National Museum are several small branches of this species , weathered out of a cherty limestone . The best-preserved and the most easily studied branch measured 15. 5 mm. in length and 2.5 mm. in diameter. The cross section of the branch is circular. The calices are shallow , and are arranged in regular ascending spirals. Their distance apart is about 1 mm. They are elliptical in shape, the greater diameter 0. 7 mm. , the smaller 0 . 5 mm. The margins not at all prominent , only a slight bulging upward of the surface in the calicular region . The coenenchymal surface has suffered corrosion, but certainly is granulate, and may have in places possessed some longitudinal striations. Six stout septa reach the columella; no indications of a second cycle. The six septa in places seem so thickened that they almost close the lower part of the calicular cavity. Four pits, each between a pair of septa in the segment of the cal ice toward the distal end of the branch ; two on each side of a vertical plane through the longer axis of the calice are deeper than the two pits at the other end of the calice (cf Pl. XIII, fig. 14) . The columella is stout. It was not possible to determine whether or not dissepiments exist. Locality . Russell Springs , Flint River , Georgia. Geologic horizon. Vicksburgian stage, Ocala Group. Type. United States National Museum. This species has an extremely close resemblance to Stylophora affinis Duncan , from the Nivaje shale of San Domingo. The resemblance is especially close to the var. minor. The points of difference are: The calices of St. affinis are circular , while in St. minutissima they are elliptical; between the corallites of St. affinis there is on the coenenchyma a distinct raised ridge, while no such ridge exists in St. minutissima." Shortly after the publication of Monograph 39 there appeared in Science an article by Vaughan (1900) revising the stratigraphy of the Flint River region in

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BULLETIN NO. 56 19 the vicinity of Russel Springs, Georgia. In this revision the strata containing Stylophora minutissima and associated corals were placed in the Chattahoochee Formation of early Miocene age rather than in the Vicksburgian Stage of Oligocene age. Later, Vaughan (1915, p. 18) observed that a number of coral species within the Chattahoochee Formation also occurred in the Tampa Limestone of west Florida, and thus confirmed the correration that is generally accepted today. The following description of what I believe is referable to Stylophora minutissima Vaughan is based on five of the better preserved specimens, TB2a to TB2e. The coralla are branching, the branches long , slender, solid within, and subcircular in cross section. The corallites on the durface, where visible at all, are polygonal in outline (pentagonal, hexagonal, and diamond-shaped) and are defined by a slightly raised ridgelet composed of pointed granulations similar to the slightly larger ones covering the whole of the coenosteum . Mature calices are nearly circular to oval in outline, 1.1 mm to 1.4 mm in diameter, and are arranged more or less parallel with, or ascending in a slightly oblique spiral around, the long axis of the branch. The margins of the calices are normally raised perceptibly above the surface, are well rounded , and are strongly costate, the low, narrowish costae 20 to 24 in number. The calices are invariably separated , the separation varying from as little as 0.6 mm to as much as 2.0 mm, but averaging about 1.3 mm in a single column, the columns themselves 1.3 mm to 2.5 mm apart. The depth of the calice to the columella is about 0.4 mm to 0.5 mm, and the wall is vertical. There are 6 stout primary septa fused to the columella and 6 barely perceptible secondary septa projecting slightly from the wall. Normally there is a roundish excavation between each of the primary septa, but due to silicification so!Tle of these are usually plugged. The character of the septa is also obscured by secondary silicification, and in one calice of specimen TB -2a, the primary and secondary septa are coarsely granular and subspinose on the margins and faces. A noteworthy character, seen especially well on one of the more weathered cor all a (TB 2c), is the alignment of opposing primary septa to form a distinct directive lamina, the direction coinciding with the long axis of the branch . The center of the directive lamina is the columella. The columella usually appears as a fused center. However, in the same calice of specimen TB-2a in which the structure of the septa is revealed, there arises from the center of the base a single spiny style , the pointed tip of which is well below the level of the calicular margin. Measurements. Specimen TB2a : length of corallum 28 mm, diameter 6.5 mm. Specimen TB-2b: length of corallum 41 mm, diameters of main branch 7 mm x 5 mm. Specimen TB2c: corallum length 29 mm, average diameter 6 mm. Specimen TB2d: corallum length 42.5 mm, maximum spread of divaricating branches 32.5 mm, maximum diameter of main stem 8 . 5 mm. Specimen TB-2e: corallum length 25.5 mm, diameter 6 mm.

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20 BUREAU OF GEOLOGY Localities.-Ballast Point; Sixmile Creek. The Ballast Point specimens are completely silicified whereas the Sixmile Creek specimens (TSM-3) are from a chalk bed and are completely calcareous. Two specimens of Stylophora cf. minutissima (TBD 1 ), which are also siliceous, have been collected by Forrest D. Cring of Florida State University. These were dredged from the St. Marks Formation at Dunedin Beach (Honeymoon Island), Pinellas County, Florida. The type locality of S. minutissima Vaughan is near Russell Spring(s) in the Flint River, a short distance upstream from Bainbridge , Decatur County, Georgia . Comparisons. ln the original description of the type of S. minutissima, which is a poorly preserved fragment, Vaughan could not detect the raised ridge of granulations between the corallites on the surface of the corallum . This ridge is only apparent on well preserved examples, and I have no doubt it is present normally on S. minutissima at the type locality. The Florida State University specimens from Ballast Point, described above as Stylophora minutissima Vaughan, are exactly the same as those labeled Stylophora siliciensis Vaughan in the U.S. National Museum from locality 2115 , which is also Ballast Point. Stylophora silicensis was Vaughan's manuscript name, and as that was unpublished, the taxon is a nome n nudum. In this work, Vaughan ' s name of Stylophora silicensis is retained by describing and illustrating it as a new species (see pages 29-31 and plate 2, figs. 1-4) , for it seems to me, after comparing poor specimens of Vaughan's S. silicensis from the Chattahoo chee Formation of Georgia with good specimens of what appear to be identical with S. minutissima Vaughan from the Tampa Formation of Florida, that the two species are distinct. In volume 12 of Science for 1900, page 874, Vaughan listed probably 3 species of Stylophora from the Chattahoochee Formation of the Flint River in the Tertiary coral reef, near Bainbridge , Georgia. Stylophora silicensis, new species Pl. 2 , figs. 1-4 1915. Stylophora silicensis Vaughan , nomen nudum, in Dall, U.S . Nat. Mus . , Bull. 90, p. 18 . The following description is based on several badly worn specimens in the U.S . National Museum numbered 3381 (U.S . Geol. Survey), and labeled, in Vaughan's own handwriting, "Stylophora silicensis Vaughan? Type . Flint River, Decatur Co." (Georgia). The corals are siliceous and are imbedded in a brownish yellow fossiliferous sandstone which was originally calcareous but is now wholly siliceous. On the label the word "Type" has been crossed out, and the question mark seemingly inserted after the label was first written by Vaughan. I suspect , but do not know, that the emendation was also made by Vaughan . The coralla of the 3381 lot are branched, the branches divaricating into a single pair or sprouting in short pairs from the parent stem. The cross section of the subsidiary branches is oval to subcircular, that of the stock from which they arise oval or elliptical and flattish on the sides.

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BULLETIN NO. 56 21 The calices are circular in outline and are disposed more or l ess irregu larly or regularly in transverse rows. Most of the calices are separated, equidistantly in some places, unequally in others. Elsewhere the calices are touching in short series . Where the separation is equidistant, the distance apart is 0.4 mm. The calicu lar margins are normally a little elevated and thickened to form a rounded lip or colline around the cup. The margin is costulate, the number of costae counted about 20. From colline to colline the diameter of individual calices is 1.0 mm to 1.4 mm. The coenosteuin between the calices is finely granulate . Although such cannot be seen due to corrosion, it is probable that the outline of the corallites on the surface of the coral lum is polygonal , and that the boundary between adjacent corallites is marked , as in other species of Stylophora, by a narrow papillate ridgelet. There are three cycles of septa , the third cycle not quite complete where observed . The 6 primary septa are by far the most pronounced and unite in the center of the calice to form a styliform columella. The secondary and tertiary septa are rudimentary an d project slightly from the wall. The primary septa are normally laminar, whole , and not exsert, but nearly everywhere they are abnorma lly thickened by secondary silic ifi cation . The margin of the primary septa is gently concave upward and is apparently dentate or spiculate. The faces of the primary septa bear small pointed granulations or spines . All of the septa thicken at the margin and form subequal nodulations or costulations of which there is one for each septum. In a number of calices a prominent directive lamina comprising part of the primary cycle i s present and intercepts the co lum ella. The col umell a is styliform; the tip is generally below the level of the surface and is often blunted. Measurements . Type (U.S.G.S. 3381 "a"): corallum length 30. 5 mm , maximum spread of branches 16.5 mm, diameters of main stem 10 mm x 8 mm . Paratype (U.S.G.S. 3381 "b"): corallum length 32. 5 mm, maximum spread of branches 22 mm, diameter of main stem I 0 mm. Para type (U.S.G.S . 3381 "C " ): corallum length 28 . 5 mm, maximum width 16 . 5 mm. Locality. Russell Spring , in Flint River near Bainbridge, Decatur County , Georgia . Chattahoochee Formation. Comparisons. So far as th e two can be compared , Styl o phora silic e nsis resembles Stylophora affinis Duncan (1846, p . 436, pl. 16 , fig. 14) fro m the Nivaje Shale (Upper Mio cene) of the Dominican Republic ; it differs from the Dominican species , in having a colline-like calicular margin instead of a sharp , ringlike one. Two species of Stylophora were recorded by Vaughan f rom the Chatta hoochee Formation at Russell Spring in the Flint River of Georgia , namely Stylophora minutissima ( 1900 , p . 131 , pl. 13, figs. 13-15) and Stylophora silicensis (1915, p. 18). S. silicensis was also reported by Vaughan (1915 , p. 18) to occur in the Tampa Formation of Florida at Ballast Point. Differentiation of the two species lies in the form of the corallum and the disposition of the calices : S. minutissima has slender branches mor e o r less circular in cross sec tion ,

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22 BUREAU OF GEOLOGY and oval to subcircular claices which are invariably separated and arranged parallel with the long axis of the branch in regular ascending sprials . The calices of S. silicensis, however, are circular and either irregularly disposed where separated or touching each other where serially disposed. The specimens of Stylophora in the Florida State University collection from Ballast Point and Six mile Creek are all referable to S. minutissima Vaughan. It should be mentioned here that there are also many points of similarity between Stylophora silicensis n. sp. and Stylophora imperatoris Vaughan (1919, p. 334, pl. 74, figs. 1-5) from the lower Miocene of the Panama Canal Zone , Anguilla, Trinidad , and the Chipola Formation of Florida (Weisbord , 1971 , pp . 15-17 , pl. 2, figs. 5-7 ; pl. 3, figs. 1-5). Unfortunately, available specimens of S. silicensis are too poorly preserved for definitive determination, but should the two species eventually prove to be identical , S. imperatoris will have priority. Acropora tampaensis, new species Pl. 3, figs. 1-3 ; pl. 4 , fig. 2 1915. Acropora tampaensis Vaughan , nomen nudum, in Dall, U.S . Nat. Mus.,Bull.90,p. 18. The original calcareous skeleton of this species has been replaced entirely by chalcedony or "silex" resulting in the obliteration of much of the original structure. However , it is known that the corallum is composed of branches , some of the later or younger ones bifurcating ; younger branches are roundish in cross section whereas the stem below the bifurcation are compressed elliptical and flattish on the sides. Due to breakage, replacement , or poor preservation , the character of the axial corallites cannot be discerned save for the presence of sturdy synapticulae connecting the septa. Most , if not all of the diverging corallites, however, are protuberant, projecting upward and outward, the highest one (on specimen TB -lla) extending about a millimeter or so above the level of the coenosteum. The calices vary considerably in size and are s wollen or thickened around the margin , the swelling averaging 0 .2 5 mm across. The smallest calices are subcircular in outline, the largest ones oval, the maximum diameters of all calices ranging from 0 .8 mm to 2.8 mm. The calices are both scattered and aligned in some fashion , the latter disposed subregularly along the long axis of the branch or in a slight s piral with it , or in some places athwart the branch. Generally the cal ices are separated from one another but the calicular margins of some are united in a short series. So far as can be determined there are two well developed cycles of septa and, to judge from the numerous costae on one of the larger corallites , there must be septa of the third cycle whi c h cannot be seen, for on corals generally there are th e same number of costae as there are septa, although the former are not necessarily the same in size or prominence as the latter. The primary septa of this species are a little larger than the secondaries and both are serrate along the margin and subspinose or granulated on the sides. The directive lamina i s by far

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BULLETIN NO . 56 23 the most pronounced of all the septa, the upper directive more promin ent than the lower. Thi s lamina effectively divides th e calice rendering it dimidiat e . Well within the calice, strong synapticulae connecting the sides of the septa are see n . Where they can be observed the costae are thick, subequal, moderate l y elevated, and apparently granulose; on the largest corallite th ere are about 24 costae but generally there are fewer than that on individuals of average size. The coenosteum is "porous", and depending on the 'vagaries of the replacement process appears granulate or reti c ulate or costulate. Measurements . -Paratype (TB -lla): branch length 44 mm, diameter at larger end 10 mm, diameter at smaller end 8.5 mm. P ara type (TB 1 I b): branch l ength 35 mm, diameter at larger end 10 mm, diameter at smaller end 8 mm. Sp ec imen TB 11c: stem length 46 mm, diameters 17 mm x 12 .5 mm. Locality. Ballast Point, west side of Hillsborough Bay , Hillsbor o ugh County , Florida. Comparisons. This species is not unlike Acropora panam ensis Vaughan (1919, p . 480, pl. 141, figs. 1 , I a, 1 b , 2) from the Emperador Limeston e (lower Miocene) of the Panama Canal Zone and from the P once Formation, Lares Limestone, and San Sebastian Shale (Oligocene to lower Miocene) of Puerto Ri co, according to Coryell and Ohlsen (1925, p. 220, pl. 40, fig. 2). On e major distinction between the two species is that the calices of Acropora tampa ensis are dimidiate whereas in A. panamemsis "no nariform or dimidiate apertures were o bserved." Compared with Acropora saludensis Vau g han (1 9 19 , pp. 480, 481 , pl. 141 , figs. 3, 3a, 4 , 4a), also from the Emperador Limeston e of the Panama Canal Zone and from the Oligocene Antigua Formation of Antigua, A. tampaensis has three cycles of septa whereas A. saludensis i s d esc ribed as having two. Also the coenosteum of A. saludensis is denser than that of A . tampaensis. Remarks. The type specimen originally n amed but not described officially by Vaughan is labeled " USNM 4999 Tampa" and is illustrat ed on plate 3 , figures 1, 2 of this report. It s measurements are the following: corallum (including main stem) length 80 mm, width across crotch 36 mm ; diameters of main s tem (slightly flattened) at middle 15 mm x 14 mm . Th e precise localit y in the Tampa area is not known but is presumed to be Ball ast Point. Coral lite s TB -11 a and TB -11 b (see above) a lthough sma ller than USNM 4999 are nearly as well preserved and are considered paratypes. Siderastrea banksi , new species Pl. 4 , fig. 3 ; pl. 5 , figs, I , 2 The five specimens are embedded in a whitish chalk. Th e cora lla are small to medium in size, massive and cerioid, with a globular to domal head and a smaller base ; one of them is plumply fig-shaped. All of the specime ns are highly calcareous and show evidence of secondary calcification but no silicification whatsoever. The ca lices are variously polygonal, tightly appressed, and shallow, although the summit areas of abutting calices are raised into low colli nes which are

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24 BUREAU OF GEOLOGY slightly depressed or flattened where the wall passes through. The wall separating the calices is very thin , about 0.15 mm or less. In the type (TSM 2a) the calices vary in diameter from 4 . 3 mm x 3.0 mm, with 44 septa, to 6.4 mm x 5.5 mm, with 48 septa . In the para type (TSM -2b) the range is 4.4 mm x 4 . 1 mm, with 40 septa , to 6 . 1 mm x 5 . 5 mm , with 54 septa . The septa occur in four nearly complete to complete c ycle s . with a few quinaries in the large st calices. On the head of the corallum the septa of adjacent calices abut at the wall where they may alternate or be confluent with each other. On the sides of the head and toward the base, however, the septa are all fluidly confluent , overrunning the walls of the calices beneath the stream and becoming in effect septocostae . This oddity is seen on all five of the specimens in our collection and is the principal character on which the new species is erected. The septa are platy or l aminar and wedge-shaped , being thickest at the wall and thinning toward the columella. The septa of the first two cycles are s ubequal and extend to the columella. Third cycle septa are only slightly smaller than the principals and join second cycle septa just before the columella , whereas the quaternaries fuse to the included tertiaries one-third to one-half the distance from the wall to the center of the cal ice ; fifth cycle septa , which are the smallest, fuse to the included quaternary ones. The margins of the septa are dentate and slope gently and rather uniformly to the calicular center. The dentations , of which there are 9 or so on a septum 2 . 1 mm in length , are blunt at and near the calicu l ar margin but become more acute and transversely compressed toward the colume lla. The faces of the septa are granu l ose and the larger ones also perforate . There are about 5 endotheca in one millimeter of length o n the septo-costae. The columella is s mall and vaguely papillary ; in places it is calcified into a slightly raised boss. Measurements. Type (TSM 2a): heigh t of corallum 25 mm .; length of head 33.5 mm , width 31.5 mm. P aratype (TSM 2b): height of corallum 1 6 mm. ; length of head 18.5 mm , width 16.5 mm. P aratype (TSM 2c) : height of corallum 11.6 mm , base 8.5 mm x 7 mm. ; length of head 14 mm, width 16 . 5 mm. Locality. Sixmile Creek south of Orient Park , Hillsborough County, Florida . According to Bank s the cora l s came from the lower part of the Tampa Formation excavated at this l oca lity , but probably from the upper beds of the Tampa, taking into account the total thickness of the Formation. Remarks. This species displays many of the characters of the Siderastrea siderea c omplex. However , it differs in two respects: first, the mature calices are much larger than those of S . siderea and other species , varying in size fro m one-fifth to one-third the maximum diameter of the corallum ; second is the presence of the stream of confl uent septo-costae on the upper sides of the corallum of S. banksi, a character not revealed on other species of the genus .

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BULLETIN NO. 56 25 Siderastrea banksi, n. sp . is named for geologist Joseph E. Banks who has collected and donated to Florida State University many fossil invertebrates and provided valuable and often new stratigraphic information concerning them. Siderastrea silecensis Vaughan Pl. 6, figs. 1-3; pl. 7 , figs. 1-3 1915. Siderastrea silicensis Vaughan, nomen nudum, in Dall, U.S. Nat. Mus., Bull. 90, p. 18. 1919. Siderastrea silecensis Vaughan, U.S. Nat. Mus., Bull ., vol. 103 , No.9,pp. 205,210,211,219,232,437,438, 447-450 , 451 , 453 , 517 ,pl.116,figs.1,1a,2,3;pl.117,figs.1,1a,1b;pl.l18,figs. 1 , Ia. 1925. Siderastraea silecensis Vaughan , Felix, Fossilium Catalogus 1: Anamalia, pars 28 , p. 133 . 1927. Siderastraea silecensis Vaughan, Felix, Fossilium Catalogus I : Anamalia, pars 35, p. 373 . Vaughan's origina l description of this species (1919, pp . 447,448, pl. 116 , figs. 1 , 1a) , from Wakulla , Florida , was the following : "Corallum massive , with domed upper surface . Greater diameter of specimen 170 mm. ; lesser diameter 140 mm.; thickness originally more than 85 mm. Calices polygonal , separating wall usually s ligh tly raised. The peripheral part of the septal margins is flattened , producing between adjacent calicu lar fossae a flat area which ranges from 0.5 to 1 . 5 mm. in width. Diameter of an adult calice , measured between thecal summits, 5 mm. ; some oblong calices as much as 7 mm. long and 5 mm. wide. Depth of calices, 1.5 mm. Septa, number in a calice 5 mm. in diameter, 50i.e. , 4 complete cycles and 2 quinaries ; in a calice 6 mm. l ong and 4.5 mm. wide , the number is 48, precisely 4 cycles. The usual number of septa i s 4 complete cycles , with a few quinaries in large calices. Around the calicular margins the septa are subequal in size, the outer ends of the quaternaries being only slightly smal l e r than those of the members of the l ower cycles . The interseptal spaces average slightly wider than the thickness of the septa. Within the calices the primarie s and seco ndari es are only faintly larger than the tertiaries . There i s the usual septal fusion of the tertiaries to the secondaries and quater naries to tertiaries , but the tertiaries may almost or actually reach the columella area while the quaternaries extend more than half way from the wall to the col umella. The upper flattened part of the septal margins is beaded ; within a distance of 1 mm., 5 rounded dentations were counted; between the place where the septa drop downward in the calicu l ar fossa and the columella the number of dentations on the long septa is between 8

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26 BUREAU OF GEOLOGY and 1 0 ; the total number on the large septa is, therefore, between 13 and 15. Synapticulae well developed, rather coarse, as would be expected from the relatively coarse septal trabeculae. Columella weakly developed; upper surface papillary, but in many instances crossed by directive septa which meet in the corallite axis. Locality and occurrence of type specimen.-Station 3694, pine woods , Waukulla, Florida . T. W. Vaughan collector; Chattahoochee Formation. Type. No. 325187, U.S.N.M." The corallum of S. silecensis assumes differing forms and sizes . One of the forms in the collection of the Florida Bureau of Geology (TB 12a), which Dr. Robert 0. Vernon recalls as having been collected in the Tampa area, is large, massive, and subconical, with a convex upper surface, tapering sides, and a base which is smaller than the head. The maximum diameter of this corallum is 230 mm on top. 190 mm at the base, and 210 mm in height. A better and more complete specimen is on display outside the main extrance of the Bureau's Herman Gunter Building in Tallahassee: this coral measures 585 mm x 43 5 mm above , 315 mm x 191 mm at the base, and is 545 mm in height. Both specimens have been completely silicified. Two specimens from Davis Islands (TD 2a, 2b) have also been replaced by siliceous material. The corallum of TD-2a is hemispherical above and truncated at the base. The corallum of TD 2b is domal above, with a flattened summit and an acutely tapering base. A number of large fragments (SM13) collected in Sixmile Creek by Dr. Harbans S. Puri are also identified as Siderastrea silecensis Vaughan. These particular corals are massive, light gray in color , with a moderately convex upper surface and gently tapering sides to form what must have been a large conical coral. The upper surface is siliceous whereas the interior is partly siliceous and partly calcareous. The calices of TB12a were normally moderately deep but appear shallow because of corrosion. They are closely appressed, polygonal in outline (most of them hexagonal or pentagonal, but an occasional one tetragonal or heptagonal), variable in shape and size, and separated by a thin but prominent wall. Where well preserved, the summits of contiguous calices are rounded and a little elevated , and the top of the wall hidden from view . Average diameters of the calices from summit to summit vary from 3.5 mm x 4 mm, with 44 septa , to 5 mm x 7 mm, with 68 septa. Generally there are four cycles of septa and , depending on the size of the calices , a number of them in the fifth. The primary and secondary septa are subequal and only slightly larger than the tertiaries. The quaternary and quinary septa are small and extend only part way to the columella . There is the usual septal fusion of tertiaries to secondaries and quaternaries to tertiaries, the latter occurring half way between the wall and the columella, the former occurring just before the columella area . The free margin

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BULLETIN NO . 56 27 of the septa is dentate, the dentations numbering about 10 in 3 mm of l ength. The sides of the septa are coarsely granulated. The synapticulae are well de veloped. The surface of the columella i s papillary. Although the coralla of specimens TD2a and TD-2b from Davis Islands are co nsider a bly smaller than that of TB 12a , the calices are somewhat l arge r , varying from 4 mm x 4 mm, with 44 septa to 10 mm x 6 .5 mm, with 88 septa. The smaller septa join the next larger a t a very acute angle as in Siderastrea confe rta (Duncan). On the margin of a primary setpum 4 mm in l e n gth o n spec imen TD-2a there are some 12 dentations, the dentations relatively large at the wall, prog ressively smaller toward the columella. The granules o n the faces of the septa a r e distin c t and aligned in close radial columns. On specimens TSM 13a and TSM 13b from Sixmile Creek , the ca li ces are variously p o lygonal , ranging from 5 mm t o 8 .5 mm in long diameter. A typical cal ice of specimen TSM -3b is 7.6 mm in long diameter and has 6 4 septa in five cy cles ; the largest septum in thi s calice is 3.4 mm in length, bearing about 12 dentations on the margin and 4 or 5 synapticulae in one millimeter of length on the face. Where mineralized material has been deposited in the mesentarial spaces between the septa, th e interseptal casts thus produced m ay b e perforated. These perforation s are the r esult of contact with synapticulae and granulations o n the sides of the septa. According to Puri the TSM 13 specimens were found loose b.ut probably came from beds 4 to 6 in composite section "C". Measurements. -Specimen TD2a: length of corallum 74 mm, width 67 mm, height 52 mm. Specimen TD-2b : length of corallum 81 mm, width 73 mm, height 51 mm. Specimen TSM -13a: height 143 mm, length 130 mm, width 103 mm. Localities. -The localities in the Tampa area in which Sid e rastr e a silecensis Vaughan has been found are Ballast Point on the west shore of Hillsb o rough Bay, Davi s Island s at the north end of Hillsborough Bay , and Six mil e Creek east of Hillsbor o ugh B ay . Range and distribution . Siderastr e a silecensis Vaughan occurs in the Chatta hoochee Formation of south Georgia and north Florida, and in the Tampa and Hawthorn Formations of west Florida. The following localities were listed by Vaughan : I. Wakulla , Wakulla County, Florida, in pine woods, station 3694. Type locality . Type specimen No. 325187, U . S . National Mu seu m. Chatta hoochee Formation . 2. Plant City, Hillsborough County, Fl o rida. Coronet phosphate mine , sta tion 6043. Alum Bluff Formation [=Hawthorn Formation] 3. Withlacoochee River , 3 miles below Valdosta, Lowndes County, Georgi a , station 6084. Chattahoochee Formation. 4 . Flint River at Little Horse Shoe Bend, 4 miles below Bainbridge , Decatur County, Georgia . Chattahoochee Formation.

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28 BUREAU OF GEOLOGY 5. Ballast Point, Hillsborough County, Florida , station 7754. Tampa Lime stone. The Tampa Limestone and the Chattahoochee Formation are thought to be early Miocene in age, the Hawthorn early to middle Miocene. Comparisons. Among the severa l variants mentioned by Vaughan , our TD 2 specimens from Davis Island s and TSM-13 specimens from Sixmile Creek are closest to the Siderastrea silecensis Vaughan from the Coronet phosphate mine, locality No. 2 , above , and to Siderastrea conferta (Duncan) (1863 , p. 422, pl. 14, fig. 2) from the Oligocene and Miocene of Antigua, Anguilla, the Panama Canal Zone , and Puerto Rico. The main difference between S. silecensis and S . conferta is that the denticles on the margins of the septa are more numerous per unit of length on S. conferta. Porites fl.oridaeprim.a Bernard PI. 8, figs. 1-3; pl. 9 , figs. 1-4 ; pl. 10, figs. 1-3 1906 . Porites Floridae prima Bernard, Catalogue of the Madreporarian Corals in the British Museum (Natural History) , vol. 6 , II: The genusPorites, pt. 2, pp. 18, 71, 126, 136 , 142, pl. 12, fig. 2. 1915. Porites willcoxi Vaughan, nomen nudum, in Dall, U.S. Nat. Mus. , Bull. 90, p. 18. 1919. Porites willcoxi Vaughan, nomen nudum, U.S. Nat. Mus., Bull. 103, No.9, p. 211. 1925. Porites Floridae prima Bernard, Felix , Fossilium Catalogus 1: Anamalia, pars 28, p. 273. I am indebted to the British Museum (Natural History) and to R. F. Wise of its Palaeontology Department for providing me with recent photographs of the type of this species. Bernard's original description of it was the following: " 56. Porites Florida 1. (P. Floridae prima.) (PI. XII. fig. 2.) [Tampa Bay, Ballast Point (Miocene); British Museum] Description. -The corallum rose on a stem about 2 em . thick, and early divided into an irregular whorl of 3 or more branchlets , the individuals of which bend up immediately into a close cluster, and become new stems. They vary greatly in thickness, from 2 em. to 1 em. These again, when they have room, divide into fresh whorls, branchlets from neighbouring whorls fusing together. Where there is no room for development, branchlets may be early aborted, and persist only as slight excrescences, or as mammilate processes. The edges of the living layer, which was at least 9 em. deep, tended to creep down over the dying basal stems. The calicles were distinctly depressed, and about 1.25 to 1.5 mm. in diameter. The walls appear to have consisted almost entirely of smooth, wavy flakes , not very porous, nor very much incised laterally , the septa starting as very fine thin points standing out rather sharply and suddenly from the edges of the flake, with only slight incurving between them. These sharp, thin septa seem seldom to have been free, but curved round irregularly to join the wavy flakes

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BULLETIN NO. 56 29 which rose in the calicle as the columellar tangle . The symmetry seems to have been entirely confined to the rings of rounded interseptal loculi. In the section, very thin , but fairly regular trabeculae can be seen , but the thin , wavy , lamellate , horizontal layers are very marked. This specimen is a silicified Miocene fossil which presents morphological features of very great interest. The details are difficult to obtain , but what can be made of its growth-form shows traces of an irregular whorl formation already noted , as perhaps consisting of three prongs , e .g. P . Belize I, p. 67. Here they may be due to the terminal swellings, dividing not into 2 , but into 3 , 4 , or 5 prongs , which then bend up into the vertical , perhaps fusing with those of neighboring whorls. This is again one of the few branching Porites at present known with the horizontal elements of the skeleton so markedly lamellate , that it shows in the structure of the calicles at the surface ( cf. P. W e st Indies X. 17, and Pl. V. fig. 5) . I assume that the surface exposed was the original true surface ; it certainly looks like it, inasmuch as each calicle still shows as a depression. It would certainly be of interest to search among the living Porites in the neighbourhood of Tampa to find if this remarkable form has any survivors . Such characters as these would be easy to recognize. Geol. Dept. R . 2343." Measurements.-As near a s can be determined from the photographs of the holotype (R.2343) the corallum is 120 mm in height and 75 mm in maximum width . The number of septa is I 0 to 15 , for a median of 12 , as counted on plate 9, figures 3 and 4. Type locality. Ballast Point , west side of Hillsborough Bay , Hillsborough County, Florida. Type specimen.-British Museum (Natural History) . Geol. Dept. R. 2343 . Remarks.-A number of coral specimens (TB 6a , TB -IOa, lOb) in the Florida State University collection from Ballast Point as well as two specimens with the unpublished manuscript name of "Porites willcoxi Vaughan , 3 2 86 , Tampa" in the U . S . National Museum should all be referred to Porites jloridaeprima Bernard. My description of Porites jloridaeprima Bernard, based on an examination of the coralla enumerated above and comparison with the excellent photographs furnished me by the British Museum (Natural History) , is as follows : All of the coralla from Ballast Point are siliceous and branching . Of the two specimens labeled Porite s willcoxi Vaughan , the smaller is swollen at the crotch and the branches broken away ; the larger specimen is a subcylindrical compressed trunk or stock which is prolonged into two united parallel branches. The latter corallum closely resembles Bernard ' s illustration of Porites jloridaeprima on his plate 12 , figure 2 . Other specimens in the Florida State University c ollection are represented by broken branches of various design , among them TB 1 Ob which is club-shaped.

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30 BUREAU OF GEOLOGY The calices of specimens 3286 are small ( 1.3 mm to 2.0 mm in long diameter) , polygonal in outline (hexagonal, pentagonal, subquadrilateral, or diamond-shaped) , and generally arranged in gently arcuate or curved rows with , in one row for example, 10 tightly joined calices in 13 mm of length. Normally the calices are deep with a large circular central cavity and vertical sides. The calices on a worn down surface, however, are very shallow and resemble rosettes by virtue of the petal-shaped spaces between the septa. The summit are as or calicular margins of the fully developed calices are thick, costulate, and coarsely perforate. There are two complete or nearly complete cycles of septa, with one to four minor septa in the third cycle . Except for the small intercalaries , the septa are prominent, subequal and ragged, the margins serrate or denticulate but also with disconnected spiny process or tubules projecting into the calicular cavity. In places the septa unite into pairs or triads , and there is normally one paliform nodulation on the margin of each primary septum just before the columella. The faces of the septa are narrow and are connected by sturdy synapticulae which when broken appear as tubules or elongated granulations . Perforations are present between the septa , these continuing to the base of the calice where they form the conspicuous rosette mentioned above . The columella is very small, sunken, and also perforate; however, the co lumell a is often recrystallized into a smal l plug with a minute tubercle on it. A thin , inconspicuous , directive lamina with small dentations on the margin is present in a number of calices . The lamin a may pass through the center of the col umell ar area or a little to the side of it. In cross section the corallum branch is typically poritid with five or six ce lls in one millimeter of length and four or five rods in one millimeter of width. Measurements. -Paratypes (U.S. National Museum specimens numbered 3286, P o rites willcoxi Vaughan) : larger corallum height 60 mm, width at base 32 mm , thickness at middle 2 1 mm. Smaller corallum height 35 mm, maximum width 36.5 mm, maximum thickness 22 mm. Specimen TB 6a: cora llum (bifurcate branch) height 27 mm, maximum width 18 mm, diameters of main branch II mm x 9. 5 mm. Specimen TB -IOa: corallum (compressed branch) height 18 mm, width, 14 . 5 mm, thickness 9.5 mm. Specimen TB lOb : coral lum (club-shaped) height 18 mm, diameters at larger end 10 mm x 7.5 mm, diameters at smaller end 6.5 mm x 6.0 mm. Observations . The distinguishing characters of Porites fl.oridaeprima Ber nard are the growth form of the corallum , the orientation of many of the calices in a connected series of rows , and the small size of the ca lices compared with other species . Goniopora aucillana, new species Pl. 33 , fig. I ; pl. 34, fig . I , pl. 35 , fig . I The cora llum is massive , columniform, composed of convex plates built on,

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BULLETIN NO. 56 31 and draped over one another in a subhorizontal position of growth; the upper plate of specimen AU I a here described is thicker in the middle (about 30 mm) than on the sides and is flattish to slightly undulated on top. The calices are variously polygonal in outlin e and moderately shallow, their margins subnodulous and united to each other. The diameters range from 3.1 mm to 3.4 mm and depths from about 1.0 mm to 1.3 mm . The wall between the calices is rarely visible but where revealed it is laminar , about 0 .15 mm in thickness , and sparse ly and finely spinose. Generally there is no well-defined boundary to the calices, the area or colline between them consisting of a l ayer of synapticula e on either side of the hidden wall. This imparts a perforate appearance to the co llines . Depending somewhat on the size of the calice, the number of septa varies from 14 to 24, the full normal complement being 24 in three cycles. The septa are well developed , subequal in size, and wedge-shaped , that is, wider near the wall where the denticulations are more luxuriant, and tapering therefrom toward the co lumella. The normal arrangement, apparent but rarely , is six primary septa extending to the axis, with a trident between each of them , the tridents consisting of a secondary septum joined on either side by a tertiary septum. The margins of the septa are strongly dentate, with about five frondose denticles on the longer septa. The denticles become smaller inward , and the last one at the columella resembles a pointed palus . The sides of the septa are perforated and granulated , the granulations robust. The columella is small and hardly distinguishable as such. Where the columellar area is calcified, it is papillate , the papillae small. The directive plane is rarely seen but is present. Synapticulae are numerous, fine, and regular , about six of them in a millimeter of l ength. Measurements.-Corallum height 70 mm, maximum diameter of head 65 mm, diameter at base 45 mm. Locality. -The single specimen AU-la was collected in March 1971 by Joseph E . Banks in a road metal pit west of Cabbage Grove , Taylor County , in the vicinity of the Aucilla River (where it runs underground). Formation and Age. Suwannee Limestone. Upper Oligocene . Remarks. -Of the 13 species of Goniopora described by Duncan (1863), Vaughan (1919), and Coryell and Ohlsen (1920) from southeastern United States and the circum-Caribbean region, the new species most closely resembles Goniopora decaturensis Vaughan (1919, pp. 490, 491, pl. 143, figs. 1 , Ia) from the base of the Chattahoochee Formation in the Flint River , Georgia, and Goniopora imperatoris Vaughan (1919, pp . 493, 494, pl. 142 , figs. 3, 3a) from the Emperador Limestone of the Pan ama Canal Zone . So far as can be determined from the literature G. decaturensis differs from G. aucillana, n . sp. in having a well developed columella tangle. On G. imperatoris the columella tangle is also l arge and well developed , forming "a flattish bottom to the calices, width about one-half the calicular diameter"; the columella of G. aucillana , however , is very small.

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32 BUREAU OF GEOLOGY Goniopora decaturensis Vaughan occurs in the lower Miocene of Georgia and Cuba and in the San Sebastian Formation (Oligocene) and Ponce Limestone (upper Oligocene-lower Miocene) of Puerto Rico. Goniopora imperatoris Vaughan occurs in the basal Miocene of the Panama Canal Zone, in the lower Miocene of Anguilla, and in the San Sebastian Formation and Ponce Limestone of Puerto Rico . Goniopora ballistensis, new species Pl. 10, figs. 4, S;pl. 11, figs. 1-3; pl. 12, figs . 1 , 2 1915 . Goniopora ballistensis Vaughan, nomen nudum, in Dall , U.S. Nat. Mus., Bull. 90, p. 18. This species is described below from a very poorly preserved specimen in the U.S. National Museum labeled "Goniopora ballistensis Vaughan , 3286, Tampa" and from TB 7a and TB-7b in the Florida State University collection from Ballast Point ; the latter represent the same species as that named by Vaughan in his unpublished manuscript but show the septal details better than the USNM example above . The chalcedonized corallum of TB7a consists of a large, broken , partially hollow trunk which bifurcates into two branches, these separated from the trunk by a plate-like growth upon them. The calices are shallow and obtusely polygonal in outline , most of them 2 . 0 mm in greater diameter but an occasional one a little smaller or a little larger, the largest 2.3 mm. The calicular margins are closely united, the mural summits perforate and markedly costate. The septa are thick , ragged , and subequal, the number 14 to 18, the median 15. They are united in doublets and triplets before reaching the columella , or occur as singlets which reach the columella. The margins and sides of the septa are strongly granulose , and there is a palar ring around the columella consisting of five or six papillate pali, or one at the end of each primary septum. The synapticulae are well developed and there are three rings of them in the wall. The columella is very small, often fused, with a more or less central tubercle projecting from it ; normally the columella is trabecular. The directive plane is not clearly displayed although in a few calices there is a suggestion of its presence. In cross section the branches are pori tid in character , with about five cells per millimeter of length and with about seven rods in one millimeter of width . Measurements. Type specimen (TB 7a) : broken corallum heigl1t 65 mm, width 59 mm, breadth (reonstructed) about 46 mm ; diameters of trunk (reconstructed) 42 mm x 31 mm; branches 24 mm x 20 mm and 21 mm x 21 mm. C o type (USNM 3286) : the corallum is built up of plates compres s ed into a tapering trunk 48 . 5 mm wide and 25 mm thick below , about 26 mm in diameter in the branch-like attenuation above ; the height is 106 mm. Paratype (TB 7b):

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BULLETIN NO. 56 33 the corallum is a large , oval, and hollow trunk 63 mm high, 51 mm wide and 45 mm thick; it is built up of thin plates. Locality . Ballast Point , west side of Hillsborough Bay, Hillsborough County , Florida. Formation and Age. Tampa Limestone (lower Miocene) . Comparison.-The form of the corallum and the calices of Goniopora ballistensis are similar to Porites angu.illensis Vaughan (1919 , pp. 504 , 505 , pl. 149, figs. 1, la, lb) from the lower Miocene of Anguilla and the Panama Canal Zone. The principal difference seems to be in the number of septa , the normal being 12 in P. angu.illensis, 15 in G. ballistensis. Goniopora cf. G. decaturensis Vaughan Pl. 13, figs. 1-3 1919. Goniopora decaturensis Vaughan , U.S. Nat. Mus., Bull. 103 , No. 9,pp. 205,234,235,346,490, 491, 522,pl. 143 ,figs. 1 , la. 1925. Goniopora decaturensis Vaughan , Felix, Fossilium Catalogus I: Animalia, pars 28, pp . 276 , 277. 1929. Goniopora decaturensis Vaughan, Coryell and Ohlsen , New York Acad. Sci., Scientific Survey of Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands, vol. 3, pt. 3, pp. 169 , 172 , 223, pl. 40, fig. 7 The corallum is a gently convex silicified plate 2.5 mm to 6.5 mm thick , welded to a chalcedonized base 4 mm to 6 mm in thickness. The lateral expansion far exceeds the thickness , measuring 45 mm by 34 mm. The specimen here described (TB 8a) represents part of the upper layer of a large and tall corallum built up of successive plates from which TB8a was broken off along a natural growth plane and later replaced by chalcedony. The upper surface has scarcely any relief due to the shallowness of the calices. The calices are obtusely polygonal in outline and superficial , varying from 2.0 mm to 3.0 mm in greater diameter, wHh a median of 2.4 mm . Where it can be observed, the wall is sturdy and laminar, with a thickness of about 0.1 mm , but in most instances a well defined boundary between the calices cannot be discerned. The mural summits are preforate, and this combined with the reticulate nature of the peripheral rows of synapticulae impart a cellular appearance to the surface of the corallum. The septa vary in number from 18 to 26, the median 22. There is not much difference in the size of the septa although there is in length, with the tertiaries the shortest. In arrangement the six primary septa extend to the columella, with a triplet group of secondary and two tertiaries between a pair of primaries. In some calices a directive lamina running straight through the axis seems to be present, but preservation is too imperfect to reveal the details. The margins of the septa are denticulate , with about six dentations on the longer ones. The faces of the septa are granulose, the granulations large and coarse, and pointed to tubular. The longitudinal section along the edge of the corallum plate is poritid in nature, and there are four cells in one millimeter of length and one millimeter of width .

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34 BUREAU OF GEOLOGY The columella is a lax tangle formed from the inner ends of the septa . In a few calices the columella seems to be partially surrounded by a palar ring , and in yet another calice there is a small tubercle in the center of the columellar tangle. The axial area of a number of calices is fused. Measurements. Specimen TB 8a: corallum head length 43 mm, width 37 mm, thickness 2.5 mm to 6.5 mm. Locality and age. Ballast Point, west side of Hillsborough Bay , Hillsborough County, Florida. Tampa Formation (lower Miocene). Remarks. The Tampa specimen described above seems so close to Goniopora decaturensis Vaughan from the Flint River, Georgia that it is referred to that species. However , neither the type of G. decaturensis nor the specimen TB -8a is well enough preserved to be certain of the identity. Range and distribution. The type of Goniopora decaturensis (No. 325031 U.S . National Museum) was collected by Vaugl1an at Blue Springs, 4 miles below Bainbridge , Flint River , Decatur County, Georgia , in the base of the Chatta hoochee Formation. The species has also been found on Mogote Peak at Guantanamo, Cuba , and in the San Sebastian Shale (Oligocene) and Ponce Formation (upper Oligo ce ne-lower Miocene) of Puerto Rico . Goniopora matsoni, new species Pl. 12 , figs . 3-6; pl. 14 , figs. 1-3 1915. Gonipora matsoni Vaughan , nomen nudum , in Dall , U.S . Nat. Mus. , Bull. 90, p . 1 8. The following description is based on two specimens in the U .S. National Museum labeled " Goniopora matsoni Vaughan, Tampa No . 6546" in Vaughan 's handwriting , and on s pecimens in the Florida State University collection from Ballast Point and Sixmile Creek , Hillsborough County, Florida. All of the coralla are broken bifurcating branches completely replaced by c ryptocrystalline quartz or chalcedony. The type is the smaller of the two specimens numbered 6546 U.S . National Museum and is a robust ste m , hollow within , and subelliptical in cross section. The cotype, TB 5a, is part of a mach larger branching corallum, subcircular in cross section but filled within and revealing the cellular structure of the corallum. Although the calices appear to be subcircular on weathered surfaces, they are normally polygonal , the long diameters varying from 1 .9 mm to 2.8 mm for a m e dian of 2.6 mm. In outline the calices are hexagonal , pentagonal , and occasionally quadrilateral, and tend to occur in longitudinal , somewhat curving ser ies ; one such series on specimen TB 5a is 25 mm in length and consists of 9 calices in continuum. The calices are shallow and there are low rounded co llines of a porose reticulum about one millimeter in width betwe en adjacent margins ; where uncorroded, the calicular margins are seen to be nodulous or cost ulated , the costules corresponding to the outer ends of the septa. There are 12 coarse septa of nearly equal size in two complete cycles with 2 o r 3 rudimentary ones joining their respective principals close to the margin

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BULLETIN NO. 56 35 of the calice. The septa are strongly denticulate on the margin , the denticles frondose, spinulose, laminar, or paliform . There are usually four such denticle s from the wall to the columella, the innermost of which may be higher than the others and form a ring of pali around the columella; three to six of these pali at the termini of the primary septa have been counted. On specimen TB-Sa there seems to be a directive plane represented by an elongated septum running through the columella to which may be attached a columellar tubercle. The sides of the septa bear a few large pointed granulations representing detached synapticulae. Large perforations are everywhere around calcinal centers of the wall, on the collines, on the faces of the septa, and within the columella. The columella is very small , sunken, and lax , and in the middle of it there may be a palus-like tubercle. In cross section the corallum exhibits the typical cellular structure of the poritids , with about five cells in one millimeter of length. Measurements. Type (6546 "a" USNM): corallum (branch) length 31 mm, maximum diameter 26 mm, diameter at middle of branch 15 mm. Paratype (6546 "b" USNM): corallum (divaricating branches) height 45 mm , maximum width 38 mm, diameters of trunk 26 mm x 20 mm, diameters of larger branch 1 9 mm x 16.5 mm . Specimen TSM 12a: cor allum fragment (branching), height 39.5 mm, maximum width 30 mm, diameters of branch 12 . 5 mm x 10 mm. Cotype (TB Sa): branch height 32.5 mm , diameters at ends 14 mm x 13 mm and 15 mm x 13 mm. Localities. According to Vaughan ( 1915) this species was collected in the "silex bed " of the Tampa region. The name "silex bed" was formerly applied to the deposit at Ballast Point on the west side of Hillsborough Bay , and that is the location of TB Sa. Two poorly preserved specimens (TSM 12a and 12b) from Sixmile Creek east of Hillsborough Bay are also referred to Goniopora matsoni, n. sp. Comparisons.-It is difficult to determine whether Goniopora mats oni, n. sp. sho uld be referred to Goniopora or Porites; I am calling the taxon Goniopora because Vaughan did , and Vaughan in turn was influenced by Bernard who believed that poritids with even a few short tertiary septa should be named Goniopora, relegating the genus Porites to poritids with two cycles of septa only. Goniopora matsoni is similar to two species also named by Vaughan : Goniopora clevei Vaughan (1919, pp. 496, 497, pl. 145 , figs . 1-6a) and P o rites toulai Vaughan (1919, pp . 501, 502, pl. 150, figs. 1 4). Goniopora clevei occurs in the Antigua Formation (Oligocene) of Antigua , the Emperador Limestone (basal Miocene) of the Panama Canal Zone , and the Anguilla Formation (lower Miocene) of Anguilla . The difference between G. clevei and G. matsoni is that the former has a much larger columellar tangle. Porites toulai occurs in the Emperador Limestone of the Panama Canal Zone , the Lares Limestone and San Sebastian Formation (Oligocene) of Puerto Rico ,

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36 BUREAU OF GEOLOGY and the Ponce Limestone (upper Oligocene-lower Miocene) also in Puerto Rico. P. toulai bears a few minor tertiary septa like G. matsoni but seems to lack the low collines between adjacent calices such as are present on G. matsoni. Should the two species eventually prove to be identical , P. toulai has priority . Goniopora tampaensis, new species Pl. 15 , figs. I , 2 1915. Goniopora tampaensis Vaughan, nomen nudum, in Dall , U . S . Nat. Mus., Bull. 90, p . 18 . The following description is based on Vaughan's unpublished manuscript type No . 2084 from Ballast Point , Hillsborough County, Florida. The specimen is siliceous and the surface drusy so that details are obscured. The corallum is hemispherical , the upper surface a little convex and undulated, the sides inflated, the base concave and concentrically ringed with lamelliform plates . The calices are shallow, variously polygonal (pentagonal, hexagonal , and rudely tetragonal) , and tightly appressed to each other. The calicular margins are nodulous or costulate, rendered so by the thickening there of the septa and their short conterminous costae. There is no reticulum between the calices. The number of septa varies from 22 to 32 in three generally complete cycles , with a few in the fourth cycle. The septa of the first three cycles are prominent and nearly equal , the primaries the larger, the secondaries and tertiaries diminishing slightly in size according to the order of their insertion. The margins of the septa are rather coarsely denticulate , with seven or eight denticles in the longest septum measuring 1.4 mm. Most of the denticles save the innermost are subspinose or elongated athwart the margin imparting an erose effect to it. On the principal septa , or those of the first two cycles reaching the columella , there are one or two large papilliform pali just before the columella. The faces of the septa are narrow and bear a few small granulations. A directive lamina is present in some of the calices but their arrangement cannot be made out. The columella is very small and seemingly papillate. Measurements.-Type (2084 U.S . National Museum) : corallum length 44 mm, width 32 mm, height 24 mm. The long diameters of the calices vary from 1 . 8 to 4.6 mm, the average about 4 mm. Locality .-Ballast Point, west side of Hillsborough Bay , Hillsborough C ounty, Florida. Remarks. G o niopora tampaensis n . s p . is characteri z ed by it s c o mpara tively numerous septa, s mall papillate columella , absence of reticulum , and the occurrence of large pali at the inner ends of the principal septa .

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BULLETIN NO. 56 37 Alveopora tampae, new species Pl. 6, figs. 4-6 ; pl. 7 , figs. 4 , 5 1915 . Alveopora tampae Vaughan , nomen nudum, in Dall , U.S. Nat. Mus., Bull. 90, p . 18 . The "type" of Vaughan ' s manuscript named Alveopora tampae has not been seen by me , but I rather suspect that the specimen in the U . S . National Museum labeled "Alveopora , U.S . Geol. Survey , Oligocene , No . 2115 , Hillsboro Bay, Florida , Burns" represents the same species . The description of Specimen No. 2115 which is silicified , poorly preserved , and attached to the base of a solitary coral, is as follows . The corallum is small, massive and cerioid, with an oval swollen head which is flattish on top, and with gently tapering sides. The calices are relatively small , deep, and variously polygonal (although generally hexagonal) in outline, and united at the calicular margins . The long diameter of the average calice is 1.85 mm . The calicular margins are nodulous at the intercepts of the septa and conterminous costae. The coenosteum is thick and perforated and there are perforations on the summits of calices and in the walls. Where the costae are visible they are thick and nearly equal in size. There are three cycles of septa , the third cycle incomplete . The principal septa are coarse, the minor ones less so , and consist of interrupted columns of projections , spines, and tubules . In come calices a strong directive trabecula crossing the columellar area is present. A specimen in the Florida State University collection from Sixmile Creek east of Hillsborough Bay is also referred to Alveopora tampae. Th e Sixmile Creek corallum (TSM 11a) is calcareous and shaped like an irregular mushroom, with a flattish undulatory surface and a thick stubby subcylindri cal stalk. The columella, not visible on U.S.G.S. specimen 2115 , appears to be formed on TSM 11a by the union of the inner ends of the principal septa. Measurements. Type (U.S.G.S. 211 5) : corallum height approximately 19 mm , diameters of head 20 mm x 14 mm; the long diameter s of the calices vary from 1.2 mm to 2.1 mm. Paratype (TSM 11a): corallum height 24.5 mm , length and width of upper surface 28 mm x 25 mm, maximum diameter of "stalk " 20 mm ; the long diameter of the mature calice varies from 2.4 mm to 2.8 mm. Localities.-The type (U.S.G .S. 211 S) is from Hillsborough Bay and was collected by Frank Burns. As the specimen is siliceous it is inferred that it was collected from the " Tampa silex" deposit at Ballast Point on the west side of Hillsborough Bay. The paratype (TSM 11a) was collected by Joseph E. Banks in Six mile Creek east of Hillsborough Bay. Observations.-lt may be noted on the illustrations of U.S.G.S. 2 115 that a portion of it is veneered by what seems to be a wrinkled eiptheca . In actuality this veneer coats both the solitary coral attached to the underside of Alveopora tampae and the base of A. tampae itself, having encroached thereon during the concurrent growth of both species. A similar thick concentrically

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38 BUREAU OF GEOLOGY lineated coating is present on the columnar base of TSM11a, but on this specimen the epitheca, if indeed it is a true epitheca, is developed on the paratype itself. Favites yborensis, new species Pl. 16, figs. 1-3 1915. Maeandra tampaensis Vaughan , nomen nudum, in Dall, U.S. Nat. Mus., Bull. 90, p. 18 . The following description is based on a single corallum in the U.S. National Museum labeled "Maeandra tampaensis Vaughan , 4999" from the silex bed of the Tampa Formation. The corallum has been replaced completely by siliceous material and many details of structure have been obliterated or altered . The corallum is massive , subconical, and cerioid, with a gently convex upper surface and tapering sides. The tightly appressed corallites are of small diameter , narrowly columnar in length , polygonal in cross section, ahd convergent toward the base. The calices are variously polyonal (hexagonal to angularly subelliptical), and range in size from about 3 . 5 mm to 6 . 5 mm in long diameter. Although on normal, uncorroded examples they may be deeper, the calices of the designated type are shallow. the calicular margins are slightly elevated, rather acute, and somewhat nodulous , the nodul at ions produced by the thickening of the septa at the margin . A few calices have two or three centers , suggesting reproduction by marginal fission. The number of septa varies from 18 in a calice 3.5 mm in long diameter to 34-36 in a calice 7.5 mm in length , the latter enclosing three centers. In most calices the principal septa are secondarily thickened throughout by the siliceous precipitate but normally they are thin and subequal, the secondaries only slightly smaller than the prim ar ies. In one of the larger calices , the tertiary septa are seen joining the secondaries near the ca licular margin , and the secondaries uniting with the primaries farther within. Only the largest septa reach the co lumella. Well within the corallum there are pairs of very thin parallel lamellae running lengthwise between some of the principal septa, and it is these septa that appear in cross section as threads in the filled in interseptal spaces. The major septa are a little exsert , lobulate above , very narrow toward the center. The margins are coarely beaded on the lobulate area , lacerate to acutely toothed below. In some calices there appear to be a few nodular pali around the columellar area but this is not clear. The faces of the septa are finely granulated, the granulations or trabeculae aligned in closely spaced columns . There is one costa for each septum , the costae coarse , strongly granulated, and nearly equal in size. The columella is very small and seems to consist of a twist or tangle of the inner ends of the primary septa. Where the center of the columella is recrystallized into a smooth plug, there may be a minute tubercle or two on it. An occasional calice is traversed by a directive lamina , the upper margin of which is finely toothed. The endotheca is well developed and widely spaced, with two elongated cells in one millimeter of length.

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BULLETIN NO. 56 39 Measurements. Specimen 4999, U.S. National Musuem (type): corallum length 68 mm, width 41 mm, height 44 mm. Formation and locality. Tampa silex bed at Ballast Poin t, west side of Hillsborough Bay, Hillsborough County, Florida. Comparison. The type specimen closely resembles the illustration of Favites mexicana Vaughan (1919, pp . 414, 415 , pl. 103, figs. 2 , 2a) from the Oligocene San Rafael Formation of Mexico. Other than the fact that Vaughan who knew both species considered them distinct , F. mexicana Vaughan may perhaps be distinguished from F. yborensis n. sp . by its larger columella and more numerous septa in calices of comparab l e size. Montastrea annularis (Ellis and Solander) P1.17,figs.1-3;pl.18, figs.1 3 ; pl. 19, figs. I , 2 1766 . Madrepora acropora Linnaeus , Systema Naturae , ed. 12 , p. 1276 . [Fid e Vaughan, 1901, p . 22.] 1786. Madrepora annularis E llis and So lander, The Natural History of . . . Zoophytes, p . 169 , pl. 53 , figs. 1, 2. 1786 . Madrepora faveolata Ellis and So lander , The Natural History of ... Zoophytes, p. 166 , pl. 53 , figs. 5, 6. [Fide Vaughan , 1919 , p. 364.] 1791. Madrepora acropora Gmelin , Systema Naturae , ed . 13, pt. 6 , p . 3767. 1791. Madrepora faveolata Gmelin , Systema Naturae , ed . 13, p . 3769 . 1797 . Madrepora acropora Linnaeus, Esper, Fortzetzungen Pflanzen thiere, vol. I, p. 21, pl. 38. 1816. Astrea annularis (Elli s and Solander) , Lamarck , Hist. Nat. Anim. sans Vert., vol. 2, p. 259. 1821. Astrea annularis (Ellis and Solander), Lamouroux , Exposition Methodique des ... Polypiers , p . 58 , pl. 53 , figs. I , 2. 182I . Astre a faveolata (Ellis and Solander) , Lamour o ux , Exposition Methodique des . . . Polypiers , p. 58 , pl. 53 , figs. 5 , 6. 1824. Astrea annularis (Ellis and Solander), Lamouroux , Enc yclopedie Methodique , vol. 2 , p. 13I. 1827. Astrea annularis (Ellis and Solander) , Bory de St. Vincent , in Bruguiere, Encyclopedie Methodique, pt. 2, pl. 486, figs. I, 2. 1830. Astrea annularis (Ellis and Solander) , Blainville , Dictionnaire des Sciences Naturelles , vol. 60, p . 324. 1834 . Explanaria annularis (Ellis and Solander) , Ehrenberg, K. Akad . Wiss. Berlin , Phys. Abhandl. 1832, p. 308. 1834. Astrea annularis (Ellis and Solander) , Blainville , Manuel d ' Actin ologie ou de Zoophytologie, p. 368. 1836. Astrea annularis (Ellis and Solander) , Lamarck , Hist. Nat. Anim. sans Vert., ed. 2 , vol. 2 , p . 405.

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40 BUREAU OF GEOLOGY 1846 . Astre a (Orbicella) annularis (Ellis and Solander) , Dana , U.S. Exploring Exped. 1832-1842 , vol. 7, Zoophytes, p . 214, pl. 10 , fig. 6. 1848 . Astrea annularis (Ellis and Solander ), Schomburgk , History of Barbados, p . 562 . 1850. Astrea annularis (Ellis and Solander) , Edwards and Haime, Ann . Sci. Nat. Paris , ser. 3 , Zoologie, vol. 12, p. 104. 1857 . Heliastraea annularis (Ellis and Solander), Edwards and Haime, Histoire Na turelle des Coralliaires ou Polypes propremen t di ts, vol. 2 , p. 473 ; Heliastraea acropora (Linnaeus) , Edwards and Haime , p . 477. 1861. Heliastrea annularis (Ellis and So lander), Heliastrea acropora (Lamarck) , and Heliastrea Lamarckii Edwards and Haime , Duch assaing and Michelotti, R . Accad. Sci. Torino , Mem., ser. 2 , vol. 19, p . 352. 1863. Phyllocoenia sculpta Edwards and Haime , Duncan , Geol. Soc . London, Quart. Jour., vol. 19, pp. 432, 433. [Fide Vaughan, 1901 ' p . 23 . ] 1863. Cyphastraea costata (partim) Duncan , Geol. Soc . London , Quart. Jour., vol. 19, pp . 443 ,444. [Fide Vaughan, }901 , p . 23.] 1863. Astraea barbadensis Duncan, Geol. Soc. London , Quart. Jour., vol. 19, pp . 421 , 444 , pl. 15, figs. 6a , 6b. [Fide Vaughan , 1901, p. 23.] 1864 . Orbicella annularis Dana , Verrill, Mus. Comp . Zoo!., Bull ., vol. 1 , No.3, p . 48 . 1866. Orbicella annularis (Ellis and Solander), Verrill, Boston Soc. Nat. Hist. , Proc. , vol. 10, p. 323. 1866 . Heliastraea annularis (Ellis and So lander), Duchassaing and Michelotti, R . Accad . Sci. Torino, Mem., ser. 2 , vol. 23, p. 179; Heliastraea lamarckii Edwards and Haime , p . 179 ; Heliastraea acropora (Linnaeus) , p . 179 ; Heliastraea barbadensis (Duncan), and Cyphastraea costata Duncan, p . 180. 1867 . Heliastraea barbadensis (Duncan), Geol. Soc. London, Quart. Jour. , vol. 24 (1968) , p. 23; Heliastraea altissima Duncan and Cyphastraea costata Duncan , p. 24 ; Plesiastraea ramea Duncan, p. 25. 1870. Heliastraea lamarcki Edwards and Haime , Heliastraea annularis (Ellis and Solander), Heliastraea acropora (Linnaeus) , Heliastraea barbadensis (Duncan) , Cyphastraea costata Duncan , and Plesi astraea ramea Duncan, Duchassaing, Revue des Zoophytes et des Spongiaires des Antilles, p. 30. 1871. Orbicella annularis Dana, Mus. Comp . Zool. , Mem., vol. 2, No.4, p. 77.

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BULLETIN NO. 56 41 1877. Orbic ella annularis (Ellis and Solander) , Arango y Molina , R. Acad . Cienc. Medicas , Fisicas y Nat. Habana , An., vol. 14, p. 2 78 . 1877 . Orbic ella (Heliastraea) annularis (Ellis and Solander) , Lindstrom , K. Svenska Vetensk. Akad., Hand!. , vol. 14, No.6, p. 2 3 . 1880. Orbic ella annularis Dana , Pourtales, Mus. Comp . Zoo!. , Mem. , vol. 7 , No . l ,pl.4,figs.l-10. 188 8 . H e liastra e a annularis ( Ellis and Solander) , Ortmann , Z oo!. Jahrb., Syst. , vol. 3, p . 174 . 189 0. Orbic ella annularis (Ellis and Solander) , Heilprin , Acad . Nat. Sci. Philadelphia , Proc., vol. 42 , pp. 303 , 305. 1890 . Heliastraea annularis (Ellis and Solander), Ortmann , Zeitschr . f. Wiss. Zo o!. Leipzig , vol. 50 , pt. 2 , p . 307 . 1890 . Orbi cella annularis (Ellis and So lander) , A . Agassiz, Mus. Comp . Zoo!. , Bull ., vol. 20, No.2, p . 61, pis . 1 , 2. 1895 . Orbic ella acropora (Linnaeus) , Gregory , Geol. Soc . London , Quart. Jour. , vol. 51, p. 2 72 ; Cyphastra e a costata Dun can, p . 2 74 ; E c hin o p ora franksi Gr e gory , pp. 274 , 275 , pl. 11, figs. 2 a , b , c , 3. [Fid e Vaughan , 1901 , p . 24 . ] 1898. Orbic ella acropora (Linnaeus) , Vaughan , Mus. Comp . Zoo!. , Bull., vol. 28 , No.5, p . 275 . 1899. Orbicella acropora (Linnaeus) , Vaughan , Mus. Comp . Z oo!., Bull., vol. 34 , pp. 153 , 155 , 156. 1899 . H e liastraea annularis (Ellis and Solander) , Duerden , In st. of Jamaica, Jour. , vol. 2 , No. 6 , p . 621. 1900 . Orbicella annularis Dana , Verrill , Connecticut Acad . Arts and Sci. , Trans ., vol. 10 , art. XIV , pp. 552 , 553 . 1901. Orbic e lla acropora (Linnaeus) , Vaughan , Rijksmus. Geol. Min. Leiden , Samrnl. , ser. 2 , vol. 2 , No. 1 , pp . 8 , 9 , 11, 12, 22 27 . 1901. Orbic ella annularis (Ellis and Solander) Dana , Verrill , Connecticut A cad . Arts and Sci., Trans ., vol. 11, Pt. 1, art. 3 , pp . 94-96 , pl. 15, fig. 1. 1901. Orbic ella annularis var. stellulata Dana , Verrill, Connecticut Acad . Arts and Sci. , Trans. , vol. 11, Pt. 1 , art. 3 , pp . 96 , 97 , pl. 15, fig. 2 . [Fide Vaughan , 1919, p . 365.] 1902. Orbicella acropora (Linnaeus) var. Vaughan, U.S. Fish Comm. , Bull. , vol. 2 0 for 1900 , pt. 2 , pp. 301,302, pis. 6 , 7 . 1902. Orbicella annularis (Ellis and So lander), Vaughan , Bioi. Soc . Washington , Proc ., vol. 15, p. 56 . 1902 . Orbicella annularis (Ellis and Solander), Duerden , Nat. Acad. Sci . , Mem., vol. 8, pp . 564-566, pis . 8-10 (figs . 64-73) . 1904 . Heliastraea (Orbicella) acropora (Linnaeus) , Greeley [in] Bran ner , Mus. Comp . Zoo!. , Bull ., vol. 44 , p . 266. 1906 . Orbicella annularis Dana , Verrill , Connecticut Acad . Arts and Sci. , Trans. , vol. 12, p. 233, fig. 86 .

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42 1910. 1913. 1914. 1915. 1915. 1916 . 1918. 1919. BUREAU OF GEOLOGY Orbicella annularis (Ellis and Solander), Vaughan, Carnegie lnst. Washington, Pub!. No. 133 , Papers Tortugas Lab . , vol. 4, p. 109 . Orbicella annularis (Ellis and Solander) , Mayer, Carnegie Inst. Washington , Yearbook No. 11, p. 126. Orbicella annularis (Ellis and Solander) , Mayer , Carnegie Inst. Washington , Pub!. No. 183 , Papers Tortugas Lab. , vol. 6 , No. I. p. 19. Orbicella annularis (Ellis and Solander) , Vaughan , Washington Acad . Sci. , Jour., vol. 5 , No. 17, p. 596 . Orbic ella annularis (Ellis and Solander), Vaughan , Carnegie Inst. Washington, Yearbook for 1914, No. 13, pp. 224,225. Orbicella annularis (Ellis and So lander) , Vaughan , Carnegie In st. Washington , Yearbook for 1915 , No. 14 , p . 227 . Orbicella annularis (Ellis and So lander) , Mayer , Carnegie In st. Washington , Pub!. No. 252 , Papers Tortugas Lab. , vol. 12, No. 7 , p. 175 . Orbic ella annularis (Ellis and Solander) , Vaughan , U.S. Nat. Mus., Bull. 103 , No . 9 , pp. 214, 215, 223 , 228, 253 , 254, 255, 256, 362, 363, 364-375, 376, 380, 396, 398, 400, 420, 510 , pl. 80, figs. 7-7b; pl. 81, figs. 1-2 ; pl. 82, figs. , 1-2 ; pl. 83 , figs. 1 -3a; pl. 84 , figs. I-3a. 1920. Orbic ella annularis (Ellis and Solander) , Coryell and Ohlsen , New York Acad . Sci., Scientific Survey of Porto Rico and the Virgin Islands, vol. 3, pt. 1, pp . 194, 195 , pl. 28, fig . 2. 1921. Orbic ella annularis (Ellis and Solander) Vaughan , Geol. Sur. Dominican Rep. , Mem. , vol. I , p. 167 . 1927. Orbicella annularis (Ellis and Solander), van der Horst, Bijdr. Dierk. Amsterdam , No . 25 , p. 160. 1930 . Orbicella annularis (Ellis and Solander), Yonge , Great Barrier Reef Exped. 1928-29 , Sci. Rept. , vol. 1, No.2, p . 25. 1932 . Orbicella annularis (Ellis and So lander), Wells, Carnegie In st. Washington , Yearbook No. 31, p. 291. 1937. Orbi cella annularis (Ellis and Solander) , Yonge, Carnegie In st. Washington , Pub!. No . 475 , Papers Tortugas Lab ., vol. 31, No . 9, p . 207. 1939. Orbicella annularis (Ellis and Solander), Butsch , Barbados Mus . and Nat. Hist. Soc., Jour. , vol. 6, No.3, pp. 136, 137 , pl. I, fig. 6. 1943. M o ntastrea annularis (Ellis and Solander) , Vaughan and Wells, Geol. Soc . Amer. , Spec . Papers , No . 44, p . 321, pl. 29, fig. 5. 1948. Montastrea annularis (Ellis and So lander) , Smith , Atlantic Reef Corals, pp. 61, 72, 89 , 90, pis . 25 , 26 . 1 95 4 . Montastrea annularis (Ellis and Solander) , Fontaine , Inst. of Jamaica , Ann . Rept. 1953-1954 , p. 25 .

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BULLETIN NO. 56 43 1954. Montastrea annularis (Ellis and Solander) , Smith , U.S. Fish and Wildlife Serv., Fish . Bull. , vol. 55, No. 89 , p . 293. 1958 . Montastrea annularis (Ellis and Solander) , Bonet , A soc. Mex i cana Geol. Petrol. , Bol. , vol. 10, Nos. 9, 10 , pp. 565, 567 , 568, 56 9, 570 . 1958. Montastr e a annularis (Ellis and Solander), Zans, Geo n otes, vol. 1 , No. 2 , pp . 23, 24. 1958 . Montastrea annularis (Ellis and Solander) , Squires , Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist., Bull., vol. 115, art. 4, pp . 227, 228, 229, 232, 237, 238,256, pl. 40, fig. 3 ; pl. 41, figs. 1 , 2 . 195 8. Montastrea annularis (Ellis and Solander) , M oore, Inst. Marine S ci. Univ. T exas, Bull., vol. 5 , p. 154 . 1958 . Montastr e a annularis (Ellis and Solander) , Zans , Geol. Sur. Dept. Jamaica , W . 1., Bull ., No. 3 , p . 32. 1959. Montastrea annularis (Ellis and Solander), Zans , Geo n otes, vol. 2, No. 1 , pp . 29, 32 . 1959. Montastrea annularis (Ellis and Solander), Newell , Imbrie , Purdy , a nd Thurb er, Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist. , Bull., vol. 117, art. 4 , pp. 211,213,215. 1960 . M on tastrea annularis (Ellis and Solander) , Lewis, Canadian Jour. Zool. , v ol. 38, No . 6, pp . 1134,1137, 113 8,1139, 1140 , 114 2, 1144 . 1960 . Montastrea annularis (Ellis and Solander ), Lewis , Barb a dos Mus. a nd Nat. Hist. Soc. , J o ur. , vol. 28, No. 1, p . 11. 1961. Montastrea annularis (Ellis and So lander) , Duarte B ello, Acuari o Nac . M a rianao [Cuba] , ser. Educacional No . 2 , pp . 9 , 54 , 55, figs. 43 , 44 . 1961. Montastrea annularis (Ellis and So lander) , Westermann a nd Kiel, Natuurwetensch. Studiekring Suriname en de Nederlandse Antil len , N o. 2 4 , pp. 131, 136. 1962. Montastrea annularis (Ellis and S o lander) , Stoddart , Atoll Res. Bull ., No. 87 , pp. 14 , 17 , 19 , 2 0 , 21, 22, 23,24 25, 26, 27 , 28, figs.ll, 12. 196 3. Montastrea annulari s (Ellis a nd Solander ) , Almy a nd Carrion Tones, Caribbean Jour. Sci., vol. 3 , Nos . 2-3, pp. 136, 138, 141, 142 , 154 , 155 , 162 , pl. 14a. 1963 . Montastrea annularis (Ellis and Solander) , J ones, Bull. Marine Sci. Gulf and Caribbean , vol. 13, N o. 2, p . 282. 1964. Montastr e a annularis (Ellis and Solander) , R oos, Studies on the Fauna of Curacao and other Caribbean Islands , vol. 2 0 , No . 81, pp . 11, 23 , 2 4 , 25 , 26 , 27, 28, 32 , 35, 37 ' 38, 40, 41, pl. 4, fig. 1 ; pl. 11 a, b . 1964. Montastr e a annularis (Ellis and Solander ) , Sto rr , Geol. Soc. Amer. , Special Papers , No. 7 9, pp . 18, 19, 23, 45 , 46 , 59 , 72 , 80 .

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44 1966 . 1966. 19 6 7 . 1 96 7 . 1968 . 1 969. 1969 . 1970 . 1970. 1971 . BUREAU OF GEOLOGY Montastr e a annularis (Ellis and Solander) , Goreau and Hartman , Science, vol. 151, No. 3708, p. 343, fig. 1. M o ntastrea annularis (Ellis and Solander) , Stanley , Amer. Assoc. Petr ol. Ge o l. , Bull. , vol. 50 , No.9, pp . 1 929, 1931 , 1 93 7 , 1938, 1940 , 1946 , pl. 1, fig. 1, text figs. 2, 3. Montastr e a annularis (Ellis and Solander) , Goreau and Wells, Bull . Marine Sci ., vol. 17 , No.2, p . 448 . M o ntastr e a annulari s (Ellis and S o lander) , Macintyre , Canadian Jour. Earth Sci. , vol. 4, No.3, p . 467. M o ntastrea annularis (Ellis and Solander) , H o ffmeister and Multer , Geol. So c. Amer. , Bull. , vol. 70, N o. 11, pp . 1487 , 14 9 0 , 1491 , 1494, 1495 , 1496 , 1500 . Montastrea annularis (Ellis and S o lander) , Logan , Amer. Assoc. Petrol. Geo l. , Mem . 11, pp . 146 , 14 9, pl. 10 , fig. 2 . M o ntastr e a annularis (Ellis and S o l a nder) St o ddart , Bioi. Rev ., v ol. 44 , No . 4 , pp . 451 , 45 8, 463,465 , 471 , 47 3. M o ntastr e a annularis (Ellis and Solander) , Mesolella , Sealy , and Matthews , Amer. Assoc. Petr o l. Geo l. , Bull ., vol. 54, No . I 0 , pp . 1904 , 1906 , 1 9 07 , 1 9 09. Montastrea annularis (Ellis and S o 1ander) , Klose , in letter to Robert 0 . Vernon , 30 April1970, pp. 2, 3, 4, 5 , 6, 7. M o ntastr e a annularis (Ellis and Solander) , Roos , Studies on the Fauna of Curacao and o ther Caribbean I s lands, vol. 37, No. 1 3 0 , pp . 18 , 1 9, 22, 23, 2 4 , 25, 26, 27, 29, 30, 31, 33, 34 , 35 , 36 , 37, 38 , 39, 65-66, 94, 97, 101, figs. 4 , 7 , 8, 11, 26, pis . 24b, 25b. 1972 . Montastrea annularis (Ellis and Solander) , Liebe , Hattin , and D od d, Geol. S oc . Amer. , Abstr. Southe astern Sect. 2 1st Meetin g, p . 87. 1 972. Montastr e a annularis (Ellis and Solander) , Campos Villarroel , S oc. V enezo lana Cie n c. Nat., B ol., vol. 29, pp. 548, 555 , 570, pl. 7 . 1 972. Montastrea annularis (Ellis and Solander) , Macintyre , Amer. Assoc. Petrol. Beol., Bull ., vol. 56 , no . 4 , pp. 730, 731, figs. 6a, 7 . The l oca lity of s pe c imens FLX-8a and FLX-8b i s not known , but they look so much like Pleistocene s pecimens No. 7394 in the U . S . Nati o nal Museum , from Key Vaca and Knight Key in Monroe County , that they may well have been co llected in the very same area. The interior of these parti c ular co ralla i s so well revealed that they are illu strate d herein and de sc rib e d below . Th e l oca lit y of specimen TSM4 a, from the Tampa Formation is Sixmile Creek in Hillsborough County , Florida . The specimen is so recrystalized (by calcium carbonate) t hat its identity as Montastr e a annularis i s in d oubt. The cora llum i s large , massive , a nd tall , with a flatti sh to slightly co nvex upper s urface. Th e co rallites are long , slender , and cy lindri cal, tapered at th e base , in places vermicular in appearance , the wall s moderately thick . The calices

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BULLETIN NO. 56 45 are small (3 mm to 4 mm in diameter) , moderately raised above the common coe nosteum , subcircular to suboval in outline, close to one another yet always separated, the separation 1 mm to 4 mm. There are 28 to 34 septa in four cycles , the fourth cycle always incomplete. The primary septa are so much more developed than the others that they impart a starry aspect to the calice. The secondary septa are only a little larger than the tertiary, and those of the fourth cycle the thinnest and most rudimentary of all, hardly projecting from the wall. The larger septa are somewhat exsert, denticulate along the free margin , and sparsely and unequally granulated on the sides, the sides also perforated here a nd there . Because of imperfect preservation, the true configuration of the entire septum cannot be ascertained, though the primary ones at least, are moderately broad above and bear a paliform tooth below at the columella ; often a tertiary septum is inclined toward and joins a secondary septum just before the latter unites with the columella. The columella is lax , spongy, and well developed , produced from the inner ends of the larger septa. For each septum there is a costa, the costae subequal and far more prominent than the septa except the primary ones. The costae are strongly beaded and extend down the calice to join the costae or granules of the neighboring corallite. The coenosteum at the boundary between adjoining calices is thick and is often strewn with larg e papillate granules some of which are perforate at the tip . These intercorallite granules, as shown by their orderly alignment , represent the ones on the crest of costae which have been isolated through corrosion of the costa l matrix . The endothecal dissepiments are deli cate and about 0 .5 mm apart. The exotheca is well developed , the dissepiments lamellar and partitioning the inter costal spaces into squarish or rectangular cells of which there are 6 or so in a vertical distance of 10 mm. Measurements. Specimen FLX 8a : corallum length 78 mm, width 63 mm , height 79 mm; average calice diameter 3.1 mm , height 1.4 mm , number of septa 34. Specimen FLX-8b: corallum length 84 mm , width 32 mm , height 115 mm .; average calice diameter 3.8 mm, height 2.1 mm , number of septa 30. Spe c imen TSM5a : corallum height 52 mm, length 60 mm , maximum width 60 mm. Range and distribution. The range of Montastrea annularis (Ellis and Solander) and of the species synonymized with it is Oligo-Miocene to Recent. The upper Oligocene-lower Miocene and Miocene forms of Montastrea annularis are found in the Ponce and Quebradillas Limestones of Puerto Rico . Poorly preserved specimens of what appear to be M . annularis occur in the lower Miocene Tampa Formation at Sixmile Creek and Davis Islands , Hills borough County, Florida . A silicified specimen (TLL-la), collected by Robert Maxwell from the St. Marks Formation on a bluff above Lake Lafayette (dried), Lafayette Plantation , 4.5 miles east of Tallahassee , Leon County , is also referred to this species. The corallum of TLL-la is 70 mm long and 45 mm high , and most of it has been broken away.

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46 BUREAU OF GEOLOGY Forms occurring in the Plio c ene a nd Pleistocene of Quintana Roo , Mexico have been reported by Bonet (1958). Pleistocene localities are the following: Bahamas ; Florida (Key Largo Limestone and Miami Oolite at Dry Tortugas , Key West, Stock Island , Key Vaca , Big Pine Key , Upper Matecumbe Key , Key Largo, and Port Everglades); St. Eustatius ; St. Kitts ; Montserrat; Dominican Republic (along south coast); Barbuda (as Cyphastrea costata Duncan) ; and in the Barbados at the following elevations : 1043 ft. Hare Hill, St. Joseph Parish ; 845ft. Parris Hill, St. Joseph Parish ; 74 7 ft. Market Hill , St. George Parish ; 720 ft. Russia Gully , St. Thomas Parish ; 707ft. Haynesfield , St. John Parish ; 480ft. Locust Hill , St. George ; 360 ft. Small Ridge , Christ church; 300 ft. Skeens Hill , Christchurch and Codrington Quarry , St. Michael ; 80ft. Prospect , St. James ; 70ft. Grazettes , St. Michael ; 40 ft. Sandy Lane , St. James. The living or Recent M o ntastrea annularis has been reported from Bermuda to Brazil : Bermuda ; Bahamas (Great Bahama Bank ; Abaco Island ; off Coconut Point ; east end of Hogg Island) ; Florida (Tortugas; Key West , Big Pine and Newfound Harbor Keys , Ft. Taylor , Loggerhead Key; Hawk Channel ; Margot Fish Shoal ; Tavernier; Virginia Key ; Bisc ayne Bay); Cuba ; Mexico (Blanquilla Reef; Alacran Reef; Vera Cruz ; Yucatan Shelf ; off Progreso in about 20 ft. of water) ; British Honduras (Rendezvous Cay ; Turneffe; Lighthouse Reef ; Glover's Reef) ; Panama ; Pedro Bank ; Puerto Rico (La Parguera ; Guanica ; Ensenada ; Mayague z ) ; St. Lucia ; St. Thomas; Guadeloupe ; Dominican Republic ; Barbados (west c oast) ; Curacao (Playa Kalki , 1.5-10 meters ; Westpunt Baai , along shore ; Playa Abau, shore to 8 meters ; Playa Chikitu , in shallow water with sandy bottom; Sta. Martha Baai , 15-45 meters ; Portomaribaai , shore to 8 meters ; Vaarsen Baai , shore to 8 meters ; St. Michiels Baai , shore to 15 meters ; Kaap Malmeeuw, 20 meters ; Piscadera Baai , 3 to 35 meters ; Spaansche Water , shore to 30 meters ; Klein Curacao , 4-6 meters ; Caracas Baai) ; Bonaire (Boca Bartol , Plaja Fran s, Goto, Jan Doran , Barcadera , L ont, Hato , Klein Bonaire , Plaja Sarna , Baca , Punt Vierkant , Blauwe Pan , Witte Pan , Oranje Pan , Lac) ; St. Martin (Mullet Pond Bay, Simson Bay , Cay Bay , Little Bay, Great Bay , P o int Blanche Bay , Gibbs Bay, Babit Pond); Saba (Ladder Bay , Fort Bay , Cove Bay) ; St. Eustatius (Cocoluch Bay , Jenkins Bay , Tumbledown Dick Bay , Compagnie Bay) ; Aruba (Boca Arashi , Boca Catalina, Malmok , Eagle Beach , Palm Beach , Barcadera , Mangel Altu , St. Nicolasbaai, Klein Lagoen, north of Pitch Field) ; Venezuela (Puerto La Cruz; Bahia de Mochima) ; Brazil (Bahia de Camamu'). Montastr e a ? davisina, new species Pl. 2 0 , figs. 1-3 The typ e (TD3a) is the middle section of an o riginally tall s ubcerioid corallum which has been completely silicified and considerably modified . The corallum is blue-black and dull tan in color and consists of slender tubular corallites , most of them erect and parallel with each other, but a few of them

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BULLETIN NO . 56 47 vermicular. The corallites are slightly larger in diameter at the calices than elsewhere so that along their len gth they are alternately a little swollen and compressed . At fairly close but irregular intervals there is produced around the contact of succeeding calices a wavy subtabul ar exothecal plate , these plates often uniting with adjacent corallites. The average diameter of individual cora llite s is 2.9 mm. The costae , due to secondary mineralization , are unusually prominent and nearly equal in size , their average width about 0.35 mm . The costae , or rather their external casts are coarse ly granulose or nodular, but here and there are seen small pointed granulations along the crest, suggesting that such was the original character. In some places where the costae are not completely veneered by the siliceous replacement they are relatively thin and subequal. Nowhere on the cora llum are the calices sufficiently well preserved to determine their true character, although it can be stated they are rounded polygonal in outline. The long diameter of the ca li ces ranges from 2.7 mm to 3.8 mm for a median of 3.1 mm. Their height is also variable , and is estimated at 2 mm to 5 mm. The summits of the calices are distinctly nodulous, the nodulations conterminous with the costae which extend down the full l ength of the corallites; for each costa there is one septum irre spective of the size of the septum. The true nature of the septa also cannot be made out due to the chalcedonic overlay. The septa seem to be arranged hexamerally and occur in three cyc l es, with possibly a few in the fourth. The septa of the first two cycles are coarse and subequal, dentate along the free margin, and granulated on their faces. Minor septa are thickened at the calicular margin but seem to wedge out and join a principal septum a short distance in from the wall. The columella is not visible. Measurements. -Type specimen (TD3a): corallum height 51.5 mm , l ength 37.5 mm, width 30 mm. Type locality . Davis Islands , north end of Hillsborough Bay , Hillsborough County , Florida. Comparisons. This species is much like the Oligo-Miocene to Rec ent Montastrea annularis (Ellis and Solander) but the alteration of the Davis Island form has been so considerable I am not sure it is the same. Superficially M . davisina n . sp. seems to differ in having more prominent exotheca and corallites of smal ler diameter than does the Recent M. annularis. Montastr e a peninsularis, new species Pl. 20, figs . 4 , 5 The siliceous corallum is a ceriod plate, undulatory on the surface , with a 4 mm layer of chalcedony underneath. This fragment represents a thin surficial slice of the original c orallum which is inferred to have been relatively tall , subconical, and massive . The calices f the type (TB 9a) are barely above the common surface and are obtusely rounded-polygonal in plan view, the polygons mostly pentagonal ,

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48 BUREAU OF GEOLOGY but some hexagonal, and a few subquadrilateral. The calicular margins are tightly united by solid consolidated walls .03 to .06 mm in thickness, upon the summits of which the septo-costal ends are strongly developed. The long diameter of the adult calices ranges from 3.1 mm to 4.4 mm, and the average depth to the columella is about 3 mm. All of the septa are normally thin and laminar, and there are 22 to 26 of them in three complete or nearly complete cycles, with a few inserted in the fourth cycle. Only the 12 principal septa reach the columella, and these seem to bear paliform tubercles around it. Deep within the calice the septa of the first two cycles converge and unite at the base of the columella . Third-cycle septa, although about the same in thickness as the others are shorter , and in many places are seen to unite with the principals about half way to the columella. The septa are not exsert but at the summit of the calices each septum is conterminous with a costa forming slightly elongated costulations of nearly equal thickness (0 . 2 mm). The true configuration of the septa cannot be made out although it can be seen they are serrate or denticulate along the margin and granulose on the sides . The costae or costulations on the calicular margins generally terminate at the wall , but in some instances the costulations of adjacent calices are confluent with each other. The coenosteum at the corners of the calices is dense, and under a magnification of 60X appears granular. The columella, formed from the innermost ends of the principal septa, is distinct and lax ; in deeper calices , however, it is raised into a substyliform twist. Measurements. Holotype (TB 9a): corallum length 73 mm, maximum width 53 mm, thickness, including chalcedonic underlay , 7 mm to 9 mm. Locality . Ballast Point, west side of Hillsborough Bay, Hillsborough County, Florida. Comparison. This species is reminiscent, so far as the surface is concerned , of Montastrea annularis (Ellis and Solander) which ranges from upper Oligocene to Recent. Among other differences , the calices of Montastrea peninsularis n. sp. are larger than they are on M annularis and rounded polygonal rather than subcircular. Montastrea tampaensis (Vaughan) Pl. 20 , fig. 6; pl. 21, fig. 1 1915. Orbicella cavernosa var. tampaensis Vaughan, nomen nudum, in Dall , U.S. Nat. Mus., Bull . 90 , p. 18. 1919. Orbicella tampaensis Vaughan , U.S. Nat. Mus. , Bull . 103 , No.9, pp. 211, 230 , 231, 362, 364, 390-392 , 395 , 513 , pl. 95, figs. 1, 2, 2a , 3a. 1925. Orbicella tampaensis Vaughan, Felix , Fossilium Catalogus 1 : Animalia, pars 28, p. 70.

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BULLETIN NO. 56 49 1929. Orbicel/a tampaensis Vaughan, Coryell and Ohlsen , New York Acad. Sci., Scientific SuiVey of Porto Rico and the Virgin Islands , vol. 3, pt. 3, pp. 168, 197, 198, pl. 30, fig. 1. The types of this species, Nos . 324900 and 324901 from Ballast Point , have been examined in the U.S. National Museum. Our single corroded specimen, TD-1a, from Davis Islands in Hillsborough Bay about 2.5 miles northeast of Ballast Point, agrees with the types in all essential particulars. The corallum of TD -la is relatively small , head-shaped, and subplocoid , the corallites elevated in varying degree above the common surface . The calices are circular to suboval, 5.5 mm (with 25 septa) to 8 mm (with 42 septa) in diameter, and a height of 2 to 8 mm. A typical mature calice is 7 mm in diameter and 7 mm in height, with 42 septa in four cycles, and 21 nearly equal costae conterminous with the 21 principal septa of the first three cycles. The costae are high and triangular , with deep narrow interspaces , with prominent pointed granules along the crest, and with small papillae on the sides. There are half as many principal costae as there are principal septa, the former nearly all the same in size. A minor costa may be represented here and there by a faint intercalary between the major ones but generally they are represented by a faint nodulation at the calicular margin . The walls are stout and sturdy, with an average thickness of 0.4 mm. There are four cycles of septa , the fourth cycle not quite complete . The primary and secondary septa are nearly equal in size, decidedly exsert (as much as 0.6 to 0.7 mm above the calicular margin which is everywhere worn down) , and extend to the columella. Third-cycle septa are slightly smaller than the secondaries, and in places a tertiary septum joins a secondary septum just before the columella. Fourth-cycle septa are small and thin and project in a short distance from the wall. All of the septa are wedge-shaped, that is thicker at the wall than within, serrate or denticulate along the free margins , and papillate on the sides, the papillae not crowded. On several primary septa where the trabeculae can be obseiVed they are thin but well developed , rather far apart, and faintly nodular along their course. Vaughan (1919 , p. 390) stated that there are paliform teeth on the inner ends of the primary septa , but these cannot be seen clearly on specimen TD 1 a. The columella is a lax tangle formed from the inner ends of the principal septa. Measurements. Specimen TD 1a: corallum length 40 mm, width 33 mm, height 25 mm. Specimen corallum length 155 mm, width 116 mm , height 83 mm. Localities. Davis Islands in Hillsborough Bay, Hillsborough County , Flori da. Also Ballast Point and Sixmile Creek, and Puerto Rico . Formations and age. The Ballast Point , Davis Island s, and Six mile Creek specimens of Montastrea tampaensis (Vaughan) are early Miocene in age. In Puerto Rico , the species occurs in the San Sebastian and Lare Formations (Oligocene) and the Ponce Formation of late Oligocene or early Miocene age.

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50 BUREAU OF GEOLOGY Comparison. Montastrea tampaensis closely resembles Montastrea costata (Duncan) from the Oligocene and lower Miocene of the circum-car ibbe an area. I n M. co stata, however , the costae are highly developed and alternate in size except at the calicular margin, whereas the costae of M. tampaensis, which are aJso highly developed, are all nearly equaJ in size except for occasional minor interstitials. Montastr e a cf. M. tampaensis silecen sis (Vaughan) Pl. 22, figs. 1, 2 ; pl. 23, fig. 1 1915. Orbicella cavernosa var. silecensis Vaughan , nomen nudum, in Dall, U .S. Nat. Mus., Bull. 90, p . 18 . 1919. Orbicella tampaensis var. silecensis Vaughan , U.S. Nat. Mus., BuU. 103 , No.9, pp. 211 ,230,231,362,364,390, 391 , 513 , pl. 96. 1925. Orbicella tampaensis var. silecensis Vaughan , Felix , Fossilium CataJogus 1 : AnimaJia, pars 28, p. 70. The originaJ description by Vaughan in 1919 was the following: " Corallum oblong, irregularly convex above ; type about 16 em. long, 11 em. wide, and 9.5 em . high. Calices slightly elevated , the coraJlites somewhat swollen below the calicular edges. Diameter, 8 . 5 to 9.5 mm . Costae prominent; those corresponding to the primary and secondary septa subequal ; tertiaries subequal to those of the lower cycles or smaller ; fourth cy cle small but usually recognizable. Septa in four cycles , usually differentiated in size according to cycle ; primaries and secondaries and occasionaJly some tertiaries reach the columella. Margins of primaries, secondaries, and tertiaries exsert, up to as much as 1.5 mm . , usually about 1 mm.; those of the quaternaries obv iou s but not prominent. Columella rather well developed. Locality and geologic occurrence. The 'silex' bed of the Tampa formation , Tampa, Florida. Type . Wagner Free Institute of Science , Philadelphia. Paratype . No. 324896, U.S.N.M. This variety , which intergrades with the typical form of the species, is especially distinguished by its less prominent calices and the better developed last (quaternary) cycle of costae. " The Florida State University specimen TB 4a , here referred to Montastrea tampaensis silecensis (Vaughan) , is aJso from the Tampa "silex bed" at Ballast Point , but due to silicification and corrosion is not so well preserved as Vaughan ' s paratype No. 324896 in the U.S. National Museum. The corallum of TB 4a is massive , subcerioid , and more or less head shaped . The corallites are subcylindrica l , expanding gradually in upward growth . The calices are uniformly slight l y elevated above the common surface ; they are subcircular to oval in outline, and vary from 7 mm to 10 mm in diameter, with

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BULLETIN NO. 56 51 36 to perhaps 46 septa in four cycles. The average adult calice is 7 mm in diameter and bears about 40 septa. The arrangement of the septa and costae are as described by Vaughan . All of the septa seem to be denticulate along the margins , and the larger ones, at least , are papillate on the faces. Each septum is conterminous with a costa, and the costae generally correspond in size, with the larger ones granulose on the crest. The en do theca is l aminar and sturdy, and there are about 6 dissepiments in a columnar length of 5 mm. The columella is formed from the inner ends of the principal septa. Measurements.-Specimen TB 4a : corallum length 90 mm , width 59 mm, height 47 mm. Specimen TD Sa: corallum length 130 mm, width 71 mm , height 85 mm. Specimen TH 2a: corallum fragment length 41 mm, width 26 mm, height 17 mm. ; calices 9 mm to 10 mm in greater diameter. Specim ens TO -Sa and TH 2a are not illustrated in this report. Localities. Ballast Point, Davis Island s, and Honeymoon I sland, Pinellas County. The last (TH-2a) is a completely silicified "chalk" collected from dredgings in the St. Marks Formatio n by Forrest D. Cring . Incertae sedis "b" Pl. 2 4 , figs. 1-3 The single specimen (TSM 1 Oa) is a whitish , completely calcareous corallite presumed to have been isolated from a hermatypic cora llum which has not been identified. The corallite is short-cylindrical, subcircu l ar o r suboval in cross section , and i s veneered here and there by a thin thecal covering on which the costae are very faintly reflected ; beneath the veneer, however, the prolongati o ns of the septa , or the septa-costae, are strongly developed. The height of the corallite is 8.6 mm , the diameter at the base 7 .2 mm x 6.2 mm , and the diameter of the calice 5.6 mm x 5.3 mm. The calice is subcircular and bears 68 septa in five cycles. The septa seem t o have been a little exsert, are nearly equal in size, dentate on the margins , and granulate on the faces. The septa a re prolonged down the side of the corallite into nearly equal septa-costae and these are also granulo s e on the crest. Th e endothecal dissepiments are small, partitionin g the septa-costae into narrow rectangular cells about .028 mm in length and .012 mm in width. The columella area has been dissolved away into a hole but there is some suggestion that the inner ends of the septa were papillate. Locality. Lower part of the Tampa section excavated in Sixmile Creek , south of Orient Park, Hillsborough C ounty, Florida . Remarks . A s in many of the Sixmile Creek corals collected by J ose ph E. Banks , specimen TSM!Oa has been replaced , or has undergone reprecipitation by calcium carbonate , and is not a true pseudomorph. Antiguastrea cellulosa (Duncan), s.l. Pl. 22, fig. 3 ; pl. 24, fig. 4 1863. Astraea cellu l osa Duncan, Geol. Soc. London, Qu art. Jour., vol. l9,pp.417,418,pl.13,fig.l0.

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52 1863 . 1863 . 1866. 1866. 1867 . 1867. 1870 . 1870 . 1915 . 1915 . 1919. BUREAU OF GEOLOGY lsastraea turbinata Duncan, Geol. Soc. London , Quart. Jour., vol. 19, p. 423, pl. 14 , figs. !a-le. [Fide Vaughan , 1919 , pp . 404, 406.] lsastraea turbinata Duncan , Geol. Soc. London , Quart. Jour., vol. 20 (1864) , p . 43. Heliastraea cellulosa (Duncan) , Duchassaing and Michelotti, R. Accad . Sci. Torino , Mem., ser. 2, vol. 23, p . 180. lsastra e a turbinata Duncan, Duchassaing and Michelotti , R. Accad . Sci. Torino, Mem. , ser. 2, vol. 23 , p . 183 . Heliastraea cellulosa (Duncan) , Geol. Soc. London, Quart. Jour. , vol. 24 ( 1868), p . 24 . lsastraea turbinata Duncan, Geol. Soc . London , Quart. Jour., vol. 24 (I 868) , p. 25. H e liastraea cellulosa (Duncan) , Duchassaing , Revue des Zoo phytes et des Spongiaires des Antilles, p. 30. lsastraea turbinata Duncan , Duchassaing , Revue des Zoophytes et des Spongiaires des Antilles, p. 31. Orbicella cellulosa (Duncan), Vaughan, Carnegie Inst. Washing ton, Yearbook for 1914 , No. 13, p . 360 . Orbic ella cellulosa (Dun c an) , Vaughan, in Dall , U.S . Nat. Mus., Bull. 90 , p. 18. Antiguastrea cellulosa (Duncan), Vaughan, U.S . Nat. Mus., Bull., vol. 103, No.9, pp. 199, 200, 204-207,210, 230 ,402-408,409, 410, 415 , 419 ,468, 513 , 514, pl. 98, figs. 3-4a ; pl. 99 figs. 1-3a ; pl. 100, figs. 1-4a ; pl. 101, figs. 2 , 2a. 1921. Antiguastrea cellulosa (Duncan) , Vaughan and Woodring , Geol. Sur. Dominican Republic , Mem., vol.l, pp . 108 , 109 . 1924 . Antiguastrea cellulosa ? (Duncan) , Woodring and Brown, Geol. Sur. Republic of Haiti, p. 150 . 1925. Antiguastrea cellulosa (Duncan) , Felix, Fossilium Catalogus I: Animalia, pars 28, pp . 73, 74. 1929 . Antiguastrea cellulosa (Duncan) , Coryell and Ohlsen, New York Acad . S ci., Scientific Survey of Porto Rico and the Virgin Islands , vol. 3 , pt. 3, pp. 167 , 172 , 192, 193, pl. 28, fig. 1. 1943 . Antiguastrea cellulosa (Duncan), Vaughan and Wells, Geol. Soc. Amer. , Spec. Pap. , No. 44, p. 173, pl. 29, fig. 8 . 1949. Antiguastrea cellula sa (Duncan), Shimer and Shrock, Index Fossils of North America , p . 119, pl. 44 , figs. 1, 2 . 1956. Antiguastrea cellulosa (Duncan), Wells, Treatise on Invertebrate Paleontology, Pt. (F), Coelenterata , p. F405, fig. 303, 3. 1962. Antiguastrea cellulosa (Duncan) , Moore and Gordon, Bull . Marine Sci. Gulf and Caribbean, vol. 12 , No. 1 , p. 69.

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BULLETIN NO. 56 53 Following is the description of specimen 324941 in the U.S. National Museum labeled Antiguastrea cellulosa (Duncan), 4999, in Dr. Vaughan 's handwriting. This specimen, collected at Ballast Point , is a poor one having been replaced by "silex" which has considerably altered the original calcareous skeleton. The subcerioid corallum is a large fragment from what seems to have been a more or less conical coral. The corallites are crowded but distinct , elongated , subcylindrical, and slender. The transverse section of the corallites is generally circular and at fairly close but irregular intervals they are girdled by exotheca, the exotheca thickened and highly developed. The endothecal dissepiments are also prominent. The calices are subcircular to subelliptical in outline , rather deep and funnel-shaped , and a little separated one from the other. Their greater diameter varies from 2 mm to 4 mm, and the depth is about 2 mm. The wall appears to be stout. There are four cycles of septa: the primary septa are the largest , the secondary nearly as large , the tertiary considerably smaller than the principals , and the quaternary ones the smallest and most rudimentary. The principal septa, at least , are dentate along the free margin and finely but sparsely granulose on the sides. The primary septa reach the columella ; the secondary septa are joined by the tertiaries probably just before the columella, and the tertiaries themselves joined by the quaternaries a short distance in from the wall as in Antiguastrea cellulosa curvata (Duncan) . The costae are conterminous with the septa and together produce a moderately costulate calicu lar margin . The costae, because of secondary mineralization , appear very thick , granulose , and su be qual , but in places it is seen that normally the costae are thin and subequal and bear small pointed granulations along the crest. The columella is a small wrinkled lamina. Measurements. Specimen 324941 (4999) U.S . National Museum : height 86 mm , length 80.5 mm , maximum width 55 mm. Locality . Ball ast Point. Comparison. -As indicated by Vaughan (1919, pp. 402-408 , pis . 98-10\), Antiguastrea cellulosa (Duncan) is such a variable species , that his spec imen 324941 from the Tampa Formati o n of Florida seems to fit the diagn os i s given for it. However , positive identification of the Ballast Point example is hindered by the modification suffered in the replacement of the original aragonite skeleton by silex. Range and distribution. The geologic range given for Antiguastrea cellulosa (Duncan) is middle Oligocene to Plio cen e . In the literature , middle Oligocene occurrences are cited for the Byram Marl of Mississippi , U.S.A., the San Rafael Formation of Mexico, the Juan a Diaz Formation of Puerto Ri co, the Arrondissement of Grand-Riviere in Haiti, and the Antigua Formation of Antigua. Upper Oligocene deposits in which Antiguastrea cellulosa ha s been reported are in Puerto Rico (Lares Formation and San Sebastian Shale) and in

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54 BUR E AU OF GEOLOGY Aruba (Serro Colorado ?). Oli go-Mioce ne l oca lities are in Pu erto Rico in the P once Formation. L owe r Mio ce ne occ urren ces are reported in Ge o rgia (Chatta hoochee F o rmati o n) and Florida (Tampa Formation), U.S.A ., in Cuba , in Puerto Rico (Los Puertos Limestone), and in Anguilla (the Anguill a F ormation). Upper Mioce n e l ocal itie s are listed for the D o mini ca n Republic in Ri o Yaque del Norte . And , in the n orthwest co rn e r of Browar d County, Fl o rid a, the pr ese nc e of Antiguas trea ce llul os a was reported by M oore and Gunter ( 1962) in a s p oil b an k cons i sting of "Caloosahatchee" sedim ent dredged from a ca n a l. The pr o bable age of the Caloosahatchee was given as Pli oce ne . Cyph a stre a tampae, new species Pl. 2 5 , figs . l-3 Cyp hastr e a tampae V a u ghan, nomen nudum in D all, U.S . Nat. Museum, Bull. 90, p. 18. The following description pertains to a s p ec imen in the U .S. Nati onal Museum labeled "Cyphast rea tampae V a u g han, B a llast P o int " in V a ugh a n 's handwriting. There is no acquisition number on the s pe c imen. Like many oth e r fossils from B allast P oint s ili cificatio n ha s o blit erate d ce rt a in details of th e or i gina l ske leton and h as altered o th e rs. The corallum i s a fragment of an originally large co ni cal and plocoid coral, and ha s a flatti sh undulatory surface . The cora llites are s lightly separ ate d , co lumn ar, subc ir cula r in cross sect i o n , and girdle d b y numero u s thick, wavy, exoth eca l lam in ae of which there are 5 o r so in 5 mm of len gth. These projecting exoth eca l frin ges are united to a dja cent cora llit es . Th e costae o n the wall s of the cora llit es and the costulati o n s on the exothe ca are prominent and nearly equal in s i ze, with a width of about 0.3 mm. Th e costae a r e coarse l y nodulous but 1 think that both the thickness and coarse n ess of the costae i s du e to secondary silicificat i on and that normally the costae are relatively thin and finely dentate along the crest. The calices are s li ghtly raised , s hallow , subcircular to suboval in outline, and 3 . 1 to 3.3 mm in their greater diameter. The calic ular m a rgin s m ay abut o n e another but are gen e ra lly a little sep arated, and the coeonosteum between them i s dense and sparse ly ce llul ar. The summits of the calices are costulate by virtue of the thickening there of the septa, but the cos ta e, i f present at all o n the calices of the cora llum s u rface, do n o t de scen d down the s id es on to the intercalicu l ar coenosteum. B e low the surface, h owever, there are costae o n the cora llites and costulations on the projecting exotheca. All of the septa are thickened at the wall where they are a little exsert, and occ u r in three cycles. The septa within are laminar , those of the fir s t cyc l e the largest, the secondaries n ea rly as l arge, and the tertiaries th e sma lle st. The principal septa reach the co lum ella, with a secondary often uniting with a primary at the co lumella. The tertiary septa extend part way down the wall and project a little from i t. So far as ca n be ascerta ined, the margins of the septa are denticulate and the faces g r anu l ose. On some septa the marginal dentations are

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BULLETIN NO. 56 55 larger near the columella and form pali around it. The columella itself is a small spongy tangle ; in some calices it intercepts a directive lamina . Measurements. Unnumbered specimen USNM: corallum length 49. 5 mm, width 28 mm, height 27 mm. Locality . Ball ast Point , west side of Hillsborough Bay , Hillsborough County , Florida . Remarks. The referral of this taxon to Cyphastr e a rather than to Montastr e a is based on the absence of costae on the calices and on the coenosteum between them. Typically, the surface of the peritheca of Cyphastrea is spinose, but this is mostly covered on the USNM corallum. Galaxea excelsa, new species Pl. 25, figs. 4-6 ; pl. 26, figs. 1-3; pl. 27 , figs. 1-8 ; pl. 31 , fig. 1 1915. Galaxea excelsa Vaughan, nomen nudum, in Dall , U.S . Nat. Mus ., Bull. 90, p . 18. Numerous chalcedonized specimens in the Florida State University collection from B allast Point, Florida are identical with chalcedonized specimens labeled Galaxea excelsa Vaughan in the U.S. National Museum from locality 2 115 which is also Ballast Point. Galaxea excelsa was the name given by Vaughan in his unpublished manuscript which I have not seen; to retain that na. me the following description based on examples in the FSU collection is given. The co lony consists of an aggregate of sturdy columnar corallites growing upward. Individual corallites are long and cylindrical to cornute, oval in cross section, united basally by the coenosteum and laterally by the peritheca . A number of the mature corallites have a bud or two growing out of the s ides of the parent, the buds angled upward, some of them narrowed at the base and forming the cornute adult. The walls are moderately stout and costate, the costae relatively thin and rather faintly spinose or granulose along the crest. The costae are s ubequal at the calicular margin but only those conterminous with the principal septa continue down the sides of the corall it e toward the b ase ; costae contermino us with minor septa are restricted to the upper reaches of the corallite. Where preservation is intact as on the designated holotype TB 3a there is a pronounced reticulate pattern on the outer surface of the corallite, the reticulation produced by sharp, projecting, undulatory laminae crossing the costae . On TB3a there are about four such exothecal dissepiments in two millimeters of length on a corallite 30 mm in len gth. The calices are ovate and moderately deep, varying from 1.5 mm to 14 mm in greater diameter. The number of septa depends generally on the s ize and maturity of the calice; there are 42 septa in a calice measuring 5 . 5 mm in long diameter, about 34 of them in another calice 8 mm in length , and about 70 of them in a calice wh ose long diameter is 14 mm ; however , in one calice of 13.5 mm some 86 septa in five cycles were counted. The larger septa are exsert rising a little above the calicu lar margin. The primary and secondary septa are well

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56 BUREAU OF GEOLOGY developed and subequal, the former slightly the larger , both l amellifo rm and reaching the very small columellar area . Third-cycle septa are somewhat smaller than the secondaries and thereafter there is a successive diminution in size according to the order of insertion , the last or fifth-cycle septa being the most rudimentary. The principal septa are broad above , the margin excavated to form a lobe or two before the center of the calice. The margins of the septa are serrated into small , fine , and closely spaced dentations . The faces of the septa are comparatively smooth but are made up of simple, widely spaced trabeculae with fine granules along their course and slightly larger ones scattered between them. There is no columella as s u ch but there is a wrinkling or bending of the ends of some of the primary septa in the center of the fossa. Measurements. Designated holotype (TB 3a): corallum (fragment) h ight 57 mm , width 22 mm, thi c kness 17 mm ; longest corallite 30 mm ; largest calice 5.5 mm x 4.0 mm ; number of septa 42. Paratype (TB -3b): corallite height 31.5 mm , breadth 14 mm , width 9 mm; maximum diameter of calice 13.5 mm , number of septa 86. P aratype (TB 3c): corn ute corallite , height 29 mm , breadth 14 mm , width 12 mm ; maximum diameter of calice 14 mm, number of septa 70. Par atype (TB 3d): cornute corallite with buds, height 46. 5 mm , breadth 12 mm, width 9 mm ; maximum diameter of ca l ice 1 2 mm, number of septa 72; length of buds 5 mm and 7 mm, diameters of calices 3 . 5 mm and 3 . 0 mm, respectively. P aratype (TB 3e) : corallum (consisting of several fused and broken corallites not in normal growth position) height 69 mm, breadth 45 mm , width 20 mm; the longest corallite is 62 mm in height with diameters of 14 mm x 11 mm above and 12 mm x 10 mm below. Locality . Ballast Point, west side of Hillsborough B ay, Hillsborough County , Florida . Formation and age. Tampa. Lower Miocene . Remarks.-Galax e a ia an uncommon taxon , and so far as I am aware Galax e a excelsa is the only fossil species of the genus reported in North America. This multiseptate form is quite unlike any other I have seen. Geographically , the nearest occ urren ce of any other Galaxea is the Recent Galaxea ebumea Pourtales (1871 , p . 29, pl. 3, figs. 6, 7) from off Habana , Cuba . That , however, is smaller than G . e xcelsa, has only three cycles of septa , a dodecagonal c alice , and no cos tae co nterminous with the third-cycle septa. Antillia ? willcoxi (Dana) ? 1918 . Antillia? willcoxi (Dana) , Vaughan , in Dall , U . S . National Mus., Bull. 90, p . 18 . Of the 17 species listed by Vaughan in the above citation , this is the only one I have been unable to track down. Might it not refer to Desmophyllum willcoxi Gane , of 1895 and 1900?

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BULLETIN NO. 56 57 Desmophyllum willcoxi Gan e Pl. 29, fig. 3; pl. 30, figs. 1 , 2; pl. 3 1 , fig. 2 1895 . D esmo phyllum willcoxi Gane , J ohns Hopkin s Univ . Circ ., vol. 15. No. 12, p . 9. 1900 . Desmophyllum willcoxi Gane , U.S. Nat. Mus. , Proc ., vol. 22, No. 1193 , p . 184 , pl. 15, figs. 1-3. 1915. ? Antillia ? willcoxi (Dana), Vaughan , in Dall , U . S . Nat. Mus ., Bull . 90, p. 18. 1925 . Desmophyllum willcoxi Gan e, Felix , Fossilium Catalogus I: Animalia, pars 28, p. 179. Gane 's 1900 description was as follows : " Corallum quite variable in shape, more or less compressed , conical , attached at base by a moderately long pedicle , which may be either broad or narrow . Surface of the wall and costal ridges smooth, at times s howing the development of an epitheca. Costae well developed , corresponding to all septa, more prominent near the calicular margin, margin s not acute, some granulations ove r the surface. The summits of the calice in the shorter diameter are higher than in the longer. The margin of the calice is irregularly dentate . The interior of the wall coarse ly pitted here and there between the septa . There are six systems of septa with four well-dev e loped cycles, and a fifth rudimentary. The septa are exsert , rather stout, thicker near the wall and in the vicinity of the base of the calicular fossa; they are generally s traight but often c urved , with granulated sides, and the s urface often shows quite distinct striations. In well preserved s pecimens the fossa is deep and narrow, and the free margins of the septa at the base of the fossa often form by means of small rod-like projection s a sort of columella as in Flabellum. Su c h a pseudocolumella similar t o that found in the present species is described by Mr. H. N . Mosely in his report on the ' Deep Sea Madreporaria' as occurring in the Desmophyllum ingens from the fjords of western Patagonia . This species is respe c tfully dedicat e d to Mr. Joseph Willcox , of Philadelphia. Dimensions. The dimensions of the largest spec imen are: Height 28 mm.; greatest length and least width of calice, respectively , 32 and 25 mm. The calices of the majority of the specimens are , however , more compressed than in this one. Geological horizon. Upper Olig oce ne. Locality . Ballast Point , Tampa Bay , Florida. Collections . Wagner Free Institute of S c ience , and in the private cabinet of Mr. Joseph Willcox, of Philadelphia . " The single specimen in the Florida State University co lle ction is an exce llent pseudomorph from the type locality of Balla st Point on the west s ide of Hillsborough Bay . The s ides of the cor allum are compresse d to form a

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58 BUREAU OF GEOLOGY gentle figure eight, and one end is a little broader than the other. There are 64 septa in five cycles, the fifth cycle incomplete. The septa of the first four cycles are exsert, high, and large, their size decreasing slightly in the order of their insertion, with the primary ones the largest, the secondaries slightly smaller, and so on. The fifth-cycle septa are rudimentary and extend part way down the wall. The principal septa are lobate above, descend steeply to about two-thirds the distance to the columella where they form a lower lobe , the margin of which descends vertically to the columella. The margins of the principal septa are finely and closely denticulate, and the sides minutely granulate, the granu lation s aligned in radial rows . There is one well developed costa for each septum. The costae correspond ing with the septa of the first four cycles are elevated, nearly all of the same size, and extend down the sides of the corallum to the pedicel ; the e0stae corresponding to the fifth-cyc l e septa are also prominent but are confined to the margin of the calice. On our specimen TB 1a the costae and interspaces are smooth on the upper half of the corallum but lower down the surface is coarsely granular; it is not known, however, whether the granulation is inherent or was produced by the film of matter adherent to that part of the surface. Nevertheless, even near the calicular margin, the crests of a few of the costae are faintly nodulous . The co lum ella is small, oval and deep ; it is a loose tangle of a few vermiform rods produced from the inner ends of the longest septa. Measurements. Specimen TB 1a : Corallum length 31 mm, width at middle of sides 20 mm, width at larger end 22.5 mm, width at smaller end 18 mm, height 22 mm , depth of columella 16.5 mm. Locality . Ballast Point , west side of Hillsborough Bay , Hillsborough County. Formation and Age. Tampa Limestone. Lower Miocene. Remarks. Seventeen species of corals were listed by Vaughan (in Dall , 1915, p. 18) from the "silex bed" of the Tampa Formation, and it is just possible that one of those Antillia ? willcoxi (Dana) -is the same as the Desmophyllum willcoxi of Gane . However , as Vaughan did not describe Antillia ? willcoxi, it is in effect a nomen nudum, and was , in any event, named later (in 1915) than the Desmophyllum willcoxi of Gane (1895, 1900) with which our specimen is identical. Incertae sedis "a" Pl. 31, fig. 3; pl. 32 , fig. 1; pl. 35 , fig. 2 The taxon is an internal cast of the calice of a solitary, broadly conical, and somewhat compressed coral in which the septa are represented by slits, and the mesentarial spaces between the septa by thin plates of calcium carbonate. Th ere are five cycles of septa, the large st of which reach the columella. All of the septa are inferred to have been a l!ttle exsert and, to judge from the punctations on the intersept a l fillings, Jo have been granulated .

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BULLETIN NO. 56 59 on their faces, with the granulations aligned in radial columns. The columella is a little elongated , narrowly elliptica l , and spongy. Measurements. Specimen TSM -6a: cora llum length (unreconstructed) 30 mm, height 16 mm. ; width of calice (estimated) 22 mm. Locality . Sixmile Creek, east of Tampa at Orient , Hillsborough County, Florida. Remarks.There is some possibility that this cast represents Desmoph y llum willcoxi Gane which occurs in the Tampa Formation at Ballast P o int , southwest of Tampa. The ske leton of D . willcoxi at Ballast Point is a completely silicified pseudomorph; the form from Sixmile Creek is complete l y calcareous. Flabellum , sp. indet. Pl. 32, fig. 2 The taxon is an imprint or external cast, in a granular limestone , of a solitary, flabellate, and probably pedicellate cora llum , the e nds of which diverge at an ang l e of at le ast 120 degrees. The septa are l aminar, some of them occurring as slits or very narrow fillings in the cast, the minor ones obscured. The costae (and septa) vary in size according to the order of insertion, but the primaries are by far the most prominent. The costae and the calcareo us filling between the septa are coa r se. From keel to keel there are five full cycles of septa and part of the sixth. The sides of the septa are granulate and the costae are tuberculate. The corallum is marked by fine impressed growth lines which cross the radii in perfect arcs. The epitheca was probably thin. Measurements. TSM-8a: Corallum height (unreconstructed) 36 mm, width 35 mm. Only o n e specimen. Locality . Sixmile Creek, Hillsborough County, Florida. Remarks. The genus Flabellum, so well represented in the Paleogene of the Gulf Coast, is rare in the Mio cene of eastern United States , and so far as I am aware is not living today in Western Atlantic or Gulf of Mexico waters . The only other early Miocene Flabellum I know of i s Flabellum chipolanum Weisbord (1971 , pp . 3, 41 , 42, pl. 9, fig . 4-9) from the Chipola Formation of Florida , and the Sixmile Creek form is quite distinct from that. Endopachys tampa e [Vaughan] Endopachys tampae Vaughan , nomen nudum, U . S . Nat. Mus., Bull. 90, p . 18 . This species, which is yet to be officially recognized , is being studied by Dr. John W. Wells of Cornell University. Wells has written me that he has in his possession some of Vau ghan's own notes on this new and curious species of Endopachys and that he has photographed the few extant specimens in the United States Nati o nal Musuem. Locality. Silex bed of the Tampa Formation, i.e. Ballast Point.

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60 BUREAU OF GEOLOGY Syzygophyllia tampae, new species Pl. 28 , figs. 1 -3; pl. 29 , fig. I 1915. Syzygophyllia ? tampae Vaughan , nomen nudum, in Dall , U.S. Nat. Mus., Bull. 90, p. 18. The following description pertains to the unnumbered specimen labeled by Vaughan as "Type, U.S. Geol. Survey, Miocene, Tampa silex bed, Florida." The corallum is solitary, very low, subpatellate, with a basal angle of about 120 degrees . There is an expanded pedicel located off center and a large , shallow, subcircular calice whose margin is undulatory and not entirely in the same plane. The short underside of the calice is shallowly concave beneath the rim but bulges out at the pedicel which , judging from its flared out base, gives evidence of having been attached. On the type there are about 96 septa in five complete cycles. The septa of the first two cycles are the largest and are subequal; the septa of the third and fourth cycles are also nearly equal but a little smaller than the primaries and secondaries. The principal septa reach the columella but pairs of the fourth cycle join the single ones of the third cycle just before the co lum ella. All of the septa are thin but the 48 septa of the fifth cycle are the thinnest and project least from the wall. the sides of the septa are spinulose and the margins are strongly serrate or denticulate. Because of breakage it is difficult to reconstruct the true configuration of the septa. However , it may be observed that the septa are a little higher and somewhat more even from the wall to about half the distance to the columella than they are nearer the columella where they are slightly lower but more deeply excavated. Overall the margins incline gradually to the columella at the edge of which they are nearly vertical, producing a deep , steep-sided fossa in which the columella is submerged . The septal margins at and near the wall are coarsely denticulate but then develop into lobes with rather even summits ; farther in the margin is so strongly serrated as to form two sharp triangular teeth at the periphery of the fossa. Each septum is conterminous with a costa . Unlike the septa which vary in prominence according to the order of their insertion, the costae are mostly the same in size although here and there a larger one alternates with a smaller. The costae are coarsely spinulose near the calicular margin but become denticulate or tuberculate below. The columella is very small, deeply immersed, and more or less oval in outline . It is crinkled and spongy , and appears to be composed of the fused inner ends of the septa. Most of the underside of the corallum is evenly coated by epitheca which does not quite reach the calicular margin. Measurements. Height of corallum I 5 mm; diameters of calice 2 4.5 mm x 2 2. 5 mm ; diameters of pedicel at its base 7 mm x 6 mm. Locality . Ballast Point. Comments. This species is characterized by its very short corallum but large calice , by its small but deep fossa, and by the intricate serration of the

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BULLETIN NO . 56 61 septal margins . The calice of Syzygophyllia tampae somewhat resembles that of S. gregorii (Vaughan) (1901 , p. 6; 1932, pp . 507, 508) from the Bowden Marl of Jamaica , but among important differences in the corallum, the serrations of the septa l margin within the ca lice are far more uni form than in S . tampae. Anthemiphyllia ? , sp. indet. Pl. 29 , fig. 2 Only the exterior is visible and this indicates that the ahermatypic corallum is patellate and pedicellate, and that the calice is subcircular in outline . The is short, dense , subrectangular , and nearly centrally located on the base. There are about 56 costae , and presumably the same number of septa , in four complete cycles, with a few in the fifth. The costae are strong, nearly equal in size, the larger ones extending to the pedicel , most of the intercalated ones nearly as long but wedging out toward their basal termini. The costae are badly weathered but appear to have been sharply tuberculate , the tubercula tions formed perhaps by the close concentric growth lines which are seen here and there. The interior of the calice is complete ly filled with granular limestone so that neither the septa nor the co lumella are visible. The ep ith eca was probably rudimentary . Measurements . Specimen TSM 7a : height of coral lum including pedi ce l 5 mm. ; maximum diameter of calice 11. 5 mm. ; diameters of pedicel 2.5 mmx 1. mm. Locality . Sixmile Creek , Hillsbor o ugh County, Florida. Lower p art of the Tampa section excavated in the Orient Park area . Remarks . With the interior of the calice inaccessibl e, the generic deter mination of this taxon as Anthemiph y llia Pourtal es (type Anthemiphyllia patera P ourtales 1878, p. 205, pl. 1 , figs . 14, 15; Recent , off Havana , Cuba , 292 fathoms) is, of course, conjectural and is based solely on the saucer-shaped or patellate corallum and on the character of the costae. Antill ocy athus ? , sp. indet. Pl. 7 , fig. 6 This solitary coral is described fro m a specimen in the U.S . Nati o n a l Museum label ed USGS 2 115 , the b ase of which is attached to and confluent with the base of Alveo pora tampae, n. s p. described on pages 37, 38 of this paper. The sides of the so lit ary cor a l are venee re d with a heavy epitheca a nd the calice completely filled with a s ili ceous granular sandstone so th a t even the generic determination is tentative . The coral lum is turbinate-cuneif o rm , and the calice suboval , with o n e s ide s lightly co mpressed. The prin c ip a l septa are thickened and subequal , and it is estimated that there are 28 of the m in th e ca lice which is 22 mm x 14 mm in diameter. Th e principal septa are d entate on the margin a nd granul ose o n the faces, and are much larger than the minor septa .

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62 BUREAU OF GEOLOGY Measurements . Corallum height (unreconstructed) a b out 1 2 mm.; grea ter diameter of calice 22 mm, l esser 14 mm. Locality. -The lab e l on USGS 2 115 reads " Hill s b o r o Bay , Florida" and it is conject ured that this refers to B a lla st P o int. Remarks . Th e determinatio n of the taxon as Antillocyathus ca n o nly b e reso l ved with better material , and is include d in this work for the sak e of describing all of the coral s f r o m the T a mpa Formation. Superficially , the spec imen rese mbl es Placocyath u s maoensis V a u ghan (in V aug h a n and H off meister, 1925, pp. 3 17, 3 18, pl. 1 , figs . 3-10) from the Cercado Formation (lower Miocene) of the D o mini ca n Republi c. The genu s Antillocyathus was erected for this species by W ells in 1937 (pp. 245, 246).

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PLATES 1 35

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64 BUREAU OF GEOLOGY Explanation of Plate 1 Figures Pages 1-5 Stylophora cf. S. minutissima Vaughan , Ballast Point ..... 18-20 1 . Specimen TB2a, coral lum branch, X 3.4 2 . Same, X 6 . 7 3 . Specimen TB2b, coral lum branch , X 3.3 4. Specimen TB2c, coral lum branch, X 3 . 2 5. Specimen TB-2e, coral lum branch, X 3 . 6

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BULLETIN NO . 56 65

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66 BUREAU OF GEOLOGY Explanation of Plate 2 Figures Pages 1-4 Stylophora silicensis, new spe cies . Flint River, Decatur County , Georgia. Chattahoochee Formation .......... 20-22 1. Designated type (USGS 3381 "a"), X 3.3. Com pare with Stylophora cf. S. minutissima Vaughan, specimen TB2d , plate 4 , figure 1 2. Para type (USGS 3381 "b"), X 3 . View of face 3. Same, X 3 . View of oppo site face 4. Para type (USGS 3381 "c"), X 2.7 . View show ing character of calice , right center

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BULLETIN NO . 56 67

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68 BUREAU OF GEOLOGY Explanation of Plate 3 Figures Pages 1-3 Acropora tampaensis, new species .......... ...... 22 , .23 1. Designated type (USNM-4999), X 1.9 . Locality presumed to be Ballast Point 2. Calices, X 4. Enlarged view of upper portion of figure 1 , above 3. Paratype (TB -llb), X 3.6

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BULLETIN NO. 56 69

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70 BUREAU OF GEOLOGY Explanation of Plate 4 Figures Pages 1 Stylophora cf. S. minutissima Vaughan, Ballast Point ..... 18-20 Specimen TB2d , X 2.9. Compare with Stylophora silicensis, new species (USGS 3381 "a"), plate 2, figure 1 2 Acropora tampaensis, new species , Ballast Point ........ . 22, 23 Paratype (TB 11a) , X2. 8 3 Siderastrea banksi, new spe cies , Six mile Creek . . . . . . . . 23, 24 Paratype (TSM2b) , X 3 . See plate 5, figure 2 for another view of same specimen

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BULLETIN NO. 56 7 1 2 3

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72 BUREAU OF GEOLOGY Explanation of Plate 5 Figures Pages 1 ,2 Siderastrea banksi, new species, Sixmile Creek ........ 23, 24 1 . Type (TSM 2a), X 3.8 2. Paratype (TSM 2b), X 5. See plate 4, figure 3, for another view of same specimen

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BULLETIN NO. 56 73

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74 BUR EAU OF GEOLOGY Explanation of Plate 6 Figures Pages 1-3 Siderast rea silecens i s Vaugh a n. Sixmil e Creek ........... 25 28 I. Specimen TSM-13a, X 0.3 8. Side view 2. S a m e , X 0.5 . Upper s ur face 3 . Upper right half of f i g ur e 2 en l arged, X 1.3 4-6 Alveopora tampae, n ew species. Six mile Creek ....... . 37 , 38 4 . Paratype (TSM-11a), X 1 . 6. View of upper s ur face 5 . Sid e view , X 1.7 6 . Side view of head , X 1.7 . For views of type (USGS 2 115) see plate 7, figures 4, 5

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BULLETIN NO. 56 75

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76 BUREAU OF GEOLOGY Explanation of Plate 7 Figures Pages 1-3 Siderastrea silecensis Vaughan. Davis Islands ............ 25-28 1. Specimen TD 2a, natural size. View of upper sur face 2. View of base, natural size 3. Calices, X 2 4,5 Alveopora tampae, new species. Hillsborough Bay ..... 37, 38 4. Designated type (USGS 2115), X 2 . View of up per surface 5. View of side , X 2 6 Antillocyathus, sp. indet. Hillsborough Bay ... ......... 61, 62 Designated type (USGS2115) , X 2 . View of calice . Antillocyathus, sp . indet. is attached to the base of Alveopora tampae, n. sp., figures 4 and 5, above

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BULLETIN NO. 56 77

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78 BUREAU OF GEOLOGY Explanation of Plate 8 Figures Pages 1-3 Porites .floridaeprima Bernard . Ballast Point ..... ....... 28-30 1 . Type (British Museum (Natural History), Geology Department R . 2343) , X 0 . 75 . View of face 2. View of opposite face, X0.75 3. Enlarged view o f sur f ace of figure 1 showing calices , X 7. Figures 1-3 provided through the courtesy o f the British Museum (Natu ral History)

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BULLETIN NO. 56 7 9 3

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80 BUREAU OF GEOLOGY Explanation of Plate 9 Figures Pages 1 , 2 Porites jloridaeprima Bernard (= Porites willcoxi Vaughan , nomen nudum] .......... 28-30 1. Paratype (USNM -3286, smaller corallum), X 2. Ballast Point 2 . Same specimen , showing calices on reverse side , X 2 3,4 Porites jloridaeprima Bernard , Ballast Point ....... . . . . . 28-30 3 . Specimen TB lOa , X 3.3 , compressed branch 4 . Specimen TB-lOb), X 3.4 , club shaped form

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BULLETIN NO. 56 81

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82 BUR E AU OF G E OLOGY Explanation of Plate I 0 Figures Pages I -3 P orites jlo rida e prima B erna rd [ = P o rites w ill cox i V a u gha n , nome n nu d um] , B allast P o int . 28 3 0 I . Par a t y p e (USNM-3286, l arge r co r a llum) , X I .5 2. S a m e s p eci men s h o win g ca li ces , X 2.4 3. Sp ec im e n TB-6a, X 2.5, Ballast P o int 4 , 5 Go ni o p ora balli s t e n s i s , n e w s p ec i es. B allast P o int ....... 32, 33 4 . T ype ( TB 7a), natur a l s i ze . G e n e r a l v i e w 5. Enla rged vie w of calices, X 2

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BULLETIN NO. 56 83 1 2

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84 BUREAU OF GEOLOGY Explanation of Plate 11 Figures Pages 1-3 Goniopora ballistensis, new species. Ballast Point ....... 32, 33 1. Cotype (USNM 3286), X 0.9, broadside view 2 . View of narrow side , X 0 . 9 3 . End view , X 3

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BULLETIN NO . 56 85 2 3

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86 BUREAU OF GEOLOGY Explanation of Plate 12 Figures Page s I ,2 Goniopora ballistensis, new s pecies. Ballast Point ... .... 32, 33 I. Para type (TB -7b ) , natural size. Side view 2. End view , X 1.2 3-6 Goniopora matsoni , new species ................ 34 36 3. Type (USNM -6546 "a"), X 2, corallum branch . "Silex " bed of Tampa region. 4. Paratype (USNM 6546 " b "), X 1 .8, divaricating branch. " Silex " bed of Tampa region 5 . Same , end view , X 1 . 8 6. Specimen TSM1 2a, X 2. Sixmile Creek

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BULLETIN NO. 5 6 87

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88 BUREAU OF GEOLOGY Explanation of Plate 13 Figures Pages 1-3 Goniopora cf. G. decaturensis Vaughan . Ballast Point ..... 33, 34 I . Specimen TB8a , X 2.3, corallum head 2. Calices, X 5 3 . Side view , X 2.6, showing deposit of chalcedony be low surface

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BULLETIN NO. 56 89

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90 BUREAU OF GEOLOGY Explanation of Plate 14 Figures Page s 1-3 Goniopora matsoni, new species . Ballast P oint ......... 34-36 1 . Cotype (TB 5a) , X 4 , view of side 2 . Calices of half of reverse side , X 4 3. End view , X 3

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BULLETIN NO. 56 91

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92 BUREAU OF GEOLOGY Explanation of Plate 15 Figures Pages 1 ,2 Goniopora tampaensis, new species. Ballast Point . ...... 36 1. Type (USNM-2084), X 2 , top view of head 2. Side view of head, X 2.7

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BULLETIN NO. 56 93

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94 BUREAU OF GEOLOGY Explanation of Plate 16 Figures Pages 1-3 Favites yborensis , new species [ = Maeandra tampaensis Vaughan , nomen nudum . ] Type (USNM 4999). Ballast Point ................. 38. 39 1. Top view , natural size 2 . Side view , X 1.6 3. View of reverse side , X 1.5

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BULLETIN NO. 56 95

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96 BUREAU OF GEOLOGY Explanation of Plate 17 Figures Pages 1-3 Montastrea annularis (Ellis and Solander) . . .......... . . 39-46 1. Specimen TSM4a, natu ral size. Sixmile Creek 2. Specimen FLX 8a, X 1.4 , partial view of head . Lo cality not known but be lieved to be from the Key Largo Limestone (Pleisto c ene) at Key Vaca, Mon roe County, Florida 3. Same, partial view of head and side , X 1.3. See plate 18 , figures 1-3

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BULLETIN NO . 56 97

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98 BUREAU OF GEOLOGY Explanation of Plate 18 Figures Pages 1-3 Montastrea annularis (Ellis and Solander) . ............. 39-46 Locality not known but specimens are identical with those in the U.S . National Museum from the Key Largo Limestone (Pleistocene) at Key Vaca , Monroe County, Florida 1 . Specimen FLX 8a, X 0.7. See plate 17 , figures 2, 3 2. Specimen FLX -8b, natu ral size 3. Same , showing calices, X 3

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BULLETIN NO. 56 99

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100 BUREAU OF GEOLOGY Explanation of Plate 19 Figures Pages 1,2 M ontastrea annularis (Ellis and Solander) . Sixmile Creek .... 39-46 1. Specimen TSM-4a, X 2 2. Same, enlarged view of calices, X 3

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BULLETIN NO . 56 101

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102 BUREAU OF GEOLOGY Explanation of Plate 20 Figures Pages 1-3 Montastrea davisina, new spe cies. Davis Islands ......... 46, 4 7 I. Type (TD 32), X 1.2, side view 2 . View of reverse side 3. Calices, X 2 4 ,5 Montastrea peninsularis, new specie s . Ballast Point ....... 47 , 48 4. Type (TB 9a) , natural size. View of top 5 . Same, calices enlarged, X 2. 25 6 Montastrea tampaensis (Vaughan). Davis Islands .... 48-50 Specimen TD -la, X 1.35 , portion of corallum

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BULLETIN NO . 56 10 3

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104 B UREAU OF GEOLOGY Explanation of Plate 21 Figures Pages l Montastrea tampaensis (Vaughan) . D avis I s lands .... 48-50 Specimen TD -la, X 3.2, view of head

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BULLETIN NO. 56 105

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106 BUREAU OF GEOLOGY Explanation of Plate 22 Figures Pages 1,2 Montastrea tampaensis silecen-sis (Vaughan) . Ballast Point . . 50-51 1. Specimen TB -42, X 0 . 9, view of head 2 . View of side , X 0 . 9 3 Antiguastrea cellulosa (Dun can). Ballast Point . ...... . 51-54 Specimen 4999 (324941) USNM, natural size . Side view

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BULLETIN NO. 56 107

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108 BUREAU OF GEOLOGY Explanation of Plate 23 Figures Pages 1 Montastrea tampaensis silecen-sis (Vaughan). Ballast Point .. 50-51 Specimen TB 4a, X 4. See plate 22, figures 1, 2

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BULLETIN NO . 56 109

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BULLETIN NO. 56 Ill

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112 BUREAU OF GEOLOGY Explanation of Plate 25 Figures Pages 1-3 Cyphastrea tampae, new species. Ballast Point ......... 54 , 55 1. Type (USNM unnumbered specimen) , X 1.5. View of side 2. View of opposite side, Xl.3 3. Calices , X 1.3 4-6 Galaxea excelsa, new species . Ballast Point ............ 55, 56 4. Type (TB 3a), X 2 .5. View of calices of upper surface 5. View showing cylindrical corallites, X 2.5 6. Paratype (TB 3e), X 1.1. Jumbled cluster of coral lites

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BULLETIN NO . 56 113

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114 BUREAU OF GEOLOGY Explanation of Plate 26 Figures Pages 1-3 Galaxea excelsa, new species. Ballast Point ............ 55, 56 1 . Holotype (TB 3a), X 2.2. View showing cylindrical corallites and ovate calices 2. Side view of corallum, X 2.2 3. Enlargement of calices shown in figure 1 above, X5

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116 BUREAU OF GEOLOGY Explanation of Plate 27 Figures Pages 1-8 Galaxea excelsa, new species. Ballast Point ............ 55, 56 1. Paratype (TB 3b) , X 2 , side view 2 . View of opposite side, X 2 3. Calice, X 3 4 . Paratype (TB 3c), X 2.2 , side view 5 . View of opposite side, X2.2 6. Calice , X 3 7. Paratype (TB-3d), X 1.7 , side view showing buds. See plate 31, figure 1 8. Calice, X 3

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118 BUREAU OF GEOLOGY Explanation of Plate 28 Figures Pages 1-3 Syzygophyllia tampae, new species. Tampa silex bed .... 60, 61 1. Type (USNM unnumbered specimen), X 3.3 . Top view 2. Canted view of calice, X3.3 3. Side view of corallum , X3.3

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120 BUREAU OF GEOLOGY Explanation of Plate 29 Figures Pages 1 Syzygophyllia tampae, new species. Tampa silex bed .... 60, 61 Type (USNM unnumbered specimen), X 3.3, showing calicular margin, side, and base 2 Anthemiphyllia ? , sp. indet. Sixmile Creek .......... . 61 Specimen TSM7a, X 5.4, showing base and sides 3 Desmophyllum willcoxi Gane. Ballast Point . ........... 57 , 58 Specimen TB1a , X 3, view of side

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122 BUREAU OF GEOLOGY Explanation of Plate 30 Figures Pages 1,2 Desmophyllum willcoxi Gane, Ballast Point ............ 57, 58 1. Specimen TB -la, X 3 .1. Canted view of calice 2. Full view of calice, X 3.1

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124 BUREAU OF GEOLOGY Explanation of Plate 31 Figures Pages 1 Galaxea excelsa, new species . Ballast Point ............ 55, 56 Paratype (TB 3d) , X 4 . En largement of bud zones. See plate 27 , figure 7 2 D esmo ph y llum willc oxi Gane . Ballast Point ............ 57 , 58 Specimen TB-la, X 3. View of side. See plate 29, figure 3 3 lncertae sedis "a" . Sixmile Creek ................. 58 , 59 Internal cast of specimen TSM6a , X 3 . Canted vie w showing interseptal fillings of calcium carbonate

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126 BUREAU OF GEOLOGY Explanation of Plate 32 Figures Pages I lncertae sedis a . Sixmile Creek ........... . . . . . . 58 , 59 Internal cast of specimen TSM 6a, X 3.3 . View of base showing general form of col umella 2 Flabellum, sp. indet. Sixmile Creek .... . . ........... 59 Specimen TSM -Sa, X 2.5. Imprint of exterior

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128 BUREAU OF GEOLOGY Explanation of Plate 33 Figures Pages 1 G o niopora aucillana, new species. Cabbage Grove ....... 30-32 Holotype (Au -la), X 1.6 , side view. Suwannee Limestone

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130 BUREAU OF GEOLOGY Explanation of Plate 34 Figures Pages Goniopora aucillana , new species. Cabbage Grove ....... 30-32 Holotype (Au-la), X 1.6. View of head . Suwannee Limestone

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132 BUREAU OF GEOLOGY Explanation of Plate 35 Figures Pages Goniopora aucillana, new species . Cabbage Grove . .... . . 30-32 Holotype (Au -la), X 4, en larged view of calices. Suwannee Limestone 2 Incertae sedis a . Sixmile Creek ............ ..... 58 , 59 Internal cast of specimen TSM6a, X 3.7. Side view showing punctations on the interseptal fillings, produced from pointed granulations on the faces of the septa

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BULLETIN NO. 56 135 REFERENCES CITED Agassiz , Alexander 1880 Report on the Flon"da Reefs by Louis Agassiz. Accompanied by illustrations of Florida corals, from drawings by A. Sonrel, Burkhardt, A Agassiz, and Roetter. With an explanation of the plates by L. F. Pourtales . Mus . Comp. Zoo!., Mem., vol. 7, no. 1 , pp . 1-61, pls. 1-23 . Alexander , G. B., Heston , W. M., and Iler, H. K. 1 954 The solubility of amorphous silica in water . J our. Phys . Chern., vol. 58, pp. 453-455. Allen , John H . 1846 Some facts respecting the geology of Tampa Bay, Flon"da. Amer. Jour. Sci. , ser. 2 , vol. 1 (51), art. IV , pp. 38-42. Almy , Charles C., Jr. , and Carrion-Torres, Carlos 1963 Shallow-water stony corals of Puerto Rico . Caribbean Jour. Sci., vol. 3 , nos. 2-3, pp. 133-162 , pis. 1-21, text-figs . 1, 2. Arango y Molina , Rafael 1877 Radiados de Ia Isla de Cuba. Polipos calcdreos. R . Acad. Ciencias Medicas , Fiscas y Naturales de Ia Habana , An., vol. 14, pp. 272-284 . Bender, Michael 1971 The reliability of He/ U dates on cora ls. Amer. Geophys. Union , Trans ., vol. 52, no. 4, p . 366. [Abstract) Bernard , Henry M . 1906 Catalogue of the Madreporarian C orals in the Bn"tish Museum (Natural Hisotry ). V o lume VI. The Family Pon"tidea . II. The Genus Pon"tes. Part II. Porites of the Atlantic and West Indies, with the European fossil Forms. The Genus Goniopora, a Supplement to Vol. IV British Mus . (Nat. Hist.), vol. 6 , pp. i -vi, 1 -17 3 , pls. 1-17. Blainville, Henri Marie Ducrotay de 1816-30 Dictionnaire des Sciences Naturelles. Paris, 60 vol. text, 1 2 vols. pls ., 1 vol. portraits. Oursins , vol. 37 , pp. 59-245 (1825) ; Scutelles, vol. 48 (1827);Spatangues, vol. 50(1827);Zoophytes, vol. 60(1830). 1834-37 Manuel d'Actinologie ou de Zoophytologie. Pari s, viii+ 69 4 pp., 103 Bonet , F. 1958 pls. [in 2 vols.] Madreporan"os del Temtorio de Quintana Roo colectados por J . Butter/in. Asoc. Mexicana Geol. Petroleras, Bot. , vol. 10, nos. 9-10 , pp . 565-570. Bory de Saint-Vincent, Jean Baptiste George Marie 1827 Vers. C oq uilles, Mollusques et Poly piers. In Bruguiere , J. G. , Encyclo pedie Methoclique, Paris , 3 vols., 188 pp . , 488 pls.

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136 BUREAU OF GEOLOGY Branner, John Caspar 1904 The stone reefs of Brazil, their geological and geographical relations, with a chapter on the coral reefs. Mus. Comp. Zoo!., Bull., vol. 44 (Geol. Ser., vol. 7), 285 pp . , 99 pis., 104 text-figs . Bruguiere, Jean Guillaume 1827 Vers, Coquilles, Mollusques et Polypiers. Encyclopedie Methodique, Paris, 3 vols . , 188 pp., 488 pis. Butsch, R. S. 1939 The reef builders of Barbados. Barbados Mus. and Nat. Hist. Soc., Jour., vol. 6, No . 3, pp. 129-138, pis . 1 , 2. Campos Villarroel, Regula A . 1972 Aporte a/ estudio de los carafes (Coelenterata) de Ia Bahia de Mochima, Estado Sucre. Soc. Venezolana Cienc. Nat., Bol., vol. 29, nos. 122-123, pp. 545-589, figs. 1-13, pis. 1-10. Conrad, Timothy A. 1846 Observations on the geology of a part of East Florida, with a catalogue of Recent shells of the coast. Amer. Jour. Sci., ser. 2, vol. 2 (52), art. V, pp. 36-48. 1846 Descriptions of new species of organic remains from the Upper Eocene Limestone of Tampa Bay. Amer. Jour. Sci., ser. 2, vol. 2 (52), art. XXXVII, pp. 399-400, 9 text-figs. Cooke, C. Wythe 1945 Geology of Florida. Florida Geol. Survey, Geol. Bull. No. 29, pp . i-ix, 1-339, figs. 1-47, pl. I (geol. map). Cooke, C. Wythe, and Mossom, Stuart 1929 Geology of Florida. Florida State Geol. Survey, Twentieth Ann. Rept. 1927-1928, pp. 29-227, pis. 1-29, geol. map. Coryell, H. N., and Ohlsen, Violet 1929 Fossil corals of Porto Rico, with descriptions also of a few Recent species. New York A cad. Sci., Scientific Survey of Porto Rico and the Virgin Islands, vol. III, pt. 3, pp. 167-236, pis. 26-44. Dall, William Healy 1890Contributions to the Tertiary Fauna of Florida, with especial reference 1903 to the Miocene Silex-Beds of Tampa and the Pliocene Beds of the Caloosahatchie River. Wagner Free Inst. Sci., Trans., vol. 3, parts 1-V, pp. 1 1654, p1s. 1-60, geol. map. 1915 A monograph of the molluscan fauna of the Orthaulax pugnax zone of the Oligocene of Tampa, Florida . U.S. Nat. Mus . , Bull. 90, pp. i-xv, 1-173 , p1s. 1-26 . Dana, James Dwight 1846-49 Zoophytes. United States Exploring Expedition during the years

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BULLETIN NO. 56 137 1838-1839-1840-1841-1842 under the command of Charles Wilkes. Philadelphia , vol. 7, vi+ 740 pp. , 61 pis. , 45 text-figs . Duarte Bello, Pedro Pablo 1961 Carafes d e los arrecifes Cubanos. Acuaria Nac. Marianao [Cuba] , Ser. Educacionai no. 2, pp. 1-85, figs. 1-4, 1-74. Duchassaing , Placide , and Michelotti , Giovanni 186i Memoire sur les coralliaires des Antilles. R. Accad . Sci. Torino , Mem., ser. 2 , vol. 19, pp . 279-365, pis . 1-10 . 1866 Supplement au Memoire sur les coralliaires des Antilles. R. Accad . Sci. Torino , Mem., ser. 2, vol. 23, pp. 97-206 , pis. 1-11. Duerden, James Edwin 1899 Zoophyte collecting in Bluefields Bay. Inst. of Jamaica , Jour. , vol. 2 . no. 6, pp. 619-624. 1902 West Indian madreporarian polyps. Nat. Acad. Sci. Washington . Mem., vol. 8, pp. 399-599, pis . 1-25, text-figs . l-18c. Duncan , Peter Martin 1863 On the fossil corals of the West Indian islands . Part I. Geol. Soc . London , Quart. Jour. , vol. 19, pp. 406-458 , pis. 13-16. 1864 On the fossil corals of the West Indian islands. Part II. Geol. Soc . London, Quart. Jour. , vol. 20, pp . 20-44 , pis. 2-5. 1864 On the fossil corals of the West Indian Islands. Part III. Geol. Soc. London Quart. Jour. , vol. 20, pp. 358-374. 1867 On the fossil corals (Madreporaria) of the West Indian islands . Part IV Conclusi on. Geol. Soc . London, Quart. Jour. , vol. 24 (1868) , pp . 9-33, pls. 1 , 2 . Eames, F. E ., and Clarke, W. J. 1967 Mayer's stratotype area Aquitanian faunas. Eclogae Helvetiae , vol. 60 , no. 2, pp . 553-566. Edwards, Henri Milne , and Haime, Jules 1848-51 Recherches sur les polypiers. Premier memoire . Observat ions sur Ia structure et le developpement des polypiers en general. Ann Sci. Nat. Paris, sh 3, Zoologie , vol. 9 (1848), pp. 37-89, pis. 4-6 . Deuxieme memoire . Monographie des turbinolides, vol. 9 (1848) , pp. 211-344, pis . 7-10. Troisieme m emoire. Monographie des e upsammidae, vol. 10 (1848) , pp . 65-114 , pl. 1. Quatri e m e memoir e . Monographie des astreides, vol. 10 (1848) , pp . 209-320, pis . 5-9 . Monographie des astreides ( 1 ) . Tribu II. Astn:!es (Astreinae ),vol. 11 (1849), pp. 233-312 . Monographie des astreides (1). Suite . Quatriem e section. Astreens agglom e res. Astreens aggregatae, vol. 12 (1849) , pp . 95-197 . Cinqui eme me'moire . Monographie des oculinides, vol. 13, (1850), pp . 63-110. Sixiem e memoire . Monographie des fongides, vol. 15 (1850), pp.

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138 BUREAU OF GEOLOGY 73-144 . Septieme me moire. Monographie des pori tides , vol. 16 (I 851 ), pp. 21-70. Ehrenberg, Christian Gottfried 1834 Die Corallenthiere des rothen Meeres physiologisch Untersucht und systematisch Verzeichnet . Beitrdge zur physiologischen Kenntniss der Carollenthiere im allgemeinen , und besonders des rothen Meeres, nebst einem Versuche zur physiologischen Systematik derselben. tiber die Natur und Bildung der Coralleninseln und Corallenbanken in rothen Meeres. K. Akad. Wiss. Berlin , Phys. Abhandl. 1832 , pp. 225-380 , 381-432 . Ellis , John, and Solander, Daniel Carl 1786 The Natural Nistory of many curious and uncommon Zoophytes, collected from many parts of the Globe by the late John Ellis, Esq., F.R.S., Reg. Upsala Soc . , etc. Systematically arranged and described by the late Daniel Solander, MD. , F.R.S. , etc. London, xii + 20 pp., 63 pis . Esper , Johann Cristoph 1794-Fortsetzungen der Pflanzenthiere. Nurnberg, 2 vols. Vol. 1 , pts. 1-2 , 1806 pp . 1-64 (1794) ; pts . 3-4 , pp. 65-116 (195); pts. 5-6 , pp . 117-168 (1796); pts. 7-8, pp. 169-230 (1797). Vol. 2, pt. 9 , pp . 1-24 (1798); pt. I 0 , pp. 25-48 (I 806). Felix , Johannes Paul 1925 Anthozoa eocaenica et oligocaenica. Fossilium Catalogus I. Animalia . Pars 28 , pp. 1-296. 1927 Anthozoa miocaenica. Fossilium Catalogus I. Animalia. Pars 35 , pp. 297-488. Fontaine , A. R 1954 Notes on the marine invertebrate collections. Inst. of Jamaica , Ann Rept. 1953-1954 , pp. 24-27 . Galtsoff , Paul S., co-ordinator 1954 Gulf of Mexico: its origin, waters, and marine life. U .S. Fish and Wildlife Service , Fishery Bull., vol. 55, No. 89, pp. i-xiv , 1-604 , figs. 1-74 , tables, maps. Gane , Henry Stewart 1895 A contribution to th e Neoc e ne corals of the United States . John Hopkins Univ. , Circular , vol. 15, no. 121, pp . 8-10 . 1900 S o me Neocene corals of the United States. U .S. Nat. Mus ., Proc ., vol. 22 ,no.1193,pp.l79-198,pl.I5. Gardner, Julia 1926-The molluscan fauna of the Alum Bluff Group of Florida. U.S. Geol. 1950 Survey , Prof. Paper 142 A -I, 709 pp., 62 pis.

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BULLETIN NO. 56 1 39 Gmelin , Johann Friedrich 1788-93 Caroli a Linn e Systema Naturae p e r Regna tria Naturae. Ed iti o decimatertia, aucta , r efo rmata , cura J . F. Gmelin. Lip siae, 3 vols. V ol. 1 , Regnum Animate: pt. I , Mammalia , pp. i-x , 1-232 (1788) ; pt. 2 . Aves, pp . 2 33-1032 (178 9 ) ; pt. 3, Amphibia e t Pisces, pp . 1033-151 6 (1789); pt. 4 , Insecta, pp. 1517222 4 (1790); pt. 5 , Ins ecta, pp. 222 5-30 2 0 (I 790); pt. 6, Vermes, pp . 3021 3910 (I 791 ) ; pt. 7 ,Index, pp . 3911-4120 (1792) . Vol. 2, pt. I , Regnum Vege tabile, pp. i-xi, 1-884 (17 92 ) ; pt. 2, Regnum V egeta bile, pp. 8851661 (1792) . V ol. 3, Regnum Lapideum, 476 pp ., 3 pis. Goreau , Th o mas F., and Hartman , W . D . 1 963 B o ring sponges as controlling factors in th e f o rmati o n and maintenanc e of coral r eefs. Amer. Asso c. Adv. S ci., Pub!. , vol. 75, pp. 2554 , figs. 1-16. Goreau, Thomas F., and Wells, John W est 1 96 7 The shallow_-water Scleractinia of Jamai ca: revise d list of spec ies and their vertical distribution range. Bull. Marine Sci. , vol. 17 , no. 2, pp. 442-453 , figs. 1-3. Greeley , Arthur W . 1904 Notes o n th e corals collected on th e north e ast coast of Brazil. In Branner , J . C., The stone r eefs o f Brazil, Mus. Comp. Z oot., Bull. , vol. 44, pp. 268 275. Gregory, J o hn W a lter 1895 Contributions t o the palaeonto l ogy and physi cal geology o f th e W est Indies . Geol. So c. L o ndon , Quart. J o u r., vol. 51, pp . 255 3 1 2 , pl. II text-figs . I , 2. Heilprin , Angelo 1887 Ex pl o rati ons of the west coast of F l orida and in th e Okeech obee wilderness. Wagner Free In sti tute Sci., vol. 1 , pp . i-iv, 1-134 , 2 drawings , pis. 1-19 . 1888 C o ntributi ons to th e natural history o f the B e rmuda Islands. Acad. Nat. S ci. Philadelphia , Pro c . , vol. 40, pp . 3 02-3 28, pls. 14 1 6. 1890 The corals and coral r eefs of the w e st ern waters o f the Gulf of M e xico. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia , Pr oc., vol. 4 2, pp. 303 340, pis . 6, 7 . Hill , Robert Thoma s 1899. The geology and ph y sical geography of Jamaica: study of a typ e of Antillean d eve lopm ent. Based up o n surveys made for Alexander Agassiz. Mus . Comp . Zoot. , Bull. , vol. 34 (Geol. S er., vol. 4), pp . 1-2 5 6, pls . 1-41 , text-figs. 1-40. Hoffmeister , J . E., and Multer , H. G . 1968 . Geology and origin of th e Florida K eys. Geol. Soc. Ame r., Bull ., vol. 79,no.l1, pp . 1487-150l ,figs.1-3.

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140 BUREAU OF GEOLOGY Horst , C. J . van der 1927 Bijdragen tot de Kennis der Fauna van Curacao . Madreporaria . Bijdr . Dierkunde Amsterdam , vol. 25, pp . 159-161. Johnson, Lawrence C. 1888 The structure of F7orida. Amer. Jour. Sci. , ser. 3 , vol. 36 , art. XXIII , pp. 230-236, 1 fig. Jones, John A. 1963 Ecological studies of the southeastern Florido patch reefs. Part I. Diurnal and seasonal changes in the environment. Bull . Marine Sci. Gu1fand Caribbean, vol. 13 , no. 2 , pp . 282 307, figs. 1-6. Klose , William 1970 List of corals from the Miami Oolite and Key Largo Limestone (Pleistocen e), southern Florida. Letter to R. 0 . Vernon , 7 pp. Krauskopf, Konrad B. 1956 Dissolution and precipitation of silica at low temperatures. Geochim. et Cosmochim. , Acta , vol. 10, pp . 1-26. Lamarck, Jean Baptiste Pierre Antoine de Monte de 1816 Histoire Naturelle des Animaux sans Vertebres . Paris , vol. 2 , iv + 568 pp . 1836 Histoire Naturelle des Animaux sans Vertebres . Histoire des Polypes. (Revue et augmentee de notes presentant . . . par MM . G. P. Deshayes et H. Milne Edwards) . Paris and London, ed. 2, vol. 2 , 683 pp . Lamouroux , Jean Vincent Felix 1821 Exposition methodique des genres, de l'ordre des Ploypiers, avec leur description et celles des principales especes, figurees dans 84 planches ; les 63 premieres appartenant a l'Histoire Naturelle des Zooph y tes d 'Ellis et Solander. Paris , viii+ 115 pp., 84 pis. , 1 table. 1824 Histoire naturelle des Zoophytes, au animaux rayones . Encyclopedie Methodique, vol. 2 , pp. i-viii, 1-19, pls. 482-487. Lewis, John B. 1960 The coral reefs and coral communities of Barbados, W. I. Canadian Jour. Zoo!., vol. 38, no. 6 , pp. 1133-1145, pis. 1-7, text-fig. 1. 1960 Scleractinia of Barbados. Barbados Mus. and Nat. Hist. Soc. , Jour., vol. 28,no.l,pp.ll, 12. Liebe, Richard M., Hattin, Donald E., and Dodd, J. Robert 1972 Newfound Reef: a previously undescribed living linear reef off the lower F7orida Keys. Geol. Soc . Amer., Southeastern Sect. 21st Ann. Meeting , p. 87. [Abstract] Lindstrom, Gustaf 1877 Contributions to the actinology of the Atlantic Ocean. K. Svenska Vetensk. Akad. Stockholm, Hand!., n . F . , vol. 14, no. 6, pp. 1-26, 3 pis.

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BULLETIN NO. 56 141 Linnaeus, Carolus 1766-67 Systema Naturae per Regna tria Naturae. Holmiae, Editio duodecima, Reformata, pt. 1 , pp. 1-53 2 (1766); pt. 2, pp. 533-13 27 (1767). Logan, Brian , et al. 1969 Carbonate sediments and reefs, Yucatan Shelf, Mexico. Amer. Assoc. Petrol.Geol.,Mem.11,pp.1-19 8 ,pls.1-10,text-figs.1-64. Lund , Ernest H. 1960 Chalcedony and quartz crysta l s in silicified coral. Amer. Mineralogist, vol. 45, nos. 11-12, pp. 1 304-1307 , fig. 1. Lyell , Sir Charles 1883 Principles of Geology, being an attempt to explain the former changes of the earth 's surface by reference to causes now in ope ration. London , John Murray, pp . i-xxxi, 1-398 ; Appendix I , pp. 1-52 ; Appendix II, pp. 53-83; Ind ex, pp. 85-109,93 figs. 4 pis., 1 geol. map. Macintyre , Ian G. 1967 Submerged coral reefs, west coast of Barbados, West Indies . Canadian J o ur. Earth Sci., vol. 4 , no. 3, pp . 461-474, figs. 1-9, pis . 1-3. 1972 Submerged coral reefs of Eastern Caribbean. Amer. Assoc. Petrol. Geol., Bull., vol. 56 , no. 4, pp . 720-738 , 8 figs. , 2 tables . Mansfield, Wendell C. 1937 Mollusks of the Tampa and Suwannee Limestones of Florida. Florida Geol. Survey, Geol. Bull., no. 15, pp . 1-333 , pis. A-D, 1-21, text-figs. 1 , 2 , tables 1 , 2. Matson, George Charlton, and Clapp, Frederick G . 1909 A preliminary report on the geology of Florida, with special reference to the stratigraphy . Prepared in cooperation between the United States Geological Survey and the Florida State Geological Survey, under th e direction of Thomas Wayland Vaughan. Florida State Geol. Survey , Second Ann. Rept. 1908-9, pp. 28 -17 3 , pis. 1-8 text figs. 1 , 2. [Plat e I is geological map.] Maury , Carlotta J oaquina 1902 A comparison of the Oligocene of western Europe and the southern United States. Part I. Bull. Amer. P aleont., vol. 3 , no. 15, pp . 1-41 (312-351), pis. 21-24. Part II. The Oligocene of the southern United States, pp. 42-81 (352-391), pis. 25-27, 7 sections, 1 correlation table . Part III . Comparison and corre lati on of the Oligocene of the southern states with that of western Europe, pp. 82-92 (392-402) , pl. 28 , stratigraphic table. Mayer, Alfred Goldsborough 1913 Department of Marine Biology . Carnegie In st. Washington , Yearbook for 1 912 , no. 11, pp. 118-129.

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142 BUREAU OF GEOLOGY 1914 The effects of temperature upon tropical marine animals. Carnegie lnst. Washington, Publ. no. 18 3, Papers Tortugas Lab., vol. 6, no. I , pp. 1-24. 1918 Toxic effects due to high temperature. Carnegie lnst. W as hington, Publ. no. 252, Papers Tortugas Lab., vol. 12, no. 7, pp. 173-178. Mayer-Eymar, C. 1858 Versuch einer neuen Klassifikati on der Tertiiirgebild e Europa . Schweiz. Gesell. Naturw., Verk. All g. 17-19 (August 1857) , pp. 165-19 9. Mesolella , Kenneth J ., Sealy , H . A., and Matth ews, R. K. 1970 Facies geometries within Pleistocene reefs of Barbados . Amer. Assoc . Petrol. Geol., Bull ., vol. 54, n o . I 0 (pt I of II), pp. 1899-1917 , figs. 1-16 . Moore , Don a ld R . 1958 Notes on Blanquilla R eef, the most northerly coral formation in the western Gulf of Mexico. Inst. Marine Sci. Univ. Texas , Pub!. , vol. 5 , pp. 151-155. Moore , Donald R. , and Gunter , Gordon 196 2 Notes o n th e Plioc ene molluscan fauna from one site in the W estern Florida Eve rglades . Bull . Marine Sci. Gulf and Caribbean , vol. 12 , no. I , pp. 66-72. Mosely , H enry Nottidge 1881 R eport on certain Hydroid, Alcyonarian, and Madreporarian Corals procured during the Voyage of H.MS. Challenger, in the years 1 8731876. Part I. -On the Hydrocorallinae. Part II. -On Helioporidae and their allies. Part III. -On deep-sea Madreporaria . Voyage H.M. S. Challenger 1873-76 , Rept. Sci. Res ults , Zoology , vol. 2 , pt. 7, pp. 1-248 , pis. 1-14 , 1-16 , 22 text-figs. Mos so m , Stuart 1925 A preliminary report on the limest ones and marls of Florida. Florida Geol. Survey, Sixteenth Ann. Rept. 1923-24, pp. 27-203, half-tones 2-52, text-figs. 1-7 , map. Newell , N .D., Imbrie , J., Purdy , E. G., and Thurber, D. L. 1959 Organism communities and bottom facies, Great Bahama Bank. Amer. Mus. Nat. Hi st., Bull., vol. 117 , art. 4, pp. 179-228 , pis . 58-69 , text-figs . 1-17. Pourtales , Louis Francois de 1871 Illustrated catalogue of the Museum o f Comparativ e Zoology at Harvard College. IV Deep sea corals. Mus. Comp. Zool. , Mem. , vol. 2, pp.l-93,pls.I-8. 1878 Rep o rt on the dredging o p e rations of the U.S. Coast Survey Steamer " Blake." Corals. Mus . Comp. Zool. , Bull. , vol. 5, no. 9, pp. 197-212, pl. 1.

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BULLETIN NO. 56 14 3 1880 Report on the Florida Reefs by Louis Agassiz. Accompanied by illustrations of Florida corals, from drawings by A. Sonrel, Burkhardt, A. Agassiz, and Roetter. With an explanation of the plates by L. F. Pourtales. Mus. Comp. Zoo!., Mem ., vol. 7, no. 1 , pp. 1 61, pls. 1-23. Puri , Harbans S. , and Vernon , Robert 0. 1964 Summary of th e geology of Florida and a guidebook t o the classic exposures. Florida Geol. Survey, Spec. Pub!. no. 5 , revised, pp. i-ix, 1-312 , pls . 1-11, figs. 1 27, tab l es 1-4 . Roos, Pieter Jan 1964 The distribution of reef corals in Curacao. Studies on the Fauna of Curacao and other Caribbean Islands , vol. 20, no . 81, pp. 1 57 , pls . 1-13, text-figs . 1-16 . 1971 The shallow-water stony corals of the Netherlands Antilles. Studies on the Fauna of Curacao and other Caribbean Islands , vol. 37, no . 130 , pp. 1-108 , pis . 1-53 , text-figs. 1-47 , 1a-12c . Schomburgk , Robert Hermann 1848 The History of Barbados; comprising a geographical . . . description of the Island ... and an account of its geology and natural producti ons. London , xx + 722 pp ., 7 pis. , text-figs ., map . Shimer , Hervey W., and Shrock, Robert R. 1949 Index Fossils of North America. New York and London , pp. i-ix , 1-837, pis. 1-303. Smith, Frederick George Walton 1948 Atlantic Reef Corals. A handbook of the common reef and shallow water corals of Bermuda, Florida, th e West Indies, and Brazil . Univ . Miami Press, pp. 1-112, pis. 1-41 , textfigs. 1-11. 1954 Gulf of Mexico Madreporaria. In Galtsoff , Paul S . , Gulf of M exico : its origin, waters, and marine life . U .S. Fish and Wildlif e Serv . , Fishery Bull. , vol. 55, no. 89, pp. 291-295. Squires , Donald F. 1958 Stony corals from the vicinity of Bimini , Bahamas , British West Indies. Amer. Mus . Nat. Hist., Bull., vol. 115 , art. 4 , pp . 215-262 , pls . 28-43 , text-figs . 1-4. Stanley , Steven M. 1966 Paleoecology and diagenesis of Key Largo Limestone, Florida . Amer. Assoc . Petrol. Geol., Bull. , vol. 50 , no. 9, pp . 1927-1 947, pl. 1 , text-figs . 1-12 , table. Stoddart, David R. 1962 Caribbean beach studies. Technical Report no. I I, Part G . Three Caribbean atolls; Tumeffe Islands, Lighthouse R eef, and Glover's Reef, British Honduras. Atoll Res. Bull., no. 87, pp . i-iii, 1-151 , figs. 1-49.

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144 BUREAU OF GEOLOGY 1969 Ecology and morphology of recent coral reefs . Bioi. Rev ., vol. 44, pp . 433-498, figs. 1-4 , table 1-6. Storr , John F. 1964 Ecology and oceanography of the coral-reef tract, Abaca Island, Bahamas . Geo!. Soc. Amer., Special P apers, no. 79 , pp. 1-94, pis. 1-8 , text-figs . 1-17, tables 1-3. Vaughan , Thomas Wayland 1898 Report on the fossil corals collected . In Hill, R obert T., The geological history of the Isthmus of Panama and portions of Costa Rica. Mus. Comp. Zoo!., Bull. , vol. 28, no. 5 (Geol. Ser., vol. 3), pp. 1-285, 19 pis. 1899 Some Cretaceous and Eocene corals from Jamaica. In Hill, Robert T., Memoir on the geology of Jamaica. Mus. Comp. Zool. , vol. 34 (Geol. Ser. , vol. 4), pp. 227-250, pis. 36-41 [pp. 1-256 , 41 pis. , 40 text-figs.] 1900 Eocene and lower Oligocene coral faunas of the United States, with descriptions of a few doubtfully Cretaceous species. U.S. Geol. Survey, Mon . 39 , pp . 1-263 , pis. 1-24. 1900 A Tertiary coral reef near Bainbridge, Georgia. Science , n . s ., vol. 12, no . 310, pp. 873-975. 1901 Some fossil corals from the elevated reefs of Curacao, Arube, and Bonaire. Rijksmus. Geol. en Min. Lei den, Sam mi. , ser. 2 , vol. 2, no . 1, pp. 1-91. 1902 The stony corals of the Porto Rican Waters. U.S. Fish Comm. , Bull. , vol. 20 for 1900 , pt. 2, pp. 289-320, pis. 1-38 . 1902 Some recent changes in the nomenclature of West Indian corals. Bioi. Soc . Washington , Proc. , vol. 15, pp. 53-58 . 1904 Anthozoa. Maryland Geol. Survey , Miocene. System. Paleont. , pp. 438-447 , pis. 122-129. 1910 A contribution to the geologic history of the Floridian Plateau. Carnegie Inst. Washington , Pub!. no. 133, Papers Marine Bioi. Lab . Tortugas , vol. 4 , pp . 99-185 , pis. 1-15 , text-figs. 1-6. 1915 Corals from the "Silex bed" of the Tampa Formation. In Dall , William Healy , A monograph of the molluscan fauna of th e Orthaulax pugnax zone of the Oligocene of Tampa, Florida . U.S. Nat. Mus., Bull. 90 , p. 18. 1915 Study of the stratigraphic geology and fossil corals and associated o rganisms in several of the smaller West Indian islands. Carnegie Inst. Washington , Yearbook for 1914, no . 13 , pp. 358. 1915 The geologic significance of the growth-rate of the Floridian and Bahaman shoal-water corals . W ashington Acad. Sci., Jour., vol. 5 , no . 17, pp. 591-600 . 1916 On R e cent Madreporaria of Florida, the Bahamas, and the West Indies , and on collections from Murray Island, Australia . Carnegie Inst. Washington , Yearbook for 1915 , no. 14, pp. 220 231.

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BULLETIN NO. 56 145 1918 Correlation of the Tertiary geological formations of the southeastern United States, Central America, and the West Indies. Washington Acad. Sci. , Jour., vol. 8, no. 9, pp . 268-276, correlation table. 1919 F ossi l corals from Central America, Cuba, and Porto Rico , with an account of the American Tertiary, Pleistocene, and Recent coral reefs. U.S. Nat. Mus., Bull . 103 , no . 9, pp. i-vi, 189-5 2 4 , pis. 68-152, text-figs . 4-25. 1932 Antillophyllia, a new coral generic name. Washington Acad. Sci., J o ur. , vol. 22, pp . 128-146. Vaughan, T. W., Cooke, Wythe , Condit, D . D., Ross, C. P., Woodring , W. P., and Calkins , F. C. 1921 A geological reconnaissance of the Dominican Republic. Geol. Survey Dominican Republic , Mem. , vol. 1 , pp. 1-268, pis . 1-23. Vaughan, T . Wayland, and Hoffmeister, John Edward 1925 New species of fossil corals from the Dominican Republic . Mus. Comp. Zoo!. , Bull. , vol. 67, no. 8, pp . 315-326, pis. 1-4. 1926 Miocene corals from Trinidad. Carnegie Inst. Washington , Pub!. no. 344 , Papers Dept. Marine Bioi., vol. 23, pp. 107-134 , pis . 1-7. Vaughan , T . Wayland, and Wells, John West 1943 Revision of the suborders, families, and genera of the Scleractinia. Geol. Soc . Amer. , Special Papers , no . 44 , pp. i-xv, 1-636 , text-figs. 1-39 , pis. 1-51. Vernon, Robert 0. 194 2 Geology of Citrus and Levy Counties, Florida. Florida Geol. Survey, Geol. Bull. 33, pp. i-ix, 1-256 , p1s. 1, 2 (maps) , tables 1-20 , figs. 1-40. Verrill, Addison Emery 1864 List of the polyps and corals sent by the Museum of Comparative Zoology to other institutions in exchange, with annotati o ns . Mus. Comp. Zoo!. , Bull., vol. 1, no. 3, pp . 29-60. 1866 On the polyps and corals of Panama with descriptions of new species. Boston Soc. Nat. Hist., Proc., vol. 10 , pp . 323-333. 1901 Variations and nomenclature of Bermudian, West Indian and Brazilian reef corals, with notes on various Indo-Pacific corals. Connecticut Acad. Arts and Sci. , Trans., vol. 11, pt. 1 , art. III , pp. 63-168, pis. 10 -35, text-figs . 1-5. Vokes, Emily H . 1965 Note on the age of the Chipola Formation (Miocene) of northwestern Florida . Tulane Studies Geol., vol. 3, no . 4 , pp . 205-208. Weisbord, Norman E. 1968 Some late Cenozoic stony corals from northern Venezuela. Bull. Amer. Paleont. , vol. 55 , no. 246, pp. 1-288, pis. 1-12.

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146 BUREAU OF GEOLOGY 1971 Corals from the Chipola and Jackson Bluff Formations of Florida . Florida Bur. Geol. , Geol. Bull. no. 53 , pp. i-v, 1 100 , I ndex 5 pp., pis. 1-15 . Wells, John West 1932 Study of the reef corals of the Tortugas. Carnegie Inst . Washington, Yearbook for 1913 , no. 31, pp. 290-292. 1952 Memorial Thomas Wayland Vaughan. Amer. Assoc. Petrol. Geol. , Bull. , vol. 36, no . 7, pp. 1495-1497 , photo (by W. S. Cole). 1956 Scleractinia. In Moore, R . C., Treatis e on Invertebrat e Paleon tology. Lawrence , Univ. Kansas Press , pt. F , Coelenterata , pp. F328-F443 , figs. 222-444 . Westermann , J. H., and K.iel, H . 1961 The geology of Saba and St. Eustatius with notes on the geology of St. Kitts , Nevis and Montserrat (Lesser Antilles). Natuurwetenschap. Studiekring voor Suriname en de Nederlandse Antillen , Utrecht, no. 24 , pp. i-xiii , 1-175 , text-figs. 1-11. White , Donald E ., Brannoch , W . W., and Murata , K. J. 1956 Silica in h o t spring waters. Ge oc him. et Cosmochim ., Acta , vol. 10 , pp . 27-59 . W ood ring , Wendell , P., Brown, John S ., and Burbank, Wilbur S . 1924 Geology of the Republic of Haiti . Geol. Survey Republic of Haiti, Port-au-Prince, 631 pp. , 40 pis. , 37 text-figs. Yonge , Charles Maurice 1930 Studies on the physiology of corals. I. Feeding mechanisms and food. Great Barrier Reef Exped. 1928-29 , Sci. Rept. , vol. 1 , no. 2, pp. 13-57 , pis. 1, 2, text-figs. 1-34. 193 7 Studies o n the biology of T o rtugas corals. III. The effect of mu c us on oxyge n consumption. C a rnegie Inst. Washington , Pub!. no . 475 , Papers Tortugas Lab. , vol. 31, no. 9, pp . 209-214. Zans , V. A. 1958 The Pedro Cay and Pedr o Bank. Report on the Survey of the Cays 1955-1957. Geol. Survey Dept. Jamaica, W. 1., Bull. no . 3, pp. i-vi, 1-47 , pis. 1-25 (figs. 1-50) , figs. I-III, maps 1-5. 1958 R ecent coral reefs and coral reef environments of Jamaica . Geonotes , vol.1 , no. 2 ,pp. 18-25. 1959 Recent stony corals of Jamaica . Geonotes , vol. 2 , no . 1 , pp. 27-36.

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INDEX TO GEOLOGICAL BULLETIN NO. 56 * Note: Light face figures refer to page numbers. Bold face figures refer to plate numbers. A Abaco Island . . . . . . . . . . . . 143 Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia ........ 40, 139 acropora, Heliastraea ........ 40 acropora, Madrepora ... . .... 39 acropora, Orbicella . . ....... 39 Acropora panamensis Vaughan 17, 23 Acropora saludensis Vaughan .. 23 Acropora tampaensis Weisbord , n. sp ... . 3,4 ... 3, 15, 16, 17, 22, 23,68,70 affinis, Stylophora .... 17, 18 , 21 affinis, var. minor, Stylophora . 18 Agassiz, Alexander . .40 , 135 , 139, 143 Agassiz, Louis ........ 13 5, 143 Alacran Reef (Mexico) ...... 46 Alexander, G. B. . . .... 11, 135 Allen , John H ........ 6 , 12, 135 Almy, Charles, C . , Jr. ... 43 , 135 altissima , Heliastraea ........ 40 Alum Bluff Group ... 14, 27 , 138 Alveopora tampae Weisbord , n. sp ... . 6,7 . 3 , 15, 16, 17, 37, 38 , 61, 74,76 American Association of Petroleum Geologists . .... 141, 143 , 146 American Museum of Natural History 43 , 142, 143 Anguilla Formation ... 13, 35, 54 Anguilla Island .. 8 , 13, 22, 28, 32 , 35, 54 anguillensis, Porites . . . . . . 17, 33 annularis , Astrea ....... 39 , 40 annularis, Explanaria . ....... 39 annularis, Heliastraea ....... 40 annularis, Madrepora . . . ..... 39 annularis, Montastrea 13, 15, 16, 17 , 39-46,47, 48 , 96 ,98,100 annularis, Orbicella . . . .40, 41, 42 annu l aris var. stellulata , Orbicella 41 Anthemiphyllia ........... 61 Anthemiphyllia patera Pourtales 61 Anthemiphyllia?, sp. indet .... 29 15, 16, 17 , 61, 120 Anthozoa ........... ... 144 Antigua Formation . ..... 35 , 53 Antigua Island . . . . 12, 28, 35, 53 Antiguastrea cellulosa (Duncan) ... 22,24 ... 4, 15, 16, 17, 52 , 53, 106, 110 Antiguastrea cellulosa curvata Duncan .......... . .... ... 53 Antiguastrea cellulosa var. silecensis Vaughan . ... ......... . . 4 Antilles . .......... .... 137 An tillia ? will co xi (Dana) 3 , 15, 56, 58 Antillocyathus ......... ... 62 Antillocyathus , sp. indet. . . . 7 .15 , 16, 17,62, 76 Antillophyllia ... ........ 144 Aquitanian Stage .. 7, 12, 13, 137 Arango y Molina , Rafael . 41, 135 Archaias floridanus (Conrad) 7 , 12 Arrondissement Grand Riviere (Haiti) .... . ...... . ... 53 Aruba ......... . . 46, 54 , 144 Asociaci6n Mexicana de Ge61o g os Petroleras .... . . . . . 43 , 135 Astraea barbadensis Duncan ... 40 Astrea cellulosa Duncan ...... 52 Astrea annular is . . . . . . . . 39 , 40 Astrea faveolata ...... . .... 39 Astn: ens ............ . . . 137 Astn: ides ... . .......... 137 Astreinae .............. 137 Aucilla River . . . . . . . . . . . 5 , 31 aucillana , Goniopora . 5 , 15, 30 , 3 3 , 128, 130 , 132 Australia ............. . . J 44

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B Babit Pond (St. Martin) ...... 46 Boca (Bonaire) . . . . . . . . . . . . 46 Bahama Islands .... 46 , 143 , 144 Bahia de Camamu (Brazil) .... 46 Bahia de Mochima (Venezuela) 46, 136 Bainbridge (Georgia) .. 20, 21, 27, 34, 144 Ballast Point ...... 1-36 , 48-124 Ballast Point well ........ . . 14 ballistensis, Goniopora . 3, 15, 16, 17,32,33,82,84,86 Banks , Joseph E .. 1 , 2, 4, 5 , 8, 25, 31,37,51 Banksi,Siderastrea . 13, 15, 16 , 17 , 23-25' 7 0, 72 barbadensis , Heliastraea ...... 40 Barbados .... 46 , 136 , 140 , 141, 142, 143 Barbados Museum and Nat. Hist. Society ........... 136 , 140 Barbuda ............... . 46 Barcadera (Bonaire) ........ 46 Barcadera (Aruba) ........ . 46 Belgium ................ 13 belize , Porites . ........... 29 Bender , Michael L. ...... 13, 135 Bermuda Islands 46, 139 , 143 , 145 Bernard , Henry M . 2, 3, 28 -30, 135 Big Pin e Key . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46 Bimini (Bahamas) ..... .. .. 143 Biological Society of Washington 144 Biscayne Bay ............. 46 Blainville , H. M. Ducrotay de 39, 135 Blanquilla Reef (Mexico) . . ... 46 Blauwe Pan (Bonaire) .... . . . 46 Bluefields Bay (Jamaica) .. .. 137 Blue Springs ............ . 34 Boca Arashi (Aruba) ........ 46 Boca Bartol (Bonaire) . . . . . . . 46 Boca Catalina (Aruba) ....... 46 Bonaire . . . . . . . . . . . 46, 144 Bonet, F . . . . ...... 43, 46 , 135 Bory de Saint-Vincent , Jean Baptiste George Marie ... 39, 135 Boston Society of Natural History145 Bowden Marl (Jamaica) ..... . 61 Brandon Quadrangle ...... 4 , 14 Brannoch, W. W ....... 11, 146 Brazil .46, 136 , 139 , 141, 143 , 145 British Honduras . .... . .46 , 143 British Museum (Natural History) 2 , 29, 78 , 135 British West Indies ........ 143 Broward County .......... 54 Brown, JohnS. . ....... 52 , 146 Bruguiere, Jean Guillaume . 39, 135 Burbank, Wilbur S ......... 146 Bureau of Geology , Florida i , iii , iv, 2,5,8,9, 14,26,145 Burkhardt ...... ..... 135 , 143 Burns, Frank ............. 37 Butsch , R. S ....... ... 42,136 Sutterlin, J .............. 135 Byram Marl (Mississippi) ..... 53 c Cabbage Grove. 1, 5 , 31,128, 132 Calkins, F . C ............. 145 Caloosahatchee Formation . . . . 54 Caloosahatchee River .... 9, 136 Campos Villarroel, Regulo A. 44 , 136 Caracas Baai (Curacao) ...... 46 Carnegie Institution of Washington . 142, 144 , 145 Carrion-Tones , Carlos ... 43, 135 cavernosa var. silicensis, Orbicella 3, 50 cavernosa var. tampaensis , Orbicella 3,48 Cay Bay (St. Martin) ........ 46 cellulosa, Antiguastrea .. 4, 15, 16, 17, 51-54, 106 cellulosa curvata, Antiguastrea . 53 cellulosa , Astraea .......... 51 cellulosa, Heliastraea ........ 52 cellulosa, Orbicella ....... 3 , 52 cell ulosa var. silecensis, Antiguastrea 4 Central America .......... 145

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Cercado Formation (Dominican Republic) . ... ... ........ 62 Cerithium ...... .... ..... . 7 Chattahoochee Formation .. 3 , 14, 17,18 20 , 21, 26,27,34,54,66 Chipola Formation .13, 14, 22 , 59 , 145 chipolanum , Flabellum ...... 59 Christchurch (Barbados) ..... 46 Christchurch Quarry (Barbados) 46 Citrus County ...... ..... 145 Clapp , Frederick G . . . . .... 141 clevei , Goniopora ........ . . 35 Clarke , W. J . ....... . . 13, 137 Cocoluch Bay (St. Eustatius) .. 46 Codrington Quarry (Barbados) . 46 Coelenterata . . ...... . ... 136 Coffee Mill Hammock ....... 10 Compagnie Bay (St. Eustatius) . 46 conferta , Siderastrea ... 17, 27 , 28 Connecticut Academy of Arts and Sciences ..... . ....... 145 Conrad, Timothy A. . . . 7 , 12 , 136 Cooke , C. Wythe 5 , 8 , 12 , 136 , 145 Cornell University . ........ 59 Coronet phosphate mine . .... 27 Coryell, H. N .. 23, 33, 42, 49, 52, 136 Costa Rica ............. 144 costata, Cyphastraea ... . . 40, 46 costata , Montastrea . .... . 17 , 50 Cove Bay (Saba) ........... 46 Cretaceous ............. 144 Cring , Forrest D . . . .... 5 , 20, 51 Crystal River Formation . .... 14 Cuba ...... 32 , 46 , 56 , 135 , 136 Curacao ......... 46, 140 , 143 Cyphastraea costata Duncan . . 40, 41' 46 Cyphastrea tampae Weisbord , n . sp. .. 25 3 ,15,16,17, 54 , 55 , 112 D Dall, William Healy .. 2 , 3, 57 , 12, 18 , 20 , 22 , 25,28 , 32 ,34, 36-38 , 58 , 136 Dana , James Dwight .. 40, 57 , 136 Davis Islands .. 1 , 2 , 4 , 12, 17 , 26 , 27 , 45 , 47 ,49, 51, 76 , 102 davisina , Montastrea 15, 16 , 4 7 , 1 02 Decatur County (Georgia) . 20 , 27 , 34 , 66 decaturensis , Goniopora .. 15, 16, 17 , 32 , 33 , 34 , 88 Deshayes , Gerard Paul ...... 140 Desmophyllum ingens Mosely .. 57 Desmophyllum willcoxi Gane . . . 29,30,31 . . 3 , 15, 16 , 17 , 56-59 , 120-124 Dodd , J . Robert . ...... 44 , 140 Dominican Republic . . 18 , 21, 45 , 46 ,54,62, 145 Downey , Maureen E . . . . . . . . . 2 Duarte Bello , Pedro Pablo 43, 13 7 Duchassaing de Fonbressin , Placide 40, 52 , 137 Duerden , James Edwin .. 41, 137 Duncan , PeterMartin . 1 2, 15, 16, 18 ,21, 27 , 38 , 40 ,41, 46-53 , 110 , 137 Dunedin Beach ... . ..... 5 , 2 0 Dunedin Causeway ......... . 7 Dunedin Quadrangle . ........ 5 E Eagle Beach (Aruba) ....... . 4 6 Eames , F. E .......... 13, 137 eburnea, Galaxea . ... ...... 56 Eclogae Helvetiae ......... 137 Edwards, Henri Milne 40, 137 , 140 Ehrenberg, Christian Gottf ried 2 9 , 138 Ellis , John .. ..... 13, 39-44 , 1 3 5 Emperador Limestone (Panama Canal Zone) ...... 2 3 , 32,35 Endopachys ............. 5 9 Endopachys tampae Vaughan ... . 3 , 15-17 , 59 Ensenda (Puert o Rico) ...... 4 6 Eocene ................ 144 Esper , Johann Cristoph . . 39 , 1 3 8 Eupsammidae ......... .. 1 3 7

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Eureka Springs well ..... . . . 14 ex c elsa , Galaxea . 3 , 15, 16 , 17, 55, 56 , 112-116 , 1 24 Explanaria annularis . ...... . 39 F Falling Water , Washington County 8 faveo lata , Astrea ..... . .... 39 f aveolat a, Madrepora . ..... . . 39 Favites mexicana Vaughan . 17 , 39 Favites yborensis Weisbord , n . sp ... 16 . . . 1517 , 38 , 3 9, 94 F e lix , Johannes Paul . . 18 , 25, 28 , 3 3, 48 , 50 , 5 2, 57 , 138 Flab e llum .... ......... 57-59 Flabellum chipolanum Weisbord 59 Flabellum, sp. indet. . . . 32 .. 15 , 1 6, 17 , 59 , 1 2 6 Flint River (Georgia) .. 18, 20 , 21, 22 , 27 , 32 ,34, 36 Florid a ....... ...... i , 1-145 Florida Geologic a l Survey . . .141 , 142 , 145 Florida K e ys ............ 140 floridaeprima , Porites . 2 , 3 , 1517 , 28-30 , 7 8 -82 floridanus, Archaias . .... . 7 , 12 floridanus , Nummulites .. .. 7 , 12 floridanus , Orbitolites .... . 7 , 12 Florida state ro a d 60 ....... 4 , 9 Florida State University ... i , 1 , 2 , 5, 20 , 22 , 25 , 29 , 32,34 , 37 Floridi a n Pla teau ... .... . . 144 Fongides ............... 137 Fontaine , A. R ....... . 42 , 138 Foraminiferida ............. 7 Fort Bay (Saba) ........... 46 Fort Brooke .............. 6 Fort Taylor .............. 46 France ..... .......... 7, 13 G Galax e a .......... ... ... 56 Galaxea eburnea Pourtal e s .... 56 Galaxea excelsa Weisbord , n . sp ... 25,26,27,31 ... . 3, 15, 16, 55, 56, 112-116, 124 Galtsoff, PaulS ...... . . 138 , 143 G a ne, Henry Stewart . . . . .... 57 Gardner , Julia ... .... . 13 , 138 Geological Society of America . . . 144 , 146 Geological Society of London .137, 139 Geological Survey Department , West Indies ..... ...... 146 Geology Department, Florida State University . . . . . . . . . . . . i, 1 Georgia 20 , 27 , 32 , 34, 54, 66 , 144 Germany ............... 13 Gibbs Bay (St. Mar t in) ...... 46 Glover ' s Reef (British Honduras) . . 46, 143 Gmelin , Johann Friedrich 39, 139 Goniopora . ...... . . . 35 , 135 Goniopora aucillana Weisbord , n. sp. . . . 33,34 , 35 ..... 5 , 15, 30-33 , 128 , 130, 132 Goniopora ballistensis Weisbord , n. sp .... 10,11,12 .. 3 , 1517 , 32 , 33 , 82-86 Goniopora clevei Vaughan .... 35 Goniopora decaturensis V a ughan .. 13 . . . 15-17 ,32-34,88 Goniopora imperatoris Vaughan 35 Goniopora matsoni Weis bord, n. sp. . . . 12,14 .... 3, 15-17,34, 35 , 36 , 86 ,90 Goni o por a tampaensis Weisbord , n. s p . ... 15 . . 3 , 15-17 , 3 6 , 92 Goreau , Thomas F ...... 44, 139 Go to (Bonaire) ........... 46 Grazettes (Barbados) ........ 46 Great Bahama Bank ....... 142 Great B a y (St. Martin) ....... 4 6 Greel e y , Arthur W ...... 41, 139 gregorii , Sy z ygophyllia . .... . 17 Gregory , John Walter . . . 41, 139 Guadeloupe . .... . . .... ... 46 Guani ca (Puerto Rico ) ....... 46

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Guantanamo (Cuba) ........ 34 Gulf of Mexico .... 59 , 138 , 14 3 Gunter, Gordon . . . .... 54, 142 H Habana (Cuba) ......... 56,61 Haime, Jules ......... 40, 137 Haiti .............. 53 , 146 Hare Hill (Barbados) ........ 46 Harney Flats ............. 14 Hartman, W. D. . ...... 44, 139 Hato (Bonaire) ............ 46 Hattin, Donald E ....... 44, 140 Hawk Channel ............ 46 Hawthorn Formation ....... 27 Haynesfield (Barbados) ...... 46 Heilprin , Angelo ... 7 , 12 , 41, 139 Heliastraea annularis ..... 40, 41 Heliastraea altissima Duncan ... 40 Heliastraea acropora ..... 40, 41 Heliastraea barbadensis ...... 40 Heliastraea ce llulosa ........ 5 2 Heliastraea lamarc kii ........ 40 Helioporidae ............ 142 Helvetian Stage ........... 13 Hendry, Charles W., Jr. ... i , iii, 2 Herman Gunter Building , Talla hassee ................ 26 Heston, W. M .......... 11, 135 Hill , Robert Thomas . 41 , 139, 144 Hillsborough Bay .. 23, 27, 29, 33, 36,37,39,47,48,49, 55, 56, 57, Hillsborough County .. 1 , 4 , 7, 23, 24,27,29,33,34,36,39,45,47, 48,51,55,56,57,59,61 Hillsborough River ........ 4, 8 Hoffmeister, John Edward ... 44, 62, 140, 145 Holocene ............... 4 Holocene Series ............ 9 Honeymoon Island ..... 5, 20, 51 Horst, C. J. van der ..... 42, 140 Hydrocorallinae .......... 142 ller, H. K ............ 11, 135 Imbrie, John ......... 43, 14 2 lncertae sedis "a" ... 31,32,35 ... 15-17,58,59, 124,126,132 lncertae sedis "b" ... 24 15-17 ,51, 110 inge ns , Desmophyllum ..... 57 , Institute of Jamaica ....... 137 Institute of Marine Science, Univer sity of Texas .......... 142 imperatoris, Goniopora ...... 32 imperatoris, Stylophora ... 17 ,22 l sastraea turbinata Duncan ... . 52 Italy . . ................. 7 J Jackson Bluff Formation .... 145 Jamaica ..... 137-139 , 144, 146 Jan Doran (Bonaire) ...... . . 46 Jenkins Bay (St. Eustatius) ..... 46 Johnson, Lawrence C .... 12 , 140 Jones, John A ......... 43, 140 Juana Diaz Formation (Puerto Rico) 53 K Kapp Malmeeuw (Curacao) ... 46 Key Largo ............... 46 Key Largo Limestone .... 46, 96, 98, 140, 14 3 Key Vaca ....... 44, 46, 96, 98 Key West ............. . . 46 Kiel , H. . . . . ........ 43, 14 6 Klein Curacao ........... . 46 KJein Lagoen (Aruba) ... .... 46 Klose , William ........ 44, 140 Knight Key ............. 44 Kongliga Svenska Ve tenska ps-Akademiens ........ . . . 140 Krauskopf, Konrad B . . . . 11, 140 L Lac (Bonaire) ............ 4 6

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Ladder Bay (Saba) ...... . . . 46 Lafayette Lake , Leon County .. 45 Lafayette Plantation ........ 45 Lamarck , Jean Baptiste Pierre Antoine de Monet de . 39 , 140 l amarckii , Heliastraea ..... .. 40 Lamouroux , Jean Vincent Felix .. 39, 140 La Parguera (Puerto Rico) .... 46 Lares Limestone (Puerto Rico) 23, 32 , 35 , 53 Leon County ....... . .... . 45 Lesser Antilles ........... 146 Levy County ............ 145 Lewis , John B . .... .... 43 , 140 Liebe , Richard M ...... . 44, 140 Lighthouse Reef (British Honduras) 46, 143 Lindstrom, Gustaf .... . 41, 140 Linnaeus,Carolus .... 39-41,141 Little Bay (St. Martin) . . ..... 46 Little Horseshoe Bend (Georgia) 27 Locust Hill (Barbados) . .... . 46 Logan , Brian ......... .44, 141 Loggerhead Key . . . . . . . . . . . 46 Lon t (Bonaire) . . . . . . . . . . . . 46 Los Puertos Limestone (Puerto Rico) ................ 54 Lowndes County (Georgia) ... 27 Lund , Ernest H. . . . . . ... 11, 141 Lyell , Sir Charles ....... 13, 141 M Macintyre, Ian G ....... 44, 141 Madreporaria .. 137, 140, 142, 144 Madrepora acropora ........ 39 Madrepora annularis ........ 39 Madrepora faveolata Ellis and Solander ... ... ....... . 39 Maeandra tampaensis Vaughan . 3 , 16, 38 , 94 Malmok (Aruba) ..... . . ... 46 Mangel Altu (Aruba) . . ..... . 46 Mansfield , Wendell C .. 12, 13, 141 maoensis , Placocyathus ... 17 , 62 Margot Fish Shoal ........ . 46 Market Hill (Barbados) ... . . . 46 Matecumbe Key ........... 46 Matson , George Charlton .... 141 matsoni, Goniopora . . . 3 , 15-17, 34 36, 86-90 Matthews, R. K . . ... ... 44, 142 Maury, Carlotta Joaquina. 13, 142 Maxwell, Robert ..... ... . . 45 Mayaguez (Puerto Rico) .... . 46 Mayer , Alfred Goldsborough . 42, 142 Mayer Eymar, C . . .... 13, 142 Mesolella , Kenneth J. . .. 44, 142 mexicana, Favites . ...... 17, 39 Mexico .............. 46, 53 Miami Oolite ......... 46, 140 Michelotti, Giovanni .. 40, 52, 137 minutissima, Stylophora 5, 15-20, 21,22,64, 70 Miocene 7, 13, 29 , 45, 59 , 60, 145 Miocene Series .......... 9 , 10 Mio-Pliocene . .... . . ...... 46 Mississippi (State of) ........ 53 Mogote Peak (Cuba) . . ... ... 34 Monroe County ...... 46, 96-98 Montastrea . .... . ........ 55 Montastrea annularis (Ellis and Solander) . . . 17,18,19 ... . 13, 15-17,39-48 , 96-100 Montastrea costata (Duncan) 17, 50 Montastrea davisina Weisbord, n. sp. . . . 20 . . . . . IS -1 7 , 46, 4 7, 1 02 Montastrea peninsularis Weisbord , n. sp . . . . 20. 15-17,47,48, 102 Montastrea tampaensis (Vaughan) ... 20,21. .... 15-17,102-104 Montastrea tampaensis silecensis (Vaughan) ... 22,23 ....... . 5 , 15-17, 50-Sl , 106-108 Montserrat ... . ...... .46, 146 Moore , Donald R .. 43 , 52 , 54, 142 Mosely , Henry Nottidge . . 57 , 142 Mossom, Stuart . 5 , 8 , 12 , 136 , 142 Mulders, Gerrit . . . . . . . . . . . 2 Mullet Pond Bay (St. Martin) .. 46

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Multer, H . Gray ....... 44, 140 Murata , K. J .......... II, 146 Murray Island, Australia .... 144 Museum of Comparative Zoology .. 135 , 136, 139 , 143, 144 , 145 N National Academy of Science , Washington ........... 137 National Museum of Natural History I Neocene ............... 138 Netherlands Antilles ....... 143 Nevis ................. 146 Newell, Norman D ...... 43 , 142 Newfound Harbor Keys ...... 46 Newfound Reef ........ .. 140 New York Academy of Sciences 42 Nivaje Shale (Dominican Republic) 18,21 Nummulites floridanus Conrad 7 , 12 Nutall Rise Quadrangle ....... 5 0 Ocala Group . ......... ... 18 Oculinides . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 7 Ohlsen , Violet . . . 23, 32, 33, 42, 49,52, 136 Oligocene .3, 7, 13, 19 , 28, 32, 36, 37 ,39,53,57, 129,138,142,144 Oligo-Miocene .... ..... 45 , 54 Oranje Pan (Bonaire) . . . ..... 46 Orbicella acropora ........ . 41 Orbicella annularis ....... 40-43 Orbicella annularis var. stellulata 41 Orbicella cavernosa var. tampaensis 48 Orbicella cellulosa ......... 52 Orbicella tampaensis ...... 3, 48 Orbicella tampaensis var. silecensis 3 Orbitolite bed ...... ....... 7 Orbitolites floridanus (Conrad) 7, 12 Orient Park .......... 4 , 51, 61 Orient RR station ... 7 , 12 , 14, 59 Orthaulax pugnax Dall . . 136 , 144 Orthau1ax pugnax Zone .... . 1 , 3 Ortmann, Arnold Edward .. .. 41 Ostrea normalis Dall ........ 10 Ostrea virginica Gmelin . . . . . . . 9 p Paleogene ............... 59 Palm Beach (Aruba) ........ 46 Palm River . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 Panama .......... .. 46 , 145 Panama Canal Zone .. 22 , 23 , 28 , 32,35 Panama, Isthmus of ....... 144 panamensis , Acropora ..... .. 2 3 Parri s Hill (Barbados) . . . . . . . 46 Patagonia .............. :57 patera, Anthemiphyllia ... ... 61 Pawson , David L. . . . . . . . . . . 2 Pecten crocus Cooke ......... 8 Pedro Bank .......... 46 , 146 Pedro Cay .............. 146 peninsularis , Montastr ea .. 15, 16, 17,47,48, 102 Pennington ............. . .4 Philadelphia . ............ 57 Phyllocoenia sculpta Edwards and Haime . .............. .40 Pinellas County ....... 5, 20 , 51 Piscadera Baai (Curacao) . . . . .46 Pitch Field (Aruba) ......... 46 Placocyathu s maoensi s Vaughan .. 17,62 Plaja Frans (Bonaire) ........ 46 Plaja Sarna (Bonaire) . ....... 66 Plant City ............... 27 Playa Abau (Curacao) ....... 46 Playa Chikitu (Curacao) ...... 46 Playa Kalki (Curacao) ....... 46 Plesiastraea ramea Dun can .... 40 Pleistocene . . . . 8 , 44, 46, 96, 98, 142 , 145 Pleistocene Series ....... . 9 , I 0 Pliocene .... ..... . 46 , 53, 136 Point Blan c h e Bay (St. M arti n) . 46 Ponce Formation (Puerto Rico) 23, 32,34, 35 ,45,54

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Porites ...... ....... 35, 135 Porites anguillens i s Vaughan 17, 33 Porites Belize 1 ...... ...... . Porites floridaeprima Bernard ... . 8,9,10 . 2 , 3, 1 5 -17 , 28-30, 78-82 Porites toulai Vaughan . 17 , 35,36 Porites W est Indies X. 17 ..... 29 Porites willcoxi Vaughan ... 3, 29 , 80, 82 Poritidae ............... 135 Poritides .......... . . . . . 1 37 Port Everglades ..... ...... 46 Portomaribaai (Curacao) ..... 46 Potamides . .............. 1 0 Pourtahis , Louis Francois. 41, 135 , 142, 143 Progreso (Mexico) ......... 46 Prospect (Barbados) ........ 46 Puerto La Cruz (Venezuela) ... 46 Puerto Rico ... 23, 28, 32, 35, 36, 45, 46 , 54, 135, 136 , 145 pugnax , Orthaulax ..... 136, 144 Punt Vierkant (Bonaire) ..... 46 Purdy, Edward G ....... 43, 142 Puri , Harbans S. . ... 2, 5, 7, 8, 9, 10 , 12 , 14, 26, 27, 14 3 Q Quebradillas Limestone (Puerto Rico) ................ 45 Quintana Roo (Mexico) .. 46, 135 R ramea , Plesiastraea . ........ 40 Real Academia de Ciencias M edicas, Fisicas y Naturales de Ia Habana 41, 135 Reale Accademia delle Scienze di Torino . . ............ 137 Recent ............ 13, 46, 61 Rendezvous Cay (British Honduras) 46 Rijksmuseum van Natuurlijke Historie te Leiden . . . . . . . . . 144 Rio Yaque del Norte (Dominican Republic) . ....... . . . . . 54 Roetter ........... 135, 142 Roos, Pieter Jan ..... . . 43 , 14 3 Ross, D. D ...... ... ... .. 145 Rothen Meeres ........... 138 Russell Springs (Georgia) 18, 19, 21 Russia Gully (Barbados) ..... 46 s Saba ............. . 46, 146 St. Eustatius ......... 46, 146 St. George P arish (Barbados) .. 46 St. J ames (Barbados) ........ 46 St. John P arish (Barbados) . ... 46 St. Joseph Parish (Barbados) ... 46 St. Kitts ............ 46, 146 St. Lucia ................ 46 St. Marks Formation ... 5 , 14, 17 , 45 , 51 St. Martin ......... . . : ... 46 St. Michael (Barbados) ...... 46 St. Michiels Baai (Curacao) .... 46 St. Nicolasbaai (Aruba) ...... 46 St. Thomas Parish (Barbados) .. 46 Sandy Lane (Barbados) ....... 46 San Rafael Formation (Mexico) .. 39, 53 San Sebastian Shale (Puerto Rico) . 23 ,32,34,35, 53 Sta. Martha Baai (Curacao) .... 46 Scleractinia ... . 1 8, 139, 145, 146 Schomburgk , Robert Hermann 40, 143 sculpta, Phyllocoenia ....... 40 Seaboard Coastline RR .... 4, 12 Sealy, H. A . .......... 44, 142 Section "A", Sixmile Creek . . 8 , 9 Section "B", Six mile Creek . . 8 , 9 Section "C", Six mile Creek . . 8, 9, 10 , 27 Serro Colorado (Aruba) ...... 54 Shell Creek ..... .... ..... 46 Shimer , Hervey W . . .... 52, 143 Shrock, Robert R. . . . . . 52, 143

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Smith , Frederick George Walton .. 42, 143 Siderastrea banksi Weisbord, n. sp .. . . . 4,5 . 1 3, 15-17 , 23-25 , 70-72 Siderastrea conferta (Duncan) . 1 7 , 27,28 Siderastrea siderea (Ellis a nd Solander) ....... ....... 17,24 Siderastrea silecensis Vaughan ... 6,7 .. 3,8, 15-17 ,25-28,74-76 s id e rea, Siderastrea ...... 1 7, 24 silecensis , Siderastrea . 3, 8 , 15-17 , 25-28, 74-76 silicensis, Siderastrea 3, 8, 1 5-17, 25 silicens i s, Stylophora . . . 3, 15-18 , 20-22 Silex bed . . 3 , 5 , 6 , 7 , 35, 38, 50, 53 , 58 , 59 60, 86,118, 136 Simson B ay (St. Martin) .... . 46 Sixmile Creek ..... 1-18,21-45, 49-74 , 86-126, 1 32 Sixmile Creek well ......... 14 Sixmile Run . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 Skeens Hill (Barbados) . ..... 46 Small Ridge (Barbados) ...... 46 Sociedad Venezolana de Ciencias Naturales ........ ..... 136 Solander , Daniel Carl .. 13, 39-44, 138 , 140 Sonrel , A ............ 135 , 143 Spaansche Water (Curacao) ... 46 Squires, D onald F .... .. 43, 143 Stanley, Steven M ...... 44, 14 3 Stock Island ............. 46 Stoddart, David R .... 43 , 44, 144 Storr , John F ........ . 43, 144 StylophoraaffinisDuncan 17, 18,21 Stylophora affinis var . minor Duncan 18 Stylophora imperatoris V a ugh an .. 17,22 Stylophora minutissima Vaughan .. ... 1 , 4 . ...... 5 , 15-21 ,64,70 Stylophora silice n sis Vaughan .. 3, 15; 16 , 18,20 Stylophora silicensis Weisbord , n. sp. . .. 2 ...... 3 , 15-17 , 20 -22,66 Sucre , Estado de (Venezuela) . 136 Suwannee Lime s tone ... 1 , 5 , 14 , 32, 128 , 130 , 141 Syzygophyllia gregorii (Vaughan) . 17,61 Syzygophyllia tampae Weisbord , n. sp .... 28,29 . . 3, 15-17 , 6 0 , 61, 118-120 T Tallahassee ...... i ,iii,iv,2,45 Tampa . ....... I , 7, 9, 12, 26 , 29,35,50,59,86, 1 36 Tampa Bay . 5 , 7 , 28 , 57 , 135 , 1 36 Tampa Formation ... i , 1-25,34 , 38 , 45 , 50-62, 144 Tampa Limestone . 7 , 8, 18, 19 ,23 Tampa Quadrangle . . . . . . . . . 4 Tampa Stage .......... 10 , 14 tampae, Alveopora .... 3 , 15-17 , 37, 38,61, 74,76 tampae, Cyphastrea . 3, 15-17 , 54, 55, 112 tampae , Endopachys . 3, 15-17,59 tampae , Syzygophyllia . 3, 15-17, 60. 61. 118-120 tampaensis, Acropora . . 3, 15-17 , 22,23,68, 70 tampaensis , Goniopora . 3 , 15-17 , 36,92 tampaensis , Maeandra 3 , 16, 38, 9 4 tampaensis, Montastrea . 5 , 1 5-17 , 50, 51,106-108 tampaensis , Orbicella ..... 3 , 48 tampaensis silecensis , Montastrea 5 , 15-17,50,51, 106-108 tampaensis var. silecensis, Orbicell a 3 Tavernier ...... ......... 46 Taylor County ... ....... 5 , 31 Tertiary .... ........ 12 , 145 Thurb er, D. L. ........ 43, 142

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T or tugas ..... ....... 46, 146 toulai , Porites ....... 17 , 35, 36 Trinidad ............ 22, 145 Tumbledown Dick Bay (St. Eustatius) . . ............... 46 turbinata, 1sastraea ......... 52 Turbinolides ............ 137 Turneffe (British Honduras) 46, 143 u United States Fish Commission 144 United States Fish and Wildlife Service ......... . .138 , 143 United States Geological Survey 20, 37,38, 59 , 138,144 United States National Museum . . 1 , 18, 27 , 29 ,30-38,44,48, 50 , 53, 56 , 62, 66, 112 , 136 , 138, 145 v Vaarsen Baai (Curacao) .... . . 46 Valdosta (Georgia) .. ....... 27 Va ughan , Thomas Wayland . . vi, 1-4 , 1 2, 18-4 3, 4 8-6 0,62,66,76, 141 , 145 Venezuela ........... 46 , 136 Vera Cruz (Me x i co ) . ...... . 46 Vernon , Robert 0 ..... 7 , 1 2, 14 , 140 , 143 , 143 Verrill , Addison Emery 40,41, 145 Vicksburgian Stage ..... . ... 18 Virginia Key ............. 46 V o kes , Emily H ........ 13, 145 w Wagner Free Institute of Science 50 , 57, 136 , 139 Washington A ca demy of Scien ce 144 Washington County ......... 8 Washington , D . C ............ 1 Wakulla . ............ 2 5 , 26 Wakulla County ........... 27 Weisbord , Norman E. i, 1 , 13 ,146 Wells , John West .... 42, 44, 52 , 59 , 62, 139 , 146 Westermann , J . H. . ... . 43, 146 Western Atlantic ..... ..... 59 West Indies . ..... 137 , 143 , 145 west indies , Porites ......... 29 Westpunt Baai (Curacao) . . ... 46 White , Donald E. . . .... .11, 146 Wilkes , Charles ...... . . . . . 136 Willcox , Joseph . .......... 57 willcoxi, Antillia ? .. 3 , 15, 56,57 willcoxi , Desmophyllum 3 , 15-17 , 56-59 , 120 , 1 2 4 willcoxi , Porite s .... 3 , 29, 80, 82 Windham , Steven R. ..... .... 2 Wise, R. F ........ . . . . . 2, 29 Withlacoochee River ........ 27 Witte Pan (Bonaire) . ....... 46 Woodring , Wendell P. 52, 145 , 146 Wright, Alexandra , P. . ... 10 , 14 y yborensis, Favites 15-17,38,39,94 Yonge , Charles Maurice .. 42, 146 Yucatan Shelf (Mexico) .. 46, 141 z Zans , V . A . ......... . 43 , 146 Zoophytes . . . 135 , 136 , 138, 140

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s s 7 , 59 F63b.b 11 o.5"6