Front Cover
 Front Matter
 Letter of transmittal
 Table of Contents
 Back Matter
 Back Cover

Springs of Florida /
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00000232/00002
 Material Information
Title: Springs of Florida /
Series Title: Bulletin/Florida Bureau of Geology ;
Physical Description: xxvii, 461 p. : ill. (some col.), maps ; 24 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Rosenau, Jack C
Ferguson, George E., 1906-
Geological Survey (U.S.)
Publisher: (multiple)
Bureau of Geology
Florida Department of Natural Resources
Place of Publication: Tallahassee
Publication Date: 1977
Edition: Rev. ed.
Subjects / Keywords: Springs -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Water-supply -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
bibliography   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
Bibliography: Bibliography: p. 457-461.
Additional Physical Form: Also available on the World Wide Web.
Statement of Responsibility: by Jack C. Rosenau ... et al. ; prepared by United States Geological Survey in cooperation with the Bureau of Geology, Division of Resource Management, Florida Department of Natural Resources, and Bureau of Water Resources Management, Florida Department of Environmental Regulation.
General Note: Original ed. by G. E. Ferguson published in 1947.
 Record Information
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management:
The author dedicated the work to the public domain by waiving all of his or her rights to the work worldwide under copyright law and all related or neighboring legal rights he or she had in the work, to the extent allowable by law.
Resource Identifier: ltqf - AAA0744
notis - AAJ7320
alephbibnum - 000081994
oclc - 05114555
System ID: UF00000232:00002

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Page A-1
        Page A-2
    Front Matter
        Page A-3
        Page A-4
        Page A-5
        Page A-6
        Page i
        Page ii
    Letter of transmittal
        Page iii
        Page iv
        Page v
    Table of Contents
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    Back Matter
        Page 462
        Page 463
        Page 464
    Back Cover
        Page 465
        Page 466
Full Text


F -35q
revI s ct



i---- *^-~-- '^ 'C


Harmon Shields, Executive Director

Charles M. Sanders, Director

Charles W. Hendry, Jr., Chief



Jack C. Rosenau, Glen L. Faulkner,
Charles W. Hendry, Jr., and Robert W. Hull

Prepared by
United States Geological Survey
in cooperation with the
Tallahassee, Florida
F36q 1977


Harmon Shields, Executive Director

Charles M. Sanders, Director

Charles W. Hendry, Jr., Chief



Jack C. Rosenau, Glen L. Faulkner,
Charles W. Hendry, Jr., and Robert W. Hull

Prepared by
United States Geological Survey
in cooperation with the
Tallahassee, Florida

F35 /-

no. 3

/ 9 77

An infra-red vertical aerial photograph of the Spring Creek area in Wakulla
County. Taken in April, 1972 from an altitude of 3,000 feet, the upwelling
spring-flow, known as Spring Creek Rise, is easily located because of water
temperature differences. The spring shows as the dark circular area just
offshore from the end of State Highway 365.


Si' i

.^ ^.*^ ^ ;" --r"*Lj;~ """ "~r
S^-~'; .--1---.^
1.. .o -"

"" .. . . *; .." .. *. ." *
-.. r - . T

- '''}' ' '* < '* *' -
-:,- 'k. : .** ,. .. ', . ,,, ',, ^ ..-,' '- ,
-..,... ,.s t..."r

,* ** '. ,* * **, . ,%" ". *,t ",* j
..-. .,. N* "- *
I r '~ '

9 4, +] +++ +tj.
~~I~1 -1
/ ., "'i *1 "

y % +*;/ .v r ,+ }:
. ... . ... .,

V S r;
.. .. ,, .
+~~~ i+ ++
r + + + +

'., I .



f .




Secretary of State


Commissioner of Education

Attorney General


Commissioner of Agriculture

Executive Director


Bureau of Geology
August 22, 1978

Governor Reubin O'D. Askew, Chairman
Florida Department of Natural Resources
Tallahassee, Florida 32304

Dear Governor Askew:

The Bureau of Geology, Florida Department of Natural Resources is pub-
lishing as Bulletin No. 31 Revised, "Springs of Florida," prepared by J. C.
Rosenau, G. L. Faulkner, C. W. Hendry, Jr., and R. W. Hull.
The first comprehensive report on Florida's springs was published in 1947.
Since that time much additional data on our springs have been gathered and
is incorporated in this publication. This bulletin not only updates these data
but also includes data on previously undescribed springs.
This revision represents a major cooperative effort between the U. S.
Geological Survey and the Bureau of Geology that has taken several years to
complete. It will satisfy a public demand for current information on the
nature and occurrence of the springs in Florida.

Respectfully yours,

Charles W. Hendry, Jr., Chief
Bureau of Geology

Completed Manuscript received
Printed for the
Florida Department of Natural Resources
Division of Resource Management
Bureau of Geology



The first comprehensive report of Florida's springs, which contains both
a story of the springs and a collection of facts about them, was published
thirty years ago (Ferguson and others, 1947). Since then, much additional
data on springs have been gathered and the current report, Springs of Flor-
ida, makes a wealth of information on springs available to the public.
Springs of Florida, prepared by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation
with the Bureau of Geology, Florida Department of Natural Resources, pub-
lishers, and the Bureau of Water Resources Management, Florida Depart-
ment of Environmental Regulation, is intended to provide sufficient back-
ground information for a lucid understanding of the nature and occurrence
of the springs in the State.

In accordance with standard practice, referenced reports are cited in the
text of this report only by author and date of publication. The report title
and publisher are listed in the "References" section of the report.


Summary and conclusions ---------------------------------------- 1
Introduction ------ --------------------------------------- 2
Spring characteristics ------------------------------------------ 4
Geology and hydrology ------------------------------------------- 12
Geology ---------------------------------------- ----- 13
Hydrology -------------------------------------- --- 19
Water quality ---------------------------------------------- 27
Characteristics of spring water --------------------------------- 27
Definitions of chemical constituents and related terminology -------- 29
Distribution of Florida springs -------------------------------- 38
The hydrologic subregions --------------------------------------- 40
Altamaha- St. Marys Rivers -----------------------------40
St. Johns River ------------- ------------------------ 40
Southern Florida --------------------------------- 40
Peace, Withlacoochee, and Hillsborough Rivers, and western coastal
area. ---------------------------------------------------- 42
Suwannee and Aucilla Rivers ------------------------------- 42
Ochlockonee River ----------------------------------------- 42
Apalachicola, Choctawhatchee, and Flint River ------------------ 42
Choctawhatchee, Yellow, and Escambia Rivers ----------------- 45
Spring descriptions --------------------------------------------- 46
Spring names ------------------------------------------ 46
Springflow ---- --------------------------------- 46
Methods of flow measurement ---------------------------------_ 47
Spring-water sampling --------------------------------------- 47
Spring identification numbers ----------------------------------- 48
Descriptions of individual springs --------------------------------- 55
Alachua County ------------------------------------------ 56
Glen Springs -------------------------------------------- 56
Hornsby Spring ----- -------------------------------- 58
Magnesia Spring-------- ---------------__-------- 60
Poe Springs __-----------------------_----------------- 62
Other springs ----- ------------------------- ----- 65
Boulware Spring ----------- --___ ---------------------65
Darby Spring ---------- -----------------------------___ 65
Ford Spring ______---------------- ------------------ 65
High Springs --------------------------------------____ 65
Iron Spring -------------------__----------__---__-___ 65
Sulphur Spring ____------ ---------_----------------__- 65


CONTENTS. (Continued)

Bay County ---- -------------------------------------- 65
Gainer Springs _---------------- -- -------------------- 65
Pitts Spring ------------------------------------------------ 72
Bradford County ------- ------------------------------------ 74
Heilbronn Spring ------------------------------------------- 74
Calhoun County -------------------------------------- 76
Abes Spring ----------------------------------------------- 76
Citrus County ---------------------------- -------------- 76
Blue Spring --------------------------------------------- 76
Chassahowitzka Springs ------------------------------------ 78
Crystal River Springs Group --------------------------------- 80
Tarpon Springs ------------------------------------------ 81
American Legion Spring --------------------------------- 82
Gator Hole ---------- ------------------------------ 82
Idiots Delight ---------------------------------------- 82
Middle Springs --- -------------------------------- -- 82
Shark Sink ---------------------------------------- 82
Homosassa Springs --------------------------------------_ 84
Ruth Spring ------------------------------------------- 89
Other springs -------------------------------------------- 90
Crab Creek Spring --------------------------------------- 90
Potter Spring ----------------------- -------------- 90
Salt Creek Springs -------------------------------------- 90
Unnamed springs -------------------------------------- 91
Clay County --------------------------------------------- 92
Green Cove Spring --------------------------------------_ 92
Wadesboro Spring ----------------------------------------- 94
Other springs ----------------------------------------- 97
Gold Head Branch Springs --------------------------------- 97
Magnolia Springs --------------------------------------_ 97
Pecks Mineral Spring -------------------------------------- 97
Columbia County --------------------------------------- 97
Bell Springs ---------------------------------- 97
Ichetucknee Springs Group ------------------------------------98
Ichetucknee or Head Spring ----------------------------------99
Cedar Head Spring --------------------------------------- 101
Blue Hole Spring -------- -------------------------- 101
Roaring and Singing Springs -----------------------------_ 102
Boiling Spring ------------------------------------------ 102


CONTENTS (Continued)

Grassy Hole Spring _------------------------------------- 102
Mill Pond Spring -------------------------------------- 102
Coffee Spring --------------------------------- ------- 102
Other springs _- ---------------------------------------- 105
Allen Spring ------------------------------------------- 105
Columbia Spring ---------------------------------------- 105
Jamison Spring --------------------------------------- 106
Jonathan Spring ___-_-- ---------------------------------106
July Spring --------- -------------------------------- 106
Northbank Spring ----------------------------------------106
Rum Island Spring -------------------- ---------------- 106
Wilson Spring ---------------- ---------------------- 106
Dixie County ---------------------------------------------- 106
Copper Spring ---------------------- -------------------- 106
Little Copper Spring --------------------------------------- 108
Guaranto Spring ----------------------------------------- 109
Other springs ------------------------------------------- 110
McCrabb Spring -------------------------------------- 110
Escambia County -------------------------------------------- 110
Mystic Springs ------------------------------------------ 110
Other springs ------------------------------------------- 110
Bay Springs -----------------_------------------------- 112
Bluff Springs ---------------------------------------_ -- 112
Jackson's Springs ---------_--_---_----------------------- 112
Gadsden County ------------------------------------------- 112
Chattahoochee Spring -------------------------------___--- 112
Glen Julia Springs ---------------------------------------- 114
Indian Springs ---------------------------------------- 116
Gilchrist County ------------------------------------------- 117
Bell Springs -------_ ---------------------------------- 117
Blue Springs ------------------------------------------- 119
Ginnie Spring ------------------------------------------- 121
Hart Springs ------------------------------------------- 122
Lumber Camp Springs -------------------------------_______ 125
Otter Springs --------------------------------------------- 125
Rock Bluff Springs --------------------__________-----------_ 127
Sun Springs ------------------------------------------------ 129
Other springs ___-----------------_---------____ _______-____ 130
Devil's Eye Springs -----_---------------__-___ __________-__ 130


CONTENTS (Continued)

Lilly Springs --------------- -------------------------- 130
Pleasant Grove Springs ------------------------------------ 131
Townsend Spring -------------------------------------- 131
Gulf County ------------------------------------------ 131
Dalkeith Springs ------------------------------------------ 131
Hamilton County ------------------------ --------------- 131
Adams Spring --------_---------------- ------131
Alapaha Rise ----------------------------------------- 132
Holton Spring ------ ---------------------------------- 134
White Springs -------------------------------------- 135
Other springs ---------------------------------------------- 139
Bluff Cemetery Spring ------------------------------------ 139
Louisa Spring------------------------------------------ 139
Morgan's Spring------------------------------------------ 139
Wesson's Iron Spring -------------------------------------- 140
Hernando County ------------------------------------------ 140
Boat Spring -------------------------------------------- 140
Bobhill Springs ------------------------------------------ 141
Little Springs ------------------------------------------- 143
Salt Spring --------------------------------------- ----- 145
Weeki Wachee Springs ------------------------------- 147
Other springs ------------------------------------------- 149
Blind Springs ---------------------------------------- 149
Mud Spring ------------------------------------------ 150
Unnamed Springs, numbers 1 through 12 _________________ 150-153
Hospital Spring __------------------------------------- 154
Jenkins Spring --------------------------------------- 154
Wilderness Spring -----_-----------------------------_--_ 154
Hillsborough County --------------------------------------- 154
Buckhorn Spring _--------------------------------------- 154
Eureka Springs __ --------------------------------------- 156
Lettuce Lake Spring ---------------------------------------- 158
Lithia Springs ------------------------------------______ 161
Six Mile Creek Spring ----------------------------------- 164
Sulphur Springs ---------------------------------________ 166
Other springs ----------------------------------------- 168
Messer Spring --__--------------____ .......--------------_ 168
Palma Ceia Springs ----------------------_______________ 168
Purity Spring ----------------------------_.-------------_ 168


CONTENTS (Continued)

Holmes County ----------------------------------------- --- 168
Jackson Spring .------------------------------------------- 168
Ponce De Leon Springs -------------------------------------- 169
Vortex Blue Spring ----------------------------------------- 171
Other springs --------------------------------------------- 172
Blue Spring --------------------------------------------- 172
Jackson County ----------------------------------------- --- 173
Black Spring --------------------------------------- 173
Blue Springs -------- ---------------------------------- 174
Blue Hole Spring ------------------------------------- -- 178
Bosel Spring ------------------------------------------- 179
Double Spring ----------------- -------------------------- 180
Gadsen Spring ------------------------------------------ 182
Hays Spring --------------------------------- ------ 183
Mill Pond Spring ---------------------------------184
Sand Bag Spring -------------------------------------- 186
Springboard Spring --------------------------------------- 187
Waddells Mill Pond Spring ---------------------------- 189
Other springs --_------ ---------------------- ------- 189
Daniel Springs ----------------------------------------- -- 189
Tanner Springs --------- ---------------------------- 189
Webbville Spring -------------------------------------- 189
Unnamed Springs --------------------------------------- 189
Jefferson County ------------------------------------------ 190
Wacissa Springs Group ------------------------------------ 190
Horsehead Spring ---------------------------------- 192
Log Springs -------------------------------------------- 192
Thomas Spring ----------------------------------------- 192
Spring No. 1 --------------------------------------------- 192
Spring No. 2 --------------------------------- 192
Allen Spring ----------------------------- --------- 192
Cassidy Spring ---------------- ---------------------- 192
Blue Spring --_---------------------------------193
Minnow Spring ----------------------------------------- 193
Buzzard Log Springs ------------------------------_______ 193
Garner Springs ----------------------- --------------- 194
Big Spring ------- ----------------------------- 195
Other springs --------- --------------------------------_ 197
Walker Springs -----------------------..-----------____- 197

CONTENTS (Continued)

Lafayette County ---------------------------------------- 197
Allen Mill Pond Spring ------------------------------------- 197
Blue Spring ---------------------------------------- 199
Convict Spring -------------------- ---------------- 201
Fletcher Spring ------------ --------------------- 202
Mearson Spring ------------------------------------------ 204
Owens Spring -------------------------------------------- 205
Ruth Spring ------------ ---------------------------- 207
Steinhatchee Spring -----------------------------------------209
Troy Spring --------------------------------------- 210
Turtle Spring------------------------------------------ 214
Other springs ---------------------------------------------- 215
Iron Spring ------------------------------------------ 215
Perry Spring ----------------------------------------- 215
Lake County ----------------- -------------------- 216
Alexander Springs ----------------------------------------- 216
Apopka Spring ----------------------------------------- 218
Blue Springs ------------------------------------------- 220
Bugg Spring ---------------------------------------- 222
Camp La No Che Spring ----------------------------------- 225
Holiday Springs --- -------------------------------------227
Messant Spring ----- ----------__ -----_ ---_------- 229
Seminole Springs ---------------------------------------- 230
Other springs -- --------------------------------------- 234
Bear Spring ------------------------------------------- 234
Leon County ---------------------------------------------- 234
Horn Spring --------------__----- ---------------------- 234
Natural Bridge Spring --------------_--------------------- 236
Rhodes Springs ----------------------------------------- 238
St. Marks Spring ---------------------------------------- 240
Other springs ------------------------------------------ 243
Unnamed Spring No. 1 ---------------------------------- 243
Unnamed Spring No. 2 ---------------------------------_ 243
Levy County -------------- ----------------------------- 243
Blue Spring ------------------------------------------------243
Fannin Springs ------------------------------------------ 245
Manatee Spring ---------------------------------------_ 248
Wekiva Springs ---------------------------------------- 250
Other springs ----------------------------------------------- 253


CONTENTS (Continued)

Big Springs ____-- --------------------------------------- 253
Little Springs .----- -------------------------------- 253
Liberty County --------------------------------------------. 253
White Springs ---------------------------------------------- 253
Madison County _----------------------------------_-------- 255
Blue Spring _----------------------------------- -------.. 255
Suwanacoochee Spring 2------------------------------------- 57
Other springs _-------------------------------------------- 25
Cherry Lake Spring ------------------- 2---------------.-- 59
Pettis Spring ----------------------- ------------------ 259
Marion County ----------------------------------------------259
Fern Hammock Springs -------------- -------------- 259
Juniper Springs ----------------------------------------- 261
Orange Spring ------------------------------------------ 264
Rainbow Springs------------------------------------------ 266
Salt Springs ------------_--- --------_-------------- 270
Silver Glen Springs ----------------------------------------- 273
Silver Springs ---- -----------------------------------_ 276
Wilson Head Spring -------------------_----_------------ 281
Other springs ----_---------------_--------------------- 282
Blue Spring ----------------------------------------- 282
Sweetwater Springs ______________________________________ 283
Nassau County ------------------------------------------- 283
Su-No-Wa Spring ----------------------------------------- 283
Orange County ------------------------------------------- 286
Rock Springs ------------------------------------------- 286
Wekiwa Springs ------------------------------------------ 288
Witherington Spring --------------------------------_______ 291
Other springs ---------------2-------------------------- 92
Barrel Spring -------------------.___________------------_ 292
Camp Spring ---------------_____ __________--------------- 292
Mill Creek Springs ------_------_____ _________-------------- 292
Pasco County .----------------____ ____________-------------- 293
Crystal Springs --------------------------------------------- 293
Horseshoe Spring ----------------___ _________--------------_ 295
Magnolia Springs -----------------____. .________-----------_ 297
Salt Springs ---------------_______.__________.__..__ q29
Seven Springs __------------------__ ........_-------------- 301
Other springs ------------------------------------... ---..-- 302


CONTENTS (Continued)

lHudson Spring ---.-- -------...-------------- --------- 302
Isabella Spring --. ----------- ------------------------- 303
Salt Spring- ...----------------------------------------- 304
Unnamed Springs, numbers 1, 2, 3, and 5 ----------------- 304
Pinellas County -------------------------------------------- 305
Health Spring .. ------ ----... ---------------.------------ 305
Other spring __-.---.--.-- ------------- ------------------ 307
Phillippi Spring ------ ----------------------------------- 307
Polk County -.---.------------------ .--. ---------------- 307
Kissengen Spring ____-. -------------- ------------------.- 307
Putnam County __--------------------------------------------- 308
Beecher Springs --------------------------------------- --- 308
Forest Springs ..-------------------------------------------- 310
Mud Spring _.-------------------------- -------.-------- 311
Nashua Spring ---------- ----.---------- 313
Satsuma Spring -------- ----------------------------- 315
Welaka Spring ----.------------------------ 317
Whitewater Springs ---------------- -------------------------319
Santa Rosa County------- ------------- 321
Chumuckla Spring --__----------------------------------- 321
Sarasota County --------------- ----------------------------325
Little Salt Spring --------------------------------------- 322
Pinehurst Spring _---------------------------------------- 325
Warm Mineral Springs ______-- __-----------_ ------326
Seminole County ------------- ----------------------------- 332
Clifton Springs -----_----------------------------------- 332
Elder Spring -----------------------------------------------335
Heath Spring --------------------- ----- -- 337
Lake Jessup Spring -----_---------_-----------_----------_ 339
Miami Springs --------- --- ----------------- 340
Palm Springs ----------------------_------------------- 342
Sanlando Springs ---- ------ -----------_ -------341
Starbuck Spring ___ ______------------------_ 347
Other springs ------------------_-----------------__--- 349
Altamonte Springs --------------------------------------- 349
Massin Spring -----_---------------------------------- 349
Seminole Spring --------------_-------------------------- 349
Sweetwater Spring ----------------------------------___ 349
Sumter County -------------------------------- ..-------_ 349


CONTENTS (Continued)

Fenney Springs ------------------------------------------ 349
Gum Springs -------------------------------------------- 351
Other springs --------------------------------------------- 355
Matahouka Spring ------------------------------------ 355
Warm Springs ------------ ------------------------- 355
Unnamed Springs ---------------------- --------------- 355
Suwannee County ------------------ -----------------------355
Anderson Spring ----------------------- --- 356
Baptizing Spring -------------------------------------------356
Bonnet Spring -------------------------- ----------------357
Branford Springs --------------------- -------- -------359
Charles Springs----------------------------------------- 361
Cow Spring _----------- ------------- ------------------ 363
Ellaville Spring -------------------------- ----------------364
Falmouth Spring --------------------------------------- 366
Lime Spring ---------------------- -------------368
Little River Springs -------- --------------------------- 369
Luraville Springs ----------------------------------------- 371
Peacock Springs ------------------------------------------ 371
Pump Spring ---------------------- -------------------- 373
Royal Spring ------------------------------------------- 373
Running Springs --------------------------------------------375
Suwannee Springs ---------------------------------------- 376
Suwannee Blue Spring ______________________________________ 378
Telford Spring --------------------------_______________ 379
Walker Spring ------------------------------------------ 380
Other springs ------------------------------------------ 381
Betty Spring ----------------------------------------- 381
Ichetucknee Springs Group --------------------------------381
Boiling Spring --------------_________________________ 381
Coffee Spring ----------------------------------------- 381
Ichetucknee or Head Spring ----------------____________ 381
Thomas Spring ---------------------------------------- 381
Taylor County --------------_---------------------------_ 381
Blue Spring -------------------------------____------__ 381
Camp Ground Spring -------------- ---_ _______ 383
Carlton Spring -----------._________------------- _______ ---384
Ewing Spring ---------------------------_____ --______-____ 385
Hampton Springs ------------------------________---_______ 386


CONTENTS (Continued)

Waldo Springs ------------------------------------------- 388
Other springs ---------------------------------------------- 390
Big Spring ------- ----------------------------------- 390
Blue Spring --------------------------------------------- 390
Iron Spring ------------------------------------------ 390
Sand Piper Spring --------------------------------------- 390
Union Springs -------------------------------------------- 390
Warrior Spring ---------------------------------------- 390
Union County ---------------------- ------------------------ 390
Worthington Spring ---------------------------------------- 391
Volusia County ----------------------------------------- 392
Blue Spring --------------------------------------- 392
Gemini Springs -------------------------------------------- 395
Green Springs ---------------------------------------- 398
Ponce De Leon Springs --------------------------------------- 400
Seminole Spring --------------------------------------- 403
Wakulla County -------------------------------------- 405
Indian Springs ---------- ---------------------------- -- 405
Kini Spring ---------------------------------------- 406
Newport Springs -----_--------------------------------- 409
Panacea Mineral Springs ------------------------------------- 410
River Sink Spring ---------------------------------------- 412
Wakulla Springs -------------------------------------------- 415
Sally Ward Springs ------------------ ---------------_ 416
Walton County ------ -------------------------- 424
Euchee Springs ---------------------------------------- 424
Morrison Spring ----------------------------------------- 426
Washington County ----------------------------_------_-- -428
Beckton Springs ----------------------------------------- 428
Blue Spring (tributary to Econfina Creek) --------------------- 429
Blue Springs (tributary to Holmes Creek) --------_-_-_________ 431
Cypress Spring ---------------------------------------- 433
Walsingham Spring ---------------------------------------- 435
Williford Spring ----------------------------------------- 435
Florida's submarine springs ----------------------------------- 438
Bear Creek Spring -------------------------------------__ 439
Cedar Island Spring ---------------------------------------- 439
Cedar Island Springs --------------------------------------- 439
Choctawhatchee Springs ----------------------------------- 441

CONTENTS (Continued)

Grays Rise -------------------------------------------- ---- 441
Crescent Beach Submarine Spring ---------------------------- 443
Crystal Beach Spring -------------------------------------- 443
Freshwater Cave ------------ ----------------------------- 443
Mud Hole Submarine Spring _-------------------------------- 443
Ocean Hole Spring ---------------------------------------- 445
Ray Hole Spring -------------------- ------------- --- --- 446
Red Snapper Sink ------------------------- --------------- 446
Spring Creek Springs ---------------------------------- -- 446
Spring Creek Rise ---------------------------------------- 446
Tarpon Springs ---- --------------------------------452
The Jewfish Hole --------------------------------------- 453
Unnamed Spring No. 4 ------------------------------------ 453
Florida's pseudosprings ------------------------------------- 453
Carlsbad Spa Villas ------------------------------------- 453
Hurricane Lodge Motel -------------------------------------- 454
Pennekamp Spring ---------------------------------- 454
Hot Springs ------------------------------------------- 455
Mineral Springs -------------------------------------------- 455
Shangri La Motel Health Resort ------------------------------- 456
Warm Springs Spa ----------------------- ---- --- 456
References --------------------------------------------- 457


Text Figure (Photographs) Page
1 Glen Springs viewed downstream from head pool. Flow is
controlled to two swimming pools. ----------------------- 56
2 Head of Hornsby Spring looking westward downstream.
Spring run in center background. ------------------------ 59
3 Magnesia Spring viewed from southeast. Outlet on right to
swimming pool not in use. Present outlet at edge of pool in
center background. ----------------------------------- 61
4 Poe Springs viewed from south edge of pool. Spring run in
background flows northward to Santa Fe River. ---------- 63
5 Westerly view of Econfina Creek below confluence of run
from Gainer Spring No. 1. Clear water from Springs Nos.
2 and 3 show white in photograph on the west side of the
creek and Springs Nos. 1A, B, and C on the east side. The
tannin-colored water in mid-channel is normal to Econfina
Creek and in sharp contrast to the clear spring water feed-
ing the creek in this area. ___-----_ ------------------- 67
6 Gainer Spring No. 1C showing the edge of the limestone
vent and light spring boil in a swampy wooded area ------ 68
7 View from the run toward the head of Gainer Spring No. 3
and higher ground on the west side of Econfina Creek. __. 69
8 View of Pitts Spring from its south bank. --------------- 73
9 Heilbronn Spring viewed from west in upstream direction.
Flow is from under concrete slab. ----------------------- 74
10 Blue Spring viewed from northwest. Note dike in back-
ground bounding the pool on south and east. -------------- 71
11 Upstream view of Chassahowitzka Springs from the boat
landing area. The spring vent is to the right of the diving
platform, against the far shore. ------------------------ 79
12 View of the Crystal River Springs Group and Banana Island
from an altitude of 2,000 feet on June 11, 1978. Tarpon
Spring is centered in the cluster of boats about 150 ft off-
shore, lower-left side of the island. -------------------- 82
13 View of main spring at Homosassa Spring with the "fish-
bowl" in the background. ---------------------------_ 87
14 Green Cove Spring viewed from west. Spring in decorative
concrete enclosure. ------------------------------------ 92
15 Looking towards the head of Wadesboro Spring. Spring is
inside small rectangular concrete enclosure in background
and abandoned wooded swimming enclosure in foreground. 95
16 Air view of Ichetucknee Spring from the north. The spring
pool is in left-center foreground; it forms the head of Iche-
tucknee River, which flows southward through the forest.
The parking area is west of the spring. _--------------___ 98
16A Ichetucknee Spring viewed from west. Note boil in pool
surface center of picture. -------------_____----------- 99
17 Blue Hole Spring looking southeast over the spring vent. -_ 101
18 Southerly view of Copper Spring No. 1 showing the cypress-
studded area typical of the lowland adjoining this part of
the Suwannee River. ---------------------------------_ 107



Text Figure (Photographs) Page
19 Northwesterly view of Guaranto Spring pool from south-
east bank. _--.------------------------------------- 109
20 Spring water discharges from two pipes at Mystic springs;
one protruding from the lower right corner of an ancient
springhouse and the other from a plastic pipe outside (left
corner of picture). ----------------------------------- 111
21 A view of the dam and imponded Glen Julia Springs an
area of hillside seeps. -------------------------------- 114
22 Southerly view of Indian Spring. ----------------------- 116
23 Looking southwesterly across the main pool of Bell Springs. 118
24 View of Blue Springs from southeast; flight altitude about
500 feet. -------------------------------------- 119
25 View across pool of Ginnie Spring. _------------------- 121
26 Hart Spring. Northerly view across the swimming area
towards the smaller of two springs. --------------------- 123
27 Foot-bridges crossing runs at Otter Springs. ------------- 126
28 View of part of large pool of Rock Bluff Springs. -------- 127
29 A view east across Sun Springs. Discharge is to the left. -- 129
30 View of Adams Spring from the northwest. -------------- 132
31 View of Alapaha Rise and its run. ---------------------- 133
32 White Springs from inside the four-story Spring House
which was demolished late in 1973. ---------------------- 135
33 Spring House foundation, outdoor swimming pool, the
Suwannee River in the background as seen from U.S. Hwy
41. White Springs discharges through the foundation wall
directly to the river. ---_------------------------------ 136
34 A view of White Springs discharging from the Spring House
foundation wall into the Suwannee River. ---------------- 137
35 Boat Spring in April 1976. View is southwest from spring-
head down run. Upwelling water from 10 feet diameter is
boiling the surface. ----------------------------------- 140
36 Northerly view of Bobhill Springs. Its vent is at the north
end of the pool and the discharge channel is in the fore-
ground. The spring vent is covered by a metal grate to
prevent swimmer access to the cave system under the pool. 142
37 Southerly view of Salt Spring. View is downstream from
the spring; the vent is in line with rope hanging from trees.
A boil was visible when this picture was taken in April 1976. 145
38 View of Weeki Wachee Springs from the head of the spring
showing boil and river boats. ------------------------- 147
39 View of Buckhorn Spring showing the pumping facilities.
Outlet for the spring is to the right side of the picture. .. 154
40 Eureka Spring Tributary 2, looking south down its run. 157
41 Note the boil in Lettuce Lake Spring near the center of the
picture. Lettuce Lake Spring is the largest spring in the
area. ... __- ----------_-___ --------------_______ 159



Text Figure (Photographs) Page
42 View of Lithia Springs Major at a low level, October 10,
1972. Bathers are in the turbulent or boil-area of the spring. 161
43 A view of the head of Lithia Springs Minor on October 10,
1972. Water surface is marked by base of sand-bag wall and
grass. The wall is to keep sand from slumping into the
spring. .-------.------------------------------------ 162
44 A view of hyacinth-choked Six Mile Creek Spring. -------- 164
45 View of Sulphur Springs main pool and its outfall. The
building on the right edge of the picture is a city pumping
station. The pipe-mounted shelter nearby contains USGS
water level recording equipment. The broad crested weir is
10 feet wide and the waterfall about 7 feet high. __------ 166
46 Looking westerly across Ponce de Leon Springs to steps and
run. The cement enclosed pool is surrounded by thick forest
and swamp. ------------------------------------------- 169
47 A southerly view across Vortex Blue Spring in June 1975. 171
48 Looking southwest over Black Spring from a boat near the
center of the pool. The only access to the spring is by boat.
The banks are steep and heavily vegetated. -------------- 173
49 View of Blue Spring showing the concrete retaining wall
around the pond. The wire fence across the pond is to pre-
vent access to the spring by water. The diving platform is
on the left side of the picture. ------------------------- 175
50 View north over Double Spring from the south bank. The
vegetation in the background is typical of the area sur-
rounding the spring. ------------------- ----- 181
50A Looking north toward Gadsen Spring from its run about 90
feet downstream. Note the aquatic vegetation in the run,
and the dense vegetation surrounding the spring. _-------_ 182
51 Looking south over Mill Pond Spring from the residential
area. The dense foliage in the background is representative
of most of the area around the spring. -----------------_ 185
52 Southerly view across Sand Bag Spring toward the house
and run. Except for the cleared area around the pool, the
adjacent land is heavily forested. ------------_-_----__ 186
53 Southerly view of Springboard Spring from boat launching
site on north side of the spring. _---------------------_ 187
54 View of the northern part of Wacissa River from an alti-
tude of 500 feet, March 1972. Note the extensive aquatic
growth that covers much of the river surface and its associ-
ated springs. ----------------------_ .--.-------------_ 190
55 Canoeists leaving the park area at the head of Wacissa
River in November 1972. ----------------------------__ 193
56 View of Allen Mill Pond looking towards the run exiting to
the southeast. The spring site is surrounded by gently
sloping woodland and thick undergrowth. ------------- 198
57 Looking east over Blue Spring towards the run and the
Suwannee River. Note the moderately steep sandy banks,
limestone bridge, and sparse vegetation around the spring. 200



Text Figure (Photographs) Page
58 Looking east over Convict Spring towards the Suwannee
River. ---------------------------------------------- 201
59 View across Fletcher Spring and down its run. Note the
steep banks, thick vegetation in the background, and in the
left foreground the diving board and slight water surface
disturbance from updwelling spring water. --------------- 203
60 Southerly view across Mearson Spring on December 3, 1975,
when the Suwannee River was not high enough to restrict
spring discharge. ------------------------------------- 204
61 Easterly view over Owens and its run. Note the densely
wooded area around the spring, and the extensive limestone
outcrop on the perimeter of the pool. ------------------- 206
62 View of Ruth Spring from road, looking northeast. Note the
cleared area around the pool, and the dense woods. -------- 208
63 The south side of Steinhatchee Spring. Spring vent outside
the wall is at base of rocks at lower-center of picture. _-_ 209
64 Oblique aerial photograph of Troy Spring and Suwannee
River from an altiutde of 500 feet. ---------------------- 211
65 A view of Troy Spring showing the submerged hull of the
steamboat Madison, its bow pointing towards the head of
the spring. Various sources report the ship as either a gun
boat or supply ship of the Confederate Army that was
trapped on the Suwannee River and was run aground and
scuttled by its captain to avoid capture by Union Forces. -_ 212
66 Looking down Turtle Spring run toward the Suwannee
River. Spring head is immediately upstream. ------------ 214
67 Alexander Springs viewed to southeast from edge of run.
Springhead is in center background and swimming beach is
to right. -----------------_------------------ 216
68 Apopka Spring viewed from south. Spring orifice is in
center. Floating tree island to right. -------------------- 219
69 Blue Springs viewed from northwest. Note outlet weir in
center background. ------------------------------- 221
70 Bugg Spring viewed from south. Spring run in center back-
ground. _------------------------------------ 223
71 Camp La No Che Spring viewed from southwest. Spring boil
at lower center in photograph. ---------_------------- 225
72 Holiday Springs head pool. ---- --------------- -_ 227
73 View of Messant Spring from southeast edge of pool. Ori-
fice is in center just above grass clump. --------------- 229
74 Spring No. 2 of Seminole Springs group viewed from west.
Boil in center background. Note suction pipe from stock-
water pump. _--------------_____--_____--_________ ___ 231
75 A northwesterly view of Horn Spring across the larger of
two springs. Photograph taken from parking area adjacent
to sand road. ---------------------------------------- 235
76 View of Natural Bridge Spring from left bank of run, 30
feet below pool. ----- -------------------------- 236


Text Figure (Photographs) Page
76A Oblique aerial view of St. Marks Spring and River on July
26, 1978 from an altitude of 1500 feet. The spring vent is
just lower left of the island. St. Marks Spring is 3,400 feet
N. (0.65 mi) of St. Marks Gaging Station and about the
same distance south of Natural Bridge Spring. ----------- 240
77 Southerly view of spring and run taken from the north
bank. ---------------------------------------- 241
78 Blue Spring viewed from east. Orifice in right center of
picture, left of diving platform. Pool outlet in left back-
ground. -------------------------------------- 244
79 Westerly view of Big Fannin Spring and its run to the
Suwannee River. -------------------------------------- 246
80 Southerly view from head of Little Fannin Spring. -------- 247
81 View of Manatee Spring boil from south edge of the pool. -- 249
82 Wekiva Springs viewed from the south. The largest of the
three pools that make up the springs is in the foreground,
the smallest is in the center, and the intermediate size pool
is to the left, out of the picture. Together with their con-
necting channels the three pools form a spring complex
within an area of about 150 feet radius. ------------------ 251
83 Northerly view of the lower pool of White Springs. The
water is ponded by an earth dam to the left of the recrea-
tion buildings. ------------------------------ 254
84 Blue Spring, looking down the spring run. --------------- 255
85 View of Suwannacoochee Spring showing the concrete wall
that separates the spring from the Withlacoochee River. -_ 258
86 Fern Hammock Springs viewed from the north. Two circular
light-colored areas in left foreground are sand boils in pool
bottom. ---- ---------- ----------- ------ 260
87 Juniper Springs viewed from west. Old millhouse in back-
ground. --------------------------------- 262
88 Orange Spring viewed from south. Note concrete retaining
wall. Outlet in right-center background. ------------- 264
89 View of Rainbow Springs across pool. ------------------- 266
90 Aerial view of Rainbow Springs looking southeast. Head of
springs is slightly right of center in photograph. ---------- 267
91 Salt Springs viewed from northwest. Springs are within
area bounded by concrete retaining wall. -_----------- 271
92 Silver Glen Springs viewed from east. Spring vent is in
center background. ----------------------------------- 274
93 Aerial view of Silver Springs from the southeast. --------- 276
94 Silver Springs viewed from southwest. The main spring
orifice is in right-center at right end of aquatorium, the
long, low structure on far side of pool. -----------------_ 277
95 Underwater view west from inside cavern at main orifice of
Silver Springs. Photograph taken in January 1970 by L. I.
Briel. .---------- ----------------------- 278



Text Figure (Photographs) Page
96 Wilson Head Spring viewed from east. Pool is in center
background. Note dike on west and south edges of pool and
the wooden, gated outlet in middle foreground. ------------ 281
97 Su-No-Wa Spring viewed from northeast. Spring is in
covered cylindrical enclosure to right of pumphouse. -----. 283
98 Head of Rock Springs showing steel protective enclosure. -- 286
99 View of Wekiwa Springs and run. --------------------- 289
100 Looking north at head pool of Witherington Spring. ------ 291
101 View of park and spring from entrance to Crystal Springs. 293
102 Main pool of Magnolia Springs looking downstream, April
1976. ..------------------------- ------------------ 297
103 A westerly view of Salt Springs and part of its run. ------ 299
104 Seven Springs discharge pipe vent. Flow is not known to
have occurred since 1960. ------------------------------- 301
105 View of Health Spring and its adjacent swimming pool. --- 305
106 Beecher Springs viewed from north. Pool outlet is in left-
center background. ---------------------------------- 308
107 Forest Springs No. 2 is in the center of the picture, viewed
from the southwest. ------------------------------------ 310
108 Mud Spring viewed from northeast. Orifice is in center
below the surface boil. Gated concrete outlet is visible in
background. ---_------------------------------------ 312
109 Head of Nashua Spring viewed from northeast. Flow is
west to the St. Johns River, just beyond woods. ---------- 314
110 Looking east upstream at the head pool of Satsuma Spring. 316
111 Head of Welaka Spring viewed from east. The spring orifice
is in north part of near open-water area just left of the tree. 318
111A Small reservoir that received the cumulative discharge of
the many small springs that make up Whitewater Springs. 320
112 Chumuckla Springs springhouse. Discharge is from the back
(right side) of the building. --------------------------- 321
113 Oblique aerial view of Little Salt Spring from an altitude
of 1,000 feet. ---------------------------------------- 323
114 Oblique aerial photograph of Warm Mineral Springs from
an altitude of 1,000 feet, April 1978. -------------------- 326
115 Underwater photograph of tunnel in Warm Mineral Springs
from which the 230 foot water sample was taken. Size of
this conduit can be judged by 1 meter measuring stick ex-
tending from floor to ceiling. Photo taken by William R.
Royal. ----------------------------------------- 328
116 Westerly view of Warm Mineral Springs and small lime-
stone dam across its outlet. There is a fall of about half a
foot from the spring pool to the run. ------- ___------- 329
117 Clifton Springs run viewed from north looking upstream to
the spring pool which is fed by Springs Nos. 1, 2 and 3. --- 333
118 Elder Spring viewed from south. The spring in inside the
enclosure. --------------------------------------------- 336



Text Figure (Photographs) Page
119 Looking west up run of Heath Spring to springhead. ------ 338
120 Lake Jessup Spring, viewed from north, is at the edge of
Lake Jessup. The spring is in a depression in the shoreline
behind the bunched water hyacinths. --------------------- 339
121 Looking west at head of Miami Springs. Boil is right of
center close to the wood retaining wall. _---------------- 341
122 Palm Springs viewed from the north looking downstream.
The boil is visible in lower left of the picture and outlet weir
in the center. -------------------------------------- 343
123 Looking northwest at Sanlando Springs pool enclosure and
adjacent pond. --------------------------------------- 345
124 Starbuck Spring viewed from northwest showing the dam
outlet to left and boil in left-center of pool. -------------- 347
125 Looking upstream at head of Fenney Springs. Discharge is
west to run in right foreground. ----------------------- 350
126 Spring No. 3 of Gum Springs group viewed from west.
Spring orifice is just off end of the dock. ----------------- 352
127 Southwesterly or downstream view of Gum Slough from
below Gum Spring No. 6. ------------------------------- 353
128 View towards Anderson Spring, 100 feet northeast and
beyond fallen tree. ------------------------------------- 356
129 Bonnet Spring viewed from its southwest side. The clear
pool area near the north shore is above the vent of the
spring. The trail shown on the north bank is the access
route from the road. --------------------------------- 357
130 Branford Springs is a popular recreational location. This
view of the main pool is northeasterly towards a parking
area beyond and above the spring. ---------------------- 359
131 View of Branford Springs from the top of the south bank
of the spring. Two round vents (lower center) are to the
left of the small raft. This is in the southeast part of the
pool to the right of the swimmers in the other picture. -_ 360
132 A westerly view of Charles Springs looking across the
rock bridge and pool toward the run to the Suwannee River. 361
133 A northerly view of Charles Springs showing the limestone
bridge that spans the springhead. This photograph and the
previous one were taken from the same location southeast
of the spring. --------------------------------------_ 362
134 A view south-southwest across Cow Spring. ------------_ 364
135 View from north shore of the Suwannee River. Ellaville
Spring is about in the center of the photograph to the right
of the railroad trestle. ---------------------------------365
136 Southerly view of Falmouth Spring. -------------------- 366
137 Southeast view of Lime Spring from the northwest side of
the pool. ___ _. ___ ___ -----------------------_____ 369
138 View of Little River Springs from its head to the Suwannee
River, some 150 feet south. Boil in left-center of the pool. -- 370



Text Figure (Photographs) Page
139 Southeasterly view toward the run and the Suwannee River
from the southern part of Peacock Springs. -------------- 372
140 Southeasterly view across Royal Spring from a path on west
side of the pool. --------------------------------------- 374
141 Running Springs looking north to the River. ------------- 375
142 A view of the northwest corner of the pool at Suwannee
Springs. This is the deepest part of the pool. The Suwannee
River is just visible in the upper right of the photograph. __ 377
143 View of Telford Spring from its pool to the Suwannee River. 379
144 Northwesterly view across the boil of Blue Spring to cy-
press trees in the poorly defined bed of Blue Creek. ------- 382
145 A southerly view across Camp Spring in December 1975.
Discharge appears to occur at higher water levels through
a small cut, visible in the picture as a break in the bushes
in the left background. ------------------------------ 383
146 A westerly view of Carlton Spring. The picture was taken
from a concrete remnant of an old bridge. -------------- 384
147 View of Ewing Spring and adjacent Fenholloway River. -- 386
148 The foundation of the once popular Hampton Springs Hotel.
The spring water rises from below the foundation and is
shown here flowing into the hotel swimming pool. -------- 387
149 Waldo Springs, looking northward to the spring run. ----- 389
150 Worthington Spring viewed from southwest. Spring is in-
side a small square concrete and wood enclosure in left-
center on edge of abandoned swimming pool. -------------- 391
151 Looking north, upstream at the head of Blue Spring. Note
the boil at the water surface near the center of the picture. 393
152 Confluence of flow from the three Gemini Springs. Viewed
from the southeast, the photograph shows Springs Nos. 1
and 2 converging from the left and entering the reservoir
and the pool of Spring No. 3 on the right --------------- 396
153 Green Springs viewed from the east. The spring is behind
the rope stretched from pool steps. Shallow swimming and
wading area is in the foreground. ----------------------- 399
154 Ponce de Leon Springs viewed from northeast. An old sugar
mill is visible on the left and the spring run in right back-
ground. -------------- ---- ---------------________ 401
155 Seminole Spring viewed from north toward Lake Monroe.
The spring is in circular concrete enclosure in foreground
that opens to the large pool. --------------------------- 404
156 Westerly view across the discharge end of the pool at
Indian Springs. --------------------------------------_ 405
157 Southerly view of Kini Spring showing the aquatic growth
characteristic of many sinks. The north or spring end of the
270 foot long pool is clear. ----------------------------_ 407
158 Westerly view of Newport Springs from run below flume. -- 409
159 View of pool and pitcher pump at Spring A, Panacea Min-
eral Springs. Spring orifice is near center of the pool. ----_ 411



Text Figure (Photographs) Page
160 Southerly view of River Sink Spring. Length of the pool is
about 280 feet. --------------------------------------- 413
161 Southeasterly aerial view of Wakulla Springs from an al-
titude of 4,000 feet on May 14, 1978. The main spring-vent
is west of the buildings in the right center of the photo-
graph. Sally Ward Spring is at the head of the small stream
and pool near the bottom. State Highways 267 and 61 are
along the left and bottom of the photograph, respectively. 415
162 View of the main-spring pool area, diving platform and
tree-covered area in front of the Wakulla Springs Hotel. -- 421
162A The clarity of the water is illustrated by this oblique under-
water view of a diver, the edge of the spring, and the back-
ground-tree line, taken from the main vent of Wakulla
Springs (position "A" on the proceeding profile of Wakulla
Springs). Photographer's depth about 100 feet; tree heights
80 feet. Photography by L. I. Briel, September 24, 1972. -- 423
162B A deeper view from inside Wakulla Springs main vent
showing the over hanging arch. Photograph was taken from
about 125 foot depth (position "b" on the Wakulla Springs
profile) by L..I. Briel on October 10, 1972. --------------- 424
163 Looking upstream from the dam across the lake and toward
Euchee Springs. The pipe in the foreground is the overflow
to a culvert below the dam where the spring flow was meas-
ured. ----------------------------------------- 425
164 Looking across Morrison Spring pool downstream toward
the Choctawhatchee River in April 1972. Note the cypress
trees and densely wooded area around the spring. --------- 426
165 Looking north from the run across Beckton Springs. Note
the dense foliation typical of the area. -----------------_ 428
166 North end of Blue Spring. Main vent and boil are in the
shallow part of the spring pool at far side of the steps. --- 430
167 Northeast view of Blue Springs from hilltop about 35 feet
above the spring. -----------------------------______ 432
168 Northerly view of Cypress Spring. --------------------- 434
169 Southerly view of Williford Spring showing limestone wall
and vent below surface of the water. ------------------- 436
170 Northeasterly view of Cedar Island Spring. The vent is re-
ported to be just off the diving board. ------------------- 440
171 Westerly view of Grays Rise, a coastal submarine spring
adjacent to Ochlocknee Bay. --------------------- ------ 442
172 (Mud Hole Springs) An oblique aerial view of Mud Hole
Submarine Springs. Photograph courtesy of Kent Fanning,
Dept. of Marine Sciences, Univ. of South Fla. -----------_ 447
173 Northeasterly oblique aerial view of the Spring Creek area
from an altitude of 4,000 feet on May 14, 1978. Shown are
State Highway 365, terminating in the coastal village of
Spring Creek, and the eight numbered spring sites and three
lettered areas of discharge discussed in the text. ---------- 449
174 Pennekamp Spring in October 1968. --------------------_ 454
175 Mineral Springs in May 1964. ------------------------- 455



Figure Page
1. The hydrologic cycle --------------------------------------- 9
2-9 Maps showing:
2 The Floridan Plateau and its emergent part ------------------ 12
3 The areal extent of the Floridan Aquifer -------------------- 14
4 Mean annual rainfall distribution in Florida ----------------- 20
5 Generalized areas of artesian flow of the Floridan Aquifer in
Florida. ----------------------------------------------- 21
6 Areas of non-potable water in the upper part of the Floridan
Aquifer. ---------------------------------------------- 22
7 Areas of recharge to the Floridan Aquifer. ------------------ 23
8 Potentiometric surface of the Floridan Aquifer in Florida,
May 1974. --- __-------------- ------------ 25
9 Potentiometric surface of the Floridan Aquifer in the Silver
Springs catchment area, May 1968. -------------------------- 26
10 Hydrograph showing the interrelation of rainfall, water levels
in the Floridan Aquifer, and discharge of Silver Springs. ------ 28

11- 15 Maps showing:
11 Locations of Florida's 27 first magnitude springs. ----------- 39
12 Locations of springs in the Altamaha- St. Marys and St. Johns
Rivers Hydrologic subregion. ------------------------------- 41
13 Locations of springs in the Peace, Withlacoochee, Hillsborough
Rivers, and western coastal area Hydrologic Subregion. ------_- 43
14 Locations of springs in the Suwannee and Aucilla Rivers Hydro-
logic Subregion. __---------- ----------------------- 44
15 Location of springs in the Choctawatchee, Yellow, and Escambia
Rivers; Chattahoochee, and Flint Rivers; and the Ochlockonee
River Hydrologic Subregions. ------------------------------ 45
16 Graphic explanation of the 15-digit identifier--a spring site
numbering system. ________________________________________ 55
17 Location map of Gainer Springs. -------- ------------- 66
18 Location of 30 known springs and sinks in the Crystal River
Springs Group. -------------------------- -------- 81
19 Graphs of tidal fluctuations and rainfall at Cedar Key and of
discharge of Crystal River. These data illustrate that tidal
changes are effective in controlling spring discharge. ---------- 85
20 Map showing the location of Homosassa Springs, the surround-
ing area, and chloride concentrations of water at selected sites
on Homosassa River and adjacent areas, March 26-27, 1964
(modified from Cherry, Stewart, and Mann, 1970). ---------_ 86
21 Map showing the springs tributary to the Chassahowitzka River.
Sections are 1 mi square, in T20S, R17E. ------------------ 91
22 Location of individual springs in the Ichetucknee Springs group. 100
23 Location of individual springs in the Wacissa Springs Group. __ 191
24 Streamflow and water temperature of Wacissa River below
Wacissa Springs. ----------------------------------------_ 194



Figure Page
25 Semilogarithmic graph of average base flow of St. Marks Spring
as measured about 3,400 ft. S. of the spring, 1958-73. --------- 242
26 Location map for springs in the vicinity of Luraville, 15 miles
southwest of Live Oak. Included are Baptizing, Bonnet, Lura-
ville, Orange, Grove, Peacock, Pump, and Walker Springs. ---- 358
27 Profile of Wakulla Spring, modified by Olsen (1958). --------- 417
28 This graph was developed from stage and streamflow measure-
ments made at the gaging station on the Wakulla River at U.S.
Hwy 318 bridge on February 2, 1973 and April 11, 1973. The
flow of the river on February 11 was about "normal" with
respect to the quantity of spring discharge and to the proportion
of spring discharge and surface-water runoff. The flow on April
11 was the highest of record. The graph shows that under both
conditions, springflow was the major source of the water in the
river. ----------------------------------------------- 418
29 The graph, upper left, shows water levels (stage) at Wakulla
Springs and at the gaging station on the Wakulla River at the
U.S. Hwy. 319 bridge. The graph, upper right, shows rainfall
at nearby stations. --------------------------------------_ 419
30 This graph shows the percentage of total streamflow, measured
at the U.S. Hwy. 319 bridge, that is discharge from Wakulla
Springs. _-----------------------------__-_____ --- 420
31 Map showing the locations of the submarine springs of Florida. 438


Tables Page
1 Number of first magnitude springs in the United States, by
state. _------ ------------------------------ ---------- 5
2 First magnitude springs in Florida. -_---------------------- 7
3 Major springs in other countries. ---------------------------- 8
4 Generalized stratigraphic column related to spring discharge
from the Floridan Aquifer. -------------------------------- 17
5 Conversion of temperature scales, Celcius to Fahrenheit. ------ 37
6 Conversion factors for rates of flow. -_--------------------- 47
7 Index to spring identification numbers. ---------------------49-54



J. C. Rosenau, G. L. Faulkner,
C. W. Hendry, Jr., and R. W. Hull

Florida has 27 first magnitude springs that discharge water from a thick
sequence of limestones known as the Floridan Aquifer. Their total average
flow is 9,600 cubic feet per second or slightly more than 6 billion gallons per
day. Although an accurate world inventory is not available, it seems that
Florida's major springs exceed in number and in quantity of water discharged,
those of other states or nations.
Discharge from all of Florida's 300 known springs is estimated at 12,600
cubic feet per second or 8 billion gallons per day. By comparison, all fresh
ground water pumped in 1975 in Florida totaled 3.3 billion gallons per day.
Records indicate that the major use of the springs is recreational with little
significant change in the past 30 years. Nor has their been any significant
state-wide change in springflow, although some springs in populous south
Florida do show reduced flow.
Few changes since the 1940's appear to have occurred in the quality of the
spring water, the springs reflecting the good quality normal to Florida's
ground-water aquifers. None were found to be contaminated with pesticides.
herbicides, or metals.
The Floridan Aquifer is frequently cavernous and a conductor of immense
quantities of water throughout most of the state. The rocks of this artesian
aquifer system, or ground-water reservoir, are geologically Tertiary in age.
The springs are generally concentrated along the major streams and the west
coast of the state. The Suwannee River valley has at least 50 springs that are
subject to flooding and even to reversal of flow at high river stages. Nine are
discharging more than 100 cubic feet per second (first magnitude flow).
Spring locations are shown by hydrologic subregion and by numbers
utilized for spring identification and computer recovery of filed spring data.
The description of over 200 springs include quality of the water data, flow
rates, and photographs. Known submarine springs are identified, as are a
group of pseudosprings (wells that are commonly and incorrectly identified
as springs).
"Springs of Florida" is an inventory of an important natural resource. New
information was obtained for the report during extensive field travel; and


data collected through more than 30 years are summarized and included in
the spring descriptions. These data are presented for use by scientists, the
water manager, and for the casual student of Florida's springs.

Springs are fascinating and of value to man not only because of their
beauty and water-supply potential, but also because of their recreational and
reputed medicinal value. Ponce de Leon is said to have sought a spring
called the "Fountain of Youth" in the territory that came to be called Flor-
ida. The large springs encountered by the early Spanish explorers in Florida
must have appeared as immense watery cathedrals. And equally amazing
must have been the crystal clear rivers that issued from the cavernous depths
of the springs that were teaming with colorful fish, sunning turtles, and
alligators. To the Indians, the spring sites offered ideal places for villages,
providing food, water, and transportation.
Waddells Mill Pond Spring in Jackson County, for example, was reportedly
the site of a Chatot Indian village; the once sulfurous water discharging
to the Suwannee River at White Springs in Hamilton County has been used
as medicinal by white man and Indian; and Little Salt Springs and Warm
Mineral Springs of Sarasota County were used by pre-historic man.
Countless writers have described Florida's springs as among her principal
natural and scenic resources. Some of the larger springs have been developed
as tourist attractions: from glass-bottomed boats the depths of springs can be
examined through the clear water, and aquatic life can be observed in its
native habitat, apparently unaware of the observer. The uniformly comfort-
able temperature of the spring water, its clarity, and the underwater cave
systems are natural year-round attractions to the swimmer and the scuba
As part of their continuing cooperative program, the Water Resources
Division of the U.S. Geological Survey and the Florida Department of En-
vironmental Regulation, previously the Florida Department of Natural Re-
sources, the Water Management Districts, and other state and local agencies
collect information on spring flow and water quality. In the section of this
report allotted to the descriptions of individual springs, there is given the
location, physical description of the spring, and usually a picture of the
spring and spring area, spring flow and quality tabulations, and the temper-
ature of the water.
The springs included represent a comprehensive inventory of those made
known to the authors through 1977. There are other springs: some too small
to be significant, others that are little known or secreted away in the wood-
lands and the marshlands of the state, and many others that lie undetected
in the beds of Florida's rivers, in its estuaries, and offshore.


For those who have only a passing interest in Florida springs and would
ask, for example, why Florida has so many springs and where does the water
come from that the springs discharge,,this report will be helpful. Fot those
who have.the responsibility for managing water resources and planning for
their conservation for future generations, this report will be invaluable: it
provides necessary data for such managing and planning as relates to the
utilization and preservation of the springs. Records of spring flow and water
quality provide a good measure of long-term hydrologic trends. A spring is
generally much more representative of the character of a large part of an
aquifer than is a well. For the serious student of springs, the report includes
an abundance of data carefully collected, analyzed, and presented; hopefully
in a format that will make the information easy to read and use.
Much of the information on springs of Florida are collected as part of the
continuing data program just described. The data-collection activity is mod-
ified as needed-springs are added to or deleted from the program as neces-
sary, depending on the need for information. The spring data published in
1947 (Ferguson and others) have been substantially updated by this report.
A special effort was made to revisit the springs, to check whether the 1947
data are still valid and to visit other significant springs. Data collected sub-
sequent to the publication of this report are available in the offices of the
Florida Department of Environmental Regulation, the respective Water Man-
agement Districts, and the Florida District Office of the Water Resources
Division, U.S. Geological Survey.

For use of those readers who may prefer to use metric units rather than
U.S. customary units, the conversion factors for the terms used in this report
are listed below.
Multiply U. S. customary unit By To obtain metric unit
inches (in) 25.4 millimeters (mm)
inches per square mile millimeters per square kilometer
(in/mi2) 9.811 (mm/km2)
feet (ft) .3048 meters (m)
miles (mi) 1.609 kilometers (km)
acres 4,047 square meters (m2)
acre-feet (acre-ft) 1,234 cubic meters (m3)
square miles (mi2) 2.59 square kilometers (km2)
gallons (gal) 3.785 liters (L)
cubic feet (ft3) 28.32 liters (L)
cubic feet (ft3) .02832 cubic meters (ms)
gallons per minute
(gal/min) .06309 liters per second (L/s)
million gallons per day
(Mgal/d) .04381 cubic meters per second (m3/s)


A statistical analysis of Florida's springs was not made to determine their
past use in contrast to their present use, nor to determine the quantity of
water discharged now in comparison to their aggregate discharge 30 years
ago. There is, however, an increasing interest by state and local governments
in the purchase of springs and contiguous lands for public use. And there is
also a demand by private individuals and organizations for homesites at
springs, for their recreational development, for overnight or travel parks near
springs, and for large-scale housing projects.
An example of the latter is the recent closing off of Peacock Springs in
Suwannee County and the development of a 120-acre tract surrounding the
springs into 20 homesites (M. Shifflatte, written commun., April 1977).
There does not appear to be an overall change in springflow statewide, but
in some populated areas of south Florida areas of heavy ground water
pumping -springs have gone dry or have shown marked reduction in flow:
Kissengen Spring in Polk County and Health Spring in Pinellas County are
examples of springs whose flow has ceased.


A spring is the water discharged as natural leakage or overflow from an
aquifer through a natural opening in the ground. The opening may be so
small that it yields only enough water to create a wet seep or trickle. On the
other hand, the opening and the associated subterranean cavern that is
common to Florida may be so large that the spring flow is the source of a
large river. Some examples are Silver Run from Silver Springs; Blue Run
from Rainbow Springs; Weeki Wachee River from Weeki Wachee Springs;
and Wakulla River from Wakulla Springs. This type of ground-water dis-
charge is typical of Florida's karst topography a land of numerous sink-
holes, caves, springs, and underground drainage through large cavities in the
limestone and dolomite rocks underlying the surface soils.
O. E. Meinzer classified springs by magnitude, from one to eight, on the
basis of their volume of flow or discharge. The following tabulation was
modified from Meinzer (1927, p. 3):

Magnitude Average Flow (Discharge)
1 100 ft3/s (cubic feet per second) or more
2 10 to 100 ft3/s
3 1 to 10 ft3/s
4 100 gal/min (gallons per minute) to 1 ft3/s (448 gal/min)
5 10 to 100 gal/min
6 1 to 10 gal/min
7 1 pint to 1 gal/min
8 Less than 1 pint/min


The United States has about 78 first magnitude springs. Table 1 lists the
9 states that have first magnitude springs, the number's known to exist in
each, and the reference from which these data were obtained. The springs
discharge from limestone, basalt, or sandstone aquifers. In writing about the
springs of Texas, Brune (1975) explains how man's ever-increasing need for
water has reduced or stopped the flow of many springs, including two of the
four first magnitude springs that Texas had in 1947 (Ferguson, p. 37).
According to Brune, the first major effect on the springs of Texas a de-
crease in flow- was caused by deforestation of the land by early white
settlers. Since then, water use, in all its many forms, has changed even
increased the flow of Texas springs. The flow of San Felipe Springs, for
example, dropped from an average of 149 ft3/s in 1900 to 22 ft:/s in 1953,
then increased to 82 ft3/s in 1971. Goodenough Spring is now (1977) inun-

State Number Rock type Referencesa
Florida 27 Limestone -
Idaho 14 Limestone 3, 5
and basalt
Oregon 15 Basalt 3
Missouri 8 Limestone 3, 8
California 4 Basalt 3
Hawaii 3 do. 2,6,7
Montana 3 Sandstone 3,4
Texas 2 Limestone 1, 3
Arkansas 1 Basalt 3
a References are listed at back of book.
1 Brune (1975)
2 Hirashima (1967)
3 Meinzer (1927)
4 Moore, L. Grady, U.S. Geological Survey, written commun., January 1977.
5 Ray, Herman A., U.S. Geological Survey, written commun., January 1977.
6 Stearns (1966).
7 Stearns and Macdonald (1946).
8 Vineyard and Feder (1974).

dated to a depth of 150 feet by waters of a nearly completed reservoir that
appears to be increasing the flow of some springs, including San Felipe
Springs, by increasing recharge and by diverting the flow of Goodenough
and other inundated springs to San Felipe Springs. If San Felipe regains
first magnitude status, Texas will have three the others are Comal Springs
and San Marcos Springs.
Of the 78 first magnitude springs in the United States, Florida has 27, the
most for a single state. Florida seems to have the largest number of springs
and also the largest spring in terms of average flow: a submarine spring at
Spring Creek in Wakulla County yields about 2,000 cubic feet per second.


Table 2 lists the first magnitude springs in Florida and figure 11 shows their
general locations. Although a complete world inventory of springs and spring-
flow is not available, Florida's 27 first magnitude springs appear to exceed in
numbers and in quantity of water discharged, those of all countries of the
world (table 3).
The classification of Florida's springs by Meinzer's magnitude of discharge
system is the simplest way to compare spring impact on the water resources
of the State. Florida's 27 first magnitude springs are discharging at an esti-
mated rate of more than 9,600 cubic feet per second or 6.2 billion gallons
per day. Some 300 Florida springs are discharging an estimated 12,600
cubic feet per second or over 8 billion gallons per day, which exceeds the
total amount of freshwater withdrawn for all uses in Florida in 1975 by a
billion gallons per day. S. D. Leach (1977) summarized Florida's 1975 fresh
ground-water pumpage for all uses at 3.3 billion, and total fresh surface
water at 3.6 billion gallons per day.
About 70 springs are classed as second magnitude, and they discharge
about 2,700 cubic feet per second or 21 percent of the total springflow. More
than 190 springs are third magnitude or less, and they discharge more than
300 cubic feet per second, or 3 percent of total springflow.
Springs also are categorized according to the type of aquifer from which
they derive their water. As such there are two general types, water-table
and artesian springs. Rain that percolates through e sediments, suc
as lately reach a relatively impermeable bed, such as clay.
The water then moves down gradient along the top of the impermeable bed
to a place of outcrop where the water issues as a spring or seep. This is a
water-table or non-artesian type spring. In Florida their flow is normally
small and variable. Where water is confined in permeable sediments beneath
impervious confining beds, and is under sufficient hydrostatic pressure to rise
to the surface through a natural breach in the confining beds, an artesian
spring is formed. Most of Florida's large springs are of this type, as are
many of the smaller ones. (fig. 1). Florida has numerous artesian submarine
springs along its coasts (fig. 17). Where the yield of a submarine spring is
great enough, it creates a "slick" or "boil" at the water surface thus identi-
fying the spring location. Submarine springs are known to exist on the
Atlantic Coast, offshore at Crescent Beach; and on the Gulf Coast, offshore
of Aripeka and from Lee to Wakulla counties.
Springs may be classed in many other ways, including chemical char-
acteristics if, for example, their waters are salty or sulfurous; by tempera-
ture nonthermal or thermal, and thermal springs may be "warm" or
"hot"; or by the type of opening through which the water surfaces seep-
age, tubular, and fracture.


TABLE 2-- The 27 fi g

of Florida--with d

discharge and representative temperatures and dissolved solids--known through
December 1976.

Spring and number
by county Period Discharge
(refer to figs. 11-15, of Average Range
and 17) record (ft3/s) (ft3/s)

Alachua County
9. Hornsby Spring 1972-75 163 76- 250

Bay County
1. Gainer Springs 1941-72 159 131- 185

Citrus County
2. Chassahowitaka 1930-72 139 32- 197
4. Crystal River 1964-75 916 (1)
5. Homosassa Springs 1932-74 175 125- 257

Columbia County
4. Ichetucknee 1917-74 361 241- 578

Hamilton County
3. Alapaha Rise 1975-76 608 508- 699
4. Holton Spring 1976 288 69- 482

Hernando County
19. Weeki Wachee 1917-74 176 101- 275

Jackson County
3. Blue Springs 1929-73 190 56- 287

Jefferson County
1. Wacissa Springs 1971-74 389 280- 605

Lafayette County
11. Troy Spring 1942-73 166 148- 205

Lake County
1. Alexander Springs 1931-72 120 74- 162

Leon County
2. Natural Bridge 1942-73 106 79- 132
4. St. Marks Spring 1956-73 519 310- 950

Levy County
3. Fannin Springs 1930-73 103 64- 139
5. Manatee Spring 1932-73 181 110- 238

Madison County
1. Blue Spring 1932-73 115 75- 145

Marion County
5. Rainbow Springs 1898-1974 763 487-1,230
7. Silver Glen 1931-72 112 90- 129
8. Silver Springs 1906-74 820 539-1,290

Suwannee County
8. Falmouth Spring 1908-73 158 3d0- 220

Volusia County
1. Blue Spring 1932-74 162 63- 214

Wakulla County
2. Kini Spring 1972 176 -
5. River Sink Spring 1942-73 164 102- 215
6. Wakulla Springs 1907-74 390 25-1,910
13. Spring Cre ,4) 1972-74 2,003 (1)

(1) Tidal affected
(2) Continuous record, vane gage
(3) Reverse flow of 365 ft3/s measured on 02-10-33.
(4) See figure 17.

Number water uissolved
of temperature solids
measure- C F (mg/L)






















22.5 73

22.0 72

22.5 73

19.0 66

23.5 74

21.0 70

20.5 .69

22.0 72

23.5 74

20.0 68

20.5 69

22.0 72
22.0 72

21.0 70

23.0 73
23.0 73

23.0 73

21.0 70

23.0 73

20.0 68
20.0 68
21.0 70
19.5 67

of... Flrd-wt ro frcr

I~1L `


Spring Country (fts/s) Rock Type Referencea
Ras-El-Ain Syria 1,370 Limestone 1,2
Stella Spring Italy 1,290 do. 6
Rio Maule Spring Chile 1,000 Basalt 2
Fontaine de Vaucluse France 800 Limestone 3,6
Timaso Spring Italy 800 do. 5
Komishimigawa Japan 700 Basalt 5
Ain Zarka Syria 490 Limestone 5
Sinn River Syria 430 do. 5
El Gato Mexico 185 Basalt 4, 7
Lanza Bolivia 135 do. 5
a References are listed at back of book.
1 Burdon and Safadi (1963).
2 Davis and DeWiest (1966, p. 63, 367-369).
3 Meinzer (1927, p. 91-92, 94).
4 Thomas (1975).
5 Thomas, H. E. (written commun., October 1974).
6 Vineyard and Feder (1974, p. 14).
7 Waring (1965, p. 61).

The natural flow of springs is controlled by hydrologic and geologic
factors, such as amount and frequency of rainfall, the porosity and perme-
ability of the aquifer, the hydrostatic head (pressure) within the aquifer,
the hydraulic gradient and, in the case of artesian springs, to a lesser degree
to influences outside the aquifer, such as atmospheric pressure systems and
oceanic tides. The flow of springs is also changed, usually decreased, by man
through such means as pumping from wells that tap the aquifer.
Fortunately, Florida has sufficient rainfall distributed through the year to
keep its aquifers recharged sufficiently to maintain perennial flow at most
artesian springs. Though the State does experience water-supply problems in
some areas where ground-water withdrawal is excessive, this condition is the
exception, and variations in discharge rates of artesian springs have been
remarkably small. The flows of large springs may be substantial even through
periods of drought. This is understandable when the large volume of water
stored in Florida's artesian aquifer system is compared with the relatively
small discharge of its springs. The aggregate discharge from all the artesian
springs is not enough to deplete the aquifer between periods of recharge. On
the other hand, the variations in flow of water-table springs may be great in
response to rainfall variations and may cease flowing in the dry season be-
cause of the relatively small size and low storage capacity of many water-
table aquifers.
The openings or voids in the rock through which ground water moves
may vary in size and relation. They may be as small as the original pore


i",' 7/7l RADIATION

'-.- - '--, -S'..B. > a- W ,,

I .. .. Os... ......... POTENTIOMETRIC k
.... .- ... SURFACE



FIGURE 1. -The hydrologic cycle.


spaces between the grains that make up the rock or as large as the sizeable
caverns that result from dissolution by circulating water. The size of the pore
spaces or caverns extending from the spring vent back into the aquifer and
the degree of interconnection (permeability) among the void spaces are con-
trolling factors in spring flow.
Another influence on the amount of flow from springs is the differential
between the hydrostatic head at the spring vent and that in the recharge or
replenishment area. Closely related to the head is the hydraulic gradient or
degree of slope of the water-table in an unconfined aquifer or of the potentio-
metric (pressure) surface of an artesian aquifer. Both the head differential
and gradient are governed by the differences in elevation between recharge
and discharge areas and on the permeability of the aquifer.
The influence of atmospheric pressure system ond oceanic tides are minor
but may affect the yield of artesian springs. High atmospheric pressure sys-
tems and high tides load and thereby compress the aquifer. This compression
tends to decrease the pore space and to force water out of the aquifer, thus
increasing spring yields slightly. Where high tides or high river stages inun-
date a spring vent, spring flow is decreased, may be temporarily shut off, or
the spring may take water as happens along the Suwannee River.
Man, in supplying his water needs, can have catastrophic effect upon the
flow of springs. Large water withdrawals from wells near a spring can re-
duce pressure in the aquifer to a level below the spring orifice, thus stopping
its flow. Subsequently, if withdrawal is reduced sufficiently, a spring may
start to flow again. For example, Kissengen Spring near Bartow in Polk
County stopped flowing after some nearby wells that tap the same aquifer as
the spring began to be heavily pumped. When pumping ceased for several
months, the flow of Kissengen Spring resumed, only to cease once more when
the wells were again pumped.
Ground water continually moves from points of replenishment to points
of discharge. In Florida, natural discharge occurs to other aquifers, to the
Atlantic, the Gulf, to streams, lakes, from seeps, and springs, and man
causes discharge through the pumping of water from wells. Ground water is
not in dead storage in the aquifer; circulation of water in the ground causes
dissolution of the host rock, mostly carbonates (limestone and dolomite) in
Florida, and this material becomes a chemical constituent of the water. Be-
cause water from the carbonate Floridan Aquifer contains relatively large
quantities of dissolved material, it is considered hard compared to water in
the surface streams and noncarbonate aquifers in Florida.
Ground water issuing as springs is usually clear and clean because of the
filtering and absorbing action of the soil and aquifer materials that the water
passes through. Some springs, however, may have turbid or brown, organic


colored water typical of many surface waters in Florida. Where turbid water
or the brown tannic acid water common to swamps recharges an aquifer in
proximity to a spring, the water may move quickly through solution channels
in the aquifer to discharge at the spring vent little altered in quality. For
this reason, it is not uncommon to note "swamp water" discharging from
some springs in Florida, especially following heavy rainfall. A few spring
waters having relatively high dissolved solids concentrations have a whitish
cloudy appearance, possibly the result of precipitation from rapid pressure
or temperature changes when discharged. Many Florida springs are bluish,
carrying such names as Blue Spring or Blue Hole. The blue color is charac-
teristic of clear water in large quantities, as is true for air in large quantities,
and is not due to any particular impurities.
A striking characteristic of spring water is that it seems cold in the sum-
mer and warm in the winter. This is not the result of a change in water
temperature but the difference between air and water temperatures. The
temperature of spring water varies only a few degrees; even among springs
the temperature variation is small as the following tabulation illustrates:

Approximate Average
Range Temperature
(in *C) (C) (OF)
North Florida 19 to 23 21 70
Central Florida 22 to 26 24 75
South Florida 27 to 31 29 84

Spring water is at or near the temperature of the aquifer, which in tie case
of shallow aquifers is at or near the average annual air temperature of the
particular area. Spring waters from deeper aquifers tend to have higher
Water temperatures of a few springs in Florida are appreciably higher
than others in the state. The geothermal gradient for ground water, that is.
the rate of increase in temperature with depth, is about 1 degree Fahrenheit
per 65 feet of depth (Collins, 1925, p. 98) or 1 degree Celsius per 100 feet,
although there are exceptions to the rule. The warm springs, such as those in
Sarasota County, derive their water from deep formations due to an abnor-
mality of the host rock such as a fault or fracture which allows this warm
deep water to rapidly reach the surface.
Though Florida spring water is normally hard compared to surface or
non-carbonate aquifer water, it is not as mineralized as the ground water in
older and deeper rocks. Sodium chloride (common salt) is the principal
mineral contributing to high mineralization. Highly mineralized water has
been obtained from deep wells beneath all of Florida.


That Florida has many springs, some of large size, is the direct result of
the particular combination of geologic and hydrologic factors that prevail in
the State. Following is a discussion of the geology and hydrology of Florida,
to the extent that these relate to the occurrence of these many springs.
Florida is the emergent part of a large platform, called the Floridan
Plateau (fig. 2), that projects southward from the continental mass and sepa-
rates the deep water of the Atlantic Ocean from that of the Gulf of Mexico.

FIGURE 2. The Floridan Plateau and its emergent part, Florida. The Ocala
Uplift, also shown, has an important influence on spring oc-
currence in the state.


The Floridan Plateau is composed of several thousand feet of nearly flat-lying
limestone and dolomite strata that are veneered with sand, clay, limestone,
and mixtures of these that are as much as several hundred feet thick. These
sediments were deposited mostly in a shallow-marine environment and, for
the most part, are not intensely lithified nor have they undergone intensive
deformation. The Ocala Uplift, an important surface structural feature affect-
ing the occurrence of many of the springs in Florida is shown in figure 2.
The upper part of the limestone and dolomite rocks of Florida constitutes
a part of a very extensive and productive ground-water reservoir identified
by V. T. Stringfield (1966) as the Principal Artesian Aquifer of the south-
eastern United States. Stringfield (1936) originally described this hydrologic
system and Parker (1946) redefined and named that part of the system in
Florida, the Floridan Aquifer.
The Principal Artesian Aquifer underlies all of Florida and extends be-
neath parts of Alabama, Georgia, and South Carolina (fig. 3). A substantial
part of the sediments veneering the Floridan Aquifer, though porous and
permeable in part, is relatively impervious and serves to confine, under pres-
sure, the water in the Floridan Aquifer over much of its areal extent. The
Floridan Aquifer supplies all the first magnitude springs in Florida (see
table 2) and most of the smaller ones. Permeable parts of the sedimentary
veneer are of local extent and in places supply small springs.


As a background for a discussion of Florida springs, a description of the
nature and attitude of the rocks from which springs flow is important. The
number, size, and location of Florida springs is intimately associated with
the stratigraphy and structure of the rock formations. For example, more
large springs are located near the Ocala Uplift (fig. 2) than elsewhere in
The Ocala Uplift is the name applied to the structurally high Tertiary
strata in the northwest part of peninsular Florida. As the uplift evolved, the
clastic-sediment veneer on the uplift was deposited more thinly and was more
readily eroded than elsewhere in Florida. These factors left exposed or nearly
exposed at the surface the carbonate bedrock that comprises the Principal
Artesian or Floridan Aquifer.
Florida, though devoid of high altitudes and great relief, does vary in
altitude somewhat, from the very low, nearly flat, terraced coastal plains to
the high rolling hills of the interior. On the peninsula, the interior ridges
reach a maximum of 310 feet above sea level at Sugarloaf Mountain in
southern Lake County. The ridges do not extend south of Lake Okeechobee,
and so the southern tip of Florida is a low, almost featureless plain. Relief




FIGURE 3.- The areal extent of the Principal Artesian Aquifer. That part
in Florida is called the Floridan Aquifer.


within the coastal plain usually does not exceed a few feet, whereas in the
higher inland areas relief is a few tens of feet, commonly more than 100
feet. In northwest Florida, the highlands are on the average about 30 miles
inland from the coast. Surface altitudes range from sea level at the coast to
a maximum of 345 feet above sea level in Walton County, near the Florida-
Alabama state line.
The high interior ridges of the peninsula are the erosional remnants of
deposits laid down during the Pleistocene (ice-age) marine inundations of
Florida. The ridges are primarily composed of loose quartz sands with small
amounts of clay occurring as a matrix and locally as clay beds. These plastic
sediments, where they are sufficiently permeable, constitute water-table or
unconfined aquifers. Where the permeablity is low, owing to a high clay
content, they serve, along with underlying poorly permeable beds of Miocene
and Pliocene age, as confining beds atop the artesian Floridan Aquifer.
Throughout the Tertiary Period, the Floridan Plateau was a shallow
marine shelf upon which widespread deposits of chemically precipitated
limestone and dolomite, along with the shells and shell fragments derived
from the teeming marine life, were laid down. This deposition of very pure
calcium and magnesium carbonate continued through early Tertiary time
into the late Tertiary. At the beginning of the Miocene Epoch, ever in-
creasing amounts of sand, silt, and clay were transported into Florida by the
numerous river systems from the neighboring Appalachian Mountains to the
north. These terrestrial plastics were intermixed with the upper Tertiary
marine limestone deposits and by late Miocene time the elastics were the
dominant type of deposit. Thereafter, in most of Florida, the predominant
carbonate deposited was in the form of shells with minor amounts of chem-
ical carbonate precipitate deposited with clay to form marl.
In northwest Florida, from the Chocktawhatchee River westward, sedi-
ments are predominantly elastics and both these and the underlying limestone
of the Floridan Aquifer slope gently downward and westward into the Mis-
sissippi Embayment. Southward from the Ocala Uplift the limestones of the
Floridan Aquifer also become progressively lower, so that in the southern
part of the State, the aquifer is deeply buried beneath post-Oligocene elastic
The great depth to the Floridan Aquifer in south Florida and westward
of central Walton County effectively eliminates the occurrence of Floridan
Aquifer springs in those areas. Water-table springs exist in these places,
however, although many of them in south Florida no longer flow owing to the
lowered water table resulting from many years of heavy ground-water draft.


In south Florida are some "pseudosprings" or false springs, however. These
are old, deep artesian wells, no longer used, whose casings have rusted away,
so that today they appear to be, or are labeled as, artesian springs. The
locations of Florida's pseudosprings are described in some detail in that sec-
tion of the report labeled "Pseudosprings."
The Floridan Aquifer consists of limestone and dolomite older than middle
Miocene age and younger than early Eocene age. Table 4 is a generalized
Tertiary stratigraphic column that shows the vertical position of the Floridan
Aquifer in Florida. The Ocala Group" (table 4) is the principal water-
bearing stratum in much of western peninsular Florida and in much of
western peninsular Florida; in the "Big Bend" and southwest peninsular
areas, the Suwannee and St. Marks Limestones are the principal aquifers;
and in the Jackson-Washington-Holmes County area (Vernon and Puri,
1964) the Marianna Limestone is the principal one. Other formations that
are important parts of the Floridan Aquifer are the Lake City and Avon
Park Limestones of middle Eocene age in western peninsular Florida; and
the Chattahoochee", Chipola, and Hawthorn Formations of early and middle
Miocene age in north and southwest Florida. For a more detailed discussion
of the Floridan Aquifer, see Stringfield (1966, pp. 95-98).
The Hawthorn Formation plays a dual role in that in some areas its lower
part is composed of permeable carbonate beds (aquifer) and the upper part
is composed of impermeable plastics (confining beds). Where present in the
Hawthorn, the clay, marl, and less porous impure limestone of Miocene age
and younger serve an important role as the impervious beds that bound the
upper surface of the Floridan Aquifer and confine the water in the Floridan
Aquifer under pressure.
The quantity of water present in the aquifer depends on the porosity of
the rock, that is, on the volume of the spaces or pores or cracks between the
solid rock particles. Porosity may be categorized as intergranular porosity
(between grains) or as macroporosity, a more gross feature related to solu-
tion or fracturing (cavities, cracks, etc.) of the aquifer rock.

"The name used by the Florida Bureau of Geology to include three forma-
tions, from older to younger: the Inglis Formation, Williston Formation, and
Crystal River Formation. The equivalent terminology used by the U. S. Geo-
logical Survey is Ocala Limestone, which is divided into an upper and a
lower member. The lower member is approximately equivalent to the Inglis
and Williston Formations, whereas the upper member is approximately equiv-
alent to the Crystal River Formation.
bThe U. S. Geological Survey uses Tampa Limestone instead of Chattahoochee


After deposition, sediments undergo reduction of initial pore volume
through compaction, which may be followed by induration or lithification of
the sediments by cementation, further reducing the porosity. Most of the
rocks that make up the Floridan Aquifer are poorly indurated so that sub-
stantial primary porosity remains. Some limestone strata within the aquifer
have, however, undergone chemical and physical changes through partial
dolimitization and recrystallization. This alteration generally results in yet
a further decrease in intergranular porosity a condition of secondary
So that water can move through the rock, pore spaces, cavities and cracks
must be connected; the rock must have porosity and permeability. An aquifer

TABLE 4.--General stratigraphic column related to spring discharge
from the Floridan Aquifer.










that yields large amounts of water to springs (as much as several million
gallons per day) is very porous and permeable. Of the two kinds of porosity
cited earlier, it is macroporosity (the caverns and cavities) on which the
tremendous flow of some of Florida's springs depend. A spring connected to
a cavernous limestone may have a large flow depending on the hydraulic
How these caverns were formed is interesting. Limestone, only slightly
soluble in pure water, is easily dissolved in water that contains carbon di-
oxide, because carbon dioxide and water produce carbonic acid. Carbon
dioxide is derived from rain falling through atmosphere and from the soil
in which carbon dioxide is produced by plant respiration and organic de-
composition. Solution of limestone by natural waters in which carbon dioxide
is dissolved is the principal cause of cavities and caverns found in carbonate
As with porosity, permeability of a rock is classed either as primary or
secondary. Primary permeability results from the interconnection of the
original pore spaces remaining between the individual grains of the rock
after deposition. The primary permeability of limestone depends on the size
and shape of the rock grains. As most Florida limestones contain a high per-
centage of shells and microfossil tests, their primary permeability is high.
As with porosity, primary permeability is frequently reduced or destroyed
by the processes of dolomitization and recrystallization. Secondary perme-
ability, as in the case of macroporosity, develops from the solution of the
rock by water containing carbon dioxide. The extent to which secondary
permeability has developed usually determines the usefulness of limestone as
an aquifer. Dissolution occurs chiefly along joints, fractures, and bedding
planes, as well as along zones which had sufficient primary permeability to
permit circulation of water. These openings may range from only a slight
increase in the original interstitial openings, through etching of individual
mineral grains, to solution cavities several feet or even several tens of feet
Because solution activity tends to concentrate in zones of the greatest
ground-water circulation, the limestone along fractures, joints, and bedding
planes may be very permeable while surrounding rock may be comparatively
impermeable. Solution along the contact between beds of differing solubility
may result in a zone of cavities and high permeability that is sheet-like in
form. In describing this action in Florida, Vernon says, "The heavy rainfall,
prolific decaying vegetation in Florida and the low evaporation and agitation
in these confined reservoirs cause the artesian waters to be heavily charged
with organic acids and acid-forming gases. The solution of limestone aquifers
in Florida is therefore active and rapid. In fact, the gentle dip of the beds,


the high purity and inherent porosity of the carbonate rocks, the flat sand-
covered divides between relatively few surface streams, the dense vegetation
and humid climate, the relatively high relief and the active circulation of
artesian waters all combine to create in Florida the most favorable conditions
for the active solution of carbonate rock by water" (Ferguson and others,
1947, p. 20).

Some of the rain that falls on Florida and upon the immediately adjacent
parts of adjoining states (fig. 4) collects in lakes or surface-water courses
and flows as rivers and streams to the sea. Some evaporates from free water
surfaces and some transpires from plants all to return to the atmosphere.
Another portion of the rainfall infiltrates the ground to replenish the aquifers
from which virtually all the State's freshwater supply is obtained. It is this -
the infiltrating water- that keeps Florida's springs flowing year after year;
to cease or to be reduced only by drought or if large quantities of water are
pumped from the aquifer in the vicinity of the spring, or if major construc-
tion in the vicinity of the spring disrupts the spring's hydraulic balance.
Water in the ground-water reservoir occurs under either confined or un-
confined conditions. When ground water is not confined under pressure, it is
said to occur under water-table conditions. The water-table aquifers are re-
charged locally and the water table fluctuates rapidly in response to rainfall.
That is, with rainfall the water table rises. The height at which water stands
defines the water table, which is the top of the zone of saturation or the zone
in which all pore spaces are filled with water. The shape of the water table is
usually a subdued replica of the profile of the land surface. Ground water
under the influence of gravity continually moves downgradient, that is, in
the direction that is the downward slope of the water table; and from areas
of recharge to discharge. In the discharge area, where the water table inter-
sects land surface, ground water will discharge at the surface to form a
spring or seep (fig. 1). Likewise, if the water table intersects a stream
channel at an altitude equal to or higher than the water level of the stream,
ground water will flow or seep into the stream channel and add to the flow
of the stream.
Water-table aquifers in Florida are generally made up of Holocenc and
late Tertiary sands exposed at the surface. Some older strata, including lime-
stone beds of the Floridan Aquifer that are near the surface or not covered
by confining beds, also contain water under water-table conditions.
Some ground water moving downgradient in unconfined aquifers enters
aquifers that are or become confined further downgradient by layers of im-


FIGURE 4.- Mean annual rainfall distribution in Florida, 1931-55.

permeable rock. Water confined in such an aquifer is said to be under
artesian pressure, and the aquifer is called an artesian or confined aquifer.
Florida's rainfall and her water-table aquifers are the major source and
avenue for replenishment of the State's artesian water supply.
An artesian aquifer, unlike a water-table aquifer, is completely filled with
water, and because it is overlain by a bed of low permeability, the water is
contained in the aquifer under pressure, to rise above the top of the aquifer
where taped by a well that penetrates the confining bed (see fig. 1). If the
pressure is great enough the water will rise in the well to land surface, to
spill over the top of the casing and form a "flowing well." At such a location,


should a natural passage occur between the aquifer and land surface, a
spring would result.
The Floridan Aquifer is principally an artesian aquifer (fig. 5) composed

(FROM HEALY, 19751
FIGURE 5. Generalized locations of areas of artesian flow of the Floridan

of limestone and dolomite covered in much of Florida by elastic sedimentary
beds of low permeability. However, in some areas of recharge to the aquifer,
as in the vicinity of the Ocala Uplift (fig. 2), the aquifer is at or near the
surface, and thus is more or less under water-table conditions.
Whereas the porous and permeable sedimentary rocks in the subsurface
of Florida have the capacity to store and transmit large volumes of water,


only part of these sediments contain water of good quality. In the geologic
past, glacial ice has alternately advanced and retreated over the polar regions
due to climatic changes. These shifts in the size of the polar ice caps, and
consequently the quantity of water in the oceans, have caused substantial
fluctuations of sea level; the higher stands inundating most of Florida and
replacing most of the fresh and saline water then in the aquifers with sea-
water. A sufficient interval of time has passed since the last high stand of the
sea to enable fresh water, falling as rain, to infiltrate the aquifers, flushing
and replacing much of the saline water. A substantial part of the Floridan
Aquifer, especially along the coast and in south Florida, however, still con-
tains water whose chloride concentration is in excess of 250 milligrams per
liter, a mixture of freshwater and seawater (fig. 6).

FIGURE 6.- Areas of non-potable water in the upper part of the Floridan


The Floridan Aquifer is replenished with water in areas where the aquifer
is exposed at the surface or where it is overlain by porous and permeable
material. Where relatively impermeable materials mantle the aquifer, re-
charge may occur through breaches in that mantle, such as sinkholes. Re-
charge areas are where the aquifer is naturally replenished. Cooper (1953,
p. 21) estimated the recharge area of the Floridan Aquifer to be about
13,000 square miles (fig. 7).

FIGURE 7.-Areas of recharge to the Floridan Aquifer


Although the rain that falls on Florida is the source of fresh water, not
all that is available gets into the aquifer. Where the aquifer is full, and there-
fore unable to accept additional water, the rainfall is rejected and leaves the
area as surface runoff to lakes and streams. A substantial quantity of water
that enters the soil is quickly utilized by the vegetative cover through its
root system and is lost by evaporation and transpiration. Where the aquifer
is overlain by sediments of low permeability, downward percolation of water
is retarded and recharge is limited even though the aquifer may not be full.
And when heavy rains occur, the ability of the soil to absorb water may be
exceeded and excess water will flow over the surface to lakes and streams
without the aquifer being filled.
The potentiometric surface can be depicted on a map by a series of con-
tours (or lines) of equal water level. Water in the aquifer moves from high
to low points on the potentiometric surface and the natural direction of move-
ment thus is generally perpendicular to the contours on the potentiometric
surface. Figure 8 represents the potentiometric surface for the Floridan
Aquifer in Florida in May 1974. This map was constructed using water-level
measurements collected from wells and springs throughout the State.
The contours on the map were drawn by connecting points of equal water
level measured in feet above mean sea level. The map is generalized because
of its small size and shows only those major potentiometric features which
maintain a fairly constant relation to one another from year to year. Smaller
local details, such as those caused by changes in pumping patterns or irregu-
larities in rainfall, are not shown.
The highs in the potentiometric surface are generally considered recharge
areas and the lows discharge areas and, of course, there must be discharge
from an aquifer to have a recharge or water movement. Recharge and dis-
charge may occur at many places between the high and low points, however,
wherever geologic conditions permit.
The saddle in the potentiometric surface across the northern part of the
peninsula, includes five first magnitude springs (Rainbow, Silver, Silver
Glen, Alexander, and Blue Springs) and reflects the comparatively low pres-
sure that results from the flow of these and other large springs in this area.
Another potentiometric low is in the Suwannee River valley where the river
has eroded through the confining beds and exposed the artesian aquifer, thus
permitting discharge through springs. Still another prominent discharge area
is between peninsular and panhandle Florida, where a broad low-pressure
trough in the potentiometric surface reflects the discharge from Wakulla and
several other first magnitude springs. The lows, therefore, may be excellent
indicators of the location of numerous or large springs.


( FROM HEALY, 19751
FIGURE 8.--Potentiometric surface of the Floridan Aquifer in Florida,
May 1974.

A detailed map of the potentiometric surface in the vicinity of a particular
spring may be used to evaluate the role of the spring in the hydrologic
regime of an area. The catchment area or ground-water basin of a spring
can be outlined by drawing lines along the drainage divide in the potentio-
metric surface. This is illustrated in figure 9 where the catchment area for
Silver Springs is shown on a potentiometric surface map constructed on the
basis of water level measurements from about 130 wells in the Floridan
Aquifer. The flow of Silver Springs is derived from recharge by rainfall
within the bounds of the catchment area. Silver Springs is the largest fresh-
water spring in Florida from the standpoint of long-term average measured
discharge. (See table 2.).


FIGURE 9. Potentiometric surface of the Floridan Aquifee in the Silver
Springs catchment area, May 1968.


Knowing the size of the catchment area for a spring, the average annual
rate of recharge to the aquifer may be calculated if the long-term average
flow of the spring is known, assuming that there is not other discharge from
the aquifer within the catchment area. Hydrologic investigations by Faulkner
(1973, 1976) show that for Silver Springs, the catchment area measured on
a potentiometric surface for May 1968 is about 730 square miles. The
long-term (1932-72) average flow of the spring is 823 cubic feet per second.
Therefore, the average annual recharge to the Floridan Aquifer in the catch-
ment area is 15.3 inches. Stream flow data indicate that average annual sur-
face runoff in about 3 inches; the long-term (1931-60) average annual rain-
fall for the area in 53.2 inches. Therefore, about 35 inches of rainfall on the
average, are lost to the area annually by evaporation and transpiration.
Similar calculations have also been made for Rainbow Springs, another major
first magnitude spring (Faulkner, 1973).
The 3-year record illustrated by figure 10 shows Silver Springs discharge
and ground water levels at nearby Ocala being dependent on rainfall at
Ocala ground-water levels and spring discharge rising and falling together
in response to the variations in Ocala rainfall. Partly because of these re-
lations, changes in springflow are important indicators of current hydrologic
conditions and long-term hydrologic trends of large parts of the aquifer


The physical and chemical characteristics of the water discharging from
Florida's springs are indicative of the quality of the ground waters flowing
into the streams of the State. Spring water varies greatly in these character-
istics owing to an almost infinite number of hydrologic and geologic environ-
ments which place particular contraints upon the hydrologic system. The flow
pattern of the water over the land surface, through the rocks and sediments of
the aquifer, and the type of rock determines what type and how much mineral
or organic matter will be present to become dissolved or suspended, and how
much will be lost due to precipitation, drainage, or filtration. Some differ-
ences in water taste, color, and odor are obvious, but our senses cannot
evaluate or detect other, more subtle, differences. We must then rely on
mechanical or electrical devices to make available qualitive and quantitative
identification. These analyses show a wide range in the chemical constituents
and the physical properties or characteristics of spring water.

4 )




D 0I



U ~,
n3 LL.
















(From Faulkner, 1976) g

Discharge of Silver Springs
S\ near Ocala






Monthly rainfall at Ocalo

(No Record) r r-
1966 1967 1968


Many obvious examples may be found to give one a feeling for the extent
of such variations in chemical characteristics of spring water in Florida.
Black Spring in Jackson County is highly colored with organic matter;
Green Cove Springs in Clay County emits a sulfur odor; Salt Spring in
Marion County is, as its name implies, salty; Copper Spring in Dixie County
has deposits of iron around the pool and its run; Indian Springs in Gadsden
County yields water whose dissolved solids concentration is as low as any
water in the natural environment in Florida.
Samples were collected from most of the springs from some for the first
time and many after a lapse of 20 years or more. Few of Florida's springs
show substantial change in the quality of water being discharged as com-
pared to that of 20 or 30 years ago. The water from Florida's springs is
usually of good quality the analyses being typical of water from wells in
the vicinity that tap the Floridan Aquifer. Although few springs are dis-
charging water relatively high in some constituents, none sampled carried
contaminants such as pesticides, herbicides, or abnormal concentrations of
trace elements.
White Springs, formerly known as White Sulphur Springs, yields water
that appears to have freshened over the years. Since first sampled in 1923,
concentrations of several constituents show declines for example, sulfate
from 19 milligrams per liter in 1923 to zero in 1972. The chemist will add
that the data are inadequate to conclude whether the freshening is real or
only apparent, but the people of the White Springs area insist that their
spring has changed water has lost that rotten egg odor that once was so

The definitions,' means of expressing analytical results, and a simplified
tabulation of the sources, causes, and the significance of individual para-
meters are given to provide background material that will be helpful to the
reader in understanding the chemical and physical analyses that accompany
most of the spring descriptions.
Before the 1968 water year (October 1, 1967 through September 30,
1968), chemical analyses and concentrations of suspended sediment were
reported in parts per million and water temperatures were reported in de-
grees Fahrenheit. In October 1967, the U.S. Geological Survey began re-
porting data for chemical constituents and concentrations of suspended sedi-
ment in milligrams per liter (mg/L) and water temperatures in degrees
Celsius (oC).


Alkalinity. Caused primarily by bicarbonate and hydroxide. Other weak
acid radicals like borate, phosphate, and silicate may contribute to alka-
linity. The significance of alkalinity is the ability of such water to neu-
tralize strong acids. High alkalinity itself is not detrimental but usually
is associated with high pH, hardness, and dissolved solids which can be
Aluminum.- Usually present only in neglible quantities in natural waters
except where the waters have been in contact with the more soluble
rocks of high aluminum content. Acid waters often contain large
amounts of aluminum. High concentrations usually indicate the presence
of acid mine drainage or industrial waste. Aluminum may be trouble-
some in feed waters by forming scale on boiler tubes.
Arsenic.- Found in some ground waters where its source is the natural
arsenic-bearing minerals in wastes from industry and mining activity,
and residues from some insecticides and herbicides. Florida Department
of Environmental Regulation drinking water standards (1975) give a
limit of 50 micrograms per liter (jtg/L) for potable waters. A lethal
dose of arsenic for animals is believed to be about 20 milligrams per
animal pound. Small concentrations in drinking water can accumulate
in man and other animals until lethal dosage is reached.
Bicarbonate and Carbonate. Produced by the reaction of atmospheric car-
bon dioxide with water and are dissolved from carbonate rocks such as
limestone and dolomite. They are significant because they produce al-
kalinity. Bicarbonates of calcium and magnesium decompose in steam
boilers and hot water facilities to precipitate as scale and release cor-
rosive carbon dioxide gas. They combine with calcium and magnesium
to cause carbonate hardness.
Biochemical oxygen demand.-A measure of the quantity of dissolved oxy-
gen necessary for the decomposition of organic material by microorgan-
isms such as bacteria. Biochemical oxygen demand, abbreviated BOD, is
significant in that when it is high, severe oxygen depletion may result,
with eventual harm to the environment. BOD is reported in milligrams
per liter.
Cadmium. Found in wastes from pigment works, textile printing, lead
mines and chemical industries. The results of studies with animals sug-
gest that very small amounts of cadmium can affect the kidneys, heart,
and circulatory systems. Cadmium is toxic to fish in varying concentra-
tions. Drinking water standards of the Florida Department of Environ-
mental Regulation (1975) state that cadmium in excess of 10 pg/L is
cause for rejection of the water supply.


Calcium and Magnesium. Dissolved from practically all soils and rocks,
but especially from limestone, dolomite, and gypsum. Calcium and mag-
nesium are found in large quantities in some brines. Magnesium is
present in large quantities in seawater. Calcium and magnesium cause
most of the hardness and scale-forming properties of water. Waters low
in calcium and magnesium are desired in electroplating, tanning, dyeing,
and in textile manufacturing.
Chloride. Dissolved from rocks and soils; it is also present in sewage and
is found in large amounts in ancient brines, seawater, and industrial
brines. About 300 mg/L chloride in combination with sodium gives a
salty taste to water. Chloride increases the corrosiveness of water. Flor-
ida DER drinking water standards (1975) recommend that chloride
concentration should not exceed 250 mg/L.
Chromium.- Rarely found in waters from natural sources; water can prob-
ably contain only traces of chromium as a cation unless the pH is very
low. When chromium is present in water, it is usually the result of pollu-
tion by industrial wastes such as metal pickling, plating, manufacturing
of paints, dyes, explosives, ceramics, paper, glass, and photography pro-
cessing. Toxicity to aquatic life varies widely with the species, tempera-
ture, pH, and other factors. Florida DER drinking water standards
(1975) limit the maximum concentration of hexavalent chromium to
50 1g/L.
Cobalt.--Occurs in nature in the minerals smaltite (CoAs2) and cobaltite
(CoAsS). Alluvial deposits and soils derived from shales often contain
cobalt in the form of phosphate or sulfate, but other soil types may be
markedly deficient in cobalt in any form (Bear, 1955). Biological activ-
ity may aid in the solution of small amounts of cobalt. It may also be
present in industrial wastes, especially those from manufacture of ceram-
ics, inks, electrical heating units and cobalt pigments. The presence of
cobalt usually suggests pollution. Cobalt has a relatively low toxicity to
man. Fish and aquatic life tolerance varies widely from less than 3.000
t/g/L to more than 10,000 ttg/L. Cobalt is essential to these quantities
for plant growth.
Color. The yellow-to-brown color of some water is usually caused by or-
ganic matter extracted from leaves, roots, and other organic substances.
Objectionable color in water may also result from industrial wastes and
sewage. Color in water is objectionable in food and beverage processing
and many manufacturing processes; it limits light penetration of water,
thus preventing growth of some organisms. Water for domestic and some
industrial uses should be free from perceptible color. Color is expressed


in units of the platinum-cobalt scale proposed by Hazen (1892). A unit
of color is produced by one milligram per liter of platinum in the form
of the chloroplatinate ion.
Copper. A fairly common trace constituent of natural water. Small amounts
may be introduced into water by solution of copper and brass water
pipes and other copper-bearing equipment in contact with the water or
from copper salts added to control algae in open reservoirs. Copper salts,
such as sulfate and chloride, are highly soluble in waters with a low pH
but in water of normal alkalinity the salts hydrolyze and copper may be
precipitated. In the normal pH range of natural water containing carbon
dioxide, copper might be precipitated as carbonate. Copper imparts a
disagreeable metallic taste to water. As little as 1,500 ttg/L can usually
be detected, and 5,000 Cjg/L can render the water unpalatable. Copper
is not considered to be a cumulative systemic poison like lead and mer-
cury; most copper ingested is excreted by the body and very little is
retained. The pathological effects of copper are controversial, but it is
believed very unlikely that humans could unknowingly ingest toxic quan-
tities from palatable drinking water. Florida DER (1975) recommends
that copper should not exceed 1,000 /ig/L in drinking and culinary
water. Copper is essential in trace amounts for plant growth but becomes
toxic in large amounts.
Dissolved Oxygen.- Easily dissolves in water from air and from oxygen
given off in the process of photosynthesis by aquatic plants. Dissolved
oxygen increases the palatability of water. The amount necessary to sup-
port fish life varies with species and age, with temperature, and concen-
tration of other constituents in the water. Under average stream condi-
tions, 5 mg/L is usually necessary to maintain a varied fish fauna in
good condition. For many industrial uses, zero dissolved oxygen is de-
sirable to inhibit corrosion.
Dissolved solids. Chiefly the mineral constituents dissolved from weather-
ing or rocks and soils. Waters containing more than 1,000 mg/L of
dissolved solids are unsuitable for many purposes. The U.S. Geological
Survey classifies the degree of salinity of these more mineralized bodies
of water as follows (Swenson and Baldwin, 1965):
Dissolved solids (mg/L) Degree of Salinity
Less than 1,000 .......................... ............................... Nonsaline.
1,000 to 3,000 ............................. .............................. Slightly saline.
3,000 to 10,000 .......................................................... Moderately saline.
10,000 to 35,000 ........................................................ Very saline.


Fluoride. May be present in water in small to minute quantities as a result
of leaching of fluoride bearing rocks and soil. It also may be present in
municipal supplies as a result of fluoridation. Fluoride in drinking water
reduces the incidence of tooth decay when the water is consumed during
the period of enamel calcification. However, it may cause mottling of the
teeth depending on the concentration of fluoride, the age of the child,
amount of drinking water consumed, and susceptibility of the individual.
(Maier, 1950).
Hardness.- In most waters, hardness is due to the calcium and magnesium
content. All of the metallic cations other than the alkali metals also
cause hardiness. Water that is high in calcium-magnesium carbonate
consumes soap before a lather will form and deposits soap curd on sinks
or bathtubs. Hard water forms scale in boilers, water heaters, and pipes.
Hardness equivalent to the bicarbonate and carbonate is called car-
bonate hardiness. Any hardness in excess of this is called non-carbonate
hardness. Waters of hardness up to 60 mg/L are considered soft; 61 to
120 mg/L, moderately hard; 121 to 180 mg/L, hard; more than 180
mg/L, very hard (Durfor and Becker, 1964).
Hydrogen ion concentration. Commonly is expressed in terms of pH, where
pH = -log (H+). Hydrogen ions are derived from ionization of weak
and strong acids. Acid-generating salts and dissolved gases such as S02
and CO2 increase the number of hydrogen ions. Carbonates, bicar-
bonates, hydroxides, phosphates, silicates, and borates reduce the number
of hydrogen ions. Hydrogen ion concentration in terms of pH ranges
between 0 and 14. A pH of 7.0 indicates a solution that has an equal
number of hydrogen and hydroxide ions. A pH higher than 7.0 denotes
a predominance of hydroxide ions; a pH less than 7.0 denotes a pre-
dominance of hydrogen ions. Corrosiveness of water generally increases
with decreasing pH, although excessively alkaline waters may also at-
tack metals.
Iron. Dissolved from many rocks and soils. On exposure to air, normal
basic waters that contain more than 1,000 /xg/L of iron become turbid
with the insoluble reddish ferric compounds produced by oxidation.
Surface water, therefore, seldom contains as much as 1.000 ptg/L of
dissolved iron, although some acid waters carry large quantities of iron
in solution. More iron than about 300 itg/L may stain laundry and
utensils reddish-brown. Water high in iron is objectionable for food
processing, textile processing, beverages, ice manufacture. brewing and
other processes. Florida DER (1975) limits, and for esthetic reasons,
iron and manganese should not exceed 300 Itg/L. Larger quantities
cause unpleasant taste and favor growth of iron bacteria.


Lead. Seldom occurs naturally in surface or ground waters, but industrial
mine and smelter effluents may contain relatively large amounts of lead
which may contaminate a water source. Atmospheric contamination with
lead produced from several types of engine exhausts has considerably
increased the availability of this element for solution in rainfall, result-
ing in lead contamination of water bodies (Hem, 1970). Florida DER
(1975) drinking water standards state that lead shall not exceed 50
/tg/L in drinking and culinary water. Maximum safe concentrations for
animal watering is reported to be 500 ug/L. Toxicity of lead to fish de-
creases with increasing water hardness.
Manganese. -- May be dissolved from some rocks and soils; it is not as com-
mon as iron. Large quantities are often associated with high iron con-
tent and with acid waters. Manganese has the same objectionable fea-
tures as iron; it causes dark brown or black stains. Florida DER
drinking water standards provide that iron and manganese together
should not exceed 300 /g/L.
Micrograms per liter. A unit expressing the concentration of chemical
constituents in solution as weight (micrograms) of solute per unit
volume (liter) of water. Its symbol is xg/L. One thousand micrograms
per liter is equivalent to one milligram per liter.
Milligrams per liter. A unit for expressing the concentration of chemical
constituents in solution. Its symbol is mg/L. Milligrams per liter repre-
sents the weight of solute per unit volume of water.
Mineral constituents (inorganic substances which occur naturally in the
earth) in solution. The analyses listed in this report include only those
mineral constituents that have a practical bearing on water use. The
analyses generally include silica, iron, calcium, magnesium, sodium,
potassium, carbonate, bicarbonate, sulfate, chloride, fluoride, nitrate,
pH, and dissolved solids. Aluminum, manganese, color, specific conduct-
ance, dissolved oxygen, and other dissolved constituents and physical
properties are reported for certain springs. Organic components (al-
though not mineral) may have an influence over the amount of mineral
constituents in solution.
Nickel. -The presence of nickel in water suggests pollution. When present
it is chiefly from metal-plating works, or from manufacturing of ceramic
colors and inks. Federal drinking water standards do not place a limit
on nickel. In the Soviet Union the maximum permissable concentration
is 1,000 ug/L. (Kirkor, 1951).
Ammonia Nitrogen. -Includes nitrogen in the form of NHa and NH4+. It
is found in many waters but usually only in trace amounts although


waters from hot springs may contain high concentrations. Found also in
waters carrying sewage and other organic wastes; presence in surface
or ground water usually indicates organic pollution. Toxicity to fish is
dependent on the pH of the water; 2.5 mg/L ammonia nitrogen can be
harmful in the 7.4 to 8.5 pH range (Ellis and others, 1946). Ammonium
salts are destructive to concrete made from portland cement.
Organic Nitrogen. Originates from amino acids, proteins, and polypep-
tides; derived from living organisms and their life processes and from
wastes and sewage. Presence of organic nitrogen sometimes indicates
pollution; increases nutrient content of water through decomposition and
formation of other nitrogen forms.
Nitrate Nitrogen.-Derived from decaying organic matter, sewage, fertilizers,
and nitrates in soil. Nitrate concentrations much greater than the local
average may suggest pollution. There is evidence that water with more
than about 10 mg/L of nitrate (N) may cause a type of methemoglobi-
nemia in infants which may be fatal and therefore should not be used in
baby feeding (Maxcy, 1950). Nitrate encourages growth of algae and
other organisms which produce undersirable tastes and odors.
Nitrite Nitrogen. Unstable in the presence of oxygen, it is present in only
small amounts in most waters. Found in sewage and other organic
wastes, nitrite is usually an indication of recent organic pollution. Un-
desirable in waters for some dyeing and brewing processes.
Total Kjeldahl Nitrogen. The sum of ammonia nitrogen and organic nitro-
gen. (See ammonia nitrogen, nitrite, nitrate, and organic nitrogen.)
Nutrients. Chemicals necessary to the growth and reproduction of rooted
or floating flowering plants, ferns, algae, fungi, or bacteria.
Pesticides. Chemical compounds used to control the growth of undesirable
plants and animals. Major categories of pesticides include insecticides,
miticides, fungicides, herbicides, and rodenticides. Since the first appli-
cation of DDT as an insecticide in the early 1930's, there have been
almost 60,000 pesticide formulations registered, each containing at least
one of the approximately 800 different basic pesticide compounds
(Goerlitz and Brown, 1972, p. 24). Unless otherwise noted on the
analyses, the pesticides tested for include the insecticides: aldrin, DDD,
DDE, DDT, dieldrin, endrin, heptachlor, heptachlor expoxide, lindane,
chlordane, toxaphene, ethion, trithion, methyl trithion, parathion, methyl
parathion, malathion, and diazinon; and the herbicides: 2, 4-D, silvex,
and 2, 4, 5-T.
Picocurie. One millionth of the amount of radioactivity represented by a
microcurie, which is the quantity of radiation represented by one mil-


lionth of a gram of radium-226. Its symbol is pCi. A picocurie of radium
results in 2.22 disintegrations per minute.
Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs).- A class of compounds produced by the
chlorination of biphenyls. PCBs are soluble in water, lipids, oils and
organic solvents, and resistant to heat and biological degradation. They
are relatively nonflammable, have useful heat exchange and dielectric
properties and are used in the electrical industry in capacitors and trans-
formers. Can be harmful to fresh water and marine aquatic life and
their consumers, and to humans. (EPA 1976, p. 193.)
Radioisotopes. Isotope forms of an element that exhibit radioactivity. Iso-
topes are varieties of a chemical element that differ in atomic weight,
but are very nearly alike in chemical properties. The difference arises
because the atoms of the isotopes forms of an element differ in the num-
ber of neutrons in the nucleus. For example: ordinary chlorine, whose
atomic weight is 35.453, is a mixture of isotopes having atomic weights
35 and 37. Many of the elements similarly exist as mixtures of isotopes,
and a great many new isotopes have been produced in the operation of
nuclear devices such as the cyclotron (Rose, 1966). There are 275 iso-
topes of the 81 stable elements in addition to over 800 radioactive
Specific Conductance. A measure of the ability of a water to conduct an
electrical current; it is expressed in micromhos per centimeter at 250C.
Conductance is related to the type and concentration of ions in solution
and can be used for approximating the dissolved-solids content of the
Strontium. Occurs in water where strontium minerals, such as celestite
and strontianite, are present. Is found in seawater and many brines.
Naturally occurring strontium is similar chemically to calcium and adds
to the hardness of water. Radioactive isotopes of strontium, as from
nuclear bomb fallout, can be harmful. These isotopes can be detected by
radiometric measurements.
Sulfate.- Dissolved from rocks and soils containing gypsum, iron sulfides,
and other sulfur compounds. Sulfate is usually present in mine waters
and some industrial waters. Sulfate in water containing calcium forms a
hard scale in steam boilers; and in large amounts, sulfate in combination
with other ions gives a bitter taste to water. Some calcium sulfate is
considered beneficial in the brewing process. Florida DER drinking
water standards state that the sulfate concentration should not exceed
250 mg/L.
Temperature. Sources of heat are solar energy, heat from earth's core and
thermal pollution from waste outfalls. The temperature of water affects


TABLE 5. Conversion of temperature scales
(OC) to Degrees Fahrenheit (oF).

Degrees Celcius

* OC = 5(F-32);

OF = (oC x 9) = 32

its usefulness for many purposes. Water of uniformly low temperature is
desired for most uses. Temperature of water in shallow wells shows
some seasonal fluctuations; wells of moderate depths usually yield water
which is near the mean annual air temperature of the area. In very deep
wells, the water temperature generally increases on the average about
one degree Celsius per 100-foot increment of depth (or about one degree
Fahrenheit per 65-foot depth). Seasonal fluctuations in temperatures of
surface waters are large, depending on the depth of water, but do not
reach the extremes of air temperature. See table 5 for conversion of
temperature, degrees Celsius to Fahrenheit.

15.0 59 26.0 79
15.5 60 26.5 80
16.0 61 27.0 81
16.5 62 27.5 81
17.0 63 28.0 82
17.5 63 28.5 83
18.0 64 29.0 84
18.5 65 29.5 85
19.0 66 30.0 86
20.0 68 30.5 87
20.5 69 31.0 88
21.0 70 31.5 89
21.5 71 32.0 90
22.0 72 32.5 90
22.5 72 33.0 91
23.0 73 33.5 92
23.5 74 34.0 93
24.0 75 34.5 94
24.5 76 35.0 95
25.0 77 35.5 96
25.5 78


Total Organic Carbon.- A measure of the organically related carbonaceous
content of water. It includes all natural and manmade organic com-
pounds that are combustible at a temperature of 9500C.

Turbitity.- Caused by colloidal suspension of sediment, precipitates, and
other small particles. Turbitity should be less than 5 Jackson turbidity
units (JTU) for domestic use. Turbidity interferes with light penetra-
tion, limits growth of organisms, and if high, is lethal to some life forms.
Zinc.- Dissolved from some rocks and soils; it is found in high concentra-
tions in mine waters that have a low pH. Zinc may be derived from
zinc plated or galvanized metal products; it is used in many commercial
products, and industrial wastes may contain large amounts. Small
amounts of zinc are toxic to aquatic plants and animals. Zinc may have
such a toxic action on the purifying bacterial flora of streams that seri-
ous sewage pollution problems result. Florida DER drinking water
standard limit zinc concentrations to 5,000 jLg/L.

The distribution of springs within the state of Florida is not entirely
random. 'Ae discussions on geology and hydrology show that certain environ-
mental factors affect the potential for spring development. Where the primary
physical control is a downcutting river or a local karst topographic feature,
the effect may be a regional concentration of springs as in the Suwannee
River basin, or an isolated spring as in Sarasota County.
Of the 300 springs listed in this report, most are the result of regional in-
fluences, with only a few the result of local influence. The few water-table
"seeps" or "filtration" springs, are mainly in northern Florida. Others are
unusual in that they are "deep source" springs.
In Florida there are 27 springs of first magnitude. They are listed in
table 2 and their locations are shown in figure 11. All are described in detail.
Each of these 27 springs, or groups of springs, is discharging water from the
Floridan Aquifer at an average rate exceeding 100 cubic feet per second.
They have a total average flow of 9,600 cubic feet per second or about 80
percent of the 12,000 cubic feet per second estimated discharge of all of
Florida's springs. These first magnitude springs include several that are na-
tionally or even internationally known, such as Rainbow, Weeki Wachee, and
Wakulla Springs, which are in Marion, Hernando, and Wakulla counties,
respectively. Other first magnitude springs are unknown to even nearby resi-
dents; examples are Alapaha Rise and St. Marks Spring, which are in
Hamilton and Leon counties, respectively.

840 830

310 LMo -

f, J,/7-

F U 1 -Lao oFods7ir m n d sprig Ls a
4 '4

u ft30. er seod cLA \oAr 4

2 j^ s/ 9 ) \
29- AND FIGURES 12- 15,17 J

"L -- suWE S -r-N OL

FIGURE 11. -Locations of Florida's 27 first magnitude springs. These are
springs or groups of springs that have average flows of 100
cubic feet per second or more.


Florida is divided into eight hydrologic subregions on the basis of surface
drainage systems. These subregions are aggregates of smaller hydrologic
units (U.S. Water Resources Council, 1974; Conover and Leach 1975).
The following text and figures identify the springs and spring groups by
name, number, and county for each of the hydrologic subregions of the State
and for those springs known through 1976. The recent establishment of three
new Water Management Districts in Florida has increased field exploration
by hydrologists and geologists interested in water resources. As a result, many
springs previously unreported and known to only a few nearby residents have
been located and described. Alapaha Rise in Hamilton County is an example
of such a spring. Increased scientific investigation and the expansion of our
population into the wooded and swampy areas of north Florida will bring
identification of other "new" springs.

This subregion in the northeastern part of the state (fig. 12) encompasses
about 1,380 square miles in the Coastal Lowlands and Central Highlands.
Su-No-Wa Spring in Nassau County, the only spring reported in the sub-
region, is a seep resulting from local hydrologic conditions.

From Duval County in the north to Indian River County in the south, this
subregion covers 11,310 square miles in the Coastal Lowlands and eastern
Central Highlands (fig. 12). It is known to have 51 springs including Silver
Springs, considered to be Florida's largest freshwater spring owing to its
long-term measured average flow. The springs are concentrated in Alachua,
Clay, Lake, Marion, Orange, Putnam, Seminole, and Volusia counties. All
are situated around the central part of the subregion. The area is transected
by the Deland, Crescent City, and Mount Dora Ridges, the Marion Uplands,
and the St. Johns River Offset (Puri and Vernon, 1964, fig. 6). Superim-
posed upon these features is a karst topography to which most of these
springs owe their occurrence.

This is the largest hydrologic subregion'of the state, encompassing 18,212
square miles or over one third of the Florida peninsula. It is generally flat
and lies almost entirely within the Coastal Lowlands. Although several springs
were known in the early years of the development of the Miami area, none


Seminole County
1. Clifton Springs
2. Elder Spring
3. Heath Spring
4. Lake Jessup Spring
5. Miami Springs
6. Palm Springs
7. Sanlando Springs
8. Starbuck Spring

Volusia County
1. Blue Spring
2. Gemini Springs
3. Green Springs
4. Ponce de Leon Springs
A 5. Seminole Spring



Nassau County
1. Su-No-Wa Spring

Alachua County
1. Boulware Spring
2. Ford Spring
3. Glen Springs
4. Iron Spring
5. Magnesia Spring
6. Sulfur Spring

Clay County
1. Gold Head Branch Springs
2. Green Cove Spring
3. Magnolia Springs
4. Pecks Mineral Spring
5. Wadesboro Spring

Lake County
1. Alexander Springs
2. Apopka Spring
3. Blue Springs
4. Bugg Spring
5. Camp La No Che Spring
6. holiday Springs
7. Messant Spring
8. Seminole Springs

Marion County
1. Blue Spring
2. Fern Hammock Springs
3. Juniper Springs
4. Orange Spring
6. Salt Springs
7. Silver Glen Springs
8. Silver Springs
9. Sweetwater Springs



Orange County -
1. Barrel Spring
2. Camp Spring
3. Mill Creek Springs
4. Rock Spring
5. Wekiwa Springs
6. Witherington Spring

Putnam County
1. Beecher Springs
2. Forest Spring
3. Mud Spring
4. Nashua Spring
5. Satsuma Spring 20 4
6. Welaka Spring 20 LES
7. Whitewater Springs

FIGURE 12. Springs in the Altamaha St. Marys and St. Johns Hydro-
logic Subregions.




of them now flow (Ferguson and others, 1974). However, six pseudo or
false springs are included in this report because they are commonly identified
as springs. The pseudosprings are artesian wells; and they are briefly dis-
cussed in the section entitled "Florida's Pseudosprings."

Consisting of the west-central part of Florida's peninsula (fig. 13), this
hydrologic subregion accounts for 9,811 square miles in the Coastal Low-
lands and Central Higlhands. It is an area of low plains, of hilly areas in the
eastern extremes, and of karst features in the central and northern parts.
About a dozen of the 61 known springs are karst related and situated along
the coast in Citrus, Hernando, and Pasco counties, whereas most of the
others, in Citrus, Marion, Sumter, Pasco, and Hillsborough counties are as-
sociated with downcutting river systems. Two springs in south Sarasota
County are deep warm water springs.

Of the 13,720 square miles of this Subregion, 7,832 square miles are in
Florida, mainly in the Coastal Lowlands but including some of the northern
section in the Northern Highlands (fig. 14), the remainder are in Georgia.
Of the 115 known springs in this area, most are associated with the down-
cutting Suwannee and Santa Fe Rivers in Hamilton, Madison, Suwannee,
Lafayette, Gilchrist, Dixie, Levy, Columbia, and Alachua counties. In or
near the channels of the Suwannee and Santa Fe Rivers many other springs
are believed to occur.

Of the 2,324 square miles of this Subregion in Florida, about half lies in
the Gulf Coastal Lowlands and half is in the Tallahassee Hills (fig. 15.).
The Subregion includes all or part of Wakulla, Leon, Franklin, Liberty,
Gadsden, and Jefferson counties. There are 27 reported springs or spring
groups, including Spring Creek, most of them concentrated in Leon and
Wakulla counties, Spring Creek has the largest known spring discharge of
fresh water or saline water in Florida.

About 16 percent, or 3,081 square miles, of the Apalachicola, Chattahoo-
chee, and Flint River Subregion is in Florida (fig. 15). About 19 springs
have been reported in this Subregion; more than half are associated with


Citrus County
1. Blue Spring
2. Chassahawitzka Springs
3. Crab Creek Spring
4. Crystal River Springs
5. Homosassa Springs
6. Potter Spring
7. Ruth Spring
8. Salt Creek Spring
9. Unnamed Springs

Hernando County
1. Blind Springs
2. Boat Springs
3. Bobhill Springs
4. Little Springs
5. Mud Spring
6. Salt Spring
7. Unnamed Spring 1
8. Unnamed Spring 2
9. Unnamed Spring 3
10. Unnamed Spring 4
11. Unnamed Spring 5
12. Unnamed Spring 6
13. Unnamed Spring 7
14. Unnamed Spring 8
15. Unnamed Spring 9
16. Unnmaed Spring 10
17. Unnamed Spring 11
18. Unnamed Spring 12
19. Weeki Wachee Springs

Hillsborough County
1. Buckhorn Spring
2. Eureka Springs
3. Lettuce Lake Spring
4. Lithia Springs
5. Messer Spring
6. Palma Ceia Springs
7. Purity Spring
8. Six Mile Creek Spring
9. Sulphur Springs

Marion County
5. Rainbow Springs
10. Wilson Head Spring

Pasco County
1. Crystal Springs
2. Horseshoe Spring
3. Hudson Spring
4. Isabella Spring
5. Magnolia Springs
6. Salt Spring
7. Salt Springs
8. Seven Springs
9. Unnamed Springs 1
10. Unnamed Spring 2
11. Unnamed Spring 3
12. Unnamed Spring 5

Pinellas County
1. Health Spring
2. Phillippi Spring

Polk County
1. Kissengen Spring

Sarasota County
1. Little Salt Spring
2. Pinehurst Spring
3. Warm Mineral Springs

Sumter County
1. Fenney Springs
2. Gum Springs

0 20 40 MILES
| I I I I

FIGURE 13.- Location of springs in the Peace, Withlacoochee, Hillsborough
Rivers and western coastal area Hydrologic Subregions.


river downcutting in the Marianna Uplands in Jackson County. The re-

mainder are seeps and isolated springs in Gadsden, Calhoun, and Gulf


Union County
1. Worthington Spring

Alachua County
7 Darby Spring
8 .- Ir-.-,
9 :- t, ,, 1 -
10. Poe Springs

Bradford County
I. Heilbrnn Spring

Columbia County
I Allen Spring
2 Bell Springs
: Columbia Spring
4 Ichetucknee Springs
Ichetucknee Spring
Cedar Head Spring
Blue Hole Spring
Roaring Springs
Singing Springs
Boiling Spring
Grassy Hole Spring
Mill Pond Spring
(offee Spring
5 Jamison Spring
6. duly Spring
7 Jonathlan Spring
H Northbank Spring
9 Rum Island Spring
II Wilson Spring

Dixie County
I Copper Spring
2 Guaranto Spring
[ Little Copper Spring
I. Mctrabb Spring

(Gilchrist County
I Bell Spring,
2 lue Spring

SHart Springs
6i L ill Springs
7 lumber ('.mp Springs
r Otter Springs
A Pleasant G(roie Springs
10i Rock BluffSprings
I1 Sun Springs
12 Town.and Spring

Hamilton County
I Adams Spring
2 Alapaha Rise
:I Blul('emetern Spring
I Holton Spring
5 Louisa Spring
o 1 -U -
7 "

Garner Springs
Blue Spring
Buzzard Log Springs
Minnoi Spring
Cassidy Spring
Springs No 1 and 2
Thomas Spring
Log Springs 1
Allen Spring
Horsehead Spring
2 Walker Spring 4
Lafayette County
I Allen Mill Pond Spring 8
2 Blue Spring 9
I C-onvict Spring I1
I Fletcher Spring II

ii Mearson Sprrng II
7 lurens Spring 14
S Pern Spring I5
iJ Ruth Spring 16
II Stelnhatrhee Spring 7I
1 Troy Spring IS
12 Turtle Spring S9

Levy County
1 Big Spring
2 Blue Spring
3. Fannon Springs
4. Little Spring
5 Manatee Spring
6i Wekiva Springs

Madison County
1 Blue Spring
2 Cherry Lake Spring
.1 Pettis Spring
4 Suwanaconchee Spring

FIGURE 14. Springs in the Suwannee and Aucilla Rivers Hydrologic Sub-

Suwannee County
Anderson Spring
Baptizing Spring
Bonnet Spring

ItCo Spring
Ellaville Spring
Falmuuth Spring
Lime Spring
Little Riser Springs
ILuralIle Springs
Peacock Sprinng
Pump Spring
Real Spring
Running Spring
Suwannee Blue Spring
S4wannee Springs
iTelfrd Springs

Taylor County
Big Spring
Blue Spring
Blue Spring
Campground Spring
C(.rlton Spring

I Srn
Iron Spring

W-trrior Spring



The western panhandle of Florida includes 6,491 square miles of the
14,740 square miles of the Subregion (fig. 15). Florida has 18 springs

associated with the Western Highlands, Choctawhatchee River valley, and the
Escambia valley. Most of the springs are the result of river erosion and arc

in Washington, Holmes, Bay. and Walton counties. There probably arc
many more small springs and seeps than the few known in Walton, Santa

Rosa. and Escambia counties.

87o 860 850 840

BRy County
1 Bay Copng Jackson County
I. Garner SpnngH
2 Pltu Spnng I Black Spring
2 Blue Hole Spring
CalhounCounty 3 BlueSprnng 0 20 40 MILES
4 Bosel Spcng 4 0 i _
I Abes Spring 5 Daniel Spring-
6 Double Sprng
Esabia Canty 7 Gadsen Spring
1. Mystic Sprngs 8 Hays Spring
9 Mdil Pond Spring Liberty County
Gadsden County 10. Sand Bag Spring
I: Chatt r Spring 11 SpringboardSpring White Sprng.,
1. Ch..atta hee Spring 12. Tanner Springs
2. Glen Julia Springs 13. Unnamed Sprgs Wakulla County
3 Indian Sprngs 14 Waddell Mill Pond Spring I Indian Sprngs Washington County
15. Webbvlle Spring 2 Kinl Spnng I Becklon Spnngs
lf County 3 Newport Springs 2 Blue Spring
1 Dalkeith Springs Leon County 4 Panacea Mineral Sprnngs 3 Blue Spnngs
5 River Sink Spring 4 Cypre Spring
Ho.es County 6 Wakulla Springs 5 Walsingham Sprng
1 Blur Sprang 3 Rhodes Sprngn 6 Walliford Sprng
2 Jackson Spring 4. C? Mk *?r-r Walton County
3 Ponce de Leon Springs 5. .- -. . 1i Euchee Sprnng Santa Rosa County
4 Vorte Blue Spring 6. .- 2 Morrison Spring I Chumuckla Spnngs

FIGURE 15. -Springs in the Choctawhatchee, Yellow, and Escambia Rivers;
Chattahoochee, and Flint Rivers; and the Ochlockonee River
Hydrologic Subregions.


There is considerable confusion about the names of many of Florida's
springs. Any number of these natural ground-water discharge sites have but
a single vent and yet are popularly identified in the plural "Springs". Others
have been known by several names; they may have had place names or have
been named after individuals such as their owners. Blue Spring in Volusia
County is in Blue Springs State Recreation Area; and U.S. Geological Sur-
vey records dating back to 1932 have identified it as "Blue Springs near
Orange City." Ferguson (1947, p. 163) identified the same spring as Blue
Spring near Orange City.
The policy that the authors tried to follow in the use of spring names was:
(1) to delete the place modifiers, "near Orange City" for example, from the
name "Blue Spring"; and (2) to follow established published usage when-
ever feasible. For the latter, the primary reference was Bulletin 31 of the
Florida Geological Survey, prepared by Ferguson and others; the secondary
reference was the recent U.S. Geological Survey 71V-minute topographic
quadrangle maps; and third, other publications. Local usage followed. If a
choice had to be made between the singular and plural forms of "spring,"
the physical situation was the determining factor.

Springflow is indicative of the status of Florida's water resources. High
spring and streamflows reflect high water levels; and low flows, or the lack
of flow from major springs, indicates declining potentiometric levels in the
principal artesian aquifer of the state. An example of the latter condition is
Polk County's Kissingen Spring. Most of Florida's streams depend on the
water discharged from springs for a significant part of their flow; the
Wacissa and Suwannee Rivers are but two of many such streams. The
periodic statewide measurement of springflow, streamflow, and ground-water
levels is, therefore, necessary if man is to be knowledgeable about the water
resources available to him.
Spring and streamflow are normally expressed in cubic feet per second, in
million of gallons per day, or in gallons per minute if the volume being
measured or reported is small. A rate of flow (discharge) of 1 cubic foot
per second represents a volume of 1 cubic foot of water passing a given
point during 1 second. Table 6 lists the equivalents useful in converting be-
tween the more common hydraulic units.
Springflows are usually measured in the first straight uniform reach of the


Cubic feet Acre-feet Million gal- Gallons Inches per
per second per day lons per day per minute square mile per
(ft3/s) (acre-ft/d) (Mgal/d) (gal/min) year (in/mi )/y

1.0 1.9835 0.646317 448.83 13.574

.50417 1.0 .325851 226.29 6.8438

1.5472 3.0689 1.0 694.44 21.0025

.00223 .00442 .001440 1.0 .03024

.07367 .14612 .04761 33.065 1.0

TABLE 6. Conversion factors for rates of flow.


spring run or stream downstream from the spring. If the quantity of water
flowing from the spring is small, in the range of 1 cubic foot per second and
is discharging through a pipe, a volumetric measurement may be made. An
example is Steinhatchce Spring in Lafayette County. This is done by meas-
uring the time required for the discharging water to fill a container of
known capacity.
A velocity-area method is the most common means of determining dis-
charge in an open channel. This method uses a current meter to determine
the water velocity at a number of points across a channel. For detailed in-
formation on all stream-gaging procedures see Corbett and others, 1962.
Under flood or very high streamflow conditions, external pressure on a
spring may exceed internal pressure thus causing a reversal of its flow.
Falmouth Spring, in Suwannee County, is one of the several springs known
to be so affected but the only one where a reverse flow has been measured.
In reporting the flow of individual springs, the authors cited such unusual
circumstances. Otherwise, the range and average flow were given if all meas-
urements could not be shown.


The methods of collection and analysis of the more recent water samples
are described by Brown, Skougstad, and Fishman (1970). The methods that
were used before 1970 in collecting samples are described by Rainwater and


Thatcher (1960). All water samples were collected from the springs as close
as possible to their orifices, vents, seepage zones, or other points of spring
discharge in order to minimize the effects of contact with surface materials
or the atmosphere.
Sampling of the water from first magnitude springs was more extensive
than from the smaller springs and generally the analyses are more compre-
hensive. For example, many of the samples were analyzed for trace elements,
nutrients, insecticides, herbicides, and polychlorinated biphenyls. A list of
those pesticides generally tested for is included in the section on water

Spring-discharge and water-quality data collection sites (Table 7) have
been identified by either of two systems: a 15-digit identifier or an 8-digit
downstream order number. The former system requires explanation because
it may also be the geographical location of a station the numbers consist
of the latitude and longitude coordinates to the nearest second, plus "00" or
a 2-digit sequential number such as "01." For example, the first part of the
number 275134081522001 indicates that the data collection site is in the
1-second quadrangle bounded by latitude 27051'34" on the south and the
last part indicates that the quadrangle is bounded by longitude 81052'20"
on the east. The "01" remaining is a sequential number and indicates there
may be other data collection sites in that 1-second quadrangle. The geogra-
phical significance may become a little more clear by reference to figure 16,
for the 15-digit number cited above.
Once the 8- or 15-digit numbers are assigned, they are not subject to
change. Even though the latitude and longitude coordinates may change
owing to more accurate mapping, or to a change in the location of the data
collection site, the station identification number remains as originally
All discharge and water-quality data collected for the springs are available
from the U.S. Geological Survey. The identifier numbers just described are
important because all the information is filled by these numbers in the Sur-
vey's data storage bank. A few springs lack identifying numbers because of
poor location information. Others may have two or more numbers; the second
assigned without knowledge of the first. Troy Spring in Lafayette is an ex-
ample of a data point that has two numbers: Springflow data are filed under
the number 02320050, but physical details of the spring and its water-quality
data are filed under the 15-digit identifier. So, the use of both numbers is
necessary to retrieve all the information for that spring.



Spring Names Identification Numbers

Alachua County
Glen Springs 294027082205000,02240945
Hornsby Spring 295059082353600
Magnesia Spring 293458082090000,02241950
Poe Springs 294933082385800,02322140
Bay County
Gainer Springs
Spring No. 1 302540085325000,02359480
Spring No. 2 302536085325400,02359479
Spring No. 3 302538085325500,02359478
Pitts Spring 302556085324700
Bradford County
Heilbronn Spring 300125082092000,02320951
Citrus County
Blue Spring 285809082185200,02312980
Chassahowitzka Springs 284254082343500,02310648,
Homosassa Springs 284758082352000,02310676,
Crystal River Springs Group 285417082381300,02310750
Middle Springs 285317082352100,02310735
Ruth Spring 284357082354800,02310660
Clay County
Green Cove Spring 295936081404000,02245342
Wadesboro Spring 300925081432000,02246204
'See section entitled "Springs Identification Numbers" for explanation.
Columbia County
Bell Springs 301945082411800
Ichetucknee Springs Group 295709082471000,02322700
Blue Hole Spring 295847082453100
Cedar Head Spring 295900082453200
Grassy Hole Spring 295810082453600
Mill Pond Spring 295804082453700
Roaring Springs 295835082453100
Singing Springs 295833082452900
Jamieson Spring 295532082455600
July Spring 295010082414700
Rum Island Spring 294959082404900
Wilson Spring 295359082453100
Dixie County
Copper Spring 293650082582600,02323490
Guaranto Spring 294646082562400,02323010


Spring Names Identification Numbers

Mystic Spring

Chattahoochee Spring
Glen Julia Springs
Indian Springs

Bell Springs
Blue Springs
Ginnie Spring
Hart Springs
Lilly Springs
Lumber Camp Springs
Otter Springs
Rock Bluff Springs
Sun Springs

Dalkeith Springs

Adams Spring
Alapana Rise
Holton Spring
Morgans Spring
White Springs

Boat Spring
Bobhill Springs
Little Springs
Salt Spring
Weeki Wachee Springs

Buckhorn Spring
Eureka Springs
Spring No. 1
Spring No. 2
Spring No. 3
Spring No. 4
Lettuce Lake Spring
Lithia Springs
Messer Spring
Palma Ceia Springs
Purity Spring
Six Mile Creek Spring
Sulphur Springs

Jackson Spring
Ponce de Leon Springs
Vortex Blue Spring

Escambia County
Gadsden County
Gilchrist County
Gulf County
Hamilton County
Hernando County
Hillsborough County

Holmes County



Spring Names

Identification Numbers

Jackson County

Black Spring
Blue Springs
Blue Hole Spring
Bosel Spring
Daniel Springs
Double Spring
Gadsen Spring
Hays Spring
Mill Pond Spring
Sand Bag Spring
Springboard Spring
Tanner Springs
Waddels Mill Pond Spring
Webbville Spring

Wacissa Springs Group
Spring No. 2
Blue Spring
Big Spring

Allen Mill Pond Spring
Blue Spring
Convict Spring
Fletcher Spring
Iron Spring
Mearson Spring
Owens Spring
Perry Spring
Ruth Spring
Steinhatchee Spring
Troy Spring
Turtle Spring

Alexander Springs
Apopka Spring
Blue Springs
Bugg Spring
Camp La No Che Spring
Holiday Springs
Messant Spring
Seminole Springs

Horn Spring
Natural Bridge Spring
Rhodes Springs
Spring No. 1
Spring No. 2
Spring No. 3
Spring No. 4
St. Marks Spring

Jefferson County

Lafayette County

Lake County

Leon County








Spring Names Identification Numbers
Levy County
Blue Spring 292702082415700,02313450
Fannin Springs 293515082560800,02323502
Manatee Spring 292922082583700,02323566
Wekiva Springs 291649082392300,02313600
Madison County
Blue Spring 302849083144000,02319302
Suwanacoochee Spring 302309083101800,02319498
Marion County
Fern Hammock Springs 291100081422900,02236132
Juniper Springs 291101081424600,02236130
Orange Spring 293040081564000
Rainbow Springs 290608082261600,02313100
Salt Springs 292100081435800,02236205
Silver Glen Springs 291463081383700,02236160
Silver Springs 291257082031100,02239500
Sweetwater Springs 29130708393600,02236147
Wilson Head Spring 285840082190800
Nassau County
Su-No-Wa Spring 302615081530000,02231278
Orange County
Rock Springs 284522081300600,02234610
Wekiwa Springs 284243081273600,02234600
Witherington Spring 284353081292200,02234620
Pasco County
Crystal Springs 281030082112000,02302000
Horseshoe Spring 282350082412100,02310370
Magnolia Springs 282558082392600,02310410
Salt Springs 281733082430600,02310315
Seven Springs 281251082395700
Pinellas County
Health Spring 280622082462100,02309494
Polk County
Kissengen Spring 275032081484100,02294758
Putnam County
Beecher Springs 292654081384900,02236220
Forest Springs 292725081393500
Mud Spring 292735081394500
Nashua Spring 293033081403400,02244020
Satsuma Spring 293045081403200,02244022
Welaka Spring 292935081402500
Whitewater Springs 293806081385300
Santa Rosa County
Chumuckla Springs 305000087174800,02375780



Spring Names

Little Salt Spring
Pinehurst Spring
Warm Mineral Springs

Clifton Springs
Elder Spring
Heath Spring
Lake Jessup Spring
Miami Springs
Palm Springs
Sanlando Springs
Starbuck Spring

Fenney Springs
Gum Springs

Anderson Spring
Baptizing Spring
Betty Spring
Bonnet Spring
Branford Springs
Charles Springs
Cow Spring
Ellaville Spring
Falmouth Spring
Ichetucknee Springs Group
Ichetucknee Spring
Boiling Spring
Coffee Spring
Lime Spring
Little River Springs
Luraville Springs
Peacock Springs
Pump Spring
Royal Spring
Running Springs
Suwannee Springs
Suwannee Blue Spring
Telford Spring
Thomas Spring
Walker Spring

Blue Spring
Camp Ground Spring
Carlton Spring
Ewing Spring
Hampton Springs
Waldo Springs

Identification Numbers
Sarasota County
Seminole County
Sumter County
Suwannee County
Taylor County



Spring Names

Worthington Spring

Blue Spring
Gemini Springs
Green Springs
Ponce de Leon Springs
Seminole Spring

Indian Springs
Kini Spring
Newport Springs
Panacea Mineral Springs
Spring A
Spring B
River Sink Spring
Wakulla Springs

Euchee Springs
Morrison Spring

Beckton Springs
Blue Spring
Blue Springs
Cypress Spring
Walsingham Spring
Williford Spring

Bear Creek Spring
Cedar Island Spring
Cedar Island Springs
Spring A
Spring B
Choctawhatchee Springs
Crays Rise
Crescent Beach Submarine Spring
Crystal Beach Spring
Everglades Submarine Spring
Freshwater Cave
Mud Hole Submarine Spring
Ocean Hole Spring
Ray Hole Spring
Red Snapper Sink
Spring Creek Rise
Tarpon Springs
The Jewfish Hole
Unnamed Spring No. 4


Identification Numbers
Union County
Volusia County
Wakulla County

Walton County
Washington County

Florida's Submarine Springs




FIGURE 16.- Graphic explanation of the 15-digit identifier a spring site
numbering system.

This section contains detailed information about Florida's springs. Some
of the springs are known to but a few people; others are well known and
have been scientifically observed for years. Uniformity of spring descriptions
was necessary to obtain the brevity and consistency that would permit in-
clusion of most spring descriptions in a single book. Therefore, the descrip-
tions were standardized for presentation of spring location, discharge, and


quality-of-water data. Physical descriptions and utilization data are as com-
plete as information permits. Some photographs, interesting historical items,
and other information of a special nature were made part of the descriptive

(Text Figure 1)
Location. SE1SE/SW1 sec. 30, T. 9 S., R. 20 E. (lat. 29040'27" N.,
long. 82020'50" W.). Glen Springs is in the northwest quadrant of the
city of Gainesville. On U.S. Hwy 441 drive north 1.5 mi from inter-
section with State Hwy 26, turn left (west) onto State Hwy 232A for
0.5 mi, turn left (south) into the Elks Club parking lot; the springs are
in the adjacent wooded ravine (fig. 12).
Description. Situated in the upper end of a wooded ravine on the edge
of a plateau, the springs flow southeastward and are tributary to Hog-
town Creek in the northwest end of the Oklawaha River basin. The

TEXT FIGURE 1. Glen Springs viewed downstream from head pool. Flow
is controlled to two swimming pools.


elongate, irregularly-shaped head pool is in limestone bedrock. The head
pool is about 20 ft long and 10 ft wide and is enclosed by a concrete
wall. This concrete enclosure is convex on its upstream end and flat on
its downstream end. A control gate in the downstream end regulates
flow to the first of two in-line concrete swimming pools built into the
ravine immediately downstream from the springs and behind a club-
house. Flow emanates from several small submerged solution channels
in the rocks in the bottom of the pool. From the pool, water flows suc-
cessively from one swimming pool to the next, thence down the ravine
to Hogtown Creek.
Discharge. December 10, 1941 0.32 ft3/s
April 16, 1946 0.33
April 24, 1956 0.36
October 17, 1960 0.42
April 17, 1972 0.30
Utilization. Used as a private recreational facility.
Water Quality.- Analyses by U.S. Geological Survey. Units are in milli-
grams per liter unless otherwise indicated.

Date of collection Apr. 16 Feb. 24 Apr. 17
1946 1972 1972

Nitrite (N02 as N)
Nitrate (N03 as N)
Calcium (Ca)
Magnesium (Mg)
Sodium (Na)
Potassium (K)
Silica (SiO2)
Bicarbonate (HCO3)
Carbonate (COa)
Sulfate (SO4)
Chloride (Cl)
Fluoride (F)
Nitrate (N03)
Dissolved oxygen (DO)
Dissolved solids
Residue on evaporation at 1800C
Hardness as CaC03
Noncarbonate hardness as CaCOa
Alkalinity as CaC03




- 110
- 8


Date of collection Apr. 16 Feb. 24 Apr. 17
1946 1972 1972

Specific conductance
(micromhos/cm at 250C)
pH (units)
Color (platinum cobalt units)
Temperature (oC)
Biochemical oxygen demand
(BOD, 5-Day)
Total organic carbon (TOC)
Organic nitrogen (N)
Ammonium (NH4 as N)
Nitrate (NOs as N)
Orthophosphate (P04 as P)
Total phosphorus (P)

Boron (B)
Strontium (Sr)
Arsenic (As)
Cadmium (Cd)
Chromium (Cr6)
Cobalt (CO)
Copper (Cu)
Iron (Fe)
Lead (Pb)
Zinc (Zn)
Mercury (Hg)



(Micrograms per liter)

- 0
- 0
- 0
- 0
- 0

(Text Figure 2)
Location. NENEISE% sec. 27, T. 7 S., R. 17 E. (lat. 29050'59" N.,
long. 82035'36"W.). The spring is about 1.5 mi N. of the town of
High Springs. Drive northwest on U.S. Hwy 441 from the junction
with State Hwy 236 for about 1.6 mi, turn right (east) onto the road
going to Camp Kuluqua, continue 0.9 mi to the camp. The spring is
inside the camp grounds about 300 ft NW. of the camp entrance (fig.
Description.- The spring is in a low area surrounded by cypress trees. It
forms an elliptical pool about 125 ft wide and 185 ft long oriented
westward, and narrowing at its west end to a run in which flow is west-


TEXT FIGURE 2. Head of Hornsby Spring looking westward downstream.
Spring run in center background.

northwest 0.8 mi to the Santa Fe River. The pool is partly enclosed on
the east and north by a rock and concrete retaining wall 2 to 3 ft high.
A diving platform and board extend out from the east edge of the pool.
The spring flow is apparently from the east, from a cavern opening or
openings under a submerged limestone ledge a short distance out from
the diving board. Depth of water over the ledge, as sounded from the
diving board on February 25, 1972 was 16 ft. On that date no boil was
evident in the pool and the water was tinted brown. It was otherwise
clean and clear and its temperature was 22.50C. (720F.). The spring
is subject to backwater from the Santa Fe River. The buildings at the
camp occupy high ground bordering the spring on the east and north.
Discharge. April 19, 1972 250 ftW/s
April 25, 1975 76
Utilization. Used as a swimming and recreational facility by Camp
Kulaqua, privately owned and operated by a religious organization.
Water Quality.- Analyses by U.S. Geological Survey. Units are in milli-
grams per liter unless otherwise indicated.


Date of collection

Nitrite (NO2 as N)
Nitrate (N03 as N)
Calcium (Ca)
Magnesium (Mg)
Sodium (Na)
Potassium (K)
Silica (SiO2)
Bicarbonate (HCOa)
Carbonate (COs)
Sulfate (SO4)
Chloride (C1)
Fluoride (F)

February 25, 1972
0.00 Dissolved solids
.00 Calculated
5.7 Residue on evaporation
9.6 at 1800
8.5 Hardness as CaCOs
.6 Noncarbonate hardness as
6.3 CaCO3
130 Alkalinity as CaCO3
16 Specific conductance
60 (micromhos/cm at
12 250C)
.4 pH (units)
Temperature (oC)

(Text Figure 3)
Location. SE'NE/NW sec. 31, T. 10 S., R. 22 E. (lat. 29034'58" N.,
long. 82009'00"W.). The spring is about 4 mi W. of the town of
Hawthorne. Drive west from old U.S. Hwy 301 on State Hwy 20A for
3.8 mi, turn left onto graded road for 0.3 mi to gate, continue 0.1 mi
to the spring pool. The spring also may be reached by State Hwy 20A
from Grove Park, 1.2 mi NW. of the spring (fig. 12).
Description. The spring lies at the base of the sandy pine wooded hills on
the east side of the Lochloosa Creek valley. The spring discharges to
Lochloosa Creek, which flows into Lochloosa Lake, and is in the Okla-
waha River subbasin of the St. Johns River basin. The spring forms a
60-by 75-ft oval-shaped pool enclosed by a concrete wall. The spring
reportedly has a clay and sand bottom with two holes formerly about
16 and 30 ft deep. About 90 percent of the flow is believed to come
from the deeper of the two holes, which is about 20 ft in diameter at
its top and is in the north part of the pool. In 1946 the pool reportedly
had been sounded with an iron pipe to a depth of 30 ft. The pipe was
pushed downward through soft sand in the bottom an additional 30 ft.
When interviewed in February 1972, a former owner of the spring
reported that the pipe penetrated only a 4- or 5-ft thickness of soft sand
before it encountered clay and scattered hard rocks. The former owner
also said that in 1950 a large piece of the clay wall of the hole slumped
and blocked much of the flow and reduced the depth of the hole. The
temperature of the water on April 16, 1946, taken 1 ft below the surface






TEXT FIGURE 3. Magnesia Spring viewed from southeast. Outlet on right
to swimming pool not in use. Present outlet at edge of
pool in center background.

of the water near the pool outlet was 24C. (750F.). Before the middle
1950's, the water was piped to a swimming pool just east of the spring.
The water is now allowed to flow from a surface outlet on the north
end of the spring pool into an open ditch and thence eastward and
southward around the swimming pool to Lochloosa Creek. The swim-
ming pool is now supplied with water from five 4-in. flowing artesian
wells ranging in depth from 75 to about 120 ft.
Discharge. December 10, 1941 1.82 ft3/s
April 16, 1946 0.65
April 23, 1956 0.016
October 17, 1960 1.03
April 21, 1972 0.44
Utilization. Privately owned, but open to the public for swimming from
April to October.
Water Quality.--Analyses by U.S. Geological Survey. Units are in milli-
grams per liter unless otherwise indicated.


Date of collection Apr. 16 Feb. 24
1946 1972
Nitrite (NO2 as N) 0.00
Nitrate (NOs as N) .02
Calcium (Ca) 40 34
Magnesium (Mg) 13 12
Sodium (Na ) 5.6 5.4
Potassium (K) .8 .6
Silica (Si02) 28 26
Bicarbonate (HCOs) 180 170
Carbonate (COs) 0 0
Sulfate (S04) 4.9 5.6
Chloride (CI) 8.2 8.0
Fluoride (F) .3 .4
Nitrate (NO3) .10
Dissolved solids
Calculated 180
Residue on evaporation at 1800C 184 181
Hardness as CaC03 150 130
Noncarbonate hardness as CaCO3 0
Alkalinity as CaCOs 140
Specific conductance
(micromhos/cm at 250C) 310 300
pH (units) 7.5 8.3
Color (platinum cobalt units) 5 5
Temperature (oC) 20.0
Iron (Fe) (ltg/L) 20 -

(Text Figure 4)
Location. SW1/NW/4NE/4 sec. 6, T. 8 S., R. 17 E. (lat. 29049'33" N.,
long. 82038'58" W.). Poe Springs is about 3 mi W. of the town of High
Springs. Drive southwest on U.S. Hwy 41 and State Hwy 236 from the
junction with U.S. Hwy 441 for 0.8 mi, take State Hwy 236 to the right
(northwest) about 2.5 mi, turn right (north) onto graded unpaved road
bending to the west for 0.6 mi; the springs are directly ahead (fig. 14).
Description. Poe Springs form a circular pool about 90 ft in diameter on
the wooded south bank of the Santa Fe River. The pool is connected to
the river by a northward flowing run about 175 ft long and 40 ft wide.
On February 25, 1972, a large boil with two or three minor boils near-


TEXT FIGURE 4. Poe Springs viewed from south edge of pool. Spring run
in background flows northward to Santa Fe River.

by was observed in the central part of the pool where most of the flow
issues from a horizontal cavern. The pool reportedly was about 36 ft
deep 50 years earlier, but has apparently filled in considerably with
sand and debris. The measured depth of the pool in 1946 was 16.6 ft
and in 1972 the depth was estimated to be 16 to 17 ft. Inflow to the
pool, in adidtion to that from the vicinity of the boils, comes from
small springs and seeps in the swampy area immediately adjacent to the
main spring. In the mid-1940's the springs formed the center of a com-
mercial recreation site used primarily for swimming and picnicking.
The pool was enclosed on the south and west by a board and sheet
metal wall and the site was complete with bathhouses, refreshment stand
and picnic facilities. Except for a few weathered pilings which had sup-
ported the bathhouses on the west side of the pool, no evidence of the
development remains. The spring had reverted to an essentially natural
Discharge. February 19, 1917 86.5 ft3/s
January 31, 1929 75.1


March 14, 1932 31.2
December 13, 1941 84.0
July 22, 1946 75.3
May 2, 1956 39.2
October 17, 1960 91.7
April 18, 1972 93.1
Utilization. Privately owned and closed to the public; has been used for
family recreation, swimming, and snorkeling.
Water Quality.- Analyses by U.S. Geological Survey. Units are in milli-
grams per liter unless otherwise indicated.

Date of Collection Oct. 31 Jul. 22 Feb. 25
1924 1946 1972

Nitrite (NO2 as N)
Nitrate (NOs as N)
Calcium (Ca)
Magnesium (Mg)
Sodium (Na)
Potassium (K)
Silica (SiO2)
Bicarbonate (HCO3)
Carbonate (CO3)
Sulfate (SO4)
Chloride (Cl)
Fluoride (F)
Nitrate (NOs)
Dissolved solids
Residue on evaporation at 180C
Hardness as CaCOs
Noncarbonate hardness as CaCOs
Alkalinity as CaCO3
Specific conductance
(micromhos/cm at 250C)
pH (units)
Color (platinum cobalt units)
Temperature (oC)
Iron (Fe) (ttg/L)




.7 6
.7 4
.7 7
.0 6


- 0.00
.11 .27
i.4 5.3
.4 4.7
.9 .6
'.8 5.5
.8 7.0
.1 .2
.50 .27

- 200

368 380
7.3 8.2
5 5



BOULWARE SPRING.- This spring is 2 mi SE. of Gainesville (fig. 12).
DARBY SPRING. This spring is reported to be about 2 mi N. of the town of
High Springs on the left bank of the Santa Fe River at the confluence
of the river and the Hornsby Spring run (fig. 14).
FORD SPRING. -This spring is 0.5 mi SE. of Melrose (fig. 12).
HIGH SPRINGS.- These are several small springs near the town of High
Springs and reportedly once used as a water supply (fig. 14).
IRON SPRING. -This spring is at Hawthorne (fig. 12).
SULPHUR SPRING.- This spring is at Hawthorne (fig. 12).

Formerly called Blue Springs, Gainer Springs consists of three major and
at least two minor springs. They are not individually named but have been
designated Spring 1A, 1B, 1C, 2, 3, and 4.
Location.- SWI/ sec. 4, T. 1 S., R. 13 W. (about lat. 30025'35" N., long.
85032'53" W.). Drive 2.3 mi N. from Bennett, at intersection of State
Hwy 388 with State Hwy 167, turn west onto winding sand road; about
1 mi to the springs that are along both sides of Econfina Creek (fig. 15).
Description. The area surrounding the springs is covered with a dense
growth of scrub pine and associated vegetation. To the west, on the
opposite side of Econfina Creek, the land rises 80 to 90 ft to a woody
knoll, and to the east the land slopes gently up 10 to 20 ft above the
water surface. Some swamplike growth occurs along the banks of the
creek and spring runs, but generally the area is heavily forested.
Gainer Springs No. 1 is north on the sand road from the powerline
about 0.3 mi to the head of run trending northeast. (See fig. 17). Lat.
30025'40" N., long. 85o32'50" W.
The spring pool farthest to the northeast is No. 1A .It has a diameter
of about 20 ft, and a maximum depth of 6 ft at the vent opening which
is about 1 ft wide. The circular pool is surrounded with dense swamp-
like vegetation that covers it like a canopy. The run exits to the south-
west and reaches a maximum width of about 40 ft just before merging
with Econfina Creek.
Spring No. 1B is about 100 ft downstream of Spring No. 1A, in a de-
pression about 12 ft deep in the run of No. 1A. It does not have a pool.
Spring No. 1C flows into the run from the southeast about 300 ft
farther downstream. The pool has a diameter of about 25 ft and a
maximum depth of 13 ft. An 8 ft diameter vent is in the exposed lime-


FIGURE 17.-Location map of Gainer Springs.

stone rock in the bottom of the pool. Bottom sediment is in a state of
constant agitation due to the flow from the vent.
The combined flow from the three springs enters Econfina Creek about
800 ft downstream from No. 1A. During its course, the run varies in